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QL 
461 
E55X 
ENT 



f the Proceedings 




of the 



Second Entomological Meeting 



Held at Puaa,5th to 12th February 1917 

Edited by 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 






REPORT 



OF THE 



'Proceedings of the Second Entomological 

cftCeeting 

Held at Pusa on the 5th to 12th February 1917 

Edited by 
T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, r.n., f.l.s., f.e.s, f.z.s., 

Imperial Entomologist 




2AZ5l>3 



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PREFACE. 

THE following Report of the Proceedings of the Second Entomological 
Meeting held at Pusa, on 5th to 12th February 1917, which has been 
prepared by me, is based partly on the notes prepared before the Meeting 
was held and partly on a running abstract made during the Meeting 
by Mr. G. R. Dutt, who acted as Secretary. 

I am indebted to my Assistants, Messrs. C. C. Ghosh and G. R. Dutt, 
for assistance in going over these notes with me during the compilation 
of this Report. 

If a Report of a technical Meeting of this kind is to be of any use 
to those interested, whether they were present at the Meeting or not, 
I am convinced that it should be as full as possible, and in the present 
case no pains have been spared to achieve this end, with the result that 
this Report is practically an abstract of our current knowledge of Indian 
Crop-pests, and in this aspect will, I hope, be of some assistance to non- 
entomological members of the Agricultural Departments and to others 
interested in the minimizing of damage to crops by insects. 

To make it as useful as possible to non-entomologists who are not 
familiar with the insects mentioned herein by name, I have added re- 
ferences to readily accessible publications where descriptions and figures 
of these insects will be found. My own book, " Some South Indian 
Insects " (Madras Government Press ; 1914) has been largely quoted 
in this connection because it contains figures of many common insects 
and also references to former publications. Since the issue of " Some 
South Indian Insects," a number of new coloured plates showing the 
life-histories of Indian Insects have been printed and issued from Pusa, 
and copies of most of these have been included in this Report in order 
to make the references as complete as possible. It is hoped, therefore, 
that there will be as little difficulty as possible in the recognition of the 
various insects referred to. 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, 

Pusa, Imperial Entomologist. 

28th June, 1917. 



List of Members and Visitors who attended the 

Entomological Meeting held at Pusa on 

5th to 12th February 1917. 

Members. 

1. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
Imperial Entomologist. 

.2. A. E. Andrews, Entomologist to the Indian Tea Associa- 
tion. 

3. R. D. Anstead, B.A., Deputy Director of Agriculture, 

Planting Districts of Southern India. 

4. W. Robertson Brown, Agricultural Officer, North- West 

Frontier Province.1 

5. T. V. Ramakrishna ' Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Acting 

Government Entomologist, Coimbatore. 

6. C. 0. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

7. G. R. Dutt, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

8. D. Nowroji, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

9. Y. Ramaohandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Assistant to the 

Imperial Entomologist on Special duty in connection with 
Lantana insects. 

10. H. L. Dutt, M.S. A. (Cornell), Assistant Professor of Ento- 

mology, Sabour. 

11. Madan Mohan Lal, B.Sc, Assistant Professor of Entomo- 

logy, Lyallpur. 

12. K. Kunhi Kannan, M.A., Senior Assistant Entomologist, 

Mysore. 

13. K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 

14. J. L. Khare, L.Ag., Lecturer in Entomology, Nagpur. 

15. Ratiram Khamparia, Entomological Assistant, Central Pro- 

vinces. 

16. T. N. Jhaveri, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

17. P. C. Sen, Entomological Collector, Bengal. 

18. S. R. Gupta, Entomological Assistant, Assam. 

19. E. S. David, Entomological Assistant, United Provinces. 

20. Ahmad Mujtaba, Head Fieldman, Entomological Section, 

Pusa. 

21. Dwarka Prasad Singh, Fieldman, Entomological Section, 

Pusa. 
.22. G. D. Ojha, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 



VI 

23. Ram Saran, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

24. Harihar Prasad, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

25. H arch and Singh, L.Ag., Post-graduate student, Entomo- 

logical Section, Pusa. 

Visitors. 

1. Mr. J. Mackenna, M.A., I.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to 

the Government of India. 

2. Dr. L. C. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., Director of Agriculture, 

Mysore State. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface "» 

List of Members and Visitors . v 

List of Coloured Plates . xii 

Combined Entomological and Mycological Conference 1 

Second Entomological Meeting, Chairman's Opening Address .... 4 

Hill Crops. 



Tea 



18 



Coffee .28 

Rubber 36 

Cardamom .......•••••• 3 " 

Cinchona .......•••••• *7 

Camphor ........•••••** 



Miscellaneous. 

M i im usops elengi (Bakul) .......... 

Rain-tree .........••■ 

Lantana . ......••* t •••• *8 

Prickly Pear 41 



Leguminous Field-Crops. 

Gajanus indicus (Tur, Arhar, Red Gram) ...-•• 4l 
Soy Bean ........»•••• 

Gram 48 

Mung (Green Gram) 5< * 

Urid 50 

Moth 53 

Lablab 53 

Horse Gram ....•..••••••" 

Khesari .-......•••••• °° 

Sweet Pea 58 

Cowpea .......-••••• 

Cluster Bean G0 

Bakla 62 

Lentil 62 



Pea 



62 



Pisum arvense (Desi matar) ........•• 65 

Sword Bean 65 

Sann Hemp 65, 

Dhaincha ........»••'•• 

Agathi 3* 

Chitagathi 76 

Erythrina 76 

Albizzia ........••••• 

Indigo ..........♦•• '•*' 

vii 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Oil-seeds. 

Sesamum (Til ; Gingelly) 83 

Castor ............. 86 

Linseed .............. 89 

Groundnut ............. 90 

Niger Seed (Khorasan) . . . . . . . ... .94 

Sunflower ............. 95 

Safflower 96 

Malvaeece. 

Cotton . . . . . . . 98 

Bhindi 122 

Rozelle ............. 125 

Anibadi (Gogu) ............ 1 25 

Hibiscus abelmoschus . . . . . . . . . . .127 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis . . . . . . . . . . .128 

Abutilon indicum ............ 128 

Malva parviflora ........... 129 

Hollyhock 130 

Silk Cotton .... 130 



Non-Malvaceous Fibre Plants. 



Fute . 
Aloe . 
Calotropis 



132 

I 35 
135 



Sugarcane, Paddy and other Cereals, Grasses and Fodder Crops. 



• anc 
Saccharum spontaneum 
Rice 

J uar ; Cholam 
Bajra ; Cumbu 
Maize . 
Wheat 
Oats 

Abnua : Ragi 

Kauni ; Tenai 

Setai ia glauca 

Panicum frumentaceum 

Panicum miliaceum 

Panicum miliare . 

Paspalum scrobiculatum 

i trasses 

f ruinea Grass 

Bamboos 

Lucerne 

Senji . 

Shaftal: 

Bersim 



137 
152 
153 
178 
186 
188 
193 
198 

lit!) 

1 99 
200 
2(11 
202 
202 
202 
202 
203 
204 
204 
20". 
20b 
208 
209 



CONTENTS. 

Fruit-trees. 



i (ranges, etc. 

Bael . 

Curry Leaf Plant 

Mango 

Litehi . 

Guava 

Pomegranate 

Wood-Apple 

Grape-vine 

Pineapple 

Plantain 

Peach . 

Plum . 

Apricot 

Almond 

Country Almond 

Jamun 

Pear . 

Apple 

Sapota 

Loquat 

Nectarine 

Cherry 

Fig 

Jak 

Bread -fruit 

Durian 

Mangosteen 

Ber 

Berberry 

Water- nut 

Cashew 

Mulberry 

Strawberry 

Custard Apple 

Cherramoya 

Tamarind 
Pa paya 



II 



209 

215 

216 

216 

229 

231 

232 

234 

234 

236 

237 

239 

244 

2 45 

246 

246 

247 

247 

248 

249 

250 

250 

250 

250 

252 

252 

252 

253 

253 

254 

254 

255 

255 

256 

256 

257 

257 

257 



Palms. 



Coconut 

Palmyra 

Betel Nut Palm . 

Ornamental Palms 



257 
262 
262 
262 



Garden Plants 



Ailanthus excelsa 
Chrysanthemum 
Rose . 
Cycads 

Lilies . 



263 
263 
264 

266 
266 



CONTENTS. 

Garden Plants — contd. 



Oli wilder 

Tulsi . 

Dahlia 

Balsam 

Bougainvillea 

Violet . 

Crocus 

Hyacinth 

Narcissus 

Nasturtium 



267 
267 
267 
268 
268 
268 
268 
268 
269 
269 



Tobacco . 
Opium Poppy 
Indian Hemp 
Henbane 
Babul . 



Drugs and Dyes. 



269 
273 

274 
274 
274 



Cruciferous Crops. 

Mustards ............. 275 

Cabbage ............. 278 

Cauliflower . . . . . . . . . . , , .281 

Knol-Kohl 282 

Turnip ............. 282 

Beetroot ............. 283 

Sugar-beet ............. 283 

Radish ............. 283 

Lettuce ............ 283. 

Cress .............. 284 



Other Vegetables and Condiments 



Potato 
Brinjal 

Tomato 

Chillies 

Sweet Potato 

Jerusalem Artichoke 

Asparagus 

Ginger 

Turmeric 

Amaranthus 

Onion . 

Garlic 

Rumex vesicarius 

Yam . 

Colocasia antiquorum 

Elephant's Foot . 

Arrow-root . 

Carrot 



L'sl 

286 
289 
290 
291 

294 
294 
294 
295 
296 
297 
297 
297 
297 
29S 
298 
29S 

298 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



Other Vegetables and Condiments — contcL 



Cassava 

( -oriander 

Fenugreek 

Celery . 

Moringa 

Pepper 

Betel Leaf 

Aniseed 

Melons and Pumpkins 

Bottle Gourd 

Snake-gourd 

Trichosanthes cucuinerina 

Gourd .... 



208 
298 
298 
298 
299 
299 
300 
301 
301 
306 
307 
307 
307 



Insect Pests of Stored Products. 

Summary ....... 307 

Pulses • ..'.'.'. '. '. ! 308 

S, ce • • • 309 

Wheat ......... 309 

Closing Speeches .......'.., 320 

In °ex .'..'.[ [ 313 



LIST OF COLOURED PLATES. 



Etiella zinckenella 

Agrotis ypsilon 

Heliofhis obsoleta . 

Plusia orichalcea . 

Utetheisa pulchella 

Terias hecabe 

Dichomeris ianlhes 

Schizodactylus monstrosus 

Nezara viridula 

Perigea capensis . 

Myllocerus maculosus 

Bltogas sp. . 

Oxycarenus Icetus . 

Ton tea niviferana 

Pcecilocerus pictus 

Girphis loreyi 

Ddsychira securis . 

Leptispa pygmcea . 

Pachydiplosis oryzce 

Chilo simplex 

Hyper a medicaginis 

Virachola isocrates 

Odoiporus longicollis 

Polytela gloriosce . 

Hdioihis assulta . 

Atractomorpha crenulata 

Crocidolomia binotalis and Hellula 

Bagrada picta 

Eublemma olivacea 

Herse convolvuli 

Lixus brachyrrhinus 

A vlacophora abdominali 

Margaronia indica 

Sphenarches coffer 



undal 



Facing page 

44 

48 

49 

64 

66 

72 

80 

82 

89 

90 

102 

100 

115 

131 

130 

162 

163 

108 

169 

181 

207 

232 

238 

266 

270 

271 

276 

277 

287 

291 

296 

302 

303 

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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 



Second Entomological Meeting held at Pusa 
on 5th to 12th February 1917. 



The first session of the Second Entomological Meeting was held at 
Pusa on the afternoon of 5th February 1917, the proceedings on the 
first day being held in combination with the Mycological Meeting which 
had also assembled at Pusa on the same date. 

The combined Entomological and Mycological Conference was opened 
by Mr. J. Mackenna, M.A., I.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to the Govern- 
ment of India, who in his introductory speech said : — 
" Dr. Butler, Mr. Fletcher and Gentlemen, 

u I desire to extend to you a hearty welcome to Pusa. In the first 
place I have much pleasure in reading the following letter which I have 
just received from the Hon'ble Sir Claude Hill, Member in Charge of 
the Department of Revenue and Agriculture : — 

' I am sorry that I. shall not be able to be present at your Sectional 
Meeting of mycologists and entomologists to be held at Pusa, but it is 
quite impossible for me to get away from Delhi at the present time. 
This meeting is the first of the sectional meetings which we hope to 
develop with your assistance and it will, I hope and feel sure, be the 
precursor of many future valuable meetings of other branches, also of 
the Department. The ordinary Board meetings, which are held every 
other year — though we hope perhaps to organize more frequent meetings 
— require supplementing by sectional meetings such as the one you are 
about to hold, and I am not sure that these sectional meetings are not 
likely to prove even more valuable in their way than the general Board 
meetings. At all events, I feel quite sure that the mycologists and 
entomologists, who will meet you at Pusa, are inaugurating a system 
of very great value. Just as is the case in every other branch of our 
work, we are, of course, under-staffed, but, to a very large extent, I 
think that the shortage of men is made up by the zeal of the individual 
workers in these and other scientific branches, and it would have been 
a very great pleasure to me if I could have been present to inaugurate 
this pioneer meeting. Will you please express to the members attending 



£ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

the meeting my personal regret at not having the pleasure of seeing 
them and my best wishes for the success of their deliberations ?' 

" There is a general feeling that in addition to the ordinary meetings 
of the Board of Agriculture, which are held every second year, it will 
be of the greatest advantage if workers on particular subjects can have 
more frequent opportunities of conferring with each other. The 
Government of India propose to adopt the policy of sectional meetings 
in years in which a full meeting of the Board of Agriculture is not 
held. As you are aware, Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher two years ago held a 
meeting of entomological workers and as the working out of the details 
of sectional meetings will take some time, it was felt that the wishes 
of the Government of India could best be given effect to by a develop- 
ment of this idea and by calling meetings of two branches which, though 
of great importance, are not particularly strongly manned. 

" It seemed desirable that this handful of scattered workers should 
be called together to discuss their difficulties and co-ordinate their work. 

"In addition to some questions of general policy which will be 
discussed by the two sections sitting together, Dr. Butler and 
Mr. Fletcher will arrange for the discussion of subjects of a technical 
nature connected peculiarly with their own branches of science. I am 
very glad to see such a representative gathering of mycologists and 
entomologists. I trust that you will have a very pleasant time at Pusa 
and that the results of your deliberations will not only be of great 
advantage to yourselves, but of very great assistance to the Government 
of India. Mycology and entomology are represented in India by a mere 
handful of workers, but I think I may safely say, that proportionate to 
their numbers their achievement has been great. In both branches you 
are battling against enormous difficulties and innumerable pests. The 
labourers in these fields of science are indeed few, but I think you have 
every cause to congratulate yourselves on the impression which has 
already been made on the suppression and control of fungoid and insect 
pests. 1 trust you will have very successful meetings and that as a 
result you will return to your respective provinces equipped with new 
ideas with a new stimulus to increased endeavour." 

Dr. Butler and Mr. Fletcher explained the programme of work for 
the meet ings and the sections then adjourned to take up special subjects. 

A combined Entomological and Mycological Committee met on the 
afternoon of 8th February, with Mr. Mackenna in the chair, to consider 
the Madras Agricultural Pests and Diseases Act. 

On the afternoon of 9th February a combined meeting of the Ento- 
mologists and. Mycologists was held to consider the Kome Phytopatho- 
logical Conference. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 8 

Dr. Butler explained that he had hoped to have copies of a Memoir 
he had written on the subject, available for members, but the press had 
not been able to deliver them in time. The subject was one of consider- 
able interest, though any practical outcome from the Conference would 
necessarily be postponed until after the war. Some 30 States and 
Colonies sent their phytopathological and diplomatic representatives 
to Rome early in 1914 and an International Convention for the control 
of the inter-state circulation of certain classes of nursery and horticul- 
tural stock was drawn up and signed by all the delegates. The States 
concerned had for the most part not ratified the Convention owing to 
the war, but the matter was sure to be taken up again and meanwhile 
we had an opportunity of making up our minds on the subject, after 
examining how the proposed Convention would affect India. Adhering 
States were required to set up a Government Phytopathological Service 
for the inspection of nurseries engaged in the export of horticultural 
produce and at the same time pledged themselves not to admit within 
their frontiers any such produce unless it carried certificates of inspection 
by the officers of the Phytopathological Service of the country of origin. 
These certificates would state that the produce was in a satisfactory 
sanitary condition and was free from any disease or pest mentioned in 
a list which each adhering country would draw up. No country was 
prevented from making any other regulations, but he assumed that no 
country could refuse entry to a properly certified consignment. There 
were various restrictions as to the pests that a country could list and 
others securing the liberty of action of licensed scientific institutions. 
Imports from non-adhering countries must cease unless they carried 
similar official certificates. He considered this a great step in the right 
direction and thought that the Convention might subsequently be ex- 
tended to cover field and planters' crops, which were at present outside 
its scope. 

Mr. Fletcher pointed out that the Convention would be no safeguard 
against the introduction of many insect pests which could easily escape 
detection by the Inspector. Fumigation on entry was the only remedy 
in these cases. 

Dr. Butler said that there was nothing in the Convention to prevent 
fumigation after entry. 

Mr. Fletcher then pointed out that the lists of insects to be kept 
out would be difficult to prepare for any particular crop, as a pest 
of fruit trees might come in on ornamental plants or vice versa. Also 
a pest that did little harm in one country might be destructive to the 
same plant in another country, as was the case with cotton boll-worm. 

c2 



4 PROCEEDINGS Ol THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Dr. Butler considered that the clause in the Convention requiring 
that any pest listed should be very harmful was a weak point. Several 
of the clauses required improving, but he thought that what would 
happen was that, in view of the criticisms to which the Convention was 
being subjected in several countries, a new one would be signed after 
the war. He felt sure that the matter would not be altogether dropped 
and that countries that did not join in the movement would find them- 
selves at a disadvantage. 

Mr. Anstead inquired how the present Indian Destructive Insects 
and Pests Act would be affected. 

Dr. Butler said that so far as he could see the Convention would 
not affect our Act, which would be supplementary to it. It would' 
simply make it easier for us to get certificates under our Act, since every 
adhering country would be obliged to maintain an efficient inspecting 
staff. 

A discussion then took place regarding the extent and nature of the 
export of horticultural produce from nurseries in India, and it was 
elicited that the export was probably small, both in quantity and' 
value, but that exact returns were not available. It was suggested 
that such returns should be obtained if possible. Members also- 
undertook to make local inquiries regarding the nursery trade in their 
respective areas so as to be in a position to advise on the working of the- 
Convention if India adhered. It was also suggested that a survey of 
the insect and fungus pests of plants should be kept up, so that the lists 
required under the Convention could be prepared if occasion arose. 

The sessions of the Second Entomological Meeting were held on 6th 
to 12th February inclusive and a verbatim Report of the Proceedings 
is given hereafter. 

Chairman's Opening Address. 

Gentlemen— Before proceeding to the consideration of the subjects 
to be discussed by this Entomological Meeting, I should like to say a 
few words. I did not address you yesterday because yesterday's meeting 
was a combined one with the Mycologists, and therefore it seemed better 
to reserve my address for the Entomological Meeting only. 

In the first place, I should like, to extend a word of welcome, on 
behalf of the Entomological Staff at Pusa, to those amongst you who 
have come here to attend this Meeting as delegates and visitors from 
the Agricultural Departments in the Provinces and Native States and 
from other Services equally interested in the progress of entomological 
work in India, The fact of your meeting together here will, T hope, be 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 5 

•of equal advantage both to us at Pusa and to you. We on our part 
will gladly place at your disposal our experience with regard to insect 
pests and doubtless you on your part will be able to supplement our 
information with additional facts regarding the occurrence of such pests 
and their control in your particular areas, with benefit not only to us at 
Pusa but to your other co-workers in other Provinces. There is no 
need to say more on this subject further than to remind you of the couplet 
which you will see every month on the front cover of each issue of the 
" Entomologist *': — 

" By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 
Although we may not be able to lay claim to " great deeds or great dis- 
coveries ", I hope that that will not deter us from mutual confidence 
and mutual aid. 

A Meeting of this kind is quite informal and is designed to keep 
touch between the various workers in order that each ma}^ know what 
the others are doing and may contribute his own observations and 
experiences to the common stock and perhaps learn a little from the 
experiences of others. 

It is now just two years since our last Entomological Meeting, which 
was attended by representatives from Madras, Bombay, the Central 
Provinces, Bihar and Orissa, the United Provinces, Assam, Baroda and 
Travancore. Burma, Bengal and the Punjab, which were not repre- 
sented at the last Meeting, have sent their Entomological Staffs to this 
one and they will, I hope, fill gaps in our knowledge. Of the others, 
who were present here two years ago, Mr. Howlett has been absent on 
leave since July 1915. Mr. Ballard went to England on sick leave 
in August 1915 and joined the Army as an Artillery Officer ; I understand 
that he proceeded to France and is now in England again. Mr. Beeson 
has been employed on Fly Work in Mesopotamia and is still there. If 
he had been in India, he would probably have attended our Meeting 
this year also, but I hope that the Forest Department will be represented 
by Mr. Champion whose attendance has been requested by the Govern- 
ment of India in order that he may represent the Forest Department 
in the discussion, which we shall have later on in the week with the 
Mycologists, regarding legislative measures for the control of plant 
pests and diseases. [Mr. Champion, however, did not come to Pusa.] 
Mr. Woodhouse, who attended our last Meeting and gave us a detailed 
and most interesting account of the Agrotis campaign at Mokameh, has 
since joined the Indian Army Reserve of Officers ; he proceeded to France 
but has since returned to India and by the last account I have heard 
was at Secunderabad. At our last Meeting also the Indian Museum 



6 PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

was represented by Mr. < -ia\ ely. wlio, as most of you know, is the Assis- 
tant Superintendent in charge of the Entomological Section of the 
Museum ; I had looked forward to seeing Mr. Gravely amongst us 
again this year, but unfortunately he is unable to attend, as he is away 
on an extended tour in the Southern Shan States. On the other hand, 
Mr. Andrews, the Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association, who 
attended two years ago, is here again today and will doubtless have 
some interesting things to tell us about Helopeltis and other Tea Pests ; 
Mr. Anstead, the Deputy Director of Agriculture in the Planting Districts 
of Southern India, has also come to give us the benefit of his experience 
with pests of tea, coffee, and rubber in Southern India ; Dr. Coleman, 
the Director of Agriculture in Mysore, is also here and will doubtless be 
able to attend some of our Meetings dealing with the crops in which he 
is most interested ; and finally, Mr. Robertson Brown, the Agricultural 
Officer at Peshawar, though not present to-day, will be here later on in 
the week and will doubtless tell us something about Fruit Pests and 
other noxious insects of the North- West Frontier Province. 

At our last Meeting I made a few remarks which perhaps I may 
repeat, as some of you now present were not at the last Meeting two 
years ago. I said then : — 

' The relations of Pusa with the Provinces are peculiar and in 
many ways unsatisfactory, but. so far as Entomology is 
concerned, there is a distinct raison d'etre for a Central Insti- 
tute which will occupy itself with such items as identification 
of insects, working out of lifehistories (with which is included 
the preparation, printing and distribution of figures and 
coloured plates and lantern slides), the centralization of 
records both in the way of specimens and literature, and 
the publication of collected results based on work not only at 
Pusa but in the Provinces and also outside of India. This 
leaves the Provinces free to give their time to teaching, and 
to trial and demonstration of control methods. This is 
an ideal scarcely realized in practice. But as a matter of 
practice I would particularly appeal to all the Entomological 
Assistants to keep in touch with Pusa and to send in speci- 
mens of all their pests so that there may be as complete 
a record as possible at the Central Institute. Specimens 
will be identified as far as possible and duplicates returned 
after naming, but we would particularly ask for a fair 
scries of specimens in good condition. Sometimes specimens 
are sent in in very bad condition, and T lately received for 
naming a single specimen of a moth (or, rather, the remains o£ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING T 

what had once been a moth) with its head off, its body gone 
altogether, its legs broken, and the wings broken, rubbed and 
nearly scaleless. Well, a thing of that sort is of very little 
use to anyone. With a little care in preparation and packing 
of specimens it is just as easy to send in good material, which 
can be examined, as material in too poor condition for proper 

examination " 

Now, those were some of the remarks I made two years ago, and I 
repeat them now partly because some of you were not here two years 
ago and partly because some, who were here then, have not perhaps 
paid as much heed as they might to what I said then. Unless you 
Provincial workers are prepared to work together, with us and 
with one another, your work is not attaining its proper value nor 
can we give you the assistance we might give and which we on our part 
are always willing to give. 

There are one or two points about your work on which I wish to speak 
to you. In the first place, exact records of occurrence of insects, whether 
found as pests or otherwise, are essential. In going over our collection 
to obtain information, this point is very noticeable, especially in the case 
of the older specimens. Vague references, such as " on cotton ", should 
be avoided. Such references are generally valueless and often mis- 
leading. It is just as easy to give an exact record. To label a speci- 
men " on cotton " means anything or nothing. It may be a serious 
pest or a mere casual visitor resting by chance on a cotton-leaf. But 
if you are sufficiently careful to label your specimen — " larva rolling 
cotton leaf ", " larva boring cotton stem ", ''adult eating cotton flower ", 
or whatever the facts were — your specimen with its exact record becomes 
of some value. 

Another thing to avoid as far as possible is the use of local names of 
foodplants. It is generally possible for you to ascertain and use the 
correct botanical names of foodplants, and this is especially necessary 
in the case of weeds and wild plants which form alternative foodplants 
of pests. You must remember that local vernacular names are usually 
current only in very limited areas, outside of which they are not under- 
stood at all, and furthermore that they are often applied in such a vague 
way that it is impossible to be certain what is intended even in districts 
where they are current. Even in the case of many major crops their 
common names, both English and vernacular, are often widely different 
in different localities. It is better also to avoid as far as possible the 
use of general terms, such as " millets ". 

It is very important to secure exact records of the occurrence of 
common insects. You should endeavour to dismiss from your minds 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

the idea that, because an insect is common, we know all about it and 
there is no need to keep exact notes of its occurrence. The facts arc 
far otherwise. There is no insect, however common, of which we really 
know anything worth knowing, and it is by the accumulation of in- 
numerable records of information, each doubtless small and un- 
important but each exact and complete in itself, that we may hope to 
attain to a more complete knowledge. I may mention as examples 
the cases of Ag rot is ypsilon and Pieris brassicce. 

As you all know, a good deal of work has been done with Agrotis 
gpsilon during the last few years, chiefly in connection with its occur- 
rence as a pest on the tal lands around Mokameh. These lands are flooded 
to a depth of several feet in the Rains and, as the river drops and these 
lands are left exposed, they are placed under cultivation with mixed 
winter crops which are attacked extensively by Agrotis ypsilon. I 
am not going to speak now of the control-measures which have been 
adopted in this case — we shall come to that later on during this Meeting — 
but of the occurrence of the Agrotis in this area and of the curious 
gap at present existing in regard to our knowledge of its lifehistory 
throughout the year. As I said just now, these lands are flooded through- 
out the Rains to a depth of several feet and can only be cultivated and 
crops sown after the water has dropped ; but, as soon as these crops 
begin to spring up, they are attacked by Agrotis larvse, and it is evident 
that the eggs are laid by the parent moths on the newly-exposed muddy 
lands. But where do these moths come from ? They go on breeding 
on the Mokameh tal in increasing numbers from about the end of August 
or beginning of September — the date necessarily varies with the flooding 
of the Ganges — until December or January, when the numbers begin to 
drop, owing probably to the effects of the cold weather and parasitic 
attack, but the insect is found breeding until about the end of March. 
About the end of March or beginning of April we usually find a large 
number of moths and then these disappear and no trace of the insect 
ran be found until about the end of August, when moths suddenly appear 
again to lay eggs on the newly exposed tal lands. What becomes of the 
insect during the period April-August under natural conditions? At 
I'usa we have been able to keep continuous broods going during this 
period, but the insects were obviously under unnatural conditions 
and did not seemat all happy, and it seems very unlikely that it passes 
through these months in an active state under natural conditions. 
Careful search in and around the affected tal lands has completely failed 
to discover Agrotis in any stage at this time of year, and at present we 
in only suppose — it is, mark you, merely a supposition and not an 
-ascertained fact — that the parent moths of the earliest broods are migrants 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING D 

from some Hill district in which the insect breeds during the period 
between April and August. 

If you come to Pusa during the first half of February in any year and 
look around the cabbage-plots you will see numbers of Pieris brassicce 
flying around and ovipositing on the plants. If you had come here a 
fortnight earlier, in the second half of January, you might have looked 
for a long time without seeing a trace of this butterfly in any stage. 
At Pusa, generally on or about 1st February in every year, the butterflies 
suddenly appear in some numbers, and it is noticeable that most of them 
are worn examples and a large proportion is composed of females. These 
•oviposit and two or three broods result until about the beginning of 
April, when the insect again disappears completely until the next year. 
We have been quite unsuccessful in carrying it on beyond this, and, so 
far as we know, this insect is not found at Pusa in any stage between 
May and January. Whence then do the first butterflies appear about 
1st February ? Once again, from the facts of the case and from records 
of known migration-flights of Pieris brassiccp in Europe, we are driven 
to accept the theory — remember, it is only an unproved theory in 
this case also — of migration. 

Here we have the cases of two common insects, regarding whose 
lifehistories, in Bihar at all events, we must confess our ignorance in 
spite of various attempts to bridge the gaps in our knowledge. If we 
had exact records, with exact dates, of the appearance and disappearance 
of these two species in adjacent or other areas in India, I venture to 
think that such records might throw some light on the subject and would 
at least yield something in proof or disproof of our present theories of 
migration from other districts — theories which fit the facts so far as we 
know them at present but which, I repeat, are as yet mere suppositions. 
With further reference to such points, I am now going to read two 
short extracts from the Annual Reports of the Pusa Institute for the 
last two years, that is, since our last Meeting. In the Report for 1914-15, 
I wrote : — 

" A point, which has been observed with regard to some common 
insects (Laspeyresia, Chilo, Chloridea) reared for observation 
of exact cycles of their lifehi story, is that out of the same 
batch of larva?, feeding and commencing to hibernate at the 
same time, some hibernate and emerge as adults ", that 
is to say, they hibernate and emerge as adults as soon as 
the weather begins to warm up after the cold season, " whilst 
others hibernate during the cold weather, then aestivate 
during the hot, dry season and emerge at irregular intervals 
thereafter as late as July or August. From the practical 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

point of view of control this is of some importance, as 

measures taken on the first appearance of the insects after 

hibernation may be rendered abortive, or will at least require 

to be supplemented, in view of these late emergences. 

An observation of this kind, apparently trivial in itself. 

emphasizes the fact that an intimate knowledge of the 

habits of the insects concerned must be the first step towards 

their control." 

This seems to me an excellent illustration of the necessity for exact 

observations and records of even the commonest insects, for, as I have 

pointed out in the extract which I have just read to you, any successful 

measures of control of such insects must be based on a very exact 

knowledge of their lifehistories. 

An interesting confirmation of these remarks has lately come to 
hand in a voluminous report recently published by Mr. Willcocks on 
the Insect Pests of the Cotton Plant in Egypt, of which Part I deals 
with the Pink Bollworm (Gelechia gossypiella) which, as you all know, 
occurs commonly throughout India also. In November 1913 Willcocks- 
took fifty thousand larva? of G. gossypiella and placed them in a large 
cage and observed the emergence of the resulting moths ; he found 
that they emerged right up to 28th August 1915, the largest numbers 
of emergences being in November 1913 — January 1914, July-October 
1914, and April- August 1915, this last lot being much smaller in number 
than the two previous lots. Now, an experiment of that sort throws a 
great deal of light on the question of control ; for even if no cotton had 
been available for the whole of the year 1914, cotton grown in 1915 
might still have been attacked by caterpillars from parents which had 
fed up two years before. As regards the application of these results 
to India, we are quite in the dark as to whether the same conditions 
hold. Taking the case of Gelechia gossypiella, we do not know, as a 
matter of fact, how long a period may emerge between the times when 
the larvae are full-fed and the emergence of the moths. Yet experiments 
on these lines — the simple collection of full-fed caterpillars and breeding 
out of the moths — are open to each one of you. But it is little use to 
take a dozen ox so caterpillars and expect to get much in the way of 
results. You must deal with largo numbers to avoid experimental 
errors and get good results. 

In the next year's Report for 1915-16, I wrote : — 

"' Large numbers of Fruit-flies were reared out to discover to 
what extent they are checked by parasites, but it was found 
that the proportion of parasites is extremely low. The 
only Fruit-fly which is parasitized to any appreciable extent 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 11 

is Carfomyia vesuviana, whose larvae feed in fruits of 
Zizyphus jujuba. About 800 pupse of this fly were sent to 
Italy, to endeavour to introduce the parasite there, but 
owing to postal delays they failed to reach their destination 
alive." 

Now, with reference to that there are two things that I want to 
say to you now. We shall come, later on during this Meeting, to the 
subject of Fruit-flies of various species and their control, but it seems 
to me that one very important possible control-measure, which we 
require to know a great deal more about in India, lies in the direction 
of the employment of natural parasites of these Flies. As some of you 
probably know, the matter of Fruit- flies has proved sufficiently important 
in some parts of the World for the sending out of special investigators 
to discover and introduce such parasites, and since our last Meeting 
the United States Department of Agriculture has sent one of their 
Experts, Mr. Fullaway, to India especially to collect and take to Hono- 
lulu living examples of parasites of our common Indian pumpkin-feeding 
Fruit-fly, Chcetodacus cucurbitce. Mr. Fullaway visited Southern India 
at the end of 1915 and was successful in finding such parasites and in 
transporting them alive, firstly to Manila and afterwards to Hawaii. 
A successful attempt of this kind should stimulate us in India to repeat 
it for ourselves. There is probably no Province or district in India 
in which Chcetodacus cucurbitce does not occur, and there are few in 
which it does not do serious damage. It is quite within the capacity 
of each one of you, Provincial workers, to get damaged cucurbitaceous 
fruits and to collect the pupse of the flies from them and to see what 
parasites occur in each area ; or you can send the affected fruit in to 
Pusa and we will do the breeding part of it. In this way it seems quite 
possible that we may find a parasite or parasites, effective in some 
districts but absent from others into which we can introduce them to 
secure a natural control of this Fruit-fly. This is a matter in which 
you can all help for the common good, and I ask you to do so. 

From the above extract you will also have seen that we have been 
sending pupse of Carfomyia vesuviana to Italy, to Professor Silvestri 
at the School of Agriculture at Portici, to try and introduce a small 
Braconid parasite (Biosteres carpomyrcr, Silv.) which is common at 
Pusa. Here again you can all help by collecting pupae of Carfomyia 
and by sending them either to Pusa or, better still, direct to Professor 
Silvestri. 

It is not, however, only with regard to the occurrence of insects 
that I desire to impress upon yon the desirability of exactitude of records. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

It is also in regard to the insects themselves and their identification. 
Here again, exactitude is essential and must form the basis not only 
of progress but of all control measures. When we come to deal with 
the subject of Termites as pests of Wheat, I shall have more to say on 
this point. In the meanwhile I shall preach you a small sermon with 
Eucosma (Eucelis) critica as a text. During the past year I have over- 
hauled and put into order our collection of Micro-lepidoptera and in 
going over it had occasion to examine the series of specimens standing 
under the name Eucelis critica. It was composed of three old specimens 
in bad condition. The first proved to be an Anarsia, which, as you 
probably know, does not even belong to the Family Eueosmidee but 
to the Gelechiada? ; the second was a mouldy mass which at first sight 
I took to be a cocoon but which, by the remains of a leg sticking out of 
the mould, had apparently once been a moth, and was now quite in- 
determinable ; the third was an ordinary example of Eucosma melanaula- 
All these specimens had been placed in the collection under the name 
Eucosma (Eucelis) critica, simply because every greyish moth found 
spinning up Cajanus shoots was lumped together as E. critica. That 
may be a method of convenience, but it does not make for accuracy 
and it makes it impossible to be sure, in the absence of recognizable 
specimens, whether any of our older records of the occurrence of Eucosma 
critica really refer to that species or not. I may perhaps add a moral 
to this story by saying that even the elect are sometimes deceived, and 
that, owing to its variable appearance, this very species {Eucosma critica) 
has been described under three names by the same author, who is one 
of the best of our systematists. 

Such things illustrate the fact that we progress towards a better 
knowledge, provided that we are not satisfied with sticking in a groove. 
Our present knowledge of insects is infinitesimal. There is not a single 
Indian insect of which we can say that Ave know all about it. There 
are boundless opportunities in India — and it is open to each one of you 
to take them— for observation and study of the lifehistories, occurrence, 
food, habits, enemies, and all aspects of the economy of even the com- 
monest insects. Every one has its own peculiarities and it is very 
unsafe to generalize from particular instances. I can give you an 
example of that from some observations which I happened to make 
last year. Most of you have probably seen some of Fabre's books and 
read, amongst others, his account of the Hunting Wasps. You will 
remember that Fabre, as the results of numerous experiments, came 
to the conclusion that the instincts of these wasps were immutably 
fixed and that they necessarily carried out every detail of nest building 
and storage of food for their young as a sort of fixed routine, being 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ] & 

compelled to perform every action in a fixed order ; so that, if this 
routine was upset artificially, the insect was unable to cope with' the 
new conditions. In Fabre's " Insect Life " there is a whole chapter 
entitled " the ignorance of instinct " and in reference to Ammophila he 
says " the creature obeys, impelled by instinct, without reasoning on 
what it does : \ Doubtless Fabre's observations were quite accurate so- 
far as concerns the species which he had under observation ; the validity 
of his conclusions is another matter. But numerous writers have- 
quoted Fabre's observations and have applied them generally and 
stated in effect that the actions of insects such as these Hunting Wasps 
are governed entirely by fixed instincts and not at all by intelligent 
reasoning. Well, with regard to that aspect of the matter, I can only 
tell you briefly a few facts which I noted last year. Last May, when 
I was at Peshawar, in a room of the bungalow in which I was 
breeding Dacus olece and other insects, a mud-cell-building Eumenes 
of the species common in that part of India— Eumenes dimidiatvpennis,. 
to be exact— was busily engaged in building a cluster of mud-cells on 
the mantelpiece and storing them with caterpillars. I watched its 
operations and, I am afraid, interfered with them considerably. When 
I first saw it, there was one mud-cell stored and closed up and a second: 
cell started. I opened up the first (completed) cell and removed the 
stored caterpillars. According to the theory of fixed instincts, the- 
wasp ought to have paid no further attention to the first cell but ou^ht 
to have gone on building the second one in a purely mechanical routine 
way. But what actually happened was that the wasp temporarily 
abandoned the second cell, came back to the first one, mended it where 
it was broken open, went and caught more caterpillars, re-stored the 
first cell and closed it up before going on with its work on the second 
cell. On another occasion, after this same wasp had stored and closed 
up a cell and was engaged in bringing mud to start a new cell, I placed 
on the outside of the closed cell a stung caterpillar removed from another 
cell. Presently the wasp returned with its load of mud, saw the cater- 
pillar and examined it and evidently thought the matter out ; apparently 
it came to the conclusion that the caterpillar must have escaped some- 
how from the closed cell, so it proceeded to reopen the cell, stowed the 
caterpillar away in it, re-closed the cell, and then went on with its work 
on the foundations of the new cell. Here again — I may be wrono- in 
my conclusions, but you can draw your own conclusions ; I give you 
the facts which I observed— it seemed to me that the wasp, far from 
being tied down to a mere routine inflexibly laid down by instinct, 
showed a distinctly intelligent appreciation of a novel situation and 
modified its procedure accordingly. 



14- PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

There are two morals to be drawn from this story. In the first 
place, observations of this sort can be made by any one of you. They 
are full of interest and a knowledge of the behaviour of insects under 
various conditions helps us to realize their ways better, and a realiza- 
tion of habits may often form the foundation of a successful means of 
control in cases when they are doing damage. In the second place, 
you should try to remember that Biology is not an exact Science like 
Mathematics. When you are dealing with living animals or plants you 
cannot always employ general rules, because the individuals may tend 
to modify their actions under different conditions. In dealing with 
insects it comes to this, that every different species requires separate 
study. 

This brings us to the subject of text-books. There is rather a ten- 
dency in India, I am afraid, to demand on every subject a text-book 
which is looked on as the be-all and end-all of knowledge on each subject. 
Anything not in the text-book is incorrect or need not be considered, 
and what the text-book says must be true. That may be all very well 
in the case of exact Sciences, but it is distinctly not the case in inexact 
Sciences such as Biology. In the case of a subject such as Entomology 
which deals with an almost unrealizable number of separate organisms 
-differing widely amongst themselves in structure and habits, it is abso- 
lutely impossible for any general text-book to meet all the facts of the 
case. Our knowledge is continually expanding and progressing year by 
year, and statements made to-day may be challenged to-morrow. But 
accurate observations will always endure and be useful. I want to 
impress upon you, therefore, the necessity for checking for yourselves, 
so far as you can, any previous statements or observations, whether 
your own or anybody else's. Try always to make your information 
more complete. As I have already told you, all our information on 
Indian Insects is at present sadly incomplete. In the preface to South 
Indian Insects I particularly said that it was not to be looked on as a 
text-book because I realized, as I stated, that it was incomplete. All 
our records are incomplete and we must largely rely on you, Provincial 
workers, to make them more complete than they are at present. At 
present we cannot even attempt to prepare a list of Crop-pests which 
will be final and not subject to numerous additions and alterations 
within a very short period of time. 

Whilst on the subject of exact observations of Indian Insects, I 
should like to say a few words about the publication of short notes of 
this kind. If you make new observations on insects you should take 
some steps to make them available to other workers. With this object 
in view I have initiated a system of publication of such Short Notes 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 15 

collected, one hundred at a time, to form a Bulletin of the Agricultural 
Department. One such Bulletin has been published and I have at 
present about half the material towards a second one, and others will be 
issued as material accumulates. I think that you will find this a con- 
venient system for recording any small observations which you may make 
on the occurrence, habits or control of any Indian Insects Centralized 
records of this sort are not only more easily available to other workers 
out benefit by editing. I do not of course set up to have an all-round 
knowledge and ability to check and criticize every observation you may 
make, but I can often help by adding parallel observations from litera- 
ture or other records in our collection or files. 

In response to requests from some Provinces, I have prepared and 
had printed a list of our coloured plates of Indian Insects. Of course, 
there have been some additions since that went to press, as new plates 
are continually being done as material is available. The new, imprinted 
plates are placed on the table so that you may all have an opportunity 
of seeing them. In going over the list of Crop-pests I should be glad 
if Provincial Delegates would state the fact if they consider that any 
figures or plates are required of particular insects of importance in their 
Provinces. 

I will also arrange to give an exhibition of Lantern Slides of Indian 
Insects on one of the evenings of the week during which you will be 
here, so that you may be able to see the new slides and be in a position 
to know which will be of use to you. [This was done.] 

One result of the War has been the difficulty of obtaining supplier 
at present. Last month I went down to Calcutta and interviewed all 
the Firms importing Spraying Machinery and have got together here a 
collection of machines representing the various types that are obtainable 
now-a-days. These are in the next room together with samples of 
various insecticides. You will thus have an opportunity of seeing for 
yourselves what is obtainable now and of knowing where to obtain it 
and details of price, etc. 

So far as more purely entomological apparatus is concerned I have 
been in correspondence with Messrs. Lawrence & Mayo about the manu- 
facture and supply of improved types of nets and store-boxes, and I 
hope that these will be available shortly. As regards the present supply 
of other apparatus, such as pins and glass-ware, we will gladly give 
you any information we can on the subject. 

The Laboratory, with the Collections and Records, the Insectary 
and Silk-house will of course be open for your inspection during the 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

time you are here, and I hope that you will all take the opportunity of 
seeing anything that you want to see. 

There is one other subject on which I will say a few words, and that 
is in regard to the Lantana investigation which has been taken up. You 
all, I suppose, know what Lantana is ? [Some of the Provincial Dele- 
gates stated that they did not know Lantana, and fresh plants were conse- 
quently obtained and exhibited, at a subsequent meeting.] Some of you at 
least know it and may know how it has gained a footing and spread in 
many areas in India and Burma until it has become a serious nuisance. 
You may also be aware of the methods by which attempts have been 
made to control it in other countries, notably in Hawaii, by the intro- 
duction of various insects to check its capacity for fruiting. It has 
been proposed that similar steps should be taken in India and, as a 
preliminary step, Mr. Ramachandra Rao, of the Madras Agricultural 
Department, has been placed on special deputation to study Lantana 
and particularly to try and find out whether we already have in India 
or Burma any insect which is capable of checking its spread and which 
may be safely used for this purpose. Mr. Ramachandra Rao has come 
to Pusa to attend this Meeting and later on will tell us the results of 
his preliminary investigations. Next month he will start work in Coorg 
and will probably remain there until the monsoon breaks about June, 
or as soon thereafter as he has finished any work which he may have 
in hand then. After that, during this year and next year, he will visit 
other localities where Lantana- occurs, in his search for insect checks 
on this plant. No definite programme can be arranged yet, but, whilst 
you are all together here, I want you to take the opportunity of talking 
the matter over with Mr. Ramachandra Rao and letting him know, 
as far as you can, the areas in your several Provinces invaded by Lantana 
and the best time of year to visit such areas, with any details of accom- 
modation or conveniences for such work and so on. This information 
will perhaps give us a basis to work on when we come to make out a 
more definite programme later on, when we see how the work is 
shaping. 

We come now to the main business before this Meeting, which is 
i he discussion of mutual experiences with regard to the occurrence and 
control of insect pests, principally crop-pests. I am afraid that I can- 
not give you any exact definition of what is a pest or what is a crop. 
One of the most striking points brought out by the last Entomological 
Meeting was the great difference of view regarding the right of many 
insects to be regarded as crop-pests. In numerous cases, an insect. 
which was regarded in some Provinces as of no account at all, was claimed 
by others as a serious pest. So that we shall have to guide ourselves 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 1 J 

by common-sense, combined perhaps with a little prescience. By pre- 
science I mean this : — that in some cases we know of insects which are 
capable of becoming, or which we consider likely to become, pests 
although they may never yet have been noted to do damage in India, 
and we shall err on the safe side by including them, for the present at 
any rate, in our Pest List. I wall give you two examples of what I mean. 
In writing my book on South Indian Insects in 1913 I included the small 
Jassid bug, Nephotettix bipunctatus, as a paddy pest, although it had 
never actually been observed up to that time to do damage to paddy, 
because, as I said, it " sometimes appears in such enormous numbers 
that it may be assumed to be at least a minor pest." This statement 
proved rather prophetic as within two years this insect appeared as 
a serious pest of paddy in the Central Provinces. 

The second example is Prays citri, to whose occurrence in India I 
called attention, in the Bulletin of Short Notes issued last year, as soon 
as it had been found to occur in Southern India, in North Coorg. Within 
the last week I have received from Mr. Meyrick a list of identifications 
of specimens sent to him and I find amongst them a specimen of Prays 
citri taken here at Pusa last March. It is probable that this species 
is widely distributed and common and that it does damage to Citrus 
flowers in orange-growing districts and therefore I consider it as an 
example of an insect which should be placed on our List of Pests even 
though we do not yet actually know that it does damage in India. It 
is a potential pest and requires surveillance as such. 

At our last Meeting we went over the Crop-pests in systematic order 
and considered each insect separately. For this Meeting I have prepared 
a list of crops, with the pests of each, and I propose that we consider 
these, crop by crop. I will first read over our list and give you such 
information as we have on each subject and then you can add any in- 
formation that you can. 

But, before we start with the lists of crops and pests, I will ask if 
any of you have any particular subjects to bring before this Meeting. 
[To this question there was no reply.] 

Then we will proceed with the business before the Meeting. It 
would really be better to take these lists of crops in regular order,, 
starting with paddy as the most important crop in India, and following 
on with other cereals, sugarcane and so on. But, as we have the 
benefit to-day of the presence amongst us, besides Mr. Andrews, of 
Mr. Anstead and Dr. Coleman, and as they are interested largely in 
Hill Crops and also wish to attend some of the Mycological Meetings on 
other days of this week, I propose to start to-day with the Hill crops, 
and we will first of all consider the insect pests of tea. 



18 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr.'Audrews. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Tea (Camellia theifera). 

We will start with the insects attacking the leaves of the tea-bush. 
Our list of tea-pests is very incomplete because we at Pusa have little 
opportunity of seeing them, but the following are known as more or less 
serious pests of tea : — 

Stauropus altemus. 
Bistort suppressaria. 
Parasa lepida. 
Clan la of various species. 
Heterusia of various species. 
Homona eofjearia. 
Laspeyresia leucostoma. 
( 'ontheyla rotunda. 
Olene mendosa. 
. [ndraca bipunctata. 
Phytoscaph us dissim ills. 
Corigetus bidentulus. 
Taking these in detail : — 

Stauropus altemus is occasionally found on tea and some years ago 
occurred as a sporadic serious pest of tea in the Kalutara District in 
( leylon. It must therefore be regarded as a potential pest of tea in India 
It is by no means confined to tea, the larva feeding on Cajanus indicus, 
rose, tamarind and various other plants. 

It is found all over North-East India but no general outbreak has 
occurred so far. 

Mr. Andrews, will you tell us something about Biston suppressaria 
in North-East India ? 

This pest is worst all along the North bank of the Brahmaputra. 
If t urns up every year but is sporadically serious in Sibsagar and Jorhat. 
There are three broods in a year, the second being the worst. As regards 
remedial measures, the pupse are found underground around the bushes 
and these are dug out by coolies when the soil is opened up around the 
bushes, as is now done on most gardens in North-East India every 
cold weather. Wherever this is done, the pest is reduced in numbers 
and the damage is gradually lessened. In one place the pest was bad 
in the first brood, and it was suggested to hoe around the bushes and 
collect all the pupae as soon as the caterpillars of the first brood had 
left the bushes ; this was done and, as a result of this measure, the 
second brood was not so serious. This method has the advantage of 
being a cultural practice and can be practised annually. 

That seems a satisfactory means of control as it can be combined 
with ordinary methods of cultivation. Regarding the occurrence of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 19 

Biston in Southern India this insect was included in my book as having 
been once reported as damaging tea. Have you had any further ex- 
perience with it, Mr. Anstead ? 

It has not occurred again lately and I have nothing more to add. Mr. Anstead. 
It does not seem to be common in Southern India as a rule. 

We will go on to Parasa lepida. This insect, as you know, is a very Mr. Fletcher, 
general feeder and occasionally occurs on tea in some numbers, but it 
does not seem to be anywhere a specific pest of tea. 

We will go on to Clania. There are numerous species, all closely 
allied and quite similar as regards the damage they do. They appear 
to be bad pests in the Northern India Tea-Districts but of less importance 
in Southern India. 

It occurs throughout the tea-gardens in Assam. The collection of Mr. Andrews, 
the bags is the simplest remedy, and this is best done after the usual 
priming of the bushes. The pruning exposes them to view ; there is a 
further advantage in collecting them at that time because the bags are 
full of eggs then. The pest is decreasing now, probably on account 
of the above measures having been adopted. 

Does it occur in any particular localities or generally all over the Mr. Fletcher. 
Districts ? 

The pest is always bad where the bushes are not thinned out at the Mr. Andrews. 
pruning season. 

Do you know anything about the particular species of Clania which Mr. Fletcher, 
occur as pests ? 

Of the allied species, Clania crameri is the worst pest. Mr. Andrews. 

We will go on to the various species of Heterusia. In Southern Mr. Fletcher. 
India we have Heterusia virescens as a pest of tea, and in North-East India 
there is Heterusia magnifica and a group of doubtfully distinct species 
regarding which Mr. Antram had a paper some years ago in the Bombay 
Natural History Society's Journal. I have not myself seen Heterusin 
on tea in India, but I have seen Heterusia cingala on tea in Ceylon. So 
far as I know the habits of all the species are very similar. One gets 
an enormous swarm of larvae in a very restricted area, often three or 
four acres in one corner of a field, where every bush is swarming with 
the larvae which do great damage ; but the outbreaks are sporadic 
and rarely recur for some time after each attack as the larvae are very 
heavily parasitized by Tachinid flies. 

In the Duars the caterpillars generally swarm out of the jungle and Mr. Andrews 
get into the Tea Plantations. At times the attack is very bad. Some- 
times large swarms of moths are seen in certain localities, but the con- 
sequent damage from their caterpillars is not much. 

d2 



20 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Andrews. 

Mr. Anstead. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Anstead. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Anstead. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Are there any particular conditions under which such outbreaks 
occur ? 

There is no evidence as to what conditions are favourable to a 
sporadic attack of Red slug, but there seems to be a breeding ground 
somewhere in the Tondoo Forest in North Bengal ; gardens situated 
close to this forest are most subject to attack. 

In Southern India, in the case of Heterusia virescens, the pest is cleared 
out by hand-picking. 

Do you not find any difficulty in getting that done ? In the case of 
Heterusia cingala, my recollection is that in Ceylon there was some 
difficulty in collecting the larvae by hand-picking on account of their 
stinging. 

The caterpillars do sting but on the estate in question we had no 
complaints from the coolies. 

The next insect is Homona coffearia, which is of course a very bad 
pest of tea in Ceylon. Whether it occurs on tea in Southern India 
appears to be rather doubtful ; I have not yet seen any specimens from 
tea and the only South Indian examples I have seen at all were a couple 
which I took at Pollibetta, in South Coorg, where there was no tea near. 
In North-East India Mr. Andrews has lately informed me that he has 
recently obtained it in small numbers, but, so far as we know at present, 
it does not appear to be a regular pest of tea in India. However, as it 
occurs in the Tea-Districts and is a potential pest of tea, we had better 
leave it on the Pest-List for the present. 

In Southern India, however, we get another leaf-roller on tea. "We 
have specimens reared from larvae found twisting tea-leaves in the 
Nilgiris. But this species is Laspeyresio leucostoma. How far it is 
a regular pest I cannot say. If Mr. Anstead will try to procure us some 
specimens of these tea-rollers in Southern India, it will doubtless help 
out our present knowledge on this point. 
I will try to gel some specimens. 

The next insect on the list is Contheyla rotunda, a small Limacodid 
moth, which was sent in to us recently by Mr. Anstead as damaging tea 
in the Wynaad. It is rather interesting, because this same species, 
which is apparently rather a rarity as a rule, suddenly appeared about a 
year ago as a pest of coconut in Malabar. Like a good many of these 
Limacodids, it probably feeds on various trees and plants and may 
occur on almost anything and, when it does occur, it appears in large 
numbers and does considerable damage for a generation or two, after 
which it disappears again. 1 do not think it is likely to occur regularly 
as a pest of tea. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 21 

It is said to be very bad in the Wynaad over small areas but I have Mr. Anstead. 
not seen it myself. 

The next insect is Dasychira (Olene) mendosa. It is a polyphagous Mr. Fletcher. 
insect, occurring on tea occasionally as a minor pest, but does not appear 
to be of much importance. 

The next tea-pest is Andraca bipunctata, which occurs in Assam, 
Cachar and Sylhet as a serious pest of tea. There are two broods, in 
January-February and in April-May. The whole of the leaves may be 
eaten off, leaving the tea-bushes stripped. The larvae occur in con- 
spicuous clusters and may be hand-picked. 

Yes ; they can be collected by hand easily and nothing else requires Mr. Andrews, 
to be done. 

We now come to two weevils, both recently described by Dr. Marshall Mr. Fletcher, 
and stated to do damage to tea-bushes in Assam. They are, (1) Phytos- 
caphus dissimilis, recorded on young tea-shoots in Assam and (2) Cori- 
getus bidentulus, recorded as a serious pest of tea in Assam and also 
occurring in Upper Burma. Perhaps Mr. Andrews can tell us something 
about them. 

In Assam Corigetus is found on leaves but no control measures are Mr. Andrews, 
practised because no satisfactory measure has been devised so far. In 
the case of old trees the damage done is negligible, because the tender 
leaves alone are eaten. 

That brings us to the end of the leaf-eating pests of tea. Has any Mr. Fletcher, 
one any other leaf-eating tea pests for discussion ? [To this question 
iher was no reply.} Then we will proceed with the boring insects which 
attack tea and with the borers we will include the bark-eaters also. 
I have the following species on my List, viz. : — 
Xyleborus fornicatus. 
Zeuzera coffece. 
Phassus malabaricus. 
Coelosterna scabrator. 
Arbela dea. 
Arbela quadrinotata. 
Of these we have lately had some inquiries from Ceylon regarding 
the occurrence in India of Xyleborus fornicatus, the well-known " Shot- 
hole borer " of Ceylon, and we can only say that at present it seems 
rather doubtful whether this insect occurs in India at all. 

Zeuzera coffece, the " Red Borer " of the Coffee Districts, occurs in 
tea as well as in various other plants. We have, for example, a record 
of its occurrence in cotton in Burma. I have seen it in tea in Ceylon 
and it occurs, boring in tea, throughout North-East India but is scarcely 
■a serious pest. 



22 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Phassus malabaricus was reared from a larva found eating the roots 
of a tea-bush in Southern India, but is not a specific pest of tea, so far 
as I know. 

Coelosterna scabrator is recorded by Watt and Mann as found on tea 
in Assam but is not a pest, I think. 

We come now to the species of Arbela, known as Bark-eating Borers 
of tea in Assam. Mr. Antram wrote a bulletin on these insects and 
perhaps Mr. Andrews will tell us some more about them. 

Mr Andrews. Both Arbela dea and A. quadrinotata occur in tea-gardens in North- 

East India. It has been found that the application of Soda washes is 
very effective in controlling them. After such treatment the cater- 
pillars do not eat the bark. 

Mr. Fletcher. Can you tell us something more about these washes, and how they are 

applied ? 

Mr. Andrews. Any of the following three solutions may be used 

(1) Caustic Soda (98 per cent.) .... 
Water ........ 

(2) Washing Soda 

Quicklime ....... 

Water 

(3) Soda Ash 

Quicklime ...... 

Water 

The soda wash may be applied by means of a brass spraying machine or,, 
better, by means of a swab of cloth at the end of a short bamboo stick. 
Mr. Fletcher. We- now come to the various sucking insects, bugs, and scales, which 

attack tea, and with these we may consider a few miscellaneous pests 
such as mites and eel worms. On my list I have : — 

Pcecilocoris lotus. 

Helopeltis theivora. 

Helopeltis antonii. 

Disphinctus humeral is . 

Empoasca flavescens. 

Lecanium hemispliaericum . 

Lecanium nigrum. 

Aspidiotus camellicB. 

Chionaspis manni. 

Hemichionaspis thece. 

Aphids. 

Thrips. 

Tetra n ych u s bioculaius . 

Phytoptus carinalus. 

Eelworms. 



: — 






. 2 lb. 

. 10 gallons 




. 7 lb. 
. 2 lb. 

. 10 gallons 




. 2i lb. 
. 2" lb. 

. 10 gallons 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 23 

Pcecilocoris latus is a large Pentatomid bug which is apparently 
confined to North-East India. 

The damage it does in North-East India seems to be problematical. Mr. Andrews. 

Is it not an agent for damage to tea-seeds by a fungus ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Yes ; there is a fungus which gets into the tea-seeds through the Mr. Andrews, 
punctures made by the bugs, but this fungus is also found in seeds which 
have not been punctured. 

And as regards control ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Control is simple and consists only in hand-collection of the bugs and Mr. Andrews, 
killing them. 

We will go on to Helopeltis and Disphinctus. There has been con- Mr. Fletcher. 
siderable confusion with regard to the various species of Helopeltis 
found on tea, and their distinctions were dealt with by Dr. Mann in Vol. 
I of our Entomological Memoirs. Roughly speaking I believe that in 
North-East India the common " mosquito-blight " of tea is Helopeltis 
theivora, whereas in South India we get Helopeltis antonii and doubtless 
Disphinctus humeralis is often mixed up with this. It is possible that 
Helopeltis cinchonce also occurs in Southern India, but we shall have to 
study a good deal of material in good condition before we can say much 
about its identity. I have not myself seen Helopeltis on tea in India, 
so I will ask Mr. Anstead and Mr. Andrews to tell us their experiences. 

In Southern India Helopeltis is worst in the monsoon. Spraying is Mr. Anstead. 
out of the question then, but hand-catching is of some use. It also 
flourishes on a kind of wild palm, and removal of these trees is useful. 
It also feeds on Cinchona. In the Wynaad one finds a bush infested 
here and there, but it never does any appreciable damage. 

Spraying on a large scale is impossible in North-East India. When Mr. Andrews. 
Helopeltis occurs in isolated patches, spraying with lime and sulphur 
combined with plucking of bushes outside and inside does some good. 
Many spray materials have been tried against Helopeltis, but none can be 
used successfully on a large scale, owing to the labour conditions, shortage 
of water, the fact that Helopeltis is at its worst during the rainy season, 
when spray materials are rapidly washed off, etc. Also, none of the 
spray materials tried have been found to be really efficacious even 
under favourable conditions. The fact that the bushes are grown for 
the young leaves, which are the most tender parts of the plant, is a diffi- 
culty ; how much so might be gathered from the fact that the first stage 
larva can resist a formalin solution of twice the strength which would 
burn the young shoots badly. However, spraying with lime-sulphur 
solution has been found beneficial in some estates where only small patches 
of tea were affected, but a second spraying is invariably necessary eight 
days later to deal with individuals which were in the egg stage at the 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

time of the first application, and the spraying, wherever possible, is 
usually supplemented by plucking off all young shoots, care being taken 
to pluck those in the heart of the bush as well as on the plucking surface. 
Hand-catching by small boys is almost universal. 

A study of the distribution of this pest brings out several curious facts. 
It occurs, at its worst, in the Terai and Duars, and in those parts of 
Cachar, Sylhet and Assam which approximate to the hills, and where 
there is a liability to dull, rainy weather, with absence of sunshine and 
heavy rain for long intervals. This sort of weather is exceptionally 
favourable for the development of Helopeltis, and it has been found 
possible, by plotting curves based on the number of rainy days, and 
the amount of fall per day, to correlate conditions and intensity of 
attack. In the Duars there are two distinct types of soil. One is a 
grey loamy soil, the other a stiff red clay. It was noticed that most 
of the badly affected gardens were on the grey loam, gardens on the red 
clay being much less liable to attack in most cases. Examination of the 
analyses of typical samples of these soil types showed that the ratio of 
available potash to available phosphoric acid was high in the red clay 
soils and low in the grey loams. Samples from red clay soils which were 
becoming liable to attack were found to occupy an intermediate posi- 
tion. In Cachar Helopeltis attack is worst on the bheels, least on the 
red teelas and here, again, the same differences in the ratio were found 
to obtain. Experiments were therefore carried out. to ascertain whether, 
by increasing this ratio, the bushes in a soil could be rendered less liable 
to attack. The first experiment, carried out in a garden in Cachar, 
consisted in the application of sulphate of potash, and this gave excel- 
lent results, even though the potash was applied towards the end of the 
season. During the next season an extended series of experiments 
was drawn up, to be carried out on estates in the Duars and Cachar. 
Owing to the outbreak of War, the series could not be carried out in 
toto, but beneficial results were obtained, on both the red clay soils and 
on the grey loams, in certain cases. Last season further experiments 
were carried out, and it is significant that, on estates where results had 
been obtained before, similar results were again obtained. Thus evidence 
has been obtained to show that an addition of potash, in a readily soluble 
form, to a soil, will, under certain conditions, produce a decrease in the 
liability of the bushes growing in the soil to Helopeltis attack. One 
of the conditions necessary for this treatment to be effective appears to 
lie a shortage of total potash in the soil. In the case of the grey loam of 
the Duars, however, we find that while the total amount of potash in 
the soil tends to be slightly on the high side, and the total amount of 
phosphoric acid tends to be on the low side, the " available " quantity 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 25 

of potash is low, in some soils of this type being merely a trace while 
the " available " quantity of phosphoric acid is exceedingly high, more 
; so than in any other soil in tea. Addition of potash to such a soil is not 
of great value, and it would seem that it is fixed, and rendered non- 
available almost as soon as it is added. The problem before us, therefore, 
is to discover the factor or factors which bring about the fixation and 
liberation of potash and phosphoric acid in the soil, and future work 
is to be directed to this end. 

The soil, of course, does not act directly on Helopeltis, but must act 
indirectly through the bush. An inquiry was therefore instituted to 
ascertain whether any relation could be traced between the attack of 
the pest and the composition of the leaf on the bush, which could be 
correlated with differences in the soil. Samples of leaf were taken from 
three estates at intervals of a fortnight throughout the same season 
and analysed. On one estate, Helopeltis, though serious in some years, 
did not appear that season. On the second estate the pest was serious, 
and became more so as the season progressed, but the area never reached 
a stage at which it failed to give leaf. On the third estate the bushes 
shut up entirely at the end of August. The results were exceedingly 
interesting. On the first estate the ratio of potash to phosphoric acid 
remained fairly constant throughout the season. On the second estate 
this ratio gradually increased, the rate of increase becoming greater as 
end of the season was approached. On the third estate the ratio increased 
still more rapidly, and in August this increase was so rapid that the 
curve became almost vertical. This experiment needs to be repeated, 
and the differences observed are rather the result of attack than the 
cause of it, but here again the ratio of potash to phosphoric acid is seen 
to have a bearing on the question. 

Experiments have also been tried, by injection of bushes with soluble 
mineral salts, and by keeping plucked shoots with the cut end of the stalk 
immersed in different solution, to see whether differences in liability to 
attack could be brought about. Differences have been observed, but 
the experiments have not yet been carried far enough for any definite 
statement to be made. 

In Southern India the case is entirely opposite. The larger quantity Mr. Anstead. 
of soluble phosphate gives the best results. 

The ratio is the chief point. Mr - Andrews. 

I mean " ratio " by the " soluble phosphate ". The composition of Mr. Anstead. 
the soil varies considerably in the Planting Districts in Southern India. 
Consequently soil surveys are the first necessity. For want of exact 
information on this point, several manurial experiments are vitiated. 



26 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 

Mr. Andrews. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Anstead. 

Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Anstead. 
Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Andrews. 



At Coimbatore Helopeltis antonii breeds on Nim shoots, as described 
in my note in the Agricultural Journal. 

At Tezpur Helopeltis (theivora) has also been found breeding on 
mango. 

We will go on to Empoasca flavescens, which is said to occur abun- 
dantly on tea in Assam and the Duars. Doubtless Mr. Andrews can 
tell us about that. 

It is found all over the Hills in North-East India. The leaves of the 
attacked bushes get a peculiar flavour which improves the quality of 
the tea made from them. In the Plains this insect does not give such a 
marked flavour and may do harm. In one instance, three years ago,. 
Empoasca .suddenly appeared in the middle of a 5,000 acre block of tea 
in Assam in June, and completely checked the growth on one section. 
It had not been known there before for at least twenty years back ; it 
never spread to any other section ; it lifted in July, anel has not 
reappeared since. Why it apeared, where it came from, and why it 
has never reappeared, I can not say. 

We will go on to Scale Insects, on which there is a paper by Green 
and Mann in Vol. I of our Entomological Memoirs. 

In Southern India the worst scale is Aspidiotus camelliae, which is 
very troublesome on young plants. Spraying is the best remedy and 
this is easy on young plants. 

Cliionaspis manni is another bad pest of tea-bushes. It interferes 
with the ordinary processes of digestion of the plant ; as a result of the 
attack the shoots get starved below the point of attack. It is serious 
in the Darjiling District only. The application of Soda Wash in the 
Cold Weather is the best remedy. 

In South India, Pink and Purple Mites do more harm to the tea 
than any other mites. Spraying is very difficult as a control-measure. 

Red Spider is bad in North-East India. Lime-Sulphur has been 
found to be the best treatment and, if well prepared and well applied, 
is successful cent, per cent. Soap solution is also useful and soaps 
containing a higher percentage of Sodium Silicate give better results 
than purer soaps. 

(an yiin tell us something about the Lime-sulphur treatment ; how 
the spray is prepared and applied ? 

A stock solution is made of 20 lb. Quicklime, 22|lb. Sulphur, and 
50 gallons of water. This is diluted to one in ten with water and applied 
by means of a Sprayer. The best machine for the purpose is the Holder 
Knapsack Sprayer, made of " Virex " brass alloy. Copper vessels. 
should not be used. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 27 

The difficulty with all these spraying materials is to secure a standard Mr. Anstead. 
uniform quality. Samples submitted for trial may be good, but sub- 
sequent supplies do not always reach the same standard. 

That is our experience also. Mr. Fletcher. 

[Various delegates gave examples, and the general opinion of the Meeting 
teas to the effect that a proper standardization of all proprietary insecticides 
in India is of great importance.'] 

Aphids are very bad in nurseries in Southern India. Mr. Anstead. 

And in North-East India. Mr. Andrews. 

Tobacco and Soap sprays seem to be indicated. Mr. Fletcher. 

Thrips is bad in Darjiling and the Plains. There are two varieties ; Mr. Andrews, 
one the Black Thrips and the other the Common Thrips. The lifehistory 
of the Common Thrips is as follows : — the egg is laid inside the young 
leaj: ; it is very minute, and invisible to the naked eye ; the larval stage 
appears to go on for three weeks or more ; the pupa is found in the soil ; 
the adults appear in May and it appears that there are not more than 
two broods in the year. Several spray mixtures have been tried : — 

(1) Cook's (?) Nicotine. 

(2) Lime Sulphur. 

(3) X E X. 

(4) Katakilla. 

(5) Crude Oil Emulsion. 

Of these, X E X was found to be the best. The composition of this 
substance is not definitely known, but the active ingredient was found 
to be acid, and of a fatty nature. In trials, the incidence of the pest 
was reduced to 5 per cent, in treated plots as compared with 50 per cent, 
in untreated controls. 

Lime Sulphur was found to be the next best, and Nicotine Solution 
came next. Katakilla and Crude Oil Emulsion were not found to give 
good results. 

As the larvae enter the soil to pupate and apparently remain there Mr. Fletcher, 
for some time, could not cultural methods be employed successfully 
in the spring months? 

This will be useful but only if done before May when the adults emerge, Mr. Andrews, 
and if the cultivation is deep enough to reach the firm soil in which 
the larva? pupate. 

Regarding the Black Thrips, the egg has not been found so far, Mr. Andrews, 
but the larva is known ; the pupa is found in the lichen on the bushes, 
and there are probably two broods in the year. 

Soda Wash is the best method because it removes all the lichen 
which gives shelter to the pupa. 

Any more pests of tea? Mr. Fletcher. 



28 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Another mite, as yet unidentified, which is usually a minor pest, 
did great damage last year in the Terai. The damage caused is much 
like the effects of Canker. 

That brings us to the end of Tea-pests. Of course, I know that most 
of you are not directly concerned with pests of tea as such, but many of 
these insects are not confined to tea and this discussion has brought out 
many points of general interest, such as the connection between soil- 
contents and the incidence of Helopeltis and the value of spraying and 
other insecticidal methods. I am sure that we are all indebted to Mr. 
Andrews for the information he has given us. We will now consider the 
pests of Coffee. 



Coffee (Coffea arabica.) 

Mr. Fletcher. We will take first the leaf-eating species : — 

Estigmene laclinea. 
Creatonolus gangis. 
Olene mendosa. 
Pa rasa lepida. 
Belippa ferruginea. 
Homona coffearia. 
Autarches tit Harris. 
Leaf-miner. 
Sympiezomias f rater. 
Sympiezomias cretaceus . 
Serica pruinosa. 

Xone of these are of any great importance as pests of coffee in India. 

Estigmene lactinea, Creatonotus gangis, Olene mendosa and Parasa 
lepida are all examples of polyphagous species which may occur 
sporadically on coffee. 

Belippa ferruginea (laleana) is the curious, squat, rounded, pale 
green, gelatinous, slug-like larva which is found commonly on coffee- 
leaves. It occurs in some numbers in Coorg, but cannot be said to 
do damage, so far as I know. 

Homona coffearia probably breeds on coffee in Coorg because, as I 
told you when discussing this species in connection with tea, I took 
examples at Pollibetta, where they must have bred on coffee. However, 
we know nothing of its occurrence as a pest of coffee in India. 

Aularches miliaris is sometimes found in large numbers on Coffee 
Estates, usually on paths or in open spaces. They apparently congregate 
for pairing and are sluggish and fairly easily killed by beating with 
sticks or any similar simple means. The immature hoppers are found 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 29 

on the coffee-bushes and may do a little damage at times, but Aularches 
can hardly be classed as a bad pest of coffee. 

Then there is a Leaf-miner which is quite common in the Coffee 
Districts in Southern India. It is probably a fly but I have never been 
able to rear anything out, although I have collected scores if not hundreds 
of mined leaves. It is more of a curiosity than a pest, but I mention 
it in case any of you may be able to rear it out successfully. 

Then there are the two weevils, Sympiezomias jrater and S. cretaceus, 
which occur on coffee-bushes in Southern India and nibble the leaves ; 
but they are scarcely pests. 

Serica fruinosa has also been reported (I.M.N. III. 117) as defoliating 
coffee-bushes at Devikulam in the Madura District in June 1892 and also 
in Travancore (I.M.N. III. No. 6 p. 3). 

Then we come to pests of Coffee-seedlings, and here we meet with 
two serious pests : — 
Euxoa segetis 
Pseudococcus (Dactijlojnus) citri. 

Euxoa segetis is a common cut-worm in the Hills of Southern India 
and has been recorded as doing serious damage to Coffee-seedlings in 
Mysore. 

Apterite has been tried and found useful in such cases. M r> Anstead. 

Usually in the case of these cut-worms, mechanical measures, such Mr. Fletcher, 
as grubbing up the soil with a stick and collecting the larvge, give the 
best results. 

Pseudococcus citri is sometimes a bad pest of young coffee-plants Mr. Fletcher, 
especially after they have been planted out. When in South Coorg I 
saw a good many cases of this, and in some cases at all events Apterite 
had been used quite successfully. 

Dactyhfius is particularly bad in South Coorg, and Apterite has been Mr. Anstead. 
tried there with great success. It is applied, generally before the mon- 
soon, in rings about an inch deep around the seedlings. 

Has anyone else tried Apterite ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have tried it against Ground-beetles but did not find it of much use. Mr. Ghosh. 

Besides Pseudococcus, we have several insects which attack the roots Mr. Fletcher, 
of coffee-bushes although we know very little about them. There are 
several Melolonthid grubs, one of which is probably Holotrichia confer/' i, 
which Mr. Anstead has sent us from Santikoppa, in North Cooro-. Cica- 
das, again, emerge in some districts in enormous numbers from the ground 
in certain years, and, although we really know nothing of their lifehis- 
tories in India, we may presume judging from the records of lifehistories 
in other parts of the World, that they spend their early stages as root- 
feeders and therefore may do damage to coffee. It seems very probable 



30 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Dr. Coleman. 

Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Dr. Coleman. 
Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 



that we may have in Southern India some long-lived species comparable 
to the well known " 17-year Cicada " of North America, but exact 
records of the emergence of large swarms are required. 

We will go on to the Boring Pests of Coffee. These include 
Xylotrech us (/iKidri'pes 
Zeuzera coffees 
Collyrine beetles. 

Of these Xylotrechus quadripes, the " White Borer " of the Coffee 
Planters, is by far the worst pest and did a tremendous amount of damage 
two years ago in South Coorg. On one group of estates, of about 500 
acres, approximately 100,000 coffee-bushes had to be taken out and 
destroyed, and of course replaced by young plants, and all this des- 
truction occurred in one season. That will give you some idea of the 
damage done. I visited Coorg in connection with this at the end of 
1915 and did some work on the lifehistory of the beetle and control- 
measures but, before discussing these, I will ask the Mysore delegate 
to give us their experiences. 

I will ask Mr. Kunhi Kannan to give an account. 

Xylotrechus quadripes is a very bad pest of coffee in all areas in Mysore 
where coffee is grown. An alternative food-plant has been found by 
Dr. Coleman, but I forget its name. [Name has since been given as 
Olea dioica Roxb.] 

Was it Wendlandia ? There is a Wendlandia (notoniana) common 
around Mercara which I thought, when I was there, was a probable 
food-plant of Xylotrechus, although I did not actually find any larvse in 
it. 

I cannot remember the name. 

The eggs are laid in the bark in cracks and crevices. 

Here is an unpublished coloured plate, which was done here from my 
material brought back from Coorg. It shows the egg and all stages and 
method of attack, and may help to illustrate your account. 

The egg takes six to nine days to hatch in Mysore. The grub bores 
into the tree and penetration takes a circuitous route to reach the wood. 
The larva lives for nearly a year. Young trees, of four to five or six 
years, are damaged most and these trees cannot survive the attack. 

As regards remedial measures, scrubbing the bushes is the only satis- 
factory thing 1d do, and this should be done once in the middle of Novem- 
ber and again at the end of the month. Coconut brushes have been found 
to be the best to use for scrubbing. These brushes are made from husks 
of coconuts cut in two transversely ; the cut ends are then beaten out 
and made into a sort of brush. The idea in scrubbing is to kill all the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 31 

•eggs and the young larvae that have not yet penetrated into the trees. 
Experiments to test the relative efficacy of (1) Scrubbing and (2) Scrub- 
bing and whitewashing have been conducted over nearly 4,000 plants. 
The results will be available next cold weather. 

The beetles are found in the spring also. Is there a second brood ? Mr. Anstead. 

That is only a case of deferred emergence. ?? r ' Kunhi 

. -, , j. xr 7 7 Kannan. 

Have you found any natural enemies ot Xyiotreckus ? jy[ r Fletcher. 

Two Hymenopterous parasites have been noticed. Their eggs are Mr. Kunhi 

apparently laid on the grub when it is just below the bark. Amongst Kannan - 

birds also, the Blue Barbet extracts the larvae by peeling off the bark. 

Nearly ten per cent, of trees pulled out by planters for borer have been 

found to have had the larvae extracted in this way. 

I have seen a blue Ichneumonid hunting over the bushes as if in Mr. Fletcher. 

search of Xijlotrcchun grubs ; unfortunately I was not able to obtain 

specimens, but it was probably Xylonomus ccerulescens. 

Regarding birds, one often sees bushes ripped open by birds, and the 

planters say that they extract the grubs of Xylotrechus. I cannot say 

what the birds are, but I imagine that they are woodpeckers of sorts. 

But the point that strikes one in the Coffee Districts, in Coorg at least, 

is the great scarcity of birds. This is undoubtedly due largely to the 

fact that the Arms Act does not apply to Coorgs and that the jungle 

tribes employed on estates carry bows and shoot and eat every bird 

they can knock down. It is quite common, in walking along a path 

through the coffee, to come across a few stones put together, with the 

remains of a fire and a few feathers scattered on the ground, to show 

w T here some small bird has been knocked down and cooked and eaten on 

the spot. So I do not think that birds are a very important factor 

in checking Xylotrechus, and as regards parasites these do not seem to be 

at all common. 

If we have heavy showers at the time eggs are being laid, the damage Mr. Kunhi 

caused by these beetles in the following season will be much less. Kannan. 

Are the eggs so loosely laid on the bark that they are washed away Mr. Ghosh. 

by rain ? 

I cannot explain this, but that is the general experience. I believe Mr. Kunhi 

that the result is due to the constant dripping of water along the trunks 

during the heavy rains. 

Would not the effect of rainy weather tend to reduce oviposition, as Mr. Fletcher. 

the female beetles only fly freely on warm, sunny days ? I should think 

that is a more likely explanation. 

As regards the eggs, they are thrust right into the bark, usually 

under the loose scales that one finds on older coffee-bushes and w r ould 

not be likely to be affected very directly by rain. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Have you tried the effect of any deterrents to prevent egg-layino - ? 

Several deterrents have been tried, but not a single one has been 
found successful. 

That was my experience in Coorg also. On one estate where Jeye's- 
Fluid was used, I examined some bushes about a week after it had been 
applied and had little difficulty in finding healthy eggs under the bark. 
All these deterrent washes only seem effective so long as they retain a 
strong smell over the stems and branches. 

Can you tell us how many eggs are laid by each female beetle ? 

I cannot give any exact figures for oviposition, but by dissection I 
have found more than one hundred eggs in one beetle. 

Probably about one hundred is the normal number. In one female- 
which I dissected I found 108 eggs, mostly large and well-formed but 
about twenty-five per cent. w r ere still small and undeveloped ; this female,, 
however, was caught as an adult and may already have laid some of 
its eggs 

Regarding the eggs, these are of indeterminate shape, long, rounded 
at the ends, white, and soft, and look rather like minute rice-grains. 
They are thrust singly, or in little groups of six or eight, inside cracks 
and under the bark ; they are rarely visible without removing the scales 
of bark and are very rarely laid externally. Eggs laid on 1st November 
1915 hatched out on 12th November, thus taking eleven days ; but 
these eggs were kept all the time in the shade, so took perhaps a little 
longer than usual. The young larva bores into the stem either under 
or alongside the place where the egg was laid, or not far off (perhaps 
a quarter-of-an-inch). It bores in rapidly and soon only the tip of 
its tail is visible. It first of all bores a gallery around the stem just 
under the bark and produces a ridge over its gallery which looks just 
as if a wire had been thrust under the bark ; later on the bark usually 
cracks across the top of this ridge and makes it more conspicuous.. 
You will see what I mean in the coloured plate. Then the larva bores 
into the solid wood and seems to burrow about more or less indiscri- 
minately. Mr. Kunhi Kannan has just told us that the life-cycle lasts 
for a whole year, but as regards that I can only say that, so far as my 
experience goes, one seems to get two emergences of beetles, one in April- 
May and the other in November, the latter being far more numerous. 
Whether some descendants of the normal November brood emerge six 
months late, in April- May, after having taken 18 months to complete 
their lifehistory, or whether there is a definite emergence in April-May 
descended from parents which emerged the previous year in April-May 
or even whether there are two broods in the year, seems to me at present. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 33 

rather doubtful. I started some experiments at Pollibetta in Novem- 
ber 1915 with female beetles caged over young coffee-bushes, which were 
presumably unaffected, to see when the next brood of beetles emerged, 
whether in May or November of last year ; but unfortunately the experi- 
ments were upset by the departure of the planter in whose charge they 
had been placed. It is certainly the case in many of these wood-boring 
longicorns that the length of lifehistory is very variable and it may be 
so with this species. The question of the length of the lifehistory is an 
important one, as we certainly require to know this exactly before being 
in a position to recommend remedial measures. 

Regarding these, so far as we know at present, the most promising 
scheme seems to be to prevent oviposition as much as possible and to 
kill the eggs and young larvae off, if eggs have been laid, before the young 
larva? have bored into the bushes. This can be done by scrubbing the 
bushes, as described by Mr. Kunhi Kannan, or by scraping off the loose 
scales of bark and so on with flat pieces of wood. It may be possible 
to find some satisfactory deterrent but, so far, nothing seems absolutely 
effective. I am rather inclined to think, from what I have seen, that 
lime-wash is of some use ; if applied at the same time as the bushes are 
scraped, it has the further advantage of marking clearly those bushes 
which have been treated, as they stand out quite clearly and the 
work is easily checked over. For this reason I should be inclined to 
recommend the addition of lime-wash to any deterrent that may be 
applied. Some Coffee-planters have told me that lime-wash binds the 
tree, preventing the formation of new wood ; but other Planters, of equal 
or greater experience, have told me that no such effect is produced. 

One other control-measure, which I personally am rather in favour 
of, is the catching of the adult beetles. As we said just now, each 
female beetle (or, at any rate, each large female ; for they vary enormously 
in size) may lay one hundred eggs and, even allowing for the fact that a 
proportion of captures will be males and of the females caught many will 
have laid a proportion of their eggs and that many eggs may be laid on 
one bush, we may safely say that every beetle caught and killed means a 
coffee-bush saved. There are, I know, objections to this by the Planters, 
who say that it is not practicable, but it certainly seems to me that this 
should be done. 

The collection of beetles, on a basis of rewards paid for catches, Mr. Kunhi 
has not been found successful on two estates where it was tried in 1915. Kannan. 
The difficulty was to find the beetles. 

Instead of getting these beetles, the boys frequently bring in all Mr. Anstead. 
sorts of other insects. There is also the objection that they will naturally 
collect the beetles where these are most plentiful, so that a Planter may 



3-i 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mi. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ansiead. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



be asked to pay rewards for beetles caught beyond the limits of his own 
Estate. 

I have heard both these objections advanced by Coffee-planters. 
As regards the recognition of the Coffee-borer beetles, there is a diffi- 
culty, and I have even come across Planters in two Coffee-Districts, 
who knew the Borer grub well but had not the least idea what the beetle 
looked like. I have even had Autarches sent in to me by a Coffee- 
planter with a request for information as to whether it was the Borer. 
But with a little trouble there should be no difficulty in recognizing 
Xylotrechus. As a matter of fact, when I was in Coorg in November 
1915, we showed some beetles to a gang of small boys and sent them out 
with bottles to hunt for these beetles, and they brought in a very large 
number, practically all Xylotrechus quadripes. As regards the collect- 
ing of the beetles outside Estate limits to earn rewards, I think this 
should easily be arranged with a little supervision. 

Another species which one finds in Mysore is Xylotrechus subscutel- 
latus. This looks very like X. quadri'pes but does not lay eggs in the 
coffee-bushes. 

Xylotrechus subscutellatus occurs in Coorg also, and I had a few brought 
in mixed up with quadripes. There is also a Mordellid beetle which 
is a most exact mimic of X. quadri'pes. Such species certainly could not 
be distinguished except by an entomologist, but the small proportion 
i 'I such species brought in would not, in my opinion, invalidate the 
desirability of collection of Borer beetles. 

We will go on to Zeuzera cqffew, the " Red Borer " of the Coffee- 
planters. It occurs in all the Coffee-Districts, but does not seem to 
be very common as a rule. 

It is not a very important pest of the coffee-bushes nor is it difficult 
to tackle. The branches that contain the borer die back and so may 
easily be located and lopped off. 

Then there are the Collyrine Tiger-beetles whose larvae are some- 
times found boring in coffee twigs. But they are not pests as far as we 
know. 

We will go to the Sucking Insects found on coffee. On my list I 
have : — 



Antestiacruciata 
Coccus viridis 
Pseud' coccus citri 
Pulvinaria psidii 

Of these, Coccus viridis or Lecanium viride, the " Green scale ", 
by far the most important, and as some work has been done on this in 



Lecan ium hemisph cericum 
,, nigrum 
olece. 
Chionaspis biclavis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 35 

Mysore lately I will ask Mr. Kunhi Kannan to give us some information 
about it. 

Thia insect passes through three moults before attaining the adult Mr. Kunhi 
stage. A peculiar habit in moulting has been observed in the case of Kannan. 
this insect, that it casts off only the ventral skin and not the dorsal. 
The individual lifehistory takes about four months, about one-and-a- 
half months of this time being required to reach the adult stage. 

What is the length of period during which young individuals can live Mr. Fletcher, 
before reaching a suitable food-plant ? 

i They live for three or four days. Mr. Kunhi 

Kannan. 

When I was in Coorgin May 1914 I collected some coffee-leaves infest- Mr. Fletcher, 
ed with this Scale and young ones emerged in the boxes in which the 
leaves were. These boxes were carried by me when I left Coorg, and 
young ones were still alive and active ten or eleven days afterwards, 
although I was then at Poona where the weather was extremely hot and 
dry and the conditions apparently very unfavourable. 

The adults may Jive for more than twenty days without food. Mr. Kunhi 

™ , Kannan. 

±ne adults in my boxes were apparently t dead. Anyway, these Mr. Fletcher. 

figures show how this Scale may be carried for long distances even on 
dried leaves affected by it. 

Another peculiarity noted in this Scale-insect is in regard to the number Mr. Kunhi 
of antennal joints. Mr. Green, when describing this species, mentioned Kannan - 
seven segments of the antenna, but I have found in the case of bred 
specimens that this number may be reduced to three. Further observa- 
tions have shown that there is great variation in this species. No less 
than five different forms have been obtained from different parts of the 
World. The number three in the antennal joints of most of the South 
Indian forms is constant. It has therefore been described as a new 
species in a paper read by me last month before the Science Congress. 
The abundant rainfall in Mysore helps to check this pest, because during 
the monsoon months a white fungus, which is very destructive to this 
Scale insect, propagates very easily. A dark fungus, which appears to 
resist dry weather better, is also effective. 

A paper, recently published in Java, gives interesting results of Dr. Coleman, 
experiments conducted to show the relation between Ants and this 
Scale. Coffee-plants were grown in pots and fifty bugs were put on each 
plant and ants introduced into some pots whilst others were kept free 
of ants ; in the ant-infected pots the number of Scales doubled, whilst 
in the pots without ants their number was reduced. These ants keep 
parasites also from the Scales. 

e2 



36 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Anstead. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Another worker in Java, however, claims to have obtained results 
quite discordant with those I have just described. 
Mr. Anstead. The persistent destruction of ants-nests in the Coffee-Districts cer- 

tainly seems to have had a marked effect on the spread of this Scale. 
Mr. G. R. Dutt. The fact that the ants take very great care of the Coccids they attend 

on has been observed many a time by me. In Pusa the workers of 
(Ecophylla smaragdina have been noticed on several occasions removing^ 
the young Lecanium hesperidum, holding them very gently between their 
mandibles, from such leaves as get withered on account of the sap 
having been drained off, on to fresh and healthy leaves. 

We must get on to the next insect. Antestia cruciata sometimes 
occurs in very large numbers on coffee in Southern India and is said to- 
do considerable damage by sucking the berries. 

It is very common in the Coffee-Districts but does not do much 
damage as a rule. 

The other sucking insects do not call for much comment. We have 
already considered Pseudococcus citri on the roots of coffee ; it is often 
found on the young shoots but not in large numbers as a rule. The 
other Scales I have already mentioned hardly seem to be serious pests. 

Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). 

We now come to pests of Rubber. So far we seem to be fairly for- 
tunate in India in having practically no pests of this tree. In other 
rubber-growing countries things are not so satisfactory. In the Malay 
States, for example, one hears of trouble with a Goptotermes and in Ceylon, 
there is a Slug with a curiously perverted appetite for rubber latex.. 
In Ceylon also the larva of Batocera rubus has been recorded as boring 
in the lower part of the stem and doing some damage. 

We have had Batocera rubus sent in a rubber stump from the Western 
Ghats. 

The only insect I have seen on rubber in India, as a pest of any kind, 
is Salssetia nigra. One sees a few examples of this Scale-insect on 
rubber-leaves in most districts, but it never seems to be really serious.. 

Practically speaking, we have no insect-pests on this tree. 

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). 

Mr. Fletcher. Cardamom is grown to some extent in the Hill Districts of Southern 

India, generally at an elevation of about 4,000-5.000 feet. Amongst 
insect pests we know of the following : — 
Attacking the stem andcapsules: — • 
Dichocrocis jmnctiferalis. 
Lampides elpis. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Anstead. 



PROCEEDINGS OV THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 37 

Cardamom Scolytid. 
In the roots : — 

Hilarographa caminodes. 

Sucking : — 

Stephanitis typicus. 
Of these Dichocrocis punctiferalis and Lampides elpis are generally dis- 
tributed minor pests. The Cardamom Scolytid occurred very abundantly 
in the capsules in Coorg four or five years ago and damaged about fifty 
per cent, of the crop in some localities but does not seem to have occurred 

again recently. 

Hilarographa caminodes is known from Ceylon, but has not yet been 
definitely recorded from India ; however, it probably occurs, so we had 
better keep it on our Pest-list. 

Stephanitis typicus is a very minor pest, so far as we know. 

Cinchona. 

Cinchona is grown in a good many Hill localities in India, but we Mr. Fletcher, 
know of few pests except in South India. 

On the leaves we get Deilephila nerii and ,Sympiezomias decipiens. 
Deilephila nerii is not common on Cinchona as a rule but sometimes 
occurs and, when it does occur, may do damage by stripping off all the 
leaves, especially of young trees, as I have myself seen in Ceylon. 
Sympiezomias decipiens is a small weevil which was reported about three 
years ago as doing considerable damage to Cinchona leaves in the 
Nilgiri's ; it was then an undescribed species and we know little more 

about it now. 

There are a few sucking insects. Those on my hst are :— 
Helopeltis antonii. 
Coccus viridis. 
Aspidiotus camelliae. 
Chionaspis biclavis. 
Of these Helopeltis antonii h usually common and often does some damage. 
The Scales are of minor importance. 

In the Darjiling District we get Helopeltis iheivora on Cinchona. Mr. Andrews. 
Then at the roots we get Cockchafer grubs, belonging to various Mr. Fletcher, 
species of Anomala and Holotrichia. 

These grubs occur in enormous numbers at roots of Cinchona in the Mr. Ramakrishaa 
Nilgiris. I have visited the Cinchona Plantations and collected large A yy ar - 
numbers, and these are at present under rearing in the Insectary at 
Coimbatore. 

And as regards control measures ? M*- Fletcher. 

Apterite has been tried against these grubs and found successful. Mr. Anstead, 



38 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Camphor. 

Mr. Fletcher. Camphor seems to be rather free from insect pests, as we might 

indeed expect to be the case. The only insect-pest T know of is a small 
Gracilariad (Acrocercops ordinatella), which mines the leaves. This 
was sent in to us from Mysore by Mr. Anstead as doing some damage. 

Mr. Anstead. I have not been able to obtain it again. 

Mr. Fletcher. We will go on with the insects of a few plants which I have listed 

under the heading of : — 



Mr. Raniakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Andrews. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

They are hardly crops but you may have to deal with insects found on 
them. : 

l/mosops Ulengi (Bakul). 

This is a small tree which is grown commonly for its ornamental 
appearance and for the flowers. The leaves are sometimes attacked and 
considerably damaged by larva? of Metanastria hyrtaca. 

A Thri'ps is very bad on this tree at Coimbatore. 

Rain-tree (Pithecololiwm saman). 

The rain-tree is another miscellaneous tree, of no great value, but 
often grown as a roadside shade or ornamental tree, so that you may be 
called on to treat it for pests. It does not seem to have many serious 
pests but is sometimes bored by Arbela and must therefore be considered 
as an alternative food-plant where this insect does damage to crop- 
trees. 

In the Duars the leaves are stripped by the beetles of Astycus 
clirysochlorus. 

In Coimbatore on one occasion some kind of Lac was found in thick 
incrustations on the branches of this tree. 



Lantana (Lantana aculeata). 

Mr. Fletcher. We now come to Lantana, about which I said something yesterday, 

Lantana was originally a South American shrub which was introduced 
as an ornamental garden-plant. I believe that it was introduced into Cey- 
lon about the year 1828 and it has presumably been in India for seventy 
or eighty years now. In some districts it has quite got out of hand and 
become a weed pest of the worst description, choking out all other vegeta- 
tion, and this has become a serious matter already in many parts of 
Southern India and Ceylon and will, I think, in the near future prov 



TKOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 39 

even worse in North-Eastern India and Burma by invasion of forest 
and grazing areas. It has become such a nuisance in Coorg that it has 
been found necessary to introduce special regulations for its control. 
I told you yesterday what is being done in India to try to find any insects 
which will keep it in check and Mr. Ramachandra Rao will give us a 
brief account of this work so far as he has gone. In the meanwhile I 
will read out the names of a few insects which are down on my list as 
attacking Lantana, but this list is of cnrse very incomplete in this sense 
that you will find on Lantana a large number of insects which are only 
casual feeders on it. 

The insects attacking the flowers and seeds are obviously of the great- 
est importance, since Lantana is spread, so far as we know, entirely by 
birds, chiefly mynahs, eating the ripe fruits and dispersing the undi- 
gested seeds. So that any insects, which will check the production of ripe 
seeds, will tend to keep in check the spread of Lantana. 

Attacking the flowers we find : — 
Platyptilia. pusillidactyla . 
A Eucosmid moth. 

Of these Platyptilia pusilUdactyla, which is one of the species intro- 
duced artificially from Mexico into Hawaii to check Lantana, there, 
seems to occur already all over India, Burma and Ceylon wherever 
Lantana is found. The eggs are laid on the buds or flowers and the 
whitish, naked larva is found curled up inside the young flowers, whose 
interior is eaten out so that, instead of a large bunch of healthy berries 
being formed, one finds only three or four small, unhealthy-looking 
ones. This little moth is therefore of some use but, although (as I said) 
it occurs commonly wherever you find Lantana, it is not abundant 
enough to form an effective check on the formation of fruits. 

The Eucosmid, which seems to be an undescribed species nearly 
allied to Lobesia aolodes, has been found by Mr. Ramachandra Rao 
around Coimbatore. 

Then there are a few sucking insects which are not confined to Lantana 
but which seem to occur on it in some numbers and may perhaps affect 
its growth by impairing the vigour of the plant, but these sucking in- 
sects are not so useful as those which destroy the flowers. They are : — 
Piezodorus rubrofaseiatus. 
Plautia viridicollis. 
Plautia fimbriata. 
and of these the species of Plautia seem especially attached bo Lantana 
and may perhaps do a little good. 

The work of investigation of Lantana insects has only been in pro- Mr. Ramachandra 
gress for a very short time, about two months, and it is rather premature Rao. 



40 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Anstead. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



to say much about it as yet. I have made a start at this work at Coim- 
batore and have examined Lantana and collected and reared out the 
insects found on it at and around Coimbatore. A very large number 
of insects are found on Lantana, and of these Platyptilia pusillidactyla 
and the Eucosmid seem at present the most promising. 

[ A coloured plate showing the lifehistory of Platyptilia pusillidactyla 
was exhibited*] 

Will any of the indigenous insects be able to exercise any more influ- 
ence, than they are at present, in checking Lantana ? 

Probably in some unknown corner of the country are some insects 
which form an efficient check. The question certainly requires investiga- 
tion and, if any such insects are found, we can introduce them to other 
localities. 

That is of course the object of the present investigation. 
At Bangalore in my compound I found an isolated plant of Lantana 
badly affected by a white Scale-insect. This Scale kills back the shoots 
on which it occurs. 

I expect the Scale you refer to is Orthezia insignis. I have not seen 
this in India, but I have seen it in Ceylon and it certainly does kill back 
the Lantana. The affected shoots die back and become black, as if 
scorched, but the Scale seems to occur only in patches and can hardly be 
looked on as an effective check. Besides, it is not confined to Lantana 
but has a very wide range of food-plants, and is often a very bad pest of 
cultivated plants. I have here Essig's " Injurious and Beneficial In- 
sects of California ", in which you will see figures of this Scale, and 
I will just read out what he says about its food-plants : — 

" Is especially destructive to Coleus spp. It also attacks Amar- 
anthus sp., Chrysanthemum. Lantana, Verbena, Ipomcea, 
Thunbergia, Strobilanthes " [there are plenty of wild species 
of Strobilanthes in the Hills of South India], " Achillea, 
Salvia, Cuphea, Capsicum, Ageratum " [the common " White 
weed '" of the Planting Districts], " Vernonia, Gardenia, 
Lonicera, Citrus sp., tea, strawberry and tomato ", 
so I don't think that is an insect to be encouraged in any case. 

In connection with Mr. Kamachandra Rao's work, I think it will help 
us considerably if all the Entomological Assistants in the Provinces 
will gather together any information they can about Lantana in their 
several Provinces— its present distribution, whether it is spreading or 
decreasing in any areas, and any facts about insects found on it. If 
you will make a start now and get this information together, it will 
be available when Mr. Ramachandra Rao comes around later on to 
make his investigations locally. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 41 

Prickly Pear (Opuntia sp.). 

Prickly Pear comes in much the same category as Lantana as it is Mr. Fletcher, 
liable to become a weed-pest when it gets out of hand. It is not looked 
on as a nuisance, however, in most parts of India, so that we are not 
concerned with it to any great extent, but, as you may remember, the 
Queensland Government sent out a special Commission about five years 
ago to investigate the possibility of introducing insects into Australia 
to keep it in check there. I tell you of this just to remind you that, 
if you should come across any insects killing back Prickly Pear, they 
are of some economic interest and we should like to know more about 
them. We do not seem to have any insects checking Prickly Pear to 
any great extent in India, and about the only ones I know of are Meloid 
beetles, which eat the flowers, and a Scale-insect, Diaspis echinocacti, 
which occurs in Bombay. There are also a few other Scales to be found 
but they seem to exercise no check on the plant. 

We will now go on to the 

LEGUMINOUS FIELD-CKOPS, 

under which we will discuss the various Pulses and Green-manure crops 
and also Indigo and a few other cultivated plants. It is, I think, most 
convenient to take these together, as their pests are very similar in many 
cases. 

CAJANUS IND1GUS (Tur, Arhar, Eed Gram). 

A very large number of insects are found on this plant and undoubtedly Mr. Fletcher. 
they do a great deal of damage in the aggregate although there are few 
which occur in destructive numbers as a rule. We will take the Leaf- 
eating insects first of all. Of these I have on my list : — 

Eucosma critica. 

Astycus lateralis. 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus (maculosus). 

Gracillaria soyella. 

Cyphosticha coerulea. 

Monolepta signata. 

Stauropus altemus. 

Episomus lacerta. 

Megachile anthracina. 

Megachile disjuncta. 

Solenopsis geminata. 

Meranoplus bicolor. 
We will take these one by one. 



42 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 
Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

Mr. Khare. 
Mr. Sen. 
Mr. Gupta. 
Mr. David. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. David. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Sen. 

Mr. Fletcher. ' 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Eucosma critica, hitherto called Eucelis critica in Indian entomologi- 
cal literature, occurs fairly commonly in most parts of India, the larva 
bunching up the shoots and leaves. 

It occurs all over Madras as a minor pest. 

It occurs in Bombay as a minor pest. 

It is a minor pest of tur in Bihar. 

In the Central Provinces it is a minor pest. 

In Bengal it is a minor pest. 

In Assam it occurs as a minor pest. 

It is not a pest in the United Provinces. 

I have never noted it in the Punjab. 

As a pest it is found on young plants only. 

Then it occurs as a minor pest all over India south of the United 
Provinces. The obvious control measure is the picking off of the twisted 
tops in the case of young plants. 

Astycus lateralis. We have this recorded from Nagpur, and it also 
occurs at Pusa, but is not very common and scarcely a pest. 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus (maculosus). This is the commonest of 
these leaf-eating weevils at Pusa but does relatively little damage and 
we can scarcely call it a pest. 

It occurs in the United Provinces but not as a pest. 

Gracillaria soyella and Cyphosticha coerulea. Both these little Leaf- 
miners occur commonly at Coimbatore and at Pusa and doubtless they 
are widely distributed throughout India. They are scarcely pests. 

Monolepta signata occurs on tur as on many other crops, but is un- 
important. 

In Burma it occurs as a minor pest. 

Stauropus alternus. The larvae are found occasionally on tur but 
usually only in small numbers and may be looked on as curiosities rather 
than as pests. We must remember, however, the serious outbreak 
of this species on tea in Ceylon, so that it must be looked on as a potential 
pest of tur also. 

It was once found at Dacca on tur leaves. 

Episomus lacerta. We have a record of this on Cajanus at Samalkota. 

Young plants were found damaged at Samalkota. 

It is scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Megachile anthracina and M. disjuncia. These two bees occur 
commonly at Pusa and cut away portions of the leaves for their nests. 
They are scarcely pests. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 43 

Solenopsis geminata. We have a record of this ant as biting holes 
in the leaves at Mandalay. These ants are fond of tender leaves of 
various plants and many sometimes do a little damage. 

Meranoplus bicolor was found biting holes in the leaves at Padu, 
in Burma. 

At Mandalay we also get a Flea-beetle which bites holes in the leaves. Mr. Shroff. 

Aproaerema (Anacampsis) nerteria also occurs at Coimbatore, mining Mr. Ramakrishna 
and folding the leaves. Ayyar. 

Next we have the insects which attack the flowers of Cajanus indicus. Mr. Fletcher. 
On my list are : — 

Zonabris pustulata and other Meloid beetles. 

Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus. 

Thrips. 

Zonabris pustulata is one of the common red-and-black Meloid 
beetles occurring in India, the adult beetles feeding on flowers. Some- 
times one finds them in numbers on tur flowers and they are fairly easily 
collected in hand-nets. There are several closely-allied species but the 
habits of all are very similar. 

We get Zonabris on the flowers in Burma. Mr. Shroff. 

Thrips also occur in the flowers and probably do damage, but this Mr. Fletcher, 
is a group of which we really know nothing in India. 

We get Thrips on the flowers in Burma. Mr. Shroff. 

And in the Punjab. Mr. M. M. Lai. 

Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus is a minor pest in Madras and is probably Mr. Fletcher, 
widespread. There is an account of it in my book on " South Indian 
Insects " [pp. 328-329, fig. 185] and there is little to add to that. If 
there is a long-extended pupal period in the soil, however, cultural 
operations seem to be indicated for control. 

Next we have the insects feeding in the pods and here again we have 
a long list : — 

Heliothis (Chloridea) obsoleta. 
Catochrysops cnejus. 
Polyommatus boeticus. 
Sphenarches coffer. 
Exelastis atomosa. 
Maruca testulalis. 
Etiella zinckenella. 
Ayromyza sp. 
Bruchus chinensis. 
Bruchus theobromae. 



u 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Jhaveri. 

Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Heliothis obsoleta attacks tur commonly in most parts of India but 
is not a very bad pest as a rule. Cultural methods after harvesting 
the crop, to kill any pupae in the soil, seem indicated for control. 

Catochrysops cnejus occurs commonly in India. 

And in Burma. 

Polyommatus boeticus is also common. Both these butterflies do 
some damage and control on any field-scale seems impossible. 

SphenarcJies wffer is common in India and occurs everywhere with 
a very wide range of foodplants. It is quite a minor pest of tur, 

Exelastis atomosa is also common and does more damage to tur than 
Sphenarches. It is a minor pest in most districts. 

It occurs in numbers in Bombay and does considerable damage. 

In the Sholapur District control is practised by shaking the plants 
over baskets and a small proportion of larvae and pupae collected in 
this way. 

By shaking the plants, a few caterpillars may be got, but certainly 
no shaking will dislodge the pupae. 

The fact remains that some pupae are collected in that way, but 
doubtless they form only a small proportion of the whole lot present 
and only consist of those attached to dried-up flowers, and so on, which 
get shaken off into the baskets. The method certainly does not seem 
very practical, but I quoted it as an example of a local control-method. 

Maruca testulalis occurs commonly in most parts of India, as a 
minor pest, the larva boring into the pods. I do not think there is much 
to add to the account given in " South Indian Insects " [p. 440, tab. 36] j 

It occurs in Burma. 

In Bombay it does some damage and the picking of affected pods 
is practised. 

The picking of affected pods is not easy. 

Etiella zinckenella. There is a short account in " South Indian 
Insects " [p. 429, fig. 305] and its lifehistory is shown in a new coloured 
plate, of which I have here an advance proof [passed around for inspec- 
tion]. It occurs all over India and Burma as a pest of pulses and sann- 
hemp and sometimes does considerable damage. Control is difficult 
and we can do little at present. When the crop is harvested the cater- 
pillars, which are then in the pods, leave them and may be collected 
in quantity and destroyed ; this is, of course, rather late in the day, 
but it may help to reduce damage to subsequent crops, whether of tur 
or other similar leguminous plants. 

Agromyza sp. This fly is still unidentified. It is figured and des- 
cribed in " South Indian Insects " [p. 357] and I have nothing more 
to add. 



Etella zinckenella, Tr. 

Kg. 1. Khesari pod opened to show the caterpillar inside. 
Figs. 2 to 5, young and full-grown caterpillars showing different colour-forms. 
Fig. 6, pupa. 

Fig. 7, moth, natural size. 

Figs. 8 and 9, moth in resting position (enlarged). 
Fig. 10, moth, with wings spread. 

Figs. 1 and 7 arc almost life-size. The other figures are enlarged, the natural sizes. 
being shown by the small outline sketches. 







5&cp 

i i v 




ETIELLA zinckenella. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 45 

Bruchus chinensis is also described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects " [pp. 306-307, fig. 155]. At Coimbatore it was found breeding 
on tur pods in the field, All these Bruchids, and their habits, badly 
want working out in India. Care should be taken to sow only un- 
infested seed and to avoid as far as possible having alternative food- 
plants growing near in space or time so as not to have any beetles 
emerging in the tur fields as far as possible ; otherwise I do not see that 
much can be done on a field-scale, on the basis of our present know- 
ledge. 

Bruchus theobromae is also found in the fields at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramachandra 

Rao. 

We have never found it at Pusa. Mr. Ghosh. 

In Burma, at Maymyo and Taungyi, there is an Apion whose grubs Mr. Shroff, 
bore into the tur pods and feed on the seeds inside. 

Any more insects eating the pods ? Then we will go on to the sucking Mr. Fletcher, 
insects found on tur. On my list I have : — 

Clavigralla gibbosa. 
Clavigralla horrens. 
Riptortus spp. 
Cyclopelta sicdfolia. 
An oplocnemis phasia n a . 
Graptostethus servus . 
Coptosoma spp. 
Aphis cardui. 
Membracids. 

Clavigralla gibbosa and C. horrens — the species are not easy to dis- 
tinguish and have been considerably mixed up in economic records — 
are minor pests in most districts, especially bad around Poona. Shaking 
the plants over vessels of oil and water or over oily cloths seems the most 
practical remedy. Both species are described and figured in " South 
Indian Insects " [pp. 478-479, figs. 361-362]. 

Various species of Riptortus (R. pedestris, R. linearis and R. fuscus) 
occur on tur, as well as on various other grams, and suck the pods. R. 
pedestris is described and figured in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 480-481, 
fig. 364] and the others are all very similar. Collection by hand-nets 
seems the best control-measure. They often breed on wild plants, 
however, so that clean cultivation is also indicated. 

Cyclopelta siccifolia is not very common on tur as a rule but some- 
times occurs in numbers, when it may be collected by hand. It is 
described and figured in " South Indian Insects " (p. 476, f. 357). 

Anoplocnemis phasiana occurs in small numbers as a rule and is 
scarcely a pest. It is described and figured in " South Indian Insects" 



46 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECON© ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ratirain. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



(p. 478, fig. 360). We shall have more to say about this insect when we 
come to deal with pests of Erythrina. 

Graptostethus serous, also figured and described in " South Indian 
Insects " (p. 482, fig. 366), also occurs as a rule in small numbers and is 
scarcely a pest. Control as in Clavigralla. 

Coptosoma of various species [see " South Indian Insects," pp. 469- 
470, fitf. 345] sometimes occur, but less on tur than on Sesbania and 
other Leguminosse. The bugs are active and are best caught in hand- 
nets. 

Aphis cardui is common on the shoots but control measures do not 
seem to have been practised. 

Membracid bugs of various kinds also occur,on the shoots principally, 
but are usually of quite minor importance as pests. 

Membracids are found on the flowers, pods and shoots at Raipur. 
We come now to the insects damaging Cajanus indicus by boring 
m the stem. In this class there are : — 
Alcides collaris. 
Sphenoptera arachidis. 
Alcides collaris [described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 337, fig. 195] was recorded as doing some damage at Dharwar in 1909 
and 1910. The grubs bore in the stem and produce a swelling and in 
the case of young plants they may be killed back, whilst older plants 
may break off in the wind at the point of attack. In the plants sent 
from Dharwar the swellings were in the roots or stem just below ground- 
level. This is the only occasion that we have had Alcides collaris sent 
in as a definite pest of tur. 

Sphenoptera arachidis is occasionally found on Cajanus indicus in 
Southern India [see " South Indian Insects," pp. 298-299, figs. 141-142] 
but is scarcely a pest of this crop. 

It occurs in small numbers at Coimbatore. 

A few insects attack the roots of tur. Of these we know : — 

Termites. 

Gonocephalum elongatnm. 

Gonocephalum depressum. 
Termites of various species attack roots of Cajanus indicus as of most 
other plants. I saw rather a good example of damage last year in Assam. 
About half-way up the road from Gauhati to Shillong there is a small 
estate where Cajanus indicus is grown as a host-plant for the cultiva- 
tion of Lac, and the most serious pest they have to contend with is 
a large termite — an Odontolermes of the few group, probably 0. 
parvidens, Holmgr. — which attacks the roots and kills the plants back to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 47 

a considerable extent. I show you a specimen of the roots (exhibited) 
and you can see how they are all eaten away. This termite is not a 
mound-builder, so that its control is difficult, and a deterrent, such as 
Crude Oil Emulsion or phenyle, seems the only remedy, but it is not 
easy to keep on applying such remedies to a semi-permanent crop of 

this kind. 

In the Bombay Presidency, tur plants are attacked by a fungal Mr. Jhaveri. 

disease and afterwards by termites. 

Yes, of course termites will come in and eat the decaying or dead Mr. Fletcher, 
wood. But, except in the case I have just mentioned, I do not think 
they are very troublesome to healthy tur plants. 

Margarodes niger (Coccidse) is found on the roots of tur plants at Mr. Ramachandra 
Hadagalli in the Bellary District. It does no damage. 

Yes, this is a curiosity rather than a pest, I think. Mr. Fletcher. 

Any more pests of Cajanus indicus ? Then we will go on to 
Soy bean (Glycine hispida). 

We will take first the insects found feeding on the leaves. We have :— 
Giaura (Cletthara) sceptica. 
Diacrisia, obliqua. • 

Plusia orichalcea. 

Giaura sceptica seems to be a sporadic minor pest of this crop and 
velvet bean, on which it has been reared at Pusa and Surat, but it is 
not common as a rule. 

Diacrisia obliqua attacks Soy-bean sometimes in large numbers and 
may do serious damage. 

It is a very serious pest on the leaves. ■ unosa * 

We will discuss it later on under " Jute." Mr. Fletcher. 

Plusia orichalcea also occurs on Soy-bean but is not generally bad 
on this crop. 

Amsacta moorei is a serious pest at Nadiad. 

On the young leaves and shoots we also get Aprocerema (Anacampsis) Mr. Fletcher. 
nerteria, which we will discuss under " Groundnut." 

Of insects boring the stem we have : — 

Nupserha bicolor. 

Sphenoptera sp. 
Nupserha bicolor has been found in Bihar, at Sabour and Pusa. 
The egg is laid on young plants, the beetle girdling a shoot. The larva 
bores down to the root and goes from one branch to another, killing 
the plant. The larva hibernates in the stumps. Control measures 
include destruction of affected shoois and of stumps after harvest. 



48 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Sphenoptera. We have Sphenoptera recorded as boring in Soy-bean 
at Nagpur, but it seems rather doubtful whether the species concerned 
is arachidis or gossypii. 

Mr. Ratiram. Sphenoptera occurs as a stem-borer in Soy-bean at Nagpur and 

Tharsa. 

Mr. Gupta. Riptortus linearis and R. pedestris are bad on the pods in Assam. 

Mr. Fletcher. The next crop is 

Gram (Cicer arietinum). 

There are a good many insects which attack the young plants 
especially : — 

Agrotis ypsilon. 
Agrotis jiammatra. 
Prodenia litura. 
Cirphis loreyi. 
Zizera otis ?. 
Chrotogonus. 

Agrotis ypsilon is an important pest of gram in some localities, especi- 
ally on the tal lands along the Ganges, as around Mokameh. I said 
something about this yesterday and full accounts of the work done on 
it have been published in the " Agricultural Journal of India " and the 
" Bihar Agricultural Journal," so we need not traverse all that ground 
again. About the only new point that I need mention is the large number 
of eggs, well over two thousand, which may be laid by the female moths. 
This makes it the more important to catch as many females as possible 
and this can be done by means of the Andres-Maire trap. 

I may mention that I have had some of these traps made here and 
will be glad to let any Provincial Assistants have one on loan for trial. 

Mr. H. L. Dutt. In Bihar Agrotis ypsilon is the chief trouble in low lands. 

Mr. Jhaveri. An Agrotis — I do not know the species — does serious damage to this 

crop in Panch Mahals. 

Mr. Gupta. In Assam Agrotis ypsilon occurs in gram fields. 

Mr. Ghosh. At Pusa both Agrotis ypsilon and A. jiammatra, occur in young gram 

fields in numbers. 

Mr. Fletcher. We will take Agrotis jiammatra next. It occurs throughout Northern 

India, Pusa being apparently its most southern limit so far as our re- 
cords go. As a pest, it is minor and sporadic in most localities, but is 
stated to be a serious pest of gram and almost all low-growing plants 
in the spring at Lyallpur and throughout the Punjab. It is common 
in the North- West Frontier Province also. It is not attracted to Andres- 
Maire traps in any numbers, so far as I know, so some other control- 
method requires to be worked out. Judging by the sudden appearance 



igrotis y mlon, Rott. 

. shows a caterpillar biding (luring the daytime under the soil nexr the base 
of cut plants, the earth being removed to expose the caterpillar; 
d :: In.u I he Ian a (enlarged) ; 
! is a Ian a pupal inj in pupal cha tnber ; 
Fig. 5 is t lie pupa : 

(j ire moths resting < I mi n_!, I he daytime ; 
7 and 8 are moths (drawrj enlarged) in resting and flying attitudes. 
' >ntlii : iw« the nat ural 





f m 
8 











a AS V 







6 



CHLORIDEA (HELIOTHIS) OBSOLETA (ARMIGERA ) 



HeUothis (CJibridea) obsoleta. Fk, 

Fig. 1, An egg laid on a far-pod (magnified) ; 

Figs. 2-5, Caterpillars on a gram plant, two eating into the pods f] 

Fig. 6, Pupa in its underground cell (life-size) ; 

Fig. 7, Moth in repose (life-size) ; 

Fig. 8, Moth with wings expanded (life-aize). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 49 

and disappearance of this species in large numbers, it would seem that 
it may be a migrant, as we suspect to be the case in Agrotis ypsilon. 

Prodenia litura occasionally occurs on gram, chiefly in South Bihar, 
but is not a general pest of gram. 

Cirphis loreyi has been recorded as found on gram leaves at Jubbul- 
pur, but apparently nowhere else. 

A Zizera, probably Z. otis, occurs on gram, but is not a pest. It 
is usually found on the flowers. 

Chrotogonus, probably of various species, attack young plants especi- 
ally. Bag-nets provide a simple form of control. 

A few insects attack the pods : — 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Plusia nigrisigna . 
Liogryllus bimacu latus . 

Of these Heliothis obsoleta is much the worst pest. In some dis- 
tricts in the North-West Frontier I understand that it is impossible 
to grow gram on account of an insect which attacks it and it would appear 
that this insect is H. obsoleta. In the Central Provinces also H. obsoleta 
is especially bad as a pest of gram. We have issued a coloured plate 
showing its lifehistory and this shows not only the various colour forms 
in which the caterpillars may appear but also the peculiar method of 
feeding, the caterpillar biting a hole in the gram-pod and feeding with 
its head inside and half its body outside. As regards control, this habit 
of feeding and the wide range of alternative food-plants make control 
difficult. In the case of young plants, bagging with a bag-net may be 
tried, but it is chiefly on the older plants, in the pod stage, that the 
caterpillars occur. Spraying is hardly practicable on a field-scale and 
is of little use when the caterpillars are eating into the pods. Fields 
which have been badly infested with the larvae should be ploughed 
immediately after harvest to destroy the pupae in the soil and prevent 
the resulting moths from ovipositing on other crops. 

Heliothis obsoleta is a bad pest in the United Provinces. Mr. David. 

In Madras H. obsoleta is an important pest. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 
In Assam it occurs in gram-fields. Mr. Gupta. 

In Panch Mahals it does serious damage to gram. Mr. Jhaveri. 

It is not very bad in the Punjab. Mr. M. M. Lai. 

Plusia nigrisigna is a sporadic minor pest of gram in Northern India. Mr. Fletcher. 
We have records of it on gram from Lyallpur, Cawnpur and Pusa. It 
bores the pods occasionally but is perhaps more often found on the 
leaves. 



50 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 

Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Khare. 
Mr. Shroff. 



Liogryllus bimaculatus may sometimes do considerable damage to 
gram-pods by eating out the contents. I have here a photograph {ex- 
hibited) showing some pods eaten out by these crickets. We found them 
common in the gram-fields here and found that they seemed to prefer 
a mixed animal and vegetable diet, feeding partly on caterpillars and 
partly on gram poets. You will find a note on this habit in the Bulletin 
of Short Notes issued last year. On the one hand, therefore, the crickets 
do a great deal of good by catching and devouring the caterpillars 
feeding on the gram and on the other hand they must themselves plead 
guilty to doing direct damage to the crop. At present I should not like 
to say whether they do more good than harm. The photograph clearly 
shows the damage done. The case is rather parallel with that of blister- 
beetles which damage crops but do good by destroying grasshoppers' 
eggmasses. 

I have a record of a weevil, Tylopholis ballardi, damaging the stems 
of gram-plants in the Bellary District. It has recently been described 
by Dr. Marshall in his " Fauna " volume on weevils, volume I, page 158. 
He merely says that " it was attacking the stems of Bengal gram " but 
I do not know what damage is done or whether by the beetle or its larva. 

The adult beetle damages the plants in Bellary by gnawing and 
scraping the stem. 

Gonocephalum elongatum has been found at Pusa and G. depression 
in Bundelkhand, in the larval state in both cases, at roots of gram, and 
probably do some damage by feeding on the roots, but these are insects 
that we really know very little about. 

In Nagpur Termites damage this crop in patches. 

At Padu Farm, in Burma, Termites and cockchafer grubs do serious 
damage to this crop. No remedial measures have been tried. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



The next crop is 

Mung {Phaseolus mungo radiatus). 

[Mung — Hind. Green Gram in Madras.] 
andVith this we will take : — 

m 

Urid {Phaseolus radiatus) 
asjthe pests of both are practically the same. 
On the leaves we get : — 
Azazia rubricans. 
Nacoleia indicate/,. 
Vlusia peponis. 
Piusia chalcytes. 
Plusia daubei. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 51 

Diacrisia obliqua. 
Herse convolvuli. 
Prodenia litura. 
Colemania sphenarioides. 
Anarsia ephippias. 
Gnathospastoides rouxi. 

Azazia rubricans. This is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects " (p. 389, fig. 254). It is a minor, sporadic pest in Bihar and 
Madras. Control by hand-picking of larvae and cultivation after 
harvest to destroy pupse. 

It occurs on the leaves throughout the Madras Presidency. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Nacoleia indicata. This is described and figured in " South Indian Mr. Fletcher. 
Insects " (pp. 433-434, fig. 309). It has been reared at Pusa on urid 
and is probably a minor pest of Phaseolus throughout India. 

Plusia chalcytes occurs throughout India but is a very minor pest 
of Phaseolus as a rule. 

Diacrisia obliqua does great damage to leases of Phaseolus in Bihar 
and Bengal. 

It is the most important of all the leaf-eating pests in Bihar. Mr. Ghosh. 

We will come to it later on under " Jute." Mr. Fletcher. 

Herse convolvuli. This is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects " (pp. 401-402, fig. 272) and we have since issued a coloured plate 
showing the lifehistory. It has been reared on mung at Samalkota and 
on urid at Kendrapara, in Orissa. It is an occasional minor pest of 
Phaseolus. 

Prodenia litura (described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 377, tab. 19) has been reared from urid at Pusa. 

Next to Diacrisia obliqua this is the most important leaf-eating Mr. Ghosh. 
pest of urid and mung. The caterpillars require to be tackled by hand- 
picking whilst they are young and are still gregarious. 

Colemania sphenarioides (" South Indian Insects," p. 527, tab. 48) Mr. Fletcher. 
attacks Phaseolus together with various other crops in the Beilary Dis- 
trict and in Mysore. 

Anarsia ephippias was reared at Nagpur on urid in August 1910, 
and also at Pusa on urid topshoots and boring pods of mung. 

There is a small caterpillar, I am not certain whether it is Anarsia, Mr. Shroff, 
which bores the topshoots of urid at Mandalay. 

Gnathospastoides rouxi [" South Indian Insects," p. 302, fig. 147] Mr. Fletcher, 
has been found on urid leaves at Pusa but is scarcely a pest. 

The sucking insects on urid and mung include : — 

Coptosoma cribraria. 

f2 



52 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Raniakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Shroff. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr.'Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr.Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Riptortus pedestris. 

Nezara viridula. 

Anoplocnem is phasiana. 

Aphids. 
None of these are specific pests or of regular occurrence as pests of 
Phaseolus so that they only require mention here. 
Aphids occur on shoots of mung in Madras. 

Aphids occur on this crop in Mandalay also. 
In Jalgaon we get Aphids and Nezara. 

Some insects attack the seeds of mung and urid : — 
Pachytych i us mungon is . 
Maruca testulalis. 
Agromyza sp. 
Catochrysops cnejus. 

Pachytychius mungonis. This is the species described and figured 
in " South Indian Insects " [p. 336, fig. 194] under the name of the 
" Green Gram Weevil." It is apparently only known in Madras up to 
the present. Is there anything new to add about it in Madras 1 

It has been observed attacking pods of green gram in Coimbatore. 
Bellary, and Kurnul. 

Maruca testulalis and Catochrysops cnejus we have already discussed 
under Cajanus iiidicus. Both occur regularly on mung and urid and 
do some damage. 

In a small plot of mung in the Pusa Insectary Compound, all the pods 
w r ere destroyed by Catochrysops. 

Agromijza sp. This is figured and described in " South Indian 
Insects " [p. 358. fig. 217]. It destroys young mung plants in Madras,, 
but does not seem to have been noticed elsewhere. 

Boring in the stem of mung and urid : — 
Alcides collaris. 
Oberea sp. 

Alcides collaris [" South Indian Insects " p. 337, fig. 195] was found 
on green gram at Hadagalli and occurs in this crop as a minor pest in 
Madras. 

Oberea sp. Will you tell us something about this, Mr. Ghosh ? 

This longicorn borer occurs regularly on mung and urid. A portion 
of the stem is ringed at two places, at a distance of about an inch or 
so from one another, and the egg is thrust into this ringed portion. The 
whole stem above the lower ring withers and is easily noticeable. The 
larva bores in the stem and pupates there. Some of the larvae have 
been observed to rest for the whole vear. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 53 

Can you tell us anything about the amount of damage done and any Mr. Fletcher. 
control method applicable ? 

The damage done on the whole is not very much — not sufficient to Mr. Ghosh, 
call for remedial measures, so far as I have observed. 

Apparently this insect has only been noticed at Pusa. Mr. Fletcher. 

The next crop is 

Moth (Phaseolus aconitijolius). 

Its pests are probably very similar to those of the other species of 
Phaseolus, but we do not seem to have so many insects noted, probably 
because moth is grown to a smaller extent in this district. 

Leaf-eating pests : — 
Plusia chalcytes. 
Prodenia litura. 
Amsacta moorei. 
Anarsia ephippias. 

Plusia chalcytes occurs occasionally in most districts but is not much 
of a pest as a rule. 

Prodenia litura occurs as a minor pest in most districts. 

Anarsia ephippias has been reared from moth leaves and topshoots 
at Pusa but is quite a minor pest. 

Amsacta moorei occurs as a pest of moth in the Punjab. Perhaps 
Mr. Madan Mohan Lai will tell us about it ? 

Amsacta moorei is a sporadic major pest of pulses in the Eastern Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Punjab. In Jagadhari, Ambala District, it attacked the moth crop 
seriously in July and August 1914. Light-traps were used and found 
successful, nearly 5,000 moths being collected in a fortnight. This pest 
was bad in 1913 also, but nothing was done last year to control it. 

In what stage was the crop attacked ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The plants were still young. Mr. M. M. Lai. 

When were these light-traps used ? Mr. Fletcher. 

From 5th to 17th July. • Mr. M. M. Lai. 

Amsacta moorei occurs on moth in North Gujarat also. Mr. Jhaveri. 

The next crop is Mr. Fletcher. 

Lablab (Dolichos Lablab). 

[Sem — Hind. F«£-Gujarat. Shima-TSengal.) 
We have a long list of insect pests of this crop, but many are the same 

as those we have already had on other pulses. 

The seedlings are sometimes attacked by termites, as is the case in 

many other crops. 



54 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. G. R. Dutt. 

Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 



Termites damage the seedlings at Mandalay. Crude Oil Emulsion 
has been tried, with good results, but all the seeds did not germinate. 
Adisura atkinsoni also attacks the seedlings at Coimbatore. 

On the leaves we get a few pests : — 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Amsacta moorei. 
Acherontia styx. 
Platypria hy strive. 
Episom us lacerta . 

Diacrisia obliqua does considerable damage in districts where it 
occurs, especially in Bihar and Bengal. 

It occurs on lablab in Burma also. 

Amsacta moorei also occurs as a pest in some districts, especially 
in Gujarat. Mr. Jhaveri, will you tell us about your work on it ? 

Amsacta moorei is very bad on lablab seedlings in Northern Gujarat. 
We make trenches round about the infested plots and put in the trenches 
the leaves of a kind of Prickly Pear.* The caterpillars are attracted to 
these leaves and can be killed there. 

Where do you get these Prickly Pear leaves ? 

The Prickly Pear is grown as a hedge plant. 

If Prickly Pear is preferred by the caterpillars, why do they attack 
the lablab instead of remaining in the hedges ? 

If they eat both, there is no reason why they should not attack the 
lablab as well. 

Probably these Prickly Pear leaves in the trenches attract the larvae 
which fall into the trenches by providing shelter and so act as traps. 

To protect the lablab fields light-traps have also been used. In 

1911 twenty light-traps were used and 22,500 moths were caught. In 

1912 strong Kitson lamps were used and 12840 moths were 
attracted, of which 6,663 were males and 6,177 were females. In 

1913 ordinary lamps were used and 8,336 moths were caught, of which 
761 were females and 7,575 were males ; the Kitson lights were 
placed at a height of four or five feet from the ground and the traps 
were put on the ground. In 1914, 9,062 moths were collected, of which 
7,330 were males and 1,732 were females. In 1915, 1,551 moths were 
caught, of which 1,234 were males and 317 females. In 1916,1,175 
moths were caught, of which 919 were males and 256 were females. 
When stronger lights were used, the proportion of females was higher. 
The total number of eggs in one female is about 700. 



*I have since seen this so-called " prickly pear " at Surat. 
at all but is an Euphorbiaceous plant. T. B. F. 



It is not an Opuntia 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 55 

In the beginning of the experiments, in 1911, a large number of 
moths was trapped, but in spite of such a large catch, the caterpillars 
did attack the Farm crops. This shows that light attracts the moths 
from distant places also. When the traps were continued, the attack 
decreased in severity from year to year. 

Bagging was also tried on Cotton and Sann-hemp grown for green- 
manuring and was found very effective in the latter case. 

Handpicking of moths was also tried in the mornings and evenings 
but it was not very successful. 

At what time of year do you get damage done to crops ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The worst outbreak occurs in June and July. It is the first brood Mr. Jhaveri. 
which is always bad. 

That is not in agreement with our experience in Madras. There Mr. Fletcher, 
the moths emerge in a similar way after the first showers of the monsoon 
but there are relatively few caterpillars from this lot ; it is the second 
and often more especially the third brood of caterpillars which occur 
in such large numbers and do damage. If the first brood is checked 
by hand-picking, little damage follows later on as a rule. Of course, 
the broods run into one another, but roughly that is what happens. 

In Mysore, in the case of Amsacta albistriga, it has been noticed that Mr. Kunhi 
hardly any females were attracted to light-traps. There hand-collectin^ Kannaa - 
of the moths is successful and it has been suggested that local legislation 
should be introduced whereby a cess would be levied on the cultivated 
areas where this insect does damage and the money paid back to the 
villages for collection of the moths by children, at the rate of \ anna 
for each dozen moths collected. 

In Bellary, Amsacta albistriga occurs in larger numbers than A . Mr. Raniachandra 
moorei, but in South Arcot both species occur in about equal numbers. Rao - 

Amsacta albistriga and A. moorei are often found coupled. Have Mr. Fletcher, 
you reared any hybrids ? 

No ; none have been reared as yet. Mr. Ramakrishna 

.A WflT* 

Mr. Madan Lai, you told us just now that you had used light-traps Mr. Fletcher, 
successfully in the Punjab to control Amsacta moorei on moth. Can 
you tell us the proportions of the two sexes in the moths attracted to 
your traps ? 

Roughly half were males and half females. Mr. M. M. Lai. 

The great differences in the effect of light-traps as control measures, Mr. Fletcher, 
both as regards the total number of moths attracted and the propor- 
tion of the sexes in various localities, is very noteworthy. 

Acherontia styx [" South Indian Insects," p. 402, tab. 24] occurs 
in most localities as a minor pest of lablab. The larvse may be hand- 
picked, but are not always easy to see. 



56 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Rainakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 



At Coimbatore Acherontia styx is found on the leaves of lablab. 

Platypria hystrix [" South Indian Insects," p. 316, fig. 167] occurs 
on lablab sometimes but is scarcely a pest. 

Episomus lacerta ["South Indian Insects," p. 327, fig. 184] has occurred 
in some numbers on lablab at Coimbatore. 

At Coimbatore we get a leaf-miner in lablab also. 

That will be Cyphosticha ccerulea, of which we have records as mining 
lablab leaves at Coimbatore and Pusa. It is probably widely distri- 
buted and may do a small amount of damage at times. 

Next, we get shoot-borers in lablab and of these we have : — 
Laspeyresia torodelta 
Sagra nigrita. 

Laspeyresia torodelta, described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 451, fig. 329, is apparently confined to Southern India, where the 
larva bores the shoots, especially of young plants. The affected top- 
shoots should be picked off. 

Sagra nigrita (Chrysomelidse) has not been found in India, so far as 
I know, as a pest of lablab but in 1909 Mr. C4reen found the larva boring 
into lablab stems in Ceylon and apparently doing some damage. The 
species occurs commonly in India, so I draw your attention to it. 

Alcides collaris bores the stems at Coimbatore. 

Sphenoptera occurs at Nadiad. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



In the pods and seeds of lablab we get a good many pests most of 
which are identical with those already noted in tur and other grams : — 
Adisura atkinsoni. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Catochrysops cnejus. 
Polyommatus boeticus. 
Maruca testulalis. 
Sphenarches caffer. 
Exelastis atomosa. 
Agromyza sp. 
Adisura atkinsoni seems to occur chiefly in Madras as a pest of 
lablab, the larvse boring into the pods and usually occurring every 
year in January and February. 

Adisura atkinsoni is rather bad in Madras, on lablab. 

Have you worked out its Hfehistory ? 

The pupa remains in the soil from February until October-November. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 57 

In that case cultural methods are indicated to kill the pupae before Mr. Fletcher 
sowing the next crop. 

The other insects on the list as attacking pods and seeds have already- 
been mentioned under gram and tur, and I do not think that they call 
for any further remarks now, unless anyone has anything more to say. 

A species of Bruchus occurs at Coimbatore on lablab, and attacks Mr. Ramachandra 
the crop whilst it is still in the field. The eggs are laid on pods in the Rao. 
field, in masses of about ten. This Bruchus is different to that found 
on Vigna catjang. 

A few sucking insects occur on lablab, but these again are mostly Mr. Fletcher, 
identical with those we have already discussed on other crops : — 
Coptosoma cribraria. 
Clavigralla gibbosa. 
Riptortus pedestris, etc. 
Aspongopus janus. 
Aphids. 

As regards the bugs, collection by handnets (for Coptosoma) or by 

hand, or by shaking them off the plants into vessels should suffice for 

control. Aphids require spraying but this is hardly practicable on a 

field scale ; Aphids seem to be worst on this crop in Madras, Burma and 

Gujarat. 

Ceroplastodes cajani is rather bad on the stems at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

The next crop is Mr. Fletcher. 

Horse Gram (Dolichos biflorus). [KultJii-Kmd.] 

On the leaves we get larvae of 

Estigmene lactinea, 

Nacoleia indicata, 
but neither of these calls for particular comment. 
On the pods we find 

Etiella zinckenella. 

Bruchus chinensis. 
Of these Bruchus chinensis occurs at Pusa on stored seeds only. 
Boring in the stem of Kulthi we have : — 

Sphenoptera arachidis. 
Alcides fabricii. 

Sphenoptera arachidis seems to occur chiefly in Madras and Alcides 
fabricii was found at Hadagalli, in the Bellary District. In both cases, 
destruction of attacked plants is the only thing to do. 



>8 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Jhaveri. 



The next crop is 

Khesari (Lathyrus sativus). 

On this we find Plusia larvae on the leaves as sporadic minor pests,, 
and larvae of Etiella zinckenella attacking the pods, especially in Bengal,, 
where Etiella is a sporadic pest of this crop. 

Etiella is a bad pest of khesari in Bengal. The caterpillars eat the 
seeds inside the pods, there being practically no external symptom of 
damage. 

Has anyone anything more to add ? 

When the crop is harvested the caterpillars are brought into the 
farmyard with the pods but soon leave the pods and wander about and 
may be collected in numbers and destroyed at that time. 

That seems rather late in the day, but it helps to reduce the number 
of the species as regards leguminous crops later on. 

In Broach khesari is being grown on a large scale. This year a 
caterpillar has been reported to do serious damage to the pods ; I am 
not sure of the identity of the insect, but it may be Etiella. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



The next plant is 

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus). 

It is not exactly a crop, but is extensively grown in gardens and you 
may be called on to deal with pests on it and also it belongs to the same 
genus as khesari and acts as an alternative foodplant for many of these 
pests of regular leguminous crops ; so we will consider it here. 

The leaves are sometimes attacked by Diacrisia obliqua larvae r 
which feed on practically any low-growing crop. 

Diacrisia obliqua occurs on sweet-pea leaves at Dacca. 

In the pods we find larvae of 
Heliothis obsoleta, 
Etiella zinckenella. 

Probably Catochrysops cnejus and Polyommatus boeticus also occur 
in the pods, but we do not seem to have any definite records of either. 

Heliothis obsoleta and Etiella zinckenella are both pretty common 
and sometimes do some damage when it is required to collect seeds for 
the next sowing. 

Etiella was noted at Sabour in sweet-pea pods. 

Aphids also occur at Sabour on sweet-pea. 

Aphids occur at Pusa also but do not seem to do much harm as a 
rule. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



59 



At Pusa the sweet-pea Aphid is attacked by a fungus {Entomo- Mr . G . R. Dutt. 
phthora) which exercises some check on the Aphid. 

Cow-pea (Vigna catjang). 
Cow-pea seedlings are attacked by the larva of an Agromyza, which is Mr. Fletcher, 
described and figured in " South Indian Insects " [p. 358, fig. 217]. It 
is a serious pest of young plants and was bad at Pusa in August 1915. 

At Sabour the maggots were found high up in the stem of cow-peas. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
At Pusa they are found just near or below the soil-surface. Mr - Ghosh - 

It may be that more than one species is concerned. As regards Mr. Fletcher, 
control, in either case, I do not think that we can suggest anything 
at present. 

A good many insects attack the leaves of cow-pea :— 
Laphygma exigua. 
Azazia rubricans. 
Prodenia litura. 
Plusia orichalcea. 
Colemania sphenarioides . 
Pogria signata. 
Epilachna spp. 

Laphygma exigua is a sporadic pest in most localities. Control is 
difficult owing to the short lifehistory and consequent rapid rate of 
increase and also to the wide range of food-plants. It is possible that 
control may be possible with Andres-Maire traps or on similar lines 
but experiments are required. 

Azazia rubricans is a minor sporadic pest of cow-pea, as of other 
pulses, in Bihar and Madras. 

Prodenia litura is sometimes found on cow-pea but is hardly a regular 

pest of this crop. 

Plusia orichalcea is also an occasional minor pest. 

Colemania sphenarioides attacks cow-pea together with other crops 
in Bellary and Mysore but is principally a pest of cereals. 

Pogria signata is a Chrysomelid beetle which seems to occur as a 
pest of cow-pea principally in Assam. In September 1913 it was re- 
ported to have completely destroyed about four bighas of cow-peas 
grown for seed. We have examples from Pusa and the Nilgiris also, 
so that it is evidently widely-distributed and may turn out to be a 
sporadic pest. 

Epilachna spp. also occur on cow-pea at Pusa but do not do much 

damage as a rule. 



60 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



On the flowers of cow-pea we get Zonabris pustulata and probably 
a good many other species of Meloidae. They are easily collected 
by hand or in small nets when abundant and doing damage. 

A Sphenoptera, perhaps S. arachidis, sometimes bores in the stems 
of cow-pea, but we seem to know very little about it, so it is probably 
unimportant. 

In the seeds of cow-pea we find a few insect pests, mostly similar 
to those attacking other pulses : — 

Pach ytych ius mungonis . 
Bruchus chinensis. 
Catochrysops cnejus. 
Maruca testulalis 
Etiella zinckenella. 

Pachytychius mungonis is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," pp. 336-337, fig. 194, under the name of the " Green Gram 
Weevil." It seems to be confined to cow-pea and mung and so far 
is only known in Southern India. 

Bruchus chinensis has been found in cow-pea pods at Nagpur, but 
we do not know what damage it does to this crop in the field. 

Another species of Bruchus occurs in cow-pea pods in the field at 
Coimbatore. It is different to the species which attacks Lablab seeds. 

There seem to be a good many different Bruchids doing damage 
in India, both to crops in the field and to stored seeds, and we require 
to work them out systematically before we shall be able to do much in 
the way of control at least as regards the crops in the field. 

Catochrysops cnejus and Maruca testulalis also attack cow-pea pods 
but we have already considered these species and there is nothing special 
to add as regards cow-pea. 

Then there are a few sucking insects found on cow-pea, and amongst 
these we may mention 
Riptortus spp. 
Aphids. 

Neither of these is peculiar to cow-pea and ordinary control methods are 
applicable. 

Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis psoralioides). 
[Guar — Hind.] 

The flowers of cluster-bean are attacked by a gall-fly at Coimbatore. 
Perhaps Mr. Ramachandra Rao will tell us about it. 

A gall-fly was found attacking the flowers of cluster-bean in the 
Insectary garden at Coimbatore. It has not yet been noticed in this 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 61 

crop in the field. The damage done is very similar to that done to 
gingelly and the fly appears to be the same. Fletcher 

That is the Ceoidomyiad called the " Gingelly Gall-fly " in " South Mr - Fletcher * 
Indian Insects," p. 364, fig. 224. It has since been described by Dr. 
Felt and named Asfhondylia sesami. If it is the same species, it is 
interesting to find that it has an alternative food-plant like this. 

On the leaves and shoots of cluster-bean we get :— 
Dichomeris ianthes. 
Biacrisia obliqua. 
Blosyrus incequalis. 
Astycus lateralis. 

Dichomeris ianthes, also called Ypsolophus ochrophanes in Indian 
economic literature, is a minor pest of cluster-bean, sporadically doing- 
some damage. It is described and figured in " South Indian Insects " 
[pp. 456-457, fig. 332], but the figure is a poor one and we have shown 
the stages in a new coloured plate, which I now show you. Its occur- 
rence on cluster-bean is mostly of importance as this crop acts as an 
alternative food-plant in places where indigo and lucerne, to which it is 
sometimes destructive, are grown. 

Biacrisia obliqua is a sporadic pest of cluster-bean, chiefly m Bihar 
and Assam. Doubtless other Arctiad larvse (Amsacta, etc.) also occur 
on this crop, but we seem to have no exact records. 

Blosyrus inequalis, a Curculionid beetle, was found on cluster-bean 
at Hadagalli, and Astycus lateralis, another weevil, at Pusa, but neither 
is of any importance. 

Boring in the stem of cluster-bean we have Abides bubo recorded 
from Villapuram and South Kanara, but it is not much of a pest so far 
as we know. 

Amongst sucking insects on cluster-bean we get :— 

Coptosoma spp. 
Aphids 

Mites. 

Coptosoma is probably of minor importance as a pest and, when it 
occurs, is best controlled by hand-nets. Aphids and Mites sometimes 
do some damage. 

Aphids occur on guar at Nadiad, in North Gujarat, and Mites are Mr. Jhaveri. 

very bad on this crop in Gujarat. 

Any control measures tried % Mr - Fletcher. 

Dusting with Lime and Sulphur has been tried and found successful. Mr. JhaverL 



62 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



The next crop is 



Bakla (Vicia faba). 



We seem to have no pest definitely noted on this. 

A Stemfly is found in the Chanda District of the Central Provinces. 

The next crop on my list is 

Lentil (Lens esculenta). [Masur-Hmd.] 

Here again we have no pests definitely recorded. Does anyone 
know of any ? 

An Aphid is very serious in the Northern districts of the Central 
Provinces — Jubbnlpnr, Mandla, Bilaspur, and Raipur. It is kept in 
check by Coccinella septempunctata. 

Liogryllus bimaculatus also attacks the pods and eats the seeds. 
These insects are so abundant in one particular village that it has been 
called Jhingari, meaning "full of crickets." As regards control, heaps 
of masur plants are put down here and there in the fields and th^ crickets 
are attracted to these and can be killed there. 

The next crop is 

Pea (Pisum sativum). 

[Matar— Hind.] 

Pea seedlings are attacked by 
Agromyza sp. 
Agrotis flammatra. 

As regards Agromyza the young seedlings are attacked by larvoe 
which tunnel in the stem and often do serious damage by killing off a 
large proportion of the young plants. Mr. Ghosh, will you tell us some- 
thing about it 1 

The pea stem Agromyza has been under observation for the last few 
years at Pusa and in the neighbourhood. It attacks seedlings mostly 
and damages grown-up plants only occasionally and to a much less 
extent. It attacks both Pisum sativum and Pisum arvense but in some 
years one is attacked badly and in other years the other is similarly 
bad. I am not in a position to explain the reason why sometimes one 
crop is attacked and sometimes another. The attack has been observed 
to be so bad as to destroy whole fields. Unfortunately the attack cannot 
be detected until after the damage has been done. 

I have found tobacco decoction useful against a leaf-mining Agromyza. 
Perhaps it might do in this case. 

But the pea Agromyza is not a leaf-miner. The maggot works just 
near or even below the soil-surface and Mnder the bark of the stem, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 63 

■chewing the tissue all round the woody part ; as a result, the whole 
plant withers. 

Would it be possible to irrigate and apply a deterrent in the irriga- Mr. Fletcher. 

tion water ? 

Peas are not irrigated crops. Irrigation with Crude Oil Emulsion Mr. Ghosh, 
and Sanitary Fluid Water was tried but without definite results. When 
the withering plants are earthed up and watered they throw out fresh 
roots from above the chewed up parts and live but are sickly and hardly 

bear. 

Growing peas with other crops has been tried and this year's experi- 
ments are rather interesting : — 

( 1. Visum sativum was grown alone but the crop was thin. 
i 2. P. sativum was grown intermixed with Vicia faba. 
(3. P. sativum was grown intermixed with barley. 
"( 4. P. arvense was grown alone and the crop was thin. 
All plants were destroyed in (1), a few destroyed in (2), none 
destroyed in (3) and (4). 

Were these plots close to one another ? Mr. Andrews. 

Plot (1) was contiguous to (2) and plot (3) was contiguous to (4). Mr. Ghosh. 
A about 70 feet from B. Pea is usually grown as«a mixed crop. 

What is your experience with this pea-stem Agromyza in Bihar, Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Dutt ? 

Where rotation is not practised, the attack is very bad. Such has Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
been the case at Sabour in the Botanical area, where peas are grown 
year after year in the same plot. On the Farm, where rotation is 
practised, very few plants are damaged. 

Any further remarks on this insect ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The pea stem fly occurs in Bengal also. Mr. P. C. Sen. 

We will go on to the next insect. Agrotis flammatra sometimes Mr. Fletcher. 
damages pea seedlings in the Punjab. 

It occurs throughout the Punjab. There is no definite control so Mr. M. M. Lai. 
far. 

We will go on to the leaf-eating insects found on the pea plant : — Mr. Fletcher. 
Plusia orichalcea. 
Prodenia litura. 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Monolepta signata. 
Hypera medicaginis. 
Plusia orichalcea is not confined to pea but sometimes does consider- 
able damage. We have shown the stages on a new coloured plate which 
is placed on the table. Spraying and hand-picking may be done in garden 
plots but are not practicable on a field scale. 



61 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. H. L. Dutt. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Gupta. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Dragging a rope, moistened with kerosine and turpentine, over the 
crop drives away the caterpillars. Even if they go into the neighbouring 
fields, the crop is saved. 

Plusia orichalcea occurs on pea in Bengal also. 

Prodenia litura and Diacrisia obliqua are both sporadic pests of pea, 
attacking this crop along with any other low-growing vegetation that 
may be available. 

Monolepta signata is recorded from the Patna District on pea but 
is scarcely a pest, so far as we know. 

Hyper a variabilis. The larva occurs on pea at Pusa, but has not 
been found as a pest so far. 

Several insects attack the pods and seeds : — 

Etiella zinckenella. 
Polyommatus bceticus. 
Bruchus chinensis. 
Bruchus affinis. 

Etiella we have already considered and need only just mention 
again now. It is not a very serious pest of peas as a rule. 

Polyommatus bceticus occasionally occurs in some numbers, the larva 
boring into the pods and eating the seeds. It occurs all over India. 

It is found in peas at Jorhat, in Assam. 

Bruchus chinensis oviposits on the pods in the field, but the main 
damage in most districts seems to be done to the seeds after storage. 

Bruchus affinis occurs in the fields to a small extent and does some 
damage. 

As I said just now, we want to know a great deal more about these 
Bruchids— the distinctions between the various species and the habits 
of each, as the habits seem to vary a good deal. 

As Bruchus affinis is rather a specific pest of peas and we have been 
doing some work on it at Pusa ; I will ask Mr. Ghosh to give you a short 
account of what we have found out. • 

Bruchus affinis, although it is found in stored peas from July or 
rather August onwards, is really a field pest, as infection takes place in 
the field, the beetles laying eggs on the green pods. The grubs on 
hatching bore into the seeds and come into the store with the seeds. 
Most of the beetles on attaining the adult stage remain in the seeds 
and come out when the seeds are sown next year. Therefore before 
sowing seeds should be placed in water. Those which sink should be 
sown and those which float should not be sown. 

Damage is prevented if the seeds are fumigated with Carbon Bisul- 
phide before storing or if stored with Naphthaline in airtight vessels.. 



Plusia oiic/i'ilccd, Fb. 

1 and _, caterpillar. Datura] size and enlarged, 
t'ig. 3, pupa. 

I?igs. 1 to 6, moth, natural size and enlarged in different attitudes 
The small outline figures indicate the natural sizes. 






■ • 





r 2 



PlAJSIA ORICHALCEA. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 05 

But in the latter case the smell of the Naphthaline is retained even 
when the dal is cooked for the table. 

The next crop seems to have no English name. It is : — Mr. Fletcher. 

Pisum arvense. [Desi matar—Rmd. Kirao — Bihar.] 

As we noted just now under Pea, this crop is attacked by Agromyza 
when young and Bruchus affinis is also found in the seeds. Its pests 
are practically the same as those of Pea and call for no special comment. 

The next crop is 

Sword Bean (Oanavalia ensiformis). 

[Bar a Sim — Hind. Makkhan Sim — Hind.] 

On the leaves we get : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 
Myllocerus dorsalis. 

Of these Myllocerus dorsalis is a weevil which we have recorded on 
this crop at Kumbakonam, in Madras. It is not a« regular pest, so far 
as we know. 

Diacrisia obliqua larvse attack Sword-bean in much the same way 
as they attack all low-growing crops. 

Diacrisia larvae are sometimes bad on the leaves in Burma. Mr. Shroff. 

Attacking the pods of Sword-bean we get : — jj r Fletcher. 

Maruca testulalis. 

Catochrysops cnejus. 

and probably most of the other pod-borers we have noticed on other 
leguminous crops. 

Maruca testulalis has been recorded from Assam but is not generally 
very common on Sword-bean. 

Catochrysops cnejus occurs, probably in most districts, but does not 
do much damage as a rule. 

It occurs in Burma, but not as a pest. Mr. Shroff. 

The next crop is Mr. Fletcher. 

Sann Hemp (Crotalaria juncea) 

which is becoming an increasingly important crop in India in many 
districts where it is being grown for green manure. As it is a leguminous 
crop it is more convenient to take it here. We have a long list of pests, 
many of which do great damage. 



(SQ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The seedlings are attacked by 

Chrotogonus spp. 

Flea-Beetles, 
and of course by Utetheisa and other insects which we shall come to 
under the heading of leaf-pests. 

Chrotogonus, probably several species, attack the young seedlings. 
They may be dealt with by means of bag-nets. 

Flea-Beetles are common pests on seedlings all over India and have 
been noted to do damage in Madras, Bombay, the Central Provinces, 
Bihar and Burma. This is a group in which we are at present very 
ignorant of the identity of the species, and I cannot say more than that 
several different species are probably concerned. Spraying in small 
plots or catching the beetles by means of nets will usually provide 
control. 

On the leaves we get a good many pests : — 

Utetheisa pulchella. 

Argina cribraria. 

Argina syringa. 

Argina argus. 

Amsacta moorei. 

Plusia signata. 

Euproctis scintillans. 

Amyna octo. 

( 'haetocnema basalis. 

Tanymecus indicus. 

Myllocerus blandus. 
Utetheisa pulchella is probably the most important pest of Sann- 
iiemp in India and attacks not only the leaves but also the pods and 
seeds as well. It is figured and described in " South Indian Insects " 
[pp. 371-372, fig. 233] and we have since issued a coloured plate showing 
the stages. 

Control is very difficult. In the case of small plots spraying and 
liandpicking are of course useful and in the case of young plants bagging 
may collect a good many larvae, but on a field scale with well-grown 
plants, handpicking, bagging and spraying are alike impracticable. The 
moths themselves are active and cannot be checked by hand-nets or 
light-traps ; they fly very actively by day and a few come in to light 
in the evening. The pupae may occur in folded leaves on the plants or 
on the surface of the ground, and we practically cannot get at them 
whilst the crop is standing. At present I can only suggest two lines of 
work, both of which require investigation. One of these is an appli- 
cation of clean cultivation and rotation to try to check the insect by 



Utetheua yndeheUa, Linn. 

! , Eggs on a leaf ; 
Figs. 2-4, Caterpillars of various stages feeding on leaven ; 
Fij 5, A caterpillar feeding on the seeds inside a pod ; 

Fig. 6, A caterpillar in curled-up position after falling on the ground from a plant 
Fig. 7, Caterpillar, dorsal view (magnified) ; 

3, Caterpillar, side view (magnified); 
Fig. !•. Pupa ; 

Fig. 10, Moth in repose, natural size ; 
Fig. 1 1 , The same magnified ; 
Fig. 12. Moth with wings expanded. 
Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 







Tii r t r*\ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 67 

depriving it of foodplants, which include wild species of Heliotropium 
as well as Crotalaria ; but it seems probable that any efforts in this 
direction would be foiled by the strong migratory abilities possessed by 
this insect, which is a well-known migrant, frequently reported as met 
with out at sea at great distances from the nearest land. The other 
line of investigation deals with its natural enemies in the way of parasites. 
ft is possible that we may be able to find, and introduce where necessary, 
parasites to check Utetheisa as the caterpillar feeds quite exposed and 
should fall an easy prey, especially when it occurs (as it does on Sann- 
hemp) in enormous numbers. That is a thing in which you can all 
help by collecting large numbers of Utetheisa larvae and seeing whether 
you can get any parasites ; and, if so, we should like to know and to 
have specimens, alive if possible, to experiment with. 

There does not seem much more to say about this species except 
to call your attention to the considerable range of variability exhibited 
by Utetheisa pulchella, both in the caterpillar and the moth. In both 
the markings seem extremely variable and we had some caterpillars, 
found at Pusa on Heliotropium,, which we supposed to be something 
quite different ; but they all turned out to be quite ordinary Utetheisa. 
As regards the moths, the largest range of variation seems to be shown 
in the Punjab, where in some cases the black markings of the forewing 
may be obsolete leaving the red markings strongly developed and coal- 
escing to form crimson stripes and bars, and in other cases the red mark- 
ings may have disappeared leaving the black markings only. I just 
mention this, so that you may know what to expect if you come across 
specimens which do not exactly agree with the examples shown on our 
coloured plate of this species. 

Utetheisa pulchella occurs in the Punjab on Sann-hemp as a pest Mr. m. M. LaL 
and is found breeding on Heliotropium also. It occurs from March to 
September. 

In Bengal it is checked by bagging, but this is only possible in small Mr. Sen. 
plots when the crop is young. 

In the Central Provinces Utetheisa is generally found on " Ghunghuni." Mr. Ratiram. 
I do not know the botanical name but it is apparently closely allied 
to Sann-hemp. The cultivators are advised to eradicate- this weed. 
As regards natural enemies, a bird, Motacilla alba, has been observed 
to feed on these caterpillars and the Pentatomid bug, Canthecona jur- 
cellata, is also predaceous on them. 

In Burma Utetheisa pulchella occurs commonly on Sann-hemp. Mr. Shroff. 

Argina cribraria ["South Indian Insects", pp. 400-401, fig. 270] Mr. Fletcher, 
occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest, often serious, 
of Sann-hemp, the larva devouring the pods and leaves much in the 



GS 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Raniakrishnft 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



same way as Utetheisa. In the case of young plants bagging with a net 
may be used to collect the caterpillars but in the later stages of growth, 
when the caterpillars are attacking the pods, this is impracticable and 
little can be done directly beyond hand-picking, but in some cases larvae 
get right inside the pods and are not visible from outside. The moths 
themselves may be handpicked as far as possible, but are not easy to 
find in any number. Pupation may take place inside the pods, but 
more usually in a loose cocoon on the surface of the soil. 

In Burma Argina cribraria and A. syringa both occur on Sann-hemp, 
but less commonly than Utetheisa. 

Argina syringa [" South Indian Insects,"' p. 101, fig. 271] occurs 
principally in Southern India and Bombay as a minor pest of Sann- 
hemp, occasionally abundant and doing considerable damage. Around 
Poona, where Sann-hemp is grown as a green-manure crop, this insect is 
said to be a serious pest every year. As regards control, I do not think 
we can say any more than we have said already under Argina cribraria. 

Argina argus occurs throughout India and Ceylon and the larva is 
occasionally found attacking Sann-hemp pods but it is scarcely a pest. 
However, as Sann-hemp becomes more commonly grown as a green- 
manure crop and larger quantities of seed are required for this 
purpose, I expect we shall hear more of Argina argus as a pest. 

Amsacta moorei occurs in North Gujarat as a pest of Sann-hemp in 
common with other low-growing crops. We have already discussed 
control of this species. Does it occur in Madras as a pest of Sann-hemp ? 

In Madras it has not been found to damage Sann-hemp. 

Plusia signata. There is some doubt about the identification of this 
and perhaps P. chalcytes is the insect in question. It occasionally 
occurs on Sann-hemp, chiefly in Madras, but is scarcely a pest. 

Euproctis scintillans [" South Indian Insects," p. 399, fig. 2G8] occurs 
sometimes on Sann-hemp, but is a minor pest as a rule. Handpicking 
of the caterpillars and moths will provide control where required. 

Amyna octo has been reared at Palur from larvae on Sann-hemp 
and at Pusa from larvae (green, with a white subdorsal stripe and only 
three pairs of prolegs) found feeding on Sann-hemp leaves. It is a 
minor pest and is generally very much parasitized, so that further control 
is not required. 

Ckcetocnema basalis (Chrysomelidae). I have this name on my list, 
but it has been taken from old records on cards as having occurred on 
Sanrj hemp ;it Pusa in August 1905 and April 190G, at Raipur " a good 
deal " in August 1907, at Jullundur in September 1905, and at Surat 
in 1904. We do not seem to have any specimens, however, from 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 69 

any of these localities, and it is possible that the identification may not 
be correct, and in the absence of specimens we cannot check it. 

Tanymecus indicus and Myllocerus blandus are two weevils, which 
have been found on Sann-hemp at Pusa but are scarcely pests. M . 
blandus is commoner than T. indicus. 

On the flowers of Sann-hemp we get Meloid beetles, as on other 
flowers, but when they do damage they are fairly easily caught in hand- 
nets. 

In this connection I might mention that, when you come across Meloid 
beetles in numbers, it will be useful if you collect a good deal of material 
and dry it in order to experiment with these beetles as a source of 
Cantharidin for Veterinary purposes. In the " First Hundred Notes " 
I gave some figures of the amount of Cantharidin available in some 
species, but we want a good deal more information on the subject to 
know which are the best species to use and where they will be available 
as regards a regular supply. 

We find a few insects boring in the shoots and stems of Sann-hemp : — 

Laspeyresia pseudonectis. 

Laspeyresia tricentra. 

Sphenoptera arachidis. 

Nupserha sp. 
There has been a good deal of confusion between these first two species 
and the plate used in " Indian Insect Life " and " South Indian In- 
sects " is very poor. I have therefore had a new plate done of L. psevdo- 
nectis and the original of this is laid on the table for you to see. You 
will see that pseudonectis is readily distinguishable in the male sex by the 
blackish irroration on the hindwings and abdomen, this being absent in 
the male of tricentra ; but the females are practically indistinguishable. 
It will be useful if we can get a good series of specimens from all localities 
in which Laspeyresia damages Sann-hemp, so that we can see which 
species is really implicated. At Pusa L. pseudonectis is the common 
species and so far we do not seem to have found tricentra here, whereas 
tricentra is apparently common in Western India. As Mr. Ghosh was 
rearing pseudonectis here last year, perhaps he will tell us something 
about it. 

Laspeyresia pseudonectis attacks Sann-hemp whilst the crop is still Mr ' Ghosh - 
young, about five or six inches high. At that stage of growth the cater- 
pillar attacks the topshoot which is formed into a characteristic gall. 
The attack does not stop altogether the growth of the plant, which 
grows in length. In later stages of growth of the plant, the attack 
takes place at the axils of leaves, where also a swelling is formed. In 
this latter case, the fibre is affected. There may be more than 07>e gall 



70 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ratiram. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishaa 
Ayyar. 



in the same plant. The caterpillar feeds inside the gall and pupates 
there ; whilst young it is green but becomes a bright red colour just 
before pupation. The caterpillar has been found to affect the capsules 
also, boring the seeds, but this is unusual and this habit has only been 
observed hitherto during the winter months. The insect hibernates 
as a caterpillar from November to February and then activates from 
March to June ; it may be in the stem if the plants remain in the field 
or, if the pods are collected, the caterpillars form cocoons amongst the 
debris and remain there. 

As regards control in the case of young plants the removal and des- 
truction of the galled topshoots is necessary and this should reduce 
further damage. 

Laspeyresia occurs in the Central Provinces as a minor pest of Sann- 
hemp. 

At Surat Sann-hemp was grown for green-manure and was seriously 
attacked by a Laspeyresia [probably L. tricentra, T. B. F.]. The affected 
topshoots were removed. 

Sphenoptera arachidis occasionally occurs in Sann-hemp but is scarcely 
a pest as far as we know. The identification requires confirmation. 
We have a specimen in the Pusa collection under the name S. gossypn. 
which was reared from Sann-hemp, but it is more probably S. arachidis. 

? Nupserha sp. Last year we found a Longicorn beetle, apparently 
a species of Nupserha or closely allied thereto, boring in the stems of 
Sann-hemp. 

1 his beetle was noticed for the first time at Pusa in 1916. The beetle 
rings the stems in two places about an inch apart and thrusts its egg into 
the centre of the ringed portion, which is usually at some distance below 
the top of the plant, but may be towards its base. The stem above 
the ringed portion dries up and the grub bores both upwards into the 
dry portion and downwards in the living stem. Pupation takes place 
in the stem. The adult beetle is very active and takes wing readily. 
The insect was very common last year about August, the total damage all 
over the Pusa Estate aggregating -about two to three per cent. 

As regards control, the dry plants are easily noticeable and may In- 
removed and destroyed before the beetles emerge. The length of life- 
history is about four to five weeks. 

We have prepared figures showing the damaged plants and the 
lifehistory of the beetle. It is rather an interesting example of the way 
m which an insect may suddenly appear as a pest. 

A similar insect was noticed at Sama/kota ten years ago. but it 
never reappeared. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 71 

Attacking the pods and seeds of Sann-hemp we get a good many Mr. Fletcher. 
pests but we have already dealt with most of the worst ones. They 
are : — 

Utetheisa pulchella. 
Etiella zinckenetta. 
Polyommatus bceticus. 
Argina cribraria. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Celama squalida. 
Utetheisa pulchella and Argina cribraria we have already dealt with 
under Sann-hemp. 

Etiella zinckenella attacks Sann-hemp seeds as it does other Legum- 
inosse. In some districts it is a bad pest, second only to Utetheisa. We 
have come across it several times already to-day and I have nothing 
more to add here. 

Polyommatus bceticus occurs occasionally in the pods but has not 
yet been noticed as a real pest of Sann-hemp. However, it is quite 
likely to take to this foodplant if the cultivation is extended. 

Heliothis obsoleta is occasionally found in Sann-hemp pods but not 
as a pest. 

Celama squalida (Arctiadse) has been reared at Pusa from caterpillars 
found on Sann-hemp pods but has only been found in small numbers so 
far. 

Then we have a few sucking insects on Sann-hemp : — 

Ragnius importunitas. 
Nezara viridula. 

Ragnius importunitas is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects " [p. 491, fig. 378]. It is a small greenish Capsid bug, easily 
distinguished by the series of round black spots on the hind-leg. It 
seems to be common in Madras, especially on young plants, and may 
do a good deal of damage, the leaves curling up and becoming pale-yellow. 
As it is chiefly bad on young plants it may be controlled by bagnets or 
handnets. 

We get it in Nagpur, chiefly on young plants. Mr - Khare. 

I have not noticed it at Pusa. Mr. Ghosh. 

Nezara viridula is described and figured in " South Indian Insects " Mr - FIetch er. 
[p. 473, fig. 352], and we have since issued a coloured plate of this 
species. It is, however, very variable in colour and markings. It is 
occasionally found in small numbers on Sann-hemp but is scarcely a 
pest as a rule. 

In Burma Nezara viridula occurs on Sann-hemp, but is not a pest. Mr - Shroff. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Diiaincha (Sesbania aculeata). 

Mr. Fletcher. On the leaves of dhaincha we find : — 

Catopsilia pyranthe. 
Terias hecabe. 
Terias silhetana. 
Zizera otis. 
Epacromia famulus. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

Catopsilia pyranthe [" South Indian Insects," p. 413, fig. 286] and 
probably other species of Catopsilia sometimes occur on dhaincha leaves 
in some numbers but rarely as pests. 

Terias hecabe and T. silhetana both occur commonly and sometimes 
do considerable damage. These two species of Terias are very close to 
one another, but the caterpillars may be distinguished fairly easily, as in 
hecabe the caterpillar has a green head and is solitary, whereas in silhetana 
the caterpillars have black heads and are gregarious. In silhetana 
also the blackish pupse are gregarious and one may find forty or fifty all 
attached to one twig or stem. T. hecabe is figured in " South Indian 
Insects " [p. 414, fig. 287] and we have since issued a coloured plate 
showing its lifehistory. As regards control, the caterpillars may be 
checked by spraying with a stomach poison and in the case of silhetana 
they may be collected by hand. 

Zizera otis has occurred at Pusa in some numbers on dhaincha grown 
in experimental plots but does not seem to be a pest on a large scale. 

In an experimental plot of dhaincha grown by the Imperial Agricul- 
tural Bacteriologist, when the plants were \\ to 2 feet high, the top 
leaves were attacked by Terias and also by many caterpillars of Zizera 
otis. They were hand-picked. 

Epacromia tamulus ["South Indian Insects*', p. 525, fig. 417] has 
been found in South India on dhaincha. I do not think there is any- 
thing to add to the account already given. 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus occurs on the leaves in most districts but is 
of little importance as a pest. 

Mr. Sen. Cantharis hirticornis was noticed in Bengal feeding on diiaincha 

leaves, when the plants were five to six feet high. 

Mr.'Ghosh. A black species of Thrips was bad at Pusa in July 1916 on an experi- 

mental plot of dhaincha grown by the Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist 
— the same plot as that referred to before as attacked by Zizera otis. 
The attack was checked successfully by spraying with resin compound, 
of which one application was sufficient. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Terias Jiecabe, L. 

i 

Fig. 1, egg (enlarged). 

to !. caterpillar, natural size and enlarged, 
i] 'i ins caterpillar. 
Figs. 6 ami 7. pupa (natural size and enlarged). 
Figs. 8 to 10, (butterfly natural size and enlarged), in Bitting and flying attitudes. 






^^iUljSiMWwfMWMBHIHilH^ * • 



* 



TERIAS hecabe. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 73 

Boring in the stem of dhaincha we get : — Mr Fletcher 

Alcides bubo. 
Azygophleps scalar is. 

Alcides bubo seems to occur chiefly in Madras. It is described and 
figured in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 337-338, fig. 196]. Have you 
anything more to add to this account, Mr. Ramakrishna Ayyar ? 

Alcides bubo is not so bad on dhaincha as it is on the other species Mr. Ramakrishaa 
of Sesbania, Ayyar. 

Then we will discuss it under Agathi. Mr. Fletcher. 

Azygophleps scalaris is another insect which is more common in Madras 
but it also occurs as a pest as far north as Orissa and in Burma. Last 
year I got a specimen of the moth attracted to light here at Pusa, so that 
it does occur here although the larva has never been noted. It is pro- 
bable that it has not attracted much notice in other parts of India because 
dhaincha has not been grown much outside of Madras, Burma and Orissa. 
but if its cultivation is extended for use as a green manure, we shall 
probably hear of Azygophleps as occurring in other districts. This species 
is described and figured in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 446-447, fig. 
324] and I have nothing new to add to the account given there. 

The lifehistory has been described there and there is no more to add. M*- Ramachandra 

Rao. 

Last year on the Pusa Farm some dhaincha was grown, but the Mr. Ghosh, 
young plants were eaten back by nilghai. 

A few sucking insects are found on dhaincha. Coptosoma sp. some- Mr. Fletcher, 
times occurs but is hardly a pest. In fact, dhaincha seems rather free, 
so far as we know at present, of pests of this sort. 

Then there are a few insects found in the pods : — 

Pachytychius mungon is. 
Megastigmus sp. 

Pachytychius mungonis was discussed under mung and urid and 
I do not think there is much to add. 

It occurs in the pods at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Megastigmus has been found at Coimbatore, the larva boring in the Mr. Fletcher, 
seeds. It is an interesting example of a plant-feeding group in the 
Chalcididao which, as you know, are practically all parasitic on other 
insects. We shall come across another case of the same kind later on 
when we come to deal with pests of Apricot. Will you tell us about 
this Megastigmus, Mr. Ramachandra Rao ? 

At Coimbatore dhaincha, grown for seed, was attacked bv this insect Mr. Ramachandra 
so badly that only a few seeds could be obtained. From fifty to seventy- Rao ' 
five per cent, of the seeds were destroyed. There is no doubt about 



n 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE. SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Rarnachasdra 
Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



this insect being the cause of the damage. This pest was also noticed 
in South Arcot and in one or two other localities. 

The eggs are laid when the pods are green, the larva? feeding on the 
seeds and pupating inside the pods. The adults emerge through holes 
bitten in the pods. The adults generally leave the pods before the 
seeds ripen and long before the crop is harvested. This insect is para- 
sitized by another Chalcidld but I could not trace out the lifehistory 
of this. 

You say that " the adults generally leave the pods before the seeds 
ripen." Would it be possible to collect the seeds a little earlier, immedi- 
ately they are ripe or even just before, so as to prevent the adults em- 
erging and damaging the next crop ? 

Unless the seeds are left to ripen on the plants until the normal time 
of collection, they would not sprout. 

Then I do not see that any control measure is applicable. So far as 
getting seeds is concerned it seems to be a case of half a loaf being better 
than no bread at all. You say that there is already a parasite on 
this Chalcidid. I think, when you first sent us specimens of this 
dhaincha ipest for determination, that you sent in two species but both 
of these were phytophagous. I suppose there is no doubt that this 
" parasite "is really a parasite and not a second pest itself ? 

There is no doubt about this second Chalcidid being predaceous on 
the pest itself. 



Agathi (Sesbania grand ijlora). 

Mr. Fletcher. Agathi is another Sesbania and its pests are very similar to those 

of dhaincha. It is grown fairly extensively, especially in Madras as a 
support for betel vines. 
On the leaves we get : — 

Platypria hystrix. 

Pericallia ricini. 

Prodenia litura. 

Laphygma exigua. 

Homoptera glaucinans. 

Catopsilia pyranthe. 

Terias hecabe. 



Platypria hystrix |" South Indian Insects," p. 316, fig. 167] seems to 
occur on agathi chiefly in the Tanjore district. It is a minor pest, the 
larva mining the leaves. It occurs also on other plants (Loblab 
Erythrina, etc.) but is not of any real importance. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING / 0> 

Pericallia ricini occurs on agathi as well as on various other plants. 
It is sometimes a pest but not serious as a rule. Handpicking and spray- 
ing are indicated. [See " South Indian Insects," pp. 370-371, fig. 232.] 

Prodenia litura is a bad pest of agathi in Madras. It is described 
and figured in " South Indian Insects " [p. 337, tab. 19]. Mr. 
Ramakrishna Ayyar, will you tell us about this insect on agathi % 

Prodenia litura is very bad on agathi in Madras when the crop is young. Mr. Rairakrishii& 
When the plants are three feet high, they are not damaged. 

And control? Mr. Fletcher. 

In some localities the fields are flooded and the caterpillars leave the Mr. Ramakrishna 

Aw3F 

plants and are eaten by birds. 

Laphygma exigua [" South Indian Insects," pp. 378-379, fig. 240] is Mr. Fletcher, 
a pest of agathi as it is of so many other crops. It does not, however, 
seem to be a very bad pest in Madras but occurs throughout the Presi- 
dency. 

Homoptera glaucinans seems to be a minor pest of agathi. It is de- 
scribed and 'figured in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 389-390, fig. 255] 
and I have nothing more to add to this. 

Catopsilia and Terias, probably more than one species of each, occur 
on agathi at times but seem scarcely pests as a' rule. 

Then we come to insects boring the stems of agathi. We know 
of :— 

Sphenoptera arachidis. 
Alcides bubo. 
Azygophleps scalar is. 

Azygophleps scalaris we have already noticed under dhaincha and 
it is not an important pest of agathi. 

Sphenoptera arachidis occurs in agathi but has not yet been noticed 
as much of a pest as this crop. [" South Indian Insects," pp. 298-299, 
figs. 141, 142.] 

Alcides bubo, however, may be a bad pest of agathi. It is described 
and figured in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 337-338, fig. 196] but some 
more work has been done on it in Madras since then and Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar will tell us about it. 

Alcides bubo has been doing serious damage in South Arcot. The Mr. Ramakrishca 
lifehistory has been worked out and is shown on the coloured plate Ayyar. 
[exhibited]. The lifehistory has already been described in "South 
Indian Insects." 

As regards control, Lead Arsenate was tried once ; it was sprayed 
on to the plants when they were two feet high. The sprayed plants 
were not rendered quite immune but the weevils came on them very late. 
Only one spraying was given. 



7G 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. G. R. Dutt. 

Mr. Ramakrislma 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



As this insect is a stem-borer, how is it checked by spraying with 
Lead Arsenate ? 

The weevils feed on the young leaves. 

Amongst sucking insects, Coptosoma cribraria occurs, but is not 
much of a pest. 

Then in the pods a Megasligrnus has been reared at Coimbatore 
from larvae boring in the seeds. It is aj>parently the same as the one we 
have just discussed under dhaincha. 

Chitagathi (Sesbania aegyptiaca). 

Chitagathi has much the same pests as agathi, so I need only mention 
them. 

On the leaves we get : — 

Homoptera glaucinans. 
Catopsilia pyranthe. 
Terias hecabe 
and boring in the stem we find : — 
Azygophleps scalaris. 

Erythrina (Eryihrina indica and E. lithosperma). 
[Dadap ; Coral Tree.] 
Both of these species of Erythrina are grown to a considerable extent, 
E. indica being used frequently as an ornamental tree in gardens and 
E. lithosperma being grown very extensively in the Hills as shade and 
green-manure for tea and coffee. A species of Erythrina is also used 
in Bombay as a support for grape-vines, so that the pests of this tree 
may be of considerable economic importance in some districts. 

The young plants are attacked by the large Coreid bug, Anoplo- 
cnemis phasiana |" South Indian Insects," pp. 477-478, fig. 360]. This 
bug is found on large trees also but is a specific pest of young trees by 
sucking the tend >r shoots, thus checking growth. It is a curious 
fact, which I noticed in Ceylon many years ago now, that when this bug 
occurs in this way on young trees, it usually occurs in pairs, a male and 
,i female together. The bugs are fairly easily collected and destroyed. 
On the leaves of Erythrina we find a large number of miscellaneous 
insects bu1 there are few serious leaf-eating pests : — 
Platypria hystrix. 
Platypria echidna. 
Episomus lacerta. 
Acherontia lachesis. 
Orgyia postica. 
Autarches miliaris. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 77 

Platypria hystrix ["South IYidian Insects," p. 316, fig. 167] 
and the very similar P. echidna both occur commonly on the leaves 
and do a little damage at times. I have seen the leaves riddled with 
holes produced by these species but one generally only finds this in odd 
patches here and there and Platypria are not serious pests. 

Episomus lacerta [" South Indian Insects," pp. 327-328, fig. 184] 
occurs in small numbers on the leaves. I have found it in Coorg on 
Erythrina leaves at Pollibetta and Mercara, but it is quite a minor pest. 

Acherontia lachesis occurs commonly on Erythrina and by its large 
size the caterpillar [ " South Indian Insects," p. 131, fig. 59] may do 
considerable damage, one caterpillar being quite capable of defoliating 
a small branch. The caterpillars may be handpicked, although they 
are not always very easy to see. 

Orgyia postica [" South Indian Insects " pp. 395-396, fig. 263] occurs 
fairly common as a caterpillar on Erythrina leaves but is scarcely a pest. 

Autarches miliaris [" South Indian Insects, p. 526, fig. 418] is some- 
times common on Erythrina and is a sporadic minor pest. 

Boring in the shoots of Erythrina we find : — 

Terastia meticulosalis 
A Trypaneid fly. 

Terastia meticulosalis [" South Indian Insects ", p. 438, fig. 315] is 
sometimes a serious pest, especially of Erythrina indica, the larva boring 
in the young shoots so that all the new growth may be killed back. The 
attacked shoots are fairly evident and may be cut back and the cater- 
pillar destroyed. 

In Coorg I have found a Trypaneid fly breeding in the shoots, but it 
is not a pest and at present we know very little about it. 

Under the heading of " Boring Insects " we may include Sthenias 
grisator [" South Indian Insects", p. 326, fig. 182], which is quite a 
serious pest of Erythrina when grown as a shade-tree amongst coffee. 
The adult beetles have the curious habit of girdling branches, and even 
main stems in the case of young trees. A groove about a quarter of an 
inch wide is eaten right through the bark all around the branch which 
may be as much as three inches in diameter, and the portion above 
the girdling dies back in consequence. The eggs are thrust into this 
girdled branch and according to my observations they are generally, or 
at least very frequently, placed just under the bark where it is cut by the 
girdling. The larvae feed in the girdled branch, which remains on the 
tree for some time but drops off sooner or later, and pupation takes 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

place in the branch also. As regards control, the removal and destruction 
of the freshly girdled branches is an obvious measure to take to 
prevent breeding and subsequent damage to other trees. The beetles 
themselves can also be collected by hand, though they are not very 
easy to see ; still a good number can be got when they are about in the 
adult state. Their presence can easily be detected by noticing 
the freshly-girdled branches. The beetles rest as a rule on the stems 
and branches of the attacked trees ; if there happens to be a bunch of 
•lead leaves on a tree, that seems to be a very favourite situation as the 
beetles will be found under the dead leaves. They rest quite motionless 
and are apt to drop to the ground, when they are very difficult to see. 
One thing I noticed about them was that they were not attached to one 
tree. A tree on which I found beetles one day was just as likely as not 
to have a fresh lot of beetles on it on subsequent days. So that daily 
collection is required. However, I see no reason why systematic des- 
truction of the attacked branches combined with hand-collection of the 
beetles should not give good results. 

The ringed branches, both those freshly ringed and the older, dead 
ones, attract a good many other insects. An Anthribid (Phlceobius 
alternans, Wied) and a weevil (Rhadinopus centriniformis, Fst.) are 
found commonly on ringed branches, but whether they do any damage 
we do not know. 

A good many sucking insects are found on Erythrina. We have 
already considered Anoplocnemis and besides that we get : — 
Cyclopelta siccifolia. 

Eurybrachys tomentosa. 

Eurybrachys ferruginea. 

Dactylopius citri. 
Cyclopelta siccifolia [" South Indian Insects," p. 476, fig. 357] some- 
times docs considerable damage to Erythrina in cases where this 
tree is used as a support for pepper vines. It is common on Erythrina 
but I have not seen it really bad. Control is easily done by hand-collec- 
tion. 

Eurybrachys tomentosa [" South Indian Insects," p. 492, fig. 379] is 
common on Erythrina but scarcely a pest. In Coorg I found that a 
considerable proportion, about one in four, of the bugs were infested 
with a whitish Epipyropid caterpillar which was apparently feeding on 
the fluffy white waxy excretion of the bug. An Epipyropid sdso occurs 
on Eurybrachys at Coimbatore, and you will perhaps find it in other 
parts of India if you look for it. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 79 

Eurybrachys ferruginea occurs in small numbers on Erythrina but 
is not a pest. 

Dactylopius citri on Erythrina is chiefly important in coffee when 
Erythrina roots afford shelter to colonies of this scale. 

In the Darjiling District a Jassid bug is bad on Erythrina. It is Mr. Andrews. 
apparently an Empoasca but different from the species found on tea. 

Eriochiton theae is also found on Erythrina in the Duars. 

Albizzia. 

The insect pests of the species of Albizzia are likely to come to pro- Mr. Fletcher, 
minence in India as these plants become more used for green-manure. 

On the leaves we get Terias silhetana and T. hecabe, both of which 
we have already dealt with under dhaincha. 

Boring in the stems of Albizzia lebbek we have Xystrocera globosa 
[" South Indian Insects," p. 321, fig. 174]. It is common in India but 
not yet noted as a pest, so far as oar experience is concerned, but it has 
been recorded as a serious pest of Albizzia lebbek when grown as shade- 
trees in Egypt, so that it is a species to keep our eyes on in India. 

At Coimbatore I have also found, a weevil grub boring the seeds of 
A. lebbek inside the pods, but I cannot say any more about it. 

We now come to 

Indigo 

under which we will take the Natal plant (Indigofera arrecta) and the 
Bengal Indigo (I. sumatrana). 

The seedlings are attacked by — 

Chrotogonus. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achat inus). 
Laphygmd exigua. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Chrotogonus in Bihar is chiefly a pest of sumatrana seedlings about 
.March, and sometimes does so much damage that resowing is necessary. 
It may be controlled by bagnets. 

In Jalgaon (Khandesh) young indigo plants are attacked by Chroto- Mr. Jhaveri. 
gonus. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus) is also chiefly a pest of suma- Mr. Fletcher. 
trana seedlings, the crickets cutting the young plants and dragging them 
into their burrows. This cricket is often reported as a pest but is pro- 
bably not a very serious one on the whole. Irrigation, where possible, 
is the only successful method of control ; this drives out the crickets 
which are then destroyed by birds and other enemies 



SO PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Laphygma exigua is a sporadic major pest of seedlings of both varieties 
of indigo, occurring in Bihar usually about April. In 1906 it was very 
bad at Birowli, near Pusa, on sumatrana plants. In the case of very 
bad out breaks, the only practical remedy seems to be to cut the plants 
back. Spraying may also be tried, and trenches should be dug between 
badly attacked areas and adjacent ones free from attack to prevent the 
caterpillars crossing over, but this of course will not prevent the moths 
from doinu; so. 

Agrotis ypsilon is not serious on indigo but attacks sumatrana seed- 
lings to some extent, doing less damage to arrecta seedlings. 

There is a long list of leaf-eating insects found on indigo, but none 
are very important as regards the well-grown plants : — 

Prodenia litura. 

Chilades putli, 

Dich omeris ianthes . 

Heliothis obsoleta. 

Pelamia (Remigia) undata. 

Chalciope ( Trigonodes) hyppasia. 

Raparna nebulosa. 

Plusia limbirena. 

Plusia orichalcea. 

Monolepta signata. 

Blosyrus incequalis. 

Sitones crinitus. 

Tanymecus circumdatus. 

Tanymecus indicus. 

Myllocerus viridis. 

Prodenia litura is a minor pest of indigo. 

Chilades putli is sometimes found on indigo shoots but does little 
damage. 

Dichomeris ianthes we have already discussed under clusterbean. 
It is a minor pest of indigo, the larvae webbing up the leaves and top- 
shoots. The attacked portions may be removed and destroyed, but as 
a rule no control is required. 

Helioihis obsoleta is of comparatively rare occurrence on indigo and 
is scarcely a pest.* 

Pelamia undata |" South Indian Insects,"' p. 388, fig. 252] and Chal- 
ciope hyppasia [" Indian Insect Life'" p. 451, fig. .'51 1] are both occasional 
pests of indigo bui arc usually of no importance. 

Raparna nebulosa, Plusia limbirena, and P. orichalcea have all been 
found on indigo, but not recently, and do not seem to be regular pests. 



Dichomeris ianthes, Meyr. (Ypsolophus ochrophanes, Meyr.) 

Fig. 1, an affected Java-Natal indigo plant. 

Fig. 2, egg enlarged. 

Fig. :;. caterpillar. 

Fig. I, pupa. 

Figs. •> and 6, moths in flying and resting attitudes, 

The hair-line's indicate natural sizes. 



* 




DlCHOMERIS 1ANTHES. 






PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING SI 

Monolepta signata has been found on indigo at Pusa. It occurs on 
numerous plants and is not a pest of indigo. 

Blosyrus inwqualis was found on indigo in some numbers at Nellikup- 
pam, but we do not know any more about it as a pest. 

Sitones crinitus has been found on indigo at Dalsing Serai and in 
Champaran, but is not known as a pest. 

Tanymecus circumdatus and T. indicus both occur on indigo at Pusa 
but in quite small numbers. 

Myllocerus viridanus we have from Nellikuppam on indigo but we do 
not know it as a pest. 

Indigo seems to be rather free from stem-borers. We have a record 
of Alcides bubo as found on indigo at Palur, in South Arcot, but whether 
it was breeding in indigo we do not know. Anataractis plumigera 
(Cosmopterygidae) was reared from a gall in a stem of Indigofera linifolia 
at Pusa [see Entomological Note No. 83], but we have not noticed it in 
any cultivated indigo. 

The sucking insects found on indigo, however, are of more importance, 
and in this group we get 

Psylla isitis (Psyllopa punctipennis) . 

Aphis cardui (?). 

Dolycoris indicus. 

Anoplocnemis phasiana. 

Thrips. 

Mites. 

Psylla isitis has acquired a literature of its own and you will find 
accounts in our Entomological Memoirs, Vol. IV, No. 6 and in the 
" Agricultural Journal of India " for January 1913. I do not think 
there is much to add to these so far as we are concerned. 

I can only add one remark. If by varying the method of cultivation Mr. Ghcsh. 
it be possible to have only grown-up " moorhun " plants in July- August, 
there will be hardly any Psylla, as this is the time of year most favourable 
in Bihar for the growth and multiplication of Psylla. 
Psylla occurs on indigo in the Punjab at Multan, Muzaffarnagar Mr. M. M. Lai. 
and Dhera Ghazi Khan, but never gives much trouble. 

In Madras indigo is attacked by Psylla at Palur and Bellary. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyai. 

In the United Provinces Psylla attacks indigo. M r- David. 

An Aphid, which is probably Aphis cardui, occurs commonly on Mr. Fletcher, 
indigo and is a sporadic pest of young plants. We constantly get reports 
from the Indigo Planters round about Pusa and have sent out men 
and apparatus to control it several times. It is fairly easily controlled 



82 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



by use of a Soap solution. Under natural conditions it is usually checked 

by ( ioccinellid hectics. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. In the indigo-growing districts of the Punjab an Aphid is found on 

the plant 'nits docs not do much damage. 
Mr. Fletcher. Dolycoris indicus occurs on indigo as on numerous other plants but 

is not a regular pest. 

Anoplocnemis phasiana has been reported on indigo at Cawnpur 

but we have never seen it on indigo in Bihar. 
Mr. David. It was found on indigo at Cawnpur in small numbers in July 1915 

but did not do much damage. 
Mr. Fletcher. Thrips. whether of one or more species we do not know, are found 

on indigo but not as a serious pest. 
Mr Ramakrishua Thrips occurs on indigo in the Bellary District. 

Mr Ghosh. Thrips is found commonly at Pusa but is never serious. 

Mr Fletcher. Mites also occur on indigo, but we know very little about them and 

they do not seem to be real pests. 

Mr. Ghosh. Mites also are found occasionally at Pusa but are not serious. They 

cover the leaves with a thin webbing and puncture them. They have 
not occurred in sufficient numbers to require control. 

Mr. Fletcher. The roots of indigo plants are sometimes cut by crickets of sorts 

and Schizodactylus monsirosus is commonly accused of doing this in Bihar, 
where it is known as " bherwa." There is no doubt that Schizodactylus 
may do damage at times, but this seems to be accidental and only 
incidental to its activities when tunnelling underground. We have 
reared this insect at Pusa and found that it is exclusively carnivorous, 
feeding on small frogs, caterpillars, and so on, and starving rather than 
feeding on roots and vegetable diet. The species is widely distributed 
in India. It is common in Bihar and extends as far south as Bellary 
and is also found in North-Western India. It is described and figured 
in " South Indian Insects " [p. 533, fig. 427] and we have since issued a 
coloured plate showing all stages of its lifehistory. 

In many cases where Schizodactylus is accused of damage, there is 
no doubt that it has been confused with Brachytrypes, which is the 
real culprit . 

Mr Fletcher. The next group of crops may be taken under the general name of : 

OIL-SEEDS 

and under this item we will deal with the insect pests of Sesamum, castor, 
linseed, groundnut, niger-seed, sunflower and safflower. 

I may remark that it is very difficult to group crops into classes 
with any exactitude, as in some cases ;i crop may fall into more than 
ne group, whilst in others it is more convenient to take allied crops 



Schizodactylus monstrosus, Dr. 

Kit;'. 1, eggs in their natural burrow. 

Pigs. 2 to 5, nymphs in different stages of growth. 

Fig. 6, adult. 

The lines alongside the figures indicate their natural sizes. 




i ■ • j i, a J « ■ ' , 




■■ , m 



>ih 



SCHIZODACTYLUS MONSTROSUS. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 83 

together as their pests may be very similar. Mustard, for example, 
might be expected to be included under oil-seeds, but it will be more 
convenient for our purposes to take it under Cruciferae together with 
cabbage and other allied crops. 

Sesamum (Sesamum indicum). 

[Til — North India. Gingelly — South India.] 

Sesamum seedlings are sometimes damaged by Brachytrypes forten- 
tosus, which we have just discussed under the heading of indigo. 

In Bengal, plants about a foot high are damaged in July and August Mr. Sen. 
at Dacca by Brachytrypes. 

A good many pests occur on the leaves of Sesamum, the worst being Mr. Fletcher. 
Antigastra ; — 

Pachnephorus impressus. 
Tanymecus ehloroleuciis. 
Anomala antiqua. 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Amsacta moorei. 
Acherontia styx. 
Pericallia ricini. 
Laphygma exigua. 
A ntigastra catalaunalis. 
Pachnephorus impressus sometimes occurs in some numbers. The 
lifehistory is briefly described and figured in Entomological Note 33. 

At Hoshangabad Pachnephorus is a serious pest of this crop, the Mr. Ratiram 
beetles feeding on the leaves of the plants. 

Do you practise any control-methods there ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The beetles can easily be collected by shaking the plants. They Mr. Ratiram. 
have the habit of taking shelter amongst fallen leaves, so dry leaves are 
collected and heaped in places and afterwards burnt. 

Tanymecus chloroleucus, Wied., a large grey-white weevil with a green Mr. Fletcher, 
tinge, has been found on Sesamum at Pusa but is not known to be a pest. 

Anomala antiqua was found on Sesamum at Tatkon in Burma, but 
I think it is scarcely a pest. 

Diacrisia obliqua occurs on Sesamum in all districts where this insect 
occurs and may do so in destructive numbers. It is especially bad 
in Bihar and Bengal. Hand-picking of the eggmasses and clusters of 
young caterpillars is the only effective remedy. 

Amsacta moorei seems to replace Diacrisia in Bombay. We have 
already discussed control of this pest. 

Amsacta moorei occurs on young plants in Nadiad. Mr. Jhaveri. 



84 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr Ghosh. 



Mr Fletcher. 



Acherontia styx [" South Indian Insects," p. 402, tab. 24] is a minor 
pest of Sesamum throughout Ind'a and Burma. We have it recorded 
on this crop from Gujarat, Poona. Nagpur, and Pusa and in Burma I 
found it at Minbu. 

In Burma it has occurred on Sesamum at Tatkon also. 

The larvae are large and may usually be hand-picked when they are 
sufficiently plentiful to require control. 

Pericallia ricini [" South Indian Insects/' pp. 370-371, fig. 232] 
has been noted in Madras on Sesamum but is not usually a pest of this 



croo. 



Mr. Jhaveri 



Laphygma exigua also occasionally occurs on Sesamum but is not a 
pest so far as we know. 

Antigastra catalaunalis ["South Indian Insects," p. 441, tab. 37] 
occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a regular minor and 
occasional major pest of Sesamum, the larva rolling and webbing the leaves 
and boring in the shoots and pods. Beyond the removal of the affected 
parts of the plants, little control is practicable. An Ichneumon-fly, 
Tarytia flavo-orbitalis, Cam. [see Fauna of India, Hymenoptera, Vol. 
Ill, p. 506, fig. 148] has been reared commonly at Pusa as a parasite 
of Antigastra catalaunalis, but this fly appears to be already widely 
distributed in India and Burma, so that it is apparently not a very 
effective check. 

Antigastra catalaunalis is the most harmful of all the pests of til in 
Bihar. The caterpillars affect the topshoot and the top leaves, rolling 
them into a sort of a knot and checking the growth of the plants. Some- 
times these caterpillars bore into the green pods and eat the seeds inside. 

When I was in Minbu, in Lower Burma, in 1914 I found a consider- 
able proportion of seed-pods eaten into. I could not find any insect 
actually doing it, but I put it down at the time to Acherontia which was 
present in some numbers. 

The young capsules of Sesamum are damaged by : — 
Asphondylia sesami. 
Nysius inconspicuus. 

Asfhondylia sesami is the species described and figured in " South 
Indian Insects" [p. 364, figs. 224. 225] as the Gingelly Gall-fly. As 
you will see from the second figure, the growth of the young capsules is 
stunted so that they become wrinkled, withered galls and considerable 
loss of crop may result if the attack is bad. This insect is common all 
over Madras and is sometimes bad on the Farm plots at Coimbatore. 
We have no records of its occurrence outside of Southern India. 

In North Gujarat, this gall-fly occurs at Nadiad in the immature 
pods of til and at times does very serious damage. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING $5 

Have you tried any control-measures ? Mr. Fletcher. 

At the Surat Farm, removal of the affected top-shoots is tried. Mr. Jhaveri. 

That seems the only thing to do but I doubt whether it is practicable Mr. Fletcher, 
on a field scale. 

Nijsius inconspicuus is a small Lygaeid bug which has been recorded 
on Sesamum in South Kanara. We do not know much about it as a 
pest. 

A few sucking insects are found on Sesamum but the only ones that 
we need mention are : — 

Eusarcocoris ventralis. 
Afhanus sordidus. 

Eusarcocoris ventralis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 471-472, fig. 
349] was once found in Ganjam on Sesamum as a serious pest, but 
otherwise we do not know it as doing any damage. 

Afhanus sordidus [" South Indian Insects," p. 483, fig. 368] is some- 
times a serious pest of Sesamum and the bug has the curious habit of 
suckin"- the ripe seeds and even of carrying them away. In the case 
of harvested plants the bugs may be brought in, 'or may congregate, in 
very large numbers and may then be killed by beating with brooms or 
similar weapons. 

At Nadiad and in Khandesh Afhanus is found in large numbers on Mr. Jhaveri. 
harvested plants. 

Thousands of these bugs may occur in the harvesting yard and, Mr. Ghosh, 
when the bundles of plants are shaken or moved, they spread all around. 
At that time they may easily be swept up and destroyed. 

At least one boring insect attacks Sesamum and that is Oberea sesami Mr. Fletcher. 
(Lamiados). The egg is laid on the midrib of a leaf, the larva boring 
into the midrib of the leaf and then downwards into the stem of the 
plant until it reaches the root, where it pupates. Hibernation takes 
place in the larval stage. Very serious damage may be done sporadi- 
cally. As regards control, eight or ten days elapse before the larva 
bores into the stem and the affected leaves, which show characteristic 
yellow T blotches, may be collected at that time. This insect only seems 
to have been noticed in Baroda. 

In the roots of Sesamum there is also a fly, as yet unidentified, but 
perhaps a species of Psila. It is said to be serious at Hoshangabad and 
has also been noticed at Nagpur and Pusa, but we seem to know very 
little about it. The larva lives in the roots of the plants and may be 
a minor pest. The adult is figured in " Indian Insect Life," p. 629, 
fig. 415. 



8() PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Castor (Ricinus communis). 

Mr. Fletcher. The seedlings of castor are attacked by Chrotogonus and the attack 

may be serious at times. Bagging is a practicable remedy. 

On the leaves of castor we find a large number of insects, some of 
which may be serious pests. As you know, we grow a good deal of 
castor at Pusa as food for Eri Silkworms, and we are constantly having 
difficulty with leaf-eating caterpillars which defoliate the plants. Of 
course, when the leaves are required as food for silkworms like this, 
it is impossible to use a stomach-poison, but we usually find that hand- 
picking is effective if taken in hand at once, immediately the attack 
starts. The pests on my list are : — 

Achcea Janata. 
Prodenia litura. 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Pericallia ricini. 
Am so eta moorei. 
Trabala vishnu. 
Ergolis merione. 
Altha nivea. 
Parasa lepida. 
Orgyia postica. 
Olene mendosa. 
Euproctis fratern a . 
Ewproctis scintillans . 
Clania crameri. 
Myllocerus viridanus . 
Cyrtacanthacris ranacea . 

Achcea janata (Ophiusa melicerta) [" South Indian Insects," pp. 386- 
387, fig. 250 1 is' the most common and destructive pest of castor, the 
caterpillars absolutely stripping the leaves when present in large num- 
bers. This is one of the commonest insects that we find on our castor- 
plants here, and prompt hand-picking of the young caterpillars is 
generally effective. 

Prodenia litura [" South Indian Insects," p. 377, tab. 19] is also 
common on castor all over India and sporadically destructive. Collec- 
tion of eggmasses and young larva? forms an effective check. 

Diacrisia obliqua is also common and sometimes destructive, in 
Bengal and Bihar. Control as in Prodenia. 

Pericallia ricini ["South Indian Insects," p. 370, fig. 232], as its 
name implies, occurs on castor but is not often a bad pest. Hand- 
picking of larvae is effective. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 87 

Amsacta moorei occurs chiefly in Bombay. 

In North Gujarat it is a bad pest on young plants. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Trabala vishnu occurs sporadically at Pusa, generally in the Eains, Mr. Fletcher, 
and is sometimes quite a pest. Handpicking again is found effective. 

Trabala vishnu occurs casually on castor in Burma. Mr. Shroff, 

It does not seem to be a pest except in Bihar and there only now Mr. Fletcher, 
and again. 

Ergolis merione occurs commonly on castor but is scarcely a pest. 
Isolated plants are often stripped of leaves but, when grown as a field 
crop, castor seems fairly immune from this caterpillar. It is notable 
that in Madras the caterpillars of the South Indian form of this butterfly 
do not seem to do any damage to castor and perhaps have another 
food plant. 

Altha nivea [" South Indian Insects," pp. 411-412, fig. 285] seems to 
occur occasionally on castor in most parts of India, but is not known 
to be a regular pest. 

Parasa lepida [" South Indian Insects," pp. 410-411. ff. 283-284] 
occurs sporadically on castor in most localities, especially in Madras, 
and may do considerable damage. The caterpillars may be collected 
but should not be touched with the bare hands as their spines are highly 
poisonous. They are gregarious when young and so may be collected 
fairly easily if the attack is taken in time. 

Parasa lepida sometimes occurs in large numbers on castor in Madras. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Orgyia postica is another sporadic pest of castor. As a pest of m r> Fletcher, 
castor it has been noticed chiefly in Southern India. 

There was a bad outbreak at Coimbatore in December 1916-January ji r . Ramakrishna 
1917. Ayyar. 

It occurs in Mysore also on castor. Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 

Olene (Dasychira) mendosa [" South Indian Insects," p. 396, fig. 264J Mr. Fletcher 
is also rather a sporadic pest of castor but is usually only a minor pest. 

Euproctis fraterna [" South Indian Insects," p. 398, figs. 266-267] 
and E. scintillans [I.e., p. 399, fig. 268] are both rather minor pests of 
castor as a rule, but fraterna is sometimes rather a serious pest in Southern 
India. I have discussed both these species in my book and have no 
more to add now. 

E. fraterna occurs in Southern India chiefly on isolated plants. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Clania crameri [" South Indian Insects," p. 448, fig. 325] also occurs M r> Fletcher, 
chiefly on isolated plants. It is scarcely a pest on castor and the larval 
cases are fairly easily seen and collected. 



88 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Myllocerus viridanus [Fauna of India, Curculionidae, Vol. I, pp. 301- 
303, fig. 93] was found on castor at Coimbatore and is widely distri- 
buted in Madras and Ceylon but is scarcely a pest of castor. 

Cyrtacanthacris ranacea \" South Indian Insects," pp. 530-531, fig. 
424] is sometimes found commonly on castor but is scarcely a pest. 

The seeds of castor are attacked by a few insects and these are of 
course of more importance when the crop is grown for oil purposes. 
In the seeds we get : — 

Dichocrocis functijeralis . 
Heliothis (Chloridea) obsoleta. 

Dichocrocis punctiferalis [" South Indian Insects," p. 433, tab. 34] 
occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon and is often 
a serious pest of castor, the !arva boring in the seed-pods and also in 
the shoots. The attacked pods show an extruded mass of frass and 
should be collected and the caterpillars destroyed. 

Heliothis obsoleta occasionally bores into castor pods but is scarcely 
a pest of this crop. 

A good many sucking insects occur on castor : — 

Aleyrodes ricini. 
Empoasca flavescens . 
Nezara viridula. 
Mites. 

Aleyrodes ricini is generally rather a sporadic pest of castor but may 
be very bad when it occurs, covering all the leaves, which wilt under 
the attack. There is a plate [No. 81] showing this insect in *' Indian 
Insect Life " and this plate also shows the small Coccinellid, Clania 
soror, which preys on it. A minute Chalcidid [" South Indian Insects " 
p. 202, fig. 89] also parasitizes this Aleurodid. In spite of these natural 
checks, this Aleurodid is often destructive and requires remedial 
measures, such as spraying with Crude Oil Emulsion. At Coimbatore 
I once tried spraying with ordinary flour-paste, and it did some good, 
but was not altogether successful, as the sprayed leaves were soon 
reoccupied. Aleyrodes ricini seems to be widely distributed in India 
and has been noticed to do serious damage at Coimbatore and Pusa. 

In Burma I have also seen it serious at Mandalay and Padu. 

Empoasca flavescens also occurs commonly on castor. 1 have des- 
cribed and figured this in " South Indian Insects," p. 498, fig. 387, this 
figure being drawn from a specimen sent by Mr. Green as occurring 
on castor at Peradeniya. It is possible that more than one species 
may be concerned in India. 

In North Gujarat an Empoasca occurs on castor. 




NEZARA viridula. 



;her. 



her. 



Nezara viridula, Linn. 

Fig. 1, An egg cluster on a mung pod ; 

Fig. 2, A single egg (magnified) ; 

Fig. 3, Top of the egg (magnified) ; * 

Fig. 4, Young nymphs ; 

Figs. r>-9, Nymphs in various stages of development- (magnified) ; 

Fig. 10, Adult (magnified). 

Outline figures show the natural sizes. 



d. 
her. 



e. 

if. 
her. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 89 

Nezara viridula is common on castor as on so many other plants Mr. Fletcher, 
and is often a minor pest. The bugs may be collected by hand or in 
hand-nets. 

Mites are found throughout our limits on castor and are sometimes 
serious pests. Spraying with Crude Oil Emulsion mixed with Flowers 
of Sulphur will usually check them successfully. 

Linseed (Linum usitatissimum) . 

Linseed does not seem to have any very serious regular pests but Mr. Fletcher. 
is attacked by a good many insects, all of which seem to be caterpillars. 
On the leaves we get : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 

Plusia orichalcea. 

Prodenia litura. 

Laphygma exigua. 

Grammodes stolida. 

Ewproctis scintillans. 

Most of these are polyphagous species which, we have already dealt 
with under other crops, so we need not consider them again in any 
great detail. 

Diacrisia obliqua occurs occasionally in some numbers on linseed 
in Bihar and Bengal, and hand-picking of eggmasses and young larvae 
is effective as a check. 

Plusia orichalcea has been found on linseed at Pusa. 

At Cawnpur Farm Plusia orichalcea occurred on linseed the year Mr. David, 
before last. 

Prodenia litura has been noted on linseed at Kot Chandpur, in the Mr - Fletcher. 
Jessore District, but is not a regular pest of this crop. 

Laphygma exigua has been recorded on linseed in the Central Pro- 
vinces. 

Linseed was attacked by Laphygma exigua at Nagpur. Mr. Khare. 

At Mandalay Farm also linseed was attacked by Laphygma exigua. Mr. Shroff. 

Laphygma occurs throughout India and Burma and may occur, Mr. Fletcher, 
anywhere that linseed is grown, as a pest of this crop. 

Grammodes stolida [" South Indian Insects," pp. 387-388, fig. 251] 
is the nearest approach that we seem to have to a specific pest of linseed. 
It is an occasional minor pest in Madras but does not seem to have 
been noticed elsewhere although this insect is widely distributed through- 
out India and Burma. 



90 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Ewproctis scintillans [" South Indian Insects," p. 399, fig. 268] 
occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a sporadic minor 
pest of linseed, on which crop it has been noted at Pusa, Nagpur and in 
Madras. The larvae may be hand-picked but should not be handled as 
the hairs produce irritation. 

Mr. P. C. Sen. In Bengal a caterpillar was reported from Faridpur as cutting linseed 

plants, and the insect concerned was identified by me as Agrotis ypsilon. 

Mr. Fletcher. Linseed capsules are sometimes attacked by larvae of Heliothis 

obsoleta, but it does not seem to be a regular pest of this crop. 

Mr. M. M. Lai. Heliothis obsoleta sometimes occurs on linseed in the Punjab but the 

damage done is negligible. 



Groundnut (Arachis hypogcea). 

Mr. Fletcher. It would have been more natural to have taken groundnut under 

" Leguminous Field-crops," but it is perhaps more convenient to consi- 
der it with other " Oilseeds." Groundnut has a long list of pests, many 
of which do a great deal of damage. On the flowers we get : — ■ 

Oxycetonia versicolor. 
Meloid beetles. 
Thrips. 
Oxycetonia versicolor [" South Indian Insects," p. 283, fig. 123] 
occurs on the flowers and shoots at Coimbatore and other localities in 
South India and does some damage at times but is not a serious pest 
as a rule. The beetles are easily collected by hand. 

Meloid beetles of various kinds do similar damage in most localities 
but are also collected fairly easily. 

Thrips also occur on the flowers and probably do damage but we 
really know very little about this. 
On the leaves we get :— 
Chrotogonus spp. 
( 'yrtacanlhacris ranacea. 
Orthacris sp. 
Diner is ia, obliqua. 
Amsacta albistriga. 
Amsacta moorei. 
Creatonotus gangis. 
Prodenia litura. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Plusia signata. 
A narsia ephippias. 
Aprocerema m rteria. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



91 



Myllocerus viridanus. 
„ dentifer. 

„ discolor. 

„ dor salts. 

Thrips. 
Mites. 
The grasshoppers occur as minor pests, especially on young plants, 
and can be dealt with by bagging when damage is being done. 

Diacrisia obliqua occurs as a serious pest of groundnut in localities 
where this insect occurs, but fortunately it does not occur in the ground- 
nut-growing districts of Southern India. When groundnut was grown 
experimentally at Pusa it was badly attacked by Diacrisia. Hand- 
picking of eggmasses and young larvae is the only thing to do. 

In Burma Diacrisia is a serious pest of groundnut. Mr. Shroff. 

Amsacta albistriga and A. moorci occur as regular pests of groundnut Mr. Fletcher., 
in Southern India. We have already discussed* these species and there 
seems to be no need to go over the ground again. 

Creatonotus (jangis ["South Indian Insects," pp. 369-370, fig. 231] 
is a sporadic minor pest of groundnut in Madias but does not seem 
to have been noted on this crop elsewhere although it is common 
throughout India and Burma and has a wide range of foodplants. 

Prodenia litura was found at Pusa on groundnut when this crop 
was grown here, but it was a minor pest of much less importance than 
Diacrisia obliqua. It may occur in almost all districts as a sporadic 
pest. 

Heliothis obsoleta has been found on groundnut in Madras but ap- 
parently not elsewhere, and does not seem of any importance as a pest 
of this crop. 

Plusia signata [" South Indian Insects," p. 393, fig. 259] occurs on 
tender leaves in Madras but is of very minor importance as a pest. 

Anarsia ephippias [" Indian Insect Life," p. 534, tab. 56] occurs 
probably throughout the Plains of India as a very minor pest of ground- 
nut, on which it has been found at Pusa, the larva rolling the leaves 
and boring the topshoots which are killed back. Hand-picking of 
attacked leaves and shoots will provide control, the withered shoots 
being easily seen. 

In the Punjab Anarsia attacks groundnut and is a fairly bad pest Mr. M. M. LaL 
of this crop. Picking out the rolled-up leaves in early stages of attack 
is generally done and at the Farm spraying with Lead Chromate is 

also done at times. 

* See pag< s 53-55 



92 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Aprocerenia nerteria [" South Indian Insects," pp. 457-458, tig. 333] 
is widely distributed in most parts of the Plains of India but is appa- 
rently not known in Bombay. In Madras it is well known, under the 
name Surulr'puchi, as a serious pest of groundnut and it occurs as far 
north as the North- West Frontier Province, so that its apparent absence 
in Western India is perhaps due simply to want of observation there. 
Besides groundnut it occurs on soy bean, Cajanus indicus and Psoralea 
corylifolia. Our records include the following localities and food- 
{.lants : — 

Peradeniya — Groundnut (destructive in February 1905). 

Coimbatore — Groundnut. 

Hagari — Groundnut (top leaves). 

Sundarbans — 

Nagpur — Soybean, Psoralea corylifolia. 

Pusa — Soybean, Psoralea corylifolia. 

Peshawar — (Moths only). 

As regards its lifehistory and control, I have no more to add beyond 
what is given in " South Indian Insects." This is a species which badly 
wants working at, to find out more about it before we can tackle it 
really satisfactorily. We should like to know whether it really occurs 
in Bombay and also in Burma. 

It has not been noticed in Bombay. 

Nor in Burma. 

That docs not prove that it does not occur. It has never been 
recorded from the Punjab but doubtless occurs there also as I found 
it common as far north as Peshawar. It is quite likely that lucerne, 
shafted and bersim may turn out to be alternative foodplants. 

The weevils on the list are usually of minor importance but some- 
time.- occur in sufficient numbers to damage the leaves. We have 
records of Myllocerus viridanus at Chepauk and in abundance at Palur, 
of M. deal tier and M. discolor at Palur, and of 31. dorsalis at Villapuram. 
Myllocerus viridanus [" Fauna of India," Curculionidse, Vol. I, pp. 301- 
303. fig. 93] has also been recorded on groundnut from Trichinopoly 
ami seems to be the species most commonly found on this crop. 

Thrips sometimes occur on the leaves, and do some damage, but 
these are insects that we really know nothing about in India as yet. 

At Palur in 1916 Thrips was bad on groundnut. 

Mites al o sometimes damage groundnut leaves but here again we 
come to a group that we know nothing about. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



93 



Mites are sometimes very bad, the attacked plants turning pale Mr. Ramakrishi a 
yellow. Dusting with Sulphur has been tried with success on a plot Ay^- 
of three to four acres. 

Jassids were reported to have done some damage to groundnut at Mr. Ghosh 
Kanki Farm, near Ranchi, in September 1915. I visited the Farm at 
that time and found some green Jassids still on the plants. Mr. Dobbs 
said that there had previously been a large number of these insects. 
I found, on examining the plants, that the undersurfaces of the leaves 
were discoloured as if scorched ; at that time the attack was over and 
the plants were recovering to a great extent. No control measures 

had been applied. 

Boring in the stem of groundnut we have Sphenoptera arachidis Mr. Fletcher. 
[" South Indian Insects/' pp. 298-299, figs. 141, 142] which has been 
called aracliidis because it attacks groundnut especially, although I 
may note that this name is a nomen nudum. In Madras it is known as 
ver-puchi in groundnut-growing districts and in South Arcot especially 
it is often a serious pest. It is an insect which requires further investiga- 
tion, pending which we can only advise destruction of attacked plants. 

Some years back Sphenoptera aracliidis was found at Hagari in the Mr. Ramachandra 
Bellary District, In that district it is not a serious pest and only Rao - 
appears sporadically. The people pull out .the affected plants and 

destroy them. 

This insect occurs in Bombay also. In 1914, in an isolated plot of Mr. Jhaveri. 
groundnut, some plants were found dying. On cutting up the affected 
plants, this borer was discovered inside the stems. It has never been 
reported as a serious pest in Bombay. 

The seeds of groundnut are attacked by Aplanus sordidus [" South Mr. Fletcher. 
Indian Insects," p. 483, fig. 368] whose habits we had occasion to notice 
before under Sesamum. Its habits as regards harvested groundnut 
crops are much the same and this insect is often found in very large 
numbers on harvesting-floors. 

Tlie adult bug occurs on the groundnut plants in the fields and Mr. Ramachandra 
probably sucks the sap of the shoots and leaves. 

Yes ; that is noted in my book. It is, however, on the harvested crop Mr. Fletcher, 
that the bug becomes a pest. I do not think we know anything about 
its early stages and where they are passed. 

The roots of groundnut are attacked by a few insects, amongst 
which are : — 

Anomala. 
Termites. 
Dorylus orientalis. 
Gonocephalum elongatum. 



94 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. David. 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Anomala grubs sometimes injure groundnut roots but we have no 
exact information about the species concerned or the real amount of 
damage done. 

Termites also often attack groundnut below ground and may do a 
good deal of damage, but here again we want to know a great deal more 
about the species of Termites concerned — probably it is usually a species 
of Microtermes — and whether qiiite healthy plants are attacked or only 
those which are sickly or dying from other causes. 

At Cawnpur Termites are bad on groundnut, and at times large 
patches are attacked. Crude Oil Emulsion is used with success in the 
irrigation water on the Cawnpur Farm. 

Crude Oil Emulsion was used in the irrigation channel at Jhajhar, 
Kohtak District, Punjab, and putting the Emulsion in a bag, as is 
generally advocated, w T as found of no use. A man was then placed at 
the head of the channel to mix the Crude Oil Emulsion thoroughly with 
the w T ater with his hands ; this was found successful. At Jhajhar, 
Termites are so bad that groundnut cannot be grown there. 

In the Hill Districts of North-East India oil-cake is put in pits before 
tea-plants are transplanted into them. Tins saves the plants from 
termite attack to some extent. 

Dorylus orientalis was reported in June 1911 as doing damage to 
early-sown groundnut at Shahabad, Hardoi District, United Provinces. 
In this case termites were also implicated. 

Gonocephalum elongation has been reported from Cawnpur, the adult 
beetles being found on groundnut, but it seems doubtful whether the 
beetles were on the roots or were really doing damage. 



Niger Seed {(l"i\<>li<t abyssinica). 

[Kkorasan — Hind.] 

Mr. Fletcher. We have notes of a few pests on the leaves of Niger Seed : — 

Agrotis flammatra. 
Perigea capensis. 
Plusia orichalcea. 
Chrotogonus. 
? Pachnephorus. 

Agrotis flammatra seems to occur chiefly in the Punjab. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. The caterpillars cut off young shoots in the Punjab. 

Mr. Fletcher. We have already dealt with A. flammatra under gram. We want 

to know more about this insect before we can recommend any effective 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 95 

control-measures, beyond of course such general methods as grubbing 
up the caterpillars. 

Perigea capensis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 376-377, fig. 239] of 
which a coloured plate is now in the press, has been reared on Niger- 
seed at Pusa and in Madras, but is not much of a pest of this crop. We 
shall come to it again presently under safflower. 

Plusia orichalcea has been found on Niger-seed at Pusa but is not a 
regular pest of this crop. 

( 'hrotogonus attacks young plants especially and the ordinary control- 
method by bagging is applicable. 

In the Punjab Chrotogonus and other grasshoppers do considerable Mr. M. M. Lai 
damage to Niger- seed. 

A small beetle, which is probably a Pachnephorus, is also reported Mr. Fletcher, 
from Nagpur as eating the leaves, but we do not seem to have much 
information about it. 

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus). 
Sunflower was grown experimentally at Pusa some ten years ago 
but apparently was not a success. We have records of a few insect 
pests which attacked the plants then. That was before my time here 
and I do not quite know why the experiments were given up. Sunflower 
is grown extensively in some places, as in the South of Russia, for oil 
derived from the seeds, and I should have expected that it would do 
■ well in some parts of India. It is not grown, so far as I know, except 
as a garden plant but, if it should be taken up on any scale as an oil- 
seed plant in India, it will be as well to know what to expect in the 
pest line. You will find a short account of its pests in Pusa Bulletin 
No. 10 (" Treatment and Observation of Crop Pests on the Pusa Farm "), 
pp. 10-11, but we can add a few other insects to the list. On the leaves 
are found : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 

Estigmene laclinea. 

Amsacta lineola. 

Tanymecus indicus. 

Mylhcerus 11-pustulatus. 
„ blandus. 
Diacrisia obliqua attacked sunflower very badly at Pusa in 1905. 
The plants were sprayed with Lead Arsenate with rather bad effects 
but later on the caterpillars were hand-picked with better results. The 
first lot of caterpillars are stated to have come onto the sunflower 
plants " after leaving the wild nettle on which they had been breeding " ; 
the moral of which would seem to be Clean Cultivation. In the case 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of batches of eggs and young larvae, whilst still gregarious, hand- 
picking should be done. 

Estigmene lactinea and Amsacta lineola are also said to have occurred 
at Pusa in 1905 together with Diacrisia. Our collection contains a good 
many E. lactinea reared then, but no A. lineola, so that the latter record 
requires confirmation. The same treatment as for Diacrisia should 
afford control. 

The weevils, Tanymecus indicus and Myllocerus 11-pustulatus and 
blandus, also occur on sunflower leaves but are scarcely pests. 

Amongst sucking insects, we have a record of Dolycoris indicus, 
but this insect has a very wide range of foodplants and is scarcely a 
pest. 

At Pusa the sunflower heads were bored by : — 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Xa n th otra ch el us super ciliosus . 
,, f annus. 

,, perlatus. 

Statkmopoda theoris. 
Of these, Heliothis obsoleta seems to have done most damage according 
to the Report which I quoted just now. The badly affected heads were 
picked off and those slightly affected were washed over with Crude Oil 
Emulsion. 

The species of Xanthotrachelus also occurred in the heads but are 
not referred to in the Bulletin, as they were only recently identified, 
and I had a note on them in Bulletin No. 59, Note No. 27. 

Statkmopoda theoris seems to be a mere rubbish-feeder and not a real 
pest. 

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). 

[ Kusum — Hind. ] 
Mr. Fletcher. Safflower is grown to a considerable extent, partly for dye obtained 

from the flowers and partly for oil expressed from the seeds. In some 
districts, as in Bihar, the young leaves also are used as a vegetable. 
The plant is attacked by a few insect pests. 

On the leaves we find : — 
Perigea capensis. 
Ti mym ec us indie us. 

Perigea capensis is usually a minor, but occasionally a serious pest 
of safflower, eating the leaves and also the capsules. The insect is^ 
described and figured in " South Indian Insects," pp. 376-377, fig. 239 
and a coloured plate [exhibited] is now in the press. When I was at 
Coimbatore we had rather a bad attack of this caterpillar on safflower 



Perigea capensis, Gn. 

Fig. 1, egg enlarged. 

Figs. 2 to 5, caterpillars, two different colour-forms, natural size and enlarged- 

Fig. 6, pupa. 

Figs. 7 to 10, moth in resting and flying attitudes. 

The small outline figures indicate the natural sizes. 





10 




PERIGEA capensis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 97 

and sprayed with Lead Chromate without any success, but a subsequent 
spraying with Lead Arsenate was quite effective. Pupation takes place 
in the soil so that ploughing after removal of the crop is indicated to 
kill any pupae in the soil. 

Tanymecus indicus has been reported on safflower at Nagpur but 
does not seem to be a regular pest of this crop, although it is possible 
that it may at times damage young plants by nibbling the germinating 
shoots [see Fauna of India, Curculionidae, Vol. I, p. 100]. 

Lajphygma exigua is sometimes a major pest of samower in the Mr. Khare. 
Central Provinces. 

The capsules of samower are sometimes attacked by Heliothis obso- Mr. Fletcher. 
leta, which has been reared on safflower at Pusa, Coimbatore and Lyall- 
pur. We have already dealt with this insect several times, and I do 
not think there is much more to be said about it in this connection. 

A few sucking insects attack safflower : — 
Dolycoris indicus. 
Monanthia glo bulifera . 
Aphids. 

Dolycoris indicus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 470-471, fig. 347] 
is a very general feeder and is usually quite a minor pest of any crop 
on which it occurs. 

Monanthia globulifera [" South Indian Insects," p. 486, fig. 371] 
sometimes occurs on safflower but is a very minor pest as a rule. 

Aphids are sometimes bad. I saw a very bad attack of Aphids at 
Dharwar in February 1912. The species usually concerned is probably 
Macrosijphum sonchi. 

Boring in the stem and shoots are a few flies but we know little 
about them. 

In Burma the shoots of samower are attacked at Mandalay by fly Mr. Shroff. 
maggots. I have brought some specimens [exhibited]. 

It seems to be quite a new pest. We do not know it at all. Mr. Fletcher. 

We also have a record of a fly-maggot found in safflower stems at 
Mandla, in the Central Provinces, but I have not been able to get the 
species identified as yet. 

In the Central Provinces there are two kinds of flies which attack Mr. Batiram. 
safflower. In the case of one species the maggots bore into the stem 
and kill the plant ; in the case of the other the maggots are found 
attacking the seeds on the plants. 

There seem to be three dipterous pests of this crop but we seem to Mr. Fletcher, 
know remarkably little about any of them. None has been noticed 
at Pusa so far. 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

1 be next group of plants which we will consider includes the : — 

MALVACEAE. 

The first which we will take is 

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) 

on which we find a very large number of insects, of which some are 
serious pests. We will take pests of cotton seedlings. 

Cotton seedlings are attacked chiefly by grasshoppers and crickets. 
On our list I have : — 

Brachytrypes portentosus. 
Gryllodes melanocephalus. 
< 'hrotogonus spp. 
Epacromia famulus. 
Atractomorpha crenulata. 
Laphygma exigua. 
Thrips. 

Atactogaster finitimus. 
Brachytrypes portentosus has been dealt with in Vol. IV. No. 3 of 
our Entomological Memoirs. It is not especially attached to cotton 
but, when these crickets are present in large numbers and young cotton 
plants are available, considerable damage may be done. The preda- 
ceous wasp, Sphex lobatus, preys exclusively on this cricket and checks 
it to some extent. 

Gryllodes /)i<-l<nio<-( j ]>/i<ilns seems to occur chiefly in the Punjab, at 
least as a pest, and has been reported as attacking young cotton plants 
in May and June as an occasional major pest. It is controlled by light- 
traps and the burning of fires at night at the corners of the fields. 

Chrotogonus of various species occur everywhere and eat back the 
young seedlings ; they are best dealt with by bag-nets. 

Epacromia tamulus [" South Indian Insects,*' p. 525, fig. 417] some- 
times attacks young cotton plants. This grasshopper comes freely 
to light, and light-traps and fires may therefore be tried against it. 
It seems to be found throughout India, from Madras to the Punjab. 

Atractomorpha crenulata \< rat her a minor pest of cotton. We shall 
come to it again, later on. under tobacco. 

Laphygma exigua occasionally attack's cotton seedlings hut is not 
a regular pest of cotton in India. 

Thrips are sometimes found on young cotton but we seem to know 
Very little about t liesc insects. 

Atactogaster finitimus |" South Indian Insects."' p. 333, fig. 191] is a 
weevil which has appealed in Ramnad and Tinnevelly in October in some 
years and don;' considerable damage by devouring cotton seedlings. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 99 

I do not think there is anything to add to what has already been pub- 
lished about this insect. 

In Burma, at Mandalay Brachytrypes, Gryllodes and Chafers have M r Shroff 
done very serious damage to cotton seedlings, so much so that the culti- 
vators had to grow Sesamum after the attack. 

In the Punjab cotton seedlings are destroyed by Ohrotogonus and Mr> M> M< Lal# 
Gryllodes. 

In the United Provinces, grasshoppers do a lot of damage to cotton Mr David 
seedlings at Cawnpur. 

In Northern Gujarat Amsacta moorei does a lot of damage to early- Mr Jh 
sown varieties. The egg-masses are collected from the leaves and the 
caterpillars are hand-picked. 

Atactogaster finitimus does a lot of damage to cotton seedlings at Mr. Ramakrishna 
Coimbatore. Ayyar. 

We will go on to the insects found eating the leaves of cotton-plants. Mj . Fletcher. 

There is a long list, but most are unimportant as regular pests : 

Solenopsis geminata. 
Sylepta derogata. 
Phycita infusella. 
Cosmo phila erosa. 
Diner isi a obliqua. 
Estigmene lactinea. 
Pericallia ricini. 
Acon/ia graellsi. 
,, malvae. 
., intersepta. 
Tarache notabilis. 
,, nit id ul a. 
,, opalinoides. 
Pelamia (Remigia) undata. 
Euproctis fraterna. 
Litkocolletis triarcha. 
Bucadatrix loxoptila. 
Atactogaster fin itim us. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus (macuhsus). 
„ transmarinus. 

„ discolor. 

„ sabulosus. 

Tanymecus hispidus. 

,, princeps. 
Astycus lateral/is. 
Cyrtacantkaa is ranacea. 

i 2 



100 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Shroff. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 

Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Rafciram. 



Solenopsis geminata ["South Indian Insects," pp. 274-275, fig. 112] 
is an ant which perhaps we might have taken under " seedlings." It 
nibbles young leaves and buds and may do damage even to killing back 
young plants. It has also been noted to damage leaves and seedlings 
of brinjal, Cajanus indicus and Ailanthus, but does not seem to have 
been noticed on cotton outside of Madras. 

Sylepta derogata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 434-435, tab. 35] 
occurs throughout India. Burma and Ceylon and is probably the most 
destructive pest of cotton as regards the leaves of the plant. On native 
cottons it is a minor pest, but exotic cottons are especially liable to attack 
and considerable damage may be done, especially in the case of experi- 
mental plots of new varieties. In such cases it can be dealt with by 
spraying with a stomach-poison but in the case of field-crops control 
is most efficiently done by removal of the rolled leaves or simply by 
squashing caterpillars in the rolled-up leaves on the bushes. 

In the Punjab Sylepta is bad on the exotic varieties of cotton. 

In Burma I have noticed the same thing. 

In Bombay also it attacks the exotic varieties. The cultivators do- 
nothing to check the pest. 

Phycila infusella [" South Indian Insects," pp. 428-429, tab. 31J 
attacks the topshoots which wither and droop. It is a minor pest as a 
rule, occurring as a rule only on young plants, the insect disappearing 
when the flowers appear. The affected topshoots may be hand-picked.. 

Cosmophila erosa [" South Indian Insects," p. 391, fig. 257] occurs 
throughout India as a sporadic pest of cotton. As a pest it seems to 
occur chiefly in Western India, but we have records of this species on 
cotton from throughout Southern India, Dharwar, Poona, Jalgaon 
(Khandesh). Bassein Fort (Bombay). Surat, Ajmer, Narshingpur, Cawn- 
pur and Pusa. It is not attached solely to cotton but has been reared 
from bhindi at Lyallpur, Pusa and Surat, and at Pusa from Hibiscus 
cannabinus, Sida cordifolia, hollyhock and urid. Like Sylepta, it seems 
to exhibit a marked preference for exotic cottons. The larva? are best 
controlled by hand-picking. 

Cosmophila is bad sporadically in Bombay. Cotton was very 
seriously attacked once in Khandesh and it was observed that the lower 
leaves buffered more than the upper ones. The caterpi'lars were para- 
sitized by a Tachinid fly. 

In the Punjab Cosmophila erosa is Aery common but it has never 
given u- any trouble. 

In Berar it was very serious in 1907. Hand-picking was done foi 
four or five days, and Tachinid dies checked the pest afterwards. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 101 

Why was not hand-picking carried on \ Was it not found success- Mr. Fletcher, 
tful ? 

Hand-picking was done only in the beginning but later on the crop Mr. Ratiram. 
•grew very luxuriantly, because it had been manured with night-soil, 
and the coolies could not get inside the plot. 

Has anyone noticed that Cosmopkila attacks any particular varieties Mr. Fletcher, 
of cotton ? 

The variety grown in Gujarat is less attacked than the neglectum Mr Jhaveri. 
varietv grown in East Khandesh. 

Have you anything to say about the hand-picking of these caterpillars ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The caterpillars can be easily dislodged by shaking the plants and Mr. Jhaveri. 
then the caterpillars which have dropped to the ground can be crushed. 

That is what I wanted to bring out. Mr. Fletcher. 

Diacrisia obliqua sometimes attacks cotton in districts where it occurs 
and may do a good deal of damage when it is allowed to get out of hand. 
Prompt picking of eggmasses and young larva?, combined with clean 
cultivation, should be quite effective checks. 

Estiamene lactinea ['"' South Indian Insects," p. 368, fig. 230] is 
occasionally found on cotton but does not seem to be a regular pest. 

Pericallia ricini [" South Indian Insects," pp. 370-371, fig. 232] has 
been reared on cotton in Madras but is not a pest of cotton. 

Acontia graellsi [" South Indian Insects " pp. 385-386, fig. 249] is a Mr. Fletcher, 
very minor pest of cotton and is more commonly found on bhindi. We 
have records of its occurrence at Coimbatore on Cambodia cotton and 
at Shripur (Bengal) on cotton-flower. 

Acontia malvcs may occasionally be found on cotton but we seem 
to have no records from cotton, so it is evidently of little importance 
as a pest. 

Acontia intersepta also is not definitely known to occur on cotton 
but, as it feeds on bhindi and Sida, it may be found on cotton also at 
times. 

Ta/rache notabilis occurs throughout the Plains of India as a very 
minor pest of cotton. 

Tarache nitidula [" South Indian Insects," pp. 381-382, fig. 243] 
occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India and is an occasional 
minor pest of cotton . 

Tarache opalinoides [" South Indian Insects," p. 382, fig. 241] occurs 
in Central and Southern India as a very minor pest of cotton. 

All these species of Acontia and Tarache are potential rather than 
actual pests of cotton but may possibly occur sporadically as pests in the 
same way as Cosmophila ero.sa. 



102 PROCEEDINGS 01 THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MATING 

Pelamia (Remigia) undata has been noted at Nagpur on cotton as a 
very minor pest. It occurs more commonly on leguminous plants and 
is not likely to be much of a pest on cotton. 

Ewproctis fraterna occurs throughout India. Burma and Ceylon, and 
we have records of it as reared on cotton in Madras and at Lyallpur 
and Poona. !r is a polyphagous species, not likely to be" a regular pest 
of cotton but liable to occur occasionally. 

Lithocolletis triarcha is a small Gracilariad moth whose larva mines 
cotton leaves. It has only been noticed at Pusa so far as I know and 
can hardly be looked on as a pest. 

Bucculalrix loxoptila is a small Lyonetiad moth which was reared at 
11. Madras Presidency, in June 1907 from larvae found eating small 
holes iu leaves of Caravonica cotton. It has not been noted hi India 
since then or from any other locality, but I call your attention to it 
because it is possible that it may prove to be a pest. This species was 
only described comparatively recently by Mr. Meyrick [Exotic Micro- 
lepidoptera,!., 209] but it was described from examples sent from Zanzibar, 
where the larva was found damaging cotton. Whether it was intro- 
duced into Zanzibar from India or vice versa, or whether it is a widely 
distributed species, we do not know, but certainly in Zanzibar it has 
proved a pest and we have it occurring in India, so it may turn up here 
also as a pest. I might add that in a recent number of the Journal 
of Economic Entomology yon will find an account of an allied species, 
Bucculatrix thurberiella, which has recently been noted as a pest of 
cotton in California. So that if von find a small caterpillar eating holes 
in the leaves of cotton in India we should like to know more about it. 

Atactogaster finitimus we have just dealt with under the head of 
seedlings, but it sometimes injures the leaves of more mature plants as 
well. 

Of the species of Myllocerus on our list, M. transmarinus [Fauna 
of India. Curculionidae, Vol. I, p. 337. fig. 102] seems to be attached 
especially to Zizyphus and Dalbergia but has also been found on cotton 
at Pusa, doubtless as a mere casual visitor ; M. discolor [Fauna <>j India. 
Curculionidae, Vol. I, p. 348, fig. 106] is widely distributed in India and 
has a wide range of foodplants and has also been found at Pusa on cotton, 
but is not a pesl so lav as we know; M. sabulosus [Fauna of India, 
Curculionidae, Vol. I. p. 336] occurs throughout Madras, Bengalandthe 
United Provinces on Zizyphus and Casuarina and has also been noted 
at Pusa as a casual visitor on cotton. 

Myllocerus 11-puslidatus, under which name is included the variety- 
mac? Desbr., is common throughout [ndia on a. huge variety of 
foodplants and is often abundant on cotton, of which it is a regular 



Myllocerus 11-pushdatus (macutosus). 

Pigs. 1 and '2 show the grub, and 

Fig. 3 the hind end of the same ; 

Fig. 4 shows a pupating grub inside the pupal cell ; 

I igs. 5 and 6 are the front and the back views of the pupa ; 

Fig. 7 is the adult weevil enlarged, and 

Fig. 8 is the same, natural size, eating a pigeon pea leaf. 

Outline figures show the natural sizes. 








MYLLOCERUS MACULOSUS. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 103 

minor pest, Its lifehistory is shown on a coloured plate issued last 
year. The most effective control is by shaking the weevils off the 
affected plants onto cloths or into trays and then dropping the catch 
into oil and water. 

Tanymecus his'pidus, Mshll. [Fauna of India, Curculionidae, I, p. 98, 
fig. 24, t.] is known from Bihar to the Punjab and has been found on 
cotton at Rohtak, but it is of no importance as a pest of cotton. 

Tanymecus princeps, Fst. [Fauna of India, Curculionidae, I, 97, 
fig. 24, I.] occurs from Bengal to Surat and North Kanara. At Surat 
it was found on cotton leaves, but we do not know it as a pest of cotton. 

Astycus lateralis is sporadically abundant at Pusa on cotton and 
has also been found on cotton at Cawnpur and Nagpur. It appears 
to be universally distributed throughout India and Burma but does 
little damage to cotton as a rule. Control, when abundant, as in 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

Gyrtacanthacris ranacea [" South Indian Insects," pp. 530-531, 
fig. 424] is common in cotton fields thoughout India and undoubtedly 
does some damage at times by eating the leaves, but it is scarcely a pest. 
When sufficiently common, it can be caught in bags or hand-nets. 

In Nadiad there is a grasshopper which is a sporadic pest. It occurred Mr. Jhaveri. 
in 1913 and 1914. I am not sure of its identity. 

The flowers of cotton are attacked and eaten by various Meloid and Mr. Fletcher. 
Cetoniad beetles. The habits of all are very similar as regards damage 
and when in sufficient numbers they can be collected by hand or in 
hand-nets. 

We will take next the insects injuring cotton buds : — 
Dasyneura gossypii. 
Gelech ia go'ssypiella . 
E arias fabia. 
,. insulana. 

Dasyneura gossypii was originally brought forward as a cotton-pest 
in India in £i South Indian Insects " where it is described and figured, 
pp. 363-36-1, fig. 223, as Contarinia sp., and it has since been described 
[Canadian Entomologist, 1916, 29-30] by Dr. Felt as Dasyneura gossypii. 
I do not think there is much to add to the account already given. This 
species has only been noted so far at Coimbatore, the larva? boring in the 
l)ii (Is which wither and fail to expand. It is probably widely distributed 
in India but is easily overlooked, so I draw your attention to it. 

This gall-fly occurs in Mysore also in cotton-buds. Mr. Kunhi Kan- 

nan. 

Gelech"/ gossypiella and the species of Earias also damage the flower- Mr. Fletcher. 
buds of cotton but we will consider them under the beading of Bolls. 



104 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Attacking the bolls and seeds of cotton we find :— 

Earias fahia 

„ insulana. 
Gelechia gossypielh . 
A natrachyntis s implex . 
Heliothis obsolete/,. 
Dysdercus cinaulatus. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. 
AVphitobius piceus. 

Both species of Earias have acquired a considerable economic litera- 
ture in India. The latest account is given in " South Indian Insects," 
[Earias insulana, pp. 384-385, tab. 22 ; E. fabia, p. 385, tab. 23]. In 
Southern India fabia is rather commoner ; in the Punjab insulana is 
much commoner than fabia in the Western Districts, but in the Eastern 
part of the Punjab fabia and insulana seem to be equally common. The 
damage done, however, is identical. In the aggregate both species 
must cause an immense loss to the cotton crop of India, but it is in the 
Punjab that this damage is most pronounced, and in some years it is 
very serious indeed running into a loss of several million pounds sterling. 
As the Punjab is so much concerned, perhaps Mr. Madan Lai will tell 
us about Earias in that Province. 

In the Punjab Earias (both species, but principally E. insulana) 
attacks the cotton plant every year. In some years the attack is more 
serious than in others. We have not worked for many years on this 
pest but the observations made so far show that there are two factors 
which exercise a check on its abundance, namely, the early monsoon 
rains and the presence of the parasite. If we have early monsoon rains 
in June and July, the early broods are destroyed more or less, as the 
affected buds and flowers drop down onto the ground. 

But are not the larvae found boring in the shoots during the early 
stages of the attack ? 

They do attack the shoots but not to the same extent as they do 
the buds and flowers. The rain has an effect only on the affected buds 
and flowers which fall off the plants especially after a heavy shower 
of rain. 

In the later stages of growth of the plants, in August and September, 
the severity of the attack depends on the presence or absence of the 
parasite. If the parasite is present in the field, then the attack is less ; 
if the parasite is absent, then the attack is more. 

Can you give u^ any data regarding the factors controlling the abund- 
ance of the parasite I 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 105 

I cannot say anything very definite as to the conditions under which Mr. M. M. Lai. 
we find more or less parasites. But their occurrence generally depends 
•on the preceding winter. If the winter is severe, it seems to affect the 
parasites and in the following summer their numbers are less. 

In that case the control of the bollworm can be attained by reintro- Mr. Fletcher. 
duction of the parasites. This has been done to some extent, I know, 
and we have sent living parasites (Rhogas) from Pusa to the Punjab 
during the last two years with this object in view. Can you tell us what 
has been done in this line in the Punjab ? 

We receive the parasites from Pusa in June and July and liberate Mr. M. M. Lai. 
them in the parasite-breeding plots and in this way we get them estab- 
lished by the time the cotton is in boll. The parasites do not seem to 
attack the bollworm in the buds and flowers quite to that extent as 
they do when the caterpillars are in the bolls. When the parasites 
get well established in the parasite-breeding plots, we remove the affected 
bolls and place them in parasite boxes which are sent out and placed in 
badly affected cotton-fields. But, before despatching, we make abso- 
lutely certain that the parasite boxes contain the parasites in them. 

About what date do you have these parasite boxes ready for distri- Mr. Fletcher, 
bution in the affected fields % 

By the second week in August we get the parasites established and Mr. M. M. Lai. 
from that time onwards we begin to distribute them, until about Novem- 
ber. 

How is the distribution of these boxes carried out ? Mr. Fletcher. 

We train a number of Agricultural Assistants to help us in the work Mr. M. M. Lai. 
of distribution of the parasite boxes in the districts. Last was the 
first year in which we distributed these boxes on an extensive scale 
throughout the Punjab. We took up this work in four districts in 
which the Agricultural Staff was able to carry it out. The first lot of 
parasite boxes was sent out from Lyallpur to* each of these districts, 
in which it was placed in bollworm-affected cotton-fields and left for a 
fortnight ; at the end of that time, affected cotton-bolls in the adjacent 
area were collected and placed in other parasite boxes and distributed 
further. Each District Staff was given one hundred of the parasite 
boxes and these were used over and over again, because all the parasites 
leave them within fifteen days. When the parasites were established 
the boxes were refilled with bollworm-affected bolls and distributed 
again. 

Were these secondary sendings of boxes, sent out by the District Mr. Fletcher. 
Agricultural Staffs, examined to see that they actually did contain 
the parasites ? 



I m; 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



You cannot always be sure of that because the District Agricultural 
Staff is not trained to do this. But we take care that several of the 
primary plots do contain the parasites; we examine the affected bolls 
and sec that the parasites arc present. We have to take our chance 
as to whether the parasites are present in the boxes sent out from the 
secondary plots. 

Eave you any data regarding the percentage of bollworm attack 
before and alter the use of these parasite boxes ? 

Last year it was taken before the boxes were placed in the fields 
and we obtained the percentage in some cases. It was fairly high and 
showed a tendency to go higher, from 15 per cent, to 20 per cent, and 
from 20 per cent, to 25 per cent., and figures like that. That was before 
we used the parasite boxes. After the parasite boxes were used, the 
percentage of attack remained constant for some time and then slowly 
began to decrease. Of course, it was impossible to get exact figures. 

How did you obtain the figures you have given ? 

One can easily take the percentages from plots in which the para- 
sites have been liberated and compare them with those of areas in which 
the parasites have not been introduced. 

How many boxes did you use '. 

About 2,000 boxes were used altogether. Each District Assistant 
was given 100 boxes which he used five or six times over. Actually 
about 400 boxes were in use at one time. 

You really think that the parasite-boxes did good work ? 

The conclusion we have arrived at is that by the use of the parasite- 
boxes the attack of bollworm is generally lessened. Where the para- 
s' te-boxes are not used, the attack is always bad. 

I think that a great deal more investigation is required before we 
can say much definite about the real value of these parasites. Our 
experience at. Pusa, in breeding these parasites under the most favour- 
able conditions; in special plots which are kept full of Earias, is that 
the percentage of parasitization is extremely low, less than 10 per cent. 
in the case of cotton and only about 12 per cent., rising to 21 per cent. 
at the most favourable time of the year, in the case of bollworms 
feeding in Hibiscus abehnoscJivs. If the percentage of parasitization is 
so low it is difficult to see how so great an effect on the bollworm attack 
on cotton can follow the liberation of the parasites. The conditions 
may. of course, be different in the Punjab but, as I just said, we want 
to know a great deal more about this matter. 

Another point is the identity of the parasites concerned. When this 
work was firsl taken up it was supposed that there was only one species 
oiRhogas, /'. lefroyi, parasitic on Earias in India. A closer examination 



Rhogas sp. 



- Fig. 1. Eggs laid singly on a caterpillar. 

Fig. 2. Young larvsG feeding on the body of a caterpillar. 

Fig. 3. A full-grown larva, side view ; 

Fig. 4. A nearly full-grown larva, dorsal view ; 
J Fig. 5. Cocoons ; 

j Fig. 6. Cocoons from which the adulta have emerged ; 

Fig. 7. Pupa of a female, dorsal view ; 

Fig. 8. Pupa, ventral view ; 

Fig. 9. Adult, male ; 

B Fig. 10. Adult, female. 

B Fig. 11. Middle part of Thorax (meso-sternum) of female ; ventral view. 

Ail figures are magnified ; the outline sketches show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING lll7 

of the material available shows that we have apparently at least five 
distinct species of Rhogas parasitic on Earias fabia and E. insulana* 
Of these, one is probably Rhogas lefroyi, another is apparently identical 
with R. kitchener i, described by Dudgeon and Gough [Agric. Jour it. 
Egypt, III, p. 108] from Earias insulana in Egypt, and the other three 
are probably undescribed species. We have sent specimens to Washing- 
ton to Mr. Brues for exact identification, but this has not been received 
yet. Of course, the fact that more than one sj)ecies of Rhogas is con- 
cerned is not a matter of interest merely from the systematic point of 
view ; it is a matter of some moment in considering this question of 
parasitization of Earias by Rhogas and it complicates the question immen- 
sely. Here again our present knowledge is very defective. We want to 
know which of these species are concerned as effective checks on Earias 
(if any of them are). It may turn out that only one is really important 
and, if so, we want to know which one. Then there are other points. 
For example, in the very same number of the Agricultural Journal of 
Egypt in which Dudgeon and Gough described Rhogas kitcheneri they 
note that it was also bred in Egypt as a parasite of Ephestia cautella. 
Does any Rhogas, effective in India as a check on Earias, parasitize any 
other common insect on which we can breed it more readily than on 
Earias ? At present we do not know, but a more thorough investigation 
of the subject might well bring to light many facts of this sort which 
could be utilized. I may add that the coloured plate, issued under the 
name Rhogas lefroyi, shows a Rhogas which does not agree with the 
description of lefroyi as given by Dudgeon and Gough and it is probably 
a distinct and undescribed species, although we have specimens from 
Lyallpur which agree fairly well with the description of lefroyi. I may 
also call your attention to the fact that this is one of the numerous cases 
in which systematic work must form the very foundation of any applied 
work in economic entomology. 

Besides the use of parasites, have you tried any other methods of 
control of cotton bollworm in the Punjab ? 

Handpicking of the affected buds, flowers and bolls used to give the Mr. M. BL LaL 
best results but experience has shown us that it is a very tedious measure 
to adopt on any large scale, and it is very difficult to induce people 
privately to handpick their affected plots. They prefer to have bad 
cotton rather than none at all. For the last two years we have been 
making some experiments by mechanical aid, shaking the plants by 
dragging a rope over them and irrigating the field afterwards. Cotton 
is mostly grown in irrigated areas. Dragging a rope over the top portions 
of the plants gives very much the same effect as a strong gust of wind 
will give. The idea is that all the affected buds and flowers will drop 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

down when the rope is drawn over the plants. After that, when the 
field is irrigated, this gives the same effect as a shower of rain. In this 
way we reduce the attack in the early stages. When we irrigate the 
field, the attacked buds and flowers drop and rot in the standing water ; 
we have collected many of these fallen buds and flowers and found the 
bollworms inside, and these bollworms are drowned in the irrigation 
water. By this means a large area can be gone over with comparative 
ease. 

Mr. Fletcher. What time of year do you do this ? 

Mr. M. M. Lai. In the Punjab cotton is generally sown in March and it remains in 

the field until November or December. We get a number of buds in 
May, but the cotton-plants are not much attacked before June or July, 
after which bolls begin to be formed. It is therefore when the later buds 
and flowers are present, in June or July according to locality, that this 
control -measure may be carried out. 

Mr. G. R. Dutt. At this stage of the discussion it seems desirable that a few words 

may be said as to the facts which led to the idea of shaking the cotton 
plants artificially and then submerging the fallen affected buds and 
flowers and bolls by irrigating the area. 

In the year 1911 there was a bad outbreak of the Cotton Bollworm 
in the Punjab, and I had the good fortune of having been deputed there 
by the Imperial Entomologist to study the pest. I reached there in the 
last week of August and started forthwith three experimental plots : — ■ 

(1) the " treated plot," i.e., the plot from which all affected buds, 

flowers and bolls were periodically picked off and des- 
troyed, 

(2) the " untreated plot," i.e., the plot which was left to itself and 

in which no remedial measures were adopted against the 
pest, 

(3) the " parasite breeding " plot, i.e., the plot in which the 

parasites of the cotton bollworm were encouraged. 
The next step taken was to ascertain the condition of these plots 

from an entomological view-point and for this the following method was 

devised : — 

Two central rows of cotton plants were selected in a field ; all the 
buds, flowers and bolls on a plant (commencing from one 
end) were counted and then the number of damaged buds, 
flowers and bolls on the same plant was noted. The next 
plant in order was then dealt with similarly. This opera- 
tion was continued till the total number of buds, flowers 
and bolls examined reached up to 2.000 or so. Loss per- 
centage was finally calculated. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 109 1 

In this way on 26th August 1911 the loss percentage in the plots 
selected for experiments was determined and it was found to be nearly 
25 per cent. On the night of 30th August 1911 at about 10 o' clock a 
terrible dust-storm moving with a tremendous velocity passed over 
Lyallpur. The houses were shaken to their very foundations and no tree 
was left uninjured in the station. The storm was followed by a heavy 
shower of rain which was recorded as over two inches and a half in the 
town. On the following morning, i.e., 31st August, the loss percentage 
in the plots had to be ascertained again, and it was found to have fallen 
down to 9 per cent, in one and to 11 per cent, in another. Several 1 
countings were made but with the same results. This evidently showed 
that the storm accompanied by heavy rain on the night of 30th August 
had some beneficial effect on the standing cotton crop at Lyallpur. 
My detailed observations on this point have convinced me that some- 
connection does exist between heavy rainfall and decrease in the number 
of Cotton Bollworms. I shall try to explain now how it happens. 

It is a well known fact that buds, flowers and newly-formed bolls of 
cotton affected by the Bollworms wither and fall off the branches. I have 
seen that in case they remain on branches a mere touch of the hand or a 
rough shaking of the branch is sufficient to make them drop to the ground. 
Now when a storm blows over a cotton field on which the standing plants 
bear 25 per cent, damaged buds, flowers and bolls on them, the result 
will be that a major portion of the injured buds and flowers will be 
thrown off the plants. Again, the Bollworms from these fallen buds- 
will crawl out and climb on to other healthy plants near which they may 
happen to lie and thus intensify the damage. But matters will be 
different if soon after the storm there should be a heavy rain. If the soil 
is not very pervious water will stand in the field and drown all the fallen 
buds and flowers. The worms inside them will either get suffocated 
and die or get wet and develop some fungus growth which will prove 
fatal to them. Some caterpillars leave the buds and flowers and, being 
unable to get to other plants, die. 

To inquire into this point further, I visited certain places which had 
experienced similar atmospheric variations on the night of 30th August 
1911. I calculated the damage due to Bollworm in those localities to be 
between 9 and 10 per cent. There was nothing authentic on record to 
show to what extent the plants were damaged prior to the advent of the 
storm and rain, consequently I had to rely on the results of local enquiry. 
The Zaildars and Lambardars assured me that the loss was much 
greater before than at that time. 

One point more to make my views clear on the subject. The small 
caterpillars on hatching out from the eggs feed (1) inside the cotton 



HO PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

shoots which wither and turn brown. (2) in the buds which wither or 
fall off to the ground, (3) in flowers which also wither and fall and (4) 
lastly inside the bolls which they destroy by eating the seeds and filling 
them with excrement, but when newly formed bolls are attacked, these 
also drop to the ground. Thus it is clear that there are three stages in 
the growth of the cotton plant when caterpillars are likely to be thrown 
ofE the plants if the branches are shaken, either naturally as during a 
storm and a heavy shower of rain, or by artificial means. These stages 
are (1) when the plants are throwing out buds or (2) flowers and (3) when 
flowers are just turning into bolls. The affected buds, flowers and newly 
formed bolls fall to the ground and with them the caterpillars which 
feed inside them. The caterpillars which are inside the shoots or inside 
such bolls as are in advanced stages of growth, are not at all affected 
this way. for the storm " may bend but shall never break " the tender 
shoots, and the large sized bolls have the stalk sufficiently developed, which 
keeps them firm and intact on the branches. 

Thus it will be seen that according to this theory the good resulting 
from rain is governed by three factors : — First that a heavy rain should 
follow a wind storm, secondly that this should happen at a time when 
the bollworm is chiefly in the cotton buds, flowers and young bolls ; 
and thirdly the soil should not be very pervious. When and where 
these three circumstances combine the cotton crop is bound to be bene- 
fited. 

In the South-West Punjab the annual rainfall is poor and is very 
scanty during the summer months ; but the land is visited by rather 
frequent dust-storms during this period of the year. The cotton crop 
there is grown under irrigation and there is no dearth of water on account 
of the excellent canal system. The cultivators get water for their areas 
according to turns which have been fixed by the Canal Authorities. 
But if the cultivators could get water for irrigating their fields just after 
a heavy wind-storm the effect produced would be very similar to a heavy 
shower of lain succeeding a storm and consequently would be beneficial 
to the standing crop. This appears to be rather difficult to arrange 
as there would be considerable technical difficulties put forward by the 
Irrigation Department. The next best step thought of, therefore, was 
to produce artificially the same effect as that of a wind storm by artifi- 
cially shaking the plants just before irrigating them. And this is quite 
possible. I had to return to Pusa and as winter had set in I had to 
mention it in niv report only as a suggestion of line of work to be taken 
up next year, by the Assistant Professor of Entomology, Agricultural 
College, Lyallpur. I am glad to learn that he did take up this line of 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 111 

inquiries, and the results of his experiments and observations you have 
just now heard from him. 

We have heard a good deal about Earias, but there is one other line Mr. Fletcher, 
of work that we have been doing at Pusa and that is the question of rela- 
tive intensity of attack on various kinds of cotton. We have got cotton 
of various kinds from practically all cotton-growing tracts in India and 
have been growing them here in parallel rows and keeping careful counts 
•of the relative amount of infestation, whilst several species of Hibiscus 
and other malvaceous plants have also been used for comparative tests. 
The figures of these trials are not yet ready and I think it is rather early 
to discuss them, as the experiments require to be repeated and checked, 
but the question of immune varieties is one that you might keep before 
you in considering the control of pests such as Cotton Bollworm. 

Has anyone anything more to say about Earias jabia or E. insulana ? 

How are the living parasites sent from Pusa to the Punjab ? m r> Ramakrisbna 

Ayyar. 

They are sent in small postal boxes [a specimen exhibited] made of jy[ r> Fletcher. 
strong cardboard pierced with small holes, such as are used for sending 
out silkworm eggs. The boxes are lined with fine muslin or gauze and 
inside the boxes are placed the newly-formed cocoons of the RJwgas. 
The affected cotton-bolls or Hibiscus pods or shoots are collected and 
cut open and the Earias larvae taken out and those which are parasitized 
are kept until the parasitic grubs have spun up ; they spin up on pieces 
of paper or on the bracts of the affected bolls or similar material and 
the cocoons are removed, together with the surrounding material to 
which they are attached, and this is suspended in the box by threads. 
The pupal period is about five to seven days, according to temperature, 
and the adult flies may emerge in the boxes on the way but are kept in 
by the gauze lining and usually reach in a living condition. 

If the affected bolls are sent by post, we find that the result is not 
satisfactory, as the weight of the bolls crushes the Earias larva? and any 
adult Rhogas which may emerge en route. 

The unparasitized Earias larva? are reared out and the moths liberated 
i d the breedi tig plots to provide host-material for the parasites. 

Gelechia gossypiella [" South Indian Insects," p. 454, tab. 42] occurs Mr. Fletcher, 
throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest of cotton, 
serious in most localities, especially so in the United Provinces, Punjab, 
and North-West Frontier Province. In all districts exotic 
varieties seem most subject to attack. The larva bores into the bolls, 
feeding on the seeds and spoiling the lint, and also does some damage 
to buds and flowers when bolls are not available, but when bolls are formed 
these are much preferred. Many of the attacked bolls drop off and 



HZ PROCEEDINGS 01? THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

there may be considerable loss of crop from this, or the bolls open prema- 
turely and the fibre is short and comparatively useless. The oil content 
of the attacked seed is seriously lessened also and the germination is 
also affected if the seeds are used for sowing. 

Gelechia gossypiella was first described from India in 1842 and is 
probably endemic in India. It has since been introduced into other 
cotton-growing areas and has proved a serious pest, apparently worse 
than it is in India as a whole. It was apparently introduced into Egypt 
about ten years ago, probably in so-called ginned cotton (containing 
a high proportion of seed) imported from India. In Egypt it has spread 
and increased until it has become a most serious pest of the Cotton crop. 
A most voluminous Eeport on its occurrence in Egypt has recently been 
issued by Mr. F. G. Willcocks, a large quarto volume of over 300 pages 
on this one insect. It is impossible to summarize this now but the book 
is placed on the table and I recommend those who are interested to have 
a look through it. 

Gelechia gossypiella has also been introduced into Hawaii and has 
proved a pest to cotton there also, and a good deal has been written 
about it. One interesting fact is that Mr. Fullaway has reared G. gossy- 
piella in Hawaii from Thcspesia populnea, which is a common tree in 
India and may perhaps serve as an alternative foodplant here also. 
Anyway, I draw your attention to the possibility of this. 

G. gossypiella is attacked by a good many parasites. In India a 
Braconid was reared at Surat and is figured in " Indian Insect Pests " 
[p. 95, fig. 107] under the name Urogaster depressarice, but I think that 
is only a manuscript name of Ashmead's, never published. Rhogas, 
whether of one or more species or of which species, I cannot say, has 
also been reared in India from bolls attacked by G. gossypiella but possibly 
Earias may have been present also. In Egypt Willcocks has given, 
pp. 233-269 of his Report on Pink Bollworm, a list of the parasites met 
with, and in Hawaii Swezey has listed the parasites of this species [Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Hawaii, III, pp. 101-109.] This is a subject on which we want 
to know more in India. 

Another subject on which we require more information is the various 
alternative foodplants on which Gelechia gossypiella may breed in India. 
Our series includes examples reared from cotton buds, flowers and seeds 
from various localities in India and also specimens bred at Pusa from 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, and also one Pusa specimen labelled " on holly- 
hock." Whether this last was bred or not I cannot say ; it is an example 
of the inconclusive information to be derived from an incomplete method 
of labelling, about which I spoke in my opening address to you. Amongst 
other likely food-plants are other species of Hibiscus, Abutilon, Sida and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 113- 

Bombax. It will add to our knowledge if any of you can discover addi- 
tional food-plants of G. gossypiella in India. One use that we can make 
of such a knowledge is to use such alternative food-plants as trap-crops, 
but that is not a method which is likely to be of much use in India on 
any scale because there is a great danger that the trap-crop will not be 
destroyed either at all or at the right time. Another way in which 
such a knowledge will be useful is this— that if we find any wild plant, 
such as Sida or Abutilon, acting as an alternative host-plant when 
cotton is not in the ground, we can destroy such plants and thus help 
to reduce the numbers of the pest. With regard to this, however, in 
the case of G. gossj/jnella we must bear in mind the possibility of a very 
long resting period of the larvae in cotton-seed. In my opening 
address I called your attention to Willcocks' experiment in Egypt 
when larva) from infested bolls collected in November 1913 gave rise 
to moths as late as the end of August 1915. These observations may 
not hold good in India but here again we are faced by our w T ant of 
exact knowledge of the life-history of the insect concerned, and here 
again you can all help to fill up this gap in our knowledge. Mean- 
while we shall be on the safe side if we assume that the same conditions 
hold good in India as in Egypt and that the pest can be carried on from 
year to year, or even from one year to the second year thereafter, by 
resting larva? in (a) the fields themselves, e.g., in old dropped bolls, 
fragments of cotton plants, etc., in the soil, (b) the newly-sown seed, 
whilst it is also quite possible that the insect may also carry on 
breeding in the off-season for cotton in Hibiscus spp. and hollyhocks 
and perhaps in wild malvaceous plants such as Sida spp., Abutilon 
indicum, and Thespesia populnea. 

Control must therefore provide for all these means of perpetuation of 
the pest, and may be divided up roughly into the following headings :— 
(1) Cultivation Methods. 

(a) Removal and destruction of all old broken, worthless bolls 

before and during the harvest period. Frequently these 
are left on the bushes as not worth picking, or if picked 
are thrown away, thus providing suitable breeding places 
for Gelechia. 

(b) Thorough removal and destruction of old bashes and all 

fragments of same immediately after harvest. Goats and 
sheep, if turned into the fields, will help in destroying any 
bolls left after last picking. 

(c) Removal from adjacent areas of all wild or cultivated malva- 

ceous plants which serve as alternative food-plants for 

K 



Ill- rilOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Gelechia. This is especially necessary when cotton is not 
available for food. 

(d) Irrigation of areas which have been under cotton, if practi- 

cable, in spring after crop has been removed. If the soil 
is wetted when the temperature is high, many larvre resting 
in the ground are induced to abandon the resting-stage, 
come to the surface, pupate and emerge as moths. 

(e) Early maturing varieties are less exposed to attack, and 

sowings should therefore be made as early as possible. 

(2) Methods for use with seed. 

If infected seed is sown, subsequent infection of the resulting crop 
can only be expected. It is therefore of importance to 
destroy the resting larvae in the seed before sowing. This 
can be done in various ways : — 

(a) For small quantities immersion for 5-10 minutes in hot 

water (130° F.) is efficient. 

(b) Exposure to Sun's heat (about May, when really hot) is 

effective for small quantities spread thinly so that every 
seed is reached. A temperature of 50° C. for a short 
time is fatal to the larva). 

(c) Fumigation with Carbon Bisulphide or Hydrocyanic Acid 

gas is also effective, but a proper vacuum apparatus is 
really required to attain the best results and fumigation 
is hardly possible to the cultivator. In the case of Agri- 
cultural Stations, where fumigation could be applied to 
seed on a large scale, in combination with the issue 
of pure seed to the cultivators, this method deserves trial 
in India. 

(d) Storage of cotton seed (either surplus after sowing, for 

crushing, or for running and setting gins) is a highly 
dangerous proceeding. 

Mr, Fletcher. Anatrachyntis simplex has been bred from cotton-bolls on various 

occasions but, so far as I can make, is merely a rubbish feeder and not 
a pest. It is referred to in " South Indian Insects," pp. 458-459, fig. 334, 
under the name Pyroderces coriacella, but Mr. Mcyrick has since then 
founded the genus Anatrachyntis as separate from Pyroderces and Lord 
Walsingham has informed me that he has re-examined his type of simplex 
and considers that it is identical with coriacella, Snellen ; so that both 
names of this species have been changed. 

Anatrachyntis falcatella has also been bred at Pusa from cotton shoots 
but this also is probably a rubbish feeder and not a pest of cotton. 




J 











OXYCARENWS T/FTIIS 



Oxycarenus Icetus, Kby. 

I'i'4. I, a cotton seed (enlarged) from which the lint has bqen removed to show the 

eggs ; there is one newly hatched nymph on it. 
Figa. 2 to 7 show the development of the nymph into the adult bug. 
Fig. 8, a side view of the adult bug in outline. 
Fig. 9, an open cotton boll with bugs on it. 
All figures are magnified. The small outline figures show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 115 

Heliothis obsoleta has attained notoriety in America as the cotton 
boll-worm of that part of the world, but it is very curious that in India 
it has never been noticed as a cotton pest. It does occur on cotton, but 
rather as a curiosity than as a pest, and that is about all we can say 
about it. It has been reared at Pusa on cotton-bud and cotton-boll, 
at Khandesh and Dhulia on cotton-buds, at Nagpur on cotton-boll. 
It is curious and interesting to find this great difference in its preference 
for food exhibited by this insect in India and the United States, but we 
shall come to a parallel case when we come to consider Phthorimcea 
oyerculella which attacks stored potatoes in India but has never been 
noticed on tobacco leaves, although in North America and South Africa 
this same insect is well-known as a pest of tobacco in the field. Facts 
of this sort require to be borne in mind especially when we come to con- 
sider the results which may follow on the introduction of insects into 
new countries or localities. 

Dysdercus cingulatus ["South Indian Insects," p. 484, tab. 46] occurs 
everywhere in India and Burma and is sometimes a serious pest of cotton. 
It is found on numerous other malvaceous plants, Hibiscus, Abutilon, 
Althaea, Thespesia, Bombax, etc., and often occurs in very large numbers, 
the immature nymphs clustering in masses and forming masses of vivid 
scarlet conspicuous at a great distance. When found in masses like 
this they are fairly easily dealt with by spraying, squashing, or burning 
them en masse. On cotton plants they can be collected by shaking 
into trays or into the tin funnels, fitted with a bag, as used in the West 
Indies. They may also be attracted to collections of cotton-seeds 
placed among the cotton-plants, and large numbers may be obtained 
in this way. If the seeds are wrapped in wire gauze or wire-netting, 
it makes it more convenient, as the mass of seeds can be picked up and 
the bugs shaken off. 

As regards the actual damage done, we require to know more. The 
bugs suck the seeds and must damage them as regards their oil-content. 
Last year we experimented with Dysdercus on Bombax seeds as regards 
the effect on germination, but the experiments were a failure, as all the 
seeds, both those sucked by the bugs and the clean, unsucked seeds 
kept as controls, all equally failed to germinate. 

In Bombay Dysdercus cingulatus is found everywhere. At Poona Mr. Jhaveri. 
cotton-seeds were i oaked in water for a few hours and then enclosed 
inmusUn bags, which were placed here and there amongst the cotton- 
plants. These bags attracted large numbers of bugs which were shaken 
off into a vessel containing kerosine oil and water and the bags put 
down again. 

K 2 



no 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. David. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



In the Punjab, at Lyallpur, this bug is found congregating in large 
numbers on fallen leaves during the early hours of the morning. These 
can be collected and destroyed. 

Oxycarenus Icetus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 482-483, fig. 367] 
is a minor pest of cotton, usually occurring on old open bolls and living 
upon the extremely small amount of juice that they can suck from 
ripening seeds. The life-history is shown in a new coloured plate, now 
in the press, and of which an advance proof s placed on the table 
[exhibited]. Like Dysdercvs, it is not confined to cotton but is found on 
various other malvaceous plants, such as hollyhock, Hibiscus spp., 
Abutilon and Thespesia, but in all cases this insect seems only to be 
found in old, dried pods. In the case of cotton, eggs are laid on the 
seeds inside the lint, but this only occurs in the case of old, opened bolls, 
or bolls to which access can be obtained by means of some injury such 
as a hole of exit of Earias. 

As regards control, no old open bolls should be left unplucked on 
the bushes ; this will prevent breeding to a large extent. When the bug 
is .present in numbers, it may be collected in tr ys or tin funnels over 
which the affected bolls are shaken. 

The chief damage done is not so much to the plant itself as by the 
crushing of the bugs (chiefly nymphs) when the cotton is ginned, so that 
the lint is stained. 

Oxycarenus was very bad once at Cawnpur on stored seeds and un- 
ginned cotton. These were exposed to the sun and the bugs died. This 
happened, of course, in summer. 

Alphitohius piceus has recently been reared from cotton seeds at 
Pusa. It is not a pest of the bolls on the plant, so far as we know, but 
apparently may attack the seeds kept fc5r sowing and thus be of some 
small importance to the out-turn of the next crop. 

We now come to the various sucking insects found on the cotton 
plant. Here again we have a long list but few are of any great import- 
ance : — 

Aphis gossypii. 
Empoasca sp. 
Tetranychus telarius. 
Eriopliyes sp. 
Machcerota planitice. 
Lygceus pandurus. 
Serinetha a injur. 
Clavigralla horrens. 
Eurybrachys tomentosa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 11? 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) virgatus. 

nipce. 
Cerococcus liibisci. 
Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra. 
Chionaspis sp. 
Aphis gossypii [" South Indian Insects," p. 499, fig. 388] is common 
on cotton in most districts but is rarely a serious pest, being kept in 
check by predaceous insects. It is fully described in " Indian Insect 
Pests " (pp. 110-111) and in Bulletin No. 10 (pp. 1-2), and I do not think 
there is much more to say about it. In the case of small experimental 
plots it can be checked by spraying if it appears in any numbers but 
this is hardly practicable on a field scale, when we must leave the natural 
enemies of this Aphid to keep it in check. 

A species of Empoasca is common on cotton and seems to be especially 
prevalent and destructive in the Punjab. This species also is described 
in " Indian Insect Pests " (pp. 108-110) but we have not yet been able 
to get it named up definitely. 

Will you tell us about it in the Punjab, Mr. Madan Mohan Lai ? 
At Lyallpur Empoasca was once serious on Ajmerican cotton. The Mr. M. M. Lai. 
leaves of this variety of cotton are not hairy, consequently the attack 
is serious on this variety. One plot was sprayed with Fish-oil Soap and 
it decidedly improved after spraying. Another point observed was that 
the weaker plants suffered more than the healthy ones. The leaves 
curl up as the result of attack. 

In the case of the attack of Empoasca on tea microscopical exami- Mr. Andrews, 
nation of the attacked leaves reveals that the leaf-eel 1 s are congested 
considerably as the result of the attack and this restricts the flow of the 
sap ; the leaves are consequently stunted. 

At Poona Empoasca has only been noticed on one occasion in any Mr. Jhaveri. 
numbers on exotic cotton. 

As regards the sporadic way in which Empoasca may occur I can Mr. Andrews, 
tell you of a case which happened with the Empoasca found on tea. 
A plot of 32 acres, right in the middle of a block of 5,000 acres of tea- 
bushes was seriously attacked by Empoasca. No one could tell where the 
insects had come from. The attack came on at the end of July and 
cleared up in August. Since then it has never reappeared. 

Can you tell us anything about the life-history of this Empoasca on Mr. Fletcher, 
tea ? 

The eggs are very small, oval, and are laid on the surface of the Mr. Andrews, 
leaves of tea. 

In the case of Empoasca on cotton, the eggs are inserted in the tissue Mr. Ramachaudra 
of the leaves. Ra0 - 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Ramachandra 

Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



There is evidently considerable diversity of habit in the different 
species and that affects control methods. Eggs laid on the surfaces 
of leaves could be got at by sprays, whereas those thrust into tissues 
would probably escape. 

Tetranychus telarius is one of the " Eed Spider " group of mites, 
but the exact identification of all these mites in India requires to be 
checked. The mite now under consideration is not uncommon on cotton 
at times but is hardly a serious pest. 

A species of Eriophyes also occurs on cotton, especially in Southern 
and Western India. 

It is sometimes serious on cotton leaves in Northern Gujarat and 
I tried a lime-sulphur wash to which soap was added, and the whole 
mixture diluted in the proportion of one in fifty of water. The sprayed 
plots looked much better after the treatment. 

In Madras Eriophyes has been noticed on cotton leaves. 

I am afraid that spraying is not practicable on a large scale. 

Machcerota planitice ["Indian Insect Life," p. 733, tab. 79] occurs-' 
commonly on cotton at Pusa and does some damage by stunting new 
growth of the plants. It does not seem to have been noted elsewhere, 

Lygwus pandurus [" South Indian Insects," p. 481, fig. 365] occurs 
commonly on cotton, sometimes in considerable numbers, and may do 
damage at times, but it is not definitely known to be a pest. 

Serinetha augur occurs commonly on cotton plants but is not known 
to be a pest. It has been stated by some observers that it sucks seeds 
in the same way as Dysdercus, but this has been denied by others and 
its exact feeding-habits seem to require further investigation. 

Clavigralla horrens and Eurybrachys tomentosa are sometimes found 
on cotton in some numbers, but are scarcely pests. 

Pseudococms (Dactylopius) virgatus [" South Indian Insects," p. 510 r 
fig. 398] occurs on the leaves and young shoots of cotton but is of little 
importance as a pest. 

Psevdococcus (Dactylopius) nipce [" South Indian Insects," pp. 509-51 r 
fig. 397] also occurs on cotton in a similar way. 

( 'erococcus hibisci was originally described by Green [Agricultural 
Department, Entomological Memoirs, II. 19-21, t. 2 ff. 2-4] from examples 
en branches of Hibiscus Uliiflorum from Bombay and on cotton a L Pusa. 
It has since been figured ; nd ('escribed in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 508, fig. 395. It is a conspicuous golden-yellow scale found on the 
twigs and stems of cotton and Hibiscus and the affected plants may 
easily be removed in case of a bad attack, although this scale is generally- 
kept in check by parasites. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 119 

In Burma Cerococcus hibisci is rather bad on cotton on the Experi- Mr. Shroff 
mental Farms. I have never seen a serious attack of this insect in a 
sincle cultivator's field. I have used Crude Oil Emulsion with success 
as a spray against this pest. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra [" South Indian Insects," pp. 514-515, Mr. Fletcher. 
fig. 403] occurs fairly commonly on cotton, and individual plants or 
small patches of plants may be very badly attacked, the stems and 
branches of the plants being literally covered with the scales. The 
appearance of an attacked branch is shown in the figure in my book. 
The attack is usually very localized and can easily be checked by 
removal and destruction of the affected plants and any adjacent ones 
which are likely to be infected. 

In Mysore this Scale attacks the cotton plant and was very bad on Mr. Kunhi Kan- 
one occasion. uan * 

The last Scale on our list is an unidentified species of Chionaspis Mr. Fletcher. 
which is occasionally bad on cotton at Pusa, but we have no record of 
its occurrence elsewhere. 

We now come to the insects found boring in the stem of cotton-plants : — 

Sphenoptera gossypii. 
Pempheres afpnis. 
Alcides affaber. 
,, leopardus. 
,, fabricii. 
Zeuzera coffece. 
Sphenoptera gossypii [" South Indian Insects," p. 298, tab. 8] is 
widely distributed in India but seems rather localized as a pest. In 
Madras it is only known in the Bellary District, in the Central Provinces 
it seems to be worst in Berar, and in Bombay it is a serious pest in the 
Surat district, but in the other parts of India, although it may occur, 
it does not seem to be much of a pest. The life-history has been described 
in " Indian Insect Pests," pp. 100-103, and there is not much to add. 
Control is best attained by prompt destruction of all attacked plants, 
which wither and are quite noticeable. 

In Berar Sphenoptera gossypii was very serious about seven years ago, Mr. Ratiram. 
but the demonstration of uprooting and burning the affected plants 
has been very successful. The damage has now been reduced to a very 
great extent so that nowadays we find only about one plant attacked in 
a thousand. 

In Surat this pest is very serious, but the removal of the affected Mr. Jbaveri. 
plants has been found to be very successful. The pest is chiefly noticed 
in the young crop. 



i 20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Kunhi Kan- 
nan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Sphenoptera gossypii occurs in the Punjab also, but is a minor pest. 
It is found in Mysore also, near the Dharwar side. 

Pempheres affinis. The life-history is described and figured in " South 
Indian Insects," p. 339, fig. 198, and the damage done to cotton is shown 
in figure 199. It is referred to under the name Phylaitis 
sp. in Bulletin No. 10, page 6. At Pusa it has been found in cotton, 
bhindi (Hibiscus esculentus), and there is also a record of it as found 
in Cannabis stem, but it seems doubtful whether this was really Cannabis 
or Hibiscus cannabinus in which it has been found at Coimbatore. 

The distribution of this insect in India seems to be very little known. 
'We know it from Pusa in Bihar and from Coimbatore and Cuddapah 
: . Madras. Probably it is more widely distributed but has been over- 
looked. 

As regards damage, this may be serious. At Coimbatore in 1912-13 
a large proportion of the Cambodia cotton plants on the Farm was 
attacked and about twenty-five per cent, succumbed, being broken of? 
by the wind. More recently, the attack has been much reduced but the 
cause of this reduction seems rather doubtful. It may perhaps be a case 
of selection, the seeds of the unattached or less attacked plants surviving 
each year being used for the next year's crop ; or it may be due to a 
reduction of the numbers of the insect in the area, owing to regular 
destruction of attacked plants — but on the other hand the areas under 
local cottons all around the Farm are full of this insect ; or it may be 
merely a reduction in numbers due to natural causes. 

As regards control, no really satisfactory method has yet been 
found. The badly attacked bushes, which break in the wind, should be 
removed regularly and destroyed. Painting of preventives, such as 
Crude Oil Emulsion, on the stems of young plants, is impracticable on a 
field scale. We tried the effect of Crude Oil Emulsion on the young 
plants at Coimbatore but the results were not very conclusive. 

Some work on this weevil lias been done at Coimbatore during the 
last two years. Will you tell us about it, Mr. Ramachandra Rao ? 

Pempheres affinis is a specific pest of cotton. It is chiefly found at 
( 'oimbatore. The egg is generally laid in the stem just below the epider- 
mis. The grub bores into the stem and, due to the irritation caused, 
a swelling is formed. The young plants succumb to the attack and plants 
with those swellings often break down in high winds. Cambodia cotton 
i 1 - more liable to attack' than other varieties. 

A larger percentage of Cambodia plants break off as the result of attack. 
And as regards control ? 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 121 

As regards control, pulling out and burning the affected plants has Mr. Ramachandra 
been found very useful. Rao ' 

At Coimbatore Pempheres affinis is found in Hibiscus cannabinus 
also. 

Alcides affaber has hitherto been mixed up with A. leopardus and the Mr Fletcher, 
account of the latter in " South Indian Insects," pp. 338-339, fig. 197, 
refers wholly or in part to affaber. The habits of the two species seem 
very similar. 

Alcides affaber occurs at Coimbatore and bores in the shoots of cotton Mr. Ramakrishna 
and bhindi. A. leopardus is not found in Coimbatore. Ayyar. 

Alcides leopardus has been reared at Pusa from larvae boring the Mr. Fletcher. 
shoots and stems of cotton-plants. It is scarcely a pest. 

Alcides fabricii is another weevil, with a black thorax and dark 
reddish-brown elytra with interrupted creamy stripes. We have a 
record of it from Nagpur " on cotton," but I do not know whether it 
was reared or whether it is merely another example of defective labelling. 

Zeuzera coffece [" South Indian Insects," p. 446, fig. 323] very occa- 
sionally bores into cotton-plants but is not a pest of cotton in India. 
It has been noticed in cotton in Ceylon and Burma. 

A few insects have been noted to damage cotton-plants by gnawing 
the bark. These are : — 

Ccelosterna spinator. 
Episomus lacerta 

Cwlosterna spinator [" South Indian Insects," p. 325, fig. 180] has been 
recorded occasionally to eat the bark of cotton-plants but is not a regular 
pest of cotton. 

Episomus lacerta [" South Indian Insects," pp. 327-328, fig. 184] 
also occasionally nibbles the bark of cotton-bushes, but is scarcely a 
pest. 

The roots of the cotton-plant are attacked by : — 
Termites. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

Termites of various species will attack any cotton-plants that are 
injured or unhealthy but they are scarcely regular pests of healthy 
plants. 

The larvse of Myllocerus 11-pustulatus, whose life-history is shown 
in the coloured plate issued last year, live in the soil and feed on small 
roots of various kinds. The adults may therefore damage the leaves, 
and the larva) the roots, of the cotton-plant and the insect is thus doubly 
a pest, although it is difficult to estimate how much damage is done below 
ground. The adult weevils can be collected and destroyed and this will 
reduce the damage by the next generation of larva?. 



]■!■: 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE .SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



That completes the insect pests of cotton, I think. Has anyone 
anything more to say about cotton-pests before we go on to bJiindi ? 

Mr. Khare. In the Central Provinces, some experiments were tried at Telinkhedi 

Farm regarding the control of Earias on cotton by the use of bhindi as 
a trap-crop. Three plots were sown, one with cotton and bhindi, the 
second with cotton alone, the third with cotton and bhindi, each at a 
distance of one to two miles from the others. In the first plot the affected 
pods were destroyed and in the third plot this was not done. The loss 
percentage in plot No. 1 was about 5, whilst in Nos. 2 and 3 it was about 
25. 

Mr. Fletcher. There is no doubt that bhindi is useful as a trap-crop for Earias, 

provided that the affected pods and the trap-crop are properly destroyed 
at the right time. The difficulty in practice is to get this done. What 
happens is that the cultivator finds that he is getting an eatable or sale- 
able vegetable from the bhindi plants and he will not destroy 
these plants. A control method of this sort may be all right on Govern- 
ment Farms or on limited areas under proper supervision, but I think 
we should be very chary of recommending trap-crops of this sort on a 
large scale without a great deal more investigation on the subject. 



Bhindi (Hibiscus esculentus). 

The insect pests of bhindi and of other species of Hibiscus are, gene- 
rally speaking, very similar to those on cotton and in most cases they are 
identical, and it is as alternative food-plants for cotton-pests that these 
plants are chiefly of importance. So, as we have already discussed 
these insects under cotton, we need only run over them again very 
briefly. 

Bhindi seedlings are attacked by — 

Pachnephorus impressus. 
Agrotis flammatra. 

Pachnephorus impressus has been noted at Pusa and Agrotis flammatra 

is chiefly of importance in the Punjab. 

Bhindi leaves are attacked by : — 

Sylepta derogata. 
Acontia inter septa. 

„ malvce. 

„ transversa. 
Cosmophila erosa. 
Helcystogramma hibisd, 
Atmetonychus peregrinus. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 123 

Mylloc&rus 11-pust ulatus. 

„ viridanus. 

,, blandus. 
Nisotra sp. 

Mites. 

Sylepta derogata occurs commonly on bhindi in all districts. The 
larva? roll the leaves, as in the case of cotton, and may be handpicked. 

Acontia intersepta has been reared on bhindi at Nagpur, but is not 
known as a pest. 

Acontia malvce has been reared on bhindi at Surat and A. transversa 
at Nagpur but they are scarcely pests. 

Cosmophila erosa has been reared on bhindi at Pusa, Surat and Lyallpur 
but is rarely a pest. 

Helcystogramma hibisci has been reared at Pusa on bhindi but is not 
a pest and seems to be attached to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis as a rule. 

Atmetonychus peregrinus [Fauna of India, Curculionidce, Vol. I, 
pp. 112-113, fig. 37] is known from Bengal, Bihar and the Punjab. It 
was found at Ambala on bhindi but is not known to do any damage to 

this plant. 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus occurs throughout India and is sometimes 
tound on bhindi leaves in small numbers. M. viridanus was found on 
bhindi at Shoranore, in Malabar, and M. blandus at Pusa, but neither is 
known as a pest. 

An unidentified Flea-beetle, probably a species of Nisotra, occurred 
at Moulmein in September 1914 in large numbers on bhindi and was doing 
considerable damage. In this case it was a serious pest, but we do not 
know any more about it. 

Mites occur on bhindi, chiefly in Madras, as a minor pest. trishra 

Mites attack bhindi leaves at Coimbatore and the affected leaves Aj J" yar ama 
become discoloured. Mr Fletcher 

The flowers of bhindi are eaten by Meloid and Cetomad beetles. 
Oxycetonia versicolor has been noted in West Khandesh and 0. albo- 
punctata at Pusa. These beetles are easily controlled by collection by 
hand or in hand-nets. 

The pods of bhindi are attacked by : — 
E arias fabia. 

„ insulana. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 

We have just now dealt with these two species of E arias under cotton 
and there seems no need to say any more about them now. 



121. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Heliothis obsoleta was found boring bhindi pods at Pusa in January 
1916, but it must be regarded as a rarity on this plant and has never 
been noticed as a pest. 

Various sucking insects occur on bhindi : — 

Eurybrachys tomentosa. 
Dysderc us cingulatus. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. 

Corizus rubicundus. 

Jassids. 

Aphis malvce. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra. 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) nipce. 

virgatus. 

Eurybrachys tomentosa has been noted on tender shoots of bhindi at 
Nagpur and Aurangabad but it is not a pest, I think. 

Dysdercus cingulatus occurs on bhindi in large numbers and must be 
regarded as a pest. 

Oxycarenus Jul us occurs in old, dry pods in the same way as it does 
in cotton-bolls, but probably does little damage to the plant. 

Corizus rubicundus is found in some numbers on bhindi and is pro- 
bably a minor pest. 

Jassids occur in all districts and are said to attack the bhindi crop in 
Bombay during the monsoon but we do not know the species concerned 
or much about the attack. 
Mr. Jhaveri. Jassids occur on bhindi leaves in Gujarat. 

Mr. Khare. In the Central Provinces bhindi plants are attacked by Jassids at 

Nagpur. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. Jassids occur on bhindi in the Punjab also. 

Mr. Fletcher. Aphis malvce has been found on bhindi at Pusa but scarcely as a pest. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra occurs more or less casually on bhindi 
but is also scarcely a pest. 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) nipce and virgatus occur in small numbers 
on the stems and shoots, but rarely give trouble as pests. 

A few boring insects attack bhindi ; — 

Sph en opt era gossyp i i . 
Alcides sp. 
Pempheres affinis. 
Robica hones! a. 

Sjihenoplrra yosxi/pii occasionally bores into bhindi in the districts 
in which it occurs but is not a regular pest of bhindi. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 125 

Alcides sp. We have a record of Alcides leopardus as found on bhindi, 
but the Pusa Collection contains no examples reared from this plant and 
the record requires confirmation. 

Pempheres affinis occurs in bhindi plants at Pusa and is probably 
more widely distributed, but overlooked. It does not, however, seem 
to do much damage in bhindi. 

Robica honesta is a Lamiad beetle which has recently been bred at 
Mandalay from bhindi. 

At Mandalay a couple of grubs of Robica honesta were found boring Mr- shroff, 
in the stems of Hibiscus esculentus and castor. 

At present, then, we can hardly call it a pest. Any more pests of Mr- Fletcher. 
bhindi ? 

Eelworms are getting quite serious in certain tracts of the Punjab, Mr# w. M. LaL 
especially round about Lyallpur. Young as well as well-grown plants 
are injured. Bhindi and cotton are liable to their attacks. 

Rozelle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa). 

The pests of Rozelle are very similar to those of bhindi on the whole, M r , Fletcher. 
but there are one or two differences so far as we know at present. 

The top-shoots are attacked by Phycita infuMla, so that this Hibiscus 
is an alternative food-plant for this cotton-pest. 

The leaves are eaten by larvae of Cosmophila erosa and Sylepta dero- 
gata. 

As regards the pods, it is worthy of note that up to date we have not 
bred either Earias or Gelechia from Rozelle. 

Ambadi (Hibiscus cannabinus). 

[Gogu — Madras.] 

Here again the pests are very similar to those on cotton and bhindi 
and need not detain us long. 

The flowers are attacked by Zonabris pustidata in Madras and pro- 
bably by allied species in other districts. 
The leaves are eaten by : — 
Euproctis scintillans. 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Telchinia violce. 
Phycita injusella (top-shoots). 
Cosmophila erosa. 
Nisotra madurensis. 
Dereodus mastos. 
MyUocerus 11-puslulatus. 
,, discolor. 



126 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Khare. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Ewproctis scintillans [" South Indian Insects," p. 399, fig. 268] is 
occasionally serious on gogu in Madras, but is usually a minor pest of 
little importance. 

Diacrisia obliqua may occur on this plant in districts where this 
insect occurs as a general pest of low-growing plants, but ambadi is not 
grown very much in the districts chiefly troubled with Diacrisia. 

Telchinia violce has been found in Bihar as an occasional minor pest, 
but is of no real importance. It feeds also on a wild Passion-flower 
{Modem palmata). 

Phycita infusella is found in the top-shoots but is scarcely a pest. 

Cosmophila erosa may occur on the leaves as a very occasional pest, 
usually minor. 

Nisotra madurensis ["South Indian Insects," pp. 310-311, fig. 160] 
has been noted as a minor pest in Madras. 

Dereodus maslos [Fauna of India, Curculionidce, Vol. I, pp. 124-125, 
fig. 41] has been found on gogu at Coimbatore but is not a pest so far 
as we know. 

Myllocerus 11-puslulatus has been found on ambadi at Pusa and 
Poona and probably occurs in all districts as a minor pest. 

Myllocerus discolor has been found on gogu at Coimbatore but is 
probably not a real pest. 

Sucking insects found on Hibiscus camiabinvs include : — 

Dysdercus cingulatus 
Oxycarenus levins. 
Both of these occur in much the same way as on bhindi and need not 
be mentioned further. 

In the Central Provinces both these bugs occur on the pods in very 
large numbers. 

Boring insects in the stem of Hibiscus cannabinvs include : — 

Alcides leopardus 

„ afjaber 
Peiiiphcrcs affirtis. 

Alcides leopardus seems to occur chiefly in Northern India, all our 
specimens being from Bihar. The larva bores in the shoots and stems 
and may be a minor pest, but we seem to know very little about it. 

Alcides afjaber occurs in gogu stems at Coimbatore in December- 
February as a pest. Probably it occurs throughout Madras but we 
d<> not know its exact distribution. 

Pempheres affinis also breeds in stems of Hibiscus cannabinus and 
this plant serves as an alternative foodplant. It is not of any great 
importance as a pest in this plant. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 127 

In the Punjab Marias insulana attacks the fruit-capsules of this Mr. M. M. Lai. 
plant, which is grown to some extent roundabout the sugarcane plots. 

We have never found Earias insulana in ambadi at Pusa. Mr. Fletcher. 

It has not been noticed in the Central Provinces. Mr. Khare. 

Hibiscus abelmoschus. 
, This is another plant without any regular English name. In Hindus- Mr. Fletcher, 
tani it is called mushhlana and Kastari bhindi. It is not grown as a 
regular crop but we have been growing it in connection with our work 
on cotton bollworms, as it is a very favourite foodplant for Earias. 
The leaves are sometimes attacked by Diacrisia obliqua larvae. 
The shoots and pods are attacked by : — ■ 
Earias fabia 
„ insulana 

„ cwpreoviridis (chromataria) 
Gelechia gossypiella 
Prodenia litura 
Dysdercus cingulatus 
Oxycaremis Icetus. 

As regards the species of Earias, our experience is that H. abelmoschus 
is attacked much more freely than cotton. As regards the species 
concerned, we get roughly 3 insulana and 2 cupreoviridis to every 100 
examples of fabia. It is noteworthy that cupreoviridis, which is other- 
wise known to feed on Sida and jute, has only been reared so far from 
H. abelmoschus and not from the other species of Hibiscus or from cotton. 

Gelechia gossypiella is found to a very small extent in the flowers 
and seeds inside the pods of H. abelmoschus, so that this plant is less 
attractive than cotton to Gelechia. 

Prodenia litura has been reared once only at Pusa from a pod, and 
is evidently a mere casual visitor in this plant. 

Dysdercus cingulatus and Oxycarenus Icetus both occur on H. abel- 
moschus as on other species of Hibiscus. 

The points about H. abelmoschus, then, are : — 

(1) that it is extremely attractive to Earias fabia and (at Pusa 

to a less extent, probably because it is the less common 
species occurring here) to E. insulana. It is therefore more 
likely to be of use as a trap-crop and, as it does not provide 
a vegetable like bhindi, it is more likely to be destroyed 
at the right time, 

(2) it is the only Hibiscus, so far as we know, which is a foodplant 

of Earias cwpreoviridis. 



us 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



(3) it is not specially attractive to Gelechia gossypiella. 
As regards our experience in using it as a foodplant for rearing Earias 
and its Rhogas parasites, 

(■1) the Earias larvse first of all attack the shoots of H. abel- 
moschus, before flowers or seed-capsules are "present, and 
can therefore be reared early in the season, 
(5) these Earias larva? in the shoots are parasitized by Rhogas 
to a much greater extent than they are in cotton-bolls. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. In the Punjab Hibiscus abelmoschus is found very useful to breed 

bollworms during February and March, when cotton is not available 
in the parasite-breeding plots. 

Hibiscus r< >sa-sinensis. 

Mr. Fletcher. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a common garden plant, grown all over 

India, and is chiefly of importance to us as possibly affording an alter- 
native foodplant to some cotton-pests. You may also be called on to 
treat it for other pests as an ornamental garden-plant. 

The flowers are often seriously eaten by Meloid beetles, of which 
there are numerous species not clearly differentiated as yet. At Pusa 
we get Zonabris plialciata commonly about November and Z. pustulata 
occurs at Coimbatore. These beetles are easily caught by hand or in 
handnets. 

A few beetles, mostly weevils, also eat the leaves. 

Hypomeces squamosus occurred on the leaves at Myitkyina, in Upper 
Burma, in September 1914. It seems to be common in Burma but we 
have no specimens from India. 

Desmidophorus hebes has occurred in large numbers in Darbhanga 
on at least two occasions, once in or previous to 1888 (as recorded in 
Indian Museum No'es, Vol. I, No. 1. p. 58) and again in July 1906. 
On one of these occasions this weevil occurred on Hibiscus but there 
seems to be no record of the species of Hibiscus concerned ; it may have 
been H. rosa- sinensis. 

Dysdercus cingulatus occurs on H. rosa-sinensis but is not very common 
as a rule. 

Aphids also sometimes occur in small numbers. 
Mr. H. L. Dutt. At Sabour Aphids are very bad on this plant in the early spring. 

Abutilon indicant. 

Mr. Fletcher. Abu I Hon indicum is a common weed found in most parts of India. 

It is of some importance to us as affording an alternative foodplant 
for cotton-pests. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 129 

The leaves are attacked by : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 
Cosmo fhila fulvida. 
Tar ache opalinoides . 
Acontia malvce. 

Diacrisia obliqua will feed on this, as on practically all low-growing 
plants. 

Cosmophila fulvida occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 
At Pusa it has been reared on Abutilon indicum and on Sida sp. It 
has not yet been noted on any cultivated plant but may be found on 
cotton, Hibiscus, hollyhock, etc. 

Tarache opalinoides [" South Indian Insects," p. 382, fig. 244] is 
occasionally found on Abutilon and we have already noticed it under 
cotton. 

Acontia malvce has been reared at Nagpur on Abutilon and we have 
already noticed it under bhindi. 

The capsules of Abutilon indicum provide food for : — ■ 
Earias jabia. 

,, insulana. • 

Gelechia gossypiella. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. 
Dysdercus cingulatus. 

Earias jabia and insulana have been reared at Pusa on Abutilon 
and this plant is of some importance, especially in the Punjab, 
in carrying on these species during the period that cotton is not in the 
ground. The removal of this weed is therefore indicated. 

Gelechia gossypiella has only been bred once at Pusa from Abutilon, 
so this is evidently not a favourite foodplant of Gelechia, but still it 
can breed in it and probably does so on occasion. 

Dysdercus cingulatus and Oxycarenus Icetus both occur commonly 
on Abutilon and we need not discuss them again. 

Throughout the Central Provinces a small weevil is found attacking Mr> R a ti ra m. 
the fruits of Abutilon indicum. This weevil does not occur on any culti- 
vated variety of Hibiscus. 

We should like to see some specimens of that. Mr Fletcher. 

Malva j arviflora. 

[Sonchal — Punjab.] 

Malva parviflora is a common weed in the Punjab and also provides 
an alternative foodplant for Earias insulana. 



13m PROCEEDINGS of the second entomological meeting 

Hollyhock (Althcea rosea). 

Hollyhock is a common garden plant and we have also been using 
it in our bollworm parasite-breeding plots. It is also being used in the 
Rhogas breeding-plots. 

The leaves are attacked by : — 

Sylepta derogata. 
Spialia galba. 
Acontia sp. 

Sylepta derogata rolls the leaves much as in the case of cotton and 
bhindi. 

Spialia galba (Hesperiadcp) is widely distributed throughout the 
Plains of India and at Pusa has been reared from larvae on hollyhock 
leaves, and also on Sida rhombifolia and soy-bean. It is not a pest. 

We have also a record of an Acontia larva found on the leaves, but 
it was either not reared or not named. 

The flowers and pods provide food for Earias insulana and E. fabia, 
which will breed in hollyhock but it is not a very favourite foodplant. 

Gelechia gossypiella has also been recorded as " on hollyhock " at 
Pusa but here again we have a case of defective labelling. Probably 
it does occur in hollyhock as it has been reared from this plant in Egypt. 

The sucking insects found on hollyhock include : — 

Dysdercus cingulatus. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. 
Corizus rubicundus. 
Nezara viridula. 

Dysdercus cingulatus is decidedly fond of hollyhock and almost 
•every garden-plant usually has some of these bugs on it. 

Oxycarenus Icetus occurs on the dry pods. 

Corizus rubicundus is common on garden plants, often in numbers, 
and is a minor pest. 

Nezara viridula also sometimes occurs in some numbers on the 
flower-stems. 

Silk Cotton (Bontbax malabaricum). 

[Simul — Hind.] 

Silk-cotton belongs to the Malvaceae but differs from the other plants 
of this Order by having rather a peculiar insect-fauna. We find a good 
many insects which seem confined to Bombax and do not occur on cotton, 
Hibiscus, etc. 











J :'i - 

/ 7 \. 



*^ 



TONICA N1VIFERANA. 



Tonica (Binsitta) niviferana, Wlk. 

Fig. 1, the to}) of a young tree showing damage. 

Fig. 2, egg. 

Figs. 3 and 4, larva. 

Fig. 5, pupa. 

Figs. and 7, moth. 

All figures are enlarged. The hair-lines show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 131 

The seedlings are occasionally attacked by Desmidophorus hebes. 
We have a record of this at Jalpaiguri, in May 1904, when these weevils 
were found attacking seedlings in the forest plantation as well as in 
the forest nursery. 

On the leaves we get : — 
Tenaplialera, elongata. 
Apogonia ferruginea. 
Tenaplialera elongata, Crawf., is a curious green Psyllid which occurs 
at Pusa on the undersurface of the leaves, generally at the beginning 
of December. The attack may be very severe, but is of less importance 
as the leaves fall oft' the trees in another couple of months' time. 

Apogonia ferruginea attacks the new leaves at Pusa in May and 
June and these leaves are frequently found riddled and skeletonized, 
due to the attack of this Chafer. The beetles fly at dusk and may then 
be seen in swarms flying around and feeding on the leaves. 

The flowers and pods of Bombax are attacked by the larvae of 
Mudaria cornifrons, which occurs at Pusa in large numbers in the pods 
when these ripen in April. The larvae feed on the seeds and spoil the 
lint ; when full-fed they emerge from the pods and burrow in the ground, 
the resulting moths emerging in March of the next year. 

The shoots (and stems in the case of young plants) are bored by the 
larvae of Tonica niviferana, whose lifehistory is shown in a coloured 
plate [exhibited] now in the press. It is not a serious pest, but the 
young growth is stunted. It occurs at Pusa and Nagpur and is probably 
widely distributed, but is not a bad pest. 

Boring in the trunk we find several longicorn beetles : — 
Batocera rubus. 
Acanthophorus serraticornis. 
Ploccederus obesus. 
Glenea spilota. 

Batocera rubus has been bred at Pusa from a larva in a Bombax stem, 
but we seem to know very little of its occurrence in this tree. 

Acanthophorus serraticornis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 319-320, 
fig. 173] was found at Bangalore on Bombax, but it is not certain whether 
it was breeding in this tree. 

Ploccederus obesus is recorded as from Bombax malabaricum in the 
United Provinces [Stebbing. " Forest Coleoptera," pp. 295-300, figs. 205- 
206] but we have no further knowledge of it. 

Glenea spilota is also recorded from simul in " Indian Insect Life " 
but probably only occurs in decaying stems, [see Stebbing, " Forest 
Coleoptera," p. 379]. 

l2 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The seeds of Bombax are extremely attractive to Dysdercus cingulalus 
and masses of these bugs occur on and around simul trees when these 
are in seed. They can then be killed in numbers before they disperse 
and attack cotton, Hibiscus, etc. 

We will next take the 

NON-MALVACEOUS FIBRE-PLANTS. 

under which heading we include Jute, Aloe and Calotropis. 

Jute (Corchorus capsular is). 

Jute seedlings are attacked by : — 
Laphygma exigua. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus). 
Laphygma exigua is sometimes a serious pest, occuring regularly 
in most years and sometimes doing great damage by checking the growth 
of the plants. 

Brachytrypes portentosus also attacks the seedlings but is usually 
a minor pest, sometimes doing considerable damage, chiefly in Bengal 
in May and June. We have already dealt with both these insects before 
and there seems to be nothing particular to add about them here. 
Jute leaves and topshoots are attacked by : — 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Cosmophila sabulifera. 
Prodenia litura. 
Creatonotus gangis. 
Tar ache crocala. 
Perigea capensis. 
Nisotra madurensis. 
Trachys sp. 
Tanymecus indicus. 
Myllocerus viridanus. 
„ discolor. 

Diacrisia obliqua is a serious pest on the leaves of jute in Bengal 
and Bihar, attacking the plant when it is about three or four feet high. 
In later stages of growth, the attack is less serious. If care is taken to 
take the attack in time and to handpick the eggmasses and bunches 
of young larvae, whilst these are still gregarious, this method of control 
is quite effective. 
Mr, P. C. Sen. Handpicking has been found useful in Bengal but the cultivators 

do it only under official pressure. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 133 

At Sabour Farm Diacrisia is very bad and handpicking is done. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

Diacrisia occurs in Assam also. Mr. Gupta. 

Cosmofhila sabulifera [" South Indian Insects," pp. 390-391, fig. Mr. Fletcher. 
256] occurs in all jute-growing districts as a major pest of jute. It is 
known from South Arcot, Godavari, Samalkota, Dharwar, Belgaum, 
Poona, Nadiad, Nagpur, Pusa, Dacca and throughout Bengal and Bihar. 

If the plants are sufficiently young and water is standing in the 
field, control may be effected by running a film of kerosine over the 
water and disturbing the plants, when the larvse drop. 

Cosmo fhila sabulifera is the worst of all the pests of jute because Mr. Ghosh. 
it checks the growth of the plant and causes sideshoots to grow, thereby 
damaging the length of the fibre. The only thing possible to do against 
it is to disturb them as much as possible by stirring the plants, when 
the caterpillars jump off. The work of killing them is facilitated by 
pouring a little kerosine on the water if it happens to be standing in 
the field. 

In Bengal dragging a kerosinized rope over the affected crop has Mr. P. C. Sen. 
been found useful. Bagging is not possible because the pest appears 
at a time when the crop is fairly high, three to four feet in height. 

Such has been our experience in Bihar also. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

In Assam also Cosmophila sabulifera is a serious pest of jute, and the Mr. Gupta, 
rope treatment is carried out on plants up to four to five feet high. 

With regard to the driving away of caterpillars from infested areas, Mr. Andrews. 
I once tried the following method : I took a wire and twisted it into 
a spiral, which was twisted into a bigger spiral, and this was dipped 
into melted sulphur to which saltpetre was added. This spiral was 
ignited and taken through the affected field and the fumes drove away 
the caterpillars. This method was tried in a field comprising 50 acres. 

I am afraid that it would not be practicable in the case of jute fields Mr. Fletcher. 
as these fields are generally adjacent to villages. 

Prodenia litura has been found on jute at Pusa and is sometimes 
quite a bad pest. 

Prodenia litura comes second to Diacrisia as a pest of jute, and Mr. Ghosh, 
occasionally does serious damage. It occurs when the plants are three 
to four feet high, and is amenable to the same methods of control as 
Diacrisia. 

Creatonotus gangis is occasionally found on jute but is scarcely a Mr. Fletcher, 
pest. 

Ttirache crocata is widely distributed throughout the Plains of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The larva is sometimes found on jute but it is 
scarcely a pest. 



134 



PK0CEED1NGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Khare. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Tarache crocala was found in one year in large numbers on jute at 
Nagpur, but jute is not grown as a field-crop at Nagpur. 

Perigea capensis has been found on jute at Pusa but is not known 
as a pest of this crop. 

Nisoira madurensis [" South Indian Insects/' pp. 3f0-31f . fig. 160] 
has been recorded on jute in Madras, the beetles eating the leaves. But 
it is not a serious pest, and does not seem to be known outside of Madras. 
Trachys sp. This is a small Buprestid beetle which seems to be 
confined to Bengal and Bihar. At Pusa it is not common, but in Bengal 
it has been noted as a pest, and we have records of it from Purnea, Rang- 
pur, and from near Dacca. In the last case the plants left for seed were 
riddled with holes, the larva mining the leaves. 
In Bengal Trachys is only a minor pest on Jute. 
So it is in Bihar also. 

Trachys has not been noticed at Pusa for the last three or four years. 
It used to occur in c -mall numbers. The larva mines the leaf, pupating 
inside the mine. 

Tanymecus indicus and Mylhcerus discolor have been found on jute 
leaves at Pusa and M. viridanus at Kumbakonam, but none of these 
are regular pests. 

Boring in the stem of jute we find an unidentified Apion, referred 
to as the " Jute Apion " in " South Indian Insects,'" p. 331, fig. 188. 
In Madras it is known from Bellary and Godavari and it is also known 
in Bengal and Bihar. 

The grub is usually found just at the junction of the leaf-petiole 
with the stem and it bores sufficiently to cause a break of a good many 
fibres at that place. Its presence can usually be detected by the withered 
and drooping leaf. At Pusa it occurs every year in small numbers, 
attacking the plants in all stages of growth. It sometimes occurs in 
the top-shoots as well. 

This Afion is a minor pest in Bengal. 

A serious attack was reported from Chinsura five or six years ago. 
It is not common as a rule. 

No control seems called for as a rule and indeed the damage is only 
seen after it has been done. 

Sucking insects on jute include : — 
Mites. 

Graptostethus servus. 
Mites sometimes occur on jute-leaves but are not important as a 
rule in the well or districts in which jute is grown. 

At Lyallpur, in the experimental plot of jute, mites were noticed 
last year for the first time. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 135 

An attack of mites was reported one year from Purnea. Mr. Ghosh. 

Graptostethus servus has been noted on jute capsules but is not a pest. Mr. Fletcher. 

The capsules of jute are also bored by Earias cupreoviridis (chroma- 
taria), which occurs fairly commonly on jute in Bengal and Bihar but 
is scarcely a pest. 

Aloe (Agave americana). 

Aloe is fairly free from pests but in Madras one often sees leaves 
bored with large holes, evidently the result of attack whilst the young 
leaves were still unexpanded, and this is generally supposed to be the 
result of attack by the adult of Oryctes rhinoceros, although I do not 
think that this insect has ever been caught in the act. When aloe 
plants have flowered, the central flower-spike often falls down, or is 
removed, leaving a sort of hollow basin which catches rain-water. This 
collection of rain-water is a common breeding-place for mosquitos and 
incidentally I may mention that the aloe leaves themselves often hold 
rain-water and thus serve as breeding-places for mosquitos. By the 
effect of the rain-water, the central part of the plant rots away, and this 
mass of rotting vegetable matter is rather a favourite breeding-place for 
Oryctes rhinoceros grubs. I just mention this now, whilst we are dealing 
with aloe ; we shall come to Oryctes later on, under Palms, but this 
is the sort of place in which Oryctes grubs may be breeding in numbers 
and which is very easily overlooked. 

Calotropis (Calotropis spp.) 
[ Ahh, Madar — Hind.] 

Calotropis is rather a good instance of the difficulty in defining the 
limitations within which lies the subject of the control of insect pests, 
primarily of crops. Calotropis is not cultivated as a crop in any part 
of India so far as I know although it has been suggested as a fibre crop. 
In Southern India we get Calotropis gigantea and in the drier tracts of 
Northern India this is replaced by C. procera but both are very similar. 
Both species grow wild, in waste lands and on field embankments, and 
in most districts they are looked on as weeds. In some localities, 
however, they are put to considerable use. At Coimbatore, for example, 
the plants are carefully collected and are used as green manure in the 
preparation of rice-fields and the plants are so esteemed for this purpose 
that a cartload of Calotropis plants will fetch as much as Rs. 3. In 
Raj pu tana the plants are used for fibre, prepared from the stems, and 
in Bengal and in most districts the floss of the seedheads is greatly 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

esteemed for stuffing pillows. So that insects which attack Calotropis, 
weed though it may be, may fairly be included in our list of crop-pests. 
The leaves of Calotropis are eaten by : — 
Paramecops farinosa . 
Dereodus pollinosus. 
Dana is chrysipp us. 
Pceeiloeerus fid us. 
Paramecops farinosa [" South Indian Insects," p. 333, fig. 190] 
occurs in most parts of India. The beetles eat unsightly patches in 
the leaves and may eat away a good deal of the leaf tissue. They are 
easily collected by hand. 

Dereodus pollinosus [Fauna of India, CurculionidcB, Vol. I, p. 121] 
occurs chiefly in the Hill Districts of North- Western India and has been 
found on apple at Kulu. We have a record of it on Calotropis at Amritsar 
but there seems to be no information as to any damage done to 
Calotropis. 

Danais ehrysippus in the caterpillar state is commonly found on 
Calotropis leaves, as most of you know who have occasion to lecture 
on Entomology, as it is commonly used in our Agricultural Colleges 
as a typical example of the metamorphosis of a butterfly. 

Pceeiloeerus pictus is the large blue and yellow grasshopper commonly 
found on Calotrofis in most parts of India. It is described in " South 
Indian Insects," pp. 526-527, fig. 419, and we have since shown its 
lifehistory on a new coloured plate [exhibited] now in the press. This 
grasshopper does not occur at Pusa and our material for the lifehistory 
was derived from the descendants of half-a-dozen living examples sent 
from Rajputana. The grasshoppers are easily caught when abundant 
on the plants. 

Several sucking insects occur on Calotropis : — 
Eurybrachys tomentosa . 
,, ferruginea. 

Homaloeephala f estiva. 
Lygceus pandurus. 
Aphids. 
None of these are of any great importance. 

Eurybrachys tomentosa is common on the shoots of Calotropis gigantea 
in Madras and breeds on this plant. 

Eurybrachys ferruginea also occurs on Calotropis in Madras, but is 
not very common. 

Homaloeephala f estiva occurs in small numbers on Calotropis at 
Coimbatore. It is not a pest but I quote it as an example of those 
insects, really rather common, which are looked on as rarities until 



Pcecilocerus fictus, Fb. 

Fig. 1, a single egg detached from the cluster. 

Figs. 2 to 6, the nymph in different stages of growth (note the developing wing-pads). 

Fig. 7, the adult grass hopper. 

The hair-lines indicate natural sizes. 




PCECILOCERUS PICTUS. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 137 

their habits are known. This Fulgorid is described and figured by 
Distant [Fauna of India, Rhynchota, Vol. Ill, p. 199, fig. 86] apparently 
from a single specimen from " Madras " in his own collection. A short 
search on Calotropis plants at Coimbatore about November or December 
shows that it is really not uncommon. 

Lygceus pandurus [" South Indian Insects," p. 481, fig. 365] is found 
commonly on Calotropis throughout India. 

A yellow Aphid often occurs in masses on young shoots and probably 
•checks the growth of the plants. 

The fruits of Calotropis are attacked by : — 
Dacus longistylus. 
Paramecops farinosa. 

Dacus longistylus is an African Fruitfly, described by Wiedemann 
eighty years ago, but only definitely recorded from India within the 
last three years. It is known from Coimbatore, Orissa, and Nagpur 
and is doubtless common on Calotropis throughout India. The larvae 
live in the fruits and damage the floss. 

Paramecops farinosa as an adult eats the leaves, but the larvse live 
in the fruits and bore about, damaging the floss. 

The grubs of Paramecops farinosa bore intb the fruits, damaging Mr. Ghosh. 
the lint. In Bengal the lint has a value, being used for the same purposes 
for which Silk-cotton lint is used. It is softer than Silk-cotton lint. 
The plants are gathered and used for fuel. 

We will go on to Sugarcane, Paddy and other Cereals, Grasses and Mr. Fletcher. 
Fodder Crops. 

Sugarcane (Saccharum ojfficinarum). 

Sugarcane setts, that is, the pieces of cane used for planting, are 
attacked in almost all districts by Termites. The species of Termites 
concerned probably vary a good deal with locality and that is a subject 
we require to know more about. At Pusa we get chiefly Microtermes 
obesi and that seems to be a common pest of cane-setts in most parts of 
India. We have been trying various experiments at Pusa with a view 
to protection of cane setts from the attacks of Termites and, as these 
have been carried out in the Insectary here, Mr. Ghosh will give us an 
account of them. 

The following insecticides were tried to protect sugarcane setts Mr. Ghosh. 
against termites : — 

Resin Compound — setts dipped in stock solution. 

Naphthaline Emulsion — setts dipped. 

Lead Arsenate — setts dipped in solution. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Crude Oil Emulsion : — 
(a) smearing setts. 
(6) dipping setts in solution. 

(c) earth mixed with Crude Oil Emulsion spread in furrows 
in which setts planted. 
Fish Oil Resin :— 
(a) smearing setts. 
(6) dipping setts in solution. 
Creosote : — 

(a) setts dipped in creosote. 
(6) ends of setts dipped in creosote, 
(c) creosoted earth in furrows in which setts planted. 
Sanitary Fluid — setts dipped in solution. 
Copper Sulphate : — 

(a) dipped in saturated solution. 
(6) powder mixed with earth. 
Clifts Powder — mixed with earth. 
Apterite. 

Formalin — setts dipped in solution, strength 1 per cent, to 
5 per cent. 
Of all these, Lead Arsenate has up till now been found to be the best. 
The setts are dipped in solution (1 lb. Lead Arsenate in 2 gallons cold 
water) and dried in shade and then planted. 

Our experience is that it is not so much setts as the new shoots which 
require protection. Frequently the untreated setts sprout as well as 
the treated ones and the termites do the real damage to the new shoots. 
It has been observed that treatment with Lead Arsenate affords some 
protection to the new shoots. Further experiments will be undertaken 
on this line, that is to say, the subsequent use of measures to protect 
the newly- sprouted shoots. 
Mr. M M. Lai. In the Punjab, at Gurdaspur comparative trials were made with 

Lead Arsenate, Crude Oil Emulsion, and Copper Sulphate. Lead 
Arsenate and Crude Oil Emulsion gave good results, but Crude Oil 
Emulsion had to be continued for a month, being applied in the irriga- 
tion water. 
Mr. Ramachandra At Coimbatore some experiments were started two years ago, but 
** ao * unfortunately they were not carried to a finish. The following insec- 

ticides were tried : — 

(1) Dipping the setts in Crude Oil Emulsion. 

(2) Dipping the setts in Fish Oil Soap. 

(3) Dipping the setts in dilute solution of Mercury Perchloride 

(1 in 2,000). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 139 

(4) Protecting the ends of setts with balls of Naphthaline. 

(5) Dipping the setts in Lead Arsenate solution. 

(6) Dipping the setts in Tobacco Decoction. 

(7) Putting Carbon Bisulphide in holes in the soil 1| feet apart. 

(8) Introducing Potassium Sulpho-Carbonate in the irrigation 

water. 

(9) Pouring Potassium Xanthogenate in the irrigation water. 

(10) Oil-cakes, such as Nim-cakes, used for manure. 

(11) Dipping the setts in Bordeaux mixture. 

(12) Tarring the ends of the setts. 

(13) Dipping the setts in " Mortant " solution. 
These were tried in small plots, each 1/100 acre. 

Of these experiments, No. (8) gave the best results. 

Can you tell us the cost of this Potassium Sulpho-carbonate treat- Mr. Fletcher. 
ment ? It is scarcely practicable at present, as Potassium Salts are 
practically unobtainable. 

It was very cheap before the War, but is not obtainable now. Mr^ Ramachandra 

, , , Mr. Fletcher 

How does it act s 

Potassium Sulpho-Carbonate is decomposed* into Carbon Bisulphide Mr. Ramachandra 
and Sulphuretted Hydrogen, the latter serving as a manure. Potassium **°- 
Xanthogenate was found to be a good substitute for Potassium Sulpho- 
Carbonate, when the latter was unobtainable. It was prepared in the 
Chemical Laboratory at Coimbatore. The mixture was simply poured 
into the water running through the furrows. 

Was one application sufficient or had it to be repeated ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Whether we use Potassium Xanthogenate or Potassium Sulpho- Mr. Ramachandra 
- Carbonate, it has to be repeated two or three times at intervals of a **°- 

fortnight. 

Potassium Xanthogenate has been tried outside of India as a soil- Mr. Fletcher, 
insecticide and there was some account of it in the " Review of Applied 
Entomology." I read the account at the time but the high cost of 
treatment and the limited depth in the soil at which it is effective seem 
to put it outside the range of practical politics for use on a field-scale 

in India. 

The best method of control of the attack of Termites on sugarcane 
setts in India still remains to be worked out. Where irrigation is avail- 
able and is given to the germinating cane, the use of a deterrent, such 
as Crude Oil Emulsion, in the water channel seems to be best method 
at present. Further work will be done with Lead Arsenate but I am 
doubtful whether the use of a poison of this sort, even if it is successful, 
can be recommended in a country such as India. 



140 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mi. M. M. Lai. 



The young shoots of sugarcane are attacked by numerous insect 
pests : — 

Gryllotalpa africana. 
Pa ch n ephorus impressus . 
Pachnephorus bretinghami. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulat us. 
Myllocerus blandus. 
Myllocerus discolor. 
Pap ua depresel la . 

Gryllotalpa africana [" South Indian Insects/' pp. 534-535, fig. 
438], the common Indian mole-cricket, is common in cane-fields and, 
when abundant, may do damage by eating the young shoots. 

In 1912 mole-crickets were observed to damage sugarcane shoots 
at Pusa in February and March ; this cane had been planted in the 
preceding November. The external symptom of damage was a " dead- 
heart," usually characteristic of damage by borers. The mole-crickets 
had their burrows deep in the ground, and they came up and gnawed 
a hole at the base of the shoot near its junction with the sett, until they 
reached the soft base of the heart, which was eaten. Considerable 
damage was done and, as the crickets were about 1| to 2 feet deep in 
the soil and could not be got at easily, it was hardly possible to do any- 
thing to check the damage. 

In such cases of damage, where it is possible, irrigation will flood 
the crickets out of their burrows, when they are usually attacked by 
birds. But in Bihar cane is not usually grown as an irrigated crop. 

Pachnephorus impressus was common in May 1916 at Peshawar 
on young cane shoots, the adult beetles riddling the leaves with holes 
and doing appreciable damage. The beetles can be collected by hand 
but are not very easily caught, as they drop off the plants and either 
fall to the ground or inside the tube formed by the growing leaves. 

Pachnephorus bretinghami is stated by Lefroy [" Indian Insect Life." 
p. 359] to have the same habit, but we do not seem to have any other 
exact record of this species on cane. Probably both species occur 
throughout India. 

The adult beetles of Pachnephorus have been observed at Pusa to 
damage the tender leaves of the young sugarcane shoots. They were 
found in numbers and could be collected easily in a pan of kerosinized 
water by shaking the shoots over it. 

In the Punjab the adult beetles of Pachnephorus are observed on 
the leaves of young cane-shoots, riddling the leaves with holes but 
they do not do any appreciable damage to the crop. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 141 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus, M. blandus and M. discolor are all found Mr. Fletcher 
on young cane-leaves as adult weevils and, when in numbers, may do 
damage, but they are not regular pests. 

Papua depressella (Polyocha saccharella) was found at Pusa, last 
year for the first time, boring into young shoots of cane from newly- 
planted setts. This species occurs at Pusa commonly every year and 
has been under observation for the last ten or twelve years, but hitherto 
we have only known it as a borer in the roots of cane. If the roots are 
examined when the old cane is removed from the field, they are generally 
found to contain large numbers of the caterpillars of Pupua depressella. 
Although cane-borers, that is, borers in the shoots and stems of cane, 
have been reared at Pusa in large numbers for many years past, we had 
not hitherto found Papua depressella amongst these. Last year the 
new shoots were extensively bored by this insect, roughly fifty per cent. 
of the new shoots being affected. The sudden change of habit seems 
most interesting. We have figured the stages of the lifehistory of this 
species on a new coloured plate [exhibited] and this shows the attacked 
stem with a ;i dead-heart " usually characteristic of borer attack. 

Papua depressella was hitherto known as a root-borer and used to be Mr. Ghosh, 
found commonly in the roots of the ratoon crop. ' But in 1916 it affected 
the young shoots, practically producing the same effect as the other 
borers do ; the damage was nearly fifty per cent. 

The lifehistory is as follows : The eggs are small and are laid singly 
on a leaf or stem. The caterpillars bore the base of the new shoots 
(or, rather, the newly-forming stems) ; they may migrate to neighbour- 
ing shoots and bore into them from the side. Pupation takes place in the 
tunnel and, in order to facilitate the emergence of the imago, a silken 
tube is formed leading up to the surface of the soil. It is not possible 
to remove the caterpillars unless the shoot is cut flush with the surface 
of the sett. If the affected shoot is pulled sideways, after removing 
the earth from its base, it is easily dislodged from the sett, and in 
some cases the caterpillar comes up with the shoot. The life-cycle is 
about one month. 

We now come to the insects boring in the stem of sugarcance. We Mr. Fletcher 
find :— 

Diatrcea spp. 

Chilo simplex. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella {aurifliia). 
„ monostigma. 

Sesan i ia infer ens . 
,, uniformis. 

Oryctes rhinoceros. 



14ii PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

With regard to the question of Diatrcea we are still rather in tlie dark 
as to the number of species which occur in India and their identity. 
Up to a few years ago any borer, found in cane, maize, juar and so on, 
was lumped under the name " Moth Borer " and was supposed to be 
CJnlo simplex. On going over the Pusa Collection it struck me that the 
rather inadequate material lumped together as Chilo simplex really com- 
prised more than one species, the specimens bred from cane being on the 
whole distinct from those reared from maize and juar. The difference 
became of practical importance in 1912 at Coimbatore when the new 
Sugarcane Station was started there because the surrounding country 
side was full of fields of cholam {juar) heavily infested with borers and, 
if this borer in cholam were the same as that attacking cane, the growth 
of cane on the Sugarcane Station would probably have been seriously 
affected. I therefore went into the question again with all the material 
available and came to the conclusion that, generally speaking, the borers 
in cane and in cholam were distinct. This is a conclusion which I have not 
seen occasion to modify so far, but at present I can only put it forward 
as a preliminary conclusion. We want to see a good deal more material 
from all parts of India and I shall be glad if any of you will assist by 
sending us in long series of specimens in good condition or by sending 
us parcels of cane, maize or juar affected by borers so that we can breed 
them out for ourselves. It is only by examination of long series in good 
condition that we shall be in a position to see what species really occur 
in different localities, by what points they may be separated, and what 
are the foodplants of each. 

So far as I can say at present — it is, I repeat, only a preliminary 
opinion based on a comparatively small amount of material — we seem to 
have in India at least two, possibly three, species of Diatrcea. One of these 
is perhaps Diatrcea venosata, Wlk. (striatalis, Snell), which is well-known 
as a cane-pest in Java ; it is probably distributed widely in the Plains 
of India and we have examples of this from Pusa, Ramnad, Jalalpur, 
Surat and Cawnpur. The second species is probably Diatrcea suppres- 
sors, Wlk. (auricilia, Ddgn.), which also seems to be widely distributed 
in the Plains of India, although we have no records from the Bombay 
side ; this is probably the species figured in " South Indian Insects," 
fig. 298, as Diatrcea sp. We have also a few specimens, reared from 
-i mar cane at Pabna, of a Diatrcea which may be an extreme form of the 
last species, or may be distinct. All of these forms of Diatrcea appear 
to be distinct from Chilo, in the imaginal state, in structural details of 
nenration, but the neuration in Chilo appears on the other hand to be 
variable and a good deal of work will have to be done on the distinctions 
between Diatrcea and Chilo, and between the various species concerned 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 143 

in India, and for this we require ample material in the first place. As 
regards the larvae, these appear to be very similar, but I expect that 
we shall be able to find distinctions when we are able to study sufficient 
material. 

The position at present is that we appear to have in India two or 
more species of Diatrcea which are especially attached to sugarcane 
but which are less commonly found in maize, juar and so on, and we 
have also Chilo simplex which is not rarely found in sugarcane but which 
is primarily a pest of juar and maize. The discrimination of these 
insects is not merely an academic matter of interest only to the 
systematic worker, but it is a matter of very practical value, when we 
come to deal with control by means of rotation of crops, or by trap-crops. 
I hope, therefore, that you will all assist by sending us ample material 
in the way of these borers. As these species of Diatrcea and Chilo have 
been so confused together, we shall have to consider them for the time 
being simply as " Borers." 

As regards their control, the cutting out of " dead-hearts " has been 
advocated and practised for many years and doubtless some of the 
Provincial delegates will be able to tell us something about that. 

The collection of the egg-masses of the moths is* also quite practicable, 
at least in the case of young plants. This is done regularly on the Farm 
at Taru, near Peshawar, the fields of young cane being gone over re- 
gularly every day and the egg-masses removed. If these egg-masses 
are placed in suitable receptacles, so that any parasites may escape, 
whilst the young larvae will be unable to do so, this system of control 
may be improved still further. However, if hyperparasites are present, 
this method may do more harm than good; so here again we come up 
against the necessity for proper systematic work as being the basis of 
effective control-measures. 

Some demonstration work in cutting out of " dead-hearts " has been 
done in the Punjab. 

In the Punjab there is a good deal of trouble from borers in sugar- Mr. M. M. Lai. 
cane. Maize and Sorghum were tried as trap-crops but it was found 
that the attack in the sugarcane was not reduced to any great extent. 

That is what we should expect if the borers in cane are different from Mr. Fletcher, 
those in maize and juar. 

The cutting-out of " dead-hearts " was tried next and was found Mr. M. M. Lai. 
successful. In the Punjab cane is sown in April and, if the cutting 
out is commenced as soon as the borer is noticed, the borer is controlled . 
efficiently. Apart from the control of borers, another advantage which 
was derived from this practice was that the plants, from which the 
<c dead-hearts " were cut out, tillered very well. The gur prepared 



14 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ratirani. 



Mr. H. L. Dutt. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



from the treated plots was 40 per cent, in excess of that produced from 
the untreated plots. 

In the Central Provinces at Sindewahi and Tliarsa Farms another 
experiment was tried to check the borers. Different plots of cane were 
planted on the 15th of each month from October to February. It 
was noted that those plots sown in October, November and December 
were not attacked so badly as the plots sown in January and February. 
This experiment was done because the borers hibernate during the cold 
weather. 

It is probable, as shown by Mr. Taylor's experiments at Sabour, 
that an alteration in the time of planting would lead to bad results in 
other ways. 

In Madras the attack of borers in cane is occasionally serious. 

Thick cane is grown at Peshawar and there is considerable trouble 
from borers. The collection of eggs on young shoots is practised and 
it is fairly effective, as is seen on comparison of results from untreated 
and treated plots. The egg-masses of the borers can be seen easily by 
little boys who soon become adept at this work. 

Cane planted in Shafted (clover) suffers less from borer than cane 
planted in fallow land. This has been the experience of the cultivators 
in the North- West Frontier Province, and I can also confirm this. 

The next borers are the two species of Scirpophaga, of which S.. 
monostigma does not seem to be common and is hardly a pest, but S. 
xanthogastrella (auriflua) is common in most parts of the Plains of India 
and is a decided pest of cane. Both species are described and figured 
in " South Indian Insects " [pp. 425-426, figs. 302, 303 J and we have a 
coloured plate of xanthogastrella in preparation. Control includes collec- 
tion of egg-masses, which are fairly obvious on the leaves, and prompt 
cutting out of " dead-hearts," as in the case of the other borers. In the 
Central Provinces, where Scirpophaga has done considerable damage at 
Sindewahi, the early planting of setts, as described just now by 
Mr. Ratiram, has also proved advantageous. 

At Pusa Scirpophaga is found in large numbers at the top of grown- 
up cane in winter, producing a bunchy effect. But it does more damage 
to voung shoots, being the first borer to affect them after hibernation. 
The egg-masses are easily visible and collected from the leaves. If 
care is taken to destroy the tops with " dead-hearts " at the harvesting- 
time, the damage to young shoots is greatly diminished. 

In the Punjab Scirpophaga is found late in the season in the cane 
crop. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 145 

In the Central Provinces Scirpophaya is only serious as a pest in Mr. Ratiram. 
the Chanda District. The variety of cane particularly attacked is 
Sonapali variety. 

In the United Provinces Scirpophaga is generally found in cane from Mr. David. 
July to October. 

The other caterpillar borers found in cane-stems are Sesamia in] evens Mr. Fletcher, 
and S. uniformis. Their identity has been considerably confused in the 
past and I pointed out the differences between them in Entomological 
Note 62, Bulletin 59, and since that note was published we have reared 
iiiiijormis from cane at Pusa. S. inferens seems to be the commoner 
species, but the habits of both are similar, so we can consider them 
together. Neither is confined to cane but both occur in maize also 
and we know inferens from paddy, wheat, juar, guinea-grass, ragi and 
tenai. 

Sesamia in cane is a minor pest in Bihar. It usually occurs in the Mr. Ghosh, 
later stages of growth of sugarcane. 

In the Punjab Sesamia is not found to attack cane much but is noticed ^ r> M - M> La ^ 
in " Sarkanda " (Saccharum ciliare). 

In the Central Provinces Sesamia is bad in Seoni and Bhandara. -^ r> R^iram. 
Oryctes rhinoceros is very rare in India as a cane-borer but that it Mr. Fletcher. 
does occasionally occur is shown by figure 69 in " South Indian Insects," 
which represents a beetle caught in the act of boring into a cane-stem. 
I should not have included this in our Pest List on the strength of a 
single specimen obtained in this way but, in reviewing my book in the 
" Zoologist," Mr. W. L. Distant referred to Oryctes as having been a 
serious pest of cane in the Malay Peninsula when he was there some 
forty years ago. So it is quite possible that Oryctes may have a cane- 
boring habit in India more regularly than has been noticed. 
The roots of sugarcane are attacked by various insects : — • 
Papua depressella. 
Anerastia ablutella. 
Termites. 
Dorylus orientalis. 
Myllocerus discolor. 
Serica indica. 
Pentodon bengalensis. 
Anomala polita (varians). 
Papua depressella has already been considered in its new aspect of 
a shoot-borer The larvae occur commonly in cane-roots, especially of 
the ratoon crop, at Pusa, but do not seem to do much damage as a rule. 
It occurs throughout Bihar and the United Provinces and in the Punjab. 
It has also been bred occasionally from Sorghum and maize. 



lie 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Anerastia ablutella has been recorded as a cane-pest in North Bihar 
but does not seem to have been met with during the last ten vears. It 
may be a sporadic pest but is certainly not a pest in normal years. 

Anerastia ablutella has been found in Nagarmotha grass (Cyperus 
rotundus) in lame numbers in the Central Provinces. 

We have never found it in Cyperus rotundus at Pusa. We should 
like to see some examples if you find it again. 

Termites have already been described pretty fully under the heading 
of Setts, and I do not think there is any more to be said now. They 
sometimes damage cane-roots but are usually not serious pests of healthy 
cane in its later stages of growth. 

Dorylus orientalis ["South Indian Insects," p. 274, fig. Ill] occa- 
sionally attacks cane-roots much in the same way as termites and 
requires the same treatment. It is not a regular pest. 

Myllocerus discolor [Fauna of India, Curculionidce, Vol. I, pp. 348- 
350, fig. 106] is said to occur in the larval stage at the roots of sugar- 
cane, being a serious pest in some districts ; but this statement appears 
to be over-coloured. The larva feeds on young roots of cane, maize, 
juar and wild grasses, and can scarcely be considered as a pest as a 
rule. 

Serico indica is stated by Lefroy [" Indian Insect Life," p. 254] 
" to have been reared from larvae feeding on the roots of cane in Bihar 
and is one of the most common species," but we seem to have no speci- 
mens under this name in the Pusa Collection. Beetle grubs and pupae, 
perhaps of this species, were found commonlv on cane-roots at Pusa 
in March 1913. 

It is a minor pest, found in the larval state throughout the year 
at runts of growing cane. 

Pentodon bengdlensis is rather unfortunately named as it is by no 
means confined to Bengal. It has been reared at Pusa from larva? 
found in May at roots of cane and has also been reported from Peshawar 
as doing damage there by destruction of cane-roots by the larvae, and 
the boring of new shoots by the adult beetles. 

Pentodon bispinifrons [see Entomological Note 9, Bulletin 59] also 
occurs in cane-fields, and probably does similar damage. Both specie. 
of Pentodon seem to he minor pests of only local importance so far as 
cane-roots are concerned. 

Anomala polita is the species hitherto known as A. varians in India, 
but it is doubtful what the due varians really is. and in India the name 
has keen applied to two different species, polita and bengalensis, so it 
• s,,, ' m < s better to use the name polita. Anomala polita is described in 
Entomological .Memoirs, Vol. II, No. 8, pp. 143-147, and there is 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 147 

little more to say about its life-history. The larvae occur commonly in 
cane-fields and sometimes damage the roots, but it is difficult to apply 
any control-measures directly. The adult beetles occur in the early 
summer and may be caught in numbers at that time. In this connec- 
tion it may be of interest to note that last year, when we were working 
an Andres-Maire trap at Pusa in May and June, numerous examples 
of Anomala spp. were attracted and caught in the trap and it is interesting 
to note that larger numbers of A. bengalensis were caught than of A. 
polita, although the later is the commoner species at Pusa. An appa- 
rently trival observation of this sort sometimes gives a useful hint regard- 
ing control. 

Anomala was rather bad last year round about Gurdaspur. The Mr. M. M. Lai. 
attack occurred when the plants were fairly young. Nothing could 
be done to check the pest. 

We now come to the leaf-eating pests of sugar cane. We know of : — Mr. Fletcher. 

Hieroglyphus banian . 
Oxya velox. 
Dasychira securis. 
Telicota augias. 
Leucophlebia lineata. 
Marasmia trapezalis. 
Phidodonta modesta. 
Astycus lateralis. 
Tanymecus sciurus. 
„ hispidus. 

Thrips. 

Hieroglyphus banian (furcifer) [" South Indian Insects," pp. 531-532, 
tab. 50, figs. 1-3] is rather a pest of paddy in most districts and we 
shall come to it again when we deal with pests of the rice-plant. In 
some districts, however, notably in the United Provinces, it is a decided 
pest of sugarcane, and perhaps Mr. David will tell us about that. 

In the United Provinces Hieroglyphus banian is a very serious pest Mr. David, 
of the sugarcane crop. In Azamgarh District it is at times so bad that 
after the attack the crop is reduced to half ; some years ago the attack 
was very serious, but it has not been reported of late. Ploughing up 
the fields in March and bagging the hoppers later on is practised. 

In Mysore Hieroglyphus is found on paddy. I am of opinion that Mr. Kunhi 
if the South- West monsoon rains are timely and heavy, that is, if they Kannan. 
come at the time when the egg-capsules are just bursting, and the water 
soaks through the soil, the egg-pods are destroyed and there is no 
emergence. 

m2 



MS 



I'ltof'EEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 



Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 



Mr. David. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. H. L. Dutt. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Rolertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



But if there is a large emergence of hoppers, what do you do then ? 
The hoppers after emergence remain on the field bunds for some 
time and eat the grasses which cover the bunds. It is quite an easy 
matter to bag the hoppers there. If that chance is missed, it becomes 
difficult to control them afterwards. 
How wide are these bunds 1 

They are quite narrow strips only to mark the boundaries between 

the fields and are perhaps a foot to eighteen inches wide on an average. 

If the bunds are so narrow it would hardly be practicable to plough 

there to destroy the egg-masses. Do you practise ploughing the fields 

to do this ? 

In Mysore, ploughing did not prove very promising. Our experience 
has been that the eggs are seldom laid in the fields but they are invari- 
ably found in the bunds or the areas close to the bunds. 
In the United Provinces the eggs are found in the fields. 
The local conditions are evidently different. In the United Pro- 
vinces the eggs are laid in cane-fields, whereas in Mysore these fields 
are chiefly under paddy and are therefore probably not suitable for 
egg-laying. 

At Cuttack the ploughing of the fields after harvest considerably re- 
duced the number of the hoppers in the succeeding season. 

Hoppers were reported from Siwan, Saran District, on one occasion 
and spraying with Sunlight Soap was reported as very effective. 

In the Central Division of the Bombay Presidency Hieroglyph us 
banian occurs on bajri. 

Our experience in the North- West Frontier Province has been that 
the field bunds are the chief source of trouble in connection with grass- 
hopper attack. On the Farm at Tarn I have these bunds ploughed up 
and the result is that we have very little trouble with hoppers. 

As regards sugarcane, the general experience seems to be that 
Hieroglyphus is only a real pest in the United Provinces. 

Oxya velox [" South Indian Insects," p. 533, fig. 426] occurs on cane 
in most districts and is sometimes present in considerable numbers. 
I have seen it in large numbers on cane leaves around Peshawar, but 
it seems to be a minor pest of mature cane, eating the leaves but doing 
comparatively little damage. We shall come to this species also again 
under Paddy. 

Dasychi'ra securis is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 397, fig. 205, and we have since issued a coloured plate showing its 
life-history. It occurs at times in some numbers on cane but is not 
much of a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 149 

Telieota augias [" South Indian Insects," pp. 419-420, fig. 294] 
occurs in small numbers on sugarcane, the larva rolling the leaves, but 
it is at most a very minor pest. 

Leucophlebia lineaia has never been noticed as a pest of cane in 
India but has been described as a minor pest in Java and Formosa 
and may at times be found in India also. The life-history is brieflv 
described and figured in Entomological Note 65, Bulletin. 59. 

Marasmia trapezalis [" South Indian Insects, pp. 432-433, tab. 33] 
occurs commonly on juar, maize and other cereals and occasionally on 
cane but is not a pest of cane. 

In Bengal Marasmia tra/pezalis is noticed on cane leaves but only Mr. P. C. Sea. 
a small amount of damage is done. 

PMdodonta modesta [" South Indian Insects," p. 315, tab. 9] occurs Mr. Fletcher, 
in most parts of India as a minor pest of sugarcane. It is known in 
the Northern Districts of Madras, in Bihar and from Surat in Bombay. 
The larva mines the leaves and the beetles also eat the leaf. Control 
is not usually required but, where this is necessary, the mined leaves 
and adult beetles can be collected and destroyed. 

The specimens from Surat and from Pusa, t standing in the Pusa Mr. G. R. Dutt. 
Collection under the name PMdodonta modesta, apparently belong to 
two distinct species. 

It is quite likely that two or more of these Hisfina: occur on cane Mr. Fletcher, 
in India. This is another example of the need for exact identification. 
The Pusa species, whatever it is, is a very minor pest of cane. 

Astycus lateralis we have from sugarcane at Tatkon, in Burma. It 
is not a pest of cane, so far as we know. 

Tanymecus sciurus [Fauna of India, Curculionida?, Vol. I, pp. 76-78, 
fig. 25] has been found on cane at Pusa on two occasions, and Tanymecus 
hispidus (I.e., p. 98] has also been found on cane at Pusa, but both are 
not known to be pests. 

Thrips occasionally occur on cane in most districts but we seem to 
know very little about them in India, so they probably do not do any 
great amount of damage. 

Does anyone know of any other pests of cane-leaves ? 

In the Seoni District of the Central Provinces Cantharis actceon Mr. Ratiram. 
eats the leaves of sugarcane and appears as a sporadic pest at the end 
of September. 

We have never found it on sugarcane in Bihar. The end of Sep- Mr. Fletcher, 
tember seems a very late date. In Bihar it is generally found in July 
[see Entomological Note 35, Bulletin 59]. 

In the Central Provinces Centipedes have been noticed to eat the Mr. Ratiram. 
leaves of sugarcane. 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Fletcher. Centipedes are usually carnivorous. Perhaps Millipedes may be 

intended but we do not know of these as doing any damage in India. 

The next group of sugarcane pests includes those found sucking 
the juices of the plant : — 
Pyrilla aherrans. 
,, pusana. 
,, perpusilla. 
Callitettix versicolor. 
Phenice mcesta. ■ 
Aphids. 

A leurolobus barodens is. 
Neomaskellia bergi. 
Ripersia sacchari. 
Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) sacchari. 

„ ,, sacchari jolii. 

Aclerda japonica. 
The three species of Pyrilla are all very similar in general appearance 
and habits. In South India we get Pyrilla perpusilla [" South Indian 
Insects,'^ pp. 493-494, fig. 381] but at Pusa we get mostly P. aberrans 
together with small numbers of P. pusana and perpusiVa. I had a note 
on these Cane-hoppers recently [Note 97, Bulletin 59] and a lengthy 
Memoir by Mr. Misra is in the press and will be ready shortly and, as 
this contains all the information available, we need not go into this 
again now. 

Callitettix versicolor is a small brightly coloured Cercopid bug often 
found on cane in some numbers. I found it in numbers at Tatkon in 
Burma in September 1914. We do not know anything about any 
damage done by it and it is probably not a pest. 

Phenice mcesta also is often found in numbers on cane. It is des- 
cribed and figured in ' South Indian Insects," p. 493, fig. 380, and is 
often found on cane-leaves in little colonies. It never does any damage 
so far as we know and the immature stages do not seem to occur on cane- 
leaves ; possibly they live on the dead leaves and trash at the bases of 
the stems. 

Aphids sometimes occii" on cane but we seem to know nothing about 
them and therefore Ihey are probably not of much importance as pests. 
The Aleyrodi 'se f unci on sugarcane in India include Neomaskellia 
bergi and Aleurolobus barodensis. The former is described and figured 
in " South Indian Insects, ' p. 507, fig. 394, and the latter in ' Indian 
Insect Lie,' p. 749, figs. 524-525; but doubtless other speci s occur 
a^o. This is a group which badly wants working up in India and I 
gave last year a short summary of the present state of our knowledge 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 151 

■[Entomological Note 98, Bulletin 59]. As a rule Aleyrodids are minor 
pests but they occur sporadically in large numbers and may do consi- 
derable damage. In such cases they are aften checked by parasites 
and the rate of parasitization may reach a very high percentage ; I 
think we have found as high a proportion as ninety per cent, parasitized 
and under such circumstances the outbreak is checked rapidly and 
nothing more need be done. If, however, as sometimes happens, para- 
sites are absent or present in only quite insufficient numbers, the only 
remedy as a rule is to cut off and burn the affected leaves to prevent 
the damage from spreading. 

We shall be glad to see specimens of any Aleyrodidse found on cane 
or other plants, and of their parasites if these are obtained. 

In the Punjab Aleyrodids are sometimes very bad on cane. From Mr. M. M. Lai. 
the affected fields a very small quantity of gur is produced ; the effect 
of the attack is very noticeable on the cane-juice, which is rendered 
more watery. The Aleyrodids are parasitized, but this occurs late in 
the season after nearly all the damage is done. 

Removal 'of the affected leaves in the early stages of attack is prac- 
tised. One peculiarity about the attack that has been observed is that 
the damage generally commences from the corners of fields. 

Alevrodids are noticed on cane in Bombay also but Ladybirds and Mr. Jhaveri. 
Chrys&pa come to the help of the cultivator. 

In the United Provinces these Aleyrodids occur on sugarcane but Mr. David. 
not as pests. 

In the North-West Frontier Province ratoon and thin varieties of Mr. Robertson- 
si: garcane are generally attacked by Aleyrodids. rown ' 

We will go on to the Scale-insects found on cane. Our list is a very Mr. Fletcher. 
meagre one and here again we have a group of insects which has not 
yet been either collected or studied in India. A little work on Indian 
Coccida? would doubtless double our present knowledge without much 
difficulty. Some of the species on cane are common and doubtless do 
a good deal of damage in the aggregate. 

Ripersia sacchari Is described and figured in Entomological Memoirs, 
Vol. II, pp. 128-129, tab. 12, figs. 10-13. This account deals with the form 
since called var. oryzce by Green, found on rice-plants in Bihar, and it 
occurs on cane in much the same way, in dense colonies under the sheath- 
ing leaves, where it is difficult to get at it. 

Pseudococcus {Dactylopius) sacchari is also found on cane, under the 
sheathing leaves, in much the same way as the last, but it is probably 
less common than Riper si a sacchari. 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) saccharifolii has been described at some 
length in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. II, pages 23-24, 124-127, tab. 12, 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. M. M. Lai. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



figs. 1-7, and I do not think there is much to add. This scale is found 
on both surfaces of the cane-leaves and not, as a rule, under the sheath- 
ing leaves. 

Aclerda japonica has been noted on cane at Partabgarh, United 
Provinces, and at Jubbulpur, in the Central Provinces. The scales 
occur on the nodes below the sheathing leaves, the space between the 
cane and the sheathing leaves being filled with a thick, flocculent, whitish 
substance. The specimens sent from Jubbulpur were parasitized by a 
Chalcidid. In the Central Provinces it is reported to occur after the 
rains are over and, if it appears earlier, to retard the growth of the 
young plants. 

Has anyone anything to say about Scale-insects on sugarcane ? 

At Coimbatore a mealy-bug, pinkish in colour, is found in masses at 
the joints and nodes of sugarcane under the leaf-sheaths. 

A similar mealy-bug is found on thin canes at Tharsa, in the Central 
Provinces. 

In the Punjab similar mealy-bugs were collected from soft-skinned 
varieties of cane. 

There seems to be some doubt about the identity of these mealy- 
bugs, but Ripersia sacchari is usually the commonest species found on 
cane. It seems to occur in almost all districts and is found commonly 
on pulling back the sheathing leaves. 

Has anyone anything more to say about sugarcane 1 

In order to facilitate operations against insect pests of sugarcane, 
it would be an advantage if the custom, practised in some localities 
such as Bankura, of tying up old leaves around the bunches of cane, 
were followed. This practice keeps the field clear so that one can walk 
through it. In this connection I may mention that a coat and pantaloons 
of net, made of rope, is worn over their ordinary dhoti by cultivators 
working in cane fields in that district. The net saves the skin from 
being scratched by the leaves. 



Saccharum spontaneum . 

Mr. Fletcher. In most parts of [ndia one finds various wild species of Saccharum 

and these may be of some importance in acting as alternative foodplants 
for cane-pests. At Pusa we get Saccharum spontaneum and on this we 
have found a Hispine beetle identical with that found on cane at Pusa 
(whether this is Phidodonta, modesta or not seems doubtful, as we saw just 
now), and boring in the stem we find Sesamia infer ens and Phragma- 
toecia castanece. Sesamia inferens of course occurs in sugarcane but 
Phragmakecia castanece has never been noticed in cane hitherto. It 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 15 3 

would be worth while to examine these wild grasses more carefully in all 
localities so as to find out exactly what insect fauna they support. 

Rice (Oryza sativa). 
Rice is far and away the most important crop grown in the Indian Mr. Fletcher. 
Empire and its pests are of great importance, and naturally there is a 
long list of them. We will take first the insects attacking paddy 
seedlings. 

On seedlings we get : — 
Spodoptera mauritia. 
Thrips oryzce. 
Paddy Fly. 
Crabs. 
Apus. 
Spodoptera mauritia [" South Indian Insects, p. 378, tab. 20] occurs 
on paddy, juar, cane and various wild grasses but is particularly a pest 
of paddy seedlings and often does considerable damage. The methods 
of control include : — (1) protection of seed-beds, by surrounding them 
with narrow steepsided trenches. If the seed-bed is separated by a ditch, 
a little oil may be poured on this to prevent caterpillars from crossing 
it. Such a method will not prevent the adult moths from reaching 
the seed-beds so we must (2) deal by hand-collection with any egg-masses 
laid. The eggs are laid in batches on the leaves and can be hand-picked, 
although this is not always easy. The larvae usually hide in the daytime 
so that (3) trapping them under planks, sods, etc., might be tried. (4) 
The flooding of the paddy seed-beds, when attacked, and the turning 
in of ducks to eat the caterpillars is actually practised with success in 
some districts. (5) If the attack is very bad and all the seedlings des- 
troved before measures are taken, ploughing of the affected area should 
be done to destroy the pupse in the soil. The moths are attracted 
to Andres-Maire traps at Pusa but we do not know as yet whether 
this method of control can be applied. The trouble with this species 
is that its appearance in destructive numbers is usually sporadic and 
cannot be foreseen. 

In Burma the cultivators attract paddy-birds, crows and mynahs to r * r0 
attacked fields by placing cooked rice in trenches. 

In Assam last year Spodoptera mauritia came in large swarms and r ' up a ' 
the only thing that was done against the second brood was that the 
field-bunds were scraped off and the pupa? collected and destroyed in 
thousands. Where there was water in the fields, the caterpillars were 
dislodged by dragging a rope over the crop, the water having been 
previously slightly kerosinized. 



lot 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Gupta. 



Mr. Ratirarn. 



Mr. Gupta. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Shroff. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



How far were these measures adopted ? 

These measures were adopted only on the Experimental Areas ; 
but nothing was done in the fields of the cultivators. 

Last year in Assam these caterpillars came in large numbers soon 
after the floods but this year we got Cirphis unipuncta instead of Spodop- 
tera. 

In the Central Provinces one year [? 1908] in August, Spodoptera 
mauritia appeared simultaneously in thirteen districts. In Balaghat 
District, it was found very serious and nothing could be done there ; 
the result of the damage was that the affected fields appeared as if they 
had been grazed down by cattle. Eight days afterwards there was a 
very heavy downpour of rain, lasting for three days, and after the 
rain not a single caterpillar was found. New shoots were thrown 
out by the plants and the cultivators harvested a bumper crop. In the 
following year the same trouble was expected but the pest was reported 
from a few districts only, and the attack was not at all serious. Since 
then every year a few specimens are sent in from the districts but 
the pest has never reappeared in any large swarms. 

In Assam Spodoptera is found most serious in paddy seed-beds. 

In certain parts of Madras ducks have been found very useful in 
clearing the fields of these caterpillars. 

In Burma it has been noticed that districts liable to floods suffer 
more from the attack of Spodoptera. 

Thrips <n ■•ijzrv is only known at present from Southern India but is 
probably more widely distributed, but overlooked at present. Even in 
Southern India it has only been recorded in the last two or three years 
and the insect itself was only described quite recently in the ' Bulletin 
of Entomological Research " [Vol. VI, pp. 353-355]. It is not included 
in " South Indian Insects," but I saw an attack of it on paddy seedlings 
when I was at Coimbatore at the end of August 1915. The attacked 
plants had gone quite a light yellow colour as the result of the attack 
of this Thrips. As regards control-measures, in this case what was 
done was to pour kerosine oil onto the irrigation water running into 
these plots, until a film of oil was formed over the surface of the water, 
and then to draw a bamboo over the plants so as to submerge them. 
By this means the Thrips were killed off, but I did not see the result of 
the treatment, as I left Coimbatore. 

Thrips oryzcB is very bad in some rice-growing tracts in Madras, 
on the seedlings. The attacked leaves turn a very pale yellow and 
have a sickly appearance as if they suffered from want of water. Good 
rains have been found to briny; the attack under control in Madras. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



155 



Kerosine Emulsion, when sprayed on Thrips-afiected leaves, scorches 
them. Spraying with water only would be useful. 

A fly has been reared from paddy seedlings and is referred to in 
" Indian Insect Life " [p. 638, tab. 76, fig. 3], where it is placed in 
Cordyluridse. The larvae are said to live in the stems of young rice 
and to pupate there. It was reared at Pusa from transplanted paddy 
seedlings about ten years ago but since then it has not been observed 
to any extent and we seem to know very little about it. 

In Burma fly maggots have been noticed boring paddy seedlings in 
an isolated patch. 

Crabs have come into notoriety lately, especially in Madras, as paddy 
pests. In Bihar we have only had one report of crabs attacking paddy, 
but about five or six years ago we had a report from Karachi of damage 
by crabs in fields of young paddy. Recently they have come into 
prominence in Madras and Burma and there seems to be no doubt that 
crabs do some damage to rice plants. 

In Madras reports of damage by crabs were received from the Kauveri 
delta last July and August. It has been observed that the damage 
may be very serious in areas where single seedling transplantation of 
paddy is done. It appears that the crabs have been attacking paddy 
for several years but the damage was not noticed before because the 
practice of transplantation was to put in bunches of several seedlings. 

Have you found out anything about the life-history or habits of these 
crabs ? It is a species of Paratelphnsa which is concerned, I think. 

Yes ; it is Paratelphusa hydrodromus, Hbst. Not much is known 
about the life-history. The mother crab carries the young under the 
abdomen. 

The crab does not cut the paddy plants for the sake of feeding on 
the green portion but to extract the white pulpy inside portion of the 
stem. 

What control methods have been tried ? 

Many substances have been tried against these crabs. Crude Oil 
Emulsion was found to have no effect on them. After the crop was 
harvested, Carbon Bisulphide, Potassium Cyanide, and Kerosine Emulsion 
were poured into the holes found in the fields. These holes were examined 
sometime after and the crabs were found dead inside the holes. 

If the fields are thus freed from crabs, do they remain free, or do 
more crabs corne in ? 

The fields will probably become reinfested but we have not yet been 
working for long enough to say as we cannot say for certain whence 
these crabs come. It is probable they will come in again with irrigation 
water from higher levels. 



Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



156 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



These fields in which you have been experimenting are small plots 
on the Paddy Breeding Station at Coimbatore, I think. If these are 
once freed, could they not be protected from reinfestation by surrounding 
them with a fencing of wire netting ? 

Protection with wire netting was tried but found ineffective, as the 
crabs crawled over the netting. 

Will you tell us about crabs in paddy-lands in Burma, Mr. Shroff ? 

Land crabs are common throughout Burma, and are believed to do 
a considerable amount of damage to the paddy crops. They do not 
appear to prove troublesome in all places, but in certain restricted 
localities their depredations are said to be serious. 

They are solitary in their habits. Two animals are rarely found in 
the same burrow except during the mating season or when the females 
carry their young. There is probably one breeding season and the eggs 
are produced and young are hatched in Kason and Nayon (Apri'-June). 
Each female produces from 250 to 350 eggs which she carries about 
with her tucked under her tail. The newly-hatched young also accom- 
pany the mother for some time, probably a week or two and then 
separate to feed for themselves. 

Nature of damage. These crabs burrow into the Kazins (bunds) and allow 
water to percolate through, thus causing paddy fields to dry up in some 
places. They also do some mischief by pinching off the stems of young 
paddy plants, chiefly of transplants, from Wagaung (July-August) to 
Thadin-gyut (September-October). They are said to prove very des- 
tructive in flooded areas. According to the report from the Tharawaddy 
District, fifty crabs will destroy plants covering a mat-space (about 
i 2< I square feet) of the field in one night. As they cause a good deal of 
damage in the aggregate it is impossible to estimate even approximately 
the destruction to an individual holding. 

Their natural enemies. The chief enemies of this pest are herons, 
storks, cranes and other wading birds that visit paddy fields. These 
desl roy the pest in large numbers, but on account of its prolific breeding, 
these feathered friends of the cultivator do not exercise any appreciable 
check on its increase. Besides, these birds sometimes favour some 
localities to th" negled of others. 

Local means of control. The. cheapest and surest method of control- 
ling this ; est, practicable in this country, is handpicking. Innumerable 
crabs are annually collected, partly (chiefly would be more correct) for 
human consumption and partly with the object of checking their depre- 
dations in paddy fields. The Burmese are very fond of this 
crustacean which they eat either fried or curried. Crabs collected in 
the rainy weather are not eaten bv Burmans because they are said to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 157 

be poor in fat at that season. One method of securing the crab is to 
thrust the arm into the hole ; and the Burman does this with dexterity 
born of habit, so that he can haul out his quarry without even a scratch 
from its formidable pincers. Another ingenious method is to force 
down the soil near the mouth of the burrow, thus literally squeezing 
the crab out. Of course this operation is only feasible when the soil 
is soft. The cultivator's method is to bury in the irrigating channels, 
earthen pots with their edges well above the water. These pots are 
baited with bran or oil cake. Smelling the bait, and trying to get at it, 
the crabs tumble headlong into the pot and find themselves securely im- 
prisoned, as climbing owt is impossible. In some places the bait used 
is a roasted bean kneaded into balls with Jcangyi (boiled rice water). 
The fishermen of the British Isles are said to bait their pots with stinking 
fish. When the water is too deep to have the edge of the pot showing 
o\ er the surface, the pots are buried on the sides of the Kazins. In the 
dry season a little water is poured into the hole and a wisp of twisted 
and sodden straw is wormed into the hole and out comes the crab. In 
most places the children combine business with fun at ploughing time 
by hunting for crabs in the fields. Although comparatively large 
numbers of this pest are thus annually collected and destroyed, these 
simple methods do not prove efficient for two evident reasons, namely, 
the prolific breeding of the pest and the isolated and irregular efforts 
on the part of the cultivators. Such random attempts towards the 
suppression of the pest can hardly be expected to affect its numbers 
appreciably. It is evident from an experiment recently conducted on 
the Mandalay Government Farm that by taking timely action incessantly 
for a certain period, a good deal of damage can be prevented. The 
following is a summary of the results of the experiment. 

74,179 crabs were collected between 14th May and 30th June 1915 
at a cost Of Rs. 136-12-0 from an area of 130 acres. The approximate 
charges for catching 100 crabs was annas three or Rs. 1-0-9 per acre. 
An excess yield of 650 baskets was obtained from the 130 acres by crab- 
catching that is, five baskets per acre better yield than would have 
been obtained without crab catching or Rs. 5 per acre profit due to 
crab-catching. The area over which crabs were caught did not requiie 
to be replanted and the probable saving on this head is estimated at 
Rs. 1-8-0 per acre. Thus the total profit by crab catching on one acre 
is estimated at Rs. 6-8-0. From this must be deducted the actual 
cost of catching the crabs, viz., Rs. 1-0-9, so that the net profit per acre 
amounts to Rs. 5-7-3. 

Without putting themselves to any extra expense, the cultivators 
con Id secure the help of their womenfolk and children by getting them 



15S PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

to catch the crabs and the work would be all the easier, considering the 
limited sizes of the holdings. Again in Kason and Nayon and the rainy 
weather crab-hunting would be child's play as these creatures leave 
their burrows and come to the surface in the evenings and occasionally 
in the mornings. When they are not found on the surface, attempts 
may be made to pick them out from these holes as suggested above. 

It must however be borne in mind that it is by means of co-operation 
and simultaneous action only that the pest can be checked. The crabs 
collected should not be thrown aside, but stored in an earthen jar or 
any other convenient vessel and allowed to rot. They then make an 
excellent manure. Like cray-fish, the crab, when boiled, mixed with 
meal and allowed to dry makes an extremely valuable egg-producing 
food for poultry. In Japan the following measures are resorted to : — r 
(1) handpicking, (2) protection of the crops by surrounding the field 
with a straw mat, and (3) the use of the waste product in the tobacco 
factory (the midribs of the tobacco leaves) as manure and also into the 
burrows of the crabs. The second measure is, from its very nature, 
hardly practicable in Burma on account of extensive paddy fields. 
Much waste product of tobacco may be available from the local cigar- 
rollers and can be easily used as manure as well as into the burrows of 
the crabs. This measure deserves a trial in this province. It is likely 
to impart vigour to plants and also kill the crabs in good numbers. 

In America, the following three methods of poisoning cray-fish have 
been devised which would no doubt succeed in case of our land crabs, 
but they are attended with serious disadvantages which would hardly 
bring them into the sphere of practicability in this country. 

(1) Carbon Bisulphide is used in the burrows which are then imme- 
diately closed and its fumes kill the animals. The use of this stuff on 
a field-scale is not possible in this country for two reasons. First it 
is likely to involve greater expenditure than the collection even by 
hired labour would, and secondly, being a dangerous inflammable sub- 
stance, it cannot lie safely trusted in the hands of ignorant cultivators. 

(2) Chloride <>i Lime. An ounce of a solution of Chloride of Lime 
(of the strength of one pound to 3 gallons of water) was found sufficient 
tit kill the cray-fish in their holes. It is cheaper than Carbon Bisulphide 
but the time required to make the solution and haul it to the field prac- 
tically offsets its cheapness and therefore it is said to have little or no 
advantage over Carbon Bisulphide. 

(3) Calcium Carbide is said to be effective and useful on account of 
the ease of its application but the cost prohibits its use in large quan- 
tities. It is used only in burrows that are nearly perpendicular, as 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 159 

otherwise it will not reach the water which is necessary for the develop- 
ment of the fatal gas. 

In view of the disadvantages which the use of these poisons would 
involve, the most practical and economical means of controlling the 
crab-pest in this country would be simultaneous and regular collection 
by the cultivators of a locality where the pest is particularly prevalent 
and troublesome, at least during Kason and Nayon. 

The use of earthen pots as traps seems a good idea and this might Mr. Fletcher, 
be tried in Madras. 

With reference to the idea that crabs come in from higher levels Mr. Ghosh, 
with the irrigation water, their appearance and disappearance in the 
fields may. I think, be connected with the fact that crabs hibernate 
and activate in the ground. Many years ago I saw a crab resting 
in a cell at a depth of about four or five feet in the middle of a field 
where a well was being sunk. This was about April or May. 

Afus cancriformis may be considered here. In May 1911 we re- Mr. Fletcher, 
ceived from the Settlement Commissioner, Jammu and Kashmir State, 
a parcel of specimens of Afus with the information that these animals, 
locally called pahar, occasionally do much damage to rice seedlings in 
the Banihal Ilaka south of the Pir Panjal range at a height of about 
6,000 feet. The damage occurs in the first few days only of growth, 
mainly where the irrigation water is particularly cold, and is greater 
when the winter snow-fall is exceptionally heavy and melts late. This 
Apus is not known to occur at all in the extensive areas under rice in 
the Kashmir Valley, which is divided from the Banihal Ilaka by the 
Pir Panjal range, in this part from 9,200 to 14,000 feet in height ; nor 
does it seem to occur in the lower hills to the south. 

The local method of control employed is to let the water out of the 
fields for some time. If still present after this, it is collected by hand 
and thrown out in the sun or into the nearest stream. 

They are said to occur to some extent every year at the time of 
rice sowings but disappear again after a week or two. In 1912 they 
appeared between 21st and 28th June in Banihal villages of the Ram- 
ban tahsil, but are said to appear in the fields from April to June, but 
not to be seen at all during the other nine months of the year. 

I have here some specimens of this animal [handed around for exhi- 
bition]. From a zoological view point it is of very great interest. In 
Europe it is found in muddy ponds and appears in a peculiarly inter- 
mittent manner. One year it may be found in abundance in a parti- 
cular pond and diligent search will fail to reveal it there year after year 
afterwards, until suddenly it again appears in plenty. Ajms, in fact, 
is generally looked on as a distinct rarity, only intermittently abundant, 



160 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Rainachandra 
Rao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



and practically nothing is known of its habits ; so the fact that it is a 
pest of paddy seedlings, even though this may happen in a remote part 
of Kashmir, is a distinctly new idea of great interest. 

With regard to non-insect pests of paddy, we received a report of 
snails damaging rice-plants. I went to the place and found some snails 
sticking on the plants, but I could not be sure whether any damage 
was actually done by these animals. 

In Burma snails do some damage to paddy plants. 
Paddy seedlings are attacked by various grasshoppers, but it is 
difficult to draw a line between those feeding on adult plants and those 
on seedlings. Epacromia and (Edaleus are perhaps more often found 
on seedlings. 

In one place in Madras paddy nurseries were badly infested with 
Surface Grasshoppers, among which Epacromia famulus was noticed 
in very large numbers. The cultivators tried two methods : — (1) the 
use of long sheets of cloth in the form of bags in which to collect the 
L'asshoppers, (2) the use of large palmyra leaves with long stalks, with 
which the grasshoppers were driven into one place, and, when they 
were collected in numbers, they were beaten to death. 

In Madras the Texas Grasshopper bait (bran, Paris Green, and 
juice of fresh lemons) was tried against Chrotogonus with success in 
small plots, but when tried against Colemania the bait did not prove 
very successful. 

We tried it at Pusa with Chrotogonus but it did not prove at all 
attractive. Perhaps the species of Chrotogonus was different. 

We will go on with the insects attacking the leaves of paddy-plants. 
There is a long list and we will take the Lepidopterous pests first. On 
my list I have : — 

Cirphis unipuncfa. 
,, dlbistigma. 
,, insularis. 
,, loreyi. 
,, compta. 
Borolia venalba. 
Spodoptera abyssinia. 
Pelamia (Remigia) frugalis. 
Dasyc ' ira securis. 
Nisaga simplex. 
Mycalesis perseus. 
,, mineus. 
Melanitis ismene. 
Junonia almana. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND EIN TOPOLOGICAL MEETING 161 

Ampittia dioscorides {mar 6) 
Chapra {Parnara) mathias. 
Caltoris {Parnara) colaca. 
,, ,, bevani. 

Parnara bada. 
Telicota augias. 
Brachmia arotrcea. 
Nymphula depunctalis. 
,, fluctuosalis. 

Ancylolomia chrysographella. 
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. 
Cirphis unipuncta [" South Indian Insects/' p. 376, tab. 18] is 
widely distributed throughout India and is often a major pest of rice. 
We have examples reared on rice-plants from Poona, Pusa, Chittagong, 
Mymensingh, Goalpara, Dibrugarh, and Kamrup, but it also occurs 
throughout Madras, the Central Provinces and Burma. 

Control is difficult and I do not think that any standard method 
can be laid down, largely because this species usually appears suddenly 
in large numbers, whence it has been called the " Army Worm." Un- 
attached areas may be protected if possible by trenches and oiling of 
intervening ditches. The caterpillars hide during the day time under 
clods and in cracks of the soil and pupation occurs in similar situations. 
When fields are badly attacked it is advisable to plough them as soon as 
possible after the crop is removed, to kill the pupae remaining in the 
ground. 

With reference to the sudden appearance of large swarms of this 
caterpillar, there is a note by Laurent in the Entomological News for 
January 1915 [Vol. XXVI, page 36] on an outbreak of C. unipuncta 
in Philadelphia in 1914, and Laurent states that it has often been 
" noticed that the army worm oftimes becomes a plague when a wet 
season follows a dry one, and this was just the condition of affairs around 
Philadelphia in 1914." In that case spraying with Lead Arsenate 
and sieving of dry slaked lime over the infested areas were found effec- 
tive control measures ; but such methods are hardly practicable in the 
case of rice areas in India, as a rule. It would be interesting to know 
whether there is any general rule in India governing the appearance 
of swarms of these caterpillars and in this connection exact informa- 
tion of any such outbreaks will be very useful. 

In Burma Cirphis unipuncta is very serious in some districts. Mr - Shroff. 

In Assam Cirphis unipuncta appeared last year just after the floods. Mr - Gupta. 
In Southern India, Cirphis unipuncta has been observed to appear ffir - Ramakrishna 
after heavy rains. Ayyar. 



162 



IVROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Gupta. 



Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishr 
ft.yyar. 



Mr. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



That seems to confirm the experience in America, but we require 
a number of exact records of the occurrence of this, and all other com- 
mon insects, before we can be in a position to prophecy regarding out- 
breaks of insect pests-. 

Was anything done in Assam to control this insect ? 
The caterpillars could be found on rice-plants from just after dusk 
until morning, so a rope was dragged over the crop from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
and again early in the morning, to disturb the caterpillars. Heaps of 
grasses were also placed in the fields during noon-time and the cater- 
pillars came under these heaps to take shelter, and were there collected 
and destroyed. 

In the Central Provinces C. unipuncta has been found to cut green 
ears of paddy. 

Cirphis albistigma has occurred at Manganallur, in the Tanjore 
District in Madras, on paddy just ripe for harvest, the caterpillars cutting 
off the ear-heads ; it occurred in large numbers and did considerable 
damage. This species has also been bred at Pusa from a larva on rice- 
leaves and from another on Gramineae (species not specified) and we 
also have moths from Pusa and the Shevaroy Hills. 

In Southern India two outbreaks of Cirphis albistigma have occurred 
during the past few years. This pest is bad after heavy rains and it 
appears when the paddy is just ripening, the ears being cut off by the 
caterpillars. It has become a very serious pest in South Arcot, Ching- 
leput, and the adjacent districts. An Andres-Maire trap was put up 
in the attacked fields and attracted some moths. The life-history 
has been worked out at Coimbatore and two coloured plates have been 
drawn [exhibited]. 

In Bengal Cirphis albistigma has been found to do similar damage. 
Cirphis insularis has been bred at Pusa from larvae on dubh grass 
and in some numbers from larvae found on rice leaves, but has never 
beerj recorded as a pest. 

Cirphis loreyi occurs throughout India as an occasional pest of most 
Gramineae, often occurring together with C. unipuncta and hence liable 
to be overlooked. There has been a good deal of confusion in the past 
about the identity of these various species of Cirphis, practically every- 
thing that was not unipuncta being lumped together as loreyi, but the 
true loreyi is readily distinguishable in the male sex by the fan-shaped 
tuft of leaden-coloured hair-scales at the base of the lateral margin of 
I lie. abdomen. 

C. loreyi has been reared at Pusa on rice and probably occurs on 
rice in most parts of India, 



Cirphis loreyi. 

Figs. 1 and 2, eggs in natural position and one enlarged. 
Figs. 3 to 7, caterpillars, natural size and enlarged. 
Fig. 8, pupa, enlarged. 

Figs. 9, 10 and 11, moth, natural size and enlarged, showing resting and flying 
attitudes. 




TFRPHK I ORFYI 




r>A.=;Yr,H1RA SECUR1S. 



Dmychira sieuris, Hb. 

Fig. shows'an egg cluster ; . 

Figs. 2, 3 and -4 show the caterpillar in different stages of growth 

Fig. 5 is a cocoon on the leaf, and 

Fig. 6 the pupa ; 

Fig. 7 shows the moth in its resting attitude, and 

Fig. '8 the moth with wings expanded. 

Figures hi outline show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 1G-3 

Cirphis compta is said to have been found on paddy in Southern 
India (Coimbatore and Madras), but does little damage. It may be 
a sporadic local pest. We seem to know very little about it at present. 

Borolia venalba is widely distributed in India and is an occasional 
pest of rice, especially in Southern India. It has been found feeding 
on rice-plants at Pusa, Manganallur (Tanjore District) and Puraswakam 
(Madras). In Madras it seems to occur chiefly in May and October. 
In July 1902 it was found destructive to rice at Tangalla, in Ceylon. 

Spodopfera abyssinia was found attacking paddy at Coimbatore in 
August 1916. The Pusa Collection contains moths from Peshawar, 
Pusa and Coimbatore, and the species occurs throughout Peninsular 
India. It is probably common on rice, but has been overlooked. 

Pelamia (Remigia) frugalis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 388-389, 
fig. 253] occurs throughout India on various grasses and is an occasional 
pest of the rice-plant. 

Dasychira securis is described and figured in "South Indian Insects ", 
p. 397, fig. 265, and we have since issued a coloured plate showing the 
life-history. It is a minor pest of paddy. The caterpillars are con- 
spicuous and feed exposed, so may be hand-picked. 

Nisaga simplex occurs in most grassy areas in Western and Central 
India. We have examples from Belgaum, Poona, Pachmarhi, Ranchi 
and Pusa, and I have seen the larvae at Mercara, in North Coorg. The 
caterpillars are found on wild grasses and sometimes occur literally in 
millions, but seem to do little harm to crops as a rule. Occasionally 
they have been known to invade paddy areas and to do a little damage. 

Nisaga simplex is a minor pest of paddy, found on rice-plants only Mr. Ghosh, 
once, at Ranchi. It has only one generation in the year and at Pusa 
rests as a pupa from about September to July. 

Mycalesis perseus is sometimes found on rice at Pusa in small numbers, Mr. Fletcher, 
but is not a pest. 

Mycalesis mineus. Pupae of this species have been found at Gauhati 
on rice*leaves, so presumably the caterpillar feeds on the rice-plant, but 
it is not known as a pest. 

Melanitis ismene is described and figured in " South Indian Insects ", 
p. 412, tab. 50, figs. 7-9, and has since been described in Entomological 
Memoirs, Vol. V, pp. 3-7, tab. 1. It occurs throughout India, Burma 
and Ceylon, and is a minor pest of the rice-plant. 

Junonia almana [" Indian Insect Life ", p. 413, fig. 282] occurs 
throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and has been reared from larva? 
found on rice, Mimulus gracilis and Rungia parvifora. It has been 

n-2 



16 1- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



recorded on one occasion as found in large numbers destroying rice- 
fields together with larvae of Spodoptera mauritia, but is not otherwise 
known as a rice-pest, and this record requires confirmation. 

Ampittia rfioscorides (maro) occurs in Sikkim, Burma, South India 
and Ceylon. It has been reared from caterpillars on rice and grasses, 
but is not known to do any damage to paddy. 

Telicota augias is common throughout the Plains of India. It feeds 
as a rule on sugarcane but is also said to feed more rarely on bamboos 
and on rice. It is not a pest of paddy. 

Caltoris (Parnara) colaca is also common throughout the Plains of 
India. We have examples reared on paddy at Pusa and Chingleput but 
it is scarcely a pest of paddy. 

Caltoris (Parnara) bevani occurs in Burma and throughout the Plains 
of India, except in the South. We have examples reared from rice-leaves 
at Pusa and Samalkota but it is not known as a pest of paddy. 

Chapra mathias was described and figured in '" South Indian Insects "". 
pp. 117-418, tab. 27, and again more recently in Entomological Memoirs, 
Vol. V, pp. 67-72, tab. 9. It occurs throughout India, Burma and 
Ceylon. We have examples reared from larvaB on rice from Nagpur, 
Pusa, Daltonganj, and Thana District. It is a minor pest of paddy 
as a rule, said to be serious in Travancore, and sporadically bad in most 
districts ; but it may be observed that several of the preceding species 
of Hesperiadae have been lumped together with Chapra mathias in a 
'.cod many cases. 

Chapra mathias was once reported in Burma as doing damage in 

Upper Chindwin District. 
Parnara bada is common throughout the Plains of Southern India, 
Burma and Ceylon, and occurs at least as far North as Bihar and Bombay. 
We have examples bred from caterpillars found on rice leaves at Ranehi, 
Daltonganj and Karwar. This species has not hitherto been recorded 
as a pest of paddy, but often occurs on this crop in large numbers. It 
lias probably been overlooked and confused with some of the other 
species. 

Brachmia a rot run is a small Gelecliiad which has been bred in small 
numbers from larvse on rice leaves at Pusa and Katni (Central Provinces). 
We have it also from Cuttack and Palamau, and it occurs in Burma and 
Ceylon. Tt is therefore likely to be found on paddy in most districts but 
is not a pest, so far as we know. 

Nymphula depunctalis [" South Indian Insects '", pp. 430-431, 
tab. 32] occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
paddy, sometimes serious, especially in water-logged tracts. Draining 
the water off the affected fields is effective when this can be done but is 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ]65 

not always advisable from a cultural viewpoint nor is it generally pos- 
sible in the case of low-lying lands, which are usually attacked most 
badly. In such cases the caterpillars can be controlled by spreading a 
film of oil over the surface of the standing water and dragging a rope or 
bamboo over the plants to dislodge the larva? and suffocate them as 
they lie on the water or crawl up again. 

Nymphula depunctalis is frequently reported from the Malabar Coast. Mr - Ramakrishna 
As regards control there, a common practice is to drag a thorny bush yyar * 
over the fields. 

Another practice in Malabar is to collect the larval cases in a sort of Mr - Ramachandra 
winnow, which is used like a hand-net. ao " 

In Mysore oiling the rice-fields is practised. Mr - Kunhi Kannaa. 

At Sabour, in Bihar, this pest occurs every year and is controlled Mr * H ' L- *' 
on the Farm by oiling the fields and then dragging a bamboo over the 
plants until their tips touch the oily water. This is practised regularly 
and found successful. 

In Assam the same method of control is practised. Mr - Gu P*a. 

Nymphula fluctuosalis occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, Mr - Fle * clier ' 
but has only been bred at Taliparamba in MalaCbar, when it was reared 
from a pupa found on paddy. It is perhaps a pest of paddy, together 
with N. depunctalis, but has not been definitely recorded. 

Ancylolomia chrysographella is figured and described in " South Indian 
Insects ", pp. 424-425, fig. 301, and we have lately prepared a new col- 
oured plate showing its life-history [exhibited]. In Madras it was found 
on one occasion doing damage to young paddy plants, the larva living 
in silken galleries at the roots of the plants. Will you tell us about it, 
Mr. Ramakrishna Ayyar ? 

On the occasion when it was doing damage, paddy had been sown Mr- Ramakrishna 
broadcast in sandy soil along the sea-coast. The caterpillars were Ayyar * 
observed cutting the seedlings, when about a foot high, and carrying them 
into their galleries. Crows and other birds were very active in removing 
and eating the caterpillars. 

At Pusa Ancylolomia chrysographella has never occurred in anv numbers Mr. Ghosh. 
on paddy. It is found on grasses, especially in areas which have not 
•been ploughed and which are overgrown with long grasses (Panicum 
spp.). The eggs are laid probably on the soil amongst the foodplant. 
The larva has the habit of forming a sort of a silken tube, into which 
the plants are woven ; this tube goes into the ground. Pupation takes 
place in the larval tube. Ordinarily the life-cycle takes about a month. 
At Pusa the winter is passed in hibernation in the larval stage. The 
moths come to light freely. 



166 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Raniakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Ratiram. 

Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Cnaphalocrocis medinalis [''South Indian Insects", p. 432, fig. 308] 
occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and is a minor 
pest of paddy, sporadically rather serious. In the Northern Circars 
of Madras it has been noted that it is the late transplanted varieties of 
paddy that are generally attacked. We have examples reared on paddy 
from Pusa, Poona, Surat, Belgaum, Palur (South Arcot) and Parlaki- 
medi (Ganjam). 

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis is found in Madras in Godavari and Viza- 
gapatam. Plants that are transplanted late suffer most. The affected 
plants revive later on but they are liable to be attacked by Schcenobius 
bipunctifer. One cultivator, a very intelligent man, tried an experi- 
ment in late transplantation, and experienced difficulty due to this 
insect. No control measures are possible. 

We will next take the grasshopper pests of paddy. Besides those 
hoppers which attack the seedlings and plants more or less casually, 
there are two grasshoppers which are specific pests of the rice-plant : — 
Hieroglyphus banian. 
Oxya velox. 

Hieroglyphus banian (furcifer) has already been considered at some 
length under sugarcane. In some districts it is a bad pest of rice and 
there has been a good deal of literature on it in India ; in Mysore there 
has bee n published a Bulletin on this species and the Agricultural 3 ournal 
of India lately included an account of co-operative bagging against this 
pest in the South of the Bombay Presidency. 

Hieroglyphus banian occurs in Dharwar and Belgaum, but not in 
Gujarat. Bagging has been found useful in controlling it. 

In the Central Provinces Hieroglyphus banian is found in large num- 
bers in the Chhatisgarh Division. Bagging has been very successful and 
nearly 2,000 bag-nets have been made to date. 

In Bihar it occurs around Pusa in the paddy-fields but has never 
been found in large numbers or as a regular pest. 

Its occurrence as a pest of paddy seems to be restricted to particular 
areas, in which it has been found that it can be controlled by bagging. 

Oxya velox is also found in paddy areas in most parts of India ami is 
usually a minor pest, occasionally doing a good deal of damage, ami 
in any case it is probably responsible for a large money loss every year 
in the aggregate. It is described and figured in " South Indian Insects." 
p. 533, fig. 426, and it is there stated that the life-history is unknown, 
meaning that it was not known in detail. It has since been under observa- 
tion at Coimbatore and it has been found that the egg-masses are usually 
not laid in the ground, as is the case with most grasshoppers, but are 
laid on the. bases of fuar stalks, etc. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 167 

Oxya velox has been under observation in the Insectary at Coirnbatore 
and its lifehistory has been worked out. Under natural conditions 
the eggs are laid on the stalks whilst the stubble is in the field ; later on, 
in the field bunds. In April and May the eggs hatched in 14 days, in 
"about 3 weeks during the monsoon, and in 4 to 5 days during the winter, 
at Coimbatore. The grasshoppers are found to damage the ears of 
paddy sometimes. When paddy is not available, they feed on grasses. 
As regards control-measures, hand-netting has been found quite 
useful. 

In Burma Oxya velox was sent in in large numbers from Bhamo Mr. Shroff, 
as attacking paddy. 

Oxya velox is ordinarily found in grasses and it is only under excep- m r , Ghosh. 
tional circumstances that they come into paddy. 

The conditions evidently vary in different localities. In Madras Mr. Fletcher. 
they apparently prefer paddy. 

We will go on to the beetle pests of paddy. 
Hispa armigera (cenescens). 
Leptispa pygmwa 

Hapalochrus fasciatus. • 

Oides affinis. 
Ta nymecus chloroleucus. 
,, indicus. 

,, hispidus. 

Mylhcerus discolor. 
,, blandus. 

,, dentifer. 

Athesapeuta oryzce. 
Hispa armigera [" South Indian Insects ", pp. 315-316, tab. 10] 
occurs in most paddy-growing districts in Southern and Eastern India, 
but we have no records from the United Provinces or further North. 
It is sporadically a serious pest in Madras, Bengal and Orissa ; apparently 
less common in Bihar but sometimes a pest even there, chiefly in nui?ei ies. 
The larvae mine the leaves of paddy and the pupa is found in the leaf 
whilst the beetles also occur on the leaves. Collection in bag-nets or 
hand-nets may be tried where it can be done. 

In Mysore and Cuddapah lands irrigated from tanks, and in Malabar Mr. Ramakrishna 
rain-fed lands, suffer most from Hispa. Ayyar 

As regards control, in Salem there is a curious custom of smeaiing 
a Ion- stick with pig's fat and placing i in the middle of the fields where 
it is burnt, and it is believed that the smoke drives away the beetles. 



L6 8 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 



Mr. Gupta. 

Mr. Rainachaadra 
Rao. 

Mr. Andrews. 
Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Rainakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishaa 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



In Lower Burma there is a local belief in the efficacy of the leaves of 
;i particular plant, whose exact name I cannot give. These leaves are 
thrown in the irrigation water, or in the water standing in the fields ; 
they give out an offensive smell which is believed to drive away the 
beetles. 

in Assam Hispa armigera is a very bad pest. Nothing has yet 
been found useful to check it. 

In Madras hand-netting has been found quite useful. 
1 have noticed ap egg-parasite of Hispa armigera and on one occasion 
the eggs were found parasitized in fairly large numbers. 
My Assistant reared Hispa armigera from glasses. 
In the neighbourhood of Pusa Hispa armigera occurs every year, 
but in small numbers. 

Leptispa pygmoea is figured and described in ".South Indian Insects ", 
pp. 313-311, fig. 165, and we have since issued a coloured plate showing 
the life-history. It is a species which seems to be confined to Southern 
India and Bombay- We have some specimens labelled " Pusa ; P.M. P.; 
[X L912 " but 1 believe that these specimens really came from Tra van- 
core and were mislabelled. It occurs as a pest chiefly in South Kanara, 
Malabar, Travancore, Cochin and Mysore. In Bombay it occurs as 
far north as Bassein Fort but it does not seem to be a pest in Bombay. 
Indeed, its activities in the pest line seem to be confined to districts 
with a heavy rainfall, and it is said to be worst in wet weather. The 
life-history is briefly described in my book and control will be much as for 
Hispa, by collection in bag-nets or hand-nets. 

In Southern India it is found all along the West Coast and perhaps 
the Coconada Division is its limit which it does not appear to have 
crossed yet. 

Hapalochrus fasciatus is a Melyrine Malacodermid which was found 
on rice in small numbers at Pusa in July 1915 and which we also have 
from Chapra " on rice ". It is not known to be a pest. 

Oides ajfinis |" South Indian Insects", p. 313, fig. 1G4] was found 
orj paddy at Shoranore, in Malabar, in July and August, but it seems 
very doubtful whether it really feeds on paddy. The allied 0. bipunctata 
feeds as a larva on Vitis trifolia. 

It was once found in large numbers on paddy at Shoranore, but has 
never been reported again. 

Tanymecus chloroleucus has been found on paddy on two occasions at 
Pusa. T. indicus at Pusa and Chapra, and T. hispidus at Pusa ; but none 
of i liese are p 

Myllocerus discolor and M. blandus have been found on paddy at 
Pusa, and M. dentifer at Shoranore ; but none of these are pests. 



lr- Leptispa pygmoea : . Bly. 

Fig. 1, Damaged leaves of paddy ; 

J 'j" s - 2 •"" l :! - E Sg8 on a leaf, magnified and natural size; 
Pigs. 4 and 5, Grub, lateral view, magnified and natural size ; 
6 and 7, Grub, dorsal view, magnified and natural size'; 
l '""- '-• 8 and it, Pupa, magnified and natural size; 
Figs. 10 and 11, Adult beetle, magnified and natural size : 
Figs. 12 and 13, Chalcidid parasite, magnified and natural si?e. 



Mr 
Ay 

Mr 



■h 




II 13 



* 



4* r 





1 4- 



12 




7 T \ 




10 



[ KPTLSPA PYGMy^A. 




Pachydiplosis oryz/e. 



Pachydiplosis oryzoe, Wood-Mason. 

Fig. 1, a cluster of rice plants several of which are affected. 

Fig. 2, an affected plant, with the pupa in its naturaj position exposed, 

Fig. 3, egg enlarged. 

Fig. 4, full-grown maggot. 

Figs. 5 to 7, different views of pupa. 

Figs. 8 and 9, the adult fly in sitting and flying attitudes. 

The small outline figures indicate natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 1G9 

Athesapeuta oryzce is anot her weevil, recently described by 
Dr. Marshall from specimens collected in Madras on paddy, but it is 
not common and seems to occur mostly on wild grasses. 

In addition to these insects, in Mysore we have found a Dynastine Mr K UQ hi Kan- 
beetle, as yet unidentified, infesting rice plants in fields with standing nan. 
water. It lives in the water, coming up to the surface at times to breathe, 
and can remain under water, after one breathing, for an interval of time 
from one minute up to twelve hours. It damages the rice plants from 
the base upwards. [Specimens ivere exhibited.] 

This seems to be quite a new pest with very remarkable habits for a Mr. Fletcher. 
Dynastine. I do not know of any other aquatic species of this group. 
It would be interesting to know more about it and its life-history. 

We will take next the insects found boring in the stems of the rice- 
plant. This group does not contain many insects but they are of great 
importance as pests. On my list I have : — 

Pachydiplosis oryzcc. 
Schce no bins b ip unct ifer . 

,, immeritalis. 

Scirpophaga gilviberbis. 
Chilo simplex. 
Sesamia inferens. 

Pachydiplosis oryzo? is a Cecidomyiad fly, hitherto called Cecidomyia 
oryzce, which seems to occur chiefly in Madras, Orissa and Bengal. Some 
work on its lifehistory has been done, both at Pusa and Coimbatore. 
since our last Meeting, and a coloured plate showing its life history has 
been issued. Perhaps Mr. Ghosh will tell us his experiences with this 
insect ? 

In the early part of September 1915 I went to Ranchi to investigate Mr. Ghosn. 
the disease of rice-plants caused by this Cecidomyiad fly and made 
some observations which I have incorporated in a report. Anyone 
specially interested in this pest can see the report. 

The external symptom of the disease is the growth of a long hollow 
-tincture in place of the main stem. This coloured plate [exhibited] 
clearly shows it. It is caused by the maggot of the fly, feeding inside the 
stem. When the gall appears the maggot has already done the damage 
and has pupated. The fly issues from the gall in the course of a few 
days and then the gall withers. There is thus an end of the career of 
the plant which does not produce any ear. 

There are some obscure points in the life-history of the fly. It is 
not definitely known where eggs are laid in nature and how the maggot 
gets inside the stem. In the Insectary I got some eggs which 



170 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



wore all laid on the surface of the water and none on the plants. I 
could not however get any plants infected. 

This fly is a major pest of paddy plants and in some years causes 
serious damage which may amount to about 50 per cent. 

The maggot can attack only young plants. Grown-up plants become 
immune. The greatest damage is done at Kanchi about August and 
therefore in years in which the transplanting operations are late. The 
damage is insignificant in years in which the operations are early and 
the plants grow to some height by about August. Remedial measures in 
this case are out of the question as the working of the pest is obscure and 
its presence is revealed only after the damage has been done. We 
have fco rely on preventive measures alone and in order to find them 
out a good deal of investigation and experiment is necessary. 

I have seen Mr. Ghosh's report and agree with him on all points 
except the method of oviposition. In the Insectary at Coimbatore 1 
have found 1 to 10 eggs on the plant, generally at the base of the leaves. 
I have found parasites searching out and ovipositing in the Cecido- 
myiad eggs. 

In Madras this pest was studied in 1914. The cultivators know it 
well and it is called Anaikomhu (Elephant's Tusk). Recently a serious 
attack was reported from the Godavari District, and several experi- 
ments were tried in varying the dates of transplantation. Plants trans- 
planted late suffered most. 

At Coimbatore specimens were attracted to light. This led to an 
examination of the neighbourhood and sixteen kinds of grasses were 
found to develop galls in a similar way. Later on it w T as found that 
several distinct species of flies had been bred out and that each of these 
species restricted itself to one particular variety of grass. A species of 
Panicum at Samalkota was noticed to develop a gall-formation similar 
to that characteristic of Pachydiplosis oryzce and the fly. on emergence, 
resembled the gall-fly in paddy. 

As regards control, experiments will be tried with light-traps, as it 
lias heen found that the flies are attracted to light. 

It remains to be seen whether the flies attracted to light are the same 
as those which produce these galls in paddy. As regards control, direct 
control-methods will obviously lie of no use. since, by the time that 
damage is noticed by the presence of the galls, the damage has all been 
done, and it is then too late to avert it, the flies having emerged, or being 
about to emerge, when it is noticed. It will be necessary to make a 
careful study of t he life -history of this insect and to adopt preventive 
measures, such as the use of early-maturing varieties of paddy, to pre- 
vent damage. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 171 

Schoenobius bipunctifer is far the most important pest of paddy, which 
is itself the most important crop in the Indian Empire, whether reckoned 
by acreage or value of out-turn. I have estimated the damage done by 
this one insect in Southern India alone as one hundred millions of Rupees 
annually and this figure may well be doubled or trebled when we consider 
the areas under paddy in other parts of India and Burma. Its life- 
history has been described briefly in " South Indian Insects ", pp. 426- 
427, tab. 29, and the control methods suggested there are (1) use of 
light-traps, (2) collection of egg-masses, (3) destruction of paddy- 
stubbles. With regard to (1), we have made some experiments with 
light-traps in paddy-fields at Pusa, and similar experiments have been 
made at Coimbatore and Poona, and the general result is that, whether 
the lamps used are ordinary small oil lamps or powerful incandescent 
lamps, although the moths may be attracted in thousands, there is 
no perceptible diminution in the severity of attack, and the use of light- 
traps as a means of control seems to be a failure. As regards (z), the eggs 
are laid in masses on the leaves and may be hand-picked in small plots 
but this is not possible on any large scale. As regards (3), the destruc- 
tion of stubble after harvest seems to offer a promising solution of the 
difficulty of control, in some districts at all events. In Bihar, for example, 
at any rate around Pusa, the stubble is often left in the ground during 
the winter months ; we have collected and examined this stubble and 
found about 40 per cent, of the stalks containing borers, largely hibernat- 
ing larvae of Schoenobius. Destruction of the stubble at this time of 
year should do a great deal towards reducing attack on the next rice- 
crop and such destruction, if continued on a sufficiently extensive scale, 
should do something towards permanently reducing the attack in a 
district. But, before advocating such measures, we must make an 
extensive study of the insect concerned. We want to know, for example, 
if any parasites are carried over in these larvse resting in the stubble and 
what will be the effect on parasitization of destruction of the 
stubble. 

In Madras light-traps have been tried to attract the moths, and large Mr. Ramakrishca 
catches have been secured ; but still the pest has been observed to be A yy ar - 
as bad as before. 

On "the Farm at Coimbatore the affected plants are uprooted from the 
beginning ; this was tried and found quite practicable. To estimate 
the cost of this measure it was applied to a plot of one acre last July ; 
it was found that, in order to remove all attacked plants, four coolies 
were required for four days, and therefore this method would appear to 
be prohibitive as regards cost and labour. The cultivators themselves 
do nothing to check the pest. 



172 



PROCEEDINGS OF 'HIE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



In the North-West Frontier Province, soon after, and sometimes 
before, rice is harvested, clover is sown in the rice-fields, the result being 
t hat the rice-stubble is soon covered up by the clover and rots away and 
thus become unsuitable to carry on borers. The same thing is done in 
the Godavari delta, pulses and gingelly being sown. In Bombay, on 
black soil, the lands are ploughed up soon after harvest, and castor is 
sown. My idea is that such practices are responsible for the diminution 
of trouble caused by borers in such tracts. This has been confirmed at 
Peshawar in the case of sugarcane borers ; in cane-fields which are planted 
with a crop of Shafted before the cane setts are put in, there is almost an 
absence of borers. 

I think that light traps against Schcenobius should be given a trial 
over whole blocks at a time. Trials on a few acres in the middle of a 
block will not give satisfactory results. 

There is no doubt that Schcenobius bipunctijer is the most important 
insect pest that we have in India and we want to know a great deal more 
about its exact life-history in all districts. It is one of those insects 
regarding which there is urgent need for intensive research, not in one 
(>]• two districts or Provinces, but throughout the Indian Empire as a 
whole. It is not, of course, confined to India but extends over practi- 
cally the whole of Eastern Asia, so that India, China and Japan, the 
greatest rice-growing countries in the World, are all intimately con- 
cerned in this question. 

One thing that we want to know more about is the various wild grasses 
which may serve as alternative foodplants. Some work on this line 
has been done in Bombay and around Poona ; the following wild grasses 
have been found to be natural food plants : Job's Tears, Ischcemum 
striatum, Andropogon orderatus and Antistheria ciliata. If any of you 
have any opportunity of observing other natural foodplants, such in- 
formation will be useful. It will be useful directly for control, for if 
we find that Schcenobius is breeding in wild grasses on bunds or other 
places around paddy-fields, we can attack it by control of such wild 
grasses on adjacent areas ; and incidentally tins measure will also be 
effective against Leptocorisa. 

There is also a possibility of control of this pest by the use of its 
natural parasites, but this again is a subject which requires detailed 
investigation. The egg-masses are sometimes parasitized but at present 
we do not know what parasites are concerned or to what extent or in 
what areas they occur. Investigation may show that effective parasites 
may occur in some localities within the area of distribution of Schce- 
nobius (not necessarily in India) and we may be able to utilize these. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 173 

But work of this sort requires very careful preliminary investigation. 
We should not want, for example, to bring in hyper-parasites which 
might attack parasites already present and doing good work. Then again 
there is a probability of rinding parasites preying on the larvae, but these 
are fairly well protected inside the stems of the foodplant so that larval 
parasites are likely to be less effective than egg-parasites. I must 
confess that I am a little doubtful whether we shall be able to find any 
effective parasites. As I said just now, Schcenobhis bipunctifer has a 
wide range over practically the whole of South-Eastern Asia and is 
known to occur throughout India, Burma, Ceylon, China, Formosa, 
Borneo, Singapore, Java and Sumatra, so that its area of distribution 
is pretty continuous and we may assume that it is a truly endemic species 
which has existed for a very long interval of time, probably for several 
hundreds of thousands of years, throughout that area of distribution. 
Its natural foodplants, wild grasses, are universally distributed and its 
own distribution has apparently only been limited by the desert areas on 
the North- West, by the colder climate of the Palsearctic Region to the 
North, by the Indian Ocean to the South and West, and probably by 
natural barriers to the South-East, It is a species which is frequently 
met with at sea some distance from land, probably carried by off-shore 
winds, as I myself noticed when employed in a Surveying Ship off the 
coast of Ceylon, and at a Meeting of the Entomological Society of London, 
at which I was present in June 1909, there were exhibited several speci- 
mens which had been captured at sea nearly two hundred miles off the 
coast of Cochin China, from which they had apparently been carried by 
the wind. [See "Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London," 
1909, p. xxxix.] I see no reason why the egg-masses, when laid on 
grasses, should not be transported equally well and carry any egg-parasites 
with them. I have already dealt elsewhere [" Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society, 1909, p. xiv ; " Transactions of the Linnean Society, 
Zool. XIII, 320] with the distribution of insects by the action of cyclonic 
storms in conjunction with the movements of the upper strata of the 
atmosphere, so I need not go into that again. But I mention these 
facts, firstly, to show you that if any effective parasites of Schosnobius 
do occur anywhere they are likely to have been distributed already by 
natural causes and, secondly, to impress upon you the necessity of 
looking on this sort of problem in as broad a way as possible. It is 
by the accumulation of scattered facts, each perhaps insignificant in 
itself but gathered from as wide a field as possible, that our knowledge 
is advanced, and I think that such advance will be expedited by the 
centralization of our facts as much as possible. If, therefore, any of 
you Provincial workers come across any egg or other parasites of Schce- 



171 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



nobius, it will help us and others if you will send us in ample material, 
living if possible, for study and experiment. 

Schcenobius immeritalis has been reared at Trivandrum in Travancore, 
from larvse boring in rice-plants. This species does not seem to have 
been bred otherwise but it is widely distributed and may prove to be a 
minor pest of paddy. 

Scirpophaga gilviberbis also is not definitely known to be a paddy- 
pest, but it is found very commonly in paddy areas in Lower Burma and 
is likely to prove to be a borer in paddy stems. 

( ■hilo simplex occurs as a stem-borer in paddy but is usually rather a 

minor pest of the rice-plant and we shall come to it again under juar. 

Mr. Ghosh. Chilo simplex is noticed in rice-plants at Pusa only when the crop 

is maturing. The dry ears are conspicuous and such plants contain 

^•'veral young borers, as many as ten to fifteen. 

Mr. Fletcher. Sesamia inferens is also found in rice-plants as a stem-borer but is 

usually a minor pest. 

Mr. Ghosh. Sesamia larvae are found in large numbers late in the season (i.e., just 

before and in early winter) ; they are also found in large numbers in the 
stubble after the crop is harvested. As regards control, burning of the 
stubble is an essential step against this, as well as against Chilo and 
Schcenobius. 
Mr. Fletcher. A few insects attack the roots of rice-plants and this group of pests 

will doubtless be extended considerably in the future. 

Phyllognathus dionysius . 

Anomala polita. 

Conosia irrorata. 

Phyllognathus dionysius is described and figured in Entomological 
Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 139-113, tab. 13, from specimens sent from 
Bel gaum as injuring roots of young paddy plants in areas of black soil. 
We also have a record of the adult cutting stems of young paddy in 
South Kanara on one occasion. The insect is widely distributed and 
the Pusa Collection contains examples from South Kanara, Coimbatore, 
Belgaum, Igatpuri, Hoshangabad, Seoni, Pusa, Chapra, Dehra Dun and 
Simla. It does not seem to be a pest as a rule, or perhaps it would be 
more correct to say that we do not know it as a pest. 

Anomala polita is probably the species referred to as A. varians 
in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 113-116, tab. 11, the name varians, 
as generally used hitherto, including two species, A. polita and A. benga- 
lensis [see Entomological Note 12]. The larvse may occur commonly at 
roots of rice in dry areas, but we know very little about them. 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 175 

Conosia irrorata is a Tipulid found commonly in rice areas in India 
and Burma. We know nothing of its life -history but it seems likely that 
the larva will be found to feed on roots of paddy. 

The sucking insects on paddy include : — 

Menida histrio. 
Tetroda hister aides. 
Leptocorisa varieornis. 
Nephotettix bipunctatus. 

,, apicalis. 

Tettigoniella spectra. 
Kolla mi mica. 
Sogata pusana. 

,, pallescens. 

,, distincta. 
IAburnia sp. ? 
Ripersia sacchari oryzce. 

Menida histrio [" South Indian Insects '", pp. 474-475, fig. 354] has 
been recorded as a minor pest of paddy in Southern India. It is probably 
unimportant as a pest and may be collected in hand-nets, if required. 

Tetroda histeroides [" South Indian Insects ", p. 477, fig. 359] has 
been recorded from Salem and Coimbatore as an occasional minor pest 
of paddy, but also seems of little importance. It is widely distributed 
in India. 

Leptocorisa varieornis [" South Indian Insects ", pp. 479-480, fig. 
363] seems to be the common pest of rice, so far as I can make out. 
Distant describes three species of Leptocorisa in his Fauna volume but I . 
have been quite unable to make out more than one species from our 
series from India and Burma, Its life-history and occurrence have been 
described at length in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 1-13, tab. 
1, and there does not seem to be much to add to that. 

As regards control, the keeping of bunds and other areas adjacent to 
paddy-fields clear of wild grasses will reduce the numbers of this 
insect and, when it does occur in paddy-fields, the use of hand-nets will 
keep it under control. When I was at Coimbatore, we made com- 
parative trials of the efficiency of hand-nets and bag-nets against this 
insect, and found that the hand-nets gave much better results. 

With regard to Leptocorisa varieornis, I was informed by a gentle- Mr. Ghosh, 
man, residing in Burdwan, Bengal, that he had a sad experience of the 
damage done by this bug. In Burdwan district, Raniganj Sub-division, 
there is no aus paddy cultivated, but he wanted to try it. The local 
cultivators tried to dissuade him, saying that aus paddy was never 



176 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGK M. MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher, 



Mr. Ratiram. 



a success in the locality as it was always very badly attacked by L&p- 
tocorisa. However, he put down eight acres under aus paddy and the 
plants grew well but. as the cultivators had predicted, when the crop came 
into ear and milk was forming in the grains, swarms of Leptocorisa came 
and attacked the whole crop. He tried his utmost to save it, and kept 
fires burning the whole night at several places in the midst of the crop, 
and produced smoke in portable vessels which were carried through the 
crop and the smoke fanned over the ears. He observed large numbers of 
bugs to be attracted to the fires and burnt. He used about 44 gallons 
of kerosine oil and several cartloads of cowdung cakes ; but all to no 
purpose. All the grains were sucked out and he got only the straw, which 
however the cattle would not eat on account of its buggy smell. He had 
to throw the straw into the manure pit. 

Leptocorisa is a very bad pest on the West Coast of Madras. On the 
Farm at Coimbatore hand-nets have been found very useful. In the 
interior districts, in some places, a long bamboo with a mat curved in 
the form of a n£st is used by the rt/ots ; this is a sort of a crude hand-net. 

Nephotettix bipunctatus was included in " South Indian Insects ", 
p. 497, fig. 386, as a probable pest of paddy on account of the enormous 
numbers in which it sometimes appears in rice areas. Since that was 
written, it has appeared as a pest in the Central Provinces and we have 
heard a good deal about it in the last two years. Mr. Misra visited the 
attacked areas and wrote a note which has been published. We 
endeavoured to breed this species at Pusa in 1915 without success but 
were able to rear it last year. Perhaps Mr. Ratiram will tell us about 
the outbreak in the Central Provinces. 

NepJiotettix bipunctatus is a serious pest of paddy in the Central Pro- 
vinces. It has come into prominence only since 1913. It occurs through- 
out the year. Adults are found on the fresh shoots given out by the 
stubble after harvest. In summer they are found on the grasses round 
;il tout the tanks. Twelve varieties of grasses have been observed to 
serve as foodplants for this insect. 

In order to control it, in the beginning hand-nets and light traps were 
made in huge numbers and distributed to the cultivators through the 
tahsildars ; but it was found that the hand-nets were too small for the 
purpose, and the lamps became smoky and became dark after only about 
half an hour of having been lighted. So both these measures were 
discarded, and large bags replaced the hand-nets. When a rope or 
bag-net is used, the bugs fall into the water, but all of them do not die — 
they get on to the plants again. In order to find out the quantity of 
kerosine which would require to be present in the water to ensure the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 177 

death of the bugs, a series of experiments was carried out in the Labora- 
tory. First one part of kerosine was taken to one part of water and this 
was gradually diluted until there was one part of kerosine present in 
108 parts of water. It was found that a proportion of one part of kero- 
sine in eighty parts of water was effective, but that mixtures of higher 
•dilution were ineffective. 

Last year (1916), in July only one field was very badly affected. 
The surrounding fields, although having the same variety of rice, were 
practically immune. 

This insect seems to have appeared as a pest in the Central Provinces Mr. Fletcher. 
quite sporadically. It was very bad in 1914 and 1915 but scarcely ap- 
peared in 1916 and it is probable that we shall not hear much of it again 
for some years there. But it is evidently liable to appear as a pest in 
other rice-areas. 

Nephotettix apicalis usually occurs with N. bipunctatus, although 
usually in less numbers, and may also be a pest, but we have no record of 
it as doing damage by itself. Both these two species form a large pro- 
portion of the " Green-fly nuisance " that one hears so much about in 
Calcutta at the end of the rainy season. 

Tettigoniella spectra [" South Indian Insects," pp. 496-497, fig. 
385] is also common in paddy areas and is probably a minor pest of 
paddy. It has been reared at Pusa on sugarcane and on a wild grass. 

Kolla mimica is another small bug, very like Tettigoniella spectra, 
which was reared on paddy at Pusa when attempts were being made in 
1915 to breed out Nephotettix. A coloured plate showing the life-history 
was done [exhibited]; as a matter of fact, it was started w ; tii the idea 
that we were dealing with Nephotettix when the rearing was commenced 
from bundles of eggs found thrust into the leaf -tissue. It is not a regular 
pest of paddy, so far as we know. 

Sogata pusana, S. pallescens and S. distincla are also small bugs found 
in some numbers on paddy when Nephotettix was being investigated. 

A species of Liburnia is said to occur on paddy and to have done 
serious damage in Bengal about nine years ago, but exactly what it is 
and whether it is a Liburnia seem doubtful. 

Ripersia sacchari oryzce is referred to under the name R. sacchari in 
Entomological Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 128-129, tab. 12, figs. 10-13. On 
that- occasion this insect occurred in 1907 widely on rice throughout 
Tirhut and Bihar. The insect has since been named by Mr. E. Ernest 
Green as Ripersia sacchari var. oryzce. Whether it is truly distinct 
from the form on cane, we do not know, but the rice form seems to be 
widely distributed in India. 



178 



PROCEEDINGS 01 THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ratirain. 



At. Ghosh. 



In 1907 it was reported from Bankipur, where it is known as Chatra- 
The diseased condition due to it was ascribed to drought by the culti- 
vators. 

Ripersia was noticed in patches in an experimental plot of rice on the 
Government Farm. The affected patches had a scorched appearance. 

The flowers of the rice-plant are attacked by Cetoniad and Meloid 
beetles. Chiloloba acuta has been reported from Cuttack. Nagpur r 
and Virajpet (Coorg) and is often common in rice-fields. Lytta tenuicollis 
has also been found at Hagari (Bellary) and Bhandara (Central Pro- 
vinces), and doubtless other species occur in other localities. They can 
be collected by hand or in hand-nets. 

Are there any more pests of paddy ? 

In the Central Provinces a fly maggot was observed mining the leaves. 
A similar maggot is found mining dvbh grass (Cynodon dactylon) leaves. 

Such fly-maggots are found occasionally at Pusa mining the apical 
parts of the leaves, but this insect is not a pest. 



Juar (Andropogon Sorghum). 

Mr. Fletcher. Andropogon Sorghum, commonly called juar in Northern India, cholam 

in Madras, is another very important crop in India and has also a large 
number of insect pests, although many of these have already been 
dealt with under sugarcane, paddy, and other crops. 

The seedlings are attacked by an Anthomyiad rly referred to in 
" South Indian Insects," pp. 356-357, fig. 2 15, "as the "Cholam Fly." 
Mr. Ballard did some work on these flies and came to the conclusion that 
there are at least three species (1) the Cholam Fly, which does not 
breed in rotten fruit, but which is found in cholam, wheat, varagu (Pas- 
palum scrobiculatum), Panicum frumentaceum, maize and broom corn 
(a kind of cholam) ; (2) the Cumbu Fly, which is very closely related to 
the Cholam Fly, but apparently distinct, and which feeds on cumbu and 
Panicum miliaceum ; (3) the Tomato Fly, which breeds in rotting fruits 
and vegetable matter generally. I may add that Mr. Ballard informed 
mo that the figure of the adult fly shown in my book, fig. 215, No. 4, is 
probably the female of the Tomato Fly. If Mr. Ballard returns to India, 
I dope that he will continue his investigations on this subject. 

The larva of the true Cholam Fly bores in the young stem of the 
foodplant, which may be cholam or any other of the plants I have just 
riamedj and causes a characteristic " deadheart," and may be a serious 
pest of young seedlings. The only control- measures seem to be increas- 
ing the secdrate to allow for vacancies and prompt removal and destruc- 
tion of the young plants seen to be attacked. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 179 

In " Insect Life," p: 639, Mr. Howlett stated that one species of Cor- Mr. Ramachandra 
dy lurid fly, which he called Rice Stem-fly, has been bred from rice, Rao< 
Sorghum, maize, millets, Panicum miliaceum, P. frumentaceum, celery, 
Cucumis sativus, and brinjal. But these flies were studied at Coimba- 
tore and it was found that there are at least three distinct species, which 
were separated up by Mr. Ballard, as Mr. Fletcher has just told us. 

We will go on to the leaf-eating insects found on juar and will take Mr. Fletcher, 
the caterpillars first : — 

Amsacta albistriga and A. moorei. 
Cirphis unipuncta. 

,, loreyi. 
Spodoptera mauritia. 
Prodenia litura. 
Pelamia (Remigia) frugalis. 
Dasychira securis. 
Melanitis ismene. 
Chapra mathias. 
Marasmia trapezoids . 
Amsacta albistriga and A. moorei occur in Southern India, especially 
in the Salem and South Arcot districts of Madras and in Mysore, as 
serious and destructive pests of cholam. We have already considered 
these species and need not go over the same ground again, unless anyone 
has anything to add. 

Cirphis unipuncta has also been taken under paddy. It is distri- 
buted throughout India and Burma and is a serious pest of juar in most 
localities. 

Cirphis loreyi occurs throughout India and is probably of some im- 
portance as a pest, but often confused with C. unipuncta. It has been 
found on juar at Coimbatore and Poona. We considered this also under 
paddy and control will be the same as for unipuncta. 

Spodoptera mauritia has been recorded on juar at Nagpur and pro- 
bably occurs in most districts at times, but it is not usually serious on 
juar. We considered this also under paddy. 

Prodenia litura is a very polyphagous species which has been found 
on juar at Poona. It is not a regular pest of juar. 

Pelamia {Remigia) frugalis [" South Indian Insects,'' pp. 388-389, 
fig. 253] occurs abundantly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the 
larva feeding on wild grasses as a rule. Occasionally it is found on 
cultivated Graminese and has been noted on juar at Nagpur, but it is 
not a pest of regular occurrence. 

Dasychira securis has already been taken under sugarcane and paddy. 
It occurs fairly commonly on juar but is scarcely a pest. 

o2 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Melanitis ismene and Chapra mathias have also been considered under 
paddy. They are both found, M. ismene the more commonly, on juar, 
but not as pests. 

Marasmia trapezalis ("South Indian Insects," pp. 432-433, tab. 
33] occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva rolling and 
feeding on the leaves of juar and other Graminese. We have it recorded 
on juar from Pusa and Nagpur, but it probably occurs everywhere that 
this crop is grown. It is a minor pest on juar as a rule, rarely serious. 
The picking of the rolled leaves is the only practical means of control. 

The beetles feeding on juar include : — 

Ph idodonta modesta ? 
Pachnephorus impressus. 

,, bretinghami. 

Ta nymecus indicus. 
Myllocerus blandus. 

,, 11-pustulatus. 

Phidodonta modesta — or, at least, the Hispine found on sugarcane at 
Pusa and which has been considered as this species, although there is 
considerable doubt about its identity — has also been found on juar 
at Pusa, but it is not a pest. 

Pachnephorus impressus and P. bretinghami are found on young 
shoots which they nibble as in the case of sugarcane. The larvae also 
live in the soil at the roots of the plants and probably do some damage. 

Tanymecus indicus has been found on juar at Pusa and probably 
occurs throughout Northern India, especially on young shoots. 

Myllocerus blandus and M. 11-pustulatus are both very general feeders 
and sometimes occur on young shoots in some numbers. 
Next, we have the grasshopper pests of juar. 
Epacromia tamulus. 
Or timer is sp. 

Colemania sphenarioides. 
Chrotogonus spp. 
II ieroglyphus banian. 

,, nigro-repletus. 

Oxya velox. 

Epacromia tamulus (dorsalis) [" South Indian Insects," pp. 525-526, 
fig. 417] is generally common on juar in most districts and is often a pest. 
It may be caught in bag-nets or hand-nets and is also attracted in 
some numbers to lights at night. 

In Gujarat Epacromia tamulus attacks juar in November and Decem- 
ber. Bagging was tried against this but was not successful. During the 




CHILO simplex 



Chilo simplex, Butl, 

The plate shows a young maize plant on which eggs were laid and the young cater- 
pillars bored down into the plant through the heart-leaf. One-half of the blade 
of the heart-leaf was destroyed and tho leaf broke down when it issued out of 
the plant. 

Figs. 1 and 2 show oggniasses on leaf (natural size and magnified) ; 

Fig. 3, a young larva (much enlarged) ; 

Figs. 4, 5 and G, the grown-up larva?, the first inside the affected stem and the other 
two drawn enlarged. 

Figs. 7 and 8, show pupje, inside the stem and enlarged ; 

Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12, show the moths in resting and flying attitudes. 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 181 

monsoon months (July-September), light traps, which had been put 
out for Amsacta, attracted Epacromia in large numbers. 

At Coimbatore Epacromia famulus is found to be serious on cholam Mr. Ramakrishna 
during November and December. Ayyar. 

Orthacris sp. [" South Indian Insects," p. 527, fig. 420] is a wingless Mr. Fletcher, 
grasshopper found commonly on cholam in Coimbatore, Tinnevellv 
and Bellary, and probably throughout the Plains of Southern India. 
It may be a minor pest at times, but is scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Colemania sphenarioides [" South Indian Insects," pp. 527-528, 
tab. 48] has apparently a curious limited distribution in Mvsore and 
the Bellary and Kurnul Districts of Madras. A good deal of work has 
been done on this species, which is a very serious pest in the districts 
mentioned, and there is not much to add to that, I think, except that 
in the last three or four years this insect seems to have become less abun- 
dant. Why this is so we do not know exactly. Probablv it is due 
to control by natural enemies. iVnyway, it is an insect which requires 
watching in case it should become abundant again or spread to other 
districts. 

Chrotogonus spp. — how many species we have in India or what are 
the differences between them I cannot pretend to say, and the issue of 
Mr. Kirby's volume in the Fauna series does not seem to help us much 
— attack juar, especially young plants, as they do so many other crops. 
Control by bag-nets seems the simplest plan. 

Hieroglyphic banian has already been considered under sugarcane 
and paddy and occurs sometimes on juar but does not seem to be a regular 
pest of this crop. 

Hieroglyphic nigro-repletus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 531-533, 
fig. 425] is a short-winged grasshopper found on cholam in Bellary, 
Kurnul and Guntur. It is a minor pest, not occurring in large numbers 
as a rule. 

Oxya velox ["South Indian Insects," p. 533, fig. 426] is common on 
juar in most districts and the eggs are often laid on the bases of juar 
stalks. We have already considered this insect under paddy. 

The next group of insects includes those caterpillars found boring 
in the stem : — 

Chilo simplex. 
Dial rem spp. 
Papua depressella. 
Sesamia inferens. 

( 'h ilo simplex is probably the worst pest of juar in India and is common, 
usually abundant, in all areas under juar. The species is brieflv described 
and figured in " South Indian Insects," pp. 422-424, figs. 299, 300, and 



182 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



we have since issued a coloured plate showing the life-history. The eggs 
are laid in a mass on leaves and the larvae burrow in the stem. Some- 
times practically every plant in a field may be bored, often by many larvae. 
As regards control, the collection of egg-masses and destruction of affec- 
ted plants are not practicable measures on a field-scale. Destruction of 
stubble, promptly after harvest, may prove effective but, before advo- 
cating this, we require further investigation of the species — whether 
the larvae in the stubble carry over parasites and so on. Another point 
concerns the use of the juar stalks as fodder ; we require to know how 
long these stalks are capable of containing Chilo in any stage and, if 
there is danger from this source, whether any other method of storage 
of this fodder can be used. As I pointed out in my opening address, 
Chilo is one of the insects which we have found is capable, at Pusa, of 
continuing in a resting condition and emerging at irregular intervals 
over a comparatively long period of time. But such conditions will 
probably vary locally. 

As regards parasites, an undescribed species of Trichogramma attacks 
the eggs and is fairly common, the attacked eggs turning black. Xanth- 
opimpla punctata and Tarytia flavo-orbitalis are also recorded by Morley 
[Fauna of India, Hymenoptera, Vol. Ill, pp. 125, 507] as bred from 
Chilo simplex but it is uncertain whether the host was really Chilo or 
Diatrcea. 

In Bombay Chilo simplex is abundant in juar. 

And in the Central Provinces also. 

The species of Diatrcea have already been dealt with under sugarcane. 
So far as we can make out at present, the species of Diatrcea are the 
common borers in cane, occurring uncommonly in juar and maize, whilst 
Chilo simplex is the common borer in juar and maize and occurs occasion- 
ally in cane. Diatrcea does not seem to be common in juar and is probably 
of small importance as a pest of this crop. 

Papua depressella has been reared from juar at Lyallpur but is a mere 
casual visitor in this crop. 

Sesamia inferens occurs throughout India and is usually a minor 
pest of juar. The larvae are often found in large numbers in the stubble 
and may be destroyed there. 

The flower-heads of juar are attacked by several Cetoniad and Meloid 
beetles. A long list of these insects could be prepared but we need only 
consider a few common ones and those of which we have records are : — 

Heterorrhina elegans, Anthracophora atromaculata, and Protcetia 
albof/uttata, all found in small numbers at Coimbatore ; Anatona stilhta 
[" South Indian Insects," p. 282, fig. 122] at Bellary and Bangalore ; 
Oxycetonia versicolor [I.e. p. 284, fig. 123] in Southern India ; Chiloloba 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 183 

acuta [I.e., p. 284, fig. 124] in South India and Nagpur ; Lytta tenuicollis 
[I.e., p. 303, fig. 148] in South India and Surat. Most of these beetles 
not only devour the pollen but also bore into and feed on the young 
grains, and may do considerable damage in local areas. They may be 
collected by hand or in hand-nets. 

These beetles lead us on to the group of insects which especially 
attack the ear-heads of juar. Of these we know : — 
Stenachroia elongella. 
Sitotroya cerealella. 
Cecidomyiad Flies. 

Stenachroia elongella [" South Indian Insects," p. 421, fig. 296] has 
been recorded in Madras from larvae found on cholam ear-heads at Coim- 
batore and Hagari (Bellary), and at Pusa from larvae on juar ear-heads 
and stems, maize cobs and mania ear-heads. The caterpillar Avebs over 
the ear-heads, in which it feeds, and is a sporadic pest of juar in Madras 
and Bihar, but apparently is not known in Western or Northern India. 

It piobably occurs in Burma also, but 1 cannot say definitely whether Mr. Shroff, 
it is this species. 

Sitotroga cerealella [" South Indian Insects," p. 456, fig. 331] occurs Mr. Fletcher. 
throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest of stored grains. It 
also occurs in the field on ripe ears of juar, paddy, etc., and, though 
hardly a pest in the field, it may thus be brought into stores with the 
grain, and we must therefore not overlook its occurrence on the plants 
in the field. 

The Cecidomyiad Flies occurring in juar heads have not yet been 
identified and perhaps more than one species may be concerned. In 
Madras a Cecidomyiad, found hitherto at Coimbatore and Udumalpet, 
attacks cholam, the egg being thrust in under the glumes when the seeds 
are about half-ripe and the larva boring in the seeds of the plants in the 
field, so that the damage done may be considerable. In Bombay there is 
a Cecidomyiad on juar which is probably distinct from the species found in 
Madras. Anyway, its habits are different, as in the Bombay Cecidomyiad 
the flowers are attacked and the grain is not developed. For the sake of 
convenience, pending proper identification, we may call the Madras 
insect the " Cholam Cecidomyiad " and the Bombay insect the " Juar 
Cecidomyiad." We lately received some specimens of the latter insect 
from Poona, collected in December 1906, and it appears that the ovary 
of the juar flower is destroyed by the Cecidomyiad grub, which pupates 
inside, the result being that no grain is developed. These Poona speci- 
mens were extensively parasitized by a Chalcidid. 

The Cecidomyiadae is a family of which very little is known in India 
as yet, at least as regards their capabilities as crop-pests. The species 



IS! PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

arc very small and easily overlooked but it is probable that we shall 
find a good many pests in this group as time goes on. 

The next group of insects foimd on juar includes those found sucking 
the juices of the plant. On my list I have : — 
Dolycoris iudicus. 
Agonoscelis nubila. 
Nezara viridula. 
Piezodorus rubrofasciatus. 
Menida histrio. 
A n oplocn em is ph as ia no. 
Leptocor isa varicornis. 
Lygceus pandurus. 
Calocoris angustatus. 
Megaccelum stramineum. 
Phenice mcesta. 
Pyrilla perpusilla. 

,, aberrans. 
Pundaluoya simplicia. 
Aphis adusta. 
Mites. 
Doh/coris indicus [" South Indian Insects," p. 470, fig. 347], Agono- 
scelis nubila [I.e., p. 472, fig. 351], Nezara viridula [I.e., p. 473, fig. 
352], Piezodorus rubrofasciatus [I.e., p. 474, fig. 353], Menida histrio 
[I.e., p. 474, fig. 354] are all Pentatomid bugs, found more or less 
commonly on juar, but scarcely pests as a rule. When doing 
damage, they may be collected in hand-nets. 

Anoplocnemis phasiana [I.e., p. 477, fig. 360] has been found on cholam 
in Madras, but is not common on this crop. 

Leplocorisa varicornis [I.e., p. 479, fig. 363] has been considered under 
paddy. It is sometimes found on cholam, sucking the tender seeds, 
but is scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Lygceus pandurus [I.e., p. 481, fig. 365] is found commonly on juar 
at times but is not known to be a pest. 

Calocoris angustatus [I.e., p. 490, fig. 376] occurs in Madras as a pest 
of cholam. It has recently been dealt with by Mr. Ballard, in Bulletin 
No. 58, and there seems to be no more to add at present. It is apparently 
only known in Southern India. 

Megacoelnni stramineum is another Capsid, more widely distributed 
than Calocoris, and doing similar damage to juar. Other undetermined 
Capsids also occur, but we know little about them. 

Phenice mcesta [I.e., p. 493, fig. 380] occasionally occurs on juar 
in some numbers, but docs no damage so far as we know. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 185 

Pyrilla perpusilla [I.e., p. 494, fig. 381] sometimes occurs on juar 
in some numbers but is rarely of any great importance on this crop. 
It is found chiefly in Southern India. 

Pyrilla aberrans occurs in Central and Northern India on juar much 
in the same way as perpusilla. It is fully dealt with in a Memoir by 
Mr. Misra, now in the press, so I need not say any more about it now. 

Pundaluoya simplicia [I.e., p. 494, fig. 382] is an important pest 
of cholam especially in Madras. It occurs probably all over India, 
although we have few records, and is very widely distributed outside of 
India also, being known from South Nigeria, the Seychelles and Hawaii. 
It is probably identical with maidis, Ashmead, described from the 
Southern United States and is also perhaps the same as Liburnia psyh 
hides, Leth. [Indian Museum Notes, III, 105, fig.]. The life-history is 
briefly described in " South Indian Insects " and, as noted there, the 
attack is usually localized in patches, the attacked plants assuming 
an unhealthy yellow appearance. The drain of plant-juice, when this 
insect is present in numbers, must be very great and the result is that 
practically no grain is formed when the attack is bad. 

As regards control, as I have said already in my book, this is very 
difficult, as the insects live protected inside leaf*- sheaths. It is therefore 
practically impossible to get at them. They are usually attended by 
ants and one line of attack might deal with these ants' nests. Beyond 
that, I can suggest nothing beyond cutting the affected plants for use 
as green fodder. These plants are usually conspicuous and localized 
and in any case will not produce much in the way of grain, so their 
removal is indicated. 

Pundaluoya is very serious on cholam at Coimbatore. The bug is Mr. Ramakrishna 
found in all its stages on the affected plants. The attack resembles Ayyar - 
an Aphid attack in its effects but these are more serious. 

At Nagpur Pundaluoya simplicia occurred in one year in the Botanical Mr. Khare. 
area. 

At Pusa Pundaluoya simplicia occurs on juar every year but has Mr. Ghosh, 
never been found doing serious damage. 

An Aphid, supposed to be Aphis adusta, occurs on juar, usually on Mr. Fletcher, 
individual plants which may be covered with this Aphid ; but whole 
areas as such do not seem to be affected. So we cannot consider this 
as a very serious pest. 

A Mite, or perhaps Mites of more than one species, occurs abundantly 
on juar in Madras and may do considerable damage. It is preyed on 
by a minute Coccinellid which devotes its attention to devouring the 
Mite's eggs and so checking its increase. Practically all the leaves in a 



lSd 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



field oijuar may be covered with this Mite and control on a field scale 
seems rather out of the question. 

The roots of juar are attacked by a subterranean Aphid which has 
been found at Poona and is probably widely distributed, but we seem 
to know very little about it. 

On the Coimbatore Farm Cockchafer grubs were noticed to do a good 
deal of damage to roots of cholam plants in 1916. 

Bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum). 

[Cumbu — Madras.] 

The pests of bajra are very similar to those oijuar so it will not take 
us long to run through the list. 

Bajra seedlings are attacked by : — 

Chrotogonus spp. 
Epacromia tamulus. 
Ta ) lymec us indie us . 
Anthomyiad Fly. 

Chrotogonus spp., Epacromia tamulus and Tanymccus indicus attack 
young bajra plants in the same way as they do other young plants and 
there is nothing special to say about them as regards bajra. 

The Anthomyiad Fly attacking cumbu seedlings has been noticed 
in Madras and separated by Mr. Ballard as a species distinct from the 
cholam stem-fly. Its larva in cumbu bores both in young and old plants, 
in the stem and (characteristically) in the ear-head, in which it bores m 
corkscrew fashion. So far, this fly seems to be known only from Madras, 
but is probably widely distributed in India. Control should be as in 
cholam stem-fly. 

The insects found eating the leaves of bajra include : — 
Flea Beetles. 
Coleman ia sj)h enarioides. 
Orthacris sp. 
Estigmene lactinea. 
Amsacta moorei. 

,, albistriga. 
Marasm ia Irapezalis. 
Episomus lacerta. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

Flea-beetles are sometimes found in some numbers on bajra-te&ves, 
but it is impossible at present to identify these beetles. Probably many 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 187 

species occur as pests, on this and other crops, but we know very little 
about them. 

Colemania sphenarioides and Orthacris sp. have already been dealt 
with under cholam and there is no more to add. Cumbu is a favourite 
foodplant of Colemania, largely because it is grown to a considerable 
extent in the area of occurrence of this grasshopper. 

Estigmene lactinea [" South Indian Insects," p. 368, fig. 230] is 
sometimes found on cumbu, principally in Madras, but is sporadic and 
scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Amsacta moorei and A. albistriga have already been dealt with several 
times. Both occur as pests of cumbu in Madras. 

A. moorei also attacks bajri in North C4ujarat. Mr - Jhaveri. 

Marasmia trapezalis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 432-433, tab. 33] Mr. Fletcher. 
rolls the leaves of bajra but is a minor pest as a rule. 

Episomus lacerta has been recorded from Surat and Myllocerus 
11-pustulatus is generally distributed ; both may be found on bajra at 
times, but neither is of any great importance as a pest. 

The next group of pests of bajra includes those insects found boring 
in the stem : — , 

Chilo simplex. 
Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex is a common borer in the stem but of less importance 
than in juar or maize. 

Sesamia inferens is often common also, but of rather minor import- 
ance as a rule in this crop. 

At the roots we get Termites and Anomala grubs but both these 
have been considered under sugarcane and there is no more to add as 
regards bajra. 

The sucking insects found on bajra include : — 

Calocoris angustatus. 
Megacaelum stramineum. 
Aphid. 
Nezara viridula. 

Calocoris angustatus and Megacodum stramineum have been dealt 
with under juar. Both occur on cumbu and do considerable damage, 
and other Capsids may also occur. 

An Aphid is found on bajra in much the same way as on juar but 
we are not certain of its identity. 

Nezara viridula and other Pentatomid bugs also occur on bajra but 
are of minor importance. 



1SS 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



The flowers and heads of bajra are attacked by : — 
Anatona stillata. 
Chiloloba acuta. 
Idgia cardoni. 
Lytta tenuicollis. 
Cumbu Cecidomyiad. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 

Anatona stillata [" South Indian Insects," p. 282, fig. 122] is recorded 
from Hadagalli (Bellary District), Bangalore and Poona, and is a local 
pest of some importance, the beetles devouring the pollen and unripe 
grains. The beetles may be collected in hand-nets. 

Chiloloba acuta [I.e., p. 284, fig. 124] occurs in most parts of India 
and occurs on the heads in the same way as Anatona stillata. It has 
been recorded from Madras to the Punjab. 

Idgia cardoni (Melyrinae) has been reported on bajra flowers in the 
Punjab but does not seem to have occurred in recent years and is pro- 
bably not a pest as a rule. 

Lytta tenuicollis [" South Indian Insects," p. 303, fig. 148] occurs 
in South India and Bombay principally, on bajra heads, which are dam- 
aged by the adult beetles feeding on the pollen and young grain. It 
has been reported from several parts of Madras and from Surat. 

At Nadiad Blister Beetles are serious at times when the bajri plants 
are in flower. 

In Madras a Cecidomyiad fly has been found on cumbu at Coimbatore 
and Mettupalaivam. The larva bores in the seeds of the plants in the 
field, the eggs being laid only at night. During the daytime the flies 
hide away among the sheathing leaves at ground-level. The damage 
done may be very considerable. This Cumbu Cecidomyiad is unlikely 
to be confined to the Coimbatore District and will probably be discovered 
to be widely spread in India if search is made. 

Heliothis obsoleta has been bred at Pusa from larva? found in bajra 
heads, in which it is occasionally found boring, but it has not been 
noticed as a real pest. 



Maize (Zca mays). 
Mr. Fletcher. Maize is another important food-crop, especially in Northern India, 

and has a long list of insect pests, but many of these are identical with 
those already discussed under sugarcane, paddy, juar and bajra so that 
we need only mention these briefly. 

Maize seedlings are attacked by the Anthomyiad Fly found in cholam 
seedlings. The species of fly. damage done and control methods are; 
all identical. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ] 89 

Eating the leaves of maize we get : — 

Cirphis unipuncta. 

,, loreyi. 
Prodenia litura. 
Laphygma exigua. 
Amsacta moorei. 
Estigmene lactinea. 
Marasmia trapezalis. 
Anomala antiqua. 
Heterorrhina micans. 
Monolepta signata. 
Tanymecus circumdatus. 

,, indicus. 

,, hispidus. 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

,, blandus. 

Oxya velox. 
Hieroglyphus banian. 
Epacromia famulus. 
Chrotogonus spp. 

Cirphis unipuncta is common on maize, sporadically serious. We 
have already considered this species under paddy. In the case of maize 
the caterpillars are often found in the tube formed by the leaf-sheaths 
and may be dealt with by dropping kerosinized dust or ashes into this 
tube. 

Cirphis loreyi has been noted on maize at Pusa and Surat and is doubt- 
less common throughout India. Control as in G. unipuncta. 

Prodenia litura has been recorded on maize at Daltonganj but is 
doubtless found on maize occasionally in most districts. It is scarcely 
a pest of maize. 

Laphygma exigua is found especially on young! eaves and shoots 
and sometimes occurs in numbers. The damage done is much like 
that caused by Cirphis. 

Amsacta moorei is a pest of maize in those districts in which this 
insect does damage to crops generally. 

In Bombay Amsacta moorei is sporadically bad on maize in the Pan- Mr. Jhaveri. 
chmahal District. 

Estigmene lactinea is sometimes found on maize in small numbers Mr. Fletcher, 
but is a minor pest as a rule. 

In the Central Provinces E. lactinea is a minor pest of maize but Mr. Ratiram. 
is not bad. 



]90 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. David. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 



Marasmia trapezalis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 432-433, tab. 
33] occurs commonly on maize, the larva rolling the leaves. It is a 
minor pest as a rule. 

Marasmia trapezalis occurs throughout the United Provinces, but 
does not do much damage. On the Experimental Farms it is hand- 
picked. 

Anomala antiqua has been reported on maize at Tatkon, in Burma, 
but I do not know how far this is a pest. 

In one year it was found in large numbers at Tatkon. 

Heterorrhina micans has been reported on maize at Taliparamba, 
in Malabar, but is not a pest. 

Monolepta signata occurs on maize, as on so many other crops, but 
is scarcely a pest. 

Tanymecus circumdatus [Fauna of India, CurculionidcB, Vol. I, pp. 
90-91, fig. 24a] occurs throughout Burma and India, except Madras 
and Bombay, and has been found on maize at Cuttack and Lahore. 
It is scarcely a pest. 

Tanymecus indicus [I.e., pp. 99-100, fig. 32] has been noted on maize 
at Pusa but is doubtless common throughout Northern India. It may 
at times do damage by nibbling young seedlings or tender leaves, but 
we do not usually regard it as a pest. 

Tanymecus hispidus [I.e., p. 98] has been noticed in the Pusa District 
attacking maize, and doing a little damage sporadically, but it is not 
a pest as a rule. 

M>/llocerus 11-pustulatus [I.e., pp. 350-352] has been recorded on 
maize at Surat and Pusa and is doubtless to be found commonly on 
maize throughout India, but it is scarcely a pest. 

Myllocerus blandus [I.e., pp. 333-334, fig. 101] is known from Burma, 
Madias and Bengal, and has been found on maize at Pusa, but this also 
is scarcely a pest. 

Oxya velox is found In numbers on maize throughout India and does 
some damage by eating the leaves and especially the young plants. 

In the Punjab, when the maize crop is young, it is attacked by ground- 
grasshoppers, chiefly Oxya and Epacromia. 

When tin 1 crop is young, bagging is practicable. 

Hieroglyphus banian sometimes attacks maize in some districts in 
which this grasshopper occurs. We have already dealt with it under 
sugarcane and paddy. 

In Madras Hierot/h/ pints banian is found on maize. 

In Khandesh also maize is attacked by H. banian. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 191 

Epacromia tamulus is found in most districts, but chiefly in Southern Mr. Fletcher. 
India. It occurs on maize and may do damage by eating back the young 
leaves and shoots of seedlings. 

Chrotogonus spp. also attack young plants chiefly. 

All these grasshoppers may be bagged when doing damage to the 
young plants. In the case of older plants it is not practicable to get 
at them but grown plants are relatively little attacked. 

Boring in maize-stems we get : — 

Chilo simplex. 
Sesamia infer ens. 
,, uniformis. 

Chilo simplex occurs in maize in the same way as it does in juar and 
is an important pest of this crop. We have already considered it in 
some detail under juar and I do not think there is anything to add as 
regards maize. It is of course possible that more than one species may 
be included under the name Chilo simplex. 

Chilo simplex is sometimes bad in the Punjab on maize. Mr. M. M. Lai. 

It is also bad at Pusa, riddling the plant and attacking it in all its Mr. Ghosh. 
stages of growth. 

Sesamia inferens occurs commonly in maize stems and S. uniformis Mr. Fletcher, 
has been reared from maize at Lyallpur and Pusa. The former is dis- 
tinctly a pest, at times serious. 

As already noticed under paddy and juar, the larvse rest for some 
time in the stubble and prompt destruction of this is indicated as a 
remedial measure. 

The heads, or cobs, of maize are attacked by : — 

Heliothis obsoleta. 
Chilo simplex. 

Heliothis obsoleta has been reared at Pusa from larvae boring in maize- 
cobs, and this method of attack is probably general in India, as is the 
case in other parts of the World, such as the United States of America. 
As regards maize, however, in India H. obsoleta is not much of a pest. 

Heliothis obsoleta occasionally attacks the stem of maize, gnawing Mr. Ghosh, 
it from outside and entering inside the stem, the part attacked being 
the tender top portion. 

Chilo simplex has also been bred from maize-cobs at Pusa and may Mr. Fletcher, 
occur in some numbers, but we do not seem to have any record of this 
habit outside of Pusa. 

In the Punjab also Chilo simplex has been found boring into the Mr. M. M. LaL 
cobs. 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Fletcher. The roots of maize are attacked by the usual insects : — 

Anomala polita. 
Pachnephorus impressus. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

,, discolor. 
Termites. 

There is not much to say about these that we have not said already 
in the case of other crops. Termites are not common on maize and 
probably rarely attack growing healthy plants, and the beetle larvae, 
though common, probably do comparatively little damage. 

Anomala grubs, presumably A. polita, are found commonly around 
the roots. Doubtless "a good many species occur. 

Pachnephorus impressus is found in the larval state commonly at 
maize roots. [See Entomological Note 33, Bulletin 59.] 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus and M. discolor have both been bred in 
numbers at Pusa from larva? found in the soil amongst maize-roots. 
But it is doubtful how far any of these insects are to be regarded as 
regular pests. 

The sucking insects found on maize include : — 

Leptocorisa varicomis. 
Calocoris angustatus. 
Megaccelum stramineum. 
Pyrilla per pus ilia. 

,, aberrans. 
Phenice matla. 
P u nda luoya simp licia . 
Delphax psylloides (V). 
Aphids. 

Leptocorisa varicomis has been considered under paddy. It is 
found on maize, not uncommonly at times, but is scarcely a pest. 

Calocoris angustatus and Megaccelum stramineum Lave been consider- 
ed under juar. Both occur on maize also but do not do so much damage 
as to juar. 

Pyrilla perpusilla and P. alerrans have been considered under sugar- 
cane and there is not much to add. They may occur on maize but 
usually in small numbers doing little damage. 

Phenice mcesta is found on maizo leaves at times but is not known 
to do damage at all. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 193 

Pundaluoya simplicia is found on maize, as a pest chiefly in South 
India, but is probably widely distributed. It is rather a pest of juar . 
than of maize., but the latter crop is occasionally attacked, generally 
in isolated patches. 

Liburnia psylloides seems to be a name rather than an insect. It 
is described lunder the name of the " Maize Fly " in " Indian Insect 
Pests," pp. 37-138, fig. 155. It is probably the same insect as Pun- 
daluoya simplicia. 

Aphids occur on maize, sometimes in large numbers and are probably 
the most important pests so far as sucking insects are concerned. Iso- 
lated plants or patches of plants are attacked as a rule and control- 
measures are not generally required. 

Aphids are sometimes bad in the Central Provinces. Mr - Ratiram. 

A species of Aleyrodid has also been noticed on one occasion on the 
leaves of maize in the Central Provinces. 

Wheat {Triticum vulgare). 

Wheat seedlings are attacked by :— , Mr - Fletcher. 

Chrotogonus spp. 
Tanymecus indicus. 
Elaterid grubs. 
Sfodoftera maurilia. 
Microtermes obesi (anandi). 

Chrotogonus spp. and other ground grasshoppers take their toll of 
w heat seedlings and may do considerable damage at times. Bagging is 
usually effective as a control. 

Tanymecus indicus [ Fauna of India, Curculionidce, Vol. I, p. 99, 
fig. 32] is a sporadic pest of wheat seedlings, the adult beetles hiding 
under the loose clods in the fields and nibbling off the young germinating 
plants. In the Punjab this species has been noted as an occasional 
bad pest of young wheat when the plants are about five to six inches 
high. As regards control, split pumpkins or bad fruits are placed in the 
fields at dusk and examined before sunrise and large numbers of beetles 
are sometimes trapped in this way. This species is recorded from 
Assam, Bengal, Bihar, the United Provinces and Punjab. 

Elaterid grubs of various species are often found in numbers in wheat- 
fields and may perhaps do some damage but their status as pests is at 
present doubtful. Some species at all events are predaceous and feed 
on caterpillars and other insects, so that they are beneficial. In this 



10 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOUMi l( !AL MF.KTING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 
Mr. Ratiram. 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mi. Jhaveri. 



connection we may recall the case of Lioi/ryllus bimaodafxs in mam- 
fields, when it feeds equally on caterpillars and on the contents of gram- 
pods. 

Sfodoftera mauritia, which we have already considered under paddy, 
is also an occasional pest of wheat seedlings, on which it has been found 
at Pusa. But it seems to be a relatively unimportant pest of wheat. 

Microtermes anandi is the small Termite usually responsible at Pusa 
for damage to wneat seedlings and it is probably this same species which 
attacks wheat seedlings in other districts also. It nests in the ground 
without any indication in the shape of a mound to show where its nest 
is, but this may at times apparently be situated at a considerable depth 
underground. At Pusa when excavations were being made for the Drain 
( Gauges, the tunnels of this species were found at a depth of about eleven 
feet below ground-level. Scattered small chambers seem to occur 
almost anywhere underground and those belonging to Microtermes 
may easily be recognized by the fact that they are quite small, usually 
rather globular in shape and contain a small mass of comb whose 
exterior surface has a characteristically roughened appearance. To 
deal directly with these termites in wheat areas seems to be rather impos- 
sible as it is not possible to locate and destroy their nests directly and 
the enormous areas to be dealt with must also be borne in mind. It 
is possible that deep-ploughing, such as is done with steam tackle at 
Pusa, may so disturb the upper strata of soil that the termites may be 
driven down at least until the plants have attained a good growth ; but 
this requires experiment and in any case is not possible in small holdings. 
In irrigated areas, a deterrent may be used in the irrigation water, but 
this again is possible only in some localities. 

It is generally the seedlings which are attacked — we shall come 
presently to the case of termite attack on grown plants — and, once 
they have made a little growth, they seem to be fairly immune. 

In the Punjab termites are very bad on wheat seedlings. 

In the Central Provinces wheat seedlings are also seriously attacked 
by termites. 

My experience in the North- West Frontier Province is that wheat 
when sown by drills .suffers more than when sown broad-cast. I have 
further observed that the trouble from termites is much greater in light 
-oils than in heavy soils. 

1 can corroborate Mr. Robertson-Brown's latter statement. In 
Northern Gujarat wheat in black soil areas is not much attacked by 
I ei mites. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 195 

The next group of insects includes those feeding on the leaves of Mr. Fletcher, 
the wheat plant. Some of these, of course, may feed on seedlings also 
and some pests of seedlings may eat leaves of well-grown plants. 

Flea-beetles. 
Monolepta signata. 
Myllocerus discolor. 
„ bland/us. 

Cirphis un ipuncta. 

,, loreyi. 

» fragilis. 
Dasychira securis. 
Epacromia famulus . 

Flea-beetles sometimes occur in numbers, chiefly on young leaves, 
and may do some damage at times, but they are minor pests as a rule. 
The identification of Indian Halticinse is an unworked field at present. 

Monolepta signata has been found on wheat at Coimbatore and 
doubtless occurs in most districts, but it is not a regular pest of wheat, so 
far as we know. 

Myllocerus discolor [Fauna of India, Curculionidw, Vol. I, pp. 348-350, 
fig. 106] has been found on wheat leaves at Pusa and Coimbatore and 
occurs throughout India. The larva probably feeds at the roots of 
wheat also. This species is scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Myllocerus blandus [I.e., pp. 333-334, fig. 101] has also been found on 
wheat at Pusa, but is not a pest. 

( 'ir phis unipuncta is represented in the Pusa Collection by specimens 
reared on wheat at Peshawar and Pusa. It is often abundant in the 
larval stage in cracks and under clods in wheat-fields and must do a con- 
siderable amount of damage in the aggregate, but it is not usually regarded 
as a serious pest of wheat. 

Cirphis loreyi is found with C. unipuncta in wheat-fields and is often 
common, although it is not usually regarded as a pest. It is probable 
that both these species of Cirphis escape notice because the larva; feed 
by night and hide away in the daytime. 

Cirphis fragilis is recorded by Hampson [Cat. Lep. Phal. V. 546, 
t. 93, fig. 26] to do '" much damage to wheat in Chindwara District, 
Central Provinces," but it is not known to have occurred as a pest of 
late years. It is perhaps a sporadic local pest. 

Dasychira securis occasionally occurs on wheat but does very little 
damage as a rule. 

In Burma Dasychira securis occurs on wheat leaves but not as a pest. Mr. Shroff. 

p-2 



196 



1'ItOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. Epacromia tamulus and other grasshoppers occur, often in numbers, 

in wheat areas and must do some damage, but it is scarcely perceptible 
as a rule. 

Boring in the stem of wheat plants we get Sesamia inferens. Sesamia 
wiiformis does not seem to have been bred from wheat so far. We have 
inferens recorded from wheat at Surat, Nagpur, Seoni and Pusa, and 
it probably occurs throughout the wheat-growing areas in India, but it is 
scarcely a pest and direct control seems rather out of the question, except 
in so far as the stubble question is concerned. 

Mr. M. M. Lai.' Sesamia inferens is found in the Punjab but is not serious. 

Mr. Ghosh. At Pusa also it is not serious. 

Mr. Fletcher. Besides the usual micellaneous lot of cockchafer grubs and so on 

the roots of w 7 heat plants are attacked by 
Microtermes obesi (anandi). 
Aphids. 
Microtermes obesi (anandi) has just been considered under the heading 
of seedlings. In some districts, however, notably in the Central Pro- 
vinces, wheat plants are attacked just when they are coming into ear 
and the damage done may be serious, two to three annas in the Kupee 
in normal years and four or five annas in bad years. Damage of this 
sort occurs at Hoshangabad and the subject was taken up for investiga- 
tion in 1910 by Mr. Lefroy. He visited the Farm and mapped out all 
the visible termites' mounds, which occur as a rule along the field embank- 
ments, and started a series of experiments on the extermination of these 
nests by (1) digging them out, (2) oiling with low-grade kerosine oil. 
and digging them out, and (3) simply pouring a bottle of low-grade 
kerosine oil into one of the main galleries of the nest. In 1911, when 
Mr. Lefroy went on leave, I took over this work and visited the Hoshanga- 
bad Farm in September 1911 and noted results to date and continued 
the experiments with the new mounds which had showed up. The ex- 
periments carried out at that time appeared to have demonstrated 
that the simple oiling of nests is sufficiently effective to render this worth 
while. As careful estimat ion of that year's wheat crop on the Hoshanga- 
bad Faun showed that one-third of the total crop had been destroyed 
by termites it was reasonably supposed that the cost of treatment 
(about one anna per mound treated) would be more than repaid by 
increased out-turn, and an experiment on these lines was arranged to be 
done by the Deputy Director of Agriculture, one block of wheat fields 
to be left untreated and in another similar block of fields all the mounds 
being destroyed. 

In February 1912 I visited Hoshangabad again to see the result of 
this experiment, but no apparent difference was perceptible. The 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 197 

attack happened to be in progress at the time of my visit, as the wheat 

was just coming into ear, and the attacked plants were plainly visible, 

showing up in yellow patches against the green of the healthy 

plants. It was evident that the suppression of the mound-nests had 

made no difference in the area treated and further observation showed 

that the attacked patches had no apparent relation to the positions ^ 

of the mounds, so that it began to look doubtful whether termites were 

really responsible for the damage at all. This point, however, was 

soon set at rest by examination of the plants which were actually being 

attacked. On carefully digging these up, termites were actually found 

in the act of cutting the stem below ground-level, but it was at once 

evident that the termites doing the damage were not the same as the 

mound-builders. The mound-builder was an Odontolermes, 0. obesus 

for the most part ; the termite damaging the wheat plants was a Micro- 

termes, since identified by Professor Holmgren as M. anandi, which 

I have since ascertained to be the same, species as M. obesi. 

Now, that is another case in which the importance of systematic 
work is obvious. If I had not happened to visit Hoshangabad at that 
time and to secure specimens of the Microtermes in the act of damaging 
the wheat plants, we should probably have gone on destroying the 
mounds of the Odontotomies, which was not the culprit after all, and 
furthermore we should have been utterly at a loss to reconcile the want 
• of relation between destruction of the mound-nests and continuance 
of the attack. Because wheat was being damaged by termites 
and a mound-building Odontotomies was common in the locality, 
it was presumed that the Odontolermes was the cause of the 
damage ; which was not the case as it happened. Similarly, 
borers in cane and juar were all lumped together as Chilo 
simplex, and other similar cases may be adduced. We have, for example, 
seen under sugarcane that there is considerable doubt regarding the 
identity of the common Hispine beetle found on cane at Pusa and 
represented on our coloured plate as Phidodonta modesta. Other similar 
cases will probably crop up, as we get to know our common insects a 
little better, but I want to impress upon you the necessity for not 
lumping to conclusions and lumping several things together merely 
because they look a little alike or happen to be found on the same food- 
plant. 

Aphids on the roots of wheat plants were found at Hoshangabad. Mr. Ratiram. 
As a result of attack the plants dried up. 

Damage of wheat plants by root-feeding Aphids does not seem to be Mr. Fletcher. 
general in India. At all events, we do not seem to have heard of it 
before. 



198 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 

Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



The sucking insects on wheat include :— 
Nezara rir'alnla. 
Dolycoris indicus. 
Macrosiphum granarium. 

Nezara viridula, Dolycoris indicus and various other polyphagous 
Pentatomid bugs are sometimes found in numbers on wheat, but are 
not known to be pests. 

Macrosiphum granarium — there is some doubt about the correct 
lame — is the usual Wheat Aphid which occurs commonly all over India 
and often does damage. In some districts it is a common practice to 
grow mustard either intersown with wheat or alongside the wheat- 
fields and the mustard plants are usually affected with Aphids which 
attract Coccinellids and other predators; later on, when the Wheat 
Aphid comes along and starts multiplying on the wheat plants, its 
natural enemies are already present in numbers and keep it in cheek. 
There is also a*small Braconid — which has been identified as Aphidius 
arena , but by whom and with what degree of accuracy I cannot say — 
which attacks these Aphids and helps to keep them in check. Beyond 
the encouragement of natural checks in this way it is not usually possible 
to do much in the way of control on a field-scale in the case of the Wheat 
Aphid. 

The grain is attacked in the field and before storage by Holcomyrmex 
scabriceps, which sometimes is the cause of quite serious losses to the 
cultivator by the quantity of grain which it carries away. So much is 
this the case that in times of scarcity in some districts it is the practice 
to dig out these ants" nests and to utilize the stores of grain. 

At Peshawar Holcomyrmex scabriceps has been noticed to take away 
wheat-grains from the field when these have been sown. 

Occasionally rats also arc troublesome by carrying away the broad- 
casted wheat seed. 

I lir remedy would seem to lie in treatment of the seeds to make 
them unpalatable. Probably storage with naphthaline would make 
i hem distasteful to ants. But damage of this sort seems to be unusual. 
Holcomyrmex is usually a pest of stored grain and may carry off quite 
large quantities of grain from stores. 



Oats (Avena saliva). 

The pests of oats are very similar to those of wheat, although we 
seem to have very lew insects recorded as found on oats. 

On the leaves we find Cirphis unipuncta and Cirphis loreyi in the 
same way as on wheat. Las! year when T was at Peshawar in May there 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 190 

was a small patch of oats on the Farm at Tarn and this was swarming 
with larvse of Cirphis, mostly unipuncta with a few loreyi. 

The Hispine which we have known as Phidodonta modesta has also 
been found on oats at Pusa. 

Barley (Hordcxm vulgare). 

We seem to have very few insect pests of barley on record. Mr. Fletcher. 

Spodoptera mauritia was found doing damage to barley at Ootacamund, 
presumably to the young plants. I believe that attempts were made to 
grow barley in the Nilgiris, but it had to be given up on account of insect 
attack, chiefly by cockchafer grubs. 

The roots also are attacked by Termites, chiefly when the plants 
are young. 

The next group of plants includes the various Millets and of these 
the first is — 

Marua or Ragi (Eleusine coracana). 

[ Marua — Hind . Rag i — Madras . ] 

The leaves of marua are eaten by a good many insects, but few are 
of any great importance as pests. 
Estigmene lactinea. 
Amsacta albistriga. 
Dasychira securis. 
Marasmia trapeza I is . 
Epacromia tamulus. 
Orthacris sp. 
Cyrtacanthacris ranacea . 
Monolepta signata. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 

Estigmene lactinea is sporadically a serious pest of ragi in Madras. 
Prompt hand-picking, before the pest gets out of hand, is the only remedy. 
But its occurrence is generally quite sporadic. 

Amsacta albistriga, and probably A. moorei also, will eat ragi leaves 
when the caterpillars are abundant, but they are not specific pests of 
ragi. 

Dasychira scon-is and Marasmia trapezalis occur on ragi as on other 
cereals, but are scarcely pests. 

Epacromia tamulus, Orthacris sp., Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, and 
doubtless other common grasshoppers also occur more or less casually 
on marua and may do minor damage at times. 



200 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Monolepta signata and Myllocerus 11-pustulatus are both very 
general feeders, also found on ma nut, but not as pests. 
Boring insects found in ragi include : — 
Saluria inficita. 
Chilo simplex. 
Sesamia inferens. 
Saluria inficita is a specific pest of ragi and is described and figured 
in " South Indian Insects," pp. 427-428, fig. 304. The larva bores low 
down in the stem, near the roots. This insect occurs every year at 
Coimbatore about August but has not yet been noticed elsewhere, al- 
though it is probably more widely distributed. 

Chilo simplex occurs in ragi and that is about all we can say. It is 
scarcely a pest of this plant. 

Sesamia inferens [" South Indian Insects," pp. 379-380, tab. 21] is 
a bad pest of ragi in Madras but in other parts of India it seems to be 
of minor importance. 

The heads of mania are attacked by — 
Anatona stillata. 
Leptoeorisa varicornis. 
Anatona stillata [" South Indian Insects," p. 282. fig. 122] is recorded 
as attacking ragi heads in the Bellary District, devouring the pollen of 
flowers and the milk of developing grains. 

Leptoeorisa varicornis also sometimes sucks the ripening grains but 
is of little importance as a pest as a rule. 

Leptoeorisa has been noted on mama ear-heads at Pusa, but only 
in small numbers. 

It is found in the Central Provinces also. 
The sucking insects found on ragi include : — 
Nezara viridula. 
Ragi Root Aphis. 
Nezara viridula is sometimes found on this, as on nearly all other crops, 
but is of very minor importance as a pest. 

The Ragi Root Aphis was first described in " South Indian Insects,'*' 
pp. 502-503, fig. 390, but has not yet been identified, and I do not think 
there is any more to add to the account given. It seems to occur at 
Coimbatore regularly every year and is often a serious pest. 



SET ARIA ITALIC A. 



[Kauni — Hind. Tenai — Madras.] 

Kauni, or Tenai, has few specific pests, but is attacked by a good 
many polyphagous insects. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 201 

The leaves are eaten by — 

Colemania sphenarioides. 
Hieroglyphus nigro-repletus. 
Myllocerus dentifer. 

Colemania sphenarioides and Hieroglyphus nigro-repletus occur in 
Mysore and the Bellary and Kurnul Districts of Madras and destroy 
tenai together with other crops. We have already considered these 
insects under cholam. 

Myllocerus dentifer has been noted on tenai at Palur, in South Arcot, 
but is not a pest. 

The flowers of Setaria italica form a rather favourite food of various 
Cetoniad and Meloid beetles. I have on my list : — 

Anatona stillata. 
Gnathospastoides rouxi. 
Lytta tenuicollis. 
Zonabris pustulata. 
Cantharis ruficollis. 

These eat the pollen grains and the young developing grain. I do 
not think there is anything special to say about any of them. 

In the stems of tenai there occurs an Erotylid beetle, a species of 
Languria, I think, about which we had a short note recently in the 
Agricultural Journal of India. 

This Erotylid was found attacking tenai at Coimbatore. The eggs Mr. Ramachandra 
are laid in slits made in the upper layer of the leaf. The injury Rao- 
done is similar to that done by a borer. The ears become discoloured 
and wither. 

Saluria inficita also was found boring at the base of tenai stems in 
Bellary. 

That is an interesting record. It is the first time that Saluria inficita Mr. Fletcher. 
has been found outside of Coimbatore and in any plant other than 
ragi. 

The sucking insects found on kauni include the usual bug pests 
amongst which we need only specify Dolycoris indicus and Leptocorisa 
varicornis, of which the latter is found sucking the young grain in the 
same way as on other cereals. But none of these bugs are of any great 
importance as pests. 

Setaria glauoa. 

This has probably much the same insects on it as S. italica but we 
do not seem to have anv definite records at all. 



Mr. Ghosh, 



Mr. Fletcher. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Panioum frumentaoeum. 

[Santa — Hind.] 

The only insects recorded on this are Myllocerus 11-pustulatus, which 
has been found at Pusa and the cholam Anthomyiad fly which has been 
reared at Coimbatore. It is also attacked by Leptocorisa and probably 
many other common pests of cereals. 

Panioum miliaoevm. 

[China — Hind.] 

The cumbu Anthomyiad Fly has been reared from this plant at 
Coimbatore. We have already discussed it under cumbu, and I have 
no more to add. 

At Pusa a Fly maggot attacks the stem of china before the ear ripens. 
The effect produced is like that of a borer, the ear drying up without 
forming any grain. The affected plants are easily spotted in the field. 
This insect was first noticed at Pusa in September 1916. 

The leaves and grain of china are sometimes attacked by Cantharis 
actaeon. We had an example of this near Pusa in July 1915, when the 
beetles were found swarming in a china field. They are fairly easily 
collected by hand when in numbers. 

Pakicim miliare. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



| Gandhli — Chhota Nagpur. Panimragu — Madras.] 

We do not seem to know of any specific pest of this crop. 

At Coimbatore we get a Flea-beetle which is peculiar to this millet. 
The eggs are laid on the leaves. The larva bores in the stem and. as 
a result of the attack, the ears dry up. The larva drops to the ground 
when full-fed and pupates there. 

A Stem-fly attacks gandhli also, in the same way as china is attacked. 
Specimens of this were sent in from Ranchi on one occasion. 

PASPA 1. I'M so ROBICULA TV M . 

| Kodon — Hind. Kodra — Gujarat. I 'aragu — Madras.] 

Varagu is subject to attack by the cholam Anthomyiad fly, but this 
is probably not a serious pesl . 

In the Central Provinces kodou is attacked by Cirphis unipuncta, 
Leptocorisa varicornis (on earheads), Meloid beetles, Nephotettix. and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 203 

Oxija velox. All these have been considered already and there is no 
more to add now. 

In Gujarat the larva of Amsacta moorei attacks kodra in common 
with all other crops. 

Grasses. 

We will next take the insect pests of grasses generally. These are Mr. Fletcher. 
sometimes of importance in grazing areas and in the case of gardens, 
lawns, etc. 

Hodotermes viarum is a common termite in some parts of Madras, 
as at Coimbatore, and often does damage to grass lawns by cutting off 
the steins and carrying the cut portions below ground. It is a most inter- 
esting species of termite, both the workers and soldiers being provided 
with eyes ; most termites, as you know, are entirely blind in the worker 
and soldier castes. It tunnels below the ground, throwing up little 
hillocks of loose pellets of earth at intervals, and in the evening and 
early morning the workers sally out in the open and cut off pieces of grass 
which they carry into their galleries. The soldiers generally remain 
in the open gallery, ready to repel any intruders, but sometimes come 
out and run about over the ground, apparently urging the workers to 
hasten in their task. When sufficient grass has been collected, the 
workers all scuttle back into the gallery which is promptly blocked up 
with pellets of earth. When these termites are in numbers, they may 
produce regular bare patches on lawns. 

Eutermes heimi, which also occurs at Coimbatore, has somewhat the 
same habits, but often feeds on dead cholam stalks or similar dead vege- 
table matter. However, it does cut living grass on occasion and so may 
do a little damage. 

Other species of Termites sometimes damage grass by cutting the 
roots but we seem to have no exact records of the species concerned. 

Euxoa spinijera occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the 
larva feeding at the roots of grasses, especially Dubh grass (Cynodon 
dactylon). It is usually a very minor pest, but occurs sporadically in 
enormous numbers at roots of grasses. When in numbers it is usually 
attacked by birds such as hoopoes, crows, etc., and the only control that 
can be used is flooding where that is practicable. 

Spodoptera mauritia, which we have already discussed in connection 
with paddy seedlings, feeds normally on grasses and may do damage 
on grass farms. 

Prodenia litura also sometimes occurs in numbers on grass. We 
have already discussed Spodoptera and Prodenia and I do not think 
there is any more to add here. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr/Ramakrishna 
Ayyar, 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Guinea grass (Panicum jumentorum). 

Guinea grass is grown as a fodder crop and its pests are checked 
automatically by frequent cuttings. It is grown to some extent at Pusa 
but we have not had much trouble with insect pests. 

The larva) of Porthesia xanthorrhaa are sometimes found in small 
numbers but are scarcely pests. 

Dasychira securis also is found in small numbers at times. 

Dasychira securis has occurred on Guinea grass at Coimbatore but 
not as a serious pest. 

Sesamia inferens also has been reared from larvae boring in the stems 
but this only occurs when the grass is allowed to grow tall. When the 



-rass is cut regularly for fodder, as is 
do any damage. 



generally done, Sesamia does not 



Bamboos (Bambusa and Dendrocalamus spp.) 
Bamboos are mostly grown on a large scale in Forest Areas but are 
also often grown in Agricultural Farms, gardens, etc., and you may be 
called on to treat them for insect pests. 

Bamboo leaves are not attacked by any serious pests in the way of 
caterpillars. Matapa aria is a Hesperiad butterfly common in most 
parts of India, Burma and Ceylon ; the larva rolls bamboo leaves quite 
commonly, but is scarcely a pest. Telicota augias is also recorded as 
rolling bamboo leaves, but is not a pest. Crocidophora ptyophora, a 
Pyraustine Pyralid, has also been reared at Pusa from larva? rolling 
bamboo leaves, but it is not a pest. 

The young shoots of bamboos are bored by larva? of Fruit-flies of 
the genus Stictaspis. Stictaspis ceratitina has been reared at Pusa in 
September from purple larva? found in bamboo shoots and S. striata 
from larva? in Dendrocalamus shoots at Peradeniya. 

The shoots of bamboo are also attacked by the giant weevils of the 
genus Cyrtotrachelus, which are known to occur in Bengal. C. longipes 
is recorded by Stebbing [Forest Coleoptera, p. 440] from the Chittagong 
Hill Tracts and we have it from Lebong, Darjiling District, reared from 
larva? boring growing shoots of bamboo. In the Darjiling District 
( dux is also found attacking bamboos in the same way. 

The pests of bamboos which are most commonly noticed are the 
sucking insects, which sometimes occur in large numbers. Of these we 
may note : — 

Or eg ma bambusa. 
A Woolly Aphid. 
A Fulgorid bug. 
Scale Insects. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 205 

Oregma bambusce is described in " South Indian Insects," p. 505, 
■fig. 392. It occurs as a rule on the underside of the leaves of Dendro- 
calamus, sometimes in very large numbers so that the plant is conspi- 
cuously smothered and blackened by a sooty fungus which grows on the 
honey-dew excreted by this Aphid. It seems to occur every year at 
Coimbatore about December and I have also seen it in Bangalore and it 
is probably common throughout Southern India. 

A Woolly Aphid was also common on bamboo at Coimbatore in 
December 1916, completely covering the young shoots and leaves. 

A Fuloorid bug has also been found at Coimbatore inside the lower 
sheathing leaves. 

Scale-insects of several sorts occur on bamboo in India but they have 
been observed little and collected and identified scarcely at all. Chionas- 
pis decurvata, Antonina (triceps and Asterolecanium miliaris have been 
collected on bamboos at Poona and identified by Mr. Green. An Asterole- 
canium is common at Pusa and doubtless throughout India. 

Dried bamboos of course are subject to attack by a number of insects, 
especially beetles, such as Caloclytus annularis, Stromatium barbatum, 
Myocalandra exarata, Dinoderus, etc , but we can only deal now with 
pests of the growing plant. The list of known pests is very small and 
could doubtless be extended considerably by a little search. 

Grasses lead us on to Fodder Crops and we will now take the pests 
of lucerne, senji, shaftal and bersim. 

Lucerne (Medicago sativa). 
Lucerne is attacked by a good many insect pests, the most important 
of which are caterpillars, but the regular cutting of the plants when 
grown for fodder provides a certain amount of control in itself. If the 
crop is allowed to grow for any length of time it is often completely 
destroyed by caterpillars, especially Laphygma exigua. 

That is a difficulty in the North- West Frontier Province. Lucerne Mr. Robertsoa- 
or any leguminous crop cannot be grown for making hay because, before 
the crop has grown to the required height, the leaf-eating caterpillars 
appear and destroy it. 

The caterpillar and other pests concerned are : — Mr. Fletcher, 

Laphygma exigua. 
Prodenia litura. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
. [grotis ypsilon. 
( 'hale i Ope hyppasia. 
< 'reatonotus gangis. 
( 'raspedia dejamataria. 



2('G PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Nacoleia indicate/,. 
Dichomeris ianihes. 
Lytta <tcl<i<nt. 

.. picta. 
Hapahchrus fasciatus. 
Aulacophora abdominalis ? 
Flea Beetles. 
Monolepta signata. 
Hypera medicaginis. 

,, variabilis. 
Sitones crinitus. 
Tanymecus hispid us. 
Thrips. 
Apliids. 

Laphygma exigua ["South Indian Insects,** pp. 378-379, fig. 240] 
is the worst caterpillar pest found on lucerne, and occurs throughout 
India. The life-history is very short, only about three weeks, so that 
the numbers increase at a very rapid rate, and in bad cases of attack 
the area concerned may be swarming with the caterpillars. Control was 
dealt with in Bulletin No. 10, pp. 13-14, and the Agricultural Journal 
of India. Vol. I. pp. 338-350, tab. 23, and we touched on it also under 
the heading of indigo. In the case of lucerne, or similar fodder crops, 
ordinary s raying with a stomach poison is out of the question but careful 
spraying could be done of the stumps left after cutting. The regular 
cutting of the crop in itself provides a mechanical control but it is obvious 
that there wil be a tendency for the caterpillars to migrate from the 
cut areas to other areas with growing plants, if these are adjacent. 
Cutting should be as close back as possible and should be regulated so 
as to prevent this migration as far as possible and the plots should 
be separated by steepsided trenches or small ditches. A number of 
caterpillars can be collected by using bag-nets but many drop down and 
this is not an absolutely effective method. The eggs are laid in batches 
on leaves but arc not sufficiently conspicuous to make it practicable to 
collect them under field conditions. One thing to be noted about this 
insect is thai it does not seem to have regular broods ; in the case of a 
bad attack, the insect is found in the plots in all stages at the same time 
and this of course makes control more difficult. 

Prodenia litura also sometimes occurs in some numbers on lucerne 
but is not so serious a pest as Laphygma. Control will be similar. 

Heliothis obsoleta. Agrotis ypsilon, Chalciope hyppasia and Creafonoius 
gangis all occur al times 1ml are not common as pests. 




/ 



t$ ' 












y 




*** . .Jk 




1* 



Oh 







HYPERA MEDICAGINIS. 



Hyper a meddcagims. 

Figs. 1 to 6 show fresh and older (black) eggs. 
Figs. 7 to 10, newly hatched and fullgrown grubs. 
Figs. 11 and 12, cocoon. 
Fig. 13, pupa. 

Figs. 15 and J(i, beetle, female and male. 

Figs. 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 14, are about life-size; other figures are magnified, the 
outline and life-size figures indicating the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 207 

Craspedia defamataria occurred on lucerne at Pusa in some numbers 
in 1906 but has not since been noticed as a pest. 

Nacoleia indicata is also found on lucerne but not in numbers. 

Dichomeris ianthes has been reared on lucerne at Pusa and may be a 
sporadic pest. 

Cantharis adeem and other Meloid beetles sometimes occur on lucerne 
and do a little damage. They are easily collected and it should be 
remembered that many of these beetles are useful in their early stages 
when they are predaceous on grasshoppers' egg-masses. 

In North Gujarat Lytta picla is found eating the leaves of lucerne. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Hcvpalochrus fasciatus, a Melyrine Malacodermid beetle, has been Mr. Fletcher, 
found on lucerne at Pusa but is not a pest. 

Aidacophora abdominalis has also, been noted on lucerne but there 
seems to be some doubt about the identity of the species concerned 
and A. abdominalis is not a pest of lucerne so far as we know. 

I have seen a beetle, which I think was Aulacophora abdominalis, Mr. Ramakrishna 
feeding on lucerne leaves. Ayyar. 

Flea beetles of various species occur on lucerne, but are not usually Mr. Fletcher, 
important as pests. 

In North Gujarat lucerne leaves are eaten by Flea-beetles. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Monolepta signata occurs on lucerne, as on so many other plants Mr. Fletcher, 
but is not a pest. 

Hypera medicaginis is a weevil which occurs fairly common'y on 
lucerne, the larvae being curious caterpillar-like animals which feed 
on the leaves also. The life-history is shown on a coloured plate 
{exhibited] now in the press. The eggs are laid in clusters on leaves and 
the grub pupates in a cocoon found in a fold of a leaf or sometimes on the 
ground in suitable crannies. It is a sporadic minor pest. Control is 
finely necessary, as the cutting of plants prevents excessive increase. 
Besides lucerne, it feeds on akta, Lathyrus hirsuta, and pea. 

Hypera variabilis is very similar to the last species. It has been 
reared on lucerne at Pusa and Lyallpur and also occurs in the Peshawar 
Valley. 

Hypera variabilis is found on lucerne in the Punjab, but not to any Mr. M. M. Lai. 
great extent. 

Sitones crinitiis has been found at Pusa on lucerne in some numbers, Mr. Fletcher. 
but is not a pest. It also occurs on senji and indigo in Bihar, but we 
do not seem to have any records outside of Bihar. 

Tanymecus hispi&us has been found on lucerne at Pusa but is not a 
pest. 



208 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. 
Mr. 



Jhaveri. 
Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Thrips are sometimes found in large numbers on lucerne on the 
leaves and in the flowers, but we seem to know very little about any 
damage that they may do and nothing about the species concerned. 

In North Gujarat Thrips are found in some numbers on lucerne. 

Aphids sometimes occur on lucerne but rarely in injurious numbers. 
In March 1913. however, we had a report of Aphids on lucerne on the 
Military Grass Farm at Mhow ; they were said to swarm all over 
the plants, so that many plants died down and the attacked plants, 
being covered with sticky exudation, were refused as food by horses. 

Nematodes at the roots of lucerne were also reported from Mhow, but 
I do not know of any other report of their occurrence. 

Sphenoptera arachidis was noted on a small plot of lucerne on the 
Experimental Farm at Bellary. 

Sphtnoptera is not likely to do damage if the crop is cut regularly. 



Senji. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Khare. 



(Melilotus parviflora . ) 

Senji is a sort of clover. It has no regular English name that I know 
of. Its pests are practically the same as those of lucerne. On my list 
I have : — 

Laphygma exigua. 
Hyper a medicaginis. 

,, variabilis. 
Sitones crinitus. 
We have just gone over all these and I do not think there is any^ 
more to add, as regards senji in particular. 

At Nagpur Aphids are found on senji but are not serious as pests. 
At Nagpur also, at Telinkhedi Farm, Euxoa segetum did serious damage 
to clover, the damaged area looking as if cattle had grazed in it. Lead 
Arsenate baits were tried but attracted very few caterpillars. The 
affected plots were then irrigated with the result that all the caterpillars 
were flooded out and picked up by birds. Three irrigations were found 
sufficient to rid the field of all the caterpillars. 



SltAFTAL. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



(TrifoUum resupinatum.) 

Shaftal is grown very extensively in the Peshawar Valley and has 
much the same pests as lucerne. It is usually swarming with larvse of 
Laphygma exigua in all stages of growth and this is undoubtedly the 
worst pest of this crop» The larva' of Colias hyale and Colias croceus, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 209 

race fieldi, are also said to have occurred as occasional minor pests 
of this crop ; but I have never myself found the caterpillars on it. 
Mr. Robertson-Brown has already told us of the virtues of shafted as a 
cover-crop for sugarcane and I may add that in the daytime it also 
provides shelter for innumerable numbers of mosquitos. 

BerSIm. 

(Trifolium alexan&rin um). 

Bersim is grown extensively in the North- West Frontier Province, jyj r# pi e t c her 
Baluchistan, Sind and other parts of India. Its pests are identical 
with those of shafted and call for no special comment. It seems likely 
that bersim cultivation will become extended in India and we shall then 
hear of more pests ; but the worst is likely to be Leiphygma and that can 
only be controlled by frequent and regular cuttings, as we saw under 
lucerne. 

Aphids occurred on bersim at Nagpur also. The plants were sprayed M K . 
with Crude Oil Emulsion after cutting. 

We will next take the pests of— Mr. Fletcher. 

FRUIT-TREES 

and of these we will deal first with pests of Citrus of various species 
(oranges, limes, lemons, pomelo) and allied trees, as the pests of all 
these are very similar. 

Oranges, etc {Citrus spp.). 

Young Citrus plants are attacked especially by Phyllocnistis citrella, 
whose larva mines in young leaves and does serious damage in the case 
of young plants where there are only a few tender leaves present. The 
life-history is shown on a new coloured plate [exhibited]. The egg has 
not been noticed but is perhaps thrust into the leaf tissue. The larva 
burrows in the leaf, between the epidermal layers, feeding on the green 
substance and making a mine which develops into a blotch. Pupation 
takes place in the mine. Phyllocnistis citrella occurs in every locality 
in India where species of Citrus are cultivated, but we have no record 
from Burma. It also breeds on bael {Male metrmelos) and on 3 asminum. 
As regards control, we usually recommend spraying the affected plants 
with a mixture of Crude Oil Emulsion and Tobacco Extract, the latter 
being used because nicotine solution has a peculiarly penetrative action 
on leaf-tissue and is able to penetrate and kill the larvae and pupa? inside 
the mines. Fish Oil Soap could be used instead of Crude Oil Emulsion. 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



I think that Phyllocnistis citrella is more in evidence on the common 
Khali, the ordinary rough lemon. 

The leaves of Citrus plants are eaten by : — 
Phyllocnistis citrella. 
Papilio demoleus. 
., polytes. 
„ memnon. 
,, heir tins ddksha. 
poly nine si or. 
( 'Inhales laius. 
Tonica zizyphi. 
Chrysomelid Beetles. 
Peltotrachdus pabes. 
Phyllocnistis citrella is chiefly serious on young plants but also attacks 
young leaves on grown plants and sometimes burrows also under the 
epidermis of green twigs. 

Papilio demoleus is the worst leaf-eating pest of Citrus trees and 
occurs throughout India and Burma. Besides Citrus, it occurs on bael 
{Mgle marmelos), and Psoralea corylifolia. Its lifehistory has been 
described and figured in " South Indian Insects," pp. 412-413, tab. 25, 
and more recently in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. V, pp. 33-48, tab. 6, 
and is well known to you all, so I need not go into that. As regards 
control, the eggs and larvae may be hand-picked and in small areas 
catching the butterflies in hand-nets has been found practicable. 

In the North- West Frontier Province, Papilio demoleus is the w 7 orst 
pest of Citrus plants. Even large plants suffer seriously. 

Papilio polytes occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and 
Ceylon. The larva feeds on various species of Citrus, of which it is 
occasionally a minor pest, but generally quite negligible. It also feeds 
on Murraya kamigi. 

Papilio memnon has not definitely been noted as a pest of Citrus 
but at Myitkvina in Upper Burma, I saw' butterflies ovipositing on 
cultivated pomelo trees. 

Papilio helenus, race daksha, which is confined to the Hill Districts 
of Southern India., is sometimes a serious pest of orange trees in South 
Coorg. 

Papilio 'polymnestor is also sometimes a serious pest of orange trees 
in South Coorg. 

Chilades laius occurs in most parts of India, Burma and Ceylon, 
the larva Eeeding on orange, lime and pomelo. It is generally found on 
the top-shoots of orange but is scarcely a pest. An Ichneumonid para- 
site, Diodes vulgaris, has been reared at Pusa from this species. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 211 

In Madras Chilades laius is found damaging orange shoots. MivRamakrishna 

Ayyar. 
Tonka zizyphi ["South Indian Insects," p. 459, fig. 335] occurs Mr. Fletcher, 
throughout the Plains of India as a very minor pest of orange and lemon, 
the larva rolling the young leaves. 

Chrysomelid beetles were found at Myitkyina in Upper Burma, 
in September 1914, on orange, eating out patches from the under- 
surface of the leaves and doing considerable damage. This beetle is a 
golden-green Cassid, not yet identified. 

Peltotrachelus pubes is a weevil found commonly on orange trees 
in the Shevaroy Hills, where it is apparently a minor pest. 
Boring in the stems of Citrus trees, we have : — 
Strom a tii im barba t um . 
Ch loridolum alcmene. 
Agrilus grisator. 
Gnatholea eburifera. 
Arbela tetraonis. 
Stromatium barbatum [" South Indian Insects," pp. 321-322, fig. 175] 
is usually a borer in dead wood but in the Central Provinces it attacks 
living orange trees. An account of this has recently been given by Mr. 
Khare in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. XXIV, 
pp. 610-612. The lifehistory seems to be irregular in length and may 
extend to two years. 

Chloridolum alcmene [" South Indian Insects," p. 323, fig. 177] occurs 
in the orange-growing tracts in the South Indian Hills, and does serious 
damage by the larva boring in the stems and large branches. But it 
ins to be rather sporadic in its occurrence. 

When I was in Coorg in October 1915, 1 found a small orange-coloured 
Cerambycid (?) grub boring into shoots of orange-trees at Virajpet, 
in West Coorg. It was in large numbers and was doing great damage, 
killing back the young shoots. The only remedy was to cut back the 
shoots and kill the grubs. Unfortunately the beetle could not be reared 
out, but it was apparently not Chloridolum. 

Agrilus grisator is recorded in " Indian Insect Life," p. 331, as reared 
from lemon trees, but we do not know it as a pest. 

Gnatholea eburifera was found at Moulmein boring orange trees, 
but otherwise we do not know of its doing damage. 

Arbela tetraonis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 453-454, tab. 41] 
is widely distributed in the Plains of India and has been recorded boring 
in orange at Bangalore, Poona and Nagpur. In the Central Provinces 
it is said to be a pest, although it is a little doubtful whether the specie s 
concerned is A. tetraonis or A. quadrinotata. Be this as it may, th e 



212 



PRO< I I DIM. s OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Khare. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Gupta. 
Sir. Fletcher. 



caterpillars eat the bark under cover of a silken gallery, which generally 
leads into a tunnel excavated into the tree, usually in the angle of a 
branch. The caterpillars can sometimes be hooked out with a piece of 
wire, or their galleries may be syringed out. 

A rbela is very common in ora age trees at Nagpur. The moths emerge 
in May and June. 

The flowers of Citrus are attacked by a few insects : — 

Prays citri. 

Oxycetonia alhopunctata. 

Colasposonui semicostatum. 

Prays cUri I told you about the other day. It occurs in India, 
probably throughout the Plains, having been found in Coorg and at 
Pusa. In the South of Europe the larva does serious damage by des- 
troying the flowers of orange, and it is quite possible that it may do 
damage in India also, although it has not actually been noticed. It 
is an insect that you might look out for when Citrus trees are in flower. 

Oxycetonia albo punctata has been found eating lemon flowers at Pusa, 
but is not a pest as far as we know. 

Colasposoma semicostatum is reported to injure orange flowers in 
Assam. 

A beetle attacks the flowers in Assam but I do not know what it is. 

The next group of insects comprises those attacking Citrus fruits : — 

Ophideres fullonica. 
Virachola isocrates. 
Heliothis obsolete. 
Anthomyiad Fly. 
Chcetodac us ferrugineus. 

,, anal (this. 

,, divers us. 

Ophideres fullonica is sometimes a serious pest of pomelo and is 
especially interesting because it is one of the few cases in which damage 
is done directly by an adult Lcpidopterous insect. The tip of the tongue 
of the moth is provided with an armament of sharp teeth with which 
it penetrates the rind of the fruits and sucks them so that they are spoilt. 
The structure of the tongue is figured in Entomological Note 64, Bulletin 
59. At Tardeo. in Bombay, a loss of a quarter to a third of the pomelo 
crop has been reported as due to this moth, the attacked fruit falling 
from th<> 1 rees. This moth is also well known to attack fruit in Australia 
and South Africa. Control measures are suggested in t he Entomological 
Note just quoted. It is hardly possible to check the increase of the 
moths as the larvae feed mi Quisqv.alis and wild creepers. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 218 

Virachola isocrates is occasionally found boring as a larva in orange 
fruits but is not a regular pest. 

Virachola isocrates was once reared from orange fruits at Nagpur. m r Khare 
Heliothis obsoleta is probably a mere casual pest of orange fruits but Mr Fletehe 
at Peshawar last year some damage was done to young green fruits 
which were gnawed by caterpillars of this species. 

An Anthomyiad Fly occurs fairly commonly in orange fruits and is 
sometimes reported as a pest, especially in the Hills. It apparently 
attacks healthy fruit, although we seem to know very little about it. 
I have seen it in oranges sent from the Nilgiris as infested with " Fruit- 
flies." 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus ferrugineus and C. ferrugineus dorsalis were 
both bred by me from larvae collected in pomelo {Citrus decUmana) fruits 
at Myitkyina, Upper Burma, in September 1914. C. ferrugineus in its 
various forms seems to be a rather general feeder in various fruits, such 
as mango, loquat, guava, peach, etc. 

Chcetodacus diversus is the Fruitfly figured as " Dacus sp." in " Indian 
Insect Life," tab. 66, fig. 2. It was originally bred from oranges (Citrus 
aurantium) but does not seem to be common. 

Chcetodacus caudatus has been bred from larvae in pomelo fruits at 
Myitkyina, in Upper Burma, and Taung-gyi, in the Southern Shan States. 
It also breeds in gourds. 

We have lately received some Fruitflies bred at Poona from oranges, 
l)ut they have not been identified as yet. Apparently Fruitflies are not 
common in Citrus fruits in India. 

As regards control of Fruitflies, we will consider that when we come 
to deal with peach pests. 

The sucking insects found on Citrus trees include : — 
Cappcea taprobanensis. 
Rhynchocoris humeralis. 
Ch rysomphalus (Aspidiotus) a urantii. 

„ ,, aonidum {jicus). 

Aspidiotus Jatanice. 
Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphcerica. 
A leurocanthus (A leyrodes) spiniferus. 
Dialeurodes citri: 
Toxoptera aurantii. 
Euphalerus <-itii. 

Cappcea taprobanensis [" South Indian Insects," p. 470, fig. 346] 
occurs in the Hill Districts of Southern and Northern India as a minor 
pest of orange trees. 



214 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Rhynchocoris humeralis is referred to and figured in Entomological 
Note No. 04. Bulletin 59. That was the first record of the occurrence 
of this bug as a pest of orange, but we have since had it sent in from 
Bassein (Burma) as attacking orange, citron, lime and pomelo, and from 
Jeolikote, Kumaon District, as puncturing orange fruits an inch deep 
and completely ruining the orange crop in association with Cappcea 
taprobanensis. These bugs can be caught in hand-nets but are not easy 
to see when on the bushes, as their colour exactly matches that of the 
leaves. 

Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) aurantii occurs abundantly on Citrus at 
Pusa and probably in most parts of India and may be a bad pest. The 
infested plants at Pusa were fumigated with Hydrocyanic Acid with 
success, but this is not generally practicable, and spraying or scrubbing 
with resin compound and soap is generally fairly effective. 

Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) aonidum (ficus) has been recorded on 
orange leaves at Poona and as a serious pest of orange near Khed in the 
Poona District, the fruits in this latter case being covered with the 
scales. It occurs as a rule on palms and appears to be rather a sporadic 
pest on species of Citrus. It has been recorded from Calcutta also and 
is probably widely distributed in India, but the Indian Coccidse are as 
yet practically unknown. 

Aspidiotus latanicB has been found on fruits of Citrus medica at Poona, 
or peach at Coonoor and Phoenix sp. at Calcutta. It does not seem to 
be a common pest of Citrus in India. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) hcmisphcerica has been recorded as a rather 
serious pest of pomelo in the Konkan. It has a wide range of food- 
plants, but is usually a minor pest of Citrus, 

Aleurocantlius (Aleyrodes) spiniferus is a black spiny Aleyrodid 
sometimes serious on Citrus. 

A black Aleyrodid is very bad on all Citrus plants in the Punjab. 
The leaves are thickly covered with this insect. As regards remedial 
measures, the old leaves are collected and burnt and new leaves are 
sprayed with Crude Oil Emulsion and also with resin compound. Three 
sprayings have been found to be necessary at intervals of a fortnight. 
In the case of one area this was done for three consecutive years and 
there has been no further trouble from this pest experienced in that 
garden. 

In the North- West Frontier Province Scale Insects are generally 
found on smooth-leaved varieties of Citrus plants. 

Dialeurodes citri occurs fairly commonly on orange in most parts of 
India but we do no1 generally look on it as a bad pest This, however, 
is not the case in other parts of the World, especially Florida, where 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 215 

D. citri has proved a very serious pest, so much so that Mr. Woglum, 
an Expert of the United States Entomological Service, visited the Far 
East, including India, about six years ago especially to endeavour to 
collect parasites and predators of this Aleyrodid. You will find an 
account of this in one of the publications of the Bureau of Entomology 
and that contains all the information we have about the occurrence of 
Dialeurodes citri in India. 

Toxoptera aurantii is apparently the common Citrus Aphid in India. 
It is often abundant and destructive on the young shoots, and is best 
controlled by a fish oil soap spray. 

Euphalerus citri is a Psyllid found commonly on orange plants in 
India. It is usually a minor pest, occasionally occurring in large num- 
bers. A contact spray, such as fish oil soap, is usually effective. 

There is one other sucking insect which is not on my list but about 
which I want to say a few words, and that is Icerya purchasi.. It is 
not on my list, because we have not yet found it in India ; but it is a 
thing to look out for because we have just received a warning from the 
Ceylon Government that it has been found in Ceylon and it is therefore 
possible that it may invade India also. This Scale-insect is a well- 
known pest of orange and lemon trees in Australia and New Zealand 
and has also spread to South Africa, Fiji, Hawaii, Portugal, Trinidad, 
Mexico, and the United States of America. Besides Citrus, it may 
attack a long list of other plants amongst which I may name rose, Acacia, 
grass, Casuarina, pomegranate, apple, peach, apricot, fig, pepper, grape, 
castor, Polygonum, potato and Amaranthus. I have here some figures 
[exhibited] of this Scale-insect, and I will have copies of these made and 
circulated, so that you will be in a position to recognize this insect and 
report its occurrence immediately to Pusa, should you come across it. 

Bael (sEqle marmelos). 

The pests of bael are very similar to those of Citrus and hence are 
rather important because bael may provide an alternative food-plant 
for Citrus pests. 

On bael leaves we get : — 

Clilea picta. 
PhyUocnistis citrella. 
Papilio demoleus. 
Myllocerus discolor. 

Clitea ficta (Chrysomelidae) is a specific pest of bael, attacking the 
leaves and shoots and often doing a good deal of damage. At Pusa 
about June the leaves are riddled with patches eaten out by the beetles, 



216 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mi. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



and the young shoots are stunted by the boring of the larvae, which 
also tunnel in the petioles and mid-ribs of the leaves. Control has not 
been applied. 

Phyllocnistis citrella mines the leaves of bael and Pa pi' to demoleus 
also eats the leaves, both as caterpillars, and need only be noted because 
bael is an alternative food-plant to these pests of Citrus. 

Myllocerus discolor and other common weevils are found commonly 
on bael leaves but are scarcely pests. 

CJuetodacus zonatus (persicce) has been reared at Pusa from fallen 
bael fruits which had broken in falling from the tree. So far, it has not 
been reared from fruit on the tree, but the fallen fruits are capable of 
providing a breeding-place for this fruit-fly which normally attacks 
peaches, mango and other fruits. 

Aspidiotus orientalis has been found on bael but is scarcely a pest. 
It is recorded from Osbeckia, Cycas revoluta, Dalbergia and Tamarindus. 

Curry Leaf Plant (Murraya lecenigi). 

Murraya is chiefly grown in Southern India and is important as an 
alternative food-plant for some Citrus pests. If grown near Citrus in 
gardens, therefore, a sharp watch should be kept on the Murraya plants. 

Papilio polyies breeds on Murraya, and is sometimes serious as a 
pest on this plant. 

Papilio demoleus may perhaps feed on Murraya also but we seem 
to have no definite evidence of this in Northern India. In Madras it 
has been found at times on Murraya. 

A Phyllocnistis, perhaps P. citrella, also mines the leaves but the 
moth has not been bred as yet, so its identity is uncertain. 

The Orange Psyllid (Euphalerus citri) also occurs on Murraya, which 
may be an alternative food-plant for this insect. 

At Coimbatore, a leaf-hopper bug, at present unidentified, occurs in 
swarms on the shoots, arresting the growth of the plants. 

We will go on to the other Fruits, of which the first is the — 



Mango (Mangifera indica). 

The Mango is grown practically all over India and is indeed the most 
typically Indian of all fruits and seems to be also the most popular, 
so far as insects are concerned, judging by the large number of insects 
found feeding on it. 

Mango seedlings are attacked by : — ■ 
Termites. 
Gryllodes melanocephalus . 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 217 

Termites, generally species of Odontotermes, often attack young 
mango plants. The only thing to do is to keep them away as far as 
possible by watering with a deterrent, such as Crude Oil Emulsion. 

Gryllodes melanoc&phalus is also an occasional local pest of young 
plants. 

Mango leaves are eaten by a large number of insects but there are 
few really serious pests in this group : — 

Parasa lepida. 

Natada velutina. 

Euihalia garuda. 

Cricula trifenestrata. 

Lymantria beatrix. 

Euproctis lunata. 

Bombotelia jocosatrix. 

Selepa (Plotheia) celtis. 

Thalassodes quadraria. 

Macalla moncusalis. 

Argyroploce aprobola. 
,, erotias. 

Acrocercops spp. 

Chelaria spathota. 

A no mala diissumieri. 

Amblyrrhinus poricollis. 

Myllocerus sabulosus. 
,, discolor. 

,, U-pustulatus. 

Apoderus tranquebaricus. 

Eugnamptus marginalis. 

Rhynchamus mangiferce. 

Parasa lepida [" South Indian Insects,"' pp. 410-411, figs. 283, 284] 

is fairly common on mango in most districts and is occasionally a serious 

pest, especially on young plants, stripping off the leaves. The young 

larvae are gregarious and may be collected by picking the affected leaves 

or, in the case of gardens, the trees may be sprayed with a stomach poison. 

The curious round shell-like pupa? are also found clustered in large 

numbers on tree-trunks and may be crushed, i arasa lepida has a very 

wide range of food-plants, including coconut, tea, plantain, and Ficus 

spp. The larva is preyed on by the larvae of Phycita dentilinella, whose 

small red caterpillar is found sitting on the Parasa larva when the latter 

is about half-grown and ultimately devouring the Parasa pupa. 

In Madras Parasa lepida occurs chiefly on young mango plants. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 



21s 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. In Bengal large mango trees may be attacked. 

Mr. Fletcher. Natada velutina [" Indian Insect Life," p. 500, fig. 335] is also some- 

times found on mango but is not common as a rule and has not been 
noticed as a pest. 

Euthalia garuda [I.e., p. 411, tab. 30] sometimes occurs on mango 
in fair numbers but is not a pest. 

Cricula trifenestrata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 405-406, fig. 277] 
occurs on mango, cashew (Anacardium occidentale), Terminalia, Careya 
arborea and other trees. It is found throughout the damper districts 
of Southern India, in North-Eastern India and Burma, and is sometimes 
a serious pest of mango, especially in Bengal. In bad cases of attack 
the larvae strip the leaves and the branches are covered with the masses 
of the golden-yellow cocoons ; these cocoons may be collected in large 
numbers and the pupse destroyed. The larval hairs are poisonous and 
the caterpillars should be dealt with with some caution. Phycita denti- 
linella parasitizes this insect in its pupal stage, laying its eggs on the 
cocoon of Cricula, the pupa being destroyed by the Phycita larva. 

Mr. P. C. Sen. Cricula trifenestrata occurs sporadically in Eastern Bengal and is a 

serious pest when it does occur. 

Mr. Fletcher. Lymantria beafrix occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva 

has been found feeding on mango at Poona and Pusa but cannot be con- 
sidered a pest. 

Euproetis lunata was recorded as defoliating mango and other trees 
in Mysore in June 1902, but otherwise we do not know this as a pest. 

Bombotelia jocosatrix [" South Indian Insects," pp. 382-383, fig. 245] 
occurs in Southern and Western India and in Bihar and has been reared 
on various occasions from mango leaves. It is not common as a rule, 
but occasionally does some damage. 

Selepa (Plotheia) celtis occurs throughout India and Burma and 
is an occasional sporadic (sometimes serious) pest of mango. It also 
occurs on litchi, rose, Odina wodier, Terminalia catappa, Gmelina arborea 
and various other trees. 

Thalassodes quadraria occurs, usually in small numbers, on mango,, 
on which it has been found at Poona and Pusa. In January 1909 it 
was found in large numbers on mango at Pusa ; so that this species may 
be a sporadic pest. 

Macalla moncusalis [I.e., pp. 429-430, fig. 306] occurs throughout 
India but has only been noted as a pest of mango in Madras. The larva 
webs up the shoots and leaves and destroys the young leaves. The 
webs arc conspicuous and easily collected and destroyed with the enclosed 
caterpillars. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 219 

Argyroploce aprobola is widely distributed throughout the Plains and 
is a very minor pest of mango, on which it has been reared at Poona, 
Bassein Fort and Pusa, the larva rolling the leaves. It has also been 
reared from flowers of rose and on leaves of Cassia tora, litchi and Polyal- 
ihia longifolia. 

Argyroploce erotias seems to be widely distributed in India and Ceylon. 
The larva has been found at Pusa rolling tender mango leaves and feeding 
on them and it was also reared in Bombay from a larva boring mango 
shoots. Also reared at Pusa from a larva rolling Loranthus leaves 
(probably on mango) and from a larva webbing Cynoglossum leaves. 

Various species of Acrocercops mine mango leaves and some of these 
are mentioned in Entomological Note 84, Bulletin 59. None are serious 
pests. 

Chelaria spathota [Entomological Note 82, Bulletin 59] also occurs 
on mango but is not a pest. 

Anomala dussumieri is recorded on mango in Travancore but I do not 
know how far it is a pest, if at all. 

Amblyrrhinus poricollis, an Eremnine weevil, has been found at 
Pusa eating tender mango leaves, as also leaves of bael (Mgle marmelos), 
Albizzia lebbek and Dalbergia Sissoo. We also haVe it from Cuttack (on 
Zizyphus), from Pithapuram, in the Godavari District (on Terminalia 
leaves), and from Hagari (on agathi), but it does not seem to be a pest. 

Myllocerus sabulosus, M. discolor and M . 11-pustulatus have been 
found eating tender mango leaves at Pusa, and are probably widely 
distributed as very minor pests. 

Apoderus tranquebaricus [" South Indian Insects,'" pp. 335-336, 
fig. 193] occurs sporadically on mango in Southern India but is not a 
pest. The leaf attacked is cut and rolled up by the larva, which feeds 
on it. 

Eugnamptus marginalis [I.e., pp. 329-331, figs. 186, 187] occurs 
throughout India and Burma. The Pusa collection contains examples 
from Dehra Dun, Pusa, Nagpur, Poona, and Maymyo, and in Madras 
it has been noted in Godavari and Malabar. The life-history is de- 
scribed in " South Indian Insects " and has also been worked out at 
Pusa. Young leaves are usually attacked and considerable damage 
may be done at times. Control is difficult owing to the small size of 
the insect. The collection and destruction of freshly-cut leaves con- 
taining eggs and young grubs should be done as far as possible and 
attempts might also be made to catch the adult beetles in hand-nets. 

At Pusa the grubs hibernate and sonic of them aestivate also in Mr, Ghosh* 
the ground. The life-cycle seems to be very irregular but there are 
probably about three generations during the Rains in North Bihar. 



220 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Some beetles appear in March but, the climatic conditions being then 
unfavourable, the grubs from the eggs laid at that time failed to develop 
under conditions in the Insectary. Control is simply a question of care 
in the regular collection of cut leaves, and their destruction by 
fire. 

Mr. Fletcher. Rhynchcmius mangiferce is the minute weevil referred to as the 

" Mango leaf-boring weevil " in " South Indian Insects," p. 334, fig. 192 ; 
it has since been described by Dr. Marshall [Bulletin Entomological 
Research, V, 378-379, March 1915] as Rhynchaenus (Orchestes) mangi- 
ferae. Besides the localities already given, it has since been found at 
Coimbatore and Pusa and is probably widely distributed in India, 
though overlooked. The lifehistory has already been described in my 
book, and the chief damage done is by the mining of the grubs in the 
tender leaves. In some cases considerable damage is done and this 
insect becomes a serious pest. It would be useful to try the effect of 
a nicotine spray to kill the grubs in their mines. 

Mr. Ghosh. Rhynchaenus mangiferce was found at Pusa for the first time, and 

reared in the Insectary, in 1916. It is not common in Bihar. 

Mr. Fletcher. ' Before we leave the subject of mango leaf pests, there is one other 

insect that might be mentioned, and that is (Ecophylla smaragdina 
[" South Indian Insects," p. 276, figs. 114, 115], the common red tree 
ant. which frequently nests in mango trees and becomes a serious nuisance 
to the fruit pluckers in the mango season. 

Mr. Ghosh. (Ecophylla smaragdina sometimes also spoils a number of young 

leaves by tying them together ; in such cases the growth of the young 
shoots is interfered with. 

Mr. Fletcher. Systematic destruction of the nests by burning them out will reduce 

their numbers considerably, but one would rather like to see the effect 
in the way of increase of caterpillar pests afterwards. 

The shoots of mango are attacked by several insects : — 

( 'hlumetia transversa. 
A narsia melanoplecta . 
Ale ides frenatus. 
Apsylla cistellata. 

Chlumetia transversa is widely distributed in India and we have 
examples from various localities south of the United Provinces. The 
larvse bore into the shoots and sometimes feed on the leaves and in- 
florescence. It is usually a minor pest but is reported as a bad pest 
of young grafted mangoes at Poona, boring the shoots. Occasionally 
it occurs on litchi also. The only possible control seems to be the prompt 
removal and destruction of attacked shoots. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 221 

Anarsia melanoplecia [Entomological Note 78, Bulletin 59] burrows 
in young mango shoots, but is not common as a rule and scarcely a 
pest. There is also a larva which burrows under the bark of mango 
twigs so that the upper surface of the bark becomes detached and loose 
and peels off ; it is not quite certain whether this is due to Anarsia 
melanoplecia or not. 

Damage caused by loose bark in that way is common. M r> Ghosh. 

Alcides frenatus [Entomological Note 28, fig. 4] was reported from m r# Fletcher, 
Dacca as doing considerable damage by boring into shoots of grafted 
mango trees. 

Alcides frenatus at Dacca is a bad pest of regular occurrence in the yi t p q g effi 
young shoots of small and large mango trees. Grafted trees suffer 
more from the attack of this weevil. As regards the lifehistory, almost 
all the stages are found in the shoots, which die back. The affected 
shoots are readily distinguishable and picked off, and the beetles, which 
are commonly found in pairs ovipositing in the shoots, can also be 
collected. The pest is bad from March to October. 

Apsylla cistellata [* : Indian Insect Life," p. 742, figs. 514, 515] Mr. Fletcher. 
is found throughout Northern India. Its early stages are passed 
inside a young shoot which becomes distorted and transformed into a 
curiously-shaped gall. It is not common as a rule, but occasionally 
becomes a pest in gardens. 

The gall assumes the shape of a cone inside which the nymphs are Mr. Ghosh, 
found. The nymphs are covered with a sort of a white powder and the 
interior of the gall is filled with pearly drops of liquid. 

The flowers of mango are attacked by numerous insects of which Mr « Fletcher, 
the most important are the species of Idiocerus. On the flowers we 
get : — 

Ewproctis scintillans. 
Dichocrocis punctiferalis. 
Eublemma silicula. 
Antestia cruciata. 
Idiocerus atkinsoni. 

,, niveosparsus. 

,, clypealis. 

Euproctis scintillans [" South Indian Insects," p. 399, fig. 268] is 
sometimes found on mango flowers and has been reported from Saida- 
pet, in Madras, but it is unimportant and not a regular pest. 

Dichocrocis pwictiferalis [I.e., p. 433, tab. 34] has been bred in some 
numbers from mango inflorescence and may be considered a minor 



2:>: 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakxishna 

Ayyar. 



pest in this connection. We have already considered this species under 
castor, but it has a very wide range of foodplants. 

Eublemma silicula has been reared at Pusa from mango buds and 
inflorescence and also at Nagpur from mango flowers. It has also 
been bred from castor fruit and juar heads, but is not known to be a 
regular pest and may be a rubbish-feeder. 

Antestia cruciata [" South Indian Insects," p. 472, fig. 350] has 
been reported on mango flowers in the Central Provinces, but we do 
not know what damage is done. It is probably a mere casual visitor 
on mango. 

Idiocerus niveosparsus is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects, " pp. 495-496, fig. 384, but I. atkinsoni and I. clypealis are 
also common species and quite similar as regards habits, damage and 
control, so we may consider all three together. Some work has been 
done recently on these insects in Madras, the Punjab and Mysore, so 
perhaps the delegates from those Provinces will tell us about this. 

In Madras, Idiocerus niveosparsus is the species found most fre- 
quently as a pest, but the other two species, I. atkinsoni and I. clypealis 
are also very common. Experiments on the control of Idiocerus have 
been carried out at Salem, and the results of the first year's work were 
published in the Agricultural Journal of India. 

Idiocerus is generally found at the time of the flowering of the mango 

trees. At other seasons alsothey are present, but not in large numbers. 

One year when I was at Guindy in August there were very large 

numbers of Idiocerus present on the trunks and under sides of the 

branches of mango trees. 

They attack the tender flower-shoots and leaf-shoots, the result 
being that flower-buds, which appear in the beginning of the season, 
wither away. 

Crude. Oil Emulsion was tried from the time the flower-shoots 
appeared. The trees were sprayed once in every ten or twelve days. 
The worst trees did not require more than seven or eight sprayings. 
Some trees were cleared of Idiocerus after two or three sprayings. 

Two blocks were selected ; one was sprayed, and the other kept 
as a check. The yields of the two blocks were compared and the re- 
sults were found to be pretty encouraging. 

Last year (1916) Fish-oil-Kesin Soap and Crude Oil Emulsion were 
tried to compare relative cost and efficacy. Fish-oil-Resin Soap was 
used at a strength of one pound to ten gallons of water, and Crude Oil 
Emulsion also at the same strength. The cost of Fish-oil-Resin Soap 
came to eight annas per tree for complete operations, that of ('rude 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 223 

Oil Emulsion to twelve annas. Fish-oil-Kesin Soap is more effective 
and cheaper than Crude Oil Emulsion. 

The relative cost will depend largely on the freight charges. The Mr . Fletcher. 
Fish-oil Soap is made in Malabar, whereas the Crude Oil Emulsion has 
to be got from Calcutta. In any case, eight annas per tree seems rather 
expensive. 

The cost is very gladly borne by the owners of the trees, because Mr. Ramakrishna 
the crop is very valuable. Ayyar. 

" What sort of sized trees were these ? How far were they apart ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The trees are ten to twelve feet apart, and twenty to twenty-five Mr . Ramakrishna 
feet apart in some cases. Spraying is practicable in groves where the Ayyar. 
trees are not very big and the crop is valuable. 

What items are included in the estimate of cost ? The cost will Mr. Fletcher, 
vary greatly with the labour required, as, for instance, if water has to 
be brought from any distance. 

Nothing was included on account of labour charges, as the labour Mr . Ramakrishna 
was provided by the gardeners, who were employed in these gardens Ayyar. 
in any case and were detailed to do this work. t The estimate only 
includes cost of the insecticides used. 

Will you tell us about your experiments with Idiocerus in the Punjab ? Mr. Fletcher. 

In the Punjab experiments against mango-hoppers were carried out Mr. M. M. Lai. 
at Hoshiarpur. We tried three methods : (1) spraying with Fish-oil- 
Resin Soap and (2) with Crude Oil Emulsion, and (3) smoking the 
hoppers out by lighting smoky fires under the affected trees. Of these 
Fish-oil-Resin Soap was found very effective ; when used at a strength 
of one pound in 15 gallons, the hoppers were killed. Crude Oil Emul- 
sion was effective when used at a strength of one pound in eight or nine 
gallons of water. Smoking did not seem to have any good effect ; only 
the winged hoppers left the trees temporarily. 

Spraying was continued until the fruits had set. The fruit on the 
sprayed trees set very well but in the surrounding areas the trees did 
not bear any fruit. Later on, the young fruits were attacked by these 
hoppers and many fruits dropped off the trees. 

The experiments are being repeated this year. 

The Mysore Agricultural Department has suggested to take a large Mr. Kunhi 
screen smeared with a sticky substance and carry it about, driving the Kannan. 
hoppers from the trees, so that they will stick to the screen. This 
should be done early in the season. 

That method does not seem to be very practicable. I should not Mr. Fletcher, 
care to try to carry about a large sticky screen on a windy day. 



22 1 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kunnan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



In Bombay, Incosopol was tried against mango-hoppers. Thirty- 
six mango trees were sprayed just when they were coming into flower. 
Three sprayings were given in all, a wheeled sprayer being used for the 
purpose, and the insecticide used at a strength of one pound to ten to 
fifteen gallons of water. The sprayed trees yielded 3,000 to 4,000 
fruits and this yield was decidedly much more than that of the un- 
sprayed trees. The cost of three sprayings came to three to four annas 
per tree, including labour charges. 

Spraying is effective provided that it is started soon enough and 
carried on sufficiently. As regards the best material to use, this is pro- 
bablv largely a matter of local cost. The Fish-oil-Resin Soap, obtain- 
able in Malabar, is the cheapest in Madras ; further away, the cost of 
freight will add to the price. Crude Oil Emulsion requires to be used 
fairly strong, one part in 25 to 30 of water. Mr. Kamakrishna Ayyar 
told us that he used it at a strength of 1 part in 100 of water and possibly 
that accounts for its lessened efficiency as compared with the Fish-oil- 
Resin mixture. Incosopol, used in Bombay, is a new insecticide pre- 
pared by the Indian Cotton Seed Oil Company at Navsari, near Surat. 
It requires to be tested before we can recommend it, but it is probable 
that a vegetable oil preparation will be less harmful to foliage than a 
mineral-oil mixture such as Crude Oil Emulsion. The question of local 
cost also comes in and what may be cheaper in one district may be 
more expensive in another. Sprayings require to be repeated because 
the sprayed trees may be reinfected and because the eggs and some 
hoppers may escape the effects of one spraying. The life-cycle of 
Idiocerus is extraordinarily short, something like eight or nine days. 
The hoppers are found throughout the year. It is only at the flower- 
ing-season of the mango that they have opportunities of multiplying 
very quickly. From the time of hatching to the adult state the bug 
takes seven to nine days. At the flowering-season, on account of the 
abundance of tender stems and shoots, they multiply quickly and their 
number rapidly increases, and that is why such large numbers are found 
at that time. At other times of the year they breed, but only on tender 
leaves when these are available, and therefore their numbers cannot 
increase very much. 

We seem to know very little about any natural checks on the increase 
of Idiocerus. We do not know of any parasites and, if there are any, 
they do not seem very effective. 

In Mysore I have found a small moth whose caterpillar parasitizes 
Idiocerus [exhibited]. 

It is quite a novelty and appears to be an Epipyropid. It is evidently 
a new species and probably belongs to a new genus. 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 225 

We will go on to the pests of mango fruits. We have : — 

Cryptorhynchus mangiferce . 
,, gravis. 

,, poricollis. 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus. 
,, zonatus. 

„ corrcctus. 

Nephopteryx sp. 

Cryptorhynchus mangiferce [" South Indian Insects," p. 341, fig. 200] 
is common throughout Southern India and sometimes practically all 
the fruits contain larvae of this species. The larva feeds on the con- 
tents of the mango stone, and pupates inside the stone, the weevil boring- 
its way out. As a rule the weevil does not emerge until after the fruit 
is ripe, so that the fruits are very little spoilt for eating purposes. 

C. mangiferce, has a very wide distribution, having been recorded 
from India, Ceylon, Java, Chagos Islands, Mauritius, Reunion, 
Madagascar, Zanzibar, Natal and Hawaii. In India it seems to occur 
chiefly in the South, and we also have a specimen from Rangoon. It 
is, of course, very easily distributed with ripe fruit'and may be carried 
all over India in this way ; we have, for example, a specimen from 
Lahore, but it was found in imported fruit and may have come from 
a long distance. 

Cryptorhynchus gravis we know from Rangpur in Bengal, Silchar in 
Assam, and Maymyo in Burma and we also have a specimen taken at 
Pusa " on Bombax stem." It apparently replaces C. mangiferce in 
North-Eastern India and is said to be a bad pest in Bengal. It does 
not seem to occur in mango fruits at Pusa. 

At Maymyo in Burma, the mango trees in the Government Gardens Mr. Shrcff. 
are badly affected by C. gravis. The grubs are heavily parasitized. 
The attacked mangoes do not ripen well ; sometimes they fall oft* pre- 
maturely. 

Cryptorhynchus poricollis is referred to in Entomological Note 28 Mr. Fletcher, 
in Bulletin 59. It seems to be confined to Bengal. 

A ( Cryptorhynchus, which may be C. poricollis, is a bad pest in Dacca Mr. P. C. Sen. 
and throughout Eastern Bengal and Assam, and sometimes the whole 
crop is spoilt. The grub and pupa are found inside the pulp of the 
fruit and not in the stone as in the case of C. mangiferce. This point 
may be confirmed by cutting open green fruits when the grubs will be 
found in the pulp. The grubs are found from May to August. This 
pest is not bad in young plants but the attack is very serious in the case 
of older trees. 

1! 



U6 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



At Maymyo, in Burma, a yellow beetle was found in large numbers 
on one occasion only attacking green fruits. 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus in its various forms (ferrugineus, dorsalis, 
incisus, and versicolor) is probably the commonest Fruitfly of the mango 
in India and Burma and also breeds in guava, loquat, peach, pomelo, 
Solanum, Capsicum, jak-fruit and various other fruits. The Fruit- 
flies of this group have just been revised, and all the available informa- 
tion on the species occurring in India, Burma and Ceylon has been 
given by Professor Bezzi in the latest number of the Bulletin of Ento- 
mological Research [Vol. VII, pp. 99-121 ; October 1916], so we need 
not go into this group very closely now, and as regards control we will 
come to that under peach. 

Chcetodacus zonatus is the species hitherto called persicce and mangi- 
fercc in India. It is usually a peach pest but has been bred from mango 
fruits also. It is widely distributed in India. 

Chcetodacus correctus was reared from mango fruit at Coimbatore 
and is also known from Pusa (in peach), Hagari and Guindy. The 
specimens collected by me at Guindy were attracted to an opened termi- 
tarium but there were mango trees quite close and they probably came 
from them. The smell of the earth in a newly opened termitarium 
attracts numerous flies but I do not remember to have seen Fruitflies 
attracted before. There has of course been a good deal of literature 
on the attraction of Fruitflies by the smell of citronella, kerosine oil 
and other oils ; but it is only the males that are attracted and such 
methods are useless for control. 

Fruitflies are very bad in mango fruits in Madras. 

On one occasion at Coimbatore, whilst trying remedial measures 
against Batocera and other pests, roots of mango trees had to be ex- 
posed and were cut in some cases. The cut roots were found to attract 
a very large number of Fruitflies belonging to a species which usually 
attacks the fruits. 

A species of Nephopteryx was found boring green mango fruits at 
Bombay in February 1911. but we have only had it once and do not 
know any more about it as a pest. 

The next group of pests of mango includes those insects found boring 
into the stem, branches and bark of the tree. 
Arhela tetraonis. 
llalocera rubus. 
Acanthophorus serraticornis. 
Belionota prasina. 
Unnamed Cerambycid beetle. 
Termites. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 227 

Arbela tetraonis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 453-454, tab. 41] 
occurs in most parts of India, but it is probable that A. quadrinotata 
is often confused with tetraonis. The life-history is described in my 
book and control was discussed under Citrus. It is not a serious pest 
of mango as a rule and fairly conspicuous and easily dealt with when 
it occurs, so that little damage should be done in any well-kept orchard. 
Batoeera rubus [I.e., p. 324, fig. 179] occurs commonly in mango in 
Southern India ; in Northern India it seems to prefer fig trees but some- 
times does damage to mango also. 

Acanthophorus serraticornis [I.e., p. 320, fig. 173] is said to bore in 
mango, but we seem to have little information about it. 

Belionota prasina usually bores in guava, I think, but sometimes 
occurs in mango. It has been recorded as boring in mango trees at 
Chicacole [see Stebbing, Indian Forest Coleoptera, pp. 217-218]. It is 
not known as a regular pest of mango. 

An unnamed Cerambycid is recorded as a minor pest of mango at 
Thaton, in Burma. It is perhaps Rhytidodera robusta. [Gahan, Fauna 
of India, Cerambycidw, Vol. I, p. 147, fig. 59.] 

Termites, usually species of Odontotermes, sometimes attack mango 
trees, usually gnawing the bark under cover of a • sheet of mud. At 
Coimbatore I found a mixture of Crude Oil Emulsion and Tar, half 
and half, painted in bands around the tree, fairly effective to keep 
termites away. 

As regards the boring pests, a mixture of creosote and chloroform, 
or carbon bisulphide, or similar liquids, can be syringed in when the 
galleries are visible. In other cases the only remedy is to cut them 
out and tar the cut surface. 

At Coimbatore syringing with creosote and chloroform has been Mr. Ramakrishaa 
found successful in the case of boring insects in mango trees. Ayyar. 

In Burma carbon bisulphide was tried with great advantage against Mr. Shroff, 
borers. 

In the Punjab, at Hoshiarpur, there was trouble from borers of Mr. M. M. Lai. 
sorts and carbon bisulphide injection was found successful. 

The next and last group of insect pests of mango includes the suck- Mr. Fletcher 
ing insects. We have already taken Idiocerus spp., Antestia cruciata 
and A'psyV.a cistellata and the remaining insects are mostly Scales and 
are not very important pests on the whole. 
Ale yr odes sp. 

Moruyphlebus stebbingi octocaudatus. 
I eery a seyeJiellarum. 

„ minor. 
Pseudococeus (Dactylojnus) sp. 

R 2 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pulvinaria psidii. 
Ceroplastes floridensis. 
Vinsonia stellifera. 
Coccus mangiferce. 
Chionaspis dilata a. 

,, rifis. 

Leucaspis indica. 
Aspidiotus destructor. 

, tri.obitiformis. 

Parlatoria pergandii. 

Aleyrodes sp. An unidentified species has been found on mango 
but is not known as a pest. 

Monophlebus stebbingi var. octocaudatus occurs every year at Pusa 
from January to May and attacks all fruit trees, massing on the young 
shoots. It is not a special pest of mango but may sometimes be a pest 
of this tree when it is in numbers. The eggs are laid in the ground 
about May and remain there until they hatch out about November- 
December. Digging around the trees to destroy the eggs and banding 
the trees when sufficiently valuable, to prevent the young bugs from 
crawling up, will reduce damage. A layer of fine sand around the tree 
makes an effectual barrier so long as its surface remains dry and loose. 

Icerya seychellarum has been recorded on mango at Poona but is 
not common and not known as a pest of mango. 

Icerya minor [Entomological Memoirs, II, 17-18] is found on mango 
leaves at Pusa commonly but is not a pest. 

Pseudococcus (Daetylopius) sp. occurs in Madras but is not serious 
as a pest. 

Pulvinaria psidii [" South Indian Insects." p. 511, fig. 399] occurs 
commonly on mango in most districts but is not a bad pest as a rule. 

Ceroplastes floridensis has been found on mango but is not known 
as a pest. 

Vinsonia stellifera is found commonly on mango, especially in Madras, 
but is not a pest . 

Coccus (Lecanium) mangiferce has been found on mango at Pusa, but 
not as a pest. 

Chionaspis dilatata has been recorded on mango at Poona ; it is of 
common occurrence on both surfaces of the leaves. Also found on 
palms at Calcutta. 

Chionaspis vitis is said to be a bad pest of mango in Madras, but 
we know little about it. 

Leucaspis indica has been recorded from Poona as occurring com- 
monly on mango trees. ' The scales are completely hidden under the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 229 

black mould so common in connection with Scale insects, but under 
this covering the scales completely encircle the tender branches. It 
may become a serious pest if not carefully watched." [Bombay Journal 
XXIII, 135.] This is an excellent example of our want of knowledge 
of Indian Coccidse, this species being first identified in America on 
young mango trees imported from India. 

Aspidiotus destructor [" South Indian Insects," p. 518, fig. 408] is 
generally bad on palms and occasionally occurs on mango but is not 
usually a bad pest on mango. 

Aspidiotus trilobitijormis is also on our list of Scales from mango 
but otherwise we know little about it. 

Parlatoria pergandii has been recorded on mango in Rajputana but 
does not appear to be a pest. 

The list of Coccids on mango in India is very small, and our informa- 
tion about them still more meagre, and a little search would doubtless 
extend both very considerably. Few Coccids, however, seem to be 
really bad pests of mango and when treatment is required a contact 
insecticide epray containing resin will usually be effective. 

Litchi (Nephelium litchi). • 

On the leaves of litchi we get : — 
Eriophyes sp. 
Selepa celtis. 
Thalassodes quadraria. 
Argyroploce leucaspis. 
,, aprobola. 

(Ecophylla smaragdina. 

Eriophyes is the mite which produces a curious malformation of the 
leaves. It was fully described by Mr. Misra in the Agricultural Jour- 
nal of India [Vol. VII, pp. 286-293, figs.] in 1912 and there is no more 
to add to that. The leaves curl up and become thickly covered with a 
brownish velvety pubescence. Removal of infested leaves and spraying 
with Crude Oil Emulsion and Flowers of Sulphur has been found to 
provide effective control. 

Selepa (Plotheia) celtis [" Indian Insect Life," p. 449, fig. 308] occurs 
throughout India and Burma as a sporadic pest of litchi. It is also 
found on mango, rose, Terminalia, Gmelina and various other trees. 

Thalassodes quadraria is usually found in small numbers only on 
litchi and has been reared on this at Pusa and Poona. 

Argyroploce leucaspis is widely distributed in India, Burma and 
Ceylon and has been reared at Pusa in some numbers from larvae roll- 
ing litchi leaves, but is scarcely a pest. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Argyroploce aprobola is also widely distributed throughout the Plains 
and is a very minor pest of litchi, the larva rolling the leaves. It has 
also been reared at Coimbatore from larva boring rose-bud, at Poona, 
Pusa and Bassein Fort on mango, and at Pusa on rose flower and leaves 
of Cassia tora and Polyalthia longifolia. 

CEcophylla smaragdina nests in litchi trees in the same way as it 
does in mangoes and is equally a nuisance to the fruit-pluckers. 

Litchi fruits are rather free of insect pests but are occasionally 
attacked by the caterpillar of Argyroploce illepida [" South Indian 
Insects," pp. 449-450, fig. 327], which bores in the interior of the stone. 
It has a very wide range of food-plants, having been reared from Cassia 
fistula pods, Acacia arabica pods, agathi pods, wood apple (Feronia 
elephantum), bael (JEgle marmelos) fruit, etc. The damage done is smalf 
and no control seems possible. 
Mr. A. Mujtaba. I remember to have reared Fruitflies from litchi fruits at Pusa, but 

I cannot say what species it was. 
Mr. Fletcher. I have never seen Fruitflies myself in litchi fruits and they must 

be scarce in this fruit. 

Boring in the stem of litchi we find Arbela tetraonis, which is not 
an uncommon pest of litchi in Bihar. The caterpillars are fairly easily 
dealt with, as we saw under mango. 

The sucking insects found on litchi include : — 

Tessarotoma quadraria. 
Tachardia albizzice. 
Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra. 
Pulvinaria psidii. 

Tessaratoma quadraria was reported on litchi in numbers at Kalim- 
pong in 1914, but we do not know it otherwise as a pest. 

Tachardia albizziw is a lac-insect sometimes found encrusting litchi 
branches in masses. I do not know whether it occurs in India, where 
I have never seen it myself, but I saw some very fine examples of this 
insect when I was at Peradeniya in April 1914, large branches of litchi 
being thickly encrusted with this Scale. 

Saissetia {Lecanium) nigra occurs on the leaves and occasionally 
on the fruit, but it is usually quite a minor pest on litchi. 

Pulvinaria psidii also occurs at times but is not much of a pest as 
a rule. 

Probably other Scales occur also and the fact that we do not know 
about them affords perhaps the best testimony that they are not of 
any great importance as pests. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 231 

Guava (Psidium guyava). 

The leaves of guava are rather free from attack by leaf-eating pests. 
A few weevils occur, of which Myllocerus discolor, M. sabulosus and 
M. 11-fustulatus have been noticed at Pusa and M. viridanus at Palur, 
but they are of no great importance. 

Insects boring in the stem of guava trees include : — 

Arbela tetraonis. 
Belionota yrasina. 

Arbela tetraonis has already been considered under Citrus. It is a 
fairly frequent pest of guava also, and control is similar. 

Arbela is a common pest of guava in Gujarat. For control the Mr. Jhaveri. 
larval webbings on the trunk are removed and a wad of cotton mois- 
tened with carbon bisulphide is thrust into the larval gallery ; this 
treatment is quite effective. An injection of kerosine oil was also tried 
in some cases but found not quite so effective ; the kerosine oil did not 
injure the trees. 

Belionota frasina is also found boring in guava trees. It used to Mr. Fletcher, 
be fairly common in Pusa but does not seem tp occur so frequently 
nowadays. The beetles appear at Pusa about August-September. It 
is known to occur in mango also and probably has a fairly wide range 
of foodplants. 

Guava fruits are attacked by : — 

Virachola isocrates. 
Dichocrocis punctiferalis. 
Cho?todacus ferrugineus. 

Virachola isocrates and Dichocrocis punctiferalis are found, although 
rarely, boring in the fruits and are not pests of guava. 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus in its various forms has been bred from 
guava fruits but is not very common as a rule and scarcely a pest. 

The sucking insects found on guava are all Scales aud some are 
serious pests. 

Monofhlebus stebbingi octocaudatus. 

Pulvinaria fsidii. 

Coccus viridis. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphwrica. 

Chrysom/phalus {Asfidiotus) rossi. 

Aspidiotus latanice. 

Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus is common on guava, as on most 
trees, at Pusa and probably throughout Northern India. We discussed 
control under mango. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Hamakrisliua 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Pulvinaria psidii is often a bad pest of guava and is almost always 
present when any number of guava trees are grown. When it is bad 
it is best controlled by spraying with Fish-oil-Resin Soap but two or 
three applications will be required at intervals of ten or twelve days. 

Coccus viridis also occurs on guava but does not seem to be a bad 
pest in India. However, guava is a regular foodplant and there is 
considerable danger of introducing this Scale into new districts with 
imported guava plants. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphcerica is also common on guava but not 
a bad pest as a rule. 

Saissetia hemispluvrica is bad on guava in Kollegal. 

Ghrysomphalus rossi and As pid iotas latanice both occur on guava 
but are not serious pests. 

Pomegranate (Punica granatum). 

The leaves of pomegranate are eaten by a few insects but these are 
not serious pests, at least as a rule. 

Achcca janata. 
Parasa lepida. 
Euproctis flava. 

,, fratema. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulai as. 

Achcea janata and Parasa lepida both occur on pomegranate at 
times and it is worth while remembering that this plant can be an alter- 
native foodplant for these caterpillars. 

Euproctis flava has been recorded from the Punjab and E. fratema 
from Madras, and both these species are sporadically abundant. 

Myllocerus 11-puslalalas occurs on the leaves of pomegranate as on 
nearly all other plants, but is scarcely a pest. 

The fruits of pomegranate are usually the parts most liable to attack 
and may be very badly damaged at times. The following pests are 
known : — 

Virachola isocrates. 

Deudorix epijarbas. 

Mealy-bug. 
Virachola isocrates has been (Inscribed in "South Indian Insects," 
1>. 416, fig. 289, and a coloured plate showing the life-history lias since 
been issued. The caterpillar bores in the fruit and destroys it. It 
also feeds in guava, loquat, tamarind, wood-apple (Feronia) and orange 
but its main foodplant is pomegranate and it is decidedly the worst 
pest of this fruit in the Plains or at least, in most parts of the Plains. 



Mi 
A3 

M 

Viraehola isocraies, Fb. 

Fig, 1. An egg (magnified). 

Fig. 2. A fruit showing two eggs on it and a hole through which the young caterpillar 

has gone in. 
Fig. 3. A flower with two eggs on it. 

Fig. 4. A damaged fruit with a nearly full-grown caterpillar oh it. 
Fig. .">. Full-grown caterpillar, dorsal view (magnified). 
Fig. 6. A damaged fruit cut open showing pupa inside. 
Fig. 7. A pupa (magnified). 
Fig. 8. Butterfly in repose. 
Fig. 9. Female butterfly with wings expanded, wings on the right those of a male 

(both magnified) 




VlRACHDI A !.Snr,RATP=; 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 233 

for in the North-West Frontier Province I do not know of its occur- 
rence at all. Control is difficult as the caterpillar feeds inside the fruit. 
Destruction of attacked fruit is an obvious measure to take, but this 
means the destruction of practically the whole crop in many cases. 
The catching of the female butterflies in hand-nets is not at all easy, 
as the flight is swift. The covering of the flower branches with bags 
might be tried in the case of especially valuable varieties ; the eggs are 
often laid on the young flowers, so that the mere bagging of fruits would 
be too late to be effective. Diligent attention will enable the eggs to 
be found and destroyed but even with this method many escape detec- 
tion and it is not a method likely to be adopted by the average culti- 
vator. 

Virachola isocrates is very bad at Pusa, sometimes 75 per cent, of Mr. Ghosh. 

pomegranate fruits being affected. 

In the Punjab Virachola is found but little damage is done to pome- Mr. M. M. Lai. 

granate fruits. 

As regards control, in 1909 we tried netting the small fruits at Mr. Jhaveri. 
Ganeshkhind Botanical Garden, Poona. The bagged fruits were saved. 

Tying the fruits in muslin bags is not so successful, as the eggs are Mr. Ghosh, 
laid on flowers also and even on adjacent leaves. If this trouble can 
be undertaken, looking over the flowers and fruits and rubbing off the 
e^gs, once in every three days, is quite effective. 

'°The caterpillar is found in the fruit just below the rind and keeps Mr. Fletcher, 
a hole in the rind for disposal of frass ; it plugs this hole with its tail 
end and so can easily be pricked with a pin or thorn. This will kill 
the caterpillar but will not save the fruit. 

Deudorix epijarbas is recorded by Hannyngton [Bombay Journal 
XX, 369-370] as destructive to pomegranate fruits in Kumaun in June 
and July, so that " in some years scarcely a pomegranate escapes their 
attacks." It is curious that D. epijarbas has never been sent in to us 
as a pest. 

A Mealy-bug is found at Coimbatore under the distal projection on 
the fruits and on fruit stalks. It seems to occur in most districts but 
i- scarcely a pest, doing little harm as a rule. 
The sucking insects on pomegranate include :— 
Aleyrodes sp. 

Chrysomphalus (Aspidiohis) rossi. 
A spidiotus orientalis . 
A small white Aleyrodid, very like Dialeurodes citri but apparently 
distinct, sometimes occurs abundantly on pomegranate but its occur- 
rence is sporadic. When I was at Dharwar in February 1912 some 
pomegranate trees there were covered with this Aleyrodid, which new 



234 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. M. M. Lai. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



out in clouds when the leaves were disturbed ; but a subsequent visit 
failed to reveal a single example. 

This Aleyrodid also occurs at times at Coimbatore and Bangalore. 

It occurs in the Punjab also, but is not very extensively found — only 
small colonies here and there. 

Chrysomphalus (Aspidio'us) rossi and Aspidiotus orientalis have 
been found on pomegranate at Bilaspur but are apparently not regular 
pests. Indeed, pomegranate seems to be rather free of real pests with 
the important exception of Virachola isocra'es and sporadic outbreaks 
of the white Ale\rodid. 



Wood-apple (Feronia elephantum). 

The leaves are occasionally stripped by larvae of Parasa lepida and 
the fruits afford alternative food for larva? of Argyroploce ilkpida and 
Virachola isocrates. 

Grape-vine (Vitis vinifera). 

Mr. Fletcher. The leaves of the vine are attacked, sometimes badly, by various 

leaf-eating insects :— 

Brahmina coriacea. 
Adoretus lasiopygus. 
,, versutus. 
,, duvauceli. 
,, horticola. 
Scelodon 'a strigicollis. 
Myllocerus sp. 
Hippotion celerio. 
Theretra alecto. 
Sylepta lunalis. 
Phyllocn istis toparcha. 
Tera fades monticollis. 
Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus lasiopygus, A. versutus and A. hordeola 
all occur on vine-leaves and may do considerable damage in localities 
where these beetles are abundant. The damage is done by the adult 
beetles eating the leaves. |See Entomological Notes 11, 18, 20, 21 and 
22 in Bulletin 59.] 

Scelodonta strigicollis ["South Indian Insects,'" p. 309, fig. 158] is 
common on vines throughout India and Burma and often does serious 
damage. The beetles may be collected in numbers off the leaves by 
means of hand-nets or the plants may be sprayed with a stomach- 
poison. There is also a local control-method described in Agricultural 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 235 

Journal of India, Vol. II, p. 292. The life-history does not seem to be 
known, but it is found commonly on wild species of Vitis. 

In the North-West Frontier Province Scelodonta strigicollis destroys Mr. Rohertson- 
the tender shoots of grape-vines. As regards control, (1) collecting the Brown, 
beetles by tapping the creepers, (2) pruning long (i.e., leaving three or 
four buds remaining instead of one or two), and (3) removing all the 
loose bark, have been found useful measures. 

The method, described in the Agricultural Journa 1 , of control by Mr. Jhaveri. 
plantain brooms, is generally practised in Nasik. 

Species of Myllocerus are found on vine leaves, sometimes in numbers, Mr. Fletcher, 
but are scarcely pests. 

Hippotion celerio is a widely-distributed species which is recorded 
as a pest of the grape-vine in Australia. In India it is a minor pest 
in most districts. 

Theretra alecto has been reared at Pusa on grape-vine, a wi!d Vitis, 
and on Boerhaavia but is not known to be a pest. 

Sylepta lunalis occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and 
has been reared in Bihar from larvae rolling grape-vine leaves into a 
funnel and dropping to the ground on the least d'sturbance. It is a 
minor pest of the vine. 

Phyllocnistis toparcha is so far only known from Madras where it 

mines the leaves of the vine much in the same way as P. citrella mines 

in Citrus. This is a novelty, only found last year and described quite 

recently. 

it is found at Coimbatore and is common on vine there. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Teratodes monticollis [" Indian Insect Life," p. 88, figs. 28, 29] was Mr. Fletcher, 
sent in to us from Bengal as attacking vine leaves, but only one speci- 
men was sent and that was probably a mere casual visitor or feeder. 
It is not known as a pest of grape-vine. 

The stems and branches of vine are attacked at times by Sthenias 
grisalor which rings them in much the same way as it attacks Erythrina. 
It has been reported from Palitana as doing this. The adult beetles 
may be collected on the plants and the ringed portion destroyed by 
fire. 

The fruits are rather immune from attack but Noctuid moths have 
been reported to suck them at Lyallpur. 

The moths found were identified at Pusa as Achwa jana'a, Ophideres Mr. M. M. Lai. 
fullonica and AnuTi coronata. They did serious damage last year at 
Lyallpur by puncturing the fruits, which afterwards rotted as a result. 

Ophideres fullonica is a well-known pest of fruits and we discussed Mr. Fletcher, 
it under Citrus. It is possible that the other two species were only 



236 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECO.ND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ratiram. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



feeding on the fruits punctured by Ophideres ; an examination of their 
proboscides wou'd settle this point. Probably a good many Noctuid 
moths have a dental armature on the proboscis ; this is the case not only 
in Ophideres, but also in Calpe and Earias. 

Scutellera nobilis was recorded {Indian Museum Notes, V. iii 119] 
as attacking grape fruits at Siripur Farm, Hutwa. We do not know 
it otherwise as a pest. 

The sucking insects found on vine include : — 
Typhlocyba spp. 

Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) aonidum (feus). 
Pulvinaria sp. 

Parlatoria pergandei camellice. 
Thrips. 
Mites. 

Typhlocyba, probably of more than one species., is very abundant 
on grape vine in the Peshawar Valley. Specimens were sent to Mr. 
Distant but were not included in the latest supplement to his Fauna 
volume. With the help of a hand-net it is possible to collect a large 
number from the leaves but this method is hardly practicable as a con- 
trol. Spraying is difficult on account of the density of the leaves. 

In the lower parts of the Peshawar Valley the damage from vine- 
hoppers is so severe that no vines can be grown there. In the Upper 
Valley no damage is done by these hoppers. The pest is bad only where 
there is plenty of moisture. Nothing is done to check the pest. 

Chrysomphalus aonidum (feus) occurs at Coimbatore and is some- 
times bad on growing stems. 

A species of Pulvinaria occurs at Salem and is a serious pest of the 
shoots and stems. 

Pa rial or ia pergandei camellia' has been reported from Bangalore. 

Thrips sometimes do damage to young leaves of vine in Madras, 
the attacked leaves curling up, but the damage is done chiefly to stray 
plants so that this is not a bad pest. 

Mites also occur on vine leaves but do not seem to have been noted 
as doing any great damage. 

At Raipur termites have been found damaging the plants by attack- 
ing t he roots. 

In the case of garden-cultivated plants such as vines control by' 
watering with a deterrent should be easy. 

Pineapple (Ananas sativa). 

We do not seem to know of any insect pests of pine-apple in India. 
1 remember seeing some plants infested with a woolly-scale, probably 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2 37 

a Pseudococcus, but I am not certain whether this was in India or not ; 
it was a long time f go and I rather think it must have been in the Sey- 
chelles. 

Plantain ; Banana (Musa sapientum). 

Plantains of various varieties are grown practically throughout our Mr. Fletcher. 
limits and are attacked by various pests of which the most serious are 
the stem-borers. 

On the leaves we get : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 
Pericallia ricini. 

Prodenia lit lira. 
Pa rasa (epida. 
Nodostoma subcosta (a . 

Diacrisia obliqua occasionally occurs on plantain leaves in Bihar 
and Bengal, but is scarcely a pest. The young 'arvae may be collected 
whilst gregarious, and destroyed. 

Pericallia ricini is occasionally found on plantain, chiefly in Madras. 
The larvae may be collected and destroyed. 

Prodenia litura has also been found at times on plantain leaves but 
this is an unusual foodplant. 

In the Central Provinces Prodenia litura occurs on plantain leaves. Mr. Ratiram. 

Parasa lepida occurs on plantain not uncommonly and the larva) Mr. Fletcher, 
being s^iggish, seem to remain in one place and eat large holes and 
patches in the leaves. The attack is thus conspicuous and the larvae 
easily found and killed, care being taken not to handle them. I saw 
some plantains quite badly attacked by this species near Virajpet in 
Coorg in October 1915. 

Nodostoma subeostata is a small Chrysomelid beetle which seems to 
have a curiously restricted distribution as a pest, as it does not seem to 
have been noticed outside of Pusa, although it is recorded by Jacoby 
[Fauna of India, Chrysomelidse, p. 334] from Assam and Burma. At 
Pusa it is common and eats patches in the leaves in quite a conspicuous 
manner. It also attacks the skin of young fruits whose appearance 
is spoilt for the market as they are covered with black patches. In 
the case of gardens spraying is practicable and also catching of the 
beetles in hand-nets. In the case of a small number of plants it is pos- 
sible to check the pest by killing the beetles by hand when they are found 
in the central leaf-funnel. We should like to know whether this insect 
does not occur on plantains also in Bengal, Assam and Burma. 



2-38 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. G. R. Dutt. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Apart from the unsightly patches produced by the beetle on the 
fruits I believe it spoils the taste of the fruit also to some extent, the 
flavour being lost. 

Boring in the stem and roots we get three weevils :— 
Odoiporus longicollis. 
Cosmopolites sordidus. 
Polytes melUrborgii. 

Odoiporus longicollis is a serious pest of plantain in North-East India 
and Burma. We have examples of the typical form from Pusa, Munshi- 
o-ani, Jorhat, and the Buxar Duars and of the form planipennis from 
Munshiganj, Buxar Duars, Halem (Assam) and Maymyo (Burma). 
The larvge bore in the stem so that the whole plant dies off and the only 
satisfactory control is the prompt destruction of affected plants which 
will be destroyed when attacked in any case. 

The life-history has been worked out in the Pusa Insectary and a 
coloured plate of this species was issued last year. The actual life-cycle 
from egg to adult is comparatively short, a couple of months or so, but 
the adult beetles are extraordinarily long-lived and some lived in the 
Insectary for a period of two years. 

At Pusa Odoiqwrus longicollis is found practically all the year round. 
The grubs riddle the whole tree. The beetles take six to eight weeks 
for one cycle and the adults live for nearly two years. They generally 
remain under the sheathing leaves and feed there. As regards control, 
the beetles are not attracted to old stumps and are sluggish. Timely 
removal and destruction of affected trees checks its spread effectively. 

Odoiporus longicollis was found at Dacca Farm on one occasion, when 
the attack was bad. 

Cosmopolites sordidus bores low down in the stem and especially in 
the root-stock. It is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
pp. 342-343, fig. 201, and I do not think we have much to add to the 
account given there. In India it occurs throughout Southern India 
and in Western India as far north as Poona, and is likely to be found in 
other districts, as it is very likely to be introduced in root-stocks. It 
lias also been recorded from Ceylon, Burma and the Andamans. Out- 
side of India it has a wide distribution, being recorded from the 
Seychelles, Reunion, Java, Malacca, Saigon, China, Sunda Islands and 
Fiji, and has doubtless been introduced into many of these localities 
with its foodplant. In Fiji it has proved a serious pest, so much so that 
Mr. Jepson, the Entomologist in Fiji, went on special mission to Java 
in quest of the natural enemies of this weevil. An account of this is 
given in Bulletin No. 7 of the Fiji Department of Agriculture, and I need 



Odovporus (ongicollis, 01. 

J ,- ig. J is the egg ; 

Fig. 2 the full grown grub (magnified) ; 

Fig. 3 shows a grub in its natural tunnel in an affected piece of the stern : 

Fig. 4 snows a cocooh in its natural position inside the sheath (magnified) ; 

Fig. 5 shows the cocoon separately (magnified) ; 

Fig. 6 is the pupa, and 

Fig. 7 the adult weevil. 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes, 





' r-P > 



V 







111 i iillCf *i«iiviiiiV»iit 

lltiuiuuutmttiii! 




IMlfilillWIII*!!! 1 .!!*!! 





nnmpnpuc; i nisir.ir.nT I i^ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 239 

only say now that a Histerid beetle, Plcesius javanus, was found feeding 
on the weevil larvae in Java and was successfully transported to Fiji. 
Whether we have any similar natural enemies in India we do not know. 
Control is mainly a question of selection of non-infected suckers and 
careful destruction o" old stumps. 

Pol'jtus mellerborgii was found at Pusa ten years ago boring in plan- 
tain roots but has not been noticed since, so we may assume that it is 
not a regular pest. 

A few sucking insects are found on plantain on the leaves and young 
shoots. 

Stephanitis typicus. 
Aphids. 

Aspidioius destructor. 
., orient alls. 

,, latanicB. 

Stephanitis typicus is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
pp. 484-485, fig. 369, and the early stages have since been described and 
figured in Entomological Note 96, fig. 20, in Bulletin 59. This bug is 
found almost always on the under-surface of the leaf, which they punc- 
ture espec'ally on either side of the mid-rib, producing a characteristic 
spotty appearance of the leaf, which looks unhealthy. It also occurs 
on turmeric and a very similar (if not identical) species is found on co- 
conut. It can be controlled by spraying with a contact insecticide. 

Aphids sometimes occur on plantains, especially on the young shoots, 
but are not bad pests as a rule. 

At Coimbatore Aphids occur on the young shoots but do not do any Mr. Raniakrishua 
serious damage. Ayyar. 

Aspidiotus destructor, A. orientalis and A. latanice have all been Mr. Fletcher, 
recorded on plantain but Scales are not serious pests of this plant. 

Peach (Primus persica). 

The leaves of peach are not usually seriou ly attacked by leaf-eating 
insects but are occasionally stripped, especially in the Hill Districts. 
Amongst leaf-eating pests we know : — ■ 
Popillia fece. 

,, histeroidea. 
Anomala aurora. 

„ pallidospila. 
,, decor ata. 
Emperorrhinus defoliator. 



•210 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Pomllia jece and P. histcroideahave both been found on peach at 
Maymyo, in Burma, and there is a note on the latter in Entomological 
Note "21. fig. 3 3 in Bulletin 59. 

Anomala aurora, A. pallidospila and A. decorafa have also been 
found on peach at Maymyo and the first two are referred to in Ento- 
mological Note 14 in Bulletin 59. 

Anomala beetles do some damage to peach ^eaves in Burma. 

Emperorrhinus defoliator is a weevil known to occur in Kulu, 
Darjiling and the Khasi Hills and occasionally defoliating whole 
orchards of peaches, apricots, pears, etc. It was only described last 
year by Dr. Marshall from specimens sent from Pusa and Dehra Dun 
[Bull. Ent. Res. VI, 365, fig.; Fauna of India, Curculionidce, I, 
pp. 286-287]. 

Peach fruits are attacked by a few insects but great damage 
is often done. 

Calpe ophideroides. 
Dichocrocis punctiferalis. 
Chcetodacus ferrugineus. 

,, -JUKI' IIS. 

,, tuberculatus. 

,, correctus. 

dwplicatus. 

Calve ophideroides presents another interesting case of damage being 
done by an adult moth. This is described in Entomological Note 64, 
fio-s. 9, 10, in Bulletin 59 and we have little more to add. 

An inquiry was received by me from the Deputy Commissioner, 
Attock, regarding moths damaging peach fruits. At the time I was not 
aware that damage could be done in this way by adult moths but it now 
seems probable that the damage was really done by Noctuid Moths 
Mich as Calpe ophideroides. 

Dichocrocis punctiferalis has been bred from peach fruits on several 
occasions. The larva bores into the fruit, generally in the groove along 
one side of the fruit, and feeds on the fleshy substance of the fruit. So 
Ear it has been noted as a curiosity rather than a pest but it might become 
serious and would be difficult to cheek. 

We now come to the important subject of Fruitflies, of which our 
preseni knowledge has just been summarized by Professor Bezzi in his 
recent timely paper on Indian Fruitflies in the Bulletin of Entomological 
Research. This contains practically all our records to date of the spe- 
cies concerned and of their occurrence in various localities and plants, 
so we will fi rst go over this information briefly and then consider the 
general question of control of these flies. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 241 

Chcetodacus >. rugiheus ferrugineus was reared from peach at Myitkyina, 
Upper Burma, and also occurs in guava, loquat, mango and pomelo 
and is widely distributed in India, Burma and Ceylon. It does not 
seem to be an important pest of peach in India. 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus dorsalis has been reared from peach at Taru, 
Peshawar District, and at Maymyo in Upper Burma, and is also distri- 
buted throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, attacking also loquat, 
mango, chilli, pomelo, guava, pear and Solatium verbascifolium. 

Chcetodacus zonatus is the species which has been called persicce and 
mangiferce in India. It is probably the commonest and most des- 
tructive of the Fruitflies found in peaches and is known to attack peaches 
at Ranchi, Pusa, Pachmarhi and Peshawar. It also occurs in Southern 
India and has also been bred from fig, sapota, ripe bael fruit, fruits of 
Careya arborea, mango, and at Nagpur in white gourd (Lagenaria vul- 
garis) ; but this last record seems a little doubtful and is perhaps a case 
of mis-labelling. 

C. zonatus usually appears at Pusa in the fruits which ripen towards 
the end of May, becoming worse a i the season advances, so that late- 
ripening fruits may be badly affected. At Peshawar, where the peach 
season commences about 10th June, there seems to be no trouble with 
Fruitflv maggots until about the middle of August, but thereafter prac- 
tically all the fruits are attacked. It would be interesting to have some 
exact observat ons on the occurrence of the flies, and the species con- 
cerned, in other loca ities. 

At Peshawar Chcetodacus zonatus occurs only late in the peach season Mr. Robertson- 
up to October. Brown - 

Chcetodacus tuberculatum is a new species described by Professor Mr. Fletcher. 
Bezzi in his recent paper. It was bred from peaches from Taung-gyi 
and Myitkyina, in the Southern Shan States and in North Burma res- 
pectively, but is not known to occur outside of Burma. 

Chceiodacus correctus has been reared from peach at Pusa and also at 
Coimbatore from mango. 

Chmtodacus duplicatus is another new species described by Professor 
Bezzi from examples reared from peach at Pachmarhi, which is its 
only known locality at present. 

It is evident that we want to know more about these Fruitflies as 
regards the species concerned, their d^crimination, life-histories and dis- 
tribution. Practically everything in the way of a Fruitfly bred from 
peaches has in the past been lumped together as " Dacus persico?" but 
we now know that half-a-dozen species are concerned and it is quite 
possible that this fact may throw a little light on the occasional sporadic 
appearance of these flies in destructive numbers and also on problems 



24-2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

such as the non-occurrence of Peach-flies in the Peshawar valley during 
June and July. 

We come now to the question of control measures. Speaking gene- 
rally, the fruits are attacked when about half or two-thirds grown and 
the maggots mature as the fruit ripens ; when full-grown they drop to 
the ground and wriggle and skip about until they find a suitable place, 
when they burrow in and pupate. Generally the puparia remain in the 
ground over the winter, emerging next year when the young peach 
fruits are ready for attack ; but it is possible that in some cases they 
may lie over for two or more years. 

A great deal of work has been done all over the World on the control 
of Fruitflies and the methods adopted are mainly three in number, (1) 
attraction and poisoning of adult flies, (2) employment of natural para- 
sites and (3) destruction of larvae in attacked fruit. As regards these 
the first is probab'y the best but it requires foresight in its application 
and for its successful use we must know when the flies are about and 
ovipositing and catch them then before they have had an opportunity 
of doing damage ; for it is of very little use, in the case of the present 
year's crop, to start killing off the flies once the eggs are laid. If, how- 
ever, we know that fruits, such as peaches, are likely to be attacked and 
if we know the habits of the fly pest in the locality concerned, we can 
apply a bait to catch and kill the female flies as soon as they have emerged 
from their puparia and before they have had time to oviposit on the 
trees. The bait used is generally a mixture of sugar and water with a 
little Lead Arsenate and it is sprayed onto the leaves of the trees con- 
cerned so that it falls in little droplets which may be sucked up by 
the female fruit Hies when they visit the tree to look for fruit in which 
to oviposit. We tiide some experiments at Pusa, in the Insectary, to 
find what was the best strength to use and whether it was possible to 
employ Lead Chromate instead of the more poisonous Lead Arsenate ; 
the results were briefly reported in our Report for last year and 
Mr. Ghosh will give you some further details now. 
Mr. Ghosh. Parallel experiments with several species oi Chcetodacus were carried 

out, batches of Hies be ng confined in muslin cages and supplied with 
sponges dipped in (1) wafer, (2) gur solution, 2.1 lb. in four gallons water, 
(3) Lead Arsenate (Thomsen Chemical Co.) with gur solution, (4) Lead 
A isenate (D. Waldie) with gur solution. (5) Lead Chromate with gur 
solution, and (6) some Hies were kept without any food or water. Those 
kept without amy food and those fed with water only, died within two 
days. Those supplied with gur solution lived for periods varying from 
one to two-and-a half months. Different strengths of Lead Arsenate, 
from 5 to 3 ounces in four gallons of gur solution, were used in experi- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 24-3 

ments (3) and (4). Experiment (3) gave better results than (4) at equal 
strengths, the flies in (3) dying within 36 hours whilst those in (4) lived 
for more than four days. It was found in practice that 3 ounces of Lead 
Arsenate gave as good results as 5 ounces, so that 3 ounces were used in 
all later experiments, but the Lead Chromate was used at a strength of 5 
ounces in 4 gallons of gur solution. In the case of (5) the flies lived for 
more than a month, so that Lead Chromate is not effective as a poison. 

In 1916 a preventive course of spraying was given to peach-trees at 
Pusa in April, but a practical difficulty was found in the rapid drying 
up of the droplets of solution. 

Instead of spraying directly onto the leaves, which of course requires Mr. Fletcher, 
to be renewed every few days and immediately after every shower of 
rain, it is possible to hang up in the trees bundles of twigs or similar 
traps, dipped in the solution and provided with a tin roof to keep off 
rain. You will find a general resume of this subject in the Canadian 
Entomologist for 1914 and that may give you some useful hints. 

As regards knowing when the flies are about, the attraction of citro- 
nella oil is useful, but that of course attracts only the males and is of no 
use for direct control. Citronella also exercises a, very specific attraction 
and we have already seen that half-a-dozen different species may occur 
in peaches. 

The second means of control, the employment of natural parasites, 
has been tried in other countries but not yet in India. I spoke of this 
point before and need now only say once again that we are badly in 
need of information regarding these parasites and you can all help in 
this by sending us in specimens of those you rear or of affected fruits 
for us to rear out the flies and parasites here. 

The third method of control, the destruction of the larvae in the 
attacked fruit, is an obvious remedy as regards the succeeding crop, 
but it must be properly carried out to be effective. It is not of the slight- 
est use to simply throw the affected fruit down on the ground or to bury 
it under a shallow depth of soil. Experiments have shown that a pro- 
portion of flies will emerge from puparia situated as much as five feet 
below ground. The affected fruit must therefore be buried deeply or 
rotted in water where the larvae cannot escape or, better still, collected 
and boiled. This must be done before the larvae have escaped and regular* 
collection and destruction of fruit is therefore required in orchards 
and fruit-gardens. 

As regards control by destruction of attacked fruit, there was a very Mr. T. V. Rama- 
bad attack of Melon Fruitfly (Dacus brevistylus) at Coimbatore a couple krishna Ayyar. 
of years ago. The early attacked fruits were picked and destroyed and 
the result of this treatment was promising. 

s 2 



244 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. Boring insects in peach trees include 

Arbela letraonis 
which has been noticed boring peach-trees at Pusa, but it does not seem 
to be a regular pest of peach. 

The sucking insects found on peach include : — 
Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudata. 
Lachnus sp. 
Hyalopterus sp. 
Monophlebus stebbingi odocaudatus occurs on peach as on so many 
other trees. We have already dealt with this under mango. At Pusa 
this scale sometimes occurs on the trees in regular masses. 

Lachnus sp. is a large brownish Aphid common on peach-trees at 
Peshawar. It occurs in masses usually on the underside of branches, 
not on the leaves. The colonies can be dealt with fairly easily. 

Hyalopterus sp. is the bright green Aphid occurring on peach leaves. 
It is common in Kumaon and at Peshawar and is controlled by spraying, 
as Mr. Eobertson-Brown will tell us. 

Spraying on a large scale is done in the orchard on the Agricultural 
Station at Taru, near Peshawar. Peach is a very sensitive tree and is 
easily affected by even a weak solution of any oily spray. After com- 
parative trials, Katakilla has been found very useful against Green Aphis 
and is applied by means of Holder Sprayers. The total cost of appli- 
cation per acre comes to Rs. 12, the number of trees ranging from eighty 
to one hundred. The strength used is in accordance with the directions 
given on the packet. In my opinion it is always better to use proprietary 
insecticides ; it is no good making up a solution or emulsion on the spot. 
Katakilla has been found very efficacious in killing all the three species 
of Aphids which give us trouble and my opinion is that the Aphis problem 
can easily be solved by thorough spraying with Katakilla. 
Mr. Fletcher. Any more pests of peach ? 

Mr. Khare. I n * ne Central Provinces, at Pachmarhi, there is a butterfly which 

pierces and sucks the sound fruits. 
Mr. Fletcher. Kallima inachus has been reported to do that at Pachmarhi but the 

record seemed so doubtful that I omitted it from our list. Possibly 
the fruits are first pierced by a Noctuid moth such as Ophideres. 
We should like a further definite observation of damage done by Kallima 
and, if you can substantiate that, you can send us a short note on it for 
publication in the next Bulletin of Entomological Notes. 



Plum (Prunus cerasifera). 
We have few pests recorded on plum, probably because it is little 
grown in the Plains. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 245 

The leaves are attacked by various leaf-eating insects, mostly 
beetles : — 

Brahmina coriacea. 
Anomala lineatipennis. 
Adoretus versutus. 
,, hordeola. 
Euproctis jlava. 

The four beetles were all found at Jeolikote, devouring plum leaves [see 
Entomological Notes 11, 20 and 22 in Bulletin 59] and Euproctis flava 
is recorded from Lyallpur. 

The fruits seem rather free from pests, but a larva of Virachola iso- 
crates was once found feeding in a plum-fruit at Pusa. 

Sucking insects on plum include Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudata, 
which is common throughout Northern India and which we have already 
considered several times, and a Lecanium sp. reported from Kashmir. 
When I was at Abbottabad in May 1916 I saw a large plum-tree very 
badly attacked by a brown scale-insect, which was clustered in masses 
over the twigs and branches ; but it has not been identified as yet. 

Apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris). 

The leaves of apricot have been found to be attacked in Kulu by 
Emperorrhinus defoliator [see under Peach] and the shoots were attacked 
at Jeolikote by Anomala polita. 

The fruits are attacked by an unnamed Eurytomine Chalcidid in 
the Hazara District of the North- West Frontier Province. This is quite 
an interesting case because it is of course unusual to find phytophagous 
Chalcidids at all. The eggs are laid in the young fruits which wither and 
drop off the tree when about half-grown, so that attacked fruits do not 
come to maturity at all. The grub feeds inside the stone, eating out 
the seed, and remains inside the stone on the ground throughout the 
winter, emerging next spring ; but in some cases, under Insectary con- 
ditions at Pusa, the grub may remain in a resting condition, two or per- 
haps more years. The damage done may be considerable but it is very 
local, only known at present in the Hazara District. Control should be 
attained simply by collection and destruction by fire of all stones of fallen 
fruit. 

The attack is confined to a few gardens in Hazara situated at an Mr. Robertson- 
altitude of 1,500-2,000 feet. This pest is not found in the common Hill Brown, 
varieties of apricot but all the grafted varieties are affected. The 
attacked fruits drop from the branches when they are three-quarters 
grown. 



24-6 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Harihar 
Prasad. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



At Alrnora (7,000 feet), near Raniket, I found a Pentatomid bug 
thrusting its proboscis into ripe apricot fruit. 

Apricots are also attacked by a Lachnus which occurs throughout 
the North- West Frontier Province and as far down as Saharanpur, and 
also in Baluchistan. 

This Black Aphis is very common on the trunks of apricot trees in 
the North- West Frontier Province. It is checked by spraying with 
Katakilla. 

Almond (Amygdalus communis). 

We have a very meagre list of insect pests of almond. When I was 
at Haripur Hazara, in the North- West Frontier Province, in May 1915 
I saw some almond trees which were said to be attacked by an insect 
which was apparently the same as the Eurytomine Chalcidid found in 
apricot ; the symptoms were the same, the fruit falling from the trees 
before it became full-grown; I collected a quantity of the fallen fruit 
but we have not yet bred anything out of it, so whether almonds are 
attacked by a Chalcidid in this way is still an open question. 

The Green and Black Aphids (Hyalopterus and Lachnus) found on 
peach in Peshawar are also common on almond. They also are said to 
occur in Baluchistan. 



Mr. 
Mr. 



Shroff. 
Fletcher. 



Mr. T. V. Rama- 
krishna Ayyar. 



Country Almond (Terminal in catappa). 

The leaves are attacked by a few insects : - 
Apoderus tranquebaricus. 
Selepa eel/ is. 
Trabala visit nn. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphcerica. 
Apoderus tranquebaricus is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," pp. 335-336, fig. 193, and there is little to add to this account. 
It has been noticed chiefly at Saidapet and in South Arcot, twisting 
the leaves, but is scarcely a pest. 

Selepa (Plotlteia) celt is has been recorded on Terminalia and may 
occur at times as a sporadic pest. 

Trabala vishnu has been recorded on Terminalia catappa at Man- 
dalay. 

It was reared once on the leaves, but did not occur in any numbers. 
Terminalia catappa is a new record for this, I think. 
Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphcerica also occurs on Terminalia and 
may be a pest at times. 

It was very bad on this tree at Kolleeal. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 247 

Jamun (Eugenia jambolana). 

We have very few insects on our list under Jamun. A weevil, Bala- Mr. Fletcher. 
ninus c-album, has been bred at Pusa commonly from the fallen fruits, 
the grub feeding inside the seeds and eating the whole seed-content ; 
but I do not know whether it can be considered a pest. 

Dialeurodes eugenke has been found on Eugenia jambolana at Pusa, 
Poona, Coimbatore and Bangalore and is probably widely distributed 
in India, but I have not seen it in any numbers so as to be doing damage. 

Pear (Pyrus communis). 
We have comparatively few insects listed under pear and doubtless Mr. Fletcher. 
& little search in the Hill Districts would add considerably to the list :— 
Brahmina coriacea. 
A (href us versutus. 
,, horticola. 
Mimastra cyanea. 
Emperorrhinus defoliator. 
Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus versutus and A. horticola have all been 
xeported from Jeolikote [see Entomological Notes, 11, 20 and 22 in Bulle- 
tin No. 59]. 

Mimastra cyanea [see Stebbing, Forest Coleoptera, pp. 263-264] was 
sent in to us in May 1916 as defoliating pear-trees at Solan. It seems to 
be a common species in the Hill Districts of North-West India during 
the month of May and is found on almost all kinds of fruits. 

Emperorrhinus defoliator was found attacking pear-trees at Chawai, 
inKulu, the whole orchard being defoliated. It occurs also in the 
Dar]iling District and the Khasi Hills and is likely to do damage to 
fruit trees all along the Himalayan tract. 

Sucking insects found on pear include : — 
Tessa rotoma quadrata. 
Lachnus pyri. 
Aspidiotus sp. 
Tessarotoma quadrata was reported once on pear at Kalimpong but 
otherwise we do not know it as a pest. 

Lachnus pyri is referred to in "South Indian Insects," p. 503, fig. 
391, and is common on pear-trees in the Hill Districts of Southern India 
occurring in masses on the stems and branches in the same way as the 
Lachnus on peach. It is easily dealt with by spraying or brushing 
with any contact insecticide. 

An Aspidiotus has been noted on shoots and stems of pear at Ban- 
galore and is perhaps an imported species. 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Apple (Pyrus mains). 

Apple leaves are attacked by numerous leaf-eating pests : — 
Brahmina coriacea. 
Adoretus versutus. 
,, horticola. 
Emperorrh in us defoliator. 
Myllocer us 11-pustulalus. 
Dereodus pollinosus. 
Gracilariad. 

Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus versutus and A. horticola have been 
reported from Jeolikote [see Entomological Notes 11, 20 and 22 in 
Bulletin 59]. A. versutus was also noted to damage apple seedlings at 
Jeolikote in May 1915. Probably various other Rutelid and Melolon- 
thid beetles occur on apple leaves in the Hills. 

Emperorrh inns defoliator was found eating apple leaves in Kulu in an 
orchard containing peach, apricot, pear and apple, but the apple trees 
were the last to be attacked. 

Myllocerus 11-pnstulatus was found at Bangalore on apple leaves and. 
shoots. 

Dereodus pollinosus [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidce, Vol. I, 
p. 121] was found on apple at Kulu, and also occurs on Zizyphus jujuba 
and Calotropis. An unidentified brown weevil occurred commonly on- 
leaves and shoots of apple at Abbot tabad in May 1916 and seemed to 
be doing some damage. 

In the North-West Frontier Province a Gracilariad caterpillar 
attacks apple leaves in May and has been noticed at Peshawar and Abbot- 
tabad, but the moth has not been bred out. The caterpillar is a miner 
in its early stages but later on ties up the leaves, fastening the edges 
together and living inside, gnawing the upper surface of the leaf. It 
pupates in a silken cocoon attached to the leaf. A good proportion 
of leaves may be affected. 

Apple twigs have been noted to be gnawed at Bangalore by Coslos- 
terna spinator [" South Indian Insects," p. 325, fig. 180] but it is a minor 
pest as a rule, sporadically abundant. 

Boring in apple stems and branches we have Lophosternus hugeli 
[Stebbing, Indian Forest Coleoptera, p. 274, tab. 17] which has been found- 
boring in the trunks and roots in Kumaon. Stebbing reports it as boring 
in Quercus incana in North-West India. 
Mr. Shroff. At Taung-gyi, in the Southern Shan States, a yellow grub was found 

boring in apple. It is probably Aristobia approximator. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 249 

Apple fruits are apparently little subject to attack in India. Tessa- Mr. Fletcher.. 
rotoma quadrata has been reported from Kalimpong and a larva of Vira- 
cliola isocrates was once found at Bangalore boring into an apple. 

So far as we know, the apple-growing districts in India are as yet 
free from the notorious Codling Moth (Laspeyresia pomonella) about 
which one sees so much in the literature of Economic Entomology in 
Europe, America, South Africa and Australia. I have never seen any 
signs of attack in any Indian-grown apple nor have I ever been able 
to hear of any such attack. But I would remind you that Laspeyresia 
pomonella has been recorded to occur in Kashmir, at a place called Dras 
Ladak (7,000 feet) [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) VI, 435 (1900)] and, if it 
is really native in Kashmir, it is curious, that it has never been noticed 
or spread in other localities. Possibly the Kashmir record was founded 
on a mistaken identification but, on the other hand, L. pomonella may 
occur in India. If any of you have an opportunity of obtaining evidence 
of its occurrence we should very much like to know about that. 

Sucking insects found on apple include the notorious " Woolly 
Aphis," Eriosoma (Schizoneura) lanigera, which has been introduced 
into India on various occasions with nursery stock and which is 
thoroughly established in the Nilgiris and art Bangalore [" South 
Indian Insects," pp. 500-501, fig. 389], and has proved a serious pest. 
It is also common at Simla. 

The Woolly Aphis is found on the roots and trunks of apple trees Mr. Shroff, 
at Taung-gyi in the Southern Shan States. 

It seems to have been brought into all apple-growing districts with Mr. Fletcher, 
imported nursery stock and is an excellent example of the danger of 
introducing stock without any system of inspection or fumigation. 

Control is dealt with in " South Indian Insects " and there is little 
to add to that. But control of this pest is decidedly difficult when it is 
living on the roots of the trees attacked. 

Sapota ; Sapodilla (Achras sapota). 

The leaves of Sapota seem to be little attacked by insects as a rule. 
The caterpillars of Metanastria hyrtaca [" South Indian Insects," pp. 
409-410, fig. 282] were found on the leaves at Pusa in June 1916, but this 
insect is quite a sporadic pest. 

The larva of Rhodoneurq myrseusalis also webs up the leaves, but is 
not a pest ; and the leaves are also nibbled by Myllocerus 11-pitstulatus. 

The fruits of Sapota are occasionally attacked by Fruitflies, of which 
Chcetodacus ferrugineus versicolor and C. zonatus have been reared at 
Pusa, but Sapota fruits are rarely attacked by Fruitflies. 



250 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. T. V. Rama- 
krishna Ayyar. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



At Coimbatore a Mealy-bug occurs on the fruits. 

Monophlebus stebbingi oclocaudata also occurs on Sapota, as on so 
many other trees, but there is nothing particular to say about it and it 
seems to be less of a pest on Sapota than on other trees. 

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica). 
The leaves of loquat seem fairly free from any serious leaf-eating pests. 
Myllocerus discolor has been noticed nibbling the leaves at Pusa and a 
Megachile also cuts the leaves. At Maymyo, in Upper Burma, a species 
of GalcruceJla was also found. 

The fruits are attacked by a Fruitfly, Chcetodacus ferrugineus, of 
which the forms ferrugineus and dorsalis have been bred at Pusa, but it 
is not very common. Virachola isocrates also occasionally attacks the 
fruits. 

The sucking insects found on loquat include : — 
Pulvinaria psidii. 
Coccus (Lecanium) viridis. 
Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphcerica. 
Pulvinaria j>.sidii is usually common on the young shoots and leaves, 
and Coccus viridis and Saissetia hemisphcerica sometimes occur. We 
have already dealt with control of all these species. 

Nectarine. 
We know practically nothing of any insect pests of Nectarine in India. 
Calpe ophideroides was found in Kumaon in July 1914 as recorded in 
Entomological Note 64 in- Bulletin 59 ; and a species of Lecanium has 
been observed in Kashmir. 

Cherry (Prunus sp.). 
Cherry pests are also a very unknown quantity in India. Emperor- 
rhinus defoliator was found defoliating cherry trees in Kulu ; Anomala 
transversa has been recorded as a minor pest at Shillong [Entomological 
Note 13 in Bulletin 59] ; and Myllocerus lefroyi is recorded as defoliating 
cherry trees at Dehra Dun [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidce, 
Vol. I, p. 341]. 

Fig (Ficus carica). 
The leaves of fig are eaten by numerous insects, including : — 
Adorelus versutus. 
,, durauceli. 
,, horticola. 
Ocinara varians. 
Phy codes radiata. 
,, minor. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 251 

Adoretus versutus, A. duvauceli and A. horticola were all found on fig 
at Jeolikote [see Entomological Notes 20, 21 and 22 in Bulletin 59]. 

Ocinara varians is common on fig in the Plains and is often a serious 
pest, eating off the young growth as fast as it is put forth. It is described 
and figured in " South Indian Insects," p. 407, fig. 278. In the case of 
young trees, the larvae may be hand-picked, but are difficult to see. It 
feeds, of course, on wild species of Ficus also, as all these fig-pests do. 

Perina nuda was found on fig in the Botanical Garden at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramachandra 

Rao. 

Phycodes radiata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 463-464, fig. 339] Mr. Fletcher. 

and P. minor are minor pests, especially of young trees, the caterpillars 
rolling and spinning up the leaves. 

Boring insects in fig include : — 

Batocera rub us. 
Rhytidodera sp. 
Olenecamptus bilobus. 

Batocera rubus is sometimes a serious pest in young trees, the grub 

boring in the stem and killing the tree. In the case of young trees, 

the damage is usually done when noticed but in some cases it is possible 

to inject a mixture of creosote and chloroform, or carbon bisulphide, to 

kill the grubs ; but generally it is better to cut it out in the case of small 

trees. These should be examined daily when the beetles are about and 

the beetles collected off them by hand. 

Batocera rubus is very bad at Peshawar on fig-trees. Mr. Robertson- 

Brown. 

An unidentified Longicorn beetle, probably a species of Rhytidodera, Mr. Fletcher, 
has been reported on cultivated fig-trees at Mandalay. 

Olenecamptus bilobus has also been reported on fig from Surat, Coim- 
batore and the Krishna Districts. It is common on wild figs but is not 
a bad pest of cultivated figs. 

Fig fruits are attacked in the Peshawar Valley by the larva of Stath- 

mopoda sycastis. I got a single specimen in 1916 and reared it out, and 

it proves to be a new species. It does not do very much actual damage 

but is well known to the local people who are chary of eating the fruits 

because they contain this caterpillar. 

At Coimbatore a Mealy-bug occurs on the fruit-stalks. Mr. T. V. Rama- 

krishna Ayyar. 

The sucking insects found on fig include Ccroplastes floridensis and Mr. Fletcher. 

Mites found on the leaves. It is possible that the peculiar scorched 

appearance of fig-leaves, as seen in the North- West Frontier Province, 

may be due to attacks of mites ; but this is a point which requires to 

be worked out. 



25:i PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. T. V. Rama- 
krishna Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. T. V. Rama- 
krishna Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Jak (Artocarpus integri folia). 

The buds and young shoots of jak are attacked by Margaronia (Gly- 
phodes) ccesalis, as described in " South Indian Insects," p. 435, fig. 311, 
and I have no more to add to that. 

Arbela tetraonis has been noticed boring in the stem at Pusa, but is 
not common on jak and not a regular pest. 

The sucking insects found on jak include : — 

Cosmoscarta relata. 

Ptyelus sp. 

Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus. 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) sp. 

Cerococcus corymbosus. 

Cosmoscarta relata seems to be confined to Coorg and Mysore, where 
it is a serious local pest. It is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," p. 495, fig. 383. 

In Malabar another Cercopid bug, Ptyelus sp., is found on jak shoots. 

Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus is abundant on jak at Pusa, often 
clustering thickly on the young shoots and fruits. 

In Malabar a species of Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) is very bad on the 
shoots and tender fruits, and Cerococcus corymbosus also occurs in Mala- 
bar, completely covering the shoots and young leaves and fruits. 

The fruits of jak seem fairly free from pests, other than those we 
have already noticed, but at Pollibetta, in South Coorg, in May 1914 I 
bred Chwtodacus jerrugineus incisus in some numbers from larvee in ripe 
jak fruits and the rotten fruits lying on the ground also attracted 
Ptecticus rufus and Pt. australis in some numbers ; but all these flies 
probably breed only in over-ripe and fallen fruits and thus are not 
pests. 



Mr. T. V. Rarna- 
kriskna Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Bread-Fruit (Artocarpus incisa). 

Bread-fruit is grown to some extent on the West Coast of Southern 
India, but w<> know nothing of any insect pests. 

I have never seen any insect pests on Bread-fruit. 

Durian (Durio zibethinus). 

! >inian is grown in the South of Burma and at Moulmein is attacked' 
by a borer, probably a Longicorn beetle, whose grub bores just below the 
bark. We do not know exactly what the beetle is but the grub can be 
controlled by cutting it out. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 253 

Mangosteen {Garcinia mangostana). 

We have no insect pests of Mangosteen on our list, although it is Mr. Fletcher, 
grown to some extent in Southern India, Ceylon and Burma. Chw- 
todacus garcinice was bred at Peradeniya from Garcinia fruits but I do 
not know whether these were mangosteens. 

At Moulmein a Bostrychid beetle bores in the stem and big branches Mr. Shroff. 
of living trees of mangosteen. 

Ber (Zizyphus jujuba). 
Ber is not strictly speaking a cultivated tree as a rule but in some Mr. Fletcher. 
districts the fruits of grafted varieties are utilized, so we may consider 
it under the heading of fruit trees. 

There is a long list of leaf feeding insects and this could be further 
enlarged, but most of these are unimportant as pests : — 
Thiacidas postica 
Tarucus theophrastus. 
Platypria andrewesi. 
Atmetonychus peregrinus. 
Xanthotraclielus f annus. 
Myllocerus 11-pustulatus. 
,, transmarinus. 

,, discolor. 

,, sdbulosus. 

Tanymecus circumdatus. 
,, hispidus. 

Thiacidas postica [" Indian Insect Life," p. 459, fig. 313] occurs 
throughout India and Burma and the larva is common on Zizyphus, but 
scarcely a pest. 

Tarucus theophrastus [Bingham, Fauna of India, Butterflies, II, 
417-419, t. 20, f. 151 ] occurs practically throughout India, Burma and 
Ceylon. The larva feeds on the young leaves and buds of Zizyphus 
jujuba. It is scarcely a pest as a rule but is stated to be a minor pest 
of grafted Zizyphus trees in the Central Provinces. 

Platypria andrewesi [" Indian Insect Life," p. 364, figs. 241, 242] 
is common on Zizyphus in the Plains, the larva mining in the leaf in some 
numbers. There is also another Chrysomelid, a Cassidine, with a green 
larva which is common and eats patches out of the leaf-surface, some- 
times to a considerable extent. 

Atmetonychus peregrinus has been found on ber at Pusa on two 
occasions but is not a pest. 

Xanthotraclielus faunus is common on ber at Pusa and does a little 
damage at times. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Myllocerus 11-pustulatus occurs on her as on most other plants ; 
M. sabulosus is common and a minor pest ; M. transmarinus has been 
found at Pusa ; and M. discolor was noticed at Jamalpur, in Bengal. 

Tanymecus circumdatus and T. hispidus have occurred at Pusa, but 
the latter is probably only a casual visitor and neither is a pest. 

The fruits of her are attacked by : — 
( 'arpomyia resuviana. 
Meridarchis scyrodes. 

Carpomyia vesuviana is a small Fruitfly which derives its specific 
name from the fact that it was first discovered on the slopes of Mount 
Vesuvius, in Italy. It seems to occur commonly throughout India and is 
a minor pest of cultivated her fruits. It is parasitized more extensively 
than any other Fruitflies we know in India and, as I told you the other 
day, we have been attempting to introduce the parasites into Italy. 
These parasites have been worked out by Professor Silvestri, who has 
named two species as Biosteres carpomyice and Bracon fletcheri from speci- 
mens sent from Pusa. 

Meridarchis scyrodes has also been reared from larva? in her fruits at 
Pusa, Coimbatore and Nagpur, but it is probably scarcely a pest. 

Boring insects in her include : — 
Arbela telraonis. 
Ccelosterna spinator. 

Arhela telraonis sometimes bores in her but is not common in this 
tree as a rule. 

Ccelosterna spinator was reported from Poona but is not generally a 
pest. 

The stems of her trees ace attacked by a red mite which forms pustules 
on the bark, but we do not know what the mite is or much about it. 

The only important sucking insect found on her is the lac insect 
(Tachardia lacca) and, as that is usually cultivated, we can hardly de- 
scribe it as a pest. 

Berberry (Berheris sp.). 

Anomala rufiventris, Anomala sp., Brahmina crihricollis and Holo- 
trichia fisa have been found on berberry in Kangra, but we know no more 
about them. 

Water-nut (Trapa bispinosa). 
[Singhara — Hind. | 

The only pest we know on water-nut is Galerucella singhara, which 
is fully described in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 146-149, tab. 
15, so that we need not say much more about it. 
Mr. Ratiram. At Raipur, in the Central Provinces, a caterpillar was found boring 

in the nuts but the moths could not be bred out. 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2 55 

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale). 

The leaves of cashew are sometimes seriously defoliated by cater- Mr. Fletcher, 
pillars of Cricula tri fenestrate, which we considered under mango. 

In Bangalore and South Kanara the shoots are attacked by Helo- Mr. T. V. Rama- 
peltis antonii, and the leaves are also attacked by Ceroplastes floridensis krishna Ayyar. 
at Bangalore. 

Mulberry (Morus spp.). 

Mulberry is not usually grown as a fruit tree in India but it is fre- Mr. Fletcher, 
quently planted as a shade-tree and is of course used extensively also for 
rearing silkworms. 

Mulberry leaves do not seem to be much eaten by insects and at 
Pusa, where we grow mulberry extensively as food for silkworms, we 
have never had any trouble due to attacks of caterpillars or other leaf- 
eaters. Weevils may nibble the leaves at times and Sympiezomias cre- 
taceus has been found doing this at Bangalore. 

Boring beetles often do considerable damage and amongst these we 
may consider : — 

Apriona germari. 

,, cinerea. 

Sthenias grisator. 

Apriona germari does considerable damage to mulberry in North- 
Western India and is described and figured by Stebbing in his " Indian 
Forest Coleoptera," pp. 371-374, fig. 249. 

At Abbottabad a longicorn larva was found boring mulberry trees 
seriously in May 1916, the larval gallery generally running up and down 
the tree just below the bark and the boring being plainly visible by the 
accumulation of extruded fragments of wood. A larva was brought 
back to Pusa but could not be reared ; possibly it may have been Apriona 
germari. 

Apriona cinerea is recorded by Stebbing [I. c, p. 374] as damaging 
mulberry at Dehra Dun by the beetles stripping the bark off the leading 
shoots and twigs. 

In the Central Provinces a longicorn beetle eats the bark of mulberry Mr. Ratiram. 
trees, but I cannot say what the beetle is. 

Sthenias grisator was found ringing mulberry at Coimbatore and a Mr. Fletcher. 
good deal of damage was done by the beetles cutting off branches. We 
discussed this beetle under Erythrina. 

Sthenias grisator is quite a common pest of mulberry in that way at Mr. T. V. Rama- 
Coimbatore. krishna Ayyar. 

I have also found adult beetles of Glenea multiguttata resting on mul- Mr. Fletcher, 
berry at Bangalore as if they were attracted to this plant, but I cannot 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

say definitely that they had bred in mulberry. Stebbing [Indian Forest 
Coleoptera, p. 378] gives Odina wodier as the food-plant of this insect. 
The sucking insects found on mulberry include : — 

Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus. 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) sp. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra. 

Mites. 
Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus is a minor pest of mulberry, 
especially when grown as trees. I do not think there is much more to 
say about this species. 

Pseudococcus sp. occurs on mulberry commonly and is supposed to 
produce the curly appearance of the shoots commonly called " tukra," 
but this is a point which requires more exact investigation. Lefroy has 
stated in the Agricultural Journal of India,Yo\. V, pp. 162-164, that the 
mealy-bug concerned is Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) nipce, but this also 
is doubtful and it is probable that Ps. citri is the species most commonly 
present. We want to know whether the "tukra " condition is solely 
due to the attacks of these mealy-bugs and, if so, whether only one or 
more, and which, species are concerned. In the case of an outbreak 
of " tukra," the only control is the prompt plucking and burning of the 
affected shoots. 

Saissetia (Lecanium) nigra occurs fairly commonly on mulberry, but 
is not a bad pest. 

Mites occur sporadically as pests, and seem to occur mostly in dry 
areas. We do not know the species concerned — indeed, nothing has been 
done with phytophagous mites in India so far. As regards control, a 
sulphur spray is indicated when required but as a rule the value of 
this crop does not justify remedial measures. 

Strawberry (Fragaria vesca). 

Strawberry is grown chiefly in Northern India, both in the Hills and 
Plains. In the Peshawar Valley, for example, strawberries are grown 
as a field-crop. There seem, however, to be few insect pests of this crop. 
At Pusa Myllocerus 11-pustulatus and M . blandus have been noticed 
nibbling the leaves and at Shillong Scarabseid grubs have been reported 
as damaging the roots. 

Custard Apple (Anona squamosa). 

We have no leaf-eating insects noted as found on Custard Apple. 
The fruits are attacked by : — 

Helerogr aphis bengalella. 
Pseudocooiyus (Dactylopius) virgatus ? 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 25 7 

The larva of Heterogr aphis bengalella bores in the ripe fruits in Bengal 
and Bihar, but is not common and can hardly be described as a pest. 

A species of Pseudococcus, probably virgatus, sometimes clusters in 
masses on the fruits and spoils their appearance for market, besides 
doing damage by sucking the juices. 

Ceroplastes fioridensis has also been noted on the leaves, but is 
scarcely a pest. 

Cherramoya (Anona sp.). 

The Cherramoya is a large species or variety of Custard Apple and 
is cultivated in the Hills of South India and Burma. The only insect 
pest which we know of is Aristobia approximator which has been found 
boring the stems and branches at Taung-gyi in the Southern Shan States, 
Burma. 

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica). 

There are no very important pests of the tamarind tree. The larva 
of Stauropus alternus has been found eating the leaves, but not as a pest ; 
however, it is possible that it may occur sporadically in large numbers 
as it did on tea in Ceylon some years ago. 

The fruits are attacked by Viracliola isocrates, which occasionally 
occurs, and by Argyroploce illepida which bores in the seeds ; but neither 
is much of a pest. Caryoborus gonagra [" South Indian Insects," pp. 
308-309, fig. 157] is a bad pest of the seeds but this affects only the 
stored fruit. Asjridiotus latanice has been found on the pods at Banga- 
lore. 

Asjndiotus tamarindi and A. orientalis cover the fruits at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramakrishua 

A vv3.r 
At Mandalay the stem is attacked by longicorn borers. Mr. Shroff. 

Papaya (Papaya carica). 

Papaya affords an example of almost perfect immunity from insect Mr. Fletcher, 
attack and young healthy trees never seem to be attacked by insects 
of any kind. Older, but still living and vigorous, trees are occasionally 
attacked by the caterpillar of Dasyses rugoseUus which bores in below 
the bark. The direct damage done is slight and the larval workings 
are easily seen and can be cut out and the wound tarred over. 

The next group of plants is comprised of 

PALMS 

and of these we will first take 

Coconut (Cocos nucifera). 

Coconut is grown extensively in India, especially along the West 
Coast of Southern India, in Burma and Ceylon and is attacked by 
numerous insect pests of which some do serious damage. 



258 



l'ROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fieteher. 



The young plants are attacked by : — 
Termites. 
Dorylus orientalis. 
Termites are sometimes serious pests of young coco-palms, especially 
in Malabar. The use of a deterrent is indicated, to keep them away, 
and trials might be made with Apterite or some such insecticide in a 
ring around the young plants. Possibly waste tobacco stems, if avail- 
able locally, might also prove useful. 

Dorylus orientalis [" South Indian Insects," p. 274, fig. Ill] attacks 
young plants in the same way as termites do and control will be on 
similar lines. 

The leaves and shoots of coconut are attacked by : — 
Gangara thyrsis. 
Suastus gremius. 
Parasa lepida. 
Contheyla rotunda. 
Nephantis serinopa. 
Oryctes rhinoceros. 
Autarches miliaris. 
Stephanitis sp. 
Aspidiotus destructor. 
Vinsonia stellifera. 
Pseudaonidia trilobit iform is. 
Coconut Aphid. 
Gangara thyrsis ["South Indian Insects,*' p. 417, figs. 290-291] 
is a common species throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
The larva feeds on palms of various kinds and may do some damage 
to ornamental plants and in nurseries of young coco-palms. The cater- 
pillar rolls the leaves and lives inside the rolled tube, its presence being 
easily determined by the fluffy white waxy matter which surrounds 
the caterpillar and is also scattered over the leaves. It may be hunted 
down and killed by hand in the case of small palms which are the only 
ones badly affected. Pupation takes place in the larval tube. 

In Burma, Gangara thyrsis is a bad sporadic pest on young coco- 
palms. 

Suastus gremius [" South Indian Insects," pp. 418-419, fig. 293] 
is widely distributed in the Plains, the larva feeding on various palms ; 
mostly on palmyra, but also on coconut and date. It is a minor pest 
as a rule, sometimes occurring in considerable numbers. In the case 
of small palms, the larva) may be killed by hand. 

Parasa lepida [I c, pp. 410-411, figs. 283-284] is an occasional serious 
pest of coconut, especially in Southern India, even large palms being 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 259 

stripped of leaves. In such cases, if the larvse are present in sufficient 
numbers, the attacked branches may be cut and burnt ; and the cocoons 
on the tree-trunks may also be squashed. Spraying is impracticable 
in the case of large palms but can be done, or the caterpillars picked 
off, in the case of small plants. 

Contheyla rotunda, a hitherto scarce species originally described 
from Kanara, occurred as a pest of coconut in South Malabar in February 
and March 1916, the larvae damaging the foliage and sometimes the 
flower-shoots and rinds of young nuts. When full-fed, the larva pupates 
in a small, oval, hard, shell-like cocoon, numbers of which are found on 
badly attacked tree-fronds. Spraying with Lead Arsenate was tried 
but found impracticable, and the preventive measures of cutting off 
first-attacked fronds and the destruction of the shell-like cocoons found 
on the trees before an outbreak were suggested and taken up by the 
ryots. This species has also recently been reported as a pest of tea 
in the Wynaad. 

Nephantis serinopa [" South Indian Insects," p. 460, fig. 336] occurs 
throughout the Plains of Southern India, Bengal, Burma, and Ceylon 
as a pest, often serious, of coconut. It also occurs commonly on palmyra 
but does not damage this so much. In the case of large trees, the 
cutting and burning of the first-attacked branches is the only practicable 
method. A few moths are attracted to light-traps but it is doubtful 
how far these are really efficient. In the case of small trees, spraying 
with a stomach-poison is possible. 

Nephantis serinopa is very common in Burma, Mr. Shroff. 

In Bengal, Nephantis serinopa has been found bad on palms in Mr. P. C Sen 
Burdwan and the Presidency Divisions. 

Oryctes rhinoceros [" South Indian Insects," p. 285, tab. 3] is common Mr. Fletcher, 
in all coconut-growing districts and is a bad pest, not only by boring 
into the soft crowns of the trees but by providing thereby a means of 
entry for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus to lay its eggs in the palms. The 
lifehistory has been worked out and described in Entomological Memoirs, 
\ ol. II, pp. 193-204, and there is not much more to say about that ; 
I called your attention to the fact that rotting Agave stumps often pro- 
vide a suitable situation for the grubs to live in, and they have also 
been found in the rotting mass of pulp left over after pulping coffee- 
berries. As the early stages are passed in rotting vegetable matter, 
control may aim at destruction of the grubs as well as the adult beetles' 
Heaps of rotting vegetable matter near palm groves should be regularly 
turned over and the grubs picked out and destroyed and all dead and 
rotten palms should be cut and burnt. It may be noted that in the 
case of palms, which have died from bud-rot, the dead top-shoots may 

t 2 



260 



rROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Kt. Fletcher. 



provide a suitable breeding-place for the grubs ; and in such circums- 
tances it is also possible that the spores of the disease may be carried 
to healthy trees by beetles which have flown from diseased trees either 
after ovipositing there or on first emergence from the pupal state. In 
some places, such as Samoa, where Oryctes is a pest, small enclosures 
are built up of coral rock in the coconut plantations and these enclosures 
are rilled with decaying coconut husks and similar material to act as 
traps for the grubs ; this material may then be infected with a culture 
fatal to the grubs or may simply be turned out regularly and the grubs 
destroyed. But there is a danger that, if this destruction is not done 
regularly and systematically, such enclosures would simply form 
breeding-centres for the beetles. In districts where pigs are kept, 
these animals will also keep down the grubs if allowed to rout about 
in the piles of decaying vegetable matter. The beetles themselves 
may be extracted from their burrows in the trees by means of a barbed 
wire. In some districts a mixture of salt and sand is placed in the 
crowns of the trees and this is said to be effective, as is also the fermented 
liquor method as described in my book. 

Aidarches miliaris [" South Indian Insects," p. 526, fig. 418] occa- 
sionally occurs on coconut but is not a pest as a rule. 

Stephanitis sp. occurs in small numbers on coconut leaves. I have 
seen it at Coimbatore but never in any numbers. The species has not 
been identified. It may be S. typicus. 

I have once seen it at Coimbatore but it was not doing much damage. 

Aspidiotus destructor [" South Indian Insects," p. 518, fig. 408] 
occurs throughout the Plains of Southern India and probably through- 
out our limits. It is often found in very large numbers, literally covering 
the leaves, when the vitality of the tree is obviously lowered. 

At Coimbatore Aspidiotus destructor sometimes occurs on coconut 
in destructive numbers. 

Control is difficult. It is not possible to cut and burn all the branches 
of a tree and, short of that, little can be done in the case of a really bad 
attack. Spraying is rather outside practical politics in the case of 
coconut palms. 

Vinsonia stellifera is a very widely distributed Scale-insect, recorded 
from the West Indies, Central and South America, California and Ceylon, 
and found on orchids, ferns, guava, mango, nutmeg, etc. It is found 
at times on coconut, sometimes in numbers, but is hardly a serious pest 
as a rule. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 261 

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis occurred in numbers on coconut at 
Colombo on one occasion. I do not know whether it has been found 
on coconut in India but it is likely to occur. 

A Coconut Aphid was described in " South Indian Insects," pp. 506- 
507, fig. 393, from specimens found at Coimbatore on young coconut 
palms which had been imported from Colombo. That colony appears 
to have been exterminated by the measures taken at the time and I 
hope that we shall not have occasion to notice this insect in India again. 

The stems of coconut are attacked by : — 
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. 
Coconut Scolytid. 

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," p. 343, tab. 14, and the lifehistory is given in greater detail 
in Entomological Memoir, Vol. II, Part 10 ; so that we need not go into 
that in any detail. Rh. ferrugineus is probably the worst and most 
destructive pest of coconut and palmyra palms in India and its increase 
is rendered possible by the cuts made by toddy-drawers and the borings 
of Oryctes in the crowns of the trees ; for, as I have pointed out before, 
Oryctes and Rhynch/phorus are mutually interdependent and between them 
do a great deal of damage which either insect by itself would be unable 
to accomplish. The adult Oryctes bores into the crown of a palm but 
this is, in the still living tree, an unsuitable situation for its grubs which 
require rotting vegetable matter to live in. Along comes a Rhyncho- 
phorus and oviposits in the burrow made by the Oryctes ; the living 
tissue surrounding this burrow is suitable food for the Rhynchophorus 
grubs, which burrow in it and feed on it and, when full-fed, pupate in 
it and emerge as adults. The tissues mined by the Rhynchophorus grubs 
rot, a process assisted by the lodgment of rain in the crown, and the 
crown, now dead, becomes a suitable place for the Oryctes beetle to 
oviposit in and for its grubs to develop in. So that the destruction of 
Oryctes and of dead trees in which Oryctes can breed will directly lead 
to the control of Rhynchophorus also. All wounds and cuts in the trees, 
which would give an entrance for Rhynchophorus to oviposit, should 
also be tarred over as far as possible or otherwise protected. At Mercara, 
in Coorg, in October 1915, I noticed that numerous specimens of 
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus were attracted to the trunk of a newly- 
felled palm-tree ; possibly it might be possible to trap the adult beetles 
in this way, when palms are being cut for any other purpose. 

An unidentified Scolytid beetle bores in the stems of coconut palms 
at Negapatam and in the Godavari District, killing the attacked trees. 
It is a minor local pest, but we know little about it. 



262 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Palmyra (Borassus flabelliformis). 

Mr. Fletcher. The pests of palmyra are practically identical with those of coconut, 

so that we need only run over the list very briefly. Attaching the 
leaves and shoots we get : — 

Snastus gremius. 

Parasa lepida. 

Nephantis serinopa. 

Oryctes rhinoceros. 
and boring in the stem we find : — 

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. 
All these attack palmyra in the same way as they do coconut and there 
is nothing special to say about them. 

Date Palm (Phoenix sylvestris). 

Mr Fletcher. The pests of the date palm are very similar to those on coconut and 

palmyra, but date is grown more in Northern Irdia. On the leaves 
and shoots we find : — 

Oryctes rhinoceros. 
Oryctes nasicornis. 
Wallacea sp. 
Oryctes rhinoceros occurs on date in just the same way as on coconut. 
Oryctes nasicornis probably occurs in date palms in North- West 
India. We have specimens from Quetta and had for determination 
from Mr. Milne one specimen captured by him at Dalhousie. 

Wallacea sp. is a Hispine beetle which has been noted at Pusa as 
doing minor damage to top-leaves of date-palms. 
Mr. Ghosh. The beetle and grubs were gnawing the epidermis of unopened tender 

leaves. 
Mr. Fletcher. In the stems of date-palms we get Rhynchophorus ferrugineus boring 

in the same way as in coconut and control will be similar. 

Betel-Nut Palm (Areca catechu). 

[Swpari — Hind.] 

Mr. Fletcher. The Betel-nut Palm differs from coconut, palmyra and date in being 

singularly free from insect attack — indeed, none of the palm-living insects 
that we have just discussed seem to have been found on betel-nut. 
The only pests noted on betel-nut palms are Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) 
aonidum (ficus) and Honichionaspis aspidistra, which occur not un- 
commonly, but are scarcely pests. 

Ornamental Palms. 

Mr. Fletcher. Under the heading of Ornamental Palms we may consider the palms 

grown in gardens and kept in houses for ornamental purposes. As 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 263 

a rule they are small palms and their pests are amenable to treatment 
by hand. Besides the palm pests we have already noted under coconut, 
palmyra, date and betel-nut, we often find the leaves attacked by 
Psychids, whose larval cases are easily har.d-picked. Scales of various 
sorts may also occur at times and can be dealt with by spraying or 
rubbing. 

Ornamental palms lead us on to a few miscellaneous 

C4ARDEN PLANTS 

of which the first is 

AlLANTHUS EXCELSA. 

The leaves of Ailanthus excelsa are eaten by : — 

Solenopsis geminata. 
Eligma narcissus. 
Atteva jabriciella. 

Solenopsis geminata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 274-275, fig. 112] 
does considerable damage to tender Ailanthus leaves, especially 
of small plants, by gnawing the leaves — not " growing " the leaves, as 
misprinted in " South Indian Insects." 

Eligma narcissus [I. c, pp. 383-384, figs. 58, 247, 248] is common 
throughout Southern India and the caterpillars often strip the leaves 
of Ailanthus. The caterpillars are conspicuous and may be hand-picked, 
and the long, greyish cocoons, which are thickly clustered on the stem, 
may also be squashed. 

Atteva jabriciella [I. c, pp. 461-463, fig. 338] also attacks Ailanthus 
in Southern and Central India, whilst the allied A. niveigutta is found on 
Ailanthus in Bengal and Sylhet. The caterpillars feed in a common 
web, which is conspicuous and easily torn down and the caterpillars 
destroyed. 

Chrysanthemum. 

The leaves of Chrysanthemum are at times attacked by larvae of 
Diacrisia obliqua but this is rarely a bad pest. The larvae may be hand- 
picked whilst young and still gregarious. 

Aphids are common on Chrysanthemum, especially on the tender 
stalks. They are usually checked by Coccineliids and Chrysopids 
or may be sprayed with a soap solution. 

The roots of Chrysanthemum also are sometimes attacked by termites 
and the application of a deterrent, such as Crude Oil Emulsion, will 
drive them away temporarily. 



2G1- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Rose (Rosa spp.) 
Roses are cultivated in most gardens throughout India and we have 
naturally a long list of insect pests. The leaves are eaten by : — 
Adoretus versutus. 
Adoretus lasiopugus. 
Adoretus bicaudatus. 
Adoret us caliginosus. 
Adoretus stoliczkce. 
Chiloloba acuta. 
Cryptocephalus dodecaspilus. 
Megachile anthracina. 
Megachile disjunct a. 
Prodenia litura. 
Selepa celt is. 
Stauropus alternus. 
Eucosma zelota. 
Helcystogram ma h ibisci. 
The various species of Adoretus are bad pests of rose, the leaves 
being often practically eaten away by these beetles, which usually appear 
in Northern India at the beginning of the Rains. Adoretus bicaudatus 
is recorded from Fenchuganj in Entomological Note 17 in Bulletin 59 ; 
A. lasiopygus, A. caliginosus and A. versutus in Entomological Notes 
18-20 ; and A. stoliczkce occurs at Nagpur. 

Chiloloba acuta [" South Indian Insects", p. 284, fig. 124] was found 
on rose at Poona, but is not common on rose as a rule. 

Cryptocephalus dodecasfilus occurs on rose as a very minor pest at 
Abbottabad in May. 

Megachile anthracina and M. disjuncta are both common leaf-cutting 
bees, which cut out large circular patches of leaf and often disfigure 
garden plants quite considerably. 

Prodenia litura [" South Indian Insects,'' p. 377, tab. 19] occasion- 
ally occurs on rose but is not common on this plant. 

Self pa celtis sometimes occurs in some numbers but is sporadic in 
its appearance. 

Stauropus alternus \ I. c, p. 408, figs. 279-280] occasionally occurs 
on rose, but is a scarce insect as a ride. 

Stauropus alternus occurs on rose at Coimbatore. 

Eucosma zelota occurs commonly on rose at Abbottabad, the larva 
spinning together a bunch of leaves so that the growth of the stem is 
distorted and the plant disfigured. It occurs on cultivated and wild 
varieties. The bunches of leaves are conspicuous and the only remedy 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 265 

would be to cut them out and destroy the caterpillars. I found a very 
similar caterpillar at Shillong but could not breed it, so cannot say 
whether it was identical. 

Helcystogramma hibisci was reared at Nagpur on rose but is not a 
pest. 

Achcca janata was also recorded on rose-leaves at Nagpur. Mr - Khare. 

Bose is a very unusual foodplant for A. janata. Mr - Fletcher. 

The buds and flowers of rose are attacked by :— 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Chiloloba acuta. 

Various Cetoniads and Meloids. 
In the North- West Frontier Province, in the Kohat Valley, I found 
rose-buds badly bored by caterpillars of 11. obsoleta and the same damage 
occurs in other parts of the North-West Frontier Province. The whole 
of the inside of the flower is eaten out. The only remedy is to collect 
and destroy the attacked buds which are conspicuous by the hole of 
entry of the caterpillar. 

Chiloloba acuta has also been noticed attacking rose flowers at Poona 
and various other Cetoniad and Meloid beetles also damage the flowers. 
They may be caught by hard or in hand-nets. 
Boring insects attacking rose include : — 
Sthenias grisator. 
Ccelostema spinator. 
Ceratina hieroglyphica. 
Sthenias grisator [" South Indian Insects," p. 326, fig. 182] girdles 
rose-stems in the same way as it attacks Erythrina and may do a good 
•deal of damage. [See under Erythrina.] 

Ccelostema spinator [ I. c, p. 325, fig. 180] is not a regular borer in 
rose, but the adult beetles are sometimes found gnawing twigs. 

Ceratina hieroglyphica is a small bee which is found boring into the 
pith of pruned branches of rose-trees at Pusa and Bangalore. It pro- 
bably only bores in dead or dying stems and is therefore scarcely a pest. 

At Nagpur there is another borer in rose-trees. It is like Arbela Mr. Khare. 
but I cannot say definitely what it is. 

The roots and stems, and also cuttings, are sometimes attacked by Mr. Fletcher 
termites. Watering with Crude Oil Emulsion or a weak solution of 
Phenyle will drive them away temporarily. 
.Sucking insects found on rose include : — 
Aspidiotus orient alis. 
Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) aurantii. 
Icerya cegyptiaca. 
Aleyrodes cotesii. 



!6C 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Aspidiotus orientalis has been noted on rose-stems at Bilaspur, 
Poona and Ahmednagar. 

Chrysomphalus (Asfidiotus) aurantii is found on stems of rose-hushes 
and has been noticed at Tezpur and Pusa. It is sometimes a serious 
pest, killing back the attacked stem. It is checked by spraying with 
a resin-soap mixture. 

Icerya cegyptiaca has also occurred on rose at Pusa — probably a 
stray infection from crotons on which it is common. 

Aleyrodes cotesii was described from examples found on rose in 
Baluchistan but does not seem to be known otherwise. 

Cycads (Cycas circinalis and C. revoluta). 

Mr. Fletcher. Cycads are sometimes attacked rather badly by the larvae of 

Catochrysops pandava, which occurs in most parts of the Plains of India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The plants attacked are disfigured for ornamental 
purposes. A spray of Lead Arsenate is usually efficient. 

Chrysonvphalus (Aspidiotus) aurantii has also been found on Cycads 
in Bombay and Aspidiotus orientalis has been reported on Cycas revoluta 
in Calcutta. We do not know how far these Scale-insects are pests. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Lilies. 
Lilies of various sorts grown in gardens are often badly attacked, 
their leaves being eaten by : — 
Poly tela gloriosa?. 
Brithys crini. 
Ch a Icenosoma metallicum. 

Polytela gloriosa? is described and figured in " South Indian Insects/' 
pp. 375-376, fig. 238, and we have since issued a coloured plate showing 
the lifehistory. The blackish white-spotted caterpillar is often common 
on Gloriosa superba, Amaryllis and various garden lilies. As a rule 
the caterpillars hide away near the roots of the plants in the daytime 
bu1 crawl up on the leaves in the evening and are best caught then 
or in the early morning, when they are easily collected by hand. P. 
gloriosa is widely distributed throughout the Plains of India, Burma 
and Ceylon. 

Brithys crini (Glottula dominica) occurs throughout India and Burma 
and is an occasional pest of ornamental lilies in gardens, its caterpillar 
being very similar to that of P. gloriosa' and having the same habits. 
We have specimens reared on garden lilies at Pusa, Shillong, Dalton- 
^anj and Mandalay. In Java also the larva has been reared on Crinum 
and Crocus. 



Poly tela gloriosce, Fb. 

Che plate shows two fuUgrown caterpillars 011 plants, a pupa in the pupal cell and a 
moth in Hying attitude. All arc about life-size. 




\m\i 

POLYTELA GLORIOS/E. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2G7 

Chalcenosoma metallicum is a small brilliant green Halticine beetle 
found as a pest on lilies in the gardens at Ootacamnnd. It may be 
collected by hand. 

At Nagpur we get a leaf-miner, perhaps a species of Agromyza, in Mr. Khare. 
garden lilies. 

Oleander (Nerium odorum). 

The leaves of oleander are eaten by the caterpillars of : — Mr. Fletcher. 

PericaUia ricini. 
Deilephila nerii. 
Euplcsa core. 

PericaUia ricini [" South Indian Insects," pp. 370-371, fig. 232] 
is not commonly found on oleander, but occasionally occurs and may 
do damage when in numbers. Picking of the young larvae will provide 
control. 

Deikphila nerii [I. c, pp. 403-404, figs. 273, 274], as its specific name 
implies, feeds on oleander and is a frequent minor pest in gardens. 
Owing to the large size of the larvge, considerable defoliation may be 
produced. They may be hand-picked but are not easy to see. 

Euplcea core occurs fairly commonly on oleander but is scarcely a 
pest. 

The stems of oleander have been reported as " ringed " by Sthenias 
grisator [ see under Erythrina] in Palitana, but this is not a common 
form of injury. 

The leaves and shoots are also sometimes very badly attacked by 
a small round Scale-insect, which chiefly affects potted plants, but it 
does not seem to have been identified. 

Parlatoria pergandii is bad on the leaves, stems and shoots of oleander Mr. Ramakrishrs 
in Madras. Ayyar. 

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). 

Tulsi leaves are eaten by the larva of Lyncstis amphix and the leaves M r- Fletcher, 
are rolled by the larva of Syngamia abruptalis. The larva of Lyncestis 
amphix is figured in '' Indian Insect Life," p. 446, fig. 306, under the 
name of Euscotia sp. 

Monanthia globulifera [" South Indian Insects," pp. 485-486, fig. 371] 
is also a minor pest, sometimes causing the leaves to turn yellow, and 
Ceroplastodes cajani [I. c, p. 512, fig. 400] has also been recorded on 
tulsi. 

Dahlia. 

Argyrophce aprobola is said to have been reared at Nagpur from 
a larva found on Dahlia flowers, but the record requires confirmation. 



268 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Shroff. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Don/lus Iceviqatus was found eating Dahlia stems at Alipur in February 
1913, but otherwise we do not know it as a pest. 

Balsam (Balsamifera impatiens). 

The leaves of Balsam are eaten by the caterpillar of Theretra olden- 
landice, which is a pest of this plant in Bihar. One caterpillar may 
entirely strip a plant of its leaves. 

The stems are also bored by the larva of Metialma balsamince which 
occurs regularly at Pusa and was also found at Poona in October 1916. 

Metialma balsaminw usually occurs late in the season. The bored 
stem swells out into a sort of gall. Pupation takes place in the stem 
in a special cocoon made of fibre. 

The only control possible would seem to be the destruction of the 
attacked plants. 

Bougainville a. 

Bougainvillea seems remarkably free from leaf-eating pests, but 
Sthenias grisator [see under Erythrina] has been noticed " ringing" the 
stems. It is not a pest of this plant as a rule. 

Violet (Viola odorata). 

There are few pests of violet. The leaves are occasionally eaten 
by the caterpillar of Argynnis hyperbius (niphe), but this is not a pest. 
A Cetoniad beetle, Epicometis squalida, was once sent in from Quetta as 
attacking violets, but otherwise we do not know it. Pseudococcus 
(Daetylopius) virgatus sometimes occurs in numbers and is a regular 
minor pest, sometimes serious. The plants attacked should be sprayed 
with Fishoil-resin soap solution or similar contact insecticide. 

At Maymyo, larvae like those of Athalia proximo, were found on 
violets. 

Crocus. 

Epicometis squalida was sent from Quetta on one occasion as attacking 
Crocus, presumably by eating the flowers. The beetles should be easily 
hand-picked. 

The larvse of Polytela gloriosm and Briihys crini also eat the leaves. 
We took those under lilies. 



Hyacinth. 
Epicometis squalida was sent from Quetta on the occasion already 
noted, as attacking violet, Crocus, Hyacinth and Narcissus, presumably 
by cat inn the flowers, in which case the beetles could be collected by 
hand. 



proceedings of the second entomological meeting 269 

Narcissus. 

[See above.] 

Nasturtium (Tropceolum sp). 

The only insect pest that seems to attack Nasturtium is the cater- 
pillar of Pieris brassicce, which is occasionally found on the leaves. Some 
larvae bred on this diet at Pusa yielded an unusual aberration described 
in Entomological Note 68, fig. 15, in Bulletin 59. The larvae of P. 
brassicce are easily hand-picked whilst they are still young, before they 
have scattered. 

The next group of plants whose pests we will take comprise those 

used as 

DRUGS and DYES. 

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). 
Tobacco is grown practically throughout India and Burma and 
has a fairly long list of pests. 

The young seedlings are attacked by : — 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Flea Beetles. 
Halticus minutus. 
Chrotogonus spp. 
Atractomorpha crenulata. 
Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus). 
Gryllotalpa africana. 
Agrotis ypsilon was discussed under Gram. It is common in most 
tobacco-growing districts and often does considerable damage by cutting 
the young plants. When these have been planted out, the cut plants 
are conspicuous and the caterpillar may be grubbed up with a bit of 
stick : it will usually be found hiding in the soil near the roots of the cut 
plant. 

In 1906 damage was done to tobacco plants by Agrotis at Bassein, Mr. Shroff, 
in Burma. 

Flea-beetles, of one or more unidentified species, also damage seedlings Mr. Fletcher, 
at times whilst still in the seed-beds before being planted out. When 
doing damage they may be caught in hand-nets. 

Halticus minutus [" Indian Insect Life," p. 707, fig. 479], a small 
Capsid bug very like a Flea-beetle in appearance, also occurs in seed- 
beds and attacks the young plants. Collection by hand-nets is indi- 
cated. 

Chrotogonus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 528-529, tab. 49], whether 
of one or more species I cannot say, is also sometimes a serious pest of 



70 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



young tobacco plants. Control by bag-nets is usually most effective. 
In Madras the Texas bait treatment gave good results, but this was 
not found to be the case at Pusa. 

Atractomorpha crenulata attacks young plants but we will take that 
later on. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus) [I. c, p. 536, fig. 430] is usually 
a minor pest of tobacco seedlings in Bihar and Bengal, but only very 
young crickets are about at the time that the tobacco plants are small, 
so that little damage is done as a rule. 
Mr. Shroff. At Bassein, in Burma, some damage was done to tobacco by Brachy- 

trypes in 1906. 
Mr. Fletcher. Gryllotalpa africana [I. c, pp. 534-535, fig. 428] sometimes does a 

little damage to young plants but this is probably incidental to its 
burrowing in the ground rather than due to deliberate attack. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. At Dacca a small amount of damage is done to seedlings by the 

burrowing of Gryllotalpa. 
Mr. Fletcher. The leaves of tobacco are eaten by : — 

Diacrisia obliqua. 

Heliothis assulta. 

Prodenia litura. 

Plusia signata. 

Plusia nigrisigna. 

Atractomorpha crenulata. 
Diacrisia obliqua is an occasional pest of tobacco, chiefly in Bihar 
and Bengal. The young larvae may be hand-picked before they have 
scattered, if eggs have been laid on the tobacco. 

Heliothis assulta is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 374, fig. 236, and we have just issued a coloured plate showing the 
lifehistory. This species is widely distributed in India (except in the 
extreme North) and Burma and is a minor, occasionally a major, pest 
of tobacco, the caterpillars eating holes in the leaves, as is clearly shown 
in the coloured plate. We have examples reared on tobacco at Pusa, 
Nadiad (Bombay), Anand, Madras, and Amarapura (Burma). It has 
also been reared at Pusa from larvse on tur (Cajanus indicus) pods, 
Physalis minima, Ph. peruviana and on a wild species of Physalis, but 
it is not a pest except on tobacco. The eggs are laid singly on the leaves 
and the caterpillars feed usually on the top-leaves, biting holes in them. 
Pupation takes place in the soil. As regards control, the bitten leaves 
are conspicuous and the fact that the damage has been caused by H. 
assulta is evident by the accumulation of frass on the leaves, the b'ack 
pellets of excrement being quite conspicuous. The caterpillars may 
then be searched for and hand-picked. 



Heliothis assulta, Gn. 

Fig. 1 shows a plant with typical damage caused by the two life-size cateip.Hai. 

seen feeding on the leaves ; a moth is also seen at rest on a leaf. 
Figs. 2 and 3 show two differer t colour-forms of the caterpillar, enlarged. 
Fig. 4, pupa. 
Figs. 5, 6 and 7, moths. 
The outline figures show natural sizes. 





1 



'J 




CHLORIDEA assulta. 









ATRACTOMORPHA CRENULATA. 



Atractotnorpha creuuhla, Fb. 

Figs. I, 2 and 3, egg cluster, in soil, removed from soil and One egg enlarged. 

Figs. 4 to 9 show the development of the hopper (enlarged) until it attains the fully 

winged adult stage. 
Fig. 10 a cauliflower shoot with grass-hoppers on it (natural sizes). 



i'ROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING £71 

The frass is quite prominent on the leaves and the caterpillars can m r . Ghosh, 
be traced easily and picked by a man walking among the plants. 

Prodenia litura [" South Indian Insects," p. 377, tab. 19] is a serious Mr. Fletcher. 
pest of tobacco in many localities, especially in Western India and 
Madras. We have examples reared on tobacco at Nadiad, Anand, 
Surat, Rangpur, MuzafTarpur, and Pusa, but it is a polyphagous species 
which we have dealt with already under castor, maize, jute and various 
other crops. In the case of tobacco, the caterpillars may be hand- 
picked, especially when they are young and before they have dispersed. 

In Madras Prodenia litura is very common on tobacco. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Prodenia does a good deal of damage to tobacco in Bombay also. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Plusia signata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 392-393, fig. 259] has Mr. Fletcher, 
been recorded on tobacco in Southern India, but there is some doubt 
regarding identification and the species concerned may be P. ehalcytes. 
We have, however, no record of P. ehalcytes on tobacco. In any case, this 
Plusia is unimportant as a pest. 

Plusia nigrisigna occurs throughout India and is a sporadic minor 
pest, chiefly of gram. It has also been reared on tobacco at Pusa but 
is not known as a pest of this crop. 

Atractomorpha erenulata is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," p. 528, fig. 421, but this figure is a poor one and we have lately 
issued a coloured plate showing the complete lifehistory. The eggs 
are laid in the ground in a mass, and the young hoppers feed on the 
leaves until they are full-grown. Atractomorpha erenulata is widely 
distributed in India and is chiefly a pest of young plants, attacking, 
besides tobacco, cabbages, cauliflower and various other plants. Tobacco 
in its later stages of growth is not exempt from attack, however, and 
the grass-hoppers, both immature and adult, may be seen commonly 
on the plants, eating patches out of the leaves. In the case of a crop 
such as tobacco it is comparatively easy to catch the hoppers either 
by hand or in small nets. 

The seed-capsules -of tobacco are damaged by: — 

Heliothis assulta. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Nysius inconspicuus. 
Gallobelicus crassicornis. 

Heliothis assulta has just been considered as a leaf-eating pest, but 
the caterpillars sometimes bore in the seed-capsules also and may do 
damage in this way. If they are picked systematically from the leaves, 
the damage will be reduced. 



■21-: 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar 



Heliothis obsoleta also bores at times in the capsules. Hand-picking 
is the only remedy. 

Nysius inconspicuus is supposed to occur on tobacco and N. minor 
lias been recorded in " Indian Insect Life," p. G87, as found on tobacco 
abundantly, but we do not seem to have any exact records and the 
identification of these bugs appears to require revision. 

Gallobelicus crassicornis [" South Indian Insects," pp. 490-491, 
fig. 377] is found commonly, at times abundantly, on the tender shoots 
and flower-heads and seed-capsules of tobacco and is a minor pest 
throughout India. The adults are fairly active and are probably 
best dealt with by catching in hand-nets and shaking the affected 
plants over pans of oil and water. 

The stems of tobacco plants are damaged by the caterpillar of 
Phthorimcea heliopa [" South Indian Insects," pp. 454-455, tab. 43} 
which bores in the stem, causing a characteristic gall-like swelling. It 
attacks seedlings as well as grown plants, and is especially bad on the 
second crop when this is taken after a first cutting. In most districts 
this insect seems to be a minor pest, sporadically serious, but in Western 
India it is apparently a major pest. It occurs throughout the Plains 
of India and in Ceylon, but we have no records from North-Western 
India. Our records are from Hanguranketa (Ceylon), Coimbatore, 
Shevaroy Hills, Hagari, Penukonda (Anantapur District), Tharsa, 
Gujarat, Anand District, Pusa and Eangpur. As regards control, this- 
is best effected by removal and burning of all attacked plants in 
nurseries and by careful cleaning up of all stumps and stray plants after 
harvest. In some districts the cultivators slit up the gall with a sharp 
knife to kill the caterpillar. 

In North Gujarat, Phthorimcea heliopa is very common. The cater- 
pillars are first noted in the seed-beds. This insect never kills the plant 
whose growth only is checked. I have seen plants, containing as many 
as fifteen caterpillars, but not killed. As regards control, the ploughing, 
of the fields after harvest, with removal of all stubble, is found useful 
in the Kaira District, N. Gujarat. 

Schizodactylus monstrosus ["South Indian Insects," pp. 533-5 34, 
fig. 427] was considered under indigo. It does damage to tobacco at 
times but only casually and incidentally to its burrowing in the 
ground. 

Sucking insects found on tobacco, other than the bugs found on the 
shoots and already mentioned, are few in number, but Aphids occasion- 
all v occur in some numbers and may be minor pests. 

Aphids are very bad on tobacco in Tanjore and Coimbatore. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 273 

Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum). 

The cultivation of the Opium Poppy is now very much restricted Mr. Fletcher, 
and there seems to be little on record regarding the pests which attack 
this plant. On my list I have the following insects : — 

Helioihis obsoleta. 
Euxoa spinifera. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Prodenia litura. 
Tanymecus indicus. 
Atmetonychus peregrinus. 
Chrotogonus spp. 
Thrips. 

Heliothis obsoleta has been recorded as attacking poppy heads in 
the United Provinces. If in numbers this insect would be likely to 
do considerable damage and would be difficult to check except by hand- . 
collection of the larvae and anyway the heads attacked would be spoilt. 

Euxoa spinifera is on my list but we do not seem to have any definite 
evidence that it attacks poppy and its status in this connection is doubt- 
ful. The larva usually feeds at the roots of plants. 

Agrotis ypsilon has been recorded in " Indian Museum Notes," 
Vol. V, p. 184, as " doing great damage to the poppy crop in particular 
localities in the Shahabad District." We have one of these original 
Shahabad specimens, so that the identification is confirmed. Otherwise 
we do not know A. ypsilon as a pest of poppy, although it is likely to 
be so, especially of young plants. This species was discussed under 
gram. In a case of regular serious attacks in any areas, control could 
probably be secured by the use of Andres-Maire traps. 

Prodenia litura also feeds on poppy leaves but whether it is a pest 
we do not know. If it does damage, control should aim at collection of 
egg-masses and batches of young larvse. 

Tanymeaus indicus was found on poppy at Burhampur, in the United 
Provinces, but we do not know of it as a pest. 

In " Indian Museum Notes," Vol. Ill, p. 12, there is described and 
figured an unnamed weevil which was reported in December 1891 as 
doing considerable damage to poppy plants in Partabgarh and Ghazi- 
pur. Possibly this was T. indicus. 

Atme'onychus peregrinus [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidw, 
Vol. I, pp. 112-113, fig. 37] was found on poppy at Fyzabad, in the 
United Provinces, but it is not a pest as far as we know. It occurs from 
Bengal to the Punjab and has been found on Zizyphus jujuba, on potato 
leaves, and on bhindi (Hibiscus esculentus). 

U 



274- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. David. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher, 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Chrotogonus, and doubtless other grasshoppers, attacks young poppy- 
plants. Control by bag-netting. 

Thrips is also said to occur on poppy, especially on young plants, but 
we know nothing of the species concerned or the damage done. 

Mr. David, can you tell us any more about Poppy Pests in the United 
Provinces ? 

In the United Provinces cutworms are bad on opium poppy. Other- 
wise we do not know of any pests. 

We do not seem to have much information about opium poppy 
pests. I will send a fieldman from Pusa to examine and collect material 
in the poppy districts of the United Provinces. 

Indian Heml' (Cannabis sativa). 
We seem to have very little information also on pests of Indian Hemp. 
On my list I have only : — 
Heliothis obsoleta. 
Pempheres affinis. 
Heliothis obsoleta has been reared in Madras on Indian Hemp. 
In Bengal Heliothis obsoleta is a bad pest, eating the leaves and cut- 
ting the topshoots. 

Pempheres affinis was also reared at Pusa, a few specimens only, from 
( 'annabis stems. It occurs every year on wild plants but does no damage. 
Diacrisia obliqua also occurs on the leaves in Bengal, but is not very 
common. 

In Bengal Red Spider is very bad on Indian Hemp. This is the worst 
pest we have in Bengal on this plant. 

Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 
[Khorasan i ajwain — Hind.] 
Henbane grows wild in the Western Himalayas from 8,000 to 11,000 
feet, and I believe that it is grown to some extent for medicinal purposes. 
The only pests I have noted are Aphids. 

Babul (Acacia arahica). 

Babul may be considered here, as the bark is used to some extent 
for tanning and it i also a firewood tree of some importance in some 
districts. We could make i p a long list of insects found on babul, but 
need only note a few now. 

The haves are often eaten to some extent by the larvae of Clania 
crameri (" South Indian Insects,* 1 p. 448, fig. 325] whose large larval 
cases are easily seen and hand-picked. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 275 

Borers are more important, as they do more damage. We know : 

Psiloplera fastuosa. 
Ccelosferna spinator. 
Stromatium barbatum. 

Psiloptera fastuosa [" South Indian Insects," p. 297, fig. 140 ] is 
common in babul plantations and perhaps bores in this tree, although it 
does not seem to have been actually noticed as doing so. Stebbing 
[ Indian Forest Coleoptera, pp. 199-200, tab. 11] records the beetles of 
Ps. fastuosa as injuring the stem of babu trees at Buldana by peeling off 
the bark. 

Coelostema sfinator [" South Indian Insects," p. 325, fig. 180] has 
been recorded as boring in babul but Stebbing | Indian . Forest Coleopt- 
era, pp. 358-362, tab. 25] records C. scabrator (under the name scabrata) 
and states that spinator is probably a variety of scabrator, which may be 
the case. The grubs bore in the stem and down into the roots and may 
do considerable damage. 

Stromatium barbatum [" South Indian Insects," pp. 321-322, fig. 175] 
has been recorded from Poona as found on babul, but I do not know 
whether it attacks living trees. 

Of sucking insects on babu 1 the most important is a' Scale-insect, 
Anomalococcus indicus, which is abundant on babul at Coimbatore and 
sometimes occurs in such numbers as to cause the death of the trees 
attacked. It is attended by Camponotus compressus and one method of 
control is to ring the trees with a sticky mixture so as to keep these 
ants away. This Scale is parasitized by Eublemma scitula [" South 
Indian Insects. " p. 381, fig. 242 and p. 199, fig. 85] and by a small fly 
which is probably a species of Cryptochcetum and I have actually seen 
the Camponotus standing over a Scale and warding off the attempted 
attack of one of these small parasitic flies. 

Oxyrhachis tarandus [" Indian Insect Life," p. 731, tab. 78] is also 
common on babul and does some damage to young shoots by thrusting 
in its eggs and by the sucking of the bugs ; but how far it is an actual 
pest is doubtful. 

We will next take the various 

CRUCIFEROUS CROPS 

of which the first are the various species of 

Mustards (Brassica juncea. 

,, dichotoma. 
„ campestris). 

u 2 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Leaf-eating insects on mustards include : — 

Athalia proximo. 
Athalia leucostoma. 
Phi 'el In maculipennis- 
Crocidohm ia binotalis. 
Hellula undalis. 
Flea Beetles. 

Athalia proximo [Entomological Memoirs, Vol. I, pp. 357-370,. 
tab. 20] occurs in the Plains of India north of a line from Bombay to 
Calcutta and also in the Hill Districts of Southern India. In Bihar it 
occurs only in the winter months but in Bombay it is found during the 
South- West Monsoon. The life-history and habits are fully described 
in the Memoir and the only additional facts are that the parasites bred 
from A. proximo, have since been identified and described in the Fauna 
of India volume on Ichneumon idee as Exacrodus populans [I. c, pp. 330- 
331, fig. 93]. A. proximo occurs regularly on mustards but does com- 
paratively little damage, so that no control measures have been required. 

Athalia leucostoma occurs in the Kohat Valley, in the North- West 
Frontier Province, where I obtained adults in May 1916 flying in a field 
of mustard. 

Plutella maculi'pennis [" South Indian Insects," p. 464, fig. 340] 
occurs commonly on mustard, the. caterpillar eating holes in the leaves. 
When on the leaves it is unimportant, but the caterpillars also bore the 
pods, when it may do damage. 

Crocidolomia binotalis [I. c, p. 437, fig. 313] occurs throughout India, 
Burma and Ceylon, usually as a minor pest when on the leaves, but 
occasionally serious, webbing the whole plant. The life-history was 
shown in a coloured plate issued last year. We have specimens reared 
on mustard from Surat, Pusa and Lyallpur. The caterpillar also bores 
the pods, when it does serious damage. Control should include destruc- 
tion of webbed portions of first attacked plants together with spraying 
with stomach-poison. It should be. taken in hand early before the pods 
are formed. 

Hellula undalis \l. c, pp. 437-438, fig. 314] occurs throughout India,. 
Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of mustards, sometimes destructive 
to young leaves, webbing these over and killing them back. Destruc- 
tion of first-attacked plants seems the only practical control measure. 

Flea Beetles occur on mustards and maybe Phcedon brassiccehut we 
seem to have no specimens definitely identified. Contro 1 by catching 
in hand-nets or bag-nets when the state of the crop permits. 



Crocidolomia binotalis, Zell, (Figs, 1—5.) 

Fig. 1 shows an egg-mass on a mustard leaf ; 
Fig. 2 the larva (magnified) ; 
Fig. 3 the cocoon (magnified) : 

Fig. 4 the pupa taken out of thi ioon, and 

fig. 5 I lie moth as seen flying. 



Hellula undalis, F. (Figs. 6—10.) 

pig. 6 is an affected knol-kohl showing how eggs are laid, how the caterpillars damage 
the leaves and how they bore into the stem, the places where the caterpillars have 
bored being indicated by masses of webbed-up excreta thrown out : 

Fig. ~ is a single egg magnified ; 

s is Hie grown up caterpillar (magnified) ; 

Fig. 9 the moth as Been flying, and 

Fig. 10 is the same while it rests (both magnified). 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 







<%-rr — r-r^~^ 




CROCIDOLOMIA BINOTALIS & HELLULA UNDALIS. 





■ ) 







B 




M 





& 



Bagrada picta, Fb. 

Fig. 1, Egg, onefreshly laid and the other (reddish) about to hatch (both magnified); 

Figs. 2-5, Nymphs in different instars (magnified) ; 

Fig. 6, Adult bug (magnified). 

Fig. 7, A cauliflower leaf with nymphs and adults (magnified). 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 277 

Sucking insects found on mustards include : — 
Bagrada ficta. 
Eurydema pulch um. 
Aphis brassicce. 

Bagrada ficta is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
p. 473, tab. 2, fig. 10 and we have since issued a plate showing its life- 
history. It is widely distributed throughout India and sometimes 
occurs in large numbers on mustards when grown as field crops. Damage 
is done chiefly in the later stages of growth of the plant, by which time 
the bugs have multiplied into large numbers, which are seen massed 
especially on the seed-pods. Control, when the bugs are in large numbers, 
is not easy, as the bugs are active and the adults readily take to 
wing. They may be collected in hand-nets and the immature stages 
shaken into pans of oil and water. 

Eurydema pulchrum [ Fauna of India, Rhynchota, Vol. I, pp. 
190-191, fig. 114] occurs in Assam and Burma and has been reported 
to attack mustard in Burma. It is probably similar to Bagrada ficta 
in habits and control methods will be the same. 

Eurydema fulclirum is a bad pest of mustard in the Hill Districts of j| rt shroff. 
Burma. 

Aphis brass icce is a serious pest of mustards throughout India. Its Mr. Fletcher. 
abundance is often reported as correlated with dull weather and 
possibly this is ( so and due to the fact that its natural enemies, chiefly 
Coccinellids, become inactive in dull, wet or cold weather. I have already 
called your attention, under the heading of wheat, to the importance of 
the increase of these predators on the Aphids on mustards. As regards 
means of control, other than by natural enemies, I do not see that much 
is possible on a field-scale. 

Against Aphids on mustards the most important thing to do is to keep Mr. Ghosh, 
up the vigour of the plants. Vigorous plants have been observed to 
escape the bad effects due to attack by Aphids as well as by Croeidolomia 
when adjacent less vigorous plants were badly attacked. 

The seed-pods of mustards are attacked by Croeidolomia binotalis and Mr. Fletcher. 
Plutel'a maeulipennis, both of which we noticed as eating the leaves also. 
The main damage, however, is done to the pods and this may be serious 
especially in the case of Croeidolomia which also attacks the flowers. 
The only means of checking this seems to lie in prompt measures in com- 
bating the caterpillars as soon as they are noticed on the crop ; if they 
can be checked whi'st still on the leaves, there is less likelihood of their 
being present in destructive numbers when the pods are formed later 
on. Varieties which flower late, so that th 1 pods are formed late, are 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

more liable to attack than early-flowering mustards, because Crocid-o- 
lomia is likely to be present in larger numbers later in the season. 

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.) 

The pests of cabbage are, generally speaking, very similar to those of 
mustard, although we have a longer list of pests on cabbage, probably 
largely due to the fact that this is a garden crop. 

Cabbage seedlings are eaten by : — ■ 

Dorylus orientalis. 

Aihalia proximo. 

Chiloloba acuta. 

Psylliodes tenebrosus. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus). 

Dorylus orientalis [ " South Indian Insects," p. 274, fig. Ill] 
is a common pest of seedlings in most districts, this ant attacking them 
from below-ground in the same way as a termite. Watering the plants 
with Crude Oil Emulsion or similar deterrent will ward off such attack 
temporarily. 

Aihalia proximo, [Entomological Memoirs, Vol. I, pp. 357-371, tab. 
20] occurs on the leaves, which are eaten by the larva. Dusting the 
plants with kerosinized ashes is usually effective in checking and avert- 
ing attack. 

Chiloloba acuta [" South Indian Insects," p, 284, fig. 124] has been 
reported from Pachmarhi as injuring cabbage seedlings in the grub stage? 
Watering with Crude Oil Emulsion or other deterrent and search in the 
soil around the plants are indicated as control measures. 

Psylliodes tenebrosus is a small Halticine beetle which was reported 
from Jeolikote and Bhim Tal as doing extensive damage to seedling 
cabbages. Sprinkling the plants with kerosinized ashes should keep 
away pests of this sort. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus) [" South Indian Insets " p. 
536, fig. 430] is widely distributed in Bengal and Bihar and damages 
cabbage seedlings after transplantation. In the case of garden cultiva- 
tion, such as cabbages, the best means of control is to hunt down and 
kill these crickets in their burrows, which are usually easy to find 
especially in the evening when the crickets emerge. They may be 
flooded out with a little water and killed or, if a burrow is found occupied,. 
a little petrol may be poured in and the earth stamped down. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 279 

The leaves of well grown cabbage plants are eaten by : — 
Athalia proximo, . 
Pier is brassicce. 
,, canidia. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Prodenia lit urn. 
Plusia orichalcea. 
Crocido lomia binota lis . 
Hellula undalis. 
Plutella maculipennis. 
Monolepta signata. 
Phyllotreta chotanica. 
Flea beetles. 
Tanymecus circumdatus. 

Athalia proximo was considered under seedlings. It also occurs on 
the leaves of grown plants but does little damage to these as a rule. 

Pieris brassicce is a bad pest in most parts of Northern India. It is 
found all along the Himalayan Range from Chitral to Bhutan and the 
Hills of Assam, penetrating into the Plains in the winter months in an 
area about one hundred miles wide and parallel with the hills, straggling 
as far south as Cuttack. At Pusa, as I told you the other day, adults 
appear regularly every year about 1st February and two or three 
broods occur in February and March, the butterflies all disappearing 
about the end of April. At Peshawar the butterflies appear in October 
and are on the wing and breed until about the end of May. We have 
examples from Bhagalpur, Pusa, Lyallpur, Akalgarh (Punjab), Peshawar, 
Abbottabad and Shillong. It is a serious pest of cabbage. The life- 
history is described in the Agricultural Journal of India for January 
1912 and again in Entomological Memoirs, Vol. V, pp. 20-26. Control is 
comparatively easy if due precautions are taken, as the egg-masses and 
batches of young gregarious larvse are easily seen and collected ; if the 
larva? are left until they scatter, control becomes more difficult and 
the damage done is also greater. 

Pieris canidia occurs commonly in the Hill Districts throughout 
India and Burma. The caterpillar is said to damage cabbages at 
Maymyo, in Upper Burma, but the record requires confirmation. 

Agrotis ypsilon occurs fairly commonly on cabbages and does consi- 
derable damage when it does occur by boring into the head and often 
spoiling the whole plant for food. It also attacks seedlings as a 
regular cut-worm, when it can be grubbed out of the adjacent soil. Wh en 
inside the grown head, however, it rests there and does not go into the 



280 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



soil in the daytime and the only thing to do is to extract it, if possible, 
before much damage has been done. 

Prodenia litura [" South Indian Insects," p. 377, tab. 19] attacks 
cabbages as it does practically all low-growing plants, but is not much 
of a pest, eating only the outer leaves. 

Plusia orichahea is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
pp. 393-394, fig. 260, and we have since issued a coloured plate showing 
the life-history. It is common throughout India and the caterpillar is 
often found on cabbage, but it is a very minor pest of this crop. 

Crocidolomia binotalis [I. c, p. 437, fig. 313] occurs commonly on 
cabbage but is chiefly a pest of plants kept for seed. We discussed 
this under mustard and there is no more to add, but control on a garden 
crop such as cabbage is obviously easier than on mustard. 

Hellula undalis [I. c, pp. 437-438, fig. 314] also occurs as a minor 
pest of cabbages, sometimes serious. This also was discussed under 
mustard and the same remark applies as to the last-named species. 

Plutella maculipennis [I. c, p. 464, fig. 340] occurs throughout the 
whole World wherever cabbages are grown by man and is a regular 
minor pest of this crop, eating holes in the leaves. The simplest remedy 
in this case is to squash the caterpillars and pupa? on the leaves. The 
caterpilla • also bores into the heads, eating through several layers of 
leaf, and in this case the leaves may be opened up and the caterpillar 
squashed. 

Monolepta signata [I.e., p. 310, fig. 159] occurs throughout India, 
usually as a minor pest on cabbage. The beetles may be caught in hand- 
nets. 

Phyllotreta chotanica is a small blue-black Halticine beetle found at 
Pusa in small numbers on cabbage. It is scarcely a pest. It occurs 
at Mandalay. 

Other Flea-beetles, which may or may not be Phaeton brassiccB, are 
also found commonly. 

Tanymecus circumdatus has been found on cabbage at Lahore, but 
we do not know it as a pest. 

Opatrum beetles were seen on two occasions eating the leaves of 
cabbage and cauliflower at Dacca, in Bengal. 

A yellow-striped Flea-beetle occurs on cabbage in the Katha District, 
Burma. It is Phyllotreta vittata. 

The stems of cabbages are sometimes attacked, especially in the Hills, 
by Euxoa segetum [" South Indian Insects," p. 375. fig. 237], which is 
generally a very difficult insect to check. The best thing to do, in the 
case of cabbages, is to grub out the caterpillars from the soil around the 
plants. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 281 

A termite, Microtermes obesi (anandi), has also been found attacking 
the roots and portions of stems underground of cabbages at Pusa and the 
plants attacked were apparently quite healthy. Watering with a deter- 
rent, such as Crude Oil Emulsion, is indicated in such cases. 

A few sucking insects are found on cabbage, but the only .one we need 
notice is Bagrada picta, which we considered under mustard. On cabbage 
it usually occurs late in the season and is generally only a pest on 
old plants, especially those kept for seed. Catching the bugs in hand- 
nets and spraying with a contact insecticide form the most effective 
control-measures. 

In Burma Bagrada picta attacks cabbage seedlings also and this bug Mr. Shroff. 
is rather a serious pest. 

In India, as I said, it usually occurs only on old plants which are Mr. Fletcher. 
sometimes literally covered with these bugs. Bagrada picta is distinctly 
a sporadic insect in its appearance and in some years is very abundant 
in districts where it is usually scarcely noticed. It would be interesting 
to know the exact causes underlying such sporadic outbreaks. 

Cauliflower (Brass ica oleracea cauliflora). 
Cauliflower is botanically a mere cultivated variety of cabbage and 
its pests are practically the same, so we need only run over them briefly. 
Cauliflower seedlings are attacked by : — 
Dorylus orientalis. 
Termites. 

Brachytrypes portentosus (achatinus). 
Chiloloba acuta, larva. 
Psylliodes tenebrosus. 

Dorylus orientalis and Termites attack the seedlings below the ground 
.and can only be kept away by deterrents. As regards Dorylus orientalis, 
this occurs every year at Pusa and of various soil insecticides we have 
tried against this, our experience has been that Crude Oil Emulsion is 
the best. The same remark applies to termites, the species concerned 
at Pusa being Microtermes obesi (anandi). 

Brachytrypes portentosus was considered under cabbage and there is 
nothing special to say about it as regards cauliflower. 

The grubs of Chiloloba acuta were reported from Pachmarhi as attack- 
ing cauliflower seedlings. 

Psylliodes tenebrosus was reported as doing great damage to seedlings 
at Jeolikote in November 1909 and as having devastated a garden at 
Bhim Tal at the end of February 1912. 



232 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Shroff. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Leaf-eating insects on cauliflower include : — 
Pieris brassicce. 
Plutella maculipennis. 
Plusia signata. 

,, oricJialcea. 
Crocidolomia binotalis. 
Hellula undalis. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Athalia proximo,. 
Monolepta signata. 
Phyllotreta chotanica. 

All of these were included under cabbage and there is little to add here 
except that the larva of Hellula undalis bores the stem of cauliflower 
and that Phyllotreta chotanica occurred in large numbers at Pusa in 
March 1916. 

In addition to the foregoing leaf-eaters, we have : — 
Plusia ni. 

Plusia ni has been bred at Pusa and Lahore on cauliflower and at 
Surat and Kumbhariya (Surat) on cabbage, but it is scarcely a pest. 

Phyllotreta vittata also occurs on cauliflower in the Katha District, 
Burma. 

The flowers of cauliflower are attacked by Aphids ; but these are 
scarcely pests as a rule ; and the seed-pods are attacked by Bagrada picta ^ 
in the same way as cabbage. 



Knol-Kohl (Brassica oleracea caula-rapa). 

[Kohl-rabi.] 

The only important pest found on knol-kohl is Hellula undalis which 
was considered under mustard. 

Hellula undalis feeds on the leaves, webbing them up, and also bores 
in the root. In the coloured plate, a knol-khol is shown in figure 6, which 
shows how the eggs are laid, and how the caterpillars web up the leaves 
and bore in the tuberous root, the entrances of their tunnels being marked 
by the masses of extruded frass. Prompt destruction of the first lot 
of larvse is the only control-method. 



Turnip (Brassica sp. 

Turnip leaves are attacked by : — 
Athalia proxima. 
Crocidolomia binotalis. 
Flea Beetles. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 283 

All these have just been considered, and there is no more to 
add. These insects do not appear to be very serious pests as a rule. 
Bagrada picta also occurs on turnip in the same way as on cabbage. 

Beet-root (Beta vulgaris). 

The leaves are attacked by : — 
Monolepta signata. 
Tanymecus indicus. 
Hellula undalis. 

All of these have been discussed before. Tanymecus indicus was 
once found bad at Pusa and Hellula undalis bores in the roots also. 

Sugar-Beet. 

The form of beet-root cultivated for sugar has been tried in the North- 
West Frontier Province and Laphygma exigua caterpillars occurred on 
the leaves in some numbers. This may prove a pest if the cultivation 
is extended. 

Silver Beet is grown as a fodder crop at Coimbatore. Prodenia, Mr. Ramakrishna 
Laphygma and other common pests attacked this crop very badly. Ayyar. 

Radish (Raphanus sativus). 
The pests of radish are very similar to those of mustard and cabbage. Mr. Fletcher. 
Hellula undalis, and sometimes also Croeidolomia, bore in the roots, and 
on the leaves we get : — 

Athalia proxima. 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Laphygma exigua. 
Plusia orichalcea. 
Crocido lomia binota lis . 
Hellula undalis. 
Plutella maculipennis. 
Monolepta signata. 
Bagrada picta. 

We have already gone over all these and there is nothing special to 
add as regards radish. 

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). 

The pests noted on lettuce leaves include — 

Pieris brassicce. 
Oxyptilus lactucce. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pieris brassicce has occurred on lettuce at Pusa rather late in the 
season, but is not a regular pest. 

Oxyptilus lactucce was reared from larvae sent to us from Dehra Dun 
as found on lettuce. It is an undescribed species, in general appearance 
very like Sphenarches eafjer. Whether it does any damage we do not 
know. It was only sent in once. 

Cress (Lepidium sativum). 

The leaves of cress are eaten by : — 
Athalia proximo,. 
Croc idolomia b inotalis . 

Both of these were considered under mustard and there is no more 
to add regarding their occurrence on cress. 

OTHER VEGETABLES AND CONDIMENTS 

Potato (Solanum tuberosum). 

Mr. Fletcher. Potato seedlings are attacked by : — 

Gonocephalum (Opatrum) spp. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 

,, c-nigrum. 
Euxoa segetum. 

Gonocephalum (Opatrum) of various species, generally referred to 
G. depressum, are said to eat sometimes into the stems of older plants 
and also attack seedlings, but the amount of damage done and its real 
cause seem to require further investigation. The adult beetles seem to 
feed only on decaying vegetable matter. 

Agrotis ypsilon occurs throughout Northern India and mostly in a 
belt of about one hundred miles wide and parallel with the Himalayas, 
straggling as far as Nagpur and Jessore. Apparently not known in 
Western or Southern India, but probably occurs, as it is found in Ceylon. 
It has been reared on potato at Jubbalpur, in the Central Provinces, 
and probably occurs in most potato-growing districts in Northern India, 
the larva cutting the young plants and eating into the stems of larger 
plants. Control on a large scale by Andres — Maire traps and in garden 
plots by grubbing up the caterpillars. 

Agrotis c-nigrum occurs at Jubbalpur, usually every year, as a pest 
of potato. Control by hand-collection of the caterpillars. 

Euxoa segetum [" South Indian Insects," p. 375, fig. 237] occurs 
throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, more commonly in the Hill Dis- 
tricts, and is often a serious pest of potato in the Hills. In the Shevaroy 
Hills there was a very bad attack on potato in 1912. Control by grubbing 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2b 5 

up the caterpillars is the best method as a rule. Spraying is not effective, 
as the caterpillars prefer to feed on the roots and underground portions 
of the stems. 

Eating the leaves we find : — 

Plusia orichalcea. 
Monolepta orientalis. 
EpUachna 28-punctata. 

,, 12-stigma. 

Flea beetles. 

Atmetonychus peregrinus. 
Myllocerus subfasciatus. 
Plusia orichalcea is scarcely a pest on potato. 

Monolepta orientalis was found at Kangpur. Otherwise we do not 
seem to know this insect. 

EpUachna 28-punctata and E. dodecastigma ["South Indian Insects," 
p. 292, tab. 6] both occur commonly on potato and sometimes do con- 
siderable damage in the Plains. Collection by hand of the insects in all 
stages and in bad cases spraying of the affected plants will provide 
control. 

Flea-beetles occur commonly as minor pests, occasionally serious, 
but we know nothing of the species concerned. Collection by hand- 
nets, where necessary, will provide control. 

Atmetonychus peregrinus was found on potato at Cuttack but was 
probably a mere casual visitor and not a pest. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus is recorded on potato at Ootacamund, but 
we do not know how far it is a pest. 

The sucking insects found on potato include : — 
Nezara viridula. 
Aphids. 
Nezara viridula is figured in " South Indian Insects," pp. 473-474,. 
fig- 352, and the life-history is shown in a coloured plate since issued. 
It may be observed that the coloration of both immature and adult 
bugs is very variable. Nezara viridula is fairly common on potato,, 
usually occurring as a minor pest. The bugs may be collected in hand- 
nets. 

Aphids are of common occurrence on the leaves and stems and con- 
siderable damage may be done at times, but control on a field scale is 
rather a matter for natural predators. 

The roots and tubers are attacked by : — 

Dorylus orientalis. 
labiatus. 



2S6 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Dorylus orientalis [" South Indian. Insects," p. 274, fig. Ill] occurs 
in most parts of India and occasionally attacks the underground portions 
of potato plants. Watering with a deterrent, such as Crude Oil Emul- 
sion, will drive them away temporarily. 
Mr. S. R. Gupta. Dorylus is very bad on potato in Assam. The ants bore the tubers 

and cut the roots. 
Mr. Fletcher. Dorylus labiatus has been reported from Coorg as attacking potato 

in the same way as D. orientalis. 

The stems of potato are bored by : — 
Leucinodes orbonalis. 
Phthorimcea operculella. 
Leucinodes orbonalis was found boring in top-shoots of potato at 
Poona, but this habit is very unusual. [See Entomological Note 71, 
in Bulletin 59.] 

Phthorimcea operculella was found to bore into shoots in confinement 
but this habit has not been noticed in the field in India. 

Brinjal (Solarium melongena). 

Brinjal seedlings are attacked by : — 
Solenopsis geminata. 
Flea-beetles. 
Halticus minutus. 
Solenopsis geminata [" South Indian Insects," pp. 274-275, fig. 112] 
was reported as damaging brinjal seedlings in Calcutta. In such cases 
the ants could probably be kept away by sprinkling the plants with 
kerosinized ashes. 

Flea-beetles and Halticus minutus attack seedlings in the seed-beds 
and may kill the young plants, whose leaves become spotted with yellow. 
Control by hand-nets. 

Brinjal leaves are eaten by : — 
Epilachna 12-stigma. 

,, 28-punctata. 
Myllocerus subfasciatus. 

,, blandus. 

Laphygma exigua. 
Eublemma olivacea. 
Plotheia nephelotis. 
Acherontia styx. 
Nephopteryx minutella. 
Phycita clientella. 
Pachyzancla bipunctalis. 
Pterophorus lienigianus. 




EUBLEMMA OLIVACEA. 



Eublemma olivacea, Wlb 

Fig. 1, two clusters of egg on a leaf. 

Fig. 2, a single egg viewed from above. , 

Fig. 3, a single egg viewed from side. 

Figs. 4 and 5, full-grown caterpillars, colour varieties. 

Fig. 6, pupa. 

Fig. 7, moth sitting on leaf. 

Fig. 8, moth with wings spread. 

The brinjal shoot shows a leaf newly attacked and another leaf in an advanced stage 

of attack. 
The small outline figures indicate the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 287 

Phthorimcea blaps igona. 

,, ergasima. 

,, operculella. 

Orthacris sp. 
Atractomorpha crenulata. 

Epilachna dodecastigma [" South Indian Insects," p. 292, tab. 6 ] and 
E. 28-punctata are always minor, often major pests, of brinjal, the larvae 
and beetles both eating the leaves. The beetles may be collected by 
hand in all stages and spraying with a stomach-poison done when neces- 
sary. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidce, 
Vol. I, pp. 345-346] was found on brinjal at Saidapet, but is not a pest so 
far as we know. It was also found on potato at Ootacamund. 

Myllocerus blandus [I.e., pp. 333-334, fig. 101] occurred on brinjal 
at Lyallpur, and is recorded from Madras, Bengal, Bihar and Burma. 
It is not a pest so far as is known. 

Laphygma exigua is not common on brinjal and cannot be called a pest 
of this plant. 

Euhlemma olivacea is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," 
pp. 380-381, fig. 241, and the life-history is shown in detail in a new 
coloured plate. The caterpillar feeds inside a folded leaf which is usually 
rolled from the tip upwards and the caterpillar feeds on the leaf-substance 
of the roll in which it is contained. Pupation takes place inside the rolled 
leaf, which is discoloured and thus conspicuous. This insect is a minor 
pest as a rule, but occasionally very destructive. The affected, rolled 
leaves should be hand-picked and burnt, and, in Northern India, all dry 
and old leaves should be burnt in the winter months. The caterpillar 
does not bore into shoot* as stated in Indian Insect Pests, p. 166. 

Plotheia nephelotis is an unpublished manuscript name of a Sarro- 
thripine Noctuid which is a minor pest of brinjal, on which it has been 
reared at Calicut, Coimbatore, Tiruvallur, and Melrosepuram (Madras), 
Nagpur and Pusa, and at Hagari (Bellary District) on Solanum xantlio- 
carpum, a wild solanaceous plant. This is evidently the same insect as 
that described in "South Indian Insects," p. 383, fig. 246, as the " Brinjal 
Sarrothripine." The caterpillar attributed to this species in " Indian 
Insect Life," p. 449, is probably the larva of Euhlemma olivacea ; the 
caterpillar of the present insect is hairy and yellow and lives exposed on 
the leaves. 

Acherontia styx [" South Indian Insects," p. 402, tab. 24] is common 
throughout the Plains of India and Burma as a minor pest of brinjal. 
The large caterpillars may be hand-picked. 



288 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Khare. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Nephopteryx minutella was reared at Pusa in small numbers in August 
and September 1912 from caterpillars on brinjal leaves, but did not occur 
as a pest. It is recorded from South India, Ceylon and Burma. 

Phycita clientella is recorded from Calcutta, Bombay and Ceylon. It 
has been reared at Pusa from larvae rolling brinjal leaves, but has not 
occurred as a pest. 

Pachyzancla bipunctalis (ceyrotalis) occurs throughout India (except 
North- West) and Ceylon. It has been bred at Pusa on Alternanthera 
scssilis and on croton, and at Coimbatore on brinjal and in brinjal shoots. 
It does not seem to have been noted as attacking any crop-plant except 
at Coimbatore. [" South Indian Insects," pp. 440-441, fig. 317.] 

Pterophorus lienigianus [" South Indian Insects," p. 445, fig. 322] 
occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. It has been reared on 
brinjal at Coimbatore and in the Godavari delta but is scarcely a pest. 

Phthorimcea blapsigona has been reared at Coimbatore, Saidapet and 
Nagpur from larvae boring and feeding in flower-buds of brinjal. Pro- 
bably widely distributed in the Plains of India as a minor pest of brinjal. 
It is also reported to bore into the fruits in Nagpur. 

It bores into the flower-buds and is a bad pest of brinjal in the hot 
season in the Central Provinces. 

Phthorimwa blapsigona is bad in brinjal buds in Madras also. 

We have searched for it at Pusa but without success so far, so it is 
evidently not much of a pest in Bihar. 

Phthorimcea ergasima, however, is another species which we have found 
at Pusa, where the caterpillars mine brinjal leaves in February and 
March. It is scarcely a pest and is probably widely distributed in the 
Plains of India. 

Phthorimcea operculella was found at Dharwar mining brinjal leaves,. 
as related in Entomological Note 77, in Bulletin 59. 

(hi Inter in sp. [" South Indian Insects," p. 527, fig. 420] occurs in 
Southern India as a minor pest of brinjal leaves. 

Atractomorpha crenulata [I.e., p. 528, fig. 421] also occurs on brinjal 
as a minor pest. It may be hand-picked. 

The buds of brinjal are attacked by Phthorimcea blapsigona, as we 
have just seen, and also by Solenopsisgeminata[l.c, pp. 271-275, fig. 112]. 

The fruits are bored by Laid nodes orbonalis [I.e., p. 436, tab. 30, figs. 
5-9], whose caterpillar bores in the fruits as a rule but is also found in the 
slmnt s. It is widely distributed throughout our limits and is a very bad 
pest. Collection and destruction of attacked shoots and fruits seems to 
be the only remedy. Besides brinjal, L. orbonalis has been found in 
Solanum xanthocarpum, a wild plant, and in Solanum nigrum, which is 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING £89 

used as a vegetable in Southern India, the fruits being steeped in salt 
and water and then dried in the sun. 

The stems of brinjal, besides L. orbonalis, are bored by the caterpillar 
of Euzophera perticella [I.e., p. 428, tab. 30, figs. 1-4], which is a serious 
pest. The affected plants and shoots wither and should be removed 
and destroyed. 

Sucking insects on brinjal include : — 
Aspongopus janus. 
Anoplocnemis phasiana. 
Urentius echinus. 
Aphids. 
Phenococcus insolitus. 

Aspongopus janus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 476-477, fig. 358] 
is common throughout the Plains and is sometimes a minor pest of 
brinjal. The bugs may easily be hand-picked. 

Anoplocnemis phasiana [I.e., pp. 477-478, fig. 360] sometimes occurs 
in some numbers on brinjal but is scarcely a post. 

Collection by hand is the obvious remedy. 

Urentius echinus [I.e., p. 485, fig. 370] is common throughout the 
Plains and is sometimes a serious pest of brinjal, the leaves attacked 
turning yellow, drying up and falling off the plant. In garden areas 
spraying with a contact insecticide can be done. 

Aphids are sometimes bad on brinjal but we do not know what is the 
species concerned. 

Aphids are very bad on brinjal leaves in North Gujarat. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Phenococcus insolitus, a Scale-insect, occurs in Southern India on Mr. Fletcher, 
brinjal and is sometimes very bad, covering the whole plant so that this 
looks white. 

Phenococcus is very bad on brinjal at Coimbatore. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). 

Tomato leaves are eaten by : — Mr. Fletcher. 

Prodenia litura. 
Epilachna 28-punctata. 
,, 12-stigma. 
Prodenia litura occasionally occurs but is not a usual or serious pest. 
The two species of Epilachna are sometimes bad on tomato leaves. 
We took these under potato. 

The fruits of tomato are occasionally bored by the caterpillar of 
Heliothis obsoleta but this is not a serious pest of tomato as a rule. 



290 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. P. C. Sen. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Khare. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ratiram. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Euzophera perticelh bores in the stems at times but only seems to 
Lave been noticed doing this in Bombay. 

Euzophera //erticelia occurs in tomato stems in Surat. 

Collection and destruction of attacked stems is the only thing to do. 

Sucking insects on tomato include Mites and Mealy-bugs, the latter 
being generally Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) virgatus and being sometimes 
rather bad. 

Mealy-bugs occur on tomato at Coimbatore. 

Chillies (Capsicum spp.). 

Chilli seedlings are sometimes attacked by Brachytrypes portentosus 
(achat ictus) which we have already considered several times. 

Brachytrypes was found cutting the young plants. It was bad at 
Dacca. 

The leaves are eaten by Monolepta signata and Laphygma exigua but 
these are not important pests of this plant. 

Boring in the stem one finds Euzophera perticella [see under brinjal] 
but it is not serious as a pest of chillies. 

The fruits of chillies are occasionally attacked by fruit-flies and 
Chcetodacus ferrugineus dorsalis was bred from Capsicum frutescens at 
Mandalay and from American chillies at Maymyo. This fly, however, 
has not been noticed as a pest. 

At Nagpur chilli fruits are malformed by a Chalcidid which causes 
a gall. The damage done is considerable. 

We do not know about that and would like to see it if it occurs again. 
Sucking insects on chilli plants include : — 
Lygceus pandurus. 
Jassids. 
Aphids. 
Thrips. 

Lygceus pandurus [" South Indian Insects," p. 481, fig. 365] occurs 
commonly on the plants but is not known to be a pest. 

Jassids sometimes occur in numbers and do some damage, but we 
do not know the species concerned. They might be collected in bag 
or hand-nets. 

Jassids are found on chillies in Berar. 

Aphids and Thrips also occur but are very minor pests as a rule. 

The roots are attacked by termites which sometimes do a good deal 
of damage. Only general control methods seem to be applicable. 



Herse convolvul\ Linn, 

Fig. 1. Young caterpillars on leaves ; 
Fig. 2. A nearly full-grown caterpillar ; 
Fig. 3. Pupa in its underground chamber; 
Fig. 4. Moth in repose ; 
Fig. 5. Moth with wings outspread. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 291 

Sweet Potato {Ipomcea batatas). 

The leaves of Sweet Potato are attacked by a good many insects Mr pieigijg- 
but few of these are of any real importance. We find : — 

Euchromia polymeria. 
Dia crista obliqua. 
Estigmene lactinea. 
Prodenia litura. 
Catephia inquieta. 
Herse convolvuli. 
Aspidomorpha miliaris. 

,, indica. 

Pilemostoma trilineata. 
Metriona varians. 

„ circumdata. 
Coptocycla sp. 
Cassid. 

Oncocephala tuberculata. 
Blosyrus asellus. 
Myllocerus sabulosus. 

Euchromia polymeria has been found in Travancore as an occasional 
minor pest, as related in Entomological Note 61 in Bulletin 59. 

Diacrisia obliqua occasionally occurs in districts where it is common. 
There is nothing special to say about it. 

Estigmene lactinea occasionally occurs but is scarcely a pest. 

Prodenia litura occasionally occurs on sweet potato but is of little 
importance as a pest. 

Catephia inquieta has been found in small numbers on the leaves 
and is sporadically a minor pest in North Bihar. It has also been reared 
at Pusa on young sugarcane. We have also moths from Myingyan, in 
Upper Burma, from Coimbatore and Siruguppa (Bellary District). 

Herse convolvuli is common and may be looked on as a minor pest, 
although it does not do much damage as a rule. The caterpillars may be 
hand-picked. 

Aspidomorpha miliaris [" South Indian Insects," pp. 316-317, fig. 
168] has a wide distribution in South-Easten Asia, having been recorded 
from the Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sunda Islands, New Guinea' 
India, Yunnan and Tonkin. It is common throughout India and does a 
little damage at times by the larvae feeding on the leaves, but it is scarcely 
a pest. It also breeds on wild species of Ipomcea. Cassidocida aspido- 
morphce, Crawf., was reared from larvse of A. miliaris at Bangalore. 

x2 



292 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Aspidomorpha indica seems to be widely distributed throughout 
India and Burma and has been reared on sweet potato at Moulmein 
and Pusa. It is scarcely a pest. 

Pilemostoma trilineata we have from Tatkon (Burma), Lebong, 
Masuxi, Chapra and Pusa. At Tatkon it was found on sweet potato 
and has been bred on this at Pusa. It is an occasional minor pest. 

Metriona varians has been reared at Pusa on sweet potato and has 
also been found on Ipomoea sp. at Bulsar (Bombay). It is scarcely a 
pest. 

Metriona circumdata has been reared on sweet potato at Pusa and we 
have it also from Chapra, Dacca and Surat. It is scarcely a pest. 

Coptocyda sp. [" South Indian Insects," p. 317, fig. 169] occurs in 
Madras on sweet-potato but is scarcely a pest. 

Another Cassid, unidentified as yet, was found on sweet potato at 
Moulmein. 

Oncocephala tuberculoid (Hispinae) has been reared on sweet potato 
at Pusa and Coimbatore and we have it also from Bulsar (Bombay). 
It is not a pest. 

Blosyrus asellus [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidce, I, 33]' 
has been found at Pusa in small numbers on sweet potato, but is not a 
pest. 

Myllocerus sabulosus [I.e., p. 336] has also been found on sweet potato 
at Pusa but seems to be a mere casual visitor. 

The stems of sweet potato are attacked by : — 

Gonocephalum sp. 
Omphisa anastomosa I is . 
Cylas formicarius. 

A small species of Gonocephalum was found at Moulmein in September 
1914 on the soil around sweet potato plants whose stems were found 
dead or dying, evidently as the result of some insect attack. The 
beetles were not actually noticed to eat the stems but the circumstances 
were decidedly suspicious. 

Omphisa anastomosalis is included in " South Indian Insects,'' pp. 
439-440, fig. 316, as a potential pest of sweet potato. It is common 
in India, the larva boring in stems of wild Ipomoea, but has not yet 
actually been found on sweet potato. I expect, however, that it will 
occur. 

Cylas formicarius bores in the shoots but we will take it under tubers. 

The tubers <>f sweet potato are attacked by : — 
Cylas formicarius. 
Melasia coniotalis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 293 

Cylas formicarius [" South Indian Insects," pp. 334-335, tab. 12] is 
common throughout most parts of India and we have it from Peradeniya 
(Ceylon), Coimbatore, Manjri (Bombay), Poona, Surat, Damoh (Central 
Provinces), and Pusa, but we have no examples from Burma, Assam 
-or the United Provinces or northwards of that. Outside of India 
it is known from the Seychelles, Madagascar, Java, Philippines, Bouru, 
Hawaii, China, North Australia, Southern United States, Antilles and 
Guiana. It is probably an endemic Indian species which has been spread 
-artificially with sweet potato tubers. 

So far as we are concerned, it is by far the worst pest of sweet potato 
and does very serious damage. Control is very difficult, one point 
about it being that the attack is often not noticeable until the damage 
has been done and the beetles are seen emerged and resting on the leaves. 
The beetles are attracted to light and some may be caught by light- 
traps but this is not effective as a control. Some beetles may also be 
caught in hand-nets or bag-nets swept over the foliage, but this again is 
not effective and, by the time that large numbers of beetles are caught 
in this way, it generally means that they have emerged from the tubers 
and that the damage has been done. The 'planting of deep-rooting 
varieties has also been suggested, but the eggs may be laid in the stems 
in which case the grubs are able to bore down into the tubers even 
when these are well below the ground. We do not know of any immune 
varieties of sweet potato. The best thing to do seems to be to keep a 
sharp look-out for the appearance of the first adult beetles in the foliage 
and to harvest the crop as soon as possible thereafter. When the crop 
is dug, infested tubers should not be thrown away, as is often done, but 
should be boiled and, if nob too badly infested, may be fed to cattle. 
Probably it feeds also on wild species of Lfomcea bub we have no records 
of such foodplants ; if this is the case, such wild Ifomoea should be 
destroyed as far as possible in areas where sweet potato is grown. 

By harvesting early, it has been found that damage is reduced, and, Mr. Ghosh. 
indeed, practically avoided. 

Melasia coniotalis was found as a pest at Pusa in March 1907, the Mr. Fletcher. 
larvae boring into the tubers below-ground. It has not since been noted 
to do damage although moths were caught in July 1910 and March 
1915. This species is figured in " Indian Insect Life," tab. 52, figs. 
1-4. It has been recorded from Tibet, Kashmir, Simla, Ferozepur 
and Pusa, but is apparently not a common insect as a rule. 

Sucking insects found on sweet potato include : — 

Graplostethus servus. 
HaUieus minutus. 



291 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Graptostethus servus [" South Indian Insects," p. 482, fig. 366] is 
common on sweet potato throughout India but is probably not a pest. 
It sometimes occurs in numbers and may be collected in nets. 

Halticus minulus is a small Capsid bug, in appearance very similar 
to a Flea-beetle. When at Moulmein in September 1914 I found this 
in large numbers on sweet potato, and it was undoubtedly a pest, the 
leaves being spotted with punctures. It is probably common in most 
districts but that is the only occasion on which it seems to have been 
noticed in any numbers. It could be collected in hand-nets if suffi- 
ciently abundant. 

Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). 

Artichoke is nearly allied to Sunflower which we took under oil- 
seeds. The leaves are eaten by : — 
Diacrisia obliqua. 
Pach nep horus bretingh ami. 

Diacrisia obliqua occurs on artichoke much as it does on sunflower 
and the egg-masses and clusters of young larvae should be picked oft". 

Pachnephorus bretinghami has been found at Pusa but is not much 
of a pest. 

The roots of artichoke are sometimes attacked by Dorylus orientalis, 
which we have already considered several times and there is nothing 
special to say about it. 

Asparagus. 

Asparagus seems to have few pests in India, but a Coreid bug, a 
species of Brachytes, was sent to us recently from Solan, near Simla, 
as attacking asparagus. In such cases the bugs could be collected by 
hand. 

Ginger (Zingiber officinale). 

Ginger is grown principally on the Malabar Coast and in Southern 
Burma. The leaves are attacked by Udaspes folus [" South Indian 
Insects," p. 420, fig. 295], which is sporadically serious as a pest, the 
caterpillar rolling the leaves ; when in numbers the folded leaves con- 
taining the larvae and pupae are easily seen and the immature insects 
collected by hand. 

The stems and rhizomes of ginger are also bored by the caterpillar 
of Dichocrocis punctiferalis [I.e., p. 433, tab. 34]. It is not usually a 
serious pest on ginger and the only remedy is to destroy the attacked 
portions of the plants. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 295 

Calobata sp. has also been bred from decaying roots of ginger plants 
[" Indian Insect Life," p. 631, fig. 416] but it is doubtful whether it 
attacks healthy plants. 

Turmeric (Curcuma longa). 

The leaves of turmeric are eaten by : — 
Udaspes folus. 
Diacrisia obliqu a. 

Udaspes folus [" South Indian Insects," p. 420, fig. 295] is a sporadi- 
cally serious pest of turmeric, principally in Southern India. The 
greenish caterpillar folds the leaves and pupation takes place in the 
folded leaf. In 1912 at Coimbatore about thirty per cent, of the leaves 
were folded by these caterpillars in a crop of turmeric. The folded leaves 
are easily seen and the enclosed larvse and pupse may be collected by 
hand. 

Diacrisia obliqua occasionally attacks turmeric, chiefly in Bengal 
and Bihar. The masses of young larvse should be hand-picked before 
they have spread. 

The stem of turmeric is bored by Dichocrocis punctiferalis [I.e., p. 433, 
tab. 34], which also occurs in wild turmeric. The damage done is not 
serious as a rule and the only remedy is destruction of the attacked 
stems. 

The rhizomes are attacked by : — 

Calobata sp. 
Aspidiotus hartii. 

,, curcumce. 

Calobata sp. is common is turmeric rhizomes but is always found 
in rotting portions and it is not clear whether it actually does damage 
or is merely a decay-feeder. 

Asfidiotus hartii was found on turmeric rhizomes at Poona in March 
1914 and identified as A. hartii by Mr. Green in October 1915. A. 
hartii was described on yams in the West Indies and the Indian species 
is perhaps the next. 

Asfidiotus curcumce is an undescribed species, so named by Mr. Green 
from specimens found at Poona [Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Journal, XXIII., 
135], the rhizomes being covered with this scale. It is possible that 
this is identical with the material formerly named as A. hartii by Mr. 
Green. 

Stephanitis typicus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 484-485, fig. 369] 
is common on turmeric in Southern India and is at times a minor pest, 
the attacked leaves, where punctured, being spotted with yellow and 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ultimately the whole leaf assuming an unhealthy yellow tinge. Control 
is hardly required on a field scale, but, if so, a soap spray would probably 
be effective. 

Panchcetothrips indicus is described in Records Indian Museum VII, 
pp. 257-260, tab., from examples collected many years ago in 
Southern India, where it was stated to have damaged turmeric. It 
does not seem' to have been noticed of recent years. This is the insect 
referred to as Sutta ihegulu in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. I, p. 109. 

Amaranthus (Amarantus spp.) 

The leaves of Amaranthus are eaten by : — 

Laphygma exigua. 
Hymenia fascialis. 
Eretmocera impactella. 

Hypomeces squamosus. 
Atractomorpha crenulata. 

Laphygma exigua [" South Indian Insects," pp. 378-379, fig. 240] 
occurs commonly on Amaranthus but is not much of a pest. 

Hymenia fascialis [I.e. pp. 431-432, fig 307] is common throughout 
India, Burma and Ceylon. We have examples reared on Amaranthus 
at Pusa, Cuttack, Surat, and Trivandrum ; at Coimbatore on Trianthyna 
monogyna and Silver Beet ; at Pusa on mangold wurzel leaves, on mung, 
on Coleus. and on Celosia cristata, at Poona on beet, and at Mandalay 
on White Beet. It also feeds on Alternanthera. It is a minor pest on 
Amaranthus, occasionally doing serious damage in gardens. 

Eretmocera impactella [I.e., p. 401, fig. 337] occurs on the topshoots 
which are webbed up by the caterpillar. In Madras it has not been 
noted to do damage, but in Bihar plants, especially single plants, are 
sometimes badly webbed up and eaten back. The webbed tops should 
be destroyed. 

Hypomeces squamosus [Marshall, Fauna of India, Curculionidce I. 
116-117, fig. 39] was found on Amaranthus at Mandalay but we do not 
know how far it is a pest. It does not seem to occur within our limits 
except in Burma. 

Alractomorpha crenulata eats the leaves but is not serious as a pest. 
We took this under tobacco. The grasshoppers may be collected by 
hand. 

The stems of Amaranthus are bored by Lixus brachyrrhiuus, which 
is described and figured in " South Indian Insects," pp. 331-332, fig. 189, 
and of which we have since issued a coloured plate showing the lifehistory. 
There is not much to add to the account already given. As a rule, 



Lixus brachyrrhinus, Bokemaiui. 

Fig. 1. An affected plant .showing the characteristic .swelling'; 

Fig. 2. The affected stem cut open to show the grub inside ; 

Fig. 3. Grub (magnified) ; 

Fig. 4. Pupa (magnified) ; 

Fig. 5. The adult beet'e (magnified) ; 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 




1 lYIIC RDAr-UVDDUIMIIC 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 297 

several grubs are found in one stem, which swells up and assumes a 
characteristic gall-like appearance at the point of attack ; this is 
brought out in figure 1 in the coloured plate. This weevil is a minor 
pest of cultivated forms of Amaranthus and systematic destruction of 
attacked plants is the only way to reduce damage. Lixus brachyrrliinus 
seems to be widely distributed throughout the Plains of India and 
Burma. 

Onion (Allium cepa). 

The leaves of onion are attacked by : — 
Laphygma exigua. 
Agrotis ypsilon. 
Thrips. 
Aphids. 
The caterpillars of Laphygma exigua and Agrotis ypsilon feed on the 
leaves, hiding inside the tubular stalks, but are nob common on onion 
and cannot be regarded as pests. 

Thrips occur on the flowers and are sometimes bad in Madras. The 
species concerned is doubtful. A Thrips occurs in Ganjam, feeding 
on the leaves which become sickly and yellow ; this is perhaps Helio- 
thrips indicus, Bagnail. 

Aphids also occur commonly on the stems and flowers but we do not 
know the species concerned and little damage seems to be done as a 
rule. 

Garlic (Allium sativum). 

We know of no insect pests of garlic, which seems to be shunned 
by all self-respecting insects. 

Rom ex VESioARivs. 

Rumex vesicarius is a vegetable grown extensively around Poona 
for the Bombay and Poona markets. In October 1916 Mr. Bamrao 
Kasergode sent us from Poona some insects damaging this crop and 
they proved to be Sterrha sacraria and Hippotion celerio. Sterrha sacraria 
occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India but we have never 
before considered it as a pest ; on the present occasion the caterpillars 
occurred in large numbers and did considerable damage. Hippotion 
celerio larvse were also found in smaller numbers. 

Yam (Dioscorea spp.) 

The only insect noted on yam is Acrolepia manganeutis [see Ento- 
mological Note 90, fig. 17, in Bulletin 59] and in that case it was reared 
from stored yams. We do not know of any pests of growing yams. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



29S PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

COLOCASIA ANTlQUORUv. 

Colocasia has no serious pests. The leaves are eaten by Monolepta 
signata, and the caterpillars of Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura, and 
Rhyncolaba acteus. 

Elephant's foot {Amorphophallus campanulatus). 

The leaves of Elephant's Foot are eaten by the caterpillar of Theretra 
gnoma, which has been reared on this at Pusa and Poona. At Pusa 
it is not looked on as a pest, but it is stated to do considerable damage 
at Poona. 

Arrow-root (Maranta arundinacea). 

The young leaves of arrow-root are eaten by Atractomorpha crenulata r 
which we dealt with under tobacco. Otherwise we know of no pests. 

Carrot (Daucus carota). 

The leaves of carrot are eaten by the caterpillar of Plusia oricJialcea,. 
but this is not a pest. Agonoscelis mibila [" South Indian Insects," 
pp. 472-473, fig. 351] is also fairly common on carrot in Madras, but 
is not a pest. Doryhis orientalis was found attacking the tuberous 
roots at Pusa last year but this is decidedly unusual. Carrot seems 
free of any serious insect pests. 

Cassava (Manihot utilissima). 

We know of no insect pest of Cassava. Melolonthid grubs occur as 
pests in Java, and probably in India also but have not been noticed. 

Coriander (Coriandrum salt nun). 

Aphids are abundant on coriander at Pusa but we do not know the- 
species concerned. 

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gr cecum). 

[Metki— Hind.] 
We have no insect pests on our list under Fenugreek. 
In North Gujarat Aphids occur on it. 

Celery (J pi urn graveolens). 

Caterpillars of Plusia orichalcea eat the leaves of celery but are 1 
scarcely reckoned as pests as a rule. They may be hand-picked when 
they occur. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 299 

Moringa (Moringa pterygosperma). 

The leaves of Moringa are eaten by the caterpillars of — 
Pericallia ricini. 
Eupterote mollifera. 
Noorda blitealis. 

Pericallia ricini ["South Indian Insects," pp. 370-371, fig. 232] 
occurs, chiefly in Madras, as a minor pest. The larvae may be hand- 
picked. 

Eupterote mollifera [" South Indian Insects," pp. 404-405, fig. 275] 
is a specific pest of Moringa in Madras, occurring sporadically in enor- 
mous numbers and defoliating the trees attacked. The caterpillars 
usually rest in the daytime in a mass on the tree-trunk and may then 
be burnt off with a torch, care being taken not to handle them or even 
to approach nearer than is necessary the trees affected, as the larval 
hairs are highly urticative. Eupterote mollifera has also been noted in 
Ceylon as a pest of Erythrina. 

Noorda blitealis [I.e., pp. 441-442, fig. 318] occurs throughout the 
Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a very minor pest of Moringa, 
the caterpillar attacking the leaves, shoots and small pods. We have 
it from Hagari (Bellary District), on Moringa, from Nagpur on " Munga " 
(the Santal name for Moringa), and we have moths also from Pusa 
and Myingyan (Upper Burma). The caterpillar folds or joins the leaves 
and sometimes does considerable damage by feeding on the green subs- 
tance of the leaves. 

In the Central Provinces the caterpillar is found on the pods. Mr. Khare. 

Cyclopelta siccifolia [" South Indian Insects," p. 476, fig, 357] some- Mr. Fletcher, 
times occurs on Moringa also, although this foodplant is not included 
in my book. In the Southern parts of Bombay it is sometimes a bad 
pest during the Rains. The bugs may be collected by hand. 

At Nagpur Batocera rubus bores in the stems of Moringa. Mr. Khare. 

Pepper (Piper nigrum). 
Pepper is grown chiefly in the Hill Districts of Southern India. In Mr. Fletcher, 
Coffee Districts it is often grown up the shade-trees amongst the Coffee. 
The leaves are attacked occasionally by caterpillars of Parasa lepida 
but this is of little account as a regular pest, and the worst pests are 
Scale-insects amongst which we know : — 

Mytilaspis piperis. 
Hemichionaspis aspidistra?. 
Aspidiotus destructor. 
Lecau ium marsupiale. 



3U0 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Raniakrishna 
Ayyar. . 



Mytilaspis piperis [" South Indian Insects," p. 519, fig. 409] occurs 
in the Wynaad and is a local minor pest as a rule, occasionally destruc- 
tive within a limited area, a few adjacent plants being sometimes badly 
affected. In such a case, spraying or destruction of badly affected 
plants is indicated to check spread. 

Hemichionaspis aspidistras is very widely distributed, having been 
recorded from France, England, India, Ceylon, Formosa, Japan, Aus- 
tralia, Brazil, and the United States on a variety of plants, including 
pepper, orange, mango, fig, Acacia and Areca. It occurs on pepper in 
the Wynaad and on the Malabar Coast, but we do not know whether 
il is serious as a pest. 

Aspidiotus destructor [I.e., p. 518, fig. 408] occurs throughout Southern 
India and is an occasional pest of pepper. [See under Coconut.] 

Lecanium marsupiale [I.e., p. 516, fig. 405] is a very large Scale found 
on pepper in the Wynaad. I have no more to add beyond what has 
been published already. 

The shoots of pepper are bored by the larva of Laspeyresia hemidoxa, 
which was reared at Taliparamba, but we do not know it as a pest. 

At Taliparamba Halticine Chrysomelid larvae were found boring 
the berries badly. This insect has not been identified. 



Betel Leaf (Piper betle). 
Mr. Fletcher. Betel leaves seem to be eaten by few insect pests. Popillia chlorion 

was found at Coimbatore, and Capua invalidana (Tortricidae) was bred 
at Nagpur in December 1915 from caterpillars on betel leaves, but 
neither insect has been noted as a pest. 

Slicking insects, however, are of more importance as pests and 
amongst these we have : — 

( 'yclopelta siccifolia. 
Disphinctus politus. 
Aleurocanthus (Aleyrodes) nubilans. 
Coccids. 

Cyclopelta siccifolia [" South Indian Insects," p. 476, fig. 357] is 
common in most betel-leaf-growing districts and is a minor pest, pro- 
bably worse in districts where Erythrina is used as a support for the 
betel vines. The bugs are sluggish and tend to cluster together and 
so are easily collected by hand. 

Disphinctus politus [I.e., p. 489, fig. 375] is widely distributed through- 
out India, Burma and Ceylon and has been noted as a pest of betel 
chiefly in Madras, Kanara and Bassein (Bombay), the leaves punctured 
by this bug withering and being useless for the market. The life-history 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 301 

is briefly described in " South Indian Insects," and there is little to add. 
Distant gives several other foodplants in Ceylon, but it has not been 
noted on these in India. As regards control, the adult bugs may be 
caught in hand-nets, but they are active and not easy to catch. The 
immature stages may be sprayed with a soap solution. 

Aleurocanthus (Aleyrodes) nubilans [Indian Museum Notes, V, 36, 
t. 5, figs. 7-9] was described from Backerganj and was reported to be 
doing considerable damage to " betel leaves ", but it is rather doubtful 
whether the host-plant was betel vine or betel-palms. Anyway, it does 
not seem to have been noticed since. 

Coccids occasionally occur on betel-leaves but we seem to have no 
definite records and scales are not serious as pests of betel-vines. 

A mealy-bug [? Pseudococcus sp.] is found a good deal on betel leaves Mr. Ratiranu 
at Raipur. 

In the Sangamnar Taluq of the Ahmednagar District, earthworms Mr. Jhaveri. 
occurred in large numbers in a betel garden on one occasion. It was 
supposed that the earthworms had eaten up all the nutritious food from 
the soil and left it very poor. Ammonium Sulphate, saltpetre, and 
common salt were tried, but no effect was noticQd. 

Earthworms were also sent in on several occasions when I was at Mr. Fletcher 
Coimbatore. They were present in very large numbers in some betel 
gardens there and were supposed to be doing damage, but the amount 
of damage done seemed rather doubtful. The worms were probablv 
in large numbers because the soil in these gardens is kept rich and damp 
and ordinary enemies of worms are excluded. „They may impoverish 
the soil, when present in such excessive numbers, but that is a point 
which requires further investigation. The usual idea about earthworms 
is that they do good. In the present case, no direct damage to the 
plants could be made out. If damage is actually done, it could pro- 
bably be met by manuring. 

Aniseed (Pimjrinella anisum). 

The only insect pests noted on Aniseed are Agonoscelis nubila[" South 
Indian Insects," pp. 472-473, fig. 351] and Aphids. Both are minor 
pests and control has not been applied. 

Melons and Pumpkins (Cucurbita, Cucumis and Citrullus spp.). 

Various species of melons and pumpkins are cultivated and as re- 
gards pests it is not necessary or practicable to distinguish between 
them. 

The flowers are attacked by various Meloid beetles, which may be 
caught by hand or in hand-nets. 



502 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The leaves are eaten by : — 

Epilachna 28-punctata. 

,, 12-stigma. 
Aulacophora abdominalis (foveicollis). 

,, atripennis (excavata). 

„ stevensi. 

Pericallia ricini. 
Plusia peponis (agramma). 
Margaronia (Glyphodes) indica. 
Sphenarches caffer. 

Epilachna 28-punctata was discussed under brinjal. It is common 
on all pumpkins, gourds and cucurbitaceous plants generally throughout 
India and Burma and is always a minor pest occasionally doing a good 
deal of damage, the larvae and adult beetles both feeding on the leaves. 

Epilachna dodecastigma [" South Indian Insects," p. 292, tab. 6] is 
equally common and widely distributed and with identical habits. In 
fact, the larvae of these two species have not been differentiated as 
yet. Collection by hand of the insects in all stages, and in bad cases 
spraying, will provide control. 

Aulacophora abdominalis is described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects,'' p. 311, fig. 161, but the figures copied from Shiraki are not 
really of A. abdominalis but of an allied Japanese insect. We have 
since figured the complete lifehistory in a new coloured plate and I 
may remark that it took about five years to discover the mode of life 
of the early stages of this common insect. The eggs are laid in cracks 
and crevices in the soil and the larvae live underground, feeding on or 
boring into roots, or on the surface of the ground feeding on fallen leaves. 
Pupation takes place in the soil in a regular cocoon. So far as leaves 
are concerned, it is practically only the adult beetle which attacks 
them ; occasionally a leaf lying on the ground may be eaten by the 
larva\ but the damage so clone is insignificant. Young plants are most 
badly attacked and the damage to grown plants is not great as a rule. 
As regards the adult beetles, control is attained by (1) sprinkling the 
leaves with kerosinized ashes, (2) catching the beetles in hand-nets, 
(3) if necessary, spraying with a stomach-poison. The larva is un- 
important as a pest of leaves but is sometimes serious when it bores 
into the roots, especially in the case of young plants. In such cases, little 
can be done beyond watering with a repellent and destroying attacked 
plants, but the reduction in numbers of adults will lead to a correspond- 
ing reduction in damage done by grubs. It is in the adult stage that 
this insect is most easily checked. 



Auhcophora abdominalis, Fb. (foveicollis, Kust.) 

Fig. 1 shows a single egg (magnified) ; 

Figs. 2 and 3 show young and full-grown grubs (magnified) : 

Fig. 7 shows full-grown grubs, natural size, feeding on a fallen decaying leaf ; 

Pig. 4 is a pupa in the pupal cell (magnified) ; 

Fig. 5 is the adult beetle (magnified) ; and 

Fig. G a beetle, natural size, feeding on a cucumber leaf. 

Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 



* : 





>r^r>T\/i i m a t i c* f crw/cirni t ic\ 





MARCARONIA (GLYPHODKS) 1NDICA. 



Mcurgcvronia (Glyphodes) indica, ,Saund. 

Fig. 1, caterpillar on leaf (natural size). 

Figs. 2 and 3, caterpillar, enlarged, back and side view. 

Fig. 4, cocoon. 

Fig. 5, pupa. 

Figs. 6 and 7, moth, natural size and enlarged. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 303 

Aulacophora atripennis [" South Indian Insects," p. 312, fig. 162] 
is also common practically throughout the Plains of India and Burma 
and is common on all cucurbitaceous plants, although it is usually less 
serious as a pest than A. abdominalis. The lifehistory is not known 
definitely but it is probably quite similar, as are also damage done and 
methods for control. 

Aulacophora stevensi [I.e., pp. 312-313, fig. 163] is common in Madras 
and Burma, but its distribution is more limited than that of the last 
two species. The lifehistory is probably much the same as in A . ab- 
dominalis and the nature of damage and means of control are the 
same, but A. stevensi often eats flowers of gourds also. 

Pericallia ricini [I.e., pp. 370-371, fig. 232] is occasionally found on 
cucurbits but is not common as a rule. When it occurs in gardens, 
however, it may do damage. The young larvae should be handpicked 
before they have scattered. 

Plusia peponis (agramma) [I.e., p. 394, fig. 261] occurs throughout 
India and in Ceylon and the Andamans and is a minor pest of gourds. 
We have it from Pusa on bottle-gourd and from Coimbatore on snake- 
gourd. The caterpillars and cocoons may be collected by hand. 

Margaronia (Glyphodes) indica is described and figured in " South 
Indian Insects," pp. 435-436, fig. 312, and we have since issued a 
coloured plate showing the complete lifehistory. It is abundant through- 
out India, Burma and Ceylon and is a minor pest of pumpkins and 
cucurbits generally. The egg is laid on a leaf as a rule. The cater- 
pillar usually feeds on the leaves, but sometimes the fruits are attacked 
also. As shown in the coloured plate, the caterpillar generallv folds 
up a leaf and lives inside the folded portion, eating away patches of 
the leaf -surf ace. Pupation takes place in a thin white silken cocoon 
formed inside folded leaves or occasionally in holes bored in the fruit. 
The caterpillar is often found on the under-surfaces of leaves. The 
damage done is usually small and control is not required but, if it has 
to be done, the caterpillars and cocoons may be collected by hand from 
the folded leaves. 

The stems of pumpkins are bored bv : — 

Apomecyna pertigera. 
,, perotteti. 

,, histrio. 

Apomecyna pertigera [" South Indian Insects ", p. 327, tab. 11] is 
widely distributed in India and Burma. The Pusa Collection contains 
examples from Coimbatore, Jorhat, Chapra, Pusa, and Mandalay. It 
is a minor pest of pumpkins and other cucurbitaceous plants, the larva 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

boring in the stem and the adult eating into young fruits. It has been 
bred at Pusa on pumpkin, cucumber fruit and bottle-gourd, and at 
Mandalay on pumpkin. Destruction of affected stems and collection of 
beetles when seen on the plants are the only control-measures. 

Apomecyna perotteti is apparently confined to Southern India. We 
have examples from Kanara, Madura and Pollibetta. The lifehistory 
is not known but is likely to be the same as that of A. pertigera and at 
Pollibetta I collected specimens around cucurbits. 

Apomecyna histrio we seem to have only from North Bihar, our 
specimens being from Chapra, Pusa and Laheria Serai. It has been 
reared at Pusa from larvae boring stems of Tinospora cordifolia [gurrach-- 
Hind.] but probably attacks cucurbits also. 

The sucking insects found on pumpkins include : — 

Aspongopus janus. 

,, brunneus. 
Aphids. 

Aspongopus janus [" South Indian Insects," pp. 476-477, fig. 358] 
is sporadically common on pumpkins, when the bugs may be hand- 
picked. 

Aspongopus brunneus occurs in the same way as A. janus but is less 
often noticed. 

Aphids are sometimes bad on pumpkins, the whole leaves being 
covered with sticky excretion. In garden plots, spraying may be done 
if required but in field plots little is done as a rule beyond leaving the 
natural enemies to check the pest. 

The roots are attacked by the grubs of Aulacophora abdominalis 
and perhaps by those of the other species of Aulacophora, which we 
took just now. 

The fruits are attacked by : — 

( 'In i ■ todacus cucurbitce. 
Dacus brevistylus. 
My ioparda lis par da Una . 
Aulacophora abdomin a 1 is . 
Acyihopeus citrulli. 

< 'hcetodacus cucurbitw was partially considered when we discussed the 
general subject of Fruit-flics [see under Peach]. It is widely distri- 
buted throughout India and Burma and does very considerable damage 
to cucurbits of practically all kinds. It has been reared from fruits of 
Cucurbita pepo, C. melo, Trichosanthes dioica, T. cucumerina, Cucumis, 
Momordica charantia, Luffa wgyptiaca and various other cucurbits. 
The lifehistory is briefly given in "South Indian Insects," pp. 354-355. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 305 

tab. 16, but it may be as well to add that the grubs are sometimes found 
boring in stems as well as in fruits. 

As regards control, we discussed that under Peach, but a special 
line of control with parasites of this species has been taken up in Hawaii, 
as I told you the other day. In India Chcetodacus cucurbitce appears to 
be parasitized to a remarkably small extent but, from larvte collected 
at Pusa in fruits of Momordica charantia, we reared about fifteen per 
cent, of a small Braconid parasite which has been described by Professor 
Silvestri under the name Optus fletcheri [Boll. Lab. Zool. Portici XI 
pp. 163-164, fig. 2]. Syntomosphyrum indicum, Silv. [I. c, IV, 232-344] 
was also found at Bangalore by Compere but is apparently not attached 
especially to Ch. cucurbitce. 

I told you the other day about the visit of Mr. Fullaway to India in 
1915 especially to search for parasites of Ch. cucurbitce with the purpose 
of introducing them into Hawaii. A short account of his journey is 
given in the Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist for August 1916. 
Mr. Fullaway was in Bangalore from 17th November to 23rd December 

1915 and in that period he reared about 10,000 specimens of Ch. cucurbitce, 
out of w^hich Opius fletcheri came abundantly as well as a small lot of 
Spalangia, but Syntomosphyrum indicum could not be rediscovered. 
After staying in Singapore and Manila, Mr. Fullaway eventually returned 
to Honolulu on 10th May 1916 with a small lot of living examples of 
this Opius and this has been bred successfully and liberated in Hawaii, 
as is shown by the fact that during the five months July to November 

1916 no less than 9,173 females and 5,361 males of 0. fletcheri were reared 
m the insectary and of these numbers most were liueiated. This attempt 
to procure parasites, therefore, was quite successful. Why Ch. cucurbitce 
is not controlled more thoroughly by parasites in India is not apparent. 
We have not reared any hyperparasites, so the scarcity of the parasite 
is not likely to be due to this cause ; nor is it likely to be due to scarcity 
of food, as Ch. cucurbitce is sufficiently abundant— in fact, only too 
abundant— everywhere. Yet, out of thousands of examples of Ch. 
cucurbitce reared at Pusa we have found it decidedly the exception to 
secure material parasitized to any appreciable extent. It will be in- 
teresting and useful if the Provincial Entomological Staffs will collect 
Ch. cucurbitce grubs and pupse in numbers and either send them to Pusa 
or breed them out, to see what parasites there are and in what propor- 
tions they are found. 

Dacus brevistylus is recorded from Madras, where it has been reared 
m melons at Coimbatore and Cuddapah and in water-melon at Hagari. 
It is probably more widely distributed, but overlooked. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



806 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Myiopardalis pardalina is well-known as attacking melons in Balu- 
chistan and there was an article by Mr. Cleghorn about this in the 
Agricultural Journal of India about three years ago. We have 
since found this species at Pusa and it is probably fairly widely distri- 
buted. 

Aulacophora abdominalis grubs have also been found to attack melon 
fruits at Jullundur, boring in the fruits in the portion in contact with 
the ground. This form of damage was first noted in 1915 and was 
serious, more than that caused by Fruitfly. We considered this insect 
just now and there is no more to add. Probably a small handful of 
kerosinized ashes under the fruits would ward off attack. 

Acyihopeus citrulli was recently described by Dr. Marshall from 
examples reared from water-melon at Hagari, in the Bellary District. 
This weevil was found actually doing damage to a few fruits,, but its 
status as a pest is doubtful. 

BoTTLE-CiOuitn (Lagenaria vulgaris). 

| Ka ddu — Hind . ] 

The pests of Bottle-gourd are practically the same as those of melons 
and pumpkins, but in addition we get : — 

Plusia chalcytes. 
Sphenarches caffer. 

Plusia chalcytes has been reared on bottie-gourd at Pusa but is scarcely 
a pest. 

Sphenarches caffer is briefly described and figured in " South Indian 
Insects," pp. 443-444, fig. 320, and we have since illustrated trie life- 
history on a new coloured plate. The eggs are laid singly on leaves 
and the caterpillars eat holes in the leaves, on which, or on stems of 
the foodplant, they pupate when full-grown. This insect is a minor 
pest of bottle-gourd but has a very wide range of foodplants. having 
been reared on leaves of bottle-gourd, buds of Luffa sp., petals of 
Whist us mutabilis, flowers of Cajanus indicus, Averrhoa bilimbi flowers, 
Biophytum sensitivum, and various other plants. It is common through- 
out India, Burma and Ceylon and, outside of India, throughout Australia 
and Africi. A.s regards bottle-gourd, it is a very minor pest and 
ivim dial measures are rarely necessary. 

Metacanihus pulchellus was sent in in March 1913 as damaging 
bottle-gourd plants at Baroda by puncturing young fruits. It is widely 
distributed in India but does not seem to be a serious pest as a rule. 



Sfhenarches oaffer x Zell. 

Fig. 4, is a bottle-gourd leaf having on it 4 eggs, two caterpillars (one green and 

the other brown) and one pupa ; 
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 show respectively the caterpillar, pupa and moth, all enlarged. 
The caterpillars are parasitized by a small hymenopteror , figure 5 showing such a 

parasitized dead caterpillar from the body of which the parasite grub has just 

emerged. 
Figures in outline show the natural sizes. 










Sphenarches caffer. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 307 

On the other hand, we do not seem to get Epilachna on bottle-gourd. 
The fruits of bottle-gourd support a fruitfly fauna distinct from 
that found in pumpkins. In bottle-gourd we get : — 

Chcetodacus zonatus. 
„ diver sus. 

Chcetodacus zonatus was reared at Nagpur in August 1913 and C. 
diversus also at Nagpur in August 1913, in both cases on bottle-gourd. 

Snake-Gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). 

The insects found on snake-gourd are practically the same as those 
found on pumpkins, e.g., Epilachna spp., Aulacophora spp., Plusia 
peponis, Margaronia indica, and Aphids. 

Trichosa nth es cucumerina . 

T. cucumerina is a wild species of snake-gourd found throughout 
India, Burma and Ceylon. Its pests are much the same as those of 
the other cucurbits and include Epilachna spp., Aulacophora stevensi 
and Chcetodacus cucurbitce. In addition to tliese, at Tatkon, in Lower 
Burma, I found another fruitfly, recently named by Professor Bezzi 
as Mellesis eumenoides, and the curious bug Leptoglossus membranaceus, 
which is an occasional pest of cucurbits, as noted in Ceylon also by 
Mr. Green. 

Gourd (Luffa acutangula). 

The pests of gourd are similar to those of pumpkins and include 
Meloid beetles on the flowers, Epilachna spp. and Aulacophora spp. on 
the leaves, and Apomecyna boring in the stem. We also get Riptortus 
pedestris at times. 

That brings us to the end of our review of the Insect Pests of Crops Mr - Fletcher, 
in India and we have only a very small amount of time left for the consi- 
deration of 

INSECT PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS, 
but, unless anyone has any thing particular to say on this subject, we 
can take up this item to-day and run over it in a very brief manner. It 
is the less necessary to enter into it in any great detail because the 
available information has already been summarized in Chapter XVIII of 
" South Indian Insects " and that is practicably applicable to the whole 
of India. To the information given there I may add that Corcyra cepha- 
lonica should be added to the list of destructive species and is common 
in India and Burma in stored rice, and that Khiz&periha dominica has 

y2 



Mr. Ghosh. 



30^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

been a bad pest of stored grain recently in Madras and has been con- 
trolled quite successfully by treatment with carbon bisulphide. 

Id Northern India work on stored wheat pests has also been done 
in the Punjab and an account of that has just been published by Messrs. 
Barnes and Grove, so that all the information to date on that subject 
is already available. I may add that I have had some reprints made 
separately of the entomological part of this Memoir and these reprints 
are available for use of the Entomological Staffs in the Provinces or 
elsewhere. 

At Peshawar also, Mr. Robertson- Brown and myself are testing a 
local type of timber-built granary against the more usual type built of 
mud, but this experiment is not concluded. 

Turning to our own work at Pusa, you will have seen by our Annual 
Reports that we have been carrying out various experiments on the 
protection of stored grain against insect attack. In 1915 we did these 
on a small scale, with one-pound lots of grain in glass jars ; that series 
of experiments gave us some information and enabled us to reject many 
failures. In 19K> we repeated the more successful experiments on a 
larger scale, using gunny bags and earthen jars as containers for the 
grain ; and this year we intend to try the methods, hitherto found suc- 
cessful, on a still larger scale. But, until we have thoroughly tested 
methods on a large scale, it is rather premature to say much about them. 
These experiments have been made in the Pusa Insectary, so I will 
ask Mr. Ghosh to give you a brief account of them so far as they have 
gone, but I must repeat that they are not yet completed, so that we are 
not prepared as yet to say that we are in a position to recommend the 
best preventive measures ; and also, of course, it is possible that any 
measures found successful here may require modification under different 
climatic or other conditions. 

For the last two years we have been carrying on experiments to 
endeavour to find out a successful method or methods of preserving 
grain in store against insect pests. We have included in our experiments 

(1) pulses, by which I mean pulse seeds, 

(2) rice, by which I mean husked rice, 

(3) wheat. 

Without going into details of the experiments I only give the results 
of those which have been found successful. 

Pulses, in our experience here, have to be protected against Bruchus 
chinensis which does the principal and very serious damage in store. 
We have never found it affecting grain in field. It breeds continuously 
in store, the life-cycle ordinarily being three to four weeks. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 309 

It has been found that the small variety of pea, Pisum arvense, is 
not affected by this pest, though the larger varieties of peas, gram, 
Arhar (Cajanus indicus), Lentil, Khesari (Lathyrus satirvs), Mung 
(Phaseolus radiatus mungo), Bora (Vigna catjang) and Bakla (Vicia 
faba) are all liable to serious damage. 

In the present state of our experiments we recommend keeping the 
pulses covered with sand, coarse or fine, and they will remain safe. 

The other pulse beetle of which we have experience is Bruchus affinis 
which affects only peas while still inside the pods in the field. This pest 
does not breed in store. That fact was mentioned while discussing 
the pests of peas. Damage can be prevented by fumigating the seeds 
with carbon bisulphide as soon as harvested or storing the seeds in air- 
tight vessels with naphthaline. Treatment with naphthaline is, how- 
ever, unsuitable in the case of seeds required for consumption after- 
wards. The seeds to be sown if untreated should be thrown into water 
and only those which sink should be sown. 

Rice should be mixed with dry powdered lime at the rate of 100 
lb. rice and 2\ lb. lime and stored in any way one likes in gunny bags, 
jars or bins. It will remain free from infestation by pests. 

Wheat. First of all various methods were tried with small lots of 
wheat — two to four lb.— in airtight glass jars, in gunny bags and in 
earthen pots, earthen pots and gunny bags being the two kinds of re- 
ceptacles ordinarily used by people for storing small quantities. Many 
of the methods were rejected and those only which promised success 
were tried on a small storage scale next year. Many of the results 
which seemed probable on the first year's experiments were upset. 
But some important differences in the habits of the principal pests 
were clearly demonstrated. The principal pests here are (1) Calandra 
oryzce and (2) Rhizopertha dominica. In the Punjab in addition to 
these two there is a species of Trogoderma but of this I have not got 
much experience. 

Rhizopertha cannot breed where there is free access of air, but under 
the reverse conditions it is capable of doing much more damage than 
Calandra. Air and light retard Calandra and if one can take the trouble 
of exposing the grain to air and light at frequent intervals very little 
damage is done. But this is not practicable when large quantities have 
to be dealt with. This year we propose to try a method of outdoor 
storage under conditions which will make it impossible for Rhizopertha 
to breed and which will keep the grain exposed to the natural changes 
of climatic conditions. If this be found successful it will be applicable 
both to storage in bulk and in small quantities, and it will enable a man 
to make a profit of about 5 to 8 per cent, simply on the increase of the 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE .SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

weight of the grain in addition to profit due to rise in price if he sells 
his grain in October-November instead of in April-May. Of course I 
am talking of Pusa conditions. 

At present we can only recommend storing in vessels with solid 
bottom and walls and open top with a layer of about four inches of 
dry fine (not coarse) sand. The difficulty is that the sand settles through 
the grain and exposes some of the grain especially near the walls. Pre- 
cautions should be taken against this. 

In reply to a question of the Bombay representative regarding 
efficacy of castor oil treatment commonly practised in Gujarat, it was 
said that castor oil retarded germination to a great extent and that 
mohwa, coconut, mustard and groundnut oils were better than castor 
oil but none of the oils rendered wheat immune. Besides that, oil 
made the grain very unsightly. 
Mr. Fletcher. I am afraid that it is getting late and we cannot go on much longer 

to-day and, as this is the last day, we must now terminate this Meeting. 
But, before we do so, I should like to say a few words : — 

Firstly, as I told you last week in my Opening Speech, we, the Staff 
of the Entomological Section at Pusa, have been very glad to see you, 
the Provincial Entomological Staffs and others interested, at this Meeting. 
We have gone through all these Crops together and reviewed the pests 
of each and have given one another all the information available re- 
garding these pests and their control, and I am quite sure that this 
mutual interchange and discussion of experiences has been of great 
benefit and interest to all of us. It is not only important for each of 
us to know what others have discovered and are doing but it is equally, 
perhaps more, important to find out what are some of the things that 
we do not know and which require investigation. The benefits of 
mutual association and discussion of knowledge already attained are 
obvious advantages of a Meeting of this kind, but it has seemed to me, 
both at our Meeting here two years ago and during the course of this 
present Meeting, that the dragging into prominence of the innumerable. 
■_ r aps in our knowledge of Indian Insects is an even more valuable result 
of these Meetings. 

Secondly, in order to render the results of thesr Meetings of perma- 
nent value, not only to ourselves who attended but also to others inter- 
ested, it is necessary to publish a Report as full as possible. Mr. G. R. 
Dutt has been taking notes during the present Meeting and later on 
I hope to go over these and make out for publication as complete a Report 
as we can. 

Thirdly, regarding our next Meeting, I cannot speak with authority 
but I believe that I am not giving away any secret in saying that the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 311 

idea of these Sectional Meetings'has appealed to Government as an 
eminently practical idea, and we expect that they will become 
recurring functions. We have already had two Entomological Meetings 
and I am sure that I have the sense of this Meeting behind me when 
I say that they have both been highly successful Meetings and should 
be continued in the future and repeated at similar intervals — probably 
every two years. 

Fourthly, assuming that we shall hold another Entomological 
Meeting in two or three years time, there are a few points which you 
might think over in the interval. Two years ago we went over the List 
of Crop Pests in systematic order, taking each insect at a time and 
<*oing over its distribution and foodplants and so on ; this time we have 
o-one over the Crops and taken insect pests crop by crop. In both 
cases we have found that a period of a week or so is insufficient to do 
this with proper thoroughness, in spite of having afternoon sessions. 
I think that the next Meeting, if we have one, should last for at least 
a fortnight, holding sessions in the mornings and leaving the after- 
noons free for consultation of records and collections, identification of 
specimens and so on, by the visitors. The, Proceedings might also be 
simplified to some extent by the submission of written papers on 
special subjects ; that would reduce the note-taking to a great extent. 
However, you have most of you attended two of these Meetings now, 
and will come to the next one with more settled ideas of what is 
wanted. You might think over these and any other points that occur 
to you and let us know about them in good time for the next 
Meeting. 

Before the Meeting is closed I should like, on behalf of the visitors j^. Ramakrishna 
to Pusa, to express our thanks to Mr. Fletcher and the members of Ayyar. 
the Entomological Staff at Pusa for the great trouble they have taken 
in making this Entomological Meeting a success and in affording every 
assistance and help in the way of information in every way to us visitors 
to Pusa. We shall go away not only equipped with the latest inform- 
ation on our subject but, as Mr. Fletcher has just pointed out, with 
some ideas, which will be new to many of us, regarding points about 
which we require fuller information. We hope that this Meeting of 
Entomological workers in India will become a permanent feature of 
our programmes. The idea of holding a Meeting of this sort was ini- 
tiated and put into practice by the Imperial Entomologist two years 
ago. We Entomologists have been the pioneers in the institution of 
these Sectional Meetings and, if the idea is extended to other branches 
of the Agricultural Service, we shall have the satisfaction of knowing 
that, and, when workers in other branches of Agriculture are holding 



312 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

their first Meeting, we shall be holding the third of our Entomological 
Meetings. 
Mr. Fletcher. I am glad to hear that our efforts have met with appreciation. As 

I have already said several times, it is a matter of equal satisfaction 
to us to see you at Pusa and to give you all the help we can and to 
interchange mutual experiences. 
I now declare this Meeting closed. 

[ End of proceedings.] 



INDEX. 



All scientific names of insects and plants are indexed under both specific and generic names, 

but page references are only given under the latter. 
All names in italics are treated as Synonyms. 



abdornhialis, Aulacophora. 

abelmoschus, Hibiscus. 

aberrans, Pj'rilla. 

ablutella, Anerastia. 

Abutilon indicum, 128. 

abyssinia, Spodoptera. 

abyssinica, Guizotia. 

Acacia arabica, 274. 

Acanthophorus serraticornis, on silk cotton, 

131 ; on mango, 227. 
Achsea janata, on castor, 86 ; on pomegra- 
nate, 232 ; sucking grapes, 235 ; on rose, 
265. 
achatinus, Brachytrypes portentosus. 
Acherontia lachesis, on Erythrina, 77. 
Acherontia styx, on lablab, 55 ; on Sesamum, 

84 ; on brinjal, 287. 
Achras sapota, 249. 
Aclerda japonica, on cane, 152. 
aconitifolius, Phaseolus. 
Acontia graellsi, on cotton, 101. 

„ intersepta, on cotton, 101 ; on 

bhindi, 123. 
„ malvse, on cotton, 101 ; on bhindi, 

123 ; on Abutilon indicum, 129. 
,, transversa, on bhindi, 123. 
Acrocercops spp., on mango, 219. 

„ ordinatella, on Camphor, 38. 

Acrolepia manganeutis, on yam, 297. 
actseon, Cantharis. 
acteus, Rhyncolaba. 
aculeata, Lantana. 
„ Sesbania. 
acuta, Chiloloba. 
acutangula, Luffa. 

Acythopeus citrulli, on water melon, 306. 
Adisura atkinsoni, on lablab, 54, 56. 
Adoretus bicaudatus, on rose, 264. 
„ caliginosus, on rose, 264. 
„ duvauceli, on vine, 234 ; on fig, 

251. 
„ horticola, on vine, 234; on plum, 
245 ; on pear, 247 ; on applo, 
248 ; on fig, 251. 
„ lasiopygus, on vine, 234 ; on rose, 
264.' 



Adoretus stoliczkae , on rose, 264. 

,, versutus, on vine, 234; on plum,. 
245 ; on pear, 247 ; on apple, 
248 ; on fig, 251 ; on rose, 264.. 
adusta, Aphis. 
Mgle marmelos, 215. 
cegrotalis, Pachyzancla bipunctalis. 
segyptiaca, Icerya. 

„ Sesbania. 

cenescens, Hispa armigera. 
iEolopus (see Epacromia). 
affaber, Alcides. 
affinis, Oides. 

,, Pempheres. 
africana, Gryllotalpa. 
Agathi, 74. 

Agave americana, 135. 
Agonoscelis nubila, on juar, 184 ; on carrot, 

298 ; on aniseed, 301. 
agramma, Plusia peponis. 
Agrilus grisator, on lemon, 211. 
Agromyza sp., in lilies, 267. 

,, on tur, 44 ; on mung, 52 ; 

on lablab, 56 ; on cowpea, 
59 ; on pea, 62 ; on Pisum 
arvense, 65. 
Agrotis c-nigrum, on potato, 284. 

„ flammatra, on gram, 48 ; on pea,. 
63 ; on Nigerseed, 94 ; on bhindi, 
122. 
„ ypsilon, 8 ; on gram, 48 ; on indigo, 
80 ; on linseed, 90 ; on lucerne, 
206 ; on tobacco, 269 ; on opium 
poppy, 273 ; on cabbage, 279 ;. 
on cauliflower, 282 ; on potato, 
284 ; on onion, 297. 
Ailanthus excelsa, 263. 
Akh (see Calotropis). 
alba, Motacilla. 
albistigma, Cirphis. 
albistriga, Amsacta. 
Albizzia, 79. 

„ lebbek, 79. 
albizzia?, Tachardia. 
alboguttata, Prota?tia. 
albopunctata, Oxyeetonia. 
Alcides sp., on bhindi, 125. 

313 



3H 



INDEX. 



All ides .1 Saber, on cotton, 121 ; on gogu, 
126. 
,, bubo, on cluster bean, 61 ; on 
dhaincha, 73 ; on agathi, 75 ; on 
indigo, 81. 
„ collaris, on tur, 46 ; on muni;, 52 ; 

on lablab, 56. 
„ fabricii, on horse gram, 57 ; on cotton, 

L21. 
,, frenatus, on mango, 221, 
„ leopardus, on cotton, 121 ; on bhindi, 
125; on ambadi, 126 
alcmene, Chloridolum. 
decto, Theretra. 
Aleurocantbus (Aleyrodes) nubilans, on betel 

leaf, 300. 
Ueurocanthus (Aleyrodes) spiniferus, on 

( 'itrus, 214. 
U< urodt ?, Neomaskellia bergi. 
Aleurolobus barodensis, on cane, 150, 
Aleyrodes sp., on pomegranate, 233. 
,, citri (see Dialeurodes) 
„ eotesii, on rose, 266. 
,, ricini, on castor, 88 
,, on cane, 150 ; on maize, 193 ; on 
mango, 228. 
Allium cepa, 297. 

,, sativum, 297. 
alinana, Junonia. 
Almond, 246. 

., Country. 

Aloe, 135. 

Alphitobius piceus, on sotton, 116. 
alternans, Phloeobius. 
alternus, Stauropus. 
Altha nivea, on castor, 87. 
Althaea rosea, 130. 
Amaranthus, 296. 
Amarantus spp., 296. 
Ambadi, 125-127. 

Amblyrrhinus poric'ollis., on mango, 219. 
American Blight (see Eriosoma lanigera). 
americana, Agave. 
Ammophila, 13. 

Amorphophallus campanulatus, 298 
amphix, Lyncestis. 
Ampittia dioscorides (maro), on rice, L64. 

ba albistriga, control, 55 ; on ground- 
nut, 91 ; on juar, 179 ; on cumbu, 187 ; 
on ragi, 199. 
Amsacta lineola, on sunflower, 96. 

,, moorei, on soy-bean, 47 ; on moth, 
53 ; on lablab, 54 ; control, 53-55 ; 
on s,um hemp, 68 ; on Sesamum, 
83 ; on castor, 87 ; on groundnut. 



91 ; on cotton, 99 ; on juar, 179 ; 
on cumbu, 187 ; on maize, 189 ; on 
ragi, 199 ; on kodra, 203. 
Amygdalus communis, 2 16. 
Amyna octo, on sann hemp, 68. 
Anacampsis nerteria (see Aproserema). 
Anacardium occidentale, 255. 
. 1 iniikombu (see Pachydiplosis oryzse). 
Ananas sativa, 236. 
anandi, Microtermes obesi. 
Anarsia ephippias, on mung and urid, 51 ; 
on moth, 53 ; on groundnut, 91. 
,, melanoplecta, on mango, 22. 
anastomosalis, Omphisa. 
Anataractis plumigera, on wild indigo, 81. 
Anatona stillata, on juar, 182; on bajra, 

188 ; on mania, 200 ; on tenai, 201. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, on cotton, 114, 
Anatrachyntis simplex, on cotton, 114. 
anceps, Antonina. 

Ancylolomia chrysographella, on rice, 165. 
Andraca bipunctata, on tea, 21. 
Andres-Maire Traps, 48. 
andrewesi, Platypria. 
Andropogon sorghum, 178. 
Anerastia ablutella, on cane, 146 ; on Cyperus 

rotundus, 146. 
anguina, Trichosanthes. 
angustatus, Calocoris. 
Aniseed, 301. 
anisum, Pimpinella. 
annularis, Caloclytus. 
annuus, Helianthus. 
Anomala rubus, on cinchona, 37 ; on 

groundnut, 94 ; on bajra, 187. 
Anomala antiqua, on Sesamum, 83 ; on 

maize, 190. 
Anomala aurora, on peach, 240 
,, bengalensis, on cane, 146. 
„ decorata, on peach, 240. 
,, dussumieri, on mango, 219. 

,, lineatipennis, on plum, 245. 
,, j pallidospila, on peach, 240. 
,, polita (varians), on cane, 146 ; on 

rice, 174 : on maize, 192 ; on 
apricot, 245. 
,, rufiventris, on berberry, 254. 

,, transversa, on cherry, 250. 
Anomalococcus indicus, on babul, 275. 
Anona sp., 257. 

,, squamosa, 256. 
Anoplocnemis phasiana, on tur, 45 ; on 
mung and urid, 52 ; on Erythrina, 76 ; 
on indigo 82 ; on juar 184 ; on brinjal, 
289. 



I N D E X. 



315 



Antestia cruciata, on coffee, 36 ; on mango, 
222. 

Anthomyiad Fly, on juar, 178 ; on bajra, 
186 ; on maize, 188, on sama, 202 ; on 
china, 202 ; on gandhli, 202 ; on kodon, 
202 ; in orange fruits, 213. 

anthracina, Megachile. 

Anthracophora atromaculata, on juar, 182. 

Antigastra catalaunalis, on Sesamum, 84. 

antiqua, Anomala. 

antiquorum, Colocasia. 

antonii, Helopeltis. 

Antonina anceps, on bamboo, 205. 

Anua coronata, sucking grapes, 235. 

aonidum, Chrysomphalus (Asjndiotus). 

Aphanus sordidus, on Sesamum, 85 ; on 
groundnut, 93. 

Aphidius avense, 198. 

Aplu'ds, on tea, 27 ; on mung and urid, 52 ; 
on lablab, 57 ; on sweet pea, 58 ; on 
cowpea, 60 ; on cluster bean, 61 ; on 
lentil, 62 ; on indigo, SI ; on safnower, 
97 ; on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 128 ; on 
Calotropis, 137 ; on cane, 150 ; on juar, 
186 ; on bajra, 187 ; on maize, 193 ; on 
wheat, 197, 198 ; ragi roots, 200 ; on 
bamboo, 205 ; on lucerne, 208 ; on senji, 
208 ; on bersim, 209 ; on plantain, 239 ; 
on peach, 244 ; control, 244 ; on coconut, 
261 ; on chrysanthemum, 263 ; on tobacco, 
272 ; on henbane, 274 ; on mustard, 277 ; 
on cauliflower, 282 ; on potato, 285 ; on 
brinjal, 289 ; on chillies, 290 ; on onion, 

297 ; on coriander, 298 ; on fenugreek, 

298 ; on cucurbits, 304, 307. 
Aphis adusta, on juar, 185. 

„ brassicse, on mustard, 277. 
„ cardui, on tur, 46 ; on indigo, 81. 
,, gossypii, on cotton, 117. 
,, malva?, on bhindi, 124. 
apicalis, Nephotettix. 
A I lion, in jute, 134. 

„ sp., on tur, 45. 
Apium graveolens, 298. 
Apoderus tranquebaricus, on mango, 219 ; 

on country almond, 246. 
Apogonia ferruginea, on silk cotton, 131. 
Apomccyna histrio, on cucurbits, 304, 307. 
„ perotteti, on cucurbits, 304, 307. 

pertigera, on cucurbits, 303, 307. 
Apple, 248-249. 
approximator, Aristobia. 
Apricot, 245-246. 

Apriona cinerea, on mulberry, 255. 
„ germari, on mulberry, 255. 



Aproserema (Anacampsis) nerteria, on Caja- 

nus, 43 ; on soy-bean, 47 ; on groundnut, 

92. 
aprobola, Argyroploce. 
Apsylla cistellata, on mango, 221. 
Apterite, 29, 37. 
Apus cancriformis, on rice, 159, 
Aquatic Dynastine Beetle, on rice, 169. 
arabica, Acacia, 
arabica, Coffea. 
arachidis, Sphenoptera. 
Arachis hypogsea, 90. 
Arbela sp., on rose, 265. 

„ , on Rain-tree., 38." 

„ dea, on tea, 22. 

„ quadrinotata, on tea 22 ; in orange, 
211 ; in mango 227. 

,, tetraonis, in orange, 211 ; in mango, 
227 ; in litchi, 230 ; in guava, 231 ; 
in peach, 244 ; in jak, 252 ; in ber, 
254. 

Argina argus, on sann hemp, 68. 

,, cribraria, on sann hemp, 67, 71. 
„ syringa, on sann hemp, 68. 
argus, Argir^a. 

Argynnis hyperbius (niphe), on violet, 268. 
Argyroploce aprobola, on mango, 219 ; on 
litchi, 230 ; on dahlia, 267. 
,, erotias, on mango, 219. 

,, illepida, on litchi, 230; on wood- 

apple, 234 ; on tamarind, 257. 
„ leucaspis, on litchi, 229. 

Arhar, 41. 
aria, Matapa. 
arietinum, Cicer. 
Aristobia approximator, on apple, 248 ; od 

cherramoya, 257. 
Armeniaca vulgaris, 245. 
armigera, Hispa. 

Army Worm (see Cirphis unipuncta). 
arotra?a, Brachmia. 
Arrow -root, 298. 
Artichoke, Jerusalem. 
Artocarpus incisa, 252. 

; , integrifolia, 252.' 
arundinacea, Maianta 
arvense, Pisum. 
asellus, Blosyrus. 
Asparagus, 294. 
asperulus, Ceuthorrhynchus. 
Asphondylia sesami, on clusterbean, 61 ; 

on Sesamum, 84. 
Aspidiolus (see also Chrysomphalus). 
Aspidiotus, on pear, 247. 



310 



INDEX. 



Aspidiotua camellia?, on tea, 26 ; on cin- 
chona, 37. 

„ curcuma?, on turmeric, 295. 

,, destructor, on mango, 229 ; on 

plantain, 239 ; on coconut, 

260 ; on pepper, 300. 
.,, hartii, on turmeric, 295. 

„ latania?, on Citrus, 214 ; on 

guava, 232 ; on plantain, 239 ; 

on tamarind, 257. 

,, orientalis, on bael, 216 ; on 

pomegranate, 234 ; on plan- 
tain, 239 ; on tamarind, 257 ; 
on rose, 266 ; on cycads, 266. 
„ tamarindi, on tamarind, 257. 

,, trilobitiformis, on mango, 229. 

aspidistra?, Hemichionaspis. 
Aspidomorpha indica, on sweet potato, 292. 

„ miliaris, on sweet potato, 291. 

aspidomorpha?, Cassidocida. 
Aspongopus brunneus, on cucurbits, 304, 

307. 
Aspongopus janus. on lablab, 57 ; on 

brinjal, 289 ; on cucurbits, 304, 307. 
assulta, Heliothis. 

Asterolecaniuin miliaris, on bamboo, 205. 
Astycus ehrysochlorus, on Rain-tree, 38. 
„ lateralis, on Cajanus, 42 ; on cluster 
bean, 61 ; on cotton. 103 ; on cane, 
149. 

Atactogaster finitimus, on cotton, 98, 102. 
Athalia, larva? on violet, 268. 
Atlialia leucostoma, on mustard, 276. 

„ proxima, on mustard, 276 ; on 
cabbage, 278; 279 ; on cauliflower, 

282 : on turnip, 282 ; on radish, 

283 ; on cress, 284. 

Athesapeuta oryza?, on rice, 169. 
atkinsoni, Adisura. 

,, , Idiocerus. 
Atmetonychus peregrinus, on bhindi, 123 ; 

on ber, 253 ; on opium poppy, 273 ; on 

potato. 285. 
atomosa, Exelastis. 
Atractomorpha crenulata, on cotton, 98; on 

tobacco, 270, 271; on brinjal, 288; on 

Amaranthus, 296 ; on arrow-root, 298. 
atripennis, Aulacophora. 
atromaculata, Anthracophora. 
Atteva fabriciella, on Ailanthus, 263. 
niveigutta, on Ailanthus, 263. 
augias, Telicota. 
augur. Serinetha. 



Aulacophora abdominalis, on lucerne, 207 e 

on cucurbits, 302, 306 ; on snake gourd, 

307 ; on gourds, 307. 
Aulacophora atripennis, on cucurbits, 303, 

307. 
Aulacophora stovensi, on cucurbits, 303, 

307. 
Aularches miliaris, on coffee, 28 ; on Eryth- 

rina, 77 ; on coconut, 260. 
aurantii, Chrysomphalus {Aspidiotua). 

„ Toxoptera. 
auricilia, Chilo (see Diatra?a supressalis) 
aurif.ua, Scirpophaga xanthogastrella. 
aurora, Anomala. 
australis, Ptecticus. 
Avena sativa, 198. 
avena?, Aphidius. 
Azazia rubricans, on mung and urid, 51 , on 

cowpea, 59. 
Azygophleps scalaris, on dhaincha, 73 ; on 

agathi, 75 ; on chitagathi, 76. 



B. 



Babul, 274-275. 

bada, Parnara. 

Bael, 215. 

Bagrada picta, on mustard, 277; on cabbage, 

281 ; on cauliflower, 282 ; on turnip, 283 ,. 

on radish, 283. 
Bajra, 186-188. 
Bakla, 62. 
Bakul, 38, 

Balaninus c-album, on jamun. 247„ 
ballardi, Tylopholis. 
Balsam, 268. 

Balsam if era impatiens, 268. 
balsamina?, Mctialma. 
Bamboos, 204-205. 
Bambusa spp., 204. 
bambusa?, Oregma. 
Banana (see Plantain), 
banian, Hieroglyphus. 
Bara Sim (see Sword Bean). 
barbatum, Stromatium. 
Bark-eating Borers of Tea, 22. 
Barley, 199. 

barodensis, Aleurolobus. 
basalis, Chsetocnema. 
batatas, Ipomcea. 
Batocera rubus, on rubber, 36 ; on siik, 

cotton, 131 ; on mango, 227 ; on fig., 251 } 

on Moringa, 299. 
boatrix, Lymantria. 



INDEX. 



317 



Beetroot, 283, 

Beet, Silver, 
,, Sugar. 

Belionota prasina, on mango, 227 ; on 
guava, 231. 

Belippa ferruginea, on coffee, 28. 

hengalella, Heterographis. 

bengalensis, Anomala. 
,, , Pentodon. 

Ber, 253-254. 

Berberis sp., 254. 

Berberry, 254. 

borgi, Neomaskellia. 

Beta vulgaris, 283. 

Betel Leaf, 300. 

betle, Piper. 

bevani, Caltoris (Parnara). 

Bhindi, 122-125. 

bicaudatus, Adoretus. 

biclavis, Chionaspis. 

bicolor, Meranoplus. 

bicolor, Nupserha. 

bidentulus, Corigetus. 

biflorus, Dolichos. 

bilobus, Olenecamptus. 

bimaculatus, Liogryllus. 

binotalis, Crocidolomia. 

Binsitta (see Tonica). 

Biosteres carpomyise, 11, 254. 

bipunctalis, Pacbyzancla. 

bipunctata, Andraca. 

bipunctatus, Nephotettix. 

bipunctifer, Schcenobius. 

Birds checking Xylotrechus quadripes, 31. 

bispinifrons, Pentodon. 

bispinosa, Trapa. 

Biston suppressaria, on tea, 18. 

Black Thrips of tea, 27. 

blandus, Myllocerus. 

blapsigona, Phthorimsea. 

Blister Beetles (see Meloid Beetles). 

blitealis, Noorda. 

Blosyrus asellus, on sweet potato, 292. 

„ insequalis, on cluster bean, 61 

on indigo, 81. 
bceticus, Polyonimatus. 
Bollworm, Cotton (see Earias). 
Bombax malabaricum, 130. 
Bombotelia jocosatrix, on mango, 218. 
Borassus flabelliformis, 262. 
Borers, Cane, 142-145. 

,, in trees, control, 227. 
Borolia venalba, on rice, 163. 
Bostrychid Beetle, boring mangosteen, 253. 
Bottle-gourd, 306. 



Bougainvillea, 268. 
Brachmia arotraea, on rice, 164. 
brachyrrhinus, Lixus. 
Brachytes sp., on asparagus, 294 
Brachytrypes portentosus (achalinus), on 
indigo, 79 ; on sesamum, 83 ; on cotton, 
98 ; on jute, 132 ; on tobacco, 270 ; on 
cabbage, 278; on cauliflower, 281; on 
chillies, 290. 
Bracon fletcheri, 254. 
Brahmina coriacea, on vine, 234 ; on plum, 

245 ; on pear, 247 ; on apple, 248. 
Brahmina cribricollis, on berberry, 254. 
brasiliensis, Hevea. 
Brassica campestris, 275. 
„ dichotoma, 275. 
,, juncea, 275. 
„ oleracea, 278. 
>> ,, Caula-rapa, 282. 

,, „ cauliflora, 281. 

brassica?, Aphis. 
,, , Phaedon. 
,, , Pieris. 
Bread-Froit, 252. 
bretinghami, Pachnephorus. 
brevistylus, Dacus. 
Brinjal, 286-289. 

Brithys crini, on lilies, 266 ; on crocus, 268. 
Bruchus sp., on lablab, 57 ; on cowpea, 60. 
„ affinis, on pea, 64 ; on Pisum 
arvense, 65 ; on stored pulses, 
308. 
„ chinensis, on tur, 45 ; on horse 
gram, 57 ; on cowpea, 60 ; on 
pea, 64 ; on stored pulses, 308. 
„ theobromas, on tur, 45. 
brunneus, Aspongopus. 
bubo, Alcides. 
Bucculatrix loxoptila, on cotton, 102. 

„ thurberiella, on cotton in Cali- 

fornia, 102. 



Cabbage, 278-281. 

cresalis, Margaronia (Glyphodes). 

c-album, Balaninus. 

caffer, Sphenarches. 

cajani, Ceroplastodes. 

Cajanus indicus, 41-47. 

Calandra oryzse, in stored wheat, 309. 

caliginosus, Adoretus. 

Callitettix versicolor, on cane, 150. 



313 



INDEX. 



Calobata sp., on ginger, 294; on turmeric, 

295. 
Caloclytus annularis, 205. 
Calocoris angustatus, on juar, 184 ; on 

bajra, 187 ; on maize, 192. 
Calotropis, 135-136. 
Calpe ophideroides, sucking peaches, 240 ; 

nectarines, 250. 
Caltoris (Parnara) bevani, on rice, 104. 
„ (Parnara) colaca, on rice, 104. 
Camellia theifera (see Tea). 
camellise, Aspidiotus. 
cam< lliae, Parlatoria pergandei. 
cami nodes, Hilarographa. 
campanulatus, Amorphophallus. 
campestris, Brassica. 
Camphor, 38. 

Camponotus compressus, 275. 
Canavalia ensiformis, 65. 
cancriformis, Apus. 
Cane-Borers, 142-145. 
canidia, Pieris. 
cannabinus, Hibiscus. 
Cannabis sativa, 274. 

Cantharid Beetles. (See Meloid Beetles). 

Cantharis actseon, on cane, 149 ; on china, 

202 ; on lucerne, 207. 

,, hirticornis, on dhaincha, 72. 

,, ruficollis, on tenai, 201. 

Canthecona furcellata, predaceous on Uto- 

theisa, 07. 
capensis, Perigea. 

Cappaea taprobanensis, on orange, 213. 
Capsicum spp. 290. 
capsularis, < lorchorus. 
Capua Lnvalidana, on betel leaf, 300. 
Cardamom, 36. 

,, Scolytid, .'57. 
(' irdamomum, Elettaria. 
cardoni, Idgia. 
cardui, Aphis. 
carica, Papaya. 
carota, Daucus. 

Carpocapsa pomonella (see Laspeyresia). 
Carpomyia vresuviana, 11; on ber, 254. 
carpomyise, Biosteres. 
Carrot, 298. 

Carthamus tinctorius, 96. 
Caryoborua gonagra, cm tamarind, 257. 
Cashew, 255. 
i ! ava, 298. 
Cassid Beetle, on sweet potato, 292. 

icida aspidomorphse, parasite of A. 
miliaris, 291. 
castanese, Phragmatcecia. 



Castor, 86-89. 
catalaunalis, Antigastra. 
catappa, Terminalia. 

Catephia inquieta, on sweet potato, 291. 
catjang, Vigna. 

Catochrysops cnejus, on tur, 44; on mung 

and urid, 52 ; on lablab, 56 ; on sweet 

pea, 58 ; on cowpea, 60 ; on sword bean, 

65. 

Catochrysops pandava, on Cycads, 266. 

Catopsilia pyranthe, on dhaincha, 72 ; on^ 

agathi, 75 ; on chitagathi, 76. 
caudatus, Chsetodacus. 
caula-rapa, Brassica oleracea. 
caulifiora, Brassica oleracea. 
Cauliflower, 281-282. 
cautella, Ephestia. 

Cecidomyia oryzse (see Pachydiplosis). 
Cecidomyiad Flies, on juar, 183 ; on cunibn. 

188. 
Celama squalida, on sann hemp, 71. 
celerio, Hippotion. 
Celery, 298. 

celtis, Selepa (Plolheia). 
Centipedes, on cane, 149. 
centriniformis, Rhadinopus. 
cepa, Allium, 
cephalonica, Corcyra. 
Cerambycid grubs in orange, 211. 
cerasifera, Primus. 
Ceratina hieroglyphica, on rose, 265. 
ceratitina, Stictaspis. 
cerealella, Sitotroga. 
Cerococcus corymbosus, on jak, 252. 

„ hibisci, on cotton, 118. 

Ceroplastes floridensis, on mango, 228 ; 
on fig, 251 ; on cashew, 255 ; 
on custard apple, 257. 
Ceroplastodes cajani, on lablab, 57 ; on 

tulsi, 207. 
Cetoniad Beetles, on cotton, 103 ; on bhindi, 
123 ; on rice, 178 ; on juar, 182 ; on tenai, 
201. 
Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus, on Cajanus, 43. 
C'hffltocncma basalis, on sann hemp, 08. 
Chsetodacus caudatus, in orange, 213. 

„ corroctus, on mango, 220 ; in 

poach, 241. 
,, cucurbitae, control by parasites, 

11, 305 ; on cucurbits, 304, 
307, foodplants, 304. 
„ diversus, in orange, 213 ; in 

bottle gourd, 307. 
„ du plicatus, in peach, 241. 



INDEX. 



319 



Chaetodacus ferrugineus, in orange, 213; in 
mango, 226 ; in guava, 231 
in peach, 241 ; in sapota, 249 
in loquat, 250 ; in jak, 252 
in chillies, 290. 
„ garciniae, 253. 

,, tuberculatus, in peach, 241. 

„ zonatus, in bael, 216 ; in mango, 

226 ; in peach. 241 ; in sapota, 
249 ; in bottle gourd, 307. 
Chalaenosoma metallicum, on lilies, 267. 
Chalcidid attacking chillies, 290. 
Chalciope hyppasia, on indigo, 80 ; on 

lucerne, 206. 
chalcytes, Plusia. 
Chapra (Parnara) mathias, on rice, 164 ; 

on juar, 180. 
Chatra, 178. 

Chelaria spathota, on mango, 219. 
Cherramoya, 257. 
Cherry, 250. 

Chilades laius, on Citrus, 210. 
„ putli, on indigo, 80. 
Chillies, 290. 

Chilo simplex, in cane, 143 ; in rice, 174 ; 
in juar, 181-182; parasites, 182; in 
bajra, 187 ; in maize, 191 ; in marua, 200. 
Chiloloba acuta, on rice, 178; on juar, 183; 
on bajra, 188 ; on rose, 264, 265 ; on 
cabbage, 278 ; on cauliflower, 281. 
chinensis, Bruchus. 
Chionaspis sp., on cotton, 119. 

,, biclavis, on cinchona, 37. 
,, decurvata, on bamboo, 205. 
„ dilatata, on mango, 228. 
„ manni, on tea, 26. 
,, vitis, on mango, 228. 
Chitagathi, 76. 

Chloridea obsoleta (see Heliothis). 
Chloridolum alcmene, on orange, 211. 
chlorion, Popillia. 
chloroleucus, Tanymecus. 
Chlumetia transversa, on mango, 220. 
Cholam (.see Juar.) 

,, Cecidomyiad, 1S3. 
„ Fly, 178, 188, 202. 
chotanica, Phyllotreta. 
chromataria, Earias cupreoviridis. 
Chrotogonus spp., on gram, 49 ; on sann 
hemp, 66 ; on indigo, 79 ; on castor, 86 
on groundnut. 90 ; on Nigerseed, 95 
on cotton, 98 ; trials of Texas bait, 160 
on juar, 181 ; on bajra, 186 ; on maize 
191 ; on wheat, 193 ; on tobacco, 269 
on opium poppy, 274. 



Chrysanthemum, 263. 
chrysippus, Danais. 
chrysochlorus, Astycus. 
chrysographella, Ancylolomia. 
Chrysomelid Beetles, on orange, 211. 
Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus) aonidum (ficus), 
on orange, 214 ; on vine, 
236 ; on betel-nut, 262. 
,, {Aspidiotus) aurantii, on 

orange, 214 ; on rose, 266 ; 
on cycads, 266. 
„ (Aspidiotus) rossi, on guava, 

232 ; on pomegranate, 234. 
Cicadas, on coffee, 29. 
Cicer arietinum, 48. 
Cinchona, 37. 
cinchona?, Helopeltis. 
cinerea, Apriona. 
cingulatus, Dysdercus 
circinalis, Cycas. 
circumdata, Metriona. 
Cirphis albistigma, on rice, 162. 
„ compta, on rice, 163. 
,, frag'ilis, on wheat, 195, 
„ insularis, on rice, 162. 
„ loreyi, on rice, 162; on juar, 179 1 ; 
on maize, 189; on wheat, 195; 
on oats, 198 ; on gram, 49. 
„ unipuncta, on rice, 161 ; control, 
161 ; on juar, 179 ; on maize, 
189 ; on wheat, 195 ; on oats, 198; 
on kodon, 202. 
cistellata, Apsylla. 
citrella, Phyllocnistis. 
citri, Dialeurodes (Aleyrodes.) 
„ , Euphalcrus. 
,, , Prays. 

,, , Pseudococcus (Dactylopius). 
citrulli, Acythopeus. 
Citrullusspp., 301. 
Citrus spp., 209. 

Clania crameri, on tea, 19 ; on castor, 87 ; 
on babul, 274. 
,, soror, 88. 
Clavigralla gibbosa, on tur, 45 ; on lablab, 
57. 
„ horrens, on tur, 45 ; on cotton. 

118. 
Cletthara sceptica (see Giaura) 
clientella, Phycita. 
Clitea picta, on bael, 215 
Cluster Bean, 60. 
clypealis, Idiocerus. 
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, on rice, 166. 
cnejus, Catochrysops. 



32 m 



INDEX. 



c-nigrum, Agrotis. 


Corchorus capsularis, 132. 


Coccus (Lecanium) mangifene, on mango, 


Corcyra cephalonica, in stored rice, 307. 


228. 


Cordylurid Fly, in rice, 155, 179. 


„ viridis, on coffee, 34-36 ; on cinchona, 


core, Euplcea. 


37 ; on guava, 232 ; on loquat, 


coriacca, Brahmina. 


250. 


coriacella, Pyroderces. 


Cockchafer grubs, on coffee, 29 ; on cinchona, 


Coriander, 298. 


37 ; on gram, 50 ; on juar, 186 ; on wheat, 


Coriandrum sativum, 298. 


196 ; on barley, 199 ; on strawberry, 256. 


Corigetus bidentulus, on tea, 21. 


Coconut, 257-261 


Corizus rubicundus, on bhindi, 124; on 


Cocos nucifera, 257. 


holly hock, 130. 


Codling .Moth, 249. 


cornifrons, Mudaria. 


i loelosterna scabrator, on tea, 22. 


coronata, Anua. 


,, spinator, on cotton, 121 ; on 


correctus, Chsetodacus. 


apple, 24S ; on ber, 254 ; on 


corymbosus, Cerococcus. 


rose, 265 ; on babul, 275. 


Cosmophila erosa, on cotton, 100 ; on 


cceruloa, Cyphosticha. 


bhindi, 123; on rozcllc, 125; 


coerulescens, Xylonomus. 


on ambadi, 120. 


Coffea arabica (see Coffee). 


,, fulvida, on Abutilon indicum, 


coffese, Zeuzera. 


129. 


coffearia, Homona. 


„ sabulifera, on jute, 133. 


coffee, 28-36. 


Cosmopolites sordidus, on plantain, 238. 


colaca, Caltoris. 


Cosmascarta relata, on jak, 252. 


Colasposoma semicostatum, on orange, 212. 


cotesii, Aleyrodes. 


Colemania sphenarioides, on mung and urid, 


Cotton, 98-122. 


51 ; on cowpea, 59 ; Texas bait not effec- 


Cotton Bollworm (see Earias). 


tive. 160 ; on juar, 181 ; on cumbu, 187 ; 


Country Almond, 246. 


on tenai, 201. 


Cowpea, 59. 


' olias croceus fieldi, on shaftal, 208. 


Crabs, on rice, 155-159. 


hyale, on shaftal, 208. 


Craspedia defamataria, on lucerne, 207 


collaris, Alcides. 


crassicornis, Gallobelicus. 


Collyrine Tiger-beetles in coffee, 34. 


Creatonotus gangis, on coffee, 28 ; on ground- 


i lolocasia antiquorum, 298. 


nut, 91 ; on jute, 133 ; on lucerne, 206. 


Common Thrips of tea, 27. 


crenulata, Atractomorpha. 


communis, Amygdalua 


Cress, 284. 


, Pyrus. 


cretaceus, Sympiezomias. 


„ , Ricinus. 


cribraria, Argina. 


compressus, Camponotus. 


„ , Coptosoma. 


compta, Cirphis. 


cribricollis, Brahmina. 


conferta, Holotriohia. 


Crickets (set Brachytrypes, Gryllodes, Gryl- 


coniotalis, Metasia. 


lotalpa, Liogryllus). 


Conosia irrorata, on rice, 175. 


Cricula trifenestrata, on mango 218 ; on 


Contarinia on cotton (see Dasyncura 


cashew 255. 


gorsypii). 


crini, Brit h ys. 


' <uif heyla rotunda, on tea, 20 ; on coconut, 


crinitus, Sitones. 


259. 


critica, Eucosma (Eucelis). 


convolvuli, Herse. 


crocata, Tarache. 


Coptocycla sp., on sweet potato, 292. 


croceus, Colias. 


Coptosoma spp. on tur 46 ; on cluster bean, 


Crocidolomia binotalis, on mustard, 276, 


61 ; on dhaincha" 73. 


277; on cabbago, 280 ; on cauliflower, 282 ; 


„ cribraria on mung and urid 51 ; 


on turnip, 282 ; on radish, 283 ; on 


on lablab, 57 ; on agathi, 76. 


cress. 284. 


Coptotermes on rubber in Ceylon, 36. 


Crocidophora ptyophora, on bamboo, 204. 


coracana, Eleusine. 


Crops, classification of, 82. 


Coral Treo (see Erythrina). 


Crotalaria juncea, 65. 



INDEX. 



321 



cruciata, Antestia. 

Cryptocephalus dodecaspilus, on rose, 264 

Cryptpchsetum sp., 275. 

Cryptorhynchus gravis, on mango, 225. 

,, mangiferae, on mango, 225, 

,, poricollis, on mango, 225. 

cucumerina, Trichosanthes. 
Cucumis spp., 301. 
Cucurbita spp., 301. 
cucurbitse, Chaetodacus. 
Cumbu, 186-188. 

,, Cecidomyiad, 188. 
„ Fly, 178, 202. 
cupreoviridis, Earias. 
Curcuma longa. 295. 
curcumse, Aspidiotus. 
Curry Leaf Plant, 216. 
Custard Apple, 256-257. 
Cyamopsis psoralioides, 60. 
cyanea, Mimastra, 
Cycads, 266. 
Cycas circinalis, 266. 
„ revoluta, 266. 
Cyclopelta siccifolia, on tur, 45 ; on Eryth- 
rina, 78 ; on Moringa, 299 ; on betel leaf, 
300. 
Cylas formicarius, on sweet potato, 292, 293. 
Cyphosticha ccerulea, on Cajanus, 42 ; on 

lablab, 56. 
Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, on castor, 88 ; 
on groundnut, 90 ; on cotton, 103 ; on 
marua, 199. 
Cyrtotrachelus dux and C. longipes, on 
bamboo, 204. 



Pactylopius citri (see Pseudococcus). 
,, , Pseudococcus nipse. 
>» , „ virgatus. 

Dacus brevistylus, control, 243 ; on melons, 
304. 
,, longistylus, on Calotropis, 137. 
,, spp. (see also Chaetodacus). 
Dadap (see Erythrina). 
Dahlia, 267. 

dakslia, Papilio helenus. 
Danais chrysippus, on Calotropis, 136. 
Dasychira mendosa, on tea, 21 ; on coffee, 

28 ; on castor, 87. 
Dasychira securis, on cane, 148; on rice, 163; 
on juar, 179; on wheat, 195; 
on ragi, 199 ; on guinea grass, 
204. 



Dasyneura gossypii, on cotton, 103. 

Dasyses rugosellus, on papaya, 257. 

daubei, Plusia. 

Daucus carota, 298. 

dea, Arbela. 

decipiens, Sympiezomias. 

decorata, Anomala. 

decurvata, Chionaspis. 

defamataria, Craspedia. 

defoliator, Emperorrhinus. 

Deilephila nerii, on cinchona, 37 } n 

oleander, 267. 
demoleus, Papilio. 
Dendrocalamus spp., 204. 
dentifer, Myllocerus. 
depressariae, Urogaster. 
depressella, Papua, 
depressum, Gonocephalum. 
depunctalis, Nymphula. 
Dereodus mastos, on ambadi, 126. 

pollinosus, on Calotropis, 136 ; 
on apple, 248. 
derogata, Sylepta. 
Desi mat'ir (see Pisum arvense). 
Desmidophorus hebes, on Hibiscus, 128 • 

on silk cotton, 131. 
destructor, Aspidiotus. 
Deudorix epijarbas, on pomegranate, 233. 
Dhaincha, 72. 

Diacrisia obliqua, on soy-bean, 47 ; on 
mung and urid, 51 ; on lablab, 54 ; on 
sweet pea, 58 ; on cluster bean, 61 ; on 
pea, 64 ; on sword bean, 65 ; on Sesa- 
mum, 83 ; on castor, 86 ; on linseed, 89 ; 
on groundnut, 91 ; on sunflower, 95 ; 
on cotton, 101 ; on ambadi, 126 ; on 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, 127 ; on Abutilon 
indicum, 129 ; on jute, 132 ; on plantain, 
237 ; on chrysanthemum, 263 ; on to- 
bacco, 270 ; on hemp, 274 ; on radish, 
283 ; on sweet potato, 291 ; on artichoke, 
294 ; on turmeric, 295. 
Dialeurodes citri, on orange, 214. 

„ eugenia?, on jamun, 247. 

Diaspis echinocacti, on Prickly Pear, 41. 
Diatrsea spp., in cane, 142 ; in juar, 182. 
,, suppressalis (auricilia), 142. 
,, venosata (striataiis), 142. 
Dichocrocis punctiferalis, on cardamom, 
37 ; on castor, 88 ; on mango, 221 ; on 
guava, 231 ; on peach, 240 ; on ginger, 
294 ; on turmeric, 295. 
Dichomeris ianthes, on cluster bean, 61 ; 

on indigo, 80 ; on lucerne, 207. 
dichotoma, Brassica. 



322 



i!N D K X. 



dilatata, Chionaspis. 
dimidiatipennis, Eumenes. 
Diaoderus spp., 205. 
i >ioctes vulgaris, 210. 
dioica, Olea. 

dionysius, Phyllognathus. 
Dioscorea spp., 297. 
dioscorides, Ampittia. 
discolor, Myllocerus. 
disjuncta, Megachile. 
Disphinctua humeralis, on tea, 23. 

,, politus, on betel leaf, 300. 

dissimilis, Phytoscaphus. 
distincta, Sogata. 
di versus, Chsetodacus. 
dodecaspilus, Cryptocephalus. 
dodecastigma, Epilaehna. 
Dolichos biflorus, 57. 

,, lablab, 53. 
Dolycoris indicus, on indigo, 82 ; on sun- 
flower, 96 ; on safflower, 97 ; on juar, 
184; on wheat, 198; on kauni, 201. 
dominica, Glottula (see Brithys crini). 
dominica, Rhizopertha. 
dorsalis, Chsetodacus ferrugineus. 
dor salts, Uncus (see Chsetodacus ferrugineus). 

,, , Epacrornia tamulus. 
dorsalis, Myllocerus. 
Dorylus labiatus, on potato, 286. 
laevigatas, on dahlia, 268. 
,, orientalis, on groundnut, 94 ; on 
cane, 146 ; on coconut, 258; 
on cabbage, 278 ; on cauli- 
flower, 281 ; on potato, 286 ; on 
artichoke, 294 ; on carrot, 298. 
duplicatus, Chsetodacus. 

, 252. 
Durio zibethinus, 252. 
dussumieri, Anomala. 
uceli, Adoretus. 
dux, Cyrtotrachelus. 
Dynastine Beetle, on rice, 169. 

rcu cingulatus, on cotton, 115; on 
bhindi, 121 ; on ambadi, 126 ; on Hibiscus 
ibelmoschus, 127; on II. rosa -sinensis, 
128 : on Abutilon indicum, 129 ; on holly 
hock, 130; on silk cotton, 132. 



E. 



Earias cuprooviridis (chromataria), on Hibis- 
cus abelmoschus, 127; on juto, 
135. 



Earias fabia, on cotton, 104, 122 ; on bhindi, 
123 ; on Hibiscus abelmoschus, 
127 ; on Abutilon indicum, 129 ; 
on holly hock, 130. 
„ insulana, on cotton, 104, 122 ; on 
bhindi, 123; on ambadi, 127 ; on 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, 127 ; on 
Abutilon indicum, 129 ; on Malva 
parviflora, 129 ; on holly hock, 
130. 

Earthworms, damaging betel leaf, 301. 

eburifera, Gnatholea. 

echidna, Platypria. 

echinocacti, Diaspis. 

echinus, Urentius. 

Eelworms, on cotton and bhindi, 125 ; on 
lucerne, 208. 

Elaterid grubs, on wheat, 193. 

elegans, Heterorrhina. 

elengi, Mimusops. 

Elephant's Foot, 298. 

elephant um, Feronia. 

Elettaria cardamomum, 36. 

Eleusine coracana, 199. 

Eligma narcissus, on Ailanthus, 263. 

elongata, Tcnaphalera. 

elongatum, Gonocephalum. 

elongella, Stcnachroia. 

elpis, Lampides. 

Emijerorrhinus defoliator, on peach, 240 ; 
on apricot, 245 ; on pear, 247 ; on apple, 
248 ; on cherry, 250. 

Empoasca flavescens, on tea, 26 ; on castor, 
88. 

,, sp., on Erythrina, 79 ; on cotton, 

117. 

ensiformis, Canavalia. 

Entomophthora, 59. 

Epacromia tamulus, on dhaincha, 72 ; on 

cotton, 98 ; on rice, 160 ; on juar, 180 ; 

on bajra, 186 ; on maize, 190, 191 ; on 

wheat, 196 ; on mania, 199. 
Ephestia cautella, parasitized by Rhogas 

kitchencri, 107. 
ephippias, Anarsia. 
Epicometis squalida, on violet, 268; on 

crocus, 268 ; on hyacinth and narcissus, 

268. 

cpijarbas, Dcudorix. 

Epilaehna dodecastigma, on cowpea, 59 ; 
on potato, 285 ; on brinjal 287 ; 
on tomato, 289 ; on cucurbits, 
302, 307. 



INDEX. 



323 



Epilachna vigintiocto-punctata, on cow- 
pea, 59 ; on potato, 285 ; on 
brinjal, 287 ; on tomato, 289 ; 
on cucurbits, 302, 307. 
Epipyropid on Eurybrachys, 78. 

„ parasitic on Idiocerus, 224. 

Episomus lacerta, on Cajanus,'- 42 ; on 
lablab, 56 ; on Erythrina, 77 ; on cotton, 
121 ; on bajra, 187. 
Eretmocera impactclla, on Amaranthus, 296. 
ergasima, Phthorimaea. 
Ergolis merione, on castor, 87. 
Eriobotrya japonica, 250. 
Eriocbiton theae, on Erythrina, 79. 
Eriophyes sp., on cotton, 118 ; on litchi, 229. 
Eriosoma (Schizoneura) lanigera, on apple, 

249. 
•erosa, Cosmophila. 
erotias, Argyroploce. 
Erotylid Beetle, in tenai, 201. 
Erythrina, 76-79. 

,, indica, 76. 
„ lithosperma, 76. 
esculenta, Lens, 
esculentum, Lycopersicum. 
esculentus, Hibiscus. 

Estigmene lactinea, on coffee, 28 ; on horse 
gram, 57 ; on sunflower, 96 ; on cotton, 
101 ; on cumbu, 187 ; on maize, 189 ; on 
ragi, 199 ; on sweet potato, 291. 
Etiella zinckenella, on tur, 44 ; on horse 
gram, 57 ; on khesari, 58 ; on sweet pea, 
58 ; on cowpea, 60 ; on pea, 64 ; on sann 
hemp, 71. 
Eublemma olivacea, on brinjal, 287. 
,, scitula, 275. 

,, silicula, on mango, 222. 

Eucelis critica (see Eucosma). 
Euchromia polymena, on sweet potato, 291. 
Eucosma critica, 12 ; on Cajanus, 42. 

„ zelota, on rose, 264. 
Eucosmid moth, on Lantana, 39. 
Eugenia jambolana, 247. 
eugeniae, Dialeurodes. 
Eugnamptus marginalis, on mango, 219. 
Eumenes dimidiatipennis, 13. 
eumenoides, Mellesis. 
Euphalerus citri, on orange, 215 ; on Mur- 

raya, 216. 
Euploea core, on oleander, 267. 
Euproctis flava, on pomegranate, 232 ; on 
plum, 245. 
„ fraterna, on castor, 87 ; on cotton, 

102 ; on pomegranate, 232. 
„ lunata, on mango, 218 



Euproctis scintillans, on sann hemp, 68 ; 
on castor, 87 ; on linseed, 90 ; 
on gogu, 126 ; on mango, 221. 
Eupterote mollifera, on Moringa, 299. 
Eurybrachys ferruginea, on Erythrina, 79 ; 
on Calotropis, 136. 
,, tomentosa, on Erythrina, 78 ; 

on cotton, 118; on bhindi, 
124 ; on Calotropis, 136. 
Eurydema pulchrum, on mustard, 277. 
Eurytomine, on apricot, 245 ; on almond, 

246. 
Eusarcocoris ventralis, on Sesamum, 85. 
Eutermes heimi, on grasses, 203. 
Euthalia garuda, on mango, 218. 
Euxoa segetum, on coffee, 29 ; on senji, 
208 ; on cabbage, 280 ; on potato, 
284. 
„ spinifera, on grasses, 203 ; on opium 
poppy, 273. 
Euzophera perticella, on brinjal, 289 ; on 

tomato, 290 ; on chillies, 290. 
evidantis, Ypsolophus (see Dichomeris ian- 

thes).' 
Exacrodus populans, 276. 
exarata, Myocalandra. 
excelsa, Ailanthus. 
Exelastis atomosa, on tur, 44 ; on lablab, 

56. 
exigua, Laphygma. 



F. 

faba, Vicia. 
fabia, Earias. 
fabriciella, Atteva. 
fabricii, Alcides. 
farinosa, Paramecops. 
fascialis, Hymenia. 
fasciatus, Hapalochrus. 
fastuosa, Psiloptera. 
faunus, Xanthotrachelus. 
feae, Popillia. 
Fenugreek, 298. 
Feronia elephantum, 234. 
forruginea, Apogonia. 

,, , Belippa 
ferruginous, Chaetodacus. 

,, , Rhynchophorus. 
festiva, Homalocephala. 
Fibre-Plants, Non-malvaccous, 132. 
ficus, Aspidiotus (see Chrysomphalus aoni- 

dum). 
Ficus carica, 250. 
Fig, 250-251. 



z 2 



324- 



INDEX. 



fimbriata, Plautia. 

finitimus, Atactogaster. 

fisa, Eolotrichia. 

flabelliformis, Borassus. 

flammatra, Agrotis. 

flava, Euproctis. 

flavescens, Empoasca. 

flavo-orbitalis, Tarytia. 

Ftea- Beetles, on Cajanus, 43 ; on sann 

hemp, 66 ; on bhindi, 123 ; on bajra, 186 ; 

on wheat, 195 ; on pajlivaragu, 202 ; 

on lucerne, 207 ; on tobacco, 269 ; on 

mustard, 276 ; on cabbage, 280 ; on 

turnip, 2S2 ; on potato, 285 ; on brinjal, 

286 : on pepper, 300. 
fletcheri, Bracon. 
,, , Opius. 
floridensis, Ceroplastes. 
fluctuosalis, Nymphula. 
Fly maggots, in safflower, 97 ; in rice leaves, 

178. 
fcenum-grsecum, Trigonella. 
folus, Udaspes. 
formiearius, Cylas. 
fornicatus, Xyleborus. 
Fragaria vesca. 
fragilis, Cirphis. 
frater, Sympiezomias. 
fraterna, Euproctis. 
frenatus, Alcides. 
frugalis, Pelamia (Remigia). 
Fruit Flies, control, 242. 
in litchi, 230. 
frumentaceum, Panicum. 
Fulgorid Bug, on bamboo, 205. 
fullonica, Ophideres. 
fulvida, Cosmophila. 
furcellata, Canthecona. 
furcifer, Hicroglyphus banian, 
fuscus, Riptortus. 



G. 



galba, Spialia. 

Galerucella singhara, on water-nut, 254. 

,, sp., on loquat, 250. 

Gallflies in grasses, 170. 
Gall-fly on cluster bean, 61. 
Gallobelicus crassicornis, on tobacco, 272. 
Gangara fchyrsis, on coconut, 258. 

. Creatonotus. 
Garcinia mangostana, 253. 
garcinise, Chretodacus. 
Garlic, 297. 



garuda, Euthalia. 

Gelcchia gossypiella, experiments in Egypt, 
10; on cotton, 111-114; foodplants, Hi': 
parasites, 112 ; control, 113 ; on Hibiscus 
abelmosehus, 127; on Abutilon indicum.. 
129 ; <m hollyhock, 130. 
geminatS, Solenopsis. 
germari, Apriona. 
Giaura sceptica, on soy-bean, 47. 
gibbosa, Clavigralla. 
gilviberbis, Scirpophaga. 
Gingelly (see Sesamum). 
Ginger, 294-295. 
glauca, Setaria. 
glaucinans, Homoptera. 
Glenea multiguttata, on mulberry, 255-. 

,, spilota, on silk cotton, 131. 
globosa, Xystrocera. 
globulifera, Monanthia. 
gloriosa?, Polytela. 

Glottula dominica (see Brithys crini). 
Glycine hispida, 47. 
Glyphodes ccesalis (see Margaronia). 

,, indiea, Margaronia. 
Gnatholea eburifera, on orange, 211 
Gnathospastoides rouxi, on urid, 51 ; oo 

kauni, 201. 
gnoma, Theretra. 
Gogu, 125-127. 
gonagra, Caryoborus. 

Gonocephalum depressum, on tur, 46 ; on 
gram, 50 ; on potato, 284. 
„ elongatum, on tur, 46 ; on 

gram, 50 ; on groundnut, 
94. 
,, sp., on cabbage, 280 ; on 

potato, 284 ; on sweet 
potato, 292. 
gossypiella, Gelcchia. 
gossypii, Aphis. 

,, , Dasyneura. 
,, , Sphenoptera. 
Gossypium spp., 98. 
Gourds, 307. 

Graeillaria soyella, on Cajanus, 42. 
Gracilariad, on apple, 248. 
graellsi, Acontia. 
Gram, 48-50. 

Grammodes stolida, on linseed, 89. 
granarium, Macrosiphum. 
granatum, Punica. 
grandiflora, Sesbania. 
Grape-vine, 234-236. 

Graptosthethus scrvus, on tur, 46 ; on jute r 
134 ; on sweet potato, 294. 



INDEX. 



32! 



Grasses, 203. 

Grasshoppers (see Chrotogonus, Epacromia, 

Oxya, Hieroglyphus, etc.). 
gTaveolens, Apium. 
gravis, Cryptorhynchus. 
Green Gram (see Mung). 

„ Scale of coffee, 34. 
gremius, Suastus. 
grisator, Agrilus. 

„ , Sthenias. 
Groundnut, 90-94. 
Gryllodes melanocephalus, on cotton, 98 ; 

on mango, 217. 
Gryllotalpa africana, on cane, 140 ; on 

tobacco, 270. 
Guar (see Cluster Bean). 
Guava, 231-232. 
Guinea Grass, 204. 
Guizotia abyssinica, 94. 
guyava, Psidium. 



H. 



Halticine Beetle, on pepper, 300. 

Halticus minutus, on tobacco, 269 ; on 
brinjal, 286 ; on sweet potato, 294. 

Hapalochrus fasciatus, on rice, 168 ; on 
lucerne, 207. 

hartii, Aspidiotus. 

foebes, Desmidophorus. 

becabe, Terias. 

Sieimi, Eutermes. 

Helcj-stogramma hibisci, on bhindi, 123 ; 
on rose, 265. 

belenus, Papilio. 

Helianthus annuus, 95. 
,, tuberosus, 294. 

heliopa, Phthorimsea. 

Heliothis assulta, on tobacco, 270, 271. 

„ obsoleta, on tur, 44 ; on gram, 49 ; 
on lablab, 56 ; on sweet pea, 
58; on sann hemp, 71; on 
indigo 80 ; on castor, 88 ; on 
linseed, 90 ; on groundnut, 91 ; 
on sunflower, 96 ; on safflower, 
97 ; on cotton, 115 ; on bhindi, 
124 ; on bajra, 188 ; on maize, 
191 ; on lucerne, 206 ; on 
orango, 212 ; on rose, 265 ; on 
tobacco, 272 ; on opium poppy, 
273 ; on hemp, 274 ; on tomato, 
289. 

Heliothrips indicus, on onion, 297. 



Hellula undalis, on mustard, 276 ; on cab- 
bage, 280 ; on cauliflower, 282 ; on knol- 
kohl, 282 ; on beet-root, 283 ; on radish 
283. 
Helopeltis antonii, on tea, 23 ; on nim, 26 ■ 
on cinchona, 37 ; on cashew, 
255. 
,, cinchona?, on tea, 23. 
,, theivora, on tea, 23 ; on mango, 
26 ; on cinchona, 37. 
Hemichionaspis aspidistra?, on betel-nut, 

262 ; on pepper, 300. 
hemidoxa, Laspeyresia. 
hemispha?rica, Saissetia (Lecanium). 
Hemp, Indian, 274. 
Henbane, 274. 
Herse convolvuli, on mung and urid, 51 ; 

on sweet potato, 291. 
hesperidum, Lecanium, 36. 
Heterographis brngalella, on custard apple, 

257. 
Heterorrhina elegans, on juar, 182. 

,, , micans, on maize, 190. 
Heterusia cingala, on tea, 19-20. 

,, magnifica, on tea, 19-20. 
,, virescens, on tea, 19-20. 
Hevea brasiliensis, 36. 
hibisci, Cerococcus. 

,, Helcystogramma. 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, 127. 
„ cannabinus, 125. 
„ esculentus, 122. 
,, rosa-sinensis, 128. 
,, sabdariffa, 125. 
hieroglyphica, Ceratina. 

Hieroglyphus banian (furcifer), on cane, 

147 ; on rice, 166 ; on juar, 

181 ; on maize, 190. 

„ nigro-repletus, on juar, 181 ; 

on tenai, 201. 

Hilarographa caminodes, on cardamom, 37. 

Hippotion celerio, on vine, 235 ; on Rumex, 

297. 
hirticornis, Cantharis, 
Hispa armigera (cencscens), on rice, 167. 
hispida, Glycine, 
hispidus, Tanymecus. 
histeroidea, Popillia. 
histeroides, Tctroda. 
histrio, Apomecyna. 

„ , Menida. 
Hodotcrmcs viarum, on grasses, 203. 
Holcomyrmcx scabriceps, carrying off wheat 

grains, 198. 
Hollyhock, 130. 



32 G 



INDEX. 



H .lotrichia conferta, on coffee, 20. 




incisa, Artocarpus. 




„ fisa, on berberry, 254. 




inconspicuus, Nysius. 




„ grubs, on cinchona, 37. 




indica, Aspidomorpha. 




Homalocephala festiva, on Calotropis, 


136. 


,, , Erythrina. 




Homona coffearia, on tea, 20 ; on coffee 


28. 


,, , Leucaspis. 




Homoptera glaucinans, on agathi, 75 ; 


on 


„ , Mangifcra. 




chitagathi, 76. 




,, , Margaronia (Glijphodes). 




honesta, Robica. 




„ , Serica. 




Hordeum vulgare, 199. 




,, , Tamarindus. 




horrens, Clavigralla. 




indicata, Nacoleia. 




Horse C4ram, 57. 




indicus, Anomalococcus. 




horticola, Adoretus. 




„ , Cajanus. 




hugeli, Lophosternus. 




,, , Dolycoris. 




humeralis, Disphinctus. 




,, , Heliothrips. 




,, , Rhynchocoris, 




,, , Panchsetothrips. 




Hunting Wasps, 12. 




,, , Tanymecus. 




hyale, Colias. 




indicum, Abutilon. 




Hyalopterus sp., on peach, 244 ; on almond, 


,, , Sesamum. 




246. 




,, , Syntomosphyrum. 




hydrodromus, Paratelphusa. 




Indigo, 79-82. 




Hymenia fascialis, on Amaranthus, 296 ; 


Indigofera arrecta, 79. 




other food plants, 296. 




,, linifolia, 81. 




Hyoscyanms niger, 274. 




,, sumatrana, 79. 




Hypera medicaginis, on lucerne, 207 


on 


Indigo Psylla, 81. 




senji, 208. 




inferens, Sesamia. 




Hypera variabilis, on pea, 64 ; on lucerne, 


inficita, Saluria. 




207 ; on senji, 208. 




infusella, Phycita. 




hyperbius, Argynnis. 




inquieta, Catephia. 




hypogsea, Arachis. 




insignis, Orthezia. 




Hyporaeces squamosus, on Hibiscus rosa- 


insolitus, Phenococcus. 




sinensis, 128 ; on Amaranthus, 296. 




insulana, Earias. 




hyppasia, Chalciope (Trigonodes). 




insularis, Cirphis. 




hyrtaca, Metanastria. 




integrifolia, Artocarpus. 




hystrix, Platypria. 




Intelligence in wasps, 13. 
intersepta, Acontia. 
invalidana, Capua. 




I. 




Ipomcea batatas, 291 
irrorata, Conosia. 




ianthes, Dichomeris. 




isitis, Psylla. 




Icerya a3gyptiaca, on rose, 266. 




ismene, Melanitis. 




,, minor, on mango, 228. 




isocrates, Viracliola. 




,, purchasi, 215. 




italica, Setaria. 




,, seychellarum, on mango, 228. 








Idgia cardoni, on bajra, 188. 








Idioeerus atkinsoni, on mango, 222. 




J. 




,, clypealis, on mango, 222. 








,, niveosparsus, on mango, 222 




Jak, 252. 




illepida, Argyroploce. 




jambolana, Eugenia. 




immeritalis, Schoenobius, 




Jamun, 247. 




impactella, Eretmocera. 




janata, Achsea. 




impatiens, Balsamifera. 




janus, Aspongopu'-. 




import unitas, Ragmus. 




japonica, Aclerda. 




impressus, Pachncphorns. 




,, , Eriobotrya. 




inachus, Kallima. 




Jassids, on groundnut, 93 ; on bhindi, 


124 


insequalis, Blosyrus. 




on chillies, 290. 





INDEX. 



327 



javanus, Ploesius. 
Jerusalem Artichoke, 294. 
jocosatrix, Bombotelia. 
Juar, 178-186. 

,, Cecidomyiad, 183. 
jujuba, Zizyphus. 
juraentorum, Panicum. 
juncea, Brassica. 

,, , Crotalaria. 
Junonia almana, on rice, 1C3. 
Jute, 132-135. 



Kallima inachus, on peach, 244. 

Kastari bhindi (see Hibiscus abelmoschus) 

Kauni, 200-201. 

Khesari, 5S. 

Khorasan (see Niger Seed). 

Khorasani ajwain, 274. 

Kirao (see Pisum arvense). 

kitcheneri, Rhogas. 

Knol-kohl, 282. 

koenigi, Murraya. 

Kohl-rabi, 282. 

Kolla mimica, on rice, 177. 

Kulthi (see Horse Gram). 

Kusum (see Safflower). 



labiatus, Dorylus. 
Lablab, 53. 

,, , Dolichos. 
Lac, on Rain-tree, 38 ; on ber, 254. 
lacca, Tachardia. 
lacerta, Episomus. 
lachesis, Acherontia. 
Lachnus pyri, on pear, 247. 

,, sp., on peach, 244 ; on apricot, 
246 ; on almond, 246. 
lactinea, Estigmene. 
Lactuca sativa, 283. 
lactucse, Oxyptilus. 
lsetus, Oxycarenus. 
laevigatus, Dorylus. 
Lagenaria vulgaris, 306. 
laius, ChUades. 

laleana, Belippa (see ferruginca). 
Lampidcs clpis, on cardamom, 37. 
Languria sp., on tenai, 201. 
lamgera, Eriosoma (Schizoneura). 
I antana aculcata, 38. 



Lantana investigation, 16, 38-40. 
Lantern slides, 15. 

Laphygma exigua, on cowpea, 59 ; on 
agathi, 75 ; on indigo, 80 ; on Sesamum, 
84 ; on linseed, 89 ; on safflower, 97 ; on 
cotton, 98 ; on jute, 132 ; on maize, 189 ; 
on lucerne, 206 ; on senji, 208 ; on shaft al, 
208 ; on bersim, 209 ; on sugar and silver 
beets, 283 ; on radish, 283 ; on brinjal, 
287; on chillies, 290; on Amaranthus, 
296 ; on onion, 297. 
lasiopygus, Adoretus. 
Laspeyresia hemidoxa, on pepper, 300. 
,, leucostoma, on tea, 20. 

,, (Carpocapsa) pomonella, en 

apple, 249. 
,, pseudonectis, on sann hemp, 

69. 
,, torodelta, on lablab, 56. 

,, tricentra, on sann hemp, 70. 

latanise, Aspidiotus. 
lateralis, Astycus. 
Lathyrus odoratus, 58. 

,, sativus, 58. 
latus, Pcecilocoris. 
Leaf-hopper on Murraya, 216. 
Leaf-miner of Coffee, 29. 
Lecanium hemisphaericum (see Saissetia). 
Lecanium hesperidum, 36. 

„ marsupiale, on pepper, 300. 

Lecanium nigrum (see Saissetia). 
Lecanium sp., on plum, 245 ; on nectarine, 

250. 
Lecanium viride (see Coccus viridis). 
lefroyi, Mylloccrus. 

,, , Rhogas. 
Lemon, 209-215. 
Lens esculenta, 62. 
Lentil, 62. 
leopardus, Alcides. 
lepida, Parasa. 
Lepidium sativum, 284. 
Leptispa pygmsea, on rice, 168. 
Leptocorisa varicornis, on rice, 175 ; on juar, 
1S4; on maize, 192; on mania. 2C0 ; en 
kauni, 201; on sama, 202; on kodor, 
202. 
Lept oglossus membranaceus, on gourdSj ! 07. 
Lettuce, 283-284. 
leucaspis, Argyroploce. 
Lcucaspis indica, on mango, 228. 
Leucinodes orbonalis, on potato, 286 ; c ji 

brinjal, 288. 
Leucophlcbia lineata, on cane, 149. 
leucostoma, Athalia. 



V.8 



INDEX. 



leucostoma, Laspeyresia. 

Liburnia psylloides (see Pundaluoya sim- 

plicia). 
Liburnia sp., on rice, 177. 
[ienigianus, Pterophorus. 
Lilies, 266. 
limbirena, Plusia. 
Lime, 209-215. 

Lime-Sulphur for Red Spider on tea, 26. 
lineata, Leucophlebia. 
linearis, Riptortus. 
lineatipennis, Anomala. 
[ineola, Amsacta. 
L inseed, 89-90. 
Linum usitatissimum, 89. 
Liogryllus bimaculatus, on gram, 50 ; on 

lentil, 62. 
Litchi, 229-230. 
litchi, Nephelium. 

Lithocolletis triarcha, on cotton. 102. 
Iithosperma, Erythrina. 
littoralis, Prodenia litura. 
litura, Prodenia. 

Lixus brachyrrhinus, on Amaranthus, 296. 
lobatus, Sphex. 
longa, Curcuma, 
longicollis, Odoiporus. 
longipes, Cyrtotrachelus. 
longistylus, Dacus. 

Lophosternus hugeli, boring apple, 248. 
Loquat, 2.">0. 
loreyi, Cirphis. 
loxoptila, Bucculatrix. 
Lucerne. 205-208. 
Luffa acutangula, 307. 
lunalis, Sylepta. 
lunata, Euproctis. 
Lycopersicum esculentum, 289. 
Lygseus pandurus, on cotton. 118; on 
Calotropis, 137; on juar, 1n4 ; on chillies, 

291). 
Lymantria beatrix, on mango, 21 s. 
Lyncestis amphix, on tulsi, 207. 
Lytta picta, on lucerne, 207. 

tenuicollis, on rice, 17S; on juar, 

is:: : on bajra, 188 ; on tenai, 201. 



M 



Macalla moncusalis, on mango, 218. 
Machserota planitiae, on cotton, 1 18. 
Macrosiphum granarium, on wheat, 198. 

,, sonchi, on safflower, 97. 

maculiponnis, Plutella. 



maculosus, Myllocerus (see undeeimpus- 

tulatus). 
Madar (see Calotropis). 
madurensis, Nisotra. 
maidis (-see Pundaluoya simplicia). 
Maize, 188-193. 

Makkhan Sim (see Sword Bean). 
malabaricus, Phassus. 
malabaricum, Bombax. 
mains, Pyrus. 
Malva parviflora, 129. 
Malvaceae, 98. 
malvse, Acontia. 

„ , Aphis, 
manganeutis, Acrolepia. 
Mangifera indica, 216. 
mangifera?, Coccus (Lecanium). 

,, , Cryptorhynchus. 
mangifera;, Dacus (see Chsetodacus zonatus). 
mangifera 1 , Rhynchaenus. 
Mango, 216-229. 

„ Hoppers, 222-224. 
,, leaf-boring weevil (sec RhynchseniH 
mangifera?). 
mangostana, Garcinia. 
Mangosteen, 253. 
Manihot utilissima, 298. 
manni, Chionaspis. 
Maranta arundinacea, 298. 
Marasmia trapezalis, on cane, 149 ; on juar, 

180 ; on bajra, 187 ; on maize, 190 ; on 

ragi, 199. 
Margarodes niger, on tur, 47. 
Margaronia (Glyphodes) coesalis, on jak, 252. 
,, ,, indica, on cucurbits, 

303, 307. 
Marginalis, Eugnamptus. 
marmelos, Mg\e. 
maro, Ampittia dioscorides. 
marsupiale, Lecanium. 
Mania, 199-200. 
Maruca testulalis, on tur, 44 ; on mung and 

arid, 52 ; on lablab, 56 ; on cowpea, 

60 ; on sword bean. 65. 
Masur (see Lentil). 
mastos, Dereodus. 
Matapa aria, on bamboo, 204. 
.Ma tar (see Pea). 
mat bins, ( 'hapra. 
mauritia, Spodoptera. 
mays, Zea. 

Mealy-bugs, on pomegranate, 233 ; on 
apota, 250; on fig, 251 ; on tomato, 

299 ; on betel leaf, 301 (see also Pseudo- 
coccus, Ripersia). 



INI) E X . 



329 



medicaginis, Hypera, 

Medicago sativa. 

medinalis, Cnaphalocrocis. 

Megacoelum stramineum, on juar, 184 ; on 

bajra, 187 ; on maize, 192. 
Megachile anthracina, on Cajanns, 42 ; on 
rose, 264. 
,, disjuncta, on Cajanus, 42 ; on 
rose, 264. 
Megachile sp., on loquat, 250. 
Megastigmus sp., on dhaincha, 73 ; on 

agathi, 76. 
Melanitis ismene, on rice, 163 ; on juar, 180. 
melanocephalus, Gryllodes. 
melanoplecta, Anarsia. 
mellerborgii, Polytus. 
Mellesis eumenoides, on Trichosanthes cucu- 

merina, 307. 
melicerta, Ophiusa (seo,Achcca janata). 
Melilotus pai^iflora, 208. 
Meloid beetles, on prickly pear, 41 ; on 

Cajanus, 43 ; on cowpea, 60 ; on sann 

hemp, 69 ; on groundnut, 90 ; on cotton, 

103 ; on bhindi, 123 ; on ambadi, 125 ; 

on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 128 ; on cane, 

149 ; on rice, 178 ; on juar, 182 ; on bajra, 

188 ; on kauni, 201 ; on kodon, 202 ; 

on melons, 301. 
Melolonthid grubs, on coffee, 29. 
melongena, Solanum. 
Melons, 301. 
Membracids, on tur, 46. 
membranaceus, Leptoglossus. 
memnon, Papilio. 
mendosa, Dasychira (Olene). 
Menida histrio, on rice, 175 ; on juar, 184. 
Meranoplus bicolor, on Cajanus, 43. 
Meridarchis scyrodes, on ber, 254. 
merione, Ergolis. 
Metacanthus pulchellus, on bottle gourd, 

306. 
metallicum, Chalaenosoma. 
Metanastria hyrtaca, on Mimusops, 38 ; on 

sapota, 249. 
Metasia coniotalis, on sweet potato, 293. 
Methi (see Fenugreek). 
Metialma balsaminse, on balsam, 268. 
meticulosalis, Terastia. 
Metriona circumdata, on sweet potato, 292. 
Medic ma varians, on sweet potato, 292. 
micans, Eeterorrhina. 
Microtermes obesi (anandi), on wheat, 194, 

196 ; on cabbage, 281 ; on cauliflower, 

281. 
miliaceum, Panicum. 



miliare, Panicum. 

miliaris, Aspidomorpha. 
„ , Asterolecanium. 
,, , Aularches. 

Millipedes, on cane, 150. 

Mimastra cyanoa, on pear, 247. 

mimica, Kolla. 

Mimusops elengi, 38. 

mineus, Mycalesis. 

minor, Icerya. 
,, , Nysius. 
,, , Phycodes. 

minutella, Nephopteryx. 

minutus, Halticus. 

Mites, on tea, 26, 28 ; on cluster-bean, 61 ; 
on indigo, 82 ; on castor, 89 ; on ground- 
nut, 92 ; on cotton, 118 ; on bhindi, 123 ; 
on jute, 134 ; on juar, 185 ; on litchi, 229 ; 
on vine, 236 ; on fig, 251 ; on ber, 254 ; 
on mulberry, 256 ; on hemp, 274 ; on 
tomato, 290. 

Modeca palmata, 126. 

modesta, Phidodonta. 

meesta, Phenice. 

Mole-cricket (see Gryllotalpa). 

mollifera, Eupterote. 

Monanthia globulifera, on safflower, 97 ; 
on tulsi, 267. 

moncusalis, Macalla. 

Monolepta orientalis, on potato, 285. 

,, signata, on Cajanus, 42 ; on pea, 

64 ; on indigo, 81 ; on maize, 190 ; on 
wheat, 195 ; on marua, 200 ; on lucerne, 
207 ; on cabbage, 280 ; on cauliflower, 
282 ; on beetroot, 283 ; on radish, 283 ; 
on chillies, 290 ; on CoV>casia, 298. 

Monophlebus stebbingi octocaudatus, on 
mango, 228 ; on guava, 231 ; on peach, 
244 ; on plum, 245 ; on sapota, 250 ; on 
jak, 252 ; on mulberry, 256. 

monostigma, Scirpophaga. 

monstrosus, Schizodactylus. 

monticollis, Teratodes. 

mooroi, Amsacta. 

Moringa, 299. 

„ pterygospcrma, 299. 

Morus spp., 255. 

Mosquito-blight of tea (see Helopeltis). 

Mesouitos, breeding in aloes, 135 ; sheltering 
iti shaftal, 209. 

Motacilla alba feeding on Utetheisa, 67. 

Moth, 53. 

Mudaria cornifrons, on silk cotton, 131. 

Mulberry, 255. 

multisuttata, Glenea. 



330 



INDEX. 



Mung, 50-53. 

mungo radiatus, Phaseolus. 

mungonis, Pachytychius. 

Murraya koenigi, 210. 

Musa sapientum, -37. 

Mushkdana {see Hibiscus abelmoschus). 

Mustards, 275-278. 

Mycalesis mineus, on rice, 163. 
„ perseus, on rice. 163. 

Myiopardalis pardalina, on melons, 306. 

Myllocerus blandus, on sann hemp. 69 ; on 
sunflower, .96 ; on bbindi, 123; 
on cane, 141 ; on rice, 108 ; on 
juar, 180; on maize, 190; on 
wheat, 195; on .strawberry, 
256 ; on brinjal, 287. 
,, dentifer, on groundnut, 92 ; on 

rice, L68 ; on tenai, 201. 
,, discolor, on groundnut. 92 : on 
cotton, 102 ; on ambadi, 126 ; 
on jute, 134; on cane, 141, 
11C; on rice, 168 ; on 
maize, 192 ; on wheat, 195 ; on 
bael, 216 ; on mango, 219 ; 
on guava, 231 ; on loquat, 
250 ; on her, 254. 
,, dorsalis, on sword beau, 65 : 
on groundnut, 02. 
lefroyi, on cherry, 250. 
sabulosus, on cotton, 102 ; on 
mango, 219 ; on guava-, 231 ; on 
ber, 254 ; en sweet potato, 292. 
spp., on vine, 235. 
subfasciatus, on potato, 285 ; on 
brinjal, 287. 

transmarinus, on cottony 102; 
on ber, 254. 

11-pustulatus (macvlosus), on 
Cajanus, 42: on dhaincha, 72; 
unflower, 96 : on cotton, 
102, 121 : on bhindi, 123 ; on 
ambadi, 126 ; on canes, 141 : on 
juar, ISO; on bajra, 1ST : on 
maize, 190, 192 ; on marua, 
2(K) : on sama, 202 ; on a 
219 ; "ii guava, 231 ; on 
pomegranate, 232 : on apple. 
2 Is : on her. 254 : on straw- 
berry, 256. 
,, viridanus, on indigo, 81 : mi 
i a stor, ss ; on groundnut, 92 : 
'■n bhindi, 123 ; on jut--. 134 ; on 
gua\ a. 231. 

Mj ocala ndra exa rata, 205. 

myrseusalis, 1:1m doneura. 



Mytilaspis piperis, on pepper, 21 9 



N. 



Xacoleia indicata, on mung and urid, 51 ; 
on horse gram, 57 ; on lucerne, 207. 

Narcissus, 269. 

narcissus, Eligma. 

nasicornis, Oryctes. 

Nasturtium, 269. 

Natada velutina, on mango, 218. 

nebulosa, Raparna. 

Nectarine, 250. 

Nematodes (see Eelworms). 

Neomaskellia (Ah wrodes) bergi, on cane, 150. 

Nephantis serinopa, on coconut, 259 ; on 
palmyra, 202. 

Nephelium litchi, 229. 

nephelotis, Plotheia. 

Nephopteryx minutella, on brinjal, 288 
,, sp., boring mango fruit, 226. 

Nephotettix apicalis, on rice, 177 ; on 
kodon, 202. 
,, bipunctatus, 17 ; on rice, 176; 

on kodon, 202. 

nerii, Deilephila. 

Nerium odorum. 

nerteria, Aproaerema (Anacampsis). 

Nezara viridula, on mung and urid, 52 ; on 
sann hemp, 71 ; on castor, 89 ; on holly- 
hock, 130 ; on juar, 184 ; on bajra, 187 ; 
on wheat, 198 ; on mania, 200 ; on potato, 
285. 

ni, Plusia. 

Nicotiana tabacum, 269. 

Niger Seed, 94-95. 

niger, Hyoscyamus. 
., , Margarodes. 

nigra, Saissetia (Lecanium). 

nigrisigna, Plusia. 

nigrita, Sagra. 

nigro-repletus, Hieroglyphus. 

nigrum, Piper. 

nipse, Pseudococcus (Dactylopius). 

niphe, Argynnis hyperbius. 

Nisaga simplex, on rice, 163. 

Nisotra madurensis, on ambadi^l2C; in 
jute, 134. 

Nisotra sp.. on bhindi, 123. 

nitidula, Tarache. 

nivea, Alt ha. 

niveigutta, Atteva. 

niveosparsus, Idiocerns. 

nivifera,na, Tonica. 



INDEX. 



331 



nobilis, Scutellera. 

Nodostoma subcostata, on plantain, 237. 

Nonagria (see Sesamia). 

Noorda blitealis, on Moringa, 299. 

notabilis, Tarache. 

notoniana, Wendlandia. 

nobila, Agonoscelis. 

nubilans, Aleurocanthus. 

nucifera, Cocos. 

nuda, Perina. 

Nupserba bicolor, on soy-bean, .47. 

Nupserba sp., on sann hemp, 70. 

Nymphula depunctalis, on rice, 164. 

,, fluctuosalis, on rice, 165. 

Nysius inconspicuus, on Sesamum, 84 ; on 

tobacco, 272. 
Nysius minor, 272. 



Oats, 198. 

Oberea sesami, on Sesamum, 85. 

Oberea sp., on mung and urid, 52. 

obesi, Microtermes. 

obesus, Odontotermes. 

,, , Ploccederus. 
obliqua, Diacrisia. 
obsoleta, Heliothis (Chloridea). 
occidentalis, Anacardium. 
Ocimum sanctum, 267. 
Ocinara varians, on fig, 251. 
octo, Amyna. , 

octocaudatus, Monophlebus stebbingi. 
Odoiporus longicollis, on plantain, 238. 
Odontotermes obesus, 197. 

,, parvidens, 46. 

odorata, Viola, 
odoratus, Lathyrus. 
odorum, Nerium. 
fficophylla smaragdina, 36 ; on mango, 

220 ; on litchi, 230. 
(Edalcus sp., on rice, 160. 
officinale, Zingiber, 
officinarum, Saccharum. 
Oides affinis, on rice, 168. 
Oil-seeds, 82. 
oldenlandia?, There! ra. 
Olea dioica, 30. 
Oleander, 267. 

Olene mendosa (see Dasychira). 
Olenecamptus bilobus, on fig, 251. 
oleracca, Brassica. 
olivacea, Eublemma. 
Ompbisa anastomosalis, on sweet potato, 

292. 



Oncocephala tuberculata, on sweet potato, 

292. 
Onion, 297. 
opalinoides, Tarache. 
Opatrum spp. (see Gonocephalum). 
operculella, Phthorimsea. 
Ophideres fullonica, sucking oranges, 212 ; 

sucking grapes, 235. 
ophideroides, Calpe. 
Ophiusa coronata (see Anna). 
Ophiusa melicerta (see Achsea janata). 
Opius fletcheri, parasite of Chsetodacus 

cucurbitse, 305. 
Opium Poppy, 273. 
Opuntia, Pests of, 41. 
Orange, 209-215. 
orbonalis, Leucinodes. 
ordinatella, Acroccrcops. 
Oregma bambu^se, on bamboo, 205. 
Orgyia postica, on Erythrina, 77 ; on castor, 

87. 
orichalcea, Plusia 
orientajis, Aspidiotus. 
,, , Dorylus. 
,, , Monolepta. 
Ornamental Palms, 262. 
Orthacris sp., on groundnut, 90 ; on juar, 

181 ; on bajra, 187 ; on ragi, 199 ; on 

brinjal, 288. 
Orthezia insignis, on Lantana, 40 ; other 

foodplants, 40. 
Oryctes nasicornis, on date, 262. 
Oryctes rhinoceros, on aloe, 135 ; on cane, 

145 ; on coconut, 259 ; on palmyra, 262 ; 

on date, 262. 
Oryza sativa, 153. 
oryza?, Athesapeuta. 

,, , Calandra. 

,, , Pachydiplosis (Cecidomyiu). 

,, , Ripersia sacchaii. 

„ , Thrips. 
otis, Zizcra. 
Oxya velox, on cane, 148 ; on rice, 166 ; on 

juar, 1S1 ; on maize, 190 ; on kodon, 202. 
Oxycarenus Isetus, on cotton, 116; on 

bhindi, 124 ; on ambadi, 126 ; on Hibiscus 

abelmoschus, 127; on Abutilon indicum, 

\-2\) ; <.n holly bock, 130. 
Oxycetonia albopunctat', on bhindi, 123 ; 
on lemon, 212. 
,, versicolor, on groundnut, 90 ; 

on bhindi, 123 ; on juar, 
182. 
Oxyptilus lactucse, on lettuce, 284. 



332 



INDEX. 



Oxvrhachis tarandus, on babul, 275. 



P. 



Pachnephorus bretinghami, on cane, 140 ; 
on juar, 180 ; on arti- 
choke, 294. 
,, itnpressus, on Sesamum, 83 ; 

on bhindi, 122 ; on cane, 
140 ; on juar, 180 ; on 
maize, 192. 
,, sp., on Niger seed, 95. 

Pachydiplosis (Cecidomyia) oryzas, on rice, 

169. 
Pachytychius mungonis, on mung, 52 ; on 

cowpea, 60 ; on dhaincha, 73. 
Pachyzanola bipunctalis {cegrotalis), on brin- 

jal, 288. 
Paddy (see Rice). 
Pahar (see Apus). 
pallescens, Sogata. 
pallidospila, Anomala. 
palmata, Modeca. 
Palmyra, 262. 

Panchaotothrips indicus, on turmeric, 290. 
pandava, Catochrysops. 
pandurus, Lygaeus. 
Panicum frumentaceum, 202. 
,, jumentorum, 204. 
,, miliaceum, 202. 
,, miliare, 202. 

Papaver somniferum, 273. 
Pap lya, 257. 

,, carica, 257. 
Papilio demoleus, on citrus, 210; on bael, 
216 ; on Murraya, 216. 
,, helenus daksha, on citrus, 210. 
,, memnon, on pomelo, 210. 

polymnestor, on orange, 210. 
,, polytes, on citrus, 210; on Mur- 
raya. 2 Hi. 
Papu i depressella(soccAareKo), on cane, 141, 

145 ; in juar, 182. 
Param?cops farinosa, on Calotropis, 136, 
L37. 

i lepida, on tea, 19 ; on coffee, 28 ; 
on castor, 87 ; on mango, 217 ; on pome- 
granate, 232 ; on wood-apple. 234 ; on 
plantain, 237 ; on coconut, 258 ; on 
p dmyra, 262 ; on pepper, 299. 
Paratelphusa hydrodromus, on rice, 155. 
pardalina, Myippardalis. 
Parlatoria pergandii, on mango, 299; on 
oleander, 267 



Parlatoria pergandii camellia;, on vine, 236. 

Parnara bada, on rice, 164. 

Parnara bevani (.see Caltoris). 
„ colaca (see Caltoris). 
,, mathias (see Chapra). 

parvidens, Odontotermes. 

parviflora, Malva. 

„ , Melilotus. 

Paspalum scrobiculatum, 202. 

Pea, 62. 

Peach, 239. 

Pear, 247. 

pedestris, Riptortus. 

Pelamia (Bemigia) frugalis, on rice, 163 ; 
on juar, 179. 
,, undata, on indigo, 80 ; on cotton, 

102. 

Peltotrachelus pubes, on orange, 211. 

Pempheres affinia, on cotton, 119 ; on 
bhindi, 125 ; on ambadi, 126 ; on hemp, 
274. 

Pennisetum typhoideum, 186. 

Pentodon bengalensis, on cane, 146. 
,, bispinifrons, on cane, 146. 

peponis, Plusia. 

Pepper, 299-300. 

peregrinus, Atmetonychus. 

pergandii, Parlatoria. 

Pericallia ricini, on agathi, 75 ; on Sesamum, 
84 ; on castor, 86 ; on cotton, 101 ; on 
plantain, 237 ; on oleander, 267 ; on Colo- 
casia, 298 ; on Moringa, 299 ; on cucur- 
bits, 303. 

Perigea capensis, on Nigcrseed, 95 ; on 
safflower, 96 ; on jute, 134. 

Perina nuda, on fig, 251. 

perlatus, Xanthotrachelus. 

perotteti, Apomecyna. 

perpusilla, Pyrilla. 

perseus, Mycalesis. 

persica, Prunus. 

persicce, Dacus (see Chaetodacus zonatus). 

perticella, Euzophera. 

pertigera, Apomecyna. 

Phaedon brassicae, on mustard, 276 ; on 
cabbage, 280. 

phalerata, Zonabris. 

Phaseolus aconitifolius, 53. 
,, mungo radiatus, 50. 
„ radiatus, 50. 

phasiana, Anoplocnemis. 

Phassua malabaricus, on tea, 22 

Phenice moesta, on cane, 150 ; on juar, 184 ; 
on maize, 192. 

Phenococcus insolitus, on brinjal, 289. 



INDEX. 



333 



Phidodonta modesta, on cane, 149 ; on 
Saccharum spontaneum, 152 ; on juar, 
180 ; on oats, 199 
Phlceobius alternans, 78. 
Phragmatcecia castanese, in Saccharum 

spontaneum, 152. 
Phthorimsea blapsigona, on brinjal, 288. 
,, ergasin a, on brinjal, 288. 

,, heliopa, on tobacco, 272. 

„ operculella, on potato, 286 ; 

on brinjal, 288. 
Phycita clientella, on brinjal, 288. 

,, dentilinella, predaceous ; on Parasa 
lepida, 217 ; on Cricula trifenes- 
trata, 218. 
,, infusella, on cotton, 100 ; on rozellc, 
125 ; on ambadi, 126. 
Phycodcs minor, on fig, 251. 
,, radiata, on fig, 251. 
Phyllocnistis citrella, on citrus, 209, 210 ; 
on bael, 216 ; on Murray a, 
216. 
,, toparcha, on vine, 235. 

Phyllognathus dionysius, on rice, 174. 
Phyllotreta chotanica, on cabbage, 280 ; on 
cauliflower, 282. 
„ vittata, on cabbage, 280 ; on 

cauliflower, 282. 
Phytometra (see Plusia). 
Phytoscaphus dissimilis, on tea, 21. 
piceus, Alphitobius. 
picta, Bagrada. 
„ , Clitea. 
„ , Lytta. 
pictus, Pcecilocerus. 

Pieris brassicse, 9 ; on nasturtium, 269 ; on 
cabbage, 279 ; on cauliflower, 282 ; 
on lettuce, 284. 
„ canidia, on cabbage, 279. 
Piezodorus rubrofasciatus, on Lantana, 

39 ; on juar, 184. 
Pilemostoma trilineata, on sweet potato, 

292. 
Pimpinella anisum, 301. 
Pineapple, 236. 
Pink Mite, on tea, 26. 
Piper betle, 300. 
Piper nigrum, 299. 
piperis, Mytilaspis. 
Pisum arvense, 65. 
„ sativum, 62. 
Pithecolobium saman, 38. 
planitiae, Machscrota. 
Plantain, 237-239. 
Platypria andrewesi, on ber, 263. 



Platypria echidna, on Erythrina, 77. 

,, hystrix, on lablab, 56 ; on agathi, 
74 ; on Erythrina, 77. 
Platyptilia pusillidactyla, on Lantana, 39. 
Plautia fimbriata, on Lantana, 39. 
,, viridicollis, on Lantana, 39 
Ploccederus obesus, on silk cotton, 131. 
Ploesius javanus, 239. 
Plotheia celtis (see Selepa). 
Plotheia nephelotis, on brinjal, 287. 
Plum, 244-245. 
plumigera, Anataractis. 
Plusia chalcytes, on mung and urid, 51 ; 
on moth, 53 ; on sann hemp, 68 ; 
on bottle gourd, 306. 
,, daubei, on mung and urid, 50. 
„ limbirena, on indigo, 80. 
,, ni, on cauliflower, 282. 
,, nigrisigna, on gram, 49 ; on tobacco, 

271. 
,, orichalcea, on soy-bean, 47 ; on cow- 
pea, 59 ; on pea, 63 ; on indigo, 80 ; 
on linseed, 89 ; on Nigerseed, 95 ; on 
'cabbage, 280 ; on cauliflower, 282 ; 
on radish, 283 ; on potato, 285 ; 
on carrot, 298 ; on celery, 298. 
,, peponis, on mung and urid, 50 ; on 

cucurbits, 303, 307. 
,, signata, on sann hemp, 68 ; on 
groundnut, 91 ; on tobacco, 271 ; 
on cauliflower, 282. 
,, sp., on khesari, 58. 
Plutella maculipennis, on mustard, 276, 
277 ; on cabbage, 280 ; on cauliflower, 
282 ; on radish, 283. 
Pcecilocerus pictus, on Calotropis, 136. 
Poecilocoris latus, on tea, 23. 
Pogria signata, on cowpea, 59. 
polita, Anomala. 
politus, Disphinctus. 
pollinosus, Dereodus. 

Polyommatus bceticus, on tur, 44 ; on lab- 
lab, 56 ; on sweet pea, 58 ; on pea, 64 ; on 
sann hemp, 71. 
polymena, Euchromia. 
polymnestor, Papilio. 

Polyocha saccJiorella (see Papua depressclla). 
Polytela gloriosse, on lilies, 266 ; on crocus, 

268. 
polytcs, Papilio. 

Polytus mcllerborgii, on plantain, 239. 
Pomegranate, 232-234. 
Pomelo, 209-215. 

pomonclla, Laspeyrcsia (Carpocaj)sa). 
Popillia chlorion, on betel leaf, 300. 



33 V 



INDEX. 



Popillia iex, on peach, 240. 

,, histeroidea, on poach, 240. 
Poppy, Opium. 
populans, Exacrodus. 
poricollis, Amblyrrhinus. 

,, , ( Jryptorhynchus. 
portentosus, Brachytrypes. 
Porthesia xanthorrhoea, on guinea grass, 

204. 
postica, Orgyia. 

,, , Thiacidas. 
Potassium Sulpho-carbonate, 139. 

,, Xanthogenate, 139. 

Potato, 2S4-286. 

,, , Sweet. 
prasina, Belionota. 
Prays citri, 17 ; on orange, 212. 
Prickly Pear, 41. 
princeps, Tanymecus. 

Prodenia litura, on gram, 49 ; on mung and 
urid, 51 ; on moth, 53 ; on cowpea, 59 ; 
on pea, 64 ; on agathi, 75 ; on indigo, 80 ; 
on castor, 86 ; on linseed, 89 ; on ground- 
nut, 91 ; on Hibiscus abelmoschus, 127 ; 
on jute, 133 ; on juar, 179 ; on maize, 
189 ; on grasses, 203 ; on lucerne, 206 ; on 
plantain, 237 ; on rose, 264 ; on tobacco, 
271 ; on opium poppy, 273 ; on cabbage, 
280 ; on silver beet, 2*83 ; on tomato, 289 ; 
on sweet potato, 291 ; on Colocasia, 298. 
Protsetia alboguttata, on juar, 182. 
proxima, Athalia. 
pniinosa, Serica. 
Prunus cerasifera, 244. 

,, persica, 239. 
i' eudaonidia trilobitiformis, on coconut, 

261. 
Pseudococcus citri, on coffee, 29, 36 ; on 
Erythrina, 79 ; on mul- 
berry, 256. 
„ nipre, on cotton, 118; on 

bhindi, 124 ; on mulberry, 
256. 
„ ( t)actylopius) sacchari, on cane, 

151. 
„ (Dactylopius) saccharifolii, on 

cane, 151. 
,, virgatus, on cotton, 118; on 

bhindi, 124 ; on custard 
apple, 257 ; on violet, 268 ; 
on tomato, 290. 
„ sp., on mango, 228 ; on pine- 

apple, 237 ; on jak, 252 ; on 
betel leaf, 301. 
pseudonectis, Laspoyrcsia. 



psidii, Pulvinaria. 

1 'Milium guyava, 231. 

Psila sp., on Sosamum, 85. 

Psiloptera fastuosa, on babul, 275. 

psoralioides, Cyamopsis. 

Psychids, on palms, 263. 

Psylla cistellata (see Apsylla). 

Psylla isitis, on indigo, 81. 

psylloides, Liburnia, (see Pundaluoya sim- 

plicia). 
Psyllopa punctipennis (see Psylla isitis). 
Psylliodes tencbrosus, on cabbage, 278 ; on 

cauliflower, 281. 
Ptecticus australis, on jak, 252. 

,, rufus, on jak, 252. 
Pterophorus lienigianus, on brinjal, 288. 
pterygosperma, Moringa. 
Ptyelus sp., on jak, 252. 
ptyophora, Crocidophora. 
pubes, Peltotrachelus. 
Publication of records, 14. 
pulchella, Utetheisa. 
pulchellus, Metacanthus. 
pulchrum, Eurydema. 
Pulses, Stored, Pests of, 308-310. 
Pulvinaria psidii, on coffee, 34 ; on mango, 
228 ; on litchi, 230 ; on guava, 
232 ; on loquat, 250. 
,, sp., on vine, 236. 

Pumpkins, 301. 
punctata, Xanthopimpla. 
punctiferalis, Dichocrocis. 
punctipennis, Psyllopa (see Psylla isitis). 
Pundaluoya simplicia, on juar, 185 ; on 

maize, 193. 
Punica granatum, 232. 
purchasi, Icerya. 
Purple Mite, on tea, 26. 
pusana, Pyrilla. 
,, , Sogata. 
pusillidactyla, Platyptilia. 
pustulata, Zonabris. 
putli, Chilades. 
pygmsea, Leptispa. 
pyranthe, Catopsilia. 

Pyrilla aberrans, on cane, 150 ; on juar, 185 ; 
on maize, 192. 
,, porpusilla, on cane, 150 ; on juar, 

185 ; on maize, 192. 
,, pusana, on cane, 150. 
pyri, Lachnus. 
Pyrodcrces coriacella (see Anatrachyntis 

simplex). 
Pyrus communis, 247. 
„ malus, 248. 



INDEX. 



335 





Riptortus fuscus, on tur, 45 ; on lablab, 57 ; 




on cowpea, 60. 


Q 


,, linearis, on tur, 45 ; on soy-bean, 




4S ; on lablab, 57 ; on cowpea, 


quadraria, Tessarotoma. 


60. 


„ , Thalassodes. 


„ pedestris, on tur, 45 ; on soy- 


quadnnotata, Arbela. 


bean, 48 ; on mung and urid, 


quadripes, Xylotrechus. 


52 ; on lablab, 57 ; on cowpea, 




60 ; and gourd, 307. 




Robica honesta, on bhindi, 125 ; on castor, 


R 


125. 




robusta, Rhytidodera. 


radiata, Phycodes. 


rosa-sinensis, Hibiscus. 


radiatus, Phaseolus. 


Rosa spp., 264. 


,, , Phaseolus mungo. 


Rose, 264-266. 


Radish, 283. 


rosea, Althaea. 


Ragi, 199-200. 


rossi, Chrysomphalus (Aspidiotus). 


„ Root Aphis, 200. 


rotunda, Contheyla. 


Ragraus importunitas, on sann hemp, 71. 


rouxi, Gnathospastoides. 


Rain-tree, 38. 


Rozelle, 125. 


ranacea, Cyrtacanthacris. 


Rubber, 36. 


Raparna nebulosa, on indigo, 80. 


rubicundus, Corizus. 


Raphanus sativus, 283. 


rubricans, Azazia. 


Rats carrying off wheat grains, 198. 


rubrofasciatus, Piezodorus. 


Red Borer of coffee, 34. 


rubus, Batocera. 


,, Gram, 41. 


ruficollis, Cantharis. 


,, Slug on tea, 20. 


rufivantris, Anomala. 


,, Spider, on tea, 26 ; on cotton, 118. 


rufus, Ptecticus. 


relata, Cosmoscarta. 


rugosellus, Dasyses. 


Remigia frugalis (see Pelamia). 


Rumex vesicarius, 297. 


,, undata (see Pelamia). 




revoluta, Cycas. 




Rhadinopus centriniformis, 78. 


s. 


rhinoceros, Oryctes. 




Rhizopertha dominica, in stored grain, 307, 


sabdariffa, Hibiscus. 


309. 


sabulifera, Cosmophila. 


Rhodoneura myrseusalis, on sapota, 249. 


sabulosus, Myllocerus. 


Rhogas kitcheneri, 107. 


saccharella, Polyocha (see Papua depressella). 


lefroyi, 107. 


sacchari, Pseudococcus (Dactylopius). 


,, spp., parasitic on Earias, 105. 


„ , Ripersia. 


Rhvnchaenus mangiferae, on mango, 220. 


saccharifolii, Pseudococcus (Dactylopius). 


Rhynchocoris humeralis, on Citrus, 214. 


Saccharum officinarum, 137. 


Rhyncolaba acteus, on Colocasia, 298. 


,, spontaneum, 152. 


Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, on coconut, 


sacraria, Sterrha. 


259, 261 ; on palmyra, 262 ; on date, 262. 


Safflower, 96. 


Rhytidodera robusta, on mango, 227. 


Sagra nigrita, on lablab, 56. 


,, sp., on fig, 251. 


Saissetia (Lecanium) hemisphserica, on Ci- 


Rice, 153-178. 


trus, 214 ; on guava, 232 ; on 


,, Stem-fly, 155. 


country almond, 246 ; on lo- 


„ Stored, Pests of, 308-310. 


quat, 250. 


ricini, Aleyrodes. 


,, nigra, on rubber, 36 ; on cotton, 


„ , Pericallia. 


119 ; on bhindi, 124 ; on litchi, 


Ricinus communis 86. 


230 ; on mulberry, 256. 


Ripersii sacchari, on cane, 151. 


Saluria inficita, in ragi, 200 ; in tenai, 201. 


„ ,, oryzae, on rice, 177. 


saman, Pithecolobium. 



336 



INDEX. 



sanctum, Ocimum. 
s.um Hemp, 65-71. 
sapientum, Musa. 
Sapodilla, 249. 
Sapota, I'll). 
sapota, Achras. 
sativa, Ananas. 
,, , A vena. 
,, , Cannabis. 
,, , Lactuca. 
,, , Medicago. 
,, , Oryza. 
sativum, Allium. 
,, , Coriandrum. 
,, , Lepidium. 
,, , Pisum. 
sativus, Lathyrus. 

,, , Baphanus. 
scarbrator, Coelosterna. 
scabrator,( loelosterna spinator. 
scabriceps, Holeomyrmex. 
scalaris, Azygophleps. 
Scale-insects, on cane, 151. 
Scarabseid grubs (see Cockchafers). 
Scclodonta strigicollis, on vine, 234 ; con- 
trol, 235. 
sceptica, Giaura (Cletthara). 
Schizodactylus monstrosus, on indigo, 82 ; 

on tobacco, 272. 
Schizoneura lanigera (see Eriosoma). 
Schcenobius bipunctifer, in rice, 171-174. 

,, immeritalis, in rice, 174. 

scintillans, Euproctis. 
Scirpophaga gilviberbis, in rice, 174. 
,, monostigma, in cane, 144. 

,, xanthogastrella (auriflua), in 

cane; 144. 
scitula, Eublemma. 
sciurus, Tanymecus. 
Scolytid Beetle, on coconut, 261. 

,, on cardamom, 37. 
scrobiculatum, Paspalum. 
Scutellera nobilis, on grape, 236. 
scyrodes, Meridarchis. 
securis, Dasychira. 
segetum, Euxoa. 

Si lepa (Plotheia) celtis, on mango, 218; on 
lit hi, 229 ; on country almond, 246 ; on 
rose, 264. 
Sem (see Labial)). 
semicostatum, ( lolasposoma. 
Senji, 208. 
Scrica indica, on cane, 146. 

,, pruinosa, on coffee, 29. 
Sorinetha augur, on cotton, 118. 



serinopa, Nephantis. 
serral icornis, Acanthophorus. 
servus, Graptostethus. 
seaami, Asphondylia. 

,, , Oberea. 
Sesamia, inferens, in cane, 145 ; in Saccha- 
rum spontaneum, 152 ; in rice, 
174; in juar, 182; in bajra, 
187 ; in maize, 191 ; in wheat, 
196 ; in ragi, 200 ; in guinea 
grass, 204. 
., uniformis, in cane, 145; in maize, 
191. 
Sesamum, 83-85. 

,, indicum, 83. 

Sesbania aculeata, 72. 
,, segyptiaca, 76. 
,, grandiflora, 74. 
Setaria glauca, 201. 
italica, 200. 
seychellarum, Icerya 
Shaftal, 208. 
Shima (see Lablab). 
siccifolia, Cyclopelta. 
signata, Monolepta. 

,, , Pogria. 
silhetana, Terias. 
silicula, Eublemma. 
Silk Cotton, 131-132. 
Silver Beet, 283. 
simplex, Anatrachyntis. 
„ , Chilo. 
,, , Nisaga. 
simplicia, Pundaluoya. 
Singhara, 254. 
singhara, Galerucella. 
Sitones crinitus, on indigo, 81 ; on lucerne, 

207 ; on senji, 208. 
Sitotroga cerealella, on juar, 183. 
Slug on rubber in Ceylon, 36. 
smaragdina, (Ecophylla. 
Snails, on rice, 160. 
Snake Gourd, 307. 
Soda Washes for tea-bushes, 22. 
Sogata distincta, on rice, 177. 
„ pallescens, on rice, 177. 
,, pusana, on rice, 177. 
Solanum melongena, 286. 
,, tuberosum. 284. 
Solenopsis geminata, on Cajanus, 43 ; on 
cotton, 100 ; on Ailanthus, 263 ; on 
brinjal, 286, 288. 
somniferum, Papaver. 
Sonchal (,sre Malva parviflora). 
sonchi, Macrosiphum. 



INDEX. 



337 



sordidus, Aphanus. 

„ , Cosmopolites. 
Sorghum, Andropogon. 
soror, Clania. 
Soy Bean, 47-48. 
soyella, Gracillaria. 

Spalangia sp., parasite of Chcetodacus cucur- 
bits, 305. 
spathota, Chelaria. 
spectra, Tettigoniella. 

Sphenarches caffer, on fcur, 44 ; on lablab, 
56 ; on bottle gourd, 306 ; foodplants, 
306. 
sphenarioides, Colemania. 
Sphenoptera arachidis, on tur, 46 ; on soy- 
bean, 48 ; on lablab, 56 ; 
on horse gram, 57 ; on cow- 
pea, 60 ; on sann hemp, 70 ; 
on agathi, 75 : on ground- 
nut, 93 ; on lucerne, 208. 
„ gossypii, on cotton, 120 ; on 

bhindi, 124. 
Sphex lobatus, predaceous on Brachy- 

trypes, 98. 
Spialia galba, on hollyhock, 130. 
Spider, Red. 
spilota, Glenea. 
spinator, Ccelosterna. 
spinifera, Euxoa. 

spiniferus, Aleurocanthus (Ateyrodes). 
Spodoptera abyssinia, on rice, 163. 

,, mauritia, on rice, 153 ; on juar, 

179 ; on wheat, 194 ; on 
barley, 199 ; on grasses, 203. 
spontaneum, Saccharum. 
Spraying for Mango Hoppers, 222-224. 

„ Materials, Standardization of, 27. 
Sprays for Thrips on tea, 27. 
squalida, Celama. 

„ , Epicometis. 
squamosa, Anona. 
squamosus, Hypomeces. 
Stathmopoda sycastis, larva in figs, 251. 
„ theoris, on sunflower, 96. 

Stauropus alternus, on tea, 18 ; on Cajanus, 

42 ; on tamarind, 257 ; on rose, 264. 
stebbingi, Monophlebus. 
Btellifera, Vinsonia. 
Stemfly in Bakla, 62. 
Stenachroia elongolla, on juar, 183. 
Stephanitis typicus, on cardamom, 37 ; on 
plantain, 239 ; on coconut, 260 ; on tur- 
meric, 295. 
Sterrha sacraria, on Rumex, 297. 
stevensi, Aulacophora. 



Sthenias grisator, on Erythrina, 77 ; on 

vine, 235 ; on mulberry, 255 ; on rose, 

265 ; on oleander, 267 ; on Bougainvillea, 

268. 
Stictaspis ceratitiria, on bamboo, 204. 

„ striata, on bamboo, 204. 
stillata, Anatona. 
stoliczkse, Adoretus. 
stolida, Grammodes, 
Stored Grain, experiments with pests of, 

308-310. 
stramineum, Megaccelum. 
Strawberry, 256. 
striata, Stictaspis. 
striatalis, Diatraea venosata. 
strigicollis, Scelodonta. 
Stromatium barbatum, 205 ; on orange, 

211 ; on babul, 275. 
styx, Acherontia. 
Suastus gremius, on coconut, 258 ; on 

palmyra, 262. 
subcostata, Nodostoma. 
subfasciatus, Myllocerus. 
subscutellatus, Xylotrechus. 
Sugar-Beet, 283. * 
Sugarcane, 137-152. 
Sunflower, 95-96. 
superciliosus, Xanthotrachelus, 
suppressalis, Diatrsea. 
suppressaria, Biston. 
Sweet Pea, 58. 

„ Potato, 291-294. 
Sword Bean, 65. 
sycastis, Stathmopoda. 
Sylepta derogata, on cotton, 100 ; on bhindi, 
123 ; on rozolle, 125 ; on holly, 
hock, 130. 
,, lunalis, on vine, 235. 
Sympiezomias cretaceus, on coffee, 29 ; on 
mulberry, 255. 
,, decipiens, on cinchona, 37, 

,, f rater, on coffee, 29. 

Syntomosphyrum indicum, parasite of 

Chsetodacus spp., 305. 
syringa, Argina. 



T. 



tabacum, Nicotiana. 

Tachardia albizzise, on Iitchi, 230. 

„ lacca, 254. 
Tamarind, 257. 
tamarindi, Aspidiotus. 
Tamarindus indica, 257. 



338 



INDEX. 



tamulus, Epacromia. 

Tanymecus chloroleucus, on Sesainurn, 83 ; 
on rice, 108. 
„ circumdatus, on indigo, 81 ; 

on maize, 190 ; on ber, 254 ; 
on cabbage, 280. 
„ hispidus, on cotton, 103 ; on 

cane, 149 ; on rice, 168 ; on 
maize, 190 ; on lucerne, 207 ; 
on ber, 254. 
„ indicus, on sann hemp, 69 ; 

on indigo, SI ;\on sunflower, 
96 ; on safflower, 97 ; on 
jute, 134; on rice, 168; on 
juar, 180 ; on bajra, 186 ; on 
maize, 190 ; on wheat, 193 ; 
on opium poppy, 273 ; on 
beetroot, 283. 
,, princeps, on cotton, 103. 

,, sciurus, on cane, 149. 

taprobanensis, Cappaea. 
Tarache crocata, on jute, 133. 
„ nitidula, on cotton, 101. 
,, notabilis, on cotton, 101. 
,, opalinoides, on cotton, 101 ; on 
Abutilon indicum, 129. 
tarandus, Oxyrhachis. 
Tarucus theophrastus, on ber, 253. 
Tarytia flavo-orbitalis, 84, 18l\ 
Tea, Pests of, 18-28. 
telarius, Tetranyohus. 
Telchinia violae, on ambadi, 126. 
Telicota augias, on cane, 149 ; on rice, 164 ; 

on bamboo, 204. 
Tenai, 200-201. 

Tenaphalera elongata, on silk cotton, 131. 
tenebrosus, Psylliodes. 
tenuicollis, Lytta. 

Terastia meticulosalis, on Erythrina, 77. 
Teratodes monticollis, on vine, -'.)'>. 
Teriaa hecabe, on dhaincha, 72 : on agathi, 
75 ; on chitagathi, 76 ; on Albizzia, 
79. 
„ silhetana, on dhaincha, 72 ; on 
agathi, 75 ; on Albizzia, 79. 
Terminalia catappa, 246. 
Termites on tur, 46 ; on gram, 50 ; on lab- 
ial), 54 ; on groundnut, 94 ; on cotton, 121 ; 
on cane, 137-139, 146 ; on bajra, 1S7 ; on 
maize, 192 ; on wheat, 194, 196 ; on 
barley, 199 ; on grasses, 203 ; on mango, 
217, 227 ; on vine, 236 ; on coconut, 258; 
on chrysanthemum, 263 ; on rose, 265; 
on chillies, 290. 



Tessarotoma quadraria, on litchi, 230 ; on 

pear, 247 ; on apple, 249. 
testulalis, Maruca. 

Tetranychus telarius, on cotton, 118. 
tetraonis, Arbela. 

Tetroda histeroidea, on rice, 175. 
Tettigoniella spectra, on rice, 177. 
Text-books, 14. 
Thalassodes quadraria, on mango, 218 ; on 

litchi, 229. 
these, Eriochiton. 
theifera, Camellia. 
theivora, Helopeltis. 
theobronuc, Bruchus. 
( heoris, Stathmopoda. 
Theretra aleeto, on vine, 235. 
Theretra glioma, on elephants foot, 298. 

,, oldenlandise, on balsam, 268. 
theophrastus, Tarucus. 
Thiacidas postica, on ber, 253. 
Thxips, on tea, 27 ; on Mimusops, 38 ; on 
Cajanus, 43 ; on dhaincha, 72 ; on 
indigo, 82 ; on groundnut, 90, 92 ; 
on cotton, 98 ; on cane, 149 ; on 
lucerne, 207 ; on vine, 236 ; on 
opium poppy, 274 ; on chillies, 
290; on onion, 297. 
,, oryzse, on rice, 154. 
thurberiella, Bucculatrix. 
thyrsis, Gangara. 

Tiger-beetles, Collyrine, in coffee, 34. 
Til (see Sesamum). 
tinctorius, Carthamus. 
Tobacco, 269-272. 
Tomato, 289-290. 
„ Fly, 178. 
Tonica niviferana, on silk cotton, 131, 

,, zizyphi, on Citrus, 211. 
toparcha, Phyllocnistis. 
torodelta, Laspeyresia. 
Toxoptera aurantii, on Citrus, 215. 
Trabala vishnu, on castor, 87 ; on country 

almond, 246. 
Trachys sp., on jute, 134. 
tranquebaricus, Apoderus. 
transmarinus, Myllocerus. 
transversa, Anomala. 

,, , Chlumetia. 
Trapa bispinosa, 254. 
trapezalis, Marasmia. 
triarcha, Lithocollet is. 
tricentra, Laspej resia. 
Trichogramma sp., parasitic on Chile 

simplex, 182. 
Trichosanthes anguina, 307. 



INDEX. 



33 9 



Trichosanthes cucumerina, 307. 
trifenestrata, Cricula. 
Trigonella fcenurn-gnecurn, 298. 
Trigonodes hyppasia (see Chalciope). 
trilineata, Pileinostorna. 
trilobitiforniis, Aspidiotus. 

,, , Pseuclaonidia. 

Triticura vulgare. 
Tropaeoluru sp., 269. 
Trypaneidae, control, 242. 
Trypaneid Fly, on Erythrina, 77. 
tuberculata, Oncocephala. 
tuberculatus, Chsetodacus. 
tuberosum, Solanum. 
tuberosus, Helianthus. 
Tukra Disease of mulberry, 256. 
Tulsi, 267. 
Tur, 41. 
Turmeric, 295. 
Turnip, 282. 

Tylopholis ballardi, on gram, 50. 
Typhlocyba spp., on vine, 236. 
typhoidcum, Pennisetum. 
typicus, Stephanitis. 



U. 



Udaspes f olus, on ginger, 294 ; on turmeric, 

295. 
undalis, Hellula. 
undata, Pelamia (Memigia). 
undecimpustulatus, Myllocerus. 
uniformis, Sesamia. 
unipuncta, Cirphis. 
Urentius echinus, on brinjal, 289. 
Urid, 50-53. 

Urogaster depressarise, 112. 
usitatissimum, Linum. 
Utetheisa pulchella, on sann hemp, 66, 71 ; 

control, 66-67 ; alternative foodplants, 

67. 
utilissima, Manihot. 



Val (see Lablab). 
variabilis, Hypera. 
varians, Anomala polita. 
varians, Metriona. 
,, , Ocinara. 
varicornis, Leptocorisa. 
velox, Oxya. 
velutina, Natada. 



venalba, Borolia. 

ventralis, Eusarcocoris. 

versicolor, Callitettix. 
„ , Oxycetonia. 

versutus, Adoretus. 

vesca, Fragaria. 

vesicarius, Eumex. 

vesuviana, Carpomyia. 

viarum, Hodotermes. 

Vicia faba, 62. 

vigintiocto-punctata, Epilachna. 

Vigna catjang, 59. 

Vine (see Grape-vine). 

vinifera, Vitis. 

Vinsonia stellifera, on mango, 228 ; on 
coconut, 260. 

Viola odorata, 268. 

vioke, Telchinia. 

Violet, 268 

Virachola isocrates, on orange, 213 ; on 
guava, 231 ; on pomegranate, 232 ; con- 
trol, 233 ; on wood-apple, 234 ; on plum, 
245 ; ott loquat, 250 ; on tamarind, 257. 

virgatus, Pseudococcus (Daclylopius). 

viridicollis, Plautia. 

viridis, Coccus (Lecanium). 

viridula, Nezara. 

vishnu, Trabala. 

vitis, Chionaspis. 

Vitis vinifera, 234. 

vittata, Phyllotreta. 

vulgare, Hordeum. 
,, , Triticum 

vulgaris, Armeniaca. 
„ , Dioctes. 
„ , Lagenaria. 



W. 



262. 



Wallacea sp., o)i date, 

Water- nut, 254. 

Weevils, in Albizzia seeds, 79 ; on Abutilt n 

indicum, 129 ; on mulberry, 255. 
Wendlandia notoniana, 30. 
Wheat, 193-198, 308. 
White Ants (see Termites). 
Wood-apple, 234. 
Woolly Aphid, on bamboo, 205. 
"Woolly Aphis," on apple, 2f'.». 



X. 



xanthogastrella, Scirpophaga. 



840 



INDEX. 



Xantbopinipla punctata, 182. 








xantborrhcea, Porthesia. 


Z. 






Xanthotraclielus faunus, on sunflower, 96 ; 








on ber, 253. 


Zea mays, 188. 






„ perlatus, on .sunflower, 96. 


zelota, Eucosma. 






„ superciliosus, on sun- 


Zeuzera coffese, on tea, 


21 ; on coffee, 


34; 


flower, 96. 


on cotton, 121. 






Xyleborus fornicatus, on tea, 21. 


zibetbinus, Durio. 






Xylonomus coerulescens, 31. 


zinckenolla, Etiella. 






Xylotrechus quadripes, on coffee, 30-34. 


Zingiber officinale, 294. 






„ subscutellatus, 34. 


Zizera otis, on gram, 49 


: on dbaincba 


72 • 


Xystrocera globosa, in Albizzia, 79. 


on gogu, 125. 
zizypbi, Tonica. 
Zizypbus jujuba, 253. 








Zonabris pbalerata, on 


Hibiscus 


rosa- 


Y. 


sinensis, 128. 








„ pustulata, on 


Cajanus, 43 


on 


Yam, 297. 


cowpea, 60 ; 


on Hibiscus 


rosa- 


ypsilon, Agrotis. 


sinensis, 128 ; 


on tenai, 201 




Ypsolophus evidantis (Dichomeris iantbes). 


zonatus, Cbaetodacus. 







CALCUTTA : PttlNTED BT SUPDT. OOVT. PRINTING, INDIA, 8, HASTINGS STREKT 




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