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Report of the Proceedings 

_ of the 

Fourth Entomologica l Meeting 

Held at Pusa, 7th to 12th Felraary 1921 



^Proceedings of the Fourth Entomological 


Held at Pusa on the 7th to 12th February 1921 

Edited by 
T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, r.n., f,l.s., f.e.s., f.z.s., 

Imperial Entomologist 

\i> MAY 5 1922 "^^ 


1921 f' 

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ri^HE following Report contains an account of the Proceedings of 
X the Fourth Entomological Meeting, held at Pusa from 7th 
to 12th February 1921 and attended by over forty entomological 
workers from India and Ceylon. 

Fifty-one papers on various aspects of Indian Entomology were 
read at the Meeting and of these fifty are included in this Report, the 
other not having been received for publication. The account of the 
discussion on the papers read at the meeting has been prepared from 
notes made by the Joint Secretaries, Messrs. R. Senior-White and 
G. R. Dutt. 

That these Meetings are of very real utility and interest to all Ento- 
mological workers in India is best shown by the internal evidence of the 
Reports of the various Meetings which may be left to speak for themselves. 

It may be added that no Report was published of the First Entomo- 
logical Meeting, held in 1915, but that Reports of the Second (1917) 
and Third (1919) Meetings are still available. 


mh April 1921, 

( iii ) 

List of those who took part in the Fourth Entomological 

Meeting held at Pusa on 7th to 

12th February 1921. 


1. E. A. d'Abreu, F.Z.S., Curator, Central Museum, Nagpur. 

2. E. A. Andrews, B.A., Entomologist, Indian Tea Association, 

3. P. E.. AwATi, B.A., D.I.C., Entomologist, Medical Eesearch Fund. 

4. E. Ballard, B.A., F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Madras. 

5. C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., F.E.S., Forest Zoologist, Dehra Dun. 

6. B. B. BoSE, B.Sc, Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

7. M. Cameron, K.N., F.E.S., Systematic Entomologist, Forest 

Eesearch Institute, Dehra Dun. 

8. Major S. E. Christophers, C.I.E., I. M.S., Central Eesearch Institute, 


9. M. N. De, Sericulture Assistant, Pusa. 

10. V. G. Deshpande, B.Ag., Assistant Professor of Entomology, 


11. DiNA Nath, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Punjab. 

12. G. E. DuTT, B.A., (Joint Secretary), Personal Assistant to the 

Imperial Entomologist, Pusa. 

13. H. L. DuTT, M.S. A., Officiating Economic Botanist, Bihar and Orissa, 

14. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, E.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., (Chairman), 

Imperial Entomologist, Pusa. 

15. C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant Entomologist, Burma. 

16. F. H. Gravely, D.Sc, F.E.S., Superintendent, Madras Museum. 

17. S. E. Gupta, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Assam. 

18. Abdul Haq, Insectary Fieldman, Pusa. 

19. M. Afzal Husain, M.A., Government Entomologist, Punjab. 

20. J. C. HuTSON, Ph.D., Government Entomologist, Ceylon. 

21. C. M. Inglis, M.B.O.U., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Planter, Darbhanga. 

22. M. 0. T. Iyengar, B.A., Entomologist, Bengal Malaria Eesearch. 

23. T. N. Jhaveri, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

24. J. L. Khare, L.Ag., F.E.S., Lecturer in Entomology, Nagpur. 

25. Major Froilano de Mello, Director, Bacteriological Laboratory, 


26. C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

27. A. MuJTABA, Head Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

28. D. NowROJi, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

< V ) 



29. Gr. D. Ojha, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

30. C. U. Patel, Entomological Assistant, Baroda. 

31. P. G. Patel, Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

32. E. B. PouLTON, D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of Zoology, Oxford. 

33. Hem Singh Pruthi, M.Sc, Assistant Professor of Entomology, 


34. Rao Sahib Y. Eamachandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Assistant Ento- 

mologist, Madras. 

35. B. C. Santappa, Assistant Entomologist, Mysore. 

36. Ram Saran, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

37. P. C. Sen, Entomological Assistant, Bengal. 

38. S. K. Sen, B.Sc, Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

39. H. N. Sharma, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

40. DwARKA Prasad Singh, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

41. T. V. SuBRAMANiAM, Assistant Entomologist, Mysore. 

42. R. Senior-White, F.E.S., {Joint Secretary), Entomologist (Tem- 

porary), Pusa. 


1. S. MiLLiGAN, M.A., B.Sc, Agricultural Adviser to the Government 

of India and Director, Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa. 

2. Mrs. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 



Preface • • . . ......... iii 

List of those who attended the^Meeting ........ v 

Opening Address by the Agricultural Adviser 1 

Chairman's Opening Address ..... ..... 2 


Section L — Crop Pests. 

1. Additions and corrections to the List of Indian Crop-pests, by T. Bainbrigge 

Fletcher 14 

2. Additions and corrections to the List of Crop-pests in South India, by E. 

Ballard 21 

3. Short Notes on new and known Insects from South India, by T. V. Rama- 

krishna Ayyar ........... 29 

4. Oxya velox, by Rao Sahib Y. Ramachandra Rao . . . . . .41 

5. First Entomological Records in Portuguese India, by Major Froilano de Mello 

and P. Correa Afonso .......... 43 

6. An Entomologist's Crop-pest Calendar for Madras Presidency, by T. V. Rama- 

krishna Ayyar ........... 49 

7. Some notes on attempts to produce immunity from insect attack on Tea, 

by E. A. Andrews ......... .56 

8. Report of Campaign against Spodoptera mauritia, Boisd. (Nootuidse) in Mala- 

bar, by E. Ballard 00 

9. Results of investigation of Bionomics of Platyedra gossypiella, Saunders, 

in South India, together with some notes on Earias insulana and E. fabia, 

by E, Ballard 70 

10. Oxycarenus iTtus ; the Dusky Cotton Bug, by C. S. Misra .... 84 

11. Notes on Cotton Boll worms (£'ana5/a6ia and £^. i«s!tfa?ia), by T. N. Jhaveri . 93 

12. Notes on Cotton Woolly Mite (Eriophyes gossypii), by T. N. Jhaveri . 96 

13. Notes on " Katra " (Hairy Caterpillars) and their controlling measures, by 

T. N. Jhaveri 98 

14. Supplementary observations on Borers in Sugarcane, Rice, etc., by C. C. 

Ghosh 105 

15. Note on Sugarcane Borers in the Central Provinces, by J. L. Khare . . 137 

16. Juar Stem-borers {Ghilo simplex and Sesamia inferens), by T. N. Jhaveri . 143 

17. Some experiments to control Mango Hoppers, by M. Aizal Husain and Hem 

Singh Pruthi 148 

18. Notes on Natada nararia, Moore, by E. Ballard and Rao Sahib Y. Rama- 

chandra Rao ........... 153 

19. Note on a Braconid parasite of Agrotis ypsilon, by H. L. Dutt . . . 157 

20. A Preliminary List of the Insect Pests of Mesopotamia, by Rao Sahib Y. 

Ramachandra Rao .......... 164 

21. Some observations on the control of Field Rats in the Punjab, by M. A. 

Husain and Hem Singh Pruthi 174 

Section II. — Forest Entomology. 

22. Recent work in Forest Entomology, by C. F. C. Beeson .... 182 

( vii ) 

▼iii OONTENtS. 

Section III. — Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Paob. 

23. A note on the effects of mercurous chloride on Culicid larvse, by S. K. Sen . 184 
24 . Oviposition in Culicidse, by H. N. Shaima and S. K. Sen .... 192 

25. A preliminary note on the action of acids, salts and alkalies on the develop- 

ment of Culicid eggs and larvae, by H. N. Sharma ..... 199 

26. The distribution of Mosquitos in relation to the zoo-geographical areas of the 

Indian Empire, by Major S. R. Christophers ...... 205 

27. A preliminary note on new thoracic appendages in Anopheline larvae, by M. 

Tirunarayana Iyengar . . . . . . . . .216 

Kala-Azar in Assam .......... 218 

28. Traps for Mosquitos, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ...... 219 

29. Surra and Biting Flies : A Review, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher and R. Senior- 

White . 222 

30. Further notes on the occurrence of Coleoptera in the human intestine, by R, 

Senior-White and S. K. Sen 236 

Section IV. — Household and Store Pests. 

31. Lethal Temperature for some stored grain peats, by M. Afzal Husain and 240 

Harnam Dasa . . . . . . . . . 

Section VI. — Lac. 

32. AmtracJiyntis falcatella, Stt., hy G. S. MiBr& 249 

33. Determination of emergence of larvae from examination of the ovaries of 

Lao Insects, by C. S. Misra 253 

Section VIII. — Liek-histories and Bionomics. 

34. The proportion of the female forms of Papilio polytes, L., in Dehra Dun, 

United Provinces and Bihar, by Professor E. B. Poulton . . . 259 

35. Note on the oviposition of Oynacantha bainbriggei (Odonata), by T. Bainbrigge 

Fletcher 270 

36. Note on the life-history of Culicoides oxystoma, with some remarks on the 

early stages of Ceratopogon, by P. G. Patel ...... 272 

37. Protective movements and range of vision in Platypezid Flies, by the late 

F. M. Hewlett 279 

38. Oracillaria soyella, van Dev., and its parasite, Asympiesiella india, Girault, 

by G. R. Dutt 287 

39. Life-history notes on Stauropus alternus, Wlk,, by P. Susainathan and C. V. 

Sundaram ............ 291 

40. Notes on the life-history of two speciea of Celyphidae, by S. K. Sen . . 293 

41. Observations on the oviposition of Microbracon app. parasitic on the Cotton 

Bollworm, by M. Afzal Husain and Umrao Bahadur .... 298 

42. Koenig's paper on South Indian Termites, by T. Bainbrige Fletcher . . 312 

Section IX. — Collection and Preservation. 

43. Setting without Boards, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 334 

Section X. — Systematic EtrioMOLOGY. 

44. A Cheok-liat of Coccidoe of the Indian Region, by T. V. Rama Krishna Ayyar. 336 



45. A list of Parasitic Hymenoptera of economic importance from South India, 

by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar . . . . . . . . 363 

Section XI. — Publications. 

46. Report of the Catalogue Committee ........ 367 

Section XII. — Miscellaneous. 

47. The practical application of Insect Psychology, by the late F. M. Howlett . 368 
.48. The Pest Act in Southern India, by E. Ballard 381 

49. An interesting example of gynandromorphism in Megachih bicolor, Pb., by 

G. R. Dutt 382 

50. Notes on the Imperial Entomological Conference, London, June 1920, by 

C. E. 0. Beeson ".383 

List of Resolutions passed by the Meeting . . . . . . . 387 

Index . . 389 


Fkontispiecb. Group of Fourth Entomological Meeting 



II. Fio. 






















Contarinia andropoginis, Felt . 

1. Stomoceras ayyari Gahan 

2. Spinaria nigriceps, Cam 

1. Microplitis sp. . 

2. Attelabus discolor 

1. Healthy Pongamia fruits. 

2. Pongamia fruits attacked by Gall-fly 

3. Pongamia GaU-fly 









1. Deltoceplialus dorsalis 
2 Cosmoscarta niteara 

1. Pulvinaria maxima 

2. Phyllochoreia sp . 
Madras Paddy-pest Calendar. {Coloured) 
Map showing distribution of Paddy-pests in Malabar. 

Spodoptera mauritia. {Coloured) 
Cyphocera varia, Fb. ; Pseudogonia cinerascens, Rond. 
Actia cegyptia, Villen ...... 

Sturmia bimaculata, Hartig., Tachina fallax, Meig. . 
Bionomics of Platyedra gossypiella. {Coloured) 
Fig. 1. Graph showing Bollworm population in terms of 

Number per 100 bolls for Coimbatore Taluq 
„ 2, Graph, showing population, etc., per 100 bolls for 

Pollachi Taluq 

„ 1. Graph, showing measurements of P. gossypiella larvae 

foimd in cotton bolls ; March to July 1920 . . 
„ 2. Graph, showing population of Earias insulana and 

E. fabia per 100 bolls ; February to July 1920 . ) 
1. Adoretus versutus ; 2. Pentodon bispinifrons, 
3. Heteronychus sublcevis. ..... 108 

Procometis trochala, Meyr. . . . . .114 

1. Lychrosis zebrinus ; 2. Weevil Borer (C. S. 2044) 119 
1. Phycitid Borer (C. S. 2060) ; 2. Diatrcea auricilia 120 
1. Chilo torrentellus ; 2, Annual life-cycle of the 

same at Pusa . ..... 123 

1. Hypsotropa tenuinerveUa ; 2, Annual life-cycle of 

the same at Pusa. ...... 124 

Crambus corticellus ...... 125 

1. Bactra truculenta ; 2 Ephysteris cherscea ; 3. 

Ehyssemus germanus ..... 126 

1. Annual life-cycle of AlUssonotum impressicolle as 

observed at Pusa ; 2, C. S. 1640 . . . .129 

1. ChcetocnemasT^.{G. S. 1923) ; 2, 0. S. 1696 . . 133 
Natada nararia . . . . . . .153 

Microplitis sp 157 

( Xi ) 



Plate XXVIII. 




„ XXXII." 






. XLII. 






„ XLIX. 







Graph showing the relation between temperature and 
the length of the pupal stage of the parasite. 



' 184 
- 185 

Arrangement of vessels kept inside cage for reception 
of eggs in experiments re : oviposition in Culicidse 192 

r 194 

Graphs ....... .-^ 

Graph ........ 

1. Map showing Blandfords areas for Mammalian 

distribution (Coloured) ; 2. Map showing areas for 

Anopheline distribution (Coloured). 
Thoracic appendages in Anopheline larvse 
1. New Mosquito trap ; 2. Suggestions for mosquito 

traps ........ 

Map of India showing areas in which Surra has been 

reported in the years 1909-19 ... 
1. Apparatus used for determming lethal tempera- 
tures ; 2, Plan of Wheat Elevator at Lyallj)ur 
Graph, showing lethal temperatures for T. khapra . 
Table showing effects of high temperature on the 

larvse of T. khapra ...... 

Anatrachyntis falcatella, Stainton .... 

Determination of emergence of Lac larvse. (Coloured) 
Gynacantha bainbriggei ...... 

Culicoides oxy stoma ...... 

Graph, showing movements and range of vision in 

Platypezid flies . . . * . 

Asympiesiella India, Girault .... 

Celyphus obtectus. (Coloured). .... 
Celyphus scutatus. (Coloured). 
Koenig's plate of South Indian Termites 
Termitaria at Tanjore ...... 









j» »> 9J ..... • ol9 

Capture of winged adult termites from the nest in 

South India 328 

Setting a dragon-fly without boards . . . 334 

Gynandromorph of Megachile bicolor . . . 382 

Frontispiece ; to face page 1. 











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Fourth Entomological Meeting. 

The Fourth Entomological Meeting was held at Pusa from the 7th 
to r2th February 1921, both days inclusive. The Proceedings were 
opened by Mr. S. Milligan, M.A., B.Sc, Agricultural Adviser to the 
Government of India, who gave an introductory speech as follows : — 

Introductory Speech by the Agricultural Adviser. 

Mr. Fletcher and Gentlemen : — Before opening the proceedings it is 
my melancholy duty to pay a tribute to the memory of a distinguished 
Entomologist who has been recently removed from our midst. I refer, 
of course, to the late Mr. F. M. Howlett whose untimely death has robbed 
us of a comrade and a friend, a man of unique personality whose place 
will never be completely filled. 

Permit me in the first place, on behalf of the Members of this Institute, 
to extend to all our guests a hearty welcome to Pusa. I think that if 
any indication was required to show the value of these conferences, the 
attendance of upwards of fifty workers on Entomology from all over 
India would surely be sufiicient. The success of your past meetings is 
due, I think, in the first place, to the fact that they are informal, in the 
second place that they are of a strictly technical nature ; and, thirdly 
that they are not confined to members of a particular service or even 
to members of the services at all and that the common bond uniting all 
members is Entomology itself. From a professional standpoint, therefore, 
such meetings are ideal, and, as I have just stated, the proof of their 
value is to be seen in the large and representative gathering here assem- 
bled. I feel that I need not to an audience of this kind emphasize the 
importance of your branch of science. To the general public, insects are 
of importance chiefly from two points of view, viz., the medical and 
the agricultural. It is well known that the carriers of some of the most 
dreaded of all diseases affecting man and the lower animals are insects 
and that a not inconsiderable portion of the crops which man grows for 
his own use is devoted to the upkeep of the insect world and pays its toll 
both before and after harvest. Now it is only natural that the ordinary 


man should, in the first place, become more alarmed at the danger from 
disease carriers than from their vegetarian brethren, the former constitu- 
ting a direct attack on his person, the latter threatening his food supply. 
Hence at the present moment the general public is probably more inter- 
ested in what is called " medical " entomology than the agricultural 
branch of the subject. But, as time goes on and the human race increases 
in numbers and presses on the soil, it is evident that the proportion of 
crop which we can afford to give up to the insect world must be less and 
that in the end control of the vegetarian insects becomes also a question 
of race preservation. It is recognized by every one that insect control is 
a matter of the greatest difficulty. As a rule, the smaller the animal 
the more difficult it is to control (what is lost in size is, in fact, gained 
in elusiveness) and thus if any real control is to be established this can 
only be done by methods of great subtlety based on a very complete 
knowledge of the habits of the pests we are dealing with. The moral is 
I think plain. Gentlemen, you have a large programme in front of you 
and I will not detain you longer. I again wish you a successful conference 
and a pleasant stay at Pusa. 

Mr. Milligan was followed by the Chairman, Mr. T. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist, who addressed the Meeting as 
follows : — 

Opening Address by the Chairman. 

Mr. Milligan and Gentlemen, In the first place I wish to thank Mr. 
Milligan on behalf of this Meeting for the kindly words which he has 
just addressed to us. It is no easy matter, as Mr. Milligan has had to 
do on this occasion, to address three meetings in one day on such 
diverse subjects as Mycology, Chemistry and Entomology. 

It is once again my privilege to welcome to Pusa the various delegates 
who have come here to represent Local Governments and Departments 
at this Meeting, and on behalf of the Entomological Section of this 
Institute I offer you, gentlemen, a hearty welcome. Our only regret 
is that your stay here will be comparatively brief, as the business before 
us will not occupy more than this week. But whilst you are here I 
hope that you will realize that our resources are at your disposal and 
that any help or information which we can afford will be given to the 
best of our ability. The sessions of the Meeting will occupy our mornings 
but the afternoons will be free for you to consult our collections, records 
and library and we hope that you will take full advantage of doing so. 

These Meetings, as I told you on the last occasion, are intended to be 
as informal as possible and are meant to provide a means for mutual 
help and discussion regarding all branches of Indian Entomology. 


At our Second and Third Meetings I took the occasion to address you 
on various subjects and on this occasion I propose to speak to you regard- 
ing various happenings since we last met, next to place before you a 
few subjects of common interest, and then to make a few remarks upon 
the programme before us. 

The last two years have been, I think I may say, years of steady 
progress in Indian Entomology. There has been no striking advance to 
chronicle but there has been a continuance of the solid work of laying 
foundations on which we shall be able to build later on. There has been 
expansion of the entomological staff employed by the creation in the 
Agricultural Department of the post of Government Entomologist in 
the Punjab and in the Forest Department of a post of Systematic Entomo- 
logist at Dehra Dun. The Zoological Survey has lost the services of 
Dr. Gravely but happily his transfer to the Madras Museum does not 
cause him to be lost to Indian Entomology. Amongst those who were 
present at former Meetings we shall miss the face of Mr. K. D. Shroff by 
resignation of his appointment, which is now held by Mr. Ghosh, trans- 
ferred from Pusa. We are glad to see amongst us again Eao Sahib Y. 
Eamachandra Rao, whom we may well congratulate on his well-deserved 
honour, this being, I may add, the first occasion that a distinction has 
been conferred on any purely entomological worker in India. 

The two years which have elapsed since our last Meeting have un- 
fortunately taken their toll of the small body of workers on Ind'an 
Entomology, and we have to deplore the death of four of our fellow- 

Francis Milburn Howlett, Imperial Pathological Entomologist to the 
Government of India, died at Masuri on 20th August 1920 after a severe 
operation. Born in January 1877, he was the eldest son of the late F. J. 
Howlett, of Wymondham, Norfolk, and of Mrs. Howlett, now of Norwich. 
He was educated at Wymondham Grammar School and at Berkham- 
psted School, whence in 1896 he went to Christ's College, Cambridge, 
where he gained a scholarship. He left Cambridge in 1900 and was 
for some time on the staff of the Merchant Taylor's school. In 1905 
he came out to India to Allahabad where he was Professor of Biology 
at the Muir College for about two years, and in November 1907 was 
transferred to the Indian Agricultural Service as Second Imperial 
Entomologist, a title subsequently changed to that of Imperial Patho- 
logical Entomologist, and in this capacity his work dealt with all 
insects carrying disease to men and other animals. From early 
youth Howlett had a strong taste for the study of insects, especially of 
Diptera, his first paper, published in the Entomologists^ Monthly Magazine 
for 1907, dealing with the mating habits of Empis borealis. During the 


earlier years of his service in India he was keenly interested in the col- 
lection and classification and life-histories of Indian Diptera and in 1908 
he wrote the sections on Diptera and lice for Lefroy's hidian Insect 
Life (1909). But the visit to India of Mr. W. W. Froggatt, who showed 
that fruit-flies were attracted to the smell of certain oils, led Howlett's 
attention in the direction of tropic responses in insects, and he subse- 
quently published papers on the influence of temperature on the 
biting of mosquitos and on the chemical reactions of fruit-flies. He 
also published several short papers on Sandflies. He was a good artist 
and several of his papers were illustrated by his own drawings. At the 
time of his death he had just completed a book on the control of insect 
pests. His name is commemorated in that of the tick, Haemaphysalis 
howletti, described by Warburton in 1913 from a hill pony at Eawal- 
pindi, and in that of the Emjpid genus Howlettia described by Brunetti 
in his Fauna volume. 

During his earlier years in India, Hewlett suffered from ill-health 
and was absent on sick leave from 1909 to 1911 and again absent on leave 
for two years from 1915 to 1917; but latterly he seemed to have recovered 
his health, and his sudden death, at the comparatively early age of 43, 
was unexpected and to be regretted. 

Charles A. Paiva was born of a respectable Anglo-Indian family 
at Purneah, on 30th May 1878. He was educated at St. Michsel's High 
School, Kurgi, and at St. Xavier's College, Calcutta, and joined the 
Indian Museum as a Gallery Assistant in July 1899. In January 1905 
he was appointed Special Entomological Assistant, a post which he 
held, with several interruptions due to ill-health, up to the time of 
his death. For some years he had been threatened with phthisis but, 
notwithstanding a severe illness on more than one occasion, he devoted 
himself with enthusiasm to his work on insects and especially to the 
study of Indian Rhynchota, ou which group he was already beginning 
to make a name for himself when he died suddenly on 11th August 
1919. The various papers from his pen will be found in the Records of 
the Indian Museum and in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The late Mr. J. L. Mitter after completing his course in the Veterinary 
College, Belgachia, Calcutta, joined the Veterinary Department, and 
prior to his coming to Pusa was holding the post of a Veterinary 
Assistant at Patna. He was subsequently appointed to one of the 
Entomological posts sanctioned to the late Mr. Howlett by the Indian 
Research Fund Association. After working in this Institute for about 
three years he went to Assam to assist Major Mackie, and subsequently 
his services were transferred to Kasauli where he came in touch with 
Major Christophers with whose help and guidance (to which he frequently 


referred) lie considerably enriclied his knowledge of Medical Entomology. 
The papers published by him include notes on (1) the feeding habits of 
Corizoneura {Pangonia) longirostris, (2) the life history of Haematohia 
aDd (3) the breeding places of PJilebofomus in Lahore, the last paper being 
read before the Sixth Indian Science Congress held in Bombay. All 
these papers were published in the Indian Journal of Medical Research. 
He died during the latter part of 1919. 

Lord Walsingham, who died in December 1919, never visited India 
but was keenly interested in the study of Indian Microlepidoptera and 
I understand that a very large number of specimens from India and 
especially from the Khasi Hills are contained in his magnificent collect- 
ion which was presented by him to the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). In the earlier days of Entomology in India, several papers on 
Indian Entomology from his pen are to be found in Indian Museum 
Notes and he also wrote the portions on Microlepidoptera in Moore's 
Lepidoptera of Ceylon and Swinhoe's Catalogue of the Heterocera in the 
Oxford Museum. Many of our familiar insect pests, such as Exelastis 
atomosa and Gracillaria theivora, were first described by him, and his 
death, which terminated a long and useful career, came as a loss to us 
in India as to all workers on Microlepidoptera throughout the world. 

It may be useful to indicate briefly what is being done in the case of 
the Fauna volumes on insects, so that you may be in a position to give 
special attention to the collection of specimens and information regarding 
those groups on which volumes are under preparation. In Coleoptera, 
volumes have been sanctioned by the Secretary of State on Carabidse by 
Mr. H. E. Andrewes, on Meloidee (better known to some of you as Can- 
tharidse) by Mr. K. G. Blair, a second volume on Curculionida? by Dr. 
G. A. K. Marshall, and on Melolonthidse by Mr. G. J. Arrow. The second 
part of Mr. Brunetti's work on Diptera Brachycera, comprising the 
Pipunculidaj, Syrphidse, Conopidre and (Estridse, and completing this 
group, has also been sanctioned and will, I understand, be published 
shortly. A volume or volumes on Staphylinidse will also be undertaken 
by Dr. M. Cameron but have not yet been authorized pending collect- 
ion of further material. Other volumes which will probably be prepared 
comprise Culicidfe by Major S. R. Christophers and Mr. E. W. Edwards, 
Odonata by Major E. C. Eraser, Chrysomelidse by Professor Maulik, 
Passalidseby Dr. Gravely, and Muscidse by Major Patton and Mr. 
Senior- White. You will notice that this list does not include several 
volumes which have been advertized as under preparation for several 
years past ; of these, volumes III and TV on Butterflies, by Mr. H. H. 
Druce, Volume II of the Longicorn Beetles by Dr. C. J. Gahan, and'' the 
volume on Apterygota, Isoptera, and Embiadse by Dr. Imms have all 


been abandoned or deferred for the time being. The abandonment of 
the further vokimes on Butterflies is especially regrettable as there is a 
decided want for these, but a curious fatality seems to pursue all works on 
Indian Butterflies, those commenced by de Niceville, Bingham and 
Moore all having been left uncompleted by their original authors. 
The list of publications on Indian Entomology during the last two 
years is a very lengthy one and shows a decided tendency to increase 
in size every year. It is published annually in the Report of the Board 
of Scientific Advice and includes all the papers which come under my 
notice during each year. It seems hardly necessary to refer to the 
publications of the Agricultural and Forest Departments, of the Indian 
Museum, the Medical Research Fund and the Bombay Natural History 
Society, as you doubtless see all of these as they appear, but I may 
perhaps bring to your notice a few of the more important papers which 
have appeared dealing wholly or partly with Indian insects. Amongst 
these may be mentioned the papers on Coleoptera by Messieurs Lameere, 
Fleutiaux, Pic, Achard, Boucomont, Hustache, Desbordes and d'Orchy- 
mont in the publications of the Entomological Societies of France and 
Belgium, by Arrow on Lamellicornia and Endomychidge, by Cameron 
on Staphyhnidae, by Andrewes on Carabidae, and by Champion on Coleo- 
ptera generally ; in Lepidoptera by Lord Rothschild on Sphingidre, by 
Colonel Swinhoe on Noctuidae, by Front on Geometridee, by Meyrick on 
Microlepidoptera, and by Hampson and Zerny on Pyralid^; in Diptera by 
Townsend on Muscoid Flies and by various writers on Culicida ; in 
Hymenoptera by Cockerell on Bees, Gahan and Girault on parasitic 
Hymenoptera, Dodd on Proctotrupida?, Kohl on Crabroninse and Sphe- 
cinae, and Altson on the life history of Nasonia brevicornis, a blow-fly 
parasite which occurs in India, and also by Turner and Rohwer on several 
groups ; in Coccida^ by Brain ; in Thysanoptera by Bagnall ; in Stre- 
psiptera by Pierce ; in Grthoptera by Bolivar on South Indian Acrididse ; 
in Isoptera by Imms in his study of ArcJiotermopsis ; on further fossil 
insects from Burmese amber by Cockerell ; and on picturesque memories 
of insect-collecting in India by Rothney. Dr. G. C. Crampton's studies 
on the comparative anatomy and phylogeny of Insects, although not 
based on Indian species, have also very considerable general interest. 
Another paper, containing a good deal of information on Indian species, 
is Williams' Philippine Wasp Studies, published by the Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Experiment Station. Amongst separate publications dealing 
more especially with economic entomology I would call your attention 
to Dr. K. W. Dammerman's book on agricultural pests of the Dutch 
East Indies,' to Heer S. Lc-efman's monograph on Orycfes ridnoceros 
in the Dutch East Indies, and to Dr. T. Shiraki's detailed description of 


the Tabanidge of Formosa. Captain Hingston's recently issued book, 
A Naturalist in Himalaya, also contains several interesting chapters on 
insects of the Hazara district. 

Whilst on the subject of recent publications there are some sins of 
commission and omission to which I wish to draw your attention. In 
the former category may be included such items as misleading titles of 
publications. To give specific instances, I may refer to a paper by Hendel 
in Annals of the National Hungarian Museum, Vol. XIII (December 
1915), which purports to describe Diptera from Formosa but (p. 448) 
contains the description of a new fly from Darjiling. A second example 
of the same sort of thing is instanced in a paper by Mr. Morley which 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1919 
and which was entitled, " On Some Equatorial and other Species and 
Genera of African Ichneumoninae contained in the collection of the 
British Museum" ; in a paper with such a title one hardly expects to find 
two Indian species described as new. S^uch examples could be multiplied 
were it profitable to do so. The effect f the not infrequent use of such 
misleading titles is that one's work in trying to keep abreast of literature 
on Indian Insects is unnecessarily and unfairly increased, as in the 
course of every year one has to go over thousands of pages of literature 
merely to see whether it contains anything of interest to us in India not 
revealed by the titles of the various papers, and I think that we are 
entitled to protest against such a state of affairs. 

Another point which I wish to bring to your notice concerns especi- 
ally many of our Indian publications containing entomological papers 
and is with regard to the correct dating of such publications. The 
Indian Journal of Medical Research is a particularly flagrant offender 
in this respect ; the part dated January 1920 did not come to hand until 
June, and the part dated April 1920 until November, whilst the parts 
which will presumably be dated July 1920, October 1920 and January 
1921 have not come to hand yet. A part of the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society bears on its cover the words " Date of Publica- 
tion, 1st July 1920 " but my copy did not reach me until 30th September 
1920 and, as a member of the Committee of the Society, I receive an 
early distribution of the Journal, so that I cannot suppose that the 
actual date of publication was earlier than September. Bearing in 
mind the old saying about glass houses, I may add that our own publica- 
tions have not been without sin in this respect ; for example, Mr. Misra's 
Memoir on N&photettix bears the date " May 1920 " on the cover but was 
not actually published until 3rd August 1920. I am quite aware that 
most of these errors are due to delays in the press and that the misdating 
of such publications is due rather to ignorance of or carelessness regard- 



ing tlie necessity of correctness in such a matter, but such incorrect dates 
of publication may lead to errors later on, and I think it desirable to call 
your attention to such cases now. The fact that a Journal bears a parti- 
cular date on its cover is no proof that it was actually published at that 
time ; the actual date of publication is the earliest date on which such a 
Journal is accessible to the public by purchase. I may add that in my 
annual list of publications on Indian Entomology the dates quoted 
against papers are the actual dates of publication so far as this can be 
ascertained. / 

No International Conference of Entomologists has been held since 1912 
and I have heard of no proposals regarding the next Conference. An 
Imperial Entomological Conference attended by delegates from the self- 
governing Dominions and Colonies within the Empire, was, however, 
held in London in June 1920, and a report of this Conference is laid on 
the table for your information. I was selected to attend to represent 
India but, owing to the difficulty of obtaining a passage to England, I 
was unable to go and Mr. Beeson, who was then in England on leave, 
attended the meetings and will, I hope, give us some further account of 
it, the published report being disappointingly scanty. The main purpose 
of the Conference, if we may judge from the Resolutions passed, 
appears to have been to place the Imperial Bureau of Entomology 
on a more substantial financial foundation and to this end India has 
been asked to increase her annual contribution from £500 to £1,000 
for the next five years, after which period the question of modifying 
the amount may again be raised. 

No further general legislation regarding insect pests has taken place 
during the last two years. The regulations regarding the importation 
of plants into India have continued to be carried out by the Customs Staff 
at the specified Ports of Entry, but at Bombay, owing to complaints 
regarding treatment of plants during the process of disinfection, a Ipcal 
inspector has been appointed to assist in the fumigation of plant imports. 
The year 1919, however, saw the passing into law and into working of 
Madras Act III, which, to quote from its title, is an Act for the prevention 
of the spread of insect pests, plant diseases and noxious weeds. This 
Act has been applied in the Coimbatore district to control pests (princi- 
pally Platyedra gossypiella) of Cambodia cotton and Mr. Ballard is, I 
hope, going to give us an interesting account of its practical working. 

With regard to the Resolutions passed at our Third Meeting no action 
was required on Resolution I. Resolution II, dealing with the necessity 
for legislation concerning importation of bees and bee products has been 
rejected by Government for the time being. The whole question of 
the improvement of bee-keeping in India is a large one and I have put up 


proposals for a bee-keeping expert, to be stationed at Shillong, to carry 
out experiments, to introduce improved methods and races of bees, and 
to train up a stafi to carry these into eflect, but no orders have yet been 
passed on this subject. When we have an expert in this line and have 
accumulated more information on the subject, we shall if necessary 
reopen the question of the necessity for legislation along these lines. 
From either aspect, the question is a difficult one and South Africa, 
where legislative restrictions regarding importation of bees and bees-wax 
have been rigidly enforced, has yet failed to keep out bee diseases. 
Resolution III, regarding the preparation of a general catalogue of all 
described Indian Insects, has been approved by Government and the 
Committee will meet and submit to you during this Meeting a report on 
the progress accomplished up to date. Resolutions IV and V, regarding 
an Indian Entomological Journal, required no action. Resolution 
VI concerned the adoption of a standard classification of entomological 
literature in India : I wrote to the Director of the Imperial Bureau of 
Entomology with reference to any classification which may be in use 
there and was informed that they have no standard classification other 
than a rough division of literature according to its country of origin : 
no orders have been passed on this Resolution as yet. Resolution VII, 
dealing with entomological education in Agricultural Colleges, has been 
circulated for the consideration of Local Governments. Resolution 
VIII, dealing with the part of entomology in nature study and school 
text-books, has been forwarded to the Education Department with 
an extract of the full proceedings. Resolution IX, which dealt with the 
question of organization of entomological work, has been dealt with by 
the Government of India, which is prepared to accept the proposal for an 
Indian Entomological Service with a Central Research Institute located 
at Coimbatore, and Local Governments have been addressed to see how 
such proposals meet with their requirements. 

We are meeting here as a body of men more or less interested in the 
study of insects. Some of us are whole-time workers in this study, to 
others it is only part of their work, whUst others again find in Entomology 
a hobby. Some of us are interested in the economic aspect of the subj ect, 
as applied to agricultural or forest crops or to diseases of man or animals, 
others derive their main interest from a study of the habits or systematics 
or other aspect of Entomology, but we are all united in the study of 
insect life. In the case of those who do not share this interest there is 
sometimes found a sort of cui bono ? attitude towards Entomology and 
its votaries, an idea probably founded on the fact that insects are small 
animals and that, therefore forsooth, they are of small importance. We 
who deal with entomological questions know well that this is not the case 


but probably few even of us have tried to realize what is the real import- 
ance of the study of Entomology in a country such as India, where seven- 
tenths of the people depend directly for their livelihood on the produce 
of their fields, which produce is ravaged by insect pests both before and 
after harvest and where such a vast aggregate toll is taken by insect- 
borne diseases both amongst man and his domestic animals. It is usually 
computed, by those who are in the best position to judge, that the annual 
damage to agricultural crops by insect pests is about ten per cent.; that 
is to say, the farmer who reaps what he considers to be a normal full crop 
actually gets only nine-tenths of what he would have got had there been 
no damage by insect pests. We have few exact records of damage, but 
in the case of main crops such as rice it is probable that an estimate of 
ten per cent, damage is a fair one. Wheat is rather an exception, although 
it is seriously damaged by termites in some districts, but as against 
this it is badly damaged in store after harvest. I have been at some 
trouble to collect figures of the annual average value of the outturn 
of agricultural crops in India and this comes to the total value of 
Rs. 1,682,42,73,000. Applying the ten per cent, rule to this we get an 
annual loss due to crop-pests of Rs. 18,693,63,666, or say Rs. 18,000,00,000 
in round figures. I have taken no account of losses to stored grains, 
holding these as covered by the ten per cent. rule. Large as this loss 
is, it is only a part of the damage wrought by insect pests. We have 
roughly a quarter of a million square miles of forest in India, of which 
roughly a half is workable ; I cannot give even a rough guess at the 
average amount of damage done annually by insect pests in Indian forests 
but we shall be well within the mark, I think, in placing it at an average 
of Rs. 100 per annum per square mile over the workable area, neglecting 
the unworkable areas altogether, and this figure gives us another 
Rs. 125,00,000 to add to our bill against the insect world. Then we have 
the various insects which carry disease to man and animals. I believe 
that somewhere about a million deaths per annum are estimated as due 
to malaria, without taking into account the incalculable loss to the wage- 
earning capacity of the people due to this disease. In the twenty years 
1898-1918 a total of 10,254,221 people are returned as having died of 
plague, or an annual average of 512,711. Then we have other diseases 
such as Kala-azar and elephantiasis and a proportion of such diseases 
as cholera, so that we shall probably not be far wrong in estimating the 
annual death-roll from insect-borne diseases as approximately 1,600,000. 
It is difficult to put a money-value on this loss, but it must be remem- 
bered that the figures given are totals of all degrees in the population 
and that not all are wage-earners, so that we may estimate a modest 
value of Rs. 100 per life, which gives us a figure of Rs. 1,600,00,000. 


Next we have the cattle, on which the whole cultivation of the country 
depends, and the total money-value of these animals may be estimated 
at Ks. 4,779,50,000 ; taking the losses in live-stock and animal labour or 
produce (hides, milk, flesh, eggs, etc.), due to premature death, debility 
or damage caused by arachnids and insects at 8 per cent, of this total 
value, we find an annual loss under this head of Rs. 38,236,000. Totalling 

these various headings we find the losses due to : — 


Crop-pests 1,80,00,00,000 

Forest-pests ...••• 
Human diseases ..... 
Animal diseases , . . . • 






or in all, say, in round figures two thousand millions (or two hundred 
crores) of Rupees every year. I do not think that these figures are at 
all exaggerated and it is needless to add that they disprove any idea 
that Entomology is a minor science of little practical importance. If 
we, by a study of insects and by practical application of the knowledge 
gained thereby, can save even one per cent, of this enormous wastage 
of the national wealth of India, such a saving would more than justify 
the most complete expansion of entomological work that we can possibly. 


When I last addressed you two years ago we met under the shadow 
of the Great War which had come to a close just before our Third Meeting 
and which for over four years had filled the newspapers with lengthy 
casualty lists and details of the great struggle. But we entomological 
workers are still living under the shadow of a Great War, a strife between 
the Insect World on the one side and Mankind and his possessions on 
the other, a Great W^ar of Waste which is taking place every day not 
only in India but throughout the whole world and beside which the 
Great War of the Nations becomes almost insignificant when we reckon 
up the total losses on our side. Throughout the whole v^^orld mankind 
struggles to raise crops to provide food for his wants and in every country 
under the sun his crops are ravaged by insect-pests and he himself and 
his domestic animals stricken with diseases carried by insects. To us, 
as entomologists, such a statement is a truism, although, as I have abeady 
said, few even of us realize the magnitude of the losses caused by insects, 
and I am far from wishing to emulate the Bell-man by repeating :— 
" / have said it thrice " : " What I tell you three times is true." However, 
as entomologists it behoves us to try to educate the General Public into 
some realization of the waste of national wealth due to insect pests and it is 
with this object in view that I have addressed you on this subject. 


For the present Meeting we have a fairly full programme although 
it does not contain the titles of as many papers as were read at the last 
Meeting. The subj ects of most of the papers now offered are sufficiently 
indicated by their titles and it is only necessary for me to refer to a few 
of them. Under Section I, which includes papers on Crop Pests, we 
do not propose to go again right through the whole list of insects known 
to damage crops in India, as that was done, according to crops attacked 
at our Second Meeting and according to the insects, arranged in systematic 
order, at our Third Meeting, and full accounts of both are on record. 
We shall therefore deal only with additions and corrections to the lists 
already published. Major Froilano de Mello is giving us a paper which 
includes the first entomological records from Portuguese India and we 
may hope that it will be only the first of a series of observations on insect 
pests of this part of India. T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar is sending an 
Entomological Pest Calendar for the Madras Presidency and it is probable 
that some of you may be sufficiently interested and have enough informa- 
tion to enable you to construct similar calendars for other Provinces. 
Rao Sahib Y. Ramachandra Rao proposes to take us outside of India 
and to tell us something about the Insect Pests of Mesopotamia. Some 
of these will doubtless be familiar to us but the fauna of Mesopotamia 
should be palsearctic rather than oriental. A good deal of information has 
been published during the last few years on Mesopotamian insects and 
has included papers on Coleoptera by Holdhaus, on Odonata by Morton, 
on ants by Donisthospe and Crawley, on Tabanidse and Muscidae by 
Major Patton, on Anopheline mosquitos by Major Christophers, on a 
new termite by Silvestri and on insect pests of the date palm by Buxton. 

In Section II (Forest Entomology) no papers have been offered this 
time but we hope that Mr. Beeson will give us some account of recent 
work in this line. 

Section III, which comprises Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 
was omitted from our programme at the last Meeting but for the present 
one we have been promised several papers, mainly on mosquitos, amongst 
which I may mention that kindly promised by Maj or Christophers on the 
geographical distribution of Mosquitos in India. We have also a paper 
on Surra and Biting Flies, which will, I hope, elicit some discussion. 

In Section IV (Household and Store Peats) we have only one paper 
to consider, on lethal temperature for some stored grain pests. 

In Sections V (Bee-keeping) and VII (Silk) no papers have been 
offered, and in Section VI (Lac) there are two short papers, both by 
Mr. Misra. 

Section VIII (Life histories and Bionomics) is responsible for about 
a dozen papers. We are again indebted to Professor Poulton for another 


paper on the female forms of Pupilio folytes and this will, I hope, inspire 
some of you to collect further material for the study of this subject. 
Another paper which I may refer to is one on protective movement 
and range of vision in Platypezid flies, which has been written up from 
notes left by Mr. F. M. Hewlett. 

Section IX deals with the Collection and Preservation of Specimens, 
under which heading Mr. Senior- White desires to bring before you certain 
points regarding damage to parcels of specimens in transit. 

Section X (Systematic Entomology) contains two papers and under 
Section XI (Publications) we shall deal with the Progress Report to be 
submitted by the standing Catalogue Committee. 

Section XII (Miscellaneous) is meant to provide for any subjects not 
included under other Sections, and under this heading we have included 
a paper, which has been prepared from material left by Mr. Howlett, 
on the practical application of Insect Psychology ; this will give an idea 
of the lines on which Mr. Howlett was working. 



By T. Batnbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 


The following are additions and corrections to the Annotated List 
of Indian Crop-pests published in the Proceedings of the Third Ento- 
mological Meeting. 


Camponotus maculatus infuscus, Forel. 
(Page 33 ; before CEcophylla). 
This was found at Pusa in November 1919 eating the shoots and 
tender leaves of brinjal. 

Arge luteiventris, Cam. 
Is the unidentified Tenthredinid (p. 38) found on rose at Shillong. 

Argefumipennis, Smith. 
Is the unidentified Tenthredinid (p. 39) found on rose at Dehra 
Dun. We have it from Simla and Jeolikote also. 


Chcetodacus fenugineus ferrugineus, Fb. (p. 41). 

We have this also from Nagpur, from Cephalandra indica, 13th 
July 1912 ; from Sylhet, in ripe mango fruits ; and also reared from 
apple fruits of uncertain origin but probably from Shillong. 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus incisus, Wlk. (p. 41). 
We have this also from Nagpur, in lemon and grafted ber fruits ; 
from Maymyo, in peach and mango ; from Yercaud ; and it was also 
bred from mango fruits purchased in the bazaar at Ootacamund (possibly 
from Salem). 

( 14 ) 


Chcetodacus zonatus, Saunders, (p. 42), 

Also reared at Pusa from brinjal fruits and from custard- apple, 
and at Nagpur from mango fruits and grafted her fruits. Also found 
at Taru, Peshawar, as late as 25th October 1916. 

Chcetodacus maculipennis, Dol. 
Bred from peaches at Pachmarhi at the end of May 1909. 

Chcetodacus diversus, Coq. (p. 43). 

At Ahmedabad on 15th August 1917 this species was found strongly 
attracted to excrement of Tingidid bugs which had fallen on to leaves. 
At Pusa adult flies have been found attracted to ripe fallen fruits of 
Eugenia jambolana. It has also been found at Shillong (31st May 

Chcetodacus cucurbitce, Coq. (p. 44). 

Also bred at Nagpur from Cephalandra indica and at Mandalay from 
pumpkins. At Pusa the adult flies have been found attracted to ripe 
fallen fruits of Eugenia jambolana. 

Chcetodacus caudatus, Fb. (p. 44). 

At Pusa this has been reared from pumpkin fruits, at May my o and 
Lashio from fruits of Trichosanthes palmata and at PoUibetta (Coorg) 
from a wild cucurbit. 


Heliothis obsoleta, Fb. (p. 60). 

All the entries regarding its occurrence on Safilower should be 

Heliothis peltigera, Schiff. 

This species occurs on Safflower and was confused with H. obsoleta. 
It has been reared on Safflower at Pusa, Coimbatore and Lyallpur, 
and also at Coimbatore on Cajanus indicus on one occasion. 

Achcea Janata, Linn. {=^Ophiusa melicerta, Drury). (p. 80). 
Also found feeding on crotons at Pusa in June 1920. 

Euproctisflava. (p. 91). 
Found at Lyallpur on apple in June 1917. 


Oxyambulyx sericeipennis, Butl. (p. 96). 

Specimens from Sliillong have since been determined by Lord Roth- 
schild as 0. suhstrigilis, but seem referable rather to sericeipennis 
according to the key in the Revision of the Sphingidce. The exact name 
of this species is therefore uncertain. 

Elymnias caudata. (p. 105). 
Found at Mercara (Coorg) on coconut and betel-nut palms, eating 
the leaves. 

Stenachroia elongella, Hmpsn. (p. 117). 
Also reared at Pusa from bajm heads and at Cuttack from juar 


Serica nilgiriensis, Sharp, (p. 166). 

The larva also damages cinchona by feeding at the roots (see Procgs. 
Third Entl. Meeting, p. 1028). 

Brahmina coriacea, Hope. (p. 167). 
Also on apple leaves at Jeolikote in July 1915. 

Hoplia jlavomaculata, Moser (after Apogonia, p. 167). 

This was found at Maymyo in May 1909, occurring in some numbers 
on peach. 

Holotrichia longipennis, Bl. 

This was sent in from Jeolikote in July 1912 and again in July 
1915 as feeding in the adult state on the leaves of apple, apricot and 

Holotrichia rufoflava, Brsk. 

This was found at Coimbatore, the larva at the root of orange trees, 
injuring the bark below ground-level (see Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, 
p. 1028). 

Holotrichia repetita, Sharp (p. 168). 

The larva damages roots of cinchona at Ootacamund (see Proc. 
Third Entl. Meeting, p. 1028). 

Popillia maclellandi, Hope. 

Common at Shillong from May to October, and is a minor pest in 
gardens, destroying rose flowers especially. 


Popillia cyanea, Hope. 

Common at Shillong in September and October. A minor pest 
in gardens, destroying Canna and other flowers. We have it also from 
Nongpoh, Darjiling and Masuri. 

Popillia chlorion, Newm. (p. 107). 

The larva is a pest of cinchona roots at Dodabetta, Nilgiris (see 
Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, p. 1028). 

Anomala Tugosa, Arrow (before A. varicolor, p. 172). 

This species is widely distributed along the Himalayas. It was 
found in small numbers feeding on apricot at Jeolikote in May 1915. 

Adoretus horticola, Arrow (p. 176). 
Also found at Jeolikote in May 1915 on grape and apricot. 

Protaetia aurichalcea, Fb. 

Found at Coimbatore on cholam and Lantana (see Proc. Third Entl. 
Meeting, p. 1028). 

Pentodon hengalense, Arrow (p. 183). 
Also from Hangu, in the Kufram valley. 

Myllocerus lineaticollis, (Add on p. 192). 
Found on mulberry in April 1920 at Natarhat, Ranchi district. 

{Unidentified Lamiad) (p. 220). 

This species, boring in orange shoots in Assam, has been named as 
Monohammus versteegi, already referred to on page 216. 

■ Haplosonyx trifasciatus, Hope (add on p. 231). 
This was found in May 1918 at Ramgarh, Kumaon, on tips of young 
apple shoots. 

Wallacea sp. (p. 236). 

This has been named as W. dactyliferw, Maulik (F. I. Hisp., pp. 107- 
109, f . 34). It has also been recorded from Chingleput and Vaniambady, 
in Madras. 

{Unidentified Hispine) (p. 236). 

This species, found at Pusa on Saccharum, has been named as 
Leptispa rufithorax, Maulik (F. I. Hisp., pp. 78-79), described from 
the Nilgiris. 


Phidodonta modesta, Weise (p. 238). 

The specimens from sugarcane in Bihar and figured on plate 9 in 
South Indian Insects are not P. modesta but Asamangulia cuspidata, 
Maulik (F. I. Hisp., pp. 169-170, ff. 53, 54). P. modesta is recorded by 
Maulik (F. I. Hisp., pp. 163-164, f. 51) from Pusa and the Bellary dis- 
trict, but we have no examples from Pusa in our collection ; it was 
originally described from Surat, where it occurs on sugarcane and juar. 



Icerya seycJiellarum, Westw. (p. 287). 
Also on orange at Myitkyina, Upper Burma. 

Phenacoccus iceryoides, Green, (p. 228). 
Also on mango at Coimbatore. 

Phenacoccus insolitus, Green, (p. 288). 
Also on Cape gooseberry at Pusa. 

Phenacoccus matigiferw, Green, (p. 288). 
Also on mango leaves at Coimbatore. 

Pseudococcus lilacinus, Ckll. {crotonis, Green). 
This has to be added to the List. It has already been recorded 
from Coimbatore by Mr. Ramakrishna Ayyar on pomegranate, destruc- 
tive to the stalk and crown of the fruits. We also have it from Coim- 
batore on Ailanthus excelsa and from Sibpur (Calcutta) on Achras sapofa. 

Riper sia sacchari, Green, (p. 290). 
Also on sugarcane at Poona. 

Pulvinaria cellulosa, Green. (Add on p. 291). 
This has been found on mango leaves and stems at Pusa. 

Pulvinaria psidii, Mask. (p. 291). 
Also on mango at Coimbatore. 


Coccus hesperidum, Linn. (p. 293). 
Also found on orange at Myitkyina, Upper Burma, and on mango 
at Surat, the latter record being noted by Mr. Green as a variety. 

Eulecanium caprecB, Linn. (p. 294). 
Also on peacli and nectarine at Srinagar, Kashmir. 

Saissetia (Lecanimn) nigra, Nietn. (p. 295). 
Also found on Moms indica at Poona and on mulberry stems at 
Myitkyina, Upper Burma. 

Lecanium hicmciatum, Green. (Add on p. 295). 
This has been found on mango at Coimbatore. 

Lecanimn discrepans, Green, (p. 295). 
Also found on plantain at Gauhati. 

Lecanium ramaJcrishnae, Green MS. (Add on p. 296). 
Found on pear at Kulu. 

Chionasins dilaiata, Green, (p. 296). 
Also found on Mango leaves at Pusa. 

Chionaspis centripetalis, Green MS. (Add on p. 296). 
Found on apple leaves at Srinagar and on olive in Kashmir. 

Chionaspis pusa, Green MS. (Add on p. 297). 
Found on orange leaves and stems at Pusa. 

Chionaspis vitls, Green, (p. 297). 
Also found on mango at Coimbatore. 

Aspidiotus destructor, Sign. (p. 300). 
Also found at Pusa on Etigenia jambolana, and on leaves of Cocos 
nucifera at Chaumahani (Bengal). 

Aspidiotus dictijospermi, Morg. (p. 301). 
Also found on mango at Coimbatore. 


Aspidiotus perniciosus, Comst. (Add on p. 302). 

This is probably tbe most important addition to our list and has 
been found on pear at Kulu. Mr. Green, who has determined the 
material, notes that " the material examined showed signs of having 
been kept in check by predaceous enemies and internal parasites. I 

Possibly the original home of the species may be in the Indian region, 
where it appears to have efficient checks." We may hope that this 
is so. 

ChrysompJmlus aurantii, Mash. (p. 302). 

Also found on mulberry leaves and stems at Pusa. Mr. Green notes 
that the specimens found on pomelo at Myitkyina were attacked by a 
parasitic fungus. 

Parlatoria Uanchardi, Targ. (Add on p. 304). 
Found on date palms at Lyallpur, 

Parlatoria pergandii, Comst. (p. 304). 
Also found at Pusa on hael {Aegle marmelos) and at Taru (Peshawar) 
on olive-trees imported from Spain. As it is already known to occur 
in India it is doubtful whether it was imported with the olive-trees. 


(Plate I). 

By E. Ballard, B.A., F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Madras, 


P. 39. AntJiomyiadcB. Cholam, Cumbu and Tomato Hies. 
I sent these three species to the Imperial Bureau of Entomology 
for identification in 1914 and 1915. They were all three identified 
by Mr. Grimshaw as a species of Atherigona. I did not agree with this 
identification as I know the flies to differ in habits, larvae and structure. 
Dr. Marshall took the flies to Major Austin on his return from military 
service and he says that all three species are distinct and probably new. 
He has not yet had time to describe them. I might mention in passing 
that the " Tomato fly " is common in cotton fields badly infested by 
Earias sp. and can be bred from shoots bored by these insects. I have 
recently bred an Anthomyiad from Paddy which appears to be the 
same as the cwnhu fly. This is, I think, the first time these flies have 
been recorded from paddy in South India but I am not quite certain 
of this. I have not had time to take up the study of these flies again 
since my return to India. They are however worthy of study as cholam 
and cumbu suffer from them to a considerable extent. The larvae show 
interesting differences in the structure of the pharyngeal skeleton. 
The cJiolam stem fly is -parasitized by Tetrastichus nyeynitawas, Rohwer 
[Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. No. 37, Vol. 7 (1921), pp. 131-132]. 

P. 49. Packydiplosis oryzce, Wood-Mason. 
With reference to the remark that this fly is attracted to light I 
am inclined to believe that it is heat, not Hght, which causes the attrac- 
tion. At one time while studying Schoenobius bipunctifer, we had in 
the Parm wet lands at Coimbatore, a big 200 candle power lamp on 
top of which was a black shade, designed to reflect light downwards. 
Very large numbers of P. oryzce were found on top of the shade, fewer 
in the pan below the light. I noticed the same thing in my bungalow 
where a number of Cecidomyiads were always found at one time on 
top of a dark purple shade which was on the standing lamp. 

( 21 ) 


F. 50. Cumhu and Cholam Cecidomyiads. 
Contarinia androfoginis, parasitized by Tetrastichus coimhatorensis, 
Roliwer, has not been noticed since my return, nor have I seen Itonida 
seminis on cumhu. I have a note on the habits of C. andropoginis 
at the end of Prof, Felt's paper. (Plate I.) 

P. 60. Heliothis ohsoleta was quite a bad pest of cotton last year 
(1920) on the Central Farm. I have a note on the fact in the Agricul- 
tural Journal. It is not so far in pest conditions this year but I have 
seen one or two larvae eating cotton bolls and there was a brood early 
in December on Corchorus oUtonus, L. It is late in attacking the second 
xrop of Bengal gram this year ; usually it is a very serious pest of this 


P. 65. Cir'phis albistigma ; not reported in 1920. 

P. 70. Lafliijgma exigua entirely destroyed a field of Linseed on 
the Central Farm in 1919. The swarm swept through the field with 
astonishing rapidity. I noticed many being killed by large black ants 

P. 79. Earias jabia and insulana are much less serious this year 
than last. It makes its appearance with great regularity about 15th 
October, As far as my experience goes it does not attack shoots when 
bolls are to be had. It is especially fond of Alutilon graveolens. 

P. 81. Achcea Janata is chiefly a pest in November and December. 
There were two broods of this insect at Coimbatore at this time in 1919. 
I am doubtful of the efficacy of hand-picking which was resorted to 
on the farm and found to be both slow and expensive. I think dusting 
has possibilities but it is doubtful how far the raiyat is to be trusted 
with stomach-poisons, 

Chilo simplex. The eggs are parasitized by Tetrastichus ayyari, 

P. 121. ScJicenohius hipunctifer. T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar noted 
it in large numbers all over the foot bridge of Shoranur station in Mala- 
bar, attracted to the light and laying eggs on the bridge. The night 
was wet. 

I have an experimental area of about 120 acres at Podalada in 
Kistna district in the Godavari delta. We have been working there 
since January 1920, The scheme followed is to select all seedlings 
showing dead-hearts at the time of transplantation. These seedhngs 
are rejected and destroyed. The general attack of Schwnobius in the 
delta has been very low. This year about 4 per cent, of dead-hearts 

Page 22 


Contarinia andropoginifi, Felt. 

1. Larva, magnifiet! ; 2, Pupa case projecting from attacked grain (x5) ; 
3, Pupa, side-view (x16) ; 4, Mafe Fly (x13) ; 5, Female Fly (x13). 


was the highest figure obtained in the non-experimental area. In the 
experimental fields the average was 2 per cent. We are studying the 
broods of Schcenobius throughout the year. I do not wish to say more 
at present as our work is really just beginning but records of males 
and females and of spent and gravid moths attracted to a light are 
kept, the time when moths are flying most freely, etc. The selection 
of attacked seedlings is quite easy once boys have been trained, and 
they can be trained quickly ; the cost is about E.s. 2 an acre. I am 
not at all convinced that light-traps are or ever will be of much use. 
It also occurred to me that, even suj^posing that a number of moths 
are caught, all those who are not or who lay before coming to light, 
transmit, or might transmit their slight negative phototropism to their 
offspring so that in time a light-trap-proof brood will be evolved. Such 
an eventuality is, I think, possible. While I do not doubt the total loss 
caused by Sch^nohius I am doubtful about the loss caused to the indivi- 
dual raiyat. I am of the opinion that the magnitude of Schmnohius 
attack in any given year is much exaggerated. I was once informed 
by a Farm Manager that the loss due to Schanobms on the farm wet 
lands was 25 per cent. ; actual counts showed 0-4 per cent, to 0-7 per 

P. 126. Nymphula defunctalis. A serious pest of paddy in the 
second crop in Malabar. Complaints are universal about this insec^ 
in South Malabar. It was, I think, sometimes confused with Cnaphalo- 
crocis but I am doubtful about this. 

P. 127. Cnafludocrocis medinalis. From what I have seen in 
Malabar and South Kanara I think this insect does more damage than 
is generally realized. 

P. 138. Clania crameri (?), I am told, is a serious pest of Tea in 
the Anamalai Hills. 

P. 149. Anatrachyntis simplex, {Pyroderces coriacella). I have no 
evidence that it is a pest. Everything points to its being purely a 

P. 157. Ne'phantis serinopa ; parasitized by Elasmus ne^pliantidis, 


p. 185. Xylehorus hiporus '^ 

„ noxius V Rubber. All from Mooply valley. 

„ per for an s ) 

„ com'pactus. Robusta Cofiee. But did not attack 

Arabica on same estate. 



Xylebonis biporus appears to attack healthy trees, but I have not 
had time to visit the estate to confirm this. 

P. 198. Apion sp. On jute and Cajanus. 

It might interest you to know that there was in Central Africa an 
Apion armipes which attacked cotton in the same way as Pempheres 
afpnis does in this country. 

P. 202. Pempheres ajjinis. Work now being done at Coimbatore. 
Distribution seems fairly even in cotton-growing tracts, but I did not 
see it at Anaka]'>alle. It was found in stems from Bellary district, but 
the characteristic swellings were not to be seen. This may account 
for its being overlooked; Also the fact that it attacks below the ground 
in country cottons. It breeds freely in CorcJiorus oliforius (not a mal- 
vaceous plant, but belonging to the next family, Tiliacese), in two species 
of Ahutilon, in Hibiscus rosasinensis and H. esculentus (Bhindi), Gogu 
or Deccan hemp, and, when all cotton was off the ground, was found 
on Ficus religiosa in the Botanical gardens at Goimbatore. It was 
not bred from this tree but couples were copulating freely on the tree. 
Attempts are being made to ascertain whether a resistant strain of 
cotton can be grown. We are going into the lifehistory of this insect 
very thoroughly but I do not wish to say much about it at present. 
A parasitic grub has been found on the larva of Pempheres afjinis but 
could not be reared. Specimens of Pempheres have been found killed 
by a fungus. It attacks both larva and adult. With reference to 
remarks made at the last Conference and about pulling out all first- 
attacked plants, I wish to say that although all Coimbatore district 
pulled up its cotton by the end of August 1919 and 1920, there has 
so far been no appreciable result as regards Pempheres attack ; 75 to 
100 per cent, of the plants are attacked by the end of the season, and 
there is no evidence to show that the continuous pulling up of the plants 
on the Farm has had any effect in lessening the attack of the Pest. 
Cotton grown for the first time in the Wet Lands 800 to 1,000 yards 
from the nearest cotton was attacked quite heavily in 1919. Two or 
three years of the Pest Act might possibly have some effect. Country 
cottons are more resistant than Cambodia and Bourbon. Cambodia- 
Bourbon cross appears to be more resistant than Cambodia but, as 
all our investigations are in their infancy, I do not wish to say more, 
as too many statements have been made about Pempheres and other 
insect pests on insufficient data. Nothing is known as to the effect 
on the plant. As a general rule only seedlings and young plants are 
killed by the Pempheres attack. It is rare to find full-grown plants 
killed although there may be multiple infestation. I am not convinced 
that Pempheres is as serious a pest as is made out. 


P. 212. Batocera ruhus. This was sent to me and reported to be 
attacking rubber in the Mooply valley in 1920. Only one or two trees 
were attacked. 

P. 235. Leptispa pygmcea. Not much is known about it. As far 
as I know at present it is more localised than Hispa. 

P. 237. Hispa armigera. This is a serious pest of all three crops 
of paddy in South Kanara. In response to appeals from the Acting 
Collector, I arranged for a demonstration in spraying as a control for 
this pest. Crude oil emulsion was used and certainly acted as a deter- 
rent and where seed beds were taken in time was successful. However I 
do not think it is a very practicable proposition even if worked through 
co-operative societies. Bagging and clipping are equally efficacious. 
Great success was obtained in one field which it was possible to flood 
by running in water with crude oil emulsion floating on it. This might 
be a useful control for the first crop. But a great deal of study is needed 
of this insect and our control methods are merely stop-gaps, like the 
majority of the so-called remedies for crop p^ests. 

To my mind Hispa is' famous for the fact that, as far as I am aware, 
it is the only insect which has been mentioned by name in the weekly 
reports of the Collector of a District to Government. I am not sure 
that it was not mentioned in the Government of India's report to the 
Secretary of State. 

Hispa armigera does not seem to be a serious pest in Malabar. Fur- 
ther experience may show otherwise. 

P. 242. Gnathospastoides rouxi, Cast. An interesting method of 
control is used in Bellary. Assafoetida is mixed with cow-dung. In 
this beetles which have been caught are rolled and then liberated. Rai- 
yats claim that they drive other beetles out of the fields !! 

P. 244. Elateridce. Elaterid grubs were found eating paddy seed- 
ling roots in Kistna district. The adults were not reared. 

P. 244. SpJienoptera gossypii. The Deputy Director of Agricul- 
ture, III Circle, tells me that in the Ceded Districts S. gossypii is a 
serious pest of cotton. 


P. 257. Leptocorisa varicornis. Eotting flesh was tried without 
success at Coimbatore as a bait. Bagging is quite successful and kept 
them under control on the Central Farm this year. This might be 
due to early ripening of some varieties of paddy in which the bugs con- 
gregated and on which they were caught. 


From the train I saw a raiyat in Malabar clearing the fields with a 
hand net (bag) which seemed to be made on our model. 

P. 262. Dysdercus cingulatus appears to vary very much in its 
occurrence. I think it worthy of more extended study. On the Central 
Farm at Coimbatore I should not call it a pest. It is almost a 

P. 261. Oxymrenus Icetiis is an insect the study of which should 
be taken up in the near future. 

P. 265. Helopeltis antonii, Sign. I am certain that this insect is 
the cause direct or indirect of the withering of nwi shoots for it can 
be controlled by spraying and withering prevented or arrested. I suspect 
bacteria to be the real cause of the withering, the bacteria being injected 
by H. antonii while feeding. This is simply a theory but would account 
for the fact that the number of withered shoots seems to be so much 
out of proportion to the number of insects found. This insect will 
shortly be studied in collaboration with the Government Agricultural 

Platyedra gossypiella, Saunders. A good deal of work on this insect 
is being done at Coimbatore ; in fact, I am making every effort to con- 
centrate on it. The Pest Act reduced the attack in the season and 
summer-pickings considerably. The preliminary results of our investi- 
gation have been sent for publication. One interesting fact which 
has come out is that there appears to be a long feeding stage in the 
season-picking, that is, between January and the end of March. After 
that time generations overlap with rapidity. The three nearest approa- 
ches to a long-cycle larva which we have found came from season-picking, 
i.e., during the hot weather. We have not been able to do our investi- 
gations on as large a scale as I should wish owing to a variety of reasons 
which need not be discussed here, and to the present system under 
which a Provincial Entomologist has to work, which, as every one knows, 
makes any really thorough investigation m impossibility. I hope that 
at the next Conference I shall have something more definite to say 
on the subject. I have not found Platyedra breeding in Thespesia 
as it is supposed to do, but it breeds freely in Bhindi. When the attack 
is severe, as in 1919, country cottons suffer but so far appear to be 
20 per cent less attacked than Cambodia. They have been alleged 
to be immune but I have so far not found this to be the case nor is at 
all likely to be true. 

In spite of the excellent work done in Egypt a very great deal more 
is required in India on this pest which is of major importance. 

pr0ce3ed1kgs of the fourth entotlfological meeting 27 

Grasslioppers caught at poison baits en the grounds of the Forest 
College, Coimbatore, included the following species : — 

1. Orthacris (icuticefs, Bol. A troublesome pest of gardens. 

2. Acrida brevicolUs. 

3. Aiolopus affinis, Bol. 

4. Acrotylus humhertiana. 

5. Catantops indicus. A fair number of these. 

6. Chrotogomts saussurei. A very common pest. 

7. Cyrtacantliacris rmiacea. 

At Gobichettypalayam, Coimbatore district, the following were 
damaging paddy nurseries in 1915 (?) : — 

1. Gastrimargus marmoratus. 

2. AtradomorpJia crenulata. 

3. Acrotylus huinhertiana. 

The following outbreaks of grasshoppers have occurred in the Southern 
districts of the Presidency, October-November : 

At Tinnevelly : On Cumbu {Pennisetimi typhoideum) : — 

1. Acrotylus Jmmbertiana, Sauss. 

2. Aiolopus afp.nis, Bolivar. Aiolopus tamulus ; Madura. 
At Ramnad, on cotton in March : — 

1. Catantops annexus, Bolivar. 
On Ragi, etc., in October : — 
1. Chiefly Oedaleus abru/ptus, Th. 

Commonest in the South. ^ 

Chrotogonus. C. saussurei, Bolivar. 
In the Circars : C. robertsi, Kirby. 
I find a Psychid on gold mohur trees {Poinciana regia) ; it is very Mr. p. c. Sen. 
bad at Dacca. 

Saluria inficita was found last year as a pest on dry land paddy Mr. Subramaniam. 
in Mysore. It is not found to attack Ragi at all. The attack is similar 
to its attack on Ragi in Madras. 

We have also recently had a case of Elaterid larvae attacking paddy Mr. Ballard. 
but the specimens could not be reared. 

Elatend larvee were found damaging cereals at Pusa in December Mr. Fletcher, 

Did these larvse attack high-land paddy in Madras ? Mr. Ghosh. 

No ; delta paddy. The larvse were under the mud. Mr. Ballard. 

Have you found any parasite of Pem'pheres ? Mr. Misra. 



Mr. Ballard. 
Mr. Inglis. 

Mr. Ballard. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Yes. I found a grub which we were unable to rear. Both adults 
and larvse are killed by a fungus which our Mycologist is studying. 

On 21st September 1920 I found Oxycetonia jucwida feeding on 
Chrysanthemum flowers in the garden at Dow Hill, Kurseong (elevation 
6,000 feet). 

To my list of crop pests two more Scolytids may be added ; (1) 
Hypothenemus erudita, Westw., which- bores into cumbu stems, and 
(2) Xyleborus parvulus, Eich., which bores into coconut stems. 

On page 178 of the Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting, 
the distribution of Anatona stillata has been shown to be confined to 
Southern India, but the species has been found to occur in Northern 
India also ; specimens have been taken at Dehra Dun and W. Almora, 
U. P. 

The following additions to the Agricultural crop-pest list may be 
of interest : — 

Popillia birnianica, Arr., eating roses, Lakhimpur, Assam. 
Adoretus bombinator, Burm., eating roses, Lakhimpur, Assam. 
Adoretus versutus, Har., eating roses, Lakhimpur, Assam. 
Torynorrhina opalina, Hope, defoliating apricot, West Almora. 



- (Plates 11— VI). 

By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S.rF-Z.S., Assistant Ento- 
mologist, Madras. 

To the Proceedings of the last Meeting of Entomologists held in 
1919, I contributed a paper under the title " Some insects recently 
recorded as injurious in S. India " (see paper No. 3, page 314 in the 
Report of the Third Meeting of Entomologists, Pusa, 1919). On the 
present occasion I have attempted to submit to you a further instal- 
ment of notes on different South Indian Insects which I have been 
able to make during the past few years. Of the insects in this list some 
are forms new to science while others are already known ones ; with 
regard to the latter only such notes which in my oj)inion are new or 
not recorded till now are added. While my last paper was purely an 
economic one treating as it did of injurious insects only, in this paper 
I have not specially confined myself to forms of economic importance 
alone, but have included both general and economic forms which might 
be of general interest. The brief notes added include records of some 
new forms and notes on synonymy, distribution, lifehistory, habits, 


Bruchophagus mellipes, Gahan (Chalcididse). 

(The Daincha seed Chalcid.) 

From a consignment of parasitic Hymenoptera forwarded to 

Dr. Howard of the U. S. A. Bureau of Entomology, a couple of years 

ago, Mr. A. B. Gahan recently described a species under the name 

Bruchophagus mellipes {vide page 513, Proc. U. S. A. Nat. Mus., Vol. 

56 ; 1919) and we received named specimens of the same. On looking 

at the insect I had some doubts as to whether this was not the same 

species which Girault had named Eurytoma indi (see page 315 of my 

last paper in 1919). I raised this doubt and we wrote back to Mr. Gahan, 

who has replied that both the insects are one and the same, and that, 

since Girault's name was not yet published, this new name Bruchophagus 

mellipes should have priority. It might be seen that I had myself 

( 29 ) 


made a foot-note in my last paper that this insect might be closely 
allied to the American clover seed Chalcid and evidently it is so, as 
both belong to the same genus (BrucJiophagus). Thus the Daincha 
seed Chalcid is to be known in futm-e as Bruchophagus mellipes, Gahan, 
and not as Eurytoma indi. 

Stomoceras ayyari, Gahan (Chalcididae). (Plate II, fig. 1.) 

This jet-black, fairly large stout Chalcid was reared out 
from caterpillars of the Limacodid moth, Parasa lepida, a well-known 
pest of castor, mango, palms, etc., in the Plains of South India. More 
than one species of parasite has been reared from this larva but this 
one appears to be fairly important and a large-sized species. The insect 
was named and described by Mr. Gahan of the U. S. A. Bureau of Ento- 
mology (see page 518, Proc. U. S. A. Nat. Mus., Vol. 56 ; 1919). 

Sjnnaria nigriceps, Cam. (Braconidse). (Plate II, fig. 2.) 

On page 9 of the Pusa Bulletin No. 89 (Second Hundred Notes on 
Indian Insects), Mr. Fletcher has recorded Spinaria leucomelwna, Westw., 
as having been collected by him in Coorg. Recently I collected two 
specimens of a species which I am almost sure belong to the species 
which Cameron has described from Ceylon as Spinaria nigriceps (Vide 
page 37, PI. 3, fig. 7) in Manchester Memoirs, XLI (4). This is evidently 
the first record of the species for Continental India. 

So far we have the following species of Spinaria found in the Indian 
region : — 

1. Spinaria nigriceps, Cam. Ceylon and Madras. {Manchester 

Memoirs, 1897). 

2. Spinaria trimaculata, Cam. Khasi Hills {Manch. Memoirs, 


3. Spinaria albiventris, Cam. Khasi Hills {Manch. Memoirs, 


4. Spinaria leucomelcena, Westw. Coorg {Pusa 2nd Hundred Notes 

Bulletin, page 9). 

5. Spinaria jlavipennis. Cam. India {Entomologist, 1906, p. 205). 

6. Spinaria chotanensis, Cam. India {Entomologist, 1906, p. 206). 

7. Spinaria spinator, Guer. India (Duperrey, Voy. Coquill., ZooL 

II, p. 199, 1830). 

Pristomerus euzopherce. (Ichneumonidse.) 

In the Fauna volume on Ichneumonidse, Morley described a new 
species under the name Pristomerus testaceus, a parasite reared out 

Pdae 30 


Fig. ^.—Stomoceras ayyari, Gahan (x8). 

Fig. 2.~-Spinaria nigriceps, Cam. (x7). 

Page 31 


Fig, 1.—3Iicroplitis sp. (x16). 

Fig. 2.^Attelabus discolor (x6). 


from the Brinjal stem-borer, Euzophera perticella, Bag., collected at 
Attiir, Chingleput, etc. I have recently come across a species of Pris- 
tornerus described by Yiereck under the name P. euzophercB which also 
appears to have been reared out from the same host caterpillar, in Mysore, 
in the Proc. of U. S. A. Nat. Mus., Vol. 42, 1912-13, p. 152. It might 
be that the two are separate but as far as I could compare the descrip- 
tions, the species appear more or less similar. Whether the same or 
not, this additional information may be of use to workers on Ichneu- 
monida? in India. If they happen to be the same, Viereck's name being 
the earlier must be retained. 

Microplitis sp. (Braconidse) . (Plate III, fig. 1.) 
Most of us Indian workers are familiar with this pretty common 
inslct found as a parasite on the castor semilooper, Achcea {Ophiusa) 
Janata, in all castor-growing tracts. The parasitic grub after feeding 
inside the host come-j out just before pupation, prepares a pale brown 
cocoon and fixes itself under the tail-end of the host-caterpillar. In 
certain seasons this insect acts as an important natural check on this 
pretty bad pest of castor and hundreds of parasitized larvae are seen 
on the plants. This insect is a small bluish black active Braconid wasp. 
I submitted specimens of this insect to Mr. Viereck who has determined 
it generically. I hope to publish a detailed description as soon as 
possible after referring to literature and making myself sure that it 
a new species. 

A Wood-wasp from South India. (Siricidae.) 
Recently while sorting out the Hymenoptera in the Coimbatore 
collections I came across a specimen of a wood-wasp belonging to the 
family Siricidce, members of which are said to be very rare in the Tropics. 
Our insect was collected from Yercaud in the Shevaroy Hills at 4,000 
feet elevation. On referring to literature, which I was able to get at, 
the insect appears to belong to the genus Urocerus, Geoff. {Sirex, Linn.), 
but I am not quite sure. It might be a species of the closely allied 
genus Xiphydria, Latr. of which Cameron has recorded one species, 
Xiphydria quadrimaculata, from the Khasi Hills (page 4, Manchester 
Memoirs, XLIII (3) ; 1899) and another, Xiphydria striatifrons, from 
Ceylon (page 70, Spol. Zeyl, III ; 1906). This insect does not appear 
to be either of these. There is mention made of another species, Xiphy- 
dria orientalis, Westw., as also Indian but I am unable to get details 
of this latter. The importance of this record consists in the fact that 
this is the first record of a wood- wasp from South India so far as I know. 


New South Indian Saw Flies. (Tentliredinidae.) 
Till now the only known saw-fly that has been recorded from South 
India appears to be the mustard saw-fly {AtJialia proxima, Kl.). This 
is certainly not due to the absence of forms but solely because no collec- 
tions were made and worked out till now. The three new species, in- 
cluding one new genus, mentioned below were collected by my colleagues 
and myself chiefly from the Hills of South India. Mr. Rohwer of the 
U. S. A. Bmeau of Entomology was liind enough to name the species 
for us ; no publication of the descriptions has appeared as far as I know. 

1. Senoclia diascorew, Roh. (MS) ; Taliparamba and Kollur (Western 

Ghats) 1,000-2,000 feet, found breeding on a species of 
Diascorea (July to October). 

2. Senoclia hilamga, Roh. (MS) ; from the Nilgiiis and Kollegal 
(September-October) from 1,000-2,000 feet elevation. 

3. AmonopJiadniis subtnetallicus, Roh. (MS), from the Palni Hills, 
5,000 feet (May). 

All these are species with a uniform bluish-black colour without 
any yellow or reddish markings. 

Poecilogonalos spp. from South India. (Trigonalidse.) 

In a consignment of bees which I forwarded to Professor Cockerel! 
a couple of years ago was included a specimen which I took to be a 
bee {Noniada). Professor Cockerell wrote back to me saying that the 
insect was a Trigonalid. He did not send me back the specimen nor' 
did he publish anything regarding the same among our novelties among 
bees which he published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
during 1919. Meanwhile I looked for more of these insects in our collec- 
tion and succeeded in finding another Trigonalid. I had thus two speci- 
mens, one being the duplicate of the insect I sent to Professor Cockerell, 
and another one, both apparently different species. Finding these 
very interesting I referred to literature and found that from India, so 
far as I was able to make out, only one species had been described and 
that was Poecilogonalos liarmandi. Under the circumstances I made 
bold to describe these two insects as tw^o new species and these descrip- 
tions were published in the Records of the Indian Museum, XVI, pp.71-74 
(1919) under the following names : — 

1. Poecilogonalos fulvoscutellata, from the Palni Hills (May). 

2, P. Tcerala, from Malabar (October). 

I now find that Professor Cockerell has very recently published 
a description of the insect I sent him, in the Proceedings of the Ento- 


mological Society of Washington, Vol. XXII, page 191, as a new species 
with the name Poecilogonalos mimus. From the description I am almost 
sure that this is the same as my Poecilogonalos fulvoscutellata. If both 
these happen to be same, Professor Cockerell's name must sink and 
mine should have the priority, having been published earlier. 


Attelahus discolor, Fb. (Plate III, fig. 2.) 
This pretty weevil was noted in December last in the Walayar 
forests, Coimbatore, on Terminalia shoots. They were found in good 
numbers twisting the leaves into characteristic knots and doing some 
appreciable damage. It was found in company with Aj)oderus ecJmius 
and AUelabus 8-pimctata. This has been noted before by Stebbing 
in the Coimbatore district on Anogeissns latifolia. 

Lablah vine gall-weevil. (Curculionidfe.) 

In the Kistna delta, while engaged in paddy stem-borer work, I noticed 
that in the main vines of Dolichos lab-lab were found prominent galls 
close to the ground level. On cutting open the gall a weevil was found 
to breed inside the spongy matter. The gall is about the size of a man's 
fist. I am unable to state whether the gall was produced by the weevil 
or whether the weevil selected the gall for breeding purposes after its 
formation. The weevil is dark brown in colour and stoutly built. In 
appearance it resembles more or less a species of DesmidojjJiorus. 

Morinda shoot-borer beetle. (Scolytidse.) 

In my last paper I have made reference to this insect as a borer 
into the tender shoots of Morinda tinctoria in Coimbatore. This insect 
has recently been identified as Hypothenemus 'plumerim, Nor. The insect 
does some damage to the tender shoots and attacked-shoots drop down 
faded, which indicates the presence of the pest. 

Arcecerusfasciculatus, DeG. (Anthribidse). 

This well-known beetle has recently been found to breed inside 
fruits of the Persian Nim tree {Melia sp.) in numbers on the Coimbatore 
farm. Though a well-known pest of areca-nuts in India, I have not 
yet come across this insect on areca nor have we received any definite 
reports regarding the damage done by this insect till now from the 
West Coast tracts which have extensive areca gardens. 


Leafbeetles on pepper. (Chrysomelidse.) 
A number of small leafbeetles have been noted on the pepper vines 
biting holes in the leaves in North Malabar. Of these only one, Longit- 
arsus nigripennis, Mot., has been so far noted to be a specific pest of 
pepper, contributing its share in causing " Pollu " disease. Others 
often noted on pepper are (1) Pagria costatipennis, Jac. ; this is a small 
dark coppery-brown insect looking more or less like the grape-vine 
flea-beetle [Scelodonta strigicollis). It is very active and often found 
in numbers on the tender foliage, (2) Neculla pollinaria, Baly ; this insect 
at first sight might be mistaken for a weevil of the genus Myllocerus. 
It is short, stoutly built and brown in colour ; the whole body is com- 
pletely covered by a thick ashy down which gives it the colour of a 
Myllocerus species. (3) Nisotra madurensis, Jac. This is a well known 
insect affecting Hibiscus, Jute, etc., in South India, and has been occa- 
sionally found on pepper in North Malabar, 


Asura conferta, Wlk. (Arctiadse.) 
The hairy larva of this moth is found to be a domestic pest in the 
villages along the Western Ghats during the months from August to 
October. It is especially found on mossgrown walls and old buildings 
with the roof covered with small country tiles. Often the caterpillars 
drop down into the living apartments of houses and cling to clothing, 
etc. The irritation produced by its contact is pretty severe and the 
part of the skin gets swollen. Children are often put to great annoyance 
in houses by the contact of these hairy caterpillars. The caterpillar 
which is found feeding on the moss and basking on the tiles during the 
damp steamy weather settles on walls and protected corners inside 
the woodwork of the roofs before pupation. At this stage it makes 
a sort of oval enclosure with its hairs and in the centre of the oval area 
it builds the cocoon and changes into the pupa. The adult insect, 
which is a pretty moth, is often seen coming to lights at night. The 
name asura appears very appropriate, at any rate, considering the local 
tradition that this pest generally disappears after the annual festival 
called " asura samhara " (the destruction of asura or demon) in the 
month of November in Palghat, where the insect is found every year. 

Pelochyta astrcea, Pr. (Arctiadse.) 
This pretty moth is fairly common in Coimbatore. There is one 
very interesting character in this moth which I have noted and which 


I have not found recorded as far as I know. The moth, which is rather 
slow flying, when caught emits a frothy juice from the prothoracic 
region near the root of the wings. The fluid is yellowish green and 
has a frothy consistency. This is perhaps a protective adaptation to 
repel natural enemies. On two successive occasions I found this moth 
on Ficus glomerata. 

Cricula trifenestrata, H. (Saturniadse.) 

In the pepper gardens of North Malabar this wild silk insect is very 
commonly found. It chiefly attacks cashew and mango trees. Often, 
the standard trees on which the pepper vine grows up are subject to 
the attentions of this insect. The tree Carey a arbor ea often suffers 
considerably from this insect. The whole foliage of the tree is com- 
pletely stripped and on the stems and forks of the branches may be 
seen masses of golden yellow cocoons of these caterpillars. And often 
the caterpillars are found to pupate in masses under cover of pepper 
leaves also ; but so far no appreciable damage has been found to be 
done to pepper vines. 

Stauropus alternus, Wlk. (Notodontidse.) 

This insect has occasionally been noted in small numbers on red 
gram. Tamarind, etc., in Coimbatore. In December 1919 in the Walayar 
forests, I found small plots of red gram {Cajanvs indicus) very badly 
infested by these caterpillars. But one remarkable point in the case 
was the heavy parasitization of the worms. More than 90 per cent, 
of the larvae were parasitized by a Braconid (Apanteles sp.). 

Casuarina seedling caterpillar. (Pyralidse.) 

This is a new pest reported from the Coast tracts of Tanjore district 
near Negapatam where Casuarina plantations are found. This insect 
is a slender ^ale green elongated caterpillar which lives by day under 
the soil near the young plants in tubular galleries of sand and during 
the night comes out and cuts the tender plants carrying portions of the 
cut shoots into the burrow underneath. In habits I found the creature 
exhibiting the same features at Ancylolomia chrysographella, which 
I saw in the sandy coast fields of Cannanore in North Malabar in June 
1908. The Casuarina plantations are practically on the sandy sea coast 
and it is only the very young plants that are found to suffer. 

Schcenohius bipunctifer, Wlk., at lights. (Pyralidse.) 

That the female of this insect is attracted to lights was noted by 
me as early as April in 1907 when I was sent to investigate the peBt in 


response to a serious report from the Anantapur district. Later on, 
in December of the same year, I visited Narsapur taluq in the Kistna 
district and found that my original observation was further confirmed 
by seeing hundreds of the female insects dashed against house lights 
all along the canal in the paddy deltas. Though I am unable to state 
definitely at present whether light traps will prove an efficient control 
for this pest or not, I feel that we have not enough grounds to warrant 
us to condemn this method even to the smallest extent. As such I 
am unable to agree with the statement made under this insect on p. 121 
of the Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting at Pusa, 1919. 
In 1919 on a certain night during the Christmas holidays I happened 
to be in one of the big railway stations situated right in the middle of 
a paddy area in Malabar. Here on the overbridge which was pretty 
high and commanded a good distance, a power light was put up. Around 
this light, I found thousands of Schcenobius females hovering about ; 
at a moderate estimate the number was no less than 5,000. Another 
important phenomenon I noticed was that on the framework of the 
bridge below the light were found hundreds of eggmasses laid by gravid 
females ; some 'moths were even actually found depositing their eggs. 
From these and similar observations I feel that this method has to be 
tried properly and at the proper season to make us come to some definite 
conclusions on this point. 

Dactylethra Candida, Stt. (Gelechiadse.) 
The Kolingi plant {Tephrosia purpurea), a valuable green manure 
weed, harbours a small caterpillar which breeds inside the pod-forming 
flowers of this plant all along the Coromandel Coast, in Negapatam, 
Tanjore, South Arcot, etc. The flowers do not form ordinary pods 
but, due to the irritation caused by the caterpillar, a globular gall is 
formed, inside which the larva remains feeding and pupates. It is 
very commonly found during the months of May-June. The moth is 
a small pale whitish insect. 

Ergolis merione, Cr, (Nymphalidee.) 
This insect, which is noted as a pest of castor in different parts of 
India, has not been noted so far as I know in South India. I saw the 
insect as a pest of castor on the Samalkot farm and Pithapuram in 
1907 and I have never noted the insect or any allied species as a pest 
of castor anywhere in the south. Mention is made of this in the last 
Proceedings (page 107) but I believe this information regarding the 
locality-distribution, showing the southern limit up to which it is found 
as a pest of castor, may be of interest. 

Page 37 

PLAtE IV (^) 

Fig. l.—Pongamia attacked by Gall-fly^ 


Fig. 2.—JPonffaniia Gall-fly x 13 
JPongamia Gall-fly. 

Page 37 

PLate IV {1) 

Fig. 1.— Healthy Ponganiia fruits. 



Biting Flies on the Bababuddin Hills. (Tabanidse.) 
During the month of May, when a few early thunder showers have 
fallen, two or three kinds of Tabanid flies of the genus Hcematopota 
are generally found on the Bababuddin Hills in Mysore. These flies 
not only attack cattle but bite men also viciously. During this season 
cartmen very reluctantly take their bulls up the Hills. While on a 
collecting trip a few years ago, I found it very difficult to remain on 
the hills due to the annoyance of these insects. Two species of this 
genus collected by me have been described by Miss Ricardo in the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History for February 1917 (p. 225) as 
H. hindostani, and H. montansis. 

Pongamia gall fly. (Cecidomyiadse). (Plate IV.) 
In many parts of South India, especially in Bangalore, Coimbatore, 
and other places, I have seen that the fruits of the tree Pongamia glabra, 
which under normal conditions should be almond shaped, are in many 
cases found deformed into clusters of small round gall fruits. On the 
same tree and often on the same branch both the kinds of fruits are 
commonly formed. For a long time I thought the growth was natural. 
Recently I found that this small round gall fruit was a mal-formation 
and due to the work of a gall-fly. I have reared out the flies in numbers 
and specimens have been forwarded to Dr. E. P. Felt for identification. 
It is probably common in other parts of India also. 


Deltocephalus dorsalis, Mot. (Jassidae). (Plate V, fit/. 1.) 
Though this leaf-hopper has been recorded as enjoying a fairly wide 
distribution, it has not been noted as an injurious insect till now. In 
June 1919 this insect was found in swarms on a paddy nursery in the 
Kistna Delta and so far as I could judge appeared to be responsible 
for the damage to the foliage which was characteristic of leaf-hopper 
bugs and which resembles exactly that caused by Nepkotettix hipunc- 
tatus on paddy. 

Disphinctus humeralis, Dist. (Capsidae. ) 
This insect has not been recorded from South India till now. I 
noted it in some numbers on a species of wild Solanum on the Wynaad 
Hills (2,500 feet elevation) in October. This is an insect which may 



have to be watched in South India as it has been noted on tea in Assam 
and on Cinchona in Sikkim. 

Cinnamon Psylla. (Psyllidee.) 

In South Kanara district, especially around Mangalore town where 
cinnamon plants {Cinnamomum campJiora) are found growing wild 
as hedge plants in the deep paddy valleys, I found a Psyllid producing 
galls on the foliage and causing appreciable damage to the plants. 
Though not a cultivated plant in the tract the cinnamon plant is of 
economic importance and as such a note regarding this insect may be 
of some interest. The Psyllid is a very active creature with transparent 
wings, quite unlike the spotted wings of the garvga Psyllid {Phacopteron 
lentiginosum, Buck.) or the Cardia Psyllid of Coimbatore {Euphalervs 
citri, Gr.). It resembles to some extent the Psyllid I got on Ficus nervosa 
in Taliparamba (see my paper, No. 82, Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, 1919), 
but it is not the same. 

Cosmoscarta niteara, Dist. (Cercopidae). (Plate V, fig. 2.) 

All along the Western Ghats from South Kanara down to the Wynaad 
Hills the commonest species of this genus is found to be Cosmoscarta 
niteara, Dist. In most cases when I noted the insect I have found 
it on the succulent top-shoots of the sand-jM'per Ficus ]Adiiii' [Ficus 
sp.). Large masses of white spittle produced by the insect are also 
noted on the top-shoots of these plants. The insect is fairly large and 
is beautiful in colour and extremely active. I did not note this on 
the jak tree which is the favourite foodplant of the other species, C. 
relata, Dist., in Coorg and Mysore. 

New records of Coccids. 

Since the publication in 1919 of my Bulletin on " South Indian 
Coccidee " (Bulletin No. 87), I have been able to get the following further 
records of Coccidse from South India : — 

Parlatoria camellice, Comst., on stem of Melia, Coimbatore. 
Parlatoria cristifera, Green (M.S), on Citrus, Maddur (Mysore). 
Aspidiotus hartii, Ckll., on Turmeric, Erode (Coimbatore). 
Chionaspis Jierbce, Green, on grass, Coonoor (Nilgiris). 
Pseudococcus bromelice, Bouche, on pine-apple, Taliparamba (Mala- 
Phenacoccus hirsutus, Green, on Ficus indicus, Kollegal (Coim- 
Antonina indica, Green, on grass roots, Coimbatore. 
WalJceriana xyliai, Green (MS), on Xylia, Taliparamba (Malabar) 

Pags 3S 


figA.—DeUoceiyhalus dorscO-is {x15). 

Fig. 2.~Cosnioscarta niteara (x2J), 

Page 39 

PLATE Vi (2) 

Fig. 2.—PJnjUorJioreia sp. (x2|). 

Page 39 


Wifi. I.—Pultinaria maxima, Green. A, scale-infested branch of Nim ; 
B, 1, adult female, 2, male puparium, 3, female with oyisac. 


Besides the above new records, which include also two undescribed 
species, several of the known forms have been noted on other host plants 
on which they have not been recorded till now from South India. 

It may also be mentioned here that Mr. Green has since described 
all the new DiaspidincB mentioned as MS names in my Bulletin in the 
Records of the Indian Museum, Vol. XVI, pp. 433-449 (December 1919). 

Pulvinaria maxima, Green. (Coccidae.) (Plate VI, fig. 1.) 

This Coccid has within the last few years made very good progress 
as an important pest. In the early years it was noted only on the nim 
tree {Melia) around Coimbatore. Now the insect has not only been 
found to have a wider distribution but is asserting itself as a pest of 
more than one important plant. Within the last three years the insect 
has so far been noted in Mysore, Tinnevelly, South Arcot, Madura and 
Kistna districts. The main host plant on which the insect revels is 
the nim but it has been found occasionally in fairly large numbers on 
cotton, mulberry, garden croton and Jatropa curcas. On the last plant 
I saw it very bad in a delta village in the Kistna district last year, 
actually killing many shrubs. I think this is one of those insects the 
activities of which demand watching. 


Traclnjthorax planiceps, Redt. (Phasmidae ) 
In the Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, XXII (1913), 
p. 641, I published a note containing some observations on the life- 
history of an interesting Phasmid which I reared out from the egg stage. 
At the time of publication of the note I was under the impression that 
the insect might be a species of Calvisia. Sometime ago I received 
information from Senor Candido Bolivar, of Madrid, that the insect 
belongs to the species Trachythorax planiceps, Redt. 

PhyllocTioreia sp. (Eumastacinse.) (Plate VI, fig. 2.) 
During my tours in North Malabar I have collected an interesting 
Eumastacine grasshopper which is undoubtedly a species of PhyllocTio- 
reia (see figure). In the Fauna volume on grasshoppers, Kirby has 
recorded two species which come near this insect in general form viz., 
P. equa, Burr, and P. asina, Burr. But as far as I could make out 
the insect under review appears a new species. It in quite common 
at Taliparamba in N. Malabar from September to November and is 
found in all stages (I did not find the eggs) chiefly on Xijlia and Termi- 
nalia bushes, nibbling the tender foliage. In the presence of the broad 



leafy thoracic shield and in coloration the insect is very well protected ; 
it is often found very difficult to make out the presence of the insect on 
the leaves due to its protective resemblance. 

As a supplement to my paper on " Thysanoptera " read at the last 
meeting (see page 618 of the Report), the following further informa- 
tion on some South Indian species may be of interest. In April 1919 
we forwarded to Mr. Bagnall a consignment of Thysanoptera collected 
from difierent parts of South India and found on a variety of plants. 
Of these, Mr. Bagnall has since described the following new species in 
the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for October 1919 : — 

(1) DendrotJirijJS indicus, on leaves of arrow-root plants, in company 

with Panchcetothrips indica, Bgll., North Malabar (Septem- 

(2) Euthrips citricinctvs, on arrow-root leaves. North Malabar 


(3) Haplothrips pictipes, in diseased pepper berries, North Malabar 


The bulk of the material sent is still unidentified. Later on we 
sent him specimens of an interesting species of large sized Thrips collected 
on Eugenia wrightiana by Mr. Muliyil on the Palni Hills ; Mr. Bagnall 
has identified this as a species of Leeuwenia, almost certainly L. indicus^ 
Bgll. This species is a member of the group Hystrichothiipidse. Species 
of Leeuwenia noted elsewhere till now also appear to have been found 
on species of Eugenia plants only. 

It may also be added that recently I have noted a species of Thrips 
doing severe damage to leaves of garden crotons both in Bangalore 
and Coimbatore. The foliage becomes thickly spotted and sickly and 
gradually fades. The adult is dark brown with the anal end reddish;, 
young ones are pale whitish. 


By Eao Sahib Y. Ramachandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Assistant 
Entomologist, Coimbatore. 

Oxya velox, the lesser or small grasshopper of Paddy, is a greenish 
insect with a lateral yellow stripe. The female is light to bright green 
and reaches in some cases 2 inches in length, while the male is more 
slender and smaller and usually reddish brown in colour. 

Foodplcmts. It is on the whole a marsh insect, feeding on grasses 
growing in wet situations. The young ones as well as the adults attack 
the leaves of paddy, especially in the nurseries, while the adults are 
capable of doing much damage to paddy in ear by biting at the bases 
of the maturing earheads and causing them to dry up. The grasshopper 
is also known to attack cotton and pulses. 

Life-history. In adaptation to a life in marshes the grasshopper has 
acquired peculiar habits of oviposition. While in dry weather and in 
dry conditions the insect may lay eggs in the soil like other grasshoppers, 
in marshy situations it lays eggs among paddy stems and grass-clumps 
about an inch or two above the water-level. It exudes a gummy frothy 
liquid which soon sets hard, assuming a red-brown colour, and serves to 
protect the masses of eggs laid in its midst. In certain instances such 
-eggmasses were also found laid in folds of cotton leaves in a cotton field 
and likewise in folded paddy leaves. 

The number of eggs in a mass laid in the field was found to Vary from 
10 to 29. 

The duration of the egg period was found to vary from 15 to 41 days, 
and was observed to depend chiefly on the season of the year and the 
presence or absence of moisture. It was shortest in April, 15-17 days, 
and longest in December and January, 41 days. 

The young ones. The sexes can be distinguished even in the earliest 
•stages chiefly by the aid of characters of the anal appendages. 

The males invariably pass through 6 moults, while among the females 
there is in about 50 per cent, of the cases an additional moult. The 
wing-pads are noticeable even in the first instar and in the earlier stages 
are found overlapping the sides of the thorax, but after the fourth moult 
and after the fifth in the case of certain females, the wings become turned 

( 41 ) 


The grasshopper breeds tlirougliout the year, but is found in largest 
numbers in the rainy season, August-November. 

The grasshoppers would seem to copulate more than once. 

In eleven cases of grasshoppers which laid eggs in cages the largest 
number of eggs laid by a single individual was 177 (distributed among 
12 egg-masses) ; in other cases there were 163, 132, and 131 (11 egg- 
masses) and 113 (8 egg-masses) and 109 (7 egg-masses). 

Natural Enemies. 

Predators. Frogs and birds. 
Parasites. On Hoppers : 

(1) One Sarcophagid was reared at Coimbatore. 

(2) Mites on adults. 

On Eggs. Owing to the exposed situation of the egg- masses these 
appear to be subject to the attack of numerous parasites. 

(1) Minute brown Chalcidid, Tumidiscafus oophagus, Gir., 17-21 

individuals in each egg : pupation period 6 days : whole 
life-cycle about a month. Hyperparasitized by a large 
green Chalcidid {Aximopsis tumidiscapi, Gir.). 

(2) Black parasite — depressed abdomen. 

(3) Black Proctotrypid {Scelio oxyce, Gir.) — compressed abdomen. 

Life- cycle — 1| months. 

(4) Large bluish green parasite (Chalcidid) {Anastatus coimha- 

torensis, Gir.) 

Remedial measures. 

(1) Ploughing is of no use in the egg stage. 

(2) Collection of eggmasses is contra-indicated owing to the presence 
of parasites. 

(3) Bagging when present in large numbers. 

Was such ovi'position found to be very extensive ? 
When the paddy was three to four months old we were able to collect 
a large number of eggs from a single field. 


By Major Feoilano de Mello, Bacteriological Institute, Nova Goa 
and P. CoRREA Afonso, Department of Agriculture of Portuguese 


It is necessary that we should state, before entering into the subject 
of this paper, that research in General Parasitology, as applied to Medical 
Science or to Agriculture, was started in Portuguese India only six years 

It must be admitted that in a small country, as ours is, a medical 
officer or an agricultural one cannot devote his full time to one particular 
subject of investigation out of the many which constitute the Medical 
or the Agricultural sciences. Their attention is bound to be dispersed 
over a diversified field of work. Moreover, in countries which are, almost 
beyond hope, buried under deep strata of routine, any new introduction 
or suggestion gives rise to a movement of reaction on the part of the 
majority of the people. They discourage the workers either by a studied 
attitude of cold indifference or by direct manifestations of hostility, the 
result being that the better part of the work is lost on unreceptive minds 
and the energies of workers are very much hampered. Such in fact is, 
unfortunately, the position of the writers. 

These few statements will serve as a justification of, or an apology 
for, the fact that the entomological notes which are herein recorded are 
very scanty indeed and have not been arranged in accordance with any 
systematic plan, as might be desired. The identifications were made in 
the short intervals of freedom snatched between periods of regular official 

The writers hope that they will meet with the favour of a kind accepta- 
tion from the scientists assembled in this Conference, being thereby 
induced to follow up their investigations with perseverance and method. 
They likewise ardently hope that your favourable acknowledgment of 
their work may be readily noticed by the people of this country, and 
being accepted by them as an honour done to the country as a whole, 
may stimulate them to give to the writers that hearty cooperation which 
is essential for the progress of our work. 

( 43 ) 


Before proceeding to give a list of the insects identified by us, we 
have much pleasure in requesting the Entomologists assembled at this 
conference, particularly the Imperial Entomologist, to give us not only 
encouragement but also their scientific aid in the work which we further 
propose to take in hand, it being clear that the brief notes recorded in 
this paper are only a short preface to a more elaborate undertaking 
for the future. 

Medical Entomology. The following is the note of the species up to 
date recorded. Each species is followed by the name of the place where 
it was collected. 


Family Ceratopogonin.e. 

Genus Ceratopogoyi. C. alhonotatus, Kief. Nova Goa, Daman, 
,, CuUcoides. C. pattoni, kiefE. Nova Goa between Decem- 
ber & February. 

Family Simulid.^. 

Genus Simulium. S. striatum, Brunetti. Dudsaghor. 

Family Psychodid^. 

Genus Phlebotomus. P. miniitus, Rond., Very common in rainy 
months ; P. malabarims, Annandale, Colem. 

Family Culicid^. 

Genus Anopheles {S. lato). A. rossi, Giles, whole province ; A. 

stephensi, Listen, Nova Goa, Pragana, Daman, Diu ; A. ludlowiy 

Theob., Nova Goa, Daman. A. leucosphyrus, Donitz, Sanquelim ; 

A. funestus var. listoni, Liston, Diu, Daman, Nova Goa, Satary ; 

A. culicifacies, Giles, Nova Goa, Sanguem, Satary, Daman ; 

A. harbirostris, Van der Wulp, Nova Goa, Daman, Diu, Satary ; 

A. jamesi, Theob., whole India ; A. pulcherrimus, Theob., Novas- 

Conquistas ; A. sinensis, Wied., Daman ; A. maculatus, Theob., 

Sanquelim ; A. fuliginosus, Giles, Daman ; A. rossi var. vagus, 

Donitz., Nova Goa. 
Genus Rachionotomyia. R. aranoides, Th., Nova Goa (identified by 

Mr. R. Senior- White). 
Genus Cidex. C. fatigans, Wied., Nova Goa. 
Genus Stegomyia. S. fasciata, Fabr., Whole India ; S. albopicta, 

Skuse, ibid. 

Family Tabanid.^. 

Genus Tabanus. T. bicallosus (?), Pragana ; T. ditceniatus (?), 
Nova Goa ; T. striatus, Fabr., Colem ; T. alhimedius, Wlk., Nova 
Goa ; T. indianus, Ricardo, Caranzol (identified by Mr. R. Senior- 


Family Tabanid^ — contd. 

Genus Corizoneura. C. taprohanes, Wlk., Pragana. 
Genus Chrysops. C. dispar, Fabr., Nova Goa. 

Family Asilid^. 

Genus Philodicus. P. javanus, Wied., Nova Goa, Bicholim. 
Family Muscid^. 

Genus Lucilia. L. argyricephila, Mg., Whole India. 

Genus Chrysomyia. C. bezziana, Villen., myasis-producing fly, 

Nova Goa. 
Genus Musca. M. nebulo, Fabr. ; M. hezzii, Patt. & Cragg ; M. 

humilis, Wied., Nova Goa. 
Genus PhilcBmitomyia. Ph. crassirostris, Stein, Nova Goa. 
Genus Stomoxys. S. calcitrans, L., Nova Goa. 
. Genus Lyperosia. L. minuta, Bezzi, Nova Goa. 

Family Hippoboscid^e. 

Genus Lynchia. L. maura, Bigot, whole India. 
Genus Hippobosca. H. maculuta, Leach, Nova Goa ; H. capensis, 
Leach, Nova Goa. 

Family Sarcopsyllid^. 

Genus Echidnophaga. E. gallinacea, Westw. 

Family Pulicid^. 

Genus Pulex. P. irritans, L. 

Genus Xenopsylla. X. cheopis, Roth. 

Genus Ctenocephalus. C. felis, Boache ; C. canis, Bugis. 

Genus Ceratophyllus. C. fasciatus, Bosc. 

Genus Ctenopsylla. C. musculi, Auges. 

Common in all parts of India. 


Family Reduviidje. 

Genus Conorrhinus. C. rubrofasciatus, de Geer, Nova Goa. 
Family Cimicid^. 

Genus Cimex. C. hemipterus, Fb., whole India. 

46 proceedings of the foueth entomological isieeting 

Family Pediculid^. 

Genus Pediculus. P. capitis, de Geer ; P. vestimenti, de Geer, Nitscli. 
Genus Phtirius. P. pubis, L. 

Genus Hcematopinus. H. tuherculatus , Giebel ; H. vituli, Enderlein ; 
R. spinulosus, Burm. 

Common throughout Portuguese India. 

Agriculturral ENTOMOLOGY, (observations made only for the 

last two years). 

1. Hesperiadw. 

Parnara {Chapra) mathias, Fb., appeared as a serious pest in some 
localities in 1918. It was not possible to collect the eggs. At the stage 
in which the larvse were collected they were green, with a black head ; 
after a week's growth the head likewise turned green with two lines of 
dark green colour above the eyes. There is a dark green line running 
along the dorsal region from the head to the anus. Twelve days after 
collection, probably 15 days to 18 days after emergence from the egg, 
the larvae had a length of 3 centimetres and entered the pupal stage within 
folds of rice leaves. Larvae which pupated on the 4th of June emerged 
as moths on the 11th. The butterfly is two centimetres long, has dark 
wings with dots upon the first pair. 

Two parasites were found to kill the larvae, the one emerging from 
the cocoon being a Hymenopteron. The material was unfortunately 
lost before identification could be made. Eice fields from Salcele (1920), 
October 1920. ■ 

2. NoctiddcB. 

(a) Spodoptera maiiritia, Boisd. 

(6) Prodenia litura, Fb. 

These two pests appeared in large mixed swarms in 1919, the first 
having been also recorded singly in the irrigated crop of 1918. 

They are said to have nocturnal habits ; such was, however, not the 
case during the attack above referred to ; the larvae were found to be 
actively feeding even at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. When they appear on an 
irrigated crop (November-March) the nocturnal habit is noticed. The 
pupae of the insects which were reared were found to be among the roots 
of the rice plant at a depth of a little over 2 centimetres. Under natural 
conditions they are said to go deeper. The pupal stage lasted 8 to 10 


The larva of Prodenia is distinguishable from that of Spodoptera 
by a dark line traversing the thoracic segments ; this difference is not 
apparent at a young stage. Collected at Salcete. 

3. Nymphalidw. 

Melanitis ismene, Cram. (Salcete). 

A few caterpillars of this insect were found feeding upon rice in 1918. 
This is not a pest of any importance in Portuguese India. 

4. PyralidcB. 

Nymphula sp. Quepem. 

A species of Nymjjhula has been recorded every year from 1918 up 
to date on irrigated rice in several localities at some distance apart ; it 
appears early in December and is active for about fifteen days. It has 
also been noticed late in January, possibly as a second brood. This 
pest is again under observation in the current season and as far as possible 
the species will be identified. 

Sylepta sp. (Salcete). 

A species of this leafroller is common on Hibiscus plants in the rainy 

5. Gelechiada?. 

Sitotfoga cerealella, 01., is a serious pest of stored paddy. It is a 
popular belief that this pest attacks only parboiled rice. It was, 
however, found in the current year (December) to attack raw paddy 
harvested in September. The moisture conditions which render stored 
paddy liable to the attack of this pest under Konkan conditions are being 

6. Papilionidm. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn., has been recorded feeding upon lime and 
orange trees, eggs being laid in June and July, when the tender shoots 
appear. It is only tender shoots and leaves that are destroyed. (Salcete, 

7. ArbelidcB. 

Arbela sp., recorded at Nova Goa boring into Anona spinosa. 


1. Dynastince. 

Oryctes rhinoceros, L., is a widespread coconut pest, more common 
in the coastal tract than in the interior of the country. It is active 


particularly from August to October. The holes made by them upon 
the cocomit palms are found to be mostly deserted in November (whole 
Port. India, specially Veehas Conquistas). 

2. Ptinidce. 

Lasioderma serricorne has been found in cigars imported from Manila. 
It has not been observed on leaf tobacco imported from British India. 

3. Meloidce. 

Meloid bettles of several species were found in August 1920 feeding 
on pollen of rice and riceland grasses. It is a pest of minor importance. 

4. Curculionidce. 

Fhynchophorus ferrugrnevs, Fb., has been recorded as a widespread 
pest of coconuts. (Salcete, Ichas). 

Cryptorrhjncliusmangiferce, Fb., is common on the late varieties of 
mango, particularly the Fernandina variety. (Veehas Conquistas). 

Calandra oryzce, Linn., is a serious pest of stored rice. (Whole Port. 

5. Cerambycidce. 

Batocera rubus does considerable damage to mango tree trunks. 

6. ScolytidcB. 
A shot-hole borer of coconuts is found to do considerable damage. 
On account of its importance its study has been undertaken and its 
lif ehistory will be worked out. It is a Scolytid beetle of unknown species. 

7. Chrysomelidce. 
Aulacopliora beetles are common on all kinds of cucurbits, but not as 
3k serious pest. 


1. Coreidce. 

Leptocorisa varicornis, Fb., is a rice pest of similar status. 

These are a few of the insects of agricultural importance which have 
been recorded in Portuguese India. No mention has been made of 
such insects as have been merely observed, but the writers have had no 
opportunity of giving more attention to. Such as for instance, a cocount 
leafeating caseworm (possibly Mahasena sp), a mango shootborer, etc. 


(Plate VII.) 

By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Assistant Entomo- 
logist, Madras. 

It must be conceded that in any agricultural tract where sufficient 
experience has been gained of the behaviour of important crop pests over 
a fairly long period time, it might be possible for one to forecast the pro- 
bable time of appearance of each pest during the different seasons of 
any normal year. Of course, many an Entomologist can easily recall 
the vagaries of different insects and quote instances of how an expected 
pest often deceives him by not showing itself and how it sometimes causes 
surprise by its sudden and unexpected appearance in another year. 
Apart from these abnormal and exceptional cases it may be found practi- 
cable to prepare a crop pest calendar* as a sort of rough forecast more 
or less on the lines of weather predictions. In spite of all the inevitable 
defects which such a calendar is bound to possess, it is believed that it 
might still serve some useful purpose in different ways. To the educated 
farmer, who is anxious to reduce the annual toll levied by insects on 
his crops, a knowledge of the probable time of appearance of important 
insect pests during a year will be a very valuable thing. For, in most 
cases of insect attacks, especially on field crops grown over extensive 
areas, preventive and precautionary methods go a great way in saving 
the situation. Therefore, it is apparent that such a knowledge will 
serve as a sort of warning to the farmer to be on the look-out for the pests 
and be prepared beforehand to take prompt measures the moment the 
pest makes its appearance or even just before it is expected to appear. 
To the Agricultural Entomologist this knowledge is much more. It gives 
him in addition, a clue to the seasonal habits of the different crop insects, 
their life cycles during the year, and a number of other interesting points 
in the biology of the various insects. It helps the official Entomologist 
of any Province not only to proceed to the different localities at the proper 
time to carry out investigations, but also to organize his campaigns 
against various pests sufficiently early and not be compelled to rush all 

*The preparation of such pest calendars was discussed sometime ago between the- 
writer and E. Ballard, Esq., B.A., F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Madras, and the 
author of this paper is indebted to Mr. Ballard for all encouragement in this direction- 

{ 49 ) 


unprepared when the pest has already appeared and done some appreci- 
able mischief. It will also help him to pre-arrange the work of his staff 
which might often be insufficient and not available in time if some sort 
of time-table is not chalked out for them corresponding to the periods of 
appearance of the different crop pests. A calendar of this sort is not 
without its use to outsiders. To an outside Entomoloist who wishes to 
study particular pests of the Province the calendar might indicate to him 
the approximate time of the yeai when he could arrange to visit the 
locality with advantage ; we know of some cases in the past when 
experts have rushed from one corner of the country to another and 
returned disappointed. And as to its utility to an Insect Expert 
coming fresh into the country with absolutely no experience of the 
local conditions, no one, I think, will have any doubts. 

The attempt made in this paper at the preparation of a Calendar 
for South India is entirely bisxl on past experience with, however, no 
pretensions to any completeness or mathematical accuracy. 

It is now fourteen years since work in Agricultural Entomology 
was started in Madras on a scientific basis. As one of the ofl&cers engaged 
in this work from its very inception in Madras — in fact, as one engaged 
in Entomological work from the very next year after the first official 
Entomologist was appointed for the Government of India — I have had 
opportunities to gather information and acquire a fair amount of personal 
knowledge of the various agricultural tracts of the province from an 
entomological point of view, apart of course, from suffering the various 
disadvantages incidental to the lot of a pioneer worker on a subject quite 
new to the country. Though ten or fifteen years is nothing compared to 
the long periods necessary to get any thorough experience of entomo- 
logical conditions of any tract, I think I may lay claim to some 
experience, however limited, on the subject of insect pests of the 

In any agricultural tract all crop pests, at any rate insect pests, may 
be conveniently divided into three groups from the point of view of 
their seasonal occurrence. Under the first group might be included all 
those insects which appear on crops during regular seasons year after 
year causing sometimes less and sometimes serious damage. These 
are generally the major pests of the important staple food and industrial 
crops of different kinds. In. Madras these constitute the important 
insect pests of crops like paddy, sorghum, millets, pulses, cotton, sugar- 
cane, gingelly, groundnut, castor, tobacco, mango, etc. 

The second group might be made to include certain insects which 
are generally of minor importance and occasionally found in small 
numbers but which only in certain years become sporadic serious local 


pests ; these appear on a variety of cultivated crops. As examples of 
these we have in Madras blister beetles of sorts, surface grasshoppers and 
locusts, surface weevils, climbing cutworms, tussock moths, slug cater- 
pillars, etc. 

The third group comprises those insects found all the year round 
without any marked seasonal variations in their appearance. These 
are generally found on perennial crops like palms, fruit trees, vegetables 
and garden shrubs ; some of them also infest stored products and house- 
hold materials. Familiar examples of this group are the palm beetles 
white ants, rice weevil, meal worm moths, silver fish, etc. 

Of these three groups we may leave out of consideration in this 
paper the third group, as the insects under it do not exhibit any striking 
periodical or seasonal variations and as such are outside the pale of a 
regular calendar. Taking the first two groups we may consider the 
periodical activities of the important insects under each heading and 
see what place they occupy in the insect calendar. 

In considering the periodicity of crop pests in any tract one has always 
-to remember that the climatic and agricultural conditions of a particular 
area have a great deal to do with the appearance or absence of any pests. 
Unlike some of the other provinces of India we in the South (see map) 
have several distinct agricultural tracts each possessing distinct climatic 
and agricultural practices of its own ; and naturally the crop seasons 
vary a good deal in the different tracts, the same crop having its own 
appropriate time in the year in the different regions. We have the 
West Coast area with its unfailing heavy rains (over 100 inches) chiefly 
during the South-west monsoon season from June to September ; there 
are the Northern Circars including the big deltas which are irrigated by 
the rivers Grodavari and Kistna ; next the Carnatic Districts along the 
Coromandel Coast which get the greater part of their rainfall during the 
North-east monsoon season from October to January. Further down, 
we have the four southern districts of Tanjore, Madura, Ramnad and 
Tinnevelly with an average rainfall of not more than 33 inches for the 
tract, and which mostly depend on irrigation facilities for their important 
crops ; and then we have the Deccan and southern tablelands with a 
scanty and capricious rainfall. This being the case one and the same 
insect affecting a particular crop appears in the different areas in differ- 
ent seasons. Keeping the above facts in view I have designed two or 
three diagrams wherein I have tried to show at a glance the periodical 
appearance of the important insect pests during any normal 

To explain the seasonal distribution of the insects of the first group I 
have prepared two diagrams, a circular and tabular one. The former 


is devoted to show the periodicity of the chief pests of the paddy crop 
alone, this being the most important staple food crop of the province 
and grown over a greater area than others. This diagram (Plate VII) 
represents nine concentric circles divided of! into twelve parts to 
show the months of the year. The idea is to represent the periodical 
occm:rence of about ten important paddy insects, which I have 
selected during the months of the year ; each insect is allotted 
one of the nine circles and the time of its appearance shaded within 
its orbit. It may be stated at the outset that stray examples of 
almost all the common insects affecting paddy are generally found 
here and there throughout the year, but in every tract there is a 
particular season at which each insect often assumes pest proportions ; 
and it is that particular period or periods of the year that I have 
attempted to indicate in the diagram. ' A casual glance at the diagram 
apparently shows that the paddy entomologist in Madras has work 
all through the year, but his busiest time appears to be from Septem- 
ber on to February. Just a word or two to supplement the information 
that may be gathered from the diagram itself, may not be out of place 
here. The swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia) which is allotted 
the outermost circle in diagram No. 1 appears twice in the Northern 
Circars, viz., at the beginning of each crop in June- July and January 
February, and often causes considerable damage to the nurseries. The 
next important tract where it is found is along the West Coast where it 
appears just before the South-west monsoon Rains and is equally des- 
tructive in certain years. During abnormal years the pest is reported 
from other tracts beyond the usual season. The paddy stem-borer 
{Schoenobius bipunctifer), No. 2 in diagram, is a regular visitor during 
the autumn and cold weather chiefly in the Northern Circars ; it has, 
however, been very rarely noted to do such wholesale damage as the 
swarming caterpillar. It is occasionally bad during the summer months 
in the Ceded Districts. Within the past three or four years the disease 
called ' Yerra tegulu ' or red disease has been noted in the delta tracts of 
the Godavari and Kistna districts and has been mistaken to be the sole 
work of this insect. Recent investigations have shown that besides the 
stem-borer there are two other agencies at work, viz., a leaf-spot fungus 
and another unknown disease associated with what at present appears 
like an eel worm*, both together doing far more harm than the paddy 
stem-borer insect. The leaf-mining beetle of paddy, popularly known as 
the " Rice Hispa " {Hispa armigem), No. 3, may be taken as the next 
important insect afiecting paddy. During the South-west monsoon 

* The eel-worm is being studied by Mr. Ballard, the Government Entoniologist,- 




'1 /l/i// 





> \ 1 > 




montlis the insect is particularly bad in Malabar and South Kanara and 
later on in the irrigated central districts ; and in the Coromandel tracts it 
is found later. In South Kanara the pest is particularly bad and even 
does damage to the summer crop of paddy in February-March. In com- 
pany with this beetle is often found the smooth greenish-blue beetle 
(Leptispa pygmcea), No. 4, which does appreciable damage in parts of 
Malabar from August to November. Next I have taken the Rice Bug 
(Leptocorisa varicornis), No. 5, the active paddy grain sucker. Though 
found all over South India periodical reports are received only from the 
West Coast tracts, especially from the villages along the Western Ghats. 
The case worm, Nympliula depimctalis, No. 6, is bad in Malabar and 
South Kanara during September to November and in the early summer 
months. The paddy grasshopper, HieroglypJius banian, No. 7, like the 
rice bug, has a wide distribution in the province but assumes pest pro- 
portions only in particular tracts during certain seasons. In the West 
Coast, Tinnevelly and in the Mysore Ghat tracts it appears with the 
South-west monsoons and in the Circars during the later months. 
The Silver-shoot disease, Kodu or AnaiJcombu, Pachydiplosis oryzce, 
No. 8, is bad in the Northern Circars from August to December 
during certain years. The paddy mealy-bug, the ' soorai ' disease, 
Pseudococcus sacchari, No. 9, is found in the central districts during 
the cold weather. Thrips of paddy, which comes last among the 
paddy insects I have selected, Bagnallia oryzce. No. 10, and which does 
some damage to very young paddy, is occasionally bad in Malabar, 
Chingleput and Coimbatore, especially when the usual expected 
showers are not received. 

The second diagram, which I have prepared, shows the seasonal 
distribution of the important insect pests of other crops besides paddy 
and is a tabular one. Here I have only taken the most important of the 
numerous insects so far noted and especially those which display striking 
periodical activity. The most important of these insects which give 
trouble almost every year are the hairy caterpillars of dry crops, the castor 
semi-looper, the mango-hopper, caterpillars and plant lice of tobacco, 
the groundnut leaf -miner, the stem weevil, plant lice and boll worms of 
cotton, the gram caterpillar, the cholam ear-head bug, the gingelly cater- 
pillar, the sann-hemp caterpillars and sugarcane borers. The hairy 
caterpillar {Amsacta albistriga) is particularly bad in the central districts. 
South Arcot and parts of the Ceded Districts from June on to October 
and attacks almost all dry and garden crops, such as sorghum, cumbu, 
groundnut, ragi, cotton, etc. The semi-looper (Achcea Janata) is very 
destructive to castor in the Ceded Districts from October to December 
and later on in Salem and Coimbatore. The Mango Hoppers (chiefly 


Idiocerus niveosparsus) are often very destructive to blossoms early in 
the year from January to March, chiefly in the important mango tracts 
of Salem, Bangalore, Chittur and Vizagapatam. The ' Plant Lice' 
pest on tobacco is an important one from December to April in Guntur, 
Coimbatore, Madura, Ramnad, Tanjore and South Kanara ; the leaf 
caterpillar and stem-borer are often reported from the ' Lankas ' in 
Godavari during the cold weather. The groundnut leaf miner " Siirul 
pu<)hi " {Stomopteryx nerteria) causes appreciable damage to the ground 
nut crop, especially when the rain-fed crop is on the ground from Septem- 
ber to November in the two Arcots and Trichinopoly. The cotton 
pests are chiefly noted in the Coimbatore and Tinnevelly tracts during 
the cotton season from October to May. The ear-head bug of cholam 
{Calocoris angustatus) is special to the (*oimbatore and Bellar}'- districts 
during June-July and sometimes in the cold weather also. The Slug 
caterpillar (Parasa lepida) which appears on a variety of plants lil{;e castor, 
mango, palms, etc., is chiefly noted during the months from October to 
January and in certain years causes serious damage. I do not think any 
special remarks are necessary for the other insects and their distribution 
may be gathered from the diagram itself. 

Coming to the second group of pests which, as I said before, includes 
insects of minor importance occasionally found in small numbers, but 
which appear as sporadic local pests only in certain years, I have added 
another diagram". Such insects are few in number and during normal 
seasons they are practically of no importance at all. On our knowledge 
and experience of insect pests in South India, about ten insects may be 
brought under this head as displaying the remarkable habit of abnor- 
mally multiplying and appearing suddenly only in certain years. The 
climbing cut- worm of paddy {Cirphis albistigma) may be taken as a good 
example. During some years when the rainfall is unusually heavy and 
the fields are flooded during the North-east monsoon months on the 
Coromandel Coast, this pest begins to appear and often assumes serious 
proportions during January-February, thousands of caterpillars being 
found cutting down the ripening ear-heads. For three or four years in 
succession from 1912 there was the locust plague in the Ceded districts 
during the months August-November caused by the Deccan grasshopper 
{Colemania sphenarioides) attacking all dry cereals of the tract. Fortu- 
nately, for the past two or three years, it has not been reported serious. 
Of the others, the chief are the black hairy caterpillar {Amsacta lactinea) 
on ragi and cholam in Coimbatore and Salem during August-September, 
the Surface weevil {Atadogaster finitimus) found on young cotton in 
Tinnevelly during November, Blister beetles of sorts (Lyfta, Epimufa, 
spp.) attacking cumhu, cholam, etc., in October-November, the Hawk 


moth caterpillar {Herse convolvuli) on green gram in the Circars during the 
cold weather, the green plant bug (Nezara riridvla) on cumhu in Tinnevelly 
in November-December, grasshoppers {Uatantops sp.) on cotton in 
Ramnad in December- January, surface grasshoppers {Aiolopus spp.) on 
cereals in Coimbatore and Ramnad in August-September and Tussock 
moth caterpillars {Euproctis, Orgyia, spp.) on red gram and castor 
during the cold weather. 

I have thus tried to give an idea, however incomplete, of the periodical 
occurrences of the most important insect pests of South India by dividing 
them into three more or less convenient groups, and I have attempted 
to convey as much information as possible in the diagrams which illus- 
trate this paper. I believe, as our knowledge and experience increase, 
it might be possible to amend this calendar in the light of new observa- 
tions, and make it far more accurate and complete than it is at present. 
Till then I venture to believe that this calendar might serve some useful 

In conclusion, I am of opinion that if such calendars are prepared for 
the different provinces they will be found not only useful in themselves, 
but, taken as a whole, will give one a fund of information on the distribu- 
tion, seasonal variation aud food habits of some of the important crop- 
pests which are common to all tracts of the Indian Empire. 


By E. A. Andrews, B.A., Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association, 

Mention has been made, at previous Meetings, of the correlations 
which have been found to exist, in the case of tea, between the nature 
of the environment and the degree of liability to attack by insect pests, 
and by Helopeltis theivora, the tea mosquito, in particular. The apparent 
importance of the relative amounts of potash and phosphoric acid, pre- 
sent in the soil in an available form, and of the relative amounts of the 
same substances in the leaves before and after Helopeltis attack has also 
been discussed and accounts have been given of various manuring experi- 
ments carried out with a view to increasing the relative proportion of 
available potash in the soil as compared with phosphoric acid, in the 
hope that the plants would thereby absorb a larger proportion of potash, 
and acquire an increased resistance to attack by the pest. 

This work has been carried further since the last Meeting, both 
in the direction of accumulating evidence to corroborate our ideas and 
of carrying out experiments designed to increase the resistance of the 
plants to attack by the insect. 

We commence with the fact, founded on extensive observation and 
experience, that comparative immunity from Helopeltis attack not only 
can, but does, occur in nature. In our attempts to produce immunity, 
we are attempting to discover and reproduce the conditions under which 
this immunity occurs in nature. The conditions affecting the question 
are considerably complicated, but would appear to be bound up with the 
relative proportions of potash and phosphoric acid taken up from the 
soil by the plant. This is controlled, not merely by a difference in the 
type of soil, but by difference in the physical and chemical condition of 
the same soil. Cases have been investigated in which the same soil, 
under different treatment with regard to cultivation, etc., has produced 
bushes which show differences in degree of liability to atta»k by 
Helopeltis. These investigations have so far shown very little, but the 
importance of the potash phosphoric acid ratio has been emphasized by 
the results of analysis of leaf plucked from bushes which were throwing 
off the attack of the pest. Cases were observed, in districts as remote 
as Sylhet and the Duars, in which bushes, which had been absolutely 

{ 56 ) 


shut up by the pest, were growing through the attack without being 
touched. Leaf was plucked from these bushes and analysed, when it 
was found, in all cases, that the ratio of potash to phosphoric acid in 
the leaf was 4 to 1. Since the normal ratio is 2 to 1, it is plain that 
the throwing off of the pest is connected with a distinct increase in 
the potash in the leaf as compared with the phosphoric acid, which 
corroborates previous ideas. 

The state of affairs, then, before the carrying out of the experiments 
about to be referred to, was that there was a considerable amount of 
evidence to show that an increase in the ratio of potash to phosphoric 
acid in the leaf produced increased resistance to Helopeltis attack and 
that experiments designed to increase that ratio by the addition of potash 
to the soil had given results which, though positive in a few cases, were 
contradictory to others. The obvious experiment to perform was that 
of direct injection of the bushes with potash, so as to eliminate the dis- 
turbing influence of the soil factors. This had been tried, but unsuccess- 
fully. At the last meeting I d'scussed this work with Dr. Gough and he 
made various suggestions with regard to the injection of the bushes by 
way of the roots. After a certain amount of experiment I found that if 
a number of the feeding roots were placed into a solution of a soluble 
salt of potash this solution was taken up, and in 1919 we were successful, 
on one garden, in causing bushes which were black with " mosquito 
blight " to throw off the attack of the pest and give strong clean flushes 
to the end of the season. During the last season the experiments were 
repeated on a larger scale, in all the affpcted districts, and on different 
types of sofl, more than eleven hundred bushes being treated in Assam, 
Cachar, Sylhet, and the Duars. It is to be regretted that circumstances 
compefled me to postpone my final tour of inspection of the experiments 
until January, with the result that I have not yet had time to work out 
the results as thoroughly as I wish. Two significant points, however, 
stand out. The first is that the only substance which has produced 
increased resistance to attack is potash, the second is, that attempts to 
increase the liability to attack appear to have fafled. The percentage of 
experiments which worked satisfactorily was small, owing partly to the 
fact that some of the substances used were unsuitable, and partly to lack 
of experience of work of this kind. The most satisfactory strength of 
solution to use was found to be a half to one per cent. The method 
of carrying out of the experiment was as foUows : A small root or a 
bunch of small roots was exposed, freed from sofl, and immersed in a 
cigarette tin containing the solution. The tin was then fixed firmly 
in position by ramming the soil round it, covered with strong paper to 
prevent sofl from falling into it, and the excavated soil put carefully 


back over it. lb was essential tliat the bushes treated should receive 
the usual cultivation, etc., so that a number of the tins were hoed out 
during the season. The tins had this disadvantage, that wherever the 
roots came into contact with the tin the iron of the tin came into ih(; 
reaction, and the roots became covered with a deposit of red oxide of 
iron. Vessels made of glazed earthernware would have been better, but 
they, again, possess the disadvantage of being fragile. In arranging 
the roots in such tins care must be taken that the roots are not in contact 
with the tins at any point, as they will be killed off by this deposition of 
iron oxide. It was further found that care should be taken that the roots 
do not go too far down into the solution, as this latter tends to be more 
concentrated at the bottom than at the top, and may be so strong as 
to kill the root off. The roots chosen for immersion in the solutions should 
be the hne feeder roots. Thicker roots do not grow successfully in these 
solutions. A factor which affected the growth of the roots was the 
degree of acidity or alkalinity of the solution used. Solutions which 
were very definitely acid or alkaline did not allow of root growth, but in 
cases where this solution was neutral, or just faintly acid, a luxuriant 
growth of new roots was obtained. 

From one or other, or from different combinations of the above 
causes, many of the experiments were failures, and no root-growth 
occurred inside the tins. In such cases all the solution was left, and none 
of it absorbed, the few exceptions found being explained by soil having 
fallen into the tin, or to its having been struck by a hoe, etc. In all cases 
where root-growth occurred in the tins aU, or nearly all, of the solution 
was taken up. 

The successful experiments, however, confirm the results of those 
carried out in 1919, and show that potash when taken up by the bush 
via the roots, results in a decreased hability to attack, which is not of 
the same degree under different sets of conditions. The relations bet- 
ween the result and the environmental conditions I have not yet had the 
opportunity to work out. The attempts to increase liability to attack 
by the use of phosphates were fruitless, as the acidity of the phosphoric 
solutions used inhibited root growth. 

Much yet remains to be done on these lines, but we do know 
now that bushes can be made resistant to attack by Helopellis. This 
resistance has been brought about by experiments designed to influence 
the composition of the leaf with regard to the proportion of the various 
constituents already present in the leaf, and since our analytical results 
show that this can vary within considerable limits under the conditions 
obtaining in tea, there would appear to be ample grounds for believing 


that subsequent research will enable us to control the pest on a larger 
scale by treatment of the bushes. 

It was quite a new line of work which was taken up by Mr. Andrews Mr. Fletcher. 
and I congratulate him on the success that he has achieved in the course 
of his investigations of this important pest. 

In connection Avith this interesting and instructive paper, 1 may Mr. Sen. 
mention that we tried to inject essential oils into plants. The ■modus 
operandi was very simple. We made an incision into the bark and 
connected the incised portion with a funnel containing the oil by means 
of a ru])ber tubing, the funnel being placed at a higher level. May 
I know from the lecturer if we were proceeding on right lines ? The 
experiment was in connection with our work on Chemotropism and it was 
an attempt to permeate a plant with a scented substance. 

I should first like to know how high the funnel was from the plant Mr. Andrews, 
and at what distance from the root the incision was made. 

The funnel was placed about 1| feet higher than the plant and the Mr. Sen. 
incision was made at a distance of about 2 feet from the root. „ . , 

It is only possible to get plants to take up sohitions. 


(Plates VIII— XII.) 
By E. Ballard, B.A., F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Madras. 

Spodoptera mauritia, Boisd., is one of the most serious pests of 
paddy* in Malabar. Its appearances are erratic but always fatal unless 
timely precautions are taken in dealing with it. In some cases during a 
heavy attack the caterpillars are in such numbers as to cover the roads 
and hands and they even invade the gardens. The main fact of its 
lifehistory, egg and pupal periods and so forth are well kaown, but there 
is a very large number of questions which still remain unanswered. With 
a little organization its control when it appears in pest conditions is 
comparatively easy, but unfortunately it is seldom noticed by the raiyats 
until the larvae are more than half grown by which time the damage 
done is serious, often necessitating either the resowing of the crop or the 
purchase of seedlings from unattacked areas. Up to the present year it 
had been the custom to await reports of the appearance of the pest from 
Tahsildars or raiyats and then to send an officer to demonstrate control 
measures. Although information was often (and in 1919 almost invari- 
ably) given by wire, a great deal of damage had generally been done 
before the officer could get to the spot. Leaflets explaining the methods 
of controlling the insect and its habits had been issued to the revenue 
authoriti*is but it is only in very exceptional cases that these leaflets 
ever reach the rakjat. They either disappear into the Taluq offices or 
else remain with the village officials carefully filed. My return to India 
in May 1919 coincided with a very fierce and widely spread Spodoptera 
attack, but little could be done to deal with it at that time. It was 
decided therefore to be thoroughly prepared for the pest this year (1920) 
and for this purpose a programme of propaganda and extension lectures 
was drawn up and put into operation. 

Before giving an account of the plan of campaign and the extent to 
which we were able to conduct it " according to plan " it would be 
as well to give some short account of the lifehistory and habits of Spodo- 
petera mauritia itself. (Plate IX.) 

" The eggs are deposited usually on the under surface of blades of 
grass or paddy in batches covered with buff covered hairs derived from 

* Oryza sativa. 
( 60 ) 





Spodoptera ma urit ia . 

Fig. 1. Egg-mass as laid on paddy-leaf. 

Fig. 2. A single egg niagnitied. 

Fig. 3. Young larva in characteristic attitude 

Figs, i, 5, G, 7, 8. Larvae in various stages of growth. 

Fig. 9. Pupa. 

Figs. 10, 11, 12. Moths. 

(The lines alongside the figures show the natural sizes.) 


the body of the female moth. The full-grown caterpillar is 35-40 mm. 
long, cylindrical, paler or darker green above, greenish yellow beneath, 
with a reddish stripe along the sides at the junction of the two lines ; 
along the side there is sometimes a broad pale stripe edged above by 
black lunules on each segment ; when touched the caterpillar curls up 
until the head and tail are nearly touching in a characteristic manner. 

" When full fed it pupates in the soil, turning into a brownish pupa, 
from which the moth emerges in ten days."* 

The larva is essentially a night feeder, but in districts which are per- 
manently under water it feeds by day, or remains clinging to the blades 
of the paddy ; and it is in such situations that its control is most easily 

The appearance of an attacked paddy plot is very characteristic and 
gives the impression of having been grazed by cattle ; in fact, the writer 
has more than once gone to a seed bed to look for Spodopiera in tracts 
where it was in pest conditions only to find that stray cattle were 
responsible for the seedlings in that particular plot being eaten down, 
although at a short distance a Spodoptera- a,tta,cked plot bore the same 

So far as our experience in Malabar goes, it would seem that in that 
district there is only one generation in the year, although it is possible 
that in one or two places, and then only exceptionally, a few moths 
may come out a month earlier than is usual. 

The first and only emergence appears to take place in Mayf and it 
is this generation which is the pest generation. It was believed that 
there was a preliminary small emergence in March or April, but all 
searches for moths or caterpillars were fruitless and it is very doubtful 
whether any generation precedes the one in May. Except in a very few 
places there would be no food for the larvae before this time as the whole 
country is dried up. By the beginning of May most of the paddy has 
been sown. In Malabar this paddy starts as a dry crop and the raiyat 
is dependent on the South-west monsoon for it to reach maturity. There 
is no tank irrigation, and most of the paddy is either sown broad-cast or 
in lines behind a plough. Transplantation, where it occurs, is done after 
the monsoon has burst and the fields are flooded. Once the monsoon 
has burst and burst well, there is no more trouble from Spodoptera as 
the fields fill up so rapidly and the rain descends with such force that the 
larvse are drowned and carried away. They may also be driven to the 
tops of the paddy blades and devoured by birds. If the monsoon is late, 

* Fletcher, Some South Indian Insects, p. 378. 

t Unless the contrary is stated all remarks on the habits of Spodoptera mamitia only 
apply to Malabar district. 


therefore, the damage doue by kipudopiera its liable to be greater than ii 
the monsoon is either weak or early. 

Another factor which appears to have some effect is the occmrence 
or otherwise of the early " sowing rains " which precede the real monsoon. 
This year these were almost entirely absent and it is likely that the dry 
conditions prevailing caused the non-appearance of Spodoptera. 

It has been stated above that one can never foretell the place which 
will be attacked in any particular year. Judging from reports and peti- 
tions received in this oiiice and from personal inquiry from raiyats it 
hardly ever turns up two years in the same place. Sometimes as much 
as seven or eight years may elapse between attacks. Other raiyats 
claimed to remember an attack thirty years ago and none since. One 
cannot therefore forecast the point against which an assault will be 
delivered and the only preliminary precaution which can be taken is to 
spread a knowledge of the lifehistory of the insect and means of con- 
trolling it to as many raiyats as possible, so that all will have at least 
the chance of being warned and profiting by the warning or send for 
assistance in time. 

The Plan. The plan of campaign consisted of three parts : — 

(1) This was a publicity and press campaign; articles were to be 
written in the local vernacular papers, and interviews given to corres- 
pondents of these papers. 

(2) In all prominent places, bazaars, toddy-shops, road-side trees, 
Railways Stations, Railway carriages, etc., posters were to be stuck up. 
These posters were of two kinds and were to accompany one another. 
The first poster was a large coloured one prepared under my direction by 
my Head Artist. The second was to be smaller and explanatory of the 

By the times these posters had been pasted all over the seven taluqs 
selected for the campaign, it was calculated that the lecturers would 
have got to work. 

One lecturer was sent into each taluq with orders to collect as many 
raiyats in each amsam as possible and give a lecture on Spodoptera mauritia 
and a simple account of its lifehistory. He was to encourage raiyats 
to ask questions and to explain to them the habits of any other paddy 
pests of which they might complain. 

At the end of the lecturing tour, which was to begm on 1st March 
and finish on 15th May, each lecturing oflSlcer was to return to taluq 
headquarters and there await reports of the appearance of the pest from 
raiyats or village officers. At all lectures raiyats were to be told where 
the officer in charge of their taluq was to be found and that any call for 
his assistance would be responded to at once. 


(13) The final pliasc ol the campaign was to consist of a prompt reply 
to all demands for aid, and a personal demonstration of the methods 
which had been advised. 

The Revenue Authorities were asked to helj) ; the Educational Depart- 
ment was provided with lantern slides and a short account of the pest so 
that lectures could be given in schools. School-masters were to be 
instructed to get into touch with the officer lecturing in the taluq in which 
his school was situated so that should the pest appear school-children 
could be shown it in the fields and the opportunity given of at least one 
piece of nature study. Lastly the co-operative societies which were very 
strong in one taluq^ were to be asked to help to gather raiyats together 
and to read leaflets and posters. 

The control methods which were advocated and which have given 
satisfactory results in the past were as follows : — 

(1) On the appearance of the caterpillar the first thing to do is to 
isolate the attacked area by digging steep-sided trenches around it. 
The caterpillars as they migrate fall into these trenches and are unable 
to climb out. They can then be easily crushed and killed. In the mean- 
time the caterpillars in the attacked areas can be collected in winnowing 
fans and bags and destroyed. 

(2) Where water is available the attacked areas can be flooded and 
the caterpillars driven to the tops of the blades of paddy from which 
they can be either knocked ofi and drowned by dragging a rope or bamboo 
across, or they can be collected by hand. In this case also they are 
much exposed to the attacks of birds, who are always of great assistance. 

If the rope method is used, water should be drained off after the 
caterpillars have been knocked from the plants as, if fairly old, they can 
climb up the stems again. Young caterpillars are easily drowned. 

(3) After an attack by Spodopteray bands should be scraped and pupse 
exposed or destroyed. 

(4) It is the custom in some parts of Malabar to scatter rice on the 
bands when Spodoptera has appeared, in order to attract the birds. 

(5) Before there is any water in the fields a close watch is to be kept 
on broad-cast paddy and on seed-beds. 

(6) Provision of perches for birds in the fields. 

(7) Isolation of seed beds by trenches. 

This was the ideal. How far the realization fell short of it will now 
be shown. 

With the exception of one tahiq (Calicut) all lectures began accord- 
ing to programme on the 1st of March. The preliminary press adver- 

* Walluvanad. 


tising had been well done and in theory knowledge that the lectures 
were going to be held should have been fairly widespread. It was 
hoped that some discussion would have been excited and that some raiyats 
at least would be anxious to turn up to the lectures and find out what 
they were all about. 

In actual practice the advance advertising was a failure. Little, 
if any, advance information had filtered down to the actual cultivators 
and those who had seen the newspapers did not appear to have attached 
any serious meaning to the enclosed slips. 

Some raiyats had heard that an officer was coming to talk to them but 
complained that they had so often been told that some official or other 
was coming to their village who, after preparation to receive him, had 
not come, and that they had taken no notice of any leaflet or poster that 
they had seen. 

Again, owing to a variety of causes the coloured posters did not arrive 
until it was too late to use them. Printed posters had been issued to the 
Tahsildars who had forwarded a few to Adhikaris* who had taken no 
action. In one taluq only, where the co-operative societies were called 
in to aid us, had the posters been stuck up in prominent places as had 
been previously arranged. 

What actually happened was that arrangements were made with the 
Adhikari the day previous to any lecture and he was responsible for 
gathering his raiyats at the chosen spot. These arrangements had 
usually to be made in person by the lecturer. Adhikaris difiered very 
much in the amount of enthusiasm which they showed. 

Some meetings were very well attended, others consisted of two or 
three raiyats only. Taking the lecturing part of the programme as a 
whole, the size of the audiences was disappointing^j*. I had hoped to 
provide each lecturer with a magic lantern but only four could be pro- 
cured, one of which was kindly lent by the Publicity Bureau, and these 
generally gathered better crowds than a lecture which was not illustrated 
by lantern slides. The interest displayed in the lectures themselves 
varied very much with the part of the district in which they were given. 
In some parts also the knowledge of the pests was quite good, derived not 
from leaflets or pamphlets but from observation. The poorest . audi- 
ences from point of view of numbers, were obtained in Calicut and Ernad 
taluqs. The latter taluq is the greatest Moplah stronghold and most 
raiyats refused to be convinced that their usual method of dealing with 
insect pests, namely, of paying Rs. 100 to the local priest and getting 

♦Amsam (village) head-man. 

■f Number varied from 5 to 300. 


from Mm a flag to wave over the fields, was not infinitely better than 
anything suggested to them by an ofiicer who was not one of the revenue 
oflacers and therefore of no account. In Calicut taluq the usual apathy 
which is so difficult to fight against was responsible for the poor atten- 

The *' Paramba " system in Malabar, so peculiar to that district, 
always make a raiyats' meeting difficult to get together. There are 
practically no villages in the usually accepted sense of the word. Dwel- 
lings are very scattered and one has to depend on the big landholders 
to get their tenants together. If the landlord is sympathetic and will- 
ing, a good number of raiyats can always be obtained ; if he is apathetic 
and takes no trouble, as sometimes happened, then it is very difiicult to 
get at the actual cultivator. 

Another factor which contributed to the difficulty of collecting 
audiences was the suspicion on the part of the raiyats that the meetings 
were a ruse to obtain war loan, or contribute to the war fund. Others 
said that, although on the face of things it was good of Government to 
send officers to warn them about pests and help them to save their crops 
they were afraid that they would be charged heavily for any demon- 
stration or help which was given. Others again who were behindhand 
with their dues v/ere afraid that they would be put to shame before their 
neighbours by being asked to pay on the spot at the meeting. 

The magic lantern, as already stated, always proved an attraction and 
a cinematograph would have been better still. 

The final part of the plan of the campaign could only be put to the 
test in one case. An exceptionally heavy monsoon which burst with 
great violence was apparently the cause of S. mauritia being in pest 
conditions in only one tract. In this particular case the AdhiJcan un- 
like the others in that taluq had been very slack and had taken no inter- 
est either in getting raiyats together or seeing that the lecturer had any 
assistance. However, he did notice, or the raiyats noticed, that the 
pest had arrived and sent in to taluq head-quarters according to the 
instructions received. This report reached taluq head-quarters on 
10th June. The lecturing officer in charge of th&t' taluq, although he 
was constantly in touch with the taluq office, was not told of the report 
until seven days later. In seven days Spodoptera can do a great deal of 
damage. In spite of these delays the pest was checked by trenching off 
the attacked areas and collecting the caterpillars in winnowing fans, 
and one- third of the seed-beds were saved. This was the only report 
received and all lecturers were recalled by the end of June. 

The time and money spent on this campaign were not wholly wasted. 
The existence of the Agricultural Department was brought to the know- 


ledge of a large number of the people who formerly knew nothing about 
it and, whether from innate courtesy or from real feeling, there were 
cases where gratitude was expressed that Government had taken the 
trouble to make all these arrangements for their benefit. One raiyat 
at least stated that he had formerly looked on Government simply as a 
tax-collector but had now been most happily proved to be wrong. 

The Staff. 

The staff used in this campaign consisted of three Assistants, three 
Sub-assistants from my section and two Assistant Farm Managers 
sent to me by the District Staff. When first drawing up the scheme 
for the campaign I had hoped to have a much larger number of men at 
my command. Things, however, turned out otherwise. 

These lecturers armed with four magic lanterns actually addressed 
meetings of various sizes in 570 Amsams, or villages, taking two-and-a- 
half months to complete the work. 

Three men had to be withdrawn as casualties on account of fever or 
accident. One of these was also called away for other work in another 
part of the Presidency and one more had to be withdrawn to head- 
quarters as the new term at the College was about to begin. 

In conclusion, I should like to emphasize the good results which 
must follow from a campaign of this kind. Not only did it give a unique 
opportunity for collecting information about the distribution of various 
paddy pests, but it supplied the means of getting into touch with the 
people. Hundreds of raiyats who had never heard of the Agricultural 
Department now know of its existence, and have been given proof that 
Government is not merely a tax-gatherer.* 

Concentration of the whole energies of the section on work on such a 
large scale naturalh'' put a great strain on our resources and involved the 
refusal of help in many isolated cases in other parts of the Presidency. 
Bat it cannot be too strongly insisted on that once a campaign of this 
kind is started, it should be carried through to the end. Sickness and 
other casualties cannot always be avoided but men should not be with- 
drawn for other work. The principle of the concentration of over- 
whelming force at a particular point rather than the dissipation of 
energies against many isolated objectives should be avoided as much in 
pest campaigns as in war. Although we had only one opportunity of 
testing the final phase of the campaign and that only in the most unfav- 
ourable circumstances, I think it is justifiable to claim that, had the 
Spodoptera attack this year been as severe as it was last year and in 

* This must not be construed into a criticism of the local Agricultural staff who 
bsin" few in number cannot cover the wliolo of a bi» district such as Malaimr. 

Page 67 


Fig. 1.—Ci/2)hocera varittf F. (x6). 

Fig. 2,—Pseu(lof/onia cinerascens, Rond. (x7). 


previous years, hundreds of acres of paddy would have been saved which 
last year were lost. 

I wish to express my gratitude to the Revenue Officials, School- 
masters, the Publicity Bureau, and the Co-operative Societies, and 
especially to the Honorary Assistant Registrar and to all land-owners 
and village officers who gave their help. 


1. In all over 570 amsmns were visited. 

2. The newspaper advertisement was not attended with the success 
deserved by the manner in which it was done. 

3. It would be better on another occasion to advertise the lectures 
by coloured posters and leaflets only a day or two before the lecture 
was given to any particular mnsam or village. 

4. A cinematograph camera would be invaluable ; not only could 
control methods be shown actually being put into operation, but by 
showing one or two films of general interest large audiences could easily 
be collected. 

5. All posting, pasting, etc., should be done by the Agricultural 
Department themselves and not left to Revenue Officers who already 
have a multiplicity of duties. 

6. The present practice of distribution of leaflets, at least of those 
dealing with crop pests, is practically useless without lectures and, 
whenever possible, demonstrations at the same time. 

7. Shortage of staff and the difficulty of a country like the Madras 
Presidency where four or five different languages are spoken makes 
th-e task of providing enough lecturers by no means easy for a campaign 
on such a large scale. 

8. With an insect like Sfodoftera mmiritia, whose appearance at any 
particular spot cannot be depended on, a vary large part of the district 
must be covered so that all may be warned. 

9. The peculiar conditions of Malabar made the collection of audiences 
difficult, but on the whole a good deal of interest was shown when once 
the lecturer began, although this naturally depended largely on the 
lecturer. In some cases this interest almost amounted to enthusiasm. 

Appendix I. 

S. mauritia is ^parasitized by the following Tachinidce ivhich have been 
identified by Dr. Villeneuve for the Imperial Bureau of Entotnology. 

1. Adia wgyptia, var, Villen. (Plate XI). 

2. Pseudogouia cinerascens, Rond. (Plate X, lower figure). 



3. Tachina fallax, Meig. (Plate XII, lower figure). 

4. Sturmia himaculata, Hartig. (Plate XII, upper figure). 

5. CypJiocera varia, F. (Plate X, upper figure). 

6. A species of Chelonus (Braconidse). 

Appendix II. 
List of birds known to feed on Spodoptera mauritia. 

1. Common Crow. — Corvus splendens. 

2. Jungle crow. — Corvus macrorhynchus. 

3. Cattle egret. — Buhulcus coromandus. 

4. Paddy bird. — Ardeola grayi. 

5. Wliite-breasted water-hen. — Amaurovius phcenicocurus. 

6. Common Mynah. — Acridotheres tristis. 

Dr. Gravely. This matter interests me as far as it concerns the spiders. The 

species sent me by Mr. Ballard is not a true colonial spider, although 
it lives in groups, but is a Lycosid. Subsequently Mr. Ballard sent me 
live specimens which escaped in transit but their webbings were like 
those of Stegodyphus, a true colonial spider which makes webs on bushes. 
Members of the Lycosid genus Hippasa usually live in holes or crevices 
on branches or roots of trees and make a big white sheet of web out of 
which leads a tunnel in which males and females are often found. How 
they feed I do not know. It is quite likely that a spider of this kind, if 
it took to eating caterpillars, would be quite useful, in case its webbing 
is not too heavy to interfere with the growth of the paddy crop, and if 
the spider goes night-hunting. If Stegodyphus was used, the very dense 
web would damage the paddy. This latter spider never leaves its web, 
and an insect has to fly into the web before it is caught. A further 
investigation would be very interesting. While at the Science Congress 
at Nagpur last year, a School-master told me that Stegodyphus was 
used in some parts of India for catching flies and mosquitos in houses. 
The point about Hippasa is, whether it ever leaves its web. 

Mr. Fletcher. I think the effect of removing a Stegodyphus nest from a bush to a 

paddy field, which is an unsuitable locality for the spider, would result 
in all the spiders separating and walking about in search of a suitable 
place, leaving trails of silk. The colony would die out but the trails 
will catch insects. 

Dr. Hutson. I have listened to this paper with very great interest. Our difficulties 

are similar in Ceylon. It is very hard to get any immediate information 
about an attack. In the only case of which I have personal knowledge, 
the information was not received till the attack had been in progress 
for two weeks. It was in a small isolated area where it could have been 

Page 68 


AcHa wgijptia, Villcn (x'l2). 

Page 69 


Fig. ^.—Sturiuia bimacuktta, Hartig [xtO), 

Fig. l.—Tiichina fallax, Meig. i (x9). 


easily stamped out, if tackled at once. But as it was, the cultivators 
took no hint from the first signs when the grass turned brown on the 
bands and did not connect this with the invasion in the field. Thinking 
that the larvse are carried into the fields with the irrigation water, the 
cultivators cut it off with the result that the plants were eaten close to 
the ground and were completely destroyed. The utter lack of co-opera- 
tion amongst the cultivators was noticeable. No help was given to the 
man whose plot was first attacked. Crows and other enemies are very 
useful, but only in the later stages of the attack. In Ceylon also rice is 
thrown down to attract birds. 

At the end of the attack a Braconid parasite makes its appearance. 

Outbreaks in Ceylon occur at the end of the year in November or 
December, especially if the South- West monsoon is a failure. It is 
impossible to say where an outbreak will occur, so no provision against 
it can be made. A campaign on similar lines to that of Mr. Ballard 
would be extremely useful in Ceylon. We have to fight the same indiffe- 
rence but some advantage would be gained. . 

As regards the parasites I have found five Tachinids and a Braconid, Mr. Ballard. 
(JJielonus sp. (new species). 

In 1915 we reared at Pusa Chelonus carhonator, Marshall, in large Mr. Dutt. 
numbers from caterpillars of S'podoptera mauritia. 


(Plates XIII— XV.) 
By E. Ballard, B.A., F.E.S., Government. Entomologist, Madras. 

The early history of Platyedra gossypiella has been dealt with at length 
by Ballon (1) and others and it is unnecessary to repeat it here. Suffice 
it to say that all evidence goes to show that it is an insect of South Asiatic 
origin which has spread by artificial means to almost all countries where 
cotton is grown, and must be reckoned as one of the major pests of the 
world. It has been known under a variety of names, Depressaria gossy- 
piella, Platyedra gossypiella, Gelechia gossypiella and Pectinophora gossy- 
piella. It is commonly called the Pink Boll-worm, but it must not be 
inferred from this name that all caterpillars found in a cotton boll are 
the larvae of Platyedra gossypiella. There is a small pink caterpillar of the 
genus Pyroderces^ which does no harm but is a scavenger ; and the 
larva of a Noctuid moth, Diparopsis castanea, Hmp., which is a true 
boll- worm in that it damages seed and lint. The latter insect will not 
however be met with in South India, as it is a native of Africa and need 
not therefore concern us further. Until recent years P. gossypiella 
was not looked on as a very serious pest of cotton in South India and 
received little or no attention. No statistics exist with which one can 
compare its present depredations. 

The primary cotton pest was supposed to be the " Spotted boll- 
worm," the two species of Earias, E. fahia and E. insulana. It was also 
stated that exotic cottons suffered more from P. gossijpiella than country 
cottons, the latter being supposed to be almost free from attack and it 
will be shown that in some instances this belief is not altogether in accord- 
ance with the facts. 

Attention was first drawn to P. gossypiella in Madras Presidency 
by the serious deterioration of the Cambodia cotton crop in 1917-18 
and in 1919 it was proclaimed as a pest under the Agricultural Pests 
and Diseases Act, which was put into force in Coimbatore District where 
a large area was under Cambodia cotton. Ordinarily Cambodia cotton 

* Pyroderces coriacella, Snell. 
( 70 ) 


is or should be grown as a garden crop and as an annual, and before 
the war this was the most general practice. One to three pickings were 
obtained during the cotton season varying with the agricultural practices 
of different districts. Raiyats in some parts were content with a single 
picking (March to the beginning of May) and then pulled the crop up and 
prepared the land for a cereal (ragi). In other parts the crop would 
remain in the ground until September and three pickings would be 

The high prices which ruled during the late war caused a great increase 
in the area under cotton, especially Cambodia, and in order to get the 
utmost from the crop most raiyats kept their plants in the ground for two 
or even three years. It was also grown as a dry crop instead of under 
irrigation. Thus provided with a continuous food supply, the increase 
of P. gossypiella was very rapid, leading finally to the state of affairs 
when it was proclaimed under the Pest Act. 

The writer returned to India, after over 3| years' absence, in May 1919 
just after the conclusion of the season-picking for 1918-19 crop, and the 
words "Pink B oil- worm " seemed to be in everybody's mouth. In 
June 1919 investigations were begun of which this paper embodies the 
preliminary results. 

The Pink Boll-worm. — The parent of the Pink Boll- worm is a small 
moth described by Durrant (2) as follows : — 

" Dark fuscous brown, the head and thorax somewhat lighter in 
colour. Anterior wings with an undefined round blackish spot on the 
disc a little above the centre, and a fascia of the same colour crossing 
the wings a little above the apex, which itself is black. Under wings of a 
silvery grey, darker towards the hinder margin. Legs and tarsi black- 
brown, with the joints light. Length 4-lOths inch." 

It is a member of the super-family Tineina, Order Lepidoptera, 
Busck (3) erected the genus Pectinophora in his paper in the Journal 
of Agricultural Research, Vol. IX, No. 10. It is also known as Platyedra 
gossypiella. The female moth lays from 200 — 400 eggs, a fact which 
accounts for the extraordinarily rapid increase towards the end of the 
cotton season, figures for which are given in another part of this paper. 

Egg. — The eggs are 0-52 to 0-54 mm. in length, rather flattened, 
striated and iridescent under the microscope. They are laid on the 
bolls or thrust between the bracts and the side of the boll. Young 
half-developed bolls are preferred as a place for oviposition to buds 
or flowers; but eggs are also laid on these latter early in the season 
before the bolls form. 

Larva.-^The egg period varies from three to seven days. The just 
hatched larva measures 2 mm., with a dark head and prothoracic shield. 



It is colourless and very difficult to see against the lint or the wall of the- 

cotton boll. 

Immediately after hatching it bores its way into the boll, usually 
from the side, frequently from the top, or very rarely from below. Once 
inside, the wound caused by its entrance closes up and nothing can be 
seen to show that there is a boll-worm inside the boll. This disposes 
at once of the suggested remedy so often advocated, to pick all first- 
attacked bolls. When the larva has effected its entrance into the boll it 
generally begins to bore its way into a seed at once, and remains in it 
until the contents are finished ; it then moves on to another seed. It 
does not necessarily remain in one lock but often cuts a hale through 
the septum and invades the neighbouring lock. (Plate XIII, figurea^ 


The number of seeds destroyed by a pink boll-worm seems to vary,, 
some seeming to require more food in a boll of the same age than others. 
Very young bolls when attacked are generally entirely destroyed. When 
flowers are attacked the larva feeds on the anthers and may descend 
later to the ovary. Open flowers appear to be preferred to flower buds. 

The characteristic pink colour is acquired as a general rule in the 
last two instars before pupation but larvae which have fed in open flowers 
remain cream-coloured. The length of the larval life varies and this 
question will be dealt with later. 

Pufa. — The pupa is a small object, 5-75 mm. to about 8 mm. in length, 
and enclosed in a cocoon spun by the larva. The pupal period varies 
from seven to fifteen days. 

Pupation takes place either in the boll, amongst the lint, inside the 
seed, in double seeds, i.e., two seeds spun together, in the bracts or at 
the base of the boll, or in cracks in the soil. Several cases have been seen 
of pupge formed in the septum between two locks inside the boll. The 
larvge appear to prefer a corner of some kind against which to spin the 
cocoon. For example, a batch of mature larvae was confined between 
watch glasses and spun their cocoons all round the edge where the two 
glasses joined. 

Although a point of some importance, it is doubtful how long the 
moth lives after emergence as it is a thing very difficult to test in nature. 
Under laboratory conditions moths lived for as long as 14 days, but 
this is no proof that they live so long or so short a time in a natural 

Busck (^) states that they have been kept alive with care for 34 days. 

Most of the foregoing facts have been ascertained by a number of 
different workers and on the whole P. gossypieUa in South India behaves 
similarly to P. gossypiella in Egypt, Northern India or Hawaii. 


Bionomics of Platyedra gossypiella. 

Fig. 1. Bolls opened to show damage done by P. gossyplellu. 

Fig. 3. Kapas (lint) stained by P. gossypiella. 

Fig. 4. Parasitic larva; iu a cotton-boll. 

Fig. 5. Larva of Mkrobracun sp. much magnified. 

Fig. 0. Beetle larva found iu cotton-bolls. 




Short and Long Cycle Larvce. — Apart from the actual damage it does 
rto the seeds of the lint, P. gossypiella possesses another habit which 
helps to make it a danger to cotton growers and has been largely responsi- 
ble for its world-wide distribution. This habit is that at certain seasons 
of the year it produces two kinds of larvee, known generally as short- 
cycle larvae and long-cycle larv«. These larvae either complete their 
lifehistory in three weeks or a month from the time of hatching or remain 
in the larval state for any time up to two years. Lefroy (*) states that 
in Northern India there are two such periods in the year, when long- 
cycle larvae are produced, but generally it is only at one time. In Egypt 
this is towards the end of the year. This resting stage is passed in the 
seed, generally inside double seeds, that is to say, two seeds bound 
together by the larva with sUk. It is unnecessary to emphasize how 
dangerous is this capacity for prolonging the larval life and how easily 
this may be the cause of infection of the growing crop. It helps the 
insects to defy the laws which decree a dead period between the pulling 
up of one crop and the sowing of another in the hope of starving the 
pest out of existence. For this reason, in Egypt ail seed has to be treated 
as soon as it is ginned and precautions have to be taken to screen seed 
and kappas stores, as they would otherwise be easily the cause of infection 
of the growing crop(^). 

Our investigations for 1919-20 go to show that it is extremely doubt- 
ful whether this resting or long cycle type of larva is produced in South 
India. What the factors are which induce this resting stage or pro- 
hibit it are unknown. It may be that the absence of any cold weather 
in South India inhibits any tendency for P. gossypiella to produce long- 
cycle larvae but, whatever the cause, as far as we can tell at present they 
are never or only very rarely produced. Double seeds have been found 
but either without a larva inside or containing a pupa. Large quantities 
of infested seed, kappas and bolls have been kept at the Insectary and 
examination has been made of seed stores but in practically every case 
no moths emerged more than a month after ginning or picking. Three 
cases are recorded, two from a seed store in which two moths emerged 
early in November from seed ginned in May or June. One larva was 
found in a cocoon made in kappas picked three or four months previously. 
The exact date of ginning and picking was not available in each case. 

Damage. — The damage done by the pink boll- worm is difficult to 
estimate in terms of money. So many different factors are involved 
and what might apply to one field might not apply to another. The 
damage is done in four or five ways. 

(1) By the seed being destroyed. 

(2) By the development of the lint being retarded and lint weakened. 



(3) By causing premature opening of the boll and invasion of 

saprophytic fungi, Nigrosporum and others. 

(4) By staining the lint both in the gin and in the boll. 

(5) As pointed out by Gough (^), by lowering the germination power 

of un-attacked seeds in an attacked boll (see table V). 

The number of seeds destroyed in each boll varies very much. Some- 
times all five locks or all three locks will be destroyed, sometimes only 
one, and the remainder produce what appear to be good lint and seeds. 

The number of attacked bolls at any given date does not give one 
any accurate idea of the cash value of the damage done nor of the extent 
of the infestation. 

At the time of the first picking this year (March 1920) examination 
showed that out of 100 bolls containing approximately 2,900 seeds (a 
Cambodia boll averages 28-30 seeds per boll) only 14 seeds were 
destroyed, that is, in all exactly half a boll. The number of bolls 
damaged or in which P. gossypiella was found were three. Therefore 
in this case the percentage of bolls damaged equals 3 per cent, and 
damage to seed approximately 5 per cent. This example is given just 
to show that the number of bolls attacked can only give a general 
idea of the actual amount of damage. On the other hand a percentage 
of bolls attacked combined with a percentage of boll-worm population 
gives a fairly accurate idea of the degree of infestation. 

It must also be remembered that towards the end of the season the 
boll-worm population increases to a tremendous extent and that as 
many as eight boll-worms of the same or different ages will be found 
in one boll, whereas at the beginning of the season this multiple infesta- 
tion is rare. Therefore 40 per cent, of bolls attacked at the beginning 
of the season is not so serious a loss as 40 per cent, attacked later on. 

Infestation of the 1918-19 crop. The first lot of bolls examined was 
from a lot of Cambodia cotton grown in the wet lands belonging to the 
Central Farm at Coimbatore. This was an experimental plot of about 
an acre in extent, the nearest cotton being about 800 — 1,000 yards 
away. This gave the following results : — 


Number of 


Percentage of bolls 





30th June 1919 1 500 






In July of the same year 1,000 bolls of Uppam cotton were examined. 
Uppam is grown as a dry crop and is a" country cotton." 


Number of 


Percentage of bolls 



16th July 1919 

3l8t July 1919 




Cambodia cotton from the Central Farm gave the following results : — 


Number of 


Percentage of bolls 



31st July 1919 

31st July 1919 

(field 44). 

(field 15-C.) 



After this date all cotton was pulled out except for a small plot in 
the Insectary compound. 982 bolls from this were examined in Septem- 
ber and gave 91-65 per cent, attacked by Platyedra and 8-35 per cent, 
by Earias. In October 2,500 bolls were examined and showed the 
percentage damaged by both Platyedra and Earias was 77-08 of which 
Platyedra was responsible for 90-35 per cent, and Earias for 9-65. 
Examination of 345 bolls in the first week of November showed that of 
284 damaged, 40-8 per cent, was due to Platyedra and 30-1 per cent, 
to Earias. After this date the last cotton plants were pulled up. The 
plots from which the bolls were taken after the first of August was so 
small that no very great importance is attached to figures after that date. 
The great point of interest is the rise in percentage attacked by E. insulana 
or fahia. The 1919-20 crop was sown in September-October as usual. 
1,410 attacked flower buds from this crop were examined between 1st 
and 14th December. Of these 1-9 per cent, were attacked by Platyedra 
and the remainder by Earias. In the week ending 22nd December 


1919 tlie first counts of population of Platyedra were begun and these 
were continued weekly until the following July. At first 2,000 bolls 
were examined weekly, this then had to be reduced to 1,000 and finally 
to 200. 

This was unsatisfactory as, working with small numbers, the error 
is liable to be greater than working with large numbers, but, for causes 
which it would be unprofitable to discuss here, from the middle of March 
to the end of July the supply of bolls had to be limited. 

The result of this examination is shown in the accompanying " graph " 
(Plate XIV, fig. 1.) 

At the beginning of the season the crop was very backward and the 
number of buds and flowers was small ; there was a good deal of boll 
fall also due, as far as could be ascertained, to a small (Capsid). Towards 
the end of January there was a great increase of buds and flowers and the 
percentage population consequently fell rapidly. It rose and fell again 
just after the season-picking and went up with astonishing rapidity 
in the month of July, more especially in the last fortnight. 

Arrangements had been made for a weekly supply of bolls from 
various typical tracts of the District, but except in one case this supply 
was not forthcoming after March. So the results obtained from the 
Insectary cotton plots could only be checked with one other place in 
the District, some 35 miles south of Coimbatore. This curye (the Pol- 
lachi curve) follows the same course as that at Coimbatore, but, as all 
cotton in Pollachi was pulled up early, examinations of bolls up to 3rd 
July 1920 only were possible. (Plate XIV, fig. 2.) 

Periodically bolls were sent in for examination from districts which 
had not been brought under the rules of the Pest Act. The amount 
of boll-worm attack in these districts varied very much, the highest 
being 75 per cent, and the lowest 45 per cent, for the " Kar " or second 
picking. (See tables). 

From the end of March up to the end of the season measurements 
were taken of all pink boll-worms found in green bolls, and they were 
then grouped under three heads, those less than 5 mm., those over 5 
mm. but under 10 and those of ten and over. The percentage of these 
to one another found at any time or over any period should give some idea 
of the appearance of fresh broods and the length of the average life in 
the larval state. (Plate XV, fig. 1.) 

The curves would seem to indicate that during the hot months of 
the year the larval life is longer than later on. To put it in another way, 
during the time of the season-picking a very high proportion of boll- 
worms found are under 10 mm., that is to say, they are not in the last 

Page 76 



-pra7TO33T-J0 T-S[pg 

s||oq 001 ■'•'' Koii^intJorf 

ftiioq 00^ iad JiaqvuoN jo juiiS) ui uoi^ujndtKi uu^O/v\ j|og *i"m 



instar prior to pupation, and the idea that the larval life is longer at this 
time of the year is borne out by the fact that the percentage of population 
on the whole shows little or no increase until towards the end of the season- 
picking, whereas after that period the rise is steadily maintained, allow- 
ance being made for experimental error. For example, the sudden 
drop shown in the curve in the week ending 12th June 1920 was probably 
due to an insufficient number of bolls being examined. However, this 
may not be the whole reason, for Pollachi boll examinations show a 
similar fall about the same period. 

The season-picking ends in the last week in April, the fresh flush 
of bolls after this, the bolls, that is, which will produce the " Kar " 
picking, ripen rather more quickly and it is possible that the high winds 
prevailing from June onwards help to dry the bolls and consequently 
to shorten the larval period of the boll-worms so that generations 
succeed one another more rapidly. 

In this connection it may be said that the very few cases of prolonged 
larval life or anything approaching long-cycle larvae occurred in the 
season- picking and not in the " Kar " picking. As already stated, 
however, in South India the increase in number pf bolls attacked during 
the season is not complicated by moths produced from long-cycle larvae 
of the year before. Nearly all bolls examined towards the middle of 
July from all districts showed a proportion of full-grown boll- worms, 
indicating that in the last week of July or the first week of August a 
big crop of moths and consequent number of boll-worms was to be 
expected. This would account for the very great measure of success 
attained in the lapplication of the Pest Act. The amount of damaged 
crop was very small and Cambodia cotton from Coimbatore realised 
Ks. 200 per Kandy above Broach, which in other years equalled or 
excelled Cambodia. 

Tables are given showing the relative increase of Earias {Earias here 
includes both E. fabia and E. insulana) during the season. In October 
and November 1919 Earias did a great deal of damage in the Central 
Farm to the top-shoots of the young cotton plants. It was equally 
prevalent out in the District but did not appear to have caused so much 
damage. Some raiyats even said it was a blessing in disguise as it topped 
the plants and made them branch and produce more bolls, an opinion 
which the condition of their crop justified. (Plate XV, fig. 2.) 

It will be seen that towards the end of the year Earias increases 
in numbers rapidly and maintains that ascendency until the first flowering 
season is over, after which time the percentage falls again. Towards 
the end of the " Kar " season large numbers of Earias larvae were found. 

Page 77 



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pulalion of E arias .r 

suUna & f»bl» 

J to 



Feb.gary U Ju 


y 1920 

« - 



^ 1 



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a s 

^T? :"■ \ 

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I \ 

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not in the cotton crop but in two species of Ahutilon which are common 
weeds in the cotton fields. 

Examination of large numbers of bolls from several Cambodia cotton 
tracts and also from districts where " country " cottons were grown, 
bore out the observation that Farias is not as a rule a serious pest during 
the greater part of the season. 

The Pest Act. — The results of the Pest Act being enforced in Coim- 
batore district were most encouraging in spite of evasion of the Act 
in some cases, and ignorance, apathy, and passive resistance on the 
part of some of the subordinate revenue officials and village officers. 
It remains to be seen whether the extension of the area under the Act 
will be attended by equal success. 

The control of the pink boll-worm in South India seems to lie in the 
direction of strict enforcement of the Act, in the encouragement of graz- 
ing off bolls by sheep and goats before the plants are pulled up, and in 
the selection of an early-maturing strain of cotton. This applies more 
especially to Cambodia cotton. The fact that the pink boll- worm shows 
no signs of producing long-cycle larvae makes control by the above means 
more easy and obviates the introduction of machines or other apparatus 
for fumigating or otherwise treating the seed after ginning. 

Indeed, it is very doubtful whether it would ever be possible to 
enforce treatment of seed by hot-air machines in South India, and it 
would be useless to recommend a measure which could not be made obli- 
gatory for ginning factories. 

Natural Enemies. — The larva of P. gossypiella is parasitized by 
Microhracon lefroyi and Ajjanteles sp. but the amount of check 
exerted by them is not great. 

In one instance the nymph of what appeared to be a Reduviid bug 
was seen sucking eggs laid in captivity on a young boll, but it could not 
be reared to maturity. The eggs, needless to say, failed to hatch. This 
was the only occasion that the eggs were found to be so attacked. 

The matter comprising this paper is in many respects very incomplete 
but gives an idea of the boll-worm situation in Southern Districts of 
South India at the present time. 

In conclusion I wish to render my thanks to Mr. H. C. Sampson. 
Deputy Director of Agriculture, V and VII Circles, and to the District 
Staff, for help rendered, and to the Acting Government Economic 
Botanist, Rangaswami Ayyangar, who performed the germination tests 
shown in Table V. 


Table I. 

Percentage of green bolls and buds attacked by Platyedra gossypiella and 
Earias fabia and E. insulana, on Central Farm, Coimbatore. 

Week ending. 



29th December 1919a 



3rd January 1920a . 



10th January 1920a d 


No record. 

17th January 1920a d 



24th January 1920a d 



31st January 1920a d. 



7th February 1920a d 



14th February 1920& 



21st February 19206 . 



28th February 19206 



6th March 19206 



18th March 19206 



20th March 19206 



27th March 1920c 



3rd April 1920 



10th April 1920 



17th April 1920 



24th April 1920 



1st May 1920 



7th May 1920 



15th May 1920 



22nd May 1920 



29th May 1920 



5th June 1920 



12th June 1920 



19th June 1920 



26th June 1920 



3rd July 1920 



10th July 1920 



17th July 1920 



24th July 1920 



31st July 1920 




a Examined weekly ....... 


b „ 








d Also damaged by Heliothis obsoleta. 
Platyedra. — Percentage of buds or bolls attacked by P. gossypiella. 
Earias. — Percentage of buds or bolls attacked by Earias insulana 
and Earias fabia. 


Table II. 

Examination of bolls from Central Farm to check results at Insectary. 

Cambodia cotton. Percentage of green bolls attacked on the Farm lands 

Per cent. 
10th July 1920.— 200 bolls examined— 

Platyedra population ....... 106 

Earias ......... 12 

Percentage of bolls attacked by Platyedra , . , ,. 42 

„ ,, „ ,, Earias 

Maximum number of Platyedra found in one boll 

17th July 1920.— 200 bolls examined— 

Platyedra population . . . . . 

Earias „ . . . . . 

Percentage attacked by Platyedra 

„ „ „ Earias 

Maximum number of Platyedra found in one boll 

24th July 1920.— 200 examined— 

Platyedra population . . . . . 

Earias ., . . . . . 

Percentage of bolls damaged by Platyedra . 

„ „ >» >» Earias 

Maximum number of Platyedra found in one boll 











Table III. 
Comparison of attach on country cottons on Central Farm, 1919 and 1920. 

Uppam * cotton. 
17th July 1920.— 250 bolls examined— 
Platyedra population 
Earias „ • • 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra 

24th July 1920. — 250 bolls examined — 
Platyedra population 
Earias „ . . 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra 

15th July 1919.— 500 bolls examined— 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra 
„ „ J. Earias 

31st July 1919. — 500 boUs examined— 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra 
,, „ „ Earias 





* Gossypium verbaceum. 


Karunganni * from Central Farm. 
17th July 1920.— 250 bolls— 

Platyedra population ....... 36 

Earias „ ....... 10 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra ..... 17-6 

, „ „ Earias ..... 4 

24th July 1920.— 250 examined— 

Platyedra population ....... 38 

Earias „ ....... 5 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra ..... 15-2 

„ „ „ Earias ..... 2-0 

Table IV. 
Bolls from other districts for comparison with Table I. 

Virudupatty, Trichinopoly District, Usilampatti tract. 
17th July 1920.-1,000 bolls examined— 

Platyedra population ....... 463 

Earias ' „ . . .... 2 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra ..... 42-9 

» >. » Earias . , . . , .£ 

3rd July 1920.— 730 bolls Dindigul tract— 

Platyedra population . . . , . . .591 

Earias „ ....... 5 

Percentage damaged by Platyedra ..... 80-9 

» >» „ Earias ..... -06 

5th June 1920.— Salem District. 212 bolls— 

Platyedra population ... ... 7 

Earias „ .... 1^ 

Details incomplete. 
14th August 1920.— Salem. 100 bolls from Namakal Taluq— 

Percentage attacked by Platyedra 63 . 

» „ „ Earias _^j7. 

Table V. 

Per cent, 
Germination of seed sample from unattacked bolls-Coimbatore 59-1 
Germination from mixed sound seed taken from attacked and 

unattacked boUs ........ 42-0 

Sound seeds from attacked boUs — 

Sample (a) . ••..... 31 

Sample (6) ........ . 32 

List of other food-plants of Platyedra gossypiella in South India ;— 
Abutilon indicum. 
Hibiscus esculentus. 

Gossypium obtusifoliutn. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

List of Keferences 
1. Ballou, H. a. 

2. DURRANT, J. H. 

3. BuscK, August 

4. Lefroy, H. Maxwell 

5. GouGH, Dr. Lewis H. 

6. Ditto 

7. Ditto 

8. Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge 

9. Storey, G. . . . 

10. King, H. H. . 

11. Ditto 

TO Literature Consulted. 

The Pink Boll-worm in Egypt 1916-17. 
University of Agriculture, Egypt 
(giving a complete list of references 
to literature on Pink Boll- worm). 

Bulletin of Entomological Research 
Vol. Ill, pp. 203-206. 

The Pink Boll-worm {Pectmophora gos- 
sypiella). In the Journal of Agri- 
cultural Research, Vol. IX, No. 10, 

Indian Insect Pests. 
Indian Insect Life. 

Nature of damage done by Pink 
Boll- worm. 

Rate of increase of Gelechia gossyjnella 
larvae in green bolls during 1916. 

The Pink Bollworm in Egypt. 

Some South Indian Insects. 

Machines for treatment of cotton seed 

against Pink Boll- worm. Cairo, 

Simon's Hot Air Machine for the 

treatment of cotton seed against 

Pink Boll- worm, 1916. 
Entomological Bulletin No. 4. 
Pink Boll-worm {Gelechia gossypiella, 

Saund.) in the Anglo -Egyptian 

Sudan, 1917. 
The Pink Boll-worm {Gelechia gossy- 

fiella, Saund) and measures for its 

control, 1918. 

Who named your Microhracon as lefroyi ? When I was at Coimba- 
tore two years ago in April with Mr. Sampson, just before Mr. Ballard 
returned, I saw attacked cotton and brought seeds up here. At that 
time there were a certain number of double seeds to be found, and I 
got a Braconid parasite as noted in the paper on Cotton Boll- worms. 
We also get P. gossypiella parasitized by Microhracon up here, but I 
should not like to say that it is M. lefroyi. 


I think it was named in the collection. It corresponds with the Mr. Ballard. 
-picture of lefroyi. It does not seem to exert much influence. 

What is the method of cultivation of cotton followed at Coimba- Mr. Ghosh. 
tore ? 

It is sown in September or October according to the time of the Mr. Ballard.. 
arrival of the North-east monsoon. It is irrigated three times. The 
plants have to be pulled out by the 1st of August. The first picking is 
at the end of March and continues through April ; the second in July. 
This enforced pulling by the end of July leaves just time for the second 
picking. Before the Act was passed the plants used to be left in the 
ground for three to seven years. Even the second picking in 1919 was 
useless, as the lint I saw in the ginning factories was stained and bad. 

Does the Act apply to all kinds of cotton grown in the scheduled Mr. Fletcher, 
area ? 

No ; it applies only to Cambodia but it has recently been extended Mr. Ballard, 
to include American Dharwar, grown like Cambodia. 

Do you know the percentage of parasitization ? Is there disease on Mr. Misra. 
the worms ? 

No. I have once or twice seen a disease like Pebrine. Mr. Ballard. 


By C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

Oxycarenus IcBtus, Kby. W. L. Distant. Fauna of India, 

Vol. II, p. 43, Fig. 31. 
Oxycarenus IcBtus, Kby. H. Maxwell Lefroy. Insects of 

Tirhut. Records of Indian Museum, Vol. Ill, part 4, No. 25, 

December 1909. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. H. Maxwell-Lefroy. Indian Insect Life, 

p. 688, Fig. 454, 1909. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Some South Indian 

Insects, pp. 482-483, Fig. 367. 
Oxycarenus Icetus. H. Maxwell-Lefroy. Indian Insect Pests. 

pp. 107-108, Fig. 126. 

Hitherto the Boll- worms Earias fahia, E. insulana, as well as the 
Pink Boll- worm, Platyedra gossypiella, seem to have received the greatest 
attention of the workers on cotton pests. The large and small Hemiptera, 
which cause as much damage to the cotton plant as the three boll- worms 
together, have received scant attention up to this time. Any one who 
has worked on the cotton pests will be struck with the damage directly 
or indirectly brought about by these obscure Hemiptera about which 
Order of insects Dr. D. Sharp has aptly said : — 

" There is probably no order of insects that is so directly connected 
with the welfare of the human race as the Hemiptera ; indeed, if any- 
thing were to exterminate the enemies of Hemiptera, we ourselves should 
probably be starved in the course of a few months." (Cambridge Natural 
History Series, Vol. VI, p. 533.) And the late Mr. Kirkaldy has expres- 
sed himself in much the same view in Bull. Hawaiian Planters' 
Association, Vol. I, p. 271, when he said : — 

"It is not alone the exhaustion consequent upon the rapid draining 
of plants' juices by the almost microscopic setae of the Hemipteron that 
is so deleterious, it is the addition of hordes of fungus spores, which so 
often subsequently attack the wounded surface, and quickly multiplying 
penetrate into the tissues of the plant, causing decay and death," 
and any one who has worked on the group for some time will be struck 
with the validity of the above remarks. 

( 84 ) 


I have been intimately connected with investigations regarding 
cotton pests for ttie last sixteen years and I quite agree with Dr, L. H. 
Gough when he says : — 

" Oxycarenus is a very bad pest with us, and there is going to be special 
investigation regarding it. If it attacks garden hollyhock of the Euro- 
pean variety, the leaves curl up and budshedding occurs. Forty per 
cent, of the flowers fail to mature on account of the sucking of Oxycarenus, 
I believe that about 80 per cent, of the seeds of cotton are rendered useless 
by the insect . . . . " (Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, Vol. II, p. 561). 

And from what has been observed by me during the past, it appears 
that the little obscure bug is equally bad on cotton in this country as 
well. Its small size and obscure colour renders it an inconspicuous 
object on the leaves, the bolls and the flowers. The ordinary cultivator 
does not mark its presence, and it is for this reason that very few com- 
plaints are received regarding the damage brought about by it. In 
the case of leaf-eating Lepidoptera and Coleoptera the presence of damage 
to leaves is a sufficient evidence of the presence of the pest, though the 
aggregate loss caused by these may be nothing in proportion to the 
damage done by the sucking insects, which not only directly injure the 
seed and thus lower its future vitality but indirectly introduce a host of 
fungoid and bacterial diseases which conjointly reduce its vitality to a 
minimum and this aspect of the injury is of great importance when we 
consider the question of the seed supply of the country. At present the 
area under cotton is : — 


Area in acres. 

Yield (bales). 

1. Boaiba,y 



2. Central Proviaces 

and Berar 



3. Madras 

1 1,773,000 


4. Punjab 

j 2,089,000 


5. United Provinces 



6. Sind . 

. - 



7. Barma 



8. Bengal 



9. Bihar and Orissa 



10. Nortii-Wesfc Frontier Province 




11. Assam 




12. Ajmer-Merwara . 

• . 



13. Hyderabad 




14. Central India 



15. Baroda 




16. Rajpatana 




17. Mysore 




— — . 

— — 





If we take the seed rate to be 12 lbs. per acre the total quantity of seed 
actually required for sowing purposes to cover the area quoted above, 
would be 236,448,000 lbs. If 20 per cent, of this seed is bad, the actual 
loss on seed account is Ks. 6,76,400 at the rate of 16 lbs. for a rupee. 
This is a very conservative estimate but instances have come to my 
knowledge where the direct loss caused by the bugs was considerably 
more than 20 per cent. Besides this, there is another and far serious 
loss and it is that is the cause of lowering the vitality of the plant which in 
such a condition becomes more amenable to the attack of insect pests 
and fungoid diseases. When once such a state of affairs has been started, 
the lowering of the vitality of the plant continues from generation to 
generation. No steps have been taken in the past or are likely to be 
taken in the future to arrest the degeneration and deterioration of the 
seed supply which is of so vital importance to cotton growing in this 
country, as well as elsewhere. This state of affairs is brought about by 
two bugs. The one, called the Red Cotton Bug {Dysdercus cingulatus), 
and the other the Dusky Cotton Bug {Oxycarenus Imtus)^ Both injure 
the lint as well as the seed. The former feeds on the bolls and can suck 
out the mucilaginous matter within the seeds with its long, strong 
rostrum. It is conspicuous on account of its bright scarlet colour, but the 
other, Oxycarenus Icetus, is small and of obscure colour which makes it an 
inconspicuous object on the bolls or the leaves, and it is for this reason 
that very few cultivators have an idea of the insidious loss caused by it. 
The bugs, both nymphs and adults, prefer to feed on open bolls. Their 
rostrum is not so long as well as powerful, as to reach the mucilaginous 
matter of the seed within the half opened boll or bolls. Thus they 
have been found to breed in large numbers in bolls damaged by the 
boll- worms, Earias fabia and E. insulana. In fact a serious attack of 
the boll- worms is followed by a serious attack of the Dusky Cotton Bugs. 
The bugs cannot feed well in unopened bolls. Thus in years when the 
attack of boll- worms is bad the cultivator leaves the damaged half-opened 
bolls on the plants and it is in these that the bug multiplies. When the 
attack of boll-worms is not bad, there is a smaller number of damaged 
bolls on the plants, and the cultivator plucks off all the opened bolls. In 
normal years, however small may be the damage done by the boll- worms, 
a fairly good percentage of the seed is more or less damaged by the dusky 
cotton bug. The damaged seed, if cut open and examined, will be found 
to be not so healthy as the unaffected seed. If such a seed is sown, the 
resulting plant from it is sure not to be so healthy and vigorous as one 
grown out of a healthy, unaffected seed. If, however, the seed of the 
affected trees again becomes damaged by the dusky bugs, the damage is 
intensified and if the seed from the second lot is sown, the plants from 


these are sure to be not so healthy as they should have been. This 
phase of the question opens up new fields for investigation. The bug 
not only injures the seed but is the immediate cause of the reduction of 
the vitality of seed through successive generations so as to render it more 
amenable to the attack of the insect pests and possibly fungoid diseases. 
The bug affects the flowers and the buds and is the immediate cause of 
the shedding of these in enormous numbers. Anyone who has noted 
this fall, especially after a light shower of rain accompanied by 
wind, will have been struck with the amount of loss brought about by 
such a premature shedding. I do not here wish to convey the impression 
that the fall of the bolls is entirely due to the action of the dusky cotton 
bug. It may be possibly due to a special disease, not well known and 
investigated by this time, but which has been given the name of the 
boll disease in the West Indies. These investigations on this disease 
are in course of progress and it is expected considerable light will be 
thrown on the mysterious disease. If the premature fall of the bolls 
could, by any means, be checked or restrained, the damage done by the 
boll-worms will be inconsiderable. To my knowledge, this fall of the 
flower buds, flowers and newly s^^t bolls is far more than the percentage 
of bolls damag; d by the boll- worms, Earias jabia, E. insukma and Plat- 
yedra gossypiella. Of course, I have no doubt that this premature fall 
may be due to physiological causes, connected with sub-soil moisture, 
soil aeration, drainage, manure and the peculiar susceptibility of the 
particular variety or varieties of cotton to this cause. 

The damaged seeds become light and somewhat discoloured. In a 
few localities where cotton cultivation is much advanced and the cultiva- 
tors are intelligent enough to safeguard the loss of time and money, the 
seeds are tested prior to sowing. They are roughly rubbed with the 
hands previously moistened with a mixture of cowdung and well sifted 
earth. This has the effect of removing the lint or adhering it to the seeds. 
Thus given a preliminary treatment they are thrown in a tub of water. 
Any that float on the top are rejected, those that sink in the water are 
taken out, pickled again with a mixture of cowdung and earth, well 
rubbed with hand and aerated in shade. Thus some rough and ready 
selection of seeds is done but is not very satisfactory. What is required, 
is a better method of prevention of the loss and selection of the seed, 
so as to raise its vitality so as to produce plants which would throw off 
the attack of the insect pests or minimize it to such an extent that it 
will not be felt appreciably. 

Hitherto only one species of the bug, Oxycarenus Icetus, has been 
noticed by me, but there are records in previous Indian literature wherein 
Oxycarenus luguhris has been recorded from Serin ■ ■> atam, Lahore 




Nagpur, Baroda and Ceylon. I am nob sare of the sp83i83 of Oj)yjaren^is 
occnrring on cotton in Ceylon but the Indian speoies seejis to be Ojcjsa- 
renus Icetus. 

The adults as well as the nymphs freely move about the cotton plant, 
more so in the bolls. They attack the cotton seed for the sake of the 
mucilaginous matter within them. If, however, an aSected seed is cut 
open and examined, it will be found discoloured within. If the lint 
be digested, and the coating of the shell examined under high power, 
it will be found to contain a number of very fine holes, probably the 
pricks made by the rostrum of the bug. It moves about freely in the 
bolls and the seeds in bolls are pricked by a number of adults passing 
the half-opened bolls. It has wings but they do not seem to be functional. 
It runs fast and seldom uses them for flight. 

The eggs are laid in the lint of the half-opened bolls, between the 
calyx and the boll, but when the egg laying is at its maximum, eggs may 
also be seen laid at random on the bolls, the flowers and flower and leaf 
buds. The eggs are laid either singly or in small clusters varying from 
two or three to eighteen, the largest number of eggs as yet found in a 
cluster. An occasional count of the eggs in various clusters found on the 
lint and the parts of the boll was — 

No. of eggs 










in a cluster. 


















The eggs when freshly laid are whitish turning to pale and bright 
pink prior to hatching of the nymph. 

Egg six days after oviposition. — The eggs lie loose on the surface of 
the pods {Ahutilon indicum). Each egg is 1-05 mm. to 1-14 mm. long, 
•30 to '33 mm. broad. It is elongate cylindrical, tapering at both ends, 
colour pale yellow. The chorion is smooth though with fine, longitudinal 
lines. At one end are two bright spots representing the eyes. There 
are two bright pinkish spots in the abdominal region, about two-thirds 
from the head-end. In some specimens when the chorion of the egg- 
shell is suffused with a pinkish colour these spots are not discernible. 

Eggs eleven days after oviposition. — Each egg is 1-05 mm. long and 
•30 to -33 mm. broad, bright pale orange in colour, the chorion being 
striated with fine longitudinal lines. These are visible under high power 
only. Two bright red spots at one end mark the position of the eyes of 
the nymph within ; a little above the region of these spots are two small 
tubercles visible only under high power. 

The nymph as it comes out of the egg is a grotesque little creature 
with prominent antennae and rostrum which extends beyond the abdo- 
men. It is when the nymph has fed for some time that the rostrum 
recedes and comes up to the middle of the abdomen ventrally. 

A nymph six days after hatching. — Length -54 mm. long, greatest 
breadth over abdomen -30 mm., shiny, slaty brown, eyes bright pinkish. 
Head, thorax and legs concolorous, shiny brown. Head pointed 
anteriorly. Prothorax about twice as long as the following two seg- 
ments, legs stramineous yellow, tarsal joints two with claws sharp and 
curved. Antennae 4-jointed ; first shortest, second and third sub-equal, 
fourth the longest ; joints 1 to 3 pale stramineous, fourth dark crimson. 
Abdominal segments 9 distinct, basal segments dull white, second and 
third transversely suffused with bright pink ; fourth and fifth pale 
stramineous ; sixth to ninth transversely sufTused with bright pink ; anal 
segment small, pointed caudad, dark stramineous. Ventrally the rostrum 
reaches the penultimate segment. Under high power the antennae 
appear thinly hairy with the antennal sensilla concentrated in the apical 
joint. Tip of rostrum dark fuscous. The anterior femur has two 
faint spines, one larger than the other. 

A nymph moulting to emerge as an adult. — The exuvium remains 
attached to the posterior end of the abdomen. The front, the vertex., 
the ocelli, the prothorax, scutellum, base of rostrum, scape of antennae, 
the apical joint of antennae, femora bright red, compound eyes black. 
Second, third joints of antennae, base of apical joint of antenna, tibiae 
and tarsal joints and rostrum white. Tarsal claws and pulvilli black, 



Mr Ballard. 

Mr. Misra. 
Mr. Thaveri. 

coriam and connexivum brownisli white, membrane translucent witli the 
veins prominent. 

The total period of a life cycle during the winter extends from 36 to 
50 days. 

Eggs laid . . 
Eggs hatched 
Adults emerged 

Eggs laid . 
Eggs hatched 
Adults emerged 

9th November 1920. 

14th November 1920. 

15th December 1920=36 days. 

14th November 1920. 
20th November 1920. 
3rd January 1921 = 50 days. 

In one case under specific observation the copulation was found 
to take place 20 days after the emergence of the adults during the winter. 

DimoT'pJiism. — This has been found to occur both in adults and 
nymphs. In several instances the same nymph was found to have three 
joints in the left antenna and four in the other. In some adults the 
same was also seen to happen. 

Distribution. — The bug has been reported from Cawnpore, Madras, 
Pusa, Bagpur, Belgaum, Manjri, Surat, Poona, Lyallpore, Sargoda, 
Hissar, Calcutta, Gojra, Coimbatoie and Saidapet. But it is possible 
that it occurs in all the cotton growing tracts in India. 

Foodplants. — It has been hitherto found or reported on : — 


Hibiscus esculentus. 

,, cannabiyius. 

,, abelmoscus. 
Abutilon indicum. 
Thespesia sp. 

Parasites and predators. — Hitherto I have not seen any parasite on 
the eggs, nymphs or adults. On one occasion the small Anthocorid bug, 
Triphleps tantilus, was seen to attack the nymphs of Oxycarenus latus 
on cotton at Pusa. 

I do not think Oxycarenus is responsible in South India for boll and 
bud fall, which is caused by boll-worms. A certain amount of destruc- 
tion is caused by a small Capsid. Dysdercus is a rarity with us. 

In our record which we have been keeping for the past several years 
I have not come across any instance of damage due to a Capsid bug. 

Oxycarenus occurs in Gujarat but does not cause bud or boll-fall. 


Oxycarenus is never found on buds or green bolls. Only old and Mr. Ghosh. 

opened bolls are found to be infested with it. I would not include it as a 


It is a pest when squashed into the lint in the gins. Mr. Fletcher, 

About a month ago I saw it in buds but not in large numbers. Mr. Ballaid. 

From the very large numbers in which it is present, if it is a pest Mr. Husain.' 
it ought to ruin the whole crop. I think that most of these insects do not 
cause damage by sucking or fungus injection, but by their salivary 

In the West Indies a Dysdercus injects bacteria.. I rather suspect Mr. Ballard. 
the Capsid I mentioned of doing this. 

We seem to know very little of the effect of the sucking of these Mr. Fletcher. 
bugs on the vitality of the seed by its attack. Experiments which we 
carried out on these lines were inconclusive. 

I should have thought mature seed too hard to suck. Mr. Ballard. 

We could not keep Oxycarenus alive artificially on green or dry seeds. Mr. Ghosh. 

I was in St. Vincent when Cotton Stainer {Dysdercus sp.) was a serious ^^' Hutson. 
pest. It was found that these bugs could puncture bolls up to full size, 
and carried a fungus which rotted the seeds. It was controlled by eradi- 
cating the alternative food-plants, Eriodendron and other Malvaceae. 
There was a campaign throughout the Island ; 10,000 Eriodendron trees 
and thousands of other trees were cut down. Now the bug is com- 
pletely under control. Cotton is compulsorily pulled up and there is a 
close season of two months. In Ceylon we grow very little cotton, from 
150 to 200 acres only, but steps are being taken to increase the acreage, 
and there is sure to be trouble with pests. Dysdercus cingulatus does 
damage, also Nysius ceylanicus and Oxycarenus on open bolls. There 
is no record of the percentage of damage. Pink boll-worm is well 
established and measures against it will have to be taken. E arias fahia 
is present. 

Regarding the nature of the damage done by Capsids in feeding, * •'^"^^ews. 
I think mechanical injury is small, but in the case of Helojpeltis theivora 
the saliva contains an enzyme which produces reactions in the plant 
juices which cause precipitation of part of their contents, which the bug 
sucks, leaving the other constituents. This causes a decrease in con- 
centration of solutions at the point of attack, and, by the laws of osmotic 
pressure, a flow of substances to the area around the seat of injury, the 
area around the. puncture being denuded of these substances. With 
regard to fungi and bacteria, after the proboscis is removed there is an 
exudation of sap at the point of puncture. The spores in the air get in 
by settling on this juice and thence to the seed sap. This is how the 



Mr. Htisain. 

Sir. Andrews. 
Mr. Sen. 

Mr. Andrews." 

Mr. Sen. 

Tea-seed bug infects the seed. The fungus is an ordinary Penicillium. 
Mr. Misra suggests germination tests to discover the amount of damage, 
but these would prove nothing. In the case of the Tea-seed bug germina- 
tion results of attacked seed showed results of from 100 per cent, to 40 
per cent.; the percentage of germination is purely accidental, depending 
on the course taken by the fungus in growth and on the position of the 
puncture, also of the time since this was made. If only the cotyledons 
are infected, the seed germinates and you get a plant, but if the fungus 
has attacked the growing point, you do not. Tests only show the damage 
done by the accidental growth of the fungus to the growing point. The 
dark discoloured area around a puncture is due to precipitation by the 

I found that these areas were caused by cork formation. 

Cork forms eventually, but at first there is precipitation. 

Could it not be a definite compound and not an enzyme which causes 
precipitation ? In the human saliva; the chief enzyme, Ptyalin, converts 
starch into sugar. Is it not more likely that the action of the enzyme 
in the insect saliva should be associated with similar conversion ? 

Whatever is injected behaves as an enzyme ; it starts a reaction and 
carries it on. Many enzymes are chemical compounds of which we 
do not know the formula. In this case, whatever it is, its action is enzy- 
matic and goes on after the insect has departed. You cannot say a 
thing of unl^nown composition is not a chemical compound. 

I thought, in practice, the line of demarcation between definite 
chemical compounds and enzymes was considered sharp. 



By T. N. Jhaveri, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

The species of boll-worms that are so common in Gujarat are the 
spotted ones, E arias Jabia and E. insulana. Of these two, fabia is much 
more prevalent than the other. The Pink Boll-worm, which is so common 
in the Madras Presidency on Cambodia cotton, is not found here doing 
any perceptible damage to the crop. It generally appears about the last 
picking of cotton in summer, while this Jabia, which is so common in 
Gujarat, specially in Surat and Broach districts, where the Herbaceum 
type of cotton is so largely grown, takes a heavy toll of the outturn by 
attacking the crop in all its stages. In the seedling stage of the crop 
young tender shoots are being bored and killed. In some years more 
than 50 per cent, of young cotton plants are found being bored and 
damaged ; but this is not being noticed and seriously taken care of by 
the raiyat, as they do not think it worth while because at that time only 
the tops are being pruned, which the raiyat would have been obliged to 
do later on to stop tall growth of the crop and stimulate more branching 
on the side. Later on, as season advances, early bearings of the crop 
are seriously affected. Young buds, flowers and early developed small 
bolls are found infected and one notices a large number of boll- worm 
attack in shedded buds and flowers. 

For the purpose of controlling them, as well as to find out their exact 
relation with the shedding of flower-buds either due to this or to the 
climatic conditions, some trials were made, the results of which are as 
under : — The control measures, that were tried, were (1) the use of Bhinda 
crop (Ladies' finger, H. esculentus) as a trap round about the cotton area, 
and (2) the removal of afliected young shoots of cotton with boll-woims. 
As for the. first it has been found that wherever the Bhinda crop thrived 
well, it successfully entrapped this boll-worm and prevented it from going 
to the cotton crop. In the year 1912, a small patch of Bhinda crop, 
about 3 to 4 Gundhas in the kitchen garden at Nadiad Farm, was found 
badly infested with this boll-worm in the month of September. About 
80 per cent, of the plants and 50 per cent, of the pods were attacked. 
These were removed and this greatly helped in controlling the pest from 
going to the cotton area which was near by. Similar trials of controll- 

( 93 ) 


ing them were made at Jalgaon Farm in East Khandesh continuously 
for three years during the season. Here the cotton area being very 
large, this trap crop was grown round about it on the border, which 
very effectively attracted and entrapped the pest from going to the 
cotton area and also realised a fairly good amount by the sale of surplus 
Bhinda pods as a vegetable in the market. 

At Dohad Government Farm, where cotton is a new introduction, 
Bhinda was sown as a trap for boll- worm during the last season, which 
also effectively checked the pest and got in all 1,404 lbs. of pods, 
the sale of which realised a very good amount as a catch crop. 

As for the second control of removing affected shoots of cotton by 
pruning, it has been found that in the year 1914, at Nadiad Farm, when 
the appearance of boll-worm was not much in the beginning of July the 
cost of pruning and removing such affected shoots came to about one 
anna per acre for an attack of about 2| per cent. Later on, about the 
middle of July, the cost of removing the pest for the second time came 
to about 0-6-3 per acre for an attack of about 6 per cent. At the timic 
of the third removal of the affected tops in the first week of August 
when the attack had gone to 10 per cent., the cost per acre came to about 
0-9-2. One more thing was noticed about the caterpillars of this is 
that in the season of 1919, being a subsequent year after famine, the 
attack of this boll- worm was very severe. More than 50 per cent, 
of the bolls on the plant in the majority of cases were found infested 
with this about the end of November 1919 at Broach and in the beginning 
of January 1920 at Surat. But the untimely heavy cyclonic rain and 
chill, completely changed the aspect of the pest. Immediately after 
the cessation of this rain, it was found on examination of al.ected 
bolls on the plant that in almost all cases the caterpillars were found 
lying dead on them with an exudation of greenish-yellow fluid at the 
mouth of an aperture. Some fungus growths were also found on the 
body of these worms which led one to believe that they died due either 
to some Bacterial or Fungoid disease, for there were no Hymenopterous 
and other parasites present to bring about such a mortality in the worms. 

As to the second problem of shedding of young flower-buds either 
due to boll-worms or climatic conditions, it has been observed that in 
the month of November 1920, the highest record due to boll- worms was 
of 27 per cent, and the lowest' 11 per cent., while taking the average it 
came to about 17 per cent. That, which was caused due to climate and 
other environments, was 10 per cent, the highest, and 3 per cent, the 
lowest ; while 5| per cent, the average for this very month. Similarly 
in the month of December 1920, the highest record due to boll-worms 
was 13 per cent, and the lowest 3 per cent, while that was due to climatic 


conditions, tlie highest shedding was of 45 per cent, and the lowest 18 
per cent. In January 1921, that is in the last month, the shedding clue 
to boll-worm throughout the whole month was nil, while that duo to 
climate and other factors, the highest was 37 per cent, and the lo^J est 
9 per cent. 

It has been also observed that in the month of November, when 
we have got the highest record of shedding due to boll-worm attack up 
to 27 per cent., a large number of moths of Farias fabia was found 
hovering in the experimented area during the early part of the morning 
and evening and sitting quietly on plants in couples, from whence they 
were easily caught by hand. About 182 fabia moths were captured in 
this way during the month from a small plot of about 4 Gunthas. 



By T. N. Jhaveri, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Botnbaij. 

These mites are specially more prevalent on the Herbaceum variety 
of cotton grown in Surat and Broach Districts of Gujarat. In verna- 
cular this disease is known as Clihasia on account of the ash-like appear- 
ance of afEected leaves. In a year of drought it spreads over a very 
large area, and checks the vigorous growth of the plant. The affected 
leaves remain smaller in size and curl up. Later on in December and 
January the disease appears to be checked and the plant becomes some- 
what healthier, which is believed due to the falling of dew in winter. 

These mites are very microscopic and not readily visible to the naked 
eye. They mostly live under the tissues of the epidermis of the leaf and 
cause a growth of dense whitish hairs, on the upper and lower surface 
of leaves as well as on stems. This whitish growth is due to the formation 
of hairs from the epidermal tissue of leaves and stems brought about by 
the irritation of these mites. 

Later on in the advanced stage of the crop small tiny predaceous 
grubs of Coccinellid beetles are noticed in the colonies of these mites. 
These are also small and somewhat elongated and of a pale rosy colour. 

On carefully examining them under a lens these are seen to move 
actively inside the meshes and to toss their head here and there in search 
of their prey. 

Wherever the presence of these grubs is noticed, the colonies of mites 
gradually dwindle away and the white fluffy growths of the epidermal 
tissues of leaves turn pale yellow and appear to dry up. 

As for the control measure of the pest some trials were made. In 
the year 1917 towards Khandesh side, where the Neglectum type of 
cotton is grown and rarely these mites are found in any appreciable 
amount, there they appeared rather in a severe form in that year. The 
reason for that appeared to be that, in that year they had a very long 
break in the rains for nearly two months in July and August which 
caused the plants to suffer too much from drought. In that year, some 
experiments of topping and irrigation were made in a cultivator's field 
at Ner, District Dhulia. On examining the crop in the month of Septem- 
ber, it was noticed that those plants, whose tops were nipped ofi to 

( 96 ) 


check tlie tall growth, and to stimulate the side branches, had in fact no 
appearance and attack of these mites, while those adjoining rows of 
plants whose tops were not pruned had a severe attack of mites. 
Secondly, those which received irrigation from the stream were al- 
together immune in comparison with the unirrigated plots where these 
mites were very abundant. From this it leads us to believe that mois- 
ture in soil plays a very important part in controlling this pest. 

Some trials of spraying the crop with Lime and Sulphur solution were 
also made. No doubt the spray had an effect of controlling these mites. 
However it caused the shedding of leaves due to the caustic effect of 
lime, though very dilute solutions were used, but later on the sprayed 
rows grew well and had a better yield of the crop than the adjoining 
unsprayed ones. 

The dusting of Lime and Sulphur as well as spraying the crop with 
Incosopol and Sulphur were tried but it did not seem to make a material 
difference with the control plots. 

Lastly a trial of steeping the seed before sowing in mercury 'per- 
chloride solution was made. It was done as under : — 

First, good, • well-developed and plump seeds were sorted out from 
the lot of seeds supplied for the experiment. Thereafter, the fuzz of 
the selected lot of sorted out seeds was removed by rubbing on a stony 
floor. For preparing the solution, a weighed quantity of mercury per- 
chloride was taken in the proportion of 1 in 500 parts of water. First 
the corrosive sublimate was dissolved in some quantity of hot water 
and then diluted to the required strength of cold water. After 
making the solution ready in this way in a glass jar, as much quantity 
of cotton seed as could accommodate easily and float in that water was 
shoved in and thoroughly mixed with the solution. In this condition 
the seed was allowed to remain for ten minutes. Thereafter it was 
taken out and spread under shade for drying. Before sowing the seed 
in the field, germinating tests of different strengths of mercury per- 
chloride solutions were made in the laboratory. After having ascertained 
that and treating the seed with the above strength of solution, the plots 
reserved for this experiment were sown with them. The germination 
of the seed and after-development of the plant were very excellent in 
comparison with the control and other plots of the Farm area. 

When the crop became two months old. Woolly Mites began to appear. 
In the treated plot, the percentage of disease was about -4: to -5 per cent, 
while in the untreated plots it was 3 per cent, and even more. 

The removal of first affected leaves was also tried, which was very 
helpful in checking the further progress of the pesb. 


By T. N. Jhaveei, L.Aa., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

The species which is so prevalent in N. Gujarat is Amsacta moorei. 
It seems to have taken a firm hold in certain tracts of the light Goradu 
soil and appears to move slowly from west to east, that is, towards the 
prevailing direction of the wind in the beginning of the monsoon. 

Regarding the habits of the pest, it has been noticed that they are 
usually not found to breed and appear as pest in the tracts of heavy 
black soil. This, I thinlc, is mainly due to the unfavomabl^ condition 
of the soil produced by natural heavy cracking of the soil surface dming 
summer, as well as by more retension of moisture dming rainy days. 
In the tract where this pest appears as a pest, their moths begin to emerge 
from their hibernating pupse in soil, in the beginning of the early favour- 
able monsoon. By this I mean about 8 inches of good rain in the first 
week of June and soaking of the soil to a depth of about 4 inches or so. 
If the monsoon is delayed for about three weeks or a month, the emer- 
gence of moths is not very hea^7 in that year. At the same time early 
rains in May are also not favourable for the successful emergence of these 


The time of greatest emergence of these moths is chiefly at night till 
midnight during the break and partly in the evening and rarely during 
the day. This continues for about a week or twelve days depending 
upon the break in rains and they are greatly attracted to burning lamps 
and lights at night. 

The distinction of sexes is rather easy in this case. The female is 
^ inches lon^^, bigger and thicker in size with a distinct round fleshy 
ball at the orifice of the generative organ, which is absent in males. 
The male is about half-an-inch long, lean and small in size, with a slight 
projection of the last anal segment. After emerging, the couples unite 
and a female moth lays about 700 eggs in clusters of 200 to 300 on the 
seedlinc^s of the early sown crops or their favourite weeds and hedge 
plants." These eggs hatch in a period of three to four days. The young 
tiny caterpillars remain feeding on their food plants for a period of about 
four days, thereafter they scatter and devour the crops and weeds which 
come in their way. In this way they become fullgrown in a period of 
about 20 to 24 days and the size of a fullgrown caterpillar measiu-es up 

( 9S ) 



to 2| inclies long. At that time the majority of fully developed worms 
are seen to go towards boundaries of fields and disappear in ground. 
Principally there is only one brood in a year. The second brood is rare 
and if it appears, it is small and not so harmful to the crop. The favourite 
foodplants of the pest are as under : Amongst cultivated crops, the 
following are badly infested : — 

1. Sann. 

2. Maize. 

3. Til. 

4. Castor. 

5. Mung, Urid and Val. 

6. Bajri and Banta. 

7. Cotton, if sown early. 

Amongst weeds and hedge plants, they principally attack the following :^ 

1. Thoria — Euphorbia nereifolia (Cactus plant on Nadiad side). 

2. Arni — a hedge plant. 

3. Chida grass — Cynodon dactylon. 

4. Kathmibdi (a Cucurbit weed on Dohad side). 

In short, the above are the principal points of their life history habits 
and foodplants. Having considered these, I now come to the vital 
subject of controlling this pest, the results of which are as under : 

At Nadiad Government Farm, where this pest had firmly established 
I started a regular crusade against it for a period of six years from 

1. The first and foremost measure that was adopted against this 
pest was of putting light-traps in fields during the emergence of these 
moths for the purpose of entrapping them. This was continued for a 
period of six years under my personal supervision. The results of each 
year are tabulated below : — 

A statement shoiving the catches of Katra moths hy light-traps caught on 
Nadiad Farm in a period of six years. 

Number of moths trapped. 


Number of 

Number of 




19 H . 


No distinction was made between 
the sexes this year. The traps 
were ordinary hurricane lan- 
terns with a 2 feet square and 4 
inches high tin dish with water 
and kerosine film at the surface. 



A Statement showing the catches of Katra moths hy lignt-traps caught on 
Nadiad Farm in a feriod of six years — contd. 








Number of 

Number of 




1912 . 




One Kitson light trap in two nights 
caught about 3,297 moths and 
the greater number was of 
females loaded with eggs(2,S09 ? ) 

1913 . 




Ordinary hurricane light traps 
were used. 

19U . 




Put traps for a fortnight. In two 
nights about 500 female moths 
were caught at a Kitson light 
trap. The egg-laying was very 
little hence a very slight ap- 
pearance of caterpillars. 

1915 . 




This was a year of partial famine 
and late and deficient rainfall. 
The first rain was of about J 
inch on 26th June 1915. 

1916 . 




This year the moths emerged in 
two batches (1) from 17th to 
25th June and (2) from 17 th to 
26th July due to a long interval 

of break in rains. 

From the above statement, it will be notice:! that the number of moths 
went on decreasing year after year ; side by side the egglaying and their 
hatchinof decreased to such an extent that there was in fact no perceptible 
appearance of Katra caterpillars in the year 1916. Thereafter from 
1917, till the last monsoon of 1920, that is, in a period of the last four 
years, no more light traps were put in that area and no report of the 
appearance of Katra caterpillars was received from that direction. 

2. The second controlling measure that was being tried for them 
wtis of catching these moths alive in the evening by engaging young 
boys and girls. In this way the following number of moths were caught : — 

Number of moths entrapped. 


Number of 

Number of 



1912 . 

1914 . 

1915 . 




These were collected from an area 
of 50 acres in four days. 

These were collected from the same 
area in eight days. 



From the above record it will be seen that the emergence of these 
moths in the evening did not occur so much as it used to be at night. 

3. The third measure that was adopted was of searching and collect- 
ing their egg-masses from their favourite food plants during the egg- 
laying period of these moths which will be seen from the f ollowin'^' table : 


Number of 





These were collected in four days froin 



an area of 50 acres and each mass 
contained about 500 eggs. 
This collection of eggmasses cost 0-0-6 



per acre. 




4. The fourth measure which was taken as the pest advanced in the 
stage was of the collection and destruction of the caterpillars by several 

(a) The first ordinary commonsense contrivance was of the collection 
of small and big caterpillars by handpicking. la this way, in the year 
1911, 282| lbs. of caterpillars were collected and destroyed which num- 
bered nearly 855,260 worms at a cost of 0-9-6 per acre and this was the 
first year of the experiment and that of the heaviest and greatest emer- 
gence of moths and caterpillars. 





Weight of 


2821 855,260 



No perceptible appearance of 

of worms. 



Handpicked by hand which cost 0-8-6 per 

Ditto. ditto. 

These were jjartly handpicked and mainly 
collected bj^ sweeping a grasshopper bag 
over the crop and in grass on boundaries 
which cost 0-3-3 per acre. 


In the year 1912 about 50 lbs. of caterpillars were similarly collected 
and destroyed. 

(b) In the third year (1913) another cheap and effective contrivance 
of collecting these caterpillars by sweeping a grasshopper bag over low 
crops as well as in grass over boundaries was introduced, which collected 
from an area of about 8 acres, 30 lbs, of caterpillars at a cost of 0-3-3 
per acre in comparison with that of handpicking which cost 0-8-6 per 
acre to collect that much quantity from the equal area. 

(c) Another contrivance of preventing these caterpillars from getting 
from one field to another by means of simple trenching was tried but this 
did not prove successful owing to the following reasons. First the 
advance making of the trench in summer by hand digging proved very 
costly in light Goradu soil with subsequent fear of its being breached 

-and filled with earth at each shower of heavy rain. It cost nearly Rs. 3 
for making it round about a plot of an acre with a trench of 1 foot deep 
and 1 foot 6 inches broad at the surface with sides sloping. But instead 
of that if a trench is being made by means of an iron G-allom or Turnwrest 
plough in the beginning of the monsoon after about 4 to 5 inches of rain 
have fallen, it can be very easily made at a very low cost with a slight 
repair of the same. Such a trench was made in the year 1914 round 
about a plot of 3 acres of Bajri and Kadra crop at Nadiad. This was 
being made by means of a CT2 plough with two pairs of bullocks. It 
measured 1,524 feet in length, 10 inches broad and 6 inches deep and 
required about 20 minutes to make it. By a heavier plough it could be 
made still deeper and broader. However the caterpillars entering such 
an empty trench from its one side will very easily crawl over it and 
go to the other side. To prevent them from doing so, if the bottom 
of the trench is strewn with Cactus leaves, green weeded stuff and 
grass in the evening, they remain in the trench partly feeding and 
partly concealed under it, from whence they could be easily picked 
up and destroyed in the morning. 

(d) Spraying trials of Lead Chromate, Lead Arsenate and London 
Purple were made of different strengths but these did not seem to respond 
very well and in stronger doses of London Purple even with an admixture 
of quicklime, it used to scorch the leaves. The following strength of 
insecticide was used : — 

Lead arsenate paste or powder . . . . , 1 to 2 oz. 

Jaggery . , . , , , . . , 6 oz. 

Quicklime . . . . . . . . 3 oz. 

Water ......... 4: gallons. 

The above strength of the solution was prepared and a crop of Sann 
■was sprayed with it as well as the leaves of the same crop were dipped iij 


that solution and given to two dozen caterpillars to eat in a breeding cage. 
Next morniig on examining the sprayed crop, no dead caterpillars were 
found in the area nor did caterpillars appear to eat the leaves. While 
in a breeding cage out of two dozen worms, about 1 to 2 caterpillars 
were found dead, while the rest were alive and the leaves were found 
slightly nibbled in some cases. In the case of London purple, the 
following trial was made on a small scale in the field as well as in the 
insectary : Half to once ounce of London purple with 4 gallons of water 
and with or without admixture of lime were tried. The effect of spraying 
in the field was not favourable, as no dead caterpillars were found in 
the sprayed area nor leaves were eaten except very slightly in some 
cases. The spray had also some effect of scorching the tips of leaves. 
In the insectary duplicate series of one dozen caterpillars were taken 
and each lot was given Sann leaves to eat, dipped in the following 
strength of solution : — 

London purple . . . . . . . . J oz. 

Quicklime . . . . . . . . 1 oz. 

Water . .4 gallons. 

Next morning on examining the cages, 10 and 9 worms were found dead 
in each cage respectively, and the leaves were also found slightly scorched 
at the tips. 

(e) The poison baits of the following materials were found rather 
successful : — 

Wheat bran ......... 10 

Jaggery i 

White arsenic ......... i 

...... 4 

Water 9 

Small baits (one teaspoonful of the above stuff) were put at short 
intervals at the foot of castor and other crops. The caterpillars were 
noticed to eat these baits readily in large numbers and died on the spot. 
In a breeding cage the above baits were given to 25 caterpillars. Next 
day, 19 of them died and the 3rd day the remaining ones died. But 
these baits could be only used in the advanced stage of the caterpillars 
while they are actively moving on the ground. The other point which 
is to be marked in this case is that as long as these baits remain moist in 
the field, the caterpillars ate them ; but after drying, they did not seem 
to touch these. 

The last controlling measure which was being tried for this pest was 
of digging and collecting from suspected places, the hibernating pupae. 
In this way during the fair season of 1911 about 1,195 pupae were dug out 
from the soil and collected. These were found mostly buried along the 

H 2 


boundaries of affected fields, as well as in waste lands and undisturbed 
hedges to a varying depth of 3 to 4 inches, 

Mr. Subramanlam. Were the light- traps and handpicking tried in the same place ? This 

might account for the lessened numbers got by handpicking. 
Mr. Jhaveri, Both experiments were conducted in the same place. 


(Plates XVI— XXV.) 

By C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant Entomologist, Burma {lately Assistant 
to the Imperial Entomologist). 

[The information contained in the following paper was collected 
whilst Mr. Ghosh was Insectary Assistant at Pusa, between February 
1919 and September 1920, when he was transferred to Burma. The 
work at Pusa on Borers was initiated by me and has throughout been 
carried on under my close supervision and is to be considered as a part 
of the activities of the Entomological Section as a whole. I have, 
however, been too busy in other directions to be able to spare time 
to collaborate in writing up these notes, other than editing for press, 
and therefore Mr. Ghosh's name appears as sole author of this paper, 
which should be considered as a supplement to our former paper on this 
subject. — T. Bainbrigge Fletcher.] 


Since the first paper (Borers in sugarcane, rice, etc., Proc. Third 
Entl. Meeting, February 1919) was written, a further mass of informa- 
tion has been collected on these very important pests. During this 
period there have been opportunities of getting a better idea of the 
external agents of damage and a more correct estimate of their acti- 
vities as pests. As will appear later on, some of them are capable of 
doing far greater damage and that in a much shorter time than probably 
all the internal borers taken together. A few more internal borers 
also have come to light and fresh alternative food plants of several 
borers have been discovered. Therefore additions have been necessary 
to the list of borers and food plants and a change in the key for differen- 
tiating the pupse. The order of treatment in the first paper is followed, 
additions being made where necessary. The key given in this paper 
for pupae therefore supersedes that in the first paper. Illustrations of 
some of the insects included in the first paper were mislaid while the 
paper was going through the press and have been added in this paper. 
This paper, however, does not treat of the insects already dealt with 
in the first paper beyond giving more information in respect of some 

( 105 ) 



of them, and should be considered as supplementary to the latter 

The EXTERNAL Agents of damage. 
The external agents of damage should be grouped as follows : — 

(1) Termites, commonly knowTi as " White ants." 

(2) Mole Crickets. 

(3) Beetle grubs. 

(4) Beetles. 

(5) Ked Ants (Dorylus). 

There is hardly anything of importance to add with regard to 
Mole Crickets and Red Ants {Dorylus). 

With regard to termites, another year's cultivation of cane in the 
area in the Brickfield between the treated and untreated plots experi- 
mented upon in 1918 (see Plate 69 of First Paper) exhibited similar 
difierences in the degree of infestation as recorded in the first paper. 
For the purpose of ascertaining as clearly as possible the damage by 
termites this plot was divided into five smaller plots. Analyses of the 
soils of the first of these small plots (counting from the east), which 
showed the least and of the fifth plot, which showed the greatest 
damage, exhibited slight differences in the constituents of the soils 
as given below. No experiments on the basis of these differences have 
yet been made. 

Surface soil, 

Surface soil. 

sugarcane Plot 

sugarcane Plot 

No. 1 showing 

No. 5 showing 

least damage by 

greatest damage 

white ants. 

by white ants 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 




Alumina Al.,0.; 



Ferric Oxide FI.3O, . 



Manganese Oxide MnzOi 



Lime Ca 



Magnesia MgO 



Potash K.,0 . 






Phosphoric acid P0O5 



Carbon Dioxide CO 2 



Sulphuric acid SO3 . 



Loss on ignition 

1 1-69 




Organic Nitrogen ...... 



Available Potash KjO ..... 



Available Phosphoric acid P0O5 .... 



peoceediisgs of the fourth entomological meeting 107 

Beetle grubs. 

Beetle grubs and beetles have been grouped separately for the reason 
that the grubs themselves may prove to be injurious in some cases, 
the resultant beetles not causing any appreciable damage. Recently 
in 1920 there was a report of serious damage to a young maize crop 
in Belgaum caused by the grubs of Phyllognathus dionysius. Some 
years ago, in 1906, from the same place there was a report of similar 
damage to young paddy plants by the same grubs. But the beetles 
have not been reported to behave as pests there. On the other hand, 
enormous damage was done in 1919 to about 500 acres of sugarcane 
in the Kamrup Farm in Assam by Alissonotum impressicolle beetles 
and not by the grubs. Also such damage cannot be caused by grubs. 

The giubs of the following beetles have been observed to cause 
damage to gramineous plants, in some cases bringing about dead-hearts 
exactly like the internal borers : — 

Anomala bengalensis. The larva gnawed sugarcane shoots at Pusa 
and Dacca in the field and bored into sugarcane setts in the 

Alissonotum picevm. — The larva gnawed into sugarcane shoots at 
Pusa in the field and bored sugarcane setts in the Insectary. 

The grubs of the following have been observed to live in the soil 
among the roots of gramineous plants, apparently feeding on the roots, 
and some of them are reported to cause rather serious damage in this 

Autosericainsanabilis, Brenske. Larva among sugarcane, lemon, 

soybean and castor roots. 
Apogonia proxima, Waterh. Larva among SaccJiarum spontaneum 
* roots. 

Unidentified Melolonthid (C. S. 1797). Larva among SaccJianim 

spontaneum roots at Pusa. 
Anomala polita, Blanch. Larva among rice and grass roots at 

Pusa, Muzaffarpur and Nadia, and also in leaf mould at Pusa. 
Anomala varicolor, Gyll. Larva among Saccharum spontaneum and 

oat roots at Pusa. 
Anomala biJiarensis, Arrow. Larva among sugarcane, Saccharum 

spontaneum and Ficus roots at Pusa. 
Anomala dussumieri, Bl. Larva among sugarcane roots in the 

Kamrup Farm in Assam. 
Adoretus versutus, Har. Larva among sugarcane and oat roots at 

Pusa. (Plate XVI, fig. 1.) 


Adore'us caliginosus, Burm. Larva among rice, sugarcane, grass 

and Saccharum spontaneum roots at Pusa. 
Alissonotum simile, Arrow. Larva among sugarcane roots at 

Pentodon bispinifrons (C. S. 768). — Larva among sugarcane roots 

at Pusa. (Plate XVI, fig. 2.) 
Pentodon bengalense, Arr. Larva among sugarcane roots at Pusa. 
PhyUognathus dionysius, Fb. Larva reported causing serious 

damage to young paddy and maize crops at Belgaum. 
Rhijssemus germanus (C. S. 1204). Larva among Mooiha and 

indigo roots at Pusa. 
Rhyssemus sp. (C. S. 948). Larva among Mootha and cotton roots 

at Pusa. 
Apliodius sp. (C. S. 1327 and 1350). Larva among Mootha, rice 

and cotton roots at Pusa. 
Anomala sp. (C. S. 1314). Larva among Mootha roots at Pusa. 
Tanymecus hispidus, Mshll. Larva among sugarcane roots at 

Myllocerus blandus, Fst. Larva among sugarcane and maize roots 

at Pusa. 
Myllocerus discolor. Larva among sugarcane and maize roots at 

Myllocerus 11 — pustulatus. Larva among maize and cotton roots 

at Pusa. 
Amblyrrhinus poricollis. Larva among Saccharum spontaneum roots 

at Pusa. 
A few more Curculionid grubs. Among sugarcane and Maize roots. 
Nodostoma subcostatum, Jac. Larva among grass roots at Pusa. 
Pachnephorus impressus. Larva among maize roots at Pusa. 
Monolepta signata. Larva among sugarcane roots at Pusa. 
Unidentified Chrysomelid (C. S. 1640). Larva among sugarcane 

Formicomus caerulipennis. Larva among sugarcane roots. 

Drasterius sp. (C. S. 1211). Larva among wheat roots at Pusa. 
Carpophilus sp. (C. S. 1093). Larva among Panicum roots at 

Lordites sp.«(C. S. 1089). Larva among Panicum sp. at Pusa. 

To tlie above Tipulid and Asilid maggots found among grass and 
rice roots may be added. 

Page 108 


Fig. I.—Ailoretus versutus, Harold (magnified ; the 
smaller figure sliows the natural size). 

Fig. 2,—Pentodon hispinlfrotis (magnified ; the 
smaller figure shows the natural size). 

Fig. Z.—Heteronychus sablmvis (magnified ; the smaller figure shows the natural size). 

proceedings of the fourth entomological meeting 109 


The following beetles have been definitely observed to be capable 
of injuring gramineous plants in most cases with external symptoms 
similar to those caused by borers : — 

Oryctes rhinocerus gnawing sugarcane setts and shoots at Coimbatore 

and in Travancore. {South Indian Insects, p. 151). 
Xylotrupes gideon is known to attack sugarcane in this manner. 
AUssonotum itnpressicolle caused serious damage to sugarcane in 

the Kamrup Farm in Assam in April-May in 1919 by gnawing 

young shoots and boring into setts and ratoon stumps. It did 

similar damage to thick grasses also. 
AUssonotum piceum did similar damage as the above in the Kamrup 

Heteronychus sublcevis worked in company with the above two in 

the Kamrup Farm. (Plate XVI, fig. 3.) 
Heteronychus sacchari recorded to have caused extensive damage 

to sugarcane in Rangpur. (F. I. Coleopt. Lamellicornia, pt. I, 

p. 297). 
Pentodon bengalense, Arrow, gnawed into sugarcane shoots and 

setts in Tarnab Farm at Peshawar in May 1912. 
Pentodon bispinifrons recorded to have occurred on sugarcane at 

Baroda, apparently causing similar damage as the above. 
Phyllognathus dionysius reported to cut stems of young paddy 

plants in South Kanara. 
Autoserica sp. observed to gnaw into sugarcane shoots in March 

at Pusa. 
Apogonia proxima observed to live among the roots and feed on 

the shoots of Saccharum spontanemn at Pusa. 
Protcetia alboguttata observed at Pusa to feed similarly on Panicum 


The beetles named above work underground and feed as shown in 
our former Plate. Other beetles and weevils are known to feed on 
gramineous plants, usually eating leaves or new shoots. Although they 
may cause a set back to the growth of the plants they do not kill 
them. The following may be mentioned : — 

Tanymecus indicus is known to nibble wheat seedlings in the Punjab 
and juar {Andropogon sorghum) seedlings in Surat. 

Tanymecus hispidus occurred in large numbers in Messrs. Turner, 
Morrison & Co.'s sugarcane plantations in Cooch Behar. 

Tanymecus sciurus was observed by P. C. Sen to eat tender leaves 
of young sugarcane shoots at Rangpur. 


Myllocerus blandus is commonly found feeding on tender leaves of 
young sugarcane, maize, wheat, rice, etc. 

Myllocerus discolor and M. 11 — fustulatus also feed like M. blandus. 

Gonoce])lialum hofmannseggi, Steven., has been recorded as a pest 
of Eleusine coracana in Mysore, (Mysore Bull, No. 5, by Messrs. 
Coleman and Kunhi Kannan) . 

The Dynastine beetles may be looked upon as serious pests. Although 
they may not occur as regular pests they are capable of doing serious 
and extensive damage, as will appear from the following account of 
beetle pests in the sugarcane farm at Kamrup, Assam. 

The Kamrup Farm is situated in the midst of an extensive piece of 
waste land running along the base of the Bhutan Hills and having on 
it a thick and mixed growth of various kinds of tall grasses. About 
50,000 acres of this land is said to be capable of being rendered arable. 
The Farm has brought under cultivation about 800 acres divided into 
18 blocks, viz., 6 blocks of 60 acres, 2 blocks of 55 acres, one block of 
54 acres, 2 blocks of 42 acres, one block of 34 acres, 2 blocks of 30 acres, 
one block of 25 acres, one block of 16 acres, one block of 15 acres and 
one block of 11 acres. In 1919 there were 241 acres of plant cane and 
229 acres of ratoon cane. In the other plots Sesbania was being grown 
for green manuring. 

The sugarcane of the entire Farm was remarkably free from borers 
(5th to 15th May 1919). The damage was due entirely to three species 
of blacli beetles, viz., Alissonotum impressicolle, A. piceum and Hetei'ony- 
chus sublcBvis. They worked underground chewing and gnawing into 
the bases of young canes which in extreme cases were almost wholly 
cut across. Young buds which were somewhat grown but had not yet 
emerged out of the ground were also similarly destroyed. The 
beetles bored into setts and also into the bases of canes already 
formed. This form of damage to sugarcane by adult beetles on such 
a scale had never before been observed although sporadic cases 
were known as described above. 

The relative abundance of the three species can be judged from 
the number obtained of each out of a total collection cf 286 made at 
random in the second week of May 1919. 

Alissonotum impressicolle ....... 2G4 

,, piceum ........ 19 

Heteronychus sublcevis ........ 3 

They were first observed on the 10th April. They spread over the 
whole locality and the Farm area received its share. They did not 


come to sugarcane by choice. They were equally or rather more common 
among the grasses surrounding the Farm and also among the grasses 
growing on roads running between and bordering the various blocks. 
Similarly they were found among grasses growing in the blocks sown 
with Sesbania (Dhainclia). Among sugarcane also they were practi- 
cally equally prevalent in blocks which had good and apparently healthy 
crops, as in those which seemed to have suffered badly. 

Actually however a slight difference was observed in their distribu- 
tion in the difierent parts of the blocks. Parts where many shoots 
were growing had attracted more beetles. The beetles also seemed 
to be somewhat gregarious in habit. Among some ratoon stools as 
well as among some stools of the plant cane as many as 10, 15 or even 
20 beetles were present. Similarly among individual grass stools on 
the roads of the Farm as well as outside the Farm up to 34 beetles were 
observed to have congregated. The number of beetles in parts of tlie 
plant cane with poor and patchy germination was much less. But a 
single beetle was enough to kill the solitary shoots. Where gerniination 
was extremely poor the number of beetles was still less as there was 
hardly anything above ground to attract them. In such parts the 
setts were observed to have been bored by stray beetles here and there. 

It was evident that after having swarmed and spread once, the 
beetles did not migrate again from places where they happened to alight. 
It was ascertained by examination that many beetles were present 
underground in the South-eastern part of Block III. No hole could 
be observed in the surface of the soil which had been beaten down by 
rain. The surface was examined very carefully at night with lantern 
in hand. It was clear that no beetle was going out. 

The beetles were mainly attracted by and fed upon new and growing 
shoots. Among plant canes after having fed on the shoots they went 
into setts if they wanted to feed longer. Similarly among ratoons 
they did not attack the stumps unless forced to do so for want of growing 

The beetles fed for a short time after swarming and then they rested. 
They were not attracted to strong electric lights, nor to a bait of 
molasses, country liquor and ethyl acetate. 

The Farm was started in 1915 and from records of rainfall kept 
from April 1915 it was found that from February till October the rain 
was fairly well distributed in 1916, 1917 and 1918. In 1919 however 
there was hardly any rain till 5th April. 

The primary cause of the trouble was the droughty condition which 
prevailed up to 5th April. Parts of the Farm where the soil retained 


moisture of tlie previous year better liad a fair crop. When no moisture 
was retained germination was poor or extremely patchy. The sett 
canes in such parts lying near the surface within about two inches or 
less below the surface were affected by the drought and most were 
rotting. The beetles did not interfere with germination. They were 
common all over the Farm, in fact more common in parts which had 
a good to fair crop than in parts which had a peer crop. When the 
crop grew normally and tillered well the attack was hidden or rather 
the crop outgrew the attack. 

The beetles were not new to the locality. They breed among the 
grass roots. In previous years normal growth of the crop consequent 
on the normal climatic conditions hid the attack of the beetles which 
did not therefore attract attention. In 1919 the local authorities 
estimated the damage at over 60 per cent, and ascribed the whole 
of this loss to the beetles. They came to this conclusion on superficial 
observation of the conditions. Mr. S. E. Gupta, Entomological Assis- 
tant, Assam, and the writer very carefully examined all the plots and 
found that the beetles were certainly responsible for about 20 per cent, 
of the total damage. The failure of the setts to germinate owing to 
adverse climatic conditions could not be ascribed to the beetles. A 
careful examination of the conditions led to the conclusion that in years 
with normal climatic conditions the beetles would not prove injurious 
to the sugarcane of the Farm. This was corroborated in 1920 when 
although Mr. Gupta found the beetles to occur in practically equally 
large numbers as in 1919 much damage was not caused. 

Apart from their capacity to cause damage directly, the beetles 
and beetle grubs and in fact all the external agents of damage are respon- 
sible for probably much greater damage indirectly by affording places 
for the entry of fungal diseases through bites on the surface of the stems. 
" Chewing " described at page 361 of the first paper (Proc. Third Entl. 
Meeting) may be referred to in this connection. 

Some beetle grubs and beetles have already proved to be very serious 
pests and others may certainly be looked upon as potential pests of this 
nature. All possible precautions should be taken against importing 
them into new localities. They have the chance of insidiously coming 
in the earth taken with plants and cuttings. To point to notable ins- 
* tances of this nature one has only to make mention of the entry of 
Oryctes rhinoceros into Samoa, believed to have been carried in the 
earth taken with rubber plants from Ceylon, and of the importa- 
tion of Phytalus smithi into Mauritius with sugarcane cuttings from 

proceedings of the fourth entomological meeting 113 

The Borers. 
The following additions should be made to the list given in the first 
paper : — 


LamiadcB : Lychrosis zebrinus. (C. S. 2010). 
Chrysomelidce : Chcetocnema &^. (C. S. 1891, 1923, 2043). 
Scolytidce : Xyleborus perforans, Well. 
Pyralidce : Hypsotropa tenuinervella, Raq. (C. S. 1920). 
Chilo torrentellus, Meyr. (C. S. 2027). 
Cramhus corticellus, Hmpsn. (C. S. 2007). 
Saluria injicita, Wlk. 
GelechiadcB : Ephysteris cherscea, Meyr. (C. S. 2046). 
Potential Coleopterous borers. There is reason to believe that 
the Curculionid and Scolytid beetles which have of late been observed 
to breed in date and coconut palms in such large numbers as to bring 
about the death of these plants, may turn their attention to sugar- 
cane, Calandra stigmaticollis , which is reported to be bad in this respect 
in Ratnagiri and Malabar, has been observed in the Insectary to oviposit, 
live and breed in sugarcane stems without any apparent inconvenience. 
Among Scolytid beetles, Xyleborus perforans already ranks as a pest 
of sugarcane. Therefore wherever such affected palms are present, 
they may be looked upon as sources of danger, not only to other palms 
but also to sugarcane, especially thick varities of sugarcane. A Niti- 
dulid beetle, Brachypeplus sp. (C. S. 1101 and 1661) is frequently found 
breeding inside decaying but moist stems of sugarcane and maize. But 
it is not a borer. 


/. Cultivated crops. 
The following insects should be added to the lists under the different 
crops given in the first paper : — 
Sugarcane — 

Xyleborus perforans. 
Rice — 

Ephysteris cherscea. 

ChcBtocnema sp. 

Phycitid borer (C. S. 1837). 
Marua {Eleusine coracana) : 

Saluria inficita. 
Kauni {Setaria italiea) : 

Sesamia infer ens. 
China {Panicum miliaceum) i 

Chcetocnema sp. 


III. Semi-cultivated plants. 
Under this heading the following plant is added as it is grown in 
gardens and is of economic importance : — 
Lemon grass : Sesamia infer ens. 
Also the following insects are added to the lists given in the first 
paper : — 

Ikri {Saccharum, fuscum) : 

Curculionid borer (C. S. 1778). 
Batri [Saccharum spontaneum batri) : 

Chilo torrenteUus . 

Lychrosis zebrinus. 

IV. Wild grasses and plants. 

The following additions are made : — 
Katra {Andropogon squarrosus) : 
Hypsotropa tenuinervella. 
Procometis trochala. (Plate XVII.) 
The Noctuid borer (C. S. 1666). 
Roslia grass [Cymhopogon schcenanthus) : 

Hypsotropa tenuinervella. 
Scirpus corymbosus : 

Cr ambus corticellus. 
Coix lacJiryma-jobi var. aquatica : 

Chilo simplex. 

Differentiation of borers. 
The following addition should be made to the key for larvae : — 

3. Caterpillar with grey transverse bands on segments . Ephysteris cherscea. 

4. G. (<Sa?Mna w/ici'to is to be placed in this group) 

J. Colour creamy yellow. Shape hardly tapering. 
The segments with rather an elongated appear- 
ance and their surfaces rather chitinized and 
shiny ......•• Chilo torrenteUus. 

K. Colour ordinarily red but pale yellow in pupating 

and hibernating caterpillars .... Hypsotropa tenuiner- 

Crambus corticellus will come under 11 but cannot be definitely 
placed until further material is available. 

A revised key for differentiating the pupse is given below and super- 
sedes that in the first paper. The pupse of the caterpillars grouped 
according to colour above are not likely to be confused with those 
of Chilo, Diatrcea and Argyria. For the same reason Raphimefopus 
i^Anerastia) ablutella is also omitted. 

Page 114 


Fig. l.—a, pupa - &, Moth (magnified ; the smaller figures show the natural sizes). 




Fig. 2.— Moth, resting position (magnified). 
Procometis trochula, Meyr. 


Key to PupcB of Borers. 

TLarval tubercles (bases of hairs) converted into spines 
l-< on the body of the pupa ..... 2 

Lwithout such spines on pupa ..... 3 

f The protuberant part of the hind end of pupa is 

I broader than long and has two indentations on the 
2 J tip, each indentation having in it a short spine 

'. surmounted with a hair . . . . . C. S. 1835 

The protuberant part of the hind end of pupa is 

L conical and has no spines of any kind . . . Chilo torrenteUus. 

rWithout ridges or hooks or apparent roughness on 
3-^ 7th Abdominal segment ..... 4 

LPupa with such ....... 5 

('The hind end having distinct spines. . . . C. S. 1677 

4J The hind end having no spine. The dorsal part of 

I the hind end is protruded and the protruded part 

L has a clean rounded margin .... Crambus corticellus. 

rWith complete circle of ridges spines or roughness on 
5< 7th abdominal segment ..... 6 

LWith incomplete circle as above .... 7 

f Circle composed of distinct and separate spines . (C. S. 1610) 

I Argyria tumidicostalis, 

^'i Circle of flattened ringlike ridges more or less joined 

to one another (C. S. 1560). 

l^ Diatrcea auricilia 

rincomplete circle of distinct spines . . . " . C. S. 1674. 

'^'{ Incomplete circle of roughness without distinct 

L spines ........ 8 

TDorsal half of anal end with six spines in two groups 
8< of three triangularly arranged . . • . . Chilo simplex. 

LDorsal half of anal end with four spines ... 9 

TThe spines situated on dorsal margin and pointing 
9< more or less backwards (dorsally) ... 10 

LThe spines situated on tip and pointing posteriorly . Diatrcea venosata. 

f The ridge of roughness on 7th abdominal segment 

j extending towards the ventral surface beyond the 
loJ spiracles ... . . . . . • C S. 1769. 

I Extending up to the spiracles . . . . . C. S. 1795. 

(_Not extending up to the spiracles . . . . C. S. 1831. 

Life Histories of the Borers. 

Pachydiplosis oryzce. 
This is a small mosquito-like fly the larva of which feeds inside 
rice plants and causes the growth of a long tubelike gall in place of 
the stem. The stem being thus destroyed, the affected plants do not 
produce any ear. This disease has been referred to in the first paper 
and a coloured plate has been given there showing galls and the different 
stages of the fly. The disease has been known to exist in Madras, 
Western Bengal and Bihar and Orissa for a very long time. It is, 
however, only recently that its real nature and the agency causing it 


have come to right. It is known under various names, all descriptive 
of the outward symptom of the disease. Some of these names are given 
below with the localities where they are prevalent. 

In Tamil districts of Madras : — 
Anaikombu (Elephant tusk). 
Thandeeilm (bearing of earless stalks). 

In Telugu districts of Madras : — 
Koyyala Tegulu (stick disease). 

In South-Kanara district — 

In parts of Orissa (Angul, Cuttack) : — 

Thenga (rod). 

PenJcalia (flute shaped). 

Kalia (cigar-shaped). 

Sunda (Tusk ; rod). 
In Chota Nagpur in Bihar and Orissa : — 



Kliorha (stick). 

SanJira (twining male, as no ear is produced ; Sanhr=bull). 

In parts of West Bengal (Burdwan and Bankura) — 
Bhenpu or Bhepu (pipe). 
KhorJca (stick). 
KhorTia-mara or Khorkadhara (affected with Khorka disease). 

The first authentic record of the occurrence of this disease was made 
in October 1880, when the Magistrate of Monghyr in Bihar reported 
serious injury to paddy in a particular part of the district. (Ind. Miis. 
Notes, Vol. I, p. 103). The next record is in the report of the Agricul- 
tural Chemist, Mysore State, for 1901-02. In that year it occurred 
in a large area several square miles in extent in Mysore district and 
the attack was a very severe one causing enormous aggregate loss to 
the raiyats. 

Since 1913 it has been reported from various places in Bengal, Bihar 
and Orissa and Madras. As a result of the attention paid to it the 
following facts have been gathered. 

The Fly appears in August and September and sometimes as late as 
October. It may be present earlier in the season but it is about this 
time that it occurs in sufficient numbers to attract attention and in 
some years in large numbers, large enough to cause serious damage. 


Generally speaking, young transplants and young tillers of earlier trans- 
planted and therefore advanced plants are attacked. Usually the 
damage is severe in the former and when the transplanting operations 
become late as much as 50 to 75 per cent, of the plants may be affected. 
Also plants standing in water are more liable to be attacked than those 
in waterless lands. 

The fly lays reddish elongated tubular eggs about 0-5 mm. long 

and about 0-125 mm. thick, with rounded ends " on the hairs of the 

ligules or on the lower surface of the basal parts of leaves and rarely 

also on their upper surface. The tiny young larvse creep down between 

the leaf-sheaths till they reach the growing point of the apical or the 

side buds. On entering the interior of the buds, they seem to lacerate 

their tender tissues and feed on their nutritious juices. Whether by 

actual feeding or continual irrigation, an oval chamber is formed 

round the maggot in the tissues of the growing point. Further normal 

apical growth being stopped all the nutrition is directed to the walls 

of this chamber which elongates like a normal internode (forming 

the characteristic long gall). By the time the outgrowth begins 

to be visible, the maggot will generally have turned into a pupa and 

in about six days will be ready to emerge as a fly. When about to 

transform, the pupa with the help of the dorsal spines of its abdominal 

segments wriggles up the hollow tube and boring a hole at the tip 

with its front spines, partially projects out. The adult now emerges 

and flies away, leaving the empty pupal skin at the tip of the hollow 

shoots " (Y. Eamachandra Rao). Each female is capable of laying 

about 100 eggs. The time occupied from the time of oviposition 

till the emergence of the fly seems to be about two to three weeks. 

It is not known how the fly passes the rest of the year or whether 
it breeds in any other plant than paddy. In 1917 Rao Sahib Y. Rama- 
chandra Rao published his observations on galls occurring in various 
grasses in Madras. {Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, New Series, Vol. XIII, 
No. 5, pp. 299-306, 28th December 1917— Reprinted in Pusa Bull. 
No. 89, Second Hundred Notes on Indian Insects). He noticed in October 
1916 similar silver shoots as in rice in Panicum staninum, an aquatic 
plant common at Samalkota .along canals, in shallow tanks and along 
water channels in wet lands. The fly reared from this gall was found 
to be identical with the rice gall fly (Pachydiplosis oryzcs). At Coim- 
batore however this grass did not show any gall formation although 
the rice gall fly was common there. Similar silver shoots were also 
observed by him at Samalkota in wild varieties of Paspalum scrobi- 
culatum and Oryza sativa, but no fly could be reared from them on account 
of heavy parasitization. The question of alternative foodplants and 


behaviour of the fly tliroiighoiit the year still remains unsolved and 

As regards control we have got the following facts : — 

1. In 1915 this pest occurred extensively in the neighbourhood of 
Ranchi and in Khunti Sub-division of the Ranchi district. Mr. A. C 
Dobbs, Deputy Director of Agriculture, in charge of this area, had an 
■opportunity of keeping this area under his observation throughout 
the season. In the middle of August and early September he reported 
extensive damage. In the second week of September the \\Titer visited 
the affected area near Ranchi and found that certain kinds of rice and 
certain fields newly transplanted were affected to the extent of about 
5 to 50 per cent. In November Mr. Dobbs reported as follows : — 
" The crop at Khunti and here (Ranchi) have made a remarkable recovery 
owing to a good hathia (rain) and it looks as if the effect of the attack 
is temporary and more or less confined to the shoots attacked. On 
the return of favourable conditions the plants throw out side shoots 
and make a more or less complete recovery." 

In rice, sugarcane and allied plants whenever a growing point is 
damaged, further growth is stopped. But if the conditions be favour- 
able the plants always make an attempt to compensate the loss by 
throwing up side-shoots and tillers. In Bengal, the cultivators apply 
Khari nun (crude sodium sulphate) in fields affected by this disease 
and they assert that it checks the disease. The explanation seems 
to be that the growth of the plants is stimulated and recovery takes 
place owing to the development of tillers and side-shoots. 

2. During the outbreak of 1915 in the Ranchi district it was observed 
that broad-casted paddy sown in April, May or June, and therefore 
much advanced in growth at the time of the writer's visit in the second 
week of September, was practically immune (their young side-shoots 
being affected to a small extent) compared with the late-transplanted 
young seedlings. Transplantation was still going on at the time. 
Therefore it seems that carrying out of the transplanting operations 
•early in the season would be a preventive but this is entirely dependent 
upon the prevalence or otherwise of favourable climatic conditions. 

3. There is a minute black parasitic wasp {Platygaster oryzw) which 
seems to keep the pest in check. In some years however and in some 
localities owing to unknown reasons the number of the parasites de- 
creaises, resulting in a corresponding increase in the number of the fly 
Avith more damage to paddy as a consequence. At Ranchi in the second 
week of September 1915 only about one per cent, of the maggots was 
observed to be parasitized. In Madras in 1913 and again in 1914 (years 
of normal slight infestation) the maggots were parasitized to such an 

Page 119 

Fig. "l.—Li/rlu'Osis zehrinus. Beetle 
(Magnified ; the smaller figure shows 
the natural size). 


F.g. 2.-Weevll Borer (C.S. 2044) ; a, attacked 3Iootha plant ; b, larva : e, pupa • d beetle (ft e a 
magnified, the smaller figures shoeing the natural siies). ' ' ^ ' ' ' 


enormous extent that it was difficult to rear out adult flies. About 
20 to 30 grubs of this parasite occur in the body of a single maggot. 
They devour the contents of the body of the maggot by the time the 
latter is full grown and pupate in brownish cocoons formed in a mass 
inside the skin of their host. This cocoon mass is observed on sj)litting 
open the hollow gall. 

4. The adult flies are attracted to bright powerful lights. No flies 
were attracted at Eanchi to a light trap improvised with an ordinary 
hurricane lantern and new shining pieces of tin used as reflectors. In 
Madras, on 25th October 1915, 27 flies (mostly females) were recorded 
to have come to the Aladdin Incandescant Lamp and between 28th 
October and 2nd November 1915, 96 females and 11 males were attracted 
to what is called a P. \V. D. lamp. 

Taking the above facts into consideration it is clear that the best 
remedy for the cultivator to adopt is to try to improve the conditions 
by the application of manures, irrigation when necessary and other 
means, so as to bring about a healthy and vigorous growth of side shoots 
•and tillers. 

Lychrosis zebrinus, Fb. 

(Plate XVIII, fig. 1.) 

Foodplant— Ba/n {Saccharum spontaneum hatri). 

Hibernating larvse were collected in February 1920. One pupated 
in May and emerged on 16th May 1920. The larva resembles that uf 
the Lamiad borer (C. S. 1814) described in the first paper. {Proc. Third 
Entl. Meeting, 1^.312). 

The weevil borer (C. S. 1397 and 2044). 

(Plate XVIII, tig. 2.) 
Foodplant — Mooiha {Cyperus rotundus). 

It has been referred to in the first paper. {Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, 
p. 373). The remarks made under Bacira truculenta at page 126 of 
this volume regarding the foodplant should be seen. This insect has 
not been found in any other food plant. 

Eggs are apparently deposited inside the stem near the root-stock. 
The grubs are found right, at the root of the stem at its junction with 
the root-stock. They do not work up the stem but gnaw a large cavity 
at this place thus cutting across the base of almost all the leaves of 
the inner whorls which droop, turn yellow from their spices and ulti- 
mately wither. The cavity the grubs gnaw is filled with black excreta. 
Sometimes the grubs are observed to bore into the root-stocks. 

I 2 


Pupation takes place inside the stem or rootstock and rarely in the 
ground. The periods of the different stages are not definitely known. 
The life-cycle seems to be completed in about three to four weeks. 

The fullgrown grub is about 4 mm. long and about 1-5 mm. across 
the thoracic region from which the body tapers gradually both ways. 
The head is much smaller than the prothorax, pale yellow in colour 
and glossy. The body is subcylindrical in shape being slightly com- 
pressed in the dorsoventral plane. The skin is wrinkled and the seg- 
ments are hardly distinguishable. The colour of the body is pale yellow 
with a brownish tinge which disappears before pupation. On each side 
a white tracheal tube is visible under the skin. The pupa is about S 
mm. long and of the ordinary Curculionid type. It is yellowish white 
in colour. The weevil is black. 

Sesamia infer ens. 
To the foodplants Lemon grass is added. 

C. S. 1666. 
Katra {Androjpogon squarrosus) is added to the foodplants. 

HeterograpMs sp. (C. S. 1700). 

The Phycitid borer of tender maize cob referred to at page 373 
of the first paper is Heterographis sp. It has not been observed to- 
occur again. 

The Phycitid Borer. (C. S. 1837 and 2060). 
(Plate XIX, fig. 1.) 

Foodplants — Marua [Eleusine coracana). 
Rice {Oryza sativa). 
This borer has been referred to in the first paper {Proc. Third EntL 
Meeting, p. 378) as occurring in Eleusine coracana but it has since been 
observed in rice stems also. It however never appeared in large numbers 
and from its seasonal history and its habits it appears that it will most 
probably never rise to the rank of a major pest. The caterpillars have 
been observed to rest in the Insectary from September to the end of 
June and they have been collected from the fields in July and August, 
moths being reared in the Insectary between 8th August and 6th Sep- 
teinber. Out of a lot of seven caterpillars collected in the latter half 
of August three developed into moths between 28th August and 6th 
September and the others rested as stated above, till the end of June 

Pa^e 120 


Fig. 1.— Phycitid Borer (C.S. 2060) ; u, pupa 
(x7) ; h, ventral view of hinder end of 
pupa, more highly magnified. 

F'g. 2. — Diatrcea auricilia (magnified ; the 
smaller figure shows the natural size). 


next year. They did not mind the dry conditions prevalent during 
the v\Ainter and the hot weather. Therefore the insect appears to 
have only one generation in the year, some probably having two. 

The caterpillars are observed to enter the stem near the base through 
a hole gnawed on the side and then bore down towards the root. The 
result of course is dead heart. When full-grown the larva usually 
leaves the stem and pupates in a tubelike silken cocoon formed under 
the earth and among the roots of the plants in the clump. The cocoon 
goes down vertically or obliquely to a depth of about three-fourths 
of an inch, its mouth remaining open at the surface of the soil so as 
to enable the moth to emerge without difficulty. The pupa lies at 
the closed bottom end with its head turned towards thfe "opening. The 
pupal period is about nine days. 

The caterpillars cannot attack paddy in submerged lands. They 
have been observed to occur only in dry land paddy and the other food- 
plant observed, viz., mama {Eleusine coracana) is also a dry land crop. 
Their habit of feeding and pupating underground precludes their occu- 
rence in submerged crops. 

A full-grown larva measures about 12 mm. in length and is about 
2 mm. across the mesothorax which is the broadest part from which 
the body tapers gradually though slightly towards both extremities. 
The shape is cylindrical and the segments clearly distinguished. The 
head is yellow, hardly glossy, has brown mouthparts and is partly 
Tetractile into the prothorax. The body is uniform creamy white 
without any warts. The meso- and meta-thoracic segments are divided 
into three subsegments of which the middle one is the largest. The 
eight abdominal segments are divided into two subsegments of which 
the anterior one is larger than the posterior one. The hairs are thin, 
whitish. The spiracles are round, yellowish with a narrow brown rim. 
The booklets on abdominal prolegs are arranged in an elongated oval 
outline, the inner end of this outline being narrower than the outer 
end. There are five pairs of short but equally developed prolegs. 

The pupa is about 8 mm. long and about 2 mm. thick across the 
thorax, cylindrical in shape, tapering at the head end as well as hind- 
wards. The head end is somewhat protruded, the protruded part 
being compressed in the lateral plane and having a raised ridge in the 
middorsal as well as in the midventral region. The abdominal segments 
are devoid of spines or ridges or roughnesses. The spiracles are broadly 
oval, rather large, brown spots under which a tracheal tube is visible" 
in the abdominal region. The hind end has six pyramid-shaped papillae 
arranged in a straight row in the lateral plane. The two outside papillae 
are large and the others diminish in size inwards. Each of them is 


tipped with a short hair. The colour is creamy white, the protuberance 
on the head and the anal papillae turning brownish as the pupa matures 

Sahiria inficita, Wlk. 

Foodplant — Ragi or Mania {Eleusine coracana). 

This borer is mentioned in South Indian Insects, pp. 427-428, 
where an illustration is given. It was observed as a minor pest on 
the Central Farm at Coimbatore in August and September in 1908, 
1909 and 1913. It has not so far been observed in North India. It 
is allied to the previous species. 

The following note on the lifehistory appears in the above-mentioned 
publication : " The larva is moderately stoutly built, the prothoracic 
segment is large, the next tAvo segments short but projecting ; in colour 
it is pure creamy white, the head yellowish tinged with blackish around 
the mouthparts ; there are a few short white inconspicuous hairs on 
all segments. It bores into the stem of the foodplant low down at 
about or just above ground-level and pupates in the stem or emerges 
and pupates in a small chamber excavated in the soil. The female 
moths are attracted to light at night." 

Scirpo2yhaga xanthogastrella . 
Ikri {Saccharwn f'uscum) is to be added to the list of foodplants. 

Procomelis trochala, Meyr. (Plate XVII.) 

Katra {Andropogon sqimrrosiis) is to be added to the list of foodplants.. 
The caterpillars webbed up the bases of the plants in the stool at the 
surface of the soil and nibbled the surfaces. 

Raphimetoptus (Anerastia) abhdella has not been observed to occur 
during the last two years. 

Chilo simplex. 

Add to foodplants Coix lackryma-jobi var. aquatica. 

The larva was once found boring Chichera {Lujfa sp.) fruit at Pusa 
in July. 

In Burma I did not come across Chilo simplex during my search in. 
the cold weather of 1920-21. 

Page 223 


Fig. ^.—a, Pupa (x5) ; b, ventral view of hinder end of pupa, more highly magnified ; c, details 
of spines on pupa ; f7, moth, natural size and magnified. 

€. C I J/ \A/. 

Or i 3 

Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle at Pusa. 
(Jhilo toirentelliis. 


Diatraea venosaia, Wlk. 

A notable observation with regard to this borer is that it was found 
in December 1919 to occur as a regular pest of sugarcane at Cuttack 
where no juar {Andropogon sorghum) is grown and hardly any Saccharvm 
spontaneum occurs. At Pusa, where there are extensive tracts under 
juar and S. spontaneum., D. venosata occurs very commonly in S. sponta- 
neum and juar but very rarely in sugarcane. 

Ghilo torrentellus. 

(Plate XX.) 
Foodplant— jRar^*' and Batri {Saccharum spontaneum). 

It has been referred to as a Pyralid Borer (PI. 64, fig. 1) in the first 
paper {Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, p. 393). The stems are bored in 
their central part and converted into hollow tubes. When the larva 
bores near the top the heart shoot dies and dries. Otherwise there 
is hardly any prominent external symptom. The caterpillars are found 
in very large numbers. They may be looked for in thin reedlike varieties 
of sugarcane, although none has been observed in this plant yet. 

The young and full-grown caterpillars resemble one another in 
appearance. The full-grown larva is about 35 mm. long when fully 
stretched. The mesothorax is thicker than other segments and 
measures about 3-5 mm. across and from this segment the body tapers 
both ways slightly and gradually. The shape is cylindrical but looks 
slightly compressed in the dorsoventral plane. The head is yellow, 
glossy, with the buccal region and appendages dark brown. The 
prothoracic shield is not prominent. The thoracic segments have 
a tinge of the same colour as the head. The segments of the body 
are not very prominently distinguished. The skin of the whole 
body has a shiny appearance and is naked, the primary hairs 
being minute and black. The spiracles are elongated oval, wholly 
light-brown with a narrow dark rira. Along the spiracles a tracheal 
tube is faintly visible under the skin. The booklets on the five 
pairs of short but equally developed prolegs form complete circles. 
Before pupation the larva gnaws a hole on the side of the stem, 
the mouth of the hole being kept closed by a thin membrane 
of the bark. Pupation takes place inside the bored stem near this 
hole in a sort of a cocoon formed with chewed particles spun up with 
silk. The pupa is about 14 mm. long by about 2-75 mm. thick, 
cylindrical. The head end is somewhat protruded forwards. The 
dorsal part of the hind end is protruded into a thick broad wedge-shaped 
process which possesses no spines of any kind. The 4th to 9th abdo- 


minal segments liave spines in places corresponding to the primary 
tubercles of the larva. The spines are broad and have a needle-like 
short thin process arising slightly below the tip. The colour is yellow. 
The spiny pupa is liable to be confused with that of C. S. 1835 (Plate 
XX fig. la) but can be distinguished by looking at the hind end. 

The moth is quite different from that of all the other borers, the 
forewings being white with a broad blackish longitudinal marking in 
the middle. 

The seasonal history has been graphically shown in the chart. 
(Plate XX fig. 2). The moths appear in June, July and August, 
when eggs are laid. The egg has not been observed. Young cater- 
pillars occur about this time and feed till about November w^hen hiber- 
nation commences inside the bored stems. After hibernation and 
partial aestivation, pupation commences in May and moths appear in 
June. In the Insectary caterpillars have been observed to rest till 
about the middle of October and then die. This prolonged rest may 
indicate that probably some larvse do not pupate till the second year. 
Or it might be due to Insectary conditions. 

Hypsotropa tenuinervella. (C. S. 1920 and 2016). 

(Plate XXI.) 

Foodplant — Katra (Andropogon sqtmrrosi(s). 

The seasonal history is graphically shown on Plate XXI, fig. 2 

The larvse hibernate from about October to about March and are not 

affected by dry conditions. In the Insectary moths were observed to 

emerge up to 9th October 1919 before the winter and on the 14th March 

1920 after the winter. 

The caterpillars are true borers. They are of three different colours- 
Some are red, some are cream coloured and some pale yellow, although 
morphologically they are the same. A full-grown caterpillar is about 
15 mm. when stretched and about 2-5 mm. thick. The head is 
compressed in the dorso-ventral plane, brown and glossy. The protho- 
racic shield is not very distinct, glossy pale brownish-yellow. The 
segments of the body are divided into two subsegments, the anterior 
subsegment being large and the posterior small. The hairs are thin, 
brownish. The spiracles are broadly oval, not exactly round, pale 
yellow with a thin brown rim. The five pairs of prolegs are equally 
developed, the booklets on them being in elongated oval outline. 

All turn pale yellow before pupation. 

Page 124 


Fig. 1.—a, larva ; b, pupa ; r, moth ; all x5 and natural sizes. 

Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycre at pusa. 
Byps otrop a temiinervella. 

Page 125 




E X 


> c 






















f « 




•c >t 



« h. 

n e 



Pupation takes inside bored stems in silken cocoons with pellets 
of excreta and bits of leaf webbed on its surface. One end of the cocoon 
communicates with the hole of exit the larva prepares for the future 
moth on the side of the stem, the mouth of the hole being closed with 
the thin epidermal layer of the leaf sheath. 

Pupa is about 11 mm. long by about 2-5 mm. across the thoracic 
region which is slightly compressed in the dorsoventral plane. The 
abdominal region is cylindrical and tapering hindwards almost to a 
point. The head end is tapering, with an indistinct longitudinal ridge 
on its ventral side. The spiracles are elongated oval, brown-rimmed. 
The colour is yellow with a brownish tinge at the anterior part. 

Crambus corticellus, Hmpsn. 
(Plate XXII.) 

Foodplant — Scirpus corymhosus. 

This insect was observed to bore the sedge named above at Nagpur 
by Mr. J. L. Khare. The caterpillars were collected in January, April 
and May. There are specimens in the Pusa collection taken at Pusa 
almost throughout the year. Apparently the insect is active throughout 
the year. 

A larva, about half-grown and preserved in spirit, has a glossy brown 
head. The prothoracic shield is of the same colour as but paler than 
the head. Warts on the segments large, roundish and of the same 
colour as the prothoracic shield. The general colour of the body is pale 
yellow. The prothoracic and the eighth abdominal pairs of spiracles 
are much larger than the others. All the spiracles elongated oval, a 
brown rim enclosing a clear space. The booklets on prolegs are arranged 
in a complete circle. 

Pupa, about 14 mm. long and about 3 mm. thick, cylindrical and 
brownish yellow in colour. The abdominal segments possess no spines 
or roughnesses. The dorsal part of the hind end is protruded to some 
extent and the protruded part has a rounded margin, is flat on the 
ventral and convex on the dorsal side and possesses no spines of any 

Bactra truculenta, Meyr. 

(Plate XXIII, fig. 1.) 

Foodplant— Moo^/ta (Cy penis rotundus). 

This insect has been referred to in the first paper {Proc. Third 
■Entl. Meeting, p. 394). It has not been observed to occur in any other 


plant. Mootlia is a troublesome weed in many parts of the country and 
it takes several years of careful uprooting along with the root-stocks 
to eradicate it from lands newly brought under cultivation. Although 
it serves partly as food for cattle, there are some varieties of it which 
are not liked by cattle. It grows very profusely and luxuriantly and 
the influence of this borer aided by the weevil borer referred to at page 
119 of this volume seems to be very small as a check. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa this insect is observed to be active 
throughout the year. The caterpillars do not bore down from the 
top but effect their entrance into the centre of the leaf-bundle or into 
the stem in advanced plants, through the lower leaf-sheaths and tunnel 
up and down the central region but never enter the root-stock. The 
result of course is dead-heart in young plants but in the fully developed 
stem the effect is hardly apparent externally. Pupation takes place 
inside the stem of the affected plants in an elongated silken coco- n 
formed lining either the tunnel or the outer leaf-sheaths, the moth 
emerging after about five days. Ordinarily the life-cycle seems to be 
completed within about three weeks. 

Full-grown larvae measure about 12 to 15 mm. in length and about 
1-5 mm. in thickness across the anterior part of the body which tapers 
gradually and slightly hindwards. They have a slender, longish and 
dorsoventrally compressed appearance. The head is slightly smaller 
than the prothorax which has a distinct shield of the same colour as 
the head. Spiracles are round, a narrow brown or black rim enclosing 
a clear space. Running along and connecting the spiracles a tracheal 
tube is more or less visible under the skin. There are five pairs of 
equally developed prolegs with booklets arranged in a circle. In colo- 
ration the larvse vary a good deal, the following three types occurring 
commonly : — (1) Body pale yellow with the mesothorax, metathorax 
and to a less extent the first two abdominal segments purplish and 
head brownish yellow. (2) Body green with the mesothorax, meta- 
thorax and the first two abdominal segments smoky or dusky and head 
pale yellow with a greenish tinge. (3) Body uniform pale yellow with 
dark grey or black head. Green larvse are the commonest of all. 

The pupa is about 5 to 7 mm. long, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
towards hind end. Each of the third to eighth abdominal segments 
has two transverse rows of spines on the dorsal side, the row at thfr 
anterior part consisting of straight posteriorly directed spines and that 
at the posterior part of very small spines. The ninth abdominal seg- 
ment has a single row of large spines the tips of all or some of which 
are curved up anteriorly. The hind end is rounded and has a pair 
of small pyramidal papillae surrounded with hairs. The colour of the- 

IPage 126 




Fig. I.—Bactva tniculenta ; a, larva ; h, pupa ; c, d, moths, all natural sizes 

and magnified (x8). 


Fig. 2. — Ephifsteri^ chersma, Moth, 
natural size and magnified (x1l). 

Fig. Z.—Bhi/8semus ger ma- 
ntis, natural size and mag- 
nified (x13}. 


pupge too varies. The pupae of the green larvae are green with the head, 
thorax and wing regions brownish yellow. Other pupae are pale brownish 
yellow turning in the end grey brown with the wing regions black. 

The moths too are variable in colour. Some are grey or yellowish 
with longitudinal dark marking along the middle of the forewing. 
Others have the entire surface of the forewing covered with blackish 

Ephysteris cherscea, Meyr. (C. S. 2046). 

(Plate XXIII, fig. 2.) 

Food plants Rice {Oryza sativa), Pusa. 

China {Panicum miliacenm), Pusa. 
Juar {Andropogon sorghum) stubbles, Coimba-^ 
The caterpillars occurred at Pusa in small numbers. They were 
boring China stems in June and rice stems in July. At Coimbatore 
they were reared from juar stubbles. Moths were collected by Mr. T. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher at Abbottabad in June and they were also collected 
at Purnea. This insect has not yet been observed to occur in sufficiently 
large numbers to justify its inclusion in the list of pests. 

The full-grown larva is about 6 mm. long and cylindrical in shape. 
The head is reddish brown. The prothorax has a blackish shield divided 
longitudinally in the middle. The general colour of the body is pale 
yellow with a broad dark grey band on each segment. Five pairs of 
equally developed prolegs are present. 

The pupa is about 4 mm. long, cylindrical in shape and tapering 
hindwards. The hind end is rounded and has a few short thin circinate 
hairs at its dorsal part. The colour is yellow brown. In one case 
the larva left the stem and pupated underground. 

Oryctes rhinoceros. 
This beetle lays eggs in rotting masses of leaves, straw or grass, 
rotting stems of coconut and other palms, moist rotting wood or sawdust 
and in manure pits. The grubs feed on the decomposing vegetaMe 
matter. The adult beetles however fly at night and bore into soft 
crowns of Coconut, Date, Toddy and other palms (except, so far as 
known. Betel Nut palms). As they occur in large numbers they bring 
about the death of many trees, thus constituting a serious pest especially 
of coconut palms. They are also known to bore American Aloes an^ 


occasionally sugarcane. The photograph, reproduced as fig. 69 of 
South Indian Insects, records its occurrence on sugarcane at Coimbatore 
in October 1913 and shows the characteristic chewing of the beetle. 
They may occasionally be expected on thick varieties of sugarcane 
but will probably never prove a regular pest of this crop. [This insect 
has, however, occurred in the Malay States as a pest of sugarcane. 
T. B. F.] 

So far as is known this insect passes through a single generation 
in the year. The egg and pupal stages are short, lasting only for about 
one-and-a-half to two weeks, the rest of the long cycle being passed 
in larval state. Adult beetles have been reported from different localities 
from about June to December or even January. Beetles emerged 
in the Pusa Insectary from grubs collected from outside between May 
and August. May to August probably represents the time of emergence 
of the adults which seem to be able to live for long periods under favour- 
able conditions and are therefore reported to occur even in December 
or January. Variations apparently occur in the lifehistory according 
to varying conditions of different localities. It is not known whether 
there is a definite period of oviposition or whether eggs are deposited 
throughout the period the adults live. 

Ajpogonia proxima, Waterh. 

A pupa and many adults were collected at Pusa among Sacchanim 
spontaneum roots in September. The pupa was collected on the 5th 
September and the beetle emerged from it on the 10th September. 

In July, that is, soon after the commencement of the rains, large 
numbers of this beetle are observed at Pusa to come out at dusk and 
eat tender leaves of Ficus religiosa, Vitis trifolia, Capparis sp., and 
other plants. They sit in clusters or rather hang on leaves. Males 
come and mate while females continue eating. 

A number of them were collected in July 1914. In confinement 
they ate leaves and laid eggs freely, which hatched in a week. The 
eggs are about 1-5 mm. in diametre, round with a smooth surface and 
creamy white in colour which turns brownish before hatching M'hen 
the powerful brown mandibles of the embryo are visible through the 
shell. Attempts at rearing the larvae failed. 

It appears that the beetle passes through only one generation in 
the course of the year. Apparently the winter and early summer are 
passed in larval state. 

Page 129 




Fig. I.—Anissonotinn inrprcssirolle. Annual life-cycle as observed at 
Pusa. The black portions indicate tiie periods of the year when the different 
stages are found. 

fig. 2.— C. S. 1640 ; a, larva ; h, pupa ; -, beetle ; all natural sizes and 




Rhyssemus germanus (C. S. 1204). 

(Plate XXIII, fig. 3.) 

Foodplant — Larvae found among mootha [Cyperus rotundus) and indigo 


This is a small beetle but their small size is more than made up for 
by the numbers in which they occur. The seasonal history is not under- 
stood quite well yet. Probably there are several generations in the 
hot weather and in the rains, the cold weather being passed in hiberna- 
tion. In the hot weather from about March to June enormous 
numbers of the adult beetle fly about in the air at dusk. 

AUssonotum impressicolle. 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 1.) 

The occurrence of this beetle on sugarcane in the Kamrup Farm 
has been referred to above when dealing with the external agents of 
damage. The beetles collected in the second week of May 1919 were 
brought down to Pusa. When collected they were kept with moist 
earth in a perforated zinc cage and pieces of thick cane stems were 
supplied as food. They ate voraciously, boring into the pieces of cane. 
On arrival at the Pusa Insectary, 216 beetles were distributed on 30th 
May in two glass jars, 108 in each, the jars being filled with moist earth 
under which sugarcane setts and shoots were placed as food. Between 
3rd June and 1st August, 21 beetles were observed to come up to the 
surface of the earth one or two at a time and at intervals of several 
days and die there. This was probably due to overcrowding. Other- 
wise they were resting and did not feed. On 20th October 1919 the 
jars were searched ; 54 beetles were alive and 68 eggs found laid 
in the earth. Of these 68 eggs : — 

2 hatched 

20th-21st October.- 

1 hatched 

2 „ 
4 „ 

3 „ 
1 „ 

-35 eggs laid 

31st October 
2nd November 


rest spoilt 

22nd October. 



2nd November. 





11-20 daj's; earlier 

dates probably not 

y correct as some eo-^s 

I laid previously might 

I have been left over. 




7tli November 

8th „ ^16-20 days ; rest spoilt. 

11th „ J 


21st-23rd October.— 16 eggs laid : 

7 hatched .... 

1 „ ' 

1 » • 

:23rd-24th October.— 9 eggs— 45 beetles alive : 8 a.m.-S a.m. : 

1 hatched "^th November "^ 

1 » • • • • 

2 „ . 

.24th 8 A.M.-25th October 8 a.m.— 8 eggs : 
1 hatched . . . • 

I ^^ 10th 

1 egg apparently unspoilt yet 6th January 1920. Spoilt 1.3th January 1920. 

.25th 8 A.M.-26th October 8a m.— 10 eggs : 

1 hatched 11th November 17 days. 

1 eg'' remained apparently unspoilt till 26th December, when it got mouldy. 

.26th 8 A.M.-27th October 8 a.m.— 5 eggs— 43 beetles ahve : 

1 hatched 15th November 20 days. 

1 egg remained apparently unspoilt till 7th January 1920. Spoilt 27th January 

S-15-19 days ; rest spoilt. 
8th November ) 

0th „ 3 i-^-i^ ^^y^- 

27th-30th October.— 23 eggs— 41 beetles alive : 

1 hatched 14th November 

1 „ loth 

30th October-2nd November.— 26 eggs— 33 beetles aUve : 

1 hatched 17th November 


i 18-19 days ; rest spoilt. 

^Maximum 20 days, rest 

2nd-4th November.— 21 eggs— 32 beetles ahre : 

1 hatched 21st November. 

2 eggs apparently unspoilt 7th January 1920. 1 spoilt 3rd February. 1 spoilt 

8th February. 

4th-5th November.— 10 eggs— 30 beetles ahve : 

1 hatched . . . • • 23rd November. Maximum 18 days. Rest 

5th-6th November.— 6 eggs— 29 beetles alive : 

2 hatched . . • • • 23rd November. (18 days) rest spoilt. 

6th-10th November.— 10 eggs— 26 beetles alive : 

1 hatched 26th November. 

10th.l2th November— 22 eggs— 26 beetles alive : 
1 hatched . . . .27th November. 

1 .... 29th 

12th-14th November— 20 eggs— 25 beetles ahve : 

1 hatched 3rd December 

I ,, 4th „ 

1 ',', . . . . .7th „ 

1 egg remained in ap- 
parently unspoilt 
condition till 26th 


14th- 17th November — 12 eggs — 19 beetles alive : all spoilt. 
17th-20th November — 8 eggs — 12 beetles alive : 

1 hatched ..... 12th December. 

1 egg remained in apparently unspoilt condition till 30th December 1919 

.20th-23rd November — 7 eggs — 9 beetles alive : 

1 hatched ..... 17th December. 
23rd-26th November — 1 egg — 4 beetles alive : 

It remained in apparently unspoilt condition till 4th January 

1st December — No egg — 4 beetles alive. 
lOtli December — No egg — 1 beetle alive. 
14th December — No egg — all the beetles dead. 

Twenty-seven grubs, whicli hatched between 22nd October and 
5th November 1919, were placed in one bell-jar with growing maize. 
On 15th March 1920, only one half-grown was in this jar. 

Thirtyone grubs, hatched between 7th November and 12th December, 
were placed in another jar. On 15th March 1920 eight grubs were 
living in this jar. One was partly eaten apparently by the other grubs. 

31st March 1920—2 pupated. 

1 emerged on 10th April 
1 „ „ nth „ 

One more found to have pupated on 11th April 1920. It emerged on 
21st April. 

The grubs hardly did any damage to sugarcane and fed mostly on 
the manure. 

The eggs are white and have a smooth membranous shell. They 
vary in size. The smallest ones are oval or almost oval in shape measur- 
ing about 1-75 mm. in length and about 1-5 mm. the other way. The 
larger ones are almost round and the largest of them is about 2-5 mm. 
in diameter. The eggs increase in size with age. 

20th October 1919 — 3 eggs, 1| mm....lj mm., were kept separately. 

27th October 1919 — One was spoilt — 2 almost round about 2 mm. in diameter. 

All eggs do not attain the same size. They vary from about 2 to 
2 5 mm. in diameter. The newly-hatched grubs also vary in size, 
varying in length from about 3-5 to 5 mm. The head is the largest 
segment. The body tapers gradually from the thoracic region hind- 
wards. The young grubs are like ordinary cockchafer grubs with three 
pairs of thoracic legs. 

The full-fed grub measures, when it walks on a flat surface, about 
28 mm. in length. The head is brown yellow and its surface appears 
minutely pitted under lens ; on the vertex there is a longitudinal slit- 
like marking. The dorsal regions of the subsegments of the first six 
abdominal segments have minute bristle-like brown hairs though not 


very densely. No other part of the dorsal or ventral surface except 
the hind end has such hairs. The hind end has a transverse slit ; its 
dorsal margins are clothed in longish brown hairs and its ventral surface 
has short bristle-like hairs arranged over a space triangular in shape 
with the vertex of the triangle turned anteriorly. There are a few 
long hairs scattered on head and body. The spiracles are brown-yellow 
and crescent shaped ; the concave side of the prothoracic spiracles is 
turned posteriorly and that of all abdominal ones anteriorly. The 
general colour of the body is pale yellowish white, that of the hinder 
part being dark. The legs are brownish and each of them has a distinct 

Alissonotum piceum. 

This most probably has a lifehistory similar to that of Alissonotum 
impressicolle. A few beetles collected in May rested in the Insectary 
in the adult stage, one living until October, but no eggs were obtained. 

Alissonotum simile. 

This has probably a lifehistory similar to that of A. piceum. A 
larva collected from sugarcane fields at Kamrup on 20th May 
developed into a beetle on 16th June. 

Xyleborus perforans, Woll. 

Foodplants — Sugarcane. 

Sal {SJiorea robusta). 
Anogeissus latifolia. 
Areca catechu. 

" In the course of the last four years during which especial atten- 
tion has been paid to the insect pests of sugarcane, the Scolytid borer, 
Xyleborus perforans, Woll. (Plate IV), has only been observed once, 
in December 1919, in a variety of cane called B. 147, which was growing 
on the Chinsurah Farm. This beetle came into prominence over thirty 
years ago in connection with the destruction of beer-casks shipped 
into India and was investigated by W. F. H. Blanford, who considered 
X. affinis, attacking sugarcane in the West Indies, as a variety of X 
jjerforans. In 1900 a Xyleborus was reported as boring sugarcane in 
Bengal and was considered to be either identical with, or closely allied 
to, X. perforans. In 1892 this beetle formed the subject-matter of a 
warning letter issued by the Revenue and Agriculture Department 
of the Government of India, which stated that this pest, notorious in 
the West Indies as a pest of sugarcane, had already been introduced 



Fig. i.—CJicetocnema sp. (C. S. 1923) ; a, larva eating into the stem ; 
b, stem cut open to show the larva inside it ; c, larva ; <f, pupa 
e, beetle ; c, d, c. are shown of natural sizes and magnified (x11) ' 

Fig. 2.— C. S. 1696 ; larva, about half grown, natural size and magnified. 


into India and therefore advised the adoption of measures against its 
spread. Its occurrence on the Chinsurah Farm, where it was found 
breeding in three fully-grown canes growing in a clump, the canes being 
practically dry and showing characteristic holes emitting dust in their 
basal joints, indicates that this shot-hiole borer may perhaps prove 
to be an occasional pest of cane, possibly more frequently than has been 
noted by us. In Indian Museum Notes, Vol. V, p. 74, it is recorded as 
having been found in cane in numerous districts in Bihar and Bengal. 
X. perforans is widely distributed in India and Burma and has been 
recorded as boring in sal {SJiorea robusta), Anogeissus latifolia and Areca 
catechu.'" (Imperial Entomologist's Annual Report for 1919-20). 

The Flea Beetle Borer (C. S. No. 1891, 1923 and 2043). 

(Plate XXV, fig. 1). 

Foodplants — China {Panicum miliaceum). 
Rice {Oryza sativa). 

Grubs of this beetle have been observed from about April to August 
to bore into the stems of paddy seedlings and young China plants from 
the side near about the ground level. After gaining access into the 
stem they bore up and down the centre to some extent, filling the tunnel 
with pellets of excreta and causing " dead heart " characteristic of 
all internal borers. The full-grown grubs leave the stems and pupate 
underground, emerging as adults after six to seven days. It is not 
known where eggs are laid but from the habits of the larva it appears 
that they are deposited somewhere near or on the surface of the ground. 
The periods of egg and larval stages are also unknown. From observa- 
tions however it seems that the lifecycle is completed in about three 
weeks. The adult beetles nibble the tissue from the surfaces of 
leaves as all flea beetles are ordinarily observed to do. 

The grubs are observed to occur in large numbers in July and August 
and rank as a pest. They however occur in highland loamy soils and 
will be observed to infest millets and varieties of paddy which can be 
grown in such dry lands. 

The full-grown grub (which resembles the young grub in appearance) 
is about 4 mm. long and about 0-75 mm. across the body which is semi- 
cylindrical in shape being slightly compressed in the dorsoventral plane. 
The head, the prothoracic and anal plates and the three pairs of thoracic 
legs are dark grey or almost black in colour and their surfaces some- 
what glossy. The prothoracic plate is divided by a faint longitudinal 
line which is visible under lens. The general colour of the body is pale 
yellow which deepens to some extent before pupation. The hairs on 
the body are small and they arise from small somewhat glossy grey 



patches which make the grub look spotted. The tubular anal process 
on the underside of the anal segment is made use of in locomotion. 
The spiracles can be hardly distinguished but a white tracheal tube 
is visible faintly under the skin running along the spiracles. The pupa 
is white, about 2-5 mm. long and roughly broadly oval in shape with the 
lobes of legs, antennae and wings free. The beetles are black. 

Chrysomelid beetle (C. S. 1640). 

(Plate XXIV, fig. 2). 

The larvse of this beetle were collected in large numbers from sugar- 
cane fields at Pusa in July, August and September. The pupal stage 
at this time was observed to be about five days. 

Aphodius (C. S. 959, 1290, 1350, 1327). 

Grubs were collected among mootha roots at Pusa in May and June 
1915 which hibernated and attained adult stage in February 1916. 
Larva collected from harvested field on 29th February 1916, pupated 
on 2nd March and attained adult stage on 8th March. 

From pupae collected from cane field on 6th September, beetles 
emerged on 10th September and again from pupse collected on 17th 
September, beetles emerged on 25th September. 

For details of life-history of the other beetles and weevils 
mentioned in the paper " An Annotated List of Indian crop-pests " by 
T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, in the Proc. of the Third Entl. Meeting, may 
also be referred to. 

Damage to rice. 

As mentioned in the first paper the damage by borers to rice in the 
neighbourhood of Pusa does not ordinarily exceed about 4 per cent. 
Examination of stubbles at Chinsurah, Midnapur and Bankura in Bengal 
and at Cuttack in Bihar and Orissa did not show a higher percentage 
of damage. 

I have taken up the question of rice stem borers in Burma and will 
be in a position to give very definite results at the next Meeting. It 
would be well if the work were taken up in all the rice-growing Provinces. 
Then we want to know the borers which can be actually held responsible 
for the damage. Detailed descriptions of the borers working at Pusa 
are given in the first paper. 

The small amount of work done at the few places in Bengal men- 
tioned above proved Schcenohius bipunctifer and Chilo simplex to be 
the principal agents. 


In Burma, as I have already said, I have not yet come across Chilo 
simplex. There the principal borer seems to be Schcenohius bipunctifer. 

Damage to sugarcane. 

A good deal has been said in this respect in the first paper. The 
work was continued on the same lines after that paper was written 
and also a visit was paid to several places in Bengal, the cane-breeding 
station at Coimbatore, to Hebbal Farm in Mysore, to Manjri Farm 
in Bombay and to Nagpur to get a general idea of borer pests in these 
places. The occurrence of the beetle pests in the Kamrup Farm also 
gave an opportunity of gauging the external agents of damage, especially 
the Dynastine beetles, at their real capability of damage. The results 
of the further experimental work at Pusa and observations at the places 
mentioned are summarized below : — 

The incidence of attack on sugarcane by the insects dealt with in 
these papers is correlated with climatic conditions. Favourable climatic 
conditions, enabling the crop to grow rapidly, have a great effect in 
controlling the activities of the pests, the crop in such cases easily out- 
growing their attack. But with unfavourable climatic conditions, 
especially drought and want of moisture in the soil (especially in places 
like Pusa and many places in Upper India where no irrigation is given 
to the crop) the insects get the upper hand, and owing to want of growth 
and tillering on the part of the plants, the loss caused by their attack 
is not compensated for, the result being that the percentage of attack 
becomes very high. 

At Pusa the principal damage to sugarcane is caused in the early 
stages of its growth in April, May and June v/hen the climatic conditions 
are characterized by high temperature, low humidity (see the chart 
given in the first paper opposite page 370) and absence or scantiness 
of rainfall. In April 1920 the damage to some of the thick canes at 
Pusa was as high as 10 per cent, whilst at Coimbatore and Hebbal in 
Mysore, similar canes exhibited hardly any damage. The canes at 
these places, although planted about the same time as these at Pusa, 
were far more advanced in growth than those at Pusa on account of 
the more favourable climatic conditions prevailing at these places. 
The canes at Manjri, planted earlier and grown under irrigation were 
certainly not as good as the Coimbatore and Hebbal canes as regards 
growth and infestation by borers. This again is ascribable to the more 
unfavourable climatic conditions at Manjri than at Coimbatore and 

The correlation of damage and climatic conditions holds good in 
all varieties of cane, thick as well as thin, but thin ones show a greater 



immunity and also a greater resistance to drought. This will be apparent 
from a reference to the figures published in the Imperial Entomologist's 
Annual Report for 1920, pp. 73-74. We find therefore that particular 
varieties are suited to particular areas according to differences in local 
climatic conditions. As a rule thick ones do not fare so well in Upper 
and Western India as thin ones. Different varieties of cane show 
different degrees of pest resisting qualities though no variety has yet 
been found to resist pests wholly. 

The presence or absence of alternative foodplants in the locality 
is observed to exercise a great influence on the occurrence of at least 
some of the borers in sugarcane. The remarks in this respect on Diatraa 
venosata, Scirpophaga scanthogasfrella and the Noctuid borer C. S. 1666 
may be seen. 

The attempts at dealing with the borer pests of sugarcane and external 
agents of damage which work with effects similar to those produced 
by the borers must take into consideration the following points : — 

(1) The suitability or otherwise of the cane itself to the climatic 

conditions of the place where it is grown. 

(2) The habits of the cane, especially its capacity for tillering 

during the early stages of its growth, as varieties which 
tiller well show much greater immunity than those in which 
tillering is poor. 

(3) The drought-resisting quality of the cane, especially in places 

where no irrigation is practised. 

(4) The natural immunity of the cane against pests and diseases 

and (5) the effect of the presence or absence of alternative 
foodplants of the different borers. 

The borer problem is not so acute at Coimbatore and other places 
in Southern India with favourable climatic conditions as in Northern 
India where in many places, such as Pusa, thick canes yield about 50 
per cent, less than they are capable of yielding. As described in the 
first paper, only one out of every four shoots which grow of such canes 
comes to be harvested, the other three being killed. Therefore the 
problem for such areas seems to be to evolve a variety of sugarcane 
which can be planted at the time of the breaking of the monsoon or 
even after, but which will ripen at the time when canes do now-a-days. 
This can probably be done by selection of the tillers which grow late 
but ripen along with the mother canes. 

If this be possible the borer question can be solved to a very great 
extent for localities with adverse climatic conditions such as Upper 


By J. L. Khare, B.A., F.E.S., Lecturer in Entomology at the Nagpur 

Agricultural College. 

This preliminary note has been drawn up principally with an idea 
of collating the results of some experiments on sugarcane borers, which 
have been conducted at the difEerent experimental stations in this 
Province. The experimental part of the work was carried by the late 
Entomological Assistant, Mr. Ratiram Khamparia, who was in charge 
of field work and thus had opportunities of visiting different farms 
to carry on the experiments. The Writer of this note undertook the 
survey of different species of borers. Attached as he is to the College, 
it was not possible for him to go out personally to collect specimens 
and to determine the percentage of loss. He has, however, collected 
information and samples from the Superintendents and the Agricul- 
tural Assistant stationed in the cane-growing tracts. The tables 
of the distribution of the species of borers and the approximate damage 
caused by them are given at the end of this note. 

Before giving a brief resume of the past work on borers, it is desirable 
to examine the position of the Central Provinces as a whole and in 
relation to the rest of British India with regard to the extent of cane 
cultivation. According to the latest agricultural statistics available, 
the area under sugarcane in this Province was 24,798 acres in 1917-18, 
thus being only 0-28 per cent, of the total area in the whole of British 
India, which was 2,808,204 acres. In the Central Provinces sugarcane 
cultivation is carried on practically in all the districts, the largest area 
being in the Bilaspur district and the least in Nimar. The distributon 
of the area can be well seen from the statement given below : — 


Aiea in 1917-18. 


Area in 1917-18. 

Bilaspur .... 




Bcetul . 


Saugor . 


Raipur . 


Dam oh . 








Mandla . 








Hoshangabad . 




Wardha . 






( 137 ) 



The total area of 24, 798 acres is much less than what it was about 
fifty years ago. The causes, that have led to the continual decrease 
in area which has been steadily going on, are largely economic. Increase 
in the cost of cultivation brought about by high cost of manure and 
irrigation, foreign competition, etc., had a harmful effect on the area 
under cane and consequently the two crops of wheat and cotton have 
to a large extent replaced sugarcane, the former being in the opinion 
of the raiyals less expensive to cultivate and yielding a more certain 
return. It is not unusual to see in some districts disused wells adjoining 
cotton fields and showing where sugarcane was once growing. 

Improvements in this crop are now-a-days effected in many ways, 
such as (1) extension of irrigation facilities, (ii) manuring and better 
methods of cultivation, and (iii) introduction of foreign varieties ; this 
last factor is concerned with the subject matter of this note. 

The foreign cane varieties of a better productive character which 
have been introduced, not only demand more care in cultivation, but,, 
being mostly thick and high yielding, are more susceptible to attack 
of diseases, pests and animals than the harder and low yielding local 
thin canes. A study therefore of these enemies is more necessary, 
and it is in respect to the second, i.e., insect pests, that experiments 
have been carried out on several farms to study the relation of the 
introduced varieties of canes to stem-borer attack. 

Quite a large number of foreign and local varieties were tried to 
find out suitable canes for gur-making, and it has become obvious that 
the thin and hard canes are less damaged by borer than the soft canes 
and that early planting gives greater immunity to borer attack than 
late planting. These inferences may have been drawn by the cultiva- 
tors from their accumulated experience of years, but actual experi- 
ments conducted with those objects in view are more instructive and 
base the results on scientific data. 

In 1913-14 at the Tharsa Experimental Station an experiment was 
started to ascertain the immunity of different varieties to stem-borer, 
The observations are tohulated below : — 

Total number of 

Percentage of 


canes attacked 

Number of canes 

attacked canes 

and uprooted 

l>er acre. 

to the total 

per acre. 


Khari ..... 




Sannabille .... 




Lanji . . . 




Red Mauritius 




Pundia ..... 




Ashy Mauritius 






In the following two years at the same station the examination' of 
immunity was continued and it was found out that the superiority of 
Khari and Sannabille in tillering, placed them at an advantage over 
other varieties, though the difference in the degree of affection was 
not very marked. Again during the years 1912-13 and 1913-14 at 
Telinkheri station an experiment was started to find oit the percentage 
of cane affected by stem-borer, and the average number of canes per 
stool, which again showed that Khari and Sannabille are superior to 
the rest. 




Per cent, of 



No. of canes 
per stool. 


of attacked 


No. of canes 
per stool. 


Sannabille .... 
Lanji ..... 
liRed Mauritius 
Pundia .... 
Ashy Mauritius 


















Although the percentages of attacked canes in the first two cases 
are not recorded, yet the experience is that these thin varieties are 
less susceptible to stem-borer. 

The time of the planting of canes is another factor which plays an 
important part in altering the extent of attack by stem-borer. Both 
thin and thick varieties of canes were studied in respect of this. The 
results of the experim.ents would appear to indicate that cane planted 
in October gives a much larger yield than that planted in February 
and March. When planted in October, it gets a good start before the 
hot weather sets in and the moths of the borers regain their normal 
activity after a spell of cold weather. Borer does all its damage between 
February and June, but it does not attack cane appreciably when it is 
four to five feet high in February. As by early planting the damage 
appears to be reduced, the gain will be very great. 



The result of planting at different dates is tabulated below both 
for thick and thin canes. 

Thick cane. 

Thin cane. 

Time of planting. 

Number of 

canes per 


Time of planting. 

Number of 

canes per 


1st October .... 

1st November 

1st December 

1st January .... 

1st February .... 

1st March .... 



25th December 
25th January 
25th February 
25th March 


The general belief which has long gained ground in the minds of 
cultivators that borers do considerable damage to thick canes during 
the hot weather is thus supported by the results of the experiments. 

The experiments conducted in the past years were devised simply 
to ascertain the damage caused by borer without paying any special 
attention to find out the species of borers. Moth borer {Chilo simplex) 
was considered to be the chief borer and references to it are often found 
in several inquiries and reports of cane cultivation . Later on the 
specimens, determined as Chilo, were overhauled and were found to 
have comprised other genera and species associated with Chilo si^nplex. 
In the Central Provinces till very recently three species of borers were 
known, viz., Chilo simplex, a species of Sesamia- and Scirpophaga 
xanthogastrella {aurijiua). But, consequent on the more definite 
determination of the species of borers, it was found necessary to con- 
duct a survey of cane-borers in order to ascertain the species involved, 
their probable distribution in different cane-growing tracts and their 
liking for any particular varieties of canes if there be any. With the 
above object in view an inquiry was conducted in the years 1919-20. 
During the inquiry the following varieties of canes were seen largely 
growing both at the experimental and the demonstration station : — 

Ked Mauritius, Ashy Mauritius, Striped Mauritius, Pachmng, 
Khari, Java 247, Sannabille, Dhmvari (thick cane) Bungle (Thin 
white cane) Pounda, Yuba, Pundia. 

I gathered information regarding the time of planting sugarcane, 
percentage of damage caused by borers and varieties of canes planted 
from about forty different places in this Province. The time of planting 
ranges from November till March and percentage of affectation by borer 



varies from 1 and even less to as high as 50 to 75 ; the latter was often 
noticeable specially in thick canes. 

From the specimens of borers reared I found that there are five 
different species, viz., Diatrcea auricilia, Emmalocera (Papua) depres- 
sella, Scirpophaga xantJiogastrella {auriflua), Sesamia uniformis and 
Sesamia inferens, while Chilo simplex, the long-known moth-borer of 
sugarcane, was not found occurring at all. These different species of 
borers were found attacking any variety of cane and therefore I could 
not fix upon any particular variety of cane as being a favourite food 
of any particular species of borer. I have pointed out above that I 
got samples from forty different places ; these however do not represent 
the sugarcane growing tract to a very wide extent, but can be considered 
to be a fairly representative collection. In the table below I have 
shown the distribution of the species of borers and in the next following 
damage, time of planting and variety of cane. 

I may here remark that the work on cane-borers done during the 
past years has not been very systematic and entirely satisfactory, but 
this is all that could be done by the very inadequately staffed section 
in this Province. The problem of cane-borer is worth tackling on more 
systematic lines, particularly as the Agricultural Department is trying 
to spread cane cultivation. 








inferens. " 
















Bilaspur . 




























shows presence, and X shows absence. 



Statement showing locality, variety of cane, time of planting and probable 

damage by borer. 



Bhandara . 






Bilaspur . 

Kurud . 

Baronda . 


Jugesar . 

Nagpur . 

Tliarsa . 


Matang • 
Chielia . 
Pendliri . 

Riciiliai . 





Betul Farm 

Variety of cane. 

Java 247 
Khari . 

Dhaicri . 
Ashy Mauritius 
Striped Jlauritius 
Java 247 
Khari . 
Java 247 

Khari . 
Bungle . 
Khari . 

Red Mauritius 
Ashy Mauritius 


Khari . 
Khari . 

Khari . 
Dhatvri . 
Thick cane 

Red Mauritius 



Khari, Poundia and 

Red Mauritius. 
Khari . 
Poundn, Yuba and 

Red Maiu-itius. 
Java 247 

Khari . 

Red Mauritius 

A'igrezi, Pachrang 
Red and Ashy Mau- 

Aiigrizi, Red and 
Striped Mauritius 

Time of planting. 



Middle of February 


First week of Febru- 

End of January 
Middle of January . 

Last week of January 




Middle of February 
1st week of March , 


January to March . 

Bliddle of February 


^Middle of January 


End of December . 

loss by 





2 to 3 

ratoon crop 


1 to 2 


5 to 10 



8 to 10 

3 to 5. 



By T. N. Jhaveri, L.Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

These are the species which are principally responsible for so much 
deterioration of the monsoon crop of Sorghum in the Surat district. 
Of the two species, Chilo is mainly responsible for attacking the crop 
in its seedling stage, on account of which the cultivators are required 
at times to resow their crops once or twice. In a normal year their 
depredations are not so severe. At that time if proper investigations 
are being made, one will notice a large number of " Tachinid " fly para- 
sites playing a very important part in controlling this pest ; but in the 
subsequent year of famine, it has been chiefly found that this borer- 
attack in the crop is very severe and the percentage of parasites is very 
low in the beginning. That is, in the first two months of the crop, in 
July and August and at times in September, the attack of this borer 
is very severe, but later on in September the parasites begin to out- 
number the pest to such an extent that about the beginning of November 
this Chilo appears to have been totally annihilated and hardly any 
caterpillars of the same are being found in the stalk. While this is 
going on, the other kind of borer, namely Sesamia, begins to gain 
ground. It is rather slight in September but in October-November, 
it greatly increases and rests in the caterpillar stage in the months of 
December and January, depending upon the severity of winter. This 
second borer is not preyed upon and controlled by fly parasites and 
in winter this fly parasite does not breed. In summer, this second 
borer breeds in sprouted shoots coming out from the sides of jiiar 
stumps remaining in the ground. 

Taking the above points of their lifehistory and habitat into consi- 
deration, the following measures were tried for these pests :- — 

1. The first measure that was being adopted in controlling the 
caterpillars of Chilo was the removal of affected plants of ji:ar with 
dead-hearts at the first and second thinnings of the crop. It is generally 
the practice in that part to make the sowing thick in the beginning. 
When the crop has grown about a foot to a foot-and-a-half tall, the 
first thinning is given, which comes after a period of about three to four 
weeks from the date of sowing and the second thinning is made two 

- ( 143 ) 



to three weeks later. At these two occasions if all affected plants with 
dead-hearts are uprooted and burnt and wherever it is found that in 
doing so the rows become very gappy then, the shoots with dead-heart 
are cut back to the ground level and allowing the side shoots to grow 
up, the pest is very easily controlled at a very low extra cost and its 
further spread is too much checked. During the last monsoon this 
was being practised at Surat Government Farm. At that time the 
percentage of attack varied from 1 per cent, to 14 per cent, in the crop 
and no further treatment was given to the crop thereafter for this kind 
of borer. In the year 1913, about 17 acres of ji'.ar were similarly 
treated and the cost of such a treatment came to about 0-3-9 per acre. 
In the year 1912, the attack of Chilo borers was very severe and the 
removal of affected plants with dead-hearts was not rigidly followed 
in the beginning. So the pest ranged from 20 per cent, to 60 per cent. 
in some plots, on account of which several plots were grubbed up and 
resown. A plot of three acres in which the plants were attacked to 
an extent of 60 per cent, was given the following treatment : 

All affected shoots with dead-hearts were cut back to the ground 
level. In spite of that the caterpillars in a good many cases were found 
^ in the portion of the stump remaining in the ground which were also 
being picked and killed by means of a needle or thorn. The cost of 
such a treatment came to about Rs. 1-2-0 per acre. Later on the 
treated crop gave out very vigorous healthy shoots and in comparison 
with the resown and untreated plots, it yielded more in seed, kadbi 
and chaff, which will be seen from the figures given below : — 



Yield per acre in lbs. 





Perio Juar .... 
Chafli Juar .... 
Sholapuri Juar .... 






From this it leads us to conclude that though timely treatment 
of the removal of affected plants at the time of thinning was not prac- 
tised, however, it yielded more in comparison with other resown and 
untreated plots by cutting back the affected shoots with dead-hearts 
later on. 

2. Tachinid fly parasites also play a very important part in con- 
trolling this borer. In the beginning of the monsoon these flies are 


hardly found but later on they multiply and in October and November 
they increase to such an extent that this borer is totally annihilated and 
hardly any Chilo caterpillars are found in the stem. In the year 1919, 
owing to late rains, the sowing of the crop was delayed so the percentage 
of borer attack in the crop about the middle of August varied from 
•25 per cent, to 1 per cent, which increased up to 47 per cent in some 
plots about the middle of September. At that time the Tachinid flv 
parasites were not sitting silent. They were also trying their utmost 
to beat the borer down and on calculating the percentage of the para- 
sites to that of borers, it was found to be about 10 per cent, at that 
time, which increased up to 70 per cent, in the middle of October, which 
was calculated by actually splitting open the affected stems and taking 
the proportion of borers to that of the parasites. In this way, in the 
later stages of the crop this borer is very effectively checked by these 
parasites. Trials were made to rear and breed out these fly parasites 
on a large scale in the insectary, and for that proper arrangements 
were made to feed the adult flies artificially on sugary juice ; but I have 
not yet succeeded to make them lay eggs on their hosts in a rearing 
cage, for which further trials are in progress. Another difficulty about 
the breeding of these flies is that they cannot be reared and bred out 
in winter in the insectary as well as in the field. 

Regarding the other borer, Sesamia, the caterpillars of which begin 
to appear in the more advanced stage of the crop, it does not kill the 
plant outright like the first, though several of them are found in one 
stalk ; however, it helps to decrease the yield of grain in ear-heads by 
making them small and bunchy at times. It usually begins from 
September and breeds on till the crop is being harvested, then it goes 
in the ofl'shoots given out from stumps remaining in the ground where 
it breeds even in summer. During the severe cold of winter it hiber- 
nates in the caterpillar stage in stalks. For tackling them nothing could 
be done till the crop is being harvested, then the remaining stalks and 
stumps in the ground could be dug out and burnt or split up and 
chaffed. ^ 

There is one Braconid parasite which preys upon these caterpillars, 
but it is not so prolific and efficient as the Tachinid ; so the best way of 
controlling this borer is by the immediate removal of stumps remaining 
in the ground after the harvest and burning them to put a stop to the 
further breeding of the pest. Further, on examining- the harvested 
stalks of Sorghum, it was observed that in the last month these stalks 
were found to contain the Sesamia borer, attack varying from 7 per 
cent, to 30 per cent. 


If therefore these stalks which are dried and being stored as fodder 
for cattle in summer and the following monsoon and which contain 
so much percentage of borers in the hibernating state at present are 
chaffed by power or hand-machines, there is every probability of des- 
troying most of these borers. 

Mr. Fletcher. Many of the names of these borers are still very uncertain. We 

can discriminate the larvae and the pupae fairly easily, but the deter- 
mination and nomenclature of the adults cannot be taken up until we 
get definitely named material. I was hoping to get this done when 
I attended the Entomological Conference in London, to which, as you 
know, I was prevented from going. About six years ago we sent 
material to Sir George Hampson for determination but his descriptions 
are difficult to apply to particular forms in many cases. 

The subject of cane-borers is a very important one. The Sugar 
Committee was brought into existence through the very great shortage 
and consequent high price of sugar. The total damage done by borers 
to sugarcane is enormous. In the evidence which I gave before the 
Committee at Simla I estimated it at Rs. 300,000,000. When our stafE 
is extended I hope to place at least one expert entirely on this work. 

Mr. Subramaniam. Mr. Ghosh in his paper mentioned that Diatrcea attacked the canes 
in early stages of its growth only, but in Mysore I have found larvae 
of DiatrcBa attacking mature tops at the time of harvesting. 

Mr. Gbosh. It would be useful if you would send in specimens to Pusa for examina- 

tion, as very little is known at present regarding cane-borers in Southern 

Mr. Inglis. Are any kinds of cane immune ? 

Mr. Ghosh. ^o '■> ^^* *^^^ varieties of cane are less attacked than the thick ones. 

Mr Ballard Regarding the percentage of attack in paddy, experiments are pro- 

ceeding to determine this, for I think it is usually much exaggerated. 
I was told by a Farm Manager of a 60 per cent, attack of Schoenobius 
bipunctifer ; an actual count over a hundred acres showed 4 to 5 per 
cent. At Coimbatore on paddy in th^ Farm, I asked the Manager to 
estimate the damage by borers and he placed it at 25 per cent. ; on a 
count over half-an-acre, this proved to be 0-4 to 0-7 per cent. 

Scolytids are potential pests of cane. I have found one attacking 
cumbu. It has not been recorded before. 

Mr. Deshpande. In Konkan I noticed in each plot of a 20-acre field damage of more 

than 70 per cent, due to Schoenobius. 

Mr. Subramaniam. I shoald like to know if the damage by Pachydiplosis oryzce occurs 
year after year ? 


No ; we get it once every third or fourth year. jIp, Deshpande. 

It would be of very great practical interest to know the causes of Mr. Fletcher, 
such fluctuation in the amount of damage done ; information on this 
subject rnight throw a good deal of light on the question of control. 
Possibly it is due to relative abundance of parasites. 

As to Cecidomyiads, there is one plot which I have observed to be Mr. Deshpande 
(badly attacked year after year. 

We are starting a special sub-station at Samalkota to study Rice Mr. Ballard 


By M. Afzal Husain, M.A. (Cantab.), Government Entomologist, Punjab, 
and Hem Singh Pruthi, M.Sc, Assistant Professor of Entomology, 

Idiocerus, the notorious and serious pest of mango inflorescence, 
occurs everywhere in the mango-growing tracts of the Punjab. It is 
especially abundant in the districts of Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and 
Lahore. The species that are commonly met with in the Punjab are 
I. atkinsoni {British India Fauna, Rhynchota, Vol. IV, p. 186) and another 
smaller species that most resembles /. clypealis. The identification of 
I. atkinsoni was very kindly verified by the Director, Imperial Bureau 
of Entomology, London. 

Amount of damage. The amount of damage that this pest causes to 
the Province can be estimated from the fact that a garden near Shalamar,. 
Lahore, which used to bring to its owner some Rs. 6,000 per annum, has, 
since 1912, when Tela began its ravages, steadily gone down in its pro- 
ductivity, year after year, and during the last three or four years it has 
not produced even a hundred ripe fruits, and this in spite of the fact that 
it has been flowering profusely every year. This garden covers only 13 
acres of land, and the loss incurred annually is about Rs. 6,000. In 
Gurdaspur district, a mango garden may sometimes extend over eight 
miles, and on the whole, nearly half of the cultivated land is under this 
fruit. In the Hoshiarpur district alone, there are over 14,932 acres of 
land under mango-orchards, and this fruit is the principal source of 
income of the people. About this district, Montgomery, in his Settle- 
ment Report (1883) says : — " when mango fruit fails, there is loss to the 
district of two lacs of rupees." In Lahore district also there are many 
big mango gardens which sufier every year from the attack of Tela. It 
is thus not difiicult to realize that this pest is causing an immense loss 
to the Province. 

Nature of damage. Hoppers that survive the preceding winter, 
move out in the beginning of the spring, from under the bark, and cluster 
on the floral buds, where they remain sucking the sap during the growth 
of the inflorescence. The female starts laying eggs when the blossom 
heads appear, i.e., about the second or third week of February. The 
nymphs are met with, for the first time, in the beginning of March. They 

( 148 ) 


moult five times during their life and reach the adult stage in about 
18-20 days. Most probably there is only a single generation in a year and 
the hoppers spend eleven months of their life as adults and it is as such 
that they hibernate. 

It is in the nymphal stage that the hoppers are most injurious to the 
flowers. The nymphs, which are in enormous numbers, are found 
clustering on the inflorescence. They suck the sap with the result that 
the flowers shrivel, turn brown and ultimately fall off. The attacked 
inflorescence has a blighted look and in case of severe attacks, can be 
noticed as such from a great distance. It seems likely that " Honey 
dew," falling from the higher flowers on the blossoms below, does some 
damage to the flowers and probably renders pollination difficult. 

The old gardens fall a special victim to this pest and the attack is 
all the more severe when the trees are very closely grown. Trees near 
the borders are generally less infested than those situated in the interior. 
In short, old dark and dense gardens, in regions having a hot and a slightly 
moist climate, afford a good breeding place for the hoppers. 

Habits. Soon after attaining maturity, the hoppers leave the blos- 
soms and move to the trunks. During the summer they congregate 
in large numbers on the lower surfaces of the basal horizontal branches 
of the trees and are found mainly in this portion between 9 a.m.. and 
5 P.M. Only a few of them remain on the leaves during this time of the 
day. But in the mornings and evenings the case is reversed ; they are 
more on the underside of the leaves than elsewhere. In this season, 
even during the earliest hours of the day, the hoppers are very active 
and the mere bringing of the hand near them, however gently, will make 
them hop off. 

In winter they are very inert and expose themselves very little to 
the external cool air. They hide under the bark, lie concealed in the 
crevices of the stems or find shelter between such leaves as are webbed 
together by spiders. Winter seems to effect them adversely, as at the 
end of this season their number is greatly reduced. 

Control. It is clear, from what has been described previously, that 
the breeding season of the hoppers does not precede or follow, but coin- 
cides with the flowering season of the mango trees. An attempt to 
spray the plants in the spring when the pest in its nymphal stage, is 
likely to do more harm than good, because there is every chance of killing 
the flowers along with the insects. The opened mango flowers are so 
delicate that they cannot stand a forcible spray even of warm water. 
With this in view we tried winter sprays, but we found that after 10 a.m. 
the hoppers were too active to receive a sufficient shower of insecticide 
to kill them. It was, therefore, thought advisable to hit them when 


they were more sluggisli. On visiting a garden early in the morning 
at 6 A.M., in the middle of December, when the weather is sufficiently 
cold in the Punjab, the hoppers were found quite inactive, hiding behind 
the bark and reluctant to hop off even when disturbed with the end of a 
pencil. Spraying operations were at once commenced and some 
400 trees were taken in hand for experiment. The trees were sprayed 
for only about three hours every day (6 a.m. to 9-30 a.m.). 

Various insecticides, such as Resin wash, Fishoil Resin soap, 
Macdougal's fluid. Sanitary fluid, Soap, Crude oil emulsion. Tobacco 
decoction, and Phenol were tried one after the other, and it was found 
that an insecticide having Resin or some other sticky substance as one 
of its constituents was more effective, because it made the sluggish 
hoppers stick to the plants. 

Resin wash was tried (3 seers in 30 gallons of water). Plants were 
visited five hours after the spray, and insects were found stuck to the 
tree trunks, some dead, but many still kicking and moving their legs. 
This showed that Resin by itself did not kill them. It was therefore 
proposed to mix a strong contact poison with resin and the following 
were tried : — 

Sanitary fluid, Tobacco decoction, Crude oil emulsion, Solignum, 
and Soap. As is evident from the examination of detailed observations 
given below, Resin and Solignum or Resin and Crude oil emulsion, proved 
very effective; the former being cheaper was given preference. It must 
be remarked that pure Resin is not so sticky as crude Resin, hence the 
latter was used. To dissolve Resin in water, the addition of a small 
amount of crude oil was essential. 

The following are proportions of the different constituents of the 
insecticides used : — 

Resin 2 seers } <s a i 

Soda 1 seer I %^^^ ^ ^f^ I 2 seers of Crude Oil 

o T o > or Crude oil ^ seer > or -c^ i . 

Solignum 2 seers / „ v o i Emulsion. 

itT i oe 11 bolienum 2 seers 

Water 25 gallons J Water 25 gallons J 

The trees under experiment were 60 years old, and in height varied 
between 25-30 feet. On an average ten gallons of insecticide were 
required for one tree. The cost of the insecticide was 0-6-0 for Resin 
and Solignum and a little more for Resin and Crude Oil. 

The garden under experiment is notorious for being the most heavily 
attacked mango-orchard near Lahore. It is to bear fruits next summer, 
but the effect of the winter spraying was evident from the number of 
dead hoppers that were seen a short time after a spraying operation. 
To get an idea of the numbers killed, counts were made and the hoppers 
seen'within a definite period of time, dead or living, were recorded. The 
results of these counts are given below : — 



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Conclusion. "We have been able to give only one tliorougli spray 
to the trees this year. There were many difficulties as regards supply 
of water, a thing mostly needed for our operations. The owner of the 
garden was absolutely indifferent. The trees were very tall and the 
spraying machine at our disposal was the ordinary Four-oaks lime 
washing machine. With a power sprayer that is expected soon, we 
hope to achieve better results. 

As is shown in the accompanying table, we killed 56-92 -per cent, 
of the hoppers, in one spraying, but a number escaped. We are, however, 
inclined to believe that two thorough sprayings must be given in order 
to exterminate the pest totally. The first in the beginning of December. 
The second in the middle of January ; if there is need a third might be 
given in the second week of February but not later. Spraying should be 
done during the mornings only, when the temperature is so low tha;t the 
hoppers are inactive and do not fly much. 




By E. Ballard, B.A., F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Madras, and 
Rao Sahib Y. Ramachandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Assistant Entomo- 
logist, Madras. 

(Plate XXVI). 

Foodplant — Pithecolohium dulce ', Coffee. 

While sorting and arranging the cage slips from the lusectary, I 
came across the following notes on the lifehistory of Nafada nararia. 
Our attention was called to this insect by the fact that the larvae were 
defoliating a hedge {Pithecolohium dulce) which surrounded the Gas 
Works on the College Estate. 

As it was to the aesthetic interest of the community that the hedge 
should be saved more important problems were for the moment set aside 
and our attention concentrated on this Limacodid. 

In the Fauna of India, Vol. I, p. 382, Sir George Hampson gives the 
following description of the adult : — 

Pale brownish ochreous. Fore wing with basal two thirds redder 
and bordered outwardly by a dark brown somewhat diffuse 
curved line. 

" The form " signata " from Ceylon has the forewing more or less 
sufEused with brown, sometimes with a conspicuous black dot at end 
of cell " Exp. 12-20, 22 mm. 

He gives the following localities : — 

Dharmsala, Mhow, Nilgiris, Ceylon. 

Egg. Pale yellow, elliptical, flat, resembling a young Lecanium, 
1-25 mm., laid singly on both sides of the leaves and on the sides of cage. 

Number laid. Female in cage A laid 158 (15th January 1914) ; she 
was then put into " B " and laid 21 more, transferred to " E " and laid 
20 more, transferred to ' F " and laid no more and died, i.e., between 
dates 14th-15th January 1914 and 17th-18th January 1914 she laid 
158 plus 20 plus 21 =199. 

Another in cage C, 16th-17th January 1914, laid 73. 
Transferred to " D " morning of 20th January 1914, found dead, 
having laid 8 more eggs ; 73 plus 8 equal to 81. 

Cage X. 17th January 1914, moths in cop. put in. 

( 153 ) 

Page 153 




17th-18th January 1914. Laid 18 eggs. Male removed, transferred 

18th- loth January 1914 laid 14 eggs. Transferred to Z. Morning 
of 20th found dead. Total 32 eggs. 

Moths which emerged 19th January 1914, on 20th January 1914 
were put into 4 cages. 17 eggs were laid including a chain of 9 attached 
to a dead moth. By 24th all moths were dead. 

Cage 6. A pair put in 21st January 1914 and on 21st-22nd January 
1914, 3 chains of eggs were laid with hairs adhering, 56 eggs in all. Moths 
were transferred to cage 7. By 23rd January 1914, 53 eggs were laid 
and male was dead. Female transferred and laid 48 eggs. Female 
transferred, laid 12 more. Female transferred, 2 more (26th January 
1914), 28th January 1914, 2 more. 29th January 1914 moth found dead 
i.e., between 21st January 1914 and 29th January 1914, laid 153. Time 
taken to hatch : — 

Eggs laid 15th-16th January 1914 hatched out by 8-30 a.m., on 
morning 21st January 1914, remainder of these had hatched by 22nd 
January 1914, 5-6 days. 

Eggs laid on night 16th-17th January 1914, some hatched 21st 
January 1914, others 22nd January 1914 ; 4 to 5 days. 

Eggs laid on night 17th-18th January 1914 hatched 23rd January 
19»14, 5 days. 

Cage X, eggs laid on night 17th-18th January 1914 hatched 23rd 
January 1914 am. 5 days. 

Cage 7, eggs laid on night 18th-19th January 1914, hatched 24th 
January 1914 am. 5 days. 

Short description of egg (Plate XXVI, Fig. 1) Egg has been already 
described as a flattened scale-like object, pale yellow in colour. On the 
2nd day the yolk appears to be concentrated at the sides of the egg 
and a clear kidney-shaped space appears in the middle. 

3rd day this space is larger, yolk is more concentracted, embryo 
is seen clearly. 

4th day, red patch appears at the end of the embryo a*nd the edges 
of the clear area are becoming opaque. 

5th day. Two dark eye like spots appeared, behind these an oblique 
red brown patch ; the red patch has deepened and forms a semi- 
circular band at one pole. 

Larva, just hatched, rather less than 1 mm. in length. Colour yellow 
brown with two red brown stripes on dorsal surface of IV, V, VI, VII 


segments. Larva is beset with spiniferous processes placed in four 
rows, 2 lateral, 2 subdorsal. The spines are bifid at the tip. The head 
is hidden by the projecting prothoracic shield and the anterior s^jines. 
It is strongly mandibulate and has singularly large legs. Prolegs 
absent and replaced by the foot typical of Limacodids. (Plate XXVI, 
Fig. 2). 

Larval life. After first moult which takes place in 48 hours from, 
the time of hatching the larva is 1-4 mm. in length. The colour bands 
have deepened and concentrated. Spiniferous tubercles are a quite 
difierent shape. Central spine is not bifid and there are two circles of 
strong dark spines surrounding base of central spine, 
r In another 48 hours larva moults again. It is now 2-2 mm. long. 
Colour is greener, dorso-lateral colour band deeper in colour and more 

Next moult (48 hours) length 3 mm. Dorsal spiniferous tubercles 
are white with black spines. First three lateral spines white, tubercles 
black, anal tubercles have black spines, others colourless. 

When 5-5 mm. in length body is green above with dorsal stripe of 
anterior |- greenish bordered by pink and yellow streak, post. | purplish 
bordered by yellow, this is constricted in two places by the yellow encro- 
aching upon the purple dividing it into 3 parts. Tubercles have several 
rows of spines ; terminal spines long and white (pale) 3 anterior tubercles 

Full-grown larva, 8-11 mm. in length. 

General ground colour apple green. 3 anterior spiniferous processes 
rose colour or, and more usually, bright crimson. 

Eunning fore and aft a pair of bright yellow streaks placed latero-dors- 
ally along the bases of the latero-dorsal rows of processes placed between 
the two rows of latero-dorsal processes are three lozenge-shaped 
patches of bright crimson between segments I and III, V, VI, and on 
VII. Lozenges are separated by green, or by dilations of the yellow 
streaks. There is faint mid-dorsal narrow yellow streak. This is the 
average typical specimen. 

In some the crimson patch occupies the greater part of the mid- 
dorsal area — the three lozenges forming one stripe and extending for- 
ward along the yellow streaks and enclosing a median green patch j oining 
with the red of the anterior tubercles. In others again the two posterior 
lozenges coalesce, leaving the anterior one separate. Again, two red 
spots mark the position which should have been held by the lozenges, 
the remainder of the space being green. Finally, some show no trace of 
red lozenge-shaped patches ; the larva is entirely green except for a pair 
of latero-dorsal yellow stripes. 


The cocoon is spherical and kept in place between the leaflets by a 
tangle of silk threads. 

The pupa is 6 mm. in length, stout and roughly oval. Eyes are 
prominent, wing rudiments plainly seen and extending to eighth 
abdominal segment. They are separated medianally by leg rudiments. 
Between eyes is a broadenad cross ridge of chitin. Posterior end 
is blunt and 

The moth has already been described. It possesses the rather quaint 
habit of sitting up like a " begging dog." 

One unfertilized moth lived in laboratory, 21st-25th January 1914 ; 
fertilized moths lived from 4 to 9 days. The average life appeared to be 
5 days but this was under Insectary conditions and not the actual life 
in nature. 

Characteristic lifehistory. Notes. 

Eggs laid 7th-8th March 1914. 

Hatched, llth-12th March 1914. Spines bifid at tip ; larvae did not 
feed, had appearance to naked eye of transparent ovoid bodies with 
purplish nucleus (-8 mm.). 

1st moult, 12th-13th March 1914. By 11 a.m., in most cases. Period 
12-14 larvse were feeding on the parenchyma and leaving veins (1-4 

2nd moult, 17th-18th March 1914. One moulted before others and 
was feeding on 18th morning. 

20th both larvse feeding on parenchyma by 11 a.m., on 21st both 
were about to moult (2-2 mm.). 

3rd moult, 21st-22nd March 1914. Moulted and feeding by morning 
of 22nd March 1914 ; length 3-2 mm. 

4th moult, 24th-25th March 1914. 

24th March 1914, one was about to moult. 

25th March 1914, other about to moult. 

5th moult, 30th-31st March 1914. One larva died. Survivor was 
of the green variety with only very faint pink colouration. 

8th April 1914. Found to have pupated. 

20th-21st April 1914. Moth emerged. 

Total length of life from egg to moth, 44 days. 

Total life from egg to pupa, 31 days. 

Other egg period very constant at 4 days. 

Larval life, 31 days. 

Pupal periods, 14 to 16 days. 

This may be taken as typical, others showed aa above. The larva 
is parasitized by an unnamed Braconid. 

Page U7 


'■T?^-?' h' ■'■'' 


Fig. 2.— 1, parasitic larvae which have emerged and span their cocoons on 
the body of the host caterpillar, which has died (>3) ; 2, adult parasite, 
male {x7) ; 3, adult parasite, female (x7) ; 4, egg, highly magnified ; 
5, larva, full-grown { x4) ; 6, pupa (x 4) ; 7, cocoons ( x4). 

MicropUHs sp. 

Page 157 


Fig. 1. — Processor spinning of cocoons by the larvae ; 1, mature larva emerging 
through skin of host ; 2, larva commencing to spin its cocoon ; 3, spinning 
continued ; 4, upper half of cocoon finished ; 5, the larva turning around 
and finishing off the second half of the cocoon ; 6, cocoon completed. 

Microplitis sp. 


By H. L. DuTT, B.A., M.Sc.A. (Cornell), Officiating Economic Botanist, 

Bihar and Orissa. 

Agrotis ypsilon, Rott., which is a very serious pest of the Rahi crops 
in some of the chaur lands in the Province of Bihar and Orissa, has 
several parasites, none of which under natural conditions can keep 
the pest under control, on account of the adverse conditions obtaining 
in the areas concerned. Of these, the most common is a Braconid, 
probably a Microgaster sp., which is much in evidence in the destructive 
second brood of the caterpillar pest, when it is too late to be of any 
real benefit to the crop, since by the time an affected brood of caterpillars 
succumbs to the attack of the parasite the damage to the crop has 
already been done. For the last two years a considerable amount of 
work has been done on this parasite, in the Insectary at Sabour, with 
a view to finding out if it is possible to utilise it as a means of control of 
the cater pillar pest. The parasite has not been identified yet but the 
Imperial Entomologist has kindly undertaken to get it named correctly. 
A short summary of the work is given below : — 

/. Life History of the parasite. 

Eggs. The eggs are cylindrical and elongated with the two ends 
round and slightly curved in the middle [Plate XXVII Fig. 2{^)]. They 
are extremely small, not visible without the help of a lens or microscope 
and are laid just under the skin of very young host caterpillars. The 
eggs are laid on any part of the host's body but generally on the dorsal 
side of the last segment of the thorax or first few segments of the abdomen. 
An adult female suddenly drops on the back of the host caterpillar and 
immediately cormnences to make the incision with the ovipositor. The 
host wriggles with pain and sometimes turns round and round but the 
parasite does not let go its hold. The number of eggs laid at a time by 
one female parasite has not been determined but under field conditions 
it is certain that one female lays eggs on more than one host. The egg 
content of a gravid female parasite has, on dissection, been found to be 
about 200 but the result of dissection of a large number of naturally 
parasitized caterpillars collected from the fields shows that the number 
of parasite larvae in one host insect's body varies from 20 to 60. Under 

( 167 ) 


Insectary conditions, however, when one caterpillar was confined with 
several pairs of parasites, it has been found that as many as 400-500 
eggs may be laid on one host. But in cases like these the number of 
parasites is so disproportionately large that the caterpillars soon succumb 
to their attack and the grubs consequently die before coming to maturity. 
No such case has been recorded among naturally parasitized caterpillars 
where on account of their small number and consequence abundance of 
food supply they mature and come out to spin cocoons outside the body 
of the host. It has not been possible to determine the exact length of 
the egg stage as the eggs hatch inside the body of the host. It may be 
said here that egg laying is always done on very young host cater- 
pillars during the first and second instars only. 

Larva. A full grown larva is 5-5 mm. long and 1-5 mm. wide, thickest 
at the middle narrowing to a point at the anterior end and bluntly 
rounded at the posterior where beyond the last abdominal segment there 
is an elongated oval pouch-like appendage about 1 mm. long with a con- 
striction in between it and the abdomen [Plate XXVII, Fig. 2 (S)]. 
There are fourteen segments in the body besides the pouch and the 
head is retractile. The colour of a young larva is milky white but as 
it grows the middle portion of the body becomes gradually darker until 
in the full grown stage it becomes very dark with the two sides opaque 
white. Within the body of the host they remain mainly confined in the 
abdominal area and as stated before they never mature if there are too 
many of them within one host. The factors determining the length of 
this stage are temperature and humidity. In December and January the 
length of the egg and larval stages varies from 28 to 34 days in January 
and in February it has been found to be 25 days. But the gradually 
rising temperature in spring exerts its stimulating influence on its vital 
functions and reduces the period to 17 days in March and still further to 
12 days in April. 

Pwpa. When a larva matures it punctures the skin of the host and 
gradually makes its way out until the skin round the aperture sits as a 
collar on the constriction between the abdomen and the pouch of the 
emerging larva and it is held firmly in position so as to be able to spin 
its cocoon. Then it commences to spin small loops just in front of the 
head, by moving it in different directions and gradually extends it, over 
the head, backwards and sideways until the anterior half of the body 
is covered with the half formed cocoon [Plate XXVII, Fig. 1 (4)]. The 
larva then stops spinning and continues to wriggle and twitch its body 
until the pouch is extracted out, which by this time is reduced to half 
its original size. It then turns completely round, i.e., the posterior end 
is thrust into the half-formed cocoon and the head is brought towards 


the body of tlie host. It then bends its head upwards and begins 
spinning again at the unfinished end until the second half is completed 
when it has an elongated oval shape with the anterior end more pointed 
than the other, [Plate XXVII, Fig. 1 (^)]. The cocoons are formed 
side by side in a compact mass and rest loosely on the body of the 
host, which by this time is reduced to about half its original size. 
[Plate XXVII, Fig. 2 (i)]. The host becomes motionless as soon as 
the larvae within commence to make their way out, and by the time 
the cocoons are finished, about 12 hours, it dies. The length of the 
pupal stage varies considerably at different seasons of the year. In 
November it varies from 9 to 12 days, in December it is 17 days, in 
January and February 11 days and in March 8 days. Towards the end 
of March or early in April, when the temperature rises considerably and 
relative humidity falls, the grubs within sestivate and they come 
out as adults in autumn next under normal conditions. In the 
hills, emergence from sestivating cocoons commences with the break of 
the South-west monsoon in June. An adult insect makes its way out 
of the cocoon by cutting out a circular disc at one end which hangs like 
a lid. 

Adult. There is no marked external character by which the male 
and female insects may be distinguished, except in the lengths of the 
antennae which in the male is somewhat longer than that of the female 
[Plate XXVII, Figs. 2 {^, ^)], They become active within an hour 
after emergence from cocoon and begin to pair. The length of the 
adult stage is about 3 to 4 days after which they die irrespective of 
whether egg laying has been done or not. As regards their selection of 
host insect a gravid female parasite lays eggs only on caterpillars of 
Agrotis ypsiloji. Several attempts have been made to breed them on 
Tobacco caterpillar [Prodenia litura) but always without success. 

II. Life cycle under -field conditions. 

The adults first appear in the field presumably with the first brood 
of host insect, i.e., in September or October when the flood water is about 
to drain away, but its presence is not noticed until it has passed through 
a few broods and attacked the destructive second brood of the cater- 
pillar pest. Among the first brood caterpillars it is only rarely that a 
parasitized one is found but in November and December the number 
of parasites increases so enormously that 50 to 70 per cent, of the late 
brood caterpillars are found to be afiected. This high percentage of 
parasitization in the second brood of the caterpillar pest has no beneficial 
effect on the crop as when the caterpillars succumb to their attack the 
damage to the crop has already been done. The parasite remains active 


up to February and March but with the rising temperature and gradually 
decreasing humidity their functional activity, which reaches its maximum 
in February and March, is reversed and the grubs after spinning the 
cocoons go into aestivation. The aestivating cocoons lie scattered all 
over the attacked area in large numbers but the majority of them are 
killed ofi by the adverse conditions obtaining in the chaur lands, viz., 
extremely dry hot winds in April and May but submergence under flood 
water for about tw^o months in the rains. It is only those few 
formed in favourable situations which survive through summer and the 
rains. The favourable spots are the deep cracks in the soil, with which 
the whole surface is interspersed, way up on the comparatively higher 
land bordering the flooded areas and beyond the flood water level. The 
moisture content of soil in such cracks at different depths was determined 
in May 1919 and was found to be 9-5 per cent, at a depth of 6 inches, 
16-6 per cent, at 12 inches and 21-0 per cent, at 18 inches. Samples of 
soils were collected on a day when the temperature in shade was 108°F. 
relative humidity of the atmosphere varied from 10 to 20 at midday and 
there had been no rain during the previous 15 days. As regards 
temperature it should be quite favourable at such depth as in high 
lands the difference between the temperature of soil at the first inch and 
at a depth of 18 inches is about 18°F. in May. The conditions at the 
bottom of the cracks are therefore favourable enough for keeping the 
cocoons alive but not for the development of the grubs within or for the 
emergence of the adults which require a much lower temperature. When 
therefore the caterpillar pest first appears in the field under normal 
conditions in September or October the number of surviving parasites 
is far too low to be of any effective use in controlling the first brood. 
With the appearance of the host insect however, they continue to have 
brood after brood until their number is sufficiently large in December to 
enable them to parasitize 70 per cent, of the enormously large destructive 
second brood of the caterpillar pest. 

///. Reactions to Temperature and Humidity. 

With a view to utilizing the parasite as a means of controlling the 
caterpillar pest, its reactions to temperature and humidity are being 
studied in the Insectary at Sabour for the last two years. The object of 
the work has been to determine the factors controlling its aestivation and 
emergence definitely so as to be able to have in hand enough parasites, 
readily emerged, in September or October for liberation in the affected 
areas just when the first brood of the caterpillar pest is noticed there. 
Under ordinary conditions it is not possible to have a large number of 
adult parasites at that time as they cannot be reared through the summer 

Page 161 



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.— ' 



lienfiJ) of pupal sia^e. 


and the rains on account of the heat which is above the temperature of 
effective rearing of either the host or its parasite. It was therefore 
decided to try to control its aestivation and emergence if possible by 
artificially regulating the moisture and temperature conditions of its 
surroundings. It may be said that as regards temperature there is for 
each insect (or animal) a certain degree of heat which is most favourable 
to its well being and obviously every rise or fall of temperature above or 
below this point must to a certain extent be injurious to it. It may 
be also taken as granted that the well being of an insect depends far more 
essentially on the variations and extremes of temperature than on the 
absolute degree of heat. From the very freezing point, a rising tem- 
perature begins to exert its stimulating influence on the vital functions 
of every living thing up to a certain point when the functions are at the 
highest possible stress under the optimum temperature which of course is 
different in different animals. If the heat rises above this optimum, 
the effects are reversed, the functional activity is more or less reduced 
till at last a comatose condition is reached just preceding the death of 
the organism, which ensues under too great heat. The same may be 
said to be practically the case with humidity. Its effect on the speed 
of animal metabolism is extremely variable and different insects have 
probably different optimum points of humidity. In many cases 
moist air is known to retard the development of insects while in others 
it seems to hasten it. From a large number of observations made on 
parasite cocoons under different temperature conditions in the Insectary 
it has been seen that at about 80°F. (this is the mean of the 
maximum temperature for two weeks preceding the emergence 
from the cocoon) the functional activity of the parasite pupa is the 
greatest and the length of the pupal stage under such condition is 
5 days. If the temperature goes higher the grub within becomes 
dormant and if it falls below it the pupal period gradually 
lengthens out until at 53°F. it is as long as 58 days. The relation 
between temperature and the length of pupal stage is shown in the 
graph. (Plate XXVIII). Unfortunately it has not been found prac- 
ticable to maintain the mean of the maximum temperature at a point 
considerably below 53°F. in which case it might have been possible to 
determine the lower temperature limit for the functional activity of the 
parasite. As regards the higher limit it has been seen that when the 
temperature is allowed to rise above 85°F. the emergence of parasites 
from cocoons completely stops. This is clearly shown in the graph 
(Plate XXVIII), in which the curve representing the lengths of the pupal 
stages of a certain number of insect has been compared with that re- 
presenting the corresponding temperatures influencing the same. The 


heavy left hand vertical line represents the number of days (pupal 
stage) and the right hand one, temperature. This temperature is not 
absolute but is the mean of the maximum temperatures for 14 days 
previous to the emergence of the adult parasite, to which a cocoon has 
been exposed. The vertical lines A. B. C, etc., representing each one 
cocoon, have on them shown lengths of the pupal stages of the 
different cocoons and their corresponding temperature. It has further 
been seen that when the emergence stopped for some cocoons on 
account of the rise of temperature above 85°F. the functional activity 
of the pupse may be revived even after two months, if they are 
again placed under favourable temperature conditions {i.e., below 
80°F.). It shows that any rise of temperature above 80°F. if it is 
too high, only arrests the development temporarily, but the vitality is 
not lost as it may again be revived by reintroducing the favourable 
conditions. So far, therefore, as temperature is concerned it has been 
found possible, by regulating it, to make the parasite pupae or grubs 
emerge as adults, at any desired time, provided of coarse due time allow- 
ance is given to the sestivating parasite by way of exposure to favour- 
able temperature conditions. Now it remains to find out how best it is 
possible to force the parasite cocoons to become dormant, i.e., to get into 
aestivation. This may probably be accomplished by exposing them 
to continued low temperature much below 53°F. but since it is not 
economical to maintain it for several months, it has been found necessary 
to handle the problem by modifying humidity which is more easy to 
control than temperature. An experunent on this line is at present being 
conducted but it has not been completed yet. From this experiment it 
was been seen that when a freshly formed cocoon is kept in a vessel 
maintaining a constant Relative Humidity of 5°, it becomes dormant. 
Adult insects emerged from a check lot of the same batch of cocoons in 
15 days but the treated cocoons on being taken out of the vessel after two 
months were on examination found to be still living as healthy grubs 
within the cocoons in a dormant condition. Trials are at present being 
made to revive them and make them emerge as adults under favourable 
humid conditions. If this proves successful the problem of utiHzing 
this parasite as a means of control will resolve itself into :— 

(1) Collection of parasite cocoons from the affected area in February 

and March when they are common there or to breed them 
out in the Insectary in large numbers in winter, when both 
the host and parasite are active and to enforce dormancy 
on them by placing them under proper dry conditions and 

(2) to make the adults emerge from the dormant cocoons in Septem- 

ber or October by exposing the whole lot of them, in due 
time, to favourable temperature conditions. 


The second part of the work has already been done satisfactorily 
and as regards the first a few more months worlc is necesfary to come 
to a definite conclusion and if as satisfactory and definite a result is 
obtained in this case as in the first, it is hoped that it will be possible 
to control a very serious pest of the Province by a much cheaper and 
more effective method than has hitherto been employed. 

At Pus3 we have been able to carry Agrotis ypsilon on through the Mr. Fletcher, 
hot weather into August. 

I could not carry it through the summer. I tried all favourable Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
conditions. It is drier South of the Ganges than North of it. Our 
humidity goes down to 10-12 per cent. Pusa, I understand, does not 
go below 25 per cent. 

We tried experiments on prolonging the development of resting Mr. Beeson. 
lon^icorn larvae by desiccation and found that though we could delay 
it for a few weeks, further delay resulted in death and we could never 
postpone it until next year. Desiccation went on for several months 
during the resting period of the larvae, which lost up to 75 per cent, of 
water before they died. 

Where did you get the Shillong larvaj of Agrofiff ypsilon ? Mr. Fletcher. 

From potato on the farm at Upper Shillong. Mr. Gupta. 

I have never seen Agrotis ypsilon in Shillong. Were there any Mr. Fletcher, 
parasites on the specimens from Shillong ? 

These specimens were reared in the Insectary and the adults proved Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
to be ^. ypsilon. There were no parasites on the Shillong larvse. 

In the Plains of Assam we get the caterpillars of A. ypsilon very Mr. Gupta, 
commonly and also the parasites. 

There are two Braconid parasites in Bihar. Which one do you get Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
in Assam ? 

The one with the white cocoon. Mr. Gupta. 

The one with the brown cocoon is more common in Bihar. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 


By Rao Sahib Y. Eamachandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Assistant Entomo- 
logist^ Coimbatore. 

Mesopotamia in its strict sense refers to the land between the two 
rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The land under British occupa- 
tion at present and going under the name of Mesopotamia is the great 
low-lying plain stretching from the highlands of Kurdistan in the North 
to the shores of the Persian Gulf, and lying between the highlying Persian 
Plateau on the East to the tableland of the Arabian Desert on the West. 
Geographically it consists of two distinct portions — a northern half 
extending down to a few miles north of the latitude of Baghdad and 
consisting of a region of undulating steppe land — covered with grasses 
and beautiful flowering shrubs in spring and dry during the rest of 
the year. It is known as " Al Jezirah " or the Island. The Southern 
known as " Iraq Arabi" is a region of a dead level alluvial fiat, stretching 
from above Baghdad down to the sea. Excepting the banks of rivers 
and the neighbourhood of canals which are marked by groves of the Date 
Palm and clumps of Poplars, Iraq is absolutely devoid of trees and almost 
the only vegetation noticeable on this vast plain is the ubiquitous Camel- 
thorn {Agool, At.) and the " Shoq " (Prosojns). Lower down, where the 
Tigris and Euphrates annually spread their overflowing waters over 
all the lowlying portions, the plain dissolves itself into a region 
of permanent marshes covered with rushes and tall grasses. The 
soil is a fine alluvium which is extremely fertile and stands in need of 
little else than the fertilising waters of the twin rivers to produce an 
abundant harvest. That the land was in ancient times intensely culti- 
vated and highly prosperous is beyond doubt, as is indeed fully testified 
by the ruined banks of ancient canals which seam the country in all 
directions and serve as the only landmarks in an indescribable waste 
as limitless as the sky. The marvellous find of the most ancient library 
and inscriptions known to man written in the Cuneiform Script— the 
deciphering of which has been a romance in the history of archaeology — 
has disclosed to the world what a highly developed standard of civiliza- 
tion had been attained in the times of the ancient Babylonian and 
Assyrian Empires. Various Kings of Babylon have in their inscrip- 
tions commemorated the construction of numerous famous canals many 
of which may be recognized in their ruined condition even at the present 

( 164 ) 


time. Mesopotamia has been referred to by various Greek and Eoman 
writers as the granary of the world, indicating a highly developed type 
of cultivation, and even as late as the period of Harun-al-Rashid — the 
balmy days of the delightful Arabian Nights— the country appears to 
have been exceedingly prosperous. Historians affirm that the trans- 
formation of this delightful picture into the present scene of desolation 
is due to the inroad of hordes of barbarous Mongols under the Chieftain- 
ship of Hulagu who about 1230 A. D. swept through the land, plundered 
the city of Baghdad and destroyed the canals, leading not only to the 
destruction of the cultivation but also to the inundation in succeeding 
years of high floods of large areas of land — now converted into permanent 
marshes. After several successive periods of anarchy, the land came 
under the subjection of Turkey, but partly due to the distance of this 
province from the capital and partly due to the general ineptitude of 
the Turk the development of the resources of this rich tract remained in 
abeyance. It is only recently since the British occupation that the 
question of the development of irrigation has begun to receive attention 
and, if political conditions allow of it, there is no reason why this 
province should not again attain to its ancient glories. 

Seasons. Mesopotamia lies really in the Temperate Zone, and 
enjoys a mild winter resembling that of the South of Europe, but as it 
falls within the area of the rainless arid zone passing from the Sahara 
through Egypt and Arabia into Mongolia, it is subject to an excessively 
hot summer. There are four definitely defined seasons as in Europe : 
spring, summer, autumn and winter. In winter temperatures as low 
as 20°F. may be experienced while in the north near Mosul there is 
regular snowfall in winter. The scanty rain amounting to an average 
of 5 inches in the year is received in the winter months, the largest fall 
being in March. There is a well-defined spring, most noticeable in the 
North. The summer is practically rainless and is subject to hot desert 
wmds and very high temperatures, reaching to 126°or more at Basrah. 
The cumate cools down in autumn which imperceptibly merges into 

Cultivation. Being mainly a rainless tract, it is very uncommon to 
find crops raised solely by the help of rain, except in the extreme north 
near Mosul and the sub-montane tracts along the Persian Hills, where a 
heavier rainfall as well as snowfall is experienced. In these places wheat 
and barley are the crops "mostly raised. In the rest of the country, 
cultivation is entirely dependent on irrigation. Around Basrah the 
periodical rise in the level of the river water owing to the influence of 
the tides is taken advantage of for irrigating the abundant Date groves. 
Along the Euphrates area and in the Diyalah River area around Baqubah, 



there is a regular system of canals leading water from the rivers to the 
cultivated areas. In addition to these, there are at various points along 
both the rivers certain canals in which water is available only in seasons 
of high flood which occurs regularly in April-May. In Sub-montane 
tracts springs rising in mountain-sides are exploited for raising various 
crops. The most usual means of irrigation is however, the water-lift — 
either the Persian Wheel or the Mhote driven by ponies (Ar. Cherid), or 
the pumps driven by Oil-engines. Owing to its dependence on river 
water, it will thus be seen that, except in the case of the regular irrigation 
canals, cultivation is confined mostly to the riverbanks. 

The most predominant element of Mesopotamian Agriculture is the 
culture of the Date Palm. The Date Palm forms the wealth of the 
Arab and is a dearly cherished object regarded almost as one of his 
children. The continuous belt of Date forest extending from the 
mouth of the Shatt-al-Arab for a distance of nearly 90 miles up the river 
up to very near Kurnah, is unrivalled in the world both in extent and 
quality. In addition to the Basrah area, there are numerous patches of 
Date cultivation both along the Euphrates and the Tigris and in numerous 
isolated localities like Mendali and Bedrah. The Date Palm does not 
flourish further than 50 or 60 miles north of Baghdad owing to the 
occurrence of heavy frosts. Next to the Date is wheat and barley 
which are the staple grains of the land. Paddy is grown under canal 
irrigation and in marshy situations near the Basrah area, while in favour- 
able situations like B'aqubah large areas of fruit-trees are noticeable, 
the chief fruits being Apricots, Peaches, Nectarines, Pomegranates, 
Figs and Grapes. In the neighbourhood of large towns immense quan- 
tities of vegetables are grown for the supply of the local markets, the 
chief vegetables being turnips, cabbages, cauliflower and beet in winter 
and ladyfingers, brinjals, cucumbers, radish and beans in summer. Of 
late the activities of the Agricultural Department have demonstrated 
the great possibilities of cotton as an industrial crop in Mesopotamia. 

Insects in Mesopotamia. Contrary to the generally accepted view, 
insects are by no means scarce in Mesopotamia. In summer, however, 
owing to the extreme heat, several of the insects are in a state of aestiva- 
tion, while the extreme rigours of the winter frosts compel many other 
insects to undergo a state of hibernation. The advent of the spring, 
however, is an occasion for a very remarkable outburst of life. Butter- 
flies are seen fluttering in the emerald green fields, varieties of rosechafers 
are noticeable on flowers, and the hum of the bees is everywhere in the 
air, while the abundance of nocturnal insects that crowd around the dinner 
table at night and persist in committing suicide in various viands makes 
life a burden in the spring months. The general character of the insect 


fauna appears to be Palaearctic and of the south Mediterranean type. 
A general collection of insect was made as far as time permitted, and is of 
course by no means exhaustive and the non-availability of literature in 
general and on the Mesopotamia fauna in particular placed me in the 
position of a man groping in the dark. 

Insect-pests of Mesopotamia. It may perhaps be readily conceded 
that a single year cannot be considered to be a period long enough to 
make an exhaustive study of the insect pests of any province. The 
task was especially difficult in a country which was at best just beginning 
to get settled and was before long unfortunately in the throes of an 
internal rebellion. As falls to the share of pioneer workers, there was a 
scarcity of apparatus in the earlier part of the period, and throughout, 
a lack of of help in routine work. I trust the above adverse circum- 
stances may be held to be sufficient excuse for the imperfect nature of 
many of my observations. 

A certain amount of entomological work of economic interest was 
found to have been done previous to my arrival in Mesopotamia. Mr. 
(then Captain) P. A. Buxton of the R.A.M.C, had been deputed to 
report on a disease of the Date Palm causing a good percentage of young 
fruits to dry up and drop off. His observations were published as a 
Bulletin of the Agricultural Department, Mesopotamia, in 1919. These 
have reappeared in a modified form in a recent number of the Bulletin 
of Entomological Research. In addition to the pests on Date, he has 
also worked on a Lymantriad pest on Figs and certain other injurious 
insects on crops. Major C. R. Winshurst, who was Government Entomo- 
logist at Baghdad till May 1920, had made various observations which 
have been incorporated in the Annual Report of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment for the year 1919-1920. I am indebted to these two authors for 
information regarding several of the pests. 

The following is a list of pests found on the various crops either 
collected by me personally or reported officially from the various 
parts of the country. It is greatly to be regretted that, as many of 
the insects belong to a type of fauna different from the Indian, the 
major number cannot be identified with any certainty even with the help 
of the large collections at Pusa, 

1. Date. The most serious pest of the Date Palm in Mesopotamia 
is the " Hashaf " Moth ; young fruits are bored into by a small caterpillar, 
whereby they turn red, dry up and drop down ultimately. The loss 
according to Buxton may be as much as 50 per cent. Buxton refers to 
his pest as a Gelechiad, but he did not rear the moth. Specimens of 

M 2 


motlis reared and brouglit here with me are pronounced by the Imperial 
Entomologist to belong to the Family Cosmopterygidge* 

2. The stem Longicorn : "CJiernib" {Arabic). This Longicorn emerges 
in June- July and lays eggs under the leaf -bases or in cracks in the stem. 
The grub bores into the leaf -bases and into the stem and when present in 
large numbers, the tree is weakened and is liable to break in high winds. 
This is wrongly identified by Popenoe as RhyncJio'phorus, which does 
not occur in Iraq. 

3. Oryctes elegans : " Khun-jasanah " (Ar.) : This beetle is smaller 
than 0. rhinoceros and can be easily differentiated. It bores into the 
shoots of Palms and has also the habit of breeding on the tops of palms, 
the grubs being found boring into the stalks of developing fruits. 

4. Bate Fulgorid : •' Man-en-naMil " (Ar.). This small bug breeds 
in large numbers on the Date Palm, the young ones feeding on the fronds 
and excreting large quantities of honeydew. There are two generations 
in the year. 

5. The Date Mite : Oligonychus simplex, according to Buxton : The 
mite spins large webs over clusters of developing fruits and prevents 
them from ripening. 

6. Scale Insects : There are three Scales noticed on Dates, which 
are found in fairly good numbers both on young and old plants, but do not 
seriously affect the health of the palms as reported in cases of imported 
plants in America. 

1. Parlatoria hhnchardi on leaves and leafstalks. 

2. Phwnicococcus marlatti found hidden between the leaf-bases and 

the trunk. 

3. A Lecaniid Scale found on the leaves and stalks and on fruits in 

some cases. 

7. Ephestia sp.: Found boring in stored fruits and in windfall dates. 

Wheat and Barley. 

1. The Stem Fly. Probably Hylemyia coarctata : attacking young 
seedlings of Barley and Wheat. 

2. A Leaf-miner Fly : in leaves of wheat. 

3. The Hessian Fly ? attacking side-shoots of plants. 

4. Cephus sp. The Stem Sawfly. Boring into the stems of maturing 
plants and cutting them close to the ground. 

5. Eurygaster sp. " Sun " pest of wheat — a serious pest in Mosul 
and the submontane tracts. The adults pass both the summer and the 
winter in the soil and lay eggs on wheat in spring. The young bugs 

* Since identified as BatracJiedra amydraula, Meyr. — Editok. 


suck the sap from developing grains and cause immense destruction. 
Eeported from Russia, Turkestan and Persia. 

6. Two other bugs unidentified — also reported to have similar habits 
as Eurygaster. 

7. Decticus albifrons : " Abudubela " a Locustid grasshopper, found 
also in Italy, attacking the earheads of wheat. It also damages vege- 
tables, peas and fruits. 

8. Locusts. The Moroccan Locust : Dociostaurus maroccanus is a 
serious pest in the Mosul Vilayat, breeding in the Steppes and flying 
over to cultivated areas. 

9. Thrips. Found in large numbers on developing grains, 

10. TylencJms tritici : The ear-cockle of wheat. 

Sorghum and Maize. 

1. Sesamia sp. probably cretica, boring in stems. Chilo is com- 
pletely absent. 

2. The Stem-maggot — on Juar, evidently identical with the Cholam 
Fly of South India. 

3. Jassids on juar leaves. 

4. Cirphis loreyi : on leaves. 

5. Clia/pra mathias, on leaves. 

6. Decticus albifrons on maize and Panicum miliare. 

Lucerne and Bersim. 

1. Laphygma exigua — a serious pest. 

2. Hyper a variabilis : on lucerne. 

3. Leafmining Fly. 


1. Earias insulana — occasioning much damage to bolls. 

2. A Cutworm — probably Euxoa segetum. 

3. Laphygma exigua on leaves and flowers. 

4. Oxycarenus sp. 

5. Aleurodid. 

Lygceus pandurus on fruits. 

Heliothis obsoleta on fruits. 

170 proceedings of the fouhth entomological meeting 


1. Utetheisa pulchella. 

2. Decticus albifrons on pods. 


1. Prodenia litura on greengram. 

2. Laphygma on Vicia faba. 

3. Xylina exoleta, on Vicia faha in fairly good numbers. 

4. Two species of Aphis on Vigna sinensis. 

5. BrucJiids : 

1. Bruchiis lentis ? : on Lentils. 

2. ,, rufimanus ? on Vicia faha. 

3. „ qnadrimaculatus % on Vigna sinensis. 

4. „ affinis on imported peas. 

5. „ vecUibilis ? on Liquorice pods. 


Vegetable Crops. 

'^1. Aphis hrassiccE. 
2. A Black Aphis. 


ttacusu I ^ Bagrada picta. 

Cabbage ^ ^ p/wte??« 

Cauliflower | ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ 

Mustard, etc. ^^ Cetoniad on flowers. 

Beet and Spinach : The Mangold Fly— mining into leaves {Pegomyia 


Potato : Pkthorimcsa operculella. 

Brinjal : 

1. A leaf miner — PUJiorimcea crgasima. 

2. Epicautu sp. in small numbers. 

{Epilaclina conspicuous by its absence). 
Chillies and Tomato : Nezara viridula. 
Cucurbits : 

1. Aidacophora foveicollis. 

2. Epilachna sp. {dodecastigma). 

3. Mijiopardalis pardalina : in Sugarmelon— cucumber. 

4. Aleurodes sp. a serious pest on sugarmelon. 

5. Berytid on Lagenaria. 


Lady's fingers : 

1. Lafhygma. 

2. Farias. 

3. Aleurodes. 
Onions : Onion fly. 

Sweet Potato : Herse convolvuU. 
Castor : 

1. Phycita sp. near cUentella ? very bad. 

2. Mites on leaves. 

Apple : 

1. The Codlin Moth. Cydia pomonella. 

2. A Tingid Bug. 

3. Cigar casebearer — a Microlepidopteron. 
Apricot : 

1. The Peach Moth. 

2. Codlin Moth. 

3. Buprestid Borer in twigs and stems. 

4. The bark beetle (Scolytid). 

Peaches and Nectarines : 

1. Peach Moth. 

2. Codlin Moth. 

3. Peach Aphis. 

4. The Buprestid. 

Quince : 

1. CodlmMoth. 

2. a Pyralid ? 

Citrus spp. : No pests whatever— except Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa 

reported to damage young Citrus seedling by Mr. Paranjpye, the Assistant 

Fig : 

1. The Fig Moth — Ocnerogyna amanda. 

2. Lonchfva aristella, the Black Fig Fly. 

Grapevine : 

1. The Hawkmoth — Therelra alecto. 

2. A Mealy bug. 


Mulberry : A Scale. 
Olive : Scale. 
ZizypMs : 

1. Tarucus theophrastus. 

2. Aleurodid. 

3. Scales. 

Locusts : 

1. Schistocerm peregrina. 

2. Bociostaurus maroccanus. 

3. Caloptenus sp. ? 

The above observations, meagre though they may be, serve to show 
the character of the Insect Fauna to be found in a country occupying 
the interesting position of a half-way stage in the land route between 
Europe and India. A knowledge of the Insect inhabitants of this coun- 
try is, however, neither simply of academic interest nor even of purely 
local significance : it is of great importance from an international point 
of view. In view of the trade that might be expected to spring up 
between India and Mesopotamia, as a result of British influence, it is 
important to recognize the danger of an introduction into either country 
of pests from which it was hitherto free. As regards Mesopotamia, 
the most important insect to be guarded against is the Pink Bollworm, 
in view of the great possibilities of cotton cultivation. Again, the Orange 
and other Citrus varieties in Mesopotamia have been found to be remark- 
ably free from insect pests. It is not possible to say whether this is due 
to the extreme climatic conditions of the country or due to the immunity 
of the varieties, but it is incumbent on the Government to 
prevent the entry of the numerous pests Citrus trees are subject 
to in ludia and America ; and again, in view of the possibili- 
ties of Fruit-growing, the Mediterranean Fruit-fly is an insect 
the entry of which from the West should be legislated against. 
On the other hand, there •are several European pests of notoriety 
which are not yet found in India, but are noticeable in Mesopo- 
tamia. The Codlin Moth of apple, the Black Fly of Fig, Tylenchus 
tritici (ear-cockles) of wheat, the Hessian Fly of wheat, and the wheat 
stem sawfly, and the Melon fruit-fly {Myiopardalis pardalina) are a 
all instances of insects which India would be thankful to be free from. 
Bruchids like Bruchus ruflmanus, B. lentisy etc., are also insects lilvcly 
to be imported. With further observations on economically important 
insects, instances of similar dangerous pests are likely to be multiplied, 
and it is therefore important that early steps should be taken in either 
country to guard against the invasion of such pests. 


In conclusion, I take this opportunity of thanking Captain Roger 
Thomas, Acting Director of Agriculture, and Captain J. F. Webster, 
Acting Deputy Director of Research, for whose kind help and advice 
throughout my stay in Mesopotamia I am much indebted. 

It is very important for us to know whether this Hessian fly identifica- Mr. Fletcher, 
tion is a correct one. The fly was originally imported into America 
with straw and might similarly reach the Indian wheat areas through 
Karachi. The observation regarding the Codlin Moth is interesting 
as it is not definitely known from India. If Mesopotamia has only 
recently legislated against Pink Bollworm it is probably too late, as 
much cotton seed has already been imported. We had an inquiry 
regarding sugarcane which was imported at Karachi from the Persian 
Gulf. As it was only imported for eating purposes and there is no cane 
grown around Karachi, we replied that there was no objection to the 
trade. We now know that Sesamia occurs on cane, in Mesopotamia, 
but that other borers have not been found. 



By M. A. HusAiN, M.A. (Cantab,), Government Entomologist, Punjab, 
and Hem Singh Pruthi, M.Sc, Assistant Professor of Entomology, 

The rat is recognized as one of the serious animal pests all over the 
world. While in almost all other civilized countries there are various 
organizations like Rat Clubs, Rat Days, etc., to keep this animal down, 
in India, whose main resources lie in Agriculture, very few people have 
tackled this problem and that too exclusively from a sanitary point of 

The population of this pest in this country is enormous and Major 
Kunhardt's estimate of 800 millions of individuals seems to be quite 
modest. As regards the quantity of food that a rat eats in a day, it 
has been observed that on an average one individual consumes about 
one chittack of wheat, hence, even on the basis of Kunhardt's estimate of 
the rat population, this pest causes an annual loss of 9,125,000 maunds 
of grain, worth about Rs. 456,250,000. 

The rat that generally occurs in the fields of the Punjab is Gerbillus 
indicus. It is a pretty animal with dark brown back, and white belly. 
Its ears are thin and hairless, eyes prominent, and tail long, ending in a 
pencil of black hairs. It is nocturnal in habits and is very rarely seen 
outside its burrow durmg dayhght. 

A rat burrow is seldom straight. Often it is circuitous and ingeniously 
constructed. It is provided with more than one outlet and the principal 
entrance has several (2-10) small inlets which sometimes cover an area 
of 15 square yards round it. 

The number of rat holes in an acre is very variable, depending chiefly 
on the nature of the soil, the crop growing, the mode of irrigation and the 
period elapsed since the last watering. Burrows are more numerous in 
sandy and loose soil than elsewhere, and more abundant in high lands 
and borders of cultivated fields, where irrigated water cannot reach, 
than on lowland. Under normal cultivation, the canal irrigated areas 
have on an average 7, well-irrigated 11, and ' barani ' lands 2 to 4 
burrows per acre. Sometimes, however, the number is very large ; at 
Chillianwala (District Gujrat) for instance there were as many as 90 
burrows per acre in some uncultivated and deserted fields. 

All the burrows are generally not occupied by rats. Some 30 per 
cent, are often deserted and are inhabited by such annuals as lizards 

( 174 ) 


and snakes. The occupied burrows can easily be distinguished by the 
presence near their mouths of freshly outturned soft earth with the 
foot prints of the rats on it. 

It is very difficult to state accurately the number of adult rats that 
live in one hole. The fields were observed when being watered, and as 
many as five to seven could be counted coming out of one burrow but 
during the poisoning experiments, if the rats died outside, generally one 
or two were found near the mouths. 

The rat is an omnivorous animal feeding on all sorts of food available. 
It destroys grain in every stage, in the stock, granary, bins, mill, ship- 
hold, as well as grain that has been sown and is germinating. It is 
famous for its mischievous nature and takes to its burrow anything, 
edible or otherwise, that comes in the way. During the last four months 
(September-December 1920) among other things, soft cotton, paper, 
silk and cotton cloths have been recovered from their homes. They 
not only directly cause injury to grains and standing crops, by eating 
them up, but spoil ten times the amount that they actually consume, 
by cutting the roots and thus felling the whole plant, spreading cotton 
on dirty ground, etc. They dig holes in the banks of canal 'khah and 
cause heavy losses, by making water run where it is not wanted and thus 
spoil the crop and waste the water as well. It is possible that canal 
breaches are sometimes the work of this animal. After rain one can 
easily see the damage done by it to the roads on the canal bank. Some 
of the pits that appear are the result of its activities. 

Rats cause havoc both to the spring and autumn crops. Wheat 
grains are its favourite food. When the grains are sown this animal 
comes out at night and eats up the seed. In Sargodha district during 
the last winter, the poor farmers had to sow twice or thrice to get a 
crop. However, when seeds have once germinated, there is very little 
danger unless there is absolutely nothing else for the rats to eat. 

Cotton. This crop also suffers a good deal. At Rakh Pindi Jalal 
(Hafizabad District), some burrows in the cotton fields were dug open 
and from every one of them was recovered four to ten chittacks of cotton 
which was being used to make their nests warm and soft. The rats 
had torn the lint to get at the seeds whose contents had been eaten up. 
The cotton thus spoiled of its seed is absolutely useless, for ginning pur- 

Sugarcane is a choice food of this animal. Its pulpy base under 
the soil is gnawed, with the result that the canes fall down and dry up. 
As many as 30 out of 100 were once found damaged this way. 

Maize like wheat, suffers heavily before germination. In this case, 
too, sowing is said to be rendered impossible sometimes. While after 


germination the wheat is almost free, the pulpy maize stems still attract 

the rats. 

Grams, Peas and Vetch. These crops are ravaged from the time 
when they are sown until they are harvested. When the plants are 
high and have pods, the rats jump up, bend down the shoot and eat out 
the soft seeds from the pods. 


Poisoning, Fumigation and Trapping are the three methods that are 
generally advised for the control of this pest. 

Poisoning. Various poisons were tried. Strychnine (Sulphate), 
Barium Carbonate, Plaster of Paris, Arsenious Acid. The poison was 
mixed with a bait consisting of wheat, gram, grains of crushed oats, 
etc. It was observed that field-rats, unlike the house-rats, do not 

relish flour. 

To see the effect of poison, all the rat burrows were closed one day, 
and those which were found reopened next morning were taken to be 
inhabited. Poisoned bait was put in them and they were subsequently 
closed. In those that remained closed the next day, presumably the 
rats had died; otherwise, if living, they would hav« reopened them 
during the intervening night. (In every experiment some of such 
burrows were actually dug open and dead rats were found inside). Those 
that were reopened the next morning after treatment did not all 
contain live rats, because some of the rats after eating the poisoned 
bait did not die immediately, especially in the case of poison other than 
strychnine, but came out of their homes as usual and then, after some 
time, when the poison began to have its effect, they went in and died. 
To find out the number of reopened burrows which had rats dead in 
this way, all of them were closed again without putting anything in 
them and those that remained closed on the third day had either dead 
rats or their occupants had run away after eating the bait. So the 
burrows that were reopened on the next morning after treatment and 
were simply closed and again found reopened the third morning, had 

living rats. 

Rats from burrows treated with strychnine mostly died outside 
their homes. This was especially common in the summer season. But 
in the case of other poisons, the percentage of those that died outside 

was very small. 


Mode of preparation of the hait. Half a chhitak (1 oz.) of strychnine 
sulphate was dissolved in three clihitaks of warm water. A thick syrup 
of sugar {shaJcar; black sugar preferably), was made by heating two 


seers of the substance in half a seer of water. Both the solutions were 
thoroughly mixed and then heated to ensure thorough admixture. Then 
this mixture was sifted gradually over fifteen seers of gram or wheat 
which had been previously moistened. The poison was allowed to soak 
in the grains for some 12 hours. 

Some half chhittack of the thus prepared bait were put in every rat 
burrow which was subsequently closed and was watched next morning. 
If it remained closed until then, its occupant was taken to be dead. 

As 'will be clear from detailed observations, with strychaine some 
89 to 90 per cent, of the treated burrows remained closed. The cost 
on an average was one anna for eight burrows, excluding of course the 
cost of labour. 

Great care should be taken in the use of this poison. A few crystals 
will kill even man. So when strychnine is being used, domestic animals, 
poultry, etc., should not be allowed to leave their pens. Baits should 
be very carefully handled and placed deep down in the burrows. Satis- 
factory arrangements must be made for the disposal of dead rats, which 
die in large numbers outside their burrows. If rats dead of this poison 
be eaten by any other animal, the latter is sure to die. 

Plaster of Paris. The poisoned bait was prepared just like "the 
strychnine bait, solutions were made of Plaster and sugar in separate 
vessels, both were mixed and sifted over the suitable grain which had 
been previously moistened. One pound of the Plaster was used with 
15 seers of gram or wheat. One seer of sugar was added simply to make 
the bait more attractive. 

The results obtained with this poison were good. On an average 
78 to 80 per cent, of the treated burrows remained closed, thereby indicat- 
ing that the occupants were dead inside. 

The poison is fairly cheap and the cost for treating 15 burrows is 
only one anna. If a large number of burrows is taken in hand at a time, 
the cost will be still less. 

Arsenous Acid. This poison is harmful to man and domesticated 
animals, so it should be carefully used. 

The poisoned bait was prepared just as in the case of strychnine 
and Plaster of Paris. Four chhitaks of the poison were mixed with 15 
seers of the suitable grain and a little sugar was added. 

The results obtained were very fair, though not so good as with 
strychnine and plaster. On an average 74 per cent, of the treated bur- 
rows remained closed. 

Flour pills (one part poison to six parts flour) of the poison were 
tried ; they did not attract many rats, and most of them remained 
uneaten. Forty-two per cent, of the burrows remained closed. 


Barium Carbonate. The poison is tasteless and pale coloured. When 
it is taken in, it causes much thirst to the victim. 

The flour pills were tried, but they did not give good results. Sub- 
sequently the poison was poured over suitable grain as in the case of 
previous poisons. As in the case of plaster, one pound of posion and 
one seer of sugar were utilized for 15 seers of gram. 

Some sixty per cent, of the treated burrows remained closed and 
the cost was the same as with plaster, one anna for 15 burrows. 


Fumes of SO., (Sulphur dioxide) were introduced into rats' burrows 
by means of the Ant-exterminator machine. The nozzle of the delivery- 
tube was put in the main entrance while the other inlets communicating 
with the burrow were previously closed with earth. The gas was pumped 
in for three or four minutes and the mouth of the burrows was then closed. 

Some 75 of the treated burrows remained closed next morning, but 
after two or three days some of the burrows (six per cent.) were reopened. 
This means there was no thorough fumigation in these particular cases. 

Carbon bisulphide was tried in a few cases, and was found very satis- 
factory. As it is unsafe for the Zamindars to use it, detailed observa- 
tions on its efficacy were postponed for the present. 

With regard to the use of any poison, it may be emphasized that 
nothing is possible without organization. Like other countries, we should 
arrange for campaigns on extensive scales and for this co-operation 
amongst the people themselves, and the people and the employees of 
the State, is essential. It will not serve any purpose to kill rats in a 
field or so. The work of extermination should be done on large areas 
at the same time and in an organized manner. District authorities 
should take an interest. It should be arranged somewhat like this. A 
Tahsil should form the unit of organization. Three days, say the 1st, 
2nd and 3rd of every month, should be set apart as rat-days. In every 
village on the 1st all the zamindars should close the rat burrows present 
in their fields, and the poisoned bait may be prepared at one place, under 
the supervision of the head lamhardar, or a member of the Municipal 
Committee. On the 2nd, the bait may be carried in carts in all the 
different directions and the zamindars should lay the bait in and subse- 
quently close the burrows that have reopened in their fields. On the 
early morning before sunrise of the 3rd, they should go to the fields and 
collect and bury or burn the dead rats that have died outside their homes. 
As is evident, on all the three days, the rat work will take a few hours 
only, but this few hours organized work on three days in a month is sure 
to exterminate the pest. It may be repeated once more that the 






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kind of poison itself used does not matter so much as co-operation and 
organization to ensure that tJie vork should he done at one time over large 
areas . 

Did you try Petrol as a fumigant for the rats in their holes ? Mr. Fletcher. 

No. Mr. Hem Singh 


Poison baits must be very dangerous. In Bihar people generally Mr. Inglis. 
dig out rat burrows for grain, and if the poison has been carried down in 
the midst of stored grain evil results on eating it might occur. 

In the Punjab the cultivators are more civilized and do not do these ^^' ^^sain. 

How do you use Carbon bisuljjhide ? ^^- Ghosh. 

We attach a rag to the end of a long pole. This is lighted and a '^^- Hem Singh 
man standing at a distance thrusts the lighted end into the burrow into ^^ ** 
which Carbon bisulphide had been poured beforehand. 

How do you count the percentage of dead rats ? Mr. Ghosh. 

That information is given in this paper. Mr. Hem Singh 

° ^ ^ Pnithi. 

Do you get any rat-fleas ? The Hon'ble N. C. Rothschild will be Mr. Fletcher, 
glad to see any specimens of Indian rat-fleas. The exact distribution of 
the various species is very uncertain ; and the matter is important on 
account of their connection with plague. 

If any rat-worker comes across cases of Myiasis in his material I Mr. Ballard. 
should be glad if they would send them to me. 



By C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., F.E.S., Forest Zoologist. 

The principal investigations that have been carried out by the Forest 
Research Institute during the past two years are studies in the ecology 
of the borer fauna of (a) the sal (Shorea rohusta) and of the trees associated 
with it in sal forests ; and (b) the teak {Tectona grandis) and of some 
of its associates. The method of inquiry comprises (1) prolonged tours 
in the forests to study the seasonal occurrence, distribution and environ- 
mental conditions of the principal species ; and (2) insectary rearing 
experiments. Material for the latter is obtained on tours by despatching 
logs of trees dead from natural causes or from fellings. In addition 
material is obtained from timber-seasoning depots throughout India, 
as experiments are now in progress in methods of natural seasoning 
that are being carried out in co-operation with the section of Forest 
Economics. Hundreds of logs of various tree species pass through the 
insectary at Delira Dun. Illustrations of the breeding cages used are 
given in the Report of the Third Entomological Meeting. 

(a) Sal Borers. The more important borers are Ho'ploceramhyx 
spinicornis, Molesthes holosericea and species of Platypodidae. The 
former of these has occurred in epidemic incidence as a primary pest 
killing living sal trees ; normally it is a borer of felled or killed timber. 
An account of epidemic is given in an article in the Indian Forester, 
February 1921. [This was described to the Meeting illustrated by dia- 
grams]. It has been found that sal trees are killed by mass-attack in 
years of exceptionally heavy rainfall. In years of rainfall below the 
average the mortality is less owing, on the one hand, to the increased 
power of resistence of the tree due to better soil-aeration and on the 
other to climatic reduction in the incidence of the beetle. The correla- 
tion of rainfall and mortality of trees is very striking. The effect of 
rainfall (as expressed in terms of the water-content of the heartwood of 
sal) on the metabolism of the pupal and early larval stages has been 
studied and it has been found that the incidence of emergence of the 
beetle synchronises with the incidence of rainfall in the first few weeks 
of the monsoon. In a wet year 75 per cent, of the beetles emerge in 
the first month of the rains ; in a dry year this period is prolonged to six 
to eight weeks. Control measures have been devised from the results of 
these investigations. Similar .work on the emergence periods is being 
done with other species of borers. It is believed that control of borers of 

( 182 ) 


this class will be obtained by raodificationa of the felling and seasoning 

(6) Teak Borers. These include Duomitus ceramicus, Haplohammus 
cervimis, Phassus malaharicus, etc. The most important, the notorious 
bee-hole borer of teak, has been studied entirely in the field in Burma. 
No living insect has been studied in the Institute insectary, as the borer 
is a pest of living trees and is confined to the teak forests of Burma. An 
account of the investigation is about to appear as a Forest Kecord and 
is therefore not recorded here in detail. It has been found that the 
incidence of beeholes in plantation teak is proportional to the girth in 
even-aged stands, i.e.y that the development of the borer is most success- 
ful in the most vigorous trees. Annual Incidence Graphs have also 
been obtained showing that periodic fluctuations occur locally, while 
the mean annual incidence increases relatively slowly. Fluctuations 
require correlation with such factors as fire-protection and extraction. 
The effect of fire on the incidence of the borer can be considered on theo- 
retical grounds based on its observed effect on teak regeneration and 
the evergreen undergrowth of high forest; it is possible to explain the 
apparent anomaly of badly beeholed teak in forests now traversed by 
fire and in forests that have been fire-protected for long periods. 

The inquiry has advanced beyond the entomological stage and has 
necessitated the employment of a whole-time officer for the collection 
of statistical data before further research can be carried on. 




(Plates XXIX-XXX). 

By S. K. Sen, B.Sc. 

Amongst the various salts experimented with, with a view to testing 
their effects on the larvae of mosquitos, mercurous chloride gave some 
interesting and rather unexpected results. The experiments had been 
originally designed to give a series of figures in respect of the comparative 
effects of salt radicals — both basic and acid — and also of the antagonistic 
action,* if any, of those salts. But on a preliminary trial the results 
obtained with HgCl proved to be of sufficient interest to warrant follow- 
ing it up at length ; and this seemed all the more desirable in view of the 
possibilities it opened up as a larvicide against mosquitos. Till now 
kerosine has practically been the only larvicide in use, but that it does not 
answer the requirements of an ideal larvicide is proved by the attempts 
that are still being made by various workers to replace it by a more 
convenient and less expensive material. As regards HgCl, sufficient trial 
has not yet been given to it on a field scale to justify its adoption as a 
larvicide, and what follows is presented merely as an indication of the 
possibilities, as larvicides against mosquitos, of insoluble salts, non- 
poisonous to human beings. 

The preliminary series of experiments, which aimed merely at qualita- 
tiv3 results, were conducted with exceedingly minute quantities of the 
salt taken by guess. When it was found that even such small doses 
produced a very deleterious effect on the larvae, quantitative experi- 
ments were taken up with a view to determining the lethal dose. In 
view of the very small solubility of HgCl (0-002 gram in 1 litre) f, any 
possibility of osmotic action was excluded, and the assumption was con- 
firmed when a saturated solution of the salt failed to kill the larva). 
As therefore the salt presumably acted in the solid state, attempts were 
made to ascertain the minimum quantity of the salt necessary to kill the 
larvae in relation to the surface-area of water (the salt particles remaining 
afloat for a fairly long period), as the action of the salt in that case must 
be practically independent of the volume of water, and the results are 
shown in Graph 1, representing varying quantities of the salt in relation 

* On the lines adopted by Loeb ; vide The Dynamics of Living Matter. 
t Found out by conductivity method ; Kohlrausch, Z. plysik Ch., 50, 3(>5, 04-05 
(quoted by Rpidell); 

( 184 ) 

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to a fixed quantity of water (100 c. c.) ; Graph 2, representing a fixed 
quantity of the salt (0-001 gm.) in a constant surface-area of water (6 
inches diameter), but with varying depths ; and Graph 3, representing 
a fixed quantity of the salt (0-001 gm.) in a constant depth of 10 mm., 
but with varying surface-areas.* 

We might assume one or more of the following circumstances under 
which death might occur : — 

(i) Presence of HgClg in the calomel as impurity, but (1) the addi- 
tion of KOH to a saturated solution of the HgCl did not give 
the yellow precipitate, the characteristic reaction of HgCL, 
and (2) saturated solution of the calomel failed to kill the 

(ii) Gradual conversion of HgCl into HgClg, but (1) the water in 
which the salt had been allowed to stand for a considerable 
period did not answer the KOH test for HgCL (2) no traces 
of the liquid metal could be detected, as the conversion of 
the salt into HgClg would have been accompanied by a 
separation of mercury, and (3) 0-001 per cent. HgCla failed 
to kill the larvae (Graph 4). 

It is then probably the solid state in which the salt acts. HgCl, 
even in the solid condition, is said to be capable of acting cutaneously 
on the human body, the action being hastened with the stimulation 
of diaphoresis.! It is not improbable that this might also be the case 
with mosquito larvae. On the other hand the fact that the pupae had 
been, in most cases, found to escape unhurt, lends weight to the assump- 
tion that the salt acts orally. 

An interesting feature of the results is the exceedingly small quantity 
of the salt (0-001 per cent.) necessary to kill the larvae ; but the maximum 
therapeutic dose of HgCl for man being 5 grains onlyj, a mere trace of 
the salt should be sufficient to kill a mosquito larva. On the other 
hand the maximum therapeutic dose of HgClg being ^ grainj, failure of 
0-001 per ceni!. HgCla to affect the larvee might seem inexplicable, especi- 
ally in the face of the fact that 0-001 per cent. HgCl, killed them ; but this 
can be explained away by the fact that the attribution of " percentage " 
to HgCl in relation to quantity of water is meaningless, the solubihty 
of the salt being practically negligible. 

* The results of all the experiments done are not shown in the graphs : only a few 
typical sets are represented; and in order to emphasize the behaviour of individual 
larvae, the customary method of representing the average result has not been adopted. 

t Materia Medica and Therapeutics (Bruce). 

t Ibid. 

Pa'je IS5 


A series of parallel observations was carried out on the effects of a 
few more halogen salts of mercury (HgBrg, Hgig, HgCL and Hglg 2KI) ; 
the two soluble salts (HgClg and Hgl2 2KI) were much quicker in action 
than the other two. This led to an attempt to find out how far the 
toxicity would increase if HgCl were offered in dissolved condition, and 
for this purpose a more or less neutral solvent was necessary which 
would dissolve the salt without the latter having to undergo any chemical 
transformation. It seemed possible that, in the case of HgCl, such a 
condition could be realized in pepsin which is capable of dissolving the 
salt unchanged. In Graph 5 it will be seen that some difference was 
observed between the effect of a mixture of pepsin and HgCl and that 
of HgCl only. But in the present state of this inquiry no definite state- 
ment is possible. 

With regard to the discrepant results, as shown in the graphs, obtained 
with HgCl, under conditions practically identical, three explanations 
present themselves : 

(1) Quicker death might be the result of comparatively debilitated 

condition of the larva. It would be hardly profitable to 
discuss this possibility. 

(2) As the salt presumbly acted in the solid state, death must have 

been dependent on the extent to which the salt particles 
were distributed over the surface of the water. This seems 
to be borne out by the fact that in certain cases the action 
of the salt increased after some days, which was probably 
the result of thorough disruption and consequent distribution 
of the salt particles effected by its prolonged contact with 
water : the fact of a comparatively heavy dose of the salt 
sometimes taking a longer time to kill the larvae gives support 
to this assumption. 

(3) It might be the result of variation in atmospheric temperature. 

Larvse experimented with in June and July died more quickly 
than those experimented with in November. It will be 
seen that the series of lines with 0-001 gm. HgCl in Graph 1 
are generally much shorter than the corresponding lines in 
Graph 4 which refers to winter observations. This difference 
can hardly be accounted for by any of the two preceding 
explanations. So far as has been observed by placing the 
larvae in incubators, the thermal factor seems to be of import- 
ance. It is proposed to continue the inquiry, the object being 
not only to find out whether toxicity is governed by tempera- 
ture but also how far the relation between the two approxi- 
mates the formula, t=f (t)^, when t denotes toxicity and 
t^, temperature. 


Tlie small solubility of HgCl, together with the fact of an cxcecdingiy 
minute quantity of the salt being necessaiy to kill the larvcO, offers iield 
for an investigation as to its practical value as a larvicide. The advant- 
age of HgCl lies especially in its being poisonous to the larvte in doses 
which cannot have any effect on the human system, so that even drmk- 
ing water of ponds, etc., can be safely treated with it. 

The activities of the larvse being almost solely connected with the 
surface of water, all remedial and preventive mvestigations are reduced 
to one of finding out a toxic substance which will keep to the surface 
and not enter into solution, so as to prevent unnecessary expense and the 
pollution of the entire quantity of water. But such a condition is hard 
to satisfy, as the substance must at the same time be non-poisonous to 
human beings and cheaper than the existing larvicides and lasting in 
effect — a property which should probably be considered its crowning 

A large number of experiments was carried out on the relative value 
of kerosine and HgUl as larvicides. It has been calculated that the 
cost of 0-001 gm. HgCl would be aproximately equivalent to that of 
half a minim of the oil ; but as even one minim of the oil faded to kill 
the larvae, two minims of the oil (equivalent to about four times the cost 
of HgCl necessary to attain the same result) were used and the results 
are shown in Graph 6. It will be seen that the humediate effect of the 
application of the oil was to kill the larvas almost instantaneously Out 
that it quickly lost in strength through voiatiiization, whereas tne action 
of HgCl, though slow and unsteady, was generally sare. The transitory 
nature of the effect of kerosine, however violent its immediate action, 
imposes severe limitations on its practical value as a iarvicide, as it 
would involve continuous replenishment if any cohection of water were 
to be kept free of mosquitos.* In this respect the superiority of HgCi 
is evident. 

Calomel has two serious drawbacks : firstly, it generally fails to kiii 
the larvsef ; secondly, it woidd be difficult to keep the salt particles 
lloatmg for any considerable period.^ With regard to the first point, the 

* Various workers have investigated tlie nature of the action of kerosine on niostiuito 
larvae, in the course of which it has been brought out that its action is not of the nature 
of a simple meclianical interference with their respiration, but that it is ehiehy the volatile 


|- From a large number of experiments with various kinds of oils and toxic substances 
it appears that with those substances which operate by means of theii' volatile properties, 
pupas die earlier than the larvse, whereas with those which operate through the mouth,' 
larvse are the first, and in most cases the only ones, to die. 
$ Harris and Meyer, Berichte, June 1894. 


larvicidal value of the salt would be maintained if it killed the larvae 
before they pupated. With regard to the second point, attempts were 
made to obviate the difficulty in the following ways :— 

(1) The salt was administered in exceedingly fine particles by first 

subliming it ; but in practice sublimation cannot be recom- 
mended as it has been shown that the salt dissociates in the 
sublimed condition into Hg and HgClg. 

(2) The salt might be thoroughly shaken with a highly viscous and 

the least possible volatile material of low specific gravity 
(such as the " non-drying " oils), and the mixture poured over 
the water. So far as has been tried, this form of treatment 
merits attention. 
For larvicidal purposes the superiority of HgCl over the other halogen 
salts of mercury lies in its cheapness whereas its advantage over HgCl, 
and Hgia 2KI lies not only in its insolubility and harmless effect on 
man, but also in the fact that the two soluble salts are apt to form precipi- 
tates with the alkaloidal and other constituents of various kinds of vege- 
tation likely to occur in the breeding places of mosquitos.* Over 
kerosine its one great advantage is that it is non-flammable. 
The larva? experimented with were those of S. albopicia. f 

Explanation of graphs. 

Graph 1. (Plato XXIX). 
The figures indicate time in hours. 
Crosses indicate when observations were taken. 
Each line represents one full-grown Stecjomyia albopicia larva. 
(X) indicates death point. 

The point where the line breaks indicates the time when the larva began to show 
symptoms of sluggishness. 

Graph 2. (Plate XXIX) 
In all the experiments the water had a constant surface-area of G inches diameter* 
the quantity of HgCl used being 0-001 gram. 

Graph 3. (Plate XXIX). 
In all the experiments the water had a constant depth of 10 mm., the quantity of 
HgCl used being 0-001 gram. 

* The alkaloidal precipitates with HgCl„ have the general composition B. HCI. HgClj ; 
the alkaloidal precipitates with Hgl, 2KI (Mayer's Reagent) vary m composition.— 
Henrv. The. plant aUnloids, 1913. . , ,. 

t "This paper was read before the Sixth Indian Science Congress, certain alterations 
and modifications being subsequently introduced. 


Graph 4. (Plate XXX). 
Represents the comparative effects of HgCl and HgC12. 

Graph 5. (Plato XXX). 
Each line represents the average of three observations. 
Crosses indicate death points. 

Quantity of water used in each experiment 100 c. c. 
Quantity of HgCl, when used, 0-001 gram. 

Graph G. (Plate XXX). 
Comparative effects of HgCl and Kcrosinc. 
Vertical line represents longevity of larva in hours. 

Horizontal line represents time in hours that had passed since the introduction ot 
the larvicide. 

Cross indicates death point. 

Quantity of Kerosine used, 2 minims. Quantity of HgCl used, 0-001 gi-am. 

The Graph represents the average of three observations. 

N. B. — After the 80th hour Kerosine failed to kill. 

Did you try these experiments witli Anophelines I I understand it Major Christo- 
is the Mercurous Chloride on the surface fihu that acts, not the sohition. ^ ^ ' 
If this is so, a Stegomyia larva feeding at the bottom should not show the 
effects as well as the Anopheline. 

I did not experiment with Anophelines. With regard to Stegomyia, Mr. Sen. 
as the pupae were generally unaffected, it seemed likely that the salt 
operated orally a;nd not cutaneously. 

I conducted some experiments on the efficacy of Paraiormol, the Mr. Iyengar, 
original work on which was done by M. Koubaud at Paris. Paraformol 
is a solid form of formaline, is finely powdered and distributed on the 
surface of the water. The Anopheline larvae devour the powder and 
are killed in the course of fifteen to thirty minutes. But the pupae of 
Anophelines and the larvae of Culicines are not at all affected. 

The powder is insoluble in water, and it either floats on the surface 
or sinks if it is in bigger particles. There is no likelihood of the pow- 
der being taken in by man and even if taken it is not very harmful. If 
people are particularly scrupulous about it, a filtering of the water 
through a piece of cloth would get rid of the paraformol. I have tried 
such water and have found it perfectly harmless and even without smell. 
A single gram of Paraformol would be enough to spread over several 
square metres of water surface. 

I attempted to keep the salt particle afloat by means of a viscous Mr. Sen. 

If a very viscous oil is used to contain the mercurous chloride the oil Mr. Fletcher, 
will not spread and you would use a great deal, thus enhancing largely 
the cost. 



Mr. Sen. 

Mr. Iyengar. 
Mr. Sen. 











Major Christo< 

Mr. Sen. 

Mr. White. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

I could iiot give this a sufficient trial. I tried coconut oil, and a 
few other oils. The point is that the expense of a larger quantity 
is counteracted by its lower volatility. 

I cannot understand i^s efficacy under natural conditions. Para- 
forniol will beat this hollow. 

As has been already mentioned in the introductory portion, the 
results are presented only as an indication of the possibilities of insoluble 
salts, non-poisonous to human beings. Soluble substances would involve 
wastage. The activities of the larvae being mainly connected with the 
surface area, a substance would be necessary which would keep to the 
surface without entering into the solution. Under laboratory conditions 
HgCl, if it can be kept on the surface, will generally remain efiective for 
an indefinite period, being neither soluble nor volatile. In the absence 
of experiments I caimot claim its present suitability on a n,eld scale. 1 
have already considered, in the latter portion of my paper, the difficul- 
ties in the way of keeping the salt particles floating, and mentioned 
some of the ways in which I attempted to obviate the difficulty. 

With regard to Mr. Iyengar's Paraformol, if the water needs filtra- 
tion it is useless where water supply comes from tanks. A chatty dipped 
into the tank collects much of the surface water and breaks the film. 

What is its specific gravity ? Will it rise if once put down ? 

It is heavier than water, but when it is powdered it remains on the 
surface. Once it goes down it will never come up. 

What will be the effect of rain on the film of mercurous chloride 'I 

I do not kaow. 

Stegomyia larvae are bottom-feeders ; but they die. How do the 
particles on the surface kill ? It is important to know whether they are 
killed by particles floating or sunk. *S'. albopicta feeds on solid matter 
at the bottom and therefore probably does by eating sunlcen particles. 
The auction of mercury salts is curious. They are very insoluble but have 
a powerful effect on the human intestines ; what happens m the human 
intestine, nobody knows. Did the larvae show any symptoms 'i 

I can only give results and have concluded that probably the salt 
acts through the mouth. The larvae became sluggish before they died. 
In the graphs I have shown the points when the larvae began to show 
symptoms of sluggishness ; these points are indicated by the positions 
at which the lines break. 

To settle the point of oral or other action the intestines of dead larvao 
might be tested for mercury. 

Did you try shaking up the mercury salt in the water before putting 
the larvae in 'i 


No ; I shook the water violently to dissolve the salt and then filtered Mr. Sen. 


It would seem worthwhile to try a parallel series of experiments Mr. Fletcher, 
with mosquito larvae, in one case simply powdering the salt on the surface 
film and in the other shaking the water up well so as to get the salt well 
distributed through it. 

(Plate XXXI-XXXV). 

By H. N. Sharma, B.A., and S. K. Sen, B.Sc. 

Tliis paper deals with the results obtained in one of a series of inquiries 
on the part played by chemical and physical factors in determining 
some of the more important activities of insects. 

The mosquitos selected for experiment were generally Culex fatiyans, 
Culex vishnui and Stegotnijia albo'picta, and the object of the inquiry was 
to ascertain (1) whether choice of water for egg-laying is, in these mos- 
quitos, influenced by the condition of the water as regards temperature, 
osmotic pressure, and surface-tension, and (2) whether their choice can 
be influenced by the addition of small quantities of sweet, salt, astrin- 
gent, or alkaline substances to the water. 

The mosquitos were kept in a wooden frame covered with netting 
and about two feet long, the netting being provided with sleeves for 
convenience of manipulation. In the cage were two dishes of moist 
banana for food, and round glass vessels (3 inches diam. X l^ inches 
high), containing water or the various solutions for the reception of eggs. 
In the experiment dealing with the effect of temperature, the arrange- 
ment was as shown in Plate XXXI . The lamps were switched off for an 
hour every day between five and six in the the evening, and fresh ice 
was provided twice a day at 8 a.m., and 6 p.m. Temperatures were taken 
at 8 A.M., and generally also at 8 p.m. This rough arrangement was 
found to give sufficiently constant temperatures for our purpose ; the 

* The observations recorded in this paper were started at the suggestion of the late 
Mr. I'. M. Howlett, Imperial Pathological Entomologist, the object of the inquiry being 
explained in the introductory portion which has been taken from the notes left by him. 
It will be seen that the data obtained exhibited a wide and often unintelligible divergence 
in the egg-laying propensities in different mosquitos, and, as such, the publication of 
these results 'should perhaps have been withlield ; but as the observations involved a 
large amount of arduous work occupying several months, it has been considered desirable 
that they should be published, even if merely as an indication of the possibilities (or 
otherwise) of this line of work, rather than be altogether lost to the cause of entomolo- 
gical science. Every effort has been made to condense the results, not only by omitting 
details but, as will be seen, also by adopting the graphical method of representation ; 
and, as such no particular implication, other than a mere simplified presentation of 
results, is to be sought in these curves. Where we have attempted to deduce a con- 
clusion, we have done so only on the basis of an average of large numbers of observa- 
tions, and, even then, wo should be far from insisting on its unconditional acceptance. 

Except where otlierwise stated all remarks relate to Sle(jonii/iu albopicta. 

All the series of experiments enumerated in this paper were initiated ))y the late Mr. 
Howlett but no record is available to show what principle underlay the selection of the 
chemicals experimented with. The First Author was responsible for most of the oviposi- 
tion figures except the temperature and a few more figures which were obtained by the 
Second Author who also wrote up the materials and prepared the graphs, and gave 
what interpretation he considered possible to the selection of the chemicals. 

( 192 ) 

Pagi 192 


Arrangement of vessels kept inside cage for reception of eggs in 
experiments regarding oviposition in Culicidae. From left to 
right are shown (1) water kept warm by supporting the water- 
vessel on a black stiff paper roll covering an electric light bulb, 
(2) water kept at normal temperature, the containing vessel 
supported on a wooden block ; (3) water kept cool, the contain- 
ing vessel embedded in a pot of ice and sawdust. 



two cool vessels were 1°-3°C below and the two warm ones 5°-7^C above 
the temperature of the two controls. The temperature of the controls 
was practically identical with the air-temperature ; there was no marked 
fall at night, owing to the apparatus being in a closed room. The tem- 
perature on the roof of the cage was the same in all parts of it. 

To test the effect of osmotic pressure, solutions of common salt and 
sugar were exposed side by side, the object being to eliminate results 
due to the taste of the solutions. It is not certain how the taste appeals 
to the mosquito, but there is no doubt that they have at least no objection 
to sugar solutions of a wide range of concentration. 

Solutions of Sodium taurocholate were used in the series designed 
to test the effect of loosing the surface-tension, but here again there may 
be complications due to taste- effects. A solution of Saponin was also 
included in this series ; as is well known, it has the effect of greatly 
increasing the viscosity of water, even when present only in minute 

In the series designed to test the effect of sweet, salt, astringent, and 
alkaline substances, it was necessary to eliminate the effect of variation 
in osmotic pressure by using isotonic solutions (M-10). 

Each series of observations has been considered in relation to only 
one physical or chemical factor, but, as has already been stated, one or 
more additional factors might have operated to make the results what 
otherwise might have been very different. We shall consider some of 
the more important possibilities of this kind in the course of our 
discussion of the results. 

It should also be noted that the predilection of mosquitos to oviposit 
in particular kinds of water has not been considered in relation to a vary- 
ing atmospheric temperature and moisture. Nor has the fact of unequal 
illumination of the vessels (placed for the reception of eggs) been taken 
into consideration in adjudging the moscjuitos' liking for any particular 
substance for oviposition. 

In the absence of further experiments it would be hardly profitable 
to touch on the general question of how far the maternal instinct modifies 
the phenomenon of oviposition, though the subject would probably repay 
study, especially in the case of mosquitos, where the fact that they 
always oviposit in water offers unusual facilities for altering the condition 
of oviposition, and thereby studying the effects of various substances 
both on the incubation period of eggs and on the well-being of the off- 
spring. A series of concurrent observations was started in this direction, 
but the data so far obtained are exceedingly scanty. In our present 
paper we shall confine ourselves practically only to a consideration of 
the mosquitos' partiality for any special kind of water for oviposition, 



quite independent of any consideration as to how it would afEect the 
future of the offspring. 

In the taste experiments (Series 1) (Plate XXXII) the largest 
number of eggs was laid in 0-6 per cent. NaCl, compared with which 
those laid in an equimolecular solution of sugar were very few, though 
in captivity the mosquitos' liking for sugar for drinking purposes is well 
known. It would appear that the mosquito prefers a salt solution of 
low strength sometimes even to distilled water (Culex fatigans seemed to 
prefer sugar to NaCl). In judging the results obtained with Ca (011)2, 
due consideration must be given to the fact that the substance, when 
exposed to atmosphere readily forms CaCog, in which condition it is 
likely to exert almost a neutral effect. Tannin was tried in order to 
find out whether the substance, as present in the bark or tissues of 
trees, imparts any property {e.g., taste or colour) to water occurring in 
holes trees in which some of mosquitos habitually breed, but they seem 
positively to dislike it. 

In Series 2 (Plate XXXII) the effects of changing the acid radicle 
keeping the base (Sodium in this case) constant were studied and the 
results obtained with equimolecular solutions of these substances are 
represented in the curves. In the same series are included results 
obtained with different percentages of NaCl. 

Series 2{a) (Plate XXXIII) gives figures obtained with varying pre- 
centages of NaCl. As wUl be seen a strength considerably below 1 per 
cent, is always preferred by them. 

Series 2(&) (Plate XXXIII) shows the comparative effects of NaCl 
and KCl, the results obtained being, as will be seen, very anomalous. 
It would be useless to seek for an explanation before further experi- 
ments are made with different species of mosquitos. 

The results obtained with certain organic acids are interesting inas- 
much as the salts always appeared better than their corresponding acids, 
as will be seen in the following statement : — 


Number of eggs 

laid by Stegomyia 


Number of egg- 
masses laid by 
Culex fatigans. 

Citric Acid 0-5 per cent. 
Sodium citrate 0-5 per cent. 
Potassium citrate 0-5 per cent. 
Tartaric Acid 0-5 per cent. 
Sodium tartrate 0-5 per cent. 
Oxalic acid 0-5 per cent. 
Sodium oxalate 0-5 per cent. 
Water .... 











Page 194 











3-4 % 

Series 1 


Page 195 


Page l95 

PLAtE XXXI I i (1 

S^»i«^ 2-(»)- 



Concurrently with the preceding series of experiments with 0-5 per 
cent, organic acids another series of observations was made on the effects 
of certain inorganic acids (against an alkali) the result being as follows : — 


H2 SO4 1 per cent 

0-5 per cent 

HCL. 1 per cent. 

0-5 per cent. 

Boric Acid (? 0-5 per cent.) 

H, . 

Number of eggs 

laid by Stegomyia 


Number of egg- 
masses laid by 
Culex fatigana. 

Series 5 (Plate XXXIV) shows the comparative effects of certain 
well-known disinfectants and therefore the practical value of these 
figures is obvious. The inclusion of Malachite green was suggested by 
its colour which could be conveniently tried against the red of KMnO^. 
As was expected, mosquitos showed a distinct preference for green 
over red, but it is interesting to note that they preferred the lower of 
the two intensities. In connection with the figures obtained with HgCla 
it may l)e noted that in another paper by one of the present writers it 
has been shown that 0-001 per cent. HgClg has hardly any deleterious 
effect on mosquito larvae,* and as such, the fact that they oviposited 
in corrosive sublimate does not conclusively prove their indifference to 
a poisonous substance during oviposition. 

Series 6 (Plate XXXIV) represents results obtained with certain 
vegetable products. Mannite is the sweetish crystalline compound oc- 
curring in celery, sea-grasses, etc., and asparagin occurs in asparagus. 
As will be noticed the subtsances have been selected, to some extent, 
with reference to their position in the system of organic compounds, the 
citrate and the bitartrate being both oxidation products of glycols, and 
asparagin being the amide of aspartic acid, which on treatment with 
nitrous acid produces malic acid, another oxidation product of glycol. 
The partiality shown to Sodium citrate even in preference to water is 
borne out by the observations recorded in a previous series. But the 
figures obtained with 0-5 per cent. NaCl are unexpectedly meagre. 

* A note on the effects of Mercurous Chloride on Culicid larvfe, by S. K. Sen, 



With regard to the results obtained by an alteration in the surface- 
tension (Series 7) (Plate XXXV), an addition of NaCl was made in two 
cases in order to stimulate oviposition, it having been previously found 
that, generally speaking, mosquitos readily oviposit in a salt solution of 
low strength, sometimes in preference even to distilled water [e.g., in 
series 2(a)]. As will be seen Sodium taurocholate appeared to be dis- 
tinctly better than Saponin and even than distilled water. 

With regard to the results obtained in a varying temperature (Series 
8) (Plate XXXV) it is open to question how far they have been 
correctly represented in the curves, if it is assumed that the act of 
oviposition is more or less dependent on a differential thermal stimulus, 
as generally no three temperatures remained constant for more than a 
day. It would appear, however, that in a temperature variable between 
23° and 35°C, almost all the species of mosquitos experimented with 
(the notable exception being Anopheles rossi) preferred the hottest of 
the three temperatures, the results being summarized in the following 
statement : — 


Number of eggs or egg-masses laid 





Culex fatigans . 
„ vishnui . 

„ gelidus 

1 Culex sp. (yellow) 

Stegomyia albopicia 

„ sugens 

Armigeres obturbans 

Anopheles rossii 

Culex concolor . 



















The oviposition results recorded in this paper may be correlated 
with the observations made by one of the present writers on the effects of 
certain of these substances on the development of the young stages of 
Cidex jatigans.* P)ut in doing so it should be remembered that as the 
layings in the case of Culex fatigans were exceedingly few, the correlation 
of the two sets of observations is likely to leave a large margin of error 

Page 196 



''Page 196 

















'. ^\ 



/ / 
/ / 


/ / 









\ — ^- 







: \ 








r- " 

"*"*— -~^^ 

„ . 



XBitartrate Mannite 

JNkCl Aspara^in NaCitrate 

(An 05%) 
Series 6 


Page 197 



Page 197 



in our views with regard to the maternal instinct obtaining in this 
species of mosquito. 

* " A preliminary note on the action of acids, salts and alkalies on the development of 
Ciilicid eggs and larvae," by H. N. Sharma, B.A. 

Explanation of Graphs. 

Series 1. 

Stegomyia albopicta 


Anopheles rossii ......... 

(?) Culcx sp. 

The vertical line represents the number of eggs or egg-masses laid. In the case of 
Stegomyia albopicia one-tenth of the actual number of eggs laid is represented. 

Seeies 2. 

Stegomyia albopicta 
Cvlex fatigans 

The horizontal line represents the number of eggs or egg-masses laid. The vertical 
lino represents percentages of the sodium salts used, which are ; — 
NaCl, 0-25, 0-6, 1, 2 ; NaNo, 0-8 ; Na^Noi, 1-4 ; 
NaoSo4, 1-4; Na.,S204, 2-5. 

Against the percentage of 1-4, Na3Po4 is indicated by Na,So4 is indicated byx 
In the case of Stegomyia albopictn one-tenth of the actual number of eggs laid is 

Series 2{a). 

Stegomyia albopicta 

Culex fatigans 

Anopheles rossii 

The horizontal line represents the numlier of eggs or egg-masses laid. The vertical 

line represents the percentages of Nad. 
In the cases of Stegomyia albopicta and Anopheles rossii one-tenth of the actual 

number of eggs laid is represented. 

Series 2(6). 

Ste.qomyia albopicta ") 

n 1 f r X (NaCl) ; KCl) . 

CnUx fatigans ) \ i ' v / 

The horizontal line represents the numl)cr of eggs or egg-masses laid. The vertical 
line represents the percentages of the salt, which arc 0-29, 0-58 and 0-74 (together 
with a control). 

In tlic case of Stegomyia albopicta one-tenth of the actual number of eggs laid is re- 



Series 5. 

a, indicates malachite green (O-OOl per cent.) ; 

a, Malachite green (O-OOOl per cent.) ; 

b, KMn04 (0001 per cent.) ; 

c, Hgcla (0-001 per cent.) ; d, Salicylic acid (0-1 per cent.); and 

d, Salicylic acid (0-001 per cent.). 

The vertical line represents the number of eggs or egg-masses laid. 

Stegomyia albopida 


(?) Culex sp 

In the case of S. albopida percentages of the total number of eggs laid are represented. 

Series 6. 

Stegomyia albopida 
Culex fatigans 

Anopheles culicifacies 

The vertical line represents the number of eggs or egg-masses laid. In all cases one- 
tenth of the actual number of eggs or egg-masses laid is represented. 

Series 7. 

Stegomyia albopida 

Culex fatigans 

(?) Culex sp. 

o represents sodium taurocholate (0-05 per cent.). 

6 saponin (0-07 per cent.) 

c NaCl ( 1 per cent.) + Sodium taurocholate (0-05 per cent.) 

d NaCl (1 per cent.) + saponin (0-07 per cent.) 

The vertical line represents the total number of eggs or egg-masses laid. In tlie 

i-ase of Stegomyia albopida one-hundredth of the actual number of eggs laid is 


Series 8. 

Stegomyia albopida 

Culex fatigan'i -- 

Culex vishnni 

The horizontal line represents temperatures in centigrade. The vertical line re- 
presents the number of eggs or egg-masses laid 

The series represents the average of two consecutive temperatures. 

In the case of Stegomyia albopida one-tenth of the actual number of eggs laid is 


(Plate XXXVI). 

By H. N. Sharma, B.A. 

The experiments referred in this paper were made with the object of 
determining the effect of various chemicals on the eggs and larva? of 
mosqiiitos, the immediate purpose being to gain such insight as would 
lead to more precise series of experiments with more definite compounds. 
While I was investigating the effects of different chemicals upon the 
oviposition of mosquitos, the results obtained prompted me to undertake 
the present series of experiments with all the early stages of Culicida). 

It occurred to me that attempts might be made to ascertain whether 
there was any connection between the oviposition and the development 
of eggs and larvae of Culicidse with various chemicals. 

The chemicals employed are : — 

Acids : Tannic, Salicylic, Boric, Malic, Butyric, Acetic, Lactie, 
Tartaric, Oxalic, Sulphuric and Hydro-chloric. 

Salts : Mercuric chloride, Potassium permanganate, Sodium nitrate 
Sodium chloride. Potassium chloride, Sodium phosphate, Sodium 
sulphate. Sodium thiosulphate. Potassium bitartrate, Sodium 
tartrate. Sodium citrate, Potassium citrate and Sodium oxalate. 

Alkalies : Sodium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide and Calcium 

As regards the selection of substances, some were taken up with 
reference to their occurrence in natural breeding places, while others 
had reference to their larvicidal properties. The quantities were taken 
not at random but in the majority of cases in definite proportions of 
their molecular weights ; in others in quantities that seemed requisite 
after prolonged experience. For our present purpose it would be un- 
necessary to discuss the principles underlying these selections. The 
"^bj ect of this paper is simply to present in a brief form a few interest- 
ing facts with regard to the behaviour of these substances towards the 
eggs and larvae of mosquitos. 

The experiments with Sodium chloride had reference to the practical 
value of treatment of breeding places of mosquitos with common salt 

( 199 ) 



and to the possibility of their breeding in naturally saline water. The 
results obtained with varying percentages of Sodium chloride are shown 
in the accompanying graph. (Plate XXXVI). 

About 4 dozen glass dishes of almost the same capacity were selected 
for experiments. In these dishes measured quantities of various solu- 
tions of different strengths were kspt and the original strength was 
maintained by adding the necessary amount of distilled water after 
every 24 hours, to make up the deficiency caused by evaporation. Pure 
water was used as a control. 

The eggs employed in the experiment were those of Culex fatigans, 
because it is the most common domestic mosquito and also for the reason 
that it breeds almost freely even in very low temperatures, as these 
experiments were performed in the winter season. In the course of the 
experiment a stage arrived, when it appeared that the larvse in various 
solutions in which they had hatched, were suffering in development 
owing to lack of food. 0-001 per cent. Sanatogen was therefore added in 
each dish. This addition of Sanatogen gave a sort of stimulus to all the 
larvae. Still owing to the low atmospheric temperature prevailing at 
the time (being winter) the development was exceedingly slow. 

In some chemicals the eggs did not hatch at all, in some the eggs 
did not develop but split up ; while in some the larvae died while just 
in the act of emergence ; in some the larvae half emerged and died before 
complete emergence ; in some the larvae met instantaneous death 
immediately after emergence ; in some the larvae prospered for some 
time but died before attaining full maturity ; and in the rest they attained 
maturity and mosquitos emerged. 

In determining the susceptibility of the eggs and larvae to various 
chemicals the results fall under 6 heads : — 

Series A. (Life cycle incomplete) — 

(1) Eggs did not hatch. 

(2) Larvae partially hatched and died. 

(3) Larvae hatched and died instantaneously. 

(4) Larvae hatched and died in less than 24 hours. 

(5) Larvae hatched, survived from 1 to 25 days without attaining 


Series B : — 

(6) Life cycle complete. 

Page. 200 











'^ .0 





.25 S 


f •■?» 



• Indiotes Imv* died without MpxUn4< 

Pereenlaeiof Nad © .. . ,, » p«p»ttd but Su 


Series A. 
1, Eggs did not hatch in the following chemicals : — 




Salicylic acid ...... 


>-Eggs spht up. 

Oxalic acid ...... 



Caustic potash ...... 


Partially hatched in one 
expt. but larvae died 
before emergence; 





Citric acid ...... 


Hatched in one instance 
out of 3 expts., but the 


young larvai died in less 
than 12 hours. 

Sulphuric acid ...... 


Larvae partially hatched and died. 


Caustic potash . 
Potassium permanganate 
Sodium oxalate . 





In the effects of the above solutions employed in No. 1 and 2 experiments there is 
not much difference, I have found that if sufficiently developed eggs are used in expt. 
No. 2. they hatch partially, but if fresh eggs are employed, they give the same result 
as in expt. No 1 ; that is, they do not hatch. 

3. Larvae hatched but died instantaneously. 

Butyric acid 


Acetic acid 


Hydrochloric acid 




Lactic acid 


4. Larvae hatched and died in less than 24 h( 


Sodium chloride 




Sodium phosphate 


Sodium sulphate 


Sodium thio sulphate 


Sodium nitrate . 


Potassium bitartrate . 


Mercuric chloride 


Caustic soda 


Tartaric acid 


Malic acid 


Sulphuric acid . 


Boric acid 




Citric acid 


In 2 cases they did not 

hatch but in the 3rd 

case the larvse hatched 

and died. 


5. Larvae hatched but did not attain complete maturity. 


Per cent. 


died after the 
g number of days 
er hatching. 

Caustic potash 

0-25 • 


Potassium chloride . . . . . 






Sodium chloride ..... 



As regards Sodium chloride 0-74 per cent, out of 57 larva?, originally hatched, only 
2 survived up to 23rd day. Out of these one died on the 24th day and the remaining 
one pupated and died on the 25th day. 

Series B. 

6. Life cycle complete. 


I'cr cent. 



iu days. 


in days. 

iu days. 



Salicylic acid 






Sodium chloride . 






























Sodium tartrate . . 
Sodium citrate 






LarviC at- 
tained ma- 
turity in 
the shor- 
test period. 

Potassium citrate 






Potassium chloride 
Calcium hydroxide . 







Water ..... 






In Series B as the table shows the quickest larval development took 
place in Sodium tartrate 0-5 per cent,, the slowest development in Pot- 
assium chloride and the average development in water, Potassium citrate 
0-5 per cent, and Salicylic acid 0-001 per cent. 

The most interesting and important fact is that the list of substances 
in which either the eggs did not hatch or the larvsG died soon after hatch- 


ing, includes some of the chemicals in which the least number of eggs were 
laid.* They are : — 

Acids : Citric, Oxalic, Malic, Lactic, Sulphuric and Hydrochloric. 

Alkalies : Caustic potash and Caustic soda. The substance in which 
the larva3 and pupae developed most quickly is also the same in which 
the largest number of eggs were laid, i.e., Sodium tartrate. 

One remarkable fact about Sodium tartrate is that the larvse developed 
very fairly in the beginning of the experiment and nearly achieved 
maturity, one week after their hatching. But after that their progress 
was at a stand-still for about 10 days and they did not pupate until 
some food in the form of sanatogen (as referred to in the beginning) 
was added. Another striking fact is that it was also in the first week of 
their larval stage, that the number came down from 98 to 7 only, all 
of which pupated afterwards. Of course the mortality was high in 
the beginning of the larval stage in all these solutions, but not to such 
an extent. 

So far as I have tried, Sodium tartrate seemed to be very well adapted 
to hastening the development of mosquito larvae. 

Results obtained with Sodium chloride : — 

Per cent. Result. 

2-0 . . . . Larvse hatched and died immediately. 

1-0 . . . . Larvse hatched and died within 24 hours. 

0-7'4 . . . Larvse hatched but out of 57 only 2 were alive on tlie 

18th day ; 1 more died on the 23rd day and the 
remaining one pupated and died on the 25th day. 

0-6 . . . Life cycle complete. 

0-58 . . . Ditto. 

0-5 ... Ditto. 

0-29 . . Ditto. 

0-25 . . Ditto. 

Results obtained with Potassium chloride : — 

Per cent. Results. 

0-74 . . . Larvse hatched but died within 8 days. 

0-58 . ' .' . Larvse hatched but died within 9 days. 

0-29 . . . Larva; hatched, pupated and mosquitos emerged. 

* Vide " Oviposition in Culicidse " by Mr. S. K. Sen and H. N. Sharmo presented 
with this paper to the Meeting. 


Results obtained with Caustic Potash, 

Percent. Results. 

1-0 . • . . Eggs did not hatch. 

0-6 . . . Eggs did not hatch. (In one experiment hatched 

partially but all larvae died before complete emer- 

0-5 . . . Eggs did not hatch. 

0-25 . . . Eggs hatched but all larvae died within 48 hours 

By looking at the table No. 4 it would appear that in 1-0 per cent. Caustic 
soda the eggs hatched but the larvae died within 24 hours but in the case 
of Caustic potash eggs did not hatch at all in 1-0 per cent., 0-6 per cent, 
and 0-5 per cent. This shows that the toxicity of Potassium hydroxide 
is far greater than that of Sodium hydroxide of the same strength. 

In conclusion, the preliminary character of my experiments may 
again be emphasized. Final conclusions can not be drawn, at least with 
any degree of satisfaction from laboratory experiments alone. These 
should obviously be followed by field experiments under natural condi' 

The general results are intended to give some clue as to possible 
lines upon which this investigation may profitably be pursued. 

„ . ph • t . In this respect X have noticed an interesting point. When bamboos 

phers. are cut the juice exudes into the contained rain water and the result is a 

fermenting mass containing alcohol. This is very suitable for the 
development of Leicesteria larvae. Did you try alcohol ? 
Mr. Sharma. No. 


(Plate XXXVII). 
By Major S. R. Christophers, C.I.E., I.M.S., Central Malaria Bureau,^ 


In 1916 I published a " revision " of the Indian Anophelina) in which 
I gave, under the different species, the various areas from which up to 
that date they had been recorded, whether in published works or the 
collection at the Central Malaria Bureau. It seems desirable however 
to supplement this information with such further facts as have been 
gathered and to put it in a form which will make the zoogeographical 
distribution of this group more easily appreciated. 

Regarding other mosquitos than Anophelines only very few tentative 
data regarding their distribution can as yet be given, partly because 
they are less thoroughly collected than are Anophelines and partly 
owing to difficulties of synonomy which as regards the Anophelines 
have now largely disappeared. 

The Anophelines form a very suitable group for a basis in the study 
of the geographical distribution of the Culicida3 both because they have 
been very thoroughly collected and because much work has been done 
in regard to the affinities of the species. Also the areas of distribution 
of these species are of a very suitable size, neither too large nor too small 
to be instructive. Among Anophelines there is at present recognised 
only one genus. In the case of the Culicidse there are many and the 
divergence of forms is obviously much greater. We might think a priori 
therefore that in the Anophelines we have, at least in part, to study a 
relatively more recent diffusion. As we shall see it is necessary to re- 
cognise caution where, as is evidently the case, the distribution of indivi- 
dual species is often but a part of general faunal changes. 

As is well known the surface of the earth has, on a zoogeographical 
basis, been divided into certain faunistic provinces and regions. For 
reasons I need not enter upon here these have largely been based upon 
the distribution of mammals, to a less extent on that of birds and rep- 
tiles and much less closely, if in some cases at all, upon lower forms of 
life including the Insecta. 

As regards India, Blanford (i), who is the chief authority on the 
Indian faunal areas, in one of his earlier papers divides the Indian 
Empire into four main areas : — 

(1) The Punjab, including Siud, the desert country east of the 
Indus, Cutch and Western Rajputana. 
( 205 ) 


(2) The Indian Province proper, including all India east of Delhi and 

Kathiawar to the Rajmahal hills and the whole of the Penhi- 
sula south of the Ganges, with the exception of the western 
coast and including north Ceylon. 

(3) The Eastern Bengal Province, including areas east of Calcutta. 

(4) Malabar and South Ceylon. 

In a later paper Blanford (^) divides India into 19 sub-areas grouped 
under five main provinces, (1) the Indo-gangetic plain, (2) the Peninsula, 
(3) Ceylon, (4) the Himalayan area and (5) Assam, Burma and East of 
Bengal. The Peninsular area includes 5 of the sub-areas, namely 
(a) Rajputana and Central India, (6) the Deccan tract, (c) Bihar and 
Orissa tract, {d) the Carnatic or Madras and (e) the Malabar Coast. 
The limits of these areas and sub-areas is given in Map 1 (Plate 

in regard to these areas the Punjab tract is considered to be Holarctic, 
the remaining tracts Oriental. The most important feature would seem 
to be the occurrence of a strong Malayan facies in those parts east of 
Calcutta and in the isolated Malabar tract which includes also Southern 
Ceylon. There is also some extension of Malayan affinities to the Hima- 
layan area particularly in the eastern Himalayan tract. A peculiar 
area is called attention to in Southern India which is characterised 
chiefly by lower vertebrate forms and is termed " Dravidian." 

So far for the distribution of mammals. Considering the distribution 
of Anopheles, at first quite independently of these results, it is obvious 
that certain quite definite distributional sub-divisional areas exist in 
India in relation to this group. To give precise limits to these areas is 
often difficult but we may distinguish at least the following : — 

(1) The Indo-Gangetic area, characterized by the presence of 
A. calicifacies, Giles. 

A. rossii, Giles. 
A. juliginosiijS, Giles. 
^. stephensii, Liston. 
A. sinensis, Wied. 
A. hurhirostris, Van cler Wulp. 

(2) The Trans-Indus area. — Whilst this area has a rich anopheline 
fauna representative of the Indo-gangetic area as well of the Himalayan 
area to be considered later, it is strikingly distinct in the possession 
of species which are found nowhere else in India. This character 
applies also to the C^ulicidse other than Anopheles, so that whilst this 
area might be considered part of the Indo-gangetic area I think it is 
more useful to treat it as distinct. Two species of Anopheles which are 
common to it, A. superpictas and A. rJiodesicnsis, are found here 





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and nowhere else in India. Two other species, A. pidchernmus and 
A. turkkudi, though their distribution extends beyond the Trans- 
Indus tract, are more abundant here than elsewhere and are species 
whose main distributional area lies to the West of India. A. super'picius 
occurs in a belt stretching from North Africa and South Europe through 
the Caspian area and Turkestan to the Quetta hills. A. iurkhudi has^a 
distribution which I have described as Saharan. It occurs in North- 
Western India and the Deccan, being unknown in the east. A. pulcher- 
rimus is the dominant anophehne of Mesopotamia and of the plains of 
the Oxus. Its Indian home is the Indus plain though it occurs sparnigly 
as far as the United Provinces. A . rhodesiensis is an African species com- 
mon in Arabia. Any collection of mosquitos from the Trans-Indus is 
generally easily to be located by these and other features. 

(3) The Malabar area. This region is a very conspicuous one, 
From somewhere north of Bombay down the South-Western Coast is 
encountered a complexus of species in striking contrast to that of the 
Indo-gangetic area. Characteristic of the area is the common occurrence 
of A. jamesii, A. karwari, A. jmnctulata, A. aitkeni, and A. jeyforiensis. 
In this area is found the tree-breeding species, A. culiciformis, Cogill, 
unrecorded elsewhere. 

(4) The Peninsular area. Regarding this area we require far more 
detailed information. For the present we may treat of it as a single 
area though it is clearly to a certain degree composite. On the west 
it merges gradually into the Malabar area and its common species are 
largely those of the Indo-gangetic area. On the coast are conditions 
suggestive of the Assam and Burmese areas, e.(/., the occurrence of 
A. minimus, A. vagus, A. leucosfhmas and A. ludlowi. 

Regarding Ceylon there is so far no evidence of a particularly distinct 
anopheline fauna and for the time it may be best I think regarded as 
included in the Malabar area. From it have been recorded :— 

A. rossii, Giles. A. Juliginoms, Giles. A. minimum, Theo. 

A. vagus, Don. A., maculatus, Theo. A. asiatka, Leic. 

A. ludlowi, Theo. A. karwari, James. A. sinensis, Wied. 

A. tesselatus, Theo. A. culiciSacies, Giles. A. pediKxniatus, Leic. 

A. jamesii, Theo. A. listoni. Listen. A. barbirosfris, V. d. W. 

(5) The Assam-Burma area. From about east of Calcutta the 
Indo-Gangetic fauna shows a marked change approximating to that 
already noted for the Malabar area. In addition to A. rossii, Giles, of 
more westerly regions, occurs also the eastern A. vagus, Don. There is 
also an eastern species so far unrecorded from other parts of India, wz., 
A. kochi, Don., very characteristic of the Malayan fauna further east. ^ 

(6) Of great interest is the Himalayan area. The characteristic 
species are A. gigas and A. lindesayi. Perhaps the most interesting 



feature of this fauna is that it is not restricted to the Himalayas but 
occurs as outliers far to the south in Tropical India, a point I shall 
return to later. 

Broadly speaking, after excluding the fringes of what are clearly 
western faunas and practically influence only the Trans-Indus area 
we can distinguish in the Indian Empire two types of Anopheline fauna. 

To the first we can assign the Indo-gangetic tract, the Deccan and 
to some extent the Peninsular area generally. 

To the second we must assign the countries east of Calcutta and 
the Malabar tract with Ceylon and possibly to some extent the coastal 
and hill areas of the Madras tract. 

Examining the essential nature of the difference in these types of 
fauna one is struck by the fact that it is chiefly in the degree of 
absence of Malayan forms that these differ. It would appear legitimate 
to say that the Indian area is characterized by an impoverished 
Malayan Anopheline fauna, this impoverishment reaching to a high 
degree in the first series of tracts and being but little marked in the 
second. There is on the whole a far greater change beyond the western 
frontier than to the east. This will be seen from the following abstract 
of species : — 

I Common to ^ ,. 

African species. | Africa and India ,J J,^^^ species 
(Ex.Trans-Indus). (^^^ Trans-Indus), 



Common to 
Malay and India. 


Malay species. 


As Major Gill, I. M.S., once aptly put it to me, there is something 
like a mosquito fault at about the Indus. 

Though few in number there appear to be quite definitely some Indian 
species whose zoocentre is included in the Indian Empire and which 
help to make good the impoverishment of Malayan forms in a large 
part of the area. These species often have a westerly focus or tendency 
of occurrence. One may mention A. stephensii unrecorded in Malay 
and stretching to the confines of the Arabian Desert ; A. culicifacies, 
a dominant Indian form not recorded from Malay but occurring as far 
at least westward as Arabia and Palestine. More strictly Indian still 
appear to be the species A. theohaldi, A. willmori and A. fowleri. Also 
the species A. listoni may not be quite identical with the African A. 
funestus. A. jeyporiensis is also a species not recorded from Malay 
though one would have expected its occurrence in this region. 


I propose in view of these facts to speak, with reference to anopheline 
distribution, of two areas in India (1) Hindustan and (2) Malayo-India. 
The general lie of these areas is shewn in Map 2 (Plate XXXVII). 

A few words may be said finally as to the Himalayan species. Of 
these A. gigas is Malayan and has been found in Java and probably in 
the Philippines. The common and ubiquitous Himalayan form is 
A. lindesmji which appears not to be known out of India. Two other 
Anophelines are also found in the Himalayan area which are not found 
elsewhere in India, viz., the two tree-breeding species, A. harianensis 
(Holarctic) and A. annandalei (Malayan). The Himalayan fauna is 
not confined to the Himalayas but occurs also at high levels in the 
Assam and Peninsular areas. Thus both A. gigas and A. lindesayi 
occur in the Nilgiris and Palnis in South India though these are separated 
from the Himalayas by a wide extent of country quite unsuitable to 
these species which are restricted to high altitudes, A. gigas being scarcely 
ever found much under 5,000 or 6,000 feet. The occurrence of these 
Himalayan species in the isolated plateaus of Southern India is an 
instance of what is found also I believe in the case of distributional 
areas of some mammals, namely those of Alpine forms which exist now 
as outliers far to the south of India and have been considered as indica- 
ting the prevalence at one time of temperate conditions where now is 
a tropical climate. 

There remains to say something as to the distribution of Indian Culi- 

cidse other than Anophelines. In the space at my disposal I must be 

brief and so cannot enter as fully as I should like into this matter. In a 

Table is given an abstract of species occurring in Africa, Hindostan, 

Malayo-India and Malay with the number of species common to these 

areas. It will be seen that of 142 African and European species 12 only 

occur in India and of these 12 some are very widely-distributed species, 

e.g., S. fasciata, C. fafigans. But of IGl Malayan species 56 occur in 

Malayo-India and at least ten in Hindostan. Of the 95 species recorded 

from Malayo-India 40 only are at present not recorded from Malay. At 

least twenty-two of these species are found also in Hindostan, forming 

the bulk of the relatively poor culicine fauna (30 species) of this area. 

These figures must not be considered by any means exact especially as 

regards the Hindostan area in which it is probable more species (mostly 

those of Malayo-India) will eventually be recorded. The figures show, 

however, numerically "what is a self-evident fact to anyone accustomed 

to collect mosquitos. The rich fauna of moist tropical Malay is still 

found in forests and moist jungles almost wherever they occur in India. 

In the relatively drier parts of India this heavy jungle fauna largely 

disappears, leaving chiefly the swamp breeders, agrarian and domestic 


forms. Iti the Trans-Indus and in the Himalayan area new faunas are 
encountered. The Himalayan area appears to be responsible for quite 
a number of the species restricted to India itself, notably species of 
Ochlerotatus. In this area it is curious to find in the North-Western 
Himalayas at a height of 6,000 feet or more and among oaks and pines 
such forms as Toxorhynchites leicesteri and Ortho'podomi/ia cmopheloides , 
which one associates with tropical conditions and which are Malayan 

The close similarity of areas based on the distribution of mammals 
to those now brought forward in respect to the distribution of mos- 
quitos is very striking. That there should be such coincidence in the 
case of forms so totally unrelated to one another in zoological position 
and methods of life appears to show that the distribution of forms of 
life in this case has been less the effect of diffusion of individual species, 
working so to speak independently, than of circumstances acting upon 
the great biological systems that are understood when one speaks of a 
fauna. As regards the causes of distribution of the different species of 
Indian mosquitos, even of the Anophelines, it is evident that we must 
primarily consider most of these species as belonging to a great Malayan 
faunal complex in whose history and fate that of the species has been 
involved. Similarly one must expect to find indications of an African 
faunal complex since it is known that at one time the so-called Siwalik 
fauna of African type existed in India and extended far into Central 
Asia. Of this we have not seen such striking evidence as might have 
been expected seeing that the Siwalik fauna succeeded the Malayan in 
North India and is usually considered Pliocene as against Miocene in 
point of time. In the case of the mosquito fauna of India one can 
almost see the eastward recession, due to drier climatic conditions, of 
a faunal area which once extended from Europe to the East. Yet apart 
from the history of the faunal complexes there is evidently much in the 
distribution of mosquitos due to special circumstances affecting indivi- 
dual species. Some of the Anopheline species, as I have shown, have 
very peculiar areas of distribution of which the explanation is not clear" 
yet these must have a definite significance. Why for example, do species 
stop at the Indus ? I have made somewhat of a study of the land changes 
in this area but without convincing myself that I have discovered any 
adequate reason for this. Why does A. stephensii exist up the Tigris 
and Euphrates and A. culicifacies not, and so on. 

In conclusion, I may point out how important is our knowledge in 
regard to the Central Asian border of our area and how desirable are 
observations and collections from the Tibutan and Chinese borders. 


(1) Blanford, 

(2) Ditto 

References to Literature. 

W. T. . Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 
39, Part 2, p. 336. 1870. 
. The distribution of Vertebrate animals in 
India, Ceylon and Biirmah. Philoso- 
fUcal Trans, of the Royal Society, Series 
B., Vol. 194, pp. 335-436. 1901. 






















OM not at lis . 







Armigercs and 






Ciilex . 








Ciiliciomyia and 
Lophocerolomyifi . 










M mi flow a 












Vranotmuia . 














Others . 















We are much, indebted to Major Christophers for this most interesting Mr. Fletcher 
paper. He has for many years paid special attention to mosquitos, 
which are themselves insects which are only too apt to pay too much 
attention to us. The time has hardly yet come, I think, when any 
general debate on the entomo-geographical fauna of India is possible. 
We need more knowledge and larger collections. Both our own collec- 
tions and that of the Indian Museum are inadequate. We hope to be in 
a position to do so in the future. I cannot agree with Major Christo- 
phers that the insect fauna of the Nilgiris is Himalayan. Fifteen years 
ago, I drew attention to the great similarity of the faunas of Ceylon and 
the Khasis. I do not think it is a case of survival, but rather a case of 
migration. Fifteen years ago, before I came to India, I took part in an 
expedition to the islands of the Indian Ocean, in which the collection of 
insects was my province of the work, and during this expedition manv 
striking cases of distribution were found. Not only strong fliers, which 
could cross wide expanses of sea by their own efforts, but also very weak 


fliers were found unexpectedly widely distributed. As you know, the 
Plume-moths are my speciality. They are very weak-winged insects, 
but there is a species found in Florida and Central America, in West 
and South Africa, in the islands of the Indian Ocean, in the Indian 
region generally and in Australia. This insect is not a survival from a 
common fauna, it has not been introduced by man, as its food plant is 
a wild one, and must have been distributed by natural causes of which 
probably the most important are upper atmospheric currents. 

Mr. White. Before Mr. Fletcher advanced this theory of distribution by atmos- 

pheric currents I had hesitated to mention a similar theory of my own, 
as it sounded too far-fetched. My place of residence in Ceylon is situated 
on the South-west side of the last range of hills terminating the mountain 
mass of the island in a North-westerly direction. There is therefore no 
high ground struck by. the repeating monsoon after leaving Burma 
until it reaches this range. On several occasions during this period of 
the year I have taken insects belonging to the Burmese fauna, notice- 
ably when once in January I took at one sweep of the net two conspicuous 
Stratiomyiads^ Allognosta assamensis and Acanthina azurea, neither of 
which I had ever seen in several years previous and continuous collecting 
at this spot. As Wallace has pointed out, if only once in a thousand 
years a specimen is successfully transported by the action of wind over 
stretches of ocean, this is sufficient to account for this continuous 
distribution of a species ; and the above instance is possibly such an 

Dr. Gravely. My work has been done on Arachnids and one group of beetles, not 

on Culicidao, but the results are somewhat similar. I have been much 
puzzled by cases in which species appear to have crossed the Bay of 
Bengal, and upper air currents may perhaps afford the solution. On 
the other hand, whilst collecting at Barkuda island on the Chilka lake 
recently, I found many species previously only known from Ceylon and 
it occurs to me that many of these cases of discontinuous distribution 
are really due to insufficient collecting in intermediate localities. Many 
lines of inquiry seem to be needed for the full elucidation of zoogeogra- 
phical problems. In Passalid beetles distribution is closely correlated 
with phylogeny. Passalids are very occasionally seen at light and 
probably very seldom fly. Consequently their distribution is likely 
to be of a slow and regular type. Among the species of one group 
of the Family occurring from Ceylon to Australia the most distantly 
related species occur on the one hand in Celebes and Borneo (which 
themselves are very different in faunal constitution) and on the other 
in the neiglibouring Malacca islands. To these two areas they can be 
traced phylogenetically from Ceylon and Australia respectively, where 


the primitive species of each region occur, these being much more like 
each other than are those occurring in geographical proximity. There 
appears therefore to have been a pushing out from a centre of distribution 
towards the middle of the Malayan Archipelago, whose luxuriant jungles 
are noted for their great wealth of different species. There have been 
some barriers to distribution which have checked this centrifugal ten- 
dency at various points, such as Palk Straits, the Gangetic plains and the 
Isthmus of Kra. Certain groups of Arachnida follow in the main this 
distribution but often their case is very complex. Certain Malaysian 
spiders extend into the Eastern Himalayas but not into Peninsular 
India. Others of the genus may occur in Peninsular India but not in ' 
the Himalayas. 

I do not, of course, ascribe distribution in all cases to air currents, Mr. Fletcher, 
which cannot have much effect on heavy insects such as the Passalids, 
but certainly they play a large part generally. Even neglecting trans- 
port across wide stretches of ocean by the upper air currents, many 
insects can fly, or are carried by the wind, to quite unexpectedly long 
distances. When I was in a Survey Ship off the coast of Ceylon, we 
were running lines of soundings every quarter of a mile along the 
coast out from the beach to the 100 fathom limit and each night we 
anchored wherever we happened to be on our line when it became 
too dark to see our shore marks ; often we were 10 to 12 miles from 
the coast. It was surprising to note how many insects came to the 
lights of the ship, and these included many small things, which one 
would think could not fly half-a-mile. In America experiments have 
been done by exposing sticky screens at light-houses off shore and it 
has been found that young Coccids, caterpillars, etc., are carried to 
unexpectedly great distances by the wind, — something like 27 miles, 
I think. 

Is there any indication of the distribution of Anophelines being Mr. Sen. 
correlated with mammalian feeding habits ? 

General experience shows that Anopheline distribution is affected Major Christo- 
primarily by the presence of suitable breeding places. With the excep- 
tion of certain species, e.g., Stom.yia fasciata, which is definitely associated 
with man, mosquitos are not usually specific in their choice of a mam- 
malian host. 

Whilst collecting on a tame bull at Coonoor I found that several Mr. White, 
persons standing around the animal were not bitten by Ano'pheles gigas, 
A. aitJceni, Stegomijia frilmeata, a Simidium and a CuUcoides. Neither 
were we bitten by these insects whilst collecting around the garden, wait- 
ing for the bull to be brought up. I know two rest houses in Ceylon 
both situated deep in the same jungle, near one of which there is a 


Dr. Gravely. 

Major Christo- 

Mr. White. 
Mr. Ballard. 

Major Christo- 

Mr. Sen. 

Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Iyengar. 

resting place for carts ; it is noticeable that at the latter existence on 
the verandah in the evening is tolerable, whereas in the other it is 
quite impossible. 

I have heard of cattle being used for keeping malaria down in France. 

A certain amount of association of species of mosquitos with parti- 
cular mammals undoubtedly exists. Anopheles fuliginosus and A. 
rossii, for example, are mainly cattle feeders. A. funestus and A. 
listoni like horses but are much more attached to man. Some Culicidse 
do not feed on mammals at all ; certainly not on man. 

Uranotcenia is a genus of mosquitos said never to bite ; but U. jyycjmfea 
is recorded as containing avian blood in Australia. 

On two occasions I have seen Stegomyia albopicta prefer to suck a 
plain cake rather than the people at a tea table. The specimens were 

Yet Stegomyia also very frequently goes to the tea pot on account 
of its warmth. 

In one of his articles in the Indian Journal of Medical Research (" The 
natural host of Phlehotomus ") Mr. Hewlett showed the Gecko to be the 
natural host of Phlehotomus, and he considered the existence of the one 
might possibly be correlated with that of the other. 

Certain species of crop pests occur in one place and not in another 
though the food plant is present in both. For instance the mango 
weevil, Cryptorrhynchus gravis, occurs in Eastern Bengal and not in 
Western, though the trees occur in both Bengals and mangoes are im- 
ported from East to West Bengal. Similarly I have noticed sugarcane 
borers occur in East Bengal and not in West although sugarcane is 
grown there also. The distribution of a species depends not on the 
presence of food only but also on a suitable climatic condition. 

As most mosquitos show no special predilection towards particular 
mammals, there appears to be no noticeable correlation. But climatic 
conditions and occurrence of different kinds of breeding places appear 
to determine the distribution of the species. That random distribution 
of species occurs in various ways is true, but the places, to which the 
species are distributed, should have the particular breeding places suitable 
to them, as otherwise, the species is not likely to establish itself in the 
new locality. 

The occurrence of some genera of Alpine plants in the Himalayas 
and in the Nilgiri Hills supports the theory of distribution during the 
glacial era. It is not likely that the seeds of these plants could be carried 
by the wind. The occurrence of Anopheles gigas in the Nilgiris and in 
the Himalayas may be a further illustration of a glacial era distribu- 


I may mention that Anofheles gigas occurs also at Pachmarhi in Major Christo- 
Central India. To decide regarding insect distribution generally and P^ers. 
even mosquitos in India would perhaps be premature. But I have 
brought forward facts regarding the distribution of Anophelines because 
these form an unusually suitable group for study and we have a unique 
amount of information regarding them. We have about ten thousand 
specimens at Kasauli and in the main their distribution in India is 
uniquely well known. In general, wind-distribution cannot, I think, 
affect the problem. The facts are sometimes, I think, only to be 
explained as relics of different geological ages. For instance, Toxorhyn- 
cJiites leicesteri is common at Simla at 6,000 feet and Orthopodomyia 
anopheloides occurs at Simla ; both these are not Palaearctic but Malayan. 

I found ToxorhyncMtes leicesteri at Dunga Galli at 8,000 feet in May. Mr. Fletcher. 

I should expect even on the Western Ghats that a Himalayan Anophe- Major Christo- 
line fauna would exist on any localities of say over 6,000 feet. phers. 

I do not agree to the application of the term Himalayan fauna to jjj^ Fletcher, 
such areas, whose fauna is not Himalayan but consists of species common 
to the hills of India at this elevation. I should rather describe it as a 
montane fauna. 

In speaking of Himalayan species I purposely excluded forms like Major Christophers. 
Anopheles mac^datus, A. iheobaldi and A. willmori, which occur in the 
Himalayas but are widely diffused low hill species. Even if we admit 
that A. gigas may be blown across from Burma to South Indian hill- 
tops we still are faced with the fact that A. lindesayi has never been 
recorded from anywhere on the Malayan side. It is dominant in the 
Himalayas but occurs also in*South India. 



(Plate XXXVIII). 

By M. 0. TiRUNARAYANA IYENGAR, B.A., Entomologist, Bengal Malaria 


A paired contractile appendage has been observed on the dorsal 
anterior region of the thorax of the Anopheles larva, the structure, 
position and movement of which are herein described. The appendage 
has a basal pedicel which is produced apically into two finger-like lobes. 
Each of these lobes is provided with a thin lamellar expansion of the 
cuticle as seen in Plate XXXVIII fig. 2a. The appendage is provided 
with a muscle which is attached to the cuticular region between the 
two lobes, and when the muscle contracts, the lobes move towards 
each other. But it usually contracts to a much greater extent, and as 
a result the whole appendage is withdrawn into the thorax. This very 
rapid movement is quite frequent and can be seen in living larvae 
especially of those of Anopheles sinensis or A. harhirostris in which 
species these appendages are well developed. 

In the normal position of the larva, the appendages cannot be fully 
seen as only the tips of the lobes can be seen protruding beyond the 
profile of the thorax even in the best developed forms. If however a 
cover-glass is dropped lightly on the larva and by a slight movement of 
the cover-glass the larva is turned to one side the whole appendage 
would come into view and the details of its structure can then be made 
out. It frequently happens that the whole appendage is withdrawn into 
the thorax. In such a case, nothing can be seen except a depression in 
the thorax, and to see the appendage it will be necessary to wait till the 
contracted muscle relaxes again and the appendage is exerted. To have 
a clear view of the cuticular lamina of the lobes it would be necessary 
to use a very low illumination. They are highly transparent and are 
wedgeshaped when seen edge-wise. 

The muscle controlling the movement of the appendage is a long 
transverse one starting from the sub-posterior ventral region of the 
thorax and ending at the dorsal anterior part of the thorax in the append- 
ages. The appendages themselves seem to take their origin from the 
anterior sub-dorsal region of the meso-thorax rather than from the pro- 
thorax which is very small in comparison with the mesothoracic seg- 
ment. But as there are no clear lines of demarcation between the 

( «6 ) 

Page 210 


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different thoracic segments, it has not been possible to say this with a 
precision. It is hoped that further work may throw light on this ' 
question. The sizes of the appendages vary with different species. 
While in A. sinensis and harbirostris the lobes are equal, in most of the 
other species the lobes are generally not equal and the inner lobe is the 
better developed of the two in such cases (Figs. 3-7). 

As many as ten Indian species of Anopheles have been examined and 
all of them have these appendages, A. inaculipennis and hifurcatus 
larvae from England (received through the courtesy of Professor G. H. 
F. Nuttjall) were also examined and were found to have these appendages 
quite characteristically. Other genera of the Culicidse that have been 
so far studied, including Culex, Stegomyia, Armigeres and ToxofhyncJiites, 
do not have them, not even their vestige. It appears probable that 
these appendages are characteristic of the larvse of the Anophelinae. 

It is curious that all previous workers on mosquitos have failed to 
mention anything about these organs, with the solitary exception of 
Nuttall and Shipley {Journal of Hygiene Vol. I.). Even these authors 
only mention the occurrence of a " curious, flattened, notched process " 
on the dorsal side of the thorax of ^. maculifeymis and this is evidently 
a reference to the appendage above described. 

The investigation in its present state does not warrant even a con- 
jecture as to the homology or function of these appendages. The purpose 
of their movement has not yet been understood. When a larva creeps 
forward on a slide these organs contract with every forward creep. In 
the natural condition the tips of the lobes touch the surface film of water. 
Imms suggests that the " curious, flattened, notched process " of Nuttall, 
and Shipley are probably vestiges of prothoracic spiracles {Journal of 
Hygiene, Vol. VII, p. 294). This seems improbable. Further work is 
being done on the anatomy, homology and function of these appen- 
dages. Other species and the further development of these appendages 
in the pupa and adult are also being studied. 

Bo these appendages appear at once or after a moult '\ Mr. Sharma. 

I have not seen them until the second instar. When the larvse are jflr. Iyengar, 
irritated the processes contract within the thorax. 

You might try gradual ansesthetizing as used for highly contractile Mr. White* 
Protozoa so as to kill the larvse with the appendages extended. 

The method used for mounting Rotifers in an extended condition, Mr. Fletcher, 
by very gradual addition of cocaine to the water, might also be useful. 

I have done no work on the embryology of these appendages, but this Mr. Iyengar, 
is now proceeding. 



Mr. Awati gave a few remarks on his present Survey of house-living 
insects in connection with Kala-Azar in Assam. He works on three 
lines : — 

ii) Study of the physical aspect of the village. 
(m) Inquiries regarding insects found in houses. 
(Hi) Inspection of the houses in cases in which this is permitted. 

He stated that the villagers have no knowledge of insects found in 
their houses except "bed bugs " and occasionally lice. On one occasion 
Conorhinus ruhrofasciatus has been found in the bed of a patient. 

Page 219 


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Page 219 


Fig. 1.— New Mosquito trap, {a) open and (&) closed and removed from 

outer case. 


(Plate XXXIX); 

By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imferial 


The fact that mosquitos hide during the daytime in dark situations 
such as are provided in the ordinary bungalow by cupboards, boots, 
book-cases, etc., is a matter of ordinary daily observation in India 
and attempts have been made with some success to utilize this habit 
to trap and destroy them. An ordinary box provided with a hinged 
lid, which is left slightly ajar, is a simple means to this end, and this 
method is slightly elaborated in the Wa^json pattern of mosquito box- 
trap which consists of a box lined with black cloth and with a hinged 
lid which can be held half open by means of a metal clip, the lid being 
provided with a hole fitted with wirenetting through which a liquid, 
such as chloroform or benzine, can be poured to kill off the mosquitos 
caught in the box. The method of use of such traps is smiple and 
consists of placing the box, with the lid held open by the clip, in a 
suitable corner overnight and letting down the lid in the morning when 
the mosquitos have retired for the day into the dark cavity thus pro- 
vided for them. They are then poisoned by pouring in the necessary 
liquid through the hole in the lid. Such a box-trap is often very effectual 
in catching mosquitos when these are present in large numbers but it 
suffers from the defects :— (1) it is not possible to see what is in the box ; 
it may happen that this is empty, (2) it is necessary to use a liquid 
poison such as chloroform or benzine and these are not always avail- 
able in the ordinary household, (3) if the box is not thoroughly aired 
afterwards, a trace of the smell of the poison employed may remain 
in it and repel mosquitos from entering it on a subsequent occasion. 

To obviate these defects, some five years ago I designed a new type 
of box-trap (Plate XXXIX, fige. la, h), which consists essentially of 
a wooden skeleton of a box with a hinged lid, covered over on all six 
sides with black mosquito-netting. This skeleton box is contained 
inside an open-topped wooden box which is painted black on the 
inside. The whole is then placed in a suitable position overnight and 
left with the hinged top of the inner box open. In the morning, when 
the mosquitos have settled down, the hinged lid is closed and fastened 
with the metal hook-fastener, and the inner box can then be lifted out 
by the handles provided for this purpose. It can then be seen at once 
what the catch is. It now remains to kill the captured mosquitos and 

( 219 ) 


this is easily done in the hot weather, when mosquitos mostly seek 
refuge in houses in the daytime, by placing the inner box on the bare 
ground in the blazing sun. In really hot dry weather the mosquitos are 
all killed within a few minutes. When the air is damp, this is not so 
successful, but every ant in the vicinity hastens to the feast, gets inside 
through the mosquito net, and the mosquitos rarely survive for very 
long. In the last resort, as in very wet weather, a little benzine or 
petrol may be poured into the trap (both boxes) and a piece of cardboard 
laid over the top to keep in the fumes. This type of trap has been tried 
at Pusa and at Nagpur with considerable success. 

Both these types of trap possess one common disadvantage in that 
they require the human element to look after them, reset them over- 
night and deal with the captures daily. It would be a great advantage 
if we could have a purely mechanical trap which would catch mosquitos 
regularly without needing daily attention.* This is a line on which I 
have made experiments and, although these have so far not been very 
successful, it may be useful to give some idea of the line on which I 
have worked as it is probable that a successful trap could be evolved 
on this principle. I took a long box and fixed inside it glass strips, 
stretching from side to side, as shown in the section of the box 
(Plate XXXIX, figure 2e), one end of the box being of course open ; 
the other end is provided with a sliding trap-door, as shown in detail 
in Plate XXXIX, figures 2a-c. The complete box, seen from the open 
end, is shown in figure 2d. The inside of the box is painted black. 
My idea was that the mosquitos, when looking for a suitable dark place 
in which to spend the day, would be able to find their way inside the 
box past the glass strips, which slope inwards, but that these strips 
would prevent their exit ; they would thus stop in the box until they 
died, the accumulated corpses being removed occasionally through the 
trap-hatch. However, in practice this has not been very successful so 
far. Possibly a little variation in the position or number of the glass 
strips might make it quite effective. Another design, which has not 
yet been tried, is seen in Plate XXXIX, figure 2/, in which also the 
idea is that mosquitos may be able to find their way in but be unable 
to discover the means of egress. 

Should it be possible to secure a mechanical trap on these lines, 
it would be useful in the reduction of domestic mosquitos in houses, 
as it would only require to be placed in a suitable position and left there 
practically without attention. 

The ordinary form of box-trap, it may be added, is also likely to 
be of considerable use in the prosecution of regular mosquito survey- 


There is one point that I may add, and that is with regard to the 
most suitable colour for mosquito-traps. These have always been 
coloured black, but it is by no means certain that black is the most 
attractive colour, and experiments are badly required on the colours 
which are most attractive to mosquitos, either generally or to particular 
species or groups. I thinlc it not unlikely that dark-blue will prove 
still more attractive than black. 


(Plate XL). 
By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S. and R. 

Senior- White, F.E.S. 
The serious losses to army transport animals during the recent War 
led to the appointment by the Grovernment of India of a special Surra 
Committee, in connection with whose work the late Imperial Patho- 
logical Entomologist received orders to carry out the following investi- 
gations : — 

(a) The continuation of research on fly repellents. 
(6) The preparation of maps of the areas affected by Surra, 
(c) The carrying out of a fly survey. 
{d) The study of Tabanid life-histories. 

(e) The preparation of a review of the correlation between rainfall 
and Surra in 1919. 
In endeavouring to discover what had been actually done to carry 
out these lines of work, we have had to put into order a mass of scattered 
papers in order to prepare a report of the present position of affairs 
for the Surra Committee, and in the course of so doing we have been 
led to go over a good deal of literature dealing with the question of 
Surra in India and its connection with Biting Flies and have thought 
that it might be of interest to this Meeting to give a resume of what is 
actually known and what has actually been done on this subject, which 
is an important one, in Northern India especially. It should be under- 
stood that we do not claim to say anything new on the subject of Surra 
nor to do more than to give a brief review of the literature on this subject 
so far as India is concerned. On points demanding a knowledge of 
protozoology we have had the kind assistance of Dr. Pringle Jameson 
whose help in this subject we would gratefully acknowledge. 

Surra, literally meaning " rotten," is a protozoan remittent fever, 
accompanied by emaciation, anaemia and debility, and characterized 
by the presence of Trypanosomes in the blood during an attack of fever. 
The causative Trypanosome is Trypanosoma evansi, which was dis- 
covered at Dera Ismail Khan in 1880 by Griffith Evans, who first demons- 
trated the Trypanosomes in the peripheral circulation of affected camels. 
Besides camels, it occurs naturally in cattle, buffalos, mules, horses, 
rats, jackals and dogs, and under laboratory conditions has been found 
capable of infecting guinea-pigs, rabbits, mice, goats and monkeys. 

( 222 ) 

Page 223 





There is also some evidence that pigs and elephants are naturally infected, 
and it is probable that systematic examination would add other wild 
animals to the list of natural carriers. 

Surra is by no means confined to India. It occurs probably through- 
out South-eastern Asia and has been recorded from India, Burma, 
Federated Malay States, Indo-China, the Philippines, Java and Sumatra, 
and also from Mauritius, whither it was imported with Indian cattle. 
A striking point about it is its occurrence in definite areas, commonly 
called Surra belts, which Pease (1906) states are " lowlying marshy 
lands, subject to partial inundation and subsequent partial drying 
up, covered with rough grass and jungle." Such conditions are not, 
however, apparently a necessary accompaniment of an outbreak of 
Surra, as cases have occurred in ponies and dogs in Madras City, where 
they do not exist, and in North Bihar, where such conditions do exist, 
Surra appears to be unknown. Many observers are agreed that the 
limits of Surra belts are sharply, or fairly sharply, defined but there 
seems to be little exact information on record regarding their occurrence 
and delimination in India. In this connection we have prepared a 
map (Plate XL) from the reports on file at Pusa showing the areas in 
which Surra is reported to have occurred during the last ten years*. It 
has not been found possible, in the absence of a standard and from the 
information available, to indicate the intensity of occurrence in any 
area. Further, when studying the map, it gives one the impression 
that many areas shown as isolated are in reality portions of some main 
area and, if more detailed information had been available, would have 
been shown as such. Discontinuity of distribution is probably more 
apparent than real and is probably largely due to absence of reports 
rather than to absence of the disease. Subject to this remark, it will 
be seen that, north of the parallel of Bombay, the disease is absent 
only from the desert areas and from Bihar north of the Ganges. The 
occurrence in South Madras of an isolated area of fairly constant 
infection is most interesting. Surra also occurs in Central Ceylon (not 
shown on the map). 

The most interesting and most important point about Surra is with 
regard to its method of transmission from one animal to another. Given 
an animal whose blood contains Trypanosoma evansi and another animal 
whose blood is free from this Trypanosome, how can the parasite pass 
from the infected animal to infect the hitherto healthy one ? Now, 
with regard to this, before considering the various experiments that 
have been done and the theories that have been advanced, we must 

* Since this paper was read, Surra has also been reported to occur in Ceylon, which 
should therefore be shaded in the map. — T.B.F. 


realize that the production of disease is a mere accident from the point 
of view of the Trypanosome, an occurrence which is fatal to itself as 
well as to its involuntary host, should the latter die. In the case of 
wild animals which carry the Trypanosomes producing Sleeping Sickness 
and Nagana in Africa, these parasites live without doing harm to their 
hosts although they produce fatal diseases when introduced into hosts 
which are not used to them and which cannot tolerate them and hence 
become diseased. It has been found by cultural methods that normal 
English cattle have Trypanosomes in their blood and it seems certain 
that in India cattle and buffaloes form a normal reservoir for Trypano- 
soma evansi, without its causing them any particular harm. There 
seems to be little exact particular information regarding the degree 
or distribution of such tolerant infestation in either domesticated or 
wild animals in India, but it is as well to realize at the outset that 
infection in the case of hitherto healthy animals may be derived, not 
only from other similar animals which are actively showing the disease, 
but from other animals which may appear quite healthy. To detect 
the presence of the parasite in such apparently healthy animals is not 
always easy, as it may only appear occasionally in the peripheral circu- 
lation ; the Twentyfourth Annual Keport of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, United States of America (1907), for example, reports a case 
in which Indian cattle were imported into America and examined daily, 
when it was found that the Surra organisms only appeared periodically 
and could be found during a period of 2 to 4 days and then remained 
absent for another period of 5 to 6 days, after which they reappeared. 
In the case of the camel, Cross (1907) distinguishes an acute form of 
Surra, in which the disease runs a rapid course, the animal dying in a 
few months, and a chronic form, in which the disease is of long duration, 
the animal lingering on from one to three years, becoming gradually 
more and more emaciated and debilitated until death supervenes. So 
that we get cases (1) in which the health of the host is apparently quite 
unaffected, (2) in which the host dies rapidly as the result of infection, 
or (3) cases intermediate between (1) and (2). Pease (1906) states that 
Camel Surra is an attenuated form of horse Surra, and there may be 
differences in strains of the Trypanosome or in individual susceptibility 
of the host ; but these are questions beyond the scope of Entomology 
and which we do not intend to pursue further. 

A large mass of information on Surra, especially in horses, was 
accumulated over twenty years ago by Lingard, but his results were 
inconclusive and need not be referred to further. Eogers (1901) seems 
to have been amongst the first to carry out experiments on transmission 
by biting flies. The investigation was done at Muktesar [and as he 


states that he used " horse flies " which were only available during 
the 3 or 4 hottest months, presumably Tabanidse are meant], and as a 
result of his work he concluded that a full meal seldom infects, but an 
interrupted feeding does.* He found also that material containing 
the organism when infested can only infect through accidental lesions 
of the mouth and nose. Pease (1906) described Tibarsa Surra in the 
camel and stated that in 1903 eight camel corps lost 1792 animals, 
being 22-4: per cent. He proved that the disease is necessarily a wound 
infection. In 1906 also Lingard stated that cattle are the reservoirs, 
carrying the Trypanosome for nine to twelve months and that Tabanidse 
and Hippoboscidee play an important part in the dissemination of Surra, 
but that HcBmatopinus catneli appears in some instances to be the inter- 
mediate host ; Lingard experimented with Tabanus " tropicus," Stomoxys 
and Hippoboscidee and found no species capable of carrying the disease 
during the non-Surra time of year ; the question of transmission by 
leeches was considered and left open for lack of evidence ; he stated 
that canines may help to form the reservoirs during the non-Surra 
period, as they show the disease from January to April, and that rats 
all harbour immature forms of the parasite and their blood is virulent 
when inoculated, so that rat-fleas may possibly carry the disease on 
rare occasions. 

Holmes (1906) discussed all the theories, including that of mechanical 
transmission, and decided that they were all inconclusive ; whilst not 
stating that a developmental cycle occurs in the invertebrata, he con- 
sidered that that was the best line of research to pursue. 

Patton (1909) described the life-cycle of Crithidia tabani, a flagellate 
found in the intestinal tracts of Tabanus hilaris and of an unnamed 
Tabanus, and it is at least suggestive that this parasite was not found 
in flower-feeding Tabanidse and mammalian blood would thus appear 
essential to its development. [With regard to this paper we would 
remark that the cycle as shown on the place seems correct but, whilst 
there is nothing in the figures to prevent the stages shown from being 
those of a Trypanosome at some period of its lifehi story, on the other 
hand there is nothing to suggest that they are.] 

Leese (1909) wrote a long and important paper on experiments 
regarding the natural transmission of Surra, carried out at Mohand in 
1908. This paper was subsequently reissued in Memoir No. 2 of the 
Civil Veterinary Department and this reissue was illustrated by coloured 
figures of the Tabanid flies found. Some of the specimens of these 

* Better an interrupted feeding on the same animal. 



flies have lately been found in the Pusa collection and we are able to 
add the following regarding their identification : — 

Number on Plate. 

Number on label of 




Tabanus ditceniatus, Mq. 




bicallosus, Ric. 




near discrepans, Ric. 




near oxyceratus. Big. 






? flavicinctus, Ric. 




virgo, Wied. 




orientis, Wlk. 




hicinctus, Ric. 




w. 6p. in Ricardo's Gioup I. 




n. sp. near siamensis, Ric. 




jucundus, WLk. • 




near cordiger, Wied. 





Hcematopota ? lata, Ric. 







Chrysops designata, Ric." 



Hcematopota sp, n. in Ricardo's Group II. 

The specimens are (except No. 6, which is a male) undoubtedly those 
illustrated, as specimens shown on the plate as lacking the antennae, 
and other peculiarities, correspond exactly with the figures themselves, 
but as they are now nearly 13 years old, and are all single specimens 
in not too good condition originally, the identifications are given with 
considerable reserve in many cases. 

In this paper Leese commenced by stating that, " it being now 
well established that in laboratory experiments Tabanus is capable 
of conveying the Trypanosomes from an infected animal to a healthy 
one, if both animals are bitten within a short interval of time," and 
** it being known from an investigation of a natural outbreak of Surrji 


at Kathgodam that Surra can continue to spread among horses in the 
absence of Tabanus." The losses occurred at Mohand during and after 
the Rains and it is stated that no less than 92 out of 102 ponies were 
destroyed by Surra on the Naini road during a year. Now that dak- 
traffic there no longer occurs a few ponies are kept in contact with cattle 
without loss throughout the Rains. Infection arises through " reser- 
voirs " working through an area. Game is not evidently a " reservoir." 
Disease was started by inoculating an imported pony with camel strain. 
Complete screening of ponies was found absolutely effective, whilst 
Surra appeared in unscreened controls in 38 to 51 days. The food- 
transmission theory (including the theory of transmission by infected 
rat excrement) was completely disproved, as screened and unscreened 
animals were all fed from the same store. Harness and galls as a source 
of infection were also excluded, as the ponies did no work, but trans- 
mission can occur, without a fly intervening, from wound to wound. 
Lice were not present on the ponies and ticks {Hyalomma CBgyptium) 
were equally prevalent before and after the break of the Rains. As 
regards the prevalence of biting flies, Tahanus, Hwmatopota, Stomoxys, 
Hippobosca and Hcematobia* all occurred during the hot weather from 
1st May until the Rains broke on 28th June, and the same genera occurred 
after that date with addition of Chrysops and Lyperosia and many 
mosquitos. Of these flies, HcBmatobia^ may be ruled out, as it was more 
prevalent before than during the Rains ; Hippobosca can at most only 
cause an occasional case by mechanical transmission ; Chrysops and 
Lyperosia were so scarce that it was considered that they could have 
played no part. Cross and Leese {Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci. Ill 163) found 
fresh cases occuring in the absence of Tabanus, Hwmatopota and Sand- 
flies, but Stomoxys and mosquitos came under suspicion. Dissection 
of the gut of mosquitos showed only Trypanosomes degenerating, and 
this observation applied to all genera of flies examined. Mechanical 
transmission experiments were conducted over times ranging from 
half to three minutes, and it was found that Tabanus has far more 
power to transmit mechanically than has Stomoxys. Oxen (and perhaps, 
buflalos) are the chief reservoirs for infection of horses. Camels mainly 
infect only camels, as they are preferred by flies. Leese points out 
that the general distribution of Stomoxys is against its playing any part, 
except when horses are standing in lines. 

Fraser (1909) stated that, in the Federated Malay States, mechanical 
transmission is only affected by immediate transfer from host to host 
by four species of Tabanus, and not by Hwmatopota or Stomoxys. 

* Judging from a specimen now in existence in the Pusa collection and collected 
at Mohand in July 1908, thefly here referred to as Hcematobia is really Siygen,vii4ia 
maculosa, Aust. ■ 


Schat (1910), in a paper on Surra in Java, described the multiplica- 
tion of the parasite in the bodies of certain flies and described and figured 
a sexual cycle, only an asexual cycle occurring in mammalian hosts. 
He concluded that the chief carrier is Stomoxijs calcitrans, but that 
it may be carried occasionally by Tabanus tropicus and Hcematobia 
{Lyperosia) exigua. 

Bruce, Hamerton, Bateman and Mackie (1910) concluded that in 
the case of Trypanosoma pecorum [which is closely allied to Surra but 
apparently distinct, as it is non-pathogenic to guinea-pigs] in Central 
Africa, Stomoxys was always numerous but that it is inconceivable 
that it should act as a carrier, as infected and healthy cattle were placed 
together for a whole year in the presence of " exceedingly numerous " 
Sto?noxys without a case occurring. They conclude that the carrier 
is unknown but probably a Tabanus. 

Baldrey (1911) concluded that there is a developmental cycle, which 
he illustrates, and which he states can occur in species of Tabanus and 
in Stomoxys calcitrans. [With regard to this, we would remark the 
figures of " conjugation " probably represent a process of division and 
that the other figures are poor and prove nothing. If, however, a 
division process occurs in the fly, this rather tends to show that the 
Trypanosome is healthy and is not degenerating as asserted by Leese], 

Mathis and Leger (1911) state that Surra occurs in Indo-China in 
cattle (of 256 examined, Trypanosomes were found in 5 presenting 
no obvious symptoms), buf!aios (of 216 examined 2 were found infected) 
and horses (1 found infected out of 42 examined). Attempts to transmit 
to a horse by means of Tabanus failed. 

Neveu-Lemaire (1912) gave a general account of Surra and stated 
that in Mauritius Daruty de Grandpre has incriminated Stomoxys nigra 
as a carrier of Surra. [The only Indian Tabanid known to occur in 
Mauritius is T. ditoeniatus, Macq., which is widely distributed throughout 
Africa, the Mascarenes, India, China and Japan]. 

Leese (1912) stated that Lyperosia minuta is a transmitter in the 
absence of other biting flies and that transmission is quite mechanical. 
[We should, however, like to have further evidence regarding the absence 
of Tabanids and biting flies other than Lyperosia]. 

Mitzmain (1913), from experiments in the Philippines, concluded 
that Tabanus striatus transmits Surra mechanically over short intervals, 
that Trypanosomes are not transmitted hereditarily in the fly, and 
that they are not transmitted by merely sucking with the labellum. 
[This last observation would seem to rule out the haematophagous 
Muscids. Mitzmain' s experiments were done with bred flies but he 


gives no details as to whether they were bred from the egg or from larvge 

Patton and Cragg (1913) quote another paper by Mitzmain which 
we have not seen and state that he " has recently carried out a long 
series of experiments with this fly [Stomoxys calcitrans] in order to settle 
this question [the carriage of the trypanosome of Suna.] His results 
indicate that Trypanosoma evansi does not develop in Stomoxys calcitrans, 
and that it plays no part in the transmission of the parasite." 

We may here perhaps refer to some unpublished work carried out 
at Bareilly and Kathgodam by the late A. W. Shilston and P. G. Patel 
who found that Tahanus albimedius and T. striatvs could infect by com- 
plete as well as by interrupted feeding [Presumably caught flies were used, 
which would show that these are infective over a considerable period, 
as they only feed every few days]. T. albimedius was found to be infec- 
tive 24 hours after feeding but not after a longer period. T. siriatus 
was found to carry trypanosomes after 72 hours. Another small species 
of Tahanus (like virgo) was not found to carry. Experiments with 
Phil(Bmatomyia crassirostris showed that this fly did not infect after a 
longer interval than 7 minutes during an interrupted feed, but, in the 
case of male flies only, trypanosomes were found active in the gut up 
to 28 hours after feeding, and the gut contents, when injected into 
guinea pigs after 24 hours, proved infective ; in the case of the female 
flies, the trypanosome was found to die off in 2 hours. 

Cross (1917) gives a general account of Surra in the camel and states 
that " in order for Surra to spread two factors are necessary : — 

(1) the reservoir {i.e., a camel infected with surra) 

(2) the transmitting agent {i.e., bloodsucking flies, the most im- 
portant of which as transmitters are the Tabanidse. 

" If either of these two factors are wanting, the disease cannot be 
spread from the surra-infected animals to the healthy. If, on the 
other hand, there is a surra-infected camel amongst a batch of healthy 
camels and Tabanidse are present, the fly while sucking the blood (con- 
taining the Trypanosome) from the surra-infected animal may be dis- 
lodged and infect a healthy camel ; during the act of biting this camel, 
he inoculates the latter with surra. This is known as direct or mecha- 
nical transmission. It has been proved by experiment that Surra 
can be transmitted in this ivay, and under favourable conditions {e.g., 
when camels, amongst which are surra-infected ones, are herded together 
and blood-sucking flies are present) there is no reason why the disease 
should not be transmitted in this way ; but whether this is the usual 
method of transmission or whether the trypanosome does not undergo 
a cycle in the fly is still undecided . . 7 


** If direct transmission is the means by which Surra is spread from 
camel to camel, any blood-sucking fly may transmit the disease, and 
considering the number of blood-sucking flies in India and the number 
of reservoirs of Surra, it is difficult to imagine that a single camel could 
have escaped becoming surra-infected. It is probable that the try- 
panosome undergoes a cycle in the fly (and in a particular species of fly 
only), a percentage only of these flies being capable of infecting healthy 
camels — i.e., the cycle is not completed in every one of the flies that 
has fed on blood containing trypanosomes. 

" From practical experience there is no doubt that 

the most dangerous flies in the spread of Surra from camel to camel 
are the Tabanidse." 

Patton (1920) suggests that transmission occurs through the mucous 
membrane of the mouth from Crithidia voided from the rectum of 

On going over these various papers, the chief point that emerges 
is the very wide difference of opinion held by various investigators 
on almost every point. Some observers declare that transmission is 
purely mechanical, others that a developmental cycle occurs in the 
insect transmitter ; some implicate Stomoxys, others declare that 
Stomoxys is unable to transmit at all ; in fact, there is hardly a statement 
made by one observer that is not directly contradicted by another. 

Before considering these views further at this point, we will diverge 
for a short while and run briefly over a few of the more salient facts 
connected with another Trypanosome disease on which a great deal 
of investigatory work has been done. An interesting case, in many 
ways analogous to that of Surra, is furnished by Sleeping Sickness, 
which is happily so far restricted to tropical and subtropical Africa. 
Sleeping Sickness is caused by a Trypanosome, Trypanosoma gambiense, 
which is carried by a biting fly, Glossina palpalis. The distribution 
of this disease was originally restricted to West Africa, where there is 
some evidence that the negro population has acquired a certain degree 
of immunity (more marked in the case of another closely related disease 
produced by Trypanosoma nigeriense, which causes only a mild form 
of disease in man), but when equatorial Africa was opened up the disease 
was carried eastwards to Uganda, where it caused great mortality and 
from its first appearance in 1901 up to 1905 killed ofi over 200,000 
people, whole villages being depopulated. The species of Glossina 
have a life-history very similar to that of our species of Hippobosca, 
the egg hatching inside the female fly and the larvae being extruded 
i>nly when ready to pupate, pupation taking place in the ground in 
soil which is loose and dry, well shaded but with the surface thoroughly 


ventilated, within a few yards from the water but beyond its reach. 
As such a combination of characters is only to be found in definitely 
limited areas, the distribution of the fly is limited to forested and humid 
country and is often very sharply marked. It has been found in Uganda 
that Trypanosoma gambiense is carried normally by the sHutunga 
antelope {Tragelaphus spekei), which, with other wild animals generally, 
is immune to the effects of the presence of this Trypanosome, which 
has a cycle of development of from 18 to 45 days in Glossina palpalis, 
after which the fly is infective whilst it remains alive up to about 75 
days ; development takes place in the gut of the fly, whence the 
parasite passes into the salivary glands, and thence into the blood of 
' its next host. In the case of monkeys infection has been obtained by 
mechanical transmission by means of G. palpalis if the transference 
of the flies from the infected to the healthy animal is instantaneous, 
that is, by " interrupted feeding," but this mechanical transmission 
does not take place if an interval of time elapses between the two 
feedings, and mechanical transmission, though possible, plays a very 
small part in the spread of Sleeping Sickness. When the Glossina 
alights to feed, it selects a suitable place and inserts the proboscis, 
which is then withdrawn slightly and blood is sucked up ; " almost at 
once the excess of fluid is exuded as a bead at the posterior end of 
the body, so that the fly is enabled as it were to have a larger feed of 
corpuscles than if it were compelled to retain all the fluid part." 
(Carpenter, pp. 34-35). Even when its natural host, the siiutwnga 
antelope, is present, Glossina palpalis derives only about 25 per cent, 
of its food from mammalian blood, the remaining 75 per cent, being 
derived from the blood of non-mammals, mostly lizards and crocodiles. 
The chances of an individual fly being infected with Trypanosoma 
gambiense is therefore minute, for every fly does not feed on a buck 
nor is every buck infected. Also, as Miss Kobeitson has shown, even 
if the buck is infected the Trypanosome is not always in a condition 
ready to multiply in the fly and also every fly that ingests Trypanosomes 
is not a suitable medium for their further development. Carpenter 
found that, in the absence of the natural host (the situtunga antelope), 
as many as 5,765 flies of Glossina palpalis failed to cause infection 
in a monkey ; whilst in the same locality, three years later, after 
the situtunga antelope had found their way there, " the flies were 
again tested and found to be infected, for after 2076 had fed upon a 
monkey it showed the Trypanosome in its blood," (Carpenter, p: 29). 
A very interesting and suggestive point which Carpenter notes is that 
' besides Trypanosomes bacilli are often found in countless numbers 
in the gut of the fly, but in a different part. Nevertheless there appears 



to be some inverse relation between the two, for out of six hundred 
flies at Jinja, in only 3-4 per cent, of flies containing bacilli were Try- 
panosomes also found, and in only 6-1 per cent, of flies containing 
Trypanosomes were bacilli found. Bacilli were present in 19-3 per 
cent, and Trypanosomes in 11 per cent, of the wild flies. Thus there 
is marked incompatibility between the two. 

" Since I have found bacilli in the gut of freshly hatched flies, and 
even in pupse, their presence in the fly may have something to do with 
the fact that only a few out of a batch of flies fed upon an infected animal 
at the same time will prove suitable hosts and will subsequently be 
found to contain Trypanosomes. It may be that the presence of bacilli 
in numbers is inimicnl to the Trypanosomes, or merely that they are 
present in flies which for some other reason are physiologically unsuited 
to the development in them of the Trypanosomes " (Carpenter, pp. 

In a recent paper R. W. Glaser (1920) has summarized the literature 
on intracellular non-pathogenic organisms found in insects and states 
that these are found to occur in Blattidse, Homoptera, Formicidae, 
and certain Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. It would be interesting to 
ascertain whether similar bacilli occur in bloodsucking flies other than 
Glossina and whether their occurrence or absence bears any relation 
to the portability of Trypanosomes in such flies. Cross (1917), for 
example, in the passage we have already quoted comments on the pro- 
bability that only a percentage of potential carrier-flies are capable of 
infecting healthy camels with Surra, but no one seems to have noticed 
whether such intracellular bacteria occur in biting flies in India. 

We may now indicate briefly what we consider is required to be 
done to investigate the question of Surra in India. Assuming that 
Surra is carried in natural reservoirs which are domesticated or wild 
animals and that it is transmitted to domesticated animals by biting 
flies, we require definite knovdedge regarding (a) the biting flies con- 
cerned and (6) the normal method of transmission. As regards the 
biting flies we require a thorough survey of the various species of Taba- 
nidse and other biting flies which occur throughout the Indian Region. 
At present our knowledge of the Indian Tabanidse, to take an example, 
is extremely scrappy and defective. ' We know that about 131 species 
have been described as occurring within Indian limits and these have 
been placed in about 13 genera, but it is probable that a proper survey 
would bring the number of species up to nearer two hundred. Even 
of those we do know, there is extremely little on record regarding their 
distribution, life histories and bionomics generally. The early stages 


of only about a dozen species are known at all and no work has been 
done on the distinctions of the early stages, although it is important 
to be able to recognize these as well as the adults. Another line of 
work which we suggest is' a study of the male genitalia in the Indian 
Tabanidse ; it is certainly the case in some other groups of insects tbat 
the females of difierent species can only be separated with difiSculty 
or not at all, whilst the males are abundantly distinct in structure, 
and it may be that similar cases occur in the Tabanidse. A thorough" 
survey of the distribution of the various species, which would of course 
include especially collections made in Surra areas as well as in adjacent 
or similar non-surra areas, might well throw some light on the problem 
of a transmitting agent, if only one species or group of species is con- 
cerned in this. A third line of work, which should be carried on pari 
passu with the collection, discrimination, and lifehistory work is that 
of observation and collection of natural parasites and enemies ; we know, 
for example, that many Tabanids suf!cr severely from egg-parasites, 
but we know very little regarding these parasites, their bionomics, 
discrimination and distribution, and as to how far they could be utilized 
as natural checks on particular species in any area. 

The collection of the flies should be done with the help of tame 
animals and in collecting from such animals it should be noted what 
- particular parts of the animal are aflccted by each species of fly. As 
regards transmission, we are dealing with three or four different 
organisms, the original host, the fly-carrier, the Trypanosome and the 
animal to which the flagellate is carried, so that we have a problem 
which is only partially an entomological one. The first point that 
requires to be determined is whether transmission under natural (and 
not purely laboratory) conditions is purely mechanical or whether the 
trypanosome undergoes a developmental cycle within the fly. This 
includes a general study of the flagellates occurring in the flies, both 
larvae and adults, and is non-entomological.' Should likely flagellates 
be found in the larvee (and it must be remembered that Tabanid larv^ 
at least are predaceous and are quite likely to acquire a flagellate fauna 
from worms and aquatic animals which form their food) we would suggest 
experiments with bred flies reared from larvae found in Surra areas. 
A study of the flagellates would also include a study of these in mam- 
malian, and possibly also in non-mammalian hosts, in Surra and, for 
comparison, in non-surra areas. To carry out these investigations 
thoroughly, as they require to be carried out in view of the importance 
of this disease in India, requires a proper staff of wholetime workers, 
which should include as a minimum a Veterinary Officer, a Protozoologist 
and an Entomologist (Dipterist), with appropriate subordinate staff. 


Literature quoted. 

1893-1895. Lingard. Reports on Surra, 3 volumes. 

1901. Rogers, L. The transmission of the Trypanosoma evansi by 
horse-flies, and other experiments pointing to the probable 
identity of Surra of India and Nagana or the Tsetse fly 
disease of Africa. {Proc. Royal Soc, LXVIII, 163-170). 

1906. Pease, H. T. Tibarsa Surra. Trypanosomiasis of the Camel. 
{Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., I, 71-91 (January), 127-137 (April). 

1906. Lingard. Through what agency is T. evansi carried over from 
one season to another ? {Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., I, 92-112). 

1906. Holmes, J. D. E. The role played by Biting Flies in the spread 

of Trypanosomiasis. {Journ. Troj). Vet. Sci., I, 119-126). 

1907. Twentyfourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 

U. S. A., pp. 34-36. [Abstr., Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., IV, 

1909. Patton, W. S. The life-cycle of a species of Crithidia parasitic 

in the intestinal tract of Tabanus hilarius and Tabanus sp. 

{Arch.f. ProtistenJc, XV, 333-362, tab.) 
1909. Leese, A. S. Experiments regarding the natural transmission 

of Surra carried out at Mohand in 1908. {Journ. Trop. 

Vet. Sci., IV, 107-132 and reprinted in Memoir No. 2 of 

the Ind. Civil Vet. Dept.). 

1909. Eraser, H. Surra in the Federated Malay States. (Repr., 

Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., IV, 344-389). 

1910. Schat, P. T. Beitrage zu den Untersuchungen liber die Trypano- 

soma evansi und zur Bekampfung der Surra unter dem 
Hornrich auf Java. (Abstr., Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., IV, 

1910. Bruce, Hamerton, Bateman and Mackie. Trypanosome diseases 

of dome^ic animals in Uganda. {Proc. Royal Soc, LXXXII, 
B. 468-479). 

1911. Baldrey, F. S. H. The evolution of Trypanosama evansi 

through the Fly ; Tabanus and Stomoxys. {Journ. Trop. 
Vet. Sci., VI, 271-282, t. 13-14). 

1911. Mathis, C. and Leger, M. Recherches de Parasitologic et de 

Pathologie humaine et animale au Tonkin. 

1912. Neveu-Lemaire. Parasitologic des animaux domestiques. 

1912. Leese, A. S. Biting Flies and Surra. {Journ. Trop. Vet. Sci., 

VII, 19-32). 

1913. Mitzmain, M. B. The mechanical transmission of Surra by 

Tabanus striatus, Fb. {Philipp. Journ. Sci., Sec. B, Vol. 

VIII, 223-229). 



1913. Patton, W. S., and Cragg, F. W. A Textbook of Medical Ento- 
mology, p. 364. [Quote Mitzmain's results]. 

1917. Cross, H. E. The Camel and its diseases, pp.87-97, ff. 35, 36. 

1920. Patton, W. S. The Gad Flies of Mesopotamia. {Ind. Journ. 
Med. Res., VII, 735-750). 

1920. Carpenter, G. D. Hale. A Naturalist on Lake Victoria. 

1920. Glaser, R. W. Biological studies on intracellular Bacteria, 
No. 1. {Biol. Bull. Marine Biol. Lab. Woods Hole, XXXIX, 

Have any observations been made as to whether Tabanidse prefer Mr. Ballard. 
already infected animals to healthy ones ? It is so in the case of other 


No ; I am not aware of any such observations. _ Mr. Fletcher. 

There is an interesting comparison between " Surra " and " Sleeping Mr. Ballard. 
sickness." The former has two forms according to Cross. The latter 
has two forms also of which the first is carried by Glossina f alkalis 
and kills slowly and the second is carried by G. morsitans and kills 
quickly. Possibly some of these conflicting observations on Surra are 
caused by their being really two forms of the parasite, with separate 

The general succeptibility of animals is a very difficult matter to J^^ajj^f^jpj^gjg^ 

I'udge of. _ . , „ ,, 

Does It occur on my side of India ? * Major deMello. 

It is recorded from Bombay and Kalyan, but I thmk those were Mr. White. 

imported cases. 

You can at least all help this investigation by sending us in specmiens Mr. Fletcher, 
of your local Tabanidse. We have a large number here but our series 
of specimens is very incomplete in regard to distribution both in space 

i-1 n fi T 1 TT1 f* 

With regard to the question of Fly Survey, should this survey be Mr. Sen. 
carried out with special reference to Tabanid^ or of biting flies gene- 
rally ? I think the consensus of opinion points towards Tabanids 
being the carrying agency, Gunn {Quarterly Journ. of Yety.^ Science,^ 
im, quoted by Lingard) pointing out for the first time that " Surra " 
was associated with the presence of collections of water, the disease 
being specially found in grass-cutters' ponies. 

We recommend a general survey of biting flies to start with but I Mr. Fletcher, 
expect that later on it would narrow down to Tabanidse. 


By R. A. Senior White, F.E.S., and S. K. Sen, B.Sc. 

Since ttie first author publislied Ms original note on this subject 
in the " Indian Journal of Medical Research " (1920) some further 
cases have been reported. 

In the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the British Medical Associa- 
tion the disease is recorded from Jaiina, a sea-board town in the extreme 
north of Ceylon, thus extending the known distribution to the low 
country of the whole island, as Matara, from whence came the first 
recognition of this condition, is similarly situated near the southern- 
most point of the country. 

The case occurred in a child of 4 years, with serious symptoms, 
and it is indeed suspected that a similar agency was responsible for 
the deaths in infancy of the 3 elder children of the same parents. Nothing 
is said as to possible modes of infection, but embryo-like objects with 
a distinct alimentary canal were seen under a low power in the faeces, 
which were further notable for their remarkable freedom from ova 
of the usual intestinal parasites. The sketches of the beetle and the 
" embryo-like objects " referred to in the article are most unfortunately 
not reproduced. The beetle is referred to in the title as a " Rhyncho- 
porus " ! This is presumably meant for Rhynchophorus but the behaviour 
of the beetles on deposition is described as being exactly similar to 
that of Onthophagus bifasciatus as recorded in the original note, and 
there is little doubt that it is this or a similar Coprine species which is 
meant. Who is responsible for identification is not stated, and the 
generic name probably is entirely misapplied. It is likely that the 
only beetle known by name to the Medical Author is the redpalm 
weevil {Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) and he possibly labours under the 
delusion that the scientific name of all beetles is " Rhynchoporus." 

The same author mentions en ^passant the occurrence of another 
case at Mihintale, a village near Anuradhapura, from whence the disease 
was recorded in the original note. 

The disease is also recorded from Bengal and in this case the Doctor 
recording it fortunately forwarded specimens to the second author. 
The symptoms in the Bengal case were practically the same as those 
in the cases reported from Ceylon, the insects being voided with the 

( 236 ; 


faeces mostly by children suffering, it would appear, from an obscure 
form of diarrhcEa. So far as known, in Bengal tbe first report of tbe 
occurrence of these beetles in the human intestine was published in 
the Indian Medical Gazette, August 1919, by Mr. A. C. Dey, Medical 
practitioner at Barhamganj in the district of Faridpur. Subsequently 
in the April 1920 issue of the same Journal, he again reported their 
occurrence in the case of a boy of 5 years who did not look so ill, having 
" 2 or 3 stools in the morning " and " the insects flying out of them." 
The boy had good appetite " his meals consisting of rice, dal, fish and 
milk." A similar occurrence of these insects was also reported from a 
village called Kalamridha, about 10 or 12 miles from his place, but 
the people reporting it failed to produce the beetles. The author remarks 
that the insects seemed to belong " to the same class as were found in 
mangoes " in that part of their district. But so far as reported the 
only two beetle pests of importance attacking mangoes in Bengal are 
weevils belonging to .the genus Crypionliynclms (C gravis and C. mangi- 
fercs). Of the four specimens forwarded by him one was a male and 
2 females of the Ceylon species, the fourth being an undetermined 
species belonging to the same genus {OntJiophagus). 

In the October 1919 issue of the Indian Medical Gazette Mr. S. C. 
Sen, L.M.S., reports having discovered a similar occurrence of these 
beetles as far back as 1904, a specimen being forwarded to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Alcock, I.M.S., the then Superintendent, Indian Museum, who 
described it as " dung-eating Coleoptera." He mentions having come 
'' across a number of such cases, in a village in the district of Khulna, 
Bengal. The insects resembled those found in local mangoes and they 
used to fly immediately upon their expulsion from the intestines. Chil- 
dren of both sexes, of 3 to 5 years, were the victims, and the chief 
symptoms were diarrhoea, griping, and general emaciation." He adds 
that during the last fifteen years' practice at Saharanpur, he has not 
come across any such case in the United Provinces. Subsequently in 
the December issue of the same Journal Mr. T. N. Chakravarti reports 
three such cases from a place called Hoolarhat in the Bakerganj district 
(Bengal), the victims in these cases being an adult aged 40 years who 
had been suffering from " black- water fever " and his two children who 
were living in the same room and " the insects came out in each case, 
after the rectal saline injections." He adds that the insects were " of 
the same quality as already reported " by the other two doctors. 

With regard to the possibility of these insects being introduced 
per anum, such medical opinion as we have consulted thinks that the 
sphincter muscle is too strong to permit of the entrance of beetles of 
this size and the theory is further negatived by its now known occurrence 



in adults who would never permit of the discomfort caused by the pre- 
sence of the beetle in this region and are in any case clothed. 

In view of the practice, adopted by many children in Bengal, of 
defcecating on the ground, the second author invites attention to the 
possibility of the beetles making their way along the excretory meatus 
while the sphincters are loosened during movements, the beetles gaining 
a purchase somewhere in the vicinity of the rectum and living on the 
foecal matter there and causing irritation of a mild nature, till expelled 
on some subsequent occasion (not necessarily during the next evacua- 
tion, unless their entry is attended with an immediate onset of diarrhoea ; 
a costive system would be naturally to their advantage). In the absence 
of experiments on the respiratory requirements of these beetles, the 
explanation cannot of course be advanced with any degree of certainty. 
The possibility of their introduction through the mouth in the form 
of eggs, by the medium of liquid or insufl&ciently masticated solid food, 
would indicate the necessity of experiments on the viability of the 
eggs in the digestive juices. 

We have only published this note to draw the attention of medical 
men to the existence of this disease in India in the hope that they 
will be on the look out for it, whereby its known distribution may be 
extended to definite areas. Concerning the etiology of the disease, 
not being medical men, the validity of the theory of inguinal infection 
advanced by the second author can only be criticized by doctors. 
After the discovery of the distribution, a study of the habits and food 
of the inhabitants of the affected tracts might shed further light on the 
problem. What is particularly needed is that a watch should be kept 
for any early stages (larval and pupal) at postmortem examinations. 

Were the Bengal specimens all females ? 

No ; one was a male. 

I have examined the male specimen passed round and think such 
could be voided without damage to the intestine. 

Are you sure the beetles are really passed ? 

Mr. Chakrawarti states {vide our Note) that they came out after 
a saline injection. 

No larvae and pupae have ever been found ? 


It seems decidedly suggestive that only adult beetles have been 
found so far. I can hardly believe that infection takes place by means 
of eggs ingested with food. Even if eggs were ingested, they would 
probably be killed in the stomach and, if they succeeded in hatching, 
it is unlikely that the larvae could remain and feed and live in the intes- 


tine, wliilst it is inconceivable to me that the pupal period could be 
passed in the human interior. It seems much more likely that the 
beetles themselves efiect an entrance through the anus. In this connec- 
tion it is suggestive that, of seven specimens so far recorded, no less 
than six are females. If the specimens had bred in the intestine one 
would expect a more equal distribution of the two sexes. It is also 
suggestive that this infection has only been noticed in hot and damp 
areas of the plains, where the bodies of the persons infected are likely 
to be left at night unprotected by any covering. 

Speaking medically, beetles could only crawl up the anus of a person Major Christophers. 
with an anaesthetic injury. The disease appears to be a definite one 
for which there might be an explanation. I do not understand how 
the younger stages can exist in the intestine. The larvie are probably 
similar to the rest of the genus. Except in a pathological condition 
faeces would not remain sufficiently long in the intestines for the life- 
cycle to be completed. 

These observations are very interesting from a medical point ; but Major deMello. 
is the disease common or an accidental one ? If the former, then the 
infection probably occurs through eggs taken orally. We want statis- 
tics of frequency of occurrence and experiments as to causation. 

Could infection occur in the pupal stages ? Handfuls of dirty rice Mr. Andrews, 
are often swallowed. 

In Mesopotamia I had a stool sent in containing houseflies, blue- Mr. Beeson. 
bottles, their eggs, and a cockroach, all well preserved and obviously 
passed cjuickly. They had all been swallowed probably in dirty water. 

Intestinal myiasis has not been well worked out in India. There Major deMello. 
are two kinds, one accidental and the other specialized. 

We have only put forward these remarks to draw the attention Mr. White, 
of Medical men in India to the occurrence of the disease and to invite 
their attention to its investigation. 


(Plates XLI— XLIII). 

Btj M. Afzal Husain, M.Sc. (Pb)., M.A. (Cantab.), I.A.S., E?itomolo- 
gist to Government, Punjab, and Harnam Dass Bhasin, M.Sc. 
Demo7istrator in Zoology, the Punjab Agricultural College, Lyallfur. 

In spite of the marvellous achievements of science in its application 
to human welfare, the problem of the safety of our daily bread still 
remains unsolved, and the surest method of successful storage of wheat 
grain awaits discovery. 

Taking the damage done by insects to stored wheat at 5 j)er cent., 
we find that in 1918 the Punjab alone lost 4,710,062-5 maunds of this 
valuable foodstuff, or, in other words, paid Rs. 235 laMis as tax to these 
six-legged creatures. It is therefore imperative for us to fight these 
insects and save this quantity of wheat, which is sufficient to feed about 
1,032,343 people for one year. 

In safe storage of grain we are concerned with two distinct problems 
which require different measures to solve them : — 

(i) the grain to be stored should be made free from all stages of 

insects, and, 
(m) the grain stored should be A(?2>'^ free from insects. All the methods 

employed to achieve these ends can be grouped under two 

distinct categories.* 

A. In the first category we include all those methods which aim at 
freeing the grain from insects and keeping it free from insects in a single 
operation. What is claimed for these methods is that all the stages of 
the insects that may be present either die or leave the grain, and fresh 
introduction is made impossible either by chemical or mechanical means. 
Some of the methods that fall under this head are : — 

1. The use of Napthaline balls : — Grove maintains that all the stages 
of insects present in the grain are killed by keeping napthaline balls in 
the grain. This acts as a deterrent and stops further infections (10). 
This method, however, does not seem to be very effective as the pests 
are said to appear in spite of this precaution (5). 

* Various methods of grain storage that have been in vogue in India are described 
at length bv Fletcher and Ohosh {Bejwrl of the Third Entomological Meeting held at 
Pusa 1919,'Yol II, pp., 725-733). 

( 240 ) 


2. The use of Castor and other oils : — It is believed that castor oil, 
if rubbed on the grain, ensures its safety from insect attack. This 
requires confirmation, as it is also stated that it does not render wheat 
immune to insect attack (1, 5). Moreover, castor oil is said to retard 
germination (5). 

3. The use of Mercury : — In some parts of India mercury is used to 
keep grain free from insect attack. A few drops of it are put in an 
excavated soap nut, or in any other receptacle, and kept in the grain. 
Its vapours are supposed to kill all the stages of the insects. In small 
jars it is said to prevent increase of beetles, but in the case of large bins 
its effect is not so marked (12). 

4. Mixing sand with grain or covering the top of grain with a uniform 
layer of sand a few inches thick. Mixing sand witli grain is generally 
practised in some parts of India and is known to give good results in 
cases where grain is to be dealt with on a small scale (19). Covering 
the top of the grain with a layer of sand may be effective and practicable 
in the laboratory in bottles, jars, and small bins, but on a large scale 
its practicability seems doubtful and its efficacy has not yet been tried. 
At any rate the application of this method cannot be recommended for 
large elevators. In the first place the amount of sand required for 
an elevator, where arrangements for storing over a lakh of maunds of 
wheat are made, will be very great and will increase the weight of the 
contents of the bins so much as to necessitate a considerable reduction 
in the total amount of wheat stored. Secondly, the main object of 
the elevator is to clean the wheat before' it is stored and pouring in 
sand will nullify this object and the grain wiU have to be recleaned 
before it is sold. This will mean extra expense and inconvenience. 
Moreover, out of almost 6,000 maunds stored in a bin, the whole quantity 
cannot be disposed of at once, and this will mean establishing a layer 
of sand at the top every time the grain is taken out. Again, the use 
of sand, in cases where the grain is already infected, is objectionable, 
as the sand gets into the injured parts of the grain, and the flour made 
from such grain is not eatable. 

For this method it is claimed that the adults and such larvae as are 
capable of doing so leave the grain and crawl out of sand and cannot 
get back. No fresh attack is possible because sand acts as a barrier 
to insects getting into the store. 

5. Hermetical sealing of grain : — Dendy (4) has performed some 
experiments on the methods of air-tight storage for preserving grain 
against insect attack. The results of his experiments on a laboratory 
scale are very hopeful, but so far this method has not been tried on a 
commercial scale, For this method it is claimed that insects already 


in tte grain are killed and in bins which are air-tight, there is no possibi- 
lity of fresh infection. This method, if found successful, will be the 
simplest and the best for grain storage. 

B. In the second category we include all those processes in which 
the grain is first subjected to treatments which make it free from all 
stages of insects. It is then stored in insect-proof stores. In cases 
of re-infestation the grain has to be treated again to kill the pests. The 
methods that come under this head are those that are commonly employed 
at the present time and particularly where large quantities of grain are 
to be handled. 

1. Fumigation : — ^Fumigation is a process which is very commonly 
resorted to for freeing grain from all insects attacking it and also to kill 
all stages of insects in a store {6, 13), The gases that are commonly 
used are carbon bisulphide, hydrocyanic, acid gas and sulphur dioxide. 
Chlorpicrin, which is said to give good results, is not obtainable here. 

This method is very expensive and full of risks under Indian con- 
ditions (1, 9). The two g ses that can be used easily are carbon bisul- 
phide and hydrocyanic acid gas ; the former is highly explosive and 
latter is a deadly poison. 

Moreover, this method is not quite reliable. During 1920 we tried 
experiments with these two gases. At Hansi, a small godown was 
fumigated with a full dose of hydrocyanic acid gas, which had no bad 
effect on the larvae and adults of Trogoderma Ichapra. We only succeeded 
in killing a number of mice. Again at Hoshiaipur we tried full doses 
of carbon bisulphide and hydrocyanic acid gas to fumigate juar seed 
that was stored in a room in the mandi, but without killing the insects. 
Fletcher also mentions this method as unsuitable for India (5). 

2. Mechanical blowing off of the insects : — In the elevator at Lyall- 
pur as well as in the elevators at other places this method of cleaning 
the grain is resorted to. It may be effective in removing the adults, 
but the fact that the wheat in the elevator was attacked the very first 
time it was stored showed that this operation does not remove the 
eggs, larvae and such pupse as pupate inside the grain (1). 

3. Superheating : — By this method all the stages of insects attacking 
the grain are killed and the grain thus cleaned is stored in insect-proof 
bins. It is chiefly with this method that the present paper deals. 

From the above it will appear that so f- r no really satisfactory method, 
which may be recommended generally, has been discovered. " There 
is no treatment known that can immunize the grain against the insects 
even for a few months." (5, p. 756). Barnes and Grove after a series 
of experiments came to the conclusion that the damage fiom wheat 



pests was an inevitable evil and suggested the cumbersome mechanical 
method of cleaning the grain by sieves and hand- winnows (1). 

Some of the methods mentioned above are quite reliable so far as 
the destruction of insects is concerned, but are liable to effect the ger- 
minating capacity of the grain, while others, which might be effective 
in the laboratory, are not such as can be applied on a large scale, for 
example at the elevator at Lyallpur. 

The elevator at Lyallpur is a huge building about 60 feet high and 
consists of 32 bins, having a total capacity for storing 100,240 maunds 
of wheat (for particulars of these bins see the plan and the table attached). 

The bins are of three types {i) Hexagonal bins, which are the biggest. 
There are sixteen bins of this type, {ii) Quarter bins. Each of these 
bins is a quarter of the hexagonal bins of the first type. There are 
ten bins of this type, (m) Kectangular bins, which are the smallest 
of all, each being rectangular in outline. Of this shape there are six 

Each of the 32 bins is about 50 feet deep with a small manhole at 
the top for running in the grain and a conical outlet at the bottom for 
running out the grain. 

Plan of bins at the elevator, Lyallpur, showing the shape and arrange- 
ment of bins in transverse section. (See Plate XLI, fig. 2). 

Table showing the exact dimensions, grain capacity, etc., of the 

No. of bins. 

depth of 
each bin. 

Depth of 



Volume of 
each bin in 
cubic feet. 

Capacity of 

each bin for 





Mds. Srs. 

1 to 16 ' 




5,823 13 

In bins No. 1,2, 3,4, 
8, 11, 15, 16, n^axi- 
mum wheat to be 
stored is 106-85 tons 
or 2,938 mds. 4 srs. 

17 to 26 




1,455 33i: 

27 to 32 





During 1920 the elevator was used for the first time and after a 
few months complaints of insect attack were received and accordingly 
the Entomological Section was asked to deal with the problem. It 
was found that the insects infesting the wheat were Trogoderma JcJiapra 
at the top and Rhizopertha dominica at the bottom of the bins. The 
temperature records of the bins shewed that the temperature in those 


bins which were filled with wheat rose as high as 113° F. and was 
always a few degrees higher than that of the empty bins. It was also 
found that this high temperature did not ai^ect adversely the insect 
life in the bins. This fact is very remarkable, because Bradwell in 
Proceedings Hmvaii Ento7nol6gical Society (Vol. Ill, pp. 506-509) states 
that 110° F. kept long enough to penetrate the tissues of the insects 
will kill insect pests of the stored grain. 

The two main features of the problems at the elevator are : — 

1. That the grain was infected before it was brought to the elevator 
last year and that the method of cleaning the grain by air-blast was 
not effective in removing all the stages of the insects attacking it. 

2. That the construction of the bins is such that they can easily be 
rendered insect-proof. 

Therefore the problem of safe storage in the elevator reduces itself 
to this — the grain to be stored should be free from all stages of insects 
before it is run into the bins or should be rendered free from insects 
after it has been stored in the bins. 

Fumigation of a bin containing 6,000 maunds of wheat with carbon 
bisulphide or hydrocyanic acid gas is full of risks. Moreover for any 
of these gases to penetrate all through the column of wheat, 50 feet 
deep and about 17 feet in diameter, we should allow more than 48 hours 
exposure. The escape of the gas will also be a slow process and even 
if the manhole at the top of the bin is opened, the gas will take a long 
time completely to get out of the entire bin. Thus a greater part of 
the grain would be surrounded by a poisonous atmosphere for over 4 
days : an interval in which carbon bisulphide is definitely known to 
affect the germinating capacity of wheat. The cost of this operation 
will be Rs. 63 for carbon bisulphide at the rate of Re. 1-4 per lb., and 
about Rs. 35 for hydrocyanic acid gas per bin. 

On the other hand if some simple process of killing the insects in the 
wheat, that is brought in, could be discovered, and the v.heat cleaned 
of insects before it is stored, the problem will be much simplified. 

Superheating is thought to be the best, safest and cheapest, and 
it is possible to plan out an arrangement for heating the grain before 
it is run into the bins. The germinating capacity of the grain is not 
at all impaired at the temperature at which insects die (see Table III 

Temperature has a direct influence on insect metabolism and with 
its rise their activities increase till an optimum is reached. A few 
degrees above this limit however imperils their life. " At 30° C to 40"^ 
C (86° to 104° F.) the insects are very active, especially the adults. This 
activity increases with the increase in temperature, until the insects 

Page Us 



Fig. 1.— Apparatus used for determining lethal temperatures. 


Fig. 2.— Plan of Wheat Elevator at Lyallpur. 


become frantic in their efforts to escape. High temperatures cause 
sudden death " (8). Even such high temperatures as are within the 
limits of atmospheric changes are known to effect insects adversely, 
and it is on record that in France in 1911 a single day of excessive heat 
was enough to kill off all the rose aphids (2). 

The methods of killing insects by subjecting them to higher tempera- 
tures is not new to us. It has been practised in India from very remote 
times. " Spreading wheat in the sun and stirring it occasionally is 
said to make the weevils leave it." (3, 16). And this practice is common 
even to-day. Infested grain if it is spread in the sun at 115° or 116° 
F for two hours kills off most weevils (20). 

Artificial heat is coming into use for the purpose of dealing with the 
insects of the stored products, and superheating in mills and godowns 
has come into general practice in some countries (7, 8, 11, 17, 19). As 
to the temperature which is fatal to these insects there is very great 
divergence of opinion. Some investigators put it at as low a figure 
as 110° F., while others put it at as' high a point as 145° F. Thompsoi^ 
says that weevils cannot stand a temperature of 119° F. for more tha: 
2 to 3 minutes (20). Schribaux maintains that weevils are killed in 
2 minutes at 122° F. (18). Lefroy, at a lecture delivered at the Eoyal 
Institution, on the destruction of grain insects by heat, said that a 
temperature of 145° F. applied for 3 minutes killed every insect pest of 
the grain. This variation is probably due to the varying conditions 
under which the different investigators have worked. It seems likely that 
insects of the tropics get used to higher temperatures and can stand 
excessive heat much better than their fellow-beings of the cooler regions. 
It has been stated that 110° F. maintained long enough to penetrate 
the tissues of the body kills insect pests of grain, but in the elevator 
at Lyallpur the temperatures in the bins went as high as 113° F. during 
summer and still the insects were breeding quite well. 

In view of the above considerations, experiments were started on 
the larvae of Trogoderma khapra, the commonest pest of wheat in the 
Punjab, in order to discover the lethal temperatures of the stored grain 
pests. This insect was selected for our experiments, because its larvae 
are known to be the most resistant of all the stages of its life-history 
to the severities of temperature and can live for a long time without 

The following simple apparatus was used in our experiments. 

A large flask of 2,400 C. C. capacity was used to get an atmosphere 

of the desired temperature. This was heated on a water-bath (Plate 

XLI, fig. 1). The flask was fitted with a cork with two holes, through 

one of these a thermometer was introduced and through the other hole, 



which was larger, the larvee were introduced into the flask by means 
of a small wire-gauze basket, suspended by a cotton thread. The level 
to which this basket was lowered was the same as that of the bulb of 
the thermometer and the temperature recorded by the thermometer 
therefore represented the temperature to which larvae were subjected. 

When the basket with the larvae was introduced into the flask, the 
temperature dropped a little but remained fairly constant after that. 
The larvse were taken out after remaining in a known temperature for 
a definite time and kept at room temperature for at least 24 hours to 
see if any survived. In some cases the larvse as a result of imperfect 
penetration of heat, became motionless, but revived after 24 hours. 
So that all the larvse treated one day were examined after 24 hours. 
For temperatures above 90° C. a sand-bath was used and for tempera- 
ture below 60° C. an incubator was employed. 

Over 500 observations were recorded ; for every temperature the 
experiments were repeated twice or three times and oftener for the 
critical temperature. For each experiment 10 larvse were taken. The 
results of our investigations are given in Tables I and II, and graphically 
represented in the form of a curve. (Plates XLIT, XLIII). 

Table II. 

Table showing Lethal Temperatures for the Larvce oj T. khapra, in Rela- 
tion to the time of Exposure. 



Period of 

Their appear- 
ance on remova 
to room 

Effect of heat on 
, larvse 24 hours 
after removal 

to room 



30 seconds 


. Dead. 



45 „ 



60 „ 




90 „ 



120 „ 



180 „ 



240 „ 



300 „ 



360 „ 



420 „ 




600 „ 



20 minutes 



30 „ 



90 „ 



5 hours 

Page, 246 

720 . 
















— ^ 


R 2 

Pagf. 2'in 







































— . 


1 i 




1 ! 





100 Tempi. 



51-50° 5 hours 


R 2 




itL i 
7V 1 






96 98 100 TEMP 



5 hours 


Table III. 


Table showing the effect of high temperature on the germinating capacity 
of different types of wheat. 


ature centi- 

Time of 

of germina- 

Type of 




21 hours . 

Nil . 




3 „ . 

j> • » 




n „ . . 

>» • • 




H„ . . 

j> • • 




15 minutes 





15 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





1 hour . 





■!•>>• • 





L if m • 





1 »> • • 





i >» • • 





A »> • • 





1 J» • • 





20 minutes 





20 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





15 „ 





1 hour . 



R 2 

Page 247 






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Figure before DorL- Tht luimbet of times the ex[ierinwnt wta fierfortnid 

Figure after D — The fiercenUgfithH ditd. 

24:8 ■ proceedings of the fourth entomological meeting 


1. 1916. Barnes, J. H., and Grrove, A. J. — " The Insects attacking 
stored wheat in the Punjab," etc. (Mmrs. Department of Agriculture 
in India, Chemical series, Vol. IV, No. 6). 

2. 1919. Chaine, J. — " Destruction of Rose Aphids by the Intense 
heat of summer." (Rev. App. Ent., Series A., Vol. VII). 

3. 1888. Cotes, E. C. — " A preliminary account of the wheat and 
rice Weevils in India." (Notes on Ec. Ent. No. 1). 

4. 1918. Dendy, A. — •" Report on the effect of Air-tight storage 
upon grain insects, Part I," (Reports of the grain pests (War) Committee 
of the Royal Society, No. I). 

5. 1920. Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge, and Ghosh, C. C.—" Stored 
Grain pests." (Proceedings III Ent. Meeting, Pusa, Vol. II). 

6. 1914. Fletcher, T. Bainbrigge.—" (South Indian Insects, pp. 164- 

7. 1917. " Flour-mi]l Insects."— (Rev. App. Ent., Series A., Vol. V, 
p. 446). 

8. 1914. Goodwin. — " Heat control for mill Insects." (Jl. Ec. 
Ent., Vol. VII, p. 313). 

9. 1917. " Grain Weevils. — A menace to the wheat Stocks." 
(R. A. E. Series A, Vol. V, p. 554). 

10. 1914. Grove, A. J. — " Some experiments with maize stored 
in bins. (Agr. Jl. of India, Vol. IX). 

11. 1917. " Heat Kills Insects in Stored Provisions," (Rev. App. 
Ent., Series A., Vol. V, p. 371). 

12. 1919. Kunhi Kannan.— " Mercury aS an Insecticide," (Pro. 
Ill Ent. Meeting, Pusa, Vol. II, p. 761). 

13. 1906. Lefroy, H. M. — " Insects Infesting Grain." Indian Insect 
Pests, pp. 251-260). 

14. 1916. Manter, J. A.—" Note on the Bean Weevil." (R. A. E. 
Series A., Vol. V, p. 217). 

15. 1914. Peairs. — " The ratio of temparature to insect develop- 
ment." (Jl. Ec. Ent., Vol. VII). 

16. 1916. Richards, P. B. — " Methods and materials for the control 
of Insect Pests." (R. A. E., Series A., Vol. IV, p. 111). 

17. 1912. Sanderson, E. D. — " Insects injurious to stored grains." 
(Insect Pest of Farm, Garden and Orchard, pp. 186-199). 

18. 1916. Schribaux, E. — " La Resistance des semences a la 
chaleur et la Destruction des Insects." (R. A. E., Vol. IV, p. 156). 

19. 1918. " The Weevil Pests of Grain."— Summary of the pro- 
ceedings of a conference held in Melbourne. (R. A. E., Vol. VII, p. 167). 

20. 1915. Thompson, R. L.— " Sunheat v. Weevils. (R. A- E., 
Vol. IV, p. 12). 


(Plate XLIV). 
By C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant to tJie Imperial Entomologist. 

Gracilaria falcatella, Stainton. T. E. S. (n.s.) V, 121 (1859). 
Pyroderces spodochtha, Meyr. Bombay Journal, XVI, G07 

Anatrachyntis falcatella. Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 1917, 

p. 114. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella. Proc. Third Entl. Meeting, 1919, 

p. 149. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, Meyr., Exotic Micro., I, 325, 1915. 
Anatrachyntis falcatella. Fletcher, Ind. Agric. Ent. Mem., VI, 

99 (Jan. 1921). 

The moth has hitherto been recorded as a rubbish feeder and has 
been recorded from : — 

Pusa 1913, 1914, 1916. From cotton, cotton buds, in cage 

containing Dactylojnus sp., from Eublemma cage and on Lac. 


Shillong.... October 1916. 

Gobichettipalayam (Coimbatore District) on a rotten pomegranate. 

Kandy Larva in resinous masses of lac coccid Tachardia 


Bangalore January 1920. Larva in broodlac on Shorea talura. 

Last year when I began the study of the parasites and the predators 
of lac, my attention was drawn to a consignment of broodlac on Shorea 
talura received from Dr. Gilbert Fowler of the Indian Institute of Science, 
Bangalore. The first moth emerged on the 22nd September 1920 and 
a number of moths continued to emerge until the 24th October and 
for some time thereafter. Two other consignments were received 
subsequently and the number of moths that emerged from these was 
also large. The fourth consignment has been received only recently 
and from this too the moths have begun to come out. The large number 
of moths that emerged from the four consignments made it highly 
suspicious that the caterpillars were not altogether harmless, and from 
the observations that I have been able to make hitherto, it appears 
that the caterpillar feeds on the healthy lac females within resinous 
cells. The caterpillars occur in healthy broodlac along with Eublemma 

( 249 ) 


amabilis, but tlie two predators could be distinguished readily from 
tbeir method of affecting the resinous cells containing gravid females. 
In the four consignments of broodlac received from Bangalore the 
number of Anatrachyntis falcatella was far in excess of Eublemtna ama- 
bilis and it is fortunate that it is so. Eublemma amabilis is a serious 
pest in Northern India, and it will require patience and perseverence 
to limit the ravages of this serious pest. In some places I have seen 
it so bad, that the crop is extremely poor and the emergence of larvae 
is late and poor. The pest has remained unchecked so long, that the 
depredations committed by it have resulted in unsettling the market 
and causing unwarranted fluctuations. The lac-growers and the manu- 
facturers, who are not entomologists, cannot understand the situa- 
tion. They generally ascribe the poorness of the crop to climatic and 
such other conditions. No doubt these are important factors and 
cannot be easily overlooked, but the state of affairs now warrants a 
critical study of the parasites and predators which bring about such 
a state of affairs. When such a study is undertaken it will be found 
that the parasites and the predators of the lac insect are factors not 
to be overlooked in any scheme of expansion of the industry. When 
this stao-e will be reached, I think further steps will be taken to obtain 
accurate data regarding distribution and damage brought about by 
each predator. It will then, I think, be necessary to restrict the dis- 
tribution of each predator within its own sphere of its activity. Eublemma 
amabilis, so far as I have been able to consult the literature, and so far 
as my own experience goes, is mostly destructive to Lac in Northern 
India. By this I do not wish to create a false impression that it does 
not occur in South India. From occasional consignments received 
from Southern India, as well as those from Banganapalle, it is apparent 
that Eublemma amabilis does occur there but not to such an extent 
as it occurs in the North. Anatrachyyitis falcatella has not been reported 
damaging lac from Northern India. There is only one record and that 
too from Pusa, on the 22nd July 1913. Thereafter no moth has been 
either captured or reared from broodlac either on Ber or Palas at Pusa. 
In the Pusa collection the majority of the specimens have been from 
cotton either from buds, dry shoots affected either by the Bollworms, 
Earias fabia, E. insulana, Alcides leopardus, Phycita infusella, Phena- 
coccus hirsutus or Ph. corymbatus. It has been reared at Kandy (Ceylon) 
from larva in resinous masses of lac coccis, Tachardia albizzice. {Bombay 
Journal, XVI, 607 ; 1905). 

In the specimens of broodlac on Shorea talura from Bangalore hitherto 
examined by me both the predators, Eublemma amabilis and Anatra- 
chyntis falcatella, have been found working side by side on the same 

Page 251 








1 1 

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iZ CO 

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broodlac sticks. The latter were far in excess of the former. Both 
affect the gravid females and destroy them. Eublemma amabilis cater- 
pillars work from the side as well as from the top side of the resinous 
cells enclosing lac females on the branches. Anatrachyntis falcatella 
caterpillars prefer to work mostly from^ the sides of the resinous cells. 
The caterpillar gnaws a hole at the side of a resinous cell and penetrates 
into the resinous incrustation. The passage of Eublemma caterpillars 
could be easily detected by following the tunnel filled with flat, oval, 
discs of resin mixed with body juices of their victims. In fome cases 
the resinous cells are completely hollow and are filled with dark crimson, 
flat, ovalish discs. The cocoon of the caterpillar consists of whitish 
silken threads glued together with deep crimson, flat oval discs. Prior 
to pupation the Eublemma caterpillar makes a hole of exit, closes it up 
with whitish silken threads and pupates immediately below it. 

The Anatrachyntis falcatella caterpillars also make their way inside 
the resinous intrustation by gnawing bits of resin and then attacking 
the females. The bits of frass left by these caterpillars in the tunnels 
made by them are different from those of the Eublemma caterpillars. 
In this case the granules of resin are small and round, quite unlike those 
of Eublemma caterpillars. Both resinous and other granules consisting 
of chitin, dye and other visceral portions from the body of the lac 
females lie about the tunnels made by the caterpillars. 

The full-fed caterpillar is light crimson of much the same colour 
as the lac females, and as such is quite distinct from Eublemma cater- 
pillars which are white or whitish crimson. It is 5-75 Jiim. long, and 
a little over 1 mm. broad. It is light to bright pinkish in colour on 
account of its meal of the lac females. The head is jet black, with small 
whitish porrect hairs. The mandibles are jet black in keeping with 
the general colour of the head, and are powerful. There is a shiny black 
thoracic shield with an obsolete indentation in the middle. The meso 
and meta-thoracic segments are concolorous with the abdominal seg- 
ments which are light pinkish with white setse on them. The anal 
and the penultimate segments have a chitinous shield of a light fuscous 
brown colour with whitish hair pointing caudad. There is a fine trans- 
parent, longitudinal line from the first abdominal segment to the anal 
end through which the pulsation of the heart could be seen under high 
magnification. (Plate XLIV, fig. a). 

From what I have been able to observe hitherto, it appears that 
the caterpillar in its attempts to reach the dead and dry female lac 
cells bites its way through the living female cells as well and thereby 
causes death. In one case, a caterpillar was seen to enter the resinous 
incrustation on a Shorea talura stick from the side and within three 


days it had penetrated a length of 20 mm. when it began to pupate. 
It had thus killed ofi seven healthy lac females. The caterpillar, when 
full-fed, spins a thin, whitish cocoon. Prior to pupation it makes a 
circular hole on the resinous incrustation which it lines with a thin, 
silken webbing. Such holes of exit for the adult moth could be easily 
seen under the binocular with a little practice. If disturbed, it moves 
about and spins a fresh cocoon either within or between crevices of 
coalescing resinous cells. In the majority of cases examined, the pupa 
lies within the resinous incrustations, in a thin silken cocoon. The 
pupa, when taken out of the cocoon, is brick brown in colour with 
a slight bloom. It is 3 mm. long and a little over 1 mm. broad, the 
two black spots on the head representing the eyes. The three pairs 
of legs are folded on the sternum, the apices of the antennae reach the . 
apices of the anterior wings which lie closely adpressed laterally. 
Dorsally the head is pointed anteriorly and broad posteriorly. The 
mesothoracic segment is the most prominent, nearly twice as long as 
pro- and metathoraces together. Eleven abdominal segments are 
distinct. There are a few short white hairs at the anal end. (Plate 
XLIV, fig. 6). 

The adult moth is pale brown. When resting on lac-covered sticks 
it rests at an angle, the anterior part of the body being slightly raised. 
The moths are not very brisk fliers. They have hitherto been observed 
to be quiet during the greater part of the day. (Plate XLIV, fig. c). 

The addition of this moth to the list of predators on the lac insect 
increases the difficulties of cultivation. The lac insects have already 
a host of predators and parasites to contend with. It is just possible 
that this moth, in course of time, may divert its attention from cotton 
to lac and it will then be time to adopt rigorous measures to combat 
it ; when the question of the establishment of nurseries for the distribu- 
tion of broodlac is mooted it will be advisable to keep an eye on this, 
as well as other, predators. 


(Plate XLV.) 

By C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist 

In the past mucli difficulty has been experienced in fixing the local 
dates of emergence of the lac insects. These dates, as is well known 
to those who are interested either in the cultivation or the manufacture 
of shellac, vary from place to place. In some cases the variation in 
the dates of emergence is so great that considerable difficulty is experi- 
enced in starting and finishing the work of inoculation in proper time 
and this has, in my opinion, militated to a great extent against the 
extension of lac cultivation. Had it been easy to foretell or to know 
with some certainty the dates of emergence of larvae, the cultivation 
of lac, in my opinion, would have been more extended and varied than 
what it is now and the heavy fluctuations which are the order of the day 
would not have taken place so frequently as is the case now. No doubt 
there are other and more important factors, which have a direct bearing 
on the production of lac, but this is also one of them, and as such, demands 
some attention. In the past the lac-growers have had to depend mostly 
upon their own past experiences or on the advice of the elders within 
the lac cultivating zone or villages. They have no definite data whereon 
to base their calculations and results, and it is no wonder that these 
calculations are extremely vague and unreliable. In the same locality 
or lac-growing zone, I have seldom come across two lac-growers agreeing 
with each other in their calculations regarding the probable date of 
emergence of the lac larvse. The variations, when they do occur in such 
tracts or localities, produce no serious consequences, but now with 
the impetus that the industry has received of late, the cultivation is 
bound to increase not only in the localities which hold the monopoly 
of lac cultivation at the present time but in new and distant localities 
where the host plants of the various species of the lac insect occur in 
abundance, and signs at present are not wanting to show that the future 
augurs well and has great potentialities for the development and con- 
solidation of the industry provided adequate precautions are taken 
to safeguard it. I have repeatedly drawn the attention of the public 
and of those interested in lac cultivation and manufacture to the neces- 
sity of regarding the present boom as extremely detrimental to the 
industry unless full advantage is taken of the present inflated prices 

( 263 ) 


in taking active and permanent steps to reorganize it in the light of 
experiences gained at the present time. But if nothing is done and 
the occasion is allowed to slip by, the industry is expected to receive 
a set-back. What the effect will be, the future alone would show. 
But to my mind it appears that the present lethargic state of the growers 
and manufacturers is bound to redound prejudicially on the well being 
of one of the most ancient and most important industry which is mostly 
cottage and rural in its nature and which provides means of livelihood 
to millions of the country's poor and ignorant, who inhabit the out- 
skirts of forest or are denizens of extremely backward tracts where 
the present influences seldom, if ever, penetrate. The truth of this 
casual remark will be apparent from a case I found in the remotest 
corner of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. Years before the present boom 
in prices took place the cultivator used to get Rs. 5 per maund of stick- 
lac and this was at a time when the market quotation for T. N. was 
between Es. 30-35 per maund. The year I visited the locality, T. N. 
was quoted in the Calcutta market at Rs. 235 a maund, but the poor 
ignorant cultivator was paid only Rs. 5 a maund of 52 seers. Some 
time after, when the same cultivator chanced to visit a relative of his 
in the suburbs of a Hat, he came to know that something extraordinary 
was happening in the shellac market and decided to obtain better terms 
from the local Paikar when he came to him next for the sale of his pro- 
duce. I was subsequently informed that when the Paikar did turn 
up, the cultivator demanded better terms and was given an, increase 
of rupee one over what he was paid before. In fact the cultivator should 
have got at the rate of Rs. 80 a maund of 82 lbs. Such and other causes 
militate against the extension of cultivation and are the causes which 
make the shellac trade and the market so very uncertain when few 
care to gamble away their savings and their fortunes. Had the culti- 
vator been paid Rs. 80 or at the least Rs. 50 a maund, he would have 
got an additional impetus to increase his cultivation and the result 
of such accumulated extensions would have been that considerable 
large quantities of the crude stuff would have been brought to the market 
for sale. But the things, as is usually the case, move very slowly and 
nothing tangible seems to result from the past years of inflated prices. 
The compiler of the District Gazetteer, Palamau, on pages 116-117, 
remarks in much the same vein as given by me above. He says : — 

" Recently there has been a boom in lac, which has done 

much to save the old Zemindar families, their income being in some 
cases more than doubled. Incidentally the rQjjfult has been that land- 
lords now claim that lac trees, exclusive of planted trees and trees on 
household land, are their property, the claim being apparently based 


on the analogy of the Government Estate, where lac trees, even on 
cultivated land, have been assessed to rent " 

These and such other considerations led me to find out some means 
whereby the emergence of lac insects could be determined with at least 
some degree of certainty. This step is essential in any scheme of exten- 
sion of the industry and I may say here, that others before me have 
felt the necessity of finding out methods whereby the wastage of lac 
larvae, that is inevitable these days, could be appreciably, if not totally, 
avoided. A writer early in the seventies remarked ; — 

" The failures that have attended the attempts to send seed- twigs 
from one part of India to another, have been due mainly to the fact 
that the seed twigs were cut too long before the swarming period or 
too near it." 

In places where the cultivation has been started for the first time 
there have been instances where through sheer ignorance the attempts 
have proved entirely unsuccessful owing to the subordinates having 
mistaken the exclusion of the males for the emergence of the lac larvae. 
Almost all the lac-bearing branches were removed and carted, when 
it was detected at the last moment that a serious mistake was made. 
There are not only straggling records of such happenings but there 
is ample evidence to show that such occurrences are not uncommon 
in the lac-growing tracts even at the present time. No doubt, the 
ignorance and illiteracy of the masses is a serious obstacle to the adop- 
tion of new and improved scientific methods but, as in other spheres 
of life, where the cultivator becomes aware of some personal gain to 
follow by the adoption or relinquishment of a practice, it is expected 
that he will soon be convinced of the necessity of adoption of a better 
method for prognosticating the emergence of lac larvae in his own 
plantation or in those of his neighbours. Some of the experienced 
Forest Ofiicers too have felt the necessity of adopting a method which 
would do away with the uncertainty and fickleness in the emergence 
of the lac larvae. Mr. McKee, {Indian Forester, Vol. I, p. 269, 1876), 
said : — 

" The next point to fix on is the local date on which the 

insects leave the parent cells, a step of great importance and one on 
which the first success of the plantation will very greatly depend ; should 
the work of gathering broodlac be delayed until visual proof of the 
esxit of larvae is obtained, a vast quantity will be killed in the operation 
of collection, transport and of tying the incrusted twigs on the standard 
selected nurseries." 


Later on the same officer remarked : — 

" A knowledge of which will enable a larger number of trees to 

be prepared during the working season than if it was necessary to delay 
the operations until evolution actually took place, as owing to the latter 
being barely simultaneous in and about one locality, the period for 
forming the plantation must be necessarily limited to the number of 
days it takes the cells to become empty, besides which, by attaching the 
lac twigs before the birth of larvae great numbers are saved, which 
would otherwise perish during the process of being attached to the 
trees " 

In short, those who are doing the cultivation or those who are interested 
in shellac manufacture or those who are anxious to develop the dormant 
resources of their Estates or property to the full, are really anxious 
to know of a definite and reliable method to fix the emergence of the 
lac larvae in their own particular tracts. No doubt there are methods 
by which the experienced lac growers approximately determine for 
themselves the probable date of emergence of lac larvae. But as I 
have already said above, such rough and ready methods of determina- 
tion could hardly be relied upon, especially when the cultivation has 
been started in an altogether new locality or is contemplated to be 
started in a new one. 

The necessity of knowing the date of emergence of larvae is intimately 
connected with the cultivation of lac. In one year, 1915-16, the total 
export of shellac from the port of Calcutta only was 96 million pounds. 
To produce this, nearly 240 million pounds of stick-lac must have been 
utilized. The value of this produce at the then market rate of Rs. 15 
per maund of 80 lbs., amounts to 45 million rupees. If we take the 
average normal produce of a cultivator to be represented by 160 lbs., 
then the amount realized by a cultivator comes up to about Rs. 30. 
This sum is quite sufficient for a cultivator to pay off his rental dues, 
etc., and to utilize the produce of his land for the maintenance of his 
family and himself. During the war and especially after it, the rates 
of shellac as well as stick-lac went up very high, and the result was 
the lac cultivators were able to obtain remunerative prices for their 
stick-lac. Some of them were able to pay off their debts and to get 
back their lands which were mortgaged for years previously. Others 
were able to buy more land and to put it under lac producing trees. 
Thus with the impetus that the industry has received of late, it is pro- 
bable that more locahties will be opened up for lac cultivation and in 
consequence more broodlac will be required to meet the growing demand. 
This will necessitate somewhat more accurate determination of the 





4 "^^ 

■dam:. ^ 




Determination of emergence of Lac Larvce. 

Fig. 1. Ovules in process of development. (The dark coloured ones are unhealthy. ) 

„ 2. A portion of the ovary showing further development of ovules. 

„ 3. A portion of the ovary showing development of the ovules. 

„ 4. A portion of the ovary showing development of healthy ovules as well as 

the presence of unhealthy ones, 26 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 5. Ovules — 22 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 6. Ovules — 18 days before the emergence of larvse. 

7. A single ovule highly magnified, 18 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 8. Ovule — 16 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 9. Embryos — 8 to 12 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 10. Embryos — 5 days before the emergence of larvae. 

„ 11. Revolution of the embryos with the ovarian branches. 

„ 12. Partial emergence of a larva. 

„ 13. A newly-hatched larva (dorsal view). 

„ 14. A fully ripe female testis showing external characteristics. 



emergence of lac larvae so as to facilitate cutting and transportation 
of broodlac long distances either by rail, post or steamer. 

The method advocated herein is not final, and it is possible that other 
workers in the field would be able to suggest some other more simple 
method than the one detailed here. But for the time being, an exami- 
nation of the ovaries would give sufficient data wherewith to know the 
probable date of the emergeni3e of larvae. I have tried this method 
personally for some years past, and find it gives sufficiently accurate data 
wherewith to fix the emergence of the larvae in distant parts of the 
country. In the past I have examined broodlac for the emergence of 
larvae from Sind, Baroda, Assam, Banganapalle, Karauli and Rewah, 
and found this method sufficiently indicative of fixing the dates of 
emergence with greater degree of certainty than would have been the 
case otherwise. 

The accessories required for this work are : — 

A compound miscroscope. 

A dissecting microscope or a Greenough's Binocular. 

A few clean slides. 

A scalpel. 

Two or three pipettes (one medium, one fine). 

Three or four stout mounted needles. 

Three or four watch glasses. 

Distilled water. 

The only difficulty that is likely to be experienced by most of the 
growers is that they cannot provide themselves with the equipment 
given above. The microscope and the dissecting microscope or the 
binocular require a very heavy outlay, far beyond the reach of an 
ordinary grower. But the method advocated above is more or less 
a laboratory method intended for those who have some knowledge of 
microscopic technique or are working in a laboratory fitted with the 
above things. All that is required is to take a few cells on a stick, 
remove the resin round the insects either with a scalpel or a teaser, 
make a longitudinal incision with a pointed needle, and take out a 
portion of the ovaries, on a clean slide. The specimens are then washed . 
either in normal saline solution or in distilled water, adjusted under 
the binocular and examined under the microscope, A comparison is 
then made with the figures in the accompanying plate, and the period 
determined for the particular locality from which the specimens have 
either been obtained or collected. 

In Mysore A. falcateUa is very rare, Euhlemma is our worst pest, Mr. Subiramaniam. 
There is no systematic cultivation of lac in Mysore, 


I had occasion to work at lac for a couple of months with Mr. Howlett 
in connexion with certain suggestions made by the Shellac Committee. 
The lac-insects obtained from different host plants are all called by 
the general name of T. lacca. Is there sufficient structural difference 
amongst them to warrant any specific differentiation and are the host- 
plants interchangeable ? 

We hope to be able to say by the next Meeting. % 

The title of Mr. Misra's paper was misleading. I hoped to learn 
the technique employed. Fortunately Mr. Hewlett's views on the 
lac problem have been preserved and will be published shortly in a 
Forest Bulletin. 


By Edward B. Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., Fellow of Jesus College, 
Oxford, and Hope Professor of Zoology in the University. 

The little paper on the proportion of the female forms of Pafilio 
polytes, L., read and kindly emphasized by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 
at the Third Entomological Meeting at Pusa, in February 1919 (Report, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 903-906) has produced a most interesting series of polytes 
captured in 1919 and 1920 by Mr. C. M. Inglis at Baghownie, Laheria 
Sarai P. 0., B. & N.-W. Ry., towards the south of the Darbhanga District 
of Bihar. I therefore take the opportunity of contributing a prelimi- 
nary study of this material to the Fourth Entomological Meeting at 
Pusa. Furthermore, a fine series captured by Mr. 0. C. Ollenbach at 
Dehra Dun, United Provinces, in March 1917, only reached me after 
the Third Entomological Meeting had taken place, the captor wisely 
deciding to avoid any unnecessary risks in transport. This series also 
has been studied and the results are submitted together with those 
from Baghownie. 

Mr. Inglis' captures were all made within two miles of Baghownie 
and all were taken and sent, whether damaged or not. The injured 
specimens are of great interest being in nearly all cases symmetrically 
shorn, or torn at the anal angle of the hind wing, injuries evidently the 
work of birds or lizards. In a few cases as much as half one or both 
hind wings has been shorn away. In addition to the romulus forms 
recorded in the table on page 261, Mr. Inglis captured it on July 31, 
1917, and September 2nd and 9th, 1918. Concerning the models he 
wrote on February 9th, 1920 : — 

" hector itself is never caught. P. aristolochice is of course, a common 
species here. The earliest I have noticed appears to be May 29th, 
but it is not till the middle of July that they can be said to be common. 
August also seems to be the month during which most are got, the same 
as polytes." 

( 259 ) 


Also on July 10, 1920:— 

' Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher writes. ' I sliould think we are roughly 
400-500 miles beyond the range of Paj)ilio hector. The elevation at 
Pusa is about 150 feet above sea-level' These words would also apply 
to this place which is not very far from Pusa. We are evidently a little 
closer to the hector range than Dehra Dun and the romulus form is slightly 
stronger here " (see the table on page 261). 

Concerning the Dehra Dun series Mr, Ollenbach wrote in September 
17 th, 1919 :— 

" I made no choice but took all that came, so far as I was able to. 
The romulus form is certainly very uncommon here and P. hector does 
not occur. The nearest parts of its range are about 800 miles to the 
East and the same distance to the South. P. aristolocliiw is plentiful 
here now, though some twenty years ago it was not to be seen." 

On this last interesting point he wrote again on March 10th, 1920 : — 

" I cannot quite remember when P. aristolochice first appeared in 
Dehra Dun, but probably about tWenty-five years ago. I have a speci- 
men in my collection taken in the year 1895. They had probably only 
just appeared at that time and were very scarce, although now they 
are iust the reverse ; aristolochice is however by no means so numerous 
as folytes, which is a very common species." 

In 1920 Mr. Ollenbach, was unable to continue to collect poJytes 
in Dehra Dun because " for some unknown reason this butterfly and 
P. aristolochue were very scarce although in ordinary seasons they 
were very common." 

In the following tabular statement I have classified the folytes 
females in four groups according to the absence or presence, and degree 
of development, of the white spot in the hind wing cell. The transi- 
tion between siichins, with no white in the cell, and polytes, possessing 
it is complete — so much so that all those specimens in the fourth column 
of the table and some of those in the fifth would, unless carefully examined, 
be placed in the third as typical examples of stichius. The white mark 
in the cell of such individuals is only represented by scattered scales 
often less than a dozen in number. The comparisons which formed the 
basis of the table were made upon the under-surface of the wings only 
but it is not anticipated that an examination of the upper-surface 
would lead to any change. 



Dates in 1919, 192 

at BaaJiowTjie, 




Female form poi.ttes fiNCLrDiKG 


Female form 

Xo white 
in H. W. 



trace of 

white in 

H. W. cell. 


white spot 

in H. W. 


spot in 

H. W. ceU 
large to 






1919, July . 







„ August . 







,, September 







„ October. 






1920, March . 



,, April 





„ June 




., July . 







„ August . 








1 31 






1 (seen) 









Total 124, including 4 additional females. 

In 1917 at Dehra 
Dun, United Pro- 

The a bo 
pared w 

ve total from Baghownie, S. Darbhanga District, Bihar, 
1th those below, from Dehra Dun, United Provinces. 

to be com- 

1917, September 

. 149 


15 10 10 


Total 35 females of form polyteg. 

In addition to the specimens tabulated above, three females of the 
]K)Iytes form were taken at Baghownie in August and October 1919 
and October 1920, respectively but all so much injured in both hind 
wings that thev could not be assigned to their proper columns. A 
fourth female of the same form would have appeared in the fifth column 
but for the accidental omission of data. It arrived in a consignment 
containing specimens taken from March to July 1920. The follox^-ing 
additional males were also taken : — 4-12 November 1919, 4 ; 10th Alav 
1919, 1 ; 1 November 1920, 2. ' ' ' 

A few additional specimens were taken at Dehra Dun in the vears 
1917 to 1919, the most interesting being a romvlus female on 11 Sep- 
tember 1919. 

Comparing the two localities by the aid of the figures in the table 
the chief difference is to be found in the proportions of the male-hke 
female form cyrus, outnumbering the polytes form at Dehra Dun, but 
less than a quarter of the same form at Baghownie. ThLs difference 
would be somewhat diminished but would remain great if we allow for 
the fact that more males were taken at Dehra Dun and make the reason- 


able assumption that more cynis would have been taken with an increased 
number of males at Baghownie. The true proportions can only be 
ascertained, as Mr. Fryer has rightly maintained, by breeding from 
indiscriminately collected larvae and it would be deeply interesting to 
check the results shown in the above table in the manner. I sincerely 
hope that this may be possible in both localities. 

The great difference between the proportions of the cyrus and polytes 
female forms in the two localities may probably be explained by the 
absence, until recent years, of the aristolochice models at Dehra Dun 
and by similar reasoning we may expect a gradual increase in the 
proportions of the polytes f., now that the model has become common 

The other exceedingly interesting difference, already referred to 
by Mr. C. M. Inglis (p. 260), is in the proportions of the romulus f., to be 
doubtless explained, on the lines suggested by him, as the result of the 
much greater distance of Dehra Dun from the range of the model P. 

I trust that an attempt will be made to breed from one of those 
rare female forms at both localities. The following considerations 
make it almost certain that the great majority of them are heterozy- 
gotes (hybrids) bearing the pattern of the dominant, and the most 
probable mating will have been with a male bearing the polytes or cyrus 
tendencies (both recessive to romulus). The commonest result to be 
expected would therefore be approximately half romulus females (hetero- 
zygotes) and half polytes females (recessives), or half romulus and 
half cyrus. 

The reason why the rare romulus forms are likely to be heterozygotes 
is as follows : The handing on of the mimetic pattern from a region 
where it and its model are common, is probably brought about by 
wandering males, although sometimes by regular seasonal or excep- 
tional migrations. When a male bearing the tendency of romidus 
thus reaches a population in which the romulus female is rare or absent 
it will rarely or never' pair with such a fem^ale but with polytes or cyrus, 
or the polytes-like heterozygotes combining the two. In each ease the 
offspring will be heterozygotes, the females bearing the appearance 
of romulus, the survivors of these again will generally pair with males 
bearing the common recessive female patterns, yielding again half 
heterozygotes and half recessives. And even when the rare heterozy- 
gotes romulus female meets and mates with the equally rare male and 
produces offspring of which a quarter are pure dominant romulus, the 
survivors of this will at once tend to mate with the common male, 
yielding again heterzygotes bearing the romulus pattern. Therefore, 


in areas far removed from the range of hector where romulus is abundant 
such rare romulus forms as are found will be nearly always heterozy- 
gotes and only very rarely pure dominants. 

The above reasoning was applied to the more complex case of 
Papilio dardanas, in Africa and was subsequently confirmed by breeding 
experiments in many parts of the range where rare female forms were 
found to behave as heterozygotes {Proc. Ent. Soc. London, 1914, pp. 

The proportion of the stichius form to the true polytes females does 
not differ greatly in the two localities ; for the 9 Baghownie examples on 
the iih column Sive very nearly stichius and, unless carefully examined, 
would be assigned to this form. It will be interesting to study in a 
similar manner the development of the chief hind-wing markings of 
aristolochicB in various localities and determine whether there is any 
correspondence in this respect between it and mimetic polytes. That 
this is not unlikely is shewn by the strong development of this marking 
of both model and mimic in Ceylon, where the stichius form is excessively 
rare {Rep. Proc. ^rd Ent. Meeting, Pusa, 1919, p. 904). 

Another point of great interest brought out by a careful comparison 
of the polytes females from both localities is the existence of a small 
proportion of individuals with the hind- wing pattern intermediate 
between that of polytes and romulus. The proportion of these in loca- 
lities where romulus is commoner would be well worth studying. It is 
probable that such individuals are heterozygotes exhibiting imperfect 
dominance, but this suggestion can only be tested by breeding. 

The further investigation of this interesting example of female 
mimicry will, I think, be assisted by bringing together all the significant 
references to polytes and its models in the publications of the Bombay 
Natural History Society. I owe these to the kind help of Mr. C. M. 
Inglis and Dr. R. Hanitsch. In the critical remarks on some of the 
references I have been kindly helped by Dr. Karl Jordan. A few obser- 
vations from other publications or hitherto unrecorded have been added. 

The references are arranged according to the localities starting from 
the South of India, proceeding northward and then eastward into Burma 
and China. References which mention only volume and date are all 
from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 

The following early reference to this example of mimicry occurs 
in a paper by Colonel Charles Swinhoe (Vol. II, 1887, p. 173) :— " P. 
pammon (polytes) the female of which mimics two species, P. diphilus 
and P. hector, and in the Nicobars the female of the variety nicoharus 
mimics the Nicobar variety of P. diphilus, called P. (aristolochicB) 
camorta." P. diphilus, Gray is a synonym of aristolochice, F. RotJbschild 



considers that nikobarus, Feld., cannot be separated from the Indian 
polyles. {Nov. Zool., Vol. II, 1895, p. 347). It is however retained as 
a sub-species by Jordan (Seitz, Oriental Papilionida', p. 61), who 
states that '• the. female form similar to the male appears to be com- 
moner than in other districts." 

The range of Papilio hector, L., is given by Rothschild {ibid, p. 234) 
as " Ceylon, S. India, Madras, Central Provinces, Calcutta." In Ceylon 
and Southern India it " is very common at low elevations ; farther north 
it becomes rarer, and does not seem to go beyond the 25th degree of 
N. Lat." Jordan also states that it is " recorded from Chittagong on 
the north-east side of the Bay of Bengal " (Seitz, ibid, p. 34). 

The range of the romulus female of polytes, mimicking hector, is thus 
defined by Rothschild (p. 347) " Ceylon, South India, Bengal, and 
occasionally in Sikkim." Jordan gives it as " Ceylon to North India ; 
in Sikkim, where hector does not occur, romulus is scarce and further 
east it has not yet been observed at all. . . ," (Seitz, ibid, p. 61). The 
facts recorded in the earlier pages of this memoir prove that romulus 
occurs in small numbers very far east of Sikkim. 

The localities now start from the South of India, as already explained. 
The records published in Proc. 3rd. Ent. Meeting, Pusa, 1019, (pp. 904, 
905) should be taken into account together with those in the earlier 
part of the present paper. 

Palni Hills. Captain W. H. Evans, (Vol. XX, 1910, p. 384— 

" 74. Papilio polytes. Common at low and often seen at high 
elevations probably all the year." 

<« 7A P V 7 *\ Common at low elevations; May, 

^ ■ f June, August to October ; hector is 

„, ^ ., . .77. C often seen at the highest eleva- 
"71. Papilio anstolochice. \ .■ „ 

Bangalore. K. Kunhi Xannan. (Vol. XXI, 1911, p. 699) says that 

the species is trimorphic in Bangalore. 
Bangalore District. T. H. L. Grosvenor. {Ent. Record, 1920, p. 

P. hector is " abundant everywhere, apparently continuously 

brooded, as from March to December they were always to be found 
in every possible condition. This was the only Papilio I found of which 

both sexes were commonly taken at the approach of dusk they 

settle for the night usually in small colonies of 5 or 6, and apparently 
return to the ^same tree each evening. I watched one for over a 
fortnight, having selected it for observation on account of a crippled 
bindwing, so that there was no chance of mistaking it. One 


afternoon I saw this insect at the farther side of the plantation at 
least a mile away but it came back to its usual tree for the night 

" P. aristolochicB, Mr. Grosvenor noted, was " not nearly 

80 abundant in the Bangalore district as P. hector, but in the 
Central Provinces it is in great numbers, and there replaces P. hector." 
P. polytes : " Perhaps the most general and abundant species of the 
Indian Papilios. The male is to be seen everywhere, but the 
interesting polymorphic female is very difl&cult to find, as it seldom 
if ever flies in the open, and has to be searched for in dense bushes, 
and when found is generally torn to rags." All three forms of 

female were taken, and " The prevailing form is that resembling 

aristolochiae." Concerning the likeness to the models the author 
remarks. "It is difficult to see what advantage is gained by 
mimicry, as the habits of polytes, hector and aristolochice are entirely 
different, and one never has the slightest doubt as to which species 
one sees, although so closely resembling one another in colour and 
markings. It certainly does not protect polytes, as I have on several 
occasions seen the King Crow {Dicrurus ater) not only attack, but 
eat it." 

The author in writing his last quoted sentence seems to have forgotten 
the fact that all species, protected or unprotected, have their enemies, 
and that complete immunity only existed in the mind of Erich Haase 
and never in nature. Nevertheless 1 agree with the author in 
believing that the ordinarily accepted interpretation of mimicry in 
P. polytes is erroneous, and it seems worth while to reprint here a State- 
ment I wrote several years ago for a journal now out of print ('* Bedroch," 
Vol. II, No. 3, Oct., 1913, pp. 310-312) :— 

" How can we account for the evolution of two mimetic forms in a 
butterfly which remains dominant when its models are absent or 
excessively rare ? It is worth while to consider this question in some 
little detail, for I believe that the true explanation is dift'erent from 
that usually given. 

" Papilio polytes is an unusually dominant and successful swallow tail. 
Its rate of reproduction, combined with a probable measure of distaste- 
fulness advertised by a conspicuous pattern, its powers of flight, alert- 
ness, and other adaptations of many kinds, keep up the large average 
numbers in spite of the attacks of enemies of all sorts in all the stages 
of its life-history. The large numbers that survive in every generation 
will of course, include the fittest, and so the high level of protection 
efficiency is maintained. This is the condition of polytes in the Hong 
Kong and Macao districts where the single model (aristolochice) is so 
rare that it is unreasonable to suppose that it exerts any efiect, and 


this was doubtless its condition before tbe evolution of the mimetic 
forms. There is no reason to suppose that the surviving percentage 
of polytes was increased by the presence of the aristolochice model or 
during the growth of the mimetic likeness. All that happened was 
this : — Certain variations formerly unselected, now tend to fall into the 
surviving percentage, and, once started, the further stages of transfor- 
mation were effected in the same way. Each change that suggested 
still more strongly an advertisement common to a far more distasteful 
form would tend to be selected. So too, when polytes spreads beyond 
the range of aristolochice, or when the model for some reason disappears 
from an area in which folytes is abundant, the constitution, not the 
amount, of the surviving percentage is changed. The mimetic pattern 
soon disappears, although the species that bore it remains as abundant 
as before. The survival or extinction of the species is not afiected : 
all that has happened is the survival or extinction of a pattern borne 
by a certain proportion of the individuals of the species. When these 
disappear other individuals with another pattern take their place. It 
is, furthermore, extremely probable that selection is reversed when 
the models are absent, for a female that resembles the male is better 
advertised than one which resembles a non-existent model. Although 
I believe that many mimicking species bear the above-described relation- 
ship to their models, I do not mean to imply that this is always so. 
No doubt there are plenty of mimicking species which depend upon 
the presence of the model for their existence and could not live in areas 
from which the model disappeared." 

I should perhaps, add that we can well understand the advantage 
of a mimetic pattern, even when accompanied by great differences in 
flight and behaviour, if we look upon it as an aid to memory of enemies, 
helping them to recall an unpleasant experience, rather than as the 
deceptive resemblance of a palatable eagerly sought-for species to one 
unpalatable and avoided. Furthermore the difference in flight means 
for polytes powers of escape from those enemies which would devour 
it but not its model. 

North Kanara District. J. Davidson, T. R. Bell and E. H. Aitken. 
(Vol. X, 1895-97, p. 580). " P. polytes : This is very common and very 
destructive to orange and lime trees in gardens " 

The Konhan. E. H. Aitken and E. Comber. (Vol. XV, 1903-04, 
p. 52) " Papilio pammon, L. Quite common all over the district. Of 
the several forms of females the polytes type, which resembles P. aris- 
tolochice, is the commonest and the romulus type is not rare, but we 
have no record of the form that is similar to the male." 


The Konkan. G. W. V. de Rhe-Philippe. (Vol. XVIII, 1907-08. 
p. 884) " Papilio polytes L. I have to record a fourth type of female 
intermediate between the " romulus " and ''polytes" types. It has 
the discal markings on the hind wing white as in the ' polytes ' form, 
but at the same time approaching the ' romulus ' type in having the 
broad white band on the forewing. The specimen, which was taken 
at Khandala in October 1905, is the only one of the kind I have seen." 

Bombay Presidency. B. H. Aitken. (Vol. II, 1887, p. 36). " P. 
pammon. This is nearly as abundant as the last (viz., P. erithonius), 
the polyctor form of the female being decidedly the most common." 
Dr. Jordan agrees with me in concluding that " polyctor " was inadver- 
tently written instead of " polytes." 

Nimar District, Central Provinces. D. 0. Witt. (Vol. XIX, 1909-10, 
p. 569). 

Papilio polytes, L. " More common in forest areas than in gardens 
and cultivated land. Of a skulking habit, keeping usually to forest 
with bushy undergrowth in it. Rains and cold weather." 

Central Provinces. J. A. B. {i.e., Betham). Vol. VI, 1891, p. 329.) 
" 113. Papilio polytes, L. This and P. pammon are one and the same 
species. It is the common black and white " swallow-tail " to be found 

almost everywhere It has 3 forms of female, the first almost 

exactly resembles the male ; the second is a mimic of P. aristolochice, 
and the third imitates P. hector ." 

Plains of India. T. R. Bell. (Vol. XIX, 1909-10, p. 33). 

Refers to P. polytes imitating P. hector and P. aristolochice. 

Plains of India. T.R.Bell. (Vol. XXI, 1911, pp. 527 and 531). 

(p. 527). " 83. Papilio polytes. A polymorphic form. The male 
varies slightly but is fairly constant throughout its range ; the female 
generally with two forms, in Southern India with three, strikingly 
different in appearance " (with detailed description and plates). 

(p. 531). " Another extraordinary thing is that where local forms 
of P. aristolochice occur, there the polytes form is also modified in a more 
or less similar way. Things go even further than that in Celebes where 
typical polytes males do not exist, being replaced by a constant similar 
but aberrant race called P. polytes alcindor, Oberth., ; the female is only 
of one type and that imitates a butterfly of the P. hector group called 
P. polyphonies, Boisd, which is only found in Celebes and some few 
neighbouring islands of the Gilolo group ; and this although P. aris- 
tolochice exists there. Why ? It is difficult to even guess at an answer." 

Dr. Jordan kindly informs me that, although aristolochice was recorded 
from Celebes by the Hon'ble W. Rothschild (7m, 1892), the single 
male on which the conclusion was based came in reality from Bali, 


Doherty having erroneously included some specimens from this island 
in his Celebes collection. No aristolochice is known from Celebes. P. 
polyphonies is very common there. 

Lucknow District. Geo. W. V. de Rhe-Philippe. (Vol. XIV, 1902-03, 
p. 492). 

"81. Papilio polytes, L. Common all over the district, especially 
around lime trees on which the caterpillar (which is very like that of 
P. erithonius) feeds. The species is on the wing throughout the rains 
and cold weather, the males, as a rule, appearing somewhat later than 
the females. Of the three forms of the latter, type I, which is like 
the male, does not apparently occur in the district ; at any rate I have 
never seen it. Type II, which mimics P. aristolochice, is common and 
the only one generally taken ; while type III, mimicking P. hector, is 
very rare, but as I have seen it on two occasions, apparently does occur. 
Its appearance at all is rather surprising as its model is never, as far as 
I know, found in Upper India." 

Fatehgarh. H. D. Peile. (Vol. XX, 1911, p. 874). 

" 22. Papilio polytes — Common ' cyrus ' form, two males taken. 
One ' romulus ' female taken, another seen " ; cyrus is the male-like 
female form. If the two specimens were males the correct name would 
be polytes. 

Kumaon. F. Hannyngton, I.C.S. (Vol. XX, 1910, p. 361). 

" 168. Papilio polytes, L. Common up to 5,000 feet, May-November. 
I have not yet come across the sakontala form while the romulus form 
of the female seems to occur only in the Terai." By sakontala the 
author almost certainly means the male-like cyrus female form, P. 
sakontala being similar to the male polytes. 

Masuri and neighbouring Regions. Philip W. Mackinnon^ and 
Lionel de Niceville. (Vol. XI, 1897-98, p. 593). 

" 258. Papilio {Laertias) polytes, L. Very common in the low 
valleys near Mussoorie from April to October and in the Dun almost 
throughout the year. The females are of three forms." 

Sikkim. Lord Rothschild. {Novitates Zoologicce, Vol. II, 1895. 
p. 347). 

Refers to " Two speciments (of the romulus f.) in the Moller collection 
from Sikkim, one of which has the white of the forewings much less 
(conspicuously marked and comes in the colour of these wings indeed 
close to certain specimens of female f. polytes ; in the same example 
the red spot in the cell of the hind-wings is tinged with orange." 

Darjiling District. C. M. Inglis (in a letter of 1st November 1920 
to Prof. Poulton). 


In the Darjiling district at Kiang, elevation 2,000 feet, the following 
were taken by Mr. Shaw and seen and noted down by Mr. C. M. Inglis : 
males 5 ; cyrus female 1 ; polytes female 2 ; romulus-iemale 1. Also at, 
Mangpu, 3,860 feet : — males 2 ; cyrvs 1 ; polytes 1. 

Naga Hills. Major H. C. Tytler. (Vol. XXI, 1911, p. 589). 

" 205. Papilio polytes, L. Common at the foot of the hills through- 
out the year and a few at 4,000 feet in July and August ; the female 
form Gyrus Fabr., is decidedly rare." 

" 194. P. aristolochicB, Fabr. A few specimens taken at the foot 
of the hills in July and August and December." 

Chin-Lushai expedition, 1889-90. E. Y. Watson. (Vol. VI, 1891, 
p. 53). 

Papilio jwlytes, L. Pank, September ; Pokoko, October ; Pank to 
Tilin, November ; Tilin, December to May. 

North Chin Hills and Upper Chindwin District. E. Y. Watson. 
(Vol. X, 1895-97, p. 672). 

243. Papilio (Laertias) polytes, L, Common, but not noticed above 
3,500 feet. 

Tharrawaddy and the Pegu Yoma. E. V. Ellis. (Vol. XXV, 1917, 
p. 111). 

" 118. P. polytes romulus, Cr. Common, but I have only found 
the polytes form of female as yet. 

" 112. P. aristolochicB, Fabr. The v&ce goniopettis, Roth., is common 
every where, and it is the commonest Papilio of the district." P. 
aristolochicc goniopettis, Rothsch., is the geographical race inhabiting 
Burma, Tenavsserim and Siam northward to Hong Kong {Nov. Zool. 
XV, 1908, p. 167). 

Tavoy. 0. C. Ollenbach (in a letter of September 1919, to Prof. 

" Last February I visited Tavoy in Burma and while collecting 
for a few days I saw plenty of P. polytes, but no example of the romulus 

This last observation was confirmed on 10th March 1920, when 
Mr. Ollenbach wrote, on his return from a collecting tour in the Tavoy 
district, " I took note of P. polytes and found only two kinds of female, 
the male-like and the polytes forms ; romulus was not seen." 

Amoy. L. de Niceville. (Vol. XIII, 1900-01, p. 703). 

" Of Insects, the butterflies were represented by one forlorn P. 
folytes, L., a damaged P. clytia, " 



(Plate XLVI). 

Btj T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

All the species, of which we have at least ten in India, of the genus 
Gynacantha are evening-flying dragonflies, appearing on the wing about 
sunset and hawking swiftly until dark, but resting by day in shady 
places. There seems to be nothing on record regarding their early stages 
and it is therefore satisfactory to discover some information in the case 
of one species, especially as its habits seem decidedly abnormal for a 

Whilst at Margherita, in Assam, in May 1920, I noticed several speci- 
mens of Gynacantha hainbriggei on the wing at sunset, hovering close over 
the ground at the foot of a Lantana bush which was growing alongside 
a small culvert passing under a road which crossed a small nala through 
a Tea Estate. My first impression was that this hole was a resting 
place in which they took shelter during the daytime ; so I examined 
it in the morning, expecting to disturb some Gynacantha out of it, but 
it proved to be empty. Examination of the hole showed that above 
its entrance was a vertical bank of clayey soil, at most slightly moist, 
and on this bank grew a thick Lantana bush, whilst the entrance of 
the culvert was hidden by long weeds and grass until I cleared these 
away and revealed the entrance. On returning to the place the same 
evening, about three-quarters of an hour before sunset and after having 
seen Gynacantha on the wing, I disturbed from the hole two specimens, 
both of which appeared to be females. Later, watching by the hole, 
I saw severi^l females enter the gap in the weeds and settle on the vertical 
bank of eatth, when they felt the earth all around with the tips of their 
abdomens, evidently ovipositing in the earth. Sometimes, when a 
female was thus engaged, another specimen, presumably a male, would 
be dashing backwards and forwards in front of the gap, as if waiting for 
the female to emerge. In one case I watched a female change her 
position on the bank four times, each time feeling and thrusting with 
her abdomen. On this evening (18th May) I caught four females actually 
engaged in ovipositing in this small patch of soil, besides two other 

* Note. — At the time of reading this paper, the species referred to was ascribed to 
Q. hyalina and it is so called on Plate XLVI. Major Fraser, however, has since re- 
determined the insect as G. bainhriggei. — T.B.P. 

( 270 ) 

Page 270 



Fig. \.—a, lateral and h, terminal view of anal segments of adult female, and r, more highly 

magnified view of digging implement. 

Fig. l.—a, newly-hatched larva, magnified ; h, mask, and 
c, anal segments, more highly magnified. 

Gyncicantiha bainbriggei. 

Proceedings of the fourth entomological meeting 271 

females and three males which were flying round, and could have caught 
more, but was interested in observing this curious habit of oviposition. 

The next morning I returned to the place and removed some of 
the soil from the bank where the females were seen ovipositing. On 
examination of a small sample four eggs were found, but it was impossible 
to determine how they had been laid, as the earth broke up in removing 
it. The eggs sank when placed in water. The rest of the earth was 
placed in water and by the same evening a young larva was found to 
have hatched out. 

It should be added that there was no water in this culvert and there 
can only be water here when it rains, and the nearest standing water 
was distant over one hundred yards. 

From the strong spine of the female ovipositor one would have 
expected the eggs to have been thrust inside the stems of plants, but 
the spine is a digging implement in this case and it is noticeable that 
it is generally found broken in the case of females caught on the wing. 

Dr. N. Annandale has informed me that he found another iEshnine 
dragonfly {Aeshna ornithocephala, MacLacb.) ovipositing in earth at the 
edge of a lake in the Darjiling District. In the case of the Australian 
Petalura gigantea also, Tillyard has described the female as ovipositing 
when settled on or near the ground at the edge of a mass of decaying 
vegetable mud in which the larva is found to make regular tunnels. 
In the case of Gynacantha it is probable that the eggs are hatched by 
the first rain (it will be noted that the larva emerged after a few hours 
when the egg was placed in water) and the young larvae washed down 
into the nearest permanent accumulation of water. 

This was a most interesting find, a dragon-fly laying eggs in dry Mr. Fletcher, 
earth. They usually lay in water or in water plants. 

In the case of the dragon-fly referred to by Mr. Fletcher as mentioned Dr. Gravely, 
to him by Dr. Annandale as ovipositing in earth in the Darjiling district, 
there was a marked difference in habit, which may have been accidental. 
The lake in question is a permanent, fairly deep one, and the larvae 
when hatched could crawl down into the lake. The earth where the 
eggs were laid was quite moist. This dragon-fly is a day-flier and was 
noticed in the morning, but belongs to the same group as Mr. Fletcher's 


(Plate XLVII). 
By P. G. Patel. 

The Ceratopogoninse are, except the sand flies (Phlebotomus), the 
smallest of all blood-sucking Diptera. From the latter they can be 
readily distinguished by their habit of carrying the wings flat on the 
abdomen, whereas Phlebotomus rests with the wings characteristically 
raised. Further, on being disturbed, Phlebotomus indulges only in short 
flights, whereas Ceratopogoninse take to wing in the usual fashion. 

Several genera of Ceratopogoninse are known from India. Of these 
Culicoides and Ceratopogon (to a lesser extent) are the most important 
as regards their attacks on vertebrates. Such flies are known in the 
vernacular as " Machhri " (Bombay) and " Eutki " (Assam and Bengal). 

To the naked eye the flies of these genera appear as minute black 
or brown coloured insects which on closer observation with the help 
of a lens are seen to have a pair of slender long antennse, biting proboscis 
projected vertically and with palpi as long as the proboscis. The wings 
in repose are seen well projected beyond the tip of the body and folded 
one above the other like a pair of scissors. Wings are often clad with 
minute hairs or spotted with brown or yellowish markings. 

Culicoides and Cemtopogon are so similar in appearance that it is 
often very difficult to distinguish them. Noticeable points of difference 
between the flies of these two genera are as follows : — 

(1) In Culicoides the legs are sharply accuminate and in Ceratapo- 

gon they are comparatively thicker. 

(2) The antennae also afford a good clue in certain cases. As a 

rule antennse in Ceratopogon are comparatively shorter and 
the first seven or eight antennal joints are globular while 
in some cases of Culicoides seen by me the antennae are 
comparatively more slender and longer and the first seven 
or eight joints are sub -globular or oblong, specially in females. 

(3) Meta-tarsal joints are often equal or shorter than the second 

tarsal joint in Ceratopogon, while in Culicoides they are 
always longer than the second joint. 
Apart from these external features flies of both these genera have 
their own breeding and biting habits. All the known species of Culi^ 

( 272 ) 


Coides as a rule derive their maintenance from the warm-blooded animals 
including man, whereas flies belonging to Cerafo^yogon, so far as is 
known, prefer to bite cold-blooded animals such as caterpillars, snails, 
earthworms, spiders, lizard?, etc. The breeding habits of Ceratopogon 
are rather complex owing to their choice for oviposition of a variety 
of situations such as kitchen refuse, various sorts of fungus growth, alo-ai 
growths, under fallen damp leaves, bark of trees, rotten fruits, etc. 

A number of Ceratopogon species are purely terrestrial, i.e., thev- 
breed in moist earth, while a few are purely aquatic, and breed both 
in running and preferably in still water. So far all the species of Culi- 
coides known to me have been found to breed in water only. 

The terrestrial larvae of Ceratopogon are characterised by bein» 
sparsely covered with strong spines all over the body. In some cases 
each of these spines is again broken up into minute hair-like processes 
like those of Phlebotomus. In general appearance they look like a 
small caterpillar with a pair of legs on the ventral surface of prothorax 
and a pair at the anal segment. 

The aquatic or semi-aquatic larvse of Ceratopogon are legless, serpent- 
like in appearance and have a close resemblance to the larvse of Culi- 
coides. All the known species of Culicoides larvae have a characteristic 
rapid vibratile motion while those of aquatic Ceratopogon larv^ are 
un-alert and very sluggish in their movement. 

I will now give a short account of the life-history of one species of 
Culicoides. About a dozen species of Culicoides have been recorded 
from India up to now, of which the life-history of only one species is 
partly known. There is great difficulty in the identification of these 
minute flies for want of any reference regarding their bionomics in 
India and this paper is intended to throw some light on the early stages 
of one of the species, Culicoides oxy stoma, Kiefl., which is somewhat 
bigger than other known species of the genus. 

Broadly speaking, Culicoides oxystoma^ looks dark-coloured from a 
distance, but under high power the thorax, antenna, and legs are seen 
to be brownish yellow. The extremity of the femora, tibige and tarsi 
lighter. Antennae fourteen- jointed with oblong joints, the last five 
being elongated and cylindrical. Wings with microscopic punctuations, 
with very minute hairs at the apex of the wing. The surface of the wing 
tinged with dark colour with several light yellowish spots which are 
without punctuations. Abdomen dark grey with faint spots. 

Oviposition under natural conditions has not yet been observed 
but the females can be induced to oviposit in confinement very easily. 
The gorged females, which can be met with not far from the host, if 
kept in a dry tube with a piece of dry blotting paper from 50 to' 60 


hours and then supplied with a small piece of moist blotting paper 
will be found (at least in about 50 per cent, of cases) to lay eggs readily 
in confinement within two to three days after the introduction of mois- 
ture. After oviposition females do not seem to have suffered very 
much if care is taken in supplying the requisite amount of moisture. 
Excess of moisture causes the fly to stick to the tube. After oviposi- 
tion the female looks quite healthy and if allowed to bite will do so 
readily, so much so, that in certain cases they have been observed to 
bite twice within an hour. Eggs can be hatched quite easily in the tube 
they are laid in provided it is kept wet. The eggs are capable of tolera- 
ting any amount of moisture, even submergence, but they are unable 
to survive in the absence of moisture. Eggs of oxystoma and other 
species including C. kiefferi* are elongate, cylindrical, and sometimes 
a little curved. The amount of curvature varies and at times examples 
of straight ones are also met with. Each egg very slightly tapers towards 
both the ends. The anterior end is marked with micropylar cap. When 
freshly laid the egg is white in colour, but it soon begins to change to 
dark brown. The chorion is smooth and exhibits no sign of sculpturing. 
The egg of C. oxif stoma is characteristic in appearance, being surrounded 
by a fringe of very minute curled scale-like spines, the function of which 
is not yet understood but perhaps it may be of the nature of floats as 
in Anopheline eggs. In confinement eggs are generally laid in several 
batches, each batch consisting of 7 to 10 eggs which are arranged regularly 
in a line. The number of eggs laid by a single female varies according 
to the physique of the mother fly but a maximum number of 156 has" 
been counted. A single egg measures | mm. in length and one-twelfth 
mm. in breadth. The incubation period is governed by the tempera- 
ture. LarvjB were obtained in the month of May in about three to 
four days from the date of deposition, while in November seven days 
were necessary for the eggs to hatch. The longest period recorded 
was eleven days between December and January 1918. 

The young larva comes out of the egg through a longitudinal aperture 
from the micropylar end ; after hatching the chorion does not collapse. 

The larva when empty of food is similar in its general appearance 
to a snake. It is 3| to 4 mm. or even a little more in length when adult, 
ochre white, translucent, smooth, with yellowish-brown head. The 
head, which is chitinous from the beginning, is provided with a number 
of small bristles. The body consists of 12 segments which are almost 
devoid of bristles or hairs when the larva is young, but the adult larva 
develops a series of small hairs on its lateral margins which are arranged 

* This species is now known as C. pattoni, Kieffer, {Bull. Soc. Ent. France 1921, 
p. 7) — Editor. 


CuHcoides oxystonia. 


in two pairs on each of the thoracic and one pair on each of the abdominal 
segments. These hairs are very minute and delicate but they differ 
in number in different species, and hence they serve as one of the points 
in distinguishing one species from another. The anal segment of the 
adult larva is the narrowest and longest and carries four pairs of small 
hairs on the lateral margin at its apex and two pairs on the dorsal surface. 
The young larva possesses a pair of very minute eye spots but the adult 
larva has two pairs. There is no trace of true stigmata ; the tracheal 
tubes originate from the apex of the caudal end to which four pairs 
of very thin blade-like papillae are attached. 

The number and shape of these papillae dift'er in different species 
of the genus. In the larva of one very small species two pairs of such 
papillae have been seen. The larvae in the young stage have a slow 
serpentine motion but as they grow bigger they assume a rapid vibratile 
motion. Patton has compared them to giant spirochaetes. They 
remain very often lying under their food material, especially when 
they are young, but in the advanced stage they are seen very often 
coming to the surface of the water and remain in recesses, exposing their 
heads out of water. 

The adult larva of C*. oxystoma develops two pairs of oval reddish 
spots on the metathorax, the pronotum also carries several very minute 
dot-Hke spots. The larva when about to pupate gets a little swollen in 
the thoracic region. It then anchors itself with the aid of its powerful 
mandibles and starts the operation of casting away the last larval skin. 
The larval period lasts from two to ten weeks according to weather. 

In laboratory experiments very often pupation takes place at the 
bottom of water but within a short period the pupa becomes buoyant 
and floats to the surface, A pupa which fails to float up always fails 
to emerge out also. The pupa is 2| mm. long, yellowish when freshly 
pupated, but turning darker as the development of the imago proceeds. 
The respiratory trumpets are club-shaped with a crenulated margin 
on one face. The stalks of the respiratory trumpets of C. oxystoma 
are not supplied with any protuberances, unlike those of the pupa of 
C. kiefferi and they are comparatively shorter. • Each abdominal segment 
is provided with a transverse row of very minute knob-like bristles which 
gradually get longer towards the apical segment. The pupa at its 
caudal end bears two prominent hooks which aid in anchoring and 
locomotion. Pupal period lasts from four to seven days according to 
climatic conditions. 

Flies of this genus occur throughout India. In Assam and Bengal 
some species of Culicoides are very common more or less throughout 
the year. In Assam the number of these flies noticed during July and 


August 1906 was so great as to greatly worry animals and man especially 
during the late evening hours. Their bite is not confined to any hour 
of the day or night but they are specially a nuisance during the evening 
hours. During the hot hours of the day they are generally seen attacking 
in shady places. They apparently feed on any mammals but seem 
to be specially fond of horses, bullocks, buffaloes and goats. Fowls 
as well as earthworms have been seen to be attacked by these flies in 
great numbers. Flies of many species of Culicoides are in the habit 
of drawing more blood than they can cope with. I have marked several 
species of Ctdicoides at Belgachia, Calcutta, alighting upon a bull which 
was tied in the open air during the evening hours in September, and 
entering straight into the hairs to suck blood. After taking their fill, 
which is generally accomplished within 3 to 10 minutes, they were 
observed to emerge from the hairs. Many of these flies had so much 
blood in their abdomen that each of them looked like a small droplet 
of blood. Several of these gluttonous flies after the meal were seen 
falling down in their attempt to fly. The bite of some species is very 
painful in certain cases and causes swelling or sometimes reddish marks 
with severe irritation lasting for some time. I give below my experi- 
ence in Assam about the bite of these flies. On alighting upon my 
body the fly was marked to insert the proboscis which caused a smart 
burning sensation. This after a while diminished, but a further burning 
sensation was again felt which might be due to deeper thrust or to the 
injection of salivary fluid. The irritation for the second time again 
decreased only to be followed by another smart sensation and at this 
point the fly stopped feeding. 

These flies do not break open the skin sufficiently to cause blood 
to ooze out from the puncture. C. oxystoma after its feed has usually 
been noticed to rest near the host on a wall or any other convenient 
object. They have been found in most of the cases to sit at the height 
of about four to six feet from the floor and have a marked preference 
for brownish or dirty brown colour over white. This species can readily 
be distinguished from its sister species by the fact that it habitually 
sits on the wall of the stable, especially after its meal, keeping the head 
and the proboscis well pressed upon the surface of the wall and directed" 
towards the earth. This peculiar attitude is so well maintained by 
the fly that it is often mistaken for a particle of dirt. The species in 
question has been found to breed in a drain of sluggish water connected 
with the stable drain. They breed thoughout the year but profusely 
during the hot and wet season of the year. Lately this species has been 
seen breeding in the algae growing in the overflow water near the well 
of a stable. 


At Pusa tliere are about half-a-dozen Culicoides species of which 
one has been found to breed in the river Gandak. The flies of this 
species are occasionally seen to inflict their bite upon man and animals. 
One species has been found breeding in the hollows of trees along with 
Stegomyia alhopicta, while C. patfoni and one other small species have 
been found to breed in the algae growing in water collected near the 
cattle shed or water impregnated with the saliva of cattle. They are 
absent in the algse grown in water situated near human habitations. 

In the compound of the Dak Bungalow there is a well and a small 
stable close to it. C. oxystoma, C. paltoni and other species have always 
been seen inside the stable so long as horses are kept there throughout 
the year, but none of these species was found to breed in the water 
near the well used by human beings and where no animal was ever 
watered. In my opinion the selection of hosts by these and several 
other blood-sucking insects is closely associated with the nature of 
materials in which they breed. It is a well known fact that certain 
mosquitos as well as both biting and non-biting muscids which breed 
in the dung of cattle are as a rule confined in their attack to cattle only. 
In the same way Sand Midges breeding in close association with cattle 
will presumably confine their attack to cattle only. At present we are 
in the dark as to the factors that determine the limits of selection of 
hosts in these flies but further work in connection with the relation 
between the larval and adult food will prove of immense value in solving 
the problem of control of these flies. 

The life-history of C. oxystoma may be briefly summarized as follows : — 

Egg stage from three to eleven days. 

Larval stage from two to ten weeks. 

Pupal stage from three to seven days. 

The length of life of the imago is uncertain, probably at least a month. 
They have been kept alive in confinement for about two weeks during 
which period the fly laid two batches of eggs and took five meals of 
blood. The newly emerged fly was found to survive in the ahsence 
of any food for 50 to 60 hours in hot weather and for a period of three 
to four days in the cold season. The period for digestion has been 
found to be the same ; the gorged females, if kept in a dry tube, with 
a piece of dry blotting paper, digesting their food content within two 
days in the hot season. On the third day if not supplied with a little 
moisture they invariably die. Oviposition also takes place after the 
lapse of another two days from the time of supply of moisture. The 
newly hatched fly will bite readily, but preferably on the second day 
of its birth. The fertilized female will bite every third day but unfer- 
tilized flies and flies after oviposition will bite once or twice in a day. 



Flies of the genus CvUcoides are found more or less in all parts of 
India. In Assam they are a regular pest both to human beings and 
animals, so much so that cultivators while working in the field have 
to tie a burning cowdung stick behind their backs to keep of! the flies. 
Although the bite of these flies has a most irritant effect the nature of 
the harm they may do is not yet known but it is quite possible that 
these flies may be a medium for the propagation of some disease or 
other, like most other blood-sucking Diptera. No investigations however 
seem to have been made which would tend to incriminate these flies. 
The power which these flies enjoy of sucking blood from various sorts 
of hosts, and the fact that they suck blood more than four times during 
their life, and the overwhelming number in which they are found in some 
parts under certain climatic conditions are sufficient reasons to render 
their study of importance. 

This paper was submitted to the Indian Science Congress, Bombay, 
by the late Mr. F. M. Howlett, on my behalf, but as it has not yet seen 
the light in its complete form, I beg to present it to the Meeting. 


(Plate XLVIII). 

By {the late) F. M. Howlett, B.A., F.E.S., Imjierial Pathological Ento- 

In his great work on '' British Flies," Verrall has the following note 
on Platypezidw (Vol. Syrphidse, p. 677, 1901). " Colonel Yerbury has 
informed me that the males of the genus Platypeza hover in dull weather, 
but sit (or to some extent run) about on leaves during sunshine, and 
that as a rule they prefer large leaves." 

Williston (N. American Diptera, 3rd edition, 1908, p. 242) remarks 
'' The flies of this small family have been seen dancing in the air in 
small swarms, or running about on the leaves of underbush." In 1909 
I wrote that Platypezidce " may sometimes be seen running on broad 
leaves under trees, travelling round and round in little circles, and 
expending a vast amount of energy without any obvious purpose or 
perceptible result." 

This habit of running on broad leaves is indeed extremely charac- 
teristic of the family, or at least of such species as I have encountered 
in this country. The peculiarity of the movement is the extreme 
rapidity with which it is usually executed, and which seems unnecessary 
in a mere reconnaissance or search for food. Moreover it is generally 
confined to a comparatively small area, and seems unconnected with 

The description given above, of their running " in little circles," 
is in the case of the species here mentioned not quite correct, as its 
course is more often a long ellipse or a nearly straight to-and-fro path, 
while sometimes it consists of a series of darts in varying directions 
across a central space of more or less fixed extent. The area covered 
by these rapidly alternating movements may be about three or four 
inches square, or may be only about one square inch, according to the 
degree to which the insect is disturbed. It seems to take to flight only 
as a last resource. 

In the field this curious habit is so constantly displayed as to afford 
on most occasions an easy means of " spotting " a Platypezid at sight, 

( 279 ) 



whereas if it remained at rest it could not be distinguished at a little 
distance from many small Muscoids. The habit seemed to me so defi- 
nite, although so apparently purposeless, that it was hardly to be ex- 
plained as a mere exhibition of uncontrollable restlessness. 

A fly of this genus (almost certainly PZa^7/;pe2;a argyrogyna, de Meij.) 
was seen sitting on the broad leaves of a creeper in my compound on 
the 12th of August 1913. It happened to catch my attention while 
I was four or five yards away, and it was then quite motionless. I 
approached to within a few feet, when it suddenly began its darting 
and circling motions. On my retiring again to a distance of five yards, 
the movements ceased, but at once began again when I approached 
to within a few feet. This advance and retirement was repeated several 
times, and always with exactly the same result. The movements began 
whenever I got within a certain distance, this distance being smaller 
the more cautious and gradual the advance. 

It seemed evident that the movements were executed in response 
to the sight of objects moving in the neighbourhood, and moreover 
that they followed the stimulus with remarkable regularity. The idea 
occurred to me that by making a series of trials at varying distances 
we might obtain some idea of the range and acuteness of vision in 
this particular fly. I procured a piece of white paper four inches 
square, and a roughly circular palm-leaf fan 12 inches in diameter and 
coloured red and blue with large gilt spots ; for the longer distance 
I employed my own body (in white clothes) as the moving object, against 
a back ground of grass and trees. These objects were shifted for varying 
distances across the line of sight of the fly, the minimum shift required 
to make the fly move being noted for each distance. Not less than 
five trials were made at each distance, and in the case of Fly A it is not 
unlikely that fatigue or a growing indifference may have decreased 
its sensitiveness in the latter trials ; it will be noticed that in these it 
appears to require a stronger stimulation than Fly B, which was tested 
five days later, the short distance trials being in this case omitted. 
Another possible cause of the greater alertness of fly B is that it was 
tested at 9-15 a.m., whereas fly A's tests began at 11 a.m. and continued 
for more than an hour in the heat of the day, a time when many insects 
and animals are more or less inactive. 

Apart from this individual difference the results as shown on the 
curve (Plate XLVIII) seem on the whole very regular, and in carrying 
out the tests this impression of regularity was particularly strong. 
There seemed for each distance and each object to be a definite 
minimum amount of movement which had to be exceeded in order to 
make the fly dodge. 

Page 280 




Page 280 


II a 'i it^ «s i<> '7 



The record of the experiment is as follows : — 


from fly. 



5' . 

7' . 

n' . 


6' . 

9' . 

14' . 

17' . 


Paper 4" sq. . . 
Fan 12" diara. 
Fawn hat 15" diam. 

Paper . . . 



Minimum shift 




6" (once). 
Generally 8—10" 

12* once ; generally 

less than 2i' . 





More than 13' 


Turning the fan from 
edgeways to broadside 
on was always effective. 

Turning was once effect. 


I moved by stepping side- 
ways as abruptly as 
possible ; in the longer 
distances by springing 
quickly from one point 
to another. 

The hand moved quickly 
through r produced no 

Waving the arms was in- 
effective ; bandishing a 
short-handled net in- 

Rapidly leaping and run- 
ning across the 13' was 
ineffective. Trees pre- 
vented a longer run. 

The accompanying diagram gives the various distances plotted. 

An experiment conducted in this rough-and-ready way cannot be 
expected to give very accurate numerical data regarding the power of 
vision in the flies, but in view of the degree of concordance of the results 
and the care with which they were obtained we may take it that the 
general form of the curve is in all probability fairly correct. 


A noticeable point is the individual difference between the two flies ; 
it is possible that they were of different sexes, but the sex was unfor- 
tunately not noted in either case. The general range of vision of Fly 
A seems to be not more than about frds of that of Fly B. 

The fact that the brownish-fawn (" puttoo ") hat had to be moved 
6-10 inches, while a piece of white paper j^th its area had to be moved 
only 4-6 inches indicates that contrast as well as size is probably a 
factor. The hat was not conspicuous against the background of trees, 
tree-trunks and grass ; the white paper and the fan showed up in fairly 
strong relief, the paper being the brighter. The comparison of the 
three was carefully repeated several times, and on each occasion the 
hat was the least disturbing, although larger than either of the others. 
It is conceivable that a considerable amount of information as to the 
colour-sense of the insects might be obtained by more elaborate experi- 
ments with pure colours and controlled contrasts. 

In the case of our own perception of motion the main consideration 
seems to be the plane angle subtended at two points representing the 
eye by the initial and final positions of the moving body, the size of 
the body itself having comparatively little influence. In other words, 
an elephant moving its body a foot forward would produce no greater 
impression of movement {i.e., would not arrest our attention to a greater 
degree) than a dog moving the same distance at the same pace. The 
amount of lateral shift of an easily-seen object which would be necessary 
to attract our attention to any given degree would then be directly 
proportional to its distance from the eye, and within limits would be 
practically independent of the size of the moving object. My knowledge 
of human psychology and physiology is insufficient to enable me to say 
that this is a correct statement of the facts in the case of the human 
being, but if it be so, then we have in the case of the fly a very different 
state of affairs, as will be evident from an inspection of the curves in 
the diagram. 

As my body was used as the moving object in all the trials with 
Fly B, the numbers shown in curve B are more directly comparable 
than those obtained with Fly A. Taking curve B, it will be seen that 
the degree of lateral movement necessary increases rapidly with increas- 
ing distance, and is by no means directly proportional to it as is (pre- 
sumed to be) the case in human beings. 

On the other hand, it appears that the results harmonize fairly 
well with the assumption that the amount of lateral motion of the 
moving body, which is necessary to induce movement in the fly, is pro- 
portional to the square of the distance. That is to say, the disturbing 
or attention-arresting perception of motion is proportional to the area 


covered by tlie body in its movement, and not merely to the distance 
between its initial and final positions. 

Now according to the mosaic theory of insect-vision originally 
advanced by MuUer, each facet of the fly's eye commands a certain 
definite area of the field of view, and by the juxtaposition of these 
elements a composite image is built up, as we might piece together a 
mosaic out of little bricks. Exner has shown, however, that in many 
cases a certain amount of superposition of image-elements also occurs, 
in the sense that light from a single point may be registered by more 
than a single facet, and that while this will tend to decrease the accuracy 
with which forms are perceived it will enhance the acuteness of percep- 
tion of motion, since motion of a single point will effect more than a 
single facet. I am unable to refer to Exner's classic work on this subject, 
or to treat the present example in anything but crude fashion. How- 
ever, the data given may perhaps furnish a basis for a more accurate 

Taking the radius of curvature of the eye as 5 mm., and the dia- 
meter of a single facet as -04 nun., then, multiplying together the number 
of facets covered in a vertical direction by the height of the object, and 
the number covered horizontally by the lateral movement of the object, 
we get the following figures as to facets afiected : — 

6 2x12-1- —25 

9 4x8 —32 

U 7x51 —36 

17 9|x4i —40 

Now if the disturbing effect of the moving object were exactly pro- 
portional to the square of the distance, there would be identical numbers 
of facets {i.e., areas), and we could say that there was a constant minimum 
stimulus (the excitation of a certain number of facets) which would 
make a fly dodge. It is evident that they are not identical, and the 
discrepancy is beyond the probable limits of error. 

These numbers when pFotted give an indication that the minimum 
number of facets to be stimulated at close range in order to make the 
fly dodge might be expected to be about 16, and that the formula N = 
(16-|-1*5 D), where D is distance in feet, will give us the approximate 
number of facets to be stimulated for various distances. 

Assuming this formula to hold, a man 6 feet high at a distance of 
30 feet would have to move rapidly over a sufficient distance to stimu- 
late 61 facets. His height of 6 feet subtends an angle embracing 2^- 
facets, so that his lateral movement must cover 24 facets (24x2|=60), 
or approximately 1 mm. (0-04x24) on the surface of the eye. To do 
this it would be necessary for him to move a distance of about 20 yards 


at a considerable speed. This amount of movement of so large an 
object would rarely be met with under ordinary conditions but although 
the numerical relations here suggested obviously require verification, 
the paragraph has been included because it may give us a rough idea 
of the actual powers of vision in this particular fly. It is reasonable 
to suppose that the minimum movement perceptible to the fly is at 
least considerably less than the minimum which is sufficient to make 
it dodge. If we are justified in taking the latter as equivalent to the 
stmiulation of 16 facets, let us say as motion perceived across a patch 
of eye 4 facets square, it seems not unlikely that the fly might be able 
to perceive motion which involved only two facets. 

In the upper quadrant of the circle there are approximately 30 
facets. Each facet thus covers about 3° of arc. In the lower quadrant 
the facets are smaller and more numerous, and each one commands 
about 2° of arc. In the above calculations it has been assumed that 
we are dealing only with the upper and larger facets. 

If the fly sees things as a mosaic of which each element represents 
the amount of the visual field covered by a single facet (3°), then this 
mosaic would have the same definiteness as one composed of one-centi- 
metre blocks, when seen at a distance of eight inches. Put in another 
way, we could paint a picture representing what we may suppose the 
fly sees by fixing a glass, ruled in centimetre squares, at a distance of 
8 inches from the eye. Looking through each square in turn, and 
having a piece of centimetre-squared paper before us, we should cover 
each square. on the paper with a uniform patch of paint representing 
in tone and colour the average of all the tones and colours which we 
could see through that particular square of glass. 

Similarly the fly's vision of objects at a distance of two centimetres 
from its eye would show details as small as one milHmetre-square, while 
in objects at a distance of two millimetres it could distinguish details 
down to Yoth. of a millimetre in size. 

Our own eyes enable us to distinguish points separated by only 
2-Joth of an inch (|th mm.) at a distance of eight inches. This corres- 
ponds to an angular range of about J^^th of a degree, as compared with 
the fly's 2-3. The meaning of this curious and very characteristic 
habit is now, I think, made clear. The movements are executed only 
when the fly is disturbed by movement of some object in its vicinity, 
and are in all probability a defensive manoeuvre. It might at first 
sight appear somewhat improbable that these flies should adopt as a 
defensive measure a series of movements which can hardly make them 
less conspicuous than they would be if they remained motionless. To 
our eyes, indeed, they are more conspicuous when moving than when 


at rest, but the objection is nevertheless only an apparent one, since 
the extreme rapidity of the movements must make the capture of the 
fly a matter of very considerable difficulty for any foe. When the 
insect is on the wing it looks as though it would offer a distinctly easier 
mark than when it is darting back and forth upon a leaf. 

These curious habits are not altogether isolated. We find a type 
of motion among Phoridce not dissimilar from that of PlaUj^pezidce, though 
less definite. Among Tipulids, Dicranomyia saltans, Dol., common 
at Calcutta and recognisable by its snow-white tarsi, waves its body 
gently up and down as though it were being swayed by a current of 
air. A gentle up-and-down motion in walking, a sort of " rolling " 
gait, is very often seen in predaceous Rhynchota and Orthoptera, parti- 
cularly in the slender-legged Emesidse and in the Mantidae. The move- 
ments are generally slow and smooth, not jerky or abrupt, and the 
effect of them is very un-insectlike. It is probable that the impression 
of inanimateness, which this sort of motion certainly gives us, is also 
of value to the insect in enabling it to approach its prey. In the case 
of Emesidse the likeness of some species of these predaceous Rhynchota 
to small Tipulidge is very distinct, particularly in the field, and it is 
interesting to find tendencies to a similar type of motion in both groups. 
The case might possibly be regarded as one of convergence, but certainly 
not of mimicry, unless we are prepared to assume that the insects preyed 
upon by Emesidae mistake them for the Tipulidfe which they know to 
be harmless. Emesids are considerably less abundant than Tipulids. 

The device of securing a degree of invisibility by means of rapid 
motion is familiar in those spiders which when alarmed cause their 
webs and bodies to quiver so rapidly that we only perceive the insect 
as a sort of blurred spot in the middle of the web. I cannot recall any 
other example of this vibratory type of movement being described as 
a defensive measure, and it may therefore be of interest to mention 
the case of two Tipulidse which I noticed in July of this year (1913). 
These show two varieties of movement which are in my opinion to be 
interpreted as defensive. As in the case of the Platypezid, these move- 
ments were exhibited apparently in response to the movement of com- 
paratively large objects in the insect's vicinity, but no definite measure- 
ments were made. I simply noted that when I remained motionless 
at some little distance, the insects sat still, whereas when I got near 
them or after approaching with caution, waved my hand a foot or two 
away from them, they began their movements, generally quieting down 
again within two or three minutes after I had again retired to a little 
distance. The movements differed curiously in the two species. In 
the first one observed (both were sitting on a tree-trunk), it consisted 


of a rapid up-and-down motion of the body, a sort of tetanic vibration. 
This was so rapid that the insect when viewed sideways was difficult 
to see at all, the tarsi being the only parts which could be definitely 
located. On the other hand when it was viewed directly from above 
the degree of concealment was small, merely a slight blurring of the 
outline of the body and femoral portions of the legs. It is probable 
that the fly is thus well concealed from enemies approaching on its 
own level ; those walking on the tree-trunk on which it sits, for example. 
An enemy such as a bird approaching from directly above the insect 
will probably not be misled to any great extent, however, and in this 
respect the device is incomplete. 

About a week later it was my good fortune to see the second Tipulid, 
and in this the defect just mentioned was remedied in a very simple 
and effective way. The body was not moved vertically up and down, 
but with a circular motion in a plane at right angles to its long axis 
so that a line from head to tail traced out a cylinder in the air. This 
rotary movement obscures the outline and position of the body when 
seen at any angle. The direction of rotation seemed not always to be 
the same, but of this I was not certain as the motion is confusing. As 
in the former case the fly started its rotation when disturbed. When 
more disturbed, both of them resorted to flight. It seems to me that 
these movements and those of web-shaking spiders are in the same 
category, both consisting of a vibration of the body in the middle of an 
elastic frame-work supplied in the one case by the web and in the other 
by the long thin legs. For a short-legged fly such as the Platypezid 
the amplitude of the body- vibrations obtainable by this method would 
be so small as to be quite useless for effective obliteration or the confu- 
sion of enemies, and the rapidly-alternating translatory motion of the 
whole insect (quite distinct from " running away " in the ordinary 
sense) may be regarded as another means of attaining a similar end. 

Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. White. 
Dr. Gravely. 

Mr. V/liite. 

You see the same swaying movements in Gongylus and other pre- 
daceous animals. 

I do not know what the food of Platypezid imagines may be, but I 
do not think they are predaceous. 

In the case of Phalangid spiders and Tipulida) the vibratory move- 
ment renders the animal more difficult to see. Do you think that this 
is so in this case ? 

Mr. Howlett thought the motion was protective, rendering their 
capture more difficult than when at rest or on the wing. 


(Plate XLIX) 

By G. R. DuTT, B.A., Personal Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 

Gracillaria soyella, van Dev., occurs every year at Pusa and is usually 
found in Tur {Cajanus indicus) fields from November to March-April. 
The caterpillar rolls up the apical extremity of Tur leaves in the way 
shown on the plate and lives within the fold, eating the epidermis from 
inside. In the worst cases of damage the folded portion of the leaf 
is skeletonized and consequently dries up. The injury therefore 
is to a portion of the leaf only. Caterpillars of the family Gracillariadee 
are generally leaf-miners, but the caterpillars of this species behave as 
leaf-folders. A nearly full grown larva measures 5 mm. long by 1 mm. 
broad ; more or less cylindrical, very slightly narrowed towards the tail 
end. The segments into which the whole body is divided are quite 
distinct, and are 13 in number including the head. The whole body 
bears sparse erect hairs of dirty white colour, the general colour of the 
whole body being creamy yellow, but some of the caterpillars appear 
green when seen from above, on account of the green food present in 
the alimentary canal being visible through the transparent integu- 
ment. The head is bilobed, of a slightly deeper tint than the rest of 
the body. There are about six raised black circular marks or dots, a 
little behind the base of the mandibles on each side ; they are distri- 
buted into two lots, i.e., four in one lot touching each other, and two in 
the other. The head including mandibles is longer than broad. The 
body is furnished with 3 pairs of suckerfeet excluding the anal pair 
of claspers. The spiracles are too minute to be seen under an ordinary 
low power hand lens. The extreme tail-end has a brownish spot on 

Pupation takes place inside the leaf-fold. The pupa measures a 
little over 5 mm. long and 1 mm. broad across the thoracic region. 
It is cylindrical and tapers towards the tail-end. There are nine dorsal 
and five ventral segments exposed to view. Each segment bears two 
transverse rows of spiny hairs ; those of the anterior row are stouter 
than those of the posterior one. The tail-end is furnished with four 
processes which remain entangled in the silk fibres spun by the full 

( 287 ) 


grown larva, and thus keep the pupa inside the leaf -fold. The pupal 
stage lasts for about 8 to 9 days. 

Pupated 24-i-14 26-i-14 14-ii-15 

Emerged l'ii-14 3-ii-14 21-ii-15 

The spread of Gracillaria soyella, van Dev., in Tur fields, is controlled 
by a small Chalcidid parasite, Asympiesiella india, Girault, which is a 
tiny insect, measuring only 2 to 4 mm. in length and with a beautifully 
metallic green body. The male of this species is quite distinct from 
the female and can be easily distinguished by its flabellate antennae 
and short abdomen (Figs. 5 and 6). The abdomen of the female is very 
long and slender, tapering almost to a point, and the antennae simple 
(Fig. 4). 

The caterpillar of Gracillaria soyella secures itself completely inside 
the fold of a Tur leaf. The folded part is very well " glued " from 
all sides by means of the salivary threads (fig. 1) but the sharp, long, 
and thin abdomen of the female parasite finds an easy entrance into 
the fold. The caterpillar is felt by moving the tip of the abdomen 
inside the fold, and when got at is stung to death ; all the parasitized 
caterpillars have invariably been found lifeless. 

The egg has never been found on the body of the caterpillar, but 
on four different occasions it was discovered in the delicate silk webbing 
spun by the caterpillar while cementing together the folds of a leaf 
(Fig. 1). And out of these four occasions only once I succeeded in 
rearing the egg to the adult stage. 

The larva is a voracious feeder, and is always found on the back 
of the host caterpillar feeding from outside (Fig. 2). Within two days 
after hatching it consumes the whole of the caterpillar, leaving nothing 
but the integument, and attains its full size. On the fourth day the 
excreta are discharged and the larva becomes quiescent. A little 
diminution in size occurs, and on the following day the larval skin is 
cast off, exposing the pupa (fig. 3). The pupa lies naked in the fold 
{i.e., the larva does not spin any cocoon) ; the tail-end remains attached 
to the leaf. 

On the seventh day after pupation the adult parasite emerges, 
cutting a hole in the leaf fold. From the egg to imago, it takes about 
13 days or two weeks, in January and February. 

A freshly-hatched larva is almost colourless and measures 0-68 
mm. long and 0-16 mm. broad. The head is the broadest part of the 
body ; the segments are quite distinct and the body laterally faintly 
indented. Two days' old larvae were measured and were found to 


Page 288 




vary in size considerably. The dimensions in millimetres are given 
below : — 

Length . , . 2-76 2-105 1-841 1-40 1-315 

Breadth ... '66 -605 -605 -45 -526 

The bigger larvae in two cases were reared to female adults and 
one smaller larva to a male adult. Of the rest no record was kept. 
There is generally some difference in size of males and females 
of the same species and conseqiiently in their respective larvae also ; 
but amongst the Hymenoptera sometimes the individuals of the same 
sex are also noticed to vary in size. This has been ascertained to depend 
on the amount of the nourishment received during the larval stage. 
In the case of this species one female pupa was found to measure 1*84 
mm. long and 0-21 mm. broad, while the normal size of a female pupa 
is 4 mm. by 1 mm. 

A full grown larva which had passed out excreta and entered on 
the quiescent stage before pupating looked almost pale white, a very 
slight yellowish tinge appearing on the central segment only. A pair 
of tubercular processes on the forehead, each ending in a point, probably 
represent the antennae. The body tapers both ways, but the head 
end is broader than the tail end. The segments of the body become 
quite indistinct. 

A female pupa is 4 mm. long by 1 mm. broad. The head and thorax 
together are only about two-thirds as long as the abdomen. The 
abdominal segments are not very distinctly marked, and the whole of 
the abdomen tapers regularly towards the tail end almost to a point. 
The antennae, mouthparts, and legs are all folded symmetrically on 
the ventral side. The head is not so broad as the thorax which is the 
widest portion : the thoracic segments are distinct dorsally. 

The male pupa is much smaller than the female pupa ; its length is 
2'5 mm. only. The abdomen is longer than the head and thorax to- 
gether but not so long as in the case of the female pupa ; the rest similar. 

Nearly six hours after pupation the head, thorax, and the wing 
pads of the pupa become fuscous, and the colour deepens from day to 
day. On the fourth day the sutures bounding the mesonotum and the 
scutellum become quite distinct. The whole of the mesonotum turns 
black leaving only a longitudinal whitish line along the middle. On 
the fifth day the whole pupa is black and on the sixth day a greenish 
metallic tinge is also observable pervading the entire pupa. On the 
seventh day the thin pellicle covering the pupa is cast off and the adult 
parasite emerges. The empty pupal skin, which is left behind in the 
leaf fold, is of a dirty black colour. 



One year on five different occasions and in different fields actual 
countings were made to ascertain the extent of parasitization. The 
following Table shows the results obtained :— r 

No. of 

No. of FOLDS 












30th January 









3r(I February 









9th February 









13th February 









19th February 









Now a word about the systematic position of this Chalcidid. Asym- 
piesiella india, was described by Girault in the Canadian Entomologist, 
Vol. XLVIII (1916) p. 341, from material sent from Pusa in 1912 and 
again in 1916 to Dr. L. 0. Howard. The genus Asympiesiella was 
created by Girault in 1913 for the reception of Sympiesis nelsonensis, 
(vide Trans. R. Sac. South Australia, Vol. 37 (1913) p. 78). According 
to Schmiedeknecht, the genus Sympiesis, Forst, belongs to the Subtribe 
Eulophina, Tribe Eulophini, Sub-family Eulophinw of the Family 

Regarding Asympiesiella india, Girault says that this Indian species 
differs from the North American Sympiesis dolicJiogaster, Ashmead, 
most notably in having the medium carina of the propodeum but half 
complete, and the scape less coloured. The species are congeneric. 
The validity of AsTjmpiesiella must be left for later treatment. 



B2J P. SusATNATHAN, F.E.S., Assistant in Entomologij, Coimbaiore, end 
C. V. SuNDARAM, Sub-Assistant in Entomology, Coimbatore. 

On the 27th of November 1920 a few eggs of this moth were brought 
in casually with Cajanus leaves intended to feed nymphs of Clavigralla . 
In appearance it was round and measured 1-5 mm. in diameter ; slightly 
flattened on top and adpressed at bottom ; attached to edge of under- 
side of Cajanus leaf. Finely sculptured with a central transparent 

First Instar. 29th November 1920. The newly-hatched larva is 
about 4-5 mm. long and 0-75-1 mm. broad, with a shiny blackish-brown 
head and anal segment. The first pair of legs short, the second and 
third long, the second longer than the third terminating in minute 
hooks at the tarsal extremity. The general colour of larva brown. 
The anal claspers are reduced to tentacle-like appendages which are 
carried erect. These with the flattened terminal segment give one 
the idea of a diminutive cobra putting out its tongue. 

Second Instar. 1st December 1920. 5-6 mm. long. Head black. 
Colour of larva dark brown. Warts more acute and prominent in last 
instar. Flattened terminal segment hirsute. 

One of the caterpillars was found cut up — the abdominal portion 
completely disappeared— points to the possibility of cannibalistic 
habits. The remaining larvse kept separated. 

Third Instar. 6th December 1920. 8-9 mm. long. Head shiny 
black. Prothoracic shield globular, dark-brown and fringed with a 
row of fine setae at the posterior margin. Abdominal segment viewed 
dorsally light-brown splashed at intervals with dark brown and creamy 
white. Terminal segment brownish black, carried erect. Larva more 
defiant in attitude ; carries the head bent sideways with a backward 
curve and at an angle to the rest of the body. 

Fourth Instar. 11th December 1920. Spider-like when viewed 
sideways. 12 mm. long. Head, prothoracic shield, underside of thorax, 
all three pairs of true legs, first to fourth pair of pro-legs, anal segment 
ventral side black. Meta- thorax, l-6th abdominal segments are adorned 
with a double row of more or less spiny warts dorsally. Third abdominal 
segment wholly and fourth ventrally black. Fifth and sixth wholly 
whitish. Seventh and eighth concolorous with anal segment from 

( 291 ) 


wliicli arise two filiform and clavate processes in lieu of anal claspers. 
The whole body is scattered with fine short hairs arising from tiny- 
warts more prominently on the sides ; head and ventral side of terminal 
segments pubescent. 

Fifth Instar. 15th December 1920. 15-16 mm. long. General 
scheme of colour much about the same as in the last moult, except that 
the black of the head, prothorax, etc., is replaced by dark grey ; apical 
areas of femora and tarsi of legs hairy, swollen and dark-brown. The 
warts on the dorsum are more pronounced, asterically arranged with a 
central depression. First and second abdominal segment ashy-white. 
The third and fourth abdominal segments streaked glossy black. Minute 
ashy white specks are scattered all over the body. The larva is active 
and when disturbed assumes the spider-like appearance by bringing 
round the terminal segment and throwing its head backwards in the 
form of a loop. 

Sixth Instar. 22nd December 1920. 20-21'' mm. long. Body 
covered over by minute ashy-grey granules. Head mallet-shaped. A 
mid-dorsal linear streak, and a pair of zigzag striae connecting the lateral 
projections, white. The penultimate abdominal segment carries spiny 
processes. Outer area of prolegs striated velvety black, and streaked 
with white. Larva more pubescent than in previous instars. Active 
in habits ; when disturbed throws forward the tentacle-like legs and 
assumes a threatening aspect, moving the body and legs to and fro in 
convulsive efforts. 

Pupa. 2nd January 1921. Pupa 18-19 mm. long by 5-6 mm. 
broad. Dark brown in colour and shiny in appearance. Pupa found 
enclosed in a slight cocoon of yellow fibrous silk covered over by leaves. 

Imago. 11th January 1921. Moth emerged. 


II I li-i - ih }Sk 

, 4 



Celyphus obtectus. 

Fig. 1. Egg (X 34). 

Fig. 2. Larva ( x 16). 

Fig. 3. Puparium, dorsal view ( x 10). 

Fig. 4. „ side-view ( X 10). 

Fig. 6. Fly, resting position, side-view ( x 10). 

Fig. 6. „ „ „ dorsal view ( x 10). 

Fig. 7. Wing of fly (X 16). 

X 3TAn '510 TWTTAT1AJT7': 



(Plates L— LI). 

% S. K. Sen, B.Sc. 

(1) Celyphus obtectus, Dalm. (Plate L). 

In nature eggs are laid on cow-pea leaves, old green, or yellow 
leaves — especially the latter — being generally preferred. The eggs 
are generally deposited scattered along the veins on the under surface 
of the leaves. 

Imagines are hardly observed at noon, but are seen in great numbers 
in the earlier part of the day jumping, instead of flying, from twig to 

In captivity Celyphids laid eggs in a variety of situations, on leaves, 
in empty tubes, on cork-pieces, etc. A gravid female has a remarkably 
bulging abdomen and can lay as many as 60 to 70 eggs. They are 
laid singly. 

The egg is about 1 mm. in length, white, elliptical, blunt at both 
ends, with four longitudinal ridges which meet at the extremities, the 
spaces between the ridges being finely transversely striated. A central, 
narrow, shallow depression runs longitudinally along the middle. Close 
to the extremities are two parallel rows of greenish spots, the ridges 
themselves being also finely and indistinctly spotted. The ridges join 
to form a rather thick protuberance in one extremity whereas in the 
other extremity the two middle ridges do not quite meet so that there 
is a fine slit-like depression in the tip of the end. The incubation period 
is from four to five days. 

In nature the larvae are found occupying the upper surface of old 
green and more frequently of degenerated yellow leaves and they have 
been frequently found covered with small bits of moist cow-pea flower 
or pieces of moist leaf. 

Larvae hatched out in captivity at first remain coiled round the 
egg-shell for from two to three hours after which they slowly uncurl 
themselves and move about apparently in search of food, the flies being 
bred out on moist, slightly rotten cow-pea leaves. 

The larva is white, translucent, tapering at both ends and with 
13 segments. The fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth segments are 
subequal, the larva being broadest at this region. The apical portion 
has two fan-like processes consisting of several rows of indented plates 

( 293 ) 



whicli apparently assist the larva in locomotion. The jaws begin from 
the middle of the second segment and terminate near the apex without 
quite reaching it. The tracheae run along almost the entire length of 
the larva from the anal region up to second segment, and, after ramify- 
ing, terminate in two pairs of spiracles. Both pairs of spiracles open 
dorsally, one close to the posterior apex and the other just beyond 
the second segment, the larva being therefore amphipneustic. The 
antennge are represented by two conelike jointed prominences occupying 
the dorsal pre-apical portions. The fat bodies run in a somewhat zig- 
zag fashion extending from just beyond the posterior end of the tenth 
segment to near the anterior end of the fourth. The anal segment h 
furnished with two fairly big defined prominences the use of which 
is not understood. 

The larvge are negatively heliotropic ; though habitually very slug- 
gish, when exposed to the bright glare of the sun, they try to hide them- 
selves in the folds and corners of the leaves with remarkable rapidity. 
To successfully breed them out a very careful regulation of moisture 
is necessary. The leaves offered as food should not be in an advanced 
state of putrefaction and moisture should be supplied preferably twice 
a day. The larva3 seem to live upon the scrapings of the leaves rejecting 
the net-like reticulation. They have a characteristically wrinkled 

Larval period is from 7 to 10 days. 

The larvae pupate on both sides of dry leaves. 

The pupa, which is about 4 mm. in length, is convex, dirty brown 
with a greenish tinge, with scattered white chalky patches, bluntly 
tapering at both ends, the posterior end being more pointed than the 
anterior, indistinctly divided into thirteen segments, the lines of seg- 
mental divisions being more deeply coloured than the segments them- 
selves. These lines except the first and the last pairs are followed 
posteriorly by short dark lines. The antennse point outwards as two 
very small dark prominences. The posterior spiracles, which are dis- 
tinctly visible in the extreme end of the anal segment, are followed 
anteriorly by two reddish-brown spots. Two irregularly-shaped but 
symmetrical white lateral patches on fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and 
eighth segments and two somewhat transparent circular spots symmetri- 
cally placed on two sides of the sixth segment. The pupal period is 
from 9 to 11 days. 

The fly emerges through a slit on the dorsal surface near the apex. 

The bulging scutellum of the freshly- emerged fly is at first some- 
what transparent, very soft and colourless but it gradually develops 
colour and hardens. 





Celyphus scutatus. 

Fig. 1. Egg ( X 34). 

Fig. 2. Larva, one day old (x34). 

Fig. 3. Puparium, dorsal view ( X 10). 

Fig. 4. „ side-view ( X 10). 

Fig. 5. Fly resting position, side-View ( x 10). 

Fig. 6. „ „ » dorsal view ( X 10 . 

Fig. 7. Wing of fly ( X 16). 


,.rrnr„ i 



J' .- 

.0 .§C1 


.7 .si'H 


In nature CelypJius obtectus appears to have a number of varieties 
displaying various shades of colour between yellow and blue, the 
scutellum also showing varying grades of smoothness, some having 
a distinctly rough surface. Yellow or the intermediate ones have hardly 
been found possessing a smooth scutellum, but in the Blue ones both 
smooth and rough surfaces are seen. So far as has been studied, in 
captivity the Yellow kind has never been obtained from eggs laid by 
the Blue variety nor the Blue from the Yellow.* 

(2) CelypTius scutatus, Wd. (Plate LI). 

This does not appear to be an abundant species in nature. They 
can be captured in small numbers by sweeping grass in moist situations. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in rearing out this species. 
Of the several lots experimented with, only two could be made to lay 
eggs which were deposited along the margins of grass blades, and on 
one occasion on rotten Duranta leaves. 

The egg, which is less than 1 mm. in length, is elhpsoidal tapering 
at both ends, slightly depressed laterally, white, with four longitudinal 
ridges, the spaces between the ridges being transversely and finely 
striated, the sides of the egg being distinctly, and the ridges indistinctly 
spotted, the latter converging at the extremities which are rather abrupt- 
ly pointed. The incubation period is from four days to one week. Very 
few larvae were discovered in their usual habitat. They were found 
lying inside the folds of moist, slightly rotten, yellowish-green grass- 
blades, g 

The larva is white, transparent, very bluntly tapering at both ends 
and with thirteen segments. The third, fourth, fifth and the sixth 
abdominal segments are subequal, the larva having the greatest breadth 
at this region. The apical portion has fine projections which, as in the 
previously described fly, probably assist the larva in locomotion. The 
tracheae follow a rather irregular course along almost the entire length 
of the larva and terminate at both ends in two pairs of spiracles. The 
anal segment is indented in two (apparently four) distinct depressions. 
The anterior pair of spiracles occupies the pre-apical portions, both 
pairs of spiracles opening dorsally. The white bodies, shaped posteriorly 
into two bulb-like structures, extend from the posterior end of the 
tenth segment to three-fourths the length of the fifth, the bulb-like 

* Note. — Eggs of these insects apparently derive yellow colour merely by capillary 
attraction of water containing colouring matter from rotting leaf. When placed in 
water or alcohol all become white. The Bine variety has been seen to lay white eggs 
as well as " yellow " ones. The yellow variety lias been seen to lay " yello-w " eggs 
as well aa white onest Apart from the colour, there seems no difference in the two. 




structures occupying the portion lying between the posterior end of 
the tenth segment and the middle of the ninth. The antennae are re- 
presented by two fine prominences in the pre-apical portions. The 
jaws occupy the portion lying between the middle of the second and 
that of the third segment. 

The habits of the larva are very much like those of the one previously 

The larval period varies from 7 to 10 days. 

One interesting fact about the larvae is that for pupation they would 
seem to prefer narrow round grass-blades to broad ones so that the 
width of the blade is hardly sufficient to hold the whole pupa. 

While pupating the . larva does not evidently shrink as much in 
length as the other species. 

The pupa is, as in the previous species, plano-convex, bluntly taper- 
in «• at both ends, narrowed to a greater extent posteriorly than anterior- 
ly, dirty yellowish brown, with segmental lines indistinctly visible, 
and the details very much hidden from view owing to the deposit of a 
scaly matter the origin of which is not understood. In other respects 
the pattern of the pupa is very much like that of the other species, the 
pupal period being also practically the same. 

The above notes, which are very scrappy and incomplete, were 
written by the author shortly after he commenced the study of Ento- 
mology. It is proposed to resume a detailed study of this interesting 
group of insects with special reference to the function of the remark- 
able scutellum, and correct any errors that may have possibly crept 
into these notes. The chief importance in this paper naturally attaches 
itself to the plates, there being on record, so far as known to the writer, 
no illustration of the early stages of any representative of this family. 

Mr. Sen's paper is very interesting, as, prior to his work, none had 
been done on the life -histories in this family and no one knew where 
to look for early stages of the flies. Breeding alone can settle the specific 
limits of Celyphus obtectus, and probably several of the described species 
of the genus* are only varieties of it. 

Have you got any definite characters which would distinguish the 
larva of one species from that of another ? In describing larvse it is 
very necessary to give comparative distinctions ; when a single species 
only is described, most probably the diagnostic distinguishing point 
is overlooked. Descriptions of larvse for bionomic purposes without 
comparison with other nearly related species are comparatively worth- 
less. I have had much trouble in this respect in other groups. It is 
better to defer description till comparative work can be done. 


We felt this difficulty with Tabanid larvae, where the life-cycles are Mr. Sgn. 
very long and one has to wait till the emergence of the adult. In the 
case of the two species described in this paper, I distinguished the larva 
of scutatus from that of the other by the bulb-like structure in the fat 


By M. Afzal Husain, M.A., (Cantab.), Government Entomologist, Pun- 
jab, and Umrao Bahadur Mathur, L.Ag., Agricultural Assistant, 
The Punjab Agricultural College, Lyallpur. 

Introductory. The spotted Bollworms — • Earias insidana, Boisd., and 
E.fabia, Stoll — — have, for many years, been the worst pests of cottons 
in the Punjab. They are of general occurrence throughout the Province 
and not a field in the whole of the cotton-growing tract is free from their 
attack. They make their appearance every year and are so commonly 
met with that the Zamindar has learnt to regard their presence as nothing 
unusual, and a damage up to 10 per cent, has come^to be regarded as 
not abnormal. During some years, however, these bollworms increase 
so tremendously that they devastate almost the entire cotton crop 
and cause great economic disaster. In 1905 the loss to this Province 
caused by the ravages of these insects was estimated at 2 to 3 crores of 

The study of the causes of the failure of the cotton crop in 1905 led 
to the belief that during normal years the parasites of the bollworms 
keep them in check so effectively that their numbers do not increase 
sufficiently to do great damage. Lefroy, who carried on the investiga- 
tion in 1905, says : — " The peculiar feature of the present case is the 
absence of paradtes ; this is very marked and is a most striking circum- 
stance. Normally when the bollworms increase with plentiful food, 
their parasites increase more rapidly, and keep down their numbers. 
The parasites are in fact, the principal check on their increase, and 
had they been present in normal quantities, the bollworms would 
probably have been checked. "(1) 

Of the parasites of the bollworms the one to which the credit of 
being the most effective has been given, is " a small Ichneumon fly 
{Rhogas lefroyi, Ashm.) which is the principal and the most abundant 
one, increasing rapidly and destroying a very large proportion of bol- 
worms in normal years."(l) Thus according to Lefroy (1) the serious 
failure of the cotton crop in 1905 was the result of great and sudden 
reduction in the numbers of this parasite; he says: — "The most import- 
ant parasite which generally checks the bollworms was, I believe, entirely 
absent from the majority of the cotton districts." From these considera- 

( 298 ) 


tions originated the idea of helping nature in the multiplication of these 
useful insects and thus control the boUworms. 

It was 15 years ago that>the theory of checking the bollworms through 
the agency of Microbracon {Rliogas) was first propounded by Lefroy, 
and ever since, this method of dealing with the problem has been advo- 
cated year after year, as the only effective way of eradicating these 
dangerous pests of cottons. It, however, seems strange that, in spite of 
the importance attached to this Braconid, even the preliminary facts, 
the knowledge of which is essential for the successful use of parasitic 
insects, have so long been left uninvestigated. Opinions, more the 
expressions of individual convictions than the results of scientific investi- 
gations, have been put forth, from time to time, some in favour of the 
parasites and others against them ; but no one has attempted to test 
experimentally the efhcacy of this method of control, or has tried to 
work out the problems connected with it. In fact, after 15 years our 
ignorance is so great that we do not even know the number of eggs laid 
by a female Microbracon lefroyi. In the Punjab the distribution of 
parasite boxes has gone on for a number of years but no definite figures 
are at hand to show whether this means of fighting the bollworms has 
been effective or not. It was, therefore, thought desirable to investigate 
the whole question, and to find out if our methods of dealing with the 
problem were worth continuing. A complete knowledge of the life- 
history, bionomics and behaviour of a pest, and its parasites, in nature 
and under domestication, is an essential preliminary to an effective 
campaign against a noxious insect. A number of experiments was 
started to test the efficacy of Microbracon as a check against the boll- 
worms and a large number of these parasites was bred in the laboratory. 

Dealing with the causes that brought about the reduction in the 
number of Microbracon, Lefroy remarks : — " The only abnormal circum- 
stances that I can find is the extreme cold of the preceding winter, a 
cold which may have destroyed Rliogas while leaving the bollworms," 
and our observations support this view. Microbracon seems to be more 
susceptible to low temperatures than the bollworms. Thus its numbers 
are very much reduced in winter and it again appears very late in summer. 
This gives the bollworm a start. The abovementioned fact brought 
us face to face with the question of breeding this parasite throughout 
the winter so as to have a fair supply of it at the very time that boll- 
worms appear on cotton. 

Moreover, so far, the parasites when required for distribution among 
the Zamindars were collected from the fields and this necessitated the 
examination of a very large number of bolls to discover those containing 
parasitized caterpillars. This process is essentially wasteful and cum- 


bersome. Therefore tlie work was started with the purpose of finding 
out the best methods of breeding Microbracon on a large scale in the 
laboratory, and incidentally to study the life-history of this parasite. 

Rearing technique. Unfortunately we in the Punjab do not possess 
an insectary and the want of a proper breeding place for insects has 
made our work very difficult and many breeding experiments have 
failed at a stage when they promised to give interesting results. The 
delicate parasitic grubs require conditions which are difficult to attain 
in an ordinary working room not fitted for the purpose of breeding 
insects. During winter the temperature in the laboratory fell too low, 
retarding the proper development of the insects, and during summer, 
it rose too high and the host-caterpillars died before the parasitic grubs 
had finished their feeding and in many cases Microbracons also died of 
too much heat. 

Attempts at breeding these insects were first made during the winter 
of 1919. With a view to provide, as far as possible, conditions natural 
to Microbracon, twigs of cotton attacked by the bollworms and in some 
cases potted cotton plants thus affected, were kept in large gauze cages 
18 inches X 18 inches X 24 inches, and into these the female Micro- 
bracons were liberated. They were left for days and on examination of 
the caterpillars of Earias we found that none were parasitized, and no 
eggs were discovered, and very probably none were laid. During day 
time these parasitic insects were seen moving about on the side of the 
cage which was towards the windows and not attending to their business. 

Observations were restarted in July 1920, and completely artificial 
conditions were resorted to. The females of Microbracon were kept in 
small excavated glass blocks with a cavity about an inch in diameter 
and ^ inch deep ; they were covered with glass lids. The caterpillars 
of Earias were introduced singly into these blocks and removed when 
paralyzed and oviposited upon. The female was seen to paralyze the 
caterpillar within a short time of its introduction and to oviposit upon it. 
The observations on the development of the grubs could therefore be 
recorded easily. 

In the beginning we provided dilute honey for Microbracons to feed 
upon, but later on, this was found to be unnecessary, the insect, as shall 
be mentioned later on, obtaining sufficient nourishment from the liquid- 
oozing out of the punctures made by her in the body of the bollworms. 

Microbracon lefroyi is in its grub stage an external parasite on the 
caterpillars of Earias insulana, and E. fabia. Dudgeon and Gough{2) 
have described the species found in India as Rhogas lefroyi. Fletcher (3), 
however, states that while some of the specimens from Lyallpur agree 
with the description of Dudgeon and Gough, others differ markedly from 


it. In fact, it remains to be seen to how many different species of 
Microbracon are parasitic on E. insulana and E. fabia. 

Description. The following is the description of Microbracon (Rhogas) 
lefroyi given by Professor Brues.(J : 

" Female. Length 2-3 mm.; ovipositor slightly longer than the 
abdomen, but not quite so long as the abdomen and propodeum toge- 
ther. Body honey-yellow, varied with black and piceous, legs usually 
somewhat lighter and the sides of the abdomen often much paler. Black 
markings variable ; in melanic specimens they include spot on front 
above base of atennse, ocellar space, occiput, antennae, stripe on each 
of the three lobes of mesonotum, scutellum, propodeum, irregular marks 
on pleurae, abdominal segments three to five, except narrow lateral 
border, and sheaths of ovipositor ; in light specimens the entire body 
is pale-honey-yellow with only the flagellum of antennae, tips of mandi- 
bles, ocellar triangle, clouds on the second and third segments, and 
ovipositor black, piceous or brown. Wings faintly to distinctly tinged 
with brown, the stigma and veins fuscous. Antennae 25 to 27-iointed, 
the joints slightly decreasing in length to apex, the basal ones barely 
twice as long as thick. Mesonotum shagreened, scutellum shining ; 
propodeum distinctly shagreened, but often more nearly smooth basally 
toward the middle, without median carina except at extreme apex 
which is finely areolate ; mesopleura finely shagreened, with a narrow 
polished strip along its posterior margin. Abdomen broadly oval or 
nearly circular in outline ; first segment twice as wide at apex as at base, 
posterior corners separated by deep grooves, median field triangular, 
second segment four times as broad as long, with an obsolete median 
carina ; third segment a little longer than the second ; following shorter, 
entire abdomen except corners of first segment finely roughened, without 
distinct punctures or reticulations, except sometimes on the second and 
third segments near the middle ; second suture finely crenulate. Wings 
are figured by Dudgeon and Gough. 

" Male. Length 2 mm. Similar to the female with the antennae 24 
to 25-jointed and the head and thorax generally darker ; the abdomen 
has the sixth segment black and lacks almost all the yellow at the sides 
although the first two segments are yellow and usually paler than in 
the female. 

" There is an enormous amount of colour variation in the large 
number of specimens examined, a slight variation in the number of 
antennal joints and in the sculpture of the propodeum and abdomen 
but none of these seem to be in any way definite or correlated." 

The time of occurrence. The time of occurrence of Microbracon 
efroyi differs in the different localities of the Punjab. In the south of 


tlie Province, e.g., Hansi, they appear very early and have been collected 
in July and August. At Ferozepur they are seen in September and 
October. At Lyallpur we get them from November to January. 

Paralyzing the caterpillar of E arias. To study the process of stinging, 
the female Microbracons were introduced singly into the excavated glass 
blocks mentioned above, and caterpillars of Farias were put in, one at 
a time. As soon as the female discovered a bollworm in her proximity 
it prepared for the attack. The bollworm as compared to the Braconid 
is a fair-sized object, and moves about quite quickly in the hollow 
of the glass block, and it must be said that, taking everything into 
consideration, the stinging is very cleverly done. The whole process 
may be described as follows : — 

The female Microhracon approaches the host quickly and cautiously, 
folds its wings over the back, spreads its legs to get a firm hold ; it then 
bends its abdomen forward between the legs and under the thorax 
and quickly daxts its ovipositor into the body of the bollworm towards 
the ventral side. The parasite avoids the close proximity of the host 
and after stinging quickly moves off. 

It is generally in the region of the abdomen that the caterpillar is 
stung, but sometimes it is the thoracic region and not infrequently it is 
the cephalic region which receives the sting. 

If properly done a single injection is sufficient to stop all movements 
of the caterpillar ; at any rate, two or three attacks render the host 
incapable of motion. The caterpillar when stung shows convulsive 
movements but they usually last for a very short time. In some cases, 
however, slight convulsive movements have been observed in a paralyzed 
worm 24 or even 36 hours after the attack. 

The female continues to sting the paralyzed host and sometimes 
it stings it repeatedly at the same place. The object of this process 
is not very clear ; it is certainly not to paralyze the host. And the 
following observation shows that it is probably to obtain food. After 
drilling a hole by the repeated action of its ovipositor into the body of 
the caterpillar the female has been seen to lick the liquids oozing out of 
these punctures. The same thing has been noticed in some Chalcidids. 
It seems probable that in the laboratory the food obtained by the insect 
by this method is quite sufficient for it. 

When a caterpillar is completely paralyzed its legs lose their hold 
and are slightly raised up. The prolegs remain fixed. in their position, 
obtaining a firm hold by means of their booklets. 

The juices of the body of the caterpillar remain intact but in some 
cases of vigorous stinging the convulsive movements are so strong that 
some liquid is forced out through the mouth or anus. 


The punctures made by the ovipositor of the parasite turn black 
and are easily seen on the skin of the caterpillar. It seems possible 
that the young grubs when they hatch out find it easier to get to the 
juices of the body of the host through these wounds than through the 
chitin which is probably too hard for their delicate mandibles. 

Ovipositiovi. The female whether fertilized or unfertilized starts 
laying eggs soon after emergence. 

Eggs are laid on the outside of the body of the host. Each egg is 
laid singly or in groups of from two to six or more. They are usually 
laid on the ventral side of the caterpillar in the region of the abdomen, 
but they have been seen on all parts of the body, abdomen, thorax and 
head, on the dorsal as well as the ventral side. 

It was noticed that, although the female would sting a caterpillar 
in whatever stage of development it might be, yet it was only on the 
fullgrown caterpillars that eggs were laid. In some cases eggs were 
laid on caterpillars which had started spinning the cocoon, and in one 
case a caterpillar that had completed its cocoon was attacked and eggs 
laid on it. 

Number of eggs laid by a female. So far as we have been able to 
ascertain no one in India has recorded the number of eggs laid by a 
female Microbracon and what we do know is only confined to the fact (g) 
that the largest number of eggs found on a single caterpillar is 21. This 
number has sometimes been regarded as the total number of eggs laid 
by a single female. The highest number that we have obtained so far 
is 219 and this from an unfertilized female. (See Table 1). 

Description. The egg is elongated, with rounded ends, and slightly 
curved in the middle. Each egg is 1 mm. in length. It is translucent 
when fresh, but, as development goes on, its ends become hyaline. In 
about 24 hours the colour changes to yellowish and the grub is seen 
moving about. The grub comes out of the egg after about 24 to 26 
hQurs." (See Table 2). 

The Grub. A freshly hatched grub is a little over 1 mm. in length. 
It is of cream white colour with the yellowish contents of its intestine 
seen through its transparent body wall. The head is very large as com- 
pared to the body, and bears small peg-shaped antennae. It crawls 
about on the body of its host and when it finds a suitable place it begins 
to suck in the juices (of the body of the caterpillar). Generally it remains 
fixed to the spot where it started sucking until it is full-fed. It is a 
very delicate creature and once dislodged it usually does not survive, 
and possibly is not able to make a hole for obtaining food. 



The grub stage is very short in the summer. In July it is 32 to 37 
hours, in October it is 67 hours, while in winter (December) it takes more 
than ten days. (See Table 3). 

The full-gro-\vu grub is more or less spindle-shaped being thickest 
in the middle. The body wall is very thin and transparent and the 
tracheae , fat cells and contents of the body are seen through it. 

The Pujoa. When full-fed the grub leaves the host and wanders 
about till it finds a suitable place to pupate. (Generally, the cocoons 
are prepared under or in close proximity to the remains of the host.) 
The grub prepares a white silken cocoon and pupates inside it. In some 
cases the grubs pupate openly, viz., without spinning a cocoon. The 
fullgrown grub excretes a blackish mass about two hours after finishing 
the cocoon. It now becomes translucent white and changes into a 
pupa shortly after this. The colour of the pupa is white in the begmning 
but it soon develops a reddish tint in certain parts, and the general colour 
becomes yellow. It gradually gets the colour and the markings of the 

The duration of the pupal stage varies with the season. In the 
summer it is 5 to 6 days while in winter it might take as long as 27 days. 
(See Table 4). 

The Imago. The adult parasite emerges out by cutting a small 
hole near one end of the cocoon. 

It is difficult to find out the length of the life of an imago. In the 
laboratory the males lived as long as 14 to 16 days and females as long 
as 28 days. It appears that in captivity the females that had laid eggs 
died off sooner than the females that had not laid any eggs, but as the 
records are from two different seasons no definite statement can be made 
(See Table 5). . 

Table 5. 

Females that iaid eggs. 

Females that bid not 


Total No. 
of days. 

Date of 

1 Date of 

Total No. 
of days. 

Date of 

Date of 

5th August 

! 13th August 


28th January 

18th February 


5th August 

10th August 


28th January 

18th February 


2nd October 

9th October 


29th January 

25th February 


2nd October 

' 4tljy^ctober 



2nd October 

16th October 




Copulation. The male as soon as it is introduced into the block 
containing the female rushes towards her and copulates. The copulation 
seems to be a very quick affair. The male comes near the female and 
bends the tip of his abdomen towards her ovipositor and within a few 
seconds retires. We cannot with certainty say that copulation was 
effected properly in the laboratory because the progeny of the females 
that had hatched out in the laboratory and were supplied with males, 
turned out to be all males. (See below). 

Parthenogenesis and sex. The phenomenon of parthenogenesis has 
been recorded in the Braconidse, and occurs in Microhmcon lefroyi 
also. Some of the females that had emerged in the laboratory were 
kept without males and made to oviposit on the caterpillars of Earias. 
They did so quite readily and one female laid as many as 219 eggs without 
having been fertilized. All the individuals from this lot that attained 
maturity were males. Thus our observations agree with those of 
Pennington (g) on Rhogas ferminalis, Cress. The same has been found 
in a number of other Braconidse. Thus in M. lefroyi virgin females only 
give males, while fertilized females give rise to both sexes. 

General. Before discussing the possibilities of controlling the boll- 
worm of cotton by means of Microbracon it will not be out of place to 
give a very brief account of the former. The caterpillars of E. insulana 
and E. fabia are found throughout the year. They feed on cotton from 
June to January, and by then they find hollyhock and breed on it till 
about April, when bhindi is ready to provide them with food, and on this 
they live till cottons are big enough to receive them. The life cycle is 
on an average 30 days in summer but in winter it is much prolonged and 
may occupy as long as 116 days. 

The number of eggs laid remains to be discovered. The highest 
number we have obtained in the laboratory from a single female has 
been 108. DudgeoD(y) obtained as many as 233. Lefroy(g) got 50 to 
70 in captivity. The dissection of a female showed over 300 eggs com- 
plete with their shells and many more immature eggs in its ovaries. 
Very probably the number of eggs laid by Earias is over 500. 

During summer the eggs hatched out in about 4 to 5 days and the 
caterpillar stage lasts for about two weeks. When full-fed the cater- 
pillar spins a tough cocoon which varies in colour and may be from 
white to dark grey. The pupal stage lasts for about a week. 

The caterpillar attacks different parts of the cotton plant according 
to the stage of the growth of the plant. When the plant is young they 
eat young leaves and bore into the buds, thus killing the growing points. 
When the floral buds appear they turn their attention to them and bore 
into them and eat unopened flowers. Sometimes shoots are bored 



When the bolls appear, they attack them. They sometimes feed 
exposed but generally they lead the life of a borer, boring into shoots, 
vegetative buds, floral buds, and bolls. 

Although it is premature at the present stage of our knowledge to 
express any view as to the efficacy of Microhracon as a check against 
Earias yet it will not be out of place to discuss the question in the light 
of "what is already known. 

Fletcher(o) is doubtful whether Microhracon can be an effective 
check against the bollworms, because the percentage of parasites' in 
the specially looked after parasitic plot at Pusa is too low — 12 per cent. 
There are, however, certain facts that are significant. So far as is known, 
Microhracon is singularly free from enemies, parasites and predators, 
and it lays a sufficiently large number of eggs. It therefore has great 
possibilities of rapid multiplication. 

The life-cycle of Microhracon takes only ten days in summer as com- 
pared to 30 days of Earias and assuming that a female Microhracon 
lays only 100 eggs, only 50 of which develop into females, and assuming 
on the other hand that the bollworm lays 500 eggs, 50 per cent, deve- 
loping into females, and assuming that in both cases other factors are 
the same, the progeny of one pair of Microhracon will be able to kill 
off the progeny of 500 pairs of Earias in the 30 days' time taken by 
one generation of the bollworm. Theoretically, therefore, the probabi- 
lity of checking Earias by the use of their parasite seem to be within 
the range of practicability. 

Before we are able to give an effective help to Microhracon in its 
fight against bollworm we must be able to domesticate it, and liberate 
it in the beginning of the season in very large numbers. 

Table No. 1. 
Daily rate of oviposition of Microhracon lefroyi. 1920. 

Number of eggs deposited by the female. 

Date of oviposition. 


No. 2. 

No. 3. No. 4. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 

No. 8. 

No. 9. 

No. 10. 




6th to 9th 


. . 

Otli to lOth 


.. 1 .. 

10th .... 


10th to 12th 



12th to 13th 



.. , •.. 


Date of ovlposltlon. 

Number of eggs deposited by the female. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7. No. 8. No. 9. No. 10 

Note :— a denotes accidentallv killed 
D „ died. 
E ,, date of emergence. 
F ,, escaped. 
Female No. l was caught from the fields on July 6th. 

308 proceedings of the fourth entomological meeting 

Table No. 2. 

Table sliowing the length of egg stage of M. lefroiji. 1920. 

Eggs laid. 


13 th July 
14th July 

8th August 

4th October 

5th October 

6th October 

7th October 

8th October 


' 7-20 

Eggs hatched. 


14th July 
15th July . 

9th August 

5th October 

6th October 

7th October 

8th October 

9th October 


Duration of 






22 1 













































Table No. 3. 
Duration of larval Btage of M. lefroyi. 1920. 

Eggs hatched. 


9th August 

4th October 

5th October 

6th October 

7th October 

8th October 

9th October 

10th October 

13th October 



Grubs spinniko. 


10th August 
Cth October 

7th October . 
8th October 

9th October 

10th October 

11th October 

12th October 

13th October 

15th October 


Grubs collected 19th December 2Sth December 10 days, 



















Number of 

hours in 

larval stage. 



























Table No. 4. 
Duration of pupal stage of M. lefroyi. 1920. 

Date of spinning. 

Date of emergence 
of adult. 

Number of 

days in 
pupal stage. 

27th September 

2nd October 


27 th September 

2iid October 


7th October . 

12tli October . 


7th October . 

13th October . 


8th October . 

14th October . 


8th October . 

14th October . 


10th October . 

15th October . 


10th October . 

16th October 


nth October . 

16th October . 


nth October . 

17th October . 


nth October . 

15th October . 


12th October . 

17th October . 


12tri October . 

18th October . 

12th October . 

19th October . 


1 3th October . 

19th October . 


13th October . 

18th October . 


14th October 

19th October . 


15th October . 

21st October . 


17th October . 

24th October . 


17th October . 

25th October . 


30th December 

26th January 



1. Lefroy (1906). Pusa Bull. No. 2, p. 6. 

2. Dudgeon and Gough (1914). Agricultural Journal of Egypt, 
Vol. Ill, p. 109. 

3. Fletcher (1917). Proceedings of the Second Dutomological 
Meeting, pp. 106-107. 

Mr. Inglis. 


4. Brues (1919). Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting, 
pp. 1026-1027. 

• 5. Fletcher and Misra (1919). Proceedings of the Third Entomolo- 
gical Meeting, p. 452. 

6. Pennington (1916). Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, 
Vol. IX, No. 4, pp. 401-406. 

7. Dudgeon (1916). Transactions, Third International Congress 
of Tropical Agriculture, London, pp. 1-34. (Reprint). 

8. Lefroy (1906). -Pusa Bull. No. 2, p. 5. 

What proportion of the eggs hatched ? 

Out of 219 eggs, only 62 hatched. They were all males. Parthen- Mr. Husain. 
ogenesis is common in this species and always produces males. 

To obtain the parasites more easily, at Pusa we tried to discover Mr. Misra. 
alternative hosts. We found a number on lac insects and different 
caterpillars. What appears to be the same species is also parasitic 
on the Pink Bollworm, but the grub of the parasite is much affected 
by mites. Our observations here agree with Mr. Husain's. I have 
seen the parasite at the mouth of the hole in the boll made by the cater- 
pillar ovipositing at the tunnel when it could not reach the caterpillar, 
so that when the caterpillar came out, the eggs stuck on to it, and hatched, 
and we reared adults from them. The proportion of parasitization is 
very low here. We have also raised a hyperparasite. 

Do you think the hatching of the eggs of the parasite is correlated Mr. Fletcher, 
with light or heat ? What percentage of parasitized larvae occur in the 

Hatching is probably correlated with temperature. We are now Mr, Husain. 
working out the parasitization percentage. 

X 2 


(Plates LII— LV). 

By T. Bainbeigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 



It is difficult to imagine what the writers of popular works on Natural 
History, until quite recently, would have found to say about the insects 
popularly called " White Ants " if they had not been able to draw upon 
the information furnished to them by Smeathman. " Some account of 
the Termites which are found in Africa and other hot climates," written 
by H. Smeathman from his own observations in the neighbourhood of 
Sierra Leone in West Africa, was published in the Philosophical Transac- 
tion of the Royal Society of London in the year 1781, and for over a 
century formed practically the only known and tolerably complete 
account of the habits of the wonderful insects known as Termites or 
White Ants. Smeathman's statements were copied and recopied by 
one author after another until it becomes a matter at once of amusement 
and monotony to compare the several authors' accounts with their 
original inspiration. 

Many of Smeathman's statements were challenged as to their accuracy 
by his contemporaries and their successors during the next two genera- 
tions until T. Savage published in 1849 his " Observations on the Species 
of Termitida3 of West Africa described by Smeathman," which thoroughly 
corroborated the observations made in the eighteenth century. 

Yet, although Smeathman's observations have been claimed as the 
very foundation of the study of Termites, it is a fact (hitherto usually 
overlooked) that he was not the first to publish a scries of scientific 
observations on these insects. That honour had already been achieved 
by Dr. Johann Gerhard Koenig, w^ho two years previously (in 1779) had 
published a paper entitled " Naturgeschichte der sogenannten Weissen 
Ameisen " [ Natural History of the so-called White Ants] in the fourth 
volume of the " Beschaftigungen der Berlinischen Gesellschaft Naturfor- 
schender Freunde." Let us hasten to add that Smeathman's investiga- 
tions were carried out entirely independently of Koenig's and that he 
tells us expressly that he had not been able to procure a copy of the 
latter's paper and had seen nothing of it beyond a short abstract. 

( 312 ) 

Page 312 



9a^. I. 


^.& 7 

yy-ilf. 8 

u/wi'. /<?. 


Kcenig's Plate of South Indian Termites. 


From the time of its publication, indeed, up to the present day 
Koenig's paper has remained practically unknown, and this has been due 
to the obscurity of the publication in which it appeared. It is probable 
that the Transactions of this Berlin Natural Histor}^ Society appeared 
in the first place in a very limited edition and that the troublous times 
that succeeded on the Continent effectually reduced almost to vanishing 
point the small number of copies extant. Be this as it may, this Journal 
appears to be extremely scarce nowadays, and I myself have not been 
able to come across a single copy. So far as I am aware, no copy exists 
in India and the only copy in England is the one contained in the Library 
of the Royal Society of London. This copy has formed the original from 
which I have made my translation and I am extremely indebted to 
Professor and Mrs. Maxwell Lefroy for making and sending me a manus- 
cript copy from this volume, and also to Professor J. Stanley 
Gardiner, F.R.S., for his kindness in obtaining a photographic copy of 
the plate which illustrated Koenig's paper ; this plate is reproduced here 
as plate LII. Koenig, of course, wrote in German, and his spelling and 
expressions are often difficult to follow from a modern viewpoint. In 
the translation which I have given I have endeavoured to give his mean- 
ing freely rendered into modern English and, where phrases are freely 
rendered or are at all doubtful in their meaning, I have usually added the 
original German in round brackets ( ). Words and phrases in 
square brackets [ ] are additions by myself in explanation of the text. 
I am much indebted to the Rev. J. Assmuth, S.J., for his kindness in 
reading over my manuscript and checking the translation. 

To the Entomological Public, no apology is needed for bringing to 
their notice Koenig's valuable and interesting paper which has remained 
in oblivion all too long. Nor do I think that any apology is required to 
readers in India who may nofpossess any special interest in Entomology. 
Termites, under the name of " White Ants," are known to every 
dweller in the East and all who have suffered from their tavages may 
well be interested to read this account of them written over one hundred 
and forty years ago and to find that the first reliable statement of 
their habits was based on observations made in Southern India. 

A short account of Koenig's life and work is added. So far as I am 
aware, no portrait of him is in existence ; if any reader of this is aware 
of one, I shall be glad to^hear of it. 

Note on Dr. J. G. Kcenig. 

Johann Gerhard Konig, commonly called John Gerard Koenig by 
contemporary English writers, was born at Lemenen in Courland 


(Denmark) on 29th November, 1728.* We know that he was a pupil 
of Linnaeus who commemorated his name by bestowing the generic 
name Kcenigia f on a curious little plant discovered by Koenig during 
the latter's travels in Iceland in the year 1765. 

The exact year in which Koenig first arrived in India is not known 

with certainty but it was probably about 1767. J We know at least 

that, in a letter written to Linnaeus from Tranquebar on 26 July 1769, 

he refers to another letter written more than three months before, but 

. this former letter is apparently not now extant. 

Koenig apparently came to India, under the protection of the King 
of Denmark, as physician to the Danish settlement at Tranquebar.§ 
It seems probable, however, that he accepted this appointment mainly 
as giving him an opportunity of improving the, at that time, very scanty 
knowledge of the Natural History of India, Little is said in contem- 
porary accounts of his medical duties, but we know that he resided for 
several years at Tranquebar where he applied himself indefatigably to 
acquiring a knowledge of Indian Plants. It is more than probable that 
he also made considerable collections of insects and that it is to his 
energies that we owe the long list of insects described from Tranquebar 
during the succeeding twenty years by Fabricius, with whom we know 
that Koenig was in communication. He seems, indeed, to have paid 
some attention to every branch of Natural History, as we read of his 
giving assistance in mineralogy to Dr. James Anderson, who in 1795 
was Physician General at Fort St. George. It is, however, as a Botanist 
that Koenig is best known and all of his published writings deal 
with Botany, with the exception of his paper on Termites. Little 
is on record concerning Koenig's life at Tranquebar but Ave can 
picture him performing the routine duties of Medical Officer in charge of 
that small Danish Settlement and devoting every spare moment to 
the acquisition of specimens and knowledge of that Natural History 
which he loved so well. Whenever his opportunities and finances 
afforded, he made occasional collecting expeditions from Tranquebar 
and thus visited the Dutch, French and British Settlements along the 

* Tho place and date of birth are given by Ilagon (Bibliotheca Entom. I, 428). 

t Mantissa Linn. Gen. PI. p. 13. 

X Dr. Russell says " probably in 17(38 " Foulkcs {Madras Jonniul of Literalurc and 
Science, No. 11, New Series — May 1861) says that Koenig " had preceded Rottlor in tho 
mission Ijy nearly ten years." Rottlcr an-ived at Trancpiebar on 5th August 1770. 

§ In his " Biographical Memoir of Dr. Rottlcr ", published in the Madras Journal of 
Litcrnturc ami Science, No. 11, New iSeries — May 1801, the Rev. T. Foulkcs notes 
tliat " besides [Ka3nigl the naturalist, who was for a while the Medical Adviser of this 
Mission [the Danish Mission at Tranquebar], and not ordained, there «as at (he same 
time a missionary of tho same name in holy orders at Tramjuebar. In the documents 
that I have consulted the accounts of these two individuls seem to be hopelessly inter- 
mingled. The Clergyman died in 1795, after 27 years' residence in India." 


Coromandel Coast and in all of tliem entered into friendly relations 
with everyone whose tastes were similar to his own. Dr. Russell, who 
met him in later years and who writes feelingly of his uniformly friendly 
relations with Kcenig, says of him at this period that, " More covetous 
of fame than of fortune, he persevered in his pursuits with an enthusiasm 
that set bodily fatigue, spare meals, and a scorching climate at defiance ; 
while the simplicity of his manners, and his unassuming readiness to 
impart knowledge to others, conciliated, almost at first sight, the benevo- 
lence of those with whom he conversed and everywhere he 

acquired friends." 

The slender salary of his appointment at Tranquebar proved, however, 
quite inadequate to bear the expenses of his travels, however frugally 
conducted, in search of novelties, and in about the year 1774 Kcenig, by 
the influence of some of the many friends he had made during his 
wanderings, obtained an appointment as Naturalist to the Nawab of 
Arcot, in whose service he remained for several years, and during this 
period he made excursions amongst the hills near Vellore and Ambur, 
and to other localities which promised to yield novelties. Thus in 
April 1776, he made a short collecting expedition to the Nagori* Hills 
with Dr. George Campbell, a young medical man in the service of 
the East India Company and stationed at Madras, and who seems 
to have given proof of some talent as a botanist. His friendship 
with Koenig, accentuated perhaps by their companionship during 
this excursion, appears to have kindled his enthusiasm into a resolve 
to devote himself seriously to the study of Botany, for shortly after 
this he sent to England for a large consignment of books on this 
subject : but, says Russell, " they never reached him ; for, being 
wounded, and taken prisoner, in the unfortunate defeat of Colonel 
Baillie's detachment, in September, 1780, he died a short time 
after, universally lamented." 

During at least portions of the time during which he was in the service 
of the Nawab of Arcot, Koenig resided in Madras and his intercourse 
with the English employed there in the Company's service seems to 
have gained him the friendship of all of them who took any interest in 
Natural Science. Many indeed, were glad to receive instruction from a 
pupil of the celebrated Linnseus, and amongst these are mentioned 
especially Dr. James Anderson, afterwards Physician General at Fort 

* Dr. Russell (Preface to Volume I of "Coromandel Plants") says "the Pullicate 
Hills, in April 1766." The date is an obvious lapsus calami for 1776 as just previously 
he had given 1768 as the probable year of Kcenig's first arrival in India. The Pulicate 
Hills are evidently the same as the Palliacatti Mountains referred to by Koenig (see page 
31). Pulikat is on the coast a few miles North of Madras. 


St. George, and Dr. Roxburgh, afterwards Inspector of the Botanical 
Gardens at Calcutta, who was then living at Samalkota. 

It was probably during his residence in Madras that Kcenig had 
outlined a scheme for the investigation of the natural resources, not 
only of India, but of South-Eastern Asia, but this he was quite unable 
to carry out with his own slender resources, added to which his salary 
from the Nawab of Arcot was not paid regularly. Moved by these 
considerations, in 1778 he represented the facts of the case to the Board 
of the East India Company, which was pleased to grant him a monthly 
allowance " in order to enable him the better to prosecute his researches." 
" With this aid, he proceeded in the month of August 1778 to the Straits 
of Malacca and Siam ; from whence he returned towards the end of 
1779. From his report to the Board of Madras, it appears, that he had 
the good fortune to meet wath several nevv^ subjects in Natural History, 
and to make some discoveries in Botany and Mineralogy, which he flat- 
tered himself might prove acceptable to the Public ; particularly in 

respect to the article of tin ore He intimated also his intention 

of sending to St. Helena, by the ships then on departure, the seeds of 
Buch esculent and other plants, and of such trees or shrubs as he had 
then got ready, and might probably be of use in that island" (Russell). 

After his return from Siam he appears to have entered into a more 
formal Agreement under which he was to devote his whole time to the 
service of the East India Company, whose Board in Madras was pleased 
in 1780 to make an addition to his salary, which met with the approval 
of the Court of Directors in England. 

In the same year (1780) he made a short excursion to Trincomali, 
in Ceylon, and early in 1781 a second excursion to Colombo. He must, 
however, have been in Ceylon before, as an earlier visit is noted in his 
paper on Termites published in 1779, and it v/as during this earlier visit 
that he met with Eutermes 7nonoceros. As he notes (page 331) that 
this was subsequent to his trip to the Nagori Hills, which took place in 
April 1776, he must have visited Ceylon between this date and 1779. 

The beginning of June 1782 witnessed the arrival in India of Dr. 
Patrick Russell, whose name survives to the present day throughout 
India in both the Scientific and English names of Russell's Viper, at 
once one of the best-known and most deadly of Indian Snakes. Koenig 
and Russell met at Tranquebar, immediately after the latter's arrival, 
and at once formed a friendship and commenced a corres])ondence which 
lasted until Kcenig's death three years later. With his accustomed 
liberality Kcenig not only gave Russell a copy of his own list of the Plants 
of the Coast of Coromandel but also a number of specimens, as an induce- 
ment to the latter to interest himself in Indian Botany. 


During the next two years we have no direct knowledge of Koenig's 
movements or doings but it may be gathered between the lines of Dr. 
Russell's remarks that his health was beginning to show signs of becom- 
ing undermined by his strenuous labours in the Tropics during a 
period of upwards of twenty years. Dr. Russell tells us at least that he 
had hinted more than once that Koenig ought to prepare his manus- 
cripts and specimens, so that, in case of his death, they might be 
published, if possible by Sir Joseph Banks or at least under his auspices. 

For some time Koenig had been under a promise to pay a visit to his 
old friend Claud Russell, then Chief of the Company's Factory at Yizaga- 
patam, and with whom his brother Dr. Patrick Russell was then living, 
and in 1784 he fulfilled this promise and stayed for a short time at Vizaga- 
patam on his way to Calcutta. During this halt he examined and 
arranged a collection of plants made by Dr. Russell, who again im- 
pressed upon him the necessity of arranging his manuscripts, which he 
promised to do. But the eagerness with which he sought novelties dur- 
ing the journey and the claims of his work in Calcutta prevented this 
being done and, on his return to Vizagapatam in April 1785, he had not 
carried his good resolutions into effect " though the declining state of his 
health at that time rendered it more than ever expedient to prepare for 
an event which he himself appeared to consider at no great distance." 

For two or three weeks he stayed with the Russells at Vizagapatam 
and during this period he seemed to recover his health to a great extent, 
and in May proceeded to Jagannathpur where he proposed to make an 
immediate commencement of the task of putting his manuscripts in 
order. But towards the end of the month he suffered a relapse of his 
former complaint (dysentery) under which he gradually sank until he 
expired on the 26th of June 1785 in spite of the skill and friendly atten- 
tions of Dr. Roxbm'gh, who was then living close by at Samalkota. On 
6th June he had made his will by which he bequeathed all his papers to 
Sir Joseph Banks and a few days before his death he had seen all such 
papers as were then with him sealed up in the presence of Dr. Roxburgh, 
by whom they were afterwards despatched safely to Sir Joseph Banks ; 
but others of his manuscripts, particularly those left at Tranquebar 
(including the Journal of his visits to Ceylon), were unfortunately not 
recovered, although Dr. Russell and Dr. Roxburgh did ail in their power 
to obtain possession of them. 

For many years Kcenig had maintained a correspondence with 
Linnaeus and other European Botanists eminent at that time, and several 
of his communications to them regarding Indian Botany were published 
in the Transactions of the Societies of Copenhagen and Berlin, or included 
in the works of Retzius and other authors. Although it is certain 


that lie forwarded to Europe most, if not all, of the numerous insects 
described by Fabricius from Southern India, we know nothing of his 
direct interest in entomology beyond the present paper on Termites. 
Considering that absolutely nothing was known of the economy and 
habits of these insects before that time, his observations seem remark- 
ably accurate and serve to show that Koenig set an extremely high 
standard for his time as the first entomological observer who accom- 
plished any scientific work in India. His paper seems well worthy of 
being rescued from the obscurity in which it has remained for over one 
hundred and forty years. 

Translation ob Kcenig's paper on termites. 

In the first volume of the Proceedings of the Berlin Naturalists' 
Association on pages 177 et seq there is an excellent essay by Professor 
J. C. Fabricius concerning the designation of the castes of White Ants. 
As I am now staying in a place where these animals actually have 
their home, both from that circumstance and through the persuasion 
of some friends in Madras, I have been induced to undertake some close 
observations, which I have the honour herewith to lay before the hon'ble 
Natural History Society of Berlin. 

In order to be placed in the position to be best able to learn about 
these animals I picked out a place where they could not be obstructed 
in their work either by force or by want or by other circumstances 
and where their nests were to be met with in large numbers. 

I found such a spot East-South-East from Tanjore (" Tanschaur ") 
where, at a distance of approximately half a German mile [i.e., about 
2^ English miles-T. B. F.], there is a high-lying level plain and almost 
limitless surrounding country of which the soil is formed of a deep-red 
clay which is mixed with a small quantity of coarse sand and, in various 
places, with some small fragments of Tufa (" Tophus "). 

The scanty Flora there consisted for the most part of only : Arislula 
arimdinacea ; SaccJiarum spicatum ; Pharnaceum Molhigo and Ceronna ; 
Hedysarum nummular ia, pulchcUum, diphyllum, hamatuni, hiarticulaiinn ; 
Spen)tacoce hispida ; Viola fruticosa and a new species of Hcgilops. 

Here and there grew a little Riccia where water had stood after the 
rains. On the whole plain there were otherwise no shrubs to be seen on 
the right hand, but to the left at some distance there were the gardens 
of a Moorish hermit and some other desolate places. 

In this locality many hundreds of nests of these animals are scattered 
over the whole plain. 

The area of ground which each nest covers is rarely more than three 
paces in diameter ; most are smaller, and their greatest depth below the 

Page Sl8 

PLATE LI 1 1 (7) 

/ t^^K 



i W^H 












*-•■■ " -" 

■'■ -. 

h . 

. . 


(Photographs by C. Narayana Ayyar). 

Page 318 

PLATE LI 1 1 (2) 

(Photographs by C. Narayana Ayyar). 

Paoe Sid 



'i '^'.■' 



(Photographs by C. Narayana Ayyar). 


soil is three feet. In flat and elevated ground, the chimneys, which they 
are wont to erect, are at the most two feet high ; but it is different if 
the ants build amongst bushes, on old stumps, or on the bunds 
(" Reinen ") of the wet rice-fields ; as then their mounds rear up like 
old ruins to a man's height above ground-level. The number of these 
chimneys, which have more than one opening, is not so accurately 
defined ; however, there is rarely more than one principal chimney which 
is built up like a pillar ; the others are only low ones. 

The principal entrances which lead through these chimneys into the 
earth to the separately constructed chambers of the nest (" abgetheilten 
Wohnungen ") occur in various numbers and are quite irregular. At 
first they go vertically downwards, but divide as soon as they reach 
below ground-level into numerous small passages, and they are mostly 
round. In addition to these, the nests have now and then cavities 
which are at a lower level, and sometimes even quite small ones at some 
depth in the ground. 

Each single nest is divided up into many chambers separated from 
one another ; but these arc placed so irregularly that nothing definite 
can be said regarding their divisions. They are found approximately 
in three rows one below the other and the uppermost lies barely a foot 
below the ground. 

Each single chamber forms a conical vault which is quite flat at the 
bottom and is rounded well-nigh spherically at the top. Their inner- 
surface is everywhere quite smooth and even and they are separated 
from each other by strong partition walls consisting of soil (" durch 
starke Zwischenraume von Erde getrennt."). The entrance to each 
chamber is found at one side, near the floor, and I have never found 
more than one; these lead, as stated above, from the divided main- 

Very rarely I have found that the upper chamber had a gallery 
through its floor leading to the lower chamber. 

The height of a single one of the finished chambers is not above two- 
thirds of a foot, and in diameter it is somewhat more than half the height. 

The semiglobular shape of its arch appears to be characteristic of 
it ; for this is invariably found in all newly commenced and small cham- 

Their dwellings [i.e., the fungus-combs] have, as stated, the shape 
of the vault [in which they are placed] except that they are separated 
everywhere from the inside wall by a small interval ; also on the bottom 
there is not to be found the slightest trace that they are made firm 
somehow or other by an adhesive substance or by any other means. 


They consist of innumerable intercommunicating passages, whicli 
are their cells, whereto most entrances enter from below, a few from 
above and fewest vertically. The shape of the holes of the entrances 
is usually round. The galleries broaden inwardly, in many places, 
yet the openings from one gallery into another invariably keep their 
nearly round shape. The walls of these cells are tuberculated 
(" knotigt ") on their outer and inner surfaces, like a shagreen-skin, 
and this is most distinctly noticeable on the edges near the openings and 
entrances. Through a magnifying-glass they appear fibrous and woolly. 
The thickness of these walls, if they are still recent, amounts to one- 
and-a-half and in most places barely one-third of a line. The inner 
part of these walls is composed of quite delicate filaments and small 
particles of clay fixed together by these animals by means of a cement 
contained in them, as is very plainly to be seen on fracture. 

The colour of these nests depends for the most part on the quality 
of the soil in Vv^hich they occur ; at Tanjore they were reddish, at Tran- 
quebar I have seen them black. The greater age of a nest has also the 
effect of darkening its colour. 

In the rainy season, when I took the cellular "dwellings [fungus- 
combs] out of the ground, they were very fragile. A couple of hours 
afterwards they were harder, and on the second day, when I placed 
them in water, they floated so that a third of these dwellings remained 
above the surface of the water for more than twelve hours. 

In water these cells [combs] do not melt but colour it a little brown 
and give it a somewhat bitter taste which contracts one's mouth. 

When placed in a charcoal-fire, this substance burns with a strong 
smoke which seems to me to be of vegetable origiu. It becomes red-hot 
without disintegrating, keeping the heat for a long time, and some speci- 
mens on touching them have given a kind of ringing noise, especially if 
overturned or dropped on the ground. 

The queen-cell is always in the centre of the nest and always between 
the topmost and lowest stories of the cells. 

It is a quite flat, horizontal vaulted chamber scarcely an inch high ; 
and its breadth is adjusted according to the length of the queen who 
inhabits it by herself. Rarely is she as long as one's finger. The walls 
and the floor are quite smooth and nothing more worth mentioning is 
to be found therein. The entrance to this cell, separated from all the 
others by thick walls of earth, is to be found at the side. 

The neatness which I have observed in all these cells is the sternest 
that can be and I have been unable to discover anything uncleanly 
anywhere in them. 


Just as little have I come across any provision for their mainte- 
nance ; and that I never discovered any thing of this sort was, I con- 
cluded, probably for this reason, because the holes on the upper surface 
of the nest were closed up by the [washing action of the] rain and 
because they are smaller and narrower throughout than they are wont 
to be in summer. 

Before I come to the description of tlie animals, I must mention a 
small plant which grows tolerably abundantly and invariably inside 
the walls of the combs (" Zellen "), According to Sir C. von Linne 
it will be a Mucor and is situated on a stalk bearing rounded composite 
snow-white bodies. It is very small and has quite a short stalk on 
which, as its fruit-part, the small head is to be found and this latter is 
composed of very minute globules and is of a snow-white colour. 
Here and there also, as if strewn, on the aforesaid walls there occur small, 
bent, white filaments which terminate sometimes in a sm.all head, and 
sometimes are club-shaped. 

May not a wise Providence have ordained these minute plants to 
grow here, perhaps for the immediate nourishment of the newly-hatched 
animals, whilst otherwise no nourishment is present in the nest nor can 
any foraging be done ? This I only suppose ; I have not observed it, 
because these young animals are all at once very feeble so soon as they 
come out of the ground into the open air and into daylight. 

The inhabitants of these nests are firstly the males [workers T. B. F.]. 
Their head is for the most part oval, robust, flat, unequally beset with 
hairs ; the neck is a little more elevated and rounded with [an anteriorly] 
projecting margin. The mouth is covered by a shield-shaped, rounded, 
superiorly convex, smooth fleshy membrane, which is sharp at the edge : 
and this is the upper lip. Over the root of this" lip is a broad, heart- 
shaped, smooth, shining elevation which occupies the space between 
both antennae (" Fuehlhoernern "). 

The antennae are composed of rounded joints, which are beset with 
outstanding hairs particularly at those places where they are joined to 
one another ; they are also longer and darker than the head. There 
are no eyes but only a very small dark spot near the root of the antennae, 
on the inner side. 

At the angles of the mouth, on each side, is found a labial palp 
(" Fressspitze ") which is bent crooked against the mouth. It is com- 
posed of four joints of which the outermost is lancet-shaped, flattened, 
bordered with short hairs along the edge and longest [i.e., longer than 
any of the other three joints] ; whereas the other three joints are round- 
ed and the two innermost are quite short. Their whole length reaches 
up to beyond the mouth, 


The upper pair of mandibles (" Fresszangen ") is attached to the 
head behind the angle of the upper lip. Each mandible is thread-like, 
flattened, curved, inbent, horny, on the outer side thick, and rounded, 
on the inner side sharp-edged and furnished with several little teeth, 
mostly towards the base. Its upper side is level, shining black-brown, 
and not longer than the upper-lip. 

The lower pair, whose roots go deeper into the head, are curvedly 
bent, thread-shaped, flat, thinner than the upper ones ; on the inner side, 
before the tip, they have rather large teeth. The constituent parts, 
smoothness, colour length, are as in the upper ones. On either side of 
the mouth this lower pair of mandiles is covered with two mobile lips 
separated one above the other and these grow upon the roots of the 
mandibles. They are linear, flat, obliquely rounded at the end. The 
exterior margin is thick and rounded ; the inner is made up of a thin 
membrane that is overgrown with fine hairs especially towards its tip, 
which [hairs] between each other are of almost equal length and as long 
as the mandibles (" welche unter sich fast von gleicher leenge, und so 
lang wie die Fresszangen sind ") 

The lower lip is flat and split into six threads, which are somewhat 
pointed at the tip and of equal length. Both the outermost pairs are 
more rounded and bent towards the two inner, that are quite straight. 
The root of this lower lip only is short, level and of paler colour, beset 
with fewer hairs than where it is split. 

The tongue is large, round, club-shaped, blunt at the tip, with a 
rust-coloured edge all round, and provided with a transverse line over 
the middle. Moreover, it is smooth and contains much mucus. 

The thorax is rounded, composed of three sharply-defined annular, 
small segments, below which the legs are attached. It is much narrower 
than the head. 

The abdomen (" Bauch ") is oval, elongated and almost double the 
size of the forepart of the body. It has usually eight stumpy annular 
segments, sometimes more, and is strewn with upstanding hairs, especi- 
ally on the sides where they seem to be longer. 

There is nothing remarkable about the six legs ; they are as long 
as the whole body. 

The colour of the head is yellow, like amber, the remaining part of 
the body is whitish. 

Next we remark the female, or the so-called queen. Her head, 
lips, antennae, jaws, tongue and other parts are of like nature as in the 
male ; only they arc many times larger. Beside this, above the antenna) 
there are large, projecting, rounded, black eyes and ocelli, 


The ocelli are situated on the inner side of each eye, transversely 
towards the forehead, and are longitudinal, enclosed, projecting, yel 
lower, shining dots. 

The prothorax is usually flat, edged and somewhat serrated, over- 
grown with hairs, the mesothorax and metathorax are smaller and more 
blunted at both ends. They are, properly speaking, only supports of 
the wings. On each side of these segments anteriorly project a little the 
blunt ends to which were attached aforetime the wings whose roots 
stand out as triangular, mobile stumps. 

The legs are formed as in the male but likewise larger. 

The abdomen is barely the length and thickness of a finger and is 
contracted both above and beneath at seven almost equidistant places 
where an equal number of transverse marks are visible. These are 
linear, narrow, smooth, shining, of a yellow colour, and each extends 
over scarcely a quarter of the width of the abdomen. 

The transverse marks beneath the abdomen are fainter. Between 
these transverse marks the skin is quite smooth, all the remainder of the 
skin is tuberculated, like fine shagreen, and milk-white in perfect speci- 

On each side of the abdomen are seven air-holes which have a like 
number of transverse openings. Each of these openings is longitudinal, 
bordered by a margin ; the hindermost are more rounded and smaller. 

The anus is rather pointed and enclosed above and below by a pair 
of yellow transverse marks like scales such as have been mentioned 

I have only engaged a little in anatomical researches on these animals. 
By means of a cruciform section I found that the tubular intestines 
occupy a small space below in the abdomen throughout its whole length, 
and the remaining area was filled by two cylinders which were as thick 
as a goose-quill and as long as the whole abdomen. Each of these cylin- 
ders was only attached to the general skin by a few filaments, but they 
had no connection with one another. 

They are composed of numerous minute eggs, which are fastened 
to their particular ovaries which only consist of filaments and they are 
joined on very closely to one another. In the midst of them a strong 
tube extends lengthwise which is filled with something marrow-like of a 
darker colour than the rest. Can this be the nourishment for the eggs, 
or the seed for the fertilization of the eggs, or both together ? 

Thirdly, are to be noted the young queens [evidently males which 
have shed their wings. .T. B. F.] which have recently lost their wings 
and have the expectancy of being future queens. They are distin- 
guished from the true queens by their abdomen being but slightly swollen 


and by the transverse dorsal-plates (" Querstreifen ") which are still 
contiguous and of a brown colour. At this time of year I found in each 
nest usually one, sometimes two, very rarely three, individuals of this 
modified form. Still at other times of the year, before they obtain 
wings, their number must be very large, since so many of them fly out. 
I only know them as individuals which have flown from their nest [i.e., 
which have dropped their wings — T. B. F.], and at that time their four 
wings are club-shaped, on the outer side with a strong margin, rounded 
at the tip, veined, finely membranous, brown, of almost equal lengths, 
longer and many times broader than the whole body, which [wings] 
however, break ofi very easily near their base. 

Fourthly, the soldiers (" Spadones ")* remain to be noticed. In 
these the head is more flattened, narrower and more hairy than in the 
male [worker] ; hence the neck is not so rounded of? as in other cases, 
as is indicated by Sir C. von Linne's description of the head. They have 
only the upper pair of mandibles which are much longer and project much 
more beyond the mouth and are often crossed. Each of them is straight, 
slender, pointed inwardly ; towards the tip it has a strong tooth, is nar- 
row, horny, curved, bent inwards and also upwards, smooth, black, 
yellow near the base. In the lower lip the parts are all much shorter ; 
but their [i.e., of the divisions of the lower lip] base is larger and stretches 
further back towards the neck and is as if composed of three parts. They 
have, however, all the parts of the head as described for the male, only 
they are smaller ; the abdomen is longer and more slender. 

Young animals were abundant at this time. Those most developed 
are snow-white ; the younger ones at the same time somewhat trans- 
parent. On the abdomen erect hairs are plainly visible. Because of 
their uniform white colour I could make no discovery about the eyes. 
They lived in the innermost combs of all the chambers. 

The eggs are usually cylindrical, rounded at both ends, small, 
smooth, shining, milk-white, somewhat transparent withal, on one side 
rather more opaque. They were slightly fastened together one upon 
another, without order, on the walls in the interior of the combs ; 
some of the large combs were filled full of them ; their number was very 
large at this time of the year. By which of these animals they have 
been brought there [i.e., into the combs] and how, I have not been 
able to observe. 

The thorax is split up into three segments, whereof the midmost is 
adjoining the neck, whose end has an incision ; both the other segments 
are divided above by a grove and small points project at the sides. 

* Castrated animals i.e., neuters. 


I also found, amongst these eggs, other much smaller bodies, com- 
pressed spherical, somewhat indented on one side by a small hole, 
smooth shining, and sometimes black, in quite small numbers. In 
some few nests I did not find them at all. Whether they belong to 
these or other animals, and whether they are also eggs, remains up to 
now quite unknown to me. 

The people of Malabar call White Ants as a whole " Karreian " 
and their queen " Karrieian Tain," and the winged ones " Isel." 


The time at which I have made the above-mentioned researches 
regarding these animals has not been the best for all purposes ; yet 
it was not destitute of all benefit which amongst other things consisted 
firstly in this fact, that the clayey soil, softened by the rainy season at 
that time, was much easier to open up and therefore I have been able 
to remove all their combs (" Wohnungen ") unbroken, w^hich in the dry 
months would have been far more difiicult. Secondly, their nests were 
not so overcrowded with animals, so that I could investigate everything 
much better without being hindered by these animals; wherefrom it 
follows thirdly, that now that I know so much about them, I can con- 
tinue my researches more correctly hereafter at other times of the year. 
I hope in the future to be able to communicate the results of my investi- 
gations to the Natural History Society, so far as they go. 

Most of the accounts of the great damage, which these animals are 
wont to cause here, are rather exaggerated, like many other stories from 
India of which the strangeness has originated rather in the incorrect 
notions of their authors than from actual fact. 

The golden-yellow spot on the forehead of the males, which Professor 
Fabricius has observed, is not to be found in my specimens, and neither 
(" eben so wenig ") are mine without a tongue which appears to be so 
necessary an instrument for their work, wherefore I conclude that 
the former [i.e., Fabricius'] is another species. 

But certainly I have found at various times certain lice very firmly 
affixed to their heads and these were convex like the genus Coccinella, 
but very small, and at the same time smooth, shining and yellow ; as 
soon as I pressed them hard with a needle, they stuck out their head 
and feet and made ofi. 

The number of males [workers] was at this time only quite small, also 
even in the queen-cell I found more soldiers. According to my observa- 
tions I take them to be blind, at least they appeared to be so at the 
time, when I made my investigations ; and one can scarcely believe 



that this sense-organ should be so hidden in them that more could not be 
found out about it in fully- developed individuals. For the rest I acknow- 
ledge that of the changes consequent upon their age up to their death 
too little is still known to me. 

There is invariably only one queen in each colony (" Wohrnmg ") 
rarely are there two in one nest, and these live in different stories ; very 
rarely are three found. This number applies also to the young queens 
[true males — T. B. F.], that have only small accessory cells (" Nebenloe- 
cher ") to live in. Such a queen into which the soldiers have bitten 
quite firmly, I have preserved in spirit. 

The attendants upon the queens, as stated above, are mostly soldiers, 
so far as numbers are concerned. I do not know their exact functions. 
But it happened to me in the case of several nests that when I 
removed the queen from her cell, these soldiers have clung onto her and 
onto my hand and have bitten so far into the skin that they perforce 
remained sticking therein. When the queen is removed from her cell^ 
she is very soft and flabby, and lets at once a thin sticky moisture 
flow from her. As soon as she is placed in spirits of wine, her body be- 
comes harder and her colour much whiter especially if she is still young. 

Through the effects of age their skin becomes harder, and I have 
found some full of small abscesses and holes in their dorsal skin which 
is quite blackish. 

In such nests where I found individuals like this I was also certain 
that I was bound to find young queens [males or kings] so long as these 
[old queens] still lived in them. 

I have also often found empty nests in which not a single one of these 
insects was to be found and I believe that in these the queen must have 
perished and that no young ones had returned from their flight or re- 
mained at home, in consequence whereof the others had either deserted 
the nest or had died out also. 

I know of no special enemies of the queen that might endeavour 
to disturb her in her cell or to kill her. The entrance into her cell 
is only as broad as a straw-stalk and passes through a strong w^all of 
earth, so that neither can any moderately large animal get at her easily 
. nor can she come out. I have found some few house-crickets in the earth 
near the cells ; but it was not possible for these to enter the small holes 
of the ordinary chambers (" Zellen ") and consequently still less into 
that of the queen. The Kuli-classes, (" Arbeitsleute ") of this place, 
it is said, as soon as they come across a queen by chance through the 
breaking down of old buildings constructed of earth or in other places 
whilst digging, at once swallow her alive ; with the idea that it streng- 
thens their spinal (" im Rucken ") nerves and gives great vigour. I have 


not seen this myself ; but I believe it to be true since I have been able 
so rarely to obtain them [i.e., specimens of queens] near Tranquebar. 

I have already said something concerning the greatest number of 
young females in each nest. Now I will bring forward my proofs [that 
they are indeed young females — really males]. Firstly, the large eyes, 
which all these have which have swarmed. Secondly, the special build 
of the thorax. Thirdly, the two accessory plates which are the supports 
of the wings. All these they have in common with the queens ; but 
in the males [workers] and soldiers these parts are altogether lacking 
or are quite differently shaped. That the [young] queens [i.e., males] 
themselves have been Avinged is proved by the still remaining on 
the wing supports. Notwithstanding there are still other character- 
istics, I tTiink that these will be quite sufficient. 

They fly out like other ants. The time of their swarming out is 
various. Most usually and abundantly they swarm shortly before the 
monsoon rains. In somewhat smaller numbers before the Little 
Monsoon, that is, in April or May, after the first few showers. I have 
also found them flying out in other months in June and July after a few- 
showers, but only in quite small numbers. 

The evening, v/hen it has becom^e quite dark, is the proper time for 
them to leave their nests, and at times they occasion the Europeans some 
inconvenience through flying into their faces and into lighted lamps. 
But hardly does the sun shine on them in the morning, than they break 
off their wings ; whereupon various birds and a few kinds of lizards and 
frogs on a day of this kind enjoy an excellent banquet which stand 
them so much the more in good stead, because some of them have to 
undergo a strict fast on account of the rainy season which follows shortly 
afterwards. This, then, is a great benefit for these animals given to 
them by the wisest foresight of our beneficent creator in order that they 
may better endure the, to them, calamitous times which follow. 

I tliink that I have clearly shoAvn above that these individuals 
which fly out, are only females ; but whether they have been properly 
fertilized before their flight so that they are in a position to start new 
nests for themselves by their ovm effort or whether they go in quest of 
males, wandering short distances from their former nests and attract 
them [i.e., males] to themselves with such an intention [i.e., of starting a 
new nest ("in solcher Absicht zu sich leitten "); this 1 cannot tell for 
certain. Yet I am inclined the more to the former opinion, because 
their abdomen is already rather distended, and because the latter theory 
would also involve more difiiculties. 

The number of flying White Ants of this kind is usually large ; so that 
from one nest if they have been driven out and caught in pots by people 

Y 2 


who occupy themselves with this matter, almost a bushel-full can be 
collected. But this mimber is not always so large ; for the locality, the 
time and the age of a nest makes some difference thereto. 

Though it clearly appears from the foregoing that Providence has 
ordered the flight of the White Ants for the advantage of some animals ; 
yet man even envies them this godsend, for he has found means to fore- 
stall them [i.e., the other animals] to provide himself likewise with a 
kind of food composed of these fugitives before they fall a prey to these 
animals and even before the proper time of their flight has arrived. 

With this object * the inhabitants of these parts, towards the end 
of the month of August or in September, erect over their nests little huts 
of basket-work which are closed above with a round arch of such a size 
that it extends over the breadth and height of a nest. These they 
cover quite thickly with clay ; at the base they make a round opening 
which principally [as the main point] has a position coinciding with 
that of the principal entrance into the nest, so that they can apply and 
fasten a large jar about as big as a bucket, with a mouth a hands 
breadth across, which covers the hole in the hut. Then they let the hut 

* The procedure, as carried on in the Coimbatore District at the present day, is very 
similar but differs in details, At Coimbatore the emergence of the winged Termites is 
said to occur as a rule after the first rainfall in the Tamil month of Audi, correspond- 
ing to July. 

At this time of year the professional Termite-catcher (known as a Valayan in these 
parts) selects a suitable mound, slices off the top level with the ground and pours 
water over it. A framework in the shape of a small domed hut is then built 
over the mound and composed of twigs and small branches of the Babul {Acacia arabica) 
or some other tree, and this framework is then covered thickly with leafy twigs, preferably 
of the Persian Nim Tree {Melia Azadirachta), though why this is preferred to others is 
not stated ; it is used probably because the Persian Nim is a common tree hereabouts. 
A small opening of a size sufficient to admit the Valayan'' s hand, is left in the framework 
(Plate LV, fig. 1), though this also is ultimately closed up with leaves. Close to 
this opening and about the centre of the mound is excavated a pit about a foot 
deep and twelve inches in diameter and the mouth of this pit is narrowed by placing 
leaves of Calotropis gigantea (Tamil Yeruham) around it. (Plate LV, fig. 4). The 
inside of the pit is smoothly plastered with mud and it is then about half filled with water. 
Or sometimes an earthenware pot is buried in the pit and this is half filled with water. 
Everything being now in readiness, the Valayan takes a small quantity of a powder 
made of equal proportions of the roots of Tephrosia spinosa, Pers. (Tamil Molkolingi) 
and the seeds of Hrythrina indica (Tamil Mulmurungai), baked and powdered together, 
and blows this powder into one of the main galleries exposed by slicing off the top of the 
nest. This powder is said to cause the Termites some inconvenience and to hasten their 
emergence. Having blown the powder in, the Valayan lights a small lamp and places it 
by the side of the pit, and then closes up the hut with leaves. The winged Termites 
fly out and fall into the water contained in the cavity, in which they are collected. 

A reasonably good catch is said to yield as much as two Madras measures (of about 
3 lbs. weight each) from a single termitarium. After collection the Termites are dried 
in the sun, when their wings become detached ; in this state they arc sold in the local 
bazaars at a ])rice of about four annas for a Madras measure, but they are only available 
in the bazaars at this particular season of the year. Tiiey arc eaten raw mixed with 
parched (" po]iped ") paddy. Only the lower castes cat this food ; one eighth of a Madras 
measure being as much as is usually eaten at one time ; more than this quantity induces 
dysentery. I have, however, been unable to hoar of any case of death caused by over- 
indulgence in this food, which is said to be both delicate and nourishing. T. B. F. 

Page 328 


Fig. 1.— Termitariuin arranged for capture of winged termites, 
Coimbatore, showing completed structure built over the nest. 

Fig. 2.— Outer layer of leafy twigs removed to show construction and 
internal pit for capture of termites. 


(Photographs by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher). 

Page 328 




Fig. 3.— Another view of figure 2. 

Fig. 4.— Nearer view of pit shown in figure 2 ; the entrance of the pit 
is encircled with Calottopis leaves. 


(Photoeraphs by T. Bainbrigge Fl«tcher). 


dry, so that the clay becomes fairly hard. When they have now decided 
upon the time that seems best they place in the attaching jar some 
leaves of aromatic plants, amongst which deserve to be noted parti- 
cularly the leaves of Bergera, which in Tamil is called " Karu-Wapu- 
Ilei " and is held in greater esteem by the natives of these parts than 
in Europe the leaves of the laurel. Some also take a little of the so- 
called cocus, or else Palmyra juice, which they pour therein. Then 
they fasten the jar to the opening of the hut so that absolutely none of 
these insects can fly out at the sides but all must fly into the jar. They 
wet the earth around the hut with water and then in the evening they 
make a fire round about the hut. Others will only do this on one side 
and think that the light of the fire communicates itself to them, where- 
upon they come flying out. Others again make on the side oposite the 
abovementioned opening a -hole which also leads into the principal 
gallery of the nest, through which they, from a weak fire lighted before 
the hole, blow the smoke into the nest, and thus attract the winged ones 
of this community or forcibly compel them to premature flight. As soon 
as the draught [of the smoke] commences, they are also ready for it [i.e., 
flight], and in quite a short time the jar is filled with these insects which 
the duly-appointed people then take away, and another jar, ready pre- 
pared like the first one, is quickly applied. This they continue to do 
until no more come flying out. So it happens that from large nests they 
obtain three or four such jarsfulL But those who attend to the jar 
must be careful not to get in the jar, instead of the flying White Ants, 
a Coluber naja, or in Portuguese " Cobra de Capello," which is said to 
be very enraged under such conditions because it finds itself in peril. 
They then proceed to kill (" suchen zu toedten ") those of the captured 
White Ants that are not yet suffocated ; then they spread them out on 
mats and dry them in the sun and clean them of their wings. Some of 
them they roast forthwith and eat them at once without further pre- 
paration. I noticed that during the roasting they gave out some 
greasiness. Others are eaten together with roasted rice. But the 
greater portion of them are ground up and mixed with flour of various 
edible kinds of grasses found in this country, such as Holcus svicatus or 
Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cynosurus coracon, Cynosurus auratus and 
many others. From this paste are baked cakes which in some loca- 
lities, in places where these Ants occur commonly, are sold in the 
bazaars. But only the lower castes of the Malabaris eat this food out 
of wantonness (" aus Uebermuth ") ; but sometimes as a sovereign 
remedy (" Heilmittel") in some sorts of wasting sicknesses. The poor 
are those who make most use of these means of nourishment on account 
of the moderate price. Excessive indulgence in this food induces a 


choleraic (lit. apoplectic, " Bauclischlag fluessig ") dysentery so that 
they die of this sickness in one or two hours. 

I have still to remark as something quite peculiar that the greatest 
number of these insects stay in such places where little or no rice is 
harvested ; but where the above-mentioned cereals are most cultivated, 
which is invariably done on the high-lying, dry fields. 

Why the soldier's mandibles are curved upwards, I do not know.- 
They are thereby inconvenienced because, when they bite into soft 
bodies, they [the jaws] go crosswise over one another and they [the 
soldiers] must remain attached thereto, for it is not possible for them 
to disengage themselves on account of the curve of the mandibles : — 
their abdomen is then erected vertically upward away from the locality of 
the bite. Perhaps they remain on this account hanging so fast, partly so 
that their enemies cannot so easily free themselves, partly so that they, 
because their bodies stick out so when biting, block the enemy's passage 
through their extension [into the thoroughfare.] Both males [workers] 
and soldiers are as if confused and dizzy and die in a few minutes if they 
come into the full glare of the sun entirely without shelter; and the true 
Ants are then very busy in satisfying their hunger with them. 

Herewith, for the present, I think I have said sufficient about the so 
notorious species of White Ant. To this I will add my suppositions 
about a few other kinds and will close [my account] with a [note on one 
which is undoubtedly a truly] distinct species. {" einer wirklichen Art."). 
The first * probable [i.e., presumably distinct] (" vermuthlich ") 
kind of these insects lives together in small societies on footpaths in 
grassy localities, and usually "direct their track obliquely over and near 
small paths. They build no mounds (" Gewoelbe ") over themselves, 
like the foregoing ; their body is several times larger and they are also 
proportionately much stouter. I have as yet not had the opportunity 
of making more exact observations as they are very scarce and I 
have also found them only in out- of -the way (" unwegsam ") places. 
The Tamils call them the Finger-post (" wegweisende ") Ants. 

A second probable species I have found in the jungle under large 
trees, running over dry leaves in very long processions as broad as one's 
finger. These are almost as long as a finger- joint, and blackish -grey, 
and I discovered them in the following manner : On one of my journeys, 
when I was travelling through a grassy jungle (" Grasswald "), and it 
was just mid-day, I took refuge under the trees because of the great heat. 
My eagerness to discover novelties soon led me away from my men, and 
thereupon I heard a peculiar continuous rattling whose cause was un- 

* Hcilolermcs viurum, Kcciiig; tho worker is sliowu ou Plato Lll, figures 12-14. 


known to me. After much looking around I retreated a few paces that 
I had advanced during the [continuance of the] sound and then I heard 
this noise again. Then I most carefully paid every attention and saw 
this kind of White Ant under my feet and when I repeatedly interrupted 
their line in various ways, I observed that, in cases w^here they were 
disturbed, they raised up their bodies a little, and with a vibratory 
movement thereof (" mit einer Federkraft damit ") struck downwards 
again wnth their horny mandibles on the dry leaves. By this means was 
occasioned this rain of blows of the large continuous crowd. Precisely 
this, upon my narrative, has an English Captain, Herr Cotgrave, of the 
Tanjore Garrison, quite recently put to the test also in a jungly place. 
Meseems that these insects ought to be named Convulsionarii .'\ 

I now close my review of these insects with a third and undoubtedly 
distinct species which I have only come across in desert places (" Wueste- 
neyen ") in two localities widely separated from one another. Firstly, 
I found them on the summit (" Rucken ") of one of the so-called Pallia- 
catti Mountains, J called Nagori, at the foot of a rock-fissure [from which 
was] projecting a small portion of the nest of which, as well as of the 
insects, it was only possible for me to collect a small sample. The rock 
was moderately overgrown with Byssus antiquitatis. And even the 
little I had obtained I lost in going down from this very high mountain, 
as I found myself between two and three o'clock in the afternoon in 
thick undergrowth where there was no breath of wind and the tempera- 
ture nearly 34 degree-; above zero on the Reaumur scale [108'5 
Fahrenheit], whence I fell down exhausted with the usual consequences 
(" und die Folgen davon hatte, die dabey gewohnlich sind,"). Under 
more fortunate circumstances I found them * for the second time in 

Ceylon, where I [? omission in text] through the so exceedingly 

kind assistance of Commander Christian Rose, who, besides being him- 
self a scholar, is at the same time also a great promoter of the aims 
tending thereto and has shown himself such especially towards me. To 

f Termes convulsionarius, Koenig. This species is not shown in the Plate which 
accompanied Kcenig's paper but his description of the size, colour, and especially the 
habits of his sjiecies can leave no doubt as to its correct identification in the mind of 
anyone who has encountered the wonderful processions of this Termite. A full 
description of its bionomics and structure is reserved for another occasion and it will 
suffice to note here that this is the same species which was redescribed by Desneux, more 
than a hundred years later, under the name of Termes estherce (Ann. ISoc, Ent., Beige 
1907, p, 390). T. B. F. 

% The Nagori Hills, some 40 miles North-West of Madras City, are perhaps referred 
to. See page 315. 

* The species found in Ceylon, Eutermes monoceros, was undoubtedly distinct from 
that found by Koenig in the Palliacatti Hills, as E. monoceros is not known to occur in 
India, E. monoceros, Koenig, is shown in Plate LI I, figures 10, 11 (Soldier), and these 
figures must have been drawn from Sinhalese specimens, as Kcenig evidently implies in 
the t€xt that he lost the specimens collected in the " so-called Palliacatti Mountains." 
T. B. F. 


mentiou but one instance, I was accompanied free of charge to the jungle 
where the Dutch Company has their large wood-cutting place 
(" Holzhauerey ") [i.e., place in the forest where trees are felled.]. There 
I found, amongst a number of undetermined things in Natural History, 
these insects also, in several nests in hollow trees, most of which were of 
very tall growth (" hochstammigt ") and not so easy to reach. The 
most conveniently situated [for taking down] and largest nest amongst 
these was hanging forward, on a large bough of a very thick tree, 
which is called " Kotu-Moil-Elou " in the Hortus Malabaricus, Part 
V, page 3, Table 2, and is a new species of Vitex,'' Linn. This 
bough, which was as stout as a man, I had cut of! two ells lower 
down, close to the trunk itself, with the object of finding perhaps, 
the queen of the nest ; but my plan did not succeed. I found 
only that in this space the galleries of these insects were flatter and 
their divisions leaf-like, and these were stuck together out of 
small, longitudinal, smooth, inwardly and outwardly coal-black particles, 
among which a little sand and earthy matter was mixed. When thrown 
into a charcoal-fire, a fragment of this nest exudes before burning a 
black-brown oily moisture. The smell of the burning is vegetable, the 
ash white, and the specimen crumbles away of itself. On pulverising 
these crumbled ashes, one then finds the little earthy material [which the 
fragment of the nest originally contained]. A specimen of the nest 
placed in spirits of wine imparts to it a greenish colour and a mossy 
odour : but it does nof thereby become more fragile. Still, I think that 
the black colour of these nests is mostly caused by the insect ; although 
at the very beginning I supposed that they had their colour from the 
Byssus antiquitatis ; but here in these forests I looked around for that 
and noted down all the mosses growing on the trees here. Very rarely 
I found Lichen scriptus, sanguinanus,fuscO'ater, and others, from which 
the black colour might be expected. More commonly, I found white- 
grey lichens and red-coloured ones, but Byssus antiquitatis was not to be 
seen at all. 

Concerning the insects themselves, it is not their peculiar blackness 
and differently constructed nests which I have taken as the distinguishing 
characteristics of a distinct species ; but their differently shaped mandi- 
bles, their spherical necks f (" geballeter Nacken "), and the obliquely 
depressed, pointed, moderately large horn on the forehead of the soldiers ; 
and this will be sufficient to distinguish them from the others. From 
this point of view I have taken them for a new species of horned White 

* Vitcx pubcscons, Valil. 

jTho word "neck" liere evidently roferts to the posterior ])ortion of the licad itself 
and not to the junction bolwoen head and thorax. Sej Plato Lll, figures 10 and U. 


Ants whose black colour is at the same time their particular charac- 
teristic ; since, however, my leisure has not allowed me to investigate 
them further and since I have not been able as yet to come across the 
queen, this remains deferred until the future. 

Should anyone wish to improve on my observations, I shall be glad 
to acknowledge this and beg him to authenticate any corrections under 
his own name. My circumstances have hindered me greatly in observing 
with precision ; and, if I myself should find any errors, I shall be ready 
to point these out with all sincerity in the future. 

(Plate LVI) 

By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, E.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 


At our last Meeting, in a paper on Collecting Insects, I described a 
method of rough-and-ready setting of such insects as grasshoppers by 
the aid of small pieces of card through which the pin of the specimen 
is passed and on to which the wings are pegged out with small pins. 
Such a method was not intended to supersede the use of setting boards 
and was only meant to be used for occasional specimens when travelling. 
It has also the obvious disavantage that it is" only applicable with any 
success to small insects in which the height of the thorax (or, more exactly, 
the vertical distance between the lower surface of the thorax and the 
lower surface of the Aving) is inconsiderable ; where this distance is 
appreciable, as in a medium-sized or large dragonfly, the wing is distorted 
downwards where it is pegged or braced onto the card, the result being 
that the surface of the wing is not flat, as it should be. This difficulty 
can be overcome very simply by setting the specimen with the upper 
surface of the wing braced down to the card. The procedure is quite 
simple and success is easily attained with a little practice. A piece of 
thin card or moderately thick glazed writing paper is cut to the approxi- 
mate size of the extended wings and on one corner of this are written 
the data for the specimen. The pin for the specimen is then passed 
through the card up to the height at which the specimen is to be pinned 
and the point of the pin (which is grasped by its head with the forceps) 
is passed downwards through the thorax of the insect, which is then 
pushed up on the pin until the upper surface of its thorax is squarely 
against the card. The pin is then grasped point upwards with the left 
hand and held alongside the edge of a sheet of cork so that the wings on 
one side (with the card beneath them) project over and arc supported 
by the cork. It is now easy to extend the wings and to brace them 
down with paper strips pinned into the card, still supported by the cork. 
When both wings on one side are spread out, there is no difficulty in 
removing the card from the cork, leaving the brace-pins sufficiently 
firmly attached in the card. The other pair of wings is then set out in 
the same way, if required. The specimen is now pinned into the top of 
the store-box, so that when the box is closed the specimen is upside- 
down and the body tends to lie flat on the card, which bears the data 

( 331 ) 

Inge 334 



A dragonfly pinned onto a card, showing method of setting. The daia 
are written on the other surface of the card. 


on the exposed side. When ready for removal, the small pins attaching 
the braces are removed, the card mount pnlled upwards over the head of 
the pin, and the corner with data cut off and attached to the pin 
below the specimen. 

I have used this method quite successfully in the case of Odonata, 
Neuroptera, Orthoptera and large Lepidoptera and can recommend 
it for use when travelling and proper boards are not available. 


By T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Assistant Ento- 
mologist, Madras. 

Recent publications on Oriental Coccidse have shown how our 
knowledge of this group of insects has increased considerably within 
the last decade, in spite of the fact that only very few people have done 
any work in that direction. Apart from the value of the systematic 
study of this group of insects to Science, both Agricultural Entomologists 
and enlightened farmers have begun to realise the importance of scale 
insects from an economic aspect ; this will be realised all the more 
as the fruit industry develops in India, since many Coccidse are pests 
of fruit trees. It is therefore quite likely that greater attention may 
be paid to these insects in the future. In the course of my studies of 
the South Indian species of this family during the last three years it 
often occurred to me that a check list of the Indo-Ceylonese forms might 
be useful in various ways especially to workers in this group all ovei 
India and this paper is an attempt in that direction. No pains have 
been spared to make the list as up-to-date as possible by including all 
forms recorded or noted from this region till now ; but all the same it 
is inevitable that some mistakes or defects must have crept in. I shall 
be very glad to have my attention called to any omissions that may be 
found out by other workers in this line. 

The geographical area which this list is intended to include com- 
prises the whole of British India, Burma and Ceylon. 

In this connection it must be stated that no one has contributed 
to our knowledge of Oriental Coccidse as much as Mr. E. E. Green, one 
of the foremost authorities on this family of insects ; and amateurs like 
me working on this group in India owe him a debt of gratitude for the 
valuable help he has been rendering in this direction. 

The information attempted to be given under each species includes 
one or two important references, one or two of the host plants, and 
the chief localities in the region where the insect was noted ; under 
none of these heads is any attempt made to give complete information. 

Explanation of abbreviations used to denote bibliographical references in 

the list. 

Amcr. Natur. — American Naturalist. 

J. A. S. B, — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 
B J. — Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, Bombay. 

( 336 ) 


I. M. N. — Indian Museum Notes, Calcutta, 
E. M. M. — Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, London. 
Spol. Zeyl. — Spolia Zeylanica, Colombo, Ceylon. 
Bull. Ent. Res. — Bulletin of Entomological Research, London. 

Pusa Mem. — Mcmo'"rs of the Department of Agriculture in India, Pusa, Entomo- 
logical Series. 

Pusa Bull. 87. — Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture in India, Pusa, on Coccidse 

of South India, by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1919. 
Zt. f. wiss insect. — Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftl. Insektenbiologie. 
Arc. Ent. — Arcp^na Entomologica (Wcstwood). 
Hand. Ent. — Handbuch dcr Entomologie (Burmeister). 
P. Z. S. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
T. E. S. — Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 
Gard. Chron. — Gardener's Chronicle. 

Trans. Linn. Soc. — Transactions of the Linnean Society — Zoology. 
Rec. Ind. Mus. — Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
C. of C. — Coccidse of Ceylon by E. E. Green, 4 Vols., London. 
Ind. For. Mem. — Indian Forest Memoirs. 
Imp. For. Bull. — Imperial Forest Bulletin, India. 
Jour. Ec. Biol. — Journal of Economic Biologj^. 
New Zal. Trans. — New Zealand Transactions. 

Mon. Br. Cocc. — Monograph of British Coccidas by Newstead, 2 Vols., London. 
Ent. — Entomologist. 

Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.— Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science Phila- 
delphia. ' 


MonopJilcbus, Burm. 

M. atripennis, Burm., p. 80, Hand. Ent., 

n, 1835. 
M. atripennis, Westw., p. 22, Arc. Ent., 

I, 184L 

M. burmeisteri, Westw., p. 22, Arc. Ent., 

pi. 6, Fig., Fig. 2, 1841. 
Drosicha burmeisteri, Ckll., p. 223, Ent., 

XXXV, 1902. 

M. saundersii, Westw., p. 22, Arc. Ent., 
I, 1841. 

Llaveia saundersii, Ckll., p. 318, Ent., 
XXXV, 1902. 

M. leachii, Westw., p. 22, Arc. Ent., I, 

Drosicha leachii, Ckll., p. 223, Ent., Malabar • Pondi 

XXXV,- 1902. 


Jf. zeylanicus, Green, p. 6, L M. N., IV, On Antidesma bnmi- Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

1896. ns. 

Kuwania zeylanicur, Ckll., p. 258, Ent., 

XXXV, 1902. 



M. Mchblngi Grcon, p. 100, I. M. N., VoL Ou Shorca robusta , United Proviacee . 

3, 1903. 
J/, .stcbbingi, Green, p. 10, Pusa Memoirfe, 

II, 1908. 

M. dnlbcnjicc, Gieon, p. 101, 1. M N., Vol. On Dalbergia sissoo Punjab. 
3, 1903. 

31. stebbingi. Green, var odocaudala. On Mango . . Lahore, 

Green, p. 16, Piisa Memoirs, II, 1908. 
M. .itfbbingl, Green, var ociocaudaln, On Firns spp. . Pnsa, 

Lefroy, p. Ill, Pnsa Memoirs, II, 1908. 

31. iamarindus, Green, p. 17, Pnsa Mem., On tamarind . . Agra. 

II, 1908. 
M. iamarindus, Gieen, Ramakrishna On garden erotona . Godavari district. 

Ayyar, p. 48, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Walkeriana, Sign. 

IF. floriger. Walk, p. 205, Cat. Brit. Mus. 

Suppl., 1858. 
W. floriger, Green, p. 6, I. M. N., IV, On Litsea zeylanico . Pundaluoya, Ceylon 


IF. compacta, QfVeen, p. 6, I. M. N., IV, On unknown plant . Kelani Valle% Ceylon. 

\V. eiiphorbice, Green, p. 0, I. M. N., IV., On Euphorbia anti- Hambantota, Ceylon. 
1896. quorum. 

W. senex, Green, p. 6, I. M. N., IV, 1896 . On Dodonca viscoaa . Chilaw (Ceylon). 

IF. poleii. Green, p. 6, I. M. N., IV, 1896 . Do. . . Do. 

IF poleii, Green, p. 10, Pusa Mem., U, On unknown plant . .South India. 

IF. pertinax, Newstead, p. 197, P. Z. S., 

1900 and p. 125, Bull. Ent. Kcs., VIII, 

IF. pertinax, Now.stcad, Ramakri.shna On unknown plant . Bangalore (South 

Ayyar, p. IS, Pusa Bull., 87 (1919). India). 

IF. cinerea. Green (Notn nud), p. 18, Pusa On Acacia arabica . Surat (Bombay). 

Mem., II, 1908. 
IF. cinerea, Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Sandal wood. South India. 
p. 49, Pusa Bull., 87 (1919). Lawsonia alba, 

Thespesia populnea 
and Pomegranate. 

IF. xylia;, Green, (MS.) . 

On Xijlia 

Sfigmacoccus, Hemp. 

In Nortli Malabar 
(South India). 

S. {Perissopneumon) ferox, Newstcad, p. In nests of the ant Konkan (Bombav). 
250, Ent. M. M. XXXVI, 1900. Occophyllasmarag. 


S. ( Per issopne union) ferox, Nowstoad, 
Green, p. 19, Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 


Icerya, Sign.* 

/. icyckdlarum, Westw., p. 830, Gard. 

chron., 1855. On Ca.^'iia tora, Bellary, Madras. 

I. tangalla, C4reen, p. 7, I. M.N., IV, 1896. mango, casuarina, 

/. scychcllarum, Wcstw., Ramakrishna eto. 

Ayyar, p. 49, Pusa Bull., 87, (1919). 

I. mgypliaca, Douglas, p. 79, Ent. M. M., On Arlocarpus fi\\\i. Widel}' distributed. 

XXVI, 1890. ' Croton, Ficus, 

I. cegyptiaca. Ramakrishna Avyar, p. 49, etc. 

Pusa Bull., 87, (1919) 

^. ;j;799,'f, Gresn, p. 7, I. M. N., IV, 189G. On asp. of grass near Chilaw (Ceylon). 

/. piloaa. Green, p. 18, Pusa Mem., II, On Spinifex squar- Madras. 
1908. rosus. 

I. crocea, Green, p. 7, I. M. N., IV, 1896 . On Citrus, croton Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

and Coccv.lus. 

l.formicarium, Newst., p. 169, Ent. MM., In ants' nests . India. 

XXXIII, 1897. 

/. minor. Green, p. 17, Pusa Mem., II, On mango . ., Bihar. 


Margarodes, Giiilding. 

M. forimcarum. Guild., p. 115, Trans., 

Linn., Soc, 1828. 
M. formir.aruni, Atkinson. J. A. S. P>., LV, ... South India. 


M. indica. Green, p. 73, Rec. Tnd. Mus., ... Bangalore; Bombay 

VII, 1912. 

Irl. niger. Green, ji. 75, Roc. Ind. i\Ius., Under soil near grass Mysore; Bellary; 

VII, 1912. roots. Coimbatorc. 

M. niger, Ramakrisima Ayyar, p. 47, 

Pusa Bull., 87 (1919). 

il/. ?x(p?Mos«, Green, p. 74, Rec. Ind. Mus., Under soil near grass Bellary and Banga 
VII, 1912. roots. lore. 

Orthezia, Bosc. 

0. insignis, Dougl., Green. Cire., I, (10) 
Roy. Bot. Gardens, 18 9. 

0. insignis, Dougl. Green., page 6, 1. M. N. On numerous shrubs Kand\^ (Ceylon^. 
IV, 1896. 

0. insignis, Dougl., Ramakrishna Aj'yar, On Lantana, etc. . Nilgiris, Wynaad, 

p. 50, Pusa Bull., 87 (1919). Noted only once or 


* Icerya p't.rc\a<i, recordai from Ceylon, is omitted from this List, — Editor, 



ConcJiasjns, Ckll. 

C. sociaUs, Green, p. 20, C. of C, pt. I. 1S9G 



Tachardia, Blanch ard. 

T. lacca, Kerr., p. 374, Philos., Trans. On Dalbcrijia, Pon- In South India. 

LXXl', 1782. 
T. lacca, Kerr., Imms. and Chattcrjec, gamia, Rain tree 

Ind. Forest Mem., 1915. (Piihecolobium 

T. lacca, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 46, Pusa soman), etc. 

Bull., 87 (1919). 

T. lobata, Green (Nom nud ?) Rama- On Thcsj^esia 
"krishna Ayyar, p. 47, Pusa Bull., 87 
( 1919). 

Madanapalle, South 

T {Carteria) dccorella, Maskell., p. 58, 1. On tea 
M. N., IV, (2) 1890. 

T dccorella var thcoi, Green, p. 348, Pusa Do 
Mem., I, 1907. 

. Northern India. 

. Darj iling. 

y. y'iCf,Green,p. 97,1. M. N., V, (3) 1903 . On Ficits rcligiosa . Monghyr (Bihar). 

T. albizzice. Green, p. 32, Jour. Ec. Biol., On Landolpliia, Al- Peradeniya (Ceylon), 
VI, 1911 and p. 27, Pusa Mem., II, 1908. bizzia, Croton, etc. Darjiling. 


Asterolecanium, Targ. 

A hambvsce, Boisd., Green, p. 328, C. of On Bamboo . 
"C, pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXXV. 

A bambuscebambusvlcB,C\dl., -p. 590, Do. 

Amer, Natur., XXXI, 1897, 

A. exigtium, Green, p. 315, C. of C, pt. IV, Do. 

1909, PI. LXVII. 

A. rubrocomatum. Green, p. 310, C. of C, Do. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXIX. 

A. tenuissimum. Green, p. 318, C. of C, Do. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXX. 

.A.itcia^anice, Green, p. 319, C. of C. Pt. IV, Do. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXX. 

A. aiirenm, Boisd., Green, p. 320, C. of On Orchid 
C., Pb. IV, 1909, Pi. CXVIII. 

A. fUivociliatum, Green, p. 321, C. of C, On Aruvdivaria 
Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXXXi. 

A. pudibundum, Green, p. 323, C. of C. 


India ? 
Yatiyantota (Ceylen). 


Udagama (Ceylon). 
Pcradenij'a (Ceylon). 
Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 




A. ceriferu7n, Green, p. 324, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Bamboo . 

1909, PI. CXXIII. 
A. ceriferum var prominens. Green, p. 326, Do. . 

C. of C., Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXXIII, fig. 


A. coronatum. Green, p. 327, C. of C, Pt. Do. 

IV, 1909, PI. CXXIV. 

A. tumidum, Green, p. 330, C. of C, Pt. IV, Do. 

1909, PI. CXXI. 

A.thespesice, Green, p. 331, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Thespesia . 
1909, PI. CXXII. 

.4.(ZeZtcaiuw,Green,p.332,C.ofC.,Pt. IV, On Bamboo . 

1909, PI. CXXVI. 
A. delicatiim, Green, p. 5, I. M. N., IV, 


A. solenophoroides, Green, p. 334, C. of C, On Arundinaria 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXXVII. 
A. solenophoroides, Gioen,]). 216,1. M.'N., On Bamboo . 

IV, (4) 1896. 

A. lanceolatum. Green, C. of C, IV, (Pre- 
face 1909). 

A. lineare, Green, p. 336, C. of C, pt. IV, On Arnndinaria 
1909, PI. CXXVIII. 

A. milearis var longa, Green, (Part) p. 5, Do. 

I. M. N., IV, 1896. 

^. m;7("«ri's var Zo/i^ra, Green, Ramakrishna On Bamboo . 
Ayyar, p. 46, Pusa Bull., 87 (1919.) 

A. millaris Boisd., Green, p. 338, C. of C., Do. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PL CXXIX. 
A. miliaris var robusta, Green, p. 121, Do. 

Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 


Nuwara Eliya (Cey- 

Udagama (Ceylon). 
Jaffna (Ceylon). 
Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 


PeradeniyH (Cej'lon). 

A. grande, Newstead, p. 182, Ent. M. M., Onagrass-likoplant Baluchistan. 

XXX, 1894. 
A. grande Newstead Green, p. 19, Pusa Do. . Do. 

Mem., II, 1908. 

Cerococcus, Comstock. 

C. hibisci, Green, p. 19, Pusa Mem., II, On branches of Hi- Bombay ; Pusa. 

1908. bisons. 

C. hibisci. Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Cotton, Hibiscus Coimbatore, Goda- 
p. 45, Pusa Bull., 87 (1919). rosa-sinensis. vari and Madura. 

C. ornatus. Green, p. 300, C. of C, pt. IV, On bark of coffee PundaIuoya( Ceylon). 

1909, PI. CXV. plant and on Carissa. 

C. albospicatus. Green, p. 308, C. of C, On Symplocos obtnsa Nuwara Eliya (Coy- 
Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXVI. , Ion). 

C. rosens. Green, p. 310, C. of C, Pt. IV, On unknown trees . Trincomaii (CWlon) 
1909, PI. CXVII. 


. Assam. 


G. ficoides, Green, p. 225, Ent. M. M., On tea . 

XXXV, 1899. 
C. ficoides, Green, p. 102, I. M. N., V(3), Do. . 


C. indicus, Green, p. 5, Jour. Ec. Biol., V, On Helecteres tsora . Saharanpur (U. P.) 

C. bryoides, Maskell, p. 84, New Zel. Tr., On Hibiscus rosa- Madras. 

XXVI, 1893. sinensis. 

C. bryoides, Maskell, Ramakrishna Ayyar, 

p. 46, Pusa Bull., 87(1919). 

Eriococcus, Targ. 

E. araucarice, Mask., Green, p. 7, 1. M. N., On Aravcaria 

IV, 1896. 
E. araucarice. Mask., Green, Ramakrishna On a Conif r . 

Ayyar, p. 46, Pusa Bull., 87, (1919) 

E. lagerstroemice, Kuw., Ramakrishna On Dalhergia . 
Ayyar, p. 46, Pusa Bull., 87, (1919) 

E 'paradoxus. Mask, var indica, Green, On Helectres isora 
I. M. N., IV, 1899. 

Nuwara Eliya 


Bancralore (Svuth 

Courtallum (South 

Saharanpur (North- 
ern India). 

Anomalococcus, Green. 

A. cremastogastri. Green, p. 261, Ent. M. 

M., XXXVIIT, 1902. On Ficiis, Feronia, Peradeniya (Ceylon), 

A. cremastagastri. Green, p. 303, C. of C, etc. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXI. 

A. indicns. Green, (MS) Ramakrishna On Acacia arabica . Coimbatore (South 
Avyar, p. 45, Pusa Bull, 87, 1919. On Acacia lencophloca India), Bangalore. 

Lejroijia, Green. 

L. cattanece, Green, p. 21, Pusa Mem., II, On Castanea sp. . Shillonp (Assam). 

PolUnia, Targ. 

P ce?//omca Green, p. 341, C. of C.,pt. IV, On unknown plant . Ramhoda (Ceylon). 
1909, PI. CXXX. 

Amorphococms, Green. 

A. mesucp.. Green, p. 261, Ent. M. M., 

XXXVIII, 1902. On Mesna ferrea 

A. mesuce. Green, p. 343, C. of C, pt. IV, 

1909, PI. CXXXI. 

Lecaniodiaspis, Targ. 

L. azadirachtce. Green, p. 298, C. of C, On Margosa . 
Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXII. 

L. malaboda. Green, p. 300, C. of C, On Myristica . 
Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CXIII. 

Peradeniya (Ceylon). 

Jaffna (Ceylon). 
Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 



Kermes, Beit, 

K. kimalayenais, Green, p. 1, Ent. M. M. On Quercus incana. Northern India. 
XX, 1909, (fig.). 


Dactylopius, Costa. 

D. (Coccus) indicua. Green, p. 28, Pusa On Opunt la dillenii 

Mem., II, 1908. 
D. indicus. Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Opuntia 

p. 39, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Kangra Valley 

(Northern India). 

Godavari district 

(South India). 

Pseudococcus, Westw. 

P. citri, Risso, Green, p. 22, Pusa Mera., On Coffee . . Mysore. 

II, 1908. 

P. citri, Risso, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 37, On Erythrina, Cacao Nilgiris, etc. 
Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. pods. 

P. longispinus, Targ-Newstead, p. 255, On Jasmine and Ceylon ; Calcutta. 

Mon. Br. Cocc, II, 1903. Croton. 

Dactylopius longifilis, Barlw., etc., I. M. On Cedar . . Mysore. 

N., IV, pp. 7 and 75, 1896 and 1897. 

P. longispinvs, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 40, On coconut . . South Malabar. 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. virgatvs, Call., p. 178, Ent., XXVI,"" 

Dactylopius, Green, p. 7, I. M. N., IV, 

D. ceriferu.f, Newstead, p. 24, I. M. N., 

III, 1895. 
P. virgatus, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 40, 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

On croton, tomato, India and Ceylon, 
cotton, etc. 

P. {Dactylopius) Ckll. p. 266, Proc. 

Ac. Nat. Sc. PhU., 1899. 
Dactylopiui sacchari. Green, p. 102, I. M. On sugarcane 

N., V, (3), 1903. 
P. (Dactylopius) sacchari, Ramakrishna On paddv 

Ayyar, p. 41, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. (Dactylopius) saccharifolii. Green, p. On sugarcane 
23, Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 


Tanjore. Trichino- 
poly, etc., in South 


P. (Dactylopius) viridis, Newst., p. 25, On Hygrophilia and Madras. 

I. M. N., Ill, (5), 1894. Rain tree. 

P. (Dactylopius) cocotis. Mask., p. CO, On coconut . . Laccadive.''. 

I. M. N., 111,(1), 1893. 

P. (Dactylopius) cocotis, Ramakrishna Do. . . Malabar. 

Ayyar, p. 42, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. (Dactylopius) nipce,, Green, p. On cotton and potato Bentr.l. 

23, Pusa Mem., II, 1908. tubers. 

P. (Dactylopius) nipm V. 8. Ayyar, p. 8, On Casvarina . Coroniandel 

Imp. For. Bull., 11, 19 Madras. 


z 2 


P. {D.) bromelicB Bouche Cotes, p. 51, On mulberry . . Berhampore( Bengal), 
I. M. N., Ill (5), 1894. On Pine-apple . N. Malabar, (T. V. 


P. (D.) scrobicularum. Green, p. 8, I. M. On E'toocor^ras Pundaluoya (Ceylon.) 
N.,IV, (1), 1896. leaves. 

P. (Z).)/or»ii'ce<('coZa, Newst., p. 86, Ent. In Cremastogaster Konkan (Western 
M. M., XXXVII, 1901. nests. India). 

P. ( D.) thecBGola, Green, p. 347, Pusa On tea . . . Assam. 
• Mem., I, 1907. 

P. co/«/»i6atos, Green, (MS.) Ramakrishna On cotton, jak and In different parts of 
Ayyar, p. 41, Pusa Bull, 87, 1919. Citrus. South India. 

P. crotonis* Green, p. 35, Jour. Ec. Biol., On rubber (Castilloa) Ceylon. 

VI, 1911. 

P. crotonis, Raniakrishna Ayyar, p. 41, On Adenophijlhim Coimbatore and the 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. and Ficiis. Northern Circars. 

Naiacoccus, Green. 

N. serpentinus. Green, p. 117, Rec. Ind. On Tamarix articu- Lahore. 

Mus., XVIII, 1919. lata. 

N serpentinus var minor, Green, p. 118, On Tamarix stri da . Baluchistan. . 

Rec. Inn. Mus. XVIII. 1919. 

Phenacoccus, Ckll. 

P. (Pseudococcus) manr/iferce, Green, p. 7, On mango . . Pundahioya (Ceylon). 

I. M. N., IV, (I), 1896. 

P. (Pseudococcvsmanfjiferce, Green, Ueiina,- On mango, Echitis Coimbatore; Viza- 
krishna Ayyar, p. 43, Pusa Bull., 87, leaves. gapatam district. 


P. hirsittus, Green, p. 25, Pusa Mem., On unknown tree 

II, 1908. without locality. 

On Mulberry . . Northern India. 

I have recently 
noted this species 
on Ficus leaves in 

P. iceryoides. Green, p. 20, Pusa Mem., On mango . . Calcutta and North- 

II, 1908. ern Circars, Madras. 

P. iceryoides, Raniakrishna Ayyar, p. 43, On Odina wodier . Coimbatore. 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ' On Citrus . . N. Circars, Madras. 

On Capparis . . Surat (Bombay). 

On Boswellia . . Tanjore (Madras). 
On Rain- tree, cotton, 

P. insolitus. Green, p. 20, Pusa Mem., II, On Sida cordifolia . Pusa. 


P. insolitus. Ramakrislina Ayyar, p. 42, On Brinjal plant All over South India. 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. (Solavum). 

P. hallardi, Newst., p. 17, Bidl. Ent. 

Res., VIII, 1917. On Mango . . Coimbatore (South 

P. hallardi, Raniakrishna Ayyar, p. 43, India) 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

* The correct name nppears to be lilacinus, Ckll. (see p. 18, ante) — Editor. 


P. ornatus. Green (M8.) Ramakrishna On wild jasmine Courtallum (South 

Ayyar, p. 44, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. creeper. India) and Ceylon 


P. gMar<e>-KM.s, Green(MS.) V, Subramania On Casvariva eicm Coromandel Coats 
Ayyar, p. 8, Impl. Forest Bull., 11, 1912. (Madras). 

Ripersia, Sign. 

B. sncchari, Green, p. 37, I. M. N., V(2) On sugarcane . Gorakhpur (TJ P ) 
1900. ' * 

E. sacchari, Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, Do. . Coimbatore (South 

p. 44, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. India). 

E. thece, Rutherford, p. Ill, B. J., XXIV, On tea . . . Peradeniva (Cevlon) 

1915. J ^ J- I 

E. resinophila. Green, v. 395, Bull. Ent. On Phiuti lomjifolia Himalayas 
Res., VI, 1916. ^ ^ 

Antonina, Sign. 

^.tnd(Cfl,Grecn,p.27,Pu3aMem.,II, At base of crass . . Bengal 

1908. " 

[I have recently noted this under roots of grasses in Coimbatore (South India).] 

A. maritima, Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On roots of grass . Coimbatore (South 
p. 45, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. India). 

A. zonata, Green, p. 175, Ent. M. M., V, On Bamboo (Temos- Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 
1919. tychwm atlenuatum). 

Kermicus, Newstead. 

K. wrouqhtoni, Newst,, p. 170, Ent. M. India 

M., XXXIII, 1897. 


Aclerda, Sign. 

A. japonica, Newst., p. 84, Ent. M, M., ^ 

XXXVII, 1901. / 

A. japonica, Green, p. 95, I. M. N., V(3), \ ^" Sugarcane . Northern India. 

1903. ; 

.4. disiorte. Green, p. 290, C. of C.,Pt. IV, On Arundinaria . Pundaluova (Ccvlon) 

1909, PL CXI. :> ^ y I- 

Ceronema, Mask. 

C. koebeli. Green, p. 250, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Saijium sebifcrvm Kandv (Cevlon) 
1909, PI CXVI. J- \ . ; 

(7. te6eZt, Rutherford, p. 267, Bull. Ent. On Pithecolobium . Peradeniva (Cevlon) 
Rea., V, 1914. ^ ^ ^ '' 

C. japonica, Mask., p. 243, Ent. M. M., On tea. . . Bengal. 

XXXIII, 1897, and p. 11, I. M. N., 
V(l) (Green). 


Eriochiton, Mask. 

^. </ie(C, Green, p. 10, I. M. N.,V(1), 1900 On Tea . . . Darjiling. 

Ceroplastes, Gray. 

C. cerifa-us Anclerson-Cjrccn, p. 270, C. of On Law-soiiia (Coimbatorc) other trees in 
C, Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CIV. different parts of India ; on mulberry, 

Ficns, etc., in Ceylon. 

C. eeriferus Raraakrishna Ayyar, p. 29, On coconut (Malabar, Coimbatore) Ficus. 

Pusa Bull, 87, 1919. 

C. actinlformi'S, Green, p. 275, 0. of C, CaloplujUiDtt, Canna, etc., in different 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CIV. parts of South India ; also noted on 

C actiniforim'-i. Green, Ramakrishna coconut, etc., in Ceylon. 

Ayyar, p. 29, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

C. rtibens, Mask.. Green, p. 27.*^, C. of ('., On tea, pear, mango, Ceylon. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. cm. ete.. 

C. riiliens. Mask., Raniakrishua Ayyar, On jak, mango, palms. In .South India, also 

]). 3(\ Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ' Valophyllvm. noted in Assam. 

C. fioridensi'i, Comst., Green, p. 227, C. On tea, guava, etc. . All over Ceylon. 

of C, Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CV. 
(7. /?o/'frf'!/t!}f.s, Comst., llamakrishna Ayyar, On Anacardkun, South India. 

p. 30, Pusa, Bull., 87, 1919. " " MicJiella, etc. 

Ceroplastodes, Ckll. 

C. cajani, Mask., Green, p. 28.5, C. of C, On Abrv.s, Atijlosia, etc. In Ceylon. 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CVIII. 
C. cajani. Mask., Green, Pusa Mem., II, On Oc(m(/j« (Calcutta 6'o/e«5 (Surat). 

C. cajani. Mask., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Zizijphus, lab-lab 
p. 32, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. and Ocm«w( Coim- 

batore), on red 
gram all over South 

C. chiton, Green, p. 287, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Cassia . . Mahailluppalama 
1909, PI. CIX. (Ceylon). 

C. virescens. Green, p. 288, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Cacao . . Matale (Ceylon). 

1909, PI. CXX. 

Inglisia, Mask. 

7. chelonioides, Green, p. 283, C. of C, On Geloninmlanceo- Pundaluoja (Ceylon). 

Pt. IV, 1909, PI. CVII. latvm. 

I. chelonioides, Green, p. 283, C. of ('., On Parkivsonia acii- Coimbatore (South 

Ayyar, p. 31, Pusa Bidl., S7, 1919. Icata. India). 

/. bivalvata, Green, p. 95, I. M. N., V(3), On Thespcsia pojnil- Rameswaram (South 

1903. nea. India). 

7. bivah'ata, Grean. Ramakrishna On red gram Godavari district 

Ayyar, p. 31, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. {Cajanvs). (South India). 

/. cafUllom, Green, p. 29, Jour. J^c. Biol., On Castilloa . . Ko.slanda (Ceylon), 
VI, 1911. 


Pseudopalvinaria, Atk. 

P. sikklviensls, Atk., p. 58, J. A. S. J3., Un Cinchona . . Sikkim. 

LVIII, Pt. U, 1889. 

Protopulvinaria, Ckll. 

P. lotvjlvalvafa, Oreen, p. 254, C. of C, Oa Piper nigrum . Heueratgoda (Ceylon). 
Pfc. IV, 1909, PI. XCV. 

NeolecaniutH, Parrot. 

.V. cnisfuliforim, Green, p. 252, C. of C, Uu unknown tree . Chilaw (Ceylon). 
Pfc. IV, 1909. 

N. cituiamomi, Rutherford, p. 2(55, Bull. On ? ? . . . Ceylon 


iV. pseudolece, Rutherford, p. 112, B. J., On Cmnamou . Peradeniya (Ceylon). 

XXIV, 1915. 

Vinsonia, Sign. 

V. sleUifera, Wesfcw., Green, p. 280, C. of ") On mango, coconut, Ceylon. 

C, Pfc. IV, 1909, PI. CVI. f Garcinia, etc. 

V. stdlljtra, Westw., Ramakrishna Ayyar, ( On coconut, rose- In bouth India. 

p. 30, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ^ apple, nutmegs, etc. 

Pulvinaria, Targ. 

P. psidii. Mask., Green, p. 2ti4, C. of C, On guava, citrus, All over Soutli India 
Pt. IV, 1909, PI. C. Morinda, mango, and Ceylon. 


P. psidii, Mask., Ramakrishna Ayyar, 
p. 27, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. tkespesioe. Green, p. 259, C. •of C, Pt. On Thespeda . Jaffna (Ceylon). 

IV, 1909, PI. XCVII. 
P. thespesicB, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 28, Do. . . Godavari and Tan- 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. jore (South India). 

P. <e56eZ;ate,Green, p. 260, C. of C.,Pt. IV, On Ophioirhyza and Pundaluoya and 

1909, PI. XCVIII. Strobilanthus. Nuvara Eliya 


P.ce^M^osa.Green, p. 262,C. of C.,Pt. IV, On Citrus . . Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

1909, PI. XCIX. 

P. ixoroB, Green, p. 206, C. of C, Pt. IV, On Ixora coccinca . Batticaloa (Ceylon). 
1909, PI. CI. 

P. tomentosa, Green, p. 267, C. of C, Pt. On ? ? . . Pundaluoya (CeyJon). 

IV, 1909, PI. CI. 

P. floccifera, Wesfcw., Green, p. 7, 1. M. N., On Acahjphn leaves Calcutta. 
V(l), 1900. 

P. maxima. Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Melia and Coimbatore (South 
p. 28, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Cotton. India). 

On Jatropha curcas . Kistna district (South 


P. burkilli. Green, p. 31, Pusa Mem., II, On Croton . . Calcutta. 

P. obscura, Nowstead, p. 23, I. M. N., On Hygrophila spi- Madras. 
111(5), 1894. nosa. 

Lecanium, Burm. 

L. nigrum, Nict., Green, p. 229, C. of C.,^ On numerous plants All over India and 
Pt. I, 1904, PI. LXXXIV. f specially coffee, Ceylon. 

L. nigrum, Niet, Ramakrishua Ayyar, \ sandalwood, Por- 
p. 32, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ^ tia tree, cotton. 

L. hemisphcericum, Targ, Green, p. 232, On coffee and many South India and Cev- 

C. of C, Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXV. other plants. Ion. 

L. hemispluerician, Targ, Green, Rama- 

krishna Ayyar, p. 32, Pusa Bull., 87, 

L. hemisphcericum var filicum, Bdv., On ferns . . Salem ; Ganjam 

Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 33, Pusa Bull., (South India). 

87, 1919. 

L. hesperidum,h. Green, p. 188, C. of C, On tea, citrus, etc. . Ceylon. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXIII. On Dalbergia . . Bengal. 

L. hesperidtim L. Green, Ramakrishna On Coconut . . Malabar. 

Ayyar, p. 33, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. On Citrus . . (iodavari. 

L, olece, Bern, Green, p. 227, C. of C, On Greivia, Duranta, Ceylon. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXIII. Thespesiaa,ndCaja- 

L. olece, Bern, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 33, '"'« indims. 
Pusa, Bull., 87, 1919. On Erythrina, tama- South India. 

rind, Sesbania, 
Thespesia and 


L. longulwu, Doug., Green, p. 221, C. of On Albizzia, Acacia, Ceylon. 
C, Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXX. Grevillea, Loran- 

thus, etc. 
L. lowjulum, Doug., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Vitis . . Assam. 

p. 34, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. On Cajamis indicus Godavari (South 


L. expansum, Green, p. 235, C. of C, On Dalbergia and Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXVI. Litsea. 

L. expansum. Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Calophyllum and Madras, Mysore. 

p. 34, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Ficus retusa. 

L. expansum viivquadralum,Grc(Mi, p. 2W, On nutmeg . . Balangoda, Ceylon. 

C. of C, Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXVI. 

L. formicarii. Green, p. 190, C. of C, On tea, cinchona, Ceylon. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXIV. etc. 

L. formicarii, Green, Pusa Mem., II, On unknown plant . Mysore. 

1908, p. 29. 

L. ramakrishnce, Green, (MS.) Rama- On Ficiis bengalensis Godavari (South 

krishna Ayyar, p. 35, Pusa Bull., 87, India). 


L. aigniferum, Green, p. 197, C. of C, On Begonia sp., Ceylon. 
Pt. Ill, 1904, PL LXVIII. Caryoia. 



L. signiferum, Ramakrishna Avyar, p. 35, On banana leaves. 
Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

L. adersi, Newstead, p. 357, Bull. Ent. On Mango 

Res., VII, 1917. 
L. adersi, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 35, 

Puea Bull., 87, 1919. 

Vizagapatam Dis- 



L. tessellatum. Green, p. 200, C. of C, On Calophyllum . Do. 

Ft. VII, 1904, PI. LXI. 
L. tessp.Uatum, Sign., Ramakrishna Ayyar, 

p. 36, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 
L. tessellatum var perforatum, Newst., On Cunjota, Cinna- Ceylon. 

Green, p. 207, C. of C, Pt. Ill, 1904, mon, Coconut, etc. 


L. mercaroe. Green (MS.) Ramakrishna On Coffee. 
Ayyar, p. 36, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

L. gymnospori, Green, p. 29, Pusa Mem., On Gyiimos porta 

II, 1908. 
L. gymnos'pori , Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, 

p. 36, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Coorg (South India). 

Narasaraopet (South 

L. marsujnale, Green, p. 212, C. of C, On black pepper, Ceylon. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. 1904, PI. LXXV. Pathos and Anona 

L, tnarsupiale, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 3(5, On black pepper 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Malabar and Ana- 
malais (South 


L. depressiim, Targ, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Branthymum, Coimbatore 
p. 36, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Thespesia and India). 

(Maskell considers this the same as L. nigrum, N.). 

L. acutissirnum, Green, p. 218, C. of C, On coconut, areca, Ceylon. 
Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXVIII. pepper, etc. 


L. acutissirnum, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On coconut and 
p. 37, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. mango. 



L. viride, Green, p. 199, C. of C, Pt. Ill, On coffee, citrus, Ceylon. 

1904, PL LXIX. cinchona, etc. 

L. viride, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 37, On coffee, citrus, South India 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Aegle, Curissa, 

Guava, etc. 

L. ophiorrliizce. Green, p. 193, C. of C, On Ophiorrhiza 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXVI. 

Pundaluoya, (Ceylon). 

L. ophiorrhiza:, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 37, On Diospyros cMo- Kurnul (South India). 
Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. roxylon. 

Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

L. discrepans, Green, p. 204, C. of C, On Tea . 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXX. 

L. discrepans, Ra nakrishna Ayyar, p. 38, On mango and Godavari District. 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919, banana. 

L. capparidis, Green, p. 187, C. of C, Pt. On Capparis moonii Pundaluoya, Cevlon. 
Ill, 1904, PI. LXIII. ^ ^ 

L.frontale, Green, p. 192, C. of C, Pt. Ill, On Calophyllum 
1904, PL LXV. 



L. acuminatum, Sign., Green, ji. 195, C. of On </a«w</j«w7/i leaves Pundaluoya, Ceylun. 
C, Pt. Ill, 1904, PL LXVII. 

L. puiKtuliferum, Green, p. 205, C. of 0., On Michella cJiam- Pcradtniya (Ceylon). 

Pfc. Ill, 1904, PI. LXX. paka and uiango. 

L. subtessellatum. Green, p. 2m, C. of C, On ? ? . . Kandy (Ceylon). 
Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXI. 

L antidesmcE, Green, p. 209, C. of C, On Antidcsvia . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1904, PI. LXXIII. 

L mperis, <ireen, p. 210, C. of C, Pt. Ill, On Fipcr sp. an Do. 

1904, PI. LXXIV. Psyclwlna. 

i, bicruciatum, Green, p. 214, C. of C, On Eugenia, CuUophy- Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXVI. Hum, etc. 

L maftafYercc, Green (1889) Green, p. 21U, On mango and Do. 

*C. of C., Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXVII. Lltsea. 

L arundinarioe. Green, p. 220, C. of C, On Arundinariu sp. Do. 
Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXIX. 

£, ca(icfa«u»/i, Green (1896) Green, p. 223, On coffee, Loran- Kandy, Ceylon. 

G. of C., Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXI. thus, 

L psidii, Green, p. 225, G. of C., Pt. Ill, On guava, jak, etc. . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
1904, PI. LXXXII. 

L waromatew, Green (1896) Green, p. 237, On Psychoiria Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

'C. of C., Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. LXXXVII. thivaitesii. 

L oeo«4e«ricMm,Green( 1896) Green, p. 239, On Glycunmis ptxla- Do. 

Pt. Ill, 1904, C. of C, PI. LXXXVIII. phylla. 

L calophylli. Green, p. 240, C. of C, Pt. On Culuphyllum . Nuwara Eliya, 

III, 1904, PI. LXXXIX. Ceylon. 

L pemdentyewse. Green, p. 341, C. of C, On Fipcr nigrum . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. XC. 

L. planum, Green, p. 243, C. of C, Pt. Ill, On Nothopegia . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
1904. PI. XCI. 

L ^oTiatom, Green, p. 245,C. ofC.,Pt. Ill, On Garcinia . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
1904, PI. XCII. 

L. maritimum. Green ( 1896) Green, p. 246, On Curissa ? and Colombo, Ceylon. 

C. of 0., Pt. Ill, 1904, PI. XCII. Ixora on seashore. 

L. «;a«t. Green, p. 6, 1. M. N., V(l), 190U. On tea . . . Assam. 

L. caprece, Linn.,Green, p. 29, Pusa Mem., On almond . . Baluchistan. 
II, 1908. 

L. (Akermes) montanum. Green, p. 30, On unknown tree. . Janusai (Himalayas 

Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 7,000 feet). 

L. {Coccus) litzece, Rutherford, p. Ill, On Liisea . . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
B. J., XXIV, 1915. 

L. pemcoB, Fab. Green, p. 31, Pusa Mem., On mulberry . . Jhelum (Punjab). 
II, 1906. 


Hemilecarmim, Newst. 

LerAiniutn imhricans, Green, p. 94, 1. M. N.,^ On Ficus and Cedar Mysore. 

V/3), 1903. I 

Hemilecamum Imhricans, Raniakrishna ^^r^ Jf^^p^ vmUifida Coimbatore, South 

Ayyar, p. 38, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ^"f Adanthus ex- India. 


Chionaspis, Sign. 

Ck. vitis. Green (1896) Green, p. 140, C. On Vitis lanceolaria Ceylon. 

of C, Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLVII. mango Pusa, Bihar. 

Ch. vitis. Green, llamakrishna Ayyar, p. 9, On mango . . Coimbatore and 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Nilgiris. 

CA. rft7ata/«,Grecn, p. 148, C. of C.Pt. II, On nut-meg, mango C«ylon. 

1899, PI. LI. Eurycles, etc. 

Ch. dilatata, Green, Raniakrishna Ayyar, On Palm and on Calcutta. 

p. 19, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. areca palm. Bangalore, South 


Ch. varicosa, Green, p. 140, C. of C, On Gcloniion lavc^o- Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. L. latvm. 

Ch. varicosa. Green, Raniakrishna Ayyar, On pepper and on Coorg. 

p. 10, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Loranthus. Nilgiris. 

Ch. varicosa, Green, p. 437, Rec. Ind. 

Mus., XVI, 1919. 

Ch. spiculata. Green, p. 437, Rec Ind., On bamboo leaf . Periaghat (Malabar). 

Mus., XVI., 1919 (Fig.). 
Ch. spiculata. Green, Raniakrishna Ayyar, ... ... 

p. 11, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Ch. acuminata, Green, p. 136, C. of C, On Ardesia sp. . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLV. 

Ch. acuminata. Green, Ramakrishna On Evodia and Malabar. 

Ayyar, p. 11, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Bossia. Madura. 

Ch. acuminata y&x atricolor. Green, ^a,-m?i- On Carissa and Coimbatore, South 

krishna Ayar, p. 11, Pusa Bull., tamarind. India. 

87, 1919. 

Ch. musscendce. Green, p. 117, C. of C, On Mussccnda and PundaJu'oya, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXV. Loranthus. 

Ch. rhododendri. Green, p. 119, C. of C, On Rhododendron . Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXVI. 

Ch. scrobicularum. Green, p. 121, C. of C, On Elceocarpus . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXVII. 

*Ch. graminis. Green, p. 123, C. of C., On Andropogon Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXVIII. Aerdus. 

Ch. elongata. Green, p. 125, C. of C, On Bamboo leaves . Pundahioya, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXIX. 

Ch. elongata. Green, p. 438, Rec. Ind., On Bamboo . . Ootacamund (Nil- 

Mus. XVI, 1919. giris). 

* See also on page 352. 


Ch. arundinaricv, Green, p. 127, C. of C, On Arundinaria . Kelani Valley 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XL. (Ceylon). 

Ch. minuta. Green, p. 128, C. of C, Pt. II, On Tetrunthera . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
1899, PI. XLI. 

Ch. herbce, Green, p. 132, C. of C, Pt. II, On grasses of sorts . Do. 

1899, PI. XLIII. 

(This has recently been collected from the Nilgiris in 8outh India.) 

Ch. polygoni, Green, p. 13-1, C. of C, On Polygonvm . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLIV. 

Ch. elcBgni, Green, p. 138, C. of C, Pt. II, On Elceugnus lati- Do. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLVI. folia. 

Ch. hedyotldis, Green, p. 142, C. of C, On Hcdyoiis . - . Do. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLVIII. 

Ch. litzea; Green, p. 144, C. of C, Pt. II, On Litsea zcylunica . Do. 

1899, PI. XLIX. Nuwara Eliya. 

Ch. lilzece, Green, p. 438, Rec. Ind. MUs., On (jhumti . . Darjiling. 

XVI, 1919. 

Ch. megaloba. Green, p. 149, C. of C, On Psidiuni sp ? . Kandy, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. LII. 
Ch. megaloba, Green, p. 438, Rec. Ind. OnZizyphua jvyuba. Pusa. 

Mus., XVI. 

Ch. flava, Green, p. 150, C. of C, Pt. II, Oi\ Aniidesvta . Pundaluoya, Ceyloa 

1899, PI. LIII. 

Ch. fodiens, Green, p. 155, C. of C, On bark of Loran- Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. LV. thus. 

Ch, galUJorvians, Green, p. 158, C. of C, On Hedyotis . . Kalutara, Ceylon. 
Pt. II, 1899, PI. LVI. 

Ch. decurvata. Green, p. 03, I. M. N., On paddy . . Calcutta. 
V(3), 1903. 

*Ch. grayninia va,Tdivergens,Giccn,-p.37, OnAndropogon . Hoshiarpur, North 
Pusa Mem., II, 1908. India. 

(I have recently noted it on Andropogon nardus in Wynaad, South India.) 

Ch. manni. Green, p. 344, Pusa Mem., I, On tea on brinjal on Assam, Kangra, 

1907. Ficus. Calcutta. 

Ch. subcoriicalis. Green, p. 351, B. J,, OnbarkofJak . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
XVI, 1905. 

Ch. strobilanthi. Green, p. 352, B. J., On Utrobilanthus . Haputale, Ceylon. 
XVI, 1905. 

Ch. coronifera, Green, p. 353, B. J., XVI, On unknown plant . Galgamma, Ceylon. 

Ch. cinnamomi, Green, p. 354, B. J., XVI, On cinnamon . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 


Ch. annandaUi, Green, p. 434, Rec. Ind. On Dendrocalamus Parasnath (Bihar). 
Mn3., XVI, 1919. strictus. 

* Seo also on page 351. 


C/i. caroZ/, Green, p. 434, Rec, Incl.Mus., On tea . . . I>arjiling. 
XVI, 1919. 

Ch. chir, Green, p. 435, Rec. Ind. Mus., On c/»V pine . . Almora (U. P.). 

XVI, 1919. 

Ch.{Phenacaspis)gudalura,Gveen,p.i3G, On Bamboo . , Gudalur (Nilgiris). 

Rec. Ind. Mlis., XVI, 1919. 

Hoivardia, Berl. and Leon. 

H. (Chionaspis) bidavls, Comst. -Green, On cinchona, tea, etc., in Ceylon; on tea 
p. 152, C. of C, Pt. II, 1899, PI. LIV. in Nilgiris. 

HemicJiionaspis, Ckll. 

H. dracoenoe, Cooley, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Areca palm . South Malabar, 
p. 13, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

H. aspidistroe Sign, Green, p. 110, C. of C., Areca, Acacia, Ficus, Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXII. etc. 

H. aspidistroe. Sign, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On areca and jak (Mysore), on pepper and 

p. 13, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. rubber (Western Ghats), on CV/rw,9 (Goda- 

vari) and Ficu s {Coimh&tovG and Godavari). 

H. separata. Green, p. 5, I. M. N., V(l), On tea . . , Darjiling. 

H. minor Mask. {Chionaspis alhizzice On Albizzia and Pithecolobivm (Ceylon), 
Green) p. 115, C. of C, Pt. II, 1899, on pumpkin stem (Kstna, S. India). 

H. minor Mask, Ramakrishna Ayj^ar, On Agave Cassia and Diospyrits in the 
p. 14, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Ceded districts (South India), on Croiularia 

(Calcutta) and on tamarind (Coimbatore). 

H. fici. Green, p. 37, Pusa Mem., II, On Ficvs glomerata . Pusa (Bihar). 

H. minima, Green, p. 38, Pusa Mem., II, On Ficvs sp. . . Do. 


H. alalce, Rutherford, p. 202, Bull. Ent. On Car si a alata . Peradeniya (Ceylon). 
Res., 1915. 

H. theoe. Mask, Green, p. 113, C. of C, On Tea, Psycholria. Ceylon. 

Pt. II, 1899, PI. XXXIII. 

^. <Aece, Mask, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 15, On Pomegranate Coimbatore (South 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. leaves. India). 

H. cbionaspiformis, Newst., Ramakrishna On wild indigo . Do. 

Ayyar, p. 15, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Dinaspis, Leon. 

. 130,"1 ( 

lama- )> 
1., 87, 

D. {Chionaspis) permutans. Green, p. 130,"^ On Aniidesma . Pundaluoj'a, Ceylon 

C. of C, Pt. II, 1899, PI. XLII. I On Evodia . . Peria Pass, Malabar 

D. {Chionaspis) permutans. Green, Rama- J> (South India), 

krishna Ayyar, p. 11, Pusa BuU. 


Diaspis, Cost*. 

D. rosce, Bouche, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On mango and ^fna- South India, 
p. 12, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. ' gyrosa. 

D. echitiocacti, Bouche, Green, p. 211, 

I. M. N., IV(4), 1899. 
D. echinocacti, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 12, On prickly pear. . South India and 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Bombay. 

D fagrcece. Green, p. 91, C. of C, Ft. I, On Fagroeaceylonk a Haldummulla 
'l896, PI. XXV. (Ceylon). 

D. loranthi, Green, p. 254, B. J., XIII, On LorantJivs . Pundaliioya (Ceylon). 


D. loranthi. Green, p. 43.3, Rec. Ind. Mus., On Lornnihns . Parasnath (4,000 ft. ; 

XVI, 1919. Bihar). 

Z) ami/^daZi, Tryon, Green, p. 87, 0. of C, On Callicnrpci, Ceylon. 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. XXIV. 
D. amygdali, Tryon, Green, p. 254. B. J., peach, etc. 

Xlli, 1900. 

D. barberi, Green, p. 35, Pusa Mem., J, On Loranthtis and South India. 

D barberi, Green, Ramakrishna Ayyar, mango. 

p. 12, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

D. cinnamomi mangiferce Newst., Green, 

p. 433, Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI 1919. On mango . . South India. 

D. cinnamomi mangifercp, Newst., Rama- 
krishna Ayyar, p. 13, Pusa Bull., 87, 

Fiorinia, Targ. 

Z'. /^leo'. Green, p. 3,1. M. N.,V, 1900 . On tea . . . Northern India. 

F fiorinece, Traf , Green, p. 94, C. of C, On tea and coconut Ceylon. 
*Pt. I, 1896, PI. XXVI. 

/' soprosm^e. Green, p. 96, C. of C, Pt. T, On Saprosma . . Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 

'l896, PI. XXVII. 
F. sapromicB var gelonice. Green, p.256. On Gelonivvi . . Nilgiiis. 
B. J., XIII, 1900 and p. 448, Rec. Ind. 
Mus., XVI, 1919. 

F 'iimilis. Green, p. 98, C. of C, Pt. I, On unknown plant Piindaluoya, Ceylon. 
'1896, PI. XXVIII. 

F scrobicularxtm, Green, p. 100, C of C, On Gartnera la'nigi Bo. 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. XXIX. 

F secreta. Green, p. 102, C. of C, Pt. I, On Grewia crirvtoJls Do. 

1896, PI. XXX. 

F. frobowidaria. Green, p. 256, B. J., On Gelnnivm Innrro- Do. 

XIII, 1900. latum. 

F. bidens. Green, p. 351, B. J., XVI, On unknown j.h.nt . AnuLidlut] uia, 
1905. Ceylon. 


F. atlanlice, Leon., p. 54, Redia III, 1906 On Atlantia zeyla- Ceylon. 


i'.jttwj'per/, Leon, p. 39, Red.,IIT. 1906 . On. J unipervsbermu- Ceylon. 


F. odince, Leon, p. 24, Red., Ill, 1906 . On Odina wodier Ceylon. 

F. odince, var multipora, Lind-Green, On Taxvs waUichinna- Khasia (Assam) 
p. 448, Reo. Ind. IV^us., XVI, 1919. 

F. rubrolineata, Leon, p. 44, Redia, III, On Mrirraya exo- Ceylon. 
1906. tica. 

F. tumida, Leon, p. 38, Redia, III, 1906 . On Oretvia . . Ceylon 

F. plana. Green, p. 447, Rec. Ind. Mua., On Eloeodendron Coimbatore and 

XVI, 1919. glancnm. Tinnevel'.y (South 

F. plana, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 15, Piisa ... India). 
Bull., 87, 1919. 

F. frontecontracta. Green, p. 447, Rec. On Garcinia indica . Bombay. 
Ind. M'18., XVI, 1919. 

F. sapindi, Green, p. 448, Rec. Ind. Mus.. On Sapindvs trifo- Poona (Bombay). 
XVI, 1919. liains. 

Aidacaspis, Ckll. 

^./ZocowrficB, Ruth.,p. 259, Bull. Ent. On Flacoitrli a . . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Res., V, 1915. 

A. myristiccB, Ruth. p. 260, Bull. Ent. On Myristka . . Do. 

Re.s., V, 1915. 

A. uncinati, Ruth. p. 117, B. J., XXIV, On Paniciim uncin a- Do. 

1915. turn. 

*Aspidiotus, Bouche. 

A. destructor. Sign., Green, p. 70, B. .J., On tea, pepper, Ceylon, Bombay. 
XIII, 1900. ^ rubber, etc., on 


A. destructor. Sign., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Cassia, Calotropis, Carissa, brinjal 
p. 16, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. tamarind, castor, etc., in South India. 

A. orientalis, Newst., Green, p. 70, B. J., On Atylosia and Ceylon. 

XIII, 1900. Osbeckia. 

A. orientalis, Newst., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Cassia, Calotro- So^uth India, 
p. 17, Rusa Bull, 87, 1919. . pis, Carissa brinjal, 

tamarind, castor, 

A. latanice. Sign., Green, p. 69, B. J., On Ficus cartca (Ceylon), on Phcevix 
XIII, 1900. (Calcutta), on Citrus, etc., (Bombay), 

A. latanice. Sign., Ramakrishna Ayyar, on Carissa, sissal hemp, etc., (Coimba- 

p. 17, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. " tore), on apple stem (Shevaroys, South 


A. rossi. Mask, Green, p. 45, C. of C, On Cycas a.nd Capparis (Ceylon), on Barring- 
Pt. I, 1896, PI. VI. tonia (Poona). 

* Add to this genus A. perniciosns (see p. 20, ante) — Editor. 


A. rossi, Mask., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On mango (Godavari), on Carissa (Coim- 
*n 18 Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. batore) and on i>omcgranate (Bilaspur 

^' ' C. P.) 

A. cyanophylli, Sign., Green, p. 51, C. of On tea, cinchona, Ceylon. 

C Pt. I, 1896, PI. IX. etc. 

^.cva?io/)%ZZ(', Sign., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On banana and Nilgiris. 

p. 18, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. Ceara i*ubber. 

A cydonice, Comst., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On imported grape, fig., pear, etc. (South 
p. 19, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. India). 

A. dlctyosopermi, Morg., Green, p. 68, On Cyca^, Opuntia Ceylon. 

B. J., XIII, 1900. and Calophyllum. 

A. dictyosopermi, Morg., Ramakrishna On Dendrobium (Bangalore), on Mimusops 

Ayyar, p. 19, Pusa B;ull., 87, 1919. elengi (Coconada, South India). 

4 tamarindi. Green, p. 439, Rec. Ind. On tamarind leaves Coimbatore, South 
* Mus., XVI, 1919. , India. 

A. tamarindi, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 20, 
Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

A (Hemiberlesea) camellice, Sign., Green, On tea, cinchona, Ceylon. 

p. 60, C. of C, Pt. I, 1896, PI. XIII. etc. 

A. (Hemiberlesea) camellim, Sign., Rama- Onteaandon Eng- Nilgiris. 

krishna Ayyar, p. 18, Pusa BuU., 87, lish elm. 


A. {Hemiberlesea) pseudocamellicB, Green, 

p. 438, Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919. 
A. {Hemiberlesea) pseudocamelUa, Rama- On Capparis atylosa Bellary District 

krishna Ayyar, p. 20, Pusa Bull., 87, (South India). 


A. moorei, Green, p. 199, Ent. M. M., On Grislca tomen- Madras. 
1896. iosa. 

A. aurantii. Mask, Green, p. 58, C. of C, On aloe and Cilrvs Ceylon. 

Pt. I, 1890. trees. 

A. aurantii, Mask, Ramakrishna Ayyar, On rose (North India and South India), 

p. 20, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. " " on Citrus (Pusa, Bihar). 

A. ficus, Ashm., Green, p. 43, C. of C, On Rhododendron . Ceylon. 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. V. 
A. ficus, Ashm., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Ficus, mango, Citrus, Eugenia, etc., in 

p. 21, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. " South India, on Phoenix, areca, orange, in 


A. triglandulosus. Green, p. 33, Pu^a On unknown plant (Mahableshwar, Bombay) 
Mem., II, 1908. and on jak (Bangalore, South India). 

A. trilobitiformis, Green, p. 41, C. of C, 

Pt. I, 1890, PI. IV. 
A. trilobitiformis. Green, p. G(J,B. J., XIU, On Dalbergin and Calcutta. 

1900. locora (Ceylon) ; 

A. trilobitiformis, Ramakrishna Ayyar, on ? 

p. 21, J»usa Bull., 87, 1919. 

A. iranaparens. Green, p. 09, B. J., XIII, On Dalberyia . Ceylon. 



4. exeisus, Green, p. 53, C. of C, Pt. I, On Cyanotis^pilosa . Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
1896, PI. X. 

A. putearus. Green, p. 54, 0. of 0., Pfc. I, On Strohilanthus . Do. 

1896, PI. X. 

A. secretus, CkU., Green, p. 64, 0. of C, On bamboo . . Do. 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. XV. 

A. thece. Mask, p. 59, 1. M. N., II, 1891 . On tea . . . Kangra, Punjab. 
A. thece var rhododendri. Green, p. 67, On Rhododendron . Nuwara Eliva fCev- 
B. J., XIII, 1900. Ion). 

A. artocarpi, Green, p. 200, Ent. M. M., On Artocarpus . Bombay. 


A. glomeratus, Gveen, p. 93, I. M. N., On sugarcane . Northern India 

(V. 3), 1903. 

A. hartii, CkH., Green, p. 439, Rec. Ind. On Curcuma (Poona, Bombay) ; also noted 
MiJs., XVI, 1919. recently at Coimbatore on turmeric. 

A.longispinus, Morgan, Green, p. 340, On jak . . . Ceylon. 
B. J., XVI, 1905. 

A. ciiculus, Green, p. 341, B. J., XVI, In galls of Ifeswa . Peradeniva Cevlon 
1905. J ' J ' 

A. {Ghrysomphalus) pedronis, Green, On unknown shrub Ceylon 
p. 341, B. J., XVI, 1905. 

A. (Ghr.) malleolus, Green, p. 342, B. J., On Mimusops Do. ' 

XVI, 1905. hexandra. 

A. (Chr.) cistuloides. Green, p. 342, B. J., On cinnamon leaves Do 

XVI, 1905. 

A. (Chr.) quadriclavatus. Green, p. 343, On Murraya exotica . Do 
B. J., XVI, 1905. 

A. {Chr.) taprobanus, Green, p. 344, B. J., On Phyllanthus 

XVI, 1905. myrtifolius. 

A. (Crypfophyllaspis) occuUus, Green, On Grewia orientalis Pundaluova Cevlon 
p. 56, C. of C, Pt. I, 1896, PI. XI. .X » ^ > ""• 

A. (Cry.) occultus var elongatus. Green, ... Ceylon 

p. 345, B. J., XV, 1905. 

A. (Targionia) phyllatithi. Green, -p. M4:, On Phyllanthus . Do 

B. J., XVI, 1905. 

A. panici, Ruth., p. 113, B. J., XXIV, On Panicum . . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

Odonaspis, Ckll. 

0. (Aspidiotus) inusitatus, Green, p. 66, ") 

C. of C, Pt. I, 1896, PI. XVI. (On bamboo . . Kelani Valley, 
O. (Aspidiotus) inusitatus, Green, p. 71, \ Ceylon. 

' B. J., XIII, 1900. J 

O. (Chionaspis) simplex. Green, p. 160, Do. . Pundaluova Cevlrn 

0. of C, Pt. II, 1899, PI. LVII. oya, LejJcn. , 




O. (Ohionaspis) simplex, Ramakrishna On bamboo 
Ayyar, p. 22, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

0. canaliculatus, Green, p. 72, B. J., XIII, Do. 


O. penicillata, Green, p. 346, B. J., XVI, Do. 

0. penicillata, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 22, Do. 

Pu3a Bull., 87, 1919. 

Coimbatore, South 

Pundaluoya, Ceylon 


Coimbatore, South 

Leucasjiis, Targ. 

L, cockerelli, de Charm oy (1899), Green, On Dracana Peradeniya (Ceylon), 
p. 351, B. J., XVI, 1915. and Pritchardia. 

L. limonice, Ruth., p. 117, B. J., XXIV, On Limoni a alaia . Do. 


L. indica. Marl., Green, p. 449, Rec. Ind. On mango . . Poona (Bombay). 

Mus., XVI, 1919. 

L, indice-orientalis, Lind., p. 127, Zt. F. On Pinvs Ihasya , India. 
Wiss. insektenbiol, VIi4), 1911. 

L.yapowica, Ckll.,Green, p. 449, Rec. Ind. On Ficus religiosa . Calcutta. 
Mus., XVI, 1919. 

L. aalicis. Green, p. 449, Rec. Ind. Mus., On Salix sp. , 
XVI, 1919. 


Aonidiella, Berl. and Leon. 

A. pothi, Ruth., p. 262, Bull. Ent. Res., On Pothos scandens. Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
V, 1915. 

Aonidia, Targ. 

A. corniger. Green, (Greeniella corniger, On PsycJiotria and Pundaluoya (Ceylon). 
Ckll.),p. 69, C. of C, Pt. I, 1896, PI. Litsea. 

A. bullata. Green, p. 72, C. of C, Pt. I, On Nothopegia cole- 
1896, PI. XVIII and p. 73, B. J., XIII, brookiana. 

A. loranthi, Green, p. 74, C. of C, Pt. I, On Loranthus sp. 
1896, PI. XIX. 

A. obacura. Green, p. 74, C. of C, Pt. I, On Loranthus 
1896, PI. XIX. 

A. perplexa, Green, p. 252, B. J., XIII, On Mesvaferrea 

A. planchonoides. Green, p. 252, B. J., On Ficus 
XIII, 1900. 

A. spatulata, Green, p. 348, B. J., XVI, On Psychotria 

A. mssuoe. Green, p. 348, B. J., XVI, On Mesua 



Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon. 



Peradeniya, Ceyloii, 


A. echinata. Green, p. 347, B. J. XVI, On Hemicyclia Anuradhapura, 

1905. sepiaria. Ceylon. 

A. pusilla, Green, p. 347, B. J., XVI, On Carissa sjnnarum Ceylon. 

A. crenulata, Green, p. 348, B. J., XVI, On Memecylon . Do. 


A. crenulata. Green, p. 441, Rec. Ind. On Vaticalanmfoli a Assam. 

Mus., XVI. 1919. 

A distinctissima, Newst., Green, p. 35, On Nerium oleander . Baluchistan. 
Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 

A. dentata, Lind. (1911), Green, p. 441, On Walsura piscidia Kumlekum Hill 

Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919. (North India). 

A. spinosissima, Lind. (1911), Green, On Mimiisops hexan- Central India, 
p. 441, Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919. dra. 

A. targioniopsis, Lind. (1911), Green, On Miliusa velutina . Burma, 
p. 441, Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919. 

A. viridis, Lind. (1911), Ramakrishna On Aglaia . . Travancore (South 

Ayyar, p. 22, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. India). 

A. indica. Green, p. 440, Rec. Ind. Mus., On unknown plant . Calcutta. 
XVI, 1919. 

A'tferreoe, Ruth., p. 265, Bull. Ent. Res., On Mesuaferrea . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
V, 1915. 

A. tentaculata. Green, p. 440, Rec. Ind. 

Mus., XVI, 1919. 
A. tentaculata, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 22, On Valeria indica . Quilon(Sonlh India). 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

Pseudaonidia, Ckll. 

P. oreodoxce, Ruther., p. 260, Bull. Ent. On Oreodoxa . . Peradeniya, Ceylon. 
Res., V, 1915. 

P. irrepta, Ruth., p. 261, Bull. Ent. Res., On unknown plant . Do. 

V, 1915. 

P. fossor, Ruth., p. 193, Bull. Ent. Res., ? Ceylon. 

V, 1915. 

Gymnaspis, Newstead. 

G. spinomarginata, Green, Y>. M8, B. J., On Mesua ferrea . Peradeniya, Cej^l on. 
XVI, 1905. 

(?. ;?CMS, Green, p. 441, Rec. Ind. Mus., On Ficus retvsa . KoUegal, South In^ia. 

XVI, 1919. 
O. ficus, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 22, Pusa 

Bull., 87, 1919. 

G. ramakrishnce. Green, p. 442, Rec. Ind. 

Mus., XVI, 1919. On Hemigyrosa Courtallum, South 

G. ramakrishnce, Rumakrishna Avyar icanesccns. (India. 

p. 22, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 



LepidosapMs, Shimar. 

L. beckii, Newm., Green, p. 78, G. of G., On Citrus and Tod- Ceylon, 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. XX. dalia. 

L. beckii, Newm., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On pepper . . Travancore, South 

p. 23, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. India. 

L. cocculi. Green, p. 81, C. of C, Pt. I, On Cocculus macro- Kandy, Ceylon. 
1896, PI. XXI. car-pus. 

L. gloveri, Pckd., Green, p. 83, C. of C, On orange , . Do. 

Pt. I, 1896, PI. XXII. 

L. pallida. Green, p. 85, G. of 0., Pt. I, On unknown plants . Do. 

1896, PI. XXIII. 
L. pallida, Ruraakrishna Ayyar, p. 24, On guava . . Godavari District. 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

L. lasianthi, Green, p. 253, B. J., XIII, On Lasiavflivs and Ceylon. 
1900. eroton. 

L. fasciata, Green, p. 31, Jour. Eco. Biol., On rubber . . Do. 
VI, 1911. 

L. erythrince, Ruther., p. 264, Bull. Ent. On Erythrina bark . Peradeniya, Cevlon. 
Res., V, 1915. 

L. ambigua, Ruther., p. 264, Bull. Ent. On Mesua ferrea . Do. 

Res., V, 1915. 

L. vandcB, Ruther., p. 116, B. J., XXIV, On Vanda spathulata Do. 


L. piperis. Green, p. 34, Pusa Mem,, II, 

1908. ■ On Piper nigrum , Malabar, South 

L. piperis, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 22, India, 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919, 

L. travancoriensis, Lind. (1911), Green, On Aglaia minvti- Travancore. 
p. 446, Ree. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919, flora. 

L. auriculatus. Green, p. 446, Ree. Ind. On eroton . . Calcutta. 
Mus,, XVI, 1919, 

L. refrusus. Green, p. 446, Ree. Ind. Mus., On Litsea whiiiana . Nilgiris (8,000 feet) 
XVI, 1919. (South India). 

L. retrusus, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 24, 
Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

L. melice. Green, p. 445, Ree. Ind. Mus., 

XVI, 1919. On Ilelia . . Coimbatore, South 

L. melice, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 24, Pusa India. 

BuU., 87, 1919. 

Ischnasfis, Dougl. 

L. spathulata, Lind., p. 127, Zt. F, Wiss. On Vatica obscura . W, Palukonda, Jum- 
inseketenbiol, VII(4), 1911. palai (South India). 

Parlatoria, Targ. 

p. mytilaspi formis. Green,}). lG4,C.oiC., On PsycTiotria . . Pundaluoj'a, Ceylon. 
Pt" II, 1899. PI. L"V1II. 



P. dngala. Green, p. 166, C. of 0., Pt. II, On Flacouriia and Pundaluoya, Ceylon. 
1899, PI. LX. Scolfia. 

P. aonidiformis, Green, p. 168, 0. of C, On Nothopegia cole- 
Pt. II. 1899, PI. LX. brookiana. 


P. proteus. Curt., Green, p. 349, B. J., On Cymbidium bico- Kandy, Ceylon. 

XVI, 1905. lor. 

P. proteus. Curt., Ramakrishna Ayj-ar, On Va77da and Bel- Bangalore, South 

p. 24, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. latulum. India. 

P. proteus var. phyllantlii, Green, p. 350, On Phyllanllms . Peradeniya, Ceylon,' 

B. J., XVI, 1905. 

P. proteus var. mytilaspiformis. Green, On Cycas , . Bombay. 

p. 35, Pusa Mem., II, 1908. 

P. (Websteriella) atlantice, Green, p. 350, On Atlaniiaceylonica Haragama, Ceylon. 
B. J., XVI, 1905. 

Noted also on Miliusa indica, Courta.llum (South India) by Lindinger. 

P. pseudaspidiotusy Jjind., -p. 131, Insekten. On Vanda , . India. 
Borse, XXII (33), 1905. 

P. pergandii, Comst., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On croton 

p. 26, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 
P. pergandii. Green, p. 441, Rec. Ind. On Oarcinia . 

Mus., XVI, 1919. 

Peria Pass, Malabar, 
(South India). 
Singbhum (Bengal), 

P. calianthina, Berl. and Leon., Rama- On Nerium oleander Madras. 

krishna Ayyar, p. 26, Pusa Bull., 87, 

P. calianthina. Green, p. 445, Rec. Ind. On Mango (Rajputana), on Michelia (Bom- 

Mus., XVI, 1919. bay). 

P. zizyphus, Luc., Green, p. 102, 1. M. N., On Citrus 

V(3), 1903. 
P. zizyphus, Luc., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On Citrus 

p, 26, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. artocarpi. Green, p. 442, Rec. Ind. 

Mu3., XVI, 1919. 
P. artocarpi, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 26, 

Pusa BuU., 87, 1919. 

On jak 


Coimbatore, South 

Periaghat, Malabar 
(South India). 

P (Websteriella) papillosa. Green, p. 443, 

Rec. Ind. Mus., XVI, 1919. 
P. {Webster iella) papillosa, Ramakrishna 

Ayyar, p. 26, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 
P. vaterice, Green, p. 444, Rec. Ind. Mus.. 

XVI, 1919. 
P. vaterice, Ramakrishna Ayyar, p. 26, 

Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

On jak 

Palghat, South India. 

On Valeria indica . Quilon, South India, 

P. mangiferce. Marl., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On palmyra . 
p. 27, Pusa Bull., 87, 1919. 

P. orientalis, Newst., Ramakrishna Ayyar, On wild plant 
p. 24, Pusa BuU., 87, 1919. 



Coimbatore, South 


P. cinsllice,Gom3i On Melia ^. . Coimbatore, South 

t^India. ; 3 -^ : i :^ 
P. cristifera, Green (MS.) . . .On Gitms] . . Maddur, Mysore 

(South India), 

Oryptoparlatorea, Lind. 

0. pirlatoreoides,Lmd.i p 89, Zt.Y.Wisa. On XantJiophyllam India, 
insektbiol, VllfS), 191 1. Jlavescens. 


By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Assistant Ento- 
mologist, Madras. 

Since submitting my first list of economic parasites at the last meeting 
in^l919 {vide paper No. 69, pp. 931-936 of the Re'port of the 3rd Ento- 
mological Meeting), I have been able to gather further information and 
get further material worked out on the subject, and the following supple- 
mentary list is added to form a more or less complete and connected 
record of these useful insects so far as at present known. It is hoped 
it may be of use to those interested in this aspect of Entomology. 




Telenomus coleniani, 

Iladronoivs fulviventris 
Anastatus eolemani 

Pleurotropis foveolattis, 

Tetrastichus eolemani. 

Tetrastichus ophiusce, 

Euplectrus vyctemerce, 

Bruchocida orientalis, 

Bruchobiiis eolemani, 

Apanteles prodenice, 

A. taragamm, Vier. 

Aphidius eolemani, 

Meteorus arctiicida, 

ProtopatUeles eolemani, 

P. ereatom)ti, Vier. 
P. papUionxs, Vier. 

Family or 












Eggs of Dolycoris 

Eggs of Clavigrulla 

Eggs of Degonetus 

Larva of Epilach- 


Larva of Aspido- 
morplia miliaris. 

Larva of Aehma 
Janata, Linn. 

Larva of Nyctemera 

Larva of Bruchus 


Larva of Prodenia 

Larva of Taragama 
dor sails. 

Aphis on tobacco 

Larva of . . 

Larva of Orgyia 

Creatonotus albis- 

PapUio demoleus 
and P. polytes. 

Family or 


Coreidse . 






















( 363 ) 





Family or 


Family or 



P. stauropi, Vier. 


Stauropus altcrnus 

Notodontidse . 



Microtoridea lissonota, 

Ichneumonidoe . 

AcJima Janata 




Neopimploides sylepia, 


Sylepta derogata . 




Pristomerus euzoplierm, 


Euzophera peril- 




Zamesoclwrus orienta- 
lis, Vier. 


Achma Janata 




Asobara orienlalis, 

Alysiidto . 

Fruit fly . 


India (Com- 
pere Coll). 


Diachasmimorpha com- 
perii, Vier. 






Apanteles phycodis, 


P hy codes radiala . 




A. plusice, Vier. 






Euagathis cryplophle- 
bice, Vier. 


Argyroploce ille- 




Mesochorus plusicepld- 
Ills, Vier. 

(a hyperpara- 
site? on No. 25). 

Plusia peponis . 




Bruchophagiis mdlipcs, 

Eurytomidse . 

On Dhaincha pod . 




Eurytoma parasce 


Oil Parasa lepida 
and Thosea sp. 




Eurytoma denticoxa, 


From stored Maize 



Eurytoma dentipecttis, 


On gingclly gall 
fly. . 

Cecidomyiadse . 



Eurytonm setilibia, 


From galls on 
Cordia myxa. 




Eurytoma hindupur en- 
ds, Gnh. 





Stonwccnts iiyyari, Gah. 


On Parasa lepida . 




Chalcis (ii-gentifrotis, 


On Lasiocampid . 

Lasiocampidje . 



Aphycus fuscidorsuni, 


On Ceroplastodes 

Coccida; . 




Anicetus ceylonensis. 


javcB, Gir. 



On Plusia signafa 

Do. . 




Eucomys lecaniormn, 


On Lecanimn nig- 

Coccidse . 



EupteronuUns parnaroi, 

PtiTomalidjo . 

On Parnara 




Meraporus vandinei. 


On Sitodrepa 

Ptinidas . 

Madras ."5 


Jphiavlax sp. , 


Chilo simplex 




Merionotits sp. . 






Microplitis sp. . 


Achaa Janata 


South India, 





Family or 

Host Family or 
■"°^*- Sub-family. 



Meteorus sp. 


Cirphis sp. . 


South Arcot. 


Phanerotoma sp. . 


Euzophera pcrti- 




Aleiodes sp. 


Contheyla rotunda 




Ckelonus sp. 


Spodoptera numri- 




Chelonella sp. 


Stomopteryx ner- 


South Arcot. 


Microbracon sp. 


Earias labia 




Megalommum sp. 


Pulvinaria maxima 

Coccidse . 



Elasmus indicv.s 


Anomalococcus in- 
dicits Gr. 




E. nephantidis Roll. . 


Nephantis seriiiopa 

Xyloryctidae . 



Pediobopsis lociistivora 


Locustid esys on 
Cordia leaf. 

Teltigoiiiada; . 



Pleurotropis epilachnce, 


Epilachna sp. 

Coccincllidas . 

i ^"- 


Tetraslichus ayyari, 


Cliilo simplex 




TetrasticJiHS nyemita- 
ivas, Roh. 


Cholam maggot . 

Authomyiada; . 



Tetraetichus cuimbato- 
rensis, Roh. 


Cholani gall fly . 

Cecidomyiadas . 



Euryscotolinx coimbato- 
rensis, Roh. 


Cypliostieha coent- 

Gracillariaute . 



Euplectrus enplexice 


Perigea capensis . 



In tlie above list Nos. 1 to 27 inclusive are South Indian species 
described by Crawford and Viereck in the Proceedings of the United 
States of America National Museum, Vol. 42 (1912-13), from material 
apparently forwarded to them by Dr. Coleman of Mysore. Those from 
Nos. 28 to 41 are species recently described b}^ Mr. Gahan of U. S. A. 
Bureau of Entomology from material submitted from Coimbatore. 
The rest (42-51) are Braconids, the generic determinations alone of 
which were communicated to us very recently by H. L. Viereck to whom 
I had submitted a consignment of these and other Brciconid parasites. 
Mr. Viereck writes that he is unable to work out the specific characters 
and has suggested that we might describe them,, adding at the same 
time that most of our forms are new. I have an idea of describing 
in course of time the more easily determinable species with the help 
of available literature on forms previously recorded from India. Nos. 52- 
60 are Chalcidoid wasps very recently described by Rohwer of the U. 
S. A. National Museum (published in Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, Vol. VII, January 1921, p. 123) from a consignment of para- 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Resolution 1. 

Dr. Gravely. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

sitic Hymenoptera submitted to Dr. L. 0. Howard from Coimbatore a 
couple of years ago. 

It is unnecessary to add that there still remains a considerable amount 
of unworked material which would appreciably add to the above list. 
But all the same, now that we have some at least of the more important 
forms identified and a beginning made, it may at least help us to work 
up from this small nucleus and get further information on these very 
interesting and extremely useful insects. 

The scattered manner in which descriptions of these parasitic Hyme- 
noptera and of many other insects described from India have 
appeared recently will give workers in these groups much trouble. Odd 
papers are always appearing in the Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History and the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. It is very 
desirable that descriptions of Indian species should appear in Indian 
publications. There is no difficulty in this respect so far as means 
for publication are concerned. Prof. Felt's paper on new Cecidomyiadse 
was sent out here for publication as a Memoir of this Department. I 
think that all specialists to whom Indian material is submitted for 
determination should be asked to send their descriptions for publica- 
tion in India as far as possible. 

Is this principle accepted by Government ? The Forest Department 
do not do so in the case of those outside their own service. I think 
a resolution would be within the scope of this meeting. 

The Chairman then proposed the following resolution, which was 
seconded by Mr. Beeson : 

" This meeting considers it desirable that papers dealing with Indian insects sent 
out to specialists by Government Institutes in India should he published in India in 
either Departmental or other publications as far as possible, in order to render them 
fully accessible to entomological workers in India." {T/tis Resolution was 
carried unaniinousli/.) 

I agree. The best way to get a publication widely known is to get 
well known specialists to publish in it. If this is done Indian literature 
must be noticed by the whole world. 

Government publications are lavishly distributed ; our Entomolo- 
gical publications go all over the world. 


The following orders have been catalogued : — 
Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Strepsiptera, Microlepidoptera, Hemi])- 
tera, Homoptera. 
Also the following families in other orders : — 
Diptera.— Culicidse, Tabanidse, DolichopodidsG, Muscidse. 
Coleoptera.— Scolytidee, Platypodidse, Bostrychidse. 
It is proposed to proceed in the near future with the issue of parts 
of the catalogue on : — 

Culicidse, Microlepidoptera, Bostrychidaj, Platypodidse, Scolytidse, 
Acrididse, Acrydidse, Stratiomyiadse. 

We hope to publish the Catalogue in parts which will necessarily Mr, Fletcher. 
vary with the size of the group treated in each part, but ordinarily each 
part will probably consist of 24 pages as a minimum. 

Supplements might be issued in the same form as the Zoological Mr. Iyengar. 

This is already done in my annual report for the Board of Scientific Mr. Fletcher. 


I have a list of Indian Staphylinidse up to date for my own use com- Dr- Cameron, 
prising about 1,500 species but of course many more species remain 
to be described. Would the Committee care to publish it ? 

If it is ready we shall be very glad to take it. We hope to keep Mr. Fletcher. 
these lists up to date. 

In fact we hope they v/ill get out of date quickly. As regards my Dr. Gravely, 
promised catalogue of Passalidse, I can do this very quickly when required. 

( 867 ) 


By {the late) F. M. Howlett, B.A., F.E.S. 

It is generally accepted that our mental outlook depends upon our 
physical outlook, using the expression in the widest sense as meaning 
the degree to which we ar6 in touch v/ith the various aspects of the 
Universe as revealed by our different senses. We can, it is true, form 
concepts of a more or less abstract nature, but they are, practically always, 
based ultimately on perception, and the concepts which any 
one of us may form are limited by the extent of our past experiences 
in the realm of perception, which in their turn are limited by the extent 
to which our perceptive mechanism is itself developed, from birth or 
by practice, in particular directions. In our own case the sense of 
sight is the most highly developed and most largely influences our 
conception of the things around us. We cannot of course infer from 
this that a similar state of things exists in insects, and it is very un- 
likely that sight is as generally im.portant to them as it is to us. Whether 
or no an insect can form anything in the nature of a concept is for our 
present purpose immaterial. It will in any case be evident that the 
nature and delicacy of its different senses will determine the mode in 
which an insect is aware of its environment, and will therefore determine 
the character of its movements and activities in general. The senses 
of insects seem on the whole to be most probably not dissimilar in kind 
from our own, but it is also probable that they often vary widely from 
ours in the relative extent to which each is developed. 

The investigation of the relative degree to which the different senses 
direct the activities of insects, particularly " economic " insects, is a 
matter of prime importance to which surprisingly little attention has 
hitherto been paid. On it must depend much of the future improve- 
ment in our present somewhat crude methods of controlling agricul- 
tural pests and disease-carrying insects. It is these potentialities for 
improvement on which I desire to lay particular stress. Various observ- 
ations of my own, confirmed by the work of such well-known entomolo- 
gists as Forel and Dewitz, have led me to adopt a view of insect psycho- 
logy which was expressed as follows in a paper read at the Malaria 
Conference in Madras in 1912 :— " We nvast in fact regard the insect 
not as an independent intelligence consciously shaping a path through 
life, still less as an individual actuated by motives similar in kind to 
our own, but as a being in a sort, of active hypnotic trance. The main 

( 368 ) 


lines of its career, the crucial acts of its life, are mostly gone through 
in a blind and unreasoning way, and may be without serious practical 
error regarded as more or less simple " reflexes " executed in response 
to a certain stimulus or set of conditions. They are points in the insect's 
life where action and environment are most closely knit together, and 
in at any rate most species these points will include all those which 
in any real and permanent way affect the welfare of the individual 
and the race. Insects with specialized habits may be regarded as 
tuned to respond blindly to a few particular stimuli or sets of conditions 
perceived by a specialized receptivity of one or more of their senses, 
and these stimuli, which need not necessarily be at all complex, should 

be discoverable Once we have ■ discovered the stimuli which 

control the life of the mosquito, we hold the key of the position, and 
it will be strange if we cannot use our advantage to the insect's undoing. 
It is no intelligent foe we have to fight, but a mere battalion of somnam- 

To discover these stimuli it is necessary to have some idea of the way 
in which these stimuli are to be perceived, that is to say, to know the 
nature of the sense or senses on which the insect relies for guidance in 
performing some given act, such, for example, as oviposition or feeding. 
To do this it is necessary to put some of the sense organs out of action, 
by amputation or othervnse, and note how the loss affects the behaviour 
of the insect. Such operations can be most easily perform.ed on the 
eyes, ocelli, antennae and such tactile or other sense organs as reside 
in the extremities. Experiment has already shown that the actions 
of many insects are directed far more by the antennal sense of smell 
or " smell-taste," than that of sight. Moreover, the sense of smell 
is for certain substances remarkably acute, and the influence of parti- 
cular smells on the actions of the insect at certain periods of its life 
may be of so strong and constant a nature as to make it difficult to avoid 
the conclusion that by playing upon the olfactory susceptibilities of 
insects we may obtain over their movements and actions a very large 
measure of control. 

Take the probably common case, for example, of a species in which 
the males are guided to the females (or vice versa) by a sexual odour, 
while the females lay their eggs in response to a particular smell or 
simple combination of smells. Assuming these smells to be discovered, 
we should have the means of controlling the members of that species 
to an extent probably unequalled by any other method. In this example 
we have supposed only one sense to be involved, and in many insects 
the sense of smell is undoubtedly the most important. At the same 
time there is equally little doubt that the perception of moisture and 


temperature, or some gustatory, tactile, or visual perception, will be 
found in many other cases to supply the directive influence with regard 
to particular activities : their investigation will similarly lead to results 
which will enlarge our powers. 

The investigation of these " susceptibilities " or" tropic responses," 
and the practical application of the results will entail in some cases a 
certain amount of difficulty, but the difficulty is more on the chemical 
than on the entomological side. I consider it to be extremely probable, 
for instance, that many agricultural insect pests find their food plants 
entirely or almost entirely by the smell of the whole plant or of some 
particular part of it such as the fruit. It will often be necessary to 
appeal to the chemist or the plant-physiologist for information as to 
the substances responsible for the attraction in such cases, but when 
a knowledge of these substances is obtained it will constitute an impor- 
tant addition to the armoury of the economic entomologist. One or 
two of the more obvious ways in which it might be possible to utilize 
it occur at once to one's mind ; it might be practicable to use the directing 
odoriferous substance as a trap for the insect, to enhance the attrac- 
tiveness of a trap-crop, to neutralize the smell or taste of the plant by 
special traps or doctored manures or to " breed in " a difierent odour. 
It is allowable to suppose that in many plants the chemical characters 
on which their smell and taste depend may be susceptible to Mendelian 
manipulation in the same way as are those which determine certain 
other qualities. 

It will perhaps be remarked : — " This talk of investigation and so 
on is all very well, but surely there is nothing new in discovering that 
insects are guided by their senses : what else should they be guided 
by ? " The point on which depend such valuable possibilities is not 
that they are guided by their senses in a general way, as we ourselves 
are, but that their more important activities, such as egg-laying and 
feedinof, may be so largely influenced by one or two particular sensations 
or stimuli that they may be practically regarded as mechanical responses 
thereto. By pouring mint-sauce over a pair of boots we should not 
delude any ordinary man into actually eating the boots under the" 
impression that he was being actually offered roast lamb, but we can 
so delude some insects. So long as the mint-sauce is there the lamb 
is taken for granted. 

A person in the hypnotic condition referred to in the simile given 
above has been rendered peculiarly susceptible to suggestion, and his 
actions may be dominated by one or two ideas to which all else is sub- 
servient. Particular sights, sounds, smells or tastes may be made the 
stimuli which shall evoke in him the strongest desire to perform certain 


acts previously suggested to him by the operator as being appropriate 
under the circumstances. 

In dealing with the application of this analogy to the case of insects, 
we may leave on one side the problem of defining precisely what corres- 
ponds to the " operator." Though naturally essential to a proper 
understanding of insect psychology, the answer to this question need 
not necessarily afEect the matter as viewed from the practical stand- 
point. " Analogy," as has been safely remarked, " is not the same 
thing as homology," but taking the hypnotic idea as a working basis, 
the cardinal point is the limitation or specialization of the insect's 
receptivity to a few particular stimuli which will in very many cases 
be found to be quite narrowly defined. It is this limitation or narrowly 
defined specialization, still partly hypothetical but already ascertained 
definitely in a few instances, and indicated to my mind in very many 
others, which promise most from the practical point of view. The 
more narrowly defined the stimulus which regulates any particular 
activity of an insect, the less difiicult it will be to take advantage of it 
or to neutralize its action. In this connection the experiment of Vers- 
chaffelt, who found that the larva3 of the common white butterfly, Pieris 
brassiccB, which ordinarily feed upon leaves of Cruciferce, are swayed 
in their choice of food not by the fact of whether the food offered them 
is or is not a portion of a cruciferous plant, but simply by the presence 
or absence of a group of chemical compounds (the mustard oils), is 
of extreme interest, and is in a direct line of research likely to afford 
results of the highest economic importance. 

Observations of my own on the influence of certain smells on male 
fruit flies have shown that ChcBtodacus diversus is most strongly attracted 
by any substance which contains iso-eugenol, while Ch. zonatus and 
Ch. fernigineus can in the same way be controlled in their movements 
to a remarkable extent by the use of the allied substance methyl- 
eugenol. Whether these smells characterize the females of these 
species, or whether they are sign-posts leading to a particular plant 
or fruit, has not yet been definitely ascertained ; the value of the 
■ observation lies in the specific character of the reaction to particular 
compounds. An interesting sequence to the identification of these 
attractive compounds was the fact that by exposing eugenol, a 
substance closely allied to the two already mentioned, I discovered 
an entirely new species of fruit fly, which was thus enticed from out of 
the unknown by a calculated appeal to a hypothetical olfactory sus- 

Other flies have been found to respond in a more or less similar way 
to the smells of acetic, butyric and valeric acids. As these acids aye 


produced in the decaying or fermenting vegetable stuff in whicli the 
insects have been found to breed, all these smells probably represent 
" e<^g-laying " or " food " smells. The attraction of amyl alcohol for 
a small, and otherwise rarely seen, Chloropid fly may be of the same 
type, as is also the attraction of skatol for females of Sarcophaga. Flower 
hauntinof flies seem to be, as might be expected, comparatively un- 
specialized in their tastes, and some species, e.g., Rhyncomyia and 
Scatopse, come to a variety of sweet smells. A small Ceratopogonine 
Chironomid is attracted in very large numbers by anethol and particular- 
ly by anisaldehyde, and to a small extent by a few other aldehydes ; it 
is probable that we have here to do with an insect w^hich is more or less 
specialized with regard to a particular plant. As both sexes are attracted 
it is not a case of mono-sexual smell. At the beginning of the cold 
weather I discovered that Thrips was strongly attracted by two aldehydes, 
cinnamylaldehyde and benzaldehyde.* These experiments I propose 
to continue when Thrips again becomes active in the warm weather, 
and the investigation may produce results of interest, since the different 
species seem to show different degrees of specialization in their choice 
of food plants, while some of them, such as the tea,-Thrips, are pests 
of importance. Moreover there are three or four other substances, 
which to us have almost exactly the same odour as benzaldehyde, 
although their chemical composition is by no means the same : by 
experimenting with these substances it may be possible to decide how 
far the olfactory sense of Thrips resembles or exceeds our own in delicacy 
of discrimination, and whether or not the attractiveness depends upon 
the presence in the molecule of the particular group of atoms character- 
istic of the aldehydes. It is unusually difficult to decide the sex of a 
Thrips, but as all those examined seem probably to be females, it is 
likely that this is also a case of a food or egg-laying smell, and not a 
sexual guide. . 

With regard to sexual smells Dr. Coleman of Bangalore recently 
informed me that he had performed an experiment to test the attractive- 
ness of a light trap for females of the destructive " Kumblihula " moths, 
Amsacla albistriga, as compared with the attraction of the pineapple 
odour (emitted by the curious caudal tufts) of one of the male moths. 
The result was decisively in favour of the male, whose charms resulted 
in the capture of nineteen females in one night. This direct application 
of a sexual smell is of very great interest : if investigation shows that 
the attractive substance is one which can be cheaply procured, {e.g., 
a simple ester such as amyl acetate), we have at once a delightfully 
easy and efficient method of dealing with a serious pest. 

*Joarn. Eoo. Biol. IX. 1. (March 1914.) 


Sexual susceptibilities are capable of being more widely exploited 
than is at present the case. Several years ago I was initiated into a 
method of horse stealing based upon a knowledge of these instincts, 
a demonstration leaving no doubt that it could be successfully applied 
in practice. In response to inquiries for assistance in dealing with the 
plague of mongooses in Mauritius, I recommended some time ago that 
the males should be trapped by devices which took advantage of their 
attraction to the smell emitted by a female during the period of oestrus. 
To anyone who had not paid particular attention to the matter my 
suggestions might have appeared a little far fetched and were probably 
not acted upon. There is in reality, however, no reason why such 
methods should not be perfectly practicable in many cases, for common 
observation shows that in the sexual instinct we are undoubtedly 
dealing with one of the most potent influences in nature. 

Little has been done in the study of a sense physiology of those 
blood-sucking insects which transmit diseases, but with these no less 
than with agricultural pests the establishment of my theory of discrete 
determinants will result in a great strengthening of man's position, 
and an economy of much of the money and energy which is now expended, 
to obtain resillts which are often inadequate. Some experiments of 
mine on the factors which influence the biting of mosquitos showed 
that all bold-biting mosquitos, with the exception of Culex fatigans, 
^would bite eagerly at a surface warmed to 35°-40° C, while they neglected 
blood or a cold surface. I believe it probable that mosquito-bite will 
ultimately be found to be induced by warmth plus another factor 
probably a smell. More recently Hindle and Merriman have succeeded 
in inducing ticks to feed on salt solution instead of blood, by amputating 
the small sense-organ (probably olfactory) in the front tarsi. A large 
number of accurate and interesting observations have been made upon 
Glossina, but little experimental work seems to have been directed to 
the elucidation of the particular stimuli which mainly affect it. As 
Glossina seems to be a fly with what Forel calls " a well-balanced mind," 
it may offer more difiiculty than will be encountered in the case of other 
blood-sucking insects. 

What I have said here may be summed up as follows : — Experiment 
has shown beyond the possibility of doubt that the relative importance 
of the different senses in insects is not the same as in ourselves. More- 
over it appears probable that insect activities are often directed almost 
entirely by the presence or absence of one particular sensation or some 
very simple combination of sensations. These sensations or stimuli 
have been discovered in a few cases. If we are justified in assuming 
from these few instances that such a state of things is the rule among 




insects, (as I believe we certainly are), then it will generally be possible 
to discover the particular stimuli Avliich fit -the specialized recc})tivitieB 
of any given insect, and whicli guide it in at least the three essentials 
of continued existence, feeding, pairing, and the choice of a suitable 
nidus for the young. 

Economic Entomology relies at present very largely upon methods 
which are crude and wasteful of energy. This is noticeable even in 
countries where labour is far more expensive than in India, and where 
such methods as hand-picking are difficult to apply ; while it would 
probably be impossible to find an entomologist or a sanitarian with 
experience of work in this country who would not readily admit that 
a very great amount of effort must ordinarily be expended in combating 
insects of agricultural or medical importance if any really satisfactory 
results are to be obtained. The fact that this large expenditure of 
time and money is at present necessary seems in great part to be due 
to our ignorance of what may be termed " applied insect psychology," 
our wide lack of knowledge of the influences or " considerations " which 
really have weight with an insect in determining the course of its main 
activities. For instance, Major James in a lecture on anti-Stegoinyia 
operations in Ceylon, referring to the extreme difficulty in locating all 
breeding places, and the way in which, when all the breeding places 
that can be discovered have been sterilized, the insect finds and makes 
use of the most cryptically located collections of water, availing himself 
for the occasion of the usual lecturer's license, speaks of the mosquito 
as a clever and wily insect, and such it certainly appears to be if we look 
only at results. On the views expressed in this paper we should regard 
the result of a water-finding contest between a Municipality and a 
mosquito as a foregone conclusion. The insect, equipped as it certainly 
is with a keen susceptibility to the presence of moisture in the air, has 
thus the one thing really useful in looking for water ; the mere man's 
wonderfully developed visual organs, enormously surpassing those of 
the mosquito in range and accuracy, are still obviously inefficient for 
detecting the presence of water enclosed in solid receptacles or other- 
wise screened from view. 

The need of economic entomology in the present stage of its develop- 
ment seems to me to be above all the encouragement and prosecution 
of research along such lines as will lead to the introduction of those 
" constructive " methods of which the above are very simple examj)les. 
If we review the stock methods of combating insects we find that they 
are roughly as follows : — Insecticides, fumigation, bagging, and the 
destruction of breeding and hiding places, handpicking of eggs or larvse, 
modifications of agricultural practice to secure strong plants, or to 


produce a crop at a season unfavourable to the insect pest, the use of 
trap crops, the encouragement of parasites and predators, and the 
employment of light traps and attractive baits. The last four may be 
noted. Many phytophagous insects (but not all) will attack a weakly 
plant rather than a healthy one, but no degree of cultivation can prevent 
attack in the event of anything in the nature of a serious invasion ; 
the use of trap crops is a valuable device on the right lines, but its employ- 
ment is limited by agricultural conditions and lack of precisely that 
kind of knowledge which research in the directions I have suggested 
would supply. In attempting to increase the incidence of parasitism 
or predation upon a given species of insect we are plunged at once into 
a complex web of inter-relations that demand a great deal of patient 
and difficult work for their proper undersanding ; between every para- 
site and its host there exists an equilibrium dependent upon the amount 
of food available for each, and while by artificial means we may shift 
this equilibrium temporarily in a given area, to shift it permanently 
demands constant watchfullness and a wide and efficient organizatixDn ; 
light traps are effective for the capture of certain insects, but in spite 
of the excellent work done by Loeb and others the action of light on 
nocturnal insects is not yet understood, and the conditions which largely 
affect the practical utility of the method are still unknown : the same 
thing may be said of the use of attractive baits ; these are still in the 
" treacle-and-beer " stage, and it is unnecesary to insist further that 
there exists here an opening for research of remarkable interest and 
great economic importance. 

When we consider these methods as a whole, and tliink of the apparent 
multitudinous complexity of the web of insect life which covers the 
surface of the earth, our task of controlling the j)attern of the web with 
such instruments must often seem discouraging in its magnitude. If 
werare right in regarding the majority of insects as being for practical 
purposes mere creatures of their environment, " somnambulists " swayed 
and controlled by invisible threads, subtle and delicate, but definite 
and discoverable, then, instead of beating at the elastic face of the web 
and striving to break the pattern by sheer weight and force, we may be 
able to get hold of the threads themselves and weave a pattern to our 
own liking. 

[Mr. Howlett is no^v, alas, no more, and all he hoped to do remains 
undone. I am indebted to Mr. tS. K. Sen of his Staff for the following 
notes on some of the lines of work which are being prosecuted in the 
attempt to solve some of the problems he outlined in the foregoing 
paper, which are given in the ho])c that some investigator with a bent 
towards this line of work may perhaps carry them on. For convenience 

2 B 2 


sake a list of the papers published by Mr. Hewlett and liis Assistants 
on this subject is appended. — Eonald A. Senior-Wliite]. 

The lines of inquiry may be classified under the following heads : — 

(1) Specialized egg-laying habits. — The factor or factors that deter- 
mine insect oviposition, i.e., whether the stimulus to which an insect 
responds in selecting a particular plant (or any other material) for 
oviposition is tactile or olfactory. The possibility of the stimulus 
operating through the organs of sight was not investigated. Whether 
the stimulus was of a thermal nature was also considered, but no con- 
venient method of recording the temperature of plants could be devised. 
In this connection some interesting results were obtained with Papilio 
demoleus. It refused to oviposit on the thin green netting with which 
a lemon plant was kept covered, a fact which would seem to minimize 
the possibility of the olfactory factor coming into operation, but on 
one occasion it freely oviposited on both citron and Dimmta leaves in 
a mixed bunch of the twigs of the two plants (uncovered) ; again, while 
it did not oviposit on Duranta leaves scented with extract of citron 
leaves, in one experiment it gave profuse layings on the leaves of an 
unscented Duranta plant, when this was the only plant with which 
it had been enclosed in the cage, a fact which would seem to complicate 
any theory that might be advanced with regard to the factors deter- 
mining oviposition in these insects. 

(2) Specialized feeding habits, or the " educability " of insects. — 
Attempts were made to extend Verschaffelt's experiment to caterpillars 
generally. Experiments were done with the Eri and Mulberry silk- 
worms {Attacus ricini and Bombyx mori). The caterpillars refused to 
eat (a) a mixture of flour dough and finely minced leaves, (6) boiled 
leaves of their food plant, (c) flour dough treated with an extract of 
boiled leaves ; but they ate (a)dough, or certain other leaves, {e.g. 
rose and Duranta), sandwiched between leaves of their own food plant, 
(6) heavily punched leaves, with the punctured portions filled up with 
dough, (c) beaten bits of dough alternating with strips of leaves. There 
was also a notable change in the colour of the excrement of caterpillars 
fed on dough. 

(3) Energy Transformation. — With a view to preparing a series 
of energy transformation curves, attempts were made to correlate the 
amount of food material taken by certain insects, {e.g., Eumenes, Sceliph- 
ron), during their different stages of growth with their body weight. 
The weight of the excrement, as also the loss of moisture through eva- 
poration, were taken into consideration so as to obtain, as far as possible, 
a series of correct " metabolism " curves. 

Proceedings of the fouuth entomological meeting 377 

(4) Strength of chemical reactions of fruit flies . — Reference has already 
been made (Scientific Reports, Pusa, 1919-20), to a series of experiments 
made in this connexion on the deterrent effects of varying quantities 
of certain chemicals mixed with a fixed quantity of methyl-eugenol, 
the substance which attracts certain species of Chatodacus. Attempts 
were also made to find out how far heat would ward them off from coming 
to methyl-eugenol, by exposing a quantity of mercury in an electrically 
heated basin over which was kept suspended cotton wool scented with 
methyl-eugenol, the bulb of the recording thermometer being immersed 
in the mercury. It was observed that however powerful the scent, 
the insects would hardly come to it if the mercury was sufficiently hot 
to injure them, which would seem to indicate the necessity of modifying 
our views that the scent has a stupefying effect on them. 


Sen, S. K. 

Sharma, H. N. 

Sharma, H. N. and Sen, 
S. K. 

The influence of temperature upon the 
biting of mosquitos. (Parasitology, Dec- 
ember 1910.) 

The effect of oil of citronella on two species 
of Dacus. (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 
October 1912.) 

A trap for ThrijJs. (Journ. Eco. Entom. 
March 1914.) 

Chemical reactions of fruit flies. (Bull 

Ent. Res., December 1915). 
Observations on the respiration of Culi- 

cid88. (Ind. Journ. Med. Res., 1914.) 
A preliminary note on the role of blood in 

ovulation in Culicidse. (Ind. Jour. Med. 

Res., 1917.) 

Beginnings in insect physiology and their 
economic significance. (Read before the 
Fifth Indian Science Congress, published 
in Agrc. Journ. India, October 1918.) 

A note on the effects of mercurous chloride 
on mosquito larvae. (Read at Fourth 
Entl. Meeting.) 

A preliminary note on the actions of acids, 
salts and alkalies on the development 
of Cvdicid eggs and larvae. (Read at 
Fourth Entl. Meeting.) 

Oviposition in Culicidse. (Read at Fourth 
Entl. Meeting.) 



Mr. Iyengar. 

Mr. Sharma. 

Mr. Ballard. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Sen. 

lu conuection with this very interesting paper I should like to mention 
some of my observations on Anopheline mosquitos. When mosquitos 
are being dissected for sporozoits, they are generally not chloroformed 
but are slightly disabled by a few shocks, after which their legs ar« 
pulled out and the wings cut. They are then placed in normal saline 
solution for dissections, and then it is very frequently found that the 
mosquitos drink the saline solution vigorously. This leads us to pre- 
sume that their legs have something to do with their taste (or perhaps 
thirst l) and that as a result of the removal of the legs, the mosquitos 
have lost their sense of taste and perhaps also increased their thirst. 

My observations were different to those of Mr. Iyengar, as regards 
the sucking of the saline solution by a mosquito after the removal of 
its legs. I made several species of mosquitos suck saline solution after 
the amputation of half the proboscis. 

In 1914 we were trying some baits against grassho]3pers and found 
that they came very readily to those flavoured with squashed mango. 
When doing this work again I did not use mangoes but terpenoL whicli 
a Chemist gave me when I asked him for something that smelt like a 
mango, and I found baits flavoured with this equally efficacious, at 
least three species coming readily. 

Another observation I have made refers to the influence of bait 
on Pachi{(liplosis oryzw. This species comes in very large numbers 
to the top of the shade over a 200 c. p. Wellington light used as a moth 
trap, but very few are found in the tray beneath the lamp. Other 
Cecidomyiadse I have noticed in my bungalow attracted to hot air from 
the lamp and not to the light itself. 

I have frequently noticed mosquitos attracted to the column of 
hot air about the radiator of a motor car. There is no question of light 
in this instance. 

With regard to Mr. Howlett's point about the attraction of female 
Amsacta albistriga, in one year they came in very large numbers to 
the scent glands of living males in muslin bags, but in other years they 
did not do so. This may have been due to climatic conditions. We 
only tried one experiment in each place. 

I was deputed to work at the sense response of A. albistriga at Palur 
in Madras, and dissected out the male genitalia to ascertain the nature 
of the sexual smell, but neither Mr. Hewlett nor myself could determine 
it. We also tried a large number of scents, especially essential oils, 
but without result. 

1 should also like to suggest another line of work. The investigation 
of the optical properties of the solar spectrum in controlling the acti- 


vities of Ciilicidse, so far as flights are concerned (not the act of biting) ; 
Mr. Howlett tried various combinations of light without definite results. 

After reading Mr. Howlett's paper on Dacus I took up this line of Mr. Husaia. 
work, working with Dr. Imms at Manchester on houseflics. Our joint 
paper appeared in the Aymals of Applied Biology. We found that their 
response to baits was greatest after a rainy day, so presumably humidity 
increases attraction. 

There has been a practical application of Mr. Howlett's line of w^ork Mr. Beeson. 
in American Forests. Dr. Hopkinson, dealing with polyphagous bark 
beetles, found that there was a tendency for a species mainly feeding 
on one species of tree, to get its habits temporarily fixed, the polyphagous 
habit being temporarily recessive. This was applied in connection 
with epidemics in mixed stands. The percentage principle was applied 
to determine the species of tree chiefly attacked, and these alone v.'ere 
removed. Nothing has been done regarding the control of borers by 
the attractive principle in trees. Forestry has been practiced for a 
hundred years in Europe, but no Entomologist or Chemist knows what 
are the constituents of wood and bark immediately after the death 
of the tree. It is impossible for me to ask our Chemist for something 
that smells like a dying tree of any particular species. In the Himalayan 
turpentine distilleries no borers are attracted, and therefore the turpen- 
tine in the tree is not the attractive factor. The almost automatic 
response of insects ta stimuli is brought out prominently by sal borer 
work. The pupal and immature imaginal periods are directly controlled 
by the percentage of moisture in the pupal chamber, which varies in 
the amount of moisture, lost by the wood during the hot weather. A 
long " hot weather " results in delayed initial emergence and extended 
emergence period. Early rains mean an early initial date of emergence 
and short total period. By this we can regulate the storage of logs. 

As an instance of delayed emergence owing to drying, I can instance ^^^ Fletcher, 
a case of StroTnatium barbatum which laid eggs in the insectary in 1917, 
and the larvae are still living, though the normal life-cycle is about two 

Stromatium belongs to a different class of dry heart-wood borers. Mr. Beesou. 
Its normal cycle takes four years. 

I found its normal cycle to be two years. Mr. Khare. 

Mr. Beeson has used the phrase " almost automatic response to Mr. Fletcher, 
external conditions." This may be so in certain cases, but is not a 
general one. Four years ago I described to you the case of a mudcell 
building wasp which showed an appreciation of novel circumstances 
and exhibited intelligence rather than fixity of instinct. 


Mr. Ballard. In this matter of automatic response to fixed stimuli, I once noticed 

a potter wasp building in my bedroom. It gave up bringing in mud, 
and took to using the soap, but did not complete the cell with this, 
but returned to using mud. Why, I cannot say. The soap was regu- 
larly in use. and its moisture content presumably, therefore, constant. 


By E. Ballard, B.A., Government Entomologist, Madras. 

[The Meeting went into Committee for this paper and the subsequent 

( 381 ) 


(Plate LVII.) 
By G. R. DuTT, B.A., Personal Assistant to the Imperial Ento?noIogist. 

Megachile bicolor, Fb., is a widely distributed species tlirougliout 
India. In tlie Pusa collection we possess examples of this species from 
as far as Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the North West, and Lower 
Burma in the East, from Pusa in the North and Trichinopoly in the 
South. Recently, while going through the species of the genus Megachile 
represented in our collection, my attention was arrested by an example 
oi Megachile bicolor, Fb., which apparently looked like a female specimen, 
but possessed long lateral fringes of shining creamy-white hair on the 
posterior tarsi, a character which is peculiar to the males of this species. 
(Fig. 1.) At the same time it was noticed that the last tarsal joint of 
the posterior pair of legs was too long for a female specimen. (Fig. la). 
All the male examples of this species in the collection were examined, 
and in all cases, without any exception, it was found that the terminal 
tarsal joint of the posterior pair of legs was much longer than that of 
of the females. (Figs. 2 and 3). Again, all the males of this species 
have a dark brown spot on the inner side of the anterior tarsi and this 
spot was not absent from the tarsi of the specimen under reference. 
(Fig. 4). Further examination of this specimen revealed on the one 
hand an entire absence of the pollen brush from the ventral surface of 
the abdomen which is so essential a character for a female (Figs. 5 and 
6) and on the other hand the presence of two large black spines on the 
anterior coxse so characteristic of the males of this genus. (Fig. 76). 
In short, it presented a peculiar blending of female and male characters 
in one specimen. The dorsal side possessed all the promine.nt characters 
of the female and the ventral side those of the male. The large size 
and the elongate, cordate abdomen without a notch on the apical segment, 
gave it an unmistakable look of a female. (Fig. 1). 

( 382 ) 

-f>>!.: .fnsdo ofli 


Fig. 1. Gynandromorph of Megachile bicolor, Fb. x 4. 
„ 2. Hind tarsus of Megachile bicolor, female x 6. 
n 3. „ „ „ male, x6. 

The terminal joint in the male is longer than that of the female. 
„ 4. Underside of anterior tarsus of a male ; the arrow points to the characteristic 
mark on it. x 6. 

„ 6. Underside of the abdomen of Megachile bicolor female, lateral view, X 6. 
,, 6. Underside of the abdomen of Tig. 1 ; lateral view, x 6. 
,, 7. Spines on anterior coxae of Fig. 1 ; x 6. 

Page 382 



Gynan'lromorph of 3Iega chile hicolor, 
(For explanation see text.) 


By C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., Forest Zoologist, Deha Dun. 

Mr. Fletcher has asked me to say something about the Imperial 
Entomological Conference which was held in June, last year, in the 
rooms of the Linnean Society in London. In the report of this Con- 
ference, which, presumably, you have all seen, is given a list of the 
delegates sent by the various Self-governing Dominions, States and 
Colonies of the British Empire. There was in addition a very large 
attendance of British Entomologists, and others interested in plant 
pathology. Among those who had had experience of Indian conditions 
were present Professor Lefroy, Dr. Imms, Mr. Speyer, Mr. Green and 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan ; but for reasons already known. to you, we had to 
deplore the absence of an entomologist, who has done so much for the 
advancement of entomology in India, and who is most fitted for the 
task of describing to the Conference the work we are doing and hope 
to do out here. I refer, of course, to our Chairman. 

I received the information that I was to attend the Conference as 
the representative of the Government of India, only a few days before 
its commencement, and was given no further instructions than a few 
notes sent me by Mr. Fletcher. It will probably be of interest if I 
mention briefly the opinions expressed by the members of the Conference 
on the proposals emanating from India. 

(1) Review of Applied Entomology. It was suggested by Messrs. 
Fletcher and Ballard and supported- by myself, that the Review should 
contain a subject-index, in which the titles of abstracts are classified 
in broad groups such as Bionomics, Tropisms, Physiology and Morpho- 
logy, Control methods, Crop Pests, Systematic work, etc., and also 
that certain additions should be made to the list of journals that are 
abstracted m the review. These proposals did not meet with universal 
support, mainly on the grounds that the scope of the Review appeared 
to be satisfactorily defined at present, and that the inclusion of physio- 
logical, morphological and systematic papers would increase the editorial 
work disproportionately to ,the value of the results. I gathered that 
the majority of entomologists present found it feasible to rely on their 
own efforts to supplement the Review for their own special recjuiremcnts. 
It was however agreed that the form of the Review and its contents 
could safely be left to the discretion of the Director of the Bureau of 

( aS3 ) 


Entomology. The Bureau does not maintain a special subject-index 
to the literature abstracted, but the question of increasing the scope 
of the present annual index is receiving attention. Dr. Marshall will 
be very pleased to receive suggestions bearing on this question. 

(2) A suggestion was made that literature should be available for 
loan. The Bureau has a store of spare copies and is prepared to send 
them out on loan or to arrange for the copying of abstracts. 

(3) The question of appointing a Coccidologist on the staff of the 
Bureau was referred to a sub-committee, who found, themselves unable 
to recommend the adoption of this proposal, as they could see no 
necessity for such an appointment. But they expressed the view that 
the Director should encourage members of his staff to give special 
attention to particular groups of insects, particularly to those for the 
identification of which no specialist is available. The possibility of 
putting this into practice of course depends on the size of the staff 
attached to the Bureau. 

(4) A suggestion, supported by Mr. Ballard and Dr. Newstead, was 
brought forward to the effect that prompt identification of insects 
would be ensured or at least placed on a more satisfactory basis by 
the payment of fees for the work. Dr. Marshall pointed out that the 
principle of payment for identifications was already accepted, but it 
had been found impracticable to fix any definite scale for payment 
generally. It was decided that funds should be provided for payment 
to specialists for identification work on a more extended scale than 
at present. 

(5) The question of the issue of the catalogue of plant pests was 
examined by a sub-committee consisting of Mr. C. P. Lounsbury and 
myself, in consultation with Dr. L. 0. Howard. The compilation of 
this catalogue has been in progress since the initiation of the Bureau ; 
its object is to present a brief summary of the information contained 
in the whole of the literature published prior to the appearance of the 
Review in 1913, and to provide lists of all the pests occurring in each 
of the British possessions. In view of the work that we are doing in 
India in this direction, as testified by the publications of the Agricul- 
tural, Medical and Forestry research centres, by the reports of these 
Entomological Meetings, and by the recently sanctioned issue of a 
catalogue of the literature on Indian insects, I advised that the pests 
of British India should be omitted from consideration by the Bureau. 
It was further recommended that American and Canadian literature 
should not be dealt with, as it is receiving attention from the United 
States of America Bureau of Entomology and the American Association 
of Economic Entomologists. The desirability of speeding-up the issue 


of the lists of plant pests was emphasized, in view of the fact that the 
triennial indexes of the Review will ultimately cover the whole field 
comprised by the Catalogue of Plant Pests, but it was agreed that the 
provision of extra staff for this purpose was not justified. 

(6) The financial position of the Bureau was considered by a Com- 
mittee on which I also served. Dr. Marshall pointed out that in view 
of the post-war inflation of values the Bureau would rot be able to 
carry on after April 1921, unless the funds at its disposal were consider- 
ably increased. I need not go into the details of the establishment 
and the estimates of the expenditure. The staff recommended is given 
in an appendix to the report ; the expenditure estimated on a post- 
war basis amounts to £13,000 ; the increased amount is due almost 
entirely to revised salaries, and includes the provision of three new 
assistants' posts, one mainly for identification work and two for publi- 
cation work. I understand that it is probable an Orthopterist will be 
appointed to the former. 

The Conference was dismayed to learn that the activities of the 
Bureau might cease for want of funds and strongly recommended that 
the contributing Governments should be asked to increase their contri- 
butions so as to place the Bureau on a permanent basis. As regards 
our Oriental possessions, India was asked to raise its contribution from 
£500 to £1,000, Ceylon from £100 to £500, and the Federated Malay 
States from £100 to £750. I understand that every Government has 
agreed to contribute the sum suggested except Newfoundland, which 
has definitely refused, and Grenada, British Honduras and British 
India, which have not yet arrived at a decision. 

The present moment appears to be an excellent opportunitv to 
ascertain to what extent economic entomologists in India value the 
work of the Imperial Bureau of Entomology, and I trust that express- 
sions of opinion will be forthcoming that will justify the action I have 
taken in recommending to the Government of India that they should 
guarantee an annual contribution of £1,000. The value of the Review 
of Ap'plied Entomology to us cannot be overstated. We have grown 
to rely on it to an extent that we shall sadly realise, if it's publication 
has to cease for lack of funds. Personally, I consider that the Review 
alone justifies an imperial contribution, and I believe I am ri^ht in 
saying that the Dominion of Canada has recognised this return as 
amply recompensing its donations, and that it does not look to the 
Bureau for assistance in other directions. 

In conclusion I wish to refer briefly to the subject matter of the 
papers read at the Conference and the discussion that followed them 


as tliey illustrate very strikingly tlie trend ol modern tlioiiglit in economic 

There was general agreement that the special training of the economic 
entomologist should be based on a liberal education in pure science. 
A wide outlook is essential in the student. The extent to which his 
training in the field of pure science is practical must naturally vary, 
))iit it is of primary importance that he should be acquainted with the 
sources of information and should learn when to apply for information 
to other specialists and should be able to appreciate their points of view. 
A point of considerable interest was the almost unanimous agreement 
of economic biologists as to the necessity for a thorough training in 
the principles of agricultural science (or in horticulture, forestry., etc.). 
No economic entomologist who is not well acquainted with the cultural 
practices of tlie crop with which he deals can hope to devise practical 
methods for the control of its pests. Whether the emphasis be laid 
on the pure or the applied science in tlie entomologist's course of training, 
it must be remembered that it is the man who counts and not the method. 

The days when the only weapons for dealing with plant diseases 
were the tracing out of the life-history and the destruction of the para- 
site at some part of its life-cycle, or the prevention, of infection by the 
use of repellents, protective materials, etc., are rapidly disappearing. 
The discussions that followed the subjects of "Resistence of Plants to 
Insect Attacks," "Artificial versus Natural Control," and the general 
papers on insect pests, showed the aspects from which the question 
of pest control is now-a-days viewed. The impression I gained was 
that the study of the pest cannot be dissociated from that of the 
host, or from the external conditions governing both. The ecological 
and ])hysiological outlooks are most necessary in the investigator 
who has to evolve lines of research, for it is becoming evident 
tliat permanent control of crop pests will be secured mainly by 
modified cultural rules ; and that these will be the product of the 
team-work of experts in several branches of natural science. 

Fletcher. We are very much obliged to Mr. Beeson for giving us this first- 

hand account, as the printed Report of this Conference is very brief. 
Regarding the value of the Review of Aj) plied Enlomologij there can be 
no difference of opinion. The Imperial Bureau of Entomology has 
done most excellent work, both in abstraction and in research in Africa. 
The Bulletin has contained little Indian material as we have our own 
])ubli(,'a,ti()us, perhaps too many of them. But in other countries such 
facilities do not exist. If the work published in the Bulletin had been 
scattered in odd reports of various African Administrations there would 


have been a great deal of trouble to find out wliat had been done. Regard- 
ing the Review, I am sorry that the Bureau does not see its way to extend- 
ing the scope of its abstracts to the other aspects of the science of interest 
to Economic Entomologists. I suggested that room might be provided 
for this and space saved by condensing reviews, especially of the papers 
appearing in the Bulletin of Entomological Research and of other papers 
which every serious worker must see. But these views were not accepted. 

I entirely agree. Both in India and Africa I have found the Bureau Mr. Ballard, 
of the greatest value. Whilst in Africa, had I not been able to publish 
in the Bulletin, my only other medium would have been as a supplement 
to the Government Gazette. 

I quite agree. Dr. Marshall gives one identifications quickly. Mr. Husain. 

Mr, Beeson wishes to put forward the following Resolution which Mr. Fletcher. 
I have much pleasure in seconding : — 

" This meeting desires to record its appreciation of the work carried on by the Resolution 2. 
Imperial Bureau of Entomology and particularly of the assistance obtained from the 
Review of Applied Entomologt/. It considers that this publication has in the 
past proved an ample recompense for the annual contribution of £500 made by the 
Government of India. It is of the opinion that, in view of the great expansion 
projected in entomological work in the future, a contribution of £1,000 per annum 
is fully justified." 

[Carried unanimously.'] 

[The Meeting then concluded with the usual votes of thoAiJiS.] 

List of Resolutions i^assed hg the Fourth Entomological Meeting. 

Resolution I. (Page 366). 

" This Meeting considers it desirable that papers dealing with Indian 
insects sent out to Specialists by Government Institutes in India should 
be published in India in either Departmental or other publications as 
far as possible in order to render them fully accessible to entomological 
workers in India." 

(Proposed by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist, 
seconded by Mr. C. Beeson, Forest Zoologist, and carried unanimously.) 

Resolution II. (Page 387). 

" This Meeting desires to record its apreciation of the work carried 
on by the Imperial Bureau of Entomology and particularly of the 
assistance obtained from the Revietv of AjopUcd Entomology. It con- 


siders that this publication has in the past proved an ample recompense 
for the annual contribution of £500 made by the Government of India. 
It is of the opinion that, in view of the great expansion projected in 
entomological work in the future, a contribution of £1,000 per annum 
is fully justified." 

(Proposed by Mr. C. Bees'on, Forest Zoologist, seconded by Mr. T. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist, ar.d carried unanimously.) 


All names of insects are indexed under both their generic and specific names, but page 

references are only given under the former. 
All names in italics are treated as synonyms and should be looked up in the Index under 

the names given in Roman characters. 
Names of plants are not indexed. 
Names of Authors and titles of Papers are not indexed ; for such reference is invited to pages 

In the case of page-numbers followed by an asterisk (*), a figure of the insect named will 

be found opposite the page referred to. 

ablutella, Raphimetopus. 

abruptus, Oedaleus. 

Achsea janata, lo, 22, 31, f^."?, 363, 364. 

Aclerda distorta, 345 ; A. japonica, 345, 

Acrida brevicollis, 27. 

Acrotylus humbertiana, 27. 

Actia segyptia, 67.* 

actiniformis, Ceroplastes. 

acuminata, Chionaspis. 

acuminatum, Lecanium. 

acuticeps, Orthacris. 

acutissimum, Lecanium. 

adersi, Lecanium. 

Adoretus bombinator, 28. 

Adoretus caliginosus, 108. 

Adoretus horticola, 17. 

Adoretus versutus, 28, 107.* 

segyptia, Actia. 

segyptiaca, Icerya. 

iEolesthes holosericea, 182. 

jEshna ornithocephala, 271. 

afiinis, Aiolopus. 

affinis, Bruchus. 

affinis, Pempheres. 

Agrotis ypsilon, Braconid parasite of, 157. 

Aiolopus affinis, 27 ; A. tamulus, 27. 

alatse, Hemichionaspis. 

albifrons, Decticus. 

albistigma, Cirphis. 

albistriga, Amsacta. 

albizzise, Tachardia. 

alboguttata, Protaetia. 

albonotatus, Ceratopogon. 

albopicta, Stegomyia. 

albosjjicatus, Cerococcus. 

alecto, Theretra. 

Aleiodes sp., 365. 

Alissonotum impressicoUe, 109, 110, 129.* 

Alissonotum piceum, 107, 109, 110, 132. 

Alissonotum simile, 108, 132. 

alternus, Stauropus. 

amabilis, Eublemma. 

amanda, Ocnerogyna. 

ambigua, Lepidosaphis. 

Amblyrrhinus poricollis, 108. 

Amonophadnus submetallicus, 32. 

Amorphococcus mesuse, 342. 

Amsacta albistriga, 53, 363, 372 ; A. lactinea, 

Amsacta moorei, 98. 
amydraula, Batrachedra. 
amygdali, Diaspis. 
Anastatus coimbatorensis, 42. 
Anastatus colemani, 363. 
Anatona stillata, 28. 

Anatrachyntis falcatella, 249* ; A. simplex, 23. 
andropoginis, Contarinia. 
Anerastia (Raphimetopus) ablutella. 
angustatus, Calocoris. 
Anicetus ceylonensis, 364. 
annandalei, Chionaspis. 
annexus, Catantops. 
Anomala bengalensis, 107. 
Anomala biharensis, 107. 
Anomala dussumieri, 107. 
Anomala polita, 107. 
Anomala rugosa, 17. 
Anomala sp., 108. 
Anomala varicolor, 107. 
Anomalococcus cremastogastri, 342 ; A. indicus, 

342, 365. 
Anophelines in Portuguese India, 44 ; oviposi- 

tion of , 196 ; distribution of , 205 ; 

thoracic appendages of , 216.* 

Anoplura in Portuguese India, 46. 1 
Anthomyiadae, 21. 
antidesmse, Lecanium.] 
389 ) 




antonii, Holopeltis. 

Antonina indica, 38, '"345 ; A. maritima, 
345 ; A. zonata, 345. 

Aonidia bullata, 358 ; A. comiger, 358 ; A. 
crenulata, 359 ; A. dentata, 359 ; A. dis- 
tinctissima, 359 ; A. echinata, 359 ; A. ferret, 
359 ; A. indica, 359 ; A. loranthi, 358 ; A. 
mosu», 358 ; A. obscura, 358 ; A. porplexa, 
358 ; A. planchonoides, 358 ; A. pusilla, 359 ; 
A. spatulata, 358 ; A. spinosissima, 359 ; A. 
targioniopsis, 359 ; A. tontaculata, 359 ; A, 
viridis, 359. 

Aonidiella pothi, 358. 

aonidiformis, Parlatoria. 

Apaiiteles phycodis, 304 ; A. plu.sioe, 364 ; A. 
prodenirp, 303 ; A. taraganisc, 303. 

Apanteles sp. parasitic on Platyedra gossypiella, 

Aphidius colemani, 303. 

Aphis brassice, 170. 

Aphodius sp., 108, 134. 

Aphyeus fusr-idorsinn, 304. 

Apogonia proxima, 107, 109, 128. 

Arflecenis fasciculatus, 33. 

aranoides, Rachionotomyia. 

arancarise, Eriococcus. 

" Arbela" sp., 47. 

arctiicida, Meteoms. 

Arge fumipennis, 14 ; A. Intcivontvis, 14. 

argentifrons, ChaJeia. 

aristella, Lonchfea. 

armigora, Hispa. 

artocarpi, Aspidiotiis. 

artocarpi, Parlatoria. 

arundinariffi, Chionaspi.s. 

arundinarii«, Lecaniura. 

Asamangulia cuspidata, 18. 

Asilidffi, 108. 

Asobara orientalis, 364. 

Aspidiotus artocarpi, 357 ; A. aurantii, 356 ; A. 
caraellisp, 356 ; A. cistuloides, 357 ; A. cuculus, 
357 ; A. cyanophylli, 356 ; A. cydonije, 356 ; 
A. destructor, 19, 355 ; A. dictyospermi, 19, 
3.56 ; A. excisuR, 3.57 ; A. ficus, 356 ; A. 
glomcratus, 357 ; A. hartii, 38, 357 ; A. 
latanife, 355 ; A. longispintis, 357 ; A. malleo- 
lus, 357 ; A. moorei, 356 ; A. occultus, 357 ; 
A. orientalis, 355 ; A. panici, 357 ; A. 
pedronis, 357 ; A. porniciosus, 20 ; A. phyl- 
lantlii, 357 ; A. pseudooamclli», 356 ; A. 
putearus, 357 ; A. quadriclavatus, 357 : A. 
rossi, 355 ; A. secretus, 357 ; A. tamarindi, 
356 ; A. taprobanus, 357 ; A. these, 357 ; A, 
transpar?na, 356; A. triglandnlosus, 356; A. 
trilobitiformis. 356. 

aspidistroe, Hemichionaspis. 
Aspidomorpha miliaris, 363. 
Asterolecanium aureum, 340 ; A. bambusse, 

340 ; A. bambusulse, 340 ; A. ceriferum, 341 ; 
A. ooronatuni, 341 ; A. delicatum, 341 ; A. 
exiguum, 340 ; A. flavociliatum, 340 ; £A. 
grande, 341 ; A. lanceolatum, 341 ; A. lineare, 

341 ; A. miliare, 341 ; A. pudibundum, 340 ; 
A. rubrocomatum, 340 ; A. solenophoroides, 
341 ; A. tenuissimum, 340 ; A. thespesiae, 
341 ; A. tumidum, 341 ; A. udagamoe, 340. 

astroea, Pelochyta. 

Asura conferta, 34. 

Asympiesiella India, 287.* 

Atactogaster finitimus, 54, 

atkinsoni, Idiocerus. 

atlantise, Fiorinia. 

atlantise, Parlatoria. 

Atractomorpha crenulata, 27. 

atripennis, Monophlebus. 

Attelabus discolor, 33.* 

Aulacaspis flacourtic-e, 355 ; A. myristicre, 355 ; 

A. uncinati, 355. 
Aulacophora foTeicollis, 170. 
Aulacophora spp., 48. 
aurantii, Aspidiotus. 
aurantii, Chrysomphalus. 
aureum, Asterolecanium. 
aurichalcea, Protaetia. 
auricilia, Diatroea. 
auriculatus, Lepldosaphis. 
Autoserica insanabilis, 107. 
Aximojosis tumidiscapi, 42. 
ayyari, Storaoceras. 
o.yyari, Tetrastichus. 
azadirachtse, Lecaniodiaspis. 


Bactra truculenla, 125,* 
Bagnallia oryzae, 53. 
Bagrada picta, 170. 
bainbriggei, Gynacant hn . 
ballardi, Phenacoccus. 
bambusa?, Asterolecanium. 
bamb\isul£e, Asterolecanium, 
banian, Hieroglyphus. 
barberi, Diaspis. 
Batoccra rubus, 25, 48. 
Batrachcdra amydraula, 168. 
beckii, Lepidosa))his. 
bongalense, Pcntodon. 
bengalensi.«i, Anomala. 
biclavis, Howardia. 



bicolor, Megachilo. 

bicruciatum, Lecanium, 

bidens, Fiotiiiia. 

bifasciatua, Onthophagus. 

biharensis, Anomala. 

bilanga, Senoclia. 

bimaculata, Sturraia, 

biporus, Xyleborus. 

bipunctifer, Schcenobius. 

birmanica, Popillia. 

bispinifrons, Pentoclon. 

bivalvata, Inglisia. 

blanchardi, Parlatoria. 

t»landus, Myllocerus. 

bombinator, Adoretus. 

Braconid parasite of Agrotis ypsilon, lo7.* 

Brahmina coriacea, 16. 

brassicse, Aphis. 

brevicoUis, Acrida. 

bromelise, Pseudococcus. 

Bruchobius colemani, 363. 

Bruchocida orientalis, 363. 

Bruchophagus mellipes, 29, 364. 

Bmchus affinis, 170 ; B. chinensis, 363 ; B. 

lentis, 170 ; B. quadrimaciilatus, 170 ; B. 

rufinianus, 170; B. vectabilis, 170. 
bryoides, Cerococcus. 
bullata, Aonidia. 
burkilli, Pulvinaria. 
burmeisteri, Monophlebus. 

cajani, Coroplastodes. 

Calandra oryzse, 48. 

Calandra stigmaticoUis, 113. 

calianthina, Parlatoria. 

ealiginosus, Adoretus. 

Calocoris angustatus, 54. 

calophylli, Lecanium. 

camellise, Aspidiotus. 

camellia?, Parlatoria. 

Camponotus maculatus infuacus, 14. 

canaliculatus, Odonaspis. 

Candida, Dactylethra, 

capensis, Perigea. 

capparidis, Lecanium. 

caprese, Eulecanium. 

caprese, Lecanium. 

carbonator, Clielonus. 

caroli, Chionaspia. 

Carpophilus sp., 108. 

castancw, Lefroyia. 

castillose, Inglisia. 

Casuarina seedling caterpillar, 35. 

Catantops annexus, 27 ; C. indicus, 27. 

caudata, Elymnias. 

caudatum, Lecanium. 

caudatus, Chsetodacus. 

cellulosa, Pulvinaria. 

Celyphus obtectus, 293* ; C. scutatus, 295.* 

eentripetalis, Chionaspis, 

Cephus sp., 168. 

ceramicus, Duomitus. 

Ceratopogon albonotatus, 44. 

cerealella, Sitotroga. 

ceriferum, Asterolecanium. 

ceriferus, Ceroplastes. 

Cerococcus albospicatus, 341 ; C. bryoide-s, 
342 ; C. ficoides, 342 ; C. hibisci, 341 ; 0. 
indicus, 342 ; C. oraatus, 341 ; C. roseus, 

Ceronema japonica, 345 ; C. koebeli, 345. 

Ceroplastes actiniformis, 346 ; C. ceiiferu.s, 
346 ; C. floridensis, 346 ; C. rubens, 346. 

Ceroplastodes cajani, 346, 364 ; C. chiton, 346 ; 
C. virescens, 346. 

cervinus, Haplohammus. 

ceylonensis, Anicetus. 

ceylanicus, Nysius. 

ceylonica, Pollinia. 

Chfetodacus caudatus, 15 ; C. cuourbitre, 15 ; 
C. diversus, 15, 371 ; C. ferrugineu.«, 14, 
371; C. maculipennis, 15; C, zonatus, 15, 

Chalcis argentifrons, 364. 
Chapra mathias, 46, 169, 364. 
Chelonella sp., 365. 
chelonioides, Inglisia. 
Chelonus carbonator, 69. 
Chelonus sp., 365. 
chersffia, Ephysteris. 

Chilo simplex, 22, 122, 134, 143, 364, 365. 
Chilo torrentellus, 123.* 
chionaspiformis, Hemichionaspis. 
Chionaspis acuminata, 351 ; C. annandalei, 
352 ; C. arundinariae, 352 ; C. caroli, 353 : 
C. eentripetalis, 19 ; C. chir, 353 ; C. cinna- 
momi, 352 ; C. coronifera, 352 ; C. decurvata, 
352 ; C. dilatata, 19, 351 ; C. e]£egni, 352 ; C. 
elongata, 351 ; C. flava, 352 ; C. fodiens, 352 ; 
C. galliformans, 352; C. graminis, 351; C. 
gudalura, 353 ; C. hedyotidis, 352 ; C. herbjp, 
38 ; C. litzeje, 352 ; C. manni, 352 ; C. 
megaloba, 352 ; C. minuta, 352 ; C. 
musssendo", 351 ; C. polygon!, 352 ; C. pusa, 
19 ; C. rhododendri, 351 ; C. scrobicularum, 
351 ; C. spiculata, 351 ; C. strobilanthi, 352 ; 
C. subcorticalis, 352 ; C. varicosa, 351 ; C. 
vitis, 19, 351. 




chir, Chionaspis. 

chiton, Ceroplastodes. 

chlorion, Popillia. 

Cholam Flics, 21, 1G9, 3G5. 

Chrotogonns robertsi, 27 ; C. sanssurei, 27. 

Chrysomplialus aurantii, 20. 

Chrysomelid beetle, 134.* 

Cimex hemipterus, 45. 

cinerascens, Pseudogonia. 

cinerea, Walkeriana. 

cingala, Parlatoria. 

cingulatus, Dysdercus. 

cinnamomi, Chionaspis. 

cinnamomi mangifer£e, Diaspis. 

cinnamomi, Neolecanium. 

Cinnamon Psyllid, 38. 

Cirphis albistigma, 22, 54. 

Cirphis loreyi, 169. 

Ciri:)his sp., 3G5. 

cistuloides, Aspidiotus. 

citri, Pseudococcus. 

citricinctus, Euthrips. 

Clania crameri, 23. 

Clavigralla gibbosa, 363. 

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, 23. 

coarctata, Hylemyia. 

Coccid^e, new records of, IS, 38 ; check list 

of , 336. 

cocculi, Lepidosaphis. 
Coccus hesperidum, 19. 
cockerelli, Leucaspis. 
cocotis, Pseudococcus. 
coerulea, Cyphosticha. 
cojrulipennis, Formicomus. 
coimbatorensis, Anastatus. 
coimbatorensi.s, Euryscotolinx. 
coimbatorensis, Tetrastichus. 
colemani, Anastatus. 
colemani, Aphidius. 
colemani, Brucliobius. 
colemani, Protopanteles. 
colemani, Tclenomus. 
colemani, Tetrastichus. 
Colemania sphenarioides, 54. 
compacta, Walkeriana. 
compactus, Xyleborus. 
comperii, Diachasmimorpha. 
Conchaspis socialis, 340. 
conferta, Asura. 

Conorrhinus rubrofasciatus, 4.5, 218. 
Contarinia andropoginis, 22.* 
Conthcyla rotunda, 365. 
convolvuli, Hersc. 
convulsionariua, Tcrmes. 
coriacea, Brahmina. 

coriacella, Pyrodercef (Anatrachyntis simplex). 

corniger, Aonidia. 

coronatum, Asterolecanium. 

coronifera, Chionaspis. 

corticellus, Crambus. 

corymbatus, Pseudococcus. 

Cosmoscarta niteara, 38.* 

costatiponnis, Pagria. 

Crambus corticellus, 125.* 

crameri, Clania. 

creatonoti, Protopanteles. 

cremastogastri, Anomalococcus, 

crenulata, Aonidia. 

crenulata, Atractomorpha. 

cretica, Sesamia. 

Cricula trifenestrata, 35. 

cristifera, Parlatoria. 

crocea, Icerya. 

crofonis, Pseudococcus lilacinus. 

crustuliforme, Neolecanium. 

Cryptojiarlatorea parlatoreoides, 362. 

cryptophlebicP, Euagathis. 

Cryptorrhynchus mangifera?, 48. 

cuculus, Aspidiotus. 

cucurbita3, Chaetodacus. 

Culex fatigans, 44, 196, 199, 373. 

Culicidse in Portuguese India, 44 ; distribution 

of — , 205 ; biting of — , 373. 
Culicoides oxystoma, 272 * ; C. jiattoni, 44, 

Cunibu Flies, 21. 
cuspidata, Asamangulia. 
cyanea, Poinllia. 
cyanophylli, Aspidiotus. 
Cydia pomonella, 171. 
cydonia?, Aspidiotus. 
Cyphocera varia, 68,* 
Cyphosticha ccerulea, 365. 
Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, 27. 

Dactylcthra Candida, 36. 
dactylifera}, Wallacea. 
Dactylo])ius indicus, 343. 
dalbergioe, Monopldebus. 
Date Pests, 168. 

Dates of Publications, Misleading, 7 
decorella, Tachardia. 
Decticus albifrons, 169, 170.' 
decurvata, Chionaspis. ^ 

Degonetus serratus, 363. 
delicatum, Asterolecanium. 



Deltocephalus dorsalis, 37.* 

demoleus, Papilio. 

Dendrothrips indicus, 40. 

dentata, Aonidia. 

denticoxa, Eurytoma. 

dentipectus, Eurytoma. 

depressclla, Emmalocera. 

depressum, Lecanium. 

depunctali?, Nymphula. 

derogata, Sylepta. 

destructor, Aspidiotus. 

Diachasmimorpha comperii, 364. 

diascorese, Senoclia. 

Diaspis amygdali, 354 ; D. barberi, 354 ; D. 
cinnamomi mangiferae, 354 ; D. cchinocacti, 
354 ; D. fagrffiJB, 354 ; D. loranthi, 354 ; 
D. rosse, 354. 

Diatraea auricilia, 141. 

Diatraea venosata, 123. 

dictyospermi, Aspidiotus. 

dilatata, Chionaspis. 

Dinaspis permutans, 353. 

dionysius, Phyllognathus. 

discolor, Attelabus. 

discolor, Myllocerus, 

discrepans, Lecanium. 

Disphinctus humeralis, 37. 

distinctissima, Aonidia. 

distorta, Aclerda. 

Distribution, Means of, of insects, 212. 

diversus, Chsetodacus. 

Dociostaurus maroccanus, 1C9, 172. 

dodecastigma, Epilaehna. 

Dolycoris indicus, 363. 

dorsalis, Deltocephalus. 

dorsalis, Taragama. 

dracaensc, Hemichionaspis. 

Drasterius sp., 108. 

Duomitus ceramicus, 183. 

dussumieri, Anomala. 

Dysdercus cingulatus, 26, 86, 91. 


Earias fabia, 22, 75, 93, 365 ; E. insulana, 22, 

75, 93, 169, 298. 
echinata, Aonidia. 
echinocacti, Diaspis. 
elsegni, Chionaspis. 

Elasmus indiCus, 365 ; E, nephantidis, 23, 365. 
Elateridse, 25, 27. 
elegans, Oryctes. 
elongata, Chionaspis. 
elongella, Stenachroia. 

Elymnias caudata, 16. 

Emmalocera deisressella, 141. 

Entomological Conference, Imperial, 8. 

Entomology, Importance of, in India, 10. 

Ephysteris cherssea, 127.* 

Epicauta sp., 170. 

Epilaehna dodecastigma, 170, S63, 365. 

epilachnac, Pleurotropis. 

ergasima, Phthorimsea. 

Ergolis merione, 36. 

Eriochiton there, 346. 

Eriococcus araucarise, 342 ; E. lagcrstroemiae, 

342 ; E. paradoxus, 342. 
Eriophyes gossypii, 96. 
erudita, Hypothenemus. 
erythrinse, Lepidosaphis. 
estherce, Termes convulsionarius. 
Euagathis cryptophlebiae, 364. 
Eublemma amabilis, 250. 
Eucomys lecaniorum, 364. 
Eulecanium caprea;, 19. 
euphorbiae, Walkeriana. 

Euplectrus euplexiac, 365 ; E. nyctemerae, 363. 
euplexiae, Euplectrus. 
Euproctis flava, 15. 
Eupteromalus parnarae, 364. 
Eurygaster sp., 168. 
Euryscotolinx coimbatorensis, 365. 
Eurytoma denticoxa, 364 ; E. dentipectus, 364 ; 

E. hindupurensis, 364 ; E. parasae, 364 ; E. 

setitibia, 364. 
Eurytoma indi. (Bruchophagus mellipes). 
Eutermes monoceros, 331. 
Euthrips citricinctus, 40. 
Euxoa segetum, 169. 
Euzophera perticella, 31, 364, 365. 
euzopherae, Pristomerus. 
excisus, Aspidiotus. 
exigua, Laphygma. 
exiguum, Asterolecanium. 
exoleta, Xylina. 
expansum, Lecanium. 

fabia, Earias. 
fagraeae, Diaspis. 
falcatella, Anatrachyntis. 
fallax, Tachina. 
fasciata, Lepidosaphis. 
fasciata, Stegoniyia. 
fasciculatus, Araeccrus. 
fatigans, Culex. 
Fauna volumes on insects, 5. 



ferox, Stigmacoccus. 

fcrrea3, Aonidia. 

ferrugincus, Clijetodacus. 

ferrugincu.s, Rhynchophorus. 

fici, Hcmiehionaspis. 

fici, Tacharclia. 

ficoides, Cerococcus. 

ficus, Aspidiotus. 

ficus, Gyninaspis. 

finitimus, Atactogastcr, 

fiorinege, Fiorinia. 

Fiorinia atlantisc, 355 ; F. bidt'iiy, 354 ; F. 
fiorinese, 354 ; F. frontecoiitracta, 355 ; F. 
juiiipcri, 355 ; F. odinse, 355 ; F. plana, 355 ; 
F. proboscidaria, 354 ; F. rubrolincata, 355 ; 
F. saxjindi, 355 ; F. saprosmac, 354 ; F. scro- 
bicularum, 354 ; F. sccreta, 354 ; F. similis, 
354 ; F. thea;, 354 ; F. tumida, 355. 

llaoourtia?, Aulacaspis. 

flava, Chionaspis. 

flava, Euproctis. 

flavociliatum, Asleiolecanium. 

tlavomaculata, Hoplia. 

Fiea Beetle cane-borer, 133.* 

floccifera, Pulvinaria. 

floridensis, Ceroplastes. 

florigci, Walkeriana. 

fodiens, Chionaspis. 

formicarii, Lecanium. 

forraicarium, Tcerya. 

formicarum, Margarodes. 

formiceticola, Pseudococcu.s. 

Formicomus cocrulipennis, 108. 

fossor, Pseudaonidia. 

foveicollis, Aulacophora. 

fovcolatus, Pleurotropis. 

frontale, Lecanium. 

frontccontracta, Fiorinia, 

fulviv'cntris, Hadronotus. 

fumiponniw, Argc. 

fuscidor.siun, Ajihycus. 

galliforiuan.s, Chionaspis. 
Gastrimargus marmoratus, 27. 
Gehchia (Platycdra) gossypiolla. 
geomethcvun, Lecanium. 
Cerbillus indicus, 174. 
gcrmanus, llhyssemus. 
gibbosa, Clavigralla. 
gideon, Xylotrupes. 
glomeratuH, Aspidiotus. 
gloveri, Lcpidosaphis. 

Gnathospastoidcs rouxi, 25. 

Gonocei^halum hofmannscggi, 110. 

gossypiolla, Platycdra. 

gossypii, Eriophyes. 

gossypii, Splienoptera. 

Gracillaria soyella, 287. 

graminis, Chionasjjis. 

grande, Asterolecanium. 

Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, 171. 

gudalura, Chionaspis. 

Gymnaspis ficus, 359 ; Li. ramakrishna;, 359 

G. sjjinomarginata, 359. 
gyninosjjori, Lecanium. 
Gynacantha l)ainbriggci, 270.* 

Hadronotus fulviventris, 3ti3. 

Ha^matopota hindostani, 37 ; H. montansis, 37. 

Haplohammus cervinus, 183. 

Haplosonyx trifasciatus, 17. 

Hajilothrips pictipes, 40. 

hartii, Aspidiotus. 

hedyotidis, ChionasiJis. 

Heliothis obsolcta, 15, 22, 79, 109,; H. pcltigora, 

Hellula undalis, 170. 

Helopeltis antonii, 20 ; H. theivora, 56, 91. 
Hemichionaspis alataj, 353 ; H. aspidistra", 353 ; 

H. chionaspiformis, 353 ; H. draca>na?, 353 ; 

H. fici, 353 ; H. minima, 353 ; H. minor, 353 ; 

H. separata, 353 ; H. thca?, 353. 
Hemilecanium imbricans, 351. 
hemipterus, Cimex. 
hemisphajricum, Lecanium. 
herbaj, Chionaspis. 
Horse convolvuli, 55, 171. 
hcsperidum, Coccus, 
hespcridum, Lecanium. 
Hessian Fly, 108. 
Hetcrographis sp., 120, 
Hfcteronychus sacchari, 109 ; H. sublanis,. 100,* 

hibisci, Cerococcus, 
Hicroglyphus banian, 53, 
liimalayensis, Kermes, 
hindostani, Hrematoj)ota. 
bindupurensis, Eurytoma. 
Hippoboscidic in Portuguese India, 45. 
hireutus, Pbcuacoccus. 
llispa armigera, 25, 52. 
his])idus, Tanymecus. 
Hodotermes viarum, 330. 
hofmanubcggi, Gouocephalum. 



holosericea, iEolesthes. 

Holotrichia longipennis, IG ; H. repclita, IG 

H. rufoflava, IG. 
Hoplia flavomaculata, IG. 
Hoploccrambyx spinicornis, 182. 
horticola, Adoretus. 
Howardia biclavis, 353. 
Iiunibertiana, Acrotylus. 
humeralis, Disphinctus. 
Hylemyia coarctata, 1G8. 
Hypera variabilis, 1G9. 

Hypothcncmus erudita, 28 ; H. plumoiiie, 33. 
HyjJsotroiJa temiiuorvelJa, 124.* 

Icerya ajgyptiaca, 339 ; I. crocca, 339 ; I. f ormi- 
carium, 339 ; I. minor, 339 ; I. pilosa, 339 ; 
I. purcliasi, 339 ; I. seychellarum, 18, 339. 
iccryoidcs, Phenacoccus. 
Idiocerus (see Mango-hoppers). 
Idiocerus atkinsoni, 148. 
imbricans, Hemilocanium. 
impressicolle, Alissonotum. 
impressus, Pachnephorus. 
incisus, Chaetodacus forrugineus. 
indi, Earytoma (Bruchophagus mellipcs). 
india, Asympiesiella. 
india3-orientalis, Leucaspis.^ 
indica, Antonina. 

,, Aonidia. 

,, Leucaspis. 

,, Margarodes. 
iudicus, Anomalococcus. 

, , Catant ops. 

,, Cerococcus. 

,, Uactylopius. 

, , Dendrothrips. 

,, Dolycoris. 

,, Elasmus. 

,, Gerbillus. 

, , Loeuwinia. 

,, Tanymecus. 
inferens, Sesamia. 
inficita, 8alnria. 

infuscus, Camponotus niaculatus. 
Inglisia bivalvata, 34G ; I. castillote, o4G ; 

I. chelonioides, 346. 
insanabilis, Autoserica. 
insignis, Orthezia. 
insolitus, Phenacoccus. 
insulana, Earias. 
inusitatus, Odonaspis. 
IpUiaulax sp., 3G4. 

irrepta, Pseudaonidia. 
Ischnaspis spalhulata, 360. 
ismene, Mehmitis. 
ixorse, Pulvinaria. 

Janata, Achaea. 
japonica, Aclcrda. 
japonica, Ceronema. 
japonica, Leucaspis. 
javBe, Paracopidosomopsis. 
javanus, Philodicus. 
jucunda, Oxycetonia. 
juniperi, Fiotinia. 


Kermcs hinialayensis, 343. 
Kermicus wroughtoni, 345. 
khapra, Trogodernia. 
kiefferi, Culicoides i^attoui. 
kcebeli, Ceronema. 

Lablab vine gall-weevil, 33. 

lacca, Tachardia. 

lactinea, Amsacta. 

laeticinia, Nyctemera. 

Iffitus, Oxycarenus. 

lagerstroemife, Eriococcus. 

I anceolatura , Asterolec aniu m . 

Laphygma exigua, 22, 169, 170, 171. 

lasianthi, Lcpidosaphis. ^ 

Lasiodcrma serricorne, -48. 

latanite, Aspidiotus. 

Icachii, Mono])hlebus. 

Leaf-beetles on pepi^er, 34. 

Lecaniodiaspis azadirachtae, 342 ; L. malaboda, , 

lecaniorum, Eucomys. 
Lecanium acuminatum, 350 ; L. acutissimum, 

349 ; L. adcrwi, 349 ; L. antidesmae, 350 ; 

L. arundinariie, 350 ; L. auriculatus, 360 ; 

L. bicruciatum, 19, 350 ; L. calophylli, 350 ; 

L. capparidis, 349 ; L. cai)rea;, 350 ; L. cau- 

datum, 350 ; L. cocculi, 360 ; L. depressura, 

349 ; L. discrepans, 19, 349 ; L. expansum, 

348 ; L. fasciata, 360 ; L. formicarii, 348 ; 

L. frontale, 349 ; L. geometricum, 350 ; 

L. gloveri, 360 ; L. gymnospori, 349 ; 



L. Iicmisphfericum, 348 ; L. hespericlura, 348 ; 

L. litzeae, 350 ; L. longulum, 348 ; L. mangi- 

ferac, 350 ; L. marginatum, 350 ; L. maii- 

timum, 350 ; L. marsupiale, 349 ; L. melise, 

360 ; L. mercarse, 349 ; L. montanum, 350 ; 

L. nigrum, 19, 348, 364 ; L. olese, 348 ; 

L. ophiorrhizae, 349 ; L. pallida, 360 ; L. 

piperis, 360 ; L. perideniyense, 350 ; L. 

persicae, 350 ; L. piiDeris, 350 ; L. planum, 

350 ; L. psidii, 350 ; L. punctuliferum, 350 ; 

L. ramakrishnse, 19, 348 ; Lecaniiim, 

Saissetia nigra, 19 ; L. signiferum, 348 ; L. 

subtessellatum, 350 ; L. retrusus, 360 ; L. 

tessellatum, 349 ; L. travancoriensis, 360 ; 

L. vanda;, 360 ; L. viride, 349 ; L. watti, 350 ; 
^ L. zonatum, 350. {See also under Saissetia.) 
Leeuwinia indicus, 40. 
lefroyi, Microbracon. 
Lefroyia castanese, 342. 
lentis, Bruchus. 
lepida, Parasa. 
Lepidosaphis ambigua, 3G0 ; L. beckii, 360 ; 

L. erythrinse, 360 ; L. lasiantlii, 360. 
Leptispa pygmsea, 25, 53. 
,, rufithorax, 17. 

Leptocorisa varicornis, 25, 48, 53. 
Leucaspis cockercUi, 358 ; L. indise-orientalis, 

358 ; L. indica, 358 ; L. japonica, 358 ; 

L. limoniae, 358 ; L. salicis, 358. 
lilacinus, Pseudococcus. 
limoniae, Leucaspis. 
lineare, Asterolecanium, 
lineaticoUis, Myllocerus. 
lissonota, Microtoridia. 
litura, Prodenia. 
litzese, Chionapsis. 

,, Lecaniura. 
lobata, Tachardia. 
locustivora, Pediobopsis. 
Lonchsea aristella, 171. 
longipennis, Holotrichia. 
longispinus, Aspidiotus. 

,, Pseudococcus. 

Longitarsus nigripcnnis, 34. 
longivalvata, Protopulvinaria. 
longulum, liccanium. 
loranthi, Aonidia. 
loranthi, Uiaspis. 
Lorditcs sp., 108. 
lorcyi, Cirjihis. 

Losses caused by insects in India, 10. 
lugubris, Oxycarenus. 
lutciventris, Arge. 
Lychrosis zcbrinus, 119. 
Lygieus paudurus, 169.^ 


maclellandi, Popillia. 
maculatus, Camponotus. 
maculiiiennis, Chastodacus. 

madurensis, Nisotra. 
malaliaricus, Phassua. 

,, Phlebotomus. 

malaboda, Lccaniodiaspis. 
malleolus, Aspidiotus. 
niangiferse, Cryptorrhynchus. 
mangiferse, Lecanium. 
,, Parlatoria. 

,, Phenacoccus. 

Mango-hoppers, 54, 148. 
manni, Chionaspis. 
Margarodcs I'ormicarum, 339 ; M. indica, 339 ; 

M. nigcr, 339 ; M. papillosa, 339. 
marginatum, Lecanium. 
maritima, Antonina. 
maritimum, Lecanium. 
marlatti, Phamicococcus. 
marmoratus, Gastrimargus 
marocranus, Dociostaurus. 
marsupiale, Lecanium. 
mathias, Chajira. 
mauritia, Spodoptera. 
maxima, Pulvinai'ia. 
medinalis, Cnaphalocrocis. 
Megachile bicoior, 382.* 
megaloba, Chionaspis. 
Megalommum sji., 365. 
Melanitis ismene, 47. 
melise, Lepidosaphis. 
mdicerta, Ophiusa (Ach?na Janata). 
mclIijDCS, Bruchophagus. 
Meloidse in Portuguese India, 48 ; in Madra.«, 

Meraporus vandinei, 364. 
mercarae, Lecanium. 
merione, Ergolis. 
Merionotus sp., 364. 
Mesochorus plusiaepliilus, 364. 
mesnse, Amorphococcus. 

,, Aonidia. 
Mcteorus arctiicida, 363 ; M. sp., 365. 
Microbracon lefroyi, 78, 82, 298 ; M. sp., 

Microplitis sp., 31*, 364. 
Microtoridia lissonata, 364. 
miliare, Asteiolecanium. 
miliaris, Aspidomorpha. 
minima, Hemicliionas])is. 
minor, Hemichionaspis. 



minor, Icerya. 

minuta, Chionaspis. 

minutug, Phlebotomus. 

modesta, Phidodonta. 

monoceros, Euterraes. 

Monohanimus versteegi, 17. 

Monolepta signata, 108. 

Monophlebus atriponnis, 337 ; M. burmeistori 

337; M. dalbergiffi, 338; M. leachii, 337; 

M. octooaudatu.s, 338 ; M. saundersii, 337 ; 

M. stebbingi, 338 ; M. tamarindus, 338 : 

M. zeylanicus, 337. 
montansis, Htematopota. 
montanum, Lccanium. 
moorei, Amsacta. 

,, Aspidiotus. 
Morinda shoot-borer beetle, 33. 
Mosquito Traps, 219.* 
Muscidse in Portuguese India, 45. 
mussttndae, Chionaspis. 
Myiopardalis pardalina, 170. 
Myllocerus blandus, 108, 110 ; M. discolor, ll8, 

Myllocerus lineaticollis, 17 ; M. undecim- 

pustulatus, 108, 110. 
myristicfe, AuJacaspis. 
mytilaspiformis, Parlatoria. 


l^aiacoccus serpentinus, 344. 

nararia, Natada. 

Natada nararia, 153.* 

Neculla pollinaria, 34. 

Neolecanium cinnamomi, 347 ; N. crustuli- 

fornie, 347 ; N. pseudole», 347. 
Neopimploides sylepta, 364. 
nephantidis, Elasmus. 
Nephantis serinopa, 23, 365. 
nerteria, Stomopteryx. 
Nezara viridula, 55. 
niger, Margarodes. 
nigra, Saissetia. 
nigriceps, Spinaria. 
nigripennis, Longitarsus. 
nigrum, Lecanium. 
nilgiriensis, Serica. 
nipa5, Pseudococcus. 
Nisotra madurensis, 34. 
niteara, Cosmoscarta. 
Nodostoma subcostatum, 108. 
no.xius, Xyleborus. 
Nyctemera lacticinia, 363. 

nyctemerae, Euplectrus. 
nyeraitawas, Tetrastichus. 
Nymphula depunctalis, 23, 47, 53. 
Nysius ceylanicus, 91. 

Obituary Notices : F. M. Howlett, 1 , 3 ; 
J. L. Mitter, 4 ; C. A. Paiva, 4 ; Lord Wal- 
singham, 5. 
obscura, Aonidia. 

,, Pulvinaria. 
obsoleta, Heliothis. 
obtectus, Celyphus. 
occultus, Aspidiotus. 
Ocnerogyna amanda, 171. 
octocaudatus, Monophlebus. 
odinse, Fiorinia. 
Odonasijis canaliculatus, 358 ; 0. inusitatus, 

357 ; 0. penicillata, 358 ; 0. simplex, 357. 
Oedaleus abruptus, 27. 
olese, Lecanium. 
Oligonychus simplex, 168. 
Onthophagus bifasciatus, 236. 
oophagus, Tumidiscapus. 
opalina, Torynorrhina. 
ophiorrhiza?, Lecanium. 
Opkiusa melicerta (Achsea Janata), 
ophiusge, Tetrastichus. 
oreodoxse, Pseudaonidia. 
Orgyia postica, 363. 
orientalis, Asobara. 
,, Aspidiotus. 
,, Bruchocida. 
,, Parlatoria. 
,, Zamesochorus. 
ornatus, Cerococcus. 

,, Phenacoccus. 
ornithocephala, .^shna. 
Orthacris acuticejis, 27. 
Orthezia insignis, 339. 
Oryctes elegans, 168. 

„ rhinoceros, 47, 109, 112, 127. 
oryzse, Bagnallia. 
,, Calandra. 
,, Pachydiplosis. 
Oxya velox, 41. 
oxyse, Scelio. 

Oxyambulyx sericeipennis, 16. 
Oxycarenus laetus, 26, 84. 

,, lugubris, 87. 

Oxycetonia jucunda, 28. 
oxystoma, Culicoides. 



I'achnophorus imprcssus, 108. 

Pacliydiplosis oryzac, 21, 53, IIT), 146, 378. 

Pagria cost<atipcniiis, 34. 

pallida, Lepidosaphis. , 

I)andurus, Lygajus. 

panici, Aspidiotus. 

Papilio dcmoleus, 47, 3G3. 
,, polytes, 259, 303. 

pftpilionis, Protopantolcs. 

papillosa, Margarodcs. 
,, Parlatoria. 

Pitpaa (Emmaloccra). 

Paracoi)idosomopsis javje, 364. 

paradoxus, Eriococcus. 

Parasa lepida, 30, 54, 304. 

paraspc, Eurytoma. 

pardalina, Myiopardalis. 

parlatorooidcs, Cryptoparlatorea. 

Parlatoria aonidiformis, 361 ; P. artocarpi, 301 
P. atlantia;, 361 ; P. blanchardi, 20, 168 
P. calianthina, 361 ; P. camellia?, 38, 362 
P. cingala, 361 ; P. cristifera, 38, 362 ; P 
mangiferse, 361 ; P. mytilaspifoiinis, 360 
P. orientalis, 361 ; P. papillosa, 362 ; P 
pcrgandii, 20, 301 ; P. proteus, 362 ; P 
pseudaspidiotus, 361 ; P. vateriae, 301 
P. zizyphus, 301. 

Parnara (Chapra) mathiae. 

pamarse, Eupteromalus. 

parvulus, Xyleborus. 

Passalid Beetles, Distribution of, 212. 

pattoni, Culicoides. 

Pcctlnophoru (Platyedra) gossypiella. 

Pediobopsis locustivora, 305. 

pedronis, Aspidiotus. 

Pcgomyia sp., 170. 

Pelochyta astraja. 

l)eltigcra, Heliothis. 

Peniphcres afiiuis, 24. 

penicillata, Odonaspis. 

Pcntodon bcngalense, 17, 108, 109 ; P. bis- 
pinifrons, 108,* 109. 

])Cj)oni8, Plusia. 

Popper, Leaf-beetles on, 34. 

peradeniyonse, Lecanium. 

pcregriua, Schistocerea. 

pcrforans, Xyleborus. 

pergaudii, Parlatoria. 

Perigca capcnsis, 305. 

Per ifi-iopne anion (Stigmacoccus). 

permutans, Dinaspis. 

jiernifiosus, Aspidiotus, 

perplexa, Aonidia. 

persicse, Lecanium. 

pcrticclla, Euzophera. 

pcrtinax, Walkeriana. 

Phanerotoma sp., 305. 

Phassus malabaricus, 183. 

Phenacoccus ballardi, 344 ; P. liirsutus, 38, 

344; P. iccryoidcs, 18, 344; P. insolitus, 18, 

344 ; P. niangiferffi, 18, 344 ; P. ornatus, 345 ; 

P. quaternus, 345. 
Phidodonta niodcsta, 18. 
Philodicus javanus, 45. 

Phlebotomus malabaricus, 44 ; P. minutu's, 44. 
Plurnieococcus marlatti, 108. 
Phthorimaja ergasima, 170. 
Phycitid cane-boicr, 120.* 
Phycodes radiata, 304. 
pliycodis, Apanteles. 
pliyllanthi, Aspidiotus. 
Phjdlochoreia sp., 39.* 
Phyllognathus diouysius, 108, 109. 
piccum, Alissonoium 
pieta, Bagrada. 
pictipes, Haplothrips. 
pilosa, leerya. 
piperis, Lecanium. 

,, Lepidosaphis. 
plana, Fiorinia. 
planchonoides, Aonidia. 
planiceps, Trachythorax. 
planum, Lecanium. 
Platyedra gossypiella, 20, 70.* 
Platypodidse, 182. 

Pleurotropis cpilachna), 365 ; P. foveolatus, 363, 
plumeripe, Hypothenemus. 
Plusia peponis, 364 ; P. signata, 364. 
plusise, Apanteles. 
plusiffiphilus, Mesocborus. 
Plutella maculi]>ennis, 170. 
]'a2cilogonalos, species of, 32, 
polcii, Walkeriana. 
polita, Anomala. 
pollinaria, Noculla. 
Polliiiia ceylonica, 342. 
pol3'goni, Chionaspis. 
polytes, Papilio. 
ponionella, Cydia. 
Pongamia gall-(ly, 37.* 
Popillia birmanica, 28. 
Popillia clilorion, 17 ; P. cyanca, 17 ; P. maclel- 

landi, 16. 
poricoUis, Amblyrrhinus. 
postica, Orgyia. 
l)othi, Aonidiella. 
Pristomcrus euzoi)hcr;r, 30, 304. 
proboscidaria, i'iorinia. 



p. creatonoti, 
stauropi, 364. 



Procometis trochala, 114,* 122 
prodenisc, Apantcles. 
Prodenia litura, 46, 170, 303. 
Protaetia alboguttata, 109. 
Protaetia aurichalcea, 17. 
proteus, Parlatoria. 
Protopanteles colemani, 363 ; 

363 ; P. papilionis, 363 ; P 
Protoijulvinaria longivalvata, 347 
proxima, Apogonia. 
Pscudaonidia fossor, 359 ; Ps. irreiita, 

Ps. oreodoxa;, 359. 
pscudaspidiotus, Parlatoria. 
pBcudocamcIlia?, Aspidiotus. 
Pseudococcus broraclia^, 38, 344 ; P. citri, 

P. cocotis, 343 ; P. corymbatus, 344 ; P. 

crotonis (lilacinus) ; P. formiceticola, 344 ; 

P. lilacinus, 18, 344 ; P. longi.spinus, 343 ; 

P. hipse, 343 ; P. .sacdmri, 53, 343 ; P. saccha- 

rifolii, 343 ; P. scrobicularum, 344 ; P. 

thcsecola, 344 ; P. virgatus, 343 ; P. viridis, 

Pscudogonia cincrasccns, 07.* 
pseudolca?, Ncolecanium. 
Pseudopulvinaria sikkimcnsis, 347. 
psidii, Lecanium. 

,, Pulvinaria. 
Psychidae, 27. 
Psyllid on Cinnamon, 38. 

Publications on Indian Entomology, ; Mis- 
leading titles and dates of — , 7. 
pudibundum, Asterolecanium. 
pukliella, Utetheisa. 
Pulicidffi in Portuguese India, 45. 
Pulvinaria burkilli, 348 ; P. ccllulosa, 18, 347 ; 

P. Hoccifera, 347 ; P. ixora>, 347 : P. maxima, 

39,* 347, 305; P. obscura, 348; 

18, 347; P. tcssellata, 347; P. 

347 ; P. tomentosa, 347. 
punctuliferum, Lecanium. 
purchasi, Iccrya. 
pusa, Chionaspis. 
pusilla, Aonidia. 
putearus, Aspidiotus. 
pygmsea, Leptispa. 

Pyroderccd coriuctlla (Anatracliyntis simplex). 
,, spodocllta (Auatrachyntis falca- 



P. psidii, 

quadriclavatus, Aspidiotus. 
quadrimaculatus, Bruclius. 
quaternus, Pheuacoccus, 


Rachionotomyia aranoidcs, 44. 
radiata, Pliycodes. 
ramakrislinse, Gymnaspis. 

,, Lecanium. 

ranacea, Cyrtacantliacris. 
Raphimetopus ablutclla, 122. 
rcpetita, Holotrichia. 
resinophila, Ripcrsio. 
Resolutions of Third Meeting, S. 
retrusus, Lepidosaphis. 
rhinoceros, Oryctes. 
rhododendri, Chionaspis. 
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, 48. 
Rhyssemus gcrmanus, 108, 129*; R. sp., 108. 
Ripersia resinophila, 345 ; R. sacchari, 18, 

345 ; R. thea^, 345. 
robertsi, Chrotogonus. 
rosse, Diaspis. 
rosous, Cerococcus. 
rossi, Aspidiotus. 
rotunda, Contheyla. 
rouxi, Gnathospastoidcs. 
rubens, Ceroplastes. 
rubrocomatum, Asterolecanium. 
rubrofasciatus, Conorrhinus. 
rubrolineata, Fiorinia. 
rubus, Batocera. 
rufimanus, Bruchus. 
rufithorax, Leptispa. 
rufoflava, Holotrichia. 
rugosa, Anomala. 


sacchari, Heteronychus. 

,, Pseudococcus. 

, , Ripersia. 
saccharifolii, Pseudococcus. 
Saissetia nigra, 19. 
salicis, Leucaspis. 
Saluria inficita, 27, 122. 
sapindi, Fiorinia. 
saprosniK', Fiorinia. 

fSarcopsyl lida; in Portuguese India, 45. 
saundersii, Monophlebus. 
saussurei, Chrotogonus. 
Scelio oxya>, 42. 
Schistoccrca peregrina, 172. 
Schoenobius bipunctifer, 22, 35, 52, 134, 135, 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella, 120, 141. 
Bciurus, TanymecuB. 



Scolytidae in Madras, 23, 28 ; in Portuguese 

India, 48. 
scrobicularuin, Chionaspis. 
,, Fiorinia. 

,, Pseudococcus. 

scutatus, Celyphus. 
secrota, Fiorinia. 
secretus, Aspidiotus. 
segetum, Euxoa. 

Senoclia bilanga, 32 ; S. diascorca?, 32. 
separata, Hemichionaspis. 
Serica nilgiriensis, 16. 
sericeipennis, Oxyainbulyx. 
serinopa, Nephantis. 
serpentinus, Naiacoccus. 
serratus, Degonetus. 
serricorne, Lasiodorma. 
Sesamia cretica, 169. 
Scsamia infercns, 120, 141, 145 : S. uniformis, 

eetitibia, Eurytoma. 
seychellarum, Icerya. 
signata, Monolepta. 

,, Plusia. 
signiferum, Lecanium. 
sikkimensis, Pscudopulvinaria. 
uimilc, Alissonotum. 
similis, Fiorinia. 
simplex, Anatrachyntis. 
,, Chilo. 
,, Odonaspis. 
,, Oligonycbus. 
Simulium striatum, 44. 
Siphonaptera in Portuguese India, 35. 
Siricid, from S. India, 31. 
Sitodrepa sp., 364. 
Sitotroga cerealolla, 47. 
Bocialis, Conchaspis. 
Bolenoiihoroides, Asterolecanium. 
soyella, Graoillarla. 
spathulata, Ischnaspis. 
spatulata, Aonidia. 
sphenarioidc's, Colemania. 
Sphonoptera gossypii, 25. 
spiculata, Chionaspis. 
Spinaria nigriceps, 30* ; Indian species of — , 

spinicornis, Hoplocerambyx. 
spinomarginata, Gymnaspis. 
8j)inosissima, Aonidia. 
spododha, rj/rodcrccs (Anatracliyntis falca- 

Spodoptora mauritia, 46, 52, GO*, 365. 
Btauro))i, ProtopanteU's. 
Stauropus alternus, 35, 291, 304. 

stebbingi, Monophlebus. 

Stegomyia albopicta, 44, 184, 192 : S. fasciata, 

stellifera, Vinsonia. 
Stenachroia elongella, 16. 
Stigmacoccus ferox, 338. 
stigmaticollis, Calandra. 
stillata, Anatona. 
Stomoceras ayyari, 30*, 364. 
Stomopteryx nerteria, 54, 365. 
striatum, Simulium. 
strobilanthi, Cliionaspis. 
Sturmia bimaculata, 68.* 
subcorticalis, Chionaspis. 
subeostatum, Nodostoma. 
su bias vis, Hcteronychus. 
submetallicus, Amonophadnus. 
subtessellatum, Lecanium. 
Surra and Biting Flics, 222. 
Sylepta derogatn, 364. 
sylepta, Neopimploides. 

Tabanidffl in Bababuddin Hills, 37 ; in Por- 
tuguese India, 44 ; connected with Surra, 222. 
Tachardia albizzise, 340 ; T. decorella, 340 ; 
T. fici, 340; T. lacca, 253, 340; T. lobata, 
Tachina fallax, 68.* 
tamarindi, Aspidiotus. 
tamarindus, Monophlebus. 
tamulus, Aiolopus. 
tantilus, Triphleps. 
Tanymecus hispidus, 108, 109. 
,, indicus, 109. 

,, sciurus, 109. 

taprobanus, Aspidiotus. 
Taragama dorsalis, 363. 
taragamse, Apanteles. 
targioniopsis, Aonidia. 
Tarucus theophrastus, 172. 
Telenomus colcmani, 363. 
tentaculata, Aonidia. 
tenuinervella, Hypsotropa. 
tenuissimum, Asterolecanium. 
Termes convulsionarius, 331, 
Termites in South India, 312.* 
tessellata, Pulvinaria. 
tessellatum, Lecanium. 

Tetrastichus ayyari, 22, 365 ; T. coimbato- 
rensis, 22, 365 ; T. colcjnani, 363 ; T. nyemi- 
tawas, 21, 365 ; T. ophiusse, 363. 



theae, Aspidiotus. 

,, Eriochiton. 

„ Fiorinia. 

,, Hemichionaspis. 

„ Ripersia. 

,, Tachardia docorella. 
thesecola, Pseudococcus. 
theophrastus, Tariicus. 
Theretra alecto, 171. 
thespesise, Asterolecanium. 

,, Piilvinaria. 
Thrips, 372. 
Thysanoptera, 40. 
Tipulida>, 108. 

Titles of Publications, Misleading, 7. 
Tobacco Pests in Madras, 54. 
Tomato Flies, 21. 
tomentosa, Pulvinaria. 
torrentellus, Chilo. 
Torynorrhina opalina, 28. 
Trachythorax planiceps, 39 
transparens, Aspidiotus. 
travancoricnsis, Lepidosapliis 
trifasciatus, Haplosonyx. 
trifenestrata, Cricula. 
triglandulosus, Aspidiotus. 
trilobitiformis, Aspidiotus. 
Triphleps tantilus, 00. 
tritici, Tylenchus. 
trochala, Procometis. 
Trogoderma kliapra, 240. 
truculenta, Bactra. 
tumida, Fiorinia. 
tumidiscapi, Aximopsis. 
Tumidiscapus oophagus, 42. 
tumidum, Asterolecanium. 
Tylenchus tritici, 169. 


udagamae, Asterolecanium. 
uncinati, Aulacaspis. 
undalis, Hellula. 
undecim-pustulatus, Myllocerus. 
uniformis, Sesamia. 
Utetheisa pulcliella, 170. 

vandse, Lepidosaphis. 
vandinei, Meraporus. 
varia, Cyphocera. 
variabilis, Hypera, 
varicolor, Anomala. 
yaricornis, Leptocorisa. 

varicosa, Chionaspis. 
vaterise, Parlatoria. 
vectabilis, Bruclius. 
velox, Oxya. 

venosata, Diatra?a. 

versteegi, Monohammus. * 

versutus, Adorotus. 

viarum, Hodotermes. 

Vinsonia stellifera, 347. 

virescens, Cerojilastodes. 

virgatus, Pseudococcus. 

viride, Lecanium. 

viridis, Aonidia. 

,, Pseudococcus. 
viridula, Nezara. 
vitis, Chionaspis. 


Walkeriana cincrea, 338 ; W. compacta, 338 ; 

W. euphorbife, 338 ; W. floriger, 338 ; W. 

poleii, 338 ; W. pertinax, 338 ; W. xylia; 38 

Wallacea dactyliferre, 17. 
watti, Lecanium. 
Weevil cane-borer, 119.* 
wroughtoni, Kermicus. 

xanthogastrella, Scirpophaga. 

Xiphydria, Indian species of, 31. 

Xyleborus biporus, 23 ; X. compactus, 23 ; 

X. noxius, 23 ; X. parvulus, 28 ; X. per- 

forans, 23, 113, 132. 
xylise, Walkeriana. 
Xylina exoleta, 170. 
Xylotrupes gideon, 109. 

ypsilon, Agrotis, Braconid parasite of, 157. 

Zamesocliorus orientalis, 
zebrinus, Lychrosis. 
zeylanicHS, Monophlebus. 
zizyphus, Parlatoria. 
zonata, Antonina. 
zonatum, Lecanium. 
zonatus, Chsetodacug. 







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