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Full text of "Report of the public schools of Fort Wayne, Indiana, with announcements for ... and the rules and regulations, and the course of study"

Digitized by tlie Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/reportofpublicsc19071908fort 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 
977.202 
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1907-1908 




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REPORT OF THE 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



OF 



FORT WAYNE, INDIANA, 



WITH 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 



FOR 1907—1908 



AND THE 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 



AND THE 



COURSE OF STUDY 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE BOARD 



ss* 



vv 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



£005244 



BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES 

FOR 1906 — 1907 



Dr. W. O. GROSS 
JAMES H. FRY 
ERNEST W. COOK 



ERNEST W. COOK 
ANSELM FUELBER 
JAMES H. FRY 



FOR 1907 — 1908 



President. 
Secretary. 
Treasurer. 



President. 
Secretary. 
Treasurer. 



JUSTIN N. STUDY, Superintendent. 
Office Hours from 8 :30 to 9 :3o A. M. and from 4 to 5 P. M. 

Office of Superintendent, Old High School Building, 
Wayne Street, between Calhoun and Clinton. 



The regular meetings of the Board are held on the second and 
fourth Mondays of each month at 7 :30 o'clock P. M. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



PRESIDENT'S REPORT. 

July 30, 1907. 
To the Honorable Board of School Trustees, 

of the City of Fort Wayne. 

I beg leave to submit herewith my report as President of the 
School Board. 

At the close of the calendar year 1907 there were enrolled in 
the several grade schools 5940 pupils, and in the High and Manual 
Training School 6y6 pupils, making a total enrollment of 6616 
pupils in the Public Schools of Fort Wayne. Of this number 3206 
were boys and 3410 were girls. To educate these children re- 
quired a teaching force of 194 teachers, whose annual pay roll 
amounted to $123,800.74. Fifteen Grade Schools, one High and 
Manual Training School, one Normal Training School, and one 
Administration Building, having a total of 198 rooms, and with 
grounds, buildings and equipment representing a value of $875,- 
000.00. 

The valuation as above is distributed as follows : — 

1. Present Administration Building. . . .$ 75.000 

2. High and Manual Training School 275,000 

3. Jefferson School 75,ooo 

4. Hanna School 67,000 

5. Hoagland School 50,000 

6. Clay School 43j30C> 

7. Hamilton School 32,000 

8. Harmer School 33.350 

9. Bloomingdale School 30,000 

10. Nebraska School 40,000 

11. Washington School 25,000 

12. Miner School 25,000 

13. Lakeside School 22,350 

14. Holton Ave. School 22,000 

15. South Wayne School 15,000 

16. Franklin School 15,000 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

17. McCulloch School 15,000 

18. Rudisill School 15,000 



Much has been accomplished in the growth and development of 
the Public School System, since our last report was published. The 
new High and IManual Training School is now fully equipped and 
in perfect working order. The academic course is most thorough 
and comprehensive and under the watchful supervision of the prin- 
cipal and his able corps of teachers has reached a point in history 
which gives to it an enviable record. The manual training and 
domestic science departments have proven a success beyond ex- 
pectation. 

Two new grade schools have been built and equipped at a cost 
of $125,000.00, while an addition of four rooms to the Nebraska 
School is now in course of construction. 

By annexation of outlying districts the city has come into pos- 
session of the Rudisill School. 

Owing to the close proximity of manufacturing industries, the 
location of the Holton Ave. School will necessarily have to be 
changed in the near future. 

All of the buildings are now receiving the necessary repairs 
and improvements to place them in perfect condition for the fall 
term. 

Sanitary conditions have received the Board's best attention. 
Light, heat and ventilation, being the prerequisites of sanitation, 
have always been guarded, and whenever necessary or expedient 
introduced and maintained. 

Frequent visits to the class rooms have demonstrated the 
care exercised by the teachers in avoiding undue eye strain, while 
the discipline in all school rooms was exceptionally good. 

In the two new buildings large gymnasium rooms have been 
established and equipped, while an additional teacher has been em- 
ployed to give to this branch of our common school system the neces- 
sary material for successful physical training. 

The growing need of an addition to our High School curri- 
culum in the nature of a commercial course, is becoming more ap- 
parent each year. Modern business methods should be taught to our 
young men and women, so as to qualify them better to take up life's 
work, if they shouldbe thrown upon their own resources. This course 
should be made elective, so as not to interfere with those pupils de- 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 7 

siring to pursue a purely academic course of studies. Owing to a 
lack of proper buildings and facilities this branch of education must 
necessarily be delayed until suitable rooms and buildings are avail- 
able. 

The exceedingly rapid growth of attendance at the High 
School will make it necessary in the near future to procure ad- 
ditional ground adjacent to the present High School property for 
the purpose of erecting thereon separate buildings for the Manual 
Training Department, for a Gymnasium, and for an extra Boiler 
or Power House to furnish heat and ventilation, and eventually 
electric power to the different buildings. The present heating sys- 
tem, while perfect in its equipment, is interfering with the personal 
comfort of teachers and pupils in class rooms situated immediately 
above the plant, on account of the excessive warmth of floors and 
atmosphere. I would strongly urge the erection of an extra build- 
ing to house the boilers or heating plant ; such building if possible 
to be at some distance from the High School Proper. 

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

The rapid growth of our city, giving us permanent assurance 
for a still larger field in school work, will soon make the erection of 
an Administration Building an absolute necessity. Such a building 
should be centrally located, in the down town districts, where it 
would be easy of access, and should be sufficiently large to furnish 
office rooms for the Superintendent, the Board of School Trustees, 
the Clerk, the various Supervisors, the Truant Officer, and the 
Chief Janitor. It should contain a Principals' meeting room, a 
large assembly room for teachers' meetings, and sufficient storage 
room for school supplies, books, etc., to be used during the school 
year. In this building all of the business affairs of the schools 
could be conducted without disturbing any individual school or 
teachers, as has necessarily been the case in the past. 

I would further recommend an increased equipment for our 
Normal Training School, in order to place this department of our 
school system on the highest plane possible, consistent with present 
needs and requirements. This Normal Training School has been 
placed on the accredited list of training schools and extra work 
and equipment are essential to meet the demands of advanced train- 
ing. 



8 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

KINDERGARTEN. 

In this part of our excellent school system we endeavor to lay 
the foundation for future school work, and this department more 
than any other, deserves the careful watching and training of ex- 
pert teachers, for "as we sow, so shall we reap", and if our instruc- 
tors in this department lead the child's mental development in the 
proper channel, it becomes an easy task for the teachers in the up- 
per grades to continue the good work, and I can conceive of no 
greater responsibility of this Board than to carefully select those 
teachers to whom our little ones are entrusted in the beginning of 
their school life. 

I^IBRARY. 

The Public Library of Fort Wayne is without doubt an orna- 
ment to our beautiful city, being situated in the residence district 
and yet within easy reach of all. The value of this building with 
contents amounts to $145,000.00. 

As an auxiliary to our Public School System its value can not 
be overestimated. The Public Library being under the control of 
the Board of School Trustees, its Book Committe is carefully 
selected by the Board in order to satisfy the diversified interests of 
creeds and classes. Among this committee may be found repre- 
sentatives of the clergy, of the law, of commercial and social life, 
of labor and of learning, each vying with the other to select only 
such books as have a tendency to elevate the morals of the reading 
public. The rapid increase in the number of volumes purchased 
for this library is fully shown in the librarian's report which ap- 
pears elsewhere. 

I can not help but call special attention to the 
good, the addition of a children's librarian is doing for our school 
children. Under proper influence books are selected for our children 
which tend to elevate them in their tastes for better literature. Books 
which may tend to poison their little minds are being discarded, 
and this process of elimination and substitution of better books is 
tending to bring our children upward and forward in moral ten- 
dencies. 

In conclusion I desire to call your attention to the exceptionally 
flattering condition which exists between the School Officials — ^the 
Principals — Teachers and pupils. The work in all departments has 
been accomplished with scarcely any friction. Cases of discipline 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 9 

have been adjusted by our worthy Superintendent in a highly satis- 
factory manner and not once in the past three years has it been 
necessary to appeal to the Board from any decision made by the 
Superintendent. This is a remarkably gratifying condition and 
demonstrates the perfect harmony with which the affairs of the 
Public Schools have been conducted. 

I desire on this occasion to thank the members of the Board 
for their uniform kindness and courtesy shown to me as their 
presiding officer, and to express the hope that present harmonious 
relations may always continue for the best interests of the Public 
Schools of Fort Wayne, 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. O. Gross, President. 



10 Eiport of Puilic Schools. Fort Wayne. Ind. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF THE BOARD OF 

SCHOOL TRUSTEES OF THE CITY OF FORT 

WAYXE, INDIANA. 

Fort Wa}Tie, Indiana, August i. 1907 
To the Honorable Mayor and Common Council, 
Fort \\'a}Tie, Indiana. 
Gentlemen: — As Treasurer of the Board of School Trustees I 
submit the following report for the year ending July 31, 1907. 

ACCOUNT OF SCHOOL RE\'EXUE FOR TUITION. 

Amount of revenue for tuition on hand July 31, 1906 S 69.207.04 

January- Distribution Local Tuition 21,933.56 

January Distribution Common School 31,939.61 

January Distribution Compulson.- Education 1.275.47 

Januarys Distribution Kindergarten 1.275.47 

July Distribution Local Tuition 26.365.55 

July Distribution Common School 39.365.28 

July Distribution Compulson.^ Education 1,512.32 

July Distribution Kindergarten 1,512.31 

Miscellaneous Tuition Receipts 2.891.93 



8197,278.54 
EXPENDITURES. 
Salaries of Teachers 8123,800.74 

Balance on hand July 31, 1907 8 73.477.80 

ACCOLTNT OF LIBR-\RY FUND. 

Amount on hand July 31, 1906 S 6.090.17 

Amoimt of Januar}- Distribution 3,826.37 



Beport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 11 

Amount of July Distribution 4j536-97 

Amount received for fines, finding lists, etc I99-9I 

Interest on School Funds from August i, 1906 to 

August I, 1907 2,017.12 



S 16,670.54 
EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries, Librarian and Assistants $ 3.368.40 

Salaries, Janitors 1,101.00 

Books 3,102.08 

Papers and Magazines 370.88 

Binding 492-75 

Light and Fuel i .078.42 

Miscellaneous Expenses 206.52 

Telephone 24.00 

Repairs 151-58 

Labor 6.00 

Freight, Expressage and Drayage 4.65 

Supplies 21848 

Printing 3I-50 

Improvement to Grounds 14.00 

Furniture 761.99 

Insurance 132.00 $11,064.25 

Balance on hand July 31, 1907 S 5,606.29 

ACCOL'XT OF SPECIAL SCHOOL RE^'E^XE. 

Amount on hand July 31, 1906 S 40,558.57 

Balance, Building Fund transferred to Special Fund. . . 59.236.52 

January Distribution Special School 23,025.60 

Januar}- Distribution High & Alanual Training School 

Bonds 8,928.75 

January Distribution Xew Bonds and Interest 8.901.39 

July Distribution Special School 27.221.84 

July Distribution High & ]\Ianual Training Sch. Bonds 10.586.27 

July Distribution New Bonds and Interest 1 0.^86.27 

Cash from sale of Old Hanna School ($6,000.00) less 

$900.00 for Street and Sewer Improvement 5.100.00 



12 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Miscellaneous Receipts from July 31, 1906 to July 



31, 1907 



141.78 



$194,286.99 
EXPENDITURES. 

Construction $ 47378-24 

Bonds 20,000.00 

Street and Sewer Improvement 891.71 

Improvement to Grounds 746-35 

School Furniture '^A^'^-7^ 

Telephones 375-30 

Apparatus 4.036.63 

Interest 11,079.99 

Text and Reference Books 149.18 

Repairs 3748-36 

Postage and Telegrams 97-37 

Supplies 4,571-80 

Fuel and Light 11,836.03 

Enumeration and Fees 506.60 

Legal Services 61.00 

Insurance 3,266.61 

Printing and Binding 290.74 

Indigent Account 35-21 

Commencement Expenses 180.68 

Registers and Blank Books i44-90 

Labor 540-71 

Freight, Expressage and Drayage 516.39 

Miscellaneous Expenses 214.72 

Salary of Trustees 750-00 

Salary of Superintendent 3,000.00 

Salary of Clerk in Sup't Office 720.00 

Salary of Clerk at High School 576-00 

Salary of Janitors, Engineers, etc 12,735.38$! 30,361 .62 

Balance on hand July 31, 1907 $ 63,925.37 

RECAPITULATION. 

Receipts Expenditures Balance on Hand 
Tuition Fund $197,278.54 $123,800.74 $73,477.80 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 13 

Special Fund 194,286.99 130,361.62 63,925.37 

Library Fund 16,670.54 11,064.25 5,606.29 



Total $408,236.07 $265,226.61 $143,009.46 

As the law directs, the vouchers representing the foregoing 
amounts are on file in the Office of the Auditor of Allen County. 

Respectfully submitted, 
ERNEST W. COOK. Treasurer. 



14: Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



Office of Superintendent of Pubuc Schools, Fort Wayne, 

Indiana : 
To the Honorable Board of School Trustees: 

GentIvEmen : — The following report for the school year of 
1906-1907, with statistics covering the past six years, is respect- 
fully submitted for your consideration : 

LENGTH OF SESSION. 

The number of actual days of school in the last six years have 
been as follows : 

1901-02 — 186. 

1902-03 — i86y2. 

1903-04—187. 

1904-05— 191. 

1905-06 — 187. 

1906-07 — 186. 

The school year consists of ten months of twenty days each, 
or 200 days. The legal holidays and other days upon which the 
schools have been closed have reduced the actual school time to 
the number of days represented above. 

From time to time complaints are made that the schools be- 
gin too early in the autumn and close too late in the summer. 
This complaint, however, comes from a few, and it is believed 
does not voice the sentiment of the majority of the patrons of the 
public schools. 

The schools are actually in session only a very little more than 
one-half of the calendar year, and it is respectfully submitted that 
the child who is in school only one-half the number of days of the 
year, is not over-burdened with school room duties. 

It is the very small minority who are able to spend the vaca- 
tion period in the mountains, upon the sea shore, or at lake re- 
sorts. The great majority of the pupils of the public schools spend 
the entire vacation period in the city, and on account of their age 



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Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



15 



are unable to find employment, and in consequence are idle. In 
cities the problem of what to do with the children during the long 
summer vacation is one being seriously considered by those inter- 
ested in the welfare of the people. It has been partially solved in 
some cities by the establishment of vacation schools. 

No shortening of the school year can be considered seriously 
except at the cost of the efficiency of the schools, as compared with 
the schools of the better class, and the injury of the great mass of 
the children attending them who must terminate their school days 
at a comparatively early age, and therefore must have all possible 
opportunity afforded them to acquire a common school education in 
the limited time they can be kept in school. 

The school year as it is now is none too long for the doing of 
the work absolutely required in the best class of school systems ; to 
shorten it would make it necessary to curtail the curriculum ; or to 
increase the pressure upon the pupils by requiring the year's work 
to be done in less time. Neither is advisable. 

ENUMERATION OF SCHOOL POPULATION. 

The following table shows by items the growth of the school 
city from 1902 to 1907 inclusive. 







White 




Colored. 






Year. 














ToTAlv. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1902 


6,713 


7,028 


13,741 


23 


42 


65 


13,806 


1903 


6,814 


7,019 


13,833 


25 


30 


55 


13,888 


1904 


6,957 


7,126 


14,083 


23 


35 


58 


14,141 


1905 


7,217 


7,424 


14,641 


34 


31 


65 


14,706 


1906 


7,902 


8,022 


15,924 


44 


40 


84 


16,008 


1907 


8,199 


8,331 


16,530 


52 


52 


104 


16,634 



The foregoing table shows a healthy growth of school popula- 
tion in the years covered. The enumeration is a census of all per- 
sons between six and twenty-one years of age. It is a somewhat 
difficult matter to obtain a complete school census as many persons 
connect the school census with attendance upon school and neglect 
to give the enumerator the names of members of the family who are 
under twenty-one years of age but who have ceased to attend 
school. Therefore notwithstanding all efforts of the enumerators 
to secure a full census some will not be returned whose names 



16 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

should be upon the enumeration books, and in this way the school 
city undoubtedly loses some funds which should be given it upon a 
full census. 

The efforts however of the enumerators have been directed to 
overcoming this difificulty, and while there is no doubt a consider- 
able- number left off who ought to be returned, yet it is certain that 
the loss from this cause is not as great as in former years. 

This annual enumeration is of very great importance to the cit\ 
as upon it the apportionment of the state school revenues is made to 
the respective counties by the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, and in turn by the County Auditors of the various 
counties, along with certain other revenues, apportioned to the re- 
spective school corporations of each county. Thus the larger the 
school census of a corporation the greater is the amount of school 
revenues from state and county apportioned to it, and the less will 
have to be raised by local taxation to meet the expenses of the 
schools. It is of vital importance therefore that the school census 
shall be as complete as possible, that it shall return the name, as 
nearly as possible, of every person within the corporation between 
six and twenty-one years of age, in order that the schools may have 
the benefit of every dollar to which they are justly entitled by law, 
but it is also of equal importance that the enumeration shall be 
honest as an excessive enumeration in any one place deprives all the 
other schools in the state of their just share of school funds, to the 
amount that there is a fraudulent or excessive enumeration in any 
one corporation. 

It is believed that the enumerations in the foregoing tables are 
reasonably full and also that they are not excessive. Great care has 
been exercised to have the enumeration taken in accordance with 
the provisions of the law, and it is believed that the figures are low 
rather than excessive, showing as they do, save in the year 1906, a 
gain over the previous year of not to exceed four per cent. In 1906 
the gain was 1302 over 1905 but in that year we annexed a large 
amount of territory and the greater part of the gain was from the 
annexation. 

Fort Wayne is a growing city and ought to show each year a 
considerable increase in school enumeration. While the care that 
we have taken in conforming to the requirements of the law regard- 
ing enumerations has put us at a disadvantage with rival cities, yet 
it is a matter of just pride that the enumeration shows that while 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



17 



the vital features of the law have been strictly observed we also 
have a fair per cent of gain. In 1900 the enumeration was 13,201 
and the U. S. Census gave Fort Wayne a population of 45'^ ^ 5- 
The enumeration was 29 per cent, of the U. S. Census. Observa- 
tion of the relation between the population between six and twenty- 
one to the entire population in cities of normal growth and condi- 
tions shows that the enumeration of 1900 was accurate. The rela- 
tion in cities of normal growth between the school census and the 
entire census should not exceed 30 per cent, nor fall below 25 per 
cent. The one indicates fraud, the other that the proportion of 
children is abnormally low. The census taken by the post office in 
April of this year gives Fort Wayne a population of 61,195 within 
the city limits. Our enumeration taken the same month is 27.18 
per cent, of that census. This would indicate, if the census be right, 
that either the ratio of school population to the entire population 
is decreasing or that our enumeration is lower than it ought to be. 
Until the U. S. Census of 1910 be taken it will probably be impossi- 
ble to determine whether or not the ratio of children to the whole 
population is or is not decreasing. 

ENROLLMENT. 



Year. 


White. 


COI^ORED. 


TOTAI,. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1901-1902 


2,842 


2,955 


5,797 


13 


22 


35 


5,832 


1902-1903 


2,862 


2,993 


5,855 


19 


27 


46 


5,901 


1903-1904 


2,881 


3,016 


5,897 


24 


26 


50 


5,947 


1904-1905 


2,946 


3,098 


6,044 


32 


38 


70 


6,114 


1905-1906 


3,046 


3,217 


6,263 


36 


37 


73 


6,336 


1906-1907 


3,170 


3,366 


6,536 


36 


44 


80 


6,616 



In the foregoing table of Enrollment covering the years from 
1902 to 1907 inclusive, care has been taken to avoid duplications, 
and the superintendent's register for each year shows the full num- 
ber of pupils as reported in the table. No pupil has been counted 
more than once in the general enrollment no difference in how many 
schools he may have been entered within the year. The enrollment 
table shows a steady growth in the schools, the last year showing a 
gain of 280 over the year preceding. The gain in enumeration was 
626 and when we take into consideration the fact that the parochial 



18 



Report of Public ScJwols, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



schools had their due proportion of accessions, it will be seen that 
our enumeration gain has been met by a proportionate gain in the 
enrollment. 

PERCENTAGE OF ENROLLMENT UPON PRECEDING 

ENUMERATION. 







White. 






Col^ORED 






Year. 














Total. 
















Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 




1901-1902 


39.7 


39.9 


39.8 


46.4 


51.2 


49.3 


39.9 


1902-1903 


41.3 


40.9 


41.1 


82.6 


61.9 


69.2 


41.2 


1903-1904 


40.8 


41.2 


41. 


92. 


86.7 


89.1 


41.2 


1904-1905 


40.5 


41.4 


41. 


152. 


109. 


121. 


41.3 


1905-1906 


40.1 


40.9 


40.5 


103. 


116. 


109. 


40.8 


1906-1907 


38. 


39.6 


38.8 


79.5 


105. 


91.7 


39.1 



The percentage of colored pupils in the year 1904-5 and 1905-6 
as shown by this table shows that either the enumerators did not re- 
port the proper number of colored persons in the enumeration, or 
that a large influx of colored children occurred. The table of en- 
rollment shows a large gain of colored pupils in those years, but it 
is probable that the enumerators neglected to report the full number 
of colored persons of school age. 

In the foregoing table the Kindergartens are not counted, as 
the pupils of the Kindergartens are not enumerated, and conse- 
quently should not fip;ure in any statistics based upon enumeration. 
It will be observed that the percentage does not vary a great deal 
from year to year, being slightly lower for the last year of the table 
than for the other years. 

The last year has been one in which the opportunities for em- 
ployment have been exceptionally numerous and the school enroll- 
ment has suffered therefrom. 

It is a well known fact in school economics that in years when 
times are "hard" and factories running with a decreased number of 
employes, the schools of all large business centers are more fully 
attended than in years when all enterprises are running with a full 
complement of employes. Boys and girls of school age in prosper- 
ous years obtain employment and leave the schools, who would 
under other conditions remain in school. 

It must be taken into account that the per cent of attend- 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 19 






ance upon the school enumeration given in the foregoing table, does 
not by any means represent the whole number who are enjoying 
school privileges. Not less than 4,327 children are enrolled in the 
various parochial schools of the city. This number added to the 
number in the public schools would show a school enrollment of 
68.36 per cent, upon the school enumeration. In addition a large 
number of pupils under 21 years of age in the business colleges are 
residents of this city and there are some private schools for little 
folks. Were these added to the number given above the percentage 
of school going persons upon the enrollment would be considerably 
increased. It is doubtful if any large city can make any better show- 
ing in this respect than Fort Wayne does. 

In all large places there are many avenues of employment open, 
and consequently very many are tempted to leave school premature- 
ly to engage in business, and unfortunately very many yield to the 
temptation who would do far better to remain in school and better 
fit themselves for the duties of life. 

NUMBER OF BUILDINGS. 
Number of buildings in use 1906-07 18 

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS. 

Normal School i 

High School I 

Grammar Schools 5^ 

Primary Schools 74 

Kindergartens 6 

Total 138 

NUMBER OF ROOMS IN USE. 

High School 41 

Bloomingdale 12 

Clay 12 

Franklin 4 

Hamilton 9 



20 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Hanna 12 

Harmer 12 

Hoagland 14 

Holton 8 

Jefferson 12 

Lakeside 7 

McCulloch 4 

Miner 8 

Nebraska 8 

Rudisill 4 

South Wayne 4 

Washington 1 1 

Total 182 

SEATING CAPACITY OF ROOMS IN USE. 

High School, Study Rooms 669 

Bloomingdale 604 

Clay 504 

Franklin 151 

Hamilton 364 

Hanna 489 

Harmer 516 

Hoagland 588 

Holton 364 

Jefferson 500 

Lakeside 245 

McCulloch 187 

Miner 400 

Nebraska 424 

Rudisill 190 

South Wayne 173 

Washington 464 

Total 6832 

SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS. 

By reference to the Table of Seating Capacity it will be seen 
that the seating capacity of the buildings in the aggregate is fully 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 21 

up to the enrollment in the schools. This on the face of it would 
indicate that no additional room is needed. Unfortunately how- 
ever it is impossible to forecast years ahead the direction of the 
growth of a city, and thus while some schools will have ample ac- 
commodations for all pupils, others will be overcrowded. As the 
congested condition generally occurs in the primary rooms it is im- 
possible to relieve such rooms by transfer of pupils to remoter 
buildings, as on account of their tender age they must be accom- 
modated within a reasonable distance of their homes. 

This condition has prevailed in the Nebraska School for some 
years and has made necessary the addition of four rooms to the 
building this year. It has been necessary to have an assistant 
teacher in two of the rooms for some years, but there have been too 
many pupils seated in the rooms for proper sanitary conditions. 
With the additional rooms which will make the building a twelve 
room building, it is believed that the needs of that part of the 
city will be met for some years in the future. 

The Bloomingdale School has also been crowded for three or 
four years and something must be done at an early date to relieve 
that building. An addition of four rooms is suggested — said addi- 
tion to provide an assembly room of some kind and also two or 
three class rooms. If such additions be made to the building a com- 
plete change in the closet system should be made at the same time, 
as the present system is entirely inadequate to the number of pupils 
enrolled in the school. 

The opening of the new Hanna and Jefferson Schools, while 
not adding to the number of school buildings has increased very 
largely the seating capacity of both schools over the capacity of the 
old buildings, besides the improvement in all other respects. In ad- 
dition to the seats already in these buildings there is in case of 
necessity, possibility of seating the large rooms used heretofore as 
lecture rooms with desks which will add one hundred and fifty 
seats to each building. It is probable that the Jefferson School will 
have to be so seated the coming year. 

The Holton Ave School on account of the factory interests in 
its immediate proximity may have to be sold within a few years 
and another location sought. When this shall be done it will be ad- 
visable to replace the school with a twelve room building as the 
growth of the south-eastern part of the city will demand a larger 
school building even before the present site becomes untenable. 



22 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Demands for additional work and departments at the Miner 
School have been made and the Board have not been able to meet 
such demands on account of lack of room. In the near future an 
addition of four rooms will have to be made to this building. 
Fortunately the lot is large enough to admit the building of an ad- 
dition, although the play grounds will have to be curtailed, which 
is to be regretted. 

The recommendation in the report of the President relating to 
an Administration Building is one that demands serious considera- 
tion. The present location of the offices of the Board and Super- 
intendent in the Old High School is ideal so far as ease of access 
and centrality are concerned, but for the transaction of business 
much is to be desired. When the Old High School property shall 
be sold it will become a matter of immediate concern where and 
how to accommodate the growing business of the school systeai. 
In any large system of schools, the administration offices should 
not be located in a school building. The great number of persons 
having business at the offices causes disturbance to the schools, and 
it is frequently annoying to those having business with the office 
to be compelled to go to a school building to transact it. This 
would be true even in case we had room in any of the school build- 
ings for offices, but we have no room whatever in any building to 
accommodate the Administration Offices. This fact will make 
necessary the rental of offices down town in the event of the sale 
of the present site, or the erection of an Administration Building 
sufficient in capacity to provide offices for the Board, with fire 
proof vaults for the preservation of valuable papers and records ; 
offices for the Superintendent and clerk; room for 'supplies and 
headquarters for the janitor-in-chief; a room for the Superinten- 
dent and the supervisors to meet the teachers ; and located either 
on a part of the present lot or in some other location easy of access 
from all parts of the city and near the business center. 

No. OF PUPILS NEITHER TARDY NOR ABSENT WITHIN 
THE YEAR 1906- 1907. 

Normal School o 

High School 32 

Grammar Schools _ no 

Primary Schools 7S 



Report of Public ScJiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 23 

Kindergartens 2 

Total 222 

NUMBER OF TEACHERS. 

Special Teachers — men 2 

Special Teachers — women 2 

Normal School — men o 

Normal School — women i 

High School — men 13 

High School — women 12 

Principals — men 5 

Principals — women 11 

ASSISTANT TEACHERS. 

Grammar Schools — men o 

Grammar Schools — women 55 

Primary Schools — men o 

Primary Schools — women 74 

Kindergartens — men o 

Kindergartens — women 12 

General Substitute Teachers — ^men o 

General Substitute Teachers — women i 

German Teachers — men o 

German Teachers — women 6 

Total 194 



24 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

TABLE 
Showing the number of pupils enrolled by departments. 
1 901 -1 902 



Department. 



Normal School . . 

High School 

Grammar School 
Primary School . 
Kindergarten . . . . 



Total 2,842 



White. 


Colored. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 




172 

1,023 

1,540 

107 


18 

248 

1,066 

1,495 

128 


18 

420 

2,089 

3,035 

235 




1 

2 

10 








10 

12 






1 
12 
22 




2,842 


2,955 


5,797 


13 


22 


35 



TOTAI.. 



18 

421 

2,101 

3,057 

235 

5,832 



1 902- 1 903 





White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Department. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 






180 

1,040 

1,551 

91 


26 

248 

1,117 

1,485 

117 


26 

428 

2,157 

3,036 

208 




1 

4 

14 








10 

16 

1 




1 

14 

30 

1 


26 


High School 


429 


Grammar School 


2,171 




3,066 


Kindergarten 


209 


Total 


2,862 


2,993 


5,855 


19 


27 


46 


5,901 







1 903- 1 904 



Department. 



White. 



Boys. Girls. Total. 



Normal School . . 

High School 

Grammar School 
Primary School . 
Kindergarten . . 

Total 





205 

1,057 

1,518 

101 



27 

273 

1,098 

1,497 

121 



27 

478 

2,155 

3,015 

222 



Colored. 



Boys. Girls. Total 




1 
5 
17 
1 




1 
5 
20 






2 

10 

37 

1 



Total. 



27 

480 

2,165 

3,052 

223 



3,016 



5,897 



24 



50 



5,947 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 25 

1 904- 1 905 



Department. 



White. 



Boys. Girls. Total 



Colored. 



Boys. Girls. Total 



Total . 



Normal School . . 

High School 

Grammar School 
Primary School . 
Kindergarten . . . 

Total 






24 


24 











235 


353 


588 


1 


3 


4 


1,058 


1,084 


2,142 


8 


10 


18 


1,528 


1,490 


3,018 


23 


25 


48 


125 


147 


272 











2,946 


3,098 


6,044 


32 


38 


70 



24 

592 

2,160 

3,066 

272 



6,114 



I 905- I 906 



Department. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Normal School 




274 
1,087 
1,532 

153 


18 

369 

1,159 

1,487 

184 


18 

643 

2,246 

3,019 

337 




1 

8 

26 

1 



4 
8 
24 
1 




5 

16 

50 

2 


18 


High School 


648 


Grammar School 


2,262 


Primary School 


3,069 


Kindergarten 


339 


Total 


3,046 


3 217 


6 263 


36 


37 


73 


6,336 











1 906- 1 907 



Department. 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Normal School 




270 

1,135 

1,597 

168 


23 

401 

1,182 

1,572 

188 


23 

671 

2,317 

3,169 

356 




1 

10 

24 

1 




4 

13 

25 

2 




5 

23 

49 

3 


23 


High School 


676 


Grammar School 


2,340 

3,218 

359 


Primary School 


Kindergarten 


Total 


3,170 


3,366 


6,536 


36 


44 


80 


6 616 







26 Report of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

TABLE 

Showing number of pupils remaining at end of year by de- 
partments. 



Departme>jt. 


1901-2 


1902-3 


1903-4 


1904-5 


1905-6 


1906-7 


Normal School. . . 

High School 

Grammar Schools 
Primary Schools 
Kindergarten .... 


11 

323 

1,741 

2,570 

165 

4,810 


16 

328 

1,749 

2,527 
140 

4,760 


11 
378 

1,732 

2,587 

156 


10 

464 

1,779 

2,599 

189 


7 

493 

1,788 

2,539 

200 


14 

516 

1,882 

2,768 

228 


Total 


4,864 


5,041 


5,027 


5,408 



TABLE 



Showing enrolhnent by grades. 



Grade 


1901-2 


1902-3 


1903-4 


1904-5 


1905-6 


1906-7 


Normal School 
High School ... 
Eighth Grade . 
Seventh Grade . 
Sixth Grade .... 




18 
421 
259 
481 
644 
717 
728 
693 
712 
924 
235 


26 
429 
346 
500 
613 
712 
731 
684 
764 
887 
209 


27 
480 
349 
525 
575 
716 
693 
745 
734 
880 
223 


24 
592 
385 
502 
575 
698 
723 
685 
738 
920 
272 


18 
648 
404 
548 
554 
756 
696 
732 
738 
903 
339 


23 
676 
470 
502 
664 


Fifth Grade . . . 




704 


Fourth Grade . 
Third Grade ... 
Second Grade . 
First Grade . . . 




758 
786 
730 
944 


Kindergarten . . 




359 


Total 5,832 


5,901 


5,947 


6,114 


6,336 


6,616 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 27 

TABLE 

Showing average number belonging and average daily attend- 
ance by departments : 





1901-2 


1902-3 


1903-4 


1904-5 


1905-6 


1906-7 


Departments. 


6 
bpbc 


<< 


d 


re r< 


6 


Is 


d 
? C 


as 


d 
a; S 


>> 
PS 


d 

<D C 

> CD 


u 


Normal School . . 

High School 

Grammar School 
Primary School . 
Kindergarten . . . 


14 

337 

1727 

2628 

164 


13 

322 

1627 

2469 

146 


21 

328 

1894 

2648 

147 


20 

323 

1690 

2459 

132 


18 

378 
1809 
2647 

144 


17 

357 

1706 

2452 
127 


15 

461 

1834 

2701 

192 


14 

437 

1724 

2543 

171 


12 

523 

1858 

2616 

218 


11 

507 
1763 
2456 

190 


18 

545 

1937 

2819 

239 


17 

515 

1841 

2633 

214 


Total 


4870 


4577 


5038 


4624 


4996 


4659 


5203 


4889 


5227 


4927 


5558 


5220 



The following tables give a comparative view of the schools in 
nine items : 1901-1902. 



Schools. 


d 


d 

CD.S 

fe 

> <v 


Is 

ODrQ 


. 


a 

a 

d 


72 

p^ 

=4-1 r^ 


.-; '^ 
S. ° 


<t-i 




m 


+j 

.1-1 
m 
.1-1 

>% 

^ QJ 

^- '^ 
(D 


Normal School 


18 


14 


13 


92.8 


11 


116 


21 





4 


High School . . 


421 


337 


322 


95.5 


323 


23491/2 


287 


16 


1 


Bloomingdale. 


497 


404 


376 


93.1 


403 


5046 


185 


13 


220 


Clay 


490 


405 


380 


93.8 


399 


31421/2 


100 


46 


192 


Franklin 


129 


104 


97 


93.2 


107 


6131/2 


81 


3 


13 


Hamilton 


330 


283 


267 


94.3 


268 


2553 


113 


7 


80 


Hanna 


412 


341 


317 


93 


344 


3120 


168 


27 


52 


Harmer 


4,64 


407 


383 


94.1 


402 


4876 


100 


53 


69 


Hoagland 


465 


419 


402 


95.9 


423 


29791/2 


135 


21 


275 


Holton Ave . . . 


340 


293 


268 


91.5 


283 


21481/2 


45 


7 


117 


Jefferson 


506 


440 


416 


94.5 


426 


3528 


163 


67 


287 


Lakeside 


187 


136 


129 


94.8 


143 


909 


148 


14 


133 


McCulloch 


155 


119 


113 


94.9 


121 


11031/2 


130 


6 


45 


Miner 


365 


307 


288 


93.8 


306 


23661/2 


218 


69 


102 


Nebraska 


313 


266 


253 


95.1 


296 


35201/2 


92 


5 


181 


South Wayne .. 


146 


121 


115 


95. 


121 


894 


43 


3 


23 


Washington . . 


359 


310 


292 


94.2 


269 


2824 


154 


16 


129 


Kindergartens. 


235 


164 


146 


89. 


165 


319 


70 





231 


Total 


5832 


4870 


4577 


94. 


4810 


42409 


2253 


373 


2154 



28 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



1 902- 1 903. 



Schools. 


d 


d 

> Q) 


bc-o 

O^ 


°d 

0-% 


bh 
C 

fee 

is 


CO 

SI 

°^ 




0) w 

m <p 
03 



m 
'^ hi: 

12;^ 


CO 


Normal School 
High School . . 
Bloomingdale . 

Clay 

Franklin 

Hamilton 

Hanna 

Harmer 

Hoagland 

Holton Ave . . . 

Jefferson 

Lakeside 

McCulloch 

Miner 


26 
429 
497 
487 
131 
364 
383 
479 
487 
355 
481 
175 
173 
350 
354 
143 
378 
209 


21 
328 
419 
429 
111 
300 
334 
370 
428 
314 
439 
141 
132 
302 
292 
115 
316 
147 


20 
323 
391 
400 
102 
277 
310 
345 
405 
295 
407 
133 
122 
286 
271 
108 
297 
132 


94.4 

98.5 

93.3 

93.2 

92. 

92.3 

92.8 

93.2 

94.6 

93.9 

92.7 

94.3 

92.4 

94.7 

92.8 

93.9 

94. 

89.7 


16 
328 
413 
400 
110 
301 
328 
337 
407 
284 
402 
135 
113 
305 
300 
106 
335 
140 


1711/2 

2428 1/2 

4941 

36441/2 

843 
5428 
3763 
4499 
3149 
2255 
3516 
1178 

7881/2 
25351/2 
37321/2 
1108 1/2 
2639 
2401 


8 

198 
201 
131 

80 

85 
156 
111 
338 

39 
181 

77 

95 
147 
121 

48 
103 

51 



20 

23 
37 

24 
25 
55 
50 
12 
12 
36 

8 
11 
54 
23 

1 
18 




2 

19 

310 

192 

10 

85 

36 

19 

209 

73 

289 

128 

22 

85 


Nebraska 

South Wayne . 
Washington .. . 
Kindergartens 


147 
38 
88 

228 


Total 


5901 


4938 4624 


93.6 


4760 


490211/2 


2170 


409" 


1978 



I903-I904. 



Schools. 


d 


d 

«.s 

bxibxj 

fe° 


t C 

<< 


. 

s| 

+-> 


bi 

c 

%% 

" 0) 


m 

m 

4) 

«>. 

1-1 .Q 


A ^ 

:2; J 


<t-i 

• ^ 

oj 



w 


No. of Visits 
Received. 


Normal School 
High School . . 
Bloomingdale . 

Clay 

Franklin 

Hamilton 

Hanna 

Harmer 

Hoagland 

Holton Ave. . . . 

Jefferson 

Lakeside 

McCulloch .... 
Miner 


27 
480 
523 
507 
133 
355 
420 
443 
495 
339 
475 
159 
145 
359 
368 
121 
375 
223 


18 
378 
445 
432 
107 
289 
352 
380 
449 
307 
423 
127 
122 
308 
308 
107 
300 
144 


17 
357 
418 
406 

99 
267 
327 
355 
427 
286 
393 
118 
107 
290 
287 

98 
280 
127 


96. 

94.4 

93.9 

96.3 

92.5 

92.4 

92.9 

93.4 

95.1 

93.2 

92.9 

92.9 

87.7 

94.2 

93.2 

91.6 

93.3 

88.2 


11 

378 
440 
424 
105 
263 
338 
347 
451 
276 
385 
127 
128 
305 
320 
110 
300 
156 


76 Va 
2936 
5475 
44761/2 
1133 
5340 
4462 
43811/2 
5229 
3002 
4709 
1295 
10571/2 
2999 
35321/2 
980% 
3343 
3990 


64 
194 
290 
231 

68 

60 
163 

67 
119 

47 
261 

58 

76 

88 
146 

20 
110 

48 



65 
50 
36 

6 

4 
41 
19 
35 
25 
41 

6 
44 
14 
21 


22 




1 

2 

462 

198 

24 

85 

27 

85 

217 

75 

198 

115 

43 

101 


Nebraska 

South Wayne . 
Washington . .. 
Kindergartens . 


60 

57 

93 

323 


Total 


5947 


4996 


4659 


93.3 


4864 


58418 


2110 


429 


2166 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



29 



1904-1905. 



SCHOOI,S. 


d 


d 

> <D 


'3 ■ 
<< 




hi) 

c 

is 


m 
a> 

a 

^•- 

^? 


<D xn 


Xfl 

to >> 
^§ 


m 

01 

<M > 

01 
01 


Normal School 
High School .. 
Bloomingdale . 

Clay 

Franklin 

Hamilton 

Hanna 

Harmer 

Hoagland 

Holton Ave . . . 

Jefferson 

Lakeside 

McCulloch .... 
Miner 


24 
592 
533 
480 
124 
339 
409 
412 
495 
358 
442 
162 
176 
374 
391 
139 
. 392 
272 


15 
461 
465 
413 
100 
289 
345 
365 
453 
307 
393 
156 
132 
324 
337 
111 
346 
192 


14 
437 
438 
387 

93 
273 
324 
341 
416 
290 
372 
153 
121 
311 
314 
105 
328 
171 


93.3 

94.7 

94.2 

93.7 

93. 

94.5 

93.9 

93.4 

91.8 

94.5 

94.7 

98.6 

92. 

96. 

93.2 

94.6 

94.8 

89. 


10 
464 
454 
398 
100 
278 
310 
343 
433 
302 
371 
153 
121 
324 
336 
116 
339 
189 


69 
3714 
4252 
3929 

754 
35651/2 
3335y2 
37841/2 
3657 
2187 
3061 

9241/2 

965 
2467 
3132 

902 
28931/2 
2037 


19 

275 

304 

129 
52 
78 

105 
84 

359 
48 

294 
71 
84 
95 

230 
35 
98 
87 



71 
40 
35 

5 
16 
15 
17 
37 
23 
48 
33 
10 
12 
28 

1 
11 




3 

2 
441 
223 

55 
184 

36 

58 
305 

88 
401 
226 

17 
141 


Nebraska 

South Wayne . 
Washington . . | 
Kindergartens 


111 
40 

148 
422 


Total 


6114 


5203 


4889 


94. 


5041 


45629y2 


2447 


402 


2901 



1 905- 1 906. 









.F-t 






m 


aj 





01 









cS .; 


.; 




m 


m 




4J 


SCHOOI^S. 


d 

01 

C CI 


0) c 


fi 


. 


bo 

c 

is 









01 .5 

CO £_| 

Eh 

5<H 


to 


to 

•^ 01 

. 

01 




^H 


<im 


« 


ph<; 


%vk 


^J 


^0 


^H 


^« 


Normal School 


18 


12 


11 


96. 


7 


61 


13 





1 


High School .. 


648 


523 


507 


96.9 


493 


3551 


275 


42 


12 


Bloomingdale . 


577 


474 


448 


94.5 


469 


43221/2 


271 


26 


458 


Clay 


464 


378 


355 


93.9 


360 


34971/2 


101 


48 


318 


Franklin 


116 


92 


87 


95. 


87 


996 


74 


7 


4 


Hamilton 


334 


291 


273 


93.8 


292 


49561/2 


68 


8 


105 


Hanna 


377 


313 


294 


93.9 


301 


3413 


87 


24 


37 


Harmer 


443 


354 


330 


93.2 


339 


49541/2 


82 


23 


49 


Hoagland 


498 


450 


435 


96.7 


430 


37641/2 


78 


26 


404 


Holton Ave . . . 


364 


322 


305 


94.7 


305 


22781/2 


82 


25 


149 


Jefferson 


450 


398 


374 


94. 


367 


3637 


281 


35 


319 


Lakeside 


176 


156 


149 


95.5 


156 


10411/2 


26 


6 


113 


McCulloch .... 


174 


135 


122 


90.4 


122 


16721/2 


54 


6 


39 


Miner 


413 


349 


335 


96. 


316 


24621/2 


64 


6 


118 


Nebraska 


378 


306 


281 


91.8 


327 


4540 


180 


50 


119 


South Wayne . 


149 


119 


111 


92. 


120 


10811/2 


45 


5 


32 


Washington .. . 


418 


337 


320 


95. 


336 


2592% 


190 


8 


84 


Kindergartens 


339 


218 


190 


87.2 


200 


2964 Va 


110 


1 


439 


Total 


6336 


5227 


4927 


94.3 


5027 


51787 


2081 


346 


2800 



30 Report of Public Schools, Fort Way7ie, Ind. 

1 906- 1 907. 



SCH001.S. 



r, 




^ 


Tl 




CD 


a> 














43 




^ 






PS 

bCro 
CO r1 






Ph<1 





in 




m 




a> 




C 


bi 









faf= 


4-J 


3 £ 


6 


&« 


^3 






CO 



^--o 



^« 



Normal School 
High School . . 
Bloomingdale . 

Clay 

Franklin 

Hamilton 

Hanna 

Harmer 

Hoagland 

Holton Ave . . . 

Jefferson 

Lakeside 

McCulloch 

Miner 1 

Nebraska 

Rudisill |. 

South Wayne . 
Washington . .. 
Kindergarten .. 



676 
560 
484 
128 
378 
464 
420 
500 
364 
510 
191 
186 
362 
386 
164 
137 
324 
359 



18 
545 
491 
392 
114 
334 
383 
364 
407 
331 
389 
176 
162 
312 
343 
130 
119 
309 
239 



17 
515 
463 
370 
106 
316 
361 
343 
384 
313 
365 
169 
148 
298 
316 
122 
110 
290 
214 



94.5 

94.5 

94.3 

94.4 

93. 

94.6 

94.3 

94.2 

94.3 

94.6 

93.8 

96. 

91.4 

95.5 

92.1 

93.9 

92.4 

93.9 

89.5 



14 


124 


516 


44371/2 


472 


4736 


384 


3803 


119 


1184 


330 


36361/2 


362 


35741/2 


351 


28981/2 


392 


33451/2 


316 


3015 


408 


3251 


180 


9531/2 


160 


1238 


306 


2609 


352 


3167 


134 


15301/2 


117 


937 


267 


28991/2 


228 


36401/2 


5408 


510901/2 



55 

528 

381 

128 

105 

100 

136 

78 

182 

116 

413 

75 

70 

75 

303 

54 

36 

157 

131 




57 
18 
34 

8 

6 
33 
16 
27 
24 
12 

3 

4 
16 
64 
15 

9 
11 







532 

270 
69 

102 
83 
31 

219 
76 

405 
88 
63 

126 

217 
35 
36 
80 

545 



Total 



6616 



5558 



5220 



93.7 



3134 



357 



2977 



Attention is called to the fact that in the item of "Days lost by- 
Sickness" all the time lost is reported whether on accoont of the per- 
sonal sickness of the pupils or on account of families being quaran- 
tined in case of contasrious diseases. 



Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 31 

TABLE 
Showing enrollment and average attendance by months : 



Months. 



1901-2 



H 



1902-3 



1903-4 



1904-5 



< 



1905-6 



H 



1906-7 



< 



September 
October . . 
November 
December 
January . 
February 
March ... 

April 

May 

June .... 



5038 
5180 
5215 
5112 
5068 
5145 
5149 
5186 
5069 
4939 



4734 
4745 
4642 
4548 
4617 
4442 
4579 
4546 
4443 
4508 



5229 
5261 
5239 
5165 
5136 
5505 
5244 
5226 
5111 
4949 



4750 
4713 
4729 
4662 
4648 
4641 
4610 
4545 
4475 
4499 



5282 
5357 
5361 
5263 
5192 
5554 
5238 
5257 
5149 
5003 



4972 
4868 
4774 
4477 
4354 
4787 
4504 
4628 
4585 
4606 



5420 
5453 
5442 
5391 
5297 
5486 
5469 
5462 
5338 
5188 



5057 
5064 
4873 
4902 
4716 
4667 
4971 
4918 
4818 
4831 



5657 
5665 
5633 
5577 
5544 
5889 
5498 
5495 
5311 
5144 



5267 
5179 
5217 
5139 
4961 
4957 
4640 
4602 
4610 
4722 



5859 
5876 
5847 
5799 
5732 
5953 
5854 
5812 
5695 
5512 



5427 
5385 
5245 
5225 
5227 
5265 
5163 
5181 
5006 
5088 



TABLE 

Showing the average number of pupils to each teacher based 
upon enrollment and average attendance : 

1 906- 1 907. 



DEPARTMENT. 




Attendance. 



Normal School . 

High School 

Grammar School 
Primary School 
Kindergarten . . . 



17 
20 
33 
35 
18 



TABLE 

Showing cost of tuition by departments per pupil based on en- 
rollment, average number belonging and average daily attendance 
for the school year 1906-7: 



DEPARTMENT. 


Based 

on 

Enrollment. 


Based 
on Av. No. 
Belonging. 


Based on 

Av. Daily 

Attendance. 


High School 


$ 40.28 
17.08 
16.24 
12.07 


$ 49.96 
20.63 
18.54 
18.13 


$ 52.87 
21.71 
19 85 


Grammar School ' 

Primary School 


Kindergarten 


20.25 



32 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



Average cost of tuition for all departments $ 18.71 

Average cost including supervision, janitorial service and 

incidentals, fuel, lights, etc 24.76 

In the foregoing table the salaries of the supervisors in prim- 
ary methods, music, drawing, reading and physical culture have 
been distributed to the different departments in proportion to the 
time given to each department. 

TABLE 

Showing cost of maintenance per pupil based on enrollment, 
average number belonging, and average daily attendance for the 
school year 1906- 1907: 



DEPARTMENT. 


Based 

on 

Enrollment. 


Based 
on Av. No. 
Belong-ing. 


Based on 

Av. Daily 

Attendance. 


High School 


$ 12.19 

4.27 


% 15.12 
5.07 


$ 15.80 




5.40 







Report of semi-annual promotions in February and June, 1906- 
1907: 



FEBRUARY. 




JUNE. 








•6 








"d 




















Grade. 


So 



S 




Grade. 


So 

" 




E 






o-g 


62 


d"S 




6^ 


0-2 


o-g 




"zm 


^s 


:sj 




'zm 


2;^ 


^J 


8A 


102 


83 


20 


8A 


164 


144 


20 


8B 


197 


169 


28 


8B 


161 


143 


18 


7A 


166 


141 


25 


7A 


209 


174 


35 


7B 


222 


190 


32 


7B 


203 


173 


30 


6A 


212 


189 


23 


6A 


296 


263 


33 


6B 


341 


297 


44 


6B 


260 


227 


33 


5A 


288 


244 


44 


5A 


299 


256 


43 


5B 


359 


287 


72 


5B 


300 


243 


57 


4A 


271 


241 


30 


4A 


344 


306 


38 


4B 


399 


331 


68 


4B 


321 


260 


61 


3A 


304 


265 


39 


3A 


374 


327 


47 


3B 


380 


333 


47 


3B 


326 


276 


50 


2A 


309 


290 


19 


2A 


287 


350 


37 


2B 


414 


357 


57 


2B 


273 


234 


39 


lA 


283 


229 


54 


lA 


426 


376 


50 


IB 


593 


395 


198 


lA 


362 


257 


105 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 33 

TABLE 
Showing the ages of pupils in the High School 1906-7: 











^ 




u 














d 




d 












u 


<v 


aj 


0) 














^ 


Oi 


>* 


u 










(H 


T) 


h 


X 


d 








Ages. 


03 


C 






u 
















■£ 


m 


h 


fe 




h 








XD 


to 


CO 


w 


to 


to' 


to' 


to 


to 


!»■ 


to' 


to' 








>> 




>» 




>. 




>, 




>! 




>> 


Sh 












































CQ 





m 





m 





m 





m 





m 





Between 


12 


and 13 




2 




















2 


Between 


13 


and 14 


16 


22 


















16 


22 


Between 


14 


and 15 


62 


75 


4 


11 




1 










66 


87 


Between 


15 


and 16 


49 


65 


14 


25 


5 


8 










68 


98 


Between 


16 


and 17 


30 


40 


19 


30 


8 


16 


1 


2 


1 


5 


59 


93 


Between 


17 


and 18 


15 


12 


7 


16 


5 


19 


10 


8 


3 


2 


40 


57 


Between 


18 


and 19 


2 


2 


3 


8 


4 


12 


3 


14 


1 


3 


13 


39 


Between 


19 


and 20 


3 


1 


1 




1 




3 


5 






8 


6 


Between 


20 


and 21 


177 


219 


48 


90 


23 


56 


1 

18 


1 

30 


5 


10 


1 
271 


1 


Over 21 












405 


Tot 


al 




396 


138 


79 


48 


15 


67fi 








1 




1 








1 




1 







34 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 



TABLE 
Showing the ages of pupils in the elementary schools by grades, 
1 906- 1 907. 







'O . 




si ■ 








,fl • 






4) 










r- "^ 
5-0 


0) "a 




Total. 




U <^ 


oj 


•- <A 


3 rt 


ii c^ 


w cd 


> 03 


bfl o3 






." u 


0) !- 


A u 


U 


r! u 


.2 u 


o; U 


■ rt tn 




Ages. 


feO 


mO 


EhO 


^^ 


foO 


MO 


ffiO 


HO 




in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


CO 


m 


m 


CO 


CO 


m 


CO 







"u 





t, 


>> 




t, 





u 





"S 





"S 





"u 





'u 





in 




m 


5 1 PQ 


5 


CQ 


5 


m 


5 


m 


S 


m 





m 


S 


P3 


s 


w 


5 


Between 






































5 and 6 


40 


41 






























40 


41 


6 and 7 


294 


312 


47 


61 


























341 


373 


7 and 8 


115 


65 


150 


170 


31 


40 






















296 


275 


8 and 9 


26 


22 


104 


91 


142 


172 


26 


33 




1 














298 


319 


9 and 10 


13 


10 


39 


28 


105 


113 


135 


130 


24 


42 














316 


323 


10 and 11 


6 




15 


10 


51 


62 


101 


101 


98 


125 


26 


40 


1 


2 






298 


340 


11 and 12 






7 


5 


24 


19 


70 


64 


96 


90 


83 


134 


24 


25 


2 


1 


306 


338 


12 and 13 






1 




14 


6 


30 


29 


61 


50 


78 


94 


69 


77 


20 


14 


273 


270 


13 and 14 






2 




4 




14 


9 


51 


25 


64 


63 


70 


84 


75 


73 


280 


254 


14 and 15 










1 


1 


9 


3 


16 


16 


43 


22 


59 


56 


82 


90 


210 


188 


15 and 16 










1 




3 




6 


2 


11 


2 


23 


7 


46 


42 


90 


53 


16 and 17 


















1 




3 


1 


2 


3 


10 


14 


16 


18 


17 and 18 






























1 




1 




18 and 19| 














1 




















1 




19 and 20 






































20 and 21 






































Total 


494 


450 


365 


365 


373 


413 


389 


369 


353 


351 


308 


356 


248 


254 


236 


234 


2766 


2792 




944 


730 


786 


758 


704 


664 


502 


470 


5558 



REPORTS OF SUPERVISORS OF SPECIAL BRANCHES 
OF INSTRUCTION. 

The reports of the Supervisors of Music, Drawing, and Physi- 
cal Culture are herewith submitted. 

The department of Physical Culture as a separate department 
was organized in 1902. Previous to that year it had been under 
charge of the Supervisor of Reading. Dr. Robt. Nohr was select- 
ed as Head of the Department. Dr. Nohr is especially qualified for 
this work, having had a regular medical training in addition to 
special training in Physical Culture. Mrs. Jennie Ray Ormsby, 
after a highly efficient service as Supervisor of Reading for one 
year, resigned her position and no successor has as yet been ap- 
pointed. The Departments of Music and Drawing remain in charge 
of Mr. Miles and Miss Hall as at the time of the last report. 

These reports are given in the order in which the respective 
branches were put under charge of a special instructor, or super- 
visor. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 35 

The work in each of these departments has been very success- 
fully done, and the Superintendent wishes here to express his 
satisfaction with the Supervisors ; to commend the enthusiasm with 
which they have labored; to bear witness to their faithfulness to 
duty; and to praise the results obtained. It is to be regretted that 
time and space forbid a more generous recognition of the merits of 

each one separately. ,*>, r- ^ 

2005244- 

REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF MUSIC. 

MR. J. N. STUDY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCPIOOI.S. FORT WAYNE, 
INDIANA: 

Dear Sir: — As requested by you, I herewith submit a brief report of the 
vocal music department of our public schools. 

"He who can enter into the spirit of my music will be 
beyond the reach of the world's misery." 

Ludwig von Beethoven, 1770-1827. 
Music material, Books of the Natural Music Course, Harmonic Series 
and Charts A to D. 

GRADE ONE. 

Rote songs from "Songs of the Child World" No. 2, Riley & Gaynor. 
"Song's and Games for Little Ones." z 
"The Modern Music Series," Eleanor Smith. 

"Rote Song Book," and the first book of the Melodic Series by Ripley 
and Tapper. 

A few of the many songs sung by the children: 

"Salute the Flag," "The Ball," "The Top," "The Frog," "The 
Swing," "The Mill," "Stepping Stone," Hickory, Dickery, Dock," 
— Gaynor. 
The Ear Training Exercises and Chart Series A. 

GRADE TWO. 

Rote songs, ear training, writing from dictation. 

Chart B, Primer Part I. Individual singing from written cards. 
Voices are trained to be soft and mellow. Many songs are taught in this 
grade; also placing bars and meter signatures in their proper places by 
hearing the accent given by the teacher. 

GRADE THREE. 

Chart Series C. Primer Part II. Ear training. Dictation. 

The child in this grade is able to read exercises and little songs pre- 
pared in the course. Soft singing is insisted upon as a means of devel- 
oping good tones. Two part singing is a feature in this grade. The divid- 
ed beat and the study of chromatics are also begun here. Rhythm is taught 
by dictation and by reading, so that each new feature leaves a mental ef- 
fect on the child's mind. 

GRADE FOUR. 

Chart D. Book I. Sight reading in one and two parts. 

Scales in all keys; major and minor; writing original melodies; ear 
training and tone production; songs in two parts; evenly and unevenly 
divided beat; chromatics; minor; rhythmic studies of an advanced nature, 
are all brought forth in this grade — even syncopation. 

Songs enjoyed by children in this grade are the two part songs, viz.: 
"The Jolly Woodcutter," "The Skylark," "To a Linnet," "All Things Well," 



36 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

"I Will Praise My God," "Songs Should Breathe of Flowers," etc., and na- 
tional songs. 

GRADE FIVE. 

Book II. Melody writing and dictation. 

(Allow me to mention here that Mr. Tapper, of Boston, published a 
number of melodies written by our children in the January, 1907, Bulletin, 
on account of their superiority, which in itself is a great credit to the Fort 
Wayne schools.) 

All signs are taught in this grade, such as key and meter signatures. 
Songs and exercises in two and three parts, are sung with marked appre- 
ciation and purity of tone. 

GRADE SIX. 

Book III. Vocal drill; dictation; melody writing; two and three part 
exercises and songs; advanced rhythm; minor in three forms — pure minor, 
harmonic minor, and melodic minor. Tonic mino,r or minor on the doh, is 
another form that is studied. The child has become acquainted with 
rhythm forms, the motive, phrase, and period, so the work is more inter- 
esting to him whether he reads music or writes melodies. 

Songs in this grade are: "Stay, Weary Wanderer", F. Schubert; "O, 
Light Bearing Star", C. H. Fisher; "God Be Our Guide", Franz Abt; 
"Lordly Gallants", Dr. Callot; "To the Chrysanthemum", A. R. Gaul; 
"Soldiers Brave and Gallant Be", Giacomo Gastoldi; "Wake! Wake!" 
Flotow. 

GRADE SEVEN. 

Book IV. Dictation and melody writing, more advanced rhythm, chro- 
matics and minor. Children in this grade know enough of forms that they 
are capable of thinking out designs for themselves. They read music with 
fine conception. 

The songs are of a classical order as follows: — 
"The Fatherland,,' Edward Grieg; "Night Hymn at Sea", R. G. Thompson; 
"Roaming", Franz Abt; "The Lift is High and Blue", J. Sneddon; "When 
will Spring again Return", J. Frank Proudman; "O Form of Purest Splen- 
dor", Mendelssohn. 

GRADE EIGHT. 

Book V. The songs and exercises in this book are of a high order. The 
vocal drills and solfeggios are such as the greatest voice trainers have be- 
queathed to us. The theory of music and chord formation are taught in a 
clear and simple manner and the whole is a fitting climax to the Course. 
Many additional songs are used by the Seventh and Eighth Grades. 

Three concerts were given last year in connection with the Physical 
Culture Department, one at the New Hanna School December 6 and 7, 1906; 
one at the New Jefferson School, April 1, and 2, 1907, the proceeds to be 
used for art decorations. One at the Princess Theatre, May 27-28, 1907, 
when over 500 children took part with great success. The net gain to the 
Music Department was $125.00 which will be used to place additional sup- 
plementary music in the Seventh and Eighth Grades, viz.: the Laurel 
Music Reader. 

The musical program was as follows: 

I. "The God of Israel" Rossini, — Chorus. 

II "Anchored" Watson, — Chorus 

III "Wandering in Woodland" Chorus 

IV Song "Toreador" Carmen Bezzet — Mr. Ernest G. Hesser 

V "Estudiantina" P. Lasome — Chorus 

VI "Gipsies Song" J. L. Roedel — Chorus 

VII "Medley of National Airs" Chorus 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

"The Laurel Song Book", edited by W. L. Tomlins and published by C. 
C. Birchard & Co., is used in the classes which meet once a week. The first 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 37 

and second year pupils meet on Tuesdavys — :830 A. M., and the third and 
fourth year pupils meet on Thursdays, 8:30 a. m. Several works have been 
given, such as: "Swan and the Skylark", Goring Thomas; "The Creation", 
Haydn; "Rose Maiden", Frederick Cowen; "Joan of Arc", Cowen. An oper- 
etta, "The Gipsy Queen", by Joseph Surds, was given by the High School 
Chorus and cleared $300.00. The piano used is a Packard Parlor Grand, 
worth $650.00. $250.00 was allowed on the old piano, $400.00 was paid by 
the High School Chorus from entertainments. 

We need another change of books for the High School and I recommend 
"The Beacon Song Collection," by Herbert Griggs, published by Silver, 
Burdette & Co. The pianos are in good condition. Many of the charts are 
in very bad condition and we ask that they be replaced by new ones. 

The Supervisor of Music visits each room once in two weeks except 
South Wayne, McCulloch, Franklin, and the Rudisill Schools. These schools 
he visits once each month. Meetings for grade teachers are held once a 
month when the work is carefully planned and explained. 

The teachers should receive much praise for their response to all sug- 
gestions given them by the supervisor. 

Respectfully yours, 

William Miles. 

REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF DRAWING. 

MR. J. N. STUDY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, FORT WAYNE, 
INDIANA: 

The teaching of art in the Public Schools is to arouse the emotions and 
aspirations of the pupils toward higher ideals. Art glorifies and ennobles the 
common every day things of life. It teaches honesty of construction, a love 
of labor, and a joy in the doing of that, which without art, would be drud- 
gery. 

Art and manual training are so closely related, that the art student 
must needfully know something about crafts, and the manual training 
students should study art. By this connection a uniform idea of art is at- 
tained that touches practical life — the art in the shop, the home, the city, 
and the country. 

The past year applied design or craft work — such as wood-carving, 
wood block printing, stenceling, pottery, tooling and staining of leather, 
was introduced into the High School. Metal work in copper and brass, will 
be added in the coming year. 

The practical work was supplemented by lectures on the history, and 
philosophy of art. Reproductions of famous pictures, and prints of the best 
in architecture, design, and the various phases of art were shown and ex- 
plained. A comprehensive course in the study of the fundamental prin- 
ciples of perspective was carried out in the designing of furniture, interiors, 
etc. The training of the eye for true and beautiful proportions, and a 
delicacy of touch were developed from the study of cast, still life, and life. 
As much as possible, nature in all her varied moods, was brought into the 
school room, studied for her own sake, and applied to decoration. Com- 
position and design were never lost sight of, and illustration was given 
much thought. 

The mediums used were lead pencil, charcoal, ink, water- color, pastel, 
etc. 

The art department in the High School has so grown that the facilities 
are inadequate. More floor space is required, and a larger teaching force is 
necessary. The teaching in this department is almost wholly personal in- 
struction, and it is impossible to get the best results in a crowded class 
room, with one teacher. 

During the past two years. Miss Fay Barnes, and Miss Mabel Hart, 
graduates of the Art Institute, Chicago, were appointed art teachers in the 
High School. They brought knowledge and enthusiasm to the work that 
bespeaks well for its future success. 

Art work began with the little people in the Kindergarten. It was cor- 
related with the Kindergarten system, and gave a sound foundation for the 
work in the first grade. 

"The Prang Elementary Course in Art Instruction", was used through- 
out the grades, and "Text Books of Art Education", were put in the hands 
of the children. In these books the child studied good examples of technique. 



38 Report of Fublic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

composition, design, line, form, color, etc. "Picture Study Books" were in 
every building, and through the kindness of Miss Colerick, librarian of the 
Public Library, books on artists, their pictures, etchings, engravings, orien- 
tal rugs, pottery, design, and ornament, made their rounds of the school 
buildings. 

With the exception of applied art, the work in the grades was similar 
to that taken up in the High School, but adapted to the child's understand- 
ing. In the first and second grades, the children worked out things of beauty 
without knowing art principles. In the third grade a few principles were 
taught, and applied. Thus the work grew throughout the school system 
until there was a fuller understanding and appreciation of the beauties of 
nature, and life. 

Both the junior and the senior training classes received one-half day a 
week in art instruction. The various phases of the work were taken up 
from the kindergarten to the eighth grade, and some practical teaching was 
done by the students before the course was completed. 

The supervisor visited each schoolroom once a month, and looked over, 
and criticised the work done by the children. The teacher presented the 
lesson, and the supervisor helped in every way that seemed best for the 
good of the teacher and the pupils. 

The supervisor had four general teachers meetings a month, where the 
work was criticised or explained, and a practice lesson was given in new or 
difficult work. Two extra teachers' meetings a month were for the assist- 
ance of those who were new in the work, or for those that needed more in- 
struction than could be given at the general meetings. 

The supervisor has always been compelled to teach her training classes, 
and to have teachers meetings in school rooms not intended for her 
work. She feels that to get the best results from her teaching, she should 
be provided with a large, well equipped room, where she could hold her 
teachers' meetings, kindergarten teachers' classes, teach the training classes 
get up exhibits, keep certain materials that are sent to the grades, and 
drawings to be shown the teachers. 

Exhibits of children's work were made from time to time. At a recent 
exhibition, Mr. Arthur Dow, one of the founders of the present drawing 
system, and director of fine arts, at Teachers College, Columbia University, 
said: "The art work in the schools here was logical; it showed a perception 
of the deeper principles of art, and it had a solid and sound foundation." 

Such commendation is a great encouragement to those who have put 
their shoulders to the wheel, and brought out of chaos, order and beauty. 

The supervisor has much to thank the willing teachers who have over- 
come obstacles that seemed insurmountable, and who have made her work 
a pleasure. 

She also wishes to thank those from whom she has received assistance 
and encouragement in the school work. 
Respectfully, 

ALICE E. HALL, Supervisor of Drawing. 

REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF PHYSICAL CULTURE 

Fort Wayne, Indiana, June 27, '07 
MR. J. N. STUDY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, FORT WAYNE, 

INDIANA: 

Dear Sir: — I herewith submit my report pertaining to the work of 
the physical culture department from 1902 to 1907. 

Physical culture is finding more general recognition among our ablest 
educators to-day than ever before. In many cities where advanced meth- 
ods of instruction are in vogue, this branch has been added to make the 
child physically sound and strong, thus enabling him to pursue his studies 
with more energy. 

A careful selection of movements, suitable to the individual needs, 
naturally involves a thorough knowledge of the muscular organism and its 
action with reference to its influence upon the vital organs. The value of 
the exercise is judged by the perceptible results in the individual as im- 
provements in proper functioning and general condition as well as in 
proper carriage, bearing, growth, endurance, courage and development, also 
by the increased activities and capacities for work, co-ordination, presence 



Report of Fublic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 39 

of mind and improved disposition. Further, to counteract the deforming 
and degenerating influences of habitual bad posture. 

Regular exercise increases the power of assimilation, builds new tis- 
sues, helps the system readily to eliminate waste materials and causes one 
to be less susceptible to disease. Then ,too, just as we have good reason 
for assuming a nourishing influence upon the muscles from their corres- 
ponding nerve centers, so may we assume that there is a reciprocal in- 
fluence exerted upon the same nerve centers by the muscles and that the 
nutrition of the former depends largely upon that of the latter. 

Illustrations of the work and results thus far achieved, were exhibited 
at the first entertainment held May 26, 1903, and a second on May 24, 1906, 
and the third on May 27, and 28, 1907. All three were before large and en- 
thusiastic audiences. The last one is still fresh in the minds of those who 
attended. The last two exhibitions offered splendid opportunities of wit- 
nessing the great progress made during the past five years by displaying 
the ease, ability and enthusiasm with which the pupils executed the ex- 
ercises. The money from these exhibitions will be used in buying addi- 
tional apparatus for the department as decided upon. 

Under the German System of Physical Culture which is in vogue here, 
every lesson taught is based on physiological principles, so that every 
muscle from the head to the feet is exercised daily. 

Each lesson was continued two weeks, when a new set of exercises 
was taken up systematically graded and developed on the preceding one 
according to the knowledge and age of the pupils, thereby developing co- 
ordination to its highest degree and frequently the physiological effects ex- 
plained. The few who needed special (corrective) exercises to overcome 
lateral curvature of the spine or other defects, were instructed accordinglJ^ 
During the first and third weeks the new lessons were introduced by my- 
self and continued daily by the class teachers during my absence. In this 
manner through weekly visits during the first three and a half years I 
managed to teach one hundred and five (105) classes and one lesson per 
week to the Normal Class, while supervising in the grades beginning with 
the third grade and upwards and teaching in the remainder twenty-one 
(21) classes, during the second and fourth weeks. In addition the Normal 
Class was taught the phj^siological effects more thoroughly, the methods 
of teaching physical exercises and allowing the members to take charge of 
their class at stated intervals as is required in any Normal Course. 

During the month of February (2nd Term of the first year), 2000 
wooden wands 1" x 3 ft. were distributed throughout the third grades and 
upwards and lessons arranged for their use. 600 more wands were added 
beginning with the second year. Gratifying results were noticed and the 
interest of the pupils increased through these wand drills soon after their 
introduction. 

As the teachers improved in mastering the exercises and conducting 
the same and the pupils in the ability to execute the movements with 
greater ease, the exercises were also changed so that to-day our pupils 
are receiving exercises that may be considered equal to the best taught in 
other cities. 

Beginning with the second term of the fourth year a class room in the 
New High School was set aside and fully equipped for gymnasium work. 
Seven classes of boys with an enrollment of 145 and five classes of girls 
with an enrollment of 119 practiced one period weekly under my direction 
on Mondays and Tuesdays of each week. While the work was obligatory in 
the ward schools it was optional in the High School. 

Although the pupils of the four grades were not separated, this causing 
those who had the experience in the ward schools from one term to three 
years to exercise with those who knew nothing about the exercises at all 
the results were very good, because each one tried his best. If the different 
grades could be kept separately as in the ward schools, progress would be 
more rapid and the exercises more systematically graded. 

Being engaged at the High School two full days of each week, during 
the second half of the fourth year and all of the fifth, it became necessary 
to visit the ward schools once every two weeks instead of weekly. Be- 
ginning with next September (sixth year) my entire time will be devoted to 
the ward schools and an assistant will have charge of the High School 
work. 

During the next school year 900 to 1000 one pound iron dumbells will 
be distributed among the seventh and eighth grade pupils. Iron wands. 



40 Report of Public Schools. Fort Wayne, Ind. 

one-half inch in diameter and three feet long, weighing about three pounds 
each to be used by all eighth grade boys and those of the seventh grade 
who are able to endure the additional weight. 

As soon as the Hanna and Jefferson School gymnasiums are fully 
equipped with the proper apparatus, the program will be arranged 
and the work planned so that the pupils may receive the new line of work. 

The time allowed for the exercises has been fifteen minutes daily, some 
time during the morning session, about 11 o'clock. In addition to the 
above, a five to seven minute period for marching at 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon, has been in vogue for a long time. 

As often as the weather permitted the classes were led into the play 
grounds and the exercises conducted there. The pupils enjoyed the change 
and the beneficial results were gratifying therefrom. Gymnastic games 
were also introduced and indulged in for relaxation. 

Summing up the benefits derived from the above exercises, one can 
readilj' understand, that through them the entire body having been toned 
up, it is natural that the pupils possess a greater vital power to ward off 
many diseases, thereby insuring a more regular attendance to pursue their 
daily lessons and terminating the year's work with a good average and still 
in a good physical condition. 

In the progress of educational advancement the public schools of Fort 
Wayne ought to receive the hearty support by the public to be kept in the 
lead and when plans are drawn up for the construction of all new school 
buildings the provision for a gymnasium ought to be considered along with 
other advanced ideas as has been provided in the new Hanna and Jeffer- 
son schools. 

Regarding the manner in which the work has been conducted and exe- 
cuted thus far through the able assistance of the class teachers and the 
willingness on the part of the pupils, both taking the deepest interest in 
the successive lessons, I can state with pride, that the results were all that 
I could expect. 

In conclusion I desire further to thank you and the members of the 
Board of School Trustees for your hearty support as well as all of the 
principals and teachers for assisting me as readily as they have. 
Respectfully yours, 

ROBT. NOHR, Supervisor Physical Culture. 

THE SCHOOLS BY DEPARTMENTS. 

KINDERGARTENS. 

The Kindergarten was years ago a part of the City School 
System, but was discontinued. In 1899 Miss Norma Allen was em- 
ployed to open a Kindergarten in one of the rooms of the Hoag- 
land School. This proved so popular and the work so beneficial 
that the next year an additional Kindergarten was opened in the 
Bloomingdale School. In the school year of 1901-1902 two more 
Kindergartens were opened, one in the Hanna School and one in 
the Nebraska School, all under the Supervision of Miss Allen. 
Since that time Kindergartens have been opened in the Harmer 
School and the Washington School and provision has been made for 
an additional Kindergarten in the new Jefferson School. 

This Department of the schools sustained a heavy loss in the 
death of Miss Allen, who was a victim of a railroad accident. Miss 
Allen had brought to the work not only skill but also an enthusiasm 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 41 

that contributed very largely to the success of the Kindergartens in 
the city. 

Since her death the work has been under the direction of the 
Primary Supervisor. Each Kindergarten has a Director and an As- 
sistant and the enrollment is limited to fifty pupils who must be 
five years of age for enrollment. 

The total enrollment in the Kindergartens last year was 359 
and the demand for additional Kindergartens is greater than the 
Board is able to supply owing to the lack of room in the buildings. 

The Rules established by the State Board of Education requir- 
ing higher qualifications upon part of Kindergarten teachers than 
in former years make it necessary that a Kindergartner shall have 
completed not less than two years work in a high school and shall 
hold a certificate from a recognized Kindergarten Training School 
or have passed an examination upon Kindergarten work and 
methods and in Music and Drawing. 

The opportunity for persons of very limited educational ac- 
quirements to obtain positions as Kindergarten teachers has been 
taken away by these rules, and in the future Kindergartners will be 
required to possess a fairly good general education as well as a 
knowledge of Kindergarten methods. 

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT. 

The work in the Primary Grades has continued along the gen- 
eral lines laid out in the last report although changes have been 
made from time to time in matters made necessary by the progress 
of the schools. 

In 1905 after a very successful service of six years as Primary 
Supervisor, Miss Annie Klingensmith resigned her position to ac- 
cept a like position in the schools of Paterson, New Jersey. For 
her successor we selected Miss Gail H. Calmerton, who is a gradu- 
ate of the Oshkosh, Wisconsin State Normal School and also of 
Chicago University. Miss Calmerton has had a wide experience as 
a teacher in public schools and as critic teacher in a State Normal. 
Her work has been of a high character and the progress of the 
schools throughout the last two years has been aided greatly by her 
work. 

The close observation of the work of the respective teachers 
and the criticism of faulty methods made possible by having a sup- 



42 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

ervisor for this special field has brought about a uniform elevation 
of the standard of teaching in the primary grades. However com- 
petent and zealous principals of buildings may be, there must be a 
close supervision of all the schools to secure any uniformity in the 
work of the system. The fact that the graduates of the City Nor- 
mal School are for the most part assigned to primary work in the 
Second, Third or Fourth Grades upon their entering upon their 
vocation makes it necessary that a skilled, tactful and faithful 
supervisor shall be at hand to advise, encourage and direct, 

REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF PRIMARY INSTRUC- 
TION. 

MR. J. N. STUDY, SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FORT 

WAYNE, INDIANA: 

Dear Sir: — I respectfully submit the following report of progress in 
primary schools for years 1906-1907. 

Our creed: 

"I believe in boys and girls, the men and women of the great to-n".or- 
row; that whatsoever the boy soweth the man shall reap. 

"I believe in laughter, in love, in faith, in all ideals and distant hopes 
that lure us on; and in the divine joy of living." 

The attitude of teachers and children toward school life is of para- 
mount importance. A good course of study, and teachers possessing a suf- 
ficient academic knowledge, also training in methods to carry out plans 
well proposed, are essential; yet, given all these with the spirit of the 
teacher antagonistic, stagnant, or unenthusiastic toward her work, and the 
highest aim of the public schools is not reached. 

To-day's boy is to-morrow's man and citizen. 

"Education is an attempt to mould the character and conduct of the 
individual through the medium of instruction." (Dewey). 

"The object of primary education is not to embrace under the differ- 
ent subjects which it touches, all that it is possible to know, but to learn 
thoroughly in each of them what no one should be ignorant of." (M. 
Gerard). 

We are not teaching text-books or methods, but teaching the child 
through every possible uplifting means. "Teach the child and know the 
subject." 

In all work we have tried to avoid extremes, by not introducing too 
much, but by giving sufficient to meet the needs of the time and to carry 
on to a larger work — evolution, not revolution, is progress. 

By gaining attention through the interest of the children, their minds 
react, and the teacher and children are partners. For studies to become 
educative they must be translated into terms of experience — therefore the 
teacher's great work is to study her children and to present the new sub- 
ject matter in such a way as to form a link between the new material and 
the various environn-ients of the children. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

A change of text books necessitates a change in course of study; fur- 
thermore, no course of study, however good, should be everlasting. If we are 
not advancing we are retrograding. Experience is very valuable, but when 
we follow one line of work until we are exceedingly familiar with it, we 
may find ourselves following in last year's footsteps, a path already shorn 
of interest, because of too many treads that way. Through too great 
familiarity with requirements the teacher is apt to lose sight of the fact 
that little feet connot bound over unfamiliar ground. 

A new course of study will soon be out, also circulars on primary 
work. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 43 

The great aim in getting out these circulars is: 
"In essentials unity, 
In non-essentials liberty." 
Outlines have been prepared on: 
I. General Suggestions 
Library 

Reference Lists 
Kindergarten 
Occupations 
II. Reading 

Mechanics of Reading 

Spelling 

Penmanship 

III. English 

Language 

Oral and Written 
Literature 

Ethics 

IV. Nature Study 

Geography — History 
V. Arithmetic 
"An education does not consist in keeping all facts in the mind, but in 
knowing where to go to get information." 

These outlines are intended as guides in methods, and helps in refer- 
ences; as it sometimes happens that teachers have not time or material 
to work up subjects as they would be glad to do had they opportunity. 

TEACHERS' MEETINGS. 

Our teachers' meetings for each grade are held once a month, making 
five meetings a month over which the Supervisor presides. These meet- 
ings are of two kinds: 

1. Talks given by the Supervisor on needs of the school work, and 
methods of presentation of subjects. 

2. Type lessons given by a teacher with her class. 

I regard these type lessons as of great help, as showing by illustration 
work well prepared. Not one lesson but a sequence of lessons is given at 
these meetings, showing results, also method and aim of the teacher in ac- 
complishing the same. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

Because of the number of children for each teacher in the primary 
schools, what to do with the division not reciting is of importance. Occu- 
pation work should be as carefully prepared and supervised as should the 
recitation periods. 

Lack of concentration during occupation periods is as harmful to 
strong development as loose thinking. The Board have furnished us much 
new material which is in itself, as used, worth while, recognizing that 
"busy work" which simply furnishes employment, without definite aim in 
view, is not educative. We shall endeavor to make progress in this work. 

In harmony with new thought we have planned the work in language 
giving much stress to oral speech and reproduction. Our course in story 
telling is well begun, although by far not half done. With the new out- 
line we shall be in position to improve this work very greatly. 

The little chairs which are being furnished for our lowest primary 
rooms, make the close proximity of pupils to teacher of the greatest aid 
in story-telling time. 

Three type lessons in story telling have been given by the Supervisor 
on three successive days in every first, second, and third grade room. 
These lessons helped to show the teachers in the surest and quickest way 
the method desired, at the same time that they started the children in that 
line of thought. 

STUDIES. 

In our nature study, geography and history, we have much work 
ahead of us before we shall be at all satisfied. 



44 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

Literature, aside from language, also ethics, are claiming our at- 
tention. We wish to teach the children to know and to love the right and 
the beautiful. To realize that one who is not active in right doing is more 
than a passive agent, he is arrayed against the right. 

With the advent of the new school year the generous allotment for 
supplementary reading will aid us materially in making better readers. 
To read several books, each once, in a grade is better pedagogy than to 
read one book several times. 

Spelling: When the child is young is the time for memory work. We 
have increased the spelling vocabulary, correlating it with phonics, and 
find that with careful preparatory recitations, with the teacher, the chil- 
dren are able to accomplish much. 

Formal arithmetic is not begun until the third grade, a step we believe 
in the right direction. According to many of the greatest educators of the 
present time, too early attention given to mathematics arrests develop- 
ment. However, probably the children in primary grades are familiarized 
with the language of number to a larger extent than teachers of former 
times would imagine it possible for them to be. 

Penmanship: "We have recognized that the writing in our schools 
should be improved. We do little writing as occupation work in the 
lower primaries and supervise all written work carefully. 

Kindergartens: The weak spot in our kindergartens was the lack of 
some Kindergartners to play. As the teaching corps changes we are mak- 
ing one of the requirements for entrance into the Fort Wayne Kinder- 
gartens ability to play songs and games required in the work. We are 
fortunate in having our Kindergartners represent nearly as many train- 
ing schools as there are teachers in our Kindergartens. This certainly will 
help to keep us from following one trodden path. 

SCHOOL, HOURS. 

The hours for children in primary grades are, in niy opinion, too long. 
The hours for the little ones in Fort Wayne are longer than in many 
primary schools. 

It is not the number of hours during which children are under cover 
that denotes progress, but how active the mind is during such time. Even 
instructive occupation may be less beneficial than free play, how much 
more so then is the listless occupation attempted when mind and body are 
over weary. An inattentive mind gets little or no benefit from instruction, 
no matter how good that instruction may be. 

In the lower primary classes the division doing silent work can give 
concentrated attention for a few minutes only, at a time. This necessitates 
the breaking of the thread of the recitation in progress by the teacher's be- 
ing necessitated to take control of the occupation work while hearing a 
recitation. A continual ringing of a telephone bell impairs good service on 
the part of a book-keeper — so a continual stopping to attend to the silent 
work of wee children impairs effective work on the part of a primary 
teacher. 

Individual help period: We have semi-annual promotions, yet one-half 
year is too long to require a pupil to wait behind the class in which he en- 
tered, if by a small degree of individual help day by day he could accom- 
plish the work of his grade. It is often the lack of a word of explanation in 
time which makes succeeding work beyond his understanding. 

The teacher finds no time for this individual instruction save after 
school. The little pupil is in no mind then to do this extra work (as it 
seems to him). He gets what he must. The teacher, with her necessary 
meetings, finds the right time to keep him to be the wrong time for her. 
The brains of pupil and teacher both are in no condition for outside work. 

It is my strongest desire to arrange the hours, so that sitting out time 
by the capable workers may be obviated, and the slower pupils may re- 
ceive the attention conducive to progress, and so save them from marking 
time. 

I suggest the following plan: Divide all classes into two divisions, A 
and B. 

FIRST GRADE. 

Dismiss the B division at recess, or at 11 o'clock if there be no recess. 
Work with the A division until half past 11, then prepare for dismissal. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 45 

In the afternoon dismiss the A division at recess if recess comes at a 
quarter before 3, or at 3 o'clock if there be no recess. "Work with the B 
division until half past 3, then prepare for dismissal. 

By this arrangement each division goes home one-half hour earlier at 
one session, and has the undivided attention of the teacher for one-half 
hour during the other session. This half hour alone with the teacher is the 
time when the most essential work of the day is done. The comparison of 
what is accomplished by this opportunity to work with one section, with 
work accomplished when the entire class is present until close of school, 
can not be overestimated. I speak from experience. 

SECOND GRADE. 

Divide the class into two divisions. Place drawing, music, physical 
culture, marching, etc., in the afternoon. Keep the entire class to 3:30. Dis- 
miss one division at 11 in the morning, the other division at half past 
11. Alternate division dismissals week by week. 

This alternating gives each section the opportunity to be alone with 
the teacher. Children in the division which is dismissed early, who need 
extra time to do work, are allowed to remain after their division goes, to 
make up work. This necessity is not general. 

THIRD AND FOURTH GRADES. 

If work is well systematized and well presented the majority in any 
class can do the work acceptably in less than the required time allotted 
each day to that subject. The quick students can undoubtedly do this, and 
the next in grade can do so provided the incentive for attention to the sub- 
jects is strong. It is the slow pupils in a grade who "keep the class back." 

Special Help Period: If all pupils who are well up in all work knew 
that good work would bring its reward of early dismissal, the number of 
good workers would be at the nrxaximum. If a general dismissal 
were at 3:30, and the half hour from 3:30 to 4:00 could be given to indi- 
vidual instruction, the slow pupils could be much easier brought up to 
grade. Then the only pupils remaining behind the class, to do the work a 
second time, would be those who need to go over the work a second time. 
A pupil back in only one study would be able with the teacher's help to 
make his grade. 

By giving the last half hour to a Special Help Period, the friction 
arising between pupils detained after school and their teacher is entirely 
done away with. The special help given by the teacher is a favor and not 
a punishment, and often help is given by classmates who delight in the 
giving. 

In conclusion I would express my sincere thanks to the primary teach- 
ers who have worked so faithfully toward carrying out my intentions, to- 
ward principals and special supervisors for their assistance in our work, 
to the public library for its liberal help, to the school board which has 
been generous to a fault, and to the superintendent, who appreciates all 
that is done for the primary schools. 

Very respectfully, 

GAIL CALMERTON, 
Supervisor of Primary and Kindergarten Schools. 

INTERMEDIATE OR GRAMMAR SCHOOL DEPARTMENT. 

The tables of enrollment by grades show that there has been a 
steady increase in this department. 

In 19CXD-1901 the enrollment was 1943, while in 1906- 1907 it 
was 2340. The growth of this department keeps steady pace with 
the growth of the schools. 

To this continued growth the system of semi-annual promo- 
tions has contributed largely. Pupils who under a system of annual 



46 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

promotions fail and are forced to go back over the work of a whole 
year become discouraged and if beyond the compulsory education 
age, drop out of school. A still more frequent re-classification 
would be desirable but in the present condition of the schools is not 
practicable. The Compulsory Education Law contributes to the in- 
creased attendance in the grammar grades, as also the more varied 
and interesting course of study. 

The departmental plan of work in the upper grades has been 
continued and extended to more schools and has proved eminently 
satisfactory wherever tried. The advantages of this plan of hand- 
ling the work of the upper grades was fully set forth in my last 
report and the argument need not be repeated. 

The num.ber of promotions to the high school as was predicted 
in my last report has increased largely. In 1901, 124 were pro- 
moted from the 8A grade to the High School while in 1907 the 
promotions numbered 227 with prospects of a still larger number of 
promotions the coming year. 

As has been stated elsewhere years of prosperity in business are 
years when the attendance in public schools is lightest, as employ- 
ment is easily obtained and the temptation to leave school pre- 
maturely is strongest. Parents are frequently short sighted in this 
respect and this office is often beset by requests for permission to 
stop attendance at school before the age at which the Compulsory 
Education Law permits leaving school. No one has the authority 
to set aside the plain provisions of the law and such requests must 
be denied however urgently made. 

THE WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

Algebra has been continued as an 8 A study and German has 
been carried through all the grades as an elective study. Thus 
those who go to the High School have comparatively little entirely 
new work, and as they have become accustomed to the departmen- 
tal mode of studying and reciting, the High School brings but little 
change to discourage them compared with the time when admission 
to the High School meant a complete change of studies and man- 
ner of recitation. 

The literature work has been continued in the grammar grades, 
the school readers being used for drill in expression. 

The oral course in English History has been continued as a 
preparation for the study of American history. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 47 

In Arithmetic, Geography, American History, Physiology, and 
the other common school branches, needed aids in the way of sup- 
plementary books have been added from time to time. 

The last five years have been marked by heavy expenses in- 
curred in building. In that time the High School, the Jefferson and 
the Hanna Schools have been built and as a consequence the Special 
Fund has been drawn upon so heavily that the purchase of many 
things desirable in the way of equipment has had to be delayed 
until the funds should be in better condition. With the bonding 
of all the floating indebtedness, and the reduction of the rate of 
interest made by so doing, it is hoped that things needed for the 
proper equipment of the ward schools may be supplied. 

THE TEACHING FORCE. 

The work of the grammar grades has been done in a reason- 
ably satisfactory manner. No school official is ever entirely satis- 
fied with results. No really good teacher is ever entirely satisfied. 
The ideal of what should be done is always beyond that which is 
done, but as compared with former years, and in comparison with 
the progress of education generally we may take just pride in the 
work done in our schools in recent years. It is to be hoped that we 
shall never become self-satisfied, as such condition would be a bar 
to growth and when growth ceases decay begins. The teaching 
force has been almost universally alive to the requirements and 
conscientious in the discharge of duty. It is a matter of just con- 
gratulation that the faithful efforts of our teaching force are to be 
more adequately compensated in the coming years than in the past. 
Whatever may be the skill of management, Iiowever carefully and 
wisely plans may be made, it is upon the teacher that we must rely 
for the execution of plans and the accomplishment of desired re- 
sults. 

To build up a trained and efficient corps of teachers and to 
hold such corps in service it is necessary that the importance of the 
teacher's work shall be recognized and fairly compensated. 

The laws passed by the last General Assembly of Indiana rela- 
tive to compensation and qualification of teachers mark a great ad- 
vance in the school interests of the state and it is to be hoped that 
these laws may prove to be but the first step in a continued pro- 
gress toward the securing to the schools of the state a thoroughly 
trained and permanent teaching force. 



48 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

WHAT THE SCHOOLS SHOULD DO. 

The mission of the pubhc schools is to fit the youth of our land 
for life and good citizenship. The complexities of modern life re- 
quire a different training from that required a half-century ago or 
even a quarter-century ago. Business life, social life, civic life all 
demand more — much more — than in the past, and the schools 
must meet these increased demands. These must be met also with- 
out sacrificing what were essentials in the past and still are essen- 
tials. To meet the increased demands of modern life without losing 
what was good in former years is the great problem that educators 
have to solve. 

The schools are everywhere just now in process of adjustment 
to changed conditions, and until the adjustment is made there will 
be and must be unrest. It is impossible to get the schools back to 
the old meager curriculum of fifty years ago, and if it were possible 
it would be inadvisable. Complaints are made from time to time of 
an overcrowded curriculum, but when those who unite in .making 
the complaints are asked to point out what should be omitted there 
is total disagreement. The solution of the difficulty is to be made, 
not by a return to the meager curriculum of by-gone days, but rath- 
er by increased skill upon part of the teaching force and by the 
elimination of tiresome and unnecessary matters of detail. Much 
time has been wasted in the teaching of some of the common school 
branches that might profitably be employed otherwise. The abso- 
lute essentials may all be preserved and better taught, and yet time 
be found for matters incident to modern demands. It is by the 
process of elimination of that which is not essential and not by 
omission of new subjects that relief is to be sought. 

UNJUST CRITICISM. 

Much is said in criticism of the school that is absolutely unjust. 
That the schools are far from ideal no one skilled in educational 
affairs will deny. That they are doing better work than the schools 
of years ago is nevertheless true, in spite of criticism to the con- 
trary. The child of twelve or fourteen years of age is contrasted 
unfavorably as to his acquirements with the man or woman of 
mature years. If the boy cannot add a column of figures as readily 
or as accurately as the bookkeeper of mature age and long ex- 
perience something is held to be wrong with the schools. If he 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 49 

misspells a word, the golden days are referred to when spelling 
was made a chief part of the work of the schools. 

The fact is that the children of the present do more and better 
work than the children of fifty years ago. They write better, they 
spell better, they are better in arithmetic, and incomparably better 
in the use of the English language. The proper comparison is the 
child of the present with the child of twenty-five or fifty or more 
years ago. 

At the risk of repeating a stale story, I refer to the compara- 
tive test made in Springfield, Massachusetts, where by a fortunate 
discovery of a bound volume of examination questions and manu- 
scripts — date of 1846, it was made possible to compare the child of 
today with the child of 1846 as to his knowledge and accuracy. 
The full account of this test is given in The Forum of January 
1906. It was found by submitting the same questions to grammar 
school pupils that even in Spelling and Arithmetic the pupils of 
1906 were greatly superior to the pupils of 1846. The same test has 
been given in other cities and with like results. The schools of to- 
day teach more subjects and teach all much better than did the 
schools of former years, but much remains to be done before they 
will be doing all that should be done. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

The Report of the Principal of the High School is given be- 
low and its recommendations are commended to your careful con- 
sideration. The school is now located in the best High School 
Building in the State and the change from the old cramped and in- 
convenient quarters has been followed by a large increase in at- 
tendance. 

As the work is now done under much more favorable condi- 
tions it has increased in efficiency. The addition of a complete 
Manual Training Course has lent both attractiveness and useful- 
ness to the school. It will be advisable as soon as the finances will 
permit to add a Commercial Course. The system of elective studies 
enables the boy or girl entering the High School to have a wide 
choice of work. 

The Public High School should not be a mere preparatory 
school for college, but should be a preparation for life. For those 
who expect to pursue a college course means of preparing thor- 
oughly for such course should be given, but the main work of the 



50 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

school should be the education of the majority. This we think is 
accomplished by a system of elective studies in which good, solid, 
honest work is required in every study. 

The school has been exceptionally free from disciplinary 
troubles and a general spirit of cheerful work has prevailed. This 
condition so desirable in any school is mainly due to the excellent 
management which the High School has been so fortunate as to 
have. 

REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL OF THE HIGH AND 
MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

MR. J. N. STUDY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, FORT WAYNE, 

INDIANA: 

Dear Sir: — In your last published report (1901-2) may be found (pp. 57- 
78) a somewhat full statement of the policy in accordance with which the 
High School was at that time and for more than twenty years had been 
conducted, together with some facts and figures that aimed to show the 
results of that policy. 

As the years that have since passed have witnessed no fundamental 
change of policy there is nothing new to be said on that subject. The 
school still stands for thorough, honest, conscientious work and for manly 
and womanly conduct. One of the most valuable lessons that young people 
can learn is that nothing permanently valuable can be secured without 
strenuous effort and that respect for law and rightful authority is one of 
the first duties of an American citizen. 

Since the issue of your last report our school has been housed in a com'- 
modious and handsome building, unsurpassed t^v.d probably unequalled in 
the state for beauty, comfort and convenience. No school in the state is 
better supplied with laboratories for the study of the sciences; nor are any 
laboratories better equipped than ours. Our Manual Training Shops, our 
rooms for the study of Domestic Science and Art will bear comparison 
with any, and it is confidently believed that the work of these departments 
is, not only in scope and execution, but also, for the most part, in wise ap- 
plication of educational principles, in conformity with the best thought and 
practice of the time. Throughout these departments is manifested the same 
spirit of earnestness and energy that characterizes the other departments 
of the school. Neither the shop nor the drawing room, anj^ more than the 
laboratory or the recitation room, is a comfortable place for the idler and 
the shirk. Here as elsewhere in the school the lesson is taught that he 
who would achieve must toil. 

The change from our old quarters to the new has completely trans- 
formed some aspects of school life and school administration. Our broad 
and spacious halls, our large and pleasant study rooms and recitation 
rooms, our convenient, well-lighted and accessible lavatories render possible 
a freedom of movement that our former cramped and inconvenient quarters 
absolutely forbade, and reduce discipline to its lowest terms. Another fact 
that contributes materially to diminish the necessity of repressive discipline 
is the increased opportunity furnished by the manual training work to dis- 
charge youthful energy in useful effort. When a boy has spent two hours 
at the bench, or lathe, or anvil, or with the molding sand, he is little Inclin- 
ed to disorderly activities. 

Work, however, no matter what form it may take, does not and can not 
take the place of play. Accordingly the gj^mnasium privileges that we have 
enjoyed during the last two years, though our room is too small, have been 
a valuable addition to the advantages of our school. Regular physical 
training under a competent director is undoubtedly an extremely valu- 
able adjunct of a large high school. During the past two years 
we have been supplied with an instructor during two days of each week. 
This limitation to two days of the week has compelled us to make physical 
culture elective. About two hundred boys and girls together have elected 



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Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 51 

to take it each year. We have been able to provide an opportunity of one 
hour per week for nearly all who have elected the course. It is desirable 
that the Hig-h School be provided with an instructor whose entire time 
shall be given to the school in order that a still greater number may enjoy 
the advantages of the gymnasium. An hour a week at least of exercise and 
play could then be required of all who are not physically unfit. If to the 
advantages of a gymnasium thus administered the advantages of an athle- 
tic field could be added all the legitimate requirements of the school for 
physical exercise would be fully met. The suggestion of an athletic field 
does not imply any desire for inter-school contests in athletic sports. 

Educators no less than other men, have at times been guilty of erratic, 
wild and unreasonable enthusiasms. The support they have for many years 
lent to inter- school athletic games and contests is a conspicuous example 
To all who have followed the trend of discussion on the subject it is ob- 
vious that a revolutionary change in the expressed sentiment and actual 
attitude of school authorities toward athletics has occurred within the last 
five years. The abuses to which extreme rivalry and the unwholesome 
notoriety of successful athletes naturally led have been mercilessly exposed 
by men of character and influence. Vigorous and more or less successful 
attempts have been made to abate or abolish the evils complained of. The 
saner spirit that now prevails shows itself in the comments of the press as 
well as in the organized action of educational bodies. 

It has long been the policy of our High School to keep out of inter- 
school entanglements as far as possible. They have been productive of 
more mischief and disorder than can be traced to any other single source, 
and that too without any adequate compensatory advantages. They are 
hostile to the best interests of a school, to its mental, physical, and moral 
well-being. If the desire for athletics were merely the natural and laud- 
able desire of the young to engage in active sports, it would be satisfied by 
games and contests between class teams and other organizations of the 
same school. To the sane and healthy rivalry that could spring from such 
contests no valid objection could be made. The spirit, however, that seeks 
championship and victories in the lime-light exalts the athletic ideal above 
the intellectual, tends to make athletics an end and not a means, develops 
an artificial enthusiasm which absorbs unreasonably the attention of the 
school. Such a spirit in any school tends to attract young men who are 
physically powerful but mentally unambitious. So widely did this condition 
prevail that after much perturbation of spirit and after prolonged discus- 
sion, the High School principals and teachers of the State organized the 
Indiana High School Athletic Association. The object of this organization 
was to regulate and control inter-school contests and diminish or abolish 
abuses attendant upon them. 

With a view to the prevention of absolute "loafing" on the part of boys 
who wish to attend school for athletic glory only, a rule was adopted pro- 
hibiting from participation in inter-school contests any student who did 
not make a passing grade, continuously throughout the year, in at least 
fifteen hours per week of school work, this being about three-fourths of 
the required work of a regular student. It was hoped that interest in ath- 
letics would induce candidates for athletic honors to accomplish at least 
this minimum of school work and that the desire of the school to have 
a winning team would create a sort of moral coercion to keep promising 
athletes up to the mark in school work. Doubtless in some cases the hope 
that inspired the rule has been realized. Our school has been a member 
of this association from the beginning with the result that it has proved 
increasingly difficult to secure a team that would be eligible under the 
rules. A very promising baseball team of a year ago has been completely dis- 
integrated by the operation of the very mild requirement of the associa- 
tion's eligibility rules. Similar results have followed in other schools and 
altogether it can not be doubted that the association has considerably 
diminished the number of inter-school contests and has both in this and 
in other ways exerted a salutary influence. Rules similar to those of our 
state association prevail generally throughout the middle west at least. 
A few years ago there was a tendency to make the consent of parents a 
prerequisite to eligibility. But this requirement seems to have faded away; 
probably because it was found upon experiment, as was the case in our 
own school a few years ago, that the consent of parents could not be se- 
cured. It is safe to say that any school that provides a gymnasium and a 
physical director, a field where students can enjoy suitable games and con- 



52 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

tests among themselves is doing all that can be reasonably required to pro- 
mote thorough exercise for the health of its students. Athletics in the old 
time sense did not directly touch fifteen per cent, of the membership of 
any school. Physical training and sane playing at home affect and help 
the whole school. Let us spend our money and our energy in ways that 
help and do not harm. 

What shall be done with Greek Letter Fraternities and Sororities has 
been another burning question in educational circles during the last five 
years. Numerous committees have been appointed by educational bodies 
to investigate, to gather opinions and to report. Papers have been read 
and published by men of character and weight. Scarcely a voice has been 
raised in their defense. It is a moderate statement to affirm that the con- 
sensus of the best thought, based on the broadest experience condemns 
them. Nowhere is this consensus of opinion better stated than in a paper 
read by Principal Morrison, of the McKinley High School, St. Louis, be- 
fore the 1905 meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. They are condemned, he says, because they are un- 
necessary, because they are factional, because they form premature and 
unnatural friendships, because they are selfish, because they are snobbish, 
because they dissipate energy and proper ambition, because they set wrong 
standards of excellence, because they are narrow, because rewards are not 
based on merit but on fraternity vows, because they inculcate a feeling of 
self-sufficiency in their members, because they are hidden and inculcate 
dark lantern methods, because they foster a feeling of self importance, be- 
cause high school boys are too young for club life, because they foster the 
tobacco habit, because they are expensive and foster habits of extrava- 
gance, because through their changing membership from year to year they 
are liable to bring discredit and disgrace to the school and because they 
weaken the efficiency of and bring politics into the legitimate organizations 
of the school and because they detract interest from study. 

These organizations are, as far as high schools are concerned, an im- 
portation from the colleges and an imitation of them as many other unde- 
sirable features of modern high school life have been, as rowdyism on the 
streets, and vandalism. Happily these evils are everywhere on the wane 
and our own school has been remarkably free from them. The period of 
the rise and progress (and shall we say decay?) of high school Greek Let- 
ter Societies has covered the last twenty years. The first one in our school 
was organized in 1895 and the last in 1906. The total number of fraternities 
is now five. At the close of the half year ending in February, 1907, there 
were thirty-seven boys who were members. Of these, three have been 
graduated and nine have withdrawn from school and probably will not re- 
turn. Twenty-five will therefore be the total membership of the five fra- 
ternities next September. Of these twenty-five, seventeen failed in one or 
more studies last June. Of the remaining eight, six have failed heretofore, 
leaving only two who have regular standing in the class with which they 
entered. The history of one of these societies is as follows: Since its 
organization it has comprised within its membership a total of twenty- 
seven different boys. Of these, two have been graduated. The other 
twenty-five have all failed at some time in their course. Thirteen of them 
were what may be called total failures in their school work. Only four of 
them are now members of the school. There is not one of these twenty- 
seven boys who did not have ability enough to succeed with a half-way 
reasonable effort. There is not one of them whose parents were not able to 
keep him in school, not one whose parents did not earnestly desire his 
success. 

There are two sororities in the school. One of them had ten mem- 
bers in February, 1907. Four have since withdrawn from school. Of the re- 
maining six, three have made bad failures in their work. The other soror- 
ity had eleven members of whom seven are good and regular students. 
Without accessions or the return of some members who have withdrawn 
the combined membership of these two sororities next September can not 
exceed sixteen. 

Can there be any doubt as to what should be the attitude of parents 
and of the school authorities toward organizations condemned by the ma- 
ture judgment of men of character and large experience, condemned in our 
own school at any rate by their record, and now under the ban of the law? 
That law is but the expression in legal form of the judgment not only of 
the ablest educators of the country but also of thousands of parents. At 



Report of Fublic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 53 

the opening of the next school year the members of secret societies in our 
school will be but a handful. If the law be enforced against taking in new 
members these organizations will soon fade out of existence. It should 
be said that the young people who have formed them have been guilty of 
no intentional wrong. It is rather their elders, including the school 
authorities, who are to be blamed if any are blameworthy. If foresight 
were as keen as "hindsight" many abuses that are allowed to grow up 
would be strangled in their infancy. Public opinion sleeps until it Is 
aroused by necessity for action. The character of the membership of 
fraternities has deplorably degenerated during the last few years. Some 
of the brightest and best of our graduates were members a few years ago. 

When our school moved into its new quarters in the fall of 1904, sev- 
eral important changes were made in the scope of the work offered. The 
most important of these changes were (1) the lengthening of the German 
Course from two to four years (2) the organization of an extensive course 
in Freehand Drawing (3) the introduction of a four year course in Manual 
Training for boys and a one year course in Domestic Science and Art for 
girls. The results of these changes and extensions in the work will be 
discussed in order. 

Entering students divide about equally in their choice between Ger- 
man and Latin with usually a slight preference in favor of German, al- 
though the preference is the other way in the class entering next Septem- 
ber. A preference in favor of German should be expected from the fact 
that an opinion is prevalent that German is easier than Latin 
that it is more practical, i. e. is worth more money in the business and 
industrial world. Those who choose German thinking it an "easy" sub- 
ject are destined to disappointment. The percentage of failures is as 
great in German as in Latin. The idea that such a speaking knowledge 
of German as it is possible to gain in a four year High School Course un- 
der normal conditions is of great commercial value is largely a mistake. 
The most valuable result of the study is educational and rests on the same 
general principles that make the study of Latin or of any foreign language 
a \aluable discipline. The ability to read German is a valuable 
acquisition and the incidental advantages accruing from the study 
in the direction of mental discipline, extension of the mental 
horizon, and the deepening of literary culture are more nearly 
equal to the similar advantages derived from the study of Latin 
than the study of any other language can give. The option 
has also the advantage that people are generally better satisfied when 
they are free to choose than when compelled to pursue a course the ad- 
vantage of which they do not perceive. Even from the standpoint of one 
who wants to learn German there is reason to doubt at least whether the 
student who elects Latin and pursues it successfully for four years, tak- 
ing German also during the last two years of his course, does not know 
his German in the end quite as thoroughly as he who pursues German 
alone throughout the four years. The reasons why this should be true 
are two. In the first place those who elect Latin are on the whole, 
though there are brilliant exceptions, those of the greatest intellectual 
strength. In the second place they attack the German with the experience 
and skill in language study acquired by two years previous study of a 
foreign language. Boys however who pursue Manual Training throughout 
the four years do not have time for two foreign languages and hence, 
if they are to get German at all, must elect it in the first year. In a 
number of cases girls who have elected German in the first year have re- 
gretted it and have asked permission to take Latin the last two years, thus 
uniting two years of Latin with four of German. 

Freehand Drawing is required one double period per week in the first 
year of all boys and girls who elect manual training and domestic science 
and art. In addition to this a coursfe of one or two years, ten periods per 
week, is offered as an elective. The election is made mostly by girls, since 
most boys take manual training and have not time for another drawing 
course requiring ten periods per week. The girls who choose this course 
may be divided into two classes; those who elect it because they have 
real ability for the work and those who have a strong aversion for some 
other study which may be avoided by electing drawing. Practically none 
however elect it who have not some taste for it, and the course is un- 
doubtedly more profitable even to the weakest than would be the study 
they seek to avoid. The number of sections required to provide both for 



54 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

the required and the elective freehand drawing will be sufficient to occupy 
all the time of two teachers and all the rooms equipped for the teaching 
of the subject. Even then some sections will possibly be too large for the 
best work. It is probable that at an early day, possibly next year, it may 
be necessary to require one or more sections to begin work at eight A. M. 
in order to provide accommodations for all. In that event another assistant 
would be needed in this department. Even now it is questionable wheth- 
er the work of this department, diversified as it is with wood carving and 
pottery, is not more than can be well done by the present number of 
teachers. In no department of the school is there greater need for in- 
dividual instruction. For this there is scant opportunity when the teacher 
is occupied with large classes from the opening till the close of school. 

The work in the manual training department has also proved exceed- 
ingly popular. It is and has been from the first elected by fully ninety 
per cent of all incoming classes, and although this work may be dropped 
at the end of any completed year, there have thus far been few who have 
done so. Boys who are preparing for the larger colleges and universities 
can not continue their shop work more than one year and meet the re- 
quirements for admission to these schools. This fact has caused several 
to drop the shop work at the end of the second year. 

The per capita cost of material used in the shops is the subject of 
frequent inquiry. A careful estimate for the past year shows that the per 
capita cost of material used in the wood shop was $0.46% and in the forge 
shop it was $0.88 1-7. In making this calculation careful allowance was 
made for boys who dropped out before the end of the year The estimate 
does not include cost of power. From total cost of material used, the 
amount received from boys in payment for materials used in articles 
which they were allowed to take home was deducted before the per capita 
cost was determined . 

We have not the data for making a satisfactory computation for the 
pattern shop and foundry, which has been in operation only during the 
past year. This can be done next year and heareafter accounts will be 
kept in such a way as to make the calculation easy for any year. 

It is believed that in the apportionment of time between shop work 
and book work we have been conservative and have not made the mis- 
take either of overestimating the relative value of the shop work or of 
making the total requirement too heavy. Enthusiasm often over shoots 
the mark both in estimating the value of a new line of work and in mak- 
ing upon the time, energy, and ability of boys a demand which even the 
capable and ambitious are loath to comply with. There are thirty per- 
iods in each school week. Ten of these are required to be spent in shop 
and drawing room, twelve more in the first year and not to exceed fif- 
teen in any year are spent in recitation of other subjects. In the first 
year each manual training student has eight periods and in other years 
five periods during the school week for preparation of lessons. Since each 
student has three recitations per week for which no preparation is re- 
quired he has not to exceed twelve lessons to prepare each week. It is 
obvious therefore that not to exceed two hours study is required outside 
of school hours, provided that time is spent in effective work and not in 
dawdling. The shop work is undoubtedly a relief from the strain of the 
old style school in that it introduces variety which in itself is rest. 

The time given to shop work and drawing is about one-fourth of the 
total time required to be spent upon school work. This is practically the 
present uniform requirement in Manual Training High Schools. This 
statement ought to prevent the error of supposing that the work of the 
manual training department of the high school is or can be in itself a 
complete education. It is quite possible for a boy to complete all the work 
laid out in the manual training course of any school like our own and be 
yet an illiterate youth, with mind untrained and unstored, with no know- 
ledge of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, with no culture, unable to ex- 
press intelligibly his simplest thought. That the exercises of the shop and 
drawing rooms contribute largely to the general intelligence of the young, 
give them an insight into the processes and methods of industrial life, 
impart facility in the use of a variety of tools and machines, discover 
natural bent, tend to a clearer appreciation of the dignity of work, are 
indisputable facts. But the highest justification of these exercises and 
their highest value consist in the intellectual activity involved in them 
and in their contribution to the development of will power and other ele- 



Report of PuUic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 55 

ments of a sound character. To make and to read a working drawing, to 
understand the processes and to perform the operations necessary to em- 
body in a material form the idea expressed in the drawing is an intellec- 
tual performance quite as much as it is an exhibition of manual dexter- 
ity. The development of intellectual and moral power is and should be the 
main purpose of the manual training course in a high school just as it is 
the purpose of all other departments of a school. This intellectual and 
moral power is the product of the school, is its marketable output. Intel- 
lectual and moral power does and will command a higher price than 
mental and moral inefficiency. Just as an industrial plant succeeds or 
fails according to the success of its output in a competitive market, just 
so a school is a success or a failure according as its graduates succeed 
or fail in competition with their fellows of equal natural ability. The 
products of the school have no published market quotations. If they had, 
the pecuniary value of mental and moral training would be more widely 
and more accurately appreciated and skillful teachers would secure ade- 
quate compensation as easily as skillful artisans do. However the mana- 
ger of a manufacturing concern has an important advantage over the 
manager of a school. He can subject his materials and his workmen to 
the most rigid tests and can exclude defective material and incompetent 
workmen. Of course the object of a school is not to turn out absolutely 
the best possible product, but the best that the materials offered will per- 
mit. The point to be emphasized is that the grade of materials determines 
the grade of the manufactured product. Therefore the tendency often 
noticeable in critics to condemn schools because a considerable portion of 
its material never reaches the state of finished product but, as far as the 
school is concerned, assumes the form of waste, while another large por- 
tion of the material is issued in the form of a somewhat inferior grade of 
finished product is in the highest degree unreasonable. The fact that only 
a small percentage of those who enter our high schools graduate is by no 
means evidence that the schools are at fault. If young people do not find 
what they want in a modern high school, with its liberal options, with its 
large opportunities to acquire a practical knowledge of Physics and Chem- 
istry and Elementary Mathematics and English and Manual Training, and 
preparation for college, it is simply because they do not want what they 
must have in order to fit themselves to assume the responsibilities of life 
To complete a course in such a school requires four years of persistent 
and patient toil. It requires no small degree of present self-denial for the 
sake of a remote advantage. It requires courage, perseverance, will, en- 
ergy and ability on the part of the young. It requires often great self- 
sacrifice on the part of the parents, a sacrifice which parents are too often 
miore willing to offer than their children are eager to requite by propor- 
tionate effort. The reasons why so many young people drop out of high 
schools early in the course are various. They have their roots deep in our 
social organization and in the weakness of human nature. Heredity 
counts and environment counts. The hard grind of life forces many 
young people out of school to assist in gaining a livelihood for themselves 
and their families. The enticements of social life, a feeble sense of duty, 
disinclination to work, insidious vices, bad habits, bad companions and all 
the other outgrowths of weak character and weak and unwise parental 
control contribute to failure in school work and to withdrawal from school. 
Failure is much more often due to a weak will than to a weak head or a 
weak physical constitution. 

Educational doctors have been actively engaged for the past twenty 
years or more in search of a panacea for these ills. The introduction into 
the curriculum of the natural and physical sciences, the free elective sys- 
tem, new methods of teaching, mianual training, have, each in its turn, fur- 
nished the basis of much enthusiastic prophesying. Great good, accom- 
panied inevitably by some evil, has resulted from the general shaking up 
incident to these changes. But after all and in spite of all, young people 
in large numbers still fail in their high school work and withdraw before 
or at the end of the second year. A few weeks ago the National Educa- 
tional Association in convention assembled, an association composed of 
educators of wide experience and wisdom thought it worth while to draft 
and publish the following: 

"The National Educational Association wishes to record its approval of 
the increasing appreciation among educators of the fact that the building 
of character is the real aim of schools and the ultimate reason for the ex- 



56 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

penditure of millions for their maintenance. There are in the minds of 
the children and youth of today a tendency toward a disregard for age 
and superior wisdom, a weak appreciation of the demands of duty, a dis- 
position to follow pleasure and interest rather than obligation and order. 
This condition demands the earliest thought and action of our leaders of 
opinion and places important obligations upon school authorities." 

All who are familiar with educational discussion for the last thirty 
years will remember the great debate that preceded the introduction of 
manual training into the public schools. The victory for manual training 
was not won until its advocates had convinced the public that manual 
training was as purely educational as mathematics. To this end they de- 
voted all their energy and all their skill. This was their first contention, 
which was supported by three supplementary and subsidiary propositions. 
First, that it would attract to the high school many young people, espe- 
cially boys, who would not otherwise enter. Second, that it would tend to 
keep them in school. Third, that it would inspire them with a keener in- 
terest in other subjects. The primary contention above mentioned may to« 
day be regarded as the settled conviction of the educational world. That 
manual training is a valuable educational instrument to be used for the 
development of mental power and strong character, that it has incidental 
advantages peculiar to itself and not to be secured from other subjects, 
are no longer in question. The same is true of e\^ery subject of study that 
can justify its claims to a place in the curriculum. 

The three subsidiary propositions above mentioned were of course, in 
advance of experience, merely speculative. If experience has only partial- 
ly justified them, it will not be the first time that enthusiastic prophecy 
has outrun fulfillment. The validity of the first assumption can be deter- 
mined only by statistics which are not at hand except for Kansas City. 
There in 1898 a well-equipped Manual Training High School was opened 
with an enrollment of 842 students, and yet the total enrollment for that 
year of all the other high schools of the city decreased only . 142. One 
might jump to the conclusion that the establishment of the Manual Train- 
ing High School attracted 700 students who would not otherwise have en- 
tered. But when it is observed that the total enrollment of all the non- 
manual training high schools was, at the end of five years, more than 200 
less than it was for the year preceding the opening of the manual train- 
ing high school instead of being 1242 greater as it would have been had 
the average annual increase of the non-manual training high schools for the 
preceding five years been maintained, it becomes evident that the total in- 
crease in the high school enrollment of the city, due to the attractive 
power of the manual training high school, did not exceed 230 at the end of 
the five years. The only conclusion justified by the figures is that the 
manual training high school is more popular than the others and has prob- 
ably increased the total attendance a little above what it would other- 
wise have been. That some 550 students entered the high schools during 
the opening year of the manual training high school who would not other- 
wise have done so is obvious. The question is, what became of them? The 
answer may perhaps be found in the following facts. In 1903 26 per cent, 
of the boys enrolled in the manual training high school dropped out before 
the end of the year and 19.5 per cent, of the girls. The corresponding 
figures for the largest non-manual training high school were 18.2 per cent, 
and 19.2 per cent. In 1905 the number of graduates from the latter school, 
with a total enrollment of 1453 was 206, and from the former with an en- 
rollment of 1683 was 135. The percentage of the enrollment graduated in 
the non-manual training school was 14.2, in the manual training school it 
was 8 per cent. The percentage of male graduates upon male enrollment 
was 11.09 in the former and 7.16 in the latter. As far as the figures for a 
single year in a single school justify a conclusion it must be that the pu- 
pils in "the rr^anual training school do not "stick" as well as do those in the 
non-manual schools. That this is a fact observable throughout the five 
years preceding 1905 Superintendent Greenwood distinctly states. A gen- 
eral investigation with a view to ascertaining what the facts of experi- 
ence show in regard to the validity of the three assumptions above stated 
would be worth while. 

Our own experience has been too short to settle anything, but the fol- 
lowing tables and statements may help towards a conclusion. Table I re- 
fers to the High School. Table II shows promotions from 8 A grade. The 
negative sign indicates decrease. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



57 



TABLE I. 



YEAR. 


tn 

>> 

o 

n 


O 




am 


(U 


V . 

CO >, 

V 

SM 

M O 


M 


!2« 


1898 


146 


267 


413 


35.4 


64.6 


15 


34 


49 


1899 


151 


246 


397 


38.0 


62.0 


5 


-21 


-16 


1900 


156 


217 


373 


41.8 


58.2 


5 


-29 


-24 


1901 


144 


244 


388 


37.1 


62.9 


-12 


27 


15 


1902 


173 


247 


420 


41.2 


58.8 


29 


3 


32 


1903 


181 


248 


429 


42.2 


57.8 


8 


1 


9 


1904 


206 


274 


480 


42.9 


57.1 


25 


26 


51 


1905 


236 


356 


592 


40.0 


60.0 


30 


82 


112 


1906 


275 


373 


648 


42.4 


57.6 


39 


17 


56 


1907 


271 


405 


676 


40.1 


59.9 


-4 


32 


28 



TABLE II. 



Year. 


tn 









1) 

si" 

P-I 


1; 
a . 

ss 

U "^ 
>"" 

eu 


V . 
tn tn 
<A >. 
u 

M 


tat. 


OJ 


1898 


51 


65 


116 


44.0 


56.0 








1899 


62 


88 


150 


41.3 


58.7 


11 


34 


45 


1900 


41 


84 


125 


32.8 


67.2 


-21 


-4 


-25 


1901 


46 


78 


124 


37.1 


62.9 


5 


-6 


-1 


1902 


67 


103 


170 


39.4 


60.6 


21 


25 


46 


1903 


81 


107 


188 


43.1 


56.9 


14 


4 


18 


1904 


95 


129 


224 


42.4 


57.6 


14 


22 


36 


1905 


95 


139 


234 


40.6 


59.4 





10 


10 


1906 


100 


136 


236 


42.4 


57.6 


5 


-3 


2 


1907 


105 


122 


227 


46.2 


53.8 


5 


-14 


-9 



We entered our new building and introduced manual training in the 
fall of the school year ending June 1905. The increase in the enrollment 
of that year over the preceding year was 112, by far the largest increase 
in the history of the school. Part of this unusual increase would have fol- 
lowed the opening of a handsome and commodious new building, regard- 
less of what was taught in it. It seems fair however to assume that a 
part of the unusual increase of this year was due to interest in and curio- 
sity concerning the manual training work. It must be observed however 
that the increase in the number of boys was only 30, five more than in the 
preceding year, while the increase in the number of girls was 82, fifty- six 
more than in the preceding year. Comparing the period of three years 
preceding the introduction of manual training with the three years since, 
we get the following results. For the period preceding the total increase 
was 92. For the period following, it was 196. The increase in boys was 
62 for the first period and 65 for the second, practically no difference. The 
increase in girls was 30 for the first period and 131 for the second, a differ- 
ence of 101. Another fact must be considered. A reference to Table II 
shows a very remarkable increase in the number of promotions from the 
8 A Grade during the period 1901-7, an increase of 103. This rapid growth 
in promotions from the 8 A Grade would of course, in the absence of any 
other influence, have largely increased the enrollment of the high school. 
The conclusion from all these facts seems to be that the influence of the 
new work was felt more strongly by the girls than by boys, that the 
amount of influence Is difficult to determine but was certainly not great. 

Whatever conclusion upon the point under discussion the figures above 
submitted may be thought to justify, the following facts are very encour- 



68 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



aging. During the ten years ending with June 1907 the total enrollment 
of boys in the high school has more than doubled, the increase TDelng 
106.8 per cent. During the same decade the number of girls increased 
42.5 per cent, and the entire school 85.7 per cent. In the same period the 
increase in total enrollment in the public schools of the city has been 
27 per cent. These figures show a steady and vigorous growth in the up- 
per grades of the school system, a growth altogether out of proportion to 
the increase in population and in the total enrollment of the public school 
system. The percentage of boys in the high school has not fallen below 
40 but once in eight years and for most of those years has been well 
above 40 per cent., which is about the average for the state and the 
country as a whole. As to whether or not manual training tends to keep 
boys in school and to inspire a keener interest in other subjects our ex- 
perience, as far as it has gone, supports the negative. 
The following table shows what our experience is: 

TABLE III. 





Withdrawals. 


Percent of Withdrawals. 


Year. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 


38 
47 
51 
82 
88 


54 
56 
64 

75 
85 


92 
103 
115 

157 
173 


20.9 
22.8 
21.6 
29.8 
32.4 


21.8 
20.4 
18.0 
20.0 
21.0 


21.4 
21.5 
19.4 
24.2 
25.5 



The year 1905 is the year of the introduction of manual training. As 
this work was open only to first year students a comparatively slight effect 
might be expected. Tlie most striking thing about the table is the large 
increase in the percentage of withdrawals of boys. These figures covering 
so short a period do not justify any positive conclusion. It often happens 
that for a year or two there appear in a high school an unusually large 
number of young people who do not seriously undertake school work. 
That has been the case here for the last two years . It is not unlikely 
furthermore, that on account of the new work a considerable number 
have entered the school thinking to try it for a while and having no in- 
tention of remaining long. The entrance of a considerable number of such 
students would both swell the increase in enrollment and the percentage of 
withdrawals. One thing the figures do tend to show, and that is that no 
antidote for all the ills that fiesh is heir to has yet been discovered. It is 
still true that he who would achieve must toil. He that would succeed 
in the future must practice present self-denial. He that would secure the 
best things in life must pay the price. It must not be forgotten that the 
hundreds of young people who in the course of years pass onward out of 
the high school, even though they do not graduate, are largely benefited by 
what they get and that an opportunity to secure a good position, when 
good positions are hard to get, is a strong temptation to withdrawal. Our 
experience points straight to the conclusion that boys, if left to themselves, 
will tend to neglect their academic studies in favor of their shop work, and 
this conclusion of experience is confirmed by correspondence with prin- 
cipals of other schools. The reasons for this tendency are obvious. In the 
first place, the shop work is all done during school hours and under the 
eye of the instructor. The boy can not be lured from it by pleasure, can 
not shirk it through indolence nor neglect it in favor of some other work. 
If he had a shop at home and were required to do his shop exercises 
there, out of school hours and without supervision, his shop work would 
often suffer. 

In the second place boys are prone to overestimate the relative value 
of their shop work and hence neglect academic subjects until it is too late 
to succeed in one or more of them. Thus they become irregular in their 
class standing and have great difficulty in regaining it and graduating 
with their class. Comparatively few who thus become seriously irregular 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 59 

ever graduate. This situation tends powerfully towards withdrawal. This 
tendency ought to be counteracted by vig-orous measures. There are three 
checks that may wisely be applied. First, no boy should be allowed to give 
extra time to shop work during school hours unless his other work is good. 
This check has been uniformly applied in our school. Second, except on 
the same condition no boy should be allowed to do more than the regular 
minimum', prescribed exercises. Third, no boy should be allowed to ad- 
vance his shop work more than, at the most, one year beyond the rear- 
most subject of his academic work. In this way the boy's natural tendency 
to live in the present, to do only the things that are liked best and come eas- 
iest, will be corrected by the enforced judgment of his teachers, and any 
strong liking that he may have for his tools will become a motive for 
doing what he may not like so well but what after all it is for his interest 
to do. It is the business of the school administration to protect young 
students as far as possible against the evil consequences of bad judgment 
and weak will. 

The high school will possibly always remain what it is to-day, a 
school chiefly for the development of mental and moral power and will 
retain and develop more fully a manual training department as one of the 
most efficient instruments for its purposes. The high school can be made 
to connect a little more closely than it does now with vocational interests 
by incorporating into it as a part of its regular work the essential ele- 
ments of a business education. It is the writer's judgment that such a 
course established in our school would answer a real demand of the com- 
munity and would attract a very considerable number of young people who 
do not now enter the high school. But after the high school as at present 
organized in this countrj^ has done all that it can do there will remain a 
large number of young people who for various obvious reasons will not take 
advantage of what the high school offers. There is undoubtedly a strong 
and growing demand for trade schools to meet the needs of this class of 
youth. They do not want and will not have a broad and somewhat pro- 
longed training for power. They want a short cut to a remunerative voca- 
tion. Their ideals are not high but are entirely respectable and worthy. 
They want instruction that will carry them directly and in the shortest 
possible time into the various trades. A school that will teach boys to be 
brickmasons, carpenters, blacksmiths, printers, telegraphers, lithograph- 
ers, etc., etc. has before it a field that no other school can cover. Whether 
such schools will be established in this country in the near future at 
public expense may be doubtful. That they will be established in increas- 
ing numbers is certain. In the meantime it is highly desirable that the 
fundamental distinction between the two classes of schools be clearly dis- 
cerned. To expect either to accomplish the aim of the other must result in 
disappointment. Society has need of both. 

In your last printed report (1901-2) was given a table showing the 
number of graduates from the high school in each year from 1865 to 1901 
inclusive. The following figures will bring the table down to date. 
Tear Boys Girls Total 

1902 14 23 37 

1903 13 28 41 

1904 11 17 28 

1905 11 17 28 

1906 21 33 54 

1907 17 29 46 

A statement by each of the several heads of departments of the 
character and scope of the work of the department is herewith submitted. 

C. T. LANE, Principal. 



60 



Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



GRADUATES. 

Since the last report the following classes have been graduated 
from the High School: 



CLASS OF 1902. 



Erma Dochterman 
Elizabeth Morris Evans 
Alice Harrison Foster 
Arthur Wayne Perry 
Marion Baker 
Elizabeth Connor 
Georgia Louise Davis 
Anna Biddle 
Mae Marguerite Eiter 
Edith Josephine Foster 
Ray Oscar Grosjean 
Zona Hopkins 
Agnes Thompson Little John 
Pearl Edna Bond 
Robert IMaximilian Feustel 
Robert Newell Kinnaird 
Bernadette Monahan 



Maud Murray 
Clara Eaton Owen 
Alathea Stockbridge 
Herbert Hamilton Wagenhals 
William Page Yarnelle 
JMera Helen Fox 
Albert Herman Schaaf 
Jessie Loretta Tuckey 
Georgia Mae Warner 
Martha Grace Smith 
Royden K. P. Tigar 
George Theodore Thorward 
Arthur Glenn Sawyer 
William C. Schaden 
Arthur Chester Twining 
Favor Bowen Vreeland 
Emma Clara Warner 



CLASS OF 1903. 



Mabel Martha Coverdale 
Charles Clyde Felts 
Samuel Edgar Fleming 
Joseph Douglass Gage 
Clara Catherine Schmidt 
Dwight Hale Ashley 
Jessamine Bailey 
Elinor Bond 
Mary Jeanette Brown 
Harry William Ginty 
Desdemona Phoebe Hale 
Mabel Dell Hall 
Stella Louise Helmer 
Lillian Julia Joost 
Edna Anna Kern 



Carrie Elsie Shoup 
Homer Burlington Shoup 
Willard J\Iilfred Thomas 
Elizabeth Hughes Williams 
Francis Hoffman Williams 
Hilda Lane 

Edward French Lukens 
Cora Elizabeth McAfee 
Grace Vivian McAllister 
Harry Benton McCormick 
Ruth Read Randall 
Emma Scheumann 
Helen Burd Staub 
Maude Irene Whiteleather 
Frederick William Fremont Zent 



o 

X 
CO 

n 

X 

o 
o 

r 
> 

c 
o 

H 

o 

2 

G 




Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



61 



Gearry Lloyd Knight 
Florida Jennette Banning 
Frank Edward Bohn 
Grace Aurelia Fitch 
Francesca Marie Greene 
Dorothy Alice Kell 
Albert Lansdown 



Gertrude Amanda Zook 
Mildred Muirhead 
Mary Katherine Muller 
Blanche Gertrude Ranch 
Adele Pauline Sauer 
George Leon Sharp 
Edith El Frieda Vogely 



CLASS OF 1904. 



Gertrude Eliza Bussard 

Edward Clarence Olds 

Leora Electa Fink 

Maud May Gaskill 

Howard Hurford Van Swerin^ 

Grace C. Irwin 

Bessie Hazel Keeran 

Jessie Terza Parry 

Louise Pellens 

Blanche Blackburn 

Gerald William Bohn 

Julia Florence Davis 

Edwin Bowser DeVilbiss 

Charles Chester Durnell 



Esther Gertrude Griffiths 
Mabel Ethel Bechtol 
Miles Fuller Porter, Jr. 
Francis Bonner Sale 
;en Frank M. Schaden 
James Ewing Smith 
Meldon Swift 
Minnie Ethel Valentine 
Nina Ethel Welch 
Charlotte Magdalene Haberkorn 
Gertrude May Melsheimer 
Charles Rastetter 
Margaret Anna Swayne 
Florence Edith Warner 



CLASS OF 1905. 



Lois Edith Field 
Emma Emilie Kiefer 
Amy Rowdna Baldwin 
Roscoe Larcome Heaton 
Margaret Marion Johnson 
Agnes McKay 
Stephen Morris, Jr. 
Edith Belle Buskirk 
Harold Alexander Baxter 
Harry August Beerman 
Lillian Katherine Foster 
Alice Mary Garrity 
Charles Emerson Pask 
Donna Marie Saylor 



Clara Mae Scott 
Maurice Seelberg 
Winthrop David Lane 
Florian D wight Myers 
Harry C. Schlatter 
Wilbur Ferdinand Sheridan 
William Henry Tschannen 
Juanita Jetter Heyman 
Bessie Ethel Jackson 
Grace Minnie McMillen 
Mary Ann Mertz 
Corinne Helen Strass 
Mary Mabel Vogely 
Marie Louise Zuecker 



62 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



CLASS OF 1906. 



Ruth Elizabeth Beers 
Helen Rowan Harper 
Harris Vincent Hartman 
Whiting Alden 
Ralph Thomas Ashley 
Ruth Bailey 
Agnes Marjorie Beaber 
William Edward Butt 
Myrtle Helen Carter 
Brown, Cooper 
Charles Perry Cooper 
Herbert Pierce Coverdale 
Anna Rhea Fleming 
Esther Merica Fleming 
Anna Marie Heyman 
Lucille Penn House 
Pearl Karn 

Martha Christine Kettler 
Otto Edward Fuelber 
Theresa May Lancaster 
Theodore William Dehne 
Celia Foley 
Anna M. Gallmeier 
Mabel Kathaleen Holland 
Leonard Stowe House 
Angus Cameron McCoy 
Edmund Creighton Hamilton 



Rachel Ruth Ridenour 

Clara Jeannette Thieme 

Millie Thompson 

Carl Clarence Kiess 

Harry Carl MTvor 

Laurel Alariotte 

Hiram Kelly Moderwell 

Jeannette Morris 

Jessie Hill Orr 

James Pomeroy Porter 

Harry Riethmiller 

Grayston Holm Ruhl 

Mabel Margarete Sites 

Edith A. Swank 

Alice Jane Walter 

Grace Porter Wilding 

Vera Le Perle Williamson 

Alice Worden 

Willard Ashley Stockbridge 

Rhoda Ninde Swayne 

Robert John Martz 

Ina May Maxwell 

Julia Edith Monahan 

Gertrude Warner 

Ignota Belle White 

Millie Dorothy Winkelmeyer 

David McKay 



CLASS OF 1907. 



FEBRUARY SECTION. 



Qara Buck 

Oscar Bitler 
Paul Baade 



Emma Matsch 
Carl L. Schroeder 



JUNE SECTION. 



Veta Sterling Affleck 

Dorothy Alden 

Bernice Gertrude Baldwin 



Harry Joseph Krueper 
Sadie Ann Leach 
Irene Bond Malloy 



Report of Pxiblic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 63 

Daniel Reuben Benninghoff John Roddick McKay 

Howard Larimer Colmey William McKay 

Louis Frederick Crosby Louise Naylor 

Mary Caroline Doty Esther Pearl Nelson 

Edna D. Eby May Ransom Randall 

Mabel Deane Erwin Amy Belle Rothschild 

Florence May Foster Cammie Nadine Shonts 

Benita Alice Fox Venette Marie Sites 

Otto Gumpper Abbie Pearl Smith 

Walter Hitzeman Steece Sponhauer 

Adolph Karl Hofer Elsie Leota Tapp 

Mabel Margaret Hull Emerson C. Woolf 

Lesta Ellen Denis Emma May Shoup 

Ella Geake Geake Mabel Irene Sledd 

Nellie Blanche Havens John Albert Wass 

Rhena Hazel Miller Ethel Barbara Scully 

Mary Edith Denis Moses Zweig 
Thomas James Kelly 

THE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

In the last report the reasons for having a Normal School 
were set forth at length and it is unnecessary to repeat the argu- 
ment here. 

Miss Jessie B. Montogomery, who was put at the head of the 
Normal School when it was re-established and who brought to her 
task untiring zeal and high ideals, resigned at the close of the 
school year in 1902 after a highly successful service of five years. 

Miss Flora Wilber, a graduate of The State Normal college of 
Ypsilanti, Michigan, and also of Oswego, New York, was selected 
to fill the vacancy. Miss W^ilber had successfully filled a like posi- 
tion and her work here has been eminently satisfactory. 

The last General Assembly enacted a law prescribing a cer- 
tain amount of professional work as a pre-requisite for entrance 
upon the vocation of teaching. To give this professional training 
schools must be placed upon an "accredited list" by the State 
Board of Education, acting as a State Teachers' Training Board. 
The City Normal School has been given a place upon the list of 
accredited schools for training of teachers for Classes A and B. 

Since the establishment of the school nine classes have been 
graduated and the total number of graduates is 99. Of this number 



64 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

95 have taught in the schools since graduation and 68 are now 
teaching. Two have died. 

All of these Normal School graduates have brought to the 
schools the general culture of a four years' high school course of 
study or its equivalent, and in addition thereto some careful and 
well directed study of the history and philosophy of education and 
educational methods. They have had also a considerable amount 
of practice in actual teaching under the direction of competent 
critic teachers 

Below is found the Report of the Principal of the School. 

REPORT OF THE PRINCIPAL OF THE NORMAL, SCHOOL. 

MR. J. N. STUDY, Superintendent of Schools. 

The following report of this department is respectfully submitted: 

The aim of a Normal School is to prepare teachers for intelligent 
work, which means thwy must have not only a knowledge of the subject 
matter they are to teach but a knowledge of the mind and its laws of 
development; they must have some knowledge of method, the way in 
which the mind acts in grasping a new subject; they must, in order to 
profit by the experience of others, have a broad knowledge of the his- 
torical development through which our present ideas of teaching have 
progressed and be able to apply consciously and intelligently such know- 
ledge to varying school conditions. The consciousness of the application 
of professional principles distinguishes the really trained teacher from 
the empirical one and no matter how excellent is the work of the latter, 
it might be better if she possessed the insight of the former. This aim 
is, therefore, not only taken for granted, but is kept continually in mind 
by all instructors. 

In the junior year the students are gradually directed to the under- 
standing of the abstract principles and their application. 

In psychology, the work begins concretely with the nervous system 
studied by means of microscopic slides, specimens of brain and eye 
and reference books. This is followed by an experimental study of sen- 
sation and perception and an introspective study of sensation, sense- 
perception, reproduction and feeling. The students are now ready to use 
the text and reference books intelligently. Psychology is supplemented 
by Child Study in which are made observations of various individual 
children testing the principles discussed and seeing the relation between 
the physical and intellectual development. 

The Method course consists of a study of the way the mind acts in 
grasping any new subject, as based upon psychology, and a special ap- 
plication of pedagogical principles to the subjects taught in the grade 
schools, considering the educational value of the subject, the logical 
sequence of topics in the subject itself and the natural method of pre- 
senting the subject to the developing mind. At intervals in this course 
is presented a series of lectures on school management. 

In the course in History of Education the evolution of educational 
ideals is traced from the early periods of civilization, down through 



Report of Public ScJiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 65 

mediaeval times showing the advancement in ideals to the time of the 
Renaissance. At this point a more detailed study is made of the writ- 
ings and labors of the teaching congregations and of individual educators. 

During the third semester the seniors devote their whole time to 
observation and teaching in the practice school, which consists of six 
well equipped grades in the Lakeside building. They are assigned to 
different grades for a period of ten weeks at a time. The students give 
lessons on Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays, observing the work of the 
critic teacher on Thursdays. The lessons taught by the student teachers 
are carefully prepared, being written out, criticised by the critic teacher 
and corected before being taught. 

In this way the work of the pupils cannot suffer and the student 
teachers are kept to high ideals. In the practice teaching every effort is 
made by the critic that the student shall consciously apply the pedagogi- 
cal principles gained in the junior year. For this reason the critic 
teacher is one who by her training and experience is not only an ex- 
pert grade teacher but is quatified to guide and criticise the student 
teacher. This close connection between the theoretical and practical 
work is also aided by frequent conferences between the critics and the 
principal, by the principal's observing the practice work and meeting the 
senior class once a week for a general critic meeting. 

Since the establishment of the school in September 1897 nine classes 
have been graduated. Below is given the number of graduates in each 
class: 

1898—14 1902— 8 1905—11 

1899—16 1903— 6 1906—10 

1900— 8 1904—12 1907— 7 

Total— 99 

Of the ninety- nine graduating seventy have been employed the past 
year in the city schools. 

Respectfully, FLORA WILBER. 

REPORT OF TRUANT OFFICER. 

FORT WAYNE, ALLEN COUNTY, IND. 

Report of the Truant Officer for the District of Fort Wayne, Allen 
County, Indiana, to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, or 
State Board of Truancy, as required by Section 5 of an Act concerning the 
Education of Children, approved March 11, 1901, commonly known as the 
Compulsory Education Law. 

This report should be made immediately after the close of the Schools 
in each Truant offlcer's District, and promptly mailed to the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, Indianapolis. 

1. Number of Pupils brought into school by the enforcement of 

the Compulsory Law 583 

2. Number of these attending Private or Parochial Schools 86 

3. Number of these attending Public Schools 497 

4. Number of visits made 1674 



66 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

5. Number of children to whom assistance was given to enable 

them to attend School 12 

6. Number of those receiving assistance who attended Private 

or Parochial Schools 1 

7. Number of those receiving assistance who attended Public 

Schools 11 

8. Total cost of assistance given $21.85 

9. Total number days spent by Truant Officer in his work 246 

10. Allowance made the Truant Officer. (246 days at $2.00 per day) 492 

11. Number of prosecutions for violations of the law 2 

12. Number of prosecutions successful 2 

13. Number of prosecutions not successful 

I, D. L. BEABER, Truant Officer for Allen county, do solemnly 

swear that the within and foregoing report is true and complete, to the 
best of my knowledge and belief. D. L. BEABER. 

SCHOOL DECORATIONS. 

Since the publication of the last report many works of art 
have been added to the list as then published. These have been 
selected with reference to their educational value as well as their 
value from the standpoint of art. Three of the classes of the High 
School — the classes of 1902, 1903, and 1907 — have each presented 
the High School with a valuable work of art and it is hoped that 
other classes may fellow their example. 

The Class of 1902 presented Copy of Sargent's Prophets. 

The Class of 1903 presented Statue of Joan of Arc. 

The Class of ig^y presented Apollo the Harper. 

Mr. Henry Cohen presented to the High School framed por- 
traits of Abraham Lincoln, Titian, Murillo, Rembrandt, Raphael 
and Chopin. 

The following is a list of the additions made to the pictures 
and casts in the ward buildings: 

BLOOMINGDALE SCHOOL. 

Portraits 

William Henry Harrison 

Anthony Wayne 

Shakespeare 

Longfellow (i) 

Washington (i) 
Busts 

Mozart 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 67 

Casts 

Creeping Baby 

Barye's Lion 

Raphael's Angel Head 
Colored Prints 

A Summer Landscape (Edson) 

Washington Crossing Delaware 

A Japanese Girl 

A Neighborly Chat 

Little Miss Muffet 

The Flower Girl 

Perkin's "Dance to Your Daddy" 

The Maid was in the Garden 
The King was in the Counting House 
Framed Black and White 

Juno 

Minerv^a 

Christ in the Temple (Hoffman) 

Holland Landscape (Ruysdael) 

Milking 

The Sanctuary (Landseer) 

The Challenge (Landseer) 

The Angelus (Millet) 

John Alden and Priscilla 

Bodenhausen's Madonnia 

Botticelli Madonna 

The Horse Fair (Bonheur) 

Pharaoh's Horses (i) 

Corner Congressional Library' 

San Angelo on the Tiber 
High Reliefs 

(Slab I 
(SlabV 
(Slab XVHI 

The Triumphal Entry of Alexander (Thorwaldsen) 
into Babylon 
Low Reliefs 

"Reynold's Angel Heads" 
^ "Apollo Driving the Sun Car" (2) 



68 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

"Flying Cherub" 
"East Wind" 
"Morning" 
Sundries (For Hall) 

U. S, Flag (large bunting) presented by 8 B Class 
Stuffed American Eagle. Presented by Mr. Jacobs 
Chinese Lanterns. 

CLAY SCHOOL. 
Casts 

Vintage 

Aurora 

Morning 

Night 
Busts 

Washington 

Scott 

Longfellow 
Pictures 

Beethoven in His Study. Presented by Henry Cohen, 

Singing of the Marseillaise. Presented by Henry Cohen. 

King Arthur Panels 

Washington 

Sistine Madonna 

Dropped 

Hiawatha 

Children's Hour 

Courtship of Miles Standish 

Autumn (2) 

Sunset 

Fading Light of Day 

Brook in Winter 

Spring 

Matinee 

Horses of Achilles 

The Gleaners 

The Melon Eaters 

Madonna Del Sedia 

The Mouse 

Cloister Soup 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 69 

Sir Galahad 

Dignity and Impudence 

Sketch from Friesland 

FRANKLIN SCHOOL. 

Pictures 

Head of Christ (Hoffman) 
Longfellow 

HAMILTON SCHOOL. 

Pictures 

Etching — The Courship of Miles Standish 

Engraving — I hear a Voice — Maud Earl 

Sketch from Friesland — Volkmann 

Pilgrims Going to Church — Boughton 

Golden Autumn Day — Van Marcke 

Feeding Her Birds — Millet 

Moonlight — De Haas 

Shepherd's Star — Breton 

The Song of the Lark — Breton 

The Dance of the Nymphs — Corot 

Christ and the Doctors — Hoffmann 

George Washington — Gilbert Stuart 

Sunday in Sleepy Hollow 

Longfellow 

The Grand Canal (Hand-colored Photograph) 

Statford-on-Avon 

Pharaoh's Horses 

Anthony Wayne 
Carbon Photographs 

Spring Mauve 

Landscape with Windmill Ruysdael 

Shoeing a Bay Mare Landseer 

On the Bank of the River Lerolle 

Sistine Madonna (Detail) Raphael 

Oxen Plowing Bonheur 

Aurora Guido Reni 

The Forum 



70 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



Casts and Reliefs 

Boys Playing Trumpets 

Children Playing Cymbals 

Boys Singing from Book 

Flying Mercury 

Bracket 

Venus of Melos 

Children Skating 

Head of Boy 

Lincoln 

Dickens 

Cupid 



Luca Delia Robbia 
Luca Delia Robbia 
Luca Delia Robbia 
Giovanni de Bologna 
Michel Angfelo 



HANNA SCHOOL. 



Casts 



Slab 4 Western Frieze of 


Parthenon 


Slab 7 Western Frieze 


of 


Parthenon 


Slab 8 Western Frieze 


of 


Parthenon 


Slab 9 Western Frieze 


of 


Parthenon 


Diana of Versailles 




4 ft. 


Boy Plucking Thorn from Foot 3 ft. 10 in 


ictures 

I Hear a Voice 




Maude Earl 


The Shepherdess 




LeRolle 


Madonna of Chair 




Raphael (2 copies) 


Dance of the Nymphs 




Corot 


Spring 




Mauve 


Sir Galahad 




Watts 


The Windmill 




Van Ruysdael 


Smell 




Edith Wilcox Smith 


louch 




Edith Wilcox Smith 


Hunting Scene 






Summer Landscape 






Winter Landscape 






Knight of the Round Table 




Hawthorne 






Grand Canal — Venice 






The Pyramids 







Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 71 

HARMER SCHOOL. 

Casts 

The Cymbal Players 

The Trumpeters 

Laughing Boy 

Cherub Playing on Double Pipe (2) 

Apollo 
Barye's Lion 
Pictures 

Coliseum 

George Washington 

Martha Washington 

Oxen Going to Work 

Longfellow 

Lincoln 

The Courtship of Miles Standish 

Monarch 

HOAGLAND SCHOOL. 

Pictures 

The Lark 

Dance of the Nymphs 

American Poets (two copies) 

St. Cecilia 

Aurora 

Kabyle 

Angels Heads 

Portrait of Lincoln 

Pen Sketch— Presented by the Art School. 

HOLTON AVENUE SCHOOL. 

Pictures 

Evangeline 

Lost 

The Harvest Moon 

Return of the Mayflower 

Washington 

Sistine Madonna 



72 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL. 

Pictures 

Sir Galahad — Watts 

Head of Christ — Hoffman 

"A Little Child Shall Lead Them"— Strutt 

Stag at Bay — Landseer 

Longfellow 

Pharaoh's Horses 

Hawthorne 

Homeward Bound 

Sistine Madonna — Raphael 

Nivernais Ploughing — Bonheur 

Autumn (Water Color) — Flavelle 

LAKESIDE SCHOOL. 
(normaIv school) 



Pictures 




Dance of the Nymphs 


Co rot 


Monarch of the Glen 


Landseer 


Sir Galahad 


Watts 


Autumn Gold 


Inness 


Aurora 


Guido Reni 


Atlanta's Race 


Poynter 


Spring 


Mauve 


Children of the Shell 


Murillo 


Madonna and Child 


Raphael 


The Windmill 


Van Ruysdael 


The Castle of St. Angelo 




The Coliseum 




The Temple of Philae, Pharaoh's Bed 


McCULLOCH SCHOOL. 


Pictures 




Children's Hour — Taylor 


- 


Landscape — Mauve 





MINER SCHOOL. 

Casts and Reliefs 

Nisfht — Thorwaldsen 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



73 



Morning — Thorwaldsen 
The Trumpeters — Luca della Robbia 
Orpheus and Eurydice 
Lion — Barye's 
Head of Apollo 
Pictures 



By the River 


Lerolle 


Holy Family 


Murillo 


I Hear a Voice 


Maud Earl 


Spring (sheep) 


Mauve 


Dignity and Impudence 


Landseer 


Shoeing the Bay Mare 


Landseer 


The Valley of the Tocques 




(cows) 


Van Marcke 


NEBRASKA SCHOOL. 


Pictures 




Sistine Madonna 




Aurora 




Pharaoh's Horses 




Dance of the Nymphs 




A Landscape 




The Cows 




The Sheep 




SOUTH WAYNE SCHOOL. 


Pictures 




Spring — Mauve 




WASHINGTON SCHOOL. 


Pictures 




Feeding Her Birds 


Millet 


Sistine Madonna 


Raphael 


Sir Galahad 


G. F. Watts 


Morning 


Corot 


Washington 


Stuart 


Lincoln 


Alexander Hessler 



Pictures presented by H. Cohen. 
Of Such is the Kingdom of 
Heaven 



F. Bramley 



74 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



Going Fishing G. Hacquette 

With the exception of the donations for which credit has been 
given in the foregoing Hst, these have all been purchased by funds 
contributed by the pupils or from the proceeds of entertainments 
given at the respective buildings. 

The following pictures which were loaned to the schools by the 
Woman's Club League at the time of publication of the last report 
have since been presented to the schools: 

The Sistine Madonna Bloomingdale School 

Madam Le Brun and Daughter Bloomingdale School 

Sistine Madonna Clay School 

Dropped Clay School 

John Hollow Horn Bear. Sioux Franklin School 



The Nest — By French Artist 

A Happy Famil}^ — Lambert 

Aurora — Guido Reni 

George Washington — Stuart 

The Nest 

Pharaoh's Horses 

Cattle Ploughing 

Saved 

Hiawatha 

Three Scape-Graces 

Oxen Ploughing 

Che3'enne Indians 

Immaculate Conception 

Indian Head 

Baby Stuart — Van Dyke 

Madonna 

Head of St. John — Andrea del 

Sarto 
In the Country — LeRolle 
Playful Kittens 

Madonna of the Chair — Raphael 
Holy Night — Correggio 
With the Grandparents 
Longfellow 

Madonna — Bodenhausen 
The Shepherdess — LeRolle 



Franklin School 
Hamilton School 
Hamilton School 
Hanna School 
Hanna School 
Harmer School 
Harmer School 
Harmer School 
Harmer School 
Hoagland School 
Hoagland School 
Holton School 
Holton School 
Jefferson School 
Jefferson School 
Lakeside School 

Lakeside School 
McCulloch School 
McCulloch School 
Miner School 
Miner School 
Nebraska School 
Nebraska School 
Nebraska School 
South Wayne School 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 75 

John the Baptist — Andrea del 

Sarto South Wayne School 

Pharaoh's Horses — Herring Washington School 

Safe — H. Spirling Washington School 

READING CIRCLE WORK. 

During the five years covered by this report the Reading 
Circle Work has been continued. The teachers of each building 
meet every Monday evening after school. Three evenings of the 
school month are devoted to the Reading Circle Work under direc- 
tion of the Principal and one evening to business matters con- 
nected with the particular school . 

In the time covered by this report the following books have 
made up the list of Reading Circle Books : 
1901-1902 Judson's Europe in the Nineteenth Century; 

Sanitation and Decoration, Burrage and Bailey. 
1902-1903 Systematic Methodology, Smith; 

Dickens as an Educator, Hughes. 
1903-1904 Ivanhoe, Scott; 

Abraham Lincoln, Nicolay. 
1904-1905 School Management, Dutton; 

The Social Spirit in America, Henderson. 
1905-1906 The Method of the Recitation, McMurry ; 

The New Harmony Movement, Lockwood. 
1906-1907 Basis of Practical Teaching, Dr. E. B. Bryan; 

Essays in Application, Dr. Henry Van Dyke. 
1907-1908 American History and Its Geographic Conditions, 

Sernple ; 

Elementary Education, Keith. 

GERMAN. 

Since the publication of the last report instruction m German 
has been provided in three more buildings. German classes are 
now established as electives in eight schools and the number of 
pupils taking this branch is herewith given : 

Bloomingdale 85 

Hamilton 166 

Hanna 123 



76 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Harmer io8 

Hoagland 136 

Jefferson I75 

Nebraska 102 

Washington 99 

Requests have been made for German classes in some other 
buildings, but as in these buildings no rooms are available for 
recitation purposes it has been found impossible to comply with 
the requests. Pupils who belong to districts in which German is 
not taught and who wish to pursue the study may be transferred to 
buildings in which the language is taught upon request of the 
parent or guardian made to the Superintendent. 

A full four year course in German has also been added to the 
High School Curriculum. This course does not conflict with the 
former two year course in German, which is still retained for 
those who wish four years of Latin and two years of German as 
a preparation for college. The number of students taking German 
in the High School last year was 356. This large number shows 
the strong popular desire for a modern language in the High 
School and the wisdom of the selection of German as the language 
to be taught. 

TEXT BOOKS. 

From time to time complaints are heard about the cost of text 
books and the frequency of changes. In answer to such complaints 
it is only ncessary to say that for many years the schools of 
Indiana have been furnished with books at a very low price. The 
operation of the unifonn text book law has not only reduced the 
prices of text books but as a rule has brought into the schools 
good books. 

COST OF BOOKS. 

By consulting the book list printed in the Course of Study 
it will be seen that the total cost of books throughout the eight 
years of the elementary schools is but $8.62 exclusive of the 8 A 
Algebra which book being carried forward into the High School 
and used there for three semesters ought not to be charged to the 
expense account of text books for the elementary schools. However 
charging one-fourth the cost to the elementary schools the whole 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 77 

amount is but $8.92 or less than $1.12 a year, provided the pupil 
buys a new book each time. In many cases however there are 
younger members of the family to use the books when the older 
ones have laid them aside and thus the cost to a family is largely 
reduced. Many buy second-hand books and in this way the cost of 
text books is reduced fully one-half. 

FREQUENCY OF CHANGES. 

Under the text book law contracts must be made for periods 
of five or ten years, and changes of books can not be made except 
at the expiration of contracts. In fact changes have not been made 
even at such times but books, as a rule, have been re-adopted. At 
the expiration of present contracts, the histories will have been in 
use -fifteen years ; the advanced geographies ten years ; the arith- 
metics five years; the advanced readers ten years and the primary 
readers five years ; the copy books ten years, and the introductory 
geographies five years. At the last adoption of books the grammars 
were adopted for a period of ten years ; the physiologies for ten 
years; and the spelling books for ten years. 

Furthermore there is a provision of the law by which a class 
having purchased any text book shall not be required to change that 
book in case such book goes out of contract until the book shall have 
been completed. Individual members of a class by failing of pro- 
motion may have to change books to accommodate themselves to the 
class into which they fall, but such cases are relatively few. This 
wise provision of the law has been often ignored by school authori- 
ties and sweeping changes made, but such changes were illegal. 
In the City of Fort Wayne the law has been carried out and no 
book changes in the elementary schools have been made except 
strictly in accordance with the letter and the spirit of the law. No 
just criticism can lie as to cost of books or frequency of changes. 

High School books have not been under the uniform text book 
law, but in our own High School changes have been infrequent, 
and only made when the interests of the majority of the pupils 
would be subserved thereby. 

The list of books, used in the elementary schools and in the 
High School is printed with prices, in connection with the Course of 
Study. 



78 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

The opening of the new High School with a Manual Training 
Equipment and an opportunity offered to all to combine the advant- 
ages of the ordinary High School Course of Study with more or 
less training of the hand marked an epoch in the history of the 
High School. 

The equipment for the first year's work was ready for use at 
the opening of the school in September 1904 and classes in Wood- 
working for boys, and Cooking and Sewing for girls were opened 
at once. All students in the Manual Training Department were 
required to continue Freehand Drawing, The next year the Forge 
Room was opened and the second year's work given. The Foundry 
and the Pattern Shop were equipped ready for use September 1906, 
and the Machine Fitting Shop will be ready for use by February 
1908. A Course of Mechanical Drawing is given in connection with 
the Manual Training. For girls a course of study in applied art has 
been arranged so that those who wish to continue Manual Training 
may have an opportunity to do so. 

The work in all branches of the Manual Training Department 
has met all reasonable expectations and exhibits of the work have 
been awarded much and merited praise whenever and wherever 
such exhibits have been made. It is not necessary to repeat at this 
time the arguments for Manual Training made in my last report, 
as the Department is in operation here, and the value of Manual 
Training as an educational factor is no longer a debatable question 
here or elsewhere. 

The instruction in the various lines has been of the best and 
in this we have been fortunate. About ninety per cent, of the be- 
ginning classes take the Manual Training work but students pre- 
paring for entrance to Colleges of Liberal Arts either do not elect 
it or take but a portion of it, as such colleges do not give credits for 
shop work. 

The number of pupils in the various subjects in the Department 
number four hundred and one as follows : 

Domestic Science and Art 128 

Applied Art 73 

Manual Training 200 



Report of PuUic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 79 

Considering the fact that the girls, except those taking advanc- 
ed work in Drawing and AppHed Art, are in the work but one year, 
the popularity of the Department is striking. 

The tendency of boys engaged in shop work to neglect their 
other work in their absorption in their shop work is something that 
requires attention just as all other tendencies to a one-sided develop- 
ment need attention. The recommendation of the Principal that a 
restriction be laid upon advancement in the Manual Training work 
when there is great neglect of other work, is wise and in some cases 
will become a necessity. 

MANUAL TRAINING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 

In the new Hanna and Jefferson buildings, rooms have been fit- 
ted up for woodworking and for cooking, but the opening of these 
rooms has been delayed. These when opened will probably be used 
as centers, as in other cities, to which pupils may come from other 
schools not so provided. In the Normal School a room is in opera- 
tion in which the students of the Normal School are receiving in- 
struction that will enable them to handle classes in Manual Train- 
ing in the Elementary Schools. The pupils of the Lakeside School, 
in which the Normal School is located, also have made much and 
gratifying progress in various lines of handwork. In connection 
with the Drawing a considerable amount of hand work has been 
done in all the schools and we may consider the Manual Training 
work in the schools as fairly begun and with bright prospects of 
success. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the time covered by this report the Superintendent has had 
no other ambition than to keep the schools in pace with the progress 
of educational affairs and to this he has given his entire time and 
energy. The central thought has been that the public schools are 
for the children and not for the personal advantage of officers or 
teachers. Therefore in all cases the best interests of the pupils have 
been considered as paramount in matters of management. The 
wants of the individual have been provided for as far as not incon- 
sistent with the general good. It has been the aim to make the 
schools elastic rather than rigid ; to give to every one an opportunity 



80, Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

for advancement. To the end that no one should be kept simply 
marking time, the system of semi-annual promotions has been main- 
tained, and individual promotions made when proper. 

The schools have grown largely and the demands upon the 
time of the Superintendent have grown in corresponding degree. 
In the school year 1895-6, 128 teachers were employed in the 
schools. In 1900-1, 155 were employed, and 194 in the year 
1906-7, a gain of 39 in the last five years and a gain of 66 since 
1895-6. This gain in teaching force constitutes a considerable 
school system of itself, and has made it impossible for the Super- 
intendent to see as much of the work of the individual teacher as in 
former years. More responsibility has necessarily been placed upon 
assistants as the schools grew and the demands upon the time of 
the Superintendent grew likewise, and the Superintendent wishes 
to express his appreciation of the support that he has received from 
Supervisors and Principals and the general good will manifested by 
the corps of teachers. 

The teaching force as a whole has given a hearty support to the 
means employed for increasing the efficiency of the schools and to 
this support the very satisfactory progress of the schools is most 
largely due. The Board of Trustees have been in sympathy with all 
plans for the improvement of the schools and have given them their 
hearty support. They have not hesitated to legislate for the ad- 
vancement of the interests of the schools and have been willing and 
ready at all times to provide all necessary means for material and 
professional improvement. With a Board in hearty sympathy with 
educational improvement and a body of teachers earnest and pro- 
gressive we may be assured that the advance movement of the last 
five years will be maintained and the coming years be marked by a 
steady growth in all things that make for the best interests of the 
schools. Respectfully, 

J. N. STUDY, Superintendent. 





fm-A 




n 



HISTORICAL AND 
MISCELLANEOUS. 



Tn IDemoriam. 



ISABELLE R. LLOYD. 

Appointed teacher, September, 1880. 

Principal, Hanna School, 1888 to 1899. 

Principal, Clay School, 1899 to 1906. 

Died October 6, 1906. 



MAUDE BIEGLER. 

Appointed teacher, June, 1895. 
Died March 10, 1902. 



EDITH FAIRFIELD. 

Appointed teacher, June, 1896. 
Died June 2, 1906. 



Tn memoriam. 



NORMA ALLEN. 

Appointed Kindergartner, May, 1899. 

Supervisor, Kindergartens, 1900 to 1902. 

Died May 2, 1902. 



KATHARINE O'ROURKE. 

Appointed teacher, Febmary, 1897. 
Died February 14, 1903. 



BLANCHE BLACKBURN. 

Appointed teacher, September, 1906. 
Died March 8, 1907. 



84 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



LIST OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES. 

Of Fort Wayne Since 1853. 



truste;es. 



When 


Served 




Elected. 


Until. 


Served. 


1853 


1854 


1 year. 


1853 


1854 


1 " 


1853 


1854 


1 " 


1854 


1857 


3% " 


1854 


1855 


1 " 


1854 


1856 


2 " 


1855 


1856 


1 " 


1856 


1856 


1/2" 


1856 


1856 


%" 


1856 


1857 


V2 " 


1856 


1858 


IVa " 


1857 


1859 


2 " 


1857 


1857 


1/2" 


1857 


1859 


11/2 " 


1858 


1861 


3 " 


1858 


1859 


1 " 


1858 


1859 


1 " 


1859 


1861 


2 " 


1859 


1861 


2 " 


1859 


1863 


4 " 


1859 


1861 


2 " 


1861 


1863 


2 " 


1861 


1863 


2 " 


1861 


1863 


2 " 


1861 


1863 


2 " 


1863 


1863 


V2" 


1863 


1863 


V2" 


1863 


1865 


2 " 


1863 


1865 


2 " 


1863 


1865 


2 " 


1863 


1865 


iy2" 


1863 


1865 


IVa" 


1865 


1873 


8 " 


1865 


1875 


10 " 


1865 


1869 


3y2" 


1869 


1880 


10 y2 " 


1873 


1888 


15 " 


1875 


1896 


21 " 


1880 


1886 


6 " 


1886 


1895 


9 " 


1888 


1897 


9 " 


1895 


1898 


3 " 


1896 


1899 


3 " 


1897 


1900 


3 " 


1898 


1901 


3 " 


1899 


1905 


6 " 


1900 


1903 


3 " 


1901 


1904 


3 " 


1903 


1906 


3 " 


1904 


1907 


3 " 


1905 






1906 






1907 







Hugh McCulloch . . 

Charles Case 

William Stewart . . 
James Humphrey . . 

Henry Sharp 

Charles G. French . 
William S. Smith . . 
Frank P. Randall . . 
Pliny Hoagland . . . 
John M. Miller .... 
Charles F. Sturgis . 
William Rockhill . . 
William H. Link . . 
James Humphrey . . 

Thomas Tigar 

William Edsall 

Charles G. French . 

Samuel Edsall 

Charles E. Sturgis . 
Oliver P. Morgan . . 
Robert E. Fleming . 
William Rockhill . . 
James H. Robinson 

John C. Davis 

Orin D. Hurd 

Samuel Edsall 

A. Martin 

Christian OrfC 

Charles E. Sturgis 

Ochmig Bird 

Emanuel Bostick . . 
Virgel M. Kimball . 
Oliver P. Morgan . . 

John S. Irwin 

Edward Slocum . . . 
Pliny Hoagland . . . 
Alfred P. Edgerton . 
Oliver P. Morgan . . 
Max Nirdlinger . . . . 
John M. Moritz . . . . 
A. Ely Hoffman . . . . 
Samuel M. Foster . . 
William P. Cooper . 
Andrew J. Boswell 
George F. Felts . . . 
Allen Hamilton . . . . 

W. W. Rockhill 

Eugene B. Smith . . 

Chas. Bash 

Dr. W. O. Gross . . . 
Ernest W. Cook . . . 

James H. Fry 

Anselm Fuelber . . . 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 85 

For the information of teachers and others regarding the 
Indiana Law regulating teachers' wages and prescribing the quali- 
fications of teachers the entire Act is printed below. 

AN ACT to classify and regulate the minhnum wages oj teachers in the 
public schools. 

{S. 228. Approved March 2, 1907.) 

Schools — Minimum Wages of Teachers. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assambly of the State of 
Indiana, That the daily wages of teachers for teaching in the public 
schools of the state shall not be less, in the case of beginning teachers, 
than an amount determined by multiplying 2% cents by the general ave- 
rage given such teacher in his highest grade of license at the time of con- 
tracting. For teachers having had a successful experience for one school 
year not less than six months, the daily wages shall not be less than an 
amount determined by multiplying 3 cents by the general average given 
such teacher on his highest grade of license at the time of contracting. 
For teachers having had a successful experience for three or more school 
years not less than six months each, the daily wages shall be not less than 
an amount determined by multiplying 3% cents by the general average 
given such teacher on his highest grade of license at the time of contract- 
ing. All teachers now exempt or hereafter exempt from examination shall 
be paid, as daily wages for teaching in the public schools, not less than 
an amount determined by multiplying 3 cents by the general average of 
scholarship and success given such teacher: Provided, That the grade of 
scholarship accounted in each case be that given at the teacher's last ex- 
amination, and that the grade of success accounted be that of the 
teacher's term last preceding the date of contracting: And, Providing, 
further. That 2 per cent shall be added to the teacher's general average of 
scholarship and success for attending the county institute the full number 
of days, and that said two per cent shall be added to the average scholar- 
ship of beginning teachers. 

Teachers' Qualifications. 

Sec. 2. The qualifications required for teaching for the different 
classes shall be as follows: 

(a) A teacher without experience: Shall be a graduate of a high 
school or its equivalent. Shall have had not less than one term of twelve 
weeks' work in a school maintaining a professional course for the training 
of teachers. Shall have not less than a twelve months' license. 

(b) A teacher with one school year's experience: Shall be a graduate 
of a high school or its equivalent. Shall have had not less than two 
terms or twenty-four week's work in a school maintaining a professional 
course for the training of teachers or the equivalent of such work. Shall 
have not less than a two years' license. Shall have a success grade. 

(c) A teacher with three or more years' successful experience: Shall 
be a graduate of a high school or its equivalent. Shall be a graduate from 
a school maintaining a professional course for the training of teachers, or 
its equivalent. Shall have a three years' license or its equivalent: Shall 
have a success grade. 

Provided, That for teachers already in the service, successful experi- 
ence in teaching shall be accepted as an equivalent for high school and 
professional training, as required by all the above classifications. 

Payment at Less Rate — Penalty. 

Sec. 3. If any school officer shall pay to any teacher for school ser- 
vices at a rate less than that fixed by this act, he shall be fined in any 
amount not exceeding $100.00 and shall be liable in a civil action for wages 
to such teacher at the rate provided in this act, which may be recovered 



86 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

by such teacher, together with an attorney's fee of $25.00, in any court of 
justice of competent jurisdiction. 

Siaie Board of Education — Duties. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the State Board of Education from 
time to time, to provide regulations which shall define the words "high 
school" and "equivalent" in this act, it being the intent hereof that only 
such schools be recognized as high schools as maintain a standard of 
scholarship and efficiency and course of study to the approval of the state 
board of education, and that the word "equivalent" as used in this act shall 
mean such a course of study or training or the ability to pass such an ex- 
amination as in the judgment of the state board of education would as 
fully qualify the applicant for teaching as the quliflcation of high school 
or normal school work and the license respectively named above requires. 

When Act in Effect. 

Sec. 5. The provisions of this act shall be in force and effect on and 
after August 1, 1908. 

Repeal. 

Sec. 6. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby 
repealed. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 87 



FLAG DAYS. 



July 4th Independence 

Labor Day First Monday of September 

First Day of First Term 

October 12th Discovery of America 

October 19th Surrender of Cornwallis 

October 22nd Founding of Fort Wayne 

November 7th Tippecanoe Day 

December i ith Admission of Indiana 

January 8th Battle of New Orleans 

First Day of Second Term 

February 12th Lincoln's Birthday 

February 22nd Washington's Birthday 

April 2nd Jefferson's Birthday 

April 9th Surrender of Lee 

May 30th Half Mast Decoration Day 

June 14th Flag Adoption 

Such other days as may from time to time be ordered. 

In case of the death of a pupil the flag of the building shall be 
placed at half mast on the day of the funeral. 

In case of the death of a school officer or teacher, flags on all 
the buildings shall be placed at half mast on the day of the funeral. 



-0 
G 
DO 

r 
n 




REPORT 



OF 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING 



DECEMBER 31st, 1906. 



90 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 

CORNER WAYNE AND WEBSTER STREETS. 
BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

Ernest W. Cook, President. Anslem Fuelber, Secretary. 

James H. Fry, Treasurer. 

library committee. 

Mrs. A. J. Detzer, Chairman 

Katherine Hamilton, Secretary 

W. P. Breen, 
Margaret M. Colerick, 
Prof. B. C. von Kahlden, 
Mrs. A. Griffiths, 
J. B. Harper, 
John H. Jacobs, 
Rev. Samuel Wagenhals, 
Mrs. T. B. Wright, 

library staff. 

Margaret M. Colerick, Librarian 

Laure C. Foucher Children's Librarian 

Sarah L. Sturgis, First Asst. Librarian 

Lilian M. Briggs, Second Asst. Librarian 

M. Grace Smith, Third Asst. Librarian 

Mrs. Ella Wilding, Night Assistant 

janitors. 

John Hamm, 

Mrs. Margaret Breidenstein, 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 91 

To the Board of Trustees of the Fort Wayne Public Library, 

Gentlemen : — I herewith submit the annual report of the Public 
Library for the year ending December 31, 1906. 

CIRCULATION. 

Entire number of books loaned from Jan. ist, 1906 to Jan. 

ist, 1907 68,165 

Number of days Library was open 3^7 

Largest monthly circulation ( March 1906) 7^462 

Smallest monthly circulation (Sept. 1906) 4,621 

Average monthly circulation 5»68o 

Average weekly circulation Ij3II 

Largest daily circulation (March 17, 1906) 601 

Smallest daily circulation (December 5, 1906) loi 

Average daily circulation 222 

CLASSED CIRCULATION. 

Number of Volumes. 

Reference 42 

Philosophy 470 

Religion 507 

Sociology 908 

Philology 70 

Natural Science 818 

Useful Arts 995 

Fine Arts i,099 

Literature 1,648 

History and Travel 3,030 

Biography 1,239 

Fiction 57,339 

Total 68,165 

Of the above books circulated 3690 were German, 3607 being 
fiction and 83 other classes. 

ACCESSIONS. 

Total number of books in the library including Government 

publications and German books Jan. ist, 1906 21,403 

Books withdrawn from Jan. ist, 1906 to Jan. ist, 1907 131 

21,272 



92 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Books added from Jan. ist, 1906 to Jan. ist, 1907 

By purchase 2,326 

Donations 30 

Government publications 266 

2,622 

Total Jan. ist, 1907 23,894 

READING AND REFERENCE. 

Number of magazines, monthly 79 

Number of magazines, weekly 23 

Missionary 1 1 

Newspapers, daily 15 

Newspapers, weekly 2 

Total 130 

Number using the Reading and Reference Rooms 
from Jan. ist, 1906 to Jan. ist, 1907, Sundays excepted 25,724 

Largest daily attendance (March 31, 1906) 151 

Smallest daily attendance (December 20, 1906). ... 40 

Average daily attendance 84 

Sunday attendance for year 2,367 

Total 28,091 

BINDING. 

Volumes of daily local newspapers bound 6 

Volumes of magazines bound 161 

Books rebound 1,213 

Total 1,380 

BORROWERS. 

Number of borrowers Jan. ist, 1906 10,579 

Increase of borrowers during 1906 1,113 

Total 11,692 

Cards relinquished by removal from town or death 84 

Total membership Jan. ist, 1907 11,608 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 93 

CASH RECEIPTS. 

Amount received for fines on books $204.63 

Non-resident dues 7-0O 

Total 211.63 

LIBRARY CORPS. 

The number of persons employed on Library staff from Jan. 
1st, 1906 to Jan. 1st, 1907 was five, the Librarian, three day assist- 
ants and one evening assistant. 

GIFTS. 

Among the gifts of books and magazines received by the Pub- 
lic Library during the year, was a number of volumes from the 
library of the late Col. R. S. Robertson presented by his family. 
Two beautiful rubber trees were given by Mrs. C. B. Fitch and Mr. 
Wm. Hahn and placed in the Reading Rooms. 

During the past year several changes occurred on the Library 
Committee and Library Staff. In August occurred the death of 
Col. R. S. Robertson, a member of the Library Committee since its 
creation by the Board of School Trustees. The unfailing and in- 
telligent service rendered the Library by him will be greatly missed 
not only by his co-workers, but by the students who use the Library 
as Col. Robertson's keen interest in the advancement of this insti- 
tution as an educational factor in the community was always 
strongly demonstrated in his choice of books. 

In October Miss Jennie L. Evans resigned her position as firsl 
assistant. She had been on the staff since the organization of the 
Library and had proved a most faithful and efficient worker. Miss 
Sturgis was advanced to the position left vacant by Miss Evans and 
Miss Briggs was promoted to Miss Sturgis' place. Miss Grace 
Smith, a graduate of Winona Library School, was then appointed to 
the position of third assistant left vacant by Miss Briggs' promotion. 

In December Miss Laura M. Sikes, a graduate of Pratt Library 
School, was appointed Children's Librarian, her duties to begin in 
January 1907. This appointment will enable us to reach and work 
with the schools and the children to a greater extent than hereto- 
fore thus increasing the usefulness of the Library. 

Respectfully, Margaret M. Colerick, Librarian. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 



FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



OF THE CITY OF 



FORT WAYNE, IND. 



96 Report of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 



1. The Library is open on all secular days from 9 :oo A. M. to 
8:30 P. M., except New Year's Day. Decoration Day, Fourth of 
July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas. 

The Reading Room is open from 9 :oo A. M. to 9 :oo P. M. 

2. The Librarian shall have charge of the Library, Reading 
room, the books and other property therein, and shall be responsi- 
ble for the safety of such books and property and for the preserva- 
tion of order. 

3. Conversation and the use of tobacco are prohibited in the 
Reading room. Quiet and order must be maintained throughout the 
Library building. 

4. The citizens of Fort Wayne, over ten years of age, are en- 
titled to use the books of the Library on complying with either of 
the following conditions : 

First — By giving as security the signature of some responsible 
citizen upon the blank certificate furnished for that purpose, or — 

Second — By depositing three dollars, and in special cases such 
further sums as the value of the books asked for may, in the judg- 
ment of the Librarian, require. For such deposit a receipt shall be 
given and this money shall be refunded when the card is surrend- 
ered. 

5. The Board of School Trustees has power to grant, for spe- 
cial reasons, the use of the Library to persons not actual citizens of 
Fort Wayne. 

6. Any person holding an unexpired teacher's license, signed 
by the superintendent of the public schools of Allen County, Indiana, 
is entitled to all the privileges of this Library upon complying with 
the conditions of Rule 4. 

7. Each person entitled to draw books from the Library will be 
supplied with a card inscribed with the register number, name and 



Report of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 97 

residence of the holder. This card must be presented whenever a 
book is taken, returned or renewed. Immediate notice of a change 
of residence must be given at the Library. Neglect to do this will 
subject the card holders to forfeiture of their cards. 

8. The registered card holders are in all cases responsible for 
books drawn on their cards by whomsoever presented. On the re- 
turn of all books drawn upon it, a lost card will be replaced at the 
expiration of seven days by the payment of five cents. 

9. Books may be retained for two weeks and may be once re- 
newed for the same period. After one renewal, a book cannot be 
taken out again by the same borrower, until the expiration of twenty- 
four hours, exclusive of days when the Library is closed. 

Books cannot be exchanged the same day they are taken from 
the Library. 

10. A fine of three cents a day must be paid on each volume 
which is not returned according to the provision of the preceding 
rule, and no book will be issued to any person on his or her own 
card, or that of any other person, until all fines are paid. 

11. The holder of a card is entitled to draw one volume at a 
time, or two volumes of the same work. 

Any book of recent purchase labeled "Seven Day Book" must 
not be retained more than one week in any one household and may 
not be renewed. Books are at all times subject to recall for library 
purposes, 

12. Encyclopaedias, dictionaries and other works of reference, 
elaborately illustrated books and such as may be considered by the 
Librarian unsuitable for general circulation, may be used only in 
the Library rooms. 

Any one wishing to use books from the stack room in the ref- 
erence room must leave book number, borrower's name and address 
on slips provided at the desk. 

13. Contagious diseases breaking out in a family where a book 
is held, necessitates the destruction of such book. Upon presenta- 
tion of a certificate from the Board of Health, the Library will bear 
the loss. 

14. All injuries to books beyond reasonable wear, and all losses, 
must be promptly made good to the satisfaction of the Librarian. 

15. The Librarian, subject to the approval of the Board of 



98 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Trustees, may recall any book from the borrower for violation of any 
rule of the Library. 

1 6. Delinquents will be notified through the mail within five 
days after their delinquency has occurred, and if the book is not re- 
turned within one w^eek thereafter, the guarantor will be notified. 

If the book is not returned within one month after serving the 
first notice, the Librarian will proceed to collect the value of the 
book with accrued fines and other charges to the day of payment. 

17. Any one abusing the privileges of the Library, or violating 
these rules will be temporarily suspended from the enjoyment of its 
privileges, and the case will be reported to the Trustees for the prop- 
er action thereon. 

18. The Board of School Trustees may, whenever it deems ad- 
visable, ask for a renewal of the security required by Rule 4. 

19. These regulations are subject to alteration, amendment, or 
revision, at the pleasure of the Board of School Trustees. 

20. Persons not living within the corporate limits of the City of 
Fort Wayne, but who pay city taxes, upon presentation of city tax 
receipts shall be entitled to the use of the Library upon complying 
with the conditions prescribed for residents of the city. 

Other non-residents shall be entitled to the privileges of the 
Library upon payment in advance to the Librarian of an annual fee 
of one dollar for each ticket and compliance with the conditions pre- 
scribed for residents of the city. This regulation shall not in any 
way whatever interfere with arrangements heretofore made for use 
of the Library by the teachers of Allen County. 

21. Complaints from employes of the Library shall be heard 
only at the regular or called meetings of the Board, but no com- 
plaint shall be heard until the matters involved therein shall have 
been submitted to the Chief Librarian for adjustment. 

INFORMATION FOR READERS. 

Classification — The books are arranged on the shelves and in 
the subject list according to the decimal classification of Mr. Melvil 
Dewey, of the New York State Library. 

The field of knowledge is divided into 9 main classes, and these 
are numbered by the digits one to nine. Cyclopaedias, periodicals, 
etc., so general in character as to belong to no one of these classes, 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 99 

are marked naught and form a tenth class. Each class is similarly 
separated into nine divisions, general works belonging to no division 
having naught in place of the division number. Divisions are simi- 
larly divided into nine sections, and the process is repeated as often 
as necessary. Thus 379 means class 3 (Sociology), division 7 (Edu- 
cation), section 9 (Public Schools), and every book treating of 
Public School Education is numbered 379. Since each subject has 
a definite number, it follows that all books on any subject must stand 
together. The Cutter author-marks are used in Fiction and Biog- 
raphy. 

Finding List — The finding list is in two divisions. First, an 
alphabetical author and title list of all the books in the library ex- 
cept Fiction and Juvenile. These are arranged alphabetically in the 
classed list. Second, a class list in which the books are arranged ac- 
cording to the divisions of the classification. An index of subjects 
follows. 

To Find a Certain Book — If the author or title are known, look 
for the word in the author and title list. If neither are known, look 
for the subject in the Index pages 212-218, from which reference is 
made to the page on which books on that subject may be found. If 
the word desired is not found in the Index, look under a similar or 
more general heading. The articles are omitted before all titles. 

Books Must be Applied for by the Number given at the right 
of the column in the finding list; or the number in red ink on the 
catalog card. 

Card Catalog — A complete card catalog of the library has been 
prepared. This contains full entries of every book under author, sub- 
ject or subjects, if it treats of several, and under title. The libra- 
rians will cheerfully aid those desiring help in the use of the card 
catalog. 

Books Marked * will be found on the reference shelves of the 
library and are not to be taken from the building. 



COURSE OF STUDY. 



Elementary Schools. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Waijne, Ind. 103 



COURSE OF STUDY. 



KINDERGARTEN. 



Kindergartens are an essential part of the public schools, and 
prepare the child to give closer attention in the individual work 
required in the primary school. Often immature children who 
otherwise would be compelled to sit out time in a primary grade 
are started aright in their education. 

Age : five to six years. 

Session : One-half day. 

1. Morning songs and circle talk. 

2. Basement recess. 

3. Rhythm exercises, marching. 

4. Table work — gifts. 

5. Recess — games. 

6. Table work — occupations. 

7. Closing exercises. 

The program deals with nature work according to the season, 
or with the home, school or city environment of the children. 

For convenience in planning, the work may be classed under 
the following subjects, although the work is nearly a unit of 
thought in presentation. Stories, poems, songs, gifts, and occupa- 
tions are worked out according to the central thought. 

Language : Conversations, stories, poems, song-stories all re ■ 
late to the central thought. All language is made concrete by use 
of material, games, drawing and painting, cutting, folding, etc. 
Language is developed by seeming freedom in telling and playing 
of a story. 

Nature Study : comes to the Kindergarten child through obser- 
vation of nature in its natural environment. Walks or excursions 
to parks and fields, the kindergarten garden, the watching of plants 
and animals (the latter not caged, but at liberty and therefore happy) 
form the basis of this work. 

Games : The physical culture is along the line of rhythmic 
games for sense training, marching, etc. 

Trade games, social games, nature games, running, skipping, 



104 Eeport of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

hopping, jumping, impromptu playing of a story, not only train the 
muscles but train the mental faculties. 

Songs : Words of songs and poems are carefully taught At- 
tention is given to clear enunciation and natural expression com- 
bined with soft sweet tones. 

Handwork : In handwork the larger muscles are developed, 
the essentials are brought out, minor points left to take care of 
themselves. The handwork is sometimes directed, sometimes in- 
ventive, just as the play is organized or free. It comprises work 
with gifts and occupations ; building blocks, tablets, sticks, rings, 
seeds, modeling in sand and cla}', cutting and pasting, drawing on 
paper and blackboard, painting, weaving and sewing. 

Ethics : In all of the pupil's work and play the right and 
wrong of his action is carefully noted, and he is trained in contin- 
ual well-doing. This building for character is strongly emphasized 
in the Kindergarten. The training of a right attitude toward 
school life, iiis teacher and playmates is recognized to be of the 
greatest importance. In the ideal kindergarten all virtuous quali- 
ties are systematical!}^ developed through the training in language, 
observation of nature, play, work with gifts and in all occupations. 
Each little atom is a citizen of the kindergarten commonwealth, 
and is prepared for his larger responsibility by careful training as 
to ethics in community life. 

Relation to Primary School : The primary schools have not 
yet reached the ideal condition where group work in its best sense 
can be successfully managed, and the kindergarten is a link between 
the family life of the home and the individual work of the school. 

READING AND LITERATURE. 

MECHANICS OF READING. 

I B. 

Reading games, chalk talks, etc. First Three months of school. 
Phonics : Begin teaching of phonics third month of school. Use 
sound names until fifth month. 

Use diacritical marks as little as possible. Teach type-words 
and phonograms to give power. Use Phonetic Chart as outline for 
work. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 105 

1 A. 

Continue i B work. Phonics as outlined in Primary Course 
of Study. Use Phonetic Chart. 

2 B. 

See Primary Course of Study. 
Use Phonetic Chart. 

2 A. 

Application of phonics so far learned. 
Use Phonetic Chart. 

SAB. 

Application of phonetic principles. 

READING. 
1 B Grade. 

Blackboard lessons written under stimulus of conversation 
forming a story of related ideas. 

Indiana State Primer completed. 

First half of two or more Supplementary Readers. See sup- 
plementary Reading List. 

1 A Grade. 

Indiana First Reader completed. 

Supplementary Readers begun in i B completed. 

2 B Grade. 

Indiana Second Reader to page 79. 

First half of three or more Supplementary Readers. 

See Supplementary Reading List. 

2 A Grade. 

Indiana Second Reader completed. 
Supplementary Readers begun in 2 B completed. 

3 B Grade. 

Indiana Third Reader to page 125. 
Supplementary Books. 



106 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

3 A Grade. 

Indiana Third Reader completed. 
Supplementary Books. 

Jf. B Grade. 

Indiana Fourth Reader to page yi, with Supplementary Read- 
ing. 

Jf A Grade. 

Indiana Fourth Reader to page 127, with Supplementary Read- 
ing. 

LITERATURE. 

1 A B. 

Memorizing prose, poetry, song. 

Four lines or one stanza of poetry or its equivalent, per week. 
jMemory gems and quotations which correlate with central 
thought of month. Work done with the teacher. 
Otie memory gem every week. 
See grade list for selections. 
Aim : — A love and appreciation of good literature. 

2 A B. 

Memorizing prose and poetry. 

One long poem and several short ones, memory gems, etc. a 
term. 

Work done with the teacher. 
See grade list for selections. 
Aim : — A love and appreciation of good literature. 

3 A B. 

Reading to children choice selections in poetry or prose. 

(See grade list.) 

Memorizing of one long selection and several short selections, 
proverbs, memory gems, quotations, etc. a month. 

Work done with the teacher. 

Material related to geography, history, nature study. 

(See grade list.) 

l^ A B. 

Readmg to children and memorizing selections chosen from 
language work in book. 



Report of Public ScJiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 107 

Committing good selections to memory has a powerful influence 
in the formation of correct habits in use of language. 

LITERATURE. 

"Force upon children literature which they are not yet capable 
of appreciating, and you rob them of the delight of discovering its 
beauty for themselves at an age when they are ready to perceive 
it." 

Suggestive list for memorizing. 

ETHICS. 

Teach right conduct incidentally by example and suggestion. 
Work is embodied in literature, language, nature study, geog- 
raphy, history. 

Aim : — Practice, not theory, in right doing. 

5 B Grade. 

Indiana Fourth Reader completed, with Supplementary reading. 

5A, 6 B ohid 6 A Grades. 

In these grades no reader will be used. Selections will be 
made from the works of Hawthorne, Irving, Longfellow, Dickens 
and others. Among these selections will be "Great Stone Face," 
"Rip Van Winkle," "Child Life in Poetry," and "Christmas Carol." 

7 B Grade. 

Selections from Indiana Fifth Reader with a view to studying 
some particular author, e. g., "Sketch of Longfellow," 'Light of 
Stars," "The Day is Done," "Psalm of Life," and other poems. 

Study of a complete work such as Whittier's "Snow Bound;" 
Longfellow's "Evangeline ;" Bryant's "Thanatopsis," and other 
poems; Dickens' "Cricket on the Hearth," and others. 

7 A Grade. 

Selections from Indiana Fifth Reader, as in 7 B Grade. 
Continue supplementary reading. 

8 B Grade. 

Selections from Indiana Fifth Reader, as in 7 B Grade. Also 
study one or more of the following: "Hiawatha," "Vision of Sir 



108 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Launfal," 'Tady of the Lake," Webster's "Bunker Hill Oration/' 
"Mosses from an Old Manse." 

8 A Grade. 

Indiana Fifth Reader, selections. 

Continue supplementary work begun in 8 B Grade. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING READING. 

The reading problem is an unusually complex one. It is not 
only necessary that teachers should understand the Psychology un- 
derlying the reading process, but they must also know how to manip- 
ulate mental processes so as to obtain definite and unified results. 

In Primary work the association of the word and the idea is 
only the beginning of learning — the means to an end; their mas- 
tery is indispensable to reading. One of the tests of good primary 
work is the ability to develop definitely the power of the sharp 
visual perception of words and at the same time hold them close to 
the idea for which they stand. Whether the teacher proceeds from 
the word to the sentence or from the sentence to the word, the 
words must convey a distinct message to the child. The power of 
thought grasp is the end toward which all developing work should 
be directed. 

From the beginning the child should be taught that every sen- 
tence is the embodiment of thought. Every effort should be made to 
have him grow to a recognition of sentence unity and to develop 
the sentence sense. He should be taught to read — not word by 
word, but sentence by sentence. Reading is primarily a thinking 
process and it is necessary that the mind be able to give itself to 
thought activity. The thought cannot be sustained if the child is 
groping in an uncertain vocabulary. Ceaseless drill on words is 
necessary. The same words in different combinations must be 
brought constantly before the child until a ready sight grasp is de- 
veloped. The test of the efficacy of the various kinds of drill work 
comes when the child attempts to read orally from the book. Be- 
fore oral reading can be commenced with profit the necessary vo- 
cabulary must be mastered, the power of thought grasp awakened 
and an acquaintance with the book and its printed form established. 

In no grade is oral reading profitable while the child is strug- 
gling with words. To attempt it is to establish a stumbling, halting 
habit fatal to thought grasp. Two processes are involved in oral 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 109 

reading i. e. thought getting and thought giving. The habit of the 
first must be established before the child is ready for the second. 
That is, he must have developed some power of thought getting be- 
fore his attention can be directed to thought, giving. Thought giv- 
ing is the direct purpose of oral reading. No other part of the read- 
ing work will so stimulate the mental activities as the conscious pur- 
pose and desire to impart to others the thought as the pupil under- 
stands and feels it. There is no educational value in simply reading 
aloud before the class. The thought must be directed to the under- 
standing and appreciation of the class. 

While developing these fundamental conditions the competent 
teacher will at the same time begin playing upon the imaginative 
faculty of the child. Reading, whether it be silent or oral is en- 
riched in proportion to the power of the mind to image the thought 
content. The power of imagery is indispensable to the higher pur- 
pose of the reading work. Through the imagination comes the 
"white sunlight of potent words." Words that, as Dr. Mcintosh 
says "sob like litanies, sing like larks, sigh like zephyrs, shout like 
seas ; words that sting like a serpent's fang or soothe like a moth- 
er's kiss." Through this power words flash their fullest meaning 
with thrilling vividness to the deepest center of being. The reading 
lesson is transformed; it becomes pictures bright and moving with 
all the experiences of life. The flood gates of life hidden in leath- 
ern cerements," the printed pages of literature are opened and flow 
with all their wealth into heart and soul and are stored up in the 
geology of character. 

When the child reads of mountains, let them rise before him; 
of the song of birds, see that they pour their melody into his inner 
ear; of the beauty of flowers, let him see their exquisite coloring 
and smell their sweet fragrance. With the magic touch of his imag- 
ination he may turn the sights and sounds, the thoughts and feel- 
ings embodied in the printed symbols into life — vivid, soul stirring. 
Then the thought becomes a thrilling moving impulse in the child 
and he gives because he desires to do so. All the avenues of thought 
revelation are opened. Mind, voice and body become attuned to 
thought and the desire to reveal. The teacher has to deal with 
two subtle forces, the life of the soul embodied in the thought, and 
the life of the soul studying the thought. In the ratio that he can 
bring the two together, in spiritual aflinity as it were, has he suc- 
ceeded in the highest purpose of the reading work. Oral reading 



110 Beport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

is the only sure test as to how far he has done this. What the child 
can give out in adequate vocal expression has become his own, 
since he can give no more than that which he himself possesses. 

RECAPITULATION. 

1. Constant drill for the ready visual perception of words. 
Also adequate phonic drill. 

2. Constant drill for sentence unity and a lengthened sentence 
grasp. 

3. Constant drill for deepened thought grasp, which comes 
through the power of silently maturing thought. 

4. Constant attention in oral reading to thought directing, 

5. Constant play upon imagination. 

SUPPLEMENTARY READING BOOKS. 

Bow- Wow and Mew-Mew. 

Dramatic First Reader — Cyr. 

Fairy Stories and Fables — Baldwin. 

Fairy Tale and Fable. 

Fairy Tales — Grimm. 

Fables and Folk Stories. 

First Reader — Cyr. 

First Reader — Krackowizer. 

First Reader — New Franklin. 

First Reader — Stepping Stones to Literature. 

Geographical Reader. 

Heart of Oak Books No. 2. 

Heart of Oak Books No. 3. 

Household Stories — Klingensmith. 

King of the Golden River. 

Nature's Byways. 

Old Greek Stories. 

Primer — Child Life. 

Primer — Cyr. 

Primer — Wheeler. 

Princess on the Glass Hill. 

Reading by Grades — Baldwin. 

Robinson Crusoe. 

Second Reader — Child Life. 



Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. Ill 

Second Reader — Cyr, 

Snow Man. 

Stories for Children. 

Stories of Ulysses. 

Third Reader — Cyr. 

Third Reader — Normal Course in Reading. 

Water Babies — Kingsley. 

FOR REFERENCE AND READING. 

A Few Familiar Flowers. 

Age of Fable — Bulfinch. 

All the Year Round (3 Vol.) 

A Little Book of Profitable Tales. 

American History and Government. 

American History Stories. 

Around the Year in Myth and Song (3 Vol.) 

A Study of Hiawatha and Nature. 

Bird Life. 

Birds of Eastern North America. 

Boston Collection of Kindergarten Stories. 

Botany — Youman. 

Carpenter's Africa. 

Carpenter's Asia. 

Carpenter's Australia. 

Carpenter's Europe. 

Carpenter's North America. 

Carpenter's South America. 

Cat Tails and Other Tales. 

Childhood of the World. 

Child's Christ Tales. 

City of the Seven Hills. 

Colonial Children. 

Commercial Geography — Text Book of 

Commercial Geography — Tilden. 

Correlated Handwork. 

Dog of Flanders. 

Each and All. 

Earth, Sky and Air in Song. 

England's Story — Tappen. 

Familiar Flowers. 



112 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Familar Trees. 

Games, Seat Work and Sense Training Exercises. 

Gleanings from Nature. 

Great American Industries (2 Vol.) 

Greek Heroes — Kingsley. 

Hiawatha. 

House I Live In. 

How to Tell Stories to Children. 

Insect Life. 

In the Child's World. 

Kindergarten Stories. 

Legends of the Norseland. 

Lessons for Junior Citizens. 

Lessons in the New Geography — Trotter. 

Lobo, Rag and Vixen. 

Map Modeling in Geography. 

Method of the Recitation — McMurray. 

Nature and History Stories. 

Nature Study — Jackman. 

Nature Study and the Child — Scott. 

Nature Study in the Elementary Schools — Wilson. 

Organic Education. 

Our Country West. 

Outlines of History — Kemp. 

Picture Study — Wilson (2 Vol.) 

Pioneer History Series. 

Plant Relations — Coulter. 

Prose and Verse for Children. 

Plant World — Vincent. 

Science Readers — Nelson (2 Vol.) 

Seven Little Sisters. 

Seaside and Wayside (4 Vol.) 

Side Lights on American History. 

Songs and Games for Little Ones. 

Songs of the Child World. 

Songs of the Tree Top and Meadow. 

Special Method in Geography. 

Special Method in Literature. 

Special Method in Reading. 

Special Method in Science. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 113 

Story of Our English Grandfathers. 

Story of the Greeks. 

Story of the Odyssey. 

Story of the Romans. 

Stories in Indiana Geography. 

Stories of Australasia. 

Stories of China. 

Stories of Columbia. 

Stories of England. 

Stories of Great Americans for Little Americans. 

Stories of India. 

Stories of Indiana. 

Stories of Indian Children. 

Stories of Norse Gods and Heroes. 

Stories of Northern Europe. 

Stories of Old France. 

Stories of Old Germany. 

Stories of the Birds-Basket. 

Stories of the Colonies-Guerber. 

Struggle for a Continent. 

Ten Boys. 

Three Little Lovers of Nature. 

Waymarks for Teachers- Arnold. 

World and Its People. (lo Vol.) 

SPELLING. 

The power to spell correctly is not easily acquired, and yet it is 
one of the most important things in education. To a very great ex- 
tent, we judge a person's scholarship by his spelling. It may or 
may not be a fair standard by which to judge, but it is one gener- 
ally used. The aim in this branch should be so to train the pupil 
that he may be able to write correctly the words composing his vocab- 
ulary. Forpractical life this will be sufficient. For the spelling of words 
rarely used he will need to consult the dictionary, but he should be 
able to spell all the words used in his ordinary correspondence with- 
out such reference. To this end the spelling exercises in the schools 
should consist of such words as are found in general use. Written 
spelling should be the rule, as the only practical use of spelling is 
in the expression of thought by writing. Occasional oral spelling 



114 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

exercises may be found profitable, but written spelling should large- 
ly predominate. 

IB. 
Occupation Work : 

A. Finding words of primer from "word boxes" — visual- 
izing words as zvholes. 

B. Preparatory Spelling — making primer words with 
alphabets. 

lA. 
Use I A Spelling List. 

Prepare and recite with alphabets. (See Primary Outline) 
Correlate with phonics, showing similiarities and dissimilari- 
ties, teaching of groups of words from a type word, for sake of 
helping pupil to acquire power. 

2 B. 

Use 2 B Spelling List, as review use words of Alexander Spel- 
ler. Second year — First Half. 

Continual spelling with alphabets. 
Begin written spelling. 

2 A. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Second year — Second Half. 
Book in hand of teacher only. 
Review hard words of 2 B List. 
Correlate with 2 A. Phonics. 

3 B. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Third year — First Half. 
Correlate with 2 A B Phonics. 

3 A. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Third year — Second Half. 
Correlate with 2 A. B. Phonics. 

^B. 
Alexander Spelling Book — Fourth year — First Half. 

^A. 
Alexander Spelling Book — Fourth year — Second Half, 

5 B. 
Alexander Spelling Book — Fifth year — First Half. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 115 

5 A. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Fifth year — Second Half. 

6B. 
Alexander Spelling Book — Sixth year — First Half. 

6 A. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Sixth year — Second Half. 

7 B. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Seventh year — First Half. 

7 A. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Seventh year — Second Half. 

8 B. 

Alexander Spelling Book — Eighth year — 'First Half. 

8 A. 
Alexander Spelling Book — Eighth year — Second Half. 

PENMANSHIP, 

I A. 

The New Era System semi-slant has been adopted by the State 
of Indiana. 

Aim : Correct position ; free movement ; forming of correct 
percepts of small letters and capitals as needed — ability to draw 
them. 

Method : Training in free yet not hasty movement — rapidity 
comes later. Body, arm, finger calisthenics. Five minutes of each 
recitation given to rhythmic movement exercises to music (when 
possible) or to count not to exceed ten. 

Free arm movement on blackboard for first three months. Ar- 
range letters according to key-elements, and teach in such order. 
(See Primary Outline.) 

Material: Blackboard, then brown manilla paper (14 by 
9 1-2) with large marking crayons, then medium soft large pencil 
(without eraser). Last unglazed, wide ruled paper. 

2B. 

Aim : Correct position. More skill and freedom in movement. 
Teach capital letters. 



116 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Basis of writing vocabulary — spelling words of i A 2 B grades. 
Words sometimes used in sentences. 

Method: Calisthenic drill continued. Ideographic move- 
ment exercises to music or by count. 

Visualizing by class, criticism by teacher (See Primary Out- 
line) 

Material : Wide ruled unglazed paper, good medium soft pen- 
cil. 

2 A. 

Aim: See 2 B outline. More fluency and better work ex- 
pected. 

Spelling lists and memory gems basis of writing vocabulary. 

Method : See 2 B grade. 

Material: Ink allowed careful workers, as incentive, last two 
months of term. Writing tablets, and Copy Book No. i. 

3AB. 

Aim : See 2 A B grades. 

Method: See Primary Outline. 

Material : New Era Copy Book No. 2, also copy taken from 
speller and other subjects. Practice tablet, supplementary copy 
book. Ink. 

J^A B. 

Aim: See 3 A B grades. 

Method : See 3 A B grades. 

Material New Era Copy Book No. 3. Writing Tablet. Ink. 

Fifth Year. 

Objects — See fourth year and General Suggestions. 

Means — See fourth year. 

Material and Work — Same as for fourth year. 

Sixth Year. 

Objects — Good position should become more natural. A busi- 
ness style of writing. 

Means — Movement exercises more difficult than in lower 
grades. Reasonably rapid writing. Writing to time. Blackboard 
writing. 

Material and Work — Complete a No. 4 New Era Copy-book, 
supplemented by a Penmanship Tablet. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 117 

Seventh Year. 

Objects — To be able to write an easy, legible, rapid, business 
hand. 

Means — Movement exercises rapidly and carefully practiced 
before each writing lesson. Writing in concert to time. Speed 
writing. 

Material and Work — Complete a No. 5 New Era Copy-book, 
supplemented by a Penmanship Tablet. 

Eighth Year. 
Complete a No. 6 New Era Copy-book and give drill upon 
writing Business and Social Forms as given in Nos. 7 and 8. 

LANGUAGE. 

Language is but one means of expressing thought. Painting, 
Sculpture, Music and Architecture also are means of expressing 
thought. In school work, Drawing, Modeling, etc., are expressions 
of thought, along with oral and written language. While thought 
must precede expression — oral, written or manual — yet expression 
aids thought, and the very attempt to express thought assists think- 
ing. All school exercises should be made exercises in clear and 
cogent expression of thought. The boy who says he knows but 
can't tell, in reality does not know. When he is able to give a clear 
statement he does know, and the expression confirms and strength- 
ens his knowledge. Language exercises aim to teach specifically 
what all school exercises should do incidentally. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

Careful attention given to correct speaking or writing in all 
recitations. 

"Habitual mistakes of children which have been acquired 
through imitation can be corrected only by the continued use of 
correct forms." 

Coiv. F. W. Parker. 

Aim : — To develop right habits of speaking and writing, and a 
taste for the best in literature. 

LANGUAGE— ORAL i A B Grades. 
I. Conversational Lessons: 



118 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

a. Home, school, community life. 

b. Preparation of nature for change of seasons. 

c. Birthdays and Festivals. 

Columbus Day Thanksgiving 

Founding of Fort Wayne Qiristmas 

Admission of Indiana Arbor Day 

St. Valentine May Day 

Washington Decoration 

Lincoln Concert Days 

Longfellow 
Flag's birthday 
Birthdays of members of class. 

d. Stories, songs, poems, myths, fables, related to seasons 
or national holidays. 

e. Memory gems, maxims, proverbs. 

f. Calendar. 

2. Oral reproductions. 

3. Dramatizing of stories, songs, poems, and pictures. 
Formal language mostly insensibly taught until language 
book is taken up in fourth grade. 

Oral drill. A little time given to oral drill. Basis of drill — 
correct forms of incorrect expressions. 

For stories see grade list. 

Aim: Free expression, spontaneity, unrestrained, careless 
speech controlled. 

2 A B Grades. 

Composition — Oral Expression. 

Fairy tales, nature-myths, hero stories (real and fictitious) 
nature stories, stories relating to national holidays, fables, folklore 
stories. 

Formal work: Specific exercises in oral drill for correction of 
prevailing errors in language used. 

Good problematic titles given by children for poems, songs, 
fables, pictures, etc. 

See grade list for stories. 
I. A few rules of grammar deduced from observation of illus- 
trations 

Choice selections read to children. 

Name of city, state, and country in which we live. 

Work of postman, policeman, fireman, janitor. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 119 

2. Aim: Power to express thought. Habit formed of talking 
freely, correctly, clearly, building up vocabulary by systematic in- 
troduction of choice new words. 

3 A B Grades. 

Composition — oral reproduction. 
Nature stories, fables, myths, hero stories. 
See grade list. 

Correlate with geography, history, nature study. 
Experiments — see primary outline. 
Read to children short choice selections. 
Give exercises in original composition. 
Aim : Power to express thought, clearly, correctly, fluently. 

4 B Grade. 

Lessons in English Book I. 

(Scott-Southworth) to lesson 6o. 
Text book in hands of pupils. 

Give four periods per week to text. 

Require correction of faulty expression in all lessons. 

Instruction in Physiology and Hygiene (as required by 

law) one day a week. 

4 A Grade. 

Lessons in English Book I (Scott-Southworth) Lesson 6o to 

Lesson 124 
Four periods per week for text work. 

Correction of faulty expressions in all lessons. 

Physiology and Hygiene one day a week. 

WRITTEN LANGUAGE. 

1 A B Grades. 

No written language. 

Preparation for written work through oral reproduction. 

2 A B Grades. , 

Proper names within environment of children. 
Copying, writing from dictation or memory, words, senteaces, 
and quotations common to work of grade. 
Aim : Power to write clearly and correctly. 



120 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

3 B Grade. 
Review 2 A B Work. 
Letter-heading, salutation, ending. 
Envelope-address. 

Class compositions written, zvith teacher, on board. 
Reproduction of excursions, experiments, short stories. 
Dictation : 

Days of week and abbreviations. 
Months of year and abbreviations. 
Common contractions. 
Simple possessives. 

3 A Grade. 
Continue 3 B Work. 

Class letters composed, zvith teacher, on board. 
Margin. 

Copying sentences, supplying sentences to complete thought. 
Composing sentences about a given idea. 
Writing titles. 
Aim : Power to write according to good usage. 

4 A B Grades. 
See outline for oral Language. 
One book review. 

5 B Grade. 

Lessons in English Book L (Scott-Southworth) 

From Lesson 124 to Lesson 189. 

Text book work four periods per week. Composition work 
one period, based upon the culture and nature studies of the grade. 
Careful correction of faulty expressions in all lessons. Do not 
use the salutation as given in the model letter on page 142. Letters 
to a business firm should have the salutation "Dear Sirs", to an 
official body use the salutation "Gentlemen". 

5 A Grade. 

Lessons in English Book I. (Scott-Southworth) completed. 

Text book work four periods per week. Composition work one 
period, based upon the culture and nature studies of the grade. 

Careful correction of faulty expressions in all lessons. In ad- 
dition to letter writing, teach forms of invitation, orders, receipts, 
and other ordinary social and business forms. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 121 

6 B Grade. 

Lessons in English Book II. ( Scott- Southworth) 

Pages I to 43 and Pages 244 to 266. 

Omit pp 251, 252, 253, 254, 255 and pp 258-265 inclusive. 

6 A Grade. 

Lessons in English Book II. ( Scott-Southworth) 
Page 43 to page 78 and Page 266 to Page 287. 

7 B Grade. 

Lessons in English Book II. (Scott-Southworth) 

Page 78 to Page 132 and Page 287 to Page 308. 

Omit Passive Verb Phrase, Page 93; Section 235, Page 97, 

and Participles and Infinitives Page 100. 

7 A Grade. 

Lessons in English Book II. (Scott-Southworth) 
Page 132 to Page 172 and Page 308 to Page 328. 

8 B Grade. 

Lessons in English Book II. (Scott-Southworth) 
Page 172 to Page 212 and Page 328 to Page 344. 

8 A Grade. 

Lessons in English Boookll. (Scott-Southworth.) 
Page 212 to Page 244 and Page 344 to Page 364. 

NATURE STUDY. 

FIRST YEAR. 

General Study. 

I. Recognition and name of common animals, insects, birds, 
plants, vegetables, fruits, nuts, flowers, seeds, trees. 
Conversational lessons, keeping uppermost the key-word 
"Interest". 
II. Change of Seasons : 

1. Fall 

Central Thought 

A. Preparation of nature for winter. 

B. Emphasis upon dissemination of seeds. 

2. Winter 



122 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Central Thought: 

A. The rest of the organic world. 

B. Emphasis upon changes in winter landscape. 

C. Snow as nature's helper. 
3. Spring. 

Central Thought: 

A. Awakening of nature. 

Indications of spring. 

B. Emphasis upon germination of seeds. 

III. Calendar work, blackboard record. 

IV. Expression in all ways possible. 

V. Field Trips during fall and spring, one a month. 
VI. Study of maple tree throughout year. 
Evergreen during December. 
VII. School, Home, Window Gardens. 
\TII. Related literature. 

Special Study. Division of Year. 
By special study is not meant an intensive study, but rath- 
er an extensive study of a special object in relation to en- 
vironm.ent. Locality and season form the basis for study. 

1. September, October, November. 

Swallow, Housefly, Squirrel, Maple Tree, Sunflower, Ap- 
ple (fruit) 

2. December, January, February. 
Reindeer, Evergreen, Cat, Dog, Dove. 

3. March, April, May, June. 

Bluebird, Rabbit, Hen and Chickens, Grass, Crocus, Tulip, 
Duck, Stork, (lA) Woodpecker, (Red-headed, Downy) 

SECOND YEAR. 

GENERAL STUDY — UNIFYING IDEAS. 

I. Recognition and names of common animals, insects, birds, 
plants, vegetables, fruits, nuts, flowers, seeds, trees. 
Review first grade work, some additions. 
II. Nature's devices for protection of animals, insects, plants, 
against extremes of temperature and moisture ; 
Hibernation of animals ; 
Transformation of insects ; 
Migration of birds ; 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 123 

Distribution of seeds ; 

Germination of seeds, requirements for growth. 

(See First Year Outline.) 

III. Calendar work — Blackboard record. 

IV. Expression as is practical. 

V. Fall and spring — field trips — one each month. 

VI. Study of Elm Tree throughout the year. 

VII. School, Home, Window Gardens. 

VIII. Related literature. 

SPECIAL STUDY. 

1. September, October, November. 

Sparrow, Caterpillar, Golden rod. Thistle, Milkweed, Dan- 
delion, Tomato, Elm Tree. 

2. December, January, February. 

Blue Jay, Cow, Horse, Sheep, Goat (2 B) Eagle. 

3. March, April, May, June. 

Robin, Meadow Lark, Frog, Toad, Butterfly, Moth, Silk- 
worm, Buttercup, Cowslip, Camel (2B). 
Aim : The interdependence of man and his environment. 
Awakening of interest in all nature. 
Training of observation. 

THIRD YEAR. 

I. Review work of preceding grades, expect more careful 
thinking as to relationship. Relate to geography as seen 
in physical phenomena in environment. 
Emphasis upon the "why". 
II. A. September, October, November, 
Central Thought : 

Preparation of nature for winter. 

Plant life, vegetables, flowers, fruits, seeds, grains, 

trees, birds, study as a whole in relationship. 

B. December, January, February. 
Central Thought: 

The rest of the organic world. 
Forms of water, heat, light, in relation to environ- 
ment for animal and plant life. 

C. March, April, May, June. 



124 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Central Thought: 

Indications of spring. 
Emphasis upon germination of seeds. 

Formation of soil. 
Use of falling leaves. 

Work of streams, etc. 

III. Oak tree studied throughout the year. 

IV. Calendar work — record kept in individual book form. 

V. Fall and spring, — Flower and bird calendar work — black- 
board record. 
VI. Expression in ways practical 
Correlate with art. 
VII. Field trips to parks and woods. 

Limit to what can not be shown indoors — Show relations. 
VIII. School, Home, Window Gardens. 
IX. Related literature. 

SPECIAL STUDY. 

September, October, November. 

Sand burr, burdock, ferns (brief study); potatoes (sweet 
potato) potato, beetle, corn, pumpkin, grasshopper, cricket; 
nasturtium, morning-glory, oak tree, acorn ; crow. 
Procure a sufficient number of specimens so that the obser- 
vation can be individual. 

Key-word of this work with insects should be 'kindness' , show 
the wonderfulness of their creation. It is better that children 
know nothing about insects than that they learn only to de- 
stroy. 

December, January, February, March. 
Intensive work on calendar. 
Heat, combustion, decay. 

Evaporation, Condensation, Movements of air. 
Respiration in plants, in insects, in man. 
Germination. 

April, May, June. 

Bobolink, oriole; earthworm, bee or ant; daffodil, bloodroot, 
violet, clover, fern. 
School and Home gardens. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 125 

FOURTH YEAR. 

GENERAI, STUDY. 

Central Thought: Relationships of animals and plant life to 
environment as shown by climate and locality. 
Ready recognition and name of plant and animal life which 
correlate with geography, history, literature. 

SPECIAL STUDY. 
Fall. 

Spider; willow, poplar; wild cucumber, rosehip, Jamestown 
weed, sticktight. 
Winter. 

House canary, experiments — magnetism, crystalization. 

Spring. 

Cat-bird, thrush; snail, ant, plant lice (ant's cows); earth study 

of land and water forms in vicinity ; school gardens. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. 

First Year. 
Teach parts of the body — hands, fingers, head, face, etc. Com- 
pare witli animals, bring out use. Teach proper care, cleanliness. 
Emphasize throughout the year the harmful effects of narcotics and 
stimulants. Follow Conn's Introductory Physiology and Hygiene. 

Second Year. 

Bones and muscles taught with reference to uses — sitting, 
standing, walking, etc. Bones the framework of the body; mus- 
cles, the covering of the framework. The Skin, use of, appear- 
ance, pores, effects of cooling too suddenly, damp clothing, care of 
nails, hair, etc. Harmful effects of alcoholics and narcotics taught 
throughout the year. Follow Conn's Introductory Physiology and 
Hygiene. 

Third Year. 

Physiology; food and drink, why we eat and drink; whole- 
some foods; caution against too frequent eating, too rapid eating, 
cold drinks, hot drinks ; show the necessity for care of the teeth. 
Breathing ; the lungs ; air ; ventilation ; effects of alcoholics and nar- 
cotics. Review work of First and Second Years, Follow Conn's 
Introductory Physiology and Hygiene. 



126 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Fourth Year. 
Work of previous years reviewed and amplified. Bones and 
muscles ; the skin ; food and digestion ; the lungs and their use ; 
breathing and ventilation ; the heart and circulation ; teach eflfects 
of alcoholics and narcotics. Follow Conn's Introductory Physio- 
logy and Hygiene. 

Fifth Year. 
Review work of previous year. The nervous system. The 
brain ; nerves of feeling ; motion ; special senses ; how tobacco af- 
fects the nervous system. Alcohol, effects of. Follow Conn's 
Introductory Physiology and Hygiene, and other primary physio- 
logies for reference. 

Sixth Year. 

Review work of preceding years and amplify with simple ex- 
periments in physics and chemistry. 

Seventh Year. 
Continue work of Sixth Year. 

Eighth Year 
Conn's Elementary Physiology used in 8 A Grade. Use 
Yaggy's Anatomical Charts. Use compound Microscope. As far 
as practicable study the bones from the human skeleton; compare 
human skeleton with the skeleton of animals ; use dissections as far 
as possible, in teaching muscles and the various organs of the body ; 
illustrate by experiment the laws of physics and chemistry referred 
to in the lessons. The effects of alcoholics and narcotics to be 
taught in connection with the various organs of the body. Five 
periods per week to be given to this study. 

ARITHMETIC. 

NUMBER. 

I B Grade. 

Sense Training Exercises. 

Applied Number, incidental to other work. 

Dictation : Recognition of figures and words representing them 

from o to lo. 
Building of numbers to 30 with number cards. 
Counting to 30. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 127 

Writing figures correctly. 

Idea of each figure learned thoroughly. 

Much occupation work, always supervised. 

1 A Grade. 

Sense Training. 

Applied Number. 

Building numbers to 50 with number cards. 

Counting by I's, 5's, to 50, backward by I's from 10 to o. 

Writing numbers to 20. 

Copying Roman Numerals to X. 

Occupation work, always supervised. 

Aim : Neatness and accuracy in work of interest to pupils. 

2 B Grade. 
Review work of i A B. 

Teach numbers as group units, and in their relations. 
Counting by lo's to 100 forward and backward; by i's, by 

5's to 100; by 2's to 20, (beginning with even then odd 

figure, by 3's, 4's to 12. 
Writing numbers to 50. 
Copy Roman Numerals through 12. 
Use of inch, foot, yard measures. 
No written concrete work. 
Occupation work in which the doing requires thought rather 

than copying. 
Aim : Power to think in language of number. 

2 A Grade. 
Review 2 B work. 
Counting by 2's (beginning with even then odd numbers) to 

30 ; by 3's to 30 ; by 4's to 32. 
Develop every process, then memorize. 
Teach halves of even numbers, 2 — 12; thirds of 3, 6, 9, 12; 

fourths of 4, 8, 12, 16; fifths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25. 
Add by 2's, 3's, 4's, 5's, lo's. 
Work with measures in developing. 
Develop money and time tables. 
Construct 100 table. 
Count by lo's using table. 
Reading and writing numbers to 100. 
Roman Numerals through XII, developed. 



128 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Teach facts (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) 

through lo where relations are readily seen. 
No written concrete work. 
Aim : Power to do. 
Accuracy then rapidity. 

3 B Grade. 

Review systematically second grade work. 
Dictation : Reading and writing numbers to lOO. 
Review loo table. 

Counting by id's beginning with any figure in left hand col- 
umn, with then without table. 
Memorize Roman Numerals through XII. 
Use concretely tenns denoting length, capacity, time, money. 
Use fractional terms. 
Master combinations through 12. 

Teach addition and subtraction by ending. See number chart. 
Give much oral drill work. 
Key-rfote of drill — Change. 
Problems within pupils' environment. 
No copying of written problems. 
Aim: Accuracy, then rapidity. 

3 A Grade. 

Review 3 B Work. 

Master combinations on Number Chart. 

Apply tables developed in 3 B Grade. 

Give concrete work on clock face. 

Give easy suggestive problems. 

Reading and writing numbers not to exceed three places. 

Roman Numerals to XV. 

Reading of fractions. 

Addition of one digit to numbers containing two digits (one 

process) 
Prepare for book. Walsh's Primary Arithmetic first 34 pages. 
Book in hands of pupils. 

4 B Grade. 

Walsh's Primary Arithmetic. Chapters II and III. 
Omit pages 64-66 and pages 111-113. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 129 

4 A Grade. 

Walsh's Primary Arithmetic. Chapters IV and V. 

Omit: Pages 154, 155; 162-164; 182-184; 189; 190; 191-194; 
197-202; 208-210. 

The work of the first years in Arithmetic should be given to 
the acquiring of power to perform arithmetical operations rather 
than to an attempt to develop prematurely the reasoning powers 
of the child. Inaccuracy in the fundamental processes is one of 
the greatest difhculties in the way of rapid and successful work in 
the advanced grades. 

5 B Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. Chapter I. 

Use for reference and for additional problems, if needed, one 
or more of the following arithmetics : Giffin ; Southworth's Es- 
sentials ; Cook and Cropsey's Advanced ; McLellan and Ames ; 
Belfield ; Hewitt ; Bailey. 

5 A Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. Chapter II. 

Teach short processes after a thorough analysis which takes 
one as the basis. As, if 3 yards of cloth cost 30 cents, 9 yards will 
cost 9 times the cost of i yard. Shorten later by saying 9 yards 
cost 3 times 30 cents. 

Reference books as in 5 B Grade. 

6 B Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. Chapter III. 
Reference books as in preceding grades. 

6 A Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. Chapter IV 
Reference books as in preceding grades. 

7 B Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. Chapter V to Bank. 

Discount, page 265. 

Reference books as in preceding grades. 



130 Report of Fublic Schools, Fort Wayne,' Ind. 

Teach U. S. Rule for Partial Payments : teach cancellation 
method of interest calculations. Avoid the teaching of different 
cases of percentage, and the various applications of percentage as 
separate and slightly related topics. Teach the subject as a whole. 

7 A Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic. From page 265 to In- 
volution, page 328. Omit Compound Proportion; omit problems in 
foreign money. The following is the law regarding days of grace 
and the payments of negotiable paper : 

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS— WHEN PAYABLE- 
GRACE. 

"All bills of exchange, bank checks, promissory notes and 
other negotiable instruments shall be payable at the time fixed 
therein, without grace. When the day of maturity falls upon Sun- 
day, or a legal holiday, the instrument shall be payable on the next 
succeeding business day. Negotiable instruments falHng due on 
Saturday shall be presented for payment on the next succeeding 
business day, except that instruments payable on demand may, at 
the option of the holder, be presented for payment before twelve 
o'clock noon, on Saturday when that entire day is not a holiday." 

8 B Grade. 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic from Involution on page 
328 to Chapter VII. Omit Cube Root; Foreign Exchange; Annual 
Interest, Metric System. 

8 A Grade. 

Algebra. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

1 AB. 

I. Work embodied in nature, literature, language. 
II. Children of Other Lands. 
First Study — Eskimo Child. 
Second Study — Dutch Child. 
Aim : Brotherhood of Mankind. 
Advantages of Civilization. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 131 

2 A. B. 

I. Work embodied in literature, nature-study, language. 
II. Children of Other Lands : 

A. Robinson Crusoe. 

B. Children of type regions. 

Order of Studies: 

Robinson Crusoe. 

Indian Child. 

Western Prairie Child. 

Swiss. 

Arabian. 

Chinese. 
Aim : Study children of type regions with present day eviron- 
tnent. Likeness and dissimilarity in manner, modes of living, cus- 
toms, etc., compared to our home life. 

3 A B. 

Review previous grades' work. 
Work based largely upon observation. 
Calendar work — individual records kept. 

Work embodied in nature study, and language from geogra- 
phical standpoint. 

Formal geography: 

Fort Wayne. 

Location. 

Relief. 

Drainage. 

Winds. 

Soil. 

Plant and Animal life. 
People. 
Excursions. 
Experiments on Decay — Heat, Air, Evaporation, Condensation. 

GEOGRAPHICAL READINGS. 

(See Outline.) 

Aim : To widen pupils' experience and to lead them to see in 
facts already familiar, illustrations of underlying principles. 



132 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

^A B. 

Read outlines for previous grades. 

Study of text book with teacher. 

Observational work through field trips and excursions. 

Make individual geography books. 

Experiments — Magnetism. 

Geographical Reading. 

(See Outline) 
Tarr and McMurry Geography. 
Text Book in hands of pupils. 
4 B Home Geography. 

Part I, Part II to page 115. 
4 A Earth as a whole. 

Part II page 115 to page 190. 
Aim: Home geography with its concrete experiences related 
to world as a whole, with remote basal features. 

5 B Grade. 

Tarr and McMurry's Introductory Geography. 
Begin at page 190 and complete the book. 

5 A Grade. 

In this Grade and the succeeding grades of the geographical 
Course, Frye's Advanced Geography will be the text. 
References for teachers : 

1. Nichol's Topics. 

2. Tilden's Grammar School Geography. 

3. The Werner School Geography. 

4. Redway's (The Natural) Advanced Geography. 
References for pupils : 

1. Encyclopedias. 

2. Geographical Readers. 

3. Geographical Stories from Library Books. 

Frye's Advanced Geography, Pages i to 17; Pages 17 and 18 
Surface of North America only ; Pages 23 to 32 ; Pages 61 to y6. 

6 B Grade. 

Pages 88 to 123 ; Pages 76 to 87; Pages 128 to 135. 



Report of PuUic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 133 

6 A Grade. 

Pages 31 to 32; (Winds and Rainfall); Pages 18-19 (Surface 
of South America); Pages 137 to 144; Pages 19-20 (Surface of 
Europe) ; Pages 145 to 160. 

7 B Grade. 

Pages 20-21 (Surface of Asia); Pages 160 to 175; Pages 123 
to 128 (Island possessions of United States); Pages 22-23 (Sur- 
face of Africa and Australia) ; Page 33 to 53 (Races of men, re- 
gions, governments, zones of plant life); Pages 54 to 60 (Distri- 
bution of animals, minerals and commerce) ; Pages 192 to 195 
(Time belts and date lines); Pages i to 12 (Indiana Supplement.) 

HISTORY. 

1 AB. 

American History. — Throughout this year and the second 
and third years, national ideas should be embodied in the observance 
of certain days, as Columbus Day, Thanksgiving Day, Pilgrim's 
Dav, Inauguration Day, (in the years when it occurs), Decoration 
Day, the Birthdays of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and other men 
noted in American history. Reference should be made to other 
(lays which do not fall within the school year, as Independence Day, 
or happen in vacation, as Christmas Day. 

Preparation for history. 

Emphasis upon present day conditions, as a foundation for 
comparison. 

Work related to literature, geography, language. 
Primitive Life. 

Indians : See outline in State Course of Study. 
Pioneer Life : See outline in State Course of Study. 

America — one verse memorized. 

Develop work by story telling. 

See language outline. 

2 A B. 

History : Based upon suggestive outline of Indiana Course of 
Study. 
Primitive life. (See outline) 



134: Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Indians. 

See Primary Outline on ethics, language, geography. 

America — two verses memorized. 



History. 



3 B. 

Indians. 

Colonial History. 

America — memorized. 

Star Spangled Banner — first two verses. 

History stories. 

American Heroes. 

3 A. 

Extensive study of following leaders and explorers. 
Columbus. 

Marquette and Joliet. 
George Rogers Clark. 
William Penn. 
Daniel Boone. 
Lincoln. ,- 

Longfellow. 
Franklin. 

America — memorized. 
Star Spangled Banner — first two verses. 

4 B. 
I. History of Greece. 

1. Geographical Setting. 

2. People. 

a. Greek life. 

b. Great men. 

3. Stories of Gods and Heroes. 

4. City of Athens. 

5. Alexander the Great. 
II. Biography : 

Washington, Lincoln, Longfellow, Franklin. 

Establish facts previously learned. 

America — memorized. 

Star Spangled Banner— first two verses memorized. Sung — 

children standing. 



Beport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 135 

4 A. 
I. History : 

1. Italy. 
Geographical Setting. 

2. Rome. 

a. People. 

b. Stories of Rome and Romans. Roman Mytho- 
logy. 

II. Biography. See 4 B Grade. 

SAB Grades. 

General History. — Read Ten Boys, Norse Life. Read selec- 
tions from Skinner's Norse Folk Lore and German Folk Lore. 
Stories of Norse Gods and Heroes. 

American History. — Stories of Columbus, Hudson, Balboa, 
Magellan, etc. See Historical Classic Readings, by Maynard, Mer- 
rill & Co. 

Stories of Colonial Children ; Stories of Columbia ; American 
History Stories. 

Study the institutional life of the English northern and south- 
ern settlements ; also of the Spanish, French and Dutch settlements. 
Get a vivid idea of colonial life, 1600 to 1750. 

6 A B Grades. 

General History. — Study the Centers of Civilization; the 
Euphrates ; the Nile ; Greece ; Italy ; Spain ; England. Develop 
the thought of the Westward trend of empire, and the causes, 
thereof. Read stories of Greece and Rome. Read legends of King 
Arthur and the Round Table. Study the political and commercial 
conditions in Europe influencing the discovery of America. The 
Crusades ; the shutting up of the old lines of trade between West- 
ern Europe and the East. Take outline of oral History to Sec. 7. 
The Renaissance Period. 

7 B Grade. 

General History. — Continue the study as laid down in the 
outline of Oral History. Columbus and Vasco da Gama. The 
Moors in Spain. Rulers of Spain, Portugal and England at the 
time of the discovery of America. History of England under 
Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth, and 



136 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

James I., as connected with discovery, exploration and colonization 
of the New World. 

7 A Grade. 

Take Montgomery's Leading Facts of American History to the 
Revolution. As preliminary to discovery of America, and early ex- 
plorations review work of 7 B Grade as to the Renaissance Period of 
European History, and the History of Spain, Portugal and France 
as connected with the discovery, exploration and colonization of 
America, and the history of England under Henry VH., Henry 
VIH., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth and James I., as connected 
with the discovery, exploration and colonization of the New World. 

By means of oral lessons and assigned readings, lead the pupil 
to realize the general spirit of unrest and enterprise, which showed 
itself in the leading nations of Europe during the period of discov- 
ery and exploration of the New World. This should include work 
on the different inventions of that time, and the adventures of vari- 
ous explorers in North and South America. By reference to the 
map at every step, much may be done towards giving the pupil the 
habit of carefully connecting events with their proper places in rela- 
tion to each other. Pay particular attention to the invention of 
printing, the improvement of the mariner's compass, and the in- 
vention of the astrolabe ; Vespucci ; Ponce de Leon ; Magellan ; De 
Soto; Cartier; Champlain; the Cabots; Hudson, and others. De- 
velop still further the differences in the institutional life of the Span- 
ish, French, Dutch and English settlements, and particularly the 
differences between the northern and southern English settlements. 

In addition to the regular text book work, the pupil should be 
encouraged to do collateral reading. In the course of the term's 
work two or three topics should be assigned each pupil for special 
study, and he should be required to make a report of this study to 
the class. Throughout the work put stress upon the physical- 
features of each part of the country dealt with, and upon the loca- 
tion of places and boundary lines. The work of the term is divided 
into three distinct periods, as follows : 

I. The period of discovery and exploration, extending up to 
1600. The condition of civilization that led to the discovery of 
America, and the part taken by different nations in its exploration 
are to be clearly impressed. 



^ Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 137 

2. The period of colonization, from 1600 to 1750. Give the 
pupil a clear idea of the differences in the institutional life of the 
thirteen colonies, and yet their essential unity as compared with the 
surrounding French and Spanish colonies. 

3. The period of contest between the French and the English 
for supremacy in North America. 

8 B Grade. 

Montgomery's "Leading Facts of American History from the 
Revolution to the Civil War. (See page 313). Follow direction for 
collateral reading and connecting geography with history given in 
7 A work. Continue system of reports from pupils upon topics as- 
signed for special study. Such topics as "The Stamp Act;" Jay's 
"Treaty;" "The Financial Scheme of Hamilton for Restoring the 
Credit of the United States ;" 'The Missouri Compromise ;" "The 
Nullilication Troubles of 1832," may be assigned for special study 
and report. Pay especial attention to the critical period of the his- 
tory of the United States extending from the acknowledgment of In- 
dependence to the adoption of the Constitution. Give at least three 
weeks to the study of the main features of the Constitution and the 
especial points of difference between the government under the 
Articles of Confederation and under the Constitution. 

8 A Grade. 

Montgomery's "Leading Facts of American History" complet- 
ed. "Follow directions of preceding grades as to method of study. 
Pay especial attention to giving pupils, by means of topical reviews, 
a connected view of the great movements in our national history, 
such as the "Rise and Fall of Slavery ;" "The Development of the 
Spirit of Union from the New England Confederacy of 1643 to the 
complete acknowledgement of a Common Country and a Common 
Destiny as called forth by the Spanish-American War." 

Throughout the whole course in text-book history, the practice 
of having lectures upon historical topics from those who have made 
special study thereof, or have been participants in events of historic 
interest should be continued. These lectures add an interest to the 
subject that can be obtained to an equal degree in no other way. 



138 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

OUTLINE OF HISTORY. 

6 B, 6 A and 7 B Grades. 

The object of the history work in the sixth year is to 
prepare the mind of the pupil, by a general view of history — espec- 
ially the history of England — for the study of the history of his 
own country. 

The view of the Centers of Civilization must of necessity be 
brief — only as much of the history of the ancient civilizations of the 
Nile and the Euphrates should be given as to call attention thereto. 
Interesting as is the history of these old civilizations, it bears but 
little upon the history of our own country. 

More time should be spent upon Greece and Rome, and yet the 
treatment of these countries must be comparatively brief. All this 
work should tend to the development of the idea of the westward 
f:rend of Empire, and its causes, and the struggle for human lib- 
-»rty. 

At various places in this outline, books bearing upon the work 
have been designated, but it is not meant that these books alone are 
to be used as references, or that they furnish better material than 
many others not so named. 

OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY. 

1. Britain Before the Roman Conquest: 

1. Origin of native inhabitants — race; other homes of,, this 
race. Explain what is meant by "prehistoric man." 

2. Implements of industries. 

3. Religious belief. Druids. 

2. Roman Britain : 

1. Julius Ceasar — His career. 

2. His conquest of Britain. Read Caesar's own account of 
the expedition to Britain in "De Bello Gallico," Lib. 7. 

(a) Bravery of Britons — Caractacus and Boadicea. 

(b) Conditions of institutions at this time. 

(c) Efifects of Roman Conquest. 

3. Christianity in Britain. 

4. Withdrawal of Romans. 

3. Saxon Conquest: 

I. Angles, Saxons and Jutes. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 139 

(a) Origin of tribes. Their influences upon all lands where 
they settled. (See close of chapter 3 Dickens' 
History of England.) 

(b) Change of name of country. 

(c) Stories of King Arthur: 

1. Tennyson's Idylls of the King. 

2. Church's Stories from English History. 

3. Dickens' History of England. 

4. Lanier's Boy's King Arthur. 

2. Britons driven into Wales. 

3. Conversion of Saxons in England to Christianity. 

4. The Danes in England. 

5. Alfred the Great, and his work. 
6. The successors of Alfred. 
4. Norman Period: 

1. William, Duke of Normandy. His claims upon the throne 
of England. 

2. The Conquest of 1066 — Hastings. 

3. Condition of England after the Conquest. 

(a) Feudalism. 

(b) Curfew Law. 

(c) The New Forest. 

(d) Norman Architecture. 

4. The union of Norman and Saxon Interests. 

5. The Plantagenets. Origin of name. 

1. Henry II — Character. 

2. Henry's quarrel with the church. 

(a) The condition of the church. Mysteries and Mir- 
acle Plays. Thomas a Becket. 
5. I. The Crusades 
Cause. 
Number. 

Accomplishments. 
Effects upon Europe — (a) Political. 

(b) Ecclesiastical. 

(c) Commercial. 

2. The Age of Chivalry : Page, Squire, Knight. The Vows 
of Knighthood. Influence of chivalry, 
6. The Sons of Henry ii : 
I. Richard I. Career. 



140 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

2. John I. Loss of Normandy. Effect of loss upon England 
Quarrel with the church. 

3. Magna Charta — What? How obtained, when granted? 
Oppression of John. 

Creasy's English Constitution. 

Guest's History of England. 

Montgomery's Leading Facts of English History. 

Green's History of the English People. 

4. Henry HI — Rebuilds Westminster Abbey. 

5. Edward I — Organization of a Representative Parliament, 
and the confirmation of the right of Parliament to control 
revenue. Subjugation of Wales. Troubles in Scotland. 
John Baliol. William Wallace. Robert Bruce. 

6. Edward H — Loss of Scotland. 

7. Edward IV. — The House of York. Story of Richard IIL 
7. The Renaissance Period: 

(a) The renaissance of learning in Europe. Invention of 
printing. 

(b) The Fall of Constantinople. 

(c) Obstructions to established routes of commerce by the 
Turks. 

(d) Venice. Genoa. 

(e) Commercial conditions in Europe leading up to the Dis- 
covery of America. Geographical knowledge. 

(f) Columbus. Vasco da Gama. The Cabots. 

(g) England's connection with discoveries and explorations in 
the new world. 

(h) Literary revival in England — Caxton — Erasmus — Sir 
Thomas More. 
The Tudors : 

Absolutism — 1 485 — 1 603 . 

Henry VH : Connection with and encouragement of the New 

Learning. 
Henry VHI : 

(a) Story of Henry's family relations. 

(b) Great power of Henry — Wolsey. 

(c) Separation of the Church. 

(d) Destruction of Monasteries. 
Edward VI: 

Change in Religion — Establishment of Protestantism. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 141 

Founding of Grammar Schools — Story of Lady Jane 
Grey . 
Mary I: 

Re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church. 
Elizabeth : 

Restoration of Protestantism. 
Story of her long Reign. 
Social Life. 

Institutional life in England in her reign. 
Story of the Armada. Drake and Raleigh. Mary Stuart, 
Shakespeare and other writers. 
The Stuart Period: 

Beginning with "The Divine Right of Kings" and end- 
ing with "The Divine Right of the People." 

1. James I. 

(a) Growth of Puritan Party. 

(b) Growth of influence of the parliament. 

(c) The first two permanent English settlements in 
America. 

2. Charles I. 

Petition of Right. Civil War. Execution. 

3. Cromwell and the Commonwealth. 

Emigration of Royalists. 
Death of Cromwell. 

4. The Restoration. 
Charles II. 

(a) England gains New York. 

(b) Literature — ^John Milton, and other writers of 
period. 

5. James II. 

(a) Political and Religious policy of James II. 

(b) Revolution of 1688. 

6. William and Mary. 

(a) Declaration of Rights. 

(b) Bill of Rights. 

(c) Establishment of Bank of England. 

(d) Act of Settlement and Succession. 

7. Queen Anne. 

(a) War of Spanish Succession. 
. The House of Hanover 



142 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

1. George I. 

(a) Belief of Dissenters. 

2. George II. 

(a) War of Austrian Succession. 

(b) The Pretender. 

(c) French in America. 

(d) India gained. 

3. George III. 

(a) Difficulties with American Colonies, 
(b) The American Revolution ending with our Inde- 
pendence. 

See Bancroft's History of the United States and 
other works of American writers. For an Eng- 
lish view of the Revolutionary Period, see 
Lecky's History of England in the i8th Cen- 
tury. 

COURSE OF STUDY IN GERMAN. 

During the first years the inductive method is used. Pupils are 
not allowed to see the word written or printed until they have mas- 
tered its pronunciation. Grammar is not introduced until the pupils 
have made some progress in English Grammar and then it is limit- 
ed mainly to the study of the difference in forms. 

In a general way the following course is pursued : 

Grades 1 B and 1 A. 

Instruction based entirely on conversation, the pupils become 
acquainted with the names of objects in the room, adjectives de- 
scribing these objects and the simple use of prepositions. 

Grades 2 B and 2 A. 

Reading, writing, spelling. Select reading from Erstes Sprach 
und Lesebuch, conversation on the selection read. 

Grades 3 B and 3 A. 
"Sprach und Lesebuch" the rest the same as in 2 B and 2 A. 

Grades ^ B and ^ A. 
Same work continued, more advanced reading. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 143 

Grades 5 B and 5 A. 

"Spanhoofd's Lehrbuch der Deutschen Sprache" — Lessons 1-20. 
Reading, translating, composition, and conversation based on the 
selections read or on other topics. 

Grades 6 B and 6 A. 

"Spanhoofd" continued and some other material for reading 
introduced. Drill on declension and conjugation. 

Grades 7 B and 7 A. 

Same work continued. 

Grades 8 B and 8 A. 

Grammar review. Select topics of new grammar. Translation, 
composition, and conversation. 





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Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 145 

INDUSTRIAL DRAWING. 

KINDERGARTEN. 

Means of Expression; modeling in clay, stick laying, papei 
cutting and folding, block building, drawing with chalk and char- 
coal, painting in water color. 

Imagination and memory drawing. 

Illustration of stories. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Model and object drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing. 

Designing. 

Stenciling. 

FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 

Text Books of Art Education — First and Second Years. 

Means of Expression ; modeling in clay, stick laying, paper cut- 
ting and folding, block building, drawing with pencil, charcoal and 
chalk and painting in ink and water color. 

Type solids developed. 

Decorative designing, natural forms and historic ornament. 

Stenciling. 

Imagination and memory drawing. 

The illustration of stories. 

Composition in lines, spaces and light and dark. 

Color study from nature and ideal types. Pose drawing, char- 
acter study of heroes and personification of child life. 

Picture study. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Third Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Third Year Book. 

Work under the following subjects will be planned: 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing. 

Model and object drawing. 

Color study. 



146 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, charcoal, ink and water color. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Fourth Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Fourth Year Book. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing. 

Model and object drawing. 

Color study. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, charcoal, ink and water color. 

FIFTH YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Fifth Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Fifth Year Book. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing and painting. 

Anatomy. 

Model and object drawing. 

Color study. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction. 



Report of Public Scliools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 147 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, charcoal, ink and water color. 

SIXTH YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Sixth Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Sixth Year Book. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing and painting. 

Anatomy. 

Model and object drawing. 

Color study. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, charcoal, ink and water color. 

SEVENTH YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Seventh Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Seventh Year Book. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing and painting. 

Anatomy. 

Model and object drawing and painting. 

Color study. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction and projection. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 



148 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Architecture. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, pen, charcoal, ink and water color. 

EIGHTH YEAR. 

Prang's Elementary Course in Art Instruction, Eighth Year 
Book. 

Text Books of Art Education, Eighth Year Book. 

Nature drawing and painting. 

Pose drawing and painting. 

Anatomy. 

Model and object drawing and painting. 

Color study. 

Historic ornament. 

Original decorative design. 

Construction and projection. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Architecture. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Media : pencil, pen. charcoal, ink and water color. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

History and philosophy of art. 

Historic ornament. 

Styles of architecture. 

Styles of furniture. 

Artists and their pictures. 

Drawing from machinery. 

Drawing from cast. 

Drawing and painting from still life. 

Drawing and painting from life. 

Drawing and painting from nature. 

Composition. 

Illustration. 

Perspective. 

Artistic anatomy. 

Drawing and painting interiors. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 149 

Original designs from natural forms — natural and conven- 
tional. 

Original designs in straight and curved lines. 

APPLIED ART. 

Wood carving. 

Block printing. 

Stenciling. 

Pottery. 

Tooling and staining of leather. 

Etching on copper and brass. 

Hammered brass and copper. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

PHYSICAIv CUIyTURE. 

A. The outlines of the exercises arranged according to the 
grades are composed of the following exercises: 

1. Movements of the head as, Rotating to the left and right; 
lowering the head forward, backward, sideward left and right and 
circling. 

Physiological effects, — For development of the muscles of the 
neck, grace, and proper carriage of the head. 

2. a Shoulder elevation, — with or without deep in — and ex- 
halation or in combination with arm movements. 

b Moving shoulders forward and backward, with or with- 
out arm movements. 

3. Arm elevation, — Forward, sideward, forward overhead and 
sideward overhead, swinging arms forward and backward. 

Physiological effects for exercises 2 and 3 for muscular devel- 
opment, grace, suppleness of the joints, expansion and contraction 
of the chest, and correction of round shoulders. 

4. Arm bending and extension forward, sideward, upward, 
downward and obliquely. 

For rapid response of the muscles and indications as under ex- 
ercises 2 and 3. 

5. Trunk flexion and extension with or without arm and leg 
movements as, — Forward, sideward left and right, obliquely for- 
ward and backward and rotating left and right. 



150 Report of Public ScJiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Physiological effects, — Development and improved tonicity to 
all muscles involved; correcting faulty posture of the trunk; pres- 
sure upon the abdominal organs. Stimulation of the entire digestive 
tract. 

6. Foot and leg movements, — 

a Forward, backward, sideward left and right and cross- 
wise. 

b Rising on toes ; bending knees ; raising lower legs back- 
ward and inward and raising knees forward. 

7. Stepping exercises as, — Striding (with extended knees), 
lunging (bending knee of striding leg) forward, backward, side- 
ward left and right and obliquely. Bending one or both knees in 
stride position and kneeling on one knee, also in combination with 
arm and trunk movements. 

8. Leg elevations, — Forward, backward, sideward left and 
right and crosswise, as well as, moving the leg from one position 
to other directions as balancing movements. Raising one knee for- 
ward and extending the same in different directions. 

Physiological effects, — Including exercises 6 and 7, develop- 
ment and tonicity to all muscles involved. Flexibility to joints. 
Pressure upon the abdominal organs. Improved circulation in the 
respective parts and offering greater support to the joints. 

9. Breathing exercise with arm movements as a closing ex- 
ercise for the purpose of improving the breathing capacity and 
quieting the action of the heart. This to be practiced only under 
favorable conditions, i. e. when the air in the room is pure enough. 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

The physical exercises taught at the High School gymnasium 
form the advanced variety of the work. Being provided with the 
necessary apparatus the pupils are able to take the fullest ad- 
vantage of their opportunities. 

The practice of proper school games suited to the various 
grades is an additional feature throughout the whole year in the 
High School gymnasium and during the fall and spring months in 
the ward schools whenever the weather is favorable to go out of 
doors. 



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Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 151 

TRAINING SCHOOL. 

In addition to the regular practice exercises the Training 
Class is taught the work of the various grades. 

Beginning with the second term each member is required to 
take charge of the class at stated intervals in order to learn how to 
command and conduct a class in physical exercises. 

Each member is provided with a set of illustrated charts of 
the various positions, as well as, special charts referring to the ana- 
tomical and physiological value of the work. 



HIGH AND MANUAL 
TRAINING SCHOOL. 



154: Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

COURSES OF STUDY 

IN THE 

HIGH SCHOOL, 1907-1908. 



REMARKS. 



1. Graduates of the High School are admitted on certificate 
(without examination) to the following Universities and Colleges: 

University of Michigan, 

University of Chicago, 

W'esleyan University, 

Williams College, 

Smith College, 

Wellesley College, 

Vassar College, 

Dartmouth College, 
to all Colleges of Indiana, and to some others. Only graduates 
zvho have done strong work throughout the course are entitled to 
this certificate. 

2. Students who expect to enter college are advised to take 
the Latin, the Latin-German, or the Classical course, to choose their 
college as early as possible, and to consult the principal of the High 
School concerning their preparation. This may save loss of time. 
Purdue University gives three credits to students having taken 
the shop work in the Alanual Training department. 

3. Students who for any reason cannot complete the work re- 
quired for graduation in four years may take a longer time, and 
parents who think their children overtaxed are requested to consult 
the principal with a view to a satisfactory adjustment of the work. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 155 



HIGH AND MANUAL 
TRAINING SCHOOL. 



First Year. 



Algebra 4 

Literature 2 

Composition i 

Latin 5 

German 5 

Botany 5 

Woodworking 8 

Domestic Science 8 

Freehand Drawing 2 

Algebra, Literature and Composition are required of all stu- 
dents. These subjects with any other two constitute regular work 
for first year students. All who elect Woodworking or Domestic 
Science are required to take Freehand Drawing. Either Latin or 
German may be elected, but not both. In Shop Work, Domestic 
Science, and Free Hand Drawing two periods count as one period in 
other subjects. 

Numerals opposite studies indicate number of recitation periods 
per week. 

Second Year. 

Algebra, (J^) 3 

Geometry, ( i/^ ) 3 

Literature, 2 

Composition, i 

Latin 5 

German 5 

Greek 5 

Phys. Geog 4 

Botany 5 

Ancient Hist ' 4 



156 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Forging ) 

Mech. Dr. j ^° 

Freehand Dr lo 

Mathematics, Literature and Composition are required of all 
students. These subjects with any other three constitute regular 
work for second year students. A class in Greek will not be form- 
ed unless a reasonable number elect it. Botany may be elected in- 
stead of Phys. Geog. by those who did not take Botany in the first 
year. 

Third Year. 

Plane Geometry 3 

Composition I 

Latin 5 

German 5 

Greek 5 

Physics 6 

Eng. His 4 

Pattern- Shop and Foundry ) 

Mech. Drawing f 

Freehand Drawing 10 

Plane Geometry and Composition are required of all students 
and Physics is required of all boys. Girls may substitute some 
other study for Physics by special arrangement with the principal. 
Geometry, Composition, Physics, with any other two subjects con- 
stitute regular work for students of the third year. 

Fourth Year. 

Solid Geometry, (yi) 3 

Algebra, (>^) 3 

Literature 4 

Composition i 

Latin 5 

German 5 

Greek 5 

Chemistry 5 

U. S. Hist, (>^) 4 

Civil Gov't, (>4) 4 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 157 

Machine Fitting t 

Mech. Drawing f 

Freehand Drawing lO 

EngHsh Literature and Composition with any other three sub- 
jects constitute regular work for students of the fourth year. Man- 
ual Training may be discontinued at the end of any year, but the 
work of any year begun must be completed to secure credit, and 
in general a full year's work in any subject attempted will be re- 
quired to secure credit, but in all foreign languages at least two 
years' work will be required. At least one year of History and one 
year of Science will be required for graduation. Students prepar- 
ing for college should consult the principal early in their course with 
reference to what studies they should take to fit them for the col- 
lege of their choice. 



STATEMENT OF WORK BY 
DEPARTMENTS. 



LATIN. 

C. T. LanEj Principai,. 

Latin : — The time given to Latin is five hours per week 
throughout the four years of the course, with one unprepared recita- 
tion each week. During the last three years one recitation period 



158 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

per week, or the equivalent, is given to Latin writing. In the sec- 
ond and third years a text book is used that presents the principles 
of Latin syntax systematically. In the fourth year the translation 
into Latin is required of connected passages taken from various 
text books or prepared by the instructor. These exercises are in- 
tended to require the application of all the ordinary principles of 
Latin syntax including the use of connectives and the periodic sen- 
tence. 

In the first year the hour of the unprepared recitation is given 
to reviews, drill, written tests and, after the first few weeks, to the 
translation into English and the reverse of easy sentences. During 
the last three years it is given chiefly to the translation of the re- 
view lesson and to sight translation. The passage for sight transla- 
tion is always what would have been the advance lesson had a les- 
son been assigned. The student thus has the advantage of a knowl- 
edge of the context and of the style of the author. 

The passage from the Beginner's Latin Book to Caesar is 
bridged by the reading of some easy Latin in the last part of the 
first year and the first few weeks of the second year. As much 
Caesar is read as is equal to the first four books of Caesar's Gallic 
\\'ar, though the first four books are not read continuously. It is 
considered doubtful, however, whether scrappy reading is prefer- 
able to reading the first four books in full. No poetry is inter- 
polated betwen the reading of Caesar and Cicero because it is not 
considered expedient to repeat in the course in Latin the blunder 
forced upon us in Greek by custom and college requirements, viz: 
The blunder of setting students to master the irregularities of 
poetical constructions before they are well grounded in prose con- 
structions. In the third year therefore the first four orations of 
Cicero against Catiline are read and also the oration for the Manil- 
ian Law and the oration for Archias. In the fourth year the first 
six books (or more) of Vergil's Aeneid are read. 

All the work in Latin and especially that of the first three 
years is based upon the self evident fact that mastery of Latin is im- 
possible without a perfect knowledge of inflectional forms and the 
common principles of syntax, and an instantaneous recognition of 
their significance and force. While no effort is spared to make the 
recitation lively, spirited, and interesting, it is clearly recognized 
that mastery by the student of the elementary' facts and principles 
of the language and a conscious daily growth of his power and 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 159 

skill in applying these facts and principles are the sole means of 
securing an abiding interest. Therefore our methods of instruction 
find no place for more or less skillful guessing nor for the careless 
and unintelligent skimming of vast areas of literature. 

Analysis and mastery of the author's thought, especially in 
Cicero, are strongly emphasized and the utmost skill of the instruc- 
tor is exercised in devising questions that will compel such analysis 
and mastery. It would amuse an inexperienced teacher to discover 
how absolutely innocent of any perception of the connected thought 
of an author a student may be who can nevertheless very smoothly 
translate disconnected sentences. The habit of reading mere words 
may be carried away from the Latin class room to the serious dam- 
age of the student in all his other reading. Good English is also 
an absolute requirement in all translation. 

ENGLISH. 
W. L. McMiivLEN. 

(a) Literature: 

In the first and second years of the high school two periods 
each week are given to the study of literature and in the fourth 
year four periods are devoted to the same study. This time is used 
for the most part in the study of American and Enghsh master- 
pieces. Besides the masterpieces the work of the four years in- 
cludes the study of the History of English Literature, The pur- 
pose of the course is two fold — to make the students understand 
and appreciate the selections studied, and to give them the power to 
read with appreciation. Their ability to do the latter is tested irdm 
time to time by written reviews of books read out of class. 

(b) Composition : 

Throughout the four years of the high school one period 
each week is given to rhetoric and composition. The principles of 
rhetoric are taught chiefly by means of compositions. The students 
hand in themes every week. These are criticised by the teacher in 
charge of the class and are returned to the students to be rewritten. 
This rewriting not only gives practice in composition, but also 
teaches the principles of rhetoric. Besides the themes written out 
of class the students frequently write in class on subjects assigned 
after they have met for recitation. These essays show what the 
pupils can do under pressure without a dictionary, rhetoric, or any 



160 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

other help. The object of the course is to enable the students to 
write clear and effective English. 

HISTORY AND CIVICS. 
Mary Kolb. 

Time given — Three years — four hours per week. 
Second Year: — Ancient History. 

The Orient, — Egypt, The Tigris — Euphrates States, The Mid- 
dle States of the Hebrews and the Phoenicians, The Persian Em- 
pire. 

Greek History — Prehistoric period, Rise of Sparta, Growth of 
Democracy in Athens, Persian Wars, Peloponnesian War, Spartan 
Supremacy, Theban Supremacy, Rise of Macedon, Alexander the 
Great. 

Roman History — Regal Rome, Class struggles in the Republic, 
Unification of Italy, The Punic Wars, Conquest of the East, Civil 
strife in Rome, The Roman Empire, The Teutonic Invasions, The 
Franks, The Mohammedan Peril, The Empire of Charlemagne. 
Third Year — English History. 

Physical Characteristics of the British Isles, Race Elements of 
the English Nation, Conversion of England, Foreign Rule, The 
struggle for the charter, The Rise of the Commons, English Civili- 
zation in the Thirteenth Century, The Hundred Years War, The 
Wars of the Roses, Society in England at the close of the Mediaeval 
Period, The Tudors and the Reformation, The England of Eliza- 
beth, The Puritan Revolution, The Restoration, The Revolution of 
1688, Parties and Party Government, Era of the American Revolu- 
tion, Society in England in the 18th Century, The Era of the 
French Revolution, Colonial Expansion, The Growth of Demo- 
cracy, The Industrial Revolution, Social Changes in the 19th Cen- 
tury. 
Fourth Year, First Half, U. S. History. 

Period of Discovery and Exploration, Period of Colonization, 
Conflict between the French and the English, The American Revo- 
lution, The Confederacy, The Federal Convention, Rise of Parties, 
The Struggle for neutrality, The War of 18 12, National develop- 
ment 1 789- 1 861, The Civil War, Reconstruction, The New Nation, 
The Present Time, Mechanical and Industrial Progress. 
Fourth Year — Second Half, Civics. 



O 

X 

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Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 161 

Local government, — Town, County, State and City. 

Elections and Party Government, Public Finances, Judicial 
Trials, Charitable and Penal Institutions, Educational Systems, 
Labor Legislation, Corporations. 
National Government, — 

Organization of Congress, Congress at work. National 
Finances, Foreign Commerce, Domestic Commerce, The Presidency, 
The Executive Departments, The Judiciary, The Judiciary at work, 
Territories and Dependencies, Relations between the States, Rela- 
tions between the Federal Government and the States, The Amend- 
ments. 
Methods of Study : 

Besides the text book work, written work and collateral read- 
ing are done ; note books are kept for class notes and dictations ; 
some of the most important original documents are examined ; out- 
line maps representing the different epochs are filled in; and sub- 
jects are assigned for outside reading. 
Objective point: 

The acquirement of the most useful and characteristic facts of 
history, the training of the judgment, the development of the ima- 
gination, the making of good intelligent citizens, and the creating of 
a love in the student for history and historical reading. 

CHEMISTRY AND BOTANY. 

Herbert S. Voorhees. 

chemistry. 

The work in Chemistry is given in the senior grade. Time 
equivalent to six regular recitation periods per week during the en- 
tire school year is devoted to it. This time is about equally divided 
between recitations and laboratory work. The text book used is 
Chemistry for Schools by Davis. 

The laboratory work of the first half year consists of experi- 
ments of three kinds, namely : 

1st. Qualitative experiments performed by each student. The 
purpose of these experiments is to acquaint the pupils with the 
properties and activities of some of the more important chemical 
substances. 

2nd. Easier quantitative experiments performed by the stu- 
dent, the purpose of which is to give some knowledge of volumetric 



162 Report of Puhlic Schools, Port Wayne, Ind. 

and gravimetric methods, and to give practice in careful and ac- 
curate work. 

3rd. More difficult quantitative experiments performed by 
the instructor. The results are used in the development of the 
fundamental chemical laws. 

4th. The work of the second half year consists of the study of 
chemical substances in groups depending on the periodic law. The 
experiments are intended to show the characters and relations of 
each group. Practice is given in the detection and separation of the 
metals by suitable tests. The relation of chemical processes to in- 
dustrial pursuits is emphasized. 

Students are required to keep accurate records in note books. 
These are carefully examined by the teacher. 

The laboratory is large and well lighted. It will accommodate 
22 students. It is fitted with excellent stone-topped tables. Each 
table is provided with gas, water, and electric current, and with a 
hood for use in performing experiments producing disagreeable 
gases. Hot water and steam are available at the demonstration 
table. There is a liberal supply of chemicals and apparatus, and 
several very accurate balances. 

BOTANY. 

One year is given to botany. The time is divided into two half 
year courses, each complete in itself, yet each bearing a definite 
relation to the other. The first half of the ninth year is devoted to 
a study of plants in relation to each other and to their surround- 
ings. The second half to a study of the structure of type plants. 

Second year students who have not taken Botany in the first 
year are permitted to choose between Botany and Physiography. 

The laboratory equipment is very good, consisting of twenty 
compound and forty dissecting miscroscopes, a student's microtome, 
the simpler stains and reagents together with the necessary glass- 
ware for the work needed in histology and physiology. The micro- 
scopes are Bausch & Lomb B. B's with one inch eye piece and 2-3 
and 1-6 inch objectives. They are all that is needed for high school 
work. 

The method of work is a combination of laboratory work and 
text book study. During the first half year plants are studied as 
working machines. A number of carefully selected experiments are 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 163 

performed in the laboratory. Notes are taken by the pupils, care 
being exercised by the instructor that they be accurate. A careful 
study of the organs of higher plants is .made. The morphological 
adaptations to conditions are studied in laboratory and field. In the 
second half year the work is done largely in the laboratory with the 
compound miscroscope. A type plant of each of the greater groups 
is studied in detail and its life history traced. Short talks are given 
by the instructor to emphasize certain points. The text is then 
studied. Careful drawings from nature are made by the pupils; 
notes and summaries are recorded in the note book. The note books 
are not allowed outside the laboratory except by permission of the 
instructor. They are examined and criticised frequently. 

The aim of the course in botany is to give the pupils a broad 
general idea of the plant kingdom; plants at work; plant societies; 
plant structure ; plant families ; plaiit evolution : It is believed that, 
aside from the mental discipline and valuable information gained by 
such a course, it forms the best basis for future work by the pupil, 
whether this work be done in a college or by the individual alone. 

GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA. 
H. D. Merrell. 

GEOMETRY. 

Text. Shutts — Plane and Solid Geometry. 

Time. Begin Plane Geometry last half of second year; con- 
tinue through third year ; three recitations each week, two prepared. 
Solid Geometry, first half of fourth year ; three recitations each 
week, all prepared. 

Plane Geometry is required of all students ; Solid Geometry is 
elective. 

Clear thinking, accurate expression of thought, and absolute 
familiarity with the text are ideals sought. The student is expect- 
ed to ennunciate the propositions, describe the figure, and give a 
connected, well-ordered demonstration, including accurate quoting 
of authorities, without notes other than equations. 

We believe the "suggestive method" of the text is good as the 
student must make his own demonstrations, being directed, when 
necessary, by suggestions and suggestive questions. 

Unprepared days are used to develop methods of attack. 



164 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

A review of the preceding assignment is a feature of every 
recitation. 

Practically all the material in the book is used and some from 
other sources. 

ALGEBRA. 

Text — Algebra for Secondary Schools — Wells. 

The work is carried to "Factoring" in the eighth grade; to 
"Imaginary Numbers" in the first year high school; through 
"Simultaneous Quadratics" the first half of second year. Three 
prepared and one unprepared recitations each week are required the 
first year; two prepared and one unprepared recitations each week 
during remaining half year. 

For those who elect mathematics in the fourth year, we provide 
one half year of Algebra, three recitations each week, all prepared. 
This course is primarily a thorough review of the preceding course. 
In addition, we meet the requirements of the College Entrance 
Examination Board. Tanner's Elementary is used freely, the books 
being loaned to students from the school library. 

The elementary course is not theoretical in any marked degree. 
The student is expected to do simple things ; to "check" his work ; 
and to use the vocabulary correctly. Such subjects as H. C. F. by 
Division, The Remainder and Factor Theorems, The Graph (except 
for illustrative purposes). Cube Root, Equivalent Equations, Quad- 
ratic Factoring, Ratio and Proportion are omitted. We have no 
mathematical laboratory. We believe in the gospel of hard work, 
and employ every device to persuade or compel the student to do his 
own work and a reasonable amount of it. On unprepared days we 
develop new principles or test the students' knowledge of old ones. 

In the senior course, we begin with the definitions and axioms 
and demonstrate each new theorem. We wish the student to view 
his Algebra as he does his Geometry, as a symmetrical structure, 
developed in a logical manner from a foundation of definitions and 
axioms. This compels large use of type forms and generalizations. 
Considerable attention is given to the Remainder Theorem, Graphs, 
Theory of Equivalent Equations and Systems, Properties of Quad- 
ratic Equations, Interpretation of results, etc., etc. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 165 

GREEK AND GERMAN. 
B. C. VON Kahlden. 

GREEK. 

To the study of Greek are given three hours per week during 
the Sophomore year, five hours during the Junior year, and four 
hours per week during the Senior year. 

For the beginners "White's First Greek Book" is used for the 
study of grammar, writing easy composition and translating easy 
selections from Greek into English. 

The rest of the work consists in reading five books of Xeno- 
phon's Anabasis with advanced prose and about 2,500 fines of 
Homer's Iliad together with the study of prosody and the Homeric 
dialect. 

GERMAN. 

In the High School curriculum pupils have the choice of taking 
4 years of German and no Latin, 4 years of Latin and 2 of German 
or 2 of Latin and 2 of German? We have therefore a 4 year and 
a 2 year German Course. 

In the 2 year German Course the aim is during the first year 
to acquaint the pupils with the essentials of grammar — declen- 
sion, conjugation, order of words, prepositions, etc. and to give 
them a fair knowledge of the common vocabulary, which it is 
thought can be attained by reading easy novels and comedies. 

In the second year more advanced grammar, syntax and deriva- 
tion of words, is studied. The reading matter consists of more ad- 
vanced prose, one historical essay, one drama by SchiUer and 
"Hermann and Dorothea" by Goethe. 

Throughout the whole course one hour a week is devoted to 
composition and one hour to sight-reading. During the last quar- 
ter pupils are required to write German essays. 

In the four ^^ear course the progress is naturally slower. In 
the first place the pupils are younger and in the second place they 
have not had the advantage of the study of Latin. 

The first year is devoted to a careful study of the forms, de- 
clension and conjugation, the prepositions, order of words, etc. 
Much time is spent on conversation, not only for the sake of pro- 
nunciation but also to impress upon the minds of the pupils certain 



166 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

rules, especially those for the order of words and the use of the 
cases. 

In the second year some easy reading matter is taken up, select- 
ed especially for the purpose of making it the basis for conversa- 
tion. Grammar drill is continued and one hour a week is devoted to 
composition. In the third year the systematic study of syntax is be- 
gun, composition continued and some more advanced prose is read. 
Conversation continued. 

In the fourth year the work of the third is continued. Some 
classics are read and the pupils are required to write original Ger- 
man essays. The recitation is conducted in German as much as 
possible. 

PHYSICS. 
George W. Carter. 

The time given to the study of Physics is six hours per week 
during the third year of the High School course of study. Two 
hours of this time are given to individual laboratory work, three to 
recitation and demonstration work, and one, the unprepared hour, 
to written tests, to opening up new subjects, or, when the conditions 
require it, to individual laboratory work. 

In the effort to bring about an understanding of the subject the 
following methods are among those used : — 

A class enters the lecture room and finds all demonstration ap- 
paratus in readiness. The experiments are performed and ex- 
plained very carefully by the instructor. In some cases the results 
of these experiments are explained first by the pupils, but usually 
not, as the practice requires too much time and kills interest. These 
explanations, however, are always required of them during the re- 
citation work. The explanations by the instructor comprise prac- 
tically all of what is called lecture work in the Physics department. 

The pupils are not required to analyze all problems from first 
principles. Continual analysis is a waste of energy and interest 
after the formulae have been obtained and understood by just such 
reasoning as would be required in the analysis. In some subjects, 
however, analysis of problems is the choice of the pupils and it is 
encouraged. This is true in the study of heat owing to its relation 
to the laboratory work. In solving problems the pupils are taught 
to draw diagrams v\dien possible and to place the conditions of the 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 167 

problem upon the board in such a way that comparisons can be eas- 
ily and quickly made. 

After the problems have been placed upon the board and ex- 
plained the principles are fixed by the solution of numerous simple 
exercises which can be solved mentally by the best pupils. 

The Physics department is splendidly equipped for individual 
laboratory work. The apparatus consists of four, eight, and sixteen 
pieces. This does away with the confusion usually existing when, 
owing to the lack of apparatus, the experiments can not be taken 
up in their logical order. 

A careful account is kept of the number and value of all ap- 
paratus. The equipment consists of good, not cheap, apparatus, 
purchased for efficiency, simplicity, and durability. The instructor 
is constantly adding to this equipment apparatus made by himself 
outside of the regular school hours. 

The laboratory work done by the pupils is of great value to 
them because of the order necessary in procedure, the careful ob- 
servation required, the delicacy of manipulation, the stimulation of 
interest, the giving life to text book work, and the realization of 
the force of words. 

The problems to be verified in the laboratory are assigned sev- 
eral days in advance so that the pupils have time to find out just 
what is expected of them before -they enter the laboratory. A dis- 
cussion, or explanation, of his own results is written by each pupil 
while in the laboratory. When these reports are written in the 
laboratory the instructor can be more certain of their originality 
than when written outside. Another advantage of this method is 
that he can more honestly and conscientiously certify books as con- 
taining the original work done by his pupils. 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 
George W. Carter. 

Physical Geography is the science of the Sophomore year. 
Four hours per week are devoted to the work. Of this time 
three hours are usually given to text book work and one hour to lab- 
oratory work. Gilbert and Brigham's text and Brigham's laboratory 
manual are used. In this course emphasis is placed upon the action 
of the molar activities of the earth and their relation to the environ- 
ment of man. Technical terms and unnecessary details are omitted. 



168 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

The book, laboratory, and field methods are combined, the pupils 
retaining, producing, and observing facts and relations. 

The room used by this department has been constructed and 
equipped with special reference to the needs of the subject. Ample 
desk and locker room for each student is provided. The room is 
well supplied with lockers for general use, for reference books, for 
specimens and for maps. It is also thoroughly equipped for stere- 
opticon work. The laboratory is at present supplied with about 300 
slides. Many of the publications of the U. S. Geological Survey 
and U. S. Weather Bureau are available. Complete sets of the 
Geological Atlas and of the Weather Review are now in the refer- 
ence library. The publications of the State Department of Geology 
are also in limited use. In the way of maps, the laboratory is sup- 
plied with relief maps of all the continents and of many typical 
land forms. A large supply of contoured maps has also been pur- 
chased through the U. S. Geological Survey. Practically all type 
forms are illustrated by these maps. There is a reasonably good 
equipment in the way of meteorological instruments. 

In the main the laboratory work of the first semester is based 
upon the study of type forms of land resulting from river action, 
weathering, winds, and glaciers. Field work and contoured maps 
are used as a basis for the most of this work. The commoner rocks 
and soils are studied in an elementary way. The laboratory work 
of the second semester consists in part of weather observations in- 
cluding daily readings of the weather instruments and such pheno- 
mena as may be noted without their use. Definite studies are based 
upon these observations. The student is led to coordinate his 
results with those given through the regular weather maps publish- 
ed by the Weather Bureau. He is thus led to interpret the weather 
map and to understand the principles of weather prediction. The 
use of contour maps is continued in this semester for the study of 
plains, plateaus, mountains and coast forms. Permanent notes are 
required throughout the course. The laboratory work is here, as 
elsewhere simply illustrative of forms studied in the text. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

E. W. BOSHART. 

Manual Training was first introduced into the public schools of 
Fort Wayne, September 1904, at which time the New High and 



Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 169 

Manual Training School was opened. The work was taken up with 
the High School grades only, and a four year's course was planned 
as follows : — 
1st year Wood-working eight periods per week and free-hard 

drawing two periods per week. 
2nd year Forging and mechanical drawing each five periods per 

week. 
3rd year Foundry practice, pattern making and mechanical draw- 
ing each an equal part of ten periods per week. 
4th year Machine shop practice and mechanical drawing each five 
periods per week. 
As this line of work was entirely strange to these students, it 
was thought best that those entering and electing this course should 
be given the work of the first year, and as they advanced year by 
year, each would bring to them a new line of work until the com- 
plete course was in operation. We are now well under way with 
the work of the third year, and will enter upon that of the fourth 
year at the opening of school, September, 1907. 

It is not the intention to teach a complete trade, nor to attempt 
it, but to give a clear idea of the different trades by using the tools 
of the artisan in a correct manner. The instructor discourages at 
once the incorrect use of any and all tools. It is well understood 
that it is not possible for each boy to attain the same degree of dex- 
terity as is shown by some of his associates, and to overcome the 
difficulties which might so often arise from this condition, we 
strive to encourage the best efforts each individual is able to put 
forth, and find that where a boy is weak in one line, he is strong in 
some other. Thus we are enabled to help find and select that line or 
lines of work for which he has the most natural tendency. Our ob- 
servation and experience with boys has led us to believe that this 
work enables many boys to find and take up a line of work which 
they had never thought of before entering a school of this kind. 

WOOD\\^ORKING. 

The course in woodworking consists of a series of exercises in- 
tended to teach the fundamental principles of Carpentry, Joinery, 
Cabinet JNIaking and V\'ood Turning At the end of the ist se- 
mester, each boy is required to work out some project which can 
be completed by his own individual efforts. During the 2nd se- 
mester such projects are worked out as will require the efforts of 



170 Report of Public Sdiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

two or more boys to complete. Exercises of this course are as fol- 
lows : — 
1st Semester. 

Bench work. 

Base block. 

Steps from solid block (sawing). 

Sawing" and chiseling exercise. 

Half lap joint. 

Halved together joint. 

Mortise and tenon joint 

Blind mortise and tenon joint. 

Open mortise and tenon joint. 

Pointer. 

Bench hook. 

Projects. 
2nd Semester. 

Bench work. 

Half dovetail joint. 

F'ull dovetail joint. 

Miter box 

Brace joint. 

Drawing board. 

Projects. 

Turning. 

C3dinder. 

Frustum of cone 

Beads from a cylinder. 

Grooves from a cylinder. 

Beads on cylinder of less diam. 

Compound curve. 
■ File or chisel handle. 

Rosette. 

Picture frame. 

Projects. 

FORGING. 

The course in forging consists of a series of exercises in form- 
ing, drawing, bending, twisting, punching and different kinds of 
welds in both iron and steel. So far as possible these exercises take 
the form of useful articles, and some of the projects are bent iron 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 171 

designs, tongs, hammers, punches, coldchisels and lathe tools which 
the boys will be required to use in their work of the fourth year. 
Much attention is given to the study of different grades of iron and 
steel in relation to their adaptability to the uses of man. 

Exercises of this course are as follows : — 

Hammer exercise in lead. 

Building and care of fire. 

Hammer exercise in iron. 

Stone dog. 

Stirrup. 

Drawing and bending exercise. 

Bent angle iron. 

Hook and staples. 

Harp and staples 

Bent rings. 

Open links. 

"S" hook. 

Harness hook. 

Projects. 

Welded chain links. 

Welded ring (round iron). 

Welded ring (flat iron). 

Welding two pieces round iron. 
. Welding two pieces square iron. 

Angle iron welded. 

Lap welds, 

Butt weld. 

Welding soft steel. 

Making square head bolt. 

Making hexagonal head bolt. 

Pair of tongs. 

Punch. 

Cold chisel. 

Hammer cross pein. 

Hammer ball pein. 

Three lathe tools. 

FOUNDRY. 

The course in foundry^ practice consists of a series of exer- 
cises in green sand moulding intended to bring out the various 



172 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

phases of the work. Much attention is given to the preparation of 
the cupola for a heat and its care during the melting period, mixing 
cast iron for different results, and the moulding and melting of 
brass. Short talks are given from time to time on dry sand mould- 
ing, various features of the work which can be done in a furnace, 
and methods used in the making of large castings. 

The exercises of this course are as follows : — 

Moulding from simple one piece patterns with special instruc- 
tion on ramming. 

Moulding from parted pattern, illustrating the care required 
in handling and finishing the cope. 

Moulding from one piece pattern by bedding it in the cope, 
i, e, from patterns requiring irregular partings. 

Moulding open sand work. 

Moulding from patterns with follow board. 

Moulding from plate patterns. 

Making and baking cores. 

PATTERN MAKING. 

The course in pattern making consists of a series of exercises 
designed to give the fundamentals of this extension work. The 
patterns made by the boys are put to practical test by being used 
in the foundry, and the results of many are carried to the machine 
shop for practice work there. So far as possible, each boy follows 
all the operations resulting from his work in the pattern shop. 
Different woods are studied as to their value for this work, and 
talks are given on the use of other materials for patterns. The 
making of master patterns, their uses, and materials from which 
they are made are discussed. 

The exercises of this course are as follows : — 

Simple pattern to illustrate draft. 

Parted turned pattern. 

Cylindrical pattern, one piece. 

Cylindrical pattern, parted with core prints attached to illus- 
trate sizes and shapes of cores for different uses. 

Built up one piece pattern. 

Built up parted pattern. 

Pulley pattern about 8" in diameter illustrating the building up 
with segments. 

Gear patterns, both spur and bevel. 



Report of PuUic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 173 

Pattern requiring irregular parting in the mould. 
Follow-board and plate patterns. 

MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE. 

The plan of this course is to give experience in the usual ma- 
chine shop methods and problems. Each will have an opportunity 
at bench work, drilling work with the lathe, planer, shaper, milling 
machine and grinder. As far as possible, castings from our own 
foundry will be used, these castings having been made from pat- 
terns made in the pattern shop course. For the most part the work 
done in this shop is to be for some machine or fixture for use in 
the shops or school. Discussions on various classes of tools and 
their uses will be given from time to time. 

The exercises of this course are as follows: — 

Chipping and filing a plane surface. 

Chipping and filing parallel surfaces. 

Chipping a key way and filing and fitting a key. 

Drilling and tapping holes in cast iron. 

Turning a plane cylinder. 

Turning a taper. 

Cutting a "V" shaped thread. 

Cutting a square thread. 

An exercise with the planer and shaper. 

An exercise with the Milling Machine. 

MECHANICAL DRAWING. 

The course in mechanical drawing is arranged to extend over a 
period of three years, and is intended to enable the student to be- 
come familiar with his tools and their uses, and the usual methods 
and practices of the up-to-date drawing room. The drawings are 
made from the objects, as far as possible, and when we cannot have 
the object to work from, the student uses a sketch made by himself or 
handed him by his instructor. No copying is allowed aside from 
the work in making tracings. Problems in geometrical drawing are 
given from time to time in connection with such exercises as 
are essential. 

The exercises of this course are as follows : — 

Working drawings of joints assembled and in detail. 

Working drawings of single simple machine parts. 



174: Beport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

Setter sheets. 

Standard cross hatching and shade lines. 

Problems in orthographic projection. 

Problems in isometric projection. 

Problems in cabinet projection. 

Intersection of solids and development of surfaces. 

Drawing screws, bolts and nuts using actual and conventional 
methods. 

Drawing a piece of machinery or a machine tool assembled and 
in detail. 

Drawing simple spur and bevel gears. 

Making tracings and blue prints. 

Drawing plan and elevations of small building. 

Drawing details of windows, doors, dormers and other parts of 
a building. 

EQUIPMENT. 

All rooms of this department, as far as the work is under way, 
are well fitted with tools and appliances for carrying on the work, 
Each pupil has a complement of tools at his desk or bench with 
which the most of his work can be done. Each room is fitted with 
a tool case or room where are kept complete lines of tools of the 
journeymen and these are drawn out for use by means oi a check- 
ing system. Many of the projects made thus far are utilized in 
these rooms. Some of them are cabinets, desks, benches and cases. 

CITY NORMAL SCHOOL. 

In the City Normal School the classes of teachers in training 
are studying methods and elementary work in manual training and 
when they have finished their courses they will be well prepared to 
teach in the grade schools where there is such a pressing need at the 
present time of thorough preparation. In their work, they study 
and work out exercises in paper cutting, paper folding, weaving, 
basketry, elementary and advanced knife work. 



Report of PvMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 175 

DOMESTIC ART. 

Nella F. EIvLison. 

Instruction in Domestic Art is given to the first year high 
school girls. Two lessons of two forty-five minute periods are 
given weekly. 

Subjects of Instruction. 
First Term. 
I. Theory. 

a. Position of body while sewing. 

b. Holding and threading of needle. 

c. Length and size of thread to be used. 

d. Making of knots. 

e. Use of tape measure. 

f. Use of thimble. 
II. Application. 

a. Basting. 

1. even. * 

2. uneven. 

3. sidestitch. 

b. Seams. 

1. straight. 

2. bias. 

3. french. 

4. felled. 

c. Hems. 

1. plain. 

2. faced. 

3. extension. 

4. french. 

5. rolled. 

d. Patching, 

1. plain material. 

2. checked and striped material. 

3. flannel. 

e. Darning. 

1. hosiery. 

2. tablelinen. 

3. undergarments. 

4. lace. 



176 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Second Term. 

I. Theory. 

a. History and manufacture of cotton, linen, wool and silk. 

b. Use and care of sev.'ing machine. 

c. Use of machine attachments. 

d. Kinds and qualities of materials for undergarments. 

II. Application. 

a. Taking measurements, drafting patterns, cutting and 

making of corset cover or chemise, drawers, night- 
gown and petticoat. 

b. Supplemental Work. 

INIaking of bags, towels, curtains, bufifet and dresser 
covers which have been designed by the Fine Arts 
department. 
The Domestic Art Department has been fortunate in receiving 
the following exhibits which have added to the general appearance 
of the room as well as to the general intelligence of the pupils. 
O. N. T. Cotton Exhibit. 

Milward & Sons Needle Exhibit, from Clark Thread Co. 
Silk Exhibit from Cheney Mfg. Co. 
The Department is aided in doing a great deal more in the Art 
line than would otherwise be possible, through the hearty co-opera- 
tion of the Fine Arts department. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 
Ella C. Adams. 

It is not possible to teach this branch in its full scope and 
meaning to girls in the first year of the High School. We can only 
strive to give to each girl such knowledge of the scientific and prac- 
tical side of cooking as will be of first importance to her, at the 
same time remembering that training of hand and mind is here 
given its true place. 

The work is offered as an elective to all 9 B girls ; each girl de- 
voting to it two eighty minute laboratory periods per week. 

Foods are studied as to chemical composition, manufacture, 
food value and preparation for the table. Along with this is given 
incidental instruction in the serving of meals, washing and care of 
dishes and silver, care of table linen and the management of other 
departments of the home. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 177 

Foods are studied under four separate heads : 

I. Carbohydrates 

Cooking of cereals, vegetables, and fruits. 

II. Fats and oils 

Cooking of food in and with fat. 

III. Proteids 

Cooking of meats, eggs, and use of milk in cooking. 

IV. Making of bread, pastries, simple desserts and quick 
breads. 



Normal School. 



180 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

NORMAL SCHOOL. 

ADMISSION. 

To be admitted as a student in the City Normal School, it is 
necessary that the applicant shall have been graduated from the 
Fort Wayne High School or shall present satisfactory evidence of 
the completion of a course of study equivalent to the course of study 
of the Fort Wayne High School. 

COURSE OF STUDY. 

Psychology I Twenty weeks. 

Physiological Psychology. — Nervous system in general, struc- 
ture and functions of the brain and organs of special sense, re- 
actions, habits. Four periods weekly. 

Psychology H Twenty weeks. 

Introspective. — Consciousness, nature of, stages of growth and 
processes, sensation, perception, memory, imagination, conception, 
reasoning, emotions, instinct, will. Four periods weekly. 

Child Study Twelve weeks. 

Observation of individual children, studying the relation of the 
physical and intellectual development, and aiding the understanding 
of principles discussed in psychology. Four periods weekly. 

Methods I Sixteen weeks. 

Nature of education in general, its aim. 

General conception of method; method applied to the lessson. 

Four periods weekly. 

Methods H Twenty weeks. 

Application of method to reading, language, and numbers. 

Four periods weekly. 

Methods III Twenty weeks. 

Application of method to geography, history and nature study. 

Three periods weekly. 

History of Education I Twenty weeks. 

Ancient, mediaeval and modern education to the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. Four periods weekly. 
History of Education II Eight weeks. 

Educational aims and practices of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries. Four periods weekly. 



D 
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m 

GO 

H 

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o 




Report of Piiblic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 181 

Practice Teaching Twenty weeks. 

Observation and practice four full days in each week. 

Drawing Sixty weeks. 

Four periods weekly. 

Music Sixty weeks. 

One period every other week. 

Physical Culture Sixty weeks. 

One period every other week. 

Manual Training Sixty weeks 

Two periods per week. 

Nature Study Forty weeks. 

One period per week. 

Penmanship Forty weeks. 

One period per week. 
Psychology II. must be preceded by psychology I. 
Methods I. must precede methods II. and methods III. and 
must be accompanied or preceded by psychology I. 

History of Education II. must be preceded by history of educa- 
tion I. 

First TeiTn, 

Psychology I. 
Methods L 

History of Education I. 
Drawing. 
Music. 

Manual Training. 
Nature Study. 
Penmanship. 
Physical Culture. 
Second Term. 

Psychology II. 

Methods II. 

Methods III. 

Child Study. 

Drawing. 

Music. 

Physical Training. 

Nature Study. 

Penmanship. 

History of Education II. 



182 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Third Term. 

Observation and practice in Training School. 

Drawing. 

Music. 

Physical Culture. 

Manual Training. 
Text Books. 

Psychology, James' Briefer Course. 

Modern Education, Williams. 

Method of Recitation— McMurry. 

Child Study — Outline based on Warner. In addition to the 
regular texts much use is made of the pedagogical library located 
in the Normal School building. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 183 

STATE SCHOOL BOOK LIST. 

Universal Primer $ .10 

Indiana First Reader 10 

Indiana Second Reader 15 

Indiana Third Reader 25 

Indiana Fourth Reader 30 

Indiana Fifth Reader 40 

Alexander Spelling Book 10 

Scott — Southworth Lessons in English, Book 1 25 

Scott — Southworth Lessons in English, Book II 40 

Montgomery's American History 65 

Frye's Advanced Geography 75 

Conn's Physiology 5° 

Walsh's Primary Arithmetic 22 

Walsh's Grammar School Arithmetic 45 

Tarr & McMurray's Int. Geography 30 

New Era Copy Book No 05 

BOOKS NOT UNDER THE UNIFORM TEXT BOOK LAW. 

Wells' Algebra for Secondary Schools $1.20 

Music Primer 30 

Music Reader No. i 30 

Music Reader No. 2 35 

Music Reader No. 3 40 

Music Reader No. 4 40 

Music Reader No. 5 50 

Literature books in 5th, 6th, and 7th years cost 15 cents each and 

two are used each year. In the 8th year books costing 25 cents 

are occasionally used but in the main a fifteen cent edition is used. 

TEXT BOOKS FOR HIGH SCHOOL. 

TITLE PUBIvISHER COST 

Wells' Algebra for Secondary 
Schools 
Edition without answers D. C. Heath & Co $1.20 

Shutt's Plane and Solid Geometry Atkinson, Mentzer & 
Revised Edition Glover 1.25 

Pearson's Essentials of Latin American Book Co 90 

Greenough & D'Ooge's Second 

Year's Latin Ginn & Co 1.25 

Harkness' Cicero (Revised Edi- 
tion) American Book Co i.oo 



184 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Knapp's Virgil Scott, Foresman & Co... 1.40 

Bennett's Latin Grammar Allyn & Bacon 80 

Jones' Latin Prose Composition Scott, Foresman & Co... i.oo 

Spanhoofd's Lehrbuck der 

Deutschen Sprache D. C. Heath & Co i.oo 

Joynes-Meissner's German Gram- 
mar D. C. Heath & Co 1.12 

Coulter's — A Text Book of Botany D. Appleton & Co 1.25 

Gilbert & Brigham's Phys. Geo- 
graphy D. Appleton & Co 1.25 

Hoadley's Physics American Book Co 1.20 

Davis Chemistry Scott, Foresman & Co... i.oo 

Botsford's Ancient History for Be- 
ginners The MacMillen Co 1.50 

Wrong's History of the British 

Nation D. Appleton & Co 1.30 

McLaughlin's History of the U. S. D. Appleton & Co 1.40 

James & Sanford's Government in 

State and Nation D. Appleton & Co i.oo 

Moody & Lovett's First View of 

English Literature Chas. Scribner's Sons... i.oo 

Chutes' Physical Laboratory 

Manual D. C. Heath & Co 80 

Flerrick & Damon's Rhetoric Scott, Foresman & Co... i.oo 

Tate's Manual Training School Education Co 85 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mulhewson's Notes for Mechani- 
cal Drawing Taylor. Holden Co 1.25 

Springfield, Mass 

Purfield's Wood Pattern Making Pub. by the Author 1.50 

Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Sampson & Holland's English 

Composition American Book Co 80 

Brigham's Physical Geography 

Laboratory Manual D. Appleton & Co 60 

ENGLISH LITERATURE BOOKS FOR 1907-1908 

Merchant of Venice — Ed.byParrott Henry Holt & Co 35 

Julius Caesar — Arden Ed. D. C. Heath & Co 25 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 185 

Macbeth— Ed. by Chambers D. C. Heath & Co 25 

Milton's Minor Poems — Ed. by 

Hartington Ginn & Co 25 

Ancient Mariner and Vision of Sir 

Launfal (one volume) Sibley & Ducker 25 

Tale of Two Cities— Ed. by Moore D. C. Heath & Co .50 

Ivanhoe — Ed. by Dracas D. Appleton & Co 60 

It must be remembered that no one student in the High School 
is required to purchase the full list of books here given. To know 
the cost of books for any individual student it must be ascertained 
what course of study he is taking and make the computation upon 
the books needed for such course. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

OF THE CITY OF 

4 

FORT WAYNE, IND. 



Report of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 189 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 



Meetings of the Board. 

Section i. The regular meetings of the Board shall be held on 
the second and fourth ]\Iondays of each month. T^^e hour of meet- 
ing shall be 7 :30 o'clock p. m. Special meetings may be called at 
any time by the president. 

Order of Business. 

Sec. 2. At all meetings of the Board the order of business 
shall be as follows : 

I. Reading minutes of the last meeting. 

Consideration of accounts. 

Reception of communications and petitions. 

Reports of committees. 

Unfinished business. 

New business. 

Reports and suggestions of the Superintendent. 



Superintendent^ Appointment and Discharge. 



Sec. 3. For the purpose of aiding the Board of School Trus- 
tees in the discharge of its duties ; of securing uniformity and 
thoroughness in the course of instruction, and judicious and effi- 
cient discipline in all the schools, a Superintendent shall be appoint- 
ed. The appointment shall be made by the Board for such time and 
at such salary as shall be mutually agreed upon by the Board and 
the Superintendent. Provided that the first appointment of any 
person to the position of Superintendent shall be for a trial term 
of not more than one year. 

He may be discharged for incompetency, unfaithfulness in the 
discharge of his duties, or wilful neglect to conform to the rules 
and regulations of the schools. 

The resignation of the Superintendent shall be by written com- 
munication to the Board, and shall be filed with the Secretary. 



190 Report of Fuhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

General Powers and Duties. 

Sec. 4. To the Superintendent shall be committed the general 
supervision of all the public schools, school houses, apparatus, and 
other property belonging thereto. To him shall be committed the 
methods of instruction, government, and general management tljat 
shall be practiced in the schools. He is specially charged with the 
strict enforcement of the rules and regulations of the Board, a copy 
of which he shall have placed in each school room. He shall keep 
regular office hours for the convenience of parents, teachers, pupils, 
and others desiring" any information concerning the schools. He 
shall devote himself to the duties of his office, and perform such oth- 
er official duties, not herein specified, as may be required by the 
Board. 

Special Powers and Duties. 

Sec. 5. Visiting Schools. — The Superintendent shall visit the 
different schools as often as his other duties will permit, note the 
methods of instruction and discipline used by each teacher, examine 
the classes, and give such aid and encouragement to teachers and 
pupils as circumstances may suggest. It shall be his duty, to grade 
the schools, to distribute pupils to their appropriate districts, etc. 
He shall assign teachers their respective positions and duties, and 
shall report to the Board whenever he shall find any teacher defi- 
cient and incompetent in the discharge of his or her duties, and 
shall have the power, with the consent of the Board of Education, 
to dispense with the services of any teacher whenever it shall appear 
that his or her further connection with the schools would not be 
beneficial thereto. 

Sec. 6. Violations of Duty. — He shall check all violations of 
the duties of the school room, and not tolerate in teachers any ir- 
regularities or delinquencies, and in case of insubordination, gross 
neglect of duty, or other serious fault upon part of a teacher, he 
shall, if in his judgment advisable, suspend such teacher from duty, 
and report the case to the Board for final adjudication. He only 
shall have power to suspend pupils from school whose conduct or 
character is such as would injure the schools, or whose parents will- 
fully neglect or refuse to co-operate with the Superintendent or 
teachers in carrying out the regulations of the schools, or who en- 
courage their children to neglect or violate the rules of the schools ; 
but no pupil shall be finally expelled except by a vote of the Board. 



Eeport of Public ScJiools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 191 

Sec. 7. Other School Systems. — He shall endeavor to acquaint 
himself with the public school systems of other cities, and with 
whatever principles and facts may concern the interests of popular 
education, and with all matters pertaining in any way to the organi- 
zation, discipline, and instruction of public schools, to the end that 
all the children of this city, who are instructed in the different de- 
partments, may obtain the best education which the schools are able 
to impart. 

Sec. 8. Pay Roll. — He shall keep a correct account of the ser- 
vices rendered by each teacher, and, at the end of each school month 
shall make out an accurate pay-roll, showing the several amounts 
due the teachers, and file the same with the Board. 

Sec. 9. Regulations — He shall have power to make such spe- 
cial regulations, subject to the approval of the Board, as he shall 
deem essential to promote the efficiency of the schools. It shall be 
his duty to see that every teacher is familiar with the rules and 
regulations of the Board, the course of study ; together with the 
methods of instruction and discipline suggested in the course of 
study, etc. 

Sec. 10. Examinations. — He shall have authority to hold, at 
any time, such examinations in any school as he may deem necessary 
to inform himself of its condition, and shall prescribe the time and 
manner of all other examinations of classes, and shall transfer pu- 
pils from one grade to another, as he may deem advisable. 

Sec. II. Teachers' Meetings. — He shall have power to require 
teachers to attend such regular or occasional meetings as he may 
appoint, for instruction in their duties, methods of teachmg and 
governing their schools, or for mutual improvement. 

Sec. 12. Meetings of Board. — He shall attend the meetings of 
the Board, advise with committees requiring his aid, and give such 
information as may be called for in regard to the welfare and pro- 
gress of the schools. 

Sec. 13. Report. — He shall report to the Board at the close of 
the school year, before the annual appointment of teachers, the aver- 
age standing of each teacher in the school, as regards ability to 
teach and govern, and punctuality in attendance at school or at 
teachers' meetings, and shall each year make a general report to the 
Board of the condition of the schools. 

Sec. 14. Transfers. — The Superintendent shall have power to 
transfer pupils from one district to another, in case such transfer be 



192 Report of PuMic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

necessary for the relief of crowded rooms, or for purposes of disci- 
pline. A transfer for other reasons than these shall not be made ex- 
cept by the Board in regular session, and then only upon application 
by the parent or guardian, made in person or by writmg', stating 
reasons for such transfer, and showing to the satisfaction of the 
Board that such transfer will be beneficial to the pupil, and not de- 
trimental to the general interests of the school. 

. Grades of Schools. 

Sec. 15. The Public Schools of the City of Fort Wayne shall 
be divided into Kindergarten, Primary, Grammar, or Intermediate, 
High School and Training School departments. The Kindergarten 
department shall be for the instruction of children between the ages 
of five and six years. The Primary Schools shall comprise the first, 
second, third and fourth years of the regular school course, and shall 
be divided into eight grades of one-half year each, which grades 
shall be thus designated: First year, Grades i B and lA; second 
year, Grades 2 B and 2 A ; third year. Grades 3 B and 3 A ; fourth 
year, Grades 4 B and 4 A. 

The Grammar, on Intermediate Schools, shall comprise the 
fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth years of the course, and shall be di- 
vided into eight grades of one-half year each, which grades shall be 
thus designated : Fifth year. Grades 5 B and 5 A ; sixth year, 
Grades 6 B and 6 A ; seventh year. Grades 7 B and 7 A ; eighth 
year. Grades 8 B aind 8A. The letter A in each case shall designate 
the higher grade, and the letter B the lower grade, of each year. 

The High School shall comprise the ninth, tenth, eleventh and 
twelfth years of the course, and shall be divided into four classes 
which shall be thus designated : First year, Second year. Junior, 
and Senior. 

The Training School shall be for the preparation of teachers 
and shall extend through one and one-half years of work. 

Sec. 16. School Year — The School year shall consist of forty 
weeks, exclusive of Christmas holidays. The year shall be divided 
into two terms of twenty weeks each. 

Sec. 17. Holidays and Dismissals. — The schools shall be clos- 
ed on Christmas and New Year's Day, Thanksgiving Day and the 
day succeeding, on Decoration Day, and on such other 
days as the Board shall, from time to time, direct. Also, in 
case of the death of an officer of the schools all the schools shall be 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 193 

closed for the half day in which the funeral ceremonies shall be held. 
In case of the death of a teacher the school in which such teacher 
was employed shall be closed for the half day of the funeral. 

Sec. 1 8. Daily Sessions. — There shall be two daily sessions in 
all the schools. In the District schools, the first session shall be- 
gin at 9 :oo a. m. and close at 12 :oo m. The second shall begin at 
1 130 p. m. and close at 4 p. m. The pupils of the first and second 
years of the Primary grades shall be dismissed at 1 1 :^o a. m. and 
3 :30 p. m. each day. In the High School, the first session shall be 
from 9 :oo a. m. to 11 145 a. m., and the second session from i :30 p. 
m. to 4 p. m. The schools shall be governed by Central Standard 
time. 

ADMISSION. 

Sec. 19. Age and Time of Admission. — In accordance with 
the provisions of the school law, children under six years of age 
shall not be admitted into any of the grades enumerated in Section 
15 of these regulations except the Kindergarten, unless such chil- 
dren shall attain the age of six years within the half-year of school at 
the beginning of which they apply, nor shall beginners be admitted 
into the i B grade except at the opening of the schools, in Septem- 
ber, or at the beginning of the second term of the school year. Other 
pupils belonging to the school city may be admitted at any time to 
the grades for which they are qualified. Children under five years 
of age shall not be admitted into any Kindergarten established or 
maintained by the Board. 

Sec. 20. Admissian Prohibited on Account of Disease. — No 
pupil known to be affected with any contagious or loathsome disease 
or coming from a household afflicted with any contagious disease, 
shall be received or continued in the public schools. (Any pupil not 
having been vaccinated may be excluded from school at any time.) 

Sec. 21. Tuition Pupils. — None except children or wards of 
actual residents shall be admitted to the schools free of charge. Chil- 
dren of non-residents may be admitted to any of the schools for 
which they are qualified, if they can be accommodated without dis- 
commoding resident pupils, on payment of the legal rates of tuition. 

Sec. 22. High School — Admdssion to. — No one shall be ad- 
mitted to the High School as a pupil who shall not have completed, 
in a satisfactory manner, the course of study of the district schools 
of the city, or a course of study equivalent thereto in the branches of 
study usually known as Common School branches. 



194 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS OF SPECIAL 
BRANCHES OF INSTRUCTION. 

Sec. 23. Powers. — The Supervisors of Special Branches of 
Instruction shall be held responsible respectively for the success of 
the work in such special branches. 

To each Supervisor shall be given the power to call such meet- 
ings of teachers for instruction in methods or subject matter as he 
or she may deem necessary, subject to the approval of the Superin- 
tendent. The attendance of teachers at all such meetings shall be 
regular and punctual, and for willful neglect or refusal to attend 
any such meeting, the teacher in fault shall be reported to the Su- 
perintendent, who shall treat such case as coming under the provis- 
ions of Section 6 of the Rules and Regulations. Provided, that the 
Supervisor may excuse any teacher from attendance at a meeting for 
reasons appearing sufficient to the Supervisor. 

Sec. 24. Rules for Meetigigs, Etc. — Each Supervisor shall have 
power to devise rules for the government of meetings called under 
the provisions of the foregoing Section, which rules, when they shall 
have been approved by the Superintendent, shall be deemed a part 
of the code of rules governing the schools, and it shall be the duty 
of each Supervisor to visit each school room as often as his or her 
other duties may permit, and observe the methods of instruction 
used by each teacher in the special branch of which the Supervisor 
is in charge, and each Supervisor shall render to the Superinten- 
dent, as often as required a report as to the work of the branch, 
and as to the proficiency of the respective teachers in such branch 
of instruction as he or she may supervise. 

Sec. 25. Programme.— It shall be the duty of each Super- 
visor to have a regular programme of visitation and 
instruction, which programme shall be approved by the 
Superintendent, and filed at his office at the beginning of each 
school term and each Supervisor shall adhere to said programme in 
his or her rounds of visitation and instruction, unless special reas- 
ons exist for departure therefrom at any particular time, in which 
case the Supervisor may vary from said programme ; but in all cases 
of such variance a statement of the fact thereof, and the reasons 
therefor shall be filed at the office of the Superintendent as soon 
thereafter as practicable. 



Beport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 195 

Duties of Principals. 

Sec. 26. Responsibilities. — The Principals shall have the gen- 
eral supervision of their respective schools. They shall be held re- 
sponsible for the enforcement of the rules and regulations of the 
Board, and they shall strictly carry out the directions of the 
Superintendent. They shall exercise a care over the buildings, 
grounds, and appurtenances, and whenever any repairs are needed, 
they shall give notice thereof to the Superintendent. They shall 
be held responsible for the instruction atid discipline in the various 
rooms. They shall examine and locate all applicants for admission 
into their schools, and shall as often as practicable examine the 
classes of their subordinate teachers. 

Sec. 27. Supervision. — They shall devote some time each day 
to visiting the schools under their charge , for the purpose of 
supervising and directing the labors of the other teachers, and as- 
certaining whether all the records of the school are regularly and 
accurately kept, the pupils properly classified, and the parents or 
guardians duly notified of the absence of their children. They shall 
exercise great care in seeing that the various roo^ms are kept prop- 
erly heated and ventilated. 

Sec. 28. Meetings. — They shall have the power to call their 
subordinate teachers together, for the purpose of instruction and 
mutual consultation. — 

Sec. 29. Reports. — At the close of each month and year, 
they shall make full reports according to blanks furnished them, 
with such additional information as the Superintendent may from 
time to time require, or as they may think important to communi- 
cate. 

Sec. 30. Supervision of Janitors. — They shall exercise a su- 
pervision over the janitors and engineers and hold them to a strict 
performance of their duty. They shall report every neglect on 
their part, immediately to the Superintendent. 

Sec. 31. Promote Harmony. — They shall endeavor to pro- 
mote harmony and good-will amng their subordinate teachers, and 
to secure the interest and co-operation of the patrons of the school. 
They shall seek to protect the children, as well as the teachers, in 
their rights, and they shall strive to awaken in both teachers and 
pupils enthusiastic devotion to their work. 

Sec. 32. Care of Apparatus cmd Books. — They shall be held 
responsible for the careful use and preservation of all apparatus, 



196 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

desk books, supplementary reading and reference books sent to 
their respective buildings, and shall see that all supplies furnished 
by the Board are carefully and economically used. 

Sec. 33. Attendance. — The Principal of each building shall 
be at the school house at least thirty minutes before the hour for 
opening the schools in the morning, and twenty minutes in the 
afternoon, and see that the rooms are in proper order for the re- 
ception of pupils ; that the clocks of the building correspond with 
the standard of time ; and that teachers are punctual in their at- 
tendance. They shall be held responsible for the neatness and 
cleanliness of the school houses and out-buildings, and they shall 
frequently inspect the out-buildings and in-door closets, and make 
such regulations for use thereof as shall insure their being kept in 
proper condition. 

Principals shall remain at their respective buildings in the 
afternoon until the last dismissal hour, except when called away 
to attend the regular or called meetings of the Superintendent and 
Supervisors, or when excused by the Superintendent. 

Sec. 34. Supervision of Pupils. — Principals shall see that 
pupils do not appear in or about the school yard earlier than thirty 
minutes before the opening of the school, superintend the deport- 
ment of pupils in the yards and vicinity of school houses during 
recesses and intermissions, see that good order is at all times pre- 
served in the halls and stairways, and that pupils do not remain 
about the school premises after dismissal. They shall report to the 
Superintendent any refusal, after due and proper admonition, on 
the part of a teacher or pupil to comply with the rules of the Board. 
The Principal of the High School shall have power to require the 
attendance of any teacher in said school in a study room for super- 
vision of the order of pupils therein, when such teacher shall not 
be on duty elsewhere. 

Sec. 35. Opening Rooms. — Rooms shall not be opened for the 
admission of pupils, except in inclement weather, until the time set 
for teachers to be in their rooms. 

APPOINTMENT AND DUTIES OF TEACHERS. 

Sec. 36. Appointment, Gradation of Salaries, etc. — At the 
last regular meeting in May, each year, the Board shall appoint, as 
far as practicable, the teachers for the next school year. Teachers 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 197 

thus appointed shall hold their positions until the close of the school 
year for which they shall be appointed, unless sooner removed by 
the Board. No one shall be eligible to appointment as a teacher in 
the grade schools who shall not have had a four years' High School 
course or its equivalent, and in addition thereto at least 
one and one-half years' work in a Normal or City 
Training School unless such person shall have had a 
successful teaching experience of at least three full school years. 
The salaries of teachers shall be regulated by their schol- 
arship, efficiency, and number of years' experience in the public 
schools of the city, counting the first year at the lowest salary 
named for the class to which the teacher may belong, and adding 
such annual increase for each year's experience as the Board may 
deem proper; provided, however, that no experience of less than 
one year shall be counted, and provided that all new teachers here- 
after employed shall begin with the lowest salary of the class to 
which they may belong, unless the Board shall make special ex- 
ception in the case of an efficient and experienced teacher or one ap- 
pointed for special service. The foregoing provisions as to salaries 
shall be in power in all cases where the state law regulating teach- 
ers' pay does not apply. 

Sec. 37. Resignation, and Discharge of Teachers. — No teach- 
er shall have the right to resign during the term for which he or 
she shall have been appointed without giving at least two weeks' 
notice. The resignation shall be in writing and filed with the Su- 
perintendent. Teachers may be discharged at any time, for im- 
proper conduct, incompetency to teach or govern their schools, un- 
faithfulness in executing the directions of the Superintendent, or 
violation of the terms of contract. Any unmarried woman accept- 
ing a position in the public schools of the city of Fort Wayne, shall 
do so subject to the following condition : That in case of the 
marriage of such teacher after her contract shall have been signed, 
and before the time of termination of said contract, such marriage 
shall be deemed equivalent to a resignation of her position in the 
schools. 

Sec. 38. Teachers' Hours. — Teachers shall be at their respec- 
tive rooms thirty minutes before the time of opening schools in the 
morning, and at least twenty minutes in the afternoon. If "tardy" 
it shall be so marked upon the monthly report, and reasons there 
for assigned. They shall not leave the building in the afternoon 



198 lieport of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

prior to the last dismissal, 4:00 p. m., without permission from the 
Principal, except to attend the regular or called meetings of the 
Superintendent and Supervisors. 

Sec. 39. Teachers' Meetings. — All teachers are required to 
attend promptly all meetings of teachers called by the Superinten- 
dent, Supervisors, or Principal for the purpose of being instructed 
in regard to their duties, and for mutual consultation in all mat- 
ters connected with the prosperity of the schools. 

Sec. 40. Faithful in Performance of Duty. — Teachers shall 
open school promptly at the appointed time, devote themselves ex- 
clusively to instruction of their pupils, maintain good order, super- 
intend the conduct of their pupils in the yards and vicinity of 
the school buildings during recesses and intermissions, in accord- 
ance with the direction of the Principal, and strictly adhere to the 
course of study and the use of text-books prescribed by the Board. 

Sec. 41. Opening of School. — The morning exercises of each 
school shall commence with reading (without note or comment) 
from the sacred Scriptures, which may be followed by repeating 
the Lord's Prayer and by appropriate singing. 

Sec. 42. Mco\is of Disciplhtc. — All teachers employed by the 
Board are entitled to the respect and obedience of their pupils, arid 
while they are required to maintain order in school, and secure 
obedience to necessary rules, they are reminded that passionate and 
harsh expressions and injudicious measures tend only to evil ; that 
the best disciplinarian is the one who can secure order by the gent- 
lest influences. They should exercise a firm and vigilant, but pru- 
dent and paternal discipline ; governing as far as practicable, by 
persuasive and gentle measures. 

Sec. 43. Moral and Social Culture. — It is especially enjoined 
upon teachers to regard the moral and social culture of their pupils, 
as not less important than their mental discipline. They must not tol- 
erate in them falsehood, profanity, cruelty, or any other form of 
vice. By example and precept they shall endeavor to form them 
to habits of social refinement. 

Sec. 44. Supervise Conduct in Hall and Yards. — Teachers 
shall give careful and constant attention to the discipline, manners 
and habits of their pupils, not only in the schoolroom, but also dur- 
ing recesses and intermissions, while in the halls and yards, and, as 
far as practicable, while coming to, and especially while returning 
from school. 



Report of Public Scliools, Fort Wayne, hid. 199 

Sec. 45. Co-operation with Principal. — Teachers are required 
to co-operate with the Principal and Superintendent in seeing that 
the school building, furniture, apparatus, together with the yard, 
out-houses and other property, are not injured or defaced by their 
scholars. And when such injury shall be done, they shall cause 
prompt remuneration or reparation to be made, or immediate notice 
of the same to be given to the Superintendent. 

Sec. 46. Acceptance of Pupils. — No teacher shall allow any 
person to attend his or her school unless such person shall have been 
assigned to such school by the Principal of the Building or the 
Superintendent. 

Sec. 47. Temperature and Ventilation. — Teachers shall give 
particular attention to the temperature and ventilation of thei.f 
rooms, taking special care to avoid injurious extremes of heat and 
cold. The proper temperature of school rooms in winter is from 
68 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. In no case shall pupils be exposed to 
draughts of cold air or be otherwise exposed, so as to destroy com- 
fort and endanger health. 

Sec. 48. Private Work. — No teacher in the public schools 
shall be allowed to keep a private school, or attend to the instruc- 
tion of private pupils, before 6 o'clock p. m., except on Saturdays. 

Sec. 49. Co-operation with Others. — A hearty co-operation 
with the Superintendent, and each other, and a cheerful compliance 
with the regulations of the Board, and the directions of the Prin- 
cipal and Superintendent, shall be rendered by all teachers. 

Sec. 50. Teachers Must Not Use Text-Books in Conducting 
Recitations. — No teacher, while conducting a recitation in geog- 
raphy, grammar, arithmetic, physiology, or history, shall be al- 
lowed to use a text-book. Teachers may make an abstract of the 
lesson, to be used during recitation. A thorough mastery of the 
matter contained in each lesson, as well as a definite method of 
presenting it, is expected of every teacher. To be able to do the 
work in this manner, a thorough preparation of the work for each 
day will be necessary. Any failure on the part of a teacher to 
comply faithfully with this rule shall not be tolerated. 

Sec. 51. Relation to and Complaints Against Principals. — In 
all cases of emergency, teachers shall look to their Principals for 
advice and direction. iVU complaints on their part against Princi- 
pals or other teachers shall be in writing and made directly to the 
Superintendent. 



200 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Sec. 52. To Keep a Register. — Each teacher shall be required 
to keep a register of the daily attendance of pupils, noting tardi- 
ness and bad conduct, and also keep a register of the names and 
residences of parents and guardians, and to make in a satisfactory 
manner all reports required by the Superintendent. No teacher 
shall be entitled to pay or re-appointment until all reports and rec- 
ords are satisfactorily made. 

Sec. 53. Detention of Pupils. — The teachers shall not detain 
any pupil at the noon intermission. No pupil shall be detained dur- 
ing recess, except for willful or persistent violation of the rules of 
the play ground. Pupils thus detained shall be permitted to go out 
at the close of recess and remain out five minutes. 

Sec. 54. Advertisements. — No teacher shall announce, or al- 
low to be announced or advertised, in any way whatever, in his or 
her school, any show, lecture, or other entertainment, or allow any 
agent or other person to exhibit in the school any book or article of 
apparatus or consume the time of teachers or pupils in any man- 
ner, without the consent of the Superintendent. 

Sec. 55. Care of School Property. — Teachers shall have im- 
mediate care of their respective school rooms, and be held respon- 
sible for the preservation of all furniture and apparatus thereto 
belonging. 

Sec. 56. Responsibility of Teachers. — Teachers shall be held 
responsible for the punctual attendance of their pupils. At the 
close of school, morning and afternoon, every day, it shall be the 
duty of each teacher to notify the parent or guardian of every pupil 
who shall have been absent, unless the cause of such absence be 
known to both parent or guardian and teacher. 

Sec. 57. Care of Pupils During Recess. — Whenever pupils are 
passing in or out of the building, at the opening or closing of school, 
and during recess, teachers shall give such personal attention to 
their conduct as the Principal of the building may direct. It shall 
be the duty of any teacher, when on duty in the halls or school yards 
to report disorderly pupils to their own teachers, with either verbal 
or written statement of the offense. Repeated failures to correct 
the conduct of pupils so complained of, shall be reported to the 
Superintendent. 

Sec. 58. Visiting Other RoontiS and Other Schools. — Teach- 
ers shall not visit the rooms of each other during school hours, nor 
be absent from their school rooms without permission from the 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 201 

Principal. Teachers may visit other schools for the purpose of ob- 
serving the modes of discipHne, instruction, etc., but such visits 
shall not be made oftener than once each term, nor consume more 
than one-half day each, if the school visited be in the city ; and in 
case the schools of other cities shall be visited, not more than two 
days shall be consumed, nor more than one visit made each year. 
Such visits shall only be made by the permission or direction of 
the Superintendent, and no time for such visitation to other cities 
or towns shall be allowed in the last half of the second term of 
the school year. 

Note.— This allowance of time for visiting is not to be con- 
strued as a holiday, to which each teacher, or each school is en- 
titled. It must be made use of by such teachers only as may them- 
selves feel the need of the benefits to be derived from observing 
other teachers in their work, and such as the Superintendent may 
advise to make use of the provision. Visits must be paid early 
enough in the term to make information gained thereby available 
in the teacher's immediate work, and the schools visited must be 
such as the Superintendent may recommend. 

Sec. 59. Absence of Teacher — Substitutes. — In case a teach- 
er shall be unable to attend to his or her school room duties, im- 
mediate notice shall be given to the Principal of the building, or to 
the Superintendent that a substitute will be needed in such teach- 
er's room. Such substitute shall be furnished by the Superinten- 
dent, and the pay of such substitute shall be deducted from the pa}^ 
of the regular teacher save in case of the teacher's sickness or in 
case of death in the immediate family of the teacher, when the sub- 
stitute shall be paid by the Board, but in no case shall more than 
three days of absence be allowed in any half-year without deduc- 
tion of pay, and no teacher shall be absent for a period longer than 
three days, except in case of sickness, without special permission 
from the Superintendent nor more than one week without leave of 
absence from the Board. 

Sec. 60. Complaints of Teachers and Other Employes. — Com- 
plaints from employes of the Board shall be brought before the 
Board at regular or called meetings only, but no complaint shall be 
heard by the Board unless the matters involved therein shall first 
have been submitted for adjustment to the Superintendent. 

Sec. 61. Complaints Against Teachers. — Any parent or 
guardian feeling aggrieved for any cause against any teacher must 



202 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Jniake application for redress to the Superintendent. Complaints, 
against teachers, made to the Board, must be in writing. All such 
complaints will be heard at any regular meeting; provided, the par- 
ent or guardian and the teacher or teachers against whom the com- 
plaint is made be present. No complaint shall be heard which has 
not been first made to the Superintendent. 

Sec. 62. Notice to Parents or Guardians, etc. — It shall be the 
duty of teachers (by the use of warning and special notices) to 
inform the parent or guardian of each pupil, who from absence, 
inattention, or any other cause, is failing in his studies or deport- 
ment, of such delinquency, and when no improvement follows such 
notification, the case shall be referred to the Superintendent, who 
alone is authorized to place the pupil in such grade as he may deem 
proper, or suspend him from school on account of wrong conduct. 
It shall be the duty of all teachers to acquaint themselves with the 
regulations of the School Board, and to co-operate with the Super- 
intendent in their enforcement. 

DUTIES OF PUPILS. 

Sec. 63. Every pupil is required to attend school regularly 
and punctually ; to conform to all the rules of the school ; to obey 
all the directions of the Superintendent and teachers ; to observe 
good order and propriety in deportment ; to be diligent in study, 
respectful to teachers, kind and obliging to schoolmates ; to refrain 
entirely from the use of profane or indecent language or conduct; 
to refrain from the use of tobacco in any form in or about the 
school building or grounds ; to avoid communication during the 
hours of stud}^ and recitation without permission ; to be clean and 
neat in person and attire ;to practice self-government ; to do right. 

Sec. 64. Truancy, etc. — Any pupil who is irregular in his at- 
tendance and frequently tardy, or who is guilty of truancy, or is 
habitually neglectful of his studies and of the rules of the school, 
may be suspended by the Superintendent or expelled by the Board, 
provided that such pupil be above the age set as the maximum in 
the Compulsory Education Law. 

wSec. 65. Character of Excuses. — Sickness of the pupil or 
sickness in the family, or some pressing necessity, shall be the only 
excuses accepted for absence. Absences which occur when the at- 
tendance of the pupil would occasion serious and imprudent expos- 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 203 

ure of health, shall be regarded as absence caused by sickness. Ex- 
cuses must state cause of absence. 

Sec. 66. Special Provisions. — Any pupil carrying firearms, or 
other deadly weapons, shall be suspended, and not be permitted to 
resume his seat without the consent of the Superintendent. Any 
pupil who shall, on or about the school premises, make any indecent 
exposure of his person, or any obscene gesture, or use or write any 
profane or indecent language, draw any obscene picture or represen- 
tation, or knowingly aid, in any manner, in the circulation of ob- 
scene or indecent writing or literature, shall be liable to suspension 
or expulsion. 

Sec. 67. Disturbing Property. — Pupils on their way to and 
from school, are required to conform to the ordinary rules of polite- 
ness. They are forbidden to enter or disturb the garden, lot, or 
other property whatever, of any citizen, during school hours, or on 
their way to and from school. 

Sec. 68. Cleanliness. — Any child who comes to school with- 
out proper attention having been given to the cleanliness of his per- 
son or dress or whose clothes need repairing, may be sent home to 
be properly prepared for the school room. 

Sec. 69. Assembling at unreasonable hours. — Pupils shall not 
be permitted to assemble about the school house at unreasonable 
times before the commencement of school, or remain after they are 
dismissed. 

Sec. 70. Injuries to property. — Parents will be held respon- 
sible for any injury done by their children to the furniture or other 
property of the Board, and no pupil, whose parent or guardian re- 
fuses to make reparation for all such damage, shall be allowed the 
privileges of the school. 

Sec. 71. Accountability. — Pupils are accountable to their 
teachers ; teachers immediately to the Principals and to the Super- 
intendent; the Superintendent to the Board of Education. No par- 
ent or guardian will be suffered to make complaints in presence of 
the school. 

Sec. y2. Order. — On coming to school, pupils shall come 
directly into the school yard, and on entering the halls they shall 
pass directly to their rooms. Pupils shall refrain from rough play, 
pwshing, boisterous conduct, and throwing missiles upon the 
grounds or in going to and from school. 

Sec. 73. Absence from Exammations. — Any pupil who shall 



204 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

absent himself from any regular or appointed examination shall 
not be allowed to resume his seat without permission from the Su- 
perintendent. 

Sec. 74. Books and Stationery. — Pupils shall be provided with 
such books and stationery as are prescribed by the course of study, 
or be denied the privileges of the schools. Children whose parents 
or guardians are in indigent circumstances shall be supplied with 
books by the Board. These books shall be returned when the chil- 
dren leave school. The books may be obtained by calling on the 
Principal who shall after investigation make requisition upon the 
Superintendent, certifying that the issue of books and supplies is 
necessary and proper under the rule. 

Sec. 75. Absence for the Purpose of Receiving Religious In- 
struction or Taking Private Lessons. — Pupils shall be excused for 
absence for the purpose of receiving religious instruction, or tak- 
ing lessons in such branches of education as the parent or guar- 
dian may desire, provided such absence does not materially affect 
their regular studies, and satisfactory arrangements be personally 
made in advance by the parent or guardian with the Superinten- 
dent. 

Sec. y6. Insulting Co7iduct — Any pupil who shall be dis- 
respectful or msulting in language or action towards any school 
officer or teacher upon the street or in any public place, at any hour 
of the day, or upon any day of the week, shall be liable to suspen- 
sion or expulsion, or such other punishment as may be deemed 
adequate. 

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS TO PRINCIPALS REGARDING 
REPORTS, ETC. 

I. Send in Teachers' Attendance Reports the last Friday of 
each school month immediately after the opening of schools in the 
afternoon. 

On this report place the names of teachers only who have been 
absent or tardy within the month. 

In the column for date place the date of absence or tardiness 
of teacher. 

In case of absence caused by illness, state whether such illness 
was illness of the teacher. 

In case of absence caused by funeral state whether such funeral 
was in the immediate family of the teacher. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 205 

2. Send in monthly reports, supplementary reports, and grade 
reports the first Tuesday morning of each school month when you 
send for supplies. 

3. Within two weeks after the opening of school in the fall 
send in to the office a list of teachers in your building with grade 
and residence of each. Any change of residence thereafter should 
be reported to the office. Teachers should keep the office informed 
as to where mail may reach them during the summer. 

4. When state school books are sent to your building for sale 
always count them as soon as received to see if the bill which ac- 
companies them is correct, and telephone the office at once if the^e 
is any mistake. 

5. When examinations are held in which questions issued by 
the Superintendent are used, all papers must be sent to his office 
accompanied by the questions within a week after the examinations 
are completed. 

6. All supply books must be returned to the Janitor-in-Chief at 
the close of the year. 

Keys to buildings, teachers' desks, closets, etc., must be proper- 
ly labeled and left at Superintendent's office during the summer. 

7. Children who will become six years of age within the term 
may be admitted at the beginning of said term. 

8. NoH-Resident Pupils. A list of such pupils must be sent 
to the Superintendent the first Friday of each school year. On this 
list should appear the name of every pupil residing outside the city 
limits, with his grade, parent's or guardian's name, and residence. 
A pupil whose parents or guardian live outside the city, but who is 
boarding or living with relatives inside the city is considered a non- 
resident pupil. Whenever a non-resident pupil (whether an acces- 
sion or a transfer from another school in the city, enters school after 
this list has been sent in, his name, grade, parent's or guardian's 
name, residence and date of entrance must be sent to the Super- 
intendent's office. Indicate whether such pupils are accessions 
or transfers. When non-resident pupils present transfer certifi- 
cates from Township Trustees, said certificates must be sent to the 
Superintendent without delay. 

9. Registration Sheets. — These sheets are to be sent in with 
the first monthly report. The number of names must correspond to 
the General Enrollment. Be careful to fill out every item. The 
first thing when a child enters school have the teacher get the re- 



206 Report of Puhlic Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

quired items. One age left off spoils an important table of age*. 
Parents' names and residences omitted render the report valueless 
as a check to the enumerator or truant officer. Write the names of 
colored pupils in red ink. These registration lists are to be ar- 
ranged alphabetically. Leave considerable space between each letter 
for additional accessions within the year. Notice the wide margin 
on one side of the sheet. This is for binding and care must be 
taken to arrange the sheets properly according to this margin. Use 
the side of the sheet first that leaves the wide margin at your left 
hand. Use both sides of sheet. 

Make Kindergarten list on separate sheets. 

10. Report by Grades. — On this report separate classes thus: 
8 A 13, 8 B 12, put the highest grade first and so on down. When 
one teacher has two grades in the room, as 2 B, i A, put it this 
way, the higher grade first, 2 B, i A. Do not fail to add up the 
columns which give the total number of seats and pupils in the 
building. 

On this report each month give the number of pupils studying 
German, if German be taught in your building. 

11. Report of Semi-Annual Promotions. — The same direc- 
tions as to separating and placing classes and grades apply to this 
report as to the Report by Grades. (See Paragraph 10.) 

12. Transfers from other buildings must present Transfer 
Cards to the principal of the building receiving them. 

13. MONTHLY REPORTS. 

1. All absence which occurs from the beginning of each 
month, until a pupil shall enter school for the first time within the 
year, shall be counted permanent absence. 

2. All absence of three or less than three consecutive days 
shall be counted temporary absence. 

3. ^^^henever a pupil is absent more than three consecutive 
days — unless the teacher knows the pupil to have withdrawn from 
the school — the first three days shall be counted temporary, and 
the remainder permanent absence. 

4. For general enrollment. Take the whole number of pupils 
enrolled within the year, deducting any who shall have been trans- 
ferred to the room from any other room in the city. 

5. For monthly enrollment : Take the whole number of 
pupils enrolled within the month, deducting any who shall have 



Eeport of Piiblic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 207 

been transferred to the room, within the month, from any other 
room in the city. 

6. For average number belonging, divide the sum of attend-" 
ance and temporary absence, by the number of days taught. 

7. For average daily attendance, divide the sum of all the 
days attendance by the number of days taught. 

8. For per cent, of attendance divide the average daily at- 
tendance by the average number belonging, carrying the result to 
three places. 

9. In making reports, if a fraction occur of 1-2 or more, 
count it a whole one; if less than 1-2, drop it. 

10. Should the same teacher have two grades as 2 A, 3 B, a 
report for each grade must be made. 

11. See that the supplementary and monthly reports balance. 
That is see that the names correspond with the number of acces- 
sions and gains and losses by transfer. Be careful to fill out all the 
items on the supplementary report. 

12. Give the grade of gains and losses by transfer and state 
the school sending or receiving them. 

13. See that your general enrollment is right. The first 
month the general enrollment, monthly enrollment, and gains by 
accession will be the same. 

14. See that number remaining at end of last month is right. 
This item of course will not appear on the first monthly report. 

15. See that the report balances. That is: to the number re- 
maining at end of last month add the gains by accession, reinstate- 
ment, and transfer, and subtract from this sum the losses by with- 
drawal, transfer, suspension for misconduct and absence, and see 
that the right number is left. 

16. The number not tardy will equal the monthly enrollrnent 
less the number of tardy pupils, unless there have been gains or loss- 
es by transfer. Gains by transfer, who have not been tardy, must 
be added to number not tardy. Losses by transfer can not be count- 
ed in number not tardy, as they will be counted in the teacher's 
report who receives them. 

17. Where one teacher has two grades — as 2 B, i A — let the 
item Number of visitors appear on but one report, that of the 
higher grade. 

Sixth Monthly Report. — Make all promotions on the first Mon- 
day of the term. Pupils in the building who are transferred will 



208 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 

thus be both gained and lost on Monday hence the whole number 
of gains b}- transfer less the gains from other buildings should equal 
the whole number of losses by transfer less the losses to other 
buildings. 

In some cases a grade will run out. In such a case the general 
enrollment of such grade must appear on the report for the rest of 
the year. 

Where one teacher has two grades as 2 A, 3 B, promotions to 
and from these grades will be counted transfers. Where there are 
two classes in the same room as 3 A B, promotions from 3 B to 3 A 
are not counted transfers. Should, however, one teacher have the 
3 A and another teacher the 3 B promotions in this case would be 
transfers. That is where two reports are made, promotions are 
transfers, where but one report they are not transfers. 

On the sixth month's supplementary report put the names only 
of transfers who have been received from other buildings or who 
have been sent to other buildings. Be sure and give these names. 
In other cases the number is sufficient. Except that names of 
transfers from Kindergarten to i B Grade must be sent in on Sup- 
plementary Report. 

14. Annual Report. At the close of each year Principals shall 
have teachers fill in on their Monthly Reports the three items — No. 
not tardy, No. not absent, and No. 'neither tardy nor absent for the 
year, in the space left for average at the bottom, and file these 
Monthly Reports at the Office. These three items are easily gotten 
from the Grade Cards of the children. Note : — No pupil who has 
permanent absence recorded against him can be counted as not ab- 
sent. 

15. Average Scholarship Sheets. The name of every pupil 
you have had in your school during the term -must appear on this 
report with Age, Days of Atendance and Days of Absence. You 
will see that this includes gains and losses by transfer and with- 
drawals. The latter should be so marked and reason for withdrawal 
given if it is known. It is very important that we have the age, at- 
tendance and absence of every pupil. 

In days of absence, permanent absence is not counted. For in- 
stance there are 90 days of school in a term and a pupil has been 
absent 10 consecutive days. He would of course be counted as 
withdrawn after the first three days. Such pupil's record would be 
as follows : Absence 3, attendance 80. Each grade must have a 



Report of Pullic Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 209 

blank. Never put for instance 3 B and 2 A on the same blank. 
Two classes, however, can be placed on the same blank if there be 
room, for instance 3 A B. Place Classes separately. 

Separate and designate and arrange alphabetically boys and 
girls and classes. 

These blanks should be sent to the office properly filled out 
within three days after the examinations are completed. 

Working Sheets must accompany these Average Scholarship 
Sheets. 



210 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

RULES FOR GOVERNMENT OF JANITORS. 

1. The janitor of each building shall wash the woodwork and 
windows, scrub the floors and stairs of the building, dust the walls 
of the school rooms, scrub out the water-closets imniediatel}^ before 
the school begins each year, and clean the heating apparatus im- 
mediately after the close of the schools in June each year. 

2. He shall make the fires at such times as to have the rooms 
properly heated at least thirty minutes before the opening of school 
and shall keep the rooms heated, as nearly as possible, to the tem- 
perature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. 

3. He shall each day sweep the school-rooms and halls, and 
dust the furniture, and, as often as required, shall scrub the floor, 
dust the walls, and v/ash the wood-work and windows of the build- 
\ng. He shall sweep the water-closets daily and wash them out as 
often as may be required to keep them clean. He shall use particu- 
lar care to prevent any damage to such buildings, or any deface- 
ment thereof by obscene or other writing or drawing, and shall be 
held responsible for their good condition. 

4. He shall keep the yards clean, mow and sprinkle the lawns, 
take care of the flowers, and shade trees and boxes m the yards and 
on the sidewalks, and keep the fences, outbuildings and basements 
in good condition. 

5. He shall attend to filling the inkwells, cleaning the black- 
boards, and winding and regulating the clocks. He shall imme- 
diately after a fall of snow clean the steps of the building, and the 
walks about the building. He shall make all reasonable efforts to 
protect and care for school property, and shall report to the princi- 
pal all damage done to the same. He shall bring supplies from the 
Superintendent's office on order of the principal. 

6. At the end of each day's session he shall see that all the 
doors, W'indows, and gates in the school building and upon the 
premises, are properly closed and fastened and that all fires are safe. 

7. Janitors shall be in attendance at their respective buildings 
at all times during school hours, unless sent elsewhere on school 
business by the principal; provided, that janitors shall be allowed 
one hour and thirty minutes for lunch; but all janitors shall be on 
duty at their respective buildings from 12 o'clock m. to i :30 o'clock 
p. m. each school day. 

8. All janitors shall be under the control and jurisdiction of 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 211 

the Superintendent at all times, and in all things, and shall obey all 
directions given by him personally or through the Principal of the 
building or the Janitor-in-chief. 

9. Principals shall be held responsible for the faithful obe- 
dience and attention to duty of their respective janitors, and to this 
end shall receive from janitors respectful and cheerful obedience 
to orders and suggestions. 

10. Janitors shall visit their respective buildings on Saturdays 
and Sundays and each day during vacations to see that the buildings 
are in proper order and in cold weather they shall keep sufficient 
fire at all times to keep the water pipes from freezmg. 

11. Janitors shall file with the Janitor-in-Chief each year at 
such time as the Janitor-in-Chief may require a full inventory of 
all tools and utensils belonging to their respective buildings. 

12. In addition, janitors shall perform all duties not specified 
above, but connected with the care and use of the school property 
that the Board or Superintendent shall require. 

ENGINEERS AND FIREMEN. 

1. Engineers shall make the fires at such times as to have the 
rooms properly heated at least thirty minutes before the opening of 
school, and shall keep the rooms heated, as nearly as possible, to the 
temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. 

2. Engineers shall keep sufficient fires in their respective heat- 
ing plants in cold weather to keep all steam and water pipes from 
freezing and they shall have their respective buildings warm on 
scrubbing days. The engineer of the Pligh School shall keep the 
office in such school comfortably warm on each Saturday and on 
such days in the winter vacation as may be required. 

3. Engineers shall not be absent from their respective school 
buildings during school hours without the knowledge and consent of 
the Principal, and when a fireman is employed such fireman shall not 
be absent within working hours without consent of the engineer, 
nor shall both engineer and firema;n be absent at the same time with- 
in working hours. 

4. Engineers shall make all necessary repairs to the heating 
apparatus in their charge at the close of the schools in June of each 
year and shall assist in making general repairs at the difl:erent school 
buildings during the summer vacation, and assist in cleaning their 
respective buildings before the opening of schools in September. 



212 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

SUPERVISION AND INSTRUCTION, 1907-1908. 



Superintendent of Schools - - JUSTIN N. STUDY 

Clerk ELIZABETH DOAN 



SUPERVISORS AND SPECIAL TEACHERS. 

William Miles Music 

Gail Calmerton Primary Instruction. 

Alice E. Hall Drawing. 

Robert Nohr Physical Culture 

Flora Wilber Principal, Normal School. 

Martha J. Moderwell General Substitute. 

HIGH AND MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 

CORNER BARR AND LEWIS STREETS. 

Chester T. Lane, Principal — Latin and Geometry. 

Angeline F. Chapin Clerk and Librarian. 

Mary L. Jay Assistant Principal — Latin. 

Wm. L McMillen English. 

Mary O. Kolb History 

Benno C. Von Kahlden German and Greek. 

Caroline M. Sperry Latin. 

Herbert S. Voorhees Chemistry and Botany. 

Geo. W. Carter Physics. 

H. D. Merrell Mathematics 

Thomas McCormick Mathematics. 

Laura G. Bradley English. 

Edward W. Boshart Director, Manual Training. 

J. J. Ritter Wood Working. 

Martin W. Rothert German. 

Vera Chamberlin English. 

Fay M. Barnes Freehand Drawing. 

W. W. Knight Forging. 

Mary C. Smeltzley Latin and Ancient History. 

Beatrice Haskins English. 

A. C. Woolley Mathematics. 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 213 

Horace Purfield Foundry, Pattern Making. 

Ella C. Adams Domestic Science. 

Nella Ellison Domestic Art. 

Henry Meyer Physical Culture. 

L. C. Ward Physiography 

Marguerite Mayr German. 

Mabel Wing Freehand Drawing 

Almana Beebe Latin, 

Charlotte Haberkorn Assistant, Freehand Drawing. 

BLOOMINGDALE SCHOOL. 

CORNER MARION AND SECOND STREETS. 

Margaret M. Macphail Principal 

Martha M. Clark, 8B 7A 

Mary M. Auten, yB 

Bertha Wiebke, 6A 6B 

Gertrude Ayres, 6A 6B 

Carina Banning, 5A 5B 

Gertrude Holland, SA 5B 

Mabel Bechtol, 4A 4B 

Anna Biddle, 3A 3B 

Elizabeth Bowman, 3B 2A 

Minnie Valentine 2B i A 

May W. Daugherty, iB 

Loretto Barva, Kindergarten 

Bertha Foumier, Kindergarten 

Emma Kief er, German 

CLAY SCHOOL.. 

CORNER WASHINGTON AND CLAY STREETS. 

T. F. Kerby, Principal, Physiology and History- 
Marion Brenton, 8A Algebra and Literature 

Annie G. Habecker, 8A SB, Music and History 

Addie Williams, yA 

A. May Griffiths 7B 

Edith Williamson, 6A 6B 

Edith Foster, SA 5B 



214 Report of Public Schools, Fort 'Wayne, Ind. 

Erma Dochterman 4A 4B 

Bernadette Alonahan 4B 3A 

Alargaret Saylor, 3B 2A 

Grace Tinkham, 2B 

Lilian M. Ortman, lA 

Jane A. Harper, iB 

FRANKLIN SCHOOL. 

CORNER FRANKLIN AVENUE AND HUFFMAN STREET. 

Martha E. Wohlfort, Principal, 2A 2B 

Adele P. Sauer, 4A 4B 

Gertrude Fissel, 3 A 3B 

Georgene Markey i A iB 

HAMILTON SCHOOL. 

CORNER PONTIAC AND CLINTON STREETS. 

Anna M. Fairfield, Principal 

Carrie Snively, 6A 6B 

Mary B. Seaton, SA 5B 

Beatrice Kell, 5B 4A 

Margaret M. Cunningham, 4B 3A 

G. Lura Fee, 3 A 3B 

Minnie M. Arnold, 2A 2B 

Mable G. Crosby, 2B lA 

Harriet B. Fishering, iB 

Louise M. Wolf, German 

HANNA SCHOOL. 

CORNER WILLIAMS AND LAFAYETTE STREETS. 

Alice M. Habecker, Principal, Literature and Grammar 

Annette A. Gaskins, Arithmetic, Music and Grammar 

Vara Morgan, History, Drawing and Grammar 

Elizabeth L. Freeman 6A 6B 

Edna M. Carter, 6B 5A 

Elizabeth G. ^lurphy, SB 4A 

Emma C. Warner, 4A 4^ 

Sarah M. Foster, 3A 3^ 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 215 

Alice Garrity, 2A 2B 

Byrd M. Austin, 2B lA 

Minnie B. Seibt, iB 

Emma L. Walling, Kindergarten 

Augusta R. Parnin, Kindergarten 

Marie Zucker, German 

HARMER SCHOOL. 

CORNER HARMER AND EAST JEFFERSON STREETS. 

Clara Phelps, Principal 

Emma Stanley, 8B yA 

M. Georgina Wadge, yA yB 

Ella R. Williard, 6A 6B 

Caroline Emrick, 6B 5A 

Winifred Callahan, 5B 

Georgia L. Davis, 4A 4B 

Ida Koons, 3 A 3B 

Jane Mooney, 2A 2B 

Mabel A. Hatch, 2B i A 

Blanche Liggett, iB 

Emma L. Walling, Kindergarten 

Augusta R. Parnin, Kin(^ergarten 

Emma Kiefer, German 

HOAGLAND SCHOOL. 

COIRNER HOAGI^AND AVENUE AND BUTLER STREET. 

F. M. Price, Principal, History and Physiology 

Ellen McKeag, Arithmetic and Algebra 

Mary E. Dick, Literature, Grammar and Drawing 

M. Ella Orff, yA 

R. Estelle Winter, yB 

Margaret L Murphy, yB 

Eva M. Baughman, 6A 6B 

Emma Hebert, 5A 5B 

Mary Brimmer, 4A 4B 

Grace Irwin, 3A 3B 

Myrtle Wilding, 2A 2B 

Carrie I. Akers lA iB 



216 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Laura E. Snowberger, Kindergarten 

Emma Scheumann, German 

HOLTON AVENUE SCHOOL. 

CORNER HOLTON AND CREIGHTON AVENUES. 

Emma L. Armstrong, Principal 

Joanna Conklin, yA 7B 

Bessie Nolan 6A 6B 

Mae Ringwalt SA 5B 

Florida Banning, 4A 4B 

Nina Welch, 3A 3B 

Mary K. Muller, 2A 2B 

Mary W. Stockbridge, 2B i A 

Mae Eiter, iB 

JEEFERSON SCHOOL. 

CORNER JEFFERSON STREET AND FAIRFIELD AVENUE. 

F. W. Miles, Principal, History and Physiology 

Elizabeth E. Chapin, Literature and Grammar 

Anna M. Trenam, Grammar and Drawing 

Mabel E. Clayton, Mathematics and Music 

Myra C. Pellens, Grammar and History 

Janet Macphail, Literature and Physical Culture 

Clara Joost, 6A 6B 

Maude A. Gaskins, 5 A 5B 

Caroline Biddle, 5B 4A 

Susan Geake, 4B 3 A 

Anna B. Sinclair, 3A 3B 

Gladys H. Williams, 2A 2B 

Katherine Ersig, lA iB 

Emily Griswold, Kindergarten 

Hilda Spiegel, Kindergarten 

Clara C. Schmidt, German 

LAKESIDE NORMAL SCHOOL. 

CORNER ONEIDA STREET AND RIVERMET AVENUE. 

Flora Wilber, Principal 

Zona Hopkins, 6A 6B Critic Teacher 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, hid. 217 

Mary J. Warner, SA 5B Critic Teacher 

La Verne Garratt, 4A 4B Critic Teacher 

Gertrude Chapman, 3A 3B Critic Teacher 

Rose B. Dennis 2A 2B Critic Teacher 

Bessie E. Bledsoe, lA iB Critic Teacher 

McCULLOCH SCHOOL. 

CORNER MCCULIvOCH AND ELIZA STREETS. 

Laura D. Muirhead, Principal, 2A 2B 

Emma M. Sauer, 4A 4B 

Annie L. Miller, 3A 3B 

*Cornelia A. Beach, lA iB 

*Absent on leave, place supplied by Jessie Parry. 

MINER SCHOOL. 

CORNER WEST DEWALD AND MINER STREETS. 

Celia C. Foley, .... Principal 

Leora Miner, 6A 

Mary E. Christie, 6B 

May L. Fiske, 5A 

Marian A. Webb, 5B 

Ella C. Loney, 4A 4B 

Gertrude Zook, 3A 3B 

Lora B. Walter, 2A 2B 

Elizabeth McCracken, lA iB 

NEBRASKA SCHOOL. 

CORNER FRY AND BOONE STREETS. 

Sarah E. McKean, Principal 

Keturah M. Williams, 6A 6B 

Elizabeth Jefferies, 5A 5B 

Francesca Greene, 5B 4A 

Maude Gaskill, 4A 4B 

J. Florence Davis, 4B 3 A 

Georgia M. Warner, 3B 2A 

Emma M. Haberkorn, 2A 2B 

Bessie Jackson, 2B lA 

Catherine Scherer, lA iB 



218 Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Emily Griswold, Kindergarten 

Alary Theis, Kindergarten 

Martha Stumpf, German 

RUDISILL SCHOOL. 

EI.IZABETH STREET. 

J. P. Bonnell, Principal, 6A 6B 5A 

Maream Major, 5B 4A 4B 

Desdemona Hale, 3A 3B 2A 

Clara E. Morrison, 2B lA iB 

SOUTH WAYNE SCHOOL. 

CORNER INDIANA AND COTTAGE AVENUES. 

Mary A. Abel, Principal, 2A 2B 

Lillian Foster, 4A 4B 

Stella L. Helmer, 3 A 3B 

Adah R. Burdett, lA iB 

WASHINGTON SCHOOL. 

CORNER UNION AND WASHINGTON STREETS. 

Margaret S. Cochrane, Principal 

Mary Smyser, yA 

Marina J. Geake, 7B 

Helen M. Brenton, 6A 6B 

Maude Gorrell, SA 5B 

Mary E. Markey, SB 4A 

Augusta Haberkorn, 4B 

Lola Eckels, 3A 3B 

Alathea Stockbridge, 2A 2B 

Grace McMillen, 2B i A 

Effie Lumbard, iB 

Lena Hiler, Kindergarten 

Marion Knight, Kindergarten 

Martha Stumpf, German 



Report of Public Schools, Fort Wayne, Ind. 219 

ENGINilERS 

A. C. Brown, Engineer, High School 

Frank W. Grayless, Engineer, Hanna School 

Joseph A. Gruber, Engineer, Jefferson School 

Julius Howenstein, Fireman, High School 

JANITORS. 

Conrad Leidolf, Janitor-in-Chief 

Chas. Popp, High School 

Henry Brademeyer, High School 

Henry B. Kocks, Bloomingdale School 

Henry Meister, Clay School 

Catherine Sheridan, Franklin School 

Catherine Cramer, Hamilton School 

Maria Perrett, Hanna School 

Chris. Koenig, Harmer School 

Paul Tegler, Hoagland School 

Herman Krohne, Holton Ave. School 

John Immel, Jefferson School 

Christian Pipenbrink, Lakeside School 

Lydia Carman, McCulloch School 

WilHam Miller, Miner School 

Frank Wilkinson, Nebraska School 

Carrie Hunsche, Rudisill School 

Amanda Wickliff, South Wayne School 

Josiah D. King, Washington School 

Lee Barker, Maid, High School 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Act Regulating Teachers' Wages 85 

Admission 193 

BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES 3 

List of, since 1853 84 

Meetings of • . . 189 

Members of, for 1906-1907 and 1907-1908 3 

Order of Business of 189 

COURSE OF STUDY loi 

Elementary Schools 102 

Algebra 130 

Arithmetic 126 

Geography 1 30 

German 142 

History 1 33 

Industrial Drawing 145 

Language 117 

Kindergarten 103 

Music 144 

Nature Study 121 

Penmanship 115 

Physical Culture 149 

Physiology and Hygiene 125 

Reading and Literature 104 

Spelling 113 

High School 154 

First Year 155 

Second Year 155 

Third Year 156 

Fourth Year 156 

Remarks 154 

Statement of Work by Departments 157 

Normal School 180 



INDEX. 

page; 

DUTIES of Engineers and Firemen 211 

Janitors 210 

Principals 195 

Pupils 202 

Supervisors 194 

Teachers 196 

Flag Days 87 

German 75 

Grades of Schools 192 

Historical and Miscellaneous 81 

In Memoriam 82 

Manual Training 78 

Outline of English History 138 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 89 

Board of Trustees 90 

Information for Readers 98 

Library Committee 9° 

Library Staff 90 

Report of Librarian 90 

Rules and Regulations of 96 

Reading Circle Work 75 

REPORT of President 5 

Principal of High School 50 

Principal of Normal School 64 

Public Library 89 

Superintendent 14 

Supervisor of Drawing 37 

Supervisor of Music 35 

Supervisor of Primary Instruction 42 

Supervisor of Physical Culture 38 

Treasurer lO 

Truant Officer 65 

Reports, etc. Special Directions to Principals 204 

RULES AND REGULATIONS for Government of Engin- 
eers and Firemen 211 

Government of Janitors 210 

Government of Public Library 95 

Government of Public Schools 187 



INDEX. 

PAGE 

School Decorations ^6 

SCHOOLS BY DEPARTMENTS 40 

High School 49 

Courses of Study 154 

Graduates 60 

Manual Training 78 

Report of Principal 50 

Text Books 183 

WORK BY DEPARTMENTS 157 

Chemistry and Botany 161 

English 1 59 

Geometry and Algebra 163 

Greek and German 165 

History and Civics 160 

Latin 157 

Manual Training 168 

Domestic Art 175 

Domestic Scfence 176 

Forging ' 170 

Foundry 171 

Machine Shop Practice 173 

Mechanical Drawing 173 

Pattern Making 172 

Woodworking 169 

Physical Geography 167 

Physics 166 

Intermediate or Grammar School Department 45 

Course of Study 102 

Teaching Force 47 

Unjust Criticism 48 

What the Schools Should do 48 

Work of The Department 46 

Kindergartens 40 

Course of Study 103 

Normal School 63 

Admission . .- 180 

Course of Study 180 

Report of Principal 64 



INDEX. 

PAGE 

Primary Department 41 

Course of Study 102 

Report of Supervisor 42 

Suggestions for Teaching Reading 108 

SUPERINTENDENT— Appointment and Discharge 189 

Office of 3 

OfRce Hours of 3 

Powers and Duties of, both general and special 190 

SUPERVISION AND INSTRUCTJON EOR 1907-1908 212 

SUPERVISORS, Powers and Duties 194 

Supplementary Reading Books no 

TABLES — ^Miscellaneous 14-34 

TEACHERS — Appointment and Duties of 196 

TEXT BOOKS 76 

Cost of y6 

Frequency of Changes yj 

List of 183 



Heckman 

BINDERY, INC. 
Bound-lb-Please* 

OCT 02 

N. MANCHESTER, INDIANA 46962 



\_