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Full text of "Report of the Secretary General on progress in implementation on combating deforestation and forest degradation (E/CN.18/2002/3)"

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Title: Report of the Secretary General on Progress in Implementation on 

Combating Deforestation and Forest Degradation (E/CN.18/2002/3) 

UNFF Second session, San Jose, Costa Rica 4-15 March 2002 



Focal Agency : UNEP, with the inputs from other CPF members and the UNFF Secretariat. 

Contents: Executive summary 

1. Introduction 

2. Background 

3. Implementation of the proposals for action of the IPF/IFF and the 

Plan of Action of the UNFF 

4. Conclusions 

5. Proposed action by UNFF second session 



Executive Summary 

This report summarises progress in implementation on the IPF/IFF Proposals for Action relating to 
Combating Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Reference was made to national reports to the CSD 
and reports of intersessional workshops, among other sources. These sources indicate that significant 
progress has been made in implementing the IPF/IFF proposals for action. There has been substantial 
progress in the development of national policies relating to forests, often including participation by an 
increased range of stakeholders. Such developments have often, but not exclusively, been undertaken 
under the auspices of a national forest programme. Substantial progress has also been made in the 
development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Despite such positive trends, 
total forest area continues to decline in most regions of the world. Although substantial areas of 
plantation forests have been established, there is little evidence that deforestation and degradation of 
natural forests has declined as a result. Although progress has been made in the analysis of underlying 
causes of deforestation, the findings of such analyses do not appear to have contributed significantly to 
the policy developments that have taken place. There is therefore an urgent need to incorporate the 
findings of research into national policies, if deforestation is to be combated successfully. In addition, 
many countries have been unable to implement the strategies that they have developed. The strongest 
reasons for this, advanced in almost all country reports, are shortages of qualified and trained 
personnel, and of finance. In addition to the needs of countries to support implementation, this report 
identified three key emerging issues, namely forest law enforcement, forest fires and perverse 
subsidies. It is proposed that future action of the UNFF focus on developing specific actions to address 
these causes of deforestation and forest degradation. 



1. 



Introduction 



The IPF/IFF process recognised that deforestation and forest degradation constitute a serious problem 
in many countries. The causes are complex. Many of the factors causing deforestation and forest 
degradation interact and some are synergistic. Many lie outside the forest sector, while others are 
linked to the forest sector itself. Most are socio-economic in nature. Experience accumulated in the 
last decades has shown the need to address the underlying causes, rather than symptoms, of 
deforestation and forest degradation; and has uncovered the major weakness of many current policies 
and strategies adopted to support and develop the multiple ecological, socio-economic and cultural 
roles of forests. Deforestation and forest degradation have national, transboundary, regional and global 
environmental consequences. In many cases, lack of understanding of the underlying causes has lead 
to inappropriate strategies to address the issue. 

At its first meeting, the UNFF defined its multi-year programme of work (MYPOW) to embody 
ECOSOC resolution 2000/35, with concrete activities defined for the next five years, with a particular 
focus on implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals (see Decision 1/2 of UNFF 1; E/2002/42 (Part II) - 



E/CN. 18/200 1/3 (Part II)). The purpose of this document is to support the MYPOW activities through 
to the 'Review of progress and consideration on future actions' that is scheduled for UNFF5. This 
report describes progress made towards implementing the IPF/IFF proposals for action relating to the 
theme of 'Combating Deforestation and Forest Degradation'. The short time interval between UNFF 1 
and 2, and the lack of a monitoring and reporting system within UNFF have been major constraints in 
preparing this report. 

2. Background 

For the purposes of this report, the proposals relevant to the theme of Combating Deforestation and 
Forest Degradation have been summarized by grouping related actions. The development of these 
'summarized proposals for action' was based on the Practitioner's Guide to the IPF Proposals 
produced by the "Six Country Initiative" , and the Australian Summary of the IPF Proposals for 
Action 2 . A number of proposals specifically relating to indigenous peoples and traditional forest 
related knowledge will be under discussion at UNFF 4 and have therefore been omitted from this 
summary. The summarized proposals do not replace the detailed negotiated text. 

1. Implementation of forest-related decisions at the national level 



Proposal For Action 



Reference 
IPF 1 



IFF 2 



I 


Study and analyse the historical and underlying causes of 
deforestation and forest degradation, including the impacts of 
transboundary pollution, poverty, fuelwood collection and processes 
outside the forest sector, to provide factual information for improved 
public understanding and forest decision making. Develop and test 
the usefulness of the diagnostic framework [E/CN. 17/1997/12 25] as 
an analytical tool in assessing options for forest utilization, then 
apply it more widely. 


27a, 27b, 
27c, 30a, 
31a, 31b 
31a, 


64a b 


II 


Provide information on underlying causes of deforestation and forest 
degradation and the multiple roles of forests, at national, regional 
and international scales, and create awareness in the society at large 
on the importance of issues related to deforestation and forest 
degradation 


28c, 30a, 
31c 


64e 


III 


Enhance the role of forest plantations as an important element of 
sustainable forest management and as a mechanism for reducing 
deforestation and forest degradation of natural forests 


28b 


64g 


rv 


Assess the long-term trends in the supply and demand for wood, 
promote sustainability of supply and strengthen institutions involved 
in forest and plantation management 


28a 




V 


Develop and implement integrated national policies, strategies, 
economic instruments and mechanisms for supporting sustainable 
forest management and addressing deforestation and forest 
degradation in a participatory manner 


29a 29b 


115c,g 


VI 


Improve co-operation, co-ordination and partnerships in support of 
sustainable forest management within a national forest programme, 
by involving relevant stakeholders including indigenous people, 
forest owners, women and local communities in forest decision 
making, and utilising appropriate expertise in international 
organizations 


17b, 17f, 
17h, 17i, 
40e, g, n 
77c, f 


19b 
64b 
66 
140a 


VII 


Monitor, evaluate and report on implementation progress of a 


17a, 17d, 


17d 



1 Numbers refer to paragraph in IPF final report: E/CN. 1 7/1997/12. 

2 Numbers refer to paragraphs in IFF Final report: E/CN. 17/2000/1 4. 





national forest programme, including the use of criteria and 
indicators to assess trends in the state of forests and progress 
towards sustainable forest management 


71b 


19a 


VIII 


Involve all interested parties in the extension, planning, 
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of forest research with a 
focus on on-site research to support the implementation of national 
forest programmes 


17e, 94d 


96d I 


rx 


Introduce positive incentives to help combat deforestation and forest 
degradation. 




64h 


X 


Formulate policies aiming at securing land tenure for local 
communities and indigenous people, including policies aimed 
at the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of forests; and 
develop mechanisms to improve land access and use of forest 
resources on a sustainable basis 


29c 


64c,d 



2. International cooperation in financial assistance and technology transfer 



Proposal For Action 



Reference 
IPF IFF 



XI 


Continue the implementation of various measures aimed at 
effective, equitable, development-oriented and durable 
solutions to the external debt and debt-servicing problems of 
developing countries, particularly the poorest and heavily 
indebted countries, including exploring the opportunities for 
innovative mechanisms, such as debt-for-nature swaps related 
to forests and other environmentally oriented debt reduction 
programmes 


67g 




XII 


Support and promote local community involvement in sustainable 
forest management through technical guidance, capacity-building 
and information dissemination, provision of economic incentives 
and legal frameworks; and by facilitating access to domestic and 
external markets of forest products and services. 


77f 

70c 


64f,i 



3. International organizations and multilateral institutions and instruments 
Proposal For Action 



Reference 
IPF IFF 



XIII 


Analyse the impacts of foreign debt on deforestation and forest 
degradation, and explore innovative financial approaches and 
schemes for helping countries to promote sustainable forest 
management. 




64j 


XIV 


Study the relation of land tenure issues to deforestation and forest 
degradation 




67 



3. Implementation of the proposals for action of the IPF/IFF and the Plan of Action 
oftheUNFF 

3.1. Progress in implementation 

Many activities are being undertaken by countries, multilateral organizations and stakeholders either 
in direct response to the IPF/IFF proposals, or in support of them. This report attempts to provide an 
overview of such activities, corresponding to the specific proposals for action. At present, there is 



no formal monitoring and reporting system within UNFF. As a consequence, the findings of this 
report should be considered as tentative and incomplete. In order to assess action towards 
implementation, the following sources were consulted: 

• national reports to the CSD 

• reports of relevant intersessional workshops and associated documentation (e.g. the 
"Six Country Initiative", the "Eight-Country Initiative"). 

• responses to an informal questionnaire circulated to > 100 national contact points; 9 
responses were received and analysed 

• CPF members, and a number of both multilateral and non-governmental organizations, 
were also invited to report on relevant activities undertaken 

• surveys of implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals, for example "Keeping the 
Promise", a review undertaken by NGOs and IPOs in select countries 3 

• the Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) 2000 4 and the State of the Worlds Forests 
2001 5 , produced by FAO 

The national reports to the CSD were to report specifically on the implementation of all chapters of 
Agenda 21, in response to the General Assembly (resolution 50/113 of 20 December 1995). The 
information in these reports relating to forests varies substantially in detail. In addition, many of the 
reports have not been updated in several years, and therefore are of limited value for assessing 
national implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals. Profiles were consulted for 86 countries (Low 
Forest Cover Countries (LFCC) are considered separately in another report, E/CN. 18/2002/6). Only 
37% of these referred explicitly to the IPF/IFF proposals. However, 51% of countries reported that 
forest policies had recently been revised, often in light of the IPF/IFF proposals. 

Particular reference was made to the report of the NGO/Costa Rica Global Workshop on 
Underlying Causes of Deforestation held in San Jose, Costa Rica, in January 1999, which explicitly 
aimed to support the implementation of IPF Proposals for Action relating to underlying causes of 
deforestation and forest degradation 6 . The global workshop was preceded by seven regional and one 
Indigenous Peoples Organisations (IPO) Workshops, held between July 1998 and January 1999 in 
Russia, Fiji, Canada, Chile, Ghana, Germany, Indonesia and Ecuador. These workshops were 
organised by the Joint Initiative on Addressing the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest 
Degradation ('Underlying Causes Initiative'). Actions undertaken towards implementation of the 
proposals are summarized on Table 1. 

(a) Country experiences and lessons learned 

The Joint Initiative on Addressing the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation 
('Underlying Causes Initiative') highlighted the value of exchanging information concerning 
country experiences, by profiling case studies through a series of workshops. The workshops were 
highly participatory, involving a wide range of stakeholders, and were of undoubted value in 
exchanging information, and identifying underlying causes common to different countries. 
However, the fact that results of the different case studies were not presented in relation to a 
consistent framework, hindered comparison. Although reference was made to the Diagnostic 
Framework explicitly mentioned in the relevant IPF Proposal for Action, the case studies provided 
little evidence of application of the framework, and provided an inadequate basis for evaluating the 
usefulness of this approach. As a result, it is difficult to generalise from the information provided; it 
is not clear how representative were the case studies presented. 

These experiences, together with methodological refinement and other research initiatives such as 
those undertaken by CIFOR, highlight the difficulty of analysing underlying causes of 
deforestation: the issue is complex and not readily amenable to analysis. Further development of 
diagnostic tools to assess such processes may therefore be necessary. In particular, there is a need to 
build capacity within countries to enable such analyses to be undertaken at the national level. 



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Table 2: Change in forest cover 1990-2000 (FRA, 2000) 



Country/Area 


Total forest 
1990 


Total forest 
2000 


Forest cover change 1 990-2000 


Annual change 


Annual change 
rate 


000 ha 


000 ha 


000 ha 


% 


Africa 


702,502 


649,866 


-5,262 


-0.78 


Asia 


551,448 


547,793 


-364 


-0.07 


Oceania 


201,271 


197,623 


-365 


-0.18 


Europe 


1,030,475 


1,039,251 


881 


0.08 


North and 
Central America 


555,002 


549,304 


-570 


-0.10 


South America 


922,731 


885,618 


-3,711 


-0.41 


World 


3,963,429 


3,869,455 


-9,391 


-0.22 



The importance of recognising the direct and indirect causes of forest loss is widely appreciated by 
countries, together with an understanding that these causes are in most cases political in nature. 
Successful implementation of the proposals for action at the country level therefore relies greatly on the 
political will of governments and civil society. Significant progress has undoubtedly been made towards 
implementation of some of the proposals for action. For example, most countries have significantly 
developed national policies relating to forests in recent years, often through increased dialogue with 
different stakeholders. Substantial efforts have also been directed at developing criteria and indicators 
for SFM, reflected in the initiation of nine major processes, collectively involving more than 140 
countries. However, analyses indicate that deforestation is continuing in most regions of the world 
(Table 2), suggesting that forest policies still do not adequately address the underlying causes of 
deforestation and forest degradation. This may partly be attributed to inadequate cross-sectoral policy 
harmonization, a lack of integration between research on underlying causes and policy development, an 
issue of relevance to the recently developed IUFRO Task Force. 

One of the key proposals for addressing deforestation and forest degradation relates to enhancing the 
role of plantations in SFM. Substantial increases in the area of plantation forests have been recorded in 
many countries. However, approximately half of these have been established by conversion from natural 
forest (Table 3), illustrating that establishment of plantations can in some cases be considered as a cause 
of deforestation, rather than a mechanism for reducing it. 

Table 3: Annual change in area of plantation forests, 1990-2000 (million ha per year) (FAO 2000) 



Domain 




Gain 




Net Change 


Conversion from 
natural forest 


Afforestation 


Tropical Areas 
Non-tropical areas 
World 


+1.0 
+0.5 
+1.5 




+0.9 
+0.7 
+ 1.6 


+1.9 

+ 1.2 
+3.1 



Overall, the most significant constraints to implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals for action reported 
by countries are: 

• a lack of institutional capacity and technical expertise; 

• a lack of available finance, partially attributed to a decline in ODA, international debt and 
economic crises; 

• low political commitment to the forest sector. 



Other constraints to implementation identified by countries included inadequate: 



• public and stakeholder participation, partly reflecting a lack of public awareness; 

• information, reflecting limited capacity in research and information management; 

• institutional coordination, particularly with respect to the need to consider forest issues in an 
inter-sectoral environment; 

• management of the transition from state ownership of forests to increased private ownership, 
and the transfer of responsibilities through decentralization and privatization; 

• infrastructure; 

• compatibility between IPF/IFF proposals for action and priority areas for governments, such 
as poverty eradication; 

• involvement of some stakeholders, including women, indigenous people and forest dwellers; 

• coordination between donor activities; 

• incentives for rural populations to conserve and manage their local forest resources, or the 
existence of substantial disincentives; 

• support by Governments to provide the local organizations to which they devolve responsibility, 
with sufficient real authority and support to enable them to exercise their rights and manage their 
forests effectively. 

(b) Emerging issues relevant to country implementation 

The Joint Initiative on Addressing the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation 
highlighted underlying causes of particular importance, including the lack of access to land and 
resources, unequal terms in the current international trade regime, under valuation of most forest 
services, illegal logging and inappropriate government policies, such as road building and subsidies. 
Global trends affecting implementation of the proposals include a decrease in traditional sectoral 
approaches; increasing reliance on market-based instruments; greater roles for NGOs and the private 
sector; a focus on decentralization and participation; and macro-economic reforms and globalization. 

Research by CEFOR on underlying causes has suggests that: 

• capital-intensive technologies suited for agricultural frontier conditions, and production for 
export, are likely to increase conversion of forest land; 

• commercial factors and macroeconomic changes can have a far greater impact than shifting 
agriculture practices on deforestation and forest degradation ; 

• the decentralisation that is occurring in many tropical countries can bring benefits to many poor 
rural people in heavily forested areas, including greater access to forest resources, but weak local 
technical capacity, limited national support and organisational problems among small-scale 
loggers undermine prospects for sustainable forest management. 

A key issue that has emerged recently is forest law enforcement, from the recognition that illegal 
harvesting of forest products, illegal trade, wildlife poaching and corruption are major threats to 
forests worldwide. In May 1998, the G8 launched an Action Programme on Forests, which allots high 
priority to solving the problem of illegal logging. The Forest Law Enforcement and Governance 
(FLEG) Ministerial Conference, that took place in Bali, Indonesia during September 2001, was aimed 
at sharing information and experience on forest law enforcement. The meeting resulted in a 
Ministerial Declaration that commits participating countries to intensify national efforts and 
strengthen bilateral, regional and multinational collaboration to address violations of forest law and 
forest crime, and create a regional task force on forest law enforcement and governance to advance 
the Declaration's objectives. The Ministerial declaration also called for UNFF to give greater 
consideration to the issue of forest crime. 

A second emerging issue highlighted by a large number of countries is forest fire, particularly in the 
wake of the catastrophic fires of 1998, and their threat to the global environment and regional 
stability. There is a clear need to analyse the underlying causes of fire, building on research activities 
of organizations such as CIFOR. The results of such research need to be transferred into policy, and 

10 



the capacity of countries to predict and manage to fire needs to be strengthened. Initiatives such as 
Project FireFight, a global programme that addresses the underlying causes of forest fires, may 
provide a suitable model for further action The project is a collaborative effort between IUCN / 
WWF, CIFOR, GFMC, FAO and UNEP, and identifies stakeholders, their fire use and practices, and 
ways that they can work to improve fire management policies. Information services such as The 
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) can also play an important role in identifying and responding 
to fire risks. 

A third emerging issue relates to the so-called 'perverse subsidies', which are widely recognised as a 
major underlying cause of deforestation. Some countries are undermining forest protection through 
the provision of subsidies that accelerate forest loss or degradation, including support for road 
construction and other infrastructure that benefits logging companies, and provision of grants and 
loans to companies engaged in logging. 

(c) Promoting public participation 

Overall, progress in promoting public participation in actions directly in support of IPF/IFF proposals 
for action appears to be limited. A number of national and international NGOs and indigenous 
peoples' organisations have played a major role in raising awareness of deforestation issues among 
the general public, for example through the development of campaigns. Deforestation has also 
become the focus of increased attention in both national and international media. There has been an 
undoubted international trend towards increased stakeholder involvement in development of national 
forest policies, and in many countries this has involved public consultation processes, including public 
meetings and provision of discussion fora. Some countries report specific actions encouraging 
involvement of the public at large directly in reforestation activities, for example by formation of 
voluntary brigades and youth groups, and through tree planting campaigns. 

There is widespread recognition in many countries that stakeholder participation in SFM must be 
strengthened, in accordance of guidelines for the development of nfps agreed by IPF. Global trends 
towards decentralization could provide opportunities to achieve this, particularly if bridges between 
national and sub-national levels in policy development and implementation can be strengthened. 
Some countries also report significant progress in strengthening public involvement in action 
designed to reduce pressure on forests, such as recycling schemes for wood products and promotion 
of certified wood products, based on raising public awareness through information campaigns, such as 
the incorporation of forest issues in secondary school curricula. However, some countries report 
serious public apathy towards environmental conservation ethics and practices, and note that for the 
general public in many tropical countries, deforestation issues are given low priority, compared to the 
daily struggle for livelihood. 

(d) Enabling environment 

In many countries there have been significant improvements regarding the legal framework for SFM 
and forest-related policies. At the national level, a key problem is the low commitment and priority 
accorded to the forest sector, often caused by failure to demonstrate the contribution of the sector to 
socio-economic development. Accordingly, opportunities for funding are often missed by not linking 
forests to priority concerns such as poverty reduction and sustainable development. A continuing 
decline in commodity prices at the international level is preventing the forest sector from yielding 
adequate surpluses for investment in SFM. Forest-products markets tend to favour low-priced 
products, often coming from non-sustainable harvesting. Promoting remunerative trade and fair prices 
therefore has a potentially important role in making SFM possible. 

Other important factors in constraining investment are insecure tenure, policy and market failures, high 
levels of actual and perceived risk owing to factors outside sectoral control, lack of suitable credit options 
and weak and unstable regulatory environments that encourage rather than discourage unsustainable or 
illegal logging practices. Factors that would raise operational costs or reduce returns (such as over- 

11 



regulation, undeveloped markets etc.) act as disincentives to private investors in sustainable forest 
management. Making SFM more profitable and less risky through policy interventions would increase 
the self-financing prospects of the sector and permit mobilisation of new private investment. However in 
many countries there is a need for external public funding (ODA) to support capacity building, 
development of appropriate legal frameworks, and creating the socio-economic conditions conducive to 
investment in SFM. Many developing countries face a general lack of funds, too few professional 
people and problems of communication. As a result, practical implementation of nfps and criteria and 
indicators for SFM needs strengthening. In contrast, the 'Underlying Causes Initiative' noted that in 
some countries undergoing rapid economic development, economic growth is being achieved at the 
expense of environmental conservation and social justice. 

(e) International and regional cooperation 

The need for international and regional cooperation in both identifying and addressing the underlying 
causes of deforestation is recognised by many countries. Substantial efforts have been made to 
develop such cooperation. Examples of initiatives relevant to the theme of this report include: 

• The Joint Initiative on Addressing the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest 
Degradation, which was established in 1997, involved a participatory process from local to 
international levels, undertaken in seven regions and at the global level. The Initiative also 
established new partnerships amongst countries, NGO's and UN agencies. 

• In 1998 a "Six-Country Initiative in Support of the IFF" was carried out by Finland, Germany, 
Honduras, Indonesia, Uganda and the UK to test the implementation of the EPF proposals for 
action at the national (or in one case federal state) level. Based on this experience a "Practitioners 
Guide for the Implementation of the IPF Proposals of Action" was developed. 

• In September 2000, the government-led "Eight-Country Initiative", was launched by Australia, 
Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Iran, Malaysia and Nigeria, aiming to assist the international 
community in developing the MYPOW of the UNFF. 

• The ITTO Objective 2000 embodies ITTO members' commitment to moving as rapidly as 
possible towards achieving exports of tropical timber and timber products from sustainably 
managed sources through international cooperation and national policies and programmes and 
involving the Bali Partnership Fund (BPF) as an additional financial mechanism. 

• The G8 Action Programme on Forests, which represents the first consolidated experience for the 
G8 members in working together on the world's forests, and includes strengthening or initiating 
bilateral activities with partner countries to support national forest programmes. 

• The Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) provides a forum for 
developing regional cooperation relating to implementation of IPF/IFF proposals in Europe. 

3.2. Means of implementation 

(a) Finance 

Inadequate availability of financial resources is widely acknowledged to be a major constraint to the 
implementation of the IPF/IFF proposals directed towards combating deforestation. However, there is 
a lack of detailed information on current financial flows affecting forests. In particular it is difficult to 
differentiate between financial flows that effectively combat deforestation and those that may promote 
it (e.g. perverse incentives). 

Forestry funding comes from three main sources: domestic official allocations; external Official 
Development Assistance (ODA); and the commercial private sector (both domestic and foreign). Non- 
profit funding sources such as trust funds are also emerging, principally to support the environmental 
and conservation activities of NGOs or community groups. In all developing regions, high priority is 
given to investment in forest resources development, including establishment of plantations. In 
general, the developing countries also give prominence to forest industries, utilization or other value- 

12 



adding activities, while their ODA external partners have recently tended to show increasing favour 
towards natural resource conservation. 

Provision of forestry ODA from a variety of donor countries, plus multilateral organizations such as 
OECD, FAO, UNDP, ITTO, WFP, EC, the World Bank and the regional banks, totalled an estimated 
US$ 1.0 - 1.5 billion in 1995-97, representing a decline from a peak of over US$ 2 billion in the early 
1990's . As stated above, there are no data available to assess to what extent this funding was 
successfully directed towards combating deforestation. The declining trend in ODA (Table 4) is 
recognised by a number of recipient countries as a significant factor in constraining implementation of 
the proposals for action. 

In the context of this paper, the key issue is whether sufficient financial support is available to 
implement the IPF/IFF proposals relating to combating deforestation and forest degradation. Data of 
sufficient precision are not available to address this question, except in very general terms. 
Information on financial flows from sources other than ODA is particularly lacking. With respect to 
ODA, analysis of the information available suggests that institutional development tends to attract a 
greater proportion of the external aid required than sustainable development of forest resources, with 
assessment and monitoring receiving the lowest proportion of resources required. There are also 
significant differences between regions in the amount of ODA received. 

Table 4: Estimated for estry ODA flows (Commitments, 1996 US$ million) source: ODI/UNDP 7 







1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


1995 


1996' 


1997' 


Bilateral 


non-EU 
bilaterals 


470 


330 


432 


522 


401 


357 


283 


458 


511 


301 




European 


504 


548 


605 


630 


624 


500 


515 


531 


469 


456 




Union' 






















Total 


974 


878 


1,037 


1,152 


1,025 


858 


798 


989 


980 


757 


Multi- 


Multilateral 


470 


384 


902 


487 


958 


300 


820 


177 


148 


271 


lateral 


Development 
Banks 
























UN agencies 
Total 


249 
719 


247 
632 


241 
1,143 


240 
727 


230 
1,187 


212 


253 


235 
412 


220 
368 


217 
489 


512 


1,072 


All- 
Donors 


estimate 
upper limit 


1,692 


1,510 


2,180 


1,879 


2,212 


1,369 


1,870 


1,401 
1,587 


1.349 

1,554 


1,246 
1.458 


1,862 


1,764 


2,398 


2,147 


2,488 


1,506 


2,116 




lower limit 


1,523 


1,256 


1,962 


1,610 


1,937 


1,232 


1,624 


1,215 


1,143 


1,033 




excluding world 


1,495 


1,337 


1,410 


1,591 


1,527 


1,226 


1.205 


1,326 


1,309 


1,065 




bank 






















FAO Questi 


onnaire data 


1,427 




1,678 






1,658 











'including the Commission of the European Communities *1 996-1997 estimates are less reliable 

Overall, analyses suggest that the ODA currently being provided represents less than 20% of the 
annual funding needs estimated by UNCED to support implementation of Chapter 1 1 of Agenda 21 7 . 

The roles of the public and private sectors in forestry financing are changing, with the latter showing 
an increase of 60% since 1991. There is a clear need for detailed data that provide information on 
financial flows that effectively combat deforestation, versus public and private financial flows that are 
directed towards the forestry sector in general. On basis of such data, there should be a radical re- 
thinking of the strategies designed for the implementation of sustainable forest management, 
including the promotion of strong partnerships between government institutions, private 
establishments, bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies, research institutions, local communities 
and NGOs, supported by appropriate policies, strategies and regulatory mechanisms. Such 
partnerships need to be accompanied by increased coordination between organizations providing 
finance. The need for such approaches is recognised by the revised forest strategy developed by the 
World Bank Group in 2001. 



13 



(b) Transfer of environmentally sound technologies 

There is an unprecedented accumulation of technological capability in the world today, including 
many developments with direct applicability to the forest sector. Many technological developments 
remain unrecognized, under-utilized or inadequately shared. Ways in which some countries have 
applied specific technologies to combating deforestation, include: 

increased application of remote sensing and GIS technologies for assessment of the condition and 

extent of forest cover 

development of information systems for the assessment of forest areas, including development of 

tools to provide an early warning service for specific threats, such as fire 

development of wood recovery and recycling technologies to reduce pressure on natural forests 

development of improved harvesting and other silvicultural operations to reduce negative 

environmental impacts, such as reduced impact logging methodologies 

A number of countries report the development of forest resource infonnation systems, which will give 
stakeholders access to a network of information and tools for SFM. However, there is clearly an 
ongoing need to make the benefits of such technology available to a wider range of users, and to 
continue the process of technology transfer from developed to developing countries. There is also a 
need for increased exchange of experience and technologies among developing countries, and for 
greater use of .indigenous technologies and traditional forest-related knowledge, where appropriate. 

(c) Capacity building 

The UNFF has recogonized the need for capacity building to help implement the IPF/IFF Proposals 
for Action. Inadequate human capacity includes the general shortage of trained staff, and a lack of 
management, planning and implementation skills constitute major weaknesses. Specific needs 
identified by countries include: 

• capacity building programs for local communities as a mechanism to increase the marketing of 
certified forest products; 

• approaches for monitoring and combating illegal trade in forest products; 

• information on forest legislation and rights, successful technologies, international and national 
marketing, best practices in nfps, cross-sectoral and sectoral issues; 

• strengthening of institutions involved in policy development and implementation; 

• assistance in application of criteria and indicators at the national and forest management unit 
level. 

International organizations, including CPF members such as UNDP, FAO and ITTO, continue to play 
a major role in building capacity in such areas, supported by national governments. However in the 
context of this report, there is a clear need to strengthen the capacity of countries to analyse the 
underlying causes of deforestation, and to develop national policies in response to the results of such 
analyses, for deforestation to be successfully combated. There is also a clear need to disseminate and 
publicise more widely successful initiatives in this area. 

4. Conclusions 

Significant progress has been made in implementing the IPF/IFF proposals for action relating to 
combating deforestation and forest degradation. Some countries have undertaken analyses of the 
underlying causes of deforestation, supported by international initiatives and cooperation, and by 
technical assistance from research organizations and the NGO community. Further efforts are required 
to define underlying causes in more detail, and in particular, there is a need to build capacity within 
countries to undertake such analyses at the national level. 

There has also been substantial progress in the development of national policies relating to forests, 
often including participation by an increased range of stakeholders. Many countries have formulated 

14 



new national forest programmes. Many have also developed new strategies or master plans for 
forestry, frequently based on the results of remote sensing, GIS technology and new forest inventories. 
A number of countries have also devolved substantial responsibility for implementation to regional or 
local authorities. It is less clear how often such policy developments have been undertaken as a direct 
response to the IPF/IFF proposals. However, a few countries have reported in detail on progress 
towards implementation of the proposals, for example in reports to the CSD, and from such 
assessments it is clear that some countries are confident that substantial progress has been made in 
implementation. 

Despite such positive trends, total forest area continues to decline in most regions of the world. 
Although substantial areas of plantation forests have been established, often following high levels of 
investment from the private sector, there is little evidence that deforestation and degradation of natural 
forests has declined as a result, as explicitly referred to in the DPF/EFF Proposals for Action. In fact, 
evidence suggests that establishment of plantations is a major factor leading to loss of natural forests. 

Continuing declines in natural forest area suggest either that the IPF/IFF proposals are not being 
implemented effectively, or that their successful implementation is not having the desired effect. The 
assessment of implementation of the Proposals for Action is greatly hindered by the lack of any 
formal process for monitoring and assessment. The development of such a process should therefore be 
a high priority for forthcoming years. In contrast, substantial progress has been made in the 
development of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management, following the initiation of a 
number of global and regional processes during the past two decades. The debate generated by these 
processes has undoubtedly focused attention on forest issues, and has been accompanied by a general 
increase in public awareness of deforestation and its impacts. However, the practical implementation 
of criteria and indicators is still at a relatively early stage, and provides little evidence of any 
improvement in the status of forest resources. 

It is clear that there is variation between countries in progress towards implementation of the IPF/IFF 
proposals for action. There is therefore a need to build political will, not only to implement the 
proposals for action, but to examine critically the status and trends in forest resources, and the 
underlying causes of changes in forest extent and condition. In this context the lack of suitable 
approaches to assess the extent of forest degradation, as oppose to loss of forest cover, is a key 
problem. 

Although progress has been made in the analysis of underlying causes of deforestation, the findings of 
such analyses do not appear to have contributed significantly to the policy developments that have 
taken place. Therefore, if deforestation is to be combated successfully, there is an urgent need to 
incorporate the findings of research into national policies. In addition, many countries have been 
unable to implement the strategies that they have developed. The strongest reasons for this, advanced 
in almost all country reports, are shortages of qualified and trained personnel, and of finance. Many 
developing countries need increased financial support, institutional strengthening and capacity 
building. As ODA support for the forest sector is declining, new approaches will need to be developed 
to generate increased financial resources at the national level. There is also a need to use available 
financial resources more efficiently. Increased coordination between donors at the national level could 
make a significant contribution to achieving this objective. 

In addition to the needs of countries to support implementation, this report identified three key 
emerging issues, namely forest law enforcement, forest fires and perverse subsidies. It is proposed 
that future action of the UNFF focus on developing specific actions to address these causes of 
deforestation and forest degradation. 



15 



5. Proposed action by UNFF second session 

UNFF2 may wish to undertake the following specific actions: 

• Invite the donor community, CPF members and international organizations to develop a capacity 
building programme for countries enabling the assessment of underlying causes of deforestation 
and forest degradation, and the incorporation of research results into national policy initiatives. 

• Suggest that UNEP, FAO and CTFOR, in co-operation with the secretariat of the CBD, support the 
development of tools for the assessment of forest degradation, and develop a capacity building 
programme to promote use of these tools at the national level 

• Invite the ad-hoc expert group on finance, to be established at UNFF2, to conduct a rigorous 
investigation of government subsidies that promote forest destruction and degradation, and to 
define a plan of action for UNFF to address this theme. 

• Invite CPF to develop an Action Programme to support implementation of the suggestions for 
further action made by the Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) Ministerial 
Conference 

• Invite CPF to provide improved coordination of international action forest fires, including a 
mechanism to develop the capacity of countries to predict and manage the impacts of forest fires, 
for example through the working group on Wildland Fire recently established by the Inter-Agency 
Task Force for Disaster Reduction 

• Promote a mechanism for south-south knowledge exchange on national funds and other 
innovative mechanisms for financing action to combat deforestation and forest degradation. 

References 

1. FAO/UNDP (1999). Practitioners guide to the implementation of the IPF proposals for Action. Prepared by 

the Six Country Initiative in support of the UN Ad-hoc Intergovernmental Forum on Forests. 

2. Commonwealth of Australia (2000) Summary of proposals for action. Auslnfo, GPO Box 1920, Canberra 

ACT 2601 

3. Verolme HJH, Mankin WE, Ozinga S, Ryder S. (2000) Keeping the promise? A review of NGOs and IPOs 

of the implementation of the UN inter-governmental panel on forests. Biodiversity Action Network, 
Washington USA. 

4. FAO (2001) Global forest resources assessment 2000. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper, 140. FAO, Rome. 

5. FAO (2001) State of the world's forests. FAO, Rome. 

6. Verolme HJH, Moussa J (1999) Addressing the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation - 

Case studies, analysis and policy recommendations. Biodiversity Action Network, Washington DC 

7. Madhvani A (1999) An assessment of data on ODA financial flows in the forest sector. Overseas 

Development Institute, London. 



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