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Full text of "Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution .."

Division of Fishes, 
S-NaliotwLMuspum 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



AM 
101 
S6628 
FISH 



OF THE SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 



1921 




(Publication 2659) 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

OF THE SMITHSONIAN 

INSTITUTION 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 



1921 




(Publication 2659 ) 



WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

The Smithsonian Institution '_ 5 

The establishment 5 

The Board of Regents 5 

General considerations <•> 

Finances g 

Researches and explorations n 

Geological explorations in the Canadian Rockies 11 

raleontological field-work 12 

Tlic Smithsonian African expedition 13 

Australian expedition ];; 

Malaeological field-work in California and the Hawaiian Islands 14 

Botanical researches in the Orient 1 M 14 

Researches on a multiple-charge rocket for reaching great alti- 
tudes 1~y 

Meeting iii honor of Madame Curie 15 

Cinchona Botanical Station 1<; 

Publications K> 

Library IS 

National Museum IS 

National Gallery of Art 20 

Freer Gallery of Art 21 

Bureau of American Ethnology 22 

International Exchanges 23 

International Zoological Park 23 

Astrophysical ( >bservatory 24 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 25 

Necrology 26 

Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum 1 28 

2. Report on the National Gallery of Art 45 

3. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 56 

4. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 59 

~>. Report on the International Exchanges 74 

6. Report on the National Zoological Park 84 

7. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 100 

5. Report on the International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 

ture 101 

9. Report on the library 108 

10. Report on publications 1 13 

3 



REPORT 

OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

Charles D. Walcott, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1921. 



To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit herewith the annual re- 
port on the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution 
and its branches during the year ending June 30, 1921. The affairs 
of the Institution proper are reviewed on the first 18 pages of this 
report, while more detailed accounts of the year's work of the various 
branches of the institution are given in the appendices hereto. 
These include reports on the United States National Museum, the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, the International Exchange Service, 
the National Zoological Park, the Astrophysical Observatory, the 
Smithsonian Library, the United States Regional Bureau of the 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, the National Gal- 
lery of Art, the Freer Gallery of Art, and the publications of the 
Institution and its branches. 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT. 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of Eng- 
land, who in 182G bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." In receiving the property and accepting 
the trust Congress determined that the Federal Government was 
without authority to administer the trust directly, and therefore 
constituted an "establishment" whose statutory members are "the 
President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of 
the executive departments." 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS. 

The affairs of the Institution are administered by a Board of 
Regents whose membership consists of " the Vice President, the 

5 



6 AX. VIAL EUEPOKT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1021. 

Chief Justice, three Members of the Senate, and three Members of 
the House of Representatives, together with six other persons other 
than Members of Congress, two of whom shall be resident in the city 
of Washington and the other four shall be inhabitants of some State, 
but no two of them of the same State." One of the Regents is elected 
chancellor by the board : in the past the selection has fallen on either 
the Vice President or the Chief Justice; and a suitable person is 
chosen by them as secretary of the Institution, who is also secretary 
of the Board of Regents and the executive officer directly in charge 
of the Institution's activities. 

In regard to the personnel of the board, it becomes my sad duty 
to record the death on May 19, 1921, of its chancellor. Edward Doug- 
lass White, Chief Justice of the United States. Resolutions in mem- 
ory of Chancellor White were adopted by the Regents at a special 
meeting held May 27, 1921, when the Hon. Calvin Coolidge, Vice 
President of the United States, was elected chancellor of the In- 
stitution. 

The only other change in the personnel of the board was the ap- 
pointment of the Hon. A. Owsley Stanley, Senator from Kentucky. 
as a Regent on Jaunary 5, 1921, to succeed Senator Charles S. 
Thomas. The roll of Regents at the close of the fiscal year was as fol- 
lows : Calvin Coolidge, Vice President of the United States, chan- 
cellor ; Henry Cabot Lodge, Member of the Senate : A. Owsley 
Stanley, Member of the Senate; Medill McCormick, Member of the 
Senate; Lemuel P. Padgett, Member of the House of Representa- 
tives; Frank L. Greene, Member of the House of Representatives; 
John A. Elston, Member of the House of Representatives ; Alexander 
Graham Bell, citizen of Washington, D. C. ; George Gray, citizen of 
Delaware; Charles F. Choate, jr., citizen of Massachusetts; John B. 
Henderson, citizen of Washington, D. C. ; Henry White, citizen of 
Maryland; and Robert S. Brookings, citizen of Missouri. 

The board held its annual meeting on December 9, 1920. The pro- 
ceedings of that meeting, as well as the annual financial report of the 
executive committee, have been printed as usual for the use of the 
Regents, while such important matters acted upon as are of public 
interest are reviewed under appropriate heads in the present report 
of the secretary. A detailed statement of disbursements from the 
Government appropriations under the direction of the Institution for 
the maintenance of the National Museum, the National Zoological 
Park, and other branches will be submitted to Congress by the sec- 
retary in the usual manner in accordance with the law. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

The act establishing the Smithsonian Institution in 1846 included 
in its functions the promotion of art as well as science. Heretofore 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 7 

this phase of the Institution's activities has remained somewhat in 
abeyance owing to the lack of means to further it, but within the 
last few years a tremendous impetus has been given the art feature. 
At the beginning of the past fiscal year, the National Gallery of Art, 
formerly administered as a part of the National Museum, became a 
separate unit under the Smithsonian Institution, and Congress pro- 
vided a small appropriation for its maintenance. This important 
step will do much toward the development of Washington as an art 
center, and will undoubtedly bring much desirable material to the 
national collections, already valued in money at several million 
dollars. The Freer Gallery of Art, a unit of the National Gallery, 
was brought practically to completion during the year, and work 
is going forward on the installation of the Freer collection. This 
beautiful building and the unexcelled collection of American and 
oriental art which it contains are, as noted in previous reports, the 
gift to the Nation, through the Smithsonian Institution, of the late 
Mr. Charles L. Freer, of Detroit. 

It is an unpleasant duty to here record again the pressing need 
of the Institution for a larger endowment. Although several gener- 
ous contributions have been received since the founding of the 
Institution, few material additions to its endowed funds have ever 
been made. Despite the greatly enlarged field of its scientific activi- 
ties, despite the ever-increasing demands for scientific information 
from individuals throughout the country, its income has remained 
substantially the same. Almost daily the Institution is forced to 
forego opportunities for valuable explorations and scientific re- 
searches on account of lack of means, and it is hoped that some far- 
sighted benefactor, recognizing the advantageous position and un- 
excelled facilities of the Smithsonian Institution for carrying on 
valuable researches in every branch of science, will provide an endow- 
ment sufficient to enable it to carry on this work in the " increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men." 

Bequests. — As noted in a previous report, an important bequest 
was made to the Institution under the terms of the will of Mrs. Vir- 
ginia Purdy Bacon, of New York, probated April 14, 1919, which 
will do much toward extending our knowledge of the fauna of the 
world. 

That portion of Mrs. Bacon's will relating to the Institution reads 
as follows : 

(f) To Smithsonian Institute the sum of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), to 
be used in establishing a traveling scholarship, to be called the Walter Rathbone 
Bacon scholarship for the study of the fauna of countries other than the United 
States of America ; the incumbents to be designated by said Institute under such 
regulations as it may from time to time prescribe and to hold such scholarship 
not less than two years, and while holding such scholarship to conduct for said 



8 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Institute Investigations in the fauna of other countries under the direction of 
said Institute. 

During the year the Institution received from the executors of 
Mrs. Bacon's estate securities amounting to $45,000 on account of the 
total $50,000. At the close of the year sufficient income from this 
amount had not been received to enable the first scholarship to be 
established, but it is planned to inaugurate the project during the 
coming year. 

Miss Caroline Henry, daughter of Joseph Henry, first secretary of 
the Institution, died November 10, 1920. Under the terms of her 
will the Institution is named as the ultimate beneficiary, the entire 
estate reverting to it after the death of the last life beneficiary, as a 
memorial to her father and mother. Miss Henry also bequeathed to 
the Institution the sum of $1,000 and certain articles of furniture; 
to the National Museum a set of china presented to Joseph Henry 
by the first Japanese minister; and to the National Gallery of Art 
an oil portrait by Kneller. 

FINANCES. 

The investments of the Institution are as follows : 

Deposited in the Treasury of the United States under authority 
of Congress $1, 000, 000 

CONSOLIDATED FUND. 

These securities are carried at cost and represent the investments 
made by the Institution, or gifts transferred to the Institution by the 
donors. The total of this fund now amounts to $157,562.05, namely: 

Province of Manitoba 5 per cent gold debentures, due in 1922 $2, 000 

West Shore Railroad Co. guaranteed 4 per cent first mortgage bonds, 

due in 2361 42,000 

Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co. first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds, 

due in 1939 10,000 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Co. 4 per cent general mortgage 

bonds, due in 1995, gift 2,000 

Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad Co. 5 per cent first consolidated mortgage 

bonds, due in 1939, gift 2,000 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. 5 per cent refunding general mortgage 

bonds, due in 1995, gift 5, 000 

P. Lorillard Co. 7 per cent gold bonds, due in 1944, gift 6, 000 

Liggitt & Myers Tobacco Co. 7 per cent gold bonds, due iu 1944, gift 6,000 

City of Youngstown, Ohio, 6 per cent municipal bonds, clue in 1928 3,000 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. 5 per cent secured gold notes, due in 1918 3, 500 

Northern Pacific — Great Northern joint convertible 6£ per cent gold 

bonds, due in 1936 41,500 

United States first Liberty loan 200 

United States second Liberty loan 100 

United States third Liberty loan 10, 150 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



9 



United States fourth Liberty loan $50 

United States Victory loan 6,550 

United States war-savings stamps, series of 1918 100 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Co. 5 per cent preferred stock, 

gift shares— 125 

American Smelting & Refining Co. 7 per cent preferred stock, gift do 60 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. 4 per cent preferred stock, gift do 125 

The $3,500 par value of the 5 per cent gold notes of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Co. are held in the hands of receivers pending re- 
organization. No plan, however, has yet been adopted. 

The sum invested for each specific fund and the manner in which 
held is described as follows: 



Fund. 



United 

States 

Treasury. 



Consolidated 
fund. 



Total. 



Smithson fund | $727, 640. 00 



Habel fund 

Hodgkins general fund 

Hodgkins specific fund 

Rhees fund 

Avery fund 

Addison T. Reid fund 

Lucy T. and George W. Poorefund. 

George K. Sanford fund 

Chamberlain fund 

Bruce Hughes fund , 

Lucy H. Bairdfund...'. 

Virginia Purdy Bacon fund 

Hamilton fund 



500. 00 
116,000.00 
100,000.00 
590. 00 
14,000.00 
11,000.00 
26,670.00 
1,100.00 



Total. 



2, 500. 00 



$1, 468. 74 



37,275.00 



156.00 

18,439.80 

2, 860. 00 

6,660.00 

294.00 

35, 000. 00 

8,741.93 

1,166.58 

45,000.00 

500. 00 



$729,108. 74 

500.00 

153,275.00 

100,000.00 

746.00 

32,439.80 

13,860.00 

33,330.00 

1,394.00 

35,000.00 

8,741.93 

1,166.58 

45,000.00 

3,000.00 



1,000,000.00 157,562.05 



1,157,562.05 



To Mr. B. H. Swales, honorary custodian, section of birds' eggs, the 
Institution is indebted for an additional gift of $100 for the pur- 
chase of specimens, making a total contribution of $700 since Janu- 
ary, 1919. 

Some of the unimproved land near Lowell, Mass., has been sold, 
and the sum of $226.42 was realized therefrom and invested for 
account of the Lucy T. and George W. Poore fund. 

Dr. William L. Abbott has contributed $2,000 during the year to 
the maintenance of a field party, the purpose of which is to procure 
archeological and natural history specimens in Australia. This 
expedition followed those to Borneo and Celebes and has now con- 
tinued for two and a half years. 

The Institution has received for specific activities further valu- 
able contributions from Mr. John A. Roebling, amounting to $15,200. 

In partial settlement of the Charles L. Freer bequest the Insti- 
tution received, in October, 1920, 3,919 shares of the stock of Parke, 



10 ANNUAL REPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Davis & Co. (Inc.), and in March, 1021, 10,000 shares, making a 
total of 13,919 shares. The dividends are required to be expended 
in accordance with the terms prescribed by the testator. The total 
amount received by the Institution from this source since the trans- 
fer of these shares was $25,970.7;"), and the sum of $15,026.01 has 
been expended. 

Current funds not immediately required for expenditure are, when 
conditions will permit, deposited on time in local trust companies 
and draw 3 per cent per annum. The interest received in this 
ma nner during the fiscal year 1921 amounted to $1,066.67. 

The income during the year consisted of interest on permanent 
investments and other revenues for current expenses, $61,570.32; 
receipts from bequests and for specific purposes, $110,740.47 ; which, 
with cash subject to check on July 1, 1920, amounting to $13,304.34, 
constituted a total of $185,621.13. 

The disbursements described in the annual report of the executive 
committee were classed as follows: General objects of the Institu- 
tion, $66,202.39 ; investments and expenditures for specific purposes, 
$93,816.33; temporary advances for field expenses, etc., $9,373.07, 
leaving $5,000 deposited on time and $11,229.34 subject to check. 

The Institution was charged by Congress with the disbursement 
of the following appropriations for the year ending June 30, 1921 : 

International Exchanges $50, 000 

American Ethnology : 44,000 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 7,500 

Astrophysical Observatory 13,000 

National Museum: 

Furniture and fixtures 20,000 

Heating and lighting 74,000 

Preservation of collections 312, 620 

Building repairs 10,000 

Books 2, 000 

Postage 500 

National Gallery of Art 15,000 

National Zoological Park : 

Maintenance : 125. 000 

Purchase of additional land SO, 000 

Total 753,620 

In addition to the above, there was appropriated for printing and 
binding $123,123.69 to cover the cost of printing and binding the 
Smithsonian annual report and reports and miscellaneous printing 
for the Government branches of the Institution. This includes the 
usual annual appropriation for printing and binding and the addi- 
tional amount appropriated by Congress for printing delayed by 
war work. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 11 

RESEARCHES AND EXPLORATIONS. 

An important phase of the Institution's work in the " increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men " is the scientific exploration of 
little-known parts of the earth, as well as the extending of existing 
knowledge concerning better-known regions through field-work. 
Although the Institution's funds for this purpose are extremely 
limited, it is often able to cooperate advantageously with other 
establishments in putting expeditions in the field. The results of 
these numerous explorations in every quarter of the globe have not 
only advanced scientific knowledge, but have greatly enriched the 
collections in the United States National Museum in biology, geology, 
and anthropology. 

A number of the expeditions sent out during the past year are 
described in the appendices to this report, and others are here re- 
viewed briefly to indicate the character of the Institution's work in 
this direction. 

GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES. 

Your secretary continued his geological field-work in the Cana- 
dian Rockies with two main objects in view, (1) the determination 
of the character and extent of the great interval of nondeposition 
«»f sedimentary rock-forming material along the Front Range of 
the Rocky Mountains west of Calgary, Alberta; (2) the clearing up 
of the relations of the summit and base of the great Glacier Lake 
section of 1919 to the geological formation above and below. Work 
was begun early in July along the Ghost River northeast of Banff, 
Alberta. 

The solution of the two problems attacked may be briefly described 
as follows : 

The Rocky Mountain front is formed of masses of evenly bedded 
limestone that have been pushed eastward over the softer rocks of 
the Cr.etaceous plains- forming rocks. This overthrust is many miles 
in extent and occurred long before the Devils Gap, Ghost River Gap, 
and other openings were cut through the cliffs by running water and 
rivers of ice. Great headlands and high buttes have been formed 
by the silent forces of water and frost, many of which stand out 
against the western sky as seen from the distant foothills and plains. 

It was among these cliffs that we found that the first great cliff 
was of lower Middle Cambrian age, and that resting on its upper 
surface there were 285 feet (86 meters) of a yellowish weathering 
magnesian limestone, named the Ghost River formation, which 
represents the great interval between the Cambrian below and the 
Devonian above. Sixty miles to the west, over 4 miles in thickness 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1<>21. 

of limestone, shales and sandstones occur in the break in sedimenta- 
tion of Ghost River cliffs. 

Returning to Bow Valley, the party left the Canadian Pacific 
Railroad at Lake Louise and went north over Pipestone Pass to the 
Siffleur River, which is tributary to the Saskatchewan. In the north- 
ward facing cliffs, 25 miles (40 kilometers) east of the Glacier Lake 
section of 1919, and 40 miles (64 kilometers) north of Lake Louise, 
a geological section was studied that tied in the base of the Glacier 
Lake section of 1919 with the Middle and Lower Cambrian forma- 
tions. Returning up the canyon valley of the Siffleur River to the 
wide upper valley of the Clearwater River, a most perfectly exposed 
series of limestones, shales, and sandstones of Upper Cambrian and 
later formations was found, which cleared up the relations of the 
upper portion of the Glacier Lake section to the Ordovician above. 

The work was considerably handicapped by forest fires in July 
and August and by unusually stormy weather in September. 

IWLEONTOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK. 

Dr. R. S. Bassler, curator of paleontology, National Museum, suc- 
ceeded during the year in securing for the Museum's collections two 
much-desired specimens, one a large well-preserved fossil elephant 
skull formerly exhibited in Cincinnati, the other a highly fossilifer- 
ous limestone slab of Silurian age quarried out by him near Oxford, 
Ohio. Such a slab has long been desired to show the advancement 
in life from the primitive Cambrian forms, represented in the large 
Cambrian sea-beach sandstone exhibit, to the higher and more com- 
plex species of succeeding geological periods. Notwithstanding the 
numerous occurrences of fossiliferous limestone of Ordovician and 
Silurian age, it was not until the past year that a layer affording 
slabs of suitable size and sufficient perfection of preservation was 
brought to the attention of the Museum. Numerous large blocks of 
stone had to be removed before the real task of quarrying the de- 
sired slab was begun. The work was successfully accomplished with 
the generous assistance of Dr. W. H. Shideler, professor of geology 
at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, who first located the specimen, 
and before the close of the year this valuable educational exhibit 
was installed in the hall of invertebrate paleontology. 

At the conclusion of this work Dr. Bassler proceeded to Chicago 
for the purpose of securing casts of type specimens of fossils in the 
collections of the Walker Museum, University of Chicago. Regard- 
ing this work, Dr. Bassler says : 

The paleontological collection of the National Museum, which includes the 
celebrated Walcott, Ulrich, Springer, Harris, Nettelroth, and Kominger col- 
lections, is especially rich in type specimens of early Paleozoic fossils, but 
nevertheless the Walker Museum possesses many unique types not represented 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 13 

at all in Washington. Permission to prepare casts of these and thus advance 
our study series toward the completeness which the National collections should 
attain was generously granted by Dr. Stuart Weller, director of the Walker 
Museum. In two weeks' time I was enabled to finish casting all of the 
Ordovician and Silurian types, leaving the remaining Paleozoic species for a 
future trip. The work was done quickly by using the modeling compound 
(plastocene) to make the mold from which the cast is prepared. 

THE SMITHSONIAN AFRICAN EXPEDITION. 

The Smithsonian African expedition, in conjunction with the 
Universal Film Manufacturing Co., which was described in my last 
report, concluded its work shortly after the beginning of the fiscal 
year, and somewhat later the collections made by Mr. H. C. Raven, 
the Institution's representative on the expedition, were received by 
the National Museum. Among the more important material may be 
mentioned GOT mammals (including 272 specimens from South 
Africa, a region hitherto very imperfectly represented in the Mu- 
seum's collections: 152 from Lake Tanganyika; and the chimpanzee 
of Uganda). 575 birds, 206 reptiles, and 193 fishes. Although not 
numerically large, these collections are of unusual interest on account 
of the manner in which they supplement those obtained by other 
expeditions to Africa in which the Smithsonian Institution has been 
interested. 

Dr. H. L. Shantz, of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
also accompanied the expedition with the objects in view of securing 
live plants of agricultural value for introduction into the United 
States, of studying the agricultural methods of both natives and 
Europeans, and of collecting plants for the National Herbarium of 
the United States National Museum. Over 1,000 botanical specimens 
were secured for the Museum, and first-hand observations were made 
of the methods of agriculture pursued by African tribes as well as 
the Europeans. About 1,600 plants were collected for growth as 
agricultural plants in this country, the more important being forage 
plants, nut plants, fruits, and vegetables. 

AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITION. 

Through the generosity of Dr. W. L. Abbott, Mr. Charles M. Hoy 
continued his work of collecting for the Museum specimens of the 
very interesting fauna of Australia. The results of this expedition 
are of especial value for two reasons : First, the Australian fauna 
has heretofore been but scantily represented in the Museum, and, 
second, the remarkable fauna of that continent is rapidly being ex- 
terminated through various causes. During the year two shipments 
were received from Mr. Hoy containing a total of 440 mammals well 
prepared, several of which were hitherto unrepresented in the collec- 



14 ANNUAL BEPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

tion, too-other with series of skeletal and embryological material; 

570 bird skins, with 24 additional examples in alcohol, and smaller 
collections of reptiles, amphibians, insects, marine specimens, etc. 

MALACOLOGICAL FIELD-WORK IX CALIFORNIA AND THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

On the way to the First Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress, held in 
Honolulu, August 2 to 20, 1020, Dr. Paul Bartsch, curator of mol- 
lusks, United States National Museum, spent one day on shipworm 
investigation at Mare Island. Calif. A tug was placed at his dis- 
posal by the commandant of the station in order to make every 
minute of the brief visit count, and the investigation resulted in the 
discovery that the mollusk which caused damage to the extent of 
some $25,000,000 last year is a new species of Teredo, which Dr. 
Bartsch named Teredo beachi, in honor of the commandant of Mare 
Island. 

In the Hawaiian Islands, collections of mollusks were made at 
several localities, and dredgings were made in Pearl Harbor, where 
the commandant placed a dredge at the disposal of Dr. Bartsch and 
Mr. John B. Henderson. Here also a new species of shipworm was 
discovered, which was named Teredo parksi in honor of Admiral 
Parks. 

An interesting observation made at the southeast point of Ha- 
nouma Bay was the finding of an existing marine flora and fauna 
at a considerable elevation above the level of the sea. Regarding 
this occurrence, Dr. Bartsch says: 

This flora and fauna consist of algae, quite a number of species of mollusks, 
crustaceans, echinoderms, and other marine organisms, which occupy pools 
and puddles kept ever moist and supplied with fresh water by the spray from 
the breaking surf, which incessantly pounds that shore. I consider this an 
important observation, since the occurrence of fossiliferous laminae bearing 
marine organisms between sheets of lava has been held to indicate that they 
were deposited at or below sea level, and their occurrence above this has- 
been held as evidence of elevation. We have here an instance which indicates 
that this is not necessarily the case, for such a lamina would be produced if 
a new outpouring of lava were to cover up the place mentioned. 

BOTANICAL RESEARCHES IN THE ORIENT. 

Dr. A. S. Hitchcock, custodian, section of grasses. United States 
National Museum, left Washington the lasti of April for several 
months' botanical work in the Orient under the auspices of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. This journey was un- 
dertaken with two main objects in view: (1) To study the grasses 
of the Philippine Islands in response to a request from the director 
of the Philippine Bureau of Science (Dr. E. D. Merrill) to prepare 
the manuscript on the grasses for a flora of the Philippine Islands; 
(2) to study the native and cultivated bamboos of the Philippines. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 15 

Japan, and China with special reference (1) to their introduction 
into the United States and (2) to the publication of a revision of 
the economic bamboos of the world. 

Dr. Hitchcock arrived in Manila June 9 and spent 19 days in the 
islands, mostly in Luzon. He visited Los Baiios and from there 
ascended to the summit of Makiling, 3,300 feet, through virgin 
forest. He also ascended Baguio, 5,000 feet, and Santo Thomas, 
8,000 feet. 

At the close of the j^ear he was en route to Japan by way of 
Hongkong. In Japan he intends to visit Hokone and to ascend 
Mount Fuji and other mountains, studying and collecting bamboos. 
From there he will proceed to China, and, if time permits; to Java, 
returning to Washington the latter part of December. 

RESEARCHES ON A MULTIPLE-CHARGE ROCKET FOR REACHING GREAT 

ALTITUDES. 

As mentioned in my last report, Prof. Robert H. Goddard, of Clark 
University, is working under a grant from the Hodgkins fund of the 
Institution, on a multiple-charge rocket for exploring the unknown 
upper layers of the earth's atmosphere. During the year the work 
has consisted entirely of the construction and test of a small model, 
illustrating the multiple-charge principle. 

The experiments and tests carried on during the year have been 
specifically for the purpose of eliminating jamming, of improving 
and simplifying the firing devices, of securing proper protection for 
the propelling charges, and of overcoming difficulties introduced by 
changes in the manufacture of materials used. 

A parachute device for preventing damage to the rocket and any 
apparatus or instruments carried has been made which operates for 
a fall of 60 feet. In addition to this, a modification has been con- 
structed suitable for operating the parachute after a short fall in 
rarefied air, such as is to be encountered at high elevations. 

The intention has been to demonstrate as early as possible a model 
multiple-charge rocket such as has been mentioned, a successful dem- 
onstration of which, it is believed, should show clearly that a larger 
multiple-charge rocket, constructed upon the same lines, will make 
possible the reaching of great altitudes. 

MEETING IN HONOR OF MADAME CURIE. 

A meeting in honor of Madame Curie, the codiscoverer of radium, 
was held in the auditorium of the National Museum the evening of 
May 20, 1921, by the Madame Curie Committee of Washington. The 
address of welcome to Madame Curie was delivered by your secre- 
tary, honorary chairman of the committee, who said in part : 



16 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

In your personality as a child of Poland and a citizen of France you recall 
to us the inspiration that has come to our national life from those lands and as 
a scientist the inspiration and courage that you have given to every research 
student in America. * * * Your discovery of the two elements, polonium 
and radium, and the determination of their atomic weights and many of their 
properties, awards you a place in the foremost rank of the world's research 
workers, while your generous devotion to science and the application of your 
work to the alleviation of human suffering, asking for yourself only the privi- 
lege of continuing your work, place you among the great benefactors of man- 
kind. Moreover, your work has another great underlying value. It has dem- 
onstrated to the public at large and to those who control government expendi- 
ture for scientific research, the inevitable ultimate benefit to humanity of re- 
search in the domain of pure science, however distant it may seem in the be- 
ginning frqm useful application. 

The meeting was also addressed by Miss Julia Latlirop, and a lec- 
ture on radium was given by Dr. E. A. Millikan, of the University 
of Chicago. 

CINCHONA BOTANICAL STATION. 

The lease of the Cinchona Botanical Station held by the Smith- 
sonian Institution on behalf of several American botanical agencies, 
mentioned in previous reports, was terminated on June 30, 1921, as 
the colonial Government of Jamaica decided to retain the station for 
the use of British and Jamaican botanists. It is hoped that the In- 
stitute for Kesearch in Tropical America, recently organized in this 
country, will soon be able to provide some station affording ad- 
vantages similar to those of the Cinchona station for botanical re- 
search in the Tropics. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

There were issued during the year by the Smithsonian Institution 
and its branches 113 volumes and pamphlets. Of these publications 
there were distributed a total of 142,208 copies, including 255 volumes 
and separates of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 12,922 
volumes and separates of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
24,423 volumes and separates of the Smithsonian annual reports, 
89,000 volumes and separates of the publications of the National 
Museum, 12,795 publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
2,000 special publications, 14 volumes of the Annals of the Astro- 
physical Observatory, 40 reports on the Harriman Alaska expedi- 
tion, 414 reports of the American Historical Association, and 345 
publications presented to but not issued by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 

The publications of the Institution and its branches are the prin- 
cipal means of carrying out one of its chief purposes, the " diffusion 
of knowledge." They cover practically every branch of science and 
are distributed to libraries, educational and scientific establishments, 
and interested individuals throughout the world. The annual report 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 17 

of the Institution contains a general appendix made up of articles 
reviewing in a semipopular style recent advances and interesting de- 
velopments in all branches of science. These reports are printed in 
large editions, and the increasing demand for them indicates that 
there is a growing interest in scientific matters among the American 
people. The publications of the National Museum and the Bureau 
of American Ethnology are described in detail in the appendices 
devoted to those branches of the Institution. 

Seven papers of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections were 
issued during the year, among which may be mentioned as of special 
interest a seventh revised edition of the Smithsonian Physical Tables, 
a comprehensive work for which there is great demand among indus- 
trial concerns, engineers, and educational institutions; the annual 
Smithsonian Exploration Pamphlet, which describes briefly the re- 
sults of the Institution's explorations and field-work during the year 
and is profusely illustrated with interesting photographs taken by 
the explorers in various parts of the world; and a reprint of the 
Smithsonian Mathematical Tables, one of the Institution's series of 
tables which includes the Physical Tables mentioned above, the 
Meteorological Tables, and the Geographical Tables. 

Allotments for printing. — The congressional allotments for the 
printing of the Smithsonian reports and the various publications of 
the branches of the Institution were practically used up at the close of 
the year. The allotments for the coming year ending June 30, 1922, 
are as follows : 

For the Smithsonian Institution : For printing and binding the annual 
reports of the Board of Regents, with general appendices, the editions 
of which shall not exceed 10,000 copies, to be immediately available-- $20, 000 
For the annual reports of the National Museum, with general appen- 
dices, and for printing labels and blanks, and for the bulletins and 
proceedings of the National Museum, the editions of which sball not 
exceed 4,000 copies, and binding in half morocco or material not 
more expensive, scientific books and pamphlets presented to or ac- 
quired by the National Museum Library , 37,500 

For the annual reports and bulletins of the Bureau of American 

Ethnology, and for miscellaneous printing and binding for the bureau- 21, 000 
For the annual report of the National Gallery of Art and for printing- 
catalogues, labels, and blanks 1,000 

For miscellaneous printing and binding: 

International Exchanges - 200 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 100 

National Zoological Park 200 

Astrophysical Observatory 4, 000 

For the annual report of the American Historical Association 7, 000 

Committee on printing and publication. — The function of the 
Smithsonian advisory committee on printing and publication is to 
73552—21—2 



18 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

examine and make recommendations concerning all manuscripts 
offered for publication by the Institution or its branches. During 
the year eight meetings were held and 94 manuscripts were acted 
upon. The membership of the committee is as follows : Dr. Leonhard 
Stejneger, head curator of biology, National Museum, chairman; Dr. 
George P. Merrill, head curator of geology, National Museum; Dr. 
J. Walter Fewkes, chief, Bureau of American Ethnology ; Mr. N. 
Hollister, superintendent, National Zoological Park ; and Mr. W. P. 
True, editor of the Smithsonian Institution, secretary. 

LIBRARY. 

Accessions to the library of the Institution during the year num- 
bered 11,948 volumes and pamphlets, of which 6,250 went to the 
Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress; 938 to the Smith- 
sonian office, Astrophysical Observatory, Freer Gallery of Art, and 
National Zoological Park libraries; and 4,760 to the National Mu- 
seum library. Many of the packages of books and pamphlets received 
by the library through the International Exchange service consisted 
of publications issued by several foreign countries during the years 
1914 to 1920 which had been held awaiting normal transportation 
facilities. This unusual number of receipts necessitated more than 
twice the amount of cataloguing accomplished by the library staff 
during the previous year. 

Among the many valuable accessions to the scientific library of the 
National Museum may be mentioned the entire geological library 
of the late Dr. Joseph P. Iddings, which forms the most important 
acquisition to the geological section of the library since the founda- 
tion of the department in 1880. 

Two new branch libraries were created during the year, namely, 
the National Gallery of Art library and the Freer Gallery of Art 
library. The former is administered by the National Museum 
library, but the latter is a distinct unit consisting of publications 
needed for reference use in connection with the Freer art collections. 

' NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The past year was an unusually busy one for the National Museum. 
The National Gallery of Art was separated from the Museum and 
created a separate administrative unit under the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution ; the Aircraft Building was opened to the public ; and consid- 
erable additional work was entailed by the schemes for reclassifica- 
tion and reorganization of the Government departments, the putting 
into effect of the retirement system for civil employees, and the im- 
pending inauguration of the budget system for Government accounts. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 19 

Other changes in the organization of the Museum besides the sepa- 
ration of the National Gallery of Art include the removal of the 
division of graphic arts from the department of anthropology to the 
department of arts and industries; the creation of the division of 
history, formerly under anthropology, as an independent division; 
the subdivision of the division of marine invertebrates; and the 
grouping of all strictly engineering units, including mineral and 
mechanical technology, under one curator. The Museum, as now or- 
ganized, comprises an administrative office, 4 scientific and technical 
departments, and 1 independent division, with a total of 49 recog- 
nized subdivisions. 

The total number of specimens acquired by the Museum during 
the year was 338,120. This new material is described somewhat in 
detail in the report of the administrative assistant in charge, 
appended hereto, so that it is necessary to mention here only a few 
of the most interesting accessions. In anthropology, a collection of 
rare Mission Indian baskets was received from Miss Ella F. Hubby, 
and Dr. W. L. Abbott contributed some very interesting stone fetishes 
and ancient pottery from Santo Domingo. An immense collection 
of skeletal material was received from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. New York City, which will double the value of the col- 
lections in the division of physical anthropology. 

The most notable accession to the department of biology was the 
material collected in Australia by Mr. Charles M. Hoy through the 
generosity of Dr. W. L. Abbott. A great collection of Japanese 
mollusks w;is donated by Mr. Y. Hirase, of Japan, forming one of 
the most valuable accessions ever received by the division of mol- 
lusks. The geological accessions included a quantity of South 
American material comprising Bolivian tin and tungsten ores, rare 
copper minerals from Chile, and a representative series of ores from 
Argentina. An interesting exhibit of precious opal in the matrix, 
ranging in color from the " black " opal to the pale opalescent tints, 
was presented by the Rainbow Mining Co., of Nevada. An extensive 
series of igneous rocks from islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, 
collected by the late Dr. Joseph P. Iddings, was presented by his 
sister, Mrs. Francis D. Cleveland. 

The division of textiles received specimens of the fabrics used in 
the construction of airplanes for military use, and many beautiful 
specimens of silks, fur fabrics, plushes, and velvets contributed by 
American manufacturers to show the progress of textile industries 
in this country. The division of medicine acquired, among other 
valuable material a series of the most frequently prescribed pharma- 
ceutical preparations, arranged, according to their therapeutic action, 
into 26 groups. The collection of aeronautical material in the di- 
vision of mechanical technology was enriched by the acquisition of 
the original hydroplane model devised by Mr. Edson F. Gallaudet. 



20 A.NNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

This model was constructed and experimented with in 1898, and is 
particularly interesting in that means for lateral control and wing 
warping were incorporated, but in practice were unsuccessful. 

The Herbert Ward collection of African ethnologica was shipped 
from Paris on June 25, 1921, but was not received at the Museum 
until after the close of the fiscal year. This rare and valuable ma- 
terial includes 19 pieces of sculpture by Mr. Ward and about 2.(300 
specimens of the arms and implements of the Africans of the Congo. 

The usual large number of meetings and congresses were held in 
the auditorium of the Museum. Visitors to the Natural History 
Building during the year totaled 364,281 for week days and 103,018 
for Sundays, and to the Arts and Industries Building 286,397. The 
publications issued during the year comprised the annual report, 8 
bulletins, and 60 separate papers including 1 parts of bulletins, 5 
parts of the Contributions from the National Herbarium, and 51 
proceedings papers. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART. 

An event of great importance in the development of Washington 
as an art center was the organization, at the beginning of the year, of 
the National Gallery of Art, previously a dependency of the United 
States National Museum, as a separate administrative unit under 
the Smithsonian Institution. This step, which was made possible 
through an appropriation contained in the sundry civil bill for the 
year 1921, will enable the institution to carry out the provisions of 
the act of establishment in which art was placed on an equal footing 
with science in the proposed development of the institution. The art 
feature has heretofore been held in abeyance through lack of funds 
and of proper means for administering the National Gallery. All 
that is now necessary for the full development of the Nation's art 
collections is a suitable building to house the treasures at present on 
hand and contributions that may confidently be expected in the 
future. 

The first real impetus to the growth of the gallery was the bequest 
of a valuable collection of art works by Harriet Lane Johnston in 
1906. Since that time the national collections have increased rap- 
idly, chiefly through gifts and bequests of art works by patriotic 
citizens, until now the value of the material already assembled is 
estimated at several million dollars. The gallery has never had any 
funds for the purchase of pictures until recently, when a liberal 
private fund has become available. The will of the late Henry 
Ward Ranger provides that the interest of the sum of $200,000 shall 
be used for the purchase of works of art which may ultimately come 
to the National Gallery. A number of valuable paintings have 
already been purchased from this fund. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 21 

Two other agencies which will do much toward building up the 
National Gallery are the National Portrait Committee, which secured 
for the gallerjMthe portraits of many of the distinguished leaders of 
America and the Allies in the World War, and the National Gallery 
of Art Commission, whose functions are " to promote the administra- 
tion, development, and utilization of the National Gallery of Art. 
including the acquisition of material of high quality representing the 
fine arts and the study of the best methods of exhibiting material to 
the public and its utilization for instruction." 

An illustrated catalogue of the present collection was in prepara- 
tion and nearly ready for the press at the close of the year. A start 
was made, also, during the year toward the building up of an art 
library. The income from a bequest to the Smithsonian Institution 
by the Rev. Bruce Hughes, of Lebanon, Pa., will be used for the 
purchase of reference works on art which will serve as a permanent 
memorial to the donor. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART. 

In the first report on the Freer Gallery of Art (Appendix 3 of 
this report), the curator, Mr. J. E. Lodge, gives a list indicating 
the nature and number of objects in the Freer collection, all of 
which had been received at the Freer Building by November, 1920. 
Art works of various kinds from the following sources are included 
in the collection: American, Babylonian, Byzantine. Cambodian, 
Chinese, Cypriote. Egyptian, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean. Near 
Eastern and East Indian, Palmyran, and Tibetan. The total num- 
ber of art objects, including a small amount of unclassified material, 
is 9,566. 

During the past year, the collection was unpacked and the objects 
placed in their respective storage spaces. The Japanese pottery and 
Chinese paintings were classified, and the task of checking and cata- 
loguing the entire collection was begun. The interior fittings of the 
building were completed during the .year, with the exception of a 
few minor items, and in June the Institution formally accepted the 
building from the architect, Mr. Charles A. Piatt. 

The plan of installation is first to catalogue and arrange the col- 
lections in the storage rooms so that they will be accessible for study, 
then to select objects for exhibition, and finally to arrange the public 
exhibits. This method delays the opening of the building to the 
public, but in the long run of years it will make the collection more 
valuable for purposes of study and exhibition, and will assure a far 
more, accurate record of every object. Such an art gallery as this 
will exert its influence for centuries, and a year of delay in the begin- 
ning will not materially decrease its usefulness. 



22 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology calls attention 
to the desirability of increasing the membership of the staff in order 
to meet the requirements of modern ethnological research. The 
service that the bureau should render to the state is somewhat dif- 
ferent from what it was when the bureau was organized by Maj. 
Powell, its director. American ethnology of the future, having 
passed its descriptive stage, will demand a synthetic comparative 
treatment of the vast mass of facts accumulated in the last 25 years. 
There is an urgent call for generalizations that will be immediately 
useful to the community: and as there is an ever-growing interest 
in the history of the Indians, the future of this science lies along 
the line of the historical development and appreciation of pre- 
historic culture. 

Nature has made the Rocky Mountains a vacation ground for the 
people of this country who love mountain scenery, and parks and 
monuments containing natural attractions are being set aside by 
presidential proclamation and placed under the direction of the De- 
partment of the Interior. One line of usefulness that ethnology can 
follow is to turn the minds of our people to the educational value 
of this area. 

The aim of the chief during the year has been to cover as fully 
as possible with the funds available the comprehensive field of the 
ethnology and archeology of the American Indian. This plan em- 
braces the many aspects of the cultural life of the Indians, their 
languages, dwellings, social and religious customs, music, mythology, 
and ritual. In many cases it is urgent that this valuable material 
be recorded immediately, as certain of the tribes are rapidly ap- 
proaching extinction. It is the purpose of the chief to increase 
as much as possible the field-work of the bureau, especially in the 
branch of archeology, which is becoming more and more popular 
as shown by the increasing demand for publications on this subject. 
Researches were carried on during the year on the Algonquian In- 
dians, the Iroquois, various members of the Muskhogean stock, 
Kiowa, Pueblo, Osage, Pawnee, and others. Archeological explora- 
tions were conducted in Texas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, and the Hawaiian Islands. 

Successful archeological field-work was accomplished by Dr. J. 
Walter Fewkes on the Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. An ex- 
tremely interesting ruin on which work was begun during the pre- 
vious year was completely excavated and repaired. Owing to its 
undoubted use in connection with the worship of fire by the Indians. 
it was named Fire Temple. In Tennessee a number of prehistoric^ 
mounds were excavated which yielded interesting and valuable data 



REPORT OE THE SECRETARY. 23 

on the Indians of that region, and similar work was conducted in 
Texas under the auspices of the bureau. Researches on Indian music 
were continued by Miss Densmore, the music of the Papago being 
studied this year. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES. 

The work of the exchange service was greatly increased during the 
past year owing to the resumption of exchange relations with Ger- 
manjr. The total number of packages of publications handled during 
the year was 451,471, an increase of 82,099 over the total for the pre- 
ceding year. The weight of this material was 005,312 pounds, an 
increase of 108,934 pounds. 

During the year exchanges of publications were inaugurated with 
the Czechoslovak Republic and with the Polish Government. Ex- 
change relations will be established with Roumania and Jugoslavia 
as soon as transportation and other facilities are sufficiently stabilized. 

To the list of countries receiving full sets of United States Gov- 
ernment documents there was added the Government of Poland, 
making a total of 57 foreign depositories, while to the list receiving 
partial sets were added Latvia and the Library of the League of 
Nations at Geneva, bringing the total number of partial sets up to 39. 

As an example of the value of the exchange service in securing 
special series of publications in this country for establishments abroad, 
a set of publications which would tend to make the United States 
better known in Belgium was obtained from the various Government 
bureaus in this country and forwarded to the Societe Beige d'Etudes 
et d'Expansion, at Liege, at their request. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

That the National Zoological Park is becoming more and more 
valuable to the people of Washington and out-of-town visitors from 
all parts of the country as a source of recreation and natural history 
instruction is evident from the fact that the record of attendance 
has again been broken during the past year. The previous year's 
visitors numbered 2,229,605, which figure was this year exceeded by 
171,232, making a total of 2,400,837. One hundred and twenty-four 
schools and classes, numbering 13,629 individuals, visited the park 
during the year for instruction purposes. The number of animals 
exhibited to the public is greater than any time since 1912, while the 
number of species represented in the collection is greater than ever 
before. The scientific importance and monetary value of the collection 
also are much greater than in any previous year. Gifts of animals 
during the year numbered 178, including many rare and valuable 
specimens. Mr. Isaac Ellison, of Singapore, presented the park with 



24 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

a male orang-utan, the first of these interesting animals to be shown 
for many years. Mr. Victor J. Evans, of Washington, continued his 
previous generosity to the park by presenting a young Kadiak bear, 
a pair of birds of paradise, a species never before shown here, and 
some valuable parrots. A full list of the animals presented and their 
donors is given in the full report on the park, Appendix 6. Many 
valuable specimens were also secured by exchange and transfer, and 
a few b}^ purchase. The total number of animals in the collection on 
June 30, 1021, was 1,545, representing 478 species, an increase over the 
year before of 118 individuals and 59 species. 

Owing to a drop toward the end of the year in the cost of food 
for the animals, it was possible to undertake a few much-needed and 
long-deferred improvements. Sections of roads were rebuilt and 
repaired, one of the fords across Rock Creek was rebuilt with 
cement, a sidewalk was laid from the much-used Harvard Street 
entrance, the great flight cage for birds was scraped and painted, and 
several minor improvements were completed. With the aid of a 
small sawmill, 140,000 feet of lumber and 80,000 shingles were 
salvaged from dead chestnut trees in the park. 

The purchase of land necessary for the protection of the Connecti- 
cut Avenue entrance, mentioned in several previous reports, was 
completed during the year, and a small unexpended balance of the 
money available for this purpose was reappropriated for the pur- 
chase of certain much-needed lots near the Adams Mills Road 
entrance. 

The most urgent needs of the park are a suitable public restaurant 
building, a building for the exhibition of small mammals, and funds 
for the completion of grading and filling operations, which Would 
provide a large area of flat space for deer and other animals, and 
would make possible the elimination of a dangerous curve in the 
main automobile road. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY. 

The most important event during the year was the location of a 
new solar observing station on Mount Harqua Hala, Ariz., probably 
the most cloudless region in the United States. This station, which 
was erected through the generosity of Mr. John A. Roebling, of New 
Jersey, will be used for the purpose of securing solar-constant obser- 
vations on all possible days for several years, which it is hoped will 
furnish, in conjunction with similar observations to be made at the 
Smithsonian station at Montezuma, Chile, a sound basis for the 
study of the relation between solar variation and our weather condi- 
tions on the earth. 

At Washington the preparation of Volume IV of the Annals of 
the Astrophysical Observatory, mentioned in last year's report, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 25 

was brought nearly to completion. A large amount of delicate 
instrument work was carried out at the observatory instrument 
shop, and Dr. Abbot was invited by Dr. Hale, of the Mount Wilson 
Solar Observatory, to prepare a special spectrobolometer to observe 
the energy spectra of the stars. This extremely delicate apparatus 
was nearly completed at the close of the year. 

In the field the usual solar observations were conducted at Mount 
Wilson, Calif.; Montezuma, Chile; and at the new station in Ari- 
zona. At Mount Wilson Dr. Abbot and Mr. Aldrich also carried 
on observations on the distribution of radiation over the sun's 
disk, and various investigations with the pyrheliometer, the spectro- 
bolometer, the pyranometer, and the Angstrom pyrgeometer. The 
solar cooker, on which Dr. Abbot has been working for several 
seasons, was brought to perfection, and practically all the cooking 
operations required by the observers were performed with the 
apparatus. 

At the new Arizona station observing was begun about the middle 
of September, and from then until February conditions were even 
better than had been hoped for. It was possible to make observa- 
tions on about TO per cent of the days during that period. March, 
April, and May were less satisfactory, but this was apparently due 
to the unusual character of the weather all over the world, and it is 
confidently hoped that continued observations of the sun here and 
at the Chile station will lead to important results bearing on weather 
prediction on the earth. 

INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF SCIENTIFIC LITERA- 
TURE. 

This international cooperative enterprise has been in existence 
since 1900, having as its object the systematic indexing and classify- 
ing of all original scientific publications. Beginning with the litera- 
ture of 1901, the catalogue has been completed through 1914, and 
there is now on hand much material from that date up to the present 
time. 

Until the beginning of the late war the catalogue was practically 
self-supporting, but owing to the international chaos caused by the 
war the finances of the enterprise are now in a very precarious 
condition. For this reason the Roj^al Society of London, the finan- 
cial sponsor of the catalogue, called a conference which was held 
in London during September, 1920. At this conference delegates 
were sent from 13 of the principal countries of the world, exclusive 
of the enemy countries, who were not included in the Royal Society's 
invitation. The United States was represented by delegates from 
the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, 



26 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1021. 

the Smithsonian Institution, and by a representative from the 
Rockefeller Foundation, who had just returned from the Continent, 
where he had been making an investigation of the Concilium Biblio- 
graphicum of Zurich. 

The consensus of opinion resulting from this meeting appeared to 
be that it was essential for all organizations, such as the International 
Catalogue and existing and proposed abstract journals, whose com- 
mon aim is to supply information required by scientific workers and 
libraries, to cooperate for their mutual benefit, and that when some 
definite plan of consolidation was agreed on financial aid would be 
forthcoming. Plans looking to this most desirable condition are now 
under way, but it appears that for the present, at least, the necessary 
funds will have to be supplied from the United States, for although 
we have felt the burden of war expenses in this country our finances 
are not in the deplorable condition now common to all of the Euro- 
pean countries, which, in addition to the havoc caused by the war, 
are at a very great additional disadvantage owing to the unprece- 
dented condition of monetary exchange. There is no question as to 
the need of abstract journals for the immediate use of scientific work- 
ers and also of a catalogue and index as a permanent record of scien- 
tific literature for the use of libraries, as well as for scientific work- 
ers, and as the present organization of the International Catalogue 
has still the official support of all of the principal countries of the 
world, and as this organization was founded after years of endeavor 
by representatives of practically all of the scientific societies of the 
world, it would now be a calamity to allow it to lapse merely on ac- 
count of temporary financial difficulties. I can not therefore too 
strongty urge that this assistance be furnished by some of the several 
wealthy organizations in this country whose aims are to further the 
interests of science. A more detailed account of the findings of the 
conference and of the present condition of the catalogue will be 
found in the regular annual report of the United States Regional 
Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, ap- 
pended hereto. 

NECROLOGY. 

EDWARD DOUGLASS WHITE. 

Edward Douglass White, Chief Justice of the United States and 
chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, died May 19, 1921. It is 
not necessary to here review the life of this distinguished American 
whose name has been for so many years before the public. At a spe- 
cial meeting of the Board of Regents held May 27, 1921, the follow- 
ing resolutions in memory of Chancellor White were adopted : 

Whereas the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution having re- 
ceived the announcement of the death on Slny 19, 1921, of the Hon. Ed- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 27 

ward Douglass White, Chief Justice of the United States, Regent of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for ten years, eight years of which he presided as chancellor: 

Resolved, That the board here expresses profound sorrow at the passing 
away of their beloved colleague, who, as a statesman, jurist, and chancellor, 
brought always to his work that remarkable ability and high conception of 
duty that made him so strong an influence for good. 

Resolved, That this minute, be made a part of the records of the board, and 
that a copy of those resolutions be transmitted to the family of the late chan- 
cellor as an expression of the sympathy of the Regents at the irreparable loss 
sustained in the deatli of this distinguished public servant and citizen. 

NELSON R. WOOD. 

Nelson R. Wood, for over 315 years a taxidermist in the National 
Museum, died on November 8, 1920. Mr. Wood was one of the best 
men in the country in his line of work, and his loss*is keenly felt by 
the Museum. 

WILLIAM PALMER. 

William Palmer, taxidermist in the National Museum, died on 
April 8, 1921, after 30 years' faithful work in that capacity. Mr. 
Rathbun, late assistant secretary of the Institution, said of him: 

Mr. Palmer has been one of the best all-round taxidermists and preparators 
in the Museum service. He is not only efficient and a hard worker, but is 
especially valuable because of his diversified talents, which permit of his being 
utilized in practically all zoological subjects. 

JOSEPH T. IDDINGS. 

Dr. Joseph P. Iddings, associate in petrology, department of 
geology, United States National Museum, died September 15, 1920. 
Dr. Iddings was one of the leading penologists of America, indeed 
of the world. He was for many years connected with the United 
States Geological Survey, and for a time professor of petrology in 
the University of Chicago. He was the author of two privately 
printed volumes on Rock Minerals and Igneous Rocks, and numer- 
ous papers in the Government reports. He was also a joint author 
of the Quantitative System of Rock Classification. The important 
collections made and studied by him are all in the custody of the 
National Museum. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Charles D. Walcott, Secretary. 



APPENDIX 1. 
REPORT ON THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Sn; : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the United States National Museum for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1921 : 

The fiscal year was an unusually busy one. The separation of the 
National Gallery of Art from the Museum, the completion of the 
building for the Freer collections, the opening of the Aircraft Build- 
ing, the preparation of data for the schemes of reclassification of 
Government employees and reorganization of Government depart- 
ments, the inauguration of the retirement system for civil employees, 
and the impending inauguration of a budget system for Government 
accounts, all added to the usual Museum activities of the year. 

The National Gallery of Art, which had for a number of years 
been administered as the fine arts department of the museum, be- 
came an independent bureau under the Smithsonian Institution on 
July 1, 1920, through provision for its separate maintenance in the 
sundry civil appropriation act for the year 1921. To the new 
bureau were transferred such of the Museum's collections as had 
been in the custody of the curator of the National Gallery of Art, 
consisting of paintings, sculptures, and a few miscellaneous pieces. 
For the present the gallery continues to be housed in the Natural 
History Building of the Museum. 

Dr. William H. Holmes severed his connection with the Museum 
as head curator of anthropology on July 1, 1920, to become director 
of the National Gallery of Art, and carries with him to his larger 
field the good will of the entire Museum staff. When, in 1906, it 
became necessary to provide a somewhat definite organization for the 
department of fine arts of the Museum, the curatorship of the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art was tendered to Mr. Hoimes and accepted by 
him in addition to his duties then as Chief of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology. Since that time Dr. Holmes has given freely of 
his time and -strength for the National Gallery without financial 
return. It is gratifying that he is now enabled to devote all of his 
energies to his chosen field. 

As a separate administrative unit of the Institution a rapid growth 
is predicted for the National Gallery, of which the Freer collection, 
housed in its own building, forms a distinct unit. It is hoped that 
in a few years an additional building, suitable for the permanent 
home of the National Gallery, will be authorized by Congress. 
28 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 29 

Dr. Walter Hough, curator of ethnology, was made acting head 
curator of the department of anthropology upon Dr. Holmes's 
resignation. 

On April 31, 1921, the final work in the construction of the build- 
ing for the Freer collections was completed, and the structure was 
formally transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, being accepted 
on May 3, 1921, just four years and seven months after ground was 
broken for its erection. That results were not reached earlier, as 
was anticipated at the beginning, was largely due to unforeseen 
delays incident to the war, but the work was at all times conducted 
with that deliberation and attention to details necessary to stability 
and permanency of structure — and these, it is believed, have been 
obtained. Planned with special reference to accommodating a col- 
lection whose various units were known, and of affording unusual 
facilities for study and research, the building is an object of art in 
itself, and is bound to become a mecca for art lovers from all over 
the world. Under the officer in charge of public buildings and 
grounds driveways and walks were constructed leading to the Freer 
Gallery, and the land immediately surrounding it was seeded and 
has now been brought up to the standard of the balance of the 
Smithsonian Reservation. During the summer and autumn of 1920 
the remaining portions of the Freer collections were brought to 
Washington from Detroit and stored in the building. The work of 
unpacking and installing the specimens was begun in the late autumn 
under the able direction of Miss Katharine N. Rhoades, who had 
been associated with Mr. Freer in their care for several years. It is 
anticipated that some time must elapse before the exhibits are all 
in readiness and the halls can be opened to visitors, as there is a great 
amount of critical study necessary before the objects can be accu- 
rately labeled and classified. 

In December, 1920, Mr. John E. Lodge, curator of the department 
of Chinese and Japanese art in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 
was appointed curator of the Freer Gallery and placed in charge. 
The -Freer Gallery is being administered as an independent unit of 
the National Gallery of Art, but the- heating, lighting, and guarding 
of the building continue to be carried on in connection with the 
National Museum system, since the Freer Gallery is dependent upon 
the Museum plant for heat, light, and power. 

By the opening to the public of the Aircraft Building, on October 
7, 1920, the Museum added about 14,000 square feet of floor space to 
its exhibition halls. This metal structure, erected by the War De- 
partment on the Smithsonian Reservation in 1917 for the use of the 
United States Signal Service, was transferred to the custody of the 
Smithsonian after the close of the war. In it has been assembled 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

a collection of aircraft and accessories in production during the war 
period. 

Changes during the year in the organization of the Museum, aside 
from the separation of the National Gallery of Art, included the re- 
moval of two divisions from the department of anthropology at the 
beginning of the year — the division of graphic arts being trans- 
ferred to the department of arts and industries and the division of 
history becoming an independent division reporting directly to the 
administrative assistant in charge of the Museum. In biology, the 
division of marine invertebrates was subdivided on February 1 , 
1921, the collections of mollusks being segregated bj r the reestablish- 
ment of the division of mollusks. In the department of arts and in- 
dustries a combination of all the strictly engineering units was 
effected in May, 1921, by the appointment of the curator of mechani- 
cal technology, Mr. Carl W. Mitman, as curator also of mineral 
technology. He will be aided by an assistant curator in each di- 
vision. 

The Museum lost by death during the year Dr. J. P. Iddings, asso- 
ciate in petrology, Messrs. Nelson R. Wood and William Palmer, 
taxidermists, and Mr. T. W. Reese, watchman. 

As at present organized, the Museum comprises, besides an admin- 
istrative office, 4 scientific and technical departments, and 1 independ- 
ent division, with a total of 49 recognized subdivisions. The scien- 
tific staff of the Museum comprises 94 persons, of whom less than 
half receive pay from the Museum. This by no means represents, 
however, all the scientific workers on the collections, for the Museum 
also has much regular assistance from employees of various govern- 
mental agencies in Washington in classifying, arranging, and plac- 
ing on exhibition specimens in their respective fields of investigation. 

As the museum organization of the Government, the National Mu- 
seum has important assistance from the executive departments and 
other governmental agencies. Particularly was this true during the 
fiscal year 1921. Credit is due to the Navy Department for trans- 
porting and installing in the Museum building many attractive ex- 
hibits in the World War collections; to the War Department for 
similar service, including the detail to the Museum of one officer for 
several months; to the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and 
the Interior and the Bureau of American Ethnology for many valu- 
able contributions of specimens and much assistance in classifying 
and labeling objects in the Museum; to the Interior Department also 
for transferring exhibition cases no longer needed by it; and to the 
Post Office Department for large series of valuable and interesting 
postage stamps. 

This cooperation is mutual, as the Museum renders aid to other 
governmental establishments whenever possible, as evidenced by 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 31 

the work of Dr. Ales Hrdlicka for the Department of Justice, by 
which over a million of dollars in land and money was saved for 
the Indians. 

The maintenance and operations of the National Museum for the 
fiscal year 1921 were provided for by items appropriated in the 
sundry civil and in two deficiency bills, amounting in all to $483.- 
322.70. 

The item for preservation of collections, from which are paid the 
administrative, scientific, preparatorial and clerical staff, the watch, 
labor and cleaning- force, and the cost of all preservatives, has 
remained at $300,000 from 1911 until the present time. An addi- 
tional $12,620 granted for this year meant the extension of the 
service to cover the Freer Gallery of Art, for which it provided 
watchmen, cleaners, and clerical help and the necessary miscellaneous 
supplies needed in connection therewith. It afforded no cessation 
of the strictest economy by means of which only is it possible to con- 
tinue the operations of the Museum. Present conditions can per- 
haps best be realized when it is stated that 10 years ago the item 
of $300,000 was considered insufficient to cover the needs of the 
Museum in these lines. Within this decade, with its tremendous 
decrease in the purchasing power of the dollar, some 3,000,000 
specimens have been added to the collections, the scope of the Museum 
has been materially enlarged, and an additional building has been 
added to the Museum group, aside from the Freer Gallery. 

During this period, however, increases have been granted in the 
items for heating and lighting and for printing and binding, owing 
to the increased cost of coal and the tremendous increase in the 
cost of labor, paper, and other materials used in printing. On the 
other hand, even with the greatly extended service, the item for 
building repairs is now $5,000 less than it was 10 years ago, at a 
time when the Natural History Building was new and naturally re- 
quired comparatively little in the way of repairs. The amount for 
furniture and fixtures is likewise $5,000 less than it was for a number 
of years prior to the war, when prices of labor and material were 
from 50 to 75 per cent lower. 

Of the $64,202.70 appropriated this year for printing, $37,500 was 
the regular item and $26,702.70 a deficiency item to permit of the 
completion during the year of an unusual accumulation of work at 
the Government Printing Office. The Museum printing had for 
several years been held back for lack of sufficient available funds. 

A comparison of the operating expenses of the United States Na- 
tional Museum with museums of similar size and scope in this coun- 
try and abroad is extremely interesting, and brings out very strongly 
the inadequacy of the appropriations, especially with reference to the 
salaries paid to all classes of its employees. The scientific staff is 



32 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1021. 

paid from 40 to 50 per cent less than scientific men of the same grade 
in similar museums elsewhere. 

The upkeep of the buildings during the }^ear involved the usual 
repair work, including the painting of walls and ceilings in several 
halls, the painting of all the exterior window frames of the Natural 
History Building, those of the east end of the Smithsonian Building, 
and a beginning on those of the Arts and Industries Building; and 
the painting of the roofs of the latter. A locker room for the en- 
gineer force was constructed at the east entrance, ground floor, of the 
Natural History Building, and the east court of that building was 
seeded with grass. 

When the Freer Building was being planned, arrangements were 
made to procure heat, light, and power from the central heating 
plant, which the Institution was assured would be in a position to 
furnish the same before needed. In the absence of such service, 
however, the Freer Gallery was connected with the Museum power 
plant, from which was furnished this year the necessary heat, light, 
and power. This additional load on the Museum plant required the 
use of the old boilers in the Arts and Industries Building during the 
coldest portion of the heating season. By the removal of the old 
flat grates for burning anthracite coal in these boilers and the instal- 
lation of hand-operated stokers, bituminous coal could be used with- 
out the production of unlawful smoke. The antiquated blow-off 
valve combination on the boilers in the Natural History Building 
was also replaced. Though the winter was a comparatively mild 
one, heat was supplied the buildings from October 6, 1920, to May 
20, 1921, with a consumption of 3,224 tons of coal. The ice plant, in 
operation for 4,017 hours, produced 324.7 tons of ice. As a matter of 
economy the power plant was shut down as usual during July and 
August, 1920, and was again closed on June 4, 1921, the electric 
current being purchased from a private concern during the summer 
months. 

The Museum acquired 62 exhibition cases and 165 pieces of storage, 
laboratory, and office furniture. 

COLLECTIONS. 

The total number of specimens acquired by the Museum during the 
year was approximately 338,120. Additional material to the extent 
of 794 lots, mainly geological, was received for special examination 
and report. About 25,000 specimens were sent out in exchange, for 
which the Museum received much valuable material. 

The distribution of specimens for educational work was broadened 
this year to include objects from the department of anthropology. 
Of the 6,000 specimens distributed as gifts in aid of education, over 



BEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 33 

5,000 were comprised in classified and labeled sets of specimens pre- 
pared for schools and colleges, nearly 2,000 being ores and minerals. 
The other subjects represented were rocks, rock weathering and soil 
formation, mollusks, marine invertebrates, fishes, birds and birds' 
eggs, insects, pottery, and prehistoric implements. 

Anthropology. — The department of anthropology accessions were 
scientifically more valuable than in the former year, because of the 
number of professionally collected specimens. The great majority 
of the accessions are unconditional gifts. The geographical source 
of the accessions in order is the United States, Asia, Africa, Poly- 
nesia, and scattering. The department received and recorded 2,324 
specimens, and the work was well in hand at the close of the year. 

Of especial note in ethnology are a collection of rare Mission In- 
dian baskets given by Miss Ella F. Hubby, of Pasadena, Calif. ; a 
remarkable Cowichan Indian blanket with totemic paintings, a gift 
of Mrs. Charles C. Hyde, of Washington, D. C; a finely carved 
ancient wooden idol from Hawaii, collected many years ago by Rear 
Admiral J. Y. B. Bleecker, United States Navy; a collection of 
carved horn dishes and spoons from the Flathead Indians, gift of 
Dr. E. A. Spitzka, of Washington, D. C. ; and a group of ancient 
ivory fetishes from the Lower Congo, Africa. 

The division of American archeology received a noteworthy col- 
lection from an ancient ruin near Taos, N. Mex., excavated by Mr. 
J. A. Jeancon for the Bureau of American Ethnology; antiquities 
from cliff dwellings, collected by Mr. N. M. Jucld for the same bu- 
reau; and antiquities from the ruins of Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., 
collected by Mr. Judd while conducting the expedition of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society to this region. Very interesting carved 
stone fetishes and ancient potteiy from Santo Domingo were con- 
tributed by Dr. W. L. Abbott. 

Old World archeology reports the receipt of Buddhist bronze fig- 
urines from China and kakemonos from Japan, gift of Mrs. Murray 
Warner, of Eugene, Oreg. ; other Buddhist bronze figures, given by 
Mrs. John A"an Rensselaer Hoff, of Washington, D. C, fill gaps in 
the collection. 

Physical anthropology received an immense consignment of skele- 
tal material of individuals of known sex, age, color, and nationality. 
This collection, which doubles the value of the material in the divi- 
sion and will require several years' work to put in order and to cata- 
logue, was received from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
New York City, through Dr. George S. Huntington. An important 
collection of human brains was donated by Dr. E. A. Spitzka, of 
Washington, D. C. xl number of skulls and skeletons of American 
Indians was added to the collection through the University of South 
73552—21 3 



34 AXXl'AI, REPOBT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Dakota and the Bureau of American Ethnology. These specimens 
are of much importance to the division. 

Mr. Hugo AVorch, of Washington, D. C, added to the Worch col- 
lection a copy of the Bach harpsichord and a dulcitone and 11 other 
pianos illustrating the history of the pianoforte. Mrs. Gouverneur 
Morris, of Washington, D. C, presented a piano handsomely deco- 
rated by Cottier, of New York. 

A selection of rare oriental rugs from the collection of a con- 
noisseur of Washington was hung in place of the collection previ- 
ously on exhibit in the hall of art textiles. 

The section of ceramics received a set of Japanese porcelain given 
Prof. Joseph Henry by the first Japanese minister to the United 
States, bequest from Miss Caroline Henry. Miss Freeman and Mrs. 
B. H. Buckingham, of Washington, D. C, presented some richly 
decorated Japanese plaques. 

Biology. — From the numerical standpoint, as well as from the 
standpoint of the scientific interest of the collections, the year was 
a very prosperous one for the department of biology. The outstand- 
ing features of this year's accessions are the Australian collections 
made by Mr. Charles M. Hoy, which were the result of Dr. W. L. 
Abbott's continued interest in the Museum, and the great collection 
of Japanese mollusks donated by Mr. Y. Hirase, of Kioto, Japan, one 
of the most valuable accessions that has ever come to the division 
of mollusks. Dr. Abbott is also responsible for the addition of an 
important collection of birds and mammals made by Mr. C. Boden 
Kloss in Siam, Cochin China, and Anam. While engaged in geo- 
logical work in the Rocky Mountains, Secretary Walcott procured 
for the Museum several desired Canadian mammals, including mule 
deer and mountain goats. Another valuable accession is that of Dr. 
J. P. Iddings's collection of butterflies and moths, presented by the 
heirs of Dr. Iddings, consisting of about 2,500 named species, mostly 
from the Tropics and mounted ready for exhibition. Through the 
continued generosity of Mr. B. H. Swales, bird skins, representing 
38 species and 7 genera not hitherto contained in the national col- 
lection, were added. The botanical material accessioned during the 
year embraced over 14,000 specimens from Haiti and Santo Domingo, 
collected by Dr. Abbott and Mr. Leonard, besides a large number of 
valuable collections both from the Old and the New World. 

Geology. — The additions to the collections in this department 
showed a marked increase over those recorded in any one of the past 
15 years. The total number of accessions listed is 231, a gain of 51 
over last year and of 20 over the number recorded in 1914-15, next 
highest on the list. 

The greatest bulk of material was received by transfer from the 
United States Geological Surrey, but numerous valuable specimens 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 35 

were acquired chiefly by exchanges and gifts. These include a 
quantity of South American material comprising Bolivian tin and 
tungsten ores, and rare copper minerals from Chile, secured by 
Custodian F. L. Hess through Guggenheim Bros., New York City; 
Messrs. L. L. Ellis and Don Stewart, Oruro, Bolivia; and Prof. 
Joseph T. Singewald, of Johns Hopkins University. In addition 
a representative series of ores from Argentina was presented by the 
ambassador, Mr. Tomas A. Le Breton. 

Interesting additions were made to the exhibit of radioactive min- 
erals, including carnotite, euxenite, torbernite, and uraninite. 

The meteorite collection was augmented by representatives of four 
falls, Forsyth County, N. C; Chinautla, Guatemala; Troup, Tex.; 
and Owens Valley, Calif. 

New and rare specimens were added to the mineral collection 
chiefly through exchanges. An attractive suite of precious opal in 
the matrix, ranging in color from the " black " opal to the pale, 
opalescent tints, was presented by the Rainbow Ridge Mining Co., 
operating in Humboldt County, Nev., and important additions to 
the collection of cut gems were acquired through the Frances Lea 
Chamberlain fund. 

The petrological collection was enriched by the extensive series 
of igneous rocks from islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, col- 
lected by the late Dr. Joseph P. Iddings and presented by his sister, 
Mrs. Francis D. Cleveland. Including also the scientific portion of 
Dr. Iddings's library as well as valuable collections assigned to other 
departments of the Museum, this is considered one of the most not- 
able accessions of the year. 

Accessions of paleontological material aggregate at least 50,000 
specimens and include much material from foreign sources. Several 
thousand specimens of Cambrian fossils, collected chiefly by Secre- 
tary Walcott, and approximately 25,000 specimens of Silurian and 
Devonian forms from Maine are also among the year's acquisitions. 

Vertebrate, remains of unusual interest and in large quantity were 
obtained by Mr. J. W. Gidley, collecting in Arizona under the joint 
auspices of the National Museum and United States Geological Sur- 
vey. A portion of this, including a rare species of mastodon and a 
large glyptodon, is sufficiently complete to afford material for 
restoration and exhibition. 

New exhibits include two cases containing gem minerals in the 
matrix, supplemental to the gem collection; an entirely new install- 
ment of the exhibit illustrating radioactivity, and instructive and 
showy biological series selected from the crinoid collection of Dr. 
Frank Springer; skeletons of the unique horned dinosaur, Brachy- 
ceratops montanensis, a wolverine, or Gulo, and a bear, and a bio- 
logic series illustrating the evolution of fossil plants. 



36 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Textiles, medicine, wood technology ', and foods. — The collections 
under the supervision of the curator of textiles, which, besides tex- 
tiles, embrace medicine, food, wood technology, and miscellaneous 
animal and vegetable products, were increased by man}' gifts and by 
transfer from other Government bureaus, amounting to nearly 1,000 
objects. The most important of these are as follows : 

From the Director of Air Service, War Department, specimens of 
the fabrics used in the construction and equipment of airplanes for 
military use; also examples of the same fabrics which had been con- 
verted to demonstrate the value for civilian use of the large surplus 
sold by the War Department to the public. There were added by 
gift many beautiful specimens of silks, fur fabrics, plushes, and 
velvets contributed by American manufacturers to show the progress 
of textile industries in this country. 

The collections in the division of medicine were enlarged by a 
series of the most frequency prescribed pharmaceutical preparations, 
arranged, according to their therapeutic action, into 26 groups, by a 
large series of models, specimens, and photographs illustrating vac- 
cine and serum therapy and arranged to demonstrate the methods 
used to combat smallpox, lockjaw, pneumonia, cerebrospinal menin- 
gitis, and hay fever. The collection illustrating pharmacy received 
valuable specimens of pharmaceutical apparatus and a large number 
of additional documents and publications bearing on the history of 
the United States Pharmacopoeia. 

Increased interest in the exhibition collections of the section of 
wood technology resulted from the gift by the British Government 
of a large section of one of the heavy oak beams taken from the roof 
of Westminster Hall during recent repairs to that historic structure. 
The roof was built under the orders of Richard II, in 1399, and oak 
timbers used therein, allowing for the age of the tree, must be at 
least 1,000 years old. The timber presented to the Museum exempli- 
fies the durability of British oak and gives an idea of the beauty of 
the old craftsman's work. 

Interest in the exhibits of the section of foods was increased by the 
addition of over 100 examples of canned fruits, vegetables, fish, and 
meats, which had been packed and preserved so as to present a most 
attractive appearance. This appetizing array of canned foods was 
all put up by children according to the cold-pack method and repre- 
sented a selection from the jars winning prizes in 17 State contests 
between members of boys' and girls' canning clubs. 

Mechanical and mineral technology. — One of the most important 
fields of the division of mechanical technology is educational exhibits 
visualizing the developments in the transportation systems of the 
country and the details of such progress. In this connection there 
were received a number of accessions, among which might be men- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 37 

tioned the gasoline automobile designed and constructed by Charles 
E. Duryea in 1892-93, which represents probably the beginnings of 
the automotive industry in this country. Another valuable acces- 
sion was that of an operating model showing the cylinder mechanism 
of the type of internal-combustion engine developed by the Willys- 
Overland Co., of Toledo, Ohio. 

In the branch of aeronautics the extensive collections of the Institu- 
tion were further enhanced by the receipt of the original experi- 
mental hydroplane model devised by Mr. Edson F. Gallaudet, chair- 
man of the board of directors of the Gallaudet Aircraft Corporation, 
East Greenwich, R. I. This model was constructed and experi- 
mented with in 1898, and is particularly interesting in that means 
for lateral control and wing warping were incorporated but in prac- 
tice were unsuccessful. 

The collections devoted to horology were increased through the 
efforts of Mr. George W. Spier, honorary custodian of watches, by 
the receipt of 10 valuable old watches; and Mr. Emile Berliner, of 
Washington City, very generously presented two gramophones of 
importance in the development of the talking machine, namely, the 
first commercial type developed in 1893, and an electrically operated 
machine devised by Mr. Berliner in 1896. 

Among the accessions received in mineral technology was one con- 
sisting of over 400 specimens visualizing the interrelationship of the 
several chemical industries of importance in the production of aniline 
dyes, war gases, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. 

Graphic arts. — The increment in graphic arts included an exhibit 
of hand-made paper; two books made along sixteenth century lines, 
all the work of one man, type, composition, and paper; facsimiles in 
type metal of 50 characters of supposedly the first font of metal type 
ever cast ; wood block prints by Thomas Bewick, the father of wood 
engraving as used to-day; engraved wood block with progressive 
proofs in color by Rudolph Ruzicka ; an exhibit of lead molding 
electrotypes and the McKee treatment of electrotype plates; photo- 
gelatine and photogra vure work extending over 30 or 40 years ; histori- 
cal examples of rotary photogravure ; beautiful examples of modern 
printing in black and white and color; soft ground etchings in color 
by Benjamin C. Brown; etched plate with trial proofs by Frank W. 
Benson, and dry-point etchings of President Harding, taken from 
life by Walter Tittle. To the photographic section were added a 
Jenkins camera making 30,000 exposures a minute; a print from the 
first negative made in the United States by the Belin method of 
sending portraits by wire; Civil War photographs by Brady and 
large toned bromides of the World War showing comparative 
methods of warfare and photography ; and illustrations of a num- 
ber of hitherto unrepresented photographic processes. 



38 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

History. — The historical collections received important additions 
during the past year. Those relating to the World War were for 
the most part of a naval character. The Navy Department trans- 
ferred to the Museum a lame aggregation of materials illustrating 
the part played by that branch of the service during the war, in- 
cluding naval airplanes of the type and design used for patrol and 
convoy duty during the conflict, models of naval vessels used during 
the same period, various examples of marine instruments used on 
these ships, and a large number of guns and miscellaneous ordnance 
material. The Navy Department also increased its exhibition by a 
number of naval objects captured from the enemy in the war zone. 
These include the engines of a German submarine, a submarine tor- 
pedo, and a number of smaller German naval projectiles. The 
exhibit of the Navy Department already presents in a striking and 
graphic manner the leading features of the work of the Navy during 
the war, and plans have been made to develop it into one of the most 
notable collections of the kind in existence. The numismatic and 
pictorial sections of the war collection received valuable additions 
the former including a number of war decorations and commemo- 
rative medals and the latter two large paintings by Arthur M. 
Hazard, entitled " Not by Might " and " The Spirit of the Armistice." 
The collection was increased by British and Canadian uniforms, and 
documents relating to the services of Lieut. Louis Bennett, of the 
Royal Air Force, killed in action in France, given the Museum by 
his mother, Mrs. Louis Bennett, of Weston, W. Ya. ; and a collection 
of French military objects, including a steel listening post, a steel 
cupola with guns, a catapult, a Brandt cannon, a number of hand 
and rifle grenades, and miscellaneous relics presented by the French 
Government. 

Of the antiquarian material may be mentioned a watch seal of 
carnelian set in gold, bearing the Washington crest and owned by 
Gen. Washington subsequent to the War of the Revolution. This 
exceptionally interesting and valuable object was presented to the 
Museum by Mr. William Sloane, of New York. The National 
Society of Colonial Dames of America added to their collection a 
number of interesting pieces. Of special interest also is a very 
handsome silver punch bowl with tray, ladle, and 10 mugs, pre- 
sented to Col. George Armistead by citizens of Baltimore in recogni- 
tion of his services in connection with the defense of Fort McHenry, 
Baltimore Harbor, in 1814. These have been presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Alexander Gordon, jr., of Baltimore, a great grand- 
son of Col. Armistead. The military, the naval, the numismatic, 
and the philatelic sections of the original historical collections also 
received large additions during the year. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 39 

The Herbert Ward collection. — The Herbert Ward collection of 
African ethriologica, together with sculptures of African sub- 
jects by Mr. Ward, forming a unique assemblage illustrative of 
the culture of the unmodified natives, was packed and shipped 
from Paris on June 25, 1921. Mr. Ward was born in London, 
England, in 18G2. At the age of 15 he set out on travels which 
took him over many of the unexplored lands of the Avorld, and 
at 21 he began his work in Africa. While in the Congo in the 
employ of the Belgian Government he rendered important aid to 
Stanley in his explorations. For more than five years Mr. Ward 
lived among the natives of Central Africa, and during this time 
he developed the idea of preserving an epitome of the primitive life 
with which he was then surrounded and which would be an index of 
the primitive life of all men. The African Negro that Mr. Ward 
studied impressed him as possessing fine qualities of simple dignity 
and loyalty. Mr. Ward was by instinct and training a lover of 
art and constantly recorded his impressions of the natives at first 
hand. The records which lie made on the spot were used in his 
subsequent famous works of sculpture, which portray the soul of 
Africa. Mr. Ward in this collection has contributed a noble effort 
for the benefit of art, science, and humanity. This collection, in 
accordance with Mr. Ward's wishes, was forwarded to the Museum 
by his widow, Mrs. Sarita Sanford Ward. 

Partello bequest. — By the terms of the will of Dwight J. Partello, 
offered for probate during the year, the Museum is bequeathed his 
collection of musical instruments, bows, and cases, gathered during 
many years of collecting; 37 paintings; a gold and silver bowl or 
casket presented to Mr. Partello by the Czar of Russia ; and a diploma 
and medal awarded him for his exhibit of violins at the Chicago Ex- 
position in 1893. This well-known collection illustrating the Italian 
school of violins is of great intrinsic value and numbers 25 instru- 
ments of the violin family, made by the best masters in pure con- 
struction, including Amati, Stradavari, Bergonzi, Guarnerius, and 
others. At the end of the year the estate had not been settled. 

EXPLORATIONS AND FIELD-WORK. 

Owing to very limited appropriations, the Museum is unable to 
undertake field-work except in cooperation with individuals or other 
scientific institutions where the expenses are mostly borne by them. 
The expeditions sent out during the past year have been financed al- 
most entirely from outside sources. 

Archeological survey in the Pueblo region. — Mr. N. M. Judd, 
curator of American archeology, made an extensive reconnaissance 
in Arizona and New Mexico in the summer of 1920 in connection 



40 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

with the projected archeological work to be taken up by the National 
Geographic Society, resulting in valuable accessions to the Museum. 
At the date of this report he was in the field conducting explorations 
in the ancient ruins of Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., for that society. 
Good results are reported in the preliminary stages of this work, 
which is expected to cover five summers. Under the arrangement 
with the society most of the specimens obtained will come to the 
National Museum. 

Australian expedition. — Mr. Charles M. Hoy, who has been col- 
lecting vertebrates in Australia since June, 1919, supported by a 
fund placed at the disposition of the institution by Dr. W. L. Abbott r 
continued his field-work during the year. He collected at several 
stations in South Australia, where he also visited Kangaroo Island, 
at two stations in West Australia, and in the Northern Territory. 
Forty- four days were spent in working an area of 30 miles in extent. 
Later on two camps were established in New South Wales, one near 
the highest point on the northern tableland at an elevation of 5,000 
feet and one 1,000 feet lower. Altogether, the year's work was very 
successful. The two shipments received during the year totaled 571 
mammals and 534 birds, well prepared, many of which were hitherto 
unrepresented in our collections. A number of interesting reptiles, 
amphibians, and marine invertebrates were also included. 

Dr. Ahbotfs explorations in Santo Domingo. — Late in 1920 Dr. 
W. L. Abbott undertook personally another expedition, this time 
visiting the north side of Santo Domingo (Villa Riva, Pimentel, 
Catui, Mao, in the Yaqui Valley, and several points on the Samana 
Peninsula) and returning in May, 1921. He brought back a small 
but select collection of birds, but his main efforts were devoted to 
the collecting of plants, approximately 4,000 of which have been 
received and will doubtless prove of great value. 

The Smithsonian African expedition. — The expedition mentioned 
in last year's report as having been sent out in conjunction with the 
Universal Film Manufacturing Co. to South and Central Africa 
concluded its biological work on July 14, 1920, after which Mr. H. C. 
Raven, the Smithsonian collector and naturalist, returned to the 
United States. Though not numerically large, the -collections 
brought home are of unusual interest on account of the manner in 
which they supplement those obtained by other expeditions in which 
the Smithsonian Institution has been interested. 

Field-%oorh in vertebrate paleontology. — Early in the year Assist- 
ant Curator J. W. Gidley was detailed to visit Williamsburg, Va., 
to investigate a reported find of some fossil bones in that vicinity. 
These proved to be the remains of an extinct species of whale of 
Miocene age, but were incomplete and too badly damaged to make 
possible the recovery of a sufficient number for an exhibition mount. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 41 

Two other important field expeditions were undertaken by Mr. 
Gidley, the first as the result of reports from Mr. Kirk Bryan, of 
the United States Geological Survey, who had discovered some 
promising localities for fossil vertebrate remains while making an 
extensive survey of the underground water resources of the San 
Pedro Valley of Arizona. Mr. Gidley spent two months or more in 
the Arizona field, visiting three localities in the San Pedro Valley 
and one in Sulphur Springs Valley. The last yielded only frag- 
mentary remains of Pleistocene mammals, but much better results 
were obtained in the San Pedro Valley, where two localities, one 
about 2 miles south of Benson, the other at the Curtis ranch, about 
14 miles south of Benson, yielded remains of about 30 species, mostly 
mammals, which seem to represent a new or little-known Pliocene 
fauna. Mr. Gidley shipped 21 boxes, with an aggregate weight of 
about 4,630 pounds. A portion of this material will be suitable for 
exhibition, the most important being remains sufficiently complete 
to form the basis of skeleton restoration of a rare species of mastodon 
and a large edentate. Other remains represent extinct species of 
camels, carnivorous animals, rodents, turtles, and birds. 

The second expedition, entirely under Museum auspices, included 
a trip to Agate Springs, Nebr., where was secured a large slab, or 
block of limestone, containing remains of the little rhinoceros, 
Dweratherium coohi. This will be cleaned and exhibited with the 
bones in situ. 

Mr. C. W. Gilmore was detailed in April to visit a fossiliferous 
area some 36 miles north of Santa Fe, N. Mex., for the purpose of 
making collections of paleontological material, and for determining 
the advisability of reserving certain lands for national monument 
purposes. A skull, lower jaws, and other bones of an extinct rhi- 
noceros, various limb and foot bones of a camel, and a small col- 
lection of miscellaneous specimens were obtained as a result of this 
trip. 

Other expeditions in which the Museum Avas interested are briefly 
described in the first part of this report which relates to the affairs 
of the Smithsonian proper. 

MEETINGS AND CONGRESSES. 

The accommodations afforded by the auditorium and committee 
rooms in the Natural History Building were utilized on many occa- 
sions. A course of evening lectures on the history and nature of 
international relations, extending from October to May, was given 
under the auspices of the school of foreign service of Georgetown 
University, while two local scientific societies, the Anthropological 
Society of Washington and the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, made the building their regular meeting place. 



42 AXXIWL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

The National Academy of Sciences held its annual meeting from 
April 25 to 27. the first evening being given over to an address by 
His Serene Highness, the Prince of Monaco, followed by a recep- 
tion by the Regents and secretary of the Institution in the halls 
assigned to the National Gallery of Art. Other societies holding 
here their annual gatherings, some lasting several days, included the 
Northern Nut Growers' Association; the American Ornithologists' 
Union; the American Farm Economic Association; the American 
Society of Mammalogists ; the Audubon 'Society of the District of 
Columbia ; and the American Institute of Architects. In connection 
with the last, the Second National Architectural Exhibition, installed 
in the near-by lobby and foyer, was inaugurated by a special evening 
opening of the building. 

During its convention in Washington in May, the American Fed- 
eration of Arts held an afternoon session in the Museum auditorium, 
and the delegates were tendered a reception by the Regents and secre- 
tary of the Institution in the National Gallery of Art on the evening 
of that date, with a special view of the collection of war portraits, 
brought together by the National Portrait Committee as a nucleus of 
a national portrait gallery. In connection with the visit of Madame 
Marie Curie to this country, a meeting was arranged in her honor 
in the auditorium with a lecture by Dr. R. A. Millikan on radium, the 
exhibition halls on the two lower floors being thrown open for in- 
spection during the evening. 

The program of the Washington convention of the American 
Bankers' Association also included an evening reception by the 
Board of Regents and secretary of the Smithsonian in the Natural 
History Building. The Southern Commercial Congress, during its 
meeting in Washington, used the auditorium for presenting to the 
Department of Agriculture a portrait of the late David Lubin, the 
Italian ambassador assisting in the ceremonies. 

Meeting facilities were afforded governmental agencies as follows: 
The Bureau of Public Health Service of the Treasury Department, 
for an institute on venereal disease control, lasting several days, 
and for showing motion pictures relating to its work on several 
occasions; the Department of Agriculture, for numerous meetings 
and conferences in relation to the work of the Federal Horticul- 
tural Board, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Plant Industry, the 
States Relations Service, and the Bureau of Markets; the Army 
Medical School of the War Department, for a lecture by Dr. Hideyo 
Noguchi, and for the closing exercises of the 1920-21 session of the 
school ; the Post Office Department, for a lecture by Mr. D. F. Gar- 
land; the Commission of Fine Arts; and the Federal Board of Vo- 
cational Education. Single lectures were given under the auspices 
of the National Research Council, the Geological Society of Wash- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 43 

I no-ton. the Washington Academy of Sciences, Georgetown Uni- 
versity, and the Osteopathic Association of the District of Columbia. 
At the First Pan Pacific Scientific Congress, held in Hawaii from 
August 2 to 20, 1920, the Museum was represented by the following 
members of the staff of the Smithsonian Institution: Mr. John B. 
Henderson. Regent of the Institution; Dr. Paul Bartsch; Dr. Gerrit 
S. Miller, j.; Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan; and Mr. Gerard Fowke. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The attendance of visitors to the Natural History Building dur- 
ing the year aggregated 304,281 for week days and 103,018 for 
Sundays, being a daily average of 1,1G7 for the former and 1,981 for 
the latter. At the Arts and Industries Building the total attend- 
ance was 280,397. a daily average of 917. The Aircraft Building 
had an attendance of 31,235 for the portion of the year it was open, 
an average of 147 persons daily. The total attendance in the Smith- 
sonian Building on week days was 90,097, an average of 288, and on 
the one Sunday 138. 

The publications of the year comprised the annual report for 1920, 
8 bulletins, and 60 separate papers. The latter consisted of 4 parts 
of bulletins, 5 parts of Contributions from the National Herbarium, 
and 51 proceedings papers. The total number of copies of publica- 
tions distributed was about 89,000. 

The library obtained, by purchase, gift, and exchange, 2,041 com- 
pleted volumes and 2,719 pamphlets. The more important dona- 
tions were from Mrs. Francis D. Cleveland, Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 
and Dr. W. H. Dall, the former contributing the scientific library of 
the late Joseph Paxson Iddings, petrologist. 

While it is the primary duty of a museum to preserve the objects 
confided to its care, as it is that of a library to preserve its books 
and manuscripts, yet the importance of public collections rests not 
upon the mere basis of custodianship nor upon the number of speci- 
mens assembled and their money value, but upon the use to which 
they are put. Judged by this standard, the National Museum may 
claim to have reached a high state of efficiency. From an educa- 
tional point of view it is of great value to those persons who are 
so fortunate as to reside in Washington or who are able to visit the 
Nation's capital. In its well-designed cases, in which every detail 
of structure, appointment, and color is considered, a selection of 
representative objects is placed on view to the public, all being care- 
fully labeled individually and in groups. The child as well as the 
adult has been provided for, and the kindergarten pupil and the 
high school scholar can be seen here supplementing their classroom 
games or studies. Under authority from Congress, the small col- 



44 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

leges and higher grades of schools and academies throughout the 
land, especially in places where museums do not exist, are also being 
aided in their educational work by sets of duplicate specimens, se- 
lected and labeled to meet the needs of both teachers and pupils. 

Nor has the elementary or even the higher education been by any 
means the sole gainer from the work of the Museum. To advance 
knowledge, to gradually extend the boundaries of learning, has been 
one of the great tasks to which the Museum, in consonance with the 
spirit of the Institution, has set itself from the first. Its staff, 
though chiefly engaged in the duties incident to the care, classifica- 
tion, and labeling of collections in order that they may be accessible 
to the public and to students, has yet in the$e operations made im- 
portant discoveries in every department of the Museum's activities, 
which have in turn been communicated to other scholars through its 
numerous publications. But the collections have not been held for the 
study of the staff nor for the scientific advancement of those be- 
longing to the establishment. Most freely have they been put at 
the disposal of investigators connected with other institutions, with- 
out whose help the record of scientific progress based upon the ma- 
terial in the Museum would have been greatly curtailed. When it 
is possible to so arrange, the investigator comes to Washington; 
otherwise such collections as he needs are sent to him, whether he 
resides in this country or abroad. In this manner practically every 
prominent specialist throughout the world interested in the sub- 
jects here well represented has had some use of the collections, and 
thereby the National Museum has come to be recognized as a con- 
spicuous factor in the advancement of knowledge wherever civiliza- 
tion has a foothold. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. de C. Ravenel, 
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary, 
In charge United States National Museum,. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 2. 

REPORT ON THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART/ 

Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith the following report on 
the affairs of the National Gallery of Art for the year ending June 
30, 1921. 

ORGANIZATION AND HISTORY OF THE GALLERY. 

The National Gallery of Art, which is the legal depository of all 
objects of art belonging to the Nation, has heretofore been admin- 
istered in connection with the United States National Museum. By 
the action of the Sixty-sixth Congress in providing " for the admin- 
istration of the National Gallery of Art by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, including compensation of necessary employees and necessary 
incidental expenses," its connection with the Museum was severed 
and it became the seventh administrative branch under the Institu- 
tion on July 1, 1 920. 

A full account of the inception of the art activities of the Institu- 
tion and of the early struggles of the incipient Gallery of Art, pre- 
pared by the late Assistant Secretary of the Institution, Dr. Richard 
Rathbun, is given in Bulletin 70 of the United States National 
Museum (edition of 1916), and a brief resume may be given here 
as a suitable introduction to the first annual report of the gallery 
under the new regime, and at the same time emphasizing the im- 
perfectly recognized fact that art was placed on an equal footing 
with science in the foundation of the Institution. 

The Smithsonian Institution Avas founded in 1846 by a fund pro- 
vided by James Smithson and was organized under the control of a 
board of regents. By act of the Congress of the United States 
approved August 10, 1846, establishing the Smithsonian Institution, 
it was provided : 

That, so soon as the Board of Regents shall have selected the said site [for 
a building], they shall cause to be erected a suitable building, of plain and 
durable materials and structure, without unnecessary ornament, and of suffi- 
cient size, and with suitable rooms or halls, for the reception and arrange- 
ment, upon a liberal scale, of objects of natural history, including a geo- 
logical and mineralogical cabinet ; also a chemical laboratory, a library, a gal- 
lery of art, and the necessary lecture rooms, etc. 

Immediately upon the organization of the Board of Regents, in 
September, 1846, a committee from its membership was appointed 
to digest a plan for carrying out the provisions of this act. The 

45 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

committee's report, submitted on January 2."), 1847, contained the 
following recommendations on the subject <>i" the fine arts: 

The gallery of art, your committee think, should include both paintings 
and sculpture. ;is well as engravings and architectural designs; and it is 
desirable to have In connexion with it one or more studios, in which young 
artists might copy without interruption, being admitted under such regula- 
tions as the hoard may prescribe. Your committee also think that as the 
collection of paintings and sculpture will probably accumulate slowly, the 
room destined for a gallery of art might properly and usefully meanwhile be 
occupied during the session of Congress as an exhihition room for the works 
of artists generally; and the extent ami general usefulness of such an exhibi- 
tion might probably he increased, if an arrangement could be effected with the 
Academy of Design, the Arts Union, the Artists' Fund Society, and other as- 
sociations of similar character, so as to concentrate at the Metropolis, for a 
certain portion of each winter, the best results of talent in the fine arts. 

The Smithsonian Building was completed in 1855, and served for 
a period of eight years to accommodate the collections of all classes. 
Serious discouragement of the art interests in the Institution re- 
sulted from the disastrous fire, which in 1865 burned out the second 
story of the building, destroying its contents, including portions of 
the art collections. The remaining works were removed, the paint- 
ings and statuary to the Corcoran Gallery and the engravings to 
the Library of Congress. Many years later they were in large part 
returned to the Institution, and but little of importance transpired 
until 1906, when a collection of paintings and other art works, was 
bequeathed to the Corcoran Gallery of Art by Harriet Lane John- 
ston, mistress of the White House during President Buchanan's ad- 
ministration, subject to the condition that should a national gallery 
be established in Washington they should become the property of 
that gallery. This led to an inquiry regarding the status of the 
Institution as a national gallery, and the question was referred to 
the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, w r hich rendered the 
decision that the Institution is the duly constituted National Gallery 
of Art. The text of the decision is as follows : 

It is, therefore, on this eleventh day of July, in the year li 06, by the Supreme 
Court of the District of Columbia, sitting in Equity, and by the authority 
thereof, adjudged, ordered, and decreed, 

That there has been established by the United States of America in the 
City of Washington a National Art Gallery, within the scope and meaning of 
that part of the codicil bearing date April 21, 1902, made by the said Harriet 
Lane Johnston to her Last Will and Testament, in the proceedings in this case 
mentioned, wherein she gave and bequeathed the pictures, miniatures, and 
other articles to the Trustees of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, and in the event 
of the Government establishing in the City of Washington a National Art 
Gallery, then that the said pictures and other articles above mentioned should 
be delivered to the said National Art Gallery and become its property ; and 
that the said National Art Gallery is the National Art Gallery established by 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 47 

the United States of America at, and in connection with, the Smithsonian 
Institution, located in the District of Columbia, and described in the Act of 
Congress entitled an Act to establish the " Smithsonian Institution " for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge among men, approved August, 10, 1846 
(9 Stat. L., 103; Title LXXIII, sec. 5579, R. S., U. S.), and the subsequent 
acts of Congress amendatory thereof; and it is further adjudged, ordered, and 
decreed that the United States of America is entitled to demand and receive 
from the surviving Executors of the said Harriet Lane Johnston, the Com- 
plainants named in the bill of complaint in this case, all of the above-mentioned 
pictures, articles of sculpture, engravings, m niatures, and other articles, the 
same to he and become a part of the said National Art Gallery so established 
by the United States of America at, and in connection with, the said Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

* * * * * * * 

Wendell P. Stafford. Justice. 

The collection was therefore assigned to its care. Since that time 
the national collections have increased rapidly, chiefly, however, 
through gifts and bequests of art works by patriotic citizens. 

It is a noteworthy fact that until the beginning of the year 1920-21 
no appropriation had been made for the gallery or for the purchase 
of art works, and no provision for the employment of a salaried 
curator or other employees of the gallery, all works of art being 
associated with the department of anthropology of the National 
Museum. It happened thus that the organization of the gallery as a 
separate unit of the Institution did not require any radical change 
in the personnel of the gallery, the curator of the department of 
anthropology, who had previously cared for the art collections, be- 
coming director, and the recorder of that department becoming the 
recorder of the gallery. 

THE HENRY WARD RANGER FUND. 

Fortunately, a liberal private fund has recently become available 
for the increase of the collections. The will of the late Henry Ward 
Ranger provides the sum of $200,000, the interest of which is to be 
devoted to the purchase of works of art for the National Gallery, the 
carrying out of the bequest being intrusted to the National Academy 
of Design. The provision is as follows : 

All pictures so purchased are to be given by the Council to Art institutions in 
America, or to any 1 brary or other institutions in America maintaining a gal- 
lery open to the public, all such gifts to be upon the express condition that the 
National Gallery at Washington, admin'stered by the Smithsonian Inst'tute, 
shall have the option and right, without cost, to take, reclaim, and own any 
picture for their collection, provided they exercise such opt'on and right at any 
time dur.'ng the five-year period beginning ten years after the artist's death 
and ending fifteen years after his death; and, if such option and r'glit is not 
exercised during such period, the picture shall remain and be the property of 
the institution to which it was first given. 



48 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 



The purchases so far made b} 7 the council of the academy are as 
follows : 



Title. 



1918-19. 

1. December Uplands. 

1919-20. 

2. Evening Ti' lc, Cal- 

ifornia. 

3. Grey Hay 

4. The Rapids 

5. The Orange Bowl. . 

1920-21. 

6. The Flower Girl... 

7. Shrine of the Kain 

Gods. 

8. ThsMoate Range.. 



Artist. 



Bruce Crane 

Win. Ritschel 

YV. Granville-Smith . 
W. Khun- Schofield.. 
Anna Fisher 



Date of 
purchase. 



Helen M. Turner. 
E. Irving Couse. . 



AldroT. Hibbard. 



9. A Corner in Central Arthur J. E. Powell.. 
Park. 



Apr. 27,1919 
Jan. 11,1920 



....do 

May 2, 1920 
....do 



Apr. 4,1921 
....do 



10. Central Park and 
the Plaza. 



Win. A. Coffin. 



-do. 
.do. 



.do. 



Assigned to — 



Syracuse Museum of Art. 

National Gallery. 

Do. 
Brooklyn Museum. 

Rhode Island School of Design, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 
Detroit Institute of Art, Detroit, Mich. 
Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. 

Portland Society of Art, Portland, Me. 
Mil vaukee Art Institute, Milwaukee, 

Wis. 
Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, Memphis, 

Tenn. 



The advisory committee of the gallery took up the question of the 
acceptability of these works, but it was later decided that the ques- 
tion of acceptance could more appropriately await final consideration 
until the dates of recall provided for by the bequest, namely, the five- 
year period beginning ten years after the artist's death in each case. 

THE NATIONAL' PORTRAIT COMMITTEE. 

A second agency of primary importance to the gallery and to 
American history is found in the organization and activities of the 
National Portrait Committee. In January, 1919, a number of patri- 
otic citizens and patrons of art realized that if the United States 
was to have a pictorial record of the World War it would be neces- 
saiy to take immediate steps. A number of the distinguished leaders 
of America and of the Allied Nations were approached and their 
consent secured for the painting of their portraits by prominent 
American artists. With the indorsement of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution as custodian of the National Gallery of Art, the American 
Federation of Arts, and the American Mission to Negotiate Peace, 
then in session at Paris, the National Portrait Committee came into 
being for the purpose of carrying out this idea and thus initiating 
and establishing in Washington a National Portrait Gallery. The 
members of the committee as organized are : Hon. Henry White, 
chairman ; Herbert L. Pratt, secretary and treasurer ; Mrs. W. H. 
Crocker, Robert W. deForest, Abram Garfield, Mrs. E. H. Harriman, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 49 

Arthur W. Meeker, J. Pierpont Morgan, Charles P. Taft, Charles D. 
Walcott, and Henry C. Frick (deceased). 

That the gift of these paintings to the National Gallery might be 
thoroughly national in character, it was decided that a group of 
these portraits, financed by the art patrons of any city, would be in- 
scribed as presented to the National Gallery by that city and that a 
representative of that city should become an honorary member of the 
National Portrait Committee. It was further decided that a tablet or 
other permanent record in the National Portrait Gallery should bear 
the names of the National Portrait Committee, including the chair- 
men of all local committees ; and that there should be a record of the 
names of each subscriber to the purchase fund. 

Twentjr portraits completed under this arrangement were exhibited 
in the National Gallery during the month of May, 1921, and these, 
with such others as may be subsequently completed, will be shown in 
a number of cities throughout the United States before being per- 
manently installed in Washington. The exhibition is being circu- 
lated under the auspices of the American Federation of Arts. The 
portraits available for exhibition at the close of the year are as 
follows : 

By Cecilia Beaux : 

Admiral, Sir David Beatly. 

Premier Georges Clemenceau. 

Cardinal Desire Joseph Mereier. 
By Joseph De Camp : 

Premier, Sir Robert Laird Borden. 
, General, Sir Arthur William Curr-ie. 
By Charles Hopkinson : 

Premier Joan J. C. Bratiano. 

Premier Nikola Pashich. 

Prince Kimmochi Saionji. 
By John C. Johansen : 

Field-Marshal, Sir Douglas Haig. 

Marshal Joseph Joffre. 

Gen. Amando Diaz. 

Premier Vittorio Emanuele Orlando. 

Signing of the Peace Treaty, June 28, 1919. 
By Edmund C. Tarbell : 

Marshal Ferdinand Foch. 

Gen. Georges Leman. 

Woodrow Wilson. 
By Douglas Yolk: 

His Majesty Albert I of Belgium. 

Premier David Lloyd George. 

Gen. John Joseph Pershing. 
By Irving R. Wiles: 

Admiral William Snowden Sims. 
73552—21 4 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1!>21. 

The portraits to be added, according to the plans of the commit- 
tee, are : 

By Jt-aii McLane : 

Her Majesty Elizabeth, Queen of the Belgians. 

Premier William Morris Hughes. 

Premier Eleutherios K. Venizelos. 
By Edmund C. Tarbell: 

Herbert Clark Hoover. 

Through the courtesy of the American Federation of Arts these 
portraits were exhibited for a short period (May 5-22) in the large 
middle room of the gallery, where they attracted much attention. 
During this period the federation held its annual meeting in Wash- 
ington, and on May 18 the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 
gave a reception to the federation in the halls of the gallery, which 
was well attended by the members and by the citizens of Washington. 

ART WORKS ACQUIRED DURING THE YEAR. 

Aside from the Ranger purchases and the war portraits, the per- 
manent acquisitions for the year are as follows: 

An oil portrait of the late Julius Bien, painted by George Da 
Madura Peixotto in 1S86. Gift of Mr. Julius Bien, of New York, 
through the Hon. Simon Wolf. 

Monarch of the Farm (Norman bull), by William Henry Howe, 
N. A., painted in 1891. Gift of Mrs. William Henry Howe (Mrs. 
Julia May Clark Howe). 

The Gathering Storm, by Eugene Louis Gabriel Isabey, 1864. 
Presented by Mrs. Gibson Fahnestock, in Memory of Maj. Clarence 
Fahnestock, of the American Expeditionary Forces. 

Love and Life, by George Frederick Watts, R. A. Gift of the 
artist to the American people in 1896; accepted by act of Congress 
approved July 23, 1894; transferred to the gallery from the White 
House on March 21. 1921. 

Portrait of a Gentleman (with white wig), attributed to Sir God- 
frey Kneller (lo4C)-172S). Bequeathed by Miss Caroline Henry. 

Soldat de Crimee, by Harriet Blackstone. Gift of Mr. Barent G. 
Poucher and his wife, Florence Holbrook Poucher. 

Portrait bust (white marble) of Hon. John Sherman, by Daniel 
Chester French, N. A., 188G. Gift of Lieut. John Sherman Mc- 
Callum, through Mr. Charles Moore. 

Portrait bust (bronze) of Brig. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, by William 
Rudolf O'Donovan, A. N. A. Gift of the memorial committee and 
contributors, through Mr. Henry Clews, surviving member of the 
committee. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 51 

The Wanderlusters' Rest, by William Henry Holmes. Gift of the 
artist. 

The walk to Gethsemane, by Johannes Adam Simon Oertel. Gift 
of Mr. J. F. Oertel. 

LOANS. 

Although, on account of the shortage of space in the gallery, 
additional loans are not readily exhibited, the following were accepted 
during the year : 

Portrait of Dr. William Healy Dall and a full-length portrait of 
George Washington, by Wilford Seymour Conrow. Lent by the 
artist. The latter was withdrawn before the close of the year. 

Genevra dei Benci, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). 
Lent by the Misses Janet R. and Mary Buttles. 

Athena, attributed to Simon De Vos (1603-1676). Lent by Miss 
May Warner. Withdrawn before the close of the year. 

Five portraits; lent by Mrs. Archibald Hopkins (Mrs. Charlotte 
Everett Wise Hopkins) as follows: Col. Mark Hopkins, Continental 
Army, artist not given; Dr. Mark Hopkins, pastel by Sarony of 
New York; Hon. Edward Everett, by Asher Brown Durand; Mrs. 
Edward Everett, by Gambadella; and Charlotte Brooks Everett 
(later Mrs. Henry Augustus Wise), by George P. A. Healy. 

Portrait of Surgeon Baily Washington, jr., United States Navy, 
(1787-1854), artist not given. Lent by Miss Alice M. Reading, his 
granddaughter. 

Portrait of Miss Ellen Day Hale, by Mrs. Margaret W. Lesley 
Bush-Brown. Lent by the artist. 

Christ in the Temple, by J. B. Tiepolo ; The Doctor's Visit, by Jan 
Steen; Dedham Vale, by John Constable; and A Young Dutch Girl, 
by N. Drost. Lent by Mr. Ralph Cross Johnson. 

Portrait of Mrs. Charles Fames, by Gambadella. Lent by Mrs. 
A. Gordon-dimming. 

Portrait of George Washington, by Rembrandt Peale; portrait of 
John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, by Charles Loring Elliott. Lent 
by the Hon. Charles S. Hamlin. 

Seven Cameos — the Pickering Dodge collection. Lent by Mrs. 
Charles W. Rae. 

Portrait bust (bronze) of Maj. Gen. George Owen Squier, Chief 
Signal Officer, United States Army, by Moses Wainer Dykaar. Lent 
by Gen. Squier. 

Portrait bust (marble) of the late Senator Justin Smith Morrill, 
of Vermont, by Preston Powers. Lent by Dr. Charles L. Swan 
through Senator W. P. Dillingham. 

Statue of Pan (white marble). Lent by Brig. Gen. George P. 
Scriven, United States Army. 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

DISTRIBUTIONS. 

Loans have been withdrawn by the owners as follows: Full-length 
portrait of George Washington, by Wilford S. Conrow, returned to 
Mr. Conrow on his request. Athena, attributed to Simon De Vos, 
was withdrawn by Miss May Warner. 

In November, i920, five paintings, the property of the National 
Gallery, by five living American artists, were lent to the American 
Federation of Arts to be associated with twelve other notable paint- 
ings from other sources on an exhibition circuit, which included 
Davenport, Iowa ; Moline, Mich. ; Syracuse, N. Y. ; Memphis, Tenn. ; 
Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Jackson, Mich. ; and Ann Arbor, Mich. The 
five paintings — Caresse Enfantine, by Mary Cassatt; A Family of 
Birches, by Willard Metcalfe ; The White Parasol, by Robert Reid ; 
November, by D wight Try on ; and Southwesterly Gale, by Frederick 
J. Waugh — were returned to the gallery near the close of the fiscal 
year. 

Mrs. Augusta H. Saint-Gaudens withdrew her bust of Lincoln for 
a Saint-Gaudens exhibit at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
in the early part of 1921. It was returned to the gallery at the close 
of the exhibit. 

THE NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART COMMISSION. 

An important forward step in the development of the gallery was 
made during the year. On May 27, 1921, the Board of Regents of 
the Institution, having the future of the gallery in mind, took the 
initial steps in the establishment of the National Gallery of Art Com- 
mission, formulating a plan of organization and naming the follow- 
ing board to take the steps necessary to its elaboration : 

Public men interested in fine arts : W. K. Bixby, Joseph H. Gest, 
Charles Moore, James Parmelee, Herbert L. Pratt. 

Experts: John E. Lodge, Frank Jewett Mather, jr., Charles A. 
Piatt, Edward W. Redfield. 

Artists: Herbert Adams, Edwin H. Blashfield, Daniel Chester 
French, Gari Melchers, William H. Holmes. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, secretary of the Institution, was named a 
member of the commission ex officio. 

The primary functions of the commission are "to promote the 
administration, development, and utilization of the National Gal- 
lery of Art, including the acquisition of material of high quality 
representing the fine arts; and the study of the best methods of 
exhibiting material to the public and its utilization for instruction." 

At the first meeting of the commission, June 8, the organization 
was completed and committees were appointed to take charge of 
the various branches of the work. These are : Executive committee, 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 53 

Charles Moore (chairman) Herbert Adams, Daniel Chester French, 
W. H. Holmes (secretary), James Parmelee, and Charles D. Walcott; 
advisory committee (chairman to be named), Herbert Adams, Edwin 
H. Blashfield, W. H. Holmes, Gari Melchers, Charles A. Piatt, and 
Edward W. Redfield; and 12 special committees: (a) On ancient 
European paintings, Frank Jewett Mather, jr., chairman; (b) on 
prints excepting the oriental, James Parmelee, chairman; (c) on 
sculpture, Herbert Adams, chairman; (d) on American paintings, 
Edward W. Redfield, chairman; (e) on mural paintings, Edwin H. 
Blashfield, chairman; (/) on ceramics, Joseph E. Gest, chairman; 
{g) on oriental art, John E. Lodge, chairman; (h) on modern Euro- 
pean art, Gari Melchers, chairman; (i) on architecture, Charles A. 
Piatt, chairman; (y) on portrait gallery, Herbert L. Pratt, chair- 
man; (k) on textiles, , chairman; and on building, 

Charles Moore, chairman. The executive committee met and or- 
ganized on June 17, 1921, and at the close of the year considerable 
progress had been made in the organization of the special committees. 

The value of the National Gallery collections already in hand is 
estimated at several million dollars, their acquirement being due en- 
tirely to the generous attitude of American citizens toward the 
National Gallery of Art, no single work of painting or sculpture 
now in its possession having been acquired by purchase. It can 
hardly be doubted that when a building is provided in which contri- 
butions can be cared for, and exhibited to the public in the manner 
they deserve, many collectors seeking a permanent home for their 
treasures will welcome the opportunity of placing them in the 
custody of a national institution. The providing of a suitable build- 
ing for the gallery is all that is necessary to make Washington in the 
years to come an art center fully worthy of the Nation. 

The act of Congress establishing the institution provided for a 
department or gallery of the fine arts and limited its scope to paint- 
ings, sculpture, engravings, and architectural designs — limitations 
which experience has shown lack elasticity, since the fine arts extend 
in various directions into other fields of culture. The chief difficulty 
in confining the collections to this narrow field is that, while the 
institution has depended, and must depend very largely, on gifts and 
bequests for its development, these gifts and bequests contain a large 
percentage of art material quite outside of the limitations indicated, 
as illustrated in the Freer, the Harriet Lane Johnson, and the Pell 
collections. It would thus appear that the gallery may well antici- 
pate that when a building is provided for art, the scope of the subject 
matter will necessarily extend to all branches furnishing art ma- 
terial rising into the realm of the fine arts as manifestly contem- 
plated in the organization of the gallery commission. 



54 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

A chief undertaking of the year wasthe preparation of an illustrated 
catalogue of the collections, which is practically ready for the printer 
;it the close of the year. An illustrated catalogue of the Ralph 
Cross Johnson collection of paintings by old masters, written by 
Mr. George B. Rose of Little Rock, Ark., was published in the 
September (1920) number of the journal, Art and Archaeology (Vol. 
X, No. 3), and copies of this have been on sale during the year in the 
room devoted to these works. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

FINE ARTS. 

The National Art Committee Exhibition of War Portraits: Signing of the 
Peace Treaty, 1919, and Portraits of Distinguished Leaders of America 
and of the Allied Nations. Painted by Eminent American Artists for 
Presentation to the National Portrait Gallery. National Gallery of Art, 
under Direction of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington, I >. ('., May 
5 to 22, 1921. Catalogue of the Portraits by Florence N. Levy. 30 pages 
and rover, illustrated. Irving Press. New York, 1921. Copyright, 1921, by 
The National Art Committee. 

Lose, George B. The Ralph Cross Johnson Collection in the National Gallery at 
Washington, l>. C. 24 illustrations. Art and Archaeology, Vol. X, No. 3, 
Sept. 1920, pp. T. r )-110. 

A critical and apprec at ve rev e\v of the collection of twenty-four old 
masters of the Florentine, P>oloi;nese. Venetian. Flemish, Dutch, and British 
schools presented to the National Gallery by Mr. Ralph Cross Johnson, of 
Washington, followed by an editorial announcement of the separate organi- 
zat'on of the National Gallery of Art, pp. 109-10. 

LIBRARY— THE HUGHES ALCOVE. 

Considerable advance was made during the year in the accumula- 
tion of an art library, numerous art books and art periodicals having 
been added to the publications previously acquired by the gallery. 
By the will of the Rev. Bruce Hughes, of Lebanon, Pa., who died on 
March 20, 1916, a sum estimated at about $9,000 was bequeathed to 
the institution. " the sum so received to be invested and the income 
alone used to found the Hughes Alcove of the said Smithsonian 
Institute." It is intended to devote this income to the interests of 
the National Gallery, as the Institution feels that the desire of the 
testator can most fittingly be accomplished by the establishment and 
maintenance of an alcove or section in the library of the gallery, 
for reference works on art winch shall serve as a permanent memorial 
to the founder. No part of the fund has as yet been expended. 

GALLERY HOUSING. 

The national collection of art works so far as intrusted to the 
Smithsonian Institution, were first accommodated in the Smithson- 
ian Building and later in the National Museum Building, now 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 55 

the Museum of Arts and Industries. In 1910 they were transferred 
to the central sky-lighted hall of the recently erected Museum of 
Natural History. This hall was appropriately subdivided by par- 
titions for the purpose. The space thus made available is, however, 
entirely inadequate to the actual needs of the gallery, and until an 
additional building is provided expansion must be at the further 
expense of the already seriously embarrassed natural history and 
associated departments. 

The art collections are open to the public on every week day during 
the year, holidays included, from 9 o'clock a. m. to 4.30 o'clock p. m., 
ami on Sundays from 1.30 to 4.30 p. m. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. H. Holmes, 

Director, National Gallery of Art. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 3. 

REPORT ON THE FREER GALLERY OF ART. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the first annual report on the 
Freer Gallery of Art, for the year ending June 30, 1921. 

THE COLLECTION. 

The entire Freer collection and all other objects delivered to the 
Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art, by the executors of 
the will of Charles L. Freer, reached the building by November, 
1920, and on June 15, 1921, receipt in full of all objects thus de- 
livered was formally acknowledged by the Institution. The fol- 
lowing list is offered as an indication of the nature and number 
of the objects received. 



WORKS OF ART. 

American. 

By James McNeill Whistler : 

Drawings 

Engravings (wood) 

Etchings, including dry-points — 

Lithographs 

Paintings — 

Oils 

Watercolors 

Pastels 

Peacock room and 17 wainscot 
panels. 

Plates (copper) 

By other artists : 
Paintings — 

Oils 

Watercolors 

Pastels 

Silver-points 

Pottery 

Sculpture, bronze 



Babylonian. 



Metal work, bronze. 



Byzantine. 



Crystal 

Manuscripts, Greek Biblical, com- 
plete and fragmentary 

Metal work, gold 

Paintings, illustrations 

Cambodian. 

Ivory 

Metal work, bronze 

56 



117 

3 

683 

194 

67 
47 
40 



38 



96 
6 

47 
3 

34 
2 



1 

29 

8 

10 

6 

4 



Chinese. 

Furniture 

Glass 

Ivory, bone, horn, and mother-of- 
pearl 

Jade and other hard stones 

Lacquer 

Metal work : 

Bronze 

Iron 

Pewter 

Silver 

Paintings 

Pottery 

Sculpture : 

Stone 

Wood 

Textiles 



Cypriote. 



Glass 

Metal work, gold. 



22 
14 



503 
17 

678 

19 

8 

20 

,255 

481 

183 
13 

183 

1 

1 



Egyptian. 

Glass 1, 391 

Ivory, bone 4 

Metal work : 

Bronze 

Gold 

Pottery 

Sculpture : 

Stone 

Wood 



7 

1 
254 

34 
6 



Greek. 



Metal work, bronze- 
Pottery 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



57 



Italian. 



Furniture 
Pottery __ 
Textiles __ 



Japanese. 



Lacquer 

Metal work : 

Bronze 

Iron __1 

Silver 

Paintings 

Pottery 

Print blocks (wood). 

Sculpture : 

Stone 

Wood 

Textiles 



Korean. 

Glass 

Jade and other hard stones. 
Metal work : 

Bronze 

Gold 

Silver 

Pottery 

Sculpture, stone 



Near Eastern and East Indian. 

Books, illustrated 

Ivory 

Metal work : 

Bronze 

Silver 

Paintings 



29 

42 

4 

1 

804 

821 

20 

3 
60 



7 
4 

189 
6 
2 

229 
14 



18 

1 

3 

19 

139 



Near Eastern and East Indian — ('out. 

Pottery 

Textiles 



Palmyran. 



Sculpture, stone. 



Tibetan. 



Paintings 

Unclassified. 

Metal work 

Pottery 

Sculpture, stone 

Textiles 

Miscellaneous materials 



STUDY ACCESSORIES. 

Dies 

Electrotype plates 

Library : 

Books 

Manuscripts 

Reproductions 

Rubbings 

Photographs : 

Lantern slides 

Negatives 

Print blocks (wood) 

Whistleriana. — 19 portraits of- Whist- 
ler, reproductions, photographs, 
clippings, Whistler letters, and 
other documents. 

EQUIPMENT. 

Office, storage, and gallery furni- 
ture, etc 



317 
10 



13 



49 
10 
57 
11 
50 



107 

2,344 

3 

170 

222 

3, 179 
693 



122 



Work accomplished during the year includes unpacking and check- 
ing the collection and placing the objects in their respective storage 
spaces; examination and classification of the Japanese pottery and 
Chinese paintings ; urgently needed restoration work on 27 oil paint- 
ings; renumbering, measuring and cataloguing of the entire col- 
lection. This latter task, though well under way, is by no means 
completed. 

ACQUISITIONS BY PURCHASE. 

Sculpture, stone : 

Chinese, period of the Six Dynasties. Two large slabs carved in high relief 
with Buddhist scenes. 

Chinese, T'ang? A tiger. 
Photographic negatives — 70, representing objects in the Freer collection. 

BUILDING AND INSTALLATION. 

The principal work accomplished during the year includes com- 
pletion of certain electrical equipment and of gallery equipment such 
as register faces, pipe rails, and skylight glass; the installation of 
two additional lavatories and a carpenter's workshop ; the provision 
of asbestos screens for the windows of the peacock room to prevent 
condensation of moisture on the glass ; the building of partitions in 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

study room 2; the construction of storage cases for Chinese and Japa- 
nese panel pictures, for pottery, and for stone sculpture. Still under 
way is the rebuilding of the dais in gallery 18 ; the recoloring of the 
gallery walls throughout; the construction of storage bags and boxes 
for Japanese screens. 

Early in June, the Institution formally and with certain reserva- 
tions accepted the building from the architect, Mr. Charles A. Piatt. 

Thanks are due Mr. Stephen Warring, to whose care in packing 
and unpacking the collection may be attributed the transference of 
the whole from Detroit to the storages of the Freer Gallery without 
a mishap; Prof. Edward S. Morse for his expert opinion on the 
Japanese pottery; Mr. H. E. Thompson for his skillful work of 
restoration on the Whistler oil paintings; and, above all, Miss 
Rhoades and Miss Guest, both of the staff, without whose constant 
devotion to the Freer Gallery and its every interest, most of the 
progress here recorded w T ould have been impossible. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. E. Lodge, 
Curator, Freer Gallery of Art. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, S?nithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 4. 

REPORT ON THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir: In response to your request, I have the honor to submit the 
following report on the field researches, office work, and other opera- 
tions of the Bureau of American Ethnology during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1921, conducted in accordance with the act of Con- 
gress approved June 5. 1920. The act referred to contains the fol- 
lowing item : 

American ethnology: For continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, including the excavation and 
preservation of archeologic remains, under the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution, including necessary employees and the purchase of necessary books 
and periodicals, $44,000. 

In the expenditure of this money the chief has tried to cover the 
field as economically as possible and to broaden the researches of 
the bureau staff in order to include as many stocks of Indians as 
the limited appropriation will allow. The science of ethnology is 
so comprehensive and its problems so numerous and intricate that 
to do this scientifically is extremely difficult. Work has been done 
on the Algonquian, Iroquois, various members of the Muskhogean 
stock, Kiowa, Pueblo, Osage, Pawnee, and others. The plan of 
work embraces many different aspects of the cultural life of the 
Indians, including their languages, social and religious customs, 
music, mythology, and ritual. 

Researches have been made on the condition of the Indians in their 
aboriginal state before or directly. after the advent of the Europeans, 
and the desire has been to increase the relative amount of field-work. 
Archeological explorations have been prosecuted in Texas, Missouri, 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Colorado, New Mexico, and the Hawaiian 
Islands. This line of study is destined to become the most popular 
in anthropology, and publications on the subject are always eagerly 
sought by the correspondents of the bureau. 

To the development in recent years of the movement known as 
" See America First " Ave owe in part the creation of a bureau of the 
Department of the Interior called the National Park Service. Inci- 
dentally the movement has stimulated a desire for research in both 
ethnology and archeology. Several monuments and one national 
park have been set aside by presidential proclamation to preserve 
Indian relics which they contain. The main attractions of most of 

59 



60 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

these reserves are ancient buildings more or less dilapidated and 
buried underground, and to increase their educational value it is 
necessary that they be excavated under the supervision of men trained 
in the scientific methods of the archeologist. They should also be 
repaired by equally competent hands. This work is now being shared 
with other institutions, but it is desirable that the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology should continue to occupy a very prominent place in 
this work, in which it was the pioneer, as its appropriation was made 
in part for this service. 

While the majority of these monuments are prehistoric cliff dwell- 
ings or pueblos situated in our Southwest, there are others of equal 
interest in other parts of the country. For instance, among the most 
instructive of these monuments is the Kasaan Monument, an aban- 
doned llaida village situated in Alaska. This village has many of 
the old totem poles, several "grave houses," and other buildings 
still standing, but rapidly going into ruin, liable to be destroyed by 
fire or by vandals. It is very desirable that steps should be taken 
to preserve this deserted town and that ethnological studies be made 
before these relics are lost to science. The bureau is also contributing 
its part, in an unobtrusive manner, in the efforts to preserve Cahokia, 
the largest aboriginal mound in North America. 

In his previous reports the chief has annually called attention to 
the time consumed by the staff in answering correspondence asking 
information regarding American ethnology and related subjects. 
Some of these letters request elementary knowledge, others demand 
more or less research. Whether for the one or the other purpose, 
they often necessitate investigation and absorb considerable time, 
Avhich tends to distract the attention of the experts from intensive 
scientific research, thus causing the scientific output to be reduced 
to a greater or less degree. The chief regards this aspect of the 
work of the bureau as a very important one and indicative of the 
respect in which the bureau is held by its correspondents. For this 
reason replies have been prepared with great care, so that they may 
be reliable and authoritative. 

FIELD RESEARCHES OF THE STAFF. 

Two members of the staff, the chief and Dr. Truman Michelson, 
engaged in field exploration at some time during the year. 

During the past year the chief made three visits to the Mesa Verde 
National Park, Colo. ; one in July and August and another in Novem- 
ber, 1920. On the second visit he was the guest of Mr. Stephen T. 
Mather, Director of the National Park Service, Mr, F. A. Wad- 
leigh, general passenger agent of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, 
and other gentlemen. The object of this visit was an inspection of 
past work in the park and formulation of plans for the future. The 



KKI'ORT OF THE SECRETARY. 61 

work in July and August was a continuation of cooperative work 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology and the National Park Service, 
with an allotment by the latter for the excavation and repair of the 
ruins in the park. A third visit was made in May and June, 1021, 
at the expense of the bureau. 

In the report for L920 attention was called to the beginning of the 
work of excavating a ruin known as Painted House, which is situated 
near the head of Fewkes Canyon, 2| miles south of Spruce Tree 
Camp. The result of tins work, which was not finished at the close 
of last year, intensified the suspicion that this large cliff building 
was used for some communal purpose, and that it was connected with 
the worship of fire. The further excavation of this ruin was con- 
tinued in July, when the floor of a great court was laid bare, veri- 
fying this suspicion and giving undoubted evidence of the existence 
of a large fireplace in the middle of the court. Taken in connection 
with other evidence, the statement that this was a building devoted 
to fire worship is practically proven. Fire Temple, as it may be 
designated, was completely excavated and its walls repaired. Lad- 
ders were so placed as to make it accessible to the public. 

To facilitate the opening of Fire Temple to visitors, a road was 
constructed along the southern rim of Fewkes Canyon, ending in 
what is now called Sun Point, from which a magnificent view can be 
obtained of Sun Temple, Cliff Palace, and other important ruins of 
the Mesa. The importance of this road is reflected by its popu- 
larity; it is now the most frequented road on the park. Its construc- 
tion also opened to visitors two little-known ruins near Fire Temple, 
one of which has been known for several years as Oak-tree House and 
the other as lire Temple House. The walls of the latter were deeply 
buried but were completely excavated, bringing to light a most inter- 
esting cliff dwelling with kivas in a lower and storage rooms in an 
upper cave. A number of Large ollas and a few unique specimens of 
black and white pottery and other artifacts were found in this ruin. 
The indications are that this was the dwelling and granary of the, 
New Fire elan or of the priests who controlled the ceremonies in the 
Fire Temple. The ventilator of one kiva of this cliff dwelling re- 
sembled those of Sun Temple. 

Oak-tree House lies in a symmetrical cave in full sight of Sun 
Point Road, about midway between Fire Temple and Sun Temple. 
The excavation of this ruin, which has unique features, was com- 
pleted in September, and it is now in condition for inspection by 
visitors. A trail was constructed along the top of the talus con- 
necting the ruins in Fewkes Canyon and ladders placed on the rim 
of the canyon, making access to the ruins easy. These Ladders follow 
the Indian trails, formed of foot holes cut in the perpendicular walls 
of the cliff. 



62 A.NNXJAL EUEPOET SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1021. 

One of the most interesting results of work in July, 1920, was 
the excavation of a tower situated in the cedars about a mile north 
of Spruce-tree Camp and described in 1892 by Baron G. Nordenskiold. 
This tower, which will in the future be called Cedar-tree Tower. 
enlarges our knowledge of the use of towers, as it is a type of a 
large number of these structures found on the Mesa Verde and in 
McElmo and Yellowjacket Canyons. The special feature of this 
type before excavation is indicated by a saucer-like depression on the 
surface of the ground south of the walls above ground. The sig- 
nificance of this depression was unknown previously to the work 
here mentioned. It marks the existence of a circular subterranean 
kiva which once had a vaulted roof, and pilasters like those repeat- 
edly described in cliff-house kivas. This tower was completely 
repaired and a road built around it to make it accessible to tourists. 

In his field-work at Mesa Verde 30 years ago Baron Nordenskiold, 
whose Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde has become a classic, par- 
tially excavated a ruin in Soda Canyon about half a mile north of 
Cedar-tree Tower. The approach to this cliff dwelling was very 
difficult, but has been much improved by a trail constructed under the 
direction of the chief, making this ruin readily accessible, aided by 
several ladders where necessary. 

The attractive feature of this ruin is a kiva, the inner wall of 
which still retains on its plastering decorations almost as brilliant 
as when they were first made. On this account " Ruin 9,*" as it was 
formerly called, will be referred to in the future as Painted Kiva 
House. The decoration consists of a red dado below and white 
above, with triangles in clusters of three at intervals on the upper 
border of the dado. These decorations are identical with those on 
the court and rooms of Fire Temple, and those used by the Hopi in 
decorating their Avails 30 years ago. The row of dots which accom- 
panies this mural decoration is also a common feature on the archaic 
black and white* pottery from Step House, one of the most ancient 
cliff dwellings on the park. 

Many specimens were found in Painted Kiva House, among which 
may be mentioned pottery, stone implements, metates, axes and celts, 
bone needles, fabrics, sandals and problematic wooden objects. Sev- 
eral ears of corn with kernels intact, seeds of squash and pumpkin, 
and abundant cornstalks and shucks left no doubt of the food of 
the inhabitants. A fragment of the so-called paper bread called 
by the Hopi piki, possibly over 500 years old, found at the bottom 
of an Oak-tree House kiva, allays any doubt on this point. 

Future field-work on the Mesa Verde ought to be especially di- 
rected to the study of the relation of the Earth Lodge culture and 
that of the pueblo, in which is included the cliff dwellings and 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 03 

pueblos on top of the mesa. Both are characterized by distinctive 
pottery as well as architecture, although the essential features of 
the former are not very well known. Aztec and the Chaco ruins have 
local differences from the Mesa Verde, but it is not known which 
area first lost its population. Both populations flourished at about 
the same time, and it is believed the cliff dwellings on the Mesa 
Verde were older than the community houses of the Chaco Canyon. 

In May, 1921, the chief resumed his work on the Mesa Verde. 
remaining there until the close of the fiscal year. During this time 
he completed the excavation of Far View House, and protected with 
a cement groat the tops of about two-thirds of all the walls of rooms. 

About 385 feet north of Far View House, on higher land, in about 
the center of the cluster of 16 mounds that are included in the 
Mummy Lake group, the excavation of a most interesting building 
wholly buried under fallen walls was begun. Enough work was done 
to show that it is a remarkable type of building, consisting of a 
central circular tower with several subterranean rooms or kivas on 
the south side, overlooking a large cemetery. It has all the appear- 
ance of a necropolis of the cluster, and important results await its 
final excavation. Unfortunately work on this mound had to be sus- 
pended at the close of the fiscal year. 

The Mummy Lake cluster of mounds is a typical village and is 
duplicated again and again on the mesa and the surrounding valleys. 
The complete village consists of buildings of several forms and func- 
tions, isolated or united, although the components are largely habita- 
tions of the unit type. Evidently the tower, with its accompanying 
kivas and cemetery, was the necropolis but not a habitation. The 
spade alone can divine the true meaning of members of this group. 

In May the tops of all the walls of Sun Temple were recemented 
with groat to protect the walls from snow and rain, a work of no 
small magnitude. 

During the entire year Mr. James Mooney, ethnologist, remained 
in the office, engaged in formulating replies to ethnologic inquiries 
and in digesting material from former western field seasons. No 
new material was collected or completed. His work during the 
winter was interrupted by a period of serious illness. 

During the last fiscal year Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, 
practically completed the proof reading of Bulletin 73, Early History 
of the Creek Indians and Their Xeighbors, which is now going 
through the press. He also copied the Koasati texts which were 
collected a few years ago, and completed the extraction of words 
from these texts, of which a beginning was made last year. 

Dr. Swanton has added a few hundred cards to his material bear- 
ing on the economic basis of American Indian life, and has gone over 



64 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Mr. James Murie's paper on the Ceremonies of the Pawnee twice, 
in order to make certain necessary changes in the phonetic symbols 
employed. He has also devoted some time to studies of the Alabama, 
Hitchiti, and Muskogee languages. 

Dr. Swanton also continued the preparation of a paper on the 
Social Organization and Social Customs of the Indians of the Creek 
Confederacy, covering over 700 manuscript pages. 

During the entire fiscal year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, was 
engaged in office work. His first work was devoted to the completion 
of the preparation by retyping of the Onondaga texts of the second 
part of the Iroquoian Cosmology, the first part having appeared in 
the Twenty-first Annual Report of the Bureau. Not only is the 
orthography of a large number of the native terms being standard- 
ized to conform in spelling with the other Iroquoian texts recorded 
by Mr. Hewitt but the statements and phrasing of numerous pas- 
sages are also amplified or amended in such manner as to utilize in- 
formation obtained by Mr. Hewitt since the recording of the original 
texts. 

Mr. Hewitt also took advantage of the opportunity presented by 
the presence in Washington of Mr. George Gaboosa, a mixed-blood 
Chippewa Indian of Garden River, Ontario, Canada, who speaks 
both Chippewa and Ottawa dialects of Algonquian, by securing his 
aid in revising and translating a number of Ottawa texts supplied in 
1900 by John Miscogeon, an Ottawa mixed-blood, then in Washing- 
ton, D. C. These texts are either myths or traditions embodying 
myths. Mr. Gaboosa supplied the Chippewa versions of these stories. 
In addition to this work he supplied interlinear translations to all the 
texts. The following is a list of these texts : The Myth of Nana- 
bozho's Mother; Living Men Visit the Sky-Land ; The Myth of Sum- 
mer and Winter; The Myth of Daylight-Maker, or Daymaker; The 
Myth of Nanabozho. 

Mr. Hewitt is at work on some material relating to the general 
culture of the Muskhogean peoples, especially that relating to the 
Creeks and the Choctaw. In 1881-82 Maj. J. W. Powell began to 
collect and record this matter at first hand from Mr. L. C. Perryman 
and Gen. Pleasant Porter, both well versed in the native customs, be- 
liefs, culture, and social organization of their peoples. Mr. Hewitt 
assisted in this compilation and recording. In this way he became 
familiar with this material, which was laid aside for lack of careful 
revision, and a portion of which has been lost; but as there is still 
much that is valuable and not available in print it was deemed wise 
to prepare the matter for publication, especially in view of the fact 
that the objective activities treated in these records no longer form 
a part of the life of the Muskhogean peoples, and so can not be ob- 
tained at first hand. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 65 

In addition to this material, it is designed to add as supplemen- 
tary matter some Creek tales and mythic legends collected by Mr. 
Jeremiah Curtin. 

The following brief list of topics treated may give some idea of 
the nature of these field notes : " Towns and clan lists," " Crime 
and murder," " The government of the clan," " The town government 
or organization of a town," " The council square," " The chief," " The 
system of councils," " The clan," " The ranks and the title of persons," 
" The busk or puskita," " Medicine practices," " Names and naming," 
" Festivals," " Marriage customs," " Insanity," " Prophets," " Souls 
or spirits," " Mythic notes," and the short list of tales collected by 
Mr. Curtin. Much of the material here recorded is not available 
either in any other manuscript or in print. 

Mr. Francis La Flesche, ethnologist, devoted nearly all of his time 
to putting into book form his notes for the second volume of his 
work on the Osage tribe. This task was twice interrupted by the 
reading of the galley and the page proofs of the first volume. 

The second volume is nearing completion and embraces two ver- 
sions of an ancient rite entitled " No n '-zhi"-zho n Wa-tho n , Songs of 
the Rite of Vigil." Up to this date the completed part of this manu- 
script, exclusive of the illustrations, contains 582 typewritten pages. 

Sho n '-ge-mo n -i n , who gave the No n '-zhi n -zho n ritual of his gens, 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge, died in the autumn of 1919. He was the 
fourth to die of the old men who aided in the recording of the 
ancient tribal rites of the Osage. Two old men died before the time 
set by them to give the ceremonials of their gentes arrived. Sho n '-ge- 
mo n -i" remarked, as he was recording the child-naming ritual, to be 
published in a later volume, " The Osage people are fast dying out 
since they abandoned the supplicatory rites formulated by their an- 
cestors." 

The beginning of the fiscal year found Mr. J. P. Harrington, eth- 
nologist, engaged in the preparation of his material on the language 
of the Kiowa Indians. The entire material was copied, collated, and 
analyzed, and constitutes a manuscript of more than 1,000 pages. 

Kiowa is a typical Tano-Kiowan dialect, closely related in pho- 
netics, vocabulary, and structure with the Tanoan languages of New 
Mexico. This proves again, as in the case of the Hopi, that culture 
areas cut across linguistic ones. The Tano-Kiowan is furthermore 
genetically related to the Keresan and Zuiiian groups of New Mexico 
also to the Shoshonean, and certain languages of California. Mr. 
Harrington has in hand a comparative study of these languages 
which is very bulky. 

Upon finishing the manuscript of the Kiowa paper, Mr. Harring- 
ton took up the Taos material, aided by a set of excellent texts dic- 
73552—21 5 



66 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

tated by Mr. R. Vargas, and comprising 400 typewritten pages. He 
finished this for publication before the close of the fiscal year. 

On July 1, 1920, Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, was at Tama, 
Iowa, engaged in researches among the Sauk and Fox of that State 
and preparing for publication by the Bureau a manuscript entitled 
" The Autobiography of a Fox Indian Woman," as far as practical 
in the field. A good deal of the work on this had been done in the 
previous fiscal year. Near the close of July he left for Saskatchewan, 
Canada, where he made a reconnaissance of the Plains Cree at File 
Hills Agency. From this study it appears that physically the Plains 
Cree have a cephalic index of about 79, thus belonging to the so-called 
Mississippi Valley type of North American Indian, which confirms 
the results of Dr. Boas's work many years ago. Linguistically Cree 
clearly belongs to the central division of Algonquian languages, but 
it is not as archaic as has usually been believed. The folklore and 
mythology here show from an analysis of the culture cycle that both 
woodland and plains elements are to be found, as well as a few 
plateau elements. Ethnologically Ave have the same combination, 
save that plateau elements are lacking. 

Dr. Michelson returned to Washington at the close of August, 
where he completed the autobiography mentioned above, and in 
January submitted the manuscript for publication by the bureau. 
The remainder of his time at Washington was spent working out 
English translations of various Fox texts written in the current syl- 
labary on mortuary customs and observances, as well as one or two 
folk tales. 

Dr. Michelson left Washington in the latter part of May, 1921, to 
renew his researches among the Sauk and Fox of Iowa. Arriving 
at Tama near the end of the month, Dr. Michelson spent nearly all 
his time on Fox mortuary customs and observances, mentioned above, 
with a view to their publication by the bureau. The Indian texts 
were restored phonetically, the translations corrected where needed, 
a grammatical analysis begun, and additional data secured, so that 
with the close of the fiscal year only about two weeks more field- 
work was necessary to complete the preparation of the volume so 
far as practical in the field. He took advantage of a favorable op- 
portunity just before the end of the year to obtain data on the society 
called " Ki wa ka mo A ki." 

While in the field and also in the office Dr. Michelson corrected 
proofs of Bulletin 72, The Owl Sacred Pack of the Fox Indians. 

SPECIAL RESEAR< !HES. 

Four manuscripts have been submitted during the year, entitled 
" Papago Songs," " Legend Music of the Papago," " Songs Connected 
With Expeditions to Obtain Salt," and " Viikita and Wakita Cere- 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 67 

monies of the Papago." This material comprises 148 pages of text, 75 
transcriptions of songs (with phonographic records and technical 
analyses), and 27 pliotographic illustrations. 

Special researches in the field were conducted by Miss Frances 
Densmore, Mr. W. E. Myer, Prof. J. E. Pearce, Mr. Gerard Fowke, 
and Mr. J. A. Jeancon. 

In September Miss Densmore resumed her work on Papago music, 
and in December, 1920, returned to the Papago Reservation in Ari- 
zona, where she had worked a few months previously. She revisited 
San Xavier, but her work centered at Sells, formerly called Indian 
Oasis, but now the location of the Papago agency. Trips were 
made from there to Santa Rosa village, in the extreme north, and to 
Vomari village in the extreme south of the reservation. Photo- 
graphs, specimens, and records of songs were obtained at these places. 

The principal subject of study at this time was the belief of the 
Papago in supernatural agencies controlling their food supply. In- 
formation was obtained regarding two ceremonies connected with 
this belief, i. e., the making and drinking of " cactus wine," and the 
Viikita. Numerous songs connected with these ceremonies were 
recorded. 

Other classes of songs not previously recorded among the Papago 
were those received in dreams, those sung on expeditions to obtain 
salt, and those connected with stories told to children; also songs for 
success in the kicking-ball race and in hunting. Songs of war and 
of medicine were recorded, as well as others concerning the deeds of 
Elder Brother and including songs he was said to have sung after 
creating the spirits, winds, and clouds. Mention may be made of a 
song that was said to have been sung in order to produce the death 
of an aged woman. It was said that " her grandsons decided to kill 
her by means of a song," as her advanced age made her an in- 
cumbrance to them. Many songs have been recorded whose purpose 
was to procure health, but this is the first instance of a song in- 
tended to cause death. An important phase of the musical work was 
the hearing of a certain class of very old dance songs, a portion of 
which was in three parts, i. e., the voices of the men, the voices of the 
women singing the same melody an octave higher, and the voices of 
two or three women singing (for a brief period) a still higher part, 
different from the melody. This song was accompanied by the shak- 
ing of a gourd rattle and the striking of a basket drum, also by 
stamping the feet, which is the most primitive manner of marking 
time. This dance is seldom held at the present time, but was wit- 
nessed on the desert late Christmas night. 

As a development of the year's work Miss Densmore notes the im- 
portance of recognizing estheticism as a factor in Indian music. Her 
analyses have shown the presence of tones whose interval distances 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

correspond to those of the first, second, third, and fourth upper par- 
tial tones of a fundamental. Thus, in a portion oi: his melody, the 
Indian appears to find satisfaction in intervals which are under 
natural laws. Apart from these tones and intervals it appears, from 
the evidence in hand, that his choice of tonal material is controlled 
by a sense of pleasure rather than by " keys " or " modes." 

Miss Densmore continued work on her manuscript entitled 
" Chippewa Arts and Customs." Tabulations of the botanical por- 
tions of this book were made as follows: Lists of botanical names, 
with bibliography, showing the uses of these plants by other tribes ; 
lists of plants used as food, dyes, charms, and for general utility. 
Miss Densmore made more than 100 blue prints of birch-bark trans- 
parencies, showing a wide variety of interesting patterns. These 
transparencies are made by folding thin birch bark and indenting it 
with the teeth, the bark, when unfolded and held toward the light, 
revealing the pattern. This form of Chippewa art is almost extinct 
at the present time. 

In September and October Mr. W. E. Myer, of Nashville, Tenn., 
excavated, under the auspices of the bureau, Indian village sites on 
the Gordon farm near Brentwood, Davidson County, Tenn., and also 
the Fewkes Group at Boiling Spring Academy, Williamson County, 
in the same State. The remains of an old Indian town at the Gordon 
site had walls and towers very similar to those of Pacaha, visited by 
De Soto in 1541. The walls covered an area of 11.2 acres. 

When the former inhabitants for some unknown reason abandoned 
this site they appear to have left nearly all the buildings still stand- 
ing. The locality was never again occupied or disturbed, but gradu- 
ally the buildings of the silent and deserted town decayed and what- 
ever vestiges were not destroyed by the elements were slowly buried 
under a layer of black loam which is now from 14 to 20 inches deep. 

In the course of time the site of the buried village gradually 
became a beautiful grassy glade set here and there with giant forest 
trees. The charm of the site appealed to one of the first white set- 
tlers, who built his home here and preserved the grassy glade for a 
lawn. No one suspected that an ancient Indian town was lying 
buried a few inches beneath the surface; but on the surface of this 
undisturbed lawn there were very faint saucer-shaped depressions and 
other evidences marking the sites of about 125 dwellings. 

When the accumulated superficial black loam was removed from 
some of these circular depressions floors made of hard packed clay 
were brought to light. Some of these floors were very pleasing to 
the eye, being covered with a smoothed and polished coating of fine 
black, glossy material. The stone slab tops of the coffins of little 
children were exposed here and there projecting an inch or two above 
the level of the floor. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 69 

A building was uncovered in the center of which was an altar 
filled with the pure white ashes of the ancient perpetual fire. The 
neighboring buildings were dwellings with fire beds used for do- 
mestic cooking. Stone metates, mullers, and other utensils used for 
household purposes were likewise found on the floors of these rooms. 

Mr. Myer also explored an unnamed group of five mounds and a 
surrounding village site at Boiling Spring Academy in Williamson 
County, Tenn. At the request of many citizens of Tennessee he gave 
this the name of Fewkes Group in honor of Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, 
Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, who had visited the site, 
recognized its importance, and caused it to be explored. 

Archeological field-work was carried on by Prof. J. E. Pearce, of 
the University of Texas, in cooperation with the bureau. The area 
examined is situated in the vicinity of the city of Athens, in Hender- 
son County, and during this work Prof. Pearce received many cour- 
tesies from Judge A. B. Watkins, who has long manifested an inter- 
est in the archeology of the region. Prof. Pearce finds that the east- 
ern Texas region contains numerous mounds, village sites, and burial 
places, the objects from which are quite different from those found 
in the central and western portions of Texas. Three interesting 
mounds on the Morrall farm, 4 miles east of Cherokee County, were 
investigated. The highest of these mounds measures 80 feet across 
the base and 45 feet above the level of the base. The second mound 
is 180 feet long by 75 feet wide, but is only 15 feet high. Most of the 
mounds in the neighborhood of Athens have been plowed over and 
have no regularity in form. Several mounds situated in Harrison 
County, particularly those on the farm of Mr. Lane Mitchell, of 
Marshall, were examined and remains of earth lodges discovered, in 
the floor of which are central fire pits. These are probably recent. 
Numerous other sites were explored, yielding collections of pottery, 
stone implements, and other objects illustrating the life of the pre- 
historic aborigines of eastern Texas. Everything found implies that 
the Indians of this region lived in settled villages, were agricultur- 
ists, and made pottery of a high grade of excellence. Their culture 
was higher than that of the Indians who occupied the central region 
of Texas, investigated in 1919. 

With a small allotment, Mr. J. A. Jeancon carried on important 
archeological work on a ruin at Llano, near Rancho de Taos, N. Mex., 
and obtained a valuable collection from a locality not represented in 
the Museum. 

The architectural features and relations of the kiva and secular 
rooms of this ruin recall those of the cliff dwellings and pueblos of 
the Mesa Verde. The circular subterranean kiva that was excavated 
proved to be almost identical with a typical Mesa Verde kiva, veri- 



70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

fving the legends that the modern Taos Indians are a mixed type 
containing Pueblo elements, probably of northern origin. 

This kiva was embedded in house walls not free from secular 
buildings as in modern Taos and showed evidences of two occupa- 
tions, or one kiva built inside another. It had no pilasters for the 
support of a vaulted roof, but there were in the floor four upright 
posts upon which a flat roof formerly rested. In the floor was an 
excellent fireplace and a plastered pit the purpose of which is prob- 
lematical. 

Mr. Jeancon's work attracted wide attention, and many persons 
visited the site while he was at work. Members of the chamber of 
commerce in Taos declared their intention to protect the excavated 
Avails by means of a shed. 

The chief visited the ruin before excavation began and inspected 
the excavations after they had been completed. 

Mr. Gerard Fowke represented the bureau at the meeting of the 
Pan Pacific Congress in Honolulu and made a special study of the 
archeology of the Hawaiian Islands. He found that all the aborigi- 
nal remains on the islands are the work of the present Hawaiian race, 
indicating that when the earliest of these people came there the 
islands were without inhabitants. No archeological evidences were 
found of any prehistoric population ; and, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, excavations would not result in the discovery of any speci- 
mens essentially different from those that can be seen on the sur- 
face or may be found slightly covered by very recent natural 
accumulation. At the same time, as all the remains are well worthy 
of study and preservation, the islands furnish opportunity for fur- 
ther research. His report on the temples, terraces, and other re- 
mains has been received and awaits publication. 

Dr. Clark Wissler has given what time he could spare from his 
duties as chairman of the division of anthropology and psychology 
of the National Research Council to the completion of a Pawnee 
manuscript, in which he has been aided by Mr. James R. Murie. The 
music necessary for this has been transcribed by Miss Helen Roberts, 
and Dr. John R. Swanton has also assisted in this work. 

During the fiscal year Mr. D. I. Bushnell, jr., completed a manu- 
script bearing the title : " Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and 
Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi." While engaged in the 
preparation of this manuscript he also secured many notes on the 
burial customs of the same tribes, and these, together with much 
additional material, are being used in the preparation of another 
manuscript, entitled " Burials of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Cad- 
doan Tribes West of the Mississippi." 

Miss Mary Lois Kissell has begun the preparation of the manu- 
script of a bulletin on weaving of the Northwest Coast Indians, which 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 71 

it is hoped will be later followed by others on other geographical 
areas. 

A small allotment was given to Mr. Gerard Fowke to carry on 
special archeological work in Greenup, Ky., near Portsmouth, Ohio, 
•on mounds figured and described by Squier and Davis and T. H. 
Lewis. On the opposite bank of the Ohio River a celebrated cache 
of pipes has been found, and it was hoped that a similar deposit 
might be discovered near the effigy mound on the south side. The 
results of this examination are negative so far as the object desired 
was concerned, but resulted in several interesting observations of a 
nature too technical to discuss in this place. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS. 

The editing of the publications of the bureau was continued 
through the year by Mr. Stanley Searles, assisted by Mrs. Frances 
S. Nichols. The status of the publications is presented in the fol- 
lowing summary : 

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED. 

Bulletin 67. Alsea Texts and Myths (Frachtenberg). 304 pp. 

Bulletin 71. Native Cemeteries and Forms of Burial East of the Mississippi 

(Bushnell). 160 pp., 17 pi. 
Bulletin 72. The Owl Sacred Pack of the Fox Indians (Michelson). 83 pp., 

4 pi. 
List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 44 pp. 

PUBLICATIONS IN PRESS OR IN PREPARATION. 

Thirty-fourth Annual Report. Accompanying paper : A Prehistoric Island Cul- 
ture Area of America (Fewkes). 

Thirty-fifth Annual Report. — Accompanying paper : Ethnology of the Kwakiutl 
(Boas). 

Thirty-sixth Annual Report. Accompanying paper : The Osage Tribe : Rite of 
the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men (La Flesche). 

Thirty-seventh Annual Report. Accompanying paper : The Winnebago Tribe 
(Radin). 

Thirty-eighth Annual Report. Accompanying paper : An Introductory Study of 
the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana Indians (Roth). 

Bulletin 73. Early History of the Cieek Indians and Their Neighbors (Swan- 
ton). 

Bulletin 74. Excavation of a Site at Santiago Ahuitzotla, D. F. Mexico (Tozzer). 

Bulletin 75. Northern Ute Music (Densmore). 

Bulletin 76. Archeological Excavations in the Ozark Region of Central Mis- 
souri (Fowke). 

Bulletin 77. Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Caddoan Tribes West of 
the Mississippi (Bushnell). 

Bulletin — . Handbook of the Indians of California (Kroeber). 

Bulletin — . Mandan and Hidatsa Music (Densmore). 



72 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The distribution of publications has been continued under the 
immediate charge of Miss Helen Munroe, assisted by Miss Emma B. 
Powers. Publications were distributed as follows : 

Copies. 

Annual reports and separates 1,998 

Bulletins and separates 10,288 

Contributions to North American Ethnology 34 

Miscellaneous publications 475 

Total 12, 795 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mr. De Lancey Gill, illustrator, with the assistance of Mr. Albert 
E. Sweeney, continued the preparation of the illustrations of the 
bureau. A summary of this work follows : 

Photographic illustrations for distribution and office use 645 

Negatives of ethnological and archeological subjects 351 

Negative films developed from field exposures 70 

Photostat prints made from books and manuscripts 120 

Illustrations prepared and submitted for publication 391 

Line and color drawings 195 

Illustrations proofs edited 158 

Lithographic proofs examined at Government Printing Office 25, 000 

LIBRARY. 

The reference library continued in the immediate care of Miss 
Ella Leary, librarian, assisted by Mr. Charles B. Newman and Mr. 
Samuel H. Miller. 

During the year 775 books were accessioned, of which 50 were 
acquired by purchase, 325 by binding of periodicals, and 400 by gift 
and exchange. The periodicals currently received number about 900, 
of which 30 were received by subscription, the remainder being re- 
ceived through exchange. The bureau has also received 269 pam- 
phlets, giving at the close of the year a working library of 24,155 
volumes, 14,777 pamphlets, and several thousand unbound periodicals. 

During the year an increasing number of visitors have applied to 
the library for books. Information has been furnished and biblio- 
graphic notes compiled for the use of correspondents. The officials 
of the Library of Congress and of the Government departments have 
also made use of the library through frequent loans during the year. 

In addition to the use of its own library, which is becoming more 
and more valuable through exchange and by limited purchase, it was 
found necessary to draw on the Library of Congress for the loan 
of about 500 books. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 73 

As mentioned in the last annual report, one of the most urgent 
needs of the library at the present time is more shelf room for its 
books. 

COLLECTIONS. 

The following collections, acquired by members of the bureau or 
by those detailed in connection with its researches, have been trans- 
ferred to the United States National Museum : 

Stone arrow polisher, presented to the bureau by Dr. Walter E. Roth, of 
Georgetown, British Guiana. (65625.) 

Collection of archeologie.il material, collected in the spring of 1920 in north- 
western Arizona and southwestern Utah by Mr. Neil M. Judd. (65764.) 

Pseudo stone implement, found by Rev. E. N. Kremer near Camphill, Cum- 
berland County, Pa. (65795.) 

Three human skulls and bones, collected by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes at Fire 
Temple Group, Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. (66011.) 

Skeletons collected during the summer of 1920 near Nashville, Tenn., by 
Mr. W. E. Myer. (65115.) 

Archeologica and skeleton, collected by Mr. J. A. Jeancon from a ruin near 
Taos, N. Mex., in the summer of 1920. (66156.) 

Archeologica and human bones, found at Indian H 11. Fla., by Mr. Charles T. 
Earle. (65551.) 

Skull bones and lower jaw, found at village site near Gatesville, Tex., by 
Prof. J. E. Pearce. (65334.) 

PROPERTY. 

Furniture and office equipment were purchased to the amount of 
$140.83. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Clerical.— -The correspondence and other clerical work of the 
office has been conducted by Miss May S. Clark, clerk to the chief. 
Mrs. Frances S. Nichols assisted the editor. Mr. Anthony Wilding 
served as messenger and typist to the chief. 

Personnel. — Mr. Samuel H. Miller has been appointed to assist 
Miss Leary in the library in place of Mr. Charles B. Newman, trans- 
ferred to the Smithsonian. 

Mr. J. A. Jeancon, who served as assistant to the chief in the 
work at Mesa Verde, was later appointed temporary ethnologist, 
but at the close of two months' work in Washington, resigned to 
accept a position in the State Historical Museum, Denver, Colo. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. Walter Fewkes, 

Chief, Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 5. 
REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGES. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the oper- 
ations of the International Exchange Service during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1921 : 

The estimate submitted for the support of the service during 1921, 
including the allotment for printing and binding, was $50,200, and 
this amount was granted by Congress. The repayments from depart- 
mental and various other establishments aggregated $4,779.47, mak- 
ing the total resources available for carrying on the system of ex- 
changes during the year $54,979.47. 

The work of the exchange service during the past year has been 
very heavy, due, principally, to the reopening of relations with Ger- 
many. One hundred and eighty-eight boxes were received from 
Germany and 691 boxes were forwarded to that country. These con- 
signments weighed a total of 186,037 pounds, or about 31 per cent of 
the weight of all the packages handled by the exchange service dur- 
ing the year. 

The total number of packages passing through the service during 
the year was 451,471 — an increase over the number for the preceding 
year of 82,099. The weight of these packages was 605,312 pounds — 
a gain of 108,934. For statistical purposes the packages handled by 
the exchange service are divided into several classes. 

The number and weight of the packages of different classes are in- 
dicated in the following table : 





Packages. 


Weight. 




Sent. 


Received. 


Sent. 


Received. 




147, 133 




Pounds. 
72,549 


Pounds. 




1,419 


6,268 




175,007 


243,288 






5,591 


9,747 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent abroad. . . 
Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications received from 


90,014 


181,575 




32,307 


91,885 










Total 


412, 154 


39.317 


497,412 


107. 900 


Grand total 


451 471 


605,312 













74 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 75 

As explained in previous reports, the disparity between the number 
of publications sent abroad and those received in return is not so 
great as would appear from the above figures. Packages sent abroad 
in many instances contain only a single publication, while those re- 
ceived in return often comprise several volumes — in some cases 
the term " package " being applied to large boxes containing a hun- 
dred or more publications. Furthermore, some foreign establish- 
ments send their publications directly to their destinations in this 
country by mail and not through exchange channels. 

As I have already stated, shipments were resumed during the year 
to Germany. Relations have also been reestablished with Austria. 
The steps taken by the Institution toward the reopening of ex- 
changes with Roumania and the establishment of relations with the 
newly formed Government of Jugoslavia, referred to in my last re- 
port, have not yet led to a successful result. The Roumanian au- 
thorities state that, in view of the difficulties of railroad transporta- 
tion, the service can not at the present time be reorganized, but as 
soon as those difficulties are overcome the Roumanian Government 
will at once resume the service. The Government of Jugoslavia, in 
a note received near the close of the year, states that it will be glad 
to renew the interchange of publications as soon as the Belgrade 
Exchange Bureau is reorganized. Conditions in Russia and Turkey 
have not yet reached a state where steps can be taken to renew the 
exchange of publications between those countries and the United 
States. 

Reference was made in my 1920 report to the fact that an exchange 
of publications had been inaugurated with the Czechoslovak Repub- 
lic. As a matter of record it should be stated here that notification 
was received through the Department of State from the Belgian 
ambassador in Washington of the adherence of the Government of 
Czechoslovakia to the exchange conventions concluded at Brussels on 
March 15, 1886. One of those conventions provides for the inter- 
national exchange of official documents and scientific and literary 
publications; the other, for the immediate exchange of the official 
journal, parliamentary annals, and documents. Articles II and IX 
of the conventions provide that the States which have not taken part 
in the convention are admitted to adhere to it on their request, this 
adherence to be notified diplomatically to the Belgian Government 
and by that Government to all the other signatory States. 

I am glad to report that the Polish Government has also adhered 
to the Brussels convention providing for the establishment of a sys- 
tem of international exchanges and that the Bibliotheque du Minis- 
tere des Relations Exterieures, at Warsaw, has been designated to 
assume charge of the Polish International Exchange Service. Under 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

date of May 14, 1921, the first shipment, consisting of 18 boxes, was 
dispatched to Poland. 

The Government of the free city of Danzig, in reply to a letter 
from this Institution asking whether it would be willing to under- 
take the distribution of packages intended for correspondents in the 
territory comprising that city, stated that the Stadtbibliothek has 
been designated to act as its exchange bureau. 

Among the requests received from foreign establishments for as- 
sistance in procuring especially desired publications may be men • 
tioned one from the Societe Beige d'Etudes et d'Expansion at Liege. 
That society stated that having in view a closer relationship between 
its peoples and the nationals of friendly and allied countries, it had 
established a new service of general documentation, and was anxious 
to receive for the use of that service publications which would tend 
to make the United States better known in the Kingdom of Belgium. 
The Institution procured for the Society of Studies and Expansion 
from the various bureaus of this Government such publications as it 
was thought would answer the purpose in question. 

Last year mention was made of the fact that a shipment weighing 
over 25,000 pounds had been made to the library of the University of 
Louvain, and that that consignment was the largest single shipment 
ever forwarded through the Smithsonian Exchange Service to one ad- 
dress at one time. While that statement still holds good, it might be of 
interest to note here that during the last three months of the current 
fiscal year three shipments were made to the German Exchange 
Agency for distribution to various addresses throughout Germany 
which weighed over 30,000 pounds each. These shipments, as I have 
mentioned in the foregoing part of this report, were made up of ex- 
changes suspended during the war. 

During the year 2,752 boxes were used in forwarding exchanges 
to foreign agencies for distribution, being an increase of 393 over 
the number for the preceding 12 months. This is the largest number 
of boxes shipped abroad through the exchange service in one year, 
being about 300 more than are handled during a normal year. It is, 
of course, due to the accumulations received for the countries with 
which exchange relations were resumed. The gross weight of the 
boxes forwarded abroad aggregated a total of 546,279 pounds, being 
an increase of 81,093 pounds over the preceding year. 

Of the total number of boxes sent abroad, 383 contained full sets 
of United States official documents for authorized depositories and 
2,369 included departmental and other publications for depositories 
of partial sets and for miscellaneous correspondents. 

The number of boxes sent to each country is given in the following 
table : 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 
Consignments of exchanges for foreign countries. 



77 



Country. 



Argentina 

Austria 

Barbados 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British Colonies 

British Guiana 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Hungary 

India 

Italy 



Number 
of boxes. 



58 

99 

1 

142 

8 

37 

25 

5 

8 

20 

22 

105 

13 

11 

5 

104 

32 



16 
218 
691 
331 

12 
2 
2 

27 

41 
106 



Country. 



Jamaica 

Japan 

Korea 

Netherlands 

New South Wales 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Poland 

Portugal 

Queensland 

Salvador 

Siam 

South Australia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Tasmania 

Trinidad 

Union of South Africa. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Victoria 

Western Australia 



Number 
of boxes. 



Total. 



6 

54 

2 

77 

22 

25 

2 

36 

7 

16 

18 

18 

15 

2 

5 

16 

63 

58 

14 

29 

2 

36 

16 

11 

30 

14 



FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENTAL 

DOCUMENTS. 

In accordance with the terms of a convention concluded at Brussels 
March 15, 1886, and under authority granted by Congress in resolu- 
tions approved March 2, 1867, and March 2, 1901, there are now sent 
through the exchange service regularly to depositories abroad 57 
full sets of United States official documents and 39 partial sets — 
Poland having been added during the year to the list of those coun- 
tries receiving full sets, and Latvia and the Library of the League of 
Nations, located in Geneva, Switzerland, to the list of those receiving 
partial sets. The number of full and partial sets now being sent 
abroad, it will be seen, is 96. The total number provided by law for 
the use of the Library of Congress and for international exchange 
is 100. 

The full set of documents sent to Poland is deposited in the 
Bibliotheque du Ministere des Eelations Exterieures, Warsaw. The 



78 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

partial set for Latvia is deposited in the office of the prime minister 
at Riga. 

I stated last year that it was understood that the Czechoslovak de- 
pository would be the Ministere de l'Instruction Publique, at Prague. 
Information has since been received from the Government of 
Czechoslovakia to the effect that the United States official documents 
would be deposited in the Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale in 
Prague. 

A complete list of the depositories is given below : 

DEPOSITORIES OF FULL SETS. 

Argentina : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Buenos Aires. 

Australia : Library of the Commonwealth Parliament, Melbourne. 

Austria : Statistische Zeutral-Kommission, Vienna. 

Baden: Universitats-Bibliothek, Freiburg. (Depository of the State of Baden.) 

Bavaria : Staats-Bibliothek, Munich. 

Belgium : Bibliotheque Royale, Brussels. 

Brazil: Bibliotheea Naeional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Buenos Aires: Biblioteca de la Universidad Naeional de La Plata. (Deposi- 
tory of the Province of Buenos Aires.) 

Canada: Library of Parliament. Ottawa. 

Chile: Biblioteca del Congreso Naeional, Santiago. 

China: American-Chinese Publication Exchange Department, Shanghai Bureau 
of Foreign Affairs, Shanghai. 

Colombia: Biblioteca Naeional, Bogota. 

Costa Rica: OhYina de Deposito y Canje Internacional de Publicacior.es, San 
Jose. 

Cuba: Secretaria de Estado (Asuntos Generates y Canje Internacional), 
Habana. 

Czechoslovakia: Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale. Prague. 

Denmark : Kongelige Bibliotheket, Copenhagen. 

England : British Museum, London. 

France: Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris. 

Germany: Deutsche Reichstags-Bibliothek, Berlin. 

Glasgow: City Librarian, Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 

Greece: Bibliotheque Nationale, Athens. 

Haiti : Secretaire d'F.tat ties Relations Exterieures, Port au Prince. 

Hungary: Hungarian House of Delegates, Budapest. 

India: Imperial Library, Calcutta. 

Ireland: National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 

Italy: Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele, Rome. 

Japan: Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 

London: London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository of 
the London County Council.) 

Manitoba: Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Mexico: Institute Bibliografico, Biblioteca Naeional, Mexico- 

Netherlands: Bibliotheek van de Staten-Generaal, The Hague. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 

Norway: Storthingets Bibliothek, Christiania. 

Ontario : Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Paris : Prefecture de la Seine. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 79 

Peru : Biblioteca Nacional, Lima. 

Poland : Bibliotheque du Ministere des Relations Exterieures, Warsaw. 

Portugal: Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Prussia: Preussische Staatsbibliotbek, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

Quebec : Library of tbe Legislature of the Province of Quebec, Quebec. 

Queensland : Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

Russia : Public Library, Petrogracl. 

Saxony : Oeffentliche Bibliothek, Dresden. 

Serbia: Section Administrative du Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Belgrade. 

South Australia : Parliamentary Library, Adelaide. 

Spain : Servicio del Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Faculta- 

tivo de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arque61ogos, Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland : Bibliotheque Federate Centrale, Berne. 
Tasmania : Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 
Turkey : Department of Public Instruction, Constantinople. 
Union of South Africa: State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Uruguay : Ofieina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 
Western Australia : Public Library of Western Australia,, Perth. 
Wubttemberg : Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. 

depositories of partial sets. 

Alberta : Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

Alsace-Lorraine : Bibliotheque Universitaire et Regionale de Strasbourg, Stras- 
bourg. 

Bolivia : Ministerio de Colonizacion y Agricultura, La Paz. 

Brazh : Bibliotheca da Assemblea Legislativa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 
Nictheroy. 

Bremen : Senatskommission fiir Reichs- und Auswiirtige Angelegenheiten. 

British Columbia : Legislative Library, Victoria. 

British Guiana : Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 

Bulgaria : Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Sofia. 

Ceylon: Colonial Secretary's Office (Record Department of the Library), Co- 
lombo. 

Ecuador : Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 

Egypt : Bibliotheque Khediviale, Cairo. 

Finland: Central Library of the State, Helsingfors. 

Guatemala : Secretary of the Government, Guatemala. 

Hamburg: Senatskommission fiir die Reichs- und Auswiirtigen Angelegenbeitcn. 

Hesse: Landesbibliothek, Darmstadt. 

Honduras : Secretary of the Government, Tegucigalpa. 

Jamaica : Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 

Latvia : Office of the Prime Minister, Riga. 

Liberia : Department of State, Monrovia. 

Lourenco Marquez : Government Library, Lourengo Marquez. 

Lubeck : President of the Senate. 

Madras, Province of: Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras, Public 
Department, Madras. 

Malta : Lieutenant Governor, Valetta. 

Montenegro : Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres, Cetinje. 

New Brunswick : Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Newfoundland : Colonial Secretary, St. John's. 



80 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Nicaragua : Superintendente de Archivos Nacionales, Managua. 

Noethwest Territories: Government Library, Ilegina. 

Nova Scotia: Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Panama : Secretaria de Helaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay: Ofieina General de Inmigracion, Asuncion. 

Prince Edward Island : Legislative Library, Charlottetown. 

Roumania : Acadeinia Romana, Bucharest. 

Salvador: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 

SlAM : Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 

Straits Settlements : Colonial Secretary, Singapore. 

Switzerland: Library of the League of Nations, Palace of Nations, Quai de 
Leman, Geneva. 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh : Undersecretary to Government, Alla- 
habad. 

Vienna : Biirgermeister-Amt der Stadt Wien. 

INTERPARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF OFFICIAL JOURNALS. 

The interparliamentary exchange is separate and distinct from the 
exchange of official documents referred to above and is carried on 
by this Institution in behalf of the United States Government in 
accordance with authority granted in a resolution of Congress ap- 
proved March 4, 1909, the purpose of that resolution being to carry 
into effect the provisions of the second convention, concluded at 
Brussels March 15, 1886, providing for the immediate exchange of 
the official journal as well as of the parliamentary annals and docu- 
ments, to which the United States was one of the signatories. 

While the Government of Poland has not signified its adherence 
to the above-mentioned convention, it has entered into the immediate 
exchange with the United States. 

A complete list of the countries now taking part in this exchange 
is given below, together with the names of the establishments to 
which the daily issue of the Congressional Record is forwarded : 

Argentina : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Buenos Aires. 

Australia : Library of the Commonwealth Parliament, Melbourne. 

Austria : Bibliothek des Nationalrates, Wien I. 

Baden : Universitats-Bibliothek, Heidelberg. 

Belgium : Bibliotheque de la Chambre des Representants, Brussels. 

Bolivia : Camara de Diputados, Congreso Nacional, La Paz. 

Brazil : Bibliotheca do Congresso Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 

Buenos Aires : Biblioteca del Senado de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, La Plata. 

Canada : 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Costa Rica : Ofieina de Dep6sito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jose. 
Cuba : 

Biblioteca de la Camara de Representantes, Habana. 

Biblioteca del Senado, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia : Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale, Prague. 
Denmabk: Rigsdagens Bureau, K0benhavn. 
France; 

BibliotMque de la Chambre des Deputes, au Palais Bourbon, Paris. • 

liibi otheque <lu Senat, au Palais du Luxembourg, P. iris. 



KEPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 81 

Great Britain : Library of the Foreign Office, Downing Street, London, S. W. 1. 

Greece : Library of Parliament, Athens. 

Guatemala : Biblioteca de la Oficina Internacional Centro-Americana, 8a Calle 

Poniente No. 1, Ciudad de Guatemala. 
Honduras : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
Hungary : Bibliothek des Abgeordnetenhauses, Budapest. 
Italy : 

Biblioteca della Camera dei Deputati, Palazzo di Monte Citorio, Rome. 
Biblioteca del Senate del Regno, Palazzo Madama, Rome. 
Liberia : Department of State, Monrovia. 
Jugoslavia : Library of the Skupshtina, Belgrade. 
New South Wales : Library of Parliament, Sydney. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Peru : Cainara de Diputados, Congreso Nacional, Lima. 
Poland: Monsieur le Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, Warsaw. 
Portugal : Bibliotheca das Cortes, Lisbon. 
Prussia : Bibliothek des Abgeordnetenhauses, Prinz-Albrechtstrasse 5, Berlin, 

S. W. 11. 
Queensland: The Chief Secretary's Office, Brisbane. 
Roumania : Bibliotheque de la Chambre des Deputes, Bucharest. 
Russia : Sendings temporarily suspended. 
Spain : 

Biblioteca del Congreso de los Diputados, Madrid. 
Biblioteca del Senado, Madrid. 
Switzerland : Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Federate Suisse, Berne. 
Transvaal: State Library, Pretoria. 

Union of South Africa: Library of Parliament, Cape Town. 
Uruguay : Biblioteca de la Camara de Representantes, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Camara de Diputados, Congreso Nacional, Caracas. 
Western Australia: Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 

It will be noted from the above list that there are at present 38 
different foreign States or Provinces with which the immediate 
exchange of the official journal is carried on. To some two copies 
of the Congressional Record are forwarded— one to the Upper and 
one to the Lower House of Parliament — the total number trans- 
mitted being 43. The number provided by law for this exchange is 
limited to 100. 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AGENCIES. 

Agencies have been established during the year by the Govern- 
ments of Danzig and Poland. Shipments to Czechoslovakia were in- 
augurated last year, consignments being sent to the Ministere de 
l'lnstruction Publique. The Czechoslovak Government has since 
established an international exchange service under the direction of 
the Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale. 

A complete list of the foreign exchange agencies or bureaus is 
given below : 

Algeria, via France. 
Angola, via Portugal. 

Argentina : Comisi6n Protectora de Bibliotecas Populares, Lavalle 1216, Buenos 
Aires. 

73552—21 6 



82 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Austria : Statistische Zentral-Kommission, Vienna. 

Azores, via Portugal. 

Belgium : Service Beige des Eehanges Internationaux, Rue des Longs-Chariots 

46, Brussels. 
Bolivia : Oficina Nacional de Estadfstica, La Paz. 
Brazil : Servigo de Permutagoes Internacionaes, Bihliotheca Nacional, Rio de 

Janeiro. 
British Colonies : Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. 
British Guiana : Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, Georgetown. 
British Honduras: Colonial Secretary, Belize. 

Bulgaria: Institutions Scientifiques de S. M. le Roi de Bulgarie, Sofia. 
Canary Islands, via Spain. 

Chile : Servicio de Canjes Internacionales, Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
China: American-Chinese Publication Exchange Department, Shanghai Bureau 

of Foreign Affairs, Shanghai. 
Colombia : Oficina de Canjes Internacionales y Reparto, Biblioteca Nacional, 

Bogota. 
Costa Rica : Oficina de Dep6sito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

Jose. 
Czechoslovakia : Service Tchecoslovaque des Eehanges Internationaux, Biblio- 

theque de l'Assemblee Nationale, Prague 1-79. 
Danzig : Stadtbibliothek, Danzig. 

Denmark : Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 
Dutch Guiana : Surinaamsche Koloniale Bibliotheek, Paramaribo. 
Ecuador : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Quito. 

Egypt : Government Publications Office, Printing Department, Bulaq, Cairo. 
Finland : Delegation of the Scientific Societies of Finland, Helsingfors. 
France: Service Frangais des Eehanges Internationaux, 110 Rue de Grenelle, 

Paris. 
Germany : Amerika-Institut, Universitatstrasse 8, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Great Britain and Ireland : Messrs. Wheldon & Wesley, 28 Essex Street, 

Strand, London. 
Greece : Bibliotheque Nationale, Athens. 
Greenland, via Denmark. 
Guadeloupe, via France. 

Guatemala : Institute Nacional de Varones, Guatemala. 
Guinea, via Portugal. 

Haiti : Secretaire d'Etat des Relations Exterieures, Port au Prince. 
Honduras : Biblioteca Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
Hungary: Dr. -Julius Pikler, Fovarosi Telekerteknyilvantarto Hivatal (City 

Land Valuation Office), Kozponti Varoshaz, Budapest IV. 
Iceland, via Denmark. 

India : Superintendent of Stationery, Bombay. 
Italy: Ufficio degli Scambi Internazionali, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio 

Emanuele, Rome. 
Jamaica : Institute of Jamaica, Kingston. 
Japan : Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 
Java, via Netherlands. 
Korea : Government General, Keijo. 

Liberia : Bureau of Exchanges, Department of State, Monrovia. 
Lourenco Marquez : Government Library, Laurenco Marquez. 
Luxemburg, via Germany. 
Madagascar, via France. 
Madeira, via Portugal. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 83 

Mozambique, via Portugal. 

Netherlands: Bureau Scientifique Central Neerlandais, Bibliotheque de 
1'Academie technique, Delft. 

New Guinea, via Netherlands. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand : Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

Nicaragua : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 

Norway : Kongelige Norske Frederiks Universitet Bibliotheket, Christiania. 

Panama : Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay: Servicio de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Secci6n Consular 
y de Comercio, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Asuncion. 

Peru : Oficina de Reparto, Deposito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, 
Ministerio de Fomento, Lima. 

Poland: Bibliotheque du Ministere des Relations Exterieures, Warsaw. 

Portugal: Secgao de Trocas Internacionaes, Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Queensland: Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 

Rumania: Shipments temporarily suspended. 

Russia : Shipments temporarily suspended. 

Salvador : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 

Siam : Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 

South Australia : Public Library of South Australia. Adelaide. 

Spain : Servicio del Camblo Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Facultativo 
de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueologos, Madrid. 

Sumatra, via Netherlands. 

Sweden : Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien, Stockholm. 

Switzerland : Service des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Federate Cen- 
trale, Berne. 

Syria : American University of Beirut. 

Tasmania : Secretary to the Premier, Hobart. 

Trinidad : Royal Victoria Institute of Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain. 

Tunis, via France. 

Turkey : Shipments temporarily suspended. 

Union of South Africa : Government Printing Works, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Uruguay : Oficina de Canje Internacional, Montevideo. 

Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 

Wijndward and Leeward Islands : Imperial Department of Agriculture, Bridge- 
town, Barbados. 

In conclusion, I beg to express my appreciation of the conscientious 
attention to duty by the employees of the Exchange Office, without 
which it would not have been possible to handle the large volume of 
work passing through the service during the year. 
Respectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, 
Assistant Secretary, 
In Charge of Library and Exchanges. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 6. 
REPORT ON THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK. 

Sir : I have the honor to present the following report on the opera- 
tions of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1921 : 

The appropriations allowed by Congress in the sundry civil act 
included $125,000 for the regular maintenance of the park, $80,000 
for the purchase of additional land, and $200 for miscellaneous print- 
ing and binding. 

Prices on almost all necessary supplies remained high during the 
early months of the year and, as a consequence, only very limited 
funds were available for repairs or permanent improvements. In 
the later months there was a decided drop in the prices of several items 
of food for animals, and particularly in forage, so that a few long- 
delayed repairs and improvements, some of them begun five years 
ago but discontinued for lack of funds, could be undertaken. 

The number of animals on exhibition is greater than at any period 
since 1912; the number of species represented is greater than ever 
before ; and the scientific importance and actual monetary value of the 
collections far exceed any previous year in the history of the park. 
A new record for attendance was also reached, due in a measure to 
the recent rapid development of near-by residential sections, but in a 
greater measure due to increased interest by the public in the animal 
collections and in the recreational features offered by such an estab- 
lishment. 

ACCESSIONS. 

Gifts. — An unusual number of animals were added to the collec- 
tion as gifts, or were placed by friends of the park on indefinite 
deposit. The total number of specimens received in this manner was 
178, and the donations included numerous rare and important species. 

Mr. Isaac Ellison, of Singapore, presented to the park a fine young 
male orang-utan, about 3^ years old. No specimen of this ape had 
been on exhibition in Washington for many years, and the addition to 
the collection of an example so thrifty is gratifying. Mr. Ellison 
brought the orang-utan, together with a Javan macaque, with him 
from Singapore, while on a visit to America. 

The Canadian Government, through Mr. J. B. Harkin, Commis- 
sioner of Dominion Parks, presented four mountain goats and two 
84 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 85 

Rocky Mountain sheep, all captured in the Rocky Mountains Park 
and shipped from Banff, Alberta. The sheep, both ewes, are most 
welcome additions to the small herd received from the same source 
in 1917, which has done so well in our paddocks. The mountain goats 
are the first on exhibition here in many years, and in the large range 
prepared especially for them have attracted great attention. A 
young male, born here May 20, 1921, appears to be a thrifty animal. 

Mr. Victor J. Evans, of Washington, D. C, who has for many 
years taken great interest in the National Zoological Park, and has, 
from time to time, added many rare and unusual animals to the col- 
lection, presented during the year a young male Kadiak bear, a pair 
of Count Raggi's birds of paradise, and some valuable parrots. The 
bear gives promise of becoming an exceptionally large individual, 
and no species of bird of paradise has before been shown in the park. 

Four shipments from tropical America added, by gift, a number 
of species new to the collections. Dr. F. W. Goding, American con- 
sul general at Guayaquil, Ecuador, transmitted specimens of the 
giant Galapagos tortoise, one each from Albemarle Island and In- 
defatigable Island. The Indefatigable Island species is very rare 
and had never before been on exhibition. Hon. Henry D. Baker, 
American consul at Trinidad, British West Indies, sent specimens 
of the Trinidad brocket deer and agouti. Mr. Stuart H. Gillmore 
and Mr. Walter C. B. Morse, of Washington, brought with them 
from Surinam a small collection of animals, including specimens of 
the golden-hooded oriole and weeping capuchin. Dr. Paul Bartsch, 
of the National Museum, collected and presented four large ground 
iguanas from Andros Island and an additional specimen of the great 
white heron from the Florida Keys. 

Mr. A. K. Haagner, director of the zoological garden at Pretoria, 
South Africa, brought to America, as a gift to the park, a specimen 
of his recently discovered Rhodesian baboon. 

Seventy-two individual donors contributed to the collection during 
the year. The complete list is as follows : 

Mr. H. E. Allen, Washington, D. C, red-and-blue-and-yellow macaw. 

Dr. Wade H. Atkinson, Washington, D. C, Virginia opossum. 

Mr. Carl Aylor, Washington, D. C, screech owl. 

Miss Henriette A. Bagnell, Washington, D. C, two grass paroquets. 

Hon. Henry D. Baker, Trinidad, British West Indies, Trinidad brocket and 
two Trinidad agoutis. 

Dr. Paul Bartsch, Washington, D. C, white heron and four ground iguanas. 

Miss Dorothy Beers, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Mr. Harmon B. Bell, jr., Buxton, Md., alligator. 

Mr. I. E. Bennett, West Palm Beach, Fla., laughing gull. 

Mr. K. M. Bradshaw, Bristow, Va., barn owl. 

Ensign Richard H. Brazeal, U. S. S. Penguin, San Francisco, Calif., Panama 
agouti. 

Mr. F. E. Briggs, Bristow, Va., great horned owl. 



86 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Miss G. It. Brighain, Washington, D. C, red-billed hill-tit. 

Caflisch Lumber Co., Albright, W. Va., banded rattlesnake, copperhead, and 
blacksnake. 

Mr. Jas. E. Cameron, Washington, D. C, red fox. 

Canadian Government through Hon. J. B. Harkin, two Rocky Mountain sheep 
and four mountain goats. 

Mr. W. B. Carpenter, Washington, D. C, red-billed hill-tit, two Gouldian 
linches, two canaries, and two grass paroquets. 

Mr. Milton Curtis, St. David, Ariz., Gila monster. 

Mr. James Y. Davis, Washington D. C, sparrowhawk. 

Mr. E. B. Dewey, Washington, D. C, sparrowhawk. 

Mr. Blaine Elkins, Washington, D. C, two raccoons. 

Mr. Ernest B. Ellis, Millboro, N. C, horned toad. 

Mr. Isaac Ellison, Singapore, Straits Settlements, orang-utan and Javan 
macaque. 

Mr. Louis C. Etchison, Jefferson, Md., red-tailed hawk and barn owl. 

Mr. Victor J. Evans, Washington, D. C, Kadiak bear, king paroquet, red- 
sided eclectus parrot, and two Count Raggi's birds of paradise. 

Mr. Arthur H. Fisher, Washington, D. C, coach-whip snake and spreading 
adder. 

Mr. H. B. Fisher, Takoma Park, Md., mourning dove. 

Mr. Stuart H. Gillmore and Mr. Walter C. B. Morse, Washington, D. C, 
coatimundi, capuchin monkey, yellow-rumped agouti, and golden-hooded oriole. 

Dr. Frederic W. Goding, Guayaquil, Ecuador, two Galapagos tortoises. 

Mr. Leonard C. Gunnell, Washington, D. C, woodcock. 

Mr. A. K. Haagner, Pretoria, South Africa, Rhodesian baboon. 

Mrs. E. B. Harden, Washington, D. C, three horned toads. 

Hon. Warren G. Harding, White House, Washington, D. C, Alaskan bald 
eagle. 

Mrs. E. P. Hopkins, Washington, D. C, two canaries. 

Mrs. John F. Hord, Washington, D. C, grass paroquet, red-billed weaver, 
nutmeg finch, European goldfinch, two strawberry finches, two black-headed 
linches, three Java finches, four canaries, and seven bengalees. 

Mr. L. M. Humphrey, Glen Echo, Md., pilot blacksnake. 

Miss May E. Irish, Hillside, Me., duck hawk. 

Mrs. H. S. Johnson, Washington, D. C, canary. 

Mr. Ellis S. Joseph, Sydney, Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoo and four 
red-rumped paroquets. 

Maj. Howard C. Judson, United States Marine Corps, Washington, D. C 
red-crowned parrot and yellow-cheeked parrot. 

Mr. Charles R. Kengla, Washington, D. C, great horned owl. 

Mr. J. C. Lindsey, Clarendon, Va., ringed turtledove. 

Mrs. L. D. Lunt, Landover, Md., alligator. 

Mr. George Marshall, Laurel, Md., garter snake and blacksnake. 

Mrs. W. S. Moore, Washington, D. C, tovi paroquet. 

Dr. F. H. Morhart, Washington, D. C, raccoon. 

Mrs. Louis Nulton, Winchester, Va., two marmosets. 

Mr. L. C. Painter, Alexandria, Va., three red-shouldered hawks. 

Miss Mary Dixon Palmer, Washington, D. C, alligator. 

Pan American Union, Washington, D. C, 16 alligators. 

Mr. L. V. Pearson, Washington, D. C, red-tailed hawk. 

Mr. Jack Polkinhorn, Washington, D. C, painted turtle. 

Mrs. N. C. Reid, Cristobal, Canal Zone, Panama deer. 

Mrs. E. T. Ryan, Washington, D. C, canary. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 87 

Mr. Edw. S. Schmid, Washington, D. C, blacksnake and two skunks. 
Dr. It. W. Shufeldt, Washington, D. C, box tortoise, ground rattlesnake, two 
king snakes, and two wood turtles. 
Mr. Lubert Sisco, Washington, D. C, pilot blacksnake. 
Mr. H. N. Slater, New York, N. Y., East African baboon. 
Mr. G. T. Smallwood, Washington, D. C, 15 opossums. 
Mr. Albert Stabler, Washington, D. C, barred owl. 
Mr. Robert M. Stabler, Washington, D. C, five Virginia opossums. 
Mrs. Ida Stanley, Washington, D. C., raccoon. 
Mr. J. F. Steffey, Fort Washington, Md., great horned owl. 
Mr. Arthur Tew, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Mrs. E. F. Townsend, Washington, D. 0., alligator. 
Mrs. Russell Tyson, Brattleboro, Vt., albino woodchuck. 
Mr. Titus Ulke, Washington, D. C, painted turtle and milk snake. 
Mr. F. L. Van Patten, Great Falls, Va., barred owl. 
Mrs. O. D. Wayland, Washington, D. C., canary. 
Mr. J. T. Wenchel, Takoma Park, Md., rabbit. 

Mr. Ira Cartright Wetherill, Machadoc, Va., diamond-back terrapin. 
Mr. Allen H. Whisner, Washington, D. C, fox squirrel. 

Births.— Fifty-five mammals were born and 21 birds were hatched 
in the park during the year. As usual, these records include only 
such as are reared to a reasonable age, no account being made in these 
published statistics of young that live only a few days. The births 
include : European brown bear, 4 ; dingo, 2 ; great gray kangaroo, 1 ; 
red kangaroo, 3 ; black-tailed wallaby, 2 ; rufous-bellied wallaby, 1 ; 
brush-tailed rock wallaby, 1 ; Australian opossum, 1 ; rhesus monkey, 
4; mona, 1; mountain goat, 1; Rocky Mountain sheep^ 1; Indian 
antelope, 2 ; American bison, 3 ; llama, 3 ; guanaco, 1 ; Virginia deer, 
4 ; black-tailed deer, 3 ; f alloAV deer, 1 ; Japanese deer, 3 ; hog deer, 3 ; 
barasingha, 2 ; red deer, 6 ; American elk, 2. Birds hatched were of 
the following species : White ibis, American coot, wood duck, canary, 
and peafowl. 

Exchanges. — There were received during the year, in exchange for 
surplus stock, 57 mammals, 152 birds, and 6 reptiles. The most 
important of these accessions were a large collection of Australasian 
birds from Mr. E. S. Joseph, the well-known animal dealer of 
Sydney, Australia; and a collection of African mammals from Mr. 
A. K. Haagner, Pretoria, South Africa. Among the birds received 
from Mr. Joseph are such desirable species as the pied goose, Eyton's 
tree duck, Australian black duck, Pacific gull, white-bellied sea 
eagle, golden-shouldered paroquet, and satin bower-bird. African 
mammals included in the exchange from Mr. Haagner were a lechwe 
antelope, 2 blesboks, a springbok, an African porcupine, a chacma 
baboon, and a specimen of Wahlberg's mongoose. Other valuable 
mammals received in exchange from miscellaneous sources are 2 
Barbary apes from Gibraltar, white-collared, black, and sooty manga- 
beys, an Arabian baboon, 2 ruffed lemurs, 2 Malay porcupines, 2 
palm civets, and a Florida manatee. 



88 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

The birds received in exchange include also 2 sun-bitterns, 2 black - 
necked swans, 2 Cape Barren geese, 4 upland geese, an Indian jabiru. 
a sarus crane, scarlet ibis, yellow-wattled lapwing, and numerous 
small birds of various kinds. Five tree iguanas and a large boa con- 
strictor were received from South America. 

Purchases. — Only 9 mammals, 45 birds, and 9 reptiles were pur- 
chased during the year, as the limited funds available would not per- 
mit of much expenditure for stock. The mammals purchased were 
4 armadillos, 2 gray foxes, a Florida lynx, a pigtailed monkey, and 
one bandicoot. Birds purchased were mostly hawks, owls, and water- 
fowl at low cost, but some exceptionally valuable specimens were also 
obtained. A specimen of the rare kagu from New Caledonia Island, 
and of the Nepalese paroquet from India, represent species new to 
the collection. 

Transfers. — The Biological Survey of the Department of Agricul- 
ture continued its contributions to the collection. Two young pumas 
or mountain lions from the Kaibab Forest, Utah, through Mr. 
George E. Holman; and three young pumas from Arizona, through 
Mr. M. E. Musgrave, were among the most valuable transfers from 
the survey. Mr. Vernon Bailey, chief field naturalist, contributed 
an interesting collection of small mammals, including various species 
of pocket mice, kangaroo rats, spermophiles, and other rodents. Two 
little brown cranes from Nebraska were also transferred from field 
agents of the Biological Survey. 

Captured in the park. — Five birds and 2 reptiles, captured within 
the National Zoological Park, were added to the collection. 

Deposited. — A few parrots and other birds and one reptile, needed 
for exhibition, were accepted on deposit. Owing to the greatly 
increased work at the park and the small force of keepers employed 
to care for the growing collections, it has been necessary to refuse 
birds and mammals offered on deposit, and subject to recall by the 
owner, unless the specimens represent species which add distinctly 
to the exhibition value of the collection. 

REMOVALS. 

Surplus animals sent away in exchange for other stock during 
the year included 62 mammals, 45 birds, and 12 reptiles. Most of 
the surplus animals were born in the park. Among the specimens 
so exchanged were a young hippopotamus, 5 American bison, 1 yak, 

1 East African eland, 1 Indian antelope, 4 llamas, 2 American elk, 
11 European red deer, 2 Japanese deer, 2 red kangaroos, 2 European 
brown bears, 2 African lions, 1 mountain lion, 4 gray foxes, 2 wolves, 

2 coypus, 3 rhesus monkeys, a number of waterfowl, peafowl, and 
other birds, and 12 alligators. 

A number of animals on deposit were returned to owners. 



REPOBT OF THE SECRETARY. 89 

The death rate remains very low ; for mammals and birds about as 
in the past four years; for reptiles much lower. Among the most 
serious losses of mammals long in the collection must be mentioned 
the death of the vicuna {Lama vicugna) from enteritis on Septem- 
ber 7, 1920. This animal was received at the park on November 24, 
1908, and thus had been in the collection nearly 12 years. A female 
zebu {Bos indicus), received when about 3 years old, on April 11, 
1899, died on March 25, 1921, only a few days under 22 years from 
date of arrival. A male American elk, born in the park May 31, 
1910, died November 5, 1920. The male Kenai Peninsula black bear 
{Ursus americanus pemiger) , received when a cub of about 2 years 
of age, March 5, 1903, died of internal hemorrhage, June 23, 1921, 
after 18 years and 3 months in the park. A coyote {Canis la- 
trans), received April 26, 1906, died September 28, 1920; a paca 
{Cuniculus paca), received April 11, 1908, died January 3, 1921, of 
acute congestion of the lungs; and a brown macaque {Macaca 
speciosa), received July 30, 1910, died of gastroenteritis on Novem- 
ber 26, 1920. 

Three birds with long records were lost during the year. A red- 
and-blue macaw {Ava chloroptera) , received as a gift from the gov- 
ernor of the State of Para, Brazil, August 7, 1899, died nearly 21 
years later, on July 3, 1920. A yellow-shouldered parrot {Amazona 
barbadensis) , received from Hon. E. H. Plumacher, American consul 
at Maracaibo, Venezuela, September 10, 1902, died on January 26, 
1921; and a demoiselle crane, received July 2, 1903, died on June 18, 
1921. 

Other serious losses were a female bison, died of metritis, July 7. 
1920; a male llama, acute congestion of lungs, July 25, 1920; and a 
male prong-horned antelope, anemia, October 13, 1920. 

Post-mortem examinations were made by the pathological division 
of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and, in four cases, by the Army 
Medical Museum. The following list shows the results of autopsies, 
the cases being arranged by groups : 

CAUSES OF DEATH. 
MAMMALS. 

Marsupialia : Tuberculosis, 2 ; congestion of lungs, 1 ; pleurisy and peri- 
carditis, 1 ; enteritis, 1 ; peritonitis, 1 ; pyemia, 1 ; septicemia, 1. 

Carnivora : Pneumonia, 2 ; tuberculosis, 1 ; gastroenteritis, 2 ; internal hem- 
orrhage, 3 ; leukemia, 1. 

Rodentia: Congestion of lungs, 1. 

Primates : Tuberculosis, 5 ; enteritis, 5 ; gastroenteritis, 2 ; colitis, 1 ; 
echinococcus infestation, 1 ; cage paralysis, 1. 

Artiodactyla : Pneumonia, 1; verminous broncho-pneumonia, 1; tuberculosis, 
1 ; congestion of lungs, 1 ; enteritis, 2 ; gastritis, 1 ; gastroenteritis, 1 ; metritis, 
1 ; anemia, 3 ; accident, 1. 



90 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 



Ciconiiformes : Impaction of stomach, 1; anemia, 1; septicemia, 2; no cause 

found, 3. 

Anseri formes : Pneumonia, 1 ; enteritis, 2 ; no cause found, 3. 

Falconiformes : No cause found, 1. 

Galliformes: Tuberculosis, 1; aspergillosis, 2; enteritis, 3; coccidiosis, 6; 
wry-neck, 1 ; no cause found, 2. 

Gruiformes : Aspergillosis, 1 ; enteritis, 1 ; no cause found, 2. 

Charadriiformes : Tuberculosis, 1; enteritis, 1; internal hemorrhage, 1. 

Psittaciformes : Enteritis, 3 ; anemia, 1 ; internal hemorrhage, 1. 

Coraci i formes : Enteritis, 1; abdominal tumor and enteritis, 1. 

Passeriformes : Enteritis, 6. 

REPTILES. 

Serpentes : Pneumonia, 1 ; no cause found, 1. 

Thirty-two specimens of special scientific importance, or needed 
for exhibition purposes, were transferred after death to the United 
States National Museum. These included 16 mammals, 11 birds, and 
5 reptiles. Four specimens of mammals, desired for anatomical 
work, were sent to the Army Medical Museum. The skins of IT 
birds were added to the reference collection of " dealers' cage birds " 
in the office of the superintendent, National Zoological Park. 

ANIMALS IN THE COLLECTION JUNE 30, 1921. 



MAMMALS. 



MAltSUI'IALIA. 



Virginia opossum (Didelphis vir- 

giniana) 1° 

Tasmanian devil (Harcophilus har- 

risid) 2 

Australian opossum (Trichosurus vul- 

pecula) 2 

Dusky phalanger (Trichosurus fuligi- 

nosus) 1 

Flying phalanger (Petaurus breviceps) _ 8 
Brush-tailed rock wallaby (Pctrogale 

penioUUrta) 4 

Rufous-bellied wallaby (Macropus bil- 

lardlerii) 6 

Parma wallaby (Mao-opus parma) 1 

Black-tailed wallaby (Macropus bi- 

color) 3 

Great gray kangaroo (Macropus gi- 

ganteus) 2 

Black-faced kangaroo (Macropus 

melanops) 2 

Wallaroo (Macropus robustus) 2 

Red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) 8 

CAKNIVORA. 

Kadiak bear (Ursus middendorffl) 2 

Alaska Peninsula bear (Ursus gyas) 2 

Yakutat bear (Ursus dalli) 1 

Kidder's bear (tJ.rsus kiddcri) 2 

European boar (Ursus arctos) 6 

Grizzly bear (Ursus horribiiis) 2 



Apache grizzly (Ursus apache) 1 

Himalayan bear (Ursus thibetanus) — 1 

Black bear (Ursus amcricanus) 1 

Cinnamon bear (Ursus am.ericam.us cin- 

iiamomum) 

Florida bear (Ursus floridanus) 

Glacier bear (Ursus emmonsii) 

Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) 

Sloth bear (Mtlursus ursinus) 

Polar bear (Thalarctos maritimus) 

Dingo (Canis dingo) 

Eskimo dog (Canis familiaris) 

Gray wolf (Canis nubilus) 

Southern wolf (Canis floridanus) 

Woodhouse's wolf (Canis frustror) 

Coyote (Canis latrans) 

Red fox (Vulpes fulva) 

Kit fox (Vulpes velox) 

Gray fox (Urocyon cinercoargcntcus) _ 

Cacomistle (Bassariscus astutus) 

Raccoon (Procyon lotor) 12 

Gray coatimundi (Nasua narica) 2 

Red coatimundi (Nasua nasua) 2 

Kinkajou (Potos flavus) 2 

Mexican kinkajou (Potos flavus a;tc- 

cus) - 

Marten (Maries amcricana) 

Ferret (Must via furo) 

Tayra (Tayra barbara) 

Skunk (Mephitis nigra) 

Florida skunk (Mephitis elongata) 

American badger (Tawidea taxus) 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



91 



European badger (Mcles mcles) 1 

Florida otter (Lutra canadensis vaga) _ 2 
Palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphro- 

ditus) 2 

Wahlberg's mongoose (Helogale par- 

vula) 1 

Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) 1 

Striped hyena (Hywna hyama) 2 

African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) __ 2 

Lion (Felis leo) 2 

Bengal tiger (Felis tigris) 1 

Manchurian tiger (Felis tigris longi- 

piUs) 2 

Leopard (Felis pardus) 1 

East African leopard (Felis pardus 

suahelica) 1 

Jaguar (Felis onca) 1 

Brazilian ocelot (Felis pardalis bra- 

siliensis) 1 

Margay cat (Felis tigrina) 1 

Snow leopard (Felis uncia) 1 

Mexican puma (Felis azteca) 4 

Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) 3 

Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis') 1 

Northern wild cat (Lynx uinta) 3 

Bay lynx (Lynx rufus) 2 

Florida lynx (Lynx rufus fioridanus) - 1 

PINNirEDIA. 

California sea lion (Zalophus calif or- 

nianus) 2 

Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) 1 

RODENTIA. 

Woodchuck (Marmota monax) 2 

Dusky marmot (Marmota flaviventris 

obscura) 1 

Prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) — 5 
White-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys 

gunnisoni) 2 

Antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus 

leucurus) 1 

Arizona antelope squirrel (Ammospcr- 
mophilus haiiHsii) 1 

Round-tailed spermophile (Citellustere- 

ticaudus) 3 

Spotted spermophile (C Melius spilo- 

soma) 1 

Honduras squirrel (Sciurus boothiw) _- 1 

Fox squirrel (Sciurus nigcr) 1 

Albino squirrel (Sciurus carol in ensis) - 2 
Baird's pocket mouse (Pcrognathus 

fl(irus) 1 

Bailey's pocket mouse (Perognathus 

baileyi) 4 

Dusky pocket mouse (Perognathus 

flavescens pemiger) 3 

Kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) _ 1 
Morriam's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys 

merriami) 3 

Ord's kangaroo rat (Perodipus ordii) — 2 

American beaver (Castor canadensis)- 1 
Grasshopper mouse (Onychomys tor- 

ridus) 3 

Gray grasshopper mouse (Onychomys 

leucogastcr fuscogriscus) 1 



Montana white-footed mouse (Pcromys- 

cus leucopus aridulus) 1 

Desert mouse (Peromyscus ercmicus) _ 4 
Nebraska white-footed mouse (Pero- 
myscus maniculatus osgoodi) 2 

Parasitic mouse (Peromyscus califor- 

nicus) 1 

Wood rat (Neotoma albigula) 2 

African porcupine (Hystrix africw- 

australis) l 

Malay porcupine (Acanthion bracliy- 

urum) - 

Coypu (Myocastor coypus) -3 

Paca (Cuniculus paca) 2 

Central American paca (Cuniculus 

paca virgatus) 1 

Mexican agouti (Dasypructa mexi- 

cana) 1 

Speckled agouti (Dasyprocta punc- 
tata) 2 

Panama agouti (Dasyprocta punc- 
tata isthmica) 1 

Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta aearcB)— 2 
Trinidad agouti (Dasyprocta i ub- 

rata) 2 

Crested agouti (Dasyprocta cristata)- 2 
Yellow-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta 

lucifer cayennw) » 1 

Peruvian guinea pig (Cavia tschudU 

pallidior) 2 

Guinea pig (Cavia porccllus) 20 

Capybara (Hydrochosrus hydrochwris) 1 

LAGOMOKPIIA. 

Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cunicu- 
lus) 10 

EDENTATA. 

Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus no- 
re mcintus) 2 

IT. I MATES. 

Ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus) 2 

Black spider monkey (Atelcs ater) 1 

Gray spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) 1 
White-throated capuchin (Cebus capu- 

oinus) 4 

Weeping capuchin (Cebus apclla) 1 

Brown capuchin (Cebus fatuellus) 1 

Margarita capuchin (Cebus margari- 

tw) 1 

Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) 2 

Chacma (Papio porcarius) 2 

Rhodesian baboon (Papio rhodesiw)-- 1 
Hamadryas baboon (Papio hama- 

dryas) 1 

East African baboon (Papio ibeanus) _ 1 

Mandrill (Papio spMnx) 1 

Drill (Papio leucophwus) 1 

Moor macaque (Cynopithecus muurus) 1 

Barbary ape (Simla sylvanus) 2 

Brown macaque (Macaca speciosa) 1 

Pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemes- 

trina) j 1 

Burmese macaque (Macaca andamancn- 

sis) 1 



92 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 



Rhesus monkey (Macaca rhesus) 29 

Bonnet monkey (Macaca sinica) 1 

Javan macaque (Macaca mordax) 4 

Black mangabey (Cercocebus aterri- 

mus) 1 

Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus fuligi- 

nosus) 2 

White-collared mangabey {Cercocebus 

torguatus) 1 

Green guenon {Lasiopyga callitrichus) 2 

Vervet guenon (Lasiopyga pygerythra) 1 

Mona {Lasiopyga mono) 4 

Roloway guenon (Lasiopyga roloway) _ 1 

Patas monkey (Erylhrocebus patas) — 2 

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 1 

Orang-utan (Pongo pygmceus) 1 

ARTIODACTYLA. 

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) 1 

Wart-hog (Phacochmrus cethiopicus) 2 

Collared peccary (Pecari angulatus) — 1 
Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphi- 

bius) 2 

Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) _ 2 

Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) 2 

Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) 4 

Llama (Lama glama) 7 

Alpaca (Lama pacos)-' 1 

Fallow deer (Dama dama) 5 

Ixis deer (Axis axis) 4 

Hog deer (Hyelaphus porcinus) 6 

Sambur (Rnsa unicolor) 2 

Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii) 9 

Burmese deer (Rucervus eldii) 1 

Japanese deer (Slika nippon) 12 

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) 15 

Kashmir deer (Cervus hanglu) 2 

Bedford deer (Cervus xanthopygus) _- 6 

American elk (Cervus canadensis) 6 

Virginia deer (Odocoileus virginia- 

nus) 12 

Panama deer (Odocoileus chiriquen- 

sis) 1 

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) 2 



Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus colum- 

bianus) 5 

Trinidad brocket (Mazama simplicicor- 

nis) 1 

Blesbok (Damaliscus albifrons) 3 

White-tailed gnu (Connochwtes gnou) _ 1 

Lechwe (Onotragus lechwe) 1 

Indian antelope (Antilopc cervicapra) _ 5 

Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) 2 

East African eland (Taurotragus oryx 

livingstonii) 2 

Angora goat (Capra hircus) 1 

Tahr (Hemitragus jcmlahicus) 3 

Mountain goat (Orcamnos americanus) 4 

Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) 1 

Rocky Mountain sheep (Ovis cana- 
densis) 6 

Arizona mountain sheep (Ovis cana- 
densis gaillardi) 1 

Barbados sheep (Ovis aries) 5 

Zebu (Bos indicus) 1 

Yak (Pocphagus grunniens) 4 

American bison (Bison bison) 13 

Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) 3 

PEIUSSODACTYLA. 

Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) 2 

Mongolian horse (Equus przewalskii) _ 1 

Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli granti) 1 

Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) 1 

Zebra-horse hybrid (Equus grevyi- 

caballus) 1 

Zebra-ass hybrid (Equus greryi-asi- 

nus) 1 

PROBOSCIDEA. 

Abyssinian elephant (Loxodonta afri- 

cana oxyotis) 1 

Sumatran elephant (Elephas suma- 

tranus) 2 

SIRBNIA. 

Florida manatee (Trichcchus latiros- 

tris) 1 



BIRDS. 



RATITiE. 

South African ostrich (Struthio aus- 
tralis) 

Somaliland ostrich (Struthio molyb- 
dophanes) 

Rhea (Rhea americana) 

Sclater's cassowary (Casuarius phil- 
ipi) 

Emu (Dromiceius novwlwllandice) 

CICONIIFORMES. 

Water-turkey (Anhinga anhinga) 

American white pelican (Pelecanus 

erythrorhynchos) 

European white pelican (Pelecanus 

onocrotalus) 

Roseate pelican (Pelecanus roseus) 

Australian pelican (Pelecanus eonspic- 

illatus) 



Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) 9 
Florida cormorant (Plmlacrocorax 

auritus floridanus) 13 

Great white heron (Ardea occiden- 
talis) 

Goliath heron (Ardea goliath) 

American egret (Casmerodius cgretta) _ 

Snowy egret (Egretta candidissima) 

Black-crowned night heron (Nycti- 

corax nycticorax nwvius) 

Boatbill (Cochlearius cochlearius) 

White stork (Ciconia ciconia) 

Black stork (Ciconia nigra) 

Indian jabiru (Xenorhynchus asiati- 

cus) 

Straw-necked ibis (Carphibis spinicol- 

Us) 

Sacred ibis (Threskiornis wthiopicus)- 

Australian ibis (Threskiornis stricti- 

pennis) 



2 
1 
3 

4 

28 
2 
3 

1 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY, 



93 



White ibis (Ouara alba) 13 

Scarlet ibis (Ouara rubra) 1 

Roseate spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja) 2 

European flamingo (Phwnicopterus 

roseus) 1 

ANSER1FORMES. 

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 18 

East Indian black duck [Anas platy- 

rl) nuchas var. ) 3 

Black duck (Anas rubripes) 23 

Australian black duck (Anas super- 

ciliosa) 4 

Gadwall (Chaulelasmus streperus) 2 

European widgeon (Marcca penclope) _ b 

Baldpate (Mareca americana) 7 

Green-winged teal (Nettion carolinense) 7 

European teal (Nettion crecca) 10 

Baikal teal (Nettion formosum) 1 

Blue-winged teal (Querquedula discors) 6 

Garganey (Querquedula querquedula) - 1 
Cinnamon teal (Querquedula cyanop- 

tera) 1 

Shoveller (Spatula clypeata) 4 

Pintail (Daflla acuta) 6 

Wood duck (Aix sponsa) 15 

Mandarin duck (Dcndronessa galericu- 

lata) 17 

Rufous-crested duck (Netta ruflna) 1 

Canvas-back (Marila valisineria) 2 

Redhead (Marila americana) 8 

Ring-necked duck (Marila collaris) 1 

Lesser scaup duck (Marila affinis) 9 

White-eyed duck (Marila nyroca) 1 

Rosy-billed pochard (Mctopiana pepo- 

saca) : 4 

Egyptian goose (Chenalopex wgypt in- 
cus) 2 

Upland goose (Chloephaga leucoptera) _ 2 

Snow goose (Chen hyperborcus) 2 

(ireater snow goose (Chen hyperboreus 

nivalis) 2 

Blue goose (Chen cwrwlcscenx) 7 

White-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) 3 
American white-fronted goose (Ans<r 

albifrons gambeli) 3 

Bar-headed goose (Eulabeia indica) 1 

Canada goose (Branta canadensis) 12 

llutehins's goose (Branta canadensis 

hutchinsii) 9 

Cackling goose (Branta canad- insis 

minima) 2 

Brant (Branta bernicla glaucogastra) _ 11 

Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) 7 

Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novw- 

hollandice) 2 

Spur-winged goose (Plcctropterus gam- 

bi nsis) 2 

Pied goose (Anseranas semipalmata) _ _ 2 
Black-bellied tree duck (Dendrocygna 

autumnalis) 6 

Eyton's tree duck (Dendrocygna ey- 

toni) 4 

White-faced tree duck (Dendrocygna 

viduata) 2 

Coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) .. 1 

Mute swan (Cygnus gibbus) 3 



Whistling swan (Olor columbianus) — 1 

Trumpeter swan (Olor buccinator) 1 

Black swan (Chenopis atrata) 2 

FALCONIFORMBS. 

South American condor (Vultur gry- 

phus) 1 

California condor (Qymnogyps cali- 

fortiianus) 3 

Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) 3 

Black vulture (Coragyps urubu) 2 

King vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) — 2 
Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpen- 

tarius) 1 

Griffon vulture (Oyps fulvus) 1 

Cinereous vulture (Aegypius mona- 

chus) 2 

Caracara (Polyborus cheriicay) 2 

Wedge-tailed eagle (Uroaetus audax) _ 2 

Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) 3 

White-bellied sea eagle (Concuma leu- 

cogaster) 2 

Bald eagle (Haliasetus leucocephalus) _ 11 
Alaskan bald eagle (Haliwetus leuco- 
cephalus alascanus) 2 

Broad-winged hawk (Butco platypte- 

rus) 1 

Red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) 6 

Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) 3 

Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) 4 

Duck hawk (Falco pcrcgrinus anatum) 1 

GALLIPOKMES. 

Razor-billed curassow (Mitu mitu)-~ 1 
Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sil- 

vestris) 1 

Peafowl (Parv cristatus) 41 

Peacock pheasant (Polyplectron bical- 

curatum) 1 

Silver pheasant (Oennceus nycthe- 

merus) 1 

Ring-necked pheasant (Plwsianus tor- 

quatus) 2 

Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) 1 

Gambel's quail (Lophortyx gambelii) — 3 
Valley quail (Lophortyx californica cal- 

licola) 2 

GRUIFORMES. 

East Indian gallinule (Porphyrio 

calvus) 5 

American coot (Fulica americana) 2 

South Island weka rail (Ocydromus 

australis) 3 

Short-winged weka (Ocydromus bra- 

cliypterus) 2 

Earl's weka (Ocydromus earli) 1 

Whooping crane (Orus americana) 1 

Sandhill crane (Ghrus mexicana) 2 

Little brown crane (Orus canadensis) — 6 

White-necked crane (Orus leucauchen) _ 1 
Indian white crane (Orus leucogera- 

nus) 1 1 

Lilford's crane (Orus lilfordi) 2 

Sarus crane (Orus collaris) 1 

Australian crane (Orus rubicunda) 2 

Demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) _ 4 



91 



AWTAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 



Crowned crane (Balearica paronina) — 1 
White-backed trumpeter (Psophia leu- 

coptera) 1 

Ca ria m a ( Ca ria in a oris tata) 1 

Kagu (Rhynochetos jabatus) I 

CH A ItADKI IFORMES. 

Yellow-wattled lapwing (Lobivanellus 

incDicus) 1 

Pacific gull (Ouhinniis paoificw) 2 

Great black-backed gull (Larus mari- 
nas) 1 

Herring gull (Larus anjentatus) 4 

Laughing gull (Larus atricilla) 3 

Australian crested pigeon (Ocyphaps 

lophotes) 5 

Bronze-wing pigeon (Phaps chalcop- 

tera) - 

Wonga-wonga pigeon (Leucosarcia pl- 

cata) ! 6 

Wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) 7 

Mourning dove (Zenaidura maoroura) _ 2 

Necklaced dove (Spilopelia tigrina) 4 

Zebra dove (Gcopelia striata) 4 

Bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia hume- 
ral is) 2 

Inca dove (Scardafella inca) 2 

Cuban ground dove (Chwmcpelia pas- 

serina aflavida) 2 

Green-winged dove (Chalcopliaps in- 

dica) 3 

New Guinea green dove (Chalcopliaps 

chry sochlora) 6 

Ringed turtle-dove (Streptopelia riso- 
ria) 2 

PSITTACIFORMES. 

Kea (Nestor notabilis) 4 

Cockateel (Calopsitta novcBhollandUce) _ 2 
Roseate cockatoo (Kakatoe roseica- 
pilla) 22 

Bare-eyed cockatoo (Kakatoe gym- 

nopis) 3 

Leadbeater's cockatoo (Kakatoe lead- 

beateri) 1 

White cockatoo (Kakatoe alba) 2 

Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Kakatoe gal- 

erita) 8 

Great red-crested cockatoo (Kakatoe 

molttCOl n sis) 1 

Mexican green macaw (Ami mcxi- 

cana) 2 

Blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ara- 

rauna) 2 

Red-anrl-blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara 

macao) S 

Yellow-winged paroquet (Tirica vircs- 

cens) 1 

Tui paroquet (Brotogn is stthomae)— 2 
Tovi paroquet (Brotogrris jugularis) - 2 
Yellow-naped parrot (Amazona auro- 

palliata) 2 

Yellow-cheeked parrot (Amazona au- 

tumnalis) 1 

Orange-winged parrot (Amazona ama- 

zonica) 1 



Red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridig- 

enalis) 6 

Double yellow-head parrot (Amazona 

oratrix) S 

Yellow-headed parrot (Amazona ochro- 

cephala) - 

Festive parrot (Amazona f estiva) 1 

Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) 1 

Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus) •_> 

Lesser vasa parrot (Coracopsis nigra)- 1 
Pennant's paroquet (Platycercus de- 
ntins) 1 

Rosella paroquet (Platycercus eximius) _ 1 
Black-tailed paroquet (Polytelis mcla- 

nura) '- 

Red-rumped paroquet (Psephotus Inv- 

matonotus) 1 

Ring necked paroquet (Conurus tor- 

quatus) 1 

Nepalese paroquet (Conurus nepalen- 

sis) 1 

Grass paroquet (Sfelopsittacus undit- 
latus) ?> 

CORACIIFORMES. 

Giant kingfisher (Dacelo gigas) 4 

Short-keeled toucan (Ramphastos pis- 

oivorus brevicarinatus) 1 

Barred owl (Strix varia) 7 

Snowy owl (Nyctea nyctea) 2 

Screech owl (Otus asio) 3 

Great horned owl (Bubo virgin! an u s) _ 11 
Western horned owl (Bubo virginianus 

pallescens) 1 

American barn owl (Tyto perlata pra- 

tincola) 3 

PASSEKIFOUMES. 

Silver-eared hill-tit (Uesia argcn 

tauris) 3 

Red-billed hill-tit (Liothriw luteus)— 8 
Black-gorgeted laughing-thrush (Oar- 

rulax pect oralis) 3 

White-eared bulbul (Otocompsa I" ilei- 
tis) 3 

European blackbird (Turdus mcrula)- 2 

Robin (Planesticus migratoriiis) 1 

Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedro- 

rum) 1 

Piping crow-shrike (Oymnorhina tibi- 

cen) 4 

Count Raggi's bird of paradise (Para- 

disra raggiana) 2 

Satin bower-bird (Ptilonorhynchus vio- 

hicrus) 2 

European raven (Corvus corax) 1 

Australian crow (Corvus coronoides) _ 1 

Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) 1 

Yucatan jay (Cissilopha yucatatiica) - 1 

Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) 3 

Green jay (Xanthoura luxuosa) 1 

Australian gray jumper (Struthidca 

omerea) 1 

Starling (Sturnux vulgaris) 9 

Crimson tanager (Ramphocelus dimi- 

diatus) 1 

Blue tanager (Thraupis ca7ia) 2 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



95 



Shaft-tailed whydah (Tetrwnura regia) 

Napoleon weaver (Pyromelana afra)-_ 1 

Red-billed weaver (Quclea quelea) 1 

Madagascar weaver (Foudia madagas- 

cariensis) 3 

Fire finch (Lagonosticta sencgala) 2 

Strawberry finch (Amandava aman- 
dava) 6 

Cordon bleu (Estrilda phaenicotis) 1 

Nutmeg finch (Munia punctulata) 7 

White-headed nun (Munla maja) 4 

Black-headed nun (Munia atricapilla) _ 2 

Java finch (Munia oryzivora) 6 

White Java finch (Munia oryzivora) 3 

Fawn-and-white bengalee (Uroloncha 

flavomaculata) 4 

Brown-and-white bengalee (Uroloncha 

grisenmaculata) 3 

Black-faced Gouldian finch (Poephila 

- gouldice) 4 

Diamond finch (Steganopleura guttata) _ 8 

Zebra finch (Tmniopygia castanotis) 4 

Cutthroat finch (Amadina fasciata) 3 

Vera Cruz red wing (Agelaius phcenu- 

ceus richmondi) 2 

Golden-hooded oriole (Icterus chryso- 

ccphalus) 1 

Purple grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)-- 5 

Yellow-backed cacique (Cacicus cela) _ 2 
Black-tailed hawfinch (Eophona mela- 

nura) 1 



Bullfinch (Pyrrliula pyrrhula) 5 

Greenfinch (Chloris chloris) 3 

Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) 4 

European goldfinch (Garduelis cardue- 

lis) 1 

Bramblefinch (Fringilla montifringilla) ('< 

European siskin (Rpinus spinus) 2 

Mexican goldfinch (Astragalinus psal- 

tria mexicanus) 1 

House finch (Oarpodacus mexicanus 

frontalis) 2 

Purple finch (Garpodacus purpureus) _ 1 

Canary (Scrinus canarius) 15 

Green singing finch (Scrinus icterus)- 1 

Slate-colored junco (J unco hyemalis) _ 2 

Tree sparrow (Bpizclla monticola) 1 

White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia 

albicollis) 4 

Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) 1 

San Diego song sparrow (Melospiza 

melodia cooper}) 4 

Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) 2 

California towhee (Pipilo crissalis) 2 

Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) 3 

Seed eater (Sporophila gutturalis) 2 

Nonpareil (Passrrina ciris) 15 

Blue grosbenk (Guiraca c&rulca) 1 

Red-crested cardinal {Paroaria cucul- 

lata) 1 

Cardinal (Gardinalis caid'nalis) 2 



REPTILES. 



Alligator (Alligator mississipiensis) 3G 

Teguexin (Tupinambis teguixin) 2 

Gila monster (Helodcrma suspect um) _ 7 

Tree iguana (Iguana iguana) 5 

Rock iguana (Gyclura bmolopha) 4 

Horned toad (Phrynosoma cornutum) _ 1 

Rock python (Python molurus) 2 

Anaconda (Eunccies murinus) 2 

Boa constrictor (Gomtrictor con- 
strictor) 4 

Spreading adder (Hctcrodon contor- 

trix) 1 

Blacksnake (Coluber constrictor) 1 

Coach-whip snake (Coluber flagellum) _ 1 

Chicken snake (Elaphe quadrivittata) _ 1 
Gopher snake (Drymarchon corais 

couperi) 1 

Pine snake (Pituophis melanolcucus) _ 5 

King snake (Lampropeltis getulus) 2 

Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) 1 

Water snake (Matrix sipedon) 3 

Queen snake (Natrix septemvittata) 1 



Garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) __ 3 

Moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) 1 

Western diamond rattler (Crotalus 

atrox) 2 

Ground rattler (Sistrurus miliarius)— 2 
Snapping turtle (Chclydra serpentina) 2 
Rossignon's snapping turtle (Chcly- 
dra rossignonii) 1 

Wood turtle (Clemmys insculpta) 2 

Diamond-back terrapin (Malaelemys 

centrata) 1 

Painted turtle (Ghrysemys picta) 1 

Cooter (Pscudcmys scripta) . 1 

Central American cooter (Pseudemys 

ornata) 1 

Gopher tortoise (Gophcrus polyphemus) _ 2 
Duncan Island tortoise (Testudo 

ephippium) 1 

Indefatigable Island tortoise (Testudo 

porteri) 1 

Albemarle Island tortoise (Tcst'ido 

ricina) 2 



96 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

STATEMENT OF THE COLLECTION. 

Accessions during the year. 



Presented , 

Born and hatched in National Zoological Park 

Received in exchange 

Purchased 

Transferred from other Government departments. 

Captured in National Zoological Park 

Deposited 



Total. 



Mammals 



235 



Birds. 



73 

21 

152 

45 

2 

5 



307 



Reptiles. 



53 



Totals. 



178 
76 

215 

63 

64 

7 

10 



613 



SUMMARY. 

Animals on hand July 1, 1920 1,427 

Accessions during the year 613 



Total animals handled 2,040 

Deduct loss (by exchange, death, and return of animals on deposit) 495 



Animals on hand June 30, 1921 1,545 



Class. 


Species. 


Individ- 
uals. 


Mammals 


198 

246 

34 


541 


Birds 


901 


Reptiles 


103 








Total, June 30, 1921 


478 


1,545 







This is a gain in the collection of 59 species and 118 individuals 
over the total for June 30, 1920. The number of species shown is 
greater than ever before in the history of the park. 

VISITORS. 

For the second time the official attendance records exceed 2,000,000. 
The total number of visitors to the park for the fiscal year, as deter- 
mined by count and estimate, was 2,400,837, a gain of 171,232 over 
the record of last year. The greatest attendance in any one month 
was 390,988, in March, 1921, an average per day of 12,612. 

The attendance by months was as follows: In 1920 — July, l72,5vjj; 
August, 211,600; September, 190,900; October, 323,150; November, 
104,548; December," 78,050. In 1921— January, 171,776; February, 
103,375 ; March, 390,988 ; April, 193,975 ; May, 276,475 ; June, 183,500. 

One hundred and twenty-four schools and classes, with a total of 
13,629 individuals, visited the park during the year. The number 
is greatly in excess of previous years, which have shown a steady 
increase. The American Ornithologists' Union, then in convention 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 97 

in Washington, visited the park on November 12, 1920; and the 
American Society of Mammalogists held an informal meeting, with 
luncheon, at the superintendent's office May 4, 1921. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

About 150 chestnut trees, many of large size, that had been killed 
during the past few years by the prevalent bark disease, were logged 
during the winter. A small, second-hand sawmill and a shingle mill 
were purchased at low cost, and 140,000 feet of choice chestnut lum- 
ber and about 80,000 shingles were salvaged by the operations. The 
dead chestnut trees were scattered through the undeveloped forest 
area in the northwestern part of the park, bordering Klingle Road ; 
and as great care was taken in logging, there has resulted very little 
damage to the beauty of the wood. A few young chestnut trees not 
yet affected by the blight were left standing. With the sawmill on 
hand it will be possible to save much choice lumber from time to 
time as trees die or are removed in the development of the park. 

In continuation of the policy inaugurated two years ago, of widen- 
ing the main automobile roads crossing the park, the section of road- 
way between the concourse and the scales near the camel yards and 
stable was broken up and rebuilt. Other sections of the roads were 
repaired, and the ford across Rock Creek near Klingle entrance was 
rebuilt with cement and the approaches improved. A cement side- 
walk, 10 feet wide, corresponding to the walk on the north side of 
the entrance road at the Harvard Street gate was constructed on the 
south side from this entrance to the cement bridge. The number of 
visitors entering the park by this gate has greatly increased with 
the development of the Mount Pleasant section of the city, and the 
increased sidewalk area has been badly needed for several years. 

The great flight cage for large birds has been entirely cleaned, the 
steel framework and wire covering scraped, and treated to two coats 
of paint. The roof of the camel and llama house has. been repaired; 
and a new hot-water heating boiler installed in the monkey house. 

Minor improvements made during the year include Telford pave- 
ments in several of the paddocks, a shed for tools at the machine 
shop, preparation of a large paddock for the mountain goats, new 
guard rails bordering the inclosure for the Sumatran elephants, 
painting of the puma cages and other ironwork, and the construc- 
tion of new trash receptacles and park benches. 

CLEAN-PARK CAMPAIGN. 

Regardless of park regulations, the paper and trash nuisance 
reached such serious proportions during the early spring months 
that a special campaign to enforce the laws against throwing and 
73552—21 7 



98 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

leaving rubbish on the lawns was inaugurated. With few excep- 
tions visitors have taken kindly to the requests of officers that all 
papers and other refuse be gathered up and deposited in the trash 
receptacles, and a very distinct improvement in the appearance of 
the grounds has resulted. 

With the greatly increased attendance, and especially with the 
present popularity of the grounds for picnic purposes, the absolute 
enforcement of the rubbish law is imperative. Additional trash 
baskets have been provided, and it is the intention to carry the cam- 
paign to a point where every visitor will realize the importance of 
the regulations and the seriousness of a disregard for park cleanli- 
ness. The aid of the public has been solicited by signs calling at- 
tention to the paper and trash nuisance, with a request for help. 
The response from the majority of visitors is gratifying, and the 
untidy small minority will, if necessary, be dealt with by sterner 
methods. 

ALTERATIONS OF BOUNDARIES. 

The purchase of the land necessary for the protection of the 
Connecticut Avenue entrance was completed during the year. The 
area acquired by purchase, and the included highways which by the 
same act become a part of the National Zoological Park, make an 
addition of 247,261.9 square feet or approximately 5§ acres. The 
total area of the National Zoological Park is now about 175 acres. 
The unexpended balance of $2,403.66, left from the appropriation of 
$80,000 made for the purchase of this land, is reappropriated in the 
sundry civil bill for 1922 toward the purchase of certain lots near the 
Adams Mill Road entrance to the park, between the park and Adams 
Mill Road. The owners having declined to sell these lots within 
the price limits set by the act, steps have been taken toward the 
institution of proceedings of condemnation. 

IMPORTANT NEEDS. 

Restaurant. — The most urgent improvement needed for the park 
is a suitable public restaurant. As pointed out in previous reports, 
the old refreshment stand, originally constructed as a temporary 
building when the attendance was only a small fraction of its present 
figures, is not only in a bad state of repair but is wholly inadequate 
for the required service. The estimated cost of a suitable building 
a year ago was $65,400. Since the park has now obtained, as men- 
tioned above, a large quantity of first-class chestnut lumber, includ- 
ing many heavy timbers, new plans have recently been drawn by the 
municipal architect with the idea of utilizing this lumber to ad- 
vantage. It is now believed that a restaurant building in every way 
suitable to the demands of the place, and probably more in keeping 
with the surroundings, can be constructed for $40,000. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 99 

Small-mammal house. — A building properly constructed for the 
exhibition of small mammals has long been needed, but never so 
much as at the present time. Numerous small animals now in the 
collection can not be shown for lack of quarters, and it is evident that 
more and more interest is being taken by visitors in the smaller 
species now on exhibition. 

Grading hanks and filling ravines. — During the present year some 
progress will be made in continuing the work of grading in the west- 
central part of the park. This work was begun five years ago but 
was discontinued during the war. Not only will a large area of 
comparatively flat space for deer yards and other paddocks result 
from the work, but the filling in of a near-by ravine will make 
possible the elimination of a dangerous curve in the main automobile 
road. • It is greatly to be hoped that it will be possible to complete 
this work within the next year, so that the unsightly condition of 
that portion of the park adjoining the principal highway of traffic 
can be corrected and the ground utilized to advantage for the ex- 
hibition of animals. 

Respectfully submitted. 

N. HOLLISTER, 

Superintendent. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 7. 

REPORT ON THE ASTROPHYSTCAL OBSERVATORY. 

Sir : The Astrophysical Observatory was conducted under the fol- 
lowing passage of the sundry civil act, approved June 5, 1919: 

Astrophysical Observatory: For maintenance of the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, including assistants, 
purchase of necessary books and periodicals, apparatus, making necessary obser- 
vations in high altitudes, repairs and alterations of buildings, and miscellaneous 
expenses, $13,000. 

The observatory occupies a number of frame structures within an 
inclosure of about 16,000 square feet south of the Smithsonian admin- 
istration building at Washington, and also a cement observing station 
and frame cottage for observers on a plot of 10,000 square feet leased 
from the Carnegie Solar Observatory, on Mount Wilson, Calif. 

A new solar observing station was erected in July, 1920, at the ex- 
pense of funds donated for the purpose by Mr. John A. Roebling, of 
Bernardsville, N. J., and this station has been occupied as a solar 
radiation observing station by the Astrophysical Observatory since 
October, 1920. 

The present value of the buildings and equipment for the Astro- 
physical Observatory owned by the Government is estimated at 
$50,000. This estimate contemplates the cost required to replace the 
outfit for the purposes of the investigation. 

WORK OF THE YEAR. 

At Washington. — The preparation of the manuscript for Volume 
IV of the Annals of the Observatory was continued. Owing to the 
postponement of its publication, it has required to be brought up to 
date by repeated additions and modifications, and it is now expected to 
publish in Volume IV all the results up to September, 1920, when the 
solar radiation apparatus which had been employed on Mount Wilson 
was removed to Mount Harqua Hala, Ariz. A great deal of meas- 
uring and computing was required to bring up to date the work of 
1919 and 1920 on the solar constant of radiation and to work up the 
results of the observations of the distribution of light over the sun's 
disk, which have been carried on since 1916 with only partial reduc- 
tion. This work went on under Mr. Fowle's direction, assisted by 
Mrs. Bond, computer, and for a few months by temporary computers, 
Miss Inez Ensign and Miss Esther Weaver. The cost of employing 
100 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 101 

these computers temporarily was borne by a gift of Mr. John A. 
Roebling. At the close of the fiscal year the computations of the 
Annals had been very nearly completed. The manuscript of the vol- 
ume was also almost ready for publication, and it is hoped to put the 
whole to press early in the autumn of 1921. 

As usual, a large amount of delicate instrument work has been 
done by Mr. A. Kramer, instrument maker, and still more delicate 
parts have been prepared by Mr. L. B. Aldrich, of the observatory 
staff. They have prepared and standardized a number of pyrhelio- 
meters, pyranometers, galvanometers, and bolometers for the use of 
the observatory and its stations. 

By invitation of Dr. George E. Hale, director of the Solar Observ- 
atory at Mount Wilson, Calif., Dr. Abbot has undertaken the prep- 
aration of a special spectrobolometer for the observation of the energy 
spectra of the stars in the same manner in which we are accustomed 
to observe the energy spectrum of the sun. This outfit comprises a 
special spectroscope, a vacuum bolometer of special dimensions and 
construction, and a vacuum galvanometer designed to be of the very 
highest order of sensitiveness. The construction of this apparatus 
had been almost completed at the close of the fiscal year. 

Work in the field. — As stated in last year's report, by the gener- 
osity of Mr. John A. Roebling, of Bernards ville, N. J., not only has 
the private station of the Smithsonian Institution located near Cal- 
ama, Chile, been removed to the top of a mountain about 8 miles 
farther south, but the station of the Astrophysical Observatory has 
been relocated on the mountain called Harqua Hala, situated about 100 
miles to the northwest of Phoenix, Ariz. In June, 1920, Dr. Abbot 
selected the site for the latter station and arranged with local con- 
tractors for the erection of an adobe building about 40 feet long, 
10 feet wide, of two stories. The lower story, underground, was 
designed for the instruments, and the upper story for a dwelling 
house and computing rooms for the observers. Proceeding from 
Arizona to Mount Wilson, Dr. Abbot was joined early in July by Mr. 
L. B. Aldrich, and together they carried out at Mount Wilson, in 
July, August, and part of September, the usual observations on the 
solar constant of radiation and on the distribution of radiation over 
the sun's disk. In addition, they conducted a number of other in- 
vestigations, including a redetermination of the constants of the 
secondary pyrheliometers employed in the research, a redetermina- 
tion of the transmission of the spectrobolometer for different wave 
lengths, various investigations with the pyranometer and the 
Angstrom pyrgeometer, and, assisted by Mrs. Abbot, investigations 
on the use of solar radiation for cooking purposes. 

The solar cooking outfit erected on Mount Wilson some years ago 
was in 1920. for the first time, brought to a reasonable degree of per- 



102 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 






fection. The mirror, which is of parabolic cylindrical shape, about 10 
feet long and 7 feet wide, brings the solar radiation to focus on a tube 
filled with oil which passes up the axis of the mirror, parallel to the 
earth's axis, and about this tube, on suitable rollers, the mirror is 
rotated by means of a simple and inexpensive clockwork, in order that 
it may always face toward the sun. The oil tube is connected with a 
reservoir of oil about 10 feet higher up and from this a return tube 
goes underneath the mirror, thus completing the circuit for the 
flow of oil which the mirror, by focusing the sun rays, strongly 
heats. The reservoir contains about a barrel of oil, which is such 
as is used for lubricating gas-engine cylinders. The reservoir and 
the oil circuit tubes are protected from the loss of heat, as far as 
possible, by insulation. The greatest loss of heat, however, occurs 
with the naked tube which passes through the mirror. This, how- 
ever, is protected by a glass tube 4 inches in diameter, and this, in 
turn, by flat sheets of glass covering the whole mirror and protecting 
it from dust and wind. Two ovens are inserted in the rear of the 
reservoir, which is just outside the door of the observer's cottage 
on Mount Wilson, and food after being prepared in the kitchen, 
may be baked, boiled, or stewed in these ovens, according to the 
character of the dish. Nearly all of the food prepared for the use 
of the observers during their stay on Mount Wilson, from July 1 to 
September 15, was cooked by this solar cooker. The great advantage 
of the cooking is that the reservoir stays hot for a good many hours, 
so that cooking may be continued through the night or even through 
a partially cloudy day. The apparatus proved to be especially satis- 
factory for the canning of fruit. 

In the early part of September Messrs. Abbot and Aldrich packed 
the apparatus which had been used on Mount Wilson for observing 
the solar constant of radiation and shipped the same to Wenden, 
Ariz., the nearest railroad station leading to Mount Harqua Hala. 
The apparatus was set up for observations by the end of September, 
and Dr. Abbot, with Mr. F. A. Greeley as assistant, carried on solar 
radiation measurements beginning October 3 continuously until Jan- 
uary 20, 1921, when Dr. Abbot was relieved by Mr. L. B. Aldrich, 
who in turn was relieved by Mr. A. F. Moore, formerly director of 
the observatory at Calama and Montezuma, Chile, who reported for 
duty about April 20. It is intended to carry on the solar constant 
observations at Mount Harqua Hala on all days when the weather 
permits for several years in cooperation with the similar observa- 
tions being made at Montezuma, Chile. With the results of the two 
stations, it is hoped to furnish a sound basis for the study of solar 
variation and the dependence of terrestrial weather conditions 
thereon. The station at Mount Harqua Hala was erected after a 
considerable investigation by the United States Weather Bureau of 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 103 

sites in California, Arizona, and Nevada. From the middle of Sep- 
tember, when Messrs. Abbot and Aldrich arrived in the vicinity, until 
some time in February the conditions were found to be superior to 
what had been expected. About 70 per cent of the days during that 
interval were fit for observation. The months of March, April, and 
May proved to be less satisfactory than was anticipated, owing to a 
thick haziness and much cirrus cloud. This defect, however, seems 
to be attending the generally unusual character of the weather in 
large areas of the globe. During the first four months of the year 
1921, for instance, hardly more than half of the usual number of 
observations were made at the station in Chile, and other facts might 
be cited which would tend to show that the earlier part of the year 
1921 was of very unusual character from a weather standpoint. 

The station on Mount Harqua Hala, being 15 miles from Wenden, 
the railroad station, and 5 miles from a wagon road, is very isolated. 
The effect of such isolation on the morale of observers was very 
thoughtfully considered by Mr. John A. Roebling, and he added con- 
siderably to his first gift in order to provide a great many things for 
the comfort and recreation of the observers, both in Arizona and 
South America. Not all of these arrangements had been completed 
at the close of the fiscal year, so that mention of them may be de- 
ferred more properly to next year's report. 

PERSONNEL. 

Miss F. A. Graves resigned as computer on August 10, 1920. 

SUMMARY. 

The year has been marked by the transfer of the solar radiation 
measurements from Mount Wilson, Calif., to Mount Harqua Hala, 
Ariz., to secure more perfect weather conditions. It is intended to 
continue solar constant observations there daily when possible 
throughout the entire year for several years. Similar duplicate 
observations are to be carried on at Montezuma, Chile, at the private 
station of the Smithsonian. Thus it is hoped to provide an excellent 
basis of solar radiation measurements to compare with weather 
phenomena. This may lead to advance in methods of weather fore- 
casting. Volume IV of the annals, covering the years 1912 to 1920, 
is practically ready for the press. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

C. G. Abbot, 

Director. 
Dr. C. D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 8. 

REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE OF 
SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the United States Bureau of the International Catalogue 
of Scientific Literature for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921: 

All volumes of the fourteenth annual issue have been published, 
completing the catalogue through the year 1914. Financial condi- 
tions, brought about by the war and the excessive advance in the 
cost of publication, have since made it necessary to temporarily sus- 
pend printing the catalogue. Much of the material for 1915 and 
subsequent years is in the hands of the London central bureau ready 
for publication as soon as financial support is assured and publica- 
tion costs are more nearly normal. 

The work of this bureau during the year has consisted in collect- 
ing data from periodicals regularly publishing scientific papers, of 
which there are about 550 in the United States. In addition to these 
there are over 400 occasionally containing scientific matter. Book 
notices, reviews, and publishers' lists and the publications received 
through exchange by the Smithsonian Institution are also system- 
atically used in order to make sure that no paper coming within the 
scope of the catalogue is overlooked. Reference slips are prepared 
for each paper thus collected, and the contents classified to conform 
to the International Catalogue subject schedule. Practically all of 
the classification is done by specialists, and much difficulty is ex- 
perienced in obtaining suitable aid for this part of the work, owing 
to the very limited funds available. This lack of funds has always 
seriously interfered with the work of the bureau; but as much of the 
data through the year 1920 have been classified and are now held 
pending the resumption of publication, it is hoped that by the time 
it is called for by the central bureau most of the index cards will be 
ready, and that when the published volumes have been brought up 
to date a larger annual appropriation will be granted, so that all cur- 
rent publications may be immediately dealt with. 

When it is considered that between 25,000 and 30,000 reference 
cards have annually been furnished by this bureau, some idea of the 
amount of expert and clerical labor involved is apparent. 

As a resume of the history of the enterprise was published in the 

report of this bureau for the last fiscal year, it is unnecessary to again 

repeat it excepting to state that financial difficulties have not been 

relieved, although, owing to assurances made by influential delegates 

104 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 105 

to a conference held under the auspices of the Royal Society in London 
during September, 1920, it appears that if certain conditions can be 
met financial support may be looked for from the United States. 
This conference, called by the Royal Society to consider the future of 
the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, was held in 
London September 28 and 29, 1920. The following delegates at- 
tended, representing the countries named : Denmark, Prof. M. 
Knudsen; France, M. A. Lacroix; Holland, Dr. G. van Rijnberk; 
Japan, Dr. Hantaro Nagaoka ; Norway, Mr. Rolf Laache ; Sweden, 
Baron Alstromer; Switzerland, Dr. Hermann Escher, Dr. Marcel 
Godet, Dr. H. Field; United States, Dr. Robert M. Yerkes (National 
Research Council), Dr. L. E. Dickson (National Academy of 
Sciences), Mr. L. C. Gunnell (Smithsonian Institution) ; India, Sir 
H. H. Hayden, F. R. S. ; New Zealand, Prof. A. Denby, F. R, S. ; 
Victoria, Prof. E. W. Skeats; South Africa, Sir Thomas Muir, 
F. R. S. ; ^Vest Australia, Mr. C. B. Rushton. Representing the 
Royal Society : Sir Joseph Thomson, president R. S. ; Sir David Prain, 
treasurer R. S. ; Mr. J. H. Jeans, secretary R. S. ; Prof. H. E. Arm- 
strong, F. R. S.; Dr. F. A. Bather, F. R, S.; Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
F. R. S. ; Sir Arthur Schuster, F. R. S. There were also present 
Dr. S. I. Franz (United States of America), representing the Rocke- 
feller Foundation, and Sir F. G. Ogilvie and Mr. L. S. Lloyd (Great 
Britain). Two Italian delegates, Prof. Raffaello Nasini and Comm. 
Ing. P]rnesto Mancini, were delayed on the journey and did not arrive 
until the end of the conference. These two distinguished Italian 
representatives were very earnest in their desire to see the catalogue 
continued, and both agreed with the decisions, of the other delegates. 
After two days taken up in considering the financial situation as 
presented by the Royal Society, and discussion of the general affairs 
of the enterprise, the following resolutions were agreed on unani- 
mously : 

1. That the catalogue should he temporarily continued in its present form 
for the year 1915 and possibly also as a single issue for the period 1916-1920 
provided adequate financial support can be obtained. 

That at the earliest possible date opportunity be taken to reconsider the 
whole character of the subsequent work of organization. 

That one of the first questions to be considered be the possibility of .convert- 
ing the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature into a cumulative sub- 
ject and authors' index, the volumes of which shall be published at intervals 
of 3, 5, or 10 years, in accordance with the status and needs of their respective 
sciences ; and that the materials shall be obtained so far as practicable in co- 
operation with the abstracting journals of the world and other agencies afford- 
ing rapid information, including regional bureaus. 

It was also agreed unanimously — 

2. That, inasmuch as the Royal Society is no longer able to accept financial 
responsibility for the catalogue, it is essential that adequate financial support, 
including working capital, be provided. 



106 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 



Further, the opinion was expressed by the delegates generally (other than 
those representing the Royal Society) that the Royal Society, being relieved of 
financial responsibility, should otherwise act as heretofore. 

Finally the conference resolved — 

3. That a committee be appointed to draw up definite proposals in accordance 
with the above resolutions and that the report of the committee be forwarded 
to the council of the Royal Society. 

4. That the council of the Royal Society be requested to take such steps with 
regard to the recommendations of this committee as they think fit. 

The committee appointed under the resolution 3 made the follow- 
ing recommendations, subject to adequate financial provision being 
assured : 

(a) That the central bureau be instructed to proceed with publication of 
the 1915 issue. 

(b) That the central bureau be further instructed to collect material for the 
period 1916-1920 with a view to the early publication of the issue 1916-1920. 

The committee further recommended — 

(c) That the council of the Royal Society request the executive committee 
of the International Council of the Catalogue to proceed to collect information 
as to the various issues raised in the foregoing resolutions of the conference 
and to report at as early a date as possible. 

The fourteenth issue was not completed at the time of the meet- 
ing. Below is a table showing the receipts and expenditures of the 
London central bureau on account of the first 13 issues : 





Receipts. 


Expenditures. 


First issue 


£. 
7,083 
7,168 
7,152 
7,010 
6,745 
6,747 
7,372 
7,079 
7,212 
7,183 
6,796 
5,580 
5,611 


s. d. 
10 3 

16 4 
15 10 
14 1 

13 10 

14 7 

17 1 
4 6 

17 7 
14 5 

18 4 
17 10 

9 10 


£. s. d. 
7,117 




7, 115 2 7 


Third issue 


6, 807 5 1 




7,009 19 5 
8,216 17 8 


Fifth issue 


Sixth issue 


7,895 10 1 


Seventh issue 


7,493 1 10 


Eighth issue 


7, 281 1 5 




6,917 3 8 


Tenth issue 


7,271 12 7 


Eleventh issue l 


6,894 16 8 
6,752 11 6 


Twelfth issue 


Thirteenth issue » 


8,783 11 6 






88,747 


4 6 


95,555 14 



i The war began before the eleventh issue was completed, so that the falling off in receipts during the 
last three years may be attributed to loss of subscriptions from Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, and 
Belgium. 

2 The increased expenditures on the thirteenth issue arises from that issue having taken two years instead 
of one to complete. 

From this table it will be seen that on the completion of the tenth 
issue, before war conditions interfered, receipts and expenditures 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 107 

practically balanced, and it is apparent that had not these unex- 
pected conditions arisen the whole enterprise would have been self- 
sustaining. Before war began many changes were contemplated to 
improve the service rendered by the catalogue and bring it more 
nearly to the high standard set by the original brilliantly conceived 
plan which so many of the world's leading men of science had taken 
part in formulating and which was referred to in some detail in the 
last annual report of this bureau. 

There is and has been no question of the need and value of an 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and it is the opinion 
of almost everyone interested in such matters that no better plan has 
ever been presented to accomplish the ends sought. Any new en- 
terprise would lack the greatest present asset of the catalogue, which 
is the official support of most of the civilized nations, and it is with 
this support practically assured for the future that the catalogue 
will start in its endeavor to gain the financial assistance necessary 
to compensate for losses caused by the late war. 

New agencies, such as abstract journals representing all branches 
of science, are to be undertaken by other organizations, and it is 
through cooperation with these that the catalogue is to be produced 
in the future, thus meeting all requirements of scientific workers as 
well as those of reference libraries and of those engaged in general 
investigation. 

From the attitude of the foreign delegates at the conference it is 
apparent that there exists no lack of interest or desire to continue 
the work, but all of these countries are now under unprecedented 
financial strain, which is greatly increased by abnormal rates of ex- 
change, so for the present, at least, their aid must be less than it 
would be during normal times. There is in this country a growing 
interest in supplying the needs of scientific workers, and plans are 
under way to publish abstract journals in all branches of science not 
already represented. These plans were brought to the notice of the 
conference by the American delegates, representing the National 
Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and by a repre- 
sentative of the Rockefeller Foundation, who was present. From 
statements there made it appears that the money needed to establish 
these enterprises is available and the resolutions of the conference 
took into account cooperation with these new organizations for the 
common benefit of the publishing bodies and of scientific investi- 
gators. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

Leonard C. Gunnell, 

Assistant in Charge. 

Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretaiy, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 9. 
REPORT ON THE LIBRARY. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activ- 
ities of the library of the [Smithsonian Institution for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1921 : 

The number of packages received was 27,327, an increase over 
the preceding year of 3,577. Of these 25,156 were received by mail 
and 2,171 through the International Exchange Service. Many of 
the packages received through the international exchanges, it might 
be mentioned, were exceptionally large, consisting of publications 
issued during the years 1914 to 1920, when it was not possible to 
send them on account of the war. 

SMITHSONIAN MAIN LIBRARY. 

In order that material received for the Smithsonian Library may 
be made available to the public at the earliest possible moment, 
publications have been transmitted daily, as in years past, to the 
Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress. The number of 
publications so transmitted was 6,250, composed of 4,910 complete 
volumes, 607 parts of volumes, 721 pamphlets, and 12 charts. The 
accession numbers extended from 534,619 to 537,229. Four thousand 
four hundred and sixty-four foreign government documents, pre- 
sented to the Smithsonian Institution, were transferred to the 
Library of Congress in accordance with the established practice. 

Material from abroad has been steadily coming in, and the re- 
ceipts for the year have been much larger than was anticipated. The 
number of authors' reprints and theses from German universities and 
institutes of technology has been exceptionally large, covering the 
years 1914 to 1920. Theses were received from the universities of 
Berlin, Breslau, Frankfurt-am-Main, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Halle- 
an-der Saale, Heidelberg, Kiel, Leipzig, Marburg, Zurich, Dorpat, 
Helsingfors, Lund. Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, Delft, Ghent, 
Leiden, and Utrecht ; and from the institutes of technology at Berlin, 
Braunschweig, Stockholm, Utrecht and Zurich. 

Catalogumg. — As will be seen by comparison, the cataloguing ac- 
complished has been more than double that of last year. 

1921 1920 

Volumes catalogued 6, 252 2, 332 

Volumes recatalogued 75 848 

Library of Congress cards filed 757 618 

Catalogue cards typed 4, 920 2, 280 

New titles added to author catalogue 2, 517 860 

108 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 109 

Large as the amount of cataloguing has been, however, in com- 
parison with last year, it has not been sufficient to meet the demands 
occasioned by the receipts; and many of the reprints and theses 
remain uncatalogued. 

Periodicals. — The number of entries at the periodical desk was 
14,008. Nine hundred and forty-five volumes were completed. 

Exchanges. — The securing of publications in exchange for the 
completion of sets in the Library of Congress has been continued, 
with the following results : 

Number of want cards received from — 

Smithsonian division 291 

Periodical division , 90 

Order division 48 

Total 429 

Number of publications secured for — Vols. Parts. 

Smithsonian division 290 255 

Periodical division 19 201 

Order division 5 3 

Total 324 459 

OFFICE LIBRARY. 

Accessions to the office library, including the aeronautical collec- 
tion, the collection of Buonaparteana, the art room collection, and 
the employees' library, numbered 317 volumes, 4 parts of volumes, 
and 468 pamphlets. This does not include many periodicals, of 
which the current numbers are kept on file in the reading room, and 
the completed volumes transmitted at the end of the year to the 
Library of Congress. The library is greatly indebted to Dr. Frank 
Wigglesworth Clarke for the presentation of his unique collection of 
authors' reprints on the determination of the atomic weights, num- 
bering 48*2 titles. 

Circulation. — The total circulation of the Library was 3,485, con- 
sisting of 2,708 magazines borrowed from the reading room, 506 
books from the employees' library, and 171 from the reference room. 
Many volumes which are not permitted to leave the building were 
consulted, especially reference works and the books of the aero- 
nautical collection and the De Peyster collection. 

Bibliography. — The second volume of the Bibliography of Aero- 
nautics, prepared by the assistant librarian, covering the period from 
1909 to 1916, was completed and published by the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics. This volume contains approximately 
35,000 citations and cross references, and supplements the material 
contained in the volume published by the Smithsonian Institution 
as volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. The 



110 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

aeronautical library is growing and becoming more and more im- 
portant. 

MUSEUM LIBRARY. 

Continued interest has been manifested during the year in the 
increase of the scientific collections of the United States National 
Museum. Among those who have donated valuable material to the 
library may be mentioned Dr. J. M. Aldrich, Mr. H. S. Barber, Mr. 
A. H. Clark, Dr. William H. Dall, Dr. O. P. Hay, Dr. W. H. Holmes, 
Dr. Walter Hough, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Mr. W. R. Maxon, Dr. G. S. 
Miller, Dr. C. W. Richmond, Mr. J. H. Riley, Mr. S. A. Rohwer, 
Mr. W. Schaus, Mr. W. L. Schmitt, Dr. R. W. Schufeldt, Dr. L. 
Stejneger, Mr. H. B. Swales, Dr. Charles D. Walcott, and the late 
Dr. Joseph Paxson Iddings. 

Especially worthy of mention is the library of the late Dr. Iddings, 
comprising upward of 1,000 books and pamphlets, chiefly on geolog- 
ical subjects. Dr. Iddings, as is well known, was one of America's 
leading petrologists, and his 40 years' accumulation of authors' 
excerpts on this branch of science was unusually large. The dona- 
tion, made through his sister, Mrs. Francis D. Cleveland, is therefore 
important. Indeed it forms the most important single acquisition 
to the geological section of the library since the foundation of the 
department in 1880. 

The geological and paleontological collections have been further 
augmented during the year by the continued gifts of the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. Charles D. Walcott, most of the 
books donated being volumes of highly technical content and of great 
value to those undertaking advanced researches along these lines. 

The additions to the sectional library of the division of mollusks 
through the gift of Dr. William H. Dall have made possible a con- 
tinued study in the United States National Museum of the more re- 
cently discovered mollusks and tertiary fossils. The library is greatly 
indebted to Dr. Dall, during these times when scientific books of this 
character are so expensive and so difficult to secure, for the con- 
tinued interest year by year in the selection and presentation of so 
many volumes for this section. The number of titles added this year 
by Dr. Dall was 317. 

Accessions. — Four thousand seven hundred and sixty volumes were 
accessioned during the year, including 2,041 completed volumes and 
2,719 pamphlets. The number of books in the library is now 150,067, 
of which 58,658 are bound volumes and 91,409 pamphlets and un- 
bound papers. 

Cataloguing. — Seven hundred and seventy-seven volumes and 2,643 
pamphlets were catalogued. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



Ill 



Periodicals. — The number of periodicals entered was 15,427. 

Loans. — The number of books loaned was 7,432. Of these, 1,778 
were borrowed from the Library of Congress, and 105 from other 
libraries. 

Binding. — Owing to the increased cost of binding, it has been pos- 
sible to have only 692 books bound, most of these being volumes 
which could not be bound last year, when the funds for this purpose 
were exhausted in January, the allotment being sufficient for a period 
of six months only. This year the funds were exhausted in Novem- 
ber, some two months earlier. An increased allotment for binding 
is earnestly recommended. 

Technological series. — The compiling of a subject and title cata- 
logue for material in the technological series is slowly progressing, 
and it is hoped that it may be brought to completion within the 
course of a year. Additions to the series, exclusive of duplicates, 
number 216 bound volumes, 133 pamphlets, 6,372 periodicals. To 
the scientific depository catalogue, 1,180 cards have been added, in- 
cluding author, title, and subject entries. The books and periodicals 
loaned number 210. 

Sectional libraries. — Following is a list of sectional libraries : 



Administration. 

Administrative assistant's office. 

American archeology. 

Anthropology. 

Birds. 

Botany. 

Editor's office. 

Ethnology. 

Fishes. 

Food. 

Geology. 

Graphic arts. 

History. 

Insects. 

Invertebrate paleontology. 

Mammals. 

Marine invertebrates. 

Medicine. 

ASTROPHYSICAL 



Mechanical technology. 

Minerals. 

Mineral technology. 

Mollusks. 

Old World archeology. 

Paleobotany. 

Photography. 

Physical anthropology. 

Property clerk. 

Registrar's office. 

Reptiles and batrachians. 

Superintendent's office. 

Taxidermy. 

Textiles. 

Vertebrate paleontology. 

War library. 

Wood technology. 



OBSERVATORY LIBRARY. 



Additions to the library of the Astrophysical Observatory num- 
bered 72 volumes, 12 parts of volumes, and 37 pamphlets. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY LIBRARY. 



The report of operations of the library of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology will be found in the report of that bureau. The library 
is administered under the direct care of the chief of that bureau. 



112 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART LIBRARY. 

The library of the National Gallery of Art was during the past 
fiscal year administered under the direction of the library of the 
United States National Museum, and its accessions are included in 
the statistics given for that library. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART LIBRARY. 

Accessions to the library of the Freer Gallery of Art, including- 
publications presented to the Smithsonian Institution and deposited 
there for reference use in connection with the Freer collections, 
number 113. Especially worthy of mention is the gift by Messrs. 
Ton-Ying & Co., of New York, in commemoration of Mr. Charles 
L. Freer, of 33 rare Chinese manuscripts of the Ming period, con- 
stituting 108 volumes. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK LIBRARY. 

Eleven volumes were added to the library of the National Zoologi- 
cal Park during the year. 

SUMMARY OF ACCESSIONS. 

The accessions during the year, with the exception of those for the 
library of the Bureau of American Ethnology, may be summarized 
as follows : 

To the Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress, including parts 

to complete sets 6,250 

To the Smithsonian office, Astrophysical Observatory, Freer Gallery of 
Art, and National Zoological Park libraries 938 

To the United States National Museum library, including accessions for 
the National Gallery of Art 4, 760 

Total 11,948 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul Brockett, 

Assistant Librarian. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 10. 
EEPORT ON THE PUBLICATIONS. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the pub- 
lications of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches during the 
year ending June 30, 1921. 

The Institution proper published during the year 7 papers in the 
series of Miscellaneous Collections, 1 annual report and pamphlet 
copies of 27 articles in the appendix to the report, a reprint of the 
Smithsonian Mathematical Tables, and two special publications. 
The Bureau of American Ethnology published three bulletins and 
a list of the publications of the bureau. The United States National 
Museum issued 1 annual report, 8 bulletins, 4 separate parts of bul- 
letins, 51 separate papers from the proceedings, and 5 parts of 
volumes in the series Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium. 

The total number of publications distributed by the Smithsonian 
and its branches was 142,208, which includes 255 volumes and sepa- 
rates of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 12,922 volumes 
and separates of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 24,423 
volumes and separates of the Smithsonian annual reports, 89,000 
volumes and separates of the National Museum publications, 12,795 
publications of the Bureau of American Ethnolog} T . 2,000 special 
publications, 14 volumes of the Annals of the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, 40 reports on the Harriman Alaska expedition, 414 reports of 
the American Historical Society, and 345 publications presented to 
but not issued by the Smithsonian Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. 

Of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 71, 1 paper 
was issued; volume 72. G papers: in all. 7 papers, as follows: 

VCnVCME 7 1. 

No. 1. Smithsonian Physical Tables, Seventh Revised Edition. Prepared by 
Frederick E. Fowle. September 21, 1920. xlvi+450 pp. (Publ. 2539.) 

VOLUME 72. 

No. 3. Reports upon two collections of mosses from British East Africa. By 
H.N.Dixon. September 1, 1920. 20 pp., 2 pis. (Publ. 2583.) 

No. 4. Diagnoses of some new genera of birds. By Robert Ridgway. December 
0, 1920. 4 pp. (Publ. 2588.) 

73552—21 8 113 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

No. 5. New selaginellas from the western United States. By William R. 

Maxon. December 22, 1920. 10 pp., G pis. (Publ. 25S9.) 
No. 6. Explorations and field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1920. May 

12, 1921. 12G pp., 138 figs. (Publ. 201 9.) 
No. 7. Sea-lilies and leather stars. By Austin H. Clark. April Us, 1921. 43 

pp., 10 pis. (Publ. 2020.) 
No. 9. Neoabbottia, a new cactus genus from Hispaniola. By N. L. Britton and 

J. N. Rose. June 15, 1921. pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 2051.) 

SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORTS. 
REPORT FOR 191S. 

The complete volume of the Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents for 1918, together with pamphlet copies of the papers in the 
general appendix, was received from the Public Printer during 
the year. 

Animal Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, show- 
ing operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ending June 30, 1918. xii+012 pp., 54 pis., 128 text figs. (Publ. 2549.) 

The appendix contained the following papers : 

The Discovery of Helium, and What Came of It, by C. G. Abbot. 5 pp. (Publ. 

2550. ) 
An Account of the Rise of Navigation, by R. H. Curtiss. 11 pp. (Publ. 2551.) 
The Tornadoes of the United States, by Prof. Robert DeC. Ward. pp., 1 pi. 

(Publ. 2552.) 
Wind Power, by James Carlill. 9 pp. (Publ. 2553.) 
A Tribute. Samuel Pierpont Langley: Pioneer in Practical Aviation, by 

Henry Leffman. 10 pp., 9 pis. (Publ. 2554.) 
Twentieth Century Physics, by R. A. Millikan. 19 pp. (Publ. 2555.) 
The Experiments of Dr. P. W. Bridgman on the Properties of Matter When 

Under High Pressure. Introductory Note by C. G. Abbot. 19 pp., 1 pi. 

(Publ. 2550.) 
The Problem of Radioactive Lead, by Theodore W. Richards. 14 pp. (Publ. 

?557.) 
Sphagnum Moss: War Substitute for Cotton in Absorbent Surgical Dressings, 

by Prof. George E. Nichols. 13 pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 2558.) 
History of Military Medicine and its Contributions to Science, by Col. W. P. 

Chamberlain. 14 pp. (Publ. 2559.) 
Some Problems of International Readjustment of Mineral Supplies as Indicated 

in Recent Foreign Literature, by Eleanora F. Bliss. 18 pp. (Publ. 2500.) 
Reptile Reconstructions in the United States National Museum, by Charles W. 

Gilmore. 10 pp., pis. (Publ. 2501.) 
A Pleistocene Cave Deposit in Western Maryland, by J. W. Gidley. pp., pis. 

(Publ. 2502.) 
Paleobotany: A Sketch of the Origin and Evolution of Floras, by Edward W. 

Berry. 118 pp., pis. (Publ. 2503.) 
The Direct Action of Environment and Evolution, by Prince Kropotkin. 18 pp. 

( Publ. 2504. ) 
The Law of Irreversible Evolution, by Branislay Petronievics. 11 pp. (Publ. 

2.-.05.) 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 115 

The Fundamental Factor of Insect Evolution, by S. S. Chetverikov. 8 pp., 1 pi. 

(Publ. 2566.) 
The Psychic Life of Insects, by E. L. Bouvier. 8 pp. (Publ. 2567.) 
Sexual Selection and Bird Song, by Chauncey J. Hawkins. 12 pp. (Publ. 

2568.) 
Marine Camoufleurs and Their Camouflage : The Present and Prospective Sig- 
nificance of Facts Regarding the Coloration of Tropical Fishes, by W. H. 

Longley. 10 pp., 5 pis. (Publ. 2569.) 
Foot-Plow Agriculture in Peru, by O. F. Cook. 4 pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 2570.) 
Sun Worship of the Hopi Indians, by J. Walter Fewkes. 33 pp., 11 pis. (Publ. 

2571.) 
A Constitutional League of Peace in the Stone Age of America : The League of 

the Iroquois and Its Constitution, by J. N. B. Hewitt. 18 pp. (Publ. 2572.) 
The Problem of Degeneracy, by H. F. Tredgold. 15 pp. (Publ. 2573.) 
History in Tools, by W. M. Flinders Petrie. 10 pp. ( Publ. 2574. ) 
The Background of Totemism, by E. Washburn Hopkins. 11 pp. (Publ. 2575.) 
A Great Naturalist : Sir Joseph Hooker, by Sir E. Kay Lankester. 16 pp. 

(Publ. 2576.) 

REPORT FOR 1919. 

The general appendix to the report for 1919, which was still in 
press at the close of the year, contains the following papers : 

Modern theories of the spiral nebulae, by Heber D. Curt's. 

A determination of the deflection of light by the sun's gravitational field, from 
observations made at the total eclipse of May 29, 1919, by Sir F. W. Dyson, 
A. S. Eddington, and C. Davidson 

Wireless telephony, by N. H. Slaughter. 

Radium and the electron, by Sir Ernest Rutherford. 

The " HD-4." A 70-miler with remarkable possibilities developed at Dr. Gra- 
ham Bell's laboratories on the Bras d'Or Lakes, by William Washburn Nut- 
ting. 

Natural resources in their relation to military supplies, by Arthur D. Little. 

Glass and some of its problems, by Sir Herbert Jackson. 

The functions and ideals of a national geological survey, by F. L. Ransome. 

The influence of cold in stimulating the growth of plants, by Frederick V. 
Coville. 

Floral aspects of British Guiana, by A. S. Hitchcock. 

Milpa agriculture, a primitive tropical system, by O. F. Cook. 

On the extinction of the mammoth, by H. Neuville. 

A preliminary study of the relation between geographical distribution and mi- 
gration, with special reference to the Palaearctic region, by R. Meinertzhagen. 

The necessity of State action for the protection of wild birds, by Walter E. 
Collinge. 

Glimpses of desert bird life in the Great Basin, by Harry C. Oberholser. 

The Division of Insects in the United States National Museum, by J. M. 
Aldrich. 

The seventeen-year locust, by R. E. Snodgrass. 

Entomology and the war, by L. O. Howard. 

Two types of southwestern cliff houses, by J. Walter Fewkes. 

On the race history and facial characteristics of the aboriginal Americans, by 
W. H. Holmes. 

The opportunity for American archeological research in Palestine, by James 
A. Montgomery. 



116 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

The differentiation of mankind into racial types, by Arthur Keith. 

The exploration of Manchuria, by Arthur de C. Sowerby. 

The origin and beginnings of the Czechoslovak people, by JindHch Matiegka. 

Geographic education in America, by Albert Perry Brigham. 

Progress in national land reclamation in the United States, by C. A. Bissell. 

Richard Rathbun, by Marcus Benjamin. 

A great chemist : Sir William Ramsay, by Gh. Monreu. 

REPORT FOR 192 0. 

The report of the executive committee and proceedings of the 
Board of Kegents of the Institution and report of the secretary, both 
forming part of the annual report of the Board of Regents to Con- 
gress, were issued in pamphlet form in November, 1920. 

Report of the executive committee and proceedings of the Board of Regents 
of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30. 1020. 19 pp. 
(Publ. 2£87.) 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending 
June 30, 1920. 110 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 2586.) 

The general appendix to this report, which was in press at the 
close of the year, contains the following papers : 

Studying the sun's heat on mountain peaks in desert lands, by C. G. Abbot. 

The habitability of Venus, Mars, and other worlds, by C. G. Abbot. 

Giant suns, by H. H. Turner. 

A bundle of meteorological paradoxes, by W. J. Humphreys. 

The determination of the structure of crystals, by Ralph W.„G. Wyckoff. 

Dr. Aston's experiments on the mass spectra of the chemical elements, with 

introduction by C. G. Abbot. 
Vitamins, by W. D. Halliburton. 
Soil acidity — its nature, measurement, and relation to plant distribution, by 

Edgar T. Wherry. 
The chemistry of the earth's crust, by Henry S. Washington. 
Major causes of land and sea oscillations, by E. O. Ulrich. 
The Bryozoa, or moss animals, by R. S. Bassler. 
The horned dinosaurs, by Charles W. Gilmore. 
Rhythm in nature, by F. W. Flattely. 
Parasitism and symbiosis in their relation to the problem of evolution, by 

Maurice Caullery. 
Local suppression of agricultural pests by birds, by W. L. McAfee. 
The occult senses in birds, by Herbert H. Beck. 
Adventures in the life of a fiddler crab, by O. W. Hyman. 
The senses of insects, by N. E. Mclndoo. 

The resplendent shield-bearer and the ribbed cocoon-maker: Two insect in- 
habitants of the orchard, by II. E. Snodgrass. 
The origin of insect societies, by Auguste Lameere. 
The botanical gardens of Jamaica, by William R. Maxon. 
Narcotic daturas of the Old and New World; an account of their remarkable 

properties and their uses as intoxicants and in divination, by William E. 

Safford. 
Effect of the relative length of day and night on dowering and fruiting of 

plants, by W. W. Garner and H. A. Allard. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 11 7 

Fire worship of the Hopi Indians, by J. Walter Pewkes. 

Racial groups and figures in the Natural History Building of the United States 

National Museum, by Walter Hough. 
Notes on the dances, music, and songs of the ancient and modern Mexicans, by 

Auguste Genin. 
The Ralph Cross Johnson collection in the National Gallery at Washington, 

D. C, by George B. Rose. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The publications of the National Museum are: (a) The annual 
report; (b) the Proceedings of the United States National Museum; 
and (c) the Bulletin of the United States National Museum, which 
includes the Contributions from the United States National Herba- 
rium. The editorship of these publications is vested in Dr. Marcus 
Benjamin. 

During the year ending June 30, 1921, the Museum published 1 
annual report, 8 complete bulletins, 4 parts of bulletins, 5 parts of 
volumes in the series Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium, and 51 separates from the proceedings. 

The issues of the bulletin were as follows : 

Bulletin No. 106 (plates). North American early tertiary Bryozoa. By 
Ferdinand Canu and Ray S. Bassler. 

Bulletin No. 109. Contributions to a history of American State geological and 
natural history surveys. By George P. Merrill. 

Bulletin No. 110. Osteology of the carnivorous dinosauria in the United 
States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus 
(Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. By Charles Whitney Gilmore. 

Bulletin No. 111. A monograph of the east American scaphopod mollusks. By 
John B. Henderson. 

Bulletin No. 112. Summary of the marine shell-bearing mollusks of the north- 
west coast of America, from San Diego, Calif., to the Polar Sea, mostly 
contained in the collection of the United States National Museum, with 
illustrations of hitherto unfigured species. By William Healey Dall. 

Bulletin No. 115. The fossil crinoid genus Dolatocrinus and its allies. By 
Frank Springer. 

Bulletin No. 116. The dipterous genus Dolichopus latreille in North America. 
By M. C. Van Duzee, F. R. Cole, and J. M. Aldrich. 

Bulletin No. 117. The distribution of bird life in the Urubamba Valley of 
Peru. A report on the birds collected by the Yale University — National 
Geographic Society's expeditions. By Frank M. Chapman. 

Of the separate papers of bulletins, the following were issued : 
Bulletin 100. Contributions to the biology of the Philippine Archipelago and 
adjacent regions. Volume 1, part 7 : The macrouroid fishes of the Philip- 
pine Islands and the East Indies. By Charles Henry Gilbert and Carl L. 
Hubbs. 
Bulletin 100. Contributions to the biology of the Philippine Archipelago and 
Adjacent Regions. Volume 1, part 8 : Polychaetous annelids collected by the 
United States Fisheries steamer Albatross in the waters adjacent to the 
Philippine Islands in 1907-1910. By A. L. Treadwell. 



118 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1921. 

Bulletin 100. Contributions to the biology of the Philippine Archipelago unci 
adjacent regions. Volume 1, part 9: Polychaetous annelids collected by the 
United States Fisheries steamer Albatross during the Philippine Expedition 
Of 1907-1909. By Ruth A. Hoagland. 

Bulletin 104. The Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean. Part 2. Lituolidae. 
By Joseph Augustine Cushman. 

Of the separates from the proceedings. 5 were from volume 57, 
29 from volume 58, and 17 from volume 59. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. 

The publications of the bureau are described in detail in Appendix 
4 of this report. The editorial work of the bureau is under the di- 
rection of Mr. Stanley Searles, editor. 

During the past 3 T ear three bulletins and a list of the publications 
of the bureau were published, as follows: 

Bulletin 67. Alsea texts and myths. By Leo Frachtenberg. 304 pp. 

Bulletin 71. Native cemeteries and forms of burial east of the Mississippi. By 

David I. Bushnell, jr. 160 pp., 17 pis. 
Bulletin 72. The owl sacred pack of the Fox Indians. By Truman Michelson. 

83 pp., 4 pis. 
List of the publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

There were in press at the close of the year five annual reports 
and seven bulletins. The bulletins were as follows : 

Bulletin 73. Early history of the Creek Indians and their neighbors. By John 

R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 74. Excavation of a site at Santiago Ahuitzotla, D. F., Mexico. By 

Alfred M. Tozzer. 
Bulletin 75. Northern Ute music. By Frances Densmore. 
Bulletin 76. Archeological excavations in the Ozark region of central Missouri. 

By Gerard Fowke. 
Bulletin — . Handbook of the Indians of California. By A. L. Kroeber. 
Bulletin — . Mandan and Hidatsa music. By Frances Densmore. 
Bulletin — . Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Caddoan tribes west of 

the Mississippi. By David I. Bushnell, jr. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the association to the secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and are communicated to Congress under the provisions 
tif the act of incorporation of the association. 

There were published during the year the report for 1917 and vol- 
ume 2 of the report for 1918. Volume 1 of the report for 1918, 
volumes 1 and 2 of the report for 1919, and the supplements to the 
reports for 1918 and 1919, entitled " Writings in American History," 
were in press at the close of the year. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 119 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

The manuscript of the Twenty-third Annual Report of the Na- 
tional Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution was 
transmitted to Congress according to law in December, 1920. 

THE SMITHSONIAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON PRINTING AND 

PUBLICATION. 

The editor continued to serve as secretary of the Smithsonian Ad- 
visory Committee on Printing and Publication. This committee 
passes upon all manuscripts offered for publication by the Institu- 
tion or its branches and considers all forms of routine, blanks, and 
such matters as pertain to printing and publication. Eight meetings 
were held during the year and 91 manuscripts were acted upon. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. P. True, Editor. 
Dr. Charles D. Walcott, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

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