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Full text of "Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30 .."

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Report of the Secretary and Financial Report 

of the Executive Committee of 

the Board of Regents 





mimsoiiian 
Institution 



Report of the Secretary and Financial Report 

of the Executive Committee of 

the Board of Regents 




For the year ended June 30 
1959 



Smithsonian Publication 4389 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1959 



CONTENTS 



Page 

List of officials v 

General statement 1 

The Establishment 4 

The Board of Regents 5 

Finances 5 

Visitors 6 

Summary of the year's activities 7 

Reports of branches of the Institution: 

United States National Museum 11 

Bureau of American Ethnology 55 

Astrophysical Observatory 96 

National Collection of Fine Arts 111 

Freer Gallery of Art 127 

National Air Museum 141 

National Zoological Park 150 

Canal Zone Biological Area 190 

International Exchange Service 197 

National Gallery of Art 206 

Report on the library 220 

Report on publications 224 

Other activities: 

Lectures 231 

Smithsonian Museum Service 232 

Bio-Sciences Information Exchange 232 

Aviation Education Institute 233 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents 234 

III 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

June 30, 1959 

Presiding Officer ex officio. — Dwight D. Eisenhowkb, President of the United 

States. 
Chancellor. — Bakl Wakeen, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Members of the Institution: 

Dwight D. Eisenhower, President of the United States. 

RiCHABD M. Nixon, Vice President of the United States. 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States. 

Christian A. Herter, Secretary of State. 

Robert B. Anderson, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Neil H. McBlroy, Secretary of Defense. 

William P. Rogers, Attorney General. 

Arthur E. Summerfield, Postmaster General. 

Fred A. Seaton, Secretary of the Interior. 

Ezra Taft Benson, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Lewis L. Strauss, Secretary of Commerce. 

James P. Mitchell, Secretary of Labor. 

Arthur S. Flemming, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Richard M. Nixon, Vice President of the United States. 

Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the Senate. 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the Senate. 

Leverett "Saltonstall, Member of the Senate. 

Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Overton Brooks, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Clarence Cannon, Member of the House of Representatives. 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island. 

Arthur H. Compton, citizen of Missouri. 

Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of Delaware. 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massachusetts. 
Executive Committee. — Robert V. Fleming, chairman, Clarenoei Cannon, Caryl 

P. Haskins. 
Secretary. — Leonard Caemichael. 

Assistant Secretaries. — J. L. Keddy, A. Remington Kellogg. 
Assistant to the Secretary. — James C. Bradley. 

Administrative assistant to the Secretary. — Mrs. Louise M. Pearson. 
Treasurer. — T. F. Clark. 

Chief, editorial and puilications division. — Paul H. Oehser. 
Librarian. — Ruth E. Blanchard. 

Curator, Smithsonian Museum Service. — G. Carroll Lindsay, acting. 
Buildings Manager. — Andrew F. Michaels, Jr., acting. 



VI ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Chief, personnel division. — Mrs. Ann S. Campbell, acting. 

Chief, supply division. — ^A. W. Wilding. 

Chief, photographic service division. — O. H. Greeson. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Director. — A. Remington Kellogg. 
Registrar. — Helena M. Weiss. 

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Director. — A. C. Smith. 

Department of Anthropology : F. M. Setzler, head curator ; A. J. Andrews, 
exhibits specialist. 

Division of Archeology: W. R. Wedel, curator ; Clifford Evans, Jr., Ralph 
S. Solecki, associate curators. 

Division of Ethnology : S. H. Riesenberg, curator ; G. D. Gibson, E. I. Knez, 
associate curators ; R. A. Elder, Jr., assistant curator. 

Division of Physical Anthropology: T. D. Stewart, curator; M. T. Newman, 
associate curator. 
Department of Zoology : Herbert Friedmann, head curator. 

Division of Mammals: D. H. Johnson, curator ; C. O. Handley, Jr., H. W. 
Setzer, associate curators. 

Division of Birds: Herbert Friedmann, acting curator; H. G. Deignan, as- 
sociate curator. 

Division of Reptiles and Amphibians: Doris M. Cochran, curator. 

Division of Fishes: L. P. Schultz, curator; E. A. Lachner, W. R. Taylor, 
associate curators. 

Division of Insects: J. F. G. Clarke, curator ; O. L. Cartwright, R. E. Crabill, 
W. D. Field, associate curators ; Sophy Parfin, assistant curator. 

Division of Marine Invertebrates: F. A. Chace, Jr., curator; F. M. Bayer, 
T. E. Bowman, C. E. Cutress, Jr., associate curators. 

Division of Mollusks: H. A. Rehder, curator; J. P. E. Morrison, associate 
curator. 
Department of Botany (National Herbarium) : J. R. SwaUen, head curator. 

Division of Phanerogams: L. B. 'Smith, curator; R. S. Cowan, E. C. Leonard, 
Velva E. Rudd, E. H. Walker, associate curators. 

Division of Ferns: O. V. Morton, curator. 

Division of Grasses: J. R. Swallen, acting curator. 

Division of Cryptogams: M. E. Hale, Jr., acting curator ; P. S. Conger, as- 
sociate curator ; R. R. Ireland, Jr., assistant curator. 
Department of Geology : G. A. Cooper, head curator. 

Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: G. S. Switzer, curator; R. S. Clarke, 
P. E. Desautels, E. P. Henderson, associate curators. 

Division of Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany: G. A. Cooper, acting 
curator; R. S. Boardman, P. M. Kier, associate curators. 

Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: C. L. Gazin, curator; D. H. Dunkle, 
Nicholas Hotton, 3d, P. P. Vaughn, associate curators; F. L. Pearce, ex- 
hibits specialist. 

MUSEUM OF history AND TECHNOLOGY 

Director. — F. A. Taylor. 
Assistant Director. — J. C. Ewers. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT VH 

Chief exhibits specialist. — J. E. Anglim. 

Chief zoological exhibits specialist. — W. L. Brown. 

Assistant chief exhibits specialists. — B. S. Bory, R. O. Hower, B. W. Law- 
less, Jr. 
Department of Science and Technology : R. P. Multhauf , head curator. 

Division of Physical Sciences: R. P. Multhauf, acting curator. 

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering: E. S. Ferguson, curator; 

E. A. Battison, associate curator; R. M. Vogel, assistant curator. 
Division of Transportation: H. I. Chapelle, curator ; K. M. Perry, associate 

curator ; J. H. White, assistant curator. 
Division of Agriculture and Wood Products: W. N. Watkins, curator; E. C. 

Kendall, associate curator. 
Division of Electricity : W. J. King, Jr., acting curator. 
Division of Medical Sciences: G. B. Griffenhagen, curator; J. B. Blake, 

associate curator. 
Depabtment of Arts and MANtrFACTUKEKS : P. W. Bishop, head curator. 
Division of Textiles: Grace L. Rogers, acting curator. 
Division of Ceramics and Glass: P. V. Gardner, acting curator. 
Division of Graphic Arts: Jacob Kainen, curator; A. J. Wedderburn, Jr., 

associate curator ; F. O. Griffith, 3d, assistant curator. 
Division of Industrial Cooperation: P. W. Bishop, acting curator. 
Depabtment op Civil History : A. N. B. Garvan, head curator ; P. 0. Welsh, 

associate curator; A. P. Krimgold, Jr., junior curator. 
Division of Political History: W. E. Washburn, curator; Mrs. Margaret B. 

Klapthor, associate curator ; C. G. Dorman, Mrs. Anne W. Murray, assist- 
ant curators. 
Division of Cultural History : C. M. Watkins, acting curator ; J. D. Shortridge, 

associate curator; Rodris C. Roth, assistant curator. 
Division of Philately and Postal History: C. T. Turner, acting curator; 

F. J. McCall, associate curator. 

Division of Numismatics: Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, acting curator; Mrs. 

Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, assistant curator. 
Department of Armed Forces History : M. L. Peterson, head curator. 

Division of Military History: E. M. Howell, acting curator; C. R. Goins, Jr., 

assistant curator. 
Division of Naval History: M. L. Peterson, acting curator ; P. H. Lundeberg, 

associate curator. 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Director. — F. H. H. Roberts, Jr. 
Anthropologist. — H. B. Collins, Jr. 
Ethnologists. — W. C. Sturtevant, W. L. Chafe. 

River Basin Surveys. — F. H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director; R. L. Stephenson, Chief, 
Missouri Basin Project. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Director. — F. L. Whipple. 

Associate Directors. — J. A. Hynek, T. E. Sterne. 

Astrophysicists. — R. J. Davis, E. L. Fireman, L. G. Jacchia, Max Krook, F. B. 

Riggs, Jr., C. A. Whitney. 
Mathematician. — R. E. Briggs. 
Table Mountain, Calif., field station. — A. G. Froiland, physicist. 



VIII ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Division of Radiation and Organisms : 
Chief.— W. H. Klein. 

Plant physiologists. — V. B. Elstad, Leonard Price. 
Electronic engineer. — J. H. Harrison. 
Instrument maker. — D. G. Talbert. 

NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Director. — T. M. Beggs. 

Associate curator. — Rowland Lym. 

Smithsonian Teaveling Exhibition Service. — Mrs. Annemarie H. Pope, Chief. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Director. — A. G. Wenley. 

Assistant Director. — J. A. Pope. 

Associate in Near Eastern art. — Richard Ettinghausen. 

Associate in technical research. — R. J. Gettens. 

Associate curators. — J. F. Cahill, H. P. Stern. 

NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 

Advisory Board: 

Leonard Carmichael, Chairman. 

Maj. Gen. Reuben C. Hood, Jr., U.S. Air Force. 

Rear Adm. R. E. Dixon, U.S. Navy. 

Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle. 

Grover Loening. 
Director.— P. S. Hopkins. 
Head curator and historian. — P. E. Garber. 
Associate curators. — L. S. Casey, W. M. Male, K. E. Newland. 
Junior curator. — R. B. Meyer. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Director. — T. H. Reed. 

Associate Director. — J. L. Grimmer. 

CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA 
Resident Naturalist. — M. H. Moyniban. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

Chief.— J. A. Collins. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Trustees: 

Eakl Wakeen, Chief Justice of the United States, Chairman. 

Cheistian a. Heetee, Secretary of State. 

RoBEET B. Andeeson, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Leonard Caemichael, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

F. Lammot Belin. 

Duncan Phillips. 

Chestee Dale. 

Paul Mellon. 

Rush H. Keess. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



IX 



President. — Chester Dale. 
Vice President. — F. Lamont Belin. 
Secretary-Treasurer. — Huntington Caikns. 
Director. — John Walker. 
Administrator. — Ernest R. Feeler. 
General Counsel. — Huntington Cairns. 
Chief Curator. — Pebrt B. Cott. 

Honorary Research Associates, Collaborators, and Fellows 

Office of the Secretary 

John E. Graf 

United States National Museum 
museum of natural history 



Anthropology 



Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood. 
N. M. Judd, Archeology. 
H. W. Krieger, Ethnology. 
Betty J. Meggers, Archeology. 



Paul Bartsch, Mollusks. 

J. Bruce Bredin. 

M. A. Carriker, Insects. 

C. J. Drake, Insects. 
Isaac Ginsberg, Fishes. 

D. C. Graham, Biology. 
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., Marine 

Invertebrates. 
A. B. Howell, Mammals. 
Laurence Irving, Birds. 
W. L. Jellison, Insects. 



Mrs. Agnes Chase, Grasses. 
E. P. Killip, Phanerogams. 



R. S. Bassler, Paleontology. 
R. W. Brown, Paleobotany. 
Preston Cloud, Invertebrate 
Paleontology. 



H. Morgan Smith, Archeology. 
W. W. Taylor, Jr., Archeology. 
W. J. Tobin, Physical Anthropology. 



Zoology 



W. M. Mann, Hymenoptera. 
Allen Mcintosh, Mollusks. 
J. P. Moore, Marine Invertebr^ates. 
C. F. W. Muesebeck, Insects. 
W. L. Schmitt. 

Benjamin Schwartz, Helminthology. 
R. E. Snodgrass, Insects. 
T. E. Snyder, Insects. 
Alexander Wetmore, Birds. 
Mrs. Mildred S. Wilson, Copepod 
Crustacea. 



Botany 



F. A. McClure, Grasses. 
J. A. Stevenson, Fungi. 



Geology 



0. Wythe Cooke, Invertebrate 

Paleontology. 
J. B. Knight, Invertebrate 

tology. 
W. T. Schaller^ Mineralogy. 



Paleon- 



MUSEUM of history AND TECHNOLOGY 



History 



Elmer O. Herber. 



F. W. MacKay, Numismatics. 



annual report smithsonian institution, 1959 
Bureau of American Ethnology 



J. p. Harrington. 
Sister M. Inez Hilger. 



Oleg Grabar. 

Grace Dunham Guest. 



Frederick C. Crawford. 



W. M. Mann. 



M. W. Stirling. 
A. J. Waring, Jr. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 
C. G. Abbot. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Max Loebr. 
Katberine N. Rhoades. 

National Air Museum 

j Jobn J. Ide. 

National Zoological Park 

I B. P. Walker. 

Canal Zone Biological Area 

C. C. Soper. 



Report of the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution 

LEONARD CARMICHAEL 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1959 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit a report showing the activ- 
ities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1959. 

GENERAL STATEMENT 

The activities of the 113th year of the Smithsonian Institution are 
presented in this report. In many ways this has been an outstanding- 
year at the Smithsonian. Once again the services rendered by the 
Institution demonstrate the wisdom of our distinguished founder 
and man of science, James Smithson, in establishing in Washington 
an institution for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men." The increase in knowledge is embodied in research, and this 
year the investigations of the Smithsonian staff have been very fruit- 
ful, as the details given herein will indicate. The diffusion of knowl- 
edge has involved the answering of some 260,000 specific inquiries re- 
lated to the fields of expertness found in the Smithsonian's various 
divisions, laboratories, and libraries. The diffusion of knowledge 
has also been actively carried on by the publication of scholarly and 
semipopular works, which are also described elsewhere in this report. 
Possibly, however, the main means by which the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution diffuses knowledge is through its museum exhibits and the edu- 
cational and inspirational opportunity that these displays give to 
our millions of visitors each year. 

As pointed out in recent annual reports, real progress has been made 
in the past few years in transforming the old, outmoded museum dis- 
plays of the Smithsonian into modem, effective, teaching exhibits. 
The visitors who now come to the Smithsonian Institution are deeply 
grateful that Congress has made it possible to bring about this grad- 
ual transformation of Smithsonian exhibition halls from what in too 
many respects was until recently an old-fashioned place for "visual 
storage." 



2 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

In 1954, for the first time in the long history of the Smithsonian 
Institution, a fully outlined program was adopted for the progressive 
improvement of all its exhibition halls and for the modem presenta- 
tion of tens of thousands of appropriate objects from the great na- 
tional collections that are in its charge. This modernization is now 
complete in 17 major galleries. To put this in another way, a total of 
about 80,000 square feet of exhibition space has now been transformed, 
and 673 separate exhibit units have been fully reorganized and mod- 
ernized for the benefit and education of the public. 

Before this modernization program began, many of the Smith- 
sonian Institution exhibits had not been changed for as long as 75 
years. Amazing as it may seem, the great and often unique treasures 
of the Institution, which today include over 52 million cataloged ob- 
jects, were still being displayed in a manner that had long before be- 
come outmoded in almost every other national museum in the world. 
Wlien the present transformation began, for example, gas fixtures 
were still m place, although not in use, in some of our exhibition halls. 
In a few large sections of Smithsonian buildings there was as recently 
as 5 years ago no provision for artificial light of any kind either 
in display cases or in public spaces. This meant that on many winter 
afternoons some of the great treasures of the Smithsonian were almost 
invisible to visitors. 

It may be pointed out that all aromid the globe, especially since 
the Second World War, there has been a new recognition of the role 
of the museum as a public information center. More and more mu- 
seums are seen as places needed to inspire each new generation with 
the kind of patriotism that is based on a valid understanding of the 
factors that have led to national growth. The history of the devel- 
opment of science, for example, as displayed in a modern museum 
has a significant function in interesting and inspiring a real interest 
in science on the part of school boys and girls. 

This new museum philosophy has been wholeheartedly accepted and 
adopted at the Smithsonian. The experts in each of its great sub- 
ject-matter fields have given much thought to developing the best ways 
to present their exhibits so as to meet this modern and challenging 
view of what a museum should be. The present objective of renova- 
tion at the Smithsonian, therefore, is not only to show many interest- 
ing objects in a clear way but also to explain how and why the partic- 
ular items selected for display are intellectually significant. An old 
shoe with a wooden sole is unimportant alone, but when shown as part 
of the field equipment of a soldier of the Confederate States of 
America it explains much about the problems of equipment during the 
Civil War. 

At the present time as a visitor studies the presentation of objects 
in any of the modernized exhibition halls of the Institution, he can 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 3 

see clearly illustrated such great ideas as man's use of natural re- 
sources and man's gradual triumph in the long development of specific 
arts and sciences. 

The newly modernized exhibits of the Smithsonian cover diverse 
fields. For example, the displays of the anthropology, ethnology, and 
archeology of the New World before Columbus have been admirably 
rearranged. The birds of the world are presented as important and 
beautiful in themselves and as significant elements in the economy 
of nature and in zoological science in general. A large section is de- 
voted to the great mammals of America, showing in artistic and ac- 
curately composed habitat groups the way in which such animals as 
the bison, the wolves, and the elk lived. The geological sciences are 
presented in a new exhibition hall, which has been called the most 
notable display of its kind in the world. Here minerals, gems, and 
the new Vetlesen jade collection are most clearly displayed. But 
the minerals actually shown are not more than 3 percent of the total 
Smithsonian study collections in this field. 

For more than a century the Smithsonian Institution has been as- 
sembling unequaled collections of important items dealing with the 
history of the United States. Some of the most significant of these 
have never been displayed for the benefit of the public. Now thou- 
sands of these objects are presented in an appropriate and instructive 
manner. Typical of the display of historic materials is the hall in 
which the dresses of the First Ladies of the White House are shown, 
each in an authentic setting. In the period room in which Martha 
Washington's dress is shown, for example, there are exhibited only 
objects that belonged to and were used by George Washington him- 
self. The halls of American military history have been transformed, 
and the displays of many of the arts and manufacturing processes 
have also been entirely made over. Among other new displays is a 
hall for the presentation of machines and products used in the 
graphic arts and one for textiles and textile machinery. In the latter 
hall a great Jacquard loom has been installed in operating condition, 
with its amazing punch-card mechanism clearly explained to the 
visitor. Another new exhibit is a complete 17th-century American 
house brought piece by piece from Massachusetts and carefully and 
authentically reerected and furnished with objects of everyday use of 
just the sort employed by early New England Colonial families. 

One indirect result of the still far from complete modernization 
program of the Smithsonian has been an increase in the use of the 
study collections of the Institution by research workers. Students 
in schools and colleges now also come in larger numbers to the new 
exhibition halls of the Institution. Some come alone or with par- 
ents and some under the supervision of teachers. In the new halls 



4 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

they learn as they caniiot elsewhere important lessons about the nat- 
ural resources of America, the natural history of the world, and 
special aspects of the history of their own United States. Many leave 
better informed and are more truly patriotic Americans than when 
they came. As noted elsewhere in this report, volunteer, unpaid but 
well-trained docents from the Junior League of Wasliington instruct 
thousands of schoolchildren each year as they carefully lead them 
through specialty selected halls on educational tours. 

The modernization program has had a great effect on attendance 
at the Smithsonian. The number of visitors to the Smithsonian, not 
including the National Gallery of Art or the National Zoological 
Park, in 1954, when the modernization of exhibits program began, 
was 3,658,000. The attendance of the year covered by this report, 
1959, was, as is elsewhere noted, 6,351,000. This phenomenal in- 
crease in number of visitors is certainly due in considerable measure 
to the new interest generated by the modernized exhibits. 

The staff of the Smithsonian Institution has planned and is con- 
tinuing active work on the modernization of an additional 28 exhibi- 
tion halls in our existing buildings. It is also engaged in planning 
and preparing exhibits for 47 large halls in the Smithsonian's new 
Museum of History and Technology Building, which is being erected 
on Constitution Avenue between 12th and 14th Streets. 

This total exhibit-development program in the Smithsonian, there- 
fore, will, when it is completed, have included well over a hundred 
large galleries or major halls and literally thousands of specific ex- 
hibition units. These units will in sum total display for the public 
more than a million objects from our unrivaled national collections 
in new, clear, and intelligible settings. 

The Smithsonian Institution has long been called the Nation's 
Treasure House. When the modernization program described in the 
preceding paragraphs is complete and when the new Museum of His- 
tory and Technology Building is opened, certainly this great national 
treasury will at long last be presented in a way that is worthy of 
modern America. 

When James Smithson specified that he wished his institution to be 
concerned not only with research but also with the diffusion of knowl- 
edge, he set a pattern that has inspired the devoted and effective work 
of the staff of his institution that has made this modernization pro- 
gram so successful. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of 
England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 5 

sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." In receiving the property and accepting 
the trust, Congress determined that the Federal Government was 
without authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, 
constituted an "establishment," whose statutory members are "the 
President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the 
executive departments." 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

The current year brought the retirement of two members of the 
Board of Kegents : Senator H. Alexander Smith and Eepresentative 
John M. Vorys. At the time of the annual meeting the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives appointed Eepresentative Frank T. Bow of 
Ohio to succeed Eepresentative John M. Vorys. On February 5, 1959, 
the Vice President appointed Senator J. William Fulbright of Arkan- 
sas to succeed Senator H. Alexander Smith. 

The roll of Eegents at the close of the fiscal year was as follows: 
Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, Chancellor; Vice 
President Eichard M. Nixon ; members from the Senate : Clinton P. 
Anderson, J. William Fulbright, Leverett Saltonstall ; members from 
the House of Eepresentatives : Frank T. Bow, Overton Brooks, Clar- 
ence Cannon; citizen members: John Nicholas Brown, Arthur H. 
Compton, Eobert V. Fleming, Crawford H. Greenewalt, Caryl P. 
Haskins, and Jerome C. Hunsaker. 

On the evening of January 15, 1959, preceding the annual meeting, 
an informal dinner was given in the main hall of the Smithsonian 
Building amid various exhibits showing the present-day phases of 
the work of the bureaus and departments. Dr. Eichard Ettinghausen 
spoke on "Objects Dealing with Christian Themes in the Freer Gallery 
Collections" ; Dr. Charles Lewis Gazin on "Eocene Mammals of the 
Bridger Formation in Southwestern Wyoming" ; Dr. Vladimir Clain- 
Stefanelli on "Comparative Die Studies: A Method of Numismatic 
Investigation and Its Historical Significance" ; and Edgar M. Howell 
on "Private Hermann Steiffel — Sometime Artist of the West." 

The annual meeting was held on January 16, 1959. The Secretary 
presented his published annual report on the activities of the Institu- 
tion together with the 1958 Annual Eeport of the United States Na- 
tional Museum. The Chairman of the Executive and Permanent Com- 
mittees of the Board, Dr. Eobert V. Fleming, gave the financial report 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1958. 

FINANCES 

A statement on finances, dealing particularly with Smithsonian 
private funds, will be found in the report of the executive committee 



6 



AISTNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



of the Board of Eegents, page 234. Funds appropriated to the Insti- 
tution for its regular operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1959, totaled $7,587,800. Besides this direct appropriation, the Insti- 
tution received funds by transfer from other Government agencies as 
follows : 

From the District of Columbia for the National Zoological Park $953, 800 

From the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, for the 
River Basin Surveys 162, 000 

VISITORS 

Visitors to the Institution's exhibition halls continue to increase. 
Visitors to the Smithsonian group of buildings on the Mall reached a 
total of 6,351,352, an all-time high and nearly a million more than the 
previous year. April 1959 was the month of largest attendance, with 
978,230; May 1959 second, with 867,817; August 1958 third, with 769,- 
086. Largest attendance for a single day was 92,945 on April 12, 
1959. Table 1 gives a summary of the attendance records for the 
five buildings ; table 2, groups of schoolchildren. These figures, when 
added to the 951,608 visitors recorded at the National Gallery of Art 
and the 4,055,673 estimated at the National Zoological Park, bring 
the year's total number of visitors at the Institution to 11,358,633. 



Table 1. — Visitors to certain Smithsonian buildings during the year ended June SO, 

1959 



Year and month 


Smithsonian 
Building 


Arts and 
Industries 
Building 


Natural 
History 
Building 


Aircraft 
Building 


Freer 
Building 


Total 


1958 
Julv- 


105, 654 

141, 457 

49, 885 

45, 002 

55, 269 

27, 724 

32, 672 

46, 899 
110,821 
170, 520 
139, 186 
126, 039 


310, 882 
312, 426 
122, 427 
115,621 
127, 064 
57, 956 

72, 515 
103, 074 
229, 864 
392, 353 
301, 701 
286, 978 


150, 153 

175, 188 

68, 848 

96, 748 

146, 618 

73, 220 

86, 980 
109, 682 
209, 894 
303, 991 
319,018 
217, 407 


97, 050 
125, 124 
40, 766 
34, 129 
38, 483 
20, 221 

25, 461 
36, 037 
69, 695 
96, 800 
95, 398 
111, 119 


12, 872 
14, 891 
8,682 
7,502 
7,488 
4,018 

6, 248 

6,218 

10, 825 

14, 566 

12, 514 

13, 509 


676 611 


August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1959 

January 

February 

March 

April __ 


769, 086 
290, 608 
299, 002 
374, 922 
183, 139 

223, 876 
301, 910 
631, 099 
978 230 


May ,_ 


867 817 


June 


755 052 






Total 


1, 051, 128 


2, 432, 861 


1, 957, 747 


790, 283 


119,333 


6, 351, 352 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



Table 2. — Groups of schoolchildren visiting the Smithsonian Institution during the 

year ended June SO, 1959 



Year and month 



Number of 
children 



Number of 
groups 



1958 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1959 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



7,670 
8,648 
4,433 
19, 534 
21,083 
9,801 



9,769 

18, 339 

54, 235 

110, 950 

148, 789 
44, 424 



457, 675 



301 
405 
145 
644 
612 
295 



346 
581 
1,426 
2,431 
3,338 
1,354 



11, 878 



SUMMARY OF THE YEAR'S ACTIVITIES 

National Museum. — The national collections were augmented dur- 
ing the year by a total of 1,144,445 specimens, bringing the total 
catalog entries in all departments to more than 52 million. Some of 
the outstanding items received included : In anthropology, a 12th-cen- 
tury stone Buddha from Cambodia, 4 collections of Micronesian 
ethnological material, and a cast of the Ganovce (Slovakia) Neander- 
thal skull; in botany, the entire herbarium of Goucher College, con- 
sisting of about 6,100 specimens; in geology, the legendary Hope 
diamond, a superb collection of Chinese jade carvings, the largest 
dinosaur bone known from this country, and more than 7,300 speci- 
mens of Carboniferous plants ; in zoology, large lots of mammals and 
birds from Panama, 2 large collections of fishes from the eastern 
United States ; the Monros collection of more than 54,000 chrysomelid 
beetles, and many mollusks and marine invertebrates collected by the 
Bredin- Smithsonian Caribbean Expedition ; in civil history, an entire 
room from the Gothic Revival Harral- Wheeler house in Bridgeport, 
Conn., an entire 18th-century loghouse from Wilmington, Del., addi- 
tions to the White House china collection, and important lots of 
philatelic and numismatic material, including the Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower collection of coins, medals, and memorabilia ; in Armed Forces 
history, early U.S. military and naval insignia from the W. Stokes 

524591r— 59i 2 



8 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Kirk collection and 117 original drawings of U.S. sailing ships; in 
arts and manufactures, several important gifts of ceramics and glass, 
a group of fine prints, and an 18th-century French hand-and-foot 
treadle loom for the new textile hall ; and in science and technology, a 
collection of early handmade locks, bolts, and decorative handware, 
an acquisition of dental instruments, furniture, and equipment re- 
lating to the history of dentistry, and a group of scientific instruments 
used by Ira Remsen at Johns Hopkins University. 

Members of the staff conducted fieldwork in Central America, South 
America, the Caribbean, Europe, and many parts of the United States. 

Under the exhibits-modernization program, three new halls were 
opened to the public during the year — the Graphic Arts Hall, the 
Hall of Gems and Minerals, and the Textile Hall. An event of the 
year of particular public interest was the unveiling of the Fenykovi 
elephant in the rotunda of the Natural History Building. Fitting 
ceremonies were also held in connection with the opening of the 
room displaying the Maude Monell Vetlesen collection of Chinese 
jade carvings. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — The members of the Bureau staff 
continued their research in archeology and ethnology : Director Rob- 
erts particularly on matters pertaining to the River Basin Surveys, 
Dr. Collins his Arctic and Eskimo studies, Dr. Sturtevant his Semi- 
nole and Seneca researches, Mr, Miller his archeological work at Rus- 
sell Cave in Alabama. 

Astrophysical Ohservatory. — ^The year's researches of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory have embraced solar astrophysics, 
upper atmosphere studies, meteoritical studies, and satellite science. 
The satellite-tracking program was continued, with notable results. 
The division of radiation and organisms continued its researches on 
the photomorphogenic mechanism in plants as controlled by radiant 
energy. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. — The Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion accepted for the Gallery 19 bronzes, 1 bronze plaque, 4 medal- 
lions, 3 oils, and 4 watercolors. The Gallery held 17 special exhibitions 
during the year; and the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service 
circulated 100 exhibitions (29 new and 71 held from previous years) 
to 240 museums. 

Freer Gallery of Art. — Purchases for the Freer Gallery Collec- 
tions included outstanding examples of Syrian glass ; Indian lacquer- 
work ; Indian and Persian metalwork ; Indian, Chinese, and Japanese 
painting ; and Chinese and Japanese pottery. The Gallery continued 
its program of illustrated lectures by distinguished scholars in the 
auditorium, the 1958-59 season numbering six. 

National Air Museum. — Site for the new building for the National 
Air Museum was approved during the year, and preliminary studies 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 9 

and estimates of planning costs are in progress. During the year 
341 specimens in 56 separate accessions were added to the aeronautical 
collections, including an early example of a German one-man heli- 
copter, a DM-1 delta- winged glider of World War II, the Jupiter 
"C" missile and the recovered nose cone of the Jupiter "C," the "Data- 
Sphere" (a recovered instrumented capsule from a long-range ballistic 
missile) , and a large quantity of documents and memorabilia pertain- 
ing to the pioneer rocketry research by Dr. Robert H. Goddard. 

National Zoological Park. — The Zoo accessioned 1,286 animals dur- 
ing the year. The net count at the close of the year was 2,384. Note- 
worthy among the additions were a herd of 14 reindeer from Kotzebue, 
a trio of Rocky Mountain goats and 5 pronghorns, 6 albatrosses, the 
first Dall sheep ever to be exhibited in an American zoo, and a pair of 
Pallas's cats. A female wisent was born in captivity. 

Canal Zone Biological Area. — About 400 persons visited the island 
during the year, including 54 scientists, students, and observers using 
the station's facilities for special researches, particularly in plant 
and insect studies, wildlife observation, nature writing, and 
photography. 

International Exchange Service. — ^As the official U.S. agency for 
the exchange of governmental, scientific, and literary publications be- 
tween this country and other nations, the International Exchange 
Service handled during the year 1,129,476 packages of such publica- 
tions, weighing 767,389 pounds. 

National Gallery of Art. — The Gallery received 370 accessions dur- 
ing the year, by gift, loan, or deposit. Eight special exhibits were 
held, and 27 traveling exhibitions of prmts from the Rosenwald Col- 
lection were circulated elsewhere. Exhibitions from the "Index of 
American Design" were given 43 bookings in 17 States and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and 1 in Germany. More than 40,500 persons 
attended the general tours conducted by GaUery personnel, and more 
than 11,500 attended tours, lectures, and conferences by special ap- 
pointment. The Sunday afternoon auditorium lectures drew 14,500 
persons. The Sunday evening concerts in the east garden court were 
continued. 

Library. — The library received a total of 52,669 publications during 
the year, and 159 new exchanges were arranged. At the close of the 
year the holdings of the library and its branches aggregated 982,596 
volumes, including 586,722 in the Smithsonian Deposit at the Library 
of Congress but excluding unbound periodicals and reprints and 
separates of serial publications. 

Publications. — Eighty-one publications appeared under Smithso- 
nian imprint during the year. (See Report of Publications, p. 224, 
for full list.) Outstanding among these were: "Studies in Invert©- 



10 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

brate Morphology," papers by 18 contributors published in honor of 
Dr. Robert Evans Snodgrass; "Pueblo del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, 
New Mexico," by Neil M. Judd; "The Journals of Daniel Noble 
Johnson (1822-1863) , United States Navy," edited by Mendel L. Peter- 
son ; "First Book of Grasses," third edition, by Agnes Chase ; "Check- 
list of the Millipeds of North America," by Ralph V. Chamberlin 
and Richard L. Hoffman; "Ichneumon-flies of America North of 
Mexico," by Henry and Mar jorie Townes ; "The Native Brotherhoods : 
Modem Intertribal Organizations on the Northwest Coast," by Philip 
Drucker; "The North Alaska Eskimo: A Study in Ecology and 
Society," by Robert F. Spencer. 

Personnel. — Lawrence L. Oliver, buildings manager, retired on May 
31, 1959, after 38 years of service with the Institution. Charles C. 
Sinclair, assistant buildings manager, retired on February 24, 1959 ; 
he had been with the Smithsonian since 1935. 

Other changes in staff made during the year are noted as appro- 
priate in the reports of the various branches of the Institution that 
follow. 



Report on the United States National 



SiK : I have the honor to submit the following report on the condi- 
tion and operations of the U.S. National Museum for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1959 : 

COLLECTIONS 

Specimens incorporated into the national collections totaled 
1,144,445, distributed among the eight departments as follows: An- 
thropology, 14,497 ; zoology, 452,163 ; botany, 50,641 ; geology, 139,070; 
Armed Forces history, 934; arts and manufactures, 12,699; civil 
history, 469,612; science and technology, 4,829. This increase is 
smaller than last year, when an unusual accretion resulted from the 
accession of a large number of stamps. This year's total is a more 
normal figure. Most of the accessions were acquired as gifts from 
individuals or as transfers from Government departments and agen- 
cies. The Annual Eeport of the Museum, published as a separate 
document, contains a detailed list of the year's acquisitions, of which 
the more important are suramarized below. Catalog entries in all 
departments now total 52,022,520. 

Anthropology. — Prince Norodom Sihanouk, formerly King of 
Cambodia and now Prime Minister of that country, presented to 
the people of the United States through President Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower a fine example of a stone Buddha, seated on a coiled serpent 
(the King Muchilinda) and protected by a crown of seven heads of 
the serpent. The Buddha was made in the Cambodian city of Angkor 
Thom during the reign of King Jayavarmon VII, A.D. 1181-1215. 

Four collections, totaling 249 specimens, were received by transfer 
from the Department of the Interior, through Delmas H. Nucker, 
High Commissioner, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, from the 
districts of Yap, Truk, Ponape, and the Marshall Islands. These 
specimens, obtained especially for the division of ethnology, con- 
siderably enrich the material from Micronesia, an area until now not 
well represented in the national collections. Among them are two 
fishing kites from If alik, which are flown from canoes and from which 
dangle a ball of cobwebs for catching garfish. After a fish strikes 
the sticky substance it cannot open its mouth. There is a war 
club from Satawan, some excellent knuckle dusters and weather charm 

11 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

idols, belt looms with ring- woven fabrics, and a good stick chart used 
as a native navigational device by the Marshall Islanders. 

Several archeological accessions are of especial interest. One is a 
plaster cast of a colossal stone head of the Olmec culture (ca. 500 B.C.) , 
the original of which was found near San Lorenzo in southern Vera- 
cruz, Mexico. The cast was received in 31 pieces, which were assembled, 
painted, and placed on exhibit in the Highlights of Latin American 
Archeology Hall. A collection of primitive stone implements from 
northern Australia, collected by F. D. McCarthy, of the Australian 
Museum, and Frank M. Setzler during the Smithsonian-National Geo- 
graphic Society Amhem Land Expedition in 1948, constitutes an un- 
usual accession. Type samples and all unique specimens collected in 
British Guiana in 1952-53 by the Smithsonian Institution-Fulbright 
Research Fellowship Expedition have added much to the Museum's 
collections from South America. 

New accessions in the division of physical anthropology include a 
plaster cast of the Ganovce Neanderthal skull found in 1926 in a 
travertine quarry in northern Slovakia. The original is a travertine 
cast of the endocranial cavity with only a little adherent cranial bone 
still in place. So far as is known, no other copy of this important 
specimen has reached the United States. A skull (with parts of the 
skeleton) exhibiting filed teeth was found in January 1954 by Dr. 
Preston Holder in a burial pit at the great Cahokia Momid site in East 
St. Louis, 111. Although the pit contained the skeletal remains of a 
number of individuals, only the one skeleton has filed teeth, and the 
fact that it alone was articulated suggests that filed teeth were a sign 
of distinction. One of the conclusions reached, in a report published 
in the November 1958 Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 
is that the custom of tooth filing in the Mississippi Valley probably had 
its origin in Middle America but became attenuated and modified. 

Botany. — Significant gifts to the department of botany were 130 
slides of diatoms, presented by Mrs. Eloise Stump, Oak Park, 111.; 
6,133 specimens given by Goucher College, Baltimore, Md., consisting 
of their entire herbarium, including a large number of cryptogams ; 
388 plants of Australia from Dr. C. L. Wilson, Hanover, N.H. ; and 
1,749 mosses contributed by E. C. Leonard from his personal collection. 

Among the numerous exchanges were 4,8T5 specimens of Sumatra 
and the East Indies from the University of Michigan ; 1,152 specimens 
of Canadian and Arctic plants, received from the Canada Department 
of Agriculture ; 1,403 specimens from Cuba received from the Colegio 
de la Salle, Havana ; 921 specimens, collected in Argentina by T. M. 
Pedersen, from the Botanical Museum, University of Copenhagen; 
1,002 specimens of New Guinea and Australia from the Commonwealth 
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia ; 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 13 

352 plants, collected by Dr. Bassett Maguire in the "Lost World" region 
of Venezuela, from the New York Botanical Garden ; and 282 plants 
from the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute, Academy of Sciences of 
the USSR, consisting of issues 81-84 of their "Herbarium of the Flora 
of the USSR" and "Decas I-V Hepaticae and Musci USSR 
Exsiccati." 

Several large collections were received with identifications requested, 
including 490 specimens, collected in Colombia by Jean Langenheim, 
from the University of California; 943 plants of Santa Catarina, 
Brazil, from the Herbario "Barbosa Rodrigues," Itajai, Santa Cata- 
rina, Brazil ; and 268 miscellaneous South American specimens from 
the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Dr. Mason E. Hale and Robert R. Ireland collected 4,295 lichens 
and 1,491 mosses on field trips in Virginia in connection with their 
research projects. Transferred from the Department of the Interior 
were 1,851 plants of Polynesia collected by Dr. F. R. Fosberg. There 
were purchased from the Archbold Expeditions 1,902 specimens col- 
lected by L. J. Brass on the Fifth Archbold Expedition to New 
Guinea; from Paul Aellen, Basel, Switzerland, 1,140 specimens col- 
lected by Dr. K. Rechinger in Iran and Greece ; and from Winifred 
M. A. Brooke, Liss, England, 830 plants she collected in Sarawak. 

Geology. — The legendary Hope diamond, the largest and most no- 
table of all blue diamonds, was presented on November 10, 1958, by 
Harry Winston, New York gem merchant and connoisseur. The 
Hope diamond ranks in importance with other famous gems, such 
as the Kohinoor, CuUinan, and Regent, found only in the Crown 
Jewels of Europe. Because of its long and dramatic history, the 
legends built around it, and its rare, deep-blue color, the Hope dia- 
mond is probably the best known diamond in the world. Mr. Win- 
ston acquired it in 1949 from the estate of the late Mrs. Evalyn Walsh 
McLean, of Washington, who received it from her husband, Edward 
B. McLean, in 1911. Its known history prior to the McLean pur- 
chase dates from 1830, when David Eliason, a noted gem dealer, sold 
the stone to Henry Thomas Hope, an Irish squire and banker. The 
stone was shown at the London Exposition in 1851. In 1867 it was 
sold at Christie's m London. It was acquired in 1908 by the Sultan 
Habib Bey, but after the Young Turks Revolt the gem was again 
placed on the market and purchased by Mr. McLean in 1911. 

One of the world's finest collections of Chinese jade carvings was 
presented by the estate of Mrs. Maude Monell Vetlesen through her 
son, Edmund C. Monell. The collection comprises 130 pieces, carved 
in one or the other of the two jade minerals, nephrite or jadeite. Some 
of the specimens date from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), but most 
are from the Ching Dynasty (1644r-1912). Noteworthy gifts in min- 



14 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

erals received from individuals are: genthelvite, Colorado, from 
Glenn K. Scott; opal, Nevada, from Mark C. Bandy; jade, Burma, 
from Martin L. Ehrmann ; milky quartz crystals, Colorado, from E. 
M. Gunnell ; gorceixite, French Equatorial Africa, from Mahlon Mil- 
ler; spangolite, Arizona, from Arch Oboler; and clinchedrite and 
roeblingite. New Jersey, from Jolin S. Albanese. 

Important additions to the Roebling collection by purchase and ex- 
change include a collection of 249 specimens of exceptional rarity and 
quality ; a fine large crystal of phosphophyllite from Bolivia ; a crys- 
tal of beryl, variety aquamarine, from Brazil ; bikitaite from South- 
ern Khodesia; an unusually large mass of thorite from Colorado; 
danburite from Mexico; and four tourmaline crystals from 
Mozambique. 

Several items of outstanding exhibition quality were added to the 
Canfield collection by purchase. Among these are proustite from 
Chile ; spodumene from Brazil ; pyrite from Colorado ; euclase from 
Brazil ; smoky quartz from Switzerland ; and cyrtolite from Colorado. 

Gems and jewels acquired for the Isaac Lea collection by purchase 
from the Chamberlain fund include a 10.8-carat kornerupine from 
Madagascar; an 18.5-carat golden sphalerite from Utah; a colorless 
zircon from Ceylon, weighing 48.2 carats ; a star garnet sphere weigh- 
ing 67.3 carats, from Idaho ; and a 43.4-carat sinhalite from Ceylon. 

Important additions to the meteorite collection include the follow- 
ing: Ladder Creek, Kans., from the Argonne National Laboratory; 
Vera, Santa Fe, Argentina, from Lorenzo Orestes Giacomelli ; Belle 
Plaine, Kans., from Prof. Walter Scott Huston; Idutwa, Cape 
Province, South Africa, from Dr. Edgar D. Mountain ; Nuevo Laredo, 
Mexico, from C. C. Patterson; and Sikhote-Alin, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Kepublics, from the USSR Academy of Sciences. 

In the division of vertebrate paleontology the outstanding acces- 
sion of the year resulted from fieldwork by Peter P. Vaughn, who 
obtained excellent materials representing a number of genera of fishes, 
amphibians, and reptiles from the Clyde and Arroyo formations of 
Baylor County, Tex. A dinosaur bone, the largest known from this 
country, 6 feet 10 inches long, a humerus of the Jurassic genus 
Brachiosaurus^ was donated by D. E. Jones. Two accessions of fossil 
fishes received in exchanges furnished exhibition material: one, a 
specimen of the Triassic coelacanth Diplurus neioarki^ together with 
its life restoration to scale, was received from Princeton University; 
the other includes 81 specimens of fossil sharks and ray-finned fishes 
from two marine Upper Cretaceous formations in Lebanon from the 
School of Engineering, American University of Beirut, through Dr. 
Harry M. Smith. Of mammalian materials acquired, the skull of the 
Miocene whale Cetotheriwm megalophysuTn is outstanding. It was 



SECRETAEY'S REPORT 15 

collected by Capts. Daniel and Edward Harrison of Ewell, Md., and 
was presented by the Ewell Junior High School. 

Among the important gifts received in the division of invertebrate 
paleontology and paleobotany are 7,345 specimens of Carboniferous 
plants collected by Dr. Plarvey Bassler, received from the Maryland 
Department of Geology, Mines, and Water Resources, Johns Hopkins 
University ; 23 type specimens of Miocene mollusks from the Chesa- 
peake Bay area from Dr. John Oleksyshyn, Boston University ; 144 
slides of Recent Foraminifera and Ostracoda from the Antarctic 
from Rear Adm. Charles W. Thomas ; 63 specimens of Oligomiocene 
ostracods from the Brasso formation of Trinidad from Dr. W. A. van 
den Bold; 200 Mesozoic invertebrate fossils from Israel from Dr. J. 
Wahrman ; and 263 f oraminif eral concentrates and well cuttings from 
Italian Somalia from the Sinclair Oil and Gas Co. 

Through funds provided by the Walcott bequest 438 invertebrate 
fossils, including over 400 goniatites from Oklahoma, were acquired 
by the Museum. A grant from the National Science Foundation 
permitted Associate Curator Porter M, Kier to collect 1,490 echinoids 
and other invertebrate fossils in Belgium, France, Holland, and 
Switzerland. 

Among the important exchanges received are 750 specimens of as- 
sorted invertebrate fossils from the Mesozoic and Tertiary of Great 
Britain from Sgt. Philip Cambridge; 61 blocks of Permian lime- 
stone from West Texas from Harvard University through Dr. H. B. 
Whittington ; and one specimen of the very rare brachiopod E'riantios- 
phen from the Devonian of Germany donated by Dr. Wolfgang 
Struve, Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt, Germany. 

Zoology. — The largest accession and the largest single collection to 
be received in the division of mammals in several years includes more 
than 1,600 specimens from Panama collected by C. O. Handley, Jr., 
and Bernard Feinstein in cooperation with the Gorgas Memorial 
Laboratory. More than a hmidred mammals, including a specimen 
of the rare suni antelope, were collected in East Africa and presented 
by Judge Russell E. Train. Antarctic explorations connected with 
the International Geophysical Year, under the auspices of the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences, brought a specimen of the rare Ross seal. 
Individual specimens of unusual interest are the skin of a snow leopard 
collected in the Himalayas by Maj. Gen. M. Hayaud Din and pre- 
sented by the Embassy of Pakistan, and the unique type specimens 
of a new race of the large spiny rat Haploniys gymnuriis collected 
by Dr. A. Wetmore on the tiny island of Escudo de Veraguas, 
Panama. 

An important accession to the bird collection consisted of 572 bird- 
skins amassed in Panama by Dr. A. Wetmore. Another large acces- 



16 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

sion of 591 skins of birds and other ornithological material from 
North America was transferred from the Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Department of the Interior. The Public Health Service, Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, also transferred 75 bird- 
skins from Arctic America. The rarest single specimen received was 
a lyre-tailed honeyguide, Malichneutes rohustus^ from Cameroons, 
a gift from the Zoological Society of London. This is the second 
known example of this bird to come to an American museum. 

In reptilian and amphibian material a number of accessions of types 
and paratypes of recently described species was received, the most 
notable single lot being a gift of 172 specimens from Haiti, Cuba, 
and Trinidad, received from Dr. W. G. Lynn. 

The division of fishes received two large collections of fresh-water 
fishes from the eastern United States. One of these, comprising 
25,057 specimens, is an exchange from the University of South Caro- 
lina through Dr. Harry Freeman; the other, consisting of 25,000 
fishes, was donated by the University of Maryland through Dr. G. W. 
Wliarton. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution gave 852 
fishes from Labrador through Dr. Richard H. Backus. A very fine 
collection totaling 2,449 fishes from the eastern Pacific was presented 
by the University of California through Wayne J. Baldwin. This 
group includes numerous species not otherwise represented in the 
national collections. 

Several outstanding collections were acquired by the division of 
insects: the Monros collection of 54,245 chrysomelid beetles trans- 
ferred by the U.S. Department of Agriculture; 30,507 insects col- 
lected in El Salvador by O. L. Cartwright; 26,385 specimens of 
beetles from Europe, Asia, and the Americas, collected and donated 
by Paul J. Spangler; the Fish and Wildlife Service transferred 
33,063 miscellaneous New World insects through Dr. Daniel L. Leedy ; 
N. L. H. Kraus presented 6,924 insects from Asia, from many locali- 
ties not previously represented in the national collections. Other im- 
portant accessions are as follows : From Dr. W. B. Muchmore some 
800 New York State centipedes, providing valuable records being in- 
corporated into a statewide survey that is currently in preparation; 
from Dr. Thomas C. Barr, Jr., a number of cave collections of centi- 
pedes, giving information about unexplored fauna; and from Dr. 
George E. Ball, some 1,000 centipedes, comprising the largest chilopod 
collection known to date from Alaska and adjacent islands. 

The outstanding accession of mollusks was a gift from Dr. R. L. 
Alsaker of some 280 specimens of marine species of the family Volu- 
tidae, including many rare and beautful forms. Other notable ac- 
cessions include 900 lots, 3,100 specimens, of mollusks from the British 
Virgin Islands and the Leeward Islands, collected by the Bredin- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 17 

Smithsonian Caribbean Expedition; 178 lots, 1,225 specimens, of 
marine, fresh-water, and land mollusks from Chile, a gift of Dr. 
Walter Riese ; and 279 lots, 521 specimens, of marine mollusks from 
Mozambique, purchased through the Frances Lea Chamberlain fund. 

The division of marine invertebrates received 7,685 specimens col- 
lected by the Bredin-Smithsonian Caribbean Expedition. Dr. R. E. 
Coker donated over 3,400 crustaceans, largely copepods, and Dr. T. E. 
Bowman presented his collection of 7,154 miscellaneous invertebrates. 
Type material was included in the following gifts : 397 copepod crusta- 
ceans from Dr. Arthur G. Humes ; 8 hermit crabs, including 3 para- 
types of three species from Anthony J. Provenzano ; and 3 paratypes 
of a species of an ostracod crustacean from Dr. Eugene W. Kozloff. 
One small accession, a gift from R. P. Higgins, of the holotype and 
two paratypes of a species of Echinodera added the first representa- 
tives of this little-known phylum of the Animal Kingdom to the na- 
tional collections. 

Civil history. — Several gifts enhanced the furniture collection in 
the division of cultural history. A Louis IV commode with marble 
top, labeled with the maker's name, "M. Cresson," was given by Mr. 
and Mrs. William W. Wickes, and a painted Tyrolean wardrobe on 
frame was presented by the estate of Dr. Elisabeth Lotte Franzos. 
Mrs. H. B. Blackmar gave a Connecticut cherry "highboy," an Em- 
pire sofa, and several chairs ; Mr. and Mrs. Louis Rothschild donated 
an American secretary-bookcase, a chest of drawers, and a card table, 
all late 18th century ; and Mr. and Mrs. Edmund C. Monell presented 
several examples of Chinese lacquered furniture. 

Three outstanding acquisitions of architectural importance were 
made this year. An entire room and numerous fragments were ob- 
tained from the Gothic Revival-style Harral- Wheeler house in Bridge- 
port, Conn., designed by Andrew Jackson Davis about 1848. The 
material was given by the city of Bridgeport upon dismantling. A 
wide variety of cast-iron architectural fragments from office buildings 
and store fronts of the now-demolished old mercantile section of St. 
Louis was transferred by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial 
of the National Park Service. An entire loghouse, built in Wilming- 
ton, Del., in the German tradition in the late 18th century, was given 
by the Board of Trustees and Building Commission of the Henry C. 
Conrad School Department of Wilmington. Other gifts include a 
pair of 18th-century wine coolers used in the Winter Palace of St. 
Petersburg and a silver tea and coffee service originally owned by 
Czar Alexander I from Col. William E. Shipp, an American Empire- 
style silver tea and coffee service from Mrs. Mary A. Swanton, and a 
Pennsylvanian stove plate, dated 1784, from the Union Fork 
& Hoe Co. 



18 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

The division of political history received important new additions 
to the White House china collection. Henry Francis Du Pont 
donated a dessert service purchased for the White House during the 
administration of Monroe. The china has an amaranthine border 
with vignettes representing military might, agriculture, commerce, 
art, and science, and was made in France by Dagoty. Outstanding 
accessions to the collection of American period costume were an early 
dress of homespun cotton, given by Mrs. Charles D. Collins ; a dress 
and wedding petticoats of the early 19th century, a gift of the Misses 
Marion and Elinor Abbot; a collection of late 19th- and early 20th- 
century costumes, presented by Miss Eleanor P. Custis ; and a wedding 
dress and other costumes of the 1890's of historic importance because 
of their connection with famous South Carolina families, the gift of 
Mrs. Pinckney Alston Trapier. A flag which had been hung out in 
mourning at the time of Lincoln's death was donated by John M. 
Harlan, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. 

The donation of Mrs. Catherine E. BuUowa, consisting of 21,531 
coins, medals, and paper currencies, is an important addition to the 
numismatic collection. Of special interest in this series is a group of 
504 early German and Italian silver and copper coins, dating from 
the 11th through the 16th centuries, and a collection of 62 German 
patterns engraved by C. Goetz at the Munich Mint after World War 
I. Another noteworthy accession is the President Dwight D. Eisen- 
hower collection of coins, medals, and memorabilia, including a group 
of 149 gold, silver, and copper mintings covering all periods of his- 
tory from Ancient Greece to modern times. Especially remarkable 
are the silver shekel from Judea struck during the first revolt against 
the Komans in A.D. 66-YO and a silver shekel from Tyre, Phoenicia, 
considered similar to the "thirty pieces of silver" of the Bible. 
A set of 14 gold medals issued by the Italo- Venezuelan Bank portray- 
ing World War II leaders and a 20-dollar gold piece engraved on 
the reverse "Keims, May 7, 1945, 0240" are part of a group of coins 
bearing special dedications to President Eisenhower. 

A collection of nine medals and plaques engraved by the American 
medalist Victor D. Brenner was received from the Eric P. Newman 
Numismatic Education Society of St. Louis. An important collection 
of 307 proclamation pieces, struck by different Mexican cities and or- 
ganizations in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in commemora- 
tion of the late Spanish kings, was presented by Joseph B. Stack. 

Former Postmaster General James A. Farley converted two addi- 
tional units from loan to gift in the division of philately and postal 
history, thus concluding the transaction begun in 1956. Two collec- 
tions of inestimable reference value were transferred from the Library 
of Congress — the Ackerman collection of U.S. die and plate proofs in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 19 

three volumes features postage, and the Clarence H. Eagle collection 
of U.S. revenue proofs and essays includes a comprehensive showing 
of match and medicine varieties. John P. V. Heinmuller donated his 
prize- winning collection of Zeppelin covers. Housed in 21 volumes, 
the collection portrays the early experimental flights of the 1908-10 
period, World War I, and all flights of the Graf Zeppelin. One in- 
teresting specimen is a scorched cover carried on the ill-fated flight 
of the Zeppelin Hindenherg^ which burned at Lakehurst, N.J., May 
6, 1937. Comdr. W. R. Anderson, Commanding Officer, U.S. Navy 
submarine Nautilus^ presented in the name of the Navy and his crew 
the rubber canceling devices made by the crew members and used to 
cachet envelopes in commemoration of the first navigation by sub- 
marine beneath the polar icecap. 

Armed Forces history. — ^Among the outstanding material received 
in Armed Forces histoiy were early U.S. military and naval insignia 
from the unique W. Stokes Kirk collection, a very rare pair of epaulets 
owned by Gen. George Washington acquired from Mrs. Janet Ran- 
dolph Ball Haden, and an early 19th-century broadax from the Fort 
Ticonderoga Museum. Transferred from the U.S. Naval Academy 
were 17 builders' half models of early naval vessels, and examples 
of diving gear were received from the Experimental Diving Unit, 
Department of the Navy. 

Original drawings numbering 177 of plans for U.S. sailing ships 
were presented by Howard I. Chapelle, author of the important work 
"The History of the American Sailing Navy." Frank Mather Archer 
presented an excellent example of the type of uniform coat worn 
by a lieutenant of the U.S. Infantry during the period of 1828-36. 
An outstanding collection of prints and books illustrating European 
uniforms and equipment was presented by Col. William E. Shipp. 
Edward B. Tucker of Somerset, Bermuda, donated objects recovered 
from 16th- and 19th-century shipwrecks. Collections of objects re- 
covered from 18th-century shipwreck sites in Florida were received 
through the courtesy of Edwin A. Link, Arthur McKee, and Dr. and 
Mrs. George Crile, Jr. An iron shot from the site of the 16th-century 
fortress of San Lorenzo was given by Karl P. Curtis of Panama. 

Arts and manufactures — An outstanding addition to the division of 
ceramics and glass is a collection of 600 pieces of Dutch and German 
pottery and stoneware, the gift of the Honorable Wiley T. Buchanan, 
Jr., Chief of Protocol, and Mrs. Buchanan. The collection is especially 
rich in Medieval Dutch household wares and Ehenish stoneware 
types, many of which are exhibited nowhere else in the United States. 
A noteworthy slip-decorated Rhenish jar from Pingsdorf, Germany, 
dated 12th or 13th century, is representative of the beginnings of the 
very important German stoneware industry. A ewer from Rheren 



20 ANNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

dated 1585, in almost perfect condition, is exceptional in that most 
wares of this type lack the spout or handle or both. The collection of 
170 glass items donated by Mrs. Clara W. Berwick includes a rare 
group comprising early American glass pieces of Stiegel and Amelung 
type, as well as later wares from the famous Sandwich factory in Mas- 
sachusetts. Mrs. Mary Eoebling gave three sculptured birds and the 
figures of horses by Edward Marshall Boehm. Mrs. George Hewitt 
Myers presented 48 pieces of Castleford porcelain made in England 
between 1790 and 1820. Among these rare items are teapots and 
pitchers decorated with an American eagle after the design of con- 
temporary coins. 

The division of graphic aits acquired an important group of fine 
prints. The selection of these examples by outstanding printmakers 
from the year 1500 to the present day made it possible to fill a number 
of significant gaps in the collection. The prints include an engraving 
by the Italian Renaissance master Marcantonio Raimondi, "St. Ce- 
celia" ; two prints by important French artists of the turn of the 20th 
century — a lithograph by Edouard Manet, "La Barricade," and a 
color lithograph by Edouard Vuillard, "Les Deux Belles Soeurs"; 
and an exceptionally fine impression of an etching by Rembrandt van 
Rijn, "Landscape with a Flock of Sheep." A 50-line half-tone screen 
was presented by Max Levy & Co., Philadelphia, through Howard 
S. Levy; R. R, Donnelley & Sons Co., Chicago, through Walter L. 
Howe, gave a panel describing the rotogravure process ; and the firm 
of Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc., Boston, donated the first 
battery-operated portable electronic flash unit, invented by Dr. Harold 
E. Edgerton. 

The division of textiles received from Arthur E. WuUschleger an 
18th-century French hand-and-foot treadle loom to which a Jacquard 
head had been added in the 19th century. Mr. WuUschleger obtained 
the loom in Lyons, France, and it was renovated at Wedgewood Mills, 
Jewett City, Conn. An excellent model of the 1787 patent of Cart- 
wright's power loom, an invention unrepresented in the national 
collection, was made by Robert Klinger of the exhibits staff. A fine 
collection of 46 18th- and 19th-century printed cottons was given 
by Mrs. Kenneth Franzheim. Beautiful examples of contemporary 
hand- and power- woven fabrics were presented by the Irish Linen 
Guild, Potomac Craftsmen, Designer- Weavers, the American Cotton 
Manufacturers Institute, the Corduroy Council, the International 
Silk Association, and the Man-Made Fibers Association. 

The division of industrial cooperation received the original equip- 
ment used in 1956-57 to carry out the experiments suggested by Nobel 
prize winners Dr. T. D. Lee of Columbia University and Dr. C. N. 
Yang of the Institute for Advanced Studies to demonstrate that in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 21 

the decay of an elementary particle into another particle parity is 
not conserved. Examples of early seismometers used in exploration 
for oil were presented by the Continental Oil Co. 

/Science and technology. — The most noteworthy accession acquired 
in the division of agriculture and wood products comprised 111 au- 
thentic wood samples of Santa Catarina, Brazil, collected and donated 
by Dr. Lyman B. Smith. A portable farm steam engine made in 
1877 by Frick & Co. was donated by this firm. 

Among the pieces of major importance added to the division of 
electricity are the following : A gToup of pieces constructed by Thomas 
Davenport, a Vermont blacksmith who obtained the first patent on 
an electric motor, given by Frank Chandler; and from the General 
Electric Research Laboratory, replicas of Dr. Irving Langmuir's 
vacuum distillation pump and of his apparatus for measuring surface 
tension which was basic to the work for which he received the Nobel 
prize. Mrs. Edith Earle donated two examples of the telephone that 
her father, James H. Earle, made in the winter of 1876-77 at Brown 
University under the direction of a group of professors there. The 
acoustical design of the group at Brown was incorporated in the 
design of the Bell telephone. 

The following significant objects were acquired in the division of 
mechanical and civil engineering: The personal watch of Edward 
Howard, considered the parent of all American factory -made watches, 
from the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association ; a rare and 
fine wagon-spring clock given by Mrs. Francis Boutelle Allen; and 
three noteworthy precision clocks presented by the Georgetown Uni- 
versity Observatory through Father F. J, Heyden. A valuable and 
attractive collection of early handmade locks, bolts, and decorative 
hardware, with pieces dating from the 16th century, was presented 
by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. Two important early 
machine tools were received — an 1851 Robbms and Lawrence chain- 
feed lathe given by Curtis Woodruff, and a Jones & Lamson turret 
lathe of about 1880 donated by George F. Kiley. A Porter- Allen 
steam engine, prototype of the compact high-speed steam engine 
which dominated the medium-size engine field for many years, was 
presented by the Philadelphia Electric Co. 

The most significant acquisition in the division of medical sciences 
is a collection of dental instruments, furniture, and equipment relat- 
ing to the history of dentistry, totaling 2,869 specimens, received from 
the University of Pennsylvania School of Dentistry. This provides 
an excellent cross section of the equipment used by the dentist from 
the mid-19th century until the early 20th century, containing rare 
individual items such as an early ether inhaler and two extraction 
instruments. An important collection of material relating to the dis- 



22 ANNUAL REUORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

covery and development of the Salk poliomyelitis vaccine was con- 
tributed by the N'ational Fomidation for Infantile Paralysis. This 
collection includes original flasks used by Dr. John F. Enders to 
grow polio viruses in cultures of human embryonic skin and muscle 
tissue ; a bottle and automatic rocker used at the University of Toronto 
Connaught Laboratories to grow polio virus in quantity ; syringe and 
residues of the first vaccines given by Dr. Jonas E. Salk; and the 
original draft of the report by Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., evaluating 
the 1954 field trials of poliomyelitis vaccine. 

The division of physical sciences continued its efforts to acquire 
early scientific apparatus used in colleges. The majority of the ap- 
paratus collected this year is chemical, and the most noteworthy ac- 
cession is a group of instruments used by Ira Kemsen at Johns Hop- 
kins University. Other outstanding items obtained are the first equa- 
torial telescope (1876) of the Warner & Swasey Co., the gift of that 
firm, and the first helium liquefier built in the United States in 1931 
donated by the National Bureau of Standards. 

Specimens of major importance acquired in the division of trans- 
portation are a model representing the sister ships Independence and 
Constitution^ modern American liners, received from American Ex- 
port Lines, and the models of the Hudson Kiver steamer Francis 
8kiddy from F. Van Loon Eyder and the Narragansett Bay steamer 
Mount Hope from Maiy T. Campbell, Other outstanding accessions 
include an oil-tank wagon from the Esso Standard Oil Co., a private 
coach, presented by Mrs. Richard Saltonstall through the interest of 
Senator Leverett Saltonstall, and a Conestoga wagon from Howard 
C. Frey. The private coach, a most significant addition, was built 
in 1851 by the famous carriage maker Thomas Goddard of Boston. 

EXPLORATION AND FIELDWORK 

The department of anthropology has underway an extensive pro- 
gram to revitalize the famous paintings of Indians by George Catlin. 
F. M. Setzler, head curator, went to Boston between May 26 and 28, 
1959, to investigate the progress of the renovations, which are being 
carried out under the guidance of Henri Courtais. Cleaning the 
painted surfaces involves a variety of methods and chemical solutions, 
depending on the condition of the painting and the canvas. A large 
percentage of the original Catlin paintings had been relined with a 
canvas about 75 years ago, when someone repainted the backgromids 
of most of the paintings involved. This repainting was done on top 
of dirt, smoke, and water blemishes. The overpaint requires addi- 
tional time and effort to remove before Mr. Courtais and his assistants 
can clean the original painted surface. After this overpaint is re 
moved, the excellence of the painting can be truly appreciated and 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 23 

furthermore the garments, feathers, and Indian and European orna- 
ments as depicted by Catlin can be readily identified. Mr. Courtais 
is continuing his work, and it is hoped that the entire program will 
be completed within the next 2 or 3 years. 

Between January 18 and 20, 1959, Dr. Waldo E. Wedel, curator 
of archeology, visited the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York 
City to examine duplicate Egyptian antiquities with a view to obtain- 
ing objects suitable to our exhibits program. With the aid of Mrs. 
Virgmia M. PoUak, Dr. Wedel selected 33 items for purchase. These 
include several reliefs, two baskets, a bedstead and stool, a wooden 
hawk case with hawk mummy, and a bronze hawk and small bronze 
mummy case. Practically all these will be suitable for exhibit and 
will provide displays that do not now exist in our Egj^^ptian collec- 
tions. Early in May, following the annual meetings of the Society 
for American Archeology in Salt Lake City, Utah, Dr. Wedel de- 
voted several days to examination of the collections of the University 
of Utah Museum, with particular reference to materials that are re- 
lated to Western Plains cultures. He also visited Ogden, Utah, where 
he examined an unusual collection, including many stone bowls and 
manos and a considerable variety of projectile points and stone orna- 
ments. The material acquired will be useful for exhibit and study 
purposes. 

Between July 7 and September 20, 1958, Dr. Clifford Evans, asso- 
ciate curator of archeology, and Dr. Betty J. Meggers, honorary 
research associate, visited Panama, Costa Rica, and Ecuador. They 
spent 4 days in Panama City examining collections in the Museo 
Nacional and discussing problems of museum modernization with the 
director. They also discussed in detail the possibilities of collabora- 
tive research, using the services of H. Morgan Smith, involving arche- 
ological sites now being discovered or destroyed by road or building 
construction. Subsequently Mr. Smith was appointed a collaborator 
of the Smithsonian Institution . 

Between July 19 and July 28, Drs. Evans and Meggers participated 
in the 33d International Congress of Americanists at San Jose, Costa 
Rica. This very successful meeting was attended by a large repre- 
sentation of scientists from Latin America, North America, and 
Europe. The Smithsonian Institution representatives participated in 
several important symposia dealing with the problem of the Forma- 
tive Period in Mesoamerica and South America, in addition to deliver- 
ing a scientific paper on the preliminary results of their archeological 
investigations in the headwaters of the Orinoco. At this meeting, 
Middle American and South American specialists decided that a 
coordinated program of research toward a solution of a specific prob- 
lem will produce better results than individual research projects. A 

524591—59 3 



24 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

committee was appointed to organize research centering on the im- 
portance of Mesoamerican and northern South American connections 
from the Formative Period up to Spanish Contact, and Dr. Evans 
accepted the secretaryship of this committee. 

Proceeding to Guayaquil, Ecuador, on July 28, Drs. Evans and 
Meggers continued their archeological research in cooperation with 
Emilio Estrada, Director of the Museo Arqueologico "Victor Emilio 
Estrada." This research was priricipally directed toward filling in 
certain gaps in the sequences that have been worked out in the past 5 
years by Estrada, Evans, and Meggers for the south coast. It is felt 
that progress toward the solution of this problem is now being made. 
On their return trip Drs. Evans and Meggers stopped briefly in New 
Orleans and visited specialists at Tulane University. In March 1959, 
Dr. Evans examined collections at the Heye Foundation in New York 
City to study important material referring to coastal Ecuador ; many 
photographs were taken which will serve as a basis for future study. 

Dr. Ralph S. Solecki, associate curator of archeology, visited Uni- 
versity Park and Philadelphia, Pa., between September 15 and 19, 
1958. At Pemisylvania State University he consulted with staff mem- 
bers about fieldwork in the Near East and viewed the ceramic collec- 
tions made by Dr. Dupree and Dr. Matson of the State University staff, 
in connection with the material recovered by the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Shanidar project. At the University Museum at Philadelphia, 
Dr. Solecki conferred with staff members concerning fieldwork in 
Iran and Iraq. A general survey of the Old World archeological 
collections was made in order to ascertain what materials are lacking 
in the Smithsonian collections. 

During the period March 15 to April 8, 1959, Dr. Solecki was de- 
tailed to participate in a UNESCO meeting in Paris, called to discuss 
measures to minimize the unfavorable effects of large-scale engineer- 
ing works upon items of cultural interest as well as upon the ecologi- 
cal conditions of the regions affected. Dr. Solecki conferred with the 
Secretariat of UNESCO and the Bureau of the International Com- 
mittee on Monuments on matters of procedure regarding the prob- 
lem. Pie prepared a summary statement of the problems involved and 
suggested solutions, and subsequently participated in a regular meet- 
ing of the Bureau of the International Committee on Monuments 
on April 2. In Paris, and also in London, Dr. Solecki visited several 
museums and scientific institutions to arrange possible archeological 
exchanges between these institutions and the Smithsonian Institution. 

From December 1 to 14, 1958, Dr. S. H. Riesenberg, curator of eth- 
nology, visited the Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass., and Harvard 
University. He continued his study of Micronesian ethnographical 
collections at the Peabody Museum and also examined and abstracted 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 25 

pertinent Caroline Islands materials from important collections of 
early American ships' logs, journals, and manuscripts of early voy- 
ages contained in tlie archives of that museum and the Essex Insti- 
tute. Parallel studies Avere made in the Harvard Peabody Museum 
and in the Houghton Library of Harvard University, where many 
pertinent ethnohistorical manuscript records of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions are housed. Such museum 
and library studies are aiding Dr. Eiesenberg in Ms projected analysis 
of Micronesian material culture, which is an attempt to place Micro- 
nesia in its proper ethnological position with respect to Pacific island 
cultural development and history, A trip for the same purposes was 
made by Dr. Eiesenberg to the Chicago Natural History Museum be- 
tween March 9 and 13, 1959. At this important museum he examined 
and studied the collections of important ethnographical materials 
from the Caroline and Marshall Islands. 

In continuation of his African studies, Dr. Gordon D. Gibson, asso- 
ciate curator of ethnology, spent the week of May 18 to 23, 1959, 
examining ethnological materials from Angola in the collections of the 
Chicago Natural History Museum and in conferring with staff mem- 
bers with respect to the identification of African specimens in our 
collections, certain problems of museum display, the possibility of 
exchanging specimens, and problems connected with his research. 
The Chicago Natural History Museum has probably the largest col- 
lection of Angolan ethnological materials in the United States, and 
therefore the opportunity to study these materials at firsthand was 
a significant aid to the progress of Dr. Gibson's research on the eth- 
nology of the southwestern Bantu. 

In the latter part of July and early in August 1958 Dr. T. Dale 
Stewart, curator of physical anthropology, visited several coun- 
tries in Central America. Together with Dr. Evans and Dr. Meggers, 
he visited the National Museum in Panama, where, as indicated above, 
the Smithsonian Institution party was very well received. They 
made a brief trip to the San Bias Islands on the Atlantic side of the 
Isthmus, in order to see firsthand the San Bias or Cuna Indians liv- 
ing thereon. These Indians have kept themselves pureblooded and 
therefore offer opportunities for research. Dr. Stewart also attended 
the 33d International Congress of Americanists in San Jose, Costa 
Eica. Like Drs. Evans and Meggers, he was asked to act as chairman 
at one of the sessions, and in addition he read an invited paper. It is 
felt that the Smithsonian Institution staff has been and still is at 
work in a critical area for the solution of problems referring to pre- 
historic cultures of Central America and the coast of Ecuador. 

Following the congress, Dr. and Mrs. Stewart went north to Guate- 
mala, where they were joined by about 20 anthropologists. On 



26 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

August 1, as guests of the Guatemalan Government, they were flown 
into Tikal, a great Mayan ruin being excavated and restored by the 
University of Pennsylvania. The travelers also made a quick trip to 
Lake Atitlan and to Chichicastenango. Because of his work on the 
living Indians in this area in 1947 and 1949, Dr. Stewart was inter- 
ested to observe the rate of acculturation here. As far as he could 
judge, there was very little change since his last visit. In Mexico City 
Dr. and Mrs. Stewart called at the National Museum and subsequently 
examined some promising fossil sites in the Valley of Mexico, where 
a new excavation is being made and a human skull was found at the 
Pleistocene level. During the visit to Mexico City Dr. Stewart ob- 
tained considerable information that will be of use to him in working 
for the Handbook of Latin American Studies and the projected Hand- 
book of Middle American Indians. 

Between March 25 and April 13, 1959, Dr. Stewart was detailed to 
travel to Czechoslovakia to act as the official U.S. representative at 
ceremonies honoring the 90th birthday of the late Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, 
who for so long was curator of physical anthropology at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. At formal ceremonies in Prague, Dr. Stewart 
had the opportunity to stress the fact of Hrdlicka's American citizen- 
ship. In his address to the delegates he was able to point out that 
only in America could Hrdlicka have achieved his fame as an anthro- 
pologist. Later the celebration moved to Humpolec, Hrdlicka's 
birthplace, 80 or 90 miles from Prague. Here Dr. Stewart and other 
delegates were taken through the local high school, which has been 
renamed for Hrdlicka. They also visited the site of his home, saw 
the street named for him, and visited various local institutions. At a 
celebration Dr. Stewart again had an opportunity to say something 
about Dr. Hrdlicka's life in America and the opportunity for scien- 
tific research in this country. On March 31 he participated in scien- 
tific meetings at the Institute of Anthropology at Charles University 
in Prague, on this occasion giving the delegates a report of his study 
of the Shanidar skeleton. This visit to Prague gave Dr. Stewart 
an opportunity to meet several of his colleagues whom he has previ- 
ously known by correspondence. On his return trip Dr. Stewart made 
a brief stop in Zurich to visit the Anthropological Institute. In Lon- 
don he visited the British Museum to examine the Mount Carmel 
Neanderthal remains, this visit providing him with a very profitable 
2 days of research. 

In March 1959 Dr. Lyman B. Smith, curator of phanerograms, vis- 
ited Cambridge, Mass., to study Herbarium material and to verify 
bibliographic references in the Harvard Herbarium in connection 
with his research on the family Bromelicaeae and the flora of Santa 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 27 

Dr. Richard S. Cowan, associate curator of phanerogams, visited 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University and the jSTew York 
Botanical Garden in November 1958 in connection with his work on 
the Index Nomina Genericorum, the flora of Santa Catarina, and 
plants of the Guyana Highland. At the second of these institutions 
he conferred with Drs. Maguire and Wurdack for the purpose of 
outlining in a general way the structure and content as well as the geo- 
graphic limits of the proposed Flora of Guyana. Dr. Cowan also 
represented the department of botany on the 1959 Smithsonian-Bredin 
Expedition. 

In connection with her continuing studies of Ormosia and other 
genera of the family Leguminosae, Dr. Velva E. Eudd, associate 
curator of phanerogams, visited New York and Philadelphia in No- 
vember and Chicago in December 1958. At the New York Botan- 
ical Garden, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and 
the Chicago Natural History Museum she surveyed the available study 
materials in groups of interest to her, and selected specimens for 
borrowing. 

Between August 20 and 24, 1958, C. V. Morton, curator of ferns, 
participated in the annual summer foray of the American Fern So- 
ciety in southern Ohio, after which he attended the meetings of the 
American Institute of Biological Sciences at Indiana University. 
In November and December he studied in the herbarium and library 
of the Harvard University Herbarium in Cambridge in order to check 
the bibliographical citations for the Index Nomina Genericorum. 
In connection with the same project he also visited the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

In July 1958 Dr. Mason E. Hale, associate curator of cryptogams, 
spent several days in southwestern Virginia and the adjacent area 
of Tennessee in company with R. R. Ireland, assistant curator of 
cryptogams, in pursuance of his fieldwork on Appalachian lichens. 
This study, undertaken with the aid of a grant from the National 
Science Foundation, has resulted in the collection of many specimens 
of lichens in the area. In February 1959 Dr. Hale spent several 
days in the cryptogamic herbarium of Duke University, examinmg 
lichens in the very important Harmand Herbarium with particular 
reference to the study of the lichen flora of the central Appalachian 
Mountains. In May he continued his work on the same project by 
studying in the rich cryptogamic library and herbariimi of Harvard 
University. 

Dr. Herbert Friedmann, head curator of the department of zoology, 
spent the period between July 7 and 26, 1958, in England, principally 
to attend the 15th International Congress of Zoology in London and 
a colloquium on zoological nomenclature. The congress, attended by 



28 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

more than 1,900 zoologists from all over the world, marked the cen- 
tenary of the first announcement of the theory of evolution by natural 
selection by Darwin and Wallace. Dr. Friedmann presented a paper 
on some of his current work on wax digestion in honey guides and its 
microbiological implications. In October 1958 Dr. Friedmann repre- 
sented the Museum of Natural History at a conference bringing to- 
gether the directors of systematic collections, held at the New York 
State Museum in Albany. 

On January 21, 1959, Dr. Alexander Wetmore, honorary research 
associate and retired Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, re- 
turned to Panama to continue the survey of the birdlif e of the Isthmus. 
The first few days, at Juan Mina, on the Rio Chagres, he devoted 
to study of limpkins, tropical yellow rails, least bitterns, and other 
water birds concerning which little information has been available. 
On February 6 he lefi: Panama City for El Real in eastern Darien, 
where, through the kind assistance of Frank L. Greene, resident man- 
ager of the oil company, Panamanian Delhi Petrolera, Inc., in Panama 
City, and Heinz Meyer, in charge at El Real, storage for part of the 
field outfit and other facilities were made available. On February 
9 he continued by dugout canoe (piragua) up the Rio Tuira and the 
foUowmg day reached the point where the Rio Paya, which has its 
headwaters in Colombia, enters the larger stream. This is a region 
of high forest with few small, scattered clearings, made by Choco 
Indians or an occasional pioneer settler from elsewhere. Tropical- 
zone forest birds were present in great variety of species, but so widely 
scattered through the vast forests of huge, tall trees that much search 
was required to find the more unusual kinds. Many are of South 
American affinity, as there is only a low divide between the upper 
Paya drainage and the lower Atrato Basin of northwestern Colombia. 
The collections and notes obtained here were thus of especial 
importance. 

On March 18 Dr. Wetmore returned to El Real, to contmue by 
dugout the following morning up the Rio Chucunaque in company 
with the engineer, William Sun, to a camp of the oil company above 
the mouth of the Rio Tuquesa. This also is a region of vast primitive 
forest, with a few Indian families living along the streams. Birds 
were common, with numbers of unusual kinds not found on the Tuira, 
so that the work here added much of value, particularly since the 
region worked between the Tuquesa and Ucurganti Rivers was one 
that scientifically had been unknown. In addition, there was the 
advantage of the engineer camp, with its small screened houses, elec- 
tric light at night, and other facilities. The work closed on April 
3 with return to El Real and from there to the Canal Zone on April 
6 and to Washington on April 14. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 29 

During April and early May 1959, three members of the staff of the 
Museum of Natural History accompanied the 1959 Smithsonian- 
Bredin Caribbean Expedition, made possible through the generosity 
of Mr. and Mrs. J. Bruce Bredin, of Wilmington, Del. This was the 
fifth of a series of expeditions organized by Mr. Bredin in collabora- 
tion with the Smithsonian Institution, and the third in which he has 
personally taken an active part. As on the previous expeditions. 
Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, research associate, was in charge of field opera- 
tions. The other Smithsonian scientists participating were Dr. 
Thomas E. Bowman, associate curator of marine invertebrates and 
specialist on copepods, and Dr. Richard S. Cowan, associate curator 
of phanerogams. Dr. Cowan left, in advance of the other members 
and spent the period between March 19 and April 2 on the island 
of Trinidad, where he made headquarters at the Imperial College of 
Tropical Agriculture, near Port-of-Spain. Excellent facilities pro- 
vided by this college enabled him to reach several areas in Trinidad 
from which our department of botany had only limited collections 
heretofore. 

The expeditionary party included, besides Mr. Bredin, John Finlay 
of Varadero, Cuba, expert malacologist ; Dr. Richard F. Darsie, Jr., 
entomologist of the College of Agriculture of the University of Del- 
aware, especially interested in tropical mosquitoes and their life his- 
tories; and William H. Amos, head of the science department of St. 
Andrews School, Middletown, Del., photogTapher to the expedition. 
They departed from Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on the yacht Garibee 
on April 3 for the island of Tobago. Following several days of inten- 
sive work on the famed Bucco Reef off the west side of Tobago, where 
they obtained valuable invertebrate material, and a visit to the bird- 
of -paradise sanctuary on Little Tobago, the party made brief stops 
at Dominica, St. Lucia, Montserrat, Barbuda, and Antigua, where 
the labors of the expedition were concluded on May 5. Most interest- 
ing specimens of reef fishes were obtained off the windward side of 
Barbuda. On this island a series of caves explored by earlier Smith- 
sonian-Bredin expeditions had yielded several unknown species of 
crustaceans, of which more extensive material was much desired; 
supplementary specimens were taken in traps carried along this year 
for the purpose. Many bats inhabiting a large cave on Antigua were 
captured primarily for a study that Dr. Darsie wished to make of 
their ectoparasites. Tliis third trip to the Lesser Antilles sponsored 
by Mr. and Mrs. Bredin has still further enhanced the collections of 
the Smithsonian Institution from that important area, in which still 
further undescribed species of marine life have been discovered. 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., associate curator of mammals, spent 
December 1 to 12, 1958, visiting the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard Uni- 
versity, and the American Museum of Natural History in New York 
to study types and other specimens pertinent to research projects in 
progress. Accompanied by Bernard E. Feinstein, museum aide in the 
division of birds. Dr. Handley continued his mammal survey of Pan- 
ama between January 15 and March 27, 1959, working in the portion 
of Darien adjacent to the Colombian boundary. Members of the 
party reached mountainous areas where zoologists have not previously 
collected. As a result of the trip, collections totaled more than 1,500 
mammals and several hundred birds, reptiles, and various insects and 
other animals. Conditions for netting bats were especially good, and 
new techniques were developed. No fewer than 45 species of bats 
were obtained, possibly a record high for this country. It is planned 
to continue this project, which is sponsored by the Gorgas Memorial 
Laboratory, Panama. In continuation of his research on the mammal 
fauna of the southeastern United States, Dr. Handley spent two pe- 
riods collecting in Virginia in May 1959. One of these trips took him 
to the peninsulas on the west side of Chesapeake Bay and the other 
to some of the northernmost ridges of the Great Smoky Mountains. 
The mammal specimens preserved on these trips will add to the back- 
ground material for his continuing research. 

Between March 18 and 23, 1959, Herbert G. Deignan, associate 
curator of birds, visited England, primarily to participate in the cen- 
tenary celebration of the British Ornithologists' Union, which was 
held at Cambridge. The meetings were largely devoted to series of 
symposia on various aspects of ornithology. 

Dr. Ernest A. Laclmer, associate curator of fishes, attended the 
annual meetings of the American Institute of Biological Sciences in 
Bloomington, Ind. While there he examined the fish collections of 
the university and on the return trip to Washington studied the fish 
collection at the University of Louisville. Dr. Lachner was accom- 
panied by Dr. William R, Taylor, associate curator of fishes. On 
their return east the two ichthyologists made collections in streams 
draining Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia. 

Between November 3 and 8, 1958, Drs. Lachner and Taylor made 
a trip to the University of South Carolina to prepare and pack major 
portions of the fish collection of that institution for shipping to the 
Smithsonian Institution. This valuable collection, consisting of about 
25,000 specimens, is composed of preserved material that is sure to be 
very useful for future group revisionary studies, especially since it 
comes from an area of the country not too well represented in the 
national collections. On the return trip Drs. Lachner and Taylor 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 31 

collected at an important locality in North Carolina and also visited 
the Marine Laboratory at the University of North Carolina, Morehead 
City, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Laboratory at Beaufort, 
KC. 

With the aid of a grant from the National Science Foundation, Dr. 
J. F. Gates Clarke, curator of insects, made a trip to South America 
between December 29, 1958, and March 24, 1959, the major purpose of 
which was to obtain material of Microlepidoptera in localities not 
otherwise represented in the collections of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Dr. Clarke traveled widely in Colombia, making headquarters 
at Bogota, Cali, Popayan, Pasto, and Barranquilla. In Peru Dr. 
Clarke centered his work in Lima and Cusco, from which cities he was 
able to reach interesting collecting territory. A brief stop was made 
in the area of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, and then he proceeded to Argen- 
tina, making his principal headquarters at Tucuman. While at 
Tucuman Dr. Clarke prepared the valuable Monros collection of 
chrysomelid beetles for shipment to the National Musemii. This 
collection adds greatly to the value of the holdings of South American 
insects in the Smithsonian Institution. He spent the latter part of his 
visit in Chile, collecting in the southern part of the comitry in areas 
reached from Punta Arenas, Puerto Varas, PeuUa, and Petrohue. 
Dr. Clarke collected about 15,000 specimens of insects of all groups, 
but particularly of the Microlepidoptera, which will serve as the 
major basis of his proposed revision of the South American species 
of this large and important group. 

Between May 9 and June 4, 1959, Oscar L. Cartwright, associate 
curator of insects, engaged in field research in Florida to collect Scara- 
baeidae, especially species of Onthophagus and Ataenius, genera he is 
at present revising. The trip traversed peninsular Florida as far 
south as Big Pine Key. Of the 2,356 insects collected, few have yet 
been identified to species, but there are among them new records for 
Florida and the United States and quite possibly some undescribed 
species. 

Dr. Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., associate curator of insects, spent the 
period July 14-18, 1958, in Cambridge, Mass., carrying on studies at 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology in connection with several re- 
search projects in chilopod systematics. 

Dr. Frederick M. Bayer, associate curator of marine invertebrates, 
visited Europe between July 17 and August 25, 1958, to attend the 
15th International Congress of Zoology in London and to visit several 
European museums for the purpose of evaluating the significance of 
their collections of octocorals to future studies and to examine speci- 
mens. Following the congress he visited museums in Leiden, Amster- 
dam, and Copenhagen, as well as the British Museum (Natural His- 



32 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

tory) ill London, and had an excellent opportunity to study important 
historic collections in the field of his speciality. 

In addition to participating in the Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean 
Expedition discussed earlier, Dr. Thomas E. Bowman, associate 
curator of marine invertebrates, visited Puerto Rico for 2 weeks in 
early April 1959, at the request of Dr. Robert M. Coker, who is 
directing a study of the zooplankton of the bays along the south- 
western coast. With headquarters at the Institute of Marine Biology, 
Dr. Bowman made extensive collections that will materially assist 
him in his project of identification of the copepods of the region. 

Dr. Harald A. Rehder, curator of moUusks, spent the week of 
February 16-23, 1959, in Florida, primarily to act as one of the judges 
of the annual show of tlie St. Petersburg Shell Club. The Smith- 
sonian Institution offers an annual award for the best exhibit in this 
show. Subsequently he visited the Marine Laboratory of the Uni- 
versity of Miami, where he observed some of the current studies of 
staff members of level bottom marine invertebrate communities along 
the south Florida coast. 

Dr. G. A. Cooper, head curator, department of geology, accom- 
panied by Dr. Richard S. Boardman, associate curator of invertebrate 
paleontology and paleobotany, spent the period May 18-30, 1958, on a 
field trip to central New York. They were accompanied by Dr. Ger- 
trude Biernat, of Polska Akademia Nauk, Zaklad Paleozoologii, 
Warsaw, Poland, a visitor to the museum for several months, and 
by two members of the Geological Survey staff. They spent several 
days studying and collecting from the type section of the Hamilton 
group of the Devonian, which extends from Stockbridge Falls on 
the north to North Norwich on the south. The party was joined by 
other geologists, including Dr. Paul Sartenaer, of Belgium, and mem- 
bers of the staff of the New York State Museum, and with this com- 
pany a study of the facies changes which take place in the TuUy 
formation was made. Subsequently sections were examined in the 
area of Cooperstown, Cobleskill, Albany, Kingston, N.Y., and 
Stroudsburg, Pa. Following this trip Dr. Boardman spent a few 
days at the New York State Museum at Albany to investigate the 
possibility of identifying bryozoan fragments in well cuttings in the 
Middle Devonian in New York State. 

During August 1958 Dr. George Switzer, curator of mineralogy 
and petrology, made an extended collecting trip to western localities, 
particularly to various individuals and well-known localities in Iowa, 
Colorado, New Mexico, California, and Montana. He obtained much 
material of value to the Smithsonian for purposes of study or exhibit. 
Accompanied by Paul E. Desautels, associate curator of mineralogy 
and petrology. Dr. Switzer made several other trips for the purpose 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 33 

of visiting mineral dealers and obtaining material for the Smith- 
sonian collections. Short visits were made to the American Musemn 
of Natural History in New York and the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia ; a valuable collection of minerals from the 
famous zinc mine at Franklin, N.J., was examined and purchases 
from it were made for the Smithsonian collections. During August 
1958 and March 1959 Mr. Desautels made separate trips to Asheville, 
N.C., and to several cities in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Mas- 
sachusetts to acquire and examine mineralogical specimens for the 
Museum. 

E. P. Henderson, associate curator of mineralogy and petrology, 
spent the period November 30-December 10, 1958, in Boston, New 
Haven, and New York. He discussed meteorites with members of 
the staffs of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard 
University, Yale University, and the American Museum of Natural 
History. 

In addition to participating in the field trip to New York State 
discussed above, Dr. Richard S. Boardman traveled in Tennessee and 
southern Virginia between September 22 and October 24, 1958, in 
the company of two visiting paleontologists, one from Australia and 
one from Norway. The principal objectives were to study the regional 
stratigraphy and to collect Bryozoa in the Middle Ordovician rocks 
of the Central Basin area of Tennessee and the southern Appalach- 
ians of eastern Tennessee and southern Virginia, This preliminary 
survey will form the basis for planning a continuing program in the 
largely unstudied bryozoan faunas of the Middle Ordovician of the 
region. Collections totaled 2,500 pomids and include many bryozoan 
colonies that have biological and taxonomic interest in addition to 
their potential stratigraphic value. 

In connection with his work on fossil echinoids. Dr. Porter M. 
Kier, associate curator of invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany, 
spent the period between July 19 and August 29, 1958, in Europe. Dr. 
Kier's trip was sponsored by a grant from the National Science 
Foundation. He spent several days in England examining speci- 
mens in the British Museum (Natural History) in London and the 
Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge and subsequently visited museums 
at the University of Liege and the Institute Royal des Sciences 
Naturelles in Brussels. In Paris he visited three museums where 
there are important collections of fossil echinoids. During part of 
his stay in Europe. Dr. Kier collected fossils in Belgium, Holland, 
and France in company with various specialists. Between March 9 
and 13, 1959, he visited the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- 
vard University to study the fossil echinoid collections. Several 



34 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

valuable and overlooked European type specimens were found there, 
in addition to specimens that will subsequently be described as new 
species. Accompanied by Henry B. Koberts, museum aide, he made a 
field trip to Alabama and Florida, April 6-16, 1959. Collecting was 
particularly productive in the Ocala area. 

Dr. C. Lewis Gazin, curator of vertebrate paleontology, visited 
Princeton University and the American Museum of Natural History 
in New York between November 16 and 23, 1958, to study their collec- 
tions of lower Eocene primates and to make comparisons between 
lower Eocene Knight materials and various Eocene collections and 
type materials at those institutions. In June 1959 he made a further 
visit to these same institutions and also to Yale University, Amherst 
College, and Harvard University to study lower Eocene and Paleocene 
insectivores, primates, condylarths, creodonts, and related groups. 

Dr. David H. Dunkle, associate curator of vertebrate paleon- 
tology, spent September 24-30, 1958, at the University of Kansas, 
studying their excellently curated collections of fossil fishes. In par- 
ticular, he made anatomical observations upon an extensive series of 
syllaemid fishes. In May 1959 he visited the site of the new airport 
construction at Chantilly, Va., where he examined and collected some 
Triassic bones reported by a member of the U.S. Geological Survey 
staff. The bones have been tentatively identified as pertaining to a 
phytosaur, an extinct reptile quite crocodilian in appearance, dis- 
tantly related to the dinosaurs. This specimen is believed to be the 
first such animal in the national collections from the Virginia 
Triassic. 

Dr. Peter P. Vaughn, associate curator of vertebrate paleontology, 
made a trip to the University of Michigan and the Chicago Natural 
History Museum between September 1 and 14, 1958, to study Permian 
vertebrates in those unportant collections. Between October 6 and 13, 
1958, he undertook a reconnaissance study in the Permian Cutler for- 
mation of southwestern Colorado. The mf ormation gained on this 
trip will be incorporated into a report on the fossil fauna of the re- 
gion which he is preparing in collaboration with staff members of 
the Geological Survey. 

The Director of the Museum of History and Technology, Frank A. 
Taylor, spent 2 days in September 1958 near Essex, N.Y., where he 
visited the site of a 17Y6 gTinboat. 

Dr. Eobert P. Multhauf, head curator of science and technology, 
made several extensive field trips during the year for the purpose of 
examining new exhibits and inspecting or acquiring important ap- 
paratus to illustrate the development of the physical sciences. He 
visited many institutions and individuals in the San Francisco area, 
in the vicinity of New York, and in Baltimore, Philadelphia, Fred- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 35 

ericksburg, Va., and Lexington, Ky., and acquired many items of 
interest to the Smithsonian Institution exhibits and study collections. 
Among them were materials associated with Ira Eemsen, the famous 
Johns Hopkins University chemist. At the Stevens Institute of 
Technology he examined the residues of the formerly extensive mu- 
seum. These comprise about 100 items, mostly models of considerable 
importance. Of particular interest also was a visit to Transylvania 
College, in Lexington, Ky., where Dr. Multhauf examined a collection 
of early 19th-century "philosophical apparatus," which proved to be 
the most complete representation of instructional apparatus for a 
single period that has yet been located. There are about 150 pieces, 
all obtained between 1815 and 1839. Dr. Multhauf offered to give his 
advisory assistance to Transylvania College to carry out plans for the 
exhibition and study of these materials. 

In continuation of his efforts to build up the exhibit and study 
materials pertaining to the division of mechanical and civil engineer- 
ing, Eugene S. Ferguson, curator of that division, visited many indi- 
viduals and institutions throughout the eastern United States, in Con- 
necticut, Ehode Island, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and 
Wisconsin. Mr. Ferguson's most extensive trip, however, took him to 
various European countries between February 28 and April 13, 1959. 
During the 6 weeks that he spent in looking critically at European 
technical museums, he visited Great Britain, Sweden, Germany, Italy, 
Austria, France, and Holland, seeing altogether 31 museums. He 
acquired many impressions and ideas that will be useful in designing 
new halls in the Museum of History and Technology. In his opinion 
the best technical museum that he visited was the Deutsches Museum 
in Mmiich. It is extravagant in its use of space and dioramas, and 
of all museums he believes it to be the one that is most meticulous in 
the details of exhibit design and execution. 

Edwin A. Battison, associate curator of mechanical and civil engi- 
neering, made several trips to various points in the eastern United 
States to examine clocks and other timepieces, particularly examples 
of early electric watch models and historic instruments. He visited 
many watch factories, with a view to the acquisition of material with 
potential value in the exhibits and study collections of the Museum of 
History and Technology. 

Kobert M. Vogel, assistant curator of civil and mechanical engineer- 
ing, made several visits to museums and other institutions in New 
York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware in connection with 
the planned Smithsonian Hall of Engineering. He examined exten- 
sive collections of photographs of bridges, tunnels, and other struc- 
tural works and investigated various historic examples of refrigera- 



36 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 19 59 

tion, farm machinery, elevators, and mills, with a view to the possible 
acquisition of materials for exhibit in new Smithsonian halls. 

Primarily to study models of ships, Howard I. Chapelle, curator 
of transportation, visited various institutions and individuals in New 
England, New York, and Virginia. He made arrangements for 
photographing ships and investigating some builder's models. Of 
particular value was a visit to the Mariners' Museum at Warwick, Va., 
where plans are available for several ships built in the late 18th cen- 
tury. Mr. Chapelle's most extensive trip took him to Kome, Paris, 
and London between April 3 and 18, 1959. In Rome he attended the 
International Fishing Boat Congress and delivered a paper on hull 
form. He inspected fishing fleets and shipyards near Rome and also 
saw models of fishing boats built around 100 B.C. By visiting mu- 
seums in Paris and London, Mr. Chapelle acquired some very useful 
information in reference to details of the planned Smithsonian Trans- 
portation Hall. 

Kenneth M. Perry, associate curator of transportation, made several 
trips through the Eastern States to acquire models of ships and to ex- 
amine other models that are being built for the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. His visits took him to many museums and shipyards. At the 
Mariners' Museum at Warwick, Va., Mr. Perry examined a card file 
of prints and paintings in the collection and recorded those pertaining 
to clipper ships, pilot boats, and Hudson River steamers with their 
descriptions. 

John H. White, assistant curator of transportation, traveled to mu- 
seums and other institutions in the eastern United States to acquaint 
himself with materials pertaining to land transportation. He dis- 
cussed problems of model making with staff members of various insti- 
tutions, with particular emphasis on various railroad and street rail- 
way collections. 

In July 1958 E. C. Kendall, associate curator of agriculture and 
wood products, spent a few d&js in New York visiting museums and 
examining exhibits especially relating to forestry and agriculture. 
A valuable trip was made to Waynesboro, Pa., on December 4, 1958, 
to examine the 1877 steam engine owned by the Frick Co., of particu- 
lar interest since practically all the farm steam engines now available 
date from the early 1900's. Mr. Kendall also accompanied Mr. Vogel 
on a trip to the vicinity of Wilmington, Del., on March 24, 1959. At 
Chadds Ford they visited an old mill now owned by Andrew Wyeth 
and examined the equipment and machinery. The mill dates from 
1762 and was enlarged in the late 18th century by adding another 
story; it was in operation until 1950. Some machinery of the type 
in this mill would be useful in the new Agriculture Hall to illustrate 
early processes relating to flour milling. Between March 27 and 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 37 

April 10, 1959, Mr. Kendall made a western trip to examine certain 
pieces of farm machinery. In Detroit he visited the Henry Ford 
Museum, which has a large collection of machinery including an early 
mowing or reaping machine made by Enoch Ambler. In Omaha 
he was much impressed by the Joslyn Art Museum, where he saw 
good examples of ingenuity in producing effective exhibits at rela- 
tively low cost. In California he visited the Caterpillar Tractor Co. 
near San Francisco and the Holt Manufacturing Co. in Stockton, 
examining machinery of potential use in Smithsonian exhibits. 

With the intention of examining and perhaps acquiring examples 
of electrical equipment for the Smithsonian Institution, W. James 
King, acting curator of electricity, made several field trips. In July 
1958 he visited Cornell University to study Anthony's dynamo and 
a Westinghouse alternator of the late 1880's. In Pittsfield, Mass., 
he visited the General Electric Co. to examine William Stanley's 
papers in the Stanley Library and to see the Stanley transformer at 
the Crane Museum, and at Housatonic, Mass., the site of Stanley's 
pioneer a.c. power installation. In September Mr. King discussed 
the new Hall of Electricity with several officials of the American 
Telephone & Telegraph Co, Visits to the General Electric Research 
Laboratory, the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, and the 
Westinghouse Electric Co. in Pittsburgh, Pa., were productive of 
ideas for new exhibits for the Smithsonian Institution. Between 
February 2 and 8, 1959, Mr. King made a tour of various institutions 
in New England and Few York to gain information regarding 
equipment in connection with the history of radio. 

George B. Griff enhagen, curator of medical sciences, made several 
field trips to museums and pharmaceutical houses throughout the 
Eastern States, traveling to Chicago, Missouri, and Wisconsin. He 
investigated several health museums to obtain ideas that might be 
useful in planning details of new exhibits for the Museum of History 
and Technology. Mr. Griffenhagen's most extended trip took him 
to England, Spain, Italy, and Belgium, between August 14 and Sep- 
tember 16, 1958. The primary purpose of the trip was to attend the 
I7th general assembly of the International Pharmaceutical Federa- 
tion, held in Brussels. Included was an all-day meeting of the World 
Union of Pharmaceutical Historical Societies, during which Mr. 
Griffenhagen presented a paper on "The Equipment of the Early 
American Pharmacy." He also visited the Brussels Universal Ex- 
hibition. In Spain, and also in Italy, he saw some outstanding col- 
lections of pharmaceutical antiquities and apothecary shop and al- 
chemical laboratory restorations. 

Between November 17 and 21, 1958, Dr. John B. Blake, associate 
curator of medical sciences, studied the clinical amphitheater at the 



38 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia and the Fry collection of 
medical prints in New Haven and examined the outstanding micro- 
scope collection of Dr. George S. M. Cowan in New York. He also 
made trips to institutions and individuals in the Eastern States to 
study problems of historical importance in the medical field. 

Dr. Philip W. Bishop, head curator of arts and manufactures, 
visited Chicago between October 26 and 29, 1968, to inspect the 
Whiting refinery and meet its officials, primarily to discuss the origins 
of thermal cracking of crude petroleum. Pie also visited the Museum 
of Science and Industry to see and measure the Nasmyth steam 
hammer. In November 1958 he visited the Ethyl Coi*p. and the Esso 
Standard Oil Co. in New York to discuss matters of mutual interest 
pertaining to the Hall of Petroleum of the Museum of History and 
Technology. Between January 19 and 23, 1959, he visited several 
institutions in southern California, primarily to inspect nuclear re- 
search activities and to examine data on various geological formations 
as an aid to planning some of the new halls for the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. In New York in April and June he inspected a model of a 
deep-sea drilling barge and examined details of a fluid catalytic 
cracking model. 

Between September 28 and October 4, 1958, Miss Grace L. Rogers, 
acting curator of textiles, visited New Haven, Boston, and other areas 
in New England. She made an extensive study of an original model 
of the Whitney cotton gin in the collections of the New Haven Colony 
Historical Society. At Jewett City, Conn., she examined the old 
Jacquard loom that was being assembled for the renovated Textile 
Hall of the Smithsonian Institution. The Old Slater Mill Museum in 
Pawtucket, R.I., provided a valuable opportunity to study a collection 
of old textile machinery and noted exhibition techniques. 

Paul V. Gardner, acting curator of ceramics and glass, made several 
trips during the year to Norwood, Mass., to select, list, and pack vari- 
ous pieces of rare glass presented to the Smithsonian Institution by 
Mrs. Clara W. Berwick. Between August 20 and 23, 1958, he visited 
the Corning Museum of Glass at Corning, N.Y., where he studied 
many samples of different glass objects. Here it was possible to run 
ultraviolet light tests on a number of glass objects from the Smith- 
sonian collections to determine their origin and age. From September 
8 to 15, 1958, Mr. Gardner visited New York and various points in 
New England to talk with collectors and dealers in the interest of 
obtaining additional ceramics and glass collections for the Smith- 
sonian. 

Between September 25 and 30, 1958, Jacob Kainen, curator of 
graphic arts, visited Kansas City to study the engravings of Hen- 
drick Golzius (1558-1617) in pursuance of a research project, particu- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 39 

larly in the Print Department of the William Kockhill Nelson Gal- 
lery of Art. He visited New York between March 22 and 28, 1959, 
to check data for his study of John Baptist Jackson, to study the 
work of Hendrick Golzius, and to select prints for possible purchase 
for the new Museum of History and Technology. Mr. Kainen visited 
the New York Public Library, the Frick Art Eef erence Library, and 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Between May 20 and 24, 1959, he 
made a trip to Sarasota, Fla., to gather further background data in 
connection with his research project on Golzius. An extended visit 
to the Kingling Museum permitted Mr. Kainen to study the largest 
collection of baroque art in this country and to note its international 
influences. 

Alexander J. Wedderburn, associate curator of photography, visited 
New York City between May 27 and 29, 1959, to discuss material for 
exhibit in the Museum of History and Technology with a nrnnber of 
manufacturers and distributors. 

Fuller O. Griffith, assistant curator of graphic arts, spent 3 days in 
New York in November 1958, carrying out research for his catalog 
of lithographs of the American artist Childe Hassam (1859-1935). 
He visited the Knoedler, Kennedy, and Weyhe galleries, where he ex- 
amined numerous prints by Hassam, as well as the Grand Central Art 
Galleries, the New York Historical Society, the Pierpont Morgan 
Library, and the New York Public Library, where there is a large 
body of Hassam's lithographs. 

Kudolph G. Morris, museum aide, division of graphic arts, visited 
the Rochester, N.Y., Museum of Arts and Sciences in January 1959 to 
discuss with staff members the role of photography and the Museum's 
audiovisual program. Extending his visit to Holyoke, Mass., he made 
an extensive tour of inspection of the facilities of the Technif ax Corp. 
and discussed research facilities with members of the staff. 

The head curator of civil history. Dr. Anthony N. B. Garvan, made 
several trips to institutions and other organizations in the eastern half 
of the country in connection with his historical studies. In July he 
visited the Marine Historical Association in Mystic, Conn., where he 
discussed with staff members the possibility of acquiring objects relat- 
ing to marine industry for exhibit in the Growth of America Hall. In 
October he went to St. Louis, Mo., where he spent some time with 
the National Park Service, selecting structural and decorative iron 
from the vast accumulation preserved by that Service. At Williams- 
burg, Va., Dr. Garvan visited the Information Center in February 
1959, and examined new exhibits and material of possible value to the 
Smithsonian Institution. He viewed a superb series of plaster models 
of houses showing their outline and linking them with horizontal 
photographs and labels. He also examined a complete archeological 

524591—59 4 



40 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

site made of a new plastic material so realistic and so colored to re- 
semble earth, brick, stone, etc., that the visitor feels that the actual 
site has been transported into the musemn. At Jamestown Dr. Garvan 
examined a variety of objects recovered from the area in the anticipa- 
tion that some of these may be used in the Smithsonian's hall demon- 
strating the growth of the United States. 

In August 1958 Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, curator of political 
history, spoke at a dinner meeting of the Eastern Shore of Virginia 
Historical Society on the personalities of Governor Sir William 
Berkeley and rebel ISTathaniel Bacon. Subsequently he examined sev- 
eral historic sites in the area, including St. George's Church, where 
archeological work is taking place, and Hungars Church. In N'ovem- 
ber 1959 he went to Princeton, N.J., to participate in a conference 
of the Institute of Early American History and Culture of Williams- 
burg, Va., following which he did some research in the manuscript 
collections of the University Library. In Baltimore he examined the 
observation platform that the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad expects to 
donate to the Smithsonian Institution for use in a political history 
exhibit. 

Mrs. Margaret B. Klapthor, associate curator of political history, 
traveled to New York in January 1959 to pursue her research on 
matters pertaining to the First Ladies Hall. She selected samples of 
fabrics and discussed in some detail two mannequins to be used. 

Charles G. Dorman, assistant curator of political history, visited 
Dover and Wilmington, Del., in March 1959 to study 18-century tax 
lists. He located hitherto unlniown midcentury cabinetmakers and 
followed the movements of others who moved about the colony after 
their apprenticeships had been served. Mr. Dorman also spoke on the 
subject of "Philadelphia Presidential Mansion" at a meeting of the 
Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pa. Between May 
19 and 24, 1959, he visited several towns in New England to study 
museum design and exhibits installation. He also gave a talk before 
the Quincy Historical Society of Quincy, Mass., on "The Adams 
Family in Washington, 1800-1847." 

To examine collections offered the Smithsonian Institution by vari- 
ous individuals, C. Malcolm Watkins, acting curator of cultural his- 
tory, made several trips to points in the Eastern States. At 
Wilmington, Del., in December 1958, he examined a loghouse offered 
to the Institution for exhibit purposes and discussed ways and means 
of dismantling it and shipping it to Washington. 

Eodris C. Roth, assistant curator of cultural history, visited Phila- 
delphia in September 1958 for research at the American Swedish 
Historical Foundation and Museum pertaining to an exhibit on 
Scandinavian backgrounds planned for the Hall of Everyday Life in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 41 

Early America in the new Museum of History and Technology. In 
connection with planning for this hall, she visited the Wmterthur 
Museum in Delaware in December 1958 and again in June 1959. At 
the Baltimore Museum of Arts, Miss Eoth studied an imaginative 
display entitled "Age of Elegance, the Rococo and Its Effect," con- 
sisting of an assemblage of fine and decorative arts of the 18th century 
grouped by country of origin. 

George T. Turner, acting curator of philately and postal history, 
and Francis J. McCall, associate curator of that division, attended 
the American Stamp Dealers' Show in New York in November 1958. 
They displayed a special Smithsonian exhibit, and Mr. Turner gave 
a talk on the history of the National Postage Stamp collection and 
its development under the preceding curators. During the first 10 
days of 1959 Mr, Turner visited several cities in California to meet 
numerous philatelists, to inform them of the material needed in the 
exhibits planned for a new hall, and to tell them something of the 
stamps missing in the National collection. He spoke before a meeting 
of the Philatelic Research Society on the "Activities of the Smithso- 
nian's Division of Philately and Postal History." 

On two occasions Francis J. McCall visited New York City to 
discuss with several philatelists material of potential interest to the 
Museum of History and Technology, At the New York Historical 
Society, the Philatelic Society, and the New York Public Library he 
supplemented previous studies and strengthened contacts with staff 
members. Between October 31 and November 2, 1958, he attended 
the American Philatelic Congress in New York. From March 15 to 
20, 1959, he visited Boston and Cambridge, Mass., to discuss with 
philatelists matters of mutual interest and to study documents at 
various libraries. 

Dr. Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, curator of numismatics, made sev- 
eral trips to New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and cities in Mas- 
sachusetts during the year to select material missing from the 
Smithsonian library. On September 16, 1958, he gave an illustrated 
address to the Philadelphia Coin Club concerning the history of the 
Smithsonian and of the national coin collections. In October 1958 
he spent several days in Worcester, Mass., where he visited the 
American Antiquarian Society and studied their collections of colonial 
notes. At the Worcester Numismatic Club he discussed the Smith- 
sonian's modernization program and examined a collection of German 
Renaissance medals, multiple talers, and ancient Greek coins. In 
February 1959 he spent several days in New York, principally at the 
museum of the American Numismatic Society, where he studied post- 
humous Lysimachus gold and silver coinages struck in various ancient 
Greek cities. 



42 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

In Philadelphia, Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, assistant curator of 
numismatics, examined a collection of Mrs. Catherine Bullowa, from 
which she was able to select for the national collections numerous 
coins, medals, and tokens in silver, copper, and other metals, repre- 
senting practically all periods, from the early 13th century to date. 
In September 1958 she went to New York to study Italian numismatic 
periodicals at the library of the American Numismatic Society in 
order to complete a study on modern Italian coin engravers. 

From May 14 to 18, 1959, Dr. and Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli went to 
Albany, Gloversville, and New York, N.Y. In the New York State 
Museum they had useful discussions with staff members about early 
trade and examined unusual collections of wampum beads and cere- 
monial belts. Dr. Albert F, Goodwin, of Gloversville, permitted 
them to study his very fine collection of foreign medals and 
decorations. 

During the year Mendel L. Peterson, head curator of Armed 
Forces history, made several trips to Boston, New York, and several 
other east-coast cities. In Trenton, N. J., at the State Museum Build- 
ing, he attended an open meeting on the subject of underwater ex- 
ploration, where he delivered a lecture. The Museum of the Naval" 
Academy at Annapolis, Md., disclosed some material that will be 
useful to the Smithsonian exhibition series, including, for example, 
a letter written by Jolin Paul Jones. 

Edgar M. Howell, acting curator of military history, made several 
trips to points in the eastern United States and Canada in connection 
with material needed by the Smithsonian for exhibit. Between Sep- 
tember 8 and 12, 1958, he visited the Canadian War Museum in 
Ottawa, the Citadel in Quebec City, Fort Henry at Kingston, On- 
tario, and Fort Niagara, in New York, studying collections and ex- 
hibit techniques and photographing specimens. He made especially 
valuable contacts with curators specializing in the French and Indian 
War and the War of 1812 periods. Between April 20 and 24, 1959, 
Mr. Howell visited the Fort Sumter National Monument, the Con- 
federate Museum, and the Charleston Museum in Charleston, S.C, 
the Museum at Grant Park in Atlanta, Ga., and the Castillo de San 
Marcos in St. Augustine, Fla., studying collections and observing new 
exhibit techniques. 

Craddock R. Goins, Jr., assistant curator of military history, 
visited several museums in New York State during the period August 
25 to 30, 1958, to study ordnance material, observe special exhibit 
techniques, and arrange for the acquisition of specimens needed in 
the Hall of Ordnance, in the Museum of History and Technology. 
The most comprehensive collections of ordnance material in New 
York State are part of the Museum of the U.S. Military Academy at 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 43 

West Point. Here Mr. Goins was particularly interested in the ex- 
tensive collection of artillery tubes. The library of the Military 
Academy also includes a considerable quantity of material concerning 
ordnance boards, which is missing from the Ordnance Department 
records in the National Archives. In February 1959 he made a short 
trip to Harpers Ferry, W. Va., to examine records in the custody 
of the National Park Service pertaining to a study he is preparing 
on the Hall rifle. 

Lucile McCain, assistant registrar, visited museums in London and 
in Leiden, Holland, between September 17 and October 27, 1958, to 
examine their registration methods. At the British Museum (both 
Natural History and Bloomsbury), the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
and the Rijksmuseum in Leiden Miss McCain learned much from 
the methods in use, particularly as they refer to customs matters 
and to plans for reviewing permanent files after 25 years. 

Members of the staff of the office of exhibits traveled durmg the 
year in order to examine exhibits techniques used by various museums, 
with a view to their application to the new halls in the Museum of 
History and Technology and the Museum of Natural History, 

John E. Anglim, chief exhibits specialist, spent the period April 
24 to June 20, 1958, in Europe, where he visited 16 cities in 10 coun- 
tries and inspected about 70 museums and attended the "World's Fair 
in Brussels. His general impression of European museums is that 
nearly everywhere they are attempting to bring their exhibitions up to 
higher standards. 

R. O. Hower, supervisory exhibits specialist, visited New York in 
November 1958, to examine new exhibition techniques in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, where many new techniques are being developed in the exhibits 
laboratories. 

Benjamin Lawless, supervisory exhibits specialist, and Robert Wid- 
der, exhibits designer, visited New York between September 16 and 
18, 1958, to discuss with specialists various types of illumination for 
the new exhibits of the Smithsonian Institution. In March 1959 Mr. 
Lawless visited the new Museum of Military History and Science at 
the U.S. Military Academy, at "West Point, where he examined the 
extensive modernization that has been completed there. In May 1959, 
accompanied by James A. Mahoney, exhibits designer, he went to 
Chicago and Cleveland to examine various types of exhibition cases 
now being devised or in use. 

Between August 19 and 22, 1958, Judith Borgogni, exhibits de- 
signer, and Violet Moyer, exhibits worker, went to New York to 
study exhibit techniques and to discuss trends in the exhibition of 
costumes and fashions. Among institutions visited were the Museum 



44 AISTNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

of the City of New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the 
New York Public Library. 

William E. Geoghegan, exliibits technician, with Kenneth Perry, 
visited Warwick and Eichmond, Va., between October 29 and 31, 
1958. At the Mariners' Museum in Warwick and at the Confederate 
Museum in Eichmond they worked on models of ships that will be 
exliibited in the Museum of History and Technology. In November 
1958 Mr. Geoghegan went to Providence, E.I,, and Essex, Conn., to 
examine the models of certain historic ships. Work on several such 
models is progressing as anticipated and it is expected that they will 
greatly enhance the educational value of the hall being planned by the 
division of transportation. 

Exliibits technician Chris Karras made a field trip in May 1959 
that took him to several museums in the eastern half of the country. 
He was mainly interested in marine biological displays m connection 
with the new Hall of Oceanic Life that is being planned for the 
Museum of Natural History. 

Mrs. Ann Karras, exhibits designer, visited the Cincinnati Art 
Museum and the Taft Museum, in Cincinnati, Ohio, in June 1958 to 
acquire background information for details of the Hall of Musical 
Instruments of the Museum of History and Technology. Between 
November 15 and 26, 1958, she visited several museums for the pur- 
pose of studying fossil mammal exhibits, in connection with a pend- 
ing renovation of a hall in our Museum of Natural History. This 
visit took her to the Chicago Natural History Museum, the University 
of Nebraska State Museum, the Denver Museum of Natural History, 
the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale, and the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

Between November 17 and 21, 1958, James A. Mahoney, exliibits 
designer, visited George Eastman House, Eastman Kodak Co., and 
Bausch & Lomb Co. in Eochester, N.Y., for technical data needed in 
the Hall of Photographic History, in the Museum of History and 
Technology. He obtained much valuable information, and got a 
general view of present methods of displaying photographic and 
historical topics. 

William Pennock, exhibits designer, went to New York in the com- 
pany of Dr. Clain-Stefanelli between August 7 and 9, 1958, to examine 
various exhibit methods, color and lighting techniques, case designs, 
architecture, and manufacturing processes pertaining to numismatic 
displays. 

John C. Widener, exhibits specialist, attended sessions of the Na- 
tional Plastics Exposition held in Chicago from November 17 to 21, 
1958. He discussed the utilizations of various plastics with specialists 
who attended the exposition and visited several companies in order to 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 45 

investigate their products and techniques, in connection with the use 
of plastics in exhibit construction at the Smithsonian Institution. 

EXHIBITIONS 

The progressive modernization of the exhibition halls of the Smith- 
sonian Institution was carried forward. The program has now com- 
pleted 5 years. Construction bids were received in May 1959 for the 
second North American Archeology Hall, and in June 1959 for the 
halls that will be devoted to the geological and fossil record of the 
age of mammals ; medical and pharmaceutical history ; and the his- 
tory of money or numismatics. 

The formal opening of the renovated Graphic Arts Hall in the 
connecting range of the Smithsonian Institution Building was held 
on the evening of July 10, 1958. Prentiss Taylor, president of the 
Society of Washington Printmakers, was the principal speaker. Hand 
processes employed to produce etchings, wood engravings, lithographs, 
and silk-screen prints are displayed in this hall. The history of 
printing from the invention of the alphabet to the commercial pro- 
duction of the printed book is illustrated by an original woodcut for 
a page of a very old Chinese block book, a reproduction of ancient 
Korean movable type, and a page from the Gutenberg Bible of about 
1454. 

The newly modernized Hall of Gems and Minerals in the Natural 
History Building was dedicated by Secretary Leonard Carmichael on 
the evening of July 31, 1958. Mrs. W. F. Foshag, wife of the late 
head curator of the department of geology, was invited to cut the 
ribbon at the formal opening. Exhibits in this hall include the most 
extensive collection of gems on display in this country, and a large 
and representative sampling of specimens from the national min- 
eral collection, which is regarded as the world's finest. Nearly every 
variety of gem is represented. Included in this display are : A 316- 
carat star sapphire ; an 18.3-carat canary-yellow diamond ; a 66-carat 
alexandrite; and a 310-carat peridot. Among the historic items 
shown is a set of pearls consisting of a necklace, choker, and earrings 
given by the Imam of Muscat to the U.S. Government; the original 
gold nugget responsible for the initiation of the California gold rush 
which was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848 by James Marshall; 
and the world's largest flawless quartz crystal ball, a sphere almost 
13 inches in diameter and weighing 106% pounds. The Hope dia- 
mond, a gift of Harry Winston, world-famous gem merchant of New 
York, is spotlighted against a dark-red velvet in a centrally located, 
specially designed case. In the mineral section of this hall are shown 
examples of all the principal kinds of minerals, arranged in accord- 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

ance with a chemical classification, and selected and lighted to make 
a colorful display of their natural beauty. A fine large specimen of 
smithsonite, a carbonate of zinc, named for its discoverer James 
Smithson, whose bequest founded the Smithsonian Institution, is ex- 
hibited in this hall. The spectacular display of fluorescent minerals 
on a revolving stand has attracted considerable visitor interest. 

The room designed solely for the display of the Maude Monell 
Vetlesen collection of Chinese jade carvings of the 16th to 19th cen- 
turies was opened to the public on the evening of December 11, 1958, 
in ceremonies f eaturmg addresses by the Vice President of the United 
States and Regent of the Smithsonian Institution Richard M. Nixon, 
Edmund C. Monell, the Honorable Wiley T. Buchanan, Jr., Chief 
of Protocol of the United States, and Dr. Leonard Carmichael, Sec- 
retary of the Smithsonian Institution. These pieces of exquisitely 
carved jade include an apple-green chrysanthemum dish of nearly 
111/^ inches in diameter, a massive white imperial altar incense burner 
and cover of classic design, a pair of deep spinach-green altar boxes in 
the shape of the divine tortoise, and two imperial scepters, made of 
gold filigree and each inset with tliree large carved jade plaques. 

The basic contract construction of the Hall of Fossil Fishes and 
Primitive Tetrapods, as well as the Hall of Fossil Invertebrates and 
Plants, was completed in May 1959. Shortly thereafter the exhibits 
staff placed in their respective cases the giant fish Xiphactinus and 
the slab displaying the skeleton of the Triassic amphibian Ewpelor 
fraasi. Materials for other display units have been prepared for in- 
stallation. In addition to the materials prepared by the museum's 
exhibit staff, two habitat groups, depicting Cretaceous and Ordo- 
vician life associations, were completed and two additional groups 
were being prepared with the help of George Marchand of Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

Preparators in the paleontology laboratory commenced the assem- 
bly of mammalian skeletons for the Age of Mammals Hall. Skeletons 
of the Eocene horse Orohippus, the Oligocene Mesohippus, and the 
Miocene Parahippus are in various stages of completion. 

The unveiling of the Fenykovi elephant on the evening of March 6, 
1959, was witnessed by a large number of invited guests following a 
lecture in the auditorium of the Natural History Building by the donor. 
This record specimen of African bush elephant, standing 13 feet 2 
inches at the shoulder, is the largest land mammal ever to be placed on 
display. Josef J. Fenykovi, Hungarian-born engineer and big-game 
hunter who tracked down and shot this elephant in the largely unex- 
plored Cuando River region of southeastern Angola on November 13, 
1955, and who presented the specimen to the Smithsonian Institution, 
came to Washington with his wife from Madrid to participate in the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 47 

ceremonies. This elephant has been placed in the center of the rotunda 
of the Natural History Building. 

The preparation and installation of the habitat groups and topical 
displays were nearing completion at the end of the fiscal year in the 
two halls featuring the World of Mammals, following the contract 
construction of the exhibit fixtures in June 1958. Nearly all the topical 
units have been installed and much of the work on the habitat groups 
is completed. Staff zoologists under the chairmanship of Dr. Herbert 
Friedmann, head curator of zoology, continued to develop plans for 
the Hall of Oceanic Life. 

Associate Curator Clifford Evans, in cooperation with John E. 
Ewers, Assistant Director of the Museum of History and Technology, 
Howard Cline of the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of Congress, 
and John Corbett of the National Park Service, prepared the scripts 
and supervised the installation of an exhibit, "Anthropology and the 
Nation's Capital," which was shown in the foyer of the Natural History 
Building during November and December 1958 coincident with the 
annual meetings in Washington of the American Anthropological 
Association and the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. 

Three types of prehistoric surgery, assembled by Dr. T. Dale Stewart, 
curator of physical anthropology, were shown at the January 1959 
meeting of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: (1) Amputa- 
tion of the right arm in the Shanidar I Neanderthal skeleton from 
Iraq (45,000 years old) ; (2) cranial trephining from Peru; and (3) 
filed teeth from the Mississippi Valley. 

The panels of photograpiis at the south end of the lipJl devoted to 
Highlights of Latin American Archeology were removed and a large, 
full-size plaster cast of a colossal stone head of the Olmec culture was 
installed in February 1959. This cast of San Lorenzo Monument No. 
1 from southern Veracruz was delivered in 31 sections and was as- 
sembled by Paul Willis of the cabinet shop, with the artwork and final 
painting performed by A. Joseph Andrews, chief exhibits specialist of 
the department of anthropology. Three carved jade figures from La 
Venta in Tabasco, Mexico, as well as other Olmec jade objects such as 
beads, ceremonial axes, pendants, and ear ornaments, were installed in 
June 1959 in an exhibit adjacent to the head. This exhibit also illus- 
trates aboriginal methods of working jade by drilling, sawing, pecking, 
and polishing. The Andean arts and crafts exhibit was renovated in 
December 1958 and a few objects were withdrawn to permit the installa- 
tion of a gold Chimu mask from Peru. 

At the close of the fiscal year construction of the exhibit fixtures 
for Hall 21, which will feature the archeology of the southwestern 
United States, the Pacific coast and Columbia River Valley, and Arctic 



48 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

America, was well advanced toward completion. A series of general 
displays, such as native mines and quarries, Indian stoneworking 
methods and products, Euroamerican trade items from Indian sites, 
native smoking devices, and the diffusion of tobacco are planned for 
topical purposes. 

The Third Biennial Creative Crafts Exhibition was shown from 
August 27 to September 26, 1958, in the foyer of the Natural History 
Building. This was organized and installed by local craft organiza- 
tions and sponsored by the division of ceramics and glass. Con- 
temporary examples of ceramics, textiles, jewelry, and woodworking 
were displayed, and daily demonstrations of pottery making, weaving, 
and other craf twork conducted. 

A ceremony of acceptance was held on the afternoon of Decem- 
ber 11, 1958, to open the E. Stanley Wires collection of decorative 
tiles in the specially reconditioned room in the foyer of the National 
History Building. New acquisitions of glass from Mrs. Clara W. 
Berwick and of Castlef ord porcelain from Mrs. George Hewitt Myers 
were also put on exhibition, and two appropriate cases were built 
to house a collection of paperweights lent by Mrs. Florence Bushee. 

Historic Dutch and Rhenish pottery and stoneware now displayed 
in a large alcove at the west end of the Cultural History Hall in 
the Natural History Building were formally accepted by Secretary 
Leonard Carmichael as a gift from the Honorable Wiley T. Buchanan, 
Jr., Chief of Protocol of the United States, and Mrs. Buchanan 
on the afternoon of January 5, 1959. All these examples of ceramics 
were excavated at sites in the Netherlands and assembled by P. 
Weers of Vooburg. The exhibit illustrates household ceramics from 
the Roman and Merovingian periods to the beginning of the 19th 
century, and provides a basis for an understanding of the materials 
exported to America during the period of early settlement as well 
as its influence on the workmanship of American potters of the 17th 
century. 

The renovated textile exhibit located in the main south hall of 
the Arts and Industries Building was formally opened to the public 
on the evening of January 20, 1959, by A. E. WuUschleger and Sec- 
retary Carmichael. In this hall the exhibits trace the history of 
the fibers and fabrics used by man in the context of the implements 
and machines that produced them, with the emphasis placed on the 
technological developments from colonial times through the ensuing 
years. The Eli Whitney cotton gin and the Samuel Slater cotton 
machinery from the Pawtucket Mill of 1790, both unique examples 
of the work of these skilled mechanics, are supplemented by many 
other historic devices. Among these are a well-preserved Jacquard 
loom from Lyons, France, presented by Mr. WuUschleger, of New 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 49 

York. No more than 4 or 5 inches of fabric could be woven on this 
loom in a day. Fabrics from ancient Egypt, Colonial America, 
and contemporary hand- and power- woven fabrics show the develop- 
ment of the art of weaving. Another featured exhibit is an early 
18th-century Don Quixote tapestry presented by Mrs. Kermit 
Roosevelt. 

Contract construction work on the fixtures in the south hall gallery 
of the Arts and Industries Building for display of the dyeing and 
printing of fabrics, needlework and lace crafts, and the development 
of the sewing machine was nearing completion in June 1959. Reno- 
vation of the southeast range of the Arts and Industries Building, 
which will be utilized for the display of farm machinery and other 
agricultural implements, was completed in April 1959 by the con- 
struction contractor. These exhibits will trace the growth of labor- 
saving farm machines in America, with particular emphasis on the 
19th century, during which various types of machinery were in- 
vented or perfected for efficient planting, cultivating, and harvesting 
of the Nation's rapidly expanding farm acreage. 

With the cooperation of a number of leading concerns in the petro- 
leum industry, plans have been developed for a small haU to illustrate 
the history of this important industry. 

During March and April 1959 the Atomic Energy Commission's 
traveling exhibition "You and the Atom" was presented to the public 
in the rotunda of the Arts and Industries Building. 

On June 24, 1959, a construction contract was awarded for the 
renovation of the east gallery of the Arts and Industries Building 
in which will be installed a series of new display units interpreting 
the history of medicine and pharmacy. These display units will be 
moved to the Museum of History and Technology where they will 
comprise portions of the more comprehensive exhibits in the fields 
of medical, dental, and pharmaceutical history. The most important 
new exhibits installed in the division of medical sciences during the 
year were the two cases prepared and contributed by the National 
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, which illustrate the discovery 
and development of the Salk poliomyelitis vaccine. 

An exhibit of "World Ebonies," selected from the Rudolph Block 
collection of walking sticks, was installed in the corridor through 
the hall of wood products; and four exhibit units displaying Ameri- 
can oaks, other important American hardwoods, f ruitwoods, and for- 
eign cabinet woods are being renovated. 

A temporary exhibit was prepared to commemorate the 100th 
anniversary of the birth of William Stanley. He was responsible 
for the design of the first practical electrical transformer and for 
the first demonstration of an a.c. power distribution system in the 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

United States. The use of transformers made it possible to send 
electrical power over great distances, instead of being limited to a 
mile or so from the generating station. 

Additions to the horological exhibits mcluded a large operating 
model of the Hamilton electric clock, constructed on a scale of 8 to 
1, and a group of recently cleaned and restored Japanese clocks. Dur- 
ing the annual meeting of the National Association of Watch and 
Clock Collectors in May 1959, a number of New England watches 
were placed on display. 

The completely renovated 1893 Duryea automobile was returned 
to the exiiibition series and the Cornell-Liberty Mutual survival 
car was placed on temporary exhibition. 

A special exhibit commemorating the 150th anniversary of the 
birth of Abraham Lincoln was opened in the west hall of the Arts 
and Industries Building on February 11, 1959. Selected items from 
the Museum's collection of Lincoln memorabilia and a life-size figure 
on which is displayed the office suit worn by President Lincoln 
on the morning of his assassination comprise the essential elements 
of this exhibit. Included are many of the items that have recently 
been donated to the Institution by Lincoln Isham, of Dorset, Vt., 
great-grandson of President Lincoln. At the same time the division 
of philately prepared a special exhibit, "Lincoln on Stamps," in- 
cluding free franked covers of Mrs. Lincoln lent through the assist- 
ance of Mrs. Morton Dean Joyce of New York, and the division of 
numismatics arranged groups of Lincoln medals to portray Lincoln's 
life and impact on history. The division of nmnismatics also pre- 
pared a large exhibit of U.S. commemorative coins, presidential 
medals, and American medallic art for the first Ibero-American 
Numismatic Exhibition in Barcelona, Spain, which opened November 
24, 1958. 

The department of Armed Forces history presented two special 
exhibitions in the rotunda of the Arts and Industries Building dur- 
ing the year. From July through September 1958 a special showing 
of the Tole paintings of Mrs. Irving Olds and naval prints from 
the collection of Mr. Olds was displayed under the joint sponsorship 
of the U.S. Marine Corps and the division of naval history. A spe- 
cial exhibition featuring the submarines Nautilus and HoUdnd 
was set up during May 1959. 

During the year the appearance of the uniforms exhibited on the 
west gallery of the Arts and Industries Building was materially en- 
hanced by placing them on adjustable mannequins. 

DOCENT SERVICE 

In January 1959 the general direction of the educational progxam 
of volunteer docent guide service, conducted with the cooperative as- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 51 

sistance of the Junior League of Wasliingtoii, was transferred to the 
Smithsonian Museum, Service. This program had been under the 
direction of Frank M. Setzler, head curator of anthropology, since 
its inception in 1955. This transfer was made in accord with the 
purposes for which the Museum Service was established. The pro- 
gram continued under the supervision of G. Carroll Lindsay, acting 
curator of the Smithsonian Museum Service, working with Mrs. Peter 
Macdonald, volunteer chairman of the Smithsonian Docent Commit- 
tee of the Junior League of Washington. After serving for 2 years 
as chairman of this committee, Mrs. Macdonald submitted her resig- 
nation at the conclusion of the tours season. She was succeeded 
as chairman by Mrs. C. Clarke Gearhart, formerly cochairman 
of the docent committee. Mrs. Dean Cowie will serve as co- 
chairman of the committee with Mrs. Gearhart. 

During the 6-month season beginning in October 1958, 398 tours 
were conducted, in which 11,996 children were escorted through the 
3 exhibit halls included in the docent program — the American Indian 
Hall, the Hall of Power Machinery, and the Hall of Everyday Life 
in Early America. This represented an increase of nearly 50 percent 
in the total number of children participating in this program over the 
previous year. 

In addition to Mrs. Macdonald and her cochairman, Mrs. Gearhart, 
the following members of the Junior League of Washington partici- 
pated in the docent work: Mrs. George Armstrong, Mrs. Harrison 
Brand III, Mrs. Dean Cowie, Mrs. Walter Edwards, Mrs. William 
Graves, Mrs. H. F. Gregory, Miss Mary Harbert, Mrs. Edward La- 
mont, Mrs. Ralph W. Lee III, Mrs. John Manfuso, Jr., Miss Grace 
C. Marshall, Mrs. William McClure, Jr., Mrs. Robert McCormick, 
Mrs. John A. Medaris, Mrs. William Minshall, Mrs. Minot Mulligan, 
Mrs. George Pendleton, Mrs. John Schoenfeld, Mrs. W. James Sears, 
Mrs. William D. Sloan, Jr., Mrs. Walter Slowinski, Mrs. James H. 
Stallings, Mrs. E. Tillman Stirling, Mrs. G. G. Thomas, Mrs. David 
Toll, Mrs. Richard Wallis, Mrs. Marc A. White, and Mrs. George 
A. Wyeth, Jr. 

In the coming season, the docent service will be extended to two 
more exhibit areas — the Hall of Gems and Minerals and the Hall of 
Textiles. 

BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

Senator Clinton P. Anderson, Regent of the Smithsonian Institution 
and chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Construction 
of a Building for a Museum of History and Technology, turned the 
first shovelful of earth on August 22, 1958, and excavation for the 
foundations was commenced immediately. At the close of the fiscal 
year the excavation ^nd driving piles had been accomplished. Work- 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ing drawings and specifications for the building were completed by 
the contract architects, McKim, Mead & Wliite, and reviewed by the 
Smithsonian Institution and the General Services Administration. 
The construction of the superstructure was advertised for bids on 
June 23, 1959. 

Working drawings for the construction of additions to the Natural 
History Building were completed by the contract architects. Mills, 
Petticord & Mills, and were reviewed in detail by the staff of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Thus the architectural planning for these 
wings, which are urgently required to house the increasing scientific 
collections and to provide efficient working facilities for the staff, has 
been accomplished. The Congress recognized the immediate need 
for these additions when it appropriated the funds for the archi- 
tectural services to prepare the working drawings. The Smithsonian 
Institution is now prepared to contract for the construction of the 
additions when funds are appropriated for the purpose. 

John E. Cudd, architect of the Public Buildings Service assigned 
to the Smithsonian Institution, continued to advise on both building 
projects, assisting in the transmittal of requirements to the architects 
and in the review of the drawings and specifications. Many individ- 
uals and sections of the Public Buildings Service contributed counsel 
and advice. 

The contract work for replacement of the roof covering on the 
Natural History Building, the first phase of which was started in the 
fiscal year of 1957, has been completed. This project included the 
removal of the slrylight glass, the installation of sheathing and metal 
covering, and the installation of fluorescent lighting to provide uni- 
form illumination in the three large halls. 

The floors of the auditorium in the Natural History Building have 
been re-covered to minimize the hazards of the sharply inclined aisles 
as well as to provide a more noiseless walking surface. 

A revised electrical system has been installed to serve the Arts and 
Industries, Smithsonian, and Freer Buildings. This project required 
the construction of two additional transformer vaults, the installation 
of two transformers, and the extensive revision of the electrical serv- 
ice in order to provide sufficient electrical capacity to serve the con- 
stantly increasing needs of the Institution. 

The east entrance of the Arts and Industries Building has been 
remodeled to permit installation of a heavy-duty hydraulic elevator 
for use in the handling of large and heavy objects from truck height 
to floor level. The combination of this elevator with a full-height 
rollup-type door will be especially useful during the transfer of mu- 
seum objects from the Arts and Industries Building to the Museum of 
History and Technology on its completion. Many former hazards oc- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 53 

curring during handling of heavy objects at this entrance have been 
eliminated. 

All exterior surfaces of window sash and frames of the Natural 
History Building were painted and glass replaced where necessary. 
During the year many offices and workrooms have been renovated, 
including those of the registrar, division of political history, and the 
library. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

Dr. A. C. Smith was appointed Director of the Museum of Natural 
History effective August 28, 1958, following transfer from the Na- 
tional Science Foundation. 

John C. Ewers was promoted to Assistant Director of the Museum 
of History and Technology on November 29, 1958. 

Dr. Ealph S. Solecki, associate curator of archeology, resigned on 
Jmie 30, 1959, to accept an associate professorship in anthropology 
at Columbia University. In the division of etlmology of the depart- 
ment of anthropology. Dr. Gordon D. Gibson accepted an appoint- 
ment as associate curator on July 30, 1958, and Dr. Eugene Knez as 
associate curator on April 30, 1959. 

Dr. Peter P. Vaughn, associate curator of vertebrate paleontology, 
resigned on January 15, 1959, to accept an appointment tendered by 
the University of California at Los Angeles. This vacancy was filled 
by Dr. Nicholas Hotton III, who reported for duty June 1, 1959. 

George B. Griff enhagen, curator of medical sciences since Decem- 
ber 8, 1952, resigned on June 2T, 1959, to accept the position of direc- 
tor of communications for the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

The curatorial vacancy in the division of philately and postal his- 
tory was filled by the appointment of George T. Turner on July 7, 
1958. 

Dr. Philip K. Lundeberg was appointed as associate curator, divi- 
sion of naval history, effective June 10, 1959. Dr. Lundeberg has been 
serving as consultant in the department of Armed Forces history since 
January 19, 1959. Peter C. Welsh accepted an appointment as asso- 
ciate curator in the department of civil history and reported for duty 
June 15, 1959. 

John D. Shortridge was appointed, effective July 28, 1958, associate 
curator of musical instruments m the division of cultural history, and 
G. Carroll Lindsay, associate curator of cultural history, was trans- 
ferred to the Smithsonian Museum Service. 

William L. Brown, zoological exhibits specialist and chief taxi- 
dermist, retired on June 30, 1959, after 51 years 3 months of service 
in the taxidermy shop. Mr. Brown was responsible for the modeling 
and preparing for display of the major portion of the mammals ex- 



54 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

liibited in the Natural History Building. He was recognized by co- 
workers as one of the foremost skilled artisans and modelers of 
naturally posed mammals and gained an enviable reputation for the 
excellence of his work. 

Dr. Egbert H. Walker, associate curator in the division of phanero- 
gams, retired on June 30, 1959. Dr. Walker, who was appointed to 
the Smithsonian staff on July 2, 1928, has specialized in the taxonomy 
and pertinent bibliography of eastern Asiatic flowering plants. He 
plans to continue, under the aegis of the American Institute of Biolog- 
ical Sciences, his preparation of a supplement to Merrill and Wal- 
ker's "Bibliography of Eastern Asiatic Botany" (1938). 

Clarence R. Shoemaker, who was appointed research associate fol- 
lowing his retirement on March 30, 1944, as assistant curator of marine 
invertebrates after havmg served more than 34 years as an employee 
of the Institution, died on December 28, 1958, in Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Shoemaker was a recogiiized amphipod specialist. 

Dr. Frederick L. Lewton, research associate who retired on June 
30, 1946, as curator of arts and industries after 44 years of service 
in the U.S. National Museum, died on February 21, 1959, at Winter 
Park, Fla. 

Dr. Jolin B. Reeside, Jr., research associate in invertebrate paleon- 
tology since June 19, 1944, died in Hyattsville, Md., on July 2, 1958. 
Dr. Reeside has also served for 17 years as chief of the paleontology 
and stratigraphy branch of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Paul A. Straub, research associate in numismatics since July 6, 
1955, died at Summit, N.J., on December 9, 1958. Mr. Straub donated 
to the division of numismatics over 5,000 gold and silver coins repre- 
senting a span of 400 years. Because of the many outstanding rari- 
ties included in the collection, these coins as a whole are priceless 
and, in addition, enable the Smithsonian Institution to display to 
its visitors the largest exhibit of gold coins in the world. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Remington Kellogg, Director. 

Dr. Leonard Caemichael, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the Bureau of American 
Ethnology 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, officework, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1959, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which directs the Bureau "to continue independently 
or in cooperation anthropological researches among the American In- 
dians and the natives of lands mider the jurisdiction or protection of 
the United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 
(Prepared from data submitted by staff members) 

Dr. Frank H. H. Eoberts, Jr., Director of the Bureau, devoted a 
portion of the fiscal year to office duties and the general supervision 
of the activities of the Bureau and the River Basin Surveys. In 
September he went to the Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern 
Colorado as a consultant to the Research Committee of the National 
Geographic Society. While there he visited a number of ruins that 
are to be excavated to obtain new information on the aboriginal peo- 
ple of the region and also to provide additional exhibit areas for 
visitors to the park. As a result of the conferences on the Mesa Verde, 
the National Geographic Society made a grant to the National Park 
Service to assist in the excavation program on Wetherill Mesa. It is 
contemplated that the digging will continue over approximately six 
field seasons. Following the sessions on the mesa. Dr. Roberts spent 
a day at Hovenweep National Monument on the Colorado-Utah line 
north of the McElmo Canyon area where the late Dr. J. Walter 
Fewkes, a former Chief of the Bureau, carried on investigations some 
50 years ago. Judging from Dr. Fewkes's report and the condition 
of the area today, there has been little change since he first described 
the towers for which the area is famous. 

After his return to Washington, D.C., Dr. Roberts went late in 
September to Athens, Ga., and visited a number of projects in other 
parts of Georgia and South Carolina where salvage operations were 
underway, and participated in discussions relative to continuing work 

524591—59- 5 55 



56 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

in the area. During the early part of November he went to Austin, 
Tex., where he attended the Second International Congress of His- 
torians which was being held at the University of Texas. Pie served 
as one of the commentators at the session on Pre-Hispanic peoples in 
the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Following his 
return to Washington he took part in the sessions of the American 
Anthropological Association, and toward the end of the month went 
to Lincoln, Nebr., to discuss various problems in Plains arclieology 
with members of the Missouri Basin project staff and to attend the 
sessions of the Annual Plains Conference for Archeology. During 
December Dr. Roberts was a member of a panel at one of the sessions 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, where 
the subject of "Anthropology in the Federal Service" was presented. 

In January Dr. Roberts attended the meetings of the Committee 
for the Recovery of Archeological Remains held at the Department 
of the Interior in Washington, D.C., and presented a summary of the 
results of the preceding year's activities of the River Basin Surveys. 
He also took part in discussions pertaining to future plans for the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program. At the end of Jan- 
uary he went again to Georgia where he met with representatives from 
the National Park Service, various State and local institutions, and 
assisted in the preparation of plans for a salvage program along the 
Chattahoochee River in Alabama and Georgia. Early in June he 
went to Colorado where he examined collections pertaining to early 
inhabitants of the Western Plains area at the Denver Museum of Nat- 
ural History and in the University Museimi at Boulder. Returning 
to Nebraska he spent several days at the field headquarters and lab- 
oratory of the Missouri Basin project at Lincoln where plans were 
being completed for the summer's investigations in reservoir areas 
along the Missouri River in South Dakota. From Nebraska Dr. Rob- 
erts returned to Washington. 

During the fall and winter months Dr. Roberts reviewed several 
draft manuscripts of technical reports and returned them to their 
authors with suggestions for correction and revision. In addition, 
he did the technical editing on a series of six reports on historic sites 
archeology in the Missouri Basin which will appear as Bulletin 176 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his Arctic re- 
search and activities. Material was assembled for an analysis of the 
"Tunnit" legends of the Canadian Eskimos, which describe in some 
detail the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canadian Arctic. On the 
basis of recent archeological investigations, particularly those by 
Dr. Collins in the Hudson Bay region, it appears that the mysterious 
Tunnits were in fact the prehistoric Dorset Eskimos rather than the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 57 

Thule as previously assumed. Also in preparation was an article 
evaluating recent arclieological discoveries in Alaska and northeast 
Siberia and their bearing on pre-Eskimo and Eskimo culture se- 
quences and relationships in the Bering Strait area. 

In December Dr. Collins attended a. 2-day conference on polar re- 
search held at Hanover, N.H., under the auspices of Dartmouth Col- 
lege and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Polar Ee- 
search. The conference discussed the probable future course of polar 
research in this country and the advisability of establishing a research 
institute to coordinate and administer scientific research in the Arc- 
tic and Antarctic. 

In June Dr. Collins went to Burke County, Ga., to examine an old 
Indian village site near Waynesboro where Dr. Koland Steiner in the 
1890's had collected an unusually large number of flint implements, 
now in the U.S. National Museum. The implements, numbering some 
16,000, were of particular interest because most of them were deeply 
patinated and were types which are now recognized as belonging to the 
Archaic period; one of the types, an unusual form of asymmetric knife 
or scraper, was identical with a specialized form characteristic of 
the prehistoric Dorset culture of the eastern Canadian Arctic. 
Through the cooperation of Raymond De Laigle, clerk of court of 
Burke County, and his brothers, Hay and Roy De Laigle, it was pos- 
sible to locate the site from county records. It was found to be very 
much as described by Steiner 70 years ago and still prolific in stone 
artifacts and rejectage. A sizable collection of flint implements and 
flakes from this and other sites around Waynesboro was brought 
back for study. 

Dr. Collins continued to serve as a member of tlie research commit- 
tee of the Arctic Institute of North America, which evaluates appli- 
cations for research grants, and of the publications committee, which 
exercises supervision of the Arctic Institute's quarterly journal Arctic^ 
its Technical Papers^ and its series of Special Publications. As chair- 
man of the directing committee, Dr. Collins also devoted considerable 
time to the planning, supervision, and financing of the Arctic Bibli- 
ography^ which is prepared by the Arctic Institute for and with the 
support of the Department of Defense. This comprehensive ref- 
erence work abstracts and indexes the contents of publications in all 
languages and in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub- 
arctic regions of the world. Volume 8, containing abstracts of 5,623 
publications in 1,281 pages, was scheduled for publication by the 
Government Printing Ofiice early in July 1969, and work on volume 
9 is underway. Subject fields receiving special emphasis in volume 
8 include body systems, human and other; botany; construction; 
disease ; ecology ; economic and social conditions ; environmental effects 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

of darkness, light, and low temperature on man, animals, and plants ; 
Eskimos; expeditions, especially Russian; fishes and fisheries; frost- 
bite ; geology ; hypothermia ; ice and ice conditions ; insects ; meteorol- 
ogy ; physiology, human and animal ; Siberian native peoples ; snow ; 
transportation. These and some 230 other topics are listed alpha- 
betically in the mdex and, as necessary, also under the name of the 
particular locality or major geographical region to which they per- 
tain. Heretofore the Arctic BibliografTiy has been supported almost 
entirely by the Department of Defense. During the past year addi- 
tional generous support has been provided by the National Science 
Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the National 
Geographic Society. 

Dr. Collins also made plans for a Russian translation project 
whereby the Arctic Institute, with the support of the National Science 
Foundation, would make available to American anthropologists 
translations of Russian publications on the archeology, ethnology, 
and physical antliropology of Siberia. 

Dr. William C. Sturtevant, ethnologist, spent the first part of the 
fiscal year in Washington at work on various projects related to his 
Seminole and Seneca research. He also prepared for publication a 
paper on the economic uses of Zmnia^ a cycad with a large under- 
ground stem from which starch has been extracted for centuries by 
various Indian and other inhabitants of the West Indies and Florida. 
Another paper brought to completion reconsiders, with negative re- 
sults, the ethnological evidence for contacts between Indians of the 
southeastern United States and the West Indies (previously widely 
considered to have been quite significant for the history of the culture 
of the southeastern tribes) . Brief papers were completed on the his- 
tory of the classification of eastern Siouan languages (published in 
American Anthropologist), on the authorship of J. W. Powell's 
famous classification of North American Indian languages published 
by the Bureau of American Etlmology in 1892, and on two new tech- 
niques for ethnographic fieldwork. Dr. Sturtevant's pamphlet 
"Anthropology as a Career," issued by the Institution in July 1958, 
proved so useful to students and their advisers throughout the country 
that a second printmg was required in May 1959. 

In mid-February Dr. Sturtevant left for Florida to begin 6 months' 
fieldwork among the Seminole Indians, with the support of a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. This was a continuation of 
the fieldwork Dr. Sturtevant conducted among these people before 
joining the Smithsonian staff. Besides filling in gaps in informa- 
tion obtained during previous trips, Dr. Sturtevant has concentrated 
on studying Seminole knowledge and uses of plants, both wild and 
cultivated. These Indians are the only ones in the eastern United 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 59 

States who still use agricultural techniques once common to all the 
Indians of this region but heretofore undescribed by careful observers. 
Fields are cleared by cutting and burning, planted without fertilizer, 
and soon abandoned for new fields when fertility decreases and weeds 
become difficult to control. In addition to the ancient North Ameri- 
can Indian crops — corn, pumpkins, and beans — the Seminole grow 
a number of plants that were introduced from the West Indies during 
and after the 18th century (banana, sugarcane, sweetpotato, taro, 
elephantear IXanthosoTiia], manioc, papaya, guava, citrus). Semi- 
nole knowledge of wild plants is also extensive, and they still use 
many of them for medicine, food, and in the manufacture of utensils 
and other artifacts. Dr. Sturtevant found that at least two dozen 
fields are being cultivated with aboriginal methods, but intensive 
study of these fields and other aspects of Seminole society and culture 
has been even more difficult than he anticipated, owing largely to 
increased political factionalism and antagonism toward inquisitive 
outsiders. 

Dr. Sturtevant compiled genealogical information preparatory to 
collaboration with Dr. John Buettner-Janusch, a physical anthro- 
pologist at Yale University, on a study of the genetic characteristics 
(chiefly blood groups) of the Seminole, who certainly have fewer 
non-Indian ancestors than any other surviving eastern tribes. 

Besides collecting herbarium specimens of plants used and recog- 
nized by the Indians, Dr. Sturtevant made an ethnological collection 
to supplement the Seminole holdings of the National Museum. He 
paid particular attention to clothing, since Seminole styles have 
changed rapidly but are still unique in many respects, and objects 
made for sale. The latter are an important part of Seminole econ- 
omy and involve objects quite different from those usually made for 
sale by other tribes. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, ethnologist, joined the staff of the Bureau in 
April but did not report for duty until June as he was completing 
teaching duties at the University of Buffalo. Dr. Chafe spent the 
3 weeks before departing on June 29 in preparing for fieldwork on the 
Seneca reservations in western New York State. He will gather 
material that will enable him to complete a Seneca dictionary and 
will make further tape recordings of religious and mythological texts. 
This work was started under the sponsorship of the New York State 
Museum and Science Service and is being continued as a cooperative 
effort. 

On June 3, 1958, Carl F. Miller was temporarily transferred from 
the staff of the River Basin Surveys to that of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology in order that he might continue directing the excava- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution-National Geographic Society 



60 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Expedition which had been started in 1956 at Russell Cave in xVla- 
bama. This third season of work continued through September 29 
and brought to completion the investigations at that site. Russell 
Cave has contributed extensive information pertaining to Indian 
peoples who inhabited that area over a considerable period of time. 
Several cultural horizons are represented, the earliest of which is 
some 9,020=iz350 years old on the basis of carbon- 14 dating of charcoal 
from a hearth at that level. The first peoples apparently had a com- 
pletely hunting-fishing economy and from that progressed through 
what is called the Archaic period to a more sedentary mode of life 
and became makers of pottery. The latter handicraft appeared at 
about 3500 B.C. The culture subsequently developed into what is 
known as the Early Woodland and contmued through stages known 
as Middle and Late Woodland. It was during these three stages that 
agriculture became a part of their economy. The latest occupation 
seems to have been by Chickamauga Cherokee Indians in the early 
1600's. During the 1958 season Mr. Miller reached the original and 
lowest floor in the cave, some 43 feet below the present floor. How- 
ever, no evidence of occupation was found below the 37-foot level. 
During the course of the digging he f oimd a fifth burial which helped 
to throw additional light on the mortuary customs of the people who 
inhabited the cave. 

Wliile in northern Alabama, Mr. Miller visited several other caves, 
also Indian sites in the open, and studied many local collections in 
order to correlate the cultural remains from Russell Cave with those 
of the surrounding areas, particularly those attributable to Early 
Man phases. Mr. Miller also spoke before different groups of people 
in Bridgeport and Huntsville, Ala., and in South Pittsburg, Richard 
City, and Tullahoma, Tenn. Following his return to Washington on 
October 4, Mr. Miller devoted his time to the preparation of reports. 
In November and December he attended meetings of the American 
Indian Ethnohistoric Conference and the American Anthropological 
Association in Washington, D.C., and was one of the speakers at the 
Southeastern Archeological Conference in Chapel Hill, N.C. Mr. 
Miller returned to duty on the River Basin Surveys staff December 
14, 1958. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

The River Basin Survej^s continued its program for salvage arche- 
ology in areas to be flooded or otherwise destroyed by the construction 
of large dams. These investigations were carried on in cooperation 
with the National Park Service and the Bureau of Reclamation of 
the Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engineers of the De- 
partment of the Army, and several State and local institutions. Dur- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 61 

ing the fiscal year 1958-59 the work of the River Basin Surveys was 
supported by a transfer of $162,000 from the National Park Service to 
the Smithsonian Institution. Of that sum, $137,000 was for use in 
the Missouri Basin and $25,000 was for investigations along the 
Chattahoochee Eiver in Alabama and Georgia. The Missouri Basin 
Project had a carryover of $22,173 on July 1, 1958, and that, with 
the new appropriation, provided a total of $159,173 for the program 
in that area. The grand total of funds available for the River Basin 
Surveys for 1958-59 was $184,173. 

Field investigations throughout the year consisted mainly of exca- 
vations, although some limited surveys were carried on. On July 1, 
1958, 10 parties were in the field, all of them working in the Missouri 
Basin in South Dakota. Five of the parties were doing intensive 
digging in the Big Bend Reservoir area near Fort Thompson, four 
were excavating, and one was doing survey testing in the Oahe Reser- 
voir area north of Pierre. Most of the field parties had returned to 
their headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., by the end of August. Two 
small parties made brief investigations in the Merritt and Big Bend 
Reservoir areas during December and January. In February three 
parties began excavations and test excavations along the Chattahoo- 
chee River in Alabama-Georgia. The latter continued operations 
until late in June, when work was stopped and the men returned to 
their headquarters. Early in June a party from the Missouri Basin 
project headquarters began excavations in several sites in the construc- 
tion area for the Big Bend Dam in South Dakota. 

As of June 30, 1959, reservoir areas where archeological surveys 
had been made or excavations carried on since the begimiing of field- 
work by the River Basin Surveys in the sunmier of 1946 totaled 
254, located in 29 States. Two lock projects and four canal areas 
had also been examined. The survey parties have located 4,909 
archeological sites, and of that number 1,017 have been recommended 
for excavation or limited testing. The term "excavation" in this re- 
spect does not imply the complete uncovering of a site, but rather 
digging only enough of it to obtain a good sample of the materials 
and information to be found there. While many of the locations 
are unquestionably of sufficient importance to warrant complete exca- 
vation, the needs of the salvage program make it impossible to con- 
duct so extensive an investigation at any one location. 

Preliminary appraisal reports have been issued for all the reservoir 
areas surveyed, with the exception of the three along the Chattahoo- 
chee River. The manuscripts of two of those reports have been com- 
pleted and the third is well underway, so that all of them will be 
processed early in the coming fiscal year. The preliminary appraisal 
report for the Big Bend Reservoir area in South Dakota was mime- 



62 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ographed and distributed in October 1958. Since the start of the 
Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage Program, 185 appraisal reports 
have been issued. In a number of cases the information obtained 
from several reservoir projects located within a single basin or sub- 
basin have been combined in one report and for that reason there is 
a discrepancy between the number of reservoirs surveyed and that of 
the reports issued. 

At the end of the fiscal year, 434 sites in 54 reservoir basins located 
in 19 different States had been either partially or extensively dug. 
In some reservoir areas only a single site was excavated, while in 
others a whole series was studied. At least one example of each type 
of site recommended by the preliminary surveys had been investi- 
gated, Wliere some of the larger and more complex types of village 
remains were involved, it was necessary to dig a number of somewhat 
similar sites in order to obtain full information about that particular 
phase of aboriginal culture. The sites investigated represent cultural 
complexes ranging from the early hunting peoples of approximately 
10,000 years ago to early historic Indian village remains and frontier 
trading and army posts of European origin. Reports on the results 
obtained in some of the excavations have appeared in the Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, in Bulletins of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, and in various scientific journals. During the year River 
Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 9 through 14, comprising Bulletin 166 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology, were published and dis- 
tributed. The papers consist of three reports on excavations in the 
Missouri Basin, one on digging in the Alatoona Reservoir in Georgia, 
one on investigations in six sites in the Jim Woodruff Reservoir basin 
in Florida, and one on historic sites in and adjacent to the Jim Wood- 
ruff Reservoir area in Florida-Georgia. The Missouri Basin reports 
were written by Paul L. Cooper, Robert B. Gumming, Jr., and Carlyle 
S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. Those pertaining to the South- 
east were prepared by William H. Sears, Mark F. Boyd, and Ripley 
P. Bullen. River Basin Papers ISTos. 15-21, which will constitute 
Bulletin No. 176 of the Bureau of American Ethnology, were sent 
to the printer in March. That series of papers pertains to studies 
in historic sites in the Fort Randall, Oahe, and Garrison Reservoir 
areas in South Dakota and North Dakota. Mne detailed technical 
reports were completed during the year and are ready for publication 
when the funds sufficient to cover their cost are available. In addi- 
tion, the first and second drafts of seven technical reports were 
finished. The fuial drafts should be ready early in the next fiscal year. 

As of June 30, 1959, the distribution of the reservoir projects that 
had been surveyed for archeological remains was as follows: Ala- 
bama, 4 ; Arkansas, 1 ; California, 20 ; Colorado, 24 ; Georgia, 8 ; Idaho, 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 63 

11; Illinois, 2; Iowa, 3; Kansas, 10; Kentucky, 2; Louisiana, 
2; Minnesota, 1; Mississippi, 1; Montana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New 
Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 13; Ohio, 2; Oklahoma, 7; Oregon, 27; 
Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Carolina, 1 ; South Dakota, 10 ; Tennessee, 4 ; 
Texas, 19 ; Virginia, 2 ; Washington, 11 ; West Virginia, 2 ; Wyoming, 
22. 

Excavations were made or were underway in reservoir basins in: 
Arkansas, 1 ; California, 5 ; Colorado, 1 ; Iowa, 1 ; Georgia, 7 ; Kansas, 
5; Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 4; 
Oklahoma, 2 ; Oregon, 4 ; South Carolina, 2 ; South Dakota, 4 ; Texas, 
7 ; Virginia, 1 ; Washington, 4 ; West Virginia, 1 ; Wyoming, 2. Only 
the work of Eiver Basin Surveys or that which was in direct coopera- 
tion between the Surveys and local institutions is included in the 
preceding figures. Investigations carried on under agreements be- 
tween the National Park Service and State and local institutions have 
not been included because complete information about them is not 
available. 

Throughout the year helpful cooperation was received from the 
National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, Corps of Engi- 
neers and other Army personnel, and various State and local insti- 
tutions. The Corps of Engineers provided transportation and guides 
for work in one of the reservoir areas and the Commanding Officer 
at Fort Benning in Georgia assigned certain Army personnel to as- 
sist in some of the investigations made in that portion of the Walter 
F. George Eeservoir basin which lies in the Fort Bemiing Reserva- 
tion. Helicopters were also furnished on several occasions to enable 
the archeologists to take aerial photographs of several sites in the 
reservoir area. In the Missouri Basin temporary headquarters and 
living accommodations were provided at several projects and storage 
space was made available so that much of the field equipment could be 
left at Pierre, S. Dak., during the winter months. The construction 
agency lent mechanical equipment in several instances to assist in 
heavy excavation and the backfilling of trenches and test pits. The 
various party leaders from the River Basin Surveys were given as- 
sistance by field personnel of all the agencies and the work was greatly 
expedited as a result. The National Park Service continued to serve 
as the liaison between the various agencies in the field as well as in 
Washington. The estimates and justifications for the funds needed 
to carry on the salvage program were also prepared by the Park 
Service. In Georgia the University of Georgia, the Georgia Histori- 
cal Commission, and various local clubs and gi'oups of citizens were 
particularly helpful to the parties working along the Chattahoochee 
River. 



64 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

The main office in Washington continued general supervision of 
the program, while the field headquarters and laboratory at Lincoln, 
Nebr., was responsible for the activities in the Missouri Basin, and 
in addition provided equipment and office assistance for the parties 
engaged in the Chattahoochee River project. The materials collected 
by excavating parties in the Missouri Basin, as well as those from 
the Chattahoochee Basin, were processed at the Lincoln laboratory. 

Washinffton office. — The main headquarters of the River Basin Sur- 
veys at the Bureau of American Ethnology continued under the 
direction of Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. As previously men- 
tioned, Carl F. Miller, archeologist, was detailed to the regular 
Bureau staff for the period July 3 to December 14, 1958. After 
his return to the River Basin Surveys staff, Mr. Miller completed 
the final revision of his report on the "Archeology of the John H. 
Kerr Reservoir, Southern Virginia and Northern North Carolina." 
The report includes a summary of the many sites located during the 
course of the original survey of the area, as well as detailed informa- 
tion on those which were excavated by Mr. Miller. After submit- 
ting the John H. Kerr report, Mr. Miller began work on the final 
report pertaining to the investigations that he made at the Hoster- 
man site (38P07) in the Oahe Reservoir area. South Dakota, dur- 
ing a previous field season. The report was approximately one-half 
complete at the end of the year. During the winter and spring- 
months Mr. Miller spoke before several teachers' organizations in the 
Washington area, addressed a meeting of the Narragansett Archeo- 
logical Society at Providence, R.I., the Archeological Society of 
Virginia in Richmond, and the Southern Branch of the Archeologi- 
cal Society of Maryland at Bethesda, Md. Most of his talks pertained 
to the Russell Cave explorations, although the one given at Bethesda 
compared the materials from the John H. Kerr Reservoir with those 
from the Shepard Barracks site in Maryland where excavations were 
carried on by the Maryland Society. In June, Mr. Miller read proof 
on an article about Russell Cave, which is to appear in a book on 
National Parks and Monuments in the United States being issued 
by the National Geographic Society. In January Mr. Miller received 
the Franklin L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society 
in "recognition of his outstanding contributions to the science of 
geography and early American history through the archeological 
investigations of Russell Cave, Alabama." At the end of the fiscal 
year Mr. Miller was working in the Washington office. 

On October 13, 1958, Harold A. Huscher was transferred from 
the Missouri Basin project to the Chattahoochee River project. He 
was under the general supervision of the Washington office but con- 
tinued to work at the headquarters in Lincoln, Nebr., where he 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 65 

completed reports on the surveys made during the previous year at 
the Oliver and Columbia Eeservoir projects on the Chattalioocliee 
River. He also virtually completed the first draft of his preliminary 
appraisal of the archeological explorations in the Walter F. George 
Reservoir area. In early February, Mr. Huscher returned to the 
Chattahoochee Basin and from then until late June carried on a 
series of investigations in the Columbia and Walter F. George Res- 
ervoir basins. While working in Alabama and Georgia, Mr. Huscher 
spoke before numerous clubs and local groups, took part in several 
radio broadcasts devoted to archeological problems along the Chatta- 
hoochee River, and appeared on several TV broadcasts. He returned 
to the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr., on June 30. 

In February, Robert W. Neuman and George H. Smith were trans- 
ferred to the Chattahoochee River project and under general direc- 
tion from the Washington office proceeded to that area. Mr. Neu- 
man, during the period February 9 to June 23, carried on excavations 
in the vicinity of the Columbia Dam axis in Georgia and did test 
digging in one large mound on the Alabama side of the river. While 
in Georgia, Mr. Neuman spoke before various local clubs and groups 
of interested citizens. He also appeared on a TV interview pertain- 
ing to the salvage program and spoke before the Macon, Ga., Archeo- 
logical Society. He returned to the field headquarters at Lincoln, 
Nebr., on June 27. Mr. Smith worked at two locations in the Walter 
F. George Reservoir area, one in Georgia and one in Alabama. He 
also talked before a number of local organizations. Mr. Smith 
returned to the field headquarters on Jiuie 17. 

Alabama-Georgia. — During the period February through June a 
series of test excavations was carried on at a number of sites in the 
areas to be flooded by the Columbia Dam and Lock and the Walter F. 
George Dam and Lock. Robert W. Neuman worked in seven sites 
on the Georgia side of the Chattahoochee River in the vicinity of the 
Columbia Dam axis. Six of the sites dated from the Archaic period 
and extended into Middle Woodland times. The seventh site on the 
Georgia side represented a historic Creek occupation dating about 
A.D. 1830. A good collection of materials was obtained from all 
these sites and the specimens will aid materially in working out the 
cultural stages in that area. On the Alabama side of the river Mr. 
Neuman excavated in the remains of a large mound which was being- 
destroyed by the river. Some work had been done there many years 
ago by Clarence W. Moore, but there was little information pertain- 
ing to the general character of the mound. Mr. Neuman obtained 
information relative to the method of its construction and several 
stages in its growth. Further work is contemplated at the site. 



66 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Harold A. Huscher carried on a series of excavations in four sites 
on the axis of the Columbia Dam 23/2 miles below Columbia, Ala. 
The area is one of extensive sandy bottoms and, with minor varia- 
tions, the sites produce Weeden Island pottery types in the surface 
levels and to a depth of about 2 feet. There is also a scattering of 
Stallings Island potsherds, steatite fragments, and large heavy- 
stemmed projectile points down to about 4i/^ feet below the surface. 
Some of the flint flakes and points from the deeper levels have been 
completely altered chemically to a chalky residue. Similar points 
were fomid previously on the Macon plateau by Dr. A. E. Kelley 
and were described by him in Anthropological Paper No. 1, which 
appeared in Bulletin 119 of the Bureau. Mr. Huscher made maps 
and detailed excavation plans for these sites. 

Construction work was underway on the Walter F. George Dam 
in early February and Mr. Huscher made a series of 10- by 10-foot 
test excavations in three sites which were threatened with immedi- 
ate damage. One of them at the Georgia end of the dam axis yielded 
a variety of trade goods, including the mechanism of a flintlock. 
The site probably represents the location of a Creek village of about 
A.D. 1800. Another site on the Georgia side, a short distance above 
the dam, and one on the Alabama end of the dam axis, produced 
plain Early Mississippian pottery. The material from the Alabama 
site indicated pottery with angled-loop handles similar to the ware 
that has been called Bibb Plain. The pottery from the Georgia 
site had flat strap handles with vertical incised decoration. The 
pottery characteristics are so definite that it is possible to correlate 
the wares with those from other sites in the general area. 

Mr. Huscher later moved upstream and began the investigation of 
two sites on the Fort Benning Military Eeservation. One of them 
on the Georgia side is an Early Lamar site and seems to contain a 
single "pure" component. The site had been destroyed to a large 
extent by Army bulldozers building a road, but trenches in two 
separate remnants revealed post-hole patterns that apparently rep- 
resented two rectangular houses. A nearby midden area yielded a 
good representative sample of pottery types associated with the 
houses. The second site was on the Alabama side of the river just 
north of Uchee Creek. It is a Swift Creek-Weeden Island site and 
has an older underlying level. Sgt. David W. Chase, curator of the 
Infantry Museum at Fort Benning, Ga., had done some work there, 
and because of the evidence he had obtained, indicating that it would 
be a type site for the Swift Creek-Weeden Island phase of Middle 
Woodland in the area, it was extensively tested by the Huscher party. 
Beneath the Middle Woodland levels in a portion of the site there is 
a bed of white sand which has yielded fiber-tempered potsherds of 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 67 

the Stallings Island type and fragments from steatite vessels. This 
stratigraphic evidence augments that found in other locations along 
the river. Sergeant Chase turned over to the River Basin Surveys 
party extensive notes and collections resulting from his previous 
work at both sites. He also assisted Mr. Huscher in making detailed 
plane-table maps of the sites and plans of the excavations. 

G. Hubert Smith excavated in two historic sites in the Walter F. 
George Reservoir Basin, One of them on the Georgia side of the 
river was the location of the village of Roanoke, a colonial settlement 
that had originally been occupied by Creek Indians but was subse- 
quently taken over by the whites who lived there from 1831 until the 
community was destroyed by Indians in May 1836. Because of the 
long period in which the area was under heavy cultivation, Mr. Smith 
was unable to determine the settlement pattern or to obtain outlines 
for any of the village structures. He did, however, obtain an ex- 
tensive collection of specimens attributable both to the white occupa- 
tion and that by the Indians. Careful study of the material may 
provide information that will be useful in dating some of the other 
late Indian sites along the river. From the Roanoke site Mr. Smith 
went to one on the Alabama side in Russell County, which was the 
location of a fort built and occupied by the Spaniards from 1689 to 
1691. The fort loiown as Apalachicola was probably the most north- 
ern outpost of the Spanish occupation in the Southeast and was 
erected for the purpose of stemming the southward expansion of 
the English. The Spaniards possibly did not occupy the fort con- 
tinuously, but lived at times in an adjacent Indian village. The fort 
was destroyed by the Spaniards to prevent its fallmg into the hands 
of English traders from the Carolinas who were operating among 
the Creek Indians. Mr. Smith did not dig in the fort proper but 
confined his investigations to the area immediately surrounding it in 
order to delimit the extent of the fortifications and to determine the 
proximity of Indian occupation. The fort remains will not be sub- 
jected to flooding by the Walter F. George Reservoir, but the maxi- 
mum pool level will not be far distant and may damage the remains 
to some extent as a result of seepage. Consequently it is thought that 
a thorough study should be made of the site at a later date. Further- 
more, associations between Spanish and Indian objects will provide 
a helpful checking point in establishing chronology of the area, par- 
ticularly since the exact dates for the fort are known. After complet- 
ing the investigations at the two sites, Mr. Smith assisted Mr. Huscher 
in making detailed plane-table maps and trench plans for both. 

In addition to the test excavations described above, Mr. Huscher 
located and recorded 10 new sites in the Walter F. George and Co- 
lumbia areas and made collections from 46 sites. At the end of the 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

season's work along the Chattahoochee, all the records and collections 
of the three field parties were sent to the laboratory of the River Basin 
Surveys at Lincoln, Nebr., for processing there and for use in the 
preparation of reports on the investigations. 

The only other work by the River Basin Surveys pertaining to 
Georgia was that of Carl F. Miller, who completed a report on tlie 
test digging that he did during the previous year at the Tugaloo site 
in the Hartwell Reservoir area. However, the University of Georgia 
m cooperation with the National Park Service carried on a series of 
investigations in the Oliver Reservoir Basin and at the Standley 
Farm site, also known as Stark's Clay Landing, in the Walter F. 
George Reservoir on the Georgia side of the river. Work was con- 
tinuing at the latter location at the end of the fiscal year. 

Arkansas. — No fieldwork was carried on in Arkansas during the 
year ended June 30, 1959. However, a detailed teclmical report, 
"Archeological Investigations in the Dardanelle Reservoir Area of 
West-Central Arkansas," was completed by Dr. Warren W. Caldwell. 
The report consists of 85 typed pages, 2 maps, 8 plates, and 6 text 
figures. It will be published as a River Basin Surveys paper when 
printing funds for that purpose are available. 

Kansas. — The only work done by the River Basin Surveys pertain- 
ing to Kansas during the fiscal year was the completion of a detailed 
technical report on the excavation of four sites in the Love well Reser- 
voir area on White Rock Creek in Jewell Comity in the north-central 
part of the State. The report was written by Robert W. Neuman and 
is entitled, "Archeological Salvage Investigations in the Love well 
Reservoir Area, Kansas." It consists of 84 typed pages, 12 plates, 
and 3 text figures, and will be published as a River Basin Surveys 
paper. 

The Kansas State Historical Society at Topeka carried on surveys 
and did some test digging in the Pomona and Melvern Reservoir 
areas under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. 
The Pomona Dam is to be built on the 110-Mile Creek, and Melvern 
Dam will be in the Marais de Cygnes River. 

Missouri River Basin. — The Missouri Basin project continued to 
operate from the field headquarters and lahoratory at 1517 O Street, 
Lincoln, N^br. Dr. Robert L. Stephenson served as chief of the 
project throughout the year. Activities included work on all four 
phases of the salvage program: (1) Survey, (2) excavation, (3) anal- 
ysis, and (4) reporting. Most of the effort during the summer months 
was directed toward the second phase, with only minor attention to 
the first phase. The third and fourth phases received the major at- 
tention in the winter months. The special chronology program, be- 
gun last fiscal year, was continued. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 69 

At the beginning of the fiscal year the permanent staff, in addition 
to the chief, consisted of six archeologists (one of whom was on loan 
to the National Park Service), one clerk-stenographer, one file clerk, 
one clerk-typist, one photographer, one illustrator, and four museum 
aides. Temporary employees included 1 archeologist, 1 physical an- 
thropologist, 2 field assistants, 3 cooks, and 90 crewmen. 

During the year, 1 archeologist was transferred to the staff from 
the Chattahoochee Project on July 21, 1 cook joined the temporary 
staff on July 9, and 16 temporary crewmen were added in July. Dur- 
ing the last week of August and the first week of September, all 
temporary crewmen and three cooks were terminated, and one cook 
was transferred from that position to laboratory assistant. The tem- 
porary archeologist was terminated on September 12, and the two 
field assistants were terminated on August 29 and September 5, re- 
spectively. The physical anthropologist was terminated on September 
2, and one museum aide was transferred from full time to half time 
on September 15. The archeologist on temporary-detached duty with 
the National Park Service returned to the pennanent staff on October 
1. One archeologist was transferred on October 13 to the Chatta- 
hoochee Basin project. 

On September 23, one archeologist was assigned temporary-detached 
duty for 8 weeks with the National Park Service to conduct excava- 
tions at Fort Laramie National Monument, Wyo, He returned to the 
Missouri Basin project on November 15. On December 4, one arche- 
ologist was assigned temporary-detached duty for 3 weeks with the 
National Park Service to conduct excavations at George Washington 
Carver National Monument, Mo. He returned to the Missouri Basin 
project on December 21. On February 9, two archeologists were trans- 
ferred for temporary duty with the Cliattahoochee Basin Project. 
They returned to the Missouri Basin project on June 17 and 29, re- 
spectively. One museum aide resigned to take other employment on 
March 20, and one archeologist was permanently transferred to the 
National Park Service on May 30, to join the staff of the Wetherill 
Mesa Research project, Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. During 
June, six temporary crewmen were employed. 

At the end of the fiscal year there were five archeologists, in addi- 
tion to the chief, one administrative assistant, one clerk- stenographer, 
one file clerk, one clerk-typist, one illustrator, one photographer, and 
three museum aides on the permanent staff, and one laboratory assist- 
ant and six crewmen on the temporary staff. 

During the year there were 14 Smithsonian Institution River Basin 
Surveys field parties at work within the Missouri Basin. Of the 14 
Missouri Basin parties, 5 were at work in the Oahe Reservoir area 
during July and August, and 5 others were at work in the Big Bend 



70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Reservoir during July and August. Two small parties were at work 
during December and January, respectively, in brief investigations 
in the Merritt and Big Bend Reservoir areas. One party was at work 
in the Big Bend Reservoir area and a second (mobile) party was 
working in the general Missouri Basin area in June. 

Other fieldwork in the Missouri Basin during the year included 
10 parties from State institutions operating imder cooperative agree- 
ments with the National Park Service and in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution in the Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, in the Oahe Reservoir area. 
Dr. Robert L. Stephenson and a crew of 20 men were engaged in 
excavations at the Sully site (39SL4:). This was the third and final 
season of work at this, the largest of the earth-lodge village sites in 
the Missouri Basin. The site was situated on the second terrace of the 
Missouri River, 21 miles above Pierre, in Sully County, S.Dak. The 
1958 investigations were concentrated largely in the central and east- 
em portions of the site. These, with those of the two preceding 
seasons, provided a reasonably equal sample of features and specimens 
from all portions of the site. Excavation technique differed some- 
what in the 1958 season. During the 1957 season, whole houses were 
excavated, but the surrounding areas outside were not examined. In 
1958 only one house was excavated in this manner. In the other ex- 
cavation units, only half houses were dug, but the surrounding areas 
on three sides of each house were also excavated. In this way portions 
of 19 houses were investigated, with most of the essential structural 
details obtained from all but two of them. Experience of the previous 
seasons' work at this site suggested that more could be learned of the 
total village pattern in this way, and that excavation of complete 
houses was neither necessary nor economically feasible. Besides the 
house areas, half of a ceremonial lodge, two large cache-pit areas, a 
scaffold area, a midden heap, and another portion of the "plaza" were 
also excavated, and two midden areas were tested. Thus all or parts 
of 32 of the nearly 400 houses have been excavated, as have been 3 
of the 4 ceremonial lodges, a scaffold area, several cache-pit areas, 
midden heaps, and a "plaza." Numerous tests were made in an effort 
to locate a fortification ditch or stockade, but none was found. 

Emphasis was placed, in the field, upon securing architectural in- 
formation, and good superposition of varying types of dwelling 
houses was obtained. Two distinct, circular, dwelling-house types 
were present, one with a series of widely spaced large wall posts of 
an early period, and one with a series of small, closely set wall posts 
of a later period. There was considerable variation within each type. 
The earlier type had short entry ways, while the later one had medium- 



Secretary's Report, 1959 



PLATE 1 




1. Seminole settlement In the Everglades. 




2. Digging up edible roots of elephant-ear {Xanthosoma sp.), a plant cultivated 

by the Seminole. 



Secretary's Report, 1959 



Plate 2 




1. Aerial view of a Seminole field in the Everglades. 




■-^T'k^ 



e. II 



"^i niuM I. h M 111 il, ISi- C\ 1 i<_ss Swamp. 



Secretary's Report, 1959 



Plate 3 




1. Excavation ot Feature 1, a portion of a circular house exposed in slump bank along 
Missouri River at the Ziltener Site (39SL10) in the Oahe Reservoir area, South Dakota. 
Most of the house had washed away but the remainder was undisturbed, with a fair 
floor and post holes dug into soft silt. River Basin Surveys. 




— « <*»■<». 



i^''"^' 










1. Crew cxca\'ating remains at the 'rVuniaii Mmuik! Siie (.•)9BF224), a irrfiup of six 
burial mounds of the pre-earth-lodge peoples an the Big Bend Reservoir area. South 
Dakota. River Basin Survevs. 



Secretary's Report, 1 959 



Plate 4 







(See legend on opposite page.) 



Plate 4 

Representative examples of pottery vessels from various sites in the Missouri Basin, 
(a) From site 2SFT17, an Aksarben Aspect site in Medicine Creek Reservoir, Nebraska, 
(b) From Leavitt Site (39ST215), Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota, (c) From White Swan 
Mound Site (39CH9), a Woodland Site In Fort Randall Reservoir, South Dakota, (d) From 
Leavitt Site (39ST215). (e) Stanley Tool Impressed vessel from Phillips Ranch Site 
(39ST14), Oahe Reservoir, (f) From Leavitt Site (39ST215). (g) Colombe Collared 
Rim vessel from Phillips Ranch Site (39ST14). (h) Foreman Cord Impressed vessel from 
Dodd Site (39ST30), Oahe Reservoir, (i) Mitchell Broad Trailed vessel from Dodd Site 
(39ST30). (j) From Cheyenne River Site (39ST1), Oahe Reservoir, (k) Stanley Braced 
Rim vessel from Dodd Site (39ST30). (1) Truman Plain Rim vessel from Truman 
Mounds Site (39BF224), Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota, (m) From White Swan 
Mound Site (39CH9). (n) From Site (48FR84), Boysen Reservoir, Wyoming. Only 
known restored vessel from Wyoming. (o) From Leavitt Site ('39ST21S). 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 71 

to-long entiyways. The earlier houses were of rather uniform size 
(about S6 feet in diameter), while the later ones ranged from 19 
feet to 47 feet in diameter. A unique feature was the presence of two 
concentrically superimposed ceremonial lodges, using almost the same 
floor level. One was 77 feet in diameter, superimposed upon one that 
was 61: feet in diameter. All the large ceremonial lodges excavated 
at the Sully site (as well as several of the lat^r dwelling houses) were 
actually polyhedral rather tha^i round, and had between 9 and 12 
sides. 

All occupations of this site were relatively late, with both major 
components (additional minor components have yet to be differenti- 
ated) in the circular-house tradition and probably relating to the 
period between roughly A.D. 1600 and 1750. The potteiy sample 
and other artifact inventory is large and varied, but no assessment 
of it has been made at this time. This field party disbanded on Au- 
gust 23, after 10 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basm Survej;^ field party in the Oahe Ee-servoir 
area consisted of a crew of eight men, under the leadership of William 
M. Bass III, physical anthropologist. This party devoted the major 
part of the season to excavations in the burial areas of the Sully site 
(39SL4) . This was a continuation of work begun in 1957 on a some- 
what smaller scale. Work was concentrated ui three areas (Features 
218, 219, and 220) and 161 burials were recovered, bringing the num- 
ber of burials excavated at the Sully site to 224. Only a preliminary 
analysis of the skeletal remains has been made. Bodies were interred 
in shallow oval pits dug into an old surface about 1 foot below the 
current soil level. Burials were predominantly flexed or semiflexed 
and oriented with the head toward the west or northwest. A group 
burial, recovered from Feature 218, appears to be the remnant of a 
scaffold burial. Many of the graves had a covering of small poles, 
but few had grave goods included. The grave goods that were re- 
covered included pottery vessels, ornaments, and an occasional cat- 
linite pipe. 

The Bass party, in addition to work at the Sully site, excavated 
nine rock-cairn burials at the Whistling Hawk site (39SL39), a 
rather ephemeral site on the same terrace 2 miles east of the Sully 
site. Burials were found in each cairn, but significant skeletal re- 
mains were scanty, as most of the bones were badly deteriorated. 
Artifacts with these burials were few. 

At the end of the field season, the Bass party devoted a shoi-t period 
to the excavation and collection of a group of burials and associated 
artifacts from a site (39YK202) recently discovered in the course of 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service construction work near the Gavins 
Point Dam. Only the prompt action and complete cooperation 

524591—59 6 



72 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

of the Commission, the local contractor, the Corps of Engineer's, 
members of the Yankton College staff, the National Park Service, 
and the Smithsonian Institution made this salvage operation success- 
ful. The burials proved to be of a group of Woodland people and 
included an appreciable number of personal ornaments, as well as a 
good series of skeletal remains. This party disibanded on August 23, 
after 8 weeks in the field. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Oahe Reservoir area 
at the beginning of the year was comprised of a crew of 10 men under 
(he direction of Charles H. McNutt. This party conducted excava- 
tions at a series of sites in the Fielder Bottom-Telegraph Flat area 
near the Sully site. The work was a continuation of excavations be- 
gun the season before, designed to sample the smaller sites in the 
immediate vicinity of the Sully site, in order to round out the story 
of the prehistoric occupations of this once heavily populated area. 
At the Sully School site (39SL7), one house was excavated in its 
entirety, and portions of four more houses were exposed. Three test 
trenches were cut across the fortification ditch, and a large series of 
midden tests, cache pits, and subsidiary features were excavated. Be- 
cause of the two seasons' work there the total artifact sample is ex- 
tensive. The architectural information recovered is less satisfactory. 
The gumbo fill present in many of the features made it extremely 
difficult to determine structural characteristics. Two occupations were 
present, one represented by rectangular houses and pottery similar 
to that from the Thomas Riggs site, the other by circular houses and 
pottery in the La Roche tradition. Only part of the site was fortified. 
The rectangular-house occupation was confined within the fortifica- 
tion ditch, but the circular-house occupation was found both within 
and without the ditch. There is additional ceramic evidence that the 
fortification probably dates from the former, rather than from the 
latter, occupation. 

The Ziltener site (39SL10) was located along a treeless cutbank 
of the Missouri River bottoms approximately 3 miles southeast of 
the Sully site. Informants had reported that a number of skulls and 
artifacts were eroded from the bank from time to time by the annual 
spring rises in the river. The bank was carefully watched for several 
seasons by River Basin Surveys parties, but with little success. In 
1958 a storage pit and a house profile were visible, and a small cache 
was found where it had slumped from the cutbank. The remainder 
of the house and the storage pit were excavated. The house was 
circular, and the pottery of the La Roche tradition. 

The Nolz site (39SL40) was located on a terrace remnant below 
and somewhat to the southwest of the Sully site. Three very faint 
house depressions were visible as surface features. Two of these 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 73 

were trenched and. the third M^as half excavated. Central hearths 
were found in all cases. Three additional tests were made on the 
site. Artifact recovery was fair, but architectural data were poorlj'- 
represented, owing to the shallow depth of fill above house floors 
and the clayey nature of the soil. The houses were probably circular 
and the pottery in the La Roche tradition. 

The Zimmerman site (39SL41), located on the same terrace as the 
Nolz site, consisted of a village area marked by about 40 large round- 
to-oval depressions. One rectangular house was excavated com- 
pletely, and half the fill of a second was removed. A midden area and 
12 cache pits were also excavated. There was no indication of the 
presence of any other component. Three exploratory trenches were 
dug, in an effort to find a fortification ditch, but no satisfactory ditch 
profile was discovered. The total data indicate that this was a single- 
component site, characterized by long-rectangular houses and Thomas 
Riggs pottery. 

The Glasshoff site (39SL42) was situated on the Zimmerman-Nolz 
terrace below the west end of the Sully site. According to an in- 
formant, the area was once used for cavalry exercises by Fort Sully 
personnel. In the past, sherds were collected from the surface there, 
and one test excavation (1953) had provided additional evidence 
of aboriginal occupation. No well-defined house depressions were 
apparent, but several surface anomalies were visible. Wherever tested, 
they proved to be the result of activities attributable to the occupa- 
tion of Fort Sully in the late 19th century. Trenching during the 
1958 season yielded historic specimens, a cache pit, and a part, of an 
aboriginal dwelling. The latter was fomid on the last day of the 
field season. Artifact recovery was fair, and although some archi- 
tectural features were well preserved, few details were discernible. 
Pottery is simple-stamped and somewhat like the Thomas Riggs 
materials, but it appears to be a distinctive variant. 

Site 39SL27, a large, unnamed site on Telegraph Flat, 1 mile east 
of the Sully site, has several visible but shallow "house" depressions. 
Three small pits dug in the centers of depressions yielded neither 
artifacts nor architectural features. Additional work is needed at 
this site. 

The Whistling Hawk site (39SL39) comprised a large area along 
the edge of Telegraph Flat terrace, east of 39SL27. A single pit 
excavated into a deep (house?) depression yielded no artifacts or 
architecture, although the Bass party excavated rock-cairn burials 
at the site. 

Two sites not situated in Fielder Bottom were also tested. Site 
39SL19 was a low-lying area in the Little Bend region, 18 miles 
upstream from the Sully site. Two small, shallow pits were dug to 



74 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

examine the fill, and the site was walked carefully. 'No indication of 
a village and no cultural material were found on the surface. This 
area will probably be flooded in 1959 and no further efforts there 
seem justified. The Pitlick site (39HU16), 8 miles downstream from 
the Sully site, is the northernmost site in the Peoria Bottom group. 
It will not be flooded in 1959, but will probably slmnp badly. Two 
large trenches and two deep test pits were excavated. One trench 
cut through the shoulder and floor of a house, the other through a 
fortification ditch. One of the deep test pits may have cut through 
a house floor. No artifacts were recovered at the site. This party 
disbanded on August 23, following 10 weeks in the field. The Stephen- 
son, Bass, and McNutt field parties shared camp facilities near the 
Sully site in Fielder Bottom. 

The fourth River Basin Surveys field party in the Oahe Reservoir 
area consisted of a crew of nine, directed by Richard P. Wheeler. It 
investigated a series of sites on the right bank of the Missouri River 
in the Fort Bennett area, 36 river milas above Pierre, Stanley 
County, S. Dak. The principal effort was directed toward excava- 
tions at the H. P. Thomas site (39ST12). A total of 60 circular 
earth-lodge depressions is apparent in area 1 of the site, and 21 
depressions are suggested in area 2. Three lodges were excavated 
in area 1 and two in area 2. Overburden was removed from six addi- 
tional lodges by bulldozer, and four dozer-cut trenches were carried 
across the moats in each area. Three midden deposits in area 1 were 
excavated, one containing a fragment of the floor pattern of a house. 
Three of the suggested five components appear to be assignable to 
the Snake Butte, Stanley, and Anderson-Monroe Foci, as defined by 
Lehmer for the Oahe Dam area. 

At the Agency Creek site (39ST41), adjacent to site 39ST12, seven 
small test pits and one bulldozer trench were excavated. Since time 
did not permit detailed investigation of these sample excavations, 
little can be said of the cultural implications of the site, although 
laboratory analyses of the artifacts will prove informative. Addi- 
tional tests were made at the Lounsbury site (39ST42) and at the 
Ramsey site (39ST236), the latter situated midway between 39ST41 
and 39ST42. At the Lounsbury site, test pits were excavated into the 
centers of two circular-house depressions, exposing the central 
hearths. The overburden was bulldozed from the surface of one 
house, but the structure was not fully excavated. The Ramsey site 
appears to be a series of middens only, and a stratigraphic cut, 5 feet 
by 10 feet, provided an abundance of artifacts but no house remains. 
These test excavations at the Agency Creek, Lounsbury, and Ramsey 
sites yielded thin, horizontally incised rim sherds and simple-stamped 
body sherds characteristic of the Bennett Focus as suggested earlier 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 75 

at the Black Widow (39ST3) and Meyers (39ST10) sites. This party 
disbanded on August 25 and returned to the headquarters in Lincoln 
after 10 weeks in the field. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys field party in the Oahe Reservoir 
area began work on July 25. It consisted of Harold A. Huscher and 
a crew of two men and worked primarily on the left bank of the 
Missouri River in Stanley County, S. Dak. This survey-mapping- 
testing crew investigated a series of six sites along Black Widow 
Ridge, 3 to 6 miles above the H. P. Thomas site, mapping and testing 
each. They are sites 39ST25, 39ST50, 39ST3 (Black Widow), 
39ST49, 39ST203, and 39ST201. The Huscher party mapped all four 
sites being excavated by the Wheeler party, 39ST12, 39ST41, 39ST42, 
and 39ST236, and mapped and tested three other sites some 10 miles 
below the H. P. Thomas site. These are sites 39ST37, 39ST38, and 
39ST39. In addition, this party mapped and assisted the McNutt 
crew in testing the Pitlick site (39HU16) on the left bank of the 
Missouri River. Huscher was severely injured in a fall from a photo- 
graphic ladder on August 24, thus terminating the work of this 
field party after 4 weeks in the field. Following 514 weeks in the 
hospital and another month of recuperation, he returned to duty on 
October 13. The Wheeler and Huscher parties shared a joint field 
camp near Fort Bennett. 

In the Big Bend Reservoir area there were five River Basin Surveys 
field parties at work at the beginning of the fiscal year. The first con- 
sisted of a crew of 12 men under the direction of William N. Irving 
and included an assistant trained in geology to aid in investigations 
of stratigraphic terrace sequences relating to the geological-archeo- 
logical interpretations of the sites and their immediate vicinity. This 
party concentrated its efforts on the excavation of the early occupa- 
tions of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2) , begun last season, and other 
preceramic sites in the immediate vicinity. These sites are located 
near Old Fort Thompson on the left bank of the Missouri River, in 
or near the construction area of the Big Bend Dam, Buffalo County, 
S. Dak. At the Medicine Crow site, three major occupation zones, 
each containing two or more components, are distinguishable on the 
basis of the vertical distribution of point types within a 3- to 6- 
foot section of primarily aeolian silt. The basal section of a small 
fluted point was found in the lowermost occupation zone. From 
the same zone, however, came points that resemble those of the Fron- 
tier Complex, and others suggesting a long temporal range for the 
basal portion of the deposit. 

Additional investigations were made at two sites, 39BF238 and 
39BF250, that had not been recorded previously, and at the Aiken 
site (39BF215). Only at the latter were immediately significant re- 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

suits obtained. Limited excavations there indicated five occupational 
layers and two well-defined, buried soils. At least two ceramic hori- 
zons are present, in the upper levels, one with simple-stamped or plain 
pottery, the other with cord-marked body sherds. Several additional 
occupations, in stratigraphically earlier positions, have yielded 
neither pottery nor other diagnostic artifacts. The great depth of 
deposit and the presence of buried soils may make possible a consid- 
erable refinement in the stratigraphy of late preceramic remains in 
the Big Bend Eeservoir area. Geological investigations carried on 
by Alan H. Coogan in the area of the lower portion of this reservoir 
were intended to obtain information bearing upon chronology and 
the environmental sequence of the Medicine Crow, Aiken, and other 
early sites in the area. The possibilities for correlation of terrace, 
moraine, and other depositional features appear to be excellent. The 
Irving party disbanded on September 4 and returned to the Lincoln 
headquarters after 13 weeks in the field. 

The second River Basin Surveys party in the field in the Big Bend 
Reservoir area was a crew of 11 men under the direction of James 
J. F. Deetz. This party spent the entire season in excavation of the 
late (village occupation) components (areas B and C) of the Medi- 
cine Crow site (39BF2). The work was done in conjunction with 
that of the Irving party in an effort to provide a comprehensive pic- 
ture of the site as a whole. In all, 16 houses were completely exca- 
vated, and 4 were tested with varying intensity. Included within the 
houses were 16 cache pits. Eleven cache pits were excavated in the 
interhouse living areas. A single burial was recovered. Three well- 
defined components have been established for the ceramic period of 
this site and a fourth, less adequately outlined component is proposed. 
The Stanley Component (latest) is characterized by a predominance 
of Stanley Braced Rim pottery ; circular houses, 25 to 30 feet in diam- 
eter with hard, light-colored floors; mortar pits; and absence of 
interior cache pits. Five domestic and four specialized house struc- 
tures are included in this component. The specialized houses were 
grouped about a "plaza" and included a ceremonial lodge, 50 feet in 
diameter, with an altar, plastered floor, and silled entrance. The 
Fort Thompson Component resembles that at the Oacoma site, but 
may be somewhat later. Talking Crow ware predominates. Houses 
range from 35 to 40 feet in diameter, have vaguely defined floors, 
in-floor caches, and lack mortar pits. Four such structures were 
excavated during the 1958 season. There were two cases of superim- 
position, with Stanley houses above Fort Thompson houses. A third, 
unnamed, component is represented by a series of large bell-shaped 
cache pits excavated in area C. These affiliate most closely with the 
Two Teeth site (39BF204) a short distance to the southeast. Talking 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 77 

Crow Straight Kim pottery predominates. The fourth component, 
occurring in area A, is represented by a house with an indistinct post 
pattern buried in Stanley and Fort Thompson refuse. The associated 
ceramics are varied, and at this time no definite assessment can be 
made of them. 

The investigations in areas A and C at the Medicine Crow site 
represent the first clear-cut Stanley occupation excavated south of 
the Oahe Reservoir. It is also important to note that a temporal re- 
lationship can now be established between the components involved. 
European trade materials found in association with Stanley features 
may be helpful in providing absolute dates for the latest occupation. 
The Deetz party terminated fieldwork on August 30 after 12 weeks 
in the field. 

The third River Basin Surveys party in the Big Bend Reservoir was 
comprised of a crew of 10 men, under the leadership of Robert W. 
Neuman. This party excavated or tested a series of four sites in the 
vicinity of Old Fort Thompson and three sites on the right bank of 
the Missouri River, in and adjacent to Good Soldier and Counselor 
Creeks. All seven sites are within the dam-construction area. The 
initial effort was devoted to the Akichita site (39BF221) located in 
the Missouri River bottoms adjacent to Old Fort Thompson. The 
site had been tested during the 1957 season, but although extensive 
evidence of occupation was recovered, no house structures were found. 
A network of five extended test trenches, excavated during the 1958 
season, was equally unsuccessful in locating habitations. Cache pits 
were the only structures uncovered. The artifact collection is exten- 
sive, and shows clear relationship to the Anderson-Monroe material 
from the Dodd site (39ST30) near Pierre, S.Dak. At site 39BF220, 
situated about 1 mile west of the Akichita site, much of the occupa- 
tion area has been washed into the river. Two excavation units, each 
30 feet by 50 feet, produced only a limited artifact return. However, 
a number of pottery types were recovered. The inventory suggests 
that the site was occupied by circular-house people. 

The Truman Mound site (39BF224) , also m the Old Fort Thompson 
area, on the first terrace overlooking the river, was revisited for a 
second season in order to excavate the remaining two of the six mounds 
originally present there. The mounds, 1 to 2 feet in height, 50 feet 
in diameter, contained two types of burials : (1) secondary interm.ents 
in shallow circular pits, (2) primary burials in deep oval pits. Arti- 
fact material recovered from the site suggests Woodland affiliation, 
but the conical-shaped vessels excavated are clearly simple-stamped, 
rather than the "Woodland cord-marked type. In a stratum beneath, 
and not associated with the mounds, excavations recovered a number 
of stone artifacts. The most diagnostic type is represented by a tri- 



78 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

angular point with a concave base. In the same stratum were ovoid 
knives, crude scrapers, a long-stemmed drill, hand-size cobbles, and 
fragments of bison bone. No pottery w^as in association. Site 
39BF270, located about 2 miles west of 39BF224, consisted of four 
low circular mounds, three of which were excavated. The recovered 
artifacts compare closely with those from the Trmnan Mound site. 

At site 39LM238, on the west side of the Missouri at the mouth 
of Good Soldier Creek, where the west abutment of the dam is to be 
built, a large "mound" was extensively cross-trenched and a series of 
test pits were excavated in an effort to locate village remains. The 
"mound" proved to be of natural origin ( 165 feet long, 90 feet wide, 
5 feet high) but capped by two occupational deposits separated strat- 
igraphically by a stratum of sterile yellow silt. The upper component 
contained simple-stamped pottery, triangular points, scattered post 
molds (many with bone wedges), and a few shallow firepits. The 
lower component contained cord-paddled pottery, large side-notched 
points, shallow basin-shaped firepits, and a large rock-filled hearth. 
A small rock shelter (39LM239), located about a mile and a half 
upstream from Good Soldier Creek, was briefly tested. It was 
thought that this site might possibly be the "Truteau Cave," histori- 
cally known to have been used as winter quarters by the trader Tru- 
teau in 1794. Excavation demonstrated the shelter to be sterile of 
any cultural material. Site 39LM6, a deeply buried, multicomponent 
village site at the mouth of Counselor Creek, 3 miles upstream from 
site 39LM238, was visited, and an eroding cache pit excavated. Some 
additional collecting was done, but no further excavation was at- 
tempted. The Neuman party terminated fieldwork on August 22, 
after 14 weeks in the field. The Neuman, Irving, and Deez parties 
shared camp facilities near the Brule Landing, 5 miles upstream from 
Old Fort Thompson. 

A fourth Eiver Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Eeser- 
voir area consisted of nine men, directed by Bernard Golden. This 
party conducted excavations at the Hickey Brothers site (39LM4), 
located on the right (west) side of the Missouri River, about 7 miles 
north of the Lower Brule Agency. The site is situated on the first 
terrace above the river, just north of the constricted neck of the Little 
Bend. The occupation area is delineated by a well-preserved fortifica- 
tion ditch. The latter is "coffin shaped" in plan, with bastions at 
the corners and in the intervening runs of wall. A single corner 
bastion was excavated, exposing a shallow moat backed by a pendulum 
loop of stockade posts. The stockade line was further verified along 
one of the long walls, and a series of 25 test pits was excavated to 
sample the body of the site. Four of the shallow "house" depressions 
within the fortification were tested by area excavation and trenching. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 79 

Results were limited, A relatively constant stratigraphy was re- 
vealed, but no aboriginal habitations were located with certainty. At 
least one hearth and other evidences of very localized "camp" areas 
were excavated, but artifacts were remarkably scarce. A limited 
number of potsherds (Stanley, Thomas Riggs) constitute the most 
distinctive material. A portion of the site had been disturbed by 
recent farming activities, but at best it does not seem to have been 
heavily occupied. This crew terminated fieldwork on August 20, 
after 10 weeks in the field. 

The fifth River Basin Surveys field party in the Big Bend Reser- 
voir area had a crew of 14 men under the leadership of Dr. Warren 
"W. Caldwell. Work of this party consisted of excavations at two 
sites immediately to the south of the Hickey Brothers site, on the 
first terrace of the Missouri River. The major portion of the season 
was devoted to continuing excavations begun in the 1957 season at 
the Black Partizan site (39LM218), a large multicomponent earth- 
lodge village, situated one-fourth mile south of the Hickey Brothers 
site. Four houses within the fortification ditch were exposed. In 
addition, deep cross sections of the moat were cut at two places, and 
two extensive midden areas were sampled by trenching. Several 
differing house patterns were recovered. The most distinctive con- 
sisted of a small (18-foot diameter) square(?) house with rounded 
corners, large intramural cache pits, and a dearth of house posts. 
Thomas Riggs pottery was characteristic. Two circular houses were 
exposed, one 35 feet in diameter, the other 29 feet in diameter. The 
larger, containing many bone and stone-wedged post holes, overlay 
a large rectangular house. Associated cache pits are probably at- 
tributable to the latter structure rather than to the former. Braced 
rims and typical Thomas Riggs rims are both present. The smaller 
circular house was characterized by an abnormally large group of 
in-floor cache pits. The pottery sample is varied and much of it may 
predate the house. 

The deep midden debris overlying much of the site contained pot- 
tery rim sherds with horizontal trailed or incised decoration. Be- 
neath the midden, a series of large cache pits produced an abundance 
of Talking Crow pottery. The fortification ditch varies from 12 to 
15 feet in width and from 4 to 6 feet in depth, and contains both 
water- deposited silt and midden fill. The latter normally contains 
cord-marked body sherds and a scattering of mammal bone. 

At site 39M215, lying between the Black Partizan and the 
Plickey Brothers sites, only a single house was excavated. Site 
39LM215 physically overlaps both of the latter sites. The two houses 
dug at 39LM218 in 1957 appear to be associated with it. The single 
structure excavated this year was characterized by Talking Crow 



80 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

pottery and an abundance of sheet-copper fragments. This party 
broke camp and returned to the Lincohi headquarters on August 12, 
after 9 weeks in the field. The Caldwell and Golden parties shared 
a joint field camp, situated adjacent to the sites under excavation. 

The practice of using joint field camps of two or three parties 
each has, in the past two seasons, proved very economical and efficient. 
Combining of activities and expenses of several parties and the con- 
sequent reduction in total quantity of field equipment, vehicles, nmn- 
ber of cooks, and other expenses constitute a major saving. Having 
several archeologists in a single camp is of great help in discussions 
pertaining to excavation methods and general archeological 
interpretations. 

During the winter months two very brief Missouri Basin project 
field parties were at work in the Missouri Basin. William N. Irving 
visited the Merritt Reservoir area and the nearby vicinity in north- 
central Nebraska from December 2 through December 7. This one- 
man party made extensive examinations of a number of the small 
Sandhills lakes for possible localities in which to collect fossil pollen. 
This was in connection with building a master pollen profile which 
will aid in interpreting the archeological sequences at sites in the Big 
Bend Reservoir and other reservoir areas in the central portion of 
the Missouri Basin. A second purpose of the trip was to determine 
whether recent construction activity in the Merritt Reservoir area was 
endangering any pre^dously unknown archeological remains. The 
potentialities for collecting fossil pollen looked very favorable, but 
actual collecting had to await colder weather when the lakes would be 
frozen over. No new archeological material that would be disturbed 
by work within the Merritt Reservoir area was noted. 

The second wintertime River Basin Surveys field party within the 
Missouri Basin consisted of William N. Irving and Lee G. Madison, 
who were in the field from January 19 through the 30th. This party 
was accompanied hj Dr. Paul B, Sears, pollen specialist from Yale 
University, who kindly volunteered his services in order to assist in 
this important aspect of the salvage program. The group visited the 
vicinity of the Big Bend Reservoir area and collected an extensive 
series of pond-deposit samples for pollen analysis. Dr. Sears has 
kindly agreed to analyze these samples for fossil pollen, and in fact 
has already begun such analyses. At least one core sample has pro- 
vided a long pollen sequence, and others look promising. If a master 
profile can be established from these and other samples, it will assist 
greatly in identifying the vegetations and climates of past ages. By 
superimposing the pollen samples from archeological sites excavated 
in the Big Bend and other related reservoir areas upon this master 
pollen profile, climatic and ecological contexts can be determined for 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 81 

these sites and the age of the sites thus be correlated with the climatic 
changes. Details of ecology are thereby added to the archeological 
records salvaged from the reservoir to provide a fuller picture of the 
prehistory of the area. 

The 1959 summer field season in the Missouri Basin began in the 
Big Bend Reservoir area on Jmie 4 with a single small crew, en- 
camped near the Hickey Brothers site on the right bank of the Mis- 
souri River in Lyman County. Dr. Warren W. Caldwell and a crew 
of six began work on a series of sites at and near the proposed right 
(west) abutment of the Big Bend Dam, near the mouths of Good 
Soldier Creek and Counselor Creek. On Good Soldier Creek, site 
39LM235 was fomid to have been largely destroyed by construction 
during the winter of several small boat-landing ramps, but test pits 
were excavated in the remaining portion of the site. Very little ma- 
terial was recovered. The nearby site, 39LM236, was found to be 
completely inundated by an imusually high water level in the Fort 
Randall Reservoir and no work vras possible. At the mouth of Coun- 
selor Creek, the Useful Heart site (39LM6) was extensively trenched 
and full-scale excavation of this earth-lodge village site was in prog- 
ress at the end of the year. 

The only other Missouri Basin project party at work in June was 
a team of physical anthropologists consisting of William M. Bass, 3d, 
and two assistants. This team, working out of the Lincoln office, 
began operations on June 17 at the Department of Anthropology, 
University of Nebraska, making metric analyses of a large group of 
human skeletal remains from several reservoir areas in the Missouri 
Basin, and from other sites in the area. The team spent 5 days on a 
trip to the University of Oklahoma at Norman to make similar 
analyses, and at the end of the fiscal year was back in Lincoln study- 
ing the skeletal remains from sites in the Oahe Reservoir area. This 
party was materially assisted by a grant-in-aid to Bass from the 
University of Pennsylvania, Child Growth and Development Center, 
through the kindness of Dr. Wilton K. Krogman, This grant pro- 
vided the salary for Bass and one assistant during June. 

Cooperating institutions at work in the Missouri Basin at the be- 
ginning of the fiscal year included a party from the University of 
South Dakota, directed by Eugene B. Fugle, excavating at the Four 
Bears site (39DW2) in the Oahe Reservoir area; a party from the 
University of Idaho, directed by Dr. Alfred E. Bowers, excavating 
for the second season at the Rygh site (39CA4) in the Oahe Reser- 
voir area; a joint party from the University of North Dakota and 
the State Historical Society of North Dakota, mider the direction of 
Dr. James H. Howard, excavating at the Tony Glas site (32EM3) in 
the Oahe Reservoir area; a party from the University of Wyoming, 



82 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

directed by Dr. William MuUoy, excavating at a series of sites in the 
Glendo Reservoir in Platte County, Wyo. ; and a party from the 
University of Missouri, directed by Carl Chapman, in the Pomme de 
Terre Reservoir area of west-central Missouri. At the end of the 
fiscal year cooperating institutions were : A party from the University 
of Kansas, directed by Dr. Carlyle S. Smith, excavating at the 
Strieker Village site (39LM1) in the Big Bend Eeservoir; a joint 
party from the University of North Dakota and the State Historical 
Society of North Dakota, directed by Dr. James H. Howard, excavat- 
ing at the Huff site (32M011) in the Oahe Reservoir area; and two 
parties from the University of Missouri, directed by Carl F. Chap- 
man, excavating at a series of sites in the Ponune de Terre Reservoir 
and making preliminary surveys in the Kassinger Bluff Reservoir 
area of west-central Missouri. All these parties were operating 
through agreements with the National Park Service and were coop- 
erating in the Smithsonian Institution research program. 

During the time that tlie archeologists were not in the field, they 
were engaged in analyses of their materials and in laboratory and 
library research. They also prepared manuscripts of technical scien- 
tific reports and wrote articles and papers of a more popular nature. 

The Missouri Basin Chronology ProgTam, begun by the staff 
archeologists of the Missouri Basin project in January 1958, con- 
tinued to fmiction throughout the current year. This is a coopera- 
tive program, bringing together the enthusiastic support and wide 
range of experience of 34 individuals representing 20 research insti- 
tutions working in the Missouri Basin area. This program, directed 
toward a more prexjise understanding of time sequences of the pre- 
historic cultures represented by the sites being excavated, is already 
beginning to be useful in more efficient planning of salvage opera- 
tions. Concrete results are being realized with a minimum expendi- 
ture of time and funds. The program includes intensive research 
in dendrochronology, and in this phase the field crews have collected 
wood specimens to be used in developing two master charts, one for 
the lower Big Bend Reservior area and one for the lower Oahe 
Reservior area. Sufficient wood is now on hand to begin preparing 
the master charts into which archeological wood samples may later be 
fitted. In addition, plans are in progress for the services of a full- 
time dendrochronologist, working on other funds, to concentrate his 
efforts on this problem. Research in radioactive carbon- 14 analyses 
is well underway within the framework of the program, and 11 speci- 
mens have been submitted to the University of Michigan Memorial- 
Phoenix Project Laboratory under the direction of Prof. H. R. Crane. 
Dates have been returned on all 11, and a second series of specimens 
is being prepared for submission. Pollen samples have been collected 
and are being analyzed by Dr. Paul B. Sears of Yale University. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 83 

Others have already been analyzed by Mrs. Catherine Clisby of 
Oberlin College, preparatory to establishing a fossil pollen sequence. 
Geologic-climatic investigations have been carried out by Alan H. 
Coogan, who was employed for the purpose by the Kiver Basin Sur- 
veys. He worked in collaboration with William N. Irving in the 
lower Big Bend Keservior area. Other less specific researches are in 
progress to bring all possible chronology techniques to bear on this 
one basic framework for Missouri Basin chronology. 

The laboratory and office staff devoted its full time during the 
year to processing specimen materials for study, photogi'aphing speci- 
mens, preparing specimen records, and typing and filing of records 
and manuscript materials. The accomplishments of the laboratory 
and office staff are listed in the following tables : 



Table 1. — Specimens processed July 1, 1958, through June 30, 1959 



Reservoir 


Number of sites 


Catalog numbers 
assigned 


Number of speci- 
mens processed 


Big Bend __ - . _ - _ - 


50 
13 

4 
2 

1 

25 

3 


9,254 

1,975 

21 

10 

7 

8,668 

48 


71, 281 


Dardanelle ^ 

Fort Randall- 


4,461 
512 


Glendo 


48 


Lewis and Clark 


158 


Oahe 

Sites not in reservoirs 


80, 311 
194 






Collections not assigned site numbers- 


98 

5 


19, 983 

17 


156, 965 
83 




103 


20, 000 


167, 048 



In the Arkansas Basin. 

Table 2. — Record, materials processed, July 1, 1958, through June 30, 1959 

Reflex copies of records 8,968 

Photographic negatives made 2, 792 

Photographic prints made 11,888 

Photographic prints mounted and filed 5,566 

Plate layouts made for manuscripts , 71 

Transparencies mounted in glass 1, 108 

Cartographic tracings and revisions 72 

Color pictures taken in lab 434 

Artifacts drawn , 66 

Lettering of plates 75 

Profiles drawn 45 

It is of especial interest to note that on January 22 the one-millionth 
specimen was processed by the ISiissouri Basin project laboratory. As 
of June 30, the Missouri Basin project had cataloged, in 13 years of 



84 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

operation, a grand total of 1,074,418 specimens from 1,795 numbered 
sites and 54 collections not assigned site numbers, in 92 reservoir areas 
within the Missouri Basin. During the current fiscal year, 7 pottery 
vessels, 23 pottery vessel sections, and 1 stoneware bowl were restored, 
and 154 non vessel artifacts were repaired. Archeological specimens 
from 3 sites in 2 reservoirs were transferred to the division of archeol- 
ogy, U.S. National Museum, and human skeletal remains from 26 
sites in 8 reservoirs were transferred to the division of physical an- 
thropology, U.S. ISTational Museum. Archeological specimens 
(mostly trade goods) from three sites in one reservoir were trans- 
ferred to the Kegion Two Office, National Park Service, for display 
at the Jefferson National Westward Expansion Memorial Museum in 
St. Louis, Mo. The Missouri Basin project received, by transfer, 
from the University of Kansas, through the courtesy of Dr. Carlyle 
S. Smith, sample rim sherds of the Campbell Creek Indented type 
from the Talking Crow site (39BF3), and sample rim sherds of three 
varieties of the Cadotte Collared type from the Two Teeth site 
(39BF204) . These specimens have been added to the Missouri Basin 
project comparative collections. 

On July 26-27, archeologists of the staff of the Missouri Basin 
project joined with archeologists of the National Park Service and 
of State agencies at work within the Missouri Basin in a roundtable 
field conference in Pierre, S. Dak. This session, called the 15i/^th 
Plains Conference, was devoted to basic technical problems arising 
from the current field activities, and such conferences are to become 
a regular feature each summer. During the Thanksgiving weekend, 
members of the staff participated in the 16th Plains Conference for 
Archeology, held in Lincoln. On April 17, members of the staff 
participated in the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences, also held in Lincoln. On April 30 and May 1 and 2, mem- 
bers of the staff attended and participated in the annual meeting of 
the Society for American Archaeology, held in Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Dr. Kobert L. Stephenson, chief, when not in charge of field 
parties, devoted most of his time to managing the office and labora- 
tory in Lincoln and preparing plans and budgets for the 1959 summer 
field season. He spent a portion of his time working on a summary 
report of the Missouri Basin Salvage Program for the calendar years 
1952-58 and on the preparation of a manuscript reporting the "Arche- 
ological Investigations in the Whitney Reservoir, Texas." He com- 
pletely revised and submitted a manuscript, "Excavations at Pueblo 
Pardo, New Mexico," which he had prepared in collaboration with 
Joseph H. Toulouse, Jr., in 1941, for publication as a monograph of 
the School of American Research, Santa Fe, N. Mex. He prepared 
and submitted for publication by the Alice Ferguson Foimdation of 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 85 

Washington, D.C., a popular manuscript, "Prehistoric Peoples of 
Accokeek Creek." Throughout the year he served as chairman of 
the Missouri Basin Chronology Program. A photographic booklet, 
"The Inter- Agency Archaeological Salvage Program after Twelve 
Years," prepared by him at the end of last fiscal year, was published 
in September. In July he served as chairman of the 15i/^th Plains 
Conference held in Pierre, S. Dak. During the Thanksgiving week- 
end he attended and participated in the 16th Plains Conference for 
Archeology, serving as chairman for the half-day session on "Arche- 
ology of the Southern Plains," and presenting a paper on "The Sully 
Site" at another session. In January he attended and participated 
in the annual meeting of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeo- 
logical Remains, held in Washington, D.C. In April he attended 
the annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, presenting 
a paper on "Administration in Anthropology" which was published 
in abstract in the Proceedings of the Nebraska Acadeiny of Sciences. 
On April 30 and May 1-2, he attended the annual meeting of the 
Society for American Archaeology and presented two papers, "River 
Basin Salvage Problems Today" and "The Missouri Basin Chronology 
Program," both of which were published in abstract in Abstracts of 
Papers of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Society for American 
Archaeology. During the year he gave eight talks on various 
aspects of Missouri Basin Salvage Archeology at five local organi- 
zations' regular meetings. 

Dr. Warren W. Caldwell, archeologist, during the fall and winter 
months devoted most of his time to analyses of specimen materials 
recovered from sites he had excavated in the Dardanelle and Big 
Bend Reservoirs during the previous year. He completed all plates, 
figures, and manuscript text for the final report, "Archeological In- 
vestigations in the Dardanelle Reservoir of West-Central Arkansas." 
He prepared a brief technical report on "Firearms and Related 
Artifacts from Fort Atkinson, Nebraska" and another entitled 
"Comments on the 'English Pattern' Trade Rifles," both for publica- 
tion in the Missouri Archaeologist. He prepared a manuscript, pic- 
tures, and captions for a photographic booklet entitled "Gavins 
Point Dam and the Lewis and Clark Lake" for publication by the 
Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of the Army; and submitted 
for publication in the Tree-Ring Journal, an article entitled "Den- 
drochronology and the Missouri Basin Chronology Program." Pie 
prepared a statement on "Plains Archeology and the Salvage Pro- 
gram" for publication in the Encyclopaedia Britannica Yearbook. 
In addition, he prepared several mimeographed statements for dis- 
tribution from the Missouri Basin project office, including "Report 
No. 3, Missouri Basin Project and Cooperating Institutions," and 



86 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

"Statement No. 2, The Missouri Basin Chronology Program." His 
article "The Smithsonian Institution in Arkansas," prepared late 
last year, was published in the Ozarh Mountaineer for July 1958. He 
prepared a book review of "Frontier Steel" by Arthur Rosebush, 
that was published in Nebraska History for March 1959. In July 
he attended and participated in the 1514th Plams Conference, held 
in Pierre, S. Dak. In November he attended the 16th Plains Con- 
ference for Archeology and served as chairman for the half-day 
session on "The Chronology Program" and presented a paper on 
"The Black Partizan Site" at another session. In April he served 
as the general chairman of the annual meeting of the anthropology 
section of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, held in Lincoln, Nebr., 
and presented a paper entitled "Northwest Coast Archeology: An 
Interpretation," which was published in abstract in the Proceedi/ngs 
of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences. During the year he served 
as chairman of the dendrochronology section of the Chronology 
Program and gave a talk to the North Omaha Kiwanis Club on 
"The Missouri Basin Salvage Program." 

Harold A. Huscher in July participated in the 15i/^th Plains 
Conference in Pierre, S. Dak., and in November attended the 16th 
Plains Conference for Archeology, where he served as chairman for 
the half-day session on "Field Reports" and presented two papers 
entitled "Mapping in the Fort Bennett Area" and "Chronologies 
from Ceramic Analysis." His other activities have been reported 
in a preceding section. 

William M. Bass, 3d, temporary physical anthropologist, partici- 
pated m the 151/^th Plains Conference in July and after the comple- 
tion of fieldwork, left the staff on September 2. During the spring 
months he devoted much of his own time to detailed metric analyses 
of the human skeletal remains excavated in the Oahe and other 
Missouri Basin reservoirs. On June 17 he returned to Lincoln to 
serve as party chief for the mobile physical anthropology team 
working in the general Missouri Basin area. 

William N. Irving, archeologist, when not in the field directing 
excavations, was in the Lincoln office analyzing materials he exca- 
vated during the previous two summers, particularly in regard to 
the Medicine Crow site (39BF2) and the Aiken site (39BF215). 
In July he attended and participated in the 15i/^th Plains Con- 
ference at Pierre, S. Dak. On November 27-28 he attended the 16th 
Plains Conference for Archeology and presented two papers, "Pre- 
Ceramic Sites in the Big Bend Reservoir" and "Pre-Ceramic 
Chronology in the Big Bend Reservoir." In collaboration with Alan 
H. Coogan, he prepared a manuscript on "Late Pleistocene and Re- 
cent Missouri River Terraces in the Big Bend Reservoir, South 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 87 

Dakota" to be published in the Proceedings of the Iowa AcadeTny of 
Sciences. He was on leave without pay from February 9 to April 
24, to complete work on a report on Arctic research previously done 
for Harvard University. On April 30 and May 1-2, he attended 
the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology. He 
served throughout the year as chairman of the geologic-climatic 
section of the Chronology Program. At the end of the year he was 
in the Lincoln office, continuing work on his report on investigations 
at the Medicine Crow and related sites. 

James J. F. Deetz, temporary archeologist, participated in the 
151/^th Plains Conference held in July. He completed his fieldwork 
on September 5 and terminated his employment at that time. He 
spent a portion of his own time during the winter and spring 
months analyzing materials from, and preparing a report on, the 
ceramic components of the Medicine Crow site (39BF2). 

Alan H. Coogan, temporary field assistant, participated in the 
151/^th Plains Conference held in July. He completed his fieldwork 
and terminated his employment on August 29. In November he 
participated in the 16th Plains Conference for Archeology held in 
Lincoln, ISTebr., presenting a paper entitled "The Physical Basis for 
Chronology in the Big Bend Reservoir." During the fall and winter 
months, on his own time, he prepared the report in collaboration 
with William N. Irving for publication in the Proceedings of the 
Iowa Academy of Sciences. 

Bernard Golden, temporary archeologist, completed his fieldwork 
and left the project on September 12. During the winter and spring 
months he devoted a portion of his own time to preparation of the 
first draft of a report on his 1958 excavations entitled "Excavations 
at the Hickey Brothers Site (39LM4:), Big Bend Reservoir," which 
he submitted for review early in June. In July he participated in 
the 151/^ th Plains Conference held in Pierre. 

Charles H. McNutt, archeologist, attended the 15i/2th Plains Con- 
ference in July. Wlien not in the field conducting excavations, he 
devoted most of his time to analyses of materials he had excavated 
over the past 2 years and to preparation of reports. He served 
throughout the year as chairman of the carbon- 14 section of the 
Chronology Program. On temporary-detached duty to the National 
Park Service from September 23 to November 15, for excavations 
at Fort Laramie National Monument, he completed a report on that 
work entitled "Excavations at Old Bedlam, Fort Laramie National 
Monument, 48G01, Wyoming, 1958." During the Thanksgiving week- 
end he participated in the 16th Plains Conference for Arche- 
ology, held in Lincoln, Nebr., and presented papers reporting 
on "Excavations in Fielder Bottom Area, Oahe Reservoir," "Exca- 

5245aii— 59 7 



88 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

vations at Fort Laramie National Monument," and "Eadiocarbon 
Dating in the Missouri Basin Chronology Program." In April 
he prepared a paper for the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 
entitled "Comments on Two Northern Plains Pottery Wares," 
published in abstract in the Proceedings of the Academy. 
From April 7 to June 14 he was on leave without pay to complete his 
doctoral dissertation, which was submitted to the University of 
Michigan on June 29. On April 30 and May 1-2, he participated 
in the amiual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology^, 
held in Salt Lake City, Utah, and presented a paper entitled "Can 
Paraffin Be Removed from Charcoal Samples?" in collaboration with 
Dr. John L. Champe of the University of Nebraska. It was pub- 
lished in abstract in the Abstracts of Papers of the 24th Annual 
Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. During the year 
he also continued work on a manuscript on ceramic taxonomy of 
the South Dakota area and presented two slide talks to local civic 
groups concerning River Basin Salvage Archeology. He also wrote 
an article, "Bibliography of Primary Sources for Radiocarbon Dates," 
in collaboration with Richard P. Wheeler, which was published in 
American Antiquity, volume 24, No. 3. At the end of the year he was 
preparing to begin fieldwork in the Oahe Reservoir area early in the 
next fiscal year. 

Robert W. Neuman, archeologist, in July participated in the 15i^th 
Plains Conference held in Pierre. During the time he was not in 
the field conducting excavations he spent a large portion of his time 
in analyzing materials and preparing reports of excavations con- 
ducted the previous two summers. September 29-October 3 he made 
a trip in company with Harry E. Weakly, who kindly contributed 
his time, to the Big Bend and Oahe Reservoir areas to collect dendro- 
chronological specimens. On November 27-28 he participated in the 
16th Plains Conference for Archeology, presenting a paper on "Arche- 
ological Investigations in the Fort Thompson Area." From Decem- 
ber 4 to 21 he was on temporary-detached duty with the National 
Park Service to conduct excavations at George Washington Carver 
National Monument. He submitted a final report on that work 
early in January. He prepared a report on "Representative Quill 
Flatteners from the Central United States," which was read in 
absentia at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences meeting in Lincoln 
on April 17, and which was published in abstract in the Proceedings 
of the Academy. From February 9 to June 29 he was transferred 
to the River Basin Surveys outside the Missouri Basin for work 
in the Chattahoochee River Basin. His activities there have been 
described in previous pages. At the end of the year he was back 
in the Lincoln office working on a report, nearing completion, on 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 89 

excavations in a series of mound sites in the Big Bend Reservoir 
area. 

G. Hubert Smith, archeologist, at the beginning of the fiscal year 
was on temporary-detached duty with the National Park Service, 
conducting excavations at Fort McHenry National Monument, in 
Baltimore, Md. He submitted a report on his findings in September. 
On October 1 he returned to duty with the Missouri Basin project 
and spent the period from then until February 9 compiling a com- 
prehensive report on several seasons' work at Site 32ML2, Forts 
Berthold I and II, and Like-a-Fishhook Village. This report will 
combine the findings of five archeologists during four seasons of 
work at this site in the Garrison Reservoir of North Dakota. In addi- 
tion there will be an ethnohistoric account of the site. In February 
he was transferred to the Chattahoochee Basin project where he 
remained until June lY, when he again returned to the Missouri Basin 
project. In November he attended the annual meetings of the Ameri- 
can Indian Ethnohistorical Conference and the American Anthropo- 
logical Association, held in Washington, D.C. At a symposium of 
the latter group he contributed a paper on "Interpretive Values of 
Archeological Evidence in Historical Research." During the year 
he had a previously written article entitled "Great Carrying Place" 
published in the Naturalist, a quarterly publication of the Natural 
History Society of Minnesota. He prepared reviews of "The Indians 
of Quetico," by Emerson S. Coatsworth, for publication in the fall 
1958 issue of Ethnohistory, and of "New Light on Old Fort Snel- 
ling," by John M. Callender, for publication in a future issue of 
Nebraska History. He also prepared a brief article describing 
the work at Fort McHenry and submitted it for publication in the 
Maryland Historical Magazine. At the end of the year he was again 
at work on the comprehensive report on Site 39ML2, Forts Berthold 
I and II, and Like-a-Fishhook Village. 

Richard P. Wheeler, archeologist, when he was not in the field, 
devoted his time to analyses of materials and preparation of reports 
on sites excavated by him in past years. He completed the final draft 
of his manuscript, "The Stutsman i Focus : An Aboriginal Culture 
Complex in the Jamestown Reservoir Area, North Dakota." He 
also completed the major portion of a draft of a manuscript entitled 
"Mounds and Earthworks in the Jamestown Reservoir Area of North 
Dakota" and of another entitled "Three Stratified Occupation Sites 
in the Oahe Dam and Reservoir Area, South Dakota." In July he 
participated in the 15i/^th Plains Conference held in Pierre, and in 
November attended the 16th Plains Conference for Archeology, held 
in Lincoln, presenting papers on "Investigations near Old Fort Ben- 
nett, Oahe Reservoir" and "Dendrochronology in the Central North- 



90 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ern Plains," the latter in collaboration with Harry E. Weakly. In 
April he presented a paper at the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 
meeting entitled "Comments on 'Method and Theory in American Ar- 
cheology,' " which was published in abstract in the Proceedings of the 
Academy. On April 30 and May 1-2, he participated in the annual 
meetings of the Society for American Archaeology in Salt Lake City, 
Utah, and presented a paper entitled "The Middle Prehistoric Period 
in the Central Plains," which was published in abstract in the Ab- 
stracts of Papers of the 24th Amiual Meeting of the Society for 
American Archaeology. During the year he collaborated with 
Charles H. McNutt, as previously mentioned, in an article that was 
published in American Antiquity. On May 30 he terminated his em- 
ployment with the Missouri Basin project and transferred to the 
National Park Service, joining the Wetherill Mesa project at Mesa 
Verde National Park. 

COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS 

A number of institutions and agencies cooperated in the Inter- 
Agency Salvage Program in several areas throughout the United 
States. In addition to those previously mentioned in the sections on 
the Missouri Basin and the State of Kansas, there were 19 working 
under agreements with the National Park Service. The University of 
Georgia continued its investigations at the Hartwell Reservoir on the 
Tugaloo River and conducted excavations in the Oliver and Walter F. 
George projects on the Chattahoochee River. The University of Ken- 
tucky made surveys and did some digging in the Barkley Reservoir 
area on the Cumberland River and the Nolin Reservoir Basin on the 
Nolin River. The New Jersey Museum did salvage work on Tock's 
Island, N.J. The University of Michigan carried on investigations 
along the Saginaw River in Michigan. The State University of Iowa 
did survey and test digging at the Rathbun project on the Chariton 
River in Iowa. The University of Oklahoma did some further work 
at Fort Gibson on the Grand River and at the Oolagah Reservoir on the 
Verdigris River. The University of Texas continued its operations in 
the Ferrell's Bridge area on Cypress Creek in eastern Texas and in 
the Diablo Reservoir region along the Rio Grande. Texas Western 
University also worked in ih^ Diablo district. The School of American 
Research continued its studies in the Navaho Reservoir area along the 
San Juan River in northern New Mexico. The University of Utah 
and the Museum of Northern Arizona completed surveys in the Glen 
Canyon Reservoir area on the Upper Colorado River and started a 
series of excavations in a number of sites. The University of Utah 
completed its investigation of the Flaming Gorge project, also on the 
Upper Colorado. The University of Arizona conducted investigations 
along the Gila River above the Painted Rocks Reservoir area. In 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 91 

California the University of Southern California completed a series of 
investigations at the Casitas Reservoir on Coyote Creek. The Univer- 
sity of California at Los Angeles excavated a site in the Terminus 
Reservoir area on the Kaweah River. The University of California 
at Berkeley completed its excavations in the Trinity Reservoir Basin 
on the Trinity River, and San Francisco State College made studies 
at the Whiskey town project on the Upper Sacramento River. The 
University of Oregon continued operations in the John Day Reservoir 
in the Columbia River. The University of Washington completed its 
investigations in the Priest Rapids Reservoir area, also in the Columbia 
River, and the State College of Washington continued its excavations 
in the Ice Harbor Reservoir area on the Snake River. A number of 
local groups and institutions continued to assist on a voluntary basis. 
These mainly were in New York State, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, and 
southern California. 

ARCHIVES OF ETHNOLOGY 

The Bureau archives continued during the year under the custody 
of Mrs. Margaret C. Blaker. On June 8 Nicholas S. Hopkins entered 
on duty as a summer intern to assist in arranging and describing 
manuscript collections, and on June 15 Winfield H. Arneson, sum- 
mer intern, entered on duty to assist with photographic collections. 

The use of the manuscript collections by anthropologists and his- 
torical researchers continues to increase. Approximately 329 manu- 
scripts were consulted by 92 visitors to the archives, and an equal 
number were consulted by the archivist in preparing replies to 87 mail 
inquiries concerning the nature and extent of manuscript information 
on specific topics or tribes. There were 22 purchase orders for a total 
of 2,897 pages of manuscript reproductions. In the course of exami- 
nation, new and more detailed descriptions of about 50 manuscripts 
were prepared for the catalog, and a number of descriptive lists of 
manuscripts were prepared for distribution. 

An anonymous English- Arikara vocabulary in a homemade note- 
book of 48 pages, thought to have been recorded ca. 1869-74 by an 
associate or acquaintance of Washington Matthews, was donated by 
Dr. John A. Pope of Washing-ton, D.C. 

Scholars, publishers, and the general public have continued to draw 
heavily on the photographic collections of the Bureau as a source of 
illustration and documentation. There were a total of 504 written 
inquiries, purchase orders, and personal inquiries concerning photo- 
graphs, and 1,208 prints were distributed through purchase, gift, or 
exchange. As in previous years, a number of lists describing photo- 
graphs in the Bureau's collection were prepared for distribution. 



92 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

One hundred such lists relating to specific tribes and subjects are now 
available. 

The Bureau has been fortunate in receiving the cooperation of 
several collectors of photographs that have ethnological and histori- 
cal value. Some of the collectors lent their pictures for copying, 
while others gave their prints to the Bureau, thus insuring their pres- 
ervation and making them available to students. 

An important collection of over 115 negatives of Seminole Indians 
made by Charles Barney Cory, Sr., in Florida in the period 1877-95 
was lent by Mrs. Zelma Carolyn Corj^ of Homewood, 111., and 
Charles Barney Cory of Madison, 111., through Alan R. Sawyer of the 
Art Institute of Chicago. Enlarged prints from these negatives are 
on file for reference at the Bureau. In addition, a group of 28 origi- 
nal and postcard prints by various photographers, collected by 
Charles Barney Cory in Florida and in the West, and relating to the 
Seminole, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute, Dakota, and other western 
tribes, was lent by Mr. Sawyer for copying. 

A collection of 65 photographs of Seminole Indians, made by Wil- 
liam D. Boehmer, Dwight R. Gardin, and others, was lent for copying 
by William D. Boehmer, educational field agent, Seminole Indian 
Agency, Okeechobee, Fla. 

A series of 21 negatives, prints, and postcard reproductions relating 
to the Seminole Indians, made and collected by the photographer 
C. N. Dutton in the first decade of the 20th century, was lent for 
copying by Louis Capron, West Palm Beach, Fla., together with 4 
Seminole photographs made by Capron in the 1930's. 

A collection of 115 prints of Indians of the Dakota, Chippewa, 
Winnebago, Paiute, Crow, Apache, and other tribes, made by com- 
mercial photographers in the latter half of the 19th century, was 
donated by G. Hubert Smith of Lincoln, Nebr. In addition, several 
early stereographs of Minnesota Indian subjects were lent by him for 
copying. 

A microfilm of the South Dakota Historical Society's collection of 
about 400 photographic prints relating to Western Indian history and 
Indian wars, along with a transcript of the accompanying caption 
material, was made available to the Bureau, through the courtesy of 
James Tubbesing of Winchester, Va., who made the film. A ref- 
erence set of enlarged prints has been made of about 130 subjects se- 
lected from the series because they supplement or document photo- 
graphs already in the Bureau's collections. 

A series of commercial photographs, including 17 by H. Bueh- 
mann, Tucson, Arizona Territory, relating to the Apache Indians, 
and 9 by J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa., showing students at the Indian 
School at Carlisle, was received by transfer from the Department of 
Civil History, Smithsonian Institution. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 93 

A group of commercial photographs of Indians — including six out- 
door scenes made by F. A. Rinehart in 1900, relating to the Crow In- 
dians and showing details of costume and horse gear — was received 
as a gift from Henry G. K. Tyrell of Baltimore, Md., in memory of 
his father, Henry Grattan Tyrell. 

A reference set of 18 photographs of drawings hy Charles-Alex- 
andre Lesueur, showing Indians and archeological sites sketched by 
Lesueur in the lower Mississippi Valley in the period 1816-37, was 
purchased from the studio of Victor Genetier in Paris. The original 
drawings are owned by the Museum of Natural History, Havre, 
France. 

Six portraits of the Creek chief Pleasant Porter, made at various 
dates from 1872 to 1905 and assembled by Ralph W. Goodwin of 
Cambridge, Mass., while writing a biography of the chief, were lent 
by Mr. Goodwin for copying. He also provided biographical and 
other background information on several photographs of Creek In- 
dians in the Bureau collections. 

While examining the collections of Pawnee photographs at the 
Bureau, Stephen G. Gover of Weatherford, Okla., a member of the 
Pawnee tribe, supplied notes on a number of the photographs, in- 
cluding pronunciations and translations of personal names. Mr. 
Gover also lent for copying a photograph of the Pawnee chief, 
Crooked Hand, and another of Dog Chief, son of Crooked Hand. 

With the assistance of Cheyenne informants, Mrs. Margot Liberty 
of Birney, Mont., provided identifications and biographical notes for 
a number of portraits of Cheyenne Indians in the Bureau collections. 
Father Peter Powell of Chicago, 111., also furnished notes of this 
kind. 

The extensive collection of photographs of North American In- 
dians transferred to the Bureau from the Library of Congress last 
year has been sorted and arranged by tribe or area, and is now avail- 
able for reference. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

E. G. Schumacher, staff artist, prepared original illustrations and 
examined and approved or redrew other illustrations for the various 
Bureau publications that were being edited for printing. Among the 
subjects worked on during the year were Kansas archeology and 
archeological investigations in British Guiana, Mohave ethnopsychia- 
try and suicide, historic sites archeology on the Upper Missouri, and 
historic trading posts in North and South Dakota. In addition, a 
variety of scientific and technical art work was completed for other 
branches of the Institution. 



94 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

The Bureau's editorial work continued during the year under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. There were issued 
one annual report and four bulletins, as follows : 

Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1957-1958. 

ii+36 pp., 5 pis. 1959. 
Bulletin 168. The Native Brotherhoods: Modern intertribal organizations on 

the Northwest coast, by Philip Drucker. iv+194 pp. 1958. 
Bulletin 169. River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 9-14, Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., 
editor, ix-j-392 pp., 73 pis., 13 figs., 9 maps. 1958. 
No. 9. Archeological investigations in the Heart Butte Reservoir area. North 

Dakota, by Paul L. Cooper. 
No. 10. Archeological investigations at the Tuttle Creek Dam, Kansas, by 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr. 
No. 11. The Spain site (o9LM301), a vpinter village in Fort Randall Res- 
ervoir, South Dakota, by Carlyle S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. 
No. 12. The Wilbanks site (9CK-5), Georgia, by William H. Sears. 
No. 13. Historic sites in and around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, 

Florida-Georgia, by Mark F. Boyd. 
No. 14. Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Res- 
ervoir area, Florida, by Ripley P. Bullen. 
Bulletin 170. Excavations at La Venta, Tabasco, 1955, by Philip Drucker, Robert 
F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier. With appendixes by Jonas E. Gullberg, 
Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Starker Leopold, viii-1-312 pp., 63 pis., 82 figs. 1959. 
Bulletin 171. The North Alaskan Eskimo : A study in ecology and society, by 
Robert F. Spencer. vi-f490 pp., 9 pis., 2 figs., 4 maps. 1959. 

Publications distributed totaled 27,721, as compared with 28,131 
for the fiscal year 1958. 

COLLECTIONS 

The following collections were made by staff members of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology or of the Kiver Basin Surveys and trans- 
ferred to the permanent collections of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, U.S. National Museum : 

FROM BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
Acc. No. 

224347. Archeological materials collected by Ralph S. Solecki, from Marshall 
County, W. Va., during December 1948 and January 1949. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

222362. Indian skeletal material from the Lake Spring site, Columbia County, 

Ga., collected by Dr. Joseph R. Caldwell. 
224.546. Aj-cheological material collected by Waldo R. Wedel, for the R.B.S., 

B.A.E., from Oahe Reservoir, Stanley County. S. Dak., during 1951. 
224549. Samples of rock, brick, burned-earth, etc., collected by Ralph S. Solecki, 

R.B.S., from Ross County, Ohio, on November 30, 1949. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 95 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Dr. John P. Harrington, Dr. A. J. Waring, and Dr. M. W. Stirling 
continued as research associates of the Bureau. Dr. Stirling used 
the facilities of the Bureau laboratory in the preparation of final 
reports on collections made in previous years during field trips to 
Panama and Ecuador. 

Dr. Wallace L. Chafe, scientific linguist, joined the staff on April 
3, 1959. In addition to the two summer interns mentioned in the re- 
port of the archivist, the Bureau was fortunate in having the services 
of Norma L. Hackelman, another summer intern, who assisted with 
the preparation and checking of bibliographies to be included in 
the Bureau's most useful bibliography and information leaflet series. 
Owing to the limited staff and heavy workload, there were issued only 
two new bibliographies and one revised list for distribution to the 
public, as follows: 

SIIi-50, 2d rev., 9/58. Selected list of portraits of prominent Indians in the 
collections of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 3 pp. 

SIL»-174, 12/58. Selected references on the Indians of Southeastern North 
America. (State index, pp. 12-14; musical recordings, p. 14; museum ex- 
hibits, pp. 14^16.) 16 pp. 

SIL-197, 11/58. Selected bibliography of maps relating to the American Indian. 
4 pp. 

There were 2,759 letters of inquiry about American Indians and 
related problems received in the Director's office alone during the 
year. Information was furnished by staff members in answer to many 
of the queries, and to others, information leaflets or other printed 
items were supplied. In addition to the printed bibliographies and 
information leaflets described above several such items were compiled 
on topics of a general or specific nature and typescript copies sent out 
in answer to the hundreds of requests for this information. Several 
manuscripts were read and appraised by staff members for colleagues 
and scientific organizations. Numerous specimens were identified for 
owners and data supplied on them. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1959 : 

The Astrophysical Observatory includes two divisions : the Division 
of Astrophysical Research, for the study of solar and other types of 
energy impinging on the earth, and the Division of Radiation and 
Organisms, for the investigation of radiation as it relates directly 
or indirectly to biological pi'oblems. Shops maintained in Washing- 
ton, for work in metals, woods, and optical electronics, prepare spe- 
cial equipment for both divisions, and a shop in Cambridge provides 
high-precision mechanical work. The field station at Table Moun- 
tain, Calif., carries out solar observations. 

DIVISION OF ASTROPHYSICAL RESEARCH 

The research carried on at the Observatory during the past year 
has produced gratifying results in the areas of solar astrophysics, 
upper atmosphere studies, meteoritical studies, and satellite science. 
Some long-term objectives have been reached. The resulting gains in 
knowledge and the development of advanced observational techniques 
have revealed fresh areas of research and established new goals. 

The Observatory has continued to maintain close liaison with Har- 
vard College Observatory, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and other research centers. This policy confers mutual benefits. 

Solar astrophysics. — At the Table Mountain station Alfred G. Froi- 
land, employing methods recently developed, has made progress in 
his attempts to determine, from the Smithsonian solar spectrobolo- 
grams, the amount of atmospheric ozone in a vertical path, both in 
the visible spectral range and in the infrared region. He continues 
his study of the quantity and quality of haze in the atmosphere. The 
availability of a datatron at the California Institute of Technology 
has broadened and simplified the scope of this work. These new 
techniques are expected to lead to a more accurate and consistent 
method of measurement. Already, they have provided evidence for 
the existence of other related effects of energ}' absorption in the upper 
atmosphere. 

Dr. Max Krook has developed two methods for determining the 
structure of nongray stellar atmospheres. They provide, for the first 
96 



SECRETARY'S REPORT '97 

time, rapidly converging procedures for calculating the structure of 
model atmospheres for hot stars, with given chemical composition, 
effective temperature, and surface gravity. He has formulated a 
method for calculating the structure of shock fronts in completely 
ionized hydrogen and in the presence of magnetic fields. The 
calculations contribute to our understanding of the fmidamental 
properties of ionized gases. Procedures were devised for translating 
a microscopically formulated problem of gas dynamics into an ap- 
proximately equivalent continuum problem. This method applies par- 
ticularly to cases in which the Knudsen number, K, is not very small. 
Dr. Krook continues to study various problems in the dynamics of 
gases and the kinetic theory of gases. 

Dr. Charles A. Whitney has begun a study of atmospheric structure 
and its correlation with solar activity. This work involves empirical 
analyses of satellite and solar data as they relate to atmospheric 
physics. Dr. Whitney continued his study of gas dynamics in astro- 
physical contexts, to obtain a numerical solution of the nonadiabatic 
equations of motion for the solar atmosphere. The procedure involves 
integration of the equations of motion for a variety of conditions. 
This is the first critical investigation of the propagation of nonlinear 
and nonadiabatic waves in the solar atmosphere. It will provide a 
basis for the interpretation of high-resolution photographs of the 
solar disk obtained by balloon-mounted telescopes. A comparison 
between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic equations will have a direct 
bearing on the theory of stellar chromospheres. A program to pro- 
vide a firm basis for the theory of stellar pulsation was initiated by 
Dr. Whitney in 1955. This fundamental problem of classical astro- 
physics requires a variety of procedures, primarily theoretical. With 
the help of Dr. John Cox, the development of machine methods for 
the solution of pertinent equations has made considerable progress. 

Upper atmosphere. — Dr. Jacchia's research on the secular accelera- 
tion of artificial satellites enabled him to establish marked transient 
effects ion the acceleration of Satellite 1958 Delta One, which coincided 
with the great magnetic storms of July and September 1958. Dr. 
Jacchia's study established that these variations in acceleration were 
not due to solar electromagnetic radiation but to solar corpuscular 
radiation. This novel result is of outstanding significance in the field 
of solar-terrestrial relationships. 

Studying the orbital accelerations of Satellites 1958 Beta Two and 
1958 Delta Two, Dr. Jacchia found that they show semiregular fluctua- 
tions with an average period of 29 days. Further study suggested 
that a semiperiodic variation in the solar radiation with the synodic 
period of rotation of the sun, 27 days, seemed a more probable cycle. 

Dr. Theodore E. Sterne completed a study of the inferential 



98 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

methods used in evaluating observational data. He developed 
new methods, based on cellestial mechanics, for inferring the 
density of the upper atmosphere from the motions of artificial 
satellites, and derived a value much higher than previous estimates. 
At an altitude of 220 km the density was found to be about 4.0 X 10~^^ 
gm/cm ^, and at 368 km the value was about 1.4 X 10"^* gm/cm. These 
methods for developing satellite data have particular importance be- 
cause the satellites provide our only reliable source of information 
about the upper atmosphere. This knowledge, in turn, will augment 
our understanding of solar-terrestrial relationships. Dr. Sterne has 
also studied the theories and the types of reasoning involved in 
cosmology, to evaluate the probable reliability of our knowledge of 
the universe and its origin, and to compare the relative merits of 
various observational approaches. 

Dr. J. Allen Hynek and George J. Neilson began a series of balloon 
experiments in cooperation with Col. David G. Simons of the Aero 
Medical Field Laboratory at Holloman Air Force Base, the Winzen 
Laboratories of Minneapolis, and the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology Instrumentation Laboratories. This program will deter- 
mine the feasibility of using a stabilized platform system in balloons 
designed for high-altitude observations. Two types of experiments 
are planned: (1) Unmanned balloons will carry a radio-controlled 
stabilization system for stellar observations made at altitudes up to 
50,000 feet. (2) Manned balloons will carry a different type of stabili- 
zation system, controlled by an observer and a navigator (U.S. Air 
Force pilot) riding in the balloon gondola. They will attempt to 
make stellar observations at altitudes up to 85,000 feet, and, eventually, 
from beyond the earth's atmosphere. Both stabilization systems have 
now been developed and built by the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology Instrumentation Laboratories. Preliminary tests and prepara- 
tions have been made. Two observers, Mr. Neilson and William 
White, have been checked for physical fitness for flights up to 80,000 
feet. The first launching of the unmanned balloon has been fixed for 
the fall of 1959. 

The Director and Robert J. Davis completed the design of a tele- 
scope for use in space. The instrument will include an optical system, 
a detecting device, circuits to amplify and modify the output signal 
of the detecting device, and the auxiliary circuits necessary to protect 
the instrument from the effects of direct sunlight. Fitted into a socket 
in a "stable platform" within a satellite, the telescope will obtain 
important astrophysical data. The chief goals at present include an 
ultraviolet survey of the sky in three wavelength regions, and spec- 
troscopic studies of particular celestial objects. Completion of the 
project will require about 3 j^ears. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 99 

Meteoritical studies. — Research in meteoritics has provided inval- 
uable information on the relation between meteors and comets, and 
the origin of comets. The Director's analyses of data, based on his 
Icy Comet theory, have yielded more information on the nature 
and origin of comets, and possibly the origin of the solar system. 
Recent studies of micrometeorites in the earth's atmosphere indicate 
that heavier elements, of the meteoritic category, condensed early in 
the original gases responsible for the formation of the cometary 
system and probably the planets. 

An electron probe microanalyzer, designed and developed by Dr. F. 
Behn Riggs, Jr., with Dr. Andrew R. Lang as consultant, for the 
study of meteorites, is expected to be in full operation in the fall. 
Electron probe microanalysis is one of the newest methods for chemical 
analysis. In addition to its use for point-to-point analysis of the 
metallic constituents of iron meteorites, the microanalyzer will permit 
study of the gross distribution of elements across the surface of a 
sectioned meteorite measuring up to ten inches across. The distribu- 
tion of elements cannot be measured on such a scale by any other 
method. 

The Director, Dr. Fireman, Dr. Frances W. Wright, Paul W. 
Hodge, Hai Chin Rhee, Kenneth Covey, and Adolph Esposito con- 
tinued the program of collection and identification of micrometeoritic 
dust. Collections of atmospheric particulate matter were made by 
high-flying jet aircraft. A collector mounted on a B-52 by the 
Boeing Aircraft Co. and flown by them has provided 19 exposed 
filters usable for analysis. The filters have been examined optically 
under a high-powered microscope and particles of various descrip- 
tions have been identified and counted. Those particles which might 
be meteoritic have been listed for analysis ; some have been used for 
chemical analysis; and the rest will be used in a general analysis of 
contamination problems. The analysis of micrometeoritic dust in- 
dicates that these particles are magnetic and have more or less normal 
densities ; tests for copper and nickel by neutron activation revealed 
that the sensitivity for copper was somewhat better than the value 
0.1 percent for lO^u, particles. The Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology reactor and the counting equipment of the Observatory labo- 
ratory were used for the experiment. The development of new and 
improved types of dust collectors for high- altitude aircraft is a 
continuing part of this program. The most recent development is a 
cylindrical impactor. 

Dr. John Wood has investigated the various types of silicate me- 
teorites, particularly of chondrites. Analysis of thin sections of 
chondrites in polarized light with the petrographic microscope has 
shown that the petrographic characteristics of these meteorites do not 



100 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

appear to support the existence of primary bodies which antedated 
the parent meteorite planets. 

Under the supervision of Dr. Luigi G. Jacchia, the precise reduction 
and analysis of photographic meteor trails have shown that practically 
all the visual meteors are cometary in origin; fewer than 1 percent 
are interstellar in origin, and the contribution from asteroidal sources 
is probably not much greater. 

Under the supervision of the Director, Robert Briggs is studying 
the distribution of interplanetary dust particles to measure the num- 
ber of particles in various parts of the solar system. 

Dr. Fireman completed measurements of helium 3 in the Grant, 
N". Mex., meteorite and has determined its original mass (E. L, Fire- 
man, Planetary and Space Science, vol. 1, pp 66-70, 1959). The 
helium 3 contents ranged from 6.5X10"^ cmVg to 5.1X10"^ cm Vg- 
The Grant meteorite apparently was a pear-shaped object in space, 
with a mass of approximately 880 kg; its loss of mass during its 
plunge through the earth's atmosphere was approximately 400 kg. 
Dr. Fireman continued his measurement of the tritium, helium 3, and 
argon 39 in three stone and seven iron meteorites (E. L. Fireman and 
J. De Felice, Astron. Journ. vol. 64, p. 127, 1959; also Geochim. et 
Cosmochim. Acta, in press). The argon-exposure age of these me- 
teorites ranges from 10 ^ years to 6 X 10 ^ years. This exposure age 
has been interpreted in terms of space erosion (F. L. Wliipple and 
E. L. Fireman, Nature, vol. 183, p. 1315, 1959) and leads to the value 
1.5X10"^ cm/year, for the upper limit of total erosion on an iron 
surface in space. 

Satellite-tracking prograin. — The network of 12 satellite-tracking 
stations, under the supervision of Dr. Hynek, has gathered photo- 
graphic data on the positions of artificial satellites. These data have 
allowed precision determination of the orbits of satellites and have 
thus provided geophysical and geodetic information. Seven objects 
were tracked. A total of 2,902 successful observations and more than 
6,000 photographs were obtained. Engineering studies were begun 
to improve both the Baker-Nunn camera and the timing system, to 
refine the photography of orbiting objects. The stations were manned 
by 38 observers. 

The Baker-Nunn camera has produced results of inestimable scien- 
tific value. The cameras are able to photograph stars to magnitude 
12.0 with an effective exposure time of 1 second. Tracking accuracy 
ranges between 1 percent and 5 percent. The ultimate limiting magni- 
tude, established principally by the time required to record appreciable 
skyfog, is about 16.0. The Baker-Nunn cameras secured photographs 
of the Vanguard experimental sphere, 1958 Beta Two, at ranges beyond 
2,400 miles. These cameras also obtained photographs of the carrier 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 101 

rocket of the Vanguard sphere, 1958 Beta One. This tracking system 
has demonstrated its ability to acquire as many as three photographs 
of satellites per day over a long period of time, in spite of bad weather 
and mechanical breakdowns. This rate of photography exceeds the 
original expectation by about 50 percent. 

The Moonwatch program, under the supervision of Leon Campbell, 
Jr., depends on 218 teams comprising 5,000 volunteer observers, in the 
United States and abroad. Worldwide interest in the program con- 
tinues, as evidenced by requests for affiliation from groups in North 
and South America, Africa, England, Spain, and the Middle East. 
Since the program began, Moonwatch has communicated 9,825 observa- 
tions to the Cambridge headquarters. Arthur S. Leonard, leader of 
the Sacramento, Calif., team obtained improved values for the orbital 
elements of Satellite 1958 Beta One, which was believed "lost." These 
values led to the recovery of the satellite, which was then photographed 
by the Smithsonian camera stations. 

These unprecedented accomplishments of the satellite-tracking pro- 
grams prompted the executive director of the International Geophysi- 
cal Year to congratulate the Director of the Observatory and his staff, 
on behalf of the U.S. National Committee and the Earth Satellite 
Panel. 

The computation and analysis of optical observations continued 
under the supervision of Eichard Adams as chief and Dr. Whitney as 
scientific supervisor. Kefinements of techniques and programing 
methods have yielded gratifying results. 

The Cmmingham integration methods for the machine programing 
of satellite orbits, together with Dr. Don A. Lautman's equations for 
the osculating elements, have greatly facilitated the handling of satel- 
lite data and the graphing of perturbations of the orbital elements. 
A limited variety of orbits can be studied at present; for an orbit 
similar to that of Satellite 1957 Alpha the methods show separately the 
perturbational effects of drag and of the earth's oblateness. 

Drs. Jacchia and Kozai derived new values for the second and fourth 
order coefficients of the earth's gravitational potential. 

Dr. George Veis has initiated a differential corrections program 
which is being used to revise the orbits of Satellite 1958 Alpha and 
to obtain accurate elements for all satellites, in particular for 1959 
Alpha One and 1959 Beta One. This program has also produced 
an ephemeris for 1958 Delta Two, during the period September 1958 
to May 1959. 

Jack Slowey has developed a program which makes it possible for 
the Baker-Nunn cameras to photograph satellites successfully over a 
long arc. The preliminarjT- results have yielded much valuable in- 
formation, and the Slowey Long- Arc Ephemeris will greatly increase 



102 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

the flexibility and area of accomplishment of the camera stations. 

Dr. Yoshihide Kozai has developed a theory of orbit perturbations 
including effects due to the sun and the moon. The use of this theory 
has yielded three coefficients of the earth's gravitational potential. 

Dr. Sterne advanced a general, analytical theory of the motions of 
satellites, which makes allowance for air resistance and the earth's 
equatorial bulge, leading to improved understanding of the shape of 
the earth. 

Dr. Whitney, in cooperation with the Army Ballistic Missile 
Agency, is working on a program to derive the orientation of satel- 
lites from observations of the strength of radio emission. His study 
of the periodic effects of atmospheric drag on a satellite orbit is of 
basic importance to the tracking program. 

Dr. Veis is preparing a star catalog in the form of punched cards. 
This catalog will have particular value in photo reduction. 

George G. Barton and Richard S. Aikens are developing a program 
of electronic image conversion whereby artificial earth satellites may 
be tracked by photoelectric methods. This program will facilitate 
visual observation of orbiting objects. 

The number of observations processed by the Computation and 
Analysis Center totals 43,752 ; predictions sent to optical tracking sta- 
tions number 12,825. 

A program has begun for the reduction of photographic observa- 
tions of satellites by the tracking stations. Under the supervision of 
Dr. Karoly Lassovszky, two methods are employed: (1) The astro- 
metric method allows the computation of the exact orbits of the 
satellites and the derivation of important data relating to the distri- 
bution of mass inside the earth, the form of the earth, the true value 
of distances on the surface of the earth, and the variation in density 
in the atmosphere. (2) The photometric analysis method makes it 
possible to study the tumbling of the satellites, the secular changes of 
brightness of satellites, and the deterioration of their surfaces by 
meteoritic pitting and cosmic rays. 

Two types of measuring engines have been evaluated: the Van 
Biesbroeck goniometer and the two-screw Mann engine. The system 
best suited to our needs has proved to be the Mann engine. A work 
rate study has shown that it will be necessary to operate at least five 
Mann engines for 8 hours a day, in order to reduce the most significant 
data flowing in from the camera tracking stations. A staff of 30 to 
50 persons will be required to operate these five measuring systems. 

To date, of the 5,981 films received, 62 percent were successful. 
Examination of the successful films reveals that 36 percent are 
measurable. About 500 precisely determined positions are ready for 
publication, although the precise time data have yet to be obtained 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 103 

in some cases. The determination of the phototime expressed in 
terms of atomic time is now in progress. 

For a program involving the measurement of the earth's albedo, 
observations have been made of the brightness of the earthshine on 
the dark part of the moon's crescent disk. These data will make it 
possible to evaluate the percent of clear and of cloudy parts of the 
atmosphere which contribute to earthshine. 

Under the supervision of Charles A. Peterson, the Communications 
Center's activity has increased proportionately with the number of 
objects launched. An average of 539,057 words per month is cleared 
through the center; most of these words (groups of five numerals or 
letters) represent satellite information received or sent throughout 
the world. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Numbers 1 to 5 of volume 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Astro- 
physics, were published during the year. The following papers by 
staff members of the Astrophysical Observatory appeared in various 
journals : 

Davis, R. J., McCrosky, R. E., Whipple, F. L., and Whitney, C. A. A plan for 
operating an astronomical telescope in an earth satellite. Astron. Journ., 
vol. 64, p. 50, 1959. 

Davis, R. J., Whipple, F. L., and Whitney, C. A. An astronomical telescope in 
space. Astronaut. Sci. Rev., vol. 1, p. 9 et seq., 1959. 

FiEEMAN, E. L. The distribution of helium-3 in the Grant meteorite and a de- 
termination of the original mass. Planetary and Space Sci., vol. 1, pp. 66-70, 
19.59. 

Fireman, E. L., and De Felice, J. Argon-.S9 and tritium in meteorites. Astron. 
Journ., vol. 64, p. 127, 1959. 

Hawkins, G. S., and Whipple, F. L. The width of meteor trails. Astron. 
Journ., vol. 63, pp. 283-291, 1958. 

Henize, K. G. a new planetary nebula NGC 6164^65 (Cederblad 135a, b). 
Astron. Journ., vol. 64, pp. 51-52, 1959. 

Hynek, J. A., Henize, K. G., and Whipple, F. L. Report on the precision opti- 
cal tracking program for artificial earth satellites. Astron. Journ., vol. 64, 
p. 52, 1959. 

Jacchia, L. G. The final moments of Sputnik II. Sky and Telescope, vol. 17, pp. 
561-562, 1958. 

. Two atmospheric effects in the orbital acceleration of artificial satel- 
lites. Nature, vol. 183, pp. 526-527, 1959. 

. Corpuscular radiation and the acceleration of artificial satellites. Na- 



ture, vol. 183, p. 1662, 1959. 
Keook, M. Structure of stellar atmospheres II. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 129, 

pp. 724-733, 1959. 
-. Structure of shock fronts in ionized gases. Ann. Phys., vol. 6, pp. 188- 

207, 1959. 
Krook, M., and Pecker, J. C. Sur le calcul de modules d'atmosph^re en 

^quilibre radiatif (cas non-gris). Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, vol. 

247, pp. 1177-1179, 1958. 
524591 — 59 8 



104 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

RiNEHART, J. S. Meteorites, satellites, and ceramics. Bull. Amer. Ceramic Soc, 

vol. 37, pp. 461-467, 1958. 
. Impact effects and tektites. Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 14, pp. 

287-290, 1958. 
Schilling, G. F., and Stebne, T. E. Densities and temperatures of the upper 

atmosphere inferred from satellite observations. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 

64, pp. 1-4, 1959. 
Schilling, G. F., and Whitney, C. A. Derivation and analysis of atmospheric 

density from observations of Satellite 1958 Epsilon. Planetary and Space 

Sci., vol. 1, pp. 136-145, 1959. 
Stebne, T. E. The gravitational orbit of a satellite of an oblate planet. Astron. 

Journ., vol. 63, pp. 29-40, 1958. 

. Density of the upper atmosphere. Science, vol. 128, p. 420, 1958. 

. The effect of the rotation of a planetary atmosphere upon the orbit of 

a close satellite. Astron. Journ., vol. 64, p. 64, 1959. 
. Note on R. R. Newton's paper, "Motion of a Satellite Around an Un- 



symmetrical Central Body." Journ. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, p. 270, 1959. 
Stebne, T. E., and Dietee, N. The constancy of the solar constant. Smithsonian 

Contr. Astrophys., vol. 3, pp. 9-21, 1958. 
Whipple, F. L. The coming exploration of space. Saturday Evening Post, 

August 16, 1958. 
, Optical tracking of artificial satellites. Science, vol. 128, pp. 124-129, 

1958. 
. Notes on comets, meteors, and planetary evolution. Publ. Astron. Soc. 

Pacific, vol. 70, pp. 485-488, 1958. 
. Man into space. In "Vistas in Astronautics," vol. 2, pp. 145-147, Per- 

gamon Press, 1959. 

On the lunar dust layer. In "Vistas in Astronautics," vol. 2, pp. 267- 



272, Pergamon Press, 1959. 
Whipple, F. L., and Fireman, E. L. Calculation of erosion in space from the 

cosmic-ray exposure age of meteorites. Nature, vol. 183, p. 1315, 1959. 
Whipple, F. L., and Hawkins, G. S. Meteors. In Handbuch der Physik, vol. 

52, pp. 519-564. Springer- Verlag, 1959. 
Whipple, F. L., and Htnek, J. A. The IGY satellite tracking program as a 

source of geodetic information. Ann. Geophys., vol. 14, pp. 326-328, 1958. 
. The IGY optical satellite tracking program as a source of geodetic 

information. Bull. Geod., No. 49, pp. 50-52, 1958, 

The Special Eeports of the Astrophysical Observatory continue to 
present the results of analyses of satellite data carried out by various 
staff members. The demand has grown so that at present more than 
1,500 individual scientists and research institutions regularly receive 
them. Special Eeports Nos. 14-27, issued during the year, contain 
the following papers : 

Adams, R. M., Briggs, R. E., and Upton, E. K. L. Positions of Satellite 1957 
Beta One during the first 100 revolutions. Spec. Rep. No. 16, pp. 1-22, 
July 25, 1958. 

Albert, R. G., and Adams, R. M. Catalogue of satellite observations for Janu- 
ary and February, 1959. Spec. Rep. No. 24, pp. 1-47, Apr. 9, 1959. 

. Catalogue of satellite observations for March and April 1959. Spec. 

Rep. No. 26, pp. 1-51, May 21, 1959. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 105 

Bbiggs, R. E., and. Slowey, J. W. An iterative method of orbit determination 

from three observations of a nearby satellite. Spec. Rep. No. 27, pp. 1-8, 

June 30, 1959. 
BuLLis, E. P. Moonwatch catalogue, October, November, and December, 1958. 

Spec. Rep. No. 21, pp. 13-36, Feb. 27, 1959. 
BuLLis, E. P., and Campbell, L., Jr. Moonwatch catalogue, May through June, 

1958. Spec. Rep. No. 14, pp. 1-21, July 15, 1958. 
. Moonwatch catalogue, July and August, 1958. Spec. Rep. No. 18, pp. 

23-44, Oct. 4, 1958. 
. Moonwatch catalogue, September 1958. Spec. Rep. No. 20, pp. 19-46, 



Jan. 5, 1959. 
Clarke, J. B. Technical parameters of Satellites 1958 Delta and 1958 Epsilon. 

Spec. Rep. No. 18, pp. 3-4, Oct. 4, 1958. 
Davis, R. J. Timing satellite observations. Spec. Rep. No. 14, pp. 26-31, 

July 15, 1958. 
. Progress report on the planning of an artificial satellite containing an 

astronomical telescope. Spec. Rep. No. 20, pp. 9-12, Jan. 5, 1959. 
Hawkins, G. S. A satellite meteor trap. Spec. Rep. No. 19, pp. 6-8, Dec. 6, 

1958. 
Henize, K. G. Status of the photographic satellite tracking system. Spec. Rep. 

No. 14, pp. 22-25, July 15, 1958. 
Jacchia, L. G. The descent of Satellite 1957 Beta One. Spec. Rep. No. 15, 

pp. 1-13, July 20, 1958. 
. The earth's gravitational potential as derived from Satellites 1957 

Beta One and 1958 Beta Two. Spec. Rep. No. 19, pp. 1-5, Dec. 6, 1958. 
. An empirical formula for satellite ephemerides near the end of their 

lifetime. Spec. Rep. No. 20, pp. 1-4, Jan. 5, 1959. 
. The diurnal efCeet in the orbital acceleration of Satellite 1957 Beta 



One. Spec. Rep. No. 20, pp. 5-8, Jan. 5, 1959. 

Jacchia, L. G., and Briggs, R. E. Orbital acceleration of Satellite 1958 Beta 
Two. Spec. Rep. No. 18, pp. 9-12, Oct. 4, 1958. 

KozAi, Y. The earth's gravitational potential derived from the motion of Satel- 
lite 1958 Beta Two. Spec. Rep. No. 22, pp. 1-6, Mar. 20, 1959. 

. On the effects of the sun and the moon upon the motion of a close 

earth satellite. Spec. Rep. No. 22, pp. 7-10, Mar. 20, 1959. 

Leonard, A. S. Determination of the orbit of Satellite 1958 Beta One, Spec. 
Rep. No. 27, pp. 9-15, June SO, 1959. 

MoCbosky, R. E. a suggested rocket experiment for determination of atmos- 
pheric densities and winds at extreme heights. Spec. Rep. No. 20, pp. 13-16, 
Jan. 5, 1959. 

Peterson, C. M. Communications center of the optical satellite tracking pro- 
gram. Spec. Rep. No. 18, pp. 5-8, Oct. 4, 1958. 

Schilling, G. F., and Whitney, C. A. Atmospheric densities from Explorer IV. 
Spec. Rep. No. 18, pp. 13-22, Oct. 4, 1958. 

Schilling, G. F., Whitney, C. A., and Folkart, B. M. Preliminary note on 
the mass-area ratios of Satellites 1958 Delta One and 1958 Delta Two. 
Spec. Rep. No. 14, pp. 32-34, July 15, 1958. 

Teske, R. G. Positions of Satellite 1958 Alpha during the first 1,400 revolu- 
tions. Spec. Rep. No. 17, pp. 1-173, Sept. 5, 1958. 

Veis, G. The orbit of Satellite 1958 Zeta. Spec. Rep. No. 23, pp. 1-SO, Mar. 
30, 1959. 



106 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

Whitney, C. A. The structure of the high atmosphere. I. Linear models. 

Spec. Rep. No. 21, pp. 1-12, Feb. 27, 1959. 
. The structure of the high atmosphere. II. A conduction model. Spec. 

Rep. No. 25, pp. 1-6, Apr. 20, 1959. 
Whitney, C. A., and Veis, G. A flashing satellite for geodetic studies. Spec. 

Rep. No. 19, pp. 9-19, Dec. 6, 1958. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

The Director, Dr. Jacchia, and Dr. Hynek attended meetings and 
participated in discussions of the 10th General Assembly of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union in Moscow, August 1958. They visited 
various scientific institutions in the USSR. The Director presided at 
a symposium on astronomy from balloons, rockets, and satellites. 

The Director, Dr. Jacchia, and Dr. Hynek participated in the dis- 
cussions of the Fifth Congress of the Comite Special de I'Annee Geo- 
physique Internationale (CSAGI) in Moscow. Dr. Jacchia pre- 
sented his study of the descent of Satellite 1957 Beta One, and served 
on the subcommittees for Rockets and Satellites and for Ionospheric 
Research. 

The Director attended the Ninth Congress of the International 
Astronautical Federation for 1958, in Amsterdam. 

Dr. Riggs attended the meeting of the Meteoritical Society held at 
Winslow, Ariz., and at the nearby Barringer Crater. 

Mr. Davis participated in the meetings of the Optical Society of 
America, October 1958. 

Dr. Gerhard F. Schilling participated in the Conferences on Satel- 
lite Launching at the National Academy of Sciences and at the Pen- 
tagon, October 1958. 

A Conference on Contemporary Geodesy was held in December 1958 
under the sponsorship of the American Geophysical Union in coopera- 
tion with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Harvard 
College Observatory. The Director and various members of the staff 
participated in the discussions. 

Dr. Fireman gave a lecture, "Sampling the Solar System for Iso- 
topes," in February 1959, at the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. 

Dr. Whitney presented papers, by invitation, to the American 
Meteorological Society, in Chicago, 111. ; to the American Rocket Soci- 
ety, in Cambridge, Mass.; and at a symposium held by the Rand 
Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., in the spring of 1959. 

The Director took part in a Space Symposium sponsored by the 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the American 
Physical Society in April 1959. 

Dr. Fireman attended a Conference on Meteors at the Karlinka In- 
stitute, Stockholm, Sweden, June 1959. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 107 

Dr. Whitney participated in the discussions of the International 
Conference of Information Processing of the UNESCO, in Paris. 
He also presented a paper at the Ninth International Colloquium of 
the Institut d'Astrophysique, in Liege, Belgium, June 1959. 

Dr. Hynek and Mr. Neilson made preparations for carrying out 
the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's expedition to Spain, 
to observe the occultation of the star Regulus by the planet Venus. 

Members of the staff attended meetings and presented papers before 
the American Astronomical Society, the American Physical Society^ 
the American Geophysical Union, the National Telemetering Con- 
ference, the American Meteorological Society, the Department of 
Defense, the International Association of Geodesy, the American As- 
tronautical Society, the American Society of Photogrammetry, the 
Mellon Institute, and the American Philosophical Society. 

Every member of the scientific staff has given lectures at schools, 
colleges, civic groups, and military organization assemblies on the 
subject of satellites and space science. 

A conference of the chiefs of satellite tracking stations was held on 
June 15-29, 1959, at the training station in Las Cruces, N. Mex., at 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., and at the Observa- 
tory in Cambridge. This conference, which provided the first oppor- 
tunity for the chief observers to discuss particular problems related 
to the operation of tracking stations, proved of great benefit to all 
who attended. 

The Director was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 
April 1959. He served as consultant to the U.S. Office of Naval Ee- 
search, to the U.S. Air Weather Service on problems related to the 
space age, and to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 
He is chairman of the Technical Panel on Rocketry and member of 
the Technical Panel of the Earth Satellite Program of the Interna- 
tional Geophysical Year ; chairman of the Panel on the Atmosphere 
of the Scientific Advisory Board of the U.S. Air Force; president 
of Commission 22, Meteors, Zodiacal Light, and Analogous Problems, 
of the International Astronomical Union; member of the U.S. Rocket 
and Satellite Research Panel; member of the Committee on 
Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research 
Council; member of Upper Atmosphere Committee in the Meteor- 
ology Section of the American Geophysical Union; member of the 
Committee on Cosmic and Terrestrial Relationships of the American 
Geophysical Union; member of the Committee on Atmospheric Sci- 
ences of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Coun- 
cil ; member of the Panel on Chemistry of Space and Exploration of 
Moon and Planets of the National Academy of Sciences, National 
Research Council Committee on Bio- Astronautics ; member of Space 



108 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Sciences Working Group on Orbiting Astronomical Observatories, 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and member of 
Physics of the Atmosphere and Space Committee, American Rocket 
Society. 

The Director is general editor of the Smithsonian Contributions 
to Astrophysics ; and of the international publication Planetary and 
Space Physics. 

CHANGES IN STAFF 

Dr. John S. Rinehart accepted a professorship at the Colorado 
School of Mines, Golden, Colo. He left the Observatory during the 
summer of 1958. 

Dr. Gerhard F. Schilling resigned from the Observatory upon 
his appointment as Chief, Astronomy and Astrophysics, National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, March 1959. 

Richard M. Adams, who had been on leave from Texas A. & M. 
College, resumed his duties there in June 1959. 

As of June 30, 1959, there were 179 persons employed at the 
Observatory. 

BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT 

The Astrophysical Observatory occupies space in five separate 
buildings. Plans for the erection of a new building on the grounds 
of the Harvard College Observatory have been approved ; construc- 
tion is expected to begin during the fall of 1959. 

DIVISION OF RADIATION AND ORGANISMS 

The Division has been engaged in research into the biochemistry and 
biophysics of the photomorphogenic mechanism in plants as controlled 
by radiant energy. In general, the red portion of the spectrum induces 
growth reactions that can be nullified by subsequent exposure to the 
far-red part of the spectrum. 

Normal green simflower seedlings produce large quantities of chlo- 
rophyll when grown in red or blue light, while, under the same condi- 
tions, mutant yellow or white seedlings lose their ability to synthesize 
protochlorophyll and chlorophyll. Although some chlorophyll is 
formed initially in these mutants, it is destroyed under continued 
exposure to light. Investigation of the photomorphogenic mechanism 
as measured by hypocotyl inhibition indicated that the response was 
the same in yellow mutants and normal green seedlings, but 50 percent 
greater in the white mutants. The inference is that the yellow pig- 
ments may be active in a protective function. 

Studies are continuing on the biochemical changes that occur during 
the development of the chloroplasts of higher plants. It has been 
shown in our laboratory that excised leaves of dark-gxown seedlings, 
when incubated on water and in the dark for 18 hours, lose one-half 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 109 

of their protochlorophyllide synthesizing ability. Adding certain 
carbohydrates at optimal concentration or leaving one cotyledon 
attached prevented the loss of synthesizing ability. When sucrose was 
supplied as a substrate, the determination of carbohydrates within the 
leaves revealed a marked increase in reducing sugars and starch, indi- 
cating a rapid utilization of the products of phosphorolysis of sucrose. 

Determination of the specificity of carbohydrates causing a stimula- 
tion of pigment synthesis and of their rates of metabolic utilization re- 
vealed that, of a dozen or more sugars varying from 3 to 18 carbon 
atoms, glucose at a concentration of 0,20 to 0.25 mole was most effective. 
This was found both through direct measurement of protochlorophyl- 
lide synthesis and by manometric measurements of respiration on tis- 
sues supplied with various carbohydrates. Technics are being 
developed for the isolation of proplastids and the measurement of 
their subsequent photomorphogenic development into mature 
chloroplasts. 

During the course of our investigation of light-induced develop- 
mental changes in plants, one of our reported observations was that 
the lag phase in chlorophyll synthesis in etiolated bean leaf tissue could 
be eliminated by pretreating the leaves with low irradiances of mono- 
chromatic red or blue energy. The study of the lag phase of chloro- 
phyll synthesis has been continued, and it has been demonstrated that 
X-irradiation of 5-10 kiloroentgens can increase the lag phase in 
etiolated bean leaves. Subsequent exposure to 10 minutes of white 
light initiated recovery of the chlorophyll synthesizing mechanism. 
Experiments are in progress to ascertain whether the recovery is a red- 
or blue-sensitive reaction and whether nonionizing radiation can coun- 
teract the effect of ionizing radiation in chlorophyll synthesis. 

Radiant energy in the spectral region of 710 to 820 m/i, significantly 
increases the frequency of chromosomal aberrations when used as a 
supplement to X-irradiation. Biochemical studies are being pursued 
to investigate the mechanism of the effect of far-red (710-820 m/i) on 
the rejoining of chromosomes. 

Three new members of the research staff of the Division are : Dr. 
Edward C. Sisler, biochemist; Dr. Walter A, Shropshire, Jr., bio- 
physicist; and Dr. Maurice M. Margulies, biochemist. Dr. Sisler 
comes to the Smithsonian Institution from Brookhaven National Lab- 
oratory where he was engaged in photosynthesis studies. Dr. Shrop- 
shire returns to the Division from the California Institute of Tech- 
nology, where he worked on action and transmission spectra. Dr. 
Margulies was formerly at Johns Hopkins University, where he was 
investigating photosynthesis and the biochemistry of micro- 
organisms. 



110 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

In November 1958, the Eesearch Corporation of New York granted 
funds to the Division for the installation of a radioisotopes laboratory 
and for construction of greenliouse facilities and control rooms. The 
installation of the radioisotopes laboratory is well underway, and 
it should be in operation in the near future. The greenhouse is ex- 
pected to be completed by the fall of 1959. 

PUBUCATIONS 

MoH C. C, and Witheow, R. B. Nonionizing radiant energy as an agent in 
altering the incidence of X-ray-induced chromatid aberrations. II. Reversal 
of the far-red potentiating effect in Vicia by red radiant energy. Radiation 
Res., vol. 10, pp. 13-19, 1959. 

Shbopshire, Walter A., Jk., and Witheow, Robert B. Action spectrum of 
phototropic tip-curvature of Avena. Plant Physiol., vol. 33, pp. 360-365, 
1958. 

WiTHROw, Robert B., and Klein, W. H. Action spectra and kinetics of photo- 
morphogenesis. Atti del 2" Congresso Internazionale di Fotobiologia. 
Edizioni Minerva Medica, pp. 443-451. Torino, Italia (1958). 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. L. Whipple, Director, 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian /nstifufion. 



Report on the National Collection of 
Fine Arts 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1959 : 

SMITHSONIAN ART COMMISSION 

The 36th annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commission was 
held in the Kegents Eoom of the Smithsonian Building on Tuesday, 
December 2, 1958. Members present were Paul Manship, chairman; 
Kobert Woods Bliss, vice chairman ; Leonard Carmichael, secretary ; 
Gilmore D. Clarke, David E. Finley, Walter Hancock, Bartlett Hayes, 
Henry P. Mcllhenny, Ogden M. Pleissner, Charles Sawyer, Stow 
Wengenroth, and Andrew Wyeth. Thomas M. Beggs, Director, Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts, was also present. 

A resolution on the death of George Hewitt Myers, a member of the 
Commission from 1944 until his death on December 23, 1957, was 
unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Finley, chairman, reported for the executive committee that, as 
a result of balloting by mail, the Commission recommended Wilmarth 
S. Lewis to fill the vacancy caused by the death of George Hewitt 
Myers. 

The Commission recommended reappointment of Gilmore D. Clarke, 
Stow Wengenroth, and Andrew Wyeth for the usual 4-year period. 

The following officers were reelected for the ensuing year: Paul 
Manship, chairman ; Eobert Woods Bliss, vice chairman ; and Leonard 
Carmichael, secretary. 

The following were reelected members of the executive committee 
for the ensuing year : David E. Finley, chairman ; Robert Woods Bliss, 
Gilmore D. Clarke, and Archibald G. Wenley, with Paul Manship and 
Leonard Carmichael, ex officio. 

A motion was passed that the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 
be asked to appoint a committee to advise in the development of plans 
for adapting the Civil Service Commission Building, formerly the 
Old Patent Office Building, to the needs of a National Portrait Gal- 
lery, and to prepare legislation concerning such. 

It was further resolved that the chairman of the Smithsonian Art 
Commission shall appoint from its membership a subcommittee, includ- 

111 



112 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ing three artist members, two museum director members, and the Direc- 
tor of the National Collection of Fine Arts, to advise in the develop- 
ment of plans for the housing of the National Collection of Fine Arts 
in the Old Patent Office Building. 

Mr. Beggs pointed out that during the past year preservation activi- 
ties, temporary and traveling exhibitions, and information services 
have greatly increased, with no concomitant additions to the adminis- 
trative staff. 

The Commission recommended acceptance of the following objects : 

Bronze, Dr. John Dewey, by Alexander Portnoff (1887-1949), for the National 
Portrait Gallery. Gift of Mrs. Alexander Portnoff. 

Bronze plaque, Paul Wayland Bartlett, N.A. (1865-1925), by John Flanagan, 
N.A. (1865-1952) . Gift of Mrs. Armistead Peter, Jr. 

Eighteen bronzes and four medallions by Paul Wayland Bartlett, N.A. (1865- 
1925) . Gift of Mrs. Armistead Peter, Jr. 

Bronzes: Walter Griffin (1861-1935); Lafayette; Head of a Girl; Seated 
Torso ; Standing Torso ; Male Figure From Fountain : Male Figure From Foun- 
tain ; Poetry ; Philosophy ; Rabbit ; Rabbit ; Eagle ; Baby Robin ; Cat : Pup ; Goat ; 
Lion; Two Teams of Horses. Medallions: Walt Whitman (1819-92) ; Woman 
Knitting ; Georges Corneau ; Primavera. 

Oil, Fisherboys at Provineetown, by Charles Webster Hawthorne, N.A. (1872- 
1930). Gift of Walter Bachrach. 

Oil, House in the Valley of Wyoming, by Henry Boese (1824-?). Gift of 
Cornelia Hill. 

Oil, Paul Wayland Bartlett, N.A. (1865-1925), by Charles Sprague Pearce, 
A.N.A. (1851-1914), for the National Portrait Gallery. Gift of Mrs. Armistead 
Peter, Jr. 

Three watercolors, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone ; Canyon of the Yel 
lowstone; and River-Pinnacle, by Thomas Moran, N.A. (1837-1926). Gift of 
Mrs. Armistead Peter, Jr. 

Watereolor on ivory, A. Laurason, by Jean Francois Vallee (fl. 1785-1815). 
Gift of Miss Mary Taylor through Mrs. Helen T. Steinbarger. 

THE CATHERINE WALDEN MYER FUND 

The following miniature, watereolor on ivory, was acquired from 

the fund established through the bequest of the late Catherine Walden 
Myer : 

113. Miriam Etting Myers (1787-1808), by Benjamin Trott (c. 1770-c. 1841), 
from Mrs. Lesley Ashburner, Washington, D.C. 

WITHDRAWALS BY OWNERS 

Two miniatures, watereolor on ivory, Martha "Patty'' Custis and 
John Parke Custis, by Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), lent Janu- 
ary 29, 1934, were withdrawn for exhibition purposes by Mrs. W. 
Hunter deButts and Mrs. H. E. Ely, Jr., on April 26, 1959. 

LOANS RETURNED 

Two oils, High Cliff, Coast of Maine, by Winslow Homer, and 
Moonlight, by Albert P. Ryder, lent September 25, 1957, to the Car- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 113 

iiegie Institute, Pittsburgh, for inclusion in its traveling exhibition 
of American Classics of the 19th century, were returned July 2 and 
3, 1958, respectively. 

Oil, Street Shrine, by Jerome Myers, lent November 27, 1957, to the 
Municipal Court for the District of Columbia, was recalled July 3, 
1958, for inclusion in the Ranger Centennial Exhibition. 

Oil, Man in "White, by Cecilia Beaux, lent February 28, 1958, to 
the White House, was recalled July 3, 1958, for inclusion in the Ran- 
ger Centennial Exhibition. 

Oil, Fifth Lake, by Edgar Payne, lent December 30, 1957, to the 
Office of the Vice President was recalled July 8, 1958, for inclusion 
in the Ranger Centennial Exhibition. 

Three oils. The Figurine, by William Paxton ; New Year's Shooter, 
by George Luks; and Self Portrait, by Will H. Low, lent March 15, 
1955, October 18, 1956, and February 14, 1957, respectively, to the De- 
partment of Justice, were recalled July 10, 1958, for inclusion in the 
Ranger Centennial Exhibition. 

Two oils, Tohickon, by Daniel Garber, and The Rapids, by W. 
Elmer Schoneld, lent August 23, 1955, to the Department of Defense 
were recalled July 15, 1958, for inclusion in the Ranger Centennial 
Exhibition. 

Oil, Heavy Sea, by Paul Dougherty, lent January 20, 1958, to the 
White House, was recalled July 21, 1958, for inclusion in the Ranger 
Centennial Exhibition. 

Two sculptures, Manifest Destiny and Grizzly Bear, by Edward 
Kemeys, lent February 14, 1957, to the Department of Justice, were 
returned September 26, 1958. 

Oil, George Washington, attributed to William Winstanley, lent 
May 13, 1955, to the Department of State, was recalled October 14, 
1958, for inclusion in the exhibition "Profiles of the Times of James 
Monroe," October 26 to November 23, 1958. 

Oil, The Island, by Edward W. Redfield, lent January 3, 1957, to 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art for their 25th Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American Oil Paintings and circulated by the Ameri- 
can Federation of Arts, was returned October 16, 1958. 

Oil, Beach of Bass Rocks, Gloucester, Massachusetts, by Frank 
Knox Morton Rehn, lent November 6, 1957, to the office of Represent- 
ative Richard Wigglesworth, was returned December 8, 1958. 

Oil, Laguna, New Mexico, by Albert Lorey GroU, lent April 15, 
1954, to the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, was returned March 11, 
1959. 

Two oils. Flume, Opalescent River, by Alexander Wyant, lent 
January 30, 1958, to the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, and Round 
Hill Road, by John Henry Twachtman, lent November 7, 1957, to the 
Municipal Court of Appeals, were recalled April 7, 1959, for the 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

exhibition "Turn-of-the-Century Paintings from the William T. 
Evans Collection," April 23 to June 1, 1959. 

Oil, The Bathers, by Eobert Eeid, lent November 7, 1957, to the 
Municipal Court of Appeals, was returned April 7, 1959. 

Three oils, South Strand, by Emil Carlsen, lent September 21, 1966, 
to the Bureau of the Budget ; End of Winter, by John Henry Twacht- 
man, lent January 22, 1957, to the Department of State; and Idle 
Hours, by HaiTy Mowbray, lent November 6, 1956, to the Interstate 
Conmierce Commission, were recalled April 8, 1959, for the exhibition 
"Tum-of-the-Century Paintings from the William T. Evans 
Collection," 

ART WORKS LENT 

The following art works, oil paintings on canvas unless otherwise 
noted, were lent for varying periods : 

To the Bureau of the Budget, Washington, D.C. : 

February 13, 1959 Abraham Lincoln, by George Story. 

To the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., for their International Retrospective 
Exhibition, December 4, 1958, through February 8, 1959 : 

September 15, 1958 Moonlight, by Albert P. Ryder. (Returned 

February 13, 1959.) 
To the Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C. : 

March 20, 1959 My Old Mill, Holmescroft, near Rockville, by 

William H. Holmes (vpatercolor). 
A Maryland Wheat Field, by William H. 

Holmes (watercolor). 
Over the Maryland Fields, by William H. 

Holmes (watercolor). 
The Normal Rock Creek about 1910, by William 
H.Holmes (watercolor). 
To the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C. : 

October 29, 1958 Major John Wesley Powell, by Henry Ulke. 

( Returned November 4, 1958. ) 

November 14, 1958 Major John Wesley Powell, by Edmund 

Clarence Messer. (Returned December 8, 
1958.) 
To the Department of Defense, Washington, D.C. : 

July 15, 1958 Sunset, Navarro Ridge, California Coast, by 

Ralph A. Blakelock. (Returned August 13, 
1958.) 

August 13, 1958 In the Orchard, by Edmund C. Tarbell. 

To the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C. : 

May 5, 1959 Lauhala, by Hue M. Luquiens (drypoint). 

Derelict, by Beatrice S. Levy (aquatint). 
Winter Moonlight, by George Jo Mess (aqua- 
tint). 
In the Assiniboine Country, by R. H. Palenske 

(drypoint). 
A Mallard Marsh, by Roland Clark (drypoint). 



■ SECRETARY'S REPORT 115 

Spring Blossoms, Magnolia, by Bertha E. 

Jaques (drypoint). 
Anemones, by Bertha E. Jaques (drypoint). 
Canada Thistle, by Bertha E. Jaques (etch- 
ing.) 
Madonna Lilies, by Bertha E. Jaques (dry- 
point). 
To the Department of History, U.S. National Museum, for an exhibition of the 
Cyrus W. Field Collection commemorating the centennial anniversary of the 
laying of the Atlantic Cable : 

October 8, 1958 First messages sent over the Atlantic Cable 

(original message from Queen Victoria and 
copy of President Buchanan's reply). (Re- 
turned October 31, 1958.) 
To the Department of Justice, Washington, D.C. : 

July 10, 1958 Mrs. Joseph B. Collins, by G. P. A. Healy. 

Coal Barge, Capri, 1880, by William H. Holmes 

(watercolor). 
Miss Mildred Lee, by S. Seymour Thomas. 
To the Knoedler Galleries, New York City, for an exhibition of the works of 
Raphaelle Peale, March 2 through 31, 1959, following the exhibition at the 
Milwaukee Art Center: 

February 1959 Robert Oliphant, by Raphaelle Peale (minia- 
ture, watercolor on ivory). 
Rubens Peale, by Raphaelle Peale (miniature, 
watercolor on ivory). 
(Both returned April 20, 1959.) 
To the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, Washington, D.C. : 

February 11, 1959 Abraham Lincoln, by George Story. (Returned 

February 13, 1959.) 
To the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, for an exhibition of the 
works of Winslow Homer, January 27 thi-ough March 8, 1959, following the 
exhibition at the National Gallery of Art : 

January 15, 1959 The Visit of the Mistress, by Winslow Homer. 

High Cliff, Coast of Maine, by Winslow Homer. 
(Both returned April 3, 1959.) 
To the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, Washington, D.C. : 

June 16, 1959 Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, 

by Emanuel Leutze. (Recalled July 13, 1959, 
to be sent to the American National Exhibi- 
tion in Moscow.) 
To the Milwaukee Art Center, Milwaukee, Wis., for an exhibition of works by 
Raphaelle Peale, January 15 through February 15, 1959: 
December 24, 1958 Robert Oliphant, by Raphaelle Peale (minia- 
ture, watercolor on ivory) . 
Rubens Peale, by Raphaelle Peale (miniature, 
watercolor on ivory ) . 
(Both forwarded to Knoedler Galleries for 
an exhibition March 2 through 31, 1959.) 
To the Municipal Court for the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. : 

July 3, 1958 Twilight After Rain, by Norwood Hodge Mac- 

Gilvary. 



116 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

To the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., for an exhibition of the works 
of Winslow Homer, November 23, 1958, to January 4, 1959 : 

July 16, 1958 The Visit of the Mistress, by Winslow Homer. 

High Cliff, Coast of Maine, by Winslow Homer. 
(Both forwarded to the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art January 15, 1959, for ex- 
hibition. ) 
Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. : 

March 11, 1959 Laguna, New Mexico, by Albert Lorey GroU. 

To the Department of State, Washington, D.C. : 

October 14, 1958 Housatonic Valley, by Alexander Wyant. 

December 31, 1958 The Grindstone, by Charles W. Dahlgreen 

(etching). 
Horse and Wagon, Noon, by George Fawcett 

(etching). 
The Tramp, by Sears Gallagher (etching). 
Sycamores by the River, by Alfred Hutty 

(etching). 
Fiesole from San Francisco, by Ernest Roth 

(etching). 
Locating the Blind, by Lee Sturges (etching). 
Winter Cornfield, by Lee Sturges (etching). 
The New Outfit, by Walter C. Yeomans (etch- 
ing). 

June 3, 1959 Autumn at Arkville, by Alexander Wyant. 

June 25, 1959 End of Winter, by John H. Twachtman. 

To the Department of the Treasury, Washington, D.C. : 

March 3, 1959 Portrait of a Lady, by Anders Zorn. 

To the U.S. Information Agency, Washington, D.C, for the American National 
Exhibition in Moscoa^-, July 25 through September 25, 1959 : 

June 15, 1959 High Cliff, Coast of Maine, by Winslow Homer. 

To the Veterans' Administration, Washington, D.C. : 

December 16, 1958 Schoolgirl, by Mile. Marie Louise-Catherine 

Breslau (charcoal drawing). 
Nurse and Patient, by Jules Cayron (crayon 

drawing). 
"Ostend," by Arsene Chabanian (watercolor). 
Before the Crucifix, by Louis Adolphe 

Dechenaud (crayon drawing). 
Homeless Victim of War, by Hubert-Denis 

Etcheverry (crayon drawing). 
"Saint Cloud, 4 Juin, 1906," by Francois Fla- 

meng (watercolor). 
Wounded Soldier, by Henri Gervex (pastel). 
Peasant Girl, by P.-Franc Lamy (watercolor). 
Church Interior, by Maurice Lobre (charcoal 

drawing). 
"Primavera," by Edgard Henri Marie Maxence 

(red chalk drawing). 
"Les Poilus." "Quand je pense que j'aspirais 
k la vie au gi'and air," by Louis Abel Tru- 
chet (charcoal drawing). 
"Pour que la liberty continue d'^elairer le 
monde," by Henri Zo (charcoal drawing). 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 117 

February 16, 1959 The First Sharps Rifle (Homer D. Jennings, 

St. Cloud, Florida ) , by Walter Beck (pastel ) . 

The Signal, After the Battle of Big Bethel 
(John Tregaskis), by Walter Beck (pastel). 

Fisher of the Fifth New York Volunteer In- 
fantry, Duryee Zouaves, by Walter Beck 
(pastel). 

Drummer Boy of the Fighting Fifth after 
Gaines Mills (Robert F. Daly, New York 
City), by Walter Beck (pastel). 

The Lone Tree, by Arthur W. Hall (etehiug). 

Fry Street and the Old Polish Church, by 
Morris Henry Hobbs (etching). 

Mackerel, by Sears Gallagher (etching). 

Swift Current Falls, by Eugene Glaman (etch- 
ing). 

Davy Jones' Locker, by Margaret Ann Gang 
(etching). 

Homeward Bound, by Sears Gallagher (etch- 
ing). 

The Port of CaM, Corsica, by Philip H. Gid- 
dens (etching). 

Little Mexico, by Louis Oscar GriflSth (etching) . 

Top of Brooklyn Arch, by Allen Lewis (etch- 
ing). 

Port of the Passing Ship, by Allen PMlbrick 
(etching). 

The Great Tapestry Hall, Hampton Court 
Palace, by Leon R. Pescheret (etching). 

Middle Temple Hall, London, by Leon R. Pes- 
cheret (etching). 

Avenue of Flags, by Leon R. Pescheret (etch- 
ing). 

Miao Feng T'a (near the Jade Fountain Pa- 
goda), by Hans Luthmann (etching). 

Village Street, Bedford, Massachusetts, by 
Chester Leich (etching). 

Tree, Manhattan, by Martin Lewis (etching). 

Salem's Old Wharves, Massachusetts, by Philip 
Little (etching). 

Arch, Roman Forum, by Bertha E. Jaques 
(etching). 

Boat Shop, Venice, by Bertha E. Jaques (etch- 
ing). 

Cheviot Sheep, Hampstead Heath, London, by 
Bertha B. Jaques (etching). 

Sphinx, Thames, London, by Bertha E. Jaques 
(etching). 

German Building, Chicago, by Bertha E. Jaques 
(etching). 

Seiners, Chioggia, by Bertha E. Jaques (etch- 
ing). 

The Temple, by Bertha E. Jaques (etching). 

Artichoke, by Bertha E. Jaques (etching). 



118 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

To the OflSce of Vice President Nixon, Washington, D.C. : 

July 8. 1958 Niagara, by George Inness. (Returned April 

7, 1959.) 
To The White House, Washington, D.C. : 

July 11, 1958 Portrait of J. J. Shannon, R.A., by Orlando 

Rouland. 

July 21, 1958 Southwesterly Gale, St. Ives, by Frederick 

Judd Waugh. 

(Recalled April 8, 1959, for the exhibition, 
"Turn-of-the-Century Paintings From the 
William T. Evans Collection.") 

August 19, 1958 Lower Ausable Pond, by Homer Dodge Martin. 

(Returned October 27, 1958.) 

December 17, 1958 Male Wood Duck on Shallow Water, by Richard 

Meryman. 
The Island, by Edward Willis Redfield. 
Beach of Bass Rocks, Gloucester, Massachu- 
setts, by Frank Knox Morton Rehn. 

January 23, 1959 Herbert Hoover, by Edmund Charles Tarbell. 

March 6, 1959 Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, 

by Emanuel Leutze. 
(Returned Mai-ch 13, 1959.) 

April 10, 1959 Outskirts of the Woods, by David Cox. 

(Returned June 25, 1959.) 

June 9, 1959 Southwesterly Gale, St. Ives, by Frederick 

Judd Waugh. 
June 25, 1959 Sun and Storm, by Paul Dougherty. 

SMITHSONIAN LENDING COLLECTION 

Three oils, Little Paulus, Little Rosa, and Watching, by S. Sey- 
mour Thomas (1868-1956), gift of Mrs. Jean Haskell, were added 
December 2, 1958. 

Bronze, Sun Dance, by Paul Wayland Bartlett, 'N.A. (1865-1925), 
gift of Mrs. Armistead Peter, Jr., was added December 2, 1958. 

Fourteen paintings by Alice Pike Barney, lent November 2, 1955, 
to the Bio-Sciences Information Exchange were returned January 23, 
1959, during a period of redecoration and re-lent, with Child with 
Fruit, March 18, 1959 : 

Minnete and Minet (pastel). Fantasy (pastel). 

The Visitor (pastel). Gladys (pastel). 

Endymion. Hippolyte Thom (pastel). 

The Dimple. Laura in Hat (pastel). 

Little Girl (pastel). Natalie in Greens (pastel). 

Hail Fellow, Well Met (pastel). Peggy (pastel). 

Ad Oriental (pastel). Romance (pastel). 

The following paintings were lent for varying periods : 

To The White House, Washington, D.C. : 

December 17, 1958 Ships at Anchor, Cherbourg No. 1, by Edwin 

Scott. 
To the Department of the Treasury, Washington, D.C. : 

March 3, 1959 Shapes of Fear, by Maynard Dixon. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



119 



THE HENRY WARD RANGER FUND 

The following paintings, purchased previously but not assigned, 
have been allocated to the institutions indicated : 



Title and artist 

194. Circus Friends (watercolor), by A. 

Henry Nordhausen (1901- ). 

195. That Lonesome Road (water- 

color), by Roy M. Mason 
(1886- ). 

205. Benares on the Ganges, by Mau- 

rice Sterne, N.A. (1877-1957). 

206. Sea and Wharf at Provincetown, 

by Eric Isenburger, N.A. 
(1902- ). 

209. Everyday Is Washday (water- 
color), by Frederic Whitaker, 
N.A. (1891- ). 

210. Philadelphia (watercolor), by 
Hugh Gumpel (1926- ). 



Aaaignment 

University of South Carolina, Colum- 
bia, S.C. 

San Joaquin Pioneer and Historical 
Society, Stockton, Calif. 

Phillips Gallery, Washington, D.C. 

M. H. De Young Museum, San Francis- 
co, Calif. 

Henry Art Gallery, University of Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Wash. 

Art Institute of Zanesville, Zanesville, 
Ohio. 



No. 25, Sleep, by Leon Kroll, N.A. (1884- ), purchased by the Council of the 
National Academy of Design December 4, 1922, was reassigned by the Academy 
to the Fitchburg Art Museum, Fitchburg, Mass., on February 20, 1959. 

According to a provision in the Ranger bequest, that paintings pur- 
chased by the Council of the National Academy of Design from the 
fund provided by the Henry Ward Ranger Bequest, and assigned to 
American art institutions, may be claimed during the 5-year period 
beginning 10 years after the death of the artist represented, the fol- 
lowing painting was recalled for action of the Smithsonian Art Com- 
mission at its meeting December 2, 1958 : 

No. 68, Mile. Maria SafonofC, by Irving R. Wiles, N.A. (1861-1948), returned 
to the Mount Holyoke College, Mount Holyoke, Mass., where it was originally 
assigned in 1928. 

The following paintings, purchased by the Council of the National 
Academy of Design since the last report, have been assigned as 
follows : 

Title and artist Assignment 

212. Boardwalk, by Carl Setterberg Columbus Museum of Arts & Crafts, 

(1897- ). Columbus, Ga. 

213. The Critic (Kennit Lansner), by (Assignment pending.) 

Aaron Shikler (1922- ). 

214. Yesterday and Before and Before, (Assignment pending.) 

by Loring W. Coleman 
(1918- ). 

215. Night Road, Sheffield, by Joseph HoUins CoUege, HoUins, Va. 

Barber (1915- ). 

216. Autumn Landscape, by Robert Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Vickrey (1926- ). 

217. The Painter, Shelley Fink, by (Assignment pending.) 

David Levlne (1926- ). 



120 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Title and artist Assignment 

218. Practice, by Tver Rose (1899- ). E. B. Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, 

Calif. 

219. Shopping District, by Sol Wilson Mary Washington College, University 

(1896- ). of Virginia, Fredericksburg, Va. 

220. At Foot of Mount Teton (water- Queens College Art Association, Flush- 

color), by Chen Chi, A.N. A. ing, N.Y. 
(1912- ). 

221. Port City, by John Guerin J. B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, Ky. 

(1889- ). 

222. Harvest Time, Extremadura University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 

(watercolor), by Eileen Mona- Mass. 
ghan Whitaker, A.N.A. 
(1911- ). 

223. Still Life (watercolor), by Avel Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn. 

de Knight (1923- ). 

224. Houses in Shade (watercolor), by Wesley an University, Middletown, 

Edwin L. Dahlberg (1901- ). Conn. 

225. Men and Mist (watercolor), by University of Vermont, Burlington. Vt. 

Irving Shapiro ( - ). 

SMITHSONIAN TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 

In addition to 71 exliibits held over from previous years as listed 
below, 29 new shows were introduced. The total of 100 were circulated 
to 240 museums, one having been prepared for the U.S. Information 
Service's use abroad. 

1954-1955: Japanese Woodcuts I ; Design in Holland ; and Carl Bodmer Paints 
the Indian Frontier. 

1955-1956: Sargent Watercolors; Architectural Photography; Contemporary 
Finnish Architecture ; European Glass Design ; Two Finnish Craftsmen ; Japan I 
by Werner Bischof ; This is the American Earth ; and Chinese Ivories from the 
Collection of Sir Victor Sassoon. 

1956-1957: A Frenchman in America, Charles-Alexandre Lesueur ; Paintings by 
Tessai ; American Printmakers ; George Bellows Prints and Drawings ; Contem- 
porary German Prints; Japanese Fish Prints; Architectural Photography II; 
German Architecture Today ; Landscape Architecture Today ; American Crafts- 
men, 1957 ; Recent Work by Harry Bertoia ; Good Design in Switzerland ; German 
Art Books ; A World of Children's Books ; Six Japanese Painters ; Early American 
Woodcarving; Punch and Judy; Japan II by Werner Bischof; The World of 
Edward Weston; Young Germans Behind the Camera; and Swedish Rock 
Carvings. 

1951-1958: American Primitive Paintings; Paintings by Jan Cox; Indian 
Paintings from Rajasthan; Mexican Work by Cock van Gent; Second Pacific 
Coast Biennial; The American City in the 19th Century; Recent American 
Prints ; Early Prints and Drawings of California ; Japanese Woodblock Prints ; 
Theatrical Posters of the Gay Nineties ; Birds by Emerson Tuttle ; 100 Years of 
American Architecture ; A Century of New England Architecture ; Contemporary 
Portuguese Architecture; National Ceramic Exhibition, Sixth Miami Annual; 
Fulbright Designers; Nylon Rug Designs; Religious Banners; Twelve Scandi- 
navian Designers; Swedish Textiles Today; Art Books from Italy; Books for 
Young Scientists ; Burmese Embroideries ; The Way of Chinese Landscape Paint- 
ing ; Japanese Dolls ; Thai Painting ; Paintings by Jamin; Roy ; The Anatomy of 
Nature ; Photographs of Angkor Wat ; Image of America ; Pup, Cub and Kitten ; 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 121 

Photographs of Sarawak ; Glimpses of Switzerland ; Argentine Children as Illus- 
trators ; Art in Opera I — Tosca ; Art in Opera II — Carmen ; As I See Myself ; The 
Four Seasons; and Children's Paintings from Morocco. 

The exhibition American Folk Art was prepared for the use of the 
U.S. Information Agency in the Brussels Universal and International 
Exhibition. 

UNITED STATES 

Paintings and Drawings 
Title Source 

Young British Painters Arts Club of Chicago ; Gimpel Fils, London ; 

artists. 
Dutch Master Drawings Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; Netherlands Em- 
bassy ; museums and private lenders. 
} Institute of International Education; Senator 
J. William Fulbright; Lloyd Goodrich and 
artists. 

German Artists of Today Dr. Kurt Martin ; Kleemann Gallery ; German 

Embassy. 

Northwest Painters of Today Seattle Art Museum; Dr. Richard Fuller; 

artists. 

Recent Work by Peter Takal Cleveland Museum of Art, Miss Leona E. 

Prasse; artists and collectors. 
Transferences Michael Chase, Zwemmer Gallery, London. 

Graphic Arts 

Advertising in 19th Century Prints and Photographs Division of the Library 

America. of Congress. 

The Engravings of Pieter Brue- Mr. and Mrs. Jake Zeitlin, Los Angeles, Calif. 

ghel the Elder. 
Three Danish Printmakers Venice Biennale, 1958 ; Danish Embassy, Wash- 
ington, D.C. ; artists. 

Great European Printmakers Munson- Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, N.Y. 

Charles Fenderich — Lithogra- Prints and Photographs Division of the Library 

pher of American Statesmen. of Congress. 
Drawings from Latin Amer- Visual Arts Section, Pan American Union, 

ica. Washington, D.C. ; artists ; collectors. 

Contemporary Religious Prints Mr. and Mrs. W. Ross Sloniker ; Cincinnati 

from the Sloniker CoUec- Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

tion. 
Religious Subjects in Modern Pennell Collection, Library of Congress. 

Graphic Arts. 
UNESCO Watercolor Repro- UNESCO, Paris, France. 

ductions. 

Design 

British Artists-Craftsmen British Artists-Craftsmen, Ltd. ; artists. 

Contemporary Finnish Rugs Bigelow-Sanford Carpet Co., Inc. ; "Ornamo," 

the Finnish Crafts Guild; weavers. 

Contemporary French Tapes- Association des Peintres-Cortonniers de Tapi- 
tries. series, Paris ; 1' Association Frangaise d' Ac- 

tion Artistique ; French Ambassador ; artists. 

Contemporary Indian Crafts Bengal Home Industries Association, Calcutta, 

India. 



122 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Oriental Art 

Stone Rubbings from Angkor Cultural Center of Angkor; Weyhe Gallery. 
Wat. 

Folk Art 

Shaker Craftsmanship Index of American Design, National Gallery 

of Art. 

Photography 

The Unguarded Moment, Pho- Peter Hunter, George Eastman House; Time 
tographs by Erich Salomon. and Life Building, New York ; Library of 

Congress. 

Children's Exhibitions 

Children's Paintings from Yorkville Youth Council, Inc., N.Y. ; Shankers 

Southeast Asia. Weekly. 

Drawings by European Chil- Dr. Joy B. Roy, collector. 

dren. 
Children's Paintings from In- Shankers Weekly; Fine Arts Commission's 

dia. People to People Program. 

A Child Looks at the Museum Junior School, Art Institute of Chicago. 

Swiss Children's Paintings Mrs. Dorothy Snow, Boston Museum of Fine 

Arts. 

INFORMATION SERVICE AND STAFF ACTIVITIES 

In addition to the many requests for information received by mail 
and telephone, inquiries made in person at the office numbered 2,016. 
In all, 199 works of art were submitted for examination and identi- 
fication. 

Special catalogs with introductions and biographical notes by the 
Director were published for the following three exhibitions : Profiles 
of the Time of James Monroe ; Henry Ward Ranger Centennial Ex- 
hibition; and Tum-of-the-Century Paintings from the William T. 
Evans Collection. He also published a vignette, Francis Davis Millet, 
in the Cosmos Club Bulletin for May 1959. 

Special catalogs were published for the following traveling exhibi- 
tions: American Primitive Paintings; British Artist-Craftsmen; 
Dutch Master Drawings ; Contemporary French Tapestries ; Fulbright 
Painters; Recent Work by Peter Takal; and UNESCO Water Color 
Reproductions. Special acknowledgments for two of these were writ- 
ten by Mrs. Annemarie H. Pope and Mrs. Jo Ann Sukel Lewis. 

Mr. Beggs was one of the three jurors for the national newspaper 
cartoon contest on the subject of "Human Betterment," Birmingham, 
Ala., on January 16, 1959, and he judged the regional exhibition of 
the National League of American Pen Women on April 27, 1959. 
On September 1, 1958, he participa:ted in a symposium, "The Study of 
Art as the Study of Man," at the American Psychological Association 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 123 

meetings, and on May 10, 1959, in a television show, "The 25th Hour," 
concerning the history of miniatures, showing examples from the Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts permanent collection. He served on 
the Committee on Liturgical Arts of the Rock Spring Congregational 
Church, Arlington, Va., contributing three talks on the fine arts in a 
series of 12. He spoke on "Henry Ward Ranger, Painter and Bene- 
factor," at the Art League of Manatee County, Bradenton, Fla., Feb- 
ruary 24, 1959. He became a member of the Committee for the 
Preservation of American Art, New York City, which awarded three 
heroic sculptures by Karl Bitter (1867-1915) to the city of Indian- 
apolis in a national competition, and served for the third year on the 
Cultural Presentations Committee, Operations Coordinating Board, 
which advises the Department of State in the selection of artists for its 
oversea program. 

On June 1-3, 1959, Mr. Beggs attended meetings of the Interna- 
tional Institute for Conservation and the opening of the American 
Association of Museums meetings in Pittsburgh. 

Mrs. Pope gave a talk on May 8 at the University of Virginia in 
Charlottesville on the Traveling Exhibition Service program. She 
attended openings of the Dutch Master Drawings in Washington, 
New York, Cleveland, and Chicago, and the meetings of the American 
Association of Museums in Pittsburgh. Miss Acton represented the 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service in a panel discussion at 
the meetings of the Southeast Museums Conference at Winston- Salem, 
N.C., between October 15 and 18, 1958. 

The staff participated in the organization of three important special 
commemorative exhibitions in cooperation with other institutions. 
At the request of the James Monroe Memorial Foundation, a bicenten- 
nial exhibition was shown in the rotunda of the Natural History 
Building, a special brochure and catalog being published. An exhibi- 
tion requested on behalf of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commis- 
sion was organized, with the assistance of the Lincoln Museum, and 
shown at the Washington Cathedral. It was also exhibited in New 
York at the Sheraton Park Hotel in connection with the Independ- 
ence Stamp Show. In cooperation with the National Academy of 
Design, a Henry Ward Ranger Centennial exhibition was shown in 
New York City during the fall, and circulated in part from January 
through June. 

Rowland Lyon served as juror for the following four shows : To- 
day's Artists in Charles County (Maryland) ; Westmoreland Hills 
Art Fair; Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers Society of 
Washington, D.C. ; and the Arts Club Outdoor Art Fair. 

Twenty-seven paintings in oil on canvas from the permanent col- 
lections were cleaned and revarnished, 1 was relined, and 58 picture 
frames were repaired and refinished with the assistance of Buildings 



124 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Management Service. One painting, James W. Melville, by S. de 
Ivanowitz, was relined to repair a 16-inch tear in the canvas, for the 
U.S. National Museum. 

Three paintings, Italian Landscape, Sunset Glow, by Tom Jones; 
Lord Eoth, by Sir Joshua Keynolds; and Fishing Boats Beating 
Up to Windward, by Edward Moran, were renovated by Henri G. 
Courtais, who also restored The Cottage Door, by Thomas 
Gainsborough. 

An oil, Major John Wesley Powell, by Edmund C. Messer, was 
renovated by Francis Sullivan. 

Janice Hines relined two oil paintings, Major John Wesley Powell, 
by Henry Ulke, and House in the Valley of Wyoming, by Boese, and 
renovated the following from the William T. Evans Collection : The 
Blacksmith, by James CaroU Beckwith ; The Black Orchid, by Fred- 
erick Stuart Church ; The Spouting Wliale, by William Morris Hunt ; 
Algerian Water Carrier, by William Sartain ; Water Lilies, by Walter 
Shirlaw ; The Boy with the Arrow, by Douglas Volk ; Mrs. William 
T. Evans and Son John, by Henry Oliver Walker; and A Gentle- 
woman, by J. Alden Weir. 

Joseph Ternbach renovated the following 12 objects from the Gel- 
latly collection: Incense burner, enameled and chased copper, 15th 
century (234.1) ; Byzantine necklace of gold medallions with inlaid 
depictions of Christ and Apostles (247.1) ; Champlsve limoges plaque, 
the Crucifixion, French, 13th century (250.1) ; copper chasse, French, 
13th century (251.1) ; Champleve limoges crucifix, French, 13th cen- 
tury (252.1); Champleve crozier, the Annunciation, French, 13th 
century (254.1) ; Russian ikon. Our Lady of Vladimir, (488.1) ; Pyxis 
with enamel decoration, 13th century (602.1) ; silver filigreed phoenix, 
Chinese (271.1) ; silver filigreed crown, ornamented with gems and 
symbols, Chinese (272.1) ; silver and enamel peacock (621.1) ; Chinese 
glass bowl (580). 

Donald Hitchcock, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, translated 
the Church Russian inscriptions on the silver-gilt ikon. Our Lady of 
Vladimir, in the Gellatly collection. 

The entrance to the Benjamin H. Warder home, received from the 
Cooperating Committee on Architecture in May 1923, was dismantled, 
crated, and stored at Suitland on May 15, 1959. 

An oil, John Tyler, by G. P. A. Healy, was copied by C. Gregory 
Stapko in a studio furnished to the National Collection of Fine Arts 
for that purpose through the courtesy of the National Gallery of Art. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS 

Seventeen special exhibitions were held during the year : 

August 21 through September 26, 1958. — Third Biennial Exhibition of Creative 
Crafts sponsored by the Ceramic Guild of Bethesda, Cherry Tree Textile Design- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 125 

ers, Clay Pigeons Ceramic Workshop, Designer-Weavers, the Potomac Craftsmen, 
and the Kiln Club of Washington, consisting of 142 items. Craft demonstrations 
were given. A catalog was privately printed. 

October 12 through Novemier 2, 1958. — Sculptures, Oils, Watercolors, and 
Drawings by Charles M. Russell, sponsored by the Montana State Society of 
Washington, D.O., consisting of 205 items. An illustrated catalog was privately 
printed. 

October 26 through tfovernber 23, 1958. — Profiles of the Time of James Monroe, 
under the auspices of the James Monroe Memorial Foundation, consisting of 
178 objects including paintings, sculpture, silhouettes, and memorabilia, was 
held in the rotunda. A catalog was printed. 

December 8, 1958, through January 4, 1959. — The 21st Anniversary of the 
Metropolitan Art Exhibition, sponsored by the American Art League, consisting 
of 63 paintings and 12 sculptures, was held in the rotunda. 

December 3, 1958, through January Jf, 1959. — Henry Ward Ranger Centennial 
Exhibition consisting of 30 paintings from the National Collection of Fine 
Arts permanent collection that had been exhibited at the National Academy of 
Design, September 25 through October 12, 1958, in its commemoration of this 
artist's birth, was held in the rotunda. A catalog was printed. 

Following the National Collection of Fine Arts showing, these 30 paintings 
were circulated from January through June 1959 to the following museums: 
Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte, N.C. ; Art League of Manatee County, Braden- 
ton, Fla. ; Jacksonville Art Museum, Jacksonville, Fla. ; Gibbes Art Gallery, 
Charleston, S.C. ; and North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, N.C. 

January 10 through February 1, 1959. — British Artist-Craftsmen, sponsored 
by the Ambassador of Great Britain and Lady Caccia, and later circulated by 
the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, consisting of 178 objects, altar 
sculpture, stained glass, ceramics, glass, silver, etc. The Rose Book was lent 
by the Churchill family for special showing during this exhibition. A catalog 
was privately printed. 

February 7 through 27, 1959. — The 66th Annual Exhibition of the Society of 
Washington Artists, consisting of 66 paintings and 18 sculptures. A catalog 
was privately printed. 

February 28 through March 22, 1959. — Fulbright Painters and Designers, 
under the sponsorship of the Honorable J. W. Fulbright, Senator from Arkansas 
(circulated by the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service), consisting of 
60 paintings and approximately 200 objects, including furniture, textiles, silver, 
ceramics, stained glass, etc. A catalog was privately printed. 

March 29 through April 26, 1959. — Contemporary Glass and Textiles by Lu- 
crecia Moyano de Muniz, sponsored by the Ambassador of Argentina, Dr. Cesar 
Barros Hurtado, consisting of 49 glass objects and 12 rugs. 

March 29 through April 26, 1959. — Photographs of Argentina by Gustavo 
Thorlichen, sponsored by the Ambassador of Argentina, Dr. C6sar Barros Hur- 
tado, consisting of 58 prints. 

April 19 through May 3, 1959. — Stone Rubbings from Angkor Wat (circulated 
by the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service), consisting of 23 rubbings 
made from the 12th-century sandstone reliefs. 

April 19 through May 3, 1959. — Photographs of Angkor Wat (circulated by 
the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service), consisting of 100 photographs 
stressing architecture of monimients built by Khmer King, Suryavarman II. 

April 23 through June 1, i 959.— Turn-of-the-Century Paintings from the Wil- 
liam T. Evans Collection, consisting of 57 paintings exhibited for the 50th 
Anniversary American Federation of Arts Convention, was held in the first- 
floor galleries. A catalog was printed. 



126 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

May S through 21, 1959. — The 26th Annual Exhibition of the Miniature Paint- 
ers, Sculptors, and Gravers Society of Washington, D.C., consisting of 191 items. 
A catalog was privately printed. 

May 3 through 21, 1959. — The 63d Annual National Exhibition of the Washing- 
ton Water CJolor Club, consisting of 117 paintings. A catalog was privately 
printed. 

June 2 through 9, 1959. — Children's Paintings from Morocco, a selection from 
the paintings owned by the Moroccan Embassy, consisting of 79 works. 

June IJf through July 5, 1959. — Eighth Interservice Photography Contest, con- 
sisting of 75 photographs by members of the Armed Forces, 

Eespectfully submitted. 

Thomas M. Beggs, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 

Sik: I have the honor to submit the 39th annual report on the 
Freer Gallery of Art, for the year ended June 30, 1959. 

THE COLLECTIONS 

Twenty-seven objects were added to the collections by purchase 
as follows : 

GLASS 

58.16. Syrian, early 14tli century. Footed bowl with cover; gilding with red 
outlines and richly enameled with red, blue, green, white, and yellow 
colors forming floral and animal designs ; much of it in Chinese style. 
Height 0.311 x diameter 0.210. ( Illustrated. ) 

LACQUER 

59.5. Indian, Deccani school, mid-17th century. Signed by Rahim Dekkani; 

penbox (qalamdan) with figural scenes of the life of princes on both 
sides of the cover ; arabesque and floral designs on brick-red outer side 
walls ; gold floral pattern on the greenish-brown bottom and undecorated 
black interior; two metal chains at sides, and clasp. 0.282 x 0.053 x 
0.049. 

METALWORK 

58.15. Indian, Mughal, 17th century (1605-27). Dagger with name of Jahanglr 
on upper chape. Steel blade with central ridge. Ivory flange inlaid 
with black mastic and gold wire (the hilt flange of walrus ivory is 
fixed to steel tang by pins ending in two silver rosettes) ; tang sheathed 
with gold and studded with 16 larger and 34 smaller jewels ; guard and 
two chapes either in silver or niello or in reverse (chapes are now 
detachable) ; one larger, six smaller stones, and some gold inlay lost, 
one ivory corner chipped. Length (overall) 0.295 x width of guard 
0.210. 

58.6. Persian, Seljuq period, 11th century. Gold bracelet; quatrefoil hinge 

decoration composed of 4 large and 12 small domes with granulation 
work, and four inlaid turquoises. Diameter 0.106 ; weight 73.6 grams. 

58.7. Persian, Sasanian period. Silver gilt plate; spherical, footless, with 

spread-eagle design in low, chased relief ; framing wreath, double walls ; 
part of gilt worn ofE ; patination. 0.044 x 0.282. 
58.14. Persian, Seljuq period, llth-12th century. Gold bracelet, oval shaped; 
three rows of conical projections (66 in all), framed by two rows of 
smaller cones (172 in all) ; at the top side opening (closed by pin) 4 
pairs of confronted dove figures partly executed with filigree, stand 
on 2 X 11 strands of twisted wire. Maximum diameter (overall) 
0.097 X width 0.050 ; weight 354.5 grams. 

127 



128 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

PAINTING 

58.8. Chinese, Cli'mg dynasty. Two mynati birds on a branch; a squirrel 

leaping for a wild grapevine; ink and light color on paper; by Hua 
Yen (1682-1758) ; artist's inscription and two of his seals on painting. 
0.603 X 1.345. 

58.9. Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty. Landscape, "A Morning View of the Yao Peak," 

by Chiang Shih-chieh (1647-1709) ; two inscriptions by the artist and 
nine of his seals on the painting ; one collector's seal. 0.540 x 0.242. 

58.10. Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty, 17th century. Landscape in ink and color on 

paper ; by Hsiao Yiin-ts'ung ; inscription by the artist, signed and dated 
(1658) ; one seal of the artist. 0.410 x 0.957. 
59.1- Indian, Sultanate period, middle or second half of 15th century. Set of 

59.4, four miniatures from a manuscript of Amir Khusraw Dihlavi's Khamse; 
nasta'llq writing in four columns ; painting in colors on paper. Average : 
0.110 X 0.210. 

58.4r- Japanese, Ashikaga period. Idealistic Chinese school. A pair of 6-fold 

58.5. screens painted in ink and color on paper; mountain landscape by 
Sesshu (1420-1506). Average: 1.610 x 3.512. (58.5 illustrated.) 

58.11. Japanese, Kamakura period, Yamatoe school. "Yuzu Nembutsu Engi," 

dated 1329 ; in ink and color on paper. 0.290 x 14.163. 

58.12. Japanese, Decorative school, 17th century. Wistaria and other flowers ; 

by Roshu ; ink and color on paper. 1.2.59 x 0.520. 
58.17- Japanese, Ashikaga period, Yamatoe school, 15th century. Set of three ; 
58.19. landscape-Kumano Mandara; ink, color, and gold on silk. Average: 

1.165 X 0.593. 
59.8. Japanese, Momoyama, Ukiyoe school, mid-17th century. Scenes in Kyoto, 

"Gion Festival" ; 6-fold screen ; ink, color, and gold leaf on paper. 

3.480 X 1.505. 

POTTERY 

58.13. Chinese, T'ang dynasty, 8an-ts'ai ware. Bowl with plain rim ; clay : buff 

stoneware; transparent glaze, streaked with brownish-yellow and 
green ; finely crackled ; iridescent inside bottom. 0.047 x 0.103. 

59.6 Chinese, Sung dynasty, ting ware. Vase of truncated bottle shape with 

flat base, rounded shoulders, short neck, and flaring lip; clay: fine- 
grained white stoneware ; glaze : transparent, glossy ; decoration : peony 
scrolls in brown slip with incised details. 0.163 x 0.166. (Illustrated.) 

59.7 Chinese, Sung dynasty, celadon, Li-shui type. Covered vase with flaring 

foot ring ; two loop handler ; flaring mouth and vertical lip ; clay : light- 
gray porcellaneous stoneware, fired reddish brown ; glaze : transparent 
olive-green with fine crackle ; decoration : incised on body, carved on 
cover. 0.370 (with cover) x 0.165. 

59.9 Chinese, Ming dynasty, Hsiian-te period. Bowl, deep with thick walls and 
flat, low foot ring ; clay : fine white porcelain ; glaze : transparent, faintly 
bluish inside and flocculent blue outside, none on base; decoration: 
incised in the paste outside are waves, dragons, and lotus panels ; 6- 
character mark of the period inside bottom. 0.125 x 0.264. 

58.3 Japanese, Edo period, Kakiemon, early 18th century. Octagonal dish; 
clay : fine white porcelain ; glaze : transparent, very slightly mat ; deco- 
ration : two large fish in underglaze blue among water weeds in over- 
glaze enamels. 0.050 x 0.333. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 129 

59.10 Japanese, Edo period, Nabeshima. Shallow dish with high, thin foot ring ; 
clay: fine white porcelain; glaze: transparent; decoration: in under- 
glaze blue outside and in, the latter combined with overglaze enamels. 
0.037 X 0.150. 

REPAIRS TO THE COLLECTIONS 

Twenty-nine Chinese, Japanese, and Persian objects were restored, 
repaired, or remounted by T. Sugiura. In addition, he repaired 13 
books for the library. 

CHANGES IN EXHIBITIONS 

Changes in exhibitions amounted to 445 as follows: 

American art : Paintings 60 

Drawings 29 Stone sculpture 10 

Etchings 20 Japanese art: Paintings— 4 

Lithographs 18 Korean art: 

Chinese art: Bronze 6 

Bronze 34 Jade 7 

Ivory 8 Metalwork 6 

Lacquer 4 Pottery 65 

Christian art : Near Eastern art : 

Crystal 1 Bookbindings 10 

Glass 3 Manuscripts 28 

Gold 9 Metalwork 30 

Paintings 8 Paintings 44 

Stone sculpture 1 Pottery 18 

Indian art: Stone sculpture 2 

Bronze 2 Wood sculpture 2 

Manuscripts 12 Tibetan art: Paintings 4 

LIBRARY 

Among the 1,005 acquisitions for the library of the Freer Gallery, 
there were 533 welcome gifts from individuals and exchanges from 
other institutions. Outstanding in the purchases were : Dai kan wa 
jiten (Great Chinese-Japanese dictionary), 10 of the 13 volumes have 
been received; Sekai toji zensliu (Catalogue of the world's ceramics) 
in 16 volumes, Tokyo, Kawade Shobo, 1955-58; SeJeai koTcogaku 
taikei (Archaeology of the world), to be complete in 16 volumes, 
Tokyo, Heibonsha, 1958- ; Pearson, Index Islamicus, 1906-1955, 
Cambridge, Heffer & Sons, 1958 ; Kern Institute, Annual 'bibliography 
of Indian archaeology, vol. 16 {19^8-1953), Leiden, Brill, 1958; 
Gulik, R. H. van, Chinese pictorial art as viewed by the connoisseur, 
Eoma, 1958; Nishimura Tei, Namban art, Ghristiam. art in Japan, 
15Jt9-1639, Tokyo, 1959. 

The library receives publications from mainland China and ex- 
changes publications with the Hermitage Museum, Leningrad. 



130 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

In all, 454 scholars and students other than the Gallery staff read 
and studied in the library. Twenty interested persons saw the Wash- 
ington Manuscripts from the vault and studied the facsimiles. 

In the reshelving of the library a rare book division was estab- 
lished. This includes these books which are outstanding examples of 
Japanese rare books: Sanjurok-kasen (The thirty-six immortals of 
Japanese poetry), [n.p., Suminokura Soan, n.d.]. Each page con- 
tains a portrait with the name of the poet and his or her poem. These 
poets were selected by the poet Fujiwara no Kinto, with illustrations 
considered to be by Tosa Mitsushige. This is a perfect copy, prob- 
ably in its original condition. Its slightly tinted papers of yellowish 
and brownish shades are interleaved with white papers. The sheets 
are not numbered and there is no other inscription except the names 
of the poets and their poems. The writings are judged to be in the 
style of Koetsu's calligraphy. The second book is a collection : Utai- 
hon (one hundred utai for the No plays of Kanze school), first 
edition. Calligraphy by Honami Koetsu with the 36 designs said to 
be by Sotatsu, brother-in-law of Koetsu. These are Saga-bon (books 
printed in Saga) under the patronage of Suminokura Soan, a very 
wealthy businessman and an ardent pupil of Koetsu in calligraphy. 
The paper was probably prepared by "paper maker Kyoji," who lived 
with Koetsu at his villa Takagamine. The papermill was situated by 
the river Kamiyagawa, which flows near Koetsu's own villa at Takaga- 
mine. The books are printed from movable type on both sides of 
the paper. The sheets are folded once in the center, sewed with red 
silk, and bound two quires to a volume. The paper is white and 
colored, heavy, coated with clay, and printed with floral designs in 
mica. The covers are various-colored papers of the same quality, 
with dark-tan labels. 100 volumes in 6 lacquer boxes after Koetsu's 
designs. Dr. Yukio Yashiro of Japan, an authority on these books, 
says the calligraphy on the boxes is not Koetsu's. These volumes are 
extremely rare in Japan. 

The year's record of cataloging included a total of 1,422 entries of 
which 666 analytics were made, 425 titles of books and pamphlets were 
cataloged, and 53 titles were recataloged and reclassified. Of the total 
of 4,970 cards necessary for the above work, only 610 were available 
as printed cards from the Library of Congress. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Two publications were issued by the Gallery as follows : 

The Freer Gallery of Art. 16 pp., 8 pis., 2 floor plans, 1 plan of court planting. 

Rev. ed. 1958. ( Smithsonian Inst. Publ. 4185. ) 
Fong, W§n. The lohans and a bridge to heaven. Occas. Pap., vol. 3, No. 1, 64 

pp., 18 pis., 1 fig., 1958. (Smithsonian Inst. Publ. 4305.) 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 131 

Papers by staff members appeared in outside publications as fol- 
lows : 

Cahill, James F. Review of "The Arts of the Ming Dynasty." Catalog of 
an exhibition organized by the Arts Council of Great Britain and the Ori- 
ental Ceramic Society. The Journal of Asian Studies, Ann Arbor, vol. 18, 
No. 2, pp. 289-290, February 1959. 

. Foreword for the exhibition of paintings by Chi Chuan Wang held 

March 10-April 4, 1959, at Mi Chou Gallery, New York City. 

. Ch'ien Hsiian and his figure paintings. Archives of the Chinese Art 



Society of America, vol. 12, pp. 10-29, 1958. 

Ettinghausen, Richard. An exhibition of the ancient arts of Muslim coun- 
tries in Lahore. West Pakistan, vol. 1, No. 8, April 1958. 

. Comments on the nature of Islamic art and its symbols. In The Pak- 
istan Quarterly, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 39-40, 64, Spring 1958. 

. 'Abbasidi-la pittura murale la miniature le arte decorative. EnciclO' 

pedia Universale dell'Arte, vol. 1, col. 10-18. Roma, Istituto per la Col- 
laborazione Culturale, 1959. 

. 'Abdu's-Samad. In Enciclopedia Universale delVArte, vol. 1, col. 18-21. 

Roma, Istituto per la CoUaborazione Culturale, 1959. 

. Review of "Der Orientalische Kniipfteppich, Versuch einer Darstellung 

seiner Geschichte," by K. Erdmann. Oriens, vol. 2, pp. 257-264, 1958. 

. Review of "Islamic Woodcarvers and their Works," by L. A. Mayer, 



for The Muslim World, Hartford (Conn.) Seminary Foundation, January 
1959, p. 60. 

Gettens, Ruthebford J. The identification of pigments and inerts on paintings 
and other museum objects. Application of Science in Examination of Works 
of Art, Sept. 15-18, 1958, pp. 31^9. 

. Examining tables in use at the Freer Gallery of Art. Studies in Con- 
servation, vol. 4, pp. 23-27, illus., February 1959. 

Pope, John Alexander. Two Chinese porcelains in the Umezawa Collection. 
Yamato Bunka No. 28, pp. 1-12, December 1958. 

. Chinese characters in Brunei and Sarawak ceramics. The Sarawak 

Museum Journal, vol. 3, No. 11 (new series), pp. 267-272, 1958. 

Stern, Harold P. Ukiyoe paintings; selected problems. University of Michi- 
gan, 1958. 

West, Elisabeth Hebard. A ring-mount for micro-cross-sections of paint and 
other materials. In Studies in Conservation, vol. 4, pp. 27-31, illus., Feb- 
ruary 1959. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABORATORY AND SALES DESK 

The photographic laboratory made 6,960 items during the year, as 
follows : 4,072 prints, 606 negatives, 1,894: color slides, 405 black-and- 
white slides, and 83 color film sheets. In all, 2,463 slides were lent 
during the year. At the sales desk 23,921 items were sold, compris- 
ing 2,098 publications and 21,823 reproductions (including postcards, 
slides, photographs, reproductions in the round, etc.). 

BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

The exterior walls of the building appear to be in good condition, 
but the roof has begun to show signs of wear. The exterior doors at 



132 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

the north and south entrances were refinished to an antique bronze, 
and a brass handrail was installed at the north entrance. Window 
sills throughout the building have been painted, and painting of struc- 
tural steel and metal work in the attic was begun. 

Four bookcases were completed for the library and one for the office 
of the Assistant Director, and work on exhibition cases for the gal- 
leries continued. A radial saw was installed in the cabinet shop, and a 
cabinet for a print dryer for the photographic laboratory and light- 
proof equipment for the technical laboratory were constructed. Gal- 
lery benches were redesigned and upholstered. 

All trees, plants, and shrubs appear to be doing very well. The 
Meyer zoysia grass is making an excellent showing, except for two 
small plots on the south side that are in complete shade for the winter 
season. Experiments are being made to correct this situation. Vinca 
and Gomphrena planted around the fountain for the present season 
are doing very well. 

ATTENDANCE 

The Gallery was open to the public from 9 to 4 :30 every day except 
Christmas Day. The total number of visitors to come in the main 
entrance was 119,333. The highest monthly attendance was in Au- 
gust, 14,891, and the lowest was in December, 4,018. 

There were 2,508 visitors to the office for the following purposes: 

For general information 1,012 

To submit objects for examination 470 

To see staff members 193 

To take photographs in court or exhibition galleries 127 

To study in library 454 

To see building and installations 37 

To examine or borrow slides 41 

To sketch in galleries 3 

To see objects in storage : 

American art 23 

Christian art (Washington MSS.) 46 

Far Eastern jade, lacquer, wood, ivory, etc 20 

Far Eastern metalwork 28 

Far Eastern paintings 183 

Far Eastern pottery 35 

Near Eastern bookbindings, glass, etc 7 

Near Eastern metalwork 17 

Near Eastern paintings 26 

Near Eastern pottery 10 

AUDITORIUM 

The series of illustrated lectures was continued as follows : 

1958 
October 7. Dr. Richard Ettinghausen, Curator of Near Eastern Art, 

Freer Gallery of Art. "Paintings of the Sultans and Em- 
perors of India." Attendance, 296. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



133 



1958 
November 4. 



1959 
January 6. 

February 10. 

March 10. 



April 7. 



Basil Gray, Keeper of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum, 
London, England. "Five Hundred Years of Chinese Wall 
Painting at Tun-huang." Attendance, 293. 

Dr. W^n Feng, Princeton University. "How to Look at 

Chinese Paintings." Attendance, 298. 
Miss Elizabeth Lyons, Queens College, New York City. 

"Temple Paintings of Thailand." Attendance, 234. 
Harold P. Stern, Associate Curator of Japanese Art, 

Freer Gallery of Art. "Popular Paintings of Tokugawa, 

Japan." Attendance, 157. 
Dr. John A. Pope, Assistant Director, Freer Gallery of Art. 

"Hinduism and Buddhism at Angkor." Attendance, 326. 



Outside organizations used the auditorium as follows : 

1958 

August 13. Ikebana International held a meeting during which Miss 

Seikoh Ogawa gave a demonstration and illustrated lec- 
ture on "Japanese Flower Arrangement." Attendance, 428. 

September 23-26. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Marketing Workshop, 
held meetings with attendance as follows : 82, 96, 83, and 
127 ; total, 388. 
1959 

January 8-9. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Federal Extension Serv- 

ice, held meetings with attendance as follows : 96 and 81 ; 
total, 177. 

January 13-20. The U.S. Department of Agriculture held all-day meetings of 
Administrative Conference (Telephone) with attendance as 
follows : 121 and 124 ; total, 245. 

January 27. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Under Secretary's Office, 

held a meeting of the Farmers' Union. Attendance, 156. 

February 2. The District of Columbia Psychological Association held an 

evening meeting. Attendance, 62. 

February 19. The U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 

Food and Drug Administration, held a seminar on "Meta- 
bolic Fate of Drugs in Different Species." Attendance, 167. 

April 2. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural 

Service, showed a movie on Africa. Attendance, 153. 

April 14- Twelve rehearsals were held by a group from the Smithsonian 

June 29. Institution for a musical program of 15th-century music 

using antique mu^sical instruments. 

May 6. The U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Food 

and Drug Administration, held an all-day meeting. 
Attendance, 82. 

May 20. The Smithsonian Institution sponsored an illustrated lecture 

by H. Alan Lloyd on "Pre-Renaissance Clocks and Their 
Influence." Attendance, 92. 

June 2. The Museum Store Managers held a meeting; cochairmen 

were Mrs. Elizabeth Ostertag, National Gallery of Art, and 
Mrs. Lnor O. West, Freer Gallery of Art. A talk on "Copy- 
right" was given by Richard MacCarteney, Copyright Divi- 
sion, Library of Congress. Attendance, 35. 

June 18. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Extension Service, 

and The 4-H Club held a meeting. Attendance, 112. 



134 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

1959 

June 24. American Library Association, Art Section, Chairman, Mrs. 

Bertha Usilton, librarian. Freer Gallery of Art, held a 
meeting. A talk was given on "A New Program in the 
Documentation of Art." Attendance, 220. 

June 30. The Smithsonian Institution, Division of Cultural History, 

presented "A Program of ISth-Century Music." Attend- 
ance, 361. 

On October 8, 1958, the Gallery was open in the evening and decent 
service was given by Dr. James Cahill and Rutherford J. Gettens 
to a group of nine members of the Executive Committee, International 
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ; Dr. Edward Wichers headed 
this distinguished group. 

STAFF ACTIVITIES 

The work of the staff members has been devoted to the study of new 
accessions, of objects contemplated for purchase, and of objects sub- 
mitted for examination, as well as to individual research projects 
in the fields represented by the collections of Chinese, Japanese, Per- 
sian, Arabic, and Indian materials. Reports, oral and written, and 
exclusive of those made by the teclinical laboratory (listed below) 
were made on 8,637 objects as follows: For private individuals, 
4,785 ; for dealers, 1,619 ; for other museums, 2,233. In all, 834 photo- 
graphs were examined, and 1,151 Oriental language inscriptions were 
translated for outside individuals and institutions. By request, 20 
groups totaling 430 persons met in the exhibition galleries for docent 
service by the staff members. 

Five groups totaling 101 persons were given docent service by staff 
members in the storage rooms. 

Among the visitors were 87 distinguished foreign scholars or per- 
sons holding official positions in their own countries who came here 
under the auspices of the State Department to study museum admin- 
istration and practices in this coimtry. 

During the year the technical laboratory carried on the following 
activities : 

Freer Gallery objects examined 115 

Microchemically 2 

Microscopically 36 

Ultraviolet 30 

X-ray diffraction 31 

Chemical analysis 27 

Treated, cleaned, or repaired 37 

Outside objects examined 107 

Microchemically 23 

Microscopically 45 

Ultraviolet 41 

X-ray diffraction 4 

Treated, cleaned, or repaired 6 



Secretary's Report, 1959 




o 




^ 



Secretary's Report. 1959 




o 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 135 

The following projects were undertaken by the laboratory during 
the year : 

1. During February and March Mr. Gettens spent 2 weeks, and 
Miss West 6 weeks, working as guests in the Chemistry Department, 
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N.Y. The 
project of spectrochemical analysis of some 30 inscribed ceremonial 
bronzes from the Freer collection, which was begun last year, was 
brought nearly to completion. 

2. Chemical anaylsis of the same series of bronzes by conventional 
wet methods was completed. 

3. Examination of some 550 jade objects in the Freer collection, 
which included X-ray diffraction analysis of 150 jades, was completed. 

4. Mr. Gettens took over editorship of Abstracts of the Technical 
Literature and Archaeology and the Fine Arts, published by the 
International Institute for Conservation of Museum Objects, London, 
England. 

5. The systematic collection of data on the teclinology of ancient 
copper and bronze in the Far East was continued. 

6. Studies on the corrosion products of ancient metal objects were 
continued. 

During the year, 4 written reports were made and 128 verbal reports 
given on objects examined in the technical laboratory. 

By invitation the following lectures were given outside the Gallery 
by staff members (illustrated unless otherwise noted) : 



Dr. Cahill, to the Society for Asian Art, San Francisco, 
Calif., "Painting Albums in China and Japan." Attend- 
ance, 100. 

Dr. Pope, at a session of the Division of Esthetics, Sympo- 
sium of the American Psychological Association, Statler 
Hotel, Washington, D.C., "The Freer Gallery of Art." 
Attendance, 150. 

Dr. Cahill, at the Fourth Conference on Chinese Thought, 
Aspen, Colo., "Confucian Elements in Chinese Painting 
Theory." Attendance, 16. (Not illustrated.) 

Mr. Gettens, at the Seminar on Applications of Science in 
Examination of Works of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, Mass., "Identification of Pigments." Attend- 
ance, 73. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 
Md., "Islam." Attendance, 183. 

Dr. Cahill, at the University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., 
"Two Concepts of Painting in China." Attendance, 50. 

Dr. Cahill, at the University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., 
"The Theory of Literati Painting." Attendance, 60. 

Mr. Stern, at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 
San Francisco, Calif., "The Korean Exhibition." At- 
tendance, 100. 
10 



1958 


July 1. 


September 1. 


September 3. 


September 15. 


November 3. 


December 11. 


December 12. 


December 14. 

524691^59 J 



136 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



1959 

January 15. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the annual Regents' dinner, Snaith- 

sonian Institution, "Objects Dealing with Christmas 
Themes in the Freer Gallery Collections." Attendance 
34. 

January 16. Mr. Stern, to the Japan-American Society, Georgetown 

Presbyterian Church, Washington, D.C., "Hokusai." 
Attendance, 30. 

January 29. Dr. Cahill, to the College Art Association, Cleveland, Ohio, 

"Criteria of Evaluation in Chinese Criticism of Painting." 
Attendance, 60. 

January 30. Dr. Pope, at the Antiques Forum, Williamsburg, Va., 

"Chinese Export Porcelain in Perspective." Attendance, 
395. 

February 3. Mr. Stern, at the Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, 

Calif., "The Korean Exhibition." Attendance, 350. 

February 9. Mr. Stern, to the Society for Asian Arts, San Francisco, 

Calif., "Hokusai." Attendance, 150, 

March 17. Dr. Cahill, at the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass., 

"Two Concepts of Painting in China." Attendance, 60. 

March 18. Dr. Cahill, at the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass., 

"The Theory of Literati Painting." Attendance, 60. 

March 19. Dr. Cahill, at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 

"Yuan Dynasty Painting." Attendance, 12. 

April 9. Dr. Pope, to the American Oriental Society, University of 

Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., "Notes on Saga of Porce- 
lain: How Old Is Koimari?" Attendance, 100. 

April 10. Dr. Ettinghausen, to the American Oriental Society, Uni- 

versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., "Miniatures 
Related to the 'Demotte' Shah-ndmeh." Attendance, 75. 

April 16. Mr. Stern, at Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

"Hokusai the Painter." Attendance, 110. 

April 30. Mr. Stern, to the Japan Society, New York City, "Japanese 

Art, Visual Aspects." Attendance, 60. 

May 7. Dr. Pope, at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., 

"Temples of Angkor." Attendance, 175. 

May 23. Mr. Gettens, to the Eastern New York American Chemical 

Society, Top of the World Inn, Lake George, N.Y., 
"Adventures in Archaeological Chemistry." Attendance, 
50. 

Members of the staff traveled outside Washington on official busi- 
ness as follows: 



1958 
June 20- 
August 11. 



Dr. Pope, in Europe, examined objects in museums and 
private collections as follows: London: British Museum, 
Percival David Foundation, Victoria and Albert Museum, 
and six private collections; Amsterdam: Museum for 
Asiatic Art and one private collection; The Hague: One 
private collection; Brussels: Mus^e du Cinquantenaire 
and Stoclet Collection; Athens: Benaki Museum; Rome: 
Istituto Itahano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente; 
Venice: Oriental Museum; Lugano: Dubosc Collection 
and Vanotti Collection. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



137 



1958 

July 1-3. Mr. Stern, in New York City with Dr. George Switzer of the 

U. S. National Museum, examined the Vetlesen jade 
collection, and arranged for transportation as a gift to the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

July 7. Mr. Gettens, with Dr. Harold Plenderleith of the British 

Museum, London, England, visited the Mellon Institute, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., where Dr. Robert Feller showed them 
installations. 

July 17-18. Mr. Gettens, with Dr. Harold Plenderleith, attended the 

Seminar on Museum Science at the Winterthur Museum, 
Winterthur, Del. 

September 3-11. Dr. Cahill, in Aspen, Colo., attended the "Conference on 

Chinese Thought." 

September 11. Mr. Wenley, in Ann Arbor, Mich., conferred with the Freer 

Fund Committee, head of the art department, and editors 
at the University of Michigan. 

September 12. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Baltimore, Md., examined Near East- 

ern manuscripts and miniatures in the Baltimore Museum 
of Art. 

September 12. Dr. Cahill, in Chicago, 111., examined Chinese paintings at 

the Art Institute of Chicago. 

September 13-15. Dr. Cahill, in New York City, examined objects at dealers. 

September 15. Dr. Pope, in Baltimore, Md., examined one Japanese sculp- 

ture in the Baltimore Museum of Art. 

September 15-17. Mr. Stern, in Ann Arbor, Mich., consulted with Doctoral 
Committee at the University of Michigan. 

September 15-18. Mr. Gettens, in Boston, Mass., attended a Seminar on Appli- 
cation of Science in Examination of Works of Art at the 
Museum of Fine Arts; participated in the ceremonies to 
honor Edward Waldo Forbes, director emeritus of the 
Fogg Art Museum, on his 85th birthday. 

October 11-22. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Cleveland, Ohio, examined Rajasthani 

miniatures belonging to G. K. Kanoria, Calcutta, India, 
exhibited in the Cleveland Museum of Art; examined 
Mughal, Rajasthani, and Pahari miniatures in a private 
collection; examined and photographed 4 Mughal minia- 
tures in the Cleveland Museum of Art; in Ann Arbor, 
Mich., examined 40 pieces of pottery in the Museum of 
Art, University of Michigan; examined 1 Persian manu- 
script and photographed 3 Persian miniatures in a private 
collection; in Detroit, Mich., examined 1 Indian miniature 
and 1 Egyptian ceremonial mace in the Detroit Institute 
of Art. 

October 22. Mr. Gettens and Miss Elisabeth H. West, in Upton, Long 

Island, N.Y., visited Brookhaven National Laboratory 
v/here technical matters were discussed with Dr. E. V. 
Sayre, and other members of the Chemistry Department. 

October 23-25. Dr. Pope, in New York City, examined 30 objects at dealers. 

Attended a meeting of the American Council of Learned 
Societies, Committee on Asia. 

October 23-25. Mr. Gettens, in Brooklyn, N.Y., attended a "Conference on 

Conservation" at the Brooklyn Museum. Served as 
a member of the ad hoc committee on Resolutions for 
Exploratory Conference on Conservation. 



138 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



1958 
November 1. 



November 3-4. 
November 8-11. 

November 20-26. 
December 8-10. 



1959 
February 1-24. 



February 11. 
February 16-26. 

February 16-27. 

February 18-20. 
March 17-22. 

April 8-12. 
April 8-14. 



Mrs. Usilton and Mrs. Hogenson, in Baltimore, Md., at- 
tended an all-day meeting of Regional Catalogers of 
Maryland, Virginia, and District of Columbia at the 
Peabody Institute. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Baltimore, Md., examined 1 Christian- 
Arab dagger, 1 Turkish box, 1 Moroccan dagger, 4 
Indian manuscripts, and 10 Indian miniatures in the 
Walters Art Gallery; did research work in their library. 

Mr. Stern, in New York City, examined 141 objects at 
dealers. Looked at the collections of the Museum of 
Modern Art; examined 30 pieces of Japanese porcelain 
and 1 Japanese painting at the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 

Dr. Cahill, in New York City, examined 30 Chinese paint- 
ings in private collections, and 88 objects at dealers. 

Dr. Cahill, in Boston and Cambridge, Mass., examined 86 
Chinese paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, and 24 
Chinese paintings at the Fogg Art Museum. 

Mr. Stern, in Los Angeles, Calif., examined 50 Far Eastern 
objects in the Los Angeles County Museum, and 62 
objects in private collections; in San Diego, examined 60 
Japanese objects in the Museum of Art; in Santa Barbara, 
examined 145 Chinese and Japanese objects in the 
Museum of Art, and 215 Far Eastern objects in private 
collections; in San Francisco, examined 40 Indian paint- 
ings at the De Young Memorial Museum, 406 objects 
belonging to various dealers, and 457 Far Eastern objects 
in private collections. In Kansas City, examined 207 
Far Eastern objects in the William Rockhill Nelson 
Gallery of Art, and 35 Indian bronzes in a private col- 
lection. In Chicago, examined 43 Far Eastern objects 
in the Art Institute of Chicago, and 25 Japanese paintings 
in private collections. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Baltimore, Md., examined objects in 
the Walters Art Gallery. 

Mr. Gettens, in Upton, Long Island, N.Y., continued the 
spectrographic analysis of Chinese bronzes begun last 
year at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. 

Miss Elisabeth H. West, {in Upton, Long Island, N.Y., 
continued the spectrographic analysis of Chinese bronzes 
begun last year at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York City, examined objects at 
dealers. 

Dr. Cahill, in Cambridge, Mass., examined 12 Far Eastern 
paintings at the Fogg Art Museum, and 41 paintings in 
private collections; in Boston, examined 17 paintings at 
the Museum of Fine Arts. 

Dr. Pope, in Ann Arbor, Mich., attended a meeting of the 
American Oriental Society; examined 100 objects in the 
University Museum of Anthropology. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Ann Arbor, Mich., attended a meeting 
of the American Oriental Society; examined 155 Persian 
objects and 20 transparencies of Persian miniatures at a 
special exhibition in the Museum of the Near East. 



1959 


April 15-17. 


April 24-29. 


April 30-May 1 


May 8. 


May 12-18. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 139 



Mr. Stern, in New Haven, Conn., examined 40 Japanese 
prints and 50 Japanese paintings at the Yale University 
Art Museum; in New York City, examined 160 objects 
belonging to dealers. 

Dr. Pope, in New York City, attended meetings of the 
American Council of Learned Societies, Joint Committee 
on the Award of Fellowships; examined 136 Far Eastern 
objects belonging to dealers. 

Mr. Stern, in New York City, examined 35 objects belong- 
ing to dealers. 

Dr. Pope, in Charlottesville, Va., examined 4 Chinese 
paintings and 15 pieces of Chinese pottery in a private 
collection. 

Dr. Pope, in New York City, attended meetings of the 
American Council of Learned Societies, Committee on 
Asia; examined a number of objects in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art; in Boston, Mass., presided at meetings 
of the Far Eastern Ceramic Group at the Museum of 
Fine Arts. 
May 23-30. Mr. Stern, in Cambridge, Mass., conferred with Robert 

Treat Paine, Jr., at the Fogg Art Museum, and Prof. 
James N. Plumer of the University of Michigan; in New 
York City, examined 170 objects belonging to dealers, 
and 52 objects in two museums. 
May 23. Mr. Gettens, in Lake George, N.Y., attended meetings of 

the Eastern New York American Chemical Society. 
June 1-4. Mr. Gettens, in Pittsburgh, Pa., attended meetings of the 

American Association of Museums. He presided as 
chairman of the Temporary Committee of the Inter- 
national Institute for the Conservation of Museum 
Objects, at a meeting for the purpose of forming the 
American Group. 

Mr. Gettens left for Europe on June 14, 1959, to attend meetings 
of the International Council of Museums in Copenhagen and Stock- 
holm, and en route, to consult with colleagues and visit collections in 
Scotland, England, and Belgium. 

As in former years, members of the staff undertook a wide variety 
of peripheral duties outside the Gallery, served on committees, held 
honorary posts, and received recognitions. 

On June 9, 1959, the Gallery cooperated with the Dumbarton Oaks 
Kesearch Library and Collection, Trustees for Harvard University, 
in sponsoring a performance of Gagaku^ the musicians and dancers 
of the Imperial Japanese Household. This ancient company made 
its first journey outside of Japan, thanks to the interest and influence 
of Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold, to perform before the 
United Nations in New York. A 2-week schedule followed under 
the auspices of the New York City Ballet Company ; and it was the 
generosity of the latter organization that made possible the single ap- 
pearance in Washington. Over 500 invited guests attended the 
production in the gardens of Dumbarton Oaks. 



140 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

The Freer Gallery of Art again participated in the Wellesley- Vassar 
Washington Summer Intern Program designed for students inter- 
ested in obtaining rounded experience in the general operation and 
purposes of a gallery, and in broadening familiarity with the field of 
art in general. Miss Nancy Orbison, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, 
N.Y., served as our volunteer for this program during the summer 
of 1959. 

Eespectf uUy submitted. 

A. G. Wenlet, Director. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the National Air Museum 

Sm : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activi- 
ties of the National Air Museum for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1959: 

On September 6, 1958, President Eisenhower signed the bill (S. 
1958), originally introduced by Senator Clinton P. Anderson and 
passed by the 85th Congress, authorizing and directing the Regents 
of the Smithsonian Institution to prepare plans, including drawings 
and specifications, for the construction of a suitable building for a 
National Air Museum to be located on the site bomided by Fourth and 
Seventh Streets SW., Independence Avenue, and Jefferson Drive. 
Thus, with the passage of this act (Public Law 85-935), another 
step forward has been taken toward the provision of adequate housing 
for the National Air Museum. The architectural firm of Harbeson, 
Hough, Livingston & Larson, of Philadelphia, Pa., is making prelim- 
inary studies and an estimate of planning costs for the building. 

A number of significant accessions were received. Among these 
were the first recovered nose cone from outer space, a replica of the 
Jupiter C rocket and satellite Explorer I, a recovered data capsule 
from outer space, some original documents of the early experiments 
in rocketry by Dr. Robert H. Goddard, and a Curtiss- Wright Jr. 
airplane. 

Considerable progress was made in the improvement and prepara- 
tion of storage and restoration facilities. 

Plans for a new exhibit in the Aircraft Building were approved, 
and construction will begin this fall. It is expected that the new 
exhibit will be opened in the spring of 1960. 

Information service in the form of technical, historical, and bio- 
graphical information pertaining to the development of aviation, 
furnished to Government agencies, schools, research workers, authors, 
students, and the public, increased in scope and m volume during the 
year. Many useful acquisitions to the Museum's library, reference, 
and photographic files were received. 

New staff members reporting for duty include Kenneth E. Newland, 
curator; Robert Meyer, junior curator; and Robert Wood, museum 
aide. 

Walter M. Male, associate curator, has been assigned to Suitland, 
Md., as operations manager in charge of the Museum's restoration 
program. 

141 



142 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ADVISORY BOARD 

Although no meetings of the Advisory Board were held during the 
year, the members have been consulted from time to time on important 
museum activities. One member of the Board, Grover C. Loening, 
gave the Lester D. Gardner Lecture in Washington, under the spon- 
sorship of the National Air Museum. 

SPECIAL EVENTS 

Several notable presentation ceremonies were held during the year. 
Outstanding was the presentation of the Jupiter C rocket and Ex- 
plorer I satellite by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker, on 
January 31, 1959, the anniversary date of the placing of the first 
American satellite into orbit. Other special ceremonies included the 
presentation of a recovered data capsule by Gen. Bernard Schriever, 
U.S. Air Force ; a working model of the Vanguard satellite, presented 
by Dr. John P. Hagen of NASA ; and the first recovered nose cone, 
presented by Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker. In each in- 
stance Dr. Carmichael accepted the gift for the Museum with ap- 
propriate remarks. 

The Director attended the World Congress of Flight at Las Vegas, 
Nev., April 12-18, and from there proceeded to the National Aviation 
Educational Council held at Riverside, Calif., April 19-20, 1959. 

The head curator and historian, Paul E. Garber, represented the 
Museum at a number of events identified with aviation history. These 
included the Vanguard satellite anniversary banquet; the annual 
meeting of the American Helicopter Society; the National Rocket 
Club annual banquet; the annual meeting of the Early Birds; and 
the National Postage Stamp Show. He delivered 13 lectures during 
the year and conducted 6 special tours of the Museum for groups of 
military visitors. He also participated in a number of television and 
radio programs during the year and paid visits to Hanunondsport, 
New York, and St. Louis on Museum business. 

Both the Director and head curator were appointed by the National 
Aeronautic Association as members of the committee to select the 
annual recipient of the National Frank G. Brewer Award for Aviation 
Education. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN EXHIBITS 

The aircraft, engines, and other aviation equipment scheduled for 
display in the new exhibit for the Aircraft Building are being cleaned, 
repaired, and made ready for exhibition. 

A general cleaning and renovation of exhibits and some minor re- 
pairs were undertaken. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 143 

REPAIR, PRESERVATION, AND RESTORATION 

A small office has been provided at the Suitland storage facility, and 
a paint and spray booth is under construction. A fabric department 
and document room are in process of planning. Additional machine 
tools and equipment have been acquired. Most of the aircraft and en- 
gines in the Aircraft Building have been moved to Suitland and are 
undergoing cleaning, repair, and preparation for storage or exhibition. 

In anticipation of the restoration program which lies ahead in 
preparation for the new building, the Director has visited many air- 
craft factories and has received assurances of cooperation from the 
manufacturers by way of providing us with technical data, lending 
mechanics to assist in restoration and to advise on methods of display. 

ASSISTANCE TO GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS 

The National Air Museum has served many Government depart- 
ments during the year. Among these were the Department of Justice 
in connection with patent litigation, the Voice of America, the De- 
partment of the Air Force, and the Department of the Navy. 

PUBLIC INFORMATION SERVICES 

Providing information to the public continues as a very active and 
growing function of the Museum. For example, telephone calls dur- 
ing the year requesting historical, technical, or biographical informa- 
tion on the development of aviation numbered more than 700 from 
Government agencies and more than 1,400 from other sources. Corre- 
spondence is averaging around 100 letters a week. Approximately 
19,000 leaflets were distributed during the year, in addition to some 
1,100 photographs and drawings. 

The Museum continues to serve aircraft manufacturers, airlines, 
publishers, authors, schools and colleges, and many individual stu- 
dents, teachers, and research workers. 

REFERENCE MATERIAL AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Many useful and valuable additions to the reference files, photo- 
graphic files, and library of the Museum were received during the 
year. These records and documents are helpful to the Museum staff 
in providing information service, authenticating data, and for 
research. 

The cooperation of the following persons and organizations in 
providing this material is sincerely appreciated : 

Atb Foece, Depaetment of the, Atb Foece Museum, Wright-Patterson Air 
Force Base, Ohio : Negatives of flight of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh and Anne 
Morrow Lindbergh in the Lockheed Sirius seaplane Tingmissartog, 1929. Aie 
Univeesity, Maxwell Field, Ala.: Pamphlets of USAF Historical Studies 
No. 98. 



144 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Aemy, Department of the, Information Office, U.S. Military Academy, "West 
Point, N.Y. : Photograph "Cenotaph at Post Cemetery," dedicated to Lt. 
Thomas Selfridge. Public Information Office, Military District of Wash- 
ington, Gravelly Point, Va. : Pictorial record and articles relating to Wright- 
Selfridge flight. Office of the Chief of Information, Washington, D.C. : 
Tape recording of the presentation ceremony of the Explorer I. Photograph 
of Explorer I. 

Artists and Writers Press, Inc., New York, N.Y. (Caroline Ungemah) : The 
Story of Flight— A Giant Golden Book. 

Bausch & Lome Optical Co., Rochester, N.Y. : Copies of booklet "Reprint of First 
Exhibition of the Aeronautic Society of New York," at Morris Park, New York 
City, November 3, 1908. 

Beech Aircraft Corp., Wichita, Kans. : A collection of photographs and 3-view 
drawings of Beech aircraft. 

Boeing Airplane Co., Washington, D.C. : Photographs of Boeing 707 jetplane. 

Brick, Mrs. Kay, Norwood, N.J. : Official programs of the Women's Transconti- 
nental Races. 

Bronson, C. L.. Lookout Mountain, Tenn. : Photographs of Glenn H. Curtiss and 
Curtiss airplanes. 

Brown, Maj. Kimbrough S., USAF, Bedford, Mass. : A copy of his recent book 
"Von Richthofen and the Flying Circus." 

Burke, Justin J., Dubuque, Iowa : Notarized statement and supporting docu- 
ments relating to and describing the first installation of navigation lights on 
military airplanes, Ellington Field, Tex., 1918. 

Caffrey, Francis J., Liverpool, N.Y. : A collection of pamphlets and material 
pertaining to aircraft and flight operations. 

Canadair Limited, Montreal, Canada : A collection of photographs and descrip- 
tive literature on Canadian aircraft. 

Casey, Louis S., Washington, D.C. : A collection of handbooks pertaining to 
Consolidated PBY-5, Pratt and Whitoey Twin Wasp C series, and Twin Wasp 
C3 series. 

Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, Kans. : A collection of photographs and a geneal- 
ogy chart of Cessna aircraft. Photograph of Clyde V. Cessna and Dwayne L. 
Wallace, 1954. Three-view drawings of Cessna aircraft as follows : 305 A, 
B, and C; 321; 140A; 170A; 120; 140; H-OOl; DC-6; CW-6 ; C-106A; 
FC-1 ; C-165 ; T-37 ; LC-126 ; 170 ; 172 ; 175 ; 180 ; 182 ; 310 B and C ; T-50 ; 
Monoplane ; Gobel Special ; and Glider. 

Cohen, Comdr. Albert M., USNR, Retired, Wynnewood, Pa. : A collection of 
photographs re : Brest, France, and vicinity, U.S. Navy Aviation Section, WWI. 

Cooke, David C, Valley Stream, N.Y. : A copy of his book "Bomber Planes That 
Made History." 

Cornish, J. J., 3d, Mississippi State University, State College, Miss. : A copy of 
his article "The Flight of Seeds." 

Dearborn Historical Museum, Dearborn, Mich. : Booklet entitled "Tin Goose." 

Deutsches Museum, Munchen, Germany: Fabric section duplicating the color 
scheme from the Fokker D-VII in possession of Deutsches Museum. 

Eastern Airlines, New York, N.Y. : Photostats from Fokker Catalog re : Fokker 
Universal and Super Universal aircraft. 

Emmons, Conant, Washington, D.C. : Four glass negatives of Wright Type "A" 
airplane at Fort Myer, 1909. 

Esso Export Corp., New York, N.Y. : A collection of magazines (bound volumes) : 
Flight, The Aeroplane, and Aviation Week. 

Esso Standard Oil Co., W. H. Keppel, New York, N.Y. : A collection of refer- 
ence material on Curtiss H-16 flying boat. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 145 

Feebt Seevice, Inc., Pontiac, Mich. : Drawings of Stinson aircraft models with 
the exception of models 108 and L-5. 

Fbanklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa. : Blueprints of WiLford Gyroseaplane. 

Feotd, Mrs. Shirley B., Pasadena, Calif. : Newspaper and magazine clippings 
on aviation, period 1925-27. 

Goodwin, Oakland O., San Diego, Calif. : Drawing of Montgomery glider of 1883. 

Geiffenhagen, George, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, B.C. : A collection 
of timetables for various airlines. 

Grumman Aieceaft Engineering Corp., Bethpage, N.Y. : A collection of specifi- 
cations, brochures, and photographs of Grumman "Gulfstream" aircraft. 
Pilots' handbooks for Model F3F, and Erection and Maintenance manual for 
the F3F-1 aircraft. 

Halsey, Miss Marion S., Washington, D.C. : Two aircraft identification booklets. 

Herrick, Mrs. Giraed P., New York, N.Y. : A collection of materials of the late 
Girard P. Herrick, Records of Invention; reference books ; "Story of the Heli- 
copter" ; and engineers' handbooks. 

Hill, James N. B., Boston, Mass. : Booklet entitled "Kites and Experiments in 
Aerial Photographs." 

HixsoN & JoEGENSEN, INC., Los Augeles, Calif. : Lithographs, Leach "Heritage of 
the Air" series, copy proofs 1 through 5. 

Hutchinson, Roland V., Birmingham, Mich. : A collection of photographs of 
first DH-4 brought to the United States from England. Donated to NAM 
via A. V. Verville. 

Jet Pioneers Association, c/o General Blecteic Co., West Lynn, Mass. : 
Leather-bound looseleaf binder containing photographs of the Jet Pioneers of 
U.S.A. 

Kallie, Otto, New York, N.Y. : Roll of poster paper 30 feet in length on which is 
recorded by Kronf eld his important glider flights. 

Lee, Feed B., c/o Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp., Washington, D.C. : Three 
books, Aeronautical Annual for 1895, 1896, and 1897. Three separate volumes. 

Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif. : A collection of photographs and 3- 
view drawings of Lockheed Sirius, reference and historical information on 
the aircraft. 

Masunage, Kanosuke, Ushio Shobo Publishing Co., Tokyo, Japan: A collec- 
tion of photographs of Japanese and captured American aircraft : Army type 
99 trainer, type 98 light bomber. Navy type 96 carrier fighter, Douglas DC-5, 
Boeing B-17E, Douglas A-20A, and Brewster F2A-2 "Buffalo." 

McCoy, John T., New York, N.Y. : Two paintings (reproductions). The Wright 
Brothers at Fort Myer, Va., July 30, 1909 ; and Eugene Ely taking off from 
the U.S.S. Pennsylvania, January 18, 1911. 

McDonnell Aieceaft Corp., St. Louis, Mo. : Two photocopies of 3-view drawing 
of McDonnell FH-1 Phantom. 

Mikesh, Capt. Robebt C, APO 994, San Francisco, Calif. : Color film of kite 
festival held in Japan. 

Millee, Rear Adm. H. B., USN, Retired, New York, N.Y. : Collection of photo- 
graphs of operational use of Curtiss F9C-2. 

MuNSON, H. A., Charlottesville, Va. : Booklet entitled "Santos-Dumont, Father of 
Aviation." 

National Advisoey Committee foe Aeeonautics, Langley Field Laboratory, 
Va. : Reference material. 

National Broadcasting Co., New York, N.Y. : Transcript of Paul E. Garber's 
talk on his recollections of the Postal Aviation Service. 

Navy, Department op the, Bueeau of Aeronautics, Washington, D.C. : A col- 
lection of photographs of historic aircraft and aviation personages. Verville 



146 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Aircraft Co.'s brochures on the Verville Air CJoach and Vervllle Sports Training 
Plane. Drawings of HS2L and JN4D aircraft. Drawings of US-D4, Army 
Curtiss Racer, 1922, Navy Curtiss Seaplane Racer R2C-2, and PW-1. 

Nelson, Charles P., Lynn, Mass. : Typed copy of story of cruise of the ZR-1 
Shenandoah from Lakehurst, N.J., to St. Louis, Mo., and return. 

Pan American World Airways System, New York, N.Y. : Photostats of Lind- 
bergh's survey report (Lockheed Sirius), background information on survey 
for Pan American. Photographs of Lindbergh's arrival at Belem. 

Putnam's, G. P., Sons, New York, N.Y. : Book entitled "Fighting Planes That 
Made History," by David Cooke. 

Royal Canadian Air Force, S/L R. Wood, Trenton, Ontario, Canada : Plans of 
aircraft (3 sets of 8 plans) of RCAF types Fairchild 71, A. W. Atlas, DeHavil- 
land-60, Vickers Bedette, Curtiss Canuck, Curtiss HS2L, Avro 504K, and A. W. 
Siskin. 

ScHWEiZEE Aircraft Corp., Elmira, N.Y. : A collection of photographs and 3-view 
dravsdngs of Schweizer 2-22C, 1-23G, and 1-30 experimental light plane. 

Sikorsky Aircraft Co., Stratford, Conn. : A collection of photographs and speci- 
fications on Sikorsky S-38, S-89, S-40, S-51, S-52, S-55, S-56, S-58, S-62, and 
H-18. Drawings and photographs of PS-3 (S-38). Photographs of Sikorsky 
HSS-2 Amphibious Helicopter. 

Submarine Library, Groton, Conn. : A collection of drawings and photographs of 
Loening amphibians. 

Thompson, Mrs. R., Huntington, Long Island, N.Y. : Photographs and magazine 
article, "Cross Country Flight of 'Yankee Doodle,' " by Harry J. Tucker, and 
"Wings for Our Business." Two 8- by 10-inch photographs of Lockheed Vega 
Yankee Doodle. 

Thompson Products, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio: Lithographs of Hubbell paintings. 
Various sets representing events or periods in aviation history. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, London, England: January 
1959 issue of Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 

Weaver, Capt, T. C, Fairborn, Ohio: A collection of photographs of racing 
aircraft. 

ACCESSIONS 

Additions to the National aeronautical collections received and re- 
corded during the fiscal year 1959 totaled 341 specimens in 56 separate 
accessions from 38 sources. 

Those from Government departments are entered as transfers; 
others were received as gifts except as noted. 

Air Force, Department of the, Washington, D.C. : The "Pioneer-I" exhibit 
consisting of a scale model of a Douglas Thor ballistic missile and related 
electrical and mechanical display units, illustrating the first attempts made 
in August and October 1958 to place a man-made object in an orbit around 
the moon. Although not successful, useful information was obtained about 
the radiation belt surrounding the earth. (NAM 1023.) The "Data-Sphere," 
an instrumented capsule containing a tape recorder and other apparatus for 
receiving and preserving data during the launching, climb, and descent of 
a Thor ballistic missile. This one is the first of the series to be recovered. 
(NAM 1043.) Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: 
A German Nagler-Rolz helicopter, type NR-54 V2. An early example of a 
one-man helicopter, it was developed during World War II. On each of its 
two rotor blades an 8-hp. Argus engine with a 23-inch wooden propeller is 
mounted, about midway, to revolve the rotor. (NAM 1019.) A group of 11 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 147 

scale models, 1 : 48 size, of Beechcraft, Boeing, Curtiss, North American, and 
gtearman airplanes used by the U.S. Air Force or its predecessor units. 
(NAM 1029.) The DM-1 delta-winged glider designed by Alexander Lippisch 
in Germany during World War II as a primary step in the development of 
a supersonic airplane. This is one of the first configurations of the delta 
wing. (NAM 1041.) 

AitMT, Depaetment of the, Washington, D.O. : Nose cone of the Jupiter "C" 
missile. The first object recovered after returning from outer space. This 
cone was featured in a television broadcast by President Eisenhower on 
November 7, 1957. (NAM 1020.) The Jupiter "C" missile, a duplicate of the 
vehicle produced by the Chrysler Corp. which on January 31, 1958, laimched 
the Explorer I. This was America's first satellite to be propelled into orbit. 
This vehicle was presented to the Museum on the first anniversary of that 
historic occasion. (NAM 1031.) 

Beech Aircbaft Corp., Wichita Kans. : Scale models, 1 : 16 size, of two airplanes 
developed by Walter Beech and his associates, the Travelair biplane of 1926 
(NAM 1013) and the Travelair Mystery S of 1929 (NAM 1003). 

Black, Mrs. Palma, Bakersville, Calif. : A piece of the gas cell fabric of the 
U.S. naval airship Shenandoah, 1925. (NAM 1009.) 

British Overseas Airways Corp., London, England : A scale model, 1 : 72 size, 
of the original Comet-I jet airliner which inaugurated jet-engined civil trans- 
port service in 1952. ( NAM 1035. ) 

California Institute op Technology, Pasadena, Calif. : A WAC Corporal 
missile and base. This is a short-range ballistic missile, built by the Firestone 
Tire & Rubber Co. and in current use by the U.S. Army. (NAM 1006.) 

Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, Kans. : A scale model, 1 :40 size, of the Cessna 
T-37 2-place, twin-jet airplane now in service with the U.S. Air Force for 
primary training. (NAM 1002.) 

Chance Vought Aircraft, Inc., Dallas, Tex. : A scale model, 1 :16 size, of the 
U.S. Navy carrier-based F8U-1 "Crusader." This type of airplane, with a 
speed of more than 1,000 m.p.h., was the subject for the Robert J. Collier 
Trophy award in 1957 and earned for the Chance Vought corporation the 
Navy Bureau of Aeronautics' first Certificate of Merit. (NAM 1037.) 

CiGAL, Aldo L., Southwick, Mass. : A 1 :16 size model of the Pratt & Whitney 
J57 jet engine (loan). (NAM 1025.) 

CoNVAiK, Division of General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, Calif. : A scale model, 
1 :48 size, of the Consolidated- Vultee "Convair-liner" 240, the first i)ost-World 
War II commercial transport developed by this corporation, 1947. It is a 
twin-engined, medium-range, 40-passenger transport. Also a 1 :16 size model 
of the Convair XFY-1 "Pogo Stick," an experimental vertically rising delta- 
wing fighter developed for the U.S. Navy. It made its first free vertical 
takeoff and landing on August 2, 1954, and 3 months later made the conver- 
sion from vertical to horizontal flight and back to vertical for a tail-first 
landing. The original XFY-1 is being reserved for the National Air Museimi 
by the Department of the Navy. ( NAM 1004. ) 

Davies, The Honorable Joseph (deceased), Washington, D.C. : An autographed 
photograph of Brig. Gen. William Mitchell as a captain in the U.S. Army, 1915. 
(NAM 999.) 

DoLAN, CoL. Carl H., Greenwich, Conn. : A collection of objects associated with 
the aeronautical interests and career of this member of the Early Birds and 
the Lafayette Escadrllle. Included are military maps, instruments, and me- 
mentos of the renowned American ace Maj. Raoul Lufbery. (NAM 1027.) 

DoonTTLE, Gen. James H., San Francisco, Calif. : A uniform worn during World 
War II by the donor. (NAM 1044.) 



148 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

GiLPATEic, Mrs. M. S., New York, N.Y. : A trophy cup presented to her son, Guy 
Gilpatric, in 1912 for establishing an American 2-man altitude record of 4,665 
feet. This was made in a Deperdussin monoplane at Dominguez Field, Los 
Angeles, when he was 16 years old. (NAM 1034.) 
GoDDAED, Mes. Robert H., Worcester, Mass. : A set of 20 volumes of typed tran- 
scriptions and photographs recording the pioneer research in rocketry by Dr. 
Robert H. Goddard for the period 1921-41. (NAM 1000.) A selection of per- 
sonal memorabilia of Dr. Goddard, including his purse, two penknives, his 
watch, fraternity pin, and the original manusci'ipt of his work "Methods of 
Reaching High Altitudes." (NAM lOOS.) A group of seven notebooks in 
which Dr. Goddard entered results of his experiments. (NAM 1021.) The 
academic hood received by Dr. Goddard with his degree of doctor of science 
from Clark University, June 2, 1945. (NAM 1024.) Equipment used by Dr. 
Goddard in his research, including laboratory apparatus and parts of his 
liquid-fueled rockets. (NAM 1033.) An oil painting of Dr. Goddard pictured 
at the moment when his 1926 rocket was fired. The artist, Robert Fawcett, 
was commissioned for this painting by the John Hancock Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Co. (NAM 1052.) 
Gbegoey, Mrs. Loms Franklin, Shelby, Miss. : Photograph of the Sikorsky 
XR-4 helicopter with Orville Wright, Igor Sikorsky, and Gen. F. Gregory, 
autographed by these men. (NAM 1045.) 
Hanson, Richaed, Washington, D.C. : A German World War I airspeed indicator. 

(NAM 1028.) 
Htjbbell, Charues, Cleveland, Ohio : A scale model, 1 :16 size, of the Wright 
Co. "Baby Grand" Gordon Bennett Race airplane of 1910 (purchase). (NAM 
1050.) 
Kellt, Howaed a., Je., Baltimore, Md. : Gloves worn by Hubert Latham while 
flying over Baltimore in an Antoinette airplane, November 7, 1910, and a 
note written by this famous French pilot. (NAM 1014.) 
Kelsey, Waltee, Tarrytown, N.Y. : A clock and three instrument panel instruc- 
tion plates from a SPAD XIII airplane of World War I. (NAM 1005.) 
Lahm, Gen. Feank P., USAF, Retired, Huron, Ohio: A medal honoring General 
Lahm, sculptured by C. L. Schmitz for the Medal of the Month founded by 
Miss Felicity Buranelli. (NAM 1001.) 
Maetin, Miss Della, Los Angeles, Calif. : The personal memorabilia of Glenn 
L. Martin, consisting of scale models and paintings of Martin aircraft, trophies, 
medals and awards, certificates of membership, photographs, and drawings. 
(NAM 1046.) 
Maytag, Robeet E., Newton, Iowa : A Curtiss-Wright Junior airplane, a 2-place 
high-wing monoplane, with a pusher engine, popular as a personal aircraft 
during the 1930's. (NAM 1042. ) 
National Advisoey Committee foe Aeeonaxttics, Langley Field, Va. : A super- 
sonic high-speed propeller designed for use on the McDonnell F-88 aircraft. 
( NAM 1010. ) ( See also NAM 1054. ) 
Navy, Department of the, Washington, D.C. : A catapult model, type XC-<57, 
showing the mechanism, above and below deck, for operating the steam- 
powered catapults currently used for launching airplanes from carriers. 
(NAM 1007.) Scale models of a ZPN airship, HUP-2 helicopter, and HSL-1 
helicopter. (NAM 1011.) A selection of aerodynamic models of aircraft 
and missiles showing recent developments tested at the David Taylor Model 
Basin. (NAM 1030.) A Spar row-II guided missile. (NAM 1041.) A radio 
removed from the wreck of the U.S. naval airship Shenandoah, 1925. (NAM 
1047.) An interplane strut from the NC-4 flying boat which made the first 
flight across the Atlantic Ocean, Rockaway, Long Island, to Plymouth, Eng- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 149 

land, with intermediate stops, via the Azores, May 8-31, 1919. (NAM 1048.) 
A wing rib of the type used in this aircraft. (NAM 1049.) Naval Research 
Laboratory (with the National, Aeronautics and Space Agency), Washing- 
ton, D.C. : An operable replica of the Vanguard-I satellite embodying a light- 
activated sound-producing mechanism. This was presented on March 17, 1959, 
the first anniversary of the launching of this satellite, which, it is predicted, 
will remain in orbit for 200 years or more. (NAM 1054.) 

Nevin, Robert S., Denver, Colo. : A scale model, 1 :16 size, of the Wright Co. 
HS airplane, 1915 ( purchase ) . ( NAM 1053. ) 

Newcomb, Charles, Trappe, Md. : A scale model, 1 :16 size, of the Wright Co. 
"D" airplanes, 1912 ( purchase. ) ( NAM 1017. ) 

North American Aviation, Inc., Columbus, Ohio: A scale model, 1:16 size, 
of the U.S. Navy A3J Vigilante, in current use as a carrier-based fighter-recon- 
naissance airplane. (NAM 1038.) 

Septon, Thomas W., San Diego, Calif. : An aircraft radio antenna fairlead of 
the type used with radio equipment in U.S. Navy aircraft during World 
War II. (NAM 1018.) 

Shipton, David H., Delavan, 111. : A scale model, 1 :48 size, of the Curtiss- 
Wright "Condor" 18-passenger, twin-engined biplane transport of 1934. 
(NAM 1026.) 

Simmons, Mrs. O. G., and daughters, Arlington, Va. : A trophy cup commemo- 
rating the first airmail flight in the State of New Jersey, made by O. G. Sim- 
mons in a Wright type B twin-float seaplane flying between Amboy and 
South Amboy, July 4, 1912. ( NAM 1039. ) 

Smithsonian Institution, National Air Museum, Washington, D.C. : A plaster 
copy of the original sculpture of the Aero Club of America gold medal. Cast 
made in the Museum shop by Joseph A. Atchinson from original lent by 
Robert L. Perry whose grandfather, A. Holland Forbes, was president in 
1910 of that club, founded in 1905 (purchase). (NAM 1032.) U.S. National 
Museum, Division op Military History, Washington, D.C: Two aviator 
helmets with inserted radio earphones, used in World War I. (NAM 1051.) 

Tracy, Daniel, Lakewood, Ohio: A scale model, 1:16 size, of the Verville- 
Sperry Racer, winner of the Pulitzer Trophy, 1024 (purchase). (NAM 
1016.) 

United Aircraft Corp., Sikorsky Division, Stratford, Conn.: Scale models, 
1 :50 size, of the S-58 and H-37 helicopters. ( NAM 1015. ) 

Wheeler, Leslie, Binghamton, N.Y. : A model airplane engine of the Rogers 
type, 1932-33. (NAM 1036.) 

Wilson, The Honorable Robert, San Diego, Calif. : The original holograph 
manuscript of "Soaring Flight," by John J. Montgomery, noted pioneer of 
gliding in America ; written about 1895 (loan). (NAM 1012.) 

WiNZEN Research, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. : A certificate awarded by the 
Federation Aeronautique Internationale to Maj. David G. Simons for estab- 
lishing a world altitude record of 30,942 meters (nearly 102,000 feet) with a 
balloon made by the donors. The ascent was made over Minnesota in con- 
nection with the U.S. Air Force Aero-Medical Field Laboratory's high-altitude 
research program, identified by code name "Manhigh-II." The aeronaut was 
aloft for 32 hours. ( NAM 1022. ) 

Respectfully submitted. 

Philip S. Hopkins, Director. 
Dr. Leonaed Caemichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the National Zoological Park 

SiK : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1959 : 

EXHIBITS 

Following the plan announced last year, the National Zoological 
Park made good progress this year toward its goal of emphasizing the 
exhibition of North American animals and acquired several species 
native to this continent that had not been seen in the collection for 
many years. 

The most publicized event of the year was the transportation of a 
herd of 14 reindeer and 1 caribou from Kotzebue, north of the Arctic 
Circle, to Washington, D.C. The animals, comprising a gift from the 
new State of Alaska to President Eisenhower, arrived here in time to 
take part in the annual "Pageant of Peace" held at Christmas on the 
Mall. J. Lear Grimmer, Associate Director of the National Zoological 
Park, and Charles Thomas, senior keeper of the large-mammal divi- 
sion, flew to Alaska and took part in the actual capture of the reindeer, 
which came from a herd that is under the management of the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. Without a single loss 
the animals were flown to Anchorage, taken by the Alaska Railroad 
to Seward, shipped by the Alaska Steamship Co.'s SS Iliamna (cap- 
tained by "Blackie" Selig) to Seattle, and then brought across country 
by Consolidated Freightways. They arrived in Washington on Decem- 
ber 11 and were formally presented by Roger Ernst, Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Department of the Interior, to Homer Gruenther, Presiden- 
tial Assistant, representing the Chief Executive and the people of the 
United States. The herd has been established in the Zoo with the 
addition of four fawns. 

Mr. Grimmer also undertook an expedition to British Guiana, under 
the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Geo- 
graphic Society. His purpose was to observe hoatzins in their native 
habitat. These strange birds, which somewhat resemble pheasants, 
occur along the northern coast of South America and have never been 
exhibited in any American zoo. His studies have convinced him that 
under proper conditions these birds can be kept in captivity. A 
150 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 151 

list of live animals collected by Mr. Grimmer in British Guiana 
follows : 

22 Cook's tree boas 7 tawny-bellied seed-eaters 

Vine snake 2 Swainson's grackles 

2 yellow tegus 2 rice grosbeaks 

Ameiva lizard 3 sbiny cowbirds 

Anaconda 3 lesser yellow fincbes 

Britisb Guiana green lizard 5 red-breasted marsbbirds 

Wbipsnake 7 ground doves 

4 common jaganas 12 hoatzins 

2 black-tbroated cardinals 2 agoutis 

In addition, a small collection of musemn specimens of animals 
indigenous to the Abary Eiver region was added to the accessions of 
the U.S. National Museum. 

GIFTS 

The Eocky Mountain goat had not been represented in the Zoo for 
many years, and therefore the gift from the Montana State Fish and 
Game Commission of a trio of these spectacular animals was much 
appreciated. From the same source came also a herd of five prong- 
horn antelopes. 

Ross E. Wilson, vice president and general manager of the Fire- 
stone Rubber Co., presented a fine West African leopard from Harbel, 
Liberia. 

Dr. Hubert Fringes, of Pennsylvania State University, who has been 
doing research on the care of albatrosses in captivity, presented a 
group of two Laysan albatrosses and three of the black- footed vari- 
ety. Thanks to the discovery of the need for salt in the diet of sea 
birds, these birds, which usually do not do well in captivity, are thriv- 
ing. Another Laysan albatross was added to the group as a gift from 
Dr. W. J. Carr, of Bucknell University. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior 
continued to cooperate in the procurement of desirable species of 
North American animals and birds. During the past year this agency 
has secured for the Zoo a caribou from Alaska, a northern porcupine, 
a white-fronted goose, 2 horned grebes, 10 greater scaups, 2 redheads, 
and 2 wood ducks. In June the Service offered the Zoo a polar 
bear cub that had been captured in Alaska. Owing to the fact that 
the Zoo had had to absorb a Wage Board increase in salaries, funds 
were embarrassingly low in the last quarter of the fiscal year, and 
there was no money to pay the cub's air transportation to Washington. 
Station WMAL-TV volunteered to have the little bear flown to the 
Zoo, where it has already become a great favorite with the visiting 
public. 

524591 — 59 11 



152 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



Legend for Map of National Zoological Park 



1. Hooved stock. 

2. Equines. 

3. Llamas. 

4. Deer. 

5. Deer. 

6. Deer. 

7. Flight cage. 

8. Elephants. 

9. Eagle cage. 

10. Black swans. 

11. Flight cage. 

12. Condor cage. 

13. Birds. 

14. Crane yards. 

15. Great flightless birds. 

16. Pheasants. 

17. Flight cage. 

18. Mountain goats and sheep. 



19. Camels. 

20. Small mammals. 

21. Virginia deer. 

22. Elk. 

23. Deer. 

24. Wolves. 

25. Foxes. 

26. Sea-lions. 

27. Beavers. 

28. Raccoons. 

29. Prairie dogs. 

30. Beavers. 

31. Antelopes. 

32. Reptiles. 

33. Small cats. 

34. Monkeys. 

35. Lions. 

36. Waterfowl. 



A. Hay barn. 

B. Service roads. 

C. Parking areas. 

D. Incinerators. 

E. Clock. 

F. Garage. 



G. Heating plant. 

H. Shop. 

I. Restrooms, police, first aid. 

J. Restaurant. 

K. Bridle paths. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



153 



The Maryland State Game Commission gave the Zoo a pair of 
wild turkeys, which have hatched four eggs. 

The Maine State Game Department at Milo trapped a fisher for 
the National Zoo. This is the rarest and most valuable of American 
fur-bearing animals and had not been exhibited here for more than 
30 years. 

The Zoo is fortunate in having among its friends members of the 
Armed Forces who, when stationed abroad, are always searching for 
rare and interesting animals. Dr. Robert E. Kuntz, of the Navy 
Medical Reisearch Unit in Taipei, Taiwan, sent a number of speci- 
mens, including a family of three pangolins — father, mother, and 
baby. Lt. Col. Robert Traub, stationed at Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, 
sent two species of squirrels as well as a number of particularly in- 
teresting reptiles. Other animals collected by these men are included 
in the following list of gifts of special interest : 



Allen, George J., Salt Lake City, 

Utah, 2 junglefowl. 
Aquarium, Department of Commerce, 
Washington, D.C., American egret. 
Beatty, Charles, Washington, D.C., 

spiny-tailed iguana. 
Carter, Dr. Hill, Washington, D.C., 

red-shouldered hawk. 
Clark, W. B., Alexandria, Va., 2 

sparrow hawks. 
DePrato, Mario, Langley Park, Md., 4 
five-lined skinks, 4 American toads, 
2 mud turtles, snapping turtle. 
Farrel, Mrs. D. M., Cabin John, Md., 
Philippine macaque, Javan ma- 
caque and hybrid offspring. 
Grayson, William C, Upperville, Va., 

12 wood ducks. 
Greeson, L. E., Arlington, Va., 2 white- 
tailed antelope squirrels. 
Grimes, Mrs. E. D., Washington, D.C., 

yellow and blue macaw. 
Haack, Miss Mildred A., Washington, 

D.C., African lovebird. 
Hillman, Eric, Washington, D.C., dia- 

mondback terrapin. 
Housholder, Bob, Phoenix, Ariz., 

Texas red wolf. 
Hubbard, Scott, Washington, D.C., 

kinkajou. 
Jones, Mrs. Beatrice, Chevy Chase, 

Md., sulphur-crested toucan. 
Keeler, W., Falls Church, Va., 7 species 
of local snakes. 



Kilham, Dr. Lawrence, Bethesda, 
;Md., African crocodile (hatched 
from egg taken near Murchison 
Falls, Uranda). 
Kuntz, Dr. Robert E. Taipei, Taiwan, 
4 pangolins, 5 Formosan civets of 
2 species, 2 Formosan badgers, 2 
Formosan flying squirrels, Malayan 
fishing owl, 7 Formosan red-billed 
pies, 6 many-banded kraits, 13 Tai- 
wan cobras, 3 habus, 2 palm vipers, 
2 Pope's pit vii>ers, 11 greater In- 
dian rat snakes, 3 Formosan rat 
snakes, 10 water snakes, 11 pit 
vipers. 

Lichtenecker, Dr. Karl E., Austrian 
Embassy, Washington, D.C., collec- 
tion of 18 species of European 
snakes and lizards. 

Long Fence Co., Washington, D.C., 
peahen. 

Long, Gerald, Falls Church, Va., Vir- 
ginia deer. 

McHale, J. P., Chicago, 111., 7 Reeves's 
turtles. 

Metzler, John, Arlington, Va., red- 
tailed hawk. 

Moorhead, Thornton, Washington, 
D.C., Formosan macaque. 

Newill, Dr. D. S., Connellsville, Pa.. 
5 red junglefowl. 

Nottingham, Mrs. F., Indian Head, 
Md., golden pheasant. 

Posey, Calvert, R., Nanjemoy, Md., 
great homed owl. 



154 



AKNTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



Sawyers, Mrs. Thomas R., Arlington, 
Va., double yellow-headed Amazon 
parrot. 

Sicre, Jos§ Gomez, Washington, D.C., 

2 agoutis. 

Styve, Mrs. Lauritz, Arlington, Va., 

short-eared owl. 
Thomas, Charles, Washington, D.C., 

3 Reeves's turtles. 

Traub, Lt. Col. Robert, Kuala Lum- 
pur, Malaya, small-clawed otter, 2 
striped ground squirrels, 2 Dre- 
m o m y s squirrels, racket-tailed 
drongo, rufous-collared kingfisher. 



orange-throated barbet, pygmy 
owlet, 2 monitor lizards, flying liz- 
ard, skink lizard, mangrove snake, 
fat-cheeked water snake, elephant 
trunk snake, Wagler viper, flying 
snake, 4 geckos of 2 species, 9 liz- 
ards of 5 different species. 

Woodward & Lothrop, Washington, 
D.C., 7 Humboldt's penguins, 2 fal- 
low deer. 

Young, Robert, Wheaton, Md., 3 dia- 
mondback terrapins. 

Xanten, William, Jr., Washington, 
D.C., collection of Florida reptiles. 



PURCHASES 

The first Dall sheep ever to be exhibited in an American zoo were 
added to the collection this past year. The young animals are females, 
and prospects are bright for the addition of a ram within the next 
few months. 

A great rarity purchased this year was a pair of Pallas's cats which 
had never before been exhibited in the collection. Other purchases 
of interest were : 



2 serval cats 

2 pig-tailed macaques 

3 pygmy marmosets 
Celebes crested ape 

3 cottontop marmosets 
Canada lynx 
2 capybaras 
2 mute swans 
1 gray hornbill 



Spectacled owl 

Jackson's hornbill 

Bellbird 

Scarlet cock-of-the-roek 

2 black-and-white turacos 

Andean condor 

2 Bateleur eagles 

4 species of sunbirds 

1 green jay 

EXCHANGES 
By the judicious use of exchanges made with other zoos and with 
individuals, the following animals were obtained : 



Audubon Park Zoo, New Orleans, La., 
2 anhingas, 2 least bitterns. 

Buffalo Zoo, Buffalo, N.Y., 2 milk 
snakes, 2 African soft-shelled 
turtles. 

Calcutta Zoo, Calcutta, India, 5 In- 
dian squirrels, 3 lesser pandas. 

Calgary Zoo, Calgary, Alberta, wol- 
verine, Canada lynx, 2 golden 
eagles, 2 pine martens. 

Campbell, E., Detroit, Mich., 4 Ba- 
hama boas. 

Chicago Zoological Park, Brookfield, 
111., ibex, 3 dingoes, 2 sitatungas. 

Cleveland Zoo, Cleveland, Ohio, 2 
mousebirds. 



Freiheit, Clayton, Buffalo, N.Y., axo- 
lotl, 3 rhinoceros vipers, 2 pre- 
hensile-tailed vipers, 2 African 
soft-shelled tortoises. 

Houston Zoo, Houston, Tex., a collec- 
tion of 9 species of southwestern 
reptiles. 

New York Zoological Park, New York, 
N.Y., 5 rhinoceros vipers, 10 puff 
adders (born in New York Zoo). 

Riverside Park Zoo, Scottsbluff, 
Nebr., American badger. 

San Antonio Zoo, San Antonio, Tex., 
Cape hunting dog, 6 boat-tailed 
grackles, 2 Hildebrandt's f rancolins, 
7 Erckel's francolins, 2 fulvous tree 
ducks, 7 banded plovers. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 155 

DEPOSITS 

The Zoo accepts for deposit only those animals that will make 
attractive additions to the collection, and even in such instances lack of 
proper housing often makes it necessary to refuse animals offered 
for temporary exhibition. 

The offer of the National Aquarium Society of Washington to set up 
and maintain an exhibition of tropical fishes in the aquarium section 
of the reptile house was a welcome one. Members of the society have 
contributed tanks, filters, aerators, and a collection of fishes. The fishes 
belong to individual members of the Aquarium Society and will be 
returned to them when a new exhibition of different species is installed. 
This rotating or changing display should be a very attractive one 
for visitors. 

For many years the National Zoological Park has exhibited a female 
Przewalski's wild horse, a species extinct in the wild and represented 
only by a few individuals in zoos in various parts of the world. Al- 
though the animal was assumed to be beyond breeding age, she had 
had foals in the past. She was mated with a stallion obtained on de- 
posit from the Catskill Game Farm in New York, but without results, 
and on June 6 the mare died at the ripe old age of 33. 

BIRTHS AND HATCHINGS 

One of the signs that an animal is doing well in captivity is its 
ability to reproduce its kind, and, as the following list shows, the num- 
ber of mammals, birds, and reptiles born in the National Zoological 
Park during the year is gratifying. 

The outstanding birth of the year was that of a female wisent, which 
has been duly registered with the Wisent Society of Europe. These 
animals are now so scarce that careful records are kept of all that are 
born or die. Unfortunately the mother died 6 weeks after the baby 
was born ; the young one, however, is thriving. 

Other "firsts" for this Zoo included Cape hunting dogs, a striped 
hyena, a galago, a squirrel monkey, and an owl monkey, all of which 
are noteworthy by any zoo's standards. 

Because of their curious life history, the hatching of Surinam toads 
in captivity is always of interest. For the second year one of the Zoo's 
females laid eggs ; the male carefully embedded them in her back, and 
35 little toads eventually emerged. 

Zoo officials were gratified when the young pair of hippopotamuses 
purchased in 1956 and 1957 produced their first young one. These 
were bought as replacements for the old pair. Bongo and Pinky, which 
had been here since 1914 and 1939, respectively. The old pair are 
still here ; Bongo sired seven young ones by his first mate. Mom, who 
came to the Zoo in 1911 and died in 1930. Several young ones were 
bom to Pinky, but she raised none of them. The new female, Arusha, 



156 ANNUAL REfORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195Q 

seems to be a good mother, and it is hoped the baby will be the first 
of a long line such as the Zoo had many years ago. 

MAMMALS 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Aotus trivirgatus Douroucouli monkey 

Axis axis Axis deer 

Bison bonasus Wisent or European bison 

Canis antarcticus Dingo 

Cebus albifrons Capuchin monkey 

Cebus sp Capuchin monkey 

Cercocebus fuliginosus Sooty mangabey 

Cercopithecus neglectus DeBrazza's monkey 

Cervus canadensis American elk 

Cervus elaphus Red deer 

Cervus nippon Sika deer 

Choloepus didactylus Two-toed sloth 

Cynomys ludovicianus Prairie dog 

r, J [Brown fallow deer 

Dama dama \ttt-^-j. r ^^ , 

[ White fallow deer 

Equus burchelli boehmi Grant's zebra 

Galago senegalensis Galago 

Genetta genetta neumanii Genet 

Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus 

Hyaena hyaena Striped hyena 

Hylobates agilis X H. lar pileatus Hybrid gibbon 

Hylobates lar X H. agilis X H. lar Hybrid gibbon 

pileatus. 

Hypsiprymnodon moschatus Rat kangaroo 7 

Hystrix galeata African porcupine 2 

Jaculus aegyptius Egyptian gerbil 3 

Lama glama Llama 4 

Lama pacos Alpaca 1 

Lycaon pictus Cape hunting dog 5 

Macaca mulatta Rhesus monkey 1 

Macaca philippensis X M. irus Hybrid macaque 1 

Macaca sylvanus Barbary ape 3 

Meriones unguiculatus Mongolian gerbil 6 

Nasua narica Coatimundi 3 

Odocoileus virginanus Virginia deer 5 

Pachyuromys duprasi Fat-tailed gerbil 16 

Pan satyrus Chimpanzee 1 

Panthera leo Lion 4 

Rangifer tarandus Reindeer 7 

Saimiri sciureus Squirrel monkey 1 

Thalarctos maritimus X Ursus midden- Hybrid bear (2d generation) 3 

dorffi. 

Ursus horribilis Grizzly bear 3 

Vulpes fulva Red fox 4 

BIRDS 

Aix sponsa Wood duck 22 

Anas platyrhynchos Mallard duck 4 

Chrysolophus pictus Golden pheasant 1 

Columba livia Homing pigeon 1 

Cygnus cygnus Whooper swan 2 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



157 



Scietitific name Common name 

Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied tree duck 

Dendronessa galericulata Mandarin duck 

Gallus gallus Red junglefowl 

Gennaeus leucomelanus Nepal pheasant 

Larus dominicanus Kelp gull 

Meleagris gallopavo Wild turkey 

Melopsittacus undulatus Grass parakeet 

Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli Black-crowned night heron. 

Pavo cristatus Peafowl 



Number 
3 
3 
5 
3 
2 

- 10 
6 
8 
9 



REPTILES 

Ancistrodon mokeson Copperhead 11 

Chelydra serpentina Snapping turtle 18 

Chrysemys picta Painted turtle 4 

Clemmys insculpta Wood turtle 2 

Crotalus atrox Western diamond-backed rattle- 1 

snake. 

Egernia whitei White's skink 2 

Matrix insularum Island water snake 41 

Matrix rhomhifera Diamondback water snake 35 

Pipa pipa Surinam toad 35 

Pseudemys sp Red-lined turtle 25 

Sistrurus catenatus Massasauga 10 

Sistrurus milliaris Pygmy rattlesnake 8 

Terrapene Carolina Box turtle 3 

Thamnophis sirtalis Garter snake 1 

ARTHROPODS 
Pandinus imperator Giant black African scorpion 10 

The importance of a zoological collection rests, to a large extent, 
upon the diversity and scope of its taxonomic representation through- 
out the whole of the Animal Kingdom. The National Zoological Park 
has enjoyed some measure of success in efforts to add representative 
species belonging to little-known or absent families. 

The total number of accessions for the year was 1,286. This in- 
cludes gifts, purchases, exchanges, deposits, births, and hatchings. 
Several minor species which are best displaded in large numbers do 
not have an individual count, merely being listed as "many." 

STATUS OF THE COLLECTION 



Class 


Orders 


Families 


Species or 
subspecies 


Individuals 


Mammals _ _ _ 


13 
19 

4 
2 
4 
4 

1 


49 
74 
25 
12 
11 
5 
1 


234 

309 

187 

23 

20 

6 

1 


628 


Birds -- 


891 


Reptiles- _ 


619 


Amphibians __ _- 


135 


Fish 


86 


Arthropods 


Many 
Many 


Mollusks __ __ 






Total 


47 


177 


780 


2, 384+ 







158 ANlSrUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ANIMALS IN THE COLLECTION ON JUNE 30, 1959 

MAMMALS 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

MONOTREMATA 

Tachyglossidae: 

Echidna, or spiny anteater Tachyglossus aculeatus 1 



MARSUPIALIA 

Didelphidae: 

Opossum ^ Didelphis marswpialis 1 

Dasyuridae: 

Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii 2 

Phalangeridae: 

Vulpine opossum Trichosurus vulpecula 1 

Lesser flying phalanger Petaurus norfolcensis 3 

Phascolomidae: 

Hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus latifrons 2 

Mainland wombat Wombatus hirsutus 1 

Macropodidae: 

Red kangaroo Macropus rufus 1 

Rat kangaroo Hypsiprymnodon moschatus 9 

INSECTIVORA 

Erinaceidae: 

European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus 1 

Soricidae: 

Short-tailed shrew Blarina hrevicauda 1 

PRIMATES 

Lorisidae: 

Slow loris Nycticebus coucang 1 

Thick-tailed galago Galago crassicaudatus 2 

Cebidae: 

Night monkey Aotus trivirgatus 6 

Red uakari Cacajao ruhicundus 1 

Brown capuchin monkey ] 

White-throated capuchin [ Cebus capucinus 8 

Capuchin monkey J 

Squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus 7 

Colombian black spider monkey Ateles fusciceps 1 

Spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi 2 

Woolly monkey Lagothrix pygmaea 1 

Callithricidae: 

Cottontop marmoset Callithrix jacchus 3 

Golden lion tamarin Leontocebus rosalia 1 

Black-and-red tamarin Saquinus nigricolUs 1 

Cercopithecidae: 

Toque, or bonnet monkey Macaca sinica 3 

Pig-tailed monkey Macaca nemestrina 1 

Javan macaque Macaca irus 1 

Crab-eating macaque Macaca irus 1 

Philippine macaque Macaca philippinensis ^-_- 2 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



159 



Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Cercopithecidae — Continued 

Macaque, hybrid Macaca philippinensis X Macaca 2 

irus. 

Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta 3 

Chinese macaque ; Macaca lasiotis 1 

Formosan monkey Macaca cyclopis 6 

Red-faced macaque Macaca speciosa 1 

Barbary ape Macaca sylvanus 11 

Moor macaque Macaca maurus 2 

Gray-cheeked mangabey Cercocebus albigena 1 

Agile mangabey Cercocebus galeritus 1 

Golden-bellied mangabey Cercocebus galeritus 1 

Red-crowned mangabey Cercocebus torquatus 2 

Sooty mangabey Cercocebus fuliginosus 5 

Crested mangabey Cercocebus aterrimus 2 

Black-crested mangabey Cercocebus aterrimus 3 

Golden baboon Papio cynocephaJus 

Hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas 

Chacma baboon Papio comatus 

Mandrill Mandrillus sphinx 

Gelada baboon Theropithecus gelada 

Vervet guenon Cercopithecus aethiops 

Green guenon Cercopithecus aethiops 2 

Guenon, hybrid Cercopithecus aethiops X C. a. 2 

pygerythrus. 

Moustached monkey Cercopithecus cephus 2 

Diana monkey Cercopithecus diana 

Roloway monkey Cercopithecus diana 

Preussi's guenon Cercopithecus Vhoesti 

DeBrazza's guenon Cercopithecus neglectus 

White-nosed guenon Cercopithecus nictitans 

Lesser white-nosed guenon Cercopithecus nictitans 

Allen's monkey Allenopithecus nigroviridis 

Spectacled langur Presbytis phayrei 

Pongidae: 

Hoolock Hylobates hoolock 

White-handed gibbon Hylobates lar 

Wau-wau gibbon Hylobates moloch 

Gibbon, hybrid Hylobates agilis X H. lar 

Gibbon, hybrid Hylobates lar X H. sp 3 

Sumatran orangutan Pongo pygmaeus 2 

Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus 1 

Chimpanzee Pan satyrus 4 

Gorilla Gorilla gorilla 2 



EDENTATA 

Myrmecophagidae : 

Giant anteater ^ Myrmecophaga tridactyla. 

Bradypodidae: 

Two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus 



LAGOMOKPHA 

Leporidae: 

Domestic rabbit- - Oryctolagus cuniculus- 



160 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

RODENTIA 
Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Sciuridae: 

Gray squirrel (black) Sciurus carolinensis, melanistic 1 

phase. 

Gray squirrel (albino) Sciurus carolinensis 2 

Fox squirrel Sciurus niger 1 

Giant Indian squirrel Ratufa indica 4 

Asiatic squirrel Callosciurus nigrovittatus 1 

Formosan tree squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus 5 

Asiatic forest squirrel Callosciurus caniceps 4 

Striped ground squirrel Lariscus insignis 2 

Long-nosed squirrel Dremomys rufigenis 1 

Woodchuck, or groundhog Marmota monax 1 

Prairie-dog Cynomys ludovicianus Many 

White-tailed squirrel Citellus leucurus 2 

Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus 1 

Eastern chipmunk, albino Tamias striatus 1 

Red-and- white flying squirrel Petaurista albirufus 1 

Formosan flying squirrel Petaurista grandis 1 

Eastern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans 15 

Cricetidae: 

Vesper rat Nyctomys sumichrasti 2 

Hamster Mesocricetus auratus 3 

Lesser Egyptian gerbil Gerbillus gerbillus 1 

Fat-tailed gerbil Pachyuromys duprasi 19 

Hairy-tailed jird Sekeetamys calurus 1 

Jird Meriones sp 8 

Muridae: 

Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus 24 

Egyptian spiny mouse Acomys dimidiaius Many 

Slender-tailed cloud rat Phloeom.ys cumingii 3 

Gliridae: 

African dormouse Graphiurus murinus 1 

Dipodidae: 

Lesser or desert jerboa Jaculus jaculus 1 

Four-toed jerboa Allactaga tetradactyla 6 

Hystricidae: 

Malay porcupine Acanthion brachyura 1 

African porcupine Hystrix galeata 4 

Erethizontidae: 

Prehensile-tailed porcupine Coendou prehensilis 1 

Caviidae: 

Guinea-pig Cavia porcellus 30 

Hydrochoeridae: 

Capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris 2 

Dinomyidae: 

Red agouti Dinomys branickii 2 

Dasyproctidae: 

Agouti Dasyprocta prymnolopha 1 

Speckled agouti Dasyprocta punctata 1 

Chinchillidae: 

Peruvian viscaccia Lagidium viscaccia 1 

Chinchilla Chinchilla chinchilla 2 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 161 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Capromyidae: 

Coypu Myocastor coypus 1 

CARNIVORA 

Canidae: 

Dingo Canis antarcticus 4 

Timber wolf Canis lupus 2 

Texas red wolf Canis niger 2 

Red fox Vulpes fulva 2 

Platinum fox Vulpes fulva 2 

Fennec Fennecus zerda 2 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 1 

Raccoon dog Nyciereutes procyonoides 1 

Cape hunting dog Lycaon pidus 4 

Big-eared fox Otocyon megalotis 3 

Ursidae: 

Spectacled bear Tremardos ornatus 1 

Himalayan bear Selenardos thibetanus 2 

Japanese black bear Selenardos thibetanus 1 

Korean bear Selenardos thibetanus 2 

Black bear Euarctos americanus 2 

Alaskan brown bear Ursus sp 1 

European brown bear Ursus ardos 3 

Iranian brown bear Ursus ardos 2 

Alaskan Peninsula bear Ursus gyas 2 

Grizzly bear Ursus horribilis 3 

Sitka brown bear Ursus sitkensis 2 

Polar bear Thalardos maritimus 2 

Bear, hybrid Thalardos maritimus X Ursus 6 

middendorffi. 

Malay sun bear Helardos malayanus 3 

Procyonidae: 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 4 

Red coatimundi Nasua nasua 2 

Coatimundi Nasua narica 14 

Kinkajou Potos flavus 4 

Olingo Bassaricyon gabbi 2 

Lesser panda Ailurus fulgens 3 

Mustelidae: 

Short-tailed weasel Mustela erminea 1 

Eastern weasel Mustela frenata 1 

Ferret, albino Mustela eversmanni 1 

Marten Martes americana 1 

Fisher Martes pennanii 1 

Tayra Tayra barbara 1 

Grison Galidis vittata 1 

Wolverine Gulo luscus 1 

American badger Taxidea taxus 1 

Golden-bellied badger Helidis moschata 2 

Common skunk Mephitis mephitis 3 

California spotted skunk Spilogale gracilis 1 

African small-clawed otter Lutra cinerea 1 

South American flat-tailed otter Pteronura brasiliensis 1 

Malayan small-clawed otter Amblonyx cinerea 1 



162 ANTiTTJAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Viverridae: 

Genet . Genetta genelta 5 

Formosan spotted civet Viverricula indica ._ 2 

Ground civet Viverra tangalunga 1 

Linsang Prionodon linsang 1 

Formosan masked civet Paguma larvata 4 

Binturong Arciidis binturong 1 

African gray mongoose Herpestes ichneumon 1 

Water civet Atilax paludinosus 3 

White-tailed civet Ichneumia albicauda 2 

Cryptoproctidae : 

Fossa Cryptoproda ferox 1 

Hyaenidae: 

Spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta 2 

Striped hyena Hyaena hyaena 2 

Felidae: 

Jungle cat Felis chaus 1 

Pallas's cat Felis manul 2 

Serval cat Felis serval 3 

Ocelot Felis pardalis 2 

Margay cat Felis wiedii 2 

Pampas cat Felis pajeros 1 

Puma Felis concolor 5 

Lynx Lynx canadensis 2 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 2 

Leopard Panthera pardus 4 

Black leopard Panthera pardus 2 

Lion Panthera leo 3 

Bengal tiger Panthera tigris 4 

Jaguar Panthera onca 1 

Snow leopard Panthera uncia 3 

Cheetah Ocinonyx jubata 2 

PINNIPEDIA 

Otariidae: 

Sea-lion Zalophus californianus 1 

jonian sea-lion Otaria flavescens 2 



TUBULIDENTATA 

Orycteropodidae : 

Aardvark, or antbear Orycteropus afer. 



PROBOSCIDEA 

Elephantidae: 

African elephant Loxodonta africana 1 

Indian elephant Elephas maximus 3 

PERISSODACTYLA 

Equidae: 

Mongolian wild horse Equus przewalskii 1 

Kiang, or Asiatic wild ass Equus kiang 1 

Burro, or donkey Equus asinus 1 

Grant's zebra Equus burchelli 5 

Grevy's zebra Equus grevyi 3 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 163 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Tapiridae : 

Brazilian tapir Tapirus terrestris 1 

Rhino cerotidae: 

White, or square-lipped, rhinoceros. Ceratotherium simum 2 

ARTIODACTYLA 

Tayassuidae: 

Collared peccary Pecari tajacu 2 

Hippopotamidae : 

Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius 5 

Pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis 3 

Camelidae: 

Llama Lama glama 9 

Guanaco Lama guanicoe 3 

Alpaca Lama pacos 4 

Bactrian camel Camelus hactrianus 2 

Cervidae: 

Brown fallow deer Dama dama 7 

White fallow deer Dama dama 6 

Axis deer Axis axis 4 

Red deer Cervus elaphus 7 

American elk Cervus canadensis 4 

Sika deer Cervus nippon 4 

Pfere David's deer Elaphurus davidianus 1 

Virginia deer Odocoileus virginianus 5 

Costa Rican deer Odocoileus virginianus 1 

Reindeer Rangifer tarandus 14 

Forest caribou Rangifer caribou i. 1 

Giraffidae: 

Okapi Okapia johnstoni 1 

Nubian giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis 4 

Antilocapridae: 

Pronghorn Antilocapra americana 5 

Bovidae: 

Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekii 2 

Eland Taurotragus oryx 2 

Anoa Anoa depressicornis 3 

Zebu Bos indicus ] 

Yak Poephagus grunniens 2 

Gaur Bibos gaurus 4 

African buffalo Syncerus caffer 1 

American bison Bison bison 2 

Wisent, or European bison Bison bonasus 2 

Black-fronted duiker Cephalophus nigrifrons 1 

Saiga antelope Saiga tatarica 1 

Rocky mountain goat Oreamnos americanus- 2 

Tahr_ Hemitragus jemlahicus 2 

Ibex Capra ibex 1 

Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur 1 

Aoudad Ammotragus lervia 3 

Dall sheep Ovis dalli 2 

Mouflon Ovis musimon 1 



164 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1950 



BIRDS 



SPHENISCIFOHMES 



Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Spheniscidae: 

King penguin Aptenodytes patagonica 4 

Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae 5 

STKUTHIONIFORMES 

Struthionidae: 

Ostrich Struthio camelus 1 



KHEIFORMES 

Rheidae: 

Rhea Rhea americana. 



CASUARIIPOBMES 

Dromiceiidae: 

Emu Dromiceius novaehollandiae. 



PROCELLARIIPORMES 

Diomedeidae: 

Black-footed albatross Diomedea nigripes 2 

Laysan albatross Diomedea immutahilis I 

PELICANIFORMES 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis 2 

Cuban flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber 2 

Old World flamingo Phoenicopterus antiquorum 1 

Pelecanidae: 

Rose-colored pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus 2 

White pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchus 3 

Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis 1 

Phalacrocoracidae: 

Double-crested cormorant . Phalacrocorax auritus 1 

Anhingidae: 

Snakebird Anhinga anhinga 2 

CICONIIFORMES 

Ardeidae: 

Great white heron Ardea occidentalis 3 

Louisiana heron Hydranassa tricolor 4 

American egret Casmerodius albus 4 

Snowy egret Leucophoyx thula 2 

Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax 7 

Least bittern Ixobrychus exilis 2 

American egret Herodias egretta 1 

Tiger bittern Tigrisoma lineatum 4 

Cochleariidae: 

Boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius 1 

Balaenicipitidae: 

Shoebill Balaeniceps rex 1 

Ciconiidae: 

Marabou stork Leptoptilos crumeniferus 1 

Lesser adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 165 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Threskiornithidae: 

Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus 2 

Eastern glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus 2 

Black-headed ibis Threskiornis melanocephala 1 

Roseate spoonbill Ajaia ajaja 2 

White ibis Eudocimus albus 2 

Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber 2 

ANSERIFOKMES 

Anhimidae: 

Crested screamer Chauna torquata 4 

Anatidae: 

Mute swan Cygnus olor 2 

Whooper swan Olor cygnus 2 

Whistling swan Olor columbianus 4 

Trumpeter swan Olor buccinator 2 

Cape Barren goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae 1 

Australian pied goose Anseranas semipalmata 1 

Black swan Chenopis atrata 3 

Blue goose Chen caerulescens 6 

Lesser snow goose Chen hyperborea 2 

Greater snow goose Chen atlantica 6 

Ross's goose Chen rossii 4 

Indian bar-headed goose Eulabeia indica 5 

White-fronted goose Anser albifrons 3 

Emperor goose Philacte canagica 2 

Canada goose "] 

Lesser Canada goose I n ^ , . „. 

r^ , ,. > Branta canadensis 34 

Cacklmg goose 

White-cheeked goose J 

Upland goose Chloephaga leucoptera 1 

Canada goose X Blue goose, hybrid. Branta canadensis X Chen caeru- 2 

lescens. 

Black-bellied tree duck Dendrocygna autumnalis 8 

Fulvous tree duck Dendrocygna bicolor 2 

Comb duck Sarkidiornis melanota ] 

European shell duck Tadorna tadorna 1 

Mallard duck, albino Anas platyrhynchos 1 

Mallard duck Anas platyrhynchos 26 

Mallard duck X American pintail Anas platyrhynchos X Anas acuta- 1 

duck, hybrid. 

Indian spotted-bill duck Anas poecilorhyncha 1 

Black duck Anas rubripes 2 

Pintail duck Anas acuta 1 

Baldpate Mareca americana 13 

Wood duck Aix sponsa 34 

Wood duck X Red-headed duck, Aix sponsa X Aythya americana. 1 

hybrid. 

Mandarin duck Dendronessa galericulata 29 

Rosy-billed pochard Metopiana peposaca 1 

Red-crested pochard Netta rufina 1 

Canvasback duck Aythya valisineria 9 

Red-headed duck Aythya americana 11 



166 AisnsriTAL report Smithsonian institution, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Anatidae — Continued 

Greater scaup duck Aythya marila 10 

Lesser scaup duck Aythya affinis 7 

FALCONIFORMES 

Cathartidae: 

Andean condor Vultur gryphus 1 

King vulture Sarcoramphus papa 1 

Black vulture Coragyps atratus 1 

Turkey vulture Cathartes aura 1 

Sagittariidae: 

Secretarybird Sagittarius serpentarius 2 

Accipitridae: 

Cayenne kite , Odoniriorchis palliatus , 1 

African yellow-billed kite Milvus migrans 2 

Brahminy kite Haliastur indus 1 

Buzzard eagle Buteo poecilochrous 1 

Red-tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis 5 

Swainson's hawk Buteo swainsoni 1 

Black-faced hawk Leucopternis melanops 1 

Guianan crested eagle Morphnus guianensis 1 

Harpy eagle Harpia harpyja 1 

Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos 1 

Monkey-eating eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi 1 

Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus 7 

Ruppell's vulture Gyps rueppellii 2 

White-backed vulture Pseudogyps africanus 1 

Bateleur eagle Terathopius ecaudatus 3 

Falconidae: 

Forest falcon Micrastur semitorquatus 2 

Chimango Milvago chimango 2 

South American caracara Polyborus plancus 3 

Audubon's caracara Polyborus cheriway 1 

Sparrow hawk Falco sparverius 6 

GALLIFOEMES 

Megapodiidae: 

Brush turkey Alectura lathami 1 

Cracidae: 

Nocturnal curassow Nothocrax urumutum 1 

White-headed piping guan Pipile cumanensis 1 

Blue-cered curassow Crax alberti 2 

Wattled curassow Crax globulosa 2 

Panama curassow Crax panamensis 1 

Phasianidae: 

Erckel's francolin Francolinus erckeli 5 

Hildebrandt's francolin Francolinus hildebrandti 1 

Bobwhite Colinus virginianus 1 

Hungarian partridge Perdix perdix 2 

Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix 1 

Nepal pheasant Gennaeus leucomelanus 2 

Swinhoe's pheasant Gennaeus swinhoii 1 

Red junglefowl Gallus gallus 9 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 167 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Phasianidae — Continued 

Ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus 4 

Ring-necked pheasant, albino Phasianus colchicus 1 

Reeves's pheasant Syrmaticus reevesi 2 

Lady Amherst pheasant Chrysolophus amherstiae 1 

Golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus 5 

Peafowl Pavo cristatus 13 

Argus pheasant Argusianus argus 2 

Numididae: 

Vulturine guineafowl Acryllium vulturinum 5 

Meleagrididae : 

Ocellated turkey Agriocharis ocellata 1 

Wild turkey Meleagris gallopavo 11 

Gruidae: 

Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus 1 

Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo 1 

Psophiidae: 

Trumpeter Psophia crepitans 2 

Rallidae : 

Virginia rail Lallus limicola 1 

Black-and-white crake Later alius leucopyrrhus 1 

South Pacific swamphen Borphyrio poliocephalus 1 

American coot Fulica americana 1 

Eurypygidae : 

Sun bittern Europyga helias 2 

Cariamidae: 

Cariama or seriama Cariama cristata 1 

CHARADRIIFORMES 

Jacanidae: 

Common jagana Jacana spinosa 3 

Haematopodidae: 

Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus 2 

Stercorariidae: 

MacCormack's skua Catharacta maccormacki 4 

Charadriidae: 

Australian banded plover Zonifer tricolor 6 

South American lapwing Belonopterus cayennensis 1 

KUldeer Charadrius vociferus 1 

Recurvirostridae : 

Black-necked stilt Himantopus mexicanus 1 

Burhinidae: 

South American thick-knee Burhinus bistriaius 1 

Laridae: 

Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis 2 

Kelp gull . Larus dominicanus 2 

Laughing gull Larus atricilla 1 

Silver gull Larus novaehollandiae 12 

COLUMBIFORMES 

Columbidae: 

Homing pigeon Columba livia 1 

Band-taUed pigeon Columba fasciata 2 

624591—59 12 



168 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Columbidae — C o ntinued 

Black-billed pigeon Columba nigrirostris 1 

Mourning dove Zenaidura macroura 3 

White-winged dove Zenaida asiatica 1 

Ring-necked dove Streptopelia decaodo 7 

Blue-headed ring dove Streptopelia tranquebarica 2 

Diamond dove Geopelia cuneata 1 

Ground dove Columbigallina passerina 5 

Plain-breasted ground dove Columbigallina minuta 7 

Bleeding-heart dove Gallicolumba luzonica 2 

Crowned pigeon Goura victoria 2 

PSITTACIFORMES 

Psittacidae: 

Kea parrot Nestor notabilis 2 

Red lory Domicella garrula 1 

Banksian cockatoo Calyptorhynchus inagnificus 1 

White cockatoo Kakatoe alba 2 

Solomon Islands cockatoo Kakatoe ducrops 1 

Sulphur-crested co ckatoo Kakatoe galerita 5 

Bare-eyed cockatoo Kakatoe sanguinea 5 

Great red-crested cockatoo Kakatoe moluccensis 1 

Leadbeater's cockatoo Kakatoe leadbeateri 7 

Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus 3 

Yellow-and-blue macaw Ara araurauna 3 

Red-and-blue macaw Ara chloroptera 2 

Red-blue-and-yellow macaw Ara macao 2 

Petz's parakeet Aratinga carticularis 1 

Rusty-cheeked parrot Aratinga pertinax 2 

White- winged parakeet Brotogeris versicolurus 1 

Yellow-naped parrot Amazona auropalliata 4 

Finsch's parrot Amazona finschi 1 

Red-fronted parrot Amazona bodini 1 

Double yellow-headed parrot Amazona oratrix 3 

Red-shouldered parakeet Psittacula eupatria 1 

Moustached parakeet Psittacula fasciata 1 

Barraband's parakeet Polytelis swainsoni 1 

Rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis 1 

Fischer's lovebird Agapornis fischeri 1 

Masked lovebird Agapornis per sonata 4 

Grass parakeet, or budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus Many 

CUCULIFORMES 

Musophagidae: 

Purple turaco Tauraco persa 1 

South African turaco Tauraco corythaix 1 

Plantain-eater Crinifer africanus 1 

White-bellied go-aw ay-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster 1 

Cuculidae: 

Koel Eudynamys scolopacea 1 

Roadrunner Geococcyx californianus 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 169 

STRIGIPOBMES 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Tytonidae: 

Barn owl Tyto alba 1 

Strigidae: 

Screech owl Otus asio 2 

Great horned owl Bubo virginianus 5 

Colombian great horned owl Bubo virginianus 1 

Spectacled owl Pulsatrix perspicillata 1 

Malay fishing owl Ketupa ketupu 2 

Snowy owl Nyctea nyctea 3 

Barred owl Strix varia 10 

COLIIFORMES 

Coliidae: 

Mousebird Colius striatus 2 



CORACIIPORMES 

Alcedinidae: 

Kookaburra Dacelo gigas. 

Momotidae: 

Motmot Momotus 

Coraciidae: 

Lilac-breasted roller Coracias caudata 3 

Indian roller Coracias benghalensis 2 

Bucerotidae: 

Gray hornbill Tockus birostris 2 

Wreathed hornbill Aceros plicatus 1 

Pied hornbill Anthracoceros malabaricus 1 

Black-and-white casqued hornbill Bycanistes subcylindricus 2 

Black casqued hornbill Ceratogymna atrata 2 

Philippine hornbill Buceros hydrocorax 1 

Abyssinian ground hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus : 1 

PICIFORMES 

Capitonidae: 

Asiatic great barbet Megalaima virens 1 

Asiatic red-fronted barbet Megalaima asiatica 1 

Toucan barbet Semnornis ramphastinus 2 

Ramphastidae: 

White-lined toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivittatus 3 

White-breasted toucan Ramphastos culminatus 1 

Sulphur-breasted toucan Ramphastos carinatus 3 

Swainson's toucan Ramphastos swainsoni 1 

Toco toucan Ramphastos toco 1 

Picidae: 

Scaly-bellied woodpecker Picus squamatus 2 

Golden-backed woodpecker Brachypternus benghalensis 2 

PASSERIFORMES 

Cotingidae: 

Naked-throated bellbird Chasmorhynchus nudicollis 1 

Orange cock-of-the-rock Rupicola rupicola 1 

Scarlet cock-of-the-rock Rupicola sanguinolenta 1 



170 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Pipridae: 

Long-tailed manakin Chiroxiphia linearis 2 

Tyrannidae: 

Kiskadee flycatcher Pitangus sulphuratus 1 

Pittidae: 

Indian pitta Pitta brachyura 2 

Alaudidae: 

Skylark Alauda arvensis 1 

Corvidae: 

Steller's jay Cyanocitta stelleri 4 

Magpie Pica pica 7 

Yellow-billed magpie Pica nuttalli 1 

Hunting crow Kitta chinensis 1 

Formosan red-billed pie Kitta caerulea 9 

Asiatic tree pie Crypsirina formosae 2 

' Raven Corvus corax 1 

African white-neck crow Corvus alhus 2 

Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos 2 

Indian crow Corvus insolens 2 

Inca Jay Xanthoura yncas 2 

Cracticidae: 

White-backed piping crow Gymnorhina hypoleuca 1 

Paridae: 

Great tit Parus major 1 

Gray tit Parus major 3 

Red-headed tit Aegithaliscus concinnus 2 

Ptilonorhynchidae : 

Satin bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus 2 

Timaliidae: 

Tit babbler Yuhina flavicollis 3 

Indian scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus horsfieldii 1 

Rusty-cheeked scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys 1 

Black-headed sibia Heterophasia capistrata 3 

Sittidae: 

Chestnut-bellied nuthatch Sitta castanea 4 

Pycnonotidae: 

Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotiis cafer 1 

White-chseked bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys 2 

Brown-eared bulbul Molpastes leucostis 3 

Turdidae: 

Bonaparte's thmish Turdus grayi 1 

Robin, albino Turdus migratorius 1 

Cliff chat Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris 2 

Silver-eared mesia Mesia argentauris 4 

Muscicapidae: 

Veriter flycatcher Muscicapa thalassina 3 

Sturnidae: 

Jungle mynah Acridotheres tristis 1 

Burchell's glossy starling Lamprocolius purpureus 3 

Tri-colored starling Spreo superbus 1 

Long-tailed glossy starling Lamprotorms caudatus 1 

Gray-headed mynah Sturnus malabaricus 1 

Starling Sturnus vulgaris 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 171 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Sturnidae — Continued 

Rose-colored pastor Pastor roseus 1 

Lesser hill mynah Gracula religiosa 2 

Greater hill mynah Gracula religiosa 3 

Parulidae: 

Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus 1 

Ploceidae: 

Baya weaver Ploceus baya 5 

Vitelline masked weaver Ploceus vitellinus 3 

Red bishop weaver Euplectes orix ._ 2 

Yellow-crowned bishop weaver Euplectes afra 4 

Giant whydah Diatropura procne 2 

Mahali weaver Ploceipasser mahali 1 

Java finch Padda oryzivora 14 

Cut-throat weaver finch Amadina fasciata 2 

White-headed nun Lonchura maja 7 

Lavender finch Estrilda coerulescens 2 

Red-eared waxbill Estrilda astrild 1 

Common waxbill Estrilda troglodytes 2 

Strawberry finch Estrilda amandava 8 

Zebra finch Poephila castanotis 20 

Gouldian finch Poephila gouldiae 1 

Nectariniidae: 

Variable sunbird Cinnyris venustus 2 

Beautiful sunbird Nectarinia pulchella 2 

Scarlet-chested sunbird Chalcomitra rubescens 2 

Golden- winged sunbird Drepanorhynchus reichenowii 2 

Zosteropidae: 

White-eye Zosterops palpebrosa 3 

Coerebidae: 

Blue honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus 2 

Icteridae: 

Rice grackle Psomocolax oryzivora 1 

Boat-tailed grackle Cassidix mexicanus 5 

Swainson's grackle Holoquiscalus lugubris 2 

Shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis 4 

Red-breasted marshbird Leistes militaris 4 

Colombian red-eyed cowbird Tangavius armenti 1 

Purple grackle Quiscalus quiscula 1 

Giraud's oriole Icterus giraudi 1 

Troupial Icterus icterus 1 

Yellow-headed marshbird Agelaius icterocephalus 1 

Thraupidae: 

Crimson tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus 1 

Yellow-rumped tanager Ramphocelus icteronotus 3 

Passerini's tanager Ramphocelus passerinii 1 

Black-and-white tanager Cissopis leveriana 2 

Fringillidae : 

Buff -throated saltator Saltator maximus 1 

Black-throated cardinal Paroaria gularis 3 

Brazilian cardinal Paroaria cucullata 1 

Dickcissel Spiza americana 7 

Evening grosbeak Hesperiphona vespertina 2 



172 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Fringillidae — Continued 

Tawny-bellied seedeater Sporophila minuta 5 

European goldfinch X Canary, hy- Carduelis carduelis X Serinus ca- 1 
brid. narius. 

Song sparrow Melospiza melodia 1 

Black-throated cardinal Paroaria gularis 1 

Melodious grassquit Tiaris canora 6 

Rice grosbeak Oryzoboriis crassirostris 1 

Lesser yellow finch Sicalis luteola 3 

REPTILES 
LORICATA 

Crocodylidae: 

African crocodile Crocodylus niloticus 2 

Broad-nosed crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis 2 

Narrow-nosed crocodile Crocodylus cataphractus 1 

Salt-water crocodile Crocodylus porosus 1 

American crocodile Crocodylus acutus 2 

Alligator Alligator mississipiensis 16 

Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis 2 

Caiman Caiman sclerops 9 

Gavial Tomistoma schlegeli 1 

SAURIA 

Gekkonidae: 

House gecko Gecko monarchus 2 

Gecko Tarentola mauritanica 1 

Giant gecko Gecko smithi 1 

Giant gecko Gecko stentor 1 

Agamidae: 

Forest lizard Gonocephalus borneensis 1 

Forest lizard Gonocephalus grandis 1 

Flying lizard Draco quinquefasciata 1 

Chamaeleonidae : 

Meller's chameleon Chamaeleo melleri 3 

Flap-necked chameleon Chamaeleo dilepis 10 

Iguanidae: 

Common iguana Iguana iguana 3 

Carolina anole Anolis carolinensis Many 

Giant anole Anolis equestris 1 

Texas horned lizard Phrynosoma cornutum 12 

Western horned lizard Phrynosoma cornutum i 2 

Fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus 3 

Spiny-tailed iguana Ctenosaurus nigra 1 

Desert iguana Dipsosaurus dorsalis 1 

Sonora spiny lizard Sceloporus clarki 2 

Southern prairie lizard Sceloporus undulatus 1 

Pine lizard Sceloporus undulatus 2 

Crevice spiny lizard Sceloporus poinsetti 2 

Leopard lizard Crotaphytus wislizeni 2 

Collared lizard Crotaphytus collaris 1 

Western earless lizard Holbrookia maculata 2 

Ameiva lizard Ameiva ameiva 1 

British Guiana green lizard Centropyx striatus- 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 173 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Scincidae: 

Mourning skink Egernia luctuosa 2 

White's skink Egernia whitei 8 

Greater five-lined skink Eumeces fasciatiis 6 

Great Plains skink Eumeces obsoletus 1 

Four-lined skink Eumeces tetragrammus.. 2 

Sand skink Scincus officinalis 7 

Stump-tailed lizard Trachysaurus rugosus . 1 

Ground skink Lygosoma laterale 2 

Malayan skink Mabuya muUifasciata 7 

G«rrhosauridae : 

Plated lizard Gerrhosaurus major 4 

Teiidae : 

Black tegu Twpinamhis nigropunctatus 1 

Yellow tegu Twpinamhis teguixin 2 

Lacertidae : 

European green lizard , Lacerta viridis 1 

Anguidae : 

Glass lizard Ophisaurus ventralis 3 

Southern alligator lizard Gerrhonotus multicarinatus 1 

Alligator lizard Gerrhonotus multicarinatus 1 

Helodermatidae : 

Mexican beaded lizard Heloderma horridum 3 

Beaded lizard (black phase) Heloderma horridum 1 

Gila monster Heloderma suspedum 3 

Varanidae : 

Bornean rough-necked monitor liz- Varanus nudicollis 2 

ard. 

Indian monitor lizard Varanus flavescens 1 

Indian monitor lizard Varanus salvator , 1 

Australian lace monitor Varanus varius 2 

Cape monitor Varanus albigularis 1 

SEKPENTES 

Boidae: 

Anaconda Eunedes murinus 1 

Bahama boa Epicrates striatus 2 

Rainbow boa Epicrates cenchria_._ 2 

Cuban tree boa Epicrates angulifer 5 

Tree boa Boa enydris 1 

Cook's tree boa Boa enydris 19 

Ball python Python regius 4 

African python Python sebae 1 

Indian rock python Python molurus 2 

Regal python Python reticulatus 2 

Emperor boa Constrictor imperator 1 

Acrochordidae : 

Elephant trunk snake Acrochordus javanicus 1 

Colubridae : 

Slate water snake Enhydris plumbea 10 

Flying snake Chrysopelea ornata 1 

Vine snake Oxybelis acuminatus 1 

Twig, or vine, snake Thelotornis kirklandi 3 

Mud snake Farancia abacura 2 



174 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Col ubridae — Continued 

King snake Lampropeltis getulus 3 

Speckled king snake Lampropeltis getulus 3 

California king snake Lampropeltis getulus 2 

Florida king snake Lampropeltis getulus 2 

Sonoran king snake Lampropeltis getulus 

Scarlet king snake Lampropeltis doliata 

Milk snake _; Lampropeltis triangulum 

Mole snake Lampropeltis rhombomaculata 

Tropical king snake Lampropeltis polyzonus 

Garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis 

Lake Erie garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis 

Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos 

Western hognose snake Heterodon nasicus 

Green snake Opheodrys aestivus 

Water snake Natrix sipedon 

Diamond-backed water snake Natrix rhombifera 

Brown water snake Natrix taxispilota 

Red-bellied water snake Natrix erythrogaster 

Florida water snake Natrix pictiventris 

Tessellated snake Natrix tessellatus 

Island water snake Natrix insularum 

Mangrove snake Natrix compressicauda ^__ 

Indigo snake Drymarchon corais 

Texas indigo snake Drymarchon corais 

Pilot black snake, albino Elaphe obsoleta 

Pilot black snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Southern pilot black snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Corn snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Lindheirner's rat snake Elaphe obsoleta 

Chicken snake Elaphe quadrivittata 

Aesculapian snake Elaphe longissima 

Black racer Coluber constrictor 

Red racer Masticophis flagellum 

Western coachwhip snake Masticophis flagellum 2 

Asiatic rat snake Elaphe taeniura 3 

Lesser Indian rat snake Elaphe carinata 4 

African house snake, or musaga Boaedon lineatum 2 

Ring-necked snake Diadophis punctatus 2 

DeKay's snake Storeria dekayi 2 

Grass green whip snake Dryophis prasinus 1 

Dhaman, or Greater Indian rat Ptyas mucosus 9 

snake. 

File snake Simocephalus capensis 1 

Elapidae : 

Boomslang Dispholidus typhus.. 3 

Indian cobra Naja naja 4 

Taiwan cobra Naja naja 14 

Black cobra Naja melanoleuca 1 

Egyptian cobra... Naja haje ^ 2 

King cobra Ophiophagus hannah 1 

Krait Bungarus multicinctus 6 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



175 



Family and common name 

Crotalidae: 

Northern copperhead snake 

Broad-banded copperhead 

Water moccasin, or cottonmouth 

Cantil 

Asian snorkel viper 

Palm viper 

Pope's pit viper 

Wagler's pit viper 

Mamushi, or Asiatic viper 

Habu, or Asiatic viper 

Eastern diamondback rattlesnake 

Western diamondback rattlesnake. _ 

Viperidae: 

Puflf adder 



Scientific name 

Ancistrodon contortrix _ 
Ancistrodon contortrix. 
Ancistrodon piscivorus- 
Ancistrodon bilineatus _ 
Ancistrodon acutus 



Number 

5 
1 

4 
2 
3 



Trimeresurus stejnegeri 15 

Trimeresurus popeorum 

Trimeresurus wagleri 

Trimeresurus elegans 

Trimeresurus flavoviridis 

Crotalus adamanteus 

Crotalus atrox 



Bitis arietans. 



CHELONIA 

Chelydridae: 

Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina 21 

Alligator snapping turtle Macroclemys temmincki 5 

Kinosternidae : 

Musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus 4 

Mud turtle Kinosternon subrubrum 7 

South American mud turtle Kinosternon cruentatum 3 

Emydidae: 

Spotted turtle Clemmys guttoia 4 

Wood turtle Clemmys insculpia 5 

Pacific pond turtle Clemmys marmorata 1 

Kura kura box turtle Cuora amboinensis 3 

European pond turtle Emys orbicularis 3 

Box turtle Terrapene Carolina Many 

Three- toed box turtle Terrapene Carolina 3 

Western box turtle Terrapene ornata 2 

Florida box turtle Terrapene bauri 1 

Diamondback turtle Malaclemys terrapin 7 

Map turtle Graptemys geographica 3 

Barbour's turtle Graptemys barbouri 6 

False map turtle Graptemys pseudogeographica 4 

Painted turtle Chrysemys picta Many 

South American red-lined turtle Pseudemys callirostris Many 

South American turtle Pseudemys dorbigni 8 

Cumberland turtle Pseudemys scripta 22 

Mobile turtle, or cooter Pseudemys floridana 12 

Florida water turtle, or cooter Pseudemys floridana 15 

Red-bellied turtle Pseudemys rubriventris 11 

Central American turtle Pseudemys ornata 

Cuban water turtle Pseudemys decussata 

Yellow-bellied turtle Pseudemys scripta 

Indian fresh- water turtle Batagur baska 

Reeves's turtle Chinemys reevesii 

Testudinidae: 

Giant Aldabra turtle Testudo elephantina 

Duncan Island turtle Testudo ephippium 



2 
1 
13 
1 
6 

2 
2 



176 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



Family and common name 

Testudinidae — Continued 

South American turtle 

GaId,pagos turtle 

African soft-shelled tortoise 

Hinged-backed turtle 

Trionychidae: 

Florida soft-shelled turtle 

African soft-shelled turtle 

Pelomedusidae : 

African water turtle 

African black mud turtle 

Amazon spotted turtle 

Chelidae: 

South American side-necked turtle_. 

Australian side-necked turtle 

Kreflft's turtle 

Murray turtle 

Small side-necked turtle 

South American gibba turtle 

Large side-necked turtle 

Flat-headed turtle 



Scientific name 

Testudo tabulata 

Testudo vicina 

Malacochersus tornieri. 
Kinixys erosa 



Trionyx ferox 

Trionyx triunguis- 



Pelomedusa subrufa. 

Pelusios subniger 

Podocnemis unifilis- 



Number 

1 
1 
2 
1 



Batrachemys nasuta 2 

Chelodina longicollis 3 

Emydura krefftii 3 

Emydura macquarrii 6 

Hydromedusa tectifera 2 

Mesoclemmys gibba 2 

Phrynops hilarii 12 

Platemys platycephala 9 



AMPHIBIANS 



CAUDATA 

Amphiumidae : 

Congo eel Amphiuma means 

Ambystomidae: 

Tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum_ _ 

Small-mouthed salamander Ambystoma texanum 

Salamandridae : 

Red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster 

Red-spotted newt Diemictylus viridescens. 



2 
1 

12 
15 



SALIENTIA 

Bufonidae: 

American toad Bufo americanus 

Forest toad Bufo blombergii 

Giant toad Bufo marinus 

Cuban toad Bufo peltocephalus 

Pelobatidae: 

Spadef oot toad Scaphiopus holbrooM- 

Pipidae: 

Surinam toad Pipa pipa 

Leptodactylidae : 

Colombian horned frog Ceratophrys calcarata. 

Argentine horned frog Ceratophrys ornata 

Hylidae: 

Squirrel tree frog Hyla squirella 

Green tree frog Hyla cinerea 

Gray tree frog Hyla versicolor 

Microhylidae: 

Narrow-mouthed toad Microhyla olivacea 



20 

2 
1 

6 

1 

13 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 177 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Ranidae: 

African bull frog Rana adspersa 7 

American bull frog Rana catesbeiana 1 

Green frog Rana clamitans 20 

Leopard frog Rana pipiens Many 

Rhacophoridae : 

African flash tree frog Hylambates maculatus 2 

Dendrobatidae : 

Green poison-arrow frog Dendrobates tinctorius 1 

ARTHROPODS 
DECAPODA 

Cenobitidae: 

Land hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus Many 

ARANEIDA 

Theraphosidae : 

Tarantula Eurypelma hentzi 1 

Theridiidae: 

Black-widow spider Latrodectus mactans 1 

SCORPIONIDA 

Vejovidae: 

Stripe-tailed scorpion Vejovis spinigerus 1 

African giant black scorpion Pandinus imperator 2 

ORTHOPTERA 

Blattidae: 

Tropical giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus Many 

MOLLUSKS 
PULMONATA 

Planorbidae: 

Pond snails Helisoma trivolvis 20 

FISHES 

NEOCERATODONTOIDEI 

Lepidosirenidae : 

South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa 1 

Protopteridae: 

African lungfish Protopterus annectens 1 

OSTARIOPHYSOIDEI 

Characidae: 

Metynnis Metynnis rooseveltii 2 

Gymnotidae: 

African knif efish Sternarchella schotti 2 

Cyprinidae: 

Zebrafish Brachydanio rerio 17 

White Cloud Mountain fish Tanichthys albonubes 4 



178 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Cobitidae: 

Large kuhlii Acanthophthalmus semicinctus 1 

Callichthyidae: 

Corydoras Corydoras hastatus 2 

Corydoras scavenger catfish Corydoras paleatus 1 

Loricariidae: 

Armored catfish Plecostomus plecostomus 2 

CYPRINODONTOIDEI 

Poeciliidae: 

Blue gambusia Gambusia punctatus 2 

Flag-tailed guppy Lebistes reticulatus 10 

Guppy Lebistes reticulatus 22 

Black moUie Mollienisia latipinna 3 

Platy, or moonfish Xiphophorus maculatus 5 

PEKCOMORPHOIDEI 

Anabantoidea: 

Climbing perch Anabas testudineus 3 

Blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus 1 

Cichlidae: 

Peacock cichlid Astronotus ocellatus 1 

Egyptian mouthbreeder Haplochromis multicolor 1 

Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare 5 

PYGMY HIPPOPOTAMUSES 

Because the National Zoological Park had considerable success in 
raising pygmy hippopotamuses, it seems advisable to list the breeding 
record here. The first pygmy hippopotamus to come to the Zoo was 
a gift from Harvey Firestone, Sr., to President Calvin Coolidge in 
1927. It was known as Billy. In 1929 a mate, Hannah, was pur- 
chased. In 1940 the Smithsonian Institution-Firestone Expedition 
returned from Liberia with one young male, which died May 3, 1943, 
and one adult female (known as Matilda) . 

Billy and Hannah 

August 26, 1931, male, died August 27, 1931, killed by mother. 

August 21, 1932, male, died August 22, 1932, killed by mother. 

April 29, 1933, male, died April 29, 1933, killed by mother. 

May 8, 1938, female, sent to Cole Bros. Circus April 26, 1939. 

June 24, 1939, female, prematurely born, died June 25, 1989. 

February 25, 1940, female, died October 28, 1942. 

May 9, 1941, female, sent to Philadelphia Zoological Gardens March 16, 1944. 

February 1, 1943, female, died February 2, 1943. 

February 20, 1945, male, sent to Miller Bros. Circus January 7, 1950. 

December 21, 1945, female, died December 21, 1945. 

October 11, 1947, female, died February 11, 1948. 

March 12, 1950, female, sent to Catskill Game Farm June 16, 1953. 

June 13, 1951, male, sent to Catskill Game Farm June 16, 1953. 

April 26, 1953, female, died November 8, 1953. 

June 8, 1954, female, died June 23, 1955. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 179 

Billy and Matilda 

December 13, 1943, male, sent to Fort Worth (Tex.) Zoo. 

March 5, 1947, female (living in NZP). 

July 3, 1948, female (living in NZP). 

December 20, 1949, female, sent to Sydney, Australia, October 18, 1954. 

April 24, 1952, male, died October 8, 1952. 

October 2, 1953, female, died September 16, 1954. 

January 30, 1955, female, sent to John Seago, England, September 7, 1956. 

March 29, 1956, female, sent to L. Ruhe, New York, May 7, 1957. 

Matilda and two of her daughters are still living in the National 
Zoological Park. Billy died on October 11, 1955, and Hannah on 
March 6, 1958. 

FINANCES 

Funds for the operation of the National Zoological Park are appro- 
priated annually under the District of Columbia Appropriation Act. 
The operation and maintenance appropriation for the fiscal year 1959 
totaled $953,800, which includes a supplemental appropriation of $55,- 
800. This was an increase of $120,800 over fiscal year 1958. The 
increase consisted of $55,800 supplemental for pay increases in accord- 
ance with Public Law 85-462 and Wage Board increases approved by 
the District of Columbia Commissioners in June 1958; $52,833 to 
establish 14 new positions ; $4,700 for the purchase of new equipment ; 
$7,467 increase in miscellaneous supplies. Of the $953,800 appro- 
priated, $734,666 was for salaries and $219,134 for the maintenance 
and operation of the Zoo. Included in the latter figure were major 
operational expenditures amounting to $180,434, consisting of $65,- 
000 for animal food; $17,168 for fuel for heating; $29,545 for ma- 
terials, building, construction, and repairs; $44,979 for civil service 
retirement; $3,576 for the purchase of animals; $9,101 for electricity; 
$3,633 for telephone, postal, and telegraph services ; $5,000 for veter- 
inarian equipment and supplies; and $2,433 for Federal employees 
group life insurance. The balance of $28,700 in operational funds 
was expended for other items, includmg freight, sundry supplies, uni- 
forms, gasoline, road repairs, equipment replacement, and new 
equipment. 

In addition to the regular appropriation, $50,000 was allotted for 
capital outlay. This money was used to renovate the deer paddocks at 
the Connecticut Avenue entrance and to restore the area for aquatic 
mammals above the sea-lion pool. 

PERSONNEL 

There are 158 authorized positions at the Zoo divided as follows : 
Administrative office, 16 ; animal department, 58 ; mechanical depart- 
ment, 50 ; police department, 27 ; and grounds department, 7. 



180 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Lee O. Burris, who was appointed head gardener on March 1, 1954, 
retired on October 31, 1958. Michael Dubik, formerly assistant head 
gardener, became the supervisory gardener. 

During the year nine police officers completed a police course of- 
fered by the University of Maryland, and five keepers attended a 
course in supervision at the Department of Agriculture Night School. 

On March 17, at a luncheon in the Zoo Park Restaurant, six women 
were honored for their efforts in behalf of the National Zoological 
Park. Five were wives of Zoo officials or keepers ; the sixth was the 
mother of a keeper, and all had taken baby animals into their homes 
to care for them, and had successfully raised them for the Zoo. The 
Director introduced the guests of honor, and Dr. Carmichael, Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, presented each one with a certifi- 
cate of appreciation. Those receiving the certificates were Mrs. Lucile 
Q. Mann, Mrs. Esther S. Walker, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Reed, Mrs. Mar- 
garet A. Grimmer, Mrs. Louise E. Gallagher, and Mrs. Nettie L. 
Stroman. 

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION 

The Zoo continues to handle a large correspondence with persons 
all over the world who write for information regarding animals. 
From every part of this country citizens write to the Zoo as a national 
institution. Telephone calls come in constantly, asking for identifica- 
tion of animals, proper diets, or treatment of disease. Visitors to the 
office as well as to the animal exhibits are constantly seeking informa- 
tion. 

The Director spoke before six civic groups and one school group 
and appeared on six television programs, displaying animals from 
the Zoo. 

A symposium on "Recognition and Treatment of Snake Bite" was 
given to the medical staff of Children's Hospital by the Associate 
Director. 

Dr. James F. Wright, veterinarian, published two articles in Vet- 
erinary Medicine : "Necrotic Stomatitis in an American Elk" (October 
1958) and "Treatment of Captive Wild Animals Using an Automatic 
Projectile Type Syringe" (January 1959) . 

Malcom Davis, associate headkeeper, continued to write his weekly 
nature column for the Hemdon-Chantilly (Va.) Times and the Lou- 
doun Times Mirror as a public service. He published a monthly 
article in All-Pets Magazine and the American Gage-Bird Magazine^ 
as well as biological notes for The Auk and notes for the Pheasant 
Breeders Gazette. He spoke on three television programs and broad- 
cast a nature script once a month from the Herndon, Va., radio station. 
He also spoke to four civic clubs and two high-school biology classes 
on Zoo animals. Mr. Davis, who is a charter member of the Inter- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 181 

national Wild Waterfowl Association, Inc., was appointed to its board 
of directors in July 1968. 

Keepers Burgess, DePrato, Stroman, Welk, and Widman brought 
young animals to the television screen repeatedly. Many of these 
programs were on "Time for Science" from WTTG, which is watched 
by 43,000 students in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Vir- 
ginia schools. A half -hour program devoted to the Zoo was broad- 
cast from WTOP, sponsored by the Friends of the National Zoo, 
and showed the Director and Keepers Maliniak, Stroman, and Gal- 
lagher with a young gibbon, a baby chimpanzee, and two hybrid 
bear cubs. 

Ordinarily the Zoo does not conduct guided tours of the park, but 
exceptions were made for groups of physically handicapped children 
who visited the park. Two groups were from the District of Colum- 
bia Health School, whose children were brought by the Kiwanis 
Club, and another from the Silver Spring Intermediate School. A 
small group of blind children were conducted through the Zoo in 
July 1958. They came from Four Corners (Md.) School and were 
sponsored by the Lions Club International. 

Fifteen members of the Virginia Society of Ornithology, Northern 
Branch, met at the birdhouse to study Central American birds. The 
American Society of Mammalogists, during its 3- day meeting in 
Washington, spent an afternoon on a guided tour of the Zoo. Ten 
students of chordate anatomy from Baltimore (Md.) Junior College 
were taken on a tour of the reptile house by Senior Keeper Mario 
DePrato. 

While the Zoo does not conduct a regular research program as such, 
effort is made to study the animals and to improve their health, hous- 
ing, and diet in every way possible. 

VETERINARIAN'S REPORT 

During the past year further uses of the projectile syringe for treat- 
ment and immobilization of the large animals in the collection were 
investigated. 

With the help of Dr. Warren Pistey of the New England Institute 
for Medical Research, experiments utilizing the drug succinylcholine 
were carried out on numerous species with a view to developing a 
safe method of immobilizing animals for treatment and such routine 
procedures as the intradermic tuberculin test. Successful immobiliza- 
tion was accomplished by this method in the zebu, eland, tiger, lion, 
fallow deer, Virginia deer, gaur, American elk, yak, American bison, 
giraffe, peccary, and red deer. AU these were immobilized without 
any form of physical restraint being applied. The full particulars 
of th^e and other immobilizations are to be published in two papers 
concerning the use of succinylcholine. The first paper was presented 



182 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

with motion pictures by Dr. Pistey at the Midwinter Conference of the 
Midwestern Zoological Park Directors at Columbus, Ohio, in Febru- 
ary 1959. 

The projectile syringe was used also to effect the capture of an 
escaped Barbary ape. In this case the drug used for immobilization 
was the alkaloidal form of nicotine because of its more rapid and 
predictable action. 

The past year has shown that the change in diets instituted in 1958 
was a wise move. Wastage sharply decreased, animal reproduction 
is improved, and a better understanding of the nutritional state of 
the collection has been gained. One dietary change of major im- 
portance was instituted this year by the substitution of a packing- 
house byproduct for a portion of the raw ground horsemeat formerly 
used as the carnivore ration. This product has a much better nutri- 
tional analysis than horsemeat and requires no labor to bone and 
grind, as it is supplied ready to use. 

As in the past 2 years, all bacterial isolations and identifications were 
made by Dr. F. R. Lucas, director of the Livestock Sanitary Labora- 
tory at Centreville, Md. At least 300 bacterial isolations and 25 tissue 
examinations were made by Dr. Lucas for the park in the past year. 
Most important of the bacterial isolations are the following : 

1. Four isolations of Salmonella typhimnrium from the fecals of hoatzins 
brought back from. British Guiana by Mr. Grimmer. 

2. Salmonella typhimtirium from a great red-crested cockatoo. 

3. Salmonella cholerasuis var. Jcunzendorf from the spleen of a slow loris. 

4. Salmonella arisona from a fox snake. 

5. Salm^onella ecLinturg from the intestine of a viper. 

6. Salmonella georgia from the blood of a rainbow snake. 

7. Eem,olyUG micrococcus from a young DeBrazza's guenon. 

8. Hemolytic micrococcus from a pronghorn antelope. 

9. Short chain streptococcus and pasteurella from an Indian rhinoceros. 

The numerous enteric pathogens being isolated indicate that more 
attention must be paid to the cleanliness of food preparation and 
utensil cleaning operations. 

In addition to the above, Dr. Lucas also identified Leptospira or- 
ganisms in dark-field examinations of kidney tissues from one of the 
Zoo's aged bush dogs which showed gross kidney pathology. Tliis and 
earlier reports indicate that leptospirosis is a problem in small 
mammals, particularly the canines. 

Many parasite identifications were made by A. Mcintosh and M. B. 
Chitwood of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The following 
parasites, however, are repeatedly identified from the species 
indicated : 

Bears — Towascaris transfuga. 

Cats — Toxascaris leonine. 

Grant's zebras — Parascaris ze'brae. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 183 

Albatrosses — Tetrabothrium cestodes. 

Snakes — ^Neorenifer flukes, Bothridmm and Ophiotaenda cestodes. 

The bears, cats, and zebras have been repeatedly treated with pipera- 
zine compounds, but the parasites persist. The zebra paddocks are 
certainly contaminated with infective parasite eggs, but the cats and 
bears are on concrete, which should help to break the parasite cycle. 

Several of the Zoo's more valuable large mammals died during the 
year. The first loss was the female wisent, which had a fine calf by 
her side. She died within minutes of being found down. No previous 
indication of sickness in the animal was noticed, and nothing un- 
usual was noted on the day prior to death. Necropsy was performed 
by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, but the gross post mortem 
failed to disclose the cause of death. A condition similar to bovine 
ketosis was suspected. The 13 bacterial cultures taken from important 
organs of this animal were all negative for pathogenic organisms. 

The Indian rhinoceros received in July 1939 sickened on January 8. 
Symptomatic treatment was begun, using the projectile syringe, but 
the animal died the next day. Necropsy was performed by the Armed 
Forces Institute of Pathology. The pathological diagnosis was hem- 
orrhagic enteritis, ascending cholangitis, arterio and arteriolar 
nephrosclerosis, hemorrhagic lymphadenitis, cholelithiasis, and acute 
pneumonitis. Of the 12 bacterial cultures taken from important or- 
gans in the animal, all were negative except two blood cultures, from 
which short chain streptococcus and bipolar rods were isolated. 

The male okapi became sick on February 1 and was treated with the 
projectile method for 6 weeks until a sputum sample was obtained. 
This was examined by Dr. Feldman of the Veterans' Administration 
and found positive for acid-fast organisms. The animal was eu- 
thanized for necropsy by the AFIP. Examination of the carcass 
disclosed pulmonary granulomas consistent with tuberculosis infection. 

The cage next to the okapi was occupied by a female African black 
rhinoceros which had been failing in physical condition for some 
months. A sputum sample obtained from the animal was examined by 
Dr. Feldman and declared heavily laden with acid-fast bacteria. The 
animal died on April 21. Necropsy revealed lesions similar to but more 
extensive and of much longer standing than those found in the okapi. 
Since these animals had some physical contact over the cage partition, 
transmission of the infection may have occurred by this route. 

A family of elands consisting of an adult male and female and a 
female calf were all found to have similar lesions during the year. 

Dr. A. G. Karlson of the Mayo Foundation was able to isolate 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis from the okapi, rhinoceros, and 
the two adult elands. Eesults of examination of culture from a young 
South American tapir and an old female American bison are being 

524591— 5» -13 



184 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1969 

awaited. In addition, three capybaras and two more old bison showed 
necropsy lesions of tuberculous infection. 

A young DeBrazza's guenon, a 6- week-old squirrel monkey, a pig- 
tailed macaque, and a moor macaque all sickened and died rapidly 
with signs and necropsy findings consistent with a virus encephalitis. 
No definite diagnosis could be made because of lack of facilities. The 
problem of virus infections is one which needs investigation, since it 
is probable that immunization procedures would be of considerable 
value. 

Other losses during the year were animals that may have established 
a longevity record, such as the white-faced heron {Notophoyx novae- 
hollandiae), which was received September 11, 1938, and died August 
20, 1958 ; Anzio Boy, the hero homing pigeon, hatched in San Prisco, 
Italy, in 1943, and credited with completing 38 wartime missions in 
Italy during World War II ; the Przewalski horse, born in Philadel- 
phia in 1926; and the African civet (CiveUictis civetta) ^ which was 
brought from Liberia by the Smithsonian-Firestone Expedition of 
1940. 

A long- acting ataraxic drug (Trilafon, Schering) has been used 
with very encouraging results on the following animals, all except the 
last being given by projectile syringe : 

Gaur, young male. This animal was shipped to the Philadelphia Zoological 
Gardens after receiving two doses of the drug. He was crated, loaded, and 
trucked without creating any disturbance. 

Yak, male. This very aggressive bull was given one dose of the drug which 
lasted for 4 days, during which it was possible for the men to enter his pen. 

American bison, male. This bull became aggressive when it was necessary 
to treat one of the old cows. He also began to knock the cow about and keep 
her down. After the drug had been given he became docile and easily managed. 

Brown fallow deer, buck. The animal was extremely excitable until given this 
drug for the removal of a leg cast. 

Pampas cat. This excitable individual was given a small dose of the drug to 
facilitate trapping and moving to new quarters. The move was easily accom- 
plished, and the effect of the drug lasted during the early acclimatization period 
in the new cage. 

Following are the statistics for the mortality rates during the past 
fiscal year and a table of comparison with the past 6 years : 

Total mortality, past 6 fiscal years 

1954 648 

1955 735 

1956 618 

1957 549 

1958 550 

1959 472 



Mortality, fiscal year 1959 

Deaths Attrition * 
25 
24 
42 



Mammals 


95 


Birds 


148 


Reptiles 


138 



Total- 381 91 

• Attrition Is the term used for those losses due mainly to the trauma of shipment and handling after 
accession at the Zoo, or before an animal can adapt to cage habitation within the collection. 



* Originally identified as Civettictis civetta, the animal was later carried on 
Zoo records as Herpestes ichneumon, but proper identification has been established 
as Civettictis civetta. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 185 

COOPERATION 

At all times special efforts are made to maintain friendly contacts 
with other Federal and State agencies, private concerns and individ- 
uals, and scientific workers for mutual assistance. As a result the Zoo 
receives much help and advice and many valuable animals, and in turn 
it furnishes information and, whenever possible, animals it does not 
need. 

Special acknowledgment is due William G. Vale, U.S. Dispatch 
Agent in New York City, and Stephen E. Lato, Dispatch Agent in 
San Francisco, who are frequently called upon to clear shipments of 
animals coming from abroad, often at great personal inconvenience. 
The animals have been forwarded to Washington without the loss of 
a single individual. 

Russell Arundel, of Warrenton, Va., gave the Zoo a 13-year-old 
chestnut gelding, and his son, Arthur W. Arundel, has placed his 
horse, an 8-year-old quarter horse, also a gelding, on indefinite loan 
in the National Zoological Park. Both are used by the Zoo Park 
Police in patrolling areas that could not be covered otherwise. 

Gen. William Dunckel of Rockville, Md., presented a number of 
tropical plants, among them some mango trees, which have been set 
out in the background of the crocodile cage. Lee O. Burris, formerly 
head gardener and now retired, brought back from Florida a truck- 
load of cabbage palms, magnolias, yellow honeysuckle, and Spanish 
moss, which have been used in the birdhouse and in the reptile house. 
Mrs. Vera S. Hunt of Washington, D.C., donated a large rubber plant, 
which has been placed in the birdhouse. 

Dr. Carlton Herman of the Patuxent Wildlife Refuge gave the Zoo 
a 300-egg capacity incubator, which has been put to good use in the 
birdhouse. The U.S. Naval Receiving Station sent 650 pounds of nuts 
that had been declared unfit for human consumption; from the Dis- 
trict of Columbia Dog Pound the Zoo received a quantity of horsemeat 
and 40 cases of Japanese tuna. 

As in the past, the Zoo cooperated with the National Capital Parks 
and lent small animals to Park naturalists and to the Nature Center 
in Rock Creek Park for demonstration. In return, the Zoo received 
a number of specimens as gifts. 

VISITORS 

Attendance at the Zoo this year reached a total of 4,055,673. In 
general, this figure is based on estimates rather than actual counts. 



186 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Estimated number of visitors for fiscal year 1959 



July (1958) 575,300 

August 552,920 

September 413,554 

October 294, 656 

November 185,000 

December 69,250 



January (1959) 114,650 

February 166, 550 

March 312,453 

April 374,540 

May 573,200 

June 423, 600 

Total 4,055,673 



Number of bus groups 



Locality 



Alabama 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 



Number 
of groups 



28 
10 
16 
96 
48 
218 

2 
15 

1 
27 

3 

6 

706 

11 

9 



Number 
in groups 



2,112 

343 

579 

4,165 

2,265 

9,311 

71 

574 

32 

944 

87 

243 

33, 788 

411 

343 

313 

252 



Loeality 



Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina, 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

South Carolina, 

Tennessee 

Texas 

West Virginia, _ 

Wisconsin 

Virginia 

U.S.A 

Total 



Number 
of groups 



1 

1 

29 

198 

275 

56 

297 

60 

75 

1 

59 

5 

779 

1 



3,050 



Number 
in groups 



21 

36 

1,235 

9,259 

11, 953 
2,287 

12, 201 
2,514 
3,018 

40 

2,375 

210 

32, 831 

77 



121, 937 



Groups from 


foreign 


count 


ries 


Africa 


1 
1 

2 

1 


88 


China. _ 


12 


Norway 


73 


Foreign exchange 
students 





1, 100 


Total 


5 


1,273 



About 2 p.m. each day the cars then parked in the Zoo are counted 
and listed according to the State, Territory, or country from which 
they come. This is, of course, not a census of the cars coming to the 
Zoo but is valuable in showing the percentage of attendance by States 



California 


Percentage 
0.7 


nOTITlPftifnt , 


. 7 


South Carolina 

Illinois 


.7 

.6 


Michigan 


.6 


Tpnnessee . 


.6 


Texas 


.5 


Alabama _ 


.4 







Total 95.0 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 187 

of people in private automobiles. Many District of Columbia, Mary- 
land, and Virginia cars come to tlie Zoo to bring guests from other 
States. The tabulation for the fiscal year 1959 is as follows : 

Percentage 

Maryland 31. 1 

Virginia 22. 1 

District of Columbia 21. 7 

Pennsylvania 4. 

New York 3.0 

North Carolina 2. 1 

New Jersey 1. 6 

Ohio 1.6 

West Virginia 1.2 

Florida 1. 

Massachusetts 0. 8 

The remaining 5 percent came from other States, Africa, Belgium, 
Canada, Canal Zone, France, Germany, Guam, Japan, Manitoba, 
Mexico, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nova Scotia, 
Okinawa, Puerto Rico, and El Salvador. 

On the days of even small attendance there are cars parked in the 
Zoo from at least 15 States, Territories, the District of Columbia, and 
foreign comitries. On average days there are cars from about 22 
States, Territories, the District of Columbia, and foreign countries; 
and during the periods of greatest attendance the cars represent not 
less than 34 different States, Territories, and countries. 

Parking spaces in the Zoo now accoimnodate 1,079 cars when the bus 
parking place is utilized and 969 cars when it is not used. 

BUILDINGS, GROUNDS, AND ENCLOSURES 

Most of the year's work done throughout the Zoo was with a view 
to improving visitor and employee safety, continuing the effort 
started in the last quarter of the previous year. The new type of 
visitor safety fence, 46 inches high with a 12-inch 45° angle outward 
at the top, has been installed around the bear pits, the elephant pools, 
and the lion house. Additional horizontal bars were placed on the 
outside lion cages. 

The ceiling of the birdhouse was patched and replastered where 
necessary. In addition to the large areas of deterioration which 
were readily discernible, Hurricane Hazel, in 1954, did much dam- 
age not apparent until extensive plaster repairs were underway. It 
had been necessary to keep one wing closed for a year. The inside of 
the birdhouse was repainted, using light sunny colors. The cages 
in the "new" wing of the birdhouse have been completely redecorated, 
furnishing a more naturalistic setting with extensive use of plantings 
and trees. Not only are the birds exhibited in a much more inter- 



188 AisnsruAL report Smithsonian institution, 1959 

esting fashion but they seem happier and more contented. The 
keepers have done all this work on their own initiative. 

Some of the cages of the reptile house were redecorated with addi- 
tional stonework, giving the reptiles crevices to lie in and providing 
them a sense of security and at the same time keeping them on exhibi- 
tion. Some of the cages were repainted in pastel colors, and several 
were equipped with fluorescent lights, as a pilot exhibit anticipating 
the day when all of them will be lighted in this manner. The glass at 
the top of all the permanent reptile cages was replaced by wire 
screening to provide better ventilation; four of the portable cages 
were reconstructed out of aluminum as pilot exliibits. 

The parking-lot fill near the elephant house was completed, as well 
as the fill between the hay barn and the incinerator, and a service road 
was built from the sheep mountain to the basement of the reptile 
house, thus furnishing vehicular access from the reptile house to the 
buffalo pens. This means that various park automobiles can service 
this entire area without interfering with public traffic. 

The year's appropriation included $50,000 in capital outlay for the 
replacement and refurbishing of the hoofed-stock pens at the Connecti- 
cut Avenue entrance and the acquatic-mammal area above the sea-lion 
pool. The two pens on the right side of the walk leading to the bird- 
house were refenced, using chain-link fence, and slightly enlarged; 
terraced walls were put in, resurfaced with dirt, and seeded. This 
hillside had been unsightly because of years of erosion. The two pens 
in the triangle between the walk leading to the birdhouse and the 
Connecticut Avenue-Harvard Street road were refenced, using chain- 
link fencing, and enlarged, the surface was raised by the use of fill 
dirt, and another pen was added. The new type of visitors' fence was 
put around these new pens. A new pen for deer was installed behind 
the beaver area and the sea-lion pool. The deer can be seen across 
the valley from the walk in front of the bear dens. 

Work on the aquatic-mammal area should be completed in the 
early part of fiscal year 1960. It is hoped that in the coming year 
the otter exhibit will also be functioning once again. In years past 
the public took a keen interest in watching otters at play, but this 
section of "Beaver Valley" was abandoned because of lack of funds 
to maintain it. 

The work of the gardener's force was mainly that of removing dead 
trees, which are a menace to both animals and visitors, and replacing 
them with young trees. In all, 243 trees were cut down in the course 
of the year. The grounds department also furnishes the animal de- 
partment with forage for the animals. Heavy logs for the big cats 
to climb, perches and sawed hollow logs for small mammals, gnawing 
logs for rodents, and perches for birds are supplied on demand; and 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 189 

tropical plants for indoor cages and the buildings are supplied and 
cared for. 

Activities in the Police Department continue to show a marked 
increase, in keeping with the larger visitor attendance. The police 
force was expanded by the addition of four men, and two horses 
were added, thereby permitting additional patrols in and around 
heavily wooded areas of the park. A safety committee was set up, 
with regularly scheduled meetings of all park personnel, designed to 
insure all possible safety precautions for the protection of visitors and 
employees. Additional emphasis with regard to traffic-law enforce- 
ment resulted in an increase in the number of arrests for traffic vio- 
lations. The total number of visitors stopping in the police station 
for information of various sorts was 13,740, an increase of 6,914 over 
the preceding year. First-aid cases also increased ; a total of 809 per- 
sons were treated, principally for minor injuries. 

PLANS FOR THE FUTURE 

A new office to replace the 154-year-old "mansion" is imperative. 
The present administration building, while a historic landmark, is 
not suited to the purpose for which it is being used, nor is it safe, 
being honeycombed with termites and rotted from dampness. A mod- 
em building, with properly arranged offices, library stacks and 
shelves, a conference room, and a small laboratory, is badly needed. 

All the facilities at the National Zoological Park are based on an- 
tiquated installations and should be modernized, starting with such 
basic necessities as water, electricity, sewage, and heating. It is hoped 
that a master plan can be drawn for the Zoo so that all future con- 
struction and work may be coordinated. 

Kespectfully submitted. 

Theodore H. Eeed, Director. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the Canal Zone Biological Area 

Sir : It gives me pleasure to present herewith the annual report on 
the Canal Zone Biological Area for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1959. 

SCIENTISTS, STUDENTS, AND OBSERVERS 

Following is the list of 54 scientists, students, and observers who 
visited the island last year and stayed for several days, in order to 
conduct scientific research or observe the wildlife of the area. In ad- 
dition, approximately 40 others spent 1 day and 1 night on the island. 



Name 
Anderson, Eugene, 

Santa Monica, Calif. 
Barth, Robert H., 

Harvard University. 
Bennett, Charles, 

University of California, Los Angeles. 
Blest, Dr. A. D., 

University College, London. 
Bruno, Kent, 

OMo State University. 
Burkhart, Mrs. Harriet, 

Sarasota, Fla. 
Carpenter, Dr. C. R., 

Pennsylvania State University. 
Carpenter, Lane, 

Perkiomen School. 
Clark, Dr. Walter, 

Eastman Kodak Co. 
Cox, Mr. and Mrs. George W., 

University of Illinois. 
Darnton, Mr. and Mrs. Rupert, 

Kent, England. 
Dolan, John, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Drayton, Charles, 

New York. 
Dulaney, James A., 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Dybas, Henry, 

Chicago Natural History Museum. 
Elms, Alan, 

Pennsylvania State University. 
Emerson, Guy, 

Kress Foundation, New York. 
190 



Principal interest 
Bird observation. 

Study of interspecific relations of for- 
micariids in mixed species flocks. 

Temperature and humidity gradients in 
forest. 

Behavior of sphingid and saturniid 
moths. 

Assistant to Dr. Hartman. 

Nature writing. 

Primate population and social organi- 
zation of B.C.I. 
Assistant to Dr. Carpenter. 

Inspection of facilities. 

Photographic test. 

Physiology of tropical birds. 

Bird studies. 

Photographing and collecting reptiles, 

amphibians, and insects. 
Observation of wildlife. 

Specialist on ptiliid beetles. 

Assistant to Dr. Carpenter. 

Observation of wildlife. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



191 



Name 
Enders, Dr. Robert, 

Swartlimore College. 
Engesland, RoLf, 

Oslo, Norway. 
Fast, A. H., 

Arlington, Va. 
Greene, Earle R., 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Gr^gotre, Dr. and Mrs. Charles, 

Brussels, Belgium. 
Halka, Dr. OUi, 

Columbia University, New York. 
Harbison, Charles F., 

Natural History Museum, San j;)iego, 

Calif. 
Hartman, Dr. Frank, 

Ohio State University. 
Host, Per, 

Oslo, Norway. 
Kaufmann, Jack, 

University of California, Berkeley. 
Kessler, Dietrich, 

University of Wisconsin. 
Kuehn, Robert E., 

University of California, Berkeley. 
Ledecky-Janecek, Emanuel, 

New York. 
Mason, Dr. W. A., 

Pennsylvania State University. 
McFarland, Douglas, 

Apple Valley, Calif. 
Motzfeldt, Ulrik, 

Oslo, Norway. 
Peterman, Dan, 

Pennsylvania State University. 
Peterson, David M., 

California. 
Buud, Miss Berit, 

Oslo, Norway. 
Salem, Alan, 

Chicago Natural History Museum. 
Seott, Mr. and Mrs. Peter, 

Gloucestershire, England. 
Smith, John, 

Harvard University, 
Soper, Dr. Cleveland C, 

Eastman Kodak Tropical Research 

Laboratory. 
Southwick, Di-. C. H., 

Ohio University. 
Vogt, George, 

U.S. National Museum. 



Frmcipal interest 
Survey of mammal population. 

Assistant to Per Host. 

Bird observation. 

Bird observation. 

Microscopy of insect blood. 

Cytochemical study of the Homoptera. 

Collection of arthropods. 

Muscle study of birds and adrenal 

gland. 
Photography and sound recording. 

Behavior and ecology of coatis. 

Wildlife observation. 

Assistant to Dr. Carpenter. 

Herpetology. 

Primate population and social organi- 
zation of Barro Colorado Island. 
Observation of wildlife. 

Assistant to Per Host. 

Assistant to Dr. Carpenter. 

Assistant to C. F. Harbison. 

Assistant to Per Host. 

Nonmarine mollusks. 

B. B. C. television. 

Behavior of flycatchers. 

Deterioration studies. 



Primate population and social organi- 
zation of Barro Colorado Island. 
Study of leaf-mining beetles. 



192 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



Name 
Walch, Miss Carolyn R., 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Ward, Mr. and Mrs. R., 

Kennett Square, Pa. 
Weil, Mr. and Mrs. John, 

University of California, Berkeley. 
Wetmore, Dr. and Mrs. Alexander, 

Washington, D.C. 
Wyse, Gordon B., 

Swarthmore College. 



Prinoipal interest 
Wildlife observation. 

Bird photography. 

Wildlife observation. 

Bird observation. 

Wildlife observation. 



VISITORS 

Approximately 400 visitors were permitted to visit the island for 
tlie day. 

Because of tlie increased nmnber of scientists conducting research 
on the island, the decision was made to eliminate the Tuesday guided 
tours through the jungle. Large groups are welcome on Saturdays, 
however, and visitors interested in natural history are permitted to 
visit the island whenever transportation is available. 

RAINFALL 

During the dry season (January through April) of the calendar 
year 1958, rains of 0.01 inch or more fell durmg 57 days (216 hours) 
and amounted to 19.31 inches, as compared to 1.20 inches during 
1957. During the wet season of 1958 (May through December), 
rains of 0.01 inch or more fell on 191 days (669 hours) and amounted 
to 80.89 inches, as compared to 96.77 inches during 1957. Total 
rainfall for the year was 100.20 inches. During 34 years of record, 
the wettest year was 1935 with 143.42 inches, and the driest year was 
1930, with only 76.57 inches. March was the driest month of 1958 
(2.98 inches) and October the wettest (15.42 inches). The maximum 
records for short periods were: 5 minutes: 1.30 inches; 10 minutes: 
1.65 inches; 1 hour: 4.11 inches; 2 hours: 4.81 inches; 24 hours: 10.48 
inches. 

BUILDINGS, EQUIPMENT, AND IMPROVEMENTS 

Special attention has again been paid to the improvement of existing 
facilities. 

The expansion of the library has continued. A great many new 
books and journals were received, and most of the older books and 
journals were re-bound. A temporary librarian completed the cata- 
loging of the collection. The library is now much more useful as 
an aid to research than it has ever been before. 

Many new aviaries, mammal pens, and smaller cages were built 
this year. Facilities are now available for the keeping of considerable 
numbers of animals and birds in excellent condition for experimental 
observations. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 
Table 1. — Annual rainfall, Barro Colorado Island, C.Z. 



193 



Year 



1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 
1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 



Total 
inches 



104.37 
118. 22 

116. 36 
101. 52 

87.84 
76.57 

123. 30 
113. 52 
101. 73 
122. 42 
143. 42 

93.88 

124. 13 

117. 09 
115. 47 

86.51 
91.82 



Station 
average 



113. 56 

114. 68 
111.35 

106. 56 
101. 51 

104. 69 

105. 76 
105. 32 

107. 04 
110. 35 

108. 98 
110. 12 
110. 62 
110. 94 

109. 43 
108. 41 



Year 



1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 
1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 



Total 
inches 



111. 10 
120. 29 

111. 96 
120. 42 

87.38 

77.92 

83. 16 

114. 86 

114. 51 

112. 72 
97. 68 

104. 97 

105. 68 
114. 42 
114. 05 

97.97 
100. 20 



Station 
Average 



108. 55 

109. 20 
109. 30 
109. 84 
108. 81 
107. 49 
106. 43 

106. 76 

107. 07 
107. 28 
106. 94 
106. 87 

106. 82 

107. 09 
107. 30 
106. 98 
106. 70 



Table 2. — Comparison of 1967 and 1968 rainfall, Barro Colorado Island (inches) 



Month 



Total 



1957 



1958 



Station 



Years of 
record 



1958 
excess or 
deficiency 



Accumu- 
lated 
excess or 
deficiency 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Year 

Dry season 

Wet season- __ 



0.56 

.57 

.02 

.05 

6.37 

5.97 

10.86 

21.90 

12.40 

17.22 

17.96 

4. 09 



26 
34 
98 
73 
22 
89 
54 
35 
64 
42 
16 
67 



2.21 

1.41 

1.21 

3.02 

10.91 

10.89 

11.60 

12.47 

10.06 

14.04 

18.44 

10.44 



97.97 



100. 20 



106. 70 



1.20 

96. 77 



19.31 

80. 89 



7.85 
98.85 



33 
33 
33 

34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 
34 



+ 2.05 

+ 5.93 

+ 1.77 

+ 1.71 

+ 1.31 

-2.00 

-2.06 

-. 12 

+ .58 

+ 1.38 

-11.28 

-5. 77 



+ 2.05 

+ 7.98 

+ 9.75 

+ 11.46 

+ 12.77 

+ 10. 77 

+ 8.71 

+ 8.59 

+ 9. 17 

+ 10.55 

-.73 

-6.60 



6.50 



+ 11.46 
- 17. 96 



A 60- by 30-foot wire-screen shed was built to provide space for 
the smaller cages and storage of materials. This has relieved much 
of the crowding problem at the station. 



194 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

In connection with the research on tropical birds now being con- 
ducted by George W. Cox of the University of Illinois, two large 
constant-temperature chambers were built and installed in the new 
storage shed. These chambers were financed by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation to Dr. S. Charles Kendeigh of the 
University of Illinois. 

Various minor items of research and collecting equipment, includ- 
ing traps and trapping nets, and a Sniperscope for work at night, 
were also procured this year. 

A new system of electric cables from the generators to the labora- 
tories and living quarters on the island was installed, to permit the 
simultaneous use of two generators. This has doubled the effective 
electric power supply of the station. 

A new winch, 25-h.p., 3,300-pound capacity, was purchased and in- 
stalled to replace the old one. 

Extensive repairs, almost a complete rebuilding job, are being made 
to the termite-infested Chapman House. This should provide ade- 
quate living quarters for three or four scientists. 

Routine maintenance activities included repainting the inside and 
outside of most of the other station buildings, minor repairs to the 
docks, and new roofing for some of the buildings. 

A new 15-foot Fiberglas boat was bought to replace the old alu- 
minum speedboat, and extensive repairs were made to the launch 
Snook. The old boat channel from the canal to the station dock on 
the island was widened and deepened. Means of transportation with 
the mainland are now in excellent condition. 

A jeep was purchased to replace the V^-ton truck and has proved to 
be extremely useful for work in the more remote parts of the Canal 
Zone and the Republic of Panama. 

It was necessary to move the office in Diablo Heights, as the build- 
ing in which it was located is being torn down. The office is now in 
temporary quarters in the Ancon Court House. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

In order to increase the available opportunities for research at the 
Canal Zone Biological Area, a small piece of land (one-sixteenth of 
a square mile) was procured on the mainland. This new area con- 
sists of grassland and forest edge and is located inside the Navy 
Pipeline Reservation between Gamboa and Montelirio on the east side 
of the canal. The Navy also granted permission to accredited scien- 
tists to work along the 14-mile road running through the Pipeline 
Reservation. This road runs through areas of mixed grassland and 
second-growth scrub and forest of different ages and types. Thus, 
scientists working at the Canal Zone Biological Area will be able to 
conduct research in a variety of environments quite different from the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 195 

lieavy mature forest on Barro Colorado itself. Eesearch in this 
mainland area will be completely midisturbed, as the whole Pipeline 
Reservation is closed to the general public. 

The policy of helping promising graduate students in biology has 
continued. Charles F. Bennett, Jr., of the University of California in 
Los Angeles, completed the main part of his study of temperature 
and humidity gradients in the forest on Barro Colorado ; but additional 
climatological data are still being collected and will be included in 
Mr. Bennett's published report. Robert H. Barth, of Harvard Univer- 
sity, completed a preliminary analysis of the behavior of birds of the 
family Formicariidae in mixed flocks in the forest. 

The analysis of the behavior of sphingid and saturniid moths con- 
tinued by Dr. A. D. Blest of University College, London, which was 
supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation to the 
resident naturalist, was completed. Dr. Blest's results will be pub- 
lished shortly. A second research project supported by a grant from 
the National Science Foundation to the resident naturalist, a compara- 
tive study of the evolution and behavior of certain tropical birds, is 
still in progress. A new research project on the evolution and behavior 
of American monkeys was started this year. 

Plans have already been made to move the office on the mainland into 
larger quarters in the former Ancon Post Office Building, as soon as 
these became available after remodeling. 

FINANCES 

Trust funds for maintenance of the island and its living facilities 
are obtained by collections from visitors and scientists, table subscrip- 
tions, and donations. 

The following institutions continued their support to the laboratory 
through the payment of table subscriptions : Eastman Kodak Co., New 
York Zoological Society, and Smithsonian Institution. Donations 
are also gratefully acknowledged from the following : Eugene Eisen- 
mann, C. M. Goethe, and Frank Hartman. 

PLANS AND REQUIREMENTS 

The improvement of the library will continue. It will be necessary 
to obtain new books and journals as they are published and to com- 
plete present journal files. 

It is hoped to continue the program of employing temporary bio- 
logical aides. Arrangements have been made to employ John H. 
Kaufmann, of the University of California, to continue his research 
on the behavior and ecology of the coati and other carnivores on 
Barro Colorado Island and to begin a census of the vertebrate species 
in the mainland area. 



196 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

It is still planned to remodel the second floor of the Old Laboratory 
Building to make available separate rooms and to provide additional 
washing and toilet facilities. ISTow that additional electric power is 
available, airconditioning in some of the other living quarters and in 
the laboratory space on the second floor of the New Laboratory Build- 
ing is anticipated. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Canal Zone Biological Area can operate only with the excellent 
cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the Panama Canal 
Company. Thanks are due especially to the Lt. Gov. John D. Mc- 
Elheny, the Executive Secretary Paul Runnestrand and his staff; 
Lieutenant Colonel Brown; the Customs and Immigration officials; 
and the Police Division. Also deeply appreciated are the technical 
advice and assistance provided by P. Alton White, Chief of the Dredg- 
ing Division, and members of his staff; C. C. Soper of the Eastman 
Kodak Co. ; and Lt. K. E. McCall and other members of the Signal 
Corps Meteorological Team No. 2. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Maetin H. Motnihan, 

Resident Naturalist. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the International Exchange 

Service 



Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the International Exchange Service for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1959: 

The Smithsonian Institution is the official United States agency for 
the exchange with other nations of governmental, scientific, and liter- 
ary publications. The International Exchange Service, initiated by 
the Smithsonian Institution in the early years of its existence for the 
interchange of scientific publications between learned societies and 
individuals in the United States and those of foreign countries, serves 
as a means of developing and executing in part the broad and com- 
prehensive objective, "the diffusion of knowledge." It was later 
designated by the U.S. Government as the agency for the transmission 
of official documents to selected depositories throughout the world, 
and it continues to execute the exchanges pursuant to conventions, 
treaties, and other international agreements. 

The number of packages of publications received for transmission 
during the year was 1,129,476, an increase of 34,678 packages over the 
previous fiscal year. The weight of the packages received was 767,389 
pounds, an increase of 24,060 pounds. 

The average weight of the individual package was 10.87 ounces as 
compared to the 10.86-ounce average for the fiscal year of 1958. 

The publications received from foreign sources for addressees in 
the United States and from domestic sources for shipment abroad are 
clarified as shown in the following table : 



Classification 


Packages 


Weight 


U.S. parliamentary documents sent abroad 


Number 
626, 465 


Number 


Pounds 
226, 119 


Pounds 


Publications received In return for parliamentary 


5,775 


10, 325 




239, 401 


218, 261 




Publications received In return for departmental 


5,146 


13, 059 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent 


189, 721 


199,414 




Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications 
received from abroad for distribution in the United 
States 


62,968 


100,211 










Total 


1, 055, 587 


73. 889 


643, 794 


123. 595 








Grand total 


1, 129. 476 


767,389 













197 



198 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

The packages of publications are forwarded to the exchange bureaus 
of foreign countries by freight or, where shipment by such means is 
impractical, to the foreign addressees by direct mail. Distribution 
in the United States of the publications received through the foreign 
exchange bureaus is accomplished primarily by mail, but by other 
means when more economical. The number of boxes shipped to the 
foreign exchange bureaus was 2,840, or 242 less than for the previous 
year. Of these boxes, 899 were for depositories of full sets of U.S. 
Government documents, these publications being furnished in ex- 
change for the official publications of foreign governments which are 
received for deposit in the Library of Congress. The weight of 
packages forwarded by mail and by means other than freight was 
271,872 pounds. 

There was allocated to the International Exchange Service for 
transportation $30,294.47. With this amomit it was possible to effect 
the shipment of 784,571 poujids, which was 34,316 pounds less than 
was shipped in the previous year. However, approximately 7,374 
pounds of the full sets of U.S. Government documents accumulated 
during the year because the Library of Congress had requested 
suspension of shipment to certain foreign depositories. 

During the year, ocean freight rates per cubic foot continued at the 
1958 level. The transportation cost for hauling books and periodicals 
to the Baltimore piers also remained at the 1958 level. 

With the exception of those to Taiwan, no shipments are being made 
to China, North Korea, and Communist-controlled area of Vietnam. 

FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF GOVERNMENTAL DOCUMENTS 

The number of sets of U.S. official publications received by the 
Exchange Service for transmission abroad in return for the official 
publications sent by foreign governments for deposit in the Library 
of Congress is now 106 (63 full and 43 partial sets), listed below. 
Changes that occurred during the year are shown in the footnotes. 

DEPOSITORIES OF FULL SETS 

Argentina : Divisi6n Biblioteca, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteiiores y Culto, 

Buenos Aires. 
Australia : Oommonwealtli National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Australia : Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Tasmania : Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia : State Library, Perth. 
Austria : Administrative Libr^ary, Federal Chancellery, Vienna. 
Belgium : Bibliotheque Royale, Bruxelles. 
Brazil : Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 199 

BtTLGAEiA : Bulgarian Bibliographical Institute, Sofia.* 
BtTBMA : Government Book Depot, Rangoon. 
Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Manitoba : Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontabio : Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec : Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 
CEYI.ON : Department of Information, Government of Ceylon, Colombo. 
Chele : Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
China : National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 

National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Colombia : Biblioteca Nacional, Bogota. 
Costa Rica : Biblioteca Nacional, San Jos6. 
Cuba : Ministerio de Estado, Canje Internacional, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia: University Library, Prague. 

Denmark : Institut Danois des Echanges Internationaux, Copenhagen. 
Egtpt : Bureau des Publications, Ministere des Finances, Cairo. 
Finland : Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 
France : Bibliothfeque Nationale, Paris. 
Geemant : Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Free University of Berlin, Berlin-Dahlem. 

Parliamentary Library, Bonn. 
Great Britain : 

England : British Museum, London. 

London: London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository 
of the London Coimty Council.) 
Hungary : Library of Parliament, Budapest.* 
India : National Library, Calcutta. 

Central Secretariat Library, New Delhi. 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 
Indonesia : Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Djakarta. 
Ireland : National Library of Ireland, Dublia. 
Israel : State Archives and Library, Hakirya, Jerusalem. 
Italy : Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Rome. 
Japan : National Diet Library, Tokyo.^ 
Mexico : Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Department© de Inf ormaci6n para 

el Extranjero Mexico, D.F. 
Netherlands : Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Utenriksdepartmentets Bibliothek, Oslo. 

Peru: Secci6n de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones Ex- 
teriores, Lima. 
Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 
Poland : Bibliotheque Nationale, Warsaw.* 
Portugal : Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
Spain : Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland : BibUothfeque Centrale F^d^rale, Berne. 
Turkey: National Library, Ankara. 

Union of South Africa : State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Union op Soviet Socialist Republics : All-Union Lenin Library, Moscow. 



' Shipment suspended. 
2 Receives two sets. 

524591—59 14 



200 A]s^^^JAL report Smithsonian institution, 1959 

United Nations: Library of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Ubuguat: Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaeiones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
Yugoslavia : Bibliograf ski Institut, Belgrade.^ 

DEPOSITORIES OF PARTIAL SETS 

Afghanistan : Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. 

Bolivia: Biblioteca del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Cxilto, La Paz. 
Brazil: Minas Gebais: Departmento Estadul de Estatistica, Belo Horizonte. 
British Guiana: Government Secretary's Oflfice, Georgetown, Demerara. 
Canada : 

AxBEBTA : Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

British Columbia : Provincial Library, Victoria. 

New Brunswick : Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Newfoundland : Department of Provincial Affairs, St. John's. 

Nova Scotia : Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Saskatchewan : Legislative Library, Regina. 
Dominican Republic : Biblioteca de la Universidad de Santo Domingo, Oiudad 

Trujillo. 
Ecuador : Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
El Salvador: 

Biblioteca Nacional, San Salvador. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Greece : National Library, Athens. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca Nacional, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : 

Biblioteca Nacional, TegTicigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland : National Library, Reykjavik. 
India : 

Bombay : Secretary to the Government, Bombay. 

Bihar : Revenue Department, Patna. 

Uttab Pradesh : 

University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Secretariat Library, Lucknow. 

West Bengal: Library, West Bengal Legislative Secretariat, Assembly 
House, Calcutta. 
Iran : Imperial Ministry of Education, Tehran. 
Iraq : Public Library, Baghdad. 
Jamaica : 

Colonial Secretary, Elingston. 

University College of the West Indies, St. Andrew. 
Lebanon : American University of Beirut, Beirut. 
Liberia : Department of State, Monrovia. 

Malaya : Federal Secretariat, Federation of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 
Malta : Minister for the Treasury, Valletta. 
Nicaragua : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 
Pakistan : Central Secretariat Library, Karachi. 
Panama : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, SecciSn Biblioteca, Asuncion. 
Philippines : House of Representatives, Manila. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 201 

Scotland : National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, 

SiAM : National Library, Bangkok. 

Singapore : Chief Secretary, Government Offices, Singapore. 

Sudan : Gordon Memorial College, ELhartoum. 

Vatican City : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City. 

INTERPARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL 

There are now being sent abroad 85 copies of the Federal Register 
and 95 copies of the Congressional Record. This is an increase over 
the preceding year of five copies of the Federal Register and of four 
copies of the Congressional Record. The countries to which these 
journals are being forwarded are given in the following list : 

depositories of congressional record and federal register 

Argentina : 

Biblioteca de la H. Legislatura de Mendoza, Mendoza.^ 

Biblioteca del Poder Judicial, Mendoza.* 

Boletin Oficial de la Repiibliea Argentina, Ministerio de Justica e Instruc- 
cion Pilblica, Buenos Aires. 

Odmara de Diputados Oficina de Informacion Parlamentaria, Buenos Aires. 
Australia : 

Commonwealth National Library, Canberra, 

New South Wales : Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Chief Secretary's Office, Brisbane. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne.* 

Western Australia: Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
Brazil : Secretaria de Presidencia, Rio de Janeiro.' 
British Honduras : Colonial Secretary, Belize. 
Canada : 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Ceiylon : Ceylon Ministry of Defense and External Affairs, Colombo.* 
Chile : Biblioteca del Oongreso Nacional, Santiago.* ^ 
China : 

Legislative Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan.* 

Taiwan Provincial Government, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Cuba: 

Biblioteca del Capitolio, Habana. 

Biblioteca Ptiblica Panamericana, Habana.* 
Czechoslovakia : Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague." 
Egypt : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egyptian Government, Cairo.* 
France : 

Biblioth&que Assembl^e Nationale, Paris. 

Bibliotheque Conseil de la R^publique, Paris. 

Library, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, Paris.* 

Research Department, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.' 

Service de la Documentation iEtrang^re, Assemblee Nationale, Paris.' 



3 Congressional Kecord only. 
* Federal Register only. 
^ Added! during the year. 



202 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

Germany : 

Amerika-Institute der Universitat Munchen, Munclien.'' 

Archiv, Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn. 

Bibliothek der Instituts fiir Weltwirtschaft an der Universitat Kiel, Kiel- 
Wik. 

Bibliothek Hessischer Landtag, Wiesbaden.' 

Der Bayrische Landtag, Munich.^ ® 

Deutscbes Institut fiir Rechtswissenscbaft, Potsdam-Babelsberg 11.^ 

Deutscber Bundesrat, Bonn.^ 

Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn." 

Hamburgiscbes Welt-Wirtscbafts-Archiv, Hamburg. 
Ghana : Chief Secretary's Office, Accra.^ 
Great Britain : 

Department of Printed Books, British Museum, London. 

House of Commons Library, London.^ 

N.P.P. Warehouse, H.M. Stationery Office, London." ^ 

Printed Library of the Foreign Office, London. 

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.' 
Greece : Bibliotheque, Chambre des Deputes Hellenique, Athens. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
HONDtTRAs : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacioual, Tegucigalpa. 
Hungary : National Library, Budapest. 
India : 

Civil Secretariat Library, Lucknow, United Provinces.^ 

Indian Council of World Affairs, New Delhi.' 

Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly, Srinagar.' 

Legislative Assembly, Government of Assam, Shillong.' 

Legislative Assembly Library, Lucknow, United Provinces. 

Kerala Legislature Secretariat, Trivandrum.' * 

Madras State Legislature, Madras.' 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 

Servants of Indian Society, Poona.' 
Ireland : Dail Eireann, Dublin. 
Israel : Library of the Knesset, Jerusalem. 
Italy : 

Biblioteca Camera dei Deputati, Rome. 

Biblioteca del Senato della Republica, Rome. 

Periodicals Unit, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Rome.* 

International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, Rome.* 
Japan : 

Library of the National Diet, Tokyo. 

Ministry of Finance, Tokyo. 
Jordan : Parliament of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman.' 
Korea : Secretary General, National Assembly, Seoul. 
Luxembourg : Assembl^e Commune de la C.E.C.A., Luxembourg. 



' Three copies. 

^ Two copies. 

* Changed from Legislative Assembly Library, Trivandrum. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 203 

Mexico: 

Direcci6n General Information, Secretaria de Gobernacion, Mexico, D.F. 

Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, Mexico, D.F. 

Agttascat.tf.ntes : Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. 

Baja California : Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali. 

Campeche : Gobernador del Estado de Campeche, Campeche. 

Chiapas : Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Guiti^rrez. 

Chihuahua : Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Coahuila: Peri6dieo Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de Gobierno, 
Saltillo. 

CoLiMA : Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 

Guanajuato : Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato.* 

Jalisco : Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

Mexico : Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca. 

Michoacan: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de Miochoacan, 
Morelia. 

MoEELOs : Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 

Nayarit : Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

NuEvo Le6n : Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca : Periodico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaea.'' 

Puebla : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

Queretaro : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Seccion de Archivo, Quer^taro. 

SiNALOA : Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacdn. 

Sonora: Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tamaulipas : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Veracruz: Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departamento de Gober- 
nacion y Justicia, Jalapa. 

Yucatan : Gobernador del Estado de Yucatdn, M^rida. 
Netherlands : Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague.* 
New Zeatand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Library of the Norwegian Parliament, Oslo. 
Panama : Biblioteca Nacional, Panama City." 
Philippines : House of Representatives, Manila. 
Poland: Kancelaiia Rady, Panstwa, Biblioteka Sejmova, Warsaw. 
Portuguese Timor: Repartigao Central de Administraeao Civil, Dili.* 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland : Federal Assembly, "Salisbury.* ^ 
Rumania : Biblioteca Centrala de Stat RPR, Bucharest.^ 
Spain : Secretaria General Tecnica, Presidencia del Gobierno, Madrid.* ^ 
Switzerland : Bibliotheque, Bureau International du Travail, Geneva.* 

International Labor Office, Geneva.* ^ 

Library, United Nations, Geneva. 
Union of South Atrica : 

Cape of Good Hope : Library of Parliament, Cape Town. 

Transvaal : State Library, Pretoria. 
Union of Soviet "Socialist Republics : Fundamental'niia Biblioteka Obschest- 

vennykh Nauk, Moscow. 
Uruguay : Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
Yugoslavia : Bibilograf ski Institut FNR J, Belgrade.^ ' 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE SERVICES 

Exchange publications for addresses in the countries listed below 
are forwarded by freight to the exchange services of those countries. 



204 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Exchange publications for addresses in other countries are forwarded 
directly by mail. 

LIST OF EXCHANGE SERVICES 

AusTEiA : Austrian National Library, Vienna. 

Belgium: Service des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth§que Royale de Bel- 
gique, Bruxelles. 

China : National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 

Czechoslovakia: Bureau of International Exchanges, University Library, 
Prague. 

Denmark: Institut Danois des Echanges Internationaux, Biblioth^que Royale, 
Copenhagen. 

Egypt : Government Press, Publications OflBce, Bulaq, Cairo. 

Finland : Delegation of the Scientific Societies, Helsinki. 

E'ranoe: Service des Echanges Internationaux, Biblioth^que Nationale, Paris, 

Qebmant (Eastern) : Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Gebmant (Western) : Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bad Godesberg. 

HxTNGABY : National Library, Szech^nyi, Budapest. 

India : Government Printing and Stationery, Bombay. 

Indonesia : Minister of Education, Djakarta. 

Israel : Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 

Italy: UflBcio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, 
Rome. 

Japan : Division of International Affairs, National Diet Library, Tokyo. 

Korea : Korean Library Association, Seoul.* 

Netherlands : International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Li- 
brary, The Hague. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 

Norway: Service Norv^gien des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliothfeque de 
rUniversit6 Royale, Oslo. 

Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 

Poland : Service Polonais des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Warsaw. 

Portugal : Sec<^ao de Trocas Internacionais, Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Queensland: Bureau of International Exchange of Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 

Rumania: International Exchange Service, Biblioteca Centrala de Stat, Bu- 
charest. 

South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationery Office, Adelaide. 

Spain : Junta de Intercambio y Adquisici6n de Libros y Revistas para Bibliote- 
cas Piiblicas, Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Madrid. 

Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service Suisse des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliotheque Cen- 
trale F6d6rale, Palais F^d^ral, Berne. 

Tasmania : Secretary of the Premier, Hobart. 

Turkey : National Library, Ankara. 

Union op South Africa: Government Printing and Stationery Office, Cape 
Town. 



» Changed from Korean National Commission for UNESCO, Seoul. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 205 

Union of SoviErr 'Socialist Repcblics : Bureau of Book Exchange, State Lenin 

Library, Moscow. 
ViOTOKiA : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 
Western Australia : Sate Library, Perth. 
Yugoslavia : Bibliograf ski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

J^ A. Collins, Chief. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, 



Report on the National Gallery of Art 

Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, 
the 22d annual report of the National Gallery of Art, for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1959. This report is made pursuant to the pro- 
visions of section 5(d) of Public Resolution No, 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51) . 

ORGANIZATION 

The statutory members of the Board of Trustees of the National 
Gallery of Art are the Chief Justice of the United States, the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. On May 6, 1959, Rush H. Kress 
was reelected a general trustee of the National Gallery of Art to serve 
in that capacity for the term expiring July 1, 1969. The four other 
general trustees continuing in office during the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1959, were Chester Dale, Ferdinand Lammot Belin, Duncan 
Phillips, and Paul Mellon. On May 7, 1959, Chester Dale was re- 
elected by the Board of Trustees to serve as President of the Gallery 
and Ferdinand Lammot Belin was reelected Vice President. 

The executive officers of the Gallery as of June 30, 1959, are as 
follows : 

Huntington Cairns, 'Secretary-Treas- Ernest R. Feidler, Administrator. 

urer. Huntington Cairns, General Counsel. 

John Walker, Director. Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator. 

The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on May 7, 1959, are as follows : 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 

Barl Warren, Chairman. tion, Leonard Oarmiehael. 

Chester Dale, Vice Chairman. Paul Mellon. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Secretary of the Treasury, Robert B. Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 

Anderson, Chairman. tion, Leonard Carmichael. 

Chester Dale, Vice Chairman. Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

Paul Mellon. 

ACQUISITIONS COMMITTEE 

Ferdinand Lammot BeUn, Chairman, Paul Mellon. 
Duncan Phillips. John Walker. 

Chester Dale. 

206 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 207 

At the close of the fiscal year full-time Government employees on 
the staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 299, as compared 
with 317 employees at the close of the previous year. The U.S. civil 
service regulations govern the appointment of employees paid from 
appropriated public funds. 

During the year the Civil Service Commission inspected the per- 
sonnel management operations of the National Gallery of Art. Sug- 
gestions made dm-ing that inspection are being incorporated into the 
personnel management program. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1959, Congress in the regular 
annual appropriation for the National Gallery of Art provided 
$1,674,000 to be used for salaries and expenses in the operation and 
upkeep of the Gallery, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident 
thereto, as authorized by joint resolution of Congress approved March 
24, 1937 (20 U.S.C. 71-75; 50 Stat. 51). Congress also included 
in a supplemental appropriation act $116,100 to cover pay increases 
not provided for in the regular appropriation. The total appropria- 
tion for the fiscal year was $1,790,100. The following expenditures 
and encumbrances were incurred : 

Personal services $1, 452, 022 

Other than personal services 338,004 

Unobligated balance 74 

Total 1, 790, 100 

ATTENDANCE 

There were 951,608 visitors to the Gallery during the fiscal year 
1959, an increase of 38,127 over the total attendance of 913,481 for 
the fiscal year 1958. The average daily nmnber of visitors was 2,622. 

ACCESSIONS 

There were 370 accessions by the National Gallery of Art as gifts, 
loans, or deposits during the fiscal year. 

Gifts 

During the year the following gifts or bequests were accepted by 
the Board of Trustees : 



208 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

PAINTINGS 

Donor Artist Title 

Chester Dale Monet . Morning Haze. 

Syma Busiel Rubens The Meeting of Abraham 

and Melchizedek. 

Lewis Einstein Guardi San Marco. 

A valon Foundation Copley Epes Sargent. 

Miss Harriet Winslow George Cuitt, the Easby Abbey, near Rich- 
Younger, mond. 

Mrs. Edith Stuyvesant Manet The Tragedian (Portrait of 

Gerry. Rouviere as Hamlet). 

Do Whistler Self-portrait. 

Do Whistler George W. Vanderbilt. 

Col. and Mrs. Edgar W. Bauman Geese in Flight. 

Garbisch. 

Do Bauman U.S. Mail Boat. 

Do Bradley Little Girl in Lavender. 

Do Brown__ Bareback Riders. 

Do Haddoca Red Jacket. 

Do Toole Skating Scene. 

Do Unknown Burning of Old South 

Church, Bath, Maine. 

Do Unknown Cat and Kittens. 

Do Unknown The Cheney Family. 

Do Unknown Family Burying Ground. 

Do Unknown Martha. 

Do Unknown (Mrs.) Aphia Salisbury Rich 

and Baby Edward. 

Do Unknown Twenty-two Houses and a 

Church. 

Do Unknown Village by the River. 

SCULPTURE 

Lessing J. Rosen wald Daumier Le Confident. 

Do Daumier Le Repr&entant. 

PRINTS AND DRAWINGS 

During the year Lessing J. Rosenwald increased his gift to the 
Gallery by 198 additional prints and drawings. Four etchings by 
Breitner were given to the Gallery by the Rijksmuseum, The Nether- 
lands. Two prints were also given by Mrs. Andrew G. Carey to 
be added to the Addie Burr Clark Memorial Collection. 

OTHER GIFTS 

Gifts of money were made during the fiscal year 1959 by the Old 
Dominion Foundation, Avalon Foundation, Mr. and Mrs. W. Ran- 
dolph Burgess, Mrs. Tracy C. Dickson, Jr., and Jam^ E. Boudreau. 

EXCHANGE OF WORKS OF ART 

In exchange for five paintings, the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 
gave the National Gallery of Art the following notable paintings: 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 209 

Artist Title 

Master of F16malle Madonna and Child with Saints in the Enclosed Garden, 
and Assistants. 

El Greco The Holy Family. 

Cranach Portrait of a Man. 

Cranach Portrait of a Woman. 

Koerbecke The Ascension. 

Veronese The Annunciation. 

WORKS OF ART ON LOAN 

The following works of art were received on loan by the Gallery : 

From Artist Title 

Chester Dale, New York, N.Y. Vuillard The Visit. 

Do Bakst Ida Rubenstein. 

Do Monet The Seine at Giverny. 

Do Bellows Blue Morning. 

Do Domergue Mrs. Dale. 

Do Gros Dr. Vignardonne. 

Col. and Mrs. Edgar W. Earl Mrs. Noah Smith and Her 

Garbisch, New York, Five Children. 
N.Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carleton Van Gogh The Stevedores. 

Mitchell, Annapolis, Md. 

Do_. C6zanne Man with Crossed Arms. 

The Samuel H. Kress Foun- Massys Salvator Mundi. 

dation. New York, N.Y. 

Do Magnasco Bay with Shipwreck. 

Do Correggio Salvator Mundi. 

WORKS OF ART ON LOAN RETURNED 

The following works of art on loan were returned during the fiscal 
year: 

To Artist Titk 

The Samuel H. Egress Foun- Ferrucci Madonna and Child. 

dation, New York, N.Y. 

Do Tino di Camaino Madonna and Child. 

Do _ Pintoricchio Madonna and Child. 

Do Sienese School Madonna and Child with St. 

Bartholomew and St. John 
the Baptist. 

Do Neroccio de' Landi _ The Battle of Actium. 

Do Francesco di The Visit of Cleopatra to 

Giorgio. Anthony. 

Do Master of the Jarves The Triumph of Chastity. 

Cassoni. 

Do Guariento Madonna and Child with 

Four Saints. 

Do Segna di Madonna and Child. 

Buonaventura. 

Do Catena Portrait of a Woman. 

Do Veronese The Baptism of Christ. 

Do Botticelli Madonna and Child. 

Do Bonfigli Madonna and Child En- 
throned. 
Do Rigaud President Hubert. 



210 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

From Artist Title 

Chester Dale, New York, Derain Portrait of a GirL 

N.Y. 

Do Flemish School XVI Portrait of a Woman. 

Century. 

Do German School XVI Portrait of a Girl. 

Century. 

Do Pisanello, Style of _ _ Portrait of a Woman. 

Arnold W. Knauth II, Rock- Copley Epes Sargent. 

port, Mass. 

Robert Woods Bliss, Wash- 19 objects of Pre-Co- 

ington, D.C. lumbian Art. 

WORKS OF ART LENT 

During the fiscal year the Gallery lent the following works of art 
for exhibition purposes: 

To Artist Title 

The Metropolitan Museum Homer Breezing Up. 

of Art, New York, N.Y. 

Do Homer Hound and Hunter. 

Do Homer Right and Left. 

Do Boucher T6te-^-T6te (drawing). 

Do Moreau le Jeune Qui ou Non (drawing) . 

Museum of Fine Arts, Bos- Homer Breezing Up. 

ton, Mass. 

Do Homer Hound and Hunter. 

Do Homer Right and Left. 

Boymans Museum, Rotter- Boucher Tete-^-T6te (drawing). 

dam, and the Orangerie, 
Paris. 

Do Moreau le Jeune Qui ou Non (drawing). 

Westmoreland County Mu- Park Flax Scutching Bee. 

seum, Greensburg, Pa. 

Pennsylvania Historical Mu- Eichholtz Mrs. Phoebe Freeman. 

seum Commission, Har- 
risburg. Pa. 

Do Eichholtz James P. Smith. 

Do Eichholtz Henry Eichholtz Leman. 

Do Eichholtz William Clark Frazer. 

Chatham College, Pitts- Copley The Death of the Earl of 

burgh, Pa. Chatham. 

Birmingham Museum of Stuart Greorge Washington 

Art, Birmingham, Ala. (Vaughan-Sinclair). 

S mallwood Foundation , Inc. , Pine General William Sm all woo d . 

Faulkner, Md. 

U.S. Supreme Court, Wash- George Cuitt, the Easby Abbey, near Rich- 

ington, D.C. Younger. mond. 

Woodlawn Plantation, Mount Polk CJeneral Washington at 

Vernon, Va. Princeton. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 211 

EXHIBITIONS 

The following exliibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art 
during the fiscal year 1959: 

Btcliings and Lithograplis by Redon, from the Rosenwald collection. July 17, 

1958, through December 7, 1958. 
Drawings and Prints by Rembrandt, from the Rosenwald and Widener 

collections. August 1, 1958, through September 21, 1958. 
Dutch Drawings — Masterpieces from Five Centuries, a special loan exhibition 

of 148 Dutch drawings, the most important ever shown in this country. 

October 5, 1958, through October 26, 1958. 
Winslow Homer — A Retrospective Exhibition, the Gallery's second one-man 

show in honor of a leading American painter. November 23, 1958, through 

January 4, 1959. 
Christmas Prints, gift of W. G. Russell Allen and from the Rosenwald 

collection. December 8, 1958, through March 23, 1959. 
Whistler Etchings, gift of Mr. and Mrs. J. Watson Webb. March 23, 1959, 

through June 23, 1959. 
Masterpieces of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Painting, loan exhibi- 
tion of French 19th-century paintings from private collections, celebrating 

the 50th anniversary of the founding of the American Federation of Arts 

and honoring the meetings of the International Chamber of Commerce. 

April 25, 1959, through May 24, 1959. 
Etchings and Mezzotints from Turner's Liber Studiorum, gift of Miss Ellen T. 

Bullard and from the Rosenwald collection. June 25, 1959, to continue into 

the next fiscal year. 

TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS 

Rosenwald collection. — Special exhibitions of prints from the 
Eosenwald collection were circulated to the following places during 
the fiscal year 1959 : 

Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, Washington, D.C. : 

Contemporary German Prints. Exhibition tour extended through the fiscal 

year 1959. (Tour started October 1956.) 
George Bellows — Prints and Drawings. 19 prints. Continued until January 
30, 1959. (Tour started March 1957.) 
American Federation of Arts, New York, N.Y. : 

The Life of Christ in Prints. 50 prints. Continued until February 10, 1959. 
(Tour started October 1957.) 
Arts Council of Great Britain : 

Two prints by Hayter lent to a touring exhibition of Hayter's work 
starting in the fiscal year 1958 and continuing through July 1958. 
Museum of Art of Ogunquit, Maine : 

Fourteen prints and drawings by Mary Cassatt. Exhibition starting in 
the fiscal year 1958 and continuing through the first week of September 
1958. 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. : 

Daumier Anniversary Exhibition. 8 drawings and 35 prints by Daumier ; 
also 8 bronzes by Daumier given by Mr. Rosenwald. July 1 through 
October 1, 1958. 



212 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

National Museum of Modern Art, Mexico City, Mexico : 

Inaugural Exhibition. 50 modern prints. September 1958 through April 
1959. 
Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute, San Antonio, Tex. : 

Twenty-nine prints by Picasso. September and October 1958. 
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif. : 

Five Daumier busts in Rosenwald Collection. August through October 1958. 
Sunday School Board, Southern Baptist Convention, Nashville, Tenn. : 

Twenty prints. September 10 to November 10, 1958. 
St. George's School, Newport, R.I. : 

Fourteen prints. October 15 through November 15, 1958. 
Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, Calif. : 

Exhibition of Daumier lithographs and sculpture. 1 woodblock, 5 bronzes, 
25 prints and drawings. November and December 1958. 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, Washington, D.C. : 

Dutch Drawing Exhibition. One Dutch miniature. November 1958 through 
April 1959. 
Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Mich. : 

Decorative Arts of the Italian Renaissance. One engraving. November 17, 
1958 through January 6, 1959. 
Bverhart Museum, Scranton, Pa. : 

Christmas Exhibition. 20 prints. Last week of November through Decem- 
ber 1958. 
Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Orleans, La. : 

Life of Christ. 52 prints. December 7 through December 28, 1958. 
The University of Nebraska Art Galleries, Lincoln, Nebr. : 

Twenty-six prints. January 16 through February 13, 1959. 
The University of Kansas Museum, Lawrence, Kans. : 

Two prints. January 18 through March 1, 1959. 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y. : 

Homer Exhibition. One lithograph by Homer. January 29 through March 
8, 1959. 
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 111. : 

Gauguin Exhibition. Two monotypes by Gauguin. February and March 
1959. 
Notre Dame University, Notre Dame, Ind. : 

Twenty-five prints. February 15 through April 5, 1959. 
Mary Washington College of the University of Virginia, Fredericksburg, Va. : 

Seventeen prints illustrating antique musical instruments, March 10 
through March 31, 1959. 
Metropolitan Miiseum of Art, New York, N.Y. : 

Gauguin Exhibition. Two monotypes by Gauguin. April through May 1959. 
Hillel Foundation at Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pa.: 

Twenty-six prints on biblical themes. April 1 through April 15, 1959. 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. : 

The American Muse. One Audubon print. April 3 through May 17, 1959. 
Gallaudet College, Washington, D.C. : 

Three prints by Cadwallader Washburn. April 11 through June 8, 1959. 
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Va. : 

Twenty-four prints with subjects related to the law for an exhibition com- 
memorating the introduction of Common Law in the Colonies. May 14 
through June 14, 1959. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



213 



Iindex of American Design. — During the fiscal year 1959, 27 travel- 
ing exhibitions (including 1,498 plates) with 44 bookings were 
circulated to Germany and the following States : 



Btate 

Alabama 

Connecticut 

District of Columbia- 
Florida 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Maryland 

Minnesota 

New York 



Numier of 
exhibitioTia 



Btate Number of 

esBhibitiona 

North Carolina 1 

Ohio 4 

Pennsylvania 7 

Rhode Island 1 

Tennessee l 

Texas 4 

Utah 3 

Virginia 8 

West Virginia 1 



CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 

Under the direction of Dr. Perry B. Cott, chief curator, the cura- 
torial department accessioned 238 gifts to the Gallery during the 
fiscal year 1959. Advice was given regarding 381 works of art brought 
to the Gallery for expert opinion and 18 visits to collections were made 
by members of the staff in connection with offers of gifts. About 
2,200 inquiries requiring research were answered verbally and by 
letter. 

William P. Campbell, curator of painting, lectured on Early Amer- 
ican Masterpieces in the National Gallery of Art at the Williamsburg 
Antiques Forum. 

During the year members of the curatorial staff assisted in the 
judging of the following art exhibitions: Dr. Fern Kusk Shapley: 
GoThservative Contemporary Art at the State Fair in Birmingham, 
Ala., and Virgvnia Artists at Vienna, Va. ; Dr. H. Lester Cooke : Ex- 
hibitions sponsored by the Waterf ord Art Society, Virginia, Wilming- 
ton Society of the Fine Arts, and the USIA exhibition of Washington 
artists; Thomas P. Baird: Delmarva Chicken Festival, Dover, Del.; 
Ealph T. Coe: Exhibition held at The Plains, Va. 

The Richter Archives received and cataloged over 700 photographs 
on exchange from museums here and abroad, and 3,055 photographs 
were purchased for the Richter Archives. 

RESTORATION 

Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular 
and systematic inspection of all works of art in the Gallery, and 
periodically removed dust and bloom as required. He relined 11 
paintings and gave special treatment to 38 paintings and 2 pieces of 
sculpture. Nineteen paintings were X-rayed as an aid in research. 
Experiments were continued with synthetic varnishes, and a fluores- 



214 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1969 

cent light rack was built to test the fading of paints and pigments in 
cooperation with the MeUon Institute of Industrial Research, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. In September, Mr. Sullivan attended a seminar held in 
Boston, Mass., on "Application of Science in Examination of Works 
of Art." In the spring he also made trips to New York, Bryn Athyn, 
Pa., and Annapolis, Md., to supervise the collecting and return of 
paintings for the exhibition "Masterpieces of Impressionist and Post- 
Impressionist Painting." Technical advice on condition and care of 
paintings was given when works of art were brought to the Gallery, 
and such technical information as could be given when requested by 
the public. He inspected all Gallery paintings on loan in Government 
buildings in Washington, and also gave advice on the special treatment 
of works of art belonging to Govermnent agencies, including the 
Capitol, the White House, the Supreme Court, the State Department, 
the Treasury, the Department of the Interior, the Maritime Com- 
mission, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Freer Gallery of Art. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Dr. Perry B. Cott, chief curator, contributed an article entitled "A 
Note on Houdon's Bust of Diana" to Studies in the History of Art 
dedicated to William E. Suida on his 80th birthday, 1959. He also 
wrote an article for the World Book Encyclo'pedia on the "Art 
Museum." 

Dr. Fern Rusk Shapley, assistant chief curator, also contributed 
an article entitled "Baldassare d' Este and a Portrait of Francesco II 
Gonzaga" to Studies in the History of Art dedicated to William E. 
Suida. 

Dr. H. Lester Cooke, museum curator, wrote the following arti- 
cles : "The Art of Edward Hopper," America Illustrated, 1959, No. 
32; "The Art of George Bellows," America Magazine, May 1959; 
and the introduction to a catalog of an exhibition of Washington 
artists sent to Europe by USIA. 

Ralph T. Coe, museum curator, contributed an article entitled "Im- 
pressionists in Washington" to the Burlington Magazine, June 1959. 

During the fiscal year 1959 the Publications Fund published one 
new 11- by 14-inch color reproduction and eight new color and five 
new black-and-white Christmas cards. A large pochoir reproduc- 
tion of a picture of the National Gallery of Art building was pub- 
lished by an outside publisher and was placed on sale by the fund. 
Fifteen new 2- by 2-inch color-slide subjects were added to the selec- 
tion available, and two more sets of slides were issued. 

Color plates of five new subjects for 11- by 14-inch prints were com- 
pleted during the year, and, in addition, work was begun on color 



Secretary's Report, 1959 



PLATE 7 




1. The Meeting uf Ahraliain and Alclclu/xdck; Peter Paul Rubens. Gift of Synia Buslel, 

National Gallerv of Art. 




2. Madonna and Child with Saints in the Enclosed Gardens: Master of Flemalle and 
Assistants. Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art. 



Secretary's Report, 1959 



PLATE 




-p o 



t^ s 



5 z 



< 




Secretary's Report, 1959 



PLATE 9 




The Holy Family: El Greco. Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art. 



Secretary's Report. 1959 






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O 


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SECRETARY'S REPORT 215 

plates for a series of booklets to be issued by the Publications Fund 
on the schools of painting represented in the Gallery. 

The publications sales rooms operated by the Publications Fund 
enjoyed their busiest year, serving 184,254 individuals, organizations, 
etc. 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

The program of the Educational Office was carried out under the 
supervision of Dr. Raymond S. Stites, curator in charge of educa- 
tional work, and his staff, who lectured and conducted tours in the 
Gallery on the works of art in its collections. 

The attendance for the general tours. Tours of the Week, and Pic- 
ture of the Week talks totaled 40,532 persons ; while that of the audi- 
torium lectures on Sunday afternoon totaled 14,515 persons. 

Tours, lectures, and conferences were arranged by special appoint- 
ment for 340 groups and individuals. The total number of persons 
served in this manner was 11,585, an increase over last year of 3,488 
persons. These special appointments were made for such groups as 
the various governmental agencies, educators (both foreign and 
American), religious groups. Girl Scouts, 4r-H. Clubs, convention 
groups, and members of the radio and television industry. 

The program for the training of volunteer docents continued, and 
during the fiscal year 1959 special instruction was given to 100 women 
under the general supervision of the curator in charge of educational 
work. By special arrangement with the school systems of the District 
of Columbia and surrounding comities of Maryland and Virginia 
these women conducted tours for 1,546 classes with a total of 40,355 
children — an increase over last year of 7,807 children visiting the Na- 
tional Gallery. 

The staff of the Educational Office delivered 23 lecture in the audi- 
torium on Sunday afternoons and 24 lectures were given by guest 
speakers. During the month of April and the first two Sundays in 
May, the Eighth Annual Series of the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the 
Fine Arts was delivered by the noted sculptor Naum Gabo, whose 
subject was "A Sculptor's View of the Fine Arts." 

The Educational Office continued to circulate the nine sets of travel- 
ing exhibitions to schools, clubs, libraries, and universities throughout 
the country, free of charge except for transportation costs. These 
were viewed by a total of 20,000 persons during the year. Fifteen 
copies of the old National Gallery of Art film "Your National Gallery 
of Art" were borrowed 34 times through distribution centers, and 
the new film "Art in the Western World" was borrowed 26 times by 
local borrowers. 

524591^ — 59 15 



216 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

The Educational Office continued the sale of slide strips, and during 
the year a total of 80 sets were sold. The sale of the filmstrip "The 
Art of the Florentine Golden Age in the National Gallery of Art" 
totaled 30 sets. 

A total of 1,750 slides were added to the slide collections during 
the year, and the slide library now contains 37,492 slides. A total of 
10,982 slides were lent to 378 borrowers and seen by approximately 
11,340 viewers. There was an increase of 143 borrowers over last 
year, and a total of 3,743 more slides lent. A number of slide lecture 
sets with text are available for loan. 

Members of the staff prepared 6 more leaflets on works of art in 
individual galleries, and prepared mimeographed material for school 
groups, as well as undertaking the preparation of three illustrated 27- 
page booklets for sale at the publications sales rooms. 

A printed calendar of events announcing all Gallery activities and 
publications was prepared by the Educational Office and distributed 
monthly to a mailing list of 6,800 names. This is an increase over last 
year of 1,100 names. 

The staff members prepared and delivered twenty-nine 10-minute 
talks over station WGMS during intermission of the National Gallery 
of Art concerts broadcasts. 

The curator in charge of educational work delivered lectures to 
several university, church, and club groups, gave two talks over 
WMAL-TV for the National Council of Churches, appeared on TV 
in Providence, R.I., in a lecture on American art, and judged an 
art exhibition at the Navy Department. 

Grose Evans taught an evening course at George Washington Uni- 
versity, delivered a number of outside lectures, and acted as judge 
for several art contests in the area. 

Margaret Bouton taught evening courses in art at American 
University. 

Dorothea Michelson delivered a talk at the National Housing- 
Center. 

Hugh Broadley taught an evening course in American art at 
American University. 

LIBRARY 

Important acquisitions to the library, recorded by Miss Ruth E. 
Carlson, librarian, and her staff, included 607 books, pamphlets, 
periodicals, subscriptions, and a group of 7,998 photographs purchased 
from private funds. 

A total of 44 books and subscriptions were purchased from Gov- 
ernment funds made available for this purpose. Gifts to the library 
included 773 books and pamphlets; 1,024 books, pamphlets, period- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 217 

icals, and bulletins were received on exchange from other institutions. 
During the fiscal year the library cataloged 3,307 publications, and 
1,984 periodicals were recorded ; 12,177 catalog cards were filed. The 
library borrowed 1,385 books on interlibrary loan; the Library of 
Congress lent 1,333 books. 

The library is the depository for photographs of the works of art 
in the National Gallery of Art's collections. A stock of reproduc- 
tions is maintained for use in research, for exchange with other in- 
stitutions, and for sale to interested individuals. Approximately 
6,300 photographs were received and processed in the library during 
the year. The library filled 1,143 orders for these photographs. 
Sales to the general public amounted to $1,195, covering about 1,600 
photographs. There were 303 permits for reproduction of 783 sub- 
jects processed in the library. 

INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN 

During the fiscal year the work of the Index continued as usual, 
under the direction of Dr. Erwin O. Christensen, curator. Twenty 
sets (1,020 slides) of color slides in 65 bookings were circulated 
throughout the country. Eegular sets were lent for lecture and 
study purposes. Notes were completed for one additional set of 
slides on furniture. Three new lectures were completed on Index 
material, and 1,003 photographs of Index material were used for 
exhibition and study purposes, as well as for publicity, and purchase 
by the public. The photographic file of the Index material has been 
increased by 1,650 prints. Approximately 406 persons studied Index 
material for research purposes, and to gather material for publication 
and design. 

Dr. Christensen continued to participate in the orientation program 
of the USIA personnel. The card-file index of the Index renderings 
was completed last year and an inventory of all photographs was 
begun. The curator of the Index prepared a report on the completion 
of the Index. 

In all, 357 photographs of New England gravestone carvings, dating 
from 1653 to 1810, and 5 photographs of wood statues were given to 
the Gallery by Saul Ludwig of Montclair, N.J., and Mrs. Hugh 
De Witt of Stanford, Calif., respectively, for the Index of American 
Design. 

MAINTENANCE OF THE BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

The Gallery building, the mechanical equipment, and its grounds 
were maintained at the established standards throughout the year, 
under the direction of Ernest K. Feidler, administrator, and his 
staff. 



218 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Lectour, the electronic guide system, was installed in 10 additional 
galleries. Several of the installations were experimental in that the 
electronic guide system was introduced in adjacent galleries. Here- 
tofore, in similar installations elsewhere and in the National Gallery 
of Art, service in adjacent galleries was deemed impractiable because 
of "crosstalk." This problem was solved in the new installations made 
during this past fiscal year. 

The roofing over the Seventh and Fourth Street entrances and 
around the base of the dome, which had begun to deteriorate after 
19 years of service, was replaced with roofing of improved design. 

Permanent and improved floodlighting on the north portico and 
adjacent to the flagpoles replaced the temporary lighting developed 
for the 15th anniversary of the Gallery in 1956. This permanent 
floodlighting illuminates the central portion of the building on the 
north side. 

The A.D.T. Aero Fire Alarm System was extended to the registrar's 
storeroom. 

There was continued expansion of the Gallery's horticulture pro- 
gram with the result that extraordinary displays of flowering plants 
were available for the Christmas and Easter seasons and several im- 
portant night openings. 

LECTOUR 

Lectour was installed and used successfully in two special exhibi- 
tions, and one foreign-language broadcast was prepared for a special 
group visit. 

Lectour was used by 72,793 Gallery visitors during the fiscal year 
1959. The system is being used progressively more extensively by 
visitors, as evidenced by the fact that in the last month of the fiscal 
year 1958 the percentage of visitors using Lectour was 6.3 percent, 
whereas the latter part of this year the percentage rose to 9.7 percent. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

Forty Sunday-evening concerts were given during the fiscal year 
in the east garden court, including nine concerts by the National Gal- 
lery of Art Orchestra under the direction of Richard Bales, two of 
which were made possible by the Music Performance Trust Fund of 
the American Federation of Musicians. A string orchestra under 
Mr. Bales's direction furnished music during the opening of the Dutch 
Exhibition on October 4, 1958, and during the opening of the Wins- 
low Homer Exhibition on November 22, 1958. The National Gallery 
of Art orchestra with the Church of the Reformation cantata choir 
presented Mr. Bales's two cantatas, "The Confederacy" and "The 
Union," at the Watergate on July 30, 1958. On June 3, 1959, the 
National Gallery orchestra presented a concert at the Watergate in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 219 

honor of the Governor of Casablanca (both concerts were paid for 
by the Music Performance Trust Fund of the American Federation of 
Musicians). Mr. Bales appeared as guest conductor at a number of 
concerts in several cities throughout the United States during the 
year. Special concerts were held to commemorate United Nations 
Day and the Lincoln Sesquicentennial. 

Four Sunday evenings during May 1959 were devoted to the Gal- 
lery's IGth American Music Festival. All concerts were broadcast 
in their entirety in stereophonic sound by station WGMS-AM and 
FM, Washington. The Voice of America regularly received portions 
of the Sunday evening concerts for transmission overseas. The in- 
termissions during Sunday evening concerts featured discussions by 
members of the Educational Office staff and Mr. Bales. 

During the fiscal year, 4,103 copies of 14 press releases in connection 
with the Gallery's activities were approved and issued by Director 
John Walker. In all, 148 permits to copy and 121 permits to photo- 
graph works of art in the Gallery were also issued. 

During the fiscal year, in response to requests from Senators and 
Congressmen, 9,872 copies of the pamphlet "A Cordial Invitation 
from the Director" and 9,636 copies of the National Gallery of Art 
Information Booklet were sent for distribution to their constituents; 
29,800 copies of "A Cordial Invitation from the Director" were sent 
to various organizations holding conventions in the Washington area. 

During this fiscal year, the slide project begun in the fiscal year 
1958 was carried to completion and sets of 500 color slides were sent 
to 114 colleges and universities having departments in the History 
of Art, and to museums havmg slide-lending services. This program 
was initiated in order to make slides of the works of art in the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art available in color at a minimum cost. 

Henry B. Beville, the Gallery's photographer, and his staff proc- 
essed 13,681 prints, 438 black-and-white slides, 1,121 color slides, 
1,508 black-and-white negatives, 175 sets of color-separation nega- 
tives, 345 color transparencies, 6 infrared and 2 ultraAdolet photo- 
graphs during the fiscal year. 

AUDIT OF PRIVATE FUNDS OF THE GALLERY 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1959, by Price Waterhouse & Co., public 
accountants, and the certificate of that company on its examination 
of the accomiting records maintained for such funds will be for- 
warded to the Gallery. 
EespectfuUy submitted, 

Huntington Cairns, Secretary. 
Dr. Leonard Carmichael 

Sea^etary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on the Library 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activ- 
ities of the Smithsonian library for the fiscal year ended Jmie 30, 1959 : 

Of the 52,669 publications received in the library, 2,706 were books 
and periodicals that could not be obtained in exchange, A special 
effort was made to acquire some of the much-needed reference ma- 
terials that could not be obtained in the past. Publications were ac- 
quired to fill in special subject areas where adequate source materials 
were missing. Exchange relations with learned societies and sci- 
entific establishments both in this country and abroad continued to 
provide their serials and monographs which comprise the backbone 
of the library's collection. New exchanges arranged this year totaled 
159, to be added to the vast number already established. Special re- 
quests for 2,359 publications were made to issuing societies and or- 
ganizations for back issues of publications needed for completing sets 
in our collections. Books and periodicals were acquired for the Canal 
Zone Biological Area and also for the Astrophysical Observatory in 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Recommendations for the acquisition of materials are of great 
importance in enriching the collections. Many significant gifts also 
come to the library from interested individuals including members 
and friends of the Smithsonian staff. Gifts of special note included 
"Voices from the Flowery Kingdom," from Mrs. Lucille Nott; 327 
issues of philatelic journals from Alexander Halperson; 50 issues of 
the GonnoisseuT', from Fred J. P. Chitty ; 3 volumes on Indian dancing 
by Leila Row Dayal; "Grundzuge der zoologischen Mikropalaon- 
tologie," Band 1, by Vladmir Pokomy. 

Controlling the vast intake of publications each year requires the 
efforts of the entire staff in evaluating the materials for retention and 
in making them readily available for use. Lack of adequate space 
necessitates the daily sorting and shipping of all extraneous and dupli- 
cate publications to other agencies. 

Beginning July 1, 1958, all publications forwarded to the Library 
of Congress were sent by transfer instead of being specifically desig- 
nated for the Smithsonian Deposit, thus eliminating unnecessary 
recordkeeping on the part of both organizations. Publications sent 
to this organization totaled 20,558, many of which were continuations 

220 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 221 

of serials and monographs that have been received regularly in ex- 
change since their first date of publication. To the National Library 
of Medicine were sent 2,378 publications, and to other Government 
libraries 714 items. 

The catalog section cataloged and classified 4,082 books and pam- 
phlets, entered 24,933 periodicals, and filed 45,485 cards. In spite of 
being short staffed and having an increased acquisitions program, the 
efforts of the catalogers to organize and plan their work have kept the 
bulk of the material moving. Efficient library service depends on a. 
good catalog, and good cataloging practice is a basic requirement. 
The large number of uncataloged publications throughout the Institu- 
tion remains a major problem. The scientific and technical nature of 
these publications, many of which are in foreign languages, requires 
scholarly treatment in processing. 

The binding program continued to show vast improvements in the 
preservation and conservation of our valuable research materials. 
Through a waiver from the Government Printing Office, 8,800 volumes 
were bound or re-bound by a commercial binder under contract. A 
skilled bindery assistant repaired or hand-bound 1,851 volumes of 
materials not suitable to send to a binder. A special project is under- 
way to put call-number labels on all the library materials. This will 
facilitate the shelving and locating of books and periodicals by the 
staff and users as well. 

The program of continuous weeding and discarding of unused and 
duplicate materials is still in effect. A total of 8,901 books, pam- 
phlets, and periodicals was discarded. 

The library is frequently called upon to translate correspondence 
and miscellaneous items into English. Members of the catalog section 
translated 214 items and provided reference assistance or translations 
of obscure words and phrases. The class in scientific Russian, taught 
by David Ray, is still in progress. 

Demands on the staff of the reference and circulation section con- 
tinued to be heavy. It is difficult to measure the various services the 
library gives in making its resources available to those who wish to 
make use of them. During the year 12,360 loans were made, plus 
9,374 volumes sent to the sectional libraries for semipermanent file. 
Since no estimate can be made of how many times books and periodi- 
cals circulate within a section, the exact number of times library ma- 
terials are consulted cannot be determined. 

There were 1,158 volumes lent to Government, college, and imiver- 
sity libraries ; and 3,853 volumes were borrowed from other libraries, 
chiefly the Library of Congress. 



222 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

Visitors to the library numbered 9,202 persons who consulted the 
reference books and periodicals in the main reading room. Visiting 
research scholars used the library's facilities for checking and verify- 
ing references, and librarians and scientists from other countries came 
to acquaint themselves with the collections. The library staff an- 
swered 20,799 reference questions, which in most cases required the 
consultation of many different publications. These queries are from 
individuals who either write, telephone, or come in person to the li- 
brary, and always it is rewarding to be able to provide them with the 
desired information or refer them to an authoritative source. 

Care of the collections includes the task of relieving crowding of 
the books and keeping them clean. The addition of 26 new cases in 
the stacks of the main library has provided additional shelf space for 
the growing accumulation. Vacuuming the books and washing the 
shelves are underway in this area, and routine cleaning schedules are 
in effect in other stack areas. 

In September 1958, the branch library for the Museum of History 
and Teclinology began operation. This collection of books and jour- 
nals formerly served the staff in the Arts and Industries Building. 
The initial phase of the project of cleaning and discarding unused ma- 
terials has been completed. The specific task of making this into a 
working library is in progress with a shelf inventory started, a bind- 
ing and repairing program underway, the acquiring of necessary 
source and reference books and missing journals in process. This 
library will in the future supply source materials on the historical and 
technical development of this country. In spite of numerous handi- 
caps during the 9 months of operation, 3,498 reference questions were 
answered, 2,559 books were charged out, 999 volumes were sent to the 
bindery, and 1,042 persons who came to the library for service were 
assisted. 

It has been possible for the library to acquire some long-needed 
equipment. New microfilm reading machines and a book-copying ma- 
chine have increased the service and efficiency. Other items such as a 
new charge desk and catalog cases have improved the appearance of 
the library and the morale of the staff. The repainting of several of 
the rooms has enhanced the whole cleanup program. The value of 
these new improvements cannot be measured, but their total effect 
on individual performance is more than gratifying. 

Professional members of the staff attended the annual conventions 
of both the Special Libraries Association and the American Library 
Association, where they took advantage of the specialized activities 
that pertained to the functions of this library. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 
SUMMARIZED STATISTICS 

ACCESSIONS 



223 



Volumes 


Total recorded 
volumes, 1959 


(*) 


586, 722 


7,421 


323, 924 


42 


15, 078 


33 

19 


37, 749 

577 


19 


14, 159 


69 


4,287 



Smithsonian Deposit at the Library of Congress 

Smithsonian main library (includes former office and 

museum libraries) 

Astrophysical Observatory (includes Radiation and 

Organisms) 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

National Air Museum 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Zoological Park 



Total. 



7,603 



982, 596 



*20,558 publications were forwarded by transfer to the Library of Congress 
without the Smithsonian Deposit stamp. 

Unbound volumes of periodicals and reprints and separates from serial publi- 
cations, of which there are many thousands, have not been included in these totals. 

EXCHANGES 

New exchanges arranged 159 

Specially requested publications received 2, 359 

CATALOGING 

Volumes cataloged 4, 082 

Catalog cards filed 45,485 

PERIODICALS 

Periodical parts entered 24,933 

CIRCULATION 

Loans of books and periodicals 21, 734 

Circulation in sectional libraries is not counted except in the Division 
of Insects. 

BINDING AND REPAIR 

Volumes sent to the bindery 8, 800 

Volumes repaired in the library 1, 851 

Respectfully submitted. 

E.UTH E. Blanchard, Librarian. 
Dr. Leonard Cakmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report on Publications 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the publi- 
cations of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches for the year 
ended June 30, 1959 : 

The publications of the Smithsonian Institution are issued partly 
from federally appropriated funds (Smithsonian Keports and publi- 
cations of the National Museum, the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
and the Astrophysical Observatory) and partly from private endow- 
ment fmids (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, publications of 
the Freer Gallery of Art, and some special publications). The Insti- 
tution also edits and publishes under the auspices of the Freer Gallery 
of Art the series Ars Orientalis, which appears under the joint im- 
print of the University of Michigan and the Smithsonian Institution. 
The third volume in this series was in press at the close of the year. 
In addition, the Smithsonian publishes a guidebook, a picture pam- 
phlet, postcards and a postcard folder, a color-picture album, color 
slides, a filmstrip on Smithsonian exhibits, a coloring book for chil- 
dren, and popular publications on scientific and historical subjects 
related to its important exhibits and collections for sale to visitors. 
Through its publication program the Smithsonian endeavors to carry 
out its founder's expressed desire for the diffusion of knowledge. 

During the year the Institution published 1 whole volume and 10 
papers in the Miscellaneous Collections; 1 Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents and separates of 19 articles in the General Appen- 
dix; 1 Annual Report of the Secretary; 4 special publications; and 
reprints of 1 volume of Miscellaneous Collections and 1 special 
publication. 

The U.S. National Museum issued 1 Annual Report, 4 Bulletins, 18 
Proceedings papers, and 2 special publications. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology issued one Annual Report and 
four Bulletins. 

The Astrophysical Observatory issued seven numbers in the series 
Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts published three catalogs, and 
the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, under the National 
Collection of Fine Arts, published one catalog. 

The Freer Gallery of Art issued one paper in its Occasional Papers 
series, and a revised edition of one pamphlet. 

224 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 225 

DISTRIBUTION 

There were distributed 580,018 copies of publications and miscella- 
neous items. Publications: 34 Contributions to Knowledge, 23,886 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 8,725 Annual Report volumes 
and 22, 528 pamphlet copies of Report separates, 575 War Background 
Studies, 49,684 special publications, 93 reports of the Harriman 
Alaska Expedition, 52,700 publications of the National Museum, 
27,721 publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 28,170 
publications of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 583 publications 
of the Freer Gallery of Art, 14,951 publications of the Astrophysical 
Observatory, 1,581 reports of the American Historical Association, 
and 1,775 publications not issued by the Smitlisonian Institution, 
Miscellaneous items: 4 sets of North American Wild Flowers and 34 
Wild Flower prints, 57 Pitcher Plant volumes, 44,230 guide books, 
19,293 picture pamphlets, 211,260 postcards and postcard folders, 
19,414 color slides, 49,660 information leaflets, and 15 New Museum 
of History and Technology pamphlets. There were also distributed 
366 statuettes, 2,670 Viewmaster reels, and 5 filmstrips and 4 filmstrip 
records.^ 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

In this series, under the immediate editorship of Ruth B. Mac- 
Manus, there were issued one paper in volume 119, two papers in 
volume 135, two papers in volume 136, whole volume 137, four papers 
in volume 138, and one paper in volume 139, as follows : 



No. 3. Mississippian fauna in northwestern Sonora, by William H. Easton, John 
B. Sanders, J. Brookes Knight, and Arthur K. Miller. 87 pp., 9 pis., 4 figs. 
(Publ.4313.) Aug. 8, 1958. ($1.35.) 



No. 1. The customs and religion of the Ch'iang, by David Crockett Graham. 

114 pp., 16 pis., 6 figs. (Publ. 4300.) Dec. 2, 1958. ($2.) 
No. 9. New American Paleozoic eehinoids, by Porter M. Kier. 26 pp., 8 pis., 

22 figs. (Publ. 4337.) Aug. 4, 1958. (75 cents.) 



No. 1. A review of the middle and upper Eocene primates of North America, by 
C. Lewis Gazin. 112 pp., 14 pis. (Publ. 4340.) July 7, 1958. ($1.75.) 

No. 2. The journals of Daniel Noble Johnson (1822-1863), United States Navy, 
edited by Mendel L. Peterson. 268 pp., 16 pis. (Publ. 4375.) Apr. 2, 1959. 

($4.) 



* Additional copies of the Institution's filmstrip and record, "Let's Visit the Smithsonian," 
were distributed through the Society for Visual Education, Chicago, Ul. 



226 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 9 

Volume 137 

Studies in invertebrate morphology. Published in honor of Dr. Robert Evans 
Snodgrass on the occasion of his 84th birthday, July 5, 1959. 18 articles 
by various authors. 416 pp., 49 pis., 149 figs. (Publ. 4350.) [June 19] 
1959. ($7.50.) 

Voluma 138 

No. 1. Pueblo del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, by Neil M. Judd. 222 

pp., 55 pis., 45 figs. (Publ. 4346.) June 26, 1959. ($4.50.) 
No. 2. Evolution of arthrojwd mechanisms, by R. E. Snodgrass. 77 pp., 24 figs. 

(Publ. 4347.) Nov. 28, 1958. (85 cents.) 
No. 3. Long-range weather forecasting, by C. G. Abbot. 19 pp., 11 figs. (Publ. 

4352.) Feb. 16, 1959. (30 cents.) 
No. 4. Birds of the Pleistocence iu North America, by Alexander Wetmore. 24 pp. 

(Publ. 4353.) Jan. 15, 1959. (35 cents.) 

Volume 139 

No. 1. The oldest known reptile, Eosauravus copei Williston, by Frank E. Pea- 
body. 14 pp., 1 pi., 3 figs. (Publ. 4377.) May 7, 1959. (50 cents.) 

SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORTS 

REPORT FOR 1957 

The complete volume of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents 
for 1957 was received from the printer on October 10, 1958 : 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1957. x-f 499 pp., 74 pis., 32 figs. (Publ. 4314.) 

The general appendix contained the following papers (Publ. 4315- 
4333) : 

Science, technology, and society, by L. R. Hafstad. 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1807-1957, by Elliott B. Roberts. 

Cosmic rays from the sun, by Thomas Gold. 

Meteors, by Fred L. Whipple. 

The development of the planetarium in the United States, by Joseph Miles 

Chamberlain. 
The development of radio astronomy, by Gerald S. Hawkins. 
Jet streams, by R. Lee. 
Pollen and spores and their use in geology, by Estella B. Leopold and Richard 

A. Scott. 
The influence of man on soil fertility, by G. V. Jacks. 
The land and people of the Guajira Peninsula, by Raymond E. Crist. 
The nature of viruses, cancer, genes, and life, by Wendell M. Stanley. 
Mystery of the red tide, by F. G. Walton Smith. 
The return of the vanishing musk oxen, by Hartley H. T. Jackson. 
Bamboo in the economy of Oriental peoples, by F. A. McClure. 
Mechanizing the cotton harvest, by James H. Street. 

Aniline dyes — ^^their impact on biology and medicine, by Morris C. Leikind. 
Causes and consequences of salt consumption, by Hans Kaunitz. 
Roman garland sarcophagi from the quarries of Proconnesus (Marmara), by 

J. B. Ward Perkins. 
Stone age skull surgery, by T. D. Stewart. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 227 

REPORT FOR 1958 

The Report of the Secretary, which will form part of the Annual 
Report of the Board of Regents to Congress, was issued January 
16, 1959: 

Report of the Secretary and financial report of the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Regents for the year ended June 30, 1958. x+232 pp., 14 pis., 1 
chart. (Publ. 4345.) 

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 

The gown of Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower, by Margaret Brown Klapthor. Sup- 
plement to "The Dresses of the First Ladies of the White House," Publ. 
4060. 4 pp., 2 pis. [Sept. 26] 1958. (50 cents.) 

Anthropology as a career, by William C. Sturtevant. 18 pp. (Publ. 4343.; 
July 25, 1958. (20 cents.) 

List of Smithsonian publications available for distribution June 30, 1958, com- 
piled by Eileen M. McCarthy. 54 pp. (Publ. 4344.) [Oct. 14] 1958. 

First book of grasses, by Agnes Chase. Ed. 3, with revisions and additions of 
color plate and foreword by Leonard Carmichael. xix-fl27 pp., 1 pi., 94 figs. 
( Spec. Publ. 4351. ) [Feb. 12] 1959. ( $3. ) 

REPRINTS 

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, Sixth Revised Edition, prepared by Robert 
J. List. First reprint. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 114, Publ. 
4014. xi+527 pp. [July 24] 1958. ($4.) 

Brief Guide to the Smithsonian Institution. 1958 i-ev. ed Spec. Publ. 82 pp., 
illus. [Nov. 10] 1958. (25 cents.) 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The editorial work of the National Museum continued during the 
year under the immediate direction of John S. Lea, assistant chief 
of the division. The following publications were issued : 

REPORT 

The United States National Museum annual report for the year ended June 30, 
1958. Pp. iv-f 150, illus. Jan. 16, 1959. 

BULLETINS 

193. Supplement 1. Publications of the United States National Museum, Janu- 
ary 1947-June 1958. Pp. iii+16. Oct. 8, 1958, 

212. Checklist of the millipeds of North America, by Ralph V. Chamberlin and 
Richard L. Hoffman. Pp. iii-f 236. Sept. 26, 1958. 

214. Review of the parrotflshes, family Scaridae, by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 
v-f 143, 31 figs., 27 pis. Sept. 16, 1958. 

216. Ichneumon-flies of America north of Mexico : 1. Subfamily Metopiinae, by 
Henry and Marjorie Townes. Pp. ix+318, 196 figs. Mar. 6, 1959. 

PROCEEDINGS 
Volume 106 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-vii, 589-615. June 8, 1959. 

Volume 107 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-v, 651-671. May 29, 1959. 



228 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



No. 3395. A review of some galerucine beetles with excised middle tibiae in 

the male, by Doris H. Blake. Pp. 59-101, 6 figs. July 16, 1958. 
No. 3398. A review of the copepod genus Ridgewayia (Calanoida) with descrip- 
tions of new species from the Dry Tortugas, Florida, by Mildred Stratton 

Wilson. Pp. 137-179, 37 figs. Aug. 11, 1958. 
No. 3399. Revision of the milliped genus Pachydesmus (Polydesmida: Xysto- 

desmidae), by Richard L. Hoffman. Pp. 181-218, 12 figs. Aug. 20, 1958. 
No. 3400. A revision of the eels of the genus Conger with descriptions of four 

new species, by Robert H. Kanazawa. Pp. 219-267, 7 figs., 4 pis. Oct. 6, 1958. 
No. 3401. Three North American Cretaceous fishes, by David H. Dunkle. Pp. 

269-277, 3 pis. Oct. 21, 1958. 
No. 3402. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three species of Lonchura (Aves: 

Estrildinae), by Kenneth C. Parkes. Pp. 279-293, 1 fig. Oct. 21, 1958. 
No. 3403. Rhizocephala of the family Peltogastridae parasitic on West Indian 

species of Galatheidae, by Edward G. Reinhard. Pp. 295-307, fig. 4, 1 pi. 

Nov. 20, 1958. 
No. 3404. Advances in our knowledge of the honey-guides, by Herbert Fried- 

mann. Pp. 309-320. Oct. 21, 1958. 
No. 3405. Three new serranid fishes, genus Pikea, from the western Atlantic, 

by Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 321-529, 2 figs. Nov. 17, 1958. 
No. 3406. The status of the lizard CnemidopTiorus perplexus Baird and Girard 

(Teiidae), by T. Paul Maslin, Richard G. Beidleman, and Charles H. Lowe, Jr. 

Pp. 331-345. Dec. 31, 1958. 
No. 3407. Synopsis of the species of agromyzid leaf miners described from North 

America (Diptera), by Kenneth E. Frick. Pp. 347-465, 170 figs. Mar. 5, 1959. 
No. 3409. Scarab beetles of the genus Bothynus in the United States (Coleoptera : 

Scarabaeidae), by O. L. Cartwright. Pp. 515-541, 6 figs. Mar. 10, 1959. 
No. 3410. A further study of Micronesian polyclad flatworms, by Libby H. 

Hyman. Pp. 543-597, 17 figs. Mar. 6, 1959. 

Volume 109 

No. 3411. A revision of the milliped genus Brachoria (Polydesmida: Xystodes- 
midae), by William T. Keeton. Pp. 1-58, 11 figs. Apr. 14, 1959. 

No. 3413. Notes on Aradidae in the U.S. National Museum (Hemiptera), I. Sub- 
family Calisiinae, by Nicholas A. Kormilev. Pp. 209-222, 18 figs. Apr. 20, 
1959. 

No. 3414. Flies of the genus Odinia in the Western Hemisphere (Diptera: 
Odiniidae) , by Curtis W. Sabrosky. Pp. 223-236, 1 pi. May 29, 1959. 

SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 

A handbook for employees. iii-|-40 pp., 27 figs. Dec. 24, 1958. 

Guard manual and regulations for the guard force. [8]-f75 pp. June 1958. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The editorial work of the Bureau continued under the immediate 
direction of Mrs. Eloise B. Edelen. The following publications were 
issued : 

ANNUAL REPORT 

Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1957-1958. 
ii+36 pp., 5 pis. 1959. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 229 

BULLETINS 

Bulletin 168. The Native Brotherhoods: Modem intertribal organizations on 

the Northwest coast, by Philip Drucker. iv+194 pp. October 1958. 
Bulletin 169. River Basin Surveys Papers Nos. 9-14. ix+392 pp., 73 pis., 13 
figs., 9 maps. December 1958. 

No. 9. Archeological investigations in the Heart Butte Reservoir area, 

North Dakota, by Paul L. Cooper. 
No. 10. Archeological investigations at the Tuttle Creek Dam, Kansas, by 

Robert B. Gumming, Jr. 
No. 11. The Spain site (39LM301), a winter village in Fort Randall Reser- 
voir, South Dakota, by Carlyle S. Smith and Roger T. Grange, Jr. 
No. 12. The Wilbanks site (9CK-5), Georgia, by William H. Sears. 
No. 13. Historic sites in and around the Jim Woodruff Reservoir area, 

Florida-Georgia, by Mark F. Boyd. 
No. 14. Six sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim Woodruff Reser- 
voir area, Florida, by Ripley P. Bullen. 
Bulletin 170. Excavations at La Venta, Tabasco, 1955, by Philip Drucker, Rob- 
ert F. Heizer, and Robert J. Squier. With appendixes by Jonas E. Gullberg, 
Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Starker Leopold, viii+312 pp., 63 pis., 82 figs. 
March 1959. 
Bulletin 171. The North Alaskan Eskimo : A study in ecology and society, by 
Robert F. Spencer. vi-|-490 pp., 9 pis., 2 figs., 4 maps. May 1959. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

The editorial work of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
continued under the immediate direction of Ernest E. Biebighauser. 
The year's publications are as follows : 

SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ASTROPHYSICS 

Volume 2 

No. 11. The statistics of meteors in the earth's atmosphere, by Gerald S. 

Hawkins and Richard B. Southworth. Pp. 349-364, 5 figs. Aug. 5, 1958. 
No. 12. Granulation and oscillations of the solar atmosphere, by Charles 

Whitney. Pp. 365-376, 2 figs. July 29, 1958. 
No. 13. Optical properties of Saturn's rings : I. Transmission, by Allan F. Cook, 

II, and Fred A. Franklin. Pp. 377-383, 3 figs. Nov. 14, 1958. 

Volume 3 

No. 1. The regression of the node of the quadrantids, by Gerald S. Hawkins and 

Richard B. Southworth. Pp. 1-5, 2 figs. Oct. 1, 1958. 
No. 2. Catalogs of meteor radiants, by Gerald S. Hawkins. Pp. 7-8, 3 figs. 

Sept. 26, 1958. 
No. 3. Papers on the solar constant : "The Constancy of the Solar Constant," by 

Theodore E. Sterne and Nannielou Dieter, 1 fig. ; "On Sterne and Dieter's 

paper, 'The Constancy of the Solar Constant,' " by C. G. Abbot, 9 figs. ; and 

"The solar constant," by L. B. Aldrich and W. H. Hoover. Pp. 9-24. Dec. 24, 

1958. 
No. 4. Some sunspot and flare statistics, by Barbara Bell and Harold Glazer. 

Pp. 25-38, 3 figs. May 18, 1959. 
No. 5. The Doppler widths of solar absorption lines, by Barbara Bell and Alan 

Meltzer. Pp. 3^-46. May 13, 1959. 



230 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Profiles of the time of James Monroe, 1758-1958. 13 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 4348.) 

[Oct. 24] 1958. 
Henry Ward Ranger centennial exhibition, 1858-1958. 30 pp., 1 pi. (Publ. 

4349.) [Dec. 1] 1958. 
Turn-of-the-century paintings from the William T. Evans collection. 8 pp. 

[Apr. 23] 1959. 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibitions, 1959-1960 catalog. 40 pp. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FREER GALLERY OF ART 

The lohans and a bridge to heaven, by Wen Fong. Occas. Pap., vol. 3, No. 1, 64 pp., 

18 pis., 1 fig. (Publ. 4305.) [Aug. 21] 1958. ($1.00.) 
The Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institution. 16 pp., 8 pis., 3 figs. 

Rev. ed. 1958. 

REPORTS OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are by him communicated to Congress, as provided 
in the act of incorporation of the association. No reports were issued 
during the year. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN 

REVOLUTION 

The manuscript of the 60th Annual Report of the National Society, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, was transmitted to Congress, 
in accordance with law, on January 7, 1959. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

During the year the Institution acquired, through a generous gift 
of the author, the remaining stock of the book "Composition of Scien- 
tific Words," by Dr. Roland W. Brown, former geologist of the U.S. 
Geological Survey. The volume, 882 pages in size, is subtitled "A 
Manual of Methods and a Lexicon of Materials for the Practice of 
Logoteclinics." Published by the author in 1956, it is now being dis- 
tributed by the Smithsonian. 

The chief of the division continued to represent the Smithsonian 
Institution on the board of directors of the Greater Washington Edu- 
cational Television Association, Inc., of which the Institution is a 
member. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul H. Oehser, 
Chiefs Editorial and Puhlications Division. 

Dr. Leonard Carmichael, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Other Activities 

LECTURES 

In 1931 the Institution received a bequest from James Arthur, 
of New York City, a part of the income from which was to be used 
to endow an annual lecture on some aspect of the sun. The 25th 
Arthur lecture was delivered in the auditorium of the Natural His- 
tory Building on the evening of October 23, 1958, by Dr. Leo Goldberg, 
director of the Observatory of the University of Michigan. This 
illustrated lecture, on the subject "Astronomy from Artificial Satel- 
lites," will be published in full in the general appendix of the Annual 
Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 
1959. 

Dr. Homer A. Thompson, professor of classical archeology. Insti- 
tute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J., delivered a lecture on 
"Athenian Twilight" in the auditorium of the Natural History Build- 
ing on the evening of December 2, 1958. This was sponsored jointly 
by the Smithsonian Institution and the Archaeological Institute of 
America. 

Under the joint sponsorship of the Smithsonian Institution, the 
Anthropological Society of Washington, and the Netherland- America 
Foundation, Dr. J. Victor de Bruyn, adviser to the Netherlands Gov- 
ernment on New Guinea affairs, lectured on "New Guinea Papuans 
Today and Tomorrow," on March 4, 1959, in the Natural History 
Building auditorium. 

Grover Loening, aeronautical engineer and manufacturer and mem- 
ber of the advisory board of the National Air Museum, presented a 
lecture on "Lessons from the History of Flight" in the auditorium 
of the Natural History Building on May 18, 1959. This lecture is 
to be published in the general appendix of the Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1959. 

H. Alan Lloyd, F.S.A., F.B.H.I., M.B.E., gave a lecture on "Pre- 
Renaissance Clocks and Their Influence" on May 20, 1959, in the 
auditorium of the Freer Gallery of Art, under the joint sponsorship 
of the Smithsonian Institution and the National Association of Watch 
and Clock Collectors, 

Several lectures were also sponsored by the Freer Gallery of Art 
and the National Gallery of Art. These are listed in the reports of 
these bureaus. 

524591—59 16 231 



232 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM SERVICE 

The Smithsonian Museum Service was established on October 21, 
1958. G. Carroll Lindsay was appointed acting curator of the Service 
on the same date. He had served as assistant curator of enthnology 
from 1956 to 1957 and as associate curator of cultural history since 1957. 

The Museum Service, operating under the Office of the Secretary, 
acts to coordinate the extension of the museum activities of the Insti- 
tution with particular attention to the historic development of these 
activities and their relationship to the development of the entire Insti- 
tution from its founding to the present time. The activity of the Mu- 
seum Service includes the administration of Smithsonian cooperation 
with the volunteer dooents of the Junior League of Washington, D.C. 
A more complete report of this activity for the 1958-59 season is 
carried in the report of the U.S. National Museum. 

The Museum Service also provided assistance to professional and 
subprofessional individuals and groups visiting the museums of the 
Institution. Arrangements were made through the Museum Service 
for Smithsonian participation in the Joint Workshop on Use of Com- 
munity Resources sponsored by the University of Maryland and 
George Washington University. Through the facilities of this work- 
shop a 5 -day program outlining the history of the Institution and the 
work of the various Smithsonian museum and research bureaus was 
presented to 41 graduate students from the participating universities. 
Assistance was also rendered to other college and university groups 
visiting the Institution, and to individuals from the United States 
and abroad, visiting or planning to visit the Smithsonian in a profes- 
sional capacity. 

The Museum Service carried out the arrangements for various 
Smithsonian public functions and events, including lectures and the 
opening of the new halls and exhibits. Mailing lists for invitations 
to these functions and events of the Institution were enlarged and 
reorganized, and the Smithsonian Calendar of Events, a monthly list- 
ing of exhibit openings, lectures, and other special events of the 
Institution, was prepared and distributed. 

BIO-SCIENCES INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

The Bio-Sciences Information Exchange, an agency operated under 
the Smithsonian Institution but financed by other Government agen- 
cies, is a clearinghouse for research in the life sciences. 

Abstracts of current research are registered by investigators engaged 
in biological, medical, and psychological research and in limited as- 
pects of research in the social sciences. Through an extensive system 
of subject indexing, these abstracts are provided upon request and 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 233 

without charge to researchers in research institutions. Through this 
simple mechanism, the Exchange maintains a communication system 
which precedes publication and prevents unknowing duplication. For 
granting agencies and properly constituted committees it prepares 
extensive surveys of research in broad areas. 

Owing to the worldwide interest in scientific information and to the 
increased funds for research in the bio-sciences, the Exchange has 
been authorized to install an electronic computer. During the year 
arrangements for the purchase of the machine and initial plans for 
its operation have been completed. 

The Department of Defense has joined the other Federal agencies 
supporting the Exchange and has appointed Dr. Orr E. Reynolds, di- 
rector, Office of Science, Office of the Director of Research and 
Engineering, as its representative on the governing board. 

AVIATION EDUCATION INSTITUTE 

The Institution cooperated with American University in conducting 
the First Aviation Education Institute for Science Teachers at the 
National Air Museum during the period July 1 to August 8, 1958. The 
project was made possible by a grant from the Link Foundation. Five 
teachers from the Washington, D.C., area completed the 6-week course 
and received university credits. The Aviation Education Institute is 
conducted at the Smithsonian's National Air Museum because of the 
unique facilities there, which include the National Aeronautical Col- 
lections, a wealth of historical information in the Museum's library 
and reference files, and the research guidance offered by Director 
Philip S. Hopkins and his curatorial staff. 



Report of the Executive Committee of the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1959 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following re- 
port in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together 
with a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Govern- 
ment bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

PARENT FUND 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s 6d — 
$508,318.46. Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the claim, 
freight, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together with pay- 
ment into the fmid of the smn of £5,015, which had been withheld 
during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the fund to the 
amomit of $550,000. 

The gift of James Smithson was "lent to the United States Treas- 
ury, at 6 per centum per annum interest" (20 USC. 54) and by the Act 
of March 12, 1894 (20 USC. 55) the Secretary of the Treasury was 
"authorized to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the 
original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may, 
from time to time see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original 
bequest the sum of $1,000,000." 

The maximum of $1,000,000 which the Smithsonian Institution was 
authorized to deposit in the Treasury of the United States was 
reached on January 11, 1917, by the deposit of $2,000. 

Under the above authority the amounts shown below are deposited 
in the United States Treasury and draw 6 percent interest : 

Unrestricted funds Income 

James Smithson $727,640 $43,658.40 

Avery 14,000 840.00 

Habel 500 30.00 

Hamilton 2,500 150.00 

Hodgkins (general) 116,000 6,960.00 

Poore 26,670 1,600.20 

Rhees 590 35. 40 

Sanford 1,100 66.00 

Total 889,000 53,340.00 

234 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



235 



Restricted funds Income 

Hodgkins (specific) $100,000 $6,000.00 

Reid 11,000 660.00 

Total 111, 000 6, 660. 00 

Grand total 1, 000, 000 60, 000. 00 

In addition to the $1,000,000 deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States there has been accumulated from income and bequests the sum 
of $3,658,636,78 which has been invested and is carried on the books of 
the Institution as the Consolidated Fund, a policy approved by the 
Eegents at their meeting on December 14, 1916. 

CONSOLIDATED FUND 

(Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution) 



Fund 



Investment 
1959 



Income 
1959 



Abbott, W. L., special 

*Avery, Robert S., and Lydia 

Gifts, royalties, gain on sale of securities 
Hachenberg, George P., and Caroliae-.- 

♦HamUton, James 

Hart, Gustavus E 

Henry, Caroline.- 

Henry, Joseph, and Harriet A 

*Hodgkuis, Thomas G. (general) 

Morrow, Dwight W 

Olmsted, Helen A 

*Poore, Lucy T., and George W 

Porter, Henry Klrke 

*Rhees, WUllam Jones 

*Sanford, George H 

*Smithson, James 

Witherspoon, Thomas A 

Total 



54, 

378, 

5, 



1, 

67, 

41, 

106, 

1, 

223, 

392, 

1, 

1, 

177, 



443.51 

200. 83 
877. 09 
518. 63 
553. 91 
668. 36 
659. 55 

265. 84 
667. 14 
110. 34 
099. 40 
330.00 
988. 77 
649. 21 
221. 51 
675. 21 
082. 45 



$1, 474, 911. 75 



$1, 036. 06 

2, 746. 89 

19, 201. 73 

279. 71 

28.07 

17.16 

84.12 

3, 409. 04 

2, 106. 63 

5, 377. 69 

55.73 

11, 207. 69 

19, 916. 85 

32.91 

61.92 

84. 90 

8, 974. 62 



$74, 621. 72 



*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 



CONSOLIDATED FUND 

(Income restricted to specij&c use) 



Fimd 


Investment 
1959 


Income 
1959 




$143, 272. 84 

54, 878. 86 

68, 748. 24 
33, 038. 26 

39, 356. 91 
1,371.87 


$7, 254. 54 


Arthur, Jamee, for Investigations and study of the sun and annual lecture 
on same - 


2, 781. 31 


Bacon, Virginia Purdy, for traveling scholarship to investigate fauna of 
countries other than the United States 


3,484.16 




1, 674. 39 


Barney, Alice Pike, for collection of paintings and pastels and for encourage- 


1, 994. 65 


Barstow, Frederick D., for purchase of animals for Zoological Park 


69.51 



236 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

CONSOLIDATED FUND— Continned 



Fund 



Investment Income 
1959 1959 



Oanfleld Collection, for increase and care of the Canfleld collection of mlnerals. 

Casey, Thomas L., for maintenance of the Casey collection and promotion of 
researches relating to Coleoptera -.. 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, for increase and promotion of Isaac Lea collection 
of gems and mollusks - 

Dykes, Charles, for support in financial research 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, for preservation and exhibition of the photo- 
graphic collection of Rudolph Eickemeyer, Jr 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline Eunice, for some scientific work of the 
Institution, preferably in chemistry or medicine 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial Fund, for general use of the Institution after the 
period often years from date of gift (1957) 

Hillyer, Virgil, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer collection of Ughting 
objects - - 

Hitchcock, Albert S., for care of the Hitchcock Agrostological Library 

Hrdlifika, Alei and Marie, to further researches in physical anthropology and 
publication in connection therewith 

Hughes, Bruce, to foimd Hughes alcove... 

Loeb, Morris, for furtherance of knowledge in the exact sciences 

Long, Annette and Edith C, for upkeep and preservation of Long collection 
of embroideries, laces, and textUes 

Maxwell, Mary E., for care and exhibition of Maxwell collection 

Myer, Catherine Walden, for purchase of first-class works of art for use and 
benefit of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Nelson, Edward W., for support of biological studies 

Noyes, Frank B., for use in connection with the collection of dolls placed in the 
U.S. National Museum through the interest of Mr. and Mrs. Noyes 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, for maintenance of Alfred Duane Pell collection.-. 

Petrocelll, Joseph, for the care of the Petrocelli collection of photographic 
prints and for the enlargement and development of the section of photog- 
raphy of the U.S. National Museum 

Rathbun, Richard, for use of division of U.S. National Museum containing 
Crustacea 

*Reid, Addison T., for founding chair in biology, in memory of Asher Timis. . 

Roebling Collection, for care, improvement, and increase of Roebling collec- 
tion of minerals - 

Roebling Solar Research 

Rollins, Miriam and William, for investigations in physics and chemistry... 

Smithsonian employees' retirement 

Springer, Frank, for care and increase of the Springer collection and Ubrary.. 

Strong, Julia D., for benefit of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, for development of geological and 
paleontologieal studies and publishing results of same 

Walcott, Mary Vaux, for publications in botany 

Younger, Helen Walcott, held in trust 

Zerbee, Frances Brincklfe, for endowment of aquaria 

Total 



$52, 482. 58 

17, 199. 81 

38, 641. 81 
59, 084. 00 

14, 915. 03 

12. 198. 67 

763. 94 

9,018.34 
2, 165. 26 

59, 259. 98 
26, 265. 73 
119, 591. 06 

745. 07 
26, 914. 61 

27, 717. 08 
30, 515. 84 

1, 318. 33 

10. 171. 36 

10. 172. 28 

14. 594. 68 
24,468.96 

165,608.24 
31, 633. 91 

180, 655. 59 
33, 368. 40 
24, 607. 44 
13, 719. 89 

657, 407. 55 

79, 429. 98 

97, 121. 02 

1, 301. 61 



$2, 183, 725. 03 



*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART FUND 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave 
to the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects 
of art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by 
Whistler, Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave 
funds for construction of a building to house the collection, and 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 237 

finally in his will, probated November 6, 1919, he provided stocks and 
securities to the estimated value of $1,958,591.42, as an endowment 
fund for the operation of the Gallery. The fund now amounts to 

$8,902,456.42. 

SUMMARY OF ENDOWMENTS 

Invested endowment for general purposes $2, 294, 725. 03 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer en- 
dowment 2, 363, 911. 75 



Total invested endowment other than Freer 4, 658, 636. 78 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 8, 902, 456. 42 



Total invested endowment for all purposes 13, 561, 093. 20 



CLASSIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS 

Deposited in the U.S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as au- 
thorized in the U.S. Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 $1, 000, 000. 00 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired) : 

Bonds $1, 498, 643. 09 

Stocks 2, 142, 849. 59 

Real estate and mortgages 5, 756. 00 

Uninvested capital 11, 388. 10 

3,658,636.78 



Total investments other than Freer endowment 4, 658, 636. 78 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market value at 
date acquired) : 

Bonds $.5, 258. 223. 18 

•Stocks 3,642,181.72 

Uninvested capital 2,051.52 

8, 902, 456. 42 



Total investments 13, 561, 093. 20 

ASSETS 
Cash : 

United States Treasury cur- 
rent account $1,317,923.50 

In banks and on hand 313, 938. 41 



1, 631, 861. 91 
Less uninvested endowment 
funds 13, 439. 62 

$1, 618, 422. 29 

Travel and other advances 4, 426. 77 

Cash invested (U.S. Treasury notes) 1,328,878.18 

$2,951,727.24 



238 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

ASSETS— Continued 

Investments — at book value : 
Endowment funds : 
Freer Gallery of Art : 

Stocks and bonds $8,900,404.90 

Uninvested cash 2, 051. 52 

$8, 902, 456. 42 



Investments at book value other 
than Freer : 

Stocks and bonds (Con- 
soKdated Fund ) 3, 543, 261. 44 

Uninvested cash 11,388.10 

Special dejmsit in U.S. 
Treasury at 6 percent 
interest 1,000,000.00 

Other stocks and bonds— 98, 231. 24 

Real estate and mort- 
gages 5,756.00 



4, 658, 636. 78 
$13, 561, 093. 20 



16, 512, 820. 44 



UNEXPENDED FUNDS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Unexpended funds : 

Income from Freer Gallery of Art endowment $568, 658. 87 

Income from other endowments : 

Restricted $442, 629. 88 

General 467, 271. 34 

909, 901. 22 
Gifts and contributions 1, 473, 167. 15 



2, 951, 727. 24 
Endowment funds : 

Freer Gallery of Art $8,902,456.42 

Other : 

Restricted 2, 294, 725. 03 

General 2, 363, 911. 75 

13, 561, 093. 20 



Total 16, 512, 820. 44 



REPORT OP THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



239 



CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS DURING FISCAL 

YEAR 19591 





Restricted funds 


Unre- 
stricted 
funds 


Gifts and 
grants 


Total 




General 


Freer 




RECEIPTS: 
Incoine from investments: 
Freer fund 




$388, 886. 44 






$388,88^44 

171, 495. 22 

60, 000. 00 

326 78 


Consolidated fund 


$96, 817. 32 

6, 660. 00 

326. 78 

4,950.96 


$74, 677. 90 
53, 340. 00 




Loan to U.S. Treasury. 






Real estate and mortgages 






Special funds — stocks and bonds- 




34, 434. 37 




39 385 33 










Total income from investments- 


108, 755. 06 
2, 002. 13 


388,886.44 
10, 887. 09 


162, 452. 27 
75, 376. 24 
46, 883. 38 

222. 05 

14, 413. 55 

6, 318. 00 

594. 18 




660 093 77 


Publications - 


$912. 70 


89, 178. 16 
46, 883. 38 

15, 342. 05 
119, 869. 59 


Research grant income --_ 


Special gifts and fees: 
Gifts and contributions 


10, 120. 00 
174. 71 


5, 000. 00 
101. 04 




Special service fees . - - 


105, 180. 29 


■Rp.fnnH of a.rlvq.TiceS 


Employees' withholdings (net)— 








594 18 












Total special gifts and fees 

Reinvestment (required by provi- 
sion of donor) 


10, 294. 71 
7, 955. 07 


5, 101. 04 


21, 547. 78 
2, 185. 47 


105, 180. 29 


142, 123. 82 
10 140 54 


Gifts and grants ' . 




2,668,368.36 


2,668,368.36 










Total income - 


129, 006. 97 


404, 874. 57 
2, 217, 664. 19 


308, 445. 14 


2, 774, 461. 35 


3, 616, 788. 03 

2, 217, 664. 19 
497, 528. 20 
25,822.26 


Sales of securities: 
Endowment funds: 
Freer fund 


Consolidated fund 


321,900.75 
25, 822. 26 


175, 627. 45 




Other stocks and bonds 














Total endowment funds sales 


347, 723. 01 


2, 217, 664. 19 


175, 627. 45 
190, 000. 00 




2, 741, 014. 65 


Investment of current funds in U.S. 
Government bonds 




190,000.00 










Total receipts- - 


476,729.98 


2,622,538.76 


674, 072. 59 


2,774,461.35 


6,547,802.68 




DISBURSEMENTS: 
Administrative salaries. - 




34, 360. 45 
133, 888. 80 


87, 843. 80 




122, 204. 25 
141, 701. 46 


Other salaries - 


7, 812. 66 










Total salaries 


7,812.66 
28, 322. 70 


168, 249. 25 
220, 268. 00 


87,843.80 
1, 439. 50 

32, 426. 58 
2,992.22 
8, 387. 37 
8, 513. 11 




263, 905. 71 
250, 030. 26 


Purchases for collection 




Research and explorations and re- 
lated administrative expense: 
Salaries ' 


1, 042, 473. 72 


1,074,900.30 


Travel- 


1, 762. 81 

416. 27 

2, 295. 15 


4, 019. 29 


8, 774. 32 
8, 803. 64 


Equipment and supply 




Other 3 




1, 252, 423. 78 


1, 263, 232. 04 






Total research and explorations and 

related administrative expense.. 

Publications 


4, 474. 23 
7, 774. 93 


4, 019. 29 
5, 505. 47 


52,319.28 
74,969.17 


2, 294, 897. 50 


2, 355, 710. 30 
88, 249. 57 



J This statement does not iaclude Government appropriations under administrative charge of the 
Institution. 
» Includes receipts for IGY program. 
» Includes disbursements for IQY program. 



240 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 



CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS DURING FISCAL 

YEAR 1959 1— Continued 





Restricted funds 


Unre- 
stricted 
funds 


Gifts and 
grants 


Total 




General 


Freer 




DISBUKSEMENTS-Continued 
Buildings, equipment, and grounds: 
Buildings and installations. _ - _ 




$10, 058. 53 

306. 54 
385. 28 


$1, 079. 80 




$11, 138. 33 


Court and grounds mainte- 
nance 






306. 54 


Technical laboratory 








385.28 












Total buUdings, equipment, 
and frrnnnrls. 




10, 750. 35 

11, 852. 36 

8, 529. 48 
1, 128. 10 
5, 271. 12 
2,847.31 


1, 079. 80 
4,301.05 
6, 018. 12 




11, 830. 15 


Contractual services: 
Custodian and Ipp^al fees 


$5, 649. 84 




21, 803. 25 


Supplies and expenses: 
Meetings, special exhibits 




14, 547. 60 


Lectures .- 


430. 12 




1, 558. 22 


Photographs and reproductions- 


415. 05 

1, 111. 02 

175. 17 

467. 00 

1, 831. 00 




5, 686. 17 


Library 






3,958.33 
175. 17 


Stationery and office supplies. . 






Postage, telephone, and telegraph 








467.00 


Stamp machines 








1, 831. 00 












Total supplies and expenses. 


430. 12 


17,776.01 


10, 017. 36 




28, 223. 49 








Total expenses 


54, 464. 54 


438, 420. 73 
2, 231, 471. 33 


231,969.96 


$2,294,897.50 


3,019,752 73 


Purchases of securities: 
Endowment funds: 
Freerfund 


2, 231, 471. 33 
529, 296. 86 


Consolidated fund. 


342,455.07 
25,608.39 


186,84L79 




Other st.onlrs and bonds 






25, 608. 39 












Total endowment funds 


368, 063. 46 


2, 231, 471. 33 


186, 841. 79 
189,986.70 




2,786,376.58 
189, 986. 70 


Investment of current funds in 
U.S. Government bonds 














Total disbursements . . 


422, 528. 00 


2,669,892.06 


608, 798. 45 


2, 294, 897. 50 


5, 996, 116. 01 






Excess receipts over disbursements. .. 


54,201.98 


(47,353.30) 


65, 274, 14 


479, 563. 85 


551, 686. 67 


Caah halanf-ft Jnne .If), Ifl.'iR 










1, 080, 175. 24 














Cash balance June 30, 1959 


1, 631, 861. 91 















The practice of maintaining savings accounts in several of the 
Washington banks and trust companies has been continued during 
the past year, and interest on these deposits amounted to $7,501.11. 

Deposits are made in banks for convenience in collection of checks, 
and later such funds are withdrawn and deposited in the United 
States Treasury. Disbursement of funds is made by check signed by 
the Secretary of the Institution and drawn on the United States 
Treasury. 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and grants from the 
following : 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 241 

American Council of Learned Societies, gift to defray travel expenses of Dr. 
Ralph Solecki to visit Paris to assist in the preparation of an international 
manual on salvage archeology. 

American Institute of Biological Sciences, gift to defray travel expenses of 
Dr. Ernest A. Lachner. 

Atomic Energy Commission, additional grants for the purpose of conducting a 
biochemical investigation of photomorphogenesis in green plants. 

Anonymous donor, gift to establish the "Special Astrophysical Observatory 
Fund." 

Anonymous donor, gift for the repair and maintenance of a coach. 

Bredin, Mr. and Mrs. J. Bruce, additional gift for the Smithsonian-Bredin 
Expeditions Fund. 

Carter Oil Company, additional grant for a research project on echinoid 
spines. 

Chase, Mrs. Agnes, additional gift for copying the index to grass names. 

Department of the Air Force, additional grants for research entitled "Study 
of Atmospheric Entry and Impact of High Velocity Meteorites." 

Department of the Air Force, additional grants for research directed toward 
the study of the rate of accretion of interplanetary matter by the earth. 

Department of the Army, grants for research entitled "Procurement of Satellite 
Tracking and Orbit Determination Program." 

F^nykovl, J. J., gift for the unrestricted use of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Hart, Gustavus E., bequest for the diffusion of useful knowledge among men 
and especially for the prevention of disease in human beings. 

Henderson, B. P., gift to establish the "Meteorite Fund." 

Kevorkian, H., grant to the Freer Gallery of Art. 

Link, E. A., additional gift for historical research (marine archeology). 

Link Foundation, gift to be used for special publications dealing with aviation 
and the Smithsonian Institution collections. 

Likens, W. H., gift for the Smithsonian Institution's unrestricted funds. 

Fred Maytag Family Foundation, gift for historical research (marine 
archeology) . 

National Geographic Society, additional grant to complete the excavations and 
related work at the archeological site in Jackson County, Alabama. 

National Geographic Society, grant for an expedition to British Guiana for 
the purpose of coUecting live specimens of the hoatz^in and other birds and 
manunals. 

National Science Foundation, additional grant for the support of research 
entitled "Studies of Type Specimen of Ferns." 

National Science Foundation, additional grant for the support of research en- 
titled "Monographic Studies of Tingidae and Presmidae (Hemiptera)," 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Sys- 
tematic Studies of South American Microlepidoptera." 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Ab- 
original History of the Peruvian Coast." 

National Science Foundation, additional grant for the support of research 
entitled "Monograph of Fr^h Water Oalanoid Copepods." 

National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, grants for an optical tracking and scientific analysis program for the 
United States earth satellite program. 

National Science Foundation, additional grant for the support of research en- 
titled "Morphology and Paleoecology of Permian Brachiopods." 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Taxo- 
nomic Study of the Phanerogams of Colombia." 



242 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1959 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Data 
Reduction-Earth Albedo Observations During the International Geophysical 
Year Meteorology Program." 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research on the metabolic 
aspects of the digestion of wax. 

National Science Foundation, grant for the support of research entitled "Semi- 
nole Culture." 

National Science Foimdation, grant for the support of research entitled "Pre- 
historic Man in Shanidar Valley." 

National Science Foundation, additional grant for the support of research en- 
titled "Taxonomy of the Bamboos." 

OflSce of Naval Research, additional grants to perform psychological research 
(Studies. 

Office of Naval Research, additional grant to perform aeronautical research 
studies. 

Office of Naval Research, additional grants to provide expert consultants to 
advise the Navy Research Advisory Committee. 

Office of Naval Research, additional grant to assist work in progress on the 
preparation of a synoptic catalog of the mosquitoes of the world. 

Office of Naval Research, grants to conduct studies of helminth parasites of 
Egypt and other Middle Eastern areas. 

Petroeelli, Mrs. Mary O., bequest to establish the "Joseph Petrocelli Memorial 
Fund." 

Research Corporation, grant for the support of research entitled "Spectro- 
photometric Investigation of the Photomorphogenic Pigment System." 

Rocca, B. T., gift for the unrestricted use of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Snyderman, I., gift to establish the "Numismatic Fund." 

St. Petersburg Shell Club, gift to defray expenses of Dr. Harald Rehder in 
connection with travel to St. Petersburg. 

United States Department of Agriculture, grant for the preparation of a 
catalog of mosquitoes. 

University of the State of New York, gift to defray travel expenses of Dr. 
Herbert Friedmann while attending the conference on Systematic Museums 
as Resources for Basic Research. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, grant to aid participation in celebration of Hrdlidka 
90th Anniversary, Prague, 1959. 

For support of the Bio- Sciences Information Exchange : 
Atomic Energy Commission. 
Department of the Air Force. 
Department of the Army. 
Department of the Navy. 
National Science Foundation. 
Public Health Service. 
Veterans Administration. 

Included in the above list of gifts and contributions are reimburs- 
able contracts. 

The foregoing report relates only to the private funds of the 
Institution. 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Gov- 
ernment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1959 : 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 243 

Salaries and Expenses $7, 587, 800. 00 

National Zoological Park 953,800.00 

The appropriation made to the National Gallery of Art (which is 
a bureau of the Smitlisonian Institution) was $1,790,100.00. 

In addition, funds were transferred from other Government agen- 
cies for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion as follows : 

Working Funds, transferred from the National Park Service, In- 
terior Department, for archeological investigations in river basins 
throughout the United States $162, 000. 00 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support 
of the Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island 
in the Canal Zone. 

AUDIT 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian Private Funds follows : 

"Washington, D. C, September 28, 1959. 

The Boabd of Regents, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington 25, B.C. 

We have examined the statement of private funds of Smithsonian Institution 
as of June 30, 1959 and the related statement of private funds cash receipts 
and disbursements for the year then ended. Our examination was made in 
accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included 
such tests of the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we 
considered necessary in the circumstances. 

Land, buildings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other speci- 
mens and certain sundry property are not included in the accounts of the 
Institution ; likewise, the accompanying statements do not include the National 
Gallery of Art and other departments, bureaus, and operations administered 
by the Institution under Federal appropriations. The accounts of the Institu- 
tion are maintained on the basis of cash receipts and disbursements, with the 
result that the accompanying statements do not reflect income earned but not 
collected or expenses incurred but not paid. 

In our opinion, subject to the matters referred to in the preceding para- 
graph, the accompanying statement of private funds presents fairly the assets, 
unexpended funds and endowments of the private funds of Smithsonian Institu- 
tion at June 30, 1959; further, the accompanying statement of private funds 
cash receipts and disbursements, which has been prepared on a basis consistent 
with that of the preceding year, presents fairly the caish transactions of the 
private funds for the year then ended. 

Peat, Makwick, Mitchell & Co. 
Eespectfiilly submitted. 

/s/ Robert V. Fleming 
/s/ Clarence Cannon 
/s/ Caryl P. Haskins 

Executive Gommittee. 

o 



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