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Full text of "Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, 1948 : Communist Front Organizations"

FOIMH PO&T 

UN-AMKICAN ACTIVITY 
IN (ALIFOfeNIA 

1945 



COMMUNIST FROHT OWAHIZATIOHS 




OF M JOINT fA(I-flHDIN<i (OMMIIIEt 
TO THE 1948 DELIAS ailfOHHIA UIStATUtE 
SACDAMENTO, 104! 



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SENATOR }. HOWARD WlL 
32d Senatorial District 



CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE 

Fourth Report of the 

Senate Fact- Finding Committee 

On Un-American Activities 

1948 

COMMUNIST 
FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 



MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 

SENATOR NELSON S. DIL WORTH SENATOR Louis G. SUTTON 

SENATOR FRED H. KRAFT SENATOR CLYDE A. WATSON 

SENATOR HUGH M. BURNS, Vice Chairman 

SENATOR JACK B. TENNEY, Chairman 

LINNIE TENNEY. Secretary MURRAY STRAVERS, Executive Secretary 

R. E. COMBS, Chief Counsel 




PUBLISHED BY THE SENATE 

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR GOODWIN J. KNIGHT 
President of the Senate 

SENATOR HAROLD J. POWERS JOSEPH A. BEEK 

President Pro Tempore of the Senate Secretary of the Senate 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

SENATE CHAMBER, STATE CAPITOL 

SACRAMENTO, March 25, 1948 
Honorable Goodwin J. Knight 

President of the Senate; and 
Gentlemen of the Senate 

Senate Chamber, Sacramento, California 

MR. PRESIDENT AND GENTLEMEN OF THE SENATE : 

Pursuant to Senate Resolution No. 75, which appears at page 3532 
of the Senate Journal for June 20, 1947, the Senate Fact-Finding Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities was created and the following were 
appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules : 

Senator Hugh M. Burns, 
Senator Nelson S. Dilworth, 
Senator Fred H. Kraft, 
Senator Louis G. Sutton, 
Senator Clyde A. Watson, 
Senator Jack B. Tenney. 

The committee herewith submits a partial report of its investiga- 
tions and findings. 

Respectfully submitted. 

HUGH M. BURNS, 

NELSON S. DILWORTH, 

FRED H. KRAFT, 

Louis G. SUTTON, 

CLYDE A. WATSON, 

JACK B. TENNEY, Chairman 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Senate Resolution No. 75 1 

Organization of the Committee 3 

Fairfax Investigation and Hearing 4 

Oakland Hearings 7 

Vern Smith 8 

Los Angeles Hearings 13 

Appreciation and Acknowledgment 14 

Citizens' Advisory Committee 15 

Is America Blind? 20 

The Communist Party of the United States Is an Agent of Soviet 

Russia 20 

PART I 

ANALYSIS OF COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 23 

Why Communists Need Front Organizations 24 

Every Communist an Agent of the Kremlin 27 

Marxian Double-Talk 27 

Types of Communist-Influenced Organizations 28 

Types of Communist Front Organizations 31 

Organizations Classified by Proportion of Communist Influence 32 

Communist Created and Controlled Organizations 34 

Communist Created or Controlled Unions 36 

Communist Infiltrated and Controlled Organizations 38 

Communist Infiltrated and Dominated Organizations 39 

Communist Infiltrated, but Neither Controlled Nor Dominated 41 

Communist Infiltrated Solely for Purposes of Espionage 43 

Miscellaneous Groups 44 

Organizations Classified by Communist Purpose and Objective 44 

The Six Basic Divisions of Communist Front Organizations 46 

(1) The Indispensable Organizations for Revolution 46 

I. Communist Basic Organizations 47 

II. Communist Controlled Publications and Infor- 
mation Services 48 

(2) Culture and Science 50 

I. Arts and Culture 50 

II. Sciences and Professions 52 

III. Youth and Education 53 

(3) Communist Fronts for Domestic Affairs 54 

I. Defense, Honoring and Support of Known Com- 
munist Organizations 55 

II. Legal Defense and Civil Rights 56 



iii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued 

ANALYSIS OF COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 
Continued 

Page 

"Thought Control" 58 

III. Political and Legislative 61 

(4) Communist Fronts for Foreign Policy 63 

I. Fronts for Support and Praise of the Soviet 

Union 65 

II. Fronts for Support and Praise of Communist 
Dominated Nations and Communist Parties in 

Other Lands 66 

III. Fronts on War, Peace and Foreign Relations 66 

(5) Fronts for Appeals to Basic Groups 67 

I. Fronts In, and For, Organized Labor 69 

II. Fronts for Charity, Relief and Unemployed 72 

III. Fronts for Racial, Refugee and Alien Groups 73 

IV. Fronts for Veterans and Military 75 

V. Fronts for Farmers 76 

VI. Fronts for Consumers 76 

What Is a Stalinist? 78 

The Stigma of Stalinism 80 

The Four Types of Stalinists 81 

(1) Communists 81 

(2) Fellow-Travelers 81 

(3) Opportunists 82 

(4) Dupes : -.. 82 

Interchangeability of Stalinist Types 83 

The Telltale Marks of Stalinism 83 

Stalinism Is a Disease 84 

Basic Tests of a Communist-Stalinist Organization 84 

(1) Sponsorship 84 

(2) Organization 85 

(3) Printing and Publicity 85 

(4) Policies 86 

(5) Tactics 86 

(6) Attitude on Foreign Affairs 87 

(7) Attitude on Domestic Affairs 87 

(8) Attitude on National Security 88 

(9) Attitude on Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism 89 

PART II 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 91 

Abolish Peonage Committee 93 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 93 

Abraham Lincoln School 95 

Actors' Laboratory Theater 95 

Age of Treason 106 

All- America Anti-Imperialist League 106 

All-California Conference for Defense of Civil Rights and Aid 

To Labor's Prisoners 107 

iv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Continued 

Page 

All-Union Society for Cultural Relations With Foreigners 

(VOKS) 107 

American Civil Liberties Union 107 

American Committee for a Free Indonesia 112 

American Committee for a Korean People's Party 112 

American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual 

Freedom 112 

American Committee for Indonesian Independence 113 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 113 

American Committee for Russian Famine Relief 114 

American Committee for Spanish Freedom 115 

American Committee for Yugoslav Relief 131 

American Committee to Aid Soviet Russia 141 

American Committee to Save Refugees 141 

American Communications Association CIO 141 

American Federated Russian Famine Relief Committee 141 

American Friends of the Chinese People 142 

American Friends of Czechoslovakia 145 

American Friends of the Soviet Union 145 

American Fund for Public Service 145 

American Jewish CongresS 145 

American League Against War and Fascism 149 

American League for Peace and Democracy 149 

American Peace Crusade 160 

"Information for Peace Crusaders" 160 

American Peace Mobilization 161 

American People 's Fund 168 

American Relief for Greek Democracy : 168 

American Russian Institute 169 

American Student Union 178 

American Youth Congress 179 

American Youth for Democracy 182 

Anti-Imperialist League 188 

Anti-Nazi News 188 

Artef 188 

Artists' Front to Win the War 188 

Associated Film Audiences 193 

Black and White 193 

Book Union 194 

California Labor School 194 

Calif ornia Legislative Conference 195 

Calif ornia Youth Legislature 195 

Celebration of 15 Years Biro-Bidjan 196 

Champion of Youth 196 

China Conference Arrangements Committee 197 

China Today 198 

Citizens' Committee for Better Education 198 

Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder 200 

Citizens Committee for the Motion Picture Strikers 201 

v 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Continued 

Page 

Civil Rights Congress 201 

Committee for a Democratic Eastern Policy 208 

Committee for Defense of Ferdinand C. Smith 208 

Committee for the First Amendment . 210 

Committee to Aid Chinese Trade Unions 211 

Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of the War 211 

Communist Dominated C. I. 0. Unions 212 

Communist Party 212 

Communist Party Book Stores in California 224 

Communist Party Publications 224 

Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America 226 

Congress of American-Soviet Friendship 226 

Congress of American Women 226 

Daily Worker 232 

Emergency Civil Liberties Conference 233 

Emergency Committee on KFI 233 

Emergency Conference to Halt the Blackout of Civil Liberties 

in California 233 

Exiled Writers Committee 234 

Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians _ 234 

Film and Photo League *- 237 

Film Audiences for Democracy 238 

Films for Democracy 239 

First State-wide Emergency Legislative Conference 239 

Freedom From Fear Committee 239 

Free Italy Society 241 

Freiheit 242 

Friends of Soviet Russia 242 

Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 244 

Friends of the Soviet Union 244 

Frontier Films 247 

Garland Fund 247 

Garrison Films Distributors, Inc 247 

Golden Book of American Friendship With the Soviet Union 248 

Harry Bridges Defense Committee 248 

Hollywood Anti-Nazi League 249 

Hollywood Democratic Committee 250 

Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, 

Sciences and Professions (HICCASP) 252 

Hollywood League Against Nazi-ism 255 

Hollywood League for Democratic Action %55 

Hollywood League of Women Shoppers 256 

Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee 256 

Hollywood Quarterly 257 

Hollywood Writers' Mobilization 258 

ICOR 261 

Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, 

Sciences and Professions 262 

vi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Continued 

Page 

Institute for Democratic Education, Inc 263 

InternationalJuridical Association 265 

International Labor Defense 265 

International Workers Order 267 

Jefferson School of Social Science 269 

John Reed Clubs 270 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 270 

Joint Committee National Negro Congress and 

United Public Workers 271 

Labor's Non-Partisan League 272 

Lawyers Committee to Keep the United States Out of War 272 

League Against Imperialism 273 

League of American Writers - 273 

League of American Writers' School in Hollywood 275 

League of Women Shoppers 277 

League of Workers Theatres 278 

Los Angeles Emergency Committee to Aid the Strikers 279 

Los Angeles Youth Committee Against Universal 

Military Training 279 

Marine Cooks and Stewards Association 281 

Affidavit of William D. Handelsman 282 

Affidavit of George W. Crosby 292 

Communist Persecution 298 

Affidavit of Alex Harris 300 

Mobilization for Democracy 308 

Motion Picture Artists' Committee 310 

Musicians' Congress Committee 310 

Affidavit of Rena M. Vale 314 

National Committee to Win the Peace 318 

National Council Against Conscription 319 

National Council for the Protection of the Foreign Born 321 

National Council for Protection of Foreign Born Workers 321 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 321 

National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights 327 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 327 

National Institute of Arts and Letters 330 

National Lawyers' Guild 331 

National Negro Congress 332 

National People's Committee Against Hearst 333 

National Share-Croppers Fund 334 

National Student League 337 

National Youth Assembly Against Universal 

Military Training ___ 338 

. New Masses 340 

News of the World 341 

News Vendors Union, Local 75, C.I.O 340 

Now 341 

Pacific Weekly 341 

Pax Productions : 341 

vii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued 

COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS Continued 

Page 

People's Daily World 342 

People's Educational Center 346 

People's Peace 350 

Progressive Citizens of America 353 

Russian Reconstruction Farms, Inc 357 

Russian War Relief, Inc 357 

Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee 358 

Screen Writers Guild 359 

Second State-Wide Emergency Legislative Conference 374 

Slavic Council of Los Angeles 374 

Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee 375 

Social Work Today 375 

Society for Technical Aid to Soviet Russia 376 

Spanish Refugee Appeal 376 

State- Wide Legislative Conference 376 

Statement Defending the Communist Party 377 

Student Advocate 377 

Student Review 377 

Theatre Arts Committee 377 

United Negro and Allied Veterans of America 378 

United Public Workers of America, C.I.O 379 

United Spanish Aid Committee 382 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 382 

VOKS 383 

Western Council for Progressive Labor in Agriculture 383 

Winner 383 

Worker's Alliance of America 383 

Workers Ex-Service Men's League 384 

Writers Congress at the University of California 389 

Writers and Artists Committee for Medical Aid to Spain- 
Young Communist League 389 

Young People 's Records 

Young Progressive Citizen's Committee 393 



viii 



PARTIAL REPORT OF THE SENATE FACT-FINDING 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

IN CALIFORNIA 

Introduction 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Senate 

The Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in 
California was created by Senate Resolution No. 75, adopted by the 
Senate June 20, 1947. 

The resolution is as follows: 

SENATE RESOLUTION NO. 75 

WHEREAS, These are yet times of public danger. Subversive persons 
and groups are endangering our domestic unity so as to leave us unpre- 
pared to resist attack from without or within. Under color of the protec- 
tion afforded by the Bill of Rights these persons and groups seek to 
destroy our freedom by force, violence, threats, undermining and sabo- 
tage, and to subject us to the domination of foreign powers and ideol- 
ogies; and 

WHEREAS, There is danger that the ordeal through which the Country 
has suffered to keep the pursuit of its ideals free may be in vain ; and 

WHEREAS, Persons and groups, motivated by hatred of American 
ideals, our republican form of government and democratic processes, 
some bound together by allegiance to foreign powers, are even now seek- 
ing to achieve by subversion what we have so valiantly fought to sustain 
from force ; and 

WHEREAS, California, as one of the laboratories of this great Nation, 
may profitably study the problem within its boundaries, and enact perti- 
nent legislation therein, if facts are available therefor ; and 

WHEREAS, State legislation to meet the problem and to assist law 
enforcement officers can best be based on a thorough and impartial 
investigation by a competent and active legislative committee; now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved by the Senate of the State of California, That 
1. The Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities 
is hereby created and authorized and directed to investigate, ascertain, 
study and analyze all facts directly or indirectly relating to the fore- 
going, to the activities of groups and organizations whose membership 
include persons who are members of organizations who have as their 
objectives, or part of their objectives, the overthrow of the government 
of the State of California or of the United States by force and violence 
or other unlawful means, all organizations known or suspected to be 
dominated or controlled by a foreign power which activities affect the 
conduct of this State in national defense, the functioning of any state 
agency, unemployment relief and other forms of public assistance, educa- 
tional institutions of this State supported in whole or in part by public 

2 L-7088-D ( 1 ) 



2 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

funds, or any political program, or which may affect the conversion of 
the State from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy or affect the 
economic and social problems incidental thereto, including but not limited 
to the operation, effect, administration, enforcement and needed revision 
of any and all laws in any way bearing upon or relating to the subject 
of this resolution, and to report thereon to the Senate. 

2. In addition to the foregoing, the Senate Fact-Finding Committee 
on Un-American Activities is authorized and directed to ascertain, study 
and analyze all facts relating to the activities of persons and groups 
known or suspected to be dominated or controlled by a foreign power, 
and who owe allegiance thereto because of religious, racial, political, 
ideological, philosophical, or other ties, including but not limited to the 
influence upon all such persons and groups of education, economic circum- 
stances, social positions, fraternal and casual associations, living stand- 
ards, race, religion, political, ancestry and the activities of paid provoca- 
tion and any other factors which may account for their conduct or con- 
dition their action, as well as the operation, effect, administration, enforce- 
ment and needed revision of any and all laws in any way bearing upon 
or relating to the subject of this resolution, and to report thereon to the 
Senate. 

3. The committee shall consist of six Members of the Senate 
appointed by the Committee on Eules thereof. Vacancies occurring or 
existing in the membership of the committee shall be filled by the appoint- 
ing power. 

4. The committee is authorized io act during this session of the 
Legislature, including any recess, and after final adjournment until the 
final adjournment of the 1949 Regular Session, with authority to file its 
final report not later than the last legislative day of that session. 

5. The committee and its members shall have and exercise all of the 
rights, duties and powers conferred upon investigating committees and 
their members by the provisions of the Joint Rules of the Senate and 
Assembly and the Standing Rules of the Senate as they are adopted and 
amended from time to time, which provisions are incorporated herein and 
made applicable to this committee and its members. 

6. The committee has the following additional powers and duties : 

(a) To select a chairman and a vice chairman from its membership, 
and to employ and fix the compensation of a secretary and such clerical, 
investigative, expert and technical assistants as it may deem necessary. 

(b) To contract with such other agencies, public or private, as it 
deems necessary for the rendition and affording of such services, facilities, 
studies and reports to the committee as will best assist it to carry out 
the purposes for which it is created. 

(c) To cooperate with and secure the cooperation of county, city, 
city and county, and other local law enforcement agencies in investigat- 
ing any matter within the scope of this resolution and to direct the 
sheriff of any county to serve subpenas, orders and other process issued 
by the committee. 

(d) To report its findings and recommendations to the Legislature 
and to the people from time to time and at any time, not later than herein 
provided. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 3 

(e) To do any and all other things necessary or convenient to enable 
it fully and adequately to exercise its powers, perform its duties, and 
accomplish the objects and purposes of this resolution. 

(f ) To create subcommittees from its membership, assigning to the 
subcommittee any study, inquiry, investigation or hearing which the 
committee itself has authority to undertake or hold, and the subcom- 
mittee for the purpose of this assignment shall have and exercise all of 
the powers conferred upon the committee limited by the express terms of 
the resolution or resolutions of the latter defining the powers and duties 
of the subcommittee, which powers may be withdrawn or terminated at 
any time by the committee. 

(g) To adopt and from time to time amend such rules governing its 
procedure (including the fixing of its own quorum and the number of 
votes necessary to take action on any matter) as may to it appear 
appropriate. 

(h) To hold public hearings ^t any place in California at which 
hearings the people are to have an opportunity to present their views to 
the committee. 

(i) To summon and subpena witnesses, require the production of 
papers, books, accounts, reports, documents, and records of every kind 
and description, to issue subpenas and to take all necessary means to 
compel the attendance of witnesses and procure testimony. 

7. The committee, each of its members, and any representative of 
the committee thereunto authorized by the committee or by its chairman, 
is authorized and empowered to administer oaths. 

8. Every department, commission, board, agency, officer and 
employee of the State Government, including the Legislative Counsel, 
the Attorney General and their subordinates, and of any political sub- 
division, county, city, or public district of or in this State shall furnish 
the committee and any subcommittee, upon request, any and all such 
assistance, and information, records and documents as the committee or 
subcommittee deems proper for the accomplishment of the purposes for 
which the committee is created. 

9. The committee, or a subcommittee or the chairman when author- 
ized by a majority vote of the entire committee, may meet outside the 
State with similar committees of Congress or of the several states. 

10. The sum of thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) , or as much thereof 
as may be necessary, is hereby made available from the Contingent Fund 
of the Senate for the expenses of the committee and its members and for 
any charges, expenses or claims it may incur under this resolution, to 
be paid from said Contingent Fund, and disbursed, after certification by 
the chairman of the committee, upon warrants drawn by the State 
Controller upon the State Treasurer. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMITTEE 

Pursuant to Senate Resolution No. 75, the Senate Committee on 
Rules appointed Senators Hugh M. Burns, of Fresno County ; Nelson S. 
Dilworth, of Riverside County; Senator Fred H. Kraft, of San Diego 
County ; Senator Louis G. Sutton, of Tehama, Glenn and Colusa Coun- 
ties ; Clyde A. Watson, of Orange County ; and Jack B. Tenney, of Los 
Angeles County. 



4 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

At the committee's organizational meeting, Senator Jack B. Tenney 
was elected chairman. Senator Hugh M. Burns was elected vice chairman. 
Mrs. Linnie Tenney was elected secretary without compensation. 

The committee has attempted to continue the work of similar com- 
mittees functioning by authority of the Legislature since 1941. The 
selection of Senator Jack B. Tenney, who has headed the previous com- 
mittees, as chairman, insured continuity of investigations in the field 
of subversive activity. 

The committee has held public hearings in the City of Fairfax, the 
City of Oakland, and in the City of Los Angeles, in addition to several 
executive meetings. 

FAIRFAX INVESTIGATION AND HEARING ; 

The chairman of this committee received the following resolution 
from the City Council of the City of Fairfax in Marin County, California, 
on or about the tenth day of August, 1947 : 

Resolved, that the City Council of the City of Fairfax, County 
of Marin, State of California, in its investigation on Communism 
and Un-American Activities, request help and assistance from the 
State of California, through the California State Fact-Finding 
Committee on Un-American Activities, California State Legislature. 

Pursuant to this resolution a subcommittee of the Senate Fact- 
Finding Committee on Un-American Activities headed by its vice chair- 
man, Senator Hugh M. Burns of Fresno, conducted a one day hearing in 
Fairfax on October 23, 1947. Witnesses who were subpenaed and testified 
include Ernest Besig, Elsa Gidlow, Leslie A. Grosbauer, Sidney Hall, 
John L. Rockwell, and Clarice Eleanor Stevens. 

It appears from the record that Leslie Grosbauer was authorized 
and directed by the City Council of the City of Fairfax to make an investi- 
gation into alleged un-American activities in the city. 

Mr. Grosbauer, a member of the City Council of the City of Fairfax, 
and formerly the mayor of the city, testified that he had met Elsa 
Gidlow in March of 1946 when she was prominent in the organization of 
a group which became known as the Fairfax Residents and Taxpayers 
Association. He stated that the association sponsored three candidates 
for election to the city council who were ultimately elected. John L. 
Rockwell, one of these candidates, became chairman of the council and 
appointed Elsa Gidlow to the City Planning Commission. 

After Grosbauer had resigned as mayor, remaining a member of the 
city council, he was appointed by his successor, Mayor Charles F. Camp- 
bell, to make an investigation of Elsa Gidlow and Communist activities 
in the City of Fairfax. 

Grosbauer introduced into the committee record a photostatic copy 
of the September, 1939 issue, volume 1, number 4, of the Communist 
publication, Black and White. The photostat revealed the following 
information: Editor: Wilbur Needham; Managing Editor: Edward 
Wall; Business Manager: Evans Stanwood; Associate Editors: Cedric 
Belfrage, Robert A. Brady, Haakon Chevalier, Philip Dunne, Elsie 
Gidlow, Helen Hosmer, Carey McWilliams, Dolph Winebrenner, Don- 
ald Ogden Stewart, Bill Rogers, Louie R. Huber, and Ella-Winter. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 5 

Grosbauer also offered into evidence a photostatic copy of a letter- 
head of the communist Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee. Among 
other names included on this letterhead is the name ' ' Elsa Gidlow. ' ' Also 
accepted in evidence is a photostatic copy of a pamphlet entitled ' ' Cen- 
sored News The News That the Press Won't Print." The pamphlet was 
issued by the Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee. 

Grosbauer testified that a Captain Henry Hemingway, who had 
appeared frequently before the Fairfax City Council in tirades of abuse 
against Grosbauer, gave a party at his home attended by Councilman 
May Hax, Miss Elsa Gidlow, Ernest Besig of the American Civil Lib- 
erties Union, and Mrs. Isabel Quallo. He stated that the Marin newspaper 
stated that the ' * decorations for the occasion featured various shades of 
red." 

The Fairfax hearing of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on 
Un-American Activities was continuously interrupted by Morse Erskine, 
attorney for Elsa Gidlpw. 

Mrs. Clarice Eleanor Stevens testified that she had several conversa- 
sations with Elsa Gidlow, and that the first conversation took place 
during the formation of the committee that organized the Fairfax Resi- 
dents and Taxpayers Association. Mrs. Stevens testified that she had 
discussed the procedure for the Fairfax Residents and Taxpayers Asso- 
ciation meetings with Elsa Gidlow and others and had suggested that 
such meetings be opened with a pledge of allegiance to the Flag, the 
playing of the national anthem, to be followed by " perhaps a short 
prayer." She testified that her suggestions were stormily objected to and 
that she was told that * ' that was carrying things just a little bit too far. ' ' 

Sydney Hall testified that his wife was Robin Hall, and identified 
a photograph of Mrs. Hall which appeared in the People's Daily World 
for September 19, 1947. He identified the name "R. A. Hall, organiza- 
tional secretary, Communist Party, Marin County, P. 0. Box 271, Sausa- 
lito, California, ' ' as that of his wife, Robin Hall. He admitted that both 
himself and his wife are members of the Communist Party. His wife had 
disappeared and he stated he did not know where she was ; that he had not 
seen her for about two weeks. 

John L. Rockwell, an attorney, member of the city council and for- 
merly Mayor of the City of Fairfax, testified that the city had been 
divided into two camps during the past two years and the people had 
been engaging in a ' ' rather intense and protracted political fight. ' ' He 
stated that he had appointed Elsa Gidlow to the city planning commis- 
sion when he was chairman (or mayor) of the city council. He had met 
Miss Gidlow some time in October, 1945. 

Rockwell admitted that he had been a member of the Communist 
American Student Union when attending the University of California. 
He admitted that he had known Hazel McKanney (now Mrs. Aubrey 
Grossman, wife of the educational director of the Communist Party in 
San Francisco) when attending the university. He denied having been 
arrested by the Berkeley police during a demonstration on the campus 
in March of 1935. He stated that he was reprimanded by the police for 
handing out handbills for a meeting, but that he was not arrested. 

Rockwell admitted that he had subscribed to the Communist Party 
periodical, the People's Daily World. 



6 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

John L. Rockwell testified before the Yorty Committee during its 
investigation of subversive activities in the State Relief Administration 
in March, 1940. At that time Rockwell was an employee of the State 
Relief Administration. He also was a member of the Communist initiated 
and controlled State, County, and Municipal Workers of America. He 
was an associate of Gene Chance and Communist Bronislaus Joseph 
Zukas, who was convicted and served a jail sentence for contempt of the 
Yorty Committee. He recalled that Communist John E. Jeffrey was the 
president of the State, County, and Municipal Workers of America 
when he (Rockwell) was in Visalia. He remembered that Communist 
Alexander Noral was state president of the Worker 's Alliance of America. 

Rockwell admitted having been president of the Students Rights 
Association, an organization that protested the expulsion of Communist 
Celeste Strack from the University of California. (Western Worker, 
November 12, 1934.) 

Elsa Gidlow testified that she had been a delegate to the Communist 
Western Writers Congress in San Francisco. She admitted having 
attended luncheons of the Communist Inter-Professional Association in 
1937, and that she edited the Inter-Professional Association Bulletin. 
She attended meetings of the Communist John Reed Club in San Fran- 
cisco. She admitted that her name was listed as associate editor of the 
Communist publication, Black and White, but stated that she had never 
been active in that capacity. 

Miss Gidlow testified that she was acquainted with Prof. Robert A. 
Brady and Prof. Haakon Chevalier. She did not remember having been 
affiliated with the Communist front, the Academic and Civil Rights Coun- 
cil of Northern California (said to be a Communist front by no less an 
authority than Ernest Besig of the American Civil Liberties Union), 
although she was shown a letterhead for October 29, 1940, on which her 
name was listed. She stated that she was unaware that her name had 
appeared in issues of the Communist publication, the People's Daily 
World. (March 30, 1940, October 29, 1940, and November 23, 1940.) 

She admitted knowing Andree Rexroth and stated that she believed 
that the woman was a Communist. Miss Gidlow admitted having been a 
member of the Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee. She stated that 
Andree Rexroth had once asked her to join the Communist Party but 
that she had refused. She declared that she was ''definitely opposed to the 
Communist Party. ' ' 

The committee finds that the officials of the City of Fairfax had good 
reason to believe that the Communist Party was doing its level best to 
create a chaotic situation within that city. Councilman John L. Rock- 
weirs record indicates his sympathies for Communist organizations, indi- 
viduals and causes. He offered no clear cut statement concerning his own 
attitude toward Communists or the Communist Party. 

The committee finds that Elsa Gidlow was affiliated in one capacity 
or another with the following Communist organizations : Western Writers 
Congress, Inter-Professional Association, John Reed Club, Black and 
White, and the Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee. 

Some Communist front organizations cleverly conceal their character 
by the use of high sounding names, such as the Western Writers Congress 
or the American League for Peace and Democracy. One might excusably 
plead ignorance in joining such organizations. The members of this com- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 7 

mittee, however, believe that membership in such fronts as the Citizens 
Committee to Free Earl Browder, or the Schneiderman-Darcy Defense 
Committee is prima facie evidence of sympathy and supporting interest 
in the cause represented by such traitorous individuals as Browder, 
Schneiderman, and Darcy. No person in his good sense would knowingly 
rush to the defense of the enemies of his country. A person would have 
necessarily been a moron if he did not know that Schneiderman and Darcy 
were Communists. Certainly Elsa Gidlow knew that she was supporting 
and defending Communists when she became a member of the Schneider- 
man-Darcy Defense Committee. She does not contend that she is ignorant 
of the conspiratorial, criminal purpose of the Communist Party, and she 
wouldn 't be believed if she made such an assertion. When membership in 
a Communist front, such as the Schneiderman-Darcy Committee is estab- 
lished, and it is then shown that the individual in question is affiliated 
with other Communist fronts, individuals and causes, a pattern of Com- 
munist fellow-traveling immediately follows as a logical conclusion. 

The committee, long ago, concluded that the Red Card of Communist 
membership proved nothing more than formal affiliation. The most 
important Communists are not issued incriminating documentary evi- 
dence. The real test, in the final anaylsis, is activity. When an individual 
is known to be associated with Communist organizations, individuals and 
causes over a period of years; denounces everything but Communism, 
condemns the United States while praising Soviet Russia together with 
the other activities advocated by the Communist Party, that individual 
is a Communist, whether he has a book signed by Joe Stalin or not. 

The committee finds that the Communist Party is making appreci- 
able headway in its drive in Marin County. Advertisements carried in 
the County's papers signed by R. Hall (Robin Hall), the organizer of 
the Communist Party for that County, illustrates the usual Communist 
technique in its "vanguard role of the proletariat." 

The committee observes that the Rockwell-Gidlow axis in the City 
of Fairfax is a familiar maneuver of Communist Party strategists. Don 
Healy, husband of Dorothy Healy, organizing secretary of the Com- 
munist Party of Los Angeles County and former Communist head of 
Labors Non-Partisan League, was successful in securing an appoint- 
ment to the Planning Commission of the City of Los Angeles. 

The majority of the members of the City Council, City of Fairfax, 
Mayor Charles F. Campbell and Councilman Leslie A. Grosbauer, are 
to be congratulated on their vigilance in attacking the forces that are 
determined to destroy, not only Fairfax and California, but the United 
States of America as well. 

OAKLAND HEARINGS 

The committee met for a public hearing in the courthouse in Oak- 
land November 3 to 6, 1947. The committee was interested in probing the 
personnel and structure of the Alameda County Communist Party. It 
was interested in the functions of the former Communist front, the Fed- 
eration of Architects, Engineers, Chemist and Technicians, now the 
United Office and Professional Workers of America. Many witnesses 
were examined in reference to the Communist activities within the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards, C.I.O. Among those who were questioned at 



8 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the Oakland hearing- were Carol Barnes, "William Patrick Brandhove, 
Haakon Chevalier, Richard Gladstein, Arthur A. Griffey, David Hedley, 
Walter Hesse, Martin Kaplan, Ruth McGovney, Sidney Roger, Rose 
Segure, and Eugene Toopeekoff. 

The over-all purpose of the Oakland hearing was an inquiry into the 
interlocking directorate and personnel of a network of Communist front 
organizations functioning in the San Francisco Bay area. The committee 
found overwhelming evidence of strong Communist links between cer- 
tain people in the University of California, the California Labor School, 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards Association, the former Federation of 
Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians, the Communist pub- 
lication, the People's Daily World, and the Communist Party generally. 

The findings of the committee concerning individuals and organiza- 
tions in the Oakland inquiry are set forth under their respective head- 
ings in this report. 

VERN SMITH 

Vern Smith, a former member of the editorial staff of the Communist 
publication, the People's Daily World, was subpenaed to testify before 
the committee during its Oakland hearing. On November 5, 1947, Vern 
Smith appeared before the committee but refused to be sworn or to 
testify. The following is from the committee's transcript of testimony, 
Volume XXXIII, pages 294 to 302 : 

Mr. Combs : Will Mr. Vern Smith come forward, please ? 

(Mr. Smith came forward and stood in front of counsel and 
the committee.) 

Mr. Smith: I wish to state that I support the principles of 
Communism and do not * * * 

Chairman Tenney : Mr. Smith, will you be sworn ? 

Mr. Smith: I wish to state that I support the principles of 
Communism and do not speak for it. 

Chairman Tenney : The committee will stand in recess for about 
five minutes. 

(Five minutes recess taken) 

Chairman Tenney : All right. The committee will come to order. 
Is Mr. Smith here, Mr. Vern Smith ? The committee wishes to give 
him another opportunity to be sworn and to testify. 

(Mr. Smith came forward.) 

Chairman Tenney : Will you be sworn, Mr. Smith ? 

Mr. Smith: I will object to this committee and will attempt to 
read this statement if you will be quiet and let me, instead of inter- 
rupting me as you did the last time. 

Chairman Tenney: Mr. Combs, Mr. Smith has handed you a 
statement in which he makes a certain declaration I think it's at 
the end of the statement; the last two lines. Yes, they read: "I 
therefore refuse to answer any questions by the Tenney Committee 
or to be sworn as a witness before it. ' ' 

I offer this as an exhibit, the next number in order. 

(Received in evidence and marked Exhibit 17.) 

Senator Dilworth: I wish the record to show that Mr. Smith 
is present and listening. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Chairman Tenney : You refuse to be sworn, Mr. Smith ? 

Senator Dilworth: I think it's quite obvious that he refuses to 
be sworn. 

Senator Sutton : I move Mr. Vern Smith be placed in contempt of 
this committee for refusal to be sworn, being under subpena. 

Senator Dilworth : I second the motion. 

Chairman Tenney : The motion is that Mr. Smith be held in con- 
tempt of the committee and cited therefor. It probably means we'll 
have to take the matter up with the entire committee before enter- 
ing citations. 

Senator Sutton : Subcommittee ? 

Chairman Tenney: All in favor signify by saying "Aye." 

(Voting) 

Chairman Tenney: Opposed? 

Chairman Tenney: The motion is carried. Mr. Smith will be 
cited for contempt by the entire committee, a meeting of which I 
will call in the next week or two. 

Mr. Combs : Mr. Chairman, I now wish to offer into the record 
the evidence that I had prepared to introduce through questioning 
Mr. Smith ; the information that we have concerning this prospective 
witness. It is as follows : The name of the witness is Vern it was 
misspelled on the subpena. It was spelled ' * V-e-r-n-e. " Our record 
shows it should have been spelled ' ' V-e-r-n, ' ' and our records on him, 
which we would have endeavored to prove, had the witness con- 
sented to be sworn, showed in 1927, 1928, Mr. Smith covered the 
nation-wide coal strike for the Workers Press ; that in 1928 he was 
the editor of a publication called "Labor Unity," which was the 
organ for William Z. Foster, now chairman of the Communist Party 
of the United States; William Foster's organ, known as the "Trade 
Union Educational League/' which was located at 2 West 15th 
Street, New York City, and in the issue of that publication for 
September, 1928, Mr. Earl Browder was listed as Far Eastern 
Correspondent. In 1931 he covered the Pennsylvania-Ohio mine 
strike. According to the Daily Worker of New York for the wait 
a minute yes, the third day of November, 1931, page 6, a person 
named Vern Smith was a candidate on the Communist Party ticket 
for the Assembly from Manhattan County, New York. Our informa- 
tion doesn 't show whether that man, that person, is the Vern Smith 
who is here present today, but of course the name is exactly the same. 

In 1932 he covered the Lawrence Textile strike. Through 1934, 
that is, from 1933 through 1934, and our records say probably 1935, 
he lived and worked in the Soviet Union and was a correspondent 
at Moscow for the Daily Worker of New York. In 1937 he resided 
in Mexico. On December 20th of that year, 1937, the Western 
Worker, which was the newspaper which preceded the People's 
Daily World; that is, in December, 1937, the Western Worker, which 
up to that time had carried on its masthead "Organ for the Com- 
munist Party," and in parenthesis "A section of the Communist 
International," went out of business, at least ostensibly, and the 
next issue was called the "Daily People's World," of course, which 
it still is called ; but the masthead of the Communist Party was dis- 
continued at that time, although Mr. Chairman and this is a 



10 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

parenthetical remark, but I think an important one, that in 1945 
I 'm quite sure it was we had a hearing in San Francisco, at which 
time Mr. William Schneiderman was examined by me in connec- 
tion with this matter, and he was asked whether or not the Daily 
People 's World was the official organ of the Communist Party. His 
answer was that it was not. He was then asked if he ever heard of 
a publication called the Party Organizer and he said he was familiar 
with it and identified it as the official publication of the National 
Committee of the Communist Party of the United States. Then 
those issues were introduced as exhibits and it was stated from a 
source, of course, higher than Mr. Schneiderman, who was Chair- 
man of the Communist Party of California, that the People's Daily 
World was an official organ of the Communist Party. Now, the 
issue that I mentioned, that is, of the Western Worker on Decem- 
ber 20, 1937, it was announced that Vern Smith was to be Labor 
Editor of the People's World. On May 22, 1938 Mr. Smith spoke 
at a forum in the Green Street Theater in San Francisco on Mexico, 
and the meeting was under the auspices of the League of American 
Writers. Now, the League of American Writers was, on the twentieth 
day of May, 1942, characterized by the United States Department 
of Justice as a Communist front organization, according to the 
Congressional Record of the United States. In order to explain it, 
the organizations listed were so designated as Communist fronts by 
the Attorney General of the United States, and a memorandum to 
that effect was given to the executive heads of the various depart- 
ments of the United States Government, and the League of Ameri- 
can Writers, which sponsored the address given by Mr. Smith, was 
included in that list. 

Senator Dilworth : Could I see that, please ? 

Mr. Combs: Yes, of course. (Handing document to Senator 
Dilworth.) 

Mr. Combs: Now, on March 14, 1939 the People's World 
announced Mr. Smith had been indicted by the Grand Jury of 
Shasta County for violating anti-picketing ordinances in that county. 
The San Francisco Chronicle for September 27, 1939 announced his 
ejection from the 40th Annual Convention of the California State 
Federation of Labor in Oakland, after the privileges of the conven- 
tion had been denied to representatives of the Communist press. 

On April 2, 1941, according to the San Francisco Examiner, 
Mr. Ben Gitlow, who was formerly a member of the National Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party of the United States, testified Mr. 
Smith was a high ranking American Communist. Mr. Smith, inciden- 
tally, was then living at 675 Linden Street, San Francisco, Califor- 
nia. Now, Mr. Chairman, we come to a tie-in between Mr. Smith and 
the San Francisco Workers School. I have here an official announce- 
ment of courses at the fall session of the San Francisco Workers 
School, 675 Minna Street, San Francisco, California. In the foreword 
this statement appears. This is on page five, and I 'm quoting : ' ' It is 
necessary to state that the Workers School is the only school in San 
Francisco which authoritatively bases its education on the theory 
of Marxism Leninism, under the official guidance and leadership 
of the Communist Party of the United States and the Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 11 

International. " I also have an official announcement of the San 
Francisco Workers School for 1936. The one I just referred to was 
1934. It was then located at 121 Haight Street, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, which was the address of the Communist Party of California. 

Now, the People's World for May 22, 1942 states that Mr. 
Smith is the Temporary Trustee of the New Workers School, to 
be established in San Francisco. 

On July 1, 1942 the People's World announced that Mr. Smith 
would teach during the winter semester at the Tom Mooney Labor 
School, the term being scheduled to commence on October 16th of 
that year, 1942. 

Now, in 1943, on March 3d of that year, the People's World 
announced that Mr. Smith was to become its new foreign editor. 

On March 15, 1943 the same publication, People's World, 
announced he was teaching history; the history of the American 
labor movement at the Tom Mooney Labor School for the spring 
term of 1943. 

On August 7, 1943 the People's World announced that Mr. 
Smith would speak at Fugazi Hall, North Beach, San Francisco, 
under the auspices pf the North Beach Branch of the Communist 
Party of San Francisco. 

On September 2, 1943 the same publication, the Daily People's 
World, announced that Mr. Smith was a sponsor of Oleta 'Connor 
Yates, Communist Party candidate for San Francisco Supervisor. 

On April 7, 1945 the People's World announced Smith would 
discuss the United States of Soviet Russia at the San Francisco Labor 
School, San Francisco, and in July, 1945 the People's World 
announced he would teach a course entitled, and I 'm quoting, ' ' Our 
Allies Britain, China and the Soviet Union in World Affairs," at 
the California Labor School in Oakland. 

Chairman Tenney: Mr. Combs, I'd like to announce that the 
Communists are paying us a real compliment they are picketing 
the courthouse here. We will recess for five minutes. (Five-minute 
recess.) 

Mr. Combs : The next citation is from the San Francisco Chron- 
icle for August 3, 1945, where it was stated that Mr. Smith would 
analyze the news at the California Labor School in San Francisco. 
On March 27, 1946, the People's World stated that he was still foreign 
news editor for that publication. 

On June 21, 1946, the People's World announced he would 
address a public forum in Alameda County June 23d under the 
auspices of the Communist Party, Alameda County. 

Now, on August 28, 1946, the People's World announced Mr. 
Smith had been discharged from the staff of that newspaper because 
of his disagreement with its policies and on the next day, August 29, 
1946, the People's World announced he had been expelled from the 
Communist Party because of his basic disagreement with party poli- 
cies and principles, and his participation in factional and slanderous 
attacks against the party leadership. He was then replaced, according 
to the People's World, by a man named George Lohr, as foreign news 
editor. The committee has been informed that Mr. Smith having been 
expelled was expelled from the Communist Party because of the 



12 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

fact that his own individual attitude was more revolutionary than 
that of the orthodox party to which he had been affiliated, and for 
that reason he was expelled, and that he thereafter formed an organi- 
zation in San Francisco known as the Committee for Correspondence. 
And the members of that committee comprised individuals who had 
been expelled from the Communist Party. 

Chairman Tenney : I think we should note at that point, Mr. 
Combs, that the committee is also aware of the report that the expul- 
sion of Mr. Smith is more or less of a phony move on the part of the 
Communist Party for rather sinister purposes. Just what the reason 
is we 're not quite sure, but we have a lot of information. 

Mr. Combs : We are also informed that the orthodox Communist 
Party planted a so-called informant or stool-pigeon, in Mr. Smith's 
committee and that Mr. Smith discovered who that individual was 
and a great deal of internal strife ensued. We have the name of the 
individual who was planted in that organization. We also find that 
Mr. Sam Darcy, who along about 1934 was extremely active in San 
Francisco, with Mr. Schneiderman, as a party official, and who is 
also an expelled Communist. His real name is Dardek. Our informa- 
tion is that Mr. Smith and Mr. Sam Darcy have been in correspond- 
ence quite recently. Now, I believe that 's all I care, Mr. Chairman, to 
put into the record at this particular time concerning the witness, 
or prospective witness, Mr. Vern Smith, who is, I might add, living 
in San Francisco on Chestnut Street. I might also add that we 
endeavored to serve Mr. Smith with a subpena a year ago when we 
had our meeting in Oakland, and we were unable to locate him, so 
that 's just all I have in connection with Mr. Smith. 

Chairman Tenney : The chair will tentatively set November 10th 
at 10 o 'clock in the morning at the State Building in Los Angeles for 
a meeting of the entire committee. I make the announcement tenta- 
tively because all of the members of the committee must be present. 

At the committee's executive meeting in Los Angeles on November 
10, 1947, the following resolution was introduced by Senator Sutton : 

WHEREAS, The Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities was by Senate Resolution No. 75 of the 1947 Regular Session 
of the Legislature of California created and authorized and directed to 
investigate, ascertain, study and analyze all facts directly or indirectly 
relating to activities of groups and organizations whose members include 
persons who are members of organizations which have as their objectives, 
or part of their objectives, the overthrow of the governments of the State 
of California or of the United States by force and violence or other 
unlawful means, all organizations known or suspected to be dominated or 
controlled by a foreign power which activities affect the conduct of this 
State in national defense, the functioning of any state agency, or the 
conversion of the State from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy, 
or affect the economic and social problems incidental thereto, including 
but not limited to the operation, effect, administration, enforcement and 
needed revision of any and all laws in any way bearing upon or relating 
to the subject of the resolution creating this committee, and to report 
thereon to the Senate ; and 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 13 

WHEREAS, It appears to this committee that Vern Smith is a former 
news editor of the People's World and formerly a member of the Com- 
munist Party and was discharged from his position with the People's 
World and was expelled from membership in the Communist Party 
for reasons which this committee believes were for purposes of subter- 
fuge ; and 

WHEREAS, It appears that Vern Smith formed an organization, 
known as the Committee of Correspondence, which organization holds 
meetings and engages in activities which this committee believes are for 
purposes of propaganda ; and 

WHEREAS, This committee caused a subpena to be issued to Vern 
Smith, directing him to appear at Room 8 in the Alameda County Court- 
house, Oakland, California, at the hour of 10 a.m. on Wednesday, the fifth 
day of November, 1947, as a witness ; and 

WHEREAS, The said subpena was duly served upon Vern Smith in San 
Francisco County, by Thomas Fitzpatrick, Jr., on the thirty-first day of 
October, 1947 ; and 

WHEREAS, Vern Smith appeared before the committee at the time 
and place specified in the subpena but wilfully refused to be sworn after 
being directed so to do by the chairman of the committee, or to answer any 
question ; and 

WHEREAS, It further appears that such questions are material and 
proper to the investigation now being conducted by this committee ; and 

WHEREAS, It appears that the refusal of Vern Smith to be sworn is 
wilful and contemptuous, and without lawful or any other excuse what- 
soever ; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved ~by the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, That the attorney for the committee, R. E. Combs, is hereby 
instructed to report the facts of Mr. Smith 's wilful refusal to be sworn 
before this committee to the District Attorney of Alameda County, and 
to take such other steps in relation thereto, including the formal signing 
of any complaint which may be necessary, in order to prosecute Vern 
Smith to the full extent permitted by law for his failure to obey the lawful 
orders of this committee and in particular for his apparent violation of 
Section 9412 of the Government Code of the State of California. 

Senator Sutton moved the adoption of the foregoing resolution and 
his motion was seconded by Senator Burns. All of the members of the 
committee were present and the resolution was adopted unanimously. 

The district attorney's office in Oakland is presently preparing a 
complaint in compliance with the foregoing resolution. 

LOS ANGELES HEARINGS 

The committee opened public hearings in the Assembly Chambers, 
State Building, in Los Angeles, on Monday, February 16, 1948. The pur- 
pose of this hearing was similar to that of the Oakland hearing. The evi- 
dence adduced supported the findings of the Oakland hearings and 
revealed the interlocking directorate and control of man}'- Communist 
front organizations in Los Angeles County. Those who were subpenaed 
and testified at the Los Angeles hearings were : Aileen LaBelle, Dr. Helen 
Hall Moreland, Louis Schwartz, William Axelrod, Virginia Gardner, 
Frank Spector, Ben Richman, H. L. Mitchell, Henry Hasiwar, Katharine 



14 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

McTernan, Roman Bohnen, Rose Hobart, Louis Spector, Ira Gershwin, 
J. Edward Bromberg, Will Lee, Mrs. Frederic March, and Erick Lionel 
Pridinoff. United States District Court Judge Leon R. Yankwich was 
not subpenaed to appear before the committee but appeared voluntarily 
February 19, 1948. 

APPRECIATION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The committee wishes to express its deep gratitude to the many indi- 
viduals and organizations who have assisted the committee with its 
extremely difficult task. It would be impossible to list the names of all 
these individuals and organizations in this report, but the committee 
extends its thanks and acknowledgment to each of them. 

The city and county officials of Fairfax, Marin County; Oakland, 
Alameda County ; and Los Angeles were courteous and cooperative. The 
California highway authorities and members were helpful on all occa- 
sions. Great assistance was given the committee and its attaches by the 
sheriff's staff and the city police department in San Francisco. The sher- 
iff's office in Los Angeles assisted cheerfully and efficiently in serving 
subpenas. The Los Angeles Police Department was especially cooperative 
and the courtesy and gentlemanly efficiency of the officers who were 
assigned to the committee's Los Angeles public hearing reflected credit 
and honor on the city 's chief and on the entire department. 

The committee is deeply indebted to its staff. To those anonymous, 
who for obvious reasons, must yet remain unnamed, the committee 
extends its thanks for efforts expended and assignments accomplished. 

The committee commends the work of its counsel, R. E. Combs of 
Visalia, and wishes to publicly express its appreciation for his patriotic 
services. 

Murray Stravers, executive secretary to the committee, has been 
tireless in his devotion to the committee 's work and has rendered invalu- 
able service. 

The committee is deeply appreciative of the work of Mrs. Linnie 
Tenney, who has served as committee secretary without compensation. 
For the many long hours spent in transcribing the stenographic notes 
of this report, the committee extends its gratitude. To Mrs. Gertrude 
Goodman, who has efficiently brought the committee's files up to date, 
thus bringing order out of chaos, goes honorable mention and the com- 
mittee 's thanks. 

The participation of the many patriotic, fraternal, civic and service 
organizations represented in the Citizen's Advisory Committee, men- 
tioned elsewhere in this report, indicates the splendid cooperation and 
assistance tendered this committee by such groups. 

The newspapers of California, as in the past, have been cooperative, 
fair and accurate in reporting the committee's activities. The exception 
(including, of course, the Communist press), has been the Sacramento 
Union. The Sacramento Union has been actually inaccurate, antagonistic, 
and unfair. 

Again, the Hearst papers the San Francisco and Los Angeles 
Examiners, San Francisco Call-Bulletin, Los Angeles Herald-Express 
and the Oakland Post-Enquirer the Los Angeles Times, the Oakland 
Tribune, the McClatchy papers, Sacramento Bee, Fresno Bee, and the 



UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 15 

Modesto Bee, and the Hollywood Citizen News, have been in the forefront 
of newspapers representing the finest in patriotism and understanding of 
America 's greatest menace. This same statement can be made for the over- 
whelming majority of California 's rural newspapers. 

To this group of outstanding California journals must be added 
the Criterion, a patriotic, hard-hitting American-Negro newspaper in 
Los Angeles. Its clean-cut Americanism, clear-thinking analysis of 
American problems, and its understanding of the methods of the subver- 
sive elements that would destroy the United States, is refreshing and 
encouraging. Arnold Scott, Jeanne Severins, and Essex G. Jenkins have 
made a real contribution to fine journalism and real Americanism in 
giving Los Angeles the Criterion. 

CITIZENS' ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

In its executive meeting of November 10, 1947, in Los Angeles, the 
committee unanimously adopted a resolution introduced by Senators 
Watson and Kraft. The resolution is as follows : 

Resolved that the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities in California select from patriotic and fraternal organ- 
izations which have heretofore shown an interest in combatting 
un-American activities in California and the United States, an advis- 
ory committee, to meet, consult and advise with this committee. 
Pursuant to the foregoing resolution an advisory group was created 
and met with this committee in the auditorium of the State Building in 
Los Angeles on Sunday, February 15, 1948, at 1.30 p.m. The committee 
had approved the following as members of the Citizens' Advisory Com- 
mittee : 

James T. Allen, representing Round Table International, 
David L. Anderson, representing Catholic War Veterans of the 
United States, 

Mrs. W. B. Arndt, representing the Ebell Club of Los Angeles, 
Marion Ashton, representing the American Legion Auxiliary, 
Bernard K. Bakewell, representing the Trowel Club, 
Philip Bancroft, Jr., representing Associated Farmers, 
"William Bernfeld, representing Southern California Retail Drug- 
gists' Assn. Ltd., 

John L. Bland, representing Improved Order of Red Men, 
A. M. Blumberg, representing Jewish War Veterans of U. S., 
Mrs. Delor Bombardier, representing Catholic Daughters of 
America, 

Allan J. Bradshaw, representing Anchor Club, 
Roy M. Brewer, representing International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees, A. F. of L., 

L. E. Brown, representing Round Table International, 
Karl C. Brueck, representing Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Ella Bryan, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Mrs. Charles D. Burt, representing the Ebell Club of Los Angeles, 
J. P. Butler, representing California Farm Bureau Federation, 
James T. Byrne, representing Anchor Club, 

Dr. Reynaldo Carreon, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 



16 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Dr. Vincent P. Carroll, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Jose Carvajol, representing Catholic War Veterans of the United 
States, 

Vernon C. Cash, representing Knights of Pythias, 
Borden Chase, representing Motion Picture Alliance for the Preser- 
vation of American Ideals, 

Ralph Clare, representing International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees, 

Mrs. Betty Cleary, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. Julius Cohen, representing Jewish War Veterans of U. S. 
Hon. David Coleman, representing B 'Nai B 'Rith, 
Mrs. Frank Collins, representing Catholic Daughters of America, 
Mrs. Bessie Cooper, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. Joseph 0. Costello, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Genevieve Cramer, representing Catholic War Veterans of the 
United States, 

Loren Critser, representing Lions International, 
Diana Curtis, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. Edward W. Davidson, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Ralph E. Davis, representing California Association of Private 
Investigators, Inc., 

Willard B. Davis, representing Round Table, International, 
Howard H. Desky, representing B 'Nai B'Rith, 
Mrs. Ann H. Dippel, representing Native Daughters of Golden West, 
Captain Lester J. Divine, representing Round Table International, 
Mrs. Jean Edelstein, representing Jewish War Veterans of U. S., 
A. E. Eickholt, representing American Legion, 
Major E. E. Eiler, representing AMVETS, 
Jesse Elliot, representing Improved Order of Red Men, 
Mrs. Eva 0. Enger, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. J. Gordon Epperson, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Edward A. Erickson, representing California State Association of 
Life Underwriters, Inc., 

Mary Files, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
G. W. Fisher, representing American Legion, 
James A. Fleming, representing Veterans of Foreign Wars, 
S. Parker Frisselle, representing California State Chamber of Com- 
merce, 

James J. Gambs, representing American Legion, 
Hon. Chester F. Gannon, representing American Legion, 
Dr. Don C. Garn, representing California Osteopathic Association, 
Walter Gaspar, representing American Legion, 
Dr. H. M. Ginsburg, representing B'Nai B'Rith, 
Dr. Charles H. Glass, representing Round Table International, 
John A. Graham, representing Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Mark Green, representing Los Angeles Acacia Club, 
Miss Geraldine B. Hadsell, representing the E~bell Club of Los 
Angeles, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 17 

Arthur B. Hammer, representing Jewish War Veterans of the 
United States, 

Lou Hammer, representing Jewish War Veterans of the United 
States, 

Harvey Harris, representing Educational Committee on Amer- 
icanism, 

Esther Hendrickson, representing Ladies Auxiliary of Veterans of 
Foreign Wars, 

Bernard G. Hiss, representing Native Sons of the Golden West, 
John M. Hoffman, representing Lions International, 
C. C. Holloway, representing Round Table International, 
Marguerite Horn, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Paul Huff, representing Associated Farmers, 

Dr. Herk L. Hutchins representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Dr. Leta B. Jackson, representing California Osteopathic Associa- 
tion, 

Ed James, representing Educational Committee on Americanism, 
Bernice Johndrew, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Ernest Johnson, representing Knights of Pythias, 
Ruth Johnson, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. James M. Keating, representing Round Table International, 
Miss Emma Kircher, representing Catholic Daughters of America, 
Bert Kirkpatrick, representing Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots, 
Mary Kister, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Mrs. Dana Kleinke, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Harper Knowles, representing American Legion, 
Dr. John C. Knowlton, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Jane Krause, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
James V. Lawry, representing California State Association of Life 
Underwriters, Inc., 

Dr. John R. Lechner, representing Americanism Educational 
League, 

Rena Leigh, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Ernest J. Loebbecke, representing Kiivanis International, 
William Luton, representing Associated Farmers, 
William P. Mahedy, representing Catholic War Veterans of the 
United States, 

Mrs. Tim Malony, representing Catholic Daughters of America, 
Jean Mathias, representing Jewish War Veterans of the United 
States, 

Dave May, representing American Legion, 
Mrs. Lou Meier, representing Catholic Daughters of America, 
Herman Mellman, representing AMVETS, 
E. A. Merritt, representing California Farm Bureau Federation, 
Eldred L. Meyer, representing Native Sons of the Golden West, 
Lome D. Middough, representing Educational Committee on Amer- 
icanism, 

Homer B. Miller, representing Round Table International, 
Jess H. Miller, representing Native Sons of the Golden West, 
Charles E. Millikan, representing Kiwanis International, 

3 L-7088-D 



18 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Dr. Joseph L. Molle, representing California Chiropractic Associa- 
tion, 

Mae Monteleone, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Frankie Moore, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. Thomas L. Morgan, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Marie Murphy, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
W. K. Murphy, representing California State Association of Life 
Underwriters, Inc., 

Virginia McClelland, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
John J. McDonald, representing Lions International, 
Fred McGrew, representing American Legion, 
A. Harold Noon, representing Catholic War Veterans of the United 
States, 

Phil Ohanneson, representing Rotary International, 
Mrs. J. Henry Orme, representing the Ebell Club of Los Angeles, 
Barbour Klawans Parker, representing Ladies Auxiliary of Veterans 
of Foreign Wars, 

William H. Parker, representing Anchor Club, 
Judge C. E. Pecht, representing American Legion, 
Miss Genevieve Penna, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Dr. Willard W. Percy, representing California Chiropractic Asso- 
ciation, 

James H. Phillips, representing Kiwanis International, 
George G. Pollock, representing California State Chamber of Com- 
merce, 

Waldo F. Postel, representing Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots, 
Dr. Edward C. Poulsen, representing California Chiropractic Asso- 
ciation, 

L. D. Pratt, representing California Manufacturers Association, 
Jules 0. Pritchard, representing Knights of Pythias, 
Mrs. Lucile Quiel, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
John T. Regan, representing Native Sons of the Golden West, 
Neil W. Reid, representing Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Mrs. Katherine Rosek, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
C. L. Roy Rudine, representing Lions International, 
H. Gatch Runyan, representing Round Table International, 
Dr. Harry R. Salisbury, representing California Osteopathic Asso- 
ciation, 

Ruth Sails, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Frederick A. Schnell, representing California State Association of 
Life Underwriters, Inc., 

Allison E. Schofield, representing AMVETS, 
Frank Dee Scriven, representing AMVETS, 

Edward A. Seeley, representing Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Dr. Earl Shackelford, representing California Osteopathic Associa- 
tion, 

Barney Shain, representing Jewish War Veterans of United States, 
Samuel Shannon, representing Associated Farmers, 
Frank M. Shay, representing California State Chamber of Com- 
merce, 

Max Singer, representing Veterans of Foreign Wars, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 19 

Mrs. Esther Skoglund, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Prentice G. Smith, representing AMVETS, 
Earl Smittcamp, representing Associated Farmers, 
Col. Henry Sommer, representing Jewish War Veterans of United 
States, 

Grant F. Soper, representing Anchor Club, 

Miss Grace S. Stoermer, representing Native Daughters of Golden 
West, 

Jean Strobel, representing Associated Farmers, 
A. J. Sturtevant, representing California Farm Bureau Federation. 
Genevieve Sutherland, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Frank Thornton, representing Catholic War Veterans of United 
States, 

Merle Toby, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Ford M. Tussing, representing California Manufacturers Associa- 
tion, 

Edward R. Valentine, representing California State Chamber of 
Commerce, 

Mrs. Zella Venable, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Joseph A. Vurgason, representing California Newspaper Publishers 
Association, 

Carl Wallace, representing Educational Committee on Americanism, 
Leon Warmke, representing American Legion, 
John S. Watson, representing California State Chamber of Com- 
merce, 

Keegan Watson, representing Associated Farmers, 
Marguerita Westmoreland, representing American Legion Auxil- 
iary, 

Charles H. Widdows, representing Round Table International, 
Martel Wilson, representing California State Chamber of Commerce, 
Mrs. T. E. Wilson, representing American Legion Auxiliary, 
Max Wolman, representing Jewish War Veterans, 
George Ziegler, representing Educational Committee on Amer- 
icanism. 

Of the foregoing a majority of the Southern California members 
were present. After preliminary introductions and a statement of 
purpose by the chairman, the advisory committee met and organized. 
Dr. John Lechner was made temporary chairman, and other temporary 
officers were elected. 

The committee plans to hold a meeting in San Francisco for the 
members of the advisory committee who reside in the northern part of 
the State, immediately upon adjournment of the Legislature. It is felt 
that the advice of this broad representative group will prove of great 
assistance to the Senate committee. 

The foregoing list of members of the advisory committee is just 
a start. The members of the Senate committee are hopeful that every 
interested organization will be represented on the advisory committee 
before the end of the year. All interested groups are invited to participate 
and the list here presented was only limited because of the shortness of 
time between the decision of the committee and its first joint meeting 
in Los Angeles. 



20 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

It is intended to divide the committee into northern and southern 
groups so that no individual member will be put to expense in attending 
meetings. 

IS AMERICA BLIND? 

The committee submits an editorial from the Banning Live Wire, 
published at 78 South San Gorgonio in the City of Banning. The editorial 
is entitled "Is America Blind?," and reads as follows: 

It is an ironical fact that American Communists and fellow 
travelers always scream to high heaven about their constitutional 
rights when called to the witness stand. They fervidly embrace the 
protections which the communist ideology, by its very essence, is 
determined to destroy. 

They have, of course, a perfect right to do this the Constitu- 
tion was drawn to defend the liberties of people of all political 
faiths, all races, and all creeds. But there is a grim humor in seeing 
it used as a defense by men and women who would destroy it. 

From the point of view of the individual, there is little difference 
between a communist, a nazi, a fascist, or a falangist government. 
Every kind of totalitarian state is built on the same set of principles. 
Every one of them says, in effect, that the state is supreme and that 
the individual is nothing. There can be no such thing as personal 
liberty the right to do, think and speak what one pleases. They are 
concerned with men and women only in the mass as millions of 
slaves who may be used ruthlessly to advance the purpose of the 
state. 

In this Country, the totalitarian forces are small in number. 
But they are extremely well organized, and they are adept at decep- 
tion and deceit. They are skilled at waving the Flag, and at demand- 
ing in the name of Democracy measures which would destroy 
Democracy. They are solidly behind every project which would 
weaken free enterprise, which would increase industrial strife, and 
which would pit class against class. The boring from within tech- 
nique has been detailed and perfected by the advocates of the super- 
state from Marx on down. It is an essential prelude to revolution 
and internal chaos which permits a "strong man" to sieze power. 

A nation can save itself from ultimate dictatorship in only one 
way by aggressively fighting every movement which would in any 
way circumscribe economic and social freedom. There can be no 
such thing as a limited freedom. We will have all or none. The 
forces of totalitarianism count heavily upon American blindness 
and tolerance as an aid to their work. The American people must 
prove them mistaken. 

THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES 
IS AN AGENT OF SOVIET RUSSIA 

^ The committee unanimously finds that the Communist Party of the 
United States is the agent of the Soviet Government and its totalitarian 
dictator, Josef Stalin. The committee finds that the Communist Party 
is, in no sense, a domestic political party. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 21 

The committee finds that, since its inception in September 1919 to 
the present day, the communist movement in the United States is 

(1) An organization operating under centralized discipline 
subordinated to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the single 
and ruling party of that country ; 

(2) A section of a World Communist Party, controlled by the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union ; 

(3) An organization whose basic aim, whether open or con- 
cealed, is the abolition of our present economic system and Republi- 
can form of government and the establishment of a Soviet dictator- 
ship in its place ; 

(4) An organization resorting to deception, evasion, illegal 
methods, violence, and civil war ; methods implicit in its revolution- 
ary purpose ; and 

(5) An organization whose members owe their first allegiance 
to Soviet Russia, and who will, if directed by the dictatorship in 
Moscow, utilize every method of espionage, sabotage, and treachery 
against the United States and its institutions. 

The major part of this report deals with organizations found to be 
under the control of the Communist Party. In view of the above finding 
of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in 
California, the significance of these groups as agents of the Soviet Union 
become extremely important. 



Parti 
ANALYSIS OF COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

The committee has determined that the most important continuing 
functions of the Community Party in a nation not yet dominated by a 
Red Fascist dictatorship, are to defend the Communist holy land, Soviet 
Russia, and to prepare the way for the time when the Communist leaders 
shall decide that circumstances justify an open bid for power through 
violent revolution and establishment of a "dictatorship of the pro- 
letariat". 

In contrast to the blindness and apathy of citizens who are opposed 
to Communism, the R-ed Fascists do not delude themselves that their two 
basic functions can be carried on effectively by making speeches and 
passing resolutions. 

Communists work day and night at the practical job of infiltrating 
existing organizations, so that they may be in a position to manipulate 
it to their purpose. They are busy creating new organizations for their 
purpose when none exist. 

Behind a propaganda barrage of progress, reform and liberal slogans, 
the Communists steadily pursue a formal, dogmatic, organized program 
of infiltration into, and creation of, mass organizations, because they are 
studious, fanatical and single-minded in their service to Soviet foreign 
policy and the preparation for revolution in the country where they 
live. 

The committee has carried on a continuous program of investigation, 
research and public exposure of Communism and of the methods that 
Communists inevitably must pursue to work toward their self -declared 
objectives. 

In its public reports, issued in 1943, 1945 and 1947, the committee 
has sought to present to the people of California a clear, unbiased state- 
ment of the purposes and objectives, the tactics and methods of world 
Communism, of Communist organizations in the United States; and 
particularly, of Communist organizations in California. 

Since 1941 the committee has procured and made available to the 
people of California a huge mass of factual material, taken from official 
Communist documents, publications, textbooks, communications and 
confidential party instructions and decisions. 

In addition, the accumulated testimony of witnesses now consists of 
10,000 pages of sworn testimony, contained in 41 transcript volumes and 
augmented by an unusually voluminous number of exhibits. 

Sworn testimony of known Communist functionaries has been com- 
bined with authorized Communist texts into a record that reveals, beyond 
question or dispute, the theories, purposes, objectives, techniques and 
methods of Communism. 

From this mass of testimony and documentation, the committee has 
selected the most indispensable material for inclusion within the limited 
space afforded in three biennial reports. Because of the current nature of 
the organizations and issues that have been under investigation, it hith- 
erto has not been possible to present a specific, complete explanation and 

(23) 



24 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

compilation on the subject of the front organization as a major weapon 
in the arsenal of Communist plotting and intrigue. 

The committee is of the opinion, therefore, that one of the most 
important services it can render the Members of the Legislature and the 
people of California at this time is to present a definitive explanation of 
the Communist front organization ; an analysis which will provide, within 
one concise and factual compilation, the material that public officials, 
police agencies, journalists and leaders of all organized segments of the 
community must have readily available to them in authoritative form if 
they are to carry out their obligations to their organizations, their State 
and their Nation in meeting the problems raised by the Red Fascist con- 
spiracy within the United States. 

For the documented, detailed reports, the Members of the Legislature 
and the citizens of California are referred to the committee 's 1943, 1945, 
and 1947 reports. 

WHY COMMUNISTS NEED FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

Communists become Communists to do something, not merely to join 
and meet together. Regardless of how critical the citizen of any country 
may be of policies, conditions and leadership within that country, he 
thinks a long time before he faces the naked fact of revolution through 
violence. Communists know this ; and consequently, while the hard core 
of veteran revolutionaries who run Communist Parties are working 
toward the twin goals of serving the foreign policy of Soviet Russia and 
preparing for revolutionary seizure of power in their own country, they 
seek to carry out these twin programs through subterfuge and trickery. 
They have become adept in playing on the individual 's ambitions and the 
complaints of organized groups. 

Modern industrial civilization has complicated living to the point 
where few individuals are effective by themselves. The modern world 
provides modes of political, cultural, economic, and similar expression, 
by group action. Frequently, individual competition is supplanted or 
supplemented by group competition. This grouping of people for joint 
action is more or less effective, more or less democratic, and more or less 
constructive, according to the character, integrity and ability of those 
who achieve positions of leadership through the inevitable processes of 
promotion, appointment, selection and election in organized groups. 

The Communist Party scientifically charts this organization into 
groups in modern civilization and it plans and works to capture control 
of key positions when possible. When this method fails the Communists 
work to nullify and make impotent the leadership of groups it cannot 
infiltrate or control, through ' ' rank-and-file " disruption and confusion. 

Communist confusion is an organized and planned confusion and its 
ultimate goal is to develop the ability to create the maximum of confusion 
at the time when Communist strategy decrees an open bid for power 
through revolutionary violence. 

In the scientific blueprint for revolution that is laid down in official 
Communist textbooks and taught in the Communist schools, interminable 
analysis and study is given to the technique of manipulating organized 
groups toward the eventual belief that they cannot solve their particular 
problems or achieve their particular objectives within the framework and 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 25 

limitations of a capitalist economy and a parliamentary government. The 
final goal of Communist infiltration into organized groups is to dominate 
the sentiment of such groups running the gamut from ignorant apathy 
to active acceptance for the purpose of permitting the hardened core of 
revolutionaries to seize power at the proper time. 

For this purpose in the long range Communist plan, an apathetic, 
inert organization, incapable of united and decisive action in a crisis, is 
just as valuable as an organization that is enthusiastically working to 
serve the Communist program. Either attitude serves the purposes of the 
Red Fascist conspiracy. 

However, pending the long-range program of eventual world-wide 
1 ' dictatorship of the proletariat ' ' Communist strategists study and work 
to put into effect temporary, immediate popular, localized and special 
purpose-policies and projects. 

The creation and conduct of such policies and projects make up 
what has come to be known as the ' ' Communist party line. ' ' 

The ' l party line ' ' consists of the immediate policies of the moment, 
which frequently are contradictory. Sometimes it will center on popular 
issues. Again, it will center on generally unpopular issues. But, invari- 
ably, it follows a pattern that consistently involves the members of labor, 
liberal, minority and cultural groups. The over-all purpose is to establish 
the " vanguard" position of Communism and to pose as the only true 
friend of the ' ' struggling masses. ' ' 

Even when Communists, in pursuing the devious twists and turns 
of the " party line," are disrupting and confusing formal, considered 
policies of labor, liberal and minority organizations, they consistently 
direct smear campaigns at the responsible leaders of the organizations 
in question. 

Front organizations are indispensable to such a program. The inde- 
fatigable plotting and scheming of the leaders of world Communism has 
developed the theory and technique of the front organization to the high- 
est level of systematic efficiency in the world 's history. 

Communist theory and technique is based on a huge mass of ana- 
lytical, historical and theoretical teachings, accumulated since Commu- 
nism was launched in 1848 with Karl Marx's "Communist Manifesto," 
a hundred years ago. 

Much of it is openly and plainly presented to Communists as a 
study of strategy and tactics to achieve a successful revolution and com- 
plete seizure of power under a 1 1 dictatorship of the proletariat. ' ' How- 
ever, a great mass of it is thinly disguised as history. This later element 
is particularly valuable to the teaching of Marxist revolutionary doc- 
trine, where Communists are obliged to conduct their proselyting and 
organizing surreptitiously. 

The average American can secure a very good basic concept of the 
special purpose and approach of this huge mass of revolutionary Marxian 
literature by a comparison with popular American sports. 

Football, baseball, golf and other sports are described in detail and 
from every viewpoint in a mass of technical literature. 

Communist handbooks, that may be bought openly in Communist 
bookstores throughout America, reveal a pattern of psychological, organ- 
izational and propaganda technique that directly parallels the systems 
and stratagems of the popular sports. 



26 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

There the analogy ends ! 

In sports, the object is to win, and the system and stratagems are 
devised for the purpose of winning. Sportsmen always play to win, but 
test of sportsmanship is the will to win only within the rules, to win fairly. 

To Communists, the object also is to win and the prize is the Com- 
munist dictatorship of the world. But the literature of Communist tactics 
and strategies proclaims openly and brazenly, and with never a variation, 
that fraud, deceit, dishonesty and trickery are the indispensable ingredi- 
ents of a successful revolutionary movement. 

The inability of the average American, trained in the ideals of fair 
play and good sportsmanship, to understand this basic tenet of Commu- 
nist strategy and tactics in day-to-day relations is one of the major rea- 
sons why Communists are consistently successful in either capturing or 
disrupting organized groups whenever it serves the purpose of the ' ' party 
line." 

The most pronounced difference between ordinary American mem- 
bers of an organization and the Communist Trojan Horse clique within 
an organization, is in their attitude toward parliamentary procedure and 
tactics. 

Parliamentary procedure, based on Robert's Rules of Order and 
other authorities, and on constitutional provisions and rules, is the method 
through which group actions are accomplished in an orderly way. Without 
some system such as the formal process of parliamentary procedure, an 
assemblage of any group quickly degenerates into an unruly mob. 

Since the control and manipulation of organized groups is vitally 
necessary to Red Fascist strategy and tactics, every Communist must 
study and master parliamentary procedure to the limit of his individual 
ability and natural talent. 

In contrast, the average non-Communist member of an organization 
is familiar with only the most rudimentary phases of parliamentary pro- 
cedure. They are not obligated by any secret, conspiratorial authority 
outside the organization to which they belong, to study parliamentary 
procedure and strategy. Further, the subject, while vitally important to 
the conduct of organized group activities, is too infrequently taught for 
information and guidance to be easily available to leaders of organizations 
who want to learn more about the conduct and control of meetings. 

Because of this disparity between the Communist professional par- 
liamentarians and the anti-Communist amateurs, time after time the 
Communists put over their programs within organized groups against 
the openly expressed desire of the majority. Failing this, they usually are 
able to block and defeat the desires of the majority group. 

Second to the Communist study and mastery of parliamentary tricks, 
is the Red Fascist science of confusion and misrepresentation in debate. 
Communists are not committed to any moral or ethical code and they 
have no respect for the basic principles, purposes and goals of any organi- 
zation they seek to infiltrate and control. 

Consequently, while a non-Communist member or group in an 
organization is thinking and talking in terms of the ethical, political and 
aspirational ideals of the organization, the Communists are free to engage 
in any misrepresentation, confusion, personal abuse or emotional appeal 
that will advance their purpose of the moment. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 27 

The most familiar and monotonously repeated device of Communists 
in debate is the use of the " unity" theme as a basis for twisting and 
manipulating organized groups to serve the purposes of the ' ' party line. ' ' 

The device is used by Communists with consistent success to protect 
Communist leaders and key policies from attack and repudiation. Unin- 
formed members of groups, who abhor controversy and internal dissen- 
sion, have voted against their own best interests repeatedly under the lure 
of the Communist siren-song of * ' unity. ' ' 

Unity is necessary within any organization, but no group or groups 
ever can have unity with Communism or Communist factions except at 
the price of unvarying subservience or agreement with the Communist 
"party line" of the moment. The sooner this basic truth is learned by 
the leadership and the members of all organized groups in America, and 
particularly in California, the sooner will it be possible to prevent and 
defeat the Red Fascist plotting to trick and confuse organized segments 
of the community to follow appealing slogans and wild promises to 
eventual destruction. 

EVERY COMMUNIST AN AGENT OF THE KREMLIN 

The committee has found in its investigations and has stated in pre- 
vious reports, that every Communist Party in every country is rigidly 
committed by publicly proclaimed Communist doctrine to serve the 
purposes of Soviet foreign policy and to work steadily and systematically 
for the eventual violent revolutionary overthrow of the governments of 
all nations, and to replace them with the ' t dictatorship of the proletariat. ' ' 

The committee has found and has documented its findings, and it 
reiterates, that it is indispensable to Communist Parties in every country 
to create front organizations, and to infiltrate, dominate or disrupt all 
existing organized groups, in order to carry Communist theory into the 
practical sphere of workaday relations. 

Finally, the committee has found that a definitive analysis of the 
purpose, structure, types and uses of front organizations is needed at this 
time for the information of the Members of the Legislature and the people 
of California, and it presents herewith such an analysis together with 
a compilation of important front organizations now subject to Communist 
domination or infiltration. 

MARXIAN DOUBLE-TALK 

A major feature of the committee's work in the past has been the 
study and the presentation of the Marxian theories and techniques that 
constitute Red Fascism in action. In this carefully documented presenta- 
tion, the committee has made a special point to quote liberally in its 1943, 
1945 and 1947 reports from the actual testimony of known Communists 
and from official Communist textbooks and publications. 

In its presentation of the analysis of Red Fascist objectives and 
technique, the committee has used the terminology and phraseology of 
Marxism to a great extent ; and in its devotion to absolute accuracy and 
documentation, the committee has presented large sections of Marxist 
testimony and writing ; and has placed this material before the Members 
of the Legislature and the people of California so that they may draw 
their own conclusions. 



28 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

However, the committee and its individual members, many legislators 
and public officials and leaders of responsible California organizations, 
receive repeated requests and suggestions that the committee make avail- 
able to the people of California a report on Communistic activity, espe- 
cially in the field of front organizations, that will be phrased in the 
language of the man in the street and which will translate the Marxian 
terms and phrases into plain English in a simplified presentation. 

The committee is cognizant of the general demand for such an author- 
itative and simplified interpretation of the Marxist program for world 
revolution as it is carried on behind the tricky slogans and propaganda 
of California Communists and their fellow-travelers in mass organizations 
and in day-to-day public affairs. 

The committee has given considerable time, study and research in 
an effort to secure an authoritative and accurate interpretation of the 
methods, classifications, techniques and outlets for Communist front 
organization manipulation. It is hoped that this interpretation will assist 
in translating Marxist double-talk into plain English. The committee 
believes that this presentation will provide a research and information 
facility that will be welcomed by the Members of the Legislature and the 
responsible leaders of California. 

TYPES OF COMMUNIST-INFLUENCED ORGANIZATIONS 

No organized group can exist in America today without the Com- 
munist Party having some attitude and policy toward it. Communist 
Policy may run the gamut from seeking absolute control to malevolent 
destruction. 

Through various periods of the shifting ' ' party line, ' ' the Commu- 
nist Party may assume utterly contradictory attitudes toward an organi- 
zation. In every instance, however, the attitude will be what Red Fascist 
strategists in a particular country assume to be the best tactic of the 
moment to further the foreign policy of Soviet Russia, or to advance the 
over-all aim of eventual violent revolution in their own land. 

The Communist Party position in and toward a particular organiza- 
tion is determined by a number of factors. Consequently there are readily 
identifiable types of Communist-influenced organizations that can be 
catalogued. 

The Marxist strategists and tacticians are well aware of the fact 
that they are forced to work through front organizations to carry out 
their twin program of treachery and conspiracy for two basic reasons : 

(1) Communists know that an openly Communist political 
party or organization that frankly puts forward the fundamental 
Communist program inevitably is a complete failure in the political 
and propaganda fields ; 

(2) For tactical reasons in its conspiratorial operations, the 
Communists never have more than ten percent of any Communist 
Party above-ground during the period of building toward the 
eventual goal of revolution. 

Since the Communist Parties are pledged to protect Soviet Russia 
and advance the proletarian revolution everywhere else in the world, 
Marxist theorists long since clearly and openly have accepted the need 
for duplicity, treachery and trickery to accomplish their purposes. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 29 

The phrase, "front organization," while it has taken on a tone of 
opprobium through public exposure of Communist front activities, never 
was invented by anyone as a smear phrase, but actually was borrowed 
from Communist terminology. 

A front organization, therefore, is an organization that provides an 
apparently non-Communist facade, behind which Communists and fellow- 
travelers in control of the organization can carry out strategical and 
tactical moves in behalf of the current "party line". 

Marxist recognition of the need to operate behind false fronts has 
been expounded and clarified in a complicated theory, known as the 
"vanguard role" of the Communist Party. Under this theory Marxists 
justify to themselves their established practice of infiltrating existing 
organizations when it serves their purpose and of creating organizations 
when none exists to fill a special strategical or tactical need. 

This absolute necessity for advancing a program that is supposed 
to solve all the material problems of mankind behind a mask of treachery 
and duplicity is one of the great contradictions of Communism, which 
itself proclaims is the only system that can save mankind from the ills 
and problems of contradictions which Marxists assert are found in capi- 
talist economy and in parliamentary government. 

Once the American people learn to understand this dilemma of 
Communism, they will have the key to the analysis and evaluation of 
Communist programs and policies ; and with it, the ability to meet Com- 
munist disruption and defeat it. 

The committee has pointed out that the Marxist program has been 
fully outlined and documented in the published reports by this com- 
mittee for 1943, 1945 and 1947 ; and also by other authoritative govern- 
mental agencies and legislative committees. 

The committee points out specifically that the basic theory of the 
"vanguard role" of the Communist Party has been admitted and 
explained under oath by William Z. Foster, present national chairman 
of the Communist Party of the United States, and by Earl Browder, 
former general secretary of the Communist Party of the United States, 
before Congressional investigating bodies; and by William Schneider- 
man, present secretary and administrative head of the Communist Party 
of California, and other Communist functionaries, before this committee. 

The Marxist principle of creating front organizations and of infiltrat- 
ing mass organizations has been exposed and documented beyond any 
possible refutation. It has been proved to be the chief business of the Com- 
munist Party in the United States, and the basic framework upon which 
has been erected the entire Communist structure of sabotage, sedition, 
espionage and treachery against the American people and their govern- 
ment. 

The gist of this theory of the "vanguard role" of the Communist 
Party in creating and manipulating front organizations, is summed up 
specifically by the present titular head of world Communism, Joseph 
Stalin, in the official Communist-published text of a brutally frank blue- 
print for revolution, "Foundations of Leninism." 

Discussing the tactical theory that all Communists must study and 
rehearse interminably, Joseph Stalin says : 



30 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

' ' Tactical leadership is a part of strategic leadership, subordin- 
ated to the problems of, and the demands upon, the latter. The task 
of tactical leadership is to handle all the forms of struggle and of 
organization of the proletariat and assure their correct utilization 
' in order to achieve the maximum results obtainable with the relative 
strength of the forces available, the maximum necessary in prepar- 
ing strategic success. 

* * * ^e correct utilization of the forms of struggle and of 
organization * * * means fulfilling several necessary conditions of 
which the following may be considered the principal ones : 

"First: to bring to the forefront those forms of struggle and 
of organization which are best suited to the conditions prevailing 
during the ebb or flow of the movement, and, therefore, calculated 
to facilitate and assure the shifting of the masses to revolutionary 
positions, the shifting of millions to the revolutionary front and 
their assignment to various posts at the revolutionary front. 

"The point here is not that the vanguard shall realize the impos- 
sibility of preserving the old order of things and the inevitability 
of its collapse but that the vast masses shall understand this inevit- 
ability and display their readiness to support the vanguard. 

"But the masses can understand this only through their own 
experiences. The task is to enable the vast masses to understand 
* * * the inevitability of the overthrow of the old regime, to bring 
into being such methods of struggle and forms of organization as 
will make it easier for the masses to learn from their own experience 
the correctness of the revolutionary slogans." 

To emphasize his point that the Communist Party must never by 
unwise strategy and tactics be reduced 4 ' from the position of leader of 
the proletariat, to that of a band of inane, uprooted conspirators, ' ' Joseph 
Stalin quotes V. I. Lenin to this effect : 

' ' With the vanguard alone, victory is impossible. To throw the 
vanguard alone into the decisive conflict * * as long as the broad 
masses have not yet taken up a position either of direct support of 
the vanguard or at least of benevolent neutrality toward it and of 
absolute incapability of supporting the enemy would not merely 
be folly but an actual crime. And in order that actually the whole 
class, that actually the broad masses of toilers and those oppressed 
by capitalism may come to such a position, propaganda and agita- 
tion alone are not sufficient. For this, the masses must have their own 
political experience. Such is the fundamental law for all great 
revolutions * * *" 

This citation from Lenin by Stalin is quoted from the Marxist 
leader's famous treatise, "Left Communism," in which Lenin criticized 
severely those leftwing agitators who, to use a familiar American phrase, 
are like ' ' generals who get too far out in front of their army. ' ' 

Lenin and Stalin, in their writings on revolutionary theory, keep 
repeating over and over the solemn warning that the Communists, in 
their "vanguard role" never must be so far in front of the masses and 
their organizations that the Communist can be isolated. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 31 

Stalin's second point in what he describes as "the correct utiliza- 
tion of the forms of struggle and organization," follows his quotation 
from Lenin, and points out that it is necessary in ' ' correct tactics ' ' : 

* * * ^0 locate at any given moment that single link in the 
chain of events, which, if siezed upon will enable us to control the 
whole chain and prepare the ground for the achievement of success. 
"The point here is to single out from tasks confronting the 
Party, precisely the one that must be handled next, which, if done, 
will assure the successful fulfillment of the remaining tasks. ' ' 

It follows from this plain statement by Stalin, who quotes Lenin to 
hammer his points home, that Communists everywhere are under solemn 
instructions as a matter of basic policy, to nurture carefully their 
so-called "vanguard role" and to proceed with the creation and infil- 
tration of organizations to serve as fronts for their program. He warns 
that the party must never relinquish its "vanguard role." It must not 
enter "alone into the decisive conflict as long as the broad masses have 
not yet taken up a position either of direct support * * or of at 

least benevolent neutrality toward it * * * " 

It is for this reason that the front organizations created or infil- 
trated by the U. S. Communist Party in the past decade are easily 
recognized for what they are, once the "vanguard role" of the Com- 
munist manipulators is understood. 

TYPES OF COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

Every organized group in America can be classified with reference 
to Communism from two basic viewpoints : 

(1) According to the proportion of Communist influence 
within ; or 

(2) According to the purposes or objectives for which they 
were organized or infiltrated by Communists. 

It is vitally important to all Americans that they learn to recognize 
the character of organizations with which they must deal, or to which 
they belong, with reference to Communism. 

This is important, particularly in the case of administrative and 
executive officers, members of executive boards and staff members, upon 
whom falls the responsibility of relations between their organization 
and other organized groups. 

Members of organizations, especially in mass organizations, such 
as trade unions, political parties, and groups dealing with civic, racial, 
religious and similar relations, must ever be on the alert against Com- 
munist sabotage of their particular purposes and objectives. 

Officers and members of organizations constantly are faced with 
proposals that the group to which they belong affiliate with some move- 
ment or cause ; that they endorse or support such movement or cause ; 
that they join with other groups in supporting and endorsing causes 
and programs. 

Determination of the proportion of Communist influence that may 
exist in any organization is not as involved or mysterious as many citi- 
zens have been led to believe. Communists follow a pattern of joining 
and supporting similar causes and organizations. So do confirmed fellow- 
travelers. 



32 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Many of these organizations will be publicly proclaimed to be in the 
interest of some worthy program. The organization 's self -prof essed goals 
may be high-sounding and humanitarian, but invariably it will be dis- 
covered that in any Communist front organization a heavy majority 
of the officers, the sponsors and the members of the committees will be 
found to have a record of affiliation with scores of other front organ- 
izations. Invariably it will be discovered that the particular organiza- 
tion in question, and all other organizations with which the leadership 
has affiliation, never criticize Communism or Russia and consistently 
follow and support pro-Russian and pro-Communist programs and 
policies. 

ORGANIZATIONS CLASSIFIED BY PROPORTION OF 
COMMUNIST INFLUENCE 

All organized groups in America may be classified with respect to 
the proportion of Communist influence in six broad categories. These are : 

(1) Communist created and controlled; 

(2) Communist infiltrated and controlled ; 

(3) Communist dominated, whether created or infiltrated; 

(4) Communist infiltrated, but neither controlled nor dominiated. 
In such organizations Communists operate to disrupt, confuse, delay and 
nullify the natural functions of the organization, which frequently may 
be in conflict with Communist programs ; 

(5 ) Completely anti-Communist and Communist infiltrated only for 
purposes of espionage ; 

(6) Miscellaneous. All other organizations, most of which Com- 
munists are unable to infiltrate or have no tactical reasons for infiltrating. 

Organizations can be identified as to their status and classified in 
proportion to degree of Communist infiltration most easily 011 the basis 
of the organization's responses to key political, economic and ethical 
issues of the day. 

One of the most basic tests is the officially recorded attitude of the 
organization on such basic official Communist Party line issues as Soviet 
foreign policy in contrast to the interests of the United States. 

The most conspicuous historical instance since the foundation of the 
U. S. Communist Party in 1919 has been the famous "pretzel twists" 
of the party line in connection with Fascism under Mussolini in Italy 
and Nazism under Adolph Hitler in Germany. 

In response to the rise of world Fascism and Nazism, American 
Communist policy went through five contradictory changes of policy. 
These were : 

(1) From 1928 to 1935, world Communism engaged in conspira- 
torial activity to overthrow every government to prevent what Marxists 
described as "capitalist encirclement" of the Soviet fatherland; and 
this Communist activity, combined with the peculiar foreign policy 
tactics of the Russians, played directly into the hands of Mussolini and 
Hitler, contributing to their rise to power ; 

(2) From 1935 to 1939, world Communism adopted the so-called 
"Popular Front" policy, proclaimed by Georgi Dimitrov at the Seventh 
World Congress of the Comintern in Moscow in 1935, and Communists 
sought in every nation to create coalitions against Fascism and Nazism, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 33 

using front organizations, such as the Anti-Nazi League in America, for 
this purpose. Concurrent with anti-Nazi activity, however, the Com- 
munists maintained their position that all war is imperialistic ; 

(3) From August, 1939, when Russia amazed the world by signing 
the famous Hitler-Stalin pact, until June 22, 1941, world Communism 
collaborated openly with world Fascism. Poland was divided by military 
force. In the United States, the Communists created scores of fronts to 
proclaim "The Yanks Are Not Coming," and to denounce the pre- 
paredness program and aid to the Allies program advocated by President 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The Roosevelt program was denounced as 
"imperialist war-monger ing. ' ' The Communist fronts that characterized 
this period were the American Peace Mobilization, the American Student 
Union, and the American League for Peace and Democracy. 

(4) From June 22, 1941, when Hitler's armies invaded Russia, 
until the end of the war, the American Communists, who promptly made 
a complete reversal from denouncing "Roosevelt's imperialist war" to 
demanding "unity in the people's war," pretended to abandon the 
Marxist program of world revolution and advocated unity and coopera- 
tion of all nations for the defeat of Hitler. Behind the mask of patriotism 
and humanitarianism, the Communists infiltrated into every organized 
segment of American life, and finally, Earl Browder, acting on orders 
from the Kremlin, openly advocated collaboration with capitalism. The 
name of the Communist Party was deceptively changed to the Com- 
munist Political Association, and Stalin announced that the Comintern 
had been disolved. This was done solely to procure aid from the capitalist 
countries for the homeland of Red Fascist revolution, Soviet Russia. 

(5) When Fascism and Nazism went down to military defeat under 
the crushing blows of the United Nations, world Communism launched 
a two-pronged program for the resumption of world revolution and the 
"dictatorship of the proletariat." Brazen aggression and territorial 
expansion by Soviet Russia followed. In June, 1945, the American 
Communist Party followed world Communism in a complete "sharp 
turn" just as this committee had predicted in its 1945 Report, issued 
April 16, 1945. Browder was deposed, the Communist Political Associa- 
tion was junked in favor of the restoration of the Communist Party of 
the United States, and the revived Communist Party returned to the 
"class-war," denunciation of "imperialist war," defense of Russian 
aggression and expansion, plotting and conspiracy for revolutionary 
overthrow of the United States government. 

There are two basic truths that send Communists, their fellow- 
travelers and apologists into frenzies of denunciation and character- 
assassination against anyone who raises these truths in public discussion. 
One is the unmistakable open record of the American Communists in 
following the "pretzel twists" of the party line, and the other is the 
irrefutable evidence that they are agents of a foreign power, com- 
mitted to treachery and sabotage of the United States whenever its 
policies come in conflict with those of Soviet Russia and world Com- 
munism. 

These two tests consistent following of the twists and turns of the 
party line, and treacherous subservience to the interests of Soviet foreign 
policy can be used by all Americans to determine from the record the 
character of any organization. 

4 L-7088-D 



34 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

COMMUNIST CREATED AND CONTROLLED ORGANIZATIONS 

Numerically, one of the largest classifications is that of organiza- 
tions created by the Communist Party and completely controlled by the 
Communists. This is true because the Communist Party spawns front 
groups and liquidates them in a regular pattern to serve temporary 
strategic and tactical purposes of immediate value to the party. 

In this category will be found the scores of ''defense committees" 
created to raise funds for Communists, fellow-travelers and Marxist- 
apologists who become involved in arrests, prosecutions and investiga- 
tions. Another important type of ' ' defense committee " is a large group 
formed to raise funds for legal defense and aid to Communist members 
of unions, minority groups and teachers, political figures and others who 
may be arrested, attacked, expelled or otherwise involved in contro- 
versies. 

Frequently, the persons for whom the "defense committees" are 
working may not be Communists or have any connection with Commu- 
nism. But invariably the person involved will present an opportunity 
for the Communists and their fellow-travelers to appear in the spotlight 
as friends of the oppressed and abused. 

Investigation of scores of these front committees has revealed that 
behind the mask of humanitarianisrn and a fight for human and civil 
rights, is hidden one of the fundamental reasons for the creation of such 
front groups. That reason is to raise money for the Communist Party. 

It is the considered opinion of all responsible investigators that not 
more than 50 percent, and frequently much less, of all funds raised by 
these front groups ever goes to the cause for which the group publicly is 
working. 

In some cases funds raised for a so-called worthy cause are diverted 
to the Communist Party by direct theft and dishonest bookkeeping trans- 
actions. In other cases money is diverted by payment of large sums to 
Communist agents, lawyers, publicists and workers within the particular 
group, who turn over substantial amounts of their wages and fees to the 
party. 

Typical examples of the Communist created and controlled front 
organizations of this type are: Abolish Peonage Committee, Citizens 
Committee to Free Earl Browder, Schappes Defense Committee, Schnei- 
derman Defense Committee, Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee, 
Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges, Bridges Defense Committee, 
Bridges Victory Committee, Committee to Defend Angelo Herndon, Com- 
mittee for Civil Rights for Communists, Communist Japanese Committee, 
Galena Defense Committee, Gerson Supporters, Joint Anti-Fascist Refu- 
gee Committee, Joint Committee for Trade Union Rights, Joint Com- 
mittee of Trade Unions in Social Work, King, Conner and Ramsey 
Defense Committee, Marian Anderson Citizens Committee, Mooiiey 
Defense Committee, Mooney-Billings Mass Meeting Sponsors, Murray 
Defense Committee, National Free Browder Congress, National Hunger 
March to Washington, Non-Partisan Labor Defense, Non-Partisan Com- 
mittee for Reelection of Congressman Vito Marcantonio, Open Letter 
Protesting Ban on Communists in American Civil Liberties Union, Peti- 
tion to Grant Pardons to McNamara and Smith, Public Use of Arts Com- 
mittee, Reichstag Fire Trial Anniversary Committee, Scottsboro Defense 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 35 

Committee, Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, Statement by American 
Progressives on the Moscow Trials, Testimonial Dinner for Ferdinand C. 
Smith, Washington C. I. 0. Committee to Reinstate Helen Miller, and in 
the recent exposure and indictments of national Communist figures, the 
same pattern has been followed with Defense Committees for Hans Eisler, 
Gerhardt Eisler, Eugene Dennis, Carlo Marzani, John Williamson, 
Claudia Jones and others ; and the Committee for the First Amendment, 
Committee of One Thousand and Freedom From Fear Committee, which 
have been created to raise funds for the defense of the nineteen unfriendly 
witnesses before the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties ' investigation of Communist activity in Hollywood, 10 of whom were 
indicted for contempt of Congress. 

Another important type of Communist created and controlled organ- 
ization is the broadly-based, formal organization, created to serve a key 
function of international Red Fascism, and almost invariably linked to 
an international organization sponsored by the Comintern. 

Such organizations are not as rapidly created or as summarily liqui- 
dated as the front defense committees. They are more stable and complex 
in their structure, and they constitute the source of the central core of 
Communists and fellow-travelers who join in the creation of the tempo- 
rary front committees. 

While they also engage in fund-raising for the benefit of the Com- 
munist program, they are permitted to keep more of the money raised 
through dues and assessments to maintain permanent offices and staffs. 

Typical of the permanent, completely Communist created and con- 
trolled organizations are such examples as the following, some of which 
no longer are in existence, and others of which are temporarily in a 
quiescent state: Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade, Academic and Civil Rights Committee, American 
Artists Congress, American League for Peace and Democracy, American 
Council on Soviet Relations, American Friends of the Chinese People, 
American Friends of the Mexican People, American Friends of the Soviet 
Union, American Friends of the Spanish People, American League 
Against War and Fascism, American Slav Congress, American Writers 
Congress, American Youth for Democracy, Congress of American 
Women, Congress of American-Soviet Friendship, Council for Pan- 
American Democracy, International Juridical Association, International 
Workers Order, International Labor Defense, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee, Simon Lubin Society, John Reed Clubs, League of Women 
Shoppers, National Negro Congress, Civil Rights Congress and Trade 
Union Unity League. 

Included also in the completely Communist created and controlled 
organizations are the publications and organizations that publish Com- 
munist newspapers, magazines, propaganda and books. 

These organizations and those committees created for honoring or 
promoting publications are among the most important institutions in the 
Red Fascist network. None but tested Communist and fellow-travelers 
are permitted to participate in the management and direction of such 
enterprises. 

Among Communist organizations in this group the most notable are : 
Daily Worker, People's Daily World, Political Affairs, New Masses, 



36 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Mainstream, International Publishers, New Century Publishers, In Fact, 
Soviet Russia Today, Jewish Life, Morning Freiheit Association, and 
others included in the body of this report. 

COMMUNIST CREATED OR CONTROLLED UNIONS 

Another important group of Communist created and controlled 
organizations are certain trade unions, political groups, committees and 
citizens' committees for purported worthy purposes. 

In spite of the Communist claim that the Communists are the true 
leaders of trade unionism, it is an historical fact that the Communists 
have met the same fate in the labor movement as that achieved in the 
political arena. No openly sponsored Communist union in the United 
States ever has been a success. 

The majority of Communist created and controlled trade-unions in 
existence in the United States today are the so-called "paper unions" 
which parallel the craft union structure of the A. F. of L. 

The American history of Communism in trade-unions can be summed 
up briefly in four broad, basic stages : 

.(1) When the Communist Party was organized formally in 1919, 
it denounced the A.F. of L. as "reactionary" and proclaimed that U. S. 
Communists would lead the way to "revolutionary industrial unionism. " 
The Trade Union Unity League was launched and attempted to create 
blatantly Communist-sponsored and controlled trade unions; 

(2) After a long record of failure, the Communist Party abandoned 
the Trade Union Unity League and returned to the pre-Communist Party 
program of the radical organizations. Every attempt was made to infil- 
trate and dominate the A.F. of L., then the only major national trade 
union organization. Meanwhile the party planned and worked to prepare 
the way for "revolutionary industrial trade unionism". Their efforts 
were rewarded by the creation of the Committee for Industrial Organi- 
zation within the A.F. of L. ; 

(3) John L. Lewis ultimately led the Committee for Industrial 
Organization out of the A.F. of L. to form the dual national labor organi- 
zation that has become the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Most of 
the Communists in labor rushed into the C.I.O., leaving behind in the 
A.F. of L. only those who were solidly entrenched in strong craft unions. 
Meanwhile John L. Lewis pondered over the hunter and the dog. The 
Communists now face an attack from within the C.I.O., identical with 
the anti-Communist stand that traditionally has been pursued by the 
majority of the leadership within the A.F. of L. 

C.I.O. unionism always has been centered in the large unions in 
mass production fields steel, auto, rubber, clothing, shipping, ware- 
housing, oil and electrical manufacture supplemented by a few strong 
but numerically small unions in newspapers, textiles, mining, agricultural 
and food processing, and in shoe, fur, leather and furniture production. 

Many sections of these latter unions in the C.I.O., as well as a num- 
ber of A.F. of L. unions, are what is known as "paper organizations." 
There may be many local unions in such organizations, each numerically 
small, but enabled to exercise important voting influence in central bodies 
by taking advantage of a traditional policy of trade-unions, fraternal 
groups and similar associations that gives special consideration to numeri- 
cally small unions, lodges or chapters. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 37 

Under the system for determining the number of delegates to which 
each local, chapter or lodge is entitled, many central organizations make 
special concessions to small groups. A widely used formula is to allow 
2 delegates for the first 50 members or less ; an additional delegate for 
the next 50 members or less ; a fourth delegate for the next 150 members 
or less ; and a fifth delegate for the next 250 members or less ; with addi- 
tional delegates thereafter for every 500 members or majority fraction 
thereof. 

However, contrary to the organization of fraternal, veteran and 
similar bodies, in which individual lodges, chapters and posts are created 
and chartered solely by the one governing national organization, the two 
major labor organizations, A.F. of L. and C.I.O., are voluntary associa- 
tions of many separate international unions. Hence, the delegates to 
central bodies, state bodies, conferences and assemblies of an official 
character, are delegates from subunits of an international organization ; 
i.e., one of a number of organizations that go to make up the national 
union organization. 

Under this system, Communists in control of an international union 
can create many small local unions, "paper organizations"; each less 
than 125 members, each with three delegates to a city central labor body ; 
and, according to the formula for delegate representation cited above, 
three of these Communist-controlled "paper unions" of 125 members, 
each with three votes, can cancel out the nine delegates that would be 
allowed to a large anti-Communist local union of 2,500 members. 

One of the surest tests of the Communist domination and control of 
a labor union or civic group is the existence of many ' ' paper local unions ' ' 
or chapters, adding up to a large bloc of votes in city, county and state 
central bodies, and whose delegates consistently vote as a unit in support 
of Communist programs or act to delay, disrupt or confuse the attempt 
of the large majority of bona fide unions or chapters to carry out the 
basic policies of the central organization of a particular city, county or 
state. 

Three other basic tests also can be used to determine the Communist 
character of a labor or civic organization, in addition to the "paper 
unions ' ' or chapters that vote the Communist Party line in a bloc. These 
questions should be asked : 

(1) Does the union and its delegates consistently introduce and 
support resolutions, communications and motions to place the trade- 
union central body of a community or an industry on record in support 
of issues and organizations foreign to the functions and purposes of a 
labor union, especially when the foreign policy of Soviet Russia is 
involved ? 

(2) Does the union and its delegates consistently introduce and 
support resolutions, communications and motions for so-called "rank- 
and-file" protests and condemnation of traditional basic policies of the 
national organization ? 

(3) Does the union, its officers and delegates independently collabo- 
rate with and accept affiliation and formal positions as sponsors, officers, 
speakers and participants in a large number of Communist front organi- 
zations, causes and committees ? 



38 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Typical of the completely Communist created and controlled organi- 
zations in the trade-union, political association and civic committee 
field are : 

Trade Unions : Trade Union Unity League, Food, Tobacco and Agri- 
cultural Workers (formerly United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and 
Allied Workers of America), United Studio Technicians Guild of North 
America, United Office and Professional Workers C.I.O., United Public 
Workers C.I.O., some locals and units of the United Auto Workers 
C.I.O., and United Steel Workers C.I. 0., United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America C.I.O., and United Farm Equipment and 
Machine Workers C.I.O. 

Political Associations: National Citizens Political Action Committee, 
Progressive Citizens of America (successor to National Citizens Political 
Action Committee and Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, 
Sciences and Professions), Hollywood Democratic Committee, Motion 
Picture Democratic Committee, California Legislative Conference, Pro- 
gressive A.F. of L. of Los Angeles, and others. 

Civic Associations : League of American Writers, American Writers 
Congress, Allied Voters Against Coudert, American Council on Soviet 
Relations, American Committee for Friendship with the Soviet Union, 
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare, American-Russian Institute, Morning Freiheit 
Associations, International Workers Order, American Youth for Demo- 
cracy, and many others. 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATED AND CONTROLLED ORGANIZATIONS 

Second in importance, but not as conspicuous numerically as the 
completely Communist created and controlled organizations, are those 
that are Communist infiltrated and controlled. 

Such groups naturally are more valuable to the purposes of the Red 
Fascist conspirators than those openly sponsored by the Communist 
Party. Invariably they are organizations that were started for a legitimate 
purpose, and in virtually every instance for a liberal, progressive and 
constructive activity to solve some problem or need of a large mass of 
people. 

Trade-unions naturally fall into this grouping, since the Communists 
long ago discovered that they had little success in their own Red trade- 
unions. In America they resort to infiltrating into existing non-Com- 
munist trade-unions in order to spread Marxist poison and establish 
their " vanguard role". 

Organizations sponsored by racial, religious, cultural and other 
minority groups are a prime target for Communist infiltration. Due to the 
comparitive amateurishness of most honest participants in such organiza- 
tions, the trained, disciplined Communist, with access to information, 
pressure, guidance and publicit}^ from the entire Red Fascist network, 
frequently is able to maneuver into key positions and thus control an 
organization for the bidding of Red Fascist top strategists. 

Another type of organization in this category is the unending proces- 
sion of citizens' committees for many purported worthy purposes, such 
as transit reform, housing progress, taxes, zoning, welfare, neighborhood 
improvement, and the many legitimate protest movements against some 
community or civic situation that irks a large number of people. Invari- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 39 

ably, Communists will seek to infiltrate and dominate such groups if Red 
Fascist strategists see any opportunity for promoting their basic pro- 
grams through such groups or of winning adherents to Marxism as * * the 
one best way to solve all problems. ' ' 

A similar basic target for Communist infiltration and control is the 
subdivision of political organizations. Communists follow a scientific 
pattern in attempting to infiltrate and control Assembly districts, con- 
gressional districts, and councilmanic district clubs and organizations, 
and thus plant Communists and fellow-travelers in county and state com- 
mittees of political organizations. 

Another target for Red Fascist infiltration is any organization 
created for the purpose of doing anything associated with foreign policy. 

Red Fascist strategy also calls for similar tactics against any organi- 
zation dealing with consumer, price, farmer, veteran and youth problems. 

Typical examples of organizations not created by Communists, but 
in which Communists have infiltrated and secured control are certain 
local unions of A. F. of L., C. I. 0., Machinists, Railroad Brotherhood 
and independent unions. Such local unions invariably follow the pattern 
of Communist created and controlled organizations cited above. The 
Young Democrats, and certain Democratic county committees are further 
examples. 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATED AND DOMINATED ORGANIZATIONS 

The third major section of Communist influenced organizations (and 
one of the most important from a strategic and tactical standpoint) is 
the group that has been either created or infiltrated by Communists, 
and, while not completely controlled, is dominated by the Communist 
"caucus." 

Organizations in all the types described in the two classifications 
above will be found in this group. Almost invariably, however, they will 
be found to be organizations with large memberships, most of which are 
not Communists. In such organizations the Communists must depend upon 
political cunning, misrepresentation and confusion to maintain their 
effectiveness. 

In this grouping will be found many trade unions, political organi- 
zations, civic, racial, religious, minority and welfare associations and 
organizations formed to accomplish some worthy purpose or to solve a 
particular problem or problems of a particular group of citizens. 

Such organizations will have formal structures, parliamentary pro- 
cedures, and frequently will be broken into units, with delegates to central 
bodies; which makes them easy targets for the specialized Communist 
technique of infiltration, and manipulation of the disorganized and sin- 
cere majority membership. 

The committee wishes to emphasize that this large group of organi- 
zations in fields of humanitarian and welfare endeavor are not in them- 
selves necessarily Communist, nor is it a prime indication of Communistic 
activity that a group be engaged in reform, in improvement or ameliora- 
tion of some condition or abuse. The fact is that Red Fascists bitterly 
oppose and attack the idea of reform and reformers because the basic 
tenet of Communism is that no reform is useful that does not go the com- 
plete "whole hog" toward a proletarian dictatorship in a Soviet state. 



40 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The reason that trade-unions, racial and religious organizations and 
reform and improvement movements consistently are infiltrated and dis- 
rupted by Communist agitators and conspirators is that the Communists 
work relentlessly to either control or make impotent such mass organiza- 
tions ; to either bend them to the Communist Party line and the twin 
program of serving the interests of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia 
and of preparing the way for violent revolution at home, or to destroy 
them. 

The committee fervently hopes that the factual presentation of the 
motives, techniques and objectives of the Communist Party will awaken 
leaders of trade-unions, racial, religious and minority groups and their 
members; and all citizens who join in organizations and causes for 
improvement and betterment of civic conditions, to the basic truth that 
the Communist Party and its program of treachery and disruption is the 
greatest threat to their organizations and the purposes for which they 
organized. 

The committee has reported in the past, and it reiterates again with 
the greatest possible emphasis, that the one sound and American way to 
defeat the Communist disruption of worthy organizations and programs 
is for the sincere leaders and members to participate fully in the conduct 
of their organizations ; to study and practice the techniques of constitu- 
tional government and democratic procedure. 

The record of success of aggressively patriotic leaders in political 
organizations, in trade-unions, in racial, religious and other minority 
groups, in consistently exposing and defeating Red Fascist traitors within 
their midst, whenever they have organized, cooperated and worked full 
time at the job of preserving their own organization and its devotion to 
American ideals, is the most convincing proof that it can be done. 

Failure to guard the precious jewels of liberty, freedom and justice 
by real, day-to-day participation in the affairs of a nation or an organiza- 
tion, invariably will result in a surrender by default to the fanatical 
agents of Red Fascism. 

Beyond any laws or any activity of police agencies against criminals 
and traitors, the safest assurance of the continued liberty and integrity 
of a nation or an institution, rests on the loyalty, devotion and courage 
of those who enjoy its benefits and privileges. 

The immediate result of failure in loyalty, devotion and courage 
invariably will be the corruption by Red Fascists of the purpose and 
principles for which people have come together. When this happens to an 
organization it brings impotence and destruction. When it happens to 
a nation it brings confiscation, the concentration camp and the police state. 

The committee finds that one of the most important battle grounds in 
the present world struggle between the ideologies of freedom and of totali- 
tarianism, is the mass organizations; and the committee calls on all 
citizens of California to alert themselves to the danger of Communist 
infiltration and domination of their organizations and institutions. 

Among typical mass organizations that are victims of Communist 
domination, the following are representative and significant. The com- 
mittee calls attention to the fact that many sincere, non-Communist indi- 
viduals are victimized by the Red Fascists who have gained positions of 
domination in such organizations : Certain international unions, councils 
and locals of the C. I. 0. unions ; San Francisco and Los Angeles C. I. 0, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 41 

industrial union councils, certain councils and local unions of the A. F. 
of L. unions ; certain councils and locals of the independent unions ; the 
American Labor Party, the Progressive Citizens of America, the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party, and the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

COMMUNIST INFILTRATED, BUT NEITHER CONTROLLED 
NOR DOMINATED 

Numerically one of the largest groups of Communist-influenced 
organizations, and next to the completely Communist controlled or domi- 
nated from a strategical and tactical Marxist approach, is the large 
number of organizations that are infiltrated by Communists, but neither 
controlled nor dominated. 

Based on cold-blooded strategy and tactics for revolution as laid 
down by Lenin and Stalin, all Communists are ordered to disrupt and 
make impotent any organized group that they neither can control or 
dominate. 

This fundamental tenet of Marxist activity is explained clearly 
in the citations from Lenin and Stalin at the opening of this section 
of the committee 's report. 

It follows naturally, that no trade union, political organization, 
racial, religious or minority group organization; no organization deal- 
ing with foreign policy, business and economic affairs, or the problems 
of workers, unemployed, veterans, consumers, taxpayers, public 
employees, farmers, investors, and educators ; or groups concerned with 
charity, welfare, the aged, handicapped and youth, or any group con- 
cerned with health, safety, delinquency, housing, transportation and 
similar problems, can be immune from Communist infiltration, no matter 
how anti-Communist the organization may be. 

It is a plain fact, familiar to the committee in repeated hearings 
and investigations, that Communists frequently infiltrate and operate 
within organizations that flatly ban Communists from membership. 
Communist agents openly pursue Communist policies and tactics, and 
when exposed, move on to other assignments, to be replaced by new 
Communist agents. 

The committee fully is aware of the Communist participation in 
such organizations as anti-Communist A. F. of L. and C.I.O. unions, 
and in such indisputably patriotic organizations as the American Legion, 
the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and Disabled American Veterans, and 
in the Democratic and Republican Parties. 

It is a matter of record that such Communist agents have been 
exposed and expelled from such organizations. Their Red Fascist activi- 
ties invariably follow a consistent pattern. 

In mass organizations that Communists cannot control or dominate, 
the strategy of the Communist agent is to disrupt, confuse, divide and 
nullify. 

In these organizations, Communists frequently make a pretense in 
bidding for control or domination. Actually, however, recognizing the 
tactical facts for what they are in any mass organization that basicalty 
is anti-Communist, the sole purpose of the Communists in such groups 
is to make them ineffective and impotent in relation to the Communist 
Party line issues of the moment, 



42 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

All Communists are indoctrinated with the tactical theory laid 
down in the sacred text of Stalin's blueprint for revolution, "Problems 
of Leninism," that the "party never must relinquish its vanguard role, 
but at the same time it must not commit the crime of entering alone 
into the decisive conflict as long as the broad masses have not yet taken 
up a position either of direct support * * * or of at least benevolent 
neutrality toward it * * *. " 

It is a matter of record that the Communists will go to any length 
and suffer any indignity in order to render a mass organization impo- 
tent to act against the Communist program, if they are unable to control 
or dominate the organization. 

The importance of this stategy to the Communist Party is empha- 
sized by Lenin in the plainest words possible in "Leftwing Communism, 
an Infantile Disorder." Lenin says: 

"It is necessary to * * * agree to any and every sacrifice, and 
even if need be to resort to all sorts of devices, maneuvers and 
illegal methods, to evasion and subterfuge, in order to penetrate 
into the trade-unions, to remain in them, and to carry on Communist 
work in them at all costs. ' ' 

In spite of the fact that the Communists will pretend to support 
any shade of political, economic and ethical thinking whenever it serves 
their purpose of penetration and infiltration, actually, to the Com- 
munists, there is only the Communist and the anti-Communist. 

To a Communist, every person and group falls into one of two 
classifications: Either a follower and completely complacent tool to 
be used, or else an enemy to be destroyed or immobilized. To a Com- 
munist, every person and group is judged according to their possible 
value, either to serve the foreign policy of Soviet Russia or to prepare 
the way for the eventual violent revolution at home. If the Communist 
cannot win a person or organization over to the party line, his alterna- 
tive tactic is to destroy or immobilize. 

It is important to Communist strategy that Communist agents pre- 
vent an impression of unified opposition to Communist Party line activi- 
ties. Every effort is made to have a dissident element present in such 
organizations as the A. F. of L., C.I.O., American Legion and the major 
political parties and civic groups to provide a publicity springboard 
for so-called "rank and file" protests when such organizations attack 
Communism or criticize a "party line" policy. 

Communists always must be concerned with keeping up the morale 
and enthusiasm of their dupes. Members of mass groups, who mis- 
guidedly follow Communist-controlled programs and policies need, and 
receive, back-slapping encouragement. A rebellious and noisy minority 
in a large anti- Communist mass organization, therefore, is an indis- 
pensable factor in Communist activity. 

Among organizations that fall into the classification of Communist 
infiltrated, but neither controlled nor dominated, and in which the Com- 
munists operate principally to disrupt, confuse, nullify, and delay, may 
be listed virtually every mass labor, veteran, civic and reform organ- 
ization in California. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 43 

Typical, however, of organizations faced with consistent Communist 
disruption and confusion are most A. F. of L., C.I.O. and other trade 
unions, American Legion, Disabled American Veterans, Veterans of 
Foreign Wars, AMVETS, American Veterans Committee (the Cali- 
fornia section of American Veterans Committee falls into the Com- 
munist-dominated class, and is a vociferous dissident minority in national 
AVC affairs), the Democratic and Republican parties, National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored People, bar associations, medical 
associations, etc. 

The committee has emphasized in previous reports, and it again 
calls to the attention of all patriotic citizens that membership in civic 
organizations, trade unions, political, veteran and fraternal organiza- 
tions carries with it responsibilities as w r ell as privileges. 

The committee urges members of all organized groups to be watchful 
constantly against Communist infiltration with its program of duplicity, 
treachery and disruption. History has proved repeatedly that no nation, 
institution or organization can collaborate with Communism without 
courting destruction. 

COMMUNISTS INFILTRATED SOLELY FOR PURPOSES OF ESPIONAGE 

A special classification of Communist infiltrated organizations is 
those groups that are so patently and consistently anti-Communist that 
open Communist activity would be recognized promptly and effectively 
dealt with. 

In this group are service clubs, fraternal and patriotic organizations, 
most posts and chapters of veteran organizations, many trade unions, 
business associations, police and public agencies, military units, religious 
organizations and sections of political parties and civic organizatons. 

The Marxist plotters do not overlook the strategical importance 
of information about the plans and programs of such openly anti- 
Communist organizations. 

Typical of the Communist strategy in this field is the infiltration 
into the strongly ant i- Communist trade unions. In such organizations 
the underground element of the Communist Party works whenever and 
wherever possible gathering information about anti-Communist pro- 
grams and policies. 

This field of Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist strategy and tactics is based 
on treachery and espionage, yet the Kremlin always find tools to do 
its bidding. 

Since this is a secretive and conspiratorial phase of Communist 
infiltration, it is not subject to the customary checks and tests that apply 
to other Communist work in organized groups. 

Need for such investigation in this field arises when Communist 
activity, propaganda and tactical operations indicate that the Commu- 
nist too frequently appears in advance possession of information about 
the plans and policies of responsible organizations. 

Virtually every organized group in America is subject to this type 
of Communist infiltration. In the light of present world relations, and 
the experiences of Canada and other nations with Communist spy rings 
and espionage operations, government, business, labor, and civic institu- 
tions must be particularly alert. 



44 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

MISCELLANEOUS GROUPS 

There are many institutions and organizations which, for tactical 
or strategic reasons, appear to be permanently, or for long periods, 
immune from Communist infiltration. 

The committee warns that no group can feel secure from Communist 
infiltration and disruption. 

The committee is familiar with the complacency and apathy toward 
the problem of Communist conspiratorial plotting in America. This 
smug attitude may be summed up as follows : 

"We have no Communists in our organization. We are not worried 
about Communistic attacks. We cannot understand why everybody gets 
so excited about Communism. All we have to do is proceed with our own 
affairs and let others tend to theirs. ' ' 

This is the identical attitude assumed by leaders of many organiza- 
tions in Germany while Hitler was rising to power, and it was the atti- 
tude of complacent leaders in the countries now behind the ' ' Iron Cur- 
tain, ' ' while the Communists and the traitors plotted to seize power. 

The committee warns the Members of the Senate and the leaders of 
all institutions and organizations that the menace of Red Fascist con- 
spiracy is a real, solemn and dangerous one. Leaders of organizations 
fortunate enough to be free from immediate Communist confusion and 
disruption should take an interest in the problems of the many institu- 
tions and organizations that do suffer from Communist attacks. They 
should keep informed of the facts of Communist activity and they should, 
in time of freedom from Communist infiltration and disruption, prepare 
their own organizations to meet such problems in the future. 

The committee has pointed out frequently in the past, and it again 
reiterates, that Communist policy is ruthless and that no organization is 
immune. Since the objective of Communism in America is to serve the 
twin program fostering the interests of the foreign policy of Soviet 
Russia and preparing for violent revolutionary overthrow of the Ameri- 
can government, no individual, institution or organization can afford 
the luxury of complacency, apathy and unconcern toward the problem 
of Communism in America today. 

ORGANIZATIONS CLASSIFIED BY COMMUNIST 
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE 

In addition to the classification of organizations and institutions in 
accordance with the proportion of Communist Party influence that may 
affect them, most organizations subject to Communist influence may be 
classified in accordance with the purpose and objective of world Com- 
munism. 

Any such classification will embrace the four first classifications in the 
immediately preceding section of this report: (1) Communist created 
and controlled ; (2) Communist infiltrated and controlled ; (3) Commu- 
nist infiltrated or created, and dominated ; and (4) Communist infiltrated 
and influenced for purposes of disruption, confusion, delay and nullifi- 
cation. 

The other two classifications of organizations infiltrated for espion- 
age purposes and those not of immediate interest to Communist conspir- 
ators, obviously have no value to the Communist Party 4n advancing its 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 45 

purpose toward its final objective of a world dictatorship of the prole- 
tariat. 

The committee has pointed out in previous sections of this report 
that it is vital to the preservation of the United States and its institutions 
that every citizen learn to distinguish the proportion of Communist influ- 
ence in a given organization in order to meet problems that may arise as 
a result of Red Fascist activity within the organization. 

We are all aware that modern life creates conflicts between groups. 
Many are healthy and proper. Others are based on prejudice and intoler- 
ance, and provide material for manipulators to spread disunity and to 
practice their unholy doctrine of hate and conflict. Wisdom and temper- 
ance in interorganizational affairs are equally as important as alertness 
and f orthrightness in meeting subversive disruption head on. 

The committee has stated previously and the committee again reiter- 
ates, that the most completely vicious, unholy doctrine of hate, discord 
and strife in world history is the psuedoscientific theory of Marx as prac- 
ticed by world Stalinites in their conception of the class-struggle. 

Communism plays upon all conflicts, disagreements and group ten- 
sions to divert organized groups from the sane solution of specific prob- 
lems. The intensification of group hatreds is the Communists ' solution to 
all problems. The destruction of all classes, said Marx, is the only road to 
the ' ' classless society. ' ' 

It follows, therefore, that conflict and disagreement is lush soil for 
Red Fascist revolutionary manipulation. Where there is no conflict the 
Communist must create conflict. 

It is important that every citizen understand how the Communists 
play upon discords and conflicts for the purpose of manipulating and 
bending organized groups toward the Eed Fascist twin program of serv- 
ing the interests of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia and of preparing 
the way for violent revolution at home. 

Only on the basis of thoughtful judgment and analysis through 
factual determination of the proportion of Communist influence in a par- 
ticular organization, together with a thorough understanding of why the 
infiltration and corruption of such an organization is important in the 
strategic pattern of revolutionary Communist plotting, will responsible 
citizens be able to adopt correct decisions in interorganizational relations. 

The committee is well aware of the fact that this places upon all 
citizens a burden of effort and the expenditure of time and money. How- 
ever, the benefits of the American system carry with them responsibilities 
of loyalty and devotion. Every American is under sacred obligation to act 
for the protection and preservation of the institutions and ideals that 
have protected his liberties and freedom throughout our nation's exist- 
ence. 

Californians cannot, and will not, fail in this period of crisis. They 
will meet the problem of Communism intelligently and bring to its solu- 
tion the same pioneer spirit of determination, vigor and cooperation that 
marked the creation of this great State as a shining star in the Star 
Spangled Banner. 

The committee calls attention to the fact that California is in a key 
position in national defense ; in economic and agricultural contributions 
to national defense; in aviation, motion picture, radio, shipping and 



46 UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

transportation ; and that it has become a crucial State in major political 
decisions affecting the welfare of the Nation and the future of the world. 

The unprecedented growth in California's population has created 
conditions and groupings that provide lush material upon which Com- 
munist disruption can feed. 

California's great past, and imposing future, presents a challenge 
to both the Communists and the Americans, marking the division of 
world-thinking between the two ideologies of totalitarianism and of 
freedom. 

The final record of how that challenge will be met, will be deter- 
mined by the energy, devotion, courage and morality of the advocates 
of these two utterly contradictory philosophies. 

The committee has determined from past investigations that too 
many Americans are completely ignorant of the purposes and objectives 
of world Communism ; and therefore, are ill-equipped to cope with prob- 
lems raised by Red Fascist activity in interorganizational relations. The 
committee believes, therefore, that it is of supreme importance that the 
citizens of California have readily available a simple, understandable 
source of information on the purposes and objectives of world Commu- 
nist revolutionary conspiracy, so that they will understand how the strat- 
egy and tactics of Red Fascist plotting are directed and applied. 

THE SIX BASIC DIVISIONS OF COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

All Communist front organizations can be classified conveniently 
and logically under six basic headings. 

The six basic classifications of Communist front organizations are : 

( 1 ) The Indispensable Organizations for Revolution ; 

(2) Culture and Science ; 

(3) Organizations Dealing With Domestic Problems and Activity; 

(4) Organizations Dealing With Foreign Affairs and Problems ; 

( 5 ) Organizations With Appeals to Basic Groups ; and 

( 6 ) Miscellaneous Organizations, Committees and Alliances. 

An examination of the purposes and objectives of Red Fascism 
reveals that behind the apparent confusion and disorder of the creation, 
dissolution and manipulation of thousands of front groups, there are 
basic, essential patterns that are molded by the functions and needs of a 
revolutionary organization forced by necessity to operate behind false 
fronts and fagades. 

Consequently, the apparently confused and spontaneous mass of 
front organizations can be classified logically within the framework of the 
six basic classifications. 

The committee presents herewith an analytical classification of the 
various Communist fronts into the essential subdivisions under the gen- 
eral headings of the six basic classifications. 

(1) The Indispensable Organizations for Revolution 

Any organized program for revolution that is committed to serve 
the foreign policy of one nation which is the program and commitment 
of world Communism must have two fundamental types of organiza- 
tions, whose work is closely coordinated and frequently interchangeable. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 47 

These two essential fundamental types of organization are : 
I. Completely Communist controlled basic organizations to carry 
out Communist work in every segment of society ; and 

II. Completely Communist controlled publication and information 
organizations to carry out Communist propaganda in every seg- 
ment of society. 

Within these two classifications will be found the permanent struc- 
ture of the Communist Party the hard core of trained, disciplined, 
militant and fanatical disciples of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. These 
revolutionaries work day and night to penetrate organized groups to 
either control or immobilize them to the interest of the foreign policy of 
Soviet Russia or to prepare for violent revolution at home. 

I. Communist Basic Organizations 

Organizations for Communist work naturally begin with the Com- 
munist Party itself. The organizational structure of the Communist 
Party has been outlined in detail in the 1943, 1945, 1947 reports by this 
committee. The committee has pointed out that the organizational struc- 
ture of the Communist Party is subject to constant modification and 
revision for immediate tactical and strategical purposes, but its essential 
character, as a secret, conspiratorial, revolutionary institution, never 
changes. 

Next in importance to the Communist Party itself are the American 
sections of basic international organizations, created by the Comintern 
to carry on the program of Red revolution throughout the world. 

Among such organizations are those for "friendship with Soviet 
Russia," for defense of Communists, and for political, racial, economic 
and educational purposes. The most important of all are those that oper- 
ate within the trade-union field on an international scale, because the 
Communists depend on ' ' revolutionary industrial unionism " as an indis- 
pensable element in preparing the way for eventual violent revolution 
and establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat in any one 
country. 

With the exception of such comparatively broadly based completely 
Communist controlled organizations as American Youth for Democ- 
racy, International Workers Order, Morning Freiheit Association, Con- 
gress of American Women, International Labor Defense and Civil 
Rights Congress, Labor Research Association, and similar completely 
controlled Red fronts, the Communist Party does not seek or desire large 
memberships in its fundamental front organizations. 

The reason for this must be obvious to any intelligent observer. These 
organizations are the hard core of the revolutionary conspiracy and, in 
accordance with the "vanguard role" of the party, any other attitude 
would be ridiculous and contradictory. 

For the guidance of Californians in untangling this pattern of Red 
intrigue, the committee presents a quotation from an official Communist 
source that states in the plainest possible language the Communistic idea 
of its * ' vanguard role. ' ' 



48 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A pamphlet published in 1943 by Workers Library Publishers, 
entitled: "A Talk About the Communist Party/' contained the follow- 
ing specific boast : 

* * * Q ur party * * * while being a small well-knit group, 
thinking and working collectively in a way that makes it act dif- 
ferent from any other party and different from the masses, at the 
same time, if it is really functioning as the Communist Party, is 
always in the closest contact with the masses * " * Our program 
is the most powerful thing in the political life of our country today, 
the most powerful thing in the world today. We are planting it in 
America so that it grows right out of the ground of our country and 
our community. Our party is strong because of this, strong beyond 
its numbers, because we grow slowly in numbers, we grow by leaps 
and bounds in our influence * * * We are the ones who always 
know what we are doing and where we are going * * * We work 
together, we think together, and that gives us strength beyond any 
individuals * * * In our agitation around these demands (the 
everyday needs of the workers) we must emphasize the absolute 
necessity for the proletarian revolution. Our strategy is to utilize 
these immediate demands to educate and organize the masses in prep- 
aration for the final revolutionary struggle, which will abolish capi- 
talism altogether. Reliance on immediate demands would lead us 
merely to reformism. Our party is a revolutionary party. It aims 
not to ease conditions a bit under capitalism for the workers, but to 
abolish capitalism altogether * * * The Commanist Party * * * 
knows how to participate in the daily struggle of the workers. It 
knows how to utilize all these struggles to develop class conscious- 
ness * * * and thus begin the mobilization for the eventual over- 
throw of capitalism. ' ' 

This is the purpose and objective of Communism in a plain statement 
from an official Communist source and it explains the method to be used 
to accomplish the goal of violent revolution. 

Typical of the Communist organization under this subdivision are : 
The Communist Party of the United States, American Youth for Democ- 
racy, International Labor Defense, Civil Rights Congress, Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee, Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 
and League of American Writers, etc. 

II. Communist Controlled Publications and Information Services 

The life-blood of Communist conspiracy is the party's press and 
publishing businesses. Through their newspapers, magazines, books, sym- 
posiums, pamphlets, handbills and analytical publications, the Commu- 
nists train and educate their converts for the revolution ; and, at the same 
time, they spread their propaganda to confuse, disrupt and divide. 

The Communist press and publication system in the United States 
is comprehensive, well-financed and efficient. Making use of the network 
of Communist organizations and front groups it is able to systematically 
and scientifically circulate Communist publications and propaganda 
throughout the length and breadth of the United States. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 49 

The gigantic propaganda apparatus of Fascism and Nazism at its 
peak never approached the efficient and extensive operation of the net- 
work of Red Fascist propaganda. 

Equally important with the task of proselyting carried on by the 
Communist press, is the fundamental requirement for machinery and 
methods for attack and smear. Anyone who opposes or exposes the Com- 
munist conspiracy must be destroyed. 

A continuous program of character assassination is conducted by the 
Communist publication-system designed to discredit anyone who attacks 
or exposes Communism. Public officials and law enforcement agencies are 
to be constantly smeared and discredited in the minds of members of mass 
organizations. 

A characteristic of the Communist conspiracy is the unbroken pro- 
gram for villification ; the smearing of non-Communist radical, liberal, 
progressive, and even revolutionary movements. Non-Stalinist socialism is 
attacked with the same fury as capitalism and parliamentary government. 

The committee has in its voluminous files innumerable Communist 
publications devoted to attacks on individuals, organizations and institu- 
tions, who refuse to kowtow to the Moscow brand of "progress, peace and 
prosperity. ' ' 

No more vicious criticism of trade-unions and trade-union leadership 
exists than the abusive Communist propaganda smears of anti-Communist 
trade unions and leaders. 

Among typical examples of the Communist press and publications 
are : The Worker (weekly) and The Daily Worker, New York Commu- 
nist daily newspaper, circulated nationally; People's Daily World, and 
People's World Weekend Edition, San Francisco Communist daily news- 
paper, circulated nationally; New Masses-Mainstream; Political Affairs 
(formerly The Communist) ; Four Continent Book Corp.; Universal Dis- 
tributors; Book Find Club; International Publishers; New Century Pub- 
lishers; Soviet Russia Today; Fraternal Outlook; The Chart; Clarity; 
Railroad Workers Link; Jewish Life; Woman Power; Teeners' Topics; 
Youth; Student Outlook; Economic Notes; Among Friends; Congress 
Views; Freiheit; Labor Defender; Midwest Daily Record; Black and 
White; In Fact; New Times; New Africa; I cor; New World; Pacific 
Weekly; Action Bulletin; and the California Eagle. 

In addition to completely Communist controlled and dominated pub- 
lications, there also is a long list of trade-union, racial, minority, liberal 
and special-interest publications into which Communists have infiltrated 
as editors, correspondents and contributors. The Communist influence is 
established through such news services as Federated Press, Economic 
Notes, Allied Labor News Service, Associated Magazine Contributors, 
Inc., Trade Union Service, Inc., and Labor Research Association. 

The Communist propaganda system, combined with the nation-wide 
network of publications, information exchange, special writers, and serv- 
ices is so comprehensive and integrated that the average leadership of 
organized groups in America today are totally unequipped to cope with 
its flood of propaganda. 

Communists are so efficiently disciplined that they are able to organ- 
ize a propaganda campaign on a few hours notice. They will produce 
publications, press releases, plant Red propaganda in newspaper and 

5 L-7088-D 



50 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

wire service stories, and start a flood of letters, postcards, telegrams and 
resolutions, that amazes and bewilders the ordinary American. 

(2) Culture and Science 

The second basic classification of Communist activity, with relation 
to the purposes and objectives of world Communism, is that dealing with 
culture and sciences. 

Next to the organizations of trained revolutionary fanatics and their 
systematic press and propaganda service, infiltration of culture and 
science is regarded by the Marxists as an indispensable adjunct of prac- 
tical and successful revolutionary work. 

The best test of the importance of this classification, too frequently 
disregarded or minimized by the average citizen, is the attitude toward 
culture and science taken by Communists once they have seized control 
of a nation and established a dictatorship of the proletariat. 

Communism is so inimical to the concept of freedom and liberty that 
its exponents know full well that they cannot tolerate a breath of individ- 
ual freedom and liberty, lest their entire system be swept away by an 
indignant populace. 

This basic classification of Communist work in this category falls 
naturally into three subdivisions. 

I. Arts and Culture ; 
II. Sciences and Professional ; and 
III. Youth and Education. 

In every one of these classifications, Communists work incessantly to 
pervert, to control or to immobilize every institution and organization in 
these fields to the benefit of Marxism as ordained by the Communist dicta- 
tors in the Kremlin. 

I. Arts and Culture 

There is no field of art or culture in which Communists have not 
developed a program and charted organizational and propaganda actvity. 
Literature, painting, music, the theatre, opera, ballet, and every one of 
the popular arts are logical targets for Red corruption because of their 
recognized influence upon masses of people. 

Motion pictures and radio are particular targets for Marxist infiltra- 
tion because of their propaganda value. Additionally, films, radio, litera- 
ture and similar fields are attractive to Communists because of the 
tremendous fund-raising possibilities that exist in the confusion and 
bewilderment among many high-salaried creative workers on such sub- 
jects as economics, politics, government, foreign affairs and reform; and 
in the traditional warm-hearted susceptibility of theatrical and artistic 
folk to charitable and humanitarian appeals. 

Since all art is critical to a greater or lesser degree of nature, human- 
ity and the imperfect institutions of mankind, artists and art mediums 
are prime material for the Communist program. Communism, we must 
always remember, feeds 011 dissent and discord. 

The committee has presented detailed analysis and comment in 
previous reports upon the psychological aspects of those who become 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 51 

victims of the Marxist philosophy. The committee is well aware of the 
fact that many sincere and misguided individuals in the literary, the- 
atrical, film, music and other artistic fields are deluded by the apparent 
enthusiasm of Communists for humanitarian ventures. 

Celebrities in the public limelight should be particularly careful 
not to fall for the Red conspiracy through appeal to their sympathetic 
and charitable impulses. There are scores of bona fide, responsible organi- 
zations through which anyone can express such impulses. It should be 
obvious that it is not necessary to rush into special committees and 
"letterhead organizations 7 ' in order to accomplish worthy purposes. 

The motion picture industry, itself a prime target for Communist 
manipulation and fund raising, has been victimized repeatedly by brazen 
and financially dishonest Communist front organizations. The Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League, the Motion Picture Democratic Committee, 
the Hollywood Democratic Committee, the Hollywood Independent Citi- 
zens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions, and scores of 
swiftly created and soon dissolved "letterhead organizations," all con- 
trolled and directed by Communists, are typical examples. 

A significant feature of Communist front organizations in the 
artistic and cultural spheres is the consistent repetition of the same 
names in group after group ; and the consistent repetition in the impor- 
tant paid and executive positions of secretary, treasurer, executive 
director, executive secretary, program chairman, public relations direc- 
tor and editor, of the same monotonously familiar procession of Com- 
munist hacks and party-liners, each of whom is deftly insinuated into 
these key positions by veteran fellow-travelers in the arts organizations. 

A major and subtle feature of Communist infiltration into the arts 
and cultural fields is the steady, persistent and successful Communist 
program of planting trusted and adept Communist agents in positions 
that influence hiring, purchase of material or talent, and the critical 
and editorial handling of art creations. 

This activity is carried on in conjunction with the network of Com- 
munist schools. Many of these Red institutions pose as general schools 
of learning and specialize in courses of the arts, professions, trade-union, 
and economic problems of the day. 

Two of the most notorious of these schools in California are the 
People's Educational Center, of Hollywood, which is the direct suc- 
cessor to the openly Communist Workers' School of Los Angeles, and 
the California Labor School of San Francisco. The Communist char- 
acter and history of these Red centers of intrigue and treachery are 
documented fully in the committee's previous reports. 

Through infiltration into key positions where Communists and fel- 
low-travelers can be advanced, aided and promoted in their careers, Com- 
munist propaganda experts are able to engage in smearing, sabotaging 
and hampering anti-Communist writers, actors, composers, and other 
creative workers, and are able to conduct an intellectual and psycho- 
logical reign of terror among liberal minded workers in the arts. 

Most of the prominent pro-Communist fellow-travelers among the- 
atrical, motion picture, literary, and musical celebrities have back- 
grounds of membership in, and association with, the front organizations 
sponsored by the Communist Party in the realms of art and culture. 



52 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Communists regard the infiltration, manipulation and control of 
artistic and cultural media as one of the indispensable phases of their 
program of revolution. 

The committee finds that this is a vital phase of American life in 
which the Communists wield an amazing and unprecedented degree of 
influence. Such intellectural sabotage provides a fundamental weapon 
in talent and material for the Red propaganda attack on American insti- 
tutions ; and it provides celebrities and funds to be used for the promo- 
tion of Communist causes and programs. 

One of the most dangerous manifestations of this Communist 
attack on American art and culture is found in the alleged scientific 
program of Marxist writers for corrupting American history, and 
ghoulishly fastening the label of Marxism upon great American his- 
torical figures in an attempt to sell Communism to the American people. 
Communist writers and composers have attempted with subtlety and 
trickery to twist and pervert the traditional radical history and pioneer 
spirit of Americans to serve the interests of their unholy aim for totali- 
tarian dictatorship. 

Typical of Communist front organizations in this classification are : 
Actors Laboratory Theater, American Writers Congress, Artists Front 
to Win the War, Congress of American Revolutionary Writers, Film 
Audiences for Democracy, Group Theater, Hollywood Writers Mobili- 
zation, Frontier Films, League of American Writers, League of Workers 
Theaters, National Committee Against Censorship of the Theatre Arts, 
New Dance League, New Theatre League, Theatre Arts Committee, 
United American Artists, etc. 

II. Sciences and Professions 

Parallel to and identical with Communist front organization in the 
subclassification for Arts and Culture, are the Communist fronts for 
the Sciences and Professions. 

For tactical and strategic reasons, such as the Communist attempt 
to capture support for an independent political program or movement, 
these groups are combined. The Independent Citizens Committee of the 
Arts, Sciences and Professions was merged in the present major Com- 
munist political front group, the Progressive Citizens of America, 
although it functions independently on occasion. 

Communist front groups in the Sciences and Professions follow the 
same pattern, and have the same general purpose, as those in the field 
of Art and Culture. 

A significant feature in both groups is the establishment of a long 
list of ready-and-willing fellow-travelers who provide "window-dress- 
ing" promptly and meekly whenever Communist Party strategy and 
tactics call for the creation of a new front organization in a hurry. 

Typical of Communist front organizations in the Sciences and Pro- 
fessions classification are: Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chem- 
ists and Technicians (now the United Office and Professional Workers, 
C.I.O.), International Juridical Association, National Lawyers Guild, 
Committee for the first amendment, Screen Writers Guild, Artists Com- 
mittee to Win the War, etc. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 53 

III. Youth and Education 

Communists devote interminable discussion and analysis to strategy 
and tactics to subvert, cajole and lure every segment of the community 
into either falling victim to the Communist philosophy, or else becom- 
ing so confused and disunited that it is incapable of effective opposition 
to Communist intrigue. 

The committee 's files contain scores of analytical discussions of the 
two preceding subclassifications, Art and Culture, and Sciences and 
Professions. This material is completely flooded out by the downpour 
of tactical and propaganda material on how to corrupt youth and to 
dominate and influence education. 

From William Z. Foster on down, the Communist leadership con- 
tinues to beat its followers over the head with criticism of their mis- 
takes in this field. Communist agents are continually admonished to 
cultivate this field to the fullest in true Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist style. 

No phase of education is immune from Communist infiltration, 
strategic and tactical attack. From teachers' unions to child care centers ; 
from textbooks to the classroom, Communist infiltration proceeds steadily 
and persistently. 

A close relationship will be found between Communist front groups 
and their familiar window-dressing of confirmed fellow-travelers in the 
fields of Art and Culture, and Sciences and Professions, and the front 
groups directly intend to influence the educational structure of America. 
Likewise, many professors and educators will be found repeatedly in 
the directorship of front organizations in these interlocking fields, as a 
glance at the index of this report will disclose. 

Through a complicated net of Marxist groups, Ked agents have 
penetrated into the writing, editing, printing, publishing and purchasing 
of textbooks to be used in American schools. The objective of this Com- 
munist penetration is to insinuate condemnation and criticism of the 
American system into the minds of students, while praising and com- 
mending Soviet Russia and socialism as the solution of all our problems. 

One of the principal l i transmission belts ' ' for such propaganda has 
been the Committee on Education of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship. 

Another major phase of Communist educational work is the Com- 
munist Party's own network of schools and classes, running from inno- 
cent-appearing classes for aspiring artists and trade-unionists to the 
ultimate postgraduate courses conducted by selected American Com- 
munists in the Lenin School in Moscow, where the fine arts of espionage, 
sabotage, street-fighting, dynamiting, and other indispensable skills for 
violent revolution are taught by the Kremlin's most authoritative experts. 

The committee has pointed out in a previous section of this report 
that the two most important Communist schools in California are The 
California Labor School in San Francisco, and People's Educational 
Center in Hollywood. These schools are under the complete control and 
domination of the Communist Party. In addition to serving the cause 
of Communist educational work, they also function as intelligence and 
communication centers between the formal Communist apparatus in. 
California and the many front groups spawned by the Party. 



54 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

These two schools serve as important and convenient meeting places 
for important Communist functionaries and fellow-travelers. The record 
of these schools and their management is reported fully in the alphabeti- 
cal listing of Communist front organizations of this report. 

Of comparable importance in the network of Communist schools is 
another Pacific Coast institution, The Seattle Labor School. 

The key mass organization for Communist infiltration and corrup- 
tion of American youth is American Youth for Democracy, which is the 
direct successor to The Young Communist League. (See 1945-1947 
reports.) An important adult adjunct to American Youth for Democracy 
is The Citizens Committee on Academic Freedom and similar organiza- 
tions, formed to defend A.Y.D. from attempts to bar and ban it from 
participating in campus activities in schools, colleges and universities. 

Another important mass organization, heavily infiltrated and effec- 
tively dominated by the Communist Party, is American Youth for a 
Free World, which is a success6r to the Communist-influenced American 
Youth Congress. 

American Youth for a Free World was linked directly to the inter- 
national Communist dominated youth organization, World Youth Coun- 
cil, with headquarters in London, England. At an international World 
Youth Conference in November, 1945, in London, a commission was 
created, which developed The World Federation of Democratic Youth. 

This is a completely Communist dominated international body, which 
has close ties with two other important Red international bodies. These 
are The World Federation of Trade Unions and The International Demo- 
cratic Women's Federation. 

World Federation of Democratic Youth publishes an official maga- 
zine, World Youth, in four languages, Russian, French, Spanish, and 
English. It staged an international conference and youth festival in 
Prague, Czechoslovakia, in July, 1947. 

(3) Communist Fronts for Domestic Affairs 

The committee has emphasized in past reports, and it here reiterates 
as strongly as possible, that the Communist Party in any country is 
dedicated to the twin program of serving the interests of the foreign 
policy of Soviet Russia, and of preparing the way for violent revolution 
at home. This pattern is followed in Communist fronts for domestic 
affairs. 

There are two broad divisions of Communist activity in the field of 
domestic affairs: those dealing with direct Communist programs and 
those dealing with Communist infiltration and manipulation of basic 
community groups. The latter subject is dealt with in the Basic Group 
Appeal section as Classification Five of the Six Basic Classifications, in 
a subsequent section of this report. 

In the field of domestic affairs, the Communist front groups dealing 
with direct Communist activities fall into three sub classifications : 

I. Defense, Honoring and Support of Known Communists and 

Communist Organizations ; 
II. Legal Defense and Civil Rights; and 

III. Political and Legislative. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 55 

In addition, the Basic Group Number Five, described in a subsequent 
section of this report, provides Communist front organizations with 
special appeal for charity, relief and unemployed, racial, religious and 
refugee, trade-unions, consumers, farmers, veterans and similar segments 
of the community. 

I. Defense, Honoring and Support of Known Communists and Communist 
Organizations 

An acid test of an individual or organization for Communist leaning 
is the attitude toward this classification of Communist front work. 

No matter how sincere or confused an individual or group may be, 
there is no excuse for lending his name or the prestige of an individual 
or group to the honoring, support and defense of known Communists 
and front groups under the pretext that the supporters of such movements 
1 ' do not know what they are doing. ' ' 

This subclassification is entirely separate from the following sub- 
classification under the general heading of Legal Defense and Civil 
Rights, in which are to be found Communist fronts that specialize in 
capitalizing on controversies that are useful to the Red program of dis- 
cord and confusion, and which lend themselves to fund-raising campaigns 
wherein Communists can secure control of large sums under the pretext 
of carrying on a humanitarian activity. 

The most conspicuous recent phase of this type of front organiza- 
tion manipulation has been the series of committees, resolutions, rallies, 
protests and publicity statements drummed up by the Communist Party 
and its fellow-travelers to defend known Communists from charges of 
perjury, contempt of Congress and the courts, immigration and passport 
fraud, illegal registration, and other violations of law. 

It is a standard policy of the Communist Party to contend, in every 
case where a Communist is arrested, indicted or prosecuted, that the 
criminal action against the Communist is not for purposes of law enforce- 
ment and protection of the United States, but solely for purposes of 
intimidation, "thought control" and persecution of minorities. It is 
significant that Communists display little concern for the problems of 
non-Communists who become involved in the same legal predicaments; 
and that further, the Communists will not hesitate to demand total denial 
of civil rights to those individuals and organizations they have labeled 
as Fascist and reactionary. 

Among typical Communist front organizations in this activity are : 
Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder, Protest Against Ban on 
Browder, Bridges Defense Committee, Bridges Victory Committee, Open 
Letter Protesting Ban on Communists in the American Civil Liberties 
Union, International Labor Defense, Civil Rights Congress, Prestes 
Defense, Schappes Defense Committee, Statement Urging Ballot Rights 
for Communists, Defense Committees for Alexander Bittelman, Eugene 
Dennis, Gerhardt Eisler, Hans Eisler, Claudia Jones, John Williamson, 
and other Communists ; Committee for the First Amendment, Committee 
of One Thousand, Committee for Defense of Joint anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee, Progressive Citizens of America, Joint Defense Rallies spon- 
sored by Los Angeles Public Workers C.I.O. and Social Workers Local 
558, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees 
A.F.L. etc. 



56 . UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

In addition to defending and supporting known Communist and 
front organizations when they are in trouble, the Communist Party 
periodically stages rallies, banquets, fund-drives and other celebrations 
in honor of important anniversaries of leading Communists, front organ- 
izations, party publications, and Soviet anniversaries. 

Among the most significant of such unquestionably Communist 
activities are the testimonial banquets for such well-known Communists 
as Mother Ella Reeve Bloor and Leo Gallagher, rallies honoring anni- 
versaries or Marxist achievements of Lenin, May Day, California Labor 
School, People's Educational Center, Daily Worker, People's Daily 
World, New Masses, Mainstream, Hollywood Writers Mobilization and 
other important Communist heroes and front organizations. 

Amongst typical examples of such Communist activities are: Ben 
Leider Memorial Fund, Abraham Lincoln Brigades Banquets and Testi- 
monials, Harry Bridges Victory Committee, Julius Rosenthal Memorial 
Committee, Leo Gallagher Testimonial Dinner, Annual Anniversary 
Fund Drives of the People 's Daily World, 10th Anniversary Celebration 
of People 's Daily World, etc. 

II. Legal Defense and Civil Rights 

One of the most fertile fields for financial gain to the Red Fascists 
as well as for the promotion of the fundamental tenets of Marxism, is 
the field of civil liberties. Symptoms of oppression by one group or 
another, majority restrictions on a minority, abuse or persecution of 
individuals for racial, religious or class reasons, and any grievance, 
fancied or legitimate, by a minority or underprivileged group, is lush 
material for the Communists. 

The general phases of this subject will be reported more fully in 
Classification Number Five the Basic Group Appeals. Specifically, 
campaigns and programs for legal defense and defense of civil rights 
are a keystone in the Marxists' structure for discord and disunity. 

The entire theory of Marxism is based on the conception of a class 
war between the "oppressors" in control of the instruments of produc- 
tion and the "toiling masses." Communists contend, under a peculiar 
theory of ' l colonial oppression, ' ' that American Negroes and American 
Jews and other racial minorities, can be considered the equivalent of 
oppressed colonial nations. 

The revolutionary application of this theory is the attempt to con- 
vince every segment of the community that it can solve its particular 
problems and advance its particular interests and aspirations only by 
joining in the class war and eventually playing a part with the prole- 
tariat of which the Communist Party is the most advanced unit in 
the violent overthrow of non-Communist government and the establish- 
ment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. 

It is natural, therefore, to fit into the pattern of revolutionary 
preparation, that front organizations must be created by the Communist 
Party continuously, to specialize in legal defense of minority or work- 
ing class individuals or groups involved in legal troubles, discrimination, 
employment, housing and job opportunities, and persons who come 
under public censure in connection with activities of a radical, revo- 
lutionary or subversive character. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 57 

The striking exception to this Marxist rule and an exception that 
refutes the dishonest pretense to humanitarian motives is that Com- 
munists never concern themselves with defending or assisting anti- 
Communists, no matter how radical they may be. 

The general subject of civil rights also is a fertile field for Com- 
munist agitation. Because of the deep concern for these rights, liberal- 
minded Americans ever are quick to act to preserve liberty and freedom. 
By playing upon the theme of civil rights, Communists repeatedly 
lure well-meaning innocents into providing window-dressing for Com- 
munist front organizations; and in the name of prominent liberals, 
huge sums are raised through " letterhead " organizations and com- 
mittees, very little of which ever goes to the humanitarian purpose that is 
espoused in screaming propaganda. 

The committee has devoted much investigation, thought and study 
to this phase of Communist activity. The committee finds that one of 
the best ways to prevent Red manipulation of Americans and their 
patriotic devotion to the protection of liberties and freedoms, is for all 
citizens to exercise extreme caution in associating themselves with 
"wildcat" committees and organizations. 

California numbers among its organized groups scores of substantial, 
reliable and representative organizations for every segment and need 
of the populace. These include business and trade associations, chambers 
of commerce, farm organizations, trade-unions, service, fraternal, wel- 
fare clubs and associations, veteran, professional, religious, civic, charity 
and educational organizations. 

The committee is firmly convinced that any problem confronting 
American citizens can be dealt with through responsible, bona fide organ- 
izations; and that recourse to association with Communist traitors and 
to Communist created and controlled front organizations is the surest 
prescription for defeating the objective of any legitimate program by 
any segment of the people. 

The committee again calls attention to the plainly worded directive 
for revolutionary manipulation of "day-to-day" problems: 

* * * Q ur program is the most powerful thing in the political 
life of our country today. We are planting it in America so that it 
grows right out of the ground of our country and our community 
* * * our strategy is to use * * * immediate demands to educate 
and organize the masses in preparation for the final revolutionary 
struggle * * * reliance on immediate demands would lead us only 
to reformism. Our party is a revolutionary party. It aims not to 
ease conditions a bit under Capitalism for the workers, but to abolish 
Capitalism altogether * * * the Communist Party knows how to 
participate in the daily struggle of the workers * * * it knows 
how to utilize all these struggles to develop class consciousness * * * 
and thus begin the mobilization for the eventual overthrow of 
Capitalism. " (A Talk About the Communist Party.) 

Under this plainly stated outline of purpose, and following its inter- 
minably propagandized theory of the "vanguard role," the Communist 
Party never spends one moment of work, one drop of sweat, one adjective 
pf denunciation unless it is amalgamated with the "daily struggle" of 



58 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the ' ' toiling masses ' ' and advances its program for the ' ' eventual over- 
throw of Capitalism. ' ' 

The committee finds that, despite the propaganda smoke screen, no 
Communist has ever participated with a trade-union, racial, religious 
or minority group, or joined in a program for the protection of Amer- 
ican civil rights, except for the sole purpose of twisting the program 
to serve the foreign policy of Soviet Russia or to prepare the way for 
eventual violent revolution in the United States. 

"Thought Control" 

A major feature of the Communist Party's current defense pro- 
gram is its nation-wide campaign against what they have termed ' ' thought 
control." In view of the brutal, murderous suppression of free speech, 
freedom of association, and the free exchange of news and ideas behind 
the Iron Curtain, imposed by the Kremlin, this Communist smoke screen 
becomes a tragic joke of cosmic significance. 

The current Communist strategy for the defense of its treacherous 
activities is neither improvised nor casual. The entire program was 
carefully worked out as far back as 1946, and thoroughly organized 
in 1947. An aroused American public was anticipated. When the Com- 
munist Party was reconstituted as a revolutionary party after the war 
ended, and the "Political Association" was abandoned, the Communist 
Commissars did a lot of streamlining and reorganizing in order to get 
back on the beam as a revolutionary party and an instrument of the 
Soviet Union. The American Communist leadership realized that the 
resumption of the revolutionary class war and treachery in the United 
States would necessarily provoke indignation, suspicion and investiga- 
tion, plus determined action on the part of governmental agencies. 
American Communist Party strategists consequently planned in advance 
to make an asset of a liability. An immediate attack was decided upon 
as the best possible defense. 

"Fight Thought Control" was launched publicly in December of 
1946. A series of forum meetings were held at the El Patio Theater in 
Hollywood under the general title "Counter- Attack Against the Plot 
to Control America's Thinking." (See Committee's 1947 Report.) The 
Communist front, Hollywood Writers ' Mobilization, sponsored the series. 
Among those who participated in the "Forum Series" were John 
Howard Lawson, Howard Koch, Dalton Trumbo, Irving Pichel, and 
Robert W. Kenny. 

Both Lawson and Kenny demanded an l ' investigation of the investi- 
gators. ' ' The purpose of the forums, of course, was to condition so-called 
" liberals" and " innocents " in the film industry to accept official investi- 
gations of Communist activities as an effort on the part of the ' ' bosses ' ' 
to impose " thought control" upon the nice, kind people who only want 
to destroy the Government of the United States in a bloody civil war. 

Following the ' ' Forum Series ' ' the Communists launched a public 
rally at the Gilmore Stadium in Los Angeles, starring Henry Wallace 
and Katharine Hepburn. Robert W. Kenny introduced Wallace, who 
was billed as the principal speaker, but Katharine Hepburn stole the 
show. Her subject, of course, was "thought control," and while her 
speech was probably written by one of the red writers in the Screen 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 59 

Writers Guild, she spoke the lines well and the comrades gave her an 
ovation. Miss Hepburn denounced President Harry S. Truman and his 
Democratic supporters; the Republican Party; Attorney General Tom 
Clark; the House Committee on Un-American Activities; Chairman J. 
Parnell Thomas; the California Legislature's Fact-Finding Committee 
on Un-American Activities; State Senator Jack B. Tenney; the Holly- 
wood Motion Picture Alliance ; and others, as responsible for a "plot" to 
foist "thought control" on the "liberal" and "progressive" people of 
America. 

The affair was held under the auspices of the Communist front, 
the Progressive Citizens of America. After the Hepburn tirade, no one 
was interested in printing Wallace 's speech, but the Progressive Citizens 
of America boasted that more than three million copies of the Hepburn 
proclamation had been printed and distributed, in addition to extensive 
radio rebroadcasts. 

The key ' ' line ' ' was thus established. Through the Communist skill 
in amalgamation, defense of the Bill of Rights, freedom of the press, radio 
and films, is to be identified with the Communist Party 's desperate fight 
against investigation and exposure. 

Following the Hepburn incident a "Conference on Thought Con- 
trol" was held at the Beverly Hills Hotel on July 9 to 13, 1947, also 
sponsored by the communist Progressive Citizens of America and its 
Hollywood Arts, Sciences and Professions Council. The "conference" 
featured papers by 50 individuals on various phases of ' ' thought control ' ' 
together with suggestions on strategy and tactics in fighting investigating 
governmental agencies. Among those who offered "papers" were Henry 
Wallace, Harlow Shapley, Norman Corwin, John Cromwell, Frank 
Kingdon, Morris E. Colin, Charlotta Bass, Sam Moore, Darr Smith, 
Milton S. Tyre, Harold Orr, Paul Draper, Ann Revere, Donald Ogden 
Stewart, and Hugh De Lacy. 

Subsequent to this thinly disguised Communist conference, Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America published the full proceedings in a series of 
six pamphlets. It constitutes a compendium of Communist Party "line" 
thinking and tactics on the ' * thought control ' ' program. 

Every Communist Party functionary has been called in and alerted 
to the current program, and detailed directives have been passed down 
to the most obscure Communist Party member and fellow-traveler. 

The first concrete action based on the "thought control" strategem 
was directed against President Truman's order for a loyalty check of 
federal employees. The second barrage was leveled against the Los 
Angeles loyalty check program of the courageous members of the Los 
Angeles County Board of Supervisors. (This county ordinance has just 
been declared constitutional by the Los Angeles Superior Court as this 
report goes to press.) The third operation was launched against the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities in October of 1947. This 
Senate committee is the most recent target because of its Oakland and 
Los Angeles hearings. 

This committee wishes to go on record, at this point, in congratulating 
the four alert, patriotic members of the Los Angeles County Board of 
Supervisors who had the courage and the vision to adopt the county 
loyalty check ordinance. It is to be devoutly hoped that other public 
bodies will be encouraged to follow the course now successfully charted 



60 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and its chairman, Ray- 
mond V. Darby. 

Communist groups in California that are taking a leading role in 
the " thought control" tactic is the Communist Party of California, 
Mobilization for Democracy, American Youth for Democracy, California 
Legislative Conference, Progressive Citizens of America, United Public 
Workers C.I.O., County Social Workers, Local 558, of the A.F.L., 
County and Municipal Employees, and the Civil Rights Congress. Every 
Communist front organization, however, has been alerted, and will carry 
a share of the fight in order to make the entire program appear to be 
spontaneous and of ' ' grass root ' ' character. 

It should be pointed out that the A.F.L. County and Municipal 
Employees is not listed here as a Communist front organization. The 
national organization is strongly anti-Communist. The International 
President, Arnold Zander, flew to Los Angeles and notified the officers 
of Local 558 that they were ''dangerously violating" A.F.L. policy in 
collaborating with the Communist controlled United Public "Workers of 
America C.I.O. 

The Progressive Citizens of America staged a rally at the Shrine 
Auditorium in Los Angeles October 16, 1947, in honor of the Hollywood 
"Ten" cited for contempt of the Thomas Committee in Washington. 
Speakers on this program for the 10 Hollywood Communists were Larry 
Parks, Norman Corwin, Lester Cole, Dalton Trumbo, Albert Maltz, 
Evelyn Keyes, Burgess Meredith, Marsha Hunt, and Irving Pichel. Gene 
Kelly acted as master of ceremonies and Bert Witt did the "collection 
show" the most important part of any Communist rally. Robert W. 
Kenny introduced Bartley Crum, who described the 10 recalcitrant Com- 
munist witnesses as * ' great Americans. ' ' 

' ' Stop Operation Witch Hunt ' ' was staged at the Shrine Auditorium 
November 9, 1947, under the sponsorship of Mobilization for Democracy, 
United Public Workers of America and Local 558 of the A.F.L. County 
Social Workers. Robert W. Kenny, O. John Rogge, former United 
States Deputy Attorney General, and New York's top communist cultural 
figure, Howard Fast, were scheduled as the "stars" of this rally. The 
purpose of the meeting was to launch the Communist attack on the county 
board of supervisors' loyalty check ordinance. 

The Communist Party plan may be summed up as a series of activi- 
ties designed to play on conflicts and tensions : 

(a) By challenging and questioning the legality, rights, duties and 
authority of investigations, hearings, and loyalty checks that threaten 
to expose Communist aims, tactics, strategy and members ; 

(b) By appealing to prejudices and beliefs on issues, other than that 
of Communism, to transfer those prejudices and beliefs against indi- 
viduals and agencies that are conducting or supporting investigations, 
hearings, and loyalty checks; and 

(c) By Communists conducting themselves, in connection with 
investigations, hearings and loyalty checks, in such a manner as to create 
incidents that can be used by world Communist propagandists, to delude 
people in other nations into believing that Fascism, imperialism and a 
police state are being set up in America. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 61 

Part and parcel of the "thought control" campaign is the Com- 
munist directive to its members to, (1) refuse to answer questions con- 
cerning their affiliation with the party, and, (2) to boldly challenge the 
right of 'any committee or agency to inquire concerning such affiliation. 
It has become increasingly evident to the members of this committee that 
the adoption of these directives by a witness indicates, better than the 
display of a red card, that the witness is a member of the Communist 
Party acting under orders from Communist Commissars. 

The current line, as disclosed by recent Communist directives, may 
be summarized as follows : 

(a) Smear any hearing by investigating agencies as invasions of the 
Bill of Rights, privacy, free association, and free speech. 

(b) Challenge conduct and procedure of all hearings and investiga- 
tions as illegal, and as a suppression of free speech in "an atmosphere of 
intimidation. ' ' 

(c) Challenge the right of Congressional or legislative bodies to 
ask questions of anyone concerning their "political'' affiliations. (This 
directive includes the process of always amalgamating "political" with 
"religious", in order to insinuate that "religious" persecution is con- 
templated.) 

(d) Attack all evidence against Communists as hearsay. 

(e) Demand that Communist attorneys be permitted to cross- 
examine witnesses and that the rules of evidence be strictly applied in 
legislative hearings. 

(f) Make every effort to create the impression that Communist 
witnesses are actually accused of crimes and that they are on trial and 
are being deprived of all their rights without due process of law. 

(g) Charge that investigations of Communism are "witch hunts" 
and a waste of the taxpayers money. All investigations of Communism 
are to be charged as directed against labor and racial minorities. 

(h) Fill the investigating agency's transcripts with protests and 
charges ; claim intimidation, and, on every occasion, liken the investigat- 
ing agency 's methods to Hitlerism. 

Among typical Communist front organizations in Legal Defense and 
Civil Rights in this subclassification are: Bridges Defense Committee; 
King, Connor, Ramsey Defense Committee; Greater New York Emer- 
gency Committee Conference on Inalienable Rights ; International Labor 
Defense ; Civil Rights Congress ; Mobilization for Democracy ; National 
Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners ; Civil Rights Federa- 
tion; Committee for the First Amendment; American Committee of 
Liberals for the Freedom of Mooney and Billings; Scottsboro Defense 
Committee; National Conference on Civil Liberties; National Negro 
Congress; American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Free- 
dom; National Committee for People's Rights, and the Freedom From 
Fear Committee. 

III. Political and Legislative 

Communists have no more use for parliamentary government than 
they have for capitalism. They seek to destroy both. The one basic goal of 
Communism is to eliminate capitalism and its parliamentary government, 
and replace them with a brutal, totalitarian police state under the dic- 
tatorship of the proletariat. 



62 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Wherever Red Fascism has snuffed out liberty and freedom, the first 
things to go were civil rights, capitalism and parliamentary government. 
Just as the Communists in America sneeringly and cynically take 
advantage of our freedoms and liberties, so do they pervert and corrupt 
our political and legislative process wherever possible. 

The history of Communist front organizations in politics discloses 
a record of fine causes corrupted, perverted, destroyed or damaged by the 
Communist Party 's fanatical insistence on bending * ' daily struggle ' ' to 
advance the program of ' * eventual overthrow of capitalism. ' ' 

The committee has discovered and reported repeatedly, that the 
Communists work incessantly to pervert and destroy every institution 
that does not fit into their pattern of revolutionary conspiracy. Nowhere 
has this Communist strategy been pursued more consistently and relent- 
lessly than in the fields of politics and legislation. 

The most recent consolidation of this Communist program of legis- 
lative and political activity through front organizations, has been the 
recent coalition of a series of Communist front organizations under the 
banner of the Third Party Movement to elect Henry Wallace President 
of the United States. 

In California, the basic Communist front organizations in this coali- 
tion are the Progressive Citizens of America, Independent Progressive 
Party, California Legislative Conference, Communist-Controlled Trade 
Unions in the C. I. 0., the "Wallace Democrats" Caucus in the Demo- 
cratic Party, Progressive A. F. of L., and a student movement for Wallace, 
sponsored by American Youth for Democracy. 

Behind a facade of specious promises of "peace, progress and pros- 
perity, ' ' the Third Party movement has proceeded with mechanical pre- 
cision, following every twist and turn of the Communist Party line on 
foreign affairs and domestic issues. It has conducted its activities in such 
a manner as to stamp itself as an American tool of the international Com- 
munist conspiracy. Its policies, tactics and appeals fit the specifications for 
every type of Communist front organization described and classified in 
the entire report of this committee, and it follows the party "line" 
meticulously. 

The Third Party movement to elect Henry Wallace is the creature of 
the Communist Party. Its policies, programs, organization, structure, 
public relations, personnel and directing leadership all have followed and 
now follow the Communist Party pattern with unbroken monotony. Its 
key personnel are known Communists, fellow-travelers and veteran 
apologists for Soviet Russia and American Communism. 

Hugh Bryson, state chairman of the Independent Progressive Party 
in California is a Communist and a veteran of Communist conspiratorial 
activity in the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, C. I. 0. 

Among I. P. P. and Wallace leaders in California, are Robert W. 
Kenny, Harry Bridges, Philip M. Connelly, James Burford, James 
Daughterty, vice-chairman ; A. B. Goolsby, Treasurer ; Elinor Kahn, state 
director ; Harper W. Poulson, Southern California regional director ; Mrs. 
Ruth Slade, Southern California campaign manager ; Mrs. Tiba Willner, 
Southern California finance director ; on Southern California trade-union 
sponsor list are Howard de Silva, Charles Gladstone, William Elconin, 
Edward L. Barnes, Maurice Howard, Bernard Lusher, C. C. Carlson, 
Antonio Lucio, Lloyd Seeliger, Joe Heilbrun, John Huhn, Katie Brooks, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 63 

A. J. Richardson, John Allard, Frank Green and Joseph 'Conner. 
Among the alleged Democrats are Victor A. Shapiro, and Judge Stanley 
Moffatt. 

Among the Communist front organizations in the fields of politics 
and legislation are : Progressive Citizens of America, Independent Citi- 
zens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions, Hollywood Demo- 
cratic Committee, Motion Picture Democratic Committee, California Leg- 
islative Conference, Progressive A. F. of L., American Youth for Democ- 
racy, National Congress for Unemployment and Social Insurance, and 
National Right-to-Work Congress. 

(4) Communist Fronts for Foreign Policy 

The only interest the Communist Party has in foreign policy is to 
serve the interests of Soviet Russia. The Communist Party of the United 
States frequently has tied itself into knots in attempting to follow the 
"sharp turns" and "pretzel twists" of world Communism diplomacy. 

Like all major Communist policies, this one also has a huge bibliog- 
raphy of strategic and tactical literature, all centered around a so-called 
"theory of capitalist encirclement." Simplified to its bare bones, this 
theory contends that Communist states can never tolerate being encircled 
by capitalist states, so therefore, it is an obvious fact to all Marxists that 
all non-Communist capitalist governments be destroyed and replaced with 
dictatorships of the proletariat. 

The committee has found that the theme song of the American Com- 
munist Party on foreign policy is the protection of the Communist father- 
land, Soviet Russia. 

There never has been an instance in the history of the U. S. Com- 
munist Party; of its front groups, of its conspicuous fellow-travelers, 
when the party, its front organizations, or its stooges have critized any 
phase of Soviet foreign policy. The interests of the United States, when- 
ever its foreign policy came in conflict with that of Soviet Russia, is 
promptly and roundly denounced. 

There are three major subclassifications of Communist fronts in the 
field of foreign policy. These are : 

I. Fronts for Support and Praise of the Soviet Union ; 
II. Fronts for the Support and Praise of Communist-dominated 

Nations and of Communist Parties in Other Nations ; and 
III. Fronts on War, Peace and Foreign Relations. 

It is vitally important to the Communist Party that it maintain con- 
stant activity in the propaganda field with fronts in these three subclassi- 
fications. One of the duties of fellow-travelers is that they be ever ready 
to serve on such fronts, and whip up propaganda activity in support of 
the foreign policy of Soviet Russia, no matter what stigma accrues from 
such activities. 

Thus, when the Communist Party ordered an all-out support of * * The 
Yanks Are Not Coming" program, during the period of the Hitler-Stalin 
pact, Philip M. Connelly, Communist secretary of the Los Angeles C. I. 0. 
Council, dutifully led demonstrations on the steps of the Los Angeles 
City Hall. 



64 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Connelly also led the Communist sponsored strike at North Amer- 
ican Aviation, a strike which was broken up by United States troops under 
orders of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who condemned the strike 
as Communist-inspired treachery. 

Connelly was an important "window-dressing," but when Com- 
munist Party policy dictated action that must necessarily prove unpopu- 
lar with many Americans, Connelly obeyed. It is a sad commentary on 
the memory of many responsible community leaders that Connelly, with 
the aid of clever publicity from leftwing propagandists, managed to 
cover up his pro-Communist activity against America when Stalin and 
Hitler were partners. He posed as a responsible and patriotic civic leader 
after the U. S. Communists turned to all-out patriotism when Hitler 
invaded Russia. 

Connelly is a conspicuous and typical example of hundreds of native- 
born Communists who have stamped themselves as subservient tools of 
the criminal Communist conspiracy. 

It is significant, although Connelly was the secretary of one of the 
two big C. I. 0. councils in California, that it was necessary for him to fol- 
low the party line in opposing fundamental patriotic policies. Americans 
are prone to regard Communist functionaries and key fellow-travelers 
in the light of the positions they hold. This is wholly a wrong viewpoint. 
The fact is, that f uctionaries and key fellow-travelers are considered by 
Communist Commissars as infantry shock troops in a mass battle. When 
one falls through enemy fire, another is expected to step forward to take 
his place. Under Communist policy, if Connelly and the Communist 
propagandists had not succeeded in covering up his brazen, unpatriotic 
display, Philip M. Connelly would have been liquidated from his impor- 
tant post as C. I. 0. secretary in Los Angeles. He would have been trans- 
ferred to another assignment, and the Communist caucus would have put 
up another candidate for his job. 

One of the basic tests of the dyed-in-the-wool fellow-traveler is the 
alacrity in which he follows the "sharp turns" of Communist Party line 
strategy in connection with foreign policy. Connelly is merely an example 
of hundreds whose names trail across the letterheads of hundreds of front 
organizations that come and go as Kremlin strategy dictates. 

The committee refers interested readers to the brief analysis of the 
"sharp turns" of Comintern thinking cited in the Committee's 1943 
Report, pages 39-50; the Committee's 1945 Report, page 90; and to the 
Committee 's 1947 Report, pages 17-34. 

The committee recommends that all citizens of California give par- 
ticular scrutiny to the backgrounds, associations and motives of indi- 
viduals and organizations who seek to propagandize the people in behalf 
of foreign policy issues. The committee particularly stresses the fact that 
one of the basic functions of the U. S. Communist Party is to serve the 
interests of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia. It should be held in mind 
that the foreign policy of Soviet Russia today is squarely opposed to the 
policies and aspirations of the United States and all freedom-loving 
countries. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 65 

I. Fronts for Support and Praise of the Soviet Union 

When the Communist Party was founded in Chicago, Illinois, Sep- 
tember 1-7, 1919, it declared in its First Manifesto, adopted by the organ- 
izing convention, that : 

"A giant struggle is convulsing the world * * * between the 
capitalist nations of the world and the international proletariat, 
inspired by Soviet Russia. * * * The Communist Party is a party 
of the working class. The Communist Party proposes to end capital- 
ism and organize a workers' industrial republic. The Communist 
Party is a party realizing the limitations of all existing workers' 
organizations, and proposes to develop the revolutionary movement 
necessary to free the workers from the oppression of Capitalism. 
* * * The Communist Party insists that the problems of the Amer- 
ican worker are identical to the problems of the workers of the 
world. * * * The Communist Party is the conscious expression of 
the class struggle of the workers against capitalism. Its aim is to 
direct this struggle to the conquest of political power, the overthrow 
of capitalism and the destruction of the bourgeois state. * * * The 
Communist Party directs the workers' struggle against capitalism, 
developing fuller forms and purposes in this struggle, culminating in 
the mass action of the revolution. * * * 

t( * * * rp^ c ommun i s t International, issuing directly out of 
the proletarian revolution in action, is the organ of the International 
revolutionary proletariat. * * * The Communist International rep- 
resents a Socialism in complete accord with the revolutionary char- 
acter of the class struggle. It unites all the conscious revolutionary 
forces. It wages war equally against Imperialism and moderate 
Socialism * * * the workers must prepare for the proletarian revo- 
lution and the Communist reconstruction of society. * * * The Com- 
munist International calls. Workers of the world, unite ! ' ' 

The Communist Party was launched with praise and support of 
Soviet Russia, and a firm pledge of allegiance to the Communist Inter- 
national. It made a bold promise of violent revolutionary overthrow of 
the Government of the United States. 

Since that plain statement of purpose was made, the U. S. Com- 
munist Party has set up hundreds of fronts to honor and support Soviet 
Russia. It mobilizes every possible activity in plain defiance of the inter- 
ests of the United States in its consistent support of the foreign policy of 
Soviet Russia. 

Among the more conspicuous fronts for this purpose are : American 
Council on Soviet Relations, American Friends of the Soviet Union, 
Friends of Soviet Russia, Friends of the Soviet Union, Congress of Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship, Golden Book of American Friendship With the 
Soviet Union, National Council of American- Soviet Friendship, Open 
Letter for Closer Cooperation With the Soviet Union, Open Letter to 
American Liberals, Russian- American Industrial Corp., Russian Famine 
Relief Committee, Soviet Russia Today, Statement by American Pro- 
gressives on the Moscow Trials, and the American-Russian Institute. 



6 L-7088-D 



66 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

II. Fronts for Support and Praise of Communist Dominated Nations and 
Communist Parties in Other Lands 

The committee has pointed out in this report, and in its 1943, 1945, 
and 1947 reports, that the Communist blueprint for world conquest 
includes in its detailed technical analysis and teachings, the basic theme 
of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism theory of ' ' capitalist encirclement. ' ' 

Under this theory, the Soviet fatherland, Russia, as custodian of the 
flame of international revolution, will never be safe as long as it is 
" encircled" by capitalist countries. Therefore, it is necessary that Com- 
munists everywhere protect Russia from the "encircling" capitalist 
states by revolutionary activity in every country in the world. 

Second only to Soviet Russia itself, as objects of honor, praise and 
support, are the nations in which Communist Party revolutionists have 
schemed and tricked their way to power. These nations are hailed by 
Communists as "the new democracies" and their dictators, Tito, Dimit- 
roff, Gottwald, and other bloodstained Red Quislings, are high on the list 
of those for whom only praise is reserved in the Communist press. 

There is no Communist-dominated country behind the "Iron Cur- 
tain ' ' for which there is not an American Communist front to agitate and 
propagandize in its behalf. 

Next in importance are the Communist Parties and their front groups 
in nations not yet dominated by the Communist dictatorship; whose 
"workers struggles" are hailed regularly in the Communist press and 
propaganda services ; and for whom front groups continually raise huge 
sums of money in this country. 

Among the more conspicuous fronts in this sub-classification are: 
The American Committee for Free Yugoslavia, American Friends of the 
Chinese People, Conference on Pan-American Democracy, Council on 
African Affairs, Council for Pan-American Democracy, Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, American Friends of Spanish Democracy, Friends of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade, and scores of other fronts in connection with the 
Spanish civil war; American Croatian Congress, American Slav Con- 
gress, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Slovene National Congress, 
United Committee of South Slavic Americans, etc. 

III. Fronts on War, Peace and Foreign Relations 

All the Communist fronts described in the two preceding sub- 
classifications, and hundreds of more permanent and special fronts, have 
been utilized by the Communist Party to promote agitation, propaganda, 
political activity and demonstrations on general questions of war, peace 
and foreign policy, all of which are solely the business of the American 
people, but toward which the Communists with unvarying consistency, 
apply the single yardstick: "How will it serve the interests of Soviet 
Russia?" 

The committee has found repeatedly, and it again reiterates that the 
attempt of the Communist Party of America to appear as a legally con- 
stituted domestic political party, is purely a deceptive fiction. 

The committee has urged, and it urges again, that immediate steps 
be taken to strengthen the statutes of California, wherever necessary, to 
the end that this fiction of legality and respectability of a foreign-con- 
trolled subversive organization in the State of California be ended for- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 67 

ever. The committee is now preparing legislative recommendations for 

the consideration of the Legislature in its 1949 Session. 

The committee reiterates its findings that the Communist Party is 

the agent of a foreign power, specifically Soviet Russia. The committee 

cites particularly the following : 

All Communists believe themselves to be in a state of perpetual 
warfare with all capitalist governments. The over-all strategy of the 
Communist Party is designed to bring about the destruction of all 
democratic governments. The ultimate objective is the establishment 
of the so-called dictatorship of the proletariat * 

* * * All Communists firmly believe that the Soviet Union is 
the Red Fatherland of the proletariat everywhere, and, as such, it 
must be protected in its development at any cost, because it is the 
arsenal for world conquest. Meanwhile, Communists in all countries 
work for revolution, taking Stalin at his word, when he said that ' * in 
the event of necessity (Soviet Russia) would come out even with 
armed forces against the exploiting classes in their states." Thus, 
every Communist in the United States is a potential traitor, saboteur 
and espionage agent of Soviet Russia * * * 

* * * Acts of sabotage and violence, terror and assassination 
may be expected, if diplomatic relations between the United States 
and Soviet Russia become strained * * * The American people 
must be awakened to the fact that every member of the American 
Communist Party is a potential espionage and sabotage agent for 
the Soviet government. Our people must realize, now more than ever 
before, that it is the admitted and avowed purpose of Moscow to 
create and foster a Communist revolution in every capitalist democ- 
racy in the world * * * 

Among the more conspicuous Communist fronts that have defied 
brazenly the interests of the United States and other freedom-loving 
nations whenever they have been in conflict with the interests of Soviet 
Russia and world Communism are: All American Anti Imperialist 
League, American Committee for Struggle Against War, American 
Congress for Peace and Democracy, American League for Peace and 
Democracy, American Peace Crusade, American Peace Mobilization, 
Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of War, Committee for 
Peace Through World Cooperation, Emergency Peace Mobilization, 
Student Congress Against War, World Congress Against War, " Yanks 
Are Not Coming" Committee, Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, etc. 

(5) Fronts for Appeals to Basic Groups 

The Communist Party never attacks a problem from one vantage 
point alone. Since front organizations are false-faces for Communism, 
it is natural that the Communist Party attempts to create an air of spon- 
taneity for its programs. This usually is accomplished by having several 
alleged humanitarian and liberal front groups join in a "coalition" for 
the Communist purpose. 

The practical application of this technique is through Communist 
Party infiltration into organizations, in addition to those organized by the 
Communists for the purpose. 



68 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A typical instance of this strategic and tactical manipulation of 
fronts may be found in the current major Communist "party line" pro- 
gram to "fight thought control and defend civil rights." 

The actual truth is that a large number of Communists have been 
arrested, indicted, jailed and prosecuted for violations of law. Charges 
against the Communists include passport and immigration fraud, false 
registration, perjury, contempt, and advocating the overthrow of the 
United States Government by force and violence. 

The Communists were forced to devise a strategy to meet this situa- 
tion. The strategy, naturally, was carried into effect through front groups, 
and every appeal was made to lure and trick all possible support behind 
Communist functionaries. 

The committee has compiled and examined a large file of propaganda 
material on the subject of the Communist sponsored campaign against 
alleged ' ' thought control. ' ' 

This material has been checked and compared with the resolutions, 
press releases and statements, communications and advertising of the 
various Communist front groups on the same subjects. 

The committee has been impressed with the pattern of Communist 
Party policy running through these two sets of propaganda material, 
one from official Communist sources, the other from Communist front 
groups. 

The committee has pointed out that it is a standard practice of the 
Communist Party, in every instance where a Communist functionary is 
arrested, indicted or prosecuted, to contend that the law enforcement 
against the Communist is not for the purpose of enforcing the law, but 
solely for purposes of intimidation, persecution of labor and minorities, 
and for "thought control." 

This is the same position that is taken invariably by Communists on 
the witness stand at legislative investigations into Communist activity. 

Communists under investigation have repeatedly and brazenly defied 
Congress, the California State Legislature, courts, and police authorities. 
They openly practice and advocate defiance and disrespect for parlia- 
mentary bodies, for police and government agencies, and for the courts, 
as a basic tenet of their avowed program of work through "daily 
struggle. ' ' 

The committee points out that American Communists openly advo- 
cate the total destruction of our national heritage of liberty and freedom, 
and brazenly take advantage of civil rights in order to hamper legislative 
and police processes essential to the protection of our State and Nation. 

The committee reports that the Communist technique of defiance of 
Congress, the Legislature, the courts and the police agencies of our 
Nation is part and parcel of the revolutionary conspiracy to destroy 
our liberties and freedoms by an organization that is a servant of a 
foreign power. 

Our citizens must be provided with information based on authori- 
tative investigation and public disclosure of individuals and organiza- 
tions that conspire to destroy our freedom and liberties. 

While providing every possible safeguard to insure our complete 
right and authority to inquire into the conspiracies of traitors, we must 
likewise safeguard against the destruction or nullification of our liberties 
and freedoms. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 69 

The American public is now thoroughly familiar with what has 
heretofore been labeled the "$64 Question," "Are you now, or have you 
ever been, a member of the Communist Party ? ' ' 

The committee has heard the testimony of many Communists and 
fellow-travelers, and it has examined the transcripts of numerous investi- 
gations and hearings by congressional and legislative bodies. The Com- 
mittee has discovered that no Communist, except those who are publicly 
proclaimed as such, ever give a straightforward answer to this question. 

The attempt of Communists and fellow-travelers to evade answering 
this question presents a monotonous pattern of propaganda-statements. 

The testimony of suspected Communists, their prepared statements, 
their interviews in the Communist press, and the propaganda rallies, 
advertisements and literature issued in their behalf, are a revelation of 
the interests and preoccupations of the Communist Party. 

Invariably, the defense tactics by, and in behalf of, suspected Com- 
munists presents a lengthy harangue ; they contend that they are being 
persecuted because they are friends and leaders of organized labor, of 
minority groups, of the underprivileged and the impoverished, the 
veterans, the unemployed, the victims of capitalist oppression, and vari- 
ous other basic groupings of the citizenry whom the Communists consider 
likely targets for agitational work. 

The committee has conducted a thorough investigation and analysis 
of those organizations. 

Analysis of the claims of the Communists (and the prompt echoes of 
front organizations) in defense of arrested, indicted and convicted Com- 
munists, reveals that the following general subclassifications may be 
listed as Basic Groups. These groups are, as the committee has pointed 
out, in addition to the other four major classifications of front groups 
described in preceding sections of this report: (1) The Indispensable 
Organizations for Revolution; (2) Fronts for Culture and Science; (3) 
Fronts for Domestic Affairs ; and (4) Fronts for Foreign Affairs. 

These are the subclassifications in the Basic Appeals Group : 

I. Fronts in, and for, Organized Labor. 
II. Fronts for Charity, Relief and the Unemployed. 

III. Racial, Refugee and Alien. 

IV. Veterans and Military. 
V. Farmers. 

VI. Consumers. 

Analysis qf programs and policies of revolutionary science pro- 
claimed in Communist official statements, and textbooks, reveals that 
creation of front groups in these basic appeals groups, together with 
Communist organized fronts, are considered indispensable to preparation 
for a successful revolution. 

I. Fronts in, and for, Organized Labor 

The backbone of the Communist revolutionary conspiracy is the crea- 
tion of revolutionary industrial trade-unions. 

International Communism never has made a secret about its inten- 
tion to use trade-unions as the spring-board for its revolutionary plotting. 
Alert and patriotic United States trade-union leaders have known this 



70 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

fact from the beginning. The most aggressive, well-informed and prac- 
tical enemies of Communism will be found among such trade-union 
leaders. 

America is fortunate that such a reservoir of sanity and vigilance 
exists at the very spot Communists consider to be the Nation's weakest 
point. The committee commends the leaders and members of organized 
labor who oppose Communism and its bloody tyranny over workers. The 
committee urges every responsible leader of business, church, fraternal, 
veteran, and patriotic organizations, that he acquaint himself with the 
problems and philosophies of responsible trade-union leadership in deal- 
ing with the menace of Communism. 

The committee cites the statement of policy toward organized labor, 
from the First Manifesto of the Communist Party of the United States, 
adopted at the Communist Party's organizing convention, September 
1-7, 1919, in Chicago, Illinois : 

The Communist Party is the conscious expression of the class 
struggle of the workers against capitalism. Its aim is to direct this 
struggle to the conquest of political power, the overthrow of capi- 
talism and the destruction of the bourgeois state * * * It brings to 
the workers a consciousness of their oppression, of the impossibility 
of improving their conditions under capitalism * * *. 

The Communist Party shall make the great industrial struggles 
of the working class its major campaign, in order to develop an 
understanding of the strike in relation to the overthrow of capi- 
talism. 

(a) The Communist Party shall participate in mass strikes, not 
only to achieve the immediate purposes of the strike, but to develop 
the revolutionary implications of the mass strike. 

* * * The Communist Party must engage actively in the struggle 
to revolutionize the trade unions. As against the unionism of the 
American Federation of Labor, the Communist Party propagandizes 
industrial unionism and industrial union organization, emphasizing 
their revolutionary implications. Industrial unionism is not simply 
a means for the everyday struggle against capitalism ; its ultimate 
purpose is revolutionary, implying the necessity of ending the 
capitalist, parliamentary state. Industrial unionism is a factor in 
the final mass action for the conquest of power * * * The Communist 
Party recognized that the A. F. of L. is reactionary and a bulwark of 
capitalism * * * It shall be the major task of the Communist Party to 
agitate for the construction of a general industrial union organiza- 
tion, embracing the I. W. W., W. I. I. U., independent and secession 
unions, militant unions of the A. F. of L., and the unorganized 
workers on the basis of the revolutionary class struggle * * * The 
United States is developing an aggressive militarism. The Commun- 
ist Party will wage the struggle against militarism as a phase of the 
class struggle to hasten the downfall of Capitalism. 

This is the blueprint for the use of trade-unions as instruments for 
violent revolution laid down by the organizing meeting of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. Never since that time in 1919 when the 
Communists organized to betray their own country, has Communist policy 
deviated from this fundamental policy. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 71 

The incessant struggle and conflict within American trade-unions, 
between Communist conspirators and honest and patriotic members of 
organized labor is explained in light of the foregoing knowing, and 
resenting, the fact that the Communists seek to use their unions to per- 
vert them to the cause of revolution, the overwhelming majority of 
American union men and women are the targets of abuse, character 
assassination, slander and physical violence, whenever they oppose the 
Communist plotters in their midst. 

The committee has found that one of the major battlegrounds in 
the struggle against Communism will be in the trade-unions of the world. 

This committee has no power or authority to investigate or report on 
relations between management and labor except where the question of 
Communist activity is raised. 

The committee warns that free American trade-unions will not have 
freedom from Communist disruption until Communism is completely 
defeated. All workers everywhere are entitled to enjoy the freedoms and 
opportunities that the American way of life provides more abundantly 
than any other political system known to history. 

The committee commends patriotic and alert American trade-union- 
ists who oppose Communism despite personal abuse, slander, vituperation 
and threats on their lives and persons. The committee urges all respon- 
sible citizens to assist such patriotic trade-union leaders and members 
in their determination to protect their organization from Communist 
infiltration and destruction. 

The committee has been impressed in its many investigations and 
studies with the unvarying persistence of a distinct pattern of Com- 
munist strategical and tactical attitudes toward trade-unions in the 
United States, and particularly in California. This pattern is one that the 
committee has noticed in many fields, but it is most pronounced with 
regard to trade-unions. It is a simple and brutal policy. The Communist 
Party regards all union organizations as falling into two simple classifica- 
tions : Either an instrument to be controlled, dominated and used to serve 
the interests of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia and the preparation for 
violent revolution at home ; or an enemy, to be disrupted, attacked and 
destroyed. 

A substantial number of individuals in the trade-union movement 
are known Communists, or fellow-travelers, who consistently follow the 
pattern of Communist activity outlined in this report in their own trade- 
unions and in numerous front groups. 

Pursuing their stated purpose of infiltrating union organizations in 
order to twist and pervert them to the interests of the Communist con- 
spiracy, the Communists have infiltrated and now control and dominate 
a number of important trade-unions in the United States, and particu- 
larly in California. 

The committee refers to its documented analysis of Communist 
technique in penetrating and corrupting trade-unions in its 1943, 1945 
and 1947 reports. 



72 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

II. Fronts for Charity, Relief and Unemployed 

Of great importance to the Communist program for confusion, dis- 
cord, and disunity, are persons in need of charity and relief assistance. 
In times of economic upset, a large mass of unemployed, aged, sick and 
handicapped, are Counted by Communist conspirators as second in 
importance only to Communized trade-unions. For strategical and tactical 
demonstrations, strikes and protests designed for chaos and the break- 
down of law and order, the Communists consider these groups as excellent 
vehicles. 

The committee calls attention to the analysis of this Communist pre- 
occupation with the creation of front groups to appeal to the unemployed 
and underprivileged and handicapped, in its 1943, 1945 and 1947 reports, 
and, also, to the 1940 Report of the Yorty Special Committee of the Cali- 
fornia Legislature, which investigated Communist activity among the 
unemployed and in the California State Relief Administration. 

One of the principle activities of the American Communist Party at 
this time, although little publicized, is the infiltration of agencies, organi- 
zations and community groups dealing with charity, relief and unem- 
ployed problems. The Communists expect a depression and anticipate 
economic collapse in the United States and in other capitalistic, parlia- 
mentary governments, and are preparing for it. 

Particular targets for Communist penetration are public or semi- 
public agencies dealing with charity and relief problems. These include 
public social work agencies and social workers ' organizations, community 
chest, and welfare federations, and racial, religious, and neighborhood 
welfare and relief agencies. Another major target for penetration is the 
public and private agencies for relief; service to veterans and their 
families, and committees or community groups who seek to solve housing 
shortages, child care problems of working parents, and similar organi- 
zations. 

Two basic, and completely Communist controlled, fronts in this field 
are the United Public Workers C.I.O., and the United Office and Pro- 
fessional Workers C.I.O. These two Communist fronts in the trade- 
union field work closely with the Communist agents in C.I.O. councils 
and political organizations to penetrate and infiltrate into welfare organ- 
izations and committees. 

Communists carry on a scientifically planned and systematic pro- 
gram of agitation to depict the Communist Party and its front groups as 
the only friends of the underprivileged, and always claim credit for 
advances and benefits obtained for underprivileged individuals. The 
entire Communist propaganda machine is used to discredit capitalistic 
institutions as "oppressors" and " persecutors " of the "toiling masses." 

The fact is that America far surpasses every nation in the world in 
the over-all qualitative and quantitative contributions by the community 
to the aid and assistance of unemployed, handicapped and underprivi- 
leged citizens. California has established a record as one of the most 
progressive and liberal states in the Union, in its treatment of the needy. 
Per capita expenditures by public agencies from the tax-dollar, and the 
donations and distribution of aid through such semipublic cooperative 
organizations as the Community Chest and the Red Cross, consistently 
are supported beyond established quotas by all segments of the popu- 
lation. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 73 

This public and private charity has been accomplished without any 
help whatever from Communists and Communist front organizations. 
The Communists, in fact, seek to obtain under false pretenses, huge sums 
of money from charitable groups to be diverted to the Communist pro- 
gram of revolutionary conspiracy. 

The committee cautions all citizens of California to beware of Com- 
munists and fellow-travelers in public or private charity and assistance 
work; and to investigate thoroughly before making donations, lending 
their names and prestige, or in otherwise contributing to Communist 
front groups set up in the field of charity and assistance work. 

Among the more conspicuous fronts for Communist activity in the 
field of relief, assistance and welfare work, and dealing with problems 
of the unemployed and underprivileged are Daughters of the American 
Depression, International Workers Order, Interprofessional Association 
for Social Insurance, Joint Committee of Trade Unions on Social Work, 
Methodist Federation for Social Service, National Joint Action Commit- 
tee for Genuine Social Insurance, National Congress for Unemployment 
and Social Insurance, Southern Conference for Human Welfare, Workers 
Alliance of America, United Public Workers (CIO), United Office and 
Professional Workers (CIO) , United Aid for Peoples of African Descent, 
etc., and innumerable organizations promoted by Communists to raise 
funds for international Communism under the guise of helping victims 
of war and economic confusion in foreign countries. 

111. Fronts for Racial, Refugee and Alien Groups 

Since the Communist Party is committed to serve the foreign policy 
of Soviet Russia and to prepare the way for revolution by violence in 
this country, it is natural that Communist teachings on tactics and 
strategy should parallel closely the unholy doctrine of * ' divide and con- 
quer" practiced by the Nazis, Bundists, and other enemies of mankind. 

Nothing more plainly reveals the fraud and dishonesty of the Com- 
munists than the sinister stirring of antagonisms of one racial group 
against another in the same manner as they seek to play one economic 
group against another. 

Communists frequently will be found playing on 'the tensions and 
conflicts on both sides of a national or racial issue. No more brazen 
instance of Communist duplicity need be cited than the activity of the 
Communist Party and the Communist International in the Palestine and 
Jewish- Arab dispute. Communist Parties actually exist on both the Jew- 
ish and Arab sides of the conflict; and their only contribution to the 
situation has been the intensification of tensions for hate and dissension 
on both sides. This technique, of course, serves the interests of Soviet 
Russia and promotes eventual world revolution. 

The American Communist Party has compiled a long record of the 
creation and penetration of organizations, dealing with racial, refugee 
and alien problems, to the detriment of racial, refugee and alien interests. 

A consistent target for Communist intrigue has been the large Negro 
population of the United States. The Communist promise to Negroes, 
that under the dictatorship of the proletariat, American Negroes will be 
given an autonomous Soviet Republic in the so-called " Black Belt" of 
540 counties in the southern states, is designed to bait American Negroes 



74 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

to join the Communist movement for the overthrow of the United States 
Government. 

The committee has in its possession many official Communist docu- 
ments and publications devoted to this project. The plan to trick and 
delude American Negroes into following the treacherous program of 
Communism has been carefully worked out. 

Another ethnic group whose problems have been capitalized on 
cynically the world over by the Communist International is the Jewish 
race. The committee has in its files voluminous evidence and testimony 
that proves conclusively that American Jews are defrauded of hundreds 
of thousands of dollars yearly by Communists who create and promote 
front organizations allegedly for the purpose of combating anti- 
semitism. 

The record of strategic trickery engaged in by the Communists to 
capitalize on the sorrows and oppressions of the Jews of this world is a 
contemptible abandonment of all concepts of decency and humanity, and 
brands world Communism before all honest men as vile and depraved. 

The vicious tactics of the Communists toward Negroes and Jews 
has a parallel for every other racial and minority group in America 
today. It is a monotonous and tragic logbook of the promotion of discord, 
strife, disunity and conflict, for the benefit of a foreign power, and for 
the sole purpose of laying the groundwork for violence and chaos to 
breed revolution at home. 

This committee repeatedly has exposed and condemned the pro- 
moters and inciters of racial, religious and class strife and intolerance. 
The committee refers to its reports for 1943, 1945 and 1947 for the com- 
mittee's denunciation of all un-American activity of this type. 

The committee has reported that "the same psychological sense of 
frustration and guilt found in every Communist, spurs the ignorant non- 
Communist to seek a scapegoat * * * Character assassinations, in search 
of evidence for vicious smear material, have little compunction in 
resorting to inventions. Generations of character assassins have built 
a vicious series of libels against the Jews ; sinister men in contemporary 
life have not hesitated to supply libels allegedly from another age to 
bolster vicious attacks upon the Jewish people." 
In its 1947 Report, this committee said : 

Gerald L. K. Smith and his type of rabble-inciting crusader do 
more good for the Communist cause in one week than the Commu- 
nists would be able to accomplish in a year * * * The average 
patriotic American Jew is offended and insulted in the attack upon 
the Jewish citizen, even though the attack may be generally directed 
against Communism. It is the techniqup of a Hitler in mobilizing 
uninformed masses to a Nazi standard. The social aspects of such 
rabble-rousing are appalling. 

This committee has repeatedly exposed and condemned Gerald L. K. 
Smith, the Ku Klux Klan, the German-American Bund and other 
vicious inciters of racial intolerance. The committee concluded an expose 
of libelous smear attacks on the Jewish race by this statement in its 
1947 report : 

The committee has heretofore stated, and again reiterates, that 

anti-Semitism is fully as un-American as any other subversive ISM 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 75 

examined. The Ku Klux Klan and similar organizations, including 
that of Gerald L. K. Smith, are unequivocally condemned in their 
attacks upon the Jews, whether that attack be direct or by way of 
innuendo. A Communist is an atheist, and therefore is neither Jew 
nor Christian. Regardless of his ethnic category, he is an enemy 
of the United States and of every citizen in it, Jew and Christian 
alike * * *." 

* * * The members of the committee are convinced, that in the 
struggle against Communism, patriotic Americans, black and white, 
Jew and Christian, will again fight successfully shoulder to shoulder 
against the common enemy. 

The committee again reminds leaders and members of racial, 
minority, and ethnic groups, that the surest way to hamper, disrupt, 
confuse and defeat the program and aspiration for which they have 
created organizations, is to permit the infiltration of Communists, to 
tolerate collaboration with Communists, or to lend themselves to coali- 
tions and joint programs with Communist front groups. 

Among the more conspicuous Communist front groups in the Racial, 
Refugee and Alien subclassification are : All Harlem Youth Conference, 
American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born, American Com- 
mittee to Save Refugees, American Croatian Congress, American Slav 
Congress, International Committee on African Affairs, Civil Rights 
Congress, Mobilization for Democracy, Jewish Peoples Committee, Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, National Negro Congress,. National 
Negro Women 's Council, Negro Cultural Committee, Negro Labor Vic- 
tory Committee, Non-Sectarian Committee for Political Refugees, Slovene 
National Congress, United Aid for Peoples of African Descent, United 
Committee of South Slavic Americans, etc. 

IV. Fronts for Veterans and Military 

One of the consistent strategic and tactical theories of world Com- 
munism, as taught by the Communist International in Marxism-Lenin- 
ism-Stalinism, is, that three indispensable ingredients are necessary 
before the Communist revolution. 

These basic ingredients are: (1) A militant, class-conscious prole- 
tariat of workers, unemployed and underprivileged; (2) an impov- 
erished and militant peasantry (small farmers and farm workers), and; 
(3) soldiers and sailors who hate and distrust their government, their 
officers and their system, who will either join the revolt or refuse to fire 
on Communist inspired revolutionary mobs. 

It is obvious, therefore, that Communists have conducted front 
activity to influence veterans, soldiers, sailors, police, and similar public 
servants, whose work has any bearing on national security. 

The Communist Party in the United States has devoted much 
analysis, propaganda, agitational and educational work in attempting to 
win over veterans and military men to their program. Much of this 
activity, however, has been cloaked in greater secrecy and conspira- 
torial mystery than other Communist front work. Most of this work is 
"underground." They are busy, however, in veteran housing, veterans' 
bonuses, and other political and economic issues. 



76 UN-AMERigAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

V. Fronts for Farmers 

The committee has pointed out in the preceding subclassification, 
that agitation among the "peasantry" (small farmers and farm work- 
ers) is taught as a basic tenet of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. The pur- 
pose is to propagandize the small farmers and farm workers into a frame 
of mind where they will support the industrial revolt as one of the indis- 
pensable basic ingredients for the revolutionary mass movement. 

The Communist Party of the United States follows the strategic and 
tactical admonitions of the Kremlin teachers, and it has accumulated a 
long history of agitation, disruption and propaganda work in American 
agriculture. 

The committee refers to its report on the Communist Party program 
of agitating and propagandizing for "revolutionary industrial union- 
ism ' ' as cited in a preceding section of this report. 

The records of this committee and of congressional investigating 
committees' are filled with voluminous files of documentary material and 
detailed sworn testimony that pictures the factual record of Communist 
activity in California agriculture. 

One of the most completely Communist dominated trade-unions in 
the Nation is the Food, Tobacco, and Agricultural Workers C.I.O., 
successor to the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied 
Workers of America C.I.O. This Communist union has compiled one of 
the most conspicuous records of Communist activity in America. 

Another major reason for Communist Party interest in California 
agriculture is its basic importance to national security. California is a 
shipping and packing center for the world, as well as one of the most 
productive agricultural political subdivisions in the world. Food is one 
of the major weapons in ideological conflicts both in peace and war. 

The Communist Party is dedicated to serving the interests of Soviet 
Kussia, and to preparing the way for eventual violent revolution at home. 
One of the fundamental principles of Communist strategy in serving 
these objectives, is to create centers of agitation and disruption in indus- 
try, production centers and communities where large groups of workers 
are involved in transportation, communication, and processing of basic 
commodities or raw materials, so that these projects can be readily dis- 
located, isolated or paralyzed when Communist strategy or Soviet foreign 
policy dictates. 

The committee warns the people of California that the future of the 
Nation and the national security demand the fullest and f reeest exposure 
of this Communist program for sabotage of vital national security assets, 
of which California has such an abundance. 

VI. Fronts for Consumers 

The Communist Party carries on continuous agitation against capi- 
talism and parliamentary government. The preceding sections of this 
report have presented the tactical and strategical methods taught by 
Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

Communist philosophy directs that capitalism be discredited, and 
that people be convinced that parliamentary governments are unable to 
solve the problems that are alleged to arise from the so-called "contra- 
dictions of capitalism. ' ' 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 77 

This means plainly and simply that Communists must agitate and 
propagandize constantly to impress the masses that the problems aris- 
ing in a free economy are due to "the inherent contradictions of capi- 
talism" and that they can never be solved until capitalism and parlia- 
mentary government are tossed out the window (together with our 
freedoms and liberties), and the people surrender their judgments and 
decisions in the economic sphere to the commissars of the proletarian 
dictatorship. 

All Communist fronts under the preceding subsection on youth and 
education and in the preceding subsection on political and legislative 
serve with the Communist fronts for Consumers. 

The basic strategy of Communist agitation in this field is to con- 
vince every American that capitalism has failed; that parliamentary 
government is incapable of picking up the pieces; and that the only 
recourse is the violent revolution to oust the ' ' oppressor ' ' class. This can 
only be done by violence as the capitalists will never surrender to the 
1 1 new democracy ' ' of Communism peacefully. 

The Communist answer to high prices, low prices, unemployment, 
manpower shortages, and other symptoms of a free economy is to propose 
the total expropriation of all property and the establishment of a dicta- 
torship by a minority of the population. They ask that those who, through 
incompetence, neuroses, inability to adjust themselves to their environ- 
ment; those who have been complete failures, be entrusted with the 
problems of economy and government. 

The committee warns that Communism feeds on dissension, discord 
and disunity. Nowhere is patriotic tolerance and cooperation more impor- 
tant than in the work of solving the manifold problems of a free economy 
in an industrial civilization. 

The world Communist conspiracy proposes to liquidate every free- 
dom and liberty, for which mankind has struggled for several thousands 
of years, and to replace them for the dubious promise of economic secur- 
ity a promise that no totalitarian state has been able to fulfill. 

The committee calls upon the members of the Legislature and the 
citizens of California to awaken to the insidious pattern of disruption, 
confusion and discord that is the daily work of the Communist Party. 
The committee urges that every citizen join in a crusade to inform, edu- 
cate and propagandize for the benefits of the American system and to 
prevent Communist conspirators from insinuating their unholy doctrine 
of hate, class-struggle and statism into the natural free disagreements 
and contentions that provide the checks and balances in the American 
system. 

The committee again warns the people of California that the safest 
and surest way to prevent Communist disruption is to proceed with pro- 
grams and policies through the bona fide, basic and permanent organiza- 
tions to which they belong, of which there are many ; and to regard with 
caution the promotion of fly-by-night ' l letterhead organizations ' ' staffed 
with known Communists and fellow-travelers, created by the Com- 
munists incessantly to serve their conspiratorial, criminal program for 
revolution. 

Among conspicuous fronts for Communist agitation to consumers 
are : Consumers National Federation, League of Women Shoppers, Con- 
gress of American Women, Progressive Citizens of America, etc. 



78 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

WHAT IS A STALINIST? 

If there is any question that perplexes the American people in 
attempting to understand the variations and degrees of Communist 
affiliation and activity, the most confusing is the simple question : * ' What 
Is a Communist ? ' ' There are many similar confusing questions. 

This problem of adequate terminology and nomenclature is one 
that the Communists consistently play upon to confuse and confound 
Americans. The Committee believes that it is a problem that can be solved 
by common sense and by unified and widespread publicity as to who is 
who and what is what in the murky depths of Communist revolutionary 
intrigue. 

The first thing that Americans must do is to abandon all dictionary 
definitions and loose terminology, most of which is based on academic 
and philological interpretations of words as they have developed 
historically. 

Communism, as it manifests itself in the world today, is far removed 
from dictionary definition. 

The committee recommends that all lexicographers, teachers, jour- 
nalists and other molders of public opinion devote serious thought and 
study to the correction of the totally inadequate concept of Communism 
that now prevails in our textbooks, reference books and in much current 
writing and reporting. 

The correct technical, ideological name for those who follow the pro- 
gram and policies of the Comintern is Stalinists. The programs and 
policies of Stalin are consistently lumped together by Communist 
thinkers and analysts as Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

The advocates of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism are the largest and 
most powerful of all the various socialist and revolutionary movements 
now in existence ; and they far outnumber all others. These people, who 
have launched a program of world conquest in the name of ' ' progress ' ' 
and under the banner of "the dictatorship of the proletariat," follow 
a system of revolutionary plotting and of totalitarian government which 
they describe in their writings and textbooks as Marxism-Leninism- 
Stalinism. Sometimes it is called Marxism-Leninism. Other times it is 
called Leninism-Stalinism. Sometimes it is called simply, Stalinism. 

All Stalinists work, theorize and act in accordance with the ideologi- 
cal concepts of Karl Marx, as developed in the Bolshevik revolution in 
Russia by V. I. Lenin, and as interpreted and dictated to spread totali- 
tarian terror today by Joseph Stalin. 

Communists, like all totalitarians, make a fetish of the "leadership 
principle ' ' in decking out their programs and policies with showmanship 
and political appeal. It was so with Mussolini under Fascism. It was so 
with Hitler under Nazism. It was so with Hirohito in Imperial Japan. 
And it is so under Communism with Joseph Stalin. 

Totalitarian ideologies emphasize the importance of the leader, the 
fuehrer, the chief, the dictator. It is imperative that the program and 
policies be carried out by a live leader ; hence, despite Marxist-Leninist 
idolatry of the dead authorities of Communism Marx and Lenin when 
nations are swept behind the Iron Curtain, it is the picture of Stalin that 
is put up in all the classrooms. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 79 

Today, to most Communists in the world, their particular brand of 
socialism and revolution is known generally as Stalinism. Stalinism is 
the current practical application in world affairs of Marxism-Leninism. 

The committee finds that Stalinism is the most apt and appropriate 
descriptive label for the theories of violent revolution, and the concept 
of totalitarian government. 

The committee finds that American Communism, as practiced, 
taught and advocated by the Communist Party of the U. S. A., and by 
the Communist Party of California, is Stalinsim and that its twin pur- 
poses and objectives are to serve the interests of Soviet Russia, and to 
prepare the way for the violent revolutionary overthrow of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

Any person who supports the program of the Communist Party in 
any nation as part of the program of world revolution laid down by the 
Comintern in Moscow is a Stalinist. Any person who consistently works 
to serve the interests of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia, and who pro- 
motes discord, disunity, dissension and class strife, for the purpose of 
preparing the way for revolution, is a Stalinist. 

In spite of millions of words written about Communism, it is as 
simple as that; and in its practical application today as formal world 
Communism, it is Stalinism. 

The committee has discovered, as have many other responsible gov- 
ernmental and police agencies, that persons who advocate, support or 
work for Stalinism have committed themselves to a course of conduct 
that consistently comes in conflict with the aspirations, beliefs and ethical 
concepts of normal human beings. Stalinism, like Fascism, Nazism and 
other totalitarian concepts of human living and government, is unequiv- 
ocally and irrevocably in complete and total conflict with the conceptions 
of human living and government embodied in the American Constitution 
and the way of life by the founding fathers of this Nation. 

The conflict between Americanism and Stalinism is irreconcilable 
and cannot be compromised. This conflict has been demonstrated by many 
specific instances in the past and it will continue in the future. Consistent 
subservience to the pattern of conduct laid down by world Communism, 
stamps a person or organization indisputably as either a Stalinist or 
non-Stalinist. It is a conflict so sharp and clean that there will never be a 
middle ground. 

It is impossible for an organization or an individual to exist, except 
in a total vacuum, without coming in contact with the ideas, issues, poli- 
cies and programs that test its or his attitude toward Stalinism. Further- 
more, Stalinism is so foreign to the ideas and concepts of Americanism, 
no matter how sharply Americans may differ on ideas, issues, policies 
and programs, that only a devoted follower or a complete fool can pursue 
a pattern of consistently supporting the Stalinist position on a wide 
range of foreign policy and domestic issues, in view of the openly avowed 
objectives of Stalinism. 

There are two basic objections to the indiscriminate labeling of all 
Marxists and leftists as Communists. One is that many Marxists and 
leftists, including those who are Stalinists, actually, in a technical and 
legal sense, may not be Communists. The other is that indiscriminate 
application of the Communist label plays into the hands of Communist 
propagandists for Stalinism. 



80 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

It is an indisputable fact that the conflict on broad ideological issues 
in American organizations and institutions is between two sharply 
divided groups those who believe in and support Americanism, against 
those who believe in and support Stalinism. Some Stalinists are Com- 
munists, but all Stalinists are un-American ! 

THE STIGMA OF STALINISM 

Actual Communists frequently are not easily identified as such 
because of the secret and conspiratorial nature of the Communist Party. 
Identification of an individual as a Communist should not depend solely 
upon legal proof of membership in the Communist Party. Identification 
of an individual or an organization as Stalinist can be made on the basis 
of his or its public activities. It is impossible to be a Stalinist without 
stamping oneself as a Stalinist. 

The one thing that marks off a Stalinist and sets him aside from his 
fellowmen is consistent, undeviating devotion to the so-called " party 
line ' ' of the Communist Party, and adherence to the self -prof essed ideas 
and objectives of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism. 

The current report of this committee establishes clearly and factually 
that U. S. Communists, as part of the program of world Communism, 
continuously and consistently operate behind the facade of front organ- 
izations, and that these front organizations espouse causes and programs 
and policies that are part and parcel of the Marxist-Leninist-Stalinist 
"party line." 

A Stalinist stamps himself as such by his own acts in lending his 
name as a speaker, sponsor, donor, chairman, executive board member, 
fund-raiser, writer, and official of organizations that follow the Stalinist 
pattern. 

Stalinists will be found in the membership of defense committees, 
victory committees, celebration committees, and other committees, for the 
honoring and support of known Communists and the Soviet Union and 
its Communist satellites. 

Stalinists also will be found signing their names to resolutions, pro- 
tests, denunciations, publicity releases and quotations to the Communist 
press, general press statements, meeting calls and manifestoes, all in 
defense and support of known Communists, and for the honoring or sup- 
port of the Soviet Union. 

When Stalinists set up an organization, union, committee, rally or 
other Communist activity, they invariably welcome Communists into 
membership ; and the individual who proposes in any such movement to 
ban Communists, immediately is denounced by Stalinists as a "red- 
baiter ' ' and a promoter of ' ' splitting tactics ' ' and ' ' disunity. ' ' 

Stalinists always attack critics of Soviet Russia, or of world Com- 
munism as "imperialist war-mongers, who want to separate the American 
people from friendship with their great wartime ally." Stalinists never 
criticize Soviet Russia, but they find everything wrong in the United 
States. 

Communists will be found at the center of every organization of a 
Stalinist character, and usually in the key positions, controlling access 
to membership lists, calling of meetings, issuing of statements and han- 
dling of funds. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 81 

THE FOUR TYPES OF STALINISTS 

There are four principal types of Stalinists in the United States and 
they are typical of the divisions of Stalinists everywhere. All four of 
these types are sharply distinguished from ordinary citizens in their 
conduct. No matter how clever they may be, when forced to ultimate deci- 
sions they invariably stamp themselves for what they are. 

These are the four basic types of Stalinists : 

(1) Communists 

Communists are members of the Communist Party, whether open 
or hidden. Customary Communist strategy in a nation not yet taken over 
by the totalitarian system, is to have "above-ground," only approxi- 
mately 10 percent of the Communist Party. 

Such Communists openly avow their party membership. The bal- 
ance of the party membership keeps its party membership secret, but in 
most cases makes no bones about its Stalinist beliefs and sympathies. 

Some important Communists in key positions are allowed to have 
special secret memberships. In many instances, these secret Communists 
meet together in what are known as "closed cells," small groupings of 
top secret Communist Party members. Most top secret Communists avoid 
flaunting their Stalinism. 

Many important Communists in public life are permitted to func- 
tion without formal party membership of any kind for their own pro- 
tection from investigations by police and other governmental agencies. 

(2) Fellow-Travelers 

Fellow-travelers fall into two main groupings : First, those, such as 
in the instance described above, who actually are Communists, but never 
are registered in any part of the party machinery; and, Second, those 
who never join the party at all, because Communists welcome them as 
allies, although, for various reasons they do not risk incriminating 
documentary evidence. 

The latter type of fellow-traveler is a full-fledged Stalinist, but for 
reasons of his own, or for party reasons, either is unwilling to become a 
member formally, or is not accepted into the executive-administrative 
centers of the party. Many of this latter type of fellow-traveler will be 
found in positions of prominence, political, church and business affairs. 

So-called "intellectual Communists" generally are in this latter 
type of fellow-traveler classification. Frequently, when they are of higher 
calibre in ability and prestige, they are not welcome as party members 
because of their unwillingness or inability to accept Communist Party 
discipline. 

Americans must understand that the conspiratorial Communist 
Party, which openly teaches treachery, fraud, misrepresentation, 
duplicity and sedition as things to be proud of and indispensable to 
practical revolutionary organization, does not welcome men and women 
of deep integrity, character and ability. 

Communists, who are committed to an inflexible and single-minded 
devotion to the one subject of the world proletarian revolution, do not 
welcome strong individualists into their leadership ; although they are 
perfectly willing to use or to treat with compelling personalities if they 
think it serves the interests of the long range Comintern program. 

7 L-7088-D 



82 UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

(3) Opportunists 

A third and very important type of Stalinist, even though transient 
in the Stalinist orbit, is the Opportunist Stalinist. Many trade union 
leaders and political figures will be found in this category. 

Most of these individuals do not believe in Marxism-Leninism- 
Stalinism. They join with Communists, work with and for Communists, 
and fit their conduct into the pattern of Stalinist activity as laid down 
by the Communist Party, solely for real or fancied reasons of personal 
gain and temporary advantage. 

Among this class of Stalinist will be found the nonCommunist 
so-called "pie-cards" in Communist controlled or dominated unions. 
These "pie-cards" are paid officials, who serve the interests of the Com- 
munist Party for a well-paying easy job. Another familiar type is the 
politician who accepts the intellectual valet service that Communists 
so well provide for prominent persons who come under their influence. 
Skillful and expert professional Communist writers, publicists and 
journalists give such political figures full treatment. 

Opportunists of this type generally start out by believing that they 
can "play with the Communists and use them." They usually discover 
that a tired Communist can match the most lively dishonest politician any 
day, in trickery, fraud and sharp practices of all kinds. 

During the period of collaboration with Communists, Stalinist 
Opportunists of this type, wittingly or unwittingly, follow the pattern 
of Stalinist activity. 

(4) Dupes 

The Communist program of operation behind false fronts, and 
through synthetic coalitions of various Communist-inspired front 
groups, results in the creation of a large number of the fourth type of 
Stalinist the dupes. 

Stalinist dupes are individuals who follow all or part of the Com- 
munist Party line in the hope of accomplishing some particular aspira- 
tion. They are too blind or thoughtless to perceive the Communist 
trickery in front groups behind the mask of humanitarianism. 

Stalinist dupes follow the twists and turns of the party line, often 
through stupidity and lack of the mental capacity necessary to analyze 
and evaluate the devices and tricks employed by Communists. They are 
very properly comparable to the victims of confidence men. Too fre- 
quently they have the same ideological, economic or political "get-rich- 
quick" instinct that make the "sucker" or "chump" an "easy mark" 
for the confidence swindler. 

Many Stalinist dupes are sincere and well-meaning, but are con- 
fused and thoughtless. Typical are those who will permit openly avowed 
Communists to lead a fake humanitarian program for the benefit of some 
victim of injustice or racial prejudice in America, and at the same time 
will dismiss as "capitalist propaganda" the horrible truth of Soviet 
Russia's slave labor camps in which millions die every year. 

Stalinist dupes accept many of the claims and pretension of the 
Communists ; that they represent" Twentieth Century Democracy. ' ' Such 
Stalinist dupes must be regarded as entirely separate from those honest, 
sincere Americans, who in sympathetic interest in some^ particular prob- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 83 

lem, may join a Communist sponsored front group, but who soon recog- 
nizes the Communist character of the movement ; and who either get out 
promptly or else run the Communists out. 

In contrast to the reaction of ordinary Americans, when they 
encounter Communists in an organization, Stalinist dupes will involve 
themselves in complicated logic to justify representation and participa- 
tion for Communists. They will continue, in the face of the facts, to lend 
their names, funds and support to organizations sponsored by Com- 
munists. They apparently are incapable of understanding the basic truth 
that no Communist ever joins a reform movement of any kind except to 
twist it to the Stalinist line, or to wreck it. 

Honest reform and improvement of unsatisfactory conditions is the 
one thing Communists fear and despise. Peace, progress and prosperity 
do not provide fertile fields for planting the Communist poison of revo- 
lutionary intrigue. 

Stalinist dupes will be found frequently in trade unions, political 
movements, racial, religious and minority groups; and among faddists 
in the field of economics and political theory. 

INTERCHANGEABILITY OF STALINIST TYPES 

Americans must be alert to the fact that Stalinists frequently pass 
through various stages of Stalinist activity ; and many Stalinists in one 
category, may try to pose in another category for strategic reasons. 

Thus, actual Communists will pose as fellow-travelers until exposed, 
or until Communist Party policy decides that they must become pub- 
licly avowed Communists. The committee's records disclose many such 
instances. 

Stalinist opportunists and Stalinist dupes may pass from one stage 
to another. Frequently a dupe will become an opportunist when jobs and 
publicity are dangled before his eyes, and, eventually, if he proves 
tractable enough, may be accepted in the Communist Party as a member. 

The committee finds that the four general types of Stalinists herein 
described; (1) Communists; (2) Fellow-travelers; (3) Opportunists; 
and (4) Dupes, may be described properly as Stalinists. The committee 
finds that Stalinists are individuals who pursue the Marxist-Leninist- 
Stalinist brand of revolutionary theorizing and planning, and who advo- 
cate totalitarian government, under a ' ' dictatorship of the proletariat, ' ' 
as propagated and disseminated from Russia by the Comintern and the 
Third International. 

THE TELL-TALE MARKS OF STALINISM 

The committee presents in its current report a comprehensive and 
definitive analysis of the various types and classifications of Communist 
front groups. 

This compilation describes and interprets Communist front groups 
in two major divisions : 

(1) Organizations classified according to the proportion of Com- 
munist influence ; and 

(2) Organizations classified according to the purpose or objective 
for which they are organized or infiltrated by Communists. 

The average American will find that if he or she studies this orderly 
presentation of the degrees of Communist influences, and the purposes 



84 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

for which Communists seek to influence any organization, it will bring 
order out of chaos and will enable him or her to evaluate and judge the 
nature and character of any organization from its methods, procedures, 
policies and public conduct. 

The same criteria that may be used to evaluate and judge the 
Stalinist character of an organization, also may be used successfully to 
evaluate and determine the Stalinist character of an individual. 

STALINISM IS A DISEASE 

Many responsible agencies, legislative committees, police authorities, 
and expert students of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism have compiled lists 
of activities and policies that stamp individuals and organizations as 
Stalinist. 

The symptoms of Stalinist activity are such that it is possible to 
interpret the Communist fever chart of an individual or organization, 
just as a physician, who has studied the stigma and symptoms of disease, 
can chart the condition of a patient. Communism is a disease of the 
individual and the political organism. The first step a doctor takes to plan 
a cure for a disease is to study the patient 's symptoms. The same sensible 
practice should be followed in dealing with an individual or organization 
suspected of Stalinist troubles. 

The committee has compiled, after extensive research, a complete 
listing of the outstanding symptoms and indications of Communism and 
Stalinism in an organization. 

The points of identification have been assembled into a series of 
questions. The factual answer to these questions will provide a report on 
the Stalinist character of an organization. With slight modification they 
also can be used to check the Stalinist character of an individual. 

Basic Tests of a Communist-Stalinist Organization 

There are nine basic tests that can be applied to any organization to 
determine its Communist or Stalinist character. 

These nine points may be determined by the answers to the following 
questions : 

(1) Who are the organization's sponsors ? 

(2) Who are the individuals and organizations who call for the 

group 's formation ? 

(3) Who does the printing and who directs and writes the organ- 

ization 's publicity ? 

(4) What are the organization's policies? 

( 5 ) What are the organization 's tactics ? 

(6) What is the organization's attitude on foreign affairs? 

(7) What is its attitude on domestic affairs ? 

(8) What is its attitude on national security? 

(9 ) What is its attitude on Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism ? 

(1) Sponsorship 

(a) Are the sponsors or signers of meetings, calls, conferences, 
conventions, etc., individuals who have records of public sponsorship, 
membership, public statements, donations, etc., in a series of Stalinist 
organizations and causes ? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 85 

(b) Was the organization first announced and consistently publi- 
cized in the Communist and left-wing press ? 

(c) Do known Communist organizations and Communists have a 
prominent hand in promoting or initiating the organization ? 

(d) Is the organization endorsed by Communist dominated unions? 

(e) Does the organization attract well-known patriotic anti-Com- 
munist liberals, or does it denounce and reject them ? 

(2) Organization 

(a) Are key positions in the control of Communists ? (Key positions 
include the chairman, secretary, secretary-treasurer, editor, publicist, 
attorney, and other paid or honorary staff positions, providing access to 
membership lists, financial records, emergency authority, and control of 
publications and public statements in the name of the organization.) 

(b) Are the constitution and by-laws and rules of procedure so 
drawn as to permit a trained minority to control or disrupt the organiza- 
tion against the wishes of the majority if Communist tactics so decide? 

(c) Does the organization's constitution or by-laws contain provi- 
sions for excluding from membership and participation, known Com- 
munists, Fascists, and other subversive individuals; or does it welcome 
Communists into membership and denounce any attempt to ban Com- 
munists as "red -baiting" and "splitting tactics "? 

(d) Did the organization spring into existence overnight for some 
allegedly worthy purpose and immediately launch a fund-raising cam- 
paign, using the names of well-known Stalinists on its letterhead? (Does 
it make an accounting of its disposition of funds?) 

(e) Does the organization represent itself to be nonpartisan, but 
actually engage in political activities, which follow the Communist Party 
line? 

(f) Is the organization committed solely to its announced purpose, 
or is it set up so that it can join in Communist-inspired "coalitions" with 
other organizations ? 

(g) Can a few officials commit the organization to basic policies 
radically different from its announced purposes without securing the 
formal approval of the entire membership ? 

(h) Does a minority object to substantial wages and expenses for 
executive and staff work, and do * ' enthusiastic ' ' Stalinists then volunteer 
to carry out the key duties of the organization without wages or for a 
small pittance ? 

(i) Are meetings arranged so that the agenda is elastic with no 
specific hour set for adjournment ; and does a small minority consistently 
"talk the meeting to death. " (After many members have left the meeting 
at a late hour, do certain individuals then introduce and adopt a series of 
Stalinist resolutions ? ) 

(3) Printing and Publicity 

(a) Does the organization have most of its printing (letterheads, 
announcements, publications and informational material) printed at 
plants that specialize in Stalinist literature, are owned or influenced by 
the Communist Party ? (The union label of every print shop with a union 
contract is numbered. A checkup on ownership and policy will reveal that 
certain print shops in each city receive most of the Stalinist business.) 



86 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

(b) Is the organization's literature, tickets, publications and pro- 
motional material consistently sold and displayed prominently in Com- 
munist bookstores and in Communist dominated union and organization 
offices and meeting places? 

(c) Are Communist literature, pamphlets, newspapers and publica- 
tions consistently displayed, promoted, sold and recommended in the 
organization 's offices and meeting places ? 

(d) Are the organization's activities, public statements and policies 
consistently publicized in news columns and favorably commended edi- 
torially by The Daily Worker, The People's Daily World, Political 
Affairs, In Fact, and other Communist newspapers, magazines and proga- 
ganda media ? 

(e) Do the organization's paid advertisement and meeting notices 
appear consistently in Communist publications described in (d), above? 

(f) Does the organization issue frequent public statements and 
adopt resolutions that defend, honor and support known Communists 
and Communist organizations ? 

(g) Are the printing, editing and public relations activities of the 
organization in the control of individuals with Communist records and 
leanings? (Is the organization represented by public relations and adver- 
tising firms that specialize in handling Communist organizations and 
individuals?) 

(4) Policies 

(a) Does the organization consistently feature speakers and guests 
who are known Communists, fellow-travelers and sympathizers ? 

(b) Does the organization completely change its policies, even to the 
extent of virtually dissolving and emerging with a new name and pro- 
gram, if the Communist Party line makes a "sharp turn" or major 
reversal of policy ? 

(c) Does the organization collaborate with and support the policies 
of conspicuous Communist organizations? 

(d) Does the organization collaborate with, endorse and support 
Communist schools, cultural groups and educational activities? 

(e) Does the organization consistently muster its leaders and mem- 
bers to seek to control the policies of other organizations ? 

(f) Does the organization welcome and seek affiliation with inter- 
national organizations, movements and causes sponsored by the Soviet 
Union and by the Third International? 

(5) Tactics 

(a) Does the organization or its leadership advocate study of Marx- 
ism and Leninism? 

(b) Does the organization advise its members to read, endorse, sup- 
port and contribute to the Daily Worker, The People's Daily World, 
Political Affairs, In Fact, and other Communist publications ? 

(c) Does the organization consistently support, endorse and pub- 
licize prominent Communists, Stalinists and pro-Russian trade union 
leaders, and at the same time consistently denounce and condemn promi- 
nent anti-Russian and anti-Communist liberals and trade union leaders ? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 87 

(d) Does the organization consistently denounce members who dis- 
agree with Stalinist programs, policies and resolutions as "labor spies," 
* ' professional disrupters ' ' and promoters of ' * splitting tactics ' ' ? 

(e) Does the organization consistently proclaim that Communists 
must be tolerated ' ' because they are the only people working 100 percent 
for the interests of labor and minority groups"? 

(f ) Does the organization consistently insinuate public affairs as a 
"class struggle" between "capitalist oppressors" and downtrodden 
' ' toiling masses ' ' ? 

(g) Does the organization and its leadership seek to identify every 
problem, complaint, dispute, disagreement and conflict with the need 
for making a change in the American system by abolishing capitalism and 
parliamentary government, while at the same time paying lip-service to 
* * Democracy ' ' and ' * Constitutional rights ' ' ? 

(6) Attitude on Foreign Affairs 

(a) Does the organization support the cause of Americanism or the 
cause of Soviet Russia and Communism ? 

(b) Does the organization denounce American and British foreign 
policy ; but always praise and support Soviet Russian foreign policy ? 

(c) Does the organization follow the Communist policy of describ- 
ing Soviet-dominated countries as "new democracies"? 

(d) Does the organization consistently denounce the United States 
and its foreign policy as imperialistic and dominated by monopoly capital 
and militarists ? 

(e) Does the organization denounce the United States as leading 
the World into World War III, while praising Soviet Russia as a " peace- 
loving nation ' ' ? 

(f) Does the organization oppose the Truman Doctrine and the 
Marshall Plan? 

(g) Does the organization attack anyone who criticizes Soviet 
Russia, as a " warmonger, ' ' and as a " betrayer of the Roosevelt policies" ? 

(h) Does the organization advocate appeasement of Soviet Russia 
and recognition and support of Communist regimes and revolutionary 
movements in other nations ? 

(i) Does the organization consistently denounce anti-Communist 
governments ? 

(7) Attitude on Domestic Affairs 

(a) Does the organization condemn capitalism and a free economy 
as outmoded and doomed to early extinction ? 

(b) Does the organization advocate revolutionary, industrial union- 
ism and the use of the general strike ? 

(c) Did the organization follow this pattern in connection with 
World War II : 

I. Before Germany attacked Russia did it denounce preparedness ; 
support defense plant strikes ; and denounce President Roose- 
velt as an "imperialist warmonger"? 

II. After Germany attacked Russia did it change radically to all- 
out support of the war effort, and condemn all labor disputes, 
even in nonwar industries ? 



00 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

III. After the U. S. Communist Party in 1945 formally resumed the 
* ' class war ' ' did it make an abrupt change and oppose military 
preparedness and advocate all-out strikes and denounce United 
States policies? 

(d) Does the organization oppose and condemn labor-management 
cooperation; and denounce labor union leaders who favor cooperation 
and understanding between employers and workers as " tools of the 
bosses ' ' and * * sellout artists ' ' ? 

(f) Does the organization enter into labor disputes, minority and 
racial problems and other conflicts to advocate confusion, hatred and 
disunity ? 

(g) Does the organization support, endorse and advocate basic 
policies of the Communist Party? (Does it criticize or condemn Com- 
munism or policies of the Communist Party?) 

(h) Does the organization denounce investigation and exposure of 
Communist activity? Does the organization denounce the prosecution, 
indictment and arrest of Communists as ''invasion of civil rights" and 
as an attempt to ' ' impose thought control in America ' ' ? 

(i) Does the organization exploit and magnify any incident in which 
Negroes and Jewish people are involved to the detriment of the United 
States and the Constitution ? 

(j) Does the organization support legislative measures intended to 
regiment the people ? 

(k) Does the organization support all measures intended to weaken 
and destroy business and capitalist institutions? 

(1) Does the organization attack and condemn an ti- Communist 
unions and leaders in the A.F. of L. and the C.I.O. ; and support and 
praise Communist dominated unions and Communist labor leaders? 

(m) Does the organization particularly attack and villify all anti- 
Communist progressive, liberal, trade-union, minority and even ultra- 
radical organizations because they oppose the Moscow brand of Com- 
munism-Stalinism ? 

(n) Does the organization advocate and support a Communist 
dominated third party political movement ? 

(8) Attitude on National Security 

(a) Does the organization oppose a sound preparedness program 
and universal military training ? 

(b) Does the organization urge giving the atom bomb secret to 
Soviet Russia and oppose the official proposals of the United States in 
the United Nations for atomic controls ? 

(c) Does the organization oppose an Inter- American defense pro- 
gram and seek to smear supporters of such a program as attempting to 
push United States imperialism on South American nations? 

(d) Does the organization support the policies and programs of 
the Communist Party in the United States toward military preparedness 
and assistance to peace-loving nations that are threatened by Russian 
aggression ? 

(e) Does the organization support and advocate ""Win the Peace " 
movements and similar programs to weaken the military power of the 
United States? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 89 

(f) Does the organization support the United Nations in vague 
generalities but oppose United Nations action to investigate, condemn or 
stop Russian aggression ? 
(9) Attitude on Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism 

(a) Does the organization or a substantial proportion of its leader- 
ship advocate and promote study of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism as a 
system of government to supplant that of the United States ? 

(b) Does the organization advocate or pursue any of the Marxists- 
Leninist-Stalinist theories, ideas, strategy and tactics outlined in detail 
in the ensuing section of this report ? 

The percentage of "yes" answers to the above questions will give 
the proportion of Communist domination, control or influence in any 
organization. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 91 

Part II 
COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

This section of the committee's partial report deals with organiza- 
tions found to be controlled, to a lesser or greater degree, by the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. 

In each specific case the reader is referred to the exhaustive analysis 
(Part I of this report) for classification and degree of Communist 
control. 

With the exception of such out-and-out Communist organizations 
as the Communist Party itself, and the Young Communist League, the 
reader is cautioned to hold in mind that a Communist front organization 
is characterized by the fact that the majority of its members are non- 
Communists. If this were not true, it should be quite obvious that the 
organization would be actually a Communist organization, and not a 
front in any sense. 

The committee has, so far as is possible, deleted the names of officers 
and sponsors of Communist front organizations, who were, in fact, merely 
dupes and innocents of Communist manipulation. 

The mere fact that a person appears as a sponsor or endorser of a 
number of Communist front groups does not, by any means, indicate 
that he or she is actually a member of the Communist Party. While it 
certainly indicates a sort of unusual stupidity, it may, as a matter of fact, 
only mean that the individual is a good intentioned "sucker" for Commu- 
nist deceit and deception. 

On the other hand, the fact that a name may appear but once, or 
comparatively few times, is no indication that the person is not a member 
of the Communist Party. It may be indicative that he or she is a most 
important member of the secret, conspirative, illegal section of the party. 

The final test must, necessarily, confine itself to certain obvious 
factors. First, the education, background, experience, and character of 
the individual concerned must be carefully ascertained. Certain indi- 
viduals who might rate a hundred percent in each of these categories 
might easily be attracted to a Communist front that purported to stand 
for certain high ideals and purposes, and yet be horrified and indignant 
if anyone should so much as suggest that the organization worked for 
sinister and concealed objectives. On the other hand a real American 
patriot who rated zero in each of the suggested categories might reason- 
ably be expected to root for Browder's right to destroy the country so 
long as he made no overt act for its accomplishment. 

The psychological factors are not to be overlooked. The single-track 
mind, suffering from frustration and a sense of guilt, but nevertheless 
the mind of a loyal citizen unaware of the true purposes of the Com- 
munist Party, might well be ensnared into supporting Communist causes 
unwittingly in the unconscious desire to right some wrong, fancied or 
real. Reasonable allowances must be made in either of these two cases. 

There are many individuals in the United States who would probably 
call themselves socialists. While they believe in many of the ultimate 
Utopian ideals of Marxism they also are firm believers in freedom and 
the right of others to disagree with them and to work for their particular 
ideals. While the American Socialist may be said to be the most informed 
concerning the Stalinites, it is nevertheless true that many uneducated, 



92 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

but nonetheless sincere, socialists are ''suckers" for Communist " win- 
dow-dressing ' ' and purported causes. 

We are concerned in this analysis with the bona fide, iron disciplined 
Communist revolutionary. Outstanding examples will be found in the 
Lawsons, the Maltzes, the Sorrells, the Kennys, the Sidney Rogers, and 
similar individuals. They cannot plead ignorance, either of philosophy, 
economics, or government, because they all demand recognition in these 
fields. The professors listed throughout this report can hardly fall back 
on the excuse that they are uninformed as to the true program of the 
Communist Party or its organizations, because they are supposed to be 
skilled in these matters. 

The reader will find certain front organizations listed throughout 
this report that clearly indicate the Communist character of the group. 
Roughly, these organizations are created for publicly announced Com- 
munist causes such as committees for the defense of avowed Commu- 
nists or brazenly advertised groups for the protection of Soviet interest 
against the interest of the United States. Only a moron might success- 
fully contend that he truthfully didn't know what the organization really 
was and that he was, after all was said and done, an American patriot in 
going along with the Communist group. 

Thus it may be that a person listed as supporting but one or two 
organizations may be more definitely in the Communist conspiracy than 
an individual who is listed in many. It depends on the organization. 

The final test, therefore, is to be based on many factors, not the least 
of which, is the time of the organization and the particular party line 
existing when the organization was created and functioned. 

As a general rule the individual who permitted his name to be used 
for a Communist front or cause after August, 1939, knew full well what 
he was doing, unless he was an ignorant recluse who never had access 
to the newspapers. There is also an allowance for participation in a few 
Communist fronts during the war, when the United States necessarily 
was aligned with the Soviet dictatorship in the war against Nazi Ger- 
many, but the type of fronts in this field are extremely limited. 

The interested reader will carefully check the index of this report 
and the index of previous reports, and, by following the classifications 
listed herein and evaluating the degree of control and disguise of the 
front, easily arrive at indisputable conclusions susceptible to the most 
thorough documentation and proof. 

The Communist fronts are arranged in this part of the report in 
alphabetical order. The committee has selected the most important fronts 
for this listing. But the arrangement here does not purport to be inclu- 
sive, either as to this report, or as to the headings. The 'committee has 
included those Communist organizations that are important to Califor- 
nia, or as filling in the general pattern of Communist intrigue. Any par- 
ticular Communist front listed alphabetically hereafter may include a 
dozen or more subsidiary fronts, found to be Communist instruments by 
this committee. The entire list will be found in the index. 

It is suggested that the index be used if the organization being 
researched does not appear in the alphabetical arrangement. 

The committee believes that this partial report on Communist front 
organizations will be of great assistance to the Members of the Senate 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 93 

and the people of California, and that it will serve materially to illus- 
trate and reveal the extent of the criminal conspiracy that menaces our 
State and our Nation. 

ABOLISH PEONAGE COMMITTEE 

This Communist front came into being in the latter part of 1939. 
It was organized by the Midwest Division of International Labor Defense, 
* ' the legal arm of the Communist Party. ' ' This front functioned through 
1940 and 1941, during the period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact when the 
Communist Party and its fronts were agitating against the United States ' 
entry into the * ' Imperialist war, ' ' as well as against all national defense 
preparations. The Communist purpose behind the Abolish Peonage Com- 
mittee was (1) To provoke national disunity and social friction against 
the national defense program; (2) to smear the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and the Department of Justice as an "American Gestapo" 
in line with Vito Marcantonio 's radio speech of August 13, 1940, and 
(3) to recruit Negroes for the Communist Party. 

William L. Patterson was Executive Secretary and Bob Wirtz was 
Corresponding Secretary of the Abolish Peonage Committee. Among 
others connected with this organization are John P. Davis, Executive 
Secretary of the National Negro Congress; Louis Colman, Washington 
representative of the International Labor Defense; Ishmael P. Flory, 
member of the Communist Party, Chicago, and a member of the National 
Negro Congress; Mrs. Eva T. Wells, member of the Illinois State 
Advisory Board of the International Labor Defense; Mrs. Mary A. 
Sweres, member of the National Committee of the International Labor 
Defense ; Theresa Ehrlich, member of the legal staff of the International 
Labor Defense ; Harold Preeze, author of Peonage 1940 Style Slavery; 
Pearl M. Hart and Sema B. Belgrade. 

Harold Preeze is a former organizer for the Communist Party in the 
southern states and a frequent contributor to such Communist publica- 
tions as the New Masses, the Daily Worker, the International Lai} or 
Defense News, the American Peace Mobilization Newscaster, the Protes- 
tant (originally known as the Protest Digest), and the Midwest Daily 
Record. Preeze has also been known as Richard Randall. 

Theresa Ehrlich, Pearl M. Hart, and William L. Patterson have been 
associated with the Communist Party Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

The Abraham Lincoln Brigade was the fifteenth of the so-called 
International Brigade established by the Spanish Loyalist government 
in its decree of September 23, 1937. This brigade was composed of Ameri- 
cans, Canadians, and British volunteers. The Lincoln and George Wash- 
ington Battalions formed a part of this unit. They were combined to form 
the Lincoln- Washington Battalion after the heavy casualties which 
resulted from the Brunete offensive of July, 1937. 

Edwin Rolfe, official historian of the Lincoln Battalion, has esti- 
mated that 2,800 Americans went to Spain, of whom at least 1,800 
returned to the United States to form the Veterans of the Abraham Lin- 
coln Brigade. The supporters of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade became 
the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the spring of 1937, some 
months after the departure of the first American volunteer. 



94 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Abraham Lincoln Brigade, the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, and the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade are all Com- 
munist-dominated organizations serving the objectives of the Communist 
Parties in the United States and Spain. Earl Browder boasted that "over 
60 percent of the Lincoln Battalion members were members of the Com- 
munist Party. " 

Among the known Communists, connected with the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, are Robert Minor, acting General Secretary of the Communist 
Party of the United States; John Gates, former Secretary of the New 
York State Young Communist League; William Lawrence, formerly 
organizational Secretary of the Communist Party of the State of New 
York ; Joe Dallet, one time Communist candidate for Mayor of Youngs- 
town, Ohio ; T. H. Wintringham, formerly connected with the Communist 
east coast newspaper, the Daily Worker; Saul Wellman, former member 
of the New York State Committee of the Young Communist League ; and 
Steve Nelson, a former member of the National Committee of the Commu- 
nist Party of the United States, and presently chairman of the Communist 
Party National Groups Commission. 

The command of the International Brigade was entirely in the hands 
of emigres from Russia. 

John G. Honeycombe (see committee's 1943 report) estimated that 
1,350 men were either lost or killed out of approximately 3,000 Americans 
in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

The following is a list of California Communists and sympathizers 
who were members of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade : Ray Anderson, 
Doc Bissell, Joseph Bianco, Archie Brown, William Bailey, Joseph 
Barran, E. W. Bridges, William Baker, Max Bowers, Arthur Brown, 
Benjamin Brown, Hy Brown, Morris Conway, Leon Cohen, Maurice 
Conway, Gordon Chilton, Durward Clark, John C. Coon, William 
Carroll, Jimmie Crooks, Frank J. Civiern, Dr. Thomas Dunn, Matthew 
Dykstra, Norman E. Dorland, Walter Dicks, Cleo Duncan, Russell Dell, 
Lowell Duncan, John Devine, Dr. Leo Eloesser, Leif Erickson, Howard 
Earl, Jack Egan, Francis Feingersh, Wallace Fishman, John Flanner, 
Robert Ford, Edward Fliegel, Jerome Ferrogiarco, Marshall Garcia, 
Howard Goddard, Samuel A. Grant, Jack Goldstein, Almon Gregarie, 
Antonie Gomez, Preston Hill, John G. Honeycombe, Harold Hoff, Fran- 
cis Herman, Jackson Haynes, Aaron Johnson, Erie Jackson, Ivan Katnic, 
Luke Kirman, John H. Kleinow, George Kaye, Arthur Laudis, Ben 
Levine, Thomas Limau, Elliett Loomis, Alfred Lallemant, Charles Mayer, 
Luchell McDaniels, Donald McLeod, H. B. Megguler, Felix Montana- 
rella, Paul Merkel, Lewis Masterson, Julius Molnar, Robert Nelson, 
Frank J. Owiere, Earl Ozias, Leonard Olson, Henry Olsen, Kenneth 
Parmelee, James Pierce, John Peterson, Henry Rubin, William Reed, 
Nicholas Ramiriz, Hyman Rossman, Boroslaw Sliven, Herbert H. Searl, 
Chester Stimson, Albert Stanford, William Slavin, Albert B. Stanford, 
Theodore Schneider, Michael Shanzky, Robert Schweinsent, Donald 
Simpson, Samuel W. Stone, Fredrick Thompson, James N. Thornton, Don 
Werglen, Alice Wagner, George Walters, Henry Wentworth, Frank E. 
Wilson, Louis Widder, Wilbur Wellman, John Williams, and Harry 
Yanowsky. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 95 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN SCHOOL 

This Communist institution was established in the early part of 1943 
at 30 Washington Street, Chicago, as a streamlined version of the 
Workers' School which was openly run by the Communist Party. This 
Communist school follows the general pattern of the People's Educa- 
tional Center, in Los Angeles, and the California Labor School, in San 
Francisco. (See Committee's 1947 Report.) 

Among those with Communist or Communist fellow-traveling 
records connected with the Abraham Lincoln School are the following : 
Alban D. Winspear, William L. Patterson, who received three years 
training in the Soviet Union ; Hart Baker, International Labor Defense ; 
John T. Bernard, William Blake, Anna Mae Brady, Milt Burns, Chicago 
Communist Party member ; Jack Conroy, writer for the Communist press ; 
Ernest De Maio, Theresa Ehrlich, International Labor Defense ; Court- 
land Ever, Gerald Fielde, James W. Gilman, Albert E. Glenn, Pearl M. 
Hart, Josephine Herbst, Conrad Komorowski, Ludwig Kruhe, Julian 
Lewis, Metz T. P. Lochard, Herbert March, organizer for the Young 
Communist League ; Stanley J. Marks, C. J. McClanahan, Vera Mirova, 
Karl H. Niebyl, Grant W. Oakes, Harvey O'Connor, Jessie Lloyd 
O'Connor, Paul Romaine, Charles S. Seely, Frank G. Spencer, Morris 
Topchevsky, Robert Travis and Ronald Thompson. 

William L. Patterson was graduated from the Hastings College of 
Law, University of California. He was the Executive Secretary of the 
Abolish Peonage Committee and the former Executive Secretary of the 
International Labor Defense. He was a member of the National Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party, and the party's candidate for Congress in 
Chicago and New York. He spent several years in the Soviet Union and 
in the Far Eastern Republics. He has been a director of the National 
Negro Congress. 

ACTORS' LABORATORY THEATRE 

This red front is also referred to as the Hollywood Actors' Labora- 
tory School. John Howard Lawson has been prominently connected with 
the school's activities. A pamphlet entitled "A Word About the Lab" 
reads, in part, as follows : 

"On the day after Pearl Harbor the Actors' Laboratory went 
to war. An emergency meeting of the executive board was called, 
and a policy was adopted which has been the basis of lab. work dur- 
ing the past two and a half yeurs. 

"The war job that the lab. has undertaken for itself has been 
to organize entertainment for servicemen, utilizing the talents of 
the legitimate actor who is neither a vaudevillian nor a star. To date 
the lab. has produced seven full length plays which have played and 
replayed most of the military camps and installations in California, 
using the volunteer talents of close to two hundred actors. This work 
has been done in close cooperation with the Hollywood Victory Com- 
mittee and IT. S. 0. Camp Shows, Inc. In line with its experimental 
approach to craft problems, the lab. has developed a technique of 
presenting plays at camps under the crudest of conditions. ' ' 



96 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A program of the Actors' Laboratory Theatre in the files of the 
Senate Committee presents one act plays by Irwin Shaw, Anton Chekov 
and Sean 'Casey. "The Shy and Lonely" is by Irwin Shaw; "The 
Bear" and "The Evils of Tobacco" are by Anton Chekov; Morris Car- 
no vsky doing * 'a free adaptation" of Chekov 's "The Bear" and "Pound 
on Demand" by Sean 'Casey. 

An article in the Communist Daily Worker for April 23, 1936, indi- 
cates the Communism of Irwin Shaw. The article is entitled "Left 
Theatre Takes Stock" and is accredited to Ben Irwin. Referring to one 
of the many red conferences of the New Theatre League the writer of 
the article calls attention to "the movement that has introduced such 
figures as Clifford Odets and more lately Irwin Shaw, young author of 
the new antiwar play Bury the Dead to the American theatre scene, along 
with a host of other contributions including Private Hicks and News- 
boy." 

Irwin Shaw is listed among the committee members and sponsors 
of the Communist Harry Bridges Defense Committee. The Daily Worker 
for April 6, 1937, lists Irwin Shaw as a member of the Advisory Board of 
Frontier Films, together with such noted Communist Party liners as 
Bruce Bliven, Malcolm Cowley, Waldo Frank, Lillian Hellman, Max 
Lerner, Archibald MacLeish, Lewis Milestone, Clifford Odets, George 
Seldes, George Soule, and Arthur Zugsmith. Shaw appears as one of the 
signers of the Communist inspired document on the Moscow Trials, 
defending Stalin 's purge of the old Bolsheviks. During the Stalin-Hitler 
pact Shaw joined with notorious Communists and fellow travelers in 
signing a letter addressed to President Roosevelt protesting attacks upon 
the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and condemning the "war 
hysteria ' ' being ' * whipped up by the Roosevelt administration. ' ' 

Morris Carnovsky was a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 
He was affiliated with the Communist front Allied Voters Against Cou- 
dert, together with Stephen S. Wise, Johannes Steel, A. Clayton Powell, 
Max Lerner, Dashieil Hammett, and Arthur Garfield Hays. Senator 
Frederick R. Coudert, Jr., was the cochairman of a committee of the 
New York Legislature and made an investigation into subversive activ- 
ities in the public schools of New York State. The Allied Voters Against 
Coudert is an example of the Communist apparatus for character assas- 
sination in operation against one who opposes the efforts of the Com- 
munist Party to undermine and destroy the American Government. Inci- 
dentally, Senator Coudert was reelected to office by a substantial 
majority. Morris Carnovsky was among the signatories to the petition 
sponsored by the American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual 
Freedom to discontinue the Dies Committee. He was one of the sponsors 
of a dinner given by Communist Donald Ogden Stewart in tribute to the 
contributions of the foreign born, held in New York. (Under the general 
auspices of the Communist front, American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born.) The Daily Worker for January 11, 1938, lists Morris 
Carnovsky, together with Dennis King, Jules Garfield, Luther Adler, 
Tookie Hunter, Harold Johnsrud and Margaret Waller as supporting 
the "Boycott Japanese Goods Conference-" of the Communist front, 
American League for Peace and Democracy. He was one of the sponsors 
of the most brazen of all Communist fronts, the American Peace Mobili- 
zation. Together with Canada Lee, Howard Bay, and Paul Robeson, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 97 

Carnovsky switched over after the invasion of Russia and became a mem- 
ber of the Communist front, Artists' Front to Win the War. He was a 
member of the Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges, Celebration of 15 
Years of Biro Bidjan, Jewish Peoples Committee, Abolish the Dies Com- 
mittee, National Wartime Conference of the Professions, The Sciences, 
The Arts, The White-Collar Fields, and Negro Playwrights Co., Inc. He 
served on the Advisory Council of the Theatre Arts Committee together 
with Francis E. Faragoh, John Howard Lawson, Dudley Nichols, George 
Sklar, Donald Ogden Stewart, Frank Tuttle, and Orson Welles. He was 
signatory to the statement on the Moscow Trials together with such 
notorious Communists and Communist fellow travelers as Haakon M. 
Chevalier, Jack Conroy, Malcolm Cowley, Kyle Crichton, Lester Cole, 
Jerome Davis, Muriel Draper, Guy Endore, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
Jules Garfield, Robert Gessner, Michael Gold, William Gropper, Har- 
rison George, Dashiell Hammett, Clarence Hathaway, Lillian Hellman, 
Langston Hughes, V. J. Jerome, H. S. Kraft, John Howard Lawson, Cor- 
liss Lamont, Melvin Levy, Albert Maltz, A. B. Magil, Bruce Minton, 
Moissaye J. Olgin, Samuel Ornitz, Dorothy Parker, Paul Peters, Holland 
D. Roberts, Paul Romaine, Morris U. Schappes, Edwin Seaver, George 
Seldes, George Sklar, Lionel Stander, Maxwell S. Stewart, Paul Strand, 
Anna Louise Strong, John Stuart, Genevieve Taggard, Max Weber, and 
Marguerite Young. 

The Executive Board of the Actors' Laboratory is composed of 
Roman Bohnen, Chairman ; Sam Levene, Vice Chairman ; Larry Parks, 
Treasurer; Helen Slote, Executive Secretary; and John Berry, Lloyd 
Bridges, Phoebe Brand, Phil Brown, Morris Carnovsky, Hume Cronyn, 
Jules Dassin, Ed Dmytryk, Jody Gilbert, Ruth Nelson, S. Sylvan Simon, 
Art Smith, Gloria Stuart, Mary Tarcai, and Irene Tedrow, board 
members. 

Among the audience sponsors we find the following : Alvah Bessie, 
Mrs. M. Blankfort, Sidney Buchman, Vera Caspary, Dorothy Comin- 
gore, Marc Connelly, Richard Conte, George Coulouris, Katherine 
De Mille, Julius Epstein, Howard Estabrook, William Fadiman, Francis 
Edwards Faragoh, Mrs. Ira Gershwin, Jay Gorney, Michael Kanin, 
Charles Katz, Gene Kelly, Alexander Knox, Harry Kurnitz, Ring Lard- 
ner, Jr., Melvin Levy, Mrs. Peter Lorre, Kenneth MacGowan, Aline 
MacMahon, Albert Maltz, Mary McCall, Jr., Ruth McKenny, Lewis 
Milestone, Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Nichols, Bette Odets, Clifford Odets, 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Ornitz, Gregory Peck, Mita Reis, Mrs. E. Riskin, 
Allen Rivkin, Earl Robinson, Gale Sondergaard, Donald Ogden Stewart, 
Gloria Stuart, Barry Trivers, and Dalton Trumbo. 

Louis J. Russell, former Federal Bureau of Investigation agent 
testified before the Committee on Un-American Activities of the House 
of Representatives October 28, 1947 (page 388 of the committee's report) 
that Alvah Bessie held Communist Party card 47279 in 1944. Bessie's 
address was given on the card as "4653 Coldwater Canyon, Hollywood." 
Russell testified that the card contained the notation ' ' New card issued 
on December 10, 1944." 

Alvah Bessie's Communist record is set forth at page 388 to page 
393 of the above mentioned congressional report and is reproduced here 

8 L-7088-D 



98 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

as corroborating the findings of the California Legislative Committee 
investigating subversive activities. 

"According to the records of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Alvah Bessie is one of the leading contributors to the 
Communist publications in the United States. 

"He has been connected with New Masses, a weekly publica- 
tion of the Communist Party, as contributing editor, since 1937. 
During this period he has contributed over 85 articles. As a stand- 
ard Communist rule, such officials of the Communist Press are 
required to be members of the party. 

"The People's World of October 11, 1939, which is the official 
Communist organ of the west coast of the United States, devotes an 
article in praise of the writings of Alvah Bessie. The People's World 
of August 26, 1943, lists Alvah Bessie as a speaker at a benefit given 
under the auspices of the People's World, 

"In the September 22, 1942, issue of the Weekly Review, a 
publication of the Young Communist League, Alvah Bessie is listed 
as an instructor at the Workers School in New York City. The 
Workers School was established by the Communist Party of the 
United States. Alvah Bessie has also been an instructor at the Peo- 
ple's Educational Center (People's World, January 11, 1944, p. 5). 

"Alvah Bessie, according to the November 16, 1943, issue of the 
People's World, was a speaker at a West Side Los Angeles rally 
sponsored by the International Workers Order. The International 
Workers Order, a Communist-front organization, has been cited as 
such by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on 
January 3, 1940, June 25, 1943, and May 29, 1946. 

"In addition to this citation, it was cited by the House Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, in a report dated April 21, 1943, and by 
special legislative committees of the states of Pennsylvania, Massa- 
chusetts, and California. 

"Former Attorney General Francis Biddle, in his listing of 
Communist-front organizations, which appeared in the Congres- 
sional Record of September 24, 1943, characterized the International 
Workers Order as ' one of the strongest Communist organizations. ' 
The People's World of November 10, 1942, lists Alvah Bessie as the 
coauthor of a pamphlet issued by the International Workers Order 
in connection with its front-line fighter's campaign. 

"Alvah Bessie was a contributor to the July and September 
1937 and January 1938 issues of the magazine Fight, which maga- 
zine was the official publication of the American League Against 
War and Fascism. The American League Against War and 
Fascism was active in the period 1932 to 1937 in behalf of the Soviet 
foreign policy. It proclaimed an openly treasonable program. 

"It was cited as subversive by the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, March 29, 1944, and 
May 29, 1946. Former Attorney General Francis Biddle cited this 
organization as established in the United States in an effort to create 
public sentiment on behalf of a foreign policy adapted to the inter- 
ests of the Soviet Union. 

"Alvah Bessie was also the sponsor of the organization known 
as the Artists' Front to Win the War (the official program, Octo- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 99 

ber 16, 1942). While in 1942 all Americans were interested in win- 
ning the war, the Artists ' Front to Win the War echoed the demand 
of the Communist Party of the United States for the express purpose 
of placing pressure upon the military leaders in this country by a 
demand for an immediate opening of a second front in Europe at a 
time when Russia was suffering military reversals. The Artists' 
Front to Win the W T ar was sponsored by the same persons who, dur- 
ing the Stalin-Hitler pact, were referring to the United States as a 
war-mongering nation and demanding the discontinuance of Amer- 
ica 's lease-lend program, which was designed to aid Great Britain 
in its struggle against Nazi Germany. 

"Alvah Bessie was a sponsor and consistent supporter of the 
League of American Writers (New Masses, April 22, 1941, and 
June 17, 1941; Daily Worker, September 14, 1942; and People's 
World, September 23, 1942). The League of American Writers, 
which was an affiliate of the International Union of Revolutionary 
Writers, with headquarters in Moscow, was pledged to the defense 
of the Soviet Union and "use of art as an instrument of the class 
struggle." The Special Committee on Un-American Activities has 
cited this organization as a Communist front in reports of January 
3, 1940, June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944. Former Attorney Gen- 
eral Francis Biddle in his characterization of this organization 
stated ' ' the overt activities of the League of American Writers in the 
last two years leave little doubt of its Communist control" (Con- 
gressional Record, September 24, 1942, p. 7686). 

"Alvah Bessie has openly avowed himself in support of the 
Soviet Union. He has also contributed articles to the magazine Soviet 
Russia Today, which magazine is devoted to the interests of the 
Soviet Union (September, 1937, p. 6 ; October, 1941, p. 30 ; January, 
1942, p. 29 ; and February, 1942, p. 29). 

"Earl Browder, former head of the Communist Party of the 
United States, in testifying before the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities, stated that the Communist Party formed 
certain of its members into a fighting force known as the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade for participation in the Spanish Civil War. This 
effort was initiated at the Seventh Congress of the Communist Inter- 
national in the summer of 1935. Alvah Bessie was a staff officer of 
the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and fought in Spain as an ally of 
other Communist units which were supporting the Loyalist cause 
(People's World of December 30, 1942; files of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities). 

* ' Alvah Bessie was a member of the advisory board of the peri- 
odical New Currents (March, 1947) and a member of the editorial 
staff of the publication Mainstream (winter, 1947). Both these pub- 
lications were organized by leading Communists and supported by 
the Communist press. 

"The Daily Worker for December 12, 1938, carries an article 
concerning the returning veterans of the Lincoln Brigade entitled 
'Huge Parade Will Greet Boys at Ship.' Returning veterans are 
listed according to state, and the name Alvah Bessie is listed under 
the State of New York. 



100 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"The Daily Worker for December 12, 1938, carries an article 
entitled 'Unions Will Form Guard of Honor' concerning the arrival 
of 150 veterans of the Lincoln Brigade. Alvah Bessie was listed as 
a commissar in the returning group. 

"The Daily Worker for January 11, 1941, carries an article on 
page 7 entitled 'Bells Toll for Hemingway at Vet's Symposium/ 
This article stated that a number of the veterans of the Spanish 
Civil War, being angered at the picture of the Spanish Civil War 
presented by Ernest Hemingway in his latest book, For Whom the 
Bell Tolls, had announced their intention of speaking from the floor 
at a symposium of the book which was to be held at 50 East Thir- 
teenth Street (the headquarters of the Communist Party U. S. A.) 
under the auspices of the Workers School. Alvah Bessie, sergeant 
adjutant of the Lincoln Battalion and well-known short-story writer 
and novelist was listed as one of the speakers. 

"A leaflet which was distributed in the Los Angeles area dis- 
closed that a meeting sponsored by the American Committee for 
Spanish Freedom and by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade was to be held at the Embassy Auditorium, 843 South 
Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, California. On June 10, 1946, Alvah 
Bessie undertook to act as chairman of this meeting, introducing 
first Russell Nixon, described as a former professor of Harvard Uni- 
versity and an economist of the United Electrical, Radio, and 
Machine Workers of America, C.I.O., a Communist-controlled union. 

1 ' The Daily Worker for September 29, 1946, on page 3 carries 
a photograph of Gen. Karol Swierczewski, of Soviet controlled 
Poland, pictured with Americans whom he decorated with the Dom- 
browski Medal at the national convention of the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Bart van der Schelling accepted the 
award for Alvah Bessie. 

"The publication Volunteer for Liberty for November, 1946, in 
reporting the election of officers of the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade listed Alvah Bessie as a member of the national 
executive board. 

"Alvah Bessie was listed as a sponsor for a theatrical program 
to be held January 19, 1947, at the Valeska Theatre, New York, 
entitled ' Stars Entertain for Republican Spain. ' The program was 
arranged for the benefit of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. 

"On April 12, 1944, a mass meeting was held at the Philhar- 
monic Auditorium at Los Angeles for the benefit of the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee. This committee (Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee) has furnished transportation and support for 
international Communist agents like Gerhardt Eisler. 

' ' It has been cited for contempt of Congress. 

"Alvah Bessie took part in this meeting and made an eloquent 
plea for money, stating that $560,000 was needed to carry out the 
program of relief undertaken by the committee. He stated that a 
$60,000 hospital was to be built in Mexico and that the money was 
to be used to take care of Loyalists wherever they might be. During 
the taking of the collection, Bessie took off his necktie and said he 
would auction it off to the highest bidder. He stated that the tie 
had a history, that when he was in Spain in 1937 and 1938 with the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 101 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade, he had purchased the tie at Barcelona, 
Spain. 

"The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, together with 
the Council on African Affairs, held a dinner at the Ambassador 
Hotel, Los Angeles, California, February 4, 1945. Alvah Bessie 
attended this meeting and introduced the featured speaker of the 
evening, Paul Robeson, who is a devout Soviet apologist. 

' l Virginia Wright in her column in the Los Angeles Daily News, 
June 11, 1945, stated that Alvah Bessie, Warner Bros, screen writer, 
would be the principal speaker Saturday night in the garden cabaret 
to be held for the benefit of the Spanish maquis at 636 Reese Place, 
Burbank. This article stated that: 'Some 50,000 Spanish maquis, 
remnants of the men who fought for the Spanish Republic and then 
joined with the United Nations in liberating France, are now desti- 
tute in Europe. 7 

" ' It is of these Alvah Bessie speaks with knowledge. He was 
one of the group of Americans who fought in Spain as part of the 
famous Lincoln Brigade. ' 

"It was further indicated that the program was planned by 
the Burbank chapter of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. 

"The Daily Worker for September 27, 1942, published a class 
schedule for the Workers School, 35 East Twelfth Street, New York 
City. This was at the time the official school of the Communist Party 
was conducted at party headquarters. Alvah Bessie is listed as teach- 
ing a course ' Literature and the World We Live in. ' 

"On page 17 of a booklet entitled 'Workers School' announcing 
courses for the winter term, 1943, Alvah Cecil Bessie was listed as 
lecturing on literature and the world we live in, which is stated to 
be a course of 12 lectures (and discussions) that will attempt to 
relate the world in which we live to some outstanding achievements 
of literary art of our time. The announcement states that leading 
dramatic writers (Steinbeck, Smolokov, Richard Wright, Lillian 
Hellman, Clifford Odets, and others) will be used as a point of 
departure for discussions of the history of social institutions as they 
have been reflected by the writers of all times. 

"The School for Writers, 1717 North Vine Street, Hollywood, 
California, which was sponsored by the League of American Writers, 
in a prospectus for the summer term of 1943 shows Alvah Bessie as 
teaching a course in short stories. * * * 

"A letterhead on recent literature put out by the American- 
Russian Institute of Southern California lists Alvah Bessie as being 
on the board of directors. This organization has conducted active 
pro-Soviet propaganda. 

"In a pamphlet entitled 'Informed Speakers Offer You Facts 
on the U. S. S. R.' there appeared the following information : 

" 'The American Council on Soviet Relations has a speakers* 
bureau to supply just such information. We can provide your organi- 
zation with speakers who by study or by personal experience know 
the Soviet Union. ' 

' ' Alvah Bessie was listed as an available speaker. 

"A 10-cent pamphlet by Alvah Bessie, The Soviet People at 
War, was published by the American Council on Soviet Relations, 



102 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

112 East 19th Street, New York. This organization has been cited 
as a Communist Party instrument by the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944, and by the Committee 
for Cultural Freedom, headed by John Dewey in April, 1940. 

"A pamphlet entitled 'Hear About the U. S. 8. R.' was pub- 
lished by the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. This 
pamphlet explains the speakers' bureau of the organization and is 
addressed particularly to organizations who might be interested in 
securing a speaker on various Kussian topics. Alvah Bessie, author of 
Men in Battle, was listed as an available speaker. 

"The Daily Worker for December 29, 1942, carries an article 
captioned 'Allied notables hail IWO booklet on war.' The article 
states that numerous acknowledgments from prominent leaders in 
all walks of life were pouring into the International Workers Order 
offices in New York City on receipt of a fraternal de luxe limited 
edition of This Is Tour Enemy, written by Alvah Bessie, American 
novelist. 

' * The International Workers Order arranged a symposium for 
November 22, 1943, to be held at the Studio Carpenters Hall, 5164 
Santa Monica Boulevard, Los Angeles, California. Approximately 
530 people attended this meeting. Alvah Bessie spoke. 

"The People's World newspaper for March 17, 1945, reports 
that Alvah Bessie would speak on the last link in the Axis chain on 
Monday, March 19, 1945, at the Screen Cartoonist Guild, 6272 Yucca, 
Hollywood. According to the announcement, admission would be 
free and refreshments would be served under the auspices of Lodge 
469 of the International Workers Order. 

"The People's Daily World for November 13, 1945, in a 
write-up on a meeting sponsored by the American Committee for 
Spanish Freedom, relative to a "Break relations with Spain rally" 
to be held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, November 16, 
1945, stated that a number of Hollywood personages would partici- 
pate in the evening event with the script for the skit being provided 
by Alvah Bessie. Alvah Bessie's name appears on the letterhead of 
the American Committee for Spanish Freedom as a sponsor. This 
organization was part of the Communist campaign in behalf of 
Soviet policy in the Spanish Civil War. 

' l On December 16, 1945, a ' welcome home, Joe ' dinner was given 
as a 'tribute to America's young fighting men and women on the 
occasion of the second anniversary of American Youth for Democ- 
racy. ' This organization was formerly known as the Young Commu- 
nist League. Alvah Bessie's name appeared on a program along with 
the names of John Howard Lawson and Paul Robeson. 

"The Chicago Herald-Tribune for June 9, 1941, reports that 
Alvah Bessie was elected a member of the national executive board 
of the Fourth American Writers Congress. 

"Sender Garlin, in the Daily Worker for June 11, 1941, in com- 
menting on the Fourth American Writers Congress stated that: 
1 Alvah Bessie, veteran of the Spanish War, spoke on the writers and 
the struggle of fascism in Spain. He told not only of the men who 
fought for Spain but of those literary mercenaries who betrayed 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 103 

Spain 's cause and the cause of mankind when Spain was temporarily 
defeated. * * *' 

4 * On November 12, 1943, the forum of the League of American 
Writers presented the subject 'This is Treason,' a forum on Hitler's 
secret weapon. The proceeds of this forum were to go to an organiza- 
tion known as Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, an affiliate of the 
International Labor Defense cited by Attorney General Biddle as 
the 'legal arm of the Communist Party.' 

"At this forum Alvah Bessie read a paper by Dr. Harry Hoijer, 
reviewing Allen Chase's book Falange. Prior to the reading of the 
paper Bessie stated that the Fascists of Germany and Italy really 
instigated the so-called Spanish Civil War and were aided by the 
United States through its neutrality laws as well as the appeasement 
policy of Great Britain and France. He said the appeasement policy 
gave the Japs time to prepare and also permitted them to buy more 
scrap to wage war ultimately against the Allies. 

' ' In 1944 Alvah Bessie was listed as being on the national board 
of the League of American Writers. 

' ' The magazine New Currents in its December, 1944, and Janu- 
ary, 1945, issues lists Alvah Bessie as a member of its advisory 
board. This magazine is a publication of the American Committee 
of Jewish Writers, Artists, and Scientists, Inc. The writers for this 
magazine have included those who have contributed to the Commu- 
nist and Soviet press. 

"The Independent Citizens Commission of the Arts, Sciences, 
and Professions publishes a monthly journal of opinion, the Inde- 
pendent, which is sent to all members and to more than 100 daily and 
weekly newspapers throughout the country. Alvah Bessie is listed 
as one of the contributing editors to this publication. This organiza- 
tion has been repudiated by Harold L. Ickes and other liberals as 
Communist-dominated. 

"The Daily Worker for September 22, 1946, published photo- 
graphs of Alvah Bessie and others who were to be connected with a 
new magazine, Mainstream. Bessie was indicated to be on the edi- 
torial board. Mainstream was described as a Marxist literary maga- 
zine, aiming to advance a people's working-class literature in 
America. It was stated that the magazine would strive 'to stimulate 
and guide Marxist thinking in literature. ' 

' ' A brochure advertising this magazine states ' the fundamental 
character of this magazine is determined by its allegiance to the 
Marxist science of history, culture, and human progress * * *.' The 
brochure states: 'We call upon writers to fight anti-Communist 
influences in writing today, we fight the literary anti-Sovieteers who 
constitute an auxiliary legion of the war makers. ' 

"The Daily Worker for April 13, 1940, carried an article cap- 
tioned 'Philadelphia anti-Dies rally to hear noted authors.' The 
article states that noted authors would speak at a big mass meeting 
in Town Hall, 150 Broad Street, on the following night, in a protest 
against the Dies Committee unconstitutional raids on the seizure of 
material from Communist Party and IWO offices there. The speakers 
included Ruth McKenney, William Blake, Alvah Bessie, Mark 
Blitzstein, Bruce Minton, and others. The meeting was to be under 



104 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the auspices of the People's Forum, with the New Masses par- 
ticipating. 

"Alvah Bessie, writer, New York, N. Y., appeared on a list 
captioned 1 1 hereby join in signing the January, 1943, * ' Message to 
the House of Eepresentatives ' ' opposing renewal of the Dies Com- 
mittee. Copies of this list were transmitted to Members of Congress 
by the National Federation of Constitutional Liberties, 1123 Broad- 
way, Eoom 907, New York, N. Y. ' 

"The Daily Worker for February 18, 1942, carried an article 
concerning the individual's interest in the immediate release of Earl 
Browder. Alvah Bessie is listed with many others by the Citizens 
Committee as having communicated with the Chief Executive of 
the Nation on the Browder case, calling upon him 'to correct his 
injustice by an act of executive clemency. ' 

"Page 3 of the Daily People's World for April 19, 1946, carries 
an article entitled ' Forum Tonight to Hear Report on Peace Meet. ' 
It was stated that a report on the Win-the-Peace Conference, by 
William Pomerance, executive secretary, Screen Writers Guild, 
would highlight the Hollywood Forum on the following night at the 
Allan Rudack Studio, 7312 Beverly Boulevard. Waldo Salt was to 
be moderator of the forum, and Alvah Bessie was included among 
the speakers. The Win-the-Peace Conference is the most recent 
version of the American Peace Mobilization, which picketed the 
White House during the Stalin-Hitler pact." 

Letters recently received by agents of this committee indicate that 
the Actors' Laboratory Theater has access to the mailing lists of the 
Communist Party. (See the Committee's 1947 Report.) 

A letterhead of the Actors' Laboratory Theater for February, 1948, 
gives the headquarters of the organization as 1455 North Laurel Avenue, 
in Hollywood. The telephone number is HOllywood 6391. The letterhead 
carries the caption: "The Actors' Laboratory Inc. is a Non-Profit Cor- 
poration composed of a Theater Wing and a Workshop Training Pro- 
gram Founded 1941." 

The executive board is listed on the letterhead and it is as follows : 
Roman Bohnen, J. George Bragin, Phoebe Brand, Lloyd Bridges, J. 
Edward Bromberg, Phil Brown, Morris Carnovsky, Howland Chamber- 
lin, Hume Cronyn, Michael Gordon, Rose Hobart, H. S. Kraft, Will Lee, 
Daniel Mann, Joseph Papirofsky, Larry Parks, Abraham L. Polonsky, 
Anthony Quinn, Waldo Salt, Art Smith, Mary Tarcai, George Tyne, 
John Vernon, John Wexley, and Mervin Williams. 

Oliver Carlson, who testified before the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities in Washington as an expert witness on Communism, 
wrote in the American Mercury in the February 19, 1948, issue, as 
follows : 

"Actors' Laboratory, Inc., located at 1455 North Laurel Ave- 
nue, in Hollywood, is something else again. 

"Its primary function apparently is to draw ambitious young 
actors and actresses into the orbit of Communist front organiza- 
tions. Ostensibly the Actors' Laboratory is a combination training 
school and experimental theatre, but in fact it has-always been more 
political than artistic. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 105 

1 i Communist Party literature is always available at the Actors ' 
Lab, and the organization has frequently donated funds and talent 
to help put across pro-Communist demonstrations. Its activities are 
well publicized in the People 's World. 

"The list of sponsors and directors of the Actors Laboratory 
comprises a representative cross section of Hollywood Stalinism. The 
1 audience sponsors' include Alvah Bessie, King Lardner, Jr., Albert 
Maltz, Dalton Trumbo, Donald Ogden Stewart, Mr. and Mrs. 
Sam Ornitz, Gale Sondergaard and Sidney Buchman. 

' ' The members of the Actors ' Lab 's executive board and faculty 
include: J. Edward Bromberg, who came to Hollywood from the 
Group Theatre in New York, where, according to testimony received 
by the house committee, he was a member of the local party faction ; 
actor Morris Carnovsky, who has been active in the Hollywood 
Writers Mobilization, the PCA and other fronts ; Larry Parks, the 
actor who has become notorious for his ardent defense of Soviet 
and Communist policies in the past two years, and who has also 
been active in the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee ; Hy 
Kraft, who was a sponsor of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, who 
signed a petition in 1938 justifying Stalin's purges in Russia, and 
who has been a frequent speaker at front meetings; Abraham L. 
Polonsky, a screen and radio writer who was (according to the 
People's World of September 24, 1946) Secretary of the Hollywood 
Writers Mobilization, and who was also active in the Hollywood 
Community Radio Group, another Communist front; Anthony 
Quinn, a popular Mexican-born screen star who is a favorite of the 
People's World; and Jacobina Caro, whose husband is Sidney 
Davison of the PEC, and who was registered as a Communist in 
Los Angeles in 1940, under the name of Mrs. Jacobina Davison." 

Rose Hobart was subpenaed and testfied before the committee at 
its Los Angeles hearing on February 19, 1948. She stated that she was 
an actress, presently employed in a play titled ' ' Deep Are the Roots. ' ' 

Miss Hobart refused to say whether or not she was a member, or 
had been a member, of the Communist Party, thus following the current 
Communist Party line to avoid exposure. Her testimony followed the 
usual, evasive and argumentative pattern set by Communists who have 
been brought before the committee. 

After having conferred innumerable times with William B. Ester- 
man, her attorney, Miss Hobart admitted that she was associated with 
the Actors Laboratory Theatre, and, because it was a matter of record, 
stated that she was a member of the board of directors. She said that 
the group meets in a building located at 1455 Laurel Avenue, in Holly- 
wood. 

The committee found that there is no doubt concerning Rose 
Hobart 's Communist connections. 

Roman Bohnen, also of the Actors Laboratory Theatre, was sub- 
penaed and testified before the committee February 19, 1948. He fol- 
lowed the same pattern set by Rose Hobart and evaded or refused to 
answer most questions. He was willing to admit that he was an actor, 
"between engagements." He finally stated that he was the chairman 
of the board of directors of the Actors Laboratory Theatre. He testi- 



106 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

fied that the school had been certified by the State Department of Educa- 
tion for federal funds. He reluctantly admitted that Jacobina Caro 
(admitted Communist) was a member of the faculty of the Actors Lab- 
oratory Theatre. Pie refused to state when he had joined the Communist 
Party, or whether he had been or was presently, a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

J. Edward Bromberg was also subpenaed and testified on February 
19, 1948. He also was willing to admit that he was an actor and unem- 
ployed at the time of testifying. He admitted that his name was on the 
letterhead of most of the " Actors' Lab stationery," as a member of 
the board of directors. He was willing to say that he was connected 
with such organizations as published his name on their letterheads. 

Bromberg stated that he was born in Hungary and that he was a 
naturalized citizen. He refused to answer whether or not he had ever 
been, or was at the time of testifying, a member of the Communist Party. 

Will Lee appeared and testified February 18, 1948. He stated that 
he was an actor, employed as a teacher at the Actors Laboratory Theatre. 
He also said that he was a member of the executive board. Like all of 
the other Communists who had appeared before the committee in this 
phase of its investigation, Will Lee refused to answer whether or not he 
had been, or was, a member of the Communist Party. 

AGE OF TREASON 

Official publication of the American Peace Crusade with which 
Herbert Biberman, Carey Me Williams, Mrs. Mary Aidlin, Maynard 
Hamilton, Dr. Morris Feder, Rev. Carl Allen, Herb Sorrell, Philip M. 
Connelly, Mrs. Lee Bachelis, Rev. Hamilton Boswell, Don Healey and 
Earnest Dawson were associated. 

ALL-AMERICA ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 

Attorney General Francis Biddle found the Ail-America Anti- 
Imperialist League a Communist front. The Fourth National Conven- 
tion of the Communist Party (then known as the Workers' Party) in 
August, 1925, reported that "our party was largely instrumental in the 
establishment of the All- America Anti-Imperialist League * * *." 

The statement of the convention was modest as there is no doubt 
whatsoever that the Communist Party was solely responsible for the 
organization. 

The All-America Anti-Imperialist League functioned from 1925 
until 1933, when it was supplanted by the American League Against War 
and Fascism. 

Manuel Gomez was the league 's secretary during its early years. He 
was replaced by William Simons. Both Gomez and Simons were pub- 
licly avowed members and leaders of the Communist Party. The Labor 
Defender of November, 1928, carried a picture of a group of delegates to 
the Second World Congress of the Communist International in which 
Manuel Gomez appeared together with Lenin and other high func- 
tionaries of the world Communist movement. William Simons was Com- 
munist Party organizer in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1936. 

Paul Crouch was acting secretary of the All- America Anti- 
Imperialist League for a brief period in 1928. Crouch had been court- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 107 

martialed and convicted of disseminating Communist propaganda within 
the United States Army while he was stationed in Hawaii. Together with 
Walter M. Trumbull, who was convicted on the same charge, he served a 
term of imprisonment at Alcatraz. Crouch later became a Communist 
Party organizer in Alabama. 

Scott Nearing, William Z. Foster, Albert Weisbord, Ben Gold, Max 
Schachtman, Harry Gannes, William F. Dunne, and Harriet Silverman 
are among the publicly avowed Communist Party members who served 
on the national committee of the All-America Anti-Imperialist League. 

In its later years, the organization was known by the shorter name, 
Anti-Imperialist League. Throughout its existence, it was affiliated with 
the League Against Imperialism which, in turn was the world-wide 
organization directly under the control of the Communist International. 

Langston Hughes was affiliated with the organization. 

Among the members of the National Committee in 1928 were the 
following: Roger Baldwin, Charlotte Anita Whitney, Scott Nearing, 
John Brophy, William Z. Foster, Paxton Hibben, W. E. B. Du Bois, 
William Pickens, Robert W. Dunn, Robert Morss Lovett, Arthur Gar- 
field Hays, Ben Gold, Freda Kirchwey, Lillian Herstein, Max Schacht- 
man, Harry Gannes, Arthur C. Calhoun, Fred T. Douglas, Ernest Unter- 
mann, William F. Dunne, Harriet Silverman, Eduardo Machado, P. T. 
Lau, Theodore Debs, and G. F. Vanderveer. 

ALL-CALIFORNIA CONFERENCE FOR DEFENSE OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND 
AID TO LABOR'S PRISONERS 

This Communist conference was held in San Francisco, April 23, 
1938. It was called into being by the Northern California District of the 
International Labor Defense, the "legal arm of the Communist Party." 

Ellis E. Patterson, Reid Robinson, Frederick Conliff, Tom Mooney, 
J. V. McNamara, and Henry Schmidt, were among the endorsers of this 
organization. 

ALL-UNION SOCIETY FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS 
WITH FOREIGNERS (VOKS) 

Roman Weller of Moscow, representing the Bureau of Cultural 
Relations came to the United States in 1925 to " establish closer cultural 
relations between the United States and the Soviet Union." 

Anna Louise Strong in her book, I Change Worlds, tells how she 
organized the Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries 
and wrote its first prospectus. Anna Louise Strong has been the editor 
of the Moscow News for a number of years. 

VOKS is the abbreviated reference to the organization. 

AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION 

In its 1943 Report to the Legislature, the Legislative Committee 
investigating un-American activities in California reported the following 
finding : 

' ' The American Civil Liberties Union may be definitely classed 
as a Communist front or * transmission belt ' organization. At least 90 
percent of its efforts are expended on behalf of Communists who 



108 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

come into conflict with the law. While it professes to stand for free 
speech, a free press and free assembly, it is quite obvious that its 
main function is to protect Communists in their activities of force 
and violence in their program to overthrow the government. " 

During the Stalin-Hitler Pact the American Civil Liberties Union 
suddenly took the position that persons who support "totalitarian dic- 
tatorship ' ' in any country can give nothing more than a tongue-in-cheek 
allegiance to civil liberties in the United States. Although the American 
Civil Liberties Union was organized in 1920 and had been defending 
Communists for over 20 years while the ' * totalitarian dictatorship ' ' was 
in ruthless operation denying elementary rights to the citizens of Eussia, 
it took the Stalin-Hitler Pact to awaken the organization. 

The resolution adopted by the American Civil Liberties Union, how- 
ever, was encouraging to the California Legislative Committee investi- 
gating un-American activities in California. While its philosophy and 
its activities plus its Communist and Communist Party traveling mem- 
bership, placed the organization indisputably in the Stalinite solar 
system, the action of 1940, on the surface, indicated that the loyal element 
within the American Civil Liberties Union was about to capture the 
organization for American purposes. 

The Daily Worker for March 19, 1940, carried the text of a letter 
signed by 17 alleged "Liberal Leaders " addressed to the American Civil 
Liberties Union. These alleged ' ' Liberal Leaders ' ' asked some embarrass- 
ing and pertinent questions : ' ' The phrasing of the resolution is danger- 
ous/' declare the 17. "Its context is worse. The Civil Liberties was 
founded in 1920. The Soviet Union was established in 1917, and with 
it the 'dictatorship of the proletariat.' We are told that Communists are 
to be barred from office or employment in the Civil Liberties Union 
because, while fighting for civil liberties in America, they accept their 
suppression in Soviet Russia. Why then, did the Civil Liberties Union 
wait until 1940 before seeking to bar them?" The letter goes on to state : 
' ' But civil liberties within the Soviet Union were no different before the 
(Stalin-Hitler) Pact than after. One could not print an opposition paper 
in Moscow in August, 1939, before the Pact, or after it, in Septem- 
ber, 1939." 

When it is remembered that the U. S. Communists under directive 
of the Kremlin were vigorously supporting the Stalin-Hitler Pact while 
Hitler and Stalin were looting Europe, the Communist character of the 
17 "Liberal Leaders" becomes obvious. Their letter continues: 

"Could it be that the majority of the national committee and 
board of directors of the Civil Liberties Union is taking sides in the 
developing European conflict? Is their real objection an objection 
to the position of the Soviet Union in that conflict ? Has that question 
anything to do with the need for defending civil liberties in Amer- 
ica? * * * The Civil Liberties Union was formed in 1920 to fight 
postwar hysteria. It would be a great pity if it were now to become 
the victim of prewar hysteria. ' ' 

Among the 17 "liberal leaders" signing this letter were two high 
officials in the executive branch of the United States Government, namely 
Robert Morss Lovett and Henry T. Hunt, both of whom were appointees 
of the Department of the Interior. I. F. Stone and James Wechsler were 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 109 

connected with the Washington Bureau of Marshall Field's left-wing 
newspaper PM. William F. Cochran, also a signer of the letter, is a mil- 
lionaire real-estate operator in Baltimore. All of the 17 signers have been 
consistent supporters of the Communist Party, its leaders, and various 
front organizations. John T. Bernard, Prof. Franz Boas, Howard Costi- 
gan, Theodore Dreiser, Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild, Prof. Robert S. 
Lynd, Carey McWilliams, Rev. Dr. A. T. Mollegan, Prof. C. Fayette 
Taylor, Charles S. Ascher, Gardner Jackson, and Maxwell S. Stewart. 

Undoubtedly the American Civil Liberties Union was resorting to 
drastic Communist strategy in retreating during the Stalin-Hitler Pact. 
This fact is strongly indicated by the personnel of the National Commit- 
tee and the Board of Directors in 1946. On the letter of the American 
Civil Liberties Union signed by A. A. Heist for September, 1946, we find 
many of the 17 so-called " liberal leaders" listed. 

So that the members of the Legislature and interested persons may 
check the pattern in this Report, the names listed for the National Com- 
mittee and the Board of Directors of the American Civil Liberties Union 
are here published. 

The National Committee is composed of Louis Adamic, Bishop James 
Chamberlain Baker, Dr. Harry Elmer Barnes, Prof. Edwin M. Borchard, 
Van Wyck Brooks, Dr. Henry Seidel Canby, John M. Coffee, Morris L. 
Cooke, Prof. George S. Counts, Melvyn Douglas, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, 
Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, Kate Crane Gartz, Dr. Mordecai W. John- 
son, Dr. John A. Lapp, Max Lerner, William Draper Lewis, Robert Morss 
Lovett, Prof. Robert S. Lynd, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, Carey 
McWilliams, A. J. Muste, Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, Prof. Max Radin, 
A. Philip Randolph, Raymond Swing, Oswald Garrison Villard, and Dr. 
William Lindsay Young. 

Among the members of the Board of Directors are Ernest Angell, 
Prof. Paul F. Brissenden, Morris L. Ernst, Osmond K. Fraenkel, Walter 
Gellhorn, Arthur Garfield Hays, Dorothy Kenyon, Corliss Lamont, Prof. 
Eduard C. Lindeman, Elmer Rice, Whitney North Seymour, and Rev. 
William B. Spofford. 

The director of the Southern California branch is Aaron Allen Heist. 
Dr. Clinton J. Taft is listed as Director Emeritus. The Southern Califor- 
nia Committee is as follows : Dr. E. P. Ryland, A. L. Wirin, Mrs. John 
Beardsley, Dr. Oliver H. Bronson, Reuben Borough, Floyd Covington, 
Hugh Hardyman, Rev. Allan Hunter, J. W. MacNair, Carey McWil- 
liams, Robert Morris, Fred Okrand, Prof. J. B. Ramsey, Mrs. Ralph 
Smith, and J. B. Tietz. 

A letter signed by Isaac Pacht under date of December 23, 1946, from 
257 South Spring Street, Los Angeles, lists a campaign committee com- 
posed of Jerome W. MacNair, William C. Carr, J. B. Tietz, and Mar- 
garet E. Hughes. 

This letterhead also lists a Membership Committee composed of the 
following : Bishop James C. Baker, Mrs. Helen Beardsley, Edmund W. 
Cooke, Dr. George Day, Melvyn Douglas, John Anson Ford, Dr. Lowell 
Frost, Mrs. Lowell Frost, Prof. Hubert Herring, Dr. Raymond G. McKel- 
vey, Lor en Miller, Judge Isaac Pacht, Dr. Robert B. Pettengill, Mrs. 
Ralph Smith, and James Wallace. 

The Open Forum, official bulletin of the Southern California branch 
of the American Civil Liberties Union, lists Aaron Allen Heist, as the 



110 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Director-Editor. The Board of Directors is as follows : J. W. MacNair, 
A. L. Wirin, J. B. Tietz, Mrs. John Beardsley, Dr. Oliver H. Bronson, 
Reuben Borough, Edmund W. Cooke, Floyd Covington, Prof. George M. 
Day, Hugh Hardyman, Rev. Allan Hunter, Katherine Kilbourne, Loren 
Miller, Robert Morris, Fred Okrand, John C. Packard, Prof. J. B. Ram- 
sey, Dr. E. P. Ryland, Glenn Smiley, Mrs. Ralph Smith, Dr. Clinton J. 
Taft, Elizabeth A. Wood, and Dr. William Lindsay Young. 

The issue of the Open Forum, above referred to, attacks the Freedom 
Train and the Freedom Pledge. Among other things, the paper states that 
' ' To sign the * * * pledge is to subscribe thoughtlessly to a falsehood ! 
Ask the three million federal employees under the shadow of the Tru- 
man Witch Hunt Order, the Los Angeles County employees, the thou- 
sands of citizens directly and indirectly effected by the Thomas and Ten- 
ney and similar committees, not to mention the millions of common citi- 
zens subjected to FBI, 'subversive squads' and other thought control 
agencies * * *. " 

There is little difference in this statement by the American Civil 
Liberties Union and the statement of the Communist Party on the same 
subject. 

The Communist character of the American Civil Liberties Union is 
further indicated in an article published in the Open Forum for March 6, 
1948. It reads, in part, as follows : 

"For Congress to outlaw the Communist Party as 'subversive' 
or as ' an agent of a foreign government ' would be unconstitutional, 
since Congress would be exercising a judicial function in so declaring. 
" Attorney General Tom Clark, appearing before a subcommit- 
tee of the J. Parnell Thomas inquisitorial committee, which has never 
yet reported out a bit of legislation, even went so far as to say that 
the government could not prove that Communists are foreign agents 
or that they advocate the violent overthrow of the government. 
(Which proves that Clark is not so able a man as California's Jack 
Tenney! Or, do the courts require Clark to deal with facts? Ed.) 
Clark's subordinate, J. Edgar Hoover, testified that from a practical 
point of view such legislation would be folly since it would simply 
drive Communists underground. 

"Arthur Garfield Hays, appearing as A. C. L. U. counsel, in his 
testimony declared that the proposed measures were bills of attain- 
der, passing judgments on people by legislative fiat rather than 
judicial process * tt *. 

"Mr. Morris Ernst, also of the New York Board of Directors, 
appeared before the committee in an unofficial capacity. ' ' 

The Senate Committee Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities reiterates the findings of former legislative committees con- 
cerning the Communist character of the American Civil Liberties Union. 
The International Labor Defense, called "the legal arm of the Com- 
munist Party" by former Attorney General Francis Biddle, has not 
established a better Communist record than this thinly disguised organ- 
ization that devotes its energies to the defense of enemies of the United 
States. 

The committee has stated in previous reports that all Communist 
fronts are characterized by the fact that many of the individuals 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 111 

attracted to such organizations are not necessarily Communists and, in 
many cases, the membership of a Communist front organization will be 
composed, for the greater part, of non-Communists. This same finding 
applies, of course, to the American Civil Liberties Union. Ernest Besig, 
the director of the Northern California Branch of the American Civil 
Liberties Union, appears to be a sincere, conscientious American, whose 
reasoning leads him to the defense of most anyone, regardless of the 
accusation. Ernest Besig, however, has, on several occasions, expressed 
himself concerning Communists and Communism. He testified before 
a sub-committee of the Senate Committee on Un-American Activities in 
Fairfax, October 23, 1947. He identified the official organ of the Northern 
Branch of the American Civil Liberties Union for February and March, 
1941, in which he had unequivocally stamped the Northern California 
Council for Academic Freedom and Civil Liberties a Communist front. 
He orally reiterated his written statements. His testimony, in part, is 
as follows : 

Q. (Mr. Combs) : * * * The American Civil Liberties Union 
publishes a number of papers. I am speaking of the branch of the 
organization of which you are a member. 

A. That 's correct. 

Q. What is the name of that publication? 

A. The American Civil Liberties Union-News. 

Q. Did you publish such a paper in February, 1941 ? 

A. Yes. It's in its twelfth year, so we must have. 

******* 

Q. (Mr. Combs) : Now, in connection with the issues for Feb- 
ruary, 1941, and March, 1941, there are some statements concern- 
ing one of the organizations I mentioned a while ago ; the Northern 
California Council for Academic Freedom and Civil Liberties, I 
believe. 

A. Do you want to know what I think of that organization ? 

Q. I know what you think of it. You said so in your paper. 

A. I said so not only in the paper but in speeches, and as a 
result the Chairman of this group (Northern California Council 
for Academic Freedom and Civil Liberties) sent a protest to my 
committee. 

Q. Well, you think the organization was definitely a Communist 
front ? 

A. Undoubtedly, and undoubtedly also, it got a lot of inter- 
ested people involved in it. 

Q. As Communist fronts are set up to do. 

A. Correct. 

Q. Now, how did you arrive at the conclusion that this par- 
ticular organization was a Communist front? 

A. Well, after you 've been in this business of civil liberties for 
the number of years that I have been in it, you come across certain 
individuals who, as you indicate^ with Mr. Flaxer, get involved 
in first one organization and then another. That was true of the 
Committee on Academic Freedom. Louise Branston had been con- 
nected with a number of front organizations and seemed to shift 
around. 



112 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

From the foregoing testimony of Mr. Besig, who is indisputably a 
sincere man, the committee is given one of the elemental tests for 
determining the character of a suspected organization. Applying the 
same rule to the American Civil Liberties Union, its Communist front 
character is indicated. When the other tests are applied no doubt at all 
is left in the mind of a reasonable person. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR A FREE INDONESIA 

See American Committee for Indonesian Independence. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR A KOREAN PEOPLE'S PARTY 

This is just one of many Communists fronts for the purpose of pro- 
testing American policy in Korea and creating pressure for the recall 
of American occupation forces from that country. 

Among other such Communist fronts for the same purpose are the 
Korean Culture Society, the American Committee to Aid Korean Feder- 
ation of Trade Unions, and the Korean Independent News Company. 

All of these organizations have had the support of the over-all Com- 
munist front in this field, the National Win the Peace Committee. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR DEMOCRACY AND 
INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM 

This Communist front was established on Lincoln's birthday in 
1939. It announced that it stood for the " preservation and extension 
of democracy and intellectual freedom. ' ' Franz Boas was the chairman 
of the American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom. 

The American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom 
was the successor to the Communist front, the Scientists' Committee. 

The activities of this group were always in behalf of Communists. 
Franz Boas, Walter Rautenstrauch, and Max Yergan, chairman and 
executive committee members respectively, have all been associated with 
Communist front organizations defending Communists. Boas, Rauten- 
strauch, and Yergan have been affiliated with International Labor 
Defense, National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners, 
National Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America, National 
Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights, Greater New York 
Emergency Conference on Inalienable Rights, and Committee on Elec- 
tion Rights. These three men have been signers of various statements 
in defense of the Communist Party. 

The American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom 
has followed the Communist Party line as it switched and squirmed in 
support of the foreign policy of Soviet Russia. 

Other party-liners on the executive committee of the American Com- 
mittee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom are Prof. Eric T. Bell, 
Prof. Raymond T. Birge, Prof. Olga Bridgman, Dean Samuel B. Morris, 
Prof. Edward C. Tolman, and Prof. Bailey Willis. 

The Communist-defending proclivities of the American Com- 
mittee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom is indicated in a peti- 
tion sponsored by the organization calling for the discontinuation of 
the Dies Committee. Among those who signed this petition are Clarence 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 113 

M. Dykstra, Frank Kingdon, Mary E. Woolley, Francis J. McConnell, 
Paul Robeson, Van Wyck Brooks, Lillian Hellman, Emil Lengyel, Elmer 
Rice, Henry Pratt Fairchild, Sophronisba P. Breckinridge, Edward C. 
Tolman, Jerome Davis, Robert Inglehart, Matt Lerner, George Soule, 
Malcolm Cowley, Freda Kirchwey, Maxwell S. Stewart, Dashiell Ham- 
mett, Leane Zugsmith, Arthur Kober, Countee Cullen, Alfred Kreyn- 
borg, Donald Ogden Stewart, Herman Shumlin, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 
Aaron Copland, Rockwell Kent, Morris Carnovsky, Max Yergan, Dorothy 
Kenyon, Hugh De Lacy, Mary Van Kleeck, Charles Erskine, James B. 
Carey, Martha Dodd, and George Seldes. 

It is interesting to note that a Washington State Legislative Com- 
mittee elicited testimony from Mrs. Katharine Fogg, a Democratic 
leader and ex-legislator, that Hugh De Lacy is a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Mrs. Katharine Fogg is reported as testifying: "I wanted 
to quit the Communist Party long before I did, but I was told I could 
not quit, and at a picnic at Shadow Lake, Hugh De Lacy wiggled his 
finger at my nose and said: 'Katharine Fogg, we made you and well 
break you'." 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE 

This front was organized to create support for the Indonesian revo- 
lution. The National headquarters is at 23 West Twenty-sixth Street in 
New York City, and the group is supported by Hugh De Lacey, Elmer 
Benson, Muriel Draper, Frederick V. Field, Dr. Henry Pratt Fairchild, 
W. E. B. DuBois, James Dombrowski, Louis E. Burnham, Dr. Harl R. 
Douglas, Zarko M. Buncheck, Henrietta Buckmaster, and Zlato 
Balokovic. 

Stemming from this red front are several subsidiary committees, 
such as the American Committee for a Free Indonesia, Los Angeles, and 
the American Committee for a Free Indonesia, San Francisco. 

Leo Gallagher, notorious California Communist attorney is listed 
on the letterhead of the Los Angeles branch of the American Committee 
for Indonesian Independence as chairman; George K. Anang, vice 
chairman, Ede Kemnitzer, secretary, and Ann Budiselick, treasurer. 
The Los Angeles headquarters is given as 8706 Melrose Avenue, tele- 
phone number Bradshaw 2-3774. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR PROTECTION OF FOREIGN BORN 

The American Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born is the 
organization that succeeded the National Council for the Protection of 
the Foreign Born. This Communist front works closely with the Inter- 
national Labor Defense, the legal arm of the Communist Party, in defense 
of foreign-born Communists and sympathizers. Since the Communist 
International, by its own admission, has been constituted as a world 
party, its agents travel frequently from country to country. The Ameri- 
can Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born, by protecting foreign 
Communists who come to this country, has aided in enabling them to 
operate here. 

The National Council for the Protection of the Foreign Born and 
its successor, the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 
have consistently followed the Communist Party line in all of its twisting 
curves for the support of Soviet foreign policy. 

9_L-7088-D 



114 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Among those who have been affiliated in one capacity or another 
with the American Committee, for Protection of Foreign Born are the 
following: Donald Ogden Stewart, Joris Ivens, Edward G. Robinson, 
Jacob Ben Ami, Zlatko Balokovic, Bay Lev, Maurice Hindus, Prof. Emil 
Lengyel, Prof. Max Lerner, Ella Winter, Maxim Kopf, Pachita Crespi, 
Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Dr. Li Yu Ying, Dr. Bela Schick, Vilhjalmur Stefan- 
sson, Charles Collins, Hugo Ernst, Leo Krzycki, Michael Obermeier, 
Michael Quill, Dr. Ira DeA Reid, Vito Marcantonio, Canada Lee, William 
Rose Benet, Dr. Aaron Bodansky, Irene Bordoni, Louis B. Boudin, 
Henrietta Buckmaster, Morris Carnovsky, Aaron Copland, Kyle Crich- 
ton, Joseph Curran, Prof, Henry Pratt Fairchild, Abram Flaxer, 
Langston Hughes, George Jessel, Emil Ludwig, Mr. and Mrs. Frederic 
March, Dudley Nichols, Olga Petrova, Prof. Arthur Upham Pope, Louis 
S. Posner, Rev. A. Clayton Powell, Jr., Elmer Rice, Paul Robeson, Doris 
Rosenthal, Lisa Sergio, Frank Tuttle, Orson Welles, Dr. Max Yergan, 
Blanche Yurka, William Zorach, Bishop James A. Baker, Hugh De 
Lacey, Leo Eloesser, Guy Endore, Bishop Edward L. Parsons, Reid 
Robinson, Maxwell S. Stewart, Theodore Dreiser, Mary McLeod Beth- 
une, Dr. Franz Boas, Van Wyck Brooks, Thomas F. Ford, Dr. Frank P. 
Graham, Sidney Hillman, Rockwell Kent, Robert Morss Lovett, Rev. 
Sidney Lovett, Dr. Henry N. MacCracken, Bishop Francis J. McConnell, 
Culbert L. Olson, Prof. Max Radin, Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Rose 
Schneiderman, Dr. Guy Emery Shipler, Dr. Harry F. Ward, Dr. Mary 
E. Wooley, Pearl M. Hart, Carey Me Williams, Prof. Thomas Addis, Prof. 
Sophonisba Breckinridge, Rabbi Henry Cohen, Rev. Stephen Fritchman, 
Aline Davis Hays, Carol King, Rev. Edgar A. Lowther, Lewis Merrill, 
Stanley Nowak, Rev. Max C. Putney, Michael Quill, Adolph J. Sabath, 
George Seldes, Peter Shipka, Herman Shumlin, Curt Swinburne, Donald 
Henderson, Manuel Buaken, Frederick N. Myers, Frederick V. Field, 
Lewis Alan Berne, Joseph Cadden, Martha Dodd, Muriel Draper, Abram 
Flaxer, Dr. Alexander Meiklejohn, Genevieve Taggard, Rev. John B. 
Thompson, Osw T ald Garrison Villard, Dr. J. Raymond Walsh, Art Young, 
Louis Adamic, and James Waterman Wise. 

Joseph Dean was the President of the National Council for Protec- 
tion of Foreign Born Workers; Henry T. Hunt, Legal Adviser; Nina 
Samorodin, Secretary-Treasurer ; Max Orlowsky, First Vice President ; 
and P. Pascal Cosgrove, Second Vice President. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR RUSSIAN FAMINE RELIEF 

James H. McGill, A. W. Ricker, and Walter W. Liggett entered into 
a contract with official representatives of the Soviet Government in 1922, 
whereby they were to set up the American Committee for Russian 
Famine. The organization immediately assumed a political character. 

One of the organization's leading speakers, Isaac McBride, declared : 
1 i We are going to milk the bourgeoisie of this country and they will help 
us to keep up the struggle against themselves. ' ' 

The Communists are not quite so frank about their purposes in 1948 
as they were in 1922. McBride, however told the truth in 1922 and 
expressed the well known principle of all Communist front groups : Make 
the non- Communists work for Communism and their own destruction. 

James H. McGill was the secretary-treasurer of the American Com- 
mittee for Russian Famine Relief. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 115 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR SPANISH FREEDOM 

Over 34 of the sponsors of the Spanish Refugee Appeal of the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee are also officers and sponsors of the 
American Committee for Spanish Freedom. The national offices of this 
organization are located at 55 West Forty-second Street, New York City. 

The American Committee for Spanish Freedom has made no attempt 
to conceal its objective in forcing a break in diplomatic relations between 
the United States and Spain. 

As is usually the case, the key position of this Communist-front is 
held by a member of the Communist Party. Allen Chase is the secretary. 
In 1936 Allen Chase was a candidate for Congress in New York on the 
Communist Party ticket. 

Bartley Crum is the Vice Chairman of this Communist transmission 
belt. Crum has had extensive association with the Communist-front 
movement in the United States. 

Samuel J. Novick is the treasurer of the organization. Novick's 
Communist affiliations are numerous. 

Other individuals with extensive Communist or fellow traveling 
affiliations are the following: Lewis Merrill (alias Louis Cohen), Inter- 
national President of the United Office and Professional Workers of 
America ; Joseph Curran, National Maritime Union ; J. Rubin, Hotel and 
Restaurant Workers Union ; Lewis 0. Hartman, Boston Bishop ; J. 
Raymond Walsh, Research Director for the Congress of Industrial 
Organization; Stephen H. Fritchman, newly appointed Pastor of the 
First Unitarian Church of Los Angeles; and Albert E. Kahn. 

J. Raymond Walsh has a long Communist fellow-traveling record 
and is affiliated with the following Communist Front groups : American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, American Council on Soviet 
Relations, American Student Union, Council for Pan-American 
Democracy, Inter-Professional Association for Social Insurance, League 
of American Writers, National Citizens Political Action Committee, 
National Emergency Conference, National Emergency Conference for 
Democratic Rights, National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 
He was one of the signers of the Open Letter for Closer Cooperation With 
the Soviet Union. 

Stephen H. Fritchman replaced the Reverend Ernest Caldecott as 
Pastor of the First Unitarian Church at Eighth and Vermont Streets in 
the City of Los Angeles, much to the chagrin of that portion of the 
congregation who believe in the United States of America. Fritchman 
is a very active Communist-fronter. He has been connected with the fol- 
lowing Communist front organizations and activities: Committee to 
Defend America by Keeping Out of War (during Stalin-Hitler Pact), 
Congress of Youth, National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 
Emergency Peace Mobilization, New Masses, American Youth Congress, 
Greater Boston Committee for the Boycott of Japanese Goods, North 
American Spanish Aid Committee, and the United American Spanish 
Aid Committee. During the American Peace Mobilization Conference 
held in Chicago in October of 1940, Fritchman helped register delegates. 



116 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A letter, under date of November 1, 1945, signed by Communist Leo 
Gallagher, Los Angeles Chairman of the American Committee for Span- 
ish Freedom, closes with the following : 

It is with great pride that we present at this meeting, Congress- 
man John M. Coffee, Mr. Hartley Crum, and Mr. Frederick Thomp- 
son. Also representatives from the A.F.L. and C.I.O. and Hollywood 
will participate in the program. This meeting MUST be a success and 
the Shrine must be filled. No admission will be charged, but we feel 
it is the obligation of everyone to be present on November 16th. 
Your presence will signify your interest in the cause of Spain and 
the cause of world-wide democracy. 

An enclosed leaflet announces a mass meeting at the Shrine Audi- 
torium in Los Angeles, and, in addition to Congressman Coffee, Bartley 
Crum, Frederick Thompson, Dalton Trumbo is listed as the chairman of 
the meeting. 

The letterhead of the Gallagher letter above referred to, lists the 
headquarters of the American Committee for Spanish Freedom as 5245 
De Longpre Avenue, Los Angeles, and the telephone number 11010. 
Carey Me Williams is an honorary chairman ; Norman Pearlman, treas- 
urer ; and Arthur Landis, executive secretary. The following Communist 
fronts are listed as ' ' sponsoring organizations ' ' : Veterans of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade, National Citizens Political Action Committee, Los 
Angeles CIO Council, Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of 
the Arts, Sciences and Professions, Musicians Congress, and American 
Youth for Democracy. 

Individual sponsors presents the old guard, for the greater part, of 
Communists and stalwart Communist fellow-travelers. The list is as 
follows: Mrs. Fay E. Allen, Reuben Borough, John M. Coffee, Philip M. 
Connelly, Peter De Lima, Kate Crane Gartz, Leo Gallagher, Yip Har- 
burg, Robert W. Kenny, Carey McWilliams, Ben Margolis, Albert Maltz, 
John T. McTernan, Senial Ostrow, Ellis E. Patterson, and Milton S. Tyre. 

Albert Maltz is an important Communist in the solar system of Com- 
munist front organizations. Louis J. Russell, former member of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, testified before the Thomas Committee 
in Washington October 28, 1947, that Albert Maltz held Communist 
Party card number 47196. The address on the Communist Party card 
was given as 8526 Linden Hurst, Los Angeles. Mr. Russell testified that 
the card contained a notation ''1944 Card No. 46801." 

The Communist record of Albert Maltz is set forth in the Con- 
gressional Report at page 371, and because it corroborates the findings 
of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities it is 
here reproduced. 

Albert Maltz has not to our knowledge publicly admitted member- 
ship in the Communist Party. However, complete loyalty to the Commu- 
nist Party has seldom been so startlingly demonstrated as it has been in 
the case of Mr. Maltz. The outstanding demonstration occurred when 
Mr. Maltz started a literary and communistic furore by criticizing the 
traditional Communist premise that "art is a weapon." His criticism 
was contained in an article in the New Masses, official weekly publication 
of the Communist Party, on February 12, 1946. This heresy by Mr. Maltz 
was immediately denounced by Communist leaders at mass meeting and 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 117 

in article upon article in the New Masses and other official party publica- 
tions. On April 7, 1946, Mr. Maltz yielded to the pressure and publicly 
recanted his statements in an article in the Worker, official newspaper of 
the Communist Party. This controversy, which attracted nation-wide 
attention has been reviewed in Life magazine for July 29, 1946 ; in the 
Washington Post for February 25, 1946 ; and in the New York World- 
Telegram for September 18, 1946. The Washington Post said in part : 

"It seems that a Communist critic, one Comrade Albert Maltz, had 
dared to say, almost in as many words, that a literary artist need not be 
expected to turn himself inside out trying to keep up with every kink and 
kidney bending in the party line." The World-Telegram noted that: 
"The party promptly dropped a ton of bricks on Mr. Maltz." Life maga- 
zine observed thus about Mr. Maltz' recanting: "Folding completely 
before the party discipline, Maltz, even castigated his sympathizers who 
had objected to the abusive tone in which correction had been admin- 
istered." On at least four occasions Albert Maltz has publicly supported 
the Communist Party. The Daily Worker, official Communist newspaper, 
on May 4, 1936, page 2, announced that one of Albert Maltz' plays would 
be given for the benefit of the Communist Party. The Daily Worker for 
March 5, 1941, page 2, reported that Mr. Maltz was one of the signers of 
a statement to the President defending the Communist Party, and on 
July 19, 1942, page 4, the same publication listed Mr. Maltz as a signer 
of an open letter denouncing former Attorney General Biddle 's charges 
against the Communist Party and Communist Party Member Harry 
Bridges. The New Leader for February 8, 1941, listed Mr. Maltz as being 
on the "call" of a conference to keep the Communist Party on the state 
ballot in New York. 

On July 21, 1940, page 1, the Worker announced that Albert Maltz 
would write a serial story, the ' ' Underground Stream, ' ' depicting the life 
of a Communist organizer and hero. The Communist Party 's official organ, 
the Daily Worker, said on January 25, 1943, in an article by the worker 
columnist and party member Mike Gold, that : " I can think of almost no 
American author who has done an adequate portrait of an American 
Communist. Albert Maltz in 'Underground Stream' did a wonderful 
sketch but not a sufficiently rounded portrait of the American Com- 
munist." The Communist Party organizer and hero of "The Under- 
ground Stream" is a character named Frank Prince who is killed by a 
Black Legion crew on orders of the management of an industrial plant 
because the organizer refused to desert the Communist Party. Prince 
had become a Communist, Maltz writes, as a result of ' ' daily events, his 
work and life and among those events a tire chain wielded by a police- 
man * * * later, the acceptance of certain principles, of the political 
program for which the Communist movement stood, had kept him in the 
party "(p. 103). 

The Daily Worker of June 8, 1938, announced that "The New York 
State Committee of the Communist Party will honor a group of 20 stu- 
dents who will complete the two-week National Training School for 
State Literary Directors on June 15, 1938." Albert Maltz was named 
by the Daily Worker article as one of the main speakers at the event. He 
was to share the speaking platform with such prominent Communists 
as Alexander Trachtenberg and Michael Gold. 



118 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The John Reed Clubs were openly communistic organizations named 
in honor of John Reed, one of the founders of the Communist Party in 
the United States, and whose ashes were interred in the Kremlin in 
Moscow. The Daily Worker for February 10, 1934, listed Albert Maltz 
as a speaker at a John Reed Club symposium in New York City. 

Other Communist individuals have been defended by Albert Maltz 
on a number of occasions. Mr. Maltz is a member of the Eisler Defense 
Committee, which the Communists organized after Gerhart Eisler, an 
agent of the Communist International, was convicted in the United 
States courts of passport fraud and contempt of Congress. Mr. Maltz' 
affiliation with the organization is recorded in a pamphlet of the com- 
mittee, entitled "Eisler Hits Back," page 15. Mr. Maltz also signed an 
appeal to the President under the auspices of the Citizens Committee to 
Free Earl Browder, according to a leaflet of the organization. Earl 
Browder is the former general secretary of the Communist Party in the 
United States. The committee in his defense was cited as a Communist 
organization by Attorney General Biddle (Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, p. 7687) and by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on March 29, 1944. The New York Times for October 9, 1944, 
page 12, listed Albert Maltz as a signer of an open letter sent to Governor 
Dewey of New York by the Schappes Defense Committee. This com- 
mittee worked for the release of Morris U. Schappes, an avowed Com- 
munist teacher convicted of perjury in New York City, and the committee 
was cited as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities on March 29, 1944. The Daily Worker for December 19, 
1940, page 5, listed Albert Maltz as one of the signers of an appeal on 
behalf of Sam Darcy, a Communist organizer. Mr. Maltz' defense of 
Harry Bridges has previously been referred to. Mr. Bridges led the 
disastrous San Francisco general strike of 1934 and was identified as a 
Communist Party member by the Daily Worker itself. 

Albert Maltz has been associated with many official Communist 
publications. He has written for the Daily Worker, as shown by the 
issues of the publication for December 16, 1933; September 17, 1934; 
and December 21, 1935. Mr. Maltz has also taken an interest in the 
Daily Worker's financial problems. The publication on March 25, 1945, 
listed Mr. Maltz as a member of a committee ' ' to sponsor support for the 
Daily Worker and the Worker" (the Sunday edition). The article 
stated, under a headline reading, "Leading citizens sponsor financial 
aid for Worker," that "The committee has a wide representation of 
people who in their daily active work have come to accept the Daily 
Worker and the Worker as indispensable journals of opinion and 
action. " Similar information is carried in the Daily Worker for April 1, 
1945. 

New Masses is an official weekly magazine of the Communist Party. 
That Albert Maltz has been a contributor to New Masses is proven by 
the issues of the publication for December 15, 1936, page 37 ; January 
26, 1937, page 25 ; and August 17, 1937, page 16. The Western Worker, 
an official Communist publication, announced on November 30, 1936, 
that Albert Maltz would be among the contributors to New Masses when 
the New Masses' twenty-fifth anniversary issue was put out on Decem- 
ber 10, 1936. The Daily Worker for October 7, 1938, reported that an 
emergency meeting held for New Masses on the same day at the Man- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 119 

hattan Opera House in New York City would include a speech by Albert 
Maltz. The issue of New Masses for April 2, 1940, page 21, listed 
Albert Maltz as one of the signers of a New Masses letter to the Presi- 
dent. Albert Maltz served on the sponsoring committee of a morale meet- 
ing for Remain Holland which the New Masses held at Carnegie Hall 
in New York on March 30, 1945. This w r as reported in the Daily Worker 
for March 14, 1945, and New Masses for April 16, 1945. 

New Currents is a weekly magazine in the English language dealing 
with Jewish matters. It has the official approval of the Jewish Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party and has been cited as a Communist 
organization by the Committee on Un-American Activities on September 
2, 1947. The issue of New Currents for March, 1944, page 2, lists Albert 
Maltz as a member of the advisory board of the magazine. 

Mainstream is a literary magazine which has been prominently 
promoted by the Communist press and which advertises itself in the 
Daily Worker as a " Marxist literary quarterly." The Worker for 
September 22, 1946, lists Albert Maltz as a member of the editorial 
board of Mainstream. 

People's World is the official west coast organ of the Communist 
Party. Albert Maltz was a speaker at a meeting entitled ''Hollywood 
Forum" which was held in Los Angeles on April 9, 1946, under the 
auspices of the People's World, according to the Daily Worker for 
April 15, 1946, page 11. The People's World of July 26, 1944, reported 
that it would run a short-story contest between August 1, 1944, and 
February 1, 1945, and that Albert Maltz would be one of the judges 
of the contest. The People's World for June 1, 1945, said it was running 
a short-story contest and that Mr. Maltz was serving as a judge. 

Among other associations with the Communist press, Albert Maltz 
is shown to have served on the editorial council of Equality, according 
to issues of the magazine for July, 1939, June, 1940, and July, 1940. 
Equality, which appeared from May, 1939, until late 1940 consistently 
followed the Communist Party line and its managing editor was Abra- 
ham Chapman who has been identified as John Arnold, a member of the 
New York State Jewish Euro of the Communist Party. Albert Maltz 
was one of the incorporators of Jewish Survey, according to records of 
incorporation of New York State. Jewish Survey, incorporated in 1939 
and dissolved on December 2, 1942, was run by writers for the Com- 
munist press such as Louis Harap. Contributors included David Zas- 
lavsky of the Moscow Pravda and Max Perlow and Albert E. Kahn, 
well-known Communist leaders. Mr. Maltz was a contributor to Laisve, 
official Communist publication in the Lithuanian language field, accord- 
ing to a copy of the paper for May 28, 1941. Mr. Maltz also contributed 
to Neues Deutschland (New Germany), official organ of the Free Ger- 
man Committee of Mexico, which had its headquarters in Moscow and 
which consisted largely of Communist refugees like Otto Katz and Paul 
Merkel. He contributed to the January, 1945, issue and the March and 
April, 1946, issues of Neues Deutschland. It should be noted that it is 
standard practice for the Daily Worker and other Communist publica- 
tions to accept only Communist Party members for official positions 
on the publications. It need scarcely be observed that contributors to 
such publications are required to follow the Communist Party line in 
their writings. 



120 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Official Communist publishing houses have published works by 
Albert Maltz. Mr. Maltz is listed as one of the authors in an Interna- 
tional Publishers catalog, undated, and also in a catalog issued by the 
Workers Library Publishers in 1938. International Publishers in 1935 
published a book entitled "Proletarian Literature in the United States" 
which included one of Albert Maltz' short stories. The Daily Worker for 
July 12, 1938, announced that International Publishers was issuing a 
book of short stories by Mr. Maltz entitled "The Way Things Are." 
The Department of Justice has cited International Publishers as a "pub- 
lishing agency of the Communist Party" (brief in the case of William 
Schneiderman, p. 145 ) . It has been similarly cited by the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944. 

Official Communist sources have frequently voiced approval of 
Albert Maltz' writings. Communist International, the official organ of 
the Communist International, on the back cover of its May, 1938, issue 
advertised Mr. Maltz' book, "The Way Things Are," and described the 
book as "a book of stirring stories of the class struggle in the United 
States. " The official west coast Communist organ, the People's World, on 
January 4, 1945, page 5, listed Mr. Maltz' book, "The Cross and the 
Arrow," as one of the 25 best books of 1944 and the reviewer stated 
that : ' ' With this novel Maltz earned a position among the leading fig- 
ures in American fiction today." The Progressive Book Shop, one of 
a nation-wide chain of Communist book shops, held a ' ' Meet the Author 
Party" to publicize Maltz' book, "The Cross and the Arrow," accord- 
ing to the California Eagle for October 5, 1944. Albert Maltz himself 
testified before the California Legislative Committee on Un-American 
Activities on October 13, 1944, that the Progressive Book Shop had 
sponsored an autographing party for this book of his, "The Cross and 
the Arrow" was made a selection of the Book Find Club, according to 
Plain Talk for May, 1947, page 28. The Book Find Club is a Communist 
version of the book-of-the-month clubs and promotes the writings of 
authors sympathetic to the Communist viewpoint. The Abraham Lincoln 
School, Chicago, has been cited as a Communist front by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944, and has been 
refused support by the American Federation of Labor in Chicago on the 
grounds of ' ' Communistic affiliations. ' ' The Daily Worker for April 21, 
1946, announced that a literary criticism seminar of the Abraham Lin- 
coln School would be held for the purpose of giving writers, critics, and 
others interested in evaluating the Marxist criticism of literature an 
opportunity to discuss the works of Albert Maltz and others. 

The Los Angeles Workers' School was a Communist school directed 
by Eva Shafran, a Communist organizer ; La Rue McCormick, who was 
a Communist candidate for California State Senator, served on the 
board of directors of the school. Albert Maltz was a lecturer at the school 
during its spring and summer sessions in 1943, according to official 
pamphlets of the school and also the issues of the People's World for 
April 16, 1943, page 5 ; April 23, 1943, page 5 ; May 7, 1943, page 5 ; 
May 13, 1943, page 5 ; May 21, 1943, page 5 ; and July 14, 1943, page 3. 

The People 's Educational Center, started in Los Angeles in the fall 
of 1943, is the successor to the Los Angeles Workers' School. It was cited 
as a Communist-front organization by the California State Legislative 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 121 

Committee on Un-American Activities, and records show that the center's 
staff and faculty include numerous card-holding members of the Com- 
munist Party, such as Carl Winters, Eva Shafran, Mildred Raskin, and 
Bruce Minton. The People's World for December 2, 1943, reported that 
the People's Educational Association, the sponsoring organization for 
the People's Educational Center, met during the previous week in the 
Hotel Hollywood in Los Angeles and that one of the persons representing 
the association at the meeting was Albert Maltz. The same article said Mr. 
Maltz urged the association to establish a Hollywood branch of the 
People's Educational Center and offered for the use of such a branch the 
League of American Writers School at 1717 North Vine Street. The 
Labor Herald for June 1, 1945, announced that a bi-monthly forum by 
the People's Educational Center was scheduled to begin on June 10, 
1945, with Albert Maltz leading a discussion on "What to Do With 
Germany. ' ' 

The Workers Book Shop, 50 East Thirteenth Street, New York City, 
is headquarters of a chain of Communist bookshops, which are the official 
outlets for Communist literature and at which tickets for Communist 
Party and front functions customarily are sold. The New York Workers 
Book Shop put out a pamphlet in 1938 entitled "Very Urgent/' which 
requested money for the Workers Book Shop mural fund. Albert Maltz 
was listed in the pamphlet as one of the active sponsors. 

Albert Maltz has been affiliated with numerous organizations which 
specialize in the defense of Communists. The International Labor Defense 
has been described as the legal arm of the Communist Party by Attorney 
General Biddle and has been cited for its Communist character by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities. Prof. John Dewey 's Com- 
mittee for Cultural Freedom, Massachusetts House Committee on 
Un-American Activities, and the California Committee on Un-American 
Activities. Equal Justice was a publication of the International Labor 
Defense. Albert Maltz was one of the signers of an open letter to Attorney 
General Biddle which appeared in Equal Justice for the spring of 1942. 

The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, which special- 
ized in defending Communists also, was cited as a Communist front by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on June 25, 1942, 
and March 29, 1944. Attorney General Biddle also cited the organization, 
pointing out that it had defended such prominent Communists as Sam 
Darcy and Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsylvania and Okla- 
homa, respectively. An official program leaflet listed Albert Maltz as one 
of the sponsors of the Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America, 
which was held in Washington, D. C., June 7 through 9, 1940, and out of 
which grew the organization, the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties. Albert Maltz was listed as a sponsor of the National Federation 
for Constitutional Liberties on a letterhead of the organization dated 
November 6, 1940. Mr. Maltz has also signed appeals in behalf of the 
Communist Party and individual Communists under the auspices of the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, according to the Daily 
Worker for December 19, 1940, page 5, and July 19, 1942, page 4. 

The Greater New York Emergency Conference on Inalienable 
Rights was a Communist-front organization specializing in the defense 
of Communists and closely interlocked with the National Federation for 
Constitutional Liberties. The Inalienable Rights Conference was cited 



122 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

for its Communist character by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on March 29, 1944, and by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for 
Cultural Freedom in April, 1940. The New Leader for February 8, 1941, 
reports that Albert Maltz was on the "Call" of the Inalienable Rights 
Conference to keep the Communist Party on the state ballot in New York. 
The Civil Rights Congress is the successor of the International 
Labor Defense, legal arm of the Communist Party. The House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, in a report on September 2, 1947, 
described the Civil Rights Congress as "dedicated not to the broader 
issues of civil liberties, but specifically to the defense of individual Com- 
munists and the Communist Party." This congress is now defending 
such persons as Gerhart Eisler, agent of the Communist International, 
convicted of contempt of Congress. A letterhead dated May 11, 1946, 
shows that Albert Maltz is a public sponsor of an organization entitled 
"Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New 
York, ' ' which is an acknowledged part of the Civil Rights Congress. 

The Committee for Citizenship Rights was avowedly organized to 
oppose the threatened revocation of citizenship of William Schneiderman, 
Communist Party organizer, according to a letter of the organization 
dated January 10, 1942. It was cited as a Communist-front organization 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944. 
The same letter referred to above listed Albert Maltz as an endorser of the 
Committee for Citizenship Rights. 

The American Committee for Protection of the Foreign Born, which 
also specializes in defending Communists, was cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on June 25, 1942, 
and March 29, 1944, and by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for Cultural 
Freedom in April, 1940. An undated leaflet of the organization shows that 
Albert Maltz served on the board of directors of the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of the Foreign Born. The organization defended 
such foreign-born Communists as Gerhart Eisler and Harry Bridges. 

The National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners and 
the National Committee for People's Rights were cited as Communist 
fronts by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on June 25, 
1942, and March 29, 1944. Attorney General Biddle (in the Congressional 
Record, September 24, 1942, page 7686) stated that the "National Com- 
mittee for the Defense of Political Prisoners is substantially equivalent to 
International Labor Defense, legal arm of the Communist Party" ; he also 
pointed out that the organization had defended such Communists as 
Earl Browder and Angelo Herndon. "In January, 1938," the Attorney 
General stated further, "its (National Committee for the Defense of 
Political Prisoners) name was changed to the National Committee for 
People 's Rights. ' ' Albert Maltz was a member of the National Committee 
for the Defense of Political Prisoners, according to a list submitted by 
Joseph S. Gelders, the organization's southern representative, in testify- 
ing before the La Follette Committee in Washington, D. C., on January 
14, 1937. The National Committee for People's Rights listed Albert 
Maltz as one of the members of its national committee who was eligible 
for election to its executive committee, according to a mimeographed 
announcement put out by the organization in November, 1941. 

International Workers Order is a fraternal organization which 
Attorney General Biddle cited as "one of the strongest Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 123 

organizations." (Congressional Record, September 24, 1942, page 7688). 
It was also cited as subversive by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on January 3, 1940, and June 25, 1942, by Prof. John Dewey's 
Committee for Cultural Freedom in April, 1940, and by the California 
Committee on Un-American Activities in 1943. New Masses for August 
27, 1940, page 21, listed Albert Maltz as one of the sponsors of a plays-for- 
children contest, sponsored by the junior section of the International 
Workers Order. 

Albert Maltz has shown an active interest in the Soviet Union. The 
People's World, of March 11, 1943, carried a picture of Mr. Maltz and 
described him as a famous American writer who had sent the following 
telegram to the editors of National Defense, a literary magazine in Mos- 
cow: " Please use my literary royalties for the defense of the Soviet 
Union. Greetings. Albert Maltz." The article reflects that royalties were 
due Maltz in Moscow for several works. 

The Daily Worker for January 18, 1943, has an article entitled 
' ' Writers of the World Meet in the Page of a Soviet Magazine, ' ' which 
points out that Soviet readers are obtaining literature of American 
writers through a monthly magazine published by the State Literary 
Publishing House and that one of the American writers who has had 
articles published in that magazine is Albert Maltz. 

The Daily Worker for April 28, 1938, page 4, reflects that Albert 
Maltz was a signer of a statement by the American Progressives Defend- 
ing the Moscow Trials, which was the usual name affixed to a series of 
trials then being held in the Soviet Union for numerous opponents of 
Dictator Stalin. It has been established that these trials had for their aim 
the purging of all political enemies of Josef Stalin. 

Soviet Russia Today was the official monthly publication of the 
Friends of the Soviet Union, a predecessor of the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship. The magazine was cited as a Communist 
front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on June 25, 
1942, and March 29, 1944. The issue of Soviet Russia Today for Septem- 
ber, 1941, page 30, carried the name of Albert Maltz as author of a state- 
ment in support of the Soviet Union. The Daily Worker for September 3, 
1941, in an article entitled, "Soviet Victory Vital to Preserve Cultural 
Heritage, Basic Economic Values," reported that Albert Maltz was one 
of a number of persons whose statements expressing their solidarity with 
the Soviet Union would be published in the magazine, Soviet Russia 
Today. 

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship was cited as 
a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
on March 29, 1944. The People's World for October 23, 1943, page 3, 
stated that Albert Maltz was a member of the Hollywood Motion Picture 
Committee of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

The American Russian Institute, which was founded in 1926 as an 
allied clearing house for "factual" information on the Soviet Union, 
was cited as a Communist front by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities in a report of June 12, 1947. A program put out by the Amer- 
ican Russian Institute announces a premier showing of * ' Turning Point, ' ' 
a Soviet film, on January 3, 1947, at the Sunset Theater in Hollywood 
and also announces that Albert Maltz would take part in a panel discus- 
sion following the film showing. 



124 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Many Communist front organizations which supported Soviet for- 
eign policy have been backed by Albert Maltz. The American League 
Against War and Fascism was active in support of Soviet foreign policy 
against the democracies between 1932 and 1937. It has been cited by 
Attorney General Biddle as an organization seeking "to create public 
sentiment on behalf of a foreign policy adapted to the interests of the 
Soviet Union." (Congressional Record, September 24, 1942.) The Special 
Committee on tin- American Activities cited this organization as sub- 
versive on January 3, 1940, and March 29, 1944. The League was dedi- 
cated to an openly treasonous program. Albert Maltz has contributed 
to Fight, a publication put out by the executive committee of the Amer- 
ican League Against War and Fascism, according to an issue of Fight 
for November, 1933, pages 8 and 9. 

After the Stalin-Hitler pact was signed in 1939, the Communists 
established the American Peace Mobilization, which opposed lend lease, 
aid to Britain, the defense program, and picketed the White House. It 
also supported a number of strikes in defense industries. The organ- 
ization was cited as a Communist front by Attorney General Biddle, by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities and by the California 
Committee on Un-American Activities. An official program listed Albert 
Maltz as a sponsor of a meeting held by the American Peace Mobiliza- 
tion in New York City on April 5 and 6, 1941. 

Among the Communist fronts that sprang up when the Soviet Union 
and the United States were allies in a war against fascism was the Artists ' 
Front to Win the War, which made its debut at a mass meeting at Car- 
negie Hall in New York City on October 16, 1942. The organization was 
cited as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on March 29, 1944. The official program of the Artists' Front 
to Win the War meeting at Carnegie Hall listed Albert Maltz as one of 
the sponsors. The meeting supported the then current Communist line 
calling for a second front. 

The Win the Peace Conference was held in Washington, D. C., from 
April 5 to 7, 1946, to attack American foreign policy. It was repudiated 
by a number of noted sponsors and was cited as a Communist front by 
the House Committee on Un- American Activities on June 12, 1947, and 
September 2, 1947. The conference resulted in the formation of an organ- 
ization called the National Committee to Win the Peace. Albert Maltz 
was a sponsor of the Win the Peace Conference, according to an article 
in the Baltimore Sunday Sun for March 31, 1946. Thus, Mr. Maltz has 
publicly avowed his allegiance to the line of the Communist Party during 
four distinctly divergent periods. 

At the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International, 
held in Moscow in 1935, George Dimitroff, general secretary, called upon 
all affiliated Communist Parties to make the greatest efforts in behalf 
of the campaign of the Spanish Communists who were active in Spain's 
civil war. Among the projects organized by the American Communists 
in response to this request was the Theater Committee for Defense of 
the Spanish Kepublic. 

Communist efforts in behalf of Spanish Communists continued after 
the civil war ended in 1939. Among these later organizations was the 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade which was cited for its Com- 
munist character by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES Iff CALIFORNIA 125 

on March 29, 1944, and by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for Cultural 
Freedom in April, 1940. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade was composed 
largely of Americans fighting on the side of the Loyalists in Spain's 
civil war. Earl Browder, former general secretary of the Communist 
Party in the United States, testified before the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities that most of the members of the brigade were 
Communists. The Daily Worker for February 21, 1940, listed Albert 
Maltz as one of the signers of a protest to the President, which was spon- 
sored by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. An advertise- 
ment sponsored by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and 
calling for a break in American relations with Spain, appeared both in 
the Los Angeles Daily News for May 10, 1945, and the New York Times 
for March 3, 1945, page 8. The advertisement listed Albert Maltz as one 
of the sponsors. Albert Maltz is also listed as a sponsor on a letterhead 
of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, dated December 28, 
1946 ; the letter referred to announces the opening sale of tickets for a 
performance to be held at the Belasco Theater in New York on January 
19, 1947, to raise funds for Republican Spain. A press release issued by 
the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in June, 1947, requesting 
United Nations action on Franco 's regime in Spain, is signed by a num- 
ber of sponsors, including Albert Maltz. 

A similar organization is the American Committee for Spanish 
Freedom, which was avowedly organized in July, 1944, to fight for legis- 
lation ending American diplomatic relations with Spain and supplying 
American military aid for a Spanish revolution. Among the well-known 
Communists in the leadership of the organization was Allan Chase, 
secretary, who is a former Communist Party political candidate. The 
organization has worked closely with the Veterans of the Abraham Lin- 
coln Brigade. A letterhead of the American Committee for Spanish 
Freedom, dated January 21, 1946, lists Albert Maltz as one of the 
organization's sponsors. In an undated letterhead of the Los Angeles 
chapter of the American Committee for Spanish Freedom, put out in 
1945, the name of Albert Maltz again appears. 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, which has worked in 
cooperation with the Spanish-aid front organizations of the Communists, 
is engaged in providing transportation and support for international 
Communist agents such as Gerhart Eisler, who was recently convicted 
of passport fraud. The organization was cited as a Communist front by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944. 
It was also cited for contempt of Congress on April 16, 1946, and its 
leaders were convicted in a federal court on June 26, 1947. The Daily 
Worker for August 12, 1943, sets forth the announcement from Dr. 
Edward A. Barsky, chairman of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee, that a scroll of greetings to Spanish refugees freed from concen- 
tration camps in north Africa had been signed by 200 Americans. The 
list of names includes that of Albert Maltz. A letterhead, dated February 
26, 1947, reflects that Albert Maltz served as a national sponsor of the 
Spanish Refugee Appeal which was organized by the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee to further its purpose of aiding international Com- 
munist agents. 

The American Committee for Yugoslav Relief is closely associated 
with the American Slav Congress, which was cited as a Communist front 



126 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

by the House Committee on Un-American Activities on June 12, 1947. 
The American Committee for Yugoslav Relief is headed by Zlatko 
Balokovic, who is vice president of the American-Slav Congress, with 
headquarters in Moscow, and who lectured on the happiness of the 
Yugoslav people under Communism after a trip to that country. An 
article in the Downtown Shopping News of Los Angeles for February 
13, 1945, listed Albert Maltz as one of the sponsors of the Los Angeles 
American Committee for Yugoslav Relief. 

The League of American Writers was an affiliate of the Interna- 
tional Union of Revolutionary Writers, with headquarters in Moscow, 
and the league was pledged to the defense of the Soviet Union and the 
use of "art as an instrument of the class struggle." The league was 
cited as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on January 3, 1940, June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944. 
Attorney General Biddle said that "the overt activities of the League 
of American Writers in the last two years leave little doubt of its Com- 
munist control" (Congressional Record, September 24, 1942, p. 7686). 
The league was founded at a Congress of American Revolutionary 
Writers held April 26 through 28, 1935, in New York City. The record 
shows that Albert Maltz was one of the founders of the League of 
American Writers. 

Albert Maltz was a member of the executive committee of the first 
writers' congress which resulted in the formation of the League of 
American Writers in 1935, according to the California Committee on 
Un-American Activities (1945 report, p. 126). 

The Bureau of Corporations, Department of State of New York, 
indicated that at the time of the formal incorporation of the League of 
American Writers on July 13, 1939, one of the original directors to 
act until the first annual meeting was Albert Maltz, whose address was 
given as 3905 Forty-fourth Street, Sunnyside, Long Island, N. Y. 

Albert Maltz presented a reading of ' ' The Working Class Theatre ' ' 
at the first writers' congress in 1935, according to the Daily Worker for 
for April 29, 1935, pages 1 and 2. 

Albert Maltz was described as "among the most popular authors 
in the Soviet Union today" by the president of the League of American 
Writers at the opening of the Third American Writers Congress, accord- 
ing to Volume 6, No. 1, of the league 's organ, The Bulletin. Albert Maltz 
was one of the signers of the call for the Third American Writers Con- 
gress which was held by the League of American Writers on June 2, 3, 
and 4, 1939, according to the magazine, Direction, for May-June, 1939, 
page 1. The official program of the Third Writers Congress showed that 
Mr. Maltz also served as cochairman of the arrangements committee 
on the drama. 

The Daily Worker for March 14, 1941, in an article headed "Writ- 
ers' League plans summer conference," stated that the League of 
American Writers had completed plans for the first White Mountain 
Writers Conference, August 18th to September 2d, at Jefferson, N. H., 
and that Albert Maltz would be included among the lecturers. The New 
Masses for April 8, 1941, page 26, carried the same information about 
Mr. Maltz. 

The People's World, official west coast Communist newspaper, on 
June 13, 1941, announced that Albert Maltz had been chosen vice presi- 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 127 

dent of the League of American Writers at the fourth congress of the 
organization, held in New York, June 6 through 8, 1941. Mr. Maltz was 
also listed as a vice president of the organization in New Masses, June 
17, 1941, page 9 ; Daily Worker, September 14, 1942, page 7 ; and Peo- 
ple 's World, September 23, 1942, page 5. The writers' congress in June 
of 1941 adopted a firm" antiwar stand, according to the Daily Worker 
for June 9, 1941. This was still during the period of the Stalin-Hitler 
pact, and was part of the Communist Party line. 

The People's World for June 28, 1941, carried an article entitled, 
"Writers Hear Soviet War Against Nazis Lauded," which described 
the sixth semiannual meeting of the Hollywood Branch of the League 
of American Writers. Albert Maltz and others made speeches lauding 
the Soviet Union. The Nazis had turned against Russia since the fourth 
writers' congress and the policies of the League of American Writers 
were switched accordingly. This is further borne out by the Daily 
Worker of July 24, 1941, which tells how the League of American Writ- 
ers, of which Maltz is vice president, pledged "full aid to Britain and 
Soviet Union" and the Daily Worker of December 10, 1941, which tells 
how the league, in which Maltz is again listed as vice president, has 
offered the service of its members in the war against the Axis. 

The People's World for June 24, 1942, described a writers' work- 
shop conference held by the League of American Writers. The article 
listed Albert Maltz as a sponsor of the League of American Writers. 
The article listed Albert Maltz as a sponsor of the conference and said 
resolutions adopted by the conference included support for the Com- 
munist Harry Bridges and a request for immediate opening of a second 
front in Europe. 

The Daily Worker for September 29, 1942, in an article entitled 
* ' Writers Defend Minority Rights, ' ' reports that the League of Ameri- 
can Writers had made public a text of a telegram requesting a Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor in the State of New York to state his 
position on attacks by the American Legion on the electoral rights of 
the Communist Party. Albert Maltz' name is again carried as an officer 
of the league. 

Albert Maltz was listed as president of the west coast chapter of 
the League of American Writers in a pamphlet advertising courses for 
the fall term (1943) of the League of American Writers' School for 
Writers. Maltz wrote the foreword to the pamphlet. 

An undated bulletin of the League of American Writers listed 
Albert Maltz as a member of the national board of the organization. 

Albert Maltz himself, in testimony before the California Committee 
on Un-American Activities on October 13, 1944, admitted that he had 
been and still was national vice president of the League of American 
Writers, although the organization, he said, was not functioning at the 
time of his testimony. He also admitted that he was president of the 
Hollywood chapter of the League of American Writers. 

The Hollywood Writers Mobilization was the name given to the 
Hollywood League of American Writers after the League of American 
Writers could no longer conceal its Communist domination. The original 
pledge of the league to defend the Soviet Union and to use "art as an 
instrument of the class struggle" is now the basis upon which the 
policies of the Hollywood Writers Mobilization are founded. The issue 



128 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

of Variety for July 10, 1944, listed Albert Maltz as one of the speakers 
at a meeting of the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, held July 7, 1944 ; 
at this meeting the mobilization agreed to serve as a story department 
for the Overseas Film Branch of OWL The Guild Bulletin, official organ 
of the Screen Writers Guild, in its issue No. 71, dated October 1, 1944, 
page 5, announced that Albert Maltz was one of the Hollywood Writers 
Mobilization members writing scripts for OWI. Variety for October 18, 
1944, said that Albert Maltz would serve on a special research committee 
which the Hollywood Writers Mobilization was setting up to investi- 
gate whether the California Committee on Un-American Activities had 
ignored mandates of the Legislature. Albert Maltz personally testified 
that he was a member of the Hollywood Writers Mobilization when he 
appeared before the California Committee on Un-American Activities 
on October 13, 1944. 

The New Theatre was the official monthly magazine of the League 
of Workers Theatres, a section of the International Union of Revolu- 
tionary Theatre, with headquarters in Moscow. The league was used to 
present Communist propaganda plays and to raise funds for Communist 
purposes; it was succeeded in January, 1935, by the New Theatre 
League, which had similar aims. The magazine, New Theatre, was cited 
as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties on March 29, 1944. The New Theatre League was cited for its Com- 
munist character by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
on March 29, 1944, and by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for Cultural 
Freedom in April, 1940. In the January, 1936, issue of New Theatre, the 
statement, "We are proud that among those who have associated them- 
selves with us in the creation of the New Theatre are : " is followed by a 
list of names including that of Albert Maltz. The New Theatre League, in 
a press release dated November 8, 1935, stated that Albert Maltz had been 
awarded first place in a play contest for a one-act antiwar or "anti- 
Fascist" play, sponsored by the New Theatre League and the American 
League Against War and Fascism (which organization has been referred 
to above). Mr. Maltz's prize-winning play was entitled "Private Hicks." 
This play was praised in the Daily Worker for February 7, 1939, page 7, 
which stated that "Private Hicks" owed its start to the New Theatre 
League. The Daily Worker for January 8, 1936, page 3, reported that 
the New Theatre League was producing "The Black Pit," written by 
Albert Maltz. The New Theatre of Philadelphia, in an announcement 
distributed by that organization during a Paul Robeson concert at the 
Philadelphia Academy of Music on March 7, 1941, stated that the theater 
organization would produce "Zero Hour," written by Albert Maltz and 
George Sklar. The Daily Worker for June 10, 1938, page 7, listed Albert 
Maltz as a guest at a meeting of the New Theatre League. Mr. Maltz has 
contributed to New Theatre magazine, according to the issue for May 
1935, page 8. 

The Theatre Union was one of the affiliates of the League of Workers 
Theatres, which in turn was tied to the Moscow-directed International 
Union of the Revolutionary Theatre. Theatre Union reflected the cur- 
rent line of the Communist Party in its propaganda and was used to raise 
funds for the Communist purposes. A leaflet of the organization listed 
Albert Maltz as a member of the executive board of the Theatre Union. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 129 

Frontier Films produced and distributed pro-Communist films, 
including a film on the Communist-led strike at the Allis-Chalmers plant 
in Milwaukee. The organization was headed by the following contributors 
to the Communist press : Kyle Crichton, alias Robert Forsythe ; Irving 
Lerner ; Clifford Odets ; Edwin Rolfe ; and George Seldes. It was cited for 
its Communist character by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on March 29, 1944, and by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for 
Cultural Freedom in April, 1940. The Daily Worker for April 6, 1937, 
page 9, listed Albert Maltz as a staff member of Frontier Films. 

Actors Laboratory is a training school for actors in Hollywood whose 
officers have lengthy records of Communist-front activity as evidenced 
in attached reports; such officers include Roman Bohnen, chairman; 
Larry Parks, treasurer ; Morris Carnovsky, Jules Dassin, Edward Dmy- 
tryk, members of the executive board. The organization cooperated with 
the Hollywood Writers Mobilization which has been described above. 
The issue of Variety for August 16, 1944, carried an advertisement 
regarding the Actors Laboratory which was endorsed by 30 individuals, 
including Albert Maltz. 

The Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions has been charged with being Communist dominated by 
Harold Ickes and other liberals who previously had supported it. It was 
cited as a Communist front by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities on September 2, 1947. A leaflet put out by the organization in 
1945 listed Albert Maltz as one of the sponsors of the Independent 
Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. New Masses 
for March 13, 1945, states that the magazine, Independent, is an organ 
of the independent Citizens Committee and that Albert Maltz is one of 
the contributing editors to the publication. 

The Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions split after Harold Ickes and other liberals condemned the 
organization as Communist-dominated. The pro-Communist section, after 
the split, formed the Progressive Citizens of America. The Progressive 
Citizens of America was cited as a Communist front by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities in a report of June 12, 1947. The Daily 
Worker for May 16, 1947, page 11, announced that the manuscript of 
Albert Maltz's novel, "The Cross and the Arrow/' would be auctioned 
off on May 18, 1947, at the Hotel Brevoort in New York City for the 
benefit of the literary division of the Progressive Citizens of America. 
The Daily Worker of July 5, 1947, page 11, published a photo of Albert 
Maltz with the announcement that Mr. Maltz would participate in a con- 
ference to be held July 9 through 13, 1947, in the Beverly Hills Hotel, 
Hollywood, under the auspices of the Hollywood Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions Council of the Progressive Citizens of America. The Daily 
Worker for July 31, 1947, page 11, reprinted part of a speech which the 
newspaper said Albert Maltz had given ' ' recently ' ' in Los Angeles at a 
meeting under the auspices of the Progressive Citizens of America. 

The American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists, and Scientists, 
Inc., was a smaller, more specialized version of the Independent Citizens 
Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, which has been pre- 
viously referred to. The American Committee of Jewish Writers, Artists, 
and Scientists, Inc., was affiliated with the Jewish Anti-Fascists Com- 
mittee of the Soviet Union and it also published a magazine, New Cur- 

10 L-7088-D 



130 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

rents, which had the approval of the Jewish Commission of the Com- 
munist Party. The People's World for June 29, 1944, announced that a 
Hollywood chapter of the American Committee of Jewish Writers, 
Artists, and Scientists was being organized and that Albert Maltz was 
among the members of the organizing committee. Albert Maltz was 
listed as a member of the advisory board of New Currents, in the Decem- 
ber 1944 issue of the publication. 

The Jewish People's Fraternal Order is an affiliate of the Inter- 
national "Workers' Order, a Communist-front organization previously 
referred to. The Jewish People's Fraternal Order is headed by Albert E. 
Kahn, one of the leaders of the Communist Party in New York. The 
People's World for September 14, 1945, carried an advertisement 
announcing that a rally would be held on September 15, 1945, at the 
Embassy Auditorium in Los Angeles under the auspices of the Jewish 
People 's Fraternal Order, 257 South Spring Street, Los Angeles. Albert 
Maltz was announced as one of the speakers. The People's World for 
September 5, 1947, page 5, listed Albert Maltz as one of the participants 
in a program sponsored by the Jewish People's Fraternal Order to be 
held September 7, 1947, at the Philharmonic Auditorium in Los Angeles. 

The American Youth for Democracy is the official successor of the 
Young Communist League. It has been the subject of a report by the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities which described its char- 
acter in detail. Its * l sinister purposes ' ' have been denounced by the Direc- 
tor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Congressional Record, March 
24, 1947, p. A1298). The People's World for December 1, 1944, reflects 
that Albert Maltz is a sponsor of the American Youth for Democracy. A 
letter of the organization announcing a meeting for October 21, 1945, in 
Los Angeles shows that Albert Maltz was one of the sponsors of the meet- 
ing. A leaflet announcing a dinner to be held under the auspices of the 
American Youth for Democracy on December 16, 1945, at the Ambassador 
Hotel in Los Angeles records the name of Albert Maltz as a member of the 
dinner committee. 

The National Committee Against Censorship of the Theater Arts 
was formed when the introduction of Communist propaganda themes in 
federal theater projects aroused considerable public criticism and an 
investigation in Congress. The National Committee defended such Com- 
munist propaganda. Represented in the organization were the Commu- 
nist Party and the International Labor Defense, the Communist Party's 
legal arm. Albert Maltz was a member of the National Committee Against 
Censorship of the Theater Arts, according to the pamphlet entitled 
"Censored." 

Book and Magazine Guild was a local of the Communist- dominated 
United Office and Professional Workers of America, operating in the book 
and magazine field. The Book and Magazine Guild interceded in behalf 
of Morris U. Schappes, an avowed Communist teacher convicted of per- 
jury in New York, according to the Daily Worker for September 23, 1941, 
page 3. A pamphlet put out by the Book and Magazine Guild, 239 Fourth 
Avenue, New York City, dated winter 1940, and entitled, "Courses for 
Publishing Employes," listed a course, "The Writer and Organization," 
given by Albert Maltz. 

Albert Maltz is a member of the Screen Writers Guild, according 
to the sworn testimony of Emmet t Lavery, guild president, before the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 131 

California Committee on Un-American Activities (1947 report, p. 283). 
The Screen Writers Guild participated in the Hollywood Writers Mobi- 
lization, an organization previously referred to. John Howard Lawson, 
identified by the Daily Worker for August 23, 1937, page 7, as a Commu- 
nist Party member, is a leading figure in the Screen Writers Guild. 

The National Council for Public Morale was headed by Arthur 
Upham Pope, the official American biographer of the Soviet Union. The 
Washington Post for May 23, 1943, states that Arthur Upham Pope of 
the National Council for Public Morale had made public an open letter 
to the President requesting war on Finland. Albert Maltz was reported as 
one of the signers of the open letter. 

The People's Institute of Applied Religion has been described by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities as a Communist effort 
to gain a foothold in the South by exploiting the well-known religious 
attachments of that section of the country. The organization is headed by 
Claude C. Williams, who the Daily Worker has reported was discharged 
from the church on charges of Communism in 1934. An undated letter- 
head of the People's Institute of Applied Religion, with headquarters 
in Birmingham, Ala., lists the name of Albert Maltz among its sponsors. 

The Daily Worker for August 25, 1947, page 11, described with 
acclaim the filming of the new movie, " Naked City," at that time on loca- 
tion in New York City ; the newspaper listed Albert Maltz as one of the 
writers of the screen play for the movie. 

Albert Maltz' writings in the Daily Worker have also reflected his 
faithfulness to the Communist Party line. In the Daily Worker for 
December 16, 1933, page 7, Mr. Maltz and playwright, George Sklar, 
with whom Mr. Maltz has collaborated in writing plays, are the joint 
authors of an article entitled "The Need for a Workers Theater." The 
article calls the existing Broadway theater "a sterile theater" and states : 

1 i It 's time we had a theater which will reflect the fact that we 're liv- 
ing in a certain type of society, a society gripped by the most severe eco- 
nomic crisis that capitalism has known. " The article pointed out that the 
professional bourgeois theater would become more and more a theater of 
escape as ' ' the class struggle deepens. ' ' It then goes on to say : ' * This is 
not so in the Soviet Union. We see there an interest in the art of the thea- 
ter such as the world has never known before. We see a theatrical center 
in every city, in every factory, in every village. Why ? Because the Soviet 
theater is not a theater of the privileged class but the theater of a whole 
country, of a whole people. And it is a vital theater because it belongs to 
those who are building a new society and not to those who are clinging to 
a dead one. The future of the theater in America lies in the creation of a 
workers ' theater. ' ' 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR YUGOSLAV RELIEF 

This Communist front group is organized to support the dictatorship 
of the Soviet puppet Tito. It is headed by the notorious pro-Communist, 
pro-Soviet, Louis Adamic. Zlatko Balokovic is co-chairman. Rockwell 
Kent, Max Bedacht, Walter B. Cannon, Jo Davidson, Mrs. Elinor S. 
Gimbel, Johannes Steel, Dr. Emmanuel Chapman, Mary McLeod 
Bethune, Lion Feuchtwanger, William S. Gailmor, Marshall Field, Mrs. 
Edward C. Carter and Hugh De Lacy are among the national pro-Com- 
munist figures interested in the American Committee for Yugoslav Relief. 



132 TIN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Local branches have been established throughout the country. 

The Los Angeles headquarters of the American Committee for Yugo- 
slav Relief is located at 808 South Vermont Avenue, Room 3, telephone 
DRexel 1227, according to the organization 's letterhead. Judge Lester W. 
Roth is listed as the chairman. Lee Bachelis is the treasurer and Bonnie 
Claire is the director of the California Division. 

The committee sponsors include Prof. Thomas Addis, Howard Bay, 
Maurice Becker, William Rose Benet, Elmer A. Benson, Miller Brand, 
Anne Burr, Eddie Cantor, John M. Coffee, Floyd C. Covington, Joseph 
Curran, Bishop Ralph S. Cushman, Helen Gahagan Douglas, C. M. Dyk- 
stra, Dr. Leo Eloesser, Howard Fast, Waldo Frank, Leverett L. Gleason, 
William Gropper, Langston Hughes, Rex Ingram, George Jessel, Albert 
E. Kahn, Kenneth MacGowan, Albert Maltz, Dr. Thomas Mann, Vito 
Marcantonio, Dorothy Parker, Bishop Edward L. Parsons, Edward G. 
Robinson, Sydney Roger, Lisa Sergio, Gale Sondergaard, Maxwell S. 
Stewart, Dalton Trumbo, Mary Van Kleeck, Walter Wanger, Harry F. 
Ward, Rabbi J. Max Weis, Orson Welles, and Dr. Henry N. Wieman. 

The name, Dalton Trumbo, will be found on the letterheads of many 
Communist front organizations. Louis J. Russell testified before the 
Thomas Committee in Washington, D. C., October 28, 1947, that Dalton 
Trumbo is a member of the Communist Party and that the Communist 
Party card for 1944, issued to Dalton Trumbo, is numbered 47187. The 
address of Dalton Trumbo, given on the card, is 620 Beverly Drive, Bev- 
erly Hills, California. The card contained a notation which read "New 
Card issued November 30, 1944. " 

Dalton Trumbo 's Communist record, as set forth in the congressional 
report, above referred to, at page 335, checks with the record of Dalton 
Trumbo in the Senate Committee 's files. The record is as follows : 

According to the Hollywood Reporter, August 22, 1946, well-known 
trade publication of the motion-picture industry, Dalton Trumbo was 
asked if he was the holder of Communist Party Book No. 36802. The com- 
mittee knows of no denial by Mr. Trumbo of this fact. He has, however, 
openly endorsed Communist candidates, Communist legal defendants, 
and has openly cooperated with the Communist legal defendants, and has 
openly cooperated with the Communist Party and its instruments. 
According to the Los Angeles Times of November 2, 1942, Mr. Trumbo 
endorsed Mrs. La Rue McCormick, Communist candidate for State Sen- 
ator. In a speech quoted in the Worker of June 22, 1947, page 11 (maga- 
zine), Mr. Trumbo is quoted as follows : 

' ' And the defense of the rights of the Communist Party, and of 

all real or alleged Communists, is the duty not only of liberals and 

progressives, but all men and women who have love for their country 

and respect for its Constitution." 

At an official meeting of the Communist Party featuring as its chief 
speaker, William Z. Foster, Party Chairman, the poem, "Confessional," 
by Dalton Trumbo, was presented, according to the People's World of 
September 10, 1947, page 4. 

In April, 1940, during the period of the Stalin-Hitler pact when the 
Communist Party was actively denouncing President Roosevelt as a 
war-monger, and agitating against lend-lease and the defense program, 
the Daily Worker published in serial form Dalton Trumbo 's antiwar 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 133 

story entitled ' ' Johnny Got His Gun. ' ' This book was widely sold at all 
Communist Party book shops and also extensively circulated at meetings 
of the American Peace Mobilization. A synopsis of this story appeared 
in the People's World of May 22, 1940, page 8. The story also appeared 
serially in the Daily Worker of April, 1940. Both of these papers are 
official Communist Party organizations. Mr. Trumbo has been a con- 
tributor to the New Masses, official Communist Party weekly magazine, 
according to its issues of April 15, 1941, page 13, and September 26, 1944, 
page 28. The New Masses has been cited as a Communist periodical by 
Attorney General Biddle, according to the Congressional Record of Sep- 
tember 24, 1942. It has been cited as a Communist magazine by the Special 
Committee on un-American Activities on June 24, 1942, and March 29, 
1944. According to the People's World on July 16, 1943, Mr. Trumbo 
was a member of a committee to sell paintings at an auction for the benefit 
of the New Masses, which was held in Hollywood. Mainstream is a Com- 
munist quarterly magazine specializing in the literary field. It is being 
actively promoted by the official Communist press at the present time. 
Mr. Trumbo is listed in the winter 1947 issue of Mainstream as a member 
of its editorial board. It should be noted in this connection that it has been 
a long-standing practice for Communist publications to utilize only 
Communists as staff members and frequent contributors. 

Mr. Trumbo has made it a practice to appear in defense of Com- 
munist cases. He defended Harry Bridges, according to the Los Angeles 
Examiner of May 25, 1941. Bridges was cited as a member of the Com- 
munist Party by the Daily Worker, the official Communist organ. Mr. 
Trumbo was at a testimonial dinner in behalf of Harry Bridges at Park 
Manor Hotel, Los Angeles, on April 12, 1941, according to the San Die-go 
Labor Union Weekly of April 18, 1941. Jesus Hernandez Tomas, a lead- 
ing Spanish Communist, was barred from entry to this country by the 
State Department. Dalton Trumbo enlisted in his defense, according to 
the People's World of November 30, 1943. Mr. Trumbo was also the 
author of a pamphlet entitled "Harry Bridges/' which was written for 
defense purposes. According to the New York Times of December 22, 
1943, page 40, Mr. Trumbo was a signer of a declaration issued by the 
so-called Reichstag Fire Trial Anniversary Committee honoring George 
Dimitrov, former general secretary of the Communist International. 

The American Peace Mobilization was organized by the American 
Peace Crusade. Attorney General Biddle has stated that: "The most 
conspicuous activity of the American Peace Mobilization was the picket- 
ing of the White House, which began in April, 1941, in protest against 
lend-lease and the entire national defense program. On the afternoon of 
June 21, 1941, he (Frederick V. Field, national secretary) suddenly 
called off the picket line around the White House" (Congressional 
Record, September 24, 1942). Mr. Trumbo was a speaker at a mass meet- 
ing held under the auspices of the American Peace Crusade on April 6, 
1940, according to the New Masses of August 6, 1940, page 22. He was a 
speaker at a peace rally at the Los Angeles Olympic Auditorium of April 
6, 1940. He was also a speaker for the American Peace Mobilization at 
the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles on February 24, 1941. Mr. Trumbo 
was the author of a skit which was presented at a meeting of the American 
Peace Mobilization in Los Angeles on February 24, 1941. 



134 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The International Workers Order has been cited by Attorney Gen- 
eral Biddle as ''one of the strongest Communist organizations" (Con- 
gressional Record, September 24, 1942). This organization has consist- 
ently supported Communist candidates, the Communist press and Com- 
munist campaigns. It was cited as a Communist front by the Special 
Committee on un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, and June 25, 
1942. According to the People's World of May 28, 1943, page 3, Mr. 
Trumbo was a speaker for the International Workers Order. 

The American Youth for Democracy, according to the official state- 
ments of its leaders, was formerly the Young Communist League. On 
April 17, 1947, the Committee on un-American Activities issued a report 
on the American Youth for Democracy in which it called upon the 
governors or legislatures of the various states and the administrative 
heads of the colleges and universities "to thoroughly expose the Com- 
munist connections of the American Youth for Democracy as well as 
the inimical objectives of the Communist Party in America." The Con- 
gressional Record of March 24, 1947, page A-1298, contains a statement 
made by the Honorable J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, in which he spoke of the American Youth for Democracy 
as the organization "which conceals the evils and the corruption of 
American Communism. This name is but a new one for the former 
Young Communist League. It reflects all the sinister purposes of the 
Communist' Party of the United States. It employs the same techniques 
and has the same objectives, namely the conversion of our haven of 
liberty and freedom to worship as we choose to a godless, totalitarian 
state where the adversaries of democracy can do as they please." The 
American Youth for Democracy was also cited as a Communist front by 
the Special Committee on un-American Activities in the report of March 
29, 1944. According to the letterhead of the American Youth for 
Democracy for December 1, 1944, Dalton Trumbo was a sponsor. 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee is engaged in providing 
transportation and support for international Communist agents such as 
Gerhart Eisler. The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee was cited for 
contempt of Congress on April 16, 1946, and its members were convicted 
in a federal court on June 27, 1947. According to a letterhead dated 
February 26, 1946, issued by the Spanish Refugee Appeal of the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Mr. Trumbo was a national sponsor. 
Mr. Trumbo is also listed as a sponsor of a dinner held by the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee at the Hotel Astor in New York City on 
October, 27, 1943, according to its printed invitation. 

The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties has been cited 
by Attorney General Biddle as part of the "Communist solar system" 
and he stated that "The defense of Communist leaders such as Sam 
Darcy and Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsylvania and Okla- 
homa, have been major efforts of the federation" (Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942). This organization has been cited as a Communist 
front by the Special Committee on un-American Activities on June 25, 
1944, and March 29, 1944. Mr. Trumbo signed an open letter published 
by the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties under the title 
of "600 Prominent Americans." 

The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee was an auxiliary of the 
International Labor Defense, properly termed by Attorney General 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 135 

Biddle as the " legal arm of the Communist Party. " According to a 
letterhead of this defense committee, dated August 9, 1944, Mr. Trumbo 
was a sponsor. 

The League of American Writers was the American affiliate of the 
International Union of Revolutionary Writers, with headquarters in 
Moscow. It has been cited as a Communist front by the Special Com- 
mittee on un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, June 25, 1942, 
and March 29, 1944. It has also been cited as under Communist auspices 
by Attorney General Biddle in the Congressional Record of September* 
24, 1942. The organization has been pledged to the defense of the Soviet 
Union and "use of art as an instrument of the class struggle." The 
Daily Worker of September 5, 1940, page 7, lists Mr. Trumbo as a 
member of the League of American Writers. The League of American 
Writers held a conference in Hollywood on June 20-21, 1942. According 
to the People's World of June 10, 1942, June 17, 1942, Mr. Trumbo was 
head of one of its speakers panels. According to People's World of 
March 31, 1943, page 5, Mr. Trumbo lectured at a conference sponsored 
by the West Coast Chapter of the League of American Writers, during 
the summer of 1942 in Hollywood. He was also a contributor to a maga- 
zine called "Clipper" published by the League of American Writers. 

The Writers Congress held on October 1, 2, 3, 1943, was sponsored 
by the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, successor to the Hollywood 
Branch of the League of American Writers, which has been cited as a 
Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
and by Attorney General Biddle and the Committee for Cultural Free- 
dom, headed by Prof. John Dewey. Mr. Trumbo was an active participant 
in one of the panels of the Writers Congress, according to the People's 
World of October 13, 1943, page 5. 

The Hollywood Writers Mobilization previously known as the 
Hollywood Chapter of the League of American Writers, arranged a 
series of forums at the El Patio Theater in Hollywood, beginning Decem- 
ber 2, 1946. Mr. Trumbo was a speaker at these forums. 

The Hollywood Forum was held under the auspices of the Daily 
People 's World, official west coast organ of the Communist Party, accord- 
ing to the Daily Worker of April 15, 1946, page 11. Mr. Trumbo was a 
speaker at a forum meeting held on April 9, 1946. 

The Hollywood Democratic Committee was the successor to the 
Hollywood Anti-Nazi League which was organized by Isaac Romaine, 
alias V. J. Jerome, member of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party. The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League dissolved during the time of 
the Stalin-Hitler pact. According to the People's World of August 3, 
1943, page 38, Mr. Trumbo made a collection speech in behalf of the 
Hollywood Democratic Committee. 

The Motion Picture Democratic Committee was cited as a Com- 
munist front by the California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on 
Un-American Activities in the 1943 report, and by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities on September 2, 1947. Melvyn Douglas and 
Philip Dunne resigned from the executive board on the Motion Picture 
Democratic Committee because of its Communist control. According to 
the bulletin of the Motion Picture Democratic Committee, dated March 
26, 1940, Mr. Trumbo was a speaker at its meeting held on April 6, 1940. 



136 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

His subject was "America Declares Peace. " This meeting was held dur- 
ing the period of the Stalin-Hitler pact. 

According to the Daily Worker of October 7, 1942, page 7, Mr. 
Trumbo was a sponsor of the Artists ' Front to Win the War. The Artists ' 
Front to Win the War was an organization which supported the then 
current Communist demand for a second front. Many of its sponsors 
were writers for the Communist press who had opposed the war during 
the Stalin-Hitler pact, such as Alvah Bessie, Angelo Herndon, Alfred 
Kreymborg, Albert Maltz, and Ruth McKenney. On September 14, 1942, 
a meeting was held by the so-called Citizens for Victory Committee at 
the Philharmonic Auditorium in Los Angeles. Mr. Trumbo was the author 
of a six-page article entitled "An Open Letter to American People/' 
which was distributed at this meeting, urging the readers to petition and 
wire the President for the opening of a second front. 

Another Communist promoted enterprise was the so-called Council 
for Civic Unity. The People's World, official west coast Communist organ, 
for April 28, 1944, mentioned that Dalton Trumbo made a collection 
speech for this organization which netted $3,000. A similar group, known 
as the Academic and Civil Rights Council, mentions Dalton Trumbo as 
a speaker in the People's World of January 2, 1941. Affiliated with the 
Council for Civic Unity were the following Communist groups : Amer- 
ican Youth for Democracy, formerly known as the Young Communist 
League ; Morning Freiheit Association, supporting the Morning Freiheit, 
Yiddish organ of the Communist Party; the International Workers 
Order, and other organizations. 

Paul Robeson, who has a long record of Communist affiliations, was 
the moving spirit in what was known as American Crusade to End 
Lynching which organized a pilgrimage to Washington, D. C., for Sep- 
tember 23, 1946. This venture was actively supported by the Communist 
press. Mr. Trumbo was a signer of the call for this pilgrimage, which was 
another example of Communist efforts to organize mass marches and 
mass demonstrations on capital cities. 

According to the People's World of January 15, 1941, page 5, Mr. 
Trumbo was listed as a speaker at a banquet sponsored by the Northern 
California Civil Rights Council, held at Whitcomb Hotel in San Francisco 
on January 18, 1941. This meeting was primarily concerned with efforts 
to defend the Communist Party and Communist cases. Mr. Trumbo also 
took part in a series of meetings held about May 10, 1942, for the purpose 
of launching a committee to free Earl Browder. 

According to the program of a members ' meeting of the Hollywood 
Arts, Sciences and Professional Council, of September 17, 1947, Mr. 
Trumbo was listed as a speaker. The Hollywood Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessional Council is a branch of the Progressive Citizens of America 
which was formed by the left wing group of the ICCASP after the latter 
organization was dissolved when its Communist denominations could no 
longer be concealed. 

The People 's Daily World, official Communist Party publication on 
the west coast, dated May 2, 1947, listed Dalton Trumbo as one of the 
sponsors of the Los Angeles Chapter of the Civil Rights Congress. 

The Worker, official publication of the Communist Party, dated 
September 22, 1946, published a picture of the editor and editorial board 
of a new magazine entitled "Mainstream," which was referred to as a 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 137 

' ' Marxist literary magazine. ' ' Dalton Trumbo, whose picture appeared 
with this article, was stated to be a member of the board of directors. 

A circular announcing a "People's Rally for Peace, " meeting at 
the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles on April 24, 1941, under the 
auspices of the American Peace Mobilization, listed Dalton Trumbo as 
one of the speakers. The purpose of this meeting, according to the circular, 
was to urge the defeat of the House of Representatives bill for lend-lease. 

The People's Daily World, a Communist newspaper for the west 
coast, dated July 15, 1941, states that Trumbo was in attendance at a 
meeting of the American Peace Mobilization held at the Hollywood Town 
Forum, Hollywood, California, on May 17, 1941. 

The Daily Worker, dated June 20, 1941, listed Trumbo as a speaker 
at a Free Speech Rally sponsored by the Southern California Branch of 
the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties held at the Embassy 
Auditorium in Los Angeles, June 18, 1941. 

The Clipper, official magazine of the League of American Writers, 
described above, for the month of August, 1941, stated that Dalton 
Trumbo had been a contributor for the past 12 issues of this magazine. 

A circular advertising the School for Writers sponsored by the 
Hollywood Chapter of the League of American Writers for the 1941-42 
term mentioned Dalton Trumbo as a lecturer. 

The People's Daily World, dated March 31, 1943, in an article 
entitled ' ' Young Writers Develop Technique in Workshop, ' ' stated that 
Dalton Trumbo participated in the writers conference held during 
December, 1942, under the slogan "The Pen is a Sword," in which 
beginners, veteran screen writers, novelists, poets, and writers in every 
medium discussed just how each writer could make his pen a weapon for 
democracy. The article further stated that the conference was called by 
the Writers Workshop, which was sponsored by the League of American 
Writers. 

The Screen Writer, the official publication of the Screen Writers 
Guild, for the month of June, 1946, published an edited transcript of an 
informal discussion held under the auspices of the Hollywood Writers 
Mobilization between the noted Russian writer Konstantin Simonov and 
members of the Screen Writers Guild. The forum was presided over by 
Dalton Trumbo. 

The California Eagle, dated March 7, 1946, listed Dalton Trumbo as 
one of the sponsors of the American Youth for Democracy, formerly the 
Young Communist League, dance held in Los Angeles on March 4, 1946, 
for the benefit of the United Electrical Workers who were on strike. This 
is a Communist-controlled union. 

A pamphlet advertising the "Salute to Young America" program 
under the auspices of the American Youth for Democracy to be held at 
the Hotel Hollywood, Hollywood, California, on December 1, 1944, 
listed Dalton Trumbo as a member of the sponsoring committee and Mrs. 
Trumbo as secretary of the committee. 

The People's Daily World for December 5, 1944, stated that Trumbo 
was a speaker at the above meeting. 

A pamphlet advertising the ' ' Youth Conference ' ' under sponsorship 
of the American Youth for Democracy, scheduled for October 21, 1945, 
at the Los Angeles City College, listed Dalton Trumbo as a sponsor. 



138 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A printed advertisement announcing a "Welcome Home, Joe" 
dinner sponsored by the Los Angeles County American Youth for Democ- 
racy, scheduled to be held December 16, 1945, listed Dalton Trumbo as 
one of the dinner committee members. This meeting was advertised to be 
held at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California. 

The Daily Worker, dated October 19, 1942, listed Dalton Trumbo as 
a sponsor of a dinner under the auspices of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee to be held at the Astor Hotel, New York City, on October 27, 
1942. This organization has been described above. 

A pamphlet issued by the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 
dated October 21, 1944, listed Dalton Trumbo as one of the national 
sponsors of this organization. 

Letterheads of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 192 Lex- 
ington Avenue, New York City, obtained for the years 1945, and 1946, 
also listed Dalton Trumbo as a national sponsor of this organization. 

The Daily Worker, dated September 16, 1944, in an article entitled 
1 'Film Front," lists Dalton Trumbo as being affiliated with the Holly- 
wood Democratic Committee. This organization has been described above. 

The Daily Worker, dated November 22, 1944, stated that Dalton 
Trumbo was elected to the board of directors of the Screen Writers Guild. 

The Screen Writer, official publication of the Screen Writers Guild, 
in the 1946 issues reflected that Dalton Trumbo was the editor of the 
Screen Writer. 

A proposal appeared in the Screen Writer, edited by Dalton Trumbo, 
July issue, 1946, for an American Authors' Authority. According to this 
report, the authority is to be a marketing monopoly which will copyrighl 
and lease to users all writings by American authors. It is to begin with 
scripts for screen and radio and articles for magazines. By controlling 
this lucrative field, the authority will be the exclusive agent for America 7 s 
most successful writers. 

A letterhead for the People's Educational Center, dated January 11, 
1945, announced the second annual meeting of the People 's Educational 
Center, a Communist school, at the Shoreham Hotel, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, on January 21, 1945. The announcement listed Dalton Trumbo 
as a speaker during the evening session on the subject, "Role of the 
Motion Picture in Shaping the Future. ' ' 

Page 33 of the report of the California State Legislature's Joint 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, dated 1947, classi- 
fies the People's Educational Center as a Communist front. 

The People's Daily World, dated July 22, 1946, published a photo- 
graph of Dalton Trumbo along with an article stating that Trumbo would 
be "an inaugural guest speaker Saturday evening, August 10, 1946, at 
the California Labor School Summer Term for White Collar and Pro- 
fessional Workers on the Monterey Peninsula. " The article further stated 
that reservations would be accepted at the California Labor School, 216 
Market Street, San Francisco, California. 

Page 101 of the report of the California State Legislature's Joint 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, dated 1947, lists 
the California Labor School as a Communist School. 

The Daily Variety, a Hollywood trade magazine, for the month of 
June, 1945, listed Dalton Trumbo as a member of the executive council 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 139 

of the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, 
and Professions. This organization has been described above. 

The People's Daily World, official Communist Party publication on 
the west coast, dated May 2, 1947, listed Dalton Trumbo as one of the 
sponsors of the Los Angeles Chapter of the Civil Rights Congress. 

The Civil Rights Congress has been engaged in defending Gerhart 
Eisler, Comintern agent, and Eugene Dennis, executive secretary of the 
Communist Party. 

The People's Daily World, dated March 20, 1946, stated that Dalton 
Trumbo was a speaker at a meeting held in the Shrine Auditorium in Los 
Angeles, California, under the auspices of the Mobilization for Democ- 
racy. 

The People's Daily World, dated April 5, 1946, in an article entitled 
"We Are With-Trumbo Pledges Every Effort on Fight of Native Fas- 
cists, ' ' comments on a speech by Dalton Trumbo delivered at a meeting 
of the Mobilization for Democrary held previously in Los Angeles in 
which Trumbo is reported to have outlined several undertakings by the 
United States Government, such as Expedition Muskox, Bikini, and the 
policies of MacArthur in Japan, all of which Trumbo interpreted as an 
indication of United States imperialism and the work of Fascist reaction 
in the United States. 

The California Sentinel, dated May 8, 1947, published a list pur- 
ported to be the official list of the officers and board of directors of the 
Southern California Progressive Citizens of America. Dalton Trumbo 
was listed as a member of the board of directors. 

Page 236 of the report of the California State Legislature's Joint 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, dated 1947, refers 
to the Los Angeles Chapter of the Progressive Citizens of America as a 
consolidation of the National Political Action Committee and the Holly- 
wood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessions, which are referred to as Communist fronts. 

The People's Daily World, dated October 19, 1942, listed Dalton 
Trumbo as one of 400 prominent people who signed an open letter to 
President Roosevelt urging the United States to sever diplomatic rela- 
tions with Spain. This letter was made public, according to the article, 
by the Council for Pan-American Democracy which has attacked alleged 
American imperialism. 

The People's Daily World, dated November 6, 1945, carried an adver- 
tisement under the heading "Break relations with Spain," advising that 
a meeting was scheduled for the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, for November 16, 1945, at which Dalton Trumbo would serve as 
chairman. The meeting was said to be under the auspices of the American 
Committee for Spanish Freedom. This was part of the Communist cam- 
paign in behalf of Loyalist Spain initiated at the seventh Congress of the 
Communist International, the summer of 1935. 

The Daily Worker, dated May 24, 1947, listed Dalton Trumbo as 
one of the speakers at the Artists Fight Back meeting sponsored by Mam- 
stream, to be held at Manhattan Center, New York City, on June 11, 
1947. The article stated that the rally would give the answer of the writers 
and artists to the "Un-American Committee's" attacks on democratic 
culture in America. 



140 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The New York World Telegram, dated June 11, 1947, listed Dalton 
Trumbo as one of the speakers at the Artists Fight Back rally held at 
Manhattan Center, New York City, on June 11, 1947. 

The Worker, dated March 23, 1947, published a write-up on the 
magazine Mainstream showing the table of contents for the winter edition, 
1946, listing Dalton Trumbo as a contributor with a poem entitled ' ' Con- 
fessional. ' ' This magazine has been described above. 

The People's Daily World, dated October 24, 1942, listed Dalton 
Trumbo as one of the persons who endorsed LaRue McCormick as Com- 
munist Party candidate for State Senator of Los Angeles County. 

The People's Daily World, dated July 6, 1944, announced that Dal- 
ton Trumbo would be one of the judges of a short-story contest sponsored 
by the People's Daily World to run from August 1, 1944, to February 
1, 1945. 

The People's Daily World, dated March 26, 1946, listed Dalton 
Trumbo as a speaker at a forum held at the Embassy Auditorium on 
April 8, 1946, under the auspices of the People's Daily World entitled 
1 'Art Weapon of the People. " A photostatic copy of this publicity 
is attached. 

Erick Lionel Pridinoff testified before the committee at its Los 
Angeles hearing on February 18, 1948. Pridinoff is an engineer, and 
was formerly employed by the United States Government as an eco- 
nomic officer at the American Embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. He 
testified at length as to Communist activities in Yugoslavia, and of the 
terrorist activities utilized by the Communists in taking over that coun- 
try. Pridinoff speaks Russian fluently and has a working knowledge of 
the Yugoslav language. He stated that he had traveled about 20,000 
miles throughout the country and had met many Soviet officers. On 
occasion he had had conversations with officers in the Soviet secret police. 
He stated that some of these officers had managed to break away from 
the Soviet government and had found their way into Italy and into the 
American zone in Africa. He watched the Communist dictatorship 
develop in Yugoslavia and chronicled its brutality, strategy and activi- 
ties. He stated that the Communist government officially stated that ' ' all 
those who are not for us are against us, and we must do away with 
them. We must exterminate the reactionary rats." 

Mr. Pridinoff 's testimony was extremely interesting and informa- 
tive and the committee regrets that lack of space prohibits his testimony 
from being published fully in this report. 

When asked whether the Yugoslav government, Tito, or Josef 
Stalin, would establish a committee to investigate " subversive activi- 
ties in their countries, or would they just shoot the suspects and investi- 
gate afterward, ' ' Mr. Pridinoff replied as follows : 

"In fact they said so. This is an interesting fact. One of the 
Ministers for Finance, Mr. Judevich, said in the Yugoslav con- 
trolled press, 'When you see a person who is in opposition to our 
regime, or a capitalist, grab him. Don't wait for justice. Grab him 
and get rid of him. ' An official in Yugoslavia said so and the official 
press repeated it. So you can figure out the rest of it yourself." 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 141 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO AID SOVIET RUSSIA 

One of the many Communist front organizations for propagan- 
dizing in behalf of the Soviet Union, this type of Communist front is 
among the earliest instigated by the Communist International and its 
affiliated Communist Parties. 

The American Committee to Aid Soviet Russia appears to be active 
in Los Angeles County and is probably a committee of the local branch 
of one of the larger Soviet admiration societies. The address of the 
committee is 615 South Virgil Avenue, Los Angeles, and the telephone 
number is FA 4290. A regular meeting of the organization was 
announced for January 30, 1947, at 8.30 p.m. and for May 29, 1947, at 
8.30 p.m. at the committee's headquarters on Virgil Avenue. 

Minna Rosenhouse signs one notice as ' ' Corresponding Secretary ' ' 
and Sam Gardner signs another as "Chairman." 



AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO SAVE REFUGEES 

This is a Communist front operating in the Communist refugee 
field. (See Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Exiled Wn ters Com- 
mittee, United American Spanish Aid Committee, Spanish Refugee 
Appeal, etc.) 

Among the well known supporters of Communist-front organiza- 
tions who lent their names to the American Committee to Save Refugees 
are the following : Walter Rautenstrauch, Franz Boas, Franklin Folsom, 
Annette Rubinstein, Margaret Schlauch, Peter Shipka, Edgar Snow, 
Lillian Hellman, Kyle Crichton (alias Robert Forsythe), William E. 
Dodd, Jr., Dan Gillmor, Dashiell Hammett, Corliss Lamont, Rockwell 
Kent, Ruth McKenney, Clifford Odets, George Seldes, Herman Shumlin, 
Henry E. Sigerist, Maxwell S. Stewart, Dudley Nichols, Adolph Dehn, 
William Gropper, Joe Jones, Richard Wright, and Lily Turner. 

AMERICAN COMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION CIO 

This Congress of Industrial Organization's affiliate, the American 
Communications Association, has been Communist dominated from the 
start. Its president, Joseph Selly, endorsed the infamous Communist 
front, the American Peace Mobilization, as did the organization's vice 
president, James D. Benson. Josephine Timms, secretary-treasurer, also 
supported this Communist front for assistance to the Stalin-Hitler Pact. 
Jack Winocur, secretary, and Mervyn Rathborne of the American Com- 
munications Association, also endorsed the American Peace Mobiliza- 
tion. Daniel Driesen, international representative of the American 
Communications Association, was affiliated with the Communist front, 
the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, as was the organi- 
zation 's president, Joseph P. Selly. Mervyn Rathborne was affiliated 
with the Communist front American League for Peace and Democracy. 

(See previous Committee Reports and index of this Report). 

AMERICAN FEDERATED RUSSIAN FAMINE RELIEF COMMITTEE 

This front came into being during the middle of September, 1921, 
upon the initiative of the American representative of the Russian Red 



142 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Cross, acting under mandate from its general headquarters in Moscow, 
through D. H. Dubrowsky. 

The provisional executive committee of this organization included 
the following individuals connected with the Friends of Soviet Russia : 
Allan S. Broms, A. Bittleman, Jacob W. Hartman, Ludwig Lore, and 
Louis Engdahl. 

According to Dubrowsky, this committee actually endeavored to 
send substantial relief to Russia but was sabotaged by the Friends of 
Soviet Russia, whose methods he described as follows : ' ' My own under- 
standing was that possibly 90 cents of each and every dollar collected 
went to the Communist Party, with the relief be damned. ' ' 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE 

This red front falls under the general heading of Pro-Communist 
Chinese Front organizations. The American Friends of the Chinese 
People was organized to support the Chinese Communist thrust against 
the National Chinese Government. Closely cooperating with this Com- 
munist group were Theatre Arts Committee, League of Women Shop- 
pers, American League for Peace and Democracy, Medical Bureau for 
Spain, Progressive Women's Council, International Workers Order, 
Workers Alliance, and the International Labor Defense. 

The Communist International has always been deeply interested in 
developments in China. It looks upon the revolutionary movement in 
China as an ally of the Russian revolution and a bulwark against attack 
upon the Soviet Union. Manuilsky declared that "revolutionary China 
* * * can become, in alliance with the U. S. S. R., the greatest world 
factor in far eastern politics * * * In alliance with the world proletariat, 
with its vanguard the Communist world party, China shall and will 
become the guardian of peace, the fighter against imperialist wars on 
the Pacific. " 

The Communist Party of the United States together with its various 
auxiliary front organizations, in carrying out the line laid down by 
the Communist International on China, has passed through various stages 
in accordance with the variations in the relations between the Soviet 
Union and the Government of China. These activities, while proclaimed 
as being in behalf of the Chinese people, were at all times dictated by 
the current exigencies of Soviet diplomacy. 

From 1924 to 1927 there existed a period of cooperation between 
the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communist Interna- 
tional. The official organ of the Communist International for February 
28, 1927, established the current line : 

' ' In order to mobilize all the reserves of the international revo- 
lutionary movement, it is necessary to carry out, with the speed 
commensurate with the exceptional importance of the matter, the 
united front under the slogan * Hands Off China' * * *." 

Following this directive the Communist Party in the United States 
launched a flood of ' ' Hands Off China ' ' committees. The Fourth National 
Convention of the Communist Party held in Chicago, August 21-30, 
1925, announced that "a large number of 'Hands Off China' meetings" 
had been held throughout the country and that "a special feature of 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 143 

these meetings" was the Communist maneuver in connecting them with 
"the slogan 'Stand by Soviet Eussia!' : 

Heading the "Hands off China" movement was Manuel Gomez, 
secretary of the All- America Anti-Imperialist League. Gomez was a 
delegate to the Sixth Congress of the Communist International and a 
member of the central executive committee of the Communist Party of 
the United States. 

After Chiang Kai-shek's attack upon the Communist Party of 
China in 1927, there was little activity for a few years by American 
Communist fronts in behalf of China. Subsidiary to the Trade Union 
Unity League was the Committee to Aid Chinese Trade Unions, headed 
by Robert W. Dunn, secretary, 96 Fifth Avenue, Room 314, New York 
City, located in the same building as the Trade Union Unity League. 

The national executive committee of the International Labor Defense 
called upon its members to rouse "the whole organization in support 
of the oppressed masses, especially in aid of the rising revolutionary 
struggles in the colonial and semicolonial countries," such as China 
(Labor Defender, September, 1930). The relief aspect was heavily 
stressed in order to elicit the most sympathetic response. 

The Friends of the Chinese People was launched January 4, 1933, 
to specialize in work in the Chinese field. In January, 1934, the magazine 
China Today made its first appearance. The word "American" was 
added to the organization's name in 1935 as part of the general stream- 
lining process during the Popular Front period. J. W. Phillips, Hansu 
Chan, and Frederick Spencer, were co-editors of China Today. 

Waldo Frank laid down the current Communist line in the Decem- 
ber, 1934, issue of China Today, protesting "against American and Euro- 
pean aid for Chiang Kai-shek." The united front of the democracies 
against the Fascist aggressors, adopted by the Communist International 
after 1935, saw the American Friends of the Chinese People in a typical 
Communist * ' about face. ' ' China Today now started screaming for ' ' col- 
lective security" and declared that "neutrality leads straight to war" 
and deplored the * ' twilight of isolation. ' ' 

This period was marked by friendliness between the government of 
Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists. The February, 1939, issue of 
China Today published an article entitled ' ' Two Fathers of Their Coun- 
tries, ' ' dealing with George Washington and Chiang Kai-shek. 

The Stalin-Hitler pact in August, 1939, was the signal for another 
reversal of Communist policy in its Chinese fronts. The American Friends 
of the Chinese People and its collaborating organizations became vigor- 
ously anti-war, isolationist and anti-administration. 

The Washington Committee for Aid to China (Washington, D. C.) 
followed the line laid down by the American Friends of the Chinese 
People. China Aid News, the official organ of the Washington Committee 
to Aid China, in reporting the speech of Frederick V. Field, stated : 

"Mr. Field, editor of Amerasia, charged that American interest 
had been indistinguishable from the interest of a strong imperialist 
power. * * * Field urged aid to China and the withdrawal of aid 
from England. * * * In conclusion he proposed * * full coop- 
eration with the Soviet Union. ' ' 



144 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

In China Today for May, 1941, T. A. Bisson wrote : 

"In concluding this agreement with Japan, as in its earlier 
pact with Germany, the Soviet Union joins neither of the opposing 
coalitions into which the world has been divided. * * * The Soviet- 
German pact of August, 1939, was a logical result of the course 
taken by British diplomacy in Europe during the immediately pre- 
ceding years. Similarly, the Soviet-Japanese pact of April, 1941, is 
the logical outcome of British and American policy in the Far East 
since 1937. * * * The Soviet Union chose to stay out of what is 
considered an imperialist war. ' ' 

In April of 1941 the Communists adopted a new attitude toward 
Chiang Kai-shek, raising the cry of national unity in China. Chiang had 
formed an "Anti-Communist Northwest Military Council. " Other Com- 
munist front organizations joined the American Friends of the Chinese 
People in its campaign of pressure upon the Chinese Government. 

Following Hitler's invasion of Russia in June, 1941, the American 
Friends of the Chinese People followed the other Communist fronts in 
an about-face in favor of war. 

A leaflet in the files of the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on 
Un-American Activities in California states, in part : 

"Who are the American Friends of the Chinese People? They 
are all those Americans, of diverse racial and national origins and 
of various political affiliations, who see that our duty to Americanism 
is a duty to the people of China in their present need. The organ- 
ization was begun in this country in 1932, with headquarters in 
New York. It now has branches in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Phila- 
delphia, as well as in San Francisco. 

"It is international in character in that similar organizations 
exist in other countries, although there is no organizational con- 
nection between the national groups. Thus, there is, in England, the 
English Friends of the Chinese People; in Canada, the Canadian 
Friends of the Chinese People ; in Mexico, the Mexican Friends of 
the Chinese People, and in France, the French Friends of the Chi- 
nese People. 

' ' The San Francisco Branch was set up formally in a meeting 
at the Far East Cafe, December 10, 1937, when officers were elected, 
and the group lost no time in setting into motion detailed plans for 
the realization of their objectives. ' ' 

The sponsors of the San Francisco branch of the American Friends 
of the Chinese People are listed as follows : Dr. Thomas Addis, Albert 
Bender, Samuel Boardman, Prof. Robert Brady, Prof. Arthur G. 
Brodeur, Dr. Adelaide Brown, Beniamino Buf ano, Mrs. Selah Chamber- 
lain, Prof. Haakon M. Chevalier, Prof. Ralph Chaney, Dr. Margaret 
Chung, Dr. Collin Dong, Dr. Ludwig A. Emge, Dr. Harold Faber, Prof. 
Harold M. Fisher, Mrs. Mortimer Fleishhacker, Jr., B. S. Fong, Mrs. 
Lawrence Harris, Rev. Herrick Lane, Thomas Lew, Rev. Lee S. Hong, 
Dean C. N. Lewis, Miss Elizabeth Livermore, Mrs. Horatio Livermore, 
Dr. and Mrs. Howard Markel, Dr. Bertha Monroe, Mrs. Mark McDonald, 
Prof. J. R. Oppenheimer, Mr. and Mrs. Silas Palmer, Bishop Edward L. 
Parsons, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Porter, Prof. Max Radin, Dr. Aurelia 
Reinhardt, Lee F. Randolph, Prof. Frank M. Russell, Prof. Chic Pelsha, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 145 

Miss Else Schilling, Prof. John S. P. Tatlock, Dr. B. B. Towne, Rev. 
Dillon W. Throckmorton, Prof. B. C. Wong, Rev. Daniel G. C. Wu, Mrs. 
Warren Gregory, Mr. and Mrs. Russell Selfridge, Mrs. James Ellis 
Tucker, and Mrs. Edwin R. Sheldon. Prof. Alexander Kaun is listed as 
the San Francisco branch chairman. 

The San Francisco headquarters is listed as 628 Montgomery Street, 
Room 431, telephone EXbrook 5961. 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

This front organization became active in June of 1944. Its head- 
quarters is located at 8 West 40th Street in New York City, and the 
organization is under the leadership of William J. Schieffelin. It has a 
connecting link with various other alien Communist fronts through Dr. 
Frank Kingdon. 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE SOVIET UNION 

(See Friends of the Soviet Union.) 

AMERICAN FUND FOR PUBLIC SERVICE 

This fund was established by Charles Garland, the son of James A. 
Garland. He established the fund in 1922 with $900,000. The fund grew 
to $2,000,000. 

Among the board of directors who handed out the money to left- 
wing organizations are Sidney Hillman, Roger N. Baldwin, William Z. 
Foster, Lewis Gannett, James Weldon Johnson, Robert Morss Lovett, 
Scott Nearing, Mary E. McDowell, Judah L. Magnes, Norman Thomas, 
Harry F. Ward, Morris Ernest, and Walter Nelles. 

Some of the beneficiaries of the American Fund for Public Service 
are as follows : the Daily Worker, New Masses, Vanguard Press, Feder- 
ated Press, Russian Reconstruction Farms, International Labor Defense, 
Commonwealth College, International Publishers, Workers Library Pub- 
lishers, Young Worker's League (the Young Communist League, now 
American Youth for Democracy), All- America Anti-Imperialist League, 
Trade Union Unity League, Labor Research Association, Novymir, 
League for Mutual Aid, and Manumit School. 

AMERICAN JEWISH CONGRESS 

On the national level this organization has enjoyed a clean bill of 
health. In 1936 the American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish 
Congress refused to admit to their organizations such Communist- 
dominated groups as the International Workers Order and the Icor. 
This refusal gave rise to the Communist inspired and dominated Jewish 
People's Committee. 

In California, and particularly in the Southern California Division, 
there has apparently been a quiet Communist infiltration into the Amer- 
ican Jewish Congress. The laudable efforts to screen Communists on the 
national level has not been noticeable in the organization's activities in 
Southern California. 

Rabbi Franklin Cohn, Pacific Coast Vice President of the American 
Jewish Congress, addressing the Southern California regional convention 

11 L-7088-D 



146 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

of the organization in the Biltmore Hotel (February 7 and 8, 1948), 
declared: "If the United States Government continues to fight the 
United Nations' decision on Palestine by back-door methods, then I am 
afraid that in two months.' time the United Nations will have gone the 
way of the League of Nations. ' ' 

Resolutions adopted by this convention of the American Jewish 
Congress indicates the organizations ' adherence to the Communist Party 
line. The convention went on record against loyalty checks for federal 
and governmental employees and called for the abolition of the Thomas 
Congressional Committee and the Tenney State Legislative Committee 
investigating un-American Activities. 

Dr. Stephen S. Wise is the National President of the American 
Jewish Congress. He has a long record of Communist front affiliations. 
Harry Bauman is the Chairman of the Administrative Committee. Max 
P. Ponder, is treasurer, Paul D. Gatov, financial secretary, and Mrs. 
Paul D. Gatov is the secretary. Judge Ben Eosenthal is the president of 
the Southern California Division. The vice presidents are Alfred L. 
Buckman, Max Lipin, Mrs. Fred C. Pollock, Myer Pransky, and Mrs. 
Monte Salvin. Mrs. Fred C. Pollock is the president of the Women's 
Division ; Beatrice Fishier, president of the Youth Division, and Myer 
Pransky, president of the Men's Division. Dr. Max Nussbaum is the 
President of the Pacific Coast Region, and Mel Springer is the Executive 
Director. 

The convention committee for the February 7 and 8, 1948 meet is as 
follows: Max Lipin, Chairman; Bella Bruch, Secretary; and Freda 
Colen, Henry Corby, Beatrice Fishier, Jean Freeman, Paul Gatov, Elsie 
Jacobson, Morris Leibovitz, Evelyn Robbins, Herschel Rosenthal, Aaron 
Rothblatt, Carl Weiner, and Mannie Williams, Commit ee Members. 

Among those who participated in the convention are the following : 
Daniel G. Marshall, Loren Miller, Mrs. Fred C. Pollock, William Strong, 
Marguerite Weiss, Nita Blackwell, Leon Clifton, Eleanor Grennard, 
Charles J. Katz, Milton Tyre, Philip Connelly, Mrs. Emanuel Kotkin, 
Dr. Franklin Fearing, Jaime Gonzalez-Monroy, Fred Herzberg, Mrs. 
Milton Harris, Wellesley Aron, Rabbi Jehudah M. Cohen, and Mrs. 
Phyllis Ziffren. 

The notorious Communist fellow-traveler, Carey Me Williams, spoke 
under the auspices of the American Jewish Congress February 16, 1948, 
before the San Fernando Valley Chapter. 

Chapter chairman of the American Jewish Committee in the files 
of the Senate Committee include the following: Mrs. Ed Harris, Mrs 
Freda Colen, Mrs. Joseph Glass, Mrs. Dora Katkin, Mrs. Jack Drum, 
Mrs. Joseph Dixon, Mrs. Ann Loewer, Mrs. Marci Adelman, Mrs. Leon 
Brod, Mrs. Flor Diamond, Mrs. Bessie Goldstein, Mrs. Jack Notrica, Mrs. 
Bess Goldman, Mrs. Sydney Cutler, Mrs. Ira Lesser, Morris Abraham, 
and Alfred Buckman. 

The mailing lists of Communists fronts in Southern California, taken 
from a master list in the possession of the Communist Party, include the 
above list of Chapter chairman of the American Jewish Committee. 

Dr. Stephen S. Wise has been identified with the following Com- 
munist front organizations: Allied Voters Against Coudert, American 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 147 

Friends of Spanish Democracy, American League for Peace and Democ- 
racy, Boycott Japanese Goods Conference, Russian War Relief, Com- 
mittee for a Boycott Against Japanese Aggression, Committee to Save 
Spain and China, Coordinating Committee to Lift the Embargo, Con- 
ference on Pan American Democracy, China Today Mass Meeting. 
National Reception Committee to the Russian Delegation, New York 
Tom Mooney Committee, and the Medical Bureau to Aid Spanish 
Democracy. 

Judge Ben Rosenthal of the Municipal Court of Los Angeles is a 
former Assemblyman who has supported many Communist-front causes. 
In 1940 he wrote a letter to Communist Aubrey Grossman (at that time 
in Stockton defending individuals who were being tried for contempt of 
the Yorty Committee investigating subversive activities in the State 
Relief Administration) attacking the Yorty Committee as an instrument 
for ' ' smearing ' ' Governor Olson and ' ' busting trade unions. ' ' The West- 
ern Worker (now the People's Daily World), for July 1, 1937, lists 
Rosenthal as a sponsor of the Los Angeles Friends of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Battalion. The same Communist paper for October 
14, 1937, reports Rosenthal working for the repeal of the Criminal 
Syndicalism Act. People's Daily World for January 1, 1938, lists Rosen- 
thai as an endorser of the successor to the Western Worker, the People's 
Daily World. In 1939 he appears on the letterhead of the Harry Bridges 
Defense Committee as a sponsor. The People's Daily World for August 
30, 1941, lists Rosenthal as a sponsor for a state-wide conference on 
civil rights in San Francisco, September 27, 1941, to protest the ' ' Tenney 
Committee" and the "Tenney Bill Outlawing the Communist Party." 
In 1947 Rosenthal wrote a letter to the Olympic Auditorium manage- 
ment protesting the management's refusal to rent its building to the 
Communist Party for a William Z. Foster rally. 

Rabbi Max Nussbaum has been associated with a number of Com- 
munist causes. He sponsored the American Youth for Democracy's 
(Young Communist League) "Salute to Young America" dinner at 
the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, December 16, 1945, and presented 
an award to Frank Sinatra at the ' * Welcome Home Joe ' ' dinner on the 
occasion of the second anniversary of the same Communist organization. 
He was a speaker at the Communist Down Town Forum, September 4, 
1944. He was a sponsor of the Communist Citizens Committee to Aid 
Locked-Out Hearst Employees in 1946. 

Daniel G. Marshall is the chairman of the Catholic Inter-Racial 
Council. He was vice chairman of the Southern California Committee for 
State FEPC. He spoke under the auspices of the Progressive Citizens 
of America, 1947. He was listed on the letterhead of the Citizens Com- 
mittee to Aid Locked-Out Hearst Employees. He is a member of the 
Communist inspired and dominated National Lawyers Guild. 

Loren Miller is a Los Angeles negro attorney. He formerly wrote 
for the Communist publication, New Masses. He was formerly associated 
with the Communist John Reed Club of Hollywood. He attended the 
Western Writers Congress in 1936. He was a member of the executive 
board of the Los Angeles Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild. In 
1941 he was one of the sponsors for a state-wide conference on civil rights 
in San Francisco to protest the ' ' Tenney Committee ' ' and the ' ' Tenney 



148 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Bill Outlawing the Communist Party. ' ' He was a sponsor of the Ameri- 
can Youth Congress in 1935 at the organization meeting held under the 
name of the Southern California Youth Congress, together with Leo 
Gallagher, Sam Darcy, Dr. Herbert Alexander, and Prof. S. M. Wixman. 
(Holther Report, p. 58). Miller was a member of the National Negro 
Congress, together with Tom Mooney, Matt Crawford, Langston Hughes, 
and Myra Page. He is a member of the board of directors of the Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America, and the Hollywood Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions Council of the Progressive Citizens of America conference on 
"thought control," July 9 to 13, 1947. ("Thought control" is the Com- 
munist line to combat exposure of Communist activity.) Miller also 
served on a committee of the Communist front, Mobilization for Democ- 
racy. 

Leon Clifton was a speaker in October of 1947 at a meeting under 
the auspices of the Communist newsletter In Fact, written and published 
by George Seldes. 

Eleanor Grennard is the wife of Elliot Grennard, contributor to the 
Communist New Masses, and former music editor and critic for Bill- 
board. Eleanor Grennard was a member of Federal Workers Local No. 
245, CIO. In 1946 she was employed by the Office of Price Administra- 
tion at 1031 South Broadway in Los Angeles and was an organizer for 
the CIO Public Employees Union, which included the federal workers. 
The Grennard automobile has been checked by committee investigators 
at the Danish Auditorium (July, 1945) during the Southern District 
Communist Political Association Convention and at the Los Angeles 
County Communist Party convention held at Park Manor, 2200 West 
Seventh Street, Los Angeles, September, 1945. Both Eleanor and Elliot 
Grennard were transfered to the Los Angeles County Communist Party 
in October, 1945, from a New York Communist Party unit in New York. 
Elliot Grennard was an instructor at the Communist Party's Peoples 
Educational Center for the winter term of 1947. 

The Communist record of Charles J. Katz is too long to be repro- 
duced here. The reader is referred to the former reports of the Legisla- 
tive Committees on un-American Activities and to the index of this 
report. 

Milton S. Tyre is an attorney and a member of the Communist firm 
headed by Communist Leo Gallagher. On May 18, 1942, Tyre signed a 
telegram addressed to President Roosevelt congratulating him for 
releasing Earl Browder, Secretary General of the Communist Party of 
the United States. During 1944 Tyre was a guest lecturer on "Wartime 
Trade Union Problems" at the Communist Party's People's Educa- 
tional Center. He was a sponsor of the Communist front, the American 
Committee for Spanish Freedom. On March 5, 1945, Tyre addressed the 
Communist Downtown Forum. During 1947 he was an instructor at the 
People's Educational Center. In March of 1947 Tyre appeared as an 
attorney for a radio group of Communists and Communist fellow- 
travelers before the Federal Radio Commissioner. Tj^re opposed the 
continuation of the Tenney Committee in June of 1947. 

Philip M. Connelly's long record of supporting Communist causes 
is detailed in former committee reports and throughout this report. 
(See index.) 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 149 

Franklin Fearing has carried on a rather frenzied activity in sup- 
port of Communist causes. The reader is referred to the index of this 
report and to previous legislative committee reports. 

Rabbi Jehudah M. Cohen is listed on the letterhead of the Committee 
to Defend America by Keeping Out of War as a sponsor in 1940. This 
Communist front was one of the organizations created for the purpose 
of assisting Hitler during his pact with Stalin. 

Aaron Rothblatt signed a Communist Party petition to participate 
in the primary election in Los Angeles for August 28, 1934. He gave his 
address as 1244 Tremaine Avenue, Los Angeles. He was a member of 
the Los Angeles Emergency Committee to Aid the Strikers (Hollywood 
Independent Citizens Committee on the Arts, Sciences and Profes- 
sions). Rothblatt sponsored the "Salute to Young America" dinner 
given by American Youth for Democracy (Young Communist League) 
December 16, 1945, at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. 

Miss Marguerite R. Weiss, legislative chairman of the Women 's 
Division of the American Jewish Congress, spoke on the evening of 
February 7, 1948, in the panel on " Legislative Action." Miss Weiss 
declared that the goal of the American Jewish Congress was that of a 
political action group to fight "anti-racial attitudes" and for a fair 
employment act. She stated that the Legislative Committees investigating 
un-American activities in California and the nation must be abolished. 
She condemned the "Tenneys and the Thomas' " and County loyalty 
checks. 

Miss Nita Blackwell, former secretary of the National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People also spoke. She stated that the 
150,000 Negroes who had recently come to Los Angeles were being 
"crowded into filthy ghettos" and that there had been numerous com- 
plaints of "police brutality and cruelty toward minorities." 

Milton S. Tyre of the National Lawyer's Guild utilized most of his 
energy in attacking the committees investigating un-American activities, 
following the Communist Party line in referring to the Washington 
Committee as the " Rankin-Thomas Committee." He stated that such 
committees were the Jews' greatest threat and that such committees 
operate by "intimidation." He stated that the purpose of both the 
Thomas and Tenney Committee is to create a black-list. 

The officers elected for 1948 are as follows : Judge Ben Rosenthal, 
Chairman ; Mrs. Murray Vruch, Louis Colen, Alfred L. Buckman, Max 
Lipin, Mrs. Fred C. Pollock, Meyer Pransky, and Miss Marguerite Weiss, 
Vice Presidents; Victor Menacker, Treasurer; Paul D. Gatov, Financial 
Secretary ; and Mrs. Paul D. Gatov, Secretary. 

AMERICAN LEAGUE AGAINST WAR AND FASCISM 

(See American League for Peace and Democracy.) 

AMERICAN LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND DEMOCRACY 

This Communist organization has been frequently referred to in 
the committee's previous reports. 

The Amsterdam World Congress Against War was held in Holland 
in August, 1932, under the direction of the Communist International. 
The well-known French Communist Henri Barbusse chairmaned the 



150 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

conference. (This meeting is sometimes referred to as the World Con- 
gress Against War.) 

The American Committee for Struggle Against War was a direct 
result of the Amsterdam Congress. 

A National Organizing Committee of the First United States Con- 
gress Against War met throughout the summer of 1933 and planned 
the transition from the American Committee for Struggle Against War 
to the United States Congress Against War and the American League 
Against War and Fascism. The United States Congress Against War 
was held in New York City September 29 to October 1, 1933. The Ameri- 
can League Against War and Fascism was founded at the United States 
Congress Against War. 

The Peoples Congress for Peace and Democracy, meeting in Pitts- 
burgh in November 1937, spawned the American League for Peace and 
Democracy. It is significant that the Canadian League Against War and 
Fascism almost simultaneously became the Canadian League for Peace 
and Democracy. 

The Communist International magazine for January, 1933, page 78, 
declares: "Our most successful application of the United Front has 
been in the antiwar and anti-Fascism movement. We led a highly suc- 
cessful U. S. Congress Against War * * * which brought together 2,616 
delegates from all over the country. * * * The Congress set up a 
permanent organization on ' federative basis called the American League 
Against War and Fascism'." 

The antiwar aspect of Communist front organizations is effective 
bait for peace-loving Americans. Many good intentioned Americans 
were " involved " in the "peace" and "democracy" fronts, accepting 
the purported objectives at face value. Although the chairman of the 
Senate Committee never joined the American League for Peace and 
Democracy, he was elected notwithstanding, to the National Executive 
Board. Under date of October 28, 1939, Chairman Tenney wrote to the 
secretary of the American League for Peace and Democracy, in part, 
as follows: 

* * * Recent developments have convinced me that the Com- 
munists in America are using such organizations as the league solely 
for the purpose of translating the foreign policy of Russia into action 
in our country, and in most cases the peace they desire is determined 
by the foreign office in Moscow. I am likewise convinced that these 
people, in their vociferous cry for democracy, use these processes to 
the end that democracy shall be destroyed. ' ' 

The Stalin-Hitler pact brought sudden exposure and consternation 
to the American League for Peace and Democracy, as it did to many 
other Communist fronts and it went out of existence in February of 
1940. Its hard-bitten Communists and fellow-travelers carried on, how- 
ever, in such new fronts as the Committee to Defend America by Keep- 
ing Out of War, the Emergency Peace Mobilization, the American Peace 
Mobilization, and the American People's Mobilization. 

The American Peace Mobilization is the name given to this front 
by the Emergency Peace Mobilization at its Labor Day week-end meeting 
held in Chicago in 1940. It was founded to give expression to the Com- 
munist line on foreign policy which grew out of the Stalin-Hitler pact. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 151 

It will be recalled that the American Communists changed overnight 
on June 22, 1941, from extreme isolationists to equally extreme "war- 
mongers" when the news broke that Hitler had double-crossed Stalin 
by invading Russia. 

During its existence the American League for Peace and Democracy 
organized subsidiary groups such as the China Aid Council, the National 
People Committee Against Hearst, and the Refugee Scholarship and 
Peace Campaign. 

Among those who have been prominent in the American League 
for Peace and Democracy and its subsidiary organizations are Francis 
J. McConnell, Reinhold Niebuhr, Reid Robinson, Frederick L. Schuman, 
James Waterman Wise, Catherine Bauer, Mary McLeod Bethune, John 
D. Butkovich, James B. Carey, Joseph Curran, Sherman H. Dalrymple, 
Max Lerner, Paul Robeson, S. Stephenson Smith, Channing H. Tobias, 
and A. F. Whitney. 

Others who have been affiliated in one capacity or another with the 
American League for Peace and Democracy, or one or more of its sub- 
sidiary organizations, are as follows : Roger Baldwin, William Dodd, Jr., 
Jules Garfield, Sam Jaffe, Morris Carnovsky, Tookie Hunter, Margaret 
Waller, Den Davis, Jr., William Gropper, Louis B. Boudin, Max R. 
Cohen, Granville Hicks, Robert Morss Lovett, T. A. Bisson, Charles J. 
Hendley, Maxwell S. Stewart, John H. Melish, Benjamin Busch, Mrs. 
Corliss Lamont, Eleanor Brannan, Harry F. Ward, Ann McNear, Jane 
Swanhuyser, Henry N. Wienman, Lewis Alan Berne, Ben Gold, Muriel 
Draper, Abram Flaxer, Frances Farmer, Alain Locke, Leane Zugsmith, 
Donald Ogden Stewart, Wanda Gag, Lewis Mumford, Vito Marcantonio, 
Kyle Crichton, Rex Ingram, Philip Loeb, Ella Winter, Anton Refregier, 
Robert W. Dunn, Earl Browder, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, 
Kenneth Born, Charles W. Burton, Sophinisba Breckinridge, Alfred 
Kamin, Harvey 'Connor, Paul Rosenthal, Oliver Haskell, Edgar Snow, 
Dr. Frank Baker, Frank Graham, Eduard C. Lindeman, Rev. A. Clayton 
Powell, Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Mrs. Donald Ogden Stewart, Dr. Max 
Yergan, Anna H. Rubir, Mrs. Victor I. Berger, Margaret Forsyth, 
Sherwood Anderson, Melvyn Douglas, Prof, Franz Boas, Congressman 
John M. Coffee, Jerome Davis, John P. Davis, Theodore Dreiser, Miguel 
Garriga, Donald Henderson, Joseph P. Lash, David Lasser, Lewis 
Merrill, Morris Muster, Samuel Ornitz, Mervyn Rathborne, Viola 
Brothers Shore, Nancy Cox, Jane Field, Ruth Wanger, Otto Weber, Dr. 
Henry E. Sigerist, Gertrude Steele, Mrs. Foley Grossman, Morris Katz, 
Charles Preston, Aaron Wool, Russell Thayer, Regina Rakoczy, Dorothy 
McConnell, Alice Barrows, Sophia Pressman, Edward Huberman, Israel 
Amter, Katherine Terrill, Malcolm Cowley, Elmer Rice, Prof. Robert 
Brady, Joseph Cadden, Rev. Dale DeWitt, Clarence Hathaway, Robert 
W. Kenny, Harry C. Lamberton, Prof. Oliver Larkin, Mrs. Samuel 
Ornitz, Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Herman Shumlin. Morris Watson, 
Harry Graham Baiter, John Stapp, George A. Coe, A. A. Heller, Ella 
Reeve Bloor, Joseph R. Brodsky, W. E. B. DuBois, Joseph Freeman, 
Lillian Furness, Joseph Gardner, Kate Crane Gartz, Michael Gold, 
Joshua Kunitz, Corliss Lamont, Lincoln Steffens, Bruce Bliven, Prof. H. 
P. Fairchild, Clarence Hathaway, Carol King, Freda Kirchwey, Prof. 
Colston E. Warne, Frank Spencer, Rev. Guy Emery Shipler, Helen R. 



152 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Bryan, Caroline O'Day, Lillian Hellman, Rabbi Michael Alper, Rabbi 
Samuel M. Cohen, Katherine Mclnerny, and Frank Tuttle. 

The Los Angeles branch of the American League for Peace and 
Democracy held a congress December 10th and llth, 1938, at the Royal 
Palms Hotel, 360 South Westlake, Los Angeles. This "congress" was 
endorsed by Salomon de la Selva, Hugh Wilkins, Prof. Harry Steinmetz, 
Dr. Eric Beecroft, Augustus Hawkins, Prof. George M. Day, Viola 
Brothers Shore, Kate Crane Gartz, Donald Ogden Stewart, Dudley 
Nichols, Cedric Belfrage, Roy Donnelly, Mrs. Jessie Terry, Ella Winter, 
Samson Lindauer, John Howard Lawson, Guy Endore, Melvyn Douglas, 
Don Healy, Rabbi Jacob Kohn, Rev. Floyd J. Seaman, Rev. E. P. Ryland, 
Floyd Covington, Amelia Richie, Harry Graham Baiter, Prof. George H. 
Coe, Irving Pichel, Samuel Ornitz, and Judge Robert W. Kenny. 

Samson A. Lindauer, who was affiliated with the American League 
for Peace and Democracy, is the president of the Los Angeles City 
Civil Service Commission. His Communist sympathies are indicated by 
his attack on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors' ordinance 
in reference to loyalty check for Los Angeles County employees. 

Samuel Ornitz, whose name appears as an endorser of the American 
League for Peace and Democracy, has a long Communist record. Louis 
J. Russell testified before the Thomas Committee in Washington, D. C., 
October 29, 1947, that Samuel Ornitz held Communist Party Card No. 
47181 in 1944. Russell further testified that the card contained a notation 
"1944, Card No. 41826." The address appearing on the card was 1044 
South Redondo, Los Angeles. A further notation stated that "New Card 
issued on December 2, 1944." 

Samuel Ornitz ' record appears at page 406 of the Thomas Committee 
Report and corroborates the information contained in the Senate Fact- 
Finding Committee's files. It is as follows: 

There is no evidence of any open admission of Communist Party 
membership by Samuel Ornitz. However, Rena M. Vala, a former member 
of the Communist Party, has cited Samuel Ornitz as a fellow member in 
her affidavit dated November 23, 1942, according to the 1943 report of 
the California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities. 
Miss Vale said that in 1935 "Samuel Ornitz identified himself to me as 
a Communist Party member and discussed at considerable length the 
intentions of the Communist Party in Hollywood and especially in rela- 
tion to the motion-picture industry" (p. 123). 

Testimony of Ivan Francis Cox, former member of the Communist 
Party, before the California Superior Court on December 8, 1937, 
reflects also that Samuel Ornitz was a member of the Communist Party. 
The California Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities has 
listed Samuel Ornitz as a financial contributor to the Communist Party 
as of August 15, and September 11, 1940, according to testimony received 
in that committee. Testimony presented by George Oliver Bertholon. 
former member of the Communist Party and Young Communist League, 
before an executive session of the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities (vol. 3, p. 1161, executive hearings) reflects that Mrs. Samuel 
(Sadie) Ornitz was a member of the Communist Party and that her son, 
Donald Raymond Ornitz, was a member of the Young Communist League. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 153 

According to Communist standards, party members are not sup- 
posed to have even personal relations with those who are hostile to the 
party. 

The Daily Worker of September 14, 1932, page 1, listed Samuel 
Ornitz as a signer of "A Call for Support of the Communist Party 
Candidates for President and Vice President, William Z. Foster and 
James W. Ford/ ' 

In a pamphlet entitled ' ' Culture and the Crisis, ' ' on page 32, Samuel 
Ornitz is again listed as a member of the League of Professional Groups 
for Foster and Ford. In the presidential campaign of 1936, an official 
letterhead of the Committee of Professional Groups for Browder and 
Ford, dated September 24, 1936, carries the name of Samuel Ornitz as 
a member. Earl Browder was at that time Communist candidate for 
President and James Ford was the Communist candidate for Vice Presi- 
dent. The Daily Worker on March 5, 1941, page 2, carried a statement 
directed to President Roosevelt in defense of the Communist Party. 
Samuel Ornitz is shown as a signer of this statement. 

Leo Gallagher has been a candidate for Secretary of State and other 
offices on the Communist Party ticket in California. Samuel Ornitz is 
shown as an active participant in a dinner in behalf of Leo Gallagher, 
according to the People's World of June 4, 1941. This was during the 
period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact. 

The Daily Worker of June 25, 1936, page 2, lists Tom Mooney as a 
member of the honorary presidium of the Communist Party. His case 
was the center of world-wide Communist agitation. The Daily Worker 
of March 23, 1933, lists Samuel Ornitz as a speaker at a meeting in behalf 
of Tom Mooney held in San Francisco. The testimony presented in a 
California court on October 3, 1940, reflects that Mr. Ornitz wrote the 
dramatic skit for this case. 

The People's World for April 3, 1945, contained an article headed 
"Memorial started for Eva Shafran Education Foundation will serve 
Los Angeles labor, progressives." The article stated that "Plans for the 
organization of an Eva Shafran Educational Foundation as the best 
means of honoring Eva Shafran and carrying on the work of progres- 
sive education to which she devoted her life were made public here today. 
Samuel Ornitz, noted writer and lecturer, is chairman of the foundation. " 
Eva Shafran was a well-known member of the Communist Party. 

The People's Daily World is the official west coast organ of the 
Communist Party. In its issue of July 9, 1943, Mr. Ornitz is listed as one 
who "enthusiastically sponsored and endorsed a call for a fund drive," 
in behalf of this paper. This Communist paper organized what was 
known as the Hollywood Forum, held at the Embassy Auditorium dur- 
ing the week of April 2, 1946, according to People's World, March 26, 
1946. Ornitz was a speaker of this forum. 

The workers bookshops are part of a chain of official Communist 
book shops scattered all over the country. According to the Daily Worker 
of August 28, 1934, Mr. Ornitz' works have been on sale at the Workers 
Bookshops in San Francisco. It should be noted, at this point, that Com- 
munist book shops do not promote hostile literature. At this time, Mr. 
Ornitz was a signer of a protest to the Governor of California and the 
Mayor of San Francisco, in defense of the Workers Bookshops, according 
to the Daily Worker for August 28, 1934, page 5. 



154 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The American League for Peace and Democracy was formed by the 
Communist Party prior to the period of the Stalin-Hitler pact. Accord- 
ing to former Attorney General Biddle, this organization was "estab- 
lished in the United States in an effort to create public sentiment in behalf 
of a foreign policy adapted to the interest of the Soviet Union" (Con- 
gressional Record, September 24, 1942). At that time this policy called 
for the support of the democracies against the Fascist aggressors in line 
with current Communist policies. This organization was also cited as a 
Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
on January 3, 1940, June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944. A letterhead 
dated January 6-8, 1939, of the American Congress for Peace and Democ- 
racy, organized by the American League for Peace and Democracy, 
shows Mr. Ornitz as an endorser. 

Mr. Ornitz was also a speaker for the Los Angeles branch of this 
organization at a meeting held on September 28, 1938, at the Los Angeles 
Trinity Auditorium. According to the People's World of July 8, 1938, 
page 1, he was scheduled to speak at another Los Angeles meeting of this 
organization in behalf of Spanish refugees. The People's World of Sep- 
tember 27, 1938, also lists him as a speaker for the American League for 
Peace and Democracy in Los Angeles. 

The American League for Peace and Democracy was succeeded by 
the American Peace Mobilization, after the signing of the Stalin-Hitler 
pact. According to former Attorney General Biddle, this organization 
was engaged in " picketing the White House, which began in April, 1941, 
in protest against lend-lease and the entire national defense program. 
This picket line was suddenly called off on the afternoon of June 21, 
1941, when Hitler was opening his attack on the Soviet Union" (Con- 
gressional Record, September 24, 1942). 

This organization has also been cited as a Communist front by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944. 
According to the Daily Worker of April 24, 1941, page 7, Mr. Ornitz was 
a leader of this organization. The American Peace Mobilization launched 
what it called the American Peace Crusade. According to the New 
Masses of August 6, 1940, page 23, Mr. Ornitz was the head of a 
Speakers ' School of the Hollywood Peace Forum, in connection with this 
crusade. Again the People's World of April 19, 1940, lists Mr. Ornitz as 
a speaker at the Hollywood Peace Forum. This meeting was sponsored by 
the Hollywood League for Democratic Action, under the title ' ' Can Our 
Ballots Stop Bullets?" He is also listed by the People's World of July 3, 
1940, as a speaker at the Hollywood Peace Forum with Herbert Biberman 
at the Embassy Auditorium. Both Biberman and Ornitz were leading 
members of the American Peace Mobilization. On June 8, 1940, Mr. 
Ornitz was a speaker of a so-called peace assembly, held on the steps of 
the Los Angeles City Hall, under the auspices of the American Peace 
Mobilization and the American Peace Crusade. Mr. Ornitz also spoke at 
the Hollywood Peace Forum, held at the First Unitarian Church at Los 
Angeles on May 31, 1940. 

He was also a speaker and a committee member of the American 
Peace Crusade meeting held at Los Angeles at the Embassy Auditorium, 
on June 21, 1940. He presented a radio address over Station KFVD, on 
June 5, 1940, to supplement the campaign of the American Peace 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 155 

Mobilization. He spoke at the Hollywood Town Meeting under the 
auspices of the Hollywood Peace Forum on June 21, 1940. He also sent 
greetings to the meeting of the American Peace Mobilization held in 
Chicago, August 31 to September 2, 1940. Mr. Ornitz was a member of 
the resolutions committee at the Chicago meeting of the American Peace 
Mobilization. 

The People's World of January 23, 1940, page 5, and February 8, 
1940, page 5, lists him as the speaker at various so-called peace meetings 
held in Hollywood and Los Angeles. 

Samuel Ornitz himself admitted he helped organize the American 
Peace Crusade, according to an article by Ornitz appearing in the New 
Masses for August 27, 1940, page 12. 

The antiwar stand of the American Peace Mobilization was dras- 
tically altered when Hitler attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. 
The People's World dated July 7, 1941, page 3, quoted Tom Cullen, 
executive secretary of the American Peace Mobilization, as saying: 
"The invasion of the Soviet Union has altered the character of the 
present war * * *." The newspaper also stated that the American 
Peace Mobilization would hold a mass meeting on July 14, 1941, at 
the Philharmonic Auditorium at which the new policy of the APM 
and a program to aid the defeat of Hitlerism would be presented. That 
Samuel Ornitz went along with the American Peace Mobilization in its 
sudden twist is evidenced by the same newspaper article which stated 
that Ornitz would be one of the speakers at the aforementioned mass 
meeting. 

The International Labor Defense, American section of the Inter- 
national Red Aid, with headquarters in Moscow, has been cited by former 
Attorney General Biddle as the "legal arm of the Communist Party " 
(Congressional Record, September 24, 1942). 

It has been cited by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties as a Communist front on June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944. 

Its chief interest was the defense of Communist cases. According 
to a 1937 letterhead of the International Labor Defense, Mr. Ornitz 
was a member of its advisory board. He was also a member of its national 
committee. Equal Justice, official organ of the International Labor 
Defense, for May, 1940, page 7, carries the greetings of Samuel Ornitz. 

Closely associated with the International Labor Defense, and 
similar in its purposes, was the National Committee for the Defense 
of Political Prisoners. This organization has been cited by Attorney 
General Biddle as "substantially equivalent to International Labor 
Defense, the legal arm of the Communist Party. " 

It has defended such prominent Communists as Angelo Herndon, 
William Schneiderman, and Earl Browder (Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942). It has been cited as a Communist front by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities on June 25, 1942, and 
March 29, 1944. Mr. Ornitz is listed as a member of this committee on 
its letterhead dated October 31, 1935. 

The National Committee for People 's Rights was a successor organ- 
ization to the National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners. 
According to Attorney General Biddle, "In January, 1938, the name 



156 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

was changed to the National Committee for People's Rights" (Con- 
gressional Record, September 24, 1942). This committee has been cited 
as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties on March 29, 1944, and June 25, 1942. According to the official 
organ of the National Committee for People's Rights, entitled "News 
You Don't Get, " for November 15, 1938, Mr. Ornitz is listed as a member. 

The criminal syndicalism laws of the various states have been bit- 
terly fought by the Communist Party because they are directed chiefly 
against their machinations. According to the New Masses, of December 
1931, page 30, Mr. Ornitz is listed as a speaker at a meeting held at the 
Star Casino in New York, on December 6, 1931, to fight the "vicious 
criminal-syndicalism law of Kentucky." 

The campaign in behalf of the Scottsboro boys was conducted chiefly 
by the International Labor Defense, described above. According to the 
Western Worker, official Communist organ of July 13, 1936, Mr. Ornitz 
was a participant at a benefit in behalf of the campaign for the Scotts- 
boro boys, who had previously been convicted. This benefit affair was held 
at Club Alabama in Los Angeles. 

World-wide condemnation accompanied the so-called Moscow trials, 
which were used by the Soviet Regime to eliminate all its critics. These 
trials were universally held to be a travesty of justice. According to Soviet 
Russia Today, of March, 1937, pages 14 and 15, Mr. Ornitz was a signer 
of an open letter to American liberals, defending these trials. A similar 
statement appeared in the Daily Worker of April 28, 1938, page 4, as "A 
Statement of American Progressives on the Moscow Trials." 

Mr. Ornitz again was listed as a signer. 

Leon Trotsky was a Soviet official who broke with Stalin and sought 
asylum in Mexico. According to the Western Worker, a west-coast edition 
of the Daily Worker, dated March 1, 1937, Samuel Ornitz was one of the 
51 persons who signed an open letter criticizing the American Committee 
for the Defense of Trotsky. The open letter also denounced demands for 
investigation of the Russian "purge" trial as political interference in 
the internal affairs of the Soviet Union with hostile intent. 

International Literature is the official organ of the International 
Union of Revolutionary Writers, which had its headquarters in Moscow. 
International Literature, No. 7, dated July, 1938, page 105, listed a group 
of individuals who were signers to a "Statement of American Intel- 
lectuals." 

The statement voiced approval of the attempt of the Soviet Union to 
preserve and extend its gains and strength by the then recent Moscow 
trials, and it supported efforts of the Soviet Union to "free itself from 
insidious internal dangers." Samuel Ornitz was listed as one of the 
signers of this statement. 

In August, 1943, a committee was organized for a reception for Prof. 
S. Michoels and Col. I. Feffer, members of the first official Soviet Jewish 
delegation to the United States. According to the Peoples World of 
August 9, 1943, page 3, Samuel Ornitz was a member of the national 
reception committee for these men. 

New Masses is an official Communist weekly which has been cited as 
a Communist periodical by former Attorney General Francis Biddle 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 157 

(Congressional Eecord, September 24, 1942). It was also cited as a Com- 
munist magazine by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
on June 24, 1942, and March 29, 1944. Samuel Ornitz has contributed to 
New Masses, as evidenced by the issues of the publication dated Decem- 
ber 1931, page 4; October 1931, page 3; August 27, 1940, page 12; and 
August 12, 1941, page 19. It is an accepted Communist practice to limit 
the use of the columns of its publications to persons who toe the party line. 

The Zukas-SCMWA Committee was organized in defense of B. 
Joseph Zukas, who was a Communist leader of the State, County, and 
Municipal Workers in the California Relief Administration, whose activ- 
ities were under investigation by a California State Assembly committee 
in 1940. According to the letterhead of this committee, dated July 15, 
1940, Mr. Ornitz was a sponsor. 

The Morning Freiheit is the official Communist organ in the Jewish 
language. The Peoples World of October 18, 1943, page 3, lists Mr. Ornitz 
as vice chairman of the Los Angeles Chapter of the Morning Freiheit 
Association. 

The Peoples World for April 16, 1947, reported that Paul Novick, 
Editor-in-Chief of the Morning Freiheit, New York City, would speak 
on April 19, 1947, at the Embassy Auditorium, Ninth and Grand Streets, 
in celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Freiheit. The article 
further stated that Samuel Ornitz, "President of the Freiheit Asso- 
ciation, Los Angeles," and Harry Daniels, Legislative Director of the 
Communist Party, would also speak at the celebration. 

Acting in accordance with the instructions of the Seventh Congress 
of the Communist International issued in the summer of 1935, the Com- 
munist Party conducted an -active campaign in behalf of the Spanish 
Communists during the Spanish Civil War. At a meeting held at the 
Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles on February 24, 1937, Mr. Ornitz 
contributed toward a fund in support of these efforts. 

The Abraham Lincoln Battalion (Brigade) was a military organi- 
zation recruited by the Communist Party for the purpose of giving mili- 
tary aid to the Spanish Communists. 

Earl'Browder, former Executive Secretary of the Communist Party 
has admitted that 60 percent of its corps were members of the Com- 
munist Party. Mr. Ornitz is listed by the Peoples World of July 19, 1938, 
as a speaker for an organization known as the Friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade. 

The Peoples World of July 30, 1938, page 3, lists him as a speaker 
in honor of Harry Hynes and Virgil Rhetta, who were both members of 
the Communist Party, killed in action with the Abraham Lincoln Bat- 
talion. The Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade is cited as a Com- 
munist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on 
March 29, 1944, as is also the Abraham Lincoln Brigade or Battalion. 
The League of American Writers was the American affiliate of the 
International Union of Revolutionary Writers, with headquarters in 
Moscow. It has been cited as a Communist front by the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, June 25, 1942, 
and March 29, 1944. 

It has also been cited as under Communist auspices by Attorney- 
General Biddle in the Congressional Eecord of September 24, 1942. 



158 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The organization has been pledged to the defense of the Soviet Union 
and "use of art as an instrument of the class struggle. " Mr. Ornitz is 
listed by the Daily Worker of January 18, 1935, page 5, as a signer of 
the call for the Congress of American Revolutionary Writers, which 
founded the League of American Writers. 

The Daily Worker of September 14, 1942, page 7, lists Mr. Ornitz 
as a signer of a statement issued by the League of American Writers 
demanding the opening of a second front. This statement was issued 
after Hitler's attack on Stalin and the change of the Communist Party 
line from antiwar to prowar. 

Samuel Ornitz also was one of the signers of the call to the fourth 
congress, held by the League of American Writers in New York City, 
June 6-8, 1941. 

The Writers Congress held October 1, 2, 3, 1943, was organized 
by the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, as successor to the Hollywood 
Chapter of the League of American Writers. On the official program of 
the Writers Congress, Mr. Ornitz is listed as a member of the panel of 
minority groups. 

The Progressive Citizens of America was founded as a frankly pro- 
Communist group as a result of a split in the Independent Citizens 
Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, after Harold L. Ickes 
and other liberals had condemned the Independent Citizens Committee 
as Communist dominated. Mr. Ornitz is listed by the Daily Worker of 
July 5, 1947, page 11, as a participant in the conference of the Holly- 
wood Arts, Sciences, and Professions Council of the Progressive Citizens 
of America. The Progressive Citizens of America has been cited by the 
Committee on Un-American Activities as a Communist front in its report 
on June 12, 1947. 

The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League was founded by Isaac Romaine, 
alias V. J. Jerome, member of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party. It was dissolved upon the signing of the Stalin-Hitler Pact. Accord- 
ing to the Hollywood Now of June 16, 1939, official organ of the League, 
Mr. Ornitz is listed as a member who was active since the organization 
was founded. According to the People's World of August 11, 1938, page 
1, he was a speaker at a meeting which founded the organization. Holly- 
wood Now of September 28, 1938, again lists him as a speaker. 

The International Workers Order was cited by Attorney General 
Biddle as "one of the strongest Communist organizations " (Congres- 
sional Record, September 24, 1942). The Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities has cited this organization as a Communist front 
on January 3, 1940, and June 25, 1942. The organization has actively 
supported Communist campaigns, candidates, and the Communist Party 
press. 

On February 4, 1940, Mr. Ornitz was the principal speaker at a 
meeting of the International Workers Order, held at 972 North Hobart 
Boulevard, Los Angeles. 

Again, the People's World of June 4, 1943, page 2, lists him as a 
speaker under the auspices of the Franz Boas Lodge of the International 
Workers Order in Los Angeles. The People's World of November 16, 
1943, page 2, mentions Mr. Ornitz as a speaker at a meeting held on 
November 22, 1943, at Carpenters Hall, 5164 Santa Monica Boulevard, 
Los Angeles. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 159 

The Hollywood League for Democratic Action cooperated with the 
Hollywood Peace Forum at a meeting held at the Wilshire-Ebell Audi- 
torium on May 3, 1940. Mr. Ornitz was a speaker. The Hollywood League 
for Democratic Action was the predecessor of the Hollywood branch of 
the Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessions, which is * lentioned above. 

The American Student Union has been cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, 
June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944. The Rapp-Coudert committee investi- 
gating Communist activities in the New York public schools has cited this 
as an organization ' ' for transmitting the aims and programs of which the 
Young Communist League is the initiating and projecting element." 

Mr. Ornitz was one of the principal instructors of the American 
Student Union camp held in the San Bernardino Mountains from 
August 18 to 25, 1940. 

The Workers International Relief was an international organiza- 
tion, with headquarters in Moscow, which raised funds for Communist- 
led strikes and campaigns throughout the world. It was closely associated 
with the International Labor Defense. According to the Daily Worker 
of May 8, 1934, Mr. Ornitz was the chairman of an open-forum meeting, 
held in Los Angeles on April 15, 1934, in behalf of the Workers Inter- 
national Relief. 

According to People's World of January 21, 1940, Mr. Ornitz was 
a sponsor for the Conference for Democratic Action held at Fresno, 
California. This organization has been cited as a Communist front by 
the California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, 
in its report for 1943, page 91. It is closely linked to the Hollywood 
League for Democratic Action cited above. 

Actors Laboratory is a training school for actors in Hollywood 
whose officers have lengthy records of Communist-front activity as 
evidenced in attached reports; such officers include Roman Bohnen, 
chairman; Larry Parks, treasurer; Morris Carnovsky, Jules Dassin', 
Edward Dmytryk, members of the executive board. 

The organization cooperated with the Hollywood Writers Mobiliza- 
tion which has been described above. An undated leaflet of the Actors 
Laboratory Theatre, entitled "An Evening for the Lab." lists Samuel 
Ornitz and his wife as ' ' audience sponsors. ' ' 

The Motion Picture Artists Committee was an affiliate of the North 
American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy, which was also part 
of the campaign to aid Spanish Communists. The North American Com- 
mittee was cited as a Communist front by the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities on January 3, 1940, and March 29, 1944, and 
by Prof. John Dewey's Committee for Cultural Freedom in April, 1940. 
The Motion Picture Artists Committee was led by William Gropper, 
well-known cartoonist for the Communist press, and Kyle Crichton, 
alias Robert Forsythe, a frequent contributor to New Masses. Samuel 
Ornitz was a member of the Motion Picture Artists Committee, according 
to Who's Who in America, volume 20 (1938-39, page 1904). 



160 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

AMERICAN PEACE CRUSADE 

The American Peace Crusade was organized by the Communists in 
California in preparation for the national gathering, which became 
known as the American Peace Mobilization. Its purpose was the creation 
of an organization to put the terms of the Stalin-Hitler Pact into effect 
in the United States. 

Kate Crane-Gartz, wealthy benefactor of Communist causes, sent 
a letter to President Roosevelt on May 18, 1940, protesting against the 
building of more warships. Her letter was reprinted by the Pasadena 
Council, American Peace Crusade, Ralph Cheney, coordinator, urging 
cooperation. 

On June 8, 1940, the American Peace Crusade held a meeting on 
the steps of the City Hall in Los Angeles, after which an estimated 
crowd of around 20,000 marched to the Olympic Auditorium. The follow- 
ing Communist front organizations and individuals sponsored this meet- 
ing : Los Angeles Congress of Industrial Organizations, Industrial Union 
Council, the California Youth Legislature, the Hollywood Peace Forum, 
Labor's Non-Partisan League, the National League Conference, Work- 
ers ' Alliance of America, Joseph Curran for the National Maritime Union, 
Theodore Dreiser, Jack McMichael for the American Youth Congress, 
Louis Goldblatt, secretary of the California State Congress of Industrial 
Organizations Industrial Union Council, and Herbert Biberman. 

The American Peace Crusade denounced the Burke- Wadsworth 
conscription bill as marking * ' military rule, the end of free speech ' ' and 
' * some of the things fascism means. ' ' 

The official organ of the American Peace Crusade was the Age of 
Treason. 

A leaflet of the American Peace Crusade entitled " Think Clearly!" 
listed the officers of the organization as Herbert Biberman, Carey Me Wil- 
liams, Mrs. Mary Aidlin, Maynard Hamilton, Dr. Morris Feder, Rev. Carl 
Allen, Herb Sorrell, Philip M. Connelly, Mrs. Lee Bachelis, Rev. Hamil- 
ton Boswell, Don Healey and Ernest Dawson. 

The frenzy with which the Communists attempted to organize the 
American Peace Crusade is indicated by the following mimeographed 
leaflet : 

"Information for Peace Crusaders 

"(1) The one big job for every Peace Crusader during the 
coming nine days is to help organize the first meeting of the County 
Crusade Council. This meeting will be held on Tuesday, June 18th, 
at 8 p.m. at the First Unitarian Church, 2936 W. Eighth Street (near 
Vermont). 

1 ' (2) First of all, we have the task of getting all possible organi- 
zations to elect delegates to the Council meeting. All types of organi- 
zations trade-union, cultural, fraternal, church, sport, Negro, 
youth, women, veterans, Mexican, etc. should elect delegates. Each 
city-wide operation and each local or branch of that organization, 
should be urged to elect from one to three delegates, depending on 
its size. (Enclosed is a copy of a call for delegates to the County 
Council meeting. This call should be brought on the floor of every 
organization possible. ) 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 161 

11 (3) The second main task for the coming nine days is to start 
as many Crusade Clubs as possible. Starting such a club is simple. 
It merely requires that you get together five or more of your shop 
mates, or fellow employees, or friends, or relatives, or neighbors, 
who agree to work for the cause of peace along the lines of the 
American Peace Crusade. Each club set up is entitled to send one 
delegate to the County Council. 

"All Crusaders receiving this kit are requested to attend this 
first meeting of the County Council on June 18th. 

" (4) At the first meeting of your Crusade Club, it is suggested 
that you discuss the principles of the Crusade and ways and means 
of promoting the growth of the Crusade. This should revolve around 
the questions of securing affiliations of organizations and the build- 
ing of additional clubs. 

" (5) The program, principles and organizational rules of the 
American Peace Crusade will be discussed and voted upon at the 
County Council meeting on the 18th. It is the tentative plan of the 
Crusade to issue weekly or bi-weekly small pamphlets and folders 
for wide public distribution. Various phases of peace activity and 
campaigns will be undertaken regularly. 

" (6) Be sure to be present at the County Council meeting. Be 
sure to have your Crusade Club or organization represented. Come 
prepared to take part in the discussion and contribute your sug- 
gestions. ' ' 

Captains were appointed for Southern California assembly districts. 
A mimeographed list in the possession of the Senate Fact-Finding Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities reveals that the following individuals 
were appointed to coordinate the activities of the American Peace Cru- 
sade clubs in the indicated Assembly Districts: Frank Beyea, 43d; 
Kaphael Konigsberg, 44th ; R. Osland, 45th ; Ralph Cheyney, 47th ; Dena 
Peterson, 49th; Rev. Carl Allen, 51st; Dr. Morris Feder, 52d; Celia 
Wilby, 53d ; Lillian MacKay, 54th ; James L. Meachen, 55th ; Calvert S. 
Wilson, 56th ; Jean Sackheim, 57th ; Cecile Spiegel, 58th ; Sidney Melin- 
koff, 59th ; Alice Fisher, 60th ; Ernest Dawson, 61st ; Willia Mae Lewis, 
62d ; Malcolm Caldwell, 63d ; Jude Sollins, 64th ; Eleanor Holmer, 65th ; 
Alice Elconin, 66th ; Clara Towne, 67th; Chester Jordan, 68th and Delay 
Bennett, 70th and 71st. 

AMERICAN PEACE MOBILIZATION 

One of the boldest and most flagrant of all Communist fronts, the 
American Peace Mobilization, was organized for the purpose of support- 
ing Soviet Russia during the Stalin-Hitler pact. This was the period 
August, 1939, to the invasion of the Ukraine by Hitler's panzer divisions 
in June of 1941. While Hitler and Stalin were joined in a partnership- 
looting of Europe, the Communists in the United States, working through 
the American Peace Mobilization, did everything within their power to 
keep the United States from arming and assisting Great Britain. In one 



12 L-7088-D 



162 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

of its official statements, issued in March, 1941, the American Peace 
Mobilization declared : 

"But even if we don't approve of England's war, isn't her side 
still preferable to Hitler's; and isn't it better to fight and beat 
Hitler with England than without her? No. An English victory 
will result in the same sort of imperialist, anti-democratic peace as 
will a Nazi victory. ' ' 

At the time of the issuance of the foregoing statement, the American 
Peace Mobilization was engaged in picketing the White House. Its pickets 
carried placards which denounced the President as a warmonger and a 
tool of Wall Street. There were also placards w r hich denounced lend- 
lease, and others which described the war as an imperialist conflict, etc. 
Young Communist members continuously passed out leaflets at UCLA 
and the University of California at Berkeley calling upon the students 
to resist conscription, lend-lease and to keep out of "the British 
Imperialist War. ' ' 

On the very day that Hitler attacked Russia, the American Peace 
Mobilization withdrew its pickets from the White House. The organiza- 
tion itself was promptly disbanded, and its erstwhile adherents became 
vociferous American patriots demanding an immediate entrance of the 
United States into the war. 

The American Peace Mobilization carried on part of its agitation 
with songs. The chorus of one is illustrative : 

* ' Oh Franklin Roosevelt told the people how he felt ; 

We damn near believed what he said. 
He said, I hate war and so does Eleanor, 

But we won 't be safe 'till everybody 's dead. ' ' 

The Daily Worker for September 3, 1940, carried a list of the 
permanent officers elected September 2, 1940, to lead the American Peace 
Mobilization. The Rev. John B. Thompson of Oklahoma was elected 
chairman. Reid Robinson, President of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Work- 
ers, CIO; Paul Robeson, Negro baritone; Congressman Vito Marcan- 
tonio of New York State ; Jack McMichael, Chairman of the American 
Youth Congress; Theodore Dreiser, novelist; Katherine Terrell, Execu- 
tive Secretary of the Institute for Pacific Relations, and Frederic Field, 
Secretary of the Institute for Pacific Relations, were elected vice chair- 
men. 

The following were elected to the National Council of the American 
Peace Mobilization : Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Howard Bay, Marc 
Blitzstein, Donald Ogden Stewart, Harry Van Arsdale, James Carey, 
Hugh Delacy, Herbert Biberman, Joseph Cadden, Dr. Walter Neff, 
George Marshall, Elmer Felhaber, John P. Davis, Harvey O'Connor, 
Morris Watson, Rev. Owen Knox, Leonard Goldsmith, Gerald Harris, Sr., 
Carl Swanson, Grace Makepeace, Herbert Long, Howard Lee, Donald 
Henderson, Rev. Chad. W'ilson, Virgil Mason, Henry Donaghue, Mervyn 
Rathbone, Charles Doraine, Pearl Hart, Abram Flaxer, Rabbi Moses, 
Revels Cayton, Joseph Curran, John DeBoer, Dr. Max Yergan, Millen 
Brand, Carl Sandburg, Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, Carey 
Me Williams, Earl Robinson, Rev. Frank Smith, Charles E. Gley, J. P. 
Merrill, George Nelson, Michael Quill, Dr. Abraham Cronbach, George S. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 163 

Murphy, Charles Fine, Cortney Ward, Clinton Clark, Bella Dodd, Rev. 
Owen Whitfield, Manual Lucas, Virgil 'Connor, Grant Oakes, William 
Hixson, Norman McKibben, Enoch Price, Prof. Franz Boas, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Gayle, Oscar Ameringer, William Ross, William Harrison, Clifford 
'Brien, Phillip Connelly, Meyer Adelman, Louis Berne, George Seldes, 
Charles Digg, Saul Brunin, and Aline Davis Hayes. 

Among the sponsors of the American Peace Mobilization are the 
following: Rev. Malcolm Dobbs, Dashiell Hammett, William Gropper, 
Rockwell Kent, Albert Maltz, Ruth McKenney, Anna M. W. Penny- 
packer, Louis Weinstock, Millen Brand, William E. Dodd, Jr., Muriel 
Draper, John Howard Lawson, Canada Lee, Howard Lee, Bruce Minton, 
Paul Strand, Meyer Adelman, Frank C. Brancroft, Michael Blankfort, 
Warren K. Billings, Joseph P. Cadden, Dora Jones, Alex North, Artie 
Shaw, Joe Van Nordstrant, and Mrs. Alice H. Ware. 

Among the Calif ornians sponsoring this most blatant and obvious 
Communist front are the following : Dr. T. Addis, Stanford University 
School of Medicine; Louise Bransten of the Communist Civil Rights 
Council of Northern California; Phillip M. Connelly, California State 
Industrial Council ; V. J. Conner, editor of the Southern News Almanac, 
Los Angeles; Charles Garry, National Lawyers Guild, San Francisco; 
Rev. Emil Meyer, San Jose ; John 'Donnell, assistant secretary, Marine 
Cooks and Stewards Association, San Francisco ; Henry Schmidt, presi- 
dent, International Longshoremen Workers Union, Local 1-10, San 
Francisco; Rev. Dillon W. Throckmorton, Trinity Methodist Church, 
Bakersfield; John Wagner, Piledrivers and Bridge Builders Local 34, 
A. F. L., San Francisco, and Prof. F. W. Weymouth, Department of 
Physiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto. 

On April 6, 1940, the American Peace Mobilization held a meeting 
in New York City and 688 of the delegates present signed a petition 
demanding the release of Earl Browder, Secretary General of the Com- 
munist Party who had been convicted of passport fraud and was then 
serving his sentence in a United States penitentiary. The petition read : 
* ' We, the undersigned, are shocked at the severe sentence which 
has been meted out to Earl Russell Browder on a trivial technical 
violation of the passport law. The severity of this sentence bears 
out the fact that this is a case of extreme political persecution, 
because of Earl Browder 's position on the war. He has been 
victimized as the first major war prisoner in the same way as Eugene 
V. Debs was made the first labor prisoner of World War I. 

"We protest this shameful persecution and demand the imme- 
diate freedom of Earl Browder. ' ' 

The Stalin-Hitler Pact was faithfully followed by the Communists 
in the United States. While the American Peace Mobilization pursued its 
continuous agitation, Communist dominated CIO unions conducted a 
wave of strikes in all plants engaged in the manufacture of planes and 
instruments of war and defense. That these activities were directed from 
Moscow there can be no doubt. The New York Times for March 27, 1940, 
carried the following item: 

"Moscow, March 26 (AP) The magazine Communist Inter- 
nationale said today that the working classes of the United States 



164 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

and Canada should unite more closely to keep the United States out 
of war 'and to drag Canada from it.' " 

This struggle against ' i imperialistic war" conducted by Great 
Britain, the paper said, ' ' should be expressed in traditional mass strikes. ' ' 
The letterhead of the Los Angeles branch of the American Peace 
Mobilization listed its headquarters at 603-04 Delta Building, 426 South 
Spring Street and gave the phone number as Michigan 2092. Rev. John 
B. Thompson is listed as National Chairman and Frederick V. Field 
as the National Executive Secretary. The Los Angeles chairman is 
Herbert Biberman and Tom Cullen, a veteran Communist fronter, is 
listed as executive secretary. The Los Angeles Executive Board was 
composed of John Stapp, Richard S. Otto, Sam Houston Allen, Rev. 
Herbert L. Herberts, Rev. Carl Allen, Evelyn Vinton, William Dohan, 
Rosendo Rivera, Glenda Sullivan, Anna Manus, George Brownstem, 
Al Lockett and Nell Mansfield. 

A mimeographed letter signed by Tom Cullen under the date of 
May 26, 1941 is as follows : 

' ' Dear Friend : By the time you receive this letter President 
Roosevelt may have delivered his Fireside Chat. We have had no 
sneak preview of Roosevelt's speech and yet we can tell you the full 
import of it. 

' ' Whatever Roosevelt says tomorrow night will push the nation 
that much further into war. It may be outright convoys or it may 
be 'patrols' to protect 'freedom of the seas.' However Roosevelt 
phrases it, it means your life and my life, and the lives of millions 
of us, unless we organize to fight back now. A complete answer 
to President Roosevelt's war speech will ~be given ~by the American 
Peace Mobilization at a mass meeting at the Embassy Auditorium, 
Thursday, May 29, at 8 p.m. Roosevelt will be challenged by such 
outstanding speakers as Herbert Biberman, Norman Byrne, and 
Bill Elconin of^the CIO Electrical Workers' Union. 

"In addition, there will be presented for the first time, a new 
one act play, titled, 'With a Banker On My Knee,' written about 
the draft camps here in California. 

"Admission is only 20 cents, so come and bring a carload of 
neighbors. Proceeds will be earmarked for use in an outdoor demon- 
stration planned for the near future. ' ' 

Herbert Joseph Biberman has a long Communist record. He is one 
of the recalcitrant witnesses who refused to testify before the Thomas 
Committee in the fall of 1947. Lewis J. Russell testified before the 
Thomas Committee that Herbert Biberman held card 47267 of the 
Communist Party in 1944. His address was given as 3259 Deronda 
Drive, Los Angeles. Mr. Russell stated that the card contained a state- 
ment "New Card issued on December 10, 1944" and that another nota- 
tion read; "1944 Card No. 46844." 

The Communist record of Herbert Biberman begins on page 415 of 
the congressional report above referred to. It fully corroborates the 
information contained in the files of the Senate Fact-Finding Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities, and is as follows : 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 165 

The People's Educational Center was founded and is conducted 
by leading members of the Communist Party in Los Angeles and Holly- 
wood. It is the successor to the Communist Los Angeles Workers School, 
which participated in the founding and development of the People's 
Educational Center. 

The People's World of January 13, 1944, page 4, states that Herbert 
Biberman was on the staff of the People's Educational Center during 
that year, and according to the summer 1945 catalog of that school, he 
was listed as a lecturer. His biography included therein states that he 
spent "6 months in the U. S. S. R. studying the Soviet theater." The 
People's World is the official west coast organ of the Communist Party. 
Herbert Biberman 's affiliation with the People's Educational Center 
during the year 1947 is shown in Variety, June 30, 1947, page 10. 

In an exhibit presented before the Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities during the public hearings (vol. 14, p. 8585), 
Herbert Biberman 's name appears as a sponsor of a testimonial dinner 
to Leo Gallagher. In 1938 Leo Gallagher was the Communist Party 
candidate for the office of secretary of state in California. The dinner 
was held on June 2, 1941, in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Biberman has written for the New Masses, the official weekly 
magazine of the Communist Party which was described as a "Commu- 
nist Periodical" by Attorney General Francis Biddle in the Congres- 
sional Record of September 24, 1942, page 7688. His contributions appear 
in the issues of August 20, 1940, page 8 ; June 17, 1941, page 17 ; July 8, 
1941, page 26 ; and July 29, 1941, page 16. 

The Daily Worker of September 3, 1940, page 4, which is the official 
organ of the Communist Party of the United States, named Herbert 
Biberman as a member of the National Council of the American Peace 
Mobilization, and his name appears as one of the signers of the Call to 
the American People's Meeting which was held in New York City, 
April 5-6, 1941. 

The proceedings of the first convention, November 30 December 
1, 1940, page 4, also lists his name as the honorary chairman of the 
Los Angeles Branch of the organization. The American Peace Mobili- 
zation will be remembered as the organization which picketed the White 
House during the time of the Stalin-Hitler pact. On the day that Hitler 
attacked Russia, the pickets were withdrawn from the White House. 
According to New Masses of August 6, 1940, page 22, Herbert Biberman 
was the temporary chairman and speaker at an April 6, 1940, mass 
meeting of the American Peace Crusade, which was the forerunner of 
the American Peace Mobilization in California. 

He was also listed as an officer of the American Peace Crusade in 
the leaflet, "We, the People of the United States, Will Keep Out of 
War, ' ' published by that organization. According to the Daily Worker 
of April 21, 1941, page 7, Herbert Biberman was a leader of the Amer- 
ican Peace Crusade which aided in the formation of the American Peace 
Mobilization. The Emergency Peace Mobilization was held on August 
31 to September 2, 1940, in Chicago, for the purpose of organizing the 
American Peace Mobilization. 

Mr. Biberman is listed on a program leaflet of June 7, 1940, page 4, 
and a letterhead of June 3, 1940, as a member of the provisional com- 
mittee of the Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America which 



166 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

was cited as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities in the report of March 29, 1944. 

The Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America was the 
predecessor to the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, an 
organization noted for its defense of Communists. A letterhead of the 
latter organization lists Mr. Biberman as a sponsor. 

In addition to being cited as a Communist front by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities in the report of June 25, 1942, 
and March 29, 1944, and by the Committee on Un-American Activities 
in the report of June 12, 1947, the National Federation for Constitu- 
tional Liberties was cited by Attorney General Francis Biddle in these 
words: "The defenses of Communist leaders such as Sam Darcy and 
Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsylvania and Oklahoma, have 
been major efforts of the federation" (Congressional Record, Sept. 24, 
1942, p. 7687). 

The American Committee to Save Refugees was a part of the Com- 
munist campaign for Loyalist Spain, and it provided transportation and 
support for international Communist agents such as Gerhart Eisler. 
An undated folder, "For the Rescue of Refugees," lists the name of 
Herbert Biberman as a signer of a pro-Soviet statement of this organiza- 
tion. The American Committee to Save Refugees was also cited as a 
Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
in report 1311, March 29, 1944. 

The Communist International at its seventh congress which was 
held in Moscow in 1935, instructed the various Communist Parties to 
assist in the Spanish Communist cause. The Communist Party of the 
United States, in response to these orders, set up a Spanish-aid campaign 
and formed organizations to accomplish this task. 

One of these was the North American Committee to Aid Spanish 
Democracy, which was cited as a Communist front by the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities in reports of January 3, 1940, and 
March 29, 1944, as well as by the Committee for Cultural Freedom, 
Professor Dewey, chairman, April, 1940. Herbert Biberman was listed 
as a member of the local sponsoring committee for the North American 
Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy in a letterhead of that committee. 

The Daily Worker of August 17, 1937, page 3, reveals that Herbert 
Biberman was a sponsor of a benefit for Spanish Loyalist children, and 
another Daily Worker, that of September 17, 1937, page 9, shows that 
he was a contributor to an ambulance for Loyalist Spain. Both of these 
projects were in accordance with the orders of the Communist Inter- 
national. 

The first congress of Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples, 
which was supported by Latin-American Communist Parties, was cited 
as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in the report of March 29, 1944, and by the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities in the report of September 2, 1947. A mimeographed 
release, dated March 24-26, 1939, lists Mr. Biberman as a signer of the 
call to the congress. 

The Hollywood Democratic Committee, which succeeded the Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League, was organized by Isaac Romaine, also known 
as V. J. Jerome, a member of the central committee of the Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 167 

Party. Mr. Biberman's connection with this organization is shown by 
an official ballot, dated July 26, 1944, on which his name appeared as a 
candidate for office in that organization. 

The Communist press has given its support to a petition for the 
pardon of Festus Coleman, of which Mr. Biberman was a signer, accord- 
ing to the People's World, October 16, 1942, page 2. 

According to tha Daily Worker, September 14, 1942, page 7, and 
People's World, September 23, 1942, page 5, Herbert Biberman was a 
signer of a statement of the League of American Writers in behalf of 
a second front. The League of American Writers had been pledged to 
defend the Soviet Union and "use of art as an instrument of the class 
struggle. ' ' The Clipper, a publication of the league, lists Herbert Biber- 
man as a contributor in its August, 1941, copy, page 31. It was affiliated 
with the International Union of Revolutionary Writers, with head- 
quarters in Moscow and has been cited as a Communist front by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities on three occasions. (See 
committee reports, January 3, 1940, June 15, 1942, and March 29, 1944.) 
Also, Attorney General Francis Biddle has said that * ' the overt activities 
of the League of American Writers in the last two years leave little doubt 
of its Communist control" (Congressional Record, September 24, 1942, 
p. 7686). 

The New Theatre of July, 1936, page 14, contains an article by Mr. 
Biberman. New Theatre was the official organ of the League of Workers 
Theatres, an affiliate of the International Union of Revolutionary The- 
atres, with headquarters in Moscow, and was cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in report 1311, 
March 29, 1944. The Associated Film Audiences, which merged with 
Films for Democracy to form Film Audiences for Democracy, was 
organized for the purpose of gaining the support of audiences for pro- 
Communist films. During the time of the Stalin-Hitler Pact it was anti- 
war in conformance with the Communist Party line. Mr. Biberman was 
a member of the executive board of Associated Film Audiences, accord- 
ing to Film Survey, May, 1939, page 4. 

A letterhead, dated February 2, 1944, lists Herbert Biberman as a 
national board member of the Jewish People's Committee, which was 
headed by William Weiner, Reuben Salzman, Joseph R. Brodsky, and 
other leading Communists. In the report of March 29, 1944, the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities cited the Jewish People's Com- 
mittee as a Communist front. 

Mr. Biberman's affiliation with the Consumers Union is shown by 
the Consumers Union Reports, December, 1938, page 15, to which he was 
a contributor. The Consumers Union was led by Arthur Kallet, alias 
Edward Adams, a staff writer for the Daily Worker. The Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities cited it as a Communist front in the 
report of March 29, 1944. 

Herbert Biberman's name appears on a letterhead of February 24, 
1940, as a sponsor of the Hollywood League for Democratic Action, the 
predecessor of the Hollywood branch of the Independent Citizens Com- 
mittee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. The issue of Communism 
within the Independent Citizens Committee resulted in the dissolution 
of the organization and the resignation of Harold L. Ickes and other 



168 UN-AMERTCAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

liberals. The Committee on Un-American Activities cited the Hollywood 
League for Democratic Action as a front organization defending Com- 
munists in the report of June 12, 1947. It was also cited by the Committee 
for Cultural Freedom, Prof. John Dewey, chairman, April, 1940. 

According to evidence submitted to the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities during the public headings (vol. 1, p. 569), 
Herbert Biberman was a member of the executive board of the Motion 
Picture Artists Committee, affiliated with the North American Com- 
mittee to Aid Spanish Democracy. 

The Motion Picture Artists Committee was headed by William 
Gropper, Kyle Crichton, also known as Kobert Forsythe, and other 
writers for the Communist press. The North American Committee to Aid 
Spanish Democracy, was cited as a Communist front by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities in the reports of January 3, 1940, 
and March 29, 1944, and by the Committee for Cultural Freedom, Prof. 
John Dewey, chairman, April, 1940. 

The Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Pro- 
fessions split after Harold Ickes and other liberals condemned the organi- 
zation as Communist dominated. The pro-Communist section, after the 
split, formed the Progressive Citizens of America. The Progressive Citi- 
zens of America was cited as a Communist front by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities in a report of June 12, 1947. The official bal- 
lot of the Progressive Citizens of America, dated September 17, 1947, 
lists Herbert Biberman as candidate for the executive board. 

AMERICAN PEOPLE'S FUND 

Frederick Vanderbilt Field is the head of this front. It was organ- 
ized by Field as a repository for funds to be distributed to Communist 
enterprises. Helen R. Bryan is the Treasurer of the American People's 
Fund. 

This Communist financial organization has paid out large sums of 
money to the following Communist and Communist-front organizations : 
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare, Council for Pan- American Democracy, School for 
Democracy (now the Jefferson School of Social Science), Allied Labor 
News, National Negro Congress, American Committee for Protection 
of Foreign Born, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, American Rus- 
sian Institute, American Council Institute for Pacific Relations, Council 
on African Affairs, Russian War Relief, Committee for the Care of 
Young Children in War Time, Farm Research, and National Council 
of Negro Youth. 

AMERICAN RELIEF FOR GREEK DEMOCRACY 

The headquarters of this Communist front is located at 111 West 
42d Street in New York City. (This is the same address as the Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Eastern Policy.) The organization is headed by 
Robert St. John and Nicholas Cheronis. Vice chairmen are Mrs. Frank 
Gervasi and John Vassos. Costa Couveras is the secretary. Among the 
sponsors are Zlatko Balokovic, Elmer Benson, Hugh De Lacey, Henrietta 
Buckmaster, Abram Flaxer, Betty Field (wife of Frederick V. Field), 
Hugo Gellert, Mrs. Elinor S. Gimbel, William Gropper, Langston 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 169 

Hughes, Albert E. Kahn, Rockwell Kent, Albert Maltz, Vito Marcan- 
tonio, William H. Melish, Clifford Odets, A. Clayton Powell, Jr., and 
Harry F. Ward. Eighteen of the sponsors of the American Relief for 
Greek Democracy are either directors or sponsors of the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship. Seventeen are sponsors of the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. 

AMERICAN^.USSIAN INSTITUTE 

Throughout the life of the Communist movement in the United 
States the Communist Party has maintained front organizations and con- 
ducted enterprises for the sole purpose of carrying on propaganda on 
behalf of the Soviet Union. Some of the more important of these fronts 
and enterprises have been Friends of Soviet Russia, Friends of the Soviet 
Union, Soviet Russia Today, Russian Reconstruction Farms, Open Letter 
for Closer Co-operation With the Soviet Union, Golden Book of Amer- 
ican Friendship With the Soviet Union, Trade Union National Commit- 
tee for Russian Relief, American Federated Russian Famine Relief Com- 
mittee, Russian War Relief, Statement by American Progressives on the 
Moscow Trials, Open Letter to American Liberals, and the American Rus- 
sian Institute for Cultural Relations with the Soviet Union. 

The American Russian Institute interlocks in many ways with the 
American Council on Soviet Relations. This is strongly indicated by the 
official organ of the group, the American Review on the Soviet Union, pre- 
viously published as the American Quarterly on the Soviet Union. Among 
its board of directors are Edward C. Carter, Henry Pratt Fairchild, John 
A. Kingsbury, Mary Van Kleeck, Henry E. Sigerist, and Vilhjalmur 
Stefansson (American Quarterly on the Soviet Union, January, 1930). 

According to its folder prospectus, distributed freely at meetings of 
the American Peace Mobilization, the American Russian Institute was 
founded in 1926 as the clearing house for "factual" information on the 
Soviet Union. It calls itself ' ' nonpolitical ' ' and ' ' American. ' ' 

It "arranges language courses, lectures, dinners and film showings" 
and permits the free use of its library containing an index of ' ' 10 Soviet 
newspapers." 

The semiofficial status of the American Russian Institute is estab- 
lished by certain outstanding facts : (1) The description appearing in the 
August, 1941, issue of the American Review on the Soviet Union (back 
cover inside) declares that "it aims to serve as an authoritative clearing 
house for factual information concerning the Soviet Union." (2) The 
April, 1940, issue of the American Quarterly on the Soviet Union (inside 
cover) declares that the American Russian Institute furnishes informa- 
tion to the Soviet Union, which means to the Soviet Government, since 
there are no private agencies. (3) Without official contacts, the writers 
for the organs of the American Russian Institute could not have access 
to the various sources of information in the Soviet Union. 

Basil Bass, Aaron Bodansky, Edward C. Carter, Samuel H. Cross, 
Mortimer Graves, William W. Lancaster, Robert S. Lynd, Arthur Upham 
Pope, Henry E. Sigerist, Ernest J. Simmons, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 
Maxwell S. Stewart, and Harriet L. Moore constituted the board of direc- 
tors of the American Russian Institute at the close of World War II. 



170 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A letterhead of the American Russian Institute in the files of the Sen- 
ate committee under date of July 14, 1938, carries the following names 
as constituting the Board of Directors: Mrs. Kathleen Barnes, Aaron 
Bodansky, Edward C. Carter, Mrs. Ethel Clyde, Louis Connick, George 
S. Counts, William 0. Field, Jr., Lewis Gannett, Mortimer Graves, Wil- 
liam S. Graves, Alcan Hirsch, John A. Kingsbury, Mary van Kleeck, Wil- 
liam W. Lancaster, William Lescaze, William Allan Neilson, Mrs. George 
F. Porter, Raymond Robins, Geroid T. Robinson, John Rothschild, Mrs. 
Richard B. Scandrett, Jr., Whitney Seymour, Henry E. Sigerist, Lee 
Simonson, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Graham R. Taylor, Allen Wardwell, 
Maurice Wertheim, and Mrs. Efrem Zimbalist. Harriet Moore is listed 
as editor and Virginia Burdick as executive secretary. 

A leaflet in the files of the Senate Committee reveals that the follow- 
ing are the directors in Southern California : Dr. David Appleman, Alvah 
Bessie, Edmund W. Cooke, Dr. George M. Day, Dr. Clyde K. Emery, 
Thomas L. Harris, Constantin C. Korneff, Dr. E. Wilson Lyon, Jerome 
W. MacNair, Lewis Milestone, Corinne A. Seeds, Dr. Harold U. Sverdrup, 
Clara R. Walden, and Michael A. Walden. Mrs. Belle Dubnoff is listed as 
the executive secretary and Dr. Francis M. Pottenger as the chairman. 

Another leaflet lists the Board of Directors for Southern California 
as follows : Judge Stanley Moffatt (chairman), Mrs. Belle Dubnoff (exec- 
utive secretary), Jerome W. MacNair (treasurer), Dr. David Apple- 
man, Thelma Boardman, Prof. George M. Day, Dr. Clyde K. Emery, Lion 
Feuchtwanger, Sam Gardner, Dr. T. Percival Gerson, Dr. Sanford Gold- 
ner, Kate Greenschpoon, Howard Koch, Constantin C. Korneff, Lewis 
Milestone, Dr. Helen Hall Moreland, Lawrence Morton, Dr. F. M. Pot- 
tenger, Anne C. Rosen, and Corinne A. Seeds. 

The Southern California headquarters is located at 6618J Sunset 
Boulevard, Hollywood. The telephone number is GRanite 4179. 

On December 7 and 8, 1945, a Conference on American-Russian Cul- 
tural Exchange was held at the University of California, Los Angeles 
Campus, sponsored by Phi Beta Kappa Alumni in Southern California 
with Eta Chapter Phi Beta Kappa (U. C. L. A.) and Sigma Xi Society 
(U. C.L.A.). 

The panel speakers and other participants of the conference included 
many well known Communist Party-liners. Among them were Dr. Frank- 
lin Fearing, John Howard Lawson, J. Leyda, Kenneth McGowan, Wil- 
liam E. Oliver, William Dieterle, and Dr. Harry Hoijer. Dr. Clarence A. 
Dykstra made several addresses. Dr. Thomas Mann also actively partici- 
pated. 

Holland Roberts spoke on "The Need of the Hour American- 
Russian Understanding" and "Philosophy of Education in the Soviet 
Union." Holland Roberts (see committee's 1947 report) is connected with 
the Communist Party's California Labor School in San Francisco and is 
the President of the Communist American Russian Institute in San Fran- 
cisco. 

Another speaker was Dr. George M. Day, Secretary-treasurer of Phi 
Beta Kappa Alumni. Dr. Day lived in Russia for 10 years before and 
during the World War and has revisited Russia frequently since the revo- 
lution. The People's Daily World for November 11, 1937, reports Dr. Day 
speaking at a mass meeting of the American Russian Institute in Los 
Angeles. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 171 

Dr. Percy L. Davis, Superintendent of Schools, Santa Monica, spoke 
at one of the panels and said, in substance, that the Chambers of Com- 
merce, Rotary Clubs, and the American Legion exercise too much control 
over the public schools. He believed that members of these organizations 
were convinced that Sovietism means Communism and that Communism 
means labor trouble. 

While there undoubtedly were a number of ' l innocents ' \ caught in 
the conference, a check of the index of this report and the committee's 
previous reports will indicate the Communist inspiration and guidance of 
the affair. Those who were listed on the program as participating include 
the following: Dr. David E. Henley, Dr. Clarence A. Dykstra, Holland 
Roberts, Dr. James W. McBain, Mr. Stepan Apresian (Vice Consul 
U. S. S. R. San Francisco), Dr. Thomas Mann, Dr. F. M. Pottenger 
(American Russian Institute), Dr. J. Agins, Elena Boder, Dr. Reuben 
Straus, Dr. Harvey E. Billing, Dr. M. N. Beigelman. Dr. Douglas R. 
Drury, Dr. Theodore D. Beckwith, Dr. Elmer Belt, Dr. Clyde Emery 
(American Russian Institute), Dr. Rudolph Marx, Ellarene McCoy, Dr. 
Fraser X. McDonald, Dr. Lester M. Morrison, Dr. Elizabeth L. Woods, 
Dr. Franklin Fearing, Corinne Seeds (American Russian Institute), 
Robert J. Purdy, Althea Warren, Nina Antonyuk (Soviet Union), Dr. 
Percy L. Davis, Dr. E. Manfred Evans, Dorothea Eltenton (American 
Russian Institute, San Francisco), Dr. Helen Heffernan, Gertrude G. 
Howard, Elizabeth A. Wood, Dr. Brainerd Dyer, Dr. Harry Hoijer, Dr. 
Stuart R. Tompkins, Dr. S. B. Okun, Dr. Anatole G. Mazour, Dr. Ralph 
Beals, Dean R. D. Hunt, Dr. Harold Bradley, Dr. Glenn S. Dumke, Dr. 
Malbone Graham, Dr. J. Eugene Harley, Dr. Alonzo Baker, Dr. E. 
Wilson Lyon, Dr. H. U. Sverdrup (American Russian Institute), Dr. 
Joseph Weckler, Dr. Clayton Carus, Dr. Laurence de Rycke, John 
Entenza, Dr. Arthur B. Gallion, Alexander P. Grachev, Thomas L. Har- 
ris (National Council of American-Soviet Friendship), Reginald John- 
son, J. E. Keith, David Reznick, Emerson Spear, Dr. George W. Zinke, 
Dr. Bennet M. Allen, Dr. David Appleman (American Russian Insti- 
tute), Dr. William H. Chandler, Dr. Michael Shapovalov, Dr. N. T. 
Mirov, Dr. James Gilluly, Dr. James McBain, Dr. Frank Smiley, Dr. 
Clifford Zieber, Dr. Mildred Struble, Irving Pichel, Milton Merlin, Dr. 
Oleg Maslenikov, Dr. Frederic T. Blanchard, Theodore Dreiser, Dr. 
Percy Houston, Albert Maltz, Samuel Rosen, Lee Strasberg, Sidney 
Buchman, William Dieterle, Howard Koch (American Russian Insti- 
tute), Alexander Knox, John Howard Lawson, Jay Ley da, Kenneth 
MacGowan, Ben Maddow, William E. Oliver, Edward G. Robinson, Dr. 
Stuart R. Tompkins, Walter E. Hartley, Dr. Walter Rubsamen, Dr. 
Paul Pisk, Julian Brodetsky, Charles C. Hirt, Lawrence Morton, John R. 
Crown, Dr. Edmund Cykler, Isabel Morse Jones, Dr. Alexis Kail, 
Howard Swan, Dr. George M. Day, Jerome W. MacNair, and Dr. Robert 
A. Millikan. 

An American Russian Institute Bulletin for March, 1947, dis- 
tributed in Southern California, lists the following ' ' cultural ' ' activities 
for December, January, and February: Premiere of "The Turning 
Point, " Soviet prize film with panel discussion by Albert Maltz, Edward 
Dmytryk, Morris Carnovsky and Robert Rossen, 400 in attendance. 



172 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Open membership meeting with cultural films. Children 's American Rus- 
sian Christmas Party at the Los Angeles Downtown Public Library. 
Reception and musical evening at the home of Mr. and Mrs. A. Soundel 
Becker over 70 in attendance. Reception for Mrs. Paul Robeson at the 
home of Dr. and Mrs. Maurice Kowan over 60 in attendance. Organiza- 
tional meeting for the purpose of forming Pasadena Committee for the 
ART. Twor luncheons in conjunction with sustaining fund drive. San 
Pedro Committee: American Russian Concert at the YWCA attended 
by 100. 

An idea of the propagandizing efforts of this single Communist 
front is indicated by the following notes from the same bulletin : ' ' Gorky 
Exhibit in art and photography shown at the Long Beach and San 
Pedro Public Libraries." "Our Speakers Bureau during this period 
served Civic, Community Center, Women's University, Relief, Sorority, 
Public Library, and International Relations groups. 17 audience in all. ' ' 
"Press conference for Soviet architect." "Pictures and copy about 
Children's party." "The 'Turning Point' received more than 80 inches 
in 11 local newspapers, including the Daily News, Hollywood Citizen 
News, Hollywood Reporter, Herald-Express. ' ' 

Under date of October 28, 1947, Stanley Moffat sent out a mimeo- 
graphed letter announcing that the Red Dean of Canterbury, Rev. Hew- 
lett Johnson, would speak as a guest of the American Russian Institute on 
November 21, 1947, at the Philharmonic Auditorium in Los Angeles. The 
Dean of Canterbury, Hewlett Johnson, is England 's contribution to the 
Red Scourge. Stanley Moffat is a self-avowed, if somewhat frenzied, 
admirer of Stalin and the Red dictatorship. He not only lends his name 
to Communist causes and organizations, but hurls himself into Com- 
munist activities with a vigorous abandonment that is almost incredible. 

To say that Moffat has disgraced the justice's court is to make an 
understatement. 

Haakon M. Chevalier, accompanied by his attorney, Francis 
McCarty, appeared and testified before the committee at its Oakland 
hearings, November 6, 1947. While his memory was apparently faulty in 
many respects he was able to recall some of his affiliations in Communist 
fronts and Communist activities. He admitted that he had been connected 
with the Communist publication, Black and White, the League of Ameri- 
can Writers, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Western Writers 
Congress, Inter-Professional Association, Northern California Civil 
Rights Council, Festus Coleman Committee, State Wide Civil Rights 
Conference, and the American Russian Institute. 

Chevalier stated that he had subscribed to the People's Daily World 
and admitted being acquainted with most of California's prominent 
Communists and Communist fellow-travelers. He admitted attending a 
reception at the Soviet Consulate in San Francisco, celebrating an anni- 
versary of the Communist revolution. He stated that he had visited the 
Soviet Vice Consul Ivanov together with Prof. Alexander Cowan of the 
University of California in 1942 or 1943. 

He stated that he became acquainted with Dorothea Eltenton, secre- 
tary of the American Russian Institute and affiliated with the Institute 
of Pacific Relations, and her husband, Dr. George C. Eltenton, in 1938. 
He was acquainted with Frank Oppenheimer and his brother J. Robert 
Oppenheimer. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 173 

The following is part of the transcript testimony of Haakon M. 
Chevalier : 

' ' Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Now, Mr. Chevalier, I 'm going to ask you 
a question that I want you to be very careful in answering, and I 'm 
sure you will be. You, of course, are familiar with the publicity that 
attended the testimony of a former agent of \he Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in Washington, D. C., with specific reference to infor- 
mation that he assertedly had concerning what he testified (and 

I 'm sure I 'm right in substance ; if you disagree interrupt me) 
the fact that he was approached ; Dr. Eltenton was approached, 
by the Soviet Vice Consul and asked to contact you ; and asked you 
to contact Dr. Oppenheimer. You are familiar with that ? 

11 A. Yes. 

"Q. And is that substantially a correct version of the news- 
paper report? 

' ' A. No, it is not yes, of the newspaper reports. 

"Q. That's what I mean. Now, were you ever approached 
strike that Do you know where Dr. George C. Eltenton was 
employed when you knew him in Berkeley? 

' l A. Yes, he was employed by the Shell Oil Company. 

"Q. Shell Development Company, wasn't it? 

"A. Shell Development. 

"Q. At Emeryville? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. Did you ever hear of an organization known as the 
F. A. E. C. T.? 

"A. Yes. 

' ' Q. How long have you been familiar, in a general way, with 
that organization ? 

"A. Well, I have simply heard about it. 

"Q. You've never belonged to it? 

"A. No, I wouldn't be eligible. 

' ' Q. You 've never done any scientific work on your own hook ? 

11 A. No. 

11 Q. Just to keep the record straight, your actual academic field 
is the romance languages, isn 't it ? 

1 'A. That's right. 

' ' Q. Did you ever know a person by the name of Rose Segure ? 

"A. I may have met her at a large function. I 

"Q. You mean at the Soviet Consulate? 

"A. I don't know. That is, I know her name from the news- 
papers and I may have met her at a large gathering, but I don't 
know that I do know her. If I should see her I would recognize her 
as knowing her or not knowing her, but it's merely casual in any 
event. 

"Q. Now, do you know whether or not she had anything to do 
with the F.A.E.C.T.? 

"A. From what I heard 

"Q. What was that? 

* ' A. What I read in the newspapers. 



174 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"Q. Oh, I see. I meant what you knew from your own knowl- 
edge. 

"A. No. 

"Q. Do you know whether or not she knew Dr. Eltenton? 

I 'A. No. 

"Q. Do you know you have no way of knowing that he ever 
told you about his acquaintanceship with her if he had any ? 

"A. No. 

"Q. You knew, did you not, in 1942 and '43 that there was such 
an organization in the East Bay as the F.A.E.C.T. ? 

II A. Yes. 

"Q. You knew about that? 

11 A. Yes. 

' ' Q. And you knew the organization was comprised of scientists 
and technically trained men and women? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. Now, did Dr. Eltenton have a conversation with you in 
which he asked; in which he told you, in substance, that he had 
been asked to contact you by a member of the Soviet Consulate in 
San Francisco ? 

* ' A. Uh, if you are going into this, I would like to 

"Q. I'm not going into it. I'm not going to ask you what you 
said to Dr. Oppenheimer because 

1 'Mr. McCarty: Mr. Combs 

"Mr. Combs: It's all right, Mr. Chairman. I spoke with Mr. 
McCarty earlier. 

"Mr. McCarty: I had a conversation with Mr. Combs before 
this hearing, Senator, in which he stated that the Committee had 
reasons of its own for not questioning Mr. Chevalier on the details 
of this conversation; information concerning which was given 
already by Mr. Chevalier, a year and a half ago to the F.B.I., and I 
stated at that time that Mr. Chevalier is willing to answer any and 
all questions that may be asked of him in that regard, and if they 
are not going to be asked, I requested Mr. Combs that a statement 
might be made for the record. He 's willing to answer any questions 
on that subject. Thank you. 

"Mr. Combs: Now, I'd like 

"Mr. McCarty: The answers that he gave so far may go out, 
and I'm requesting my client to answer the question which was 
asked him. 

"Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Did you understand the question? 

"A. Yes. The answer to that is "no". 

"Q. Did Mr. Eltenton approach you and ask you to approach 
Dr. Oppenheimer? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. Did he say anything about the Russian Consulate? 

"A. No. 

" Q. Or anyone connected with the Russian Consulate ? 

"A. No. 

"Q. Did you, after having that conversation strike that 
where were you when that conversation occurred, Mr. Chevalier ? 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 175 

' ' A. I believe it was at his house. 

* ' Q. You remember the address ? 

"A. No, I do not. 

"Q. He, at that time, was a British subject? 

"A. Yes. 

1 i Q. You were aware that he got part of his scientific training 
at the Leningrad Institute in the Soviet Union ? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. Thereafter, after that conversation occurred, did you have 
a conversation with Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer ? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. And was that conversation related in any way to the 
previous conversation with Dr. Eltenton 1 

"A.I reported to him the subject of the conversation. 

I i Q. Where did that conversation occur ? 

' ' A. That was at Dr. Oppenheimer 's home. 

"0. Did you know Dr. Oppenheimer socially at the time? 

"A. Yes. 

1 ' Q. You visited in his home on previous occasions ? 

"A. Yes. 

"Q. You knew him quite well? 

"A. Yes. 

' ' Q. You knew his brother ? 

"A. Quite well. 

"Q. As well as you knew Dr. Eltenton? 

"A. Much better. 

"Q. But you did visit in Dr. Eltenton 's home? 

"A. Yes. 

' ' Q. And he visited in yours ? 

"A. Yes. 

I 1 Q. Did the Oppenheimers visit in your home ? 
"A. Yes." 

R. E. Combs, Committee Counsel, subsequently summarized evidence 
and testimony connected with Haakon M. Chevalier as follows (Com- 
mittee transcript, Volume XXXIII, pages 364 to 367) : 

"Mr. Combs: Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee. 
During the examination of Mr. Chevalier this morning, he identified 
certain organizations that I have checked on my list, and stated that 
he was affiliated with them. I read into the record the documentation 
on those organizations and publications, and I now wish to complete 
this phase of the hearing by reading into the record now, which I 
didn 't take time to do this morning, from those same sources some of 
the individuals who were affiliated with those organizations also, and 
with those publications. After I have read those into the record, Mr. 
Chairman, I wish also to recapitulate for the record the testimony Dr. 
Eltenton gave before the committee here a year ago. 

Affiliated with the American Committee to Save Refugees were 
Professor Harold Urey, Professor F. W. Wey mouth, Herbert 
Biberman, who was recently cited for contempt in Washington, 
John Howard Lawson, also cited for contempt in Washington, 



176 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Albert Maltz, Clifford Odets, Donald Ogden Stewart, William 
Gropper, Lillian Hellman, and Ruth McKenney. 

"In the American Council on Soviet Relations, we have Dr. 
Thomas Addis, Lewis Alan Berne, John Howard Lawson, Vito 
Marcantonio, and Donald Ogden Stewart. 

Next, the League of American Writers, including Alvah Bessie, 
John Howard Lawson, Ruth McKenney, Carey Me Williams, Albert 
Maltz, Bruce Minton, Sam Ornitz, Donald Ogden Stewart, and 
Earl Browder. 

' ' Other signers of the letter, the Open Letter Defending Mos- 
cow Purge Trials, were Ring Lardner, Jr., Carey Me Williams, 
Samuel Ornitz, and Donald Ogden Stewart. 

' ' Other signers of the Open Letter for Closer Cooperation with 
the Soviet Union were Dr. Thomas Addis, Professor Robert A. 
Brady, William Gropper, Professor Norman E. Himes, John How- 
ard Lawson, Professor Alexander S. Kahn, Ruth McKenney, and 
Donald Ogden Stewart. 

"Other signers of the statement by American Progressives on 
the Moscow Trials, printed in the Daily Worker, April 28, 1938, 
and New Masses May 3, were Louis Budenz, high official in the 
Communist Party, William Gropper again, Harrison George, 
Clarence Hathaway, Editor in Chief of the Daily Worker in New 
York, V. J. Jerome, true name Isaac Romaine, John Howard Law- 
son again, Albert Maltz, A. B. Magil, Bruce Minton, M. J. Olgin, 
Samuel Ornitz, Holland D. Roberts. 

"American League Against War and Fascism; Earl Browder, 
Clarence Hathaway, Israel Amter, an official of the Communist 
Party of the United States, Max Bedacht, prominent Communist 
writer, Ella Reeve Bloor, member of the Communist Party, Harry 
Bridges, Vito Marcantonio, William Z. Foster, Robert Minor, and 
Jack Stachel. 

"The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; Max Bedacht, 
Abram Flaxer, William Gropper, John Howard Lawson, Ring Lard- 
ner, Jr., Vito Marcantonio, Carey Me Williams, and Dalton Trumbo. 
******* 

' ' Dr. Eltenton was a subscriber to the People 's World. He was a 
lecturer at the Tom Mooney Labor School in March of 1943 on the 
subject 'Soviet Minorities.' He lectured at the California Labor 
School in 1945 on the ' Soviet Union. ' He was chairman of a meeting 
at the Palace Hotel October 22, 1945, held under the auspices of 
the American-Russian Institute. On January 9, 1946, he taught 
'The Challenge of Science' at the California Labor School in 
Oakland. 

"April 30, 1946, he was a sponsor of the American-Russian 
Institute, and in June, 1946, the 21st to be exact, he conducted 
a labor forum on the 'U. S. S. R.' under the auspices of the Amer- 
ican-Russian Institute. His wife, Dorothea Eltenton, taught at the 
Tom Mooney Labor School on July 25, 1942. She taught 'Life in 
the Soviet Union.' On August 31st of that year she spoke on 
'Soviet Culture' at the Tom Mooney Labor School. On March 5th, 
1943, she taught 'Soviet Minorities' at the Tom Mooney Labor 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 177 

School, and she was also Director for the Institute for Pacific Rela- 
tions. She attended the mass meeting on the fifteenth of May, 1946, 
under the auspices of the American-Russian Institute in San Fran- 
cisco to honor Contsantin Siminov, the Soviet writer. Mr. Siminov, 
incidentally, according to this article, which is from the People's 
Daily World, wrote for Mainstream, the new Marxist quarterly, 
with Dr. Holland Roberts, President of the American-Russian 

Institute, and one of the co-editors of Mainstream." 
******* 

John T. McTernan, of the law firm of Gallagher, Margolis, McTer- 
nan and Tyre, was subpenaed and testified before the committee in Los 
Angeles February 17, 1948. He announced that he represented Sidney 
Davison, Katherine McTernan (his wife), William Axelrod, Louis 
Schwartz, Virginia Gardner, Frank Spector, and Ben Richman, all of 
whom had been subpenaed by the Committee for the Los Angeles 
hearing. 

McTernan testified that he came to Los Angeles from San Fran- 
cisco in March of 1944. From that point on his testimony was evasive 
and argumentative, when he did not actually refuse to answer questions. 
He finally admitted, on the ground that it was a matter of public record, 
that the American Russian Institute had called a meeting at his home and 
that the meeting was held on February 8, 1948. This meeting was attended 
(although this information was not actually wrested from McTernan) 
by members of the Communist Party organization, the Congress of 
American Women, and there were about 250 men and women present. 
Among those in attendance were Evdokia I. Uralova, Minister of Educa- 
tion for Byelo of the Soviet Union; Xenia Gromyko, wife of Andrei 
Gromyko ; Elizabeth A. Popova, Soviet Judge ; Ivan Tarasov, U. S. S. R. 
Vice-Consul; and Alexandria Groth. Others in attendance were Mrs. 
Irving Adler, Dr. Jack Agins, Bella Dubnoff, Paul Dubnoff, Frances R. 
Eisenberg (See Committee's 1947 report), Priscilla M. Esterman, Wil- 
lard Hall Francis, Harold Gardner, Leslie Gardner, Joseph Goarwitch, 
Sanford Goldner, Susan I. Hardyman, C. Ko^neff, Jerome McNair, 
Helen Hall Moreland, and Rea M. Schneider. 

McTernan praised the Communist Party's People's Daily World 
and, generally, countered every question with the current Communist 
Party strategy. He continually declared that he was being " intimi- 
dated" and that the questions asked him invaded his "privacy." 

Helen Hall Moreland, Dean of Women at the University of South- 
ern California, appeared and testified concerning her affiliation with the 
American Russian Institute. She "presumed" that she was connected 
with the organization, because her name was listed on the stationery 
as a member of the Board. She explained that the American Russian 
Institute had held some social functions which she attended. She said she 
was asked if she would be willing to serve on the organization's Board. 
She testified that she stated that she would be willing to serve if she 
were elected, and that she would be glad to help in any way. She stated 
that her name, thereafter, appeared on the stationery but that she had 
never been notified of her election. She identified Mrs. Bella Dubnoff 
as the executive secretary for the American Russian Institute. 

13 L-7088-D 



178 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Miss Moreland testified that she had attended the meeting of the 
American Russian Institute at the home of Mr. and Mrs. John T. 
McTernan on February 8, 1948, at which Soviet dignitaries were in 
attendance. She stated that a Mrs. Minna Agins acted as an interpreter 
for the Russians at this meeting. 

Miss Moreland testified that she had attended the meeting of the 
American Russian Institute held at the Unitarian Church in Los Angeles 
and presided over the meeting. This was on the evening of February 
9, 1948, and was in honor of the two Soviet women delegates to the 
United Nations. She believed that the meeting was attended by around 
800 people. Minna Agins again acted as interpreter. The two Russian 
women spoke, according to Miss Moreland, as did Bella Dubnoff, who, 
it later developed in Miss Moreland 's testimony, was the "they" who 
asked her to become a member of the American Russian Institute's 
Board. Mrs. Dubnoff is the executive secretary of the Los Angeles 
branch of the organization. Miss Moreland was also acquainted with 
two other members of the board, Dr. George Day of Occidental College 
and Jerome McNair. (The meeting at the Unitarian Church was in 
honor of Evdokia I. Uralova and Elizabeth A. Popova, two Soviet 
women. ) 

Both Dorothea Eltenton and her husband, Dr. George Eltenton, 
were members of the American Russian Institute in San Francisco. 
Dr. George Eltenton was a nuclear physicist. He attended the Lenin- 
grad Institute in Soviet Russia and appeared before the Committee at 
its Oakland, 1947, hearings. 

Mrs. Katherine McTernan, wife of John T. McTernan, was sub- 
penaed and testified before the Committee, February 18, 1948. Like 
her husband, Mrs. McTernan was evasive and argumentative when she 
did not actually refuse to answer questions propounded by the com- 
mittee's counsel or committee members. She, like her husband, refused 
to answer whether or not she was a member of the Communist Party, 
or had ever been. About the only direct answer to any question pro- 
pounded to Mrs. McTernan was that she had taught at the People's 
Educational Center in 1947 and that Sidney Davison was the director of 
the Communist school during that year. 

AMERICAN STUDENT UNION 

This Communist front for students was organized at a convention 
held at Columbus, Ohio, in December, 1935, and resulted from the 
merger of the National Student League (Communist) and the Student 
League for Industrial Democracy (Socialist). The merger was in accord 
with the ' ' united front ' ' policy adopted by the Communist International 
at its seventh congress in the summer of 1935, calling for joint action 
with Socialist groups throughout the world. The combined organization 
was under Communist control from its inception and has followed the 
official objectives of the Communist Party. 

Without exception the American Student Union supported defense 
of teachers and students charged with Communist activity. The Dies 
Committee reports the following : Robert Burke, ousted from Columbia 
University ; Jerome Davis, ousted from Yale University ; Morris U. 
Schappes, ousted from the City College of New York; Herbert Morais, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 179 

Howard Selsam, David McKelvey White, Henry Klein, John Kenneth 
Ackley, Alfred Chaikin, Maxwell Weisman, Philip Foner, Walter Scott 
Neff, Morris Foner, Seymour Copstein, Frederic Ewen, Harry Slochower, 
Lewis Balamuth, Sidney Eisenberger, and others cited by the Rapp- 
Coudert committee investigating Communist activities in the New York 
public schools. 

Communist Celeste Strack was national high school secretary in 
1937. Andrew Charles of the University *f California was a member of 
the national executive committee. Bernie Firestone of the University of 
California was a vice-chairman in 1938. Jack Chasson, U. C. L. A., was a 
member of the College Committee and Dorothy Brooks of Belmont High 
School in Los Angeles was a member of the High School Committee. 

The Advisory Board of the American Student Union was composed 
of Roger Baldwin, Algernon Black, Van Wyck Brooks, George S. Counts, 
Mrs. Ethel Clyde, Mary Fox, Waldo Frank, Francis Gorman, Louis 
Hacker, Julius Hochman, Quincy Howe, Charles Hendley, Freda Kirch- 
wey, Robert Morss Lovett, Alexander Meiklejohn, Reinhold Niebuhr, 
Norman Thomas, Mrs. Bertha Pool Weyl, and Goodwin Watson. 

The national headquarters of the American Student Union was 
located at 112 East 19th Street, New York City. 

The following members of the American Student Union were active 
at the University of California at Los Angeles : Bessy Albert, Elsa Aller, 
Walter Alshuler, Melvin Bassman, John Berry, Lee Beaudry, Betty 
Bregoff, Goldie Brill, Lee Christie, Byron Citron, Ula Citron, Betty Chan, 
Jeanne tte Cohen, Mitzi Cooper, Margaret Corbell, Frank Dituri, Eliza- 
beth Embrey, Garland Embrey, Sam Eidusson, Florita Ecmirbiam, Ruth 
Fisher, Carol Flepsie, Miriam Gordon, Pauline Harrison, Edith Kauf- 
man, Clara Klapperman, John Krause, Cynthia Lee, Leonora Levin, Ray 
Levin, Faustine Liles, Ralph Littlestone, Melvin Lifton, Sarah Mazelis, 
Roxie Wittenburg, Galiiia Wollin, Charles Robel and Dan Zhitlowsky. 

The following national figures have been affiliated with the American 
Student Union : Bruce Bliven, James B. Carey, Mrs. Ethel Clyde, Albert 
Sprague Coolidge, Langston Hughes, Frank Kingdon, Max A. Lerner, 
Arthur M. Schlesinger, J. Raymond Walsh, Orson Welles, James Water- 
man Wise, Jerome Davis, Serril Gerber, and Arthur Holcombe. 

Bruce Bliven is listed from Stanford University and Serril Gerber 
from Los Angeles J. C. 

In cooperation with the American Student Union, a demonstration 
was held at the University of California in Los Angeles, April 18, 1940, 
in conjunction with the Yanks Are Not Coming Committee. The Yanks 
Are Not Coming Committee was strictly a Communist organization. The 
purpose of the meeting at the University of California in Los Angeles 
was to induce the students to stage a "peace strike" in support of the 
Stalin-Hitler Pact. Among the speakers at this meeing were Dr. E. P. 
Ryland of the American Civil Liberties Union, Carey Me Williams, and 
Herbert K. Sorrell. 

AMERICAN YOUTH CONGRESS 

The American Youth Congress was launched during August of 
1934, and for about seven years it was one of the most influential front 
organizations ever established by the American Communist Party. In 



180 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

response to a call by one Viola lima, a conference was organized at New 
York University, Washington Square, New York City. 

The Communists contended that Viola lima was tainted with Nazi 
or Fascist sympathies and that her idea in mobilizing American youth 
into the America Youth Congress was " inspired" by observing youth 
organizations in Italy and Germany. In any event, the gathering in New 
York in 1934 included representatives from national youth organizations, 
reaching all the way from the Boy Scouts to the Young Communist 
League. 

The Communists took over immediately. Earl Browder, in his book 
"Communism," describes the capture of the American Youth Congress, 
and, incidentally accuses Eleanor Roosevelt, members of the Roosevelt 
Cabinet, and state governors, along with Viola lima, of having Fascist 
tendencies. Browder said : 

"A unique achievement of the youth united front movement 
was the building of an anti-fascist bloc inside the American Youth 
Congress, which was called together by a certain young woman 
named Viola lima with the backing of Mrs. Roosevelt, Anne Morgan, 
a half-dozen State Governors, members of the Roosevelt Cabinet, etc., 
with the purpose of adopting a program for American youth which 
was distinctly fascist in its tendencies. ' ' 

Like many important Communist front organizations, the American 
Youth Congress was so cleverly handled that many prominent persons of 
non-Communist tendencies were drawn into its circle of supporters. 

With the help of the Socialists, the Communists were successful in 
ousting Viola lima from the leadership of the American Youth Congress, 
and installed Waldo McNutt as chairman. McNutt held this position for 
about a year, when he became the national organizer of the American 
League Against War and Fascism, another important Communist front 
organization. Waldo McNutt 's father, Ernest F. McNutt, was a member 
of the Kansas State Committee of the Communist Party and a repre- 
sentative from Kansas on the national executive board of the Workers' 
Alliance of America, the Communist front for unemployed. 

Waldo McNutt 's wife, Rose Troiano, was a member of the adminis- 
trative committee of the American Youth Congress. 

William W. Hinckley was executive secretary of the American 
Youth Congress for a few months in the latter part of 1935 and became 
chairman of the organization in January of 1936. He continued to serve 
in this position until July, 1939. The Dies Committee reported that 
the Communist Party arranged and paid for Hinckley 's trans-atl antic 
passage to Europe in 1936, where he was in attendance at the Frst World 
Youth Congress. At this time Hinckley was chairman of the American 
Youth Congress. 

Champion is a publication of the Communist Party and bears the 
union printer's label No. 209, Prompt Press. Edward Strong, Abbott 
Simon and Rose Terlin, leaders of the American Youth Congress, were 
members of the staff of the Champion. 

Edward Strong was a member of the administrative committee of the 
American Youth Congress, representing the National Negro Congress. 
He was also the chairman of the Southern Negro Youth Congress. He 
was member of the National Committee of The American League for 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 181 

Peace and Democracy. He was later the executive secretary of the 
National Negro Congress. 

Clarence Hathaway, leading American Communist, and editor of 
the Daily Worker, was one of the principal speakers at the Second 
American Youth Congress held in Detroit in 1935. ' * I am sure, ' ' declared 
Hathaway, "that the American youth guided and led by the American 
Youth Congress will be a force working for the defense of the Soviet 
Union, our Socialist Fatherland, and for* he defeat of our own robber 
imperialist government and for the victory of the American toiling 
masses." This declaration was greeted with "prolonged applause." 

Since 1933 there have been five distinct Communist phases of policy 
with respect to the administration at Washington. (1) Pronounced hos- 
tility toward the administration, 1933 to 1936. (2) The People's Front 
era, in which the Communist Party made great efforts to ingratiate itself 
with the administration, 1936 to August, 1939. (3) The Stalin-Hitler 
pact era, August, 1939, to June, 1941, in which the Communist Party 
viciously attacked the administration and picketed the White House. 
(4) The era of winning support for Soviet Russia in which the Com- 
munists set themselves up as "win-the-war" super-patriots, June, 1941, 
to V-J Day, 1945. (5) V-J Day to the present, in which the Communists 
attack the Truman administration and direct their propaganda against 
the "imperialist policy" of the United States in an attempt to support 
Soviet Russia 's expansionist program in Europe and Asia. 

Every Communist front in the United States is characterized by its 
faithful adherence to the change in the ' ' party line, ' ' as indicated above, 
and the American Youth Congress has not been an exception. 

Among those who have been affiliated with or who have given sup- 
port to the subversive American Youth Congress are the following : 

Thomas R. Amlie, Luigi Antonini, Madeleine L. Arduino, Roger N. 
Baldwin, Harry Elmer Barnes, Elmer A. Benson, Mary McLeod Bethune, 
Van A. Bittner, Ralph S. Cushman, Jerome Davis, Dorothy Detzer, E. 
Franklin Frazier, Mrs. William Lloyd Garrison, III, Rabbi Sidney E. 
Goldstein, Dorothy Kenyon, Frank Kingdon, Oliver LaFarge, Eduard 
C. Lindeman, Robert Morss Lovett, Henry Noble MacCracken, Archi- 
bald MacLeish, Jeremiah T. Mahoney, Phillip Murray, Clifford Odets, 
Rev. A. Clayton Powell, Jr., William F. Quillian, Reid Robinson, Philip 
Schiff, Rose Schneiderman, George N. Schuster, George Soule, Maxwell 
S. Stewart, Genevieve Taggard, Katharine Terrill, Mary Van Kleeck, 
Dr. Harry F. Ward, Orson Welles, Reverend Robert T. Weston, A. F. 
Whitney, Aubrey Williams, M. L. Wilson, James Waterman Wise, Mary 
E. Woolley, and Winnifred Wygal. 

Prominent individual endorsers of the American Youth Congress 
and its activities include the following : John P. Davis, Oswald Garrison 
Villard, Max Yergan, Heywood Broun, Raymond Burr, Frank GiUmore, 
Gardner Jackson, A. Philip Randolph, John M. Coffee, Thomas F. Ford, 
Harold L. Ickes, Ed V. Izak, Culbert L. Olson, Robert F. Wagner, Rev. 
Stephen H. Fritchman, and Jack McMichael. 

Among others who were active in the American Youth Congress are 
Celeste Strack, Carl Ross, Gil Green and Angelo Herndon. Gil Green, 
Angelo Herndon, Carl Ross and Celeste Strack were coeditors of the 
Young Communist Review, published by the National Board of the Young 
Communist League of the United States. 



182 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Celeste Strack was student secretary of the Young Communist 
League and high school secretary of the American Student Union. She 
represented the American Student Union and the Young Communist 
League in the American Youth Congress. 

Carl Ross and Gil Green were the national representatives of the 
Young Communist League in the American Youth Congress. 

Angelo Herndon represented the National Negro Congress in the 
American Youth Congress. 

American Youth Congress publishes a magazine entitled Winner, 
the editor of which is Barry Wood, the Communist Party name for Jeff 
Kibre, well-known party leader in Southern California. 

AMERICAN YOUTH FOR DEMOCRACY 

This organization was formerly the Young Communist League. It 
has been very active in California but has not achieved too much success 
on the university campus. 

On October 17, 1943, a special convention of the Young Communist 
League was held at Mecca Temple, New York City. The name of the 
organization was changed to American Youth for Democracy. In the 
issue of the Communist for September, 1943, the president of the Young 
Communist League called for a change of the name of the group in order 
to enable the organization to function more efficiently for the duration 
of the war. 

On November 11, 1943, a meeting was held in San Francisco to hear 
a report on the Young Communist League convention. Among those who 
spoke were Rev. Morgan A. Tabb, Miss Jean Addis, Mrs. Robert Miller 
Green (formerly Betty McGregor of the Young Communist League), 
Miss Annabel Hopkins and Andrew Barrigan. 

In December of 1943 the San Francisco sponsors of American Youth 
for Democracy were published. Among those listed were Bartley Crum 
and Dr. Thomas Addis of Stanford University. 

The first California state convention of the American Youth for 
Democracy was held in the North Star Auditorium, 631 West Adams 
Boulevard, Los Angeles, on May 6 and 7, 1944. Among those who spoke 
were Dr. Thomas Addis, Bartley Crum, Philip M. Connelly, Lester 
McMillan, and John Howard Lawson. 

The first Los Angeles County convention was held on July 8, 1945, 
at Park Manor, 2200 West Seventh Street, Los Angeles. Among the 
speakers was Jerry Pacht. An Intercollegiate Council was proposed 
calling for members from each college where a unit of American Youth 
for Democracy was organized. The educational institutions listed were 
University of California at Los Angeles, California Technical Institute, 
and Los Angeles City College. 

During the agitational activities of the Communist front, Mobiliza- 
tion for Democracy, American Youth for Democracy members volun- 
teered to distribute 100,000 handbills for the organization. 

During the motion picture strike American Youth for Democracy 
members volunteered to do picket duty and a spokesman for the organ- 
ization announced that all units would be contacted for strike duty in 
the picket line. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 183 

On December 31, 1944, Albert Dekker acted as master of ceremonies 
at an American Youth for Democracy birthday fete at the Hollywood- 
Roosevelt Hotel, where telegraphic greetings were read from Robert W. 
Kenny. Honored guests were Congressmen Ellis E. Patterson and Ned 
Healy. Among those present were Rex Ingram, Dalton Trumbo, Albee 
Slade, Rev. Raymond Henderson and Willis J^Hill. 

Albert Dekker was announced as master of Ceremonies for an Amer- 
ican Youth for Democracy banquet in San Francisco, November 11, 1945. 

On Sunday, December 16, 1945, American Youth for Democracy 
sponsored a "Welcome Home, Joe" dinner at the Ambassador Hotel in 
Los Angeles on the occasion of the second anniversary of the organization. 

Among the sponsors of this Communist affair were Mrs. Faye E. 
Allen, Charlotta A. Bass, Edward Biberman, Reuben W. Borough, Carl 
Brant, Mr. and Mrs. John Cohee, Philip M. Connelly, Floyd C. Coving- 
ton, Dr. Frank Davis, Ernest Dawson, Rev. S. Martin Eidsath, Edward 
Dmytryk, Pearl Fagelson, Leon Feuchtwanger, Prof. Franklin Fearing, 
Augustus C. Hawkins, Congressman Ned Healey, Rev. J. Raymond Hen- 
derson, Dr. Charles W. Hill, Willis J. Hill, Prof. Harry Hoijer, Rex 
Ingram, Peter M. Kahn, Dr. Maurice J. Karpf, Robert W. Kenny, Jeff 
Kibre, Walter Kolowski, Chaim Kotylansky, Mr. and Mrs. William 
Kozienko, Nathan Krupin, Ring Lardner, Jr., Bill Lawrence, John 
Howard Lawson, Albert Maltz, Lester McMillan, Sam Moore, Judge 
Stanley Moffat, Dr. Max Nussbaum, William 0. Oliver, Mr. and Mrs. 
Samuel Ornitz, Congressman Ellis E. Patterson, Oscar Pattiz, Frank G. 
Pellet, Pettis Perry, Prof. Donald Piatt, Jerome Posner, Earl Robinson, 
William H. Rosenthal, Barney Ross, Aaron Rothblatt, Raye Rubin, Rev. 
Clayton D. Russell, Frank Scully, Chaim Shapiro, Herbert K. Sorrell, 
Dr. Ruth Temple, Prof. Harry C. Steinmetz, Mrs. Jessie L. Terry, Dr. 
Donald H. Tippett, Matthew Torok, Dalton Trumbo, Gilbert W. Turner, 
and Al S. Waxman. 

Frank Sinatra was an honored guest and was presented with an 
award by Rabbi Max Nussbaum. Col. Evans Carlson presented an award 
to Bill Mauldin. Philip M. Connelly made a presentation to Martha 
MacLane. Congressman Ellis E. Patterson presented an award to Sgt. 
Harry Tanouye. Attorney General Robert W. Kenny made a presenta- 
tion to De Witt Colbert. Peggy Ryan, Carleton Moss, and "Slim" 
Aarons, received awards from Barney Ross, Dore Schary, and Alvah 
Bessie, respectively. 

Norman Corwin was toastmaster. John Howard Lawson and Albert 
Dekker were introduced for short addresses. 

Earl Robinson, Calvin Jackson, Sidney Miller, Ann Blythe, Julie 
Gibson, and Johnny Poletti furnished the entertainment. 

Senator Claude E. Pepper, Edward G. Robinson, Ann M. Kross, 
Col. Evans F. Carlson, Walter Huston, Josephine Timms, and Paul 
Robeson have all taken time out to laud and praise this Communist 
front for youth. 

American Youth for Democracy follows the Communist Party line 
assiduously. A press release from the organization's headquarters, 1201 
S. Alvarado Street, Los Angeles, under date of July 2, 1947, states 
its position on military training. Focus on Youth, American Youth for 
Democracy publication, issue for July 1, 1947, carries caption "Wallace 
Blasts Youth Conscription as Wedge for Wall Street Army Rule." 



184 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A letterhead of the organization under date of May 30, 1944, shows 
the headquarters at 701 Broadway Arcade Building. The letter in the 
files of the committee is signed by Elaine Rose, field secretary. 

The Communist Party line of the American Youth for Democracy 
is obvious in most of its leaflets. One such leaflet in the files of this com- 
mittee reads, in part, as follows : 

The issue is thought control vs. intellectual freedom on our 
campuses. The issue is youth security or another generation of youth 
betrayed. We know our enemies the men who want to jail Henry 
Wallace for opposing the "Truman Doctrine" * * * the men who 
preach hysteria, war, union busting. While A.Y.D. is the most 
direct target, the actual objective is reactionary dictation to our 
entire educational system, and the betrayal of all American youth. 

On Sunday, October 8, 1944, American Youth for Democracy staged 
a "Teen Age Mock Congress" at the Virgil Junior High School at 152 
North Vermont Avenue in Los Angeles. The "officers" of the congress 
were as follows: Patti Zimmerman, Isadore Friedenthal, Irwin Gostin, 
Martha Fleinert, Leopold Dumas, Leo Breiman, David Hollister, Leo 
Grundfast, Gordon Osser, Arthur Merims, and Vivian Meyerowitz. 
Sponsors and consultants were : Charlotta Bass, Judge John Beardsley, 
Mrs. Harry Braverman, Reuben Borough, Dr. Ernest Caldecott, Philip 
M. Connelly, Dr. Franklin Fearing, Kenneth Howard, Mrs. Lucie 
McCollie, Carey Me Williams, Oscar Pattiz, William Pomerance, Earl 
Robinson, and Everett Wile. 

The chairman of the "judiciary" was David Hollister, and Frank- 
lin Fearing and Carol Hollister were the "consultants." Community 
singing and songs were by Shirley Grawoig and Bill Oliver. Meyer 
Frieden, executive secretary of the Los Angeles branch of American 
Youth for Democracy made a presentation of "merit pins." Dr. Ernest 
Caldecott gave the ' ' invocation. ' ' 

A letter under date of January 8, 1946, signed by Meyer Frieden, 
shows the address of the organization as 408 S. Spring Street, Los Angeles 
13, telephone MUtual 5307. Jeanette Salve is listed as chairman. Record- 
ing secretary is Lee Herendeen. Student secretary is Vicki Landish. 
The vice chairmen are Sue Scherr, Gene Gardner, Nena Ackerman, and 
Bob Zakon. 

The state officers in 1945 were James Logan, Vivien Levin, Bill 
Lowe, Nancy Rosenfield, Katie Corboff (or Korboff), and Dash 
McMichael. 

The state council was composed of Jean Addis, Reeva Cluen, Fred 
Toy, Betty Green (McGruger), Pearl Pinson, Rachel Reis, Elbert Bass, 
Harriet Moskowitz, Ding Rossi, Eloise Steel, and Helen Lude. 

San Diego officers were Jackie Smith, Frank Crump, Barbara 
Richardson, Camille Barkan, and Johnny Peacock. 

Marin County officers were Ann Tompkins and Pierre Patri. 

East Bay officers were Sandra Martin, Meyer Frieden, Irvin Gostin, 
Vicki Landish, Norma Pittman, Mary Sherwood, Paul Dudrov, Pearl 
Glazer, Geraldine Brownlow, George Stankert, and Elaine Mitchell. 

Los Angeles officers were Kelly Mink, Sam Young, Elaine Rose, 
Patti Zimmerman, Gloria Gervin, Helene Powell, Steve Stanford, Isabel 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 185 

Baron, Sybil Goldenberg, Martha Freeman, Francis Herrera, Bob Ham- 
ilton, Ida Bodin, Bill Jenkins, Harriette Goodman, Jeannette Salve, and 
Carolyn Hassell. 

The following names were listed as members of the provisional 
council on a pamphlet distributed by American Youft for Democracy 
announcing the ''First California State Convention" of the organiza- 
tion, held at the North Star Auditorium, 1631 W. Adams Blvd. in Los 
Angeles (May, 1944) : Jean Addis, Charles Anderson, Dolores Ander- 
son, Isabelle Baron, Katy Corboff, Charlotte Flanner, Meyer Frieden, 
Betty Green, Gerald Hill, Earl Johnson, Vicki Landish, Vivian Levin, 
James Logan, William Lowe, Eoss Lynch, Sandra Martin, Dash 
McMichael, Kelly Mink, Harriet Moskowitz, Jerry O'Connor, Reeva 
Olsen, Helene Powell, Barbara Richardson, Violet Rittenberg, Nancy 
Rosenfield, Willy Solomon, Julia Spector, Celeste Strack, Fred Toy, 
and Mary Jane Windsor. 

The following names were listed on the same pamphlet as sponsors : 
Dr. Thomas Addis, Dr. Harold B. Allen, Mara Alexander, Henry Arm- 
strong, R. S. Avery, William Bailey, Charlotta A. Bass, Louise Beavers, 
Reuben W. Borough, Dr. Arthur Brodjeur, Hugh Bryson, David W. 
Buchanan, Dr. Phillip W. Buck, Lolita Bunyard, J. Vernon Burke, Iris 
Carpenter, Ada Clement, Dr. P. Price Cobbs, Dr. Le Grande Coleman, 
Philip M. Connelly, Bartley Crum, Van Dart, Ernest Dawson, Daniel 
Del Carlo, Dr. Mathurin Dondo, Edward Dmytryk, Rev. S. Martin 
Eidsath, Dr. Charles A. Ertola, Howard Estabrook, Rev. Joyce Wesley 
Farr, Arnold M. Fassler, Rev. Juan Garcia, Gus Gaynor, Robert Miller 
Green, Kathleen Griffin, Dr. Victor Hall, Ruby Heide, Violetta M. Hems- 
ley, Rev. J. Raymond Henderson, Loyal A. Hobson, Lillian Hodghead, 
G. F. Irvine, Joseph James, Rev. H. T. S. Johnson, Dr. Alexander Kaun, 
George Kidwell, Peter King, Rev. Herrick Lane, John Howard Lawson, 
Dr. Leon L. Loofburow, Rev. Edgar Lowther, Richard Lynden, Walter 
W. Mahaffey, Lester A. McMillan, Bertha Metro, Stanley Moffatt, George 
H. Moore, Steve Murdock, Mrs. George Newman, Dolores Padilla, Rt. 
Rev. Edward L. Parsons, Giacomo Patri, Lyle M. Proctor, Mervyn Rath- 
bone, Dr. Holland Roberts, Ralph Rogers, William H. Rosenthal, Robert 
Rossen, Dr. Maxwell Savelle, James San Jule, Paul Schnur, Dr. Ch'en 
Shou-Yi, Jeffrey Smith, Anne Solomon, Jack Stallings, Harry C. Stein- 
metz, Rev. Edward Stovall, Dixie Tiller, Dalton Trumbo, Dr. George A. 
Warmer, Dr. Frank W. Weymouth, Helen Wheeler, Jack White, Rabbi 
Saul White, Anita Whitney, and Dr. George H. Williams. 

Robert Thompson was the national cochairman of the American 
Youth for Democracy. He was formerly a national vice president of the 
Young Communist League. He has been a contributor to the Communist 
Daily Worker. He was a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. The 
Young Communist Review of April, 1938, described Thompson as the 
"leading Y.C.L. figure in California." In 1938, Robert Thompson was 
a member of the National Council of the Young Communist League. 

Carl Ross became national Executive Secretary of American Youth 
for Democracy when it was launched in October, 1943. For more than 
five years prior to that time, he had been national Executive Secretary 
of the Young Communist League. He was affiliated with such Communist 
front organizations as the American Youth Congress and the World 
Youth Congress. 



186 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Claudia Jones was the Editor of the official magazine of the Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy, Spotlight. She was formerly an associate edi- 
tor of the official organ of the Young Communist League, Weekly Review. 
She was a member of the National Council of the Young Communist 
League. Claudia Jones presently faces deportation as an undesirable 
alien seeking the overthrow of the Government of the United States. 

Leo Cooper was Managing Editor of Spotlight, the official magazine 
of American Youth for Democracy. He formerly was the Managing Edi- 
tor of the Weekly Review, the official organ of the Young Communist 
League. 

Celeste Strack became the Executive Secretary of American Youth 
for Democracy in California. She was formerly a member of the National 
Council of the Young Communist League. She ran for Congress on the 
Communist Party ticket in 1940. 

The following (Spotlight, April, 1944) were national sponsors of 
American Youth for Democracy : Henry Armstrong, Charlotte Hawkins 
Brown, John M. Coffee, Frank Marshall Davis, Howard Fast, A. Eustace 
Haydon, William H. Holly, Langston Hughes, John Howard Lawson, 
Kirtley F. Mather, H. P. Marley, F. Mathiessen, Adam Clayton Powell, 
Jr., Minerva Pious, Charles S. Seely, William B. Spofford, D. J. Struik, 
William Jay Schieffelin, Teddy Wilson, Mary E. Woolley, and Mary 
McLeod Bethune. 

The national headquarters of American Youth for Democracy are 
located at 150 Nassau Street, Room 412, New York City. The cochairmen 
of the organization were Robert Thompson and Naomi Ellison. The 
executive secretary is Carol Ross. Winifred Norman and John Gallo 
were vice chairmen. The secretary-treasurer was W. Robert McCarthy. 
Others connected with the national set-up were Henry Cooperstock, 
Terry Grabel, Vivian Levin, Leo Rifkin, Beryl Michaelson, Jimmie 
Schlecker, Nettie Selling, Everett C. Thomas, and Leon Wossy. 

Among American Youth for Democracy members who were also 
connected with the Communist Party or the Young Communist League, 
are the following: Pauline Annone, Warren Brown, Fay Caller (alias 
Fay Caller Vedro), Frank Cestare, Leo Cooper, Margaret Delehante, 
Jack Epstein, Francis Franklin, John Gallo, Claudia Jones, John Hud- 
son Jones, Adeline Kohl, David Livingston, Daisy Lolich, Bill Mardo, 
Robert McCarthy, Carl Ross, Lillian Ross, Phillip Schatz, Herbert Sig- 
ner, Marcella Sloane, Celeste Strack, Everett Thomas, Robert Thomp- 
son, Max Weiss, Thelma Weiss, James West, and Leon Wossy. 

Subsidiary Communist fronts created by American Youth for Democ- 
racy, include Sweethearts of Service Men, Friends of the Campus, and 
World Federation of Democratic Youth. Pauline Annone, and Naomi 
Ellison were active in Sweethearts of Service Men. The "boy friend" of 
Pauline Annone was David Grant, Organizational Secretary of the Com- 
munist Party of western Pennsylvania. Naomi Ellison is the wife of Vic- 
tor Ellison, Communist candidate for Commissioner in Pierce County, 
Washington. Donald Henderson, Jack MacMichael, Vivian Liebman, 
Joseph Starobin, and Bob Burke, were among the leaders of Friends of 
the Campus. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 187 

American Youth for Democracy is affiliated with the World Feder- 
ation of Democratic Youth, founded in London November, 1945, by dele- 
gates from more than 50 nations. The organization now has its headquar- 
ters in Paris. It is part of the Communist Internationa^ solar system 
which includes such other world Communist organizations as Women's 
International Democratic Federation and the World Federation of Trade 
Unions. 

The 1945 delegation to the World Youth Conference included Esther 
Cooper, Frances Damon, Alice Horton, Molly Lieber, Elizabeth McCand- 
less, Thomas Neill, and Doris Senk. Elsa Graves, Frances Damon, Naomi 
Chertoff, Esther Cooper, Russell Jones, and Thomas Neill were among 
the American delegates elected as officers of the World Youth Conference. 
Out of the World Federation of Democratic Youth came the Inter- 
national Union of Students, which held a meeting in Prague on August 
17-31, 1946. Twelve of the 17-man executive committee are known Com- 
munists. 

The officials of the University of California at Los Angeles recognized 
the Communist character of American Youth for Democracy. An editorial 
from the Los Angeles Herald-Express, January 19, 1948, tells the story. 
The editorial, under the caption, "U. C. L. A. Outlaws Communist Group 
as Campus Organization," reads as follows : 

Officials of the University of California at Los Angeles are to be 
commended for their action in refusing official campus standing to 
the American Youth for Democracy organization, successor to the 
Young Communist League, on the ground that it is a political organ- 
ization and political organizations are barred from campus recog- 
nition. 

The community will look with favor on this stand for positive 
Americanism and will now watch with interest to see what the uni- 
versity does about those faculty members who have been so interested 
in Communism and in the campus activities of the Youth for Democ- 
racy gang. 

The university apparently realizes that the un-American activ- 
ities of a small but active minority have given the institution much 
criticism in Los Angeles, in California, and throughout the United 
States. 

U. C. L. A. realizes that bad publicity hurts and that a state uni- 
versity should so act that its actions are above reproach. 

There is a growing sentiment throughout the Country to throw 
the exposing spotlight of publicity on those individuals and those 
Communist-inspired groups and organizations which are spreading 
unrest and trouble, seeking constantly to bring about the eventual 
overthrow of this Country 's constitutional government and the Amer- 
ican way of life. 

This is not a witch hunt, nor is it persecution, but is rather an 
honest effort to rid this Country of a despicable menace. 

Among the subversive groups the American Youth for Democ- 
racy is one of the most offensively dangerous. Its members are 
without moral integrity, without social consciousness and without 
restraint in their desire to stir up race antagonism, create dissension 
and revile every good influence in the land. 



188 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Nothing good can be said for the American Youth for Democ- 
racy, those who belong to it, those who support it or those who are 
tolerant of it. 

It is evil and dangerous in every way. 

U. C. L. A. has taken a commendable first step, a step which 
should be followed by further patriotic house-cleaning. 

The present national cochairmen of American Youth for Democracy 
are Winifred Norman and Vincent Fieri. The vice chairmen are Louis 
Burnham, Mayer Frieden, John Gallo, Frances Gullotta, Ruth Jett, and 
Mollie Lieber. The executive secretary is Herbert Signer. The secretary- 
treasurer is Julie Lowitt. The Education and "Teen-Age" director is 
Vivian Levin. The intercollegiate director is Lee Marsh. 

Present California officers include Bob Zakow, Chuck Bruck, Ralph 
Johnson, Vicki Landish, Henry Lei and, Elaine Rose, and Betty McCand- 
less, chairmen of the Los Angeles Youth Council. 

The San Francisco headquarters are at 216 Market Street. The Los 
Angeles address is 1201 South Alvarado Street. The recently established 
headquarters in San Jose is located at 318 Eighth Street. Kenneth Van 
Luven is membership director in Los Angeles. Barbara Gould is member- 
ship director in San Francisco. Henry Leland is the county organizer for 
Santa Clara County. The California regional office is under the direction 
of Communist Celeste Strack at 593 Market Street, in San Francisco. 

The Teen-Age Art Club is a Los Angeles branch of American Youth 
for Democracy. This group held an art exhibit in June, 1947, at the Los 
Angeles Museum. Marty Lupner, chairman of American Youth for 
Democracy in Los Angeles, was in charge of the exhibits. 

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 

See All- America Anti-Imperialist League. 

ANTI-NAZI NEWS 

A publication of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. Ursula Daniels, 
Young Communist League member, was the circulation manager. 

ARTEF 

This is one of the oldest Communist front organizations in existence. 
It is a theatrical front and was affiliated with the Communist New Theatre 
League. Daly's Theatre in New York City was renamed the Artef Theatre. 

The Communist Daily Worker for January 18, 1935, reported that 
ARTEF had launched a drive for finances. The Daily Worker states: 
"The drive is already on and many leading theatrical people, realizing 
the importance of giving all possible aid to the Artef, have gladly con- 
sented to sponsor the drive. Among them are Brooks Atkinson, Elmer 
Rice, Clifford Odets, Jed Harris, Sylvia Sidney, Orson Welles, Philip 
Loeb, John Houseman, Katherine Locke, and the New Theatre League, 
of which the Artef is the proudest and outstanding member. " 

ARTISTS' FRONT TO WIN THE WAR 

This Communist organization grew out of a mass meeting at Carnegie 
Hall in New York City on October 16, 1942. Among the sponsors were 






UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 189 

Aline Bernstein, Robert Carse, H. W. L. Dana, Martha Dodd, Muriel 
Draper, Edward Eliscu, Guy Endore, Ben Field, Franklin Folsom, Paul 
Jaerico, Rockwell Kent, Arthur Kober, Alfred Kreymborg, John Hqward 
Lawson, Albert Maltz, Bruce Minton, Ruth McKenney, Dudley Nichols, 
S. J. Perelman, Robert Rossen, Edwin Seaver, George Seldes, George 
Sklar, Philip Stevenson, Donald Ogden Stewart, John Wexley, Ella 
Winter, Victor A. Yakhontoff, Leane Zugsmith, Harold Ambellan, Robert 
Cronbach, Stuart Davis, Wanda Gag, William Gropper, Anton Refregier, 
Paul Strand, Lynd Ward, Max Webber, Canada Lee, Howard Bay, 
Morris Parnovsky, Paul Robeson, Hans Eisler, Earl Robinson, Angelo 
Herndon, Kyle S. Crichton, Hugo Gellert, Charles Chaplin, J. Gorney, 
William Rose Benet, Alvah Bessie, Sidney Buchman, Hy Kraft, Dorothy 
Parker, Dalton Trumbo, and Ring Lardner, Jr. 

Louis J. Russell, former F.B.I, agent, testified before the Thomas 
Committee in Washington, D. C., October 30, 1947, (Thomas Report, 
page 483) that Ring Lardner, Jr., was a member of the Communist Party, 
and that he had obtained the Communist Party registration card of Ring 
Lardner, Jr., bearing the number "47180." Russell stated that the card 
bore the notation "1944 Card No. 46806." The address given for Ring 
Lardner, Jr., on the card is 447 Loring, Los Angeles, California. Russell 
further testified that the card contained a notation reading "New card 
issued on November 30, 1944." 

The long Communist Party record of Ring Lardner, Jr., begins on 
page 483 of the congressional report above referred to. It corroborates 
the information in the files of the Senate committee investigating 
un-American activities in California, and reads as follows : 

The files, records, and publications of the Committee on un-American 
Activities contain the following information concerning the Communist- 
front affiliations of Ring Lardner, Jr. : 

Under date of August 22, 1946, the Hollywood Reporter, a publica- 
tion in Los Angeles, California, carried an editorial headed ' ' More Red 
Commissars. ' ' This editorial is quoted, in part, as follows : 

1 ( Now let us take a look at another member of the Screen Writers 
Guild's executive board Ring Lardner, Jr. As chairman of the 
Guild's powerful original materials committee, Lardner incubated 
and sponsored the James M. Cain plan for literary dictatorship 
through the so-called American Authors Authority. 

"The Reporter has this to ask Ring Lardner, Jr. : "Are you a 
member of the Communist Party ? Are you at present assigned to 
the party's northwest (propaganda) section? Do you hold Party 
Book No. 25109 ?" The article continues : "Lardner has a long record 
of activity in Communist front organizations. The March 1937 issue 
of The Western Worker listed him as one of the signers of an open 
letter which denounced the demands of the American Committee for 
the Defense of Trotsky for an investigation of the Russian 'purge' 
trials. This letter contended that such an investigation would con- 
stitute political interference in the internal affairs of the Soviet 
Union." 

Lardner and his fellow signers at that time were acting in accordance 
with the directives of the Stalin dictatorship which was attempting to 



190 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

silence the Communist faction that was loyal to Trotsky. Trotsky later 
was murdered in Mexico by an assassin who allegedly was a member of 
the Communist Party. 

In 1941 Lardner resigned his official position in the Screen Writers 
Guild, after James K. McGuinness and Howard Emmett Rogers had 
conducted a vigorous campaign against the Communist activities of that 
organization. But this was only a temporary retreat made necessary by 
the searchlight which Mr. McGuinness and Mr. Rogers had turned on the 
Guild's leadership. At present, Lardner, in addition to being chairman 
of the original materials committee, is a member of the editorial com- 
mittee, which is responsible for the editorial policies of the Guild's 
magazine. 

In 1942, Lardner was on the editorial board of Communique, pub- 
lished by the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, a Communist-front organ- 
ization, and a member of the mobilization's minority committee, a 
smaller group also actively engaged in party-line work. * * * 

The American Youth for Democracy is the new name for the Young 
Communist League. The Committee on Un-American Activities, in its 
report of April 17, 1947, called upon the governors or legislatures of the 
various states and the administrative heads of the colleges and univer- 
sities "to thoroughly expose the Communist connections of the American 
Youth for Democracy, as well as the inimical objectives of the Communist 
Party in America." The American Youth for Democracy was also cited 
as a Communist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in the report on March 29, 1944. The People's World of December 1, 
1944, reveals that Ring Lardner, Jr., was a sponsor of the American 
Youth for Democracy. The People's World is the organ of the Communist 
Party on the West Coast. 

People's World, on August 17, 1944, contained an article setting 
forth the winners in the contest sponsored by the American Youth for 
Democracy. This was a letter-writing contest held in connection with a 
play entitled "Tomorrow the World," and had for its theme "Why 
Democracy Is Better Than Fascism." The article announced that judges 
for the contest were Ring Lardner, Jr., Franklin Fearing, William 0. 
Oliver, Rev. J. Raymond Henderson, and Mayer Frieden. It should be 
noted that this was during the period when Russia was our ally. 

The American Youth for Democracy, Room 701, 542 S. Broadway, 
Los Angeles, California, published a pamphlet setting forth the work of 
the American Youth for Democracy. This pamphlet listed a committee 
which would sponsor the American Youth for Democracy's first anniver- 
sary dinner in Los Angeles in November, 1944. Among those listed as 
sponsors were Ring Lardner, Jr., John Howard Lawson, Mrs. Charlotta 
A. Bass, Mrs. Dalton Trumbo, and Edward Dmytryk. 

George Dimitroff, the former general secretary of the Communist 
International, was honored by a declaration issued by the Reichstag Fire 
Trial Anniversary Committee. According to the New York Times of 
December 22, 1943, page 40, Ring Lardner, Jr., was a signer of this 
declaration which paid honor to Dimitroff. The Reichstag Fire Trial 
Anniversary Committee was cited as a Communist front by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities in the report of March 29, 1944. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 191 

The California Action Conference for Civil Rights was cited by the 
California Joint Fact-Finding Committee as being ' ' Communist inspired 
and dominated." The People's Daily World of September 27, 1941, lists 
Ring Lardner, Jr., as a sponsor of the California Action Conference for 
Civil Rights. 

In the spring of 1946, the Civil Rights Congress, 205 East 42d Street, 
New York City, issued a pamphlet entitled ' ' Urgent Summons to a Con- 
gress on Civil Rights." This pamphlet called upon civil rights, labor, 
religious, racial, and other organizations and individuals to attend a 
Congress on Civil Rights in Detroit on April 27-28, 1946, to formulate 
and agree upon a national program to defeat the offensive and reactionary 
and Fascist forces and to assure the maximum unification of effort to 
advance that program. The summons contained a partial list of sponsors. 
This list included the name of Ring W. Lardner, Jr. 

The Civil Rights Congress is the successor to the International Labor 
Defense, legal arm of the Communist Party. 

The American Friends of Spanish Democracy and the Veterans of 
the Abraham Lincoln Br-gade were a part of the Communist Party pro- 
gram to provide aid and assistance to the Spanish Loyalists in response 
to instructions received from the Communist International at the 
Seventh Communist International Congress held in 1935 in Moscow. 
The American Friends of Spanish Democracy was cited as a Communist 
front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in the report 
of March 29, 1944, and by the Committee on Un-American Activities in 
the reports of June 12, 1947, and September 2, 1947. The Daily Worker 
of April 8, 1939, page 4, states that Ring Lardner, Jr., was affiliated with 
this organization as a signer of a petition to lift the arms embargo which 
the American Friends of Spanish Democracy sponsored. His affiliation 
with the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade is shown by the New 
Masses of April 2, 1940, page 21, which lists him as a signer of a letter 
which that organization sent to the President of the United States. The 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in the report of 
March 29, 1944, and as "under Communist control" by Professor John 
Dewey, chairman of the Committee for Cultural Freedom, April, 1940. 

The League of American Writers was affiliated with the Inter- 
national Union of Revolutionary Writers, with headquarters in Moscow, 
and has been pledged to the defense of the Soviet Union and the ' * Use of 
art as an instrument of the class struggle." The Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities cited it as a Communist front in the reports of 
January 3, 1940, June 25, 1942, and March 29, 3944. It was also cited by 
former Attorney General General Francis Biddle in these words : l i The 
overt activities of the League of American Writers in the last two years 
leave little doubt of its Communist control" (Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, page 7686). Ring Lardner, Jr., according to the 
Daily Worker of September 14, 1942, page 7, and People's World of 
September 23, 1942, page 5, was a signer of a statement of the League of 
American Writers in behalf of a second front. He was also affiliated with 
the Hollywood chapter of the League of American Writers as a signer of 
the cable sent to Leon Blum, President Roosevelt, and Secretary Hull for 
supplies for Loyalist Spain, as shown by the New Masses of March 29, 
1938, page 21. 



192 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Writers Congress was sponsored by the Hollywood Writers 
Mobilization which is the successor to the Hollywood branch of the 
League of American Writers. The program of the Writers Congress, 
1943, lists Ring Lardner, Jr., as the chairman of the panel on minority 
groups. 

The Open Letter to American Liberals was a denunciation of the 
efforts made to defend Leon Trotsky and a reaffirmation of faith in the 
Soviet Union. It also defended the Moscow trials which were character- 
ized by forced confessions and were staged as political demonstrations 
rather than trials, in our sense of the term. The Open Letter to American 
Liberals, of which Ring Lardner, Jr., was a signer, according to Soviet 
Russia Today, March, 1937, pages 14 and 15, was cited as a Communist- 
front project by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in 
the report of June 25, 1942. Soviet Russia Today was formerly the publi- 
cation of the Friends of the Soviet Union and has been cited as a Com- 
munist-front publication by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities on June 12, 1947, and September 2, 1947. 

The Progressive Citizens of America has been described as an 
' ' allegedly liberal organization which believes in cooperating with Com- 
munists" by the Committee on Un-American Activities in its report of 
June 12, 1947. It was formed by the pro-Communist group of the Inde- 
pendent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions which 
dissolved because of the issue of Communism. According to the Daily 
Worker of May 16, 1947, page 11, a manuscript by Ring Lardner, Jr., was 
sold at auction for the benefit of the literature division of the Progressive 
Citizens of America. 

According to the Daily Worker of March 31, 1947, page 11, Ring 
Lardner, Jr., collaborated with John Hubley and Phil Eastman in the 
writing of the screen version of the Brotherhood of Man, an animated 
color cartoon produced by United Productions of America for the Auto 
Workers Union. This film was based on the pamphlet, The Races of Man- 
kind, coauthored by Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, which the War 
Department banned. Gene Weltfish heads the Congress of American 
Women which is the American affiliate of the Women's International 
Democratic Federation. One of the agencies through which the Brother- 
hood of Man can be booked is the International Workers Order film divi- 
sion. The International Workers Order was cited by Attorney General 
Francis Biddle as "One of the strongest Communist organizations" 
(Congressional Record, September 24, 1942, page 7688), and as a Com- 
munist front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in 
the reports of January 3, 1940, and June 25, 1942. 

The Artists ' Front to Win the War, which was cited as a Communist 
front by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in the report 
of March 29, 1944,* supported the then current Communist demand for 
a second front. Sponsors of the organization included many writers for 
the Communist press who had opposed the war during the Stalin-Hitler 
pact such as Alvah Bessie, Angelo Herndon, Alfred Kreymborg, Albert 
Maltz, Ruth McKenney, and Dalton Trumbo. The program of the Artists' 
Front to Win the War, October 16, 1942, page 5, lists Ring Lardner, Jr., 
as a sponsor. 

The Voice of Freedom Committee, according to PM of May 19, 1947, 
page 19, was formed by Dorothy Parker, whose record of affiliation with 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 193 

Communist-front organizations is set forth in a separate report. Accord- 
ing to a news release of the organization, dated June 16, 1947, Langston 
Hughes, Paul Robeson, and Donald Ogden Stewart, all of whom have 
lengthy records of Communist-front affiliations, are sponsors of the 
Voice of Freedom Committee, whose function is the support of com- 
mentators who have received the acclaim of the Communist press. Ring 
Lardner, Jr., is listed by a leaflet of the organization as a signer of a 
petition which the Voice of Freedom Committee sponsored. 

ASSOCIATED FILM AUDIENCES 

In a report before the League of American Writers (Fighting 
Words, edited by Donald Ogden Stewart) "a group of Hollywood 
writers ' ' stated : 

* ' Audience organization is the only safeguard of this function. 
Associated Film Audiences, in the West, and Film Audiences for 
Democracy, in the East, have made a beginning in audience organ- 
ization through trade-unions, fraternal and church groups, and 
women 's organizations. ' ' 

The Cinema Bureau in Moscow had laid down its directives con- 
cerning the building up of audiences for the purpose of agitating against 
certain films opposed to the current Communist Party line and for sup- 
porting those which favor the line. 

In 1939 Associated Film Audiences was merged with Films for 
Democracy and became Film Audiences for Democracy. 

Among executive members of the Hollywood branch of Associated 
Film Audiences were Fritz Lang, John Cromwell, Herbert Biberman 
and Aben Kandel. 

The headquarters of Associated Film Audiences was located in New 
York City at Room 805, 132 West 43d Street. Dr. Worth M. Tippy was 
listed as honorary chairman. Edward K. Kern was chairman, and Viola 
D. Calder was executive secretary. The executive board was composed of 
the following: Roswell P. Barnes, Algernon Black, Dr. Sidney E. Gold- 
stein, Lester Granger, Rita Hochheimer, Laurence Hosie, Spurgeon 
Keeny, Dr. William H. Kilpatrick, Clyde R. Miller, Etta Schneider, 
Abbott Simon, Katherine Terrill, and Rose Terlin. 

BLACK AND WHITE 

This monthly " literary " magazine was a Communist-controlled 
publication in Los Angeles. Under the editorship of Wilbur Needham, 
the periodical began publication June, 1939. Among the associate editors 
of the magazine were the following: Carey Me Williams, Ella Winter, 
Dolph Winebrenner, and Robert A. Brady. Herber A. Klein, former 
organizer of Unit 140 of the Communist Party of Los Angeles, was also 
an associate editor of Black and White. Still another associate editor 
was Harlan R. Crippen, former member of the Young Communist 
League. 

Mike Quinn, Tom Cullen, Elsa Gidlow, Donald Ogden Stewart, and 
Haakon Chevalier were associated with the magazine. 



14 L-7088-D 



194 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

BOOK UNION 

This outfit is the Communist ' ' Book-of -the-Month ' ' club. The selec- 
tion of the books is in the hands of a Communist board of editors. The 
Communist-owned publications were mobilized fully behind the attempt 
to make the Book Union a success. 

The first offer of the Book Union was Proletarian Literature in the 
United States, sponsored by the League of American Writers. The book 
was published by International Publishers. 

The editorial board of Book Union, Inc., (381 Fourth Avenue, New 
York City) were Malcolm Cowley, Robert W. Dunn, Henry Hart, Gran- 
ville Hicks, Corliss Lamont, Isidor Schneider, Bernard Smith, Alexan- 
der Trachtenberg, Mary Van Kleeck, and Marian Hart. 

The advisory council of Book Union, Inc., included Roger Bald- 
win, Max Bedacht, Joseph Brodsky, Erskine Caldwell, Fielding Burke, 
Jack Conroy, H. W. L. Dana, R. Palme Dutt, James T. Farrell, Waldo 
Frank, Joseph Freeman, Leo Gallagher, Hugo Gellert, Ben Gold, Michael 
Gold, Eugene Gordon, Clarence Hathaway, Josephine Herbst, Langston 
Hughes, Matthew Josephson, Joshua Kunitz, John Howard Lawson, 
Robert Morss Lovett, Loren Miller, Lewis Mumford, M. Nadir, Joseph 
North, Clifford Odets, Moissaye J. Olgin, Paul Peters, Edwin Seaver, 
John L. Spivak, Maxwell S. Stewart, John Strachey, Genevieve Taggard, 
Ernst Toller, Louis Weinstock, John Wexley, Ella Winter, and James 
Waterman Weiss. 

CALIFORNIA LABOR SCHOOL 

The committee has in its files and exhibits many of the pamphlets 
circulated by the California Labor School Library. One such pamphlet 
is entitled "Why Work for Nothing?" by Herman Schendel. The charac- 
ter of this type of propaganda is indicated by the following quotation, 
which appears at page 63 : 

"Marx stands out as one of mankind's greatest thinkers and 

scientists and fighters. Today, his books and his ideas reach millions 

of people. His influence grows because time is proving that he 

called the turn on capitalism. ' ' 

On Sunday, March 4, 1945, a reception was held in honor of Paul 
Robeson, notorious Negro Communist leader. The reception was for the 
benefit of the Communist California Labor School and it was sponsored 
by the following: Mrs. Frances Albrier, Mrs. Fanny Bulger, Mr. and 
Mrs. Jeffery Cohelan, Mr. and Mrs. Matt Crawford, Mr. and Mrs. C. L. 
Dellums, Prof, and Mrs. William R. Dennes, Dr. and Mrs. Monroe E. 
Deutsch, Dr. and Mrs. Virgil E. Dickson, Prof, and Mrs. Willard H. 
Durham, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert W. Erskine, Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. 
Flippin, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Frankenstein, Mrs. Frank Gerbode, Mr. 
and Mrs. Sam Hamburg, Prof, and Mrs. W. Z. Hassid, Mr. and Mrs. 
John Hassler, Mr. and Mrs. George Hay ward, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Heide, 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Henry Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. David Jenkins, Mr. 
and Mrs. Allan Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Joseph, Dr. and Mrs. 
Jacob Kasanin, Prof. A. M. Kidd, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Kuttler, Mr. and 
Mrs. Sam Ladar, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan McDuffie, Dr. and Mrs. A. C. 
McGiffert, Leonard J. Meltzer, Nathan Harry Miller, Dr. and Mrs. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 195 

William R. O'Dell, Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Packard, Mr. and Mrs. 
John Peregoy, Dr. and Mrs. William R. Pittman, Prof, and Mrs. Max 
Radin, Dr. Aurelia Henry Reinhart, Dr. and Mrs. Frank H. Rodin, 
Prof, and Mrs. Leo Rogin, Mr. and Mrs. Harry J. Sapper, J. D. Sarber, 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Siegal, Paul St. Sure, Mrs. Mary Ellen Washburn, 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Williams, Dr. and Mrs. Baldwin Woods, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Frank Youell. 

David Hedley was subpenaed and testified before the committee in 
Oakland on November 5, 1947. He stated that he was the assistant 
director of the California Labor School. He admitted that he had taught 
a course at the predecessor of the California Labor School, the Com- 
munist Tom Mooney Labor School. He identified a Communist booklet 
"Why Work for Nothing" by Herman Schendel as a booklet of the 
California Labor School. Hedley admitted that he was not a citizen of 
the United States although he had headed the California C.I.O. Political 
Action Committee. Although not a citizen, he stated that he believed 
that ' ' any kind of a political affiliation or political activity that I may 
engage in is my right, guaranted by the under the Constitution and 
that it is not proper for the committee to place questions of that kind. ' ' 

For a detailed account of the California Labor School, see the com- 
mittee's 1947 Report. 

CALIFORNIA LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCE 

This Communist front is variably called by the number of its 
meetings. 

The latest call for the California Legislative Conference appeared 
in the Communist People's Daily World for March 5, 1948. About one 
hundred delegates from 11 Northern California congressional districts 
were scheduled to gather at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, on March 8, 
1948. 

George F. Irvine, chairman of the California Legislative Confer- 
ence, announced that issues to be discussed would include the Town- 
send Pension, the State Senate Reapportionment, and Housing Initiative 
Petitions; revision of the State Constitution, Central Valley Develop- 
ment, Civil Rights and Minorities, and Child Care. Among those indi- 
viduals scheduled to participate in this Communist conference are the 
following: Frank Hendricks, secretary of the San Francisco C.I.O. 
Political Action Committee ; Kathleen Griffin, Oakland Voters ' League ; 
Mary Pieper, Berkeley Democratic Club, Edith Pfalsgraf, Sonoma 
Pomona Grange; Carl Barnum, Sacramento Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen ; Phyllis Lindley, Grass Valley ; Robert Hardgrove, San Jose ; 
Ethel Stevens,* Modesto ; Hence Fisher, Bakersfield ; Margaret Moreau ; 
Harold F. Wise, California Housing Initiative Committee; Wilford 
Howard, Townsend Legislative Chairman; and Dr. Max Radin, Uni- 
versity of California. Dr. Max Radin, incidentally, was scheduled to 
discuss the initiative petition for the reapportionment of the California 
State Senate. 

CALIFORNIA YOUTH LEGISLATURE 

See American Youth Congress. 



196 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

CELEBRATION OF 15 YEARS BIRO-BIDJAN 

This Communist-front organization came into being to celebrate 
15 years of Biro-Bidjan. Biro-Bidjan is a Jewish Communist colony in 
the Soviet Union. 

The Committee of sponsors for the Celebration of 15 Years Biro- 
Bidjan include the following : Max Levin, A. Jenofsky, Prof. C. Kuntz, 
Ben Gold, B. Z. Goldberg, Rabbi Benjamin Plotkin, Louis Weinstock, 
M. Stern, Jacob Adler, Max Bedacht, Alexander Bittelman, Louis B. 
Boudin, Joseph R. Brodsky, Peter V. Cacchione, Morris Carnovsky, Dr. 
Bella V. Dodd, Abraham Flaxer, William Gropper, V. J. Jerome, 
Moishe Katz, Rockwell Kent, Carol King, B. Lapin, Helen London, Mrs. 
J. H. Macy, Mary Cabot Macy, Vito Marcan,tonio, Harry Mintz, Paul 
Muni, Clifford Odets, Max Perlow, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Dr. 
Maxwell Ross, Jacob Rothbaum, Max Steinberg, James Waterman Wise, 
Victor A. Yakhontoff, and Benjamin Zemach. 

CHAMPION OF YOUTH 

This is a Communist Party periodical for youth. It is published by 
Champion of Youth Publishers, located at 2 East 23d Street, New York 
City. Headquarters were maintained at 799 Broadway, New York City, 
which is also the headquarters of the Young Communist League, and 
many other Communist Party auxiliary organizations. (The building at 
799 Broadway, which also uses the address 80 East llth Street, is owned 
by Communist Grace Burnham.) Prompt Press (Union Printers' Label 
No. 209), Communist printing organization, does the actual printing. 

Morrie Schnapper was the editor and Irvin Keitly the business man- 
ager and managing editor. The editorial board has been composed of 
John Ames, Joseph Cohen, Dave Doran, Angelo Herndon, Roger Chase, 
Beryl Gilman, Sofie Juried, James Wechsler, and Jane Whitebread. 
Advisory editors were listed as Lynn J. Frazier, Eduard C. Lindeman, 
Jerome Davis, Oswald Garrison Villard, Frank Palmer, William Ziegner, 
C. Harley Grattan, Jack Conroy, Kenneth M. Gould, Harry Elmer 
Barnes, Sherman Dryer, and Robert Morss Lovett. 

Others connected with Champion of Youth are Sam Pavzner, Inter- 
national Workers Order ; Louis Gordon, member of the Maine campaign 
committee of the Communist Party; James Murphy, member of the 
National Campaign Committee of the Communist Party ; James Lerner, 
member of the staff of the Daily Worker, and youth secretary of the 
American League Against War and Fascism and the International 
Workers Order; Francis Franklin, writer for the Communist; Langston 
Hughes, affiliated with the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 
Friends of the Soviet Union, International Workers Order, American 
League for Peace and Democracy, League of American Writers, North 
American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy, American Revolution- 
ary Writers' Congress, League of Professional Groups for Foster and 
Ford, and National Committee for Browder and Ford; Frederick N. 
Myers, member of the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade ; Richard 
Pack, New Theatre contributor ; John Groth, member of the Friends of 
the Soviet Union, American League for Peace and Democracy, and New 
Masses and New Theatre contributor; Gregor Duncan, member of the 






UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 197 

Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, and James Wechsler, member 
of the American Student Union, and a New Masses contributor. 

The Young Communist League made a practice of giving subscrip- 
tions to Champion of Youth to all members who paid their initiation fee. 
The periodical was also used as an official publication of the International 
Workers Order which had printed on the cover of its copies "I. W. 0. 
Edition. " 

CHINA CONFERENCE ARRANGEMENTS COMMITTEE 

This front was organized primarily to bring pressure on the Truman 
administration to remove American troops from China so that the Chinese 
Communists would be given a free hand against Chiang Kai-Shek. 

Allen Metcalf is the Southern California director of the Committee 
to Win the Peace, and is the signer of a letter ander date of November 6, 
1946 on the letterhead of the China Conference Arrangements Committee. 
The headquarters of the organization is listed as room 334, 206 S. Spring 
Street, telephone number MUtual 7859. The letter is as follows : 

To : All Organizations. 

Subject : " Remove American Troops From 

China" Petition Drive. 
During the period November 15th to December 15th there will 

be an intensive petition campaign, directed to President Truman, 

asking the President to take the following action in the interests of 

America 's peace and security : 

1. Remove all American armed forces from China immediately. 

2. Withhold all loans, credits, military and other material assist- 
ance from the present Chinese government until the Chinese 
civil war is halted and a democratic, representative, peaceful 
Chinese government has been formed. 

3. Pursue a more democratic foreign policy in Korea, the Philip- 
pines, Japan, and throughout the Far East. 

The goal is to secure 100,000 Los Angeles signatures and another 
50,000 signatures in the rest of Southern California by Decem- 
ber 15th. 

These petitions, when completed on December 15th, will be 
turned over to a group of Southern California congressmen with 
instructions to place the signatures personally on President Tru- 
man 's desk and then to introduce into the Eightieth Congress early 
in January a house resolution calling for congressional action to 
remove American armed forces from China, etc. 

You can pick up these petitions for your members to circulate 
beginning Tuesday, November 12th at our headquarters. If the goal 
of 150,000 signatures is to be reached all the forces interested in 
peace must cooperate decisively in this campaign. Act Now ! ! ! 

The late Brigadier General Evans F. Carlson was the temporary 
chairman of the China Conference Arrangements Committee. The 
National Committee to Win the Peace and the Committee for Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy were co-sponsors of the China Conference Arrange- 
ments Committee. 



198 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

A partial list of sponsors printed on the letterhead above referred to 
is as follows Ellenore Abowitz, James Egert Allen, Bertram Alves, Lee 
Bachelis, Sam Baiter, Sanford S. Beldner, Elmer A. Benson, Michael 
Blankfort, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Rev. L. B. Brown, George 
Campbell, Si Lan Chen, Margarete L. Clark, Leslie E. Claypool, Rabbi 
J. K. Cohen, M. de Gracia Concepcion, Philip M. Connelly, Bartley C. 
Crum, Rev. J. C. Coleman, Parley Parker Christensen, Joseph Curran, 
Hugh Deane, Jr., Hugh De Lacey, Earl P. Dickerson, Dean Dixon, Rabbi 
Simon A. Dolgin, Rev. W. E. B. DuBois, Julius Emspak, Frederick V. 
Field, Harrison Forman, Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, John Garfield, 
Leo A. Goldberg, Rabbi Ernest E. Greenfield, Lena Home, Augustus F. 
Hawkins, Dr. Claude Hudson, John B. Hughes, Langston Hughes, James 
Wong Howe, Alvin P. Jackson, Michael Kanin, Robert W. Kenny, Rabbi 
Jacob Kohn, Leo Kryzycki, Edward Lamb, Millard Lampell, Canada Lee, 
Katherine de Mille Quinn, Alain Locke, Rev. Martin Luther Long, Albert 
Maltz, Thomas Mann, Vito Marcantonio, Elizabeth B. McCandless, Carey 
Me Williams, Rev. Jack McMichael, Rt. Rev. Walter Mitchell, Judge 
Stanley Moffatt, Karen Morley, Ed Mosk, Dr. Max Nussbaum, Gregory 
Peck, Frank Pallet, Dr. Edwin McNeil! Poteat, Paul Robeson, Earl Rob- 
inson, Edward G. Robinson, Reid Robinson, John R. Roden, Maud Rus- 
sell, Frederick L. Schuman, Jean Sieroty, Edgar Snow, Mrs. Edgar 
Snow, Johannes Steel, Maxwell S. Stewart, Everett M. Stowe, Ilona Ralf 
Sues, Dalton Trumbo, Dr. Keith Sward, Frank Tuttle, Al S. Waxman, 
Claude L. Welch, Justice James H. Wolfe, and Virginia Wright. 

The Communist Party line shifted after V-J Day and all existing 
Communist fronts started pressure on the administration in reference to 
its foreign policy both in China and central Europe in order to clear the 
way for Soviet expansion. The China Conference Arrangements Com- 
mittee, the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, and the 
Committee to Win the Peace were new fronts in this field. 

CHINA TODAY 

This magazine is published by the Communist front, Friends of the 
Chinese People, at 168 West 23d Street, New York City. 

J. W. Phillips, Frederick Spencer, Hansu Chan, Lawrence Hearn 
and E. P. Greene have been editors of China Today. 

Maxwell S. Stewart, R. P. Norton, R. A. Howell, Theodore Draper, 
Andrew Drummond, J. H. Lin, Fumio Tanabe, L. Turner, Harold Ward, 
Victor A. Yakhontoff, and Julius Loeb have been contributing editors. 

Robert Norton, Max Granich, T. A. Bisson, Philip J. Jaffe, Haru 
Matsui, Frank Kai-ming Su, Dorothea Tooker, and Michel Rothman have 
been connected with the magazine in one capacity or another. 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR BETTER EDUCATION 

This front maintains headquarters at 1515 Crossroads of the World 
in Hollywood, the address for similar groups. Mrs. John Whedon is 
president ; Mrs. Arthur Yanow, vice president ; Mrs. Hartwell E. Scar- 
brough, financial secretary; Mrs. Louis Waldeck, recording secretary; 
Miss Wilma Baker, corresponding secretary, and Angers Woolley, 
treasurer. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 199 

The chief activity of the Citizens' Committee for Better Education 
has been the support of extreme leftists for election to the Los Angeles 
Board of Education. In 1947 the committee fronted for the election of 
Dr. H. Claude Hudson, who has been active in a number of Communist- 
front organizations. 

The Citizens' Committee for Better Education uses the Communist 
Party 's mailing list for Los Angeles County. Several of the committee 's 
agents receive mimeographed material under several aliases, indicating 
that the Citizens' Committee for Better Education has access to the 
party's files. 

A paragraph from a mimeographed appeal for funds on the letter- 
head of the Citizens' Committee for Better Education, signed by Anita 
Yanow as acting president and dated April 23, 1947, utilizes typical 
double-talk characteristic of Communist fronts : 

The anti-democratic forces of this city resorted to every desper- 
ate device to elect their candidate in the primaries. They dragged 
out the red herring. They resorted to race baiting. Their press sys- 
tematically denied our candidate access to the channels of com- 
munication. We faced an iron curtain of silence whenever we tried 
to bring the true issues of the campaign to the public. But despite 
these attempts to gag and to smear progressive candidates, the forces 
of reaction did not succeed in their purpose. Dr. Hudson got on the 
final ballot. This is a real victory for the common man. (Committee 
italics. ) 

Among the Communists and Communist fellow-travelers who have 
been writing textbooks for use in public schools are the following : Louis 
Adamic, Sherwood Anderson, Prof. Charles A. Beard, Mary Beard, 
Pearl S. Buck, Eveline M. Burns, Prof. Zachariah Chaffee, Jr., Stuart 
Chase, Edward Corsi, Kenneth Crawford, Carl Crow, Edwin Embree, 
Abraham Epstein, Morris Ernst, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, Hallie Flana- 
gan, Prof. Willystone Goodsell, Arthur Garfield Hays, James Weldon 
Johnson, Oliver La Farge, Owen Lattimore, Prof. Helen M. Lynd, Prof. 
Robert S. Lynd, Prof. Kenneth MacGowan, Prof. Kirtley F. Mather, 
Carey Me Williams, Lewis Mumford, Rose Nelson, Prof. H. A. Overstreet, 
Prof. Paul Radin, Prof. Holland D. Roberts, Mari Sandoz, William Sea- 
brook, Sigmund Spaeth, Prof. Eugene Staley, Lincoln Steffens, Prof. 
Bernhard J. Stern, Leland Stowe, Maxwell S. Stewart, Marguerite N. 
Stewart, Anna Louise Strong, Shepard Traube, James Waterman Wise, 
Carl W. Wittke, Albert Rhys Williams, Frank Lloyd Wright, Lin 
Yutang, Dr. Will H. Alexander, Margaret Bourke-White, Prof. Frank 
P. Graham, Granville Hicks, and Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 

As this partial report goes to press the committee is in receipt of a 
communication from a student at Los Angeles City College. He writes : 
"This is a list of books suggested for reading in our English class. It 
has just recently been published by the English department and includes 
Communist authors such as Leland Stowe, Ilya Ehrenburg, Edgar Snow, 
and Carey McWilliams. How about cleaning out the Red teachers at 
Los Angeles City College ? ' ' 

This communication was written on the back of a mimeographed 
sheet containing a list of "Books Available in Class Library, H. T. Heath, 
1947." The Red viewpoint is definitely indicated both in the titles of 



200 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the books and the authors, which in addition to those listed by the student 
in his communication, include Louis Adamic. 

In 1948, the address on the letterheads of the Citizens' Committee 
for Better Education is given as 3467 North Knoll Drive, Los Angeles 
28, California. The address "6769 Lexington Avenue, Los Angeles 38, " 
has been crossed off of the letterhead in the possession of the committee. 

The officers of the organization for 1948, as they appear on the 
letterhead mentioned above, are, Dr. H. Claude Hudson, president ; Dr. 
George B. Mangold, first vice president; Mrs. Louis Waldeck, second 
vice president; Mrs. Hartwell E. Scarbrough, financial secretary; Mrs. 
Alex Blumstein, recording secretary; Mrs. Esther Gilbert, correspond- 
ing secretary ; and Angers Woolley, treasurer. 

The Citizens' Committee for Better Education is currently pres- 
suring the Legislature for passage of Assembly Bill Nos. 2 and 3 (1948 
Session) providing for permanent child care centers. 

CITIZENS COMMITTEE TO FREE EARL BROWDER 

This organization was strictly a Communist Party project. Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn was the executive secretary of the organization. Miss 
Flynn is not only a member of the national committee of the Communist 
Party but is a columnist for the Daily Worker. Louis Weinstock, admin- 
istrative secretary of the Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder, 
became a member of the national committee of the Communist Political 
Association. 

Earl Browder admitted before the House Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities, in September, 1939, that he had traveled on 
false passports. His conviction and sentence was not based on this fact, 
however. His conviction and sentence to four years in Atlanta Federal 
Penitentiary was based on the charge of perjury committed in connec- 
tion with his false passports. Browder had served a term as a draft 
dodger of World War I in Leavenworth Prison. 

The principal Communist pressure-vehicle for Browder 's release 
was the Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder. 

Before Browder started his prison sentence at Atlanta Penitentiary, 
he made the following public statement : 

"If my passport offense rates four years, what is the punish- 
ment that fits the crime of Franklin D. Koosevelt against the Amer- 
ican people ? I think the punishment that will inevitably be inflicted 
for that crime the supreme punishment will be written by his- 
tory, which will write down that name as the man who betrayed 
the peace and prosperity of the American people. ' ' 

Among those who were affiliated with the Citizens Committee to 
Free Earl Browder, either as committee members or signers of state- 
ments or petitions, are the following : Philip M. Connelly, Louis Gold- 
blatt, Lyn Whiting, Henry Schmidt, Ernest Lovina, James Smith, Ben 
Gold, Paul Stein, Donald McGuire, Hugh Bryson, Walter J. Stack, 
Donald Henderson, Paul Heide, Roger Baldwin, Max Bedacht, Prof. 
Franz Boas, Hugh De Lacey, Abraham Flaxer, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
Osmond K. Fraenkel, Stephen H. Fritchman, Dashiell Hammett, Kock- 
well Kent, Max Lerner, Albert Maltz, Vito Marcantonio, Lewis Merrill, 
Grant Oakes, Arthur Upham Pope, A. Clayton Powell, Jr. ? Paul Robeson, 



TIN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 201 

Reid Robinson, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Dr. Clinton J. Taft, Dr. Harry 
F. Ward, James Waterman Wise, Dr. Max Yergan, Art Young, Rev. 
Edward L. Parsons, Prof. Sophonisba Breckinridge, Prof. Albert 
Sprague Coolidge, Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild, Prof. Walter Rauten- 
strauch, Theodore Dreiser, Alfred Kreymborg, Carey McWilliams, 
Oswald G. Villard, Dr. Thomas A. Addis, John Beardsley, Arthur Gar- 
field Hays, Mary Van Kleeck, Tom Mooney, Louis Weinstock, Robert W. 
Dunn, Warren K. Billings, Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, Leo Gallagher, Angelo 
Herndon, James Waterman Wise, Eduard C. Lindeman, Mrs. Fay E. 
Allen, Dr. Ira DeA. Reid, Mervyn Rathborne, Elliott Wax, William 
Morris, and Michael Quill. 

CITIZENS COMMITTEE FOR THE MOTION PICTURE STRIKERS 

This Communist front was organized for the purpose of creating 
sympathy for Herbert K. Sorrell's Communist inspired strike against 
the motion picture industry. It was particularly active in attempting 
to influence public opinion in favor of Sorrell and his strikers and in 
agitating and fomenting antagonisms between law enforcement officers 
and the strikers. 

Included in the activities of the Citizens Committee for the Motion 
Picture Strikers were John Howard Lawson, Carey McWilliams, Albert 
Dekker, Dr. Franklin Fearing, and others. 

CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 

Communist fronts change their names so often that it is difficult to 
keep up with them. The groups devoted to defending the Communist 
Party and its members change their names more often than others. Of 
the so-called ' ' defense fronts ' ' the most prominent have been the Inter- 
national Labor Defense and the National Federation of Constitutional 
Liberties. These fronts recently combined with the Metropolitan Inter- 
faith and Interracial Coordinating Council of New York, and now 
operate under the name of the Civil Rights Congress. The national head- 
quarters are located at 205 East 42d Street, New York City. 

George Marshall, who headed the National Federation for Constitu- 
tional Liberties, is the national chairman; Dr. Benjamin E. Mays and 
Harry F. Ward are honorary cochairmen; Raymond C. Ingersoll is 
treasurer ; Milton Kaufman is executive director ; Milton N. Kemnitz is 
field director; George F. Addes, Mary Bethune, Rev. Charles A. Hill, 
Ira Latimer, Stanley Nowak, Lawrence Rivkin, and Vincent Sheean are 
national vice chairmen. Benjamin Goldring is the secretary of the legal 
committee. 

A National Congress on Civil Rights was held in Detroit on April 
27-28, 1946, out of which emerged the Civil Rights Congress. Initiators 
of the national congress were the late Col. Evans Carlson, Norman Corwin, 
Dr. Kirtley F. Mather, Carey McWilliams, Edward G. Robinson, Paul 
Robeson, Clark Foreman, George Marshall, James G. Patton, and Con- 
gressman Vito Marcantonio. 

The sponsors of the national congress included Susan B. Anthony II, 
of the Congress of American Women, Louis E. Burnham, D. A. Cameron, 
Prof. Emmanuel Chapman, Philip M. Connelly, Bishop J. A. Gregg, 
Rabbi Ferdinand M. Isserman, Ellis E. Patterson, Michael J. Quill, 



202 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Dorothy K. Roosevelt, Senator Glen H. Taylor, Max Weber, Louis 
Adamic, Elmer Benson, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and Francis J. 
McConnell. 

Signers of the call to the national congress were Anna M. Kross, 
Gene Weltfish, Saul Mills, Adam Clayton Powell, Vito Marcantonio, 
Johannes Steel, Lisa Sergio, Joe Curran, Joseph P. Selly, and Hulan 
E. Jack. 

Milton Kaufman, Louis Coleman of the International Labor Defense, 
and Milton Kemnitz were elected to the continuation committee. 

The California headquarters of the Civil Rights Congress is located 
at 206 South Spring Street in Los Angeles : telephone number VAndike 
3360. William R. Bidner is the executive director. The Los Angeles 
sponsors are as follows : Prof. Thomas Addis, Sam Baiter, Charlotta A. 
Bass, Michael Blankfort, George Campbell, Morris Carnovsky, Rev. Don 
M. Chase, Philip M. Connelly, Jaime Gonzales, E. Y. Harburg, Dr. J. H. 
Hayes, Willis J. Hill, Dr. Harry Hoijer, Lena Home, Dr. H. Claude 
Hudson, Peter Kahn, Jr., Robert W. Kenny, Howard Koch, William S. 
Lawrence, Kenneth MacGowan, Thomas Mann, Hugh McBeth, Jr., Judge 
Stanley Moffatt, Seniel Ostrow, Anne Revere, Frank Scully, Artie Shaw, 
Ruth Marrow Slade, Herbert K. Sorrell, and Virginia Wright. 

The current activity of the Communist front is agitation in behalf 
of Hans Eisler now awaiting deportation hearing and considered an 
important agent of the international Communist movement. The second 
current activity of the Civil Rights Congress is a campaign to stop the 
Thomas Committee in Washington and the Senate Fact-Finding Com- 
mittee in California. 

A pamphlet issued by the Communist Party of Los Angeles (Room 
525, 124 West Sixth Street) at the time the Freedom Train visited 
Los Angeles, lays down the current line for the Civil Rights Congress and 
all of the subsidiary organizations of the International Labor Defense. 
The pamphlet reads, in part, as follows: 

Freedom Is More Than a Train * * * The fight for Freedom 

has now become one of defending sacred Constitutional rights. 

John Williamson, Labor Secretary of the Communist Party, 

Gerhardt Eisler, leading German anti-fascist, and Ferdinand Smith, 

Secretary of the National Maritime Union, have been seized by the 

Justice Department, are being kept in isolation at Ellis Island and 

are denied release on bail ! 

The technique now being practiced is to seize those who oppose 

the war plans of the Truman administration, charge them with 

being * ' dangerous aliens, ' ' hustle them oif to a concentration camp, 

such Ellis Island is becoming, and keep them there indefinitely. 

If the government succeeds in this plot, no American having 

any political objections to the bipartisan administration will be safe. 

Every American who values his own liberty should protest this 

violation of our freedom heritage. 

Wire Attorney General Clark insisting that bail be set for 

Williamson, Eisler and Smith ! 

Demand that the Truman Administration stop the deportation 

proceedings based on political beliefs ! 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 203 

One of the most brazen Communist meetings held in a church in Los 
Angeles was the Paul Robeson concert-meeting held Friday, February 
27, 1948, at 8 p.m. in the Second Baptist Church, located at 2412 
Griffith Avenue, in the City of Los Angeles. The meeting was under the 
auspices of the Civil Rights Congress, the C.I.O. United Public Workers, 
and the A. F. of L. state, county and municipal workers. The important 
participants in this meeting were Sidney Moore, a Mr. DiMisner, a Mr. 
Lindsey, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, Don Wheeldon, Lena Home, Char- 
lotta Bass, James Burford, and Paul Robeson. 

Sidney Moore represented the C.I.O. Unitfi Public Workers Inter- 
national. Don Wheeldon, represented the United Negro and Allied Vet- 
erans. Dr. Francis E. Townsend, aging leader of the old age pension 
advocates, has apparently gone over to the Communist Party and is 
presently quite a hero with Stalin 's agents. Lena Home has consistently 
given aid and comfort to Communist-front organizations and causes. 
Charlotta Bass, editor of the Communist California Eagle, has been 
affiliated with most of the Los Angeles County 's Communist-front organi- 
zations and is a member of the Communist-front, International Labor 
Defense. James Burford, since his affiliation with the Communist units 
at Berkeley, has been an avid Communist functionary. Paul Robeson is an 
avowed Communist and is probably the most active Negro in Stalin's 
fifth column in America. 

The Rev. J. Raymond Anderson, is pastor of the Second Baptist 
Church. 

Bill Bendor of the Civil Rights Congress and Sam Berland of the 
C.I.O. United Public Workers were called to the platform and introduced. 
Don Wheeldon was in charge of the collection. He stated that he was 
present "to raise funds to help in the defense of Ferdinand Smith, 
Claudia Jones, John Williamson/' and others threatened with deporta- 
tation. Ferdinand Smith, Claudia Jones, and John Williamson are all 
self-confessed Communists. 

Dr. Francis E. Townsend donated $50 ; and Mr. Gorlich donated $25 ; 
Sadie and Morris Goodman donated $5; Glen Whitney donated $25; 
Leola Burns donated $5 ; Verdia Finch donated $5 ; Mrs. Good donated 
$5 ; Mrs. Spencer donated $1 ; Murray 's Dude Ranch donated $25 ; 
American Youth For Democracy donated $8.92 ; and the Sawtelle Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America gave $5. 

It was announced that Leon Foreman had lost his wallet. 
The Civil Rights Congress, Division of Mobilization for Democracy, 
issued a call, signed by Daniel G. Marshal, Chairman of the Los Angeles 
Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild, Anthony Lucio, Port Agent of 
the San Pedro Branch of the National Maritime Union, and William R. 
Bidner, Executive Director of the Civil Rights Congress, for a meeting 
to be held at the Embassy Auditorium, Ninth and Grand Avenue, in the 
City of Los Angeles, Tuesday evening, March 9, 1948, at 8 p.m. 

The aforesaid "Call to Emergency Action Conference" reads as 
follows : 

Five men arrested for deportation are on a hunger strike 
against the denial of any bail, pending normal legal procedure in 
their cases. To date, in all of the political deportation cases reason- 
able bail has been granted. In the case of these five men bail has been 



204 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA,. 

denied by personal order of Attorney General Tom Clark. In effect 
these men are imprisoned and punished before they are found guilty 
of any offense. 

The individuals involved are : 
Ferdinand C. Smith Secretary, National Maritime Union, C.I.O. 

Labor's most prominent Negro leader. (He has never before 

been arrested or convicted of any crime.) 
John Williamson National Labor Secretary, Communist Party. 

(He has never been arrested or convicted of any crime.) 
Irving Potash Manager, New York Fur and Leather Workers, 

C.I.O. 
Charles Doyle International Vice President, C.I.O. Chemical 

Workers. (He has never been arrested or convicted of any 

crime.) 
Gerhart Eisler German progressive writer. 

The One Issue at Stake Is The Right of These Men to Release 
on Reasonable Bail. At stake is every person 's right to due process 
of law the right to release on bail pending trial the concept that a 
person is innocent until proved guilty. These rights are guaranteed 
in the Eighth Amendment to our Constitution which reads : ' ' Exces- 
sive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel 
or unusual punishment inflicted." The Fifth Amendment says: 
' ' No person * * * shall be * * * deprived of life, liberty or prop- 
erty without due process of law. ' ' 

Five men are now on a. hunger strike to secure these elementary 
rights. It is of immediate urgency for every organization to be rep- 
resented at this conference by delegates or observers. Qualified com- 
munity and legal spokesmen will present the issues and a program 
for action. No group will be committed beyond its desire and ability 
to seek justice for all. 

A "Fact Sheet No. 1 on Political Deportation Cases' 9 is enclosed with 
the '"Call." The "Fact Sheet" reads as follows: 

These noncitizens and more than 100 others face deportation 

proceedings by the Department of Immigration and the Department 

of Justice because of their political opinions or progressive and labor 

activities. 

Peter Harisiades, of New York, native of Greece, entered United 
States in 1916 at age of 13. Secretary of the Hellenic American 
Brotherhood, I.W.O. (International Workers Order) . He is mar- 
ried to an American citizen and is the father of two American- 
born children. 

Mrs. Theresa Horvath, of Fairmount, West Virginia, native of Hun- 
gary, entered United States in 1921 at age of 23. Mother of two 
American-born children, one of whom is an honorably dis- 
charged war veteran. 

Refugio Ramon Martinez, of Chicago, native of Mexico, entered 
United States at age of 24. A member of the staff of the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America. He is married to an Amer- 
ican citizen and is the father of two American-born children. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 205 

David Balint, of Cleveland, native of Czechoslovakia, entered United 
States in 1920 at age of 13. Former President of United Steel- 
workers of America, Local 1666. He is married to an American 
citizen and is the father of two American-born children. 

Harry Bersin, of New York, native of Latvia, entered United States 
in 1919 at age of 21. Honorably discharged veteran of second 
World War. Member of Painters' Union, Local 51. Married to a 
legally-resident alien. 

Joe Weber, of Chicago, native of Yugoslavia, entered United States 
in 1913 at age of 9. Former Director of Organization of the 
United Farm Equipment and Metal Workers of America. Mar- 
ried to an American citizen. Faces deportation on ground that, 
in 1939, he visited Mexico for four hours. 

Kondo Dimitroff, of Lorain, Ohio, native of Bulgaria, entered United 
States at the age of 23. Member of the United Steel workers of 
America and active in Bulgarian-American organizations. 

Claudia Jones, native of Trinidad, entered United States in 1924. 
Outstanding Negro woman leader and National Secretary of the 
Women 's Commission of the Communist Party. 

Ferdinand Smith, National Secretary of the National Maritime 
Union of the C.I.O. and a member of the National Executive 
Board of the C.I.O. Native of Jamaica, entered the United States 
in 1932. 

John Williamson, born in San Francisco in 1902. Arrested for depor- 
tation to Scotland, native country of his parents. He is National 
Labor Secretary of the Communist Party. 

Charles Doyle, International Vice President Chemical Workers, 
C.I.O., native of Ireland. 

Gerhart Eisler, German Communist writer and leader, member of 
the International Brigade that fought fascist Franco in Spain. 

Irving Potash, native of Russia. Entered the United States more than 
20 years ago. He is manager of the Joint Board of Fur and 
Leather Workers, C.I.O., in New York. 
Among those facing denial of citizenship are : Alex Balint, of 

Cleveland ; Werner Fink, of Detroit ; Philip Stasiukevich, of Boston ; 

and more than 12 applicants in Farrell, Pennsylvania. 

Contact the Los Angeles Civil Rights Congress for further infor- 
mation and action on the campaign to stop the political deportation 

drive of the Truman Administration. 

The following article from the Hollywood Citizens News for Wednes- 
day, March 10, 1948, accurately reports the " Emergency Action Confer- 
ence" at the Embassy Auditorium in Los Angeles on the evening of 
March 9, 1948 : 

Deportation of five alien Communists who last week staged a 
"hunger strike" on Ellis Island was discussed by speakers in 
Embassy Auditorium last night at a mass meeting sponsored by the 
Civil Rights Congress, the Los Angeles chapter of National Lawyers 
G uild and the San Pedro chapter of the National Maritime Union. 

Sentiments of the audience were indicated by prolonged 
applause for Philip M. Connelly, secretary-treasurer, Los Angeles 
C.I.O. Council, who said : 



206 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"Justice will mean nothing to Attorney General Tom Clark 
unless the American people rise up and put Tom Clark and his 
sadistic Brown Shirts into their own concentration camp." 

Earlier Connelly had denounced the holding of the alien Com- 
munists without bail at the discretion of the Attorney General. The 
meeting had been planned as a protest against the denial of bail. 
Before the meeting, the alien Communists accused of violating the 
terms of their admission to the United States were granted bail, so 
the theme of the meeting was changed, according to William Bidner, 
executive director, Civil Bights Congress. He described it as "an 
emergency action conference" to launch "an all-out campaign 
against the Truman Administration's deportation delirium." 

Bidner told the gathering that 100 aliens are facing deportation 
proceedings. "It didn't surprise me," he said, "to learn that more 
than half of them are veteran trade-union leaders. ' ' 

Bidner interpreted the "deportation delirium" as a political 
move of the Truman Administration. ' ' Ferdinand Smith, ' ' he said, 
' ' was arrested the morning after he sat on the same platform beside 
Henry Wallace before 22,000 people in Harlem." 

Smith is Secretary of the National Maritime Union, C.I.O., and 
a member of the national executive committee, Communist Party, 
U.S.A. 

Besides Smith, those whose deportation was discussed at the 
meeting were Irving Potash, manager of the New York Fur and 
Leather Workers, C.I.O. ; John Williamson, National Labor Secre- 
tary, Communist Party; Charles Doyle, International Vice Presi- 
dent, Chemical Workers, C.I.O., and Gerhart Eisler, described by 
the Committee on Un-American Activities as the No. 1 Communist 
in the United States. 

Robert W. Kenny, who was introduced as chief counsel for the 
10 Hollywood celebrities who face trial for refusing to tell Congress 
whether they are Communists, drew a parallel between 1860 and 
1948. "In 1860," he said, "the slave owners were defending what 
they called the ' American way. ' Today, our government is again in 
the hands of slave owners who are defending their system." 

Kenny said the South, in opposing President Truman's civil 
rights program, is insincere. ' * The protest against Truman is camou- 
flage," he said. "What the South 's would-be slave owners really 
fear is the demand for a new economy. ' ' 

He said he had just returned to Los Angeles from campaign 
efforts in behalf of Henry Wallace. 

1 ' Wallace and I have never disagreed except as to tactics, ' ' said 
Kenny, "and he was usually right." He described Wallace as "the 
only leader who can reverse the sickening trend of the last two 
years." 

Dan Marshall, president of the Los Angeles chapter of the 
National Lawyers Guild, discussed the legal rights of the aliens 
accused of communist activities. 

Bidner asked the audience to join a picket line today at the 
office of United States Attorney James Carter. * l Carter, ' ' he said, 
* ' will be asked to convey a protest to Attorney General Clark. ' ' 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 207 

While a collection was being taken, Bidner announced dona- 
tions from the National Maritime Union, Fur and Leather Workers 
Union, News Vendors Union, United Furniture Workers, Progres- 
sive Citizens of America, International Workers Order, and Morgan 
Hull section of the Communist Party of Los Angeles County. 

Dorothy Thompson summarizes the matter far better than could 
this committee. She writes : 

Tens of thousands of American youths are in their graves 
because they fought to keep this Country free. 

Now we are asked to weep crocodile tears because four alleged 
Communist aliens who entered this Country illegally to further the 
aim of destroying America are detained without bail on Ellis Island, 
pending their deportation or sentencing. 

They have gone on a hunger strike, and Communists are calling 
mass meetings of protest. 

"At stake, " they cry, "are due process of law, the right of 
habeas corpus, the right to release on bail pending trial, the pre- 
sumption that all are innocent until proved guilty, the concept of 
equal justice for all." 

Yes, these are exactly what are at stake. They are at stake, not 
only in this Country, but all over the world. In the last few days, in 
Czechoslovakia, scores of journalists, college professors and political 
leaders have been thrown into jail, or out of jobs and sentenced to 
serve in work gangs or starve all without one single safeguard of 
law. Among them are persons who suffered for years in German 
concentration camps for Czech freedom. 

These men held on Ellis Island belong to the same party which 
everywhere destroys habeas corpus, due process, and equal justice. 
They would, if they had their way, abolish everything they now 
appeal to. 

One of them is Gerhart Eisler, international Communist agent 
and member of the Praesidium of the Communist International. He 
entered this Country on a false affidavit, to direct the American 
branch of the Communist Party in Moscow 's line. Now he is "warn- 
ing" the American people that "no one in America is safe if (Attor- 
ney General) Clark is allowed to imprison individuals, deny them 
bail, because they oppose administration policy * * * Any crook or 
criminal gets bail. ' ' 

What lunk! 

Every crook or criminal does not get bail under American law. 
And no ordinary crook or criminal represents half the menace that 
these wretched tools of overthrow and destruction do. Their aims no 
longer are academic. Men like these have suppressed every right, 
every safeguard, every hope for millions. 

"The denial of bail," says the Daily Worker protest, "is con- 
trary to all precedent. ' ' 

Contrary to all precedent of civilized states is the habit of a 
state, with whom friendly relations are thought to exist, to organize 
and use an international movement to enter this Country, organize 
treason among its citizens, seduce them to become spies, penetrate 



208 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the ranks of the innocent, exacerbate the discontents of racial groups, 
capture the leadership of unions, and conspire for the dissolution of 
the Nation and in doing so appeal for constitutional safeguards ! 

So contrary to all precedent is such activity that the constitu- 
tional state has wholly inadequate means for dealing with such a 
movement. It must wait until it catches one of the members in open 
breach of law to do anything against him at all ! 

Then the whole claque of hyenas turns loose in his defense. 

In the treatment of these aliens the law has scrupulously been 
observed. 

They are held under Title 8, U. S. Code, Sections 1-5-6, as 
amended, which makes bail for such aliens entirely permissive not 
mandatory with the Attorney General. Three of the men Eisler, 
Williamson and Smith have applied to the Federal Court, Southern 
District of New York, for writs of habeas corpus, claiming they are 
unlawfully detained and should be admitted to bail. The judges have 
denied the writ. Now the decision is being appealed to the circuit 
court. 

The prisoners have all the benefits of appeal open to anyone. 
And Eisler, from Ellis Island, is still exercising "free speech" in the 
Daily Worker, while mass meetings to protest his " persecution " are 
being called everywhere. 

These gentry, however, will not starve themselves to death. 
Communists do not make martyrs of themselves. They martyr others. 

COMMITTEE FOR A DEMOCRATIC EASTERN POLICY 

Headquarters for this Communist front is located at 111 West 42d 
Street in New York City. The organization opposes the American policy 
toward Greece and Turkey. 

The executive director of the organization is Maude Russell. Evans 
Carlson, until his death, was the group 's president. Members of the board 
of directors include Frederick V. Field, Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, 
Jack R. McMichael, Arthur Upham Pope, Martin topper, Rose Terlin, 
and Max Yergan. Consultants to the Committee for a Democratic Eastern 
Policy include Philip Jaffe, Kate Mitchell, and Maxwell S. Stewart. The 
sponsors include Zlatko Balotovic, Elmer Benson, Millan Brand, Louise 
Bransten, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, John M. Coffee, Norman Corwin, 
Hugh De Lacy, Martha Dodd, W. E. B. Du Bois, Dr. Henry Pratt Fair- 
child, Donald Henderson, Carey Me Williams, Rockwell Kent, Edward 
Chodorov, William Gropper, Albert E. Kahn, Muriel Draper, Leo Huber- 
man, William Howard Melish, A. Clayton Powell, Jr., Saul Mills, Doxey 
Wilkerson, Gene Weltfish, Donald Ogden Stewart, Dirk J. Struik, 
Gregory Peck, William J. Schieffelin, Jacob S. Potofsky, and Paul 
Robeson. 

COMMITTEE FOR DEFENSE OF FERDINAND C. SMITH 

This is a Communist front set up to oppose the deportation of an 
alien Communist, Ferdinand C. Smith, Secretary of the National Mari- 
time Union, C.I.O., and a member of the National Executive Board 
of the C.I.O. 



TIN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 209 

The headquarters of the committee is listed as 512J South Palos 

Verdes Street, San Pedro, and the telephone number is TErminal 2-0295. 

The usual Communist line in such cases is used by the Committee 

for Defense of Ferdinand C. Smith. A pamphlet in the files of the Senate 

committee reads, in part, as follows : 

This attack against Ferdinand Smith, N.M.U. Secretary, is 
purely a case of persecution of a militant maritime labor leader by 
a government body acting on the dictates of Wall Street, and in open 
disregard of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill 
of Rights. 

The National Committee of the Communist Party in the United 
States has called for an all-out pressure program in unions, civic groups, 
etc., to support the Communists who have been arrested, indicted or are 
presently being held for deportation. The Communists and fellow- 
travelers have been ordered to * ' call upon every civic and political figure 
* * * and insist that they speak out * * * arouse the whole American 
people * * * let delegations of the people visit the Attorney General and 
the President in Washington * * *." 

Communists and Communist fellow-travelers in California have 
immediately jumped into action to carry out the Communist Party man- 
date. William R. Bidner and the Los Angeles branch of the Communist 
Civil Rights Congress have called for mass meetings and are frantically 
drafting letters for the usual herd of Communists and Communist fellow- 
travelers to sign. One such letter appeared in the People's Daily World 
for March 3, 1948. It was signed by Philip M. Connelly, Charles Glad- 
stone, Clifford Odets, Peter M. Kahn, Sr., Mrs. Charlotta Bass, William 
Lawrence, William Elconin, Anne Revere, and Rose Hobart. 

In addition to Ferdinand Smith, the following Communists have 
been arrested by the Federal Government : Gerhart Eisler, Charles Doyle, 
Irving Potash, John Williamson, Claudia Jones, and Nat Yanish. 

Nat Yanish is the advertising manager for the People 's Daily World, 
the organ of the Communist Party on the West Coast. Merriel R. Bacon, 
a member of the Portland, Oregon police force, who had joined the Com- 
munist Party for six months to investigate its activities for the Portland 
Police Department, testified in the proceedings for the deportation of 
Nat Yanish. He stated that United States Communists are opposed to 
spontaneous revolution since "revolutions do not just happen ; they have 
to be made. " Yanish is charged with being a deportable alien and belong- 
ing to an organization advocating overthrow of the government by force 
and violence. He is an asserted Communist. 

As in most cases of this kind, Yanish is defended by one of the 
notorious Communist fellow-traveling attorneys in California. In Yan- 
ish 's case it is Richard Gladstein. The following is from the Los Angeles 
Examiner, March 3, 1948 : 

Asked by Gladstein to describe the party 's theory of the nature 

of human society, Bacon conceded that it involved the anarchy of 

capitalism through evolution, but then added sharply : 

' * We were taught that it is the duty of the party to encourage 

that breakdown and organize the working people to bring about the 

revolution. ' ' 

15 L-7088-D 



210 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

In a series of sarcastic questions about the meaning of ' ' dialecti- 
cal materialism," " historical materialism" and "economic deter- 
minism, ' ' Gladstein attempted to demonstrate that the witness was 
not sufficiently familiar with party theory to testify as an authoriy 
on the party. 

Bacon answered : 

' ' I was not so interested in theory as in action. Like any police- 
man, I wouldn 't be so interested in why a man burglarized a house 
as in how and when he did it. Those theories are needed in order to 
influence workers. I wasn 't interested in leading workers into revolt. ' ' 

Bacon, in describing the mechanics of Communistic activity, 
said a member spends six months on probation, is not eligible to 
attend conventions until two years have passed, and must be a 
member of five years' standing "to enter the underground illegal." 

* * They maintain a legal and an illegal party, ' ' answered Bacon. 
' ' The illegal one is underground. ' ' 

COMMITTEE FOR THE FIRST AMENDMENT 

This organization is a recently created Communist front in the 
defense of Communists and Communist fellow-travelers. Its immediate 
purpose is to create favorable public opinion for the Communists who 
refused to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
in Washington, D. C. 

A full page advertisement in the Hollywood Reporter for October 
24, 1947, states : "We are arranging for radio broadcasts and other steps 
to protest the conduct of the Washington hearings. " It is signed by the 
following: Larry Adler, Stephen Morehouse Avery, Geraldine Brooks, 
Roma Burton, Lauren Bacall, Barbara Bentley, Leonardo Bercovici, 
Leonard Bernstein, DeWitt Bodeen, Humphrey Bogart, Ann and Mor 
Braus, Richard Brooks, Jerome Chodorov, Cheryl Crawford, Louis Cal- 
hern, Frank Calleiider, Eddie Canot, McClure Capps, Warren Cowan, 
Richard Conte, Norman Corwin, Tom Carlyle, Agnes DeMille, Delmer 
Daves, Donald Davies, Spencer Davies, Donald Davis, Armand Deutsch, 
Walter Doniger, I. A. L. Diamond, Muni Diamond, Kirk Douglas, Jay 
Dratler, Philip Dunne, Howard Duff, Paul Draper, Phoebe and Henry 
Ephron, Julius Epstein, Philip Epstein, Charles Einfeld, Sylvia Fine, 
Henry Fonda, Melvin Frank, Irwin Gelsey, Benny Goodman, Ava 
Gardner, Sheridan Gibney, Paulette Goddard, Michael Gordon, Jay 
Goldberg, Jesse J. Goldburg, Moss Hart, Rita Hayworth, David Hop- 
kins, Katharine Hepburn, Paul Henreid, Van Heflin, John Huston, John 
Houseman,, Marsha Hunt, Joseph Hoffman, Uta Hagen, Robert L. 
Joseph, George Kaufman, Norman Krasna, Herbert Kline, Michel Kraike, 
Isobel Katleman, Arthur Kober, Evelyn Keyes, Gene Kelly, Danny 
Kaye, J. Richard Kennedy, Harry Kurnitz, Fred Kohlmar, Canada Lee, 
Anatole Litvak, Burt Lancaster, Herbert Clyde Lewis, Arthur Lubin, 
Mary Loos, Myrna Loy, Burgess Meredith, Richard Maibaum, David 
Miller, Frank L. Moss, Margo, Dorothy McGuire, Ivan Moffatt, Josef 
Mischel, Dorothy Matthews, Lorie Niblo, N. Richard Nash, Doris Nolan, 
George Oppenheimer, Ernest Pascal, Vincent Price, Norman Panama, 
Marion Parsonnet, Frank Partos, Jean Porter, John Paxton, Bob Pres- 
nell, Jr., Gregory Peck, Harold Rome, Gladys Robinson, Francis Rosen- 
wald, Irving Rubine, Irving Reis, Stanley Rubin, Sylvia Richards, Henry 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 211 

C. Rogers, Lyle Rooks, Norman and Betsy Rose, Robert Ryan, Irwin 
Shal, Richard Sale, George Seaton, John Stone, Allan Scott, Barry Sulli- 
van, Shepperd Strudwick, Mrs. Leo Spitz, Theodore Strauss, John and 
Marti Shelton, Robert Shapiro, Joseph Than, Leo Townsend, Don Victor, 
Bernard Vorhaus, Billy Wilder, Bill Watters, Jerry Wald, and Cornel 
Wilde. 

Ira Gershwin was subpenaed and testified before the committee's 
Los Angeles hearing February 18, 1948. He promptly declared, in 
response to the question, that he had never been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. He was the first of a long string of witnesses who unhesitat- 
ingly made a prompt response to this question. 

Gershwin stated that he was a member of the Committee for the First 
Amendment and testified that the membership consisted of between five 
and seven hundred persons. He admitted that a meeting of the organiza- 
tion was held at his home on October 25, 1947. He identified a number 
of people from a prepared committee list as having been in attendance 
at the meeting. 

The list of people who attended the meeting in Ira Gershwin 's home 
are as follows: Madeline Gesas, Evelyn Keyes, John C. Lee, Bernard 
Feins, Hal Horne, Burt Lancaster, Vincente Minnelli, Arthur H. Singer, 
Dr. N. P. Roe, Robert Ardrey, Mervyn Le Roy, Sidney Buchman, Jane 
Strudwick, Marcia Panama, Kirk Douglas, Humphrey Bogart, John 
Beal, Mortimer Offner, Sy Bartlett, Mrs. Van Heflin, William Wyler, 
Margaret T. Wyler, Richard Brooks, Leon S. Becker, Chas. Einfeld, 
John Edward Paxton, Olive Abbott, Richard Conte, Harry Kurnitz, 
Marsha Hunt Presnell, John Houseman, Irving Yergin, Edward Smith, 
Joseph Than, Henry Brum, Jane Wyatt, Sheridan Gibney, Lloyd R. 
Perkins, Edward G. Robinson, Sterling Hayden, Charles Boyer, Melvin 
G. Frank, Alexander Knox, Evelyn Rideout Rooks, A. Litvak, and Peter 
Lorre. 

COMMITTEE TO AID CHINESE TRADE UNIONS 

See ATYip.nVa.Ti Friends of the Chinese People. 

COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA BY KEEPING OUT OF THE WAR 

This Communist front preceded the launching of the American 
Peace Mobilization, and its purposes were the same. It followed the 
Communist Party "line" which, at the time of the formation of the 
Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of the War, was based 
upon the Stalin-Hitler pact. 

Among those who sponsored, or were otherwise affiliated with, the 
Committee to Defend America by Keeping Out of War, were the follow- 
ing: Rabbi Michael Alper, Harry Elmer Barnes, Lewis Allen Berne, 
Prof. Franz Boas, Philip M. Connelly, Joseph Curran, Jerome Davis, 
Theodore Dreiser, Abram Flaxer, Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, Rockwell 
Kent, Robert Morss Lovett, Vito Marcantonio, Michael Quill, Prof. 
Walter Rautenstrauch, Reid Robinson, George Seldes, Oswald Garrison 
Villard, Morris Watson, Max Yergan, Rev. John B. Thompson, Pearl 
M. Hart, Marian Briggs, and Rev. Claude C. Williams. 



212 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

COMMUNIST DOMINATED C.I.O. UNIONS 

The committee has found the following C.I.O. unions to be so thor- 
oughly entranched with Communist leadership as to be dominated by 
the Stalinites in America : 

American Communications Association ; 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and Allied Workers ; 

Inland Boatmen 's Union of the Pacific ; 

International Federation of Architects, Engineers, and Technicians 
(now the United Office and Professional Workers) ; 

International Longshoremen 's and Warehousemen 's Union ; 

International Union of Fishermen, and Allied Workers of America ; 

International Union of Fur and Leather Workers ; 

International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers ; 

Marine Cooks and Stewards Association of the Pacific Coast ; 

National Maritime Union ; 

State, County, and Municipal Workers of America (now the United 
Public Workers) ; 

Transport Workers Union of America ; 

United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of 
America ; 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America ; 

United Farm Equipment and Metal Workers of America ; 

United Federal Workers of America (now United Public Workers) ; 

United Furniture Workers ; 

United Office and Professional Workers of America, and 

United Public Workers. 

This does not purport to be a complete list. The reader is referred 
to the index and to previous committee reports. 

COMMUNIST PARTY 

The Communist Party keeps its publicly avowed members down 
to the smallest possible number. The national headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States is located at 35 East 12th Street in 
New York City. 

The Daily Worker is the official national publication of the Com- 
munist Party and the People's Daily World serves the West Coast. 

The national chairman of the Communist Party is William Z. Foster, 
possibly one of the most outspoken traitors the United States has ever 
tolerated. 

The general secretary is Eugene Dennis, alias Waldron. The admin- 
istrative secretary is John Williamson. The office of treasurer is vacant 
since the death of Charles Krumbein. 

A National Secretariat is composed of William Z. Foster, Eugene 
Dennis, Robert Thompson, John Williamson, Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., 
John Gates, Gil Green, Gus Hall, Irving Potash, Jack Stachel, Carl 
Winter, and Henry Winston. 

The National Committee is composed of William Z. Foster, Benja- 
min J. Davis, Jr., Rose Gaulden, Mickey Lima, John Williamson, Nat 
Ganley, Bella Dodd, James Jackson, Louis Weinstock, William McKie, 
Nat Ross, Fred Blair, Jack Stachel, Gus Hall, Nat Cohen, Ferdinand 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 213 

Smith, Abner Berry, Alexander Bittleman, Claudia Jones, Alexander 
Trachtenberg, David Davis, Herb Signer, Irving Potash, Max Weiss, 
Lem Harris, and Hal Simon. 

The National Review Board is composed of JRay Hansborough, chair- 
man, and Saul Wellman, secretary. The vice chairmanship is vacant due 
to the death of Charles Krumbein. 

The National Labor Commission is composed of John Williamson, 
chairman; William Albertson, secretary; and Robert Minor, adminis- 
trative secretary ; Al Blumberg, and Pat Toohey. 

The National Women's Commission is headed by Elizabeth Gurley 
Flynn. The assistant secretary is Claudia Jones. 

Josh Lawrence is the chairman of the National Negro Commission 
and Harry Winston is the secretary. 

Steve Nelson is the chairman of the National Groups Commission. 

Max Weiss heads the National Farm Commission with Lem Harris 
as secretary. 

The Organizing Commission is composed of Henry Winston and 
Betty Gannett. 

The Coordinating Committee in the national maritime field is Al 
Lannon. 

The Jewish Commission is composed of Moses Miller and Alexander 
Bittleman. 

John Gates is the chairman or director of the new Veterans' Com- 
mission. The members of the committee are George Blake, Joseph Clark, 
Louis Diskind, Irving Goff, Howard Johnson, Herbert Kurzer, Carl 
Reinstein, Leon Strauss, Robert Thompson, Carl Vedro, George Watt, 
Saul Wellman, Herbert Wheeldin, and Henry Winston. 

Marion Shaw is the director of the Student 's Commission. 

Arnold Johnson is the chairman of the Legislative Commission and 
Robert Minor is the secretary. 

Jack Stachel heads the Educational Agit-Prop and Publicity Com- 
mission. Max Weiss is the secretary. 

The California headquarters is now located at 942 Market Street 
in San Francisco. William Schneiderman is the California State chair- 
man ; Loretta Starvis, organizing secretary ; Anita Whitney, state treas- 
urer; Mickey Lima, state field organizer; Celeste Strack, state educa- 
tional director ; Leo Baroway, People's Daily World circulation director ; 
George Kaye, youth commission chairman ; A. Olken, chairman, Jewish 
Commission; Ida Rothstein, state press director; and George Kaye, 
state youth director. 

Cosecretaries of the Labor Commission are Archie Brown and Leon 
Kaplan. The commission is composed of John Pittman, Louise Todd, Ray 
Thompson, William Schneiderman, Pettis Perry, Loretta Starvis, Nemmy 
Sparks, Clarence Tobey, George Lohr, and Mickey Lima. 

The state political editor is Douglas Ward. 

Herbert Nugent is the secretary of the water-front section. 

Nemmy Sparks is the chairman of the Los Angeles County section. 
The Los Angeles County section includes the following: Ben Dobbs, 
labor secretary ; Elizabeth Ricardo, press director ; Pettis Perry, minor- 
ities chairman; Dorothy Healy, organizing secretary; Sidney Burke, 



214 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

editor People's Daily World; Emil Freed, chairman, Sixteenth Congres- 
sional District ; Alvin Averbuck, section organizer ; Harry Daniels, legis- 
lative director; Jim Forrest, harbor section organizer; Merel Brodsky, 
veterans ' director ; Phil Bock, youth director ; and Mort Newman, Carver 
Club section secretary. 

La Rue McCormack has been a candidate for the California Senate 
on the Communist ticket. Henry Steinberg, James C. McGowan, and 
Elsie M. Monjar, have been candidates for the Los Angeles City Council, 
running openly as Communists. 

Joe Klein is the director of the West Adams Club of the Communist 
Party and Ida Elliott is the social activity secretary of the 62d Assembly 
District Communist Club. 

Oleta Yates is the chairman of the San Francisco section. Herb 
Nugent is the legislative director. Leon Kaplan is labor director. Alex 
Freskin is the water-front organizer. Aubrey Grossman heads the edu- 
cational commission. 

Enos J. Baker is the chairman of the Communist Party in San Diego 
County. 

Lloyd Lehman is the chairman, and Wesley Bodkin the labor direc- 
tor of the Communist Party in Alameda County. Buddy Green is the 
organizer for the Ben Davis Club in Alameda County. Helen Bodkin is 
the trade-union director of the Hariet Tubman Communist Party Club 
in Alameda County. 

The president of the Santa Monica Club of the Communist Party 
is David Grant. Mildred Bowen is chairman of Contra Costa County. 
John Stapp heads the Hollywood section. Libby Wilson is the press direc- 
tor of the East Side Youth Club of the Communist Party in Los Angeles. 
George Edwards is the organizer for the North Oakland section. 

The New Century Publishers, Inc. is the largest of the Communist 
publishing firms. It is located at 832 Broadway, New York City. It was 
incorporated December 8, 1944 with a capital stock of $20,000. The incor- 
porators were Joseph Felshin, 832 Broadway, New York City; Isidore 
Greenbaum, 207 Fourth Avenue, New York City ; and Betty Greenbaum, 
207 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

International Publishers, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York City, and 
Workers ' Library Publishers, New York City, are two other important 
publishing organizations of the Communist Party. Alexander Trachten- 
berg is the president of International Publishers. 

The Four Continent Book Corporation, 253 Fifth Avenue, and Uni- 
versal Distributors, 38 Union Square, New York City are Communist 
publishing houses. 

At the Sixteenth General Assembly of the Brotherhood of Painters, 
Decorators and Paperhangers of America, held at Columbus, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 23, 1941, one hundred officers and delegates signed a petition 
demanding the immediate release of Earl Browder, head of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States, from the Atlanta Penitentiary where 
he was serving a term. Among those who signed this Communist petition 
was Herbert K. Sorrell, who was a delegate from Hollywood Local 644. 

In the November, 1942 election, La Rue McCormick, a self -admitted 
Communist, and an officer of the Communist Party and the Communist 
Political Association, was a candidate for the office of State Senator for 
Los Angeles County. She was running openly on the Communist Party 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 215 

ticket. A committee was organized for the support of Mrs. McCormick 's 
candidacy under the title "Democrats for McCormick. " Among those 
who supported Mrs. McCormick were John Howard Lawson, Dalton 
Trumbo, Rev. Clayton Russell, Charlotta Bass, Al S. Waxman, Herbert 
K. Sorrell, Ellis E. Patterson, Paul Jarrico, Viola Brothers Shore, John 
Bright, Lester Cole, Leo Gallagher, Richard Collins, Jay Gorney, Henry 
Myers, and A. Maymudes. 

Attorneys for the California State Communist Party are Gladstein, 
Andersen, Resner, E discs, and Sawyer of 240 Montgomery Street in the 
City of San Francisco. 

Communist functionaries in Alameda County include Lloyd Leh- 
man, Carol Barnes, Emma Stanley, Eugene Toopeekoff, Nori Lafferty, 
Katrina Manley, and John Morgan. The Alameda County Communist 
Party Codornices Club has the following functionaries: Shirley Cloke, 
Marion Redner, Bruce Anderson, Hannah Drucker, June Naboisek, Mary 
Bradsher, and Van Frederics. 

The Berkeley section of the Communist Party include Marion Ham- 
mond, Wilhelmina Loughrey, and Robert Ragland. 

Frank Parsons is the organizer for the Central Bloor Branch of the 
Communist Party. 

The Herman Boettcher Branch of the Communist Party includes 
Harold Goldenberg, Ruth McGovney (former wife of Kenneth May), 
Muriel Simmonds, Eleanor Mitchell, and Gothard W. Sorensen. 

The North Berkeley Branch of the Communist Party has Beatrice 
Morgan and James E. Kalman as functionaries. 

The South Berkeley Club of the Communist Party contains the fol- 
lowing functionaries: Dan Kalgaard, Calvin Batiste, Fred Williams, 
Leon Vannier, Herb Kalman, Charles Drasnin, and Jane Reneker. 

The Bethune Branch of the Communist Party is headed by Nell 
Sawyer, lone Schlaifer, John Henry, and Georgia Jones. 

Jane Sears and Nora McEven are members of the Tom Paine Club. 

The Merriman Clubs of the Communist Party are said to include a 
number of professors from the University of California at Berkeley. 
Helen Jackins is the organizer of Merriman Club No. 1 and Ethel Landau 
is the organizer of Merriman Club No. 2. Mary Sherwood and Paul Peter- 
son are connected with the Merriman Clubs. 

Mary Ann Cassidy is the president, and John Havel is the member- 
ship secretary of the J. B. S. Haldane Club of the Communist Party. 

Alameda County has a number of other branches of the Communist 
Party including the Abraham Lincoln Branch, John Reed Branch, Art 
Young Branch, Thomas Jefferson Branch (said to be composed for the 
greater part of government employees), and the Eugene Debs Branch. 

Sidney Roger, radio commentator over Radio Station KGO in San 
Francisco, is a paid functionary of the Communist Party. Many of his 
broadcasts follow, not only the substance of the propaganda of the Com- 
munist publication, the People's Daily World, but in many cases follow 
the paper 's language. Roger twists and squirms with each change of the 
Communist Party line and spreads the Kremlin 's propaganda to anyone 
who tunes in his program. 

The following are sponsors of the Sidney Roger Radio Fund (150 
Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, California) : Dr. and Mrs. George 



216 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

P. Adams, Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Addis, Victor Arnautoff, Mr. and Mrs. 
Percy Baker, William A. P. White, Dr. Arthur G. Brodeur, Rabbi Elliott 
Burstein, William E. Dodd, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Dreyfus, David 
Friedenrich, Dr. Carleton Goodlett, Dr. Asher Gordon, Dr. Albert Guer- 
ard, Dr. and Mrs. Leon Kolb, Archibald MacPhail, Dr. Jerzy Neyman, 
Rt. Rev. Edward L. Parsons, Dr. Hubert Phillips, Anton Refregier, Dr. 
and Mrs. Holland Roberts, Sidney Rudy, Dr. Maxwell Savelle, Sol Silver- 
man, Dr. and Mrs. Joseph C. Solomon, Dr. and Mrs. Edward C. Tolman, 
Frederick Thompson, Edward Weston, and Dr. and Mrs. Frank Wey- 
mouth. (Committee transcript, Volume XXXIII, p. 293.) 

Sidney Roger's record, in part, is as follows : 

In 1932 the People's Daily World announced on March 18th that 
Roger was scheduled to preside over a meeting of the Allied War Relief 
Rally at Eagle's Hall in San Francisco under the auspices of the Com- 
munist International Workers Order. In the issue of August 20, 1942 the 
People 's Daily World announced that Roger was to be the chairman at a 
symposium on "What Union Organization Can Do for the Licensed Pro- 
fessional Nurse," at the Oakland City Club Hotel. (A subsequent issue 
of the People's Daily World reported that Roger would be unable to 
preside at this meeting.) The People's Daily World for October 31, 1942 
announced that Sidney Roger was scheduled to lecture at the Communist 
Party Tom Mooney Labor School in San Francisco. His subject was 
announced as "Africa and the Global War." 

In the issue of November 12, 1942, the People's Daily World ran an 
advertisement stating that Roger would act as the chairman of a mass 
meeting at which General Victor A. Yakhantoff would speak, under the 
auspices of the Communist International Workers Order at 150 Golden 
Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 

In the People's Daily World, issue of March 4, 1943 Sidney Roger is 
listed as a signatory to a statement demanding that President Roosevelt 
intercede in the Harry Bridges proceedings. 

Most of the following activities are reported in the Communist Press, 
the People's Daily World. March 20, 1943, Roger spoke at a conference 
called by the Citizens Committee for Democratic Freedom in North 
Africa, at the Sir Francis Drake Hotel in San Francisco. He was a 
speaker at the high school auditorium in Palo Alto for Russian War 
Relief in March of 1943. His speech, of course, was emphatically pro- 
Russian. In August of 1943 Roger spoke on "Racial and National Unity 
in Wartime" at 150 Golden Gate Avenue in the City of San Francisco. 
In the same month he was a sponsor of a reception to a Soviet delegation 
in the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco. He chairmaned a meeting 
sponsored by Russian War Relief at the Scottish Rite Auditorium in 
Oakland when Nila Magidoff spoke. 

In September of 1943 Roger was scheduled as a teacher at the Com- 
munist Tom Mooney Labor School on the subject "Press Propaganda 
and War." 

In October, 1943, Roger spoke at a Conference of Solidarity With the 
Spanish People at the Hotel Whitcomb in San Francisco. In the same 
month he read a prepared statement by Louis Adamic at a Yugoslav 
meeting held in the Scottish Rite Auditorium. On November 1st, he was 
a speaker at a meeting of the Communist Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee held at the Hotel Whitcomb in San Francisco, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 217 

In January of 1944, he was an instructor in radio writing and pro- 
duction at the Communist Tom Mooney Labor School, sponsored by the 
American Federation of Radio Artists. According to the People's Daily 
World of April 7, 1944, Roger and his wife were among the sponsors 
of a benefit for the Communist Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 
held at the home of Mrs. Sydney Joseph on April 7th. 

The People's Daily World for October 4, 1944, carried an adver- 
tisement announcing that Roger was scheduled to speak on "Where Do 
We Stand Today" on October llth at the Jewish Community Center in 
San Francisco under the auspices of the Jewish American Lodge of the 
Communist International Workers Order. 

The People's Daily World for February 21, 1945, carried an adver- 
tisement announcing that Roger was to be the chairman at a celebration 
of the 27th anniversary of the Red Army on Washington's birthday at 
the Scottish Rite Auditorium. The affair was to be a benefit for the war 
orphan's home in Smolensk, Soviet Russia, and was given under the 
auspices of the Russian American Society, Inc. 

On May 21, 1945 Roger was the speaker at a "Spotlight on Spain' : 
banquet for the benefit of Communist Spanish refugees at the Claremont 
Hotel in Berkeley. The People's Daily World for June 8, 1945 carried 
an advertisement that Roger would speak on "The Road From San 
Francisco" on the eighth of June at the California Labor School in San 
Francisco. He spoke at a "Wanted a Free Spain" rally October 14. 
1945, under the auspices of the East Bay Committee for Republican 
Spain. In October of 1945 Roger started a regular broadcast, Monday 
through Friday, at 6.15 p.m. over Radio Station KYA, under the spon- 
sorship of the Communist controlled International Longshoremen and 
Warehousemen 's Union, Local 6. 

In January of 1946 Roger interviewed Attorney General Robert W. 
Kenny in regard to the action of the House Un-American Activities 
Committee in ordering the Communist Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee officials to testify before it and to submit its records of contribu- 
tors. In that same month he spoke on a program at the Curran Theatre 
under the auspices of the Communist Spanish Refugee Appeal and the 
Communist California Labor School. On February 3, 1946 he partici- 
pated in a forum on "Fascist Spain the Nazi Valhalla," in Berkeley, 
under the auspices of the Communist Spanish Refugee Appeal. 

The People's Daily World for March 8, 1946 carried an advertise- 
ment that Roger would speak at a "Franco Must Go" mass meeting to 
be held at 150 Golden Gate Avenue, in the City of San Francisco on 
March 15th, under the auspices of the Communist front, Trade Union 
Committee for Free Spain. In April of 1946 Roger spoke at a meeting 
on the atomic bomb, at which Dr. Harold C. Urey was the principal 
speaker. 

Roger was the "Fund Raising Speaker" at the Henry A. Wallace 
meeting, April 22, 1946, in San Francisco, which was held under the 
auspices of the Northern California Division of the National Citizens 
Political Action Committee. 

In April of 1946 Roger was a member of the city- wide campaign 
committee for Paul F. Schnur, a candidate for Assembly in the 20th 
District, He also participated in the Russian Relief American Russian 



218 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Institute forum series on the subject "What's on Tour Mind About 
Russia f*' 

In May of 1946 Roger spoke at a meeting of the Communist front, 
Northern California Win the War Conference, in San Francisco. In 
the same month he became the chairman of the Communist inspired and 
controlled Northern California Chapter of the American Committee 
for Yugoslav Relief. 

William J. Bailey, Communist Party organizer of the San Francisco 
waterfront, thanked Roger for his contribution to the maritime workers. 
(People's Daily World, June 15, 1946.) 

On July 19, 1946 Roger spoke at a mass meeting against "Franco 
Spain, ' ' under the auspices of the Robert Merriam Post of the Communist 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade at the Oakland Civic Audi- 
torium Theatre. On July 17, the People's Daily World announced that 
Roger was to speak at a meeting of the Mission Chapter of the American 
Veterans Committee in Genova Hall in San Francisco. Throughout 1946 
Sidney Roger gave much of his time to the Communist Win the Peace 
Committee. The People's Daily World for October 5, 1946 carried an 
advertisement which stated that Roger would be the chairman at a mass 
meeting under the auspices of Branches 119, 476, and 599 of the Com- 
munist International Workers Order in the C.I.O. Hall, in San Francisco. 
At this meeting the president of the Jewish People's Fraternal Branches 
of the Communist International Workers Order, Albert E. Kahn, was 
the principal speaker. 

The Labor Herald, of the C.I.O. for October 11, carried Roger's 
photograph with Paul Robeson and Revels Cayton, prominent Negroes 
in the Communist movement, who had spoken over Roger's radio pro- 
gram. In October of 1946 Roger was the chairman at a mass meeting in 
the Scottish Rite Auditorium which launched the National Conference 
on China. On the twenty-ninth of October, 1946, Roger chairmaned a 
meeting at the Jenny Lind Hall in Oakland which was addressed by 
Albert Kahn on "The Danger of a Third World War," under the 
auspices of Lodge 180 of the Communist International Workers Order. 

The Dispatcher for November 29, 1946, carries a photograph of 
Roger with Jim San Jule, Communist Party liner in the Bay area. 

The People's Daily World for December 5, 1946, announced that 
Roger was a sponsor of the celebration of the third anniversary of the 
Indonesian Association, which was scheduled to be held under the 
auspices of the Free Indonesian Committee at Booker T. Washington 
Community Center in San Francisco. 

. In February of 1947 Sidney Roger was able to get a larger audience 
by moving from Radio Station KYA to Radio Station KGO in San 
Francisco. 

In April of 1947 Roger became a sponsor of the Communist Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. He also became a director 
of the Northern California Chapter of the Communist front, Progres- 
sive Citizens of America. He chairmaned a meeting on the twenty-third 
of February, 1947, at the Scottish Rite Auditorium, under the auspices 
of the Communist Spanish Refugee Appeal Committee. He was the 
chairman of the fifth anniversary meeting of the Communist California 
Labor School held in the Whitcomb Hotel in San Francisco on March 2, 
1947. On March 21, 1947, he spoke at a mass meeting under the auspices 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 219 

of the Progressive Citizens of America, Berkeley Branch, and the Inde- 
pendent Students' Political Action Committee, at Garfield School, in 
Berkeley. 

The committee finds that Sidney Roger is an important Communist 
functionary. 

Averill Berman and Alvin Wilder are the two main Communist 
radio commentators in Los Angeles. Wilder is sponsored by the Sealy 
Mattress Co. of Los Angeles. Both Berman and Wilder follow the Com- 
munist press without deviation. 

Ruth McGovney, former wife of Kenneth May, testified at the com- 
mittee 's Oakland hearing. The committee believes the following testi- 
mony of Miss McGovney significant : 

Q. (By Mr. Combs) : And when did you first affiliate with the 
Communist Party? 

A. I drew closer to the Communist Party over a long period 
of time. I finally registered as "Ruth McGovney, Communist 
Party,'' some time in the spring of 1942. 

Q. You never at any time made any effort to conceal affiliation 
with the party. 

A. I did not. 

Q. You joined openly? 

A. Yes. 

Q. During all the time you were a member of the party you 
made no effort to conceal that fact? 

A. I didn 't go around shouting about it, but I didn 't attempt to 
conceal it. 

Q. When did you actually become a member? 

A. As I say, I drew closer to the party, and finally when I felt 
I was an open member of the party, I registered. I suppose the dates 
could be ascertained. It was some time in the spring of '42. 

Q. (By Senator Dilworth) : Did you register as a voter in this 
county ? 

A. Yes, I was living in Alameda County. Let me see, in 1942 
I was living in Berkeley. I could recall the exact address if you 
wanted me to think of it. 

Q. And you registered as a voter in the Communist Party? 

A. That's right. 

Q. Did you ever join the secret organization known as the 
Communist Party? 

A. I was a member of the Communist Party, yes. 

Q. (By Chairman Tenney) : And you paid dues to the party? 

A. That is correct. 

Q. And received a card? 

A. Yes. 

Q. Signed by Mr. Schneiderman ? 

A. I don't remember. 

Q. First you joined the party, making an application, having 
a sponsor and receiving a card? 

A. I joined the Communist Party, yes. 

Q. Subsequent thereto you registered as a Communist? 

A. In the spring of 1942. 



220 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Carol Barnes testified at the Oakland hearing in 1947 that he was 
the secretary of the Alameda County Communist Party. He stated that he 
gave this information under protest and claimed that it was a violation 
of his "constitutional rights." He contended that a question concern- 
ing the length of time he had lived in Alameda County was also a 
violation of his "constitutional rights" and, while he answered the 
question, he did so under protest. His office is located at 1723 Webster 
Street, Oakland, which he admitted was the headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party for Alameda County. When Mr. Combs asked him what 
his duties were as secretary of the Party, he answered that he "gave out 
political opinions. " ' ' One of the things that I 've done, ' ' he stated, " is to 
advise people to get out leaflets against the Tenney Committee for its 
un-American activity. ' ' 

Eugene Toopeekoff was born in the Soviet Union and became a 
naturalized citizen in 1934. 

Other Communists active in Alameda County are Paul Schlipf, 
secretary and treasurer of the Alameda County C.I.O. ; Hack Gleichman 
(alias Hack Kelley) ; Louis Gonnick, Frances Tandy, Frank Slaby, and 
Barney Young. 

Among those who are affiliated with the Communist Southwest 
Berkeley Club are Rose Marie Gray, Calvin Batiste, Ray Halpern, Fred 
Williams, Marcelle Vannier, Ray Thompson, Jackie Thompson, Mar- 
jorie Hitchcock, Timothy Coleman, Ferdie Walker, George Hitchcock, 
Bob Neville, Frank Parsons, Laura Thomas, Herb Kalman, Theresa 
Kalman, Willie Loughrey, I. Warner Galloway, Jane Reneker, Marie 
Galloway, Ozzo Marrow, Whittier Hahn, Dan Kalgaard, Forrest 
Ammons, Archie Faster, J. 0. Massey, Andrew Mays, Amos Newton, 
Reuben May, Bob Grover, William Montier, Quin Montier, and Bertha 
Grover. 

Mrs. Aileen LaBelle appeared before the committee in Los Angeles 
on February 17, 1948. Mrs. LaBelle is the business manager of the 
Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles. She testified that a young lady, 
who said that she represented the Los Angeles Communist Party, 
requested the rental of the Olympic Auditorium for a Communist Party 
meeting featuring William Z. Foster. The request was made in the 
latter part of May or June in 1947. Mrs. LaBelle told the young lady 
that the auditorium was not available for the Foster meeting. 

Subsequently, Mrs. LaBelle stated, she received many telephone 
calls and communications protesting her refusal to rent the auditorium 
to the Communist Party. She stated that she received a letter from 
William Bidner of the Civil Rights Conference requesting an appoint- 
ment to discuss the matter. She testified that following her telephone 
call to William Bidner denying his request, Bidner and a Mr. Forrest of 
the Communist Party and several others called on the Los Angeles 
Athletic Club management for the purpose of pressuring the Athletic 
Club (which owns the Olympic Auditorium) into renting the building. 
She stated that Bidner called her on the telephone several times and 
accused her and the management of denying people "civil rights," 
"free speech," etc. She stated that the management had refused to 
permit Gerald L. K. Smith to use the auditorium in 1946, and when she 
conveyed this information to Bidner he replied by saying that the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 221 

refusal to Smith was all right but refusal to rent to the Communist 
Party was different. 

Mrs. LaBelle offered a number of communications as exhibits which 
were accepted by the committee. One of these is a letter from the Civil 
Rights Congress, Division of Mobilization for Democracy, under date 
of June 11, 1947. Another exhibit is a letter dated July 15, 1947, on the 
letterhead of the American Jewish Congress and signed by Judge Ben 
Rosenthal, president of the Southern California division of the organi- 
zation. Another is a letter under date of July 11, 1947, signed by Gus 
0. Brown, international vice president and business agent of the United 
Furniture Workers of America, Local 576 C.I.O. Another is from 
Henry Sazer under date of August 14, 1947. Exhibit No. 5 is signed by 
George Hass of the United Steel "Workers of America. Exhibit No. 6 is 
signed by George T. Altman of the National Lawyers Guild. Exhibit 
No. 7 is entitled " Student Reports" published " every Monday by the 
Student Communist Club of the Communist Party of the U. S. A., 
Box 1943, Wilshire LaBrea, P. 0., Los Angeles 36," California, " dated 
August 18, 1947. Exhibit No. 8 is signed Hollywood Women's Council 
and dated July 9, 1947. All of these communications, of course, vigor- 
ously protested the action of the Olympic Auditorium management in 
refusing to rent the Olympic Auditorium to the Communist Party for 
the William Z. Foster rally. 

Mrs. LaBelle 's testimony, in part, is as follows: 

Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Who tried to talk you into changing 
your opinion ? 

A. Well, they finally (by "they" I mean Mr. Bidner and For- 
rest and others) finally forced a meeting through the Athletic 
Club, and we had this meeting really as a courtesy to the owner 
of the Athletic Club, in order to take him out of the "middle." 
Attending that meeting were Mr. Philip Connelly, who was secre- 
tary of the C.I.O. ; Mr. Forrest from the Communist Party and 
Mr. Marvin, I believe, Communist Party ; Mr. Victor Shapiro, who 
claims to be from the Hollywood Democratic Club, also a matter 
of opinion ; Charlotte Bass from the California Eagle ; and Mr. 
William Bidner from the Civil Rights Congress. I think that was 
all. 

Q. And of course you did not allow the use of the auditorium 
for Mr. Foster ? 

A. Definitely not. 

Q. Did he speak in Los Angeles, to your knowledge ? 
A. He spoke at the Embassy Auditorium, which is a smaller 
place than ours. 
Q. Yes. 

A. However, we were pressured very considerably, not only at 
that meeting, but after; Mr. Philip Connelly was adamant; he 
even went so far as to say that he was in complete control of 
120,000 workers; I understand that is exaggerated, but, quite a 
few, but that is what he said, and that he was going to see to it, 
personally, that every member of his organization boycotted the 
Olympic until we rented it to the Communist Party; so we asked 
him if theater owners were anti-Communists ; if he would prevent 






222 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

his workers from going to picture shows. He said, " Absolutely , 
they would stay home seven nights a week/' so I told him to get 
some good reading material at home to help them out. 

Q. Did you ever notice any difference in your income at the 
auditorium after the Communist protests ? 

A. No. (Witness knocks on the witness table). But as I say, 
we got a hundred letters a day and possibly a phone call every 
two minutes, for almost a month, and then we were, oh, I wouldn't 
want to use the word " picketed" exactly, but members of the 
Communist Party distributed literature around every Monday 
and Tuesday nights, both on boxing and wrestling nights, to try to 
prevent the people from coming in, and on one of the nights one 
of the people distributing literature was injured by one of our 
customers who became very incensed, and Mr. Connelly told us if 
anybody was injured distributing Communistic literature, that 
he was going to have members of his union come down and protect 
them, and so I don't know whether he considers all of his members 

Communists or not. 
******# 

The Witness: Once I talked to Judge Rosenthal about that 
letter, and I think he knew what he was writing, because I gave him 
every opportunity to edit it. 

And also one other thing about Mr. Shapiro, as long as he is 
supposedly representing the Democratic Club, I met the gentleman 
in Hollywood and was minding my own business, believe me, and he 
came up and started calling me a lot of names, among which he 
called me a Nazi. 

Chairman Tenney : Q. Who called you that ? 

A. This Victor Shapiro, but he prefaced it by a few swear words. 

Mr. Victor Shapiro : Mr. Chairman 

Chairman Tenney : Mr. Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Mr. Shapiro : I have a right to answer. 

The Witness : Now, when I walked in and saw Mr. Shapiro, I 
mentioned that he was one of the men that came down with the 
Communists, so apparently when he heard the ''Communists," I 
don't know whether his conscience hurt him or not, he started 
screaming ' ' Nazi, " so he told me he was going to sue me if I called 
him a Communist. So apparently they all feel, deep down, that it is 
a disgrace or they would not want to start a lawsuit. 

Frank Spector was subpenaed and appeared before the committee 
in Los Angeles on Wednesday, February 18, 1948. He stated that he was 
born in Russia and that he is an alien. He has lived in California since 
1920, off and on. He was in the East for some time and returned to 
Southern California in 1942. Spector would not admit acquaintance with 
V. A. K. Tashjian, alias Parker, former control commissioner of the 
Communist Party for Southern California. Likewise he refused to answer 
questions concerning his official position in the Communist Party. (It is 
known that he is the present control commissioner for the party. This 
position is a most powerful one within the Communist Party organiza- 
tional structure as it deals with disciplinary measures for recalcitrant 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 223 

party members.) Spector, however, defiantly admitted that he was a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Frank Spector was tried and convicted for creating a disturbance 
in Imperial Valley in 1930. He was charged with violation of the Criminal 
Syndicalism Law and served a year in San Quentin. He was an organizer 
for the Communist International Labor Defense. He was active in Com- 
munist work in Cleveland, New York, and in 1929 he became an organizer 
for the Communist Party in Los Angeles. On September 14, 1939, he was 
appointed organizer for the Communist Party in San Francisco County. 
He was arrested on the eighth day of January, 1937, in connection with 
Communist activities before the German consulate. In 1937 he was active 
in the Workers Alliance of America. He was a delegate to the May, 1940, 
Communist Party state convention in San Francisco. In 1944 he became 
an official of the C.I.O. Electrical Workers Union, Local No. 1421, and 
was elected as delegate to the state convention of the C.I.O. In 1945 he 
was elected president of the United Electrical Radio and Marine Workers, 
Local 1421. He was in charge of Communist activities in the Philippine 
Islands in 1936. An order for his deportation was issued on the fifteenth 
day of October, 1938. He was connected with Herbert K. Sorrell in the 
recent Hollywood strikes. 

Indicative of the methods used by Communists to wreck the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor or, for that matter, any legitimate group in the 
field of labor-management relations, is the following statement by Spector 
(Committee's transcript XXXIX, p. 563) : 

The members, I am sure, are supporting financially as far as the 
occasion arises individually, the very fine fight the Di Giorgio farm 
workers are now making under the leadership of the American 
Federation of Labor. It is a noble fight and the Communist Party is 
in full sympathy with that fight and assists persons that assist this 
strike. 

It is apparent that Spector made the statement with the full intention 
of amalgamating the Di Giorgio affair with the cause of Communism. 

At the conclusion of Spector 's testimony the committee adopted a 
resolution calling Specter's case to the attention of the Department of 
Immigration and Naturalization in order to expedite the Spector depor- 
tation order. 

Dr. Leo Bigelman was subpenaed but the process servers were unable 
to find him. He is a physician with offices in a building in Hollywood 
known as the Cross Roads of the World. 

The Western Worker for April 30, 1936, reports that Dr. Bigelman 
attended the state convention of the American League Against War and 
Fascism in San Francisco and that he was elected to its executive board. 

In 1945, 1946, and 1947, Dr. Bigelman was a lecturer at the People's 
Educational Center, according to the brochures of that institution. Dur- 
ing the summer term of 1947, his name appears as a member of the board 
of trustees. 

In 1936 Dr. Leo Bigelman was registered as a Communist in Los 
Angeles County. In this capacity he sponsored Emil Freed on the Com- 
munist Party ticket for the office of Assemblyman for the Fifty-seventh 
Assembly District in Los Angeles County. (August, 1936). 



224 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Rena Vale affidavit (Committee's Report for 1943) lists Dr. Leo 
Bigelman as a member of the professional section of the Communist 
Party. 

In the Communist publication, "Two Decades of Progress/' which 
appeared in September of 1939, the committee finds the following : 
' ' Greetings are extended from the Hanns Eisler Branch of the Communist 
Party of Los Angeles County. ' ' The committee heard testimony during its 
hearing in Oakland to the effect that no branch of the party is named after 
an individual unless that person is important to the Communist Party. 
The fact that a branch of the Communist Party in Los Angeles County 
was named after Hanns Eisler indicates his extreme importance to the 
Communist Party. 

COMMUNIST PARTY BOOK STORES IN CALIFORNIA 

As distributing centers for its publishing houses the Communist 
Party maintains book stores throughout the United States. The principal 
book stores of the Communist Party in California are as follows : Proges- 
sive Book Shop, 722 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles ; International Book 
Store, 1400 Market Street, San Francisco; Maritime Book Shop, 15 
Embarcadero, San Francisco; 20th Century Book Shop, 2475 Bancroft 
Way, Berkeley ; 20th Century Book Shop, 1721 Webster Street, Oakland ; 
Progressive Book Shop, 1002 Seventh Street, Sacramento ; Victory Book 
Store, 635 E Street, San Diego ; Maritime Book Shop, 266 West Sixth 
Street, San Pedro ; Walt Whitman Book Shop, 277 East Fourth Street, 
Long Beach ; Lincoln Book Shop, 1721 North Highland Avenue, Holly- 
wood; Modern Book Shop, 405 West De La Guerra Street, Santa 
Barbara. 

In addition to book stores the Communist Party maintains * ' litera- 
ture agents" in nearly every section of the State of California. Com- 
munist newsboys in Los Angeles and San Francisco and other cities of 
the State are compelled to handle Communist periodicals and news- 
papers, such as the People's Daily World. The Newsboys Union is one of 
the tightly controlled Communist groups. 

COMMUNIST PARTY PUBLICATIONS 

The committee has found the following to be Communist initiated 
and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the Stalin solar 
system: Action, Action Bulletin (Civil Rights Congress), Action for 
Today, Allied Labor News Service, Amerasia, American Quarterly on the 
Soviet Union, Among Friends, A. Y. D. In Action (American Youth for 
Democracy), Black and White, Book Union Bulletin, Boston Chronicle, 
Bulletin of Congress of American Women, Bulletin on Education, Cali- 
fornia Eagle, Champion, Champion of Youth, Chart, Chicago Star, China 
Today, Civil Rights News, Clarity, Clipper (Published by Black and 
White Press, Inc.), Communist, Congress, Crisis, Daily Record (Chi- 
cago), Daily Worker (New York), Der Arleiter (German Communist 
Weekly), Direction, District Champion. 

East side Journal ( Al Waxman) , Economic Notes, Empros, Equality, 
Equal Justice, Eteenpain (Finnish Federation), Facts for Farmers, 



f 
UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 225 

Facts for Women, Fight, Film News (Associated Film Audiences), Fra- 
ternal Outlook (International Workers Order), Friday, German-Ameri- 
can, Glos Ludowy, Health and Hygiene (Daily Worker Medical Advisory 
Board), Hollywood Independent (Hollywood Independent Citizens 
Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions), Hour, I cor, Independ- 
ent (Independent Citizens Committee of Arts, Sciences and Professions), 
Indonesian Review (American Committee for Free Indonesia), Indus- 
trial Journal, In Fact, Information Bulletin (Published by the Embassy 
of the Soviet Union, Washington, D. C.), Jewish Life (Morning Freiheit 
Association, Inc.), Jewish People's Voice, Jewish Survey, Jewish Voice 
(Published by the National Council of Jewish Communists), Labor 
Defender (International Labor Defense), Labor Herald (Official organ 
of the Communist Trade Union Education League), Labor Herald (Cali- 
fornia CIO), Labors' News, Labor Unity, Letter, Liberator, L'Unita Del 
Popolo, Mainstream, Michigan Herald. 

Naileben, Narodni Glasnik, National Issues (National Committee of 
the Communist Party), Negro Champion, Negro Digest, Negro Quarterly, 
New Africa, New Currents, New Masses, New Order (International 
Workers Order), New Pioneer, News of World Labor, News on Spain 
(Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade), New Theatre, New Times, 
New World, Novy Mir (" Workers of the World Unite "),Ny Tid, Obrana, 
Our World, Pacific Weekly, Pan Pacific Monthly, People's Daily World, 
People's Press, People's Songs, People's Voice, Photo-History, Picture 
Digest, Picture Scoop, Political Affairs (Successor to The Communist), 
Protestant, Protestant Digest, Radnik, Railroad Workers' Link, Reader's 
Scope, Reporter (National Council of American-Soviet Friendship), 
Report From Washington (Independent Citizens Committee of Arts, 
Sciences and Professions), Report on World Affairs. 

Salute, Saznanie (Bulgarian section of the Communist Party), 
Science and Society, Scoop, Social Work Today, Soviet Culture (Ameri- 
can Russian Institute), Soviet Russia, Soviet Russia Today, Soviet Sports 
(National Council of American-Soviet Friendship), Spotlight (American 
Youth for Democracy), State of Affairs, Student Advocate, Student Out- 
look (American Youth for Democracy), Student Review, Sunday Worker, 
T and T Trend and Time (Louis Adamic), Tac (Theatre Arts Com- 
mittee publication), Teener's Topics (American Youth for Democracy), 
Teen Life (American Youth for Democracy), Theatre Work Shop, Toveri 
( l l The Comrade. ' ' Organ of Communist Finns) , Truth About Soviet Rus- 
sia, Trybuna Robotnicza (Official organ in Polish of the Communist 
Party), Tyolaisnainen ("The Working Woman"), Tyomies ("The 

Workman"). 

Uj Elore, United Farmer, U. 8. Week, Uus Ilm ("The New World. " 
Estonian Communist Weekly), Vanguarda (Portuguese Communist 
Party Organ), Vida Obrera ("Workers' Life"), Vienybe (Lithuanian 
tri-weekly), Vilnis ( (< The Surge" Lithuanian Labor Daily), Voice of 
Freedom, Voice of Working Women, Volunteer for Liberty (Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade), Weekly Review, Woman Power (Congress of Ameri- 
can Women), Women Today, World News and Views, Work, Workers 
Monthly, Working Woman, World for Peace and Democracy, Toung 
Comrade, Toung Pioneer, Young Fraternalist (International Workers 
Order), Youth (American Youth for Democracy). 

16 L-7088-D 



226 UN-AMEBTCAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

CONFERENCE ON CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES IN AMERICA 

This Communist-inspired conference was called in Washington, 
D. C., June 7-9, 1940, and launched the National Federation for Consti- 
tutional Liberties. 

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a high-ranking member of the national 
committee of the Communist Party, was one of the featured speakers at 
this conference. Elmer Benson, Joseph Curran, James Dombrowski, John 
A. Lapp, Carey Me Williams, and Channing H. Tobias, were affiliated with 
the Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America. 

It should be noted that this Communist front came into existence 
during the Stalin-Hitler Pact. Necessarily, the Conference on Constitu- 
tional Liberties in America followed the Communist line meticulously. 

The provisional committee included Prof. Franz Boas, Elmer Ben- 
son, Herbert Biberman, Carey Me Williams, Max Yergan, Howard Costi- 
gan, George Marshall, Robert MacGregor, Tom Mooney, Jack McMichael, 
Prof. Robert K. Speer, and Merle D. Vincent. 

Among the sponsors of the Conference on Constitutional Liberties 
in America, were the following : Alice Barrows, Prof. Harold C. Brown, 
Prof. John B. Tanning, John M. Coffee, Mrs. Sarah Bard Field, Dashiell 
Hammett, Pearl M. Hart, Abraham J. Isserman, Kent Keller, Carol King, 
David Lasser, Ira Latimer, Prof. Alain Locke, Gerhart Eisler, George 
Marston, Carl W. Scott, Dyson Carter, Olive Sutton, Michael Chicureli, 
Robert Kelley, Louise Mitchell, Allan L. Fletcher, Ben Rogers, Moranda 
Smith, Joseph Starobin, Ted Allen, Bob Friedman, John Pittman, Aaron 
Kramer, William Z. Foster, Olive Mosby, Eugene Dennis, Morris Childs, 
Pat Cush, Frederick V. Field, Hilda Weiss, Merle Mance, Otto Wangerin, 
Murray Chase, Milton Pokorne, Charles Stein, Mary Southard, Ruby 
Cooper, Martha Millet, Walter Lowensels, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Mike 
Gold, Harold Hickerson, Joseph Leeds, Peter J. Cacchione, Elizabeth M. 
Bacon, Jean R. Beck, Barnard Rubin, J. Kepner, Peter Stone, and Travis 
K. Hedrick. 

CONGRESS OF AMERICAN-SOVIET FRIENDSHIP 

(See National Council of American-Soviet Friendship.) 
CONGRESS OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

The Communist Sunday Worker for March 8, 1942, announced that 
"U. S. Women's Leaders Hail Soviet and British Allies on International 
Women 's Day. ' ' With Great Britain and China thrown in for good meas- 
ure, Ethel Epstein, labor secretary to Mayor LaGuardia of New York 
City ; Catherine Earnshaw, National President of the Newspaper Guild 
Auxiliary; Elizabeth Haws, fashion designer and newspaper woman; 
and Betty Hawley, Vice President of the New York State Federation of 
Labor, followed by dozens of other women, signed the following cable : 

"We, the women of this nation, remembering our pioneer and 
revolutionary heritage have but one message to you, our sisters across 
the sea Fight on, women of Russia, of China, of England, and all 
freedom-loving peoples of the earth. We are with you to the utmost 
of our energies and if need be with our lives in the essential task of 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA '227 

crushing Fascism and the foes of human liberty throughout the 
world. " 

Among other signers, representing a generous cross section of red 
fronts, are the following : Ruth Appleman, Ethel Beach, Anne Berenholz, 
Helen Blanchard, Nellie Clapsaddle, Rachel Du Bois, Dorothy Funt, 
Stella Garvin, Viola lima, Betty Kalish, Julia Katz, Mary Mattia, Ger- 
trude Myers, Winifred Norman, Eizabeth Olds, Rose Schneiderman, 
Ruth Seigel, Frances Williams, Mrs. Stephen S. Wise, Ruth Young, and 
Verna Young. 

In 1944 the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship created 
a Committee of Women. The chairman of this committee was Mrs. Muriel 
Draper and the vice chairman was Mrs. Elinor S. Gimbel. The commit- 
tee held a conference at the Hotel Commodore in New York City on 
November 18, 1944. The occasion was billed as a Conference on Women 
of the U. S. A., and the U. S. S. R., in the postwar world. The call announc- 
ing the conference stated, in effect, that since the women of the world 
played such important parts in the war, they demanded to have an equally 
important role in shaping postwar economy. The call appealed to other 
women 's organizations to send delegates to the conference. 

The signers of the call were Marjorie Post Davies (Mrs. Joseph 
Davies), acting national honorary chairman, and Muriel Draper, head 
of the Women 's Committee of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship. Mrs. Ruth W. Russ, Executive Secretary of the Women's 
Committee, was secretary of the conference. 

The conference held three sessions. The principal topics of discus- 
sion were American-Soviet women's issues and postwar rights for women 
in the United States. The speakers included Ruth Young, Rose Schnei- 
derman, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mrs. LaFell Dickinson, Dr. Arnold 
Gessell, Mrs. Sidonie M. Gruenberg, D. Leona Baumgartner, and Mrs. 
Norman de R. Whitehouse. 

Among the sponsors of the conference were the following : Henrietta 
Buckmaster, Mrs. Bella Dodd, Mrs. Katherine Earnshaw, Mrs. Sidonie 
M. Gruenberg, Josephine Timms, Ruth Young, Muriel Draper, Elinor S. 
Gimbel, Dr. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mrs. Sherwood Anderson, Mrs. 
Mary McLeod Bethune, Mrs. Jo Davidson, Mildred Fairchild, Mrs. Fred- 
erick V. Field, Cornelia Goldsmith, Mrs. Sophie Gropper, Mrs. Sidney 
Hillman, Mrs. Stanley Isaacs, Mrs. Julia Church Kolar, Dorothy Ken- 
yon, Rosalie Manning, Rose Maurer, Clarina Michelson, Eleanor Neil- 
son, Mrs. David De Sola Pool, Mrs. W. Jay Schieffelin, Margaret 
Schlauch, Mrs. Frederick L. Schuman, Vida D. Scudder, Mrs. Gilbert 
Seldes, Lisa Segio, Mary K. Simkhovitch, Irena Skariatina, Charlotte 
Stern, Anna Louise Strong, Genevieve Taggard, Katherine Terrill, Mrs. 
Albert Rhys Williams, Ella Winters, Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward, Ruth 
Young, and Leane Zugsmith. 

Prior to 1944 there had been a number of Communist fronts for 
women and there were some established as out-and-out Communist sec- 
tions. Some of these had been directly affiliated with the International 
Congress of Women, with headquarters in Moscow. Others were affiliated 
with the Women's International Congress Against War and Fascism. 
Active in the leadership of these congresses were Ann Pauker, Rumanian 
Bolshevik head; Mme. Kollantai of Russia; Clara Zetkin; Ella Reeve 



228 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Bloor ; Dolores Ibarruri, better known as "La Pasionaria," chairman of 
the Communist Party in Spain and now in exile in Yugoslavia; Anna 
Mai of Bulgaria; Mme. Eugenie Cotton; Mme. Marie-Claude Vaillant- 
Couturier (Communist) of France; and Elizabeth Gurley Flymi; and 
others, all Communists. 

Like many other Communist internationals these congresses were 
inactive during World War II because of the complications involved in 
travel, the holding of meetings, and the transmission of correspondence. 

Among sponsors of the Committee of Women of the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship were the following : Mrs. Mary McLeod 
Bethune, Mrs. Jo Davidson, Mrs. Joseph E. Davies, Miss Dorothy Can- 
field Fisher, Mrs. Arthur Garfield Hays, Mrs. Sidney Hillman, Miss Edith 
Hurley, Mrs. Stanley M. Isaacs, Miss Dorothy Kenyon, Miss Rose Maurer, 
Miss Lisa Sergio, Miss Anna Louise Strong, Miss Katherine Terrill, Miss 
Genevieve Taggard, Mrs. Albert Rhys Williams, Dr. Mary Woolley, and 
Miss Ruth Young. 

The Communist Party began reorganizing its international organ- 
izations and fronts as soon as the war ended. Again the National Council 
of American-Soviet Friendship called its female fellow-travelers into 
action. The International Congress of Women convened in Paris Novem- 
ber 26 to December 1, 1945, at the call of international Communist forces. 

Mme. Eugenie Cotton and Mme. Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier, 
Communist members of the French House of Deputies, were co-chairmen 
of the International Congress of Women. Dolores Ibarruri, Communist 
of Spain was the keynote speaker. Mme. Nina Popova, leader of the Com- 
munist women of Russia, took a leading part in the program. The dele- 
gates from the United States were Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Chairman of 
the Women 's Commission of the Communist Party in the United States ; 
Dr. Gene Weltfish ; Thelma Dale, a member of the New York State Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party ; Susan B. Anthony II, active in many 
Communist fronts; Eleanor Vaughan; Ann Bradford; Mrs. Frederic 
March ; Mrs. Gifford Pinchot ; Henrietta Buckmaster ; Dr. Beryl Parker ; 
Charlotte Hawkins Brown ; Vivian Carter Mason ; Jeanette Stern ; Muriel 
Draper; and Elinor S. Gimbel. Eight hundred delegates were reported 
in attendance, claiming to represent a hundred million women in 40 coun- 
tries. 

Early in 1946 a continuing committee of the International Congress 
of Women was set up in the United States. Among the members of this 
committee are Elinor S. Gimbel, Dr. Gene Weltfish, coauthor of Races of 
Mankind which was barred by the War Department from courses in sol- 
dier orientation; Susan B. Anthony II, Secretary; Dr. Beryl Parker, 
Treasurer ; Mrs. Grace Allen Bangs, Clara Bodian, Dr. Charlotte Haw- 
kins Brown, Henrietta Buckmaster, Thelma Dale, Frances Damon, Dr. 
Bella V. Dodd, Muriel Draper, Katherine Earnshaw, India Edwards, 
Thyra Edwards, Mary L. Fledderus, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Daisy 
George, Esther Gilwarg, Dorothy Gottlieb, Sidonie M. Gruenberg, Mrs. 
Shippen Lewis, Mrs. Frederic March, Vivian Carter Mason, Helen Phil- 
lips, Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, Anna Center Schneiderman, Natalie Sherman, 
Josephine Timms, Jeanette Stern Turner, Mary Van Kleeck, Eleanor T. 
Vaughan, Mrs. Stephen S. Wise, and Ruth Young. 

This continuations committee eventually became the Congress of 
American Women. The international movement is called the International 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 229 

Democratic Women's Federation. Muriel Draper, Vivian Carter Mason, 
Mrs. Frederic March, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn are the regular dele- 
gates to the Communist International Democratic Women's Federation 
appointed by the Congress of American Women. Dr. Gene Weltfish, Dr. 
Beryl Parker, and Ann Bradford are the Congress of American Women's 
alternate delegates to the International. 

Ann Bradford is the Secretary of the C.I.O. Women's Auxiliary of 
Los Angeles. 

The Congress of American Women was incorporated in January of 
1947. The incorporators were Gene Weltfish, Helen Phillips, Muriel 
Draper, Josephine Timms, Susan B. Anthony II, and Elinor S. Gimbel. 
Bella Dodd, formerly a teacher and Communist leader, notarized the 
incorporation documents and Benjamin M. Zelman was the attorney for 
the organization. 

March 8th has been selected by the Congress of American Women as 
International Day, and November 29th has been selected as Women's Day 
for annual celebrations. March 8th was first celebrated as Communist 
Women 's Day in Moscow. 

Out of the International Congress came the so-called charter for 
women's rights, officially known as the Women's Status Amendment. 
Susan Anthony II of the United States' section is the chairman of the 
special commission which has been set up to push this program, described 
as one aimed at * ' establishing equal rights. ' ' Supporters of this amend- 
ment will oppose "discrimination against women, regardless of color 
and race. ' ' The Congress of American Women will demand that women 
be no longer excluded from men's affairs. The National Press Club in 
Washington, D. C., is cited as an example of such exclusion. The club, it 
is pointed out, permits women to dine in the "small dining room" only. 
The Congress of American Women promise that these conditions will be 
corrected through its pressure. It is determined that the laws in 41 states 
which require a woman to live in the same house with her husband, or 
suffer the possibility of being sued for divorce or separation shall be 
repealed. They allege that several states limit general contracts of mar- 
riage to a "discriminatory degree," and the Congress of American 
Women announce that these laws will be repealed, as well as all laws pro- 
viding penalties for the birth of children out of wedlock. The Congress 
of American Women refer to such laws as ' ' anti-women laws. ' ' 

The organization is presently appealing to "help the children sur- 
vive Fascism, ' ' and a program has been mapped out to extend pressure 
in this direction. The Brooklyn, N. Y., chapter, headed by Mrs. Mary J. 
Melish (Mrs. William H. Melish) has started a drive to aid Tito's 
(Yugoslav) youth. 

The Congress of American Women support the Pepper Maternal and 
Child Welfare Bill, the Murray- Wagner Free Medicine and Medical Bill, 
and the Lanham Act which provides for child care centers and nurseries. 
This Communist organization presently spearheads the pressure groups 
for permanent child care centers in California. 

The Congress of American Women has announced that it intends to 
be active in the political action field in both national and local campaigns. 
Its representatives marched on Washington, D. C., storming Congress 
and the State Department in opposition to American aid to Greece and 



230 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Turkey, and participated in mass demonstrations protesting the repeal 
of the Office of Price Administration. 

The chairman of the Committee of Action for Peace and Democracy 
of the Congress of American Women is Muriel Draper. Anna Lee is secre- 
tary of this committee. Chairman of the Commission of the Status of 
Women of the organization is Susan B. Anthony II. Mary Murphy is 
the secretary. The Child Care and Education Commission is headed by 
Elinor S. Gimbel. Its secretary is Dorothy Gottlieb. 

The national headquarters of the Congress of American Women was 
located at 55 West Forty-second Street, New York City. The national 
president is Gene Weltfish. The executive vice president is Muriel Draper. 
Helen Phillips is the treasurer and Josephine Timms is the secretary. 
Thyra Edwards is the recording secretary. The following are vice presi- 
dents : Susan B. Anthony II, Ann Bradford, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, 
Henrietta Buckmaster, Dorothy Connolly, Thelma Dale, Mildred Fair- 
child, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Elinor S. Gimbel, Mrs. Frederic March, 
Vivian Carter Mason, Beryl Parker, Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, Ann Center 
Schneiderman, Mrs. Jeanette Turner, Eleanor Vaughan, and Ruth 
Young. 

Members of the editorial board of the Congress of American Women 
are Eleanor Vaughan and Bert Sigrid. 

The Congress of American Women issued a call to Mrs. Rosalind 
Lindsmith, (Oakland), and to Miriam Brooks (Los Angeles) former 
organizer for the Young Communist League, to organize chapters in their 
local communities. 

The Los Angeles headquarters of the Congress of American Women 
is located at 3410J West Ninth Street. Pamphlets distributed in Los 
Angeles (copies of which are in the Senate committee's files) give the 
national headquarters as 144 Bleecker Street, New York City, and indi- 
cate that Elinor S. Gimbel has been replaced by Helen Wortis as the 
chairman of the Child Care and Education Commission. The pamphlet 
reads, in part, as follows : 

1 1 WE ARE THE CONGRESS OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

"* * * a national organization of American women. We are 
the American arm of the Women's International Democratic Feder- 
ation, organized in Paris in 1945 by women from 44 countries, to 
work for a lasting peace and a world free from Fascism. Today the 
WIDF numbers 81,000,000 women the world over, and has con- 
sultant status with the Economic and Social Commission of the 
United Nations. 

* * * CAW has active chapters in New York, Los Angeles, 
Chicago, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and other cities. Find out if the CAW 
exists in your town, and if not, remember that Ten Women Any- 
where Can Start Anything, including a new CAW branch. 

"WHAT WE ARE AGAINST * * * 

1 1 Fascism in any form at home or abroad. 

' ' Discrimination because of race, color, sex, creed or beliefs. 

High prices. 

Universal military training. 

Manufacturing atom bombs as a threat to world peace. ' ' 



" 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 231 

The Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in 
California finds this organization one of the most potentially dangerous 
of the many active Communist fronts. 

The People's Daily World for October 26, 1946 reports a Los Ange- 
les Conference of the Congress of American Women. The issue of March 
12, 1947 of the People's Daily World reports the launching of an inten- 
sive campaign by the Congress of American Women to obtain 100,000 
votes for three candidates for the Los Angeles Board of Education. The 
candidates, Dr. H. Claude Hudson, Walter Turner, and Raphael 
Koenigsburg, were left-wing supported candidates, also backed by the 
Citizens' Committee for Better Education. The People's Daily World 
for the same issue also reported that the organization had voted to ' ' end 
the current 'lockout' of Herb Sorrell's Conference of Studio Unions" 
and called for a halt to the * ' aid to Greece ' ' program. 

The issue of the People's Daily World for July 30, 1947, reports 
that the Congress of American Women, went on record urging the aboli- 
tion of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, and condemned 
the sentencing to jail of members of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee for contempt of the congressional committee. 

The People's Daily World for February 4, 1948, reports that the 
Congress of American Women will act as joint sponsors with the 
American-Russian Institute of a meeting in the First Unitarian Church 
in Los Angeles 011 February 9th honoring Elizabeth A. Popova, and 
Evdokia I. Uralova, of Russia. 

The People's Daily World for March 12, 1947 reported that the 
previous Saturday's meeting of the Congress of American Women had 
been chaired by Mrs. Albert Dekker and that Xenia Zytomirska, Cultural 
Attache of the Polish Embassy (Stalinist) for the West Coast was the 
guest speaker. The meeting voted to stop the United States ' plan to send 
supplies, arms and men to Greece. Dr. Sanford Goldner, California CIO 
Research Director is also reported as having spoken. 

The People's Daily World for April 24, 1947, reports that the Con- 
gress of American Women is active, together with the Long Beach Civil 
Rights Congress, the Progressive Citizens of America and the Long Beach 
Communist Party, in an effort to compel Long Beach employers to employ 
Negroes. 

The People's Daily World for July 29, 1947, reports that the Con- 
gress of American Women in Los Angeles hailed the leaders of the Com- 
munist front for assistance to Communist refugees, the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee, as * * men who have courageously worked for 
liberty." (Dr. Edward Barsky, Chairman of the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee, Howard Fast, and 14 members of the national board 
of this organization had been sentenced to jail for refusing to^obey sub- 
penas of the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities calling 
for records of the organization.) 

Mrs. Frederic March, whose stage name is Florence Eldridge, was 
subpenaed and testified before the committee at its Los Angeles hearing, 
February 18, 1948. She denied that she was, or had ever been, a member 
of the Communist Party. She stated that she had been acquainted with 
Frank Tuttle and his wife for a number of years and that she had been 
a sponsor of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. She testified that the 
Hollywood Anti-Nazi League had started with Herbert Biberman, 



232 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Dorothy Parker, Donald Ogden Stewart, and a group of people who met 
with a man who had come from the German underground. 

Mrs. March stated that she had been a character witness for Herman 
Shumlin, theatrical producer in New York, when he was tried for 
contempt of the House Committee on Un-American Activities together 
with other members of the Communist Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee. 

Mrs. March admitted that she was acquainted with Mrs. Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn, a member of the national committee of the Communist 
Party, and that she was one of the delegates with Mrs. March who 
attended the Congress in Paris. She stated that she had not been active 
in the Congress of American Women for some time and that she had 
resigned from the board of the organization a year previous. She testified 
that she had given up her position in the International Democratic 
Federation. She emphasized the point that she had not given up her 
activities in these groups because she opposed them but because of 
' ' certain pressure of work. ' ' 

Mrs. March appeared with Frederic March, her husband, before 
Congressman Dies in August, 1940. On that occasion Frederic March 
was confronted with a former secretary of the Communist Party in Los 
Angeles. At one point of his interrogation Frederic March made the 
following statement : 

1 'Mr. Dies, may I ask one more question in an attempt to sum 

up? Assuming Mr. Leech is attempting to tell the truth as he sees 

it, might it be possible that my name had been bandied about ? ' ' 

Mrs. March was asked whether or not she found herself in a similar 
position in 1948 ' ' that it might be possible that ' ' her name ' ' had been 
bandied about ' ' ; whether or not she should be held responsible for her 
connection with known Communists, such as Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
or had she been fooled because of the purported objectives used by the 
Communists in "window-dressing" their causes and organizations. 

She stated that she had not been fooled ' ' into going to the Congress in 
Europe." She then read a telegram which she alleged was sent to the 
Congress in Paris by Eleanor Roosevelt. The communication read as 
follows : 

"May I take this opportunity to send all those attending the 

International Women's Conference my best wishes for courage and 

spiritual guidance in your struggle to restore your countries. ' ' 

When Mrs. March was reminded that Mrs. Roosevelt had admitted 
on occasion that the Communists had fooled her, the witness replied by 
saying "I might be fooled into doing something I thought was right in 
doing, but I couldn 't be fooled into something I thought was wrong. ' ' 

DAILY WORKER 

This paper is the official organ of the Communist Party of the 
United States. 

On August 28, 1923, Gregory Zinoviev, chief of the Communist 
International, sent a cablegram to Charles E. Ruthenberg, executive 
secretary of the Workers Party (the American section of the Communist 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 233 

International in 1923). The cablegram was published by the American 
Communists, and read as follows : 

"August 28, 1923 
"Buthenberg 
"799 Broadway 
"New York 

"Know of no more important task American workers than 
establishment militant daily. This should be rallying point for con- 
centration all forces present time. Only after foundation daily will 
Comintern consider we have real mass party America. 

"Zinoviev." 
(Stalin had Gregory Zinoviev shot several years ago) . 

The following individuals have contributed to the Daily Worker: 
George Marion, Art Shields, Ben Field, W. E. B. DuBois, Harry Ray- 
mond, Samuel Sillen, Frank Lesser, David Platt, Lester Rodney, Robert 
F. Hall, Mike Lynn, Martin T. Brown, Bill Marko, E. Benson, William 
Allan, Abner W. Berry, Michael Singer, Joseph Clark, Arnold Sroog, 
Fred Vast, John Hudson Jones, Bernard Burton, Milton Howard, James 
S. Allen, Rev. F. W. McConnoll, C. C. McCowan, Albert Maltz, Stanley 
Matthews, Charles A. Marlies, Ann Meikeljohn, William McGee, Samuel 
Ornitz, Bishop Edward L. Parsons, Prof. Walter Rautenstrauch, Edward 
Rosen, Charles Rosenthal, Paul Robeson, Olga K. Robinson, Rev. Lloyd 
I. Worley, Art Young, Max Yergan, Lena Zugsmith, Rev. Hayden B. 
Sears, Herman Shumlin, Lorna D. Smith, Frederick Thompson, Rev. 
D. R. Throckmorton, Dr. Harry F. Ward, Clara Weatherwax, A. L. 
Wirin, Rev. Robert Whitaker, and Rev. Mary T. Whitney. 

EMERGENCY CIVIL LIBERTIES CONFERENCE 

(See Emergency Conference to Halt the Blackout of Civil Liberties 
in California.) 

EMERGENCY COMMITTEE ON KFI 

(See Committee's 1947 Report, pages 180 to 186, inclusive.) 

EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO HALT THE BLACKOUT OF 
CIVIL LIBERTIES IN CALIFORNIA 

This Communist-inspired conference was held Saturday afternoon 
on April 5, 1941, at the South Hall of the Embassy Auditorium, Ninth 
and Grand in the City of Los Angeles. The purpose of the call was to 
generate pressure against Assembly Bill 271, a measure which ultimately 
became the law and is known as the Subversive Registration Act of 1941. 

Carey Me Williams was chairman of the conference. The following 
signed the call for the conference : John Barilone, Louise Bennett, James 
Daugherty, Dr. George Day, Harry Dickey, Howard Goddard, Howard 
Hardy, Jacob Lehman, Frank Lopez, Prof. Broadus Mitchell, J. W. 
McNair, La Rue McCormick, Charles Pfeiffer, Fred Rausch, Robert 
Robinson, Dr. E. P. Ryland, Dr. Clinton Taft, Clore Warne, Sol Wiesal- 
man, Ramon Welch, and Hugh Wilkins. 



234 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

An Emergency Civil Liberties Conference was established at room 
511, C. C. Chapman Building, 756 South Broadway, Los Angeles. 

EXILED WRITERS COMMITTEE 

This front was established by the Communist League of American 
Writers to bolster the Communist front, American Committee to Save 
Refugees. The Exiled Writers Committee worked with other Communist 
fronts in the Spanish Communist refugee agitation. Earl Browder, then 
the General Secretary of the Communist Party in the United States, 
openly urged support of these Communist fronts in his report to his 
national committee on November 16, 1940. He said : 

"They (the American worker) must be rallied to the most 
immediate concrete aid to the rescue of the Spanish Republican 
Refugee plan, and their transportation and resettlement in Latin 
America, supporting the campaign already launched by the United 
Spanish Aid Committee." 

Lillian Hellman and Ernest Hemingway headed a committee of 
sponsors for a dinner-forum for Communist refugees at the Hotel Biit- 
more in New York City, in October, 1941. Governor Herbert H. Lehman 
revoked his sponsorship of the dinner-forum when he learned that many 
of the sponsors had been connected with Communist activities. 

Lillian Hellman was the chairman of the dinner-forum and Diana 
Forbes-Robertson, Eric Knight, Emil Lengyel, Edgar Snow, Johannes 
Steel, Pierre van Paassen, and Max Werner were announced as guest 
speakers. The dinner-forum was held under the joint auspices of the 
American Committee to Save Refugees, Exiled Writers Committee of the 
League of American Writers and the United Spanish Aid Committee. 

Among the sponsors of the dinner-forum were the following : Dr. 
Edward K. Barsky, Louis Bromfield, Stuart Chase, Kyle Crichton (alias 
Robert Forsythe), Martha Dodd, Dashiell Hammett, Ben Hecht, Rock- 
well Kent, Mr. and Mrs. Corliss Lament, Ruth McKenney, Clifford Odets, 
Professor Walter Rautenstrauch, George Seldes, Maxwell S. Stewart, and 
Orson Welles. 

FEDERATION OF ARCHITECTS, ENGINEERS, CHEMISTS 
AND TECHNICIANS 

The Communist character and activities of this organization has 
been covered rather thoroughly in the former Reports of Legislative 
Committees investigating un-American activities in California. (See, 
particularly, the committee's 1947 report.) The Federation of Architects, 
Engineers, Chemists and Technicians was absorbed by the Communist 
United Office and Professional Workers. 

Rose Segure, who has been referred to in previous reports, testified 
before the committee in Oakland, 1947. She stated, at the time of testify- 
ing, that she was working with the Organizing Committee of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party of California, the new vehicle for the Com- 
munist Party in this State. She stated that she knew Alexander Noral, 
the registered Communist functionary who was formerly in charge of 
the Communist Workers' Alliance of America. She admitted that she 
had been a close associate of Communist John E. Jeffrey, former State 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 235 

head of the Communist State, County, and Municipal Workers of Amer- 
ica. Miss Segure stated that she was international representative for the 
State, County, and Municipal Workers of America (now the United 
Public Workers). She was also acquainted with Communist Bronislaus 
Joseph Zukas. (See committee's previous reports.) She also admitted 
that she was acquainted with Communist Mrs. La Rue McCormick. She 
has been a consistent subscriber to the People 's Daily World. 

Eose Segure stated that Communist William Plunkert had formerly 
been a Federal Transit Administrator for the United States Govern- 
ment as an assistant to Harry Hopkins. She testified that after the 
Federal Transit Service was dissolved and William Plunker became the 
director of the State Survey for Social Workers in the State of Cali- 
fornia, that she became his assistant. Later, she stated, William Plunkert 
was connected with the State Relief Administration under the Olson 
regime. She worked for the State Relief Administration but not directly 
under William Plunkert. 

When Carey McWilliams became the Chief of the Division of Immi- 
gration and Housing, Rose Segure stated that she was associated with 
McWilliams as immigration inspector. She was concerned with the ' ' pro- 
tection of the interests of foreign born citizens and aliens within " Cali- 
fornia. On occasion, when she was connected with the State Relief 
Administration, she held conferences with representatives of the Com- 
munist Workers ' Alliance of America. During the war she was a member 
of the Regional War Labor Board and sat on panels as a labor repre- 
sentative. 

When Miss Segure left the State, County, and Municipal Workers 
she became an international representative for the Federation of Archi- 
tects, Engineers, Chemists and Technicians. 

She stated that she had known David Jenkins of the Communist 
California Labor School for about five ye'ars. She stated that she was 
community services director for the Communist school for a short time. 
She testified that she conducted a war course in Oakland for public health 
officials, Community Chest officials, and school people. Her classes aver- 
aged around 30 people. 

Miss Segure admitted that she knew Dorothy Ray (now Dorothy 
Healy, organizing secretary for the Communist Party of Los Angeles 
County) and that she had met her when she was organizing for the 
Communist United Cannery, Packing, and Allied Workers of America. 

The record indicates that Rose Segure is one of the most active and 
faithful agents of the Kremlin in California. 

R. E. Combs, counsel for the committee, summarized the evidence 
concerning the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and Tech- 
nicians, as follows (committee's transcript, Volume XXXIII, pages 370 
to 373) : 

''Mr. Combs: The F.A.E.C.T. was gone into for the purpose 
of showing by documented material, the citations of which have all 
been read into the record, that a man by the name of Marcel Scherer 
went to the Soviet Union and he there spent two years studying at 
the school known as the Lenin school for training espionage agents 
for the Communist Party throughout the world ; that his wife, Lena 
Davis, was secretary of the Communist Party of New Jersey. Imme- 
diately after Mr. Scherer returned to the United States, he started 



236 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

what become known as the F.A.E.C.T., which was a union whose 
membership consisted of scientists and technicians, including of 
course, nuclear physicists. In 1939 a chapter of that union was 
established in Berkeley. It was established by Mr. Paul Pinsky, as 
the record has already shown. Now, until 1942 and 1943, that 
chapter assumed no particular significance, but with the develop- 
ment of atomic research out comes Mr. Marcel Scherer to the Pacific 
Coast and here he stays for 18 months, and when he leaves, Miss Rose 
Segure becomes international representative for that union and 
organized, as she has testified, people who were working at the 
Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. 

"Now, the committee already has all of the publications of that 
chapter, Chapter 25, over a period of years, and from their own 
records their cleavage to the Communist Party line is established 
without any question of a doubt. Their handbills, their booklets, 
their pamphlets, their weekly bulletins, were all placed in the record, 
together with the minutes of their own executive meeting in which 
they say 'Look out for the F.B.I. We have to put our propaganda 
in envelopes to make them look like checks. ' Now, those minutes 
I don't remember what the rest of them provided, but they were 
introduced as exhibits before this committee, and were introduced 
a year ago. 

"Now, to get back to the California Labor School for a minute. 
The director of that school, Jenkins, is a member of the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards Union. He's also a member of the Communist 
Party by his own admission. He first denied it when we showed him 
a certified copy of his registration in New York and his record of 
serving a sentence for Communist agitation. He admitted he served 
the sentence and then admitted he was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

"Hazel Grossman, wife of Aubrey Grossman, who is the edu- 
cational director for the Communist Party in San Francisco, has 
long taught in that school. We have introduced into the record an 
example of the kind of literature distributed there and who attended 
those courses. From witnesses we have learned that the dispatcher 
at the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, who is a member of the 
Communist Party, has the sole discretion of assigning any member 
of that union to any boat bound for any port in the world. He has 
that sole discretion. * * * 

"Now, to get to the Chevalier situation. The statement made 
by a former agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Wash- 
ington, according to the newspapers, was in effect, that he had been 
contacted by a vice consul of the Soviet Union from San Francisco, 
asked to contact J. Robert Oppenheimer, who as we all know, prob- 
ably had more over-all knowledge of the atomic research bomb than 
any other scientist in the world. 

"Now, this committee had an executive session yesterday in 
which it was determined that if Chevalier were asked specifically 
and categorically exactly what he said to Dr. Oppenheimer, that it 
might be he would be given immunity from prosecution for any 
offense he may have been guilty of. In addition to that there was 
some feeling that this committee was not entitled, as a matter of 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 237 

jurisdiction, to go into that particular phase of the thing, but the 
committee did feel that it was the duty of this committee to give to 
the people of California the record of affiliations of Haakon Cheva- 
lier, and that is what we did attempt to do this morning, and Mr. 
Chevalier admitted his affiliations. Now, there are many people on 
the faculty of the University of California, and out of all those 
people one man was selected to make that contact. What he said we 
don't know. We have reason to believe that he may make a press 
release after this hearing, and reveal what he did say, which of 
course, is his privilege. His contact with Eltenton, his contact with 
the American-Russian Institute, his contact with and membership in 
all of those Russian organizations since, I think it was 1934, some- 
where around there, make a continuous pattern over a period of 
years. His participation in the 29th Anniversary of the Russian 
revolution ; his visiting in the home of the Soviet Vice Consul, are 
things the committee felt should be publicized so the people know 
the situation/' 

FILM AND PHOTO LEAGUE 

Willi Muenzenberg, in the Daily Worker for July 23, 1925, under 
the caption ' ' Capture the Film ! ' ' wrote, in part, as follows : 

"We must develop the tremendous cultural possibilities of the 
motion picture in a revolutionary sense * * * One of the most 
pressing tasks confronting Communist parties in the field of agita- 
tion and propaganda is the conquest of this supremely important 
propaganda weapon until now the monopoly of the ruling class. We 
must wrest it from them and turn it against them. ' ' 

The Cinema Bureau of the International Union of the Revolutionary 
Theater was organized in Moscow and laid down a detailed program for 
affiliated communist bodies throughout the world. Two important direc- 
tives were emphasized: Section 5(c) was an order "organizing mass 
protest demonstrations and rallying audiences in protest against reaction- 
ary films, and sub-section (d) of the same section ordered the "populariz- 
ing of all revolutionary films. ' ' Among other orders of the Moscow Cinema 
Bureau was the overall command to "unite the creative and technical 
workers of the film industry, professionals and amateurs, with the aim 
of forming film organizations in different countries on an international 
scale." Section 3 ordered the comrades "to gather all experiences for the 
purpose of creating revolutionary professional and amateur films in 
various countries." Section 7 is a directive "to establish a repertory of 
revolutionary films by * * * (c) producing our own films, starting with 
documentary, etc., films." 

The New Theater for May, 1934, stated : ' ' The existing police regu- 
lations and decrees must be studied and remembered. The film section 
can organize under the innocuous name of some club. It is certainly 
advisable to find a neutral name for your organization. ' ' 

Workers' Theater, predecessor of the New Theater, in its August, 
1933, issue made the following announcement : "We call upon you to join 
with us in organizing movies and camera clubs, film forums, better film 



238 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

groups in cities and towns all over the United States, for the purpose of 
exposing and combating the capitalist film industry. ' ' 

The Film and Photo League, a Communist-front in every respect, 
was the result. Ralph Steiner, photographer for the New Masses, wrote in 
the September, 1934, issue of New Theater: ''We must start by defining 
the revolutionary film. It is one which clearly and forcefully reflects and 
directs the class struggle * * *. The first requires of the film maker a 
clear political knowledge (note a basic comprehension of politics, 
economics, history and sociology from a Marxian point of view) * * *. 
For a clear political understanding it is obvious that the producer must 
have a basic foundation in the principles of the class struggle * * *." 

The headquarters of the Film and Photo League, together with the 
Workers Theater of San Francisco, were located in the Ruthenberg 
House. (Charles E. Ruthenberg was the first general secretary of the 
Communist Party.) 

The Congressional study of the Film and Photo League points out 
the dishonest methods used by the Film and Photo League. Leo T. Hur- 
witz, reporting on New York Film and Photo League activity in New 
Theater for May, 1934, writes as follows : 

"By virtue of splicing the shot of the warships just after Roose- 
velt signs the paper, and following the threatening ships of war, 
with the rest of the first shot (Roosevelt looks up and smiles), a new 
meaning not contained in either shot * * * is achieved the mean- 
ing of the huge war preparation program of the demagogic Roosevelt 
government. ' ' 

The Los Angeles Film and Photo League was particularly urged "to 
wedge its way more sharply into the film industry." (New Theater, 
November, 1934.) 

Among those who have been connected in one way or an other with 
the various branches of the Film and Photo League are the following : 
Margaret Bourke-White, Ralph Steiner, John Howard Lawson, Sidney 
Howard, John Wexley, Ashley Jettis, Bernice Abbott, Reginald Marsh, 
William Fitelson, Hall Johnson, Erskine Caldwell, Mordecai Gorelick, 
Lee Strassberg, Virgil Geddes, George Gershwin, Elmer Rice, Burgess 
Meredith, and James Cagney. 

Film and Photo League merged with Nykino to form the New Film 
Alliance according to New Theater for September, 1935. Merritt Craw- 
ford was the executive secretary. 

FILM AUDIENCES FOR DEMOCRACY 

The Communist fronts, Film Audiences and Films for Democracy, 
merged in 1939 to form a new front, Film Audiences for Democracy. 
(Film Survey, May, 1939.) 

The new front, thus created, carried on the activities of Film Audi- 
ences and Films for Democracy. (See these titles.) 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 239 

FILMS FOR DEMOCRACY 

The publication, Films for Democracy, for April 1939, outlined the 
aims of the Communist front by the same name : 

" Films for Democracy was launched four months ago, on 
November 18, 1938 * * *. Progressive Americans are glad to assist 
us in reaching friends, by arranging parlor meetings at which the 
aims and purposes of the organization are presented by one of our 
speakers * * *. Chapters of Films for Democracy have organized 
in recent weeks in the following communities: on the campus of 
Princeton University, Rutgers University ; Flatbush, Eastern Park- 
way, New Rochelle and Washington * * *. The Washington branch 
headed by Mr. Donald Montgomery of the Consumers Council of the 
Department of Agriculture, has set itself the task of enrolling one 
thousand members within the next few months * * *. Trained field 
workers are being sent from this office into communities where a 
nucleus of members already exists * * *. Motion Pictures Apprecia- 
tion Circles can be formed * * *. We now have members in 115 
cities in 34 states of the Union. ' ' 

The Advisory Board of Films for Democracy included the following : 
William E. Dodd, Franz Boas, Rexford G. Tugwell, Mary E. Woolley, 
Frederic March, Dudley Nichols, Thomas Mann, Marc Connolly, Heywood 
Broun, Theodore Dreiser, Lillian Hellman, Louis Adamic, William R. 
Benet, Dashiell Hammett, Rex Ingram, and Fritz Lang. 

FIRST STATE-WIDE EMERGENCY LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCE 

The Los Angeles Labor Herald for November 23, 1945, announced 
that Attorney General Robert W. Kenny and Bartley Crum had called 
for a state-wide legislative conference to be held at the Memorial Audi- 
torium in Sacramento, January 5 and 6, 1946. The Los Angeles sponsors 
of the conference included Eleanor Abowitz, Carey Me Williams, Dr. 
Franklin Fearing, Isaac Pacht, Reuben Borough, Harry Braverman, 
John Anson Ford, George Campbell, John Cromwell, Dr. E.G. Farnham, 
George Moore, Norman Houston, Rollin McNitt, Seniel Ostrow, Frank 
Pellett, Mr. and Mrs. Julian Sieroty, Robert L. Smith, Mrs. Ralph Van- 
dervort, Col. Evans Carlson, and John Howard Lawson. 

FREEDOM FROM FEAR COMMITTEE 

This is one of the Communist Party's latest fronts. 

The Freedom from Fear Committee apparently came into being in 
New York and in Hollywood simultaneously. 

A testimonial dinner was given at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel, 
Beverly Hills, on March 5, 1948, for the " Holly wood Ten " John How- 
ard Lawson, Dalton Trumbo, Albert Maltz, Alvah Bessie, Samuel 
Ornitz, Herbert Joseph Biberman, Edward Dmytryk, Adrian Scott, 
Ring Lardner, Jr., and Lester Cole; the 10 Hollywood Communists 
who refused to testify before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities in Washington, D. C. 



240 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The following communication was addressed to John Huston, 
Chairman of the Testimonial Dinner for the "Hollywood Ten": 
DEAR MR. HUSTON: 

"At a meeting called by Oscar Hammerstein, II, James Thur- 
ber, Arthur Garfield Hays, Leon Kroll, Norman Rockwell, Cheryl 
Crawford, Christopher La Forge, Moss Hart and Walter Huston, 
it was unanimously voted by the 200 actors, dramatists and others 
associated with the arts that the enclosed resolutions be sent to the 
dinner on March 5th for the Hollywood Ten. 

"Belt Resolved, That this meeting considers that all the issues 
involved in the present fight for freedom from censorship, freedom 
from blacklist, freedom from dictation plain human freedom of 
expression in every branch of creative work are bound up in the 
case of the Ten Hollywood writers, who are charged with con- 
tempt of Congress, and who will stand trial on that charge within 
the next few weeks; 

"That the cause of these ten is the cause, not only of men 
and women in the creative professions, stage, radio, motion pictures, 
newspapers and literature, but of all citizens of America wishing 
to defend their constitutional rights; 

"That these ten are the shock troops, representing all of us 
in the struggle against censorship ; and that one of our first purposes 
must be to give support to these Ten who stand in urgent need of it 
their own personal savings having been exhausted in this public 
fight so far ; and that funds be raised for the Freedom From Fear 
Committee which has been formed and is now at work for the 
specific end of meeting costs of the trials of these Ten in Wash- 
ington. 

"In no way can we strengthen free speech more quickly and 
more directly than by reinforcing those who now stand in the front 
line of the fight. 

"Among those present at the meeting which passed this reso- 
lution were: 

"Oscar Hammerstein II, James Thurber, Arthur Garfield 
Hays, Leon Kroll, Norman Rockwell, Cheryl Crawford, Christopher 
La Farge, Moss Hart, Walter Huston, John Hersey, Richard Lau- 
terbach, Audrey Wood, Canada Lee, Faye Emerson Roosevelt, Kim 
Hunter, Irwin Shaw, Herman Shumlin, Agnes DeMille, Gene Star 
Untermeyer, Louis Utermeyer, John Garfield, Mark Van Doren, 
Gerald Savory, Lyn Murray, Oscar Serlin, Alan Corelli, William 
Rose Benet, Al Hirshfield, Sidney Fleisher, Prof. Douglas Moore, 
Morton Gould, Howard Taubman, John Martin, Edna Ferber, John 
Lardner, Henry Morgan, David Brooks, Pert Kelton, Theodore H. 
White, William Zorach, Arline MacMahon, Kermit Bloomgarden, 
and John O'Hara." 

The communication was signed by Christopher La Farge, as the 
Chairman pro tern; and Edward Choates, secretary, pro tern, Stop 
Censorship Meetings. 

The following Western Union telegram was dispatched to John 
Huston, chairman of the testimonial dinner for the ' ' Hollywood Ten. ' ' 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 241 

The undersigned greet your meeting as members of the Free- 
dom from Fear Committee of New York, organized for the sole 
purpose of raising funds for the legal case of the Hollywood Ten. 
Best wishes for a very successful evening. 

The telegram was signed by Marc Connelly, Cheryl Crawford, Moss 
Hart, Oscar Hammerstein II, Elia Kazan, George S. Kaufman, David 
Kay, Bill Mauldin, William L. Shirer, Deems Taylor, Mark Van Doren, 
and Richard Watts, Jr. 

Dr. Harlow Shapley, director of the Harvard Observatory, stated : 
"The fight for the Hollywood Ten must stop the Thomas 
Committee and quash all the little un-American activities com- 
mittees which it has spawned in various states, industries and even 
universities. ' ' 

It is estimated that the testimonial dinner was attended by around 
three hundred Hollywood "liberals." Contributions for the defense of 
the "Hollywood Ten" totaled $15,110. Checks ranged from $10 to 
$1,000 and the total was turned over to Robert W. Kenny. Film pro- 
ducer-director John Huston was the banquet chairman. Lena Home 
sang and Larry Parks introduced producer Adrian Scott, one of the 10 
defendants who were seated at a table of honor. 

"We must dramatize our fight," said Scott. 

This he did by likening the Thomas Committee's actions to the 
Reichstag fire which put the Nazis in power in Germany. 

Among the sponsors of the dinner benefit rally for the * * Hollywood 
Ten" are Norman Corwin, Chairman; Dr. David Appleman, Richard 
Brooks, Clarence C. Carlson, Philip M. Connelly, John Cromwell, Dr. 
George Day, Joseph DaSilva, Rev. Stephen Fritchman, Rev. Owen M. 
Greer, Mrs. Paul Henreid, John Huston, Dr. H. Claude Hudson, Richard 
Ibanez, Garson Kanin, Michael Kanin, Howard Koch, Millard Lamp- 
bell, Burt Lancaster, Jerome W. McNair, Thomas Mann, Clifford Odets, 
Mrs. Fred Pollack, Vincent Sherman, Mrs. Ben Solnit, Donald Ogden 
Stewart, Dr. Donald H. Tippett, Walter Turner, Dr. Fritz W. Went, 
and Mrs. Phyllis Ziffrin. 

FREE ITALY SOCIETY 

A chapter of the national organization is located at 3220 North 
Broadway in Los Angeles. 

Vito Marcantonio is active in behalf of this Communist group. He 
addressed a meeting of the Free Italy Society in the Shrine Auditorium 
in Los Angeles, in December of 1946. The announcement of the affair 
was entitled "Support the Tito-Togliatti Proposals for Trieste," and it 
was printed in English and Italian. It called on Italians to protest to 
the Italian Embassy in Washington, D. C., the Secretary of State of the 
United States, and the Counsel of Foreign Ministers in New York, and 
demand that Tito and Togliatti (both Communists) be permitted to 
settle the future of Trieste. It attacked American-British diplomacy as 
' * Imperialistic. ' ' 



17 L-7088-D 



242 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

FREIHEIT 

This is the official Communist newspaper published in the Yiddish 
tongue. For many years, M. J. Olgin was the editor of Freiheit. Olgin 
was one of the outstanding leaders of the Communist Party in the 
United States for 20 years. Sidney Hillman made a donation of $3,000 
to the Communist newspaper Freiheit in the name of his wife, Bessie 
Abramowitz. 

FRIENDS OF SOVIET RUSSIA 

Organizations for admiration and support of Soviet Russia were 
among the first Communists fronts established in the United States. 
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the United States 
created Friends of Soviet Russia in 1921, in direct response to directives 
issued by the Communist International. According to Joseph Stalin, 
"the United Front tactics were set up by Lenin in order to make it 
easier for the millions of workers in capitalist countries * * * to come 
over to Communism " (Die Internationale, 1932, p. 312) . 

Willi Muenzenberg was the organizing genius of a huge solar sys- 
tem of these united front movements which he aptly termed ' ' innocent 
clubs." Through them he hoped, while "the action of the revolution 
was hanging fire, to extend the basis under cover of the United Front 
slogan. ' ' Among the organizations formed for this purpose on an inter- 
national scale was the Friends of Soviet Russia, intended as Muenzen- 
berg announced to "penetrate every conceivable milieu, get hold of 
artists and professors, make use of theatres and cinemas, spread abroad 
the doctrine that Russia is prepared to sacrifice everything to keep the 
world at peace." 

The Russian famine of 1921 furnished a convenient opportunity 
for arousing widespread sympathy outside of the ranks of the Com- 
munist Parties. To this end the Executive Committee of the Communist 
International issued the following appeal to the workers of the United 
States : 

"The famine raging through the Volga districts of Russia 
has called forth the sympathies of all honest workers throughout 
the world. The Communist International has called upon the work- 
ers of the world irrespective of creed and party to organize relief 
for the famine-stricken districts in Soviet Russia * * *. Today the 
Communist International is especially appealing to you, workers 
of America * * *. Organize everywhere and immediately committees 
for the relief of the hungry in Russia." (The Toiler, predecessor of 
the Daily Worker, December 3, 1921, p. 11.) 

The American affiliate of the Communist International was known 
as the Workers Party of America in 1921. Moritz Loeb, in his report to 
the district convention of the party in Chicago, March 12, 1922, 
announced that he had made the Friends of Soviet Russia an order of 
business at all branch meetings. 

The members of the executive committee of the Friends of Soviet 
Russia included the following members of the central executive com- 
mittee of the Workers Party (Communist Party) : James P. Cannon, 
J. Welenkin, and Caleb Harrison. The advisory committee included the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 243 

following members of the central executive committee of the Workers 
Party: Ludwig Lore, J. Louis Engdahl, Marguerite Prevey, Elmer T. 
Allison, Robert Minor, Charles Baker, Jack Carney, and Edgar Owens. 
Other members of these committees were either party members or very 
close sympathizers. 

Benjamin Gitlow, vice presidential candidate on the Communist 
ticket in 1924 and 1928 and a former member of the executive committee 
of the Communist International, told a congressional committee that 
over a million dollars had been raised for the famine-stricken victims 
in Russia but that the money was used for Communist purposes in 
capitalist countries. ' ' If the party found itself pinched for a few thou- 
sand dollars, ' ' said Gitlow, * * we would call to the meeting of the political 
committee Rose Karsner, Secretary of the Friends of Soviet Russia, to 
make a loan, and she * * * would enter the necessary bookkeeping entries 
that would show that the money was spent for a legitimate purpose. At 
that time we put a number of the members of the political party * * * 
on the payroll of the Friends of Soviet Russia/' 

The magazine "Soviet Russia, official organ of the Russian Soviet 
Government Bureau," became the official organ of the Friends of Soviet 
Russia (The Toiler, January 21, 1922). 

The purpose of the Communist International in appealing for relief 
for the famine-stricken victims of Russia was, of course, only a ruse. 
The real purpose was disclosed by Willi Muenzenberg in his report to 
the Fourth Congress of the Communist International: 

"In America there is the Friends of Soviet Russia, which is 
closely connected with the Communist International * * *. In the 
United States there is also the Society for Technical Aid to Soviet 
Russia * * *. Then we have Comrade Hillman 's plan, which proposes 
to raise a loan of $1,000,000 for Russia and which has arranged with 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers to found large-scale clothing 
factories in Russia * * *. The campaign for the famine relief enabled 
us for the first time to conduct Communist propaganda among the 
trade-union workers of North America and to write these workers 
in a relief action under the control of the Communist Party * * *. 
In this way we were able to bring for the first time before the masses 
the questions of Soviet Russia, proletarian revolution, etc. (Inter- 
national Press Correspondence, December 22, 1922.) 

The $1,000,000 loan mentioned above was undertaken by the Rus- 
sian-American Industrial Corporation headed by Sidney Hillman (Inter- 
national Press Correspondence, January 16, 1923). Sidney Hillman, 
together with Communist M. J. Olgin, was a featured speaker for the 
Friends of Soviet Russia. 

Soviet Pictorial, carrying glorified photographs of life in the Soviet 
Union, was a publication of the Friends of Soviet Russia. 

In 1929 the Friends of Soviet Russia was reorganized and revita- 
lized under the name of the Friends of the Soviet Union. 



244 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

FRIENDS OF THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

This organization, the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 
was organized and controlled by the Communist Party from the begin- 
ning. Phil Bard was the secretary of the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade. 

Among those affiliated with the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade are the following : William Rose Benet, Ernest P. Boas, Langston 
Hughes, Orson Welles, A. F. Whitney, James Waterman Wise, Francis 
J. Gorman, Miguel Garriga, Irving Potash, John Rey, Stanley M. 
Isaacs, Heywood Broun, Jerry O'Connell, Harry Sherman, Kyle Crich- 
ton, Jerome Davis, Lillian Hellman, H. V. Kaltenborn, Clifford Odets, 
Ursula Parrott, George Seldes, Herman Shumlin, Donald Ogden Stewart, 
James Cagney, Muriel Draper, Henry Hart, Arthur Kober, Archibald 
MacLeish, Dr. Mary E. Woolley, Albert Einstein, Dorothy Parker, Lester 
Cohen, Martha Dodd, Dashiell Hammett, Mrs. George Marshall, Vincent 
Sheean, Max Yergan, Reuben Borough, Harold Buchman, John Anson 
Ford, Leo Gallagher, Lee E. Geyer, Robert W. Kenny, Carey Me Wil- 
liams, Ben Rosenthal, Frank Scully, Oliver Thornton, and Clara 
Weatherwax. 

The headquarters of the Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 
was located at 617 Union League Bldg., in the City of Los Angeles. 

FRIENDS OF THE SOVIET UNION 

The Friends of the Soviet Union succeeded the Friends of Soviet 
Russia in 1929. The Daily Worker of October 25, 1929, stated : 

"With the aid of such organizations as "The Friends of the 
Soviet Union," which must be more firmly anchored among the 
working masses, the sending of delegations to Russia must be organ- 
ized and they must be utilized for propaganda for the twelfth anni- 
versary (of the Russian revolution)." 

Delegations of American workers to the Soviet Union to participate 
in the May Day and November 7th anniversary celebrations was a major 
task of the Friends of the Soviet Union. 

The Friends of the Soviet Union later became known as the Ameri- 
can Friends of the Soviet Union. The official publication of the organi- 
zation is Soviet Russia Today. 

The national committee of the Friends of the Soviet Union, endors- 
ing the call for the Friends of the Soviet Union convention in New York 
City, January 26, 27, 28, 1934, are as follows : Thomas R. Amlie, Roger 
Baldwin, Carlton Beals, Alfred M. Bingham, Frank Borich, Bishop W. 
M. Brown, Earl Browder, Julian Bryan, Anne Burlak, George S. Counts, 
Malcolm Cowley, Edward Dahlberg, H. W. L. Dana, Floyd Dell, James 
W. Ford, Richard Farber, William Z. Foster, Waldo Frank, Joseph 
Freeman, Ben Gold, Lem Harris, Clarence Hathaway, Donald Hender- 
son, Granville Hicks, John Haynes Homes, Roy Hudson, Langston 
Hughes, William N. Jones, Howard Kester, Mary Van Kleeck, Corliss 
Lamont, Katherine Lewis, Margaret Lamont, Robert Morss Lovett, J. B. 
Matthews, John Meldon, Robert Minor, Scott Nearing, A. Overgaard, 
William Patterson, Philip Raymond, Jack Stachel, Maxwell Stewart, 
Genevieve Taggard, Justine Wise Tulin, Charles R. Walker, Dr. Harry 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 245 

F. Ward, Louis Weinstock, Susan H. Woodruff, Albert Rhys Williams, 
and Walter Wilson. 

Of the foregoing, Carlton Beals, Earl Browder, Bishop William 
Montgomery Brown, James W. Ford, William Z. Foster, Waldo Frank, 
Michael Gold, Clarence Albert Hathaway, Granville Hicks, Roy Hudson, 
Langston Hughes, John Meldon, Robert Minor, Scott Nearing, William 
L. Patterson, Philip Raymond, and Jack Stachel have avowed publicly 
their Communist sympathies. 

Carlton Beals is the author of a section of a symposium "Recovery 
through Revolution," in which the editor states: "Life and creation 
belong henceforth to Communism." 

Earl Browder headed the Communist Party of the United States 
until 1945. 

"Bishop" William Montgomery Brown was unfrocked by the Epis- 
copal Church for heresy in 1924. He stated in 1933 that ' ' In these days of 
my heresy, I am trying to make more members for the Communist 
Party * * *." 

James W. Ford, Negro, was a candidate for Vice President of the 
United States on the Communist ticket. 

William Z. Foster is presently the head of the Communist Party 
of the United States. 

Waldo Frank in an article "How I Came to Communism" (New 
Masses, September, 1932) stated: "The revolution tomorrow must be 
prepared today. Otherwise it may come too late to save mankind from 
the destruction of capitalistic war or still worse, from the moral syphilis 
of capitalistic peace. " (Eugene Lyons in The Red Decade indicated that 
the Stalin-Hitler pact was too much for Waldo Frank and that he broke 
with the party. ) 

Michael Gold has long been active in the Communist Party. He was 
a member of the Revolutionary Writers Federation and was on the Com- 
munist New Masses staff in 1933. 

Clarence Albert Hathaway was formerly the District Organizer for 
the Communist Party for District 8 (Chicago) and District 2 (New 
York). He has been the editor of the Communist Party's Daily Worker 
and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. 

Granville Hicks left the Communist Party after the Stalin-Hitler 
pact of August, 1939, stating that in joining the Communist Party he 
had committed his * ' future to a group of politicians. ' ' 

Roy Hudson has been the Communist Commissar of the Red trade 
union movement. 

Langston Hughes' record is so notorious that additional comment 
should be unnecessary. (See Committee's previous reports.) 

John Meldon was a candidate for the Pittsburg City Council on the 
Communist ticket in 1933. 

Robert Minor is a charter member of the Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of the United States. 

Scott Nearing was indicted in 1918 under the Espionage Act for 
authoring a pamphlet The Great Madness. He paid a $3,000 fine for the 
publication, circulation and distribution of the pamphlet. He was dis- 
missed from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Toledo 
for Communist teachings. 



246 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

William L. Patterson has been a member of the Central Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States. 

Philip Raymond was a candidate on the Communist ticket for the 
City Council of Detroit in 1933. 

Jack Stachel is a member of the Central Committee of the Com- 
munist Party. In 1937 he was on the editorial board of The Communist. 

The Communist affiliation of Harry F. Ward is indicative of the 
Communist sympathies of the members and sponsors of the Friends of 
the Soviet Union. Ward was a signer of a call for the Fourth American 
Writers' Congress (The Clipper, May, 1941). Formerly chairman of the 
American Civil Liberties Union and the American League for Peace and 
Democracy (Soviet Russia Today) . He was formerly Professor of Chris- 
tian Ethics at the Union Theological Seminary. His writings include In 
Place of Profit and Democracy and Social Change. He is a contributor to 
the Communist Soviet Russia Today. He was born in England. He was a 
Methodist Episcopal minister in Chicago and resident Northwestern 
University Settlement, 1898 to 1900. 

He was a director of the Garland Fund and vice president of the 
fund from July 19, 1922, to May 7, 1924. He was one of the founders 
and the General Secretary of the Methodist Federation for Social Ser- 
vice and the co-editor of its bulletin (with Winifred L. Chappell, mem- 
ber of the Communist League of Professional Groups For Foster and 
Ford, 1932). A statement in the Methodist Federation for Social Service 
Bulletin No. 8, 1932, signed by Ward and Bishop McConnell, admits 
cooperation with the Socialists and the Communists. 

He was the national chairman and one of the founders of the Ameri- 
can Civil Liberties Union. He was a member of the Advisory Council of 
the American Society for Cultural Relations With Russia. 

He has always been a pro-Soviet enthusiast. He spent some time in 
the Soviet Union. He was a speaker for the Friends of the Soviet Union 
in October, 1933, and also on November 1, 1933, at Webster Hall, New 
York City, with Communist Henri Barbusse, Anna Louise Strong, Robert 
Minor and Herbert Goldfrank. He lectured under Friends of the Soviet 
Union auspices in 1934. 

He was a wartime anti- American " peace" worker, and was active 
in the People 's Council of America. He was a member of the Emergency 
Peace Conference. 

Ward 's admiration for the Industrial Workers of the World is cited 
in the New York Lusk Reports. He presided over the Industrial Workers 
of the World meeting February 9, 1920, held at the Rand School, to 
raise money for the defense of members of the Industrial Workers of the 
World who had killed four members of the American Legion at Centralia, 
Washington. 

Harry F. Ward was active in aiding William Z. Foster, C. E. 
Ruthenberg and other Communists arrested at Bridgman, Michigan. 

Ward served on the board of directors of World Tomorrow, and 
was a contributor to The Nation and the Christian Century. 

He was a member of the Peace Patriots and Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation. 

Ward has been connected with the Y. M. C, A. and the Y. W. C. A. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 247 

He was one of the signers of a petition demanding that the ban 
against the Communist Party in the Philippines be lifted. 

He has been a member of many Communist front organizations. 

The Friends of the Soviet Union ultimately became the present 
Communist front, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 

FRONTIER FILMS 

This organization is closely interlocked through its personnel with 
the Film and Photo League, a Communist front for revolutionary films. 
Frontier Films has faithfully followed the Communist Party line in 
its productions. As soon as Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, the organ- 
ization ceased its attacks on American conditions and government. The 
following description of Native Land, produced by Frontier Films, 
(CIO News, May 11, 1942) is as follows : 

"A motion picture designed to create afresh those feelings of 
basic American patriotism has just been completed by Frontier 
Films * ' f *. The picture was directed by Leo Hurwitz and Paul 
Strand, who have been in the advance guard of documentary film 
production since 1931, having collaborated on " Heart of Spain," 
"The Plow That Broke the Plains" and "China Strikes 
Back" * * *. The great actor and baritone, Paul Robeson, well- 
known and beloved by millions for his life-long struggle in the cause 
of democracy, has narrated the deeply moving commentary written 
by the fine American poet, David Wolff. ' ' 

GARLAND FUND 

This source of revenue for Communist causes is generally referred 
to as the Garland Fund, although it was legally constituted as the Ameri- 
can Fund for Public Service. 

Among those who have served as directors and officers of the Garland 
Fund or its subsidiaries, are the following : Roger Baldwin, William Z. 
Foster, Lewis S. Gannett, Sidney Hillman, James Weldon Johnson, 
Robert Morss Lovett, Scott Nearing, Mary E. McDowell, Judah L. Mag- 
nes, Norman Thomas, Harry F. Ward, Morris L. Ernst, Walter Nelles, 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Clinton S. Golden, Freda Kirch wey, Leo Wol- 
man, Clarina Michelson, Benjamin Gitlow, Robert W. Dunn, Harry 
Elmer Barnes, E. M. Borchard, Emanuel Celler, Paul H. Douglas, Ken- 
neth Durant, Edward Meade Earle, Ernest Gruening, Manley 0. Hudson, 
Charles Clayton Morrison, Kirby Page, Otto Schoenrich, Henrik Ship- 
stead, Edgar Speyer, Moorfield Storey, John F. Sinclair, Oswald Gar- 
rison Villard, and Arthur Warner. 

GARRISON FILMS DISTRIBUTORS, INC. 

This Communist front acts for films produced in the Soviet Union 
as well as for Communist propaganda films produced in the United States. 
It has followed the Communist Party line and the expediency of Soviet 
foreign policy in the type of films distributed during a given period. 

Commenting on a so-called documentary film "400,000,000," pro- 
duced by Joris Ivens and John Ferno, and distributed by Garrison 



248 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Films, Films for Democracy (April, 1939) states: "This is the second of 
a series of documentary films produced by History Today, Inc. * * *." 
On the Board of Directors of History Today, Inc., are : Lillian Hell- 
man, Dorothy Parker, Louise Rainer, Ernest Hemingway, Archibald 
MacLeish, Dudley Nichols, Herman Shumlin, and William Osgood Field. 

GOLDEN BOOK OF AMERICAN FRIENDSHIP WITH THE SOVIET UNION 

The signers of the Golden Book of American Friendship with the 
Soviet Union may be said to have met the acid test for admiration of a 
totalitarian dictatorship. 

The following appeared in Soviet Russia Today for November, 1937 : 
"I hereby inscribe my name in greeting to the people of the 

Soviet Union on the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of 

the Soviet Republic." 

The following are the signatories to the above greeting: Lynn J. 
Frazier, Robert Morss Lovett, Julian W. Mack, Robert S. Lynd, Elmer 
Rice, Meta Berger, Henry E. Sigerist, Richard B. Scandrett, Jr., Irene 
Levinsohn, Louis S. Gannett, George Gordon Battle, Lynd "Ward, James 
H. Maurer, Klaus Mann, Evelyn Preston, John Howard Lawson, Louis 
Lozowick, Adolph Dehn, Harriett Stanton Blatch, Katherine Anne 
Porter, Clara Weather wax, Horace Gregory, S. Ralph Harlow, Paul de 
Kruif, William S. Graves, Henry E. Teigan,. Christopher Morley, Upton- 
Sinclair, Vilhjalmur Stefanssen, Vito Marcantonio, Dr. Alfonso Gold- 
schmidt, George Biddle, Vera Micheles Dean, Ben Gold, Thomas Addis, 
James Waterman Wise, Clifford Odets, Raphael Soyer, Matthew Joseph- 
son, Muriel Rukeyser, Ralph M. Pearson, Kyle Crichton, Granville Hicks, 
Art Young, Franklin E. Harris, Lillian D. Wald, W. E. B. DuBois, 
William I. Sirovich, Hubert Wilkins, Harry W. Laidler, Scott Nearing, 
Susan M. Kingsbury, Malcolm Cowley, David Pinski, Fielding Burke, 
Clyde Fisher, B. W. Huebsch, Homer PI. Johnson, Muriel Draper, Dr. 
Christian Brinton, William Gropper, Ida M. Tarbell, Carol King, Alain 
Locke, J. Moreno Lasalle, Ray Boynton, Francis J. Gorman, J. McKeen 
Cattell, H. V. Kaltenborn, Harry Elmer Barnes, Max Weber, Margaret I. 
Lament, Van Wyck Brooks, Max Lerner, Newton Arvin, Joseph Curran, 
Herman F. Reissig, William Koslenko, Ira S. Wile, Vardis Fisher, 
Edward Alsworth Ross, William Carlos Williams, Josephine Herbst, 
Wanda Gag, Countee Cullen, Jan Matulka, William Steig, and Har- 
old Coy. 

HARRY BRIDGES DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

This Communist front has operated under several similar names. It 
has functioned as the Bridges Defense Committee, Citizens Committee 
for Harry Bridges, etc. 

Among those who have affiliated with the Bridges Defense Commit- 
tees are Elmer Benson, W. Russell Bowie, Joseph Curran, Sherman H. 
Dalrymple, Zeara DuPont, John Green, Max Lerner, Phillip Murray, 
Paul Robeson, Reid Robinson, Orson Welles, Dr. Thomas Addis, Shannon 
C. Allen, Stella Adler, Reuben W. Borough, Prof. Harold Chapman 
Brown, Morris Carnovsky, Aaron Copland, Frank Davis, Hugh De Lacy, 
William E. Dodd, Jr., Wanda Gag, Albert Halper, Dashiell Hammett, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 249 

Arthur Garfield Hays, Lillian Hellman, Paul Jarrico, Rockwell Kent, 
Arthur Kober, Alfred Kreymborg, John Howard Lawson, Dr. Max 
Lerner, Ray Lev, Dr. George Marshall, Ruth McKenney, Dr. John How- 
ard Melish, Dudley Nichols, Clifford Odets, Dorothy Parker, Prof. Walter 
Rautenstrauch, George Seldes, Irwin Shaw, Herman Shumlin, Tess Sles- 
singer, Alfred K. Stern, Donald Ogden Stewart, Paul Strand, Prof. 
Frank W. Weymouth, Teddy Wilson, Ella Winter, Nathan Witt, Col. 
Charles Erskine Scott Wood, and Virginia Gardner. 

The Harry Bridges Defense Committee for San Francisco was 
located at 593 Market Street. Estolv Ward was the executive secretary of 
the California Sponsoring Committee. Among the sponsors are the fol- 
lowing : J. Vernon Burke, Germain Bulcke, Louis Goldblatt, Prof. Robert 
A. Brady, George Hardy, George Wilson, Paul S. Schliff, Herman Stuy- 
velaar, C. L. Dellums, George D. Collins, Jr., George Olshausen, Rabbi 
Jacob Weinstein, Dr. Otis Linn, Henry Schmidt, Dr. Thomas Addis, Dr. 
E. P. Ryland, Harry Graham Baiter, Loren Miller, Herbert K. Sorrell, 
Charles J. Katz, Roy M. Donnely, Dr. A. A. Heist, Frank Scully, Ben 
Rosenthal, Don Healy, Philip M. Connelly, J. C. Coulter, Dr. Melvin 
Rader, Hugh De Lacy, Eugene V. Bennett, Howard Grant, Vera Harris, 
Rev. Fred A. Hughes, Ross N. Kingston, Claude M. Smith, Paul Stumps, 
Dr. R. G. Tyler, and Mark M. Litchman. 

In September of 1942, the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties launched a campaign to defeat the deportation of Harry 
Bridges. 

This Communist front, the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties, issued an "Open Letter" addressed to the President of the 
United States protesting the deportation proceedings and demanding that 
they be dropped. Among those who signed this letter were Dr. Frank C. 
Davis, Carey Me Williams, Ernest Dawson, Herbert K. Sorrell, Abraham 
Isserman, Dalton Trumbo and Earl Robinson. 

HOLLYWOOD ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE 

The Hollywood League Against Nazi-ism, incorporated on June 8, 
1936, and became the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League on September 28, 
1936. 

The organization was conceived by the Communist Party and it 
was brought into being through the activities of Louise Todd, Los Angeles 
section organizer of the Communist Party, and Stanley Lawrence, Com- 
munist Party Hollywood representative. 

The purpose of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League was, of course, to 
support the current foreign policy of Soviet Russia, and to capitalize on 
the abhorrence of motion picture stars, writers, and producers for the 
persecutions and atrocities of Hitler. It was an important source of 
funds to the Communist Party and became an excellent vehicle for 
propaganda. 

Marian Spitzer was the vice president of the Hollywood An ti -Nazi 
League and its chairman was Donald Ogden Stewart. Marian Spitzer 
has been an important leader for the Communist Party in the cultural 
field. The Communist Party affiliation of Donald Ogden Stewart is estab- 
lished by sworn testimony and his exceptionally long record of affiliation 
with Communist front organizations. 



250 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Ursula Daniels, Young Communist League member, was the circu- 
lation manager of the Anti-Nazi News published by the Hollywood Anti- 
Nazi League. The name of this publication was changed to News of the 
World, and finally to Now. 

V. J. Jerome, alias Isaac Romaine, educational director of the Com- 
munist Party on the national level, was sent to Hollywood by the National 
Committee of the Communist Party in 1937 to reorganize and revitalize 
the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. Communist Commissar Jerome and 
John Howard Lawson put the front on a paying basis. The Congressional 
Committee on Un-American Activities reported that Hollywood stars, 
writers and executives contributed $89,892.51 in two years of the Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League's existence. A bank account was opened in the 
name of Beatrice Buckman and was later changed to Bern Bernard. The 
Congressional Report states: "The deposits of the Communist Party in 
this area rose from $600 from the period of October 19, 1935, to Decem- 
ber 11, 1936, to $23,140.23 in the period of February 28, 1936, to 
November 9, 1936.' ' 

The secretary of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League was Alan Camp- 
bell and the treasurer was Bern Bernard. The sponsors of the organiza- 
tion are as follows: Herbert Biberman, Mrs. Sidney Buchman, Eddie 
Cantor, Florence Eldridge (Mrs. Frederic March), Francis Edwards 
Faragoh, Oscar Hammerstein, II, Charles Katz, Judge Robert W. Kenny, 
H. S. Kraft, Richard Lert, Ernst Lubitsch, Fredric March, Dr. Rudolf 
Marx, Edwin Justus Mayer, Ray Mayer, Elizabeth Merrell, Lewis Mile- 
stone, Paul Muni, Dudley Nichols, Judge Isaac Pacht, Mrs. Charles 
Page, Dorothy Parker, Irving Pichel, Frank Scully, Viola Brothers 
Shore, Sylvia Sidney, Gloria Stuart, and Frank Tuttle. 

The committee wishes to emphasize here that membership in the 
Hollywood Anti-Nazi League is in no way a test of the sponsor's sym- 
pathy for Communism. The purported objectives were those of most 
Americans. While the organization was an important Communist-front, 
it was one of the cleverest. The Communists and Communist fellow- 
travelers are indicated by those who stuck along after the Stalin-Hitler 
pact in the American Peace Crusade and the American Peace Mobiliza- 
tion. This test is conclusive. 

When Stalin and Hitler joined forces to conquer and divide Europe 
the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League went out of business. The money col- 
lected by the organization for the purpose of fighting Hitler and the 
Nazis was probably used to assist Hitler during his copartnership with 
Josef Stalin. 

The "ironed-disciplined" comrades of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League soon emerged as members and sponsors of a new front, the 
Hollywood Democratic Committee. 

HOLLYWOOD DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE 

This Communist-front grew out of a series of fronts designed to 
entrap Hollywood's innocents in the motion picture industry. The first 
was the Hollywood League Against Nazi-ism, which changed its name 
a few months after its incorporation in June of 1936, to the Hollywood 
Anti-Nazi League. The Stalin-Hitler pact brought this front to an abrupt 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 251 

termination of activities in August of 1939. The Motion Picture Demo- 
cratic Committee was the organization carried forward by the Commu- 
nists who had organized and directed the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. 
The Motion Picture Democratic Committee, after several sad experiences 
which publicly disclosed its Communist control, continued on as the 
Hollywood League for Democratic Action. 

The reelection campaign of Governor Culbert L. Olson in 1942 found 
the Hollywood League for Democratic Action reorganized as the Holly- 
wood Democratic Committee. Its announced purpose was the reelection 
of Governor Olson. It had no connection with the Democratic Party as 
such. After the defeat of Governor Olson in 1942 the front continued as 
a permanent organization under the secretaryship of George Pepper. 

Throughout all of the twists and turns of these Communist-fronts, 
under one name or another, was the guiding hand of Communist John 
Howard Lawson. The issue of August 3, 1943, of the People's Daily 
World states that "the program of action for the (Hollywood Demo- 
cratic) committee, as enunciated by Screen Writer John Howard 
Lawson. * * * Lawson, in discussing the committee 's program of action, 
said that the activities would extend beyond the Los Angeles community 
and that every resource would be mustered to rally the people of America 
around the program of the committee." Dalton Trumbo, incidentally, 
made the collection speech at the meeting. ( Trumbo 's Johnny Get Tour 
Gun, an anti-war story during the Stalin-Hitler pact, ran serially in the 
Daily Worker.) 

Herbert Biberman, a member of the national council of the Amer- 
ican Peace Mobilization which picketed the White House during the 
Stalin-Hitler pact, was the Hollywood Democratic Committee's mouth- 
piece in its attack on Congressman John H. Costello when the congress- 
man was up for reelection. Biberman was a sponsor of the Hollywood 
League for Democratic Action, chairman of the Los Angeles branch of 
the American Peace Mobilization, supporter of the League of American 
Writers, and has been affiliated in one capacity or another with numerous 
Communist-front organizations. 

After Hitler invaded Russia the Hollywood Democratic Committee 
followed the new ' ' line ' ' and pledged itself to a * * win-the-war ' ' platform. 

A ballot for the election of officers and an executive board, "as 
approved by the nominating committee and the steering committee," 
under date of July 26, 1944, listed the following members of the Holly- 
wood Democratic Committee : Marc Connelly, chairman ; John Crom- 
well, Gene Kelly, E. Y. Harburg, vice presidents ; Norval Crutcher, sec- 
retary ; Albert Dekker, treasurer ; Robert Andrews, Hugh Bennett, Mar- 
garet Bennett, Henry Blankfort, Edwin Blum, Irving Brecher, Virginia 
Bruce, Sidney Buchman, George Campbell, Teet Carle, Florence Caylor, 
Morris Cohn, Marc Connelly, John Cromwell, Norval Crutcher, Olivia 
De Haviland, Albert Dekker, D. A. Doran, Edward Dmytryk, Duke 
Ellington, Ted Ellsworth, Ken Englund, Paul Franklin, John Garfield, 
Ira Gershwin, Sheridan Gibney, Mrs. Russell Gleason, John Green, E. Y. 
Harburg, Louis Harris, Don Hartman, Rita Hayworth, Miriam Hopkins, 
Arthur Hornblow, John Houseman, Walter Huston, Rex Ingram, Talbot 
Jennings, Gene Kelly, Jerome Kern, Evelyn Keyes, Don King, Edwin 
Knopf, Harry Kurnitz, Jesse Lasky, Emmett Lavery, John Howard 



252 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Lawson, Sol Lesser, Kenneth MaeGowan, Mary C. McCall, Lewis Mile- 
stone, Ona Munson, Mrs. Henry Myers, Bill Oliver, William Perlberg, 
Nat Perrin, Irving Pichel, William Pomerance, Glenn Pratt, Everett 
Riskin, Edward G. Robinson, Al Rogell, Robert Rossen, Rev. Clayton 
Russell, Oliver Schwab, Arthur Schwartz, Allan Scott, Ashmead Scott, 
Douglas Shearer, Vincent Sherman, Herbert Sorrell, Al Speede, Mrs. 
Mon Spliterling, Marian Spitzer, Stewart Sterling, Gloria Stuart, Jo 
Swerling, Franchot Tone, Mrs. Harry Tugent, Frank Tuttle, Charles 
Vidor, Jerry Wald, J. K. Wallace, Orson Welles, William Wilder, Vir- 
ginia Wright, Mrs. William Wyler, Sam Zimbalist, executive board. 

After the invasion of Soviet Russia by Hitler, the Hollywood Demo- 
cratic Committee became a very "patriotic" organization and hailed 
Franklin D. Roosevelt as the great Commander-in-Chief, instead of a 
war-monger and trickster leading the country into an unpopular war 
for the benefit of Wall Street, as the Hollywood Motion Picture Demo- 
cratic Committee had claimed during the Stalin-Hitler pact. 

Herbert K. Sorrell emerged as a member of the executive board of 
the Hollywood Democratic Committee. The executive board of the Holly- 
wood Democratic Committee included, in addition to Sorrell, John Crom- 
well, Norval Crutcher, John Green, Irving Pichel, Gloria Stuart, Frank 
Tuttle, E. Y. Harburg, Edward Dmytryk, Ira Gershwin, and the Rev. 
Clayton Russell. 

HOLLYWOOD INDEPENDENT CITIZENS COMMITTEE OF THE ARTS, 
SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS (HICCASP) 

The 1947 Report of the Legislative Committee investigating 
Un-American Activities in California explained at some length the twist 
in the Communist Party line at the beginning of World War II. In con- 
formity with the then current line the name of the Communist Party 
was changed to the Communist Political Association, and the name of the 
Young Communist League was changed to American Youth for Democ- 
racy. The name of the monthly ideological publication, " The Communist" 
was changed to "Political Affairs." 

After Germany was defeated and the pressure removed against the 
Soviet Union, there was no longer any reason for the Communist Party 
of America to continue its policy of appeasement toward United States 
industry. The Communist Political Association was dissolved and the old 
revolutionary, world-conquest-seeking Communist Party of the United 
States was revived. Every student of Communist maneuvering knew that 
the American agents of Stalin would now revive their long-range policy 
of instigating strikes, creating racial antagonisms and intensify their 
day-to-day policy of gnawing away at the vitals of the Government of 
the United States. That postwar chaos, confusion, dislocations, griev- 
ances, real and imaginary, would be utilized and magnified, was a fore- 
gone conclusion. 

There has been voluminous evidence before the Legislative com- 
mittees investigating un-American activities in California that the Com- 
munist Party is determined to do everything within its power to capture 
the motion picture industry in order to utilize its glamor and its medium 
wherever possible for Communist propaganda. It has already been proved 
that the Communists have made every effort, with a considerable degree 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 253 

of success in some instances, to dominate and direct such basic unions as 
the Screen Writers Guild, the Screen Readers Guild and the Screen 
Analysts Guild. By thoroughly controlling these and similar organiza- 
tions the Communists would be in a position to impregnate scripts with 
anti-capitalist and labor agitational propaganda; propaganda that is 
always imperceptible to the casual layman, but extremely significant to 
the trained observer. 

The Communist record of Herbert K. Sorrell will be found in 
previous reports of California legislative investigating committees. A 
brief, although incomplete, recapitulation of Sorrell's Communist 
activities, shows that he was affiliated with the Motion Picture Demo- 
cratic Committee, the Hollyvood Democratic Committee, Labor's Non- 
Partisan League, a member of the Ellis E. Patterson for President slate, 
the Workers ' Alliance of America, National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties, the Yanks Are Not Coming Committee, the Schneiderman- 
Darcy Defense Committee, Committee for the Release of Earl Browder, 
United Spanish Aid Committee, Leo Gallagher Testimonial, Harry 
Bridges Defense Committee, La Rue McCormick for Senate Supporters, 
American Youth for Democracy, People's Daily World Press Confer- 
ence, and the Third Annual Convention of the Los Angeles County 
Communist Party. 

Previous reports establish the interlocking control of various Com- 
munist front organizations supporting Sorrell in his leadership of the 
Communist inspired motion picture strikes. 

When the Hollywood Democratic Committee faced exposure as a 
Communist front, it simply changed its name and continued to do busi- 
ness with the same personnel. While the Hollywood Democratic Com- 
mittee is treated in previous reports, and at some length in this report, 
its communist character is indicated by a meeting held at the Hollywood- 
Roosevelt Hotel, March 4, 1943, attended by such outstanding fellow- 
travelers and Communists as Herbert K. Sorrell, Albert Dekker, Mary 
C. McCall, Jr., Frank Tuttle and Orson Welles. 

A meeting of the Hollywood Democratic Committee was held on 
April 31, 1945, in the American Legion Hall at 205 North Highland 
Avenue, Los Angeles. Among those active at this meeting was Eleanor 
Abowitz, whose record of Communist activities is both long and con- 
sistent. The proposition changing the name of the Hollywood Democratic 
Committee was first publicly put forward at this meeting. 

On June 5, 1945, another meeting was held in Warner Brothers 
Studio, Number 3, located at 5833 Fernwood Street in Hollywood. Among 
those present were John Howard Lawson, Albert Dekker, John Crom- 
well, Lionel Stander, Orson Welles, and Dr. Franklin Fearing. Orson 
Welles again suggested that the name of the Hollywood Democratic 
Committee be changed, and proposed that the organization be called the 
Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions. 

On the following evening Orson Welles' suggestion was voted on and 
the Hollywood Democratic Committee became the Hollywood Inde- 
pendent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions. Thus 
an old Communist front was given new life under a new name. 



254 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

On July 17, 1945, Robert W. Kenny presided over a conference lie 
had called into being, at the Royal Palms Hotel, 360 Westlake Avenue, 
Los Angeles. The purpose of the meeting was to protest the speaking 
activities of Gerald L. K. Smith. The Executive Committee included 
Robert W. Kenny, George Stiller, Thomas Lee Griffith, Eleanor Abowitz, 
Anne and Francis Pollack, Carey Me Williams, Leo Gallagher, and Albert 
Dekker. Among the organizations represented were the Hollywood Inde- 
pendent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions, the 
National Citizens Political Action Committee, the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People. There were, undoubtedly, some very fine loyal Americans attend- 
ing this meeting, as its purported purpose was to organize to fight anti- 
Semitism and the incendiary speeches of Gerald L. K. Smith. The record 
should show that all of the loyal Americans hastily withdrew from the 
movement as soon as its Communist design and direction was disclosed. 

Out of this meeting of July 17, 1945, there emerged a vicious, poten- 
tially dangerous Communist front, Mobilization for Democracy. The 
Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions participated all the way. 

Ultimately the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the 
Arts, Sciences and Professions joined hands with the C.I.O. Political 
Action Committee to form the new political Communist front, the 
Progressive Citizens of America. 

The Committee of the Legislature on Un-American Activities in 
California, in its 1947 report found the Hollywood Independent Citizens 
Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions a Communist front, and 
the Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in Cali- 
fornia here reiterates the 1947 finding. 

On June 27, 1945, the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee 
of the Arts, Sciences and Professions presented "The American Cara- 
van." It was represented as a "forceful, dramatized plea for the con- 
tinuance of allied unity and for the aggressive support of the United 
Nations Charter." According to the postcard announcement in the files 
of the Senate committee, the presentation starred Bette Davis, Alfred 
Drake, Joan Fontaine, James Gleason, Danny Kaye, Edward G. Robin- 
son, Orson Welles and others. It was held at the Philharmonic Audi- 
torium and the admission was free. 

On Friday, July 27, 1945, the musician members of the Hollywood 
Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions 
held a meeting to form a music division, to elect officers, and "to devise a 
plan of activity that will help to realize and forward the over-all program 
of the committee. ' ' The speakers were John Cromwell and Artie Shaw. 

The letterhead upon which the foregoing announcement was mimeo- 
graphed listed John Cromwell as the chairman; George Pepper, as the 
executive secretary; Bette Davis, Dore Schary, John B. Hughes, and 
Joseph Szigeti, as vice chairmen ; E. Y. Harburg, as secretary, and Danny 
Kaye as treasurer. 

The members of the Executive Council of the Hollywood Independ- 
ent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions are listed as 
follows: Larry Adler, Robert Andrews, George Antheil, Jean Arthur, 
Margaret Bennett, Ted Bliss, William Blowitz, Edwin Blum, Humphrey 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 255 

Bogart, Charles Boyer, Irving Brecher, Sidney Buchman, George Burns, 
Abe Burrows, Reuben W. Borough, George Campbell, Eddie Cantor, Mor- 
ris Cohn, Marc Connelly, Norman Corwin, Joseph Gotten, Norval Crut- 
cher, Olivia DeHavilland, Albert Dekker, D. A. Doran, Ted Ellsworth, 
Dr. Franklin Fearing, Joan Fontaine, Thomas Fizdale, John Garfield, 
Ira Gershwin, Paulette Goddard, Howard J. Green, John Green, Louis 
Harris, Don Hartman, Rita Hayworth, Arthur Hornblow, John House- 
man, Walter Huston, Rex Ingram, George Jessel, Charles Jones, Attor- 
ney General Robert W. Kenny, Jerome Kern, Evelyn Keyes, Edwin 
Knopf, Howard Koch, Cal Kuhl, Harry Kurnitz, Jesse Lasky, Emmet 
Lavery, John Howard Lawson, Sol Lesser, Kenneth MacGowan, Thomas 
Mann, Mary C. McCall, Dr. Fraser McDonald, Lewis Milestone, Sam 
Moore, Jack Moss, Prof. Walter Muelder, Ona Munson, Ernest Pascal, 
Gregory Peck, Nat Perrin, Irving Pichel, William Pomerance, Everett 
Riskin, Earl Robinson, Edward G. Robinson, Al Rogell, Artur Rubin- 
stein, Arthur Schwartz, Artie Shaw, Douglas Shearer, Vincent Sherman, 
Herman Shumlin, Mrs. Milton Sperling, Marian Spitzer, Stewart Ster- 
ling, Gloria Stuart, Edward Sutherland, Jo Swerling, Dalton Trumbo, 
Mrs. Harry Tugend, Frank Tuttle, Bob Wachsman, Walter Wanger, 
Franz Waxman, Larry Weingarten, Orson Welles, Virginia Wright, Mrs. 
William Wyler, and Sam Zimbalist. 

The headquarters of the Hollywood Independent Citizens Commit- 
tee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions is 1515 Cross Roads of the 
World, Hollywood 28, and the phone number is HOllywood 6325. 

A letter signed by Alice Hunter as executive director under date of 
July 19, 1946, finds some change in the vice chairmen of the Hollywood 
group. Col. Evans Carlson, Olivia De Havilland, Dr. Franklin Fearing, 
Lena Home, Dr. Linus Pauling, Dore Schary, and Frank Sinatra are now 
listed as vice chairmen. Ernest Pascal is the treasurer. 

HOLLYWOOD LEAGUE AGAINST NAZI-ISM 

This Communist front was incorporated on June 8, 1936. On Sep- 
tember 28, 1936, its name was changed to the Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League. 

(See committee's previous reports and the Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League, this report.) 

HOLLYWOOD LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION 

This Communist front was a continuation of the Motion Pictures 
Democratic Committee, after the invasion of Russia by Germany pre- 
cipitated an abrupt change in Soviet foreign policy. It lasted until 1942 
when it reorganized as the Hollywood Democratic Committee for the 
announced purpose of reelecting Governor Culbert L. Olson. 

The address of the organization was 6513 Hollywood Boulevard, and 
the telephone number was Hillside 7391. Donald Ogden Stewart was the 
Chairman; Frank Tuttle, Vice Chairman; Dudley Nichols, Secretary; 
and Bern Bernard, Treasurer. 

The sponsors of the Hollywood League for Democratic Action were : 
Dr. Eric Beecroft, Herbert Biberman, Mrs. Sidney Buchman, Eddie Can- 
tor, John Cromwell, Florence Eldridge (Mrs. Frederic March), Francis 



256 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Edwards Faragoh, Mrs. Bernardine Fritz, Jay Gorney, Oscar Hammer- 
stein II, Charles Katz, Senator Robert W. Kenny, H. S. Kraft, Richard 
Lert, Ernst Lubitsch, Frederic March, A. Calder Marshall, Dr. Rudolf 
Marx, Edwin Justus Mayer, Ray Mayer, Elizabeth Merrell, Lewis Mile- 
stone, Paul Muni, Dudley Nichols, Judge Isaac Pacht, Mrs. Charles Page, 
Dorothy Parker, Irving Pichel, Frank Scully, Maxwell Shane, Viola 
Brothers Shore, Sylvia Sidney, Gloria Stuart, and Frank Tuttle. 

HOLLYWOOD LEAGUE OF WOMEN SHOPPERS 

(See League of Women Shoppers.) 

HOLLYWOOD MOTION PICTURE DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE 

The Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee was the suc- 
cessor to the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, after the latter organization 
went out of business following the Stalin-Hitler pact of August, 1939. 

Concerning this organization, a former member of the Young Com- 
munist League, under oath, testified as follows : ' ' Connection with the 
party in Los Angeles is through Al Lane, political director, who gives the 
general directives. For a time Oliver Thornton sat on the governing board. 
For the most part the membership (of the Hollywood Motion Picture 
Democratic Committee) is the same as that of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League * * * members of the Motion Picture Artists Committee to Aid 
Spanish Democracy and the League for Peace and Democracy." A con- 
gressional report, referring to the same witness, states: "The witness 
cited as members of the Communist Party the following members of the 
Executive Committee of the Motion Picture Democratic Committee : Her- 
bert Biberman, Maurice Murphy, John Bright, Jeff Kibre, Al Matthews, 
Charles Page, and Donald Ogden Stewart. ' ' 

Rena M. Vale, a former member of Los Angeles County Cultural 
Commission of the Communist Party, testified as follows before the Joint 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California: 

1 ' That the aforesaid Los Angeles County Political Commission 
had full control of the policies of the Motion Picture Democratic 
Committee of which aforementioned Philip Dunne was Chairman, 
and Melvyn Douglas another prominent official; our commission 
made all decisions on policy and direction of this organization, 
planned resolutions for it and transmitted same to that organization 
through either the representative present or through Communist 
Party channels, directed, it was announced in meeting, to Maurice 
Murphy, a 'comrade,' who was Executive Secretary of the Motion 
Picture Democratic Committee ; it is worthy of note that said Mau- 
rice Murphy later became the Executive Secretary of the aforemen- 
tioned League of American Writers, Hollywood Chapter, which I 
know of my own knowledge to be a Communist Party-controlled 
organization * * * . I was drawn into the Los Angeles County Cul- 
tural Commission as a representative from the political commission ; 
that this commission was organized to fill the need expressed by Mary 
Virginia Farmer, mentioned previously: To coordinate the work 
of the Los Angeles County apparatus of the Communist Party with 
that of the underground, darkly secret Hollywood Cultural Commis- 
sion, which in turn was part of the Communist Party apparatus in 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 257 

Hollywood, which, according to Communist knowledge generally, 
dealt directly with the Central Committee of the Communist Party 
of the United States * * *. " 

The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, after the Stalin-Hitler pact, was 
in no position to shout for a Nazi victory. Under its new name, the Holly- 
wood Democratic Committee, it did everything within its power to sup- 
port the latest development in Soviet diplomacy and power politics. The 
Theatre Arts Committee 's publication announced on April 1, 1940, that 
"the MPDC declares its support of strict neutrality, opposing the exten- 
sion of war credits and opposing excessive armaments. The MPDC is 
opposed to diplomatic or congressional actions tending to involve the 
United States on either side of the European war * * *. " 

In the middle of 1940 the Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic 
Committee stated in a News Letter: 

"Military defeat of England would make New York the finan- 
cial capitol of the British Empire. * * * Information trickling 
through from France indicates that the reasons for the French sur- 
render were political as well as military. * * * The impression grows 
here that France's surrender was timely not only for the Nazi but 
for French big business interests. * * * With the surrender of 
France the possibility of American intrusion on the European scene 
has lessened. * * * Roosevelt's air schedules for 'invasion from 
Europe' made military men smile. * * * Mass air attacks have com- 
fortable radii of 500 miles, and a limit of 1200. * * * Fear of the 
'Colossus of the North' has been allayed only temporarily by the 
Good Neighbor policy. Latin Americans need no Nazi prompting 
to protest * Yankee Imperialism. " * * * Regimentation of the entire 
population for military service was carried further in the bill intro- 
duced by Senator Burke on June 20th, providing for compulsory 
military service for all men between the ages of 18 and 65. ' ' 

Herbert K. Sorrell was a member of the executive board of the 
Motion Picture Democratic committee together with Harold Buckman, 
Al Caya, John Cromwell, Norval Crutcher, John Green, Edward Mussa, 
Irving Pichel, Gloria Stuart, and Frank Tuttle. It was this executive 
board that defeated a proposal by Melvyn Douglas shortly after Soviet 
Russia invaded Finland in December, 1939, calling for reaffirmation 
of support of the Roosevelt foreign policy, a condemnation of Russian 
aggression and the Communist Party. 

A Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee bulletin dated 
March 26, 1940, entitled "America Declares Peace/' called a meeting at 
the Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles, April 6, 1940. This meeting 
launched a violent attack on President Roosevelt and the "warmongers. ' ' 
Out of this meeting came the Hollywood Peace Council, which was later 
to become the American Peace Mobilization. The speakers at this meeting 
were Ellis E. Patterson, Reuben Borough, Herbert Biberman, Philip 
M. Connelly, Dalton Trumbo, and Frank Tuttle. 

HOLLYWOOD QUARTERLY 

See the committee's 1947 report and the Screen Writers Guild, this 
report, concerning this Communist project. 

18 L-7088-D 



258 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The first issue of the Hollywood Quarterly appeared in October, 
1945. It was jointly sponsored by the University of California at Los 
Angeles and the Communist front, Hollywood "Writers Mobilization. 
James Corley, Controller of the University, armed with the galley proofs 
of the Committee 's Report dealing with the Writers Congress, the Holly- 
wood Writers Mobilization and the Communist records of such individ- 
uals as John Howard Lawson, Kenneth MacGowan, and others, vigor- 
ously opposed the plan for the joint publication of the magazine, but 
was unsuccessful. 

The Hollywood Quarterly is copyrighted by the Regents of the 
University and is printed by the University Press at Berkeley. The 
editorial staff is composed of John Howard Lawson, Dr. Franklin Fear- 
ing, Kenneth MacGowan, Franklin P. Wolfe, Helene M. Hooker, and 
Samuel T. Farquhar. 

HOLLYWOOD WRITERS' MOBILIZATION 

The committee has reported on this Communist front, Hollywood 
Writers' Mobilization, at some length in its 1945 report. 

It should be stated here that the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization 
is a direct successor of the Pacific Coast branch of the League of 
American Writers, Communist front for literary Communists and 
Communist fellow-travelers. The name, Hollywood Writers' Mobili- 
zation, was assumed shortly after the Stalin-Hitler Pact was ended by 
Hitler 's attack on the Soviet Union, June 22, 1941. It went into frenzied 
activity following the attack on Pearl Harbor. It should be pointed out 
that the record proves that the " patriotism " indicated on the part of 
the leaders of this Communist front organization, was dependent upon 
their secret loyalty to the Soviet Union. 

Among those who were affiliated with the Hollywood Writers ' 
Mobilization were E. Y. Harburg, Marc Connelly, Theodore Dreiser, 
Carey Me Williams, Dudley Nichols, Edward Chodorov, Earl Robinson 
(alias Robert Earl), Samuel Ornitz, Robert Rossen, W T aldo Salt, John 
Howard Lawson, Morris Watkins, Sidney Buchman, Frederic Rinaldo, 
Emmet Lavery, Ring Lardner, Jr., Frank Tuttle, Adrian Scott, and 
many others whose names appear in the index of this Report and in the 
previous Reports of Legislative Committees investigating un-American 
activities in California. 

Louis J. Russell, former F.B.I, agent, testified before the Thomas 
Committee in Washington, D. C., October 29, 1947, that Adrian Scott 
was a member of the Communist Party and that he held a 1945 Com- 
munist Political Association card No. 47200 ; 1945 Communist Political 
Association card No. 46832 ; and that his Communist Party registration 
card for 1946 was No. 35394. 

R. E. Combs, Commitee Counsel, read excerpts from the minutes 
of the executive board meetings of the Hollywood Writers ' Mobilization 
into the Committee's transcript of testimony in Oakland, November 3, 
1947. (Volume XXXII, pages 7 to 17.) 

The Hollywood Writers ' Mobilization used a mailing list which the 
committee found to be in use by many Communist front organizations, 
as well as the Communist Party itself, in Southern California. Among 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 259 

other organizations and individuals included on the mailing list of 
the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization are the following: 

The Carver Club, Communist Party, care of Eva Korn, 2032 South 
Western, L. A. 

Communist Party, care of N. Sparks, 124 W. 6th St., Los Angeles, 
Party Headquarters for Los Angeles. 

The 40th Club, Communist Party, care of Frederick A. Gottesman, 
2833i Brooklyn Avenue, East Los Angeles. 

Fortieth Assembly District, United Committee for Political Action, 
care of Mrs. Goldsmith, 2439J Boulder, Los Angeles, 33. 

Filipino Community of L. A., Alec Velaseo, 150 North Los Angeles 
Street, Los Angeles. 

Free Italy Society, Frank Baffa, 3806 Sunbeam Drive, Los Angeles. 

India News, Lai Singh, 553 South Western Avenue, Los Angeles. 

National Lawyers' Guild, Morris E. Cohn, 229 North Broadway, 
Los Angeles. 

South Bay Forum, N.C.A.C., Alfred Riley, 1514 West 138th Street, 
Hawthorne. 

American Veterans Committee, Norris Helferd, 7509J Sunset 
Boulevard, Los Angeles. 

Veterans of the Abraham Brigade, Charles Persily, 423 North Chi- 
cago Street, Los Angeles. 

C.I.O. P.A.C., Tony A. Nicol, 5851 South Avalon Blvd., Los Angeles. 

Musicians Union, Local 47, c/o George Campbell, 1417 South Geor- 
gia Street, Los Angeles. 

Actors Laboratory, c/o Helen Slote, 1455 North Laurel, Los Angeles. 
(After the name ''Helen Slote", the name "Rose Hobart" 
appears in parenthesis). 

Under the heading I WO Lodges (International Workers Order) 
are the following: Mrs. Pearl Fagelson, A. Maymudes, Max Cramer 
(I WO 51), William Wilkins (141), Samuel Sacks (204), Hyman Cohen 
(224), Evelyn Zaroff (250), Isaac Epstein (251), K. Wyloge (253), 
Isidore Feigan (258), Thems Kass (253), Ida Marmer (469), Edith 
Rowland (471), Hershel Hancock (448), Ruby Karron, Harvey Sacker 
(493), Evelyn Lonik (508), Kathryn Gautt (576), Ella Helfand (660), 
Lee D. Brown (704), H. Schlessberg (754), Beatrice Enock (946), H. P. 
loannou (957), J. T. Green (1537), Kusma Dragun (3151), J. Paw- 
lowski (3590 P), Mrs. Saini Taulu (3737), Mrs. Lemp I. Sale (3894), 
Ivan Velyatich (4299), Emily Curaj (4368), Lillian Young (760), 
Jacob Kanaster (862), Mary Mattis (4368), Edward Becerril (4771), 
and Lillian Granata. 

The committee has not yet ascertained the meaning of the numbers 
that follow the names of the individuals who apparently head the various 
chapters of the Communist International Workers Order. 

It appears that a Mitchell Lindemann of the Hollywood Writers' 
Mobilization, had been assigned to the job of contacting Communists and 
Communist fellow-travelers in the east in connection with legislative 
committees investigating un-American activities. Abraham J. Isserman 
wrote a letter to Lindemann, obviously in reply to a communication from 
Lindemann, in which Isserman outlined current Communist tactics for 



260 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

smearing- and obstructing legislative committees, such as the Thomas 

Committee. The original Isserman letter is in the Committee's files. 

Virginia Gardner, self admitted Communist functionary, also wrote 

to Mitchell Lindemann. Her letter, on the stationery of the now defunct 

Communist New Masses, is as follows : 
"Dear Mr. Lindemann, 

' ' I am very much interested in helping expose the Un-American 
Activities Committee, and I do have some material in my files but I 
cannot send out my clippings, etc., as I may need them at any time. 
I am going to New York this next week, however, and will ask the 
magazine's circulation department to send you copies of NM in 
which articles on the committee appeared last year. There were three 
or four. I may find extra copies of Challenge, for which I also write, 
in which columns on the committee appeared. If not I will ask them to 
supply you with same. (Challenge, 500 Fraternal Bldg., 1405 Glen- 
arm Place, Denver 2, Colo.) 

1 ' I would have written in reply sooner but your letter was only 
forwarded to me from the Daily Worker office in the National Press 
Building some weeks after it was sent. Note my address above. 

' ' Incidentally, your letter finally arrived at this office open, with 
any literature it may have contained missing. I would still like to see 
what you sent. So will you send a brochure again ? If you would like 
something on the committee after it is reorganized under Thomas, 
please let me know, and also whether you can pay for it. I got some- 
one to do some research work on Rankin for you a couple of years ago 
and it took me about six months to collect money for her pay. 
' ' Sincerely, 

(Signed) VIRGINIA GARDNER" 

The committee is in possession of an original letter written by Dore 
Schary, executive director of RKO Studios in Hollywood on the letter- 
head of "Vanguard Films, Inc.", Culver City, California. The letter is 
dated April 17, 1945 and it reads as follows : 
' ' Mr. Emmet Lavery 

c/o Mrs. Pauline Lauber 

Hollywood Writers Mobilization 
1 ' Subject : Writers ' Assignments for Hollywood Bowl 

Memorial Program April 23rd 

' ' Dear Emmet : I am enclosing herewith a list of the writing 
assignments of the Hollywood Bowl Memorial Program to be pre- 
sented April 23rd. Following the list of assignments we will state the 
tentative continuity for the show. We are rushing these assignments 
to you by messenger so that you can contact the writers. The con- 
tinuity of the show will follow in a couple of hours after we have 
completed work on it. The writers who will do the overall narration 
and who will be most concerned with the complete continuity of the 
show are Helen Deutsch, Maxwell Anderson and Leonardo Bercovici. 
"Mayor Bowron's speech two and one-half minutes: to be 
written by Mary McCall. 

"County Representative Smith's speech two and one-half 
minutes : to be written by Maurice Rapf . 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 261 

"Federal Judge J. F. T. O'Connor two and one-half minutes : 
to be written by Francis Faragoh. 

' ' Governor Earl Warren five minutes : to be written by Emmet 
Lavery. (Note to Mary McGall: Mayor Bowron's speech will open 
the program and will include the theme of the program.) 

"Dramatization of President Roosevelt's record. The details 
of this will be discussed at a general meeting for all the writers 10 
minutes: to be written by Alvah Bessie, Leon Meadows and Abe 
Polansky. 

"The United Nations Section (this section will also be detailed 
at the writers' conference) 15 minutes : to be written by Vladimir 
Pozner and Ring Lardner. 

' ' The Human Side of President Roosevelt five minutes : to be 
written by Barry Trivers, Abe Burroughs, Harry Kurnitz and Abe 
Polansky. 

' ' The section of the program that will segue from the Memorial 
to President Roosevelt to the Pledge of Support to President Tru- 
man three minutes : to be written by Paul Green. 

"Pledge of Allegiance to the Ideals of Mr. Roosevelt and to the 
Future one minute : to be written by Dalton Trumbo. Introduction 
to the Pledge of Allegiance two minutes : to be written by Dalton 
Trumbo. 

' ' By the time you get this letter we will have called you on the 
telephone and asked for your help in arranging a meeting for all the 
writers this afternoon. Thank you. 

' ' Sincerely, 

( Signed ) DORE SCHARY ' ' 

The minutes of the Hollywood Writers' Mobilization show that 
contact with the Communist front, the American Russian Institute in 
Los Angeles, was carried on by Henry Meyers, and showed that Mr. 
Meyers was in continuous contact with a Mr. Scurocov of the Communist 
organization. Mr. Scurocov was also the Russian Vice Consul in Los 
Angeles. 

ICOR 

This Communist organization is devoted to "the defense of the 
Soviet Union," although it purports to be organized in interest of the 
Jewish people and, particularly, in Biro-Bidjan, a Jewish colonization 
in the Soviet Union. Its official publication is Naileben (New Life). 

Herbert Goldfrank, national secretary of the Friends of the Soviet 
Union, and Edwin Seaver, managing editor of Soviet Russia Today, in 
greetings in Naileben (May, 1935) stated: "It is of special importance 
for the Icor and 'New Life' to win to the support of the Soviet Union's 
policy of peaceful Socialist Construction the millions of Jewish speaking 
Americans." 

Among those who have been affiliated in one way or another with 
ICOR are the following: James Waterman Wise, A. A. Heller, Anna 
Louise Strong, Max Kitzes, Morris Greenbaum, Paul Novick, N. Cikow- 
ski, Stuart Davis, Minna Harkavy, William Gropper, Frank C. Kirk, 
Louis Lozowick, Phil Reisman, Adolf Wolff, and Sol Wilson. 



262 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

INDEPENDENT CITIZENS' COMMITTEE OF THE ARTS, 
SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS 

This Communist front grew out of the Independent Voters Com- 
mittee of the Arts and Sciences. The Senate Committee has a copy of a 
letter under date of March 12, 1945, signed by Jo Davidson, on the letter- 
head of the Independent Citizens ' Committee of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions. The headquarters is listed as the Hotel Astor in New York 
City and Hannah Dorner is named as Administrative Director. The letter 
is as follows : 

' ' Gentlemen : 

"We ask you to join in meeting the greatest challenge ever 
presented to the people of this country. Now that the elections are 
over, we are faced with the enormous task of securing the peace and 
a democratic, prosperous postwar America. 

"We the people have demonstrated in the election that our 
political future Is in our own hands. One of the lessons of the war is 
that politics is no remote science indulged in by a few people, but is a 
force that determines our day to day life. We cannot, therefore, 
remain aloof from it. It requires our day to day participation. 

1 1 The Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions is being established for this purpose. It is an outgrowth 
of the Independent Voters Committee of the Arts and Sciences 
for Roosevelt which made a major contribution to the reelection of 
President Roosevelt. Through that Committee we saw how effective 
we in the arts, sciences and professions, with our talents and our 
influences, could be. 

' ' We invite you to become a member of this organization. The 
enclosed brochure gives our platform and our working program. 
Your support, and that of your colleagues, is the measure of our 
strength and effectiveness in shaping our postwar world. 

1 ' Will you, therefore, fill in the enclosed membership card and 
return it to us ? 

"Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) Jo DAVIDSON" 

The letterhead lists Frederic March as treasurer and Herman Shum- 
lin as chairman of the finance committee. 

The board of directors is composed of William Rose Benet, Van 
Wyck Brooks, Louis Calhern, Marc (Jonnelly, Morris Llewellyn Cooke, 
Norman Corwin, Bartley Crum, Dr. Moses Diamond, Donald Du Shane, 
Prof. Albert Einstein, Florence Eldridge (Mrs. Frederic March), Moss 
Hart, Lillian Hellman, Mrs. Beatrice Kaufman, Dr. Frank Kingdon, 
John T. McManus, Dr. Alonzo F. Myers, Dr. John P. Peters, Paul 
Robeson, Dr. Harlow Shapeley, and Herman Shumlin. 

The Initiating Sponsors of the Independent Citizens ' Committee of 
the Arts, Sciences and Professions are listed as follows : Louis Adamic, 
Franklin P. Adams, Mary McLeod Bethune, Dr. Ernst P. Boas, Louis 
Bouche, James Cagney, Henry Seidel Canby, Dr. Walter B. Cannon, 
Eddie Cantor, Mady Christians, Rufus F. Clement, Aaron Copland, 
Thomas Craven, Russel Grouse, Marcia Davenport, Betty Davis, Agnes 
De Mille, Olin Dowries, Guy Pene duBois, Philip Evergood, Henry Pratt 



UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 263 

Fairchild, Howard Fast, Edna Ferber, William S. Gailmor, Ben Graner, 
Oscar Hammerstein, Miriam Hopkins, Langston Hughes, Leon Kroll, 
Canada Lee, Max Lerner, Peter Lyon, Fritz Mahler, Thomas Mann, 
Dorothy May nor, Lowell Mellett, Yehudi Menuhin, Dr. Alfred E. Mir- 
sky, William Morris, Nelson Poynter, Dr. Walter Rautenstrauch, Dr. 
Fritz Reiner, Boardman Robinson, Edward G. Robinson, Robert Rossen, 
Artur Schnabel, M. Lincoln Schuster, John Sloan, Raphael Soyer, Dr. 
Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Alfred Strelsin, Mark Van Doren, Max Weber, 
Orson Welles, and William Zorach. 

INSTITUTE FOR DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION, INC. 

Headquarters of this organization are located at 415 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City, according to a letter of July 2, 1947, signed 
by Harold Franklin, program director. 

The letter in question was addressed to program directors of many 
radio stations in the United States. The letter offers each radio station 
a series of thirteen 15-minute transcribed dramatic programs, without 
charge. The name of the series is "Lest We Forget The American 
Dream." The letter, in part, reads as follows: 

"We believe this to be the finest of the eleven Lest We Forget 
series produced by our organization. Helen Hayes, Frederic March, 
Paul Lukas and other top-flight stars have contributed their out- 
standing talent to the colorful stories of about every day Americans 
working for realization of the American dream of freedom. Programs 
were directed by Earle McGill and were recorded by the National 
Broadcasting Company. * * * If your station wishes to schedule 
Lest We Forget the American Dream, please fill in and return 
the enclosed post card and a set of the transcriptions will be sent 
to you. 

A report in the files of the Committee on the Institute for Demo- 
cratic Education, in part, reads as follows : 

' ' The organization has been in existence about eight years. 

"It is financed by private contributions from interested indi- 
viduals and organizations. 

* Currently, the institute 's radio transcriptions are 13 in num- 
ber. They are listed and described briefly in Exhibit 1 of this dossier. 

"The leading figure in the Institute is one Harold Franklin. 
In 1935, the Communist Party held a conference in Washington, 
D. C. The gathering was known as the National Emergency Con- 
ference Against the Government Wage Program. Harold Franklin 
was a member of the resolutions committee of this conference. All 
of the leaders of the conference were well-known Communist Party 
members. Today, Harold Franklin is program director of the Insti- 
tute for Democratic Education. 

1 ' The director of the institute is Howard M. Le Sourd. Le Sourd 
was a sponsor of the Communist-front organization known as the 
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, whose leaders were recently 
convicted for contempt of Congress. 



264 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"Many of the members of the board of governors of the insti- 
tute, as well as actors who have made the organization 's transcrip- 
tions, have long records of affiliation with Communist fronts. 
Outstanding among these Communist fellow-travelers are Norman 
Corwin, Canada Lee, Frederic March, Daniel Marsh, and Clyde K. 
Miller. * * * 

"So extensive are the Communist-front affiliations of the per- 
sonnel of the Institue for Democratic Education, as evidenced by 
the documents in this dossier, there can be no doubt that this 
organization is one of the insidious ways in which the left-wing has 
penetrated radio broadcasting. 

"The radio transcriptions of the institute follow the line of 
the Communist Party with the strictest fidelity. 

"The line of the Communist Party includes incessant propa- 
ganda to the effect that Fascism is rampant in the United States. 
This line is designed to lure the unwary toward Communism as a 
defense against 'Hitlerism.' Through all the media available to the 
Communist Party propagandists, there is an attempt to spread the 
idea that forces of Fascism are everywhere entrenched. The radio 
transcriptions for the Institute for Democratic Education present 
this same distorted conception. For example, radio transcription 
No. 2 (of the institute) 'Blow That Whistle' presents a scene in 
which a member of a club is sentenced to '20 lashes' because he called 
a Jewish doctor. This is not true to the facts of American life. 
It is, however, true to the line of Communist Party propaganda. 

"It is very significant that this Communist outfit is about to 
put its propaganda on 710 radio stations. 

"It should ~be noted that there is not a single sentence or word 
against Communism in the transcriptions of this organization. 

" 'Democratic education' featured in the title of the outfit, 
ought to include some education against the anti-democratic char- 
acter of Communism. But of this kind of education, there is not a 
word. This fact is a dead give-away. 

' ' The Institute for American Democracy is interlocked with the 
Institute for Democratic Education. The two institutes collaborate 
in the series of 13 radio transcriptions which were * produced at the 
National Broadcasting Company'. Both institutes have numerous 
known Communists on their governing bodies, but this is a situation 
to be found in all Communist-front organizations. 

"For instance, Norman Corwin is a member of the board or a 
sponsor on 17 different organizations which are anti-Facist and 
pro-Communist. Canada Lee has affiliations with 21 such organiza- 
tions. Some of these organizations have gone by the board today 
and others have been grouped together to form fairly active pro- 
Communist groups. 

' * The stations in New York which have carried this transcribed 
series are WNEW, WNYC, WEVD, WBNX. None of them are 
network affiliations ; only WNEW has much standing. " * * * 

Howard M. Le Sourd, dean of Boston University, is listed as the 
director of the Institute for Democratic Education. He is listed as a 
sponsor of an affair for the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 265 

along with such faithfuls as Zlatko Balokovic, Max Bedacht, Lillian Hell- 
man, Ring Lardner, Jr., John Howard Lawson, Vito Marcantonio, 
George Seldes, Carey Me Williams, Gale Sondergaard, Donald Ogden 
Stewart, and Orson Welles. 

INTERNATIONAL JURIDICAL ASSOCIATION 

This Communist front is closely associated with the " legal arm of 
the Communist Party/' the International Labor Defense. From its 
inception, the International Juridical Association has specialized in the 
defense of individual Communists or of the Communist Party itself. It 
has followed the Communist Party line without deviation. 

Among those affiliated with the International Juridical Association 
are the following: George R. Andersen, Harry Elmer Barnes, Paul F. 
Brissenden, Joseph R. Brodsky, Richard A. Dowling, Arthur Fisher, 
Osmond K. Fraenkel, Leo Gallagher, Aubrey Grossman, Pearl M. Hart, 
Robert L. Hale, Isaac S. Heller, Abraham J. Isserman, Isadore Katz, 
Robert W. Kenny, Paul J. Kern, Carol King, Joseph Kovner, Max 
Lowenthal, Jerome Michael, Louis F. McCabe, Carey Me Williams, Shad 
Polier, Lee Pressman, Colston E. Warne, A. L. Wirin, Nathan Witt, 
David Ziskind, Isaac E. Ferguson, Yetta Land, Maurice Sugar, David 
J. Bentall, John P. Davis, Charles H. Houston, Henry T. Hunt, R. W. 
Henderson, Austin Lewis, and Clara G. Binswanger. 

George R. Andersen, David J. Bentall, Joseph R. Brodsky, John 
P. Davis, Leo Gallagher, Irvin Goodman, Carol Weiss King, Edward 
Lamb, Yetta Land, Louis F. McCabe, Herbert T. Wechsler, Ruth Wey- 
and, Samuel L. Rothbard, and Abraham Lincoln Wirin, are all con- 
nected with both the International Labor Defense and the International 
Juridical Association. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR DEFENSE 

This Communist front organization was termed "the legal arm of 
the Communist Party " by Attorney General Francis Biddle in his mem- 
oranda addressed to the heads of the Departments of the Federal Govern- 
ment on May 7, 1942. 

The committees of the Legislature investigating un-American 
activities in California learned early in its study that this organization 
was an important Communist group. It was established as the result 
of a decision by the Fourth Congress of the Communist International 
held in Moscow, November 7 to December 3, 1922. All Communist Parties 
were instructed to establish organizations for the purpose of giving aid 
to "imprisoned victims of capitalism/' In response to this directive, 
the International Red Aid, with affiliations in most European countries, 
was established. It was under the leadership of the Communist Inter- 
national. The affiliates of the International Red Aid were Secours Rouge 
International in France, Osterreiche Rote Hilfe in Austria, Interna- 
tionalale Rote Hilfe in Germany, Internationale Roode Hulp in Holland, 
and the International Labor Defense in the United States. (Labor 
Defender, January, 1932; December, 1929.) 

Among the known Communists serving in elected positions of the 
International Labor Defense are Robert W. Dunn, Bishop William 
Montgomery Brown, E. R. Meitzen, Ralph Chaplin, Jacob Dolla, James 



266 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

P. Cannon, George Maurer, William F. Dunne, Cora Meyers, William 
Mollenhauer, Robert Minor, Harrison George, William Z. Foster, Rose 
Karsner, Rose Baron, C. E. Ruthenberg, Benjamin Gitlow, Dan Stevens, 
Fred Merrick, Lovett Fort- Whitman, J. 0. Bentall, Max Bedacht, and 
Fred Biedenkapp. 

The International Labor Defense has followed the Communist Party 
line and the defense of the Soviet Union meticulously. 

Among those who have been affiliated with the International Labor 
Defense are the following : Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Karl Reeve, Upton 
Sinclair, Scott Nearing, Alice Stone Blackwell, Ellen Hayes, David 
Rhys Williams, Fred Mann, II. W. L. Dana, Robert Morss Lovett, Emil 
Arnold, Ella Reeve Bloor, Paul Crouch, Earl Browder, William J. White, 
Clarina Michelson, William Pickens, Alfred Wagenknecht, Vito Mar- 
cantonio, William L. Patterson, Elaine Black, Anna Damon, Louis Col- 
man, George R. Andersen, Ben Davis, Jr., John P. Davis, J. Allen 
Frankel, Leo Gallagher, Irvin Goodman, Grover C. Johnson, Carol King, 
Edward Kuntz, Edward Lamb, Yetta Land, Louis F. McCabe, Prof. 
Herbert T. Wechsler, Saul C. Waldbaum, A. L. Wirin, Clarence Hath- 
away, Angelo Herndon, Rockwell Kent, La Rue McCormick, Robert 
Parker, James Waterman Wise, Max Bedacht, James W. Ford, Mrs. 
J. C. Guggenheimer, J. B. McNamara, Bruce Minton, Tom Mooney, 
Samuel Ornitz, Joseph Pass, Louis Thompson, Maude White, Anita C. 
Whitney, Robert Dunn, Sasha Small, Martha B. Chadwick, Evelyn C. 
Hyman, Frieda Burke, Reuben E. Cohen, Isidore Ostroff, Lawrence 
Potamkin, Abraham Coppelman, Irving Crane, Bob Wirtz, Leah Teitel, 
Beulah Learned, Mary Ostrow, Eva Curtis, Max Kreman, Harry Malkin, 
Isaac Shoor, Agnes Htndricks, and Herbert Nugent. 

J. Louis Engdahl, Sender Garlin, Joseph North, William L. Patter- 
son, and Sasha Small have been editors of the International Labor 
Defense publication, Labor Defender. Chester A. Arthur, Jr., was 
Pacific Coast editor in 1937. Others who have been connected with the 
Labor Defender are : Louis Colman, Henri Barbusse, Jacob Purck, Whit- 
taker Chambers, Robert W. Dunn, Maxim Gorki, Eugene Gordon, Hugo 
Gillert, Josephine Herbst, Grace Hutchins, Melvin P. Levy, Esther 
Lowell, Joseph Pass, Paul Peters, Ludwig Renn, Lincoln Steffens, Charles 
Rumford Walker, Walker Wilson, Cyril Briggs, Harry Gannes, Robert 
Minor, Joseph Vogel, Frank Spector, Nathan Asch, Anna Damon, Ned 
Hilton, Grace Lumpkin, Jerre Mangione, Maurice Rosenfield, Jack 
Conroy, Langston Hughes, John Howard Lawson, and Waldo Frank. 

Leo Gallagher has been an important Communist member of Inter- 
national Labor Defense. On June 2, 1941, a Communist inspired testi- 
monial banquet in honor of Leo Gallagher was staged at the Wilshire 
Bowl in Los Angeles. Gallagher, in addition to other Communist activi- 
ties, has been active for many years in defense of Communists and Com- 
munist causes and the testimonial dinner was tendered him in recogni- 
tion of his services in this field. On June 2, 1941, the Stalin-Hitler Pact 
was still in effect and the Communist Party vigorously opposed entry of 
the United States into the war. The People's Daily World for June 4, 
1941, states: 

"Reminding of the forces trying to inject the United States into 

the tragic struggle of the imperialist war, Gallagher said : * In these 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 267 

days it is necessary for all of us to take our place and recognize our 
responsibility to defend and protect the civil liberties of all wherever 
they may be attacked. * * *' At the present time the windmills of 
hysteria are directed mainly against the Communist Party and it 
is our duty then * * * regardless of our political opinions * * * to 
defend the rights of the Communist Party'." 

Among the sponsors of this testimonial dinner in honor of Commu- 
nist Leo Gallagher were Assemblyman Augustus Hawkins, Judge Stanley 
Moffat, Carey Me Williams, Herbert K. Sorrell, Ernest Dawson, A. May- 
mudes, Clore Warne, Philip M. Connelly, Reuben Borough, Charles Katz, 
and Robert W. Kenny. Katz, of the law firm of Katz, Gallagher and 
Margolis, was the toastmaster for the dinner. Among those who gave 
testimonials to Gallagher were Anita Whitney, State chairman of the 
Communist Party ; Reuben Borough, Philip M. Connelly, Judge Stanley 
Moffat, Communist Theodore Dreiser, Communist Sam Ornitz, and Com- 
munist Herbert Biberman. 

INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ORDER 

This Communist-front has been investigated by the California legis- 
lative committees investigating un-American activities on a number of 
occasions. (See committee's 1943, 1945, and 1947 reports.) 

The Daily Worker for September 29, 1941, reported that the Inter- 
national Workers Order had a membership at that time of 155,000 and 
assets of $1,889,611. It purports to be a fraternal organization. 

The International Workers Order claims over 19,000 branches in the 
United States. Max Bedacht, former general secretary of the organization, 
testified before a Congressional Committee that the income of the organ- 
ization exceeded $1,000,000 a year. He also testified that the organization 
operates in 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. 

Max Bedacht was general secretary of the Communist Party of the 
United States in 1929. He was a former editor of the Communist, the 
official theoretical organ of the Communist Party. He has been a delegate 
to various congresses of the Communist International. He has been a 
member of the executive committee of the Communist International. He 
is a former editor of Soviet Russia, a pictorial, official organ of the Friends 
of Soviet Russia. He was a Communist Party candidate for United States 
Senate in New York. He has been a member of the national executive 
committee of the American League for Peace and Democracy. He has 
been a member of the national committee of the International Labor 
Defense. 

In his testimony before the congressional committee, Max Bedacht 
admitted his belief in the superiority of the Soviet Constitution over 
the American Constitution and refused to declare whether he would 
support the United States in the event of a war with the Soviet Union. 
He stated that he emphatically believed "that the decision of the Com- 
munist International must be executed loyally." 

The International Workers Order has followed the Communist 
Party line without deviation and has supported all Communist causes 
in the United States. It has stood behind the foreign policy of Soviet 
Russia and followed the treacherous twists of Communist diplomacy 
during the Stalin-Hitler Pact. The organization has openly supported 



268 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Communist candidates for public office and openly and actively supports 
the Communist press. 

Among those affiliated with the International Workers Order are 
William Weiner, Max Bedacht, R. Saltzman, Louise Thompson, Sam 
Pevzner, Joseph Foster, Paul Duchon, Petrus Deseu, D. Kasustchick, 
Elvira Mingroni, Winko Ujoich, Sadie Doran, Joseph Brodsky, Peter 
Shipka, J. H. Federman, L. Gukowsky, S. F. Stone, Juanita Johnson, 
M. Torchenko, Jesse Smith, S. Davidson, C. Rosselle, J. Brier, Paul 
Stukovsky, George E. Powers, George Primoff, Hank Johnson, Samuel 
C. Patterson, Ann Richards, N. Honig, Aaron Bloom, Arnold Stanley, 
Nathan Shaffer, Charles Kellner, Phil Rosengarten, Rubin Salzman, 
Jerry Trauber, Emanuel Levin, and Anthony Gerlach. 

During the Stalin-Hitler Pact the International Workers Order 
sponsored a public rally at 111 Jones Street in San Francisco. Carey 
Me Williams endorsed the " rally" and leaflets invited the public to 
"come and hear true people's representatives tell why" San Francisco 
didn't want "Mr. Dies" or his committee. Among those who were to 
speak were Ellis E. Patterson, Edward D. Gallagher, Germain Bulcke, 
Ellsworth Replogle, and Philip Gardner, organizer for the International 
Workers Order. The "New World Quartette" was scheduled to sing 
Mike Quinn's "The Yanks Are Not Coming" song. 

Rockwell Kent is a member of the Lincoln Steffens Lodge 500 of 
the International Workers Order. 

The International Workers Order is very active in California and 
is supported by many Communists and Communist fellow-travelers, 
such as Judge Stanley Moffat. 

One of the most brazen Communist radio programs is heard over 
Radio Station KXLA, Los Angeles, on Sunday morning at 10 a.m. It is 
called the Slavic Council Radio Program. 

The committee is in possession of the script of a program for Sunday, 
February 8, 1948. The station announcer begins as follows : 

"Slavic Council of Los Angeles presents this two hundred and 
seventy -fourth Slavic Radio Program, brought to you each Sunday 
over this station from 10 to 10.30 a.m. The Slavic Council strives 
to unite all Americans of Slavic origin, Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians, 
Macedonians, Poles, Montnegrees, Russians, Czechoslovaks and 
Ukranians, for the purpose of national unity, cultural education 
and to promote everlasting peace and to this purpose the following 
program is dedicated. This morning's program is presented by the 
Russian group of the Slavic Council. Mr. Alexis Alexeed is in charge 
of the program. The music on this program is transcribed." 

Alexis Alexeed speaks both in English and Russian. The opening 
musical number is a song by the Red Army Chorus. 

On the second page f the script the announcer, Mr. Schofield, 
interrupts to announce that "The Slavic Council is grateful for the 
generous support given by the French Sardine Company of San Pedro, 
packers of Starkist Tuna." 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES JN CALIFORNIA 269 

Then follows a " Calendar of E vents. " It appears that "Mr. Scho- 
field" is assigned this job. The first event for the program of Sunday, 
February 8, 1948, is as follows : 

"Slav Council of Los Angeles will have a special meeting 
Friday, February 13th, at 3300 City Terrace Drive, and there will 
be an annual election of officers for the current term. 

"Valentine vecherinka will take place on Saturday, February 
14th, at 8 p.m., at 3300 City Terrace Drive. Good meeting and good 
food everybody welcome. Sponsored by the American Ukranian 
Lodge of I.W.O. 

"Valentine Dance given by the English speaking lodge, I.W.O. 
4306, February 14th. Dancing starts at 7.30 p.m. The music of 
Mic Gvorak and His Variety Rhythm Boys, 330 South Ford Boule- 
vard, Saturday night, February 14th. 

"On Washington's Birthday, February 22d, subscribers to 
Narodni Glasnik, sponsoring an affair for Editor G. Minarich, who 
has just returned from Jugoslavia with motion pictures taken in 
Jugoslavia, to be shown after the banquet in the evening of the 22d. 
Also a meeting in the afternoon that's February 22d, American 
Croatian Hall, 230 South Ford Boulevard. An interesting evening. 

' ' Mr. Minarich, editor of Narodni Glasnik, will also appear at 
the Jugoslav Hall on February 21st at 17 Palos Verdes Street, 
San Pedro. 

"Saturday, February 28th, 7.00 p.m. Serbian I WO (Glas 
Noroda) having Old Country Dinner at 330 South Ford Boulevard, 
American Croatian Hall. That's February 28th, Saturday, 
7.00 P. M." 

The entire broadcast, of course, follows the current Communist 
Party line. One paragraph, the Committee believes, will indicate the 
general Communist propaganda trend: 

' ' Since the Second World War the imperialist monopolies have 
been trying to enslave smaller countries economically and to take 
advantage of their postwar economic weakness. Under the pretext of 
economic and financial aid, they are trying to rob them of their 
economic and, at the same time, of their political, independence. 
The Soviet Union, true to its policy of voluntary and equal coopera- 
tion with nations, exposes the aggressive character of such schemes 
as the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. ' ' 

Thus, the International Workers Order, through its segregated lan- 
guage lodges, mobilizes for the revolution in the United States. 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 

This Communist school is the New York City counterpart of the 
California Labor School in San Francisco and the People's Educational 
Center in Los Angeles. It opened its first term in February of 1944 at 
575 Sixth Avenue. The formation of the Jefferson School of Social 
Science is the result of a merger of two other educational institutions 
which are indisputably under the control of the Communist Party, namely 
the Workers School and the School for Democracy. Lyman R. Bradley, 



270 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Frederick V. Field, A. A. Heller, Lewis Merrill, Walter Rautenstrauch, 
Harry Sacher, Margaret Schlauch, Dirk J. Struik, Alexander Trachten- 
berg, and Max Yergan constituted the organizing committee of the Jef- 
ferson School of Social Science. The director of the school is Howard 
Selsam, who was dismissed from his teaching position in a New York 
school on the grounds that he was a member of the Communist Party. 
( Selsam 's Communist Party name is "Hill.") 

Among the instructors and guest lecturers of the Jefferson School 
of Social Science are the following: Louis Boudin, Henrietta Buck- 
master, Morris Cohen, Bella V. Dodd, Robert Dunn, Osmond K. Fraenkel, 
Max Granich, Horace Grenell, A. J. Isserman, Edward Kuntz, Corliss 
Lamont, Alain Locke, William M. Malisoff, Vito Marcantonio, Walter 
Scott Neif, Benjamin Paskoff, Lee Pressman, Michael J. Quill, Walter 
Rautenstrauch, Earl Robinson, I. Rosenberg, Harry Sacher, Morris U. 
Schappes, Howard Selsam, Samuel Sillen, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Bern- 
hard J. Stern, Marc Stone, Paul Strand, Maxwell N. Weisman, Alden 
Whitman, Nathan Witt, Benedict Wolf, Victor Yakhontoff, Max Yergan, 
and Ruth Young. 

JOHN REED CLUBS 

The John Reed Clubs are Communist organizations named in honor 
of John Reed who was one of the earliest Communist leaders in the 
United States. Reed died in Russia shortly after the Bolshevik revolu- 
tion and his ashes are interred in the Kremlin in Moscow 7 . 

Among those who have been connected with the John Reed Clubs 
are the following : Sherwood Anderson, Emjo Baashe, Franz Boas, Alter 
Brody, Samuel Brody, Ralph Cheyney, Ann Coles, Malcolm Cowley, 
Robert W. Dunn, Fred Ellis, Kenneth Fearing, Waldo Frank, Harry 
Freeman, Hugo Gellert, Michael Gold, Horace Gregory, William 
Gropper, Jack Hardy, Arthur Garfield Hays, Josephine Herbst, Joseph 
Kaphan, Ellen A. Kennan, C. D. Ketcham, Frank Kingdon, Alfred 
Kreymborg, Joshua Kunitz, Melvin P. Levy, Louis Lozowick, Grace 
Lumpkin, A. B. Magil, Scott Nearing, Joseph North, M. J. Olgin, Joseph 
Pass, Morris Pass, Harry A. Potamkin, Anton Refregier, Boardman 
Robinson, Anna Rochester, Anna Rosenberg, Julius Rosenthal, Isidor 
Schneider, Edwin Seaver, Upton Sinclair, Herman Spector, Genevieve 
Taggard, Art Young, and William Zarach. 

JOINT ANTI-FASCIST REFUGEE COMMITTEE 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee was formed in March 
of 1942 through the merger of the American Committee to Save Refugees, 
the Exiled Writers Committee of the League of American Writers, and 
the United American Spanish Aid Committee. 

Directly related, organizationally or historically, with the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, are the following Communist front 
organizations: American Committee to Save Refugees, Exiled Writers 
Committee of the League of American Writers, American Committee 
for Spanish Freedom, American Rescue Ship Commission, Coordinating 
Committee to Lift the Embargo, Medical Bureau to Aid Spanish Democ- 
racy, Medical Bureau and North American Committee to Aid Spanish 
Democracy, and Spanish Refugee Appeal. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 271 

The sponsors and officers of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee, with a few exceptions, are admitted Communists and fellow- 
travelers. The policy of this group, and its associated Spanish organiza- 
tions, is in concert with the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee maintains national offices 
at 425 Fourth Avenue in New York City. Doctor Edward K. Barsky is 
National Chairman and Helen R. Bryan is National Executive Secretary. 

The national sponsors are: Comfort A. Adams, Benjamin Algase, 
Rabbi Michael Alper, Professor Joseph Warren Beach, Dr. Henry 
Lambert Bibby, Professor G. A. Borgese, Jean L. Bowie, James L. 
Brewer, Professor Harold Chapman Brown, Professor J. F. Brown, Dr. 
Walter B. Cannon, Rufus E. Clement, Professor Richard T. Cox, Kyle 
Crichton, Rev. Theodore De Luca, Martha Dodd, Muriel Draper, Julien 
Duvivier, Dr. Frederick May Eliot, Dr. Henry Pratt Fairchild, Lion 
Feuchtwanger, Professor Irving Fisher, Professor Mitchell Franklin, 
Rev. Stephen H. Fritchman, Dr. Rudolph Ganz, Professor Marion Hath- 
way, Kenneth Leslie, Princess Helgo zu Loewenstein, Rev. Donald G. 
Lothrop, Dr. Robert Morss Lovett, Helen M. Lynd, Heinrich Mann, 
George Marshall, Professor Kirtley F. Mather, Louis F. McCabe, Philip 
Merivale, Harvey O'Connor, Rt. Rev. Edward L. Parsons, Dr. Max 
Pinner, Professor Renato Poggioli, F. M. Pottenger, Bertha C. Reynolds, 
Professor William Gorham Rice, Jr., Ralph Roeder, Dr. Annette T. 
Rubinstein, Professor Edwin P. Ryland, Professor Rudolph Schevill, 
Georges Schreiber, Dean Vido 0. Scudder, Professor Harlow Shapley, 
Professor L. J. Stadler, Dalton Trumbo, Rev. Charles C. Webber, Pro- 
fessor F. W. Weymouth, Dame May Whitty, Dr. Mary E. Woolley, Dr. 
Max Yergan, and Art Young. 

Contributions for building the Remain Rolland Ward of the Anti- 
Fascist Hospital is to be directed to Louis Bromfield, care of the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, 8505 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood 
46, California. 

Another Communist front in this field is the Action Committee to 
Free Spain. This organization is headed by Milton Wolff, formerly of 
the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Its offices are at 55 West 42d Street in 
New York City. It maintains branches throughout the country. 

The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee also maintains offices 
at 192 Lexington Avenue in New York City. Walter Rautenstrauch is 
honorary chairman. The Hollywood headquarters is located at 8505 
Sunset Boulevard and an office is maintained at 206 South Spring Street, 
Los Angeles, in charge of Helen M. Fisher. The San Francisco address 
is 68 Post Street, in charge of Mrs. Marion Owens. The Oakland address 
is 1615 Broadway, in charge of Mrs. Inez Schuyten. 

Much of the financing of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 
is undertaken by the Communist front, the International Workers Order. 

It should be unnecessary to add that the only refugees in whom this 
front has shown interest are Communist refugees. 

JOINT COMMITTEE NATIONAL NEGRO CONGRESS AND 
UNITED PUBLIC WORKERS 

This Communist front apparently functioned to assist Dr. Claude 
Hudson's campaign for election to the Board of Education in 1947. 



272 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

It maintained headquarters at 1051 East 41st Street in Los Angeles; 
telephone 4043. 

A pamphlet announced a mass meeting for Sunday, May 25, 1947 
at the CIO Building, 5851 Avalon Boulevard, Los Angeles, and listed 
Dr. Claude Hudson, Leo Gallagher, and Harry S. Jung, as the speakers. 

Harry S. Jung is the International Representative of the Com- 
munist United Public Workers, C.I.O. 

LABOR'S NON-PARTISAN LEAGUE 

The legislative committees investigating un-American activities in 
California have reported at considerable length on this Communist front 
in previous reports. 

The group came into existence before the war. It supported Presi- 
dent Roosevelt and the New Deal until the Stalin-Hitler Pact when, in 
accordance with Communist Party policy, it became an isolation group, 
opposing the United States' participation in the war and aid to the 
allies. It was one of the first Communist fronts to adopt the Communist- 
inspired C.I.O. slogan "The Yanks Are Not Coming." 

Herbert K. Sorrell was the state president of this organization dur- 
ing the Stalin-Hitler Pact, and he vigorously opposed the reelection of 
President Roosevelt in 1940. He denounced him as a "war-monger," and 
declared that he was leading the United States into the "imperialist" 
war. 

Don Healy, husband of Dorothy Healy (formerly Dorothy Ray, 
now organizing secretary for the Communist Party of Los Angeles 
County), was one of the important Communist leaders in Labor's Non- 
Partisan League. 

In the California primary election held on May 7, 1940, a slate of 
delegates to the National Democratic Convention was placed before the 
California electorate. This slate of delegates was called the "Patterson 
Slate" and was headed by Ellis E. Patterson. This slate of delegates 
opposed a third term for Roosevelt, opposed aid to England and was 
strictly isolationist. It meticulously followed the Communist Party line 
and was openly in sympathy with the aims of the Party. The principal 
plank in the "Patterson Slate" platform was: "No Men No Arms 
No Loans to Foreign Powers. Stop Intrigue Leading Us Into War. 
(Remember 1916?)" 

Herbert K. Sorrell, Carey Me Williams, Philip M. Connelly, Frank 
Scully and Reuben Borough were candidates on the "Patterson Slate," 
Communist Party line delegation. 

LAWYERS COMMITTEE TO KEEP THE UNITED STATES OUT OF WAR 

This Communist front, of course, was organized for the purpose of 
supporting the Stalin-Hitler Pact. The headquarters of the group was 
in New York City at 20 Vesey Street. The chairman was Louis F. McCabe. 
The treasurer was Harold I. Cammer, and the secretary was Alfred L. 
Tanz. The vice chairmen of the organization, listed on the letterhead, are 
as follows: Russell N. Chase, Pearl M. Hart, Minna F. Kassner, Leo 
J. Linder, Elmer McClain, Clifford D. 'Brien, Harold M. Sawyer, and 
Maurice Sugar. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 273 

LEAGUE AGAINST IMPERIALISM 

The Communist front, League Against Imperialism, was organized in 
Chicago in April, 1928. The provisional committee was composed of Wil- 
liam H. Holly, Chairman; Ray Koerner, Vice Chairman; and Helene 
Woolf, Secretary. Harry Gannes was secretary of the Chicago section 
of the All- American Anti-Imperialist League. 

The committee of the League Against Imperialism was composed 
of Anacleto Almenana, Zonia Baber, John Belowski, Clarence Darrow, 
Henry Duel, Arthur Fisher, A. Gans, Sam Herman, Lillian Herstein, T. 
Y. Hu, Sun Yat Sen, Peter Jensen, Arnufo E. Jimenez, Benito Juarez, 
Dr. John A. Lapp, Prof. Robert Morss Lovett, C. J. Martell, Walter 
Rienfeld, F. Scriben, Mordecai Shulman, Ames Swabeck, Otto Wangerin, 
and Dr. David Rhys Williams. 

This front is also referred to as the Chicago All- American Anti- 
Imperialist League. 

LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WRITERS 

This Communist front has been covered in detail in the Committee 's 
1945 Report. The Communist character of this organization has been 
proved by overwhelming evidence. 

The Committee, in its 1947 Report, pointed out that the call for the 
first Writers' Congress (out of which came the League of American 
Writers), stated that the Congress was intended for writers "who have 
clearly indicated their sympathy for the revolutionary cause ; who do not 
need to be convinced of the decay of capitalism, of the inevitability of 
revolution. ' ' 

Joseph Freeman, former editor of the New Masses, stated that "the 
Communist says frankly : art, an instrument in the class struggle, must 
be developed by the Proletariat as one of its weapons. ' ' 

Edwin Seaver, speaker for the League of American Writers, and 
writer for the Daily Worker and New Masses, said: 

1 1 1 believe the time is fast approaching when we will no longer 

classify authors as Proletarian writers and fellow-travelers, but as 

party writers and non-party writers. ' ' 

Among those who have been affiliated with the League of American 
Writers and its congresses are Louis Adamic, William Rose Benet, 
James B. Carey, Ben Hecht, Langston Hughes, Max Lerner, Frances 
J. McConnell, Carey Me Williams, George Soule, J. Raymond Walsh, 
Orson Welles, A. F. Whitney, James Welterman Weiss, Alan Calmer, 
Matthew Josephson, Walt Carmon, Agnes Smedley, Norman Macleod, 
Theodore Dreiser, Waldo Frank, William N. Jones, Eugene Gordon, 
Countee Cullen, Malcolm Cowley, John Hermann, Michael Gold, Scott 
Nearing, Earl Browder, Newton Arvin, Granville Hicks, Kyle S. Crich- 
ton, Eliner Rice, John Spivak, Robert Morss Lovett, Emjo Basshe, Jack 
Conroy, Ed Falkowski, Kenneth Fearing, Joseph Freeman, Horace 
Gregory, Josephine Herbst, Joseph Kalar, J. Kunitz, Melvin P. Levy, 
Mary Heaton Vorse, Fielding Burke, Edwin Seaver, Paul Peters, Manuel 
Gomez, Grace Lumpkin, Albert Maltz, George Sklar, Ben Field, Nathaniel 
West, James T. Farrell, Edward Newhouse, Leane Zugsmith, Edward 

19 L-7088-D 






274 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Dahlberg, Herbert Kline, Oakley Johnson, Corliss Lament, Anna Louise 
Strong, Erskine Caldwell, Louis Zara, Josephine Johnson, Albert Halper, 
Myra Page, Eugene Clay, Sterling Brown, Richard Wright, Harold 
Clurman, Paul Strand, H. H. Lewis, Edwin Wolfe, Isaidor Schneider, 
Alfred Hayes, Stanley Burnshaw, Ruth Lechlitner, John Howard Law- 
son, Samuel Ornitz, Michael Blankfort, Ford Maddox Ford, Tillie 
Lerner, Alexander Trachtenberg, Bob Brown, Nelson Algren, Meridel 
Le Seuer, Wallace Phelps, Earl Sydnor, Kenneth Burke, Alfred Kreym- 
borg, Genevieve Taggard, Merle Colby, Robert Herrick, Orrick Johns, 
Clifford Odets, William Rollins, Maxwell Bodenheim, Joseph Opatoshu, 
Leonard S. Mins, John Wesley, and Lester Cole. 

Lester Cole has a long Communist record. Louis J. Russell, former 
member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, testified before the 
Thomas Committee in Washington, D. C., on October 30, 1947, that Lester 
Cole was a member of the Communist Party and held card number 47226. 
Cole 's Communist Party registration card, according to Louis J. Russell, 
contained a notation : "New card issued on December 16, 1944." 

The Communist record of Cole is set forth at page 490 of the con- 
gressional report. It corroborates the information in the files of the Senate 
committee, and is as follows : 

While the records of this committee do not indicate that Lester Cole 
has publicly admitted membership in the Communist Party, it is known 
that he has supported a Communist Party candidate for election. The 
People's World of October 22, 1942, page 2, and October 31, 1942, page 
3, reveals that Lester Cole supported LaRue McCormick, the Communist 
Party candidate for the office of State Senator in California from the 
Thirty-eighth Senatorial District, Los Angeles County. 

Lester Cole has revealed his sympathies with the Soviet Union as 
witnessed by his signature to the statement made by American Progres- 
sives in defense of the Moscow trials. (See Daily Worker, April 28, 1938.) 
The Moscow trials aroused world-wide condemnation. They were charac- 
terized by forced confessions and were staged as political demonstrations 
rather than trials in our sense of the term. 

The Hollywood Reporter, edited and owned by William Wilkerson, 
charged Lester Cole with holding Communist Party membership book 
No. 46805 in the northwest (propaganda) section of the Communist 
Party, according to the Hollywood Reporter of August 19, 1946. To the 
best knowledge of this committee, this charge was never denied or refuted 
by Mr. Cole. 

The Communist press was active in the support of the petition for 
the pardon of Festus Coleman, of which Lester Cole was a signer, accord- 
ing to the People's World, November 24, 1942, page 1. 

The League of American Writers, an affiliate of the International 
Union of Revolutionary Writers, with headquarters in Moscow, has been 
pledged to defend the Soviet Union and ' ' use of art as an instrument in 
the class struggle. ' ' On three occasions it was cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities (reports of January 
3, 1940, June 25, 1942, and March 29, 1944) as well as by Attorney 
General Francis Biddle, who said in the Congressional Record of Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, page 7686, "The overt activities of the League of 
American Writers in the last two years leave little doubt of its Com- 
munist control." The People's World of February 11, 1943, page 5, lists 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 275 

Lester Cole as a speaker at the League of American Writers School. Also, 
New Masses of April 22, 1941, page 25 aud the Daily Worker of April 5, 
1941, page 7, carry the name of Lester Cole as a signer of the call to the 
Fourth Congress of the League of the American Writers, June 6-8, 1941, 
New York City. This conference which was held a few days prior to 
Hitler 's attack on the Soviet Union, denounced the war as imperialistic, 
attacked President Roosevelt and endorsed the American Peace Mobili- 
zation which was then picketing the White House, and denounced Presi- 
dent Roosevelt as a war monger. 

According to the People's World, October 22, 1942, page 2, and Octo- 
ber 31, 1942, page 3, Lester Cole was active in the Hollywood Writers 1 
Mobilization, the successor of the Hollywood branch of the League of 
American Writers. 

One of the organizations participating in the Hollywood Writers 
Mobilization is the Screen Writers' Guild, of which Lester Cole is a 
member of the executive board, according to the Daily Worker of August 
10, 1947, page 11-m and the Screen Writer of July, 1947, page 28. John 
Howard Lawson, who was identified by the Daily Worker, official organ 
of the Communist Party (issue of August 23, 1937, page 7), as a Com- 
munist Party member, is a leading figure in the Screen Writers ' Guild. 

LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WRITERS' SCHOOL IN HOLLYWOOD 

This Communist Party institution is best described by the West 
Coast Communist Party newspaper, the People's Daily World, for 
February 11, 1943. Under the caption "Writers' School Grows in Size, 
Stature," by Walter Ruf, appears the following : 

" Holly wood. Some of the most notable names in the moving 
picture industry and in American letters are on the staff of the 
League of American Writers' School as it opens its new semester on 
February 15. Thirteen varied seminars of study, appealing to 
virtually every type of literary aspirant and conducted by 29 noted 
experts, will be offered in this spring 's course. 

' * To ease the transportation problem for students, also to gain 
facilities for conducting larger classes than were possible in the past, 
the school is moving from 1204 N. Vista to 1717 N. Vine Street, near 
Hollywood boulevard. 

' ' Moving will be completed February 12, on which evening the 
school will hold its traditional 'meet the faculty' gathering in the 
new quarters. This year the function is preliminary to the beginning 
of the spring term. At the same time it will mark the beginning of 
the school 's fourth year. To a festive note will be added the chance 
for prospective students to meet informally the well-known pro- 
fessionals who comprise the school 's faculty. 

' ' SCREENWRITING 

' * Screenwriting, to be taught in four classes, will be conducted 
by John Wexley, Lewis Meltzer, Horace McCoy, Robert Lees and 
Fred Rinaldo, the last two functioning, as they have for the past 
eight years, as collaborators. While basically similar, the four classes 
will vary in emphasis and in procedure. All stress marketing needs. 



276 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"Last fall's course on motion picture directing, a distinct inno- 
vation at the time and limited to Hollywood professionals, was so 
successful it will be expanded this semester. Frank Tuttle, veteran 
director who pioneered last fall's studies, continues as one of five 
assistants to Irving Pichel, a new chairman. The other teacher- 
directors are Edward Dmytryk, Michael Gordon, Vincent Sherman 
and Fred Zinnemann. 

"Turning to the older arts, the novel will have W. L. River, 
author of 'the Torguts' and other works, as instructor. Assisting 
him as lecturers will be such world famous novelists as Leon 
Feuchtwanger, William Blake, Louis Bromfield, Christina Stead 
and Upton Sinclair. 

"Short story classes will be under the direction of Nora Hell- 
gren, a regular contributor to McC 'all's, The Philadelphia North 
American, New Masses and other publications. 

"RADIO WORKSHOP 

"Radio is represented in an advanced workshop, conducted 
by Milton Merlin under the title 'Radio and the War.' Material 
ranging from spot announcements to full-length dramas will be 
readied and later offered to stations. 

"Two outstanding lecture series highlight the school's new 
curriculum. Providing a cultural background for writers and oth- 
ers, John Howard Lawson, noted playwright and historian, will 
continue his penetrating review of American history, bringing 
his subject down to date. 

"The second series of lectures, presenting a host of famous 
figures, is designed to promote appreciation of the film as both an 
entertainment medium and a social force. Speakers will include 
Roman Bohnen, Jay Leyda, Mordecai Gorelik, Lewis Jacobs, and, 
in roundtable discussions, Lester Cole, Sheridan Gibney, Robert 
Rosson, Horace McCoy, and John Howard Lawson. 

"An added feature of the spring term will be Dr. Franklin 
Fearing 's 'Seminar in the Literary Process.' For professional writ- 
ers and advanced students only, the course, conducted by a dis- 
tinguished social psychologist, will be both a probing and an 
appraisal of values in various forms of literature. ' ' 

Lewis J. Russell testified in Washington, D C., October 29, 1947, that 
Edward Dmytryk, referred to above, was a member of the Communist 
Party, recruited by Herbert Biberman. Russell stated that Dmytryk was 
issued Communist Party book No. 84961 for the year 1944, and that when 
the party was reportedly dissolved in the summer of 1944 and the Com- 
munist Political Association organized in its stead, Dmytryk was issued 
1944 Communist Political Association membership card No. 46859, and 
for 1945 the Communist Political Association membership card No. 
47238. Russell further testified that in the fall of 1945, when the Com- 
munist Political Association was dissolved, and the Communist Party of 
America reinstated, Dmytryk was issued registration card No. 35393. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 277 

Edward Dmytryk's Communist Rarty record is set forth in the 
congressional committee 's report beginning at page 463, and is as follows : 

"Edward Dmytryk has been associated with the motion-picture 
industry as a producer and a director. ' ' 

The American Youth for Democracy was formerly known as the 
Young Communist League. On April 17, 1947, the Committee on 
Un-American Activities issued a report on the American Youth for 
Democracy in which it called upon the governors or legislatures of the 
various states and the administrative heads of the colleges and universities 
' ' to thoroughly expose the Communst connections of the American Youth 
for Democracy as well as the inimical objectives of the Communist Party 
in America." The Congressional Record of March 24, 1947, page A-1298, 
contains a statement made by the Honorable J. Edgar Hoover, Director of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, in which he spoke of the American 
Youth for Democracy as the organization "which conceals the evils and 
the corruption of American Communism. This name is but a new one for 
the former Young Communist League. It reflects all the sinister purposes 
of the Communist Party of the United States. It employs the same 
techniques and has the same objectives, namely, the conversion of our 
haven of liberty and freedom to worship as we choose to a godless, totali- 
tarian state where the adversaries of democracy can do as they please." 
The American Youth for Democracy was also cited as a Communist front 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in the report of 
March 29, 1944. People's World of December 1, 1944, lists Edward 
Dmytryk as a sponsor of the American Youth for Democracy. People's 
World is the west-coast organ of the Communist Party. 

LEAGUE OF WOMEN SHOPPERS 

This Communist front has been mentioned in most of the committee's 
previous reports. 

Among the outstanding Communist fellow travelers connected with 
this organization are the following: Genevieve Taggard, Josephine 
Herbst, Dorothy Kenyon, Freda Kirchwey, Tess Slessinger, Mary Van 
Kleeck, Mrs. Harry F. Ward, and Leane Zugsmith. 

National officers in 1939 included Aline Davis Hays, Lillian Hellman, 
Helen Gahagan Douglas, Miriam Furness, Madelin Blitzstein, Chelene 
Eckerson, Freda Goldberg, Dorothy Parker, Helen Seldes, Bess Singer, 
Gale Sondergaard, Leane Zugsmith, and Gertrude Zimand. 

The directors and sponsors of the Los Angeles branch of the League 
of Women Shoppers included the following : Chelene V. Eckerson, Doro- 
thy Tree, Tatania Tuttle, Jean Prival, Dona Bedwell, Sue Edmond, Mrs. 
C. V. Gustafson, Mrs. A. A. Heist, Mrs. Leonard Oechsli, Mrs. Herman 
Schott, Stella Adler, Aliph Crosby, Francis Ellis, Pauline Holman, 
Judith Kandel, Dorothy Peterson, Tess Slessinger, Gale Sondergaard, 
Ruby D. Campbell, Mrs. Oliver Covington, Mrs. Ernest Dawson, Mrs. 
George Day, Frances Farmer, Mrs. Lowell C. Frost, Mrs. Ira Gershwin, 
Lillian Hellman, Mrs. Norman Kilbourne, Dorothy Parker, Mrs. E. P. 
Ryland, Mrs. Frank Scully, Viola Brothers Shore, Sylvia Sidney, Gloria 
Stewart, Mrs. Hugh Herbert, Lucille Gleason, Mrs. Finley Peter Dunne, 
Ella Winter, Mrs. Mary J. Workman, and Margaret Armstrong. 



278 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The 1941 letterheads of the Hollywood League of Women Shoppers 
(4415 Placidia Avenue, North Hollywood, California) lists the officers as 
follows: Chelene Eckerson, President; Dorothy Tree, Vice President; 
Tatania Tuttle, Treasurer; Dixie Newton, Assistant Treasurer; Sylvia 
Blankf ort, Secretary ; Natalie Commons, Executive Secretary ; and Mil- 
dred Traube, Second Vice President. The directors of the Hollywood 
League of Women Shoppers are as follows : Mollie Adler, Laurie Blank- 
fort, Elizabeth Burbank, Evelyn Capell, Rhea Chodorov, Peggy Dunne, 
Sue Edmond, Elizabeth Faragon, Josephine Kahn, Judith Kandel, Doro- 
thy Peterson, Madelene Ruthven, and Dorothy Wilson. 

The sponsors of the Hollywood League of Women Shoppers are 
listed as follows : Mrs. E. P. Ryland, Mrs. Floyd J. Seaman, Mrs. Frank 
Scully, Viola Brothers Shore, Marion Spitzer, Dr. Louise M. Snyder, 
Ruby D. Campbell, Mrs. Floyd Covington, Mrs. Ernest Dawson, Mrs. 
George Day, Frances Farmer, Mrs. Lowell C. Frost, Mrs. Ira Gershwin, 
Lucille Gleason, Mrs. A. Heist, Lillian Hellman, Mrs. William Jacobson, 
Dr. Nadina Kavinoky, Mrs. Abraham Lehr, Mrs. Norman Kilbourne, 
Mrs. E. J. Lunenschloss, Mrs. Kenneth McGowan, Aline MacMahon, Mrs. 
Leonard Oechsli, Mrs. John C. Packard, Dorothy Parker, Louise Rainer, 
Elizabeth Risdon, Sylvia Sidney, Gloria Stuart, and Mrs. George A. 
Warner, Jr. 

A letterhead for July, 1941, of the League of Women Shoppers lists 
Aline Davis Hays as honorary president ; Sophia Ames Boyer, president ; 
and Mrs. Sherwood Anderson, Nina P. Collier, Fannie Cook, Marion 
Hathaway, and Lillian Hellman, as vice presidents. The secretary is Iris 
Winsor, and the treasurer is Freda Sternberg. The national sponsors 
are listed as Mary C. Barker, Mrs. William O. Douglas, Dorothy Can- 
field Fisher, Lucille Webster Gleason, Inez Hays Irwin, Freda Kirch- 
wey, Dorothy Parker, Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, Mrs. Carl Sandburg, 
Gale Sondergaard, Mrs. Stephen S. Wise, and Mary E. Woolley. 

The national headquarters is listed as 273 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City. The Hollywood address is given as 6912 Sunset Boulevard, and 
the San Francisco address is listed as 1580 Masonic Avenue, "care of 
Rikee Elsesser." 

LEAGUE OF WORKERS THEATRES 

This organization is strictly a Communist project and was openly 
a section of the International Union of Revolutionary Theatres. The 
official organ of the League of Workers Theatres is the publication New 
Theatre. Among those connected with this publication were Ben Blake, 
Leon Bloch, Irving Lerner, Mignon Verne, Charles Dibner, Emjo Basshe, 
Michael Blankfort, Anita Block, Samuel Brody, Nathaniel Buchwald, 
John R. Chaplin, Hallie Flanagan, Joseph Freeman, Virgil Geddes, 
Evelyn Gerstein, Michael Gold, Mordecai Gorelik, Stephen Karnot, 
Alfred Kreymborg, John Howard Lawson, Alfred Sare, Paul Sifton, 
Claire Sifton, Lee Strasberg, Erwin Piscator, Gustav Wangenheim, 
Friedrich Wolf, Jay Leyda, Leon Moussinac, Romain Rolland, Seki 
Sans, Vsevelod Meyerhold, Alexei Popov, Sergei Tretyakov, Heiiirich 
Diament, James Shelley Hamilton, Paul Peters, Langston Hughes, Harry 
Elton, Anne Howe. Alfred Saxe. Victor Cutler. Alice Evans. Dorothv 
Mitchell, Lester Glass, Louis Lozowick, Beno Schneider, and Sidney 
Howard. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 279 

LOS ANGELES EMERGENCY COMMITTEE TO AID THE STRIKERS 

The address on the letterheads of this Communist front organization 
is listed as 5851 Avalon Boulevard, Koom 308, Los Angeles. This address 
is in the C. I. 0. Building. 

On a letter signed by Robert Rossen, chairman of the Los Angeles 
Emergency Committee to Aid the Strikers, Carey Me Williams is listed 
as honorary chairman, and Seniel Ostrow as the treasurer. 

The Steering Committee of the Los Angeles Emergency Committee 
to Aid the Strikers is composed of Averill Berman, Kenneth I. Fulton, 
Robert H. Glick, Anya Goldberg, Sadie Ornitz, Mrs. Julian Sieroty, 
John S 'Renco, Leonard Tittlman, and Mrs. George Willner. 

The letterhead of the Los Angeles Emergency Committee to Aid 
the Strikers carries a partial list of sponsors which is as follows: Dr. 
Murray Abowitz, Sam Baiter, John Barnes, Dr. Dorothy W. Baruch, 
Charlotta A. Bass, Margaret Bennett, Michael Blankfort, Bill Blowitz, 
Col. Evans F. Carlson, Lester Cole, John Cromwell, Dr. Frank Davis, 
Ernest Dawson, Olivia De Havilland, Marian Devlin, William Dieterle, 
Edward Dmytryk, J. Dratler, Guy Endore, Dr. Franklin Fearing, Tom 
Fizdale, Dave Foutz, Jack Greenhill, Mrs. A. J. Grobstein, E. Y. Har- 
burg, Dr. Harry Hoijer, Dr. H. Claude Hudson, Mr. and Mrs. Dan 
James, Peter M. Kahn, Michael Kanin, Charles J. Katz, Howard Koch, 
Hy Kraft, Harry Kurnitz, John Howard Lawson, S. M. Lazarus, Ken- 
neth MacGowan, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Maltz, Dr. Rudolph Marx, A. 
Maymudes, Dr. Thomas Mann, Mary C. McCall, Jr., Dr. Fraser Mc- 
Donald, Sam Moore, Karen Morley, Sam Ornitz, Richard S. Otto, 
Bill Pennell, Earl Robinson, Aaron Rothblatt, Dr. Monte Salvin, Artie 
Shaw, Julian Sieroty, Bernard P. Steinberg, Stewart Sterling, Lionel 
S. Stone, Dr. Keith Sward, Jacques Thery, Frank Tuttle, Dalton 
Trumbo, A. S. Waxman, Clore Warne, and Claude L. Welch. 

LOS ANGELES YOUTH COMMITTEE AGAINST UNIVERSAL 
MILITARY TRAINING 

Under date of February 28, 1948 a mimeographed letter was sent 
to many Communist front organizations and individuals in Los Angeles 
signed by Helen Callbeck, who signed the letter as Temporary Secretary. 
The letter is as follows : 

"5343 Russell Street 
"Los Angeles, 27, February 28, 1948 

"Dear Friend, Many youth organizations and youth leaders in 
Los Angeles have individually expressed strong opposition to uni- 
versal military training. However, there has been no opportunity 
for us to work together to express our opinion in united action. 

' ' To provide this opportunity, there will be a meeting Tuesday, 
March 9, 7.30 p.m., in Room 200, 2936 West Eighth Street, to 
discuss the setting up of a Los Angeles Youth Committee Against 
Universal Military Training. 

* ' You, as an individual or as a representative of your organiza- 
tion, are urged to attend this meeting to plan a coordinated program 
of youth opposition to the proposed military training bill. 

"Three young people who have just returned from Washing- 
ton will report on the National Youth Assembly Against UMT and 



280 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

on the latest developments in Congress. The fact that those spon- 
soring the training bill may at any moment force it to a vote makes 
our united action most urgent. 

"It is vital that you bring to the meeting March 9 your ideas 
for actions which can be taken immediately to inform our rep- 
resentatives in Washington of our opposition to Universal military 
training. 

"If you cannot attend this first meeting, but want to work 
with The Los Angeles Youth Committee Against Universal Military 
Training, please fill out and mail the enclosed card." 

The following individuals are listed as sponsors and the letter 
carries a notation that the organizations listed are for purpose or identi- 
fication only: 

John Allard, President, Chrysler Local 230, UAW, CTO ; Harry 
Baily, Education Director, Zone 26 Co-op ; Wallace Beery, Westminster 
Fellowship, First Presbyterian Church ; Dennis Farrel, President, Carver 
Club, UCLA; George Herman, Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, Local 
700, CIO; Edwin Krapf, Pastor Garvaniza Methodist Church; Fred 
Masarik, Castle Lodge, Temple Israel ; Betty McCandless, Los Angeles 
Youth Council; Dick Mills, Youth Division, American Friends Service 
Committee; Harold Orr, President, American Federation of Teachers, 
AFL; Perry Parks, United Public Workers, Local 246, CIO; Joe Price, 
President, Robson Hall, UCLA ; Ben Rinaldo, State Chairman, American 
Veterans Committee, and John Ripley, Director, Church School, First 
Unitarian Church. 

The meeting of the Los Angeles Youth Committee Against Universal 
Military Training was held on Tuesday, March 9, 1948, at 7.30 p.m. in 
Room 200, 2936 West Eighth Street. Around 45 people were in attendance 
of which about 30 percent were girls. Wallace Berry, representing the 
Westminster Fellowship, First Presbyterian Church, acted as tempo- 
rary chairman. The first speaker was Seymore Kaplan of the University 
of California at Los Angeles. Bill Belton, C. I. 0. representative, fol- 
lowed Kaplan and gave a vigorous talk against Universal Military Train- 
ing. He stated that the enactment of the pending act in Congress would 
mean six to ten years of military control over the youth of America and 
that the principle idea behind the bill was to use youth against labor 
organizations. 

After Belton had finished speaking a John Broy, of the C. I. 0. 
Textile Workers created a furor when he proposed that the organization 
prohibit Communists joining the Los Angeles Youth Committee Against 
Universal Military Training. He ran into immediate and violent opposi- 
tion and his proposal was overwhelmingly rejected. 

An Arnold Shinberg of the Communist front, American Youth for 
Democracy, spoke in defense of Communist participation in the move- 
ment. He proposed that the last week in March and the first week in 
April be declared "Anti-U. M. T. Week/' and that mass meetings be 
held during that period. 

The following officers were elected by the group : Wallace Berry, 
Chairman; Malcolm Gardner, Vice Chairman; Helen Callbeck, Execu- 
tive Secretary ; Sam Moore, Church Federation ; Bill Belton of the C. I. 0. ; 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 281 

Arnold Shinberg of the American YoutK for Democracy ; Natosha Mark- 
off; Janet Harris, Jewish Youth Council ; and Seymore Kaplan. 

Among others who were present at the meeting were Bynny Luks, 
Irwin Weiss, Sophie Bloom, Edwin Kraft, Nina Klowden, Harold Orr, 
Jack Levine, and Mr. and Mrs. Allen Cox. 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS ASSOCIATION 

The committee's report for 1947 went into this Communist controlled 
organization at some length. The committee's hearings in Oakland 
November 3 to 6, 1947, examined a number of witnesses in reference to 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards Association and received many exhibits 
concerning the organization and its activities. Richard Gladstein, of the 
firm of attorneys in San Francisco who are listed as the attorneys for the 
Communist Party of California, appeared in behalf of the Marine Cooks 
and Stewards Association and a number of individuals who had been 
subpenaed to testify concerning the organization. Gladstein followed the 
usual Communist Party strategy employed by attorneys representing 
Communists and made the usual demands that he be permitted to cross- 
examine witnesses. 

Walter Hesse, a San Francisco police officer, and former member of 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards Association in San Francisco, testified 
that he had been expelled from the organization in November of 1945, 
for anti-Communist activities. He stated that Hugh Bryson, when he was 
assistant secretary of the Union, admitted in an open meeting held at 86 
Commercial Street in San Francisco, that he was a Communist and proud 
of it. Hesse stated that Bryson said "For your information I am going to 
tell you that the far-flung activities of the Communist Party is far more 
important than this insignificant union of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards." Hesse claimed that there were about 400 members present when 
Bryson made these statements. 

Martin Kaplan, who had testified before the committee in Oakland 
the year before, reiterated his former statements concerning the Commu- 
nist character of the Marine Cooks and Stewards Association. William P. 
Brandhove, who had submitted an affidavit to the committee previously 
(see committee's 1947 report) repeated the substance of his former 
affidavit. 

Arthur A. Griffey testified that he was a chief steward and had been 
a chief cook and butcher on ship. He had joined the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Association in 1918 and was a member in continuous good 
standing until he was expelled in 1945. He stated that the Communist 
influence of the organization began somewhat vigorously along about 
1942. He finally became a member of what was known as the "Rank and 
File Publicity Committee," a group of members who got together in 
order to fight the Communist domination and control of the union. He 
wrote a letter which was published in a paper, " Voice of the Rank and 
File" for August 7, 1945. His letter reads as follows: 

* ' I am a member and I am against anything even smelling like 

Communism. I am just writing this letter to let you know and the 

World know I am going to battle on the side of the majority, which 

according to the rules of democracy, has a right to rule. Let's make 

quick work and vote out the reds. ' ' 



282 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

In spite of the efforts of Griffey and the others who had banded with 
him to fight the Communist control of the organization, the Communist 
activities increased. Griffey stated that the meeting hall was usually 
flooded with Communist propaganda literature and the anti-Communist 
group had little opportunity in doing much about the situation. Griffey, 
like the others, was ultimately expelled from the union because of his 
anti-Communist stand. 

The following is an affidavit introduced into the record by the Com- 
mittee 's Counsel, R. E. Combs. It is Exhibit No. 8 in the committee's 
transcript and reads as follows : 

"Affidavit of William D. Handelsman 

"City and County of San Francisco) 
"State of California J " 

"William D. Handelsman, 314 Kearney Street, San Francisco, 
California, being first duly sworn, deposes and says : 

"I was born at Manila, Philippine Islands, on July 17th, 1918. 
In 1923 my parents moved to Shanghai, China, where my father was 
a candy manufacturer. I attended a British School in Shanghai 
where I received the equivalent of a high school education. My 
father died in 1932, and in January, 1935, I went to sea as an ordi- 
nary seaman on the American Mail Line ship President Jefferson. 

"At San Francisco during the summer of 1935 I joined the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, and was in the stewards' depart- 
ment in the President Pierce. In 1936 I shipped out of San Francisco 
on the Monterey, a Matson line vessel. We were enroute to Australia 
when I met a man named Paul Boyles, a writer. He was continually 
pointing out the conditions on the ship; that the owners were 
getting rich while the crew was paid starvation wages; that every 
union man owed his first duty to the working classes ; that the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards Union was a young, weak organization, and 
could only be made strong enough to protect its members against the 
bosses by real organization and class discipline. I was 17 years old 
at the time. We were actually compelled to work long hours, the food 
was bad, I was getting $45.00 a month and was generally dissatisfied. 
My usual shift was 12 to 13 hours a day, and I slept in quarters below 
the water-line with about 100 other men in what was commonly 
known as the Calcutta Dungeon unventilated and disagreeable. 
During these first conversations with Boyles, he never mentioned 
Communism, but he and John Sneddon, a room steward, used to take 
me ashore, buy me meals and sympathize with me until they had 
thoroughly gained my confidence. Sneddon was ship 's delegate from 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union. 

"I noticed that Boyles and Sneddon frequently met secretly 
with 12 or 15 other crew members in the laundry room. When I asked 
Boyles why these meetings were held, he told me he and the others 
were members of the Communist Party, and they couldn't meet 
openly because they would be fired ; that the Communists had the 
only real program for the benefit of the working men, and could 
force the ship owners to pay higher wages and improve conditions 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 283 

aboard ship. I am a Jew, and these men told me that unless the Com- 
munists prevented it, the Jews of America would be treated exactly 
as they were being treated by Hitler. There was also a man named 
Katz, whose first name I cannot recall, and when I told him that my 
mother's family had been killed by the Russian Bolsheviks during 
the revolution of 1917, he tried to explain that they undoubtedly 
belonged to the capitalist minority and had to be liquidated for the 
benefit of the working class movement. As a result of the propaganda, 
I rebelled against authority in the ship, and was consequently 
demoted from one job to another until I wound up as a galley 
scullion the lowest job on the vessel which convinced me that the 
system was wrong. I was resentful against the ship owners and con- 
vinced that I was being discriminated against because I was a Jew. 

' 'Boyles, Sneddon and Katz gave me mimeographed propaganda 
sheets which I put under the pillows on the men's bunks while the 
crew was at work. This propaganda didn't specifically mention the 
Communist Party, but pointed out the conditions on the ship, and 
that only by a constant fight against the bosses and the American 
capitalist system could these conditions be improved and that only 
through the leadership of the Communist Party could the working 
masses be organized. 

1 ' When our ship arrived at New Zealand our group had a caucus 
and decided to smuggle propaganda ashore to distribute among the 
dock workers. Some it was actually taken ashore, but Katz was 
caught with the literature in his possession, and the New Zealand 
authorities opened his locker and found stacks of propaganda. They 
sealed the locker, and when Katz broke the seal he was arrested. I 
was there told by Katz, Boyles, Sneddon and others that this was 
typical of how capitalist and imperialist countries kept the truth 
from the workers. 

* ' The Matson people fired Katz when we returned to San Fran- 
cisco, but his comrades in the Marine Cooks and Stewards made it 
a union issue, tied up the ship and forced the company to rehire 
him. This incident was used to illustrate how the Communist Party 
went to bat for its members, and made a great impression on even 
the non-Communists in the union. I was then introduced to the 
Union Dispatcher, a man named Delcol. My rating was then mess- 
man, and he was in a position to give me even a better rating than 
I deserved. I knew at the time that he was a Party Member the 
first one to ever hold an office in the Marine Cooks and Stewards 
Union; in fact he was the first Dispatcher. He got me a job as a 
room steward on the 88 Monterey. This was a job it would ordinarily 
have taken me several years to get, and I realized that the Com- 
munists in the union had rewarded me for going along with their 
program on the previous voyage, and I was grateful and impressed 
by their power. Before I shipped out I went up to Delcol's room 
at North Beach with Sneddon, Boyles, Revels Cayton, an alien 
named Van Lacken, Katz and Johnnie Lamonia all members of 
the Communist Party and all members of the Marine Cooks and 
Steward's Union and Delcol pointed out all the prominent Com- 
munists in the Union, and told me he was certain that I would 



284 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

eventually join the Party, but was not yet ready, but meanwhile 
could help carry out their program. 

"From that time on I was entertained at one North Beach 
party after another. I was taken to many private homes, introduced 
to girls, provided with plenty of liquor and thrown into contact 
with people I later knew as high-ranking San Francisco Com- 
munists. 

"About April, 1936, the membership of the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards decided that Delcol was ineligible for the position of 
Dispatcher because he had not been in the union long enough, and 
Boston Hunt had done an outstanding job as ship's delegate on 
the Mariposa and that he should have the job. 

"I then went to Seattle to see my mother, and later met Bill 
Lonergan, whom I had known on the Monterey. One night we sat 
in a cafeteria on Yesler Way from 9 at night until 4 the next morn- 
ing while he told me that I couldn't be a good union man unless I 
joined the Communist Party; that working conditions would only 
become steadily worse under a capitalist form of government in 
fact, all the arguments I had already gotten from Boyles, Sneddon, 
and the others. He told me to contact Johnny Lamonia when I 
got to San Francisco, as he was Chairman of the Waterfront Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party. I then made up my mind to join the 
party at the first opportunity. 

"My next trip was on the 88 McKinley to the Orient and I 
found the worst conditions I had ever seen on any ship. Three 
quarters of the crew were natives from Hong Kong, living quarters 
were foul and the work was hard. A few days out of Seattle a 
strike broke, and the ship was diverted to San Francisco where 
she was tied up. I lost no time getting to the union hall, where I 
contacted Johnny Lamonia, Paul Boyles and Revels Cayton and 
told them I wanted to join the Party. The three of them took me 
immediately to the Maritime Book Shop at 15 Embarcadero Street, 
where Lamonia had his headquarters in the back room. They told 
me it would cost 50 cents to join, 50 cents per month dues if I was 
employed and 10 cents if I was unemployed. Because of the strike 
I was not employed, so I paid Lamonia 60 cents and he handed me 
a green card that folded in the middle on one side there were 
spaces for dues stamps. They then took me to a bar nearby and 
bought drinks to celebrate the occasion, telling me that I had taken 
the most important step of my life. I then went with Lamonia to 
his room at the Newbridge Hotel while he got some papers and 
we went to dinner at the Grand Cafeteria. 

"Later that evening we attended a closed Communist meeting 
at 779 Vallejo Street, next to a Chinese laundry. I had to show my 
Party card to the man on guard at the door, and Lamonia told 
him I was a new comrade. There were 65 or 70 men present and 
two women. One man got on the rostrum and called the meeting to 
order, and we sang the Internationale with our right arms raised, 
fists clenched in the Communist salute. The chairman then instructed 
the three waterfront departments the deck, engine, and stewards, 
to go to their separate meeting rooms. I asked Lamonia who the 
young fellow on the rostrum was, and he told me his name was 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 285 

/ 

Walter Stack, from the Firemen's Union and that the man seated 
next to him was Berrish, from the same union. The Chairman of the 
Deck Department was Stanley Postak, of the Sailor's Union of the 
Pacific. Before the meeting split up, Stack announced that since 
there was a larger Communist faction in the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards that we would use the main hall, that there were about 
14 from the Marine Firemen's Union, but only three from the 
S.U.P. A well-dressed man then came in, and Paul Boyles called 
everyone back to the main hall, while Revels Cayton introduced 
Henry Schmidt to the comrades, who all arose to acknowledge the 
introduction. He then spoke as an official of the International Long- 
shoremen 's and Warehousemen's Union, and stated he was sorry 
Harry Bridges was unable to attend, but that he was addressing 
some union meeting about the strike. Schmidt then spoke, urging 
the workers to unite in the Communist Party to fight the capitalist 
system. There was considerable applause, and he was especially 
praised by a girl who sat on the rostrum with a pile of literature 
in front of her on a table. Lamonia told me she acted as secretary 
of the various units of the Waterfront Section, and was Walter 
Stack's wife. 

"We then split up once more, and Paul Boyles acted as chair- 
man of our group. The top fraction of our department had already 
met, set up the agendum for discussion and put him in as chairman. 
We had nothing to say about it. The five members of this top 
fraction were : Boyles, Sneddon, Cayton, Joe Harris and Johnny 
Lamonia. There was a report by Lamonia on finances and recruiting, 
and he introduced the new comrades Al Harris, Joe Holt, Jack 
Smith, Pete Van Dorn, myself, and several others whose names I 
cannot remember. Complimentary remarks were made about each 
of us. I was praised as a young man who stood up under the terrible 
conditions on ships, and as a young man who would go far in the 
Party. Members were told to contact dissatisfied young seamen 
and recruit them into the Communist movement. 

''Revels Cayton then spoke, stating that he was getting as many 
negroes as he could into the Party, and that great numbers of new 
members were being drawn from negro, Mexican and Jewish minor- 
ities. He urged everyone present to do double picket duty to show 
the rank and file union members that there would be no real strikes 
without Communist leadership; that the next real strike in San 
Francisco must be one where the city was really tied up, because 
when babies can't get milk the public will be forced to turn 
pressure on the ship owners to end the strike at any cost. Cayton 
also said that there were three men in the Marine Cooks and Stewards 
Union who were blocking the party's plans, and that they must be 
eliminated, and he told us they were Jack Leppold, acting patrolman ; 
Max Watson, assistant secretary ; Boston Hunt, dispatcher. We were 
urged by Cayton to get on union committees so we could not only 
dominate the unions themselves, but to show up the non-Communist 
union members as weak and incapable of leading the rank and 
file membership. 



286 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

"Before the meeting was over Boyles and Cayton proposed 
that I be sent to party headquarters, then located at 121 Haight 
Street, San Francisco, for special training. Three days later, about 
December, 1936, I reported at headquarters where there were some 
25 other students from various unions. We were taught parlia- 
mentary procedure, public speaking, agitation and propaganda 
techniques and what the party called character assassination. This 
last course was, by our instructor, exposure of union disruptors 
and labor spies. We were taught how to undermine American insti- 
tutions and praise the Soviet Government; how to tear down the 
morals of troops ; how a small group of Communists can dominate 
a union; how to heckle and intimidate non-Communist speakers; 
how to address public meetings. These courses of instruction lasted 
for ten weeks, and at the same time I was a picket captain on duty 
16 hours every day standing double duty because I was a Com- 
munist and had to set a good example. 

' * At these classes we were told that the Soviet "Union was strug- 
gling for the working masses of the world, and that in the event of 
war with the United States the maritime unions would be of great 
importance. The longshoremen would refuse to load the ships, ware- 
housemen would strike, the seamen would not operate the vessels, 
the party members in the galley would sabotage the food. Any such 
war, it was explained, would be caused by the United States 
never by the Soviet Union. 

"We were taught that discipline in the party was absolute; 
that it was the secret of all successful party strategy. That a good 
Communist never said no to his top fraction and obeyed all party 
orders, decisions, assignments and directives without hesitation. 
We were actually told not once, but many times that even if the 
party decided that a member's father and mother should be liqui- 
dated as enemies of the working class, the order must be obeyed. 

"Three of us were selected for special training as character 
assassins Jack Sutcliffe and a man named Taylor, besides me. In 
this class we were told to pick out men in the unions who opposed 
the party program, and to spread rumors and whispering cam- 
paigns among the other union members calling him a labor spy, 
and F. B. I. stooge, a pervert, a labor disruptor, a stool pigeon and 
anything else we could use to tear him down. We not only did this, 
but we were told to ridicule him and heckle him at meetings. Any- 
thing we could do to blacken and smear the character of all who 
resisted the Communists' program in the unions was done. We 
were also taught that the general technique was useful against any- 
one who obstructed the Communists in public life, in professions 
and even in government positions. 

"Sutcliffe and Taylor were also from the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union, and the three of us operated in our union as a team. 
We never disclosed our Communist affiliation, and when one of us 
would start to tear down someone 's character, the two others would 
spread the word among street corner groups, in waterfront cafes 
and bars and in the union hall. During meetings we separated from 
each other so we could influence three groups of people. After the 






UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 287 

character assassinators had laid the groundwork, the victim would 
be brought up on phoney charges and suspended or expelled from 
the union. This method of attack was highly effective, and widely 
used in the waterfront unions. 

"During the 1936 strike the unions issued two kinds of strike 
cards, blue for satisfactory service, and white for slackers. I held a 
blue card, but when the strike was over I was ordered by the Com- 
munist Party to ship aboard the President McKinley as messboy. 
There were many luxury liners in port at the time, and I was eligible 
to take my pick of them as a deck steward. But after 98 days of 
picket duty, propagandizing and agitating, I had to take a less 
desirable vessel and a much worse job. Boston Hunt refused to let 
me ship on the McKinley, contending that it was the only boat in 
port with a colored crew in the steward 's department and that only 
colored men should go on that boat. He called me in, accused me 
of being a Communist, told me I was just a young Jewish boy being 
used by the party and that he knew I was supposed to assassinate his 
character. In all these statements he was, of course, absolutely 
correct, but I did not realize it at the time. 

"The Communist fraction in my unit then instructed me, 
through Revels Clayton and Paul Boyles, to create a scene in front 
of Boston Hunt 's dispatcher window in the union hall by accusing 
him of discriminating against me because I was a Jew. Immediately 
I launched a campaign to undermine Hunt. I accused him of being 
a Jew hater, a Fascist and a moral pervert. At the same time every 
other Communist in the union spread the same rumors and charges 
all untrue, unfounded and merely the same old character assass- 
ination so commonly used by the party in such cases. This strategy 
succeeded, because the members instructed Hunt to place me on the 
McKinley as the only white member in the steward's department. 
My instructions from the party were to sail with the vessel as far as 
Seattle and sell them on what a fine job Revels Cayton was doing 
for the colored men in the union. In Seattle I was to contact two 
prominent Communists, Joe Galvin and William Antennie. They 
told me they had been told to make a voyage on the President Jack- 
son, and that I was to ship with them. 

"In March or April I went on the Jackson, en route to the 
Orient, but we put in at San Francisco to take passengers from 
another vessel that had been tied up by the Communists on the water- 
front because she had steel and iron destined for Japan. We were 
met by Revels Cayton, John Sneddon, Paul Boyles, Frank McCor- 
mick and John Fougerouse and instructed to hold regular party 
caucuses aboard the Jackson, spread propaganda and recruit addi- 
tional members for the party. We were also told to agitate for a 
mixed crew, because there were black crews in the steward 's depart- 
ments on the Grant and the McKinley, and to create as much dis- 
sension among the crew as possible. We had thousands of Com- 
munist propaganda leaflets printed in Japanese, some printed in 
Chinese and some in the Tagalog language to distribute among dock 
workers in Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands. We visited 
with two Chinese Party leaders, and told them that the imperialistic 



288 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

American government was responsible for taking the Chinese crews 
off the President line, and we assured them of the friendship and 
solidarity of the American Communist Party. 

1 i When my ship returned to Seattle, Sneddon told me to go to 
San Francisco for another Communist Party assignment. In August 
of 1937 I attended a closed party meeting at 779 Vallejo Street, 
where I was introduced to a Hugh Bryson, George Penevaroff, 
Eddie Lane and Pete Mendelsohn. The matter of coming elections in 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards was discussed, and we were told that 
party members would have to flood every big ship on the Pacific 
Coast at least six to each of the big Matson and President line ves- 
sels. Our prime job was to elect only trusted party members in each 
steward's department aboard ship as the ship's union delegate and 
that every member of the Committee in each department must also 
be a party member. We were to undermine and degrade all existing 
officers in our union, each of whom was a non-Communist, and carry 
out this character assassination campaign to discredit them and 
replace each with a Communist in the coming election. We called 
them stooges for the ship owners, union disrupters, labor spies and 
informants. In ships meetings the delegates sent each other resolu- 
tions condemning the union officers, and complaining of them to the 
shipowners. We also blamed the officers for not getting an 8-hour- 
day clause in the contract during the 1936 strike, whereas in fact the 
Communist-controlled negotiating committee had actually accepted 
the 10 hours per day clause. 

' ' My own part in this strategy took me on short trips on several 
different ships, directing the political undermining; then I was 
ordered ashore to meet the ships, work the waterfront and the union 
hall in the same character assassination work for which I had been 
especially trained by the Party 's experts. The Communist clique was 
determined to get rid of Boston Hunt, who was alert to the party 's 
tricks and was leading the non-Communist opposition. Just before 
the election Max Watson, the assistant secretary and a militant 
anti-Communist had to leave on union business and his place was 
taken by Jack Leppold, another non-Communist. I then got my 
assignment for the balance of the year, which was to hang around 
the waterfront and the union hall, spreading rumors and generally 
directing the character assassination against the officers which by 
this time was nearing a climax. I was also told to cause additional 
trouble for Hunt and at the same time cause racial agitation by urg- 
ing our hand picked white party members to apply to Hunt for jobs 
on the Luckenbach ships that for years had only carried colored 
crews in their steward 's departments, and at the same time urge the 
colored union members to apply for jobs through Hunt on the Mat- 
son passenger ships that carried only white crews in the steward 's 
department. When their applications were refused, I charged Hunt 
with being anti-negro, which almost caused a race riot which was 
exactly what the Communists wanted. 

' ' I then distributed what we called our Progressive Slate, which 
consisted of printed slips carrying the names of the Communist 
Party's candidates for each elective office in the union not only 
in San Francisco, but also Honolulu, San Pedro, Portland, and 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 289 

Seattle. The campaign was now under way, and we were told to 
resort to any sort of tactics necessary to elect the entire Progressive 
Slate. We even intimidated the weaker non-Communist union 
members by telling them we would take care of them if they voted 
the wrong way. 

"The balloting committee consisted of one member from San 
Pedro, two from headquarters in Sail Francisco, one from Portland 
and me from Seattle. A trusted and forceful party member went 
from San Francisco to San Pedro a week ahead of time, and was 
easily elected on the committee from that branch; the two from 
San Francisco were both Communists elected at a packed meeting ; 
the Portland man was a Communist. The Seattle man was a non- 
Communist, but when the actual balloting occurred, he was out on 
a drunk with some undercover party members. 

"The voting took place in San Francisco. According to the 
actual vote the old officers were reelected despite the character 
assassination campaign. But the ballots were counted and the votes 
were tallied by the balloting committee, all of whom were party 
members, and when the results were announced, every single 
incumbent was defeated and was replaced by a Communist. The 
whole Progressive Slate was fraudulently elected in this manner. 
Boston Hunt, leader of the non-Communist faction, was replaced 
as Dispatcher by Paul Boyles who was not even eligible for that 
position because he hadn't been a full book member of the union 
for the two-year period as the Constitution then required. 

"The newly elected officers appointed Revels Cayton as office 
assistant although no such office was authorized by the Constitu- 
tion. Ed Burke was secretary-treasurer, and because he never opposed 
the Communist program, they left him strictly alone and his office 
was not affected by this election, which was held during the latter 
part of 1937. I feel quite sure that Burke was never a Communist, 
and I have often heard party members say they had something on 
him, and would retire him some day when the Communist control 
was firmly entrenched. It was about this time that Hugh Bryson 
was developing as an important party member in the union, and 
took the same general course of instruction I did at Communist 
headquarters. 

"As soon as the Progressive Slate took office, they called an 
election to switch the entire union from the A.F.L. into the C.I.O. 
This met with considerable opposition, however, in spite of much 
groundwork laid by the party. The Seattle Branch was violently 
opposed to this move, and finally refused to send the ballots in 
so in San Francisco the Communist Ballot Committee once again 
counted the union into the C.I.O., and when the Seattle ballots did 
finally arrive, they were never counted and it was generally under- 
stood in party circles that if those Seattle votes had been counted 
the union would have remained in the A.F.L. 

"Boston Hunt then made a trip on the Matsonia, and when 
his boat docked at San Pedro he was sent to the A.F.L. convention 
from the Marine Cooks and Stewards, which had just affiliated 
with the C.I.O. A Communist caucus was held in San Francisco, 

20 L-7088-D 



290 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

charges were preferred against Hunt, and five party memebrs were 
elected to serve on the trial committee. It appeared, however, that 
the constitution required a majority referendum vote of the entire 
membership for expulsion so the trial committee voted a year '& sus- 
pension. Hunt was heckled and ridiculed when he tried to speak in 
his own defense and he was suspended. The party realized he was 
still too popular to risk out and out expulsion which would have 
required the referendum vote. He then went to Seattle, where the 
membership permitted him to ship out, regardless of the suspension. 
He was eventually barred from the ships. At the end of a year, he 
applied for reinstatement and was handed a copy of charges of 
violating his suspension. The constitution had meanwhile been 
changed to eliminate the necessity of the old formalities and he was 
expelled. 

"By this time I was completely disgusted with these Hitler 
tactics, their phoney committees, their frame-ups, their creating 
of race agitation, and their underhanded and slimy maneuvers that 
when they brought Jack Leppold up on framed charges, I revolted 
and walked out of the union meeting after voting against expulsion. 
I just couldn't stomach the Communist tactics any longer after 18 
months of carrying out my special assignments of character assas- 
sination. 

"The next day I was hailed before William Schneiderman, 
Chairman of the Communist Party of California, at 121 Haight 
Street. Others present were Revels Cayton, Paul Boyles, Frank 
McCormick and Hugh Bryson. Schneiderman reprimanded me for 
failing to help the party purge Leppold. They told me my mother 's 
family in Russia would suffer, and I told them they had already been 
killed during the revolution. They then threatened to have me 
deported back to the Philippines but I informed them I was born 
of American parents and was therefore a citizen. They gave me two 
days to think it over before I did anything I might regret. I had 
definitely made up my mind what to do, however, and when I went 
to the meeting at 779 Vallejo Street I stated to the entire member- 
ship that I was through with Communism ; that I intended to fight 
the party and to expose it from that time on; that I was sick of 
these Stalin rats and termites. I then tore up my membership card 
and walked out of the meeting, and they tried to call me back, 
saying that if I would promise not to reveal anything about the party 
they would not bother me. I told them I intended to expose them 
at every opportunity in an attempt to help others to profit by my 
mistake and that otherwise everyone would always believe I was 
still a party member. I had not walked three blocks from the meet- 
ing place when six Communists who followed me started beating 
me up. One of them stabbed toward my heart with a knife, and I 
warded off the blow with my left arm. The knife cut through my 
overcoat and inflicted a deep gash in my forearm. When I regained 
consciousness I was taken to the Harbor Emergency Hospital where 
my wounds were treated. From that time I never missed an oppor- 
tunity to expose the Communists to the union membership, and 
have fought the party constantly for nine years during which time 
I have prevented several persons from joining the party. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 291 

"With several other anti-Communist members in the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards, we started a drive which unseated the party's 
officers in the union in 1941. During the war, however, we shipped 
overseas in the merchant marine while the Communists got deferred 
from serving by applying through the C.I.O. for a status as union 
members essential to the war effort. Thus the party recaptured the 
union. 

' ' During the war I sailed on ammunition carriers in the South 
Pacific and Aleutian war zones, my ships were torpedoed and 
bombed ; I hold citations for direct enemy action and for war serv- 
ice ; I also have a citation from the President of the United States 
for battle service; I have served as chief steward on all types of 
ships, and served for the U. S. Army on the Admiral Sims. 

' * In 1945 a group of us who had been expelled from the union on 
the same sort of trumped-up charges I used to prefer against non- 
Communists when I was in the party, picketed the Soviet Consulate 
in San Francisco with signs asking the Consul to take the American 
Communist traitors to the United States and the Russian Fifth 
Column in this country over to the Soviet Union they seemed to 
love so much. My wife and baby were on this picket line, and they 
were smeared with the rest of us in the People's Daily World 
Communist newspaper. 

"For the past two years I have tried to obtain work in San 
Francisco, but the Communists had launched the same sort of 
character assassination against me that I once launched for them 
against anyone who opposed them. I went to one meeting of the 
A. F. L. Cook's Union No. 44, as I was a member of their inter- 
national, but soon discovered that this union, too, had been captured 
by the Communists. This union, as well as the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union, have smeared me in every job I tried to hold. 

"When I returned from the South Pacific after the war, I 
was hospitalized for several months. After my expulsion from the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, and two years of continual 
persecution by the Communist clique, headed by Hugh Bryson, I 
stood it as long as I could, and finally took the law into my own 
hands by going to Bryson 's home for the purpose of giving him the 
sound beating I was convinced he deserved. I cannot honestly swear 
that I regret trying to retaliate on Bryson ; I do regret that I was 
prevented from doing so. I realize I should not have tried to take 
the law in my own hands, however. 

"Bryson is positively known to me as a fanatic Communist 
Party member; he was vice president of the union when I was 
expelled by a six-man trial committee, all of whom were Com- 
munists ; the nine men who voted against my expulsion were them- 
selves expelled the following meeting; I was stabbed, knocked 
unconscious, harassed, undermined, smeared and ousted from my 
union by methods the party had taught me so thoroughly. 

"I have now been fighting Communism for nine years, and 
will continue to do so as long as I live. There are three waterfront 
unions in San Francisco free from Communist taint the Master 
Mates and Pilots, the Marine Fireman's Union and the Sailors 



292 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Union of the Pacific with a well-known anti-Communist leader, 
Harry Lundberg. 

"I can state from my own experience that the Communists 
will stop at nothing to accomplish their objective the overthrow of 
the American form of government. As a Communist I was taught 
that my first allegiance must be not to America but to Josef 
Stalin and the Soviet Union. 

(Signed) "WILLIAM D. HANDELSMAN 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 10th day of September, 



1 1 
1947. 



(Signed) "R.E. COMBS 

Counsel, California Senate Committee 
on Un-American Activities, SB 75" 

The following is the affidavit of George W. Crosby (Committee's 
Exhibit No. 12, Oakland, 1947 hearing) : 

"AFFIDAVIT OF GEORGE W. CROSBY 

* ' City and County of San Francisco 1 

Us 
"State of California 

' l George W. Crosby, 58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, first being duly sworn, deposes and says: I was born at 
Graham, Georgia, on February 9th, 1920, and attended grammar 
school and high school there. I enlisted in the United States Army 
at Savannah, Georgia, on November 15th, 1935, and in 1937 was 
transferred to Kelley Field at San Antonio, Texas. I was supporting 
my mother and two sisters out of my pay, and for two years regularly 
sent them $75.00 per month out of my pay which was $90.00, During 
the time I was receiving my education in Georgia I had to work and 
help support my family, and as a result of these experiences became 
dissatisfied and critical concerning what then appeared to be an 
unequal and unfair economic system in this country. I began to be 
critical with class distinction in the army, and while stationed at 
San Antonio was given some Marxist literature to read. I had, by 
this time, become quite bitter about the American economic system, 
and was most receptive to any ideology that offered a way out. Much 
of the Marxist literature I read at this time concerned the sharp 
class distinction in England, and this line of reading made me 
resentful of such a class system to the point that I became anti- 
British. 

1 1 In October, 1939, I was ordered to the Philippines by way of 
New York, where we stopped about two months. I took advantage of 
this stop to attend Communist rallies in Columbus Square, and by 
purchasing Marxist literature. This was during the Soviet-Nazi 
Non-aggression Pact, and at one rally I attended, the speakers were 
German Bundists and American Communists. By this time I was 
indoctrinated with Marxism to the extent that I agreed with the 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 293 

party line and actually engaged independently in spreading Com- 
munist propaganda and literature. I also decided to join the Com- 
munist Party at the first opportunity. I was then 19 years old 
impressionable and embittered. 

' * En route to the Philippines from New York we stopped in San 
Francisco for approximately a month, during which time I bought 
more Communist literature from the Party Book Store which was 
then and still is located at 15 Embarcadero and is called the Maritime 
Bookshop. I visited this shop yesterday, September 4th, 1947, and 
the same man who operated the place in 1939 is still there. 

"On February 14th, 1940, my unit arrived in the Philipines 
and during the entire time I was there, about a year, I carried on 
Communist agitation independently. I tried to get out of the army 
by applying for enlistment in the Chinese and German air forces. 
The United States was not then at war. I was still rabidly anti- 
British and prompted solely by a desire to get out of the American 
army, whose class system I also detested. The effort was, however, 
unsuccessful and only resulted in questioning by Intelligence officers, 
a transfer to Fort Riley, Kansas, and a discharge from the Army 
Nov. 27, 1941, not a dishonorable discharge, but what is termed 
a 'Blue Discharge' because of my agitating activities. 

"I then came to San Francisco, got seamen's papers, and 
shipped out as an ordinary seaman. On my first trip I met a Com- 
munist Party member, Fred Voorhies who, finding me sympathetic, 
explained the party 's technique in infiltrating waterfront and mari- 
time unions, and in spreading Communist propaganda on Gov- 
ernment ships. This was aboard the 88 Ancon, an American troop- 
ship. We returned from Australia to San Francisco, and I went 
to New York and shipped out on another troop transport, the SS 
Cristobal. These voyages were made during the war, and the National 
Maritime Union was then placing its Communist members on trans- 
ports for the very obvious purpose of subtly spreading Communist 
propaganda among the troops. During this second voyage, some of 
these propagandists asked me to go to the N. M. U. Hall at 346 W 
17th St., New York, and contact Mr. Joe Stack, then Port Agent for 
the National Maritime Union and a member of the Communist Party. 
I did contact him, and found that he had been told all about my 
activities. Ordinarily it required at least one trip on probation 
before a full card was issued, but for party sympathizers like myself 
this formality was ignored. My full card was issued one hour after 
I made the application. Stack made me wait at the Union Hall until 
5 p.m., when Stack informed me he was Chairman of the Water- 
front Section of the Communist Party and suggested that we go to 
the Young Communist League headquarters, about 2 blocks from the 
N.M.U. Hall, on 8th Ave., between 18th and 19th Streets. I was 
introduced to several young girls, one of whom suggested that I go 
to her apartment, and later invited me to spend the night it was 
the Cornish Arms Apartments at 8th Ave. and 23rd streets. I 
subsequently discovered that this was an established party technique 
used to lure young and lonesome seamen into the Young Communist 
League, a technique which, I might add, is most effective. 



294 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

" During March, 1943, I joined the Young Communist League 
sponsored by Joe Stack, Joseph Curran, then Pres. of the N.M.U., 
Ferdinand Smith, then Secy, of the N.M.U., and others whose 
names I cannot remember. 

' ' I was carefully instructed in the technique of spreading Com- 
munist propaganda aboard ship, how to recruit young seamen into 
the Young Communist League, how to work with other members 
in forcing party line resolutions at union meetings. We were not 
permitted to have any association with navy gun crews, and to 
vigorously fight discrimination and to praise the Soviet Union and 
the Red Army, to advocate socialism and criticise the American form 
of Government including the entire capitalist system. During 
this period the Communists were concentrating their activities on 
American Army troop transports, which were infested with large 
numbers of highly trained propagandists. 

"In March, 1944, I signed on the troopship USS Brazil at 
Boston. There was a man named Randal Schmidt, alias Pete Smith, 
Norval Welch and other Communists aboard. During the five or 
six months I was aboard we met nightly in the petty officers mess 
to plan strategy. Schmidt was an oiler, Norval Welch was engine 
yoeman and I was a junior electrician. Other party members were 
scattered throughout the ship, which was then considered the most 
militant pro-Communist vessel in the N.M.U. 

"There were about 400 crew members completely dominated 
by the Communist minority. We were instructed to assassinate the 
character of any non-Communist member of the crew who opposed 
our activities, by charging him falsely of the worst things we could 
think of, and resort to physical violence if necessary. 

"Schmidt was the chairman of the party activities and all 
positions of union authority were held by Communists. He told 
us that the C.I.O. would create a Political Action Committee, and 
that we would create a politically-minded crew on our ship. There 
were educational, food, political action, recreational and letter- 
writing committees. At the head of each there was a trusted Com- 
munist. We could easily dominate the crew because we were organ- 
ized, trained, disciplined, provided with a definite program, well 
supplied with literature and carefully planned each step in advance. 

* ' Trip after trip we were lavishly praised by the top officials of 
the N. M. U., in "The Pilot," the official union publication. In June, 
1944, I was in Joe Curran 's office with other members of the union 's 
Ship Committee on the Brazil, on which occasion they all addressed 
Curran as "comrade," and were so addressed by him. At this time 
Curran told us that the N. M. U. would eventually control all water- 
front and maritime unions through hard working personnel in the 
Communist Party, and that this would occur as soon as the war was 
over. He said, however, that for the time being we must concentrate 
strictly on political action and elect only officials favorable to the 
"cause." 

"Thereafter we wrote to all congressmen who opposed Com- 
munism, and Schmidt posted notices to the effect that the names of 
all crew members who failed to contribute to the Political Action 
Committee would be displayed on the bulletin board. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 295 

' ' During July and August, 1944, when in New York, we formed 
strong arm squads to protect Communist speakers. 

' ' I gained the full confidence of both Schmidt and Welch. They 
told me that trusted party members had been placed in schools, in 
government office, in labor unions, in the transportation and com- 
munications industries to such an extent that the eventual Com- 
munizing of America was inevitable but that if peaceful infiltra- 
tion and propaganda should fail, then any means, even force, would 
be used. This was the first time I was fully informed as to the real 
purposes of the Communist Party, and I began to balk at some party 
assignments. 

' ' At this point I wish to explain in as much detail as I can the 
exact methods we used aboard ship in spreading propaganda and 
literature. We were instructed never, under any cirsumstances, to 
admit any connection with the Communist Party, but by sympathiz- 
ing with disgruntled soldiers, giving them liquor and food, and gain- 
ing their confidence, to indoctrinate them by picking out faults in 
the American way of life, pointing out the benefits under a socialistic 
system such as existed in the Soviet Union and by supplying read- 
ing matter in the form of Marxist literature. The electricians, having 
access to all parts of the vessel, were provided with literature by 
Schmidt. It was carried in boxes supposed to contain electric light 
bulbs, and in the troop compartments ; was left on overhead beams 
where it would easily be found, and on the bunks, on the decks and 
in the recreation centers. 

"Schmidt told me he had fought in the Lincoln Brigade in 
Spain and went from Spain to Moscow in 1938, and attended a 
party school there. He also informed me that he had previously served 
as a Communist courier, carrying vital messages and information 
from one port to another. 

"I then refused to take any further part in distributing propa- 
ganda among the troops whereupon Schmidt and Welch told Army 
Intelligence that I was a trouble maker and pro-Nazi. I had told 
them about my effort to join the Chinese and German Air Forces 
before the war. I was removed from the Brazil and taken before 
Colonel Cherbonet and was exonerated after I told him of my Com- 
munist activities and assured him that I would have nothing further 
to do with the Communist Party or the Young Communist League. 
The original letter of exoneration, dated October 25, 1944, and 
signed by Capt. Harry W. Tyler, Assistant Adjutant General, is 
in my possession and available on demand. 

"I then returned to the Union Hall, where Curran asked me 
to run for a patrolman's job. When I told him I was interested, he 
plainly stated that I would first have to see Joe Stack, because I 
would have to go from the Young Communist League into the Com- 
munist Party before I could hold any elective office. I refused to do 
this, and told him I was through with Communism because I was 
convinced of its real objective to overthrow the American form of 
government. Curran told me I was all wrong and should take a rest. 

"On the following day Joe Stack told me all about my inter- 
view with Colonel Cherbonet in such accurate detail that it was 
clear to me that he must have gotten the information from the Army. 



296 UN- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

He said lie never heard of a Red "red-baiting," that I was through 
with the Union and the party and that if I ever revealed anything 
about the Young Communist League or the party I would find 
myself in jail wondering how I got there. I was refused permission 
to speak to the Union, and I was surprised that I wasn't kicked out 
of the Union. Curran lulled me into a false sense of security by 
assigning me back to the Brazil, which was then at Boston. I 
never got aboard, however, because there I found Schmidt, Welch 
and other Party members at the NMU Hall sitting as a trial 
committee to expel me from the Union which they did. I then 
realized that Curran had deliberately maneuvered me away from 
New York, isolated me in Boston and stacked the meeting there 
with trusted Party members. 

' ' The actual charges, herein copied from the original documents 
in my possession, were as follows : 

" 'George Crosby, Bk. 27800, is hereby charged with anti-union 
activity and conduct unbecoming a union man. While a member of 
the crew of the U.S.A.T. Brazil, he continually caused trouble by 
provoking fights and arguments. He called all who opposed him 
Communists and fascists. He repeatedly threatened to dump any 
and all members of the crew who opposed him including the lost 
(1st) Engineer and Chief Electrician. He made many statements 
against the union and the officials. He defended the SUP-STU and 
Harry Lundberg. He refused to accept the decisions of the crew. 
He showed a sympathetic attitude toward Nazi ideas. He made many 
statements against members of the Union because of their race and 
color and nationality. 

' ' ' Crosby is a man totally unfit for membership in the National 
Maritime Union, and should be expelled. 

(Signed) PETE SMITH, No. 44043 ' 

'"U.S. A.T.Brazil 

" 'Boston, Mass. 

11 'October 10, 1944 

' ' Following my expulsion, I shipped on non-union tankers until 
December, 1944. 1 was not permitted to appeal my expulsion directly 
to the membership, but later appealed to a committee, which affirmed 
the original expulsion. Schmidt, alias Pete Smith, told me on this 
occasion that if I continued to cause trouble I would find myself in 
jail. Precisely fifteen days thereafter I was arrested and charged 
with violating the Neutrality Laws and Dealing Unlawfully with 
Belligerent Nations. I was pleaded guilty and served four months in 
the Federal Correctional Institution at Danbury, Connecticut. I 
had actually purchased wrist watches and fountain pens in the 
United States, both non-rationed items, and sold them in Liverpool, 
England and was therefore technically guilty but did not sell 
Government property, nor have I ever considered myself guilty 
of having violated the Neutrality Act. 

"I then went to sea again on non-union tankers to the Pacific 
war zone and was compelled to get back my seamen 's papers from 
the Coast Guard, where I was told some N.M.U. officials had tried 
to have them permanently canceled. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 297 

"I got a membership in the Marine Firemen, Oilers, Wipers 
and Watertenders Assn., and shipped out as a chief electrician. 
The party members constantly caused trouble for me on ships. In 
August, 1946, I left a ship at Honolulu because of such trouble, 
and flew to San Francisco, where I met Walter Stack, Joe Stack's 
brother, Whitey Wurtz, and William Bailey all admitted Com- 
munist Party members, and who then held official positions in the 
M.F.O.W. 

"One afternoon Wurtz told me he had talked to Stack and 
Bailey, and that if I would rejoin the Communist Party and play 
ball, they would see that I got a full book in the Union. I had only 
held a permit to ship up to that time. When I refused, he threatened 
to have me expelled from the union. 

"On the following day charges were preferred against me by 
Walter J. Stack, then Chief Patrolman for the union. The second 
paragraph sets forth my expulsion from the N.M.U., and I was 
accused of being a labor spy, a labor disruptor, a Nazi, a collaborator 
with Westbrook Pegler, a stool-pigeon and a pervert. I was tried at 
Eagle Hall in San Francisco and completely cleared of these charges. 
Fortunately for me, the Communist infiltration of the MFOW was 
not as powerful as it was in the NMU, and the attempted character 
assassination and expulsion backfired since this Communist clique 
Stack, Bailey and Wurtz are no longer officers in the union, 
although they are still members. 

"Both Walter Stack and William Bailey are residents of San 
Francisco, and both Randal Schmidt, alias Pete Smith, and Norval 
Welch are frequent visitors on the San Francisco waterfront. 

"I deeply regret my affiliation with Communist activities, and 
sincerely hope that my experiences may help to alert the people to 
the very real menace of 28 years of Communist penetration into 
every phase of American life. The memory of my participation in 
propagandizing and agitating is to me a constant source of shame 
and regret. The same type of character assassination in my case is 
only typical of the established technique of the Communists in labor 
unions toward anyone who opposes their program. A constant threat 
of expulsion on false charges hangs over all non-Communist union 
members the threat of depriving them of their livelihood and 
smearing them in the labor movement. 

"No statement in this affidavit is intended to reflect in any way 
on the MFOW or any other union whose members and officers have 
the knowledge, ability, courage and patriotism to combat Communist 
infiltration, but the fight must be constant and vigorous. I know from 
personal experience that constant exposure and public education is 
necessary to successfully resist such a well-organized, thoroughly 
disciplined minority as the Communist Party, every member of 
which owes his primary allegiance to the Soviet Union. 

" I am glad to state that neither the MFOW, nor the AFL water- 
front unions are Communist dominated but are carrying on a suc- 
cessful fight against infiltration. 

' ' This affidavit was not solicited by the California Senate Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. Having learned that representa- 
tives of that Committee were in San Francisco, I voluntarily sought 



298 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

to personally appear and testify, but was informed that any public 
hearing would not be held while I was in San Francisco, as I planned 
to ship out again about September 10th, 1947. 1 then offered to make 
this affidavit. 

(Signed) 

GEORGE W. CROSBY 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 5th day of September, 
1947. 

(Signed) 

R. E. COMBS 

Counsel for California Senate Fact-finding Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities, SR No. 75. 

COMMUNIST PERSECUTION 

Martin Kaplan, a former member of the Marine Cooks and Stewards 
Association, who was expelled because of his anti-Communist stand and 
fight against Hugh Bryson and the Communist-controlled union, gave a 
bit of interesting testimony at the Committee's Oakland hearing in 1947. 
The testimony is as follows : 

Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Mr. Kaplan, you testified, as you remem- 
ber, at yesterday 's session of the committee, and you said something 
about an eviction notice that you had received from Mr. Paul Pinsky. 
Do you have that with you? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. May I have it, please ? 

(Document handed by witness to counsel.) 

The Witness : I'd like to explain that. 

Mr. Combs : Just a minute. 

Q. (By Mr. Combs) : Have you been in the room all morning? 

A. No, sir. 

Q. Were you here when the last witness testified that Mr. Paul 
Pinsky was one of the organizers of Chapter 25 of the F.A.B.C.T. ? 

A. Well, I heard a little something back there, but I didn 't get 
it very clear. 

Q. I see. All right. Is this Paul Pinsky, whose signature appears 
on the document you handed to me, the same Paul Pinsky who was 
State Director, State Research Director of the C.I.O.? 

A. And also the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union. 

Q. And also that union? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Q. When was this notice terminating your tenancy served on 
you? 

A. Well, at the time it happened I was in Los Angeles, and 
they came and threw it in at my wife just threw it at her, and I 
just got back and she handed that to me. She said she got one 
through the mail, and I 'd just like to explain. 

Q. All right, just a minute. 

Chairman Tenney: I think, Mr. Combs, that you might read 
that into the record. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 299 

Mr. Combs : All right, Mr. Chairman. It reads as follows : 
"Notice to Martin Kaplan, 768 7th Avenue, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. 

' ' This is to advise you that the premises of which you are 
presently a tenant, at 768 7th Avenue, San Francisco, have 
been sold to Patil Pinsky and Sarah Pinsky, his wife. From and 
after the receipt of this notice all rentals formerly payable by 
you to us should be paid to Mr. and Mrs. Pinsky, 1242 Pierce 
Street, San Francisco, " 

and it is dated September 24, 1947, and it's signed the first name 
on this is illegible to me it 's Jacob Fisher and Rachel Fisher. And 
the second notice of eviction is directed to the same address, giving 
thirty days' notice and giving as the reason that it is the owner's 
desire to use and occupy the property. This one is dated September 
29, 1947 and is signed by Paul Pinsky and Sarah Pinsky. 

Chairman Tenney : Mr. Kaplan, you wanted to make an expla- 
nation. 

The Witness: Yes, when we were in the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards, we took our stand on Communism activity and we were 
expelled and then we started going to the courts, and well, Mr. 
Fisher owned the property at that time and there was three flats in 
that building, three flats. And then, what do you know, all of a 
sudden, like out of a clear sky, I get a notice that they want my flat 
and that 's after we get through painting the place and renovating it 
at my own expense and he charges me $65 a month. Well, see, it 
looked kinda suspicious that people would be so inhuman to want 
to put us out like that. So I investigated the thing and what do I 
find out ? I find out that Mr. Gladstein and Mr. Andersen of that law 
firm in San Francisco, and Siebert, a lawyer there, is defending the 
landlords. So it looked suspicious, so I looked into the thing and I 
find out that Charles Fisher, who is the son of Mrs. Fisher and also 
works for the California Bulletin as a copy man or something like 
that, is supposed to be a veteran and he's living with Paul Pinsky 
and he's his brother-in-law. We find out Paul Pinsky is the son-in- 
law of Mrs. Fisher. However, we brought that up into the OPA 
and laid it down before them and brought them in and questioned 
them and found out that it was all on lack of faith. Then on top of 
that he investigates that there $65 and he finds out that's exorbi- 
tant and they've been overcharging me. It's only supposed to be 
$30 and so it turns out that on that business they have to refund me 
each $30 or else I can sue for triple the amount, so I came out the 
gainer there. Now, when we won the case here in court on the con- 
stitution and it 's proven that was adopted illegally it was on the 
evidence of that they sent me a notice to get out, and my wife tells 
me on the phone in Los Angeles about it. Well, when I get back we 
investigate who owns the place and find out it's Paul Pinsky and 
there was no money transaction there whatever. Usually there's a 
money transaction they charge you so much per thousand or 

hundred 

Mr. Combs: You mean the Internal Revenue Tax. 



300 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Witness: That's right. So we investigated that and there's 
no stamps or nothing, which means they just transferred it over to 
change the membership to get me out. So Paul Pinsky, after all, 
must be the instigator originally, and the law can't protect me and 
the law says if a man has an apartment he has a right to get the 
place in good faith. But there isn 't no good faith. They figure to get 
me out no matter what, and I have a family and we don't know 
what to do, and it's all these dirty, rotten, low-down, rotten, dirty 
Communists. But I'll never give up. They can't scare me and I'll 
keep right on fighting them. Of course, my wife may get irritated ; 
she may not like it, but if she doesn't like it I'll send her back to 
her mother. But I want to make it plain the tactics they use and 
how they don 't stop at nothing and nothing 's sacred to them dirty 
rats. He could have chosen any one of those three flats if he really 
needed a place and Mr. and Mrs. Fisher seem to own all kinds 
of property. These dirty Communists think the United States of 
America is no good and they want to change the government and 
they don't care how they do it. They wallow in wealth and take 
advantage of people and overcharge them. I made a statement before 
the OPA and this woman owns all kinds of property in San Fran- 
cisco. All I can say is that it seems that I've got a faculty that I 
always get in amongst these Communists, and believe you me, it 
isn't funny when you have a family and you try to earn a liveli- 
hood and those people try to ruin your life. It's no bed of roses. 
I'll admit they're really well organized. How I'm going to come 
out of this I don't know, and it's all because I gave that $20 to 
fight these rats. 

Chairman Tenney: They not only took away your union 
membership, but they took away your job and home. 

The Witness: That's right, and I'll hope for the best, but I 
don 't know where it 's going to end. You never know what 's going to 
happen when these Communist rats go against you. 

AFFIDAVIT OF ALEX HARRIS 

The following is the affidavit of Alex Harris, who testified at the 
committee 's Oakland hearing in 1946 : 

CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO ) ss 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA ) 

Alex Harris, of said city, county and State, first being duly 
sworn, deposes and says : 

"I was born in the City of New York on November 1, 1901, and 
went to primary and grammar school there. My mother passed away 
when I was about three months old. My father was in the Middle 
West, and I was put in a foundling institution and later in an 
orphan asylum. When I was about 13 I lived with my grandparents 
and left school to work when I was 16. 

"In 1915 there was a little restaurant in a basement on East 
Broadway near Attorney Street, where socialists, radicals and mem- 
bers of the Russian Marxist group used to meet. Among the Russians 
was Leon Trotsky, who had fled from Europe to this Country. I 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 301 

never actually talked with him, but often heard him arguing Marx- 
ism with others. There was a settlement house just around the corner 
from this restaurant, and after a bunch of us young fellows had a 
workout at the gym, we used to go around to the restaurant which 
was a kind of neighborhood meeting place. The Trotsky group 
would discuss the coming revolution in Russia, the fine points of 
Marxism and criticize the defects of the capitalist system. We didn 't 
understand what they were talking about, and used to ask this 
whole group why they didn't get out of the United States if they 
didn't like our government. This, of course, was two years before 
the Russian revolution, and we never heard Communism mentioned. 
To the young men in my group, these older men who sat with 
Trotsky were just radicals we used to call them "spittoon philoso- 
phers." In 1916 Trotsky announced that he was going to England 
and I never saw him again. If I remember right, he was working 
in an eastside tailor shop. It wasn't until three or four years later 
that I found out from one of my friends that Trotsky had been 
one of the leaders in the 1917 Russian revolution. 

' * After working in New York at various jobs, I came to Oakland 
in 1927, worked for the Pullman Company. Then I came to San 
Francisco and shipped out as an ordinary seaman on the 8.8. 
Willwellow, a Williams line ship. My salary was $25 per month and 
although my life up to this time had not been very easy, I had never 
realized what conditions on a ship could be. There were nine or ten 
men who slept in one small, badly ventilated f o 'castle ; my bunk was 
directly over the steering apparatus, which vibrated and rumbled so 
much that sleep was almost impossible. We got one cold storage egg 
apiece every Sunday, and you could smell them as soon as they were 
brought out of the mess-room. Our only fruit was one orange once 
a week. The meat was mouldy, the mush was often full of weevils 
in fact some of the men got so sick on this food they had to leave 
the ship. There was no linen on the bunks just some dirty blankets. 
We not only worked all day, but often late at night in dirty bilges 
and doing any other jobs. We weren't permitted to turn in until 
this night work was finished. At the start of the trip the vessel 
sprang a leak in her oil line, and instead of stopping at an available 
port for repairs, we were ordered to continue, and during the entire 
voyage to New York along the coast the oil was constantly leaking 
into the crew quarters. Each day we scattered sawdust over the floor, 
but the condition was almost unbearable. When we started through 
the Panama Canal the oil leak was plugged, as we had to stand inspec- 
tion. As soon as we sailed out the other end of the canal, however, 
the leak started again and continued until we reached New York. 

"At this time the ship owners were paying as little as possible 
for as much work as they could squeeze out of their crews. All ships 
that is, freighters weren't as bad as the Willwellow, but the 
general conditions were very bad. The men were constantly com- 
plaining, many of them were jumping ship, but there was lots of 
help available and the shipowners were taking every advantage of 
the situation. When we reached New York I left the Willwellow, and 
worked in the East until 1932, when I came back to the West Coast. 



302 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Until 1935 1 worked at various places in California ; jobs were getting 
scarce, so in September or October I went down to 86 Commercial 
Street, San Francisco, the Marine Cooks and Stewards Hall, joined 
the union and got a probationary trip card. In December, 1935, or 
January, 1936, I shipped out as a scullion on the Matson ship S.8. 
Monterey bound for Australia. Conditions on this vessel were much 
better than they had been on the Willwellow, but they were far 
from good. My wages were $50 a month, plus room and board. The 
room, commonly called a glory -hole, was down below the water line, 
had no port holes and practically no ventilation there were always 
from 60 to 80 men sleeping there at one time, and when the ship 
sailed through the tropics the odor from dirty, sweaty clothes was 
almost unbearable. The food was bad. We were told we could have 
the same food as the passengers ate but apparently the passengers 
were awfully hungry or the cook never prepared too much because 
our food always came out of the same old pot, and was never varied 
much, since we usually got the same food for three or four meals 
in a row. 

"By this time there were several Communists on most vessels. 
They were alert for complaints from the crew, and were taking 
advantage of the conditions created by the shipowners. By selecting 
the most dissatisfied men, sympathizing with them and stirring up 
trouble, it was quite simple for these Communists to persuade crew 
members to join the party. We had just gone through the San 
Francisco General Strike in 1934, and the Communists were con- 
stantly agitating, causing trouble aboard the ships, and tried to 
keep the morale off-balance. During this period the Communists 
never revealed that they were party members, but criticized the 
capitalist shipowners, and the capitalist system in general. 

"I later made four or five trips on the Monterey. On the first 
trip, the ships' delegate from the Marine Cooks and Stewards was 
a man named John N. Sneddon, a waiter. This being my first voyage 
as a union man, I naturally called on Sneddon for advice and 
approved of his activities. He was replaced, on my second voyage, 
by Bill Lonergan (Lonergon), as delegate. He, like Sneddon, was 
always telling us that we had better get shorter hours, more pay 
and generally better conditions Lonergan was very militant in his 
demands for the men, and made himself quite popular. 

"On the third trip there was quite a large clique of us in the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, and I now realized that we were 
unwittingly doing work for a few Communists who remained in 
the background, concealed their party membership, and by meeting 
secretly with each other, planned the program of agitation, and 
influenced our group to spread the propaganda among the other 
men. On this third trip some of us found Communist literature on 
our bunks apparently innocent material that the average seaman 
would go for the magazine called "The Communist/' "The Party 
Organizer," pamphlets against discrimination and such material. 
There was virtually no reading matter aboard ship at this time, 
and after a few days at sea a man will even read a telephone book 
so while this Communist propaganda probably wouldn't have been 
read on shore, it was read from cover to cover at sea. This material 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 303 

was discussed, and there always seemed to be somebody around to 
lead the discussion and agree with everything in the particular 
book or pamphlet. There were always suggestions made that mem- 
bers of the crews go to hear Communist speakers, then to buy more 
party literature at Communist book shops thus moving the prospec- 
tive recruits a little closer to actually joining the party. 

"This sort of activity went on during several voyages, arid I 
was convinced that working conditions for seamen were terrible, 
and that something should be done about it. Complaints to the ship- 
owners did absolutely no good at all ; complaints to the union officials 
did no good, either. The only people who seemed to be doing any 
thing at all to improve conditions were the Communists. I then 
started to buy literature at the Maritime Book Store, 15 Embarca- 
dero Street, San Francisco, and to attend open Communist lectures 
and forums. This was in 1937. 

' ' One night some of us went to a Greek tea house, upstairs on 
Third Street between Folsom and Harrison Streets in San Francisco, 
to hear a talk by a former longshoreman who had just returned from 
organizing the cannery workers in Alaska. I can't remember his 
first name, but his last name was Wolff. His main point was that 
the working man could never improve his condition without a 
solid, militant organization to lead, and that the Communist Party 
was the only organization through which the job could be done. He 
indicated that such Communist leadership accomplished organizing 
the cannery workers in Alaska, and that the party was the vanguard 
of the working classes all over the world. I later learned that each 
Communist had been instructed to bring one non-Communist to 
this meeting. The party had a powerful faction in the Marine Cooks 
and Stewards by this time. The meeting was actually an open forum 
of the waterfront section of the Communist Party of San Francisco. 
A great deal of enthusiasm was whipped up at this meeting, and 
all guests, including myself, were asked to join the party. Pete 
Mendelsohn and Paul Boyles, took me to this forum. Other Com- 
munists present were : Revels Cayton, William Lonergan, and others 
whose names I have forgotten. I joined the Communist Party at 
this meeting. This was late in 1937 or early in 1938. 

"From that time on I regularly attended all party meetings, 
fraction caucases and other functions whenever I was in port. The 
caucases were then held on Wednesdays, usually at 779 Vallejo 
Street, where the strategy was planned for our Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union meetings, which were held on Thursdays. I was 
also frequently instructed to attend what we termed top fraction 
meetings, composed of a few members of the Communist fraction 
in the union. Invariably at these top fraction meetings there were 
Paul Boyles, Revels Cayton, Frank McCormick, a very highly 
educated Chinaman whose name I can't recall John Sneddon, 
and John Lamonea who was Chairman of the Waterfront Section. 
This top fraction met on Monday or Tuesday. The Wednesday meet- 
ing at 779 Vallejo Street, was divided into two parts and first the 
whole Waterfront Section met. Then the Communists from the vari- 
ous unions held separate meetings in adjacent rooms. In our union. 



304 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

the Marine Cooks and Stewards, the top fraction members who had 
met a day or so before, would come into the room and tell the other 
Communists what they had to do at the union meeting the next 
day. No explanation and no reasons were ever given. The top fraction 
made the decision and issued the orders and that was that. Then 
we all went to the union meeting, each man with his particular 
assignment. We knew exactly what line to follow, what resolution 
to sponsor or oppose. 

"In other words, the top fraction Communists met first and 
decided what should be done. On the next night the Waterfront 
Section would meet, and at that meeting party members in each 
union would hold separate meetings where the top fraction in each 
instance would announce the program and issue the orders and brief 
the members for the general union meeting. Thus a small Communist 
fraction in these unions exerted a powerful influence. 

' ' These top fraction meetings, of course, weren 't limited to the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Union. While our top fraction was 
briefing us, the top fractions of the Marine Firemans Union and the 
Sailors Union of the Pacific were doing the same thing. 

"Having met with the top fraction of the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards myself, I became familiar with this system but I never 
found out who issued the orders to the top fraction. The Communists 
in the Longshoremen 's and Warehousemen 's Unions met separately 
never with the Waterfront Section so far as I know. During this 
period some Communists from the Eadio Operators, Master Mates 
and Pilots, and Marine Engineers Unions used to meet with us; 
there were only a few from each of these unions. I understand they 
are fairly well infiltrated now. 

' ' I was a member of the Communist Party for about a year and a 
half. My main interest was to improve the working conditions and 
obtain decent wages for seamen. I never had the patience to make 
any serious study of Marxist principles, and could never understand 
why the party spent so much time praising Russia and damning the 
United States instead of trying to hold the workers. There were 
resolutions at our union meetings about recruiting for the Lincoln 
Brigade and donations for Spain and all sorts of matters sponsored 
by the Communists, and less and less attention was devoted to really 
trying to improve working conditions. 

"The main objective was to replace all officers in the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards Union with Communists, and almost all strategy 
was along that line. When I became a Communist there were not 
more than 50 party members in the union, out of a total member- 
ship of approximately 5,000 ; that is, in San Francisco. During 1936- 
1937, there was a strike, however, and the Communists increased the 
strength of their fraction to about 200. Now I would estimate the 
Communists in the union to number at least 500. I am speaking of 
actual members, only not sympathizers. 

"At top fraction meetings we plotted an attack on each non- 
Communist officer in the union, and the entire fraction was instructed 
to spread the poison one officer was accused of being a drunk, 
another was guilty of discrimination ; another was a thief, another 
a stool pigeon for the shipowners, and so on. This type of attack 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 305 

was very successful. We planted party members at key places around 
the union hall at meetings, and heckled and confused every anti- 
Communist speaker and everyone who opposed our program; we 
submitted long series of resolutions and motions, made long, dry 
and out of order speeches, and so dragged out the meetings that 
most of the non-Communist members would get disgusted and fail 
to show up at other meetings. When the attendance had been whittled 
down in this manner all the Communists would attend and easily 
put over their programs. We used to ask for lots of committees in 
the union, because the officers were incapable of handling routine 
matters, thus helping to discredit them in the eyes of the rank and 
file membership. 

''All good party members will always attend every single 
union meeting, and he comes early arid stays late. Nothing is ever 
allowed to interfere family life, business, social activities, nothing. 
Non-Communist members usually are looking for any weak excuse 
to stay away from meetings. The Communist fraction in a union is 
well trained. Every member knows exactly what he is to do at every 
important meeting; the Communist minority votes in a solid bloc 
while it works to disrupt and confuse the unorganized non-Com- 
munist majority. Many non-Communist union officers will weaken 
and quit under fire. A Communist officer is never permitted to 
resign under fire. 

"It was decided, however, that the activity should be stepped 
up, but in spite of everything we did when I was in the party we 
couldn't take over control of the union. Up to this time, late in 
1937, the union had been affiliated with the A.F.L., and there was 
much agitation on the part of the Communists to switch it to the 
C.I.O., because in the A.F.L. international organization the party 
met many obstacles, and it was decided that affiliation with the 
C.I.O. would make the capture of the union much easier. 

"A party caucus was called, and Communists were selected to 
be sent from San Francisco to Marine Cooks and Stewards ' Branches 
at Seattle, Portland and Wilmington to lay the ground work for 
affiliation with the C.I.O. It was announced at this caucus, which I 
attended, that the C.I.O. would provide funds to pay the expenses 
of these Communist organizers. The caucus was, incidentally, held 
in Frank McCormick 's hotel, the Occidental, on Montgomery Street. 
A few days later another caucus was held at the Lincoln Hotel, 
where Revels Cayton lived. It was decided that I should be sent to 
Wilmington, and my expense money was sent to me by Johnny 
Lamonia, Chairman of the Waterfront Section of the Communist 
Party. After this preparatory work had been done, an election was 
held which purported to be a straw vote but when the favorable 
result was announced, the Communists managed to have the straw 
vote declared to be the official vote, and the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards was affiliated with the C.I.O. Of course, if the balloting 
had been unfavorable, the party would have declared the election a 
test vote and taken additional time to do more propaganda work. 



21 L-7088-D 



306 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

' ' I remember that just before I left San Francisco for Wilming- 
ton to do part of the work for the party in preparing for this elec- 
tion, Revels Cayton instructed me to undermine Joe 'Connor, who 
was our port agent at Wilmington. Cayton told me that O'Connor 
had been expelled from the Communist Party in 1934, that he was 
a confirmed drunkard and a degenerate and couldn't be trusted. I 
accordingly got into O'Connor's confidence and persuaded him to 
advocate the affiliation with the C.I.O. I was unable to undermine 
him in the time I had, and so far as I know he is still port agent. 

''The old line union men who had been in the A.F. of L. for 
many years were extremely bitter over this election, and under the 
leadership of a man named Boston Hunt, who was the union dis- 
patcher, soon developed into a purely anti-Communist faction. The 
top faction of the party in our union therefore decided to undermine 
Hunt. This was early in 1938. The whole Communist faction went 
to work in the usual manner. -Hunt was called a Trotskyite, a labor 
spy, incompetent, and every other bad thing that might poison the 
rank and file membership against him. 

"Joe O'Connor, the port agent at Wilmington, had issued cre- 
dentials to Hunt, authorizing him to attend an A. F. of L. conven- 
tion at Wilmington as a delegate from the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union, on the theory that the so-called straw vote was 
invalid. 

* ' We Communists immediately held another top fraction meet- 
ing, and Revels Cayton announced that this was a good chance to 
purge Hunt. He was accordingly brought up on charges that he 
had illegally attended the A.F.L. convention. We were so anxious 
to get rid of Hunt that we managed to have a Communist named 
Ralph Harvath and myself appointed on the trial committee with 
instructions as to exactly what verdict we should render and what 
sentence to recommend before the trial was held. The verdict was 
guilty, the sentence was expulsion from the union. The three other 
members of the trial committee were not Communists. It seemed 
to me that outright expulsion over a technicality was too severe, 
and I protested. The top fraction insisted on expulsion. I then went 
to State Communist Headquarters, then located at 121 Haight 
Street, with William Lonergan and we protested to Frank Spector 
and William Schneiderman, high party officers. They reprimanded 
us for not accepting the orders of the top fraction and insisted that 
the program be put through. The three other members of the trial 
committee voted for one year 's suspension, and Harvath and I dis- 
obeyed the party and concurred in the decision. For this deviation 
from party discipline both Harvath and I were threatened with 
expulsion from the union and reprimanded, and the work I had 
done in Wilmington was supposed to have saved me. The party then 
hounded Hunt from one job to another, had him fired, smeared his 
character and subjected him to constant persecution. When Hunt 
came back for reinstatement at the end of a year, the Communists 
were more powerful, and expelled him on the ground that he had 
violated his probation by shipping out from Seattle. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 307 

"This matter disgusted me with the Communists. I had been 
in the party about a year and a half. During that time I learned 
that there was nothing democratic in the party. The leaders were 
always preaching civil liberties and democratic freedom, yet the 
handful of autocratic leaders ruled the party like a group of little 
Tsars. No real decision was left to ordinary party members, who 
were only supposed to execute the orders from their superiors. The 
constant campaign of character assassination, undermining, treach- 
ery and deceit was simply to much for me to take any longer. It was 
about this time, too, the the party was launching its campaign of 
racial equality and encouraging association between white women 
and negro men. I can positively state from my own knowledge that 
white women members of the party were actually instructed to 
engage in sexual relations with negro men as a means of getting them 
to join the party. I decided that if this was how the so-called van- 
guard of the working classes operated, I wanted no part of it. The 
Communists preach against discrimination, but it discriminates 
viciously against everyone who presumes to disagree with its pro- 
gram. 

"When I became a Communist I joined because I thought the 
party was sincere in trying to help the workers. Now I know better. 
I know that Communism is as ruthless and absolute a Fascist organi- 
zation as Hitler 's Gestapo ; that it seeks to destroy this government 
by fair means or foul ; that it has no interest in the workers or the 
labor movement except to use them for its own purposes, and the 
same goes for their tenderness toward racial minority groups ; and 
being a Jew I know what I'm saying. 

"I resigned from the party early in 1938, and threw my mem- 
bership book in the faces of Comrades Cayton and Boyles. Since 
that time I have done all I could to fight Communism. As a result 
I have been expelled from the Marine Cooks and Stewards, black- 
listed with other unions and smeared like all the others who opposed 
the Communist program. 

"It is a pleasure to see that the American people are just 
beginning to realize the real danger of Communism. As a former 
party member I know that these traitors must be smoked out of 
their holes constantly; and then the holes should be fumigated, 
because Communism is like a disease, and it thrives on poverty and 
unemployment. 

' * In addition to expelling me from the union in 1945, the Com- 
munists, who now dominate it completely, have also expelled at 
least 19 others, and hundreds of others have quit the union because 
they didn't want to belong to a Communist-dominated labor organi- 
zation. 

"President of the Marine Cooks and Stewards at the present 
time is Hugh Bryson. In 1938 he was an insignificant young Com- 
munist. For years he, like the rest of us, denied his party member- 
ship, and called anyone who accused him of being a Communist a 
red-baiter. But in 1945, Russia having just won the war for the 
United States, according to the party line, Bryson became bolder. 
At a regular meeting of the union during the latter part of August, 



308 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

1945, I asked him directly if he was a Communist, and he said that 
he was and proud of it. He added that the long-range program of 
the Communist Party was more important than the affairs of an 
insignificant union. 

( Signed ) ALEX HARRIS 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this thirtieth day of Septem- 
ber, 1947. 

(Signed) R. B. COMBS 

Counsel, California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on un-Ameri- 
can Activities, Senate Resolution No. 75. 

The committee finds that the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union is 
completely dominated by the Communist Party through such Com- 
munists as Hugh Bryson. Legislation must be enacted that will nullify 
such organizations as bargaining agents for the protection of both the 
decent American members, the employers, and the public in general. 

MOBILIZATION FOR DEMOCRACY 

This organization was found to be a Communist front by the Legis- 
lative Committee investigating Un-American Activities in California 
1945-1947. (For detailed account of this organization see the committee's 
1947 report). 

Robert W. Kenny was the " front" used by Communist strategists 
in calling a conference at the Royal Palms Hotel, 360 Westlake Avenue 
in Los Angeles, July 17, 1945. The purported objective of the conference 
was to organize to combat racial persecution and the activities of Gerald 
L. K. Smith, and many loyal citizens participated, not realizing that 
they were being "involved," in a Communist program. When the true 
Communist character of the organization was disclosed most of the 
"innocents" indignantly withdrew. 

The executive committee of the meeting in question was composed of 
Robert W. Kenny, George Stiller, Eleanor Abowitz, Anne and Francis 
Polack, Carey McWilliams, Leo Gallagher, and Albert Dekker. Among 
the organizations represented were the Hollywood Independent Citizens 
Committee of The Arts, Sciences and Professions, and The Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade. 

Out of the conference of July 17, 1945, came a so-called "Giant 
Anti-Smith Meeting ' ' at the Olympic Auditorium on the evening of July 
20, 1945. Better than $12,000 was collected at this meeting, of which 
approximately $7,000 was a net profit. It had been agreed that G. 
Raymond Booth, a sincere and trusting member of the Society of Friends, 
was to receive the net sum collected at the meeting for the use of his 
organization, the Council for Civic Unity. Booth had been "involved" 
by this promise and believed that the Kenny group was sincerely attempt- 
ing to do a job compatible with the purpose of the Council for Civic 
Unity. It should be needless to say that Booth never received any part of 
the money collected and promised for his organization. Instead, he found 
himself enmeshed in a tangle of Communist intrigue. 

Because of the confusion surrounding G. Raymond Booth and his 
organization, the Council for Civic Unity, the committee pauses here 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 309 

to point out that Booth is a sincere gentleman, honestly attempting to 
perform a public service as he views it, in an American way. The Council 
of Civic Unity was heavily infiltrated by the usual Communist gang and 
Mr. Booth made a real effort to cleanse it of its unholy elements. Booth 's 
efforts in this direction were probably contributing factors to the creation 
of a real Communist front in the same field. An effort was made to absorb 
the Council for Civic Unity, but Mr. Booth was wary. He had found his 
Council for Civic Unity being pushed into Communist projects by such 
notorious characters as Herbert K. Sorrell, Albert Dekker, Augustus 
Hawkins, Philip Connolly, and others, and hence was forewarned when 
he found these left-stalwarts in the group pulling the strings at the 
" Giant Anti-Smith Meeting" at the Olympic Auditorium, July 20, 1945. 

The Communist inspired Mobilization for Democracy was the organi- 
zation spawned at the Olympic Auditorium. By the time the group 
gathered for its third meeting at the Los Angeles City College, August 
26, 1945, the Communist control was obvious. At this meeting we find 
John Howard Lawson, Pauline Lauber (Finn), Dr. Franklin Fearing, 
Emmet Lavery, Dr. Frank Davis, Carey Me Williams, Ellis E. Patterson, 
Augustus Hawkins, Orville Caldwell, Dr. Leonard Bloom, Philip M. 
Connelly, and Eleanor Abowitz. The tip-off came when someone proposed 
a resolution calling upon the organization to express its opposition to 
Communism as well as Fascism. The then Attorney General, Robert W. 
Kenny, adroitly smothered the resolution and the Communist character 
of the group was firmly established. 

Various panel discussion groups reported recommendations at this 
meeting. Among these recommendations were propositions to established 
* ' compulsory educational courses on racial relations for all police officers ' ' 
and for the public schools ; the formation of a " Model Community Anti- 
Fascist Plan;" the organization of "neighborhood block meetings" to 
combat Fascism; a series of special lectures and seminars to be con- 
ducted by Dr. Franklin Fearing ; the utilization of the Newsboys Union 
for the distribution of propaganda to be prepared by the Mobilization 
for Democracy ; the inauguration of a series of radio programs patterned 
after the Town Meeting Forum of the Air and prepared by the Mobiliza- 
tion for Democracy ; the preparation and distribution of ' ' appropriate ' ' 
booklets and pamphlets; widespread exhibition of "appropriate" 16 
millimeter films ; and ' ' financial support to, and endorsement of, a state- 
wide committee for the establishment of a Fair Employment Practices 
Commission to be headed by Robert W. Kenny, Bartley Crum, Walter 
Wanger and Isaac Pacht." 

(Jerry Pacht, son of Isaac Pacht, was a speaker for American 
Youth for Democracy, successor to the Young Communist League. Bartley 
Crum is one of the state sponsors of this Communist front for youth.) 

Headquarters for the Mobilization for Democracy was announced 
as being in the Wilcox Building where such Communist and Communist- 
front organizations as the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, Spanish 
Speaking Peoples Congress, and the People's Daily World maintain 
offices. 



310 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

MOTION PICTURE ARTISTS' COMMITTEE 

The personnel of this committee clearly indicates its character as a 
Communist-front organization. Dashiell Hammett, the chairman, has a 
long record as a Communist sympathizer. He has been active in the 
Communist front, the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 
William Gropper has attained fame in Communist circles as a Communist 
cartoonist. Kyle Crichton, alias Robert Forsythe, is a well known Com- 
munist writer for the New Masses. 

Sylvia Sidney was vice chairman of the Motion Picture Artists' 
Committee. Tatiana Tuttle was the treasurer. Vera Harris was executive 
secretary and Charles Page was secretary. The executive board was com- 
posed of the following : Philip Dunne, Melvyn Douglas, Frances Farmer, 
Harold Goldman, Johnny Green, Lewis Milestone, Dudley Nichols, 
Dorothy Parker, Luise Rainer, Madeline Ruthven, Gale Sondergaard, 
Donald Ogden Stewart, Nathaneal West, and Anna May Wong. 

The national sponsors of the Motion Picture Artists' Committee 
were Albert Einstein, Congressman John M. Coffee, Congressman Henry 
G. Teigan, Paul Manship, Rockwell Kent, Martha Graham, Ernest 
Hemingway, Archibald MacLeish, Congressman Jerry O'Connell, Con- 
gressman John T. Bernard, William Gropper, Stuart Davis, Anga 
Enters, Kyle Crichton, and Professor Robert A. Brady. 

The headquarters of the organization was located at 6305 Yucca 
Street in Hollywood. The telephone number was Hillside 7361. 

Among those who sponsored a fund drive in conjunction with the 
Communist front, North American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy, 
and the Medical Bureau to Aid Spanish Democracy, connected with the 
Motion Picture Artists' Committee, are the following: Herbert Biber- 
man, Sidney Buchman, Humphrey Cobb, Florence Eldridge. (Mrs. 
Frederic March), Lewis Milestone, Dudley Nichols, Sampson Raphael- 
son, Madeline Ruthven, Donald Ogden Stewart, Franchot Tone, Charles 
Page, Dr. Herbert Alexander, Sherwood Anderson, Richard Arlen, 
Melvyn Douglas, Theodore Dreiser, Robert W. Kenny, Archibald Mac- 
Leish, Paul Muni, and Sylvia Sidney. 

MUSICIANS' CONGRESS COMMITTEE 

This front was organized for the purpose of "involving" non- 
Communist musicians in communist activities. The technique is designed 
to draw non-Communist individuals into a movement touching upon 
particular interests, and gradually involving them in Communist 
activities with known Communists. The trick is a two-edged sword. When 
the front is attacked as Communistic the unwary non-Communists mem- 
bers, reacting to normal impulses, defend the organization and act as 
a shield for the Communist members, or, having discovered the true 
purposes of the group, they are held captive and silent because of 
unwitting cooperation with the Communists. The middle course is obvious. 
Having been ''involved" and thrown into association with "Big Shot" 
Communist leaders and sold on the surface objectives of Communism 
they are recruited into the party. 

The Musicians' Congress Committee was organized early in 1944. 
A symposium on "Culture and Democracy" was held May 24, 1944 at 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 311 

8.15 p.m. at the Woman's Club of Hollywood, located at Hollywood 
Boulevard and La Brea in Los Angeles. 

Dalton Trumbo was scheduled as a speaker on "The Function of 
Culture.' 9 Lena Home spoke on "The Negro Artist in American Cul- 
ture"; Gene Kelly expounded on "The Role of the Actor"; Sumner 
Spaulding spoke on "Architectural Environment of Modern Culture"; 
and George Antheil appeared for the Musicians' Congress Committee. 
Dr. Walter Rubsamen, of the University of California at Los Angeles, 
was announced as chairman of the symposium. 

Among other Communist fronts organized for musicians was the 
Musicians' Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy. Jules Yanover was 
the secretary of this organization, and Pablo Casals, was honorary chair- 
man. Sponsors of the organization are as follows : Clarence Adler, Leon 
Barzin, Marion Bauer, Emanuel Bay, Marc Blitzstein, Vera Brodsky, 
Samuel Chotzinoff, Edward Gushing, Olin Downes, Albert Einstein, 
Rudolph Ganz, Alma Gluck, Leopold Godowsky, Dr. Percy Goetschius, 
Sascha Gorodnitzky, John Hammond, Howard Hanson, Roy Harris, 
Arthur Hartmann, Alfred Hertz, Carroll Hollister, Louise Homer, 
Sidney Homer, Sol Hurok, Frederick Jacobi, Philip James, Harry 
Kauffman, A. Walter Kramer, Serge Koussevitzky, William Kroll, Frank 
LaForge, Ray Lev, Irene Lewishown, Manfred Malkin, Harry C. Oppen- 
heim, Erno Rapee, Fritz Reiner, Wallingford Riegger, Gilbert Ross, 
Beryl Rubinstein, Alexander Smallens, Sigmund Spaeth, Dr. David 
Stanley Smith, Virgil Thomson, Maurice Van Praag, Edgar Vareso, 
Alfred Wallenstein, Dr. Ernest Victor Wolf, and Efrem Zimbalist. 

In 1939 the Communist fraction in the Los Angeles Musicians' 
Union, Local 47, organized a Communist front which became known as 
the Musicians ' Democratic Committee. It was designated the ' ' Hollywood 
Chapter" with headquarters at 1558 North Vine Street in Hollywood. 
The telephone number was GRanite 5136. The letterhead of the organi- 
zation stated that the group was "Affiliated with the Motion Picture 
Democratic Committee. ' ' 

The officers of the Musicians' Democratic Committee were Alfred 
Newman, Mischa Altman, David Broekman, Frances Langford, Wayne 
Ronka, and Haakon Bergh. 

The members of the executive board of the Musicians' Democratic 
Committee were Max Steiner, Joseph Achron, Robert Russell Bennett, 
Jerome Kern, Roy Webb, Louis Silvers, Marek Windheim, Oscar Wasser- 
berger, Doris Alberts, Sam Alberts, Lou Raderman, Victor Goeffrion, 
Jack Cave, Joseph Di Fiore, George Campbell, Michel Perriere, Paul 
Robyn, Leon Arnaud, Herbert Offner, Urban Thielmann, Anne Ronnell, 
and Gordon Pope. 

Among the Communist musicians in Los Angeles, as indicated by 
Communist Party cards, are the following : Herbert Lessner, alias Hebert 
Henry ; Victor Berton, alias Paul Burke ; Saul Posner ; Lawrence Kay 
(true name unknown) ; Peter Adams; Todd Gregory, alias Fred Long; 
Wayne Ronka, alias William Roberts ; Peter Smodoff, alias Peter Sniadoff, 
alias Peter Fodain; George E. Williams, alias George Edmunds; Harry 
Bailey, alias Carl Simmons ; Alfredo Palacios, alias Fred Smith ; Margaret 
Campbell ; Frank Valley ; Charles Evans, alias John Harland ; Al Hague, 

William Detiere (Singer) Bob Henderson (true name unknown) ; 



312 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

George Harvey (true name unknown) ; Rita Maiden; Doris Mailey ; and 
Nathan Titleman, alias Nat Turner. 

Herbert Lessner, alias Hebert Henry, joined the Communist Party 
in 1937. He was a musician by occupation and a member of Los Angeles 
Musicians' Union 47. The Communist Party assigned Lessner to the Bay 
Cities Section in 1938. His address was 174 North La Brea, Los Angeles, 
at the time he joined the party. 

Victor Berton, alias Paul Burke, lived at 18731 Calvert, Reseda, on 
January 21, 1938, when he became a member of the Communist Party. 
He gave his age as 42 and was born in the United States. He is a musician 
by occupation, a member of Musicians' Union, Local 47, and was 
employed in the studios. He was sponsored by Leona McGenty of the 
Professional Section, Unit 130, and was listed as being affiliated with the 
Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. The Communist Party assigned him to 
the Professional Section, unattached. 

Saul Posner joined the Communist Party in 1936. He was born in the 
United States, was a musician by occupation, employed in the motion 
picture studios. The Communist registration card listed him as a member 
of Los Angeles Musicians' Union, Local 47. His 1937 Communist Party 
membership book was number 80737, and his book for 1938 was number 
60444. He was assigned to ' ' Special Studio Unit No. 1. ' ' 

Lawrence Kay or Kay Lawrence is an alias and the true name of the 
individual is unknown. She was listed as an American, age 30, at the time 
she joined the Communist Party. She was a musician by occupation, 
employed in the motion picture studios. She was listed as a member of 
the Screen Actors ' Guild and a member of Local 47 of the Los Angeles 
Musicians ' Union. She was assigned to ' ' Special Studios Unit No. 2 ' ' and 
listed as the secretary of the ''Musicians' Fraction." Her 1937 Commu- 
nist Party membership book was number 54181 and the 1938 book number 
60413. 

Peter Adams is an alias. He joined the Communist Party in 1937 
and was listed as a musician. He was assigned to "Special Studio Unit 
No. 3." He held 1937 Communist Party membership book number 75289 
and 1938 Communist Party membership book number 60410. 

Todd Gregory, alias Fred Long, was registered as residing at 8521 
Santa Fe, when he joined the Communist Party in 1937. He is listed as 
a musician by occupation and "formerly employed at the Sunset Club." 
He is a member of Local 47 of the Musicians' Union in Los Angeles. The 
Communist Party assigned him to the "Goodyear Section-Member at 
Large. ' ' 

Wayne Ronka, alias William Roberts, resided at 1301 Montana 
Street, according to the Communist Party registration card, in 1938. He 
joined the Communist Party in 1936 when he was 30 years of age. He was 
born in the United States, a musician by occupation, and employed in 
motion picture studios and in radio. He attended the Los Angeles County 
Communist Party Workers School. In 1937 he was assigned to "Special 
Studio Unit No. 5," and later to the Hollywood Sub-Section Unit J-l in 
1937 and 1938. His 1937 Communist Party membership book was number 
80664 and his 1938 book was number 58856. 

Peter Sniadoff (or Peter Smodoff), alias Peter Fodain, resided at 
7089 Hawthorne Avenue when he joined the Communist Party in 1937. 
He was born in Russia and was 43 years of age when he joined the party. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 313 

He was listed as a member of the Los Angeles Musicians' Union, Local 47, 
and was a member of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League. His 1938 Com- 
munist Party membership book was number 60376. He was assigned to 
the Fifty-seventh Assembly District branch of the Communist Party and 
became branch educational director. 

George E. Williams, alias George Edmunds, American born, joined 
the Communist Party in 1936. He gave his age as 72 and he is listed as 
a retired Musicians ' Union organizer. He was a member of the Townsend 
Plan movement and had six children. He was assigned by the Communist 
Party to the "A.D. Branch 61-63 Goodyear Section. " 

Harry Bailey, alias Carl Simmons, was 28 years of age when he 
joined the Communist Party in 1936. He was born in the United States. 
His Communist registration card states that he was employed as a writer 
by the Columbia Broadcasting Company. He was a member of the Chicago 
Musicians' Union, Local 10. His address was given as 5230 Clinton 
Avenue. The card lists Bailey as a " Member of C. P. at large. " 

Alfredo Palacios, alias Fred Smith, was 28 years of age when he 
joined the Communist Party. His 1938 address, on the Communist Party 
registration card, was 1336 North Mansfield. His 1939 address is given as 
6709 Selma Avenue. He is listed as a member of Los Angeles Local 47 of 
the American Federation of Musicians. 

Margaret Campbell, when she joined the Communist Party in 1933, 
gave her address as 4266 Tujunga, North Hollywood. She was 26 years 
of age and was a citizen of the United States. The Communist Party regis- 
tration card lists her as a musician by occupation, employed at the Valley 
Playground. She was a member of the "San Fernando A. D. Branch 42." 

Frank Valley lived at 840 Manzanita Avenue, Los Angeles, when he 
joined the Communist Party in 1937. His Communist registration card 
lists him as having been born in the United States ; male, Negro, age 24. 
He is listed as a member of Los Angeles Musicians' Local 767 and a mem- 
ber of the Pasadena Branch of the Young Communist League. 

Charles Evans, alias John Harland, is listed as a male, Negro, age 28, 
at the time he joined the Communist Party in 1937. His 1938 address is 
listed as 1463 Angelus, Los Angeles. His 1939 address is given as 4385 
Sunset Boulevard. The card states that Evans is a musician by occupation 
and a member of the Negro Los Angeles Local of the Musicians' Union, 
767. He was employed by the Swanee Inn, located at 133 North La Brea 
in Los Angeles. He was assigned to the Fifty-sixth Assembly District 
Branch of the Communist Party. His 1938 Communist Party membership 
book is number 70738 and his 1939 membership book was 1250. 

Al Hague, alias William Detiere, lived at 152 West 24th Street, Los 
Angeles, when he joined the Communist Party. His age is given as 37. 
His occupation is listed as a singer, employed by the Federal Music 
Project. He was a job steward for the Workers Alliance of America and 
was assigned to the Professional Unit, unattached. 

Bob Henderson is an alias for a musician whose name is unknown. 
In many cases the Communist Party registration cards do not reveal the 
real name of the individual in question. Henderson joined the Communist 
Party in 1937 and the card lists him as a member of the Los Angeles 
Musicians' Union and the Masonic Lodge. He was employed part time in 
the motion picture studios. 



314 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

George Harvey is a Communist Party alias. He joined the Commu- 
nist Party in 1937 at the age of 33. He was born in Canada and is a 
naturalized American citizen. He was employed in the studios on a part 
time basis and was a member of the Los Angeles Musicians' Union 
Local 47. 

Rita Maiden is also a Communist Party alias. Only her address, 1233 
Elden Street, is listed on the Communist Party registration card. 

Doris Marley is another Communist Party alias. The only informa- 
tion given in the Communist Party records is that she was assigned to 
" Professional No. 1." 

Nathan Titleman, alias Nat Turner, is listed as having been assigned 
to the Communist Boyle Heights Unit 3. His address is given as 529 North 
Cummings, Los Angeles. 

A typical Communist fraction meeting is revealed by the following 
minutes for May 21, 1938, signed by M. M. Furman, secretary. 

Recommendations made for tactics at general meeting: 

a. Follow key men. 

b. Try to bring up the legislation for committees first. 

c. Not to approve the minutes. 

d. Make it a point to stay to the very end of the meeting. 

e. Not to mention personalities. 

f . Meet with steering committee J hour before general meeting. 

g. Disperse over the hall during meetings. 

h. Call as many people as possible and stress the urgency of 
being down at the meeting in order to vote in the committees 
and vote down the referendum. 

Bill submitted for the printing and mailing of the Progressive 
Manual with a balance due of $200.89. 

Moved and so ordered that this group contribute to this bill. 

Volunteered for treasurer, Perriere. 

Among the members of the Communist fraction in Local 47, in 1938 
and 1939, were the following: Mischa Altman, Doris and Sam Albert, 
Herbert Offner, Lou Raderman, Haakon Bergh, Michel Perriere, Joseph 
DiFiore, Paul Robyn, George Bassman, Sam Zimbalist, and Jay Chernis. 
(Minutes of the Board of Directors for January 9, 1940, L. A. Local 47, 
American Federation of Musicians.) 

AFFIDAVIT OF RENA M. VALE 

In connection with the activities of the Communist Party among 
musicians, Rena M. Vale made the following affidavit : 

COUNTY OF Los ANGELES 1 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA f ss> 

I, Rena M. Vale, of Los Angeles, California, being first duly 
sworn, do depose and say as follows : 

Having joined the Communist Party in the fall of 1936 and 
worked continuously in the Los Angeles County Professional Sec- 
tion of said party until August 4, 1938, at which time I returned 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 315 

my party book and resigned, I was under the discipline of said party 
and subject to directive. In the spring of 1938 the functionaries of 
the Professional Section assigned me to work in the Los Angeles 
County Cultural Commission of the Communist Party. The purposes 
of this Cultural Commission were: (1) To coordinate the work of 
the Hollywood Cultural Commission which worked within the motion 
picture studios with the county political work; (2) to guide the 
work of the WPA Cutural Projects, and (3) to penetrate and, inso- 
far as possible, to capture the labor unions in the cultural and pro- 
fessional field. Members of this said Los Angeles County Cultural 
Commission were, besides myself : Miriam Brooks, chairman ; Leona 
McGenty, from the Workers Alliance Theatre Project ; Roth Reyn- 
olds, from the Artists Project ; Charles Maddox, also from the Art 
Project; Darby Jones (negro), from the Screen Actors Guild; Ken- 
neth Patterson, from the Theatre Project ; Dr. Lao Selfrid, from the 
C.I.O. Architects and Engineers Union, and a worker on one of the 
WPA educational projects. Dr. Selfrid was, like myself, also a mem- 
ber of the Los Angeles County Political Commission of the Commu- 
nist Party. It was our task to coordinate the cultural work with the 
political work between these two commissions. There was also Row- 
land Chamberlain, from Actors Equity, who coordinated the work 
of this Cultural Commission with the Actors Equity Communist 
Party fraction. 

This Cultural Commission met once a week in the home of 
Miriam Brooks at 716 North Coronado Street. 

At one of the meetings of said Cultural Commission, we dis- 
cussed union work within the cultural field, concentrating upon the 
work of the Musicians ' Union fraction, especially in relation to the 
WPA Music Project. Miriam Brooks had obtained employment on 
the WPA Music Project at that time and it was the decision of this 
said Cultural Commission to assign our Comrade Brooks to work 
within the Musicians' Union fraction to colonize, that is, to recruit 
union members to the Communist Party, to assist in obtaining 
employment for Communist Party members, to influence to the 
greatest possible extent the activities of said Musicians' Union along 
the lines of the Communist Party program. In a later meeting. Com- 
rade Brooks reported that she had applied to join the Musicians' 
Union, in line with these directives given her by said commission. 
One of our main objectives, in assigning Comrade Brooks to the 
Musicians' Union, was to build up a Communist Party fraction on 
the WPA Music Project. 

In the fall of 1936, before I formally joined the Communist 
Party, I did work for the International Labor Defense, handling 
publicity for Angelo Herndon, negro, who had been released from 
the Georgia Chain Gang, and who was also at that time a Young 
Communist League (YCL) organizer. Rose Chernin, who was then 
Los Angeles Secretary of the International Labor Defense, told me 
that if I continued doing work for the International Labor Defense 
it would be necessary for me to join the Communist Party, in that 
no one who did not belong to the Communist Party would be per- 
mitted to do responsible work for the International Labor Defense. 



316 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

This was corroborated by Rudy Lambert, who first signed me up for 
membership in the Communist Party, and also by Comrade La Rue 
who followed Rose Chernin as Los Angeles Secretary of the Inter- 
national Labor Defense. 

Through my affiliation in and with the Communist Party, I 
know that Miriam Brooks, Rose Chernin, Rudy Lambert and La Rue 
were members of the Communist Party. Through my connections 
with this said Cultural Commission, it also came to my attention 
that the Communist Party fractions of the unions in the motion pic- 
ture studios had planned and brought into being a coordination com- 
mittee for these unions which was known as the Compac. Our Cul- 
tural Commission frequently sent directives to the comrades on the 
Compac. 

One of the other activities of the said Cultural Commission was 
the planning and formation of a coordinating group among unions 
having workers on WPA cultural projects. This group, which was 
brought into being in the early summer of 1938, was known as the 
Arts Unions Council, and assigned to work on this council were: 
Donald A. Murray, Communist Party fraction member of Actors 
Equity, and Hymen Elliott Wax, of the Newspaper Guild and 
worker on Federal Writers Project. There was also Leona McGenty, 
Workers Alliance Organizer on the Theatre Project and Communist 
Party member. These people were instructed to bring in as many 
fellow-travelers as possible and I learned, from reports which were 
brought back to the Writers Project by said Wax and later by Carl 
Foreman, that Joan Storm was also connected with the Arts Unions 
Council. At the time I was on the WPA Theatre Project, Joan Storm 
was considered a close fellow-traveler of the Communist Party and 
Donald A. Murray was assigned to recruit her into the party. 

The headquarters of the Arts Unions Council was at 2211 South 
Hobart Boulevard, Los Angeles, a house which I knew to be rented 
by a "collective" of the Communist Party which had previously 
been formed on the Theatre Project, under the instigation of the 
Communist Party Supervisor, Virginia Farmer. 

(sgd) RENA M. VALE 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 
fourteenth day of October, 1939. 

E. R. WAGNER 
Notary Public 
(SEAL) 

My commission expires Feb. 15, 1943. 

The headquarters for Musicians' Congress Committee was located 
at 1655 Cherokee Street, Room 301, Los Angeles, in 1944. The telephone 
number was HEmpstead 3501. 

Impressively printed pamphlets were issued by the Musicians ' Con- 
gress Committee for a Musicians Congress. Meetings were held at 444 
North Alfred in Los Angeles. 

The general board of the Musicians' Congress Committee included 
Alfred Wallenstein, Aaron Copland, Adolph Deutsch, Lena Home, Hans 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 317 

Eisler, Mischa Altman, Carroll Hollister, Johnny Green, Ira Gershwin, 
Manuel Compinsky, Sarah Compinsky, Earl Robinson, and Gerald 
Strang. 

The Chairman of the Musicians ' Congress Committee was Lawrence 
Morton. The executive secretary was Serge *Hovey. The organizational 
secretary was Kathryn Becker, and the financial secretary -treasurer was 
Albert Glasser. Bob Waschman is listed as "Public Relations" and Gail 
Kubik as the "Overseas Representative/' 

The Musicians' Congress was subsequently held at the Roosevelt 
Hotel, in Hollywood, February 1, 1944. 

The personnel of the Musicians' Congress Committee had been 
expanded somewhat by the time the Congress was launched. The general 
board now included Lawrence Morton, Serge Hovey, Kathryn Becker, 
Albert Glasser, Bob Waschman, Gail Kubik, George Campbell, Mischa 
Altman, George Antheil, Harold Arlen, Leon S. Becker, Julian Brodetsky, 
Lorenza Jordan Cole, Manuel Compinsky, Sarah Compinsky, Lou Cooper, 
Ingolf Dahl, Adolph Deutsch, Hugo Freidhofer, Ira Gershwin, Jay 
Gorney, Victor Gottlieb, Gilbert Grau, Johnny Green, Carroll Hollister, 
Lena Home, George Houston, Calvin Jackson, Sol Kaplan, Max D. Krone, 
Arthur Lange, Naida McCullough, Phil Moore, David Raksin, Earl 
Robinson, Miklos Rozsa, Eudice Shapiro, R. Vernon Steele, Gerald 
Strang, Clifford Vaughan, and Franz Waxman. 

The advisory board of the Musicians' Congress Committee is as fol- 
lows: Alfred Wallenstein, Warren D. Allen, Robert Russell Bennett, 
Richard Bonelli, Nadia Boulanger, Howard Bronson, Carlos Chavez, 
Aaron Copland, Henry Cowell, Louis W. Curtis, Olin Downes, Hanns 
Eisler, Ronald F. Eyer, Alfred Frankenstein, Rudolph Ganz, Vladimir 
Golschmann, Benny Goodman, Eugen Goossens, Morton Gould, Howard 
Hanson, Jascha Heifetz, Bernard Herrmann, Mary Howe, Charles Ives, 
Werner Janssen, Irma Jurist, Hans Kindler, Otto Klemperer, Serge 
Koussevitzky, Karl Krueger, Paul Henry Lang, Leonard Liebling, Alan 
Lomax, Sir Ernest MacMillan, Lauritz Melchior, Yehudi Menuhin, 
Darius Milhaud, Nathan Milstein, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Douglas Moore, 
Eugene Ormandy, Gregor Piatigorsky, Walter Piston, Maxwell Powers, 
William Primrose, Fritz Reiner, Clare Reis, Arthur Rubinstein, Carl 
Sandburg, Hazel Scott, Charles Seeger, Elie Siegmeister, Henry Simon, 
William Grant Still, W. 0. William Strickland, Joseph Szigeti, Alexandre 
Tansman, Randall Thompson, Ernest Toch, Kurt Weill, and John F. 
Williamson. 

Among the musicians who were connected with the Hollywood 
Canteen are the following : Carroll Hollister, Sam Albert, Doris Albert, 
Sara Compinsky, Mrs. Willye Stahl, Willye Stahl, Maxine Furman, 
Mrs. Sam Fiedler, Marie Hare, Oscar Wasserberger, Henry L. Roth, 
Ester Klein Roth, and Paul Jaffee. 

On September 14, 1944 an "Institute on Music and Contemporary 
Life" was cosponsored by the University of California at Los Angeles 
and the Communist front, the Musicians' Congress Committee. Arthur 
Rubenstein, Orson Wells, Alfred Newman, Morton Gould, Irving Pichel, 
Artie Shaw, Earl Robinson, and Miklos Rozsa were to figure prominently 
in the "Institute." 



318 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

The Musicians' Open Forum is another Communist inspired front 
for musicians in Los Angeles. The organization was active in 1943 and 
1944. Indicative of the character of the group are the following post- 
card notices : On August 23d, 1943 the Musicians' Open Forum presented 
Professor Harry Hoijer on "Racial Problems and the War," at the Holly- 
wood Women's Club Lounge, 7078 Hollywood Boulevard. On Monday, 
September 20, 1943, the Musicians' Open Forum presented the "First 
Hollywood Staging of Norman Corwin's Play 'We Hold These Truths'," 
with Canada Lee. The musical score was by Bernard Herrmann. The 
meeting was to present "Folk Songs of America" including "Revolu- 
tionary" songs. Admission was free and the affair was held at the Holly- 
wood Women 's Club, 7078 Hollywood Boulevard. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO WIN THE PEACE 

One of a group of Communist fronts designed to soften the foreign 
policy of the United States in order to give Soviet Russia a free hand 
in China and in Central Europe. 

Jo Davidson has been the leader of the National Committee to Win 
the Peace since its inception. He has been active in Communist move- 
ments for many years and was once an instructor at the Communist 
Workers' School in New York City. 

The National Committe to Win the Peace was born in Washington, 
D. C., at the Win the Peace Conference held there April 5, 6, and 7, 1946. 
Evans Carlson and Paul Robeson were made cochairmen. The conference 
was attended by 712 delegates from 27 states. Included among the Com- 
munist fronts represented at the conference are the following: Inde- 
pendent Citizens' Committee of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, C.I.O. 
Political Action Committee, 15 Communist penetrated C.I.O. unions, 
Veterans and Wives (formerly known as Wives), National Negro Con- 
gress, Federation of Scientists, American Association of Scientific Work- 
ers, Veterans of Equality, National Lawyers' Guild, Church League for 
Industrial Democracy, International Workers ' Order, Communist Party, 
American Youth for Democracy, and the Southern Conference for Human 
Welfare. 

Among other organizations represented were the Jewish War Vet- 
erans, the American Jewish Congress, the American Veterans' Committee 
and several Communist dominated A. F. of L. local unions. 

The keynote address was delivered by Paul Robeson. Former Con- 
gressman Coffee of Washington spoke against Franco of Spain and 
demanded that diplomatic relations with Spain be broken. Other speak- 
ers included Millard Lampell, R. J. Thomas, Russell Nixon, Congress- 
man Savage, Congressman Sabath, former Congressman Hugh DeLacy 
and Ellis Patterson, Len De Caux, Max Yergan, Marion Bachrach, 
Clark Foreman, Dr. Higginbotham, Ira Gollobin, Mordecai Johnson and 
Senator Claude Pepper. 

National headquarters are located at 23 West 26th Street, New 
York City. 

Evans Carlson became cochairman in 1946. The vice chairmen are 
Betram Alves, Elmer Benson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Clark Foreman, 
Stephen H. Fritchman, Millard Lampell, Leo Kryczki, and Bartley Crum. 
Marion Bachrach was elected national educational director. 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 319 

The Southern California Committee to Win the Peace became 
inactive on June 17, 1947. In its final appeal, this branch requested that 
its units go over as a body into the Progressive Citiaens of America. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL AGAINST CONSCRIPTION 

Pamphlets of this Communist front are being distributed by the 
American Civil Liberties Union in Los Angeles. 

The current Communist Party line is presently directed against 
military preparedness, and the Communist Party of the United States 
is doing everything within its power to keep the United States militarily 
weak, while it demands that American armed forces abroad be returned 
to the United States. The Truman Doctrine in Greece and Turkey, the 
Marshall Plan for aid to Europe and China and the universal military 
training bill before Congress are the targets of Communist propaganda 
through its front organizations. Such Communist created fronts as the 
American Peace Crusade carried on a similar program for the same pur- 
poses during the Stalin-Hitler Pact. The Communist Party, in support of 
Soviet diplomacy in 1948, reverts to its isolation position of August, 1939, 
to June, 1941. 

The latest Communist front in this field is the new National Council 
Against Conscription launched in Washington, D. C., November 9, 1946. 
Conscription News is the official publication of this organization. 

An honorary president of the National Council Against Conscription 
is Frank P. Graham. His full name is Frank Porter Graham. He has 
been a member of the following Communist organizations: American 
Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom, American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born, American Friends of Spanish 
Democracy, American League for Peace and Democracy, Russian War 
Relief, Citizens' Committee to Free Earl Browder, Committee for a 
Boycott Against Japanese Aggression, Coordinating Committee to Lift 
the Embargo, Council of Young Southerners, Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare, International Labor Defense, League of Young South- 
erners, National Committee to Abolish the Poll Tax, National Emergency 
Conference for Democratic Rights, American Friends of Spanish Democ- 
racy Medical Bureau, China Aid Council, China Aid Council of the 
American League for Peace and Democracy, Medical Bureau and North 
American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy, and Twenty-fifth 
Anniversary of the Red Army. 

The Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick is also an honorary president of 
the new Communist front, the National Council Against Conscription. 
He has been affiliated with the following Communist-front organizations : 
Greater New York Emergency Conference on Inalienable Rights, League 
of American Writers, and the National Committee to Abolish the Poll 
Tax. 

Out of a 14-member administrative committee of this organization, 
seven have Communist Party line records. 

Mordecai W. Johnson is one of the two chairmen of the National 
Council Against Conscription. Together with Robert W. Kenny, Frank P. 
Graham, Vito Marcantonio, Mary McLeod Bethune, Dale De Witt, and 
Reid Robinson, Johnson sponsored the Communist National Committee 



320 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

to Abolish the Poll Tax. He was affiliated with the Communist organiza- 
tion, Southern Conference for Human Welfare, and a sponsor of the 
American Pushkin Committee. 

Alonzo P. Myers is cochairman with Mordecai W. Johnson of the 
National Council Against Conscription. He was affiliated with the Com- 
munist New York College Teachers Union and the American Committee 
for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom. He was a signer of a petition 
sponsored by the American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual 
Freedom to discontinue the Dies Committee. He was a member of a Com- 
munist inspired committee to defend the subversive Rugg textbooks. 
He was a sponsor of the Communist organized Greater New York Emer- 
gency Conference on Inalienable Rights. He was a member of the 
Advisory Board of the Communist veterans' organization, the Council of 
U. S. Veterans. 

Among the vice chairmen constituting the Administrative Com- 
mittee of the National Council Against Conscription are George A. 
Buttrick, Elias Charry, Ray Newton, Mildred Scott Olmsted, and D. H. 
Sims. 

Together with Jerome Davis, Francis J. McConnell, and Reinhold 
Niebuhr, Buttrick has been an editorial adviser to the Communist 
Protestant Digest. 

Rabbi Elias Charry was one of the signatories to the January, 1943, 
Message to the House of Representatives Opposing Renewal of the Dies 
Committee. 

Ray Newton was a member of the Arrangements Committee for the 
United States Congress Against War, out of which came the American 
League Against War and Fascism. 

Mrs. Mildred Scott Olmsted was a member of the Philadelphia 
committee of the American League for Peace and Democracy. 

Bishop David H. Sims, together with Paul Robeson, Max Yergan, 
Charlotta A. Bass, Ferdinand C. Smith, and others, was a member of 
the Communist front, the Council on African Affairs. (This organiza- 
tion was formerly known as the International Committee on African 
Affairs. Its official publication, a monthly bulletin, is called, New 
Africa. ) Sims is a member of the National Committee to Abolish the Poll 
Tax. He was one of the sponsors of a "Call" for "Protestantism 
Answers Hate" under the auspices of Protestant Digest. (The Protes- 
tant Digest later became known as The Protestant. From its inception 
the magazine has been fanatically devoted to the propagation of the 
Communist Party line, with only the thinnest religious veneer used in an 
obvious attempt to conceal this fact. ) 

Out of a total of 137 listed sponsors and supporters of the National 
Council Against Conscription there are 47 individuals with a known 
record of supporting Communist front organizations and causes. These 
individuals are as follows : Edith Abbott, Theodore F. Adams, James C. 
Baker, Roger N. Baldwin, Mrs. Arthur Brin, Frank H. Caldwell, 
Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Mrs. Allan Knight Chalmers, Roscoe S. Conkling, 
Donald J. Cowling, Henry Hitt Crane, Abraham Cronbach, Joseph 
Martin Dawson, William J. Faulkner, Frank N. Freeman, H. J. Gibbons, 
Clinton S. Golden, Robert Gordis, Simon Greenberg, Paul C. Johnston, 
Frederick D. Kershner, C. Franklin Koch, William E. Lampe, Paul M. 
Limbert, Eduard C. Lindeman, Elmore M. McKee, Leonard W. Mayo, 



UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 321 

B. F. McLaurin, Broadus Mitchell, Felix Morley, Charles Clayton Mor- 
rison, Ruth A. Morton, John S. Nollen, Edward L. Parsons, Harold 
Cooke Philips, Clarence Poe, Floyd W. Reeves, Shelby Rooks, Ralph 
W. Sockman, Glenn J. Talbott, V. T. Thayer, R. J. Thomas, Ernest 
Fremont Tittle, Bruce R. Trimble, Frank L. Wright, William Lindsay 
Young, and Joseph Zeitlin. 

Of the above sponsors and supporters of the National Council 
Against Conscription, the following are members of the Executive Board : 
Joseph Martin Dawson, William J. Faulkner, Robert Gordis, Simon 
Greenberg, William E. Lampe, Paul M. Limbert, Elmore M. McKee, B. F. 
McLaurin, Charles Clayton Morrison, Shelby Rooks, V. T. Thayer, Ernest 
Fremont Tittle, William Lindsay Young, and Joseph Zeitlin. 

The committee points out that this type of Communist front is 
organized for the purpose of attracting many good American citizens, 
who, because of religious convictions, are against war at any time. There 
are many pacifists and members of religious groups who are not dis- 
loyal in any sense of the word. This same statement applies with equal 
validity to many good citizens who were attracted to the American Peace 
Mobilization and other Communist fronts organized for the purpose 
of assisting Hitler during his partnership with Stalin for the conquest of 
Europe. Undoubtedly many of these good people will be innocently 
attracted to a Communist front such as the National Council Against 
Conscription. The distinction the committee wishes to make is that the 
record of a substantial number of the members of the National Council 
Against conscription have indicated in the past their close affiliation 
with Communist-front organizations operating for Communist purposes 
and causes. There are no humane or religious purposes being served 
by Communist organizations in this field. Soviet Russia and its imperial- 
ist expansionist policies alone are served while the United States is kept 
weak and impotent, and, of course, that is the purpose behind the 
National Council Against Conscription. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE FOREIGN BORN 

This is the first name given a Communist front by the Communist 
Party for the purpose of exploiting racial divisions in the United States. 
It later became known as the American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born. (See this title.) 

It devotes much of its efforts to protecting foreign-born Communists. 
There is no evidence or record where this organization, its successors or 
similar fronts, ever attempted to protect a foreign-born anti-Communist. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR PROTECTION OF FOREIGN BORN WORKERS 

See title American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF AMERICAN-SOVIET FRIENDSHIP 

This Communist front is also known as the Congress of American- 
Soviet Friendship. It is the successor to the discredited Communist front, 
the Friends of the Soviet Union. The military alliance of the United 
States with Soviet Russia during World War II made it necessary for 
American Communists to discard its old vehicle, the Friends of the Soviet 

22 L-7088-D 



322 UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA 

Union, and to replace it with the new, streamlined National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship. A new technique of Communist propagandi- 
zation and amalgamation of war unity and American-Soviet friendship, 
emerged. 

The program and purposes of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship is set forth in one of its war-time pamphlets : 

The National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc., 
was formed: To promote better understanding and strengthen 
friendly relations between the United States and the Soviet Union 
as essential to the winning of the war, and the establishment of 
world-wide democracy and enduring peace. 

Special interest committees of the National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, Inc., is proposed for trade unions, youth, women, 
nationalities, religious groups, professional groups, etc. 

Corliss Lament is the chairman of the national organization. Arthur 
Upham Pope, William Morris, Jr., and the Rev. William Howard Melish, 
are vice chairmen. Prof. Henry Pratt Fairchild is secretary-treasurer 
and Richard Moreford is executive director. Samuel B. Leavin was for- 
merly the treasurer and Edwin S. Smith is a former vice chairman and 
executive director. 

Corliss Lamont has a long and interesting record as a Communist 
fellow-traveler. 

Thomas L. Harris spoke at a meeting of the League of American 
Writers on "How the Soviet People Reacted to the Treason Trials." 
Harris is a former national secretary of the National Council of Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship. He addressed a luncheon of the National Lawyers 
Guild (Communist front for attorneys), in July of 1943, at the Rosslyn 
Hotel in Los Angeles. His subject was "Concept of Freedom in the Soviet 
Union." 

William Morris, Jr., is said to be "very friendly to Communist 
writers and exceedingly unfriendly to anti-Communist writers." How- 
ever, that may be his name appears frequently on Communist front liter- 
ature such as the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. He 
was advertised as speaking at the Communist inspired Writers' Congress 
held at the University of California at Los Angeles, October 1, 2, and 
3, 1943. 

In 1943-1944 the national sponsors of the National Council of Ameri- 
can-Soviet