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Full text of "Report of the special committee appointed to investigate the troubles in Kansas, with the views of the minority of said committee"

SANTA CRUZ 



34th CONGRESS, ) HOUSE OF EEPBESENTATIVES. ( KEPORT 
1st Session. $ J No. 200. 



REPORT 



THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE 



APPOINTED TO 



INVESTIGATE THE TROUBLES IN KANSAS; 



WITH 



f HE VIEWS OF THE MINORITY 



SAID COMMITTEE. 



WASHINGTON: 

CORNELIUS WENDELL, PRINTER. 
1856. 



IN THE HotrsE OP REPRESENTATIVES, July 2, 1856. 

Ordered, That it be referred to the Committee of Elections, and printed ; and that leave 
be given to the minority of said committee to submit a report at any time within ten days, 
and to take additional testimony ; and when submitted, that the same be referred to the 
Committee of Elections, and printed. 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, July 23, 1856. 

Retched, That twenty thousand copies extra of the reports of the majority and minority 
of the Kansas Investigating Committee, together with the journal of said committee, and 
evidence taken by them, be printed for the use of the members of the House. 

Resolved, That one hundred thousand copies extra, each, of the majority and minority 
reports of said committee (without the journal and evidence) be printed for the use of the 
members of the House. 

Attest: WM. CULLOM, Clerk. 



MS /L /fifC 






U5 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Majority report 


Page. 


FOURTEENTH DISTRICT 


Page. 


Minority report _ 


68 






Minutes of committee 


110 


Foreman, John W 


17 






Harding, Benj 


15 


TESTIMONY. 




Jamieson, A. A. 


16 






Landis John. 


347 


Ekdion of November 29 1854 for Dele- 




Larzelere Alfred 


13 






Scott John 


931 






Watterson T W 


1ft 


FIRST DISTRICT. 
FA~OII "William . - 


3 


FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 








Gale H B 


21 


SECOND DISTRICT 




Green J B 


17 






House, J. W 


19 


Uursou Harrison 


2 


Locran Campbell 


22 


Dunn James M 


4 


Logan, James W 


1131 


Wakefield John A 


1 


Potter, F. M 


1 


Wattle? Augustus 


3 


Potter Joseph 


1132 






Williams Wiley 


376 


THIRD DISTRICT. 
Kitchel, M. J 


4 


SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 








Eastin, Lucian J __... 


30 


FOURTH DISTRICT. 




Few Samuel F 


25 






Keller George H . 


27 


Bassinger Peter 


6 


Lindsey John A 


23 


Fuller Perry. 


8 


Matthias W G 


38 


EEackett, Reuben 


7 


Moore, H. Miles 


36 


Elopklns Thomas 


5 


Noble Dr James 


24 


Tavens, John F. 


8 


Pattie, Adam T 


. 32 


Moore, William 


9 


Rively M. P. . 


1133 


Wt*tfall, Dr. B. C 


10 


Poll-lists of election of November, 








1854 


39 


FIFTH DISTRICT. 




Table of inhabitants and qualified 
voters 


72 


RTillson, James W 


10 


Governor's precept to takers of census 


72 


SIXTH DISTRICT 




Names of qualified voters according 
to census returns 


74 


*rmce, John C 


11 


Election of March 30, 1855. 




SEVENTH DISTRICT 




Proclamation of governor 


101 






Boundaries of districts 


101 


ohnstone, W. F 


12 


Precincts places for polls, and names 




Bad, Matthias A 


11 


of the judges of election 


104: 






Instructions to judges - 


107 


NINTH DISTRICT 






108 








109 


we, H. A 


35 


Apportionment of members, council 




lobley C R 


35 




109 


|sborn,'w J 


1131 




110 


Reynolds, Thomas. . 


33 


Table of election returns 


111 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
Proclamation of governor creating 

new election district ...... ------ 1 13 

Proclamation of governor concerning 

judicial districts ................ 112 

TESTIMONY. 



FIBST DISTRICT. 



154 



Abbott, J. B ..... - ..... - 

Ackley, Ira W ................... 

Allen, Lyman .................... 

Allen, Norman .................. - "J 

Babcock, C. W .................. 123 '1^ 

Banks, John M ................... 161 

Blanton,N. B .................... 148 

Buckley, H. W ................ 167 

Chapman, Edward ................ 

Churchill, George. ................ 145 

Cummins, R. A. .................. 145 

Davidson, John C. ................ 158 

Davidson, Jordan ------ ....... ---- 157 

Deitzler, Geo. W ................. 132 

Doy, Dr. John 

Elliott, R. G 

Hopkins, Thomas ................. 150 

Hornsby, Wm. B ................. 128 

Jenkins, Gains ...... - ....... ----- 131 

Ladd, E. D ...................... 114 

Lyon, William ................... 154 

Owens, Horatio. .................. 167 

Pratt, CalebS ................. ..123,149 

Robinson, Dr. Charles ............. 830 

Vaughan, F. P ..... '. ............. 130 

Wade, A. B ...................... 159 

Whitlock, James ................. 165 

Wood, Samuel N ................. 140 

Yates, William ................... 12 

SECOND DISTRICT. 

Burson, Harrison _________ ........ 16: 

Dunn, James M ------------------ 17: 

Dunn, J. C ...................... 17 

Jessee, William ................... 18 

Jones, Samuel ........... _________ 18 

Lahy, F. E ...................... 18 

Mace, J. N ...................... 17 

Macey, Dr. E. G .................. 17 

Muzzy, H. C ..................... 18 

Ramsay, Nathaniel ..... _ ..... ____ 17 

Umberger, G. W ................. 18 

Wakeficld, John A ................ 18 

Ward, George W ................. 19 

White, Andrew .................. 17 

THIRD DISTRICT. 

Berry, Geo. H .................... 21 

Boggs, Wm. R ................... 20 

Burgess, Rev. H. B ______ ........ __ 19 

Hickcy, James ........ . .......... 20 

Holmes, George .................. 21 

Home, D. H ................ 20 



Page, 

ordan, Charles 199 

xmg, John - 202 

lerriam, J. F 208 

litchell, M. J. 201 

ublette, W. A 212 

faughan, W. A. M 210 

Wilmarth, L. C 205 

FOURTH DISTRICT. 

Bassinger, Peter 218 

uller, Perry 217 

Hackett, R 1133 

avens, JohnF 220 

ohnson, Andrew S 222 

Kezer, B. S 224 

Mockbee, Thomas 221 

Moore, William .- 219 

FIFTH DISTRICT. 

Arthur, James M 232 

Bouton, S. W - 233 

hesnut, William 229 

Gearhart, Joseph M .- 228 

Westfall, Dr. B. C 225 

Wilson, J. W 227 

SIXTH DISTRICT. 

Anderson, Jos. C 241 

Arnett, T. B 245 

Barbee, William 243 

Cook, Emery B 238 

Hamilton, John ._; 234,241 

Williams, Samuel A.. 247 

SEVENTH DISTFJCT. 

Hoover, Absalom... - 261 

Johnson, Andrew.. - 259 

Johnson, Wm. F.. 256 

Linkenanger, C. A,-- 257 

Rice, Hallom 255 

Rose, Marcus H 249,254 

Stewart, James R 250,255 

Titus, J. B -- 248 

NINTH DISTRICT. 

Lowe, H. A 278 

McConnell, Andrew. - 263 

Mobley, C. R 274 

Reynolds, Thomas 272 

Wilson, Robert. 264 

TENTH DISTRICT. 

Cantrell, John A 271 \ 

Garrett, M. A 266 

Hascall, Isaac S 268 

Osborne, W. J. 267 

Stewart, Jose :>h 267 



CONTENTS. 



TWELFTH DISTRICT. 
Baker, Augustus 


Page. 
269 


Holliday, D 


Page. 
1135 
1138 
383 
1137 
369 
384 
424 
1139 
377 
376 
375 
363 

409 
386 
406 
402 
405 
408 
389 
407 
403 
411 
424 
392 
419 
401 
415 
927 
396 
400 
39-5 

429 
430 

427 

432 
433 
357 
435 
437 

507 

526 
525 
531 
528 
524 
1140 
527 
563 
530 
532 


King, Austin A 


Martin, John W 


D'Avis, John E. 


269 


Potter, F. M . 


THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 
Chandler, Richard 


286 


Potter, Joseph ._ 


Rively, M. P 


Rixey, Samuel 


Shotwell, J. W 


Dyer, G. M 


291 


Thompson, T. J 


Godwin, W. H 


282 


Turnell, S. W 


Hardh, Charles 


289 


Williams Wiley 




287 


Zimmerman, E. R . 


Noble Dr James 


283 


SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 
Adams H J 


Ross, J. B 


279 


Sharp, A. B 


293 


Tebbs 0. B 


292 


Tebbs Wm. H 


. . 295 


Brown David 


Thorp Thomas - . _ . . 


1134 


Day, J. H 


FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 


OC P 


Eastin, L. J 


Fisher, Adam 


France, Matt 




qqo 


Hart, F. A 


Brock, Benj. H 


. .. 325 


Johnson, D. J_ _ . 


Kyle A. T .. 


Carter, John R 


. . 314 


McAuley A 


Creal, Henry S 


330 


Matthias Wm G . _ 


Cutler, Dr. G. A. .. 


357 


Minard T A 


Dickerson Luther 


349 


Moore H Miles 


Dillon Luther 


307 


Orr Patrick R 


Duncan Benj 


326 


Pattie A T 


Fizer David 


351 


Rees Amos 


Forman, James F 


...286,348 




Forman, John W _ 


360 




Gillespie, G. W. 


331 


Russell, Alex. 


Hall, Willard P . . 


321 




Hamilton Eli 


346 


Hard in * Beni 


308 


Heed Albert 


337 




Hulan Osborn 


317 


Jamieson A A 


299 




Kirk, R. L 


353 


Johnson, Thomas - 


Landis, John 


361 


EIGHTEENTH DISTRICT. 
Baker DH 


Larzelere, A 


318 


Lynch, James 


351 


Miller A M 


329 


Mitchell A M 


329 




Pattee J. W 


350 


Cutter Dr G. A _-. 


Richardson W P 


303 




Scott John 


894 


Poll- lists of March election 


Smith, John W. 


317 


Extracts from executive minutes con- 
cerning March election, &c 


Stewart C W 


328 


Stringfellow, Dr. J H 


353 


Election of May 22, 1855. 


Tuck, Richard 


343 


Watterson, T. W 


335 


Whit^head C B 


332 


Whitehead J H 


311 340 


Dav J H 


FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 
Bailey M T 


373 










Bourne Edward 


379 


Keller Geo H 


Brewster H 


382 




Crane J B 


366 




Hodges, Thomas.., 


372 


Poll-lists of May election 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Election of October 1, 1855, for Delegate 
to Congress. 

Cook, Emery B 

Cox, Lewis M 

Creal, H S 

Field, D. W 

Hamilton, John -- - 

Holladay, D 

Jenkins, Gaius 

Landis, John 

Lynch, James - 

Moore, H. Miles 

Morrow, Robert 

Prather, L. A 

Reed, James - 

Richardson, W. P.. - 

Stephens, John W 

Warren, Geo. F 

Weibling.H. G 

Westfall, Dr. B. C 

White, Andrew 

Wol verton, T 

Poll-lists of election of Oct. 1, 1855. 

State movement, including election of A. H. 
Seeder, delegates to constitutional conven- 
tion, adoption of constitution, state offi- 
cers, Sfc. 

Blakely, Charles 

Davis, James _ 

Deitzler, Geo. W 

Green, J. C 

Laughlin, Pat 

Lowrey, G. P 

Parrott, M. J 

Roberts, W. Y 

Wood, Dr. J. N. 0. P 

Call for constitutional convention 

Proceedings of Topeka convention _. 
Proclamation for delegates to consti- 
tutional convention 

Constitution of State of Kansas 

Proclamation for election to adopt 

constitution 

Proclamation for election of State 

officers, &c 

Memorial to the Congress of the 

United States 

Poll-lists of election of October 9, 

1855 

Poll-lists of election of December 15 

1855 .' 

Poll-lists of election of January 16 

1856 ...._' 

Emigrant Aid Society. 

Charter of the New England Emigrant 
Aid ^Company 

Address of the executive committee. 
List of officers of the corporation... 
Names of parties in spring of 1855.. 



Page. 



559 
549 
561 
561 
562 

1142 
549 
559 
562 
563 
547 
550 
556 
558 
553 
558 

1143 
557 
547 
548 
564 



604 
605 
606 
990 
603 
657 
603 
606 
658 
607 
608 

612 
617 

641 
645 
652 
661 
713 
757 



874 
875 

882 
887 



TESTIMONY. 



Page. 



Adams, Nathan .. ................ 840 

Blossom, Henry M ____ ..... _ ..... 838 

Bottom, T. E .................... 865 

Chick, W. H ................. ____ 835 

Donaldson, E. W_- ........ _ ...... 854 

Donaldson, W. T .- ............... 851 

Evans, J. B ................. _____ 846 

Gilham, Alex ................. --- 848 

Hunt, F. A .................. . 834,872 

Ingalls, J. E .............. _______ 841 

Kearney, C. E _____ .......... _____ 852 

Kerr, Leander _ ................... 859 

Lawrence, Amos A_ ....... . . _ ..... 873 

Mace, Daniel. ....... _______ ...... 829 

Mahan, F. M _________ ..... . ..... . 867 

McCartney, E. C ........... _ ..... _ 855 

Miller, Wm. H .................. . 862 

Nicholson, B. F ................ .. 1144 

Payne, M. J _______ ............ 837, 847 

Redmon, J. B ................ ____ 864 

Reed, J. T ............. . ......... 863 

Riddlesberger, J ................ _. 844 

Ridge, Isaac M ..... _ ............. 863 

Robinson, Dr. Charles. .......... 830, 899 

Smith, Samuel C _ ...... . ........ . 831 

Slater, Benj ............... _____ 832,871 

Spalding,C. C__ ................. . 856 

Stone, Anson J ____________ ...... 886 

Summers, W. H. ....... __________ 860 

Thayer, Eli ..... _ ............... . 883 

Walker, M. R .................... 897 

Webb, Thos. W., (letter) ___________ 1143 

Whitlock, James .. ............... 857 



Secret Societies. 



Conway, M. F ........ 

Davidson, Jordan 
Francis, A J. ____ 

Laughlin, Pat 
Lowrey, G. P 
Prince, J. C 
Reeder, A, H ____ __ 

Richardson, W. P 
Scott, John ..... _ 

Stringfellow, Dr. J. H 
Tebbs, Wm. H 



Squatter associations. 

Constitution of Delaware Association. 
Salt Creek resolutions _____________ 

Stock bridge resolutions ........ ____ 

Leavenworth resolutions ......... _ 

Proceedings of meeting at White- 
head, K.T ..................... 

TESTIMpNY. 



923 
902 
910 
905 
921 
902 
947 
901 
894 
925 
930 



951 
953 
954 
955 

95 



Mitchell, A. M 
Wakefield, J. A 



956 
950 



I 



CONTENTS. 



VII 



Lynching of Wm. Phillips. 



Page. 



Johnson. D. J 1026 

Payne, A ;-% 965 

'Rees, R. RJ -- 970 

Warren, Geo. F r 963 

Miscellaneous. 

Abell, Peter T 1024.1037 

Breeze, Thomas -- 1048 

Brock, B. H 1021 

Butler, Rev. P.. 960 

Harding, Benj... 1021 

Harris, James .- 1146 

Hascall, Isaac S - - 1035 

Lynch, John. __ 974 

Lyon, A.B_ 975 

Matthias, W. G_- - 1147 

McKinney, Wm 1049 

Oakley, Edward. _ 960 

Smith. Samuel 958 

Zimmerman, E. R 1023 



Taking of ballot-box at Leavenworth City, 
December 15, 1855. 

Burgess, Wm 

Hollis, G W 

Hook, H. W 

Johnston, H. H 

Keller, G. W 

Wetherell, Geo_ _ _ 



Murder of R. P. Brown. 



Adams, Henry J 

Bird, Joseph H. 

Brown, David 

Davis, Dr. James 

Elliott, Josiah 

Few, Dr. Saml. F 

Green, J. C 

Kookogey, S. J 

Martin, Captain J. W 

Motter, E. S 

Park, Dr. J. G 

Eively, M. P 

Smith, Nick. 

Sparks, Mrs. E 

Sparks, Stephen 

Taylor, Geo. A 



978 
980 
980 
973 
980 
979 



985 

981 

996 

1004 

1147 

1005 

990 

1016 

1026 

1007 

1004 

999 

1006 

1019 

1011 

1002 



Wilfley, John ....... 1015 

Williams, Wiley. ................. 1030 

Murder of C. W. Dow. 

Banks, John M ......... _ ......... 1056 

Branson, Jacob ........... _ ....... 1060 

Breeze, Thomas _ ......... '. ....... 1044 

Coleman, F. M._ ................. 1052 

Davidson, J. C ......... _ ......... 1047 

Gleason, Salem ......... __________ 1042 

Jones, Mrs. A .................... 1050 

Jones, Daniel T ..... _____ ........ 1050 

McKinney, N _________ ......... __ 1045 

McKinney, Wilday _____ ...... _____ 1049 

McKinney, Wm. ................. 1040 

Owens, Samuel. ..... ____ ........ . 1051 

Murder of Thomas Barber. 

Barber, Robt. F .................. 1121 

Colburn, Mrs. J. W ....... _ ....... 1125 

Nichols, Harrison ________________ 1126 

Pierson, T. M ........... _________ 1124 

Phillips, Wm .................... 1127 

Prentiss, Dr. S. P ..... ____________ 1128 

Simpson, Henry M ............... 1128 

Simpson, S. N ........ . ........... 1127 

Siaje of Lavrrence. 

Allen, Asaph _________ ........... 1114 

Brewster, James ........ . ......... 1129 

Brewster, 0. H ................... 382 

Branson, A. B ____ ............ ---- 1094 

Connelly, Thomas. ......... - ----- 1101 

Cutler, Dr. G. A ............... --- 1110 

Heyes, Homme _________ ....... -- 1093 

Jessee, William ............ - ..... 1117 

Legate, James F. - - ............... 1094 

Leonard, Captain L ............... 1129 

Lowrey, G. P ............ - ....... 1074 

Phillips, Wm .................... 1112 

Prather, L. A.. ...... - ........... 1065 

Robinson, Dr. Charles ............. 1069 

Shannon, Gov. Wilson ............ 1 102 

Warren, Geo. F .................. 1097 

Winchell, J. M ......... - ......... 1086 

Woodson, Daniel ................ - 



Ex Part* Testimony. 
Appendix to minority report 



34th CONGRESS, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. C REPORT 
1st Session. $ ) No. 200. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 

Mr. HOWARD, from the Select Committee, made the following 
REPORT. 

[Mr. MORDECAI OLIVER submitted the views of the minority, herewith 

printed.] 

The Special Committee appointed to investigate the troubles in the Ter- 
ritory of Kansas, having performed the duties required by the House, 
beg leave to submit the following report: 

A journal of proceedings, including sundry communications made 
to and by the committee, was kept ; a copy of which is herewith 
submitted. 

A copy of the testimony has been made and arranged ; not accord- 
ing to the order in which it was taken, but so as to present as clearly 
as possible a consecutive history of events in the Territory from its 
organization to tbe 19th day of March, A. D. 1856. 

This copy and the original, with copies of the census rolls and the 
poll-books of all the elections, are herewith submitted. 

Your committee deem it their duty to state, as briefly as possible, 
the principal facts proven before them. When the act to organize the 
Territory of Kansas was passed on the 30th of May, 1854, the greater 
portion of its eastern border was included in Indian reservations not 
open for settlements, and there were but few white settlers in any 
portion of the Territory. Its Indian population was rapidly decreas- 
ing, while many emigrants from different parts of our country were 
anxiously waiting the extinction of the Indian title, and the establish- 
ment of a Territorial government, to seek new homes on its fertile 
prairies. It cannot be doubted that if its condition as a free Terri- 
tory had been left undisturbed by Congress, its settlement ^would 
have been rapid, peaceful, and prosperous. Its climate, its soil, and 
its easy access to the older settlements, would have made it the 
favored course for the tide of emigration constantly flowing to the 
'West, and by this time it would have been admitted into the Union 
as a free otate, without the least sectional excitement. If so organ- 
ized, none but the kindest feelings could have existed ^ between its 
citizens and those of the adjoining State. Their mutual interests and 



4 m KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

intercourse, instead of, as now, endangering the harmony of the 
Union, would have strengthened the ties of national brotherhood. 
The testimony clearly shows that before the proposition to repeal the 
Missouri compromise was introduced into Congress, the people of 
western Missouri appeared indifferent to the prohibition of slavery in 
the Territory, and neither asked nor desired its repeal. 

When, however, the prohibition was removed by the action of Con- 
gress, the aspect of affairs entirely changed. The whole country was 
agitated by the reopening of a controversy which conservative men in 
different sections believed had been settled in every State and Terri- 
tory by some -law beyond the danger of repeal. The excitement 
which has always accompanied the discussion of the slavery question 
was greatly increased by the hope, on the one hand, of extending 
slavery into a region from which it had been excluded by law ; and, 
on the other, by a sense of wrong done by what was regarded as a 
dishonor of a national compact. This excitement was naturally trans- 
ferred into the border counties of Missouri and the Territory, as set- 
tlers favoring free or slave institutions moved into it. A new diffi- 
culty soon occurred. Different constructions were put upon the 
organic law. It was contended by the one party that the right to hold 
slaves in the Territory existed, and that neither the people nor the 
Territorial legislature could prohibit slavery ; that that power was 
alone possessed by the people when they were authorized to form a 
State government. It was contended that the removal of the restric- 
tion virtually established slavery in the Territory. This claim was 
urged by many prominent men in western Missouri, who actively en- 
gaged in the affairs of the Territory. Every movement, of whatever 
character, which tended to establish free institutions, was regarded as 
an interference with their rights. 

Within a few days after the organic law passed, and as soon as its 
passage could be known on the border, leading citizens of Missouri 
crossed into the Territory, held squatter meetings, and then returned 
to their homes. Among their resolutions are tiie following : 

" That we will afford protection to no abolitionist as a settler of 
this Territory." 

" That we recognise the institution of slavery as already existing 
in this Territory, and advise slaveholders to introduce their property 
as early as possible." 

Similar resolutions were passed in various parts of the Territory, 
and by meetings in several counties of Missouri. Thus the first 
effect of the repeal of the restriction against slavery was to substi- 
tute the resolves of squatter meetings, composed almost exclusively 
of citizens of a single State, for the deliberate action of Congress ac- 
quiesced in for thirty-five years. 

This unlawful interference has been continued in every important 
event in the history of the Territory ; every election has been controlled, 
not by the actual settlers, but by citizens of Missouri ; and, as a conse- 
quence, every officer in the Territory, from constable to legislators, 
except those appointed by the President, owe their positions to non-i 
resident voters. None have been elected by the settlers ; and youri 
committee have been unable to find that any political power what- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 3 

ever, however unimportant, has "been exercised by the people of the 
Territory. 

In October, A. D. 1854, Gov. A. H. Keeder, and the other officers 
appointed by the President, arrived in the Territory. Settlers from 
all parts of the country were moving in in great numbers, making 
their claims and building their cabins. About the same time, and 
before any election was or could be held in the Territory, a secret po- 
litical society was formed in the State of Missouri. (I) It was known by 
different names, such as " Social Band," " Friends' Society/' " Blue 
Lodge," " The Sons of the South." Its members were bound together 
by secret oaths, and they had pass-words, signs, and grips, by which 
they were known to each other ; penalties were imposed for violating the 
rules and secrets of the order ; written minutes were kept of the proceed- 
ings of the lodges ; and the different lodges were connected together by 
an effective organization. It embraced great numbers of the citizens of 
Missouri, and was extended into other slave States and into the Terri- 
tory. Its avowed purpose was not only to extend slavery into Kansas, 
but also into other territories of the United States, and to form a union 
of all the friends of that institution. Its plan of operating was to or- 
ganize and send men to vote at the elections in the Territory, to col- 
lect money to pay their expenses, and, if necessary, to protect them 
in voting. It also proposed to induce pro-slavery men to emigrate 
into the Territory, to aid and sustain them while there, and to elect 
none to office but those friendly to their views. This dangerous society 
was controlled by men who avowed their purpose to extend slavery 
into the Territory at all hazards, and was altogether the most effect- 
ive instrument in organizing the subsequent armed invasions and fo- 
rays. In its lodges in Missouri the affairs of Kansas were discussed. 
The force necessary to control the election was divided into bands and 
leaders selected. Means were collected, and signs and badges were 
agreed upon. While the great body of the actual settlers of the Ter- 
ritory were relying upon the rights secured to them by the organic 
law, and had formed no organization or combination whatever, even 
of a party character, this conspiracy against their rights was gather- 
ing strength in a neighboring State, and would have been sufficient 
at their first election to have overpowered them, even if they had been 
united to a man. 

Your committee had great difficulty in eliciting the proof of the de- 
tails in regard to this secret society. One witness, a member of the 
legislative council, refused to answer questions in reference to it. (2) 
Another declined to answer fully, because to do so would result to his 
injury. (3) Others could or would only answer as to the general pur- 
poses of the society ; but sufficient is disclosed in the testimony to show 
the influence it had in controlling the elections in the Territory ,, 

The first election was for a delegate to Congress. It was appointed 
for the 29th of JNovember, 1854. The governor divided the Territory 
into seventeen election districts, appointed judges, and prescribed pro- 
per rules for the election. In the first, third, eighth, ninth, tenth, 

(1) Jourdan Davidson, J. C. Prince, John Scott, J. H. Stringfellow. 

(2) W. P. Richardson. (3) J. C. Prince 



4: KANSAS AFFAIRS, 

twelfth, thirteenth, and seventeenth districts there appears to have 
been but little if any fraudulent voting. 

The election in the 2d district was held at the village of Douglas ? 
near fifty miles from the Missouri line. On the day before the elec- 
tion large companies of men came into the district in wagons and on 
horseback, and declared that they were from the State of Missouri, 
and were going to Douglas to vote. On the morning of the election 
they gathered around the house where the election was to be held. 
Two of the judges appointed by the governor did not appear, and 
other judges were selected by the crowd ; all then voted. In order to 
make a pretence of right to vote, some persons of the company kept a 
pretended register of squatter claims, on which any one could enter 
his name, and then assert he had a claim in the Territory. A citizen 
of the district, who was himself a candidate for delegate to Congress, 
was told by one of the strangers that he would be abused, and proba- 
bly killed, if he challenged a vote. (4) He was seized by the collar, 
called a damned abolitionist, and was compelled to seek protection in 
the room with the judges. About the time the polls were closed these 
strangers mounted their horses and got into their wagons and cried 
out, " All aboard for Westport and Kansas City." A number were 
recognised as residents of Missouri, and among them was Samuel H. 
Woodson, a leading lawyer of Independence. Of those whose names 
are on the poll-books, 35 were resident settlers and 226 were non- 
residents. 

The election in the fourth district was held at Dr. Chapman's, over 
forty miles from the Missouri State line. It was a thinly settled re- 
gion, containing but forty-seven voters in February, 1855, when the 
census was taken. On the day before the election, from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty citizens of Cass and Jackson counties, Mis- 
souri, came into this district, declaring their purpose to vote, and that 
they were bound to make Kansas a slave State, if they did it at the 
point of the sword. (5) Persons of the party on the way drove each a 
stake in the ground, and called it a claim; and in one case several 
names were put on one stake. The party of strangers camped all 
night near where the election was to be held, and in the morning were 
at the election polls and voted. One of their party got drunk, and to 
get rivl of Dr. Chapman, a judge of the election, they sent for him to 
come and see a sick man, and, in his absence, filled his place with 
another judge, who was not sworn. They did not deny or conceal that 
they were residents of Missouri, and many of them were recognised as 
such by others. They declared that they were bound to make Kansas 
a slave State. They insisted upon their right to vote in the Territory 
if they were in it one hour. After the election they again returned to 
their homes in Missouri, camping over night on the way. 

We find upon the poll-books 161 names ; of these not over 30 resided 
in the Territory, and 131 were non-residents. (6) 

But few settlers attended the election in the fifth district, the district 

(4) John A. Wakefield. 

(5) Peter Bassinger. 

(6) Thomas Hopkins, Keuben Hackett, Perry Fuller, John F. Lucas. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 5 

being large and the settlements scattered. Eighty-two votes were cast; 
of these between 20 and 30 were settlers, (7) and the residue were 
citizens of Missouri. They passed into the Territory by way of the 
Santa Fe road, and by the residence of Dr. Westfall, who then lived on 
the western line of Missouri. (8) Some little excitement arose at the 
polls as to the legality of their voting ; but they did vote for Gen. 
Whitfield, and said they intended to make Kansas a slave State, and 
that they had claims in the Territory. Judge Teagle, judge of the 
court in Jackson county, Missouri, was present, but did not vote. (9) 
He said he did not intend voting, but came to see that others voted. 
After the election, the Missourians returned the way they came. 

The election in the sixth district was held at Fort Scott, in the south- 
east part of the Territory, and near the Missouri line. A party of 
about one hundred men from Cass county, and the counties in Missouri 
south of it, went into the Territory, travelling about 45 miles, most of 
them with their wagons and tents, and camping out. They appeared at 
the place of election. Some attempts were made to swear them, but two 
of the judges were prevailed upon not to do so, and none were sworn, 
and as many as chose voted. There were but few resident voters at 
the polls. The settlement was sparse ; about 25 actual settlers voted 
out of 105 votes cast, leaving 80 illegal votes. (10) After the voting 
was over, the Missourians went to their wagons and commenced leaving 
for home. 

The most shameless fraud practised upon the rights of the settlers 
at this election was in the seventh district. It is a remote settlement, 
about seventy-five miles from the Missouri line, and contained, in 
February, A. D. 1855, three months afterwards, when the census was 
taken, but 53 voters ; and yet the poll-books show that 604 votes were 
cast. The election was held at the house of Frey McGee, at a place 
called "110." But few of the actual settlers were present at the 
polls. (11) A witness, who formerly resided in Jackson county, Mis- 
souri, and was well acquainted with the citizens of that county, (12) 
says that he saw a great many wagons and tents at the place of election, 
and many individuals he knew from Jackson county. He was in their 
tents, and conversed with some of them, and they told him they had 
come with the intention of voting. He went to the polls, intending 
to vote for Flennigan; but his ticket being of a different color from 
the rest, his vote was challenged by Frey McGee, who had been 
appointed one of the judges, but did not serve. Lernuel Kalston, a 
citizen of Missouri, was acting in his place. The witness then chal- 
lenged the vote of a young man by the name of Nolan, whom he knew 
to reside in Jackson county. Finally, the thing was hushed up, as 
the witness had a good many friends there from that county, and it 
might have led to a fight if he challenged any more votes. Both 
voted; and he then went down to their camp. He there saw many oj 

(7) James W. Wilson. 

(8) Dr. B. C. Westfall. 

(9) J. W. Wilson. 

(10) J. C. Prince. 

(11) Matthias A. Iteed. 

(12) William F. Johnstone. 



8 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



who did not know him said, " There's a good pro-slavery man/' and 
lifted him up over their heads, so that he crawled on their heads and 
put in his vote. A person who saw, from the color of his ticket, that 
it was not for Gen. Whitfield, cried out, " He is a damned abolition- 
ist let him down ;" and they dropped him. (20) Others were passed 
to the polls in the same way, and others crowded up in the best way 
they could. After this mockery of an election was over the non-resi- 
dents returned to their homes in Missouri. . Of the 312 votes cast, not 
over 150 were by legal voters. 

The following abstract exhibits the whole number of votes at this 
election for each candidate, the number of legal and illegal votes cast 
in each district, and the number of legal voters in each district in 
February following. 

Abstract of census and election of November 29, 1854. 



Districts. 


'Place of voting. 


Whitfield. 


Wakefield. 


Flenniken. 


Scattering. 


1 


J* 

E m . 

> 3 

tk. w 
a 

i 


Legal votes. 


Illegal votes. 


First. 




46 
235 
40 
140 
63 
105 
597 
16 
9 
2 
237 
31 
69 
130 
267 
232 
49 


188 
20 


51 
6 
7 
21 
15 


15 


300 
261 
47 
161 
82 
105 
604 
16 
40 
37 
245 
41 
71 
153 
306 
312 
62 


369 
199 
101 

47 
442 
253 
53 
39 
36 
63 
24 
78 
96 
334 
308 
385 
50 
28 


300 
35 

47 
30 
30 
25 
20 
16 
40 
37 
7 
41 
71 
103 
100 
150 
62 






Douglas 


226 


Third 


Stinson's 


Fourth 




21 
4 


131 
52 
80 

584 

'238 

'"56 
206 
162 


Fifth 


H. Sherman's 


Sixth 


Fort Scott ' ... 




" 110" 




7 




Eighth 


Council Grove 




Ninth ' 






31 
29 
3 





Tenth 




6 


JEleventh 
Twelfth 


Marysville 


9 
1 


Thirteenth 
Fourteenth 

Fifteenth 




1 
23 
39 
80 
13 


Harding's 










Seventeenth 


Shawnee Agency 






Total 


















2,258 


248 


305 


22 


2,833 


2,905 


1,114 


1,729 







Thus your committee find that in this, the first election in the 
Territory, a very large majority of the votes were cast by citizens of 
the State of Missouri, in violation of the organic law of the Territory. 
Of the legal votes cast, General Whitfield received a plurality. The 
settlers took but little interest in the election, not one-half of them 
voting. This may be accounted for from the fact that the settlements 
were scattered over a great extent, that the term of the delegate to be 
elected was short, and that the question of free or slave institutions 
was not generally regarded by them as distinctly at issue. Under 
these circumstances, a systematic invasion from an adjoining State, 
by which large numbers of illegal votes were cast in remote and 
sparse settlements, for the avowed purpose of extending slavery into 
the Territory, even though it did not change the result of the election, 



(20) John A. Landis. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



9 



was a crime of great magnitude. Its immediate effect was to further 
excite the people of the northern States, and exasperate the actual 
settlers against their neighbors in Missouri. 

In January and February, A. D. 1855,, the governor caused an 
enumeration to be taken of the inhabitants and qualified voters in the 
Territory, an abstract of which is here given. 













j 


BQ 


. 








By whom taken. 


Districts. 









* 


JD 


I 












1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


f 


1 


i 


| 






s 





> 


i 


1 


h 


to 


I 


H 


C. W. Babcock 


1st district 


623 


339 


369 


459 


887 


75 






962 


O. H. Brown 


2d... do 


316 


203 


199 


237 


506 


19 


i 


7 


519 


T. W. Hayes 


3d .... do 


161 


91 


101 


112 


215 


12 




g 


25J 


O. B. Donaldson 


4th.... do 


106 


71 


47 


97 


169 


2 


i 


1 


177 


Wm. Barbee 
Do 


5th. ...do 
6th do 


824 
492 


583 
318 


442 
253 


724 

418 


1,385 
791 


22 

12 


27 
11 


26 
H 


!,/ 
fJlfo 


J. B. McClure 


7th. ...do 


82 


36 


53 


50 


117 


1 


1 


I 


118 


Do 


8th .... do 


56 


27 


39 


28 


76 


7 


13 


10 


83 


M. F. Conway 


9th... do 


61 


25 


36 


31 


66 


12 


14 


3 


8S 


Do 


10th. do 


97 


54 


63 


61 


108 


23 






151 


B. H. Twombly. ... 


llth. do 


33 


3 


1 24 


5 


30 


6 






38 


Do 


12th. !!do 


104 


40 


78 


35 


109 


37 


1 


7 


144 


H. B. Jolly 


13th. ..do 


168 


116 


96 


145 


273 


9 


14 


14 


284 


Albert Weed. .. 


14th. do 


655 


512 


334 




301 


46 


1 


35 


1,167 


H. B. Jolly 


15th. ..do 


492 


381 


308 


448 


846 


16 


15 


15 


873 


Chas. Leib 


16th. ..do 


708 


475 


385 


514 


1,042 


104 


48 


33 


1,183 


Alex. O. Johnson . . . 


17th. ..do 


91 


59 


50 


54 


143 


5 


4 


S3 


15) 


B. H. Twombly 


18th do 


59 


40 


28 


51 


97 


1 






99 
























Total 




5,128 


3,383 


2,905 


3,469 


7,161 


408 


151 


192 


8,601 

























ELECTION OF MARCH 30, 1855. 

On the same day that the census was completed, the governor issued 
his proclamation for an election to be held on the 30th of March, A. 
D. 1855, for members of the legislative assembly of the Territory. It 
prescribed the boundaries of districts, the places for polls, the names 
of judges, the apportionment of members, and recited the qualification 
of voters. If it had been observed, a just and fair election would have 
reflected the will of the people of the Territory. Before the election, 
false and inflammatory rumors were busily circulated among the people 
of western Missouri. The number and character of the emigration 
then passing into the Territory were grossly exaggerated and mis- 
represented. Through the active exertions of many of its leading 
citizens, aided by the secret society before referred to, the passions 
and prejudices of the people of that State were greatly excited. ^Sev- 
eral residents there have testified to the character of the reports circu- 
lated among and credited by the people. These efforts were successful. 
By an organized movement, which extended from Andrew county in 
the north, to Jasper county in the south, and as far eastward as 
Boone and Cole counties, Missouri, companies of men^were arrange 
in irregular parties and sent into every council district in the Territory, 
and into every representative district but one. The numbers were so 
distributed as to control the election in each district. They went to 
vote, and with the avowed design to make Kansas a slave (State, 
They were generally armed and equipped, carried with them tneir 






10 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

own provisions and tents, and so marched into the Territory. The 
details of this invasion form the mass of the testimony taken by your 
committee, and is so voluminous that we can here state but the leading 
facts elicited. 

FIRST DISTRICT. Lawrence. 

The company of persons who marched into this district was collected 
in Ray, Howard, Carroll, Boone, Lafayette, Randolph, Macon, Clay, 
Jackson, Saline, and Cass counties, in the State of Missouri. Their 
expenses were paid ; those who could not come, contributing provi- 
sions, wagons, &c.(l) Provisions were deposited for those who 
were expected to come to Lawrence, in the house of William Lykins, 
and were distributed among the Missourians after they arrived there. (2) 
The evening before, and the morning of the day of election, about 
1,000 men from the above counties arrived at Lawrence, and camped 
in a ravine a short distance from town, near the place of voting. 
They came in wagons (of which there were over 100) and on horse- 
back, under the command of Col. Samuel Young, of Boone county, 
Missouri, and Claiborne F. Jackson, of Missouri. They were armed 
with guns, rifles, pistols, and bowie-knives ; and had tents, music, 
and flags with them. (3) They brought with them two pieces of 
artillery, (4) loaded with musket-balls. (5) On their way to Law- 
rence some of them met Mr. N. B. Blanton, who had been ap- 
pointed one of the judges of election by Gov. Reeder, and, after 
learning from him that he considered it his duty to demand an oath 
from them as to their place of residence, first attempted to bribe him, 
and then threatened him with hanging, in order to induce him to dis- 
pense with that oath. In consequence of these threats he did not 
appear at the polls the next morning to act as judge. (6) 

The evening before the election, while in camp, the Missourians 
were called together at the tent of Captain Claiborne F. Jackson, and 
speeches were made to them by Col. Young and others, calling for 
volunteers to go to other districts where there were not Missourians 
enough to control the election, as there were more at Lawrence than 
were needed there. (7) Many volunteered to go, and on the morn- 
ing of the election several companies, from 150 to 200 each, went off 
to Tecumseh, Hickory Point, Bloomington, and other places. (8) On 
the morning of the election the Missourians came over to the place of 
voting from their camp, in bodies of 100 at a time. (9) Mr. Blanton 

(1) F. P. Vaughan, Jourdan Davidson. 

(2) Wm. Yates, C. W. Babcock, Dr. John Doy. 

(3) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, William Yates, Wm. B. Hornsby, G. W. Deitzler, C. 
W. Babcock, Lyman Allen, S. N. Wood, E. Chapman, Robert Elliot, N. B. Blanton, 
Jourdan Davidson, Wm. Lyon, J. B. Abbot, J. W. Ackley, Dr. John Doy, A. B. Wade, 
John M. Banks, H. W. Buckley. 

(4) E. Chapman, Jourdan Davidson. 

(5) E. Chapman. 

(6) N. B. Blanton. 

(7.) Norman Allen, J. Davidson. 

(8) N. Allen, Wm. Gates, W. B. Homsby, C. W. Babcock, S. N. Wood, J. Davidson, 
A- B. Wade, 
(ft) E. D. Ladd. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. J] 

not appearing, another judge was appointed in his place ; Col Young 
claiming that, as the people of the Territory had two judges it 
was nothing more than right that the Missourians should have 'the 
other one to look after their interests ;(10) and Robert A. Cummins was 
elected in Blanton's stead, because he considered that every man had 
a right to vote if he had been in the Territory but an hour. (11) 

The Missourians brought their tickets with them ; (12) but not 
having enough, they had 300 more printed in Lawrence on the even- 
ing before and on the day of election. (13) They had white ribbons 
in their button-holes to distinguish themselves from the settlers. 

When the voting commenced, the question of the legality of the 
vote of a Mr. Page was raised. Before it was decided, Col. Samuel 
Young stepped up to the window where the votes were received, and 
said he would settle the matter. The vote of Mr. Page was with- 
drawn, and Col. Young offered to vote. He refused to take the oath 
prescribed by the governor, but swore he was a resident of the Terri- 
tory ; upon which his vote was received. (15) He told Mr. Abbot, 
one of the judges, when asked if he intended to make Kansas his 
future home, that it was none of his business ; that if he were a resi- 
dent then, he should ask no more. (16) After his vote was received, 
Col. Young got up on the window-sill, and announced to the crowd 
that he had been permitted to vote, and they could all come up and 
vote. (17) He told the judges that there was no use in swearing the 
others, as they would all swear as he had done. (18) After the other 
judges had concluded to receive Col. Young's vote, Mr. Abbot re- 
signed as judge of election, and Mr. Benjamin was elected in his 
place. (19) 

The polls were so much crowded until late in the evening, that for 
a time when the men had voted they were obliged to get out by being 
hoisted up on the roof of the building where the election was being 
held, and pass out over the house. (20) Afterwards, a passage-way 
through the crowd was made by two lines of men being formed, through 
which the voters could get up to the polls. (21) Col. Young asked 
that the old men be allowed to go up first and vote, as they were tired 
with the travelling, and wanted to get back to camp. (22) 

The Missourians sometimes came up to the polls in procession, two 
by two, and voted. (23) 

During the day the Missourians drove off the ground some of the 

(10) S. N. Wood. 

(11) R. A. Cummins, Norman Allen, S. N. Wood, C. S. Pratt, J. B. Abbot. 

(12) C. W. Babcock, Eobert Elliot. 

(13) Eobert Elliot. 

(14) G. W. Deitzler. 

(15) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, S. W. Ward, C. S. Pratt, J. B. Abbot. 

(16) Norman Allen, J. B. Abbot. 

(17) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, S. N. Wood, C S. Pratt, J. B. Abbot. 

(18) C. W. Babcock, J. B. Abbot. 

(19) C. W. Babcock, S. N. Wood, C. S. Pratt, J. B. Abbot. 

(20) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, C. W. Babcock, Lyman Allen, J. M. Banks. 

(21) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, Lyman Alien,. 

(22) Lyman Allen, E. D. Ladd. 

(23) E. D. Ladd, Ira W. Ackley. 






12 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

citizens Mr. Stearns, Mr. Bond, and Mr. Willis. (24) They threat- 
ened to shoot Mr. Bond, and a crowd rushed after him, threatening 
him ; and, as he ran from them, some shots were fired at him as he 
jumped off the hank of the river and made his escape. (25) The citi- 
zens of the town went over in a body late in the afternoon, when the 
polls had become comparatively clear, and voted. (26) 

Before the voting had commenced, the Missourians said if the judges 
appointed by the governor did not receive their votes they would choose 
other judges. (27) Some of them voted several times, changing their 
hats or coats and coming up to the window again. (28) They said they 
intended to vote first, and after they had got through 1he others could 
vote. (29) Some of them claimed a right to vote under the organic act, 
from the fact that their mere presence in the Territory constituted them 
residents, though they were from Missouri, and had homes in Mis- 
souri. (30) Others said they had a right to vote because Kansas be- 
longed to Missouri,, and people from the East had no right to settle in 
the Territory and vote there. (31) 

They said they came to the Territory to elect a legislature to suit 
themselves, as the people of the Territory and persons from the East 
and the North wanted to elect a legislature that would not suit 
them. (32) They said they had a right to make Kansas a slave 
State, because the people of the North had sent persons out to make 
it a free State. (33) Some claimed that they had heard that the Emi- 
grant Aid Society had sent men out to be at the election, and they 
came to offset their votes ; but the most of -them made no such claim. 
Col. Young said he wanted the citizens to vote, in order to give the 
election some show of fairness. (34) 

The Missourians said there would be no difficulty if the citizens did 
not interfere with their voting ; but they were determined to vote 
peaceably, if they could, but vote any how. (35) They said each one 
of them was prepared for eight rounds without loading, and would 
go to the ninth round with the butcher-knife. (36) Some of them said 
that by voting in the Territory they would deprive themselves of the 
right to vote in Missouri for twelve months afterwards. (37) 

The Missourians began to leave the afternoon of the day of election, 
though some did not go home until the next morning. (38) In many 

(24) E. D. Ladd, C. W. Babcock, Lyman Allen, S. N. Wood, N. B. Blanton, John Doy, 
J. Davidson, Charles Robinson. 

(25) E. D. Ladd, C. W. Babcock, Lyman Allen, S. N. Wood, N. B. Blanton, J. David- 
son, Dr John Doy. 

(26) E. D. Ladd, C. Robinson, A. B. Wade, J. Whitlock, J. M. Banks, H. W. Buckley. 

(27) G. W. Deitzler. 

(28) S. N. Wood, Ira W. Ackley. 

(29) J. Davidson. 

(30) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, Lyman Allen. 

(31) W. B. Hornsby, C. W. Babcock, C. Robinson. 

(32) William Yates, Thomas Hopkins, Ira W. Ackley. 
(33) Lyman Allen, J. Davidson. 

(34) Norman Allen. 

(35) Norman Allen, Lyman Allen, C. W. Babcock, S. N. Wood, E. Chapman, Thomas 
Hopkins. 

(36) Jourdan Davidson. 

(37) J. B. Abbot. 

(38) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, William Yates, W. B. Hornsby, G. W. Deitzler, C. W. 
Babcock, C. Robinson, E. Chapman, Lyman Allen, Jourdan Davidson. 









KANSAS AFFAIES. 13 

cases, when a wagon-load voted they immediately started for home. (39) 
On their way home they said that if Governor Keeder did not sanc- 
tion the election they would hang him. (40) 

The citizens of the town of Lawrence, as a general thing,, were not 
armed on the day of election, though some had revolvers, but not ex- 
posed as were the arms of the Missourians. (41) They kept a guard 
about the town the night after the election, in consequence of the 
threats of the Missourians, in order to protect it. (42) 

The pro-slavery men of the district attended the nominating con 
ventions of the free-State men, and voted for, and secured the nomina- 
tions of, the men they considered the most obnoxious to the free-State 
party, in order to cause dissension in that party. (43) 

Quite a number of settlers came into the district before the day of 
election, and after the census was taken. (44) According to the cen- 
sus returns, there were then in the district 369 legal voters. Of 
those whose names are on the census returns, 1*77 are to be found on 
the poll-books of the 30th of March, 1855. Messrs. Ladd, Babcock, 
and Pratt testify to fifty-five names on the poll-books of persons they 
knew to have settled in the district after the census was taken, and 
before the election. A number of persons came into the Territory in 
March before the election, from the northern and eastern States, in- 
tending to settle, who were in Lawrence on the day of election. At 
that time many of them had selected no claims, and had no fixed 
place of residence. Such were not entitled to vote. Many of them 
became dissatisfied with the country. Others were disappointed at its 
political condition, and in the price and demand for labor, and re- 
turned. Whether any such voted at the election, is not clearly 
shown ; but from the proof, it is probable that in the latter part of the 
day, after the great body of Missourians had voted, some did go to the 
polls. The number was not over fifty. These voted the free-State 
ticket. The whole number of names appearing upon the poll-lists is 
1,034. After full examination, we are satisfied that not over 232 of 
these were legal voters, and 802 were non-residents and illegal voters. 
This district is strongly in favor of making Kansas a free State, and 
there is no doubt that the free-State candidates for the legislature 
would have been elected by large majorities if none but the actual 
settlers had voted. At the preceding election, in November, 1854, 
where none but legal votes were polled, General Whitfield, who re- 
ceived the full strength of the pro-slavery party, (45) got but forty- 
six votes. 

SECOND DISTRICT. Bloomington. 

On the morning of election the judges appointed by the governoi 
appeared and opened the polls. Their names were Harrison Burson, 

(39) S. N. Wood. 

(40) Ganis Jenkins. 

(41) E. D. Ladd. 

(42) E. D. Ladd. 

(43) A. B. Wade. ... , 

(44) E. D. Ladd, Norman Allen, C. W. Babcock, Charles Robinson, Lyman Alien, J. 
M. Brooks. 

(45) James Whitlock. 



14 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Nathaniel Kamsay, and Mr. Ellison. The Missourians began to 
come in early in the morning, some 500 or 600 of them in wagons 
and carriages, and on horseback, under the lead of Samuel J. Jones, 
then postmaster of Westport, Missouri ; Claiborne F. Jackson and 
Mr. Steeley, of Independence, Missouri. They were armed with double- 
barreled guns, rifles, bowie-knives, and pistols, and had flags hoist- 
ed. (1) They held a sort of an informal election off at one side, at 
first for governor of Kansas Territory, and shortly afterwards an- 
nounced Thomas Johnson, of Shawnee Mission, elected governor. (2) 
The polls had been opened but a short time, when Mr. Jones march- 
ed with the crowd up to the window and demanded that they should 
be allowed to vote, without swearing as to their residence. (3) After 
some noisy and threatening talk, Claiborne F. Jackson addressed the 
crowd, saying they had come there to vote; that they had a right to 
vote if they had been there but five minutes, and he was not willing to 
go home without voting ; which was received with cheers. (4) Jackson 
then called upon them to form into little bands of 15 or 20, which they 
did, (5) and went to an ox wagon filled with guns, which were distributed 
among them (6) and proceeded to load some of them on the ground. (7) 
In pursuance of Jackson's request, they tied white tape or ribbons 
in their button-holes, so as to distinguish them from the " abolition- 
ists. "(8) They again demanded that the judges should resign ; and 
upon their refusing to do so, smashed in the window, sash and all, 
and presented their pistols and guns to them, threatening to shoot 
them. (9) Some one on the outside cried out to them not to shoot, as 
there were pro-slavery men in the house with the judges. (10) They 
then put a pry under the corner of the house, which was a log-house, 
and lifted it up a few inches and let it fall again, (11) but desisted 
upon being told there were pro-slavery men in the house. During 
this time the crowd repeatedly demanded to be allowed to vote with- 
out being sworn, and Mr. Ellison, one of the judges, expressed him- 
self willing, but the other two judges refused ;(12) thereupon a body 
of men, headed by sheriff Jones, rushed into the judge's room with 
cocked pistols and drawn bowie-knives in their hands, and approach- 
ed Burson and Kamsay. (13) Jones pulled out his watch and said he 
would give them five minntes to resign in, or die. (14) When the 
five minutes had expired and the judges did not resign, Jones said he 

(1) II. Burson, N. Ramsay, James M. Dunn, Andrew White, Dr. E. G. Macey, H. Muzzy, 
Wm. Jessee, John A. Wakefield. 

(2) E. G. Macey. 

(3) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, J. M. Dunn, A. White, E. G. Macey, H. Muzzy, Wm. Jessee, 
John A. Wakefield. 

(4) J. M. Dunn, A. White, E. G. Macey, J. A. Wakefi eld. 

(5) E. G. Macey, J. A. Wakefield. 

(6) J. M. Dunn, J. C. Dunn, A. White. 

(7) E. G. Macey. 

(8) J. M. Dunn, J. N. Mace, A. White, E. G. Macey, J. A. Wakefield. 

(9) H. Burson, N. Ramsay. 

(10) J. C. Dunn. 

(11) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, J. N. Mace, J, C. Dunn, A. White, E. G. Macey, H. Muzzy, 
S. Jones, J A. Wakefield. 

(12) J. C. Dunn. 

(13) Harrison Burson, N. Ramsay. 

(14) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, J. C. Dunn, H. Muzzy, Wm. Jessee. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 15 

would give them another minute and no more. (15) Ellison told his 
associates that if they did not resign there would he one hundred shots 
fired in the room in less than fifteen minutes, (16) and then snatching 
up the hallot-hox ran out into the crowd, holding up the ballot-hox 
and hurrahing for Missouri. (17) Ahout that time Burson and Ramsay 
were called out hy their friends, and not suffered to return. (18) As 
Mr. Burson went out he put the hallot poll-books in his pocket and 
took them with him, (19) and as he was going out Jones snatched 
some papers away from him, (20) and shortly afterwards came out 
himself, holding them up, crying, " Hurrah for Missouri ! "(21) After 
he discovered they were not the poll-hooks, he took a party of men 
with him and started off to take the poll-pooks from Burson. (22) 
When Mr. Burson saw them coming, he gave the hooks to Mr. Um- 
berger and told him to start off in another direction, so as to mislead 
Jones and his party. (23) Jones and his party caught Mr. Umberger, 
took the poll-books away from him, and Jones took him up behind 
him on a horse and carried him back a prisoner. (24) After Jones and 
kis party had taken Umberger back, they went to the house of Mr. 
Eamsay and took Judge John A. Wakefield prisoner, and carried 
him to the place of election, (25) and made him get up on a wagon 
and there make a speech ; after which they put a white ribbon in his 
button-hole and let him go. (26) They then chose two new judges 
and proceeded with the election. (2 7) They also threatened to kill the 
judges if they did not receive their votes without swearing them, or 
else resign. (28) They said no man should vote who would submit to 
be sworn ; that they would kill any man who would offer to do so. 
" Shoot him;" "Cut his guts out," &c.(29) They said no man 
should vote this day unless he voted an open ticket, and was all right 
on the goose ; (30) and that if they could not vote by fair means, 
they would by foul means. (31) They said they had as much right to 
vote if they had been in the Territory two minutes as if they had been 
there two years, and they would vote. (32) Some of the citizens who 
were about the window, but had not voted when the crowd of Missou- 
rians marched up there, upon attempting to vote were driven back 

(15) H. Burson, N. Kamsay, H. Muzzy. 

(16) H. Burson, N. Kamsay, J. W. Mace, H. Muzzy, W. Jessee, S. Jones, J. A. Wahe- 
field. 

(17) H. Burson, J. C. Dunn. 

(18) H. Burson, N. Eamsay, J. C. Dunn, A. White, H. Muzzy, Win. Jessee. 

(19) H. Burson, J. C. Dunn. 

(20) H. Burson. 

(21) H. Burson, J. M. Dunn, E. G. Macey, Wm. Jessee. 

(22) H. Burson, N. Ramsay. 

(23) II. Burson, A. White, G. W. Umherger, Wm. Jessee. 

(24) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, A. White, E. G. Macey, G. W. Umherger, Wm. Jessee, J. 
A. Wakefield. 

(25) N. Ramsay, J. M. Dunn, A. White, E. G. Macey, G. W. Umberger, Wm. Jessee, 
J. A. Wakefield. 

(26) E. G. Macey, G. W. Umherger, J. A. Wakefield. 

(27) T. Lahy. 

(28) J. C. Dunn, Wm. Jessee, S. Jones. 

(29) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, J. M. Dunn, J. N. Mace, A. White, E. G. Macey, W. Jea 

(30) N. Ramsay. 

(31) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, J. M. Dunn. 

(32) J. M. Dunn. 



16 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

by the mob,, or driven off. (33) One of them, Mr. I. M. Mace " r :*t 
asked if he would take the oath; and upon his replying that he would 
if the judges required it, he was dragged through the crowd away 
from the polls, amid cries of " kill the damned nigger-thief," "cut his 
throat," "tear his heart out," &c. After they got him to the out- 
side of the crowd, they stood around him with cocked revolvers and 
drawn bowie-knives ; one man putting a knife to his breast so that it 
touched him ; another holding a cocked pistol to his ear, while another 
struck at him with a club. (34) 

The Missourians said they had a right to vote, if they had been in 
the Territory but five minutes. (85) Some said they had been hired 
to come there and vote, and got a dollar a day, and by God they would 
vote or die there. (36.) 

They said the 30th day of March was an important day, as Kansas 
would be made a slave State on that day. (37) They began to leave in 
the direction of Missouri in the afternoon, after they had voted, (38) 
leaving some thirty or forty around the house where the election was 
held, to guard the polls till after the election was over. (39) The 
citizens of the Territory were not armed, except those who took part 
in the mob, (40) and a large portion of them did not vote. (41) Three 
hundred and forty-one votes were polled there that day, of which but 
some thirty were citizens. (42) A protest against the election was got 
up and sent to the governor. (43) The returns of the election made to 
the governor were lost by the committee of elections of the legislature 
at Pawnee. (44) 

The duplicate returns left in the ballot-box were taken by F. E. 
Lahy, one of the judges elected by the Missourians, and were either 
lost or destroyed in his house, (45) so that your committee have been 
unable to institute a comparison between the poll-lists and census 
returns of this district. The testimony is uniform, that not over 
thirty of those who voted there that day were entitled to vote, leaving 
311 illegal votes. - We are satisfied, from the testimony, that had the 
actual settlers alone voted, the free-State candidates would have been 
elected by a handsome majority. 

THIRD DISTRICT. Tecumseh. 

On the 28th of March, persons from Clay, Jackson and Howard 
counties, Missouri, began to come into Tecumseh in wagons, carriages, 
and on horseback, armed with guns, bowie-knives and revolvers, and 
with tents, and camped close by the town, and continued coming in 

(33) H. Burson, N. Ramsay, Wm. Jessee, I. N. Mace. 

(34) I. N. Mace, H. Muzzy. 

(35) J. M. Dunn, A. White, E. G. Macey, J. A. Wakefield. 

(36) J. M. Dunn, J. C. Dunn, A. White. 

(37) N. Ramsay. 

(38) J. C. Dunn, A. White. 

(39) A. White. 

(40) H. Burson. 

(41) II. Burson, I. N. Mace, H. Muzzy, Wm. Jessee, J. A. Wakefield. 

(42) H. Burson. 

(43) S. Jones, J. A. Wakefield. 

(44) Daniel Woodson. 

(45) F. E..Lahy. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 17 

and camping until the day of election. (1) The night hefore the 
election, 200 men were sent for from the camp of the Missourians at 
Lawrence. (2) On the morning of the election, hefore the polls were 
opened, some 300 or 400 Missourians and others collected in the yard 
ahout the house of Thomas Stinson, where the election was to he held, 
armed with howie-knives, revolvers, and clubs. (3) They said they 
came to vote and whip the damned Yankees, and would vote without 
being sworn. (4) Some said they came to have a fight, and wanted 
one. (5) 

Colonel Samuel H. Woodson, of Independence, Missouri, was in the 
room of the judges when they arrived, preparing poll-books and tally - 
lists, and remained there during the attempts to organize. (6) The room 
of the judges was also rilled by many of these strangers. (7) The 
judges could not agree concerning the oath to be taken by themselves, 
and the oath to be administered by the voters ; Mr. Burgess desiring 
to administer the oath prescribed by the governor, and the other two 
judges opposing it. (8) During the discussion between the judges, 
which lasted for some time, the crowd outside became excited and 
noisy, threatening and cursing Mr. Burgess, the free-State judge. (9) 
Persons were sent at different times by the crowd outside into the 
room where the judges were with threatening messages, especially 
against Mr. Burgess, and at last ten minutes were given them to or- 
ganize in or 1'eave ; and, as the time passed, persons outside would 
call out the number of minutes left, with threats against Burgess if 
he did not agree to organize. (10) At the end of that time the judges, 
not being able to organize, left the room, and the crowd proceeded to 
elect new judges and carry on the election. (11) 

The free-State men generally left the ground without voting, 
stating that there was no use in their voting there. (12) The polls 
were so crowded during the first part of the day that the citizens 
could not get up to the window to vote (13) Threats were made 
against the free-State men. (14) In the afternoon the Rev. Mr. Gril- 
patrick was attacked and driven off by the mob. (15) A man, by some 
called "Texas," made a speech to the crowd, urging them to vote, 
and to remain on the ground until the polls were closed, for fear the 
"abolitionists" would come there in the afternoon and overpower 
them, and thus they would lose all their trouble. (16) 

(1) W. A. M. Vaughan, M. J. Mitchell, John Long. 

(2) H. B. Burgess. 

(3) Rev. H. B. Burgess, Charles Jourdan, James Hickey, Lewis 0. Wilmarth, D. H* 
Home, J. M. Merriam, W. R. Boggs, W. A. M. Vaughan. 

(4) John Long, L. 0. Wilmarth, George Holmes. 

(5) L. 0. Wilmarth. 

(G) Rev. H. B. Burgess, John Long, George Holmes. * 

(7) H. B. Burgess. 

(8) H. B. Burgess, George Holmes. 

(9) H. B. Burgess, John Long, D. H. Home. 

(10) H. B. Burgees, Charles Jourdan, D. H. Home. 

(11) H. B. Burgess, Charles Jourdan, J. M. Merriam, George Holmes. 

(12) H. B. Burgess, C. Jourdan, J. M. Merrian. 

(13) L. 0. Wilmarth. 
fl4) C. Jourdan. 

(15) John Long. 

(16) Charles Jourdan, James Hickey, D. H. Home. 

H. Bep. 200 2 



18 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

For making an affidavit in a protest against this election, setting 
forth the facts, Mr. Burgess was indicted by the grand jury for per- 
jury ; which indictment was found more than fifteen months ago, and 
is still pending, Mr. Burgess never having been informed who his 
accuser was, or what was the testimony against him. (17) 

A large majority, four to one, of the actual settlers of that district 
were free-State men, (18) and there cannot be the least doubt that if 
none but the actual settlers of the district had voted at that election 
the free-State candidates would have been elected. The number of 
legal voters in the district, according to the census returns, were 101. 
The total number of votes cast were 372, and of these but 32 are on 
the census returns ; and, from the testimony and records, we are 
satisfied that not over forty legal votes were cast at that election. 

FOURTH DISTRICT. 

A body of armed Missourians came into the district previous to the 
election, and camped there. (1) Before the time arrived for opening 
the polls, the Missourians went to another than the house appointed 
for the election, and one of the judges appointed by the governor and 
two chosen by the Missourians proceeded to open the polls and carry 
on the election. (2) The Missourians said that none but pro-slavery 
men should vote, and threatened to shoot any free-State men who 
would come up to vote. (3) Mr. Mockbee, one of the judges elected by 
the Missourians, had a store near tte boundary fixed by the proclama- 
tion of the governor, while he cultivated a farm in Missouri, where his 
family lived, (4) and while his legal residence is there, and is now. 

The Missourians also held a side election for governor of the Terri- 
tory, voting for Thomas Johnson, of Shawnee Mission. (5) The free- 
State men finding the polls under the control of non-residents, refused 
to vote and did ndt vote. (6) They constituted a decided majority of 
the actual settlers. (7) A protest, signed by a majority of the residents 
>f the district, was sent to the governor. (8) The whole number of voters 
{im this district, according to the census returns, were 47 ; the number of 
'vates cast were 80, of whom but 15 were residents. The number of resi- 
... dens whose names are on the census rolls, who did not vote, were 32. 

FIFTH DISTRICT. 

/ 

Forborne days prior to the election, companies of men were organ- 
ized in Jackson, Cass, and Clay counties, Missouri, for the purpose of 



* (17) H. B. Burgess. 
(18) H. B. Burgess. 

(1) Perry Fuller, Peter Bassinger. 

(2) Perry Fuller, Win. Moore, J. F. Javens. 

(3) J. F. Javens. 

(4) William Moore, J. F. Javens, Thomas Mockbee. 

(5) Perry Fuller, William Moore. 

(6) J. F. Javens, Thomas Mockhee. 

(7) Perry Fuller, W. Moore, J. F. Javens. 

(8) Perrj Fuller, J F. Javens^ 



i 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 19 

coming to the Territory and voting in the fifth district. (1) The day 
previous to the election, some 400 or 500 Missourians, armed with 
guns, pistols, and knives, came into the Territory and camped at Bull 
creek, and on the Pottawatomie creek. (2) 

On the evening before the election, Judge Hamilton, of the Cass 
county court, Missouri, came from i the Pottawatomie Creek camp to 
Bull Creek camp for 60 more Missourians, as they had not enough 
there to render the election certain, and they went down there with 
him. (3) 

On the evening hefore the election, Dr. B. C. Westfall was selected 
to act as one of the judges of election in the Bull Creek precinct, in place 
of one of the judges appointed hy the governor, who, it was said, 
would not be there the next day. (4) Dr. Westfall was at that time a 
citizen of Jackson county, Missouri. (5) On the morning of the elec- 
tion the polls for Bull Creek precinct were opened, and, without swear- 
ing the judges, they proceeded to receive the votes of all who offered 
to vote. For the sake of appearances, the judges would get some one 
to come to the window and offer to vote, and when asked to he sworn 
he would pretend to get angry at the judges, and would go away, and 
his name would be put down as having offered to vote, but " rejected, 
refusing to be sworn/' This arrangement was made previously, and 
was perfectly understood by the judges. (6) But few of the residents of 
the district were present at the election, and only 13 voted. ("7) The 
number of votes cast in the precinct was 393. One Missourian voted for 
himself, and then voted for his little son but 10 or 11 years old. (8) 
Colonel Coffee, Henry Younger, and Mr. Lykins, who were voted for 
and elected to the legislature, were residents of Missouri at that 
time. (9) 

After the polls were closed the returns were made out, and a man 
claiming to be a magistrate certified on them that he had sworn the 
judges of election before opening the polls. (10) 

In the Pottawatomie precinct the Missourians attended the election, 
and after threatening Mr. Chestnut, the only judge present appointed 
by the governor, to induce him to resign, they proceeded to eJect two 
other judges, one a Missourian and the other a resident of another pre- 
cinct of that district. The polls were then opened, and all the Mis- 
sourians were allowed to vote without being sworn. After the polls 
were closed, and the returns made out for the signatures of the judges, 
Mr. Chestnut refused to sign them, as he did not consider them cor- 
rect returns of legal voters. Colonel Coffee, a resident of Missouri, but 
elected to the Kansas legislature from that district at that election, 
endeavored, with others, to induce Mr. Chestnut by threats to sign the 
. . 

(1) Dr. B. C. Westfall, Joseph M. Gearhart. 

(2) Dr. B. C. Westfall, Jesse W. Wilson, J. M. Gearhart. 

(3) Dr. B C. Westfall. 

(4) Dr. B. C. Westfall. 

(5) Dr. B. C. Westfall, J. W. Wilson. 
(6)Di. B. C. Westfall. 

(7) J. W. Wilson. 

(8) Dr. B. C. Westfall. 

(9) Dr. B. C. Westfall, J. M Gearhart. 

(10) Dr. B. C. Westfall. 



20 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

return, which he refused to do, and left the house. On his way 
home he was fired at by some Missourians, though not injured. (11) 
There were three illegal to one legal vote given there that day. (12) 

At the Big Sugar precinct, the judges appointed by the governor 
met at the time appointed, and proceeded to open the polls, after being 
duly sworn. After a few votes had een received, a party of Missouri- 
ans came into the yard of the house where the election was held, and 
unloading a wagon filled with arms, stacked their guns in the yard, 
and came up to the window and demanded to be allowed to vote. Two 
of the judges decided to receive their votes; whereupon the third judge, 
Mr. J. M. Arthur, resigned, and another was chosen in his place. 
Col. "Xoung, a citizen of Missouri, but a candidate for and elected to 
the Territorial council, was present, and voted in this precinct. He 
claimed that all Missourians who were present on the day of election 
were entitled to vote. But 30 or 40 of the citizens of the precinct 
were present, and many of them did not vote. (13) 

At the Little Sugar precinct the election seemed to have been con- 
ducted fairly, and there a free-State majority was polled. (14) From 
the testimony the whole district appears to have been largely free- 
State ; and had none but actual settlers voted, the free-State candi- 
dates would have been elected by a large majority. 

From a careful examination of the testimony and the records, we 
find that from 200 to 225 legal votes were polled out of 885 the total 
number given in the four precincts of that district. Of the legal 
votes cast the free-State candidates received 152. 

SIXTH DISTRICT. Fort Scott. 

A company of citizens of Missouri, mostly of Bates county, came 
into this district the day before the election, some camping, and others 
putting up at the public house. (1) They numbered from 100 to 200, (2) 
and came in wagons and on horseback, carrying their provisions and 
tents with them, and were generally, armed with pistols. They de- 
clared their purpose to vote, and claimed the right to do so. They 
went to the polls, generally, in small bodies, with tickets in their 
hands, and many, if not all, voted. In some places they declared 
they had voted, and gave their reasons for so doing. Mr. Anderson, 
a pro-slavery candidate for the legislature, endeavored to dissuade the 
non-residents from voting, because he did not wish the election con- 
tested. (3) This person, however, insisted upon voting, a-nd upon his 
right to vote, and did so. No one was challenged or sworn, and all 
voted who desired to. Out of 350 votes cast not over 100 were legal, 
and but 64 of these are found in the census taken one month before 
by Mr. Barber, the candidate for council. Many of the free-State 
men did not vote ; but your committee are satisfied that of the 

(11) Wm. Chestnut. 
(12)Wm. Chestnut. 

(13) James McArthur. 

(14) S. W. Bouton. 
(1) John Hamilton. 

f3) John Hamilton, E. B. Cook, F. B. Araatt. 
($) Joseph C. Anderson. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 21 

legal votes cast the pro-slavery candidates received a majority. Mr. 
Anderson, one of these candidates, was an unmarried man, who came 
into the district from Missouri a few days "before the election, and 
boarded at the puhlic house until the day after the election. He'then 
took with him the poll-lists, and did not return to Fort Scott until 
the occasion of a barhacue, the week before the election of October 1, 
1855. He voted at that election, and after it left, and has not since 
been in the district. S. A. Williams, the other pro-slavery candidate, 
at the time of the election had a claim in the Territory, but his le^al 
residence was not there until after the election. 

SEVENTH DISTRICT. 

From 200 to 300 men from the State of Missouri came, in wagons 
or on horseback, to the election ground at Switzer's creek, in the 
second district,, and encamped near the polls, on the day preceding the 
election. They were amed with pistols and other weapons, and de- 
clared their purpose to vote, in order to secure the election of pro- 
slavery members. They said they were disappointed in not finding 
more Yankees there, and that they had brought more men than were 
necessary to counterbalance their vote. A number of them wore 
badges of blu ribbon, with a motto, and the compaiiy were under the 
direction of leaders. They declared their intention to conduct them- 
selves peacefully, unless the residents of the Territory attempted to 
stop them from voting. Two of the judges of election appointed by 
Governor Eeeder refused to serve, whereupon two others were ap- 
pointed in their stead by the crowd of Missourians who surrounded 
the polls. The newly appointed judges refused to take the oath pre- 
scribed by Governor Reeder, but made one to suit themselves. An- 
drew Johnson requested the voters to swear if he had a claim in the 
Territory, and if he had voted in another district. The judges did not 
take the oath prescribed, but were sworn to receive all legal votes. 
The Missourians voted without being sworn ; they supported H. J. 
Stickler for council and M. W. McGee for representative ; they left 
the evening of election ; some of them started on horseback for Law- 
rence, as they said they could be there before night, and all returned the 
way they came. The census list shows 53 legal voters in the district. 
253 votes were cast ; of these 25 were residents, 17 of whom were in 
the district when the census was taken. (1) Some of the ^ residents 
present at the polls did not vote, declaring it useless. Candidates de- 
clined to run on the free-State ticket, because they were unwilling to 
run the risk of so unequal a contest, it being known that a great 
many are coming up from Missouri to vote. (2) Nearly all the settlers 
were free-State men, and 23 of the 25 legal votes given were cast for 
the only free-State candidate running. Mobillon McGee, who was de- 
clared elected representative, had a claim a saw-mill and a house- 
in the Territory, and he was there part of the time. But his legal 
residence is now' and was then near Westport, in Missouri, where he 
owns and conducts a valuable farm, and where his family resides. 

(1) James A. Stewart, M. S. Rose. 

(2) W. F. Johnson.. f 



22 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



EIGHTH DISTRICT. 

This was attached to the seventh district for a member of the coun- 
cil and a representative, and its vote was controlled by the illegal votes 
cast there. The census shows 3y votes in it ; 37 votes were cast, of 
whom a majority voted the free-State ticket. 

NINTH DISTRICT. 

Fort Kiley and Pawnee are in this district. The latter place was 
selected by the governor as the temporary capital, and he designed 
there to expend the sums appropriated by Congress in the construc- 
tion of suitable houses for the legislature. A good deal of building 
was then being done at the fort near by. For these reasons a number 
of mechanics, mostly from Pennsylvania, came into the district in 
March, 1855, to seek employment. Some of these voted at the election. 
The construction of the capital was first postponed, then abandoned, 
and finally the site of the town was declared by the Secretary of War 
to be within the military reservation of Fort Riley. Some of the 
inhabitants returned to the States, and some went to other points of 
the Territory. Your committee find that they came as settlers, intend- 
ing to remain as such, and were entitled to vote.(l.) 

TENTH DISTRICT. 

In this district ten persons belonging to the Wyandott tribe of 
Indians voted. They were of that class who under the law were 
entitled to vote, but their residence was in Wyandott village, at the 
mouth of the Kansas river, and they had no right to vote in this 
district. They voted the pro-slavery ticket. (2.) Eleven men, recently 
from Pennsylvania, voted the free-State ticket. From the testimony, 
they had not, at the time of the election, so established their residence 
as to have entitled them to vote. (3.) In both these classes of cases 
the judges examined the voters under oath, and allowed them to vote, 
and in all respects the election seems to have been conducted friendly. 
The rejection of both would not have changed the result. This and 
the eighth election district formed one representative district, and 
was the only one to which the invasion from Missouri did not extend. 

ELEVENTH DISTRICT. 

The 9th, 10th, llth, and 12th election districts being all separately 
settled, were attached together in a council district, and the llth and 
12th as representative districts. This election district is sixty miles 
north from Pawnee, and one hundred and fifty miles from Kansas 
City. It is the northwest settlement in the Territory, and contained, 
when the census was taken, but thirty-six inhabitants, of whom twen- 
ty-four were voters. There was on the day of election no white set- 

(1) Andrew McConnell, R. W. Wilson, A. H. Reeder, 

(2) M. A. Garrett. Joseph Stewart. 
(& M. J. Osborne, Isaac S. Hascall. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 23 

tlement about Marysville, the place of voting, for forty miles, except 
that Marshall & Bishop kept a store and ferry at the crossing of the 
Big Blue and the California road. (4) Your committee were unable 
to procure witnesses from this district. Persons who were present at 
the election were duly summoned by an officer, and among them was 
F. J. Marshall, the member of the House from that district. On his 
return, the officer was arrested and detained, and persons bearing the 
names of some of the witnesses summoned were stopped near Lecomp- 
ton, and did not appear before the committee. The returns show 
that, in defiance of the governor's proclamation, the voting was 
" viva voce" instead of by ballot. Three hundred and twenty-eight 
names appear upon the poll-books as voting, and, by comparing these 
names with those on the census-rolls, we find that but seven of the 
latter voted. The person voted for as representative (F. J. Marshall) 
was chief owner of the store at Marysville, and was there sometimes, (5) 
but his family lived in Weston, Mo. John Donaldson, the can- 
didate voted for the council, then lived in Jackson county, Mo. (6) 

On the day after the election Mr. Marshall, with twenty-five or 
thirty men from Weston, Mo., was on the way from Marysville to 
the State. Some of the party told a witness who had formerly re- 
sided at Weston, that they were up at Marysville, and carried the 
day for Missouri, and that they had voted about one hundred and fifty 
vdtes. Mr. Marshall paid the bill at that point for the party. 

There does not appear to have been any emigration into that dis- 
trict in March, 1855, after the census was taken ; and, judging from 
the best test in the power of your committee, there were but seven 
legal votes cast in the district, and three hundred and twenty-one 
illegal. 

.- TWELFTH DISTRICT. 

The election in this district was conducted fairly. No complaint 
was made that illegal votes were cast. 

THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 

Previous to the day of election several hundred Missourians from 
Platte, Clay, Boone, Clinton, and Howard counties, came into the 
district in wagons and on horseback, and camped there. (1) They 
were armed with guns, revolvers, and bowie-knives, and had badges 
of hemp in their button-holes and elsewhere about their persons. (2) 
They claimed to have a right to vote from the fact that they were 
there on the ground, and had, or intended to make claims in the Ter- 
ritory, although their families were in Missouri. (3) 

The judges appointed by the governor opened the polls, and sonn* 

(4.) Augustus Baker. 

(5.) Augustus Baker. 

(6.) T. E. D'Avis. 

(1.) T. B. Ross, W. H. Godwin, Dr. James Noble, T. A. Minard, Charles Hardn. 

(2.) T. B. Ross, W. H. Godwin. 

(3.) T B. Ross, Dr. J. Noble. 



24 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

persons offered to vote ; and when their votes were rejected on the 
ground that they were not residents of the district, the crowd threat- 
ened to tear the house down if the judges did not leave. (4) 

The judges then withdrew, taking the poll-books with them. (5) 
The crowd then proceeded to select other persons to act as judges, 
and the election went on. (6) Those persons voting who were sworn 
were adked if they considered themselves residents of the district, and 
if they said they did they were allowed to vote. (7) But few of the 
residents were present and voted, (8) and the free-State men, as a 
general thing, did not vote. (9) After the Missourians got through 
voting, they returned home. (10) 

A foi rnal return was made by the judges of election, setting out 
the fact, but it was not verified. The number of legal voters in this 
district was ninety-six, of whom a majority were* free-State men ; of 
the leg<*l voters 12 voted. The total number of votes cast was 239. 

FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 

It was generally rumored in the district for some days before the 
election that the Missourians were coming over to vote. (1) Previous 
to the election, men from Missouri came into the district and elec- 
tioneered for the pro-slavery candidates,, (2) General David R. Atchi- 
son and a party controlling the nominations in one of the primary 
elections. (3) 

Burr Oak precinct. Several hundred Missourians from Buchanan, 
Platte, and Andrew counties, Missouri, including a great many of 
the prominent citizens of St. Joseph's, came into this precinct the 
day before and on the day of election in wagons and on horses,, and 
camped there. (4) Arrangements were made for them to cross the 
ferry at St. Joseph's free of expense to themselves. (5) They were 
armed with bowie-knives and pistols, guns and rifles. (6) On the 
morning of the election the free-State candidates resigned in a body 
on account of the presence of the large number of armed Missourians, 
at which the crowd cheered and hurrahed. (7) General B. F. String- 
fellow was present and was prominent in promoting the election of 
the pro-slavery ticket, as was also the Hon. Willard P. Hall and 

(4.) T B. Ross, Charles Hardh, N. B. Sharp. 
(5.) T. B. Ross, C. Hardh. 

(6.) T. B. Ross, W. H. Godwin. Dr. J. Noble, R. Chandler, T. A. Minard, C. Hardh, 
G. M. Dyer, 0. B. Tebbs. 
(7.) R. Chandler. 
(8.) T B. Ross, Dr. J. Noble. 

(9) T. B. Ross, Dr. J. Noble, R. Chandler, C. Hardh, O. B. Tebbs. 

(10) T. B. Ross, Dr. J. Noble. 

(1) Benj. Harding, John H. Whitehead, Alfred Larzelier. 

(2) Benj. Harding. Willard P. Hall, Dr. G. A. Cutler. 

(3) Dr. G. A. Cutler. 

(4) A. A. Jamieson, W. P. Richardson, Benj. Harding, J. H. Whitehead, J. R. Carter, 
A. Larzelier, Willard P. Hall. B. H. Brock, C. W. Stewart, A. M. Mitchell, H. S. Creel. 
G. W. Gillespie. 

(5) L. Dillon, G. W. Gillespie. 

(6) A. A. Jamieson, Willard P. Hall, C. W. Stewart. 

(7) A. A. Jamieson, W. P. Richardson, Benj. Harding,' J. H. Whitehead, A. Larzelier, 
W. P. Hall, T. P. Blair. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 25 

others of the most prominent citizens of St. Joseph's, Missouri. (8) 
But one of the judges of election appointed by the governor served on 
rthat day, and the crowd chose two others to supply the vacancies. (9) 
The Missourians said they came there to vote for and carry the 
election for Major W. P. Richardson. (10) Major Richardson, elected 
to the council, had had a farm in Missouri, where his wife and daugh- 
ter lived with his son-in-law, Willard P. Hall, he himself generally 
going home to Missouri every Saturday night. The farm was gen- 
erally known as the Richardson farm. He had a claim in the Terri- 
tory upon which was a saw-mill, and where he generally remained 
during the week. (11.) Some of the Missourians gave as their reason 
for voting that they had heard that eastern emigrants were to he at 
.that election, (12) though no eastern emigrants were there. (13) Oth- 
ers said they were going to vote for the purpose of making Kansas a 
filave State. (14) Some claimed that they had a right to vote under 
the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, from the fact that they 
r were present on the ground on the day of election. (15) The free- 
State men generally did not vote, (16) and those who did vote, voted 
generally for John H. Whitehead, pro-slavery, for council, against 
Major W. P. Richardson, and did not vote at all for members of the 
..border town. (17) The parties were pretty nearly equally divided in 
the district, some being of opinion that the free-State party had a 
small majority, (18) and others that the pro-slavery party had a* small 
majority. (18) After the election was over and the polls were closed, 
the Missourians returned home. During the day they had provisions 
and liquor served out free of expense to all. (19) 

Doniphan precinct. The evening before the election some 200 
or more Missourians from Platte, Buchanan, Saline, and Clay 
.counties, Missouri, came into this precinct, with tents, music, wagons, 
and provisions, and armed with guns, rifles, pistols, and bowie-knives, 
and camped about two miles from the place of voting. (20) They 
said they came to vote, to make Kansas a slave State, and intended to 
return to Missouri after they had voted. (21) On the morning of the 
.election the judges appointed by the governor would not serve, and 
others were chosen by the crowd. (22) 

The Missourians were allowed to vote without being sworn, (23) 

(8) A. A. Jamieson, W. P. Richardson, J. H. Whitehead, W. P. Hall. 

(9) A. A. Jamieson, Benj. Harding, J. H. Whitehead, A. Larzelier, 0. Hulan. 
! (10) A. A. Jamieson, W. P. Hall. 

? (11) A. A. Jamieson, W. P. Richardson, W. P. Hall. 

(12) W. P. Richardson, J. H. Whitehead, J. R. Carter, W. P. Hall, A. M. Mitchell, H. 
S. Creel. 

(13) B. Harding, J. H. Whitehead, J. R. Carter, W. P. Hall. 
1 (14) W. P. Hall, H. S. Creel. 

(15) B. H. Brock, C. W. Stewart, H. S. Creel. 

(16) A. A. Jameison, W. P. Richardson, J. H. Whitehead, A. Larzelier, C, W. S. Creel, 

(17) W. P. Richardson, C. B. Whitehead. 

(18) A. A. Jamieson, B. Harding, A. Larzelier, C. W. Stewart. 

(18) W. P. Richardson, J. H. Whitehead, W. P. Hall, Thomas W. Waterston, J. P Blair. 

(19) W. P. Richardson, G. W. Gillespie. , . , 

(20) Richard Tuck, Eli Hamilton, John Landis, Luther Dickerson, J. W. Beattie, l>avia 
Fizer. 

(21) R. Tuck, L. Dickerson, J. W. Beattie. 

(22) R. Tuck, E. Hamilton, J. Landis. 

(23) B. Tuck, E. Hamilton, David Fizer. 






26 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

some of them voting as many as eight or nine times ; changing their 
hats and coats, and giving in different names each time. (24) After 
they had voted, they returned to Missouri. (25) The free-State men 
generally did not vote, (26) though constituting a majority in the pre- 
cinct. (27) Upon counting the ballots in the "box. and the names on 
the poll-lists, it was found that there were too many hallots, (27) and 
one of the judges of election took out hallots enough to make the two 
members correspond. (28) 

Wolf River precinct. But few Missourians were present in this pre- 
cinct, though some of them threatened one- of the judges because he 
refused to receive their votes ; and when he resigned another was 
chosen in his place, who consented to receive their votes. (29) 

Protests were drawn up against the elections in the various precincts 
in the 14th district, but on account of threats that greater numbers of 
Missourians would be at a new election, should it be called, and of 
personal violence to those who should take part in the protest, it was 
not presented to the governor ; (30) Major Richardson , the pro-slavery 
candidate for council, threatening Dr. Cutler, the free-State candidate, 
that if he contested the election he and his office should be put in the 
Missouri river. (31) The number of voters in this district by the 
census was 334 ; of these 124 voted. The testimony shows that quite 
a number of persons whose legal residence was in the popular county 
of Buchanan, Missouri, on the opposite side of the river, had claims 
in the Territory. Some ranged cattle, and others marked out their 
claim and built a cabin, and sold this incipient title when they could. 
They were not residents of the Territory in any just or legal sense. 
A number of settlers removed into the district in the month of March. 
Your committee are satisfied, after a careful analysis of the records 
and testimony, that the number of legal votes cast did not exced 200 
out of 727. 

FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The election in this district was held at the house of Mr. Hayes. 
On the day of election a crowd of from 400 to 500 men(l) collected 
around the polls, of which the great body were citizens of Missouri. 

One of the judges of election in his testimony(2) states that the 
strangers commenced crowding around the polls, and that then the 
residents left. Threats were made before and during the election 
day that there should be no free-State candidates, although there were 
nearly or quite as many free-State as pro-slavery men resident in the 
district ; most of the crowd were drinking and carousing, cursing the 
abolitionists, and threatening the only free-State judge of election. A 

(24) B. Tuck. 

(25) E. Tuck, E. Hamilton, J. Landis, L. Dickerson, 
^(26) John Landis. 

(27) R. Tuck, John Landis, E. Hamilton, J. F. Foreman. 

(28) E. Hamilton. 

(29) Dr. G. A. Cutler. 

(30) Dr. G. A. Cutler, John Landis, A. A. Jamieson. 

(31) Dr. G. A. Cutler. 

(1) T. B. Crane, Joseph Potter. 

(2) E. B. Zimmerman. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 27 

majority of those who voted wore hemp in their button-holes (3} and 
their password was, All right on the hemp.- Many of the MiL 
nans were known and are named hy the witnesses. Several speech* 
were made hy them at the polls ; and among those who spoke we* 
Major Oliver, one of your committee, Col. Burns, and Laban William? 
of Platte county. Major Oliver urged upon all present to use no harsh 
words, and expressed the hope that nothing would be said or done fc 
wound the feelings of the most sensitive on the other side. He gave 
some grounds, based on the Missouri compromise, in regard to the 
right of voting, and was understood to excuse the Missourians for 
voting. Your committee are satisfied that he did not vote. Colonel 
Burns recommended all to vote. They came to vote, and he hoped 
that none would go home without voting. Some of the pro-slavery 
residents were much dissatisfied at the interference with their rights 
by the Missourians, and for that reason, and because reflection con- 
vinced them that it would be better to have Kansas a free State ther 
that day " fell over the fence. "(4) 

The judges required the voters to take an oath that they were actual 
residents. They objected at first, some saying they had a claim, 
or held a claim, or owned a claim, or " I am here ;" but the free-State 
judge insisted upon the oath, and his associates, who at first were dis- 
posed to waive it, coincided with him, and the voters all took it after 
some grumbling. One said he cut him some poles and laid them in 
the shape of a square, and that made him a claim ; and another said 
that he had cut a few sticks of wood, and that made him a claim. 
The free-State men did not vote, although they believed their number 
to be equal to the pro-slavery settlers, and some claimed that they had 
the majority. They were deterred by threats thrown out by the Mis- 
sourians. before and on the day of election, from putting up candidates; 
and none were run, for the reason that there was a credited rumor 
prevailing that the Missourians would control the election. The free- 
State judge was threatened with expulsion from the polls, and a young 
man thrust a pistol into the window through which the votes were 
received. The whole number of votes cast was 417 ; of the names on 
the poll-book but 62 are on the census rolls, and the testimony shows 
that but a small portion, estimated by a witness at one-fourth of the 
legal voters, voted. Your committee estimate the number of legal 
votes at 80. One of the judges refused to certify to the governor that 
the election was fairly conducted. It was not contested because no 
one would take the responsibility of doing it, as it was not considered 
safe, and that if another election was had the residents would tare no 
better. 

SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 

-; For some time previous to the election, meetings were held and 
arrangements made in Missouri to get up companies to come over 
the Territory and vote ;(1) and the day before and the da } M 

(3) E. R. Zimmerman, Joseph Potter. 

(4) E. R. Zimmerman. 

(1) H. Miles Moore, A. McAuley, L. Kerr. 



28 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

tion large bodies of Missourians from Platte, Clay, Bay, Chariton, 
Carrol, Clinton, and Saline counties, Missouri, came into this district 
and camped there. (2) They were armed with pistols, howie-knives, 
and some with guns and rifles, (3) and had hadges of hemp in their 
button-holes and elsewhere about their persons. (4) 

On the morning of the election there were from 1,000 to 1,400 per- 
sons present on the ground. (5) 

Previous to the election Missourians endeavored to persuade the two 
free-State judges to resign by making threats of personal violence to 
them ;(6) one of whom resigned on the morning of the election, and 
the crowd chose another to nil his place. (7) But one of the judges 
the free-State judge would take the oath prescribed by the governor, 
the other two deciding that they had no right to swear any one who 
oifered to vote, but that all on the ground were entitled to vote. (8) 
The only votes refused were some Delaware Indians, some thirty 
Wyandott Indians being allowed to vote. (9) One of the free-State 
candidates withdrew in consequence of the presence of the Missouri- 
ans, amid cheering and acclamation by the mob. (10) During the 
day the steamboat New Lucy came down from Weston, Missouri, 
with a large number of Missourians on board, who voted, and then 
returned on the boat. (11) 

The Missourians gave as a reason for their coming over to vote, that 
the North had tried to force emigration into the Territory, and they 
wanted to counteract that movement. (12) Some of the candidates, 
and many of the Missourians, took the ground that, under the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska act, all who were on the ground on the day of election 
were entitled to vote;(13) and others, that laying out a town and 
taking a lot, or driving down stakes, even on another man's claim, 
gave them a right to vote; (14) and one of the members of the coun- 
cils, B. B. Bees, declared in his testimony that he who should put a 
different construction upon the law must be either a knave or a fool. 
The free-State men generally did not vote at that election, (15) and 
no newly-arrived eastern emigrants were there. (16) 

The free-State judge of election refused to sign the returns until the 
words "by lawful resident" voters were stricken out, which was done, 

(2) David Brown, F. A. Hart, G. F. Warren, R. R. Rees, A. Russell, P. R. Orr, L. J. 
Eastin, A. Fisher, M. France, H. M. Moore. 

(3) D. Brown, F. A. Hart, G. F. Warren, A. Fisher, H. M. Moore, W. G. Matthias. 

(4) F. A. Hart, L. J. Eastin, M. France, W. H. Adams, H. M. Moore. 

(5) F. A. Hart, T. A. Minard, G. F. Warren, R. R. Rees, A. J. Pattie, W. G. Matthias. 

(6) D. Brown, M. France. 

(7) D. Brown, F. A. Hart, M. France. 

(8) M. France. 

(9) M. France. 

(10) F. A. Hart, L. J. Eastin, W. H. Adams. 

(11) D. Brown, F. A. Hart, T. A. Minard, G. F. Warren, R. R. Rees, L. J. Eastin, A. 
T. Kyle, D. J. Johnson, M. France, A. J. Pattie, H. M. Moore. 

(12) R. R. Rees, L. J. Eastirf, W. H. Adams, H. M. Moore. 

(13) D. Brown, T. C. Minard, E. F. Warren, R. R. Rees, "H. M. Moore. 

(14) D. Brown, F. A. Hart. 

(15) D. Brown, T. G. Minard, G. F. Warren, F. A. Hart, M. France, H. M. Moore. 

(16) L. J. Eastin, M. France, W. H. Adams. 






md the returns made in that way. 
md a new election ordered by 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 9g 



The testimony is divided as to the relative strength of D! 
hstnct. The whole number of voters in the district a cordW to 
;ensus returns was 385, and according to a very carefully nr 
1st of voters, prepared by the pro-slavery candidates and otLr r 
ilavery men afew days previous to the election, there were 305 voter's 
n the district including those who had claims but did not live on 
;hem.(18) The whole number of votes cast was 964 ; of those named 
m the census 106 voted. Your committee, upon careful examination 
re satisfied that not over 150 legal votes were cast leaving 814 ilia! 
al votes. 

SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The election in this district seems to have been fairly conducted 
md not contested at all. In this district the pro-slavery party had 
the majority. 

EIGHTEENTH DISTRICT. 

Previous to the election Gen. David E. Atchison, of Platte City, 
Missouri, ^ot up a company of Missourians, and passing through 
Veston, Missouri, (1) went over into the Territory. He remained all 
ight at the house of Arnett Grooms, and there exhibited his arms, of 
rhich he had an abundance. He proceeded to the Nemaha or 18th 
istrict.(2) On his way he and his party attended a nominating con- 
"ention in the 14tH district, and proposed and caused to be nominated 
. set of candidates in opposition to the wishes of the pro-slavery resi- 
jlents of the district. (3) At that convention he said that there were 
L,100 coming over from Platte county, and if that wasn't enough they 
:ould bring 5,000 more ; that they came to vote and would vote, or 
ill every G d d d abolitionist in the Territory. (4) 

On the day of election the Missourians under Atchison, who were 
ncamped there, came up to the polls in the 18th district and voted, 
aking the oath that they were residents of the district. The Misson- 
ians were all armed with pistols and bowie-knives, and said there 
vere sixty in their company. (5) But seventeen of the votes given 
ihere were given by citizens of the district. (6) The whole number of 
rotes was sixty-two. K. L. Kirk, one of the candidates, came into 
.he district from Missouri about a week before the election and board- 
id there. (7) He left after the election, and was not at the time a legal 
'esident of the district in which he was elected. No protest was sent 

(17) L. J. Eastin, M. France, W. H. Adams. 

(18) L. J. Eastin, A. McAuley. 

(1) H. Miles Moore. * 

(2) Dr. G. A. Cutler, Arnet Grooma. 

(3) Dr. G. A. Cutler. 

(4) Dr. G A. Cutler. 

(5) D. H. Baker, John Belew. 

(6) D. H. Baker, John Belew. 

(7) jQhn Belew. 




30 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



to the governor on account of threats made against any who should 
dare to contest the election. (8) 

The following tables embody the result of the examination of your 
committee in regard to this election. In some of the districts it was 
impossible to ascertain the precise number of legal votes cast, and es- 
pecially in the 14th, 15th, and 16th districts. In such cases the num- 
ber of legal and illegal votes cast is stated after a careful re-examina- 
tion of all the testimony and records concerning the election. 

No. 1. 

Abstract of census and returns of election of March 30, 1855, ~by election 

districts. 



% 

a_ 

1 

2 
* 

;i 

8 
9 

$ 

2 

;l 

gt 


Place ef voting. 


I 
o 

E 

1 



781 
318 
386 
78 
377 
199 
74 
34 
315 
211 
17 
23 
27 
2 
328 


Free State votes. 


Scattering. 


"i 

o 
H 


Total of legal vote?. 


Total of illegal votes. 


CENSUS. 


COUNCIL. 


HOUSE 


No. of voters. 


f persons 
sident. 


O 

9 

1 


B 
f> 

8 


<J 

e 

1 


1 

i 


W 2 
1 


o 

1 


o 
1 




6 

to 




1 




253 
12 
4 
2 
9 
65 
17 
70 
35 
23 
17 
52 
42 
21 




1,034 
341 
372 
80 
386 
264 
98 
104 
350 
234 
37 
75 
69 
23 
328 
11 
33 
239 
346 
78 
306 
417 
964 
59 
62 


232 
30 
32 
15 
13 
75 
32 
104 
100 
25 
37 
75 
48 
23 
7 
11 
33 
12 


802 
316 
338 
65 
380 
191 
59 


369 

199 
101 

47 


962 
519 
282 
177 


1 

2 
3 
1 


2 
1 
1 


2 
3 
4 
1 


3 
2 

1 
1 


Bloornington 


]1 

2 

7 


Stinsoa's or Tecumseh 
Dr. Chapman 3 s.... .... 
Bull Creek 


















Big Sugar Creek 
Little Sugar Creek.... 
Fwrt Scott 


442 


1,407 


4 


2 


7 


4 


250' 
209 

"21" 


253 
53 
39 
36 
63 


810 
118 
88 
86 
151 


5 
3 
3 
6 
10 
8 


1 

'"i" 


6 

5 
5 
8 
8 
8 


2 
1 
..... . 


Isaac B. Titus' 




Big Blue 


Rock-Cre'ek 


Mary^ville 


321 


24 


36 


9 
10 





9 
9 


1 


St Mary's 


4 
12 
233 
313 
57 
256 
412 


7 
19 
6 
30 
15 
2 


"'2' 

"'3' 
6 

48 
5 
5 


Silver Lake 


"236" 


78 
96 


144 

284 


1 
10 

7 





9 
10 
11 


.... ^ 


Hickory Point 




Wolf Creek 
Burr Oak 


200 


530 


334 


1,167 


7 
8 


1 


11 
12 

13 
14 


o 
2 
2 
3 




80 
150 
59 
17 


337 

814 

' ' '45' 


208 
385 
50 
28 


873 
I., 183 
150 
99 


9 
10 
1 

7 


] 
2 




899 
43 

48 


60 
16 
14 


Gurn Springs 


Moorestovvn 


1 


.... 


,.... 


Total 


5,427 


791 


89 


6,307 |l,410 


4,908 


2,905 


8,601 


105 


13 


155 


25 





(8) Dr. G. A. Cutler. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



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KANSAS AFFAIRS 



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33 



34 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Your committee report the following facts not shown by the tables 

Of the 2,905 voters named in the census rolls, 831 are found on the 
poll-books. Some of the settlers were prevented from attending the 
election by the distance of their homes from the polls, but the great 
majority were deterred by the open avowal that large bodies of armed 
Missourians would be at the polls to vote, and by the fact that they 
did so appear and control the election. The same causes deterred the 
free-State settlers from running candidates in several districts, and in 
others induced the candidates to withdraw. 

The poll-books of the 2d and 8th districts were lost, but the proof is 
quite clear that in the 2d district there were thirtv, and in the 8th 
district thirty-eight legal votes, making a total of eight hundred and 
ninety-eight legal voters of the Territory whose names are on the 
census returns. And yet the proof, in the state in which we are 
obliged to present it, after excluding illegal votes, leaves the total 
Tote of 1,410, showing a discrepancy of 512. The discrepancy is ac- 
counted for in two ways : First, the coming in of settlers before tbe 
March election, and after the census was taken, or settlers who were 
omitted in the census ; or, secondly, the disturbed state of the Terri- 
tory while we were investigating the elections in some of the districts, 
thereby preventing us from getting testimony in relation to the names 
of illegal voters at the time of election. 

If the election had been confined to the actual settlers, undeterred 
by the presence of non-residents, or the knowledge that they would be 
present in numbers sufficient to outvote them, the testimony indicates 
jfchat the council would have been composed of seven in favor of making 
[Kansas a free State, elected from the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 6th council 
.districts. The result in the 8th and 10th, electing three members, 
would have been doubtful, and the 5th, fab, and 9th would have elect- 
ed three pro-slavery members. 

Under like circumstances the House of Kepresentatives would have 
been composed of fourteen members in favor of making Kansas a 
free State, elected from the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, Tth, 8th, 9th, and 10th 
representative districts. 

The result in the 12th and 14th representative districts, electing 

* five members, would have been doubtful ; and the 1st, 6th, llth, and 
15th districts would have elected seven pro-slavery members. 

By the election as conducted, the pro-slavery candidates in every 
district? but the 8th representative district received a majority of the 
votes ; -and several of them, in both the council and house, did not 
f : f reside in " and were not u inhabitants of " the district for which 
they were elected, as required by the organic law. 

By that act, it was declared to be " the true intent and meaning 

* of this act to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regu?- 
late their domestic institutions in their own way, subject to the consti- 
tution of the United States." So careful was Congress of the right of 
popular sovereignty, that to secure it to the people, without a single 
petition from, any portion of the country, they removed the restric- 
tion against slavery imposed by the Missouri compromise. And yet 
this right, so, carefully secured, was thus by force and fraud over- 
thrown by a por.iion of the people of an adjoining State 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



35 



The striking difference between this republic and other republics 
on this continent is not in the provisions of constitutions and laws 
but that here changes in the administration of those laws have been 
made peacefully and quietly through the ballot-box. This invasion 
is the first and only one in the history of our government, by which 
an organized force from one State has elected a legislature for another 
State or Territory, and as such it should have been resisted by the 
whole executive power of the national government. 

Your committee are of the opinion, that the constitution and laws 
of the United States have invested the President and the governor of 
the Territory with ample power for this purpose. They could only act 
after receiving authentic information of the facts ; but when received 
whether before or after the certificates of election were granted, this 
power should have been exercised to its fullest extent. 

It is not to be tolerated that a legislative body thus selected 
should assume or exercise any legislative functions ; and their enact- 
ments should be regarded as null and void. Nor should the question 
of its legal existence as a legislative body be determined by itself, as 
that would be allowing the criminal to judge of his own crime. 

In section 22d of the organic act it is provided, that "the persons 
having the highest number of legal votes in each of said council dis- 
tricts for members of the council, shall be declared by the governor 
to be duly elected to the council, and" the persons having the highest 
number of legal votes for the House of Kepresentatives shall be declared 
by the governor duly elected members of said house." The procla,- 
mation of the governor required a verified notice of a contest, when 
one was made, to be filed with him within four days after the elec- 
tion. Within that time he did not obtain information as to force or 
fraud in any except the following districts ; and in these there were 
material defects in the returns of election. Without deciding upon 
his power to set aside elections for force and fraud, they were set aside 
for the following reasons : 

In the 1st district, because the words " by lawful resident voters" 
were stricken from the return. 

In the 2d district, because the oath was administered by G. W. 
Taylor, who was not authorized to administer an oath. 

In the 3d district, because material erasures from the printed form 
of the oath were purposely made. 

In the 4th district, for the same reason. 

In the 7th district, because the judges were not sworn at all. 

In the llth district, because the returns show the election to hav-e 
been held viva voce instead of by ballot. 

In the 16th district, because the words "by lawful residents -wei 
stricken from the returns. 

Although the fraud and force in other districts was equally great as 
in these, yet, as the governor had no information in regard to them, 
he issued certificates according to the returns. 



36 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



ELECTION OF MAY 22, 1855. 

The election to fill the vacancies caused "by the action of the gov- 
ernor was held on the 22d of May, 1855. There was no illegal voting 
at that election except in the 16th district, at Leavenworth. For 
that district the pro-slavery party, while publicly refusing to acknowl- 
edge the legality of that election, not only voted, but a large number 
of the citizens of Missouri came over and voted as at the previous 
election. (1) The majority of the judges decided that all that was 
necessary to constitute a legal voter, was to have some one say he had 
some interest in the Territory. (2) No one was sworn that day, 
or even challenged. (3) The steamboat Kate Kassel came up, and 
men from her came ashore arid voted. (4) Many free-State men did 
not vote that day. (5) One of the free-State judges desired the words 
"by lawful resident voters" to be striken out of the return before he 
would sign it, (6) and only signed the return with those words in 
under a misapprehension. (Y) It is impossible for your committee 
accurately to decide which party would have had a majority of the 
legal votes of the district, had no illegal votet been polled, on account 
of the difficulty of determining who were legal and who were illegal 
voters at that election. 

Abstract of the returns of election of May 22, 1855. 



* . 
1 

0* 

fc 


Place of voting. 


> 

us 

II 

o 

6 > 




-2 
1 8 

1 




Scattering. 


3 
$ 


1 


Lawrencee 




288 


18 


306 


2 


Douglas 




127 




127 


3 


Stinson's 




148 


1 


149 


7 


" 110" 




68 


13 


79 


8 


Council Grove ... 




33 




33 


16 


Lieavenworth 


500 


140 


15 


715 
















Total 


560 


802 


47 


1 409 















Your committee have felt it to be their duty, not only to inquire 
into and collect evidence in regard to force and fraud attempted and 
practised at the elections in the Territory, but also into the facts and 
pretexts by which this force and fraud have been excused or justified ; 
and, for this purpose, your committee have allowed the declarations 

(1) Wm. H. Adams, G. H. Keller, Amos Eees. 

(2) M. France, Adam Fisker. 

(3) Matt. France, W. H. Adams, A. Fisher. 

(4) Matt. France, W. H. Adams. 

(5) M. France, A. Fisher. 

(6) Matt. France, Adam Fisher. 

(7) Matt. France. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



of non-resident voters to be given a evidence in their own behalf- 
also, the declarations of all who came up the Missouri river as emi' 
grants, in March, 1855, whether they voted or not, and whether thev 
came into the Territory at all or not, and also the rumors which were 
circulated among the people of Missouri previous to the election. The 
great body of the testimony taken at the instance of the sittin^ dele- 
gate is of this character. 

When the declarations of parties passing up the river -were offered 
in evidence, your committee received them upon the distinct statement 
that they would be excluded unless the persons making the declara- 
tions were, by other proof, shown to have been connected with the 
election. This proof was not made, and therefore much of this class 
of testimony is jncompetent by the rules of law ; but, it is allowed to 
remain as tending to show the cause of the action of the citizens of 
Missouri. The alleged causes of the invasion of March, 1855, are 
included in the following charges, viz : 

1st. That the New England Emigrant Aid Society, of Boston, was 
then importing into the Territory large numbers of men, merely for 
the purpose of controlling the elections ; that they came without 
women, children, or baggage, went into the Territory, voted, and 
returned again. 

2d. That men were hired in the eastern and northern States, or 
induced to go to the Territory, solely to vote and not to settle, and 
by so doing to make it a free State. 

3d. That the governor of the Territory purposely postponed the day 
of election to allow this emigration to arrive, and notified the Emi- 
grant Aid Society and persons in the eastern States of the day of 
election before he gave notice to the people of Missouri and the Ter- 
ritory. 

That these charges were industriously circulated ; that grossly ex- 
aggerated statements were made in regard to them ; that the news- 
paper press and leading" men in public meetings in western Missouri 
(aided in one case by a chaplain of the United States army) gave 
currency and credit to them, and thus excited the people and induced 
many well-meaning citizens of Missouri to march into the Territory 
to meet and repel the alleged eastern paupers and abolitionists, in 
fully proven by many witnesses. 

But neither of these charges is sustained by the proof. 

Ji April, 1854, the general assembly of Massachusetts passed an 
act entitled " An act to incorporate the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid 
Society/' The object of the society, as declared in the first section ot 
this act, was " for the purpose of assisting emigrants to settle in the 
West." The nominal capital of the corporation was not to exceej 
five millions of dollars, but no more than four per cent, could 
assessed during the year 1854, and no more than ten per cent, in any 
one year thereafter. No organization was perfected or proct 
had under this law. -., 

On the 24th day of July, 1854, certain persons in Boston. Massa- 
chusetts, concluded articles of agreement and association for an ^mi- 
grant Aid Society. The purpose of this association was declared to 
Be, assisting emigrants to settle in the West." Under these articks 



38 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

of association each stockholder was individually liable. To avoid 
this difficulty an application was made to the general assembly ot 
Massachusetts for an act of incorporation, which was granted. On 
the 21st day of February, 1855, an act was passed to incorporate the 
New England Emigrant Aid Company. The purpose of this act was 
declared to be, " directing emigration westward, and aiding and provi- 
ding accommodation after arriving at their place of destination." 
The capital stock of the corporation was not to exceed one million of 
dollars. Under this charter a company was organized. 

Your committee have examined some of its officers, and a portion of 
its circulars and records, to ascertain what has been done by it. The 
public attention at the time of its formation was directed to the Ter- 
ritory of Kansas, and emigration naturally tended in that direction. 
To ascertain its character and resources, this company sent its agents 
into it, and the information thus obtained was published. The com- 
pany made arrangements with various lines of transportation to lessen 
the expense of emigration into the Territory, and procured tickets at 
reduced rates. Applications were made to the company by persons 
desiring to emigrate ; and when they were numerous enough to form a 
party of convenient size, tickets were sold to them at the reduced 
rates. An agent acquainted with the route was selected to accompany 
them. Their baggage was checked, and all trouble and danger of loss 
to the emigrant in this way avoided. Under these arrangements 
several companies went into the Territory in the fall of 1854, under 
the articles of association referred to. The company did not pay any 
portion of the fare, or furnish any personal or real property to the emi- 
grant. The company, during 1855, sent into the Territory from 
eight to ten saw-mills ; purchased one hotel in Kansas City, which they 
subsequently sold ; built one hotel at Lawrence, and owned one other 
building in that place. They held no property of any other kind or 
description. They imposed no condition upon their emigrants, and 
did not inquire into their political, religious, or social opinions. The 
total amount expended by them, including the salaries of their agents 
and officers, and other expenses incident to all organizations, was less 
than one hundred thousand dollars. 

Their purposes, as far as your committee can ascertain, were lawful, 
and contributed to supply those wants most experienced in the settle- 
ment of a new country. 

The only persons who emigrated into the Territory under the au- 
spices of this company in 1855, prior to the election in March, was a 
party of 169 persons, who came under the charge of Charles Eobin- 
son.(l) 

In this party there were sixty-seven women and children. (2) 
They came as actual settlers, intending to make their homes in the 
Territory, and for no other purpose. (3) They had about their pei>- 
sons but little baggage, usually sufficient clothing in a carpet-sack for 
a short time. Their personal effects, such as clothing, furniture, &c., 
were put into trunks and boxes, and, for convenience in selecting arid 

(1) Benjamin Slater, Charles Robinson. 

(2) Charles Robinson. 

(3) Samuel C. Smith. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 39 



care 
in 



cheapness in transporting, was marked " Kansas party baggage ei 
of B. Slater, St. Louis." Generally this was consigned as freight . 
the ordinary way, to the care of a commission merchant. This partv 
had, in addition to the usual allowance of one hundred pounds to each 
passenger, a large quantity of haggage, on which the respective 
owners paid the usual extra freight. (4) Each passenger or party 
paid his or their own expenses, and the only henefit they derived from 
this society, not shared by all the people of the Territory, was the re- 
duction of about seven dollars in the price of the fare, the convenience 
of travelling in a company instead of alone, and the cheapness and fa- 
cility of transporting their freight through regular agents. Subse- 
quently many emigrants, being either disappointed with the country 
or its political condition, or deceived by the statements made by the 
newspapers, and by the agents of the society, became dissatisfied and 
returned, both before and after the election, to their old homes. Most 
of them are now settlers in the Territory. (5) Some few voted at the 
election in Lawrence, (5) but the number was small. The names of 
these emigrants have been ascertained, and thirty-seven of them are 
found upon the poll-books. (5 J.) This company of peaceful emigrants, 
moving with their household goods, was distorted into an invading 
horde of pauper abolitionists, who were, with others of a similar 
character, to control the domestic institutions of the Territory, and 
then overturn those of a neighboring State. 

In regard to the second charge, there is no proof that any man was 
either hired, or induced to come into the Territory from any free State, 
merely to vote. The entire emigration in March, 1855, is estimated 
art 500 persons, including men, women, and children, (6) They came 
on steamboats up the Missouri river in the ordinary course of emi- 
gration. Many returned for causes similar to those before stated, but 
the body of them are now residents. The only persons, of those who 
were connected by proof with the election, were some who voted at 
the Big Blue precinct in the 10th district, and at Pawnee, in the 9th 
district. Their purpose and character are stated in a former part of 
this report. 

The third charge is entirely groundless. The organic law requires 
the governor to cause an enumeration of the inhabitants and legal 
voters to be made, and that he apportion the members of the council 
and house according to this enumeration. For reasons stated by per- 
sons engaged in taking the census, it was not completed until the 
early part of March, 1855. (7) At that time the day of holding the 
election had not been and could not have been named by the governor 
As soon as practicable after the returns were brought in, he issued 
his proclamation for an election, and named the earliest day consistent 
with due notice as the day of election. The day on which the elec- 
tion was to be held was a matter of conjecture all over Ue country 
but it was generally known that it would be in the latter part 

(4) B. Slater. 

(5) Charles Robinson, Samuel C. Smith. 
(5*) Anson J. Stone. 

(6} W. H. Chick and J. Eiddlesbarger. 
rt.) William Barbee. 



40 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

March. The precise day was not known by any one until the procla- 
mation issued. It was not known to the agents of the Emigrant Aid 
Society in Boston on the 13th day of March, 1855, when the party of 
emigrants "before referred to left. (8) 

Your committee are satisfied that these charges were made the mere 
pretexts to induce an armed invasion into ,the Territory as a means to 
control the election and establish slavery there. 

The real purpose is avowed and illustrated "by the testimony and 
conduct of Colonel John Scott, of St. Joseph's, Mo., who acted as an 
attorney for the sitting delegate before your committee. The follow- 
ing are extracts from his deposition : 

" Prior to the election in Burr Oak precinct, in the 14th district^ 
on the 29th of November, 1854, I had been a resident of Missouri, 
and I then determined, if I found it necessary, to become a resident 
of Kansas Territory. On the day previous to that election I settled 
up my board at my boarding-house in St. Joseph's, Mo., and went 
over to the Territory and took boarding with Mr. Bryant, near whose 
house the polls were held the next day, for one month, so that I might 
have it in my power, by merely determining to do so, to become a 
resident of the Territory on the day of election. 

" When my name was proposed as a judge of election, objections 
were made by two persons only. * * * I then publicly in- 
formed those present that I had a claim in the Territory ; that I had 
taken board in the Territory for a month, and that I could at any 
moment become an actual resident and legal voter in the Territory ; 
and that I would do so if I concluded at any time during the day that 
my vote would be necessary to carry that precinct in favor of the pro- 
slavery candidate for delegate to Congress. * * * I did not 
during the day consider it necessary to become a resident of the Ter- 
ritory for the purpose mentioned, and did not vote or offer to vote at 
that election. 

" I held the office of city attorney for St. Joseph's at that time, and 
had held it for two or three years previously, and continued to hold it 
until this spring. * * * I voted at an election in St. Joseph's in 
the spring of 1855, and was re-appointed city attorney. The question 
of slavery was put in issue at the election of November, 1854, to the 
same extent as in every election in this Territory. General Whit- 
field was regarded as the pro-slavery candidate by the pro-slavery 
party. I regarded the question of slavery as the primarily prominent 
issue at that election, and, so far as I know, all parties agreed in 
making that question the issue of that election. 

" It is my intention, and the intention of a great many other Mis- 
sourians now resident in Missouri, ivhenever the slovtry issue is to be 
determined upon by the people of this Territory in the adoption of the 
State constitution , to remove to this Territory in time to acquire the 
right to become legal voters upon that question. The leading purpose of 
our intended removal to the Territory, is to determine the domestic in- 
stitutions of this Territory when it comes to bt a State, and we would 
not come but for that purpose, and would never think of coming here 

(8) Charles Robinson, Anson J. Stone, and Eli Thaycr. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



41 



tut for that purpose. 1 lelieve there are a great many in Missouri 
who are so situated.' 

The invasion of March 30th left both parties in a state of excite- 
ment, tending directly to produce violence. The successful party was 
lawless and reckless, while assuming the name of the "Law and 
Order" party. The other party, at first surprised and confoun ded 
was greatly irritated, and some resolved to prevent the success of the 
invasion. In some districts, as before stated, protests were sent to 
the governor ; in others this was prevented by threats, i'n others by 
the want of time, and in others by the belief that a new election would 
bring a new invasion. About the same time, all classe-s of men com- 
menced bearing deadly weapons about their persons a practice which 
has continued to this time. Under these circumstances, a slight or 
accidental quarrel produced unusual violence, and lawless acts became 
frequent. This unhappy condition of the public mind was further 
increased by acts of violence in western Missouri, where, in April, a 
newspaper press called the Parkville Luminary was destroyed by a 
mob. 

About the same time Malcolm Clark assaulted Cole McCrea at a 
squatter meeting in Leavenworth, and was shot bf McCrea in alleged 
self-defence. 

On the 17th day of May, William Phillips, a lawyer of Leaven- 
worth, was first notified to leave, and upon his refusal was forcibly 
seized, taken across the river and carried Several miles into Missouri, 
and then tarred and feathered, and one side of his head shaved, and 
other gross indignities put upon his person. 

Previous to this outrage, a public meeting was held(10) at which 
resolutions were unanimously passed, looking to unlawful violence, 
and grossly intolerant in their character. The right of free speech 
upon the subject of slavery was characterized as a disturbance of _ the 
peace and quiet of the community, and as " circulating incendiary 
sentiments." They say " to the peculiar friends of northern fanatics, 
go home and vent your treason where you may find sympathy." 
Among other resolves is the following : 

"Resolved, That the institution of slavery is known and recog- 
nised in this Territory ; that we repel the doctrine that it is a moral 
and political evil, and we hurl back with scorn upon its slanderous 
authors the charge of inhumanity ; and we warn all persons not to 
come to our peaceful firesides to slander us and sow the seeds of dis- 
cord between the master and the servant ; for, much as we deprecate 
the necessity to which we may be driven, we cannot be responsibl 
the consequences." , 

A committee of vigilance of thirty men was appointed to observe 
and report all such persons as shall, * * * by the expression of 
abolition sentiments, produce disturbance to the quiet of the citizens, 
or danger to their domestic relations ; and all such persons so offend- 
ing shall be notified and made to leave the Territory. 

The meeting was "ably and eloquently addressed by Judge Le- 
compte, Col. L. N. Burns, of Weston, Missouri, and others, 
the head of the judiciary in the Territory not only assisted at 

(10) A. Payna. 



42 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and bitterly partizan meeting, whose direct tendency was to produce 
violence and disorder, but, before any law is passed in the Territory, 
he prejudges the character of the domestic institutions which the 
people of the Territory were, by their organic law, ' i left perfectly 
free to form and regulate in their own way." 

On this committee were several of those who held certificates of elec- 
tion as members of the legislature. Some of the others were then, 
and still are, residents of Missouri, and many of the committee have 
since been appointed to the leading offices in the Territory, one of 
which is the sheriffalty of the county. Their first act was that of 
mobbing Phillips. 

Subsequently, on the 25th of May, A. D. 1855, a public meeting 
was held, at which K. B. Kees, a member elect of the council, pre- 
sided. (11) The following resolutions, offered by Judge Payne, a 
member elect of the House, were unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved , 1st. That we heartily endorse the action of the commit- 
tee of citizens that shaved, tarred and feathered, rode on a rail, and 
had sold by a negro, William Phillips, the moral perjurer. 

f( 2d. That we return our thanks to the committee for faithfully 
performing the trust enjoined upon them by the pro-slavery party. 

" 3d. That the committee be now discharged. 

l< 4th. That we severely condemn those pro-slavery men who, from 
mercenary motives, are calling upon the pro-slavery party to submit 
without further action. 

" 5th. That, in order to secure peace and harmony to the commu- 
nity, we now solemnly declare that the pro-slavery party will stand 
firmly by and carry out the resolutions reported by the committee 
appointed for that purpose on the ' memorable 30th/ ' 

The act of moral perjury here referred to is the swearing by Phil- 
lips to a truthful protest in regard to the election of March 30th in 
the 16th district. 

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 

The members receiving their certificates of the governor as mem- 
bers of the General Assembly of the Territory met at Pawnee, the 
place appointed by the governor, on the 2d of July, A. D. 1855. 
Their proceedings are stated in three printed books, herewith sub- 
mitted, entitled, respectively, " The Statutes of the Territory of Kan- 
sas ;" " The Journal of the Council of the Territory of Kansas ;" and 
1 The Journal of the House of Eepresentatives of the Territory of 
Kansas/' 

Your committee do not regard their enactments as valid laws. A 
legislature thus imposed upon a people cannot affect their political 
rights. Such an attempt, if successful, is virtually an overthrow of 
the organic law, and reduces the people of the Territory to the condi- 
tion of vassals to a neighboring State. To avoid the evils of anarchy, 
no armed or organized resistance to them would have been made, but 
the citizens would have appealed to the ballot-box at future elections, 
to the federal judiciary, and to Congress, for relief. Such, from the 
proof, would have been the course of the people but for the nature of 

(11) K. K. Bees. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 43 

these enactments and the manner in which they are enforced. Their 
character and their execution have heen so intimately connected with 
one branch of this investigation that relating to "violent and tumul- 
tuous proceedings in the Territory" that we were compelled to ex- 
amine them. 

The "laws" in the statute-hooks are general and special ; the latter 
are strictly of a local character, relating to bridges, roads, and the 
like. The great body of the general laws are exact transcripts from 
the Missouri code. To make them_, in some cases, conform to the 
organic act, separate acts were passed defining the meaning of words. 
Thus, the word "State" is to be understood as meaning " Terri- 
tory ;"(!) the words " county court" "shall be construed to mean 
the board of commissioners transacting county business, or the probate 
courts, according to the intent thereof." The words " circuit court" 
to mean " district court. "(2) 

The material differences in the Missouri and Kansas statutes are 
upon the following subjects : 

The qualifications of voters and of members of the Legislative As- 
sembly ; the official oath of all officers, attorneys, and voters ; the 
mode of selecting efficers, and their qualifications ; the slave code, 
and the qualifications of jurors. 

Upon these subjects the provisions of the Missouri code are such as 
are usual in many of the States. But, by the " IJansas Statutes" 
every officer in the Territory, executive and judicial, was to be ap- 
pointed by the legislature, or by some officer appointed by it. These 
appointments were not merely to meet a temporary exigency, but were 
to hold over two regular elections, and until after the general election 
in October, 1857. (3) Thus, by the terms of these "laws" the people 
have no control whatever over either the legislative, the executive, or the 
judicial departments of the Territorial government, until a time, before 
which, by the natural progress of population, the Territorial govern- 
ment will be superseded by a State government. 

No session of the legislature is to be held during 1856, but the mem- 
bers of the house are to be elected in October of that year. (6) A can- 
didate to be eligible at this election must swear to support the Fugitive 
Slave law.CO and each judge of election, and each voter, if challenged, 
must take the same oath. (8) The same oath is required of every offi- 
cer elected or appointed in the Territory, and of every attorney a 
mitted to practice in the courts. (9) 

A portion of the militia is required to muster on the day < 
tion.flO) " Every free white male citizen of the United States, and 
every free male Indian who is made a citizen by treaty or ( 

(1) Statutes, p. 718. 

(2) Statutes, p. 766. 

(3) Statutes, pp. 1G8, 227, 712. 

(4) Statutes, p. 330. 

(5) Statutes, p. 4-75. 

(6) Statutes, p. 330. 

(7) Statutes, p. 333. 

(8) Statutes, p. 332. 

(9) Statutes, pp. 132, 339, 516 

(10) Statutes, p. 469. 



44 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and over the age of twenty-one years, and who shall be an inhabitant 
of the Territory, and of the county and district in which he 'offers to 
vote, and shall have paid a Territorial tax, shall be a qualified elector 
for all elective officers/ '(11) Two classes of persons were thus ex- 
cluded, who, by the organic act, were allowed to vote, viz : those who 
would not swear to the oath required, and those of foreign birth who 
had declared on oath their intention to become citizens. (12) Any man 
of proper age who was in the Territory on the day of election, and who 
had paid one dollar as a tax to the sheriff, who was required to be at 
the polls to receive it, (13) could vote as an " inhabitant," although 
he had breakfasted in Missiouri, and intended to return there for sup- 
per. There can be no doubt that these unusual and unconstitutional 
provisions were inserted to prevent a full and fair expression of the 
popular will in the election of members of the house, or to control it 
by non-residents. 

All jurors are required to be selected by the sheriff, and "no person 
who is conscientiously opposed to the holding of slaves, or who does 
not admit the right to hold slaves in the Territory, shall be a juror in 
any cause affecting the right to hold slaves, or relating to slave pro- 
perty." 

The slave code, and every provision relating to slaves, are of a char- 
acter intolerant and unusual, even for that class of legislation. 

The character and conduct of the men appointed to hold office in the 
Territory, contributed very much to produce the events which fol- 
lowed. Thus, Samuel J. Jones was appointed sheriff of the county of 
Douglas, which included within it the first and second election dis- 
tricts. He had made himself peculiarly obnoxious to the settlers by 
his conduct on the 30th of March, in the second district, and by his 
burning the cabins of Joseph Oakley and Samuel Smith. (14) 

THE ELECTION OF OCTOBER 1, 1855. 

An election for delegate to Congress, to be held on the 1st day of 
October, 1855, was provided for under the same rules and regulations 
as were applied to other elections. The free-State men took no part 
in this election, having made arrangements for holding an election on 
the 9th of the same month. The citizens of Missouri attended at the 
election of the 1 st of October, some paying the dollar tax, others not 
being required to pay it. They were present and voted at the voting 
places of Atchison(l) and Doniphan,(2) in Atchison county ; at Green 
Springs, Johnson county ;(3) at Willow Springs, (4) Franklin, (5) and 
Lecompton,(6) in Douglas county; at Fort Scott, Bourbon county ;(7) 

(11) Statutes, p. 332. 

(12) Statutes, p. 34. 

(13) Statutes, p. 333. 

(14) Samuel Smith and Edward Oakley. 

(1) D. W. Field. 

(2) John Landis. 

(3) Kobert Morrow, G. Jenkins, B. C. "WestfalL 

(4) A. White, T. Wolverton, J. Reid. 

(5) L. M. Cox, L. A, Prather. 

(6) B. C. Westfall. 

(7) E. B. Cook, J. Hamilton. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 45 

at Baptiste Paola, Lykins county, where some Indians voted, some 
whites paying the ^ dollar tax for them ; (8) at Leaven worth City (9) 
and at Kickapoo City, Leavenworth county ; at the latter place under 
the lead of General B. F. Stringfellow and Colonel Lewis Burns, of 
Missouri. (10) From two of the election precincts at which it was 
alleged there was illegal voting, viz: Delaware and Wyandott, your 
committee failed to obtain the attendance of witnesses. 

You committee did not deem it necessary, in regard to this election, 
to enter into details, as it was manifest that from there heing hut one 
candidate, General Whitfield, he must have received a majority of the 
votes cast. This election, therefore, depends not upon the numher or 
character of the votes received, hut upon the validity of the laws under 
which it was held. Sufficient testimony was taken to show that the 
voting of citizens of Missouri was practised at this election, as at all 
former elections in the Territory. The following tahle will exhibit 
the result of the testimony as regards the number of legal and illegal 
votes at this election. 

The county of Marshall embraces the same territory as was in- 
cluded in the llth district, and the reasons before stated indicate 
that the great majority of the votes there cast were either illegal 
or fictitious. In the counties to which our examination extended, 
there were 857 illegal votes cast, as near as the proof will enable us 
to determine. 

Abstract of poll-books of October 1, 1855. 



Counties. 


Townships. 


& . 

+3 T3 

u V5 

8 J 3 

1* 

9* 

d"-s 



Scattering. 


Total votes cast. 


J 
1 

! 

M 


z 


J 
g 

1 

S 
I 




Grasshopper 


7 










Bourbon '' > 


Shannon 


131 
242 
4 


4 


219 
242 
4 


50 

4 


192 


Calhoun 
Davis . 




29 
8 
42 


4 


29 
14 


29 
12 
41 


1 




Iowa _ 
Wayne 


31 
66 
59 






31 
62 
59 


4 


Douglas 


Washington 
Wolf River 
Franklin _ 


53 
86 
42 




251 


53 
23 
42 


63 




Lawrence 
Lecompton 


101 
103 




332 



53 


60 


Franklin,. 


Willow Springs -- 


15 




15 


15 ' 


.---- 



(8) B. C. Westfall. 

(9) GK F. Warren, H. Miles Moore. 

(10) J. W. Stephens. 



46 



KANSAS AFFAIRS 
ABSTKACT Continued 



Counties. 


Townships. 


(H 

?2 

8<S 

|| 
9$ 

^ 

6 >-3 

jzi 


Scattering. 


+ 

as 

o 

o 

f> 

1 


J" 



'S 

bo 
^ 

* 

6 
Jzi 


J 
o 

I 

|M 





Jefferson . 




42 


3 


45 






Johnson 




190 




190 


90 


100 


JjCftven worth 




42 












Delaware 


239 














150 


1 






50 




Leavenworth 


212 








100 




"Wyandott 


246 


5 


895 






Lykens 




220 




220 


70 


150 


I/ynn 




67 




67 






Madison 


(See Wise county.) 












Marshall 




171 




171 


24 


147 


Neinaha 




6 




6 


6 




Riley 




28 




28 


28 




Shawnee 


One Hundred, and Ten 


23 






23 






Tecumseh 


52 




75 


52 




Wise 


Council Grove 


14 




14 


'14 



















THE STATE MOVEMENTS. 

While the alleged legislative assembly was in session,, a movement 
was instituted to form a State government, and apply for admission 
into the Union as a State. The first step taken by the people of the 
Territory, in consequence of the invasion of March 30, 1855, was the 
circulation, for signature, of a graphic and truthful memorial to Con- 
gress. Your committee find that every allegation in this memorial 
has been sustained by the testimony. No further step was taken, as 
it was hoped that some action by the general government would pro- 
tect them in their rights. When the alleged legislative assembly 
proceeded to construct the series of enactments referred to, the settlers 
were of opinion that submission to them would result in entirely de- 
priving them of the rights secured to them by the organic law. Their 
political condition was freely discussed in the Territory during the 
summer of 1855. Several meetings were held in reference to holding 
a convention to form a State government, and to apply for admission 
into the Union as a State. Public opinion gradually settled in favor 
of such an application to the Congress to meet in December, 1855. 
The first general meeting was held in Lawrence, on the 15th of 
August* 1855. The following preamble and resolution were there 
passed : 

" Whereas the people of Kansas have been since its settlement, and 
now are, without any law-making power, therefore be it 

"Besolved, That we, the people of Kansas Territory, in mass meet- 
ing assembled, irrespective of party distinctions, influenced by com- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS 47 

mon necessity, and greatly desirous of promoting the common good 
do hereby call upon and request all bonafide citizens of Kansas Terri- 
tory, of whatever political views or predilections, to consult together 
in their respective election districts, and in mass convention or ' other- 
wise elect three delegates for each representative to which said election 
district is entitled in the house of representatives of the legislative 
assembly, by proclamation of Governor Reeder of date 10th of March 
1855 ; said delegates to assemble in convention at the town of Topeka' 
on the 19th day of September, 1855, then and there to consider and 
determine upon all subjects of public interest, and particularly upon 
that having reference to the speedy formation of a State constitution, 
with an intention of an immediate application to be admitted as a State 
into the Union of the United States of America." 

Other meetings were held in various parts of the Territory, which 
endorsed the action of the Lawrence meetings, and delegates were se- 
lected in compliance with its recommendations. 

They met at Topeka on the 19th day of September, 1855. By their 
resolutions they provided for the appointment of an executive com- 
mittee, to consist of seven persons, who were required to "keep a 
record of their proceedings, and shall have a general superintendence 
of the affairs of the Territory, so far as regards the organization of a 
State government/' They were required to take steps for an election 
to be held on the second Tuesday of the October following, under 
regulations imposed by that convention " for members of a convention 
to form a constitution, adopt a bill of rights for the people of Kansas, 
and take all needful measures for organizing a State government pre- 
paratory to the admission of Kansas into the Union as a State." The 
rules prescribed were such as usually govern elections in most of the 
States of the Union, and in most respects were similar to those con- 
tained in the proclamation of Governor Reeder for the election of 
March 30, 1855. 

The executive committee appointed by that convention accepted 
their appointment, and entered upon the discharge of their duties by 
issuing a proclamation, addressed to the legal voters of Kansas, re- 
questing them to meet at their several precincts at the time and places 
named in the proclamation, then and there to cast their ballots for 
members of a constitutional convention, to meet at Topeka on the 4th 
Tuesday of October then next. . 

The proclamation designated the places of elections, appointed 
judges, recited the qualifications of voters, and the appointment 
members of the convention. , ., . 

After this proclamation was issued public meetings were held m 
every district in the Territory, and in nearly every precinct in< 
State movement was a general topic of discussion throughout the 
ritory, and there was but little opposition exhibited to it. 
were held at the time and places designated, and the return 
sent to the executive committee. 






48 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



Table showing the number of voter H, and the number of votes cast for 
<!< Legates to the constitutional convention, October 9, 1855. 



FIRST DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 




I'M-' inctg. 




Total. 




Blanton. 


Palmyra. 


Lawrence. 




' 'li.ulofl ftobJufton 


If 


1C 






J. H, Lane .*...*.... 


70 








inilli 


70 


16 






J. K, Ooodln 


61 


16 






Edward Jones 


30 


16 






MorrU Hunt 


72 


16 






Abraham Still 


40 


















Total 


74 


16 


6580 


643 













The poll-books of Lawrence precinct were not among the others, and are either mis- 
laid or lost. The number of votes cast wan 568. 

SECOND DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


Bcnicia. 


Blooming- 
ton. 


A. Curtis 


27 
27 
24 
27 


llfi 
116 
116 
116 


143 
143 
140 
143 


H. Button..-..- 


J. A. Wftkefleld 




Total 


27 


116 


143 





T1IIKI) DISTRICT. 







3 


I'ri'dm-ts. 








Candidates. 


Tcciun- 
sch. 


(amp 
Crock. 


Topcka. 


\Vasl. in: T - 

ton. 


Browns- 
ville. 


Total. 


W. Y, Roberts.. . ..... 


31 


7 


94 


33 


19 


1841 


K 11,-llul.ir 


31 


7 


104 


33 


19 


104 


J, Oowles 






14 






14 


H U Wontworth 






12 






j> 








2 






3 


Scattering 






3 






3 


P Sohuylw 










5 


5 
















Ibtal 


31 


7 


119 


33 


24 


214 

















Q. P. Lowrey, M. F. Con way. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FOURTH DISTRICT. 



40 



Candidates. 



S. Mewhinney. 
Wm. Graham. 



Total 



Precinct. 



Wilson 
Springs. 



Total. 



55 

55 



55 



FIFTH DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. 


o 

H 


I 

& 
bo 

S 


<u 

1 

o 

c3 

E 

o3 
1 


6 

rE| 
& 


<y 
1 

a 


<u 

1 

o 

1 

1 

O 


i 

m 

W 

o 

5 


1 
1 

cc 


00 

"fl 

<u 
13 

^ 


i 
S 

w 


William Turner 


24 
24 
23 
24 
24 
23 
17 


49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
48 


8 
8 
8 


16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


67 
67 
66 
66 
67 
66 


32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 


35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 


8 
9 
9 


33 
33 
33 
33 
33 


272 
273 
272 
255 
257 
220 
43 
16 
3 
76 
29 
251 


Jas. M. Arthur 


M. T. Morris 


Orville C. Brown _ 


Richard Knight 


Hamilton Smith... 


Hiram Hoover 


13 


13 




David C. Forbes 








16 










N. S. Nichols _ 










3 

64 






1 


Wm. S. Nichols 













7 
29 
35 


1 


Isaac Woollard . 












Fred. Brown 


24 


47 





16 


64 


32 


| 


33 


Total 




24 


49 


13 


16 


67 


32 


35 


13 


33 


282 





H. Kep. 200 4 



50 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



SIXTH DISTRICT. 







Precincts. 







Candidates. 


House of R. 
J. Fargird. 


Scott Town. 


Columbia. 


Total. 


W R Gnffin 


12 3 






12 


John Hamilton 


12 


27 




39 


A W J Brown 


12 






12 


"Wm Saunders 


12 






12 


W J Griffith 




27 




27 


T H Burgess 




24 




24 


A H Brown 




26 




26 


Jas H Pheris 






20 


20 












Total 


12 


27 


20 


59 













SEVENTH DISTRICT. 





Precinct. 




Candidate. 


J. B. Titus', 
Council City. 


Total. 


Ph. C. Schuvler . ^ 


60 


60 








Total 


62 


62 








EIGHTH DISTRICT. 






Candidates. 


Precinct. 


Total. 




"Waubaunassa. 




J H Pillsbury 


27 


27 


P C Schuvler 


27 


27 








Total 


27 


27 









KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
NINTH DISTRICT. 



51 



Candidates 


Precinct. 


Total. 




Pawnee. 




BobertKlotz 


fr 




A. Hunting 


f\A. 


53 






54 


Total 


Tfi 








10 



TENTH DISTRICT. 




_ ^ __..,... 

Candidates. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


Rock Creek. 


Big Blue. 


Dr. A. 
Robert 


Hunting 


30 
30 


64 
73 


94 
103 


Klotz 


Total 


30 


89 


110 





ELEVENTH DISTRICT. 
No return except Black Vermillion precinct total, 14. 



TWELFTH DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


St. Mary's. 


Silver lake. 



M. 
Jos 
J. I 




19 


12 
18 
21 


31 
18 
21 




5. Thompson - 






19 


21 


40 





52 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. ' 


Total. 


Falls. 


Pleasant Hill. 


G-eo S Hillyer 


43 

41 




43 
41 
43 
43 


Wm. Grigsbee __ 




Wrn. Hicks 


43 
43 


J. Whiting .. 




Total 




43 


43 


86 





FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


Palermo. 


Burr Oak. 


Doniphan. 


WolfKiver. 


G-. A. Cutler 


40 
40 
40 
39 


33 
33 
33 
33 


42 
42 
42 
42 


18 
18 
18 

18 


133 
133 
133 

132 


Jno. Landes . _ 


D. M. Field 


0. M. Stewart 


Total 


40 


33 


42 


18 


133 





FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 



Candidate*. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


Crosby's Store. 


Precinct. 


CalebMay . 


29 
29 




29 
29 
30 
30 

28 

2 

** 


E H Crosby - 






30 

30 
28 
2 


Jag g Sayle . - 




H B Gale 




Oh S Foster , 




Total.. 




29 


30 


^ 





KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 



53 









Precincts. 








Candidates. 

j 


Leaven- 
worth. 


Wyan- 
dott. 


Ridge. 


Easton. 


Delaware. 


Total. 


M J Parrott 


492 


38 


47 


fil 


99 




M W Delahay 


495 


38 


47 


fel 


99 


060 


Matt France 


493 


38 


47 


61 


99 


boo 


S W Lattie 


493 


38 


47 


61 


00 


ool 
rfii 


Robert Riddle 


493 


38 


47 


61 


00 


fifii 


D Dodge 


493 


38 


47 


61 


OO 


fifil 
















Total 


514 


38 


47 


63 


22 


fiRA 

















SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 



Candidates. 


Precincts. 


Total. 


Mission. 


Wakarusa. 


Willian 
Samuel 


i Graham _ _ . 


13 
13 


5 
5 


18 
18 


Mewhinney ___.._ _ _ . 


Total 


13 


5 


18 





RECAPIPULATION. 



Votes cast in eleventh district 

twelfth district 

thirteenth 3/strict 

fourteenth district 

fifteenth district 

sixteenth district 

seventeenth district .. 



14 

40 

86 
133 

59 
684 

18 



Total. 



2,710 



Votes cast in first district 648 

second district 143 

third district 214 

fourth district 55 

fifth district 282 

sixth district 59 

seventh district 62 

eighth district 27 

ninth district 76 

tenth district 110 

The result of the election was proclaimed by the executive commit- 
tee, and the members elect were required to meet on the 23d day ( 
October, 1855, at Topeka. In pursuance of this proclamati< 
direction the constitutional convention met at the time and pi* 
pointed, and framed a State constitution A memorial to Congr* 
was also prepared, praying the admission of Kansas into the Union i as 
a State under that constitution. The convention also provided that 
the question of the adoption of the constitution, and other qu 
be submitted to the people, and required the executive commit! 
take the necessary steps for that purpose. - 

Accordingly an election was held for that 
of December/1855, in compliance with the proclamation i 



54 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



executive committee. The returns of this election were made by the 
executive committee, and an abstract of them is contained in the fol- 



lowing table : 



Abstract of the election on the adoption of the State Constitution, Decem- 
ber 15, 1855. 



' Districts. 


; 

Precincts. 


Constitution. 


No Constitution. 


General bank- 
ing law. 


Exclusion of ne- 
groes and mu- 
lattoes. 


No. of votes cast. 


Yes. 


No. 


Yes. 


No. 


1< 

2^ 

3< 
4 

5- 

'1 

i 

9 I 

J 

11 

{ 
"I 

15 
16 
17 


Lawrence 


348 
72 
11 
48 
137 
18 
135 
42 
24 
35 
72 
21 
18 
12 
39 
42 
32 
56 
39 
30 
21 
20 
14 
19 
45 
54 
22 
23 
12 
28 


1 
2 


225 
59 
9 
31 
122 
13 
125 
41 
22 
23 
39 
16 
5 
G 
21 
33 
4 
33 
32 
23 
16 


83 
14 
3 
15 
11 
4 
9 
1 
o 

M 

11 
33 
12 
16 
6 
19 
13 
33 
20 
7 
6 
5 
20 
14 
1 
29 
34 
14 
16 
11 
20 
13 
6 
18 
4 
12 
9 
1 
19 


133 
48 
12 
48 
113 
14 
69 
42 
22 
35 
69 
23 
20 
12 
25 
42 
33 
38 
25 
10 
20 
20 
14 
7 
40 
50 
21 
22 
12 
28 
16 
45 
19 
6 
18 
14 
30 
71 
1 


223 

20 


356 
76 
12 
53 
137 
18 
136 
42 
24 
35 
72 
31 
21 
12 
43 
60 
37 
59 
44 
31 
21 
20 
14 
19 
45 
54 
22 
23 
12 
28 
20 
47 
19 
7 


Ulan ton 


Palmyra 


Franklin 




2 

15 
4 
64 


Bloomington 




East Douglas 




Topeka - - 




Washington -- - - - - - 




Brownsville - -, - 




2 


Tecumseh 




Prairie City 




3 

7 


Little Osage 


7 
2 


El " Sugar 


Neosho 




Pottawatomie 


3 

18 


18 
2 
5 
17 
15 
19 
1 


Little Sugar 


Stttnton 


Osawatomie 


1 

5 


Titus 


Juniata 


Ohio City 




Mill Creek 




St. Mary's 








Waubousa . 




17 
15 
19 
5 

7 
1 
8 
7 
37 


11 
5 
3 


Pawnee 




Grasshopper Falls 




Doniphan . 


2 


Burr Oak 


1 


Jesse Padons' 




Oceana 






Kickapoo 


20 
47 
19 
7 
24 
15 
32 
71 

| ? 




4 
1 


Pleasant Hill 




Indianola 




Whitfield 




3 
11 
4 
32 
53 
3 




Wolf River 




6 
1 
2 


St. Joseph's Bottom 
Mount Pleasant 




15 
33 
73 

7 




Easton 


2 


Mission - 


2 


Total 






|l,731 

i 


46 


1,120 i 564 


1,287 


453 


1,778 





NOTE. The poll-book at Leaven worth was destroyed. 
1855. was 514. 



The vote cast there October 9, 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



ELECTION OF JANUARY 15, 1856. 

The executive committee then issued a proclamation reciting the 
results of the election of the 15th of December, and at the same time 
provided for an election to he held on. the 15th day of January, 185G, 
for State officers and members of the general assembly of the State of 
Kansas. The election was accordingly held in the several election 
precincts, the returns of which were sent to the executive committee. 
An abstract of them is contained in the following table. 



56 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



Si* 



'AY ' 



-.loads uqof 



-3 -g 



uojsinqj, 'j\i - 



-a 'S 



PP9HPM 'V T 



uosuqof -Ai 'S 






'A\ 'O 



-N -g 



K 



'H 



C'J>coioco-^'aiioi 

{- TJ< ,-H 01 co P3 rt ?3 



I 



'o -3 



. .Tj<t-oo<N . -ao . -oo 



cooOQa'^'ajoiooca 

<* r-t (N CO I-H CO <?J 



-y 



: :S : :gS 



r-i i (M <c c* co CT m m CM 



OJJBJ -r - 



'A 'M 



nosmqon 



l=o 




Jl*sf :! 


^B : : Jal 


"S -"c 2 fe S 


fi t; 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. ey 

The result of this election was announced by a proclamation bv fl* 
executive committee. * l 

In accordance with the constitution thus adopted, tbe members of 
the State legislature, and most of the State officers, were on the dav 
and at the place designated by the State constitution, and took the oath ' 
therein prescribed After electing United States senators, passing ' 
some preliminary laws, and appointing a codifying committee and 
preparing a memorial to Congress, the general assembly adjourned to v 
meet on the 4th day of July, 1856. The laws passed were all condi- 
tional upon the admission of Kansas as a State into the Union. These 
proceedings were regular, and, in the opinion of your committee the 
constitution thus adopted fairly expresses the will of the majority of 
the settlers. They now await the action of Congress upon their me- 
morial. 

These elections were not illegal. Whether the result of them is 
sanctioned by the action of Congress, or they are regarded as the mere 
expression of popular will, and Congress should refuse to grant the 
prayer of the memorial, that cannot affect their legality. The right 
of the people to assemble and express their political opinion in any 
form,, whether by means of an election or a convention, is secured to 
them by the constitution of the United States. Even if the elections 
are to be regarded as the act of a party, whether political or other- 
wise, they were proper, and in accordance with examples in both 
States and Territories. 

The elections, however, were preceded and followed by acts of vio- 
lence on the part of those who opposed them, and those persons who 
approved and sustained the invasion from Missouri were peculiarly 
hostile to these peaceful movements preliminary to the organization 
of a State government. Instances of this violence will be referred to 
hereafter. 

To provide for the election of delegates to Congress, and at the same 
time do it in such a manner as to obtain the judgment of the House 
of Representatives upon the validity of the alleged legislative assem- 
bly, sitting at Shawnee Mission, a convention was held at Big Springs 
on the 5th and 6th days of September, 1855. This was a party con- 
vention, and a party calling itself the free-State party was then organ- 
ized. It was in no way connected with the State movement, except 
that the election of delegate to Congress was fixed by it on the same 
day as the election of members of a constitutional convention., instead 
of the day prescribed by the alleged legislative assembly. Andrew H. 
Eeeder was put in nomination as Territorial delegate to Congress, and 
n election was provided for under the regulations prescribed for the 
election of March 30, 1855, excepting as to the appointment of officers 
and the persons to whom returns of the elections should be made. 
The election was held in accordance with these regulations, an ab- 
stract of the returns of which is contained in the following table. 



68 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



Abstract of the election of A. H. Beeder. 



Name of district. 


Name of voting place. 


Number o 
votes. 


First district 




557 






77 






16 






116 




Benicia 


27 


Third district 




24 






131 






31 






35 






7 


Fourth district 




54 


Fifth district 




33 






16 




Stanton _._-_- - - 


44 






74 






56 






28 




Little Su^ar Creek _ 


41 


Sixth district 


Scott-town - ____._-___ 


27 




Columbia - - - - - 


20 




Fuqua's --- 


12 




Council City 


62 


Ei <r litli district 


TVaubousa 


26 




A J Baker's 


16 




Pawnee 


76 


Tenth district 


Bio- Blue 


77 




Bock Creek * 


30 


Eleventh district 


Black Vermillion 


U 


Twelfth district 


St Mary's 


19 




Silver Lake 


28 


Thirteenth district 


Pleasant Hill 


43 




Falls Precinct _. _ 


45 




Hickory Point 


11 


Fourteenth district 


Burr Oak 


33 




Doniphan 


43 




Palermo 


32 




Wolf Elver 


17 


Fifteenth district 


Ocena 


32 




Crosby's Store 


39 




Jackson Crane's 


30 


Sixteenth district 


Leaven worth 


503 




Wyandott ,. 


3d 




Delaware 


22 




Easton 


63 




Ridge Point 


48 


Seventeenth district 


\Vakarusa 


7 




Mission 


13 


Eighteenth district 


Iowa Point 


40 




Moorstown 


16 










Total.. 


2,849 



The resolutions passed by the convention which nominated Gov 
ernor Keeder, indicate the state of feeling which existed in the Terri 
tory in consequence of the invasion from Missouri and the enactment 
of the alleged legislative assembly. The language of some of tjn 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



resolutions is violent, and can onlv be in^'fl^ 

attempt to enforce the grossest act's of SS anWT* f * 

of guarding against a similar invasion in future ' PUrpOSO 

In the fall of 1855, there sprang out of the PYI'QK A- j 
excitement in the Territory Lo secret S^^^^ 
were defensive in their character, and were designed to form a pro eZ 
tion to their members against unlawful acts of%iolence Sid insult 
One of those societies was purely of a local character, and was con! 
fined to the town of Lawrence. Very shortly after its organization 
it produced its desired effect, and then went out of use and ceasec to 
exist. (2) Both societies were cumbersome, and were of no utility 
except to give confidence to free-State men, and enable them to know 
and aid each other in contemplated danger. So far as the evidence 
shows, they led to no act of violence or resistance to either real or 
alleged laws. (3) 

On the 21st day of November, 1855, F. M. Coleman, a pro-slavery 
man, and Charles W. Dow, a free-State man., had a dispute about the 
division line between their respective claims. Several hours after- 
wards, as Dow was passing from a blacksmith's shop towards his 
.claim, and by the cabin of Coleman, the latter shot Dow with a 
double-barreled shot-gun loaded with slugs. Dow was unarmed. 
He fell across the road, and died immediately. This was about one 
o'clock p. m. His dead body was allowed to lie where it fell until 
after sundown, when it was conveyed by Jacob Branson to his house, 
at which Dow had boarded. The testimony in regard to this homi- 
cide is voluminous, (4) and shows clearly that it was a deliberate 
murder by Coleman, and that Harrison Buckley and a Mr. Hargous 
were accessories to it. The excitement caused by it was very great 
among all classes of the settlers. On the 26th a large meeting of 
citizens was held at the place where the murder was committed, and 
resolutions passed that Coleman should be brought to justice. (5) In 
the mean time Coleman had gone to Missouri, and then to Governor 
Shannon at Shawnee Mission, in Johnston county. He was there 
taken into custody by S. J. Jones, then acting as sheriff. No war- 
rant was issued or examination had. On the day of the meeting at 
Hickory Point, Harrison Buckley procured a peace warrant against 
Jacob Branson, which was placed in the hands of Jones. That same 
evening, after Branson had gone to bed, Jones came to his cabin with 
a party of about 25 persons, among whom were Hargous and Buckley^ 
burst open the door, and found Branson in bed. He drew his pistol, 
cocked it, and presented it to Branson's breast, and said : " You are 
my prisoner, and if you move I will blow you through." The^others 
cocked their guns and gathered round him, and took him prisoner. 
They all mounted and went to Buckley's house. After a time, they 
went on by a circuitous route towards Blanton's bridge, stopping to 

(1) Pat Laughlin, Dr. Francis, A. H. fteeder, and M. F. Conway. 

(2) G. P. Lowrey and A. H. Keeder. 

(3) G. P. Lowrey. 

(4) Win'. J. Nichols, W. McKinaey, D. T. Jones and wife, Thomas Brown, F. BL 
Caiman, and others. 

(5) W. McKinney. 



60 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

" drink" on the way. As they approached the bridge there were ] 
in the party, several having stopped. Jones rode up to the prisone 
and among other things told him that he " had heard there we] 
100 men at your house to-day," and "that he regretted they we: 
not there, and that they were cheated out of their sport. "(6) In tl 
mean time the alarm had been given in the neighborhood of Branson 
arrest, and several of the settlers, among whom were some who ha 
attended the meeting at Hickory Point that day, gathered togethe 
They were greatly excited. The alleged injustice of such an arrei 
of a quiet settler, under a peace warrant, by "sheriff Jones," aide 
by two men believed to be accessory to a murder, and who we] 
allowed to be at large, exasperated them, and they proceeded i 
rapidly as possible by a nearer route than that taken by Jones, an 
stopped at the house of J. S. Abbott, one of them. They were o 
foot. As Jones's party approached on a canter, the rescuers sudden] 
formed across the road in front of Jones and his party. Jones halte 
and asked : " What's up?" The reply was : " That's what we war 
to know ; what's up ?" Branson said : u They have got me a prisoi 
er." Some one in the rescuing party told him to come over to the: 
side. He did so, and dismounted, and the mule he rode was drive 
over to Jones's party. Jones then left. (7) Of the persons engage 
in this rescue, three were from Lawrence, and had attended the mee' 
ing. Your committee have deemed it proper to detail the particulai 
of this rescue, as it was made the ground-work of what is known a 
the " Wakarusa war." On the same night of the rescue the cabin 
of Coleman and Buckley were burned, but by whom is left in dout 
by the testimony. 

On the morning after the rescue of Branson, Jones was at the vi 
lage of Franklin, near Lawrence. The rescue was spoken of in th 
presence of Jones, and some conversation passed between two other 
in his presence, as to whether it was most proper to send for assistanc 
to Col. Boone, in Missouri, or to Gen. Shannon. Jones wrote a de* 
patch and handed it to a messenger. As soon as he started, Jon 
said : " That man is taking my despatch to Missouri, -and, by God, 
will have revenge before I see Missouri." A person present, who wa 
examined as a witness, (8) complained publicly that the despatch wa 
not sent to the governor, and within half an hour one was sent to th 
governor by Jones through Horgous. 

Within a few days large numbers of men from the State of Missoui 
gathered and encamped on the Wakarusa. They brought with then 
all the equipments of war. To obtain them, a party of men, unde 
the direction of Judge J. T. V. Thompson, broke into the United State 
arsenal and armory- at Liberty , Missouri, and after a forcible deten 
tion of Captain Leonard, then in charge, (9) they took the cannon 
muskets^ rifles, powder, hammers, and, indeed, all the materials an 
munitions of war they desired, some of which have never been re 
turned or accounted for. 

(6) Jacob Branson. 

(7) Jacob Branson. 

(8) L. A. Pratb.er. 

(9) Luther Leonard. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



61 



The chief hostility of this military foray was against the town of 
Lawrence ; and this was especially the case with the officers of the 
law. 

Your committee can see in the testimony no reason, excuse or pal- 
liation for this feeling. 

Up to this time no icarrant or process of any kind had been in the 
hands of any officer against any citizen of Laivrence.(lQ) No arrest 
had been attempted, and no writ resisted in that town. The rescue 
of Branson^ sprang out of a murder committed thirteen miles from 
Lawrence, in a detached settlement, and neither the town nor its citi- 
zens extended any protection to Branson's rescuers. (11) On the con- 
trary, two or three days after the rescue, S. N. Wood, who claimed 
publicly to be one of the rescuing party, wished to be arrested for the 
purpose of testing the Territorial laws, and walked up to sheriff 
Jones and shook hands with him, and exchanged other courtesies. 
He could have been arrested without any difficulty ; and it was his de- 
sign, when he went to Mr. Jones, to be arrested, but no offer or at- 
tempt was made to do so. (12) 

It is obvious that the only cause of this hostility is the known desire 
of the citizens of Lawrence to make Kansas a free State, and their re- 
pugnance to laws imposed upon them by non-residents. 

Your committee do not propose to detail the incidents connected 
with this foray. Fortunately for the peace of the county, a direct con- 
flict between the opposing forces was avoided by an amicable arrange- 
ment. The losses sustained by the settlers in property taken, and 
time and money expended in their own defence, added much to the 
trials incident to a new settlement. Many persons were unlawfully 
taken and detained, in some cases under circumstances of gross cruel- 
ty. This was especially so in the arrest and treatment of Dr. Gr. A. 
Cutler and G. F. Warren. They were taken without cause or war- 
rant, sixty miles from Lawrence, and when Dr. Cutler was quite sick. 
They were compelled to go to the camp at Lecompton, and were put 
into the custody of sheriff Jones, who had no process to arrest 
them. They were taken into a small room, kept as a liquor shop, 
which was open and very cold. That night Jones came in with others 
and went to " playing poker at twenty-five cents ante." The priflon- 
ers were obliged to sit up all night, as there was no room to lie down 
when the men were playing. Jones insulted them frequently, and 
told one of them he must either "tell or swing." The guard then 
objected to this treatment of prisoners, and Jones desisted. 
Warren thus describes their subsequent conduct: 

" They then carried us down to their camp. Kelly, of the squatter 
sovereign, who lives in Atchison, came round and said he thirsted 1 
blood, and said he should like to hang us on the first tree. Cutli 
was very weak, arid that excited him so that he became delirious 
They sent lor three doctors, who came. Dr. Stringfellow was one c 
them. They remained there with Cutler till after midnight, and then 

took him up to the office, as it was very cold m camp. 

^ ~ 

(1Q) Wilson Shannon, Charles Kobinson. 
(H) G. P. Lowrey, Charles Kobinson. 
(12) Charles Eobinson. 



62 KANSAS AFFAIRS 

During the foray either George W. Clark or Mr. Burns murdered 
Thomas Barber, while the latter was in the highway, on his road from 
Lawrence to his claim. Both fired at him, and it is impossible, from 
the proof, to tell whose shot was fatal. The details of this homicide 
are stated by eye-witnesses. (13) 

Among the many acts of lawless violence which it has been the duty 
of your committee to investigate, this invasion of Lawrence is the most 
defenceless. A comparison of the facts proven with the official state- 
ments of the officers of the government will show how groundless were 
the pretexts which gave rise to it. A community in which no crime 
had been committed by any of its members, against none of whom had 
a warrant been issued or a complaint made, who had resisted no pro- 
cess in the hands of a real or pretended officer, was threatened with 
destruction in the name of "law and order," and that, too, by men 
who marched from a neighboring State with arms obtained by force, 
and who at every stage of their progress violated many laws, and 
among others the constitution of the United States. (14) 

The chief guilt must rest on Samuel J. Jones. His character is il- 
lustrated by his language at Lecompton, where peace was* made. He 
said Major Clark and Burns both claimed the credit of killing that 
damned abolitionist, and he didn't know which ought to have it. If 
Shannon hadn't been a damned old fool, peace would never have 
been declared. He would have wiped Lawrence out. He had men 
and means enough to do it. (15) 

Shortly after the retreat of the forces from before Lawrence, the 
election upon the adoption* of the State constitution was held at Leaven- 
worth city, on the 15th of December, 1855. While it was proceeding 
quietly, about noon, Charles Dunn, with a party of others, smashed in 
the window of the building in which the election was being held, and 
they jumped into the room where the judges of election were sitting 
and drove them oif.(16) 

One of the clerks of election snatched up the ballot-box and fol- 
lowed the judges, throwing the box behind the counter of an adjoin- 
ing room, through which he passed on his way out. As he got to 
the street-door, Dunn caught him by the throat and pushed him up 
against the outside of the building, and demanded the ballot-box. (IT) 
Then Dunn and another person struck him in the face, and he fell 
into the mud ; the crowd rushed on him, and kicked him on the head 
and in his side. (18) In this manner the election was broken up, Dunn 
and his party obtaining the ballot-box and carrying it off. 

To avoid a similar outrage at the election for State officers, &c., to 
be held on the 15th of January, 1856, the election for Leavenworth 
district was appointed to be held at Easton, and the time postponed 
until the 17th day of February, 1856. (19) On the way to the elec- 

(13) Robert T. Barber, TTiomas W. Parson, Jane W. Colborn, and others. 

(14) Article four of the amendments. 

(15) Harrison Nichols. 

(16) George Wetherell, George H. Keller. 

(17) George Wetherell. 

(18) George Wetherell, George W. Hollis. 

(19) J. @. Green, Henry G. Adams, Joseph H. Reed. 



KANSAS AFFAIES. /, 

DO 

ion persons were stopped by a party of men at a grocery, and their 
nms taken from them During the afternoon parties came up to the 
)lace of election and threatened to destroy the ballot-box, and were 
Kilty of other insolent and abusive conduct. (20) After the polls were 
losed, many of the settlers being apprehensive of an attack re 
pined m the house where the election had been held, until the next 
lormng. Late that night Stephen Sparks, with his son and nephew 
started lor home, his route running by the store of a Mr Dawson' 
inhere a large party of armed men had collected. As he approached' 
hese men demanded that he should surrender, and gathered around 
dm to enforce the demand. (21) Information was carried by a man in 
[he company of Mr. Sparks to the house where the election had been 
leld. B. P. Brown and a company of men immediately went down 
o relieve Mr. Sparks, and did relieve him, when he was in imminent 
langer.(22) Mr. Sparks then started back with Mr. Brown .and his 
barty, and while on their way they were fired upon by the other party. 
[They returned the fire, and an irregular fight then ensued, in which 
ji man by the name of Cook, of the pro-slavery party, received a mor- 
tal wound, and two of the free-State party were slightly wounded. 

Mr. Brown, with seven others who had accompanied him from 
Leavenworth, started on their return home. When they had pro- 
peded a part of their way, they were stopped and taken prisoners by 
L party of men called the " Kickapoo Kangers," under the command 
bf Captain John W. Martin. They were disarmed and taken back 
lo Easton, and put in Dawson's store. (23) Brown was separated from 
Ihe rest of his party and taken into the office of Dr. E. S. Motter.(24) 
py this time several of Martin's party, and some of the citizens of 
|he place, had become intoxicated, and expressed a determination to 
till Brown. (25) Captain Martin was desirous to, and did do all in 
pis power to save him. Several hours were spent in discussing what 
ihould be done with Brown and his party. In the mean time, with- 
Bt the knowledge of his party, Captain Martin liberated all of 
Brown's party but* himself, and aided them in their escape. (26) The 
|rowd repeatedly tried to get in the room where Brown was, and at 
Ire time succeeded, but were put out by Martin and others. Martin, 
fending that further effort on his part to save Brown was useless,, 
left and went home. The crowd then got possession of Brown, and 
anally butchered him in cold blood. The wound of which he died 
Jvas inflicted with a hatchet by a man of the name of Gibson. After 
he had been mortally wounded, Brown was sent home with Charles 
Dunn, and died that night. No attempt was made to arrest or pun- 
ish the murderers of Brown. Many of them were well known citi- 
lens, arid some of them were officers of the law. On the next grand 
jury, which sat in Leavenworth county, the sheriff summoned several 

(20 and 21) Stephen Sparks. 

(22) George A. Taylor, Stephen Sparks, J. H. Bird. 

(23) Henry J. Adams, George A. Taylor, M. P. Bively, John W. Martin, Wiley >V illiams. 

(24) Henry J. Adams, J. W. Martin. 

(25) Wiiey Williams, J. W. Martin, H. J. Adams 

(26) H. J. Adams, G. A. Taylor, J. H. Bird, W. Williams. 



64 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

of the persons implicated in this murder. (27) One of them was M. 
P. Rively, at that time ' treasurer of the county. He has 'been exam- 
ined as a witness before us. The reason he gives why no indictments 
were found is, ct they killed one of the pro-slavery men, and the pro- 
slavery men killed one of the others, and I thought it was about 
mutual." The same grand jury, however, found bills of indictment 
against those who acted as judges of the free-State election. Eively 
says : " I know our utmost endeavors were made to find out wl*b 
acted as judges and clerks of the election of the 17th of January last, 
and at all the bogus elections held by the abolitionists here. We 
were very anxious to find them out, as we thought they acted ilk)- 
gaily." 

Your committee in their examinations have found that in no case of 
crime or homicide mentioned in this report, or in the testimony, has 
any indictment been found against the guilty party, except in the 
homicide *of Clark by McCrea ; McCrea being a free-State man. 

Your committee did not deem it within their power or duty to take 
testimony as to events which have transpired since the date of their 
appointment ; but as some of these events tended ^seriously to embar- 
rass, hinder, and delay their investigations, they deem it proper he?e 
to refer to them. On their arrival in the Territory, the people were 
arrayed in two hostile parties. Their hostility continually increased 
during our stay in the Territory, by the arrival of Brined bodies of 
men, who from their equipments came not to follow the peaceful pur- 
suits of life, but armed and organized into companies apparently fbr 
war, by the unlawful detention of persons and property while passing 
through the State of "Missouri, and by frequent forcible seizures of 
persons and property in the Territory without legal warrant. Your 
committee regret that they were compelled to witness instances of 
each of those classes of outrages. While holding their session at 
Westport they saw several bodies of armed men, confessedly citizens 
of Missouri, march into the Territory on forays against its citizens, 
but under the pretence of enforcing the enactments bafore referred. to. 
The wagons of emigrants were stopped in the highways, searched 
without claim of legal process, and in some instances all their prop- 
erty taken from them. In Leavenworth city, leading citizens were 
arrested at noon-day in presence of members of your committee, by an 
armed force, without any claim of authority, except that derived from 
a self-constituted committee of vigilance, many of whom were legisla- 
tive and executive officers. Some were released on promising to leave 
the Territory; and others, after being detained for a time, were formally 
notified to leave, under the severest penalties. 

The only offence charged against them was their political opinions, 
and no one was thus arrested for alleged crime of any grade. 

Eesistance to these lawless acts was not made by the settlers, 
because, in their opinion, the persons engaged in them would have been 
sustained and reinforced by the citizens of the populous border 
counties of Missouri, from whence they were only separated by the 



(27) M.RKively. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



65 



river In one case witnessed by one of your committee, an application 
for the writ of habeas corpus was prevented by the urgent solicitatio 
of pro-slavery men, who insisted that it would endanger the life of 
the prisoner to be discharged under legal process. 

While we remained in the Territory, repeated acts of outrage were 
committed upon quiet, unoffending citizens, of which we received au- 
thentic intelligence. Men were attacked in the highway, robbed 
and subsequently imprisoned ; others were seized and searched and 
their weapons of defence taken from them without compensation 
Horses were frequently taken and appropriated. Oxen were taken 
from the yoke while ploughing, and butchered in the presence of 
their^owners. A minister was seized in the streets of the town of 
Atchison, and, under circumstances of gross barbarity, was tarred and 
cottoned, and in that condition was sent to his family. All the pro- 
visions of the constitution of the United States securing persons and 
property were utterly disregarded. The officers of the law, instead of 
protecting the people, in some instances were engaged in these out- 
rages, and in no ^ instance did we learn that any man was arrested, 
indicted, or punished for any of these crimes. While such offences 
were committed with impunity, the laws were used as a means of in- 
dicting men for holding elections preliminary to framing a constitu- 
tion, and applying for admission into the Union as the State of 
Kansas. Charges of high treason were made against prominent citizens 
upon grounds which seem to your committee absurd and ridiculous ; 
and under these charges they are now held in custody, and are refused 
the privilege of bail. In several cases men were arrested in the 
State of Missouri while passing on their lawful business through that 
State, and detained until indictments could be found in the Territory. 
These proceedings were followed by an offence of still greater mag- 
nitude. Under color of legal process, a company of about 700 armed 
men, the great body of whom your committee are satisfied were not 
citizens of the Territory, were marched into the town of Lawrence, 
under marshal Donaldson and sheriff Jones, officers claiming to act 
I under the law, and then bombarded and burned to the ground a valuable 
I hotel and one private house, destroyed two printing-presses and mate- 
jrial, and then, being released by the officers whose posse they claimed 
to be, proceeded to sack, pillage, and rob houses, stores, trunks, &c., 
even to the clothing of women and children. Some letters thus un- 
lawfully taken were private ones, written by the contesting delegate, 
and they were offered in evidence. Your committee did not deem 
that the persons holding them had any right thus to use them, and 
(refused to be made the instruments to report private letters thus 

>btained. 

This force was not resisted because it was collected and marshal 
lundcr the forms of law. But this act of barbarity, unexampled in tl 

listory of our government, was followed by its natural consequent 

'.11 the restraints which American citizens are accustomed to pay, ev< 
the appearance of law, were thrown off. One act of violence Jed i 

mother; homicides became frequent, A party, under H. ( 
>mposed chiefly of citizens of Missouri, were taken prisoners 
irty of settlers, and while your committee were at Westport, a 
H. Rep. 200 5 



64 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

of the persons implicated in this murder. (27) One of them was M. 
P. Kively, at that time 'treasurer of the county. He has been exam- 
ined as a witness before us. The reason he gives why no indictments 
were found is, " they killed one of the pro-slavery men, and the pro- 
slavery men killed one of the others, and I thought it was about 
mutual." The same grand jury, however, found bills of indictment 
against those who acted as judges of the free-State election. Kively 
says : C I know our utmost endeavors were made to find out who 
acted as judges and clerks of the election of the 1 fall of January last, 
and at all the bogus elections held by the abolitionists here. We 
were very anxious to find them out, as we thought they acted ille- 
gally." 

Your committee in their examinations have found that in no case of 
crime or homicide mentioned in this report, or in the testimony, has 
any indictment been found against the guilty party, except in the 
homicide "of Clark by McCrea ; McCrea being a free-State man. 

Your committee did not deem it within their power or duty to take 
testimony as to events which have transpired since the date of their 
appointment ; but as some of these events tended seriously to embar- 
rass, hinder, and delay their investigations, they deem it proper hepe 
to refer to them. On their arrival in the Territory, the people were 
arrayed in two hostile parties. Their hostility continually increased 
during our stay in the Territory, by the arrival of ,^rmed bodies of 
men, who from their equipments came not to follow the peaceful pur- 
suits of life, but armed and organized into companies apparently ibr 
war, by the unlawful detention of persons and property while passing 
through the State of Missouri, and by frequent forcible seizures of 
persons and property in the Territory without legal warrant. Your 
committee regret that they were compelled to witness instances of 
each of those classes of outrages. While holding their session at 
Westport they saw several bodies of armed men, coafessedly citizens 
of Missouri, march into the Territory on forays against its citizens, 
but under the pretence of enforcing the enactments bafore referred to. 
The wagons of emigrants were stopped in the highways, searched 
without claim of legal process, and in some instances all their prop- 
erty taken from them. In Leavenworth city, leading citizens wepe 
arrested at noon-day in presence of members of your committee, by an 
armed force, without any claim of authority, except that derived from 
a self-constituted committee of vigilance, many of whom were legisla- 
tive and executive officers. Some were released on promising to leave 
the Territory; and others, after being detained for a time, were formally 
notified to leave, under the severest penalties. 

The only offence charged against them was their political opinions, 
and no one was thus arrested for alleged crime of any grade. 

Kesistance to these lawless acts was not made by the settlers, 
because, in their opinion, the persons engaged in them would have been 
sustained and reinforced by the citizens of the populous border 
counties of Missouri, from whence they were only separated by the 



(27) M. P. Eively. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



65 



river. In one case witnessed by one of your committee, an application 
for the writ of habeas corpus was prevented by the urgent solicitat 
of pro-slavery men, jho insisted that it would endanger the life of 
the prisoner to be discharged under legal process. 

While we remained in the Territory, repeated acts of outrage were 
committed upon quiet, unoffending citizens, of which we received au- 
thentic intelligence. Men were attacked in the highway, robbed 
and subsequently imprisoned ; others were seized and searched, and 
their weapons of defence taken from them without compensation. 
Horses were frequently taken and appropriated. Oxen were taken 
from the yoke while ploughing, and butchered in the presence of 
their ^owners. A minister was seized in the streets of the town of 
Atchison, and, under circumstances of gross barbarity, was tarred and 
cottoned, and in that condition was sent to his family. All the pro- 
visions of the constitution of the United States securing persons and 
property were utterly disregarded. The officers of the law, instead of 
protecting the people, in some instances were engaged in these out- 
rages, and in no instance did we learn that any man was arrested, 
indicted, or punished for any of these crimes. While such offences 
were committed with impunity, the laws were used as a means of in- 
dicting men for holding elections preliminary to framing a constitu- 
tion, and applying for admission into the Union as the State of 
Kansas. Charges of high treason were made against prominent citizens 
upon grounds which seem to your committee absurd and ridiculous ; 
and under these charges they are now held in custody, and are refused 
the privilege of bail. In several cases men were arrested in the 
State of Missouri while passing on their lawful business through that 
State, and detained until indictments could be found in the Territory. 
These proceedings were followed by an offence of still greater mag- 
nitude. Under color of legal process, a company of about TOO armed 
men, the great body of whom your committee are satisfied were not 
citizens of the Territory, were marched into the town of Lawrence, 
under marshal Donaldson and sheriff Jones, officers claiming to act 
under the law, and then bombarded and burned to the ground a valuable 
hotel and one private house, destroyed two printing-presses and mate- 
irial, and then, being released by the officers whose posse they claimed 
| to be, proceeded to sack, pillage, and rob houses, stores, trunks, &c., 
even to the clothing of women and children. Some letters thus un- 
lawfully taken were private ones, written by the contesting delegate, 
and they were offered in evidence. Your committee did not deem 
that the persons holding them had any right thus to use them, and 
refused to be made the instruments to report private letters thus 
obtained. , 

This force was not resisted because it was collected and marshal 
hinder the forms of law. But this act of barbarity, unexampled m tJ 
tistory of our government, was followed by its natural consequence 
'.11 the restraints which American citizens are accustomed to pay, ei 
,o the appearance of law, were thrown off. One act of violence Jed i 
mother; homicides became frequent. A party, under H. ( 
composed chiefly of citizens of Missouri, were taken prisoners 
irty of settlers, and while your committee were at Westport, a c< 
H. Kep. 200 5 



66 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

pany, chiefly of Missourians, accompanied by the sitting delegate, 
went to relieve Pate and his party. A collision was prevented by 
the United States troops. Civil war seemed impending in the Terri- 
tory. Nothing can prevent so great a calamity but the presence of a 
large force of United States troops, under a commander who will, 
with prudence and discretion, quiet the excited passions of both 
parties, and expel with force the lawless band of men coming from 
Missouri and elsewhere, who, with criminal pertinacity, infest the 
Territory. In some cases, and as to one entire election district, the 
condition of the country prevented the attendance of witnesses, who 
were either arrested and detained while, or deterred from, obeying 
our process. The sergeant-at-arms who served the process upon them 
was himself arrested and detained' for a short time, by an armed force 
claiming to be a part of the posse of the marshal, but was allowed to 
proceed upon an examination of his papers, and was furnished with a 
pass signed by "Warren D. Wilkes, of South Carolina." John Upton, 
another officer of the committee, was subsequently stopped by a law- 
less force on the borders of the Territory, and after being detained 
and treated with great indignity, was released. He, also, was fur- 
nished with a pass, signed by two citizens of Missouri, and addressed 
to "pro-slavery men." By reason of these disturbances we were 
delayed in Westport, so that while in session there our time was but 
partially occupied. 

But the obstruction which created the most serious embarrassment 
to your committee was the attempted arrest of Gov. Keeder, the 
contesting delegate, upon a writ of attachment issued against him by 
Judge Lecompte, to compel his attendance as a witness before the 

frand jury of Douglas county. William Fane, recently from the 
tate of Georgia, and claiming to be the deputy marshal, came into 
the room of the committee while Gov. Keeder was examining a 
witness before us, and producing the writ, required Gov. Reeder to 
attend him. Subsequent events have only strengthened the con- 
viction of your committee, that this was a wanton and unlawful in- 
terference by the judge who issued the writ, tending greatly to 
obstruct a full and fair investigation. Gov. Reeder and Gen. Whit- 
field alone were fully possessed of that local information which would 
enable us to elicit the whole truth, and it was obvious to every one 
that any event which would separate either of them from the com- 
mittee would necessarily hinder, delay, and embarrass it. Gov. 
Beeder claimed, that under the circumstances in which he was placed, 
he was privileged irom arrest, except for treason, felony, or breach 
of the peace. As this was a question of privilege, -proper for the 
courts, or for the privileged person alone to determine, on his peril, we 
declined to give him any protection, or take any action in the matter. 
He refused to obey the writ, believing it to be a mere pretence to get 
the custody of his person : and fearing, as he .alleged, that he would 
be assassinated by lawless bands of men then gathering in and near 
Lecompte, he then left the Territory. 

Subsequently H. Miles Moore, an attorney in Leavenworth city, 
but for several years a citizen of western Missouri, kindly furnished 
the committee information as to the residence of persons voting akthe 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 67 

elections ; and in some cases examined witnesses before us. He was 
arrested on the streets of that town by an armed band of about 30 
men, headed by W. D. Wilkes, without any color of authority, con- 
fined with other citizens under a military guard for 24 hours, and then 
notified to leave the Territory. His testimony was regarded as im- 
portant, and upon his sworn statement that it would endanger his 
person to give ^it openly, the majority of your committee deemed it 
proper to examine him ex parte, and did so. 

By reason of these occurrences the contestant, and the party with 
and for whom he acted, were unrepresented before us during a greater 
portion of the time ; and your committee were required to ascertain 
the truth in the best manner they could. 

Your committee report the following facts and conclusions as estab- 
lished by the testimony : 

First. That each election in the Territory, held under the organic 
or alleged Territorial law, has been carried by organized invasion from 
the State of Missouri, by which the people of the Territory have been 
prevented from exercising the rights secured to them by the organic 
law. 

Second. That the alleged Territorial legislature was an illegally 
constituted body, and had no power to pass valid laws, and their 
enactments are therefore null and void. 

Third. That these alleged laws have not, as a general thing, been 
used to protect persons and property, and to punish wrong, but for 
unlawful purposes. 

Fourth. That the election under which the sitting delegate, John 
W. Whitfield, holds his seat, was not held in pursuance of any valid 
law, and that it should be regarded only as the expression of the 
choice of those resident citizens who voted for him. 

Fifth. That the election, under which the contesting delegate, 
Andrew H. Keeder, claims his seat, was not held in pursuance of law, 
and that it should be regarded only as the expression of the resident 
citizens who voted for him. 

Sixth. That Andrew H. Reeder received a greater number of votes 
of resident citizens than John W. Whitfield, for delegate. 

Seventh. That in the present condition of the Territory a fair elec- 
tion cannot be held without a new census, a stringent and well- 
guarded election law, the selection of impartial judges, and the pres- 
ence of United States troops at every place of election. 

Eighth. That the various elections held by the people of the Ter- 
ritory preliminary to the formation of the State government, have 
been as regular as the disturbed condition of the Territory would al- 
low ; and that the constitution passed by the convention, held in pur- 
suance of said elections, embodies the will of a majority of the people 

As it is not the province of your committee to suggest remedu 
the existing troubles in the Territory of Kansas, they content 
'selves with the foregoing statement of facts. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. ^ ^ HOWAED . 

JOHN SHEBMAN 



70 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

were appointed by him, with instructions as to how their places were 
to be filled if they or any of them refused or failed to act ; that he 
reserved the power to himself to judge, in the first instance, of the 
election returns, and that he did so act ; that the returns were made 
to him, and he did set aside the election of but nine members of the 
twenty-six elected to the house of representatives, and three of the 
thirteen elected to the council, and gave his certificate of election to 
the other seventeen members of the house, and ten members of the 
council, being a majority of both branches of the legislature ; that he 
ordered new elections in thos districts where he had set aside the re- 
turns ; that the governor convened the legislature, thus constituted, ac- 
cording to law, on the 1st of July, 1855, and communicated with them 
officially after they were organized, and recognised them as a legally 
and properly constituted law-making body ; and never, until August, 
1855, after he was removed from the office of governor, did he objecl 
to the election of a majority of the legislature, both in the council 
and in the house of representatives, to whom he had previously given 
certificates. 

These great leading and essential facts, upon which the validity or 
invalidity of laws, or "pretended laws," of Kansas must rest, are not 
denied, or even assailed, by a particle of testimony taken by the com- 
mittee ; and, with these facts unassailed and unimpeached, it is be- 
yond the comprehension of the undersigned how the majority couh 
come to the conclusion that the laws passed by the Territorial legisla- 
ture were null and void in consequence of any illegality, even if such 
had been proved, in the election of its members. All questions re- 
lating to that election were closed by their waiver at the proper time 
and without an investigation by the proper authority. This is a well- 
fixed principle in all our representative institutions ; upon it they al' 
rest, and with the correctness of it Governor Eeecler himself seems to 
be duly impressed. This the testimony clearly discloses. In a letter 
found in the streets of Lawrence, and proven before the committee to 
be in the hand-writing of Governor Reeder, and bearing his genuin< 
signature, dated in this city on the 12th of February, 1856, and ad- 
dressed to a friend of his in Kansas Territory, he says : 

" As to putting a set of laws in operation in opposition to the Terri- 
torial government, my opinion is confirmed instead of being shaken 
my predictions have all been verified so far, and will be in the future 

We will be, so far as legality is concerned, in the wrong ; and that is no 
trifling matter, in so critical a state of things, and in view of such bloody 
consequences. * I may speak my plain and private 

opinion to our friends in Kansas, for it is my duty. But to the pub 
lie, as you will see by my published letter, I show no divided front.' 

This letter, and another also found, were addressed, as it is understood 
to Grosvenor P. Lowrey, his friend, and formerly his private secretary 
while he was governor of Kansas ; and so important a bearing had the;; 
upon the main facts of the case, which are the legality of the 'JTerrit&rfa 
legislature and their enactments, that the majority of the committee 
after they had admitted them as evidence,, as it was clearly understood 
by all parties, attempted to reject them. The following is their 
action in regard to them : 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 7J 

-The counsel for J. W. Whitfield, having at Leavenworth citv 
offered m evidence before the committee two letters written by A H 
Boeder the one dated Washington, January 20, 1856, the other dated 
Washington, February 12, 1856 and, before offering the said letters 
their authenticity, both as to the signature and hand-writino- i n the 
body of said letters, was proved to be the proper hand-writing and 
signature of A. H. Reeder, and of which facts the committee were 
satisfied ; but a majority of the committee Messrs. Howard and Sher- 
man not^being satisfied, at the time, of the propriety of the admission 
of such evidence, took the matter under consideration ; and now, at 
this day, at the sitting of the committee at Westport, the question of 
the admission of said letters as evidence came up for consideration and 
decision, and a majority of the committee, Messrs. Howard and 
Sherman Mr. Oliver dissenting decline to receive said letters in 
evidence, and to be engrafted into and to constitute a portion of the 
evidence taken by the committee in their investigations, upon the 
ground that they, the committee, have not the rightful possession of 
them ; they having been found in the street, and being clearly private 
letters, or so declared to be by the majority of the committee. The 
said majority of the committee take no objection to the relevancy or 
competency of said letters as evidence ; but place their objection solely 
upon the grounds above stated, not denying that said letters might be 
evidence against said A. H. Reeder in a criminal prosecution. The 
committee admit that the copies of said letters, furnished to the com- 
mittee for the purpose of having them transcribed into the evidence, 
are true and genuine copies of the originals offered in evidence, and 
which said copies are hereto appended, marked (A) and (B), and made 
part of this pretest. 

" The counsel for J. W. Whitfield, and on behalf of the law and 
order party in Kansas Territory, offer said letters in evidence for the 
double purpose of showing the opinions arid admissions of A. H. 
Keeder, in reference to the matters and subjects connected with the 
elections of the 30th of March, 1855, in the Territory, and the con- 
test now pending between Whitfield and Reeder in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, as well as to show the complicity of A. H. Reeder in all 
the troubles which have led to bloodshed and civil war in the Terri- 
tory. 

"To the refusal of the majority of said committee to receive said 
tleters in evidence Mr. Oliver enters his protest ; and also the said 
John W. Whitfield, by his attorneys, protests against the action of a 
majority of the committee in refusing the admission of said letters m 
evidence, as depriving him of his just rights in the investigatu 
before the committee, and in showing to the country the true ground 
and source of all the difficulties in Kansas Territory. 

By Us Attorneys, 
" AUSTIN A. KING, 
JOHN SCOTT. 

" WESTPORT, Mo., June 7, 1856. 

" The above protest was this day presented, and the accompanying 



iA KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

copies of letters, marked by rue ( Exhibit A, accompanying protest/ 
and 'Exhibit B, with protest/ 

"WM. A. HOWARD, 

" Chairman K. O. 
" WESTPORT, June 7, 1856." 

But the undersigned insists that they were not only competent, but 
pertinent to the main issue which the committee were sent out to in- 
vestigate. He therefore incorporates copies of them in this report ; 
he appends them to it, and makes them part of the same as fully as 
if here entered at large. 

These remarks, touching the general character of the majority's 
report, and what has not been proved, are preliminary to such com- 
ments as the undersigned intends to submit on the matters which 
were elicited by the investigation. And another fact on the same 
line of preliminary observations, deserving, in his opinion, to be no- 
ticed, is, that witnesses were examined by the committee in but three 
places in the Territory, to wit : Lawrence, Tecumseh, and Leaven- 
worth city ; except that the testimony of Daniel Woodson, secretary 
of the Territory, was taken informally at Lecompton, in regard to the 
loss of poll-books in certain districts, and also a certain letter said to 
have been written by him. All the places in which witnesses were 
examined touching the election of the 30th of March, 1855, were in 
districts where the elections had been set aside by Governor Reeder 
himself, as before stated. All the testimony they took touching the 
elections at other places, was given by witnesses sent for and exam- 
ined out of the vicinage ; and much the larger portion of the testimony 
taken at the instance of the contestant was taken at Lawrence, the 
great rendezvous of the malcontents in the Territory. The object of 
the testimony of the witnesses produced by Governor Reeder, was to 
show that the election of the legislature on the 30th of March was 
carried by illegal votes from Missouri, notwithstanding he had offi- 
cially adjudicated that question as governor of the Territory. 

And before proceeding to notice in detail the testimony, such as it 
is, adduced for that purpose, it may be proper here to advert to some 
strange inconsistencies in the report of the majority, and which are 
apparent upon its face. They say, for instance, "this unlawful in- 
terference has been continued in every important event in the history 
of the Territory. Every election has been controlled, not by the actual 
settlers, but by citizens of Missouri ; arid, as a consequence, every 
officer in the Territory, from constables to legislators, except those 
appointed by the President, owe their positions to non-resident voters. 
None havo been elected by the settlers, and your committee have been 
unable to find that any political power whatever, however unimport- 
ant, has been exercised by the people of the Territory." 

This is certainly very broad and sweeping language ; and who, after 
having heard it read, was not surprised to hear the same gentlemen 
admit, in an after part of their report, in speaking of the first elec- 
tion for a delegate to Congress, November 29, 1854, and after giving 
all the facts in relation to that election, that General Whitfield was 
duly elected a delegate to Congress? They say, " of the legal votes 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. ^3 

cast, General Whitjield received a plurality," and was consequently ,lulv 
elected. And if he was duly elected by legal votes, as they were- Yorci-d 
to admit from the evidence, then the result could not have heen af- 
fected by non-resident voters. 

The undersigned does not deem it necessary for him to say more 
upon the subject of that election, which was the first object of their 
inquiry. 

The majority admit that General Whitfield was duly elected by the 
actual settlers of the Territory, and those who were entitled to vote. 
This admission is a sufficient answer to their previous statement, that 
no person had been elected by the settlers, and that they had been 
unable to find that any political power whatever, however unimport- 
ant, had been exercised by the people of the Territory. Like incon- 
sistencies appear in their statements concerning the election of mem- 
bers of the legislature on the 30th of March, 185'5. 

They say in the first place, in relation to this election, that compa- 
nies of m^n from Missouri ic were arranged in regular parties, and 
sent into every council district in the Territory, and into every repre- 
sentative district but one. The numbers were so distributed as to con- 
trol the elections in each district. " 

And then, under the head of " tenth district," they say, " this and 
the c eighth election district ' formed one representative district, and 
was the only one in which the invasion from Missouri did not extend. 
But under the head of " twelfth district/' they say, " the election in 
this district was conducted fairly ; no complaint was made that illegal 
votes were cast." 

And again, under the head of "seventeenth district," they say, 
" the election in this district seems to have been fairly conducted, and 
not contested at all. In this district the pro-slavery party had a ma- 
jority." 

These contradictory statements, to the undersigned, seem wholly 
inexplicable, and he leaves them for the majority to reconcile or^ ex- 
plain as best they may. But the undersigned affirms, that the weight 
of testimony shows that the majority of the legal voters in fourteen 
out of the eighteen election districts in the Territory were in favor of 
the party electing a majority of the legislature, as returned and cer- 
tified to by the governor. And the testimony as to the other districts, 
while it is contradictory on some points, is far from being conclusive 
that a like majority did not exist in them. This, moreover, appears 
from the report of the majority itself, without referring to the test 
mony. 

The Territory was divided into ten council election districts 
fourteen representative districts. The first council district embraced 
the city of Lawrence the stronghold of the abolition or free- 
partv, as it is called. In this council district, the whole entire i >te 
cast 'for the free-State ticket was but 255. The whole numbe 
legal voters in that district, by the census in February before, was 
446. These figures are taken from the tabular exhibit given 
majority themselves. And it is also in proof by Mr. Ladd, o 
Gov. Keeder's main witnesses, that at least fifty illegal vote 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



given for the free-State ticket in Lawrence by eastern emigrants just 
arrived, and not entitled to vote. 

These figures and this fact show that the free-State ticket did not 
receive a majority of the legal voters in this district; for if fifty be 
taken from the 255 cast for their ticket, it would leave only 205, being 
61 short of a majority of the 466 legal voters in the district. That 
Missourians may have voted there illegally, does not, and cannot, vary 
this result. But the election at Lawrence was set aside by Gov. Keeder 
for informality in the return. 

The undersigned has compiled tables, comparing the votes cast for 
the free-State ticket in the several council districts and representative 
districts in the Territory. This is taken from the tables exhibited by 
the majority. It is part of their own showing. In it will be seen 
the number of votes cast in each district for the free-State tickets, 
compared with the number of voters at the time the census was taken 
in each respectively; and from this it will appear that the free-State 
votes fell far short of being sufficient to elect a majority in either 
branch of the legislature, even if there had been no increase of voters, 
by bona fide settlers, between the time the census was taken and the 
election. 

But the concurrent testimony of a number of witnesses establishes 
the fact conclusively, in the opinion of the undersigned, that the emi- 
gration of lona fide, settlers from the southern States was greater in 
the month of March, after the census was taken, than in any equal 
time previous. 

Here are the tables : 



REPRESENTATIVE DISTRICTS. 


COUNCIL DISTRICTS. 


1.1 


jjj 


*H k ' 

J!3 


1 


d 


CD 


|| 


^ 


O) 


-2 


2 


S-l EC 


8.1 


fH 


2^ 


d 


o ^O 


O OQ 


> ^ 


"_> 




O M 


> 3 





t-i 


v-i 3 


<M ^ 


**-< "S 


^8 


o 


<*-! ^ 


4-l g 


.^ 


o 


o i 


O -*J 


jg 


o 


o o 




6 "S 


d 


d <~j "o 


d 


d 


d 


d CJ "S 


o % 


fc^ 


to 


Jz5' 








* 




1 


97 


19 


1 


1 


466 


255 


2 


2 


369 


253 


3 


2 


212 


12 


1 


3 


212 


12 


2 


3 


193 


44 


1 


4 


101 


4 


1 


4 


442 


156 


2 


5 


92 


49 


1 


5 


253 




1 


6 


253 


35 


2 


6 


201 


140 


1 


7 


242 


152 


4 


7 


247 




1 


8 


99 


120 


1 


8 


215 


60 


1 


9 


102 


26 


1 


9 


208 




1 


10 


83 




1 


10 


468 


66 


2 


11 


47 


54 


2 










12 


215 




2 




| 




13 


203 




2 




j 




14 


335 


59 


a 


1 


1 





This shows that the aggregate of the votes cast in the Territory for 
the free-State ticket fell short of 800, while the census shows that there 



KANSAS AFFAIRS n-r 

were 2,905 legal voters in the Territory in the Febma 
The free-State picket, therefore did noKi^nJ&f CKi 
voters of the Territory even if all be excluded from the account who 
emigrated to the Territory after the census was taken 

This fact was apparent to the majority of the committee But tW 
attempted to break its force in two ways : First, by comparing the 
names on the poll-books with those on the census returns, from whie 
comparison they argue that only a fraction over 1,300 of the le<ral 
voters upon the census returns voted at that election And secondlv 
)y arguing that the abolitionists were prevented from votino- by vio- 
ence, threats, and intimidation. 

On the first point, the undersigned deems it unnecessary to say 
more than that no comparison between the poll-books and the census 
returns was made except by districts. Between the time of takino- the 
census and the election, settlers had changed their residence from one 
part of the Territory to another,, and doubtless voted in a place differ- 
ent from that in which they were registered when the census was taken. 
The committee did not compare the names on the poll-books with the 
names on the census returns throughout the Territory, and the com- 
Darison alluded to by the majority, therefore, by no means proves what 
;hey claim for it. 

On the second point the undersigned will barely state that there is 
no evidence that any violence was resorted to, or force employed, by 
which men were prevented from voting at a single election precinct in 
;he Territory, or that there was any greater disturbance at any elec- 
tion precinct than frequently occurs in all our State elections in ex- 
citing times. A number of witnesses on both sides swear that men on 
Doth sides had arms, guns, pistols, bowie-knives, &c., and made 
threats, &c. But no one of them swears that any one was prevented 
? rom voting by the use of these weapons in a single instance, to the 
Dest of the undersigned's recollection. The testimony from beginning 
;o end does not disclose the fact of a single assault and battery at or 
about the polls, or on account of the side on which any one wished to 
vote or had voted, in the whole Territory, on the day of election. 
Some quarrels and fights occurred at two or three places, but not about 
voting, and not as many in the whole Territory as the undersigned is 
informed occurred at one precinct in this city at the late municipal 
election. 

The undersigned will now take up and proceed with the districts in 
their order. He now refers to the election districts. There were 
eighteen of these. 

FIRST ELECTION DISTRICT. 

The testimony in this district shows that a great many strangers 
were present, some with wagons and tents ; that considerable excite- 
ment prevailed. But there "is no positive evidence of but a very lew 
persons, known, at that time to be citizens of Missouri, being present. 
All else is hearsay, vague and uncertain. While this is so, Mr. fc 
ster, in his deposition hereunto appended and made part < 
testifies as follows : 



76 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

" I emigrated into the Territory of Kansas in June, 1854, and set- 
tled in the neighborhood of Lawrence, and have resided there ever 
since." 

{l My acquaintance was reasonably extensive in that district, I 
knew about 400 voters who resided in the district, but I did not know 
near all of the resident voters of that district. So far as I know, all 
the resident voters of that district were present and voted." 

u At the time of the election of the 30th March, 1855, there was a 
majority of pro-slavery residents in the Lawrence district. I was well 
acquainted in the district. There were about 200 free-State resident 
voters in that district, and there were from 300 to 400 pro-slavery 
voters at the polls that day, whom I knew to be residents of that dis- 
trict, and a great many of them voted in my presence, and the others 
told me they had voted." 

Besides this, the testimony of other witnesses shows that a large im- 
migration of bona fide settlers from Missouri came into the district 
after the census was taken, and before the election. (1) The parties, 
says one witness, were pretty nearly divided perhaps more of the 
free-State than pro-slavery party ; but the free-State party were di- 
vided, and many voted for the pro-slavery candidates. (2) There was 
no intimidation or force used to prevent any of the free-State party 
from voting, and all could have voted who wished to vote. (3) In the 
afternoon gome one hundred men, who had come in with Dr. Charles 
Robinson from the east, marched over to the polls and voted the free- 
State ticket. (4) They were said to have come into the Territory that 
very day. (5) 

From this testimony, it is difficult for the undersigned to see how 
the majority of the committee could come to the conclusion to which 
they arrived, that even in the Lawrence district there was a majority 
of the legal voters for the free-State ticket. 

SECOND DISTRICT. 

In regard to this district, the testimony is conflicting and contra- 
dictory ; but the weight of the evidence, in the opinion of the under- 
signed, shows that there were many settlers came into this district 
after the census was taken, and before the March election. On the 
morning of election the free-State judges took arms with them into 
the judges' room. The free-State men, under the lead of Judge 
Wakefield, took possession of the polls, and required all the pro- 
slavery men to be sworn without discrimination, and did not swear any 
free-State men. The pro-slavery residents objected to this, and de- 
clared that both parties ought to be sworn alike. After some time 
the free-State judges resigned, and other judges were selected by the 
crowd. No intimidation was used to prevent the free-State men from 
vefting, but all were asked to come up and vote. The pro-slavery 

(1.) Horatio Owens, James Whitlock, A. B. Wade. 
(?.) James Whitlock, A. B. Wade. 
(3.) Horatio Owens, J. Whitlock, A. B. Wade. 
(4.( J. Whitlock, A. B. Wade, J. M. Banks. 
(5.) James Whitlock, John M. Banks. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. ** 

ticket had a majority in the district, as the free-State party were i 
united on their ticket. 6 In addition to the general testi me 
feting to th district the undersigned begs to" call th ^ ftCtioVof 
the House especially to the testimony of Parris Ellison, one of the 
judges to hold said election, appointed hy Governor Reeder himself 
which deposition, with others in relation to the election in that dW 
trict, is hereunto appended and made part of this report. Mr Ell 
son, in his deposition, among other things, says : 

"The undersigned, Parris Ellison, states on oath- That I em 
igrated from Missouri to Kansas, and settled at Douglas the 
second district, in Octoher, 1854, and have resided there ever since 
I was present at the election held at Mr. Burson's, in the second dis- 
trict, on the oOth March, 1855. I was appointed hy Governor Reeder 
as one of the judges, and Mr. Bin-son and Mr. Ramsay, I think, were 
the other two. "We met at Mr. Burson's house in the morning be- 
fore the hour to open the polls. Mr. Burson was a magistrate, ap- 
pointed hy Governor Reeder, and he qualified me and qualified 
Ramsay. Ramsay qualified Burson. We appointed the clerks, and 
qualified them. George W. Taylor was one of the clerks. My son 
Parris was very sick at the time, and I wanted to resign. I proposed 
to resign if the other judges would permit me to name a man to serve 
in my place. Judge Wakefield, one of the candidates on the free- 
State ticket, was in the room, and interfered, telling the judges that 
they had power to name the man. They refused to let me appoint a 
man in my place, and I determined to serve, and did serve. I re- 
marked to the other judges that we were sworn to act impartially 
during the whole day. They said, Yes ; we are sworn to act impar- 
tially. We agreed that, inasmuch as they knew a great many voters 
that I did not know, and I knew a great many that they did not 
know, that those whom I knew should vote without swearing, and 
those whom they knew I would not require of them to he sworn, tinder 
this agreement we commenced the election. After some twenty-nine 
or thirty votes were taken, the pro-slavery party had some two to 
one against the free-State party. The other two judges hegan to grum- 
Ue. Dr. Brooks came up to vote. I knew Dr. Brooks had a claim 
in that district, and had heen on it, and had put a house on it. 

u Dr. Brooks was a single man, and afterwards "brought his mother 
there, and has resided there ever since. At the time of the election Dr. 
Brooks claimed to be a citizen of the district. I knew him to^ be a 
resident, and under our agreement I wanted to take his vote without 
swearing, but the other two judges refused to take his vote unless lie 
would swear; this he refused to do, because he said that he had 
understood that, under the agreement, if Mr. Ellison took his vote 
without requiring him to swear, that was all that was necessary. 
The other two judges still refused to take his vote. The doctc 
stood at the window a long time, and said, that unless they would 
him vote, as he was a citizen of the district, and had been * 
time previous, no other man should vote there that day. I told 
that if they refused his vote it would create a fuss and confu 

(6.) George W. Ward. 



78 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

that it would be violating the agreement made before the election be- 
gan ; but still refused. Sherman Woffal then came up to vote ; but 
they refused to take his vote without swearing. Sherman said that 
he could prove by me that he was a citizen of the district, and had 
been a citizen of the district from the fall before. I knew that Mr. 
Woffal was a resident of the district, for he was living there when I 
went to the district to live. I bought hay of Mr. Woffal before the 
election, which he had made and cured the summer before. They 
still refused to let him vote, unless he would swear. He refused to 
swear because they, the judges, would not let him prove his residence. 
He said he would not swear. I had not, up to this time, objected to 
any of the persons that came up to vote which the other two judges 
said they knew. I had kept the agreement made between us to the 
word and letter. On account of this conduct on the part of the other 
two judges, a fuss and confusion arose in the crowd outside of the house. 
While the fuss was going on, I proposed to adjourn, as I told them I 
thought it would be over in half an hour or so. Mr. Burson, there- 
upon, adjourned for half an hour. He proclaimed the adjournment 
aloud. I told each one of the judges to pick up a poll-book. I took 
the ballot-box, which one of the judges tried to take from me. I 
think it was Ramsay, but am not certain. Sharp words passed be- 
tween us, but I kept the ballot-box, and they took the poll-books and 
went off. A man by the name of Jones asked me where the poll- 
books were? I told him that Burson and Ramsay had taken them 
off. He followed them, and brought the poll-books back. I waited 
until the half hour had expired, and the other two judges did not 
come back. I waited ten minutes longer. I called them ; but they 
did not come. I called them again, and they did not appear. I told 
the people that I would wait five or ten minutes longer, and if the 
other two judges did not come they would have a right to select tvro 
men to act in their places. I waited ten minutes and they did not 
come, and the people elected two men to act in their places, namely, 
Sherman Woffal and Frank Labay. They were qualified. I asked 
Mr. Taylor to repeat the oath to them, which he did ; but, by mis- 
take, Mr. Taylor signed the oath instead of myself. Mr. Taylor had 
been sworn in as a clerk by Mr. Burson and Mr. Ramsay. Messrs. 
Woffal and Labay and I then opened the polls, and the election 
went off quietly during the remainder of the day. We kept the 
polls open until 6 o'clock in the evening. Andrew McDonald was 
the pro-slavery candidate for couucil, and Judge Wakefield was the 
free-State candidate for council. 0. H. Brown and Mr. Ward were 
the pro-slavery candidates for the house of representatives, and Jesse 
was one of the free-State candidates for the house, and the other 
I do not remember. All the votes received after we began the 
second time were for the pro-slavery candidates. The ballot-box 
which I took possession of at the time of the adjournment I care- 
fully preserved, and did not open it until 6 o'clock in the evening. 
It was then opened in presence of the other two judges, who had 
been selected by the people, and the clerks. The ballots were count- 
ed, and there were twenty-one votes for the pro-slavery ticket, and 



1 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 79 

twelve votes for the free-State ticket. When we commenced tne 
election the second time, we got another ballot-box. 

"When I got there in the morning, there were some thirty or forty 
men present about the house, and when I went into the house I saw 
some fifteen or twenty guns standing in one corner of the house, 
which had been brought there by the free-State men. When the 
adjournment took place, the guns were taken away by the free-State 
men. These guns were all the guns that I saw on the ground. I 
did not see a gun in the hands of a pro-slavery man that day. There 
was no charge made with either guns or pistols or other weapons at 
the window, nor were there any threats of violence made by the pro- 
slavery men. There was no violence committed by the pro- slavery 
me 1*1 there that day to the judges, nor were there any threats of 
violence offered, as I saw. I did not see Mr. Samuel Jones pull out 
his watch and say to the judges, Eamsay and Burson, that he would 
give them five minutes to resign, nor did I hear him afterwards say 
to them that he would give them one minute to resign. If this had 
occurred, I should have seen and heard it, for I was in the house all 
the time, and was at the door when these two judges came out. I 
did not see Samuel Jones in the house at any time while Ramsay and 
Burson were there. In my neighborhood I was well acquainted with 
the settlers there, and at the time of the election and before. The 
residents were almost all pro-slavery. From what I knew myself, 
and the information received from the census taker and others, I am 
eatisfied that the pro-slavery party had a decided majority in the 
second district." 

This is the district in which it is represented that sheriff Jones 
figured so conspicuously. The testimony of Mr. Ellison clearly dis- 
proves all such allegations. Other depositions, ^herewith filed and 
made part of this report, fully confirm the testimony of Mr. Ellison. 

THIRD DISTRICT. 

The testimony in relation to this district is, that the pro-slavery 
party had a majority among the actual settlers of the district. (7) 

FOURTH DISTRICT. 

The testimony in relation to this district shows that the pro-slavery 
party had a majority among the actual settlers. (8) 

FIFTH DISTRICT. 

In this district the testimony goes to shoTv that there was a major- 
ity for the free-State party. 

SIXTH DISTRICT. 
The testimony goes to show that the pro-slavery party had a major- 



(7.) Gee. Holmes. 

(8) A. S. Johnson, T. Mockbee. 



80 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

ity of the actual settlers in this district, and also that most of the free- 
State men voted for the pro-slavery candidates. (9) 

SEVENTH DISTRCT. 

The testimony shows that the pro-slavery party had a majority 
among the actual settlers in this district. (10) 

EIGHTH DISTRICT. 

As to this district, no testimony was taken on either side, so far 
as the undersigned now remembers. 

NINTH DISTRICT. 

The testimony shows that in this district the pro-slavery party 
were in the majority among the actual settlers. (11) 

TENTH DISTRICT. 

The testimony shows that the election was conducted fairly in this 
district, and the result would not have heen changed "by the rejection 
of all me illegal votes on both sides. 

ELEVENTH DISTRICT. 

In this district there is no evidence to impeach the correctness of the 
election returns as made to and sanctioned by the governor. 

TWELFTH DISTRICT. 

There is no evidence to impeach the correctness of the returns of 
election for this district. 

THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The evidence shows that there was a pro-slavery majority of the 
actual residents in this district, and that there was no force or intimi- 
dation used to prevent free-State men from voting. (12) 

FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The evidence shows that the pro-slavery party was largely in the 
majority among the actual residents in this district ; that the election 
was peaceable and quiet, and that no intimidation was used to pre- 
vent any one from voting. (13) 



(9) Win. Barbee, Joseph C. Anderson, S. A. Williams, T. B. Arnett. 

(10) C. A. Linkenaugcr, Andrew Johnson. 

(11) C. R. Mobley, Thomas Reynolds. 

(12) Wm. Tebbs, 0. H. Tebbs, and others. 

(13) W. P. Richardson, Willard P. Hall, J. H. Whitehead, J. P. Blair, and others. 






KANSAS AFFAIRE 81 

FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The evidence in regard to this district shows that the pro-slaver 
party were largely in the majority among the actual residents prob- 
ably ten to one and that there was no force or intimidation used to 
prevent any man from voting. (14) 

SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The evidence shows that the election in this district was conducted 
peaceahly and quietly, and no intimidation or force used to prevent 
any one from voting. There was a decided pro-slavery majority 
among the actual settlers in this district. (15) 

SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 



The evidence shows that in this district the election was conducted 
peaceahly and quietly, and that the pro-slavery party were in the 
majority among the actual settlers. (16) 

EIGHTEENTH DISTRICT. 

The evidence shows that the election was conducted peaceahly and 
quietly, and that there was a decided pro-slavery majority among the 
actual settlers in this district. (1*7) 

Upon an examination of the testimony taken "before the committee,' 
what the undersigned has affirmed in relation to these several district* 
will he found to be sustained by the proof. And from all the testi- 
mony collected, when compared and weighed properly, the under- 
signed feels confident that it will appear to every unprejudiced mind, 
not only that General Whitfield was duly elected, by the actual 
and bonajide residents, a delegate to Congress at the first election, 
in November, 1854, but that the free-State party was in the minority 
in the Territory at the March election in 1855, for members of the 
legislature; and that that election was not carried either by force, 
violence, or non-residents, but that a majority of the legislature was 
duly elected as certified to by the governor, and was properly consti- 
tuted as a law-making body ; and, as a consequence, that the laws 
passed by them, as far as they are consistent with the constitution 
of the United States and the organic act of the Territory,, are valid ; 
and, as a further consequence, that the sitting delegate, having been 
duly elected a delegate to Congress under a Territorial law thus 
passed, is entitled to a seat on this floor as such. 

And having gone through this branch of the subject, the under- 
signed now beg leave to refer to other matters alluded to by the ma- 
jority of the committee in their report. They speak of a certain secret 
political society formed in the State of Missouri, known by different 

(14) John W. Marfm, N. Williams. 

(15) W. G. Matthias, L. J. Eastin, K. B, Bees, Amos Bees, A. T. Pattie, J. H. Day, A. 
McAulej^ and others. 

(16) Cyprian Chouteau, Rev. T. Johnson. 

(17) R. L. Kirk, J. W. Foreman. 

H. Rep. 200 6 



82 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

names, such as " Social Band/' "Friends' Society," "Blue Lodge/' 
"Sons of the South" the object of which was to send emigrants into 
Kansas for the purpose of making it a slave State. 

In reply to this part of their report it is only necessary to state 
that the evidence shows that these organizations were formed for the 
purpose of counteracting similar and other organizations, first started 
at the east and elsewhere, for the purpose of colonizing the Territory 
with persons for the avowed object of making Kansas a free State, 
and in this way ultimately affecting injuriously the institutions of 
Missouri. 

The first society of this kind was formed in the city of Washington, 
immediately after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. It was 
composed of members of Congress of both branches, and others. 

T&e undersigned refers, in this connexion, to the testimony of the 
Hon. Daniel Mace, a member from Indiana, which is appended to 
this report and made part thereof. In his deposition he states that 
such an association was formed in Washington immediately after the 
passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act. It was called the Kansas Aid 
Society, the members of which subscribed various sums of money, he 
himself subscribing $50 or $100, he is not certain which amount. The 
object of the movement was to induce persons to go to Kansas who 
would make that their home, and who would at all elections vote 
against the institution of slavery. Mr. Goodrich, a member of the 
House of Kepresentatives from Massachusetts, was the president of the 
society. 

Soon after this society was formed, other societies were formed in 
the eastern States for the same object ; that is, for the purpose of send- 
ing persons to Kansas to control the elections there. A society of this 
kind formed in Boston, Massachusetts, commenced sending emigrants 
to Kansas for this avowed object. To show the object of this last-' 
named Emigrant Aid Company, the undersigned begs leave to refer to; 
a letter written by Thomas H. Webb, corresponding secretary of the; 
company, and which is among the testimony taken by the committee. . 
It is as follows : 

BOSTON, August 14, 1854. 

DEAR SIR : By the pamphlet mailed you, much of the information 
which you desire can be obtained. 

The next party will leave here on the 29th inst., at quarter past 
2 p. m. ; they will go via Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, Alton, and St. 
Louis, and will disembark at Kansas City, near the mouth of Kansas: 
river. The fare through will be about $25 for first-class accommoda- 
tions; meals extra, which need not cost, on an average, more than; 
twenty cents. Each person is allowed 100 pounds of baggage, and fon 
all excess will be liable to pay about $3 per 100. Children underi 
thnee years will be taken free ; between three and twelve, pay half- 
price. No pledges are required from those who go ; but as our prin-j 
ciples are known, we trust those who differ from us will be honest 
enough to take some other route. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 83 

The agent who located our pioneer party will accompany the next 
one, and furnish all requisite information. 
Yours, respectfully, 

THOMAS H. WEBB, 

Sec. Em. Aid a<* 
A. JENNINGS, Provincetoivn, Mass. 

The undersigned also refers to a pamphlet admitted in evidence be- 
fore the committee, from which he submits the following extracts : 

" THE PIONEER PARTY. Charles H. Branscomb, esq. , one of the com- 
pany's agents, went up with the pioneer party, and located them on a 
beautiful tract of land previously selected by him as an advantageous 
position for a town-site. This spot is situated six miles above the 
Wakarusa, a tributary of the Kansas river, and about thirty-five miles 
above the mouth of the latter stream, on its south side. For a brief 
description, the reader is referred to the paragraph commencing on 
page eleven, and continued on page twelve, of this pamphlet. 

" Mr. B. travelled in various sections of the Territory, and says it is 
impossible for one who has not been in that region to conceive of its 
beauty and fertility ; he confirms all the statements that have been 
made respecting it in our pamphlet. 

" The second party left this city on Tuesday, the 29th of August. 
They reached Kansas City September 6th, and entered the Territory 
under the guidance of Charles Robinson and S. L. Pomeroy, agents of 
the company. They were cordially received by the pioneer party, 
and have made a joint settlement at the beautiful site selected by Mr. 
Branscomb. 

" The third party, under the guidance of Mr. Branscomb, (who has 
returned twice from Kansas since July,) left Boston September 26th. 
It numbered eighty-six persons, to which accessions were made at 
Worcester, Rochester, and elsewhere westward. Messrs. Pomeroy 
and Robinson are making great exertions to accommodate the parties 
for the winter, and to provide the materials for the erection of houses 
in the spring. This pressure of business involves a large expenditure, 
which their experience will enable them to make with prudence and 
discretion. But their drafts cannot be met with the funds in the 
hands of the trustees, unless ' material aid' furnished by those who 
wish for success to the enterprise shall be very much greater than it 
has been thus far. 

" The fourth party left this city the 17th of October. It numbered 
123 individuals, to which sixty were added at Worcester, a number at 
Springfield, Albany, Rochester, and Buffalo. At Chicago a large ac- 
cession was anticipated, and ere leaving St. Louis the number will 
exceed 250." 

This was all in the summer and fall of 1854, and prior to the first 
election for a delegate to Congress, in November of that year. 
Whatever organizations, therefore, were formed in Missouri, of the 
character alluded to by the majority of the committee, were formed 
solely and expressly for the purpose of counteracting those organiza- 
tions previously formed elsewhere. This the testimony abundantly 
proves. 



84 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

The testimony also shows that emigrants going out under those 
and similar organizations were supplied with arms and munitions of 
war. Great numbers of Sharpens rifles and several pieces of artillery- 
were sent to the Territory. And if arms were taken by emigrants 
from Missouri, it was only for the purpose of defence against arms 
in the hands of emigrants from other quarters. 

The testimony shows that large numbers of persons sent out by 
these eastern societies went into the Territory during the month of 
March, just before the election, declaring it to be their intention to 
vote ; that they came there for that purpose ; and in a few days after 
the election, great numbers of these persons were seen returning to 
the north and east, saying, many of them, that they had voted.* Tbe 
testimony also shows that a large number of Missouri ans went over 
to the Territory on the clay of election, merely to prevent illegal 
voting on the part of these eastern emigrants, and few of these 
Missourians, and only a few, are proven to have voted, and their 
names given, by the testimony ; not as many in all as those of the 
eastern emigrants, who it is proven voted illegally at Lawrence. 

The majority of your committee in their report say, that the only 
cause of the hostilities in the Territory was the known desire of the 
citizens of Lawrence to make Kansas a free State, and their repug- 
nance to laws imposed upon them by non-residents. 

The undersigned, however, is unable to concur with them in that 
allegation. On the contrary ^ he affirms, what he believes to be the 
truth of the matter, that the cause of all the difficulties in the Terri- 
tory of Kansas, from its organization down to the present time, is to 
to be found, first, as before stated, in the various organizations of 
members of Congress, and in the northern and eastern States, with 
the avowed purpose of colonizing the Territory with persons of anti- 
slavery sentiments, to the end of making Kansas a free State ; 
secondly, that finding themselves defeated and thwarted in their pur- 
pose of electing a legislature in favor of making Kansas a free State, 
as shown in a former part of this report, being chagrined and morti- 
fied, they, the anti-slavery party in the Territory of Kansas, in a fit! 
of desperation, determined to set themselves up in opposition to, and 
in resistance of, the laws passed by the Kansas legislature, and to 
resist them to a ''bloody issue," if necessary to their defeat and utterj 
subversion. Indeed, the undersigned affirms, that even before thej 
legislature convened, there were propositions made to form an organP 
zation of a military character, to resist any and all laws which might 
be enacted by that legislature, by force of arms, even should sucW 
resistance result in the subversion of the government of the Terri 
tory, and to the peril of the Union itself. 

In proof of this allegation, the undersigned begs leave to refer 
the testimony of Dr. J. N. 0. P. Wood, which is as follows : 

" I came into the Territory first about the 1st of April, 1854 ; } 
located permanently in Lawrence about the fah of October, 1854 ; I 
resided there until some time the last of March, or the 1st of AprL 
last, and then I went to Lecompton. About the time 1 came there 

C IT. M. Mahan, H. M. Blossom, and others. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 85 

there was considerable difficulty between what was called the Law- 
rence Association, of which Dr. Robinson was president, and the set- 
tlfirs that were not members of this association. The members of the 
association held a meeting two or three evenings after I got there, and 
elected a judge, and a Mr. Grover marshal, and organized a compa- 
ny, which I think they called the ' shot-gun battalion,' for the pur- 
pose of preventing persons that did not belong to their association 
from settling about the place, and taking timber and stone from the 
claims of those who did live there. They said there was no law in 
the Territory ; that the organic act was unconstitutional made so by 
the repeal of the Missouri compromise ; and that* they intended to form 
an association, and make and enforce their own laws,, irrespective of 
the laws of Congress, until there could be a change in Congress, by 
which the Missouri compromise could be restored, and the organic act 
set aside. 

" There was no open opposition to the execution of the laws until 
Governor Reeder appointed justices of the peace^ and one or two mem- 
bers of this association were arrested. They refused to recognise the 
power ol the justice of the peace, and refused to attend as witnesses, 
and would only attend their own provisional court, as they termed it. 

" When the legislature was about to be elected, they held a meet- 
ing, and brought out their candidates. After the legislature was 
elected, and before they met, there were several meetings held in 
Lawrence, arid at those meetings they passed resolutions declaring 
they would submit to no laws passed by that legislature. This was what 
was called the Lawrence association, different from the town associa- 
tion. It was composed of men sent out under the auspices of the 
Emigrant Aid society, and Dr. Robinson was at the head of the asso- 
ciation. Many belonging to this association lived in different parts 
of the Territory. They were allowed to vote at the meetings of the 
association, which I sometimes attended, and those who were not 
enrolled as members of the association were not allowed to vote or 
debate at their meetings. Some of them lived at Ossawatomie, To- 
peka, Manhattan, and other places in the Territory. They resolved 
not to obey the laws that would be passed by the legislature, and only 
obey their own provisional laws until they could form a provisional 
government for the Territory. 

11 The first general meeting, while the legislature was in session, 
was held in Lawrence in July or August, 1855. Before that time 
their meetings had been of the association ; but this was the first gea- 
eral meeting. That was the first meeting at which I recollect hear- 
ing Colonel Lane take ground in opposition to the laws that the legis- 
lature, then in session, should pass. All the public speakers that I 
heard there, said they did not intend to obey the laws that should be 
passed, but intended to form a provisional government for themselves. 
After the legislature adjourned, the first meeting at which I heard 
any declarations with regard to the resistance of the laws was held 
at Blanton's bridge. Col. Lane, Mr. Emery, and Mr. John Hutchin- 
Bon addressed the meeting, urging the people to resist the laws, let 
the consequences be what they might. 

" In private conversation with those men, they always expressed 



86 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

their determination to resist the laws, and said the officers and posse 
should not enforce the laws. They said they had a new code of laws 
called Sharpe's Revised Statutes, and they were going to use them in 
preference to any others. It was a common remark, that they would 
use Sharpe's revised statutes in preference to any others. 

" I think the first hox of rifles carne there marked Revised Statutes. 
I think after Mr. Dietzler came hack he said he brought the rifles 
with him. When they were brought to Lawrence they wanted to put 
them in my warehouse. They were lying at my door, and I inquired 
what they were, and -Mr. Salter, who was keeping the warehouse for 
me, said they were emigrant aid guns. I objected to their being put 
in -my warehouse, and they were taken and put in Mr. Simpson's 
office. I told them I would not be the first to harbor guns brought 
there for revolution. 

"I often expostulated with Lane, Robinson, and others, both pub- 
licly and privately, as to their course, and addressed the meeting at 
Blanton's bridge in opposition to their course. They said they would 
resist the laws regardless of consequences, 

" The next public meeting I recollect of was the Big Springs con- 
vention. At that convention I had but little conversation, except 
with Governor Reeder and Judge Johnson. Prior to the meeting 
several days, Governor Reeder came up to our place. I heard that 
he was urging the people to resist the laws, and do so by setting a 
different day for the election of delegate to Congress, on which he 
should be voted for. I called on him at his room, and asked him if 
he had recommended that course, and he said that he had intended 
to have returned to Pennsylvania, but upon reflection he had con- 
cluded that if they would take that course at the convention, he 
would be a candidate for Congress, and had returned from Kansas 
City, where he had taken his trunks and baggage. He said he had 
understood since he came there that Lane, Roberts, and others, would 
be candidates before the convention ; but if they would witladraw, 
and the course he had indicated was taken, he would be a candidate 
for Congress. He said it would give him an opportunity to bring 
the matter before Congress, and with the majority they had then in 
Congress against the democratic party he thought he could succeed 
in ousting General Whitfield if elected. 

" A meeting was held in Lawrence, and it was agreed upon that 
a different day should be fixed upon for the election ; and the candi- 
dates who were there Robinson, Lane, and some others agreed to 
withdraw in favor of Governor Reeder. This was four or five days 
before the Big Springs convention. 

" I rode up to that convention in company with General Pomeroy, 
who invited me to go up with him. At the convention I had another 
conversation with Governor Reeder. We had always been on the 
most intimate terms, and I talked with him as I would with any 
friend. I talked with him, and said that I thought that by taking 
that course, and thereby repudiating the laws, it would bring a state 
of anarchy upon the Territory that he nor I would probably live to 
see the end of. I said it would be opening the door and giving an 
invitation to outlaws outside of the Territorv to come and make that 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 87 

the field of operations ; that it would bring about a state of things 
that would be injurious to the country, by preventing capitalists from 
risking their means in such a country. 

" He replied that he thought differently ; that they had determined 
to adopt the platform of the Topeka convention, held before that time, 
recommending the formation of a provisional government. I think 
he took a pencil and draughted a resolution recommending the calling 
of a convention to form a State constitution. He said he would offer 
that resolution ; they could go on and form their State constitution, 
appoint an executive committee to issue a proclamation calling for 
the election of delegates to form a free-State constitution, and they 
would elect their members to the legislature, pass their laws ; and if 
Congress did not admit them, they would pass their own laws, and 
go on independently of Congress, until such time as they could be 
admitted. 

"I remarked, that would bring them immediately in conflict with the 
acts of the Territorial legislature, one or the other of which must 
become supreme ; and I thought it would necessarily bring on a colli- 
sion between the two opposing parties^ and involve the country in an 
armed difficulty. 

" He replied, that they had made up their minds to resist the laws, 
and by forming a free-State constitution they could get the aid and 
sympathy of the Noi'th to help them enforce their provisional laws ; 
that they were determined to resist the Territorial laws. That was 
about the substance of the conversation. 

" In his speech before the convention, he urged them to resist 
the Territorial laws at all hazards. I have read the speech of Gov. 
Reeder as reported in the proceedings of the Big Springs convention, 
in a printed copy now before me. I cannot say that it contains all 
his speech. He spoke for an hour, or a little over an hour. I under- 
stood him distinctly to say this : that he wanted them, if they had 
any regard for their rights, not to appeal to the laws for redress, nor 
answer others if appealed to. He called them ' bogus' laws, meaning 
thereby the Territorial laws. That, I think, is about the substance of 
what he said. 

"I came down home, I believe, in company with Judge Johnson, 
who disapproved of the course adopted. I had conversations with 
Governor Reeder afterwards, but we held our respective positions. 

" A proclamation was issued by what was called the Executive 
Committee, calling an election for State officers and legislature, a con- 
vention to form a State constitution having met and formed a State 
constitution. I talked with Lane and Robinson often about this matter. 
There were free-State men in Lawrence who opposed this course^ and 
oppose it yet. I myself co-operated with the free-State party, until 
they took these revolutionary steps, and then I left them. 

" I lived in Illinois twelve years before I came to this Territory." 

Indeed the undersigned affirmed, upon the testimony, that either 
before the meeting of the legislature, or during its session, or after its 
adjournment, there were other organizations formed, to resist by force 
of arms the execution of any laws the legislature might pass, or any 
which they had passed, at all hazards, even to the destruction of the 



88 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Territorial government, and the dismemberment of the confederacy 
itself. In proof of this assertion the undersigned begs leave to refer 
to the testimony of Pat. Laughlin, and the testimony of Dr. Andrew 
J. Francis. 

Pat. Laughlin testifies, in substance, that he came to Kansas from 
the State of Kentucky, in May, 1855. He settled in Doniphan, and 
favored the free-soil sentiment. He became a free-soiler about the 
middle of August, 1855, and had a meeting of that party on the 25tk 
of the same month; at which meeting S. Collins presided. 

The meeting although it was one intended for all of the four- 
teenth election district, as designated by Gov. Eeeder, in his official 
proclamation governing the spring election of 1855 had but about 
forty members in it, and that, too, in a district far more thickly pop- 
ulated than any other district in the Territory of Kansas. 

This meeting was addressed by A. Lazelere, Dr. G. A. Cutler, C. 
W. Stewart, B. Harding, and others, all of whom urged very strongly 
on the meeting the necessity of forming a society something on the 
order of ihe "Know-nothings," by which they could unite their small 
party, and labor more effectually against the pro-slavery party. This 
idea was received with general acclamation by every member of the 
meeting but himself. He thought this a good sign of their " Know- 
nothing" origin. He therefore opposed the manoeuvres they were 
making; "told them if they went into such measures, they would find 
in him an unrelenting enemy. They, sooner than cause any disturb- 
ance in their yet feeble ranks, gave up all thoughts of such organiza- 
tions. The meeting then went on; and, after disposing of all busi- 
ness before it, we had speeches from several of the leading men S. 
Collins, Dr. G. A. Cutler, C.'W. Stewart, John Fee, A. Lazelere, 
B. Harding, B. G. Cady, and others many of whom strongly urged 
that the people ought to rise in arms, and with their might resist the 
authorities; and sooner than permit slavery in Kansas, or even to 
submit to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, to go with al] 
their might for a disunion ef the States ; and, in order to effect their 
purpose, shed, if necessary, the last drop of their blood. Those 
speeches were received with acclamation by the poor deluded listeners. 
He was appointed at this meeting, together with several others, to 
represent the people of this (14th) district at the Big Springs conven- 
tion, to be held on the 5th of September. Next day several of the 
delegates met, and solicited him to go before the rest several days, 
that he might find out what our party was doing in other parts of the 
Territory. He started for Lawrence on the 27th of August, and after 
riding as far as Ocena, in Atchison county, he stopped at the house 
of Mr. Crosby, and made himself known to him. He then made him 
acquainted with the secret military organization, which organization 
had been on foot from -the 4th of April, 1855. (There was another 
society previous to this.) Mr. Crosby then gave him a letter of intro- 
duction to G. W. Brown, of the Herald of Freedom. 

He went to Lawrence, and after acquainting Brown with his busi- 
ness, and giving him the letter of Mr. Crosby, he showed him a great 
number of Sharpe's rifles he supposed about 75 or 100 and told him 
they were sent to them by the Emigrant Aid Society, of Boston; that 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 89 

tis society had also sent, and would continue to send, men and means 
make Kansas a free State by force, if necessary. He told him that 
the arms and munitions of war were sent generally as dry goods or 
>ks to the agent of the society; and were sent concealed in this 

tanner, that they might not he detected by the United States offi- 
cers. He told him that when our regiment would number thirty 
men, we could send a delegate to Boston ; but that he must first visit 
Lawrence, where he would get letters of introduction to the society in 
Boston, who would furnish us with as many rifles as we had men to 
bear them "in the neighborhood; and, furthermore, that he would get 
them gratis. 

While in Lawrence, a box of goods came, directed to C. Kobinson; 
it was taken into the room where they hold their secret meetings. A 
friend of his invited him to go up with him to see the kind of goods 
they received from the East. He went up, and, to his surprise, saw 
in the box a lot of blue jackets and white pants for military uniform; 
also a drum and drum-sticks. 

The lookers-on winked with their eyes, as though they meant some- 
thing. There was a large house, which answered the double purpose 
of a hotel and fort, and with which the public is very familiar; it was 
then in the course of erection by the Emigrant Aid Society of Boston ; 
it had port-holes in it for guns. He was told by Mr. Brown, Mr. 
Conway, Hutchison, and Lowry, and many other leading men among 
the abolitionists, that this hotel was intended principally for a fortifi- 
cation for their town, for they expected their conduct would bring 
them, before long, into a collision with the authorities. 

A. H. Reeder seemed very well acquainted with the secret military 
order. Immediately after he told his business to Mr. Brown, and let 
him know he was a member of the secret order, he had an introduc- 
tion to A. H. Reeder. They both then got up and went into the 
back room, where the rifles were, about twenty -five feet from him, 
and stood in a position on the floor where he had a full view of them. 
He could see from their actions, and from part of their conversation, 
which he overheard, that he and the society were the principal topics 
of their conversation. When they finished their interview a preacher 
came in, and he was introduced as late of Boston. The three then 
began a conversation, in which the topic was, what men and means 
they could get by the next election, which was to come off in the fall, 
for delegate to Congress. They spoke of a preacher who had gone to 
Boston for the express purpose of getting voters and other means to 
insure success at the coming election. 

Pursuant to public notice, the convention of the abolitionists met 
at Big Springs, on tne 5th of September, 1855 ; also the executive 
committee. This committee claimed the sole right to govern the 
Territory. He was introduced to this convention by A. H. Reeder. 
His manner of introducing him was very strange, and he was made a 
member without being proposed in his hearing. Shortly after he was 
introduced to the committee a man whose name, he thought, was 
McCullough, and whose accent and outward demeanor bespoke him to 
be from the eastern States, offered the following resolution : 

" .Resolved, That every reliable free-State man in the Territory be 



90 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

furnished with a rifle, a brace of pistols, and a sabre, gratis ; and that 
he be required to take an oath to come when called upon, and muster 
into service under his superior officer, and to sacrifice his life, if 
necessary, to rescue the person and property of any person who would! 
be brought under the jurisdiction of the present laws of the Territory." 

The above resolution was seconded, and received by loud stampings 
in every part of the house, except the chairman, (C. Robinson,) who 
remained silent a few moments, as though lost in deep thought. He 
at last spoke up, and asked the gentleman to withdraw his motion, 
and they would act upon it in a more private manner. All seemed 
silent and seemed to wonder at the chairman's course. Another spoke 
up, and said he thought the resolution interfered with provisions al- 
ready made. 

The chairman said he thought not ; but, for reasons he cared not 
to give at present, he wished the gentleman to withdraw his re- 
solution, arid let them act upon it in a more private manner. It 
was then withdrawn. This committee, in assuming the government 
of the Territory, appointed two governing committees of three men 
each side of the Kansas river, whose duty it was to establish pest 
offices, mail routes, and mail carriers, to carry and take care of all 
free-soil and abolition mails, which was confined to the Territory. 
These two governing committees had the power to appoint persons 
who would arbitrate all difficulties arising in their respective districts. 
Persons so appointed were subject to removal, and responsible to the 
governing committee for any neglect of duty or abuse of power. In 
like manner, the governing committees were responsible to the execu- 
tive committee. 

All expenses of the above-named officials were to be borne by the 
executive committee, who would derive the necessary aid from the 
eastern States and the Emigrant Aid Society of Boston. The execu- 
tive committee issued orders for all free-State men to give into the 
governing committees all the statements they could which would effect 
anything in weakening the pro-slavery party. He being further 
north than any of the other two who were on the committee with him, 
he had all the statements to take of those north of him, and any other 
direction that was convenient. 

There were many who gave him their statements against the legis- 
lature and private individuals. All those who gave him any state- 
ments, had it in such language as was capable of being construed into 
a more dangerous meaning for the pro-slavery party, than what the 
real definition should be. Many of them told him they were making 
use of language that would make the pro-slavery party appear to the 
world more guilty than they in reality were ; and no matter how false 
a meaning was put on their statements, they would be easy in con- 
science if they could realize their object. Many told him, when called 
upon, they were willing to swear that thousands of Missourians came 
over and voted, although he saw none; but admitted to him that they 
saw no Missourians vote, nor did they know of any who did. He had 
heard A. H. Reeder urge the people to rebellion and bloodshed, while 
they listened to him as though he were one of the prophets and patri- 
archs of old. He had heard men say, who appeared to take and hold 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 91 

a high position among the abolitionists, openly boast that they had 
helped to run off negroes from the south into Canada, and hoped the 
day was near at hand when they would succeed in all their designs, 
and settle those gentlemen of color along the shores of Kansas, where 
they could make war on the institutions of the South particularly of 
Missouri till there would not be a slave left in it. Such are the prin- 
ciples of those who keep Kansas in a state of rebellion, and such are 
the men who are the leaders of the abolitionists leading them on to 
thievery, treason, and death. 

He has heard Judge Johnson, of the United States supreme court 
for the Territory, often instruct the people that, when called on to 
swear in the Territory, they might swear to what suited them, and 
they would not be perjured, as there was no law in the Territory. 
Whilst in Lawrence as delegate to the convention of the free-State 
men to be held at Big Springs, he heard many of the people say many 
of their people returned after the spring election. There were a great 
many camps at Lawrence then. Some of those forming the camps 
told him that they would return to the States in the latter part of 
the fall. At the fall and winter election for a delegate to Congress, 
for a State constitution and the formation of a State government, the 
judges of the polls had instructions publicly, that in case of Indian or 
other troubles they might adjourn from day to day, and finally to 
any other district in the Territory, to hold their election. But the 
private instructions were, if pro-slavery men attempted to vote, and 
were likely to have a majority, they must adjourn from day to day, 
and finally to any free-soil district in the Territory. He heard 
many of the people in Lawrence curse the Emigrant Aid Society of 
Boston, and say if it did not pay them soon they would return to the 
States, for it had failed to pay them for some time. He was told by 
several of the emigrants in Lawrence that the Emigrant Aid Society 
of Boston paid the expenses of all men who would come out to 
Kansas to vote for it to be a free State. 

The following is an extract from the deposition of Andrew J. 
Francis : 

" Offers were made to me by various persons to introduce me to a 
secret political organization. The only name I ever received as a 
member of the lodge was ' Kansas Regulator.' The next morning 
I was conversing with Governor Reeder, Jas. H. Lane, G. P. Lowry, 
and several others, one by the name of Chapman and one by the 
name of Hornsby ; but both these gentlemen had merely come up to 
us as we were standing on the corner of the street talking. I had 
noticed black ribbons tied in the shirt-bosoms of several gentlemen ; 
I noticed one or two tied to Governor Reeder's shirt-bosom. I made 
the inquiry as to what those black ribbons meant. Colonel Lane 
asked me to go with him, and he would show me something that 
would please me better than what I had seen the night before. The 
night before I had attended a masonic lodge. Colonel Lane was in 
the lodge while I was there. I made some reply to Lane, as though 
awaiting to go with him, saying that I would have to see something 
that would please me extraordinarily well, if it pleased me better than 
what I had seen the night before. I went with Colonel Lane to the 



92 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

law-office of John Hutchison, as I afterwards found out. Governor 
Reeder did not go into the room where I was initiated. Doctor 
Robinson was standing just before the door, with a lady, I think. 
Colonel Lane asked him to leave the lady and go into the office with 
us. Robinson rather objected at first, but finally came in with us 
and said he would explain the nature of the organization he was 
about to initiate nie into. The substance of the explanation was 
that Kansas was a beautiful country arid well adapted to freedom, 
and the best territory in the world for the friends of freedom to 
operate on, more especially for those who were engaged in the free- 
white State cause. After proceeding in that strain for awhile, he 
asked me if I was willing to pledge my word and honor that I would 
keep secret what I saw there and who I saw there, provided he would 
pledge his word and honor that there was nothing that would inter- 
fere with my duties as a citizen, or that was disloyal in any respect. 
I replied that I was willing. He then gave me some other instruc- 
tions that I do not now recollect, of about the same import as the 
first. Colonel Lane then took me in hand and told me that he could 
administer the grand obligation, which was done by my repeating after 
him, as follows : 

e I, of my own free will and accord, in the presence of Almighty 
God arid these witnesses, do solemnly swear that I will always hail,, 
forever conceal, and never reveal any of the secrets of this organiza- 
tion to any person in the known world, except it be to a member of 
the order, or within the body of a just and legal council. I further- 
more promise and swear, that 1 will not write, print, stain, or inditei 
them on anything movable or immovable, whereby the least figure or 1 
character may become intelligible to myself or any other person. li 
furthermore promise and swear, that I will at all times, and under all 
circumstances, hold myself in readiness to obey, even to death, thei 
orders of my superior officers. I furthermore promise and swear, that 
I will at all times, and under all circumstances, use my influence to 
make Kansas a free-white State. I furthermore promise and swear, 
that all things else being equal, I will employ a free-State man in 
preference to a Missouri man, or a pro-slavery man. I furthermore! 
promise and swear, that all business that I may transact, so far as in 
my power, shall be transacted with free-State men. I furthermore 
promise and swear, that I will at all times, and under all circum- 
stances, hold myself in readiness to take up arms in defence of free- 
State principles, even though it should subvert the government. I 
furthermore promise and swear, that I will at all times, and under all 
circumstances, wear upon my person the regalia of my office and the 
insignia of the order. I furthermore swear, that I will at all times, 
and under all circumstances, wear on my person a weapon of death. 
I furthermore promise and swear, that I will at all times, and under 
all circumstances, keep in my house at least one gun, with a full 
supply of ammunition. I furthermore promise and swear, that I will 
at all times, and under all circumstances, when I see the sign of dis*- 
tress given, rush to the assistance of the person giving it, even when 
there is a greater probability of saving his life than of losing my 
own. I furthermore promise and swear, that I will, to the utmost of 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 93 

iy power, oppose the laws of the so-called Kansas legislature. I 
furthermore promise and swear, that when I hear the words of danger 
given, I will repair to the place where the danger is. I furthermore 
promise and swear, that if any part of my obligation is at this time 
omitted, I will consider the same as "binding when legally informed of 
it. I furthermore promise and swear, that, at the first convenient 
opportunity, I will commit this obligation to memory. To all of this 
I solemnly swear, without equivocation or self-evasion, binding my- 
self under the penalty of being declared a per juror before Heaven and 
a. traitor to my country/ 

u I then remarked to Col. Lane, that that was a very serious obliga- 
tion. He replied it was ; and also stated that it was necessary for me 
to become acquainted with the signs and pass-words. The sign of 
recognition is given by placing the right thumb under the chin, and 
the fore-finger of the right hand by the side of the nose, quietly 
scratching or rubbing it two or three times. The answer to it was 
given oy placing the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand on the 
lower lip, as if rubbing it. The grip was given by locking the 
two first fingers of the right hand over each other. The words ac- 
companying the grip are these: The one giving you the grip would 
ask : Are you in favor of Kansas becoming a free State ? ' The 
answer was: C I am, if Missouri is willing.' The means by which 
persons procured admission into the council was, by going to the door 
the sentinel would then present himself. The person applying would 
say 'Kansas/ accenting the last syllable. The person would then 
advance ta the centre of the room and salute the colonel, by placing 
his right hand just above his forehead. The regalia was this: The 
private members wore a black ribbon tied upon their shirt-bosoms ; the 
colonel wore a red sash ; the lieutenant-colonel a green sash ; the 
major a blue sash ; the captains white sashes ; the lieutenants yellow 
sashes ; the orderly sergeant a very broad black ribbon upon the shirt- 
bosom. Col. Lane then remarked to me that I had been made ac- 
quainted with the principles of the institution, and that it was the 
determination of the free-State party not to submit to the laws of the 
legislature, or to any opposition that might come from Missouri or any 
other quarter. I remarked to the Colonel that I was sworn to sup- 
port those laws in taking my oath as a lawyer, and that I considered 
that that oath was administered by a higher power than he exercised, 
and hence I should not keep the obligation he had given to me ; and 
under no circumstances would I do anything to subvert the institu- 
tions of the country, or place myself in opposition to the laws ; and 
he might depend upon it, I would expose it the first convenient oppor- 
tunity. I also told him I could not consistently keep both obligations 
that had been imposed upon me ; that I was also a member and min- 
ister of a religious denomination, and that it would not be consistent 
with my Christian duties to keep the obligation he had imposed on 
me ; that I should most certainly, when the subject came up, expose 
it. He stated then to me, that if that was my determination, and I 
did express myself so publicly, I would hardly get away from the city 
with my life. I replied to him that I would express myself so under 
all circumstances, both in public and private/' 






94 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

It now being most fully shown, as the undersigned believes, that 
the anti-slavery party formed secret political organizations of a mili- 
tary character to resist, with force of arms, the execution of the laws 
of the Territory, and to defend themselves against any effort which 
might be made by officers to enforce obedience to the laws and au- 
thorities of the Territory ; after preparing the minds of the people 
to embark in any measures, however reckless and desperate in their 
nature and characters, the primary objects of these seditions, secret 
associations were boldly developed at a convention held by the anti- 
slavery party at Big Springs on the 5th and 6th days of September, 
1855. But, before proceeding further in relation to this convention, 
the undersigned deems it proper to remark, that after the legis- 
lative election in March, 1855, Governor Reeder issued his procla- 
mation, convening the legislature at Pawnee city, upon the express 
understanding that if there were not sufficient accommodations 
there for the members and officers of the legislature, they could, 
strictly in accordance with the provisions of the organic act, adjourn 
to any other point in the Territory, a^nd if they did so he would co- 
operate with them. In proof of this, reference is made to the testi- 
mony of the Rev. Thomas Johnson, a member of the council. The 
legislature consequently met at Pawnee city. They remained there 
but a short time, as they found no accommodations for the members 
axul officers of the legislature, the great majority of them having to 
camp out and cook their own provisions, there .not being boarding- 
houses in the place sufficient to receive and accommodate them. The 
cholera also broke out there, and several deaths occurred in conse- 
quence. The legislature then adopted a resolution adjourning to 
Shawnee Mission. It is evident that Pawnee city was not a suitable 
place for the convening of the legislature, because of the absence of all 
accommodations for members,, as well as being 145 miles from the 
Missouri river, whence they derived chiefly their supplies for subsist- 
ence. The house in which they were convened had neither doors nor 
windows, and but a temporary floor. * 

While in session, however, at Pawnee, the governor recognised them 
as a legally constituled legislative body, as will be more fully shown 
by reference to his message to that body ; but, after they removed to 
Shawnee Mission, he vetoed all the bills they passed, of every de- 
scription, upon the ground that they were sitting then at a place not 
authorized by law the only ground alleged. 

Meanwhile, " The governor, instead of exercising constant vigilance, 
and putting forth all his energies to prevent or counteract the tenden- 
cies to illegality which are prone to exist in all imperfectly organized 
and newly associated communities, allowed his attention to be divert- 
ed from his official obligations by other interests, and himself set the 
example of a violation of law in the performance of acts which [as it 
seems] rendered it the duty of the President of the United States, in 
the sequel, to remove him from the office of chief executive magistrate 
of the Territory/' 

The undersigned, in proof of the want of accommodations at Pawnee 
city, refers to the testimony of Rev. Thomas Johnson, member of the 
council, A. 8. Johnson, Thomas Barbee, Wm. Gr. Matthias, and other 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 95 

members of the legislature, as taken before a justice of tbe peace, 
and properly certified, which the undersigned begs to have consid- 
ered a part of this report. 

After the removal of Governor Reeder, chagrined as he evidently 
was, he is found an active member of the Big Springs convention, held 
on the 5th and 6th days of September ; at which convention, as it is 
proven by the testimony of Marcus J. Parrott, a free-State man, and 
a member of the free-State legislature, taken before your com- 
mittee, the following resolutions, drawn up in the hand-writing of 
G-ov. Reeder, were adopted. They are taken by the undersigned from 
a certified copy of the proceedings of said convention, in evidence be- 
fore your committee, and are as follows : 

"JResolved, That we owe no allegiance or obedience to the tyran- 
nical enactments of this spurious legislature ; that their laws have no 
validity or binding force upon the people of Kansas, and that every 
freeman amongst us is at full liberty, consistently with all his obliga- 
tions as a citizen and a man, to defy and resist them, if he chooses to 
do so. 

"Resolved, That we will resist them, primarily, by every peaceable 
and legal means within our power, until we can elect our own repre- 
sentatives, and sweep them from the statute-book ; and that, as the 
majority of the supreme court have so far forgotten their official duty, 
have so far cast oft the honor of the lawyer and the dignity of the 
judge, as to enter, clothed with the judicial ermine, into a partisan 
contest, and by an extrajudicial decision, given opinions in violation 
of all propriety, have prejudged our case before we could be heard,, 
and have pledged themselves to these outlaws in advance to decide in 
their favor, we will, therefore, take measures to carry the question of 
the validity of these laws to a higher tribunal, where judges are un- 
pledged and dispassionate, where the law will be administered in its 
purity, and where we can at least have the hearing before the deci- 
sion. 

"Resolved^ That we cannot and will not quietly submit to surrender 
our great ' American birthright ' the elective franchise which, first 
by violence, and then by chicanery, artifice, weak and wicked legisla- 
tion, they have so effectually accomplished to deprive us of, and that 
we with scorn repudiate the ' election law/ so-called, and will not 
meet with them on the day they have appointed for the election, but 
will ourselves fix upon a day for the purpose of electing a delegate to 
Congress.. 

" Resolved , That we will endure and submit to these laws no longer 
than the best interests of the Territory require, as the least of two 
evils, and will resist them to a bloody issue, as soon as we ascertain 
that peaceful remedies shall fail and forcible resistance shall furnish 
any reasonable prospect of success; and that, in the mean time, we 
recommend to our friends throughout the Territory the organization 
and discipline of volunteer companies, and the procurement and pre- 
paration of arms." 

And, finally, as the natural result of the foregoing proceedings of 
the free-soil party in the Territory, the laws were violated, their ex- 
ecution openly resisted by them, till at length came the difficulties at 
Lawrence, in the fall of 1855, and after the Big Springs convention 



96 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

in regard to which, as the most reliable testimony taken by your 
committee, the undersigned begs to refer to the^evidence of Governor 
Wilson Shannon, which is as follows : "That, as to the origin, pro- 
gress, and conclusion of the difficulties at Lawrence last fall, (1855,) 
he begs leave to refer to his two despatches to the President of the 
United States, with the accompanying documents the first dated on 
the 28th day of November, and the second on the llth day of Decem- 
ber, 1855 as containing what deponent believes to be a correct history 
and account of those transactions." 

The following are the despatches and documents referred to by the 
witness : 

EXECUTIVE OFFICE, SHAWNEE MISSION, 

Kansas Territory , November 28, 1855. 

SIR : Affairs in this Territory are daily assuming a shape of real 
danger to the peace and good order of society. I am well satisfied 
that there exists in this Territory a secret military organization which 
has for its object, among other things, resistance to the laws by force. 

Until within a few days past I have looked upon the threats of 
leading men and public papers who have placed themselves in an atti- 
tude of resistance to the laws, as not i-ntended by those who made them 
to be carried into execution. I am now satisfied of the existence of this 
secret military organization, and that those engaged in it have been 
secretly supplied with arms and munitions of war, and that it is the 
object and purpose of this organization to resist the laws by force. 
The strength of this organization is variously estimated at from one 
to two thousand, but I have no satisfactory data from which to esti- 
mate its real strength, and I do not believe they can command for any 
given purpose more than one thousand men. They are said to be well 
supplied with Sharpe's rifles and revolvers, and that they are bound 
by an oath to assist and aid each other in the resistance of the laws 
when called upon so to do. Independent of the disclosures made by those 
who formerly belonged to this association and the hints thrown out in 
some of the public journals in their interest, the most practical proof of 
the truth of these allegations consists in their own acts. A few days 
since a difficulty took place in Douglas county,, some ten miles south of 
Lawrence, between one of these men and a man by the name of Cole- 
inan, from Virginia, in relation to a claim ; in which the former was shot 
and died immediately. Coleman was taken into custody for trial, by 
the sheriff of that county,, and to avoid all ground of objection as to 
legal authority, Judge Lecompte was written to and requested to at- 
tend at the county seat (it being in his judicial district) and sit as an 
examining court. In the mean time a large body of armed men, said 
to be from three to four hundred, collected at and near Lawrence for 
the avowed purpose of rescuing Ooleman from the sheriff and executing 
him without a trial. Coleman claims that he shot the man strictly in 
self-defence, and is willing to abide a judicial investigation and trial. 
On Monday last a warrant was issued against one of this band of men 
for threatening the life of one of his neighbors, and placed in the 
hands of the sheriff of the county for execution, who, with a posse of 
gome ten men, arrested him on Tuesday night, and as he wasjxmvey- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 97 

ing the prisoner to Lecompton, he was met about two o'clock in the 
morning by a band of these men, consisting of between forty and fifty, 
all armed with Sharpens rifles and revolvers, who forcibly rescued the 
prisoner out of his hands, and openly proclaimed that there were no 
officers or law in this Territory. In the settlement in which these 
transactions took place there were from sixteen to twenty law and 
order families, and about one hundred free-soil families. At the last 
advices three of the houses of the former had been burnt down by this 
armed band. 

Cattle had been killed, and a considerable amount of corn and other 
personal property destroyed, and the whole law and order population 
of that neighborhood, induced by terror, had fled, except two families, 
whose lives were threatened. Helpless women and children have been 
forced by fear and threats to flee from their homes, and seek shelter 
and protection in the State of Missouri. Measures were being taken 
by the legal authorities to procure warrants against these lawless men, 
and have them arrested and legally tried. Under these circumstances 
the sheriff of the county has called on me for three thousand men to 
aid him in the execution of the warrants in his hands, and to protect 
him and his prisoner from the violence of this armed force. The force 
required by the sheriff is far beyond what I believe to be necessary, 
and indeed far beyond what could be raised in this Territory. From 
five to eight hundred men will be amply sufficient, I have no doubt, 
to protect the sheriff, and enable him to execute the legal process in 
his hands. With the view of giving to the sheriff the requisite aid, 
I have issued orders to Major General Richardson, of the northern 
division of militia of this Territory a prudent and discreet man a 
copy of which I send you herewith. 1 also send you a copy of a 
request I have made of General Strickler, who resides in the adjoin- 
ing county to Douglas. These are the only orders I have thought it 
necessary to issue, by means of which I believe a sufficient force will 
be raised to protect the sheriff, and enable him to execute the legal 
process in his hands. 

The time has come when this armed band of men, who are seeking 
to subvert and render powerless the existing government, have to be 
met and the laws enforced against them, or submit to their lawless 
dominion. If the lives and property of unoffending citizens of this 
Territory cannot be protected by law, there is an end to practical gov- 
ernment, and it becomes a useless formality. 

The excitement along the border of Missouri is running wild, and 
nothing but the enforcement of the laws against these men will allay 
it. Sioca the disclosure of the existence and purposes of this secret 
military organization in this Territory, there has been much excite- 
ment along the borders of Missouri, but it has been held in check, 
heretofore, by assurances that the laws of the Territory would be en- 
forced, and that protection would be given to the citizens against all 
unlawful acts of this accociation. This feeling and intense excite- 
ment can still be held in subordination if the laws are faithfully ex- 
ecuted ; otherwise there is no power here that can control this border 
excitement, and civil war is inevitable. This military organization is 
looked upon as hostile to all southern men. or rather to the law and 
H. Rep. 200 7 



98 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

order party of the Territory, many of whom have relations and friends 
and all have sympathizers, in Missouri, and the moment it is believec 
that the laws will not furnish adequate protection to this class of citi- 
zens against the lawless acts of this armed association, a force wili 
be precipitated across the line to redress real and supposed wrong* 
inflicted on friends that cannot be controlled, or for the mornenl 
resisted. It is in vain to conceal the fact : we are standing on i 
volcano, the upheavings and agitations beneath we feel, and no on< 
can tell the hour when an eruption may take place. Under existing 
circumstances the importance of sustaining the sheriff of Douglas 
county, and enabling him to execute-,his process, independent of othei 
considerations connected with the peace and good order of society, wil] 
strike you at once ; and to do this by the aid and assistance of the 
citizens of this Territory is the great object to be accomplished, t< 
avoid the dreadfial evils of civil war. I believe this can be done ; ir 
this, however, I may be mistaken. No efforts shall be wanting or 
my part to preserve good order in the Territory, and I will keep yoi 
constantly advised of the progress and state of things here. 
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

WILSON SHANNON. 
His Excellency FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



HEADQUARTERS, SHAWNEE MISSION, 

Kansas Territory, November 27, 1855. 

SIR : Eeliable information has reached me that an armed militan 
force is now in Lawrence and that vicinity, in open rebellion againg 
the laws of this Territory, and that they have determined that no prc 
cess in the hands of the sheriff of that county shall be executed. 
have received a letter from S. J. Jones, sheriff of Douglas count) 
informing me that he had arrested a man under a warrant placed 
his hands, and while conveying him to Lecompton he was met by a 
armed force of some forty men, and that the prisoner wag taken 01 
of his custody, and open defiance bid to the law. I am also dull 
advised that an armed band of men have burnt a number of houseij 
destroyed personal property, and turned whole families out of dooij 
in Douglas county. Warrants will be issued against those men, anj 
placed in the hands of the sheriff of Douglas county lor executioi 
He has written to me, demanding three thousand men to aid him il 
the execution of the process of the law and the preservation of peaoj 

You are, therefore, hereby ordered to collect together as large 
force as you can in your division, and repair without delay to Lecom 
ton, and report yourself to S. el. Jones, the sheriff of Douglas counl 
together with the number of your forces, and render to him all 
aid and assistance in your power, if required in the execution of ai 
legal process in his hands. The forces under your command are | 
be used for the sole purpose of aiding the sheriff in executing 
law, and for no other purpose. 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

WILSON SHANNON 

Major General WILLIAM P. KICHARDSON 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 99 

HEADQUARTERS, SHAWNEE MISSION, 

Kansas Territory, November 27, 1855. 

SIR : I am this moment advised, by letter from S. J. Jones, sheriff 
of Douglas county, that while conveying a prisoner to Lecompton, 
whom he has arrested by virtue of a peace warrant, he was met by a 
band of armed men, who took said prisoner forcibly out of his posses- 
sion, and bid defiance to the execution of all law in this Territory. 
He has demanded of me three thousand men to aid him in the execu- 
tion of the legal process in his hands. As the southern division of 
the militia of this Territory is net organized, I can only request you 
to collect together as large a force as you can, and at as early a day 
as practicable report yourself, with the forces you may raise, to S. J. 
Jones, sheriff of Douglas county, and to give him every assistance in 
your power, in the execution of the legal process in his hands. 
Whatever forces you may bring to his aid are to be used for the sole 
purpose of aiding the said sheriff in the execution of the law, and no 
other. It is expected that every good citizen will aid and assist the 
lawful authorities in the execution of the laws of the Territory and 
the preservation of good order. 

Your obedient servant, 

WILSON SHANNON. 

General II. J. STRICKLER. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICE, SHAWNEE MISSION, 

Kansas Territory, December 11, 1855. 

SIR : In my despatch to yeu'of the 28th ultimo, I advised you of the 
threatened difficulties in relation to the execution of the laws of this 
Territory in Douglas county. The excitement which then existed con- 
tinued to increase, owing to the aggravated reports from Lawrence 
and that vicinity in relation to the military preparations that were 
being made to attack the sheriff and resist the execution of the laws. 
The excitement increased and spread, not only throughout this whole 
Territory, but was worked up to the utmost point of intensity in the 
whole of the upper portion of Missouri. Armed men were seen rush- 
ing from all quarters towards Lawrence, some to defend the place, 
and others to demolish it. The orders I had issued to Major Gen- 
eral Eichardson and General Strickler had brought to the sheriff of 
Douglas county a very inadequate force for his protection, when com- 
pared with the forces in the town of Lawrence. Indeed, the militia of 
the Territory being wholly unorganized, no forces could be obtained 
.except those who voluntarily tendered their aid to the sheriff, or to 
Generals Eichardson and Strickler. The whole force in the Territory 
thus obtained did not amount to more than three or four hundred 
men, badly armed, and wholly unprepared to resist the forces in Law- 
rence, which amounted, at that time, to some six hundred men ; all 
remarkably well armed with Sharpe's rifles and other weapons. These 
facts becoming known across the line, in the State of Missouri, large 
numbers of men from that State, in irregular bodies, rushed to the 



100 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

county of Douglas, and many of them enrolled themselves in the 
sheriif's posse. In this state of affairs, I saw no way of avoiding a 
deadly conflict hut to ohtain the use of the United States forces at 
Fort Leaven worth, and with that, view I addressed you a telegraphic 
despatch, and received on the 5th instant your very prompt and satis- 
factory reply of the 4th instant, a copy of which I immediately trans- 
mitted, "by special despatch, to Colonel Sumner, with the request that 
he would accompany me with his command to the scene of difficulty. 
In reply, I was informed he would immediately do so, having no 
douht that in due time proper instructions would he received from the 
War Department. Information, however, which I received from hoth 
parties, convinced me that my presence was necessary to avoid a con- 
flict, and without waiting for Colonel Sumner, I repaired to the seat 
of threatened hostilities, at the same time advising Colonel Sumner, 
"by special despatch, of this movement. On my way to Lawrence, I 
met a despatch from Colonel Sumner, informing me that, upon reflec- 
tion, he had changed his determination, and that he would not marcin 
with his command until he had received orders from the proper de- 
partment, hut that he would he ready to move with his command the 
moment such orders came to hand. I proceeded as rapidly as possible 
to the camp of General Strickler, on the Wakarusa, six miles east off 
Lawrence, and arrived in camp about three o'clock on the morning of' 
the sixth instant. I found that General Strickler, as well as General 
Kichardson, had very judiciously adopted the policy of incorporating 
into their respective commands all the irregular forces that had 
arrived. This was done with the view of subjecting them to military 
orders and discipline, and to prevent any unlawful acts or outbreaks. 
The great danger to he apprehended was from an unauthorized attack 
on the town of Lawrence, which was being strongly fortified, and had 
about one thousand and fifty men, well armed, to defend it, with two 
pieces of artillery, while, on the other side, there was probably in all 
near two thousand men, many of them indifferently armed, but having, 
a strong park of artillery. I found in the camp at Wakarusa a deep 
and settled feeling of hostility against the opposing forces in Lawrence 
and apparently a fixed determination to attack that place and demolisl 
it and the presses, and take possession of their arms. It seemed to b 
a universal opinion in the camp that there was no safety to the law 
and order party in the Territory while the other party were permittee 
to retain their Sharpe's rifles, an instrument used only for war purposes 
After mingling with all the leading men in the Wakarusa camp, anc 
urging on them the importance of avoiding a conflict of arms, tha 
such a step would probably light the torch of civil war and endange 
the very Union itself, I still found that there was a strong desire with! 
all, and a fixed determination with many, to compel the forces ir 
Lawrence to give up their arms. Believing that such a deman 
would lead to a conflict which, if once commenced, no one could tell 
where it would end, and seeing no way to avoid it except by the ai 
of the United States forces, I again wrote another communication tc 
Colonel Sumner, and sent it to him by special despatch about three 
o'clock on the morning of the 7th instant, requesting his presence 
a copy of which I send you herewith, marked E. I received no replj 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 101 

until my return to this place, after the difficulty had been arranged. 
I send you a copy of this reply, marked F. Early on the morning 
of the 7th instant I repaired to the carnp at Lawrence, and found 
them "busily engaged in their fortifications and in drilling their 
forces, and had a full and satisfactory interview with the committee 
appointed by the forces in Lawrence, in relation to the impending 
difficulties. So far as the execution of the laws w&s concerned, we 
had no difficulty in coming to a satisfactory understanding. It was 
at once agreed that the laws of the Territory should have their regu- 
lar course, and that those who disputed their validity should, if they 
desired to do so, test that question in the judicial tribunals of the 
country; that, in the mean time, no resistance should be made to their 
due execution, and the citizens of Lawrence and vicinity were, when 
properly called on, to aid in the arrest of any one charged with their 
violation, and aid and assist in the preservation of the peace and good 
order of society; while, on my part, I gave them every assurance in my 
power that they should be protected in all their rights and defended 
against any unlawful aggressions. It is proper I should say, that 
they claimed that a large majority of them had always held and incul- 
cated the same views. The assurances I received entirely satisfied me 
that no one against whom a writ had issued was then in Lawrence ; 
that they had all fled, and that they were harboring, concealing, or 
defending no one against whom a writ had been issued, and that here- 
after there would be no combined effort made to prevent the service of 
any process in the county of Douglas. This was entirely satisfactory, 
and all that had been desired. But to satisfy the forces that sur- 
rounded Lawrence, so that^ they could be induced to retire in order, was 
the great difficulty to be overcome. To issue an order to the sheriff 
to disband his posse, and to Generals Kichardson and Strickler to dis- 
band their forces, would have been to let loose this large body of men, 
who would have been left without control to follow the impulse of 
their feelings, which evidently was to attack and disarm the people 
of Lawrence. Early on the morning of the 8th, through the influ- 
ence of some leading men, I procured thirteen of the leading captains 
in the Wakarusa camp to be appointed a committee to confer with a 
committee from the Lawrence camp, to meet at Franklin, midway 
between the two hostile forces. I proceeded to the Lawrence camp, 
and returned to Franklin in the evening, with the committee, where 
.the proposed interview took place. This interview, which lasted for 
some time, resulted in producing a better state of feeling, and the 
committee from the Wakarusa camp were satisfied to retire without 
doing anything more, and so reported to the army. This, wit-h the 
active exertions of myself and others, produced a better feeling among 
the men, and by daylight on the morning of the 9th, I felt I could 
with safety order the forces to disband, and accordingly did so. 
They retired in order, and refrained from any act of violence, but it 
was evident there was a silent dissatisfaction at the course I had 
taken. But I felt conscious I was right, and that my course would 
be sanctioned alike by the dictates of humanity and sound policy. I 
returned to Lawrence on the 9th, and remained until the morning of 
the 10th, when, everything being quiet and safe, I returned to this 



102 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

place. Everything is quiet now; but it is my duty to say to you, 
frankly, that I have forebodings as to the future. The militia or 
volunteer corps cannot be relied on to preserve the peace in these civil 
party contests, or where partisans are concerned. A call on the 
militia will generally only bring in conflict the two parties. I am 
satisfied that the only forces that can be used in this Territory in en- 
forcing the laws, or preserving the peace, are those of the United 
States, and with this view I would suggest that the executive of this 
Territory be authorized to call on the forces of the United States when, 
in his judgment, the public peace and tranquillity, or the execution 
of the laws, may require their assistance. Should there be an out- 
break, it will most probably be sudden, and before orders can be ob- 
tained from Washington the crisis will have passed. I send you 
herewith the copies of rarious affidavits, letters, &c., which will give 
you some information in detail touching the subject-matter of this 
despatch. 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

WILSON SHANNON. 

His Excellency FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA, 
Territory of Kansas. 

Be it remembered, that on this sixth day of December, in the year 
A. D. 1855, personally appeared before me, J. M. Burrell, one of the 
associate justices of the supreme court of the said Territory of Kansas, 
Harrison Buckley, of lawful age, who being by me duly sworn, saith 
that he is a citizen of the county of Douglas, and has resided therein 
since 30th day of March last, and has resided during all that time ati 
Hickory Grove ; that he was informed on good authority, and which i 
he believed to be true, that Jacob Branson had threatened his life,, 
both before and after the difficulty between Coleman and Dow,, whichi 
led to the death of the latter. I understood that Branson swore that! 
deponent should not breathe the pure air three minutes after I re-- 
turned, this deponent at this time having gone down to Westport, in 
Missouri ; that it was these threats, made in various shapes, that made 
this deponent really fear his life, and which induced him to make 
affidavit against the said Branson, and procure a peace warrant t< 
issue, and be placed in the hands of the sheriff of Douglas county 
that this deponent was with the said sheriff (S. J. Jones) at the tim 
the said Branson was arrested, which took place about two or three 
o'clock in the morning ; that Branson was in bed when he was arrestec 
by said sheriff ; that no pistol or other weapon was presented at th< 
said Branson by any one ; that after the arrest, and after the company) 
with the sheriff had proceeded about five miles in the direction of) 
Lecompton, the county seat of Douglas county, the said sheriff and his 
posse were set upon by about between thirty and forty men, who cam< 
out from behind a house, all armed with Sharpens rifles, and present* 
their guns cocked, and called out who they were ; and said Bransoi. 
replied that they had got him a prisoner ; and these armed men calld 
on him to come away. Branson then went over on their side, am 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 103 

sheriff Jones said they were doing something they would regret here- 
after in resisting the laws ; that he was sheriff of Douglas county, and, 
as such, had arrested Branson. These armed men replied that they had 
nola\vs,no sheriff, and no governor, and that they knew no laws but their 
guns. The sheriff, being overpowered,, said to these men, that if they 
took him by force of arms he had no more to say, or something to that 
import, and then we rode off. This deponent further states that there 
have been three houses burned in the Hickory Point settlement ; one 
was this deponent's house, another belonged to Josiah Hargis, and the 
third to said Coleman. All I had in the world was burned up, leaving 
my wife and children without clothing. This deponent's wife and 
four children fled to Missouri, where they still remain with their rela- 
tives. The house of deponent was burned down, as it is said, shortly 
before daylight in the morning. The wives and children of both Cole- 
man and Hargis also fled to Missouri, where they still remain. There 
were about fifteen or sixteen law-abiding families in the settlement 
called the Hickory Grove settlement about the time these difficulties 
sprung up ; they have all been forced by terror and threats of these 
armed men to flee with their wives and children to the State of Mis- 
souri for protection, and still remain there. These armed men have 
repeatedly in my presence said that they would resist the law by force, 
and there was no law in this Territory. These threats have been re- 
peatedly made by these men for the last three months. And further 
this deponent saith not. 

H. H. BUCKLEY. 

Sworn and subscribed the day and year above stated, before me. 

J. M. BUKKELL, 
Associate Justice /Supreme Court, Kansas Territory. 



FNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) 

Territory of Kansas. ] SS ' 

Be it remembered, that on this 7th day of December, A. D. 1855, 
jrsonally came before me, S. G. Cato, one of the associate justices of 
the supreme court of the Territory of Kansas, Josiah Hargis, of law- 
ful age, who being by me duly sworn, deposeth and saith," that on or 
about the 26th day of November, 1855, in Douglas county, sheriff 
Jones called upon me, with nine others, to act as a posse to arrest one 
Jacob Branson, under a peace warrant issued by Hugh Cameron, a 
justice of the peace ; that he proceeded with said sheriff to Hickory 
Point, in said county, and there arrested said Branson, with whom 
they proceeded in the direction of Lawrence. When near a house on 
the Wakarusa an armed mob of persons, amounting to between thirty 
and forty, rushed from behind said house, and by force did rescue said 
Branson out of the hands of said sheriff and posse, and in defiance of 
of said sheriff's command, take said Branson and refuse to deliver 
him to said sheriff. That the said sheriff told the said mob that he 
held said Branson under a peace warrant properly issued by a legally 
authorized officer ; and that he was sheriff of said county of Douglas, 



104 tNSAS VVVA 

and charged with the e\ . -:i of said writ. The leader of said mob 
replied to said officer that they knew him as >ut not aa 

sheriff of Douglas county. He then told them that he would call out 
the militia to enforce the law. Their reply was that he could r. 
men to enforce said law. He told their 

governor for assistance ; to which the a replied that they had 

no laws and no officers, and to pitch i their 

gnus cocked and presented at the time of said res. 

This deponent farther saith > one H. H. Buckley, of > 
Dousrlas. was with said sheriff at the time of said .is one of 

ieriff*s posse; that during the same night on which said 
was made, said affiant saw a light in the direction of said Buckley's 
house, and that he fully believes said house was at that time by. 
That he believes, from circumstances within his knowledge, that said 
bouse, together with his own, was burned by persons concerned with 
said mob ; and that he has reason to believe that some of said houses 
were fired by said Branson aforesaid, assisted by a German, commonly 
called Dutch Charley ; and they were counselled and advised t 
by one Farley. This affiant farther says, that at the time of tV. 
coe of said prisoner he was at a house near Hickory Point, and that he 
there saw three women, who told him that there had been an armed 
force that day who notified them to leave, and all other pro-slavery 
families in the neighborhood ; and since, said families have left said 
neighborhood and fled to the State of Missouri. Said affiant says 
that he believes there were at that time in said neighborhood about 
fifteen pro-slavery families, nearly all of whom have fled. .- . vresaid, 
to the State of Missouri, for protection. Said armed force was repre- 

ited to consist of from one hundred to one hundred and fiftv armed 



men. 

S. X. H AEG IS. 

Sworn and subscribed before me. ^ G-. CATO. 

Associate Justice of Kansas Territory. 

* 

In relation to events which have transpired since the apppointment 
of your committee, the majority of your committee use this language: 
Your committee did not deem it within their power or duty to take 
testimony as to events which have transpired since the date* ~ 

appointment/* The undersigned begs to say, that the major i: 

n committee did, however, take testimony as to events which 
" transpired since the date of their appointnu : ed to 

record the testimony of Pardee Butler, as to his being tarred and 
cottoned at Atchison, and that of o: ;ching other <fve:-rs, all 

happening after the date of their arrival in Kansas Territory, 
consequently after that of their appointment. Having admitted tes- 
timony as to some events of the kind, it was but justice to all pa 
that counter testimony, relating to those as well as other events of the 
same kind, should be admitted. And thus the undersigned, thoii- 
when the counsel of General Whit field sought to introduce evid-. 
as to the Pottawatomie Creek murders, and other outrages. Having 
established a precedent, it was inconsistent for the majority of your 






KANSAS AI 105 

:rnittee to refuse to take such testimony upon the ground that they 

had no " power," and that it was not their " duty" to ir. ; oc- 

' transpired since the date of their appointment." 

f exercised .such a "power," and in part fulfil led such a "duty," 
v/hen they took testimony prejudicial to the pro-slavery party ; bufc 
when testimony unfavorable to the free-State party was sought to be 
introduced, it was then,, and riot till then, that the majority of your 
committee concluded that it was not within " their power or duty to 
take .-.:-. i:;i >>i\y as to events which transpired since the date of their 
appointment." But the majority of your committee extricated 
themselves from the dilemma in which they had, in this regard, 
placed themselves, by expunging testimony favorable to the free- 
State party side testimony already received in relation to alleged 
violence shown to Pardee Butler and others, so that they could 
itly refuse to admit testimony as to outrages committed 
by the free-State people, which in savage barbarity and demoniac 

!tv have scarcely an equal in the history of civilized man. But, 
notwithstanding that the majority deemed it without their " power 
or duty" to investigate matters occurring since the time of their ap- 
p->intment, they have reported, and in their report dwelt with much 
warmth of expression upon, events which they admit "transpired 
since the date of their appointment" events for which they do not 
claim to have a shadow of authority for their truth except vague 
rumor, and for which in fact there is none as yet shown ; and the tes- 
timony in regard to at least one of which events they had expunged 
from the record, to wit, the tarring and cottoning of Pardee Butler. 
The undersigned is of the opinion, that if the majority of your com- 
irnttee are justified in reporting and dwelling upon occurrences for 
the truth of which they offer no proof, he is equally, if not much more 
strongly justified, in reporting and dwelling upon occurrences for the 
proof of which he has sworn testimony. The majority of your com- 
mittee having presented, in their report, scarcely anything but what 
is favorable to the abolition party in Kansas and prejudicial to the law 
and order party, the undersigned deems it a duty, no less to the House 
than to the country and the cause of truth, to give some facts on the 
other side favorable to the other party in Kansas, so that in present- 
ly both sides, the world may have a fair chance to get at the truth, 
and arrive at a just conclusion. The minority of your committee (the 
majority having alluded, in their report, to events as to which they 
efused to take testimony) has fortunately been furnished with sworn 
estimony to which he desires to refer, and which he considers im- 
)ortarit to lay before the House and the public. First in order of 
imo are the murders committed on the night of the 24th of May, 1856, 
ri Pottawatomie creek. In this massacre, it is known that five per- 
ons were killed in one night, viz : Allen Wilkinson, William Sher- 
nan, William P. Doyle, father, and William and Drury Doyle, sons. 
'he undersigned begs leave to refer to various affidavits which he ap- 
>ends to and makes a part of his report. 

Allen Wilkinson was a member of the Kansas legislature a quiet, 
noffensive man. His widow, Louisa Jane Wilkinson, testifies, that 
n the night of the 24th of May last, between the hours of midnight 



106 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and day-break, slie thinks,, a party of men came to the house where 
they were residing and forcibly carried her, husband away ; that they 
took him in the name of the " Northern Army/ ; and that next morn- 
ing he was found about 150 yards from the house, dead. Mrs. Wilk- 
inson was very ill at the time with measles. Here follows an extract 
from her affidavit: "I begged them to let Mr. Wilkinson stay with 
me, saying that I was sick and helpless, and could not stay by myself. 
My husband also asked them to let him stay with me until he could 
get some one to wait on me ; told them that he would not run off, but 
would be there the next day, or whenever called for ; the old rnan who 
seemed to be in command looked at me, and then around at the child- 
ren, and replied, i you have neighbors.' I said, i so I have, but, 
they are not here, and I cannot go for them/ The old man replied, 
'it matters not,' and told him to get ready. My husband wanted 
to put on his boots, and get ready, so as to be protected from the damp 
and night air, but they would not let him. They then took rny hus- 
band away. * * * After they were gone I thought I heard my 
husband's voice in complaint. * * Next morning Mr. Wilkinson's 
body was found about 150 yards from the house, in some dead brush. 
A lady, who saw my husband's body, said that there was a gash in 
his head and his side. Others said that he was cut in the throat twice. ' ' 
Mr. Wilkinson was a poor man, and of course his widow was left desti- 
tute ; but, regardless of this fact, they took away some property, in- 
cluding the only horse they had. Mrs. Wilkinson was presented at 
Westport, Missouri, with the necessary means to go to her father's in 
Tennessee. She has two small children. Mrs. Wilkinson's descrip- 
tion of the leader of the men who murdered her husband suits Cap- 
tain John Brown, a well known character in the abolition party. She 
says that her husband was a quiet man, and was not engaged in arrest- 
ing or disturbing anybody. He took no active part in the pro-slavery 
cause, so as to aggravate the abolitionists; but he was a pro-slavery 
man. 

The circumstaTices attending William Sherman's assassination are 
testified to by Mr. James Harris, of Franklin county, Kansas. Mr. 
Sherman was staying over night at the house of Harris, when, on the 
night of the 24th of May, about two o'clock, Captain John Brown and 
party came there, and after taking some property and questioning 
Harris and others, Sherman was asked to walk out. Mr. Harris, in his 
affidavit, says : "Old man Brown asked Mr. Sherman to go out with 
him, and Sherman then went out with Brown. I heard nothing more 
for about fifteen minutes. Two of the c Northern Army/ as they styled 
themselves, staid with us until we heard a cap burst, and then these two 
men left. Next morning, about ten o'clock, I found William Sher- 
man dead in the creek near my house. I was looking for him; as he 
had not come back, I thought he had been murdered. I took Mr. 
William Sherman (body) out of the creek and examined it. Mrs. 
Whiteman was with me. Sherman's skull was split open in two 
places, and some of his brains were washed out by the water ; a large 
hole was cut in his breast, and his left hand was cut off, except a little 
piece of skin on one side." 

In relation to the assassination of James P. Doyle and sons, the 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 107 

affidavit of Mrs. Mahala Doyle, tlie widowed mother, was procured. 
William Doyle, one of the murdered, was twenty-two years of age ; 
Drury Doyle, the other, was twenty years of age. Mrs. Doyle was 
left very poor, with four children one of them only eight years old 
to support. Mrs. Doyle testifies : '/That a party of armed men came 
to her house ahout 11 o'clock, she thinks, on the night of the 24th of 
May; they first inquired where Mr. Wilkinson lived, and then made 
Mr. Doyle open his door, and went into the house, saying they were 
from the 'Army of the North/ and asking them to surrender/ 7 Says 
Mrs. Doyle : "Tlfey first took my husband out of the house, then they 
took two of my sons the two eldest, William and Drury out, and 
then took my husband and the two boys away. My son John (sixteen 
years old) was spared because I asked them, in tears, to spare him. In 
a short time afterwards I heard the report of pistols two reports ; 
after which I heard moaning, as if a person was dying ; then I heard 
a wild whoop. * * * I went out next morning in search of them, 
and found my husband and William, my son, lying dead in the road, 
near together, about two hundred yards from the house. They were 
buried the next day. On the day of the burying I saw the dead body 
of my son Drury. Fear for myself and the remaining children in- 
duced me to leave the home which we had been living at, and I went 
to the State of Missouri/' 

The testimony of John Doyle goes to corroborate that of his mother. 
Here follows an extract : "I found my father and one brother (Wil- 
liam) lying dead in the road, about two hundred yards from the house. 
I saw my other brother lying dead on the ground, about one hundred 
and fifty yards from the house, in the grass; near a ravine. His fin- 
gers were cut off ; his head was cut open ; there was a hole in his 
breast. William's head was cut open, and a hole was in his jaw, as 
though it was made by a knife, and a hole was also in his side. My 
father was shot in the forehead and stabbed in the breast. I have 
talked often with northern men and eastern men in the Territory, and 
these men talked exactly like eastern men and northern men talk 
that is, their language and pronunciation were similar to those of 
eastern and northern men with whom I had talked. An old man 
commanded the party ; he was of dark complexion, arid his face was 
slim. My father and brothers were pro-slavery men, and belonged 
to the law and order party /' 

There seems to be little or no doubt that a certain notorious leader 
of the free-State party (as they call themselves) in Kansas, whose 
name it is not here deemed proper to give, was at the head of the 
party engaged in this fiendish massacre. Mr. Harris testifies that 
one John Brown, one of the leaders of the free-State party, was en- 
gaged in the killing of Sherman, and it will hardly be doubted that 
they who murdered Sherman also killed the rest all being murdered 
on the same night and in the same neighborhood. Those who were 
killed, it is testified, were pro-slavery people; and the undersigned 
has no hesitation in saying that these ill-fated men were deprived !' 
their lives, and their wives and children made widows and orphans, in 
consequence of the insurrectionary movements instigated and set on 
loot by the reckless leaders of the Topeka convention. 



108 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Next in order are the outrages committed on the property of Mor- 
ton Bourn and that of J. M. Bernard. The affidavit of Mr. Bourn 
shows that, on the night of Wednesday, the 28th day of May, 1856, 
a party of abolitionists entered his house forcibly, threatened to take 
his life if he did not leave the Territory immediately ; took all the 
money he had, which they said they wanted to carry on the war. 
They also took guns, saddles, and horses, and then rohbed his store 
of various articles. Mr. Bourn, on oath, says: "I own slaves, and 
have a crop of corn and wheat growing. Have never taken any active 
part with the pro-slavery party, only voted the pro-slavery ticket, and 
was for sustaining the la'.vs. * * * These men said I must leave 
in a day or two or they would kill me, or hinted as much said I 
would not fare well, or words to that effect. I left for fear of my life 
and the lives of my family. They said that the war was commenced, 
that they were going to fight it out, and drive the pro-slavery people 
out of the Territory, or words to that amount. The men that robbed 
my house and drove me away from my property were abolitionists, or 
free-soilers. * * * I believe they hated me so because I am a pro- 
slavery man, and in favor of the Territorial laws, and because I served 
on the last grand jury at Lecompton." 

But the most flagrant case of robbery that occurred while your com- 
mittee were in Kansas was the plundering of Mr. Joab Bernard's store 
and premises. Mr. Bernard is quite a young man, and of highly re- 
spectable family. While prosecuting his business, he was warned that 
his life was in danger, and was compelled to leave his home for safety ; 
and during his absence his store was robbed of nearly four thousand 
dollars' worth of goods and money, and his premises of cattle and 
horses 'of the value of at least one thousand more. The facts of this 
case are testified to by Messrs. John Miller and Thomas S. Hamilton. 
Mr. Bernard testifies himself as to his life being threatened, and the 
amount of goods in his store and other property on the premises. 
Messrs. Miller and Hamilton corroborate his testimony, and the un- 
dersigned makes their depositions a part of his report. St. Bernard, 
J. M. Bernard's place, is situated in Douglas county, on the Califor- 
nia and Fort Scott road, about thirty miles from Lecompton. The 
robbery took place on the 27th day of May, 1856. In his affidavit, 
Mr. Miller says : " I was in the store with Mr. Davis. Whilst there 
a party of ^ thirteen men came to the store on horseback, armed with 
Sharpe's rifles,, revolvers, arid bowie-knives. They inquired for Mr. 
Bernard. I told them that he had gone to Westport. One of them 
said to me, 'You are telling a God damned lie,' and drew up his 
gun at rne. Some of them came into the store, and the rest remained 
outside. They called for such goods as they wanted, and made Mr. 
Davis and myself hand them out, and said if we l didn't hurry' they 
would shoot us. They had their guns ready. After they had got the 
goods they wanted principally blankets and clothing they packed 
them upon their horses and went away. Mr. Joab Bernard is a pro- 
slavery man." Mr. Miller recognised one of the party as an active 
free-State man. They on the next day came back with a wagon, and 
took the remainder of the goods in the store, except about one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars' worth including flour, sugar, coffee, bacon, 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 109 



and all kinds of provisions, as well as two fine hordes, three saddles, 
two bridles, and all the money there was in the store. In the conclu- 
sion of his affidavit, Mr. Miller says: "When they first came, they 
looked up at the sign, and said they would like to shoot at the name." 
The affidavits accompanying this report are full and explanatory, and 
the undersigned begs to make them a part of his report. They are 
sworn to before a justice of the peace for Jackson county, Missouri, 
and the seal of the Jackson county court is attached to the clerk's cer- 
tificate, as to the official character of the justice of the peace. The 
undersigned thinks that, in reviewing these outrages, he did not in- 
appropriately characterize the Pottawatomie creek murders as instances 
of "savage barbarity and demoniac cruelty," while the robberies of 
Bourn and Bernard are almost without parallel in the history of crime 
in this country. In this connexion, the undersigned deems it proper 
to state that -the report so currently circulated throughout the country, 
to the effect that the lamented Wilkinson, Sherman, and the Doyles 
were caught in the act of hanging a free-State man, and were shot by 
a party of free-soilers, is without the least foundation in truth that it- 
is entirely false. 

In conclusion, the undersigned begs to report the following facts 
and conclusions, as he believes, established by the testimony and sanc- 

; tioned by the law: . 

First. That at the first election held in the Territory under the 
organic act, for delegate to Congress,, Gen. John W. Whitfield re- 

| cived a plurality of the legal votes cast, and was duly elected such 
delegate, as stated in the majority report. 

Second. That the Territorial legislature was a legally constituted 
body, and had power to pass valid laws, and their enactments are 

\ therefore valid. 

Third. That these laws, when appealed to, have been used for the 
protection of life, liberty and property, and for the maintenance of 

; law and order in the Territory. 

Fourth. That the election under which the sitting delegate, John 
W. Whitfield, was held, was in pursuance of valid law, and should be 

I regarded as a valid election. 

Fifth. That as said Whitfield, at said election, received a large 

fj number of legal votes without opposition, he was duly elected as a 

|| delegate to this body, and is entitled to a seat on this floor as such. 

Sixth. That the election under which the contesting delegate, An- 
drew H. Reeder, claims his seat, was not held under any law, but in 
contemptuous disregard of all law ; and that it should only be re- 
garded as the expression of a band of malcontents and revolutionists, 
and consequently should be wholly disregarded by the House. 

Seventh. As to whether or not Andrew H. Reeder received a 
greater number of votes of resident citizens on the 9th, than J. W. 
Whitfield did on the 1st of October, 1855, no testimony was taken 
by the committee, so far as the undersigned knows, nor is it material 
to the issue. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. OLIVER. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS 



MINUTES OF THE COMMITTEE. 



The Select Committee of the House of Representatives of the United 
States, appointed to investigate the affairs of Kansas, met at the city 
of Washington on the 27th day of March, A. D. 1856. 

Present, William A. Howard, chairman, Mordecai Oliver, and John 
Sherman. 

Ordered, That the resolutions of the House, providing for this com- 
mittee, be read and entered on the minutes. 

T'hey are as follows : 

"MAKCH 19, 1856. 

"Resolved, That a committee of three of the members of this 
House, to be appointed by the Speaker, shall proceed to inquire into 
and collect evidence in regard to the troubles in Kansas generally, and 
particularly in regard to any fraud or force attempted, or practised, 
in reference to any of the elections which have taken place in said 
Territory, either under the law organizing said Territory, or under 
any pretended law which may be alleged to have taken effect therein 
since. That they shall fully investigate and take proof of all violent 
and tumultuous proceedings in said Territory at any time since the 
passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, whether engaged in by residents 
of said Territory, or by any person or persons from elsewhere going 
into said Territory and doing, or encouraging others to do, any act of 
violence or public disturbance against the laws of the United States, 
or the rights, peace, and safety of the residents of said Territory ; and 
for that purpose said committee shall have full power to send for and 
examine and take copies of all such papers, public records, and pro- 
ceedings, as in their judgment will be useful in the premises ; and 
also, to send for persons and examine them on oath, or affirmation, as 
to matters within their knowledge touching the matters of said inves- 
tigation ; and said committee, by their chairman, shall have power to 
administer all necessary oaths or affirmations connected with their 
aforesafd duties. 

"Resolved further, That said committee may hold their investiga- 
tions at such places and times as to them may seem advisable, and 
that they have leave of absence from the duties of this House until 
they shall have completed such investigation: That they be author- 
ized to employ one or more clerks, and one or more assistant sergeants- 
at-arrns, to aid them in their investigation ; and may administer to 
them an oath or affirmation faithfully to perform the duties assigned 
to them respectively, and to keep secret all matters which may come 
to their knowledge touching such investigation as said committee shall 
direct, until the report of the same shall be submitted -to this House; 
and said committee may discharge any such clerk or assistant ser- 
geant-at-arms for neglect of duty or disregard of instructions in the 
premises, arid employ others under like regulations. 

* ' Resolved further , That if any person shall in any manner obstruct 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. Ill 

or hinder said committee, or attempt so to do, in their said investiga- 
tion, or shall refuse to attend on said committee, and to give evidenca 
when summoned for that purpose, or shall refuse to produce any 
papers, book, public record, or other proceeding in their possession or 
control, to said committee, when so required, or shall make any dis- 
turbance where said committee are holding their sittings, said com- 
mittee may, if they see fit, cause any and every such person to be 
arrested by said assistant sergeant-at-arms, and brought before this 
House, to be dealt with as for a contempt. 

" Resolved further, That for the purpose of defraying the expenses 
of said commission, there be and hereby is appropriated the sum of 
ten thousand ($10,000) dollars, to be paid out of the contingent fund 
of this House. 

1 ' Resolved further, That the President of the United States be and 
is hereby requested to furnish to said committee, should they be met 
with any serious apposition by bodies of lawless men in the discharge 
of their duties aforesaid, such aid from any military force as may, at 
the time, be convenient to them, as may be necessary to remove such 
opposition, and enable said committee, without molestation, to pro- 
ceed with their labors. 

" Resolved further, That when said committee shall have completed 
said investigation, they report all the evidence so collected to this 
House." 



" MARCH 24, 1856. 

"The Speaker announced that he had appointed Mr. Lewis D. 
Campbell, of Ohio ; Mr. William A. Howard, of Michigan ; and Mr. 
Mordecai Oliver, of Missouri, the select committee under the resolu- 
tion of the House of the 19th instant. 



" MARCH 25, 1856. 

" On motion of Mr. Lewis D. Campbell, by unanimous consent, 
tc Ordered , That he be excused from serving ofi the select committee 

Appointed under the resolution of the House of the 19th instant. 
"The Speaker thereupon appointed Mr. John Sherman, of Ohio ; 

to fill the vacancy occasioned thereby/ 7 



The following officers of the committee were appointed : 

Clerks Gr. Gr. Fogg, John S. Bowen, S. P. Hanscom, and John T. 
Hughes. 

Reporter W. Blair Lord. 

Sergeants-at-arms John Upton, Amos Townsend, and H. J. Co- 
mer. 

Ordered, That each officer shall discharge such duties as may be, 



112 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

from time to time, assigned to him by the committee, and that their 
compensation shall be the same per diem. 

Ordered, That the chairman be directed to draw the fund appro- 
priated by the House, and out of it to pay the travelling expenses of the 
committee and its officers, and to procure from the postmaster of the 
House, or otherwise, the necessary stationery, books, papers, and 
supplies. 

The chairman was also directed to send to the sitting and contest- 
ing delegates the following notice : 

"WASHINGTON, March 29, 1856. 

"SiR: The committee appointed to investigate Kansas affairs deem 
it proper to advise you that it is their wish that the two contestants, 
Hon. J. W. Whitfield and Hon. A. H. Eeeder, should be present at 
examinations to be had by the committee, on terms of perfect equality. 
You can therefore attend, if you choose so to do, at 'your own expense, 
to look after your own interest in connection with said investigation. 
Neither can ; in any sense, be in the employ of the committee. 
" Very respectfully, 

"WM. A. HOWARD, 
" Chairman of Kansas Committee." 

Adjourned to meet on call. 

WM. A. HOWARD, 

Chairman. 



KANSAS CITY, Mo., April 14, 1856. 

The committee met. Present, Messrs. Howard and Sherman. 
The following letter was received from Colonel Sumner, U. S. A. 

" HEADQUARTERS FIRST CAVALRY, 

"April. 1, 1856. 

" GENTLEMEN : If you would prefer to hold the sessions of your board 
at this post, it will afford me great pleasure to give you all the facili- 
ties in y my power. There may be no excitement if you assemble 
elsewhere, but thereVill certainly be none here. 
" I am, with high respect, your obedient servant, 

"E. V. SUMNER, 
" Colonel First Cavalry Commanding. 
"Messrs. SHERMAN, HOWARD, OLIVER, 

1 ' Kansas Committee . ' ' 

To which the chairman made the following reply : 

"KANSAS CITY, April 14, 1856. 

" COLONEL : Your note of the 1st instant, inviting us to hold the 
sessions of the Kansas investigating committee at the post under 
your command, has just been received. We expect to hold our 
Sessions at various points in the Territory, and, among others, in the 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 113 

vicinity of Fort Leavenworth ; when it will give us great pleasure to 
be at liberty to avail ourselves of your very courteous invitation. 
" With the highest esteem, your obedient servant, 

"W. A. HOWARD. 

"E. Y. SUMNBR, t 

" Colonel First Cavalry, Fort Leavenworth." 

I 
The committee adjourned, to meet on call. 

WM. A. HOWARD, 

Chairman. 



LECOMPTON, K. T., April 18, 1856. 

The ^committee met. Present, Messrs. Howard, Sherman, and 
Oliver. 

Ordered, That the following official documents be copied : 

The poll-books of the election in the Territory on the 29th of No- 
vember, 1854. 

The census of the voters taken in February, 1855. 

The proclamation and instructions of Governor Reeder in regard to 
the election of the 30th of March ; the returns of that election, and 
the official action of Governor Reeder thereon. 

The returns of the election held on the 22d of May, 1855, and 
October 1, 1855, 

All of which was done. 

The following rules were adopted : 

The examination of witnesses before the committee shall be open, 
|md be governed by the rules of the common law ; and Greenleaf 's 
j^vidence is adopted as the standard. 

The sitting and contesting delegates are each invited, with an 
Attorney for each, to be present at the examination of witnesses, and 
i|nay put proper questions to witnesses in regard to all matters, per- 
aining to their contest. 

Mr. J. W. Whitfield, being present, was notified and requested to 
koduce his witnesses for examination, and to furnish the names of 
ersons whom he desired to be subpoenaed for that purpose. 
| Adjourned, to meet on call. 

WM. A, HOWARD, Chairman. 



LAWRENCE, April 23, 1856. 
I? Committee met at 3 o'clock p. m. All the committee present. 

llGren. J W. Whitfield appears with Col. Wright, his counsel ; also 
K, A. H. Reeder ; who are requested to produce their witnesses, and 
]! furnish names of persons to be subpoenaed. 

| After much discussion, and a statement by the committee of their 
nans for conducting the examinations, adjourned, to meet to-morrow 
florning at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 
H. Rep. 200 8 



114 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

APRIL 24, 1856. 

Committee met at 8 o'clock a. m. All present. 
Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWAKD, Chairman, 

The following communication was received from Gren. J. W. Whit- 
field by the chairman in the course of the day, viz : 

FREE-STATE HOTEL, LAWRENCE, April 24, 1856. 
To Wm. A. Howard, Chairman of Committee: 

DEAR SIR : Owing to the assassination of sheriff Jones, in this town, 
last night, while in the prosecution of the duties of his office, and 
that, too, while surrounded by a body of United States troops, detailed 
to aid him in the execution of the laws of the Territory of Kansas, 
and the excitement consequent upon the same, I am and shall be 
unable to get my witnesses to attend the sitting of the committee at 
this place ; they refusing, and with good reason, to expose themselves 
and run the risk of being assassinated, whenever night shuts in, by a 
lawless band of conspirators. One of my chief witnesses (sheriff 
Jones) has already been shot ; on that account, others who are here 
have determined to leave, and others whom I expected and notified to 
be here have informed me that they will not attend while the commit- 
tee sit at this place. I will further state, that there are others here 
rendering me material aid in this investigation, and without whom I 
cannot safely proceed, whom I cannot ask to remain and imperil their 
lives in so doing, or at least subject themselves to insult and contumely. 

I would most respectfully suggest to the committee to adjourn from 
this to some more safe and neutral point, where witnesses and others 
will not, be subject to the dangers and insults above alluded to. 

In the event this committee shall conclude to adjourn to some other 
point, I pledge in advance, and assure this committee, that from me 
they shall have all the aid I can summon to a fair, full, and complete- 
investigation. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

-J. W. WHITFIELD, 

Hon. W. A. HOWARD, 

Lawrence, K. T. 

The chairman made the following reply : 

LAWRENCE, April 24, 1856. 

DEAR SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of this date. If, for any reason satisfactory to yourself, you do 
not wish to bring your witnesses here to be examined, it will afford 
the committee pleasure to hold sessions, at their earliest convenience, , 
at any suitable place, giving you ample notice and the benefit of our ' 
subpoena to collect as many witnesses as you may desire, at such place 
as you may designate. In the mean time there are some witnesses, 
we think, we can examine here, and we would be pleased to have you 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 115 

attend in person, or by attorney, to cross-examine witnesses and aid 
us generally in eliciting the truth. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 

Hon. J. W. WHITFIBLD. 

The above are true copies. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 

Mr. Oliver submitted the following motion : 

On account of the excitement now prevailing in the city of Lawrence 
and surrounding country, growing out of the assassination of sheriff 
Jones when engaged in the lawful discharge of his duty, which as- 
sassination and consequent excitement he believes will deter parties 
and witnesses from coming and appearing before the committee, he 
objects to proceeding with the investigation further at this time at 
this point, and suggests that the committee adjourn to Fort Leaven- 
worth, and there proceed with the investigation until the excitement 
above alluded to shall have subsided and order reigns supreme. 

Which was not agreed to ; the committee declining to adjourn at 
present. 

N. B. The committee had met at 8 o'clock this morning, (24th,) 
ind immediately adjourned out of regard to Samuel J. Jones, who 
ivas in the same building, and suffering from his wounds received the 
light before. But he was removed to Franklin that morning, and, 
|;he communications of General Whitfield and Mr. Oliver requiring 
Immediate action, the committee met on special call, were all present, 
knd the above action was had, and also the orders which follow. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 

Oderedj That the compensation to witnesses shall be as follows : 

For each day in attendance ,. $1 50 

For each mile necessarily travelled, (circular) 5 

Ordered, That the compensation of clerks and sergeants-at-arms 
Shall be $4 50 per day. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 

' 



APRIL 25, 1856. 

[et pursuant to adjournment. All present, 
'he following forms of oath and affirmation were adopted : 
You solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this com- 
jittee, touching the investigation now pending before them, shall be 
I.e truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ; so help you 

You solemnly and sincerely affirm that the evidence you shall 
re to this committee, touching the investigation now pending before 



116 KANSAS AFFAIRS, 

them, shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; 
and this you do under the pains and penalties of perjury." 
Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 1. E. D. Ladd. No. 4. William B. Hornsby. 

2. Norman Allen. 5. F. P. Vaughn. 

3. William Yates. 

Mr. Oliver objects to the admission of proof of the statements made 
by the young man at his father's residence, in Clay county, Missouri. 
Objection overruled. 

No. 6. Gains Jenkins . No. 8. George W. Deitzler. 

7. Lewis N. Cox, sworn but 
not examined. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWAKD, Chairman. 



APRIL 26, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee pres- 
ent. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 
No. 9. C. W. Babcock. No. 13. Ira W. Ackley. 

10. Charles Robinson. 14. Edward Chapman. 

11. Lyman Allen. 15. George Churchill. 

12. S. N. Wood, affirmed. 

Adjourned, to meet on Monday morning at 8| o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



APRIL 28, 1856. 

Committee met at 8| a. m. All the committee present. 
A letter was received from Gen. J. W. Whitfield, as follows : 

LAWRENCE, April 28, 1856. 

The undersigned, in answer to your favor of the 24th instant, has I 
the honor to propose that the witnesses he intends to present as original ! 
or rebutting evidence who reside on the north side of the Kansas riven 
be examined at Leavenworth city, and those residing an the south 
side of said river be examined at Wea Missions, at such times respect- 
ively as the committee may designate. 

Respectfully, 

J. W. WHITFIELD. 
Hon. W. A. HOWARD, Chairman Committee. 

Mr. J. W. Whitfield appeared with Mr. S. H. Woodson, his at-, 
torney. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 117 

Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 
No. 16. Gains Jenkins, recalled. 

Mr. Oliver files written objections to the mode of examination. 
No. 17. Eobert A. Curnmins. No. 18. Kobert (I. Elliott. 

Colonel Woodson objects to the admission of declarations by Sulli- 
van, of Lexington, Missouri, as to his residence arid purpose in 
making seven claims near Leavenworth. 

Objection overruled ; Mr. Oliver dissenting. 

No. 19. Harrison Burson. No. 23. John C. Dunn. 

20. Nathaniel Ramsey. 24. Andrew White. 

21. James H. Dunn. 25. Dr. E. G. Macy, affirmed. 

22. J. N. Mace. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



APRIL 29, 1856. 
Committee met. All the members present. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 
No. 26. Jordan Davidson. No. 31. George Umberger. 

27. F. E. Lahay. 32. Marcus H. Rose. 

28. William Lyon. 33. James R. Stewart. 

29. Hammond C. Muzzy. 34. Absalom Hoover. 

30. Augustus Wattles. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



APRIL 30, 1856. 

Committee met by appointment. All the members present. 
Witnesses called and sworn, as follows : 

No. 35. Marcus H. Rose, re- No. 37. Isaac B. Titus. 

called. 

36. James R. Stewart, re- 
called. 

Ordered, That objection to the competency of testimony shall be 
stated at the time, if they involve any question or principle not 
already decided by the committee, and shall be reduced to writing by 
the objector and attached to the testimony objected to, on or before 
the next meeting of the committee. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 

No. 38. Hollam Rice. 41. Thomas B. Wolverton 

39. Robert Morrow. 42. N. B. Blanton. 

40. William Jesse. 43. Peter Bossinger. 



118 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

No. 44. Thomas Hopkins. No. 45. Lewis M. Cox. 

. G. P. Lowrie, not ex- 46. C. S. Pratt. 

amined. 
Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWAKD, Chairman, 



MAY 1, 1856. 

Committee met agreeably to adjournment. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 

No. 47. Chas. Robinson, recalled. No. 49. Wm. M. McClure. 
48. Samuel C. Smith. 

The testimony of Wm. M. McClure, on objection of Col. Woodson, 
was ruled out by the committee. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 

No. 50. J. M. Minchell. No. . C. M. Babcock, recalled. 

. E. D. Ladd, recalled. 51. L. A. Prather. 

. C. S. Pratt, recalled. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow evening. 

WM. A. HOWAKD, Chairman. 



MAY 2, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee 
present. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 52. J. B. -Abbott. No. 54. William McKinney was 

53. G-. P. Lowrie, recalled. sworn, and examined in secret 

session. 
Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

| WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



MAY 3, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee pres- 
ent. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 
No. 55. Salem Gleason was sworn, No. 59. Dr. John Doy. 
and examined in secret 60. Reuben Hackett. 

session. 61. Homme Hayt, 

56. Thomas Breeze. 62. Reuben Hackett, recalled. 

57. Nicholas McKinney. 63. Chas. Robinson, recalled. 

58. John C. Davidson. 64. Perry Fuller. 

At the instance of Mr. Whitfield, one of the sergeants-at-arms 
(Mr. Townsend) was sent to Franklin to ascertain whether sheriff 
Jones could now be examined as a witness by the committee in his 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 119 

room at that place. The sergeant-at-arms reports that -he was in- 
formed by Mrs. Jones that, by the physician's orders, no person 
could be allowed to see him at that time. 

Adjourned, to meet at Tecumseh, K. T., on Monday next at 2 
o'clock p. m. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



TECUMSEH, May 5, 1856. 

Committee met at this place pursuant to adjournment. Present, 
all the members of the committee. 

Mr. Whitfield appears with Mr. R. R. Rees, his counsel. Mr. 
Reeder also present. 

Mr. Whitfield is notified and requested to produce witnesses, and 
to furnish the names of persons to be subpoenaed to testify at this 
place. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 

No. 65. Rev. H. B. Burgess. No. 66. J. M. Mitchell. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



TECUMSEH, May 6, 1856. 

Committee met by adjournment. All the members present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 6V. H. B. Burgess, recalled. No. 73. Charles Jordan. 

68. J. M. Mitchell, recalled. 74. Lewis C. Wilmarth. 

69. John Long. . J. M. Mitchell, recalled. 

70. G. A. Cutler. 75. James Hickey. 

71. John Long, recalled. 76. D. H. Horn. 

72. A. A. Jamison. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



TECUMSEH, May 7, 1856. 

Committee met by adjournment. All present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, viz : 

! No. 77. James Reed. No, 81. John W. Stephens. 

78. W. A. M. Yaughan. 82. Wm. R. Boggs. 

79. Ed. R. Zimmerman. 83. Wm. F. Johnson. 
. W. A. M.Vaughan, rec'd. 84. Matthias A. Reed. 

80. James F. Merriam. 

Adjourned, to meet at Lawrence, K. T., to-morrow afternoon at 
jj half-past 2 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



120 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, all the com- 
mittee. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 85. Wm. Moore. No. 86. James M. Arthur. 

. Dr. B. C. Westfall. 87. Joseph Stewart. 

Pending the examination of this witness, (Joseph Stewart,) and 
while the committee were pursuing their investigations, William 
Fane, claiming to be deputy-marshal, and to have been appointed as 
such by J. B. Donaldson, marshal of the Territory, presented to A. 
H. Reeder, then engaged in examining a witness in the presence of 
and before the committee, a paper purporting to be a writ of attach- 
ment, issued by D. Scott Boyle, clerk, and attested by Hon. Samuel 
D. Lecompte, judge of the first district court for the first judicial 
district of Kansas Territory ; and before serving said writ, A. H. 
Reeder applied to the committee to secure to him the protection given 
him by the constitution of the United States as a contesting delegate 
of said Territory, and now in attendance before the committee, upon 
its invitation. 

After consideration, the committee determined that the privilege 
from arrest given by the laws to the members of this committee, and 
the sitting and contesting delegates, was not a matter for them to 
enforce, and declined to make any decision whatever, or take any 
action upon the application thus made. 

The examination of Joseph Stewart was resumed, and 
No. 88, Samuel Jones, was sworn and examined. 

Adjourned, to meet at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman, 



LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 

Committee met according to adjournment. Present, Messrs. How- 
ard and Sherman. 

Messrs. Reeder and W'hitfield being absent, the following witnesses 
were sworn and examined by the committee : 

No. 89. Joseph M. Gearhart. No. 96. Wm. Chestnut. 

90. Jesse W. Wilson. 97. Rev. Pardee Butler. 

91. Marshall A. Garrett. 98. A. Allen. 

92. George W. Gillespie. 99. S. N. Simpson. 

93. Augustus Baker. 100. S. B. Prentiss. 
94.. John E. Davis. 101. Wm. Phillips. 
95. J. C. Prince. 



Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Cha 



M man. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 121 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 10, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Messrs. How- 
ard and Sherman. 

In the absence of the contestants and their counsel, the following 
witnesses were sworn and examined by the committee : 
No. 102. Jacob Branson, in se- No. 107. Kobert F. Barber. 

cret session. 108. Mrs. Jane W. Colburn. 

103. John A. WakefleR 109. Wilda McKinney. 

104. Mrs. Almina Jones, in 110. Henry M. Simpson, 
secret session. 111. Thomas M. Pierson. 

105. Daniel T. Jones. 112. George F. Warren. 

106. Win. Phillips. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock on Monday morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LAWRENCE, K. T., May 12, 1856. 

Committee met by adjournment. Present, Messrs. Howard and 
Sherman. 

Witnesses sworn and examined by the committee, as follows : 

No. 113. Geo. F. Warren, re- No. 120. James F. Liggett. 

called. 121. George W. Deitzler, re- 

114. Samuel Smith. called. 

115. Edward Oakley. 122. Thomas Thorp. 

116. James J. Jarvin. 123. W. Y. Roberts. 

117. Samuel F. Tappan. 124. John Wise. 

118. Joseph Oakley. 125. Capt. Samuel Walker. 

119. A. B. Bronson. 

Adjourned, to meet at Leavenworth city, on Wednesday next, at 
2 o'clock p. m. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, May 14, 1856. 

Met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

I No. 126. D. A. Baker. No. 127. Wm. P. Richardson. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 15, 1856. 
Committee met at 8 o'clock. All present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined as follows : 

Fo. 128. Wm. P. Richardson, No. 130. George A. Taylor. 

recalled. 131. David Brown. 

129. Henry J. Adams. 132. M. P. Rivqly. 



122 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Nos. 129, 130, 131, and 132 being examined in secret session. 
Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 16, 1856. 
Committee met by adjournment. All the members present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 133. Dr. James Davis. No. 137. Edward S. Motler, re- 

134. Dr. G. J. Park. called. 

135. J. C. Green. 138. J. C. Green, recalled. 

136. Edward S. Motler. 139. Joseph H. Bird. 

140. Nick Smith. 

All of whom were examined in secret session. 
No. 141. John Below. 

Adjourned, to meet at 8 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, May If, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee pres- 
ent. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 142. Geo. H. Keller. No. 145. David Brown, recalled. 

143. F. M. Mahan. 146. Francis A. Hart. 

144. Samuel F. Few. 

Adjourned, to meet on Monday morning next, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 19, 1856. 

Committee met as per adjournment. All the members of the com- 
mittee present. ^ 

Witness sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 147. F. A. Hart, recalled. No. 150. J. B. Ross. 

148. Richard R. Rees. 151. H. B. Gale. 

149. Wm. H. Godwin. 152. J. B. Crane. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, May 20, 1856. 
Committee met as usual. All the members present. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



123 



Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 153. Dundridge Holliday. No. 158. Harmon G-. Weibling. 

154. B. F. Nicholson. 159. Francis M. Potter. 

155. Joseph Potter. 160. John W. House. 

156. John Hamilton. 161. Emory B. Cook. 

157. Joseph Potter, recalled. 

* Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWOBTH CITY, K. T., May 21, 1856. 

Committee met at usual hour. All present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 162. E. B. Cook, recalled. No. 168. Josiah Elliott. 

163. John Hamilton, recalled. 169. Milton J. Payne. 

164. Dr. James Nohle. 170. Wm. H. Somers. 

165. Dr. Jas. Nohle, recalled. 171. Wm. H. Miller. 
167. Alexander Grilham. 172. Matthew Walker. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWAED, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 22, 1856. 

Committee met as usual. All present. 
Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 173. Charles Hardt. No. 177. Patrick K. Orr. 

174. Willard P. Hall. 178. Edward Bourne. 

175. T. A. Minard. 179. Stephen Sparks. 

176. T. A. Minard, recalled. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 23, 1856. 

Committee met at the usual hour. All the members of the com- 
mittee present. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 180. John H. Whitehead. 

General Wm. P. Richardson states to the committee, that a copy of 
I A. A. Jennison's testimony was made by him without the knowledge 
I of any member of the committee, or any of their employees, and that 
| he was not aware that he was violating any rule of the committee! 



124 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

No. 181. John R. Carter. No. 185. Benjamin Duncan. 

182. Benjamin H. Brock, af- 186. Col. A. M. Mitchell. 

firmed. 187. Henry S. Creal. 

183. Benjamin H. Brock, re- 188. A. Langdon. 

called. 189. Osborne Hulin. 

184. Charles W. Stewart. 190. A. Grooms. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 24, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members of the 
committee present. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 191. Benjamin Harding. No. 194. Thomas W. Waterson. 

192. Luther Dillon. 195. Albert Heed. 

193. Thomas E. Bottom. 

Adjourned, to meet on Monday morning next, at 8 o'clock a. m. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T v May 26, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the committee pres- 
ent. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 196 John Landis. No. 205 Joel P. Blair. 

197 W. A. Sublett. 206 Gary B Whitehead. 

198 John W. Smith. 207 John Scott. 

199 Allen B. Lyon. 208 Luther Dickerson. 

200 James Lynch. 209 D. W. Field. 

201 Eli Hamilton. 210 Joseph Beattie. 

202 Andrew McConnell. 211 Joseph H. Gilbert. 

203 Richard Tuck. 212 M. T. Bailey. 

204 David Figer. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 27, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members present. 
Witnesses were sworn and examined as follows : 

No. 213 George Wetherell. No. 217 W. H. Chick. 

214 John Scott. 218 J. Riddlesberger. 

215 Joseph B. Evans. 219 Adam T. Pattie. ' 

216 John W. Martin. 220 Dr. J. H. Stringfellow. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 125 

No. 221 A. T. Pattie, (recalled.) No. 224 J, F. Foreman. 

222 Robert Wilson. 225 Peter T. Abell. 

223 John W. Foreman. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 28, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 226 William J. Osborn. No. 232 Campbell Logan. 

227 Thomas Reynolds. 233 J. W. Logan. 

228 Dr. J. M. Ridge. 234 Wiley Williams. 

229 H. A. Lowe. 235 Marcus J. Parrott. 

230 Patrick Laughlin. 236 G. B. Redman. 

231 C. R. Mobley. 237 Henry Adams. 
Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 29, 1856. 

/The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

The poll-books and returns of the three elections relating to the 
State organization were filed, and retained to be copied. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 238 W. Williams, (recalled.) No. 245 Thomas J. Thompson. 

239 John Wilfley. 246 S. W. Tannell. 

240 Charles Blakely. 247 Alexander Russell. 

241 John A. Linsley. 248 J. D. Clarkson. 

242 S. J. Kookogy. 249 H. H. Johnston. 

243 L. J. Eastin. 250 A. Payne. 

244 J. T. Read. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning at the usual hour. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



LEAVENWORTH CITY,, K T., May 30, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
were present. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined as follows : 

No. 251. W. H. Tebbs. No. 254. Andrew T. Kyle, 

252. Adam Fisher. 255. Amos Rees. 

253. A. Macauley. 256. A. B. Sharp. 



126 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

No. 257. 0. B. Tibbs. No. 260. D. J. Johnson. 

258. G. M. Dyer. 261. William Burgess. 

259. Kichard Chandler. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning at the usual hour. 

WM. A. HOWAED, Chairman, 



LEAVENWORTH, K. T., May 31, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined as follows : 

No. 262. Nathan Adams. No. 269. K. L. Kirk. 

263. John A. Haldeman. 2 I 70. Matt. France 

264. E. C. McCarty. 271. Samuel Kixoy. 

265. James Davis. 272. H. M. Hook. 

266. W. H. Adams 273. Kev. Leander Kerr. 

267. George H. Keller. 274. Dr. J. H. Day. 

268. G. W. Hollis. 275. M. P. Kively. 
Adjourned, to meet at Westport, Mo., on Monday, June 2, 1856. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WESTPORT, Mo., June 2, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Seven blank subpoenas were given to General Whitfield. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 
No. 276. Thomas B. Arnett. No. 279. E. W. Donaldson. 

277. Charles E. Kearney. 280. Andrew Johnson. 

278. Cyprian Chouteau. 281. Eev. Thomas Johnson. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WESTPORT, Mo., June 3, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses were called, sworn, and examined, as follows : 

No. 282. George Holmes. No. 285. William Barbee. 

283. Thos. Johnson, recalled. 286. ' S. W. Bouton. 

284. B. T. Keger. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



(KANSAS AFFAIRS. 127 

WESTPORT, Mo., June 4, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses were called, sworn, and examined as follows : 

No. 287. John M. Banks. No. 289. William A. Tebbs. 

288. A. J. Francis. 
Adjourned^ to meet at the usual hour to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WESTPORT, Mo., June 5, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses were sworn anc examined, as follows : 

No. 290. W. Barbee, recalled. No. 294. Chas. A. Linkenangher. 

291. F. M. Coleman. 295. Charles C. Spaulding. 

292. Thomas Mockabee. 296. Andrew J. Johnson. 

293. Isaac Hascall. 

Adjourned, to meet at 7 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WESTPORT, Mo.,, June 6, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
>resent. 
Witnesses were called, sworn, and examined, as follows : 

No. ,297. John E. Ingalls. No. 298. James Haines. 

Mr. Scott offered in evidence certain letters of A. H. Reeder, referred 
o in the testimony of (No. 225) Peter T. Abell. 

The committee declined to receive and transmit these letters, on the 
ground that they have not the rightful possession of them, they hav- 
ng been found in the street, and being clearly private letters, and 
mproperly obtained. 

Mr. Oliver dissented. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 299. Horatio Owens. No. 301. Win. G. Mathias. 

300. Joseph C. Anderson. 

On motion, the copies of the executive minutes, of the census returns, 
ind copies of all Territorial records in possession <f the committee, 
ire considered in evidence. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow morning at the usual hour. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



128 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

WESTPORT, Mo., June T, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

Witnesses sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 302. William Donaldson. 

G-ov. King and Mr. Scott, in behalf of J. W. Whitfield, presented 
a protest, which, with copies of Reeder's letters, were marked as ex- 
hibits by me. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 

No. 303. George W. Berry. No. 304. John A. Contrell. 

The committee adjourned to Monday morning, June 9, 1856. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman, 



WESTPORT, Mo., June 9, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. All the members 
present. 

The proceedings of the convention at Big Springs, held on the 5th 
and 6th of September, 1855, were offered in evidence by Grov. King, 
and received. 

Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 

No. 306. Samuel A. Williams. No. 309. J, N. 0. P. Wood, af~ 
SOT. A. B. Wade. firmed. 

308. Thomas Connelly, 

Pending the examination of Dr. Wood, a communication in writing, 
from a committee of citizens of Westport, was received, as follows : 

" We, the undersigned committee, appointed by citizens of West- 
port and vicinity, appear before the Congressional Investigating Com- 
mittee, for the purpose of assuriDg them that there need be no appre- 
hension on their part that any interruption will be offered to the pro- 
ceedings of the committee, and that they will pledge themselves, and 
fellow -citizens generally, to allow no interruption of their business, 
or any indignity to be offered them personally, notwithstanding the 
excited state of the public mind in regard to Kansas affairs ; and they 
make this pledge with the full knowledge that they can fulfil it, which 
they will do at any and every hazard. 

" We have been told that the committee propose to adjourn imme- 
diately, without completing their labors, on the ground of an appre- 
hension on their part that personal indignity might be offered them. 

" We would add,*that, in our opinion, the apprehension is entirely 
without foundation ; but deeming it necessary to allay any misappre- 
hension on your minds, we take this means to assure you that no in- 
terruption shall be offered to your proceedings ; and nothing of the 



KANSAS VFFAIRS. 129 

kind has been intended or attempted by the citizens of this town or 
vicinity or the county of Jackson ; any report to the contrary is false. 
" WESTPORT, Mo., June 9, 1856. 

"CHARLES E. KEARNEY, 

" Chairman Committee. 

4 c To the MEMBERS of the Committee of Investigation, now in session in 
Westport, Mo." 

Mr. Howard, the chairman, being absent on account of illness, Mr. 
Sherman replied to the communication verbally the committee of 
citizens being present as follows : 

" GENTLEMEN : I regret that Mr. Howard, the chairman of the com- 
mittee, is not present, on account of illness. We are very happy to 
receive this communication from you, and shall enter it upon our 
journal, and make it a part ot our proceedings, with great pleasure. 
But it is our duty to say to you that we never have supposed that we 
were in the least danger of any kind here, and have never felt in fear 
of any. 

" We came here, at the invitation of Mr. Whitfield, to take testimony 
in his behalf alone. We did not anticipate personal danger, nor is 
our action based in any degree upon the rumor you mention. We were 
idle the most of last week because witnesses were not here. We were 
told this was on account of the public disturbances in the Territory, 
and we concluded to wait until this evening. To-day we have had 
but little to do, and deem it our duty to adjourn, and for that reason 
alone will do so. Since we have been here we have personally re- 
ceived nothing but kind treatment from the citizens of this place, and 
have no cause to complain of them. 

" We deeply regret the unfortunate condition of affairs in this border, 
and the excited state of the public mind here in regard to Kansas 
affairs." 

The committee having announced their determination to adjourn 
forthwith, Gov. King, in behalf of J. W. Whitfield, filed the follow- 
ing protest : 

" WESTPORT, Mo., June 9, 1856. 

" The undersigned, John W. Whitfield, represents that he is not 
yet through with the evidence which he proposes to introduce before 
[the committee, and is in hourly expectation of witnesses to be in at- 
I' tendance for the purpose of giving such evidence. That for the last 
[eight days the disturbances have been of such a character, and the ex- 
citement so great in the Territory, that it has been impossible to pro- 
[jcure attendance of witnesses, and, in several instances, to have them 
J 3ven summoned. That he has witnesses summoned whose evidence 
I s most important in reference to the election of the 30th of March, 
111855, in the Territory, in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and 
ikeventh representative election districts. That owing to the recent dis- 
1 urbances in the Territory he has been wholly deprived of rebutting 
'the evidence of witnesses examined by the contestant, A. H. Reeder, 
in those districts. That 'if the committee will continue its sessions for 
wo days to come, he believes he will be able to procure the witnesses, 
H. Rep. 200 9 



130 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and avail himself of the benefit of their testimony, by which he will 
be able fully and certainly to vindicate the legality of those elections, 
and to rebut and repel much of the evidence taken by the contestani 
in reference to those districts. That the witnesses expected are resi- 
dents of the Territory, and of that portion of it where, for the last ten 
days, there has been the most intense excitement, imposing an abso- 
ute necessity on them to seek protection and safety for their families : 
and that, although subpoenaed, for these reasons he has been unable as 
yet to procure their attendance. 

" The said John W. Whitfield therefore protests against the ad- 
journment of the committee until a seasonable time be allowed him tr 
get such testimony as these witnesses will afford before the committee, 
and here files this' his protest in the matter. 

."JOHN W. WHITFIELD. 
" By liis attorney, 

" AUSTIN A. KING. 

" To the honorable the CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE, now in session a< 
Westport." 

After receiving the" foregoing protest, the committee, for the reasor 
that General Whitfield had already had opportunity to examine these 
same witnesses, and inasmuch as he had left the committee for three 
days to take part in the war during the time we had been in West- 
port, adjourned. 

WM. A. HOWAED, Chairman. 



STEAMBOAT c c POLAR STAR," 

On Missouri river, June 10, 1856. 

The committee met at 2 o'clock. All the members present. 
Witnesses were sworn and examined, as follows : 
No. 310. Capt. Luther. Leonard. No. 311. Henry M. Blossom. 
Adjourned. 
Mr. Oliver left at Camden for Eichmond. 

WM. A. HOWAED, Chairman, 



STEAMBOAT " POLAR STAR,'' 

At Lexington, Mo., June 10, 185ft, 

The committee met. Present,, Messrs. Howard and Sherman. 
The following witnesses were sworn and examined : 
No. 312. James Brewster. No. 313. 0. H. Brewster. 

Adjourned, to meet at St. Louis on the 12th instant. 

WM. A. UOWAED, Chairman. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 131 

ST. Louis, Mo., June 12^ 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment, Messrs. Howard 
and Sherman present. 

The following witnesses were sworn and examined : 
No. 314. Benjamin Slater. No. 315. F. A. Hunt. 

Adjourned, to meet at Detroit, Michigan, on Tuesday, June 17, 
1856. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



DETROIT, MICH., June 17, 1856. 

The / committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Messrs. 
Howard and Sherman. 

On the 21st of June the committee adjourned to meet in New 
York city. 

WM. A. HOWAKD, Chairman. 



NEW YORK, June 26, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Messrs. 
Howard and Sherman. 

The following witnesses were sworn and examined : 

No. 316. Amos A Lawrence. No. 317. Eli Thayer. 

Adjourned, to meet to-morrow at 9 o'clock a. m. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



NEW YORK, June 27, 1856. 

Committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Messrs. 'How- 
ard and Sherman. 

The following witnesses were sworn anc^exarnined : 

No. 318. Gr. P. Lowry, recalled. No. 320. Anson J. Stone. 
319. A. H. Reeder. 

Adjourned to meet at Washington city, D. C. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WASHINGTON, D. C., June 28, 1856. 

The committee met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Messrs, 
Howard and Sherman. 

Report of the committee was read and adopted. Adjourned. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman, 



132 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., July 1, 1856. 

Committee met. Present, Messrs. Oliver and Sherman. 
The following witness was sworn and examined by Mr. Oliver : 
No. 321. Daniel Mace. 
Adjourned. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman 



WASHINGTON, July 4, 1856. 

Committee met. Present, Messrs. Oliver and Sherman. 
No. 322. Mr. H. C. Pate was called and sworn by Mr. Oliver. 
Adjourned. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



WASHINGTON, July 11, 1856, 

Committee met. Present, Messrs, Howard and Sherman. 
No. 323. G. P. Lowry, recalled. 
Adjourned. 

WM. A. HOWARD, Chairman. 



THE TESTIMONY. 



ELECTION OF NOVEMBER 29, 1854. 



JOHN A. WAKEFIELD testifies : 

I came into the Territory in July, 1854, from Iowa, settled in the 
second district, and have resided there ever since. I was present 
at the election of the second district on the 29th of November, 
1854, and was a candidate at that time for delegate to Congress. On 
the evening of the 28th of November I started to Lawrence with 
Colonel Safford, of Ohio, then a citizen here. I had made an engage- 
ment to address the citizens of Lawrence that night. We came down 
in a carriage, and on the road met a number of persons in com- 
panies at least one hundred and fifty in all on horseback and in 
wagons. Colonel SafFord asked some of them, in my hearing, where 
they were from ; and they said i ( from the State of Missouri, and are 
going up to Douglass to vote to-morrow/' We passed Judge Mil- 
ler's, and came on here. On the morning of the 29th, in company 
with perhaps three others, I wen^ to Douglass; found a crowd of 
wagons, and a large gathering of men around the house where the 
polls were being held. When I got out of my buggy, a man came to 
me and said, " is there many more of the boys behind?" Supposing 
e took me to be a Missourian, I said I thought there were a great 
any.' Says he, "by God, half of Clay county will be here to-day, 
ow," says he, " old man, I will tell you how to do, if you want 
to vote. We have a parcel of clerks, and you will see them writing 
on the heads of barrels. Do you go to them, and tell one of them 
you want him to register a claim for you." I saw a number of persons 
riting on heads of barrels. When I got up to the polls, I heard it 
ied out that such a man was nominated for judge of election, and 
e response was " ay, ay," all around. I heard no one vote in the 
egative. Whether it was one or two judges they were voting for I 
unot say. A man by the name of Gr. W. Ward was one of the 
udges, and Paris Ellison another ; both of them residents of the 
"erritory. The name of the other judge I do not recollect, but I 
ever saw him before, and have not seen him since, that I know of. 
on after the polls opened, a stranger came to me, and said he wanted 
speak to me. He took me on one side, and said, "I understand 
ou have come here to-day to challenge votes." I told him I had 
ot come for any such purpose, and asked him why he asked me that 
uestion. Says he, " if you challenge a vote here to-day, you will be 
"ly abused, and probably killed ; and as you are an old man, I do 
.ot wish to see you abused." I then remarked that that kind of talk 
ould not frighten me, but I thought it was the duty of the judges 
H. Eep. 200 1* 



2 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

to see that all voters were legal voters. I asked him his name, and 
he told me, but I cannot remember it. 

That district was newly settled, and there were not exceeding fifty 
men in it I think not over forty. I think there were two hundred 
and sixty-one or two hundred and sixty-two votes polled, and Whit- 
field got two hundred and thirty-five votes, if my memory serves me 
right. I got twenty votes, I think, and Flanigan six votes. I do 
not think there were" actually more than thirty-five legal votes that 
day. Those men were armed with revolvers, some with guns, and a 
great many with clubs ; and a great many of our settlers, knowing 
these facts, did not go to the election. They had barrels of liquor 
there for all to drink who wanted to. I knew the citizens in the dis- 
trict generally. I was one of the very first settlers in the district. 
About the time the polls were closed, they mounted their horses, and 
got into their wagons, and cried out "all aboard for Westport and 
Kansas City." They then went off towards Missouri. A majority 
of them I should think were very much intoxicated, and they were 
very noisy. The language they used against the Yankees was 
something like " damn the abolitionists, kill them/' One of them 
came up to me and seized me by the collar, and said, " you are a 
damned abolitionist." When I drew my cane on him, his brother 
came up, and told me not to mind him, that he was drunk. One of 
the judges then, it being right before them, invited me to come in 
where they were, or I would be abused. I did so, and remained there 
until the polls closed. When the polls were closed, I asked the judges 
to give me their names. They hesitated somewhat, and one of the 
clerks wrote out their names, and Efsked me for what purpose I wanted 
them. I said that I might know them when I met them again. He 
asked if that was all. I said " No, it is not." He then gave me the 
names of the judges and clerks. I had a couple of men swear to 
these facts, in order to contest the election. I drew up a petition to 
the governor, and had the facts approved by Mr. Snyder and Mr. 
McClellan. I took them to the governor, and showed him some other 
affidavits taken by another person ; and he requested me not to show 
him any more, as it was useless to contest the election there, unless I had 
done so throughout the Territory. I find on the poll-books the name 
of S. H. Woodson. There is a Mr. Woodson of Independence, Mis- 
souri, that I know, but I did not see him vote. There was no one of 
that name a resident in our district at that time. I recognise upon 
the poll-list a number of names of persons I know in Westport and 
other places in Missouri ; among them, Mr. Elkins, Mr. Huff, Mr. 
Smart, Joseph Dillon, S. C. Coombs, and others. 

JOHN A. WAKEFIELD. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 10, 1856. 



HARRISON BURSON called and sworn. 
To Mr Eeeder : 

I was at the election of the 29th of November, 1854. The number 
of people in our district was very slim at that time. I should judge 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 3 

there were three times as many people at the polls on that election as 
there ireie voters in the district. I do not think there were 261 legal 
voters in the distict at that time. This election was held at Doug- 
lass. I was at the polls that day, and saw a great number of strangers ; 
they left in bodies, in wagons, down the river. I came out in a com- 
pany of ahout one hundred myself, but they overtook us and passed 
us. There was but one man in this company of strangers that I 
knev^; his name was Barnett, of Westport, Missouri. I know Wm. 
H. Russell, and have seen him frequently. I do not recollect seeing 
him that day. I have seer- him about Kansas City, but I do not knoV 
where his residence is. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson: 

Mr. WhitfielcL Mi. Wakefield, and Mr. Flanigan we e candidates 
for delegate to Congies^. I know nothing about the residence of 
Whitfield and Flanigan. Report said they were not lesidents, but 
I do not know. Mr. Flanigan was not a resident, so far as I know. 
1 knew nothing about it ; I do not know where he resides now, or 
at what time he left after the election. 

H. BURSON. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



i'^, AUGUSTUS WATTLES called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I came into the Territory about the 1st of May, 1855, and settled 
on Rock creek, in the second district, nine or ten miles from Law- 
rence ; and my family has resided there ever since, though I have 
been away on business, some, in other parts of the Territory. I have 
examined the poll-list of the second district, for the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1854, in connexion with the census returns. I find 25 of the 
census list of names in the poll-list, though some of them I never 
knew, and I do not think they ever lived in the district. I do not 
recognise in the poll-book any names of residents that were not in the 
census, but some I think I was acquainted with in Missouri. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

I came here in May, 1855, and was put up as a candidate at the 
second election, in May, 1855, and travelled over the district, and in. 
that way became acquainted with a great many in that district. 

I was not a resident of the district, and knew nothing of the resi- 
dents of the district at the time of the election of the 30th of March, 
1855. Mr. 0. H. Brown took the census in that district, and was 
elected to the legislature. 

AUGUSTUS WATTLES. 

LAWRENCE, K. T. AptU 29, 1856. 



WILLIAM LYON testifies : 
To Mr. Reeder: 

I voted here at the election of delegate to Congress in 1854 in No- 



4 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

vember. A number passed my house where I lived, on the California 
road, on the day before the election ; they were inquiring the way to 
Douglass. It was understood from them that they were going to 
Douglass to vote, and that they were from Missouri. The next day 
(the day of election here) I met some as I was coining here to vote. 
I do not know positively that any Missourians voted here on that 
day. All that I inquired of, that passed my house, did not seem to 
hesitate in saying that they were going to Douglass to vote. I should 
think there were 100 or 150 who passed the house, and some of whom 
I inquired. After the election was over, I saw what I took to be the 
same company coming down the road they went up to Douglass, the 
same evening, and some the day after the election. These men were 
strangers to me. I do not recollect of seeing any women and children 
or furniture with them, or any goods in their wagons, going either 
way. I lived on this side of what I considered the Douglass line, 
and I voted here. None of the voters of the Douglass district could 
live down the road below me. The men seemed to be very noisy, 
and hurrahed for Whitneld, and some for hell, and some for Whit- 
field and hell both. 

WM. LYON. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 29, 1856. 



JAMES M. DUNN called and sworn. 

To Mr. Keeder: 

I was at the election of the 29th of November, 1854, and gave my 
vote there. I was late in getting there^-not till about 11 o'clock. 
The election was held in Douglass, at Mr. Ellison's house, I think. 
I saw no violence used there. I saw persons who were from Missouri, 
and knew a number of them, as I had been living in Missouri but a 
few weeks previous. According to my judgment, I do not think 
there were half the number of voters residing in that district that were 
polled there 261. According to the best estimation I can make, I 
should not suppose that more than one quarter of those present that 
day were actual residents of the district, as it was very sparsely set- 
tled at that time. I saw a number of voters that I thought were not 
of age, and one young man whom I asked told me he was not of age. 
I knew him in Westport, and knew that he was not a resident of the 
district. 

JAMES M. DUNN. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



M. J. MITCHELL called and sworn. 

I was here at the election of November, 1854, but was confined in 
my room with a cut leg. The election was held in the room where 
I was. They went on voting in the morning until up to ten o'clock. 
There was some talk that there was an abolitionist to vote, and it 
was said that the polls should not be disgraced by an abolition vote. 
They said thev called an abolitionist any one who voted for Mr. t Chap 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



man or Mr. Flanigan. 1 then took a ticket out of my pocket, and 
requested it to be put in the ballot-box, and my name put down on 
the poll-list. They refused to do so at first ; but after some consult- 
ing they consented to do so, and said that wonld be the only one that 
should go in. The judges and clerk counselled each other about it, 
and therest of the day there was no difficulty. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Rees : 

I think it was either 42 or 52 votes given that day. I think Mr. 
Chapman had 1 vote, and Mr. Flanigan some 6 votes. It was the 
clerk and one of the judges either Mr. Watts or Mr. Homer, I do not 
know which who said that there should be no abolition votes given. 
Greorge Holmes, of Westport, was the clerk. I do not know of my 
own knowledge that he did not live here. If he has ever lived within 
one mile of this town since I have lived in this Territory, he must 
have kept himself very close, as I do not think any one has lived that 
near town without my knowing it. I do not know that he did not 
live within two miles of town. He had a claim near Mr. Stinson's 
claim. There was no house on it, and if there had been a tent on it 
I think I must have seen it, as I used to pass there nearly every day 
before my leg was cut ; and I saw nothing of the kind, 

M. J. MITCHELL. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



THOMAS HOPKINS called and sworn. 
To Mr. Keeder : 

On the election of the 29th of November, 1854, I was at Doctor 
Chapman's, in the fourth district. It was my first visit in that sec- 
tion of the country, and I met a great many there I got acquainted 
with in Jackson county, where I had made a crop that year Mr. 
Leander Deharney, Shepherd West, and a man named Lyons I think 
his name was William, but I will not be positive and Henry Brack- 
en. I also saw Mr. Berry, from Cass county. I do not recollect the 
names of others at this time. A short time after the election I was at 
old Judge Bracken's. He told me he outfitted 20 men, furnished 
them with mules, and ways of getting here to vote. I saw these men 
at Chapman's, and had conversation with some of them. Mr. Berry 
introduced me to a great many of his neighbors, who told me they 
eame here with the intention of voting They told me how many 
there were of them, but I do not recollect their numbers now ; but I 
think there were at that precinct between 80 and 150. Some of them 
said they supposed Kansas was becoming a free State, and they 
wanted to use their influence as much #s possible to make it a slave 
State. I should suppose Chapman's was some 40 or 45 miles from 
the Missouri State line. I do not know how far it is from the line of 
the district ; but I think it is called some 4 miles from the Santa Fe 
pad, which was the line at that time. 

I do not recollect any further about the voting. 

THOMAS HOPKINS. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



6 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



PETER BASSINGER called and sworn. 
To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory the first of September, 1854, from War- 
ren county, Iowa, and settled at what was called Black Jack point, on 
the Santa Fe road, in the 4th district. 

I was at the first election after I came into the Territory, held at 
Doctor Chapman's, in November, 1854. I saw a great many men 
and teams travelling the Santa Fe road at the time of the election, 
and I hardly knew what it meant until some 40 or 50 men camped at 
my house. They came in the house off and on, and was talking and 
was wishing to know how I would vote; and after their insisting, I 
said, at last, I thought, if I did vote at all, I would vote the free-State 
ticket. One old gentleman Mr. Ralston, I think they called his 
name, who lived between Westport and Independence hooted at me, 
and said they were bound to have Kansas a slave State, if they did it 
at the point of the sword, and that it was not worth while for me to 
kick up about it. A man who had stuck up a stake by my calf-pen, 
said he had as much a claim there as he wanted. A gentleman rode 
up that I was partly acquainted with, and we rode to the polls after 
these men had started. One of their men had driven down a stake 
which they said was their claim, and I jumped down and pulled it up; 
and it had either 7 or 9 names on it, I do not recollect which. There 
was no person sworn, but all voted. I voted The one I knew came 
back and staid with me all night. After we got back, he said, as all 
the fun was over, he would tell me the sport of it. He said that 
one man got drunk, and they sent for Doctor Chapman to come and 
see a sick man ; and when they got him off, they got another man in 
his place a judge, who was not sworn in. These men at my house 
told me, some of them, that they lived in Missouri. One of them 
told me he lived in Jackson county. I have passed his house several 
times since. There was one who drove up to my house in his car- 
riage, who was from Missouri, and inquired the way to the election. 
He said if he did not get to vote, whether he had been there long 
enough or not, he would give his team. He said that every man had 
a right to vote. I did not see arms about these men, except that 
almost every man had revolvers and knives belted to them. I saw 
arms in their wagons. I saw some guns there. After the election 
was over, they went back towards Missouri. I started for Indepen- 
dence the next morning, and some of them passed me that day. I 
left my wife at home. I camped that night at Cedar creek, and seve- 
ral of this party camped there. Some of them hallooed for Whitfield, 
and some for Wakefield. The road seemed to be full of them. I 
was not very well acquainted in my district at that time. I saw 
others,, more than staid at my house, on the road going back to Mis- 
souri. 

his 

PETER, 4- BASSINGES, 

mark 

LAWRENCE, K. T. Avril 30. 1856. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

REUBEN HAOKETT called and 

To Mr. Keeder: 

Came into the Territory 6th June, 1854 ; settled on Ottawa creek. 
Resided there since I moved my family there the 2--1 of September fol- 
lowing. I came from Indiana to Illinois; and fr~m Illinois here. I 
live in the fourth district. I was present at the e'oCfcicn in November, 
1854, at Doctor Chapman's. My acquaintance ^as riot extensive in 
the district, but I think the population was not great. I got to the 
place of election between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning on the 
day of election. I saw a considerable number of mex\ I was not ac- 
quainted with. I saw many of my acquaintances there a3so. I do not 
remember that I heard these strangers to me say where they had come 
from, or what for. I never saw these strangers before, and have 
seen but a few of them since, that I know. Those that I s&w coming 
in, came from across the prairie towards Hickory point, and some 
from the direction of "Eight-mile" creek. I am not well acquainted 
with the district now, but I am acquainted with the persons on Ot- 
tawa creek and above; but there are persons on " Eight-mile" creek 
that I am not acquainted with. I have no knowledge of tik^ exact 
number of families on "Eight-mile" creek. 

I was at the election on the 30th of March, 1855. I do not recol- 
lect about the population in the district between the census ac d the 
time of election, except that it was increasing slowly. I saw a num- 
ber of persons there I did not know to be citizens of the district. I 
did not count them, and cannot judge correctly, but can estimate 
them. I think there were some 80 odd votes polled. I should j^dge 
there were about 20 or 30 persons there, perhaps more, I was 
not acquainted with, that I did not know to be residents. There rare 
persons in the district I was unacquainted with. 
To Mr. Sherman : 

Of the 80 odd who voted there, I probably knew some 30 odd j#*- 
sons. I cannot form any correct opinion of what persons besides we e 
citizens or were not citizens of the district. 

To Mr. Whitfield: 

It was peaceable and quiet at both elections. 

REUBEN HACKETT. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 3, 1856. 



REUBEN HACKETT recalled. 

I have examined the poll-books of the election of the 29th Novem- 
ber, 1854, in the fourth district, and I find upon that poll-list 30 
names whom I know to have been residents of the district at that 
time, as follows: 

B J. T. Keeser, Charles White, B. C. Moore, R. Hill, R. M. Wil- 
liams, W. David, J. Bradbury, Gr. Simmons, H. Lowry, W. Grace, 
C. Mayfield, Judge Bernard, T. Mockaby, A. F. Powell, J. Eddy, 
A. J. Miller, A. B. Gilland, P. Bassinger, E. H. Bassinger, E. Hill, 



8 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



J. M. Banks, E. Hackett, J. B. Davis, J. H. Lockridge, A. Hanna, 
J. Curran, W. Ewart, 0. Hand, Wm. Moore, J. Chapman . 

REUBEN HACKETT 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 3, 1856. 



PERRY FULLER called and sworn. 
Examined by Mr. Eeeder : 

I came into this Territory about the 6th of September, 1854, and 
settled on what is called " Eight-mile" creek, in the 4th district, and 
have resided there ever since. I was at the first election, of 29th of 
November, 1854. 

I profess to be well acquainted with my district. I have examined 
the poll-list of that election, and find a good many names there of 
men who do not live in the district. There were 161 votes cast. 1 
do not find over 24 or 25 names of residents at that time on the poll- 
book. There might have been more, but I think not. 

I saw a great many strangers there on the day of the election some 
of them from Missouri. I understood they camped on the ground 
over night, They were there early in the morning. There was con- 
siderable confusion on that day at the election polls. There were 
severe threats that they were bound to make Kansas a slave State. I 
did not know any of the strangers there. 

7" I have looked over the list made out by Mr. Hackett, in connexion 
with the poll-books, and think it is correct. I live some eight miles 
from Mr. Hackett, in another settlement. 

PERKY FULLER. 

LAWRENCE, K. T. ? May 3, 1856. 



JOHN F. JAVENS called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory the 29th of February, 1854, from West- 
port, Missouri, and settled on the headwaters of the Marais des Cygnes, 
and was the first settler who made a claim there. It was in the fourth 
election district. I was at the election of November 29, 1854, at the 
house of Dr. Chapman, when General Whitfield was elected, and I 
voted there. There were citizens of Missouri who came there and 
voted at that election, some of whom I had been personally acquainted 
with for the last ten or twelve years. Among those I recognised, and 
whose names I find on the poll-list of that election, are James Price, 
G. W. Allen, H. T. Childs, A. B. Smith, Thomas Hall, John Price, 
M. Simmons, J. Campbell, and others. I conversed with some .of 
them, and they told me they came there to vote. I asked them if 
they had a right to vote in Missouri and in the Territory too, and 
they said they were told by citizens of the Territory they had a right 
to come here and vote. They were armed, every man of them I saw. 
Many of them were cursing the Free-State men of the Territory. Some 
told me they had never been in the Territory before, and if they had 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 9 



known I lived' in that section of the country, they would have made 
their arrangements to have stopped with me the night of the election. 
They said they wanted to see the Territory anyhow, and that was a good 
* time to do so. That they could come and vote, and see the Territory at 
the same time. When this was told me, some of the party were ready 
to start home, and these persons told me they would have to go back 
with the others, as their baggage was in the wagon, and but for that 
they would have stopped with me that night. After I saw how they 
were voting, and heard a number express themselves as being deter- 
mined to outvote the Free-State party, if some of them, had to stay 
and vote again, I left the polls and started home. 

I find but a very few resident voters' names in the list, and I thought 
I knew all of them. I have not examined so thoroughly as to say 
how many there were. I saw three or four times as many armed men 
from Missouri on the ground as there were resident voters in the dis- 
trict at that time. 

JOHN F. JAVENS. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 12, 1856. 



WILLIAM MOORE called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory about the 16th of August, 1854, from In- 
diana, and settled in the 4th district, on the Ottawa creek, and have 
lived there ever since. I was at the election on the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1854, in that district. My acquaintance was very limited at that 
time. But in that district I do not think there were more than 25 
or 30 resident voters. When I went to the election I saw a great 
many strangers there, which surprised me very much, as I thought I 
knew most in the district. I do not know that I recollect any conver- 
sation distinctly on that day about that matter with any of them. 
They were encamped some 200 or 300 yards from Dr. Chapman's 
house, where t?.e election was held. I was not in their camp. They 
were armed with double-barreled shot-guns, bowie-knives, and re- 
| volvers. I heard them say they had as good right to come from Mis- 
I souri and vote there, as others who were there and had come from 
1 other States. They did not appear to claim any residence in the Ter- 
ritory. The principal portion of them left an hour and a half or two 
hours after I got there, in carriages, buggies, and wagons, and were 
very noisy and profane, and appeared to be intoxicated. I saw a 
great many of them vote that day. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver: 

I knew a Mr. Thomas Mockaby, as he said his name was, who was 
of this party of strangers. I think I heard as many as a dozen of 
these strangers say they were from Missouri. I think I saw at least 
as many as twenty-five of them vote. 

WILLIAM MOORE. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



10 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Dr. B. C. WESTFALL testifies : 

I saw a great many persons coming from Missouri to the Territory 
at the time of the election, on the 29th of November, 1854, and I saw 
them after they returned home. They were residents of Missouri, and 
I was personally acquainted with many in our neighborhood, who 
said they were coming out to the election to vote, and elect men they 
considered suitable for officers in the Territory. After they returned, 
they told me they had been in the Territory and voted. They told 
me the precincts they had been to. I think some of them came to 
Dr. Chapman's, on Ottowa creek, and some to Pottawatomie creek. 
There was an uncommonly large tree had fallen at Pottawatomie 
creek at that time, and as I came out with some of them afterwards, 
they told me they had had a dance around it. They also told me 
they came very near mobbing the man Wilkinson for being a free- 
soiler, and who afterwards run on the pro-slavery ticket ; and it was 
with difficulty they were prevented from taking him out and whipping 
him. I lived near the line of the Territory, in the State of Missouri, 
at that tim'e, and had lived in Jackson, Cass, and Johnson counties 
tor the previous ten years. 

B. C. WESTFALL. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



JAMES W. WILSON testifies : 

I came from Missouri into the fifth district in August, 1854. I 
was at the election at Henry Sherman's, in that district, on the 29th 
of November, 1854. There were but few settlers at the election, but 
quite a number of non-residents there a large number from Mis- 
souri. I do not think there were more than twenty residents at the 
polls at that time. There were eighty-two votes cast, of which I 
think the principal part were from Missouri. Some of the same men 
were there that were afterwards at the election at Bull Creek precinct 
on the 30th of March, 1855. I saw some little excitement that day, 
but not much, about the legality of their voting, but no fighting or 
quarreling. The Missourians voted the pro-slavery ticket for Gene- 
ral Whitfield, and said they intended to make Kansas a slave- State ; 
that they had a right to vote, as they had claims in the Territory. 
There was a number of them I have never seen or heard tell of being 
in, the Territory since. Judge Teagle was there, managing the af- 
fairs, though he did not vote. He said he did not intend voting, but' 
intended to see others vote. He was judge of the court in Jackson 
county, Missouri. He had several hands out there attending to cattle, 
who voted, and I have never heard of their being in the Territory 
since. Mr. Samuel Wade, of Jackson county, Missouri, near New 
Santa Fe, voted that day. Wade is a farmer, and still lives where 
he lived at the time he voted there. 

J. W. WILSON 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 11 

J. C. PJRINCE called and sworn. 

I was at the election at Fort Scott in November, 1854. I lived at 
that time in Cass county, Missouri, in a little town on the boundary- 
line, called West Point. I Went out in company with some one hun- 
dred men the day before the election. It was about forty-five miles 
from where I lived to Fort Scott. A great number of the party had 
their tents and wagons with them, and camped out. I went out to 
Fort Scott, and staid there the night before the election. The most, 
perhaps all, the party were from Missouri. They went to Fort Scott 
to vote. On the day of election, Barbee and Wilson, two of the judges, 
made some attempts to swear some of the men ; but they got them in 
some way not to swear the voters, and I think none were sworn that 
day. They all voted, so far as I know ; at least they told me so. I 
think I was acquainted with about fifty who voted there, and who 
lived in Missouri at that time. There were but very few resident 
voters ; I should think not probably over fifty. There were some 
there from Missouri who voted, with whom I was not personally ac- 
quainted. I should suppose there were but about twenty-five legal 
voters that day at Fort Scott. The settlement was sparse. Fort 
Scott was a trading point, with but one store there, I think. The 
voting was by ballot, and there was no violence there. There were 
several men pointed out to me as eastern emigrants, who intended to 
vote and leave, the same as the Missourians. They were strangers to 
me, and I do not know that they voted. I voted on that day, and 
upon examining the poll-list I find my vote put down as "No. 25, 
J. H. Prince." After the voting was over, the Missourians went to 
their wagons, and commenced leaving for Missouri. I did not leave 
until the morning after the election. Some of the most influential 
men of Missouri in the company that went urged me to go and vote. 
And the morning before the election I started in my buggy for Fort 
Scott, and staid all night at Colonel Arnett's, in Fort Scott. Whit- 
field and Wakefield were the candidates. I live now in Osawatomie, 
in this Territory, and have lived there about five months. 

J. C. PKINCE. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 



MATTHIAS A. HEED called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory from Jackson, Missouri, in August, 1854 ; 
took a claim ; went back to Missouri, and came up the next month, 
and settled on the Wakarusa, in the seventh district, and have lived 
there ever since. I was at the election on the 29th of November, 
1854, held at Frey McGee's. I saw a good many men there I was 
not acquainted with, and a good many men I had been acquainted 
with in Missouri. I was in their camp there in Mr. Boss's camp, 
and John Flournoy's, and Abnet's. Samuel Kalston I saw there, 
and he showed me where he had staked off a claim, and said he 
had bought a large tree of Mr. McGee for timber. Some of them I saw 
there have claims in the Territory now, and are living here now. I 



12 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

do not know whether Mr. Ealston ever lived on nis claim or not, 
though I understand he has "blacks working on it ; hut I do not know 
whether he has any house on it or not. I judge I sa~w there about 
one hundred men. I do not recollect that I heard any of those men 
say what they had come for. I did not stay there until they left. 

Cross-examined by J. W. Whitfield : 

There were a good many men who came here and made claims that 
fall, and I have not heard of them since both pro-slavery men and 
free-soilers. Some made claims, and came back in the spring. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

The district was tolerably thinly settled at that time, but I could 
not tell how many actual settlers there were in the district. There 
were not many settlers at the polls. I think I saw some twenty or 
forty there. I was tolerably well acquainted in the district, though 
I had not been there a long time. 

his 

MATTHIAS A. + KEED. 

mark. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 7, 1856. 

The witness could not sign his name, having cut his hand. 



WM. F. JOHNSTON called and sworn. 
To Mr. Eeeder : 

I first came into the Territory to locate a claim in August, 1854, 
and brought my family here in the fore part of November, 1854. I 
settled on one of the branches of the Wakarusa, in this district. I 
am from Jackson county, Missouri. I was at the election of the 29th 
of November, 1854, at " One Hundred and Ten/' as I was considered 
in that district then, being at a place called Brownville. 

I saw a great many wagons and tents there, and many individuals 
I knew, from Jackson county, Missouri. I was among their tents, 
and I had a conversation with some there, and they told me they had 
come with the intention of voting. I went up to the polls, and it ap- 
peared to be very quiet. As I had a different colored ticket from the 
rest of our party, who had intended to vote for Flanigan, it was chal- 
lenged by Frey McGree, who had been appointed one of the judges, 
but did not serve. Lemuel Ralston was serving in his place, and lives 
on the road between Independence and Westport, Missouri. I had 
been acquainted with him since the year 1847". I then turned and 
challenged the vote of a young man by the name of Nolan, from Jack- 
son county, I knew. I first asked if he had come over here and taken 
a claim, and he said he had not. Finally the thing was hushed up, 
as I had a great many friends there from Jackson county, and it 
might lead to a fight if I challenged any more votes. We both voted, 
and I went down to the camp. I saw a great many there I knew 
who had voted in Missouri the August before, at which election I was 
one of the judges. Among those I knew were Nathan Eoss and three 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



13 

or four others in and around Independence ; and from the township of 
Washington, that I lived in, there were some three or four Muirs, 
some Nolans, and a young man hy the name of Case, but I did not see 
him vote; some young Harpers and Esquire Smith, then acting justice 
of the peace for Missouri ; a man hy the name of Abnett, and several 
others I cannot now remember. I was in their camp while here, but 
I did not see them leave, and but few came in, as they had principally 
come before I had got here. I was surprised to see them here, as I 
had heard nothing of their being here. There were several hundreds 
on the ground, principally from Jackson county, Missouri. I should 
suppose there were 300 or 400 at any rate probably more than that, 
though I cannot say exactly. I did not see any man vote more than 
once that day. I left the polls immediately after the difficulty i had 
started, and went into the camp. 

Cross-examined by Mr. J. W. Whitfield : 

There were a great many persons coming into the Territory af that 
time, taking up claims; but a great many of those I saw there that 
day I knew to be living in Jackson county, Missouri, for I have been 
in Missouri since, and found them living there. Some of them that 
day told me they stopped at Bull creek, and laid off a town, and took 
each a lot there, and that was all the claim they had. There were 
many who came in that fall and took up claims, and never came back 
again. 

The following is the list of all the residents whose names I know 
on the poll-list: Greorge W. Berry, William Daly, Wm. Holly, F. 
M. McGee, John Smith, Kobert Turner, M. W. McG-ee, M. A. Keid, 
L. T. Cook, J. W. Brown, Wm. Handley, and Daniel Turner. 

W. F. JOHNSTON. 

TECUMSBH, K. T., May 7, 1856. 



ALFRED LARZELERE called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory with my family on the first day of March, 
1855, from St. Joseph, Missouri, and settled in the Burr Oak pre- 
cinct, in tiie 14th district, and have resided there ever since. I was 
at the election on the 29th of November, 1854. My family was then 
at St. Joseph, but I had made a claim in the Territory. I did not 
come over for the purpose of voting at that election ; did not vote, and 
did not think I had any right- to vote. Col. John Scott, Benjamin 
Harding, and Mr. Bryant were the judges of election. Those judges 
were elected, I think, after I arrived from St. Joseph. In the morn- 
ing, when I got on the ground, I saw a great many citizens of Mis- 
souri there, principally citizens of St. Joseph. There was consider- 
able excitement at the time I arrived, which appeared to be arising^from 
a dispute between the citizens of Missouri and the citizens of the Ter- 
irtory, as to the right of Colonel Scott to act as a judge of election, 
took no part in it. The issue was, that Colonel Scott was selected 
by the bystanders, the citizens of Missouri taking as active part in it 
as those who were bona-fide citizens of the Territorv. Colonel Scott 



14 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

resided in the city of St. Joseph, and held the office of city attorney 
for the city of St. Joseph at that time. I heard him claim that he 
was a citizen of the Territory, hut I do not recollect that I heard 
him say what time he came over. He was selected and acted as 
judge. On my return to St. Joseph I inquired if he had resigned his 
office as c*ity attorney, and was told he had not. He has exercised 
that office since, I think, up to the first part of last April. I forget 
whether I left "before the polls were closed or not, hut I was there a 
portion of the day. When I arrived on the ground I think there was 
a majority of Missourians there. I think in the after part of the day 
a good many of the Missourians had left "before I did. Several voted 
tlien, hut I could not name any one now. They contended with me 
that I had a right to vote, as they had, but I contended that such was 
not the case. There was a crowd of some 30 or 40 when I first went 
there, and I do not know as at any time there was to exceed 50 men; 
hut the crowd was changing all the time. Judge Leonard, Wm. K. 
Kichardson, and Reuben Middleton, seemed to be the most active per- 
sons there from St. Joseph. Wm. P. Richardson was there also, and 
I always considered him a citizen of Missouri up to that time. They 
insisted that the citizens of Missouri had a right to vote there, espe- 
cially every man who had any pretensions to a claim in the Territory 
at that time. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Scott : 

I remember but one of the judges of election appointed by the gov- 
erned, and his name was Mr. Irwin, of Iowa Mission, and he was not 
on the ground at the time I came up. Mr. Harding was there ; but I 
do not recollect whether he was one of the judges appointed by the gov- 
ernor. He acted as a judge. I did not learn that the dispute was in 
consequence of Mr. Harding claiming the right, as the judge appointed 
by the governor, to appoint the other two judges. The dispute then 
was as to the right of Colonel Scott to act as a judge of election. I 
heard Colonel Scott claim that he was a citizen of Kansas Territory, 
and that he had come over and taken a claim, and I think he said he 
had taken board for a month with Mr. Bryant. I do not know as 
those remarks were addressed to any particular person, but I under- 
stood them to be made publicly to the bystanders. There was a dis- 
pute as to his right to serve as a judge ; and to establish his right, I 
think he made those remarks. I do not recollect any argument that 
a judge of the election was not necessarily required to be a citizen of 
the Territory. I think it was generally understood by all parties that 
a judge must be a citizen of the Territory. I understood him. to say 
that he had made a claim, and had taken a month's board at Mr. Bry- 
ant's. 1 recollect one instance of a man being asked to be sworn as to 
his residence, and he refused, and did not vote, and went off swearing 
because he was not allowed to vote. Mr. Harding, and I think Mr. 
Bryant, acted as judges of the election, and were both actual residents 
of the Territory at that time, I think. 

A. LARZELERE, 

LEAVENWORTH, K. T., May 23, 1856. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 15 

BENJAMIN HARDING called and sworn. 

I moved into the Territory in 1852. I resided in the Burr Oak pre- 
cinct of the 14th district. I came from St. Joseph, Missouri, where I 
had resided several years. I was judge of the election on the 29th of 
November, 1854, appointed by Gov. Keeder. The other two judges 
appointed by the governor did not appear at the time of opening the 
polls. When the time arrived, I stated to the crowd that the other 
two judges were not present; gave a statement of the governor's in- 
structions for such a case, which was for the voters on the ground to 
select other judges. I then nominated Mr. Waterson, and the crowd 
present voted him down. Several came around me then, and told me 
they thought there was no hurry, and that probably the other judges 
would yet come, and advised that further proceedings be deferred ; 
which was done deferred until nearly 10 o'clock. During this time 
there was a discussion arose as to the right of those on the ground to 
vote for judges. My impression at the time was, that a large majority of 
those present were from Missouri, residents of Missouri. Some one 
nominated Mr. Bryant as a judge, and he was elected by the crowd. 
The discussion still continued about the right of those to vote, and 
contended for very strenuously by some of the leading men from Mis- 
souri. Some one in the crowd had nominated Col. John Scott. It 
was my impression that he resided in St. Joseph. Mr. Bryant came 
to me, and stated to me that Mr. Scott had come to his house the night 
before and engaged boarding for a month, and he considered him a 
resident of Kansas on that ground. I still considered him a resident 
of Missouri, and refused to put the vote to the crowd. After some 
discussion Judge Leonard, of Missouri, stepped forward and put the 
vote himself, and Mr. Scott was elected by the crowd, and he served 
as a judge of election that day. Mr. Scott has never lived in the dis- 
trict since, to my knowledge. I did not again see him in the Territory 
for several months. I suppose a majority of the votes cast that day 
were cast by resident settlers of the district ; probably a handsome 
majority. Votes were cast by some I considered non-residents. I 
should give as an approximation that two-thirds, and perhaps more, 
were actual residents of the Territory. There were votes received 
there from those I considered non-residents, upon their oath or affirm- 
ation that they considered themselves residents of the district. I 
objected to receiving those votes, but I was overruled by a majority 
of the judges. I considered that it was the duty of the judges to ex- 
amine voters with regard to facts only, and then to decide whether 
they were entitled to vote from that expression of facts. Persons were 
challenged and sworn, and I differed from the other judges as to their 
right to vote from their statement of 'facts. The other judges thought 
they were entitled to vote if they swore that they considered them- 
selves residents ; and thus the majority overruled me. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Scott: 

But one of the judges appointed by the governor, myself, was present 
at the time the polls were to be opened. I did not undertake to appoint 
other judges. I merely nominated one, and put the vote to the crowd, 
and they voted him down. I claimed no right to appoint the other 



16 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

judges. I did not call Squire Waterson into a reoni, and ask him, as a 
justice of the peace, to swear me as judge, that I might thereby have a 
right to appoint the other two judges. I undertook to claim the right 
of judging whether those on the ground had a right to vote for judges. 
I did not ask Squire Waterson to swear me at all before the other 
judges were elected by the crowd. As an appointed judge of the 
election, I claimed the right, before I was sworn in, to judge as to the 
qualifications of persons present to vote for judges, for I considered 
that a portion of my duty. I had received no private instructions 
from Governor Keeder to that effect. I could not state that Colonel 
Scott, of St. Joseph, declared, publicly or privately, that he considered 
himself a citizen of Kansas Territory. Every man who voted that 
day did not swear that he was an actual resident of Kansas Territory, 
for those whom, we knew to be residents we did not require to swear 
at all. I believe all those who were not known to the judges to be 
actual residents, took an oath that they considered themselves actual 
residents, before they voted. Judge Leonard, of Missouri, and other 
persons, were refused permission to vote because they would not take 
that oath. I asked Major Wm. P. Kichardson some questions in re- 
gard to his residence, and he refused to answer me ; stating that Col. 
Scott should question him, and that he would answer no questions I 
might ask him. Previously to his refusing to answer my questions, 
I might imprudently have asked him which he considered the head 
of his family himself or his wife. I intended it as a joke, and sup- 
posed it would be taken as such. It was after that that he refused to 
answer any questions put by me. I believe that the same questions 
were propounded to and answered by him, as to and by other persons, 
before he was permitted to vote. The other two judges, I think, 
expressed their opinion that each man was the best judge as to his 
own actual place of residence. 

B. HAKDING. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 24, 1856. 



A. A. JAMISON testifies: 
To Mr. Eeeder: 

I have examined the poll-lists of the 14th district for the 29th of 
November, 1854. I found the names of the following persons I 
know who then resided in Missouri. The following is the list: Alex- 
ander Davis, Sidney Tenent, George C. Collett, Andrew Cox, F. C. 
Hughes, William Turpin, and Oliver H. P. Craig. 

A. A. JAMISON. 

TBCUMSBH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



THOMAS W. WATERSON testifies : 
To Mr. Scott: 
I was at the election in the 14th district, at the house of Benjamin 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 17 

Harding on the 29th of November , 1854. I was on the ground before 
the judges of election were appointed that day. None of the judges 
appointed hy the governor were present there, except Benjamin Har- 
ding. The hour of opening the polls had about arrived when I got 
there. Directly afterwards Mr. Harding invited me into his house. 
I was then an acting justice of the peace, commissioned a short time 
hefore. We had a good deal of conversation about the election, and 
he asked me to swear him as one of the judges appointed by the gov- 
ernor. This was before any of the other judges were appointed. I 
told him he had better wait until the other judges had been elected, 
and I would swear them all in at the same time. He stated that 
there were a great many of them who were not entitled to vote for 
judges, and he wanted to be sworn in, that he might decide who were 
legal voters to vote for judges. I then told him that, in my opinion, 
he had not the right to decide that, according to the proclamation of 
the governor ; that it was for each man to determine for himself as to 
his right to vote ; and, therefore, I declined swearing him in. He 
then asked me what he should do. I told him I thought the best 
plan was to take the law, read it to the crowd, and let every man 
judge for himself; which he did. He also wanted me to serve a?, one 
of the judges. I said I did not want to serve; but he put me in nomi- 
nation, and I was votecf down by the crowd by a large majority. I 
was an acting justice of the peace in and for the 14th district of Kan- 
sas Territory. 

T. W. WATERSON. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 24, 1856. j 



JOHN W. FORM AN called and sworn. 

To Mr. King: ,- v 

I came into the Territory from Missouri about the first of April, 
1843. I removed to Doniphan, where I now live, in 1853. I was 
appointed by G-overnor Reeder judge of the election of November 29 
of the election of delegate to Congress, which was held at the house 
of Benjamin Harding, in the 14th district. When the election came 
;on, I was just recovering from a long spell of the typhoid fever, and, 
much to my regret, I could not attend the election. The election was 
held about 14 miles from my house. But few of my neighbors at- 
tended. They were almost unanimously for Whitfield, against any 
bther candidate running. 

JOHN W. FORMAN. 

LEAVBNWORTH CITY, K. T., May 27, 1856. 



J. B. CRANE called and sworn. 

I I live on the Fort Riley road, about ten miles from here^ I moved 
[here from Buchanan county, Missouri, on the 20th of August, 1854. 
[". was at the election of the 29th of November, 1854, at Mr. Pensen- 
H. Rep. 200 2* 



18 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

au's, on Stranger creek. I am tolerably well acquainted in the south- 
ern part of the district. One Mr. Frasier was one of the judges of 
that election, and I think R. Riddle another; but I do not recollect 
the name of the other. There were a good many people, pretty much 
all strangers to me, at that election. I think there were some three 
hundred votes polled there that day. I left the place of election 
about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. I saw one man there a Mr. Lewis 
Burnes, from Weston, Missouri, that voted. There was some dispute 
about the polls, about the right of Missourians to vote some saying 
that any man having a claim in the Territory had a right to vote, no 
matter where he lived. I should think, from what I saw and heard 
about the polls, that not more than one hundred votes could be polled in 
that district at that time. I think there were at least two hundred 
votes given that day that were given by non-residents. There were 
some of my neighbors who were not at that election. From the fact 
that I know that some of the residents did not vote, and from all I 
can form an idea of, I think there were not more than one hundred 
resident votes given that day. I do not recollect of seeing any arms 
there, except some few bowie-knives and pistols, and perhaps a few 
guns. I saw some of these strangers coming in from towards the river 
some in carriages and some on horseback. I remained there until 
some of them left, and they came back to wards the river. I saw some 
of them vote. I saw no fighting, and no one was Drevented from 
yoting that I know of. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Whitfield : 

Mr. Whitfield and Mr. Flanigan were the two candidates at that 
election. I voted for Mr. Flanigan. I d,o not know when he moved 
iiito the Territory, and do not know where he lived. I never saw 
him. [ do not know whether Mr. Flanigan resides in the Territory 
now or not ; but I believe he does not. I do not know when he left the 
Territory. I have heard of his being in the Territory since the election, 
but do'not know what became of him. I was not acquainted in the dis- 
trict, as a general thing, except in the south and southwest portion 
perhaps one-third of the district. I do not know the size of the district. 
It is a large district, and included Kickapoo. I do not know about the 
town of Atchison. I think the boundary of the district followed the 
military road to the Stranger creek, and then went up the Stranger; do 
not know how far. Some of the strangers I have spoken of might have 
lived in the portion of the district I did not know, but I do not think 
so. They might have lived there. There was. plenty of room for 
them, but I do not think they did. I recognised but one man whom 
I knew to be from Missouri. Of late it has been a pretty general 
practice to carry arms in the Territory, but not at first; though a man 
moving in generally had a rifle, but did not cariy'it about with him. 
There were a good many persons about that time looking out for 
claims in the Territory, but not so much as a short time before; and 
but few did so where I was acquainted. I heard no complaints at 
that time about a want of an organized government here in the ~ 
ritory. 

j. B. CRANE 

LBAVENWOKTH CITY, May 19, 1856 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 19 

FRANCIS M. POTTER called and sworn. 

I live about twelve or fourteen miles northwest of this, in the 
fifteenth district. I came from Buchanan county, Missouri, to the 
district, on the 16th day of October, 1854. I was at the election at 
Pensenau's on the 29th of November, 1854. I think I know Jesse 
Morin Captain Morin, as we call him. I am not very well acquainted 
in that district. There were quite a crowd of men at that election, 
and I saw some from Buchanan county, Missouri. I saw James Elli- 
son, Samuel Singleton, Allen Pullen, John Galbraith, and a man by 
the name of Kirk, who has moved into the district since, but I do not 
know where he lived then. I do not recollect about an encampment. 
There were a great many people there, coming on horseback, and in 
wagons, from towards the Missouri river. I should suppose there 
were some three or four hundred persons there. I think not more 
than half of the persons there were residents of the district. I did 
not vote that day. I saw some of these people go away towards the 
military road. There were a good many there when I left. I did 
not see any man vote that day. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Grover : 

I am not certain as to the residence of Mr. Pullen. I frequently 
saw him attending on a ferry on the Missouri, and my understanding 
was that he lived on the other side. The ferry was at la tan, Mis- 
souri, across the river. The way I got my understanding that he 
lived in Missouri was, that I always saw him in latan when he had 
nothing else to do. He may have lived in the Territory, but I never 
knew of it. I think there was no settlement on the river opposite 
latan ; if there was, I did not know it. I think Mr. Pullen did live 
a while on this side of the river after that. I do not know as the 
people of Atchison came to Pensenau's to vote. Atchison was a 
small place then. I had been there. Men, in going from Pense- 
nau's to Atchison, would go out towards the military road. I sup- 
pose those also to Port William, Kickapoo, and Salt Creek valley. I 
think probably these points would embrace more than a majority of 
the votes in the district. I cannot tell how many I saw leave Pense- 
nau's to go towards the military road. I could not state whether I 
knew half of the resident voters of the district at that time or not ; 
I may have ; it is likely I did not. I saw no one vote that day. I 
do not know where Jesse Morin was living at that time. A week 
or two before that election I saw Morin in De Kalb, Missouri ; but I 
did not know where he lived then, and I do not know where he lives 
now. The citizens of Kansas frequently went over into Missouri at 
that time ; I did myself. 

F M. POTTER. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 20, 1856. 



JOHN W. HOUSE called and sworn. 
I live about six or seven mijes from here, on the military road, in 



20 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

the fifteenth district, and have lived there since the middle of Septem 
her, 1854. T was at the election at Pensenau's on the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1854 1 saw some persons there from Missouri, and some two or 
three volte. There was quite a crowd around the polls. I voted that 
day for Mr. Flanigan. I came into this district from Platte county, 
Missouri, where I had lived some ten or twelve years. I know Jesse 
Morin, who used to live in Platte City, and I understood he lived 
above Platte City some six or seven miles, at the time of that election. 
I know IraNorris lived in Platte City, and Hugh McKowan. I know 
several John Millers in Platte county, but none in our district. I 
know S. Johnson, Samuel Dickson, Isaac House, my brother, Leonidas 
Oldham. I knew a J. B. Mitchell in Missouri, but know of none in 
our district. I know Henry Debard, about Platte City. I knew a 
Lapp, who lives in latan ; I know of none in our district. I know 
John Groff, who lived in Platte county, but none in the Territory. 
James Sweeney lives in Platte county. I know a Duncan, who lived 
in the edge of Buchanan county ; he owns a claim here now, but I 
cannot say where he lives. Thomas Douglass lived at latan. John 
Bryan I know, as also Kobert Ely. William Digman, who lives in 
Platte county, and A. W. Hughes, a Mr. Fisher, a Dr. Fisher, I 
knew lived in Weston. N. K. Green lived in Platte City. Colonel 
Lewis Burns lives sometimes on one side of the river and sometimes 
the other. I know James Brooks. I do not know any Bowman in 
my district, but I know one in Weston. I know P. Yocum, who 
lived in Missouri. Allen .Pullen used to live in latan. I know 
James Mulky, and James Bolton, wlio novr lives in the district. D. 
W. Quimby used to live in Platte City; he never lived in our dis- 
trict. I know Job Bobbins. Jonathan Lucy lived in the district at 
that time, I think. A. G. Boyd did live in Kickapoo. James H. 
Kessinger and J. D. Pepper lived in Platte county. S. H. Oliphant, 
I think, lived in Platte City at that time. Samuel Pepper and War- 
ren Blanton lived in Platte county. Phineas Skinner lives in Platte 
county, and is a wealthy man. He never lived in the Territory to 
my knowledge. Nathan Newby lived in Platte county, as did George 
Kitchen. Asa Vanaldanham did live at Weston, but lives in this 
city now, I think. I do not know any Staggs in our district. I 
knew some in Platte county. I saw some of these people at this 
election ; among them my brother, and my brother-in-law, Mulky, 
and John Bryan. I had some conversation with them about voting. 
Bryan allowed he ha-1 a right to vote, and so did others. My brother 
did not live in the Territory at that time, and has never lived in the 
Territory at all, unless he has moved into it within the last week. I 
saw George Quimby here, and Jesse Morin. There were no persons 
bearing the names I have given living in my district at that time, 
that I know of. Some of these persons have moved into the Territory 
since. I do not know when Groff moved over here. My brother 
made no particular claim to vote, except that they had as good a 
right to vote as those of the Aid Society had. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Grover : 

I think I saw some persons vote that day ; Isaac House, James 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 21 

Mulky, and I think John Bryan, and some others, whose names I do 
not recollect, who came over from Missouri. I voted for Flanigan 
that day. I do not know Mr. Flanigan, and do not know whether 
he resided in the Territory or not. I never saw him but once, and 
did not know it was he until after he had gone. I heard of Flani- 
gan 's coming to the Territory before the election ; but whether before 
Reeder came or not, I cannot tell. There was a general rumor pre- 
vailing that Flanigan came with Reeder. I do not know of any Jesse 
Morin who lived in the district at that time ; though there might have 
been, as there were persons living within two miles of me I did not 
know. There might have been a number of persons bearing the 
names I have given, who lived in the district at that time, and I not 
have known it, though I do not think so. I do not know that 
Stephen Johnson and Ira Norris were not at Atchison, and interested 
in the town company there, as I have not been there. I saw Ira 
Norris at the election. I did not know that L. Oldham lived at 
Port William at that time, or that John Gough lived above 
Kickapoo. Some of the names I have given might have been of 
persons who had moved over here, though they used to live in Mis- 
souri, and some of them have lived there since. I heard Digman and 
McKowan say that day they lived in Missouri. I am not generally 
acquainted in the western portion of the district. I never was at 
Atchison and at Port William, and am not acquainted above Kicka- 
poo much. I tiever saw Flanigan after the election, but heard he 
had gone back*- Jo Pennsylvania. 

his 

J. W. + HOUSE. 

mark. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 20, 1856. 



H. B. GALE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Howard: 

I reside on the military road to Fort Riley, about ten miles from 
here, and moved there the 22d of October, 1854, from Missouri, and 
have lived there ever since. In the spring of 1854 I came from Mer- 
cer county, Missouri, and went to Buchanan county, and remainod 
there through the summer. I was at the election held at Pensenau's 
house o.n the 29th of November, 1854, about six miles from where I 
live. I am pretty well acquainted in the southern part of the district, 
where I live. I voted at that election. I do not recollect the number 
of votes polled. There were some non-residents there I knew to be 
such ; some I knew to be from Missouri, and some came over here who 
said they were from Platte county, about Ridgley, who said they 
came to vote, and intended to make Kansas a slave State, and that 
they had claims in the Territory. They mostly came in wagons, and 
[ saw a great many vote mostly for General Whitfield. I think 
Flanigan got some 30 or 40 votes, I think Hickory Point was in that 
district at that time, but I am not positive. I do not recollect how- 
many votes Whitfield got that day, I cannot tell how many of those 



22 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

who voted were residents, and how many non-residents. I should 
judge there were between 200 and 300 at the election that day. I 
cannot tell how many resident voters were there that day, as I was 
not acquainted in the northern part of the district. There were quite 
a number of persons there from Missouri; one I knew, and lived near 
me when I was there. I heard some around the polls talk about com- 
ing from Missouri. I heard many say they had the right to vote, 
because they had claims here. This man who lived near me while I 
was in Missouri, has been living there some time since. I should 
judge there were, of those I heard talking about it, 40 or 50 from Mis- 
souri. There were some 30 or 40 I knew to be residents of the dis- 
trict there at the election. I saw no badge at that election. I cannot 
say that I saw any I knew to be MisFOurians vote at that election. Some 
of those I saw there I knew, were Mr. Burns, of Platte City, and John 
Hamner, from Buchanan county, who told me he voted. I do not 
recollect the names of any others. The town of AtCfhison, I think, is 
in the district I live in. 

To H. Miles Moore : 

I heard when I got to the place of election that there had been a 
speech, but I do not know who made it. There was something said 
about there being no question of slavery in the election but I do not 
recollect much about it. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Whitfield : j 

I saw Mr. Flanigan once, as he called at my nouse, out I never saw 
him at any other time. I do not know where he resided. I under- 
stood he came from Pennsylvania, but do not know as he said so. 1 
have never seen Flanigan since I think Flanigan had no circulars 
with him then. I think I have seen circulars put out both by Flani- 
gan' s and Whitfield' s friends, but I do not remember about the ques- 
tion of slavery being put in issue. I do not know whether Flanigan 
lives in the Territory or "not, but I understood he left immediately 
after the election. I was not well acquainted in the northern part of 
that district. It commenced near the Fort reserve here, and followed 
the military road to the crossing of Stranger creek, and went up the 
Stranger, but I do not know how far. I think it included Atchison. 
I saw but two Missourians there that I knew by name, and did not 
see them vote, and do not know for whom they voted. I do not recol- 
lect of there being any complaint when I came into the Territory be- 
cause it was not sooner organized, though I heard it through the fol- 
lowing winter. The delay wa*> charged on Reeder. There were 
many persons coming into the Territory that fall, hunting up claims, 

H. B. GALE. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 19, 1856. 



CAMPBELL LOGAN called .and sworn 

To Mr. Scott : 

I resided, on the 29th of November, 1854, in what is now Atcmson 
countv, about two and a half miles from Kickapoo, in this Territory. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 23 

The candidates at the election of that date, which was held at Pense- 
nau's, were General Whitfield, pro-slavery ; and some one on the 
other side, I do not now recollect. I was not at the election that day 
at all. I have never been at the place where the election was held. 
James Logan, my brother, was not at the election that day. 

[The remainder of the deposition is stricken out, according to 
ruling at Westport, Missouri.] 

CAMPBELL LOGAN. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 28, 1856. 



JOHN A'. LINDSEY called and sworn. 

1 was present at the election on the 29th of November, 1854, in 
Leaven worth City. I was not much acquainted with the people here, 
but from appearances believed there were a large number of non-resi- 
dents here. I did not go to the polls to vote myself until the after- 
noon ; but I took several persons up to vote, and there was quite a 
crowd around the polls, and it was with great difficulty that 'they 
could get to the polls. I think that they mostly voted. Right around 
the window where the voting was going on, I think there must have 
been from *75 to 100 persons, and the town was full of persons. There 
were then about three or four houses in the town. When I went to 
vote myself in the afternoon, there were some persons who kept in 
front of me. I did not know any of them, except a man known as 
Dick Murphy. When I would try to get in, they would pull me by 
the coat, crowd me, and I could not succeed to get through the crowd. 
I then went round and hurrahed for General Whitfield, and some of 
them who did not know me said, " There is a good pro-slavery man," 
and lifted me up over their heads, and I crawled along on their heads, 
and put in my vote. Then some one who saw my ticket cried out, " He 
is a damned abolitionist, let him down!" and they dropped me. Many 
others that I supposed to be pro-slavery men voted in the same way. 
That was the way of voting by several persons in the latter part of 
the day by lifting them over the heads of the crowd to the polls, to 
enable them to deposit their vote. I know of no free-State men, ex- 
cept myself, who voted that way. All the free-State men on the 
ground, whom I know, that day voted by crowding up through the 
crowd, as voters generally bad to do, except those who were passed over. 

Mr. Flanigan ran as a Nebraska democrat and friend of the admin- 
istration. Mr. Wakeneld was called " the abolitionist's candidate." 
Mr. Whitfield was running as a pro-slavery democratic canr.v p^n/JL 

To Governor King : 

I had every reason in the world to believe that they werfcot resi- 
dents There were a great many settlers in the Territory t\t I did 
not know, and such as these I could not distinguish fri other 
strangers who may not have been residents of the Territor, I da 
not recollect any strangers present that day, that I knew tjbe Mis- 
sourians, for I never had been in that State but once, and tin only 
to stav all night. I have no acquaintance with people of thl State. 



24 KANSAS AFFAIRS. * 

I saw no votes given in that day that I knew to be illegal. I saw one 
man's vote challenged there, on the ground that he was a non-resi- 
dent. This was the only man I saw challenged or objected to, and 1 
don't know whether he voted or not. I was about the polls the fore 
part of the day, but did not vote until the afternoon. The difficulty 
was not at the polls, but in getting to them; and I thought that diffi- 
culty grew out of the political opinions entertained by voters. The 
pro-slavery men were handed over the heads of the people, and handed 
back again without any trouble. I suppose that those persons around 
the polls were persons who had voted, or were there to vote, as far as 
I know. I can't say who voted, or who did not, but that they were 
voting continually. All the houses I recollect of then in this city 
were the hotel, the Kansas Herald office, Stevenson's grocery store, a 
tin shop, and Dr. France's office. Dick Murphy, of whom I have 
spoken, was a resident of this town, I believe ; and his conduct that 
day, although it impressed me with the idea that he did not want me 
to vote, yet it was in a laughing way ; but he always seemed to be 
right in front of me whenever I endeavored to get to the polls. I tried 
for an hour r an hour and a half, and then retreated. The reason I 
did not get to the polls was a combination of the crowd and Dick 
Murphy. I don't know whether this was a concerted combination or 
not. J. A. LINDSEY 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 29, 1856. 



Dr. JAMES NOBLE testifies : 

I was at Leavenworth City on the day of election, on the 29th of 
November, 1854, and voted there, but not for Gen. Whitfield. There 
was a large number of people here. I do not recollect of seeing any 
one vote but myself. There was a large crowd around the polls, and 
men pushing for the polls. Most of them were Missourians, and 
hurrahing for Whitfield. I tried several times to get in before I 
could get to the polls. There seemed to be no quarreling, that I 
could see, but a good deal of crowding. 

What I mean by Missourians is, that they lived over in Missouri. 
I think a majority -about the polls, when I was about the polls, 
were Missourians. I saw old man Hunt, from below Platte City; he 
said he had as good right to vote here as any man, and was going to 
vote. Pleasant Ellington lived up near Kidgley, in Platte county. 
I do not suppose all the Missourians I saw there voted, for I heard 
'''O) ad not voted and would not vote. 

^ross-exfimined by Mr. Whitfield: 

I had be( jn living over on Stranger creek some time before that elec- 
[ 0-B, but I do not recollect how long. My acquaintance was limited 
1 the disti "let at that time. I do not know how large the district was 
fc that tiiD ,e, but' I understood it was pretty large. I saw no on-e vote 
myself . The canolidates on that day were Gen. Whitfield, Judge 
n, and Judge Wakefield. I do not recollect of hearing the 
of ( Chapman as a candidate. I never saw Judge Flanigan. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 25 

The general rumor was, that Flanigan was from the east, and did not 
reside here; that Judge Wakefield was here with his family, and 
was a free-State man; that Gen. Whitfield was a Missourian, merely 
an Indian agent here, and in favor of "bringing negroes in here. That 
was the reason I voted in favor of Wakefield, and against Whitfield. 
I understood Flanigan left after the election, but I do not know how 
long. 

Two of the judges of election were Neill Burgess and Mr. Twom- 
bley, and I do not recollect of ever knowing the third one. I was in 
town several hours, and sometimes about the polls. I saw no one at 
the window, except those I thought were voting. I do not know as 
there were more strangers here than usual. I think a great many 
around the polls I knew ; some of them I did not know. I saw them 
cutting up antics ; and it was pretty hard to get to the window, but 
I was not frightened at all. 

JAMES NOBLE. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 21, 1856. 



SAMUEL F. FEW testifies: 

I came into this Territory in 1854, from Virginia, and have resided 
here since. I was here on the election of the 29th of November, 1854, 
when Whitfield and Flanigan were candidates. I think I was the 
first man who voted that day. I then left and went home. I did 
not notice any persons, strangers, camped here that I now recollect 
of. I know only that I voted. f here was a gentleman from Vir- 
ginia, his family living in Missouri, who was with me. He had a 
claim here, but had not his family, and immediately after the election 
he went and brought his family here, and has been here ever since. 
I cannot now say that I know of any persons coming from Missouri. 
Many came from the island opposite here, but that is decided now to 
be in Kansas Territory. There were many persons here, but I knew 
but few persons then. There were settlers on that island at that 
time. I knew but one man who lived on the island. I have no doubt 
that there was a majority at that time in favor of General Whitfield ; 
I thought it was a one-sided affair. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

I have no doubt there was a large majority here pro-slavery ; that 
there was no need of assistance at that time. I never heard of Mr. 
"^BHanigan till Governor Keeder came out here. The election came off 
on Friday, the 29th of November, 1854. My family was at Independ- 
dence, Missouri, and I went down shortly after the election, and Phelan 
and Flanigan went down on the same boat with me, getting on board at 
Kansas City, and I have never seen them since. I had not got the 
returns of the election at this point, and I heard the final result at 
Kansas City. Judge Flanigan told me he was coming back to this 
city, proposed to buy my claim, and asked me to be his family phy- 
sician. I told him I was not a candidate for practice as a physician. 
I do not know that I saw any others going back to Pennsylvania with 



26 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Flanigan, except Phelan. I think, if he had ever come here to this 
city, I should have seen him. I heard once that he was on his way 
back, but I never heard that he had got here. I -did not talk with 
him about the election. I was tolerably intimate with Major Ogden 
and Major Macklin. They wanted Major Ogden to be the candidate 
here for Congress. I knew him to be a shrewd, calculating man. 
I knew that Major Macklin was the owner of slaves ; and that they 
were not willing to have Major Ogden enter the field if the slavery 
question was to be sprung. 

Major Ogden was regarded as a free-State man. Major Ogden de- 
clined to run if the question of slavery was sprung. Major Ogden 
was then the quartermaster at the fort. I know that Major Macklin 
wanted Major Ogden to run. From all the means of information I 
had, I am positive that on the 29th of November, 1854, there was a 
pro-slavery majority here and I thought there was no need of assist- 
ance here. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I do not recollect the number of voters at that time. There was 
but a small population on the Delaware lands at that time, compared 
with the present. There was a pretty large settlement on Salt creek. 
I paid but little attention to that election. 

To Mr. Whitfield : 

I regarded this as my residence from the time I first ca"me he*e. 
My family were at Independence, Missouri, till I could build a house 
here. The gentleman from Virginia who was with me on that day, 
was similarly sibilated. I think there are now upon the Delaware 
lands probably a population of 5,000. I recollect a circular put out 
by Flanigan's friends at the time of that election; but I recollect but 
one thing about it that Mr. Alexander took the stump as the pro- 
slavery advocate for Flanigan. But I do not recollect what names 
were on that circular. Mr. Alexander still lives here in the Terri- 
tory. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

I considered Judge Flanigan the Free-State candidate, and General 
Whitfield the Pro-slavery candidate at that election. 
To Mr. Whitfield : 

Mr. Flanigan had no residence in the Territory that I know of. I 
heard that Phelan and Flanigan bought a share in Leavenworth, but 
they have never lived here. 

To Mr. Rees: 

I do not know who circulated the circulars for Flanigan. I only 
know three persons whose names are attached to the copy of the. cir- 
cular shown me Mr. J.M. Alexander, B. H. Twombley, and Charles 
iieib. If Doctor Leib is now a resident of the Territory, I do not know 
it certainly not about here. Alexander, I understand, is living at 
Lecompton. Twombley is living near here. 

To Mr. Howard : 

I think Doctor Leib left here soon after he took the census. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 27 

To Mr. Sherman: 

I think I recollect that a counter-handbill was got up by General 
Whitfield's friends, in reply to this of Flanigan's; but I do not recol- 
lect the names. 

SAML. F. FEW. 

LEA YEN WORTH CITY, K. T., May IT, 1856. 



GEORGE H. KELLER called and sworn. 

I moved my family into the Territory on the Tth of October, 1854., 
and to this place. I kept then-Ahe only hotel in the place, up to June, 
1855. I have resided here ever since I came here. I came here from 
Platte county, Missouri, near Weston ; had lived there for 16 years, 
except one year that I was absent. I was present at the election oi 
the 29th of November, 1854. The settlement here was comparatively 
small. The town of Leavenworth was laid out in August and Sep- 
tember, 1854. Mr. Neil Burgess was one of the judges of that elec- 
tion, but I do not remember the others. I was very busy in my hotel, 
in one room of which the election was held, and was about the polls 
at various times during the day. The election was held at my house, 
from the fact that there was no other room in town suitable for that 
purpose. 

There were a great many strangers came into town the day before, 
and on the day of election. They were camped all around here, like a 
camp meeting, but I cannot tell how many there were. I do not 
know that these men were armed. I was very busy, and could not 
pay particular attention to their appearance. They generally camped 
in tents, and part of them brought their own provisions with them, 
and cooked them for themselves. I think they were camped in com- 
panies, in messes in wagons, probably from 10 to 15, in a wagon. 
There were no women with them generally, as I saw, and none in the 
camp. They had no baggage besides their provisions, that I saw.' 
I knew some of these men. It would be hard for me to recollect all 
I knew ; but I can name some of them: Mr. John Wells, Judge Al- 
mond from Platte City, Mr. John Vineyard, Mr. Washburn, Smith 
Calvert, and a great many others I cannot now recollect without 
hearing their names. 

I heard some companies who came in, say they came from Clay 
and Ray counties. Those that I have named were from Platte county, 
and were my old neighbors. They said they came, here to vote. 
\They said they had as good a right to vote here as anybody that 
.comes from the east. They claimed to be residents of tl^e Territory, 
from the fact that they were then present. Some of them remained 
here until the next day, and then left. Some left the day of election. 
I do not know that they said anything about their intention of going 
and returning. I saw some of them vote. I was not there all the 
time; but others, whom I did not see vote, told me they voted. There 
was some excitement during the election, but nothing very serious 
"but a little knock-down some of our old Kentucky election fights. -I 



28 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

know some of the citizens who did not Vote, but only know the reasons 
from them, I voted that day for Mr. Whitfield. The following are 
the names of those on the poll-books who were residents here at that 
time: Samuel F. Few, A. McAuley, Jerey Clark, James W. Rich, 
Asa Smith, Francis A. Hart, David Brassfield, Nicholas Lockerman, 
G. W. Riley, Green D. Todd, A. Russell, Zachariah Mills, Jeremiah 
Howell, Wm. Dawson, Miles Shannon, Jas. Noble, C. McCrea, G-eo. 
D. Stevenson, Stephen Noble, G. B. Panton, L. D. Pitcher, Adam 
Linhart, S. H. Burgess, R. E. Saunders, John Thomas, John P. 
Richardson, H. C. Dunn, H. D. McMeekin, J. B. Hyatt, Eli Moore, 
John Reed, Wm. G. Mathias, J. Hoyt, Wm. Large, A. T. Pattie, 
Win. M. Bukum, D. Scott Boyle, Hiram Rich, Wm. B. Simmonds, 
R, H. Fielding, Thomas C. Bishop, Wm Wallace, John R. Mize, 
Stephen Sparks, M. F. Conway, R. R. Rees, J. K. France, Thos. S. 
Sloakum, Wm. Sparks, Zach. Sparks, Daniel Creech, J. T. Hook, E. 
K. Adamson, Wm. L. Blair, Hiram Kelly, J. E. Grant, Franklin 
Keyes, Floyd Shannon, A. Payne, A. Cunningham, Michael Kelly, 
Daniel C. Ames, Wm. Tanner, John M. White, Godfrey Grase, F. 
Engleman, John A. Lindsay, Adam Deitz, Robert. L. Ream, B.L. 
Sellers, John Owens, Wm. Engleman, M. France, H. M. Hook, 
John Wallace, T. B. Silkman, F. E. Bird, Clement. Naif, George 
Keller, John J. Bentz, John Keffer, J. H. Day, L. F. Mills, L. J. 
Eastin, Jos. H. Edsall, R. Coakland, Charles Leib, W. S. Yoke, 
Saml. France, G. M. Fisher, Lewis N. Rees, Jones Creach, James 
Skinner, N. Sage, Adam Fisher, Henry Smith, John Smith, (97 in 
all.) 

The following list are the names of persons on the poll-books I know 
to have been residents of Missouri at that time ; the rest I do not 
know, and cannot tell where they belonged : Malcolm Clark, Richard 
Stoddard, J. Y. Chance, Jarret Todd, Thos. L. Owens, Geilin L. 
Brown, Pleasant Ellington, Win. T. Yokum, John Moore, John 
Dunn, Thos. Owens, Wm. S. Murphy, J. M. Guthrie, G. B. Red- 
mon, James H. Hull, Robert Todd, Isaac Spratt, A. Dawson, J. C. 
Thomson, C. D. Elliott, A. H . JScott, S. J. Johnson, George Young, 
H. H. C. Harrison, John Drew, Robert Maddox, Dugan Fouts, (27 
in all ) 

I do not recollect that these strangers told me whom they voted for. 
They said they came here to make this a slave State. Mr. Yineyard 
told me that he intended to vote, did vote, and* would come over hero 
to vote at every election, as he thought it was right; and he wished 
to make this a slave State, and he had the same object in the delegate 
election. Flanigan was considered the Free-State candidate, and 
Whitfield the Pro-slavery candidate. Some of these men came on 
boats the morning of the election, and some in wagons the day before. 
I knew a^ great many citizens of the district when I saw them, but I 
could not call all their names. I was generally acquainted through' 
the neighborhood here and at Salt creek, but not so well in other 
parts of the district. I should think there were from 100 to 200 who 
were strangers and came over from Missouri. I should not think 
#e could poll more than 150 or 200 votes at that time. My house 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 29 

and Captain Rees's house were the first built here, and there were 
"but lew others here at that time. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Whitfield : 

I could not tell where all the strangers came from ; some of thorn 
told me they had come from Missouri. Some of the companies had 
men who were acquainted with me, and who called on me and told 
me they had brought a good company along. The candidates on that 
day were Mr. Whitfield and Mr. Flanigan. I do not know where 
Mr. Flanigan lived then, or lives now. He was here at that time, 
and I understood he was from Pennsylvania. He told me he was 
building a house on Salt creek, but I have never seen it. His nephew, 
I think, occupied it, and occupies it now. He had a son with him, I 
think. I cannot say how long he remained here after the election; 
not more than a week, I think. I have never seen him in the country 
since. I cannot say whether his son went with him or not, then. 
His nephew, Mr. Phelan, I think, did not go away with Flanigan. I 
cannot say who Mr. Flanigan came with to this Territory, but I saw 
him here at times, for some two or three months before the election. I 
think he was here before October. I cannot say whether he came 
with, after, or before Governor Reeder. I know that he was here, but 
cannot say exactly when he came or whom he came with. There 
were some circulars put out, but I do not recollect the purport of them 
now, as I had no reason to think about them. I do not know of any 
other free-State men who were here and took a prominent part in the 
election and left except, perhaps, I should hear the names. I do not 
recollect the name of Coates. I recollect a Dr. Leib who was here. 
I cannot think of ther free-State men who were here at the time of 
the election, who left immediately after the election. I think likely 
I saw Flanigan' s circular that was out, but I have no idea what it 
was. I took it for granted that most of the officers of the fort went 
for you. I think Dr. Leib was appointed to carry out messages, but 
I do not (know) what he was doing altogether. I thought very little 
of the man, and therefore paid very little attention to him. 

There were large crowds about my hotel all the time. I was very 
busy, and was in my house most of tu.e time, being but occasionally 
out. My business called me a gr"H,t many times down to the store 
and office, after provisions and goods, and that was the most I attended 
to. The people were encamped just about here in different places, 
where they could get grass and water and be handy to town. I was 
not in the encampment. I do not know who were there, except that 
some of my most intimate neighbors told me that they were camped 
there and had their own provisions, and made apologies for not pa- 
tronizing me. I saw wagons there belonging to persons who were my 
neighbors in Missouri. I heard some say that one of their reasons 
for coming here to vote was, jthat a candidate had been imported here 
upon them, and great efforts were being made to bring voters here 
against them. I do not recollect what hobby Mr. Flanigan was run 
on. I know I did not vote for him. There were at that time many 
persons coming over into Kansas and moving about, and great excite- 
ment about claims, &c. Some of them told me they voted, and the 






30 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

major part of them I talked with told me they had voted or intended 
to vote. 

The companies from Clay and Bay counties told me they voted. I 
do not know whether the majority of those people went back into Mis- 
souri or about in the Territory. I know they left. A great many 
Missourians have settled in this Territory. There were, I think, 
many Missourians who came over that fall, made claims, did some 
work upon them, went back and wintered in Missouri, and then came 
back to the Territory in the spring. I do not know whether persons 
in Missouri along the borders were waiting for the passing of the Ne- 
braska bill, and the making of treaties with the Indians, to come over 
here and make claims. I did not see more fighting here and excite- 
ment at that election, than I have often seen at elections in the west- 
ern country. It is a common thing to have fights at elections. I do 
not (know) whether because they are put off till election day or not. 
I think at that first election General Whitfield received a majority of 
the voters of the district that I knew. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I think there were 100 or 200 persons from Missouri. I conversed 
with a great many from Missouri that I was intimate with. Many, a 

freat many, who knew me would come in and give me the time of 
ay, and we would have a little chat, and then they would go away. 
I conversed with a gentleman who lives in Kock House prairie, in 
Buchanan county. Mr. Jesse Vineyard told me their determination 
to come here and vote on all occasions. That was prior to the passage 
of the Nebraska bill. I do not think they told me about certain 
associations from the east who intended to control the subject of sla- 
very here. Jesse Vineyard told me that if the bill passed, they in 
tended to come over here and stay long enough to vote at any rate, 
and make this a slave State at all hazards. Judge Almond told me, 
observing to me, " George, we intend to make this a slave State, if 
we have to do it at the point of .the bayonet." 

G. H. KELJ^R. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 17, 1856. 



LUCIAN J. EASTIN called and sworn. 
To Governor King : 

I reside in Leavenworth City, and came here in October, 1854, and 
was present at the November election of that year. It was conducted 
as ordinary elections in Missouri and Kentucky, in which States I 
formerly resided. I saw no one prevented from voting. There was 
a large crowd around the polls, that made it difficult to get to the 
window where the judges received the votes. I heard persons calling 
to others to give way, to let others get in. These calls were made 
by pro-slavery men. I saw no man vote whom I knew to be a Mis- 
sourian, although I saw a good many Missourians here, many of 
whom told me they did not vote. There were others among the Mis- 
sourians whc had come over a day or two previous, and said they had 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 31 



made claims, and intended to reside here, but might not he ahle to 
remain here during the winter ; a good many of them are lesidents 
of the Territory, who came in the spring following, with their prop 
erty and families. This class of men may have voted, hut I do not 
know that fact. 

I had the list of legal voters of that election. The Pro-slavery 
party at that election, as I "believe, had a majority of from sixty to 
seventy-five votes in this district, as I was well acquainted with the 
voters, and made out a list with other persons, who knew men that I 
did not know ; and this was the result, after giving all the doubtful 
/otes to the Free-State party. The last two hours before the polls 
were closed, there were but few persons around the polls, and no dif- 
ficulty in any one giving his vote. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

Mr. McAuley, I think, and Mr. Alexander, and some others, as- 
gisted me in making the list. I took the names of such as I believed 
to be legal voters, including some who had made claims in the Ter- 
ritory, of the class I have above referred to, where $hey had made 
statements to come over, and of having made claims ; we then classi- 
fied the votes between the two parties. I can't state how many we 
fave to each party, as the list is lost. I only remember the majority, 
can only guess at the aggregate. I can't say how the aggregate 
compared with the poll-books. This list was made out just before 
this election. There were three candidates in the field at that elec- 
tion. Flanigan's position, as he stated it to me, and to the public, 
was that of a national democrat, though he preferred Kansas to be a 
free State. Whitfield was considered a pro-slavery democrat. I did 
riot see the Missourians, who were over here, vote. They came over 
just to see how the election was going on, as they said to me. They 
were mostly from Platte county some from Weston, and some from 
just opposite here, and other parts of Platte county. I cannot state 
the number precisely ; but I think I saw fifty or more. They rode 
over ; but I don't think they camped. They said they came over to 
see what was going on. I did not want them to come, as I knew we 
could beat the Free-State party, and especially as it was divided 
between Wakefield and Flanigan ; and I think we could have beat 
them if they had been united. My opinion is, if it had been 
necessary to carry the election, they would have tried to vote ; but 
they did not come for that purpose, as far as I know. The majority 
of the judges at that election were free-State men. I did not see any 
of the Missourians vote ; but I can't say whether they did or did not. 
Mr. Twombley, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Burgess were the judges at that 
election. 

L. J. EASTIK 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K, T., May 29, 1856. 



LUCIAK J. EASTIN recalled. 
To Governor King: 
Mr. Flanigun came out here with Mr, Keeder in October, 1854, 



32 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and soon announced himself for Congress in the columns of my paper. 
He was considered as Keeder's candidate, and made no permanent 
residence in the Territory. He was defeated in the election, and left 
immediately for Pennsylvania. He subscribed for my paper, and or- 
dered it sent to that State. He said he was satisfied with Kansas, 
and that it was not the country that he expected to find it. I over- 
heard him say, in a conversation, that he and his friends had no press 
here to defend them, and that their positions were misrepresented. 
Quite a number of his friends, who acted with him and voted for him, 
went away with him, or about the same time. Mr. John Phelan, 
I think, his relative, of Pennsylvania, had handbills printed for 
him, and left witb Flanigan. Eeeder had proclamations printed for 
the election at my office, and the friends of Flanigan had handbills 
printed at the same time. The friends of the latter took out for dis- 
tribution the proclamations and handbills. Those who took the pro- 
clamations were appointed by Keeder. 

L. J. EASTIN. 
LEAVENWORTH, CITY, K. T., May 29, 1856. 



ADAM T. PATTIE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Scott: 

I was raised in Eastern Virginia. I reside now in Kansas Terri- 
tory. I first came to Kansas in September, 1854, and have been here 
ever since. I was at the election of the 29th of November, 1854, in 
Leavenworth City. I was generally acquainted with the people in 
this district. I was frequently at the polls on the day of election. 
I voted myself, and I saw how it was conducted. I saw many per- 
sons vote that day. A great many I knew to be residents of the 
district. I saw nobody vote that clay who was not a resident of the 
district at that time. I saw some Missourians .here that day, and 
heard some of them say that their object was, and the general expres- 
sion of opinion was, that if no non-resident free-soilers were allowed 
to vote, they would not vote. They stated that they came over to see 
a fair election, and not to interfere. The Missourians were armed 
merely with pistols and knives, but not more than it was usual to see 
in this country. I do not think I saw a gun on the ground. I saw 
persons, residents of the Territory, of both parties, with side-arms 
that day, as was customary here for all parties to have. I saw no 
violence offered, or any interference with the election ; and I consid- 
ered it as quiet an election as any I had ever seen in Maryland or 
Virginia. There were frequent requests for persons to come up and 
vote ; and I saw no objection to any one going up to vote. The 
prominent candidates at that election were Gen. Whitfield and Judge 
Flanigan, between whom the contest seemed to be. I was not ac- 
quainted with Judge Flanigan, though I knew him by sight. I un- 
derstood he had been in the Territory but a week or two before that 
election, and never, to my knowledge, had any family in this Terri- 
tory, though I have heard him say he had one in Pennsylvania. He 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 33 

left in a short time after the election ; bnt I do not think he remained 
here long enough to get the result of the election. I have never heard 
of him since as heing in the Territory. Mr. Flanigan represented 
himself to he the Free-State candidate, in opposition to Gen. Whit- 
field, the Pro-slavery candidate. I never knew of Governor Keedei 
having a family in the Territory, hut I have heard of his having one 
in Pennsylvania. I know Mr. T. Conway, who was in this place at 
that time, and took an active part in that election. I do not know of 
his challenging any votes that day. He was not a candidate at that 
election, that I know of. I have since become acquainted with Mr, 
Jolly, who was appointed to take the census in the Kickapoo region, 
or the 15th district. Mr. Jolly said he had a family; that his family 
was in Iowa. I cannot tell how long he remained here after he got 
through taking the census. He had an interest in the town of Grass- 
hopper Falls, and I believe has now sold it ; and I do not know that 
he eyer had any permanent abode in the Territory at all, or ever had 
his family here. I am also acquainted with Charles Leib, who was 
appointed to take the census of the 16th district. Ha said he had a 
family in Pennsylvania. I never heard him say, just before he left, 
that he never had his family in the Territory. I have not seen him 
since then. These census-takers said Gov. Keeder told them to take 
the census, so as to show where each man came from; and Charles 
Leib said it was so that he could tell their sentiments upon the 
slavery question. I think that in November, 1854, the Pro-slavery 
party had a large majority in this district. 

- A. T. PATTIE. 
LEAVENWOKTH CITY, K. T., May 27, 1856. 



THOMAS BEYNOLDS called and sworn. 
To Mr. Scott: 

I resided at the time of the election of the 29th of November, 1854, 
on what was called " Seven-mile" creek, near Fort Eiley, and the 
election was held at my house. There were few resident voters not 
more than five^or six not connected with the army in that voting 
district. All the candidates at that election, we knew of, were Gen- 
eral Whitfield and Judge Flanigan. I do not think any one in our 
neighborhood knew where the election was to be, until the day before 
the election. I was at the fort the day before the election, and Mr. 
Wilson told me who were judges, and that the election was to be held 
at my house the next day. That is the first I heard of it. I had 
been acquainted with Mr. Whitfield, and I voted for Mr. Whitfield 
as the Pro-slavery candidate ; and I regarded Judge Flanigan as the 
Free-State candidate. I think there were some 41 or 42 votes polled 
;that day, nearly all of which were given by persons who came from 
about the fort, and were the employees of the general government 
about the fort, and they came from the fort in government wagons. 
Jjath flags flying with the motto of " Flanigan and Free-State." 
I There were seven or eight of these wagons running back and forth all 
H. Rep, 200 3* 






34 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

day. Tnere were many about. Captain Lyon took an active part. 
He told me lie was a stockholder in the town of Pawnee, and wanted 
me to take a part in it. I do not know of his voting at that election. 
Dr. Hammond was aboiit, and was the surgeon at the fort. He was 
a stockholder in the town of Pawnee. He voted that day the Free- 
State ticket. Col. Montgomery was in command at that fort. He 
was also a stockholder in Pawnee was president of the Pawnee Asso- 
ciation. All the baggage-wagons that took the persons to the elec- 
tion from the fort were under his command. The men were drinking 
and hallooing ; and when they got near the house where the election 
was held, the mules in one of the wagons ran off, and broke the wagon 
all to pieces, and hurt several of the men. Two of the judges of 
election belonged to the army; Mr. Lowe, the wagon-master, Mr. 
Mills, head carpenter, and Wilson, a sutler, were those appointed 
by Governor Keeder ; but Wilson did not serve. Nearly all the men 
who came from the fort voted the Free-State ticket. Mr. Lowe, Mr. 
Mills, and Mr. Twombley served as judges ; the two former belong- 
ing to the army. I objected in the morning to the men from the fort 
voting, or acting as judges of election, and they overruled me. Cap- 
tain Lyon said I should not stay in the country unless I would go with 
them. I took it that they meant I must not oppose Pawnee, or hav- 
ing a free State, if I desired to stay in that part of the country ; that 
was the general understanding there. - They said Pawnee would be 
^the seat of government. I spoke to Gov. Eeeder to call a legislature, 
that we might petition to Congress for a seat of government ; and I 
recommended that plan, and suppose it was the first cause of Pawnee 
iDeing laid off ; though when it was done, I had no part in it. I do 
not recollect what Keeder said about a seat of government at that 
time.. He said he thought he could do what he wanted without the 
legislature. I had told him we wanted a seat of government, and 
some mail-routes established. 

Cross-<examined by Mr. Howard : 

I voted in the evening of that day, after objecting to the election in 
the morjiing as illegal, because the judges of election were connected 
with the army. I had some hired men there, and some sons who 
were not there, but there were only some five or six legal votes on the 
ground that day. I did not consider those who came to the fort to 
work and not be settlers, as entitled to vote. The carpenter is at the 
fort yet, but never had any claim. I electioneered with some of the 
men frpm the fort to vote for Whitfield, and they generally said if 
they did they would be turned out of employment ; but I think some 
of the men voted for Whitfield. 

To Mr. Scott : 

Governor Keeder was at the fort several days before the judges of 
election were appointed. I think he staid at Mr. Lowe's house while 
there. THOMAS REYNOLDS 

LEAVEN\TORTH CITY, K. T., May 28, 1856. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 35 

C. R. MOBLEY called and sworn. 



To Mr. Scott : 

I resided, on the 29th of November, 1854, at Fort Riley, I was 
staying with Lieutenant Folk's mess. 

I was at the election of the 29th of November, 1854. Mr. "Wil- 
son, Mr. Lowe, and Mr. Mills were appointed by Governor Reeder 
as judges of election ; but I was appointed by the other judges in place 
of Mr. Wilson, who declined. 

General Whitfield was the Pro-slavery candidate, and Judge Flan- 
igan the Free-State candidate at that election. Dr. Hammond, sur- 
geon of the army at the fort, voted at that election the Free-State 
ticket. The employees of the government at the fort voted that day, 
and voted the Free-State ticket. I handed in the ballots, and they 
generally told what ticket they voted. There must have been three- 
fourths of the votes polled that day polled by the employees of the 
government, and not as settlers. There was a good deal of talk among 
them about claims, but I believe none of them had any claims. There 
were two men who stated that they were from St. Louis, but formerly 
from Ohio, who came the day before the election, voted there the Free- 
State ticket, and left the day after the election. The employees of 
the government went to the polls in government wagons. Colonel 
Montgomery was in command of the fort at that time, and he and Dr. 
Hammond said they were stockholders in the town of Pawnee at that 
time, as did Governor Eeeder. 

C. R. MOBLEY. 

LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T. ? May 28, 1856, 



H. A. LOWE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Scott : 

I resided at Fort Riley on the 29th of November, 1854. I was em- 
ployed by the government of the United States as wagon-master at 
the fort. Governor Reeder appointed me one of the judges of election 
on the 29th of November, 1854. I have no doubt Governor Reeder 
knew how I was situated at the fort, as he stopped at my house while 
he was at Fort Riley. Mr. Mills, the boss carpenter of the fort, and 
Mr. Robert Wilson, were the other judges appointed by the governor. 
Mr. Robert Wilson was sutler of the fort at that time. I have no 
doubt that Governor Reeder knew the positions occupied by all the 
judges at the time he appointed them. Mr. Wilson was at that time, 
as I understood, a stockholder in the town of Pawnee ; but Mr. Mills 
and myself were not, and we had no interest in any claims near 
Pawnee at that time. Mr. Whitfield and Mr. Flanigan were the 
candidates at that election Whitfield the Pro-slavery, and Flanigan 
the Free-State candidate. There was no other question in issue at 
i that election, that I know of. Quite a number of men from the fort 
and in government employ, but not soldiers, and not settlers in the 
I Territory, were allowed to vote. I should judge about three-fourths 



36 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

perhaps more, of the votes given that day were given by governme 
employees, and all, I think, voted for Flanigan, the Free-State ca 
didate. They were not given to flunder stand, so far as I know, th 
if they did not vote for Flanigan they .would be turned out of emplo 
ment. They went to the polls in-'conveyances belonging to the go 
eminent. They were principally teamsters, some mechanics, w" 
had permission to take the volarets and go down in them to the pol] 
Colonel Montgomery told me to let these men have these conveyanc 
to go down to and return from the polls. He was commandant ai 
acting quartermaster of the fort, and a stockholder in the town 
Pawnee. I saw one flag on one of these wagons, with the motto 
<e Flanigan and a Free-State/' which came down to the polls abo 
the middle of the day. No officer of the army except Dr. Hamnion 
the surgeon, voted that day. He voted the Free-State ticket, aft 
having sworn that he considered himself a citizen of the Territor 
and that if he was ordered to leave the Territory with the army 1 
would resign his commission. The judges thereupon considered hi: 
entitled to vote. He was a stockholder in the town of Pawnee. 

H. A. LOWE. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY K. T., May 28, 1856. 



H. MILES MOORE called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory to reside in September, 1855, from wes 
era Missouri, where I had resided for about five years, practising { 
an attorney at law. I had resided in St. Louis a year previous 1 
that. I came over to Leavenworth City on the 29th of Novembe: 
1854, to attend the election for delegate to Congress. Arrangemem 
had "been made throughout western Platte county, and western Mil 
souri generally, as I have been informed, for the purpose of goin 
over there and voting at that election. Messengers had been ser 
from one portion of western Missouri to another, to notify. Meeting 
had been held to make arrangements to come over here on that da 
to vote. For a day or two* previous, large numbers had passe 
through Weston to the Territory, on horseback and in wagons, wit 
their forage and provisions, from the counties lower down on til 
north side of the river Clinton, Platte, and Clay counties. I sa-i 
parties from each of these counties at the hotel ; among them, m 
whom I recognised. The companies raised about Weston and Plai 
county were generally sent to the back portions of the Territor 
The lower counties sent men to the precincts near the border, 
came over myself with a large party from Weston and Platte coun 
to Leavenworth ; a large crowd was present then on the ground. T 
election was held at the Leavenworth hotel, kept by Keller & Ky] 
There was a great crowd around the polls all day. There was a go< 
deal of excitement, and some quarreling and fighting. I remains 
there all day till nearly night. General Whitfield was the 
slavery candidate; Judge Flanigan was the Free-State candidat 
All our party from Weston voted for Whitfield, I believe I v 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 37 



yself that day for General Whitfield, but I do not see my name on 
the poll-books. I should think there must have been from 150 to 
200 Missourians who voted there that day. The other Missourians 
who came over said, after they returned, that they went to the 14th 
and 15th districts, and other districts farther back. I have carefully 
examined the poll-books in the 15th and 16th districts, and the two 
lists hereto attached, are the names of Missourians whom I know, and 
whose names I find on the poll-books as voting on the 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1854, at the election held in those districts. 

The following is a correct list of names of persons who resided in 
Missouri, and who voted at Leavenwor'th City, in Kansas Territory, 
at the election held for delegate to Congress at that place, in the six- 
teenth district, on the 29th day of November, 1854, as appears by 
a copy of the poll-books of said election herewith shown to me : 

Garrett Todd, John Williams, John Donaldson, James L. Thomp- 
son, W. L. Murphy, William B. Simons, J. M. Guthrie, Kobert 
Wear, Dougan Fouts, Pleasant Elingtoii, Joseph C. Anderson, John 
Moore, Thompson Owens, James L. Hull, J. T. Woodward, Abner 
Dean, C. F. Bedon, Joseph Fouts. 

The following is a list of names who voted as above, as appears 
from the poll-books of said election, on the 29th of November, 1854, 
at the house of Pascal Penconson, in the sixteenth district, said per- 
sons being residents of Missouri at that time: Jesse Morin, Ira Nor- 
ris, W. H. Miller, Hugh McKowen, John Miller, G. H. Layton, S. 
Johnson, Samuel Dixon, Isaac House, Leonidas Oldham, J. B. 
Michell, James Henderson, Henry Debaud, A. K. Oldham, J. L. 
Jenks, Samuel Sapp, Levi Beechen, N. L. Towasen, J. H. Thomp- 
son, James Sweeny, K. F. Duncan, Oscar By waters, Thomas L. 
Douglass, E. C. Mason, John Bryant, Kobert Ely, C. B. Hodges, 
William Young, William Dryman, John- A. <Gr. Fisher, N. K. 
Greene, Colonel L. Burnes, Craven Col vert, Samuel M. Bowman, N. 
B. Laman, Benjamin Yokam, Allen Pullen, J. M. Mulkey, John 
Cook, James Bolton, Z. J. Thompson, Levi Bowman, William Ful- 
!on, G. M. Quimby, J. B. Crain, Job Kobins, Alfred Allen, Jona- 
than Lacey, James L. Reisenger, J. D. Pepper, S. H. Oliphant, 
Samuel Pepper, Warner Blanton, Jacob Metice, Phineas Skinner, 
'iJames A. Burnes, Nathan Nuby, George Kitchen, Asa Vanlanding- 
jbam, Henry Adams, E. S. Staggs, Judge H. B. Almond. 

There were a great many names on the poll-books that I do not 
hink were residents of the sixteenth district ; but I do not know 
rhere they were from. I do not know the names of those from 
he lower counties, as a general thing, and they came mostly to the 
forder precincts. Since I have moved into the county of Leaven- 
rorth, I have become acquainted with a majority of the residents 
iere. The men who voted for J udge Flanigan had no chance to get 
o the polls easily, as the mob about the polls kept them away. If a 
aan hurrahed for General Whitfield, he would get to the polls easily. 
Ir. Coates, now of Kansas City, was standing near the polls, and 
xpressed his disapprobation of the way affairs were going on, and the 
nob immediately drove him away, threatening him very severely. 
Vhile the voting was going on, the window where votes were taken 



38 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

was broken in by stones "being thrown at it. After we got through 
voting, and the polls were closed, we returned to Weston, Missouri. 
as we came, in wagons and on horseback. 

H. MILES MOORE. 
LEAVEWORTH CITY, K. T., May 29, 1856. 



WM. Gr. MATHIAS called and sworn. 

To Mr. Scott : 

I came to Kansas Territory, and landed at Leavenworth City, on 
the 23d day of November, 1854, from Maryland ; and I was presenl 
at the election of the 29th of November, 1854, at Leavenworth City, 
Not having been in the Territory a great while, I did not know manj 
people, or where they were from ; but I saw a great many faces thai 
day that I have since recognised as citizens of that county. J. W, 
Whitfield, pro-slavery, and Judge Flanigan, free-State, were the can- 
didates that clay. The voting had commenced when I got to th* 
polls. There was a considerable crowd about the window, which on 
that account was somewhat difficult of approach. This difficulty was 
experienced by persons of both parties. My position was known bj 
men of both sides, and I attempted two or three times to get to the 
window, and was crowded back. Malcolm Clark, and two others. 
were appointed to assist persons to get to the window ; and even then 
it was difficult. I had made my position known, in a discussion ic 
the street that morning, and I suppose almost every one on the ground 
knew that I was a Whitfield man. I saw a few men, of both parties : 
with side-arms not many, however ; and went to the election with 
some six or seven friends of Flanigan, who all had pistols and 
bowie-knives ; but I did not hare any myself. At the election I sa"\v 
no unusual disturbance. I saw no attempt to hinder any one from 
voting, whether pro-slavery or free-State. The tickets were of differ- 
ent colors, so that all the votes given could be designated, and I sup- 
pose the crowd were standing around the window to count the votes 
fiven in, and thus see who was* ahead. I was introduced to Judg* 
lanigan that day. He was boarding at Parson Kerr's, at the fort, 
I do not think I ever saw him after the day of election. Shortly 
after the day of election I went myself to board at Parson Kerr's, and 
Flanigan had left. 

WILLIAM G. MATHIAS. 
WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 6 1856 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



39 



December 4, 1854. The judges of the several election districts made 
return of the votes polled at the election held on the 29th day of No- 
vember last for delegate to the House of Representatives of the United 
States, from which it appears that the votes in the said several dis- 
tricts were as follows, viz : 



Districts. 


J. W. Whitfield 
received 


J. A. Wakefield 
received 


K. P. Flenniken 
received 


ii 

o 

. 8 

M 

9 3 
3* 


Chas. Robhison 
received 


S. C. Pomeroy 
received 


P. Blood received 


W. L. Garrison 
received 


First 


46 


188 


51 


9 


2 


2 


1 


1 


Second 


235 


20 


6 












Third 


40 




7 


1 








- 


Fourth 


140 


21 














Fifth 


63 


4 


15 












Sixth 


105 
















Seventh. 


597 




7 












Eighth . 


16 
















Ninth 


9 




31 












Tenth 


2 


6 


29 












Eleventh 


237 




3 


5 










Twelfth 


31 


9 




1 










Thirteenth 


69 




1 












Fourteenth 


130 




23 












Fifteenth 


2 7 




39 












Sixteenth 


232 




80 












Seventeenth 


49 




13 






























Total . 


2,258 


248 


305 


16 


2 


2 


1 


1 





















December 5, 1854. On examining and collating the returns, J. 
W. Whitfield is declared by the governor to be duly elected delegate 
to the House of Representatives of the United States, and on the same 
day a certificate of the governor, under the seal of the Territory, issued 
to said J/ W. Whitfield of his election. 



FIRST DISTRICT. 
List of voters at Lawrence, November 29, 1854. 



1 Stafford J. Pratt 

2 John N. Mace 

3 Theodore J. Wells 

4 Joseph Savage 

5 John Bruce, jr. 

6 H. C. Safford 

7 Luke P. Lincoln 

8 John Levy 



9 Hamsin Williams 

10 Calvin H. Survin 

11 Edward P. Fitch 

12 Otis H. Lamb 

13 Tilly Gilbert 

14 Orin C. Nichols 

15 De Witt C. Barrett 

16 John W. Carlton 



40 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



1*7 Horace A, Hancock 

18 David 0. Buffam 

19 Robert Buffain 

20 Ferdinand Fuller 

21 John F. Wilson 

22 James H. G-leason 

23 Robert L. Mitchell 

24 John C. Gordon 

25 Joseph McKnight 

26 Albert D. Searl 

27 James Tegart 

28 Hugh Cameron 

29 Carnie W. Babcock 

30 Joseph W. Russell 

31 Ellis Bond 

32 Samuel N. Wood 

33 Ayro Hazen 

34 George F. Earl 

35 William Evans 

36 George W. Partridge 

37 Samuel Kimball 

38 James F. Meriam 

39 William B. Lee 

40 Edward Clark 

41 Oliver A. Hanscom 

42 Erastus D. Ladd 

43 Lyman D. Hubbard 

44 Joseph Cracklin 

45 John H. Dean 

46 Rufus H. Waleman 

47 Bryce W. Miller 

48 Samuel N. Simpson 

49 Brainerd B. Track 

50 John Hubbinson 

51 Ira W. Ackly 

52 James B. Abbott 

53 Daniel Lowe 

54 Samuel E. Martin 

55 Lewis L. Litchfield 

56 John Frye 

57 Josiah Miller 

58 Robert G. Elliot 

59 Bernard M. Partridge 

60 William Ricker 

61 Jonathan M. Burleigh 

62 John Mack 

63 William H. Hovey 

64 Robert Hooton 

65 Josiah G. Fuller 

66 Orville D. Smith 

67 Joshua Thaxter 



68 Joshua A. Pike 

69 Sidney B. Dudley 

70 Horatio N. Bent 

71 William Woniken 

72 George W. Reed 

73 Freeman R. Foster 

74 John Armstrong 

75 David Purinton 

76 Frederick KimbaH. 

77 John H. Lyon 

78 David Condit 

79 Leonard G. Higgins 

80 George Tilton 

81 David B. Leif kin 

82 Albert Alverson 

83 Philip Cook 

84 Ansin H. Mallory 

85 Stillman Andrews 

86 John Collins 

87 Hugh Pettingal 

88 Amos Finch 

89 George W. Chapin 

90 John Wilson 

91 Charles Blunt 

92 Samuel Merrill 

93 James A. Corlew 

94 Robert J. Wolf 

95 George Levy 

96 James Whitlock 

97 Daniel P. Hadley 

98 Michael Albin 

99 Jonathan F. Taber 

100 Joseph Eberhart 

101 William A. Gentry 

102 Alfred V. Coffin 

103 Henry S. Eberhart 

104 Lewis J. Eberhardt 

105 Edwin Bond 

106 Jacob Etront 

107 Wilder Knight 

108 Luke Corlew 

109 Fields Bledsoe 

110 Josiah Hutchison 

111 John Pearson 

112 Washington Brians 

113 Carless Day 

114 Enoch Reed 

115 John H. Doty 

116 Daniel Sayre 

117 John Pieratt 

118 Frederick W. King: 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



41 



119 Lewis Howe 

120 Thomas C. Still 

121 James M. Still 

122 Orin Pettingall 

123 Solomon Lapham 

124 Henry W. Feck 

125 Saphi H. Talsom 

126 Jesse Whitrow 

127 Josiah M. Keed 

128 Henry T. Root 

129 Jacob Shidoler 

130 M. Soiley 

131 A. Still 

132 T. Roah 

133 John Renell 

134 M. D. Johnson 

135 Robert McFarland 

136 John McFarland 

137 Sylvester H. Davis 

138 John A. Lowry 

139 John 0. Davidson 

140 Chester 0. Grout 

141 Henry Bronson 

142 N. Heneck 

143 L. Kibbey 

144 T. G. Muvy 

145 L. N. Dailey 

146 N. B. Blouton 

147 Henry Davis 

148 Robert A. Gumming 

149 Charles A. Gray 

150 Enoch Houland 

151 James D. Pooge 

152 Alexander Sebastian 

153 Ely B. Purdom 

154 Marshall Miller 

155 Abel F. Hutull 

156 Henry G. Young 

157 John C. Mopmon 

158 Frederick Roff 

159 Andrew White 

160 Noah Cameron 

161 Robert Hughes 

162 L. Farly 

163 James L. Stephens 

164 David Eldridge 

165 Clark Crone 

166 John Morehead 

167 Isaac Shoop 

168 Samuel N. Shortwell 

169 Benjamin Johnson 



170 Solomon Wildis 

171 Robert Wilkinson 

172 W. Turner 

173 James Turner 

174 W. M. Davis 

175 Robert Allen 

176 H. Clarke 

177 Absalom W. White 

178 Clarkson M. Wallace 

179 Joel K. Godin 

180 James Williams 

181 Alfred Payne 

182 S. J. Willis 

183 John C. Archabl 

184 Forester Hill 

185 Daniel H. Brooks 

186 Charles Jorden 

187 T. J. Stone 

188 Ligon S. Bacon 

189 Silas K. Holliday 

190 E. Dizleo 

191 Nathan F. Herrick 

192 Henry D. Graves 

193 William C. Gibbons 

194 Thomas Henry 

195 Clark Tefft 

196 Edwin S. Dexter 

197 Samuel Corner 

198 Samuel S. Snyder 

199 William Hale 

200 John H. Miller 

201 Solomon G. Durkee 

202 Thomas Overfield, 2d 

203 James Reed 

204 Joseph Lovelace 

205 William Feguson 

206 Jonathan F. Morgan 

207 George W. Kent 

208 John Dog 

209 Jared Carter 

210 James Blood 

211 Willard Colbourn 

212 Sidney J. Case 

213 John L. Crane 

214 Francis 0. Tollis 

215 Justin Lewis 

216 Charles W. Dow 

217 William Lyon 

218 Albert T. Bercaw 

219 James S. Cowan 

220 Jordan Neil 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 






221 Isom Taylor 

222 Achilles "Smith 

223 William Kitchingham 

224 Hiram C. Covill 

225 Chalmers J. Koberts 

226 Harris Stratton 

227 Silas Wayne 

228 John H. Turman 

229 Clark Stearns 

230 Martin Adams 

231 James A. Davidson 

232 Thomas J. Ferril 

233 Achilles B. Waide 

234 Edward B. Johnson 

235 JohVan Winkle 

236 Granville 0. Mitchell 

237 Joseph D. Barnes 

238 G-eorge Strobridge 

239 Moses Taylor 

240 Carles Hall 

241 John A. Shafer 

242 Josiah H. Pillsbury 

243 Simon Hopper 

244 John H. Wilder 

245 Charles W. Persall 

246 Napoleon D. Short 

247 Samuel Y. Lune 

248 Charles P. Turnsworth 

249 Edward Jones 

250 Elmore Allen 

251 Stephen Ogden 
.252 Norman Allen 

253 Levi Ferguson 

254 William N. Baldwin 

255 John N. Ladd 

256 Calvin G. Hoyt 

257 Henry T. Saunders 

258 John Baldwin 

259 Samuel C. Harrington 

260 John Ogden 

261 C. Howard Carpenter 



262 Joseph K. Tewksbury 

263 Francis Barker 

264 William Corel 

265 Levi Gates 

266 Jackson Sellers 

267 George E. Holt 
2S8 Edward Winslow 

269 Samuel Kennedy 

270 Theo. E. Benjamin 

271 Harrison Nichols 

272 Asaph Allen 

273 James M. Steele 

274 George L. Osborne 

275 William Yales 

276 William Matthews 

277 Jonathan 

278 Charles Kobinson 

279 Franklin Haskell 

280 James S. Griffin 

281 Samuel J. Johnson 

282 John Hopper 

283 William Lykins 

284 Franklin Hopper 

285 Van Kensselaer Morse 

286 James Correll 

287 David B. Hopper 

288 John Anderson 

289 Homer Hayes 

290 Ransom Calkin 

291 Caleb S. Pratt 

292 Jeremiah Spencer 

293 Joel Grover 

294 John Mailey 
-295 Thomas R. Wells 

296 Charles Stearns 

297 Samuel F. Tappan 

298 Ephraim H. Dennott 

299 Joshua Smith 

300 James S. Emery 

301 Jerome B. Taft 



SECOND DISTRICT. 
Poll-book, Douglas City. 



1 William H. Russell 

2 H. B. Lacy 

3 W. H. Hymer 



4 C. R. Barnes 

5 G-. L. Potts 

6 R. C. Ewing 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



43 






7 J. J. Peart 

8 C. B. Pearson 

9 J. M. Weff 

10 J. F. Stoneshut 

11 W. H. Trigg 

12 K. Crump 

13 Job Phillips 

14 W. K. Howard 

15 H. C. Koon 

16 Upton Hays 

17 W. S. Wills 

18 Simon Moon 

19 J. E. Durritt 

20 W. H. Beddoe 

21 S. Hays 

22 T. A. Smart 

23 D. J. Penn 

24 M. Beagle 

25 J. Kirby 

26 J. S. Warren 

27 P. D. Elkins 

28 J. W. Brooks 

29 W. G. Wickerson 

30 W. B. B. Brown 

31 W. F. Griner 

32 J. Hornbuckle 

33 N. B. Thoors 

34 H. H. Ratliffe 

35 William Proctor 

36 J. F. Berry 

37 S. M. Duncan 

38 William Rice 

39 F. J. Drumond 

40 E. W. Holbut 

41 E. H. McClunnahan 

42 J. L. Hoffman 

43 D. Anderson 

44 R. S. Atkins 

45 B. B. Potts 

46 J. P. Hardy 

47 W. Thatcher 

48 J. A. Barton 

49 S. C. Coombs 

50 W. F. Berry 

51 J. H. Mosely 

52 R. White 

53 A. 0. Bangs 

54 B. J. Taylor 

55 R. S. Lorian 

56 B. F. Biliary 

57 M. L. Crustoe 



58 J. V. Webb 

59 J. West 

|60 C. F. Dunkin 

61 J. H. Pitts 

62 J. Michalson 

63 L. C. Haggard 
; 64 J. Landis 

65 H. C. Foreman 

66 G. W. Walker 

67 C. Smith 

68 H. L. Simpson 

69 M. J. Codin 

70 T. M. Brooks 

71 A. Hays 

72 J. A. Price 

73 J. Showaltef 

74 C. J. Mericks 

75 J. H. Gaines 

76 R. J. Pongou 

77 J. T. Wright 

78 L. J. Adkins 

79 F. J. Huffiger 

80 J. F. Hawkins 

81 J. D. Kinkado 

82 J. Dillard 

83 J. H. Wells 

84 J. S. Huff , 

85 W. P. Boiler 

86 M. S. Winn 

87 L. J. Winchester 

88 J. G. Adkins 

89 J. W. Self 

90 0. Smith 

91 L. F. Robinson 

92 L. Adams 

93 J. D. Lahay 

94 W. H. Scroggs 

95 D. J. Cunningham 

96 J. Morgan 

97 F. Hatton 

98 J. M. Ragan 

99 D. Peters 

100 F. J. Staples 

101 H. J. Higgins 

102 W. B. Mitchell 

103 B. T. Brown 

104 E. Waller 

105 S. D. Hogar 

106 E. Dickerson 

107 B. F. Thompson 

108 E. T. Crumer 



44 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



109 J. Hockroday 

110 E. S. Cramer 

111 C. J. White 

112 A. J. McCunnahan. 

113 L. A. Talbot 

114 W. J. Burnett 

115 W. Wirn 

116 G. W. Hall 

117 H. E. Henshaw 

118 A. Collins 

119 J. E. Burnett 

120 J. Mason 

121 Wm. Leggett 

122 S. Tilden 

123 J. Perley 

124 Wm. Nichols 

125 J. F. Neill 

126 H. Morton 

127 W. W. Johnson 

128 J. P. Bird 

129 D. W. Mauley 

130 J. King 

131 J. W. Furritt 

132 J. M. Dunn 

133 E. M. Walbert 

134 L, L. Bennett 

135 F. K. Long 

136 P. P. Lafarm 

137 S. McGaughey 

138 F. McMannetry 

139 J. F. McLean 

140 J. A. Winn 

141 S. H. Woodron 

142 J. Parsons 

143 J. C. Coons 

144 J. Anderson 

145 J. Breton 

146 N. L. Davis 

147 G. H. Holbert 

148 A. B. H. McGee 

149 G. W. Ellis 

150 K. H. Hix 

151 W. H. Kerr 

152 F. E. Lahey 

153 K. H. Holyclaw 

154 J. C. Bethicord 

155 D. Trigg 

156 T. A. Ogden 

157 T. J. Smith 

158 Wm. M. Strait 

159 W. E. Boggs 



160 A. Holyclaw 

161 S. Crowait 

162 J. F. Burton 

163 J. W. Carman 

164 J. F. Mills 

165 G. F. Hughs 

166 F. Myres 

167 H. A. Hunter 

168 G. W. Clark 

169 J. Emmons 

170 J. Ecton 

171 A. Crompton 

172 Levi Owen 

173 D. Maloney 

174 J. B. Nichols 

175 G. Swalsoner 

176 J. B. Crandle 

177 A. Kinkade 

178 B. T. Eisor 

179 W. B. Evans 

180 J. S. Campbell 

181 J. C. Evans 

182 W. D. Dickey 

183 C. Adams 

184 S. Tyer 

186 Wm. Campbell 

186 W; E. Thompson 

187 Hardy Willis 

188 V. Thompkins 

189 T. Simmon 

190 J. W. Chamberlin 

191 Wm. N. Simmons 

192 A. Eickton 

193 J. B. Forman 

194 Jas. M. Dunn 

195 E. W. Custwood 

196 Thos. Shaw 

197 F. Bushford 

198 Aug. Smith 

199 John Scott 

200 C. C. Kummey 

201 John Snyder 

202 Thos. Scott 

203 David Simpson 

204 G. H. Snyder 

205 B. Callahan 

206 J. T. Brady 

207 L. P. Wills 

208 H. S. McClemnar 

209 N. Lydor 

210 W. A. May 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



45 



211 James C. Eanson 

212 T. J. Lockridge 

213 Wm. Justin 

214 J. A. Smith 

215 J. A. Wakefield 

216 H. C. Addison 

217 H. Alderman 

218 J. H. Murphy 

219 W. A. Hord 

220 C. W. Smith 

221 H. 0. Muzzy 

222 Thos. H. Hensley 

223 H. J. Noland 

224 Jas. Shaw 

225 T. A. Bailey 
22e Geo. Biddle 

227 Jas. W. Hix 

228 H. H. Connor 

229 H. D. Wakefielfl 

230 L. Barnett 

231 Wm. Luckett 

232 C. Shoon 

233 Geo. Davis 
,234 W m - W T arren 

235 Lidbas Mason 

236 J. J. Hiottom 



237 B. Fendget 

238 W. C. Beatie 

239 Nath. Kamsey 

240 H. Benson 

241 W. D.Hall 

242 E. Bell 

243 0. Sprodling 

244 A. Hendricks 

245 Samuel Jones 

246 E. Doke 

247 J. Jones 

248 T. Lahay 

249 J. W. Hendricks 

250 Wm. Kelley 

251 F. H. Hendricks 
452 Thos. Bond 

253 M. Grant 

254 Wm. Limmerick 

255 W. W. Withers 

256 Geo. W. Ward 

257 P. Ellison 

258 J. T. Cramm 

259 E. Connor 

260 J. Cathor 

261 J. Yance 



THIRD DISTRICT. 
List of voters in the third district. 



1 George Holmes 

2 Thomas C. Shoemaker 

3 Thos. N. Stensen 

4 J. W. Hays 

5 G. M. Hollo way 

6 Zephaniah Plummer 

7 David Copeland 

8 J. T. Swatzell 

9 W. A. Suhlete 

10 John Homer 

11 L. B. Slateler 

12 H. N. Watts 

13 William E. Collins 

14 James M. Herron 

15 M. J. Mitchel 

16 W. Vaughan 

17 Anthony Ward 

18 J. R. Warren 

19 James M'Connell 



20 John Andrew Jackson 

21 James Wiseman 

22 Horatio Cox 

23 John Salivy 

24 Jeremiah Preston 

25 D. L. Crysdale 

26 Robert H. Matthews 

27 Charles Bougshea 

28 William Matingley 

29 Noble Barren 

30 A. G. Brown 

31 F. A. W entwort n 

32 Jesse Michiner 

33 Preston Huifaker 

34 Will. D. Owens 

35 Stephen Scott 

36 James M. Small 

37 Hiram Dawson 

38 Francis Grassmuck 



46 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



39 D. Updegraff 

40 Thomas Handlin 

41 L. D. Chilson 

42 Jeremiah Miccum, 

43 J. Tyler 



44 James N. Steward 

45 Charles Jordan 

46 Osborne Nailor 

47 Alfred T. Byler 

48 A. D. M. Hand 



FOURTH DISTRICT. 

List of votes given at an election held at the house of Dr. Jerrod Chap- 
man, in the fourth district, Kansas Territory, on the 2$th day of No- 
vember^. D. 1854. 



1 Dr. J. Chapman 

2 J. T. Kriser 

3 Charles White 

4 Wm. P. Hubhel 

5 T. K. Kule 

6 James Price' 

7 W. H. Liguan 

8 Evan Hall 

9 G. W. Withers 

10 S. S. McKinney 

11 G. W. Allen 

12 L. Kerr 

13 B. C. Moore 
1*4 G. H. McNiely 

15 K. Hill 

16 James Morrison 

17 H. T. Chils 

18 A. B. Smith 

19 Otho Hall 

20 J. W. Mamron 

21 J. A. Finley 

22 J. P. Withers 

23 John Price 

24 M. Simons 

25 B. P. Wood 

26 J. Campbell 

27 S. P. S. Sitroll 

28 Wm. HuU 

29 John Scudder 

30 W. T.Stewart 

31 John Neil 

32 James Gray 

33 J. M. "Reynolds 

34 Thomas Chandler 

35 G. W. Shoemaker 

36 J. S. Dawson 

37 G-. Harper 



38 W. H. Eussell 

39 T. D. Cooper 

40 Will. Grant 

41 John Garrett 

42 K. K. Ball 

43 S. S. Bartleson 

44 Charles Rover 

45 H. C. Brooking 

46 W. Hampton 

47 C. A. Moon 

48 L. S. Brandon 

49 R. M. Williams 

50 G. D. Skidmore 

51 G. W. Hilton 

52 H. P. Muire 

53 J. T. Bartleson 

54 Richard McCamish 

55 W. B. Coats 

56 T. J. Brown 

57 W. T. During 

58 L. M. Dehoney 

59 Jesse Davis 

60 W. C. Thruston 

61 A. D. Harper 

62 R. H. Thominson 

63 W. A. David 

64 A. Grouse 

65 Joseph Bradbury 

66 G. Simons 

67 H. Lowery 

68 C. R. Schull 

69 E. Lamples 

70 D. G. Cameron 

71 James Croker 

72 Thomas Turmun 

73 0. H. Ripators 

74 J. Lipscomb 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



47 



"75 W. M. McKinney 

76 L. West 

77 J. Syme 

78 J. R. McKinney 

79 F. McKinney 

80 N. M. Breman 

81 Wm. Grase 

82 F. C. Samerland 

83 Champ. May field 

84 Judge Bernard 

85 Thomas Mockaby 

86 A. F. Powell 

87 John Eidy 

88 H. Owens 

89 S. E. Carpenter 

90 Zach. Johnson 

91 Thomas Pemberton 

92 J. H. McNutt 

93 H. Kurtz 

94 J. S. Wood 

95 W. H. Chase 

96 R. S. Nowland 

97 J. B. Townsend 

98 J. B. West 

99 Joel Scott 

100 J. A. Morill 

101 B. Saffington 

102 F. M. Saffington 

103 S. A. H. Townsend 

104 D. B. Wood 

105 0. Thompson 

106 A. J. Miller 

107 J. J. Herrin 

108 A. B. Gillilkand 

109 J. W. Wood 

110 P. Basinger 

111 E. H. Basinger 

112 E. Hill 

113 J. M. Banks 

114 Joseph Johnston 

115 B. J. Bowers 

116 J. Cummings 

117 Samuel Bradberry 

118 R. Hackett 



119 R. B. Young 

120 J. B. Davis 

121 J. H. Lockridge 

122 A. Banner 

123 Wm. A. Durfnee 

124 J. H. McMurray 

125 Richard Benny 

126 Samuel Garrett 

127 E. Bolwurr 

128 E. J. Curley 

129 Cyrus C. Miller 

130 Samuel E. Thompson 

131 R. J. Scott 

132 J. Massir 

133 J. P. Barnaby 

134 R. M. Stish 

135 John Curin 

136 W. S. Ewett 

137 0. Ranol 

138 Wm. Moore 

139 E. Moore 

140 S. H. Moore 

141 D. Hendricks 

142 Perry Fuller 

143 Charles Clarke 

144 Thomas Dotry 

145 Geo. Panius 

146 Samuel Nukmon 

147 John Goreus 

148 F. Barnes 

149 R. Watney 

150 Isaac Watney 

151 D. P. Kuzer 

152 Samuel M. Whemig 

153 G. R. Johnson 

154 John Scarce 

155 A. D. Dale 

156 W. G. Lucket 

157 Miller Essex 

158 Robert Talley 

159 David Luttz 

160 Thomas Teach 

161 Thomas Mclntirc 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



FIFTH DISTRICT. 

A list of the names of voters who voted at the fifth district in Kansas 
Territory, on the 2$th day of November, 1854, for delegate to Con- 
gress. 



1 John C. Northcut 

2 W. P. Shonke 

3 Jonas R. Ketmore 

4 H. C. Hamilton 

5 S. Groff 

6 S. G. Shields 

7 B. B. Brone 

8 A. S. Davenport 

9 W. King 

10 G. W. Smith 

11 E. Smith 

12 S. Regen 

13 G. W. Kemper 

14 Stephen Derenport 

15 Joseph Merrett 

16 S. 0. Mure 

17 Edward McPherson 

18 Lot Coffman 

19 Morgan Gill 

20 Samuel Wade 

21 W. N. Young 

22 T. M. Poundexder 

23 William Muer 

24 W. T. Monro 

25 W. S. Gregory 

26 Stephen Ahstem 

27 Cornelius Canine' 

28 Henderson Rice 

29 Allen Wilkinson 

30 S. M. Ramond 

31 N. W. Mooney 

32 J. S. Weightman 

33 J. M. Gearheart 
"34 H. Steinfort 

35 T. S. Cicom 

36 H. T. Wiman 

37 Jerome Cone 

38 R. Callin 

39 J. W. Wilson 

40 Tohias Heath 

41 H. G. Randall 



42 Calvin Randall 

43 Hiram Thorps 

44 Animon Gotee 

45 J. Armstrong 

46 M. Marshall 

47 0. T. Cleaveland 

48 John Kenton 

49 Francis Gokie 

50 John Vanhorn 

51 R. N. Kensey 

52 S. M. Hay 

53 Adam Case 

54 J. H. Wisler 

55 R. Kirhy 

56 T. R. Harris 

57 Albert Woodfin 

58 S. W. Frogg 

59 G. T. Terris 

60 M. Crowcute 

61 John Scuple 

62 W. Chessnut 

63 John Rose 

64 Thomas Joal 

65 J. D. Swift 

66 0. C. Brown 

67 F. Jones 

68 W. C. Childers 

69 David Lockens 

70 W. N. Haskel 

71 W. C. Kink 

72 R. W. Sturgeon 

73 D. West 

74 P. J. Potts 

75 W. H, Fenley 

76 T. McCoy 

77 B. P. Campbell 

78 T. Totten (oath) 

79 W. W. Tacket 

80 J. Polk 

81 R. Goulding 

82 J. Buffington 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



SIXTH DISTFICT. 



1 John Coyle 

2 P. D. Cummings 

S Robert M. Esslinger 

4 Thomas D. Page 

5 Isaac N. Mills 

6 B. F. Wilkerson 
7" James W. Arnott 

8 Jacob Miller 

9 William A. Randolph 

10 Elihu Fox 

11 Jefferson Copeland 

12 F. Hord 

13 G, A. Wade 

14 John F. Detchemorn 

15 William Ray 

16 John R. Taggert 

17 G. W. Wonkay 

18 George Stern 

19 R. A. Brown 

20 W. H. Palmer 

21 J. J. January 

22 E. B. Cook 

23 H. D. Palmer 

24 George W. Simonds 

25 J. H. Prince 

26 John January, sr. 

27 F. Dewint 

28 William R. Wilmott 

29 John C. Hearne 

30 William Vermillion 

31 James Ray 

32 James T.Ray 

33 Elisha McKinney 

34 John January, jr. 

35 Jesse Ray 

36 Spencer H. Ray 

37 Samuel Beaver 

38 B. F. Coffey 

39 J. B. Fleming 

40 William Robinson 

41 Alexander Green 

42 John Thonton 

43 Mathew Kirk 

44 Andrew Kirk 

45 David P. Fleming 

46 William Irvin 

47 W. T. Poston 

48 W. Auston 

H. Rep. 200 4* 



49 John W. Denton 

50 C. F. Moherlay 

51 Thomas Cumins 

52 T. S. Pearson 

53 Jesse Copeland. 

54 W. L. Hants 

55 G. H. McDaniel 

56 William Painter 

57 William G. Ingram 

58 G, W. Cluck 

59 Mathew Sellart 

60 Francis York 

61 Jacob Simons 

62 John A. McCoy 

63 Thomas B. Arnott 

64 James McHenry 

65 William Givens 

66 Thomas McMillan 

67 J. F. Brookhart 

68 T, J. Goodman 

69 Harrison Ashley 

70 T. E. Owen 

71 J. W. Parkinton 

72 J. H. Crackett 

73 J. W. Sharp 

74 W. G. Watkins 

75 Thomas Jacob 

76 A. J. Strumbaugh 

77 B. F. Hill 

78 R. T. Lindsay 

79 William Dunlapp 

80 Thomas Cummings 

81 E. C. Haskill 

82 Jacob Fudge 

83 Alfred Pyhee 

84 W. W. Salmon 

85 G. D. Hansbrough 

86 Thomas Watkins 

87 George F. Royston 

88 W. A. Thompson 

89 H. T. Wilson 

90 William Barbee 

91 William Musgrave 
92- A. B. Sloan 

93 William Cass 

94 William R. Morgan 

95 J. S. Mitchell 

96 Richard Beck 



50 



KANSAS 



97 John 

98 George Mosier 

99 William W. 8, Burch 

100 JMIOS Willson 

101 B. L. Y. Peyton 



m 

uph Boiiinger 



8iriNTB DISTRICT. 

List qf voters m the seventh district at an election for delegate to Oon- 
gress, held on the 29^ day of November, 1864. 



1 James L. Bali 

2 Gteo. F, Asberry 

3 W. W. Amos 

4 8. W. Asberry 

5 P. D. Barker 

6 B. B. Smith 

7 J. B. Anderson 

8 B. Fluraoy 

9 J, 8. Glass 

10 F. F, 8heperd 

11 Thos, Cermwell 

12 A, W. Ervin 
IS John GK Agfa 

14 John Passook 

15 0. Bound 

16 T. Bogtrs 

IT J. 0. WasWrarn 

18 B. 8imson 

19 A F. Browa 

20 J. a. Webb 

21 GK W. 8mith 

22 J. D, Hiasoa 

23 Ohas. Whiting 

24 B. J. Browa 

25 John B. Baiabridge 

26 J. M. Boswell 

2T Ohas F. Boada"**; 

28 A. L. Ties 

29 John J. Ingram 

30 0. 0. Chiles 
81 J. 8. Hamiltoa 

32 1. T. Douglas 

33 8. J. Fitegerel 

34 M. Ewiag 

85 J. B. Edwards 

86 GK W. MoGowaa 

87 a. A. Baker 
38 W. 0. Clarkson 



39 B. J. Austin 

40 J. B. Warder 

41 J. Fries 

42 J.% W. Lawrence 
48 8. B. Buckle 

44 N. Oolson 

45 P. T. Iroine 

46 W. H. Fox 

4T F. 8. Bobertson 

48 W. B. Major 

49 E. L. Hord 

50 L, M. Major 

51 B. M. Hudpeth 

52 James Martin 
58 M. King 

54 A. M. Duham 

55 J. 0. McHattea 

56 M. L. Clarkson 

57 J. Willis 

58 B. E. McDaniel 

59 J. 8. Bobersoa 

60 J. H. Stevenson 

61 L. B. Harwood 

62 W. Bobertsoa 

68 L. L. Washburne 

64 W. D. Hufman 

65 B. J. Headrick 

66 W. J. Peak 

67 J. F. Bay 

68 W. 0. 8house 

69 I. J. Joaes 

70 8. GK Oalroa 

71 Wm. Lauderdsle 

72 B. L. Bell 

73 J. M. Carter 

74 E. B. Baraett 

75 B. D. Harris 

76 W. F. Burin 



KANSAS AiTAIBS. 



61 



?7 J, Marland 

78 G. W. Bake. 

79 J, H. Douglas 

80 J. Boberson 

81 E, Booton 

82 8, W, Hamilton 
88 A, G, Steele 

84 T. 0, Dogging 

85 8, W, Banton 

86 J. M. Grigsby 

87 J. H, Sanders 

88 E, Bright 

89 J, B, Brown 

90 F. F, Benich 

91 8, W, Wheler 

92 J, K, Garnett 

93 J, H, Brown 

94 W, M, Aiken 

95 J, Trowside 

96 A, Street 

97 W, B, Btrnard 

98 E, B. Elliott 

99 B. W. Land 

100 J. S, Jones 

101 D, Vanmettr 

102 G. B. Warfleld 
108 W, H, Day 

104 J, E. Clark 

105 J, W, Brown 

106 W, Jones 

107 W, Boatright 

108 J, Sinclair 

109 G, Gillespie 

110 J, Ivins 

111 L, M. Alexander 

112 B. M. Lanford 
118 D, Oornill 

114 C, E, Strou 

115 W, 8. Booktr 

116 J, 0, Bill 

117 J. M, Brown 

118 L. 0, Mason 

119 J, H, Fish 

120 J, Marshel 

121 J, B. Belts 

122 D, F. Greenwood 
128 J, F, Parker 

124 J, F. Bledsoe 

125 0, Earris 

126 J. Blley 

127 G, W. Foster 



128 W, W. Portsr 

129 M. Whitaktr 

ISO John MoFadin, Jr. 

131 J. M McGirk 

132 I, James 
188 W, Buker 
184 J, B, Dillard 
135 J, A, Elware 
186 A. 0, Stont 

137 J, W, H, Patton 

138 B, F, Earris 

139 J. Johnson 

140 J, Dillard 

141 B, Kin 

142 L, E, Merdick 

143 J, A, Mahan 

144 D, J, Falton 

145 J. B, Fagt 

146 J, Gant 

147 J. Graves 

148 J, Mann 

149 L, N, Boss 

150 8, Justice 

151 J. Dolarson 

152 E, L, Trundle 

153 J, Dowty 

154 A, Varren 

155 J, E, Brown 

156 E, Price 

157 J, B. Warren 

158 E, Whale? 

159 J, Eoffttn 

160 J. A, Jackson 

161 J, T, Einton 

162 C. Dear 

163 B, G, Smart 

164 E, V, White 

165 J, M, Major 

166 J. T. Major 

167 I. J. Ihfor 

168 J, W, Finley 

169 D, A, Muir 

170 W, Gbens 

171 J, Pearson 

172 G. E, Bellis 

173 J, Coles 

174 J, 0, Talbott 
176 T, Windsor 
176 J, 8, Percival 
in A, B, Jacobs 
178 A. B, Patterson 



52 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



1T9 G. W. Muir 

180 W. M. Hutchinson 

181 W. D. Kelly 

182 R. E. Simmons. 

183 J. Flurnoy 

184 E. C. Simpson 

185 D. J. Waters 
1.86 G. H. Gordon 

187 S. G. Campbell 

188 T. J. Ford 

189 C. J. Kentley 

190 W. L. Janny 

191 W. Noland 

192 D. Burge 

193 S. Hill 

194 H. C. Belles 

195 J. H. Crooks 

196 J. B. Shaw 

197 F. C. Varrion 

198 G. Lewis 

199 B. M. Noland 

200 J. Hicklin 

201 W. M. Bradford 

202 J. Hincle 

203 D. B. McGirk 

204 W. Hall 

205 W. F. Dowden 

206 S. Kenich 

207 J. West 

208 J. M. Fleming 

209 H. Parrish 

210 F. Abner 

211 J. Chin 

212 J. S. CogwellJ 

213 J. Munson 

214 J. M. Minesinger 

215 R. A. Barnett 

216 J. Smith 

217 W. M. Cannan 

218 A. Johnson 

219 W. A. Parrish 

220 R. D. Steele 

221 D. L. Hunter 

222 B. Greene 

223 R. B. Bradford 

224 W. C. Yerby 

225 J. B. Rallen 

226 B. T. Lankford 

227 D. Payne 

228 J. B. Devenport 

229 G. L. Pitcher 



230 A. M. Jones 

231 J. Richerson 

232 N. Man gall 

233 J. Lewis 

234 T. Crabtree 

235 F. M. McGee 

236 C. B. Griffin 

237 J. W. French 

238 J. Clatham 

239 W. L, Ballard 

240 P. Woods 

241 W. Smith 

242 W. Lenearay 

243 E. W. Shumacher 

244 H. Hanberson 

245 N. Hinell 

246 G. W. Hinell 

247 J. C. Anderson 

248 F. P. McGee 

249 S. Ralston 

250 J. W. Watts 

251 W. M. Bowring 

252 C. Jinks 

253 P. Wolf 

254 J. H. McGee 

255 C. A. Linkenanger 

256 J. Shotwell 

257 William Parrish 

258 L. Steele 

259 G. W. Berry 

260 J. Booker 

261 R. S. Price 

262 M. Green 

263 William Ish 

264 L. C. Cook 

265 J. W. Brown 

266 M. A. Reed 

267 W. F. Johnston 

268 W. J. Ellis 

269 William Hanley 

270 D. Turner 

271 L. Z. Noland 

272 Robert Turner 

273 William Daly 

274 J. D. Patrick 

275 B. Hinson 

276 R. E. McDail, jr. 

277 William Riley 

278 John Catron 

279 M. W. McGee 

280 T. P. Shroek 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



281 F. A. Counsalor 

282 J. J. Flemming 

283 J. Carnahan 

284 0. B. Maddox , 

285 Preston Hoge 

286 A. M. King 

287 C. H. Whitington 

288 T. Worthington 

289 John Raulston 

290 J. H. Merit 

291 William B. Jones 

292 C. G. Bans 

293 James Critser, (rejected) 

294 J. T. Benson 

295 Solomon Allhores 

296 E. G-. Walker, (rejected) 

297 William McKinsey 

298 William L. Perkins 

299 A. J. Smith 

300 James Harris 

301 Charles Smith 

302 John Jette 

303 J. C. Calhoun 

304 Peter Smith 

305 A. H. Major 

306 W. T. L. Smith 

307 H. Clay, jr. 

308 Joseph Smith 

309 Thomas Smith 

310 Henry Buey 

311 Thomas Trigg 

312 A. D. Bell 

313 Thomas Bell 

314 Isaac Rice 

315 John Rice 

316 Joseph Hider 

317 John Lingo 

318 John Bell 

319 James McCiz 

320 A. King 

321 H. Smouse 

322 John Banden 

323 H. Folch 

324 John Christy 

325 John Davis 

326 Amos G-ross 

327 Alpha Gross 

328 M. Boswell 

329 Michael Wagner 

330 John Wagner 

331 John Hoffman 



332 Abrarn Russell 

333 John Hall 

334 William Hill 

335 Edmund Hill 

336 David Rice 

337 L. Buey 

338 D. McBride 

339 Joseph Hall 

340 Martin Wade 

341 Joseph Ail . 

342 George Long 

343 Isaac Ruf'ner 

344 John Swigert 

345 Steven Russell 

346 C. Knott 

347 William Todd 

348 A. G-. Hogus 

349 W. Wintersmith 

350 Robert Taylor 

351 Jacob Mitchell 

352 Charles Julian 

353 Rufus Searse 

354 John Watson 

355 Robert Letcher 

356 John Powell 

357 J. Hershberger 

358 J. M. McAustin 

359 M. Barstow 

360 Edward Zeglor 

361 A. Dudley 

362 John Hampton 

363 B. Luckette 

364 James Rupe 

365 James Davidson 

366 George West 

367 James Batchlor 

368 John Temple 

369 Robert Blackborn 

370 A. Pearson 

371 Joseph White 

372 Thomas Shockley 

373 Gladder Brown 

374 Hugh Ferrell 

375 James Judge 

376 David Passett 

377 John Ruyon, (rejected) 

378 M. C. Burgess 

379 C. Hoard 

380 William Bassett 

381 John Balding 

382 William Morand 



64 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



388 John Earley 

884 Upton Burgess 

885 Worder Earley 

886 Walter Waddle 

887 J, W. Gray 

888 Dan, Bunion 

889 Ned Roff 

890 W, Todhunter 

891 John Roff 

892 William Huey 
898 Andrew Gibson 

894 Adam Henderson 

895 Edwin Dobins 

896 0. Mitchell 

897 L, X, Day 

898 D. Gant 

899 Andrew Floydt 

400 Ben. Macky 

401 Abner Hoard 

402 M. B. Logan 
108 0, Gruck 

404 James Wilard 

405 D. G. Williams 

406 George Sharp 

407 H, 0, Shotwell 

408 F, H. Oirkpatriok 

409 Eli Heed 

410 E, J, Torpin 

411 B, Bonard 

412 Eanson Jones 
418 John Kirkpatrick 

414 William Mack 

415 M, Gruber 

416 J. V, Dier 

417 Simpson Shernor 

418 Zachariah Sherwood 

419 John Harris 

420 Samuel Goons 

421 Peter Brooks 

422 Henry Samuels 
428 George Helm 

424 William Conrad 

425 F. Hants 

426 Charles Williams 

427 Jacob Gitt 

428 Z, Corre 

429 Eira Cline 

480 W, Moart 

481 Henry Putts 

482 F. F, Danaway 
488 Wm, Peters 



484 Jaoob Louok 
435 John Brand 
486 W, W, Dillon 
467 Henry Charles 
488 G, H, Charles 

439 Jaokson Bluff 

440 Daniel George 

441 M, Garver 

442 D, Steel 
448 Philip Day 

444 W. Jacobs 

445 Munroe Lore 

446 Goodlow Long 

447 A, C, H. Long 

448 Jefferson Bledsoe 

449 T, C, Ewing 

450 William Epley 

451 Jacob Barring 

452 Henry Bathurst 

453 G, Bupp 

454 Peter Stone 

455 P, M, Glolin 

456 Franklin Beeder 

457 B, Miers 

458 Randolph King 

459 A, Warner 

460 Charles Warren 

461 Z, Warner 

462 John Lovejoy 

463 A, Estill 

464 W. Dillingham 

465 George Bause 

466 Samuel Barny 

467 Obadiah Hulti 

468 Charles Hultz 

469 Abraham Chamber 

470 S. Metcalf 

471 B, L, Graves 

472 N, A, Milton 

473 Ben. Bich 

474 J, Hodg 

475 J. T. Moorehead 

476 Joseph Gale 

477 Frank Davis 

478 J. M. Davis 

479 P. T, Cann 

480 B, G, Powell 

481 W. Brown 

482 William Mosby 

483 John Mosby 

484 K. Moss 






AFFAIRS. 



485 A. I 

486 - 

487 Char- on 

488 William Williams 

489 J, P. Thomas 

490 William Fort 

491 J. McGawly 

492 John Mason 

493 William Bingham 

494 J, 0. Young 

495 J, W, Wilson 

496 P, Griffin 

497 John Bowman 

498 Richard Hodge 

499 Pen Mahon 

500 Robert Goodlow 

501 James Bennett 

502 John Gilmore 
508 N. H, Marrow 
584 William Tomson 

505 A, Rutherford 

506 W, Green 

507 John Lyon 

508 E, McBride 
50.9 A, Ridge 

510 A, Noland 

511 A. Bedford 

512 N, Logan 

513 J. Hassell 

514 A, Crump 

515 H, Wallace 

516 E. N. Higgins 

517 B, J. Hause 

518 M. B, Stuard 

519 P, Tyree 

520 John Black 

521 Oharles Fox 

522 H. Willis 

528 W. A. Clinton 

524 J. H. Vernon 

525 J. M. Kelly 

526 M. J. Munroe 

527 0. H. Chism 

528 J, McFarlin 

529 D. B. Williams 

530 8. D, Hunter 

531 G, W. Bledsoe 

532 John Meadow 

533 M. Bliss 

534 8. Brockman 

535 W. 8. Oaselman 



Thomas Etter 
f>3T V/IJy Thomas 
folm Curby 
;r!es Curby 

640 Joseph Zeaball 

641 James Hollo way 

542 Lewis Green 

543 John Gann 

544 Jonas Marion 

545 James Marion 

546 George Ferrell 

547 Phares Ferrell 

548 J. W. Renich 

549 Jabal Cudiff 

550 F. B, Burrell 

551 B. A. 8nead 

552 D. H. Bowring 

553 William A. Gordon 

554 G. 0. Adamson 

555 E, P. Lee 

556 J. 0. Young 

557 D. Bates 

558 J. A. Emerson 

559 J. H. Chin 

560 Jona, Dean 

561 Charies Triplette 

562 Abner Houston 
568 Drury Crews 

564 Benjamin Emerson 

565 W. A. Ohausler 

566 Thomas Harber 

567 W. H, Pollard 

568 B. 8. Lomax 

569 Kibble Stonall 

570 Richard Lee 

571 Allen Jennings 

572 Alfred King 

573 J, A, HcHatten 

574 E. W, Carpenter 

575 8, Bonham 

576 J, W. Jacobs 

577 B, W, Sowers 

578 M. Arnold 

579 J. E, Myers 

580 F. Myers 

581 J, 8. Brown 

582 J. T, Dodd 

583 J. T. Worthington 

584 William Carse 

585 J. W. Mathews 

586 F. J. Thorp 



56 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



587 W. M. Liptwich 

588 J. F. Kingcade 

589 A. T. Simmons 

590 John Elmore 

591 Peter Mahan 

592 Philip Cobbs 

593 James Lomax 

594 M. Pollard 

595 E. Slade 

596 J. Arnold 

597 Kobert Lindney 



598 Charles Pultz 

599 Henry Somers 

600 W. Metier 

601 H. Snotgrass 

602 L. Early 

603 Peter Darby 

604 Godlove Coon 

605 S. C. Wear 

606 J. D. Landewald 

607 William Graves 



EIGHTH DISTEICT. 

List of votes given at an election held at the house of Arthur J. Baker, 
in the eighth district Kansas Territory) on the 22th day of November 
A. D. 1854. 



1 John Druratt 

2 Charles T. Gilman 

3 Charles H. Hamilton 

4 Allen Crowley 

5 John A. Kelly 
Eli M. Sewell 

7 Torrence Brooks 

8 F. M. Crowley 



9 James C. Mothers 

10 John F. Godell 

11 Morgan De Lacey 

12 Mitchell W. Hogtlr 

13 D. Wright 

14 Thomas S. Huffulor 

15 G. M. Simork 

16 A. J. Baker 



NINTH DISTRICT. 

List of the voters of the ninth district at the election held at the house 
of Thomas Rennolds, in the ninth district of the Territory of 
Kansas , on the 29^ day of November, 1854, for the election of dele- 
gate to the House of Representatives of the United States. 



1 W. C. Smith 

2 Michael Bag an 

3 David Jones 

4 W. McNelley 

5 W. A. Hammond 

6 H. T. Karr 

7 T. Con way 

8 H. Westcott 

9 James Glenmon 

10 James Marten 

11 George DeBotts 

12 John Kodly 

13 Kobert Willson 

14 J. W. C. Pierce 



15 T. Sonnameker 

16 John O'Donnell 

17 N. T. Boal 

18 S. B. Hoin 

19 S. H. Hackett 

20 D. B. Perry 

21 James Seals 

22 Jesse Spencer 

23 D. Ferrow 

24 John Ferrow 

25 T. Bowe 

26 W. P. Widup 

27 W. P. Moore 

28 E. Connelly 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



5'7 



29 A. J. Dolph 

30 G. B. Von Ansdale 

31 J. Westover 

32 H. A. Lowe 

33 C. R. Mobley 

34 T. E. Wells 



35 James i3ixon 

36 P. Dixon 

37 T. Dixon 

38 E. F. Mezeck 

39 T. Bunnells 

40 Wm. W. Karr 



TENTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters of the tenth district at the election held at S. D. Dyer's, 

November 29, 1854. 



1 Benjamin 0. Dean 

2 Enoch G-. Hinton 

3 Marshal let Garntie 

4 John W. Dyer 

5 Joseph Stewart 

6 Henry Greene, (oath) 

7 William C. Dyer 

8 William Seymour 

9 George 0. Willard 

10 Charles E. Blood 

11 David Stevenson, (oath) 

12 John Wilbour 

13 Israel P Brayton 

14 James Wilson 

15 Henry Bird 

16 Alden Babcock 
1*7 Andrew Noll 

18 Edwin M. Tripp 

19 Wm. D. Wicks 



20 Seth J. Childs 

21 John Mclntire 

22 Harleigh P. Cutting 

23 S. D. Dyer 

24 Francis Deregon 

25 S. D. Houston 

26 Samuel Whitehorne 

27 Stephen N. Frazier 

28 Zebulon Avy 

29 S. P. Allen 

30 Samuel Knapp 

31 A. G. Allen 

32 Abraham 0. Dyer 

33 Moody B. Powers 

34 Hatch Hall 

35 George W. Ewbanks 

36 William Carroll 

37 J. E. Wood 



ELEVENTH DISTRICT. 

Poll-list of the election in the eleventh Congressional district, town of 
Marysville, November 29, 1854. 



1 Jacob Hahen 

2 William Hayn 

3 Jesse Mullen 

4 David Bois 

5 David Jems 

6 Samuel Smith 

7 Marcus Ladd 

8 Joseph Laner 

9 Joseph Hulster 
10 Abraham Horgus 



11 Levi Rooker 

12 Peter Straub 

13 Robert Beech 

14 Edward Buckler 

15 John Harny 

16 Moses Macgrere 

17 Henry Van Pelt 

18 James Creigh 

19 John Zenias 

20 F. D. Purkins 



63 



1 Abral ' 'ten 

22 . na 

23 liol-- 

24 Daniel 

25 David GJimer 

26 John Fries 

27 John Tompkins 

28 N. B Tompkins 

29 Y, 0, Hoy 

80 James Adams 

81 E, 0. Bishop 

82 John Dawson 
88 G. Butcher 

84 Thomas Horrp 

85 Joseph Davidson 

86 John Jackson 
37 John Leech 

88 James Beal ,' 

89 Samuel Smith 

40 Thomas Butcher 

41 John Boir 

42 A. W, Hawkins 

43 J. Mitchell 

44 S, Smith 

45 E. Cheny 

46 Y. 0. Eron 

47 0. Butcher 

48 B. S. Heart 

49 William Miller 

50 John Givan 

51 William Tucker 

52 John Manning 
58 G. W, Gwin 

54 James Honx 

55 John F. Bigby 

56 Elijah Bennett 

57 J. B. Bitchfleld 

58 John Hardin 

59 H. Hunter 

60 Thomas Goodwin 

61 Jacobe Bell 

62 John Spencer 

68 William Hemingway 

64 James Gordon 

65 Daniel Bowler 

66 W. B. Huhhard 

67 Smith Younts 

68 J. B. Owens 

69 William Neal 

70 D. 0. Allen 

71 Alex. Sloughtenborro 



",- .. .Irifj 



. . 
i?r 

77 Harris brown 

78 William Hendly 

79 Thomas P. Smith 

80 William Bruner 

81 Eeson Field 

82 Bicfcard Yarry 
88 George W, Bates 

84 John Cumins 

85 Bird Cumins 

86 James Savage 

87 Hiram D, Coalman 

88 B, G, Smith 

89 Samuel Weldon 

90 Michael Stubbs 

91 James 0, Sage 

92 James Demeron 

93 Bichard Shoates 

94 L, D. Dameron 

95 D, Sampson 

96 Wilson T. More 

97 B, Neely 

98 Jeremiah Sweat 

99 A, McClelland 

100 Alexander S, Clark 

101 A, G, Woodward 

102 Benjamin Plasters 
108 J, W. Jefferson 

104 S, M. Noy 

105 L, M. More 

106 Jessy Bicbardson 

107 Jeremiah Tutman 

108 Nathaniel Craveni 

109 James Powers 

110 Marion Stigall 

111 B. G. Pheips 

112 Charles W. Wood 
118 John Praris 

114 James Bastrop 

115 William Lock 

116 J&nes Lucas 

117 Simon Buckhanan 

118 W. Bead 

119 David Weller 

120 Philip Winberger 

121 Henry Ferel 

122 William Booker 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 



123 Jessey Hoalman 

124 William Heuston 

125 W, P. Roland 

126 J, S. Talbot 

127 John Sanders 

128 Joseph Brown 

129 J, B, Henderson 

130 Samuel W. Green 

131 Lewis Moody 

132 Stephen Hanoook 

133 James Beatley 

134 Johnson Menafee 

135 John G, Blue 

186 Peter Wilson 

187 Sampson Long 

138 Sampson Oliver 

139 Levi Strous 

140 John Toman 

141 Ezra Eastern 

142 J, 0. Owens 
148 James MoGamy 

144 William Sutzeler 

145 William Magar 

146 Jacob West 

147 Ira Green 

148 Reuben Fergerson 

149 William Holt 

150 John H, McDonald 

151 Benjamin Oassorn 

152 Patrick Coons 

153 S, H. Bronson 

154 Raley Haydon 

155 Lewis Ooats 

156 F, Fowler 

157 James H. Gooden 

158 Reason Sowards 

159 Jefferson Lyons 

160 Jacob Butts 

161 Urial Coy 

162 Marion Thiekild 

163 B. P. Bell 

164 Heram Brooks 

165 Mack Robertson 

166 John T. Griffith 

167 J. P. Strother 

168 Mioager Brown 

169 Joseph Towner 

170 William Longworth 

171 L. Morton 

172 H. R. Willis 

173 Martin Sexton 



174 Thomas Lee 

175 J, F, Pendleton 

176 John Stodorc 

177 Sirus A, Cunningham 

178 Leander Basey 

179 Samford Cox 

180 Richard M, Johnson 

181 John T, Burch 

182 J, D, Bullard 

183 E. R, Smith 

184 W, P. Davidson 

185 G, A. Rowan 

186 Stephen Funill 

187 S, Y, Logan 

188 William M, Proctor 

189 Jessey Yearey 

190 David Brown 

191 M, F. Boffan 

192 James Johnson 

193 Benjamin Branin 

194 John R, Black 

195 Sanford Robinson ' 

196 EHLovington 

197 Jones White 

198 EanezerRobb 

199 P, H. Vaughn 

200 James More 

201 John Dulany 

202 James Gorhan 

203 Rodney Dungleson 

204 Henry Long 

205 Joab Duett 

206 James Bernhard 

207 Samuel Gail 

208 John Morgan 

209 James Summonds 

210 Mason Ratliff 

211 Albert Gibson 

212 J. McCartney 

213 James Grason 

214 John Whitaker 

215 Jacob Weber 

216 Jones Fowler 

217 John S. Sursey 

218 Ben. Poe 

219 William Slow 

220 John Scott 

221 William H. Henley 

222 Henry Best 

223 John Mefford 

224 John Swope 



60 



HANS A 3 AFFAIRS. 



225 John Pertell 

226 Joseph Bane 

227 Archibald Huder 

228 Isaac Humphrey 

229 Hieram Alcom 

230 Dulany Perkins 

231 Solon White 

232 John Hekin 

233 Hieram Hans 

234 John Lay 

235 M. B. White 



236 John Craft 

237 John Medill 

238 John Grayham 

239 Telford Todd 

240 George Baxter 

241 Hugh Baker 

242 S. B. M. Homer 

243 William Tullop 

244 George Poal 

245 John Stone 



TWELFTH DISTRICT. 

List of the names of the voters in the twelfth district, taken at the house 
of Mr. R. C. Miller, on Solder creek, Kansas Territory, November 
29, 1854, for delegate to Congress. 



1 K. C. Miller 

2 John Walker 

3 Benj. Morgan 

4 John Lennord 

5 F. Trombley 

6 J. J. Miller 

7 Warner Miller 

8 J. B. Hay 

9 J. Hunk 

10 Louis Vien (oath) 

11 Paul Vien (oath) 

12 Charles Vien (oath) 

13 Jas. Lorton (oath) 

14 J. C. Vanderpool 

15 Jacob Mindes 

16 E. G. Boothe 

17 H. McDowell 

18 G. W. Baker 

19 E. M. Sloon 

20 C. B. Randell 

21 Bassel Grumer 



22 Peter Nessent 

23 N. K. Wingorner 

24 Eron Kennedy 

25 A. Melner 

26 W. H. Wells 

2*7 Samuel Cummings 

28 Peter Prudehour 

29 Louis Ogee (oath) 

30 Battese Oscuni (oath) 

31 F. H. Contramen 

32 L. M. Cox 

33 Charles W. Bobien 

34 James A. Gray 

35 Cass Alley 

36 W. K. Wanton 

37 A. A. Crane 

38 Steph. Hopkins 

39 Charles Dean 

40 G. B. H. Gftbs 

41 Wash. Gibbs 



THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters at the election in the thirteenth district, November 29, 
1854, for delegate to Congress. 



1 C. P. Buding 

2 John De Roche 

3 P. H. Collin* 



4 Alexander Rodd 

5 Charles Munn 
K Nathan Isaac 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



61 



7 J. S. Brudfield 

8 J. B. Cockrill 

9 Kemp M. Woods 

10 J. B. Moore 

11 Elijah W. Mann 

12 James Williams 

13 Alexander K. Elliott 

14 Hugh Swaney 

15 Alexander Milld 

16 John Swany 

IT Elbert 0. Muller 

18 T. H. Bradley 

19 J. C. Cockrill 

20 W. G. Williams 

21 Granville Adkins 

22 Daniel F. Tebbs 

23 James L. Taylor 

24 Holman Banfield 

25 C. J. Reager 

26 Albro Pemberton 

27 William Haddix 

28 Silas M. Gordon 

29 William E. Daniel 

30 Samuel Johnson 

31 Joseph A. McDaniel 

32 Archibald Clark 

33 William Pemberton 

34 Benjamin Boydston 

35 Charles Rodd 

36 G. M. Dyer 

37 D. M. Rinley 

38 Wm. H. Tebbs 



39 Henry C. Cukenville 

40 A. Sidney Tebbs 

41 Alexander Lubrick 

42 Mathew Winston 

43 Johnson Hughes 

44 Samuel L. Winston 

45 William Hinshaw 

46 John Pate 

47 Richard Chandler 

48 Samuel Hudson 

49 Baruck Prather 

50 Thomas P. Chandler 

51 Henry C. Cony 

52 Henry S. Bretz 

53 Elijah Harding 

54 Henry C. Scul 

55 John Cunningham 

56 William Arthur 

57 Barton D. McDowell 

58 John Millier 

59 John H. Myers 

60 Samuel Hoy 

61 Benjamin R. Morton 

62 Joseph Walker 

63 'Jackson Miller 

64 Jesse Miller 

65 0. B. Tebbs 

66 John Plunt 

67 G. Sprague 

68 L. Shepard 

69 Preston Monel 

70 John D. York 



FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 



Poll-look. 



1 Hamilton J. Johnston 

2 Andrew J. Doland 

3 Wm. Jordan 

4 Wm. M. Greer 

5 Fleming Ridge 

6 Nelson Abby 

7 Benja. Dodd 

8 James H. Merrill 

9 Sinclair K. Miller 

10 James Cannon 

11 Paul Merriman 

12 John Lovelady 



13 John H. Whitfield 

14 Uriah Griffith 

15 Jas. B. Baker 

16 Thos. C. Hawley 

17 Auguste Moynes 

18 Peter O'Roorke 

19 Antoine Tezian 

20 Wm. H. Hinchrnan 

21 Charles Eggers 

22 Philip James 

23 Jas. F. Forman 

24 Ephraim D. McLelland 



C'J 



KAN' .,1118, 



25 James Grooms 

26 Absalom Grouzua 

27 Q-eo, M, Waller 

28 Chas, Richter 

29 Leander McClelland 
80 Benj, B, Hazelwood 

31 Sam'l Kirkpatrick 

32 Peter Hoover 

33 Arnott Grooms 

34 Qolmore Newman 

35 Biehard Boulware 

36 Green McAfferty 

37 Albert Head 

38 Thomas Minston 

39 John Doyle 

40 Joel Blair 

41 Jesse Brown 

42 Joel Ryan 

43 Jeffrey M, Palmer 

44 Wra. P, Richardson 

45 Mathew lies 

46 James Kendall 

47 Peter Monroe 

48 Tuplejr Rolph 

49 Eben'r Blackstone 

50 Sam 1 ! Montgomery 

51 Wilson D, Moore 

52 Henderson Sraallwood 

53 Andrew A, Hayes 

54 Carey B. Whitehead 

55 Andrew J, Tfcrpin 

56 Jesse F, Gaves 

57 Henry H. Marsh 

58 Squire V. Marsh 

59 John P. Marsh 

60 James P. Haymore 

61 Wm, H. Davis 

62 Frederick Reed 

63 Benj. 8. Wharton 

64 Wm. A. Mclntosh 

65 Alexander Davis 

66 Wm. A. Hill 

67 Watson Stewart 

68 John Fisher 

69 Joseph Liceliff 

70 Henry Smith 

71 Robt. McSperran 

72 James Campbell 

73 John Trotman 

74 Walker G. Reed 

75 Cobv C. Gordon 



.ClLridge'J. Robinson 

77 Wm, Oa; 

78 James W, Taylor 

79 James B, 0"*''oole 

80 Fernando A. Burgher 

81 Dan'l Vanderslice 

82 Emerson V, B, Rogers 

83 John N. Granville 

84 Nelson Rogers 

85 Wm. Vanderslice 

86 James Vanderslice 

87 Harvey W. Forman 

88 Lewis 0. W. Forman 

89 Hardin Oritchflcld 

90 John S. Pemberton 

91 Nicholas White 

92 Thomas J. Vanderslice 

93 Frederick Treat 

94 John Copeland 

95 James Carson 

96 Gershom M. Gilhiam 

97 Lasiter Copeland 

98 Alfred 0. Rice 

99 Henry Thompson 

100 Jacob Tounger 

101 Sidney Tenant 

102 Christine Donivan 

103 George C. Catlett 

104 John A. Van Ansdale 

105 Robt, M. Whitsett 
100 John Smith, sen. 

107 Josiah Morris 

108 too, W. Stillwell 

109 James O'Toole, sen, 

110 Th6mas W. Waterson 

111 Francis Youpy 

112 Hamilton Osborn 

113 Peter Oadden 

114 Anderson Cox 

115 Charles C. Carson 

116 Luther Dillin 

117 Grandison R. Wilson 

118 Robert Ewing 

119 Geo. W. Gilfespie 

120 Jacob Sharp 

121 Ross Hinchman 

122 Jesse R. Sharp 

123 Charles Buxby 

124 Edward Seuvey 

125 Jefferson B. Baker 

126 Reuben P, Briggi 



KANSAS ' 



127 Fra> 

128 Andre v. 

129 Oliver 

130 Johnson Oai^a 
181 Mark Yogan 

132 George Jamieson 

133 Claudius A. Rowley 

134 Francis 0. Hughes 

135 Thomas E. Baker 

136 John D. Armstrong 

137 John Smith, jr. 

138 Aaron Lewis 

139 Aaron Quick 

140 Edwin P. Weaver 



.-] v " ; 

142 .; - ' 

. - ' .. ' u 



145 Guapui -Uii'sner 

146 William Arthurs 
14T Joker Fee 

148 Milton Bryan 

149 James B. Whitehead 

150 Benjamin Harding 

151 William Turpin 

152 John W. Stevens 

153 John 0. How 



F 



DISTRICT. 



Poll-loolcs and returns of the election held on the 29M day of November, 
A. D. 1854, at the house of Fasohd Pensenan, in the fifteenth dis- 
trict of the Territory of Kansas, far delegate to Congress. 



1 Jesse Morin 

2 Ira Norris, 

3 Dr. Stringfellow 

4 W. H. Miller 

5 Mathias Yocum 

6 John Yocum 

7 Edward O'Beily 

8 Paschal Pensenan 

9 Hugh MoKowen 

10 Stanford McDonald 

11 James L. Sale 

12 Cornelius Sale 

13 John Miller 

14 George W. Layton 

15 N. J. Ireland 

16 S.Johnson. (under prot.) 
IT Wm. Eliott 

18 Samuel Dickson 

19 Wm. L. Stephens 

20 Thomas Dermain 

21 Fred. Freeland 

22 Dan Grover 

23 J. M. Freeland 

24 A. B. Elliott 

25 Uriel Hiekley 

26 Martin Weimar 

27 B. B. Hays 



28 Thomas B. Craven 

29 Isaac House 

30 Leonidas Oldham 
81 Y. K. Bradley 

32 Israel Swan 

33 J. E. Hervey 

34 Samuel Hays 

35 Van 8. Graham 

36 J. B. Mitchell 

37 J. Y. Darnell 

38 J. H. Bradley 

39 D. J. Thomas 

40 Thomas Faulkners 

41 George Percy 

42 Joseph Henderson 

43 James Henderson 

44 James Lewis 

45 John A. Beckner 

46 J. W. Anderson 

47 James Browning 

48 James W. Bedwell 

49 Henry Debard 

50 George Million 

51 Adam Johnson 

52 J. T. Bradley 

53 A. B. Oldham 

54 Joseph McBride 



64 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



55 J. L. Jenks, (aff.) 

56 Samuel JSapp 

57 0. F. Doroty 

58 Levi Bechien 

59 Wm. Ducy 

60 Marion Estes 

61 Isaac Lincoln 

62 Wm. H. Elliott 

63 G. H. Mitchell 

64 A. R. Davis 

65 J. H. Brown 

66 N. S. Townsend 

67 Jefferson Roney 

68 John Groff 

69 J. W. Thompson 

70 James Sweney 

71 R. F. Duncan 

72 J. B. Duncan 

73 Wm. Daugherty 

74 George H. Smith 

75 Oscar Bywaters 

76 G. Tomlinson 

77 J. Cutter 

78 J. Weddle 

79 David Howard 

80 Thomas L. Douglass 

81 M. F. Bailey 

82 J. M. Harrison 

83 E. C. Mason 

84 John Bryant 

85 James Gooley 

86 James Potter 

87 Amos A. Gorndyke 

88 H. B. Herrington 

89 Robert Ely 

90 C. B. Hodges 

91 C. C. Redman 

92 J. S. Hammond 

93 Robert S. Blacygard 

94 J. M. Alexander 
9l5 Wm. Morton 

96 John Weiser 

97 H. C. Bradley 
'98 John Waddell 

99 George B. Wells 
: 100 Wm. Young 

101 James W. Crawford 

102 G. B. Gates 

103 George Carter 

104 Y. Scanlan 

105 Wm. Digman 



106 Thomas Scanlan 

107 Jeremiah McCune 

108 A. W. Hughs 

109 C. H. Grover 

110 Van Buren Hensley 

111 Madison H. Clemens 

112 G. Y. Charless 

113 S. Y. Walter 

114 Sidney Walters 

115 John A. G. Fisher 

116 N. A. Miller 

117 N. R. Green 

118 Col. Lewis Barns 

119 George Wilson 

120 Julius Newman 

121 Craven Calvert 

122 John Amberg 

123 Melzor Cole 

124 Wm. Martin 

125 John Galbreth 

126 A. Warmack 

127 Thomas J. Carson 

128 John W. Martin 

129 Charles S. Foster 

130 Jesse Welch 

131 John L. Freed 

132 Mason Hall 

133 John Parker 

134 John Welch 

135 Wm. Welch 

136 Caleb Wright 

137 James Welch 

138 Martin Cline 

139 P. Farrell 

140 Harvey Welch 

141 Wm. Baisely 

142 Thomas Scott 

143 Noah Antony 

144 G. R. Searcy 

145 John Hamner 

146 James Brooks 

147 Henry Plunkett 

148 Lazarus Yocum 

149 J. G. Downey 

150 Jonathan Congrove 

151 H. H. Williams 

152 R. H. Dyer . 

153 R. L. Kirk 

154 Jesse Shephard 

155 Samuel M. Bowman 

156 N. B. Lamar 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



65 



157 B. Yocum 

158 Allen Pullen 

159 Thomas J. Huggins 

160 J. B. Wiley 

161 Wm. Dyer 

162 Samuel Ross 

163 W. D. Bonnell 

164 J. M. Mulky 

165 G. W. Thompson 

166 J. H. Myers 

167 Wm. Sharp 

168 J. W. Foster 

169 John Cook 

170 E. Smith 
1*71 James Bolton 

172 Y. J. Thompson 

173 E. D. Bishop 

174 U. Y. Gennett 

175 Levi Bowman 

176 John Roberts 

177 Wm. Fulton 

178 R. W. Thompson 

179 Silas Wells 

180 G. S. Davis 

181 G. W. Sharp 

182 R. D. Davis 

183 Martin Short 

184 Wm. G. Mayfield 

185 Joseph Taylor 

186 George Mashens 

187 M. N. Bland 

188 John Taylor 

189 S. M. Taylor 

190 Heber Taylor 

191 Wm. Brown 

192 David Ross 

193 E. M. Hale 

194 Ira Hale 

195 Ruse Bowman 

196 J. S. Philip 

197 Martin Berry 

198 James L. Carter 

199 James Hanley 

200 Dr. J. S. Keller 

201 Wm. Haskell 

202 Benjamin Ross 

203 J. Carson 

204 G. W. Quinby 

205 R. N. Davenport 

206 J. B. Crane 

207 J. S. Thompson 

H. Rep. 200 5* 



208 J. H. Myres 

209 Wm. Cody 

210 G. Clark 

211 A. Cook 

212 Job Robins 

213 John W. Freeland 

214 John Site 

215 Charles G. Sites 

216 John Freeland 

217 Alfred Allen 

218 B. F. Young 

219 James J. Jones 

220 C. P. Allgier 

221 L. Fist 

222 Jonathan Lacy 

223 Henry B. Gale 

224 R. S. Merchant 

225 W. Hays 

226 John House 

227 John S. Ramsey 

228 Henry Williams 

229 David Atkins 

230 P. L. Yervell 

231 John McDonald 

232 Wm. Oburn 

233 J. W. Pate 

234 Dr. Harris 

235 S. W. Tunnell 

236 A. J. Walker 

237 Ottoway Smith 

238 Wm. H. Wells 

239 Richard Warren 

240 Allen B. Haggard 

241 A. G. Boyd 

242 James H. Keisner 

243 J. D. Pepper 

244 S. H. Oliphant 

245 Wm. G. Marsh 

246 G. W. Grist 

247 Samuel Pepper 

248 Wm. Thompson 

249 Warren Blanton? 

250 David Murphy 

251 Y. D. Killoe 

252 R. W. Fox 

253 Jacob Mortier 

254 Robert Yoler 

255 Wm. H. Coon 

256 John Q. Grayson 

257 Phineas S. Skinner 

258 Lewis Sumpter 



G6 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



259 Nathaniel Miller 

260 James N. Burrus 

261 Nathan Nuby 

262 Nathan Shaler 

263 Isaac Atkins 

264 Michael Dean 

265 John J. Carter 

266 George Kitchen 
267" James Martin 

268 Thomas Pensenan 

269 John G. Graham 

270 Wm. Blackby 

271 Jefferson Donohoe 

272 James Harris 

273 Douglass Hamilton 

274 Samuel Morehead 

275 Asa Van Aldenham 

276 Mathew Robinson 

277 Robert Loon 

278 John Ramsey 

279 Wiley P. Williams 

280 James M. Davis 

281 Martin Jones 

282 Jonathan Wallace 



283 B. F. Thompson 

284 Wm. Berry 

285 Wm. Johnson 

286 Wm. E. Pitt 

287 Thomas Doddard 

288 Y. F. Golley 

289 Michael Wilkins 

290 Christoper Horn 

291 A. M. Price 

292 Robert S. Kelly 

293 Henry Adams 

294 Enoch Evans 

295 A. 0. Hams 

296 Thomas Elliott 

297 David Brown 

298 E. S. Staggs 

299 P. Felix Brown 

300 James Frazier 

301 James Y. Buson 

302 H. Y. Green 
803 S. F. Ray 

304 W. A. Lovelady 

305 Win. Allen 

306 H. B. Jolly 



SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 

Poll-book of an election held on the 29$ day of November, A. D. 1854 
at the house of Keller & Kyle, in Leaven-worth City, in the sixteenth 
district of the Territory of Kansas, for the election of a delegate tc 
the House of Representatives of the United States. 



1 Samuel F. Few 

2 A. Macauley 

3 Jerry Clark 

4 John Boyd 

5 James W. Rich 

6 Asa Smith 

7 Wm. Boyd 

8 Samuel D. Preston 

9 James 0. Toole 

10 Francis A. Hart 

11 David Brasfield 

12 John 0. Downing 

13 George Leigan 

14 Thomas Stearns 

15 J. T. Moore 

16 George Yates 

17 Joseph Pennock 



18 Nicholas Lockerman 

19 Malcolm Clark 

20 F. M. Tafts 

21 Jas. Burgess 

22 G. W. Riley 

23 John A. Randall 

24 Richard Stoddard 

25 David Kennelly 

26 Randolph Wolfe, jr. 

27 Greene D. Todd 

28 A. Russell 

29 Albert Lander 

30 Zachariah Mills 

31 ChesleyFulks 

32 Charles Hulb 

33 Jeremiah Howell 

34 Wmfield Numhill 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



67 



35 Wm. Dawson 

36 Miles Shannon 

37 James Noble 

38 Wm. Freebourn 

39 Simon C. McElvaine 

40 Eezin Wilcoxin 

41 John H. Brown 

42 George W. Warren 

43 0. McCrea 

44 Wm. Warner 

45 Henry Clay Bishop 

46 Jeremiah Rice 

47 R. H. Hi^gins 

48 Simon Phillips 

49 J. C. Grinter 

50 B. D. Casselman 

51 M. N. Talbot 

52 H. S. Godsey 

53 D. K. Chapell 

54 George D. Stevenson 

55 Stephen Noble 

56 A. J. Preston 

57 G. B. Panton 

58 Wm. Greene Woods 

59 John Kissinger 

60 T. P. L. Taylor 

61 Calvin Tolson 

62 S. Y. Chance 

63 S. D. Pitcher 

64 Adam Linhart 

65 J. L. Evans 

66 John Williams 

67 S. H. Burgess 

68 S. H. Mays 

69 Jarrett Todd 

70 James Scroggs 

71 R. E. Saunders 

72 John Thomas 

73 Samuel Cummings 

74 John Atkins 

75 Thomas S. Owens 

76 Wesley S. Davidson 

77 Jas. W. McClintick 

78 John Donaldson 

79 John P. Richardson 

80 Wm. C. Webster 

81 R. C. Thomson 

82 James L. Thomson 

83 Gideon L. Brown 

84 T. S. Otterbury 

85 N. A. Kirk 



86 H. C. Dunn 

87 Wm. Cummings 

88 Riley Todd 

89 Pleasant Ellington 

90 Simpson Parks 

91 Jeffrey Woodward 

92 Jos. C. Anderson 

93 W. T. Yokum 

94 John Moore 

95 John Dunn 

96 B. M. Crust 

97 H. D. McMeekin 

98 J. B. Hyatt 

99 James Surritt 

100 T. H. Talbert 

101 Howard Conley 

102 Thomson Owens 

103 Eli Moore 

104 John Reed 

105 James Faster 

106 George Brassfield 

107 W. G. Carson 

108 Wm. S. Murphy 

109 Charles H. Pennick 

110 Wm. G. Mathias 

111 J. Hoyt 

112 Thomas Cuming 

113 Wm. Large 

114 John Neely 

115 James H. Fowler 

116 Francis Rasdell 

117 A. T. Pattie 

118 J. M. Guthrie 

119 J. M. Artrold 

120 Wm. M. Beckam 

121 H. T. Dagley 

122 Wm. Hoy 

123 G. B. Redmon 

124 Wm. M. Edmonds 

125 D. Scott Boyle 

126 John H. McClintock 

127 Barnabas Gable 

128 J. T. Woodward 

129 M. R. Grinter 

130 Thomas Stewart 

131 Hiram Rich 

132 Wm. B. Simmonds 

133 R. H. Fielding 

134 Nathaniel Henderson 

135 James H. Hall 

136 Robert Todd 



68 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



137 Thomas 0. Bishop 

138 John Sparks 

139 J. Parkinson 

140 James Finley 

141 Isaac Spratt 

142 Wm. Wallace 

143 Philip Zeigler 

144 Jos. Graham 

145 Kobert Ware 

146 A. Dawson 

147" Benjamin Foster 

148 John B. Mize 

149 J. B. Pennock 

150 James G. Heck 

151 T. J. Goforth 

152 Stephen Sparks 

153 Lucius ChafFee 

154 Edward Garrett 

155 Garrsft-d Levy 

156 M. F. Conway 

157 B. B. Beese 

158 Cyrus Garrett 

159 Samuel M. Lyon 

160 Burrell B. Mize 

161 J. K. France 

162 Thomas T. Sloakum" 1 

163 Thomas F. Gregg 

164 J. C. Thomson 

165 Wm. Sparks 

166 Henry Stoddard 

167 Zach. Sparks 

168 T. F. Brown 

169 Wm. T. Bartz 

F. Givinner (vote rejec'd) 

170 Thos. A. Gregg 

171 David Creech 

172 Isaac Van Catup 

173 Thomas Boherts 

174 Travis Brown 

175 Lewis A. Neil 

176 David Gragg 

177 J. T. Hook 

178 E. K. Adamson 

179 Wm. L. Blair 

180 H. Nolan 

181 Abner Dean 

182 James H. Mize 

183 Daniel A. Willey 

184 Strother Hay 

185 John Ussury 

186 Currin Nervil 



187 Wm. Borden 

188 Hiram Kelly 

189 J. E. Grant 

190 Franklin Keys 

191 Ellis Henshaw 

192 Frederick Sprack 

193 Floyd Shannon 

194 A. Payne 

195 A. Cunningham 

196 John Argabright 

197 Bussell Garret 

198 C. D. Ellott 

199 Houston Levy 

200 Wm. H. Long 

201 Nathan Boberts 

202 Wm. H. T. Parker 

203 Michael Kelley 

204 Daniel C. Ames 

205 Wm. Tanner 

206 John M. White 

207 Godfrey Grease 

208 M. Dobson 

209 S. Phillips 

210 F. Engelsman 

211 Levi Furguson 

212 John A. Lindsey 

213 Carrington Harris 

214 AdamDeitz 

215 Bobt. L. Beam 

216 B. L. Sellers 

217 A. H. Scott 

218 James McDaniel 

219 John Owens 

220 H. Brown 

221 Wm. Engelsman 

222 Neely Harrington 

223 M. France 

224 David Goble 

225 C. C. Harrison 

226 J. H. Golden 

227 H. H. Hook 

228 Beuben Snellgo 

229 Israel Gibson 

230 C. F. Bredon 

231 G. W. Walker 

232 A. J. Bowers 

233 S. J. Johnson 

234 John Wallace 

235 T. B. Selkman 

236 George Young 
Alfred Young 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



69 



238 P. J. Cuming 

239 Simpson Gobler 

240 T. B. Hart 

241 Hugh L. Campbell 

242 Henry Mize 

243 F. E. Bodd 

244 S. R. Farr 

245 John Hall 

246 Peter McGill 
24? John C. Newton 

248 John Frazer 

249 O. M. Thomas 

250 Clement Naef 

251 J. F. Wyatt 

252 Wm. E. Roe 

253 Geo. Keller 

254 Jacob Rehm 

255 H. H. C. Harrison 

256 Squier Orton 

257 John J. Beng 

258 John Keffer 

259 J. H. Day 

260 L. F. Mills 

261 L. J. Eastin 

262 Jas. K. Edsall 

263 Richard Conkland 

264 Chas. Leib 

265 Jas. 0. Sullivan 

266 W. S. Yoke 

267 Geo. Leonhard 



268 Nathaniel Higs 

269 Alex. Reed 

270 Edward Zell 

271 Samuel France 

272 W. J. Osborn 

273 G. M. Fisher 

274 Wm. Saunders 

275 Joseph Font 

276 Daniel Smith 

277 Wm. English 

278 C. B. Roberts 

279 Lewis N. Rees 

280 John Drew 

281 Robert Maddux 

282 Jones Creach 

283 Doregon Fouts 

284 Josiah McLain 

285 James Skinner 

286 Henry Beng 

287 N. Sage 

288 Adam Fisher 

289 Adam Corb 

290 Henry Smith 

291 Lewis Schiller 

292 Asa Stewart 

293 T. S. Abner 

294 John Harris 

295 Andrew Thos. Kyle 

296 John Smith 

297 Wm. McDowell 



SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 

i 

List of voters at an election held on the 29th day of November) 1854, 
in the seventeenth district of the Territory of Kansas, for the election 
of a delegate to the House of Representatives of the United States. 



1 RushEllmore 

2 0. H. Brown 

3 A. S. Johnson 

4 F. M. Coleman 

5 Andrew Monroe 

6 M. C. McGuish 

7 John M. Owen 

8 James Gillpatrick 

9 Isaac Parrish 

10 R. N. Winslow 

11 Frederick Chouteau 

12 Joseph Parks 



13 George Buchanan 

14 Daniel Woodson 

15 John A. Halderman 

16 William Chouteau 

17 F. E. Baley 

18 A. H. Reeder 

19 B. F. Robinson 

20 Cyprian Chouteau 

21 Thomas Johnson 

22 James Mathews 

23 Andrew J. Isaacs 

24 William Donaldson 



70 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



25 M. P, Randall 

26 Richard Menenhall 

27 A. Gregory 

28 Peter Croco 

29 William Jones 

30 Charles N. White 

31 Jeremiah Dummer 

32 F. B. Sullivan 

33 John Parks 

34 William Rutlege 

35 E. Evans 

36 Charles Bowls 

37" William Honeywill 

38 R. C. Meek 

39 Daniel Doffarnyer 

40 Charles B. Garrett 

41 Joel Walker 

42 Robert Brown 

43 Calvin A. Kirnatser 



44 John H. Solomon 

45 John Boyles 

46 John Hall 

4T Matthew Hall 

48 L. C. Mathews 

49 Horace Hall 

50 Isaac Long 

51 Philip Brown 

52 John Pond 

53 James Long 

54 Joseph Boyer 

55 Isaac W. Brown 

56 Joseph White 

57 Miller Moody 

58 Ethen A. Long 

59 Augustus Charles 

60 Davis Thayer 



61 
62 



John Parka 
James Zanes 



To his Excellency A. H. REEDER, Governor of Ko.nsas Territory : 

Believing that a large number of the citizens of the State of Mis- 
souri voted at the election of the 29th instant for delegate to Congress 
representing Kansas Territory, we respectfully petition your honor 
that the entire vote of the district receiving the votes of citizens of 
Missouri be set aside, or that the entire election be set aside. 



H. C. Sofford 
J. J. Emery 
Edmund Clarke 
Legamus S. Bacon 
C. K. Holliday 
0. A. Hanscom 
J. T. Memmon 
R. G. Elliott 
John Macley 
C. Robinson 
Luke P. Lmkon 
J. M. Benby 
Otes W. Lamb 
J. C. Massmon 
James Crocklen 
W. A. Holmes 
J. L.M.Whilcomb 
Augustus H. Gertt 
C. Thos. Roberts 
Samuel L. Haley 
Naculon Lobiame 
George W. Kent 



C. W. Dow 

James Legart 
W. B. Walling 
William Norriker 
S. J. Wells 
John P. Hefek 
William Lee 
G. W. Reed 
0. D. Smith 
Stephen W. Felsom 
L. G. Higgins 
G. M. Chaffeur 
L. T. Tappan, jr. 
L. Lechfield 
L. T. Lechfield 
A. V. Coffin 
E. Desbro 
G. W. Patridge 
John W. Waite 

D. C. Barrett 
S. G. Johnson 
J. E. Gorden 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



Justin Lewis 
T. Z. Cook 
Samuel Kenneday 
Heron C. Covil 

B. N. Cortendge 
J. S. Co wen 

J. M. Kukkey 
E. D. Ladd 
Fra. King 

C. Stevens 

S. N. Simpson 
John Day 
George Gilbert 
Joel Grove 
Samuel Kembel 

D. S. Mott 
Calep S. Pratt 



H. N. Hancock 
J. W. Carlton 
Jos. B. Abbott 
A. H. Mallory 
K. M. Pearson 
Frank Niskell 
J. L. Storn 
F. 0. Tolles 
A. D. Surl 
J. W. Hutchinson 
J. M. Jones 
S. N. Reed 
Saml. T. Lewis 
S. S. Snyder 
Dunma Furrow 
John Furrow 



72 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



THE CENSUS 

OF 

THE TEERITORY OF KANSAS, 

FEBRUARY, 1855; 

THE RETURNS OP THE ELECTIONS OP MARCH SO AND MAY 22, 18? 

AND 

THE ACTION OF GOVERNOR REEDER THEREON 



The persons appointed l>y the governor to make an enumeration of inhabi- 
tants and qualified voters in the Territory having made their returns? 
the following table of inhabitants and qualified voters in the several 
districts is compiled therefrom.* 



\ 

Districts. 


| 

By whom taken. 


1 


Females. 


Voters. 


1 


Natives U. S. 


Foreign birth. 


Negroes. 


| 

I 


j 

i 


First 


C W Babcock ...... 


623 


889 


869 


459 


887 


75 






962 






316 


203 


199 


237 


506 


19 


t 


7 


819 


Third 
Fourth 


T. W. Hayes . 
B IXonaldson 


161 

106 


91 
Tl 


101 
47 


112 
97 


215 
169 


12 
2 


...... 


6 
1 


252 
171 


Fifth 


William Barbee 


824 


583 


442 


724 


1,385 


22 


27 


26 


1,40T 


Sixth 


do 


492 


818 


253 


418 


791 


12 


11 


11 


810 


Seventh .... 


J R McClure 


82 


36 


68 


50 


117 


1 


1 


1 


us- 


Eighth 


do 


56 


27 


89- 


28 


76 


7 


13 


10 


83 


Ninth 
Tenth 


M. F. Conway 
do 


61 
97 


25 
54 


86 
68 


81 
61 


66 

108 


12 
23 


14 


8 


86 
151 


Eleventh .... 


B H Twombly . . 


83 


8 


24 


5 


80 


6 






36 


Twelfth 


do 


104 


40 


78 


85 


109 


8T 


1 


T 


144 




H B Jolly 


168 


116 


96 


145 


273 


9 


14 


14 


284 




Albert Weed 


655 


512 


334 




301 


46 


1 


85 


1,167- 


Fifteenth .... 


H B Jolly 


492 


381 


808 


448 


846 


16 


15 


15 


873 


Sixt eenth 


Charles Leib 


708 


475 


885 


514 


1.042 


104 


48 


83 


1,188 


Sev enteenth 




91 


59 1 


50 


54 


143 


5 


4 


23 


150 




B H Twombly 


5& 


40 


28 


51 


97 


1 






99 




























5,128 


3,888 


2,905 


3,469 


7,161 


408 


151 


192 


8,601 



* Copied from the executive minutes, March 8, 1855. 
PRECEPT 

You are hereby appointed to take the census of the first election dis- 
trict of the Territory of Kansas. The act of Congress requires not only 
an enumeration of the inhabitants, but also of the qualified voters ; 
and as the law commits solely to my discretion the mode of taking 
and returning, I have caused books to be prepared which will exhibit 
many features of our population interesting to the public and useful 
in the way of statistical information, as well to the legislature as the 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 73 

people. la this book you will find columns prepared accordingly. 
In noticing the age you write on the proper column for those under 
twenty-one the word " minor;" for those between 21 and 30 the 
figures 21 ; and for those between 30 and 40, between 40 and 50, be- 
tween 50 and 60 and over 60, write always the lower number. In 
noting males, females, natives of the United States, naturalized citi- 
zens, declarants,, (meaning those who have declared before some proper 
court their intention to become citizens,) qualified voters, negroes, 
and slaves, it will only be necessary to insert a mark or figure on the 
proper column. Those columns of marks or figures you will foot up 
on each page, and at the end of the book you will bring together and 
foot up the several columns of each class, so as to show the aggregate 
of each. You will also ascertain and state the total of each kind of 
occupation, and of each class found in the column of age. The 
columns for occupations will, of course, be left blank for minors who 
have none and females. In entering the place you will enter the 
State or Territory of the United States, or the foreign country, which 
was the last place of residence, and you will ascertain from this column 
and carry to the end of the book the number from each place named. 

You will not include army officers or soldiers of the army, or persons 
attached to troops in the service of the United States, unless they in- 
tend to remain and reside in the Territory when not on service, nor 
will you include any Indians or persons of Indian blood. As this is 
an enumeration of inhabitants and not of property, you will enter the 
name of no man by reason of owning or claiming land here, or of his 
intention to remain here, but only those who actually dwell here at 
the time of taking the census. 

In noting the qualified voters you must ascertain from your own 
observation, and the best information you can procure, who are en- 
titled to be thus considered and designated. A qualified voter must 
be free, of white blood, twenty-one years of age, an actual resident of 
the Territory, dwelling here with the bonafide intention of making it 
his home, and a native or naturalized citizen of the United States, or 
a declarant who has sworn to support the Constitution of the United 
States and the act organizing the Territory. 

As it may become necessary, in the formation of representative dis- 
tricts, to divide your district, it will be well to preserve, by notes in 
the blank pages, some information as to the number of the inhabi- 
tants, with reference as to known localities and natural boundaries, v or 
at least so as to take the enumeration, that you may communicate to 
me such information on this head as that I may be enabled myself to 
make the necessary notes. 

You will also make a separate alphabetical list of the qualified 
voters in the district and return the same personally to me, with your 
enumeration and classification, on the tenth day of February next, 
when you will be expected to take the oath entered at the end of this 
book. 

Issued this 22d day of January, 1855. 

A. H. REEDER, 
Governor of the Territory of Kansas. 

W. C. BABCOCK, Esq. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

FIRST DISTRICT. 



List of voters of the first election district of the Territory^ of Kansas, 
according to the census returns taken by W. C. Babcock in the months 
of January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 








Massachusetts 


William W Hall 






do 


William H R Sykins 






do 








Ohio 


John P Wood 


. . .d 








...do 






Daniel H Brooks 


Massachusetts 








....do 


William Ricker . . 




Samuel N Hartwell ...... 




William McReady 






do 


Orville D. Smith 


Ohio 


Silas B. Wayne 


....do 


George W.Reid 


New York .... 




.do .... 








.do 


Frederick Kinff . ... . 


New York 






Otis H Lamb .... 






Ohio .... 








do 




Massachusetts 


Clark Tiffit 


Rhode Island 


Frederick Kimball ... 






New York... 


Samuel Kimball . . . . . . 




Clark Stephens ..... ..... 








Francis O Tolles 








William N Baldwin 




Mathew H Spittle . 


New York 








....do 


Gerome B. Taft 


Massachusetts 


Stephen J. Willis 


....do. ....... 


Samuel S Snyder . . .... 




H 4 ram C Cavil .... . 


Ohio . . . 




New York ... 




....do 


Hugh Cammeron . ... 


Dist Col 


Forester Hill . 






New Jersey . . 




do 




Wisconsin . . . 


Charles W. Perril 


New Ycrk . . . 


Albert D. Searl 


Massachusetts 




Pennsylvania . 


Hiram Clark. ..... ....... 




John H Daty 


Ohio ... 






Eli W Bennett 




Charles W. Dorr 


Ohio . . . 




Ohio 


William S. G Soule 




Robert G Elliot 




D. C. Barrett 


Dist Col 


Josiah Miller 




William O. Wood 




Charles F Garrett 


Ohio 


A. W. Gleason 














Ohio 




. do 




do ...... 




Massachusetts 


Caleb L Pratt 


Massachusetts 




Pennsylvania 




New York . . . 


John ft. Miller 


Massach usetts 




Mass? chusetts 




Pennsylvania 




...do 


Phelix P. Fowler 






Vermont . f . . 




New York . . 


Erastus D Ladd . . . . 


\Visconsin ... 


Ellmore Allen 


....do 


John L Mott 


Michigan . . . * 




do 




New York . . 




...do 


Marshal R Miller 






Ohio 




New York 




Minnesota 


H D Graves 






Massachusetts 




New York. . . 




Ohio 


Henry S McClelland 


Pennsylvania 




Missouri .... 


Charles Stearns 


Massach usetts 


John C. Archibald 


Massachusetts 


Edward Fitch 


....do 




New York... 


John H Wilder 


....do 


Robert Buffum 


Massachusetts 


John A. Lowrey . ......... 


Ohio 


John W. Carlton 


do 


I F. W. Kinkle . . 


Connecticut . 


David C. Buffum 


. . . .do 


Calvin C Kettle 




Edward Clarke 


New York . , 




Kentucky. ... 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 
FIKST DISTKICT Continued. 



75 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Pennsylvania. 
New York.... 
Ohio 


Louis C Wilworth 


Rhode Island. 
Ohio . . . 








John F. Taber 


Massachusetts 
Ohio 






Rufus H. \Vaterman. ..... 




Massachusetts 




Missouri 
do. . 








Ohio 


William Yates 






New York. .. , 
Massachusetts 
do 


Nathan F Herrick 




Alphonzo Jone^ ............ 


Nathan Herrick. . . . . . ... 


...do 




James D Poaoe ...... . 


Missouri ..... 
Massachusetts 
Wisconsin . . . 
. . do 


Joseph H Pillsbury 


N. Hampshire. 
Massachusetts 
N. Hampshire 
Massachusetts 
do 


Leonard G. Higgins 
George W. Kent 


Sidney B. Dudly . < 




Increase W'hitcomb 


Wilder Bright 




Massachusetts 
Wisconsin. .... 
Pennsylvania. 
Virginia 
. . . .do 


Edward F. Knight 








William Keller 




Massachusetts 
Vermont 
Connecticut . . 
New York.... 
Massachusetts 
New York.... 
...do 
....do... 


James P. Carol ......... 




William Carol 




Joshua Puckett ...... 


... .do . 


Henry W. Feck 


\Villiam Mathews ..... 


Illinois . 




Jonathan MAthews 


...do 




John N Powell . ... 




"William Ketehingman 


William Tipton 


do 


Henry H Carol 


Virginia 




Ohio 


William Hale 


James B Abbott. ........... 


Massachusetts 


Simartin V Harnsby 


Missouri 
. . . .do. . . 


Ellis Bond 




Philip Cook 




Frederick Spring ...... 


Pennsylvania. 
... do 






William R Lee 




New York.... 
do 


John Anderson ...... 


...do 




Thomas Anderson 


. . do 




....do 


Hamer Hayes 




Robert Banks 


Massachusetts 
Wisconsin . . . 


Samuel Anderson 


do 


Michael R. Albin 


Thomas S. Garvin 


....do 




Robert Garvin 


....do 




Connecticut . . 
Massachusetts 
....do 


Flemmon Bridges ...... 


... .do 




Elijah Purdom 


Missouri . . . . 

Kentucky. ... 
Iowa 


Stafford J Pratt 


Thomas Murray . ...... 




Missouri ..... 


David S Wallner 


Daniel P. Hadley 


N. Hampshire 
Ohio 




....do 


Alfred J. Payne 


Samuel S Hanan 


do 


Edward Winslow 


Massachusetts 
do 


^^illiam Bridges 




Samuel Johnson 


David Burton 


Missouri 


Ailulis B Wade 


Missouri 
do 


Clarkson M. Wallace 


William H. Oliver 






Daniel Sayer 


Pennsylvania. 


John G McClelland 


Missouri 
Pennsylvania. 
. do . . 




Robert McFarland 


John H. Dean 


Massachusetts 
Pennsylvania . 
Kentucky. . . . 
. . . .do . . . . 


John McFarland 


Zeno B. Page 


Thomas McFarland 


do ... 


John F. Wilson 


Isom E Taylor 




John S. Hopper. 


Jurdon Neil 


do ... 


Simon Hopper 






....do 


Benjamin F. Hopper 


do 


John A. Chaflers 


Iowa 
....do 


David R. Hopper 


do 




Napoleon D. Stuart 


Missouri 




. ...do..' 




Kentucky .... 
Massachusetts 
....do 
Vermont 
Pennsylvania. 
Vermont 
N. Hampshire 
Missouri 
Minnesota .. 




Missouri 
New York . . . 
....do 
Missouri 
....do 


Levy Gates, jr 


Ranson Colkin. 


Anson H. Mallory 
Ira M. Jones 


Jeremiah Spencer 


John H. Fernan .... 




George H Hutchinson 




do 


Simon Cook 




do 


James A. Davidson 


William Lyon 
Newman Garwood 


Ohio 
....do 


C. W.Babcock.., 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FIRST DISTRICT Continued. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Ohio 




Missouri 
Pennsylvania . 
do 




Pennsylvania 
Illinois ..... 




T^rprlp-irk Roff 


Henry Eberhart 


Thomas B Wells 


New York . . 
Massachusetts 
Missouri 
....do 




do 


\Villard Coulborn 


James H Reed . . ..... 


Missouri 
....do 








Benjamin F McDonnel ... 


....do. 




Indiana 
Missouri 
do 




....do. 


Thomas J Farrell . . . . 


Alexander Sebastion 
Robert \Vilkinson. ..... 


. . . .do 

Illinois 




A E Colman ....... 


Massachusetts 
....do 


John Morehead ........... 


Iowa ... 




William Turner 


Illinois 
Kentucky. . . . 
Illinois 




Missouri 
....do 






Jackson Sellers 




do 


David Mencham 


Ohio 




do 


Edward B Johnston .... 


Illinois 




do 


Job Vanwinkle ............ 


....do . 


William H Eao-on. ....... 


Ohio , 


Fitzhugh Collins 








Charles Link ........ .. 


Illinois 




Missouri 
..t.do 
Indiana 


Thomas D. Waller 


Kentucky. . . . 
Massachusetts 
... do . . 


Napoleon B. Blarston 




Thomas J Stone .... 




Missouri 
do 




do 


William Whitlock 




do 




Indiana ... 




... .do 


Joseph Hutchinson ...4..... 


Illinois 
. . . .do 

Missouri 
Ohio . .. 




do 


John Hutchinson 
James Whitlock 




Maine 
...do 


Hugh Pettingill 


Phillip T Hupp 


Thomas B Smith 


Connecticut . . 




...do 






New York ... 
Ohio 




...do 


Ezekiel Beirus 




N. Hampshire 
Massachusetts 
Missouri 
Pennsylvania. 
Mississippi . . . 
Virginia 
Ohio 




do 




Robert J Wolfe 


Missouri 
do 


Allen B. H. McGee 








New York . . . 
Pennsylvania. 
Massachusetts 
Ohio 


James Sullivan 
James A. Jackson 




Samuel G Johnson 


Albert F Breeder 






Sylvester H Davis ... 


Missouri ... . . . 
do 




...do 


Rice Mattingly. 


James W. Elserr 


Virginia 


Thomas McBee 


Kentucky. . . . 




Cuthburt McBee 


John O. Talbot 


...do 




do 




...do 


William Curry 


do 




Kentucky .... 
Ohio 


Charles M. White 


Indiana . ..... 


John H Lewis 




Missouri ..... 


John S Perkival 


...do 




Indiana . ..... 




Massachusetts 


Joshua Cummins. .......... 


Missouri 






Pennsylvania. 




...do 




William Wallace 


...do 




Missouri 
Ohio 




Ohio 










Missouri 




Vermont 
Massachusetts 
Ohio .... 

Massachusetts 
Missouri 








Pennsylvania. 
Missouri 
Pennsylvania. 
Wisconsin . . . 
Missouri 
....do 
. . . .do. ....... 
....do 


Tohn Fry 
H A. Hancock 










James M Still 


...do 






Massachusetts 
...do 


Harrison Budily 
Thomas Bruze 






...do 











I 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SECOND DISTMCT. 



77 



List of voters of the second election district of Kansas Territory, ac^ord- 
ing to the census returns taken ~by 0. H. Browne in the months of 
January and February, A. D. 1855. 



Paris Ellison. 
Absolom 
Georore W. 



Levi< 

M. Somers, 

Henry White 

B. Callaghan, 
Edwin Marc, 
Claude M. 
Joseph A. 
George W 
Rufus P. 

C. R. Hillinan 
William 
Fleming 
Willis 
John M. 
Augusta 
Beverly 
Richard 



John Hockler. 
Tipton Robins^ 
David Dickey, 
James H. Har 
W. W. Rand( 
Ephraim Conn 
William W. H 
Henry Muzzey 
Charles Smith 
William Hood 
F. A. Bailey, 
Henry H. Co: 
Francis Bark' 
Mathew Hall 
John Hall 
James Turner. 
Samuel Jones 
Green Swezer. 
Joseph Vance. 
Milon Groub, 
F. A. Muzzy. 
F. C. Muzzey. 
Owen Taylor 
John A. Wak 
Nicholas Sny< 
H. S. McClei: 
David Conner. 



F. E. Lahav , 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri .... 




Ohio . 






Albert Yates 














Missouri ..... 




do 


M 


do 


James M Dunn 




IS. 


do ... 




do 


lite 




George W Ward 


















New York . . . 


Michier ...... 


Virginia 


Carlos Hall 


Ohio 


Smith 


. . . .do 




Massachusetts 


r Clarke 


Arkansas .... 




Missouri ..... 


[> ke 


....do 




....do 




Pennsylvania 




Tennessee . . 


)aneer ........ 


Illinois . . .... 




. . . .do 


latton ........ .. 


Missouri ..... 


G. W Riddle 


. .. do...... 


Warder 


....do 




New York 




....do 


John W. Chamberlin 




Smith 


....do 


J S. Parker .... 


Kentucky . * 




....do 


William K Ruddall 




liller 




R. W. Custard 






Kentucky . . . 


A. J. Custard 






Iowa 


William M. Harper 


Missouri . . . . . 


& : 


Missouri. .... 








....do 


D. H. Heindricks 


....do 


kler 


....do 








....do 








....do 


William Jacket 


....do 




....do 


Nathaniel S. Ramsey ....... 


....do 


andolph . . . 


...do 




....do 




1 llinois .... 




....do , 


/ Hall 


Massachusetts 


William H Wood 


Iowa 




... .do .... 


Henry C. Alderman ........ 


Illinois . . . . 


nith ... 


... do ... 




Massachusetts 


lood 






do 


ev 




Albin 














Massachusetts 


Andrew White 


Missouri ..... 


[all 


New York . . . 


James S. White 


....do 




do 


Absolem White 


....do 




Missouri ..... 


E. G. Macey 


Ohio 




....do 


John Wilter 


do 




....do 






ince. 


....do 




....do 


>ub 


Massachusetts 


Isaac Davis ............... 




^zv 


do 


Jonathan C Cosebier .... 






do 




Missouri 


lor . . . . . . 


... do 




....do 


Vakefield jr ... 






....do 


$nyder . . . 








"lelland 






do 








...do 




Missouri 


William M Davis 


...do 


enry 


Ohio 


George W. Brians 
A B Collett 


...do 
...do 




Missouri 


John F. Russell * 


...do. 




,..do. .. 


William H. Russell 


...do 






Fields Bledsoe 


...do 



78 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SECOND DISTBICT Continued. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 

-.. j 


Where from. 




Missouri . . . . . 




Mrssouri ..... 




Kentucky ... 




.. .do 






William 11 May 


New York. . . . 




Massachusetts 




...do 




do 




Missouri ..... 








.do .... 














Moses McCall 






...do 








Tennessee 


R W' Dummer. ........... 


Illinois . . . 




Missouri 


Caleb Cotrell 


do 




.do .... 


John G McClanaha^i ...... 






.. do 




....do 




. do 


Westley Garrett 


..do . ... 




Kentucky. . . . 


William Shirley 


do 








do 


J S Bacon .......... 


Missouri .... 




..do .... 


John O Talbot 


do. 




....do 




Tennessee . . . 




....do 


John O Talbot 


Ohio 




.do 




Tennessee . . . 


Endiott 


do 




Missouri ..... 


E H.Hastings 


Pennsylvaria . 


L M Oliver 


Tennessee . . < 




Virginia ..... 




Ohio 








Georgia ..... 




....do 




New Mexico. . 


Wm C. Roberts 


Arkansas .... 


James W Elred 


Kentucky . . . . 


John H Roberts 


....do 






W H Blackburn 


....do 


Joel Montgomery ......... 


Missouri ..... 


Emily Cline 




Thomas Husley ........... 


....do 




Missouri ..... 


Lafayette Barret 


...do 




....do 


Henry A Callue ... . . . . 


...do 




....do 


S J Wafal 


....do 


A Roderique 


Pennsylvania . 


G W Garss 


....do 




Virginia . . . . 


Evan Todhunter . . . . . . . . . 


...do 


L W Hendricks 


Arkansas ... 


John Todhunter. ........... 


...do 


James R. Davis 


Missouri ..... 


Valentine Todhunter 
Samuel Hufaker. .......... 


do 
....do 


A. J. Buck 

Peter Wendell 


....do 
....do 


Martin Palmer 


....do 




..,.do 


James Williams ............ 


....do 




....do 


"William Douglas 


... .do. ...... 


O H Browne 


....do 


Thomas Todhunter 


....do. 

i - - 







List of settlers on the Kansas Jialf -breed lands opposite Douglas 
as enumerated by 0. H. Browne. 



Names. 



Alexander Bayne . 

A. J. Smith 

William F. Bayne. 
S. H. Plummer... 
Dudley Foley 
James Scairgs 
Thomas Scaggs.. . 



Names. 



Harvey Miller. . . , 
George Gray 
Dudley Plummer , 
Jonathan Smoot. . 
George Williams. 
Samuel P. Jilton.. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

THIBD DISTRICT. 



79 



List of voters of the third election district of the 
according to the census returns made by JFhornton 



oj Kansas , 
W. Hays, esq., 
taken during the months of January and February } A. D. 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




W C Pickeral 


Ohio . . 




Kentucky. . . . 
New York . . . 
Kentucky. . . . 
Virginia 
England 
Ohio 




Massachusetts 
do 








C. O Nicholas.., 


Pennsylvania. 
Missouri 
Pennsylvania . 
Tennessee . . . 
Kentucky. . . . 
Missouri 
New York . . . 
Germany .... 
Missouri ..... 


William A. M. Vaughan. . . . 








William Godard 


Duke W Hunter 


Missouri 
Ohio 


J R Warren 








New York . . . 
Kentucky. ... 
Virginia ..... 






Francis Grassmuck 




William R Boggs 




Germany .... 
Indiana ...... 


Jerome TV Boles 


Massachusetts 
Pennsylvania . 
Virginia ..... 




J P C Bouche ,. 




Missouri ..... 






....do 




Kentucky. . . . 
. . . .do 




Ohio 






Massachusetts 
Maryland .... 
Ohio 




Virginia .... 


W A Sublett 




do ....... 


M J Mitchell 


William D Owen . 


Kentucky .... 
Ohio . . . 




Virginia 
Illinois ..... i 


F A Wentworth . 






Virginia 
Georgia 
Alabama 
....do 


R A.Edwards 


do 






do 


A. P. Turner 






William H Turner 


Belbord Gilbert 




William Matney, jr 


Virginia 


C K Holladay 


Pennsylvania . 
Connecticut . . 
England . . . . . 




Peter N Main 


Solomon Coker .......... 


Missouri 
Michigan .... 


W C Liniker 


William A. Simmerville . . . . 


E Chase 


Massachusetts 
Maine ..... i 


Edwin S Dereter 


Linsus T" Cook .... 


Missouri ..... 


H. B. Burgess 


New York . . . 




Tennessee. . . . 
Pennsylvania . 
Indiana ...... 


John All 




Abel Hatwell 


Massachusetts 
Ohio 


William Dailey 


J Tegart . . .... 




Ohio 


H. L. Roat 


Massachusetts 




Virginia 
Tennessee .... 
Missouri 
....do 


Charles V. Gray 


Alfred Byler 


T. J. Case 


Pennsylvania. 
N. Hampshire 
Massachusetts 
Maine 
N. Hampshire 
....do 
Pennsylvania . 


John Taylin ............... 








Peter Croco. ........... 


Ohio 


Thomas G Thornton ....... 


H N Watts 






T J Wells 


Pennsylvania . 


Milton C. Dickey 




H J Strickler 


Virginia 
Illinois 


A. A. Ward 




S. A. Clark 


N. Hampshire 
Vermont 


S W Hays 


Kentucky. . . . 


Phillip Briggs. ............. 







80 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



FOURTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters of the fourth election district of the Territory of Kansas, 
according to census returns made by C. B. Donaldson, taken during 
the months of January and February, 1855. 



Names. Where from 


Names. 


Where from. 




W S Ewart 


Ohio . . 


A F Powell 


Tennessee . . . 


D. Pultz 
J B Davis 






Georgia 


E. H. Bagsinger do 


D. J. Keser 
G Y Keser 


....do 




Mississippi . . . 
Missouri 




. . .do 




J D Skidmore 


. . .do 


A B Gilliland 


W M Haris 


. . . .do 




J F Javens 


... .do 


A J Miller 




p Fuller 


Illinois .... 


j s Edie 


....do 








....do 


J C Hughes 


Missouri 
....do 
...do 


A F L Bisbee 


New York . . . 


C. Clark 




W Moore 


Indiana ...... 


Y Doty 


Illinois ..... 


H Moore 


..do 


F Barnes ................. 


Missouri ... 


Willson 


New York . . . 
Illinois 
...do 


M Carter 


. . .do 


" Mayfield 


A. Dale 

A C Tomberlin 


....do 

Illinois .... 


C Mayfield 


p, Young ........ 


Virginia 
Indiana ...... 


A. Dean 
A Williams 


Pennsylvania. 
Missouri .... 


J. Chapman . . . . . . 


A Hannah .... 


...do 


Y Veach 


Ohio 




Missouri 




Arkansas . . . . 











FIFTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters of the fifth district of the Territory of Kansas, according 
to the census returns taken by William Barbee, in tJie montlis of Jan- 
uary and February, 1855. 



Names. 


; Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 


David Casteel 


Missouri .... 






"W^m Landen. ..4....... . . 


. . .do. . . . . . 






Thos Heath 


do 


Abram Medlin 
Wm Medlin 


....... .do. ..... 


Alexander James 


do 

do 


Wilson Medlin 


.' do 




do .... 


Rob't Brady 


...... .do. ..... 




do 


Francis Marion 
Benj. Ford 


3 do 


G. R. Sands 


do 
Arkansas 


David C Finley 


I Tennessee . 


G B Donell 






.1 Missouri ..... 


Thos Donell 


do 




, . .do. . , 




do . . . . 




,| do 


Hiram Beckett 




Sam'l Dillon.... 


.j do 






James Lucenson 
John H. Tate 


do 
J do 


Wm. J. Hensley 
Jas. Walker 


do. . . . . 
do 


Wm. Turner , 


J do 


Sam'l Nichols 


do 


Middleton Hensley 






,..do 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

FIFTH DISTRICT Continued. 



81 



Names. 



Etnbrey Nelson . . . 

Levi Ward 

Wyley A kins...., 

Charles Polk 

Thos. Puliv 

Sam'l Brmvri 

gam'l Stanton 
John Bordennast.. 

Jas. Roberts 

Jas. W. Ciirmon. .. 

Andrew Tyl^r 

Fineas T. Glover 

Evan Evans 

Jos. Adams 

Solomon Adams. . . 



Thos. Sears 



Andrew Owens 

Wm. Park 

D. F. Park 

Sam '1 Covey 

John Esteps 

Isaac Clunk 

David Bunch 

Ambers Reslly 

Benj. F. Ford 

Benj. F. Thompson 

Carhaven Taggt-nt 

Josiah P. Ford 

Hugh L. W. Reagan 

Jno. H nd lesion 

j Thos. Reason 

1 Hiram Hondeshell 

I Caleb W. Hargis 

j John W. Jameso 

I Henry Eidson 

j Garret J. W. Holland 

[Nathan L Lamarr 

'John W. Elliott 

| Jas. Lamarr 

I Jas. G. Ray 

jWm. Doolin 

jChas Wagoner 

jHenry Miller 

jGeo. T. ^tein 

|Jos. Montgomery 

jAdam Pooro 

(Allen Strwait, 

John R. Driskell .. 



JTIios. J. Duncan 

William Hobsnn 

J Hardin Coodall 

[E. H. Hntchings 

f Jackson Long 

Harrison Smith 

|Wm. R. Perry 

Vm. Pike 

aa. Winchester 

iVm. Roger 

onts Alexander 

as. B. Roach 

liften Eliis 

ohn A. Wj.kefidd 

V. B. Wi!!inms 

iicholas Xisino-er 



Where from. 



Missouri 

Illinois 

do 

Missouri 

do 

do 

do 

Illinois 

Missouri 

do 

do 

do 

Kentucky. . .. 

do 

Missouri 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Tennessee . . . 

do 

do 

do 

Illinois 

do 

do 

Missouii 

do 

do 

Illinois 

Tennessee . . . 

Missouri 

Tennessee . . . 

Missouri 

do 

do 

Texas 

Missouri 

S. Carolina. . . 

Iowa 

Missouri 

do 



H. Rep. 200 8* 



do 

Illinois 

. . . . . .do 

do 

Missouri 

do 

Illinois 

do 

do 

do 

Iowa or Mo . . 

Missouri 

do 

Illinois 

Missouri 

do 



Names. 



Where from. 



Aaron Thompson Kentucky. 

Barry Richardson Mis ouri . , 

Jasper Dingen do. . . . 

Joseph Oshen Illinois . . . 

isiac Stollon ' do 

William Murray Missouri . 

Joseph Howard |. , . .do 

Zacharia Roe 
Benjamin Bunch, 
Leandtr Fawts. 
Elisha Tucker. 
John E. Brown 
Robert Hargrave, 
Reuben E. 
Henry Lilt ., 

Jonah Daniel .do. 

Reuben Daniel.... Illinois 

William Daniel ..'....do.. 





. . . .do 


ts 


do 




do 




do 












...do... 



Missouri . 
Illinois . . 
Maryland 
. . .do. . , 



John Steel 

John Broils .... 
John Robinson.. 
Korgus (Jraham. 

John Dnnigan j Missouri . 

Moses Dunigan '. . . .do. . . . 

Joseph Gasaway '... do.... 

fngram Lusk '. . . .do. 

William Moore ' do 

William Field '. . . .do 

Mr. Hill |....do.... 

John Par j. . . .do. . . . 

Brisco Davis .do. .. . , 

David Dehonev '. . . .do. . . . , 

Hickmnn Smith. 
Rerij;irniri Crabtree 
Joseph Sandrrs. 
William Cash. 
James Fox ... 

D. S. Raffan ' do 

Lewis I lliott j. . . .do... . 

William Driskell do 

George Mallox .do. 

Clahron Burnett I. . . .do. . . ., 

L. M. Love '....do 

Richard Graves |. . . .dr.. . ., 

.ToRoph Eveihart .....!... .do. 

William ^parkman '. . . .do 

William Goodwin '. . . .do 

Henry McKinney j. . . .do 

James Dudley .do. . . . 

Lewis Thomas.., ...'....do 



ree 






iViiss uri . . . . 




Illinois .... 







do ----- 

do.. . ., 
Jo ..... 



John Wikle 

u illiam Surman 

William " tephens ...... . 

William Ring .... ......... [. . . .do. 

Alfred Smith! .............. ... -do. 

Josiah Daniels ........... <!... -do 

Joseph E. Walking ......... ... -do 

Robert M. Daniels ......... ---- do 

Jesse "-pars ................ ... do 

Jnmes Daniel .............. ... .do 

" Robert Rose Braugh" ---- ---- ^ 

William Skidwell .......... . -do 

William T. Kirk...'. ....... ....do 

Robert Cottle .............. j Kentucky 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FIFTH DISTKICT Continued. 



Names. 



Where from. 



Names. 



Where from. 



William Kiel 

Henderson Rice 

John Shoemaker 

Mahlon Morris 

William S. Furguson 

James Grant 

John T. Grant 

James W . Greer 

John G. Morse 

Peter Cams 

William Sherman 

Henry Sherman 

Jonathan Wightman 

Peter fehearman 

Freeman Auston 

Adam Carnes 

Joseph W. Morey 

Joseph H. Morey 

Allen Wilkerson. . 

Dennis VV est 

Elder Barnolly.... 
Richard Golden. . . 
Washington Jones 
Theodore Jones. .. 
George Patridge . . 

M. Patridge 

Thomas Stolen. ... 
Robert R. Stergeon 

Robert Long 

Francis Myers. . .. 

Valentine Ganarva 

Jonathan S. Huff. 

John V 1 - itzong 

Peter Johnston 

Joseph W. Grass 

W. A.Baxter 

John A. Eberhart 

Jeremiah Buffington 

Albert Woodson 

Chester G. Grant 

Samuel H Houser 

James W. Houser 

Andrew B. Jackson 

Curtis Jackson 

Edwin Fairbrother 

John Carr 

Joseph Stotts 

John Lerpel 

Thomas Hitchens 

Robert A. Toby 

James D. Swift 

Noah W. Round 

Lewis .1. Wilson 

John Rose 

William C Melvin 

William Chesnut 

Morgan Crokhyte 

George Ferris 

William Childers 

James L. Childers 

George Bradbury 

William Gadling 

John Tro 
William 



Illinois 

....do 

Holland. ... 

Ohio 

Virginia. . . . 
New York . . 

...do 

Missouri 
...do 



Ohio 

...do 

. . .do. . , 



Virginia .... 

...do 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

New York . . 

...do 

Tennessee . . 
, . .do. . , 



Missouri . . 

...do 

Iowa 

New York. 

Wisconsin 

...do 



Missouri 
Virginia . 
Missouri 



...do 

...do 

...do.. 



. . .do. . 
Illinois 
...do.. 



Indiana . . . 
Illinois 
Missouri. . . 
Vermont. . . 
Ohio .. 



.do. 



Indiana . . . 
. . .do 

New York. 
...do.. 



Indiana . . . 
New York 
...do.. 



...do 

...do 

Indiana. . . . 

...do 

...do.. 



...do 

Connecticut 
New York . , 
...do... 



Missouri . , . 

...do , 

...do 

...do 

Iowa , 

Indiana. . . . , 



John Vanhorn < Missouri.. 

H. Endricks .! Jowa . . 



...do. 
Ohio . 
Iowa . 
do. 



Samuel Glen 
John Freeburt . . 

Eli Miller 

Thomas Hurnon 

M. Wood I Illinois . . . 

O. C. Brown New York 

John Whirl Illinois . . . 

James Goodwin j Ohio 

David Hall I Iowa . . 



John Manes 

James Scott 

John Bradbury 

James Bradbury 



Illinois ... 
Indiana. . . 
Missouri. . , 
....do.. 



Iowa 

...do 

Indiana. . . 

...do 

...do 

Missouri.. 



Porter Glen 
Jesse Glen 

Cyrus Shaw 

Noel Shaw 
Hiram Hanes .... 
Josiah H. Damson 

Benjamin C. Adkins do 

James Adkins j . . . .do 

Bloomer White do 

Thomas McAboys do 

William^H. Findley | Tennessee 

Missouri. . 

-...do 

....do 

v ichigan . 

Texas 

Illinois .. 



Henry Gillespie 

Henry D. Parsons 

James Parson 

James H. Burkhardt 

Bandan Cordam 

Asher P. Wyckoff. 

Fenton M. Bagley 

James Walker 

Henry Younger 

John Hilton 

John Evans 

M ilton Hampton 

Thomas H. Brown 

C. S. Fleming 



John D. Fleming 

David P. Fleming 

Samuel Fleming 



Missouri. . 
. . . .do 



. . . .do 

....do , 

....do.., 



James Fleming .do 



James W. Cox 

Francis Lahardie 

James W. Fehee 

B. B. Taylor 

Joseph Brian 

William Brian 

Robert Brian 

William H. Stanford .. 



Ephraim Kincaide 

Joseph Hogans 

Joseph W. Gayhart 



.do 

Michigan . 
. . . .do 

Ohio 

Kentucky. , 

....do , 

....do , 

Missouri .. 

....do , 

. ..do , 

Indiana. . . . 



Barnet Hall { Missouri . . 

Thomas Wilburn .do. . . .* 

William Ferrill Kentucky. 

William Snider do. . . .. 

George R. Yocum do 

G. Dunn do , 

John Yocum do , 

Andrew Gary do 

Madison Marshal do 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

FIFTH DISTRICT Continued. 



83 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Kentucky .... 
New York... 
Missouri .... 
Georgia .... 
Tennessee . . . 
Missouri 




Missouri 
Indiana 


Hiram T I'haroe 


William Mobley 


II S Rindall 




Missouri 
Indiana 

Missouri 


O F Cleveland 


Peter J. Potts 




John H Arbuckee. ........ 


Alfrprl T qw 




....do 






do 






William A. Haskel 


Virginia 
Missouri 
Michigan . . . . 


B H Ames 


Missouri 




Calvin Randall . . 


....do 


Benazh. B. Campbell 


S M Hayes 




William Clark 


John H Whistler 


do 




Missouri 
... .do 


Robert A Ring 




John A. Hix 




Pennsylvania. 
Iowa '. 




.. do 


John B Scott . 


Stephen White 


do 


John W . Vickery 






....do 




Missouri 




... .do 






do 


Frederick Croxcull ....... 






do 




. ...do 


Peter J. Potts 


do 


J. M. Train 


Ohio 




do 












Missouri 
. ...do 


1 homas Cummings 


Rii. Island, 
do 




William Jdcob 




...do 


Joseph E. Tindall 
Marcus Gill 


Missouri 
. . do 




do 


Philip ti.nl 


do 


Lott Coffman 


do 




Massachusetts 
Virginia ..... 


J. W. Parks 


do 




Dudley G- Hansbrough.. .. 
William H. Findley 


Michigan .... 
do 

Missouri 


P.C.Poole 
H. Z. Turnnel 


Missouri 
Tennessee. . . . 
N. Carolina . . 




Francis J Aonew 


dn 




William Jackson . . 


.. do 


G. H. Gordon 






. ...do 


M. B. Lankford 


...do 




Missouri 
do 




Kentucky. . . . 








.. do 


B. A Dysdale 


...do 




do 








. ...do.... 




Tennessee .... 
...d. 




... .do . 




Henry France. ........ .. 


.. do 




New York.... 
M n i n e ....... 




do 


R A Barnett 


Joseph B GooUw in 


do 




Tennessee .... 




. . . .do 




Francis P. Levine 






Connecticut . . 


John H. Cleaton 


do 




Robert Freaks. ..... 


do 


John C. Clark 


Indiana ...... 


Perry Freaks ..... 


do 


John W Walker 


Iowa .......> 


\Villiam Hunt 


do 






lohn W. Freaks 


..do 




...do 


tVilliam Shufars ...... 


do 




Pennsylvania . 
Illinois ...... 


Robert E Spotwood 


do 


B G. Steel 




do 




Massachusetts 
Vermont 
Wisconsin . . . 
Ohio 


William Wires .... 


do 


Jacob Hicklin. 




New York ... 
Virginia ..... 
Missouri 
do 


Cleveland Scott 
W. C. Barns 




"William Thomas * 




Tennessee. .. . 
Missouri 
New York.... 






Marion P. Jackson 
^ohn M. Keeton 
Samuel L. Ring 
Champion Reesley 
Villiam S. Gregory 


...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
. .do. ....... 


Eli Moore 


Richard D. Richard ville 


New York.... 









84 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FIFTH DISTRICT Continued. 



Names.. 


Where from 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 


' Samuel Wade 


Missouri 




do 




... do 




do 




do 




. . .do 








. do 


Hdi u mid Li Tryjjle 




John R McDaniel 


do 




do 











SIXTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters of the sixth district of 1he Territory of Kansas, according 
to the census returns taken by William Barbee in the months of Janu- 
ary and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from 


Names 


Where from. 






Michael McCann ......... 


Maine . . . 












. . . .do 




do 




. .. do 


Noali W Bennett 


....do 






Hir T Wilson 


do 




do 


Thomas B Aniott 


do 


Nathan Arnctt ........... . 


do . 


William M : ir<>rave 


. . .do 




do 


^Viiliam Watkins .......... 


Kentucky . . 












. ...do 


F Deivent 


do 




.. do 




Tennessee ... 




Ohio 


Philander S. Moore 


Missouri . . . . . 


William Griffith 


Pen n*sy 1 va n i a 


Jefferson Coapstan. 




David Gathey 


. . do 


Ernory B. Cook 


....do 
Missouri . . . . * 


G. J. Endicott 


Missouri 
do 


A. Ward 
^Villi'im E'inin ............. 


Illinois 
... do 


John Hix 


do 


Rir-hard Beth 


Pennsylvania 




. ...do 




do 




....do 




Tennessee . . . 




....do 








do 




....do 




. . do 




do 




. . .do .... 




do 


Reuben Fleetwood 


. do ... 




New York ... 








Missouri . . . . . 




do 




do 




do 




do 


John A. Bai bee ....... . 


do 


Henry Smirik 


New York . . 




....do 


Charles Mitchell 


Missouri 




do 




do 


Charles Heard 


do ... 


Toel Catbinor ... . 




Lewis Broils 

Benjamin F. Wilkerson 
John B Smith 


do 
do 

do 


J. C. Anderson 
James Waldron 
John R Wood 


New York ... 
Ohio ........ 
Tennessee 




do 


Geo ^V ReHnick ......... 






do 


Robert T Reding 


Iowa . . . 




do 


George Rocker ............. 


do 


Wyle Patterson 








A H Horton 


do 


Ch'i rles Mi la m ........ . 




John A Mc'^oy ........... 




Daniel F. Uuckhart 


Ohio 




Kentucky .... 




Missouri . . . . 




Virginia . , 


Samuel S. Gilmore. . ....... 


....do 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
SIXTH DISTRICT Continued. 



85 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Ohio .... 






John 1 ivas 


Indiana 


Jackson Fields 


. ...do 








Missouri 
Illinois 
....do 


David Ward 


do 


Robert W. Getrcal 




do 


James Smith . . 


do 




do 


Joseph Smith 


do 


Francis Twombly 


Missouri 




Michigan . . . 
Missouri 

do 




Charles Stt phen . . . 


Missouri 






Canada ...... 


D;uiiel B James * 


do 




Ohio 


Solomon Spears . . . . 


do 








....do 




....do 


John Wakefield 


do . . . 




.. do 




Illinois . r 




do 




do 






Benjamin Fawbush 


do 




do 


Charles Smith 


Missouri . . . . , 




Missouri 




....do 




...do 




... .do 


John B Fleming ....... . 


Indiana 
. . .<) 


(Jeorge Wiikefield 
William Morgan ... . 


....do 
do 


James H F leming. ..... 




do 




. ...do , 




New York . . . 
Maryland .... 
Kentucky. . . . 
Arkansas .... 
Kentucky. . . . 
Missouri 


Thomas Or-burn 


....do 
Tennessee ... 
Missouii 
Indiana, 






Thonvis Dorland .......... 


Janie** Andrian ....... ... 


John Fleener 


Aram Shapevveather . 


lames Fleener ........ 


do 


Peter Welch 


John \VVston ...... 




Samuel Nelson 


Geoigia 
Missouri 
Geo and Mo. 
Ind. Ter 
Georgia 




do 




Tennessee . . . 
Missouri 
do 


Ira Gii thered 


John Williams 


Jermm Huloway 


William Williams 


James AVilli ims . . . 


..do 






....do.* 




...do 




....do 


Joseph Kawls 


Ohio 


William Breess 


... .do 




A rkansas .... 
Missouri 
Massachusetts 
Missouri 




....do 


Robert Kd wards 

Alexander Warfield 




do 


William Ray 


. ...do 


Fielder Lewis 


L. .lanny 

W i 1 1 1 a m .la n ny 


....do 
. . .do 




do 


L. McKiney , .. 


do 




....do 


Hiram Bledsot 1 . ... 


Ohio . 


Arthur Ward 


....do 
do 


Milton Eueing 


Tennessee . . . 
N. Carolina . . 
Ohio 


E. B. Cook 


Ho 






do 


John Grant 


Connecticut . . 
do 




Massachusetts 
Delaware .... 
Missouri 




Thomas Wilson 




Massachusetts 
Kentucky. . . . 
Missouri 
...do 




John Graves 




do 


Thomas Graves 


William Haskins 


Illinois 


Natban Vestnll 


...do 


ReuSen Parker 


....do 
do 


Lemuel Vestall 


Missouri .... 
do 


Michael Dawson 


Georgia 


Jeremiah McNew 


...do 




Jonathan Evans 


do 




. do 


Reuben *pratt 


do 




..do 


Jesse Fowler 


do . . . . 




Kentucky.... 
Georgia ..... 


Enoch Osborne 
B. Piles 


. . . .do 

do 


Manor Nichols 




do 




Missouri 
...do 




,..do.. 





KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
SIXTH DISTRICT Continued. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri . 




Ohio 


Samuel Russell 


do 


E. S. Fishback 


. . do ...... 


Elisha Fly 


....do 


Samuel Demirdly 






do 








do 


William Underlull 


do 




do 






John Fly 


...do 




Holland .... 


William footer 


...do 




Italy 




do 




Prussia ...... 


H W Jones 


Indiana 




Ireland . . . . . 




do 




Missouri . . . . 


Stephen Potter 


Tennessee . . 




Belgium . . . . 




Delaware 




Holland . . 












do ... 


O ' Donnel Thorn 






Ohio 


Patrick Phalin 


do 




do 








. ...do 















SEVENTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters in the seventh district of the Territory of Kansas, accord- 
ing to the census returns made by J. R. McClure in the month of 
February, 1855. 



Names. 


here from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Ohio 




Ohio 




..do ... 




New York 












Ohio 


F McGee 








C C Coots 


...do 


John W. Freel 


Iowa 


J H Ratcliffe 


..do . .. 


Ithiel Streit 


Pennsylvania . 


Elliott Cusiwer 


.do ' .. 






Matthias A Reed . ... 


do 




... .do 


William Hanley 


do 




... .do 




do 


Johnston Mclntire 


....do 
do 


John W. Webb 
William Webb 


....do 
....do 


M H. Rose 


....do 




...do 




....do 


William Dailey ..' 


Illinois ...... 




....do 


Jeremiah Preston 


do 




do 


Frank Oufrene .... .... 






. . . .do 


Robert Turner ... . 






....do 








do 


D W Harold .... 






New York 








.. do 




do 




Iowa ...... 








Missouri . . 


Charles ^Vatny 


do 




.. .do 




Illinois 


J B Titus 


Iowa 


Allen Pierce 


do 


Devilla Wright 


do 


M. W. McGee 


Missouri . . > 











KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

EIGHTH DISTRICT. 



87 



List of voters in the eighth election district of the Territory of Kansas, 
according to census returns taken by J. R. McClure in the month of 
February , 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Louisiana .... 


Samuel Griffith 


Kentucky ... 




Maryland . . . . 




Missouri ..... 




Pennsylvania 




... do 


Georffp AV Butcher 




Charles T Gillmore 


...do 




do 




do 




Kentucky .... 




....do 




. . .do. . 




Indiana ...... 




Missouri . 


George M Gillour 


Illinois ...... 




do .. . 




Missouri . . . . 




...do.., 




do 




....do.. 


Alfred Hyden 


do 




...do 


A J Baker 


loWil ........ 




do .. 


William H Hogan 


Missouri . . . . . 






Ely M Sewell 




W. D. Han-is 


Missouri 








....do 




Iowa 




Massachusetts 




Pennsylvania 


"William Delancy 


....do 


Morgan Delacy ............ 


New IVIexico 


George Diivis ... . 


Missouri . . . 


John Goodie ...... . .. 


New York 


G. M. Sincock 


















NINTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters in the ninth district of the Territory of Kansas, accord- 
ing to census returns made by M. F. Conway in the months of Janu- 
ary and February , 1855. 



Names. 


Where from 


Names. 


Where from. 




New York . . . 


William H Moore 


Indiana. *** 


Robert W ilson 


Missouri .... 








Ohio 


^ illiam Price ........... 


Ohio 




Maryland . . . 






Jeremiah Lnmb ............ 


Ohio 








do 


G. B Pen Arsdale 


New York " 




....do 


Joseph Peals * . 


Kentucky 


J. R. Mills 


,...do 






Robert Kloutz 


Pennsylvania 






J. R. McClure 




John F Price 


Kentucky. . . 


Edward M. Tripp 


Massachusetts 


Edward Gleason ...... 


Illinois 




Pennsylvania 


John Welch ... 


...do 


William Cuddy 


New York 




. do 


C. R. Mobley 


Kentucky 




.do 


g. A. Treat 


Ohio 






John N Dyer .... 






do 


Lemuel Knapp 


New York 








....do ... 




do 











88 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

TENTH DISTRICT. 



List of voters in the tenth election district of the Territory of Kansas^ 
according to census taken by M. F. Conway in the months of January 
and February , 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 


Georjj" ^ Ewbanks ....... 


Missouri .... 




Ohio 








Illinois ...... 


Henrv Sheriff' 


do . . 


Hoy Hall 






do 




. do .... 




....do 




do 




do 


Horace A Wilcox 


Rhode Island 




do 


J W Ressell .- 






Iowa 




do 


Asel G Allen 


Massachusetts 




M issouri . . . 




Missouri . . 




.. do 


Samuel D Dyer 
W CJ Over 


do 
...do . . . 


Gfxmre Clopman 
William D Wicks 


Kent ncky . ... 




do 


1 W Leland 


iVl assachusetts 


Charles li Blood 


Illinois . 


William Seymour 


Ohio 




do 


William S Seymour 


do 


Marshall A Garrett . 














do .... 


J. E Wood 


Ohio 










Vlitchell Vlathevv 




Samuel \Vhitehorn .... 


iVJichiffin . 


Antony I asseer 


Missouri 


Israel P Brayton .... . 










....do 


1 lenry Rurnmell 


Missouri ..... 




do 


Washington Gibbs 


Kentucky. ... 






Charles^Wallerts 






do 


A nd re w Nail 


Louisiana . . . . 




Pennsylvania 


Jiicob H Hard 


i California.... 






Hmry Ebert 


' Ppti'isy Ivania > 


Aborn Martin. 


. . do 




Missouri . . . . . 


Seth L. Child 


Illinois .... 




....do 


Isaac S. Hascall 


New York ... 












I 



ELEVENTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters in the eleventh district of the Territory of Kansas, accord- 
ing to census returns made by B. H. Ticombley in the months of Jan- 
uary and February j 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 


John E D Avis 


Missouri 


Tohn Jones , sen 


Missouri 




....do 




. ...do 


Robert Berber 


.. do 








...do 




do 


Robert C Bishop 








George K Hubbard 


Missouri . . 


David Jones 


. . . .do 


Willitrn Hubbard 


. . . .do 




...do 


Jerry Sweat 


....do 
do 


<. N. B. Hulmes 


do 

do 


William P McCuse 


.. do 


E S. Bishop 


do 




..do ... . 




do 


Francis J Marshall .. 


.do 




do 




. do ... . 




...do 


John G Clarke . . 


. do . 


C D Stockwell 


... do 











KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

TWELFTH DISTRICT. 



89 



lAst of voters in the twelfth election district of the Tirritory of Kansas , 
according to the census taken bt/ B. H. Ticombley in the montfts of 
January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 






Perry Polk 


Missouri 

Michigan . . 




Missouri 
do 






Thos McCartney 




.. do 




do 




fin.. 










Jo 






Ohio 




...do 


William Mortell 
D. K. Palmer 


Iowa 
Michigan 








do 






Baptist Dutchame 
Fox Boothe 


Canad i 
New York .. . 


Do] os All p n 


" Wisconsin. . . . 
Virginia 
Fr.uice 
France 
Missouri 


Alfred Mothers 
Peter Dessuit 








Baptist Ogee 


do 

i\ew York .. . 

. do ! ! ! \ \ 




John Blouchard 
R C Miller 


....do 
.do ... . 


Oscar B. Dean 




Louisiana .... 
Missouri 
do 




. . do ... 








Olie Oldson 




Missouri 
Ohio 


L M Cox 


Ohio 






do 




Ho 


Frederick Counteamer 


Canada ... . 


Benjamin Dean . . . . . 


New York ... 
Missouri 


do 


Joseph Fox 




Indi'ina ..... 


E. M. Sloan 


Missouri 
Ohio 




do 


Samuel M Bartlett 


do 




Missouri 


Benjamin Poteet .... . . 


Kentucky 
Wisconsin . . . 


Reuben P 1 1 aas 


Pennsylvania. 
Missouri . . 


George Maulpy . . 


Udlem Alley 


John O'J,.oughlin . 




Ohio 


James O'Laufhlin 


f lo 




Wisconsin . . . 
Illinois 


Joseph Mathews 


Missouri 
<| 




Samuel * 'umminffs .... ... 


New York . . . 
Iowa 


John Belon 




Wesley Hopkins 

Geo W Baker 


^arnuel J. Cramer 


Virginia 


Illinois 




Missouri 


John Fett 


do 




Arkansas .... 
Jowa 




do 


j Lewis M Kennedy 


Walter D Beels 


Missouri 
Ohio 


; J B Ms?i"e 


Missouri 


Richard Clency 


i J B Dnorinck 


Kentucky. . . . 
Illinois 
Missouri 
Iowa 


W. W. Moore 

Geo H Baker 


Missouri 


John Schultz 




New York . . . 
Indiana 
Illinois 


Andreas M;i?7(jlli 


Jesse Adamson 
Geo. B. Rey 
Benpmin Foster 


Daniel Doneen 
John Putt on 


Missouri 
Kentucky. . . . 
Ohio 


Ohio 
Missouri 
do 


Sebastinn Schlino'er 


Peter Karle^'tind 


Missouri 
do 






Benjamin Winkle 


Ho 
do 


AtlfllSlns Brolly 


Pennsylvania . 
Missouri .... 
,l. 


Lewis Wilson 


John Winkle 


Ho 


E G Booth 




....do 









90 



KINS AS AFFAIRS. 

THIRTEENTH DISTRICT. 



List of voters in the thirteenth election district, Territory of Kcwsas 
according to census returns made ~by H. B. Jolly, taken during th> 
months of January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




England 


Walker William 


Indiana . . * 






j D York 


N Carolina 




. .. .do 


William Tillotson 


Illinois . 


M D Wade 


Illinois .... 




England . 




JV1 issouri ..... 


A J Whitney 




W C Lewis 


Iowa . .... 








Michigan ... 










Robert Riddle 




William Arthur 
Henry Seals 


....do 
....do 
. .. .do 


T. D. Jolly 
H. B. Jolly 
J B Ro<=s 


Illinois 
....do 
Missouri .... 




....do 


Thomas Mooney 


do 




do... ..... 




Switzerland . 


Josph Rodgers. ........... 


Enfland 




Kentucky. . . 


O B Herbert 


Kentucky .... 


S J Scantlino* . . . . 


. . . .do 


Silas Oilman 


do 


W. H. Trap.! 


Missouri.. . . 
. .. .do 


William Kirkendall 


do 




do 




....do 




do 


M E Riddle 


do 




do . . . 


Robert Sheely 




Joseph EllioH 


. . .do . 


Charles C>sy 


Missouri ..... 




,..do.. 


\Villiam Nations . . . . . 


. do 




. ...do 


G M Dyze 


do .. 


Shelby Piles 


do.. 


John Davis . 


do 




...do.. 


William Jibbs 
Holman Bonfield 

F John 


....do 
....do 
do 


J. B. Worit 
J. H. Front 

Richard Chandler .......... 


Germany . . . 
do 
.Missouri ... 


M Walker 


do 


Prater Chandler ........... 


...do 




Germany .... 




do 






J. W. Pate 


do 


B Boislv 


Illinois ...... 


John Bradshaw .... . . . . 


England 




do 




M issouri .... 




. do ... . 




do 


Smith White 




Robert Carter 


do 


George White 


do 




....do 


Hubbard Holder, 


do 




....do 


H. C. C<>ra 




John Evans 


..do 


Ezra Cora 


do 




..do 




do 


James Jont ... ......... 


. do 




Iowa ....... 


James Hopewell . ...... 


do 




....do 


Napoleon Hopewell . 


do 




...do 


William Hunter . . 


do 




Indiana. ..... 















KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

FOURTEENTH DISTRICT. 



91 



List of voters of the fourteenth district of the Territory of Kansas, 
according to the census returns made by Albert Weed, esq., taken 
during the montlis of January and February, A. D. 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 




do 




JVJ ichigun , . . . 




Missouri .... 




Ohio 




Missouri 


Charles Vinson 


Arkansas ... 


J C Wibley 


Virginia 




Missouri . . . 








do 




Kentucky .... 


Whitson G Tale 




Bonard Brady 


iV'l issouri .... 




...do 


William O Robertson . . 


Kentucky 


Elisha H Rosill 




Joseph W Batie 


Missouri 




....do 




....do 




....do 


James W. Holland 


do 


S K Miller 


....do 




....do 


John P Cordineer . 


....do 




do 




do 


Elys Hamilton 


do 


Zedock Martin .... ..... 


do, 


William Smith 


do 


Washington F. Martin 
James M. Holland ......... 


do. 
Indiana 


Amos Rutled^e ............ 


. do 


Silvester Madison ........ 


Missouri 




....do 




....do 




....do 


'Joshua Sanders 


.. do 




....do 


Richard Tuck 


....do 




Ohio 


Jonathan Alexander 


Illinois . ... 


Richard Rest 






.. do 




....do 




....do 


William M Peppers 


. do 


W. W. Huddle 


do 


John C. Manuel 


Kentucky ... 




Missouri .... 


Michael McCormac 
Robert Glory 


....do 
.. do . 




.. do 


John Donley 


....do 


Dennis v'ullen 


....do 


Jameh O'Connell 


....do 


H. N. Beauchamp 


....do 

Illinois . . 



Names. 



Eli Acord 

Jacob Acord, jr 

William K. Shaw 

J. W. Collins 

Anderson Cox 

Anderson Cook 

Jacob Goshon 

Matthew Fitzpatrick 

John Grace 

William Gains 

Edward Deacon 

Henry Moore 

Parker A. Hooper,, 

James C. Ditymore 

Vlelchior Brown 

Joel Byron 

Peter Mintcer 

Isaac Craig 

Milton Nett 

Josephus Nett 

G. 11. Wilson 

A. G. Rice 

George Gay 

Charles M illaman 

Harvey W. Forman 

Daniel Vanderslice 

Thomas J. Vanderslice 

William T. B Vanderslice .. 

Harden Crichfield 

William Vivis 

William Sugg 

Francis Bushnell 

Nelson Rodgers 

Anthony Gravil 

Joseph Better 

John Hullen 

John B. Roy 

Samuel M. Irvin 

Cornelius McClain 

James D. Irwin 

Henry Buch 

E P. Richardson 

J. S Pemerton 

Oliver Bealer 

Jackson Bealer 

Charter Searles 

Thomas Davis 

Eli Galbard 

John McKauler 

John Edward 

John Greenfield 

Daniel Million 

Nicholas While 

E. W. B. Rodgers 

Silsas Stone 

L. H. Pendleton 

Uriah Griffith 

Thomas W. Matterson 



Where from. 



Illinois. 

Missouri, 
...do... 



...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
,..do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do 
.do 
.do 



,...do 

Alabama. . 

Ohio 

1VJ issouri. . 

....do 

,...do 



...do 

...do 

Kentucky, 

...do 

. . .do. . . .. 
Iowa 
Missouri. , 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



...do... 
...do... 
Ohio ... 

Missouri 
...do.. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do, 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



92 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FOURTEENTH DISTRICT Continued, 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 
do 


Polete Levsee 


Missouri 
. ..dn , 


R. W Witsrtt 


Willi im viathew-* '. . 


Kentucky. . . . 
Missouri 
do . . 


Doctor Wells 
P. T. Transaway 


. . . .do 
....do 














Rilpv Cl-tnii 






do 


William IVewman 


Mi.-souri 
do 












....do 




do 




....do 


Ili'-hard Baber 


do 




....do 




do 




....do 




. .. do 


Geoige Rhodes 
Charles v| . Stewart 
Jaco!) Driesselmier 
D B Weldinu- 


....do 


Henry Lashiena 


....do 


4.Y1 issouri 
do 




do .... 




do 




do 




do 




do 


Frederick Trent 


.. .do 




do . .. 






Nelson Abhy 


....do 
... do 


John W. Smith, sen 


... do 
. . .do 






Philip James . . . 


Kentucky. . . , 
Missouri 
. . .do 


Willi. in U. Hye 


M issouri 
...do 


William Sharper 
Ch i rh's Roilo'er^ .... .... 




do 




do 








do . 


Samuel Kirkpalrick 


Missouri 
do 




do 






do 


John Cook 


iV. Carolina. . 
Missouri 
....do 
....do 
do 


James Craft 


do 


Laster Copland 
Q. Lewis 

Will am Chambeiiain 
Patrick Wii.rht 


Robert L Morris . . ...... 


. do 


Q. W. Davis... 
E. S. St.jns m 
V. E. Morris 


do 
....do 
. . .do 


Jonathan Hurt 
Cary B. Whilehead 


do 
do 


T. M. Morris 


do \ 
...do 


G. B. Jones 


do.. 




...do 


"William .Vioigan ... 


Vermont 
Missouri 
do 


Lias Roa rk 
Henry Moore 


do 
Kentucky 


Ephraim Vf e 01eland ;. 




M issoun .... 


John G. vicCleliind 
Stephen N Bell 


....do 
....do 


VJorjr in Osborn 
James N Miller 


....do 
do 




do 


Garnett Kelley 


do 


Ab Groities .... . . . 


do 


A mot Tribble . 


do .. .,. 


James Grotnes 
Joseph H. Cisli'ee 
Newton R. Carter 


....do 
....do 
do 


' liomns Ho\vell. 
Willi mi Miller 


...do 


Jackson Pp ilils 

Kdward Gill in m. ........... 


Missouri 
Illinois 
. . .do 


Nason ^'. Moss 


. . . .do 
do 


John H. Gilliam 




do 


Henry Ada mi? 
Douland Marrow 


Missou.i , 
. . .df 




do 




...do 


K]ii ih Merril ... 


..do 




....do 1 


.lames G;i briel . 


. do 




...do 


Richard Ward 


.do 


\Villiam P Richardson 


...do ' 


Flus^el Ha/elhanan .... 


do . . 




...do 


Pleasnnt Hanan 


do ..... 1 


John W. Stevens 
Edward "r.bmider 
William Skelton 


...do ! 
...do 
. . .do ' 


Riclmd ^hankes 
' homas Duvanet 


...do f 
. do } 


Jncob Iritflehart . . . . 


. do 4 




...do ' 


Andrew I nibble ........... 


do .] 




. . .do ! 




do 




...do ' 


Robon Shannon ..... ..... 


do 




...do 




do 




...do 


Pat. Tindle 


do 











KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FOURTEENTH DISTRICT Continued. 



93 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 


Daniel Tindle 
John Wallace 


Missouri 
....do 








Ohio 




....do 




do 




...do 


1 Archibald Willis 






do 




Ohio 




....do 


Evans Smith. 


Indiana 
Iowa 
Pennsylvania. 




. ...do 




...do 


Joseph Randolph 




...do 


William Brittain 








Ohio 










Daniel Montgomery 


....do 
. . .do 


Benjamin Sprowl 


....do 
... do .. 




do 




do 




do 




....do 






Qnincy Ball 






, . . .do 




do 




Ohio 


lohn L) Noble 


Missouri 
...do 




Missouri *. . . 




Albert H ead 


do 




. .. .do 








do 


E Blackslon 


do 








. . .do 


Andrew B. Armstrong 


. . . .do 

do . . 


A Hall 


New Jersey . . 
Missouri . . 










. ...do 


John B McCafferty 


. .. do 


William Arthur 


do 








...do 


J.i mes R i 1 e y 


do 


John 1 Brady 


..do 


Constance Posna, ..... .... 


. do . . 




..do 




do 




....do 


^ illiam Copeland 


...do 




....do 




. ...do 




...do 


* illiam Rhodes 


.'...do 


Antwise 'ere ............ 


...do.... 


George P Rhodes 


do 




do 




N. Hampshire 
Missouri 


\V illiam Palmer 


. . . .do 

do 


Hamilton Osbourne 




William McGrow 
Henry lihodt j s 


....do 


John Lovelady 


. . . .do 

. do 


John 'Wise 


Ohio 


H. P. Ruscal 


:::!;:::::::: 


William Lanforgey ? 


...do 
...do 




.. do 











FIFTEENTH DISTRICT.. 

List of voters in the fifteenth election district, of 1he Territory of Kansas, 
according to census returns made by H. B. Jolly, in the montlis of 
January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 




Missouri 




. ...do 




...do. 


Horace Haley 
Martin Glo^Kes ...... ..... 


....do 
Germany . . 


J. M. Martin 


....do 
Ireland 








do 


D. A. N. Grover... 


,..do 


J. P.Basket ., 


Missouri 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FIFTEENTH DISTRICT Continued. 



Names. 



S. W. Tunnel , 

N. J. Shaler 

Edward Oakley , 

A. G. Boyd 

A. J. Walker , 

A. C. Hayne 

E. S. Wilhite 

D. Suell 

H. P. Cady 

J. H. Maxwell 

A. M. Price - 

W. S. Blanton 

E. H. Evans 

Isaiah Austin 

J. C. Ellis 

J. H. Large 

Kyle Evans 

J. W. Freeland 

John Freeland 

JB. F. Freeland 

Uriah Higby 

Thomas llearnier 

William Novel 

John Lurnpkins 

H. M. >tory 

E. R. Zimmerman 

William Braham 

J. W . Atkinson 

E. M. McComas . . , 

James Knox 

M. Hall 

J. R. Caslle 

Thomas Corny 

William Kirkfnan 

Robert Joler 

Charles tf exton 

A. A. Haggard 

Washington Haze 

C. Bishop 

James Beagle 

E. D. Bishop 

J. W. Golden 

W.H.Weils 

R. H. Phelon 

J. A. Lindsey 

John Norton 

R. M.Foster 

R. W. Thompson 

John Cook 

E. J.Myers 

M.Elliott 

G. W. Thompson 

G. W. Myers 

M. B. Myers 

G. S. Davis 

Richard Davis 

J. J. Thompson 

J. S. ''hompson 

John Branscome 

J. F. Sapp 

Daniel Sapp 

Allen Henson 

John Jones 

Samnel Bowman 



Where from. 



Missouri 

New York... 
Pennsylvania 
Missouri .... 
....do 



...do 

...do 

...do.... 



Wisconsin . . 

Illinois 

Missouri .... 
...do 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



Kentucky . . . 
Pennsylvania . 

Missouri 

...do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Kentucky. . . . 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania. 

Iowa 

Missouri 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio 

N. Hampshire 

Missouri 

...do.., 



Iowa 

Georgia .... 
Missouri .... 
. . .do 



...do 

...do 

Pennsylvania 



.do. 



. . .do. . . 
. . .do. . . 
Missouri 
Iowa . . . 
Missouri. 
. . .do. . . , 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Iowa . . . 
Missouri. 
...do.. 



...do... 
. . .do . . . 
. . .do . . . 



Names. 



Where from. 



Jonathan Smith Missouri 

James Douglas L . . .do 

B. Douglas .do 

Robert Smith ! do 

H. C. Bradley ! do 

George Speek j Georgia 

John Bailey i Missouri 

Franklin Goddard do 

I homas Goddard do 

Allen Pullen , . .do. . . 



David H unt do 

John Cotter Ireland ...... 

Edward Cotter do 

Benjamin Wallace Missouri 

E. Downing I. . . .do 

William Downing | .... do 

J. M. Medel, 
James Smith, 
J. H. 

John Light 
Lovi Rob ns. 
Job Robins. 
Peter Wade 
James Crone 
William Kei 
Francis Stutz 
Barbery Dowr 
J. O. Hawley.' 
J. B. Perry 
George B. ^ 
William W 
William Te 
James Frily. 
Stephen Frily. 
Jesse Frily. 
Francis Noyes. 
Jim Johnson, 
George Sharp. 

William Sharp ( . 

Robert Isaacs j . . . .do . 

Silas Snoddy I . . . .do 

Silas Willa .'...!... .do. 

John Snoddy j. . . .do, 

R. M. Lisby .do 

Jamds Cunningham .do . 

James Losten. . ...do. 



el 


Indiana ...... 


th 


M issouri . 




do 




do 




do 




do 


e 


. .. do 


nens ............ 


.. do 


ence ...... 


...do 


atz 


do 




do 




....do 




....do 


Wells 


.. do 


fade 


do 




do 




....do 








d 




...do 




. . do 




do 


larp 


,..do.. 



Thomas Scantlin Ireland . . 

J. McCune do 

George Hollingsworth ! Missouri . 

George Caton. . I England . 

L. Yokem j Missouri . 

Grafton Thomason 1. . . .do 

William McCerea Ireland 



George Sears . 

S. Dickens 

David Pennick 

N. J.Miyfield 

N. .1. Allen 

A. Newman 

M. A. Branfield 

Jesse Shepard 

H. H. Williams 

J. D. Durony 

Andrew Cheny worth 



Kentucky 

Missouri . . . 
....do...... 

Illinois .... 

Missouri . . . 

Germany . . 
ri ... 

....do 

....do , 

....do , 

. . . .do i 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
FIFTEENTH DISTRICT Continued. 



95 



. 
Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri 
....do 


H. F Power 


Missouri 
do 








do 








.do .... 


O R Davis 


New York. ... 
Missouri ..... 


J S Wiser 


do 


Daniel Fisk 


A.H.Allen 

J H Stringfellow 


....do 
....do 


S.F.Kay... 


do 


James Donnel 
W. D. Adams 
R. S. Kelly 


....do 
. . . .do. 
....do 


M. Coale 
J. B. Crane 
H. B. Gale 
C S Foster 


do 


Missouri ..... 
New York.... 




Missouri . . . . 




William Hen^ler 


do 


William Dilla 


. . . .do 


Charles Eckles 






do 


Michael Wilkin 


do 




do 




Ireland ..... 
....do 
Missouri 
Kentucky .... 


J M Wallace 


....do 


James Buzzard 


J. M. Sales 
Cor. Sales 




....do 
....do 


J T Sampson .... . . . 


E J Narvey . . . . . . . 


G W Laber 


....do 




do 




do 


M A Phillips 


Illinois ...... 




Kentucky. .. . 


C B Graham 


Missouri 
. do * . 




\Villiam Morton 








Illinois ...... 




....do 




Missouri 
....do 




de 




John Waddle. . . T 


do 


Joseph Taylor .... 4 


...do 




....do 


George Clofsholder 


Germany .... 
Missouri 
do 


J M McBride 


....do 


Patrick Hancock . .... 




....do 


Eph Farwell . 




....do 


John Snider 
F. L. fetutz 

Christ Harn 


....do 
....do 
do 


Y. B. Gates 
M. T. Bally 
J W Baily 


....do 
....do 
....do 


B.L. Rich 


....do 


William Baily 


do 


J. H. Gilbert 


....do 




do 




..do 




do 


David Fiser 

Luther Dickerson ...... 


....do 


T.T.Kelly 


....do 
....do 


William McVay 


....do 




do 


Dudley McVay 


.do 


J M Freeland 




F. M. McVay 


.. do 




....do 




do . .. 


N W Hodges 


....do 


Patrick Boyd 


England 






K. J. Hamilton 




J B Passly 


.do 


Weal Higby 


Missouri 
. . .do 




....do 


Bond Thomas 


j E Beckner 


do 


Daniel Thomas 


do 


J D Carban . .... 


do 




do 




do 


Harvey Large 


Kentucky .... 
Missouri 
..do . .. 


Martin Rickle 


....do 


William Crawford 




....do 


Gilbert Mulford 




...do 


Thomas Picktori 
P Reed 


....do 

Arkansas .... 
Ohio 


J. M. Dean 


....do 
...do 






.do 


A. Culver 


Michigan .... 
Ohio . .. 




do 


Ira Boolman 


Nathaniel Stephens 


....do 
do 


John Bootman 


..do 


M. Moony 


Missouri 
Pennsylvania . 
....do 




do 


M. P. Rively 




do 


B. E. Rively 







96 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
SIXTEENTH DISTRICT. 



List of voters of the sixteenth election district of the Territory of Kansas, 
according to the census returns made by Charles Leib, taken during 
the montJis of January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Virginia. 


"amuel France.. ........... 








Ceo 11 Keller 




S R Mcllvaine 


Ohio 


\ T Kyle 


.do .... 






Jas Kirkpatrick 
















Wm Philips 












Jas. Grinter 


do 


John C. Possy 


AUbarna 


Israel Haff 


Ohio 


J. H. Day 












John G Pratt , 


Massachusetts 


W H Levy 






do..... 


A T Patiee 




Augustus Russell 


do 


J. T. Hook 






VerniO'it .... 


A Wilson 


Ohio . 


John Rand ill 


Pennsylvania 


B L Sellers 




Benj. H. Twomblev 


Missouri 


Michael Kelley 


Ireland 

Iv^ntiH'ky . . * 








Ohio 




do 








do 


J P H icliardson ...... . . 






do 






David Z Smith 








P. Riekseckor 


.... do . . 






Samuel ttider 


Ohio . 






John Ij'ick . ... ... 










Scotland .... 


' Gco M Fisher 


do .... 




Germany .... 


Wm I ierce 








F S A bney 


do 




do 




do ... 


Henry. (German) ......... 


do 




do .... 


L. R. Phirr 








John Farrnll 
John Rieffer 


Ireland 


A 1 vah Gregory 


Missmui 


Wm. Enjjlem in 


do 
do 


C. Naef.. 

L). ''* Ames 


Germany .... 
Illinois 


John M. White 


Pennsylvani i 








Knorlsind . 


James McGinty 


Ireland ...... 


J. Howuld 


Missouri . 


A Foster 




C. F. Bredovv 


Germany 




New York ... 


Wm. H. Adams 


Missouri 


Augustus Parker 




Hy. Smith 


do 

do 


Robert L. Ream 


Wisconsin . . . 
Pennsylvania 


L. N. Reed 
R. R. Reed 
Wm. Sauhders 


do 
do 
......do. 
Kentuckv ... 


L. F. Mills 
B. C. Card 
Charles Mundee 

G B Pa ri to u 


Illinois 

Huro-ary. 
Coi'iH'cticut . . 




Pennsylvania 


SSinuel Phillips 


Marylmd .... 


Thos. J. Slonnm 
D. S. Boyle 
H. M. Hook 


..... .do 
Maryland .... 
Pennsylvania 


C. L-.icas !.'.... 
R. K. Wade 


Hungary 
Scotland 


N. Sage 


Michigan 


r 'I l '"podo*"e M VI ix 












T. E Bird 








Jos. Me A leer 
P. H. Robert- 


Pennsylvania . 
Wales 


William M. Matthias 


Maryland.... 


Ed. Saunders 


Missouri 




1 1& * U " 


John K. France 









KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SIXTEENTH DISTRICT Continued. 



97 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 












Ohio 

Missouri 


A. C. Fulks 


Missouri . . 




....do 


P D w yer 




Scotland ..... 

Kentucky. ... 


G Gladdon 


Missouri 
Ireland ...... 




Michael Fallen 




John Wilson 

Patrick Woods 


Maine 
| reland . .... 


Washington Gobel 






do 






Thomas S Rolus 






Pennsylvania. 








W. H H. Goble 


. . do . . 




Denmark .... 
New York ... 




do 




B.B. Mize 
John C Newton 


Missouri 
do 


H Bradlers 




Louisiana .... 
Missouri 


Thomas Bates 
Asa fc>mith 


Ohio 
Missouri 
...do 


Riley Todd 


Squire Overton . .......... 


Isaac Buehler 


Maryland .... 




Tennessee . . . 
Kentucky. . . . 
Missouri 
...do 


P McGill 




W Brown . .... 




Alexander Russell ......... 


J. Hoyt 


New York . . . 
do 




William Williams 




... .do 






H B. Kelley 


..do . 


S Rutleo-e 






. . do . 


John Sperry 

J O Sullivan 


Illinois 


Thomas A JVIinard 




D. McMickle 






England 
Ireland ..... 


William Sparks .......... 


Missouri .... 
do 




William Gaberts 




Germany . 
Pennsylvania. 
Germany .... 


Joseph Waddill 


....do . .. 








Edward Zarl 


Isaac Just ................. 






B. F. Thompson 


New York ... 
Ireland 
Missouri .... 
do 


Franklin Gaibor 


....do 
Switzerland . . 
do 


S. A. Dunn 








Denmark .... 


William Rose 


Iowa . . . 


E H. Smith 


John Wilfley 


do 


S. B. Vanssyckle 


Pennsylvania. 
Iowa 


Peter Sillaley 


. do 


W T. Marvin 




Missouri 




do 




Tolbert Luer 


do 




Missouri . 




Virginia 
^cotland 


John Moore 


...do . 


A. Reed 


J. Kinfrow 


do 


AVilliam Blevins ..... ..... 


Pennsylvania. 
Wisconsin ... 
Germany .... 
. . . .do 


Find Soott 


do 


Daniel Smith 




Germany 
Missouri .... 
...do . 




S. M. Hickman 




S. Pankake 


H. Wells 




W. Bohart 


..do . 




do 


John Haxwell .......... 


. do 


Jacob Peterson 


do 


William Staley 


Pennsylvania, 
do 


J. White 


Kentucky. . . . 


Samuel Staley . 


Clark Trite ... 


IVI HeifHand 


Germany 
Missouri .... 




Minnesota . . . 


Thomas Scott 


Cole Melend 


E Forsythe 


Charles Jeromnx ....... 




F. G Bradin 


Missouri .... 
...do 




Iowa 




Daniel Wi'ley 


Illinois ...... 




....do 


C. P. Dunn 


Massachusetts 




...do 


Alfred Young- 


Francis Browning 


....do 
....do 


George Young 


do 


John Tvler 


Missouri 
do . 




....do 


Joseph McGee 




do 


\Villiam Large . 


do 




....do 


William Meloy . . 

H. Hep. 200 


....do 

-f* 




. . .do. . , 





98 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 
SIXTEENTH DISTRICT Continued, 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 




Missouri .... 
....do 




Missouri .... 
. ...do 








do 




....do 




Iowa 




do 




Missouri .... 
.. do 




do 






Iowa 


Jno. SSparks 


....do 
do 




Missouri .... 




...do 


Jacob Adamson 


....do 
Germany .... 
do 


M.Weils 

"W^ p Drummond 


New York ... 

Kentucky. . . . 




A L Downey 




Missouri .... 
do 


- Iddings ........... 








do 


Isaac V Camp ............ 








Joseph Litigan , .... . . . . . 


Germany .... 




do 


James O Toole 




Germany .... 
. . . .do 


H D McM>ekin ... . 


Kentucky . . . 
Missouri .... 
Germany .... 


Philip Frederick .......... 




Christ'm Galsler 


France 




P Smith 


Prussia . . . . 




Philip Zeio-ler 


Pennsylvania . 


P A Hart 


Missouri .... 


Merrill Davis . . 




John Hartsell 


do 


D A Mitchell 


Missouri .... 
Kentucky. . . . 




do 


William Wallace 




...do 








Joel Hyatt 




George W. Thompson 
D Thompson. 


....do 
do . ... 




....do 




Missouri .... 
... .do .... 


\Villiam Hooper ...... 


do 


S D Pitcher 


T Shilby Pyle 


do 




do 


W. O. Webster 
James G. .Hoick 


Indiana 
....do 
Ohio 




....do. 




....do 


Charles C Hood 


Germany .... 
Missouri .... 
.. do 


Thomas C. Bishop 
F S Arterberry 


Missouri 
...do 






James H Garritt 


... do 




Pennsylvania. 
. . . do 




.. do 


J Pennock 


George W Walker . . 


do 




....do 


John Markham ...... . 


Kentucky . . . . 
Ho 




Ohio .... 


Barrett Markham . ... 


^Villiam Dawson ... ..... 


Pennsylvania. 
Ohio 




England 
Wisconsin . . . 


Sol Snyder 








Thomas Lockerman 




Missouri .... 
....do 




Missouri 


B M. Crust 


W Heipple 


Wisconsin . . . 
. . . .do 




....do 






....do 


William Coomnan . 


Missouri . . . 


Diivid Shearin 


....do 


F Paget 


..do 




Indiana ...... 


E F Stafford 


do ... 


John Copple 


do 


Nath Talbot . 


Arkansas .... 


D H Chappell 


Ohio 




William Cummings 


Pennsylvania. 
. . . .do 








William H Osborn 


New York . . . 




Missouri .... 
Illinois . . 


William H Goode 




Philip Good 


do 




..do 


H f! Norton - - 


Missouri 
Ohio 


J Willey 


....do | AhfilarH fJiithrin . . 




Missouri .... 
do 


George B Northup 


Missouri 
Ohio .... 








do 




. do . 




....do 


A. P Leary 


Missouri 


Chaides H Allen 


....do 


D Dofflenger 


J M Tyner 


....do 




Ohio . . 


J. G. Henderson 
John Kissinger 


....do 
,..do... 


N Richards 


Indiana. 
Missouri . . 


S. Philips.., 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SIXTEENTH DISTRICT Continued. 



99 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 


Stephen Hunt 
Christ Earle 


Missouri 
....do 




New York . . . 
Missouri . . . . . 




Will G Woons 


....do 




do 


Geonre F Cokley 


..do 


George B. White 


....do 




do .... 




....do 




do 


VV W Jefferson 


.. do .. 




....do 


W. A. McDonell 


do 


W H Lawson 


. ...do 




....do 


C Baker 


New York . . . 
Missouri 




Pennsylvania. 


Alfred Lort 







SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 

List of voters in the seventeenth election district of the Territory of Kan- 
sas, according to census returns made by Alexander S, Johnson, esq., 
in the months of January and February, 1855. 



Names. 


Where from. 


Names. 


Where from. 


A H Reeder 


Pennsylvania . 


John McClacken 


Pennsylvania 




Virginia .... 


Joseph Fager . ........ . . 


M issouri .... 




Maryland .... 




. do 




Kentucky .... 


C. B. Donaldson 






Missouri 




Missouri 




Kansas Terr'y 


S. B Dusser 


....do 




Missouri 


O H P Reppta 


....do 


R C Mecks 


...do 


E F Buckman 


.. do .. .. 


Robert Brown 


....do 
Louisiana .... 


Talton Blass 
William Rutlido-e 


. . . .do 


Augustus Charles ........... 


Missouri 


B F Robinson 


do 


^^illiam Donaldson . . . 


....do 


Judge Bouton 


....do 




do 




do 




.N. Carolina . . 




do 




do 




do 




Missouri 


George Batman ............ 


....do 




....do 


James Gladden . .......... 


... do 


Perk. Randall f 


do 




New York . . . 


John Owens 


....do 


Francis Berry . 




Doctor Buchhauman ........ 


do 




Ohio 




do 








do 


Miller Woodey 


. ...do 


L. Chouteau ............... 


. . .do. ........ 


Richard Mendenhall 


...do 


Charles Boles 


....do 


A Gregory . . 






do 




M apsaoh u se tts 











100 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, > sg 
Territory of Kansas. 3 

On the 17th day of February, A. D. 1855, before the undersigned, 
chief justice of the Territory of Kansas, personally appeared Alexander 
S. Johnson, esq., who being duly sworn deposes and says : That the 
foregoing enumeration or census of the seventeenth district of said 
Territory is just and correct, to the best of his knowledge and belief; 
that he has not intentionally omitte 1 or erroneously classified any in- 
habitants or qualified voters ; that he has inserted the name of no 
person except those legally entitled to be inserted, and that he has 
made the said enumeration and classification of the said inhabitants, 
and the designation of qualified voters, truly and correctly, as directed 
in the foregoing precept, to the best of his judgment and ability. 

A. S. JOHNSON. 

Sworn and subscribed, February IV, 1855, before me, 

SAMUEL D. LECOMPTE. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 101 

ELECTION OF J^ARCH 30, 1855. 



PROCLAMATION. 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, TERRITORY OF KANSAS. 

To the qualified voters of the Territory of Kansas: 

I, Andrew H. Reeder, governor of the said Territory, by virtue of 
the act of Congress passed the 30th day of May, 1854, entitled u an 
act to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas," do by these 
presents proclaim, order, and direct that an election be held in the 
said Territory on Friday, the thirtieth day of March, A. I). 1855, for 
thirteen members of council and twenty-six members of the house of 
representatives, to constitute the legislative assembly of said Terri- 
tory ; and the qualified voters of the Territory are hereby requested 
to meet on said day, at the places of holding elections in their several 
districts and precincts, as hereinafter specified, to vote by ballot for 
the number of candidates hereinafter apportioned to the respective 
districts ; and the said election shall be conducted in the manner here- 
inafter prescribed. 

List of Election Districts as heretofore erected. 

First District. Commencing in the Kansas river, at the mouth of 
Cedar creek ; thence up said river to the first tributary above the town 
of Lawrence ; thence up said tributary to its source ; thence by a direct 
line to the west side of F. Rolf's house; thence by a due south line to 
the Santa Fe road, and along the middle of said road to a point due 
south of the source of Cedar creek ; thence due north to the source of 
said Cedar creek, and down the same to the place of beginning. 

Second District. Commencing at the mouth of Big Spring branch, 
on the south bank of the Kansas river ; thence up said branch to its 
furthest source ; thence by a southerly line crossing the Wakarusa 
river, on the east side of the house of Charles Matney, to the middle 
of the Santa Fe road ; thence along the middle of said road to the 
line of the first district; thence by the same, along the west side of 
the house of F. Rolf, to the head of the first tributary of the Kansas, 
above the town of Lawrence; and thence by the same tributary to the 
Kansas river, and up the south bank of said river to the mouth of Big 
Spring branch, the place of beginning. 

Third District. Commencing at the mouth of Big Spring branch, 
on the south side of the Kansas river ; thence up the same to its fur- 
thest source; thence by a southerly line to the north bank of the Wa- 
karusa river, on the east side of the house of Charles Matney ; thence 
up said river and its main branch to the line of the Pottawatomie re- 
servation ; and thence by the southern and western line of said reser- 
vation to the Kansas river, and down the said river to the place of 
beginning. 

Fourth District. Commencing at the Missouri State line in the 
middle of the Santa Fe road ; thence along the middle of said road to 



102 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Rock creek, near the 65th mile of said road ; thence south to the line 
of the late Shawnee reservation ceded by the treaty of 1854 ; thence 
due east along the south line of said reservation and the north lines 
of the existing reservations of the Sacs and Foxes, the existing reser- 
vations of the Chippewas and Ottawas, and the late reservations of 
the Piankeshaws, Weas, Peorias, and Kaskaskias, to the Missouri 
State line ; thence up the Missouri State line to the place of beginning. 

Fifth District. Commencing at the Missouri State line at the 
southern boundary of the fourth district ; thence east along the same 
to the northwest corner of the Sac and Fox reservation ; thence due 
south along the western line thereof, and due south to the south branch 
of the Neosho river, about seventy miles above the Catholic Osage 
Mission ; thence down said river to the north line of the reserve for 
New York Indians, and east along said line to the headwaters of Little 
Osage river, or the nearest point thereto ; and thence down said river 
to the Missouri State line, and up said line to the place of beginning. 

Sixth District. Commencing on the Missouri State line in Little 
Osage river ; thence up the same to the line of the reserve for the New 
York Indians, or the nearest point thereto; thence to and by the north 
line of said reserve to the Neosho river, and up said river and the 
south branch thereof to the head ; and thence by a due south line to 
the southern line of the Territory ; thence by the southern and eastern 
lines of said Territory to the place of beginning. 

Seventh District. Commencing at the east side of the house of 
Charles Matney, on the Wakarusa river; thence due south to the 
middle of the Santa Fe road ; thence westwardly along the middle of 
said road to Rock creek, near the 65th mile of said road ; thence due 
south to the north line of the Sac and Fox reservation ; thence along 
the north and west lines thereof, and due south to the Neosho river ; 
thence up said river to a point due south of the mouth of Elm creek ; 
thence due north to the mouth of Elm creek, and up said creek to the 
Santa Fe road, and thence by a direct line in a northerly direction to 
the southwest corner of the Pottawatomie reservation ; thence along 
the southern line of said reservation to the headwaters of the Waka- 
rusa river, or the point nearest thereto ; thence to and down the said 
river to the place of beginning. 

Eighth District. Commencing at the mouth of Elm creek, one of 
the branches of Osage river ; thence up the same to the Santa Fe road ; 
thence by a direct northerly line to the southwest corner of the Potta- 
watomie reservation ; thence up the western line thereof to the Kansas 
river ; thence up said river and the Smoky Hill Fork, beyond the most 
westerly settlements ; thence due south to the line of the Territory ; 
thence by the same to the line of the sixth district ; thence due north 
to the head of the south branch of the Neosho river ; thence down 
said river to the line of the seventh district; thence due north to the 
place of beginning. 

Ninth District. Commencing on the Smoky Hill Fork, beyond the 
most westerly settlements; thence down the same and the Kansas 
river, to the mouth of Wild Cat creek ; thence up said creek to the 
headwaters thereof; thence due north to the Independence emigrant 
road ; thence up said road to the north line of the Territory ; thence 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 103 

west along the same beyond the most westerly settlements ; arid thence 
due south to the place of beginning. 

Tenth District. Commencing at the mouth of Vermillion river ; 
thence up the same, beyond the house of Josiah D. Adams; thence 
due west to the Independence emigrant road ; thence up the middle of 
said road to the line of the ninth district ; thence by the same to the 
head of Wild Cat creek, and down said creek to the Kansas river ; 
thence down said river to the place of beginning. 

Eleventh District. Commencing in the Vermillion river, opposite 
the north side of the house of Josiah D. Adams; thence up said river 
to the head of the main branch ; thence due north to the military road 
from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney; thence along the middle of 
said road to the crossing of the Vermillion branch of the Blue; thence 
due north to the northern line of the Territory; thence west along 
said line to the Independence emigrant road; thence down said road 
to a point due west of the north end of the house of Josiah D. Adams, 
and due east to the place of beginning. 

Twelfth District. Commencing at the mouth of Soldier creek, in 
the Kansas river ; thence up said creek to the head of the main branch ; 
thence due north to the military road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort 
Kearney ; thence along the middle of said road to the line of the ele- 
venth district ; thence due south to the head of Vermillion river, down 
Vermillion river to the mouth, and down Kansas river to the place of 
beginning. 

Thirteenth District. Commencing in the Kansas river, at a point 
three miles above the mouth of Stranger creek; thence in a north- 
wardly direction by a line corresponding to, and three miles west of, 
the several courses of said creek, to the line of the late Kickapoo re- 
servation ; thence by the southern and western lines of said reserva- 
tion to the military road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney ; 
thence along the middle of said road to the line of the twelfth district; 
thence due south to the head of Soldier creek, down Soldier creek to 
the mouth, and down Kansas river to the place of beginning. 

Fourteenth District. Commencing at the mouth of Independence 
creek; thence up said creek to the head of the main branch, and 
thence due west to the line of the late Kickapoo reservation ; thence 
north along said line and the line of the late Sac and Fox reservation, 
to the north line of the Territory; thence along said line eastwardly 
to the Missouri river, and down said river to the place of beginning. 

Fifteenth District. Commencing at the mouth of Salt creek, on the 
Missouri river; thence up said creek to the military road, and along 
the middle of said road to the lower crossing of Stranger creek ; thence 
up said creek to the line of the late Kickapoo reservation, and thence 
along the southern and western line thereof to the line of the four- 
teenth district ; thence by the same, and down Independence creek, to 
the mouth thereof, and thence down the Missouri river to the place of 
beginning. 

Sixteenth District. Commencing at the mouth of Salt creek ; thence 
up said creek to the military road ; thence along the middle of said 
road to the lower crossing of Stranger creek; thence up said creek to 
the line of the lato Kickapoo ressrvation, and thence along the same 



104 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

to the line of the thirteenth district, and thence by the same along a 
line corresponding to the courses of Stranger creek, and keeping three 
miles west thereof, to the Kansas river ; thence down the Kansas river 
to the Missouri, and up the Missouri river to the place of beginning. 

Seventeenth District. Commencing at the mouth of the Kansas river, 
thence up the south bank thereof to the mouth of Cedar creek; thence 
up Cedar creek to its source, and thence due south to the Santa Fe 
road, along the middle of said road to the Missouri State line, and 
along said line to the place of beginning. 

Eighteenth District. Commencing in the military road at the cross- 
ing of the Vermillion branch of Blue river; thence due north to the 
line of the Territory; thence east along said line to the line of the 
fourteenth district ; thence due south along said line to the aforesaid 
military road, and along the middle of said road to the place of 
beginning. 

Precincts, places for polls , and judges of election. 

t 

First District. The election will be held at the house of W. H. R. 
Lykins, in the town of Lawrence. 

Judges. Hugh Cameron, James B. Abbot, N. B. Blanton. 

Second District. House of Harrison Burson, on Wakarusa river. 

Judges. Harrison Burson, Paris Ellison, Nath. S. Ramsey. 

Third District. House of Thos. N. Stinson, in the town of Te- 
cumseh. 

Judges. Rev. L. D. Stateler, Rev. H. B. Burgess, Rev. H. N. 
Watts. 

Fourth District. House of Dr. I. Chapman. 

Judges. Perry Fuller, David Pultz, E. W. Moore. 

Fifth District. This district is divided into four voting precinct* 
as follows, viz: 

Bull Creek Precinct. Commencing in the Osage (or Marais dea 
Cygnes) river, opposite the termination of the dividing ridge between 
Pottawatoinie and Middle creek; thence by an easterly line, running 
north of all the settlements on the waters of North Sugar creek to the 
Missouri State line ; thence up said line to the line between the fourth 
and fifth districts ; thence east along said line to the line between 
the Peoria and Ottawa reservations ; thence south along the same to 
the Osage river, and down said river to the place of beginning. 

The election will be held at the house of Baptiste Peoria. 

Judges. John J. Parks, J. J. Clark, Stephen White. 

Pottaiv atomic Creek Precinct. Commencing in the Osage river on 
the line of the Peoria and Ottawa reserves ; thence down said river 
to a point opposite the termination of the dividing ridge between Pot- 
tawatoinie creek and Middle creek; thence along said dividing ridge 
beyond the head waters of said creeks, and thence by a line due south- 
west to the line of the sixth district ; thence by the lines of the sixth, 
seventh, and fourth districts, to the line of the Peoria and Ottawa 
reservations, and down the same to the place of beginning. 

Election at the house of Henry Sherman, on Pottawatomie creek. 

Judges. William Chesnut, Allen Wilkinson, 0. F. Cleveland. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 105 

Big Sugar Creek Precinct. Beginning in the Osage river at the 
Missouri State line ; thence up said river to the mouth of Big Sugar 
creek ; thence up said creek to the mouth of Little Sugar creek ; 
thence along the dividing ridge "between Big and Little Sugar creeks, 
beyond the headwaters of "both ; thence by a clue southwest line to 
the line of the fifth district; thence along the same to the Pottawato- 
mie Creek precinct ; thence by the line of said precinct to the Osage 
river ; thence by an easterly line, running north of all the settlements 
on the waters of North Sugar creek, to the Missouri State line, and 
down the same to the place of beginning. 

Election at the house of Elisha Tucker, at the old Pottawatomie 
mission. 

Judges. James M. Arthur, Elisha Tucker, John E. Brown. 

Little Sugar Creek Precinct. Commencing at the mouth of Little 
Osage river; thence up the same, and along the line of sixth district, 
to Big Sugar Creek precinct ; thence along the line of said precinct 
to Osage river ; down Osage river to State line, and down State line 
to place of beginning. 

Election at house of Isaac Stockton, at crossing of Little Sugar 
creek . 

Judges. William H. Finley, Alfred Osborne, Isaac Stockton. 

Sixth District. Election at the Hospital building at Fort Scott. 

Judges. James Ray, sen., William Painter, William Godefroy. 

Seventh District. Election at the house of J. B. Titus, on the Santa 
Fe road. 

Judges. Eli Snyder, John W. Freel, Dr. Harvey Foster. 

Eighth District. Election at the Council Grove mission house, near 
the Santa Fe road. 

Judges. A. J. Baker, Emanuel Mosier, T. S. Hoffaker. 

Ninth District. Election at the house of Robert Klotz, in the town 
of Pawnee. 

Judges. A.. D. Gibson, S. B. White, Robert Wilson. 

Tenth District. This district is divided into two voting precincts, 
as follows, viz: 

Blue Piiver Precinct. Commencing at the upper mouth of Black 
Jack creek; thence up said creek to the head of the main branch; 
thence clue north to the Independence emigrant road ; thence up the 
middle of said road to the northern line of the Territory ; thence by 
the northern, western, and southern lines of the district to the place 
of beginning. 

Election at the house of S. D. Dyer, on Blue river. 

Judges. Joseph W. Russell, Marshal A. Garrett, Joseph Stewart. 

Rock Creek Precinct. Commencing at the upper mouth of Black 
Jack creek ; thence up said creek to the head of the main branch ; 
thence due north to the Independence emigrant road ; thence down 
said road, and by the continuous easterly and southerly lines of the 
district to the place of beginning. 

Election at the house of Robert Wilson, on Rock creek. 

Judges. Francis Bergerow, Henry Rammelt, James Wilson. 

Eleventh District. Election at the trading house of Woodward & 
Marshall. 



106 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Judges. Tr. J. Marshall, R. C. Bishop, W. P. McClure. 

Iwelfih District. This district is divided into two precincts, as fol- 
lows, viz: 

Silver Lake Precinct. Commencing at the mouth of Cross creek; 
thence up the same to the head ; thence due north to military road 
leading from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney ; thence by the con- 
tinuous northern, eastern, and southern lines of the district to the 
place of beginning. 

Election at the store of Sloan & Beaubien, on Silver lake. 

Judges. Nath. Wingardner, E. M. Sloan, Evan Kennedy. 

St. Mary's Precinct. Commencing at the mouth of Cross creek ; 
thence up said creek to the head ; thence due north to the military 
road from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney ; thence by the northern, 
western, and southern lines of the district to the place of beginning. 

Election at the store of B. F. Bertrand, at St. Mary's mission. 

Judges. Dr. L. R. Palmer, Charles Dean, Rev. J. B. Duerinck. 

Thirteenth District. Election (except as hereinafter stated) at the 
house of Samuel J. Hard, at Hickory Point. 

Judges. H. B. Cora, James Atkinson, J. B. Ross. 

Fourteenth District. This district is divided into three precincts, 
as follows, viz : 

Wolf River Precinct. Commencing in the Missouri river one mile 
east of Mosquito creek; thence by a line corresponding to, and one 
mile east of, the several courses of said creek and the main branch 
thereof; thence by a line due south to Cottonwood spring: thence 
along the Pottawatomie road to the dividing ridge, two miles from 
the crossing of said road at Independence creek; thence due west to 
the line of the district, and by the westerly and northerly lines of the 
district to the place of beginning. 

Election at the house erected by Aaron Lewis, on Wolf river. 

Judges. James M. Irvin, Joel Ryan, E. W. B. Rogers. 

Doniphan Precinct. Commencing on the Missouri river at the south 
line of Cadue's reserve ; thence by the same, and along the dividing 
ridge between Cadue's creek and Lewis' creek, to Cottonwood spring; 
thence by the line of the Wolf River precinct, and the western and 
southern lines of the district to the Missouri river, and up the Mis- 
souri river to the place of beginning. 

Election at the store of John W. & James Foreman, in the town of 
Doniphan. 

Judges. M. K. Shaw, Parris Dunning, W. L. Chudys. 

Burr Oak Precinct. Commencing on the Missouri river at the 
south line of Cadue's reserve ; thence by line of Doniphan precinct to 
Cottonwood spring ; thence by line of Wolf River precinct to Missouri 
river, and down said river to place of beginning. 

Election at house of Milton E. Bryant, on St. Joseph and California 
road. 

Judges. Ebenezer Blackstone, Gary B. Whitehead, Osborne Hulen. 

Fifteenth District. Election (except as hereinafter stated) at the 
house of Charles Hays, on the military road. 

Judges. Thomas J. Thompson, E. R. Zimmerman, Daniel Fisk. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 107 



Sixteenth District. Election at the house of Keller & Kyle, in the 
town of Leaven worth. 

Judges. Matthias France, J. C. Posey, David Brown. 

Seventeenth District. Election at the Shawnee Methodist Church. 

Judges. Cyprian Choteau, C. B. Donaldson, Charles Boles. 

Eighteenth District. Election at the house of William W. Moore, 
on St. Joseph and California road, at the crossing of the Nemaha. 

Judges. Jesse Adamson, Thomas J. B. Cramer, John Belew.' 

Instructions to judges of election. 

The three judges will provide for each poll ballot boxes with a slit 
for the insertion of the tickets, and will assemble at their respective 
polls at or before eight o'clock a. m. of the day of election, and will 
make and subscribe the duplicate copies of the printed oath which will 
be furnished them. This oath must be administered by a judge or 
justice of the peace, if one be present ; and if not, then the judges can 
mutually administer the oath to each other, which they are hereby 
fully authorized to do. In case of the absence of any one or two of 
said judges at nine o'clock a. m., the vacancy shall be filled by the 
judge or judges who shall attend ; and if any vacancy shall occur 
after the judges have been sworn, it shall be filled in the same man- 
ner. In case none of the judges appointed shall attend at nine o'clock 
a. m., the voters on the ground may, by tellers, select persons to act 
in their stead. The judges will keep two corresponding lists of the 
names of persons who shall vote, numbering each name. They must 
be satisfied of the qualifications of every person offering to vote, and 
may examine the voter, or any other person, under oath, upon the 
subject. 

The polls will be kept open until six o'clock p. m., and then closed 
unless voters are present offering to vote ; and in that case shall be 
closed as soon thereafter as votes cease to be offered. 

When the polls are closed, the judges will proceed to open and 
count the votes, and will keep two corresponding tally lists, on which 
I they will simultaneously tally each ticket as it is called by the judge, 
| who will open and call out the tickets, which must be done without 
handling or interference by any other person. When the votes are 
thus counted off, and the tally lists shall agree, the judges shall pub- 
licly proclaim the result, and shall fill up and sign the duplicate cer- 
tificates of return which will be furnished them. They will then 
carefully replace the said tickets in one or both of the ballot boxes, 
together with one copy of the oath, one of the lists of voters, and one 
of the certificates of return, and will seal up and preserve the same, 
to be produced if called for. The remaining copies of the oath, list 
of voters, tally list, and certificate, will be sealed up, directed to the 
governor of the Territory, and delivered by one of the judges in per- 
son to the governor, at his office at the Shawnee Methodist mission, 
on or before the fourth day of April, A. D. 1855. 

In the fifth district the several return judges will meet on the day 
after the election, at the house of Henry Sherman, on Pottawatomie 
creek, and select one of their number, who shall take charge of and de- 



108 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



liver the returns of all the precints. The return judges of the tenth will 
meet at the house of Kobert Wilson, on Bock creek ; and those of the 
fourteenth at the house of M. E. Bryant, and will make their returns 
in the same manner. 

All persons are absolutely forbidden to bring, sell, or deal out, in 
the immediate vicinity of the election ground, any intoxicating liquors; 
and the judges of election, whenever they shall deem this regulation 
violated, so as to interfere with the proper conducting of the election, 
may order the same to be removed ; and if the owner shall fail to 
comply with such order, may direct constables, or other proper per- 
sons, to take charge of such liquor till the polls are closed ; or, in case 
of resistance, to destroy the same at once. 

The constables of the territory will attend at their respective polls, 
and will hold themselves subject to the orders of the judges for the 
preservation of order at the polls, and securing free access for the 
voters ; and, for this purpose, may call upon any citizens present tc 
aid them in the performance of their duty if necessary. 

Qualification of voters. 

By the territorial bill it is provided as follows : 

"That every free white male inhabitant above the age of twenty- 
one years, who shall be an actual resident of said Territory, and shal. 
possess the qualifications hereinafter prescribed, shall be entitled t< 
vote at the first election : Provided, That the right of suffrage and o 
holding office shall be exercised only by citizens of the United States 
and those who shall have declared on oath their intention to becomi 
such, and shall have taken an oath to support the Constitution of th< 
United States and the provisions of this act : And provided further 
That no officer, soldier, seaman, or marine, or other person in th< 
army or navy of the United States, or attached to troops in the ser 
vice of the United States, shall be allowed to vote or hold office in saic 
Territory, by reason of being on service therein." 

By the term " white," as used in this and other laws of a simila 
character, is meant pure unmixed white blood. The man who ha 
any mixture from the darker races, however small the proportion, i 
not regarded as a white man. This has been repeatedly decided, an< 
may be regarded as settled. When a voter has only declared his in 
tention to become a citizen, he must be sworn by the judges of election 
or by a judge or justice of the peace, to support the Constitution of th 
United States and the provisions of the act of Congress, passed Ma; 
30, 1854, to organize the territories of Nebraska and Kansas 
When so sworn, the word "oath" should be marked opposite hi 
name on the list of voters ; and a voter who has had this oath one 
administered, will not, of course, be required to repeat it. 

It will be seen that the act of Congress is drawn with much care t< 
exclude non-residents from the polls. It provides that a voter shal 
be an " inhabitant" and " an actual resident." A voter must dwel 
here at the time of offering his vote ; he must then have commence* 
an actual inhabitancy, which he actually intends to continue perma 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 109 

nently, and must have made the Territory his dwelling-place to the 
exclusion of any other home. 

The meaning of the last proviso,, relative to the army and navy, is, 
that the persons designated in it shall not vote if their inhabitancy in 
the Territory is referable only to the performance of their duties. Lik 
all other persons, it is riot enough that they should be in the Territory 
but they must dwell in it as their permanent home ; and the officer or 
soldier who would vote must have a residence here, irrespective and 
independent of his presence here under orders. 

Every voter must vote in the election precinct where he resides, and 
not elsewhere. Experience has demonstrated this to be a wise regu- 
lation, and it has been adopted in nearly all the States as a necevssary 
provision against error, confusion, and fraud. 

Contested elections. 

In case any persons shall desire to contest the election in any dis- 
trict of the Territory, they shall make a written statement, directed to 
the governor, setting forth the particular precinct or district they in- 
tend to contest, the candidates whose election they dispute, and the 
specific causes of complaint in the conduct or return of the said elec- 
tion ; which complaint shall be signed by not less than ten qualified 
voters of the Territory, and with affidavit of one or more such voters 
to the truth of the facts set forth therein. Such written statement 
must be presented to the governor at his office on or before the fourth 
day of April, A. D. 1855 ; and if it shall appear that the result of 
election in any council district might be changed by said contest, a 
day will be fixed for hearing the same. 

Apportionment of members of the legislature, and list of districts. 

APPORTIONMENT. 

The entire number of qualified voters in the territory, as appears 
from the census returns, is two thousand nine hundred and five. The 
ratio of representation in council is two hundred and twenty-three, 
and in the house of representatives one hundred and eleven. 

COUNCIL DISTRICTS. 

The first, fourth, and seventeenth election districts, containing four 
hundred and sixty-six voters, shall constitute the first council district, 
and elect two members of the council. 

The second election district, arid so much of the thirteenth as is em- 
braced in the Kansas half-breed lands, containing two hundred and 
twelve voters, will constitute the second council district, and elect one 
member of council ; and the voters thus detached from the thir- 
teenth will vote at the place of election fixed for the second election 
district. 

The third, seventh, and eighth election districts, containing one 
hundred and ninety-three voters, will constitute the third council dis- 
trict, and elect one member of council. 

The fifth election district, containing four hundred and forty-two 



110 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

voters, will constitute the fourth council district, and elect two mem- 
bers of council. 

The sixth election district, containing two hundred and fifty-three 
voters, will constitute the fifth council district, and elect one memher 
of council. 

The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth election districts, contain- 
ing two hundred and one voters, will constitute the sixth council dis- 
trict, and elect one member of council. 

The Wolf river precinct and Doniphan precinct of the fourteenth, the 
whole of the eighteenth, and so much of the fifteenth election district 
as lies north of Walnut creek and its main branch, and a due west 
line from its source, containing two hundred and forty-seven voters, 
shall constitute the seventh council district, and elect one member of 
council ; and the voters who are thus detached from the fifteenth will 
vote at the Doniphan precinct. 

The Burr Oak precinct of the fourteenth district, containing two> 
hundred and fifteen voters, will constitute the eighth council district,, 
and elect one member of council. 

The residue of the fifteenth election district, containing two hundred! 
and eight voters, will constitute the ninth council district, and electi 
one member of council. 

The sixteenth and residue of the thirteenth election district, con- 
taining four hundred and sixty-eight voters, will constitute the tenth, 
council district, and elect two members of council. 

REPRESENTATIVE DISTRICTS. 

The seventeenth and fourth election districts, containing ninety- 
seven voters, shall constitute the first representative district, and electt 
one member. 

The first election district, containing three hundred and sixty-nine 1 
voters, shall be the second representative district, and elect three 
members. 

The second council district shall be the third representative district, 
and elect two members. 

The third election district, containing one hundred and one voters, 
shall be the fourth representative district, and elect one member. 

The seventh and eighth election districts, containing ninety-two* 
voters, shall be the fifth representative district, and elect one member;. 

The sixth election district shall be the sixth representative district., 
and elect two members. 

The fifth election district shall be the seventh representative dis- 
trict, and elect four members. 

The ninth and tenth election districts, containing ninety-nine voters.- 1 
shall be the eighth representative district, and elect one member. 

The eleventh and twelfth election districts, containing one hundred'] 
and two voters, shall be the ninth representative district, and electj 
one member. 

The residue of the thirteenth election district, containing eighty- 
three voters, shall be the tenth representative district, and elect oneij 
member. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



Ill 



The seventh council district shall be the eleventh representative 
district, and elect two members. 

The eighth council district shall be the twelfth representative dis- 
trict, and elect two members. 

The ninth council district shall be the thirteenth representative dis- 
trict, and elect two members. 

The sixteenth election district, containing three hundred and eighty- 
five voters, shall be the fourteenth representative district, and elect 
three members. 

r -, Witness my hand and seal of said Territory, this eighth 
L L - S -J day of March, A. D. 1855. 

A. H. REEDER, Governor, &c. 

Attest : DANIEL WOODSON, Secretary. 



Table of election districts, &c. 



Election districts. 


Council districts. 


Representative 
districts. 


Precincts. 


Counties. 


Towns, townships and 
precincts. 










C 




I 


1 


2 




Doufflas . . ...... \ 














\Villow Springs . . . . , 


2 


o 


3 


t\ 






3 


3 


4 


\ 


Calhoun 


T"ecumseh .... 


4 


1 


1 














Bull creek 










i 


Pottawatornie creek 






5 


4 


7 ' 


Bin* Sucrar creek 










1 


Little Sncrar creek . . 






6 


5 


G 




Bourbon 


Fort Scott 


7 


3 


5 






"110" 








( 








iffi 


5 


{ 


IV' adisori. 


Council Grove 


9 


6 


8 




Riley 








< 


Big Blue 






10 


G 


8 








11 


6 


9 ( 




Marshall 


iVJarysville .......... 






n < 


Silver lake 






12 


6 


9 


St. Mary's 






*13 


10 


10 












,1 < 


AVolf river . 


Doniphan .......... 




14 


7 


11 


















Burr Oak 






12 


Burr Oak < 






f!5 


9 


13 




Atchison 










I 


Leavenworth 




16 


10 


14 




T 
















17 


1 


1 






Shawnee M ission 


J18 


7 


11 





















* Part of 13 (in Kansas half-breed lands) voted in 2d district. Grasshopper and Mount Pleasant towushidj 
to Atchison. 

tPart of 15 voted at Doniphan, 80 men. 
jPort of llth, 12th and 18th districts. 



112 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



PROCLAMATION. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) 
Territory of Kansas. \ 

To the citizens and inhabitants of the Territory of Kansas : 

I, Andrew H. Reeder, governor of the said Territory, do hereby 
proclaim and make known, that, under and by virtue of the authority 
conferred, and the duty enjoined by the thirty-fifth section of the act 
of Congress passed the thirtieth day of May, A. D. 1854, entitled 
"An act to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas," I have, 
until otherwise provided by law, defined the judicial districts of the 
said Territory, and assigned one of said districts to each of the judges 
appointed for said Territory ; and have also appointed the times and 
places for holding the courts in the said districts, as follows, that is 
to say : 

All of said Territory embraced within the following bounds shall 
constitute the first judicial district, to wit : Commencing at the mouth 
of the Kansas river ; thence up the Missouri river to the northern line 
of the Territory ; thence along said line west to the line between the 
eleventh and eighteenth election districts ; thence down said line to 
the military road leading from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney , 
thence along said road to the line between the twelfth and thirteenth 
election districts ; thence down the same and the waters of Soldier 
creek, along the western shore thereof, to the Kansas river, and down 
the same, on the southern shore thereof, to the place of beginning, 
including the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and eigh- 
teenth election districts ; which said district is assigned to Chief Jus- 
tice S. D. Lecompte, and the courts thereof shall be held at the town 
of Leavenworth. 

All of said Territory embraced within the following bounds shall 
constitute the second judicial district, to wit : Commencing at the 
mouth of the Kansas river ; thence up the same, along the southern 
shore thereof, to the western line of the Pottawatomie reservation ; 
thence along the western and southern lines of said reservation to the i 
headwaters of the Wakarusa, or the nearest point thereto, and thence: 
directly to and down the northern shore of the same to the east side 
of the house of Charles Matingly ; thence due south to the middle of 
the Santa Fe road ; thence westwardly along the middle of said road 1 1 
to Rock creek ; thence due south to the north line of the Sac and Fox.| 
reservation ; thence along the north and west lines thereof, and due 
south, to the Neosho river ; thence up the southern shore of said river,, 
and of the north branch thereof, to the head ; thence due south to 
the line of the Territory, and thence by the south and east lines of! 
the Territory to the place of beginning, to include the first, second, 
third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventeenth election districts. The 
said district is assigned to Hon. Rush Ellmore, and the courts thereof! 
shall be held at the town of Tecumseh. 

The residue of the Territory, comprising the seventh, eighth, 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth election districts, shall constitute 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 113 

the third judicial district; which is assigned to Hon. Sanders W. 
Johnston, and the courts thereof shall he held at the town of Pawnee. 

The regular terms of courts shall he as follows : 

At Leavenworth, on the third Monday of April and third Monday 
of October. 

At Tecumseh, on the second Monday after the third Monday of 
April, and second Monday after the third Monday of October. 

At Pawnee, on the fourth Monday after the third Monday of April, 
and fourth Monday after the third Monday of October. 

Special and preliminary terms will be held at Leavenworth on 
Monday, the 19th day of March next ; at Tecumseh on Monday, the 
26th day of March next ; and at Pawnee on Monday, the 2d day of 
April next, at 10 o'clock, a. in., at which times all persons bound by 
recognizance or otherwise to appear at the first term of said courts, 
will appear at the places so as aforesaid fixed for their respective dis- 
tricts ; and all justices of the peace who have taken recognizances for 
the appearance of any person charged before them will, at or before 
the commencement of the said special or preliminary term, make re- 
turn of the same to the clerk of their respective districts, or to A. I. 
Lsacks, esq., the United States district attorney. 

Witness my hand and the seal of the said Territory, this twenty- 
aixth day of February, A, D. 1855. 

A. H. KEEDEK, Governor, dc. 

Attest: DANL. WOODSON, Secretary. 



PROCLAMATION. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) 
Territory of Kansas. \ 

To the citizens and qualified voters of the Territory of Kansas : 

I, Andrew H. Eeeder, governor of the said Territory, do hereby 
proclaim and make known that I have erected an additional election 
district, comprising portions of the present eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth election districts, to be called the eighteenth election district^ 
and to include the settlements on the waters of the Nemaha, bounded 
and described as follows, to wit : Commencing in the Vermillion 
branch of the Blue river, at the crossing of the military road from 
Fort Leavenworth to Fort Kearney ; thence due north to the line of 
the Territory ; thence along the same east to the line of the fourteenth 
election district ; thence south, along the line of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth election districts, to the aforesaid military road, and thence 
by the middle of said road to the place of beginning. The place of 
election for said district will be at the house of W. W. Moore, where 
the St. Joseph road crosses the Nemaha. 

And further, that I have detached from the eleventh, and added to 
the tenth election district, the following portion of territory, to wit : 
Beginning in the Vermillion river, at the crossing of the Independence 
H. Rep. 20f 



114 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

emigrant road ; thence up said river beyond the house of Josiah Gr. 
Adams ; thence due east, along the northern side of the said house, 
to the said road, and down said road to the place of beginning. 

Witness my hand and the seal of the said Territory, this 24th day 
of February, A. D. 1855. 

A. H. REEDER, Governor, &c. 

Attest : DANL. WOODSON, Secretary, 



FIRST DISTRICT. Lawrence. 

LAWRENCE, Friday, April 25, 1856. 
ERASTUS D. LADD, being duly sworn, deposed as follows: 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into this Territory late in September, 1854, and have ever- 
since resided in this town and district. I was here on the 30th of! 
March, at the legislative election. 

On the day previous to the election a number of teams and wagons* 
loaded with armed men, and men on horseback, came into town. 
They were strangers here ; they came in from the south and south- 
west, and were preceded by two or three men, one of whom was sub- 
sequently called or passed as Colonel Samuel Young, of Missouri, who 
appeared to be the chief in command. I think " colonel" was his- 
designation. They proceeded through the town, down on the bankk 
of the river, and looked around for a time with the intention, as they? 
stated, of encamping there that night. They had tents, and were 
armed ; I saw private arms, and I saw rifles and other arms of that! 
kind, double-barrelled shot-guns, revolvers, and knives. I saw them 
encamped, and partaking of their provisions or refreshments ; but 
whether they brought them with them or not I do not know. The 
strangers continued to come in during the evening, and next morning 
there had been a very large addition made to their number. 

I went to the place of voting in the morning, and was there at th 
opening of the polls, and remained all day, except time for dinnerr 
A very large company came from the camp in the ravine to the placr 
of voting and surrounded it. There was some difficulty in the orr 
ganization of the board, and delay in commencing the voting. Mrr 
Abbott, one of the judges, resigned. A vote was offered, which ! 
saw, and a question of the legality of the vote was raised and wa* 
discussed some time. During the discussion Colonel Young said he 
would settle the matter. He crowded up to the front, the place bein 
thronged with people. The other vote was then withdrawn and h 
offered his vote. The question was raised as to the legality of h 
vote. He said he was ready to swear that he was a resident of th 
Territory. He took such an oath, but refused the oath prescribed. b 
the governor. But one of the judges appointed by the governor wa 
then acting. His oath was received. He then mounted the window 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 115 

sill and proclaimed to the crowd around that the matter was all set- 
tled and they could vote. I cannot repeat his exact words, but that 
was the sentiment ; and they proceeded to vote. E. A. Cummins 
was appointed in the place of Abbott. At noon I went to their camp, 
and passed along the ravine, from one extremity to the other, and 
counted the number of wagons and conveyances of different kinds 
then on the ground and in sight. They had then commenced leaving. 
I counted very near one hundred conveyances, such as wagons and 
carriages. There were, besides, a large number of saddle horses. I 
estimate that there were then on the ground about seven hundred of 
the party ; in the estimate I do not include those who had left for 
other places or for home. 

[Here the witness was asked to detail declarations made by the 
strangers., at the time of their voting, as to their intention and object 
in voting, and as to where they came from. 

To this Mr. Oliver objected. The objection was considered and dis- 
cussed by the committee, and overruled ; and the witness was allowed 
to state all that was said or done by any of the party of strangers who 
voted.] 

Witness resumed : Some of these men were on the ground when I 
went there, before the polls were opened ; they came in bodies of, per- 
haps, one hundred at a time, and voted. The voting was prosecuted 
as rapidly as circumstances would permit, and continued all day. 

[Mr. Oliver objected to the witness being allowed to tell whether 
any person voted, unless he told their names and their places of resi- 
dence.] 

Witness : G-enerally speaking, these men were quiet and peaceable ; 

they proclaimed at all times the right of every person to vote with 

the rest. They were situated very compactly about the place of 

voting, which was very much crowded during the forenoon, so much 

i that most of the voters,, and for a long time all of them, were obliged 

\ to pass over the roof of the house, by climbing upon the window sill, 

jand then being hoisted up on the roof. After a man voted he was 

hoisted up on the roof, as he could not get back through the crowd. 

jit took myself and I used my best efforts about an hour to get from 

ithe outside of the crowd to the place of voting. There was a passage- 

jway for a short time, formed of two lines of persons, through which 

jvoters passed to and from the polls. During another portion of the 

jtirne, in the afternoon, they were formed in procession and approached 

rthe polls two by two, passing along in front of the window and off as 

sthey voted. 

There were a large number who had arms at the polls ; some few 
i had shot-guns or rifles, but mostly revolvers and knives during the 
i most of the day. 

About five o'clock there was a company of voters proceeded from 

the town over to the polls in a body, perhaps a hundred, residents of 

the town. The large number of persons who had been afeout the 

I polls, and who were from Missouri and abroad, had left the polls, and 

(they were comparatively clear. Most of those in teams had left the 

| place during the afternoon, though many still remained. When these 

b residents were coming over I was by the polls, and I saw some start 



116 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

from the polls in their direction ; Mr. Wade was one of them, and I 
followed out that way. He called them up and hallooed to them to 
come on ; then they took their larger arms and came on. 

Question by Mr. Howard: Who was this Mr. Wade? 

Witness : He lived near here, and was a candidate for the legislature. 
I heard a conversation a short distance from where I stood, and 
approached pretty nearly. I stepped up on a small rise of ground 
and saw quite a violent contest going on, of which Mr. Stearns of 
this place was the object. It was a contest of words and threats but 
not of blows or force ; while it was going on, I heard some one cry out 
" There is the Lawrence bully." A rush was immediately made in 
another direction, towards Mr. Bond of this town, and a cry was raised 
to shoot him; "shoot the damned abolitionist," ," shoot the damned 
bully," &c. He ran for the bank of the river, and the crowd fol- 
lowed him. During the running I think one or two shots were fired. 
When he got to the bank of the river, he sprang off out of sight. 
They rushed to the bank, and guns were pointed at him while below. 
But the cry was raised to let him go, and he was permitted to go on 
without being fired at. 

Another circumstance occurred in the latter part of the day. Mr. 
Willis, who was then a resident of this town, was on the ground, and 
a cry was raised that he was one of the men concerned in abducting a 
black woman about which there had been some difficulty in the town 
a short time previous. Several men raised the cry to hang him. Some 
wtrA on horseback, and some were on foot. Movements were made 
towards him by strangers armed with rifles and smaller arms. The 
cry was repeated by a large number of persons to u hang him," u geta 
rope/' &c. At the suggestion of some friends he left the ground. 

Question: How many citizens of the district voted on that day to: 
the best of your judgment and belief? 

[Mr. Oliver objected to the legality of that question; and objection! 
sustained until the witness stated his means of information,] 

Witness: I was tolerably well acquainted, particularly with thisi 
portion of the district, but not particularly acquainted with the lowerr 
extremity of the district. 

In frequent conversations which I had with different persons of the- 
party during the day, they claimed to have a legal right to vote ini 
the Territory, and that they were residents by virtue of their being: 
then in the Territory. They said they were free to confess that they: 
came from Missouri; that they lived in Missouri, and voted as Missou- 
rians. Some claimed that they had been in the Territory and mades 1 
claims, and therefore had a right to vote. But they did not claim to 1 
be residents in the Territory, except that they had a residence herea 
from being at that moment in the Territory. 

They had mostly left before sundown, I think. There were somea 
here the next day, who were said to have come in from some other 
point. 

They left during the afternoon, in single bodies, continuously, o 
after the other, but not in a compact body. It seemed to be their 
course, when a wagon-load had voted, to get in their wagons and start 
away from town. They commenced moving before or about noon. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 117 

Mr. Keeder stated that he was through the direct examination. 
Witness desired it to be understood that when estimating the num- 
ber of strangers here at TOO, he judged at the time he counted the 
wagons, but did not mean that that was all that had come here. 
In reply to Mr. Sherman : 

I cannot state who fired the pistols at Bond. The cry " shoot him" 
came from just immediately about the men who came here from Mis- 
souri to vote. The citizens were not generally armed. There were a 
few, I think, who had revolvers with them, but I saw none exposed. 
The general claim made by the Missourians was that they were resi- 
dents of the district and consequently had a right to vote. 
Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

I cannot give the names of any others than Col. Samuel Young 
that voted from Missouri. I do not remember the names of any others 
that I learned ; I was present and saw the names of others recorded. 
I cannot say how many possibly 50 or 100. No effort was made on 
the part of any person from Missouri to intimidate the people and 
drive them from the polls, except the personal conflicts I have named. 
As I have stated, a cry was raised at the first movement, " there is 
the Lawrence bully/' and a rush was made towards him. I did not 
understand that it referred to any name which had been presented at 
the polls. The difficulty with Mr. Bond occurred about three or four 
rods from the polls. I did not understand that the object was to pre- 
vent his voting. 

I understood the difficulty with Mr. Willis had no reference to his 
voting. The only hindrance to voting that I saw during the day was 
the crowd pressing round so as to prevent many from voting; I heard 
of no threats with direct reference to voting ; it was frequently re- 
marked by those present that all had a right to vote. I heard it said 
that they had as good a right to vote as many who had arrived from 
the east and were voting. 

There were people arriving all fhe time. There may have been 100 

arrived at this place within two weeks prior to the election ; I will 

not state definite^, because my mind is not clear upon the subject ; 

there may not have been so many. So far as I know, persons particu- 

I larly interested in this election were looking anxiously for the ar- 

j rival of persons from the east and north in view of the election. I 

I cannot name any of those persons who voted. Some of them came 

under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society. There were persons 

jj arriving at that time, both before and after the election. I am not 

I clear as to how many arrived before the election. 

I did not understand that the Missourians referred exclusively to 
those who had just arrived, but to all who had arrived. The procla- 
mation that all had a right to vote was made in conversation ; they 
announced that as their opinion as individuals. 

Colonel Young's vote was received ; and I understood, as I stood 

near the polls, that he took au oath that he was a resident of the Ter- 

I ritory. He stood on the window-sill and said it was all right, that it 

I! was all settled, and they could vote. I do not recollect that I under- 

j stood him to state that he took the oath ; I saw what I thought was 



118 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

the taking of an oath; the movements so indicated, though I did not 
hear him take it ; I supposed such was the case from appearances. 

I am aware of the fact that some did leave who had recently arrived 
before that election ; I cannot say whether they ever returned and be- 
came residents. 

The candidates looked anxiously for these emigrants, because it was 
expected an invasion would be made into the Territory by voters from 
abroad,, and, also, that as large a free State vote should be polled as 
possible. I am not prepared to say that the latter was the chief con- 
sideration. I understood from these persons that their purpose in 
coming to the Territory so early in the spring was that they came out 
here to settle, and that they might be present at the day of the elec- 
tion. I know of some of those who had recently arrived who voted ; 
I can only approximate their numbers ; I should think there were 
from 50 to 60. I think there were some who had arrived within 48 
hours; I cannot say as to whether they made settlements in the Terri- 
tory in that time. I know that some objected to voting these for that 
reason, that they had made no settlements. I cannot say that those 
who voted had made no settlements, nor can I say that any who 
actually voted returned east. Many of those who were in this vicin- 
ity when I settled here, a year ago, are now in other parts of the Ter- 
ritory. There were a large number who arrived in this part of the 
Territory under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society last season 
who returned, but I cannot tell how many. 

There was a disturbance in progress, if I recollect right, at the time 
the Bond disturbance originated. It was in relation to Mr. Stearns 
of this place, who was on the ground, it was said, taking notes which 
he intended to publish in the New York Tribune. This disturbance 
was not in reference to his voting, or of anybody else. So far as I 
observed all of the Missourians were armed at the polls, but not all of i 
them with their larger arms, but with their side arms, revolvers, andi 
knives. I think some of the citizeifs of the town had arms. 

By Mr. Sherman: 

Judging from the conversations referred to in my cross-examination,.! 
the persons who came here from the northern and eastern States camel 
here to become settlers, so far as I know. I can state from my own: 
knowledge that some of them returned because they were dissatisfied! 
with the country, and disappointed in the circumstances that existed; j 
here. 

I think there were citizens kept from voting by the condition am 
surrounding of the polls. I was told on the day of the election thai 
there were a large number here to vote who came from Hickory Point,, 
who returned in a body without voting. I saw some who residet 
there. I did not see any of them vote. I cannot state what nurabei 
of legal resident voters did not vote on account of the troubles, with- 
out examining the poll lists and census rolls. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

They were kept from voting only in consequence of the crowd an< 
the difficulty in getting to the polls. 

To Mr. Keeder: 

The Missourians did not claim to be residents here from their inten- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 119 

tion to remain here, but that their mere presence created their resi- 
dence. I do not remember that I heard any of them say that they 
were here with the intention of remaining. I do not know of any 
man who came here from the northern States for the mere purpose of 
voting, and I never heard of one. 

The side arms of these strangers from the camp were exposed, some 
of them openly exposed, others partially so. There did not seem to 
be any careful attempt to conceal them. I want to qualify a little 
what I said in regard to men coming out here under the auspices of 
the Emigrant Aid Society. I do not know of my own knowledge that 
they so came out here, but it was so reported commonly and in the 
public prints. That is the extent of my knowledge. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

I think I heard some of them say that they did ; that they came out 
as members of certain parties that left Boston at such and such a time 
under the auspices of such a society. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I can merely state what I have heard, that the Emigrant Aid Society 
has an office in Boston, with an agent, to give information by means 
of which companies are organized for settlement in Kansas. The 
action of that agency, in addition to thus collecting them together, 
consists in sending an agent with the companies to make arrange- 
ments with the different lines of travel, by which their expenses are 
somewhat reduced, and they are furnished with mills and other mat- 
ters to assist them. But they pay their own expenses out here, and 
these mills are not furnished gratuitously, but merely built by the 
society. I mean by "organized for settlement" that the organization 
simply has reference to economy in travelling out here, but not to any 
continuance after they got here. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I am not aware that it is made a condition of the Emigrant Aid 
Society that those who come under its auspices should be free State 
men. I know of one individual who is said to have come out under 
these auspices, who is now understood to be a pro-slavery man. I do 
not know what he was when he came. 

E. D. LADD. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 25, 1856. 



Mr. E. D. LADD recalled. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I have examined the poll books of the election of March 30, 1855. 
My means of knowing the legal voters are, that I have been a resident 
here from the first settlement of the place ; I had started a private 
post office in town for the convenience of the country about, and in 
that way had become familiar with the names of those here, and also 
through the medium of being register of claims. 

Question by Mr. Sherman: Please take the poll book for this district 
of the election of March 30, and furnish us a list of those whose 



120 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



names are on that poll book who were at that time residents of this 
district. Please designate also those who were here when the census 
was taken from those who came here to reside after that time and 
before March 30. For this purpose examine carefully the census rolls 
in connexion with Mr. Babcock, who took it, and Mr. G. S. Pratt, the 
clerk of the election. Take time to prepare the lists and attach it to 
your testimony before it is signed. 

Answer. In connexion with Mr. Babcock, who took the census, and 
Mr. Pratt, the clerk of the election, I have examined the census re- 
turns and poll lists of March 30, 1855, and from these and our 
knowledge of the residents, we find that of the residents who were 
here when the census was taken, 17^ voted. The list marked "A," 
contains their names. There are 192 settlers, whose names are in 
the census list, who did not vote, or, at least, their names are not in 
the poll lists. We find in the poll book the names of 55 resident 
settlers in this district, but who came after the census and before the 
election. This list, marked "B," contains their names. There are, 
perhaps, 50 others, and perhaps more, who came into the Territory in 
the spring of 1855 as settlers, and who are now residents of different 
parts of the Territory, many of whom we know. The others in the 
poll list were not residents, as I believe. 

E. D. LADD. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 1, 1856. 



A. 
Names on census-roll and poll-book , (District No. I,) for March, 1855. 



Stillman Andrews 
Samuel Anderson 
Ellmore Allen 
Norman Allen 
Asaph Allen 
William D. Atwood 
Calvin Adams 
Eobert Allen 
John Baldwin 
Lazarus S. Bacon 
William N. Baldwin 
George W. Brown 
Henry Bronson 
David C. Buffum 
Jonathan Bigelow 
Horatio N. Bent 
Eli W. Burnett 
Ellis Bond 

Theodore E. Benjamin 
C. W. Babcock 
Napoleon D. Blanton 



Albert F. Bercaw 
John M. Banks 
Thomas Burge 
Thomas Brooke 
Noah Cameron 
Hugh Cameron 
Hiram Clark 
James S. Co wen 
John W. Carlton 
Edward Clark 
John S. Crain 
C. H. Carpenter 
Simon Cook 
James P. Corl 
William Corl 
Henry Corl 
E. A. Colman 
Clark S. Crane 
E. A. Cummins 
Luke Curlew 
William Curry 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



121 



Joshua Cummins 
James H. Crooks 
John Doy 
S. B. Lindley 
John H. Dean 
James A. Davidson 
Carlos Day 
S. H. Davis 
John C. Davidson 
George F. Earl 
William Evans 
James S. Emery 
Thomas Emery 
L. J. Eberhart 
Ed. P. Fitch 
S. H. Folsom 
J. H. Firman 
John Fry 
James Garvin 
James N. Gleason 
Joel G rover 
John C. Gordon 
H. D. Graves 
George Gilbert 
Levi Gates, jr. 
Thomas S. Garvin 
George Graves 
S. C. Harrington 
John Hutchinson 
0. A. Hanscom 
M. M. Hammond 
G. W. Hutchinson 
N. F. Herrick 
William Hale 
Franklin Ha seal 1 
John Hutchinson 
L. D. Hubbard 
William A. Holmes 
Thomas Hopkins 
H. A. Hancock 
John S. Hopper 
Simon Hopper 
B. F. Hopper 
I). B. Hopper 
F. Hill 
Edward Jones 
Theod. Johnson 
Benjamin Johnson 
Alphonso Jones 
Ira M. Jones 
S. G. Johnson 



E. B. Johnston 
Charles Jordan 
James A. Jackson 
Frederick Kimball 
Samuel Kimball 
Samuel Kennedy 
William Kitchingman 
Wilder Knight 
G. W. Kent 
Otis H. Lamb 
E. D. Ladd 
John A. Lowry 
George S. Lenian 
William B. Lee 
William Lyon 
N. B. Lewis 
Samuel Y. Lune 
George Long 
George Lewis 
John H. Lewis 
Daniel Lowe 
John S. Mott 
H. S. McClelland 
John C. Mossman 
Jonathan Matthews 
Thomas J. Murray 
John H. Miller 
John Mack 

B. F. McDonald 
J. F. Morgan 
Harrison Nichols 
J. B. Nichols 
William H. Oliver 
A. C. Pomeroy 

C. W. Persall 
Caleb L. Pratt 
G. B. Page 
David Pennington 
Hugh Pettingill 
S. J. Pratt 

A. J. Payne 
John Perott 
J. S. Percival 
Thomas F. Reynolds 
Charles Robinson 
G. W. Reed 
William Randolph 
James H. Reid 
Albert D. Searl 
Nicholas Snyder 
0. D. Smith 



122 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



John Speer 
John Smith 
Henry Smith 
N. B. Short 
J. E. Stewart 
S. M. Salters 
Thomas J. Stone 
J. E. Stewart 
James Sullivan 
S. N. Simpson 
Ah. Still 
Daniel Sayre 
Clark Taft 
Francis 0. Toller 
J. B. Taft 



L. F. Tappan 
John C. Wood 
William C. Wood 
Harrison Williams 
S. J. Willis 
J. H. Wilder 
S. N. Wood 
J. J. Whitson 
Sol. Wildis 
Ed. Winslow 
A. B. Wade 
J. F. Wilson 
James W hillock 
William Wallace 
Rufus H. Wateman 



B. 

Names of those on poll-list and not on census-roll whom we know to 
have voted at the election of 30/i March, 1855. 



James Christian 
Sam. Merrill 
G. W. Deitzler 
H. E. Bahcock 
Thos. Still 
John Wallace^ 
Clark Stearnes 
Oscar Harlow 
J. W. Ackley 
James Coyle' 
C. G. Hoyt 
Martin Adams 

E. A. Landon 
Horatio Dunbar 
0. T. Bassett 
Geo. Churchill 

F. B. Ackley 
C. F. Doy 

J. A. Ladd 
E. H. Dennett 
Increase Whitcomh 
George Perrin 
A. B. Perrin 
Sam. Reynolds 
J. L. Baldwin 
Ahram Wilder 
Joshua Smith 
Chas. S. Camphell 



. Jacoh E. Strout 
Adam Weilhart 
L. Litchfield 
Chas. L. Wilber 
.Geo. 0. Willard 
P. R. Brooks 
David Brown 
Lyman Allen 
Jos. G. Fistler 

E. F. Knight 
H. W. Taber 
Ahner Davidson 

F. P. Yaughan 
S. B. Sutherland 

G. W. Goss 

E. S. Scudder 
John Lyon 
J. Curlew 
Wm. Harris 
Chas. Harrington 

B. G. Livingston 

C. F. Keyes 
Amos Trott 
Jos. C. Miller 
Chas. Dickson 

F. J. Locke 
Wm. Yates. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 123 



C. W. BABCOCK recalled. 

I assisted Mr. Ladd and Mr. Pratt in making out the lists of 
voters from the poll-lists and census rolls, and whose lists referred to 
in Mr. Ladd's testimony are correct to the best of my knowledge. I 
have heard his statement in regard to them and concur in it. 

C. W. BABCOCK. 

LAWRENCE, K. T. ; May 1, 1856. 



C. S. PRATT recalled. 

I assisted Mr. Babcock and Mr. Ladd in making out the lists of 
voters from the poll-books and census returns, as referred to by Mr 
Ladd in his testimony. Those lists are correct to the best of my 
knowledge. I have heard the statement of Mr. Ladd in regard to these 
lists and concur in it. I was one of the clerks of the election of the 
30th of March, 1855. 

CALEB S. PPvATT. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 1, 1856. 



NORMAN ALLEN called and sworn. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into this Territory about the last of September, 1854_, and 
settled in the town of Lawrence, and have resided in this district ever 
since. I was here on the 30th of March, 1855. Several days pre- 
vious to that time it was currently rumored here that there were 
bodies of men organizing in the State of Missouri, for the purpose of 
controlling the elections here. On the 28th of March it was reported 
that a body of about 600 men were encamped on the Wakarusa, 
about six miles below here. On the 29th companies were con- 
stantly arriving here, consisting of strangers, some on horseback 
and some in wagons, from three to a dozen in company. Some of 
them came into town ; others passed through to the second ravine, 
west of the town, and there encamped. There were a large number 
of strangers in town, who said they came for the purpose of voting 
and controlling the elections. Many of them told me this in con- 
versation with them. They said they considered they had a right 
to do so from the law, which gave residents the right to vote, and that 
they were residents while they were here. I went out to their camp 
on the night of the 29th, and strolled around from one camp-fire to 
another, and had some conversation with persons there. At one of 
the camp-fires they asked me what county I came from. I told them 
I was a resident of Lawrence, and they would converse with me no 
further. As I passed on, the cry of " spy " was raised. A few 
moments after a person cried " Oyez y oyez ; all the companies are 



124 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

requested to meet at Captain Jackson's camp forthwith on important 
business." I followed them in that direction. A company from one 
of the camp-fires came, headed by music ; a man beating a drum came 
in. After they had all congregated, there were several speeches made 
by some of the strangers whom I did not know. One of them I recog- 
nised as Colonel Young, but I never heard his other name. They 
said they were satisfied that the citizens of the town and vicinity were 
not going to offer any resistance to their voting, and that they had a 
larger number of men than was necessary to control this election, 
and they wished about 200 of the young men ; the old men being 
fatigued with the travel, would volunteer to go to the next district. 
Quite a number volunteered while I was there, and when I left and 
came away they were making up a company. 

The next morning I went to the place where the election was to be 
held ; I went about 8 or 9 o'clock. I found a large body of men 
assembled there many of them with guns, and most of them 
armed in some way. There was a dense body of men against the 
side of the house, near the window where the votes were to be received. 
I got as near to the window as I could by crowding in, and found that 
there was a delay occasioned by one of the judges, Mr. Blanton, fail- 
ing to appear, and they were selecting another in his place. I believe 
Mr. R. A. Cummins was chosen. The man that I recognised as 
Colonel Young then offered his vote, which the judges refused to re- 
ceive, considering him a non-resident, unless he would swear in his 
vote. I could not understand all the conversation, but I understood 
enough of it to learn that he refused to take the oath prescribed by 
the governor. I thought he took an oath; and afterwards, in speak- 
ing to those who were present, he stated that he had taken an oath. 
I heard Mr. Abbott, one of the judges, questioning him ; he asked 
him if he intended to make this his home, and the reply was that it 
was none of his business ; that he was a resident of the Territory, and 
that was all the law required. After he had voted he got up into 
the window and made a short speech, stating what kind of an oath 
he had taken simply that he was a resident of the Territory. He 
said other things which I do not now remember. 

There was such a crowd at the polls that it took me nearly an hour 
to get to the window to offer my vote, though I was assisted very 
much by people leaving the window at the time of the disturbance 
connected with Mr. Bond. At one time two lines were formed ex- 
tending several yards from the house, under the superintendence of 
Colonel Young and Captain Jackson. They stated that they wanted 
the old men to go in first, as they were tired and wanted to return to 
the camp. As I was in a hurry, T went in with the old men. I was 
ordered out, but did not leave, and went in and deposited my vote- 
After the men had voted, a large number decamped, and I saw them 
passing through town that afternoon on their return towards Wa- 
karusa. Some three hundred, I think, remained in camp that 
night, and left the next morning in the same direction. I saw none 
after 10 o'clock the next day. I cannot tell how many wagons 
there were, but I should think there were over one hundred in all. 
I counted as high as twenty coming in at one time in a string. They 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 125 

a* 

were generally armed with, rifles and shot-guns, and many of them 
had "belts with bowie-knives and revolvers exposed, though some 
were somewhat concealed by coat-skirts. I saw a large number vote 
who came in this way, and were principally strangers to me. I do 
not remember of seeing but one who was a resident of Missouri vote 
whom I knew. His name was Mr. Cole, from Kansas City, Missouri. 
I do not know as I should remember his name if he had not dared me 
to challenge his vote. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

i do not know the name of but one from Missouri who voted that 
day. He was Mr. Cole, the only one I knew, that I saw vote. I 
should think there were some 400 or 500 at the polls who were armed 
with shot-guns and rifles: They made no demonstration with their 
weapons. In conversation with them the night before, and on the 
day of the election, they stated, generally, that there would be no dif- 
ficulty unless citizens tried to interfere to prevent their voting, but 
they were determined to vote. I do not remember hearing them say 
that there were many here who had recently arrived from the east- 
ern and northern States who had no right to vote. I heard Colonel 
Young say, particuarly, that he was anxious to have the citizens vote 
so as to give the matter a look of fairness. I saw no force used to 
restrain or intimidate the citizens from voting. I do not know how 
many persons had arrived recently from the eastern and northern 
States ; but I think that, a clay or two previously, a party of some- 
thing like one hundred persons arrived here. None of them voted so 
far as I know. I do not remember any disturbance connected with 
the election, excepting those already stated. Judging from conver- 
sations with different members of the parties encamped here the night 
before the election, I should think there were from 800 to 900. I 
should think there were nearly one hundred camp-fires. There were 
but three whom 1 know: Claiborne F. Jackson, Mr. Cole of Kansas 
City, and Mr. Waful of Westport. Mr. Coles and Mr. Young were 
the only ones I saw vote. The Missourians said they expected assist- 
ance here, but were satisfied that none would be offered. 

Question ~by Mr. Sherman. How many on the poll-book, of which 
here is a copy, are there of residents of this town before your name, 
which is No. 58 ? 

Answer. K. A. Cummins, Hugh Cameron, J. B. Abbott, C. S. 
Pratt, J. Christian, Lucas Corlen, Mr. Sullivan, John J. Lowry, and 
D. Parrington, are all I see. 

My occupation was a merchant. I am from Missouri here. Two 
years before, I came from New York. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

I knew of some recent arrivals from the east, who returned after- 
wards. They were constantly arriving and returning, both before 
and after the election, for several days, and one company returned 
about eight o'clock the morning of the election, before the polls were 
opened. I think that not more than one half who came out that 
spring remained here. I think that perhaps three hundred or four 



126 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

** 

hundred came into this district last spring, about half of whom [left 
before and after the election. 

To Mr. Keeder: 

I think that no residents of this district got to the polls readily and 
easily while I was there. Those who appeared to be leaders then 
made lines reaching from the window on each side, so that they could 
allow such persons to go up to the polls as they wished. Mr. Claiborne 
F. Jackson stated that they wished the old men to vote first, as they 
were tired, and wished to return to the camp. I do not know whether 
Mr. Cole voted in his own name or another; I simply saw him pass in 
his vote, when he was then lifted up on the roof the building, and passed 
out that way. I think there were from eight hundred to nine hundred 
Missourians in camp before the two hundred were detailed for the 
second district. I should think there were about one hundred persons 
arrived from the east shortly before the election, who came here for 
the purpose of settling. I should think about one half left here some 
the day they arrived, and others in a longer time afterwards. Some 
left before the day of election, and some the morning of the election, 
before the polls were opened. The accommodations here for emigrants 
were not very good not equal to their numbers, and many complaints 
were made because they did not find things as they expected, and 
they left, many to settle in other parts of the Territory, and others to 
return to the east. 

To Mr. Oliver: 

I am not able to state definitely the number of females who came 
in the emigration of last spring. I should think there were more 
than one lady to ten men. I saw some companies consisting of men 
with their wives and families ; one from Pennsylvania, of fifteen to 
twenty teams. 

To Mr. Eeeder: 

It has been frequently the case that men have first come here, made 
their selections, sometimes built houses, and then returned for their 
families. In the earlier days of the settlement of this Territory a 
smaller proportion of the settlers brought their wives with them than 
is the case now. I have known cases of families returning, but do 
not recollect the number. 

To Mr. Sherman: 

I did not see any women with the company of Missourians who 
encamped here the day before the election. 

NORMAN ALLEN. 
LAWRENCE, K. T. ? April 25, 1856. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 127 

40. 

WILLIAM YATES called and sworn. 



To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory in August, 1854, and settled in this dis- 
trict, where I have resided ever since. I came from Illinois, stopping 
two or three months in Cass county, Missouri. I was here on the 
day of the election of the 30th March, 1855. On the evening "before 
the election there was a large number of persons who came t in on 
horseback and in wagons, and encamped across the ravine and remained 
until after the election. On the evening of the 30th of March, along 
towards night, a great many of them started back down the country. 
There were encamped there, as near as I can guess, about six or seven 
hundred. There were some two hundred detailed in the evening so 
I was told in the camp to go to another district, as report said they 
wanted help there, and they sent them. I heard them say this in the 
camp. 1 went into the camp, and heard them say that they came up 
from Missouri purposely to vote. Some in the camp I was acquainted 
with. I was acquainted with one man particularly, whom I knew by 
eight, that I fell in with a year or eighteen months before, coming up 
from New Orleans, who lived in Howard county. I did not know his 
name, but recognised him, and he recognised me; and he told me he 
still remained in Howard county. There was another man, named 
Snowdy, who lived in Carroll county, and others that I knew by sight 
but not by name. They said nothing more about their intention than 
that they came here to vote. 

I did not see any but what had a bowie-knife, Revolver, shot-gun, 
rifle, or something of the kind. As far as I knew they brought with 
them the fodder for their animals. There was a lot of provisions de- 
posited in a building used as the old post office, that was said to be 
for their use. It was the house of William Lykins.J 

I was at the election on the 30th. I cannot say whether all the 
men from the camp voted or not. There was a great crowd around 
the window all day until 1 an hour by sun, or perhaps later. I did not 
go to the polls until perhaps nine or ten o'clock. They were crowding 
around, but I did not see all of them vote. It was very difficult for 
me to get to the polls. I made one or two efforts, but did not get 
there, and declined voting at all, but was over-persuaded by some of my 
friends here to vote, and staid around until late in the evening, until 
the crowd had dispersed, and then voted. 

I saw none in the companies that had encamped there that were 
settlers in the district at that time. I believe I knew almost every 
man in the district. This large body of men were all strangers. 

They had music, but I do not remember about the flags, though I 
am of the opinion that they had some. They had a drum and a fiddle ; 
a black boy waS playing the fiddle, and some man beating the drum. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver: 

I could not tell how many I was acquainted with. I knew some 
ten or a dozen by sight, and some by name. I could name several, 
though I did not charge my mind with them I I could perhaps name 



128 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

more upon sight now. I knew Mr. Snowdy and Mr. Robinson, from 
Jackson county, I think, and Mr. McGee, from Jackson county. 
These are all that come to my memory now, with the exception of 
Colonel Young, whom I knew by sight. I had conversation with 
some of these gentlemen. They said they came here for the purpose 
of voting. They said it was for the purpose of electing a legislature 
to suit themselves. I think they did say that they had understood, 
and believed, that there were a number of persons not entitled to vote 
who would vote to establish principles different from those they de- 
sired to have established in this Territory. 

I don't think anything was said in camp that night about legal or 
illegal voting. They said there were a great number of persons here 
from the east and north who wished to elect a legislature here they did 
not desire. They said they would elect a legislature to suit themselves, 
because the people of the Territory would not elect a legislature to 
suit them. I don't state this as a fact, but as near as I can recollect. 
I think they said they had as good a right to vote as men who came 
from other States. I heard them say there were men here from the 
east and north who came here to vote. They said that these men had 
come here for no other purpose, and that they had as much right to 
come here and vote as the others had ; and that was the reason they 
gave for coming here. 

They were armed. There was no violence offered, but crowding 
and pushing. There was a larger crowd there than I had seen in the 
Territory before. I don't think I ever saw quite so much crowding 
and pushing at any other election in other places. I did not see any 
violence used or weapons drawn. 

Mr. Sherman. Look at this poll-book and state the number of your 
vote. 

Witness. It was 881. I do not live in town ; I live in the country. 
1 am a farmer, and raise stock. My means of knowing the people 
here was that the country was thinly settled. I had considerable 
stock, and was riding through the Territory a great deal, meeting 
persons here and there. 

WM. YATES, 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 25, 1856. 



WM. B. HORNSBY produced and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I came into the Territory about the 17th day of August, 1854. I 
resided formerly in Johnson county, Missouri. I settled on the Califor- 
nia road, one and a half miles west of here, in this district, and have 
resided in this district ever since. I was here on thePSOth of March,, 
1855. On the 28th and 29th of March there were about one thousand 
came into this district from Missouri, they said ; some came in wagons, 
some on horseback. I do not know who their leader was, but believe 
it was Claiborne Jackson. A great many of them were armed the 
principal part of them. They were all men, in my opinion. They 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 129 

had drums, and fiddles, and flags. I saw no artillery or cannon. 
They encamped across the ravine near here at Wade's. I was in a 
part of their camp a small portion of it. I saw there Lewis Glover, 
who lived in Lafayette county, Missouri, Kedman Robinson, of Jack- 
son county, Missouri. There were a good many others there I knew, 
but I cannot now remember their names. They were from Missouri. 
I was pretty well acquainted with this district at that time. None 
of the men I saw there lived in this district, so far as I knew. They 
said they had come here to vote ; some of them said they did vote. 
That was said after the election. They said they had a right to vote 
here ; that this country belonged to Missouri, and they would vote. 
I heard no speeches made in the camp. A detachment was sent off 
the night of the 29th to a district above here. They said there was 
not enough went up there to carry the election in that district. I 
saw the same men at the election voting. I was not in the camp 
till the morning of the 30th. I saw a great many of them going up 
to the polls with tickets in their hands ; they said they were going to 
vote. They left here, part that evening and part the next morning. 

To Major Oliver: 

I am not acquainted with Claiborne Jackson ; I am not sure that 
he commanded the company ; I heard it said that he did ; I resided 
since August, 1854, in this district ; I had conversations only with a 
few ; I had knowledge of some of them. I conversed with Galloway 
Adams ; don't remember only part of what he said ; he said he did not 
come here to vote he was not old enough. That is all that I con- 
versed with ; only a few words to others, that I don't remember. I 
think it was said that there were about a thousand ; I saw the men ; 
did not count them ; I merely spoke to Lewis Glover ; had no conver- 
sation with Redman Robinson. I saw some of them giving in their 
tickets ; did not see Robinson, nor Adams ; I was out in the crowd 
about the windows ; was not old enough to vote ; don't know who they 
voted for. I said, that they said they had come here to vote. I heard 
them say their reasons for coming was that they had a right to vote-;; 
I heard them say at the polls that they had as good a right to vote, m. 
others that had recently come into the Territory from other States ; 
they said that persons from the east had no right to come here and 
settle, and no right to vote ; does not remember who made the remark 
that Kansas Territory belonged to Missouri ; heard it in camp,. My 
age is twenty-two years now. 

Re-examined by Mr. Reeder : 

It was said that Jackson was the leader ; I do not recollect when ; 
I heard the expression from several, I don't know how may, that per- 
sons from the east had no right to come here and settle, and no right 
to vote. 

WM. B. HQRNSBY. 

LAWRENCE, K. T. } April 25, 1856. 

H. Rep. 200 9* 



130 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

F. P. VAUGHN produced and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into the Territory of Kansas on the 26th of March, A. D. 
1855, and into this district on the 2^th of the same month. I have 
heen here ever since. Previously I resided in Macon county, Missouri; 
had lived there about fourteen years. I saw some stir about some- 
thing before I left home ; saw some persons going round about the 
county seat, taking certain persons out and speaking privately to 
them. On my way to Kansas I stopped a few days in Lynn county, 
Missouri ; there seemed to be a good deal of excitement there in rela- 
tion to Kansas elections. I saw several persons from Macon county 
there ; they said they were on their way to Kansas. I passed on to- 
wards the Territory, and as I travelled along I saw different individ- 
uals whom I knew. Stopped a few days in Ray county, Missouri ; 
there was more excitement there than in the other counties through 
which I had passed. I then came on to Clay county, Missouri, and 
saw a young gentleman, who said he himself was coming up to Law- 
rence that there were a company of three hundred others coming to 
vote ; said they certainly would vote if the Yankees were allowed to 
vote, and that if any resistance were offered, there would be a fuss ; 
that the slaveholders of that county had offered to pay the expenses 
of three hundred, and that he was one of those who had been engaged 
to come ; and that this three hundred would be sufficient for fifteen 
hundred votes, if they did as they had done in former elections of the 
Territory ; that he knew of several men who, at former elections, had 
voted fourteen or fifteen times apiece, by changing their hats and 
coats and voting in the name of their neighbors ; that all of them had 
voted four or five times apiece. 

J crossed the river the next day with about a dozen men. One of 
v tlwn. seemed to be a leader ; said my ferriage would be paid if I was 
, coming to vote. From that time until I got up to this district there 
were crowds of persons coming up in carriages, wagons, and on horse-- 
, backs and some walking. I passed some words with some of them. 
In-eo&aing out this side of Westport I was challenged to know where 
I waslrom. The person with whom I was speaking said that they 
were from Independence, Missouri, and we are going up to vote w^i 
are. 

I stayed all night at Mill creek ; there was a camp of Missourians 
there, as I understood ; they were hallooing and keeping up a noise 
all night. Next morning I had a conversation with one person, whoiru 
I supposed to be of the same camp; he said he had laid a claim in the- 
Territory, and that he had a right to vote, although his family were- 
not there. I was here on the day of the election, on the 30th off 
March, 1855. I saw several men that I had previously known ; they 
were the Rev. Mr. Dysart and Mr. Morrow, of Macon county, Missouri,, 
and a Mr. Mayo, of Randolph county, Missouri, and Mr. Hunson, or* 
Huston, of Carroll county, Missouri. I saw these men at the place off 
voting, in Lawrence. I was not in the camp. It is about two hundred l| 
miles from. Macon county to this place ; but not so far to Carroll county. . 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 131 

I saw the body of men that camped near this town. I have never since 
seen the men from Macon, and Carroll, and Eandolph counties. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

I do not know the name of the young rnan whom I saw in Clay 
county ; his father lives on the road from Liberty to Randolph. I do 
not know that he voted, but he was present at the polls in Lawrence 
on the day of election, on the 30th of March, in company with the 
Missourians. When we crossed the Missouri river, at Randolph, the 
one I took to be the leader said the ferriage bills would be footed by 
the persons sending ou the company. I do not know who the head 
man was ; the company did not, to my knowledge, pay ferriage, but 
a list of their names, or their number, was given to the ferryman. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I think the young man before alluded to lived about six miles from 
Liberty ; his father lived in a weather-boarded house ; there was a 
small room north of the main building, and a passage between. I 
came to this district to look around, and stay if it suited. Some ex- 
citement prevailed in Linn county. I understood the cause of the 
excitement in those far-off counties to be that they were fearful Kan- 
sas would become a free State. But when I reached Ray county I 
understood this to be the cause of the excitement. It was reported 
that large numbers of eastern men were coming on the boats to Kan- 
sas Territory, to be present at the elections on the 30th of March. I 
understood several to say that they would vote, if the Yankees or 
northern men voted. 

I heard some of the people of Missouri say that they were willing 
to leave the whole question to" be settled by the bona fide settlers of 
the Territory ; others expressed a different feeling. A great many 
persons in Missouri are opposed to the Missourians coming here and 
meddling with the elections of Kansas. 

F. P. VAUGHN. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 25, 1856. 



G-AIUS JENKINS produced and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I was coming up from Kansas City, on the morning of the 31st 
March, 1855. After leaving Westport, about two and a half miles 
from there, I began to meet crowds of men, and as I approached the 
timber this side of the Baptist Mission I was frequently detained as 
much as fifteen minutes, allowing them to- pass in the road ; a good 
many of them were quite wild and uproarious, and seemed to enjoy 
themselves, frequently asking if I had seen Governor ^ Reeder. 
Some of them said that if he did not sanction that election they 
would hang him in the first tree, or something like that. I heard it 
so frequently, I cannot give the precise words ; it was a general ^ re- 
mark from the wagons at Ham's. At Mill creek they had been nooniug; 



132 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

and then there was a pretty general expression, asking if I had seen 
Governor Reeder ; they said they were going into the Mission, I told 
them that I supposed he was at the Mission ; they said they were going 
in, and if he did not sanction the < lection, they would run him up to 
the first tree, God damn him I They had "been drinking ; they stated 
that they had been at the election ; they stated that they had elected 
Chapman to the council, and named one or two others that I was not 
acquainted with. I recognisad Cole, as one I was acquainted with ; it 
was he that made the remark that they had elected Chapman. I 
recognised others as being from Jackson county, as persons I had seen. 
These persons were armed ; some had guns irt their hands no side- 
arms as I remember. Chapman was a candidate in this district. The 
party was chiefly in wagons more than half the rest on horseback. 
After leaving Mill creek, there was very little said to me ; but I con- 
tinued to pass them until four miles this side of Mill creek, some eight 
miles in all ; and straggling parties to Fisher's, some thirteen miles 
further. 

Cross-examined : 

I did not know these men ; I recognised but could not name them ; I 
saw Mr. McUee as one of the party, but heard him say nothing the 
one that lives in the brick house beyond Westport ; his first name I 
think is Allen. 

GAIUS JENKINS. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 25, 1856. 



GEORGE W. DEITZLER produced and sworn, 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I saw two persons here from Glasgow, Missouri, on the day of the elec- 
tion ; they came on the day before ; one was Thomas Crews, keepen 
of the Glasgow house ; his father keeps it ; the name of the otherr 
I do not recollect. Mr. Crews called on me the day before the election! 
and talked over matters ; he told me the boys were coming to vote ;: 
I told him I thought it was wrong ; he said that was no considera- 
tion with them that they weie bound to make Kansas a slave State,, 
or there would be trouble. 1 asked him whether he intended to start' 
here ; he said no, he might at some future day go over to Kansas. He 1 
told me their party were from Missouri ; there were only six fromi 
Glasgow. He told me about four hundred were on the Wakarusa ;; 
this was when he came in the day before. I said, suppose the judges? 
refuse to receive your votes? He said, in that case, damn them, theyv 
would choose others. I said f there might be trouble. At this time he 1 
took my hand and said I should not be hurt ; that he would be 1 
around. I did not see Crews vote here ; I saw him with a party oil 
Misbourians that afternoon, and I saw him the next morning with the 
party at the polls ; with the other persons I had very little conversa- 
tion. I asked him what brought him up here ; he said he came 
with the boys. I asked him. what for. He said he came to vote, 
I also met Mr. Linney here, who was introduced to me on board; 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 133 

the boat as a member of the Missouri legislature. I don't know of 
my own knowledge he was a member ; he was introduced to me by 
Colonel John Doniphan, of Weston ; I saw him here on the morning 
of the election. I told him, from what I had seen, I expected a great 
many up, but had no idea I should see him here. Oh, said he, we 
came here to teach you your interests. 

The first party of Missourians encamped on the bank of the river, 
close to town ; they afterwards collected on the ravines ; next morn- 
ing they came in thick. I came to town rather early, and found the 
place where the election was to beheld surrounded by these strangers; 
I knew them to be strangers from the fact that they wore white rib- 
bons in their button-holes. Very few citizens were about at that time ; 
they did not seem to disguise their intentions, but spoke very freely 
about it all day. I talked familiarly with them about it ; one of them, 
to show that he was a citizen, took off his boots to show that he had 
some Kansas dirt in it ; he said that made him a citizen ; they said 
they were citizens of Kansas, all of them, when asked the question. 
When asked where they were from, they said from Missouri, different 
places. I returned to the polls about ten o'clock ; found it very much 
crowded, so that it was almost impossible to get to the window. After 
much difficulty, I deposited my vote. They asked me to pass over the 
roof of the house ; that I could not get back out of the crowd. I refused 
to do so, and then they asked me to get down and crawl tbrough 
their legs and get out. I told them I should do no such thing ; that 
I walked in, and should walk out. I fought my way out, I might say, 
and was a long while doing it. I had had equal difficulty to get in. I 
should suppose there were between seven and eight hundred at this 
point; most every one had a gun, and all had revolvers and bowie- 
knives, and took occasion to expose them, to let us see that they were 
armed. Some of them left on the afternoon of the election ; and 
others, the majority, staid till next morning. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

Mr. Crews told me that one of the reasons of the people coming into 
this Territory was by endeavoring to justify their course, by referring 
to emigrant aid societies in the east, which he understood were or- 
ganized for the purpose of sending persons into Kansas to vote at that 
election, and, as he understood, to vote at the 30th of March election, 
and coming up the river for that purpose. 

G. W. DEITZLER. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 25, 1856. 



CARMIE W. BABCOCK called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came here in September, 1854, previous to the proclamation of 
Governor Reeder for the election of the 30th of March, 1855 ; there 
was some talk about the Missourians coming here. I took the census 
of this district, and as I was travelling about I often heard it said that 



134 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

tlie Missourians would be here at the election. It was currently re- 
ported here, for some weeks before the election, that the Missourians 
were preparing to come up here, and had organized what they called 
a Blue Lodge for that purpose. I was intimately acquainted with 
several p^o-slavery men in this immediate vicinity, who were reported 
to belong to that lodge, and whom I had every reason to believe did 
belong to it, from conversations with them. The first thing I ob- 
served that made me think they were coming was this : I had just 
opened our post office here in a little log building with a partition in 
it ; the building was owned by a young man named William Lykins, 
who was deputy postmaster ; we occupied but one-half of the building. 
The rats and mice made considerable noise in the other part of the 
building, which was unoccupied, and I inquired of Mr. Lykins what 
they were up to. He took me in there and showed me a lot of pro- 
visions, consisting of a large quantity of bacon, some corn, and I think 
some flour and meal, though I will not be certain about that. I do 
not know when the provision was brought there, though I was told. 
This Mr. Lykins was from Missouri, though a resident here at that 
time ; he is now in Kansas City, Missouri. 

On the evening of the 29th of March, 1855, a large crowd of men, 
came in and encamped in the ravine just beyond the post office ; I 
should think there were in that first company some five or six hun- 
dred ; I was boarding then at Mr. Chapman's, just above the creek. 
That evening, about 10 o'clock, I think, a party left the camp, and 
started for the California road, and it was reported that they were 

foing to the second district ; soon after, another company left.* 
did not talk with any of them, and only heard it reported where 
they were going. The first company went in the direction of Douglas 
district ; the last company in the direction of Hickory Point. There 
were to be elections at both places. I should think there were near 
two hundred in each party. 

On the morning of the day of the election, a little after sunrise, 
another company commenced coming in. I was standing by Mr. 
Chapman's house, and saw them in the distance over the hill, and 
watched them until they passed the house and went into the camp 
with the others. 

I was in the camp on the evening before the election and on the 
morning of the election, and was introduced to several persons there. 
I heard them talking among themselves, stating that the Howard 
county boys were located in such a place, the Clay county boys in 
another place, the Cass county boys in another place, the Saline boys 
in another place, and called over a number of other counties that I do 
not now recollect. I was introduced to a man named Davidson, Mr. 
Wade's father-in-law, who now lives in this Territory. I also saw a 
man named Coles, from Kansas City, I think ; Allen McGee, of West- 
port, who introduced me, I think, to Colonel Samuel Young. I will 
not be positive about that, but I was introduced to him afterwards. 
My impression is that Mr. McGee introduced me to him on the morn- 
ing of the election. 

Nearly all these men had guns of some description ; shot-guns and, 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 135 

muskets. Most of them had revolvers, and a great many had bowie- 
knives. They had several tents and some flags and music. 

When they arrived, the provisions in Mr. Lykins's house were taken 
out and given to them. On once occasion a young man came up to 
the house and asked for the provisions. I asked who they belonged 
to, and he said they belonged to the company, and he wanted some ot 
them. He took off a sack of corn for the horses. I delivered but that 
one sack ; Mr. Lykins delivered the rest. I do not know what became 
of the rest of the provisions. Mr. Lykins wanted to clear out that part 
of the house for the election to be held in, and he set out several sides 
of bacon and some corn, and I saw persons come up promiscuously 
from the camp and get them. 

I heard Col. Samuel Young make a speech on the morning of the 
election. I heard but a part of it. as he wasVbout closing his remarks 
when I came up. This was at the polls. He was cautioning the boys 
to keep good order, as they would all be allowed to vote ; they must 
not be noisy, must not disturb property, and he would see that all 
had a chance to vctfe. 

I was sitting in*the office, with the windows up, as they came up to 
the polls. There did not seem to bo any military organization ; they 
came up in little companies as they had camped. Most of them had 
guns, some carrying them on their shoulders, some in their hands. 
They made a great deal of noise and very much of a rush. 

I talked with several of them and was introduced to many of them, 
but do not remember their names. They said that their intention was 
to vote ; that they wanted to do it peaceably ; did not propose to pre- 
vent others from voting ; were willing for us to vote, but they would 
vote too, as they had just as much right to vote as we had. That was 
the general tenor of their conversation. They left about four or five 
o'clock on the day of election. 

Before they put in their votes I heard several of them take the oath. 
I was in the next room and heard Col. Young swear that he was a 
bonafide resident of Kansas Territory. He did not say he was a resi- 
dent of this district, so far as I recollect, but that he was an actual 
and bona fide resident of Kansas Territory, and owed no allegiance to 
the State of Missouri. He told the judges that it was unnecessary to 
swear the rest of the men, as they would all swear the same thing. 
He was not a resident of this district when I took the census, and was 
not a resident at the time of the election. I should have known it if 
he had become a resident. I do not believe he has ever become a re- 
sident of this district. I do not recollect that the judges asked him 
any questions about his residence here when he took the oath. 

I was in the other room, and looked through the cracks in the par- 
tition when they changed the election board. Mr. Blanton being ab- 
sent, Mr. Benjamin was put in his place. Mr. Abbott resigned, and 
Mr. Cummins was elected in his place. This was when the board first 
met. It is the duty of voters present to fill the vacancies in the elec- 
tion board. The politics of Mr. Benjamin and Mr. Cummins were the 
same as of those who had camped here. That party was supporting 
Thomas Johnson and E. Chapman for the Council, and A. B. Wade, 



136 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

James Whitlock, and, I think, John M. Banks for the House of Ee- 
presentatives. 

A few of this party remained in camp until the morning after the 
election, hut the most of them left in the evening before. 

In taking the census I followed, as near as I could, the directions 
laid down in the precept. It was a correct return, to the best of my 
knowledge, o 4 all the voters in the district at that time. 

I did not notice any mottoes on the flags of this party. I do not 
think they had their tickets printed here, but brought them with them. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

I was personally acquainted with but few of the men who came 
here from Missouri. Mr. Allen McGee was the only person I was 
acquainted with that I conversed with concerning their objects in. 
coming here. He informed me that they had come here to vote ; that 
there was a large number of persons coming here from northern and 
eastern States to be at that election, and the Missourians were coming 
here to counteract that movement. I had a conversation with Mr. 
Davidson, of Missouri I think he was from Pleagant Hill, in Cass 
county. He said he did not approve of their coming up here, and 
that he would not vote ; did not believe that he had a right to vote 
here. He stated that he did not want to come up here at all, but his 
son-in-law was a candidate, and the people were all coming up, and 
he came along ; but he would not vote, as he did not approve of it. 
In conversation in camp I heard some of them say that this Territory 
belonged to the Missourians, and that these eastern men had no busi- 
ness here. That was the drift of their conversation. I heard others 
say that they were coming here to vote against these eastern men, re- 
ferring, I suppose, to recent emigration, though they did not say that. 
I conversed with several, and told them I did not think they had any- 
right to vote here. They said that all these men at Lawrence had 
been sent out here with their families for the purpose of voting, and 
they had as much right to vote as those men had. 

There were some arrivals in the Territory after the census was 
taken. There were, I should think, near one hundred here from 
northern and eastern States, but I do not think all staid in this dis- 
trict ; some of them went above. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

All the first part of the day, as fast as persons voted, they put them 
up over the house, because there was so much of a crowd and rush in 
front of the polls that they could not get back. The building was a 
very low log building with a flat roof. The post office was open at 
the windows at the time of the election, though the door was shut. 
A great many of our citizens came to the window and complained 
that they could not get near the polls arid could not vote. 

Some time before noon, as I was in the office, I heard a gun dis- 
charged. I came out and saw a crowd rushing towards the bank of 
the river. I went down with the rest of them, and saw Mr.. Bond, a 
citizen of this place, come up from below the bank. They said they 
had shot at him, and he had jumped oif the bank. They said these 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 137 

had been some conversation with him, and then some one called him 
a damned abolitionist, arid then the mob pitched on him. I did not 
see any other difficulty. 

C. W. BABCOCK. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 26, 1856. 



LYMAN ALLEN called and sworn. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory about a year ago the 24th of March last. 
I settled here, in Lawrence, and have resided here ever since. I am 
from the State of New York. I was here on the 30th of March, 1855. 
In coming up the Missouri river I stopped at the various landing 
places, arid, when we got up as far as Glasgow, we noticed persons 
who commenced coming aboard. We came up on the " Sam Cloon." 
They said they were coining here to vote, as a fund had been raised 
for that purpose. They, with myself, landed at Kansas City, I think 
between the 16th and 24th of March, 1855. I immediately came 
through to this place, and on the 27th, 28th, and 29th of March, the 
emigration was very flush. On the 29th, I think, there were not less 
than from six to nine hundred came here. Most of them encamped 
on. the Wakarusa over night. I came here the next day. I stopped 
with my brother, about four miles from here, near the Wakarusa ; and 
in coming here, I saw a large party pouring up the Wakarusa. There 
was an election to be held in Bloomington that day. Several gentle- 
men came into town, and seemed to be prominent men in this party. 
They came from below to see if they would be allowed to vote, with- 
out resistance. They said they were coming here to vote in sufficient 
numbers to accomplish their object, and would vote peaceably if they 
could, forcibly if they must. They claimed a right under the organic 
act to vote here. They said it gave them that right although they 
were citizens in other States, because, according to that act, citizens 
and residents were not synonymous ; they were residents wherever they 
happened to be, but citizens where their families were. They consid- 
ered it unfortunate that such an oversight had crept into the bill, but 
they would claim the benefit of it. I came in town about T o'clock on 
the morning of the 30th, and immediately went over to the place of 
election. 1 remained there until dark, except when away for dinner. 
I think these men had a darkey who drummed for them, and one who 
carried a flag. They were generally armed, though many had no 
guns. Colonel Young seemed to be the leading man. He had told 
me, in conversation with him previously, what I have already stated 
as to their idea about their right to vote. He said he should vote 
here, though that disfranchised him in Missouri. The men who came 
up to vote, refused to take the oath prescribed by the governor. Col. 
Young said he would offer his vote, but would not take that oath. 
He would make that the test ; and if he was allowed to vote without 
taking that oath, the rest would probably be allowed to do so ; if not, 
they would vote by force. 



138 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

I did not hear what oath he did take. When he came out, it Was 
said that he had perjured himself. He declared he would like to 
find the man who said so, and he would dispatch forty such men. 
Mr. Abbott, one of the judges, resigned, because those who voted 
refused to take the oath prescribed by the governor, and the other 
judges received their votes. Hugh Cameron was one of the other 
judges, but I cannot say whether the other was Mr. Benjamin or Mr. 
Cummins. After Mr. Young had voted, about two hundred men 
left here for Bloomington, as it was said they were not needed here. 
The leaders in the matter then undertook to expedite the voting, as 
it was impossible to vote from the crowd ; those who had voted being 
compelled to crawl over the house, which was a low one, to get away. 
About that time, Charles Stearns was found on the ground with a 
book in his hands taking notes. He was surrounded by a company of 
men, who said they would have no notes taken. They became very 
much exasperated, and threatened to kill him, but Colonel Young got 
him out of the crowd without his being injured. About 11 o'clock 
the leaders of this company placed guards along from the window, 
forming an alley, so as to allow persons to vote according to counties 
as they came up according to the counties from which they came in 
Missouri. The oldest men were given the preference. I saw one 
young man living in this town walk into the alley and go up towards 
the window. He was asked what ticket he voted, and he said it was 
his own business. The crowd gathered around him and threatened 
him, but his friends got him away. I think he voted at that time. 
Not long after, Mr. Edward Bond was talking with some gentlemen, 
when he got into some difficulty. An attack was made upon him, 
and as he was jumping off the bank of the river I saw a revolver 
fired at him. I did not know the man's name at the time. He was 
not a citizen of this district. I have been told his name since, but 
do not recollect it. 

Colonel Young stated that he was a citizen of Missouri, though a 
resident of Kansas for the time being. I found a great many young 
men who took the same ground as Colonel Young did; they had every 
appearance of being educated men. After dinner, about two o'clock, I 
attempted to vote ; there was a very large crowd, all bracing towards 
the window, and about two hours afterwards I got there. There was 
a crowd from every direction ; but our side was the strongest, and we* 
pushed the others away. It seemed to be a contest with the "Free-- 
Soilers" and Clay county boys. I was with the latter, and they came; 
in ahead. No one asked me my politics. I went in and voted, and! 
was then taken by the boys and lifted upon and went over the house. , 
I saw during the day some of the company that came up on the boat 
when I did; I saw them vote; I heard them say frequently they 
were coming here to vote. I have since recognised several persons 
as citizens of Jackson county, Missouri, whom 1 saw vote that day. 

About four o'clock the ground was somewhat cleared, and the old 
men began to leave, and they began to decamp. Some of the boys had 
got considerably intoxicated, and we kept a guard about here during 
that night. About half of those persons left I think before midnight, , 
and early in the morning ; the rest drove off in the direction from ; 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 139 

whence they came. There were several persons in the crowd when I 
tried to vote not very rugged persons who "became faint and were 
taken away. It was very laborious getting up to the polls. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I think these men had their tickets printed in the " Free-State" 
office in this place, at that time under the charge of Miller and Elliott. 
Those nominations were made after they got here; they voted for Mr. 
Chapman and Mr. Johnson for Council, and Mr. Whitlock and Mr. 
Banks for House of Kepresentatives. I think there was one McGee, 
who was with the committee, who came up from the Wakarusa camp, 
but I am not certain about that; I think Colonel Young was most of 
that committee. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

These persons also said, though not generally, that the position 
they sustained towards the Territory made it necessary that this 
should be a slave State. Their interest in the question was so much 
greater than any other, that they had a right to vote here in self- 
defence. I heard Colonel Young's speech ; I do not remember of his 
Baying that they had as much right to vote as others who had 
come here within two or three weeks previously. He stated that the 
North and East had formed societies to send emigration here to make 
this a free State, and they would beat them at their own game. I 
think I heard them say they approved of the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill, and were willing for the bona fide settlers in this 
Territory to settle the question of slavery for themselves. There 
were two young men I got acquainted with in coming here, and they 
admitted in conversation that this thing was all wrong ; but as the 
North had commenced it, they would come in under the same plan. 

These two were some of those to whom I have referred in my exam- 
ination in chief as having given reasons for coming here to vote. I 
was with the persons who were here all day, but not in their camp, as 
they were not in camp during the day. I do not recollect that I heard 
any one say that they had as much right to vote as emigrants recently 
from the north or east, but they claimed a general right to make this 
a slave State, as the North had sent men here to make this a free 
State. These reasons, I think, were given by the more moderate of 
the party, who, I judged, came along as peace-makers ; the general 
tone was different. I do not remember that Col. Young in his speech 
said that there were a number of persons in this district who were 
from the north and east, and if they were allowed to vote he would 
claim that he and his party should be allowed to vote ; and if allowed 
to vote peaceably it would be all right, but they would vote forcibly 
if necessary. I had just arrived in the Territory, and voted at that 
election. I do not know how many from the north and east who 
had just arrived voted at that time. 

When I was on my way here, a party from the east passed me at 
Buffalo, and when I reached here a part of them were going back, 
and persuading all to go back they could. Some of them went up 
the "Big Blue" and settled what is now called "Manhattan." 



140 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



' 



Some of our own party got as far as John Ham's, on " Mill creek 
about fourteen miles from Westport, and being obliged to sleep on 
the floor, they got up the next morning and started back. I believe 
about that time it was common for some to come here and stay over 
night, and start back the next day. I do not think I could tell defi- 
nitely how many voted of that spring's migration, except myself, as* 
they were mostly strangers to me. The most of the party I came out 
with went back. I had been here but eight or ten days before the 
election. I brought my wife with me. It was the common practice 
to take persons by the legs and hoist them up to the root' of the house, 
as they could not get out any other way. It was not understood to 
be any indignity or rudeness, and voters on both sides were treated in 
the same way. When the crowd was thinned out, persons left the 
polls in the ordinary way. This was the case after about three or 
tour o'clock, but the crowd was dense be ore that time. 

LYMAN ALLEN. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 26, 1856. 



SAMUEL N. WOOD called and affirmed. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I first came into the Territory in June, 1854, from the State of 
Ohio. I settled in July, 1854, about five miles from here, in this 
district, on the California road. I have resided in the district ever 
since. I was here on the day of election of the 30th of March, 1855 ; 
it was on Friday. On the Wednesday evening before, I saw some two 
or three hundred men encamped on the ravine bottom near the ford, 
who said they were from Missouri, and were going above to some place 
to vote, and there would be about 1,000 more to vote at this place. 
The next day, Thursday, they commenced coming in hereto Lawrence 
on horseback, on mules, in wagons and carriages, frequently in long 
processions ; they camped over most of the town, I think on Wade's 
claim. I was all over their camp the night before the election. I 
was introduced to Doctor Lomry ; he said he was from Missouri. I 
was introduced to Col. Claiborne F. Jackson, who lives at "Arrow 
Bock," Missouri. I do not recollect whether I first saw Col. Young 
that night or the next morning. I recollect seeing a Dr. Earl, from 
Westport, who was postmaster there. When I first came out here, I 
also saw a man by the name of Cole, from Kansas City. There was 
quite a procession came on the morning of the election, with flags 
flying, from towards the "Wakarusa," I think from where Mr. 
McGee lives ; I saw two McGee's in the party. When the polls were 
opened, Mr. Blanton, one of the judges of the election, was absent ; 
there was considerable trouble in choosing a judge in his place. 

Colonel Young assumed to manage for the Missourians. It took 
us at least an hour, 1 think, to settle on the third judge. Colonel 
Y T oung claimed that the people here had two of the judges, and there- 
fore it was nothing more than right that the Missourians should have 
one to attend to their interests. They finally agreed upon Mr. Cum- 
mins. Mr, Benjamin was appointed in place of Mr. Abbott, after he 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 141 

resigned. It was found pretty difficult, when the polls were opened, for 
any one to get to the window to vote, after the judges had voted. I think 
Colonel Young was the first who offered to vote. One of the judges 
asked him if he was a resident of the Territory,, and he said he was. He 
was asked to he sworn, and he was sworn, and again said he was a 
resident of this Territory. They formed two lines of them near from 
the window out on the prairie, some three or four rods, standing 
some six feet apart, and those who voted had to enter in at the outer 
end of these two lines, walk up to the window, and vote ; and for a 
time they were put up over the house to get out. After some voting 
they formed another line from the window to let them out. Soon 
after the voting commenced I heard quite an excitement a little to the 
left of where i was standing. I supposed at first it was a kind of 
what we call a side row, got up to get people away from the house, so 
that others could vote. I saw a man running from the house towards 
the river, and as many as a hundred running after him. I started 
after them, and I was perhaps a rod from the man when he jumped 
off the bauk ; and I saw it was a Mr. Bond, of this place. There were 
some two or three pistol-shots fired after him. There was considerable 
excitement on the bank. Several of them said they must drive all the 
damned abolitionists off the ground. I remarked that it would be 
difficult for them to do so, as there were men there who would be 
willing to have their bodies riddled with bullets before they suffered 
that to be done. Colonel Young carne up to me, and said that he 
wished no difficulty, and if we would keep our men quiet they would 
not allow any of us to be injured ; that they wanted to vote, and would 
vote, at all hazards. I heard as many as fifty persons say that, I 
think. One of the judges objected to Colonel Young's vote being 
received, and when it was received he resigned. They appointed Mr. 
Benjamin in his place; Mr. Benjamin was a resident of this district, 
I think. 

These Missourians had almost exclusive control of the polls until 
late in the afternoon. This Benjamin had a claim near town, but I 
do not know whether he was living on it or not. I recollect that a 
man named Willis, who lived in this place at that time, came up about 
the middle of the afternoon to vote, when about half of these Missou- 
rians had left. When he carne up they raised a cry that he was a 
damned abolitionist, a ne^ro thief, &c., and hallooed "Kill him 1" 
"Shoot him I" &c. There were several of our men on the ground, 
and they told them if they wanted to commence that game they could 
do so, and that they would find the matter would not end here in 
Kansas Territory; and they quieted down very much. I think 
Willis voted. These men ran him. A Mr. J. 0. Shelby, who I 
think lives in Berlin, Lafayette county, Missouri, took dinner with 
rne that day. He said there were fifty who came from his neigh- 
borhood with him to vote, and they were going to vote. He said 
that if he had to swear that he lived* in this Territory he would not 
vote, as he did not live here, and never expected to live here, nor did 
the men who were with him ever expect to live here. I do not know 
as I can name others who voted. I recollect of seeing E. M. McGee, 
who lives between Kansas City and Westport. I also saw a number 



142 -KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

whom I had seen in Missouri, in Westport, Kansas City ; Independence, 
and other places, whose names I do not know. I think there were two 
McGees here, hut I do not recollect the name of the other one. This 
Shelby stated that there were ten thousand Missourians in this Terri- 
tory, and one thousand of them were detailed to this place. When I 
was in the camp the night before the election I recollect there was a 
messenger came in to inform them that there were not men enough in 
Bloomington a district above this and they must have two hundred 
more men there. I heard this Lomry and Jackson talk about it, and 
they agreed that night to send two hundred men. Quite a number 
of the party left the next morning, about the time the polls were 
opened here, and went off above somewhere. The majority of these 
men, 1 think, had revolvers in sight. They had bowie-knives, I sup- 
pose, though I do not know enough about them to tell whether they 
were bowie-knives, though they were large knives ; and they also had 
rifles and double-barreled shot-guns. They had drums and flags, 
though I do not recollect what kind of flags they were. I think I 
knew perhaps nine-tenths of the settlers in this district at that time. 
These men who came here were all strangers to the district. After 
the election they left, and I should think they were all out of the dis- 
trict by noon the next day. They said they came here to vote, and 
were going to vote. I heard the remark frequently that if the people 
here made no opposition, and allowed them to vote, there would be 
no trouble; but if there was any opposition they would drive them all 
out of the neighborhood, or kill them, as they were going to vote 
anyhow. I recollect, among others, seeing Mr. Owen here, who lives 
near Lexington, Missouri. He had formerly been in the Territory, 
and had a claim over north of the town. He was here at the first 
election at Basyager's, and had a difficulty with a Dutchman, and shot 
him. He then left the Territory, and had not been seen here since 
until the day of the election of the 30th of March, at which he voted. 
His claim was some twelve or fourteen miles from here to the south, 
and I think in the district below here. I recollect that about a dozen 
men who were strangers to me, but who said they were from Missouri, 
took me one side on the day of election, and made inquiries about one 
of their candidates. They said they were afraid he was not altogether 
"sound on the goose question." They used to know him down in 
Kansas City, but were afraid of him, and wanted to know if he had 
not expressed some rather Free-soil sentiments up here. Colonel 
Young, however, vouched for him., and they concluded to vote for 
him. I tried to find out their candidates when I was in their camp 
the night before the election. I. should think I asked a hundred men 
about them ; but the universal cry was, that they had no tickets, and 
did not know who were their candidates. They said their leaders 
would fix that up in the night, and get their tickets, and they would 
know in the morning. 

I was about the polls pretty much all day, with the exception of 
about one hour at dinner time. These men from the camp voted. I 
think I saw one man vote four times. They changed their coats or 
their hats, and came up to the window again and voted, I do not . 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

know about the names they save. I asked them if they were going 
to keep on and vote the whole season. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 26, 1856. 

[Mr. Oliver objects to the witness stating anything the supposed 
illegal voters may have said in regard to the election of the 30th 
March, 1855, and insists that they, the alleged illegal voters, would, 
if present, be competent witnesses, and that they should be subpoenaed 
to appear before the committee to testify of their knowledge touching 
the said election, and their connexion with the same. That the mode 
of examination now pursued is in violation of the well-established 
rules of evidence, as recognised by the standard authors.] 



EDWARD CHAPMAN sworn. 
To Mr. Eeeder : 

I came into the Territory on the 28th day of December, 1854, and 
settled in this district, and have resided here ever since, I was here 
on the 30th of March, 1855. I saw a large body of men come in on 
the day of the election, and encamped in the ravine below my house. 
I suppose there were six or seven hundred of them before they sent off 
the detachments, as near as I could judge. They were strangers, not 
residents of the district at the time ; that is, a majority of them were 
not. They participated in the election at the time. Most of them 
left the day of the election from 3 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon. A 
small party were here I believe the next morning, and left that day, 
the 31st of March. I was in their camp. There was no gentleman 
there with whom I was acquainted but Claiborne Jackson ; I was in- 
troduced to several. There was one gentleman to whom I w'as intro- 
duced before, by the name of Harlow, and I was introduced to him 
again on that day. I did not see any of the McGees there whilst 
encamped. I saw Mr. McGee while they were assembled around the 
election house Allen McGee. I saw Mr. Coles, of Kansas City, at 
the polls that day ; they both live in Missouri Coles in Kansas City, 
and I suppose McGee too but McGee said he had a claim on the 
Wakarusa. 

Some time in the early part of the day, on the 30th, one detach- 
ment was sent off to Hickory Point, in the neighborhood of one hun- 
dred and fifty or two hundred, or more may be. Another detachment 
followed, and that shortly they were destined for the second district, 
Bloomington I should conclude from one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred of them. They told me they came here to vote. They 
claimed that they had a right to come here and vote ; all they asked 
was to vote here peaceably, and if they could not do it peaceably they 
must resort to some other means. Most of them had double-barreled 
shot-guns, and guns of various descriptions, and most^of them had 
side-arms. I saw a couple of pieces of artillery. Mr. Miller and my- 
self went over to Mr. Wade's ; after Miller had finished his business 
we came through a part of the camp j they were distributed in various 



144 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

parties. We crossed the ravine, and came very near the house of the 
election. Some gentleman hallooed to me ; I went hack, and we got 
into conversation about the matter. He asked me if I thought there 
was any prospect of difficulty here? I told him I thought not. He 
said he was in hopes there would not he. I told him if there were, 
citizens enough in the place to give them a fair fight they would do^ 
it. He thought there would he no use in doing that, and invited me 
to go down a short distance with him. We went to a wagon, and he 
lifted up a cloth and some blankets, and remarked to me that there 
was a couple of "bull-dogs" they had, loaded with musket-balls. 
They were all covered up in the hay, with the exception of the rims off 
them ; they were a couple of brass cannon. I then left there, and! 
went up to the house where the election was held. I suppose I was* 
voted ior by them for member of council on that day. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

Those leading gentlemen, Mr. Jackson and others, said they came 
here to vote to counteract the votes given by those men who were sent' 
here under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society ; who had come 
that spring, and were still coming to vote at that election the 30th 
of March. I heard Mr. Allen McGee say, that he would never have 1 
brought his company here, but for his understanding that there were 1 
a number of persons from the northern and eastern States en route on; 
the Missouri, to reach here arid vote at the 30th of March election. I! 
heard that remark made by Mr. Thompson, of Clay county, and others,, 
and by most of those whom I heard speak of it at all. They thought 
the whole thing wrong and irregular on both sides, and were only act- 
ing in self-defence. They meant that the North and East had sent 
persons here for the purpose of making this a free State. They claimed 1 
that they had as good a right to come here and vote as men from the 
east or northern States. They further suited that, if it was not for 
this eastern and northern emigration, they would not have come here 
to vote. They claimed that the North and the East had formed what! 
they called Emigrant Aid Societies, whose purpose was to send mem 
here to vote. Mr. Allen McGee told me that he had reliable informa- 
tion that there were between four and five hundred on a boat between; 
St. Louis and Kansas City, of eastern and northern men, to be at this* 
place and other points in the Territory at that election. Some of the 1 
same gentlemen said that they were willing and would abide by the- 
principles laid down in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, and were willing; 
that the actual settlers of the Territory should determine the question* 
of slavery. They claimed that they had reason to believe that there 
were a number ot persons from the north and east who were not actual; 
settlers, who proposed to vote at that election. None of these men that 
I conversed with at that time claimed to be actual settlers, except 
Allen McGee. I have been told by several of them that they would 
not have interfered with the election at all, were it not that these men 
coming from the north and east were not actual settlers. None of 
these leading men, whose declarations I have given in my examina- 
tion in chief, made any threats that they would use violence on aur> 
of the citizens of Lav/rence. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 145 

To Mr. Keeder: 

The first declaration stated by me in trie cross-examination was 
made on the day of the election and the day before. Men that they 
said were coming were said to be on the river on boats. I am ac- 
quainted with the distances and modes of travel between this point 
and Kansas City, on the 31st of March, 1855. It is as many as 45 
or 50 miles. We had no public conveyances at that time. It gener- 
ally took emigrants from a day and a half to two days with loaded 
teams. They could come with light vehicles in a day. 

E. CHAPMAN. 

APRIL 26, 1856. 



GEORGE CHURCHILL affirms. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I came into the Territory on the 1st day of October, 1854 ; settled 
at Lawrence, and have resided here ever since, except three months, 
during which time I lived in Independence, Mo. I formerly resided 
in New York; knew none of the men by name that were here on the 
30th of March, from Missouri, but recognized the countenances of 
several. I was present here on the 30th of March. I recollect of 
seeing a young man here that day that brought me into the Territory; 
he lived in Westport ; and also several that lived in Independence, 
Missouri. 

GEORGE CHURCHILL. 

APRIL 26, 1856. 



R. A. CUMMINS called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I came into the Territory, camping at Blue Jacket's, in August, 
1854. I settled three miles southwest of here, in this district, and 
have resided here ever since I came from St. Louis here. I am a Vir- 
ginian by birth. I lived in Missouri before I came here. I was here 
on the 30th of March, 1855. I was not appointed one of the judges 
of that election by the governor, but was selected by the crowd in place 
of N. B. Blanton. I was selected the day before the election as a suit- 
able man for judge. I had no objection to serving my country in any 
way. I was spoken to by Allen McGee, of Westport, now to act as 
judge. He pretended to live here at that time. I suppose he did. I 
entered on the duties of my office and discharged them conscientiously, 
to the best of my abilities. Most all who were here were strangers to 
me, as I was living in the country at that time, and knew but few 
persons. I should think there were over one thousand votes polled 
that day. Some from my neighborhood did not vote then. I was 
not in the camp of persons here. I knew that there were camps, but 
H. Rep. 200 10* 



146 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

was not in them, as I was on duty from early in the morning till 12 
o'clock at night. A man by the name of Colonel Young came up to 
vote. I had no personal acquaintance with him. He was sworn, and 
made oath that he was a citizen of the Territory, and would not vote 
anywhere else hut here for twelve months. He did not say in what 
part of the Territory he resided. My opinion is, that it was no busi- 
ness of the judge to inquire ; that he had a right to vote if he had been 
here but an hour. I do not recollect many of the particulars. I saw 
one man vote who said he lived at Lexington. His name was Holli- 
day_, but I do not know his given name. He said he lived in Lexing- 
ton, Missouri, or somewhere in that vicinity. Allen McGee, when 
he asked me to act as one of the judges, said something to me. I do 
not know as I can swear positively to what he said, as it was a gen- 
eral conversation. I don't think he told me anything about persons 
corning here from Missouri. He had a house two miles west of where 
I lived. He was there, and had a black woman cooking for him. 
There were others there some fifteen or twenty others who were 
strangers to me. Mr. McGee kept a kind of family grocery store there, 
with plenty of provisions to sell, at enormous rates. He kept a kind 
of hotel there for a few days. He had a large stock at the time of 
election, but I do not know as it was larger than usual. He kept 
groceries there for several months. He had a young man for clerk. 
I have no doubt that Allen McGee was just as good a voter at that 
time as I was, as he lived there. The only difference was, that I had 
no other home and he had. I do not know where his other home is. 

Cross-examined by Col. Woodson : 

I know that McGee had been here at the time of the election, and 
built a double log house a one story house and had a black woman 
here, and was very anxious to bring his wife with him, but she was in 
delicate health and could not come. He often spoke to me about that. 
He has since sold out. He had built this house prior to the election 
of the 30th of March, 1855. He had himself only been here a week 
or two at that time, but frequently before that: He had been here 
the fall before, at the election of a delegate to Congress. I often 
heard of his being here. I was not acquainted with him the fall be- 
fore. The house he built was about as good a house as there was in 
the Territory at that time. He had made a claim here before I came 
here, in May some time, I think, but did not build here until after I 
did. He had a log cabin on his claim in the fall, where he usually 
stopped when he was up here. 

Re-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

He sold out his claim a few weeks ago. 

Re-examined by Mr. Reeder : 

Mr. McGee came there with his cook a few days before the election, 
I cannot state positively when. I do not know when these strangers; 
came there. I think McGee himself went home in, a day or two after- 
the election. I do not think the others were there at all after the: 
election. He had a clerk in his house to attend to his store before: 
he came up prior to that election, but there was no family there. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 147 

The same clerk lived there for some time after McG-ee returned, after 
the election. The clerk cooked his meals there for himself. The 
store was occupied along in November or December, 1854, but I could 
not state exactly when it was. The clerk occasionally had a hired 
man living there with him. No one else lived there that I know of. 

ROBERT A. CUMMINS. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



ROBERT ELLIOTT called and sworn. 
Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I was residing in Lawrence on the 30th of March, 1855, and waa 
one of the proprietors of a printing office at that time. I saw a large 
number of men who said they were from Missouri, who visited the 
office. They said they were coming here to vote. I was not in their 
camp, but saw it at a distance. I saw large numbers of them arrive ; 
they came in wagons and on horses. Most of them, I think, had 
arms ; some of them had large clubs. I did not see any banners or 
.flags. I heard music at a distance, but did not see them when para- 
ding. When they came to the printing office the night previous, 
they said they merely came to see an abolitionist, as they had never 
met one, and had understood that the "Free State" printing office 
was 'conducted by abolitionists. Mr. Whitlock, one of the candidates 
for the legislature, came to the office on the day of election, just before 
noon, and spoke about tickets He was the only one that I remember 
of coming to the office. I think that Mr. Wade spoke to my partner 
and myself about tickets. He was also one of the candidates. I 
think Mr. Chapman spoke to rne about it. He was a candidate for 
council, and was of this place. I do not know that any persons from 
the party in camp spoke to me about those tickets. They stated they 
had got their tickets printed before they came here, but had a larger 
vote than they had expected, and wanted more tickets. Mr. Whit- 
lock, Mr. Wade, and Mr. Chapman were running on the same ticket. 
We printed three hundred of those tickets. Mr. Whitlock paid for 
them, and, I think, took them away. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

This Chapman, Wade, and Whitlock, lived in this vicinity; had 
families with them ; but I do not know about Mr. Whitlock. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I learned the names of three or four of those strangers here. A 

man named Colonel Walton, I think, a proprietor of a " hotel" at 

Lexington, Missouri, was introduced to me, and called at the office, I 

think, once; also a Mr. Graves, and a gentleman named Shroder, 

who introduced himself as from Liberty, Missouri ; another gentleman 

named Sullivan was here that day ; I was acquainted with him the 

all previous; came up the river with him as liar as Lexington. He 

tated that he had made some seven claims on " Salt creek," near 



148 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Leavenworth ; he resided near Lexington, Missouri, when I got ac- 
quainted with him, the fall before the election; he said on the boat 
that he had taken seven claims on " Salt creek," in the vicinity of 
Leavenworth, but not with the intention of settling in the Territory, 
merely for the right of his friends, and to keep abolitionists off; he 
stated that he resided in the vicinity of Lexington, Missouri. It was 
about the 20th of November, 1854, that this took place. 

To Colonel Woodson: 

In this conversation with Sullivan nothing was said about any ex- 
pedition here. It was an independent conversation on the subject of 
claims. 

B. a. ELLIOTT. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



N. B. BLANTON called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Keeder: 

I came into the Territory the last of September, 1854. I settled 
on the Wakarusa about five miles south of here, and have lived there 
ever since; I came from Jackson county, Missouri; I was appointed 
one of the judges of the election of March 30, 1855 ; I was down in 
Missouri about two or three weeks before the election; I was sick 
there, and started up home just before the election ; the first day after 
I left there I stayed at Donaldson's, and the next day, the 29th of 
March, I met a party of men coming up here ; I did not know any of 
them ; they told "me they were coming up to Lawrence to vote ; some 
two or three I talked with told' me where they came from ; some said 
they came from Boonville, and one gentleman told me he was from 
Columbia, Boon county. 

After I had travelled on about ten miles, and they had found out 
that I was one of the judges of the election, they wanted to know if I 
would let them vote without swearing. I came about fifteen miles 
with them ; I do not know how many there were in the company, but 
I should suppose there were about one hundred ; a good many asked 
me first one, and then another if I would let them vote without 
swearing. I never saw any of them before that day, but saw some of 
them up here afterwards at the election of the 30th March. I told 
them I could not according to the oath I would have to take as judge 
of the election, as they were not citizens of the Territory. They 
argued that all the citizens of the United States had a right to come 
here and vote if they wanted to; they got to trying to persuade me to 
let them vote without swearing, saying the oath the governor had 
prescribed was not right and legal. After a while one of these men 
an old man said to me : "Go on, son, and act as judge, and let us 
vote, and we will pay you for it." Two or three more spoke up and 
said, if I did not let them vote without swearing that their men 
would get enraged, and maybe hang me; and that I had better 
resign. I did not then resign, but left them, and resigned on the 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 149 

morning of the election. I was here in town, close to the polls,, 
though I did not go to them. I dfd not go into their camp here ; one 
of their camps was on the Wakarusa, close to where I was "building a 
bridge, about five miles from here. They came there the morning 
"before the election ; they came over here to Lawrence the day of the 
election; they started before I did, hut I saw some of them here; 
there were about fifteen or twenty in that camp. 1 have looked over 
a part of the poll-list ; I saw several there I knew were citizens of 
Missouri Mr. Hanly and Mr. Dexter I cannot give their first names ; 
a good many of them I cannot recollect, though I knew them. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

I did not know the men with whom I had the conversation ; I did 
not know that they were speaking for the company, except when they 
said their men would get enraged, and maybe hang me, if I would 
not let them vote without swearing. They said their object in com- 
ing here to vote was, in the first place, to get a legislature to suit 
them, and then make Kansas a slave State. I think the emigrant 
aid societies were mentioned several times, but I do not know as they 
gave that as their reason, only that every citizen of the United States 
had a right to vote, that the emigrant aid societies were sending men 
to vote, and they had as good a right to vote as these men had. 

I did not see as only one was hindered from voting here, but I saw 
them run one man off over the banks of the river. I saw the man 
running, but did not know when the difficulty commenced; I did not 
know thejman's name then, but have understood since that it was Mr. 
Bond. 

N. B. BLANTON. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



C. S. PRATT called and sworn. 

'Examined by Mr. Keeder : 

I was one of the clerks of election in Lawrence, in March, 1855. 
Mr. Abbott and Mr. Cameron, two of the judges, were present after 
opening the polls. Mr. Blanton was absent. There were about ten 
or twelve persons inside of the polls, strangers to me ; they nominated 
Mr. Cummins to serve, and he did serve. There was no conversation 
in reference to the oath. Some said it was not necessary to swear to 
the prescribed form, but to perform the duties of the office to the best 
of their abilities. Mr. Cummins, to the best of my recollection, 
swore to perform the duties of the office to the best of his abilities ; 
I do not know how the rest swore. They then began to receive votes. 
After they had opened the polls, a man, named Page, came forward to 
vote. The judges asked him some questions, and two of the judges 
were for allowing him to vote ; Mr. Abbott objected. 

Before it was decided, Colonel Young told the men to step back and 
allow him to come forward. He handed in his ballot, and the judges 
commenced questioning him as they had the other man. Mr. Abbott 
told him he could not consent to take his vote from information he had 



150 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

got from himself. Colonel Young stated that he himself was compe- 
tent to decide whether he was qualified or not. Mr. Abbott said he 
considered it the duty of the judges to decide that. The other two 
judges decided to take his vote, whereupon Mr. Abbott resigned. 
After he resigned a man was sent in from the outside Mr. Benja- 
min whom the judges consented to receive as a judge. I do not re- 
collect about his being sworn. After that they commenced taking 
votes, without questioning more than one man in eight or ten. They 
would ask them they did question if they were residents of the Terri- 
tory and would swear to it, and they did so. I do not think more 
than one eighth or one tenth of the men were sworn. I do not recol- 
lect whether Colonel Young was sworn or not. I was inside of the 
house, and heard Colonel Young say that he had been forward and 
voted, and all could vote without difficulty. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

I do not recollect whether Colonel Young was sworn or not. 

CALEB S. PRATT. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



THOMAS HOPKINS called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I came into this Territory in June, 1854, from Carroll county, Mis- 
souri ; I came to Missouri from Kentucky ; I settled in this Territory 
some nine miles south of this, in this county ; I made my claim the 
first of June, moved my family on it the tenth of August, 1854. I 
have resided there ever since. I was at this place at the election off 
the 30th of Marck, 1855. I was a stranger in this place, but when I' 
got here that day I met a good many of my acquaintances from Car- 
roll county. I found them about the polls and in their camps. Col- 
onel William Austin, William Austin, again,, cousin of the other,, 
Robert Dunde, John Snoddy, from Carroll county. They stated thai) 
two others I was well acquainted with, Clarke Lindsey and James < 
Wagnier, had gone up to Douglas. There was a Mr. Roy here, II 
heard I do not recollect his first name. They told me there was* 
about twenty-five of my old neighbors and acquaintances there. Car- 
roll county, I should suppose, was from one hundred and twenty-five? 
to one hundred and thirty miles from here. It is twenty miles belo 
Lexington, on the other side of the Missouri river. 

They told me they had come here to vote, and intended to vote.. 
They stated that they were afraid if this became a free State they wouldl 
lose their property ; and, moreover, that, if it was necessary, the 
would come back again at the next election. They told me there 
were supposed to be between seven hundred and one thousand fro 
Missouri at this place. They also told me there would be, from th 
best information they could get, between five thousand and ten thou- 
sand voters from Missouri 1 , in this Territory, at that election. I do 
not know as I recollect particularly anything further that they said. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 151 

Cross-examined by Colonel Woodson : 

It was said in this company that the Emigrant Aid Society were 
sending on men here to vote ; that I heard before I left Missouri. 
They said, also, that they had come in to aid the pro-slavery settlers 
here, and to elect members of their own party. I think they did not 
tell me that the first inducement to come here and vote was to coun- 
teract this emigrant aid movement. I had heard it spoken of, but do 
not know as that was their first inducement. 

I am not able to say about that ; I did not hear it spoken of here upon 
the day of the election, though I had heard it spoken of in Missouri. 
They were voting when I got here ; there was one little skrimmage, 
but I do not know the cause ; I do not think any free State man had a 
chance to vote while I was on the ground, owing to the crowd of others 
at the poll. I reached home before night, some nine miles from here ; 
I reached there a half an hour or an hour by sun. I suppose it was 
later than two o'clock when I left I do not recollect what time I 
went to the polls. As well as I can recollect, it was about one o'clock ; 
they had commenced voting when I got here in the morning, and had 
been voting ever since. I saw no violence offered at the polls. I sup- 
pose there were some free State men voted that day, but not any while 
I was here, that I knew. I voted that day here. 

THOMAS HOPKINS. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



JORDAN DAVIDSON called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I moved into the Territory in September, 1855, and settled about a 
mile and a half from here in this district. I came from Cass county, 
Missouri. I moved from Jefferson county, Missouri, into Cass county, 
about the first of November, 1854. I moved from Franklin county 
into Jefferson county in 1842. I moved from Kentucky to Franklin 
county in the spring of 1836. 

I came here with my neighbors to the election of the 30th of March, 
1855, and voted here in this district. I should suppose there were 
nine hundred or one thousand, though I did not count them, in that 
company. I saw very few here from Cass county. I saw some said 
to be from Jackson and Lafayette ; some from Jefferson, Howard, and 
Saline counties. I saw some said to be from several counties, but I 
do not recollect about others. I saw no arrangement by counties, 
but, while they were in camp, they seemed to be intermixed. 

The arrangement was to meet at Cold-water Grove, near the south 
part of Cass county. But not all met there not a general meeting. 
A great many met there and left ; but I was not at a general meeting 
until I got to camp. The most general meeting was at the encamp- 
ment at Bull creek, as there seemed to be an understanding about the 
meeting at Cold-water Grove. 

The company that were here in this precinct returned home, some 
on the evening of the election, and some the next morning. Colonel 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Young appeared to be the principal leader. I do not remember what 
county he lived in, and was not acquainted with him until I saw him 
here. I was told he was a Missourian. 

The companies generally had arms for that occasion. I had none 
myself. I think each individual bought and borrowed his own arms. 
So far as I am acquainted with the arrangements in my own county, 
Cass county, some who did not come put in provisions, some wagons; 
and each one put in what he wanted for himself, provisions, wagon, 
&c. I put in provisions in a wagon for myself, and fodder for nay 
horse. 1 missed my wagon and provisions at Bull creek, and from 
there I got provisions of other companies till I got here, when I lived 
off provisions belonging to my son-in-law, A. B. Wade, who was a 
candidate at that election for the house of representatives. He was 
voted for by our party. The first I knew of his nomination was from 
a letter he wrote me at Pleasant Hill, Cass county, saying he was 
nominated. There was no confirmation of that nomination in Mis- 
souri, to my knowledge. From there we all put out to support the 
pro-slavery ticket. I do not know of money being raised. Men that 
had not means to come could come with the provision wagons, and 
were fed there. I became acquainted with Claiborne F. Jackson at 
the Wakarusa. He was of the company here, and I thought he was 
in the position of a lieutenant. The party from Bull creek went I 
do "not know where, after I left them, the evening before the election. 
I left them and came here by myself. At Bull creek I did not see 
them altogether at one place, but I should think there might have 
been between seven hundred and one thousand there in one encamp- 
ment. Those at Bull creek did not come here. 

There was another encampment there I did not go. to see. I under- 
stood there were many in that other encampment, but I do not know 
how many there were in it. The encampment was not in sight, but I 
understood there was another there. I do not recollect of seeing any 
here that I left at Bull creek ; but I think, probably., there were some 
of them here. I started on horseback from Cass county, and expected 
to overtake the provision wagon, but did not do so. I overtook a com- 
pany at Wea, but that one had merely stopped there for dinner ; they 
formed a portion of one of the companies at Bull creek Bull creek 
is somewhere from 40 to 45 miles southeast from here, and is a branch 
of the Osage river. I do not know what district the encampment was 
in, but it was south of the Independence and Santa Fe road ; I should 
think, from a rough estimation, 25 miles. It was near Baptiste Pa- 
ola, in this Territory. I did not see Colonel Young at Bui creek, 
but saw him first here, on this ground. I first saw Claiborne Jack- 
son on the Wakarusa, eight or nine miles from this place, the day 
before the election ; I took dinner with him that day, on my way up 
from Bull creek. There was a large encampment there, the third one 
I had seen. I do not know how many there were there, as a large 
portion had come on to Lawrence when I got there, and I think the 
balance came on*that evening. I came on here after dinner. There 
were some expresses came here the evening before the election, that 
there were so many wanting at Douglas and Tecumseh, and perhaps 
at One Hundred and Ten. There were three detachments of volun- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 153 

teers sent off ; some started, I think, to go up on the river here some 
twenty miles. There was one place where it was pretty hard to get 
volunteers to go on the morning of the 30th, as they were tired of 
riding. Colonel Young made a speech, and urged that, as an old man 
had volunteered to lead them, they ought to volunteer to go. I do 
not recollect whero that detachment was to go ; there were some, I 
think, sent to Tecumseh and Douglas, and probably some elsewhere, 
I understood that, of this encampment, some were from Jackson, La- 
fayette, Clay, and Carrol counties ; and I saw a small company from 
a small county way down in the State, where I have an uncle living. 
I had a conversation with one, who lived close to my uncle. The 
county my uncle lived in was Howard county, I think. I saw some 
from Ray county, I think. I knew some men who were in the en- 
campment at Bull creek. There were a great many men who left 
Cass county, but I do not know where they went ; I saw but few in 
the encampment at Bull creek who were from Cass county. 

I heard of some cannon being along in the Lafayette company, but 
I did not see, them. I may have heard after I came into the Territory 
that there was a cannon along, but I do not recollect by whom I heard 
it ; I heard of the cannon at Pleasant Hill. I rode with a gentleman 
from the head of Bull creek, where I stopped on the Wednesday night 
before the election, who told me that there was a cannon along. 

Cross-examined by Colonel Woodson : 

We understood in Missouri that Governor Eeeder had sent to the 
east and mustered up a large force to come here, and we came here to 
vote, too, though that was not all the inducement. We intended to 
vote first here, and after we had got through we were willing to let 
anybody vote who wanted to. I do not know of any persons coming 
here to vote the free State ticket and then returning to the east. I 
saw some men as I was going down home, who said they were return- 
ing to the east. They hired my son and my son-in-law to carry them 
on. I do not recollect that I saw them here at Lawrence. I heard 
some conversation in that company about the election, and some two 
or three said they had not voted. I did not hear the rest say anything 
about it. There were free State men voted,, but I do not think any 
were hindered from voting except, perhaps, Mr. Bond, who got into 
a fuss and went off and did not come back again. He was run off 
the ground, but I do not 'think it was to prevent him from voting. 
He got into a personal difficulty, I understood, and they run him off 
to the river. Just as he jumped down the bank a pistol was fired at 
him, the contents going perhaps six feet over his head, though I do 
not think it was aimed at him. The cry was "kill him," "kill 
him." I do not know of any free State voters being brought hereby 
the Emigrant Aid Society. 

By Governor Reeder : 

We did not understand that Governor Reeder had brought on voters 
from the east, but that he made the day of election known there 
before it was known here, in order to induce voters to come on here. 
The other inducement we had for coming here was to extend slavery 
into Kansas Territory. The general talk among our people who came 



154 KANSAS AFFAIRS, 

here was that they had a right to vote here. I contended myself that 
I had a right to vote here. 



LAWRENCE, K. T. ? April 29, 1856. 



JORDAN DAVIDSON. 






WILLIAM LYON called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder: 

I resided in this district on the 20th of March, 1855, and saw the 
body of strangers encamped here participate in the election, and had 
some conversation with some persons as I passed through the edge of 
their camp on the day of election, and also with Mr. Shelby, here in 
town. He told me he came something like one hundred miles to vote, 
and I understood that he lived near the Missouri river. I asked him 
how many of his party, citizens of Missouri, would vote here that 
day, and he said about seven or eight hundred. In answer to my re- 
mark that I supposed they would not lose a vote in Missouri in conse- 
quence of their voting here, he said they would, as they would not 
vote in Missouri for one year. That was their place of voting here, " 
understood. 

Cross-examined by Colonel Woodson: 

Mr. Shelby said that he would not care whether there was slavery 
in Kansas or not, if they could have security for their property, but 
they were sure they could not. The conversation that I had in 
coming through the edge of their camp had nothing to do with the 
election, I thought it was not safe to say 'any thing about it. I saw 
persons there armed with shot guns, pistols, and clubs, but no one 
harmed me. Mr. Shelby named the place he was from, but I do not 
recollect it now. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

He gave his name and address to the editors of the Kansas Tribune, 
to which he subscribed. 

WILLIAM LYON. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 29, 1856. 



J. B. ABBOTT called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder: 

I was one of the judges of election in this city on the 30th of March, 
1855. We got together at the time appointed, and Mr. Blanton had 
resigned. After about another hour we chose another judge and 
opened the polls. The first man who offered his vote was, I think, a 
man named Page, and took the oath that he was a resident of the 
Territory. I inquired of him if he had a home in any other place. 
He said he had; that he lived in Missouri. I inquired if he intended 
to make this 'Territory his home. He said he did not ; that he ex- 
pected to go back after the election. I told him I could not consent 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 155 



to his voting, and referred him to the rest of the board. Mr. Cameron, 
noe of the other judges, had also stated that if he intended to go back 
to the State of Missouri after he had voted, he could not permit him 
to vote. He asked him one question further ; if he was a bona fide 
settler of the territory. He said he was, and Mr. Cameron then said 
if that was the case he did not think he could prevent his voting. 

Before we had got through with him. Colonel Young came forward 
and requested Mr. Page to withdraw his vote and allow him to vote. 
Colonel Young said,, the manner in which he should present his vote 
would be the manner in which all his people should present their 
votes, and that if he was permitted, to vote all the rest could vote. 
He was then put upon his oath. I questioned him as to his residence. 
He stated he was a bona fide resident of the Territory. I inquired if 
he had any home in any other State. He said it was/none of my 
business or anybody's else. He said that if men swore they were 
residents it was my business to receive their votes as legal voters of 
the Territory. T told him it was the business of the board, as I un- 
derstood it, to inquire and satisfy themselves as to that, and not let 
voters decide as to their own cases. He refused to answer any other 
question in any other form, except that he was a bona fide resident of 
the Territory; but finally, in arguing the case, he said that in voting 
here men would disfranchise themselves in his State for one year. He 
said he could not and should not attempt to vote in Missouri for one 
year after he had voted here. In asking him some other questions he 
said he considered them impertinent, and that he was incompetent of 
perjuring himself; and stated that if any one insinuated that he had 
perjured himself, or was competent to perjure himself, he would tear 
their heads from their shoulders. I told the colonel his threats would 
probably make no difference in the minds of the judges, but they 
would try to satisfy themselves as to the right of the voters. The 
question was then taken upon his right to vote, and two of the judges 
decided he had a right to vote, and his vote was received. I told the 
board if they were going to permit men to vote upon such evidence as 
that, I would have nothing more to do with them, and I resigned. 

I came over the evening previous to the election, and had a consul- 
tation with Mr. Cameron. There was a number of gentlemen at the 
"Free State" office, at that time, from the camp; and one of them 
came to us and advised us to resign, as our position was a dangerous 
one ; and that if we knew the crowd that had come up as well as they 
did, he did not think that they could be induced to sit as judges. At 
that time both of us agreed we would go to the polls, let the conse- 
quences be what they might. During the conversation with Colonel 
Young, he told me he lived in Missouri, and also the county he lived 
in, but I do not remember that. 

I have resided in this district since the first settlement of it, and I 
have never seen Colonel Young here since that time. From my know- 
ledge of this district, I think he has never resided here. During the 
consultation in the morning about Colonel Young's vote, Mr. Cum- 
mins agreed that all persons who were here at that time were resi- 
dents, and consequently legal voters. 

JAMES B. ABBOTT. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 2, 1856. 



156 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

IRA W. ACKLEY called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory on the 16th of September, 1854, from 
Cataraugus county, New York, and settled in this district, and have 
resided here ever since. I was here on the 30th of March, 1855. I 
saw a party of strangers come in here, which I heard estimated from six 
hundred to eight hundred or one thousand, and I should think there 
were about that number. I think the most of them encamped in a 
body. I saw their camp. They attended the election that day and 
voted. They were armed ; the most that I noticed had rifles and shot 
guns, and a great many had revolvers and bowie knives ; some of 
them had clubs. There was music a drum and fife and they had 
flags. They marched once, I think, with music to the polls, and fired 
their guns. I tried to get to the polls a great many times during the 
forenoon, but could not succeed ; and many who voted had to go over 
the top of the house, as there was such a crowd they could not get 
back. In the afternoon they formed in a column two by two, and 
went up by the window. They stated their object in voting here was 
to carry the election, and have slavery here. A good many of them 
said that they would have slavery here, or dissolve the Union, or die. 
After the election they left. I saw in the afternoon, after the line 
was formed, some of them would vote and pass back to the end of the 
line, and pass up and vote again. I noticed three do that, and thought 
there were many more. 

Cross examined by Mr. Oliver : 

I do not remember the names of any of those who made the declara- 
tion I have mentioned. One told me he lived near Jefferson city ; I 
bought some Osage orange seed of him. I heard some declare there 
were numbers here from the north and east who had no more right 
to vote than they had. I do not remember of hearing them say that 
there were societies in the north to make this a free State,, and they 
would beat them at their own game. I heard them say that they un- 
derstood a number from the northern and eastern States, who had 
recently arrived, were going to vote, and they had the same right as 
the others. 

IRA W. ACKLEY. 

LAWRENCE, April 26, 1856. 



Points of objection by Mr. Oliver, touching the mode of examining wit- 
ness, (&c., fled April 28, 1856. 

As a member of the " Kansas Investigating Committee," the un- 
dersigned makes the following points of objection to the mode of ex- 
amining witness, as now pursued by the committee ; and, to the end 
of rendering his points manifest, he, in the first place, begs to advert 
briefly to the resolutions defining the powers and jurisdiction of said 
committee. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 157 



The first resolution provides, among other things, that said com- 
mittee " shall proceed to inquire into and collect evidence in regard 
to the troubles in Kansas generally, and particularly in regard to any 
fraud or force attempted or practised in reference to any of the elec- 
tions which have taken place in said Territory, either under the law 
organizing said Territory, or under any pretended law which may be 
alleged to have taken effect therein since." 

Under this clause of the resolution, the undersigned maintains that 
the only points, in regard to whicV the committee are authorized to 
take evidence at all, are, as to whether there were any fraudulent or 
illegal votes given at any election, or any other acts done in fraud of 
the ballot box ; as, for example, force employed or used, or attempted 
to be employed or used, in reference to any election in said Territory, 
and which was intended to constrain, restrain, or intimidate voters ; 
and also in regard to the troubles in Kansas generally. Then as to 
the affirmation that illegal or fraudulent votes were given, the under- 
signed maintains that the names of the persons alleged to have cast 
illegal votes should be given, and that all such, being competpnt wit- 
nesses, should be subpoenaed to appear before the committee to give 
evidence touching their alleged illegal voting ; and the undersigned 
objects to, and enters his solemn protest against, allowing witnesses to 
state what they heard certain persons say on the day of or before the 
election, or any of them, as to their having voted and not being resi- 
dents of the Territory ; especially, when the witness is unable to give 
the names of the persons of whose declarations he testifies. He in- 
sists that this species of evidence (hearsay) is never allowable in courts 
of law or equity ; and that to allow such evidence in regard to the 
subjects of the committee's investigation would be, and is, unjust to 
the parties whose rights or interests are to be affected by it ; and that 
such evidence would be, and is, violative of the well established rules 
! of evidence, as recognized by all standard works on evidence, and es- 
1 pecially Greenleaf, on that branch of jurisprudence, whose works on 
evidence the committee have, by agreement, adopted as the standard 
i authority in their investigations ; and the undersigned insists on the 
: application of the rules as laid down by that eminent author. 

As to the affirmation that force was " attempted, or practised in 
reference to any elections" in the Territory of Kansas since its organ- 
ization, the undersigned maintains that these allegations should be 
proven as any other facts ; and the only proofs that can legally be 
admitted are to the effect that actual force was employed, or attempted 
to be employed, to force and control the voters at any of said elections ; 
and that the mere presence of persons, in great or small numbers, 
armed, at or about the polls would not be sufficient, unless such per- 
sons actually employed their power directly to control the ballot box, 
or that they directly attempted to do so. Relying upon the foregoing 
points, the undersigned maintains that the evidence should be limited 
to the propositions of force employed or attempted to control said elec- 
tion, by violently and forcibly interfering with voters in reference to 
the election and their right to vote. 

The undersigned desires this paper to be filed. 

M. OLIVER. 



158 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

JOHN C. DAVIDSON recalled.- 

Examined by Mr. Reeder: 

I was here at the election of March 30, 1855. I moved into the 
Territory in July, 1854, from Carroll county, Missouri. I had moved 
to Missouri from Virginia in 1839. I saw a large body of strangers 
encamped here on the day of election in March, 1855. I was at one 
camp composed of men I knew in Carroll county when I lived there. 
I had conversation with two of them upon the subject of their being 
here. I do not recollect that they told rne how many were here from 
Carroll county, or from Missouri. They told me they came here to 
vote; that they considered they had a right to vote here; that accord- 
ing to the way the Kansas-Nebraska bill was drawn up they had a 
right to vote here while they were residing here, and they were resid- 
ing here while they were here. They said they came here to vote and* 
intended to vote, and would not be driven from the polls ; that each 
man of them was prepared to go eight rounds without loading and the 
ninth round with the butcher knife. They said they had come into 
the Territory some two or three days before the election and intended 
to go back as soon as the election was over ; they said they did not 
intend to settle here. The men I talked with said they came from 
Carroll county. I saw men here from Lexington that I was acquainted 
with, but had but little conversation with them. I do not recollect 
of seeing any men from other places I was acquainted with . 

By Mr. Woodson: 

The men I was talking with said that eastern men were coming up 
the river with pasted on the front of their hats, in large letters, that , 
they intended to make Kansas a free State, and that they considered 
they had as good a right to come here and vote as the eastern men. 
I did not hear any other reason given. 

JOHN C. DAVIDSON. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 3, 1856. 



Dr. JOHN DOT called and sworn. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

About two weeks previous to the 30th of March, 1855, 1 renewed! 
an acquaintance with a person who went by the name of Red Robin 
son, from Missouri. I asked him his business. He took me into 
where the post office was then held, in Lykin's log house, on the other r 
side of the ravine, and I saw a great quantity of provisions, bacon 
flour, meal, corn, and oats, &c. He said that we were going to have 
a number of boys shortly to help us to vote and this was to provision 
them. In looking around I saw that the provisions seemed all arranged, 
the bacon in a pile ; the flour in a pile ; the corn meal in a pile, and the 
oats in bags in a pile, and the corn in bags in a pile. Before he bad 
told me what the provisions were for I had bought some com and 
ineal from him. At the time of the election I saw Robinson and 



KANSAS AFFAIRS 159 

William Lykins deal out the provisions to the companies here en- 
camped in the ravine. 

I saw among the different companies little flags with inscriptions 
on them, such as "Clay county boys/' &c. I was with Mr. Bond 
and Mr. Stearns when Mr. Bond was driven off the ground and shot 
at. Mr. Milt. McGee, a Missourian, came up and pointed at Mr. 
Bond, and said there was a Lawrence bully. Some four or five persons 
made at him then, as I was standing close to him, and he ran round 
the end of the building down towards the river. I heard a shot, then 
Mr. Jackson Bush shoved aside a rifle that was levelled at Bond. 

The same party came back, with an addition, with Colonel Young 
with them, to where Mr. Stearns and myself were still standing. 
Stearns was pointed out as an abolitionist, and Colonel Young took 
him up in his arms and asked them if they intended to injure such a 
little man as that, as he weighed but 125 pounds, balancing him in 
his arms at the same time. After some preliminaries, Colonel Young 
took Mr. Stearns away, off the ground. They then came back to me, 
headed by George Thornton, of Independence, who pointed me out as 
an abolitionist. He said he knew it by my discussion with him the 
night before in the streets, against their corning here to take away our 
political privileges, &c. I asked him if my time had come now, as 
they had driven off Mr. Bond and Mr. Stearns. His lips began to 
tremble, and he asked if I had intended to insult him by what I had 
said the evening before. I said he knew I did not by the way we dis- 
cussed the subject. He then turned round and said, "if you will say 
you did not intend to insult me by what you said, that is sufficient.' 1 
He then requested the men to leave me and walked off himself. I did 
not get an opportunity to vote until in the afternoon, towards night, 
when I voted. 

By Mr. Woodson: 

This Jackson Bush lived in the Territory at that time, about three 
miles from this place, and was a farmer. He came from Missouri into 
the Territory, and formerly from Kentucky. He is living here now. 
William Lykins I have spoken of is the son of Dr. Lykins, of Kan- 
sas City, Missouri. 

JOHN DOY. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 3, 1856. 



A. B. WADE called and sworn. 

To Mr. King: 

I went into the Territory and made my claim on the 5th of June, 

1854, and settled in the town of Lawrence. I was a candidate for 

, the legislature on the 30th of March, 1855, and was elected. There 

; were a great many emigrants came into the district from the time of 

'taking the census up to the election, and greater in the month of 

March than at any time before, and as many as at any time since. 

I did not canvass thut district much, and there was very little can- 



160 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

vassing done. At the time of the election, from all I could know, 
believe the free State party had a majority at that time, but not so 
great as they themselves represented. The free State party were 
divided, and many of them would not vote for their candidates. 
I endeavered myself to get the candidates they nominated in order to 
make this split. Mr. C. W. Babcock was a candidate for nomination, 
but he was got to resign at the nominating convention. The pro- 
slavery men were at that meeting, and we got them to nominate S. 
N. Wood, who was known to be one of the rankest abolitionists there, 
dnd we voted for him and for Mr. Gooden, so as to have the free State 
party divided, and they were nominated. I know a great many free 
State men who voted that day the pro-slavery ticket, I saw them vote 
myself, and a great many came to me and got our tickets. 

Dr. Kobinson had been gone east, so I was told, several weeks, and! 
he returned to town the evening of the day of election, and the first 
I saw of him was coming across from Lawrence to the place of elec- 
tion with fifty or one hundred men, quite a string of them marching- 
up to the polls. He marched them right up to the polls and they voted! 
the free State ticket, and then he marched them back. They were alii 
strangers to me, and he had just come in with them that day. li 
knew most of the free State men residing in the district at that time. 
From my knowledge of the district, and the way the free State mem 
voted, I think if all the votes of the Missourians and these strange 
eastern men had been thrown out, we would have had the same result. 
I believe our ticket got a majority of the legal voters according to the 
census. I saw nothing to intimidate the free State men from voting, 
and all were invited to come up and vote, and they came in line with 
the pro-slavery men and came up and voted. 

The Missourians who came there said they came to rebut the illegal 
votes they believed were coming from the east. I heard several of the- 
principal men say if the eastern men kept away they would not molest: 
the election. They were referring to the statements made about the- 
eastern men on the day of the nomination. Mr. Brown, the editor off 
the Herald of Freedom, stated on the day of the nomination, thatt 
there need be no fear about their being beaten, as he had just receivedl 
a letter from Mr. Slater, of St. Louis, informing him that there were- 
between six and eight hundred eastern men on the river on their wayy 
up, and would be up on the day of election, and three hundred 
would be at Lawrence. This thing was well understood, and the Mis- 
sourians heard of it. 

A great many Missourians came there in the evening before the elec j 
tion and camped, and on the next morning some two hundred went ofli 
in squads in different directions, some saying they were going to Te j 
cumseh, and others to different points. I think I heard the Missou- 
rians express themselves in this way: that if the emigrant aid socie- 
ties would let the Territory alone they would let the settlers settle the* 
question themselves. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

I think all the hundred men who came up and voted with Robinson 1 
were eastern men, and all were strangers to me ; they voted in a body} 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 161 

together, one after the other. I know that the following were old 
residents there : C. W. Babcock; I know several Nichols and three 
Aliens, a Mr. Forman, John Hutchinson, a Mr. Morgan, S. N. Simp- 
son, H. Bronson, Ellis Bond, M. M. Hammond, S. J. Willis, J. A. 
Ladd, a Mr. Lowe, Charles Robinson, a Mr. Johnson (but not his 
given name,) also a Mr. Kimball, Edward Clark, 8. C. Pomeroy, but 
not S. 0. Pomeroy. These names that I have given were settlers at 
that time. I do not think these men were in that crowd of a hundred. 
I do not know where Robinson had been, and I do not know that he 
returned from Tecumseh that day. I do not know that Robinson voted 
with that company that time or not, but he went up to the polls with 
them.* I do not know that Mr. Babcock headed that company ; he 
may have done so, but I do not recollect of seeing him about the polls 
that day. There was quite an increase of the population in one dis- 
trict that spring, and a great many pro-slavery and free-State men 
came in. I think from all I could learn by inquiry, that the two 
sides were pretty nearly divided ; there may have been more free-State 
men than pro-slavery men ; I lived in Lawrence, and saw more free- 
State men as they passed that way. 

To Mr. King: 

The names I have given without their given names, I do not know 
whether they were the men on the poll-books or not. 

To Mr. Whitfield : 

I do not know whether they left the next day. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I saw this company come up, and the greater majority of them were 
strangers to me ; as they came up it was asked who they were, and 
it was said they were Robinson's company, and had just come in. I 
was in town the day before and heard nothing of him then. 

A. B. WADE. 

WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 9, 1856. 



JOHN M. BANKS called and sworn. 

To Mr. King : 

I moved into the Territory of Kansas about the middle of Septem- 
ber, 1854, at what is called Hickory Point, on the Santa Fe road, in 
I the first district. I was a candidate at the election of 30th of March, 
. 1855, and was at Lawrence on the day of election. I was tolerably 
. acquainted with the relative strength of the two parties in that dis- 
, trict. I thought the two parties were pretty nearly balanced, but 
' { that, in a fair vote of the district, the pro-slavery party would have 
the majority. I did not canvass the district very much ; I was in the 
different neighborhoods, but made no general canvass. 

When I got to the place of holding the polls one of the judges ap- 
inted by the governor had resigned, and they were about choosing 
H. Rep. 200 11* 



162 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

one in his place. The appointment was made, and the polls were | 
opened, and the people commenced voting. 

There were a great many people around the polls, quite a crowd 
ahout the window. I saw some gentlemen try to make a passage 
through for the voters ; got ropes to do so, hut could not ; and then i 
they got poles and put down there, and thus formed a passage, so that | 
men could come up and vote and then pass along out. 

At first it was so crowded that I saw some men lifted up over the 
house, and some crawled along over the others' shoulders. There.- 
were Missourians there, and I saw some of them, voting. 

Whether they had made claims "before that I do not know ; I know* 
that a good many of them had claims. Some five or six came over, 
and laid claims and have worked on them and resided on them since,, 
in my own neighborhood. There was a good deal said there that day,, 
but I do not. recollect of hearing any of the Missourians say they hadi 
come to counteract the votes of the eastern aid emigrants. I did notij 
know many ; some four or five, who were not entitled to vote, had no 
claims, and have not seen them in the Territory since. There weree 
four young men who were in my neighborhood some eight or ten days 
before the election and made claims, but have not been back to therm 
since. I did not know all the people there, and cannot say that li 
know any one personally who voted there who had no pretence to av 
claim, but were voting illegally. Almost every one I spoke to thai' 
day either said they had claims or were going to make claims and! 
live in the Territory. I saw no man kept from voting that day,. 
All were privileged to get to the polls if they could get to the polk- 
through the crowd. I saw free-State men and pro-slavery men there 
in the crowd together pushing up to the polls. There was a pro-- 
slavery man from my neighborhood who would not push through th( 
crowd, and after waiting till about an hour before the polls wen j 
closed, without getting a chance to vote, he went home without 
voting. 

About an hour before the polls were closed, when, the crowd waw 
pretty much all gone, a gentleman came along, I do not recollec ;: 
who he was, and said Robinson was just coming into Lawrence wita 
a hundred men. I suppose it was a quarter of an hour after tha : 
I saw a parcel of men come across from Lawrence towards the hous< ; 
where the polls were held. They came forward and marched up t( ; 
the window and voted and went back to town without making arn-j 
halt. I counted between sixty and seventy of them,, and there mighij 
have been more of them. I did not count all of them, but turned 
and walked away. There were between sixty and seventy of them! 
marched up in one column. 

I do not recollect whether I saw Dr. Robinson at that time, though 
I had seen him during the evening some time. I had seen none otjj 
these men about Lawrence before, and they were all strangers to ma'l 
No one objected to their voting. 

S. N. Wood and I were talking, and he said: " There are somi 
arrivals as well as Missouri arrivals." That was all I heard aboui 
them. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 163 

I think there were illegal votes on both sides, hut I thought that 
there were more from Missouri than on the other side, until these 
sixty or seventy came up in the evening, and then I could not tell 
how it stood. I entered into no arrangement by which illegal votes 
were to be brought there to secure my election, and did not desire to 
be elected except by legal votes. The increase of emigration between 
the taking of the census and the day of election was greater than 
ever before, as that was a good country and emigration seemed to be 
directed there, both free State and pro-slavery. I know a good many 
who had been there during the fall and winter and made claims, who 
were not there at the time of taking the census, but came in before 
the day of election. Some of them had taken their families to Mis- 
souri to spend the winter, and others had gone down there after their 
families. 

The governor ordered a new election in that district, but the candi- 
dates of the pro-slavery party would not pay any attention to the 
election, and their friends did not attend the polls. I do not know a 
pro-slavery man who went to vote at the second election. 

I am acquainted with Mr. Babcock, and knew him at the time of 
the 30th ot March election, but have no recollection of seeing him at 
the head of the party of sixty or seventy who came up in the evening. 
He might have been in that company, but I did not see him. I 
never saw any of the sixty or seventy strangers afterwards that 1 
know of, though I might have done so. I was told that some of them 
had returned to the east. I thought that the majority of those that 
came in after taking the census and before the election were pro- 
slavery men. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I cannot say how many came in during that time. They appeared 
to be taking claims all over the country during the month of March. 
I never saw the like of it before. There were a great many of them, 
but I could not say how many. They became residents, and I think 
a decided majority of them were pro-slavery men. I do not refer at 
all to Missourians or others who came on the day of election, but to 
those who took claims and became actual settlers between the taking 
of the census and the day of election. 

To Mr. Howard : 

At the time of election I lived at Hickory Point, near the Santa Fe 
road, about ten miles south of Lawrence. I was pretty well acquainted 
in Lawrence. The country was newly settled, and we were all 
strangers to each other. I did not know all in Lawrence and its vi- 
cinity, but I think I knew a majorty of the business men and men who 
: lived there. 1 do not think I knew a majority of them who lived on 
^claims within five miles around Lawrence. I was in the habit of 
going to Lawrence quite often, but I cannot say that I went on an 
I average of once or twice during the month of March, but I think I 
|!did. I was travelling around considerable, but did not travel the 
game road all the time, I do not know whether I knew ten of the 
roters in the district or not by name, but I think I knew more than 



164 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

that by sight. We were all strangers, settling in the district together, j 
and we did not know each other very well. I suppose that betwixt j 
two and three hundred settlers moved into the district after the census i 
was taken and before the election, and a majority of them were pro- | 
slavery men. I think they, as a general thing, became actual settlers j 
and are living there, or have sold their claims and gone to other por- j 
tions of the Territory, as is customary. I think the time I saw Dr. j 
Eobinson was of this party of sixty or seventy that came up to the | 
polls. He was towards the back part of the line and went up to the 1 
polls, but I do not know whether he voted or not. I saw him just off ! 
the crowd, talking to some one about fifty yards from the polls, and j 
then he went back to Lawrence. I understood that he was coming j 
from Kansas City that day with the one hundred men ; I did not see them ;| 
on the road, and not at all that day until I saw them coming across 1 ! 
to the polls. - I heard the person who told me that Kobinson was ! 
coming with one hundred men say that there were two or three hun- 
dred more behind at Kansas City who could not get conveyances up.. 
I do not know who the man was who told me this, and whether he-l 
was from the camp of the Missourians or not. I was standing talking: j 
with some one else when he came up and told us this. 

I think between two and three hundred actual settlers came in the j 
district during the month of March, but I do not know as I can give | 
many of their names. There was one near me by the name of Win., 
Cummins, and there were George Mermion and Perry Kipetos, who^j 
moved into my immediate neighborhood. I cannot think of any more?* 
now. I know one family, a widow lady with some five or six young.:' 
men in the family, by the name of Hopper, who moved in in March-i 
or the last of February, and settled about two miles from Lawrence., 
The Santa Fe road was the line between the first and fourth districts., 
I do not know how many voters there were in the Hickory Pointl 
neighborhood. I supposed there were seven or eight hundred voters^ 
actual residents in the first district at the time of the March election..) 
I do not recollect of going into the camp in the ravine back of thed 
town where the election was held, though I saw several wagons and! 
one or two tents over there. 

I recollect of seeing one man carrying a shot-gun on his shoulder/, 
and that was all the arms I saw going there that day. I know Coloneii 
Samuel Young when I see him, and I saw him there that day. I arm 
positive there were more than one hundred pro-slavery voters in thil 
first district at that time, though I do not know how it is now. II 
counted up something over forty near Hickory Point, and there wasi 
quite a settlement on the Wakarusa, many of whom were pro-slavery? 
men, and I think there were some in the vicinity of Lawrence, 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I believe there were three hundred pro -slavery voters in the district 
at that time. 

To Mr. King : 

The man I refer to said that Eobinson had come into Lawrence witlal 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 165 

one hundred men, and there were two or three hund ed down to 
Kansas City who could not get up. I did not pay much attention to 
what he said, and shortly afterwards I saw those sixty or seventy 
coming up. 

To Mr. Scott: 

I moved into the Territory from Pennsylvania. I never attended 
any election in the western country, except those in the Territory. I 
did not know anything about the habits of the people here in carry- 
Ing arms to elections. 

To Mr. King : 

I know Mr. Thomas Mockbee who keeps a store at Willow Springs. 
Mr. Mockbee was keeping store there when I went into the Territory, 
in September, 1854. His house is on the south side of the old Santa 
Fe road,, but there is a road that is travelled during the summer 
months which is north of his house. We understand the old Santa 
Fe road to be the dividing line between the two districts. His store- 
house is on the same side of the road with his house. 

JOHN M. BANKS. 

WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 4, 1856. 



JAMJIS WHITLOCK testifies. 

To Mr. King : 

I was elected at the 30th of March, 1855, election, (at Lawrence,) a 
member of the house of representatives of the Kansas Territorial 
legislature. I have resided three miles south of Lawrence since Octo- 
ber, 1854. I was present on the 'day of election. I did not canvass 
the district at all, as I was sick most of the time after my nomination 
and before the election. A great many I saw on the ground on the 
day of election were strangers to me, but many of them I have since 
found to have been citizens of the district. I do not myself know of 
any votes cast there that day except by residents of the district. 
There was, I think, a very great deal of emigration into the district 
after the census was taken, and before the election. I believed from 
the time I got the nomination that I would beat my opponent. This 
I believed from what iny friends told me, for I was not out of my 
room for three months before the election. It was rumored that the 
free-State men would vote for the pro-slavery candidate, and from the 
vote given I should think they did so. I do not know as any illegal 
votes were given that day. It was said that some right fresh emi- 
grants voted that day. Late in the evening of the day of the election 
there was a noise among the multitude that stood around the polls, 
that some emigrant aid men who arrived that day were going to vote. 
The election was held a little west of the town. I saw some seventy- 
five or eighty men, walking in double file, coming from the town to 
the place of election. There was a gentleman they told me was Gen- 



166 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

eral Pomeroy, whom I have got acquainted with since, at the head of 
this party. He is known in Lawrence as the agent of the Emigrant 
Aid Society. Some of the hystanders were in favor of not letting them 
vote, for the reason that they were said to have just landed in the 
Territory, that morning at nine o'clock. I told them this, and it was 
the only thing I said during the day ahout voting : "Let them vote ; 
1 want to see every man here vote, if he is entitled to vote." The 
party went up and acted as if they were voting, and it was understood 
that they voted. I do not know what ticket they voted, hut it was 
believed by the people that they voted the abolition ticket. 

There was among the people a feeling of difference between what 
they call free-State men and abolitionists. I understood that the free- 
State party tried to nominate their candidates, and were defeated by 
the abolitionists,, and would not support their ticket, and my opinion, 
founded upon rumors, is, that they did not support the abolition: 
ticket. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Howard: 

I had no knowledge of the strength of the parties in the district,, 
except from my attending an indignation meeting some months before 
the election. My opponents were considered mostly abolitionists. At! 
the time of the election I considered, if there were no illegal votes 
on either side at the election, that our party could beat the other par- 
ties easy. 

From all the information I have, I think General Whitfield is and 
has been very popular among the pro-slavery party in that district, 
and would poll a very fair vote of the party there at any election. Att 
the last election I think there was some other person spoken of as a 
candidate for Congress, but no one was run but Whitfield. At the 
time of his first election I do not think there was any division in the; 
pro-slavery party, but they voted for General Whitfield. 

To Mr. King : 

From the time of Whitfield's first election down to the election oil 
the 30th of March, 1855, I should think there was an increase of resi-J 
dents in the district of four to one. When I built my house I couldi 
not see but one house from mine; now I can stand in my yard andlj 
see forty or fifty houses around me. At the time of Whitfield's firsttj 
election there were but two or three houses between my house andlj 
Lawrence. At Whitfield's last election, as he had no opposition, 
do not think there was a general turn out of the pro-slavery party, a 
I know of some who did not go and vote. I was at the election, an 
I do not think there was a general turn out of the pro-slavery party 

To Mr. Oliver : 

There was no interest taken in the election, as there was no oppo- 
sition, and the pro-slavery party thought there was no use in thei 
going to vote, as Whitfield would be elected any how. 

JAMES WHITLOCK. 

WESTPOET, MISSOURI, June T, 1856. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 167 

HORATIO OWENS testifies :] 

To Mr. King : 

I have resided in the first district, Kansas Territory, at Hickory 
Point, since June, 1854. I was at the election, at Lawrence, of the 
30th of March, 1855. I am the oldest settler now at Hickory Point ; 
the two who settled there before I did left. About the time of the 
March election there was quite a heavy settlement around Hickory 
Point. There were more came in during February and March than 
I knew of before. The emigration in March was heavier than at any 
other time. A great many came in before the 30th of March, 1855. 
From *;he best information I could learn about the first district, at 
that time, the pro-slavery men had the majority. I was not much 
about Lawrence, but when I was over there at the election I got in- 
formation that many were settling in and about Lawrence both before 
and after the election. I lived twelve miles south of Lawrence. I 
saw nothing that day like trying to prevent any man from voting. 
I saw a number of men there I have never seen before or since. All 
were strangers to me, except those who were from my immediate 
neighborhood. 

To Mr. Sherman : 
I voted that day. 

HORATIO OWENS. 
WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 6, 1856. 



H. W. BUCKLEY called and sworn. 

To Mr. King : 

I moved in March,, 1855, to about fchree and a half miles from Wil- 
low Springs, in the first district, and have lived there since. I was 
on the ground on the day of election, on the 30th of March, 1855, at 
Lawrence. There were a good many Missourians there that day, and 
a great many eastern men, who were strangers, persons I had not 
seen there before. I think, in the latter part of the day, something 
near one hundred of these eastern men voted the free-State ticket. I 
did not know any of the free-State men in this party of a hundred. I 
was not well acquainted at that time in Lawrence, and had never 
been there before the day of election. I think there were some 300 or 
400 Missourians there that day, but there were a great many who did 
not vote at all. 

H. W. BUCKLEY. 

WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 9, 1856. 



168 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SECOND DISTRICT Bloomington. 

HARRISON BURSON called and sworn. 

j 

I settled in the Territory on the 27th of September, 1854, in the 
second district, and have resided there ever since. I was there the i 
30th of March, 1855, and was one of the judges of election in that 
district, appointed by the governor. The judges met on the morning 
of the 30th, and after being sworn, the polls were opened, as near as 
I can recollect, about half-past eight o'clock. We proceeded to re- 
ceive votes, and had taken some fifteen names, when a company, as^ 
near as I can recollect, of three hundred and upwards, came marching 
up with flags hoisted. I believe they were generally armed. They 
came to the polls and demanded to be allowed to vote. My reply was, 
that if they were legal voters they should have that privilege. I toldJ 
them that as the most of them were not known to me, the oath re- 
quired by the law would have to be taken by them. This man Jones,, 
known now as sheriff Jones, appeared to be the leader of the gang,, 
and replied that they would not take the oath. His name is S. J.. 
Jones, and is now acting as sheriif. I replied that except they did! 
take the oath they could not vote. Jones replied that they had come up. 
from Missouri to vote, and they would vote, and they intended to make 
Kansas a slave-State. They stated, also, that if they could not vote 
by fair means, they would by foul. Jones, and others of the party,, 
whose names I do not know, said this. They also stated ttat no man; 
should vote there that day that would take the oath. Some men whc i 
were about the window, and had not voted when this crowd came upj 
upon attempting to vote were taken up and carried back by the mob..! 
They then requested us to resign, if we would not let them vote. Oui i 
reply was, that we should not do it. They then stated that if we did 
not do so they would tear the house down and kill us. They made a<^ 
rush, and stove in the window and sash together, fixed pries to thce! 
two corners of the house, and pried up the building some distance andl 
let it fall back. It was a log house. At that moment one of thecl 
judges, Mr. Ellison, gathered up the ballot-box and rushed to th| 
door, and said that if we did not close the polls there would be once 
hundred shots fired in here in less than fifteen minutes, and we would : i 
all be killed. He opened the door and ran out into the crowd, taking;! 
the ballot-box with him, and hurrahed for Missouri. At that nioJ 
ment numbers rushed in the door as fast as they could come in, witrJj 
revolvers and drawn bowie-knives in their hands. They now filleoj 
the house ; and Jones, one of the first who came in, requested us td 
resign ; that if we did not resign they would kill us. Jones drewj 
from his pocket his watch, and gave us five minutes in which to re- j 
sign or die. He held the watch until the five minutes expired ; anoi 
as we did not resign, he extended the time one minute longer. Aboun| 
the expiration of the one minute, I was called out to see Mr. Wake- ! 
fieJd, telling Jones I would give him an answer about resigning wherj 
I returned. After I got out of the house, my friends out there think-. i 
ing it was dangerous for me to remain there any longer, judging fronj 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 169 

the state of the crowd, and the number intoxicated there, persuaded 
me not to go back into the house. Before I left the house, I had se- 
cured the poll-books by putting them into my pocket. After consult- 
ing, we concluded to go across, some quarter of a mile, to Mr. Kam- 
say's, one of the judges, and wait to see if the rage of the crowd would 
not cool down. This Jones made an attempt to take from me what 
he thought was the poll-books, before I left the house. He seized 
them and pulled them from me, but they were nothing but some 
blanks. Finding that they were not the poll-books, they despatched 
a company in pursuit of me. Upon my being informed of what they 
wanted, I put the poll-books in the hands of one of my friends for safe 
keeping. We both started off together from Mr. Kamsay's. Mr. 
Umberger was the one I gave the books to. We saw a number of the 
mob pursuing us. I told him to go on home, and I would take down 
the other way, and as they would pursue me he could secure the 
books. They missed me and pursued Umberger, and caught him just 
before he got to the house, and made him prisoner. They searched 
him and took the poll-books from him by force. I was in sight and 
saw all this. They asked him where I was. I was close enough, con- 
cealed in a hazel thicket, to hear their conversation. He told them he 
did not know ; but pointing the way I was going, said the last he saw 
of me I was going down that way. Jones then took CJmberger behind 
him on his horse, and carried him back to the place of election. By 
this time it was about 12 o'clock, and we went across to a neighbor's 
for dinner ; I mean Mr. Jesse and myself. I saw the election going 
on as I was standing at Mr. Wood's house, near the place where the 
election was going on. Some time in the afternoon a detachment of 
between sixty and eighty, as near as I could judge, started for Willow 
Spring. I saw them leave after they got through voting. I knew 
some of the party in the mob who were citizens of the Territory, but 
not many of them. The Lehays two, if not three, of them were 
there. I had seen in Missouri some of the strangers. Mr. Jones 
lived in Westport at that time. I came here to this Territory from 
Illinois. 

Cross-examined by Col. Woodson : 

I did my trading at Westport, and frequently saw Mr. Jones there. 
[ heard him say, on the day of the election, that he came up from 
Missouri ; but heard him say nothing of his residence. He was not 
a resident of this Territory previous to his being appointed sheriff 
here. Mr. Wood's house, I should judge, was about four hundred 
yards from the polls. I was at a nearer point than that at one time,' 
but not to the polls. I saw them voting, handing in their tickets at 
the window, but did not know them. I saw different persons voting. 
I could not recognise them from my place ; but I could tell they were 
not citizens. I knew there were several citizens present who had not 
voted, and had left the polls before I did. I could distinguish be- 
tween the Lehays and the strangers by their dress. I did not see 
any citizens vote at that time. What I mean by voting is, that I 
saw them handing in their tickets. I had walked up where I was?, 
about two hundred yards from the polls. There were one or two 
persons with me ; Mr. Jesse was one. I am not positive that there 



170 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

were any others. I understood these strangers were not residents, 
because I knew most of the residents of the district. When they 
first came up they said they came from Missouri, and I recognised the 
crowd voting as the same crowd. I came to the Territory the fall 
before the election, and by that time knew most of the persons in that 
district. It was said there were many emigrants coming in that 
spring, but not many in the district where I lived. Most of those 
there were from Missouri and Illinois. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

This election was held in Bloomington, on the Wakarusa, some ten 
or twelve miles from Lawrence, southwest from here. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I do not know who has the poll-books of the second district. My 
means of learning the residents were from travelling over the district 
and laying down the lines. I knew the greater part, except men 
who had just come in. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I had been appointed and was acting as a justice of the peace. 

To Mr. Sherman: 

The citizens were not armed, as far as I knew. 

H. BURSON. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



HARRISON BURSON recalled. 

I have examined the list of voters for the second district for the 
29th November, 1854. I find somewhere in the neighborhood of 
thirty persons on that list who were residents of that district at that 
time. I examined the list in connexion with the census returns. 
There were two hundred odd votes polled at that election. 

H. BURSON. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



NATHANIEL RAMSAY called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory on the 2fah of September, 1854, from 
Illinois. I settled on Wakarusa, in the second district, close to 
Bloomington, and have resided there ever since. I was appointed 
one of the judges of election for March 30, 1855. The polls were 
opened about half-past eight o'clock, and we proceeded to take tickets 
till about half-past nine o'clock. Some twenty-five or thirty tickets, 
I think, had been polled up to that time. Some four or five of them 
were not known to the judges as residents, and were sworn. A largo 
number of men then came up in wagons and carriages, and on horse- 
back. I should judge there were between two and three hundred of 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 171 

them. They were strangers to me. I was tolerably well acquainted 
in the district. They were mostly all armed with revolvers and 
knives. Some few had doiible-harreled guns. There were several 
flags in that company. Most of the company seemed pretty much in- 
toxicated. They came to the polls to vote. We requested them to 
prove they were actual residents of the Territory, or swear to it. 
They refused to he sworn, and said if we did not let them vote peace- 
ably, they would vote otherwise. There were several men they 
called captains and lieutenants, whom I was not acquainted with. I 
saw Mr. Jones, the sheriff now, with the company. Claihorne Jack- 
son was there. I do not know where he resided. They would not 
be sworn to vote, and they said no man should vote that day who 
was willing to be sworn ; and while I was sitting as one of the judges, 
they would let no man be sworn. They hurrahed around there, and 
ran one or two men from the polls who said they were willing to be 
sworn as to their residence. They then broke in the windows, and 
pried up the house a little ways, and let it fall back again. Mr. 
Ellison then took up the ballot-box, and ordered the polls to be closed 
for the day. He carried the box with him out of doors to the company 
around the house, and cried out " Hurrah for Missouri!" He then 
walked back to the door, and called for the election of two other judges. 
A company of some six or eight men then rushed in the door, with 
knives and revolvers, and called upon us to resign, which we did not 
do. Mr. Jones then took a watch from his pocket, and gave us five 
minutes to resign in or die. The time expired, and he limited us to 
another minute. At this time the company in there had their re- 
volvers ready to shoot, and their knives in their hands ready to stab, 
I then left the house with Mr. Bur son, and proceeded to my own 
house, about a quarter of a mile distant. Mr. Burson left my house, 
while I remained there. A party of about fifteen men rode up, 
demanding the poll-books. I told them the poll-books were not 
there. They then asked where Burson was. I told them he had 
started off west from the house. They proceeded that direction. It 
was some ten minutes before they returned. They stated, when they 
returned, that they had found the poll-books, and taken Umberger as 
prisoner. They arrested Wakefield at my house, and took him off as 
prisoner. There was a company of about twenty-five ; some fifteen 
were on horseback, and there was a wagon-load besides. I do not 
know how many. When they came up and demanded Wakefield 
from a company of men who were there, who refused, they said they 
would take him dead or alive. They said if he would go back with 
them, and explain something I did not, hear what there should not 
be a hair of his head touched. They were all armed with revolvers. 
They took him away with them. Wakefield returned in a short 
time. I did not go back to the election ground that day. The resi- 
dents left about the time we did, and went home. These strangers 
said no man should vote that day, unless he would vote an open ticket, 
and who was " right on the goose." They stated, at my house, that 
the 30th of March was a very important day with them, as Kansas 
was to be made a slave State on that day. I did not hear them say 



172 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

where they came from. The greater part of them were strangers to 
me. I was tolerably well acquainted in that district. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

They came to my house and told me this was an important election. 
There were some fifteen of them. Mr. Jones was with them ; and 
they said they must have the poll-books, as that was an important 
election with them. Umber ger was a prisoner with them. 

NATHANIEL RAMSAY. 

LAWKENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



JAMES M. DUNN called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory about the first of November, 1854, from 
the State of Maine. I settled near Bloomington, in the second dis- 
trict, and have resided there ever since. I was at the election of the 
30th of March, 1855 ; I went to the polls very early in the morning. 
We had heard that there was a great number of teams between Bloomr 
ington and Westport, coming up from the States. After I got there, 
teams arrived in such large numbers as to surprise me ; they continued 
to arrive until near nine o'clock. I counted the teams, and made out 
70 two and four-horse wagons. There were 150 mules and horses, 
saddled, hitched there after they arrived. At the opening of the polls, 
all was quiet for some time. The wagons were pretty well filled, and 
contained from four to six each, and, in some cases, as many as eight, 
I should think. Things remained quiet for a time. This party went 
to the west side of the house, and held a little caucus by themselves 
awhile. Some twenty or more votes were polled. They then came to 
the window where the voting was done, and went there to give in 
votes. The judges of the election were not satisfied they were resi- 
dents of the Territory, and wanted them to take the oath prescribed, 
which they refused to do. The judges contended that they could not 
act according to their instructions without doing so. The other party 
said that; if they had been here two minutes, it was as good as two 
years, and they had a perfect right to, and would, vote. The judges 
still insisted upon their being sworn. They refused, and said they 
would shoot any person who would swear. They then, to a great ex- 
tent, left the window, and went to another spot, perhaps some fifty 
feet distant, when a gentleman made a speech to them. I asked who 
the gentleman was, and I was told he was Mr. Jackson, from Jackson 
county, Missouri. He said, in his speech, that all knew what they had 
come there for. They had come there to vote. u We will," said he, 
" peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must." That was the sentence 
he used. The mob then went to a large wagon, hauled there by eight 
oxen, and handed out a great many arms ; I did not count how many. 
They were mostly revolvers that I saw. They tied a white tape or 
piece of cloth in the button-holes of their coats, when those arms were 
given out. They then came back to the window, with declarations 
that they would vote, and demanded that the judges should resign im- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 173 

mediately. After a good deal of noise, confusion, and threatening, 
the judges left the house. I was not in the house, and do not know 
what was said in there. I heard those outside of the house say that, 
if they did not resign in five minutes, they would cut their throats. I 
tried an hour and a half to get to the window to vote. They would 
not let me vote without showing my ticket, which I did. They then 
crowded me away by force, and I could not vote. My ticket was for 
Wakefield for council, and Macey and Davis for representatives. The op- 
position candidate was McDonald, I think, for councilman, G. W. Ward 
and 0. H. Brown for the lower house. They were willing we should 
come and vote after they got control of the ballot-box. Most of the 
citizens went home ; but a few remained, though I know of none who 
voted. I saw one man of this mob take a small man by the collar and 
tell him he might vote if he would vote the ticket with McDonald, 
Ward, and Brown on it. He would not vote that ticket, and they 
thrust him out over their shoulders, as there was such a crowd he 
could not get out any other way. One man said he was hired to come 
there and vote, and by God he would vote. While these scenes were 
being enacted, they were accompanied with a great deal of noise, con- 
fusion, and swearing. These people were intoxicated more or less. I 
knew S. J. Jones in Wesport; he was a very prominent man on the 
day of election, and took a very active part. I considered him a leader. 
I had been in the post office at Westport, and took letters out there 
when he was postmaster there. I had never heard of his moving into 
the Territory, and had no doubt he lived in Westport. I lived in 
Westport some two months before I moved into the Territory, and he 
tended the post office there, where my letters were usually directed. 

I was on the ground the principal part of the day of election. I be- 
lieve I was about the first man there. I went home at noon, about 
one mile, for dinner, and came back and remained until it became dark. 
This party brought Mr. Wakefield back to the polls. I could not say 
how many there were in that party ; there were from fifteen to thirty- 
five, and they were armed. I do not know who headed the party. I 
had lived in the district from the previous November. We were fre- 
quently called together in the district to erect log-cabins for one 
another and for strangers, and by that means became acquainted. 

This party who came there, upon inquiry of a number of them, con- 
fessed to me that they were from Missouri. I asked one of them what 
he would do if we were to go to their election and act as they did, 
and he replied, " We would whip you out." I heard this gentleman, 
who made the speech, tell his party what they came for, and, for one, 
he was not willing to go away till it was accomplished. They gave 
him three cheers when he closed his speech. I staid on the ground 
till the last of this party left. They went away the road they came, 
toward Westport, Missouri. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson: 

I was acquainted with this man Jones before I moved into the Ter- 
ritory. During the winter before the election I did not see Mr. Jones, 
and do not know where he resided, only as report said. I suppose he 
resided at Westport, as he kept the post office there. I do not know 



174 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

I 

the time he was postmaster, hut have taken letters from the office 
while he was there. 

The wagons came in companies of two, five, and ten along the 
road, and all arrived in the course of two hours. They had colors fly- 
ing, but not in martial order. Some of them of whom I inquired 
told me they were from Missouri. I supposed they were all from Mis- 
souri ; because I asked them where they were from, and they told me 
so. I do not know how many I asked that question of. It was usual 
to ask every one, actual residents and all, where they were from; but 
we knew nearly all in the district. I think I inquired of twenty or 
thirty men, who told me they were from Missouri. Some who came 
in that crowd did not vote,, and said they would not have come had 
they known the conduct there would be thus. 

I do not recollect that I personally know of Mr. Jones acting as 
postmaster at Westport between the time I arrived in the fall and this 
election. After the election I was in the post office and he handed 
me my letters. I cannot be certain in regard to the time. 

By Mr. Sherman: 

I did not converse with any one that said he had come through 
Lawrence, or had been there. Mr. Jackson, in his speech, did not 
mention the place where they came from as I recollect. 

JAMES M. DUNN. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



J. N. MACE called and sworn. 

By Mr. Keeder: 

I came into the Territory about the 1st of September, 1854. I se1 
tied first in Lawrence. I moved into the second district about the las 
of February, 1855, and have resided there ever since. I was at the 
election of the 30th of March, 1855. I reached the polls somewhat 
late, having seven miles to go. There was a very large crowd around 
the window there, so that it was very difficult of access. I heard 
cries from the crowd that "no damned Yankee should vote there that 
day ; that the first man who took the oath, they would rip his guts 
out." Those were the words they used. I went around the house, 
as I could not get to the window from the eastern side. I attempted 
to get through the crowd so as to put in my vote. After a struggle 
of perhaps an hour, I got near the window. A man was at the win- 
dow attempting to vote. The judges required the oath of him ; he 
was willing to give it, but the persons on the outside told him if he 
did so, they would instantly kill him. He then left, saying they had 
lost one good vote, as he was "right on the goose." I then stepped 
forward to the window, when a man on my right took hold of my 
arm and said, "Unfold that vote and let me see it." I told him I 
came there by the United States law 'to vote, and that law gave me 
the right to vote by ballot ; and if I could not vote so, I would not 
vote at all. They then asked me if I should take the oath. I told 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 175 

them if the judges required the oath of me, I should take it accord- 
ing to law. An old gentleman with a white string in the hutton-hole 
of his coat then stepped up. They asked me to give way for him to 
vote, as he was an old man ; and I did so. After he had voted, I 
stepped forward, put my hand inside the window, and gave my name ; 
when, at a word, from one of the two men who stood one on each side 
of the widow, I was seized by the people in the crowd, and dragged 
from the polls through the entire crowd. They made shouts of "Kill 
the damned nigger-thief," " Cut his throat/' and many cries of that 
kind. I saw revolvers cocked and bowie-knives drawn, all around 
me, at that time. After I had been dragged out of the crowd I 
regained my feet. I had a small American flag under my arm. 
When I got to my feet, I unfurled it and held it over my head. I 
told them that we were here, and had no law to protect us, and I 
sought protection under the American flag, which was universally re- 
spected in foreign countries, and I supposed it would be here. The 
crowd did not seem to understand what it meant, and they let me 
alone. Some of them asked what it meant ; and some one of their 
party said they had better not kill a man when he was under the 
American flag. I heard some voices say that flag was false, and 
pointed to a flag waving over one of their wagons with one star in it, 
and said that was the true flag. I then said, " Who calls this flag 
false are traitors." One man who had a large cloak on, threw it off 
and came up to me, and, thrusting his fist in my face, asked me if I 
called him a traitor. I said, if he called that flag false he was a 
traitor. Then another man stepped up to me, and told me to take 
that back, at the same time opening a clasp-knife, and put it so it 
touched the breast of my coat. Another man had a revolver, which 
he held close to my ear. Another man struck at me with a club, and 
a friend of mine turned it off with his arm, and it struck somebody 
else. At this instant, a fight, or row of some kind, was got up at 

; some distance, which attracted their attention, and they left me. I 
then walked around the building, and saw some individuals with a 

i large lever attempting to pry up the house, so as to take the logs out. 
They did not succeed, as they could not lift the logs high enough to 

i take one from under the other. While they were looking for a large 

; fulcrum, a man came out of the house with a bundle of papers in his 

I hand, and held them up, saying, "We have got the documents." 

I 1 saw Mr. Ellison come out with the ballot-box, holding it up over 
j the crowd, and hurrahing for Missouri; that is about all I saw. I did 
i not know any of the crowd, or any there, except those who lived in 

the district. I should think I did not see more than twenty residents 
of the district in the crowd, the rest being foreigners. I did not hear 
any of them say where they came from. I heard some of them say 
they came there to vote, and they would vote in spite of the Presi- 
dent, the governor, the laws, and the devil. I think I staid there till 
about 12 o'clock about three hours. I did not know S. J. Jones at 
that time. I know him now by sight. I could not say whether he 
was there or not. Almost all the people there had white strings in 
their button-holes. The one of whom I spoke I knew by sight ; he 



176 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

lived in the Territory. There were seven that went to the polls in 
company with me, and we all came back without voting. 

J. N. MACE. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



J. C. DUNN called and sworn. 
To Mr. Eeeder : 

I came into the Territory in the month of December, 1854, and 
settled on the Wakarusa, near Bloomington, and have resided within 
the vicinity of Bloomington ever since. I was at the election of the 
30th of March, 1855. I was one of the clerks to take down the names 
of those who swore. I was on the ground about as soon as any one 
there. All this crowd got there in about two hours from the time 
they commenced to arrive. I supposed them to be people from Mis- 
souri. I thought there were from 500 to 700 of them. They came 
on horses and in wagons. They were principally armed with re- 
volvers. There was a large wagon drove up in front of the door ; it 
contained Colt's revolvers and a great many double-barreled shot- 
guns. I saw that their arms were all capped and loaded. After 
Ellison was called to the door, he went out and returned directly, and 
stated there would be one hundred shots in less than fifteen minutes 
if we did not leave. There was a cry outside not to shoot, as there 
were two pro-slavery men there. At that time I was sitting by the 
window as a clerk, and there was one on the outside who called out 
for the crowd to get away from the window until he shot the God 
damned white-headed abolition judge. The judges were given five 
minutes to leave the house, or they would be shot and their throats 
cut. The five minutes expired and they had not left ; and as I sat; 
by the window, I could hear the revolvers cocking in almost every 
direction. They had another minute given them to resign. During 
this time there was a lever or pry rigged under the corner of the 
house. The judges left and closed the polls, and said there would be 
no election. At that time a man I took to be Jones came in and took 
a package of papers off a box, and took them out aod shook them and 
hallooed " Hurrah for Missouri I" After the judges left they then 
proceeded to elect two other judges, and continued the election. I 
was around there all the time, and was there the whole day. After 
they had driven the judges from the house, they seemed to rejoice over 
their victory. One of them said to another, he was hired to come 
there to vote, and by God he would vote. They said that Tom 
Johnson was their governor, and they swore vengeance on Governor 
Keeder. I do not recollect of hearing what they were going to do 
with him ; but they said, for one thing, they would like to cut his 
heart out. 1 do not think that I saw Ellison do anything with the 
ballot-box, though I have some faint recollection about it. They 
wanted Mr. Burson and Mr. Eamsay to receive their votes without 
swearing, as Mr. Ellison was willing to do. They said they would 
not do it, but were going to discharge their duties according to law. 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 177 

I heard some man making a speech, but do not recollect what he 
said, or what his name was. I saw one man there who was a doctor, 
and kept an apothecary's shop in Westport, on the corner in front of 
the Harris house. I do not recollect his name, but think I would if 
I heard it. He recognised me, and came up to me and shook hands 
with me. (Upon being asked) I think it was Dr. Earl. These men, 
in my opinion, were strangers. I know that many of them asked me 
the way to the precinct. I knew that the most of them were not resi- 
dents of the district, because at that time I knew the greater part of 
the residents by sight. I saw these men go away ; they all left within 
two hours, I should think, from the time they started. They took 
the road towards Westport. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

I was not acquainted with all the persons in the second district. I 
do not know that there were more moving in there than usual. There 
were some moving in, in the neighborhood of McG-ee's, and they laid 
out a town there. 

I think at that time I knew more than one-half of the residents 
of the district by sight. These men I did not know to be residents 
of Kansas, and some of them I did know to be residents of Missouri. 
I heard them say, at different times, among themselves, that they 
had come from Missouri to vote. I refer to those of the election of 
the 30th of March. I should think there were from five hundred to 
seven hundred came there, and from appearance they voted pretty- 
generally. I do not say that every man voted, but they were voting 
there for a great length of time. I heard two or three say, if they 
had known what kind of people inhabited that place they would never 
have been caught there, and would not be in such a muss again. As 
far as I could ascertain, I should think the principal leader of the 
gang was Steel, of Lexington, Missouri. 

JOHN C. DUNJST. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856. 



ANDREW WHITE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Eeeder : 

I came into the Territory and selected my place, where I now live, 
on the 5th of June, 1854. I came from Missouri. I was formerly 
from Morgan county, Missouri. I moved my family out here in the 
fall, after having built houses on my claim here. I was at the elec- 
tion in Bloomington on the 30th of March, 1855. I got there about 
nine or ten o'clock, going up with the Missouri company who were 
passing by at that time. I was acquainted with some of them, though 
I do not know as any of them came from Cass county. I knew Clai- 
borne Jackson, and had known him since he was a boy. I lived in 
Missouri for thirty-five years. I do not know how many there were 
in this company I went up with. They had been passing my house 
for an hour, and the road was full as far as I could see, back and 
H. Kep. 200 12* 



178 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

before. They said they were going to vote at the election. I had 
not much conversation with them on the road, but I talked with 
them right smart after I got up there. I asked some of them their 
reasons for coming up in our country to vote. They were young men 
I was talking to. They said they were hired to come up, and got a 
dollar a day. I stated that perhaps they would not be allowed to 
vote. They said they had come to vote, and they would vote, or die 
there. Those I was talking with, judging from their conversation, 
were from Jackson county, or from the edge of the county east. I 
knew him by sight, but do not recollect his name. I had no conver- 
sation with Claiborne Jackson. I heard his speech. He got up and 
said that they had come there to vote, and he thought they had as 
much right to vote when they had been there five or ten minutes as 
a man who had been there four or five years, and they would vote 
before they left there, or die. The crowd cheered him when he got 
through speaking. I think he ordered them to form into companies 
of fifteen or twenty, and form around the window, and let no man 
vote who was willing to swear. They did so. I heard Steely's name 
called more than any other man's there. I should know him if I 
should see him again. 

About the time they formed themselves they got the white ribbons 
or strings in their coats. As they formed around the window the 
crowd was pretty strong there, and they got a big rope and wound it 
around them so as to let no one get in there with them. They swore 
they would let no man vote there who was willing to be sworn. All 
this time they were arguing with the judges, and threatened to 
destroy them if they did not either resign or take their votes without 
swearing them. At last they said they would tear the house down, 
and fixed a pry there, and pried the house up right smartly, but did 
not get anybody out. In a few minutes they threatened if they did 
not resign or let them vote, they would fill the house full of shot in 
five minutes, I believe. The next I noticed was, I understood the 
judges would close the polls and give them an answer directly. The 
polls were closed, and the judges came out and went off. I went ; 
down under the hill. I went with them. Burson expected they ' 
would be after him for the poll-books. He gave them to Umber ger, , 
who took them and went off. I went up to Mr. Kamsay's, and saw 
nothing more of Burson until the evening. Directly after, I got up to > 
Kamsay's they came back with Umberger and the poll-books, andi 
took them to the polls. They then came back and said they hadl 
orders to take Judge Wakefield back with them. There were several I 
of us who said they could not take him, and they swore they would I 
have him, dead or alive. Some two or three got off their horses. 
Judge Wakefield was in the house, and said he would not be taken \ 
by any such set of ruffians as they were, and I think he seized a gun. . 
They stated that they did not want to hurt him, and he should not! 
be hurt at all if he went with them peaceably. He told them if theyr 
would give their honors he would not be hurt while he was there, he 
would go with them if they had any business with him. He went off 
with them, and returned back after being gone some time, not veryr 
long. The company of residents then broke up, and mostly went; 



KANSAS AFFAIRS, 179 

tome. I went to the polls and staid there till night. Ellison con- 
tinued to act as judge, but I do not believe I know the others who 
acted as judges, I saw these people go away the same road back that 
they came. They started two or three hours by sun. A party of 
some thirty or forty were left about the house to guard the polls until 
six o'clock. They were armed with revolvers and double-barreled 
shot-guns. The rest went away when they had voted. I believe all 
had arms. I did not notice any of them without. They formed around 
the wagon about the time they said they would tear down the house, 
and formed in small companies, and took rifles and shot-guns out of 
the wagon. I did not look into the wagon. I think there were some 
ox teams, but they were generally two -horse and four-horse teams, 
and mule teams. They had some flags, but I did not notice them 
very particularly, except they were common flags, such as armies 
have. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

It was from these men I learned their residence. I inquired of a 
dozen or so ; all I talked with told me they were from Missouri. I 
should think there were five or six hundred altogether. Some of 
them I knew by sight, but not by name, as I lived in Missouri for a 
year, and had seen them near Westport and Independence. They 
spoke it out publicly in conversation. There was no public speaking 
except by Claiborne Jackson, I resided in Cass county, Missouri, on 
what is called the High Blue, near Little Santa Fe. I formerly came 
from Morgan county, Missouri, and have lived in Cooper county, 
Missouri. 

To Mr. Boeder : 

I was well acquainted in the district. I do not think there were 
more than half a dozen there might have been a dozen in this com- 
pany who were residents in the district. 

his 

ANDREW + WHITE. 

mark, 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 28, 1856, 



DK. E. Gr. MACY called and affirmed. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I came into this Territory about the middle of November, 1854, and 
settled in the second district, and came from Butler county, Ohio. I 
have resided in the second district ever since. I was at the election 
of the 30th of March, 1855, t Bloomington. The first thing that 
attracted my attention after I got there was a large body of strangers, 
who were holding a formal election in the front of Esquire Burson's 
house. I heard the name of Thomas Johnson announced as our gov- 
ernor. The polls were then opened, and there was a general rush 
around the window. Two men, who were strangers, placed them- 



180 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

selves one on each side of the window, and acted as foremen, and dic- 
tated more or less to those who came up to vote, and told them they 
should not qualify according to the directions in the proclamation. 
The crowd that surrounded the polls was, I should think, some fifteen 
men deep. It was impossible for me to get to the polls. I crowded 
in for half an hour, and did not get more than half way to the polls 
from the outside of this "body of men. I was recognised by some one 
in the crowd, who cried out " There comes an abolitionist/' I went 
back out of the crowd, by their help, a heap quicker than I got in. 
Soon there was an announcement that Claiborne Jackson would address 
the congregation. He took an elevated stand, and addressed the 
people by saying that a few minutes' residence in the Territory gave 
them as good a right to vote as though they had been in years. He 
said that that was the order at California, and it should be so here ; 
that Governor Eeeder had no authority to issue any such orders as 
were in his proclamation ; that they had come here to vote, and they 
would vote. He then called upon the people to form themselves in 
companies of fifteen men each, or somewhere of that number ; they 
proceeded to do so ; they had white strings and ribbons tied in their 
coats. Immediately after those orders, I saw numbers of them over 
the grounds, loading double-barreled shot-guns. A committee of 
three, I think, was then appointed to wait upon the judges, to demand 
that they should resign. After five minutes had expired, some gen- 
tleman I do not know who, as they were all strangers took out 
his watch, and said " We will give you one minute more ; if you do 
not resign in that time, this house will be torn down." At that 
period there was quite an excitement in the crowd a great many 
oaths and threats. I saw a lever placed under one side of the house 7 
and I think the logs were raised some two or three inches, and let fall 
in their places again, without doing much damage. 

During this excitement, I heard a crash in the window, and saw a 
confusion at the front door and a rush in the house. I passed around 
where the front door was, and saw a man they called Mr. Jones come 
out with a bundle of papers in his hands, and held them up and hal- 
looed "Hurrah for Missouri !" I heard somebody call me, and I looked 
around, and Esquire Burson, Judge Wakefield, and some others were 
some fifty or sixty yards north of the house. I went to them, and we 
went down under the bluff. There were some four or five of us, as 
near as I can recollect. We concluded, after a short conversation, to 
go to Mr. Kamsay's house. Esquire Burson had the poll-books in his 
pocket. About that time we saw a crowd on horses and mules coming 
towards Mr. Kamsay's, where they came and called for Esquire Bur- 
son. Judge Wakefield told them positively .he was not there. They 
were told the poll-books were not there. I saw these men ride down 
across the prairie very rapidly, and they soon returned with George 
Umberger, a neighbor of ours, behind*one of them. They came up to 
Mr. Kamsay's house, and demanded that Judge Wakefield should go 
up to the polls with them. He refused to do so ; when they drew re- 
volvers, some of them cocking them and swearing that he should go, 
dead or alive. The old man declared he would not go, and if they 
took him there., they would take him dead ; but finally they pledged 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 181 

their honor, if he would go, he should not be hurt. He walked up, 
and they followed him on their mules shouting. I and one of the 
judges followed them. Just as we got there, the judge came down off 
a stand, or out of a wagon, where they had had him up making a 
speech. He had a badge in his coat. I then left. I did not converse 
with any of these strangers. 

E. G. MACY. 
LAWRENCE, K, T., April 28, 1856. 



F. E. LAHY called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I was one of the officers in the second district election on the 30th 
of March, 1855, after Mr. Burson and Mr. Ramsay left. I was ap- 
pointed by the people on the ground. There were a crowd of people 
there. I was sworn by Mr. Ellison, one of the judges. I do not re- 
collect that I signed an oath attested by Mr. Taylor. I signed an 
oath sworn to before Mr. Ellison. I did not swear before Mr. Taylor. 
I was not there, as I remember, when the others took the oaths. I 
was one of the judges of election. I saw the oaths, but do not recol- 
lect that they were attested by Mr. Taylor. He was one of the clerks 
while I was serving. After the election I took charge of the duplicate 
papers not sent to the governor's office. They were afterwards put in 
Mr. Waful's hands, one of the judges. I kept the books until the 
legislature convened at Pawnee, of which I think Mr. Waful was one 
of the clerks. Mr. Waful took them up there then, and brought them 
back some five or six months ago. I have not these papers now. 
They have been lost, destroyed, or something, while I was from 
home some time last November or the first of December. We had 
no way of keeping them very safely ; and the children told me that 
the box was open, and they did not know what the papers were, and 
they got scattered around amongst the books, and we lost a part of 
them then. Afterwards I found some and put them away, but am 
not able now to find them. I have not been living where the books 
were for some three months. One of the lists of voters or one of the 
sheets, for there were two of them was one of the papers I found arid 
put away. I put it away in some books I had. It was my father's 
house, and I left him and his family in it. I saw the paper last some 
time last winter, in January and February, in the place where I bad 
put it. I put it back again in one of the books, in the same case, and 
I have not seen it since. I made thorough search for it a few days 
ago, and again to-day. I could not find it. I do not know what be- 
came of it, for certain. My father has been accustomed to take sheets 
of paper from the book-case, that my brothers had been scribbling 
on, to wipe his razor on ; and he may have taken that, as it did not 
seem to be of much importance. I asked my father about it, and he 
was not certain what had become of it, though he thought it likely he 
had done something of the kind, as he thought he recollected some- 
thing about it. Sherman J. Waful acted as one of the judges of the 



182 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

election, and he acted as the return judge of that election. I do not 
know that George W. Withers, of Richfield, Missouri, acted as return 
judge under the assumed name of Sherman J. Waful. I do not know 
that George W. Withers brought these returns to Governor Breeder's 
office. 

I know that Mr. Waful started with the books, hiring a horse upon 
the grounds. I started with him ? and went a part of the way for 
four and a half or five miles. I do not know George W. Withers. 
I left Mr. Waful at Allen McGee's house, and when I left he was 
making preparations to go on, as it was late. That was on the even- 
ing of the election. 

F. E. LAHY. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 29, 1856. 



HAMMOND 0. MUZZY called and sworn. 

To Mr. Eeeder : 

I was at the election of the 30th March, 1855, in the second district. 
I saw a great crowd of people, and a great many wagons, when I first 
went there. I tried to get to the window to vote, and got there just 
as Mr. Mace did. He was just before rne, and when he offered his 
vote some of the pro-slavery party said that it was a free-State vote, 
and told him he should not vote it. Several men took him by the 
eollar, and undertook to drag him away from the windows, and, as I 
was by his side, they crowded me away with him. Some called out, 
" Cut his throat I" " Tear his damned heart out I" I saw one fellow 
draw a knife and present it to his side, as though he was going to 
stab him. They finally left him without doing him any injury. After 
that, I saw some men with a lever trying to pry up the corner of the 
cabin. The leader of the party hallooed out to them not to do that 
till they had orders. Soon after that,, I saw Mr. Ellison come out of 
the cabin with the ballot-box in his hand, and he hallooed " Hurrah 
for Missouri I" Mr. Ellison was one of the judges. I heard Mr. 
Jones (now sheriff Jones) give Mr. Burson and Mr. Ramsay, the free- 
State judges, five minutes to resign in or die. After that, he gave 
them one more minute to resign in. The judges left, as has been 
stated by others. I was on the ground a little while after the other 
judges were appointed, and the crowd then voted. I did not see any 
free-State man vote after that, and but three or four at any time. I 
do not know whether sheriff Jones voted there or not that day. 

HAMMOND C. MUZZY. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 29, 1856. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 183 



GEORGE W. UMBERGER called and sworn. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory about the 24th or 25th of March, 1855. I 
emigrated from Ohio, and wintered in Iowa. I settled in the neigh- 
borhood of Bloomington, in the second district, and have resided there 
ever since. I was at the election of the 30th of March, 1855, in the 
morning, probably for a half or three-quarters of an hour ; then went 
away, and came back near noon. I started to go back to the polls, 
and, seeing the judges coming away, I went to Mr. Ramsay's house, 
where the judges came. I went into his house. There appeared to 
be considerable excitement among the judges and the clerks, and the 
few others who were there. I was there but a few minutes, when Mr. 
Burson handed me the poll-books and told me to take care of them. 
We started out ; I went towards home ; he went part of the way with 
me, when he turned off from me down on the bottom. I continued 
towards home, and was overtaken by eight or ten horsemen. I was 
surrounded by them, and the poll-books forced away from me. I did 
not know any of the party at that time, but I have known one since 
then. His name was Jones now sheriff Jones and the only one of 
the party I ever knew. I think Jones acted as the leader of the party. 
After they got the poll-books, they wanted me to go back. I told 
them my folks were sick, and I did not care about going back, and 
should not vote if I did. 

Finally, they said I must go. One man came up, swore a few 
oaths, and tried to get hold of my collar ; I supposed to choke me. 
I thrust his hand away, and told him to take care of himself. He 
finally agreed if I would go along, I would not be hurt. I got on the 
horse behind Mr. Jones, and went over to Mr. Ramsay's. They 
wanted Judge Wakefield there. The judge refused to go at first. 
They finally told him, as they had told me, that if he would go along 
he would not be harmed. We both went over. On the road going 
over, a man came running out of the house where the polls were held, 
and said he would cut my throat if I did not take care. They took 
me to the window, gave me a pro-slavery ticket, and wanted me to 
vote. I refused voting that ticket. They handed me another, and I 
refused to vote that either. I left shortly after that. They threat- 
ened Burson's life. They wanted to get hold of him ; they supposed 
I was Burson ; they threatened his life if they got him. They took 
Judge Wakefield to the polls. He got up on a wagon and made a 
speech to them. Shortly after I left, he came over where I was. As 
far as I know now I was not much acquainted at the time I should 
think there were a great many more people when I went back to the 
polls than there were voters in the district. As I was coming up the 
second time in the morning, I saw a great many going home, who said 
they saw there would not be a fair chance there, and they did not care 
about remaining. 



184 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Woodson : 

I had been in the district but four or five days, and was a stranger 
to the residents of the district generally. 

G. W. UMBERGEB. 
LAWRENCE, K. T. ; April 29, 1856. 



WILLIAM JESSEE called and sworn. 
To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into the Territory for the first time about the middle of De- 
cember, 1854. I came to St. Joseph about the middle of November, 
1854, and left my family there, and came over to look at the Terri- 
tory. I came from McLean county, Illinois, and settled on the Wa- 
karusa, in the second district, a mile and a half from Bloomington, on 
the last day of January. I came there with a part of my plunder and 
my oldest son. In about two weeks I went after my family. I moved 
them there on the 28th day of February, 1855. I was at the election 
of the 30th of March, 1855. A day or two before the election one of 
the judges chose me for one of the clerks. On the morning of the 
election I started very early to go to the polls, and, after I had started 
a few minutes, I saw a wagon coming with a flag on the hind end of 
it. It passed me before I got to the polls. I was not out of the house 
much before the polls were opened, but went in to help them to pre- 
pare the poll-books for the election. I saw a great many persons 
going backwards and forwards before the door and windows. The 
polls were opened and they commenced voting. Some persons came 
forward and voted. Others came, and their votes were objected to 
until they were proved to be actual settlers of the Territory. Some 
were qualified, and others were proved, by men who were by, that 
they were settlers. It went on in that way until there were about 
thirty-three votes taken, if I recollect right, when one man offered his 
vote, and the judges would not receive it unless he would be qualified, 
or prove he was a citizen. He refused to do so. Others cried out and 
swore that he should not be sworn, but that he should vote without. 
He still continued to insist on voting, and the judges would not re- 
ceive his vote. They then swore he should vote without swearing. 
During this time others came up to the window to vote, and were 
pulled away, and not allowed to vote. There were, I should think, a 
dozen pistols cocked and pointed to the judges at the window, and 
they swore they would blow their brains out if they did not receive 
those votes or resign. I did not count the number of times these 
pistols were presented, but I should think it was from eight to a dozen 
times. They insisted those men should vote without being sworn. 
They said they had come there to vote, and they would vote. One of 
the judges (Mr. Ellison) then told the other two not to take any votes 
until he came back. He stepped out for a few minutes, and then re- 
turned. He proposed to close the polls, and said that in less than 
five minutes the house would be thrown down and five hundred shots 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 185 

thrown in the window. I felt the house jar with the pries, but I did 
not see them. Mr. Ellison and Mr. Ramsay tried to gather up the 
ballot-box, but Mr. Ellison took it away. I think the door was broken 
open about the same time ; when Mr. Ellison ran out with the ballot- 
box and hallooed " Hurrah for Missouri I" At the same time I took 
up the poll-books, doubled them up, and handed them to Esquire 
Burson. The house was filling up at the time, and I went out and 
talked around through the crowd. In a few minutes a man came out 
holding up some papers in his hand, which caused a great hurrah. I 
then made my way through the crowd as near as I could to this man, 
to ascertain what were the papers he had. When I got close enough, 
I discovered it was a piece of blank paper that had been blotted in 
making out the poll-book, and a certificate that there had been amis- 
take made. I then hunted around for Esquire Burson and Mr. Ram- 
say. I came across a man who told me they had but five minutes or 
one minute, I do not recollect which to live if they did not resign 
their posts as judges of election. I asked him why he did not go in? 
He said he could not get in. I told him I was going in or would die, 
and he said he would follow me. They were crowded before the door, 
and I had to pull my way considerably. Nothing was said to me until 
I got to the door. They asked me what I wanted, and I said I wanted 
to get into the house to see Esquire Burson. They then let me in. 
There was one man in there standing with a watch in his hand. I did 
not know his name at that time, but found it out shortly afterwards. 
I then went to Mr. Burson and told him he had better leave the house. 
He said he hated to leave his own house. I told him that, under the 
circumstances, I thought he had better leave, and he consented to it 
and went out. Mr. Ramsay followed, and I went out after them. 
We all three walked off down over the hill, some two or three hun- 
dred yards from the house. There were probably fifteen of us. After 
that we went to Mr. Ramsay's house. I asked Mr. Burson where the 
poll-books were ? He answered he had got them, but I found them 
in his pocket afterwards. He handed them to Mr. Umberger. About 
that time there was a yell raised near the house, and men coming on 
horses as hard as they could tear. Mr. Burson and Mr. Umberger 
started off. These men asked if these poll-books were there, and we 
told them they were not. They swore they believed they were, and 
we told them they were welcome to try it. They then went off after 
the others, and shortly returned and said they had found them. They 
abused us most wretchedly, calling us almost everything they could 
think of. Mr. Jones (now the sheriff) had Mr. Umberger behind 
him. 

About that time there was another yell, and some fifteen or more 
came after Judge Wakefield, they said. They demanded that he 
should go, and he refused, asking what they wanted, and he would 
not tell them. Finally, three men agreed, if he would go, they 
would give their security that he should not be hurt, and they gave 
their names. Sheriff Jones was one of them ; the others I do not 
recollect. He went with them, and they passed off. The inquiry and 
search was still for Esquire Burson. I went and found him, and we 
went off, and it was near evening before I returned to the polls. 



186 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



- 



When I got back the bigger part of the company had left a few 
them were still voting. I remained there half an hour, and then 
went off again. 

The man who was holding the watch in the election house I recog- 
nised afterwards as the one who gave his name as Jones, the present^ 
sheriff, in Mr. Ramsay's house. What I saw of those persons, went 1 ! 
off east by my house. I was home part of the time, and saw a num- 
ber of horses and wagons pass. I supposed there were near 400 i 
strangers in the district then, so far as I knew. I have not seem 
them in the district since. As far as I saw, they were pretty welll 
armed with revolvers and bowie-knives. Some of them had two pis- 
tols in a belt around them, and a bowie-knife or two. I do not know, 
whether any settlers of the district voted after this difficulty aboutt 
the judges took place. 

WILLIAM JESSEE. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



SAMUEL JONES called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory the last day of October, 1854. I went! 
into the district where I am living now the 2d day of November,, 1854.. 
I came from West port, Missouri, where I had been living for moce 
than two years. I settled in the second district. I was at the elec- 
tion of the 30th of March, 1855. I saw a good many of the people II 
was acquainted with in Missouri. Some of them told me they hadi 
moved into the Territory, and others that they had claims, but had notr 
moved into the Territory; and others told me that they intended to' 
come; and one of them that he did not intend to reside here. I heardl 
these men threaten that if the judges did not resign, they would be 
killed. Samuel J. Jones (now sheriff) was one who made this threat ; a 
young man they called Dr. Johnson, who they said was from Independ- 
ence, was another; and others, whose names I do not know, made 
other threats also. I saw them fix a pry to the corner of the house,- 
to pry it down ; and some of them told them there was a pro-slavery r 
man in the house, and they took the pry away, and went to the door 1 
of the house. Just then the door was opened, I think from inside, 
and Mr. Ellison came out with the ballot-box in his hand, at which i 
there was a general shout. I do not recollect what Mr. Ellison said. 
I was in camp with these men afterwards. I started that night to> 
take a protest to Governor Reeder against the election. On the cross-- 
ing of the Wakarusa there was an encampment nearly half a mile 
long, and, without stopping there, I found other camps on almost: 
every creek as I went along. I found another camp in the morning, 
where I stopped and took breakfast. They told me they were from 
Clay county, Missouri, and they thought there were as many as six 
hundred from Missouri at Lawrence, where they said they had been 
at the election. I asked them if they had claims in the Territory, 
and they said no ; that they only came to vote. I passed on, and rode 
several miles with some men from Lafayette county, who told me that 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 187 

they had claims in the Delaware country, but had not moved on there. 
They said a good many had come to the election from their neighbor- 
hood. About the time I got to the Shawnee Mission I saw a good 
many going towards Missouri whom I had seen at Bloomington the 
day before. On my way back I found the road full. As long as I 
kept in the road I had frequent conversations with them. They said 
they thought there had been from two thousand to eight thousand 
Missourians in the Territory to the election. 

SAMUEL JONES. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



JOHN A. WAKEFIELD called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory in July, 1854, from Iowa,, and jsettled in 
the second district, and have resided there ever since. I was at the 
election of the 30th of March, 1855, at Bloomington, in the second 
election district. There were a number of men who staid at my house 
the night before the election some fifteen or twenty in number. We 
all went over to Bloomington together the morning of the election. 
When we got there we saw a large body of non-residents of the dis- 
trict. They continued to come between one and two hours after we 
got there, in wagons and on horseback ; they were all armed with 
revolvers, guns, &c.; they had tents and wagons. I was called upon 
by the judges to assist in filling up the poll-books. This gave offence 
to the Missourians, and they cried out, "Get Wakefield out of there; 
he has no business in there." The door was in the south side of the 
house, the window where the votes were received in the north side, 
and the table where the judges sat fronting that window. After the 
poll-books were filled up I went to the north window to see if the 
judges would take the oath prescribed by the governor. They all 
took that oath. Paris Ellison, Harrison Burson, and Nathaniel 
Ramsay were the judges. After they were sworn they opened the polls. 
The actual settlers then commenced voting. A few of their votes 
were given in, and then the Missourians crowded in and surrounded 
the house, and demanded to vote. Esquire Burson told the first one 
that he did not know he was a citizen of the Territory, and he would 
have to swear to or from his citizenship before he would be allowed to 
vote. This the person refused to do. By this time there was a great 
excitement, a loud din of voices, and many threats against the judges. 
They cried out, " Get Wakefield away from the window ; he has no 
business there." They then pushed and shoved me to the outside of 
the crowd. A man by the name of Gr. W. Ward came to me and said, 
" Judge Wakefield, if you have any influence over those judges, you 
go and tell them to let the men vote." I told him I never advised 
men to do wrong. A man then, that I have since understood was 
named Jackson, got on to a small log, and made a very inflammatory 
speech. He told them to divide themselves off into companies, and 
tie a white ribbon in the button-holes of their coats, that they might 
know their party from the abolitionists ; and said that was the way 



188 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

they had once done in California. The excitement by this time was 
very great, and they were threatening to kill two of the judges, 
Burson and Ramsay. At this time I saw a number of men with a 
large piece of timber to pry the house over, and also a piece of short 
timber for a fulcrum ; and another company came with a piece of short 
timber to batter the door down. But before they attempted to batter 
down the door, Parris Ellison, one of the judges of the election, opened 
the door from the inside, ran out with the ballot-box in his hand, 
hallooing out "Hurrah for Missouri!" He immediately returned to 
the house, and as he did so the mob rushed in to get at Burson and 
Eamsay. In a few minutes Burson and Ramsay came out where I 
was, and asked me what we should do. I told them that we would 

fo down to Mr. Ramsay's house about three hundred yards off and 
would draw up a statement of the facts, and send it off immediately 
to the governor. Sheriff Jones (Samuel J. Jones), at the head of a 
party of men, immediately followed, and commanded Burson to go 
back. I said, " Let us walk along, and not notice him." We went 
to Mr. Ramsay's, arid all the citizens who had not left, about twenty 
in number, signed a petition to the governor to set aside the election. 
Just as we were finishing some of them cried out, "Yonder comes 
the mob." I looked, and saw Jones at the head of a large number 
mounted on horses. They rode up to the door and halted, and 
demanded of Burson that they wanted the poll-books. As Burson 
had just left, some one replied that he was not there. One man cried 
out that there was a man going over the ridge, and that he had the 
poll-books. They wheeled their horses, and followed the man at full 
speed. They caught the man, whose name was Umberger, searched 
him, and found the poll-books upon him. They then took him pri- 
soner, and brought him back behind one of them I think it was 
Jones. As they came they cried out, "Take Wakefield, dead or 
alive damn him, take him !" I then ran into the house, and told 
Mr. Ramsay to give me his double-barreled shot-gun, he having taken 
it down and cocked both barrels when the mob first came to the house. 
The mob rode up, and I should think a dozen or more presented their 
pistols to me. I drew up the gun at Jones, the leader. "We stood 
that way perhaps for a minute, A man professing to be my friend 
undertook to take the gun from me, saying, " If you shoot we will all 
be killed ; we can't fight this army." My reply was, to stand off, or 
I would shoot him, which he did. Then one of my friends spoke in 
a very calm manner, and said, "Judge, you had better surrender; 
we cannot fight this army without arms." I then said I must know 
the conditions, and remarked to the mob, " Gentlemen, what do you 
want with me?" Some one said, " We want you to go back to the 
polls, and state whether it was not you that persuaded the judges to 
take away the poll-books." I said I could easily do that, as I could 
not get in hearing of the judges ; but if I could have got in their 
hearing, I should have done it. " But," said I, " if I go back,, what 
security have I that I will not be mobbed or maltreated on the way?" 
Some two or three of them spoke, and said they would go my security ; 
that I should not be hurt. I said I would go, but go alone. I went 
back with them, and got up in a wagon and made them a short speech, 



KANSAS APFAIES. 189 

stating to them that I had been an old soldier, and had fought through 
two wars for the rights of my country ; and I thought I had a privi- 
lege there that day. I then went on to state that they were in the 
wrong ; that we were not the abolitionists they represented us to be, 
but were free- State men, and that they were abusing us unjustly, 
and that their acts were contrary to the organic law of the constitu- 
tion of the United States. A man cried out while I was speaking, 
several times, " Shoot him ! he is too saucy." I then made an effort 
to those who gave their security that I should not be hurt. When I 
got done speaking, and got off the wagon, a man came up to me and 
told me he wanted to tie a white ribbon in my button-hole, or the 
boys would kill me. I first refused, but he insisted, and I let him do 
it ; and then I turned round and cut it out with iny knife. I then, 
made an attempt to leave, and they cried out, "Stay with us and 
rote ; we don't want you to leave." I thanked them, and told them 
they could have it to themselves then, and I should leave them. I 
then left them. I should think this was between eleven and twelve 
o'clock. The citizens had gone, generally, before that, and there 
were not a dozen of them on the ground ; and those that were 
left there went home ; and I did also. I was a candidate at that 
election for the Council. I drew up a statement of those facts, as I 
have before stated. It was signed by a number of citizens some 
twenty or thirty and sent to the governor, petitioning him to set 
aside the election. He found some informality in it, sent the man 
back, and a second petition was sent to him; and then the governor 
declared the election null and void, and ordered a new election to 
take place on the 22d of the May following. That election took place 
at the time appointed. There were no foreign votes at that election. 
The citizens assembled elected myself to the Council ; William Jesse 
and Augustus Wattles to the House of Representatives. We appeared 
at Pawnee on the 2d of July, were sworn, and took our seats as mem- 
bers of the legislature then and there convened. When the Com- 
mittee on Elections was appointed by the president of the Council, I 
offered a resolution, which was adopted, calling upon the governor 
for the evidence of the election of the 30th of March. The governor 
furnished the affidavits of the facts, &c. The chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Elections (Colonel Coffee) called upon me to know what 
plea I had to make ; I pointed out to him on the poll-book the names 
of the Missourians who had voted, and asked him if he did not know 
some of them. He made very light of my remarks, and thought it 
would avail me nothing. He made a long and elaborate report, to 
the effect that one Andrew McDonald was entitled to the seat in the 
Council. After the report was made, and before the vote was taken 
upon it, I made a speech to the Council, in which I went into the 
history of the evidence of the way McDonald was elected, and stated 
to them that the people of New York, Georgia, or any other State, 
had as good a right to vote in this Territory as the people of Missouri ; 
and said that McDonald was elected by foreign votes. I told them 
that the day I was there speaking (on the 4th of July) was a memor- 
able day, and might become more so ; that their actions there might 
be the means of lighting the watch-fires of war in our land. I stated 



190 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

that I did not wish to stay with them, as they might meet me, and 
give but a cold shake of the hand while the heart was not there. I 
then remarked that I knew they would turn me out that that would 
he the result of their vote, and I knew it then. The vote was then 
taken, and it was unanimous, with the exception of Chapman, to turn 
me out. and give McDonald the seat. 

JOHN A. WAKEFIELD. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 10, 1856. 



GrEO. W. WARD called and sworn. 

To Mr. King: 

I reside on what is called the Wakarusa creek, within a mile of 
Bloomington, in the second district, and have resided there since No- 
vember, 1854. I was one of the representatives elected from that dis- 
trict at the election of the 30th of March, 1855. I attended the election 
at Bloomington on that day. The judges that the governor appointed 
met in the morning and were qualified. Two of them, Mr. Harrison 
Burson and Mr. Kamsay, had their friends who had arms with them, 
and put their arms in the corner of the room and fastened the door. 
I saw no demonstrations outside which warranted such a proceeding 
on their part. When they got ready to commence the balloting, we 
were told that we were to vote through the window. Judge Wake- 
field and some other free-State men took possession of the window, 
and it was with some difficulty we could get there. When we did get 
up, we were required to be qualified without any discrimination. It 
was the pro-slavery men, chiefly _, that were required to be sworn. 
I saw no free-State men sworn, or required to be sworn. They 
required men to be sworn whom they knew to be residents. That 
created excitement. It was continued so for an hour or more, until 
some thirty-odd votes were polled. The bystanders then insisted 
that both parties should be sworn or neither be sworn, or that the two 
judges, Burson and Eamsay, should resign. There were some threats. 
They took a recess of half an hour to determine if they would resign. 
At the end of the half hour they were called and did not appear. The 
crowd gave them two minutes more; they were then called, and 
another short period was given them ; and they were called the third 
time and did not appear. Then Mr. Ellison named two judges, who 
were sanctioned by the crowd, and they appeared and acted as judges. 
The expressions of dissatisfaction were by the residents of the Terri- 
tory. There were some strangers there who claimed to be residents. 
But those I knew to be residents expressed this dissatisfaction. I saw 
no demonstrations from any quarter of the pro-slavery party to in- 
timidate the free t State men from voting, but, on the contrary, the free- 
State men were invited by the new judges and others to come up and 
vote. I know I invited twenty free-State men to come up and vote. 

Our district settled up very fast between the taking the census and 
the day of election as much so, if not more, than at any other time 
previous ; and I do not think the number of voters were less than a 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 191 

hundred in that increase. It was always my impression, from can- 
vassing the district, that I would he ahle to he elected easily. I do 
not think the free-State men were satisfied with their candidates, and 
I know very well that there were free-State men who voted for me. I 
do not think, from all I could learn, that it was possible for the result 
to have been changed by any illegal votes that may have been given 
there that day. Mr. Brown and myself, the pro-slavery candidates, 
ran pretty close together, within one or two votes. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

I reside now where I did at the time of that election. I do not 
know of any illegal votes polled that day. The persons who were 
there all claimed to be residents, and I took them to be such, though 
gome of them were strangers to me. My opinions and conclusions 
are all founded upon the idea that all who were there were residents. 
I do not recollect that any who were strangers to me were sworn, or 
that those strangers voted at all. 

There was a pry put under the corner of the house at one time, but 
I regarded it as mere fun, and not with any intention to tear down 
the house. I saw sheriff Jones there that day ; I was not in the 
house, and did not see him hold any pistol at the breast of Burson, or 
know that it was done. I have seen Jones in the post office at this 
place, (Westport, Missouri.) I do not know that he was ever post- 
master here ; I have heard so, but my impression was that Colonel 
Boone was postmaster here. 

A portion of the free-State men were asked to vote, and refused to 
vote ; the others said they would be in after a while, but I do not 
know whether they voted at all. 

After the new judges were elected, I do not recollect of seeing any 
one sworn. I have never examined the poll-books, and cannot say 
from any examination of them whether all who voted were residents 
or not ; I considered a man who came into the district and made a 
claim in good faith to be a resident, whether his family was there or 
not ; all I knew there I considered to be residents. 

I saw no camp of men there. I do not know Colonel Claiborne F. 
Jackson ; I saw a man there they called Jackson, but do not know 
whether it was Colonel Jackson or not. I did not hear him make a 
speech ; I heard Judge Wakefield's speech, as he stood in the wagon, 
after he was brought back ; I do not know who brought him back. 

That was a peaceable, quiet election, with the exception of the in- 
terruption before the new judges were elected. I saw no arms but one 
double-barreled shot-gun, except those stacked in the house. I saw 
no arms in the hands of these strangers ; if they had any, I did not see 
them. I saw none used, and none were threatened to be used, that I 
heard of. 

To STr. King : 

A portion of those who were prying up the corner of the house were 
residents, and the others claimed to be. A great many of those I did 
not know then, I have found out since to be residents of the district. 
Sheriff Jones was up there previous to that time, and I know that he 



192 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

had a claim there ; a man by the name of Smith claimed it, and has 
possession of it yet. Mr. Jones was backward and forward there 
from the time of making that claim till he went to Lecompton to live. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

Mr. Jones's family have always resided here in this place till lately, 
and I do not know but they live here now. Mr. Jones was in about 
Colonel Brown's store and the post office here until he was appointed 
sheriff. 

To Mr. King : 

We recognised him as a citizen of the Territory in our district. 
My understanding was that Smith jumped the claim which Jones had. 

GEORGE W. WARD. 
WESTPORT, Mo., June 9, 1856. 



THIRD DISTRICT. Tecumseh. 

Rev. H. B. BURGESS called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into the Territory in October, 1854, about the middle of the 
month. I came to Lawrence first, and came to this district the De- 
cember following, and have resided in this district ever since. I came 
from Conneaut, Ohio, here. I was appointed one of the judges of the 
election, the 30th of March, 1855, and attended that election during a 
part of the day. I arrived here about eight o'clock in the morning. 
At that time the other two judges had not arrived. I saw in the yard, 
about the window of the room to be occupied by the judges of election, 
what I should think was a congregation of at least 300 men ; and, 
from my knowledge of the district, and from their appearance, I un- 
derstood them to be in the main non-residents of the district, there 
being but few persons of that company with whom I was acquainted. 
I went into the judge's room and found a gentleman there, who after- 
wards informed me he lived in Independence, Missouri, preparing the 
poll-books and tally-list. 

[Mr. R. R. Rees, counsel for J. W. Whitfield, objects to this as 
hearsay evidence; a majority of the committee overrules the objec- 
tion ; Mr. Oliver dissenting.] 

I soon went out of the door, not finding the other judges in the 
room, to look for them. As they came into the yard, they were met 
by a couple of gentlemen with whom I was acquainted, and stepped 
aside into an unoccupied portion of the yard, and some three or four 
gentlemen detained them in conversation some moments. During this 
conversation I stepped up to them and introduced myself. I heard 
a few remarks but few- of the conversation, and one of the remarks 
from one of the judges was, " We understand it." One of the gen- 
tlemen I do not know whether it was the other judge or one of the 
company there said, " The thing is perfectly understood." We 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 193 

rery soon went into the house, and the proprietor of tne house stated 
to those there that it was the time for the commencement of the elec- 
tion, and requested gentlemen to vacate the room for the judges, as it 
was set apart for their express use. There was something like an at- 
tempt to clear the room, and, after turning out some of my friends, I 
think the outside door was then locked. The inside door, opening 
into another room, remained so that it could he passed, and the room 
remained as full as before. The first business of the board of judges 
was, one of them proposed, I think Mr.. Watts, that the first business 
was to elect a couple of clerks, and for that purpose they had brought 
a couple of friends with them. To this I dissented. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I cannot give the names of these friends. 

Direct examination continued : 

i 

My ground of objection was, that the proclamation had given us 
no such liberty ; had made no provision for clerkship outside of the 
board of judges. This objection I stated. One of the judges, after 
some discussion, proposed to discuss more important matters, before 
we could organize. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

I think the judge was Mr. "Watts. 

Direct examination continued : 

That matter of importance was the taking of the oath prescribed in 
the proclamation. Both Mr. Watts and Mr. Stateler claimed that the 
governor had transcended his authority in prescribing that oath, as he 
had no right to interpret the organic act in regard to citizenship, as 
the judges claimed that any man in the Territory, no matter how 
short or how long a time he had been in the Territory, was a resident, 
and entitled to vote ; that they had as good a right to interpret the 
organic act as the governor, and they refused either to take or admin- 
ister the oath prescribed. There was then considerable discussion, 
and some unpleasant feeling. 

During this discussion the room was pretty thoroughly filled, and 
a large crowd outside clamorous that the election should commence. I 
sat near the window, and frequently heard the remarks : " The 
damned Yankee" "the God damned Yankee" "the blue-bellied 
Yankee should never come out there alive" " put a knife in him" 

shoot him, damn him, shoot him," repeatedly; which expressions 
I understood applied to me, and my course there. The term " abo- 
litionist" was frequently applied to me. During this time the pro- 
prietor of the house, Mr. Stinson Thomas Stinson, I think came 
into the room from the inside door, in apparent rage ; stepped very 
quick ; had a very heary hickory cane, with a grub-butt, which he 
raised over his head I think with both hands. His first remark to me 
was, as near as I can repeat it, i You G-od damned blue-bellied Yan- 
kee abolitionist, you said that any man who would marry an Indian 
was a damned sight meaner than if he had married a nigger, and, 
H. Kep. 200 13* 



194 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

God damn you, I will smash your brains out." I arose and spoke u> 
him kindly. I had an overcoat on, buttoned up, and I put niy hand 
into my pocket. I told him I hoped he would be reasonable : that I 
was not aware that I had trespassed on any of his feelings, or his 
rights ; that I came there as a citizen, and claimed the right of a citi- 
zen upon a public day, and was in his house as a judge of election, 
and 1 claimed the protection of the other judges and the company. 
He receded a pace or two and lowered his club, and ordered me out of 
his house, and I told him I would go. I spoke to the other judges, 
and asked them to what place we would adjourn, as it seemed that it 
was impossible to hold the election there. They seemed inclined to 
say very little about it, and, considering the matter an urgent one, I 
declared the election adjourned and stated that I should leave, and 
began packing up my things to he off. I went to the outside door I 
had come in at, and found I could not get out. It appeared to be locked, 
and the key was not there. I started to pass out the other door, the 
inside door, and this gentleman that I before spoke of, who told me 
he was from Independence I do not recollect the name desired me 
not to go, and had a few words with the other judges, and the amount 
of it was that ic it was rather an awkward position." I adhered to 
my determination. He said that they would see Mr. Stinson, and 
have the matter adjusted. About this time some gentleman I did not 
know came in and remarked it was all right with Mr. Stinson. I was 
titill unsatisfied, and he proposed to go and see him himself, and very 
OQML returned and said he had seen Mr. Stinson, and Mr. Stinson said 
I oeold remain until after the election, and he would settle with me 
then ; upon which I resumed my seat. 

After we had continued our attempt at an organization for, I should 
think, about two hours, the people outside became very impat: 
The reason why we had not organized was because I would submit to 
nothing less than the oath prescribed by the governor, which the 
other judges would not accept, and refused to administer it to me. A 
suggestion was made by this gentleman from Missouri that we should 
make a compromise, as they were the majority, and agreed upon their 
plan of proceedings ; I being in a minority, would be obliged to sub- 
mit to their proceeding, to which I was very ready to yield. Mr. 
Watts suggested that there might be trouble in that, and asked if I 
would send in a report offering it to the governor, and I think the 
other judge asked if I would sign the returns if they proceeded in that 
way. I said I would if they would allow me to send up with the re- 
turns a statement of the facts.' This they would not accept, and pro- 
posed that we should resign, and allow the people there to elect 
judges to suit themselves. To that I objected, because the highest 
officer in the Territory had appointed us to that office the highest 
trust in the Territory and refused to vacate my seat. About this 
time three gentlemen came in through the inside door, one of whom 
I had seen in the crowd outside, and wished to know why the ele: 
could not go on ; to which very little reply was made that being 
given by Mr. Watte, that they had not yet organized the board of 
judges. The reply to that was, that they bad better be about it 
damned soon, or some rach remark, and they retired. After about 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 195 

from fifteen to twenty minutes another deputation of three came in, 
and said the hoys were getting very uneasy. Their language was 
gentlemanly. They said that if the election could not go on, they 
would not he responsible for the consequences that might result from 
it. They then retired. In ahout ten minutes more, I should think, 
another deputation waited upon us, and the speaker then was a rough, 
uncouth man, in language and manner. He wanted to know what in 
hell was the matter that the election could not go on; and that 
we had better he getting out of there pretty damned soon, er we 
would catch hell. Mr. Watts replied to him, that there was no trou- 
ble except with one of them, looking and nodding towards me across 
the table. To which he replied, "if he knows what is good for him- 
self, he will be getting out of here pretty God damn soon, or he would 
catch hell." I said to him, "the room was ordered to be cleared, 
and every friend of mine has been put out of the house, but the room 
has not been cleared a moment." And I demanded the room might 
be cleared for the sole possession of the judges, to see what they could 
do among themselves, as persons had interfered with their ceuasel to 
my great annoyance. He asked what time would do us, and I replied 
give us ten minutes." I should have said, before this, that during 
the time of the conversation with the deputation before this, Mr. 
Watts, one of the judges, had become apparently very much excited, 
and had withdrawn. I proposed to fill up the vacancy. Mr. Stateler 
objected to his leaving us, and seemed very desirous for him to come 
back, and was unwilling to have another appointed in his place. 
When the last deputation came in, there were but two judges ; but 
after they left, Mr. Watts resumed his seat, by invitation of Mr. 
Stateler. We soon found that there was no chance for argument, as 
neither weuld recede from the position lie had taken. Mr. Stateler 
proposed that we should all retire, as we w<?re all ministers, and the 
reputation of Christianity was at stake. I still persisted in not re- 
signing. Yery soon we heard cried, outside-, ci Five minutes left." I 
had heard prior to this, from the outside, " We have given them ten 
minutes, and then, damn them, we will put them out," and the re- 
ply, " Good! there are only ten minutes left then^ damn them." I 
I heard the remark, " Hang the damned abolitionist, -damn him, hang 
him ;" and then from others, " Hanging is too good f&: him." They 
sang out, "Three minutes left," and "Two minutes left." When 
the two minutes was sung out, Mr. Stateler rose and ssJdf "I will 
not stay here any longer I will not be responsible for tiic, conse- 
quences." I said, " Do you believe, gentlemen, that there is c^Dger 
to our persons by staying here?" Mr. Watts remarked, turning to 
me in an emphatic manner, " that he was afraid of no danger that 
he was afraid of no violence." Mr. Stateler rose from his seat, hold- 
ing on to it with one hand, and said, " I will not stay any longer ;" 
to which I remarked, that I did not think it safe myself to stay. I 
was asked if I would resign, and I promptly said " No." Mr. Watts 
went to the window, and while he was rising said, " I will say we 
will resign." Mr. Stateler asked me if I would acquiesce in it, and 
I said again that I would not. He asked, " What shall we do , our 
time is out ?" I said to Mr. Watts, who was ready to speak from the 



196 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

window, say 'we will retire, and you may conduct the election as yon 
are a mind to, winch I had proposed to the judges "before. My things 
were ready, and I left the room while he was speaking to the crowd 
from the window, and what he said I do not know. I know what he 
said was received with cheers and acclamations ; and as I passed ou1 
around the crowd, they were nominating tellers for the new judges, 
The outside door was open as I came out. A great many were rush- 
ing into the room from the doors. During the ten minutes given us, 
the room had been cleared of all hut the judges and the one gentle- 
man from Independence. I hare never seen this gentleman since, bu1 
think I should recognise him anywhere. The door was at the end o: 
the house, and the windows at one side. I passed around the crowd, 
which was very dense around the window, and met with no resist- 
ance. I left the ground immediately. 

I made it my business to know every man I came in connexion with, 
and was considerably acquainted in the district, and think there wen 
but few men in the district I could not identify. When I left I did 
not take so minute a survey as when I came, but should think then 
were 100 more than when I came ; that there were at least 400 per- 
sons on the ground when I left. I do not think I saw, to recognise 
them as citizens of the district once, 12 or 15 persons on the ground 
within the yard when I came away. ISTone of the deputations thai 
came into the room were, so far as I knew, citizens of the district. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Eees : 

Among the citizens I recognised, I remember D. H. *ETorne, Mr. (] 
think) Freeman Foster, a man by the name of Hickey, Mr. Stin- 
son, Dr. Crogsdale, Mr. Vaughan, a merchant of this place, and s 
young man boarding with Mr. Stinson. I do not remember to have 
ever heard his name, but he was said to be from Kentucky. I cannol 
now recall another name but the two judges, Watts and Stateler. 

Shortly after leaving the ground I met quite a number of citizem 
coming to the election. Philip Briggs, 0. K. Holliday, a French 
Dr. Doms who lives in the valley below Topeka, a Mr. Stone, and 
Mr. Clarke, were among them ; the others of which I do not now re- 
collect. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

The greater part of those I met coming to the election turned back, 
but some came on. 

To Mr. Rees : 

Mr. Holliday turned back, but I do not now recollect any of the 
others. 

Question. Was not the difficulty between you and* Stinson a private 
affair, and did you not make use of the remarks Mi. Simpson alluded 
to when he approached you ? 

Answer. Mr. Stinson and I, at that time, were almost wholly ufc- 
acquainted. I had called at his house at one time when he was sick, 
and we had had a few pleasant remarks. I had passed him a few time* 
upon the road, and there had been nothing but a pleasant recognition 
"between us, and, to my knowledge, there had never been the least 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 197 

personal ill feeling "between us certainly none upon my part. As to 
the latter part of the interrogatory, I have no knowledge of making 
use of that or any similar language. 

I am living upon a claim about two miles west of Topeka. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I informed those I met coming to the election of what had occurred, 
and the greater part of them returned. 

The witness here stated that he wished to say, concerning the ques- 
tion asked in relation to Mr. Stinson, that in a conversation some time 
prior to the election, with a gentleman, one or two others being present, 
the witness said he did not look upon it as proper for the separate races 
to intermarry. There was nothing referring to or intended to reflect 
upon Mr. Stinson, or any other person. 

HENRY B. BURGESS, 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 5, 1856. 



Rev. H. B. BURGESS recalled. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I have examined the poll-list of the 30th of March, 1855, for this 
district. I find there the names of 16 residents, as follows : 

W. A. Sublette, T. N. Simpson, D. W. Hunter, H. N. Watts, H. 
Cox, J. R. Wagsman, R. A. Edwards, E. A. Updegraph, Charles 
Alexander, A. P. Bigler, H. J. Shickler, Dr. Crogsdale,Wm. Pickerel, 
"W\ A. M. Vaughan, John Horner, W. R. Boggs. 

There are other names on this list I am familiar with, but not so 
familiar with them as to be positive about their given names. They 
are as follows : J. M. Cavenaugh, J. Strother, C. H. Buggaud, J. 
Niccam, James Herrin, F. Grassmuch, R. H. Matthew. I suppose 
there were but very few men in the district at the time of the election 
I did not know to recognise them, and could tell where they resided. 
Some names I was familiar with, but did not know their Christian 
names. I had been pretty mtfch all over the district, and had been at 
different gatherings that brought the residents together. I know of 
legal voters being discouraged and deterred from voting on that day. 
I know that at Topeka, my residence at that time,, we were informed 
by different persons, who were interested in the election. 

SMr. Rees objected to this testimony being received as to reports 
rumors. Mr. Reeder offered to prove that it was reported at To- 
| pekathat there was a sufficient force here, or to be here, to control the 
j elections, and to make all resistance useless, and residents remained 
; away from the polls, and gave the above report as their reason for 
I; doing so. A majority of the committee decide that Mr. Reeder may 
prove the fact that there was such a report in Topeka, and that voters 
| remained away, but not to prove the declarations of those remaining 
IJ, away ; ^Mr. Oliver dissents to the report being given on the ground 
that it is but a rumor, and, therefore, incompetent evidence.] 
There was a report in circulation, on the evening before the election 



198 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

of 30th of March, in Topeka and vicinity, that there was already ; 
force from Missouri, from Texas, and from other different souther] 
States here, for the purpose of controlling the election here ; and tha 
if they had not already numbers enough to overpower us, they had il 
the Territory, and they would be distributed as necessity might cal 
for. It was also reported there, that there was another body sent fb 
from Lawrence, to come during the night or in the morning, and 
am pretty confident that it was reported that this extra force would b 
200 in number. Some of the residents of Topeka and vicinity came 
but did not vote, or but few of them, as I find but few names on th 
poll-lists of those I know to be residents of Topeka and vicinity 
Their names are Edwards, who lives about as near Tecumseh as To 
peka ; Charles Alexander, who lived three miles above us, at th 
Baptist mission ; Wm. Pickerell and W. K. Baggs, who lives tw 
miles from Topeka ; and Dr. Crogsdale, who lived at the Baptist mis 
sion, a candidate and elected. The most of those, however, I me 
upon the road turned back. 

To Mr. Kees : 

All, save William Pickerell, who, I think, was at that time a free 
State man of which, however, I am not positive of the names 
have mentioned, were pro-slavery men. I stand now indicted by th 
grand jury of this county for perjury. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I was indicted for telling the truth in regard to the election, i: 
making an affidavit in a protest against the election setting forth th 
facts, and sent in to the executive of the Territory. I was not boun 
over before a justice of the peace. I suppose the first complaint wa 
made before the grand jury ; a warrant, I understood, was in th 
hands of a deputy marshal of this Territory for me, and before it wa 
served I hitched up my team and came down here, as I had undei 
stood before this time a bill was found against me. I have neve 
learned who my accuser was, nor upon what testimony the indictmen 
was found. The indictment was found, as far as I can recollect, abou 
a year ago, during the sitting of the court early last spring, and i 
is still pending. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

Those residents who did not vote were, as far as I know, free-Stat 
men. The following is a list of resident voters in the district, whos 
names I do not find on the poll-books of the election of the 30th < 
March, 1855, numbering sixty-eight. 

Names of resident voters in the 3d election district lolio did vote on ih 
30ZA of March, 1856. 

Mortamer Gilbert Keuben Low 

Delmater Ferrill Fred. Walman 

James M. Herrin Castopher Coplin 

JeMal Tyler Tim. Mclntire 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



199 



J. C. Greenwood 
Thos. G. Thorntoh 
Daniel H. Howe 
Milton 0. Dickey 
M. C. Drinkwater 
A. A. Ward 
W. A. Sumrnerville 
James Lacking 
L. T. Cooke 
Jas. B. Morhan 
W. F. Johnson 
John W. Brown 
Alfred Bigler 
Joseph West 
Eb. D. Stinson 
Charles Jordan 
Osborn Nailor 
J. M. Edwards 
Peter Belanger 
Belford Gilbert 
C. K. Holliday 
Peter N. Main 
W. C. Lincker 
E. Chase 

Edward S. Dexter 
H. B. Burgess 
John All 
Abel Hatwell 
J. Teggart 
S. A. Clark 
Philip Briggs 



W. C. Pickerell 
Jacob B. Chaise 
Charles Farnsworth. 
C. 0. Nicolas 
Claimore Shelter 
Thos. D. Parkerson 
Wm. Goddard 
Jerome W. Boles 
J. P. C. Bouche 
Hiram Dansin 
Charles H. Buzzard 
Wm. D. Owen 
F. A. Wentworth 
Charles Matney 
John Taylin 
^Richard Cox 
T. J. Wells 
John Leroy 
Jesse Newcum 
Mr. Cove! 
Dr. Martin 
Wm. Liniker 
John Doty 
Mr. Foster 
H. L. Kout 
Chas. V. Grey 
J. T. Case 
Daniel Turner 
A. P. Turner 
W. H. Turner 



The political opinion of the above men is free-State, or Free-soilers, 

HENKY B. BUKGESS. 
TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



CHARLES JORDAN called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I pitched my tent in this place on the 21st day of November, 1854. 
I am originally from Virginia ; from that to Kentucky, then to Indiana, 
Illinois, Missouri, and to Kansas. I have lived here ever since Novem- 
ber, 1854, within a mile and a quarter of this place. I rented a 
house in Clay county, put my family in it for two weeks, and came 
on here to look at the Territory, and then went back for my family. 
I was at the election of the 30th of March, 1855. In the morning, 
between nine and ten o'clock, I arrived at Mr. Stinson's, where the 
election was held. Three others were in my company, and as we 
were getting over the stile four young men, all armed, approached us. 



200 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

The front one accosted me as I stepped over the fence about in this 
language : " You are well; how am I, God damn you/' or " by God/' 
I am not certain which. As regards the positions of his arms, there 
was a pistol revolver shoved down in his boot, a bowie-knife by his 
side, and a large club in his hand. I passed him without heeding or 
noticing him. My son-in-law, that was just behind, replied in some 
way to him, but there was nothing of importance occurred. I went 
to the west side of the house, where was the window to receive the 
votes. There was a throng, perhaps six or eight persons deep, sur- 
rounding the window. I heard a man speak, urging those in the 
house to open the polls, and swore that if it was not done in ten 
minutes they would force the polls and elect their own judges, as the 
time fixed by the governor to open the polls had passed. I returned 
just about that time to the south door, and about that time Mr. Watts, 
one of the judges appointed by the governor, came out and informed 
me that he had resigned, as he thought it was unsuited to his calling ; 
and also, that he thought the instructions of the governor conflicted 
with the law, which, the judges had and could construe for themselves ; 
as that was the case, he had resigned. About that time, when I sup- 
posed not more than ten minutes had expired, a tall spare man came 
out and proclaimed that the judges had resigned, and they were 
ready to elect new judges within by voting or tellers. He nominated 
Horatio Cox, John Homer, and Mr. Small. I do not know his first 
name. That being done, they went into the house, and it was pro- 
claimed at the door that the polls were now open and ready for the 
receiving of votes. There was considerable rush to the polls and a 
hunt for tickets. There was one man in the yard who had a 
ticket ; and *s it seemed he could not read, he inquired what kind of a 
ticket it was, and some one said it was a free-State ticket, which he 
seemed to doubt ; I looked at it and saw it was not our ticket, and I 
had some tickets with our platform at the head of them. Seeing the 
platform, it drew a considerable of a crowd about me ; they were 
strangers to me, and all solicited tickets for the purpose of getting 
the platforms, and I handed out a considerable number of them, 
which some of them made no objection to. The flag was floating 
over us just about where we were standing. I told them I had de- 
fended my country ; that that was our true flag, the stars and stripes, 
and under that flag I never intend to vote while it floats over a sedi- 
tious mob. Just about that time Mr. Hearin, a neighbor of mine, a 
pro-slavery man, came into the crowd and addressed himself to them, 
saying I was a neighbor gentleman and a good citizen, and he wished 
to speak to me. He advised me not to do anything in the matter, 
and that I was in serious danger, as he knew. I said there was no 
chance for justice, and we parted, and I started to go back to the place 
of voting. There was a gentleman they called " Texas" ascended 
the stile and proclaimed that they wanted everybody to come forward 
and vote ; that it was everybody's privilege to vote, and he wanted 
both parties to come and have the thing fairly tested. He concluded 
with instructions to the pro-slavery party. He told them when they 
voted not to leave the ground, but to. stay there till the polls were 
closed, or the abolitionists would flock in, overpower them, and they 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 201 

would lose all their trouble. He said he had come further, perhaps, 
than the rest, and had undergone more than the rest, as he had been 
four and a half days on the road. I never learned where he came 
from. I then advised my party to leave, if hich we did, I think, pretty 
generally. I then came home. 

I should suppose there were 200, and perhaps more, when I was 
here ; they were pretty thickly scattered over the yard, and in groups 
about. I had attended some meetings for nominations, but beyond 
that I was not much acquainted in the district. I did not know but 
few in this crowd. I saw perhaps twenty or thirty there I knew, or 
biad formed some acquaintance with. I saw the camps the day before 
north and east of Stinson's ; passed by them, but did not speak to any 
in there. The man who made proclamation, and the one who first 
accosted me, and the man who took the vote for judges, were all 
strangers. I did not vote because I saw we were entirely overpowered 
}y the numbers from abroad. I was a free--State man. I saw we 
lad to be perfectly silent on all political matters, or we would get 
nto difficulty. When I referred to the flag, an old gentleman asked 
me if I had seen any violence ; I said I had not, but had seen some 
menacing, with insults added to injury, and would nc$ vote. I do not 
remember positively who were the free-State candidates. I do not 
mow that I am acquainted with the popular feeling of the district, 
)ut I have no hesitation in saying that there was a considerable 
majority of free-State men. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Kees : 

I saw no violence offered to any man who attempted to vote, .and I 
saw no man deterred from voting by violence. 

To Mr. Howard : 

The free-State party are divided between what are called free-State 
men and abolitionists. There are pro-slavery men, free-State men, 
and abolitionists here. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

Judging from the vote on the constitution, I should judge there 
were four free-State men to one abolitionist. 

CHAKLES JOED AN. 
TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



M. J. MITCHELL called and sworn. 
To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory the last of October or first of November, 
[854, and I have lired in this district ever since. I was not at the 
election of the 30th of March, 1855, but was then in Missouri. I came 
rom Liberty, Clay county, Missouri, to this place, and from Camp- 
>ell county, Kentucky, to Missouri, and had lived in Clay county 
nearly two years. I have examined the poll-list of the 30th of March, 



202 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

1855, for this district, and find plenty of residents of Clay county 
upon that list, as follows : 

0. F. Dougherty, R. Jones, G. W. Withers, G. W. Hall, L. Ben- 
net, George Buckle, S. Tillory, Emmet Allen, G. L. Withers, Garret 
Long, F. Bevans, H. S. Keller, W. Eiley, A. M. B. Hughes, J. P. 
Bird, 0, Duncan, H. S. Kout, J. Estes, B. F. Wallace, J. C. Coons, 
A. J. Kelly, C. S. Starts, Jas. G. Adkins, A. H. Cravens, and J. Wal- 
lace. There are more names than of persons from Clay county that 
I am familiar with, but I cannot give their given names. George W. 
Withers is a lawyer, and edits the " Richfield Enterprise" newspaper, 
and George L. Withers is a lawyer. The George W. Withers I refer 
to is a tall man, and lives in Richfield, and I think he is a lawyer, 
having heard him attend to a small case on Fishing river, Clay 
county, hefore a justice. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Rees : 

f I think I can give a majority of the names of those who are resi- 
dents in this district. I heard some of those whose names I have 
given as Clay county men when I was in Missouri, and who were 
making preparations to arrive here,, say that they were coming here 
to vote, and they inquired how many it would take to beat the abo- 
litionists. 

To Mr. Reeder: ^ f 

The following are the names of the residents of this district at that 
time on the lists, which I find after an examination of the poll-lists of 
this district for the 30th of March, 1855 : 

J. N. Cavenaugh, W. A. Sublett, James McConner, T. N. Stinson, 
D. W. Hunter, Jerry Nichols, James Herrin, H. N. Watts, J. M. 
Small, T. W. Hoges, H. Cox, J. R. Wiseman, R. A. Edwards, P. 
Croco, A. G. Brown, Ed. Updegraph, Francis Grassmuch, A. P. 
Bigler, L. D. Chilson, H. J. Strickler, Dr. Crogsdale, William Pick- 
erell, W. A. M. Vaughan, John Homer, J. Hitchner, F. A. Went- 
worth, Robert H. Mathews. 

M. J. MITCHELL. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



JOHN LONG called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into this neighborhood near a year ago the 10th of last 
January, and settled in this district, so far as to commence building, 
though I did not move my family up here until the first of March. I 
came from Michigan to Independence, Missouri, where I lived a year, 
and then I came here, and have lived here ever since. I was at the 
election here the 30th of March, 1855. There were a great many 
strangers here. The day before the election I was here in town ; 
there were, I should think, about 200 men, strangers to the district, 
as far as I know, many of whom I had known in Independence. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 203 

They camped on the bottom near here, north of Mr. Stinson's, perhaps 
a quarter of a mile west of here. I was in their camp the day before 
the election ; was here nearly all day ; was acquainted with a great 
many in the camp, and was round the camp with them. I do not 
know as there were any arms in the camp, for I saw none, as far as I 
recollect now. 1 had some conversation with those in camp, and 
they told me they came principally from Jackson county, but some 
from Clay county, Missouri. They said they came for the purpose of 
voting. I was on the ground on the .day of election, and I saw a 
great many of them vote. A Mr. Noland, an old gentleman I knew 
in Independence, claimed the privilege of voting first. The party all 
came to the polls, though, I think, not all at a time. I got to town 
here, I think, about 8 o'clock in the morning, though I was not 
around the polls all the time. The following names on the poll-lists 
I know to have been residents of Missouri : Small wood Noland, Gill- 
son Thomas, Reuben Johnson, L. Ruffrer, J. A. McBride, 0. C. 
Stewart -'(Stewart always has had his family in Missouri, though hue 
had a claim here and had a house built on it, but he did not bring his 
family here, I think on account of their health. I suppose he would 
be considered a resident there, though he has merely stopped here 
over night since then, generally at my house, and has made no more 
improvements) J. N. McBride, D. C. Patterson, J. P. Henry, 3\J. 
Noland, A. J. Messes, J. McMurray, R. D. Wood, D. N. Ross, J. 
M. Pitcher, E. A. Hickman, W. L. Farragh, J. T. Thomas, W. S. 
Rogers, S. H. Woodson, D. W. Snanig, S. J. L. Porter, J. C. 
Riggs, B. Miles, N. B. McMurray, J. C. McCoy, W. M. Akin, F. 
Pitcher, J. W. Hockaday, James Jackson, and J. W. McMurray. 
I know Samuel H. Woodson well ; he lives in Independence, Mis- 
souri. I think he has represented the district in Congress ; that he 
is a farmer and a lawyer, and at one time had a contract for carrying 
the mails over the plains to Santa Fe, though I do not know whether 
he has any interest in it now. He was one of the leading men here, 
and I think took the part of Mr. Strickler against Mr. Owen C. Stewart, 
when there was considerable contest as to which should be run for coun- 
cil. Mr. Woodson was in the room with the judges before the voting 
commenced. There were a great many men here that I knew resided 
at or near Independence, but I am not familiar with their given 
names, and cannot state positively that the names on the f>oll-listg 
are meant for them, except so far as I have given them. I hearjl 
considerable threatening outside at the time Mr. Burgess was in the 
judge's room. There was a great deal of excitement and loud talk 
and threats against the judges of the election. I do not know as I 
could state the exact words. The crowd around the window were 
threatening mostly against Mr. Burgess, if he did not receive their 
votes, or was not put out. Just at evening, pretty near time to close 
the polls, I had got on my horse to go home, and the Rev. Mr. Gil- 
patrick (whose name I afterwards learned) was standing near the 
door, and I saw some one strike at him, but I do not know who he 
was. I got off my horse and went up to him. I think as I got up 
to the door where he had been standing, he stepped into the opposite 
room of Mr. Stinson's house, where the polls were held and claimed 



204 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

protection of Mr. Stinson. I think Mr. Stinson's reply to him was., 
that he could not have protection there, and he opened the hack door 
for him to go through the house. I had then just stepped in ; the 
door was closed hy some one, and I opened it and asked him to come 
out the front way that he had gone in at. He remarked that he had 
been insulted ; that he had come there to vote and could not have the 
privilege of voting. I remarked that it was not worth while, as there 
was a great deal of excitement, and we had better not try to vote. 
That was about all that was said at the time, and we left in a very 
few minutes after that. He inquired of me for some friend of his, 
and when I came away he had got out of the crowd, and was stand- 
ing by the fence, and I think had found the friend he was looking 
for. I think Mr. 0. C. Stewa'rt had talked to the man who had 
made an assault on him, as he knew them, and had quieted them 
somewhat. The first I knew of the difficulty was that I saw a man 
striking at him ; but I do not know whether he struck him, though I 
thought he did. There did not seern to be any in the crowd disposed 
to befriend him, and he got away as I have stated. I saw no marks 
or blood on him. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I did not vote that day. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

One reason was, that I did not have the privilege of voting for men 
I wanted to vote for. I did not feel inclined to vote. I thought there 
was no use in the settlers voting against the .people from Missouri, as, 
on account of the numbers, they could not stand any chance of elect- 
ing their candidates. I suppose there were two hundred Missourians 
here, and I do not think there were over a hundred voters in this dis- 
trict, though I did not know who were actual settlers here. 1 did not 
know any persons except from Jackson county, Missouri. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Eees : 

I do not know the original cause of the difficulty with Mr. Gilpat- 
rick. I think Mr. Stinson refused him protection, saying he could 
not have protection there, and at the same time opening the door for 
him to gd out. I was not prevented from voting at that election. The 
reason I could not vote for the man I wanted was, that one of the men 
I wanted to vote for was not a candidate. There was one candidate I 
shcmLd have voted for if I had voted. I have been a western man for 
some time. I think it is frequently the case that there are fights at 
election, but I never saw much of it myself where I have been. I 
have resided for nearly fifteen years in Michigan. Mr. Strickler for 
councilman, and Dr. Crogsdale and Mr. Halliday for assembly, were 
the candidates that day. I cannot say whether the free-State men 
had any name on their tickets for council or not. I think the ma- 
jority of them voted for Mr. 0. C. Stewart, and it is probable there 
were tickets with his name on them. I think that Strickler was the 
only regular candidate on the field for councilman, though I am not 
certain. There was another man spoken of by some, but I do not 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 205 



know whether there were any tickets with his name on or not. I 
think he came from Brownville, hut do not recollect his name. One 
reason why I did not vote was because I thought there was no use in 
voting. 

JOHN LONG-. 
TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



JAMES HICKET called and sworn. 

To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into the Territory on the 27th of November,, 1854, spent 
a week in Lawrence, and got to Topeka about the 12th or 14th ol 
December, and have resided there ever since. I was at the election 
here on the 30th of March, 1855. I came here to vote, and saw a 
very large crowd of people here. I was pretty well acquainted in the 
Topeka part of this district, but not much in other parts of the 
I district. I was at the polls here some two or three hours. I heard 
jj one man at the polls make a speech, and say that he had come a good 
:' ways to vote, and he was not going back until he had accomplished 
his object, and advised them not to leave the polls until they were 
closed. I did not pay a great deal of attention to his speech, and do 
not recollect that he said anything about how long he had been coming 
or how far he had come. I did not vote that day, as I was advised by 
some of our men of Topeka that it was no use of voting. I saw no 
camp, but I saw a great many wagons they had. They were gen- 
erally armed. Almost every man had a revolver, and generally 
^ticking out of his boot-leg, and most of them had large clubs. Al- 
most all of these men were strangers ; and, out of the crowd, I do 
not suppose I knew more than twenty who came from Topeka and 
that neighborhood. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Eees : 

I saw nothing to prevent me from voting that day if 1 had desired. 

JAMES HICKEY. 
TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



LEWIS 0. WILMAKTH called and sworn. 
To Mr. Keeder : 

I came into this district on the 2d day of February,, 1855. I was 
it the election of. the 30th of March, 1855 ; I saw a large number of 
trangers whom I took to be from the State below, and I knew some 
f them to be from there, as I had seen them, as I had been down there. 

do not know how they came here, as the first I saw of them they 
rere here. I did not see their camps. I saw here from Missouri a 
oung mechanic fromWestport I do not know his name and another 
r oung man named Holloway, that I knew in Westport ; I had no 



206 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

conversation with them, as I was with the crowd, passing for one of 
the crowd, and avoided those I knew, for they knew me and my prin- 
ciples. I talked with quite a number of the crowd, and they said 
they had come here to whip the damned Yankees ; but they were 
afraid the Yankees were playing them rather a Yankee trick in not 
voting. Several of them said they came purposely to fight, and they 
wanted to get into a row. One man remarked, if he could get the 
boys to join with him, he would go up to Topeka and wipe the people 
into the river ; that he was good for half a dozen. They were all 
armed with guns, pistols and clubs, which they brandished around 
very much, rushing to that corner of the yard where there seemed 
to be any excitement. I made several attempts during the first part 
of the day to get to the window where the votes were received, but 
could not on account of the crowd. In the latter part of the day they 
gave out that they wanted us all to come and vote. I did not vote, 
"because the judges were appointed in such a manner, and the whole 
thing was conducted in such a manner as it was. I remained until 
the whole party that I came with had returned without voting. I did 
not hear them say directly where they had come from. They said 
they were from below, and one man said he had been about a week on 
the journey. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Kees : 

My object in going into the crowd was to see what they were going 
to do, and to talk with them ; but I had nothing definite in view. 
As I was sitting on the fence when I first came here, two or three 
came and talked to me as though I was one of their number, and I 
thought I would let it go so for awhile, to see what it would amount 
to. I saw no violence offered to any one who desired and offered to 
vote, though I heard a great many threats. 

LEWIS 0. WILMARTH. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 6, 1856. 



D. H. HORNE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I came into the Territory the 1st of December, 1854, from Massa- 
chusetts here. The last of March I went to Kansas City to meet my 
family I expected there, but I did not find them there. Being con- 
stable of this district, I felt it my duty to be present at the election. 
I left Kansas City on the 28th of March, 1855. I saw a party of 
horsemen cross the river there, and leave the same time I did. They 
said they were going into the Territory to vote ; they asked me if I 
was acquainted with the road, and I told them I was ; they asked me 
if they were right on the road to Lawrence, and I told them they 
were ; they passed me, as did many other horsemen and some teams 
during the day. I reached Lawrence the day after I left, late in the 
evening. A large party overtook me just as I got there. Somo 
wagons had flags hoisted and a drum on board. I went into Law- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 207 

rence with the mail-team, and took the mail on to Topeka, it being- 
then "between 9 and 10V clock in the evening. Soon after I left Law- 
rence a party passed me. I stopped at the springs until the next 
morning, the day of election, and then came on here to Tecumseh. I 
saw a good many men here who were strangers to me, who were 
armed with clubs, knives, and revolvers. One of them stated that 
Mr. Stinson would not allow thern^ to bring their guns inside the 
yard, but they must deposite them outside and arm themselves with 
clubs if they could get them easy. I was here when Mr. Burgess 
came down from Topeka, and conducted him to the room of the 
judges of the election. Soon afterwards Mr. Stateler and Mr. Watts 
i came in with the ballot-box. I was requested by some stranger to 
i me to wait outside, and I did so. After I had been out awhile the 
crowd began to be somewhat uneasy because the judges did not 
organize. Some one got up and said they should either organize or 
! resign, and have ten minutes to do it in, and they sent a man in to 
(the judges with that message. The man told them ; and afterwards, 
| as the minutes would expire, he would inform them that he had so 
i many more minutes. There was considerable excitement at the time; 
>and they said if the damned abolition judge did not resign pretty 
soon they would hang him. About that time Mr. Burgess, the free- 
State judge, came out of the door. Several men. started after him as 
he came out, and he called upon me to protect him. I went off with 
him, and they followed a short distance, and then turned back. We 
soon met some of our Topeka friends and advised them to go back. 
Mr. Burgess told them how he had been used, and they said they 
should not trouble the polls. He went home then. The people said, 
or some of them, that they came there to vote, and they were going 
;to vote, and would take no oath. I knew most of the persons in the 
idistrict. I should think there were two hundred and fifty persons 
around the polls that day,, the most of them when the judges first got 
together. I do not think there were more than fifteen or twenty 
persons there who were residents of the district. I did not vote. I 
left when Mr. Burgess came out; and when he told me how he had 
been used, and the demonstrations there, I thought it better not to 
vote that it was no use to vote the free-State ticket, which I should 
vote if I voted at all ; and I thought a man might get himself into 
difficulty. A great many residents of the district from Missouri said 
that, if the free-State men would vote to keep the niggers out, they 
would vote the free-State ticket. A large majority in the district, I 
hink, were free-State men. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Kees : 
saw no violence offered to prevent any one from voting. 

DANIEL H. HORNE. 
TECUMSEH, K. T., Hay 6, 1856. 



208 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

JAMES F. MERRIAM called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder: 

I arrived at Lawrence the 22d day of November, 1854, and came 
into this district the 7th of December, 1854, and hare resided at To- 
pefefi ever since. I was at this place the day of election, the 30th of 
March, 1855. I think I got here- not far from 9 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and left about noon, or a little later. I should judge there were 
from 300 to 400 about the polls on that day. I saw very few resi- 
dents among them that I knew ; the rest were strangers to me. I 
did not go down to their camps. I met Mr. Burgess as I came down, 
and he informed me of what had taken place here before he left. I 
came down that morning from Topeka, and found some 300 or 400 
men assembled around the window of Mr. Stinson's house, where the 
election was held. The judges appointed by the governor, except one, 
had left, and they were trying to agree upon others in their places. 
The mob about the window chose two persons for that purpose. I 
did not vote. The voting commenced, and I was absent among the 
crowd, hearing their remarks, and looking on. There was a pretty 
free damning of the abolitionists and Yankees, and remarks about 
those who came in. While I was there, one who appeared to be a 
leader, and the most respectable-looking man among them, mounted 
the fence, and commenced a speech to the crowd, stating that he had 
understood that the abolitionists were coming down from Pawnee and 
Topeka, and other points, in the 'afternoon, and intended to take the 
polls in their own hands to out-vote them. He said he had come as 
far as any of them ; had a farm and home- in Missouri ; had been a 
week from home, and was willing to stay a week longer, if it was 
necessary. He wanted them to stay until the certificates of election 
were given to their men, and he would then be willing to go home 
with them. That was the substance of what he" said. I heard his 
name, but do not recollect it. The crowd about here were armed, 
and a good share of them appeared to be in liquor, and were very 
noisy and boisterous. I saw a great many bowie-knives, revolvers, 
and guns, and many of them had sticks or bludgeons, that appeared 
to be freshly cut. I did not vote, because I did not consider the elec- 
tion legally conducted. 

Cross-examined by J. W. Whitfield: 

I came into this Territory from Vermont . I came out in company 
with a young man by the name of Hickey. At Albany we fell in 
company with some 80 or 100 more, who were coming out here, and 
we came out with them. There was one man who might be called a 
leader, named Tafft, who made arrangements for the party. They 
were not known by any particular name or organization. 

To Mr. Howard: 

I knew, by the papers, that a party was to start to come out, and I 
went there to meet them, but had no appointment with them. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 209 

To Mr. Whitfield: 

All the control this agent took was, for instance, when we stopped 
at Chicago the different runners of the hotels came on board, and he 
made arrangements with one of them for dinner, &c. , and the most 
of the company went there, but all of the company did not. The 
company furnished their own means/as far as I know. I paid my fare 
out of my own funds, and I know of no reduction being made. This 
party came out under the auspices of the Boston Aid Company, so far as 
to arrangements the Aid Company had previously made with different 
lines of travel. This I understood, but I do not know of it myself. 
I do not know that there was any agreement to comply with any 
arrangement whatever. I made none myself, and I do not know that 
any of the rest did. 

I saw no one here prevented from voting. I know that I and the 
free-State men did not vote, because there were no legal persons to 
receive the votes. I think I had a ticket with C. K. Holliday and 
Dr. Wood, and I think Mr. Stewart, on it. It was a sort of fusion 
compromise ticket, as I can recollect now. 

To Mr. Sherman: 

Those candidates were not withdrawn. The free-State men came 
here with tickets in their pockets, and finding the legal judges had 
been ousted, and some persons chosen by the mob, who were not 
legally entitled to receive their votes, they, as a general thing, did 
not vote. I have no question that a majority of this district were 
free-State men at that time. I am a dentist by profession. My 
knowledge of the people of the district is not very extensive. I know 
all the men in and about Topeka, many here, some down on the 
Wakarusa, and in other parts of the district; 1 and, so far as my 
knowledge extends, I should think the proportion of free-State men 
to pro-slavery men was 4 to 1. 

To Mr. Whitfield : 

On our ticket we agreed to, and one which I think I had at that 
time, I think was Mr. Stewart's name, and he was a pro-slavery man. 
It was a kind of compromise on the ticket, where one party would 
allow the election of an opposite candidate if the other party would 
return the favor. We were firmly convinced that this overwhelming 
imajority would be here from Missouri on the day of election, and we 
took this as the only course by which we would be likely to get a 
learing. 

By Mr. Reeder : 

I do not know that the Emigrant Aid Company ever paid the pas- 
sage of any one out here. 

J. F. MERRIAM. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 7, 1856. 

WILLIAM R. BOGGS called and sworn. 

To Mr. Reeder : 

I came into the Territory in February, 1855, to settle, though I had 
ocated in the Territory about August, 1854. I located above Topeka, 
n the third district, and have lived there ever since. I came from 
H. Rep. 200 14* 



210 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Howard county, Missouri, here. I was raised in Missouri, partly in 
Howard county. I was at the election of the 30th of March, 1855, 
and I found a great many strangers here, but I could not tell where 
they resided ; I could not tell positively who were residents at that 
time. I saw a great many men I had known in Missouri, hut I did 
not ask them where their residence was there. I do not recollect of 
seeing any of them in the district since that time. I had conversa- 
tion with some I was acquainted with in Howard county, hut it was 
not in regard to the election or their residence. I think some one or 
two or them told me they came here to vote. I was in their camps ; 
a portion of them camped north of this on the river, and there were 
various other camps. I think there were about 100 here, though I 
cannot tell positively whether there were more or less of them. I was 
in the camp above here on the river the day of election ; I voted here. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

_I saw a great many vote there who were strangers to me. 
^Cross-examined by Mr. Whitfield : 

The candidates of our party were Dr. Crogsdale and Mr. Strickler, 
and some one I do not recollect whom. I think Mr. Holliday's name 
was on the other ticket. I think there was some opposition to Mr. 
Strickier. I saw no man prevented from voting, and nothing to pre- 
vent any one who had any resolution about him. There may have 
been a little more trouble here than at elections in some parts of Mis- 
souri ; but it is common to have something of the kind at elections in 
western countries. I saw many residents of the district vote. 

By Mr. Keeder : 

I do not know that I know any one who voted differently from 
what those strangers did on that day ; but I was not around the polls 
much; I do not know how they voted. The men I know from Howard 
eounty were Dr. Morse, a Mr. Hughes perhaps one or two of them, 
one by the name of Clarke, and several others I do not now recollect. 

WILLIAM B. BOGGS. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 7, 1856. 

W. A. M. VATJGHAN called and sworn. 
To Mr. Keeder: 

I was living in Tecumseh on the 30th of March, 1855. I first came 
here on the first or second week in September, 1854, and have resided 
here ever since. I moved from Nebraska Territory to Missouri and 
remained there for a month, and then came to this Territory. I went 
from Missouri to Nebraska in 1850 ; I went from Kentucky to Mis- 
souri, and from Virginia to Kentucky. I saw a great many men on 
the day of election, and both before and afterwards here, that I did 
not know. Some of them came a-foot, some in wagons, carriages, and 
buggies, and some on horseback ; some encamped here, and some 
passed above. The largest encampment I saw was on the Shunga- 
munga, about two hundred yards from Mr. Stinson's ; I was in the 
camp once early in the morning of the 28th of March ; there was only 
one wagon there then, and from three to five men. I was introduced 
to two of them at that time one of them was Henry or McBride, I 
do not know which. I did not hear where they were from ; I remained 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 211 

there but a few minutes. That camp increased afterwards, for I saw 
a great number of tents there, but I was not in it afterwards. I saw 
persons in town that I had seen some two months or three months 
previous in Missouri ; I recognised some seven or eight of them. I 
think the first time I saw them here was on the 28th. They were a 
young man by the name of Bird, who had a claim near Douglas, but 
now resides in Leavenworth city ; one by the name of Bennett, who 
told me he had a claim near Douglas, but resides in Missouri ; a man 
by the name of Kyland Jones, who I had seen previously in Mis- 
souri, and since in Leavenworth city ; a man by the name of 0. F. 
Dougherty, who resided in Missouri, and I have since seen him there. 
I saw others there I do not recollect now. I have examined some 
four times the poll-list ot this district for the 30th of March, 1855. 
The following is the list of the names of those I find on the poll-lists 
of residents of this district ; those having no remarks to the names 
correspond with the names on the poll-list. 

Residents of Third District. 
George Holmes had a claim, but had not resided on it for some time, or until a few days 

before the election ; McBride had a claim on Deer Creek do 'nt know given name nor 

time of residence ; Lowe, do'nt know given name ; O. C. Steward, G. Bowls, J. W. 

Kavanaugh, J. R. F. Hooft, F. A. Wentworth, W. A. Sublett, G. M. Holloway, J. R. 
Warren, J. Mitchener, J. Strother, J. Piles, C. H. Buzzard, P. Woods, J. McConnell, E. 
G. Vaughan, Thomas Warren, J. Piles, S. Scott, D. W. Swearengen, W. Sutherwhite, T. 
N. Stinson, D. W. Hunter, J. C. Riga-, J. McConnell, (should be Harvey McConnell,) R. 
H. Mathews, J. Sarton, B. Wilks, N. M. Ilendricks, A. D. M. Hand, J. Acres, J. W. 
West, J. Niccum, W. D. Owen, James Herren, H. N. Watts, James S. Piles, J. H. 
Weaver, C. Copeland, Samuel D. McCutchen, James M. Small, T. W. Hays, Horatio Cox, 
W. Matney, M. Rule, James K. Waysman, G. W. Berry, R. A. Edwards, Peter Crocco, 
A. G. Brown, A. J. Kelley, Edward Updegraff, W. R. Boggs, W. H. Brady, L. B. Stateler, 
James Corigal, Charles Alexander, F. Grassmuck, John Sailing, A. T. Byler, W. Stanley, 
J. M. Edwards, Richard Steward, W. Mutney, sen.. L. D. Chilson, John C. Agee, (on 
tooks, J. R. Agele,) Thomas Quesenberry, Richard Hunter, H. Z. Quesenbery, (on books, 
H. G. Quesenby,) H. J. Strickler, D. Croysdale, W. Pickerell, W. A. M. Vaughan, John 
Homer. 

I find two J. McConnells on the list. I knew a J. McConnell and 
a Harvey McConnell in the district who are brothers, and I think one 
of the J. McConnells was meant for Harvey McConnell. A man b> 
the name of Lowe lives in the district, but I do not know his give* 
name. A man by the name of McBride had a claim on Deer creek, 
but I do not know where he lived. When I speak of men living on 
claims, I mean that I saw them alive before they went there, and I 
saw them alive after they came back, and they also told me they lived 
there. McBride came here a few days before the election, but I do not 
know how many. I was one of the clerks of the election. I was out 
in the yard talking; my name was called, and I went into the room, 
and did not know for what purpose I was wanted until I got into the 
room. I am a pro-slavery man. I have been in the mercantile busi- 
ness ever since I have had my house up. I am postmaster here. I 
am tolerably well acquainted here in the district. I do not think any 
of the strangers here told me where they came from. I do not know 
of my own personal knowledge that any of the men here on the day 
of election lived in Missouri at that time. I know of my own know- 
ledge that the names I have given on the list as residents of the dis- 
trict were living here at that time. I am of opinion that those I have 
given as residents of Missouri were residents of Missouri at the time 
of the election, for I saw them there some two months before, and have 



212 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

seen some of them since. Some of them had farms, and some of them 
were in stores. I find the name of J. Estes on the list. I know a J. 
Estes in Missouri, but I know he was not here. I did not see him 
here. I know he was too old a man to get out here. Am keen to 
swear he was not here. 

The following is the list of the persons I allude to as being from 
Missouri : 

Smallwood Nowland, (know a man in Missouri by the name of Nowland, not given 
name,) John Bland, (know such an one in Missouri,) O. F. Dougherty, (know such an one 
in Missouri,) R. Jones, (know such in Missouri, now in Leavenworth city, K. T.,) G. W. 
Withers, (know such an one in Missouri,) G. W. Hall, (know such an one in Missouri,) 
L. L- Bennett, (know such an one in Missouri,) L. Tillery, (know such an one in Missouri,) 
Emett Allen, (know such an one in Missouri,) G. Long, (know such an one in Missouri,) J. 
J. P. Bird, (know such an one in Missouri,) H. L. Roustt, (know such an one in Missouri,) 
J. P. Henry, (know such an one in Nebraska,) J. Estes, (know such in Missouri, who was 
not here,) H. Morton, (knew him in Missouri and Philadelphia, Penn.,) N. R. McMany, 
(have heard of such a name,) J. A. Laneheart, (know a Laneheart in Missouri,) A. B. Earl, 
(know a Dr Earl in Missouri,) W". F. Gordon, (know a man by the name in Missouri,) 
C. S. Stark, (know a man by the name in Missouri,) T. C. Cooms, (know a man by the 
name in Missouri,) James G. Adkins, (know a man by the name in Missouri,) S. H. Wood- 
son, (know a man by the name in Missouri,) W. W. Tilley, (know a man by the name in 
Missouri,) James Hunter, (know a man by the name in Missouri,) H. A. Hunter, (know a 
man by the name in Missouri. 

WM. A. M. VAUGHAN. 

TECUMSEH, K. T., May 7, 1856. 

W. A. SUBLETT called and sworn. 
To Mr. Scott: 

I resided on the 30th of March, 1855, at Tecumseh, in the third 
election district. I went there in the fall of 1854. It was rumored 
through the Territory that eastern men were to be sent to the Terri- 
tory for the purpose of voting, to make Kansas a free State. The ru- 
mors on the borders of Missouri were pretty much the same in regard 
to the matter. I heard one man say that he had come for that pur- 
pose. He was in company with another gentleman. He was speak- 
ing of himself and a company of some six or eight others. There 
were but those two persons present at the time of the conversation, 
and the others were in camp close by. As near as I can recollect, he : 
said he came with a company from Pennsylvania; that they had come 
out through the influence of Governor Reeder, and for the purpose of 
voting. He said that there were between forty and fifty behind on/ 
the river, coming up for the same purpose. It was before the time of 
election. He told me that he knew of the election in Pennsylvania 
before we knew of it here. I think this conversation took place in 
February, 1855. These persons were all I knew of who professed 
to have come into the Territory for the purpose of voting. I do not 
know of any free-State men going out of the Territory just after the 
election. I do not recollect that this person stated how they knew 
the time of election in Pennsylvania. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Howard: 

This conversation took place in my storehouse in Tecumseh. I do 
not know what was the name of this man. There were two together 
at the time. He stated that there was a company of forty or fifty be- 
hind on the river ; so I understood. He himself had just come into 
the Territory, and was on his way to Fort Riley. I think he stated 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 213 

to me that he came by water. He did not state anything about his 
leaving after the election. He stated that the time of election was 
known in Pennsylvania before it was known here. I cannot say what 
time this took place, except that it was between the first and the last 
of February. 
To Mr. Scott- 
It was after navigation had opened on the river, because I think 
this gentleman told me he had come up the river. I do not know 
what time navigation did open. I cannot be certain that it was in 
February, for I may be mistaken; but if my recollection serves me 
it was in February, and after navigation was opened. 

W. A. SUBLETT. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 26, 1856. 



GEORGE HOLMES called and sworn. 

To Mr. King : 

I was a resident of the Territory of Kansas at and before the 30th 
of March, 1855, in the third election district. The election was held 
on that day at the house of Mr. Stinson, in Tecumseh. I acted as one 
of the clerks at that election. I went over to the place of holding the 
election, and one of the judges (Mr. Burgess) was there. I then 
went over to the house of Mr. Stateler for him and Mr. Watts, the 
other two judges appointed by the governor. They came over to the 
polls, and Mr. Watts proposed the appointment of two clerks. Mr. 
Burgess objected, saying that he could find nothing about clerks in 
the instructions of the governor, and he thought he could do his own 
clerking, and the other two judges could do the same. They then 
commenced an argument on the qualifications of voters. I do not re- 
member all the argument ; but Mr. Watts and Mr. Stateler were not 
in favor of receiving all who offered to vote, as to whether they in- 
tended to remain in the Territory all their lives or not. Mr. Burgess 
said he would swear every man he was not personally acquainted 
with, that he was a resident of the Territory, and intended to live 
there, and whether he had any family in the Territory. That is the 
argument to the best of my recollection. Mr. Watts said every one 
they were at all doubtful about they would question, and he would 
have to swear or prove that he was a settler, and intended to reside in 
the Territory. He said he was in favor of letting every man vote 
who had a claim, and intended to make a permanent settlement on it. 
As far as I could understand it, I do not think their object was to 
lallow persons who came there merely to vote and then return to give 
votes there that day. I do not think there were more than fifty on 
the ground, perhaps one hundred, when I went after the judges. I 
was in the room afterwards with Mr. Burgess, and do not remember 
more than that being there in the morning. I knew most of the per- 
pons I saw there, and considered them residents. The only violent 
talk I heard during the day was while the argument was going on 
between the judges. Mr. Stinson came in and asked Mr. Burgess if 
he had said that every man who had married a half-breed ought not 
to grumble at any one who married a nigger, or something to that 



214 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

effect. Mr. Stinson had married a half-breed. Stinson had a cane in 
his hand, and told Burgess if he had said so he would break his head. 
Burgess denied having said so ; when some persons in the room inter- 
fered, and told Stinson not to quarrel with him in his house at that 
time, as it might interfere with the election. Mr. Stinson said he 
would settle it with Mr. Burgess some other time, and then left the room. 

I believe the judges could not come to any agreement ; and they 
all agreed to resign, and allow the voters there to elect new judges. 
Most of the voters I saw there I knew. They were standing at the 
window at the time, and said it was past the time for opening the 
polls, and wanted the judges to proceed with the election. They 
were legal voters, so far as I knew them. Other judges were 
elected, being residents of the Territory, and living there at the 
time. I do not recollect their names. They appointed Mr. Vaughan 
and myself to act as clerks of the election. I prepared the poll- 
books myself. I have no recollection of any one from Missouri 
there arranging the poll-books. I mean by preparing the poll- 
books, taking the paper and ruling it into appropriate columns. I 
think several votes were challenged during the day, and the judges 
decided they could not vote some for being minors, and some for 
other causes. There were only few challenged. I always was of 
opinion that the district was strongly pro-slavery. I had not been 
about in the district a great deal, and did not know how many voters 
were there. I knew the county round about was pretty thickly 
settled, and it was one of the principal districts in the Territory. I 
judged by the' election the "fall before, at which I was also a clerk, 
that the pro-slavery party would be about eight to one. I had been 
sick in the Territory, and could not be about much, and I was also 
taken sick again while down here afterwards. There were a great 
many persons who did not come to the fall election, as they lived a 
long distance from the polls ; and I thought it was no use to come, a 
Whitfield would be elected any way. 

I saw some on the ground at the election of March 30th that I had 
known in Jackson county, Missouri, but I did not know whether they 
were residents of the Territory or not. All that I spoke to that I did 
not know of having claims there said they had claims, and intended 
to improve them and become residents. I left the district shortly 
after the election, and do not know who have moved there since. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

I first moved into the third district in August, 1854, and settled 
near Tecumseh. I had no family at that time, but took a claim, and 
afterwards improved it during the fall and winter, building a cabin 
on it. I was part of the time, from August to November, in West- 
port, where I had moved from, and part of the time in the Territory. 
I do not know exactly how long I was in the Territory. I went up 
in August, made my claim, came down here, and got a wagon and 
horses, and went back with the intention of improving my claim, and 
was taken sick in the Territory, and laid sick there three weeks at 
Mr. Homer's. I then came down to Westport on business, and was 
taken sick here again, and lay sick here for a long time, nearly up to 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 215 

the time of the election in the fall. I then went back again, and 
served as clerk of the election. When I came down here and was 
sick, I was engaged in writing up some books, as I could do but little 
to enable me to meet my expenses, but had no permanent engage- 
ment, I returned here directly after the November election, and re- 
turned to the Territory again not long before the March election. I 
was engaged in business here during the winter, when I was able to- 
make something to live upon, as I was a poor man. I had, however, 
improvements going on in the Territory upon my claim at the same- 
time. I do not know anything about other persons going up from 
Missouri at the time I did, except myself and Mr. Hunter. I saw a 
gentleman there on the day of election, who was said to be Col. Sam- 
uel H. Woodson, of Independence, Missouri, but I do not know the 
man, having heard of such a man only, and do not know him except 
by reputation. The one called Mr. Woodson was in the room with 
the judges and clerks part of the time, and part of the time he was 
not. Several gentlemen made speeches that day, but I was busy 
counting up the votes, and could not say positively whether Mr. 
Woodson spoke or not. I do not remember who the gentlemen were 
who persuaded Mr. Stinson not to interfere with Mr. Burgess. I con- 
sidered that a man who was on the ground the day of election, and 
had a claim, was a resident voter. I did not say anything to Mr. 
Woodson about his having a claim, and do not know whether he voted 
or not. The question usually asked by the judges, of those whom 
they questioned at all, was whether they had claims in the Territory 
or not. I do not remember how many were so questioned. I left 
there a few days after that election, and have resided in Westport, 
and am now engaged in business here. I left the Territory because I 
could not make a living there. 

To Mr. King : 

I have my claim yet. There was a dispute about my claim when I 
went up in the fall, and that was one reason why I left there. I told 
Judge Elmore he might have the houses, but I believe the claim is 
not taken by any one but myself yet. I tried to sell my claim for 
some time, but could not do it. 

Several speeches were made, but I was busy at the time, it being 
after the election was over, and while the judges were counting over 
the votes, and 1 was keeping the tally list as clerk. The voting that 
day was quiet and orderly, and I saw no violence of any sort. Some 
votes were cast for the free-State candidate, Holliday, and I saw noth- 
ing to prevent any one from voting for him who wanted to do so. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I never did vote in this State, as I was just of age when I went up 
into the Territory in 1854. 

To Mr. Oliver : 

When I went up to the Territory and took a claim, I intended to go 
there and cultivate my claim, and reside upon it, and make a living 
there if I could ; and only returned here after having tried and failed 



216 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

to make a living there. I had no intention, when I took a claim, o 
taking it merely so that I could vote. I understood from many per- 
sons about that time, that they had taken claims, and were making 
preparations to take their families there. If a man said he had a 
claim, and I believed it, I thought he was a voter, I considered all 
voters who had claims, and were really intending to settle upon them. 

GEO. HOLMES. 
WESTPORT, Mo., June 3, 1856. 



GEORGE H. BERRY called and sworn. 

To Mr. King : 

I first located in the Territory of Kansas on the 1st of September? 
1854, and moved my family there in November, eleven miles south of 
Tecumseh, in the third district. I was at the election at Tecumseh 
on the 30th of March, 1855. A majority of the people there were 
strangers to me. I recognised a great many of them as citizens of 
the country. I was not at the polls much, merely going down there 
to cast my vote. I was not at the polls more than twenty minutes, 
and not more than an hour on the ground, during the day. During 
the month of March there was considerable emigration, and, as far 
as I could see, more than at any time previous. 

Some few days after the election not more than seven or eight, 
and perhaps not more than four or five days I was coming down to 
Westport on business, and I fell in with many men on the route* 
And about noon I met with quite a number of men at Blue Jacket's, 
on the Wakarusa. I drove into the body of the creek to get some 
water, and some four or five men rode up to me, going into the Ter- 
ritory ; and after talking with them a bit, I found them to be Mis- 
sourians. We struck up a conversation, and while we were talking 
a company of fifteen or twenty, who were encamped on the bank, 
whom I supposed, from the direction of their teams, to be men going 
into the Territory, came to the spring in the bed of the creek to get 
water while I and the Missourians were talking. As they passed 
from me going back to their wagons, I asked some of the Missou- 
rians who they were, and where they were going. The answer was 
given to me that they were Yankees, and I said that they had come 
a little too late, and should have come before the election, and had 
an opportunity to vote. The party had not gone out of hearing. 
They turned around, some three or four of them, and thanked me 
kindly, and said, " Sir, we have done that little thing, and are on 
our way home." Some one or two went on to remark that they were 
aiming to beat Missouri at her own game. I told them that was 
right, and every man who could be beaten at his own game ought to 
stand it. I travelled along the road, and saw some of them along the 
way, and some of them here in Westport, and also in Kansas City. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

The Council Grove district is a little northwest of me. At that 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 217 

time Mabillon McGee lived in that district, and now lives in this 
vicinity. I know of no settlement west of Council Grove. My under- 
standing from these eastern men was, that they had been at Lawrence 
and had voted there. Where I met them was this side of Lawrence 
some seven or eight miles. 

GEORGE W. BERRY. 
WESTPOKT, MISSOURI, June 7, 1856. 



FOURTH DISTRICT. Dr. Chapman s. 



PERRY FULLER testified. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I have resided in the fourth district since September 6, 1854, and 
profess to be well acquainted in the district. I have been doing busi- 
ness, merchandising, ever since I came there, and have had a good 
chance of becoming acquainted. I was at the election of 30th of 
March, 1855, and was appointed one of the judges of that election. 
I went to the place I was told it was to be, (the election was to be 
held at Dr. Chapman's,) and got there half an hour before the time 
prescribed for opening the polls, and stayed at Dr. Chapman's some- 
thing like an hour, I suppose, and was then told the election was 
being held half a mile from there, at another house, and going on at 
the time. I went over there, and got there a short time after the 
hour for opening the polls, and was told that some forty odd votes were 
taken before I got there. I went and asked the question of one of 
the judges why they opened the polls without the proper judges being 
there ; the answer was that I had come too late. I then told the free 
State party that it was a one-sided election, and advised them not to 
vote, and think only two of them voted. 

There was a good many men camped there, a good many wagons, 
and a general display of guns and implements of war. They were 
very rude ; the company was very insulting. 

As near as I recollect, there were some forty-seven legal voters in 
the district at that time. There were eighty votes cast at that election. 

I have here a list of actual residents of the district who did not 
vote at that election. There are twenty-nine of them. 

There are only fifteen names on the poll list who were actual 
residents of the district at that time. Their names are as follows : 
Reuben Hackett, John H. Lockridge, D. S. Keezer, David Pultz, 
J. B. Davis, Joseph M. Bernard, Alfred Dale, Charles Homer, 
J. Chapman, Reese B. Young, C. J. Hartley, William G. Luckett, 
Thomas Essex, Richard McCamish, and J. Wilson. 

I was acquainted with one of the non-residents who voted that day, 
T. J. Lockridge. Their camp was 150 yards, perhaps, from the 
election. 

They had two sets of poll books, one to elect a governor. 



218 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



I was disgusted with the proceeding, and left for home. 

One of the judges appointed by the governor officiated. James B. 
Davis and Thomas Mockbee were the other two judges. 

The next day we met and got up a protest, which we sent in signed 
by thirty-one persons, none of whom had voted, and all were residents. 

The following is the list of twenty-nine names which I referred to : 



John F. Javens, 
Mansfield Carter, 
Samuel Workman, 
Thomas Doty, 
Levi Doty, 
Franklin Barnes, 
J. C. Hughes, 
Charles Clark, 
William David, 
M. Shore, 
A. F. Powell, 
S. T. Shore, 
William Moore, 
Silas Moore, 
Edward Moore, 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 3, 1856. 



James Moore, 
Jacob Clark, 
Champion Mayfield, 
Samuel Mewhinney, 
P. Basinger, 
A. B. Gilliland, 
William Harris, 
Wm. Mewhinney, sen., 
Kalph Mayfield, 
W t m. Mewhinney, jr., 
Amos Hanna, 
Perry Fuller, 
D. Hendricks, 
A. G. Miller. 

PERBY FULLER. 



PETER BASINGER recalled. 

Examined by Mr. Reeder : 

I was not at the March election in 1855. I saw numbers of persons 
going to the election,, and saw some going back after the election. 
There was some man from Missouri, who was boarding at my house at 
the time, who had come out to look at the Territory. Some of those 
who were going to the election I knew were Missourians, and had 
seen in Missouri, as I had teamed it a good deal that fall, and had 
become acquainted with them. Some of them had been there in the 
November before, but I do not recollect their names. I was the last 
settler on the side of the district towards Missouri. I should suppose 
some twenty or thirty persons passed my house before I left. One 
person I knew, called Mr. Mockbee, stopped and got a cup of coffee, 
as several of them did. Mr. White stopped there also ; I knew him. 
I left home that morning about ten o'clock. Dr. Chapman's is, I 
should suppose, about four miles from the Missouri line. I got back 
home the evening of the day of the election. 

PETER BASINGER, his x mark. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., April 30, 1856. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 219 

WILLIAM MOORE testifies. 

I came into this Territory about the 16th of August, 1854, from 
Indiana, and settled on Ottawa creek, in the fourth district, and have 
lived there ever since. I was at the election of the 30th of March, 
1855. At that time I had become tolerably well acquainted with the 
citizens of the district. 

My son, Edward Moore, was appointed one of the judges. I went 
with him early in the morning of the election to Dr. Chapman's 
house, the place where the election was to be held. When we got 
near there,, I saw no persons about. A little distance from that house 
a couple of gentlemen came out of a cabin and told us the election 
had been moved betwixt a quarter and a half a mile from Dr. Chap- 
man's to a double cabin that was unoccupied, and that about sunrise, 
or a little earlier, they had gathered there, and Squire Haskell of that 
district had sworn in some men as judges. I met then with Mr. 
Fuller, the other free State judge, and we consulted as to whether we 
should go from Dr. Chapman's. We went, and when we got to the 
top of a rise, we saw quite a number of carriages and buggies, and 
perhaps a rise of a hundred men, who, with few exceptions, were en- 
tire strangers. I do not think there were more than a dozen men 
there who belonged to the district. We went up to the place where 
they were voting. The principal part at that time, eight or nine 
o'clock, had voted, had got off in little groups around, and appeared 
to be playing cards and drinking liquor, and were quite noisy. They 
said their liquor had about run out, and they started off, two or three 
on horses, to hunt more liquor. We staid there perhaps an hour and 
a half, until some more of our neighbors came in, and we concluded 
we would not vote ; that we would draw up a protest, because the 
election was illegal. We then left for our house. I had but little 
conversation with those strangers, and did not hear them say much 
about their coming there, or where they came from. 

I recognized Mr. Thomas Mockbee, who was acting as one of the 
judges of the election, as he had done the election before ; also a Mr. 
Thomas Lockridge, who lives not far from Independence, where I have 
seen him. There appeared to be two elections, one kept in an adjoin- 
ing house, where one man was acting as receiver, judge, and clerk. 
He said he was taking votes for a new governor. I asked him if 
Governor Keeder was dead, and he said he had run away, arid more 
than that, he was a one-sided governor, and they wanted one that had 
two sides. His poll book appeared to be this red-colored wrapping 
paper, and his pen one of these black pencils. He kept calling out for 
more votes, saying they surely had not all voted that wanted a two- 
sided governor. His name was Timothy Keezer, and he lived in the 
district. I did not stay there more than an hour and a half or two 
hours, and left between ten and eleven o'clock. I think some of these 
strangers did not vote. 

To Mr. Howard : 

These men voted for Thomas Johnson Uncle Tom Johnson, as 
they called him for governor. 



*220 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Oliver : 

Mr. Thomas Mockbee, I understood, was not a resident, he did not 
live in the district, and his friends always told me he did not live in 
the Territory. I did not know his residence only from hearsay. He 
had a store on the north side of the Santa Fe road, out of the district, 
at what is called Willow Springs. 

WILLIAM MOOKE. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



JoriN F. J A YENS testifies. 

I came into the Territory on the 29th of February, 1854, from 
Westport, Missouri. I settled upon the headwaters of the Marais des 
Cygnes, and was the first settler who made a claim there. It was in 
the fourth election district. On the morning of the election of the 30th 
of March, 1855, I was at the house of Dr. Chapman, the place desig- 
nated by the governor where the polls were to be held, and 'saw there 
two of the judges of the election appointed by the governor. I saw, 
about a half a mile distant, a crowd of men, who appeared to be voting 
there. There was no voting done at Dr. Chapman's house while I 
was there, and I left there with the judges while the election was 
going on at the other house. I saw men from Missouri I knew, sta- 
tioned along the road in sight of the house, and threatening to shoot 
every free State man, abolitionist, or Yankee who should come there 
to vote. They said to me they were determined no man who was not 
a, pro-slavery man should vote: These men were around, and I knew 
them personally, and that they were citizens of Missouri. I saw the 
place of voting surrounded by armed men, and but very few citizens 
among these armed men. The most of the citizens collected at Dr. 
Chapman's house, and when they saw how things were going they 
went home without voting. 

I would not go to the place where the voting was going on, and did 
not vote that day, because it was surrounded by armed men from Mis- 
souri, who threatened every free State man who should come up there 
to vote ; and the citizens, being unapprised of what was going to take 
place, were unarmed and unprepared to defend themselves. The free 
State citizens who were there, with myself as president, held a meet- 
ing to get up a protest against the election, as it was controlled by the 
citizens of Missouri^ and we considered it illegal. The proceedings of 
the meeting we sent to the governor, signed, I think, by a majority 
of the legal resident voters of the district. I have examined the poll 
books of that election, and find on it not over fifteen or twenty names 
of citizens that I was acquainted with, and I thought I knew all at that 
time. I do not think there are more than fifteen, certainly not more 
than twenty. The remainder were not residents, and many I knew 
to be residents of Missouri at that time. Among them were some I 
knew when they were boys. I find on the poll books among those I 
know, and who are prominent citizens of Missouri, T. J. Lockridge, 
Thomas Mockbee, (who had a trading house on the north side of the 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 221 

Santa Fe road, not in the fourth district, and resided himself in Jack- 
son county, Missouri,) C. C. Hamilton, of Westport, S. Writter, of 
Kansas City, and a number of others/ At that time there were a large 
majority of the citizens of that district who were and are now free 
State men. Many of them did not come to the polls at all, and did 
not know of the meeting I have alluded to, and were not there. 

JOHN F. JAVENS. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 12, 1856. 



THOMAS MOCKBEE called and sworn. 

To Mr. Scott : 

I became a resident of Kansas Territory in June, 1854, occupying- 
the place^called Willow Springs, on the old Santa Fe road. I built 
a store house and two warehouses there at that place. The ware- 
houses? were built of stone. I also built some stone fence at the same 
place. I remained there a little over one year, and sold goods, provi- 
sions, &c., during that time. I also cultivated the claim, and raised 
some provisions there in the year 1854. The old Santa Fe road ran 
on the north side of my possessions. I had taken the responsibility 
myself to change this road by a temporary fence. The old road threw 
my building in the fourth election district. I was residing in the 
fourth district at the time of the election of the 30th of March, 1855 ; 
the old Santa Fe road being the line between the first and fourth dis- 
tricts, according to my understanding. I was judge of election in the 
fourth district on the 30th of March, 1855, being elected by the peo- 
ple then present, citizens of the district. The judges appointed by 
Governor Keeder came there. It was my understanding that the free 
State party had the polls. The judges could, not agree, and two of 
them resigned, and consequently persons were selected by the people 
present to act in their places. I do not know who the two who 
resigned were, or what party they belonged to. Mr. Young, I think, 
appointed by Governor Keeder, acted as a judge of election. Mr. 
Alexander Johnson and Mr. Powell for representatives, pro-slavery 
men, were candidates at that election ; Mr. Powell was opposing Mr. 
Johnson, and was on the free State ticket, but he had before that time 
voted the pro-slavery ticket. I do not think he was nominated at all. 
He*did not vote that day. I do not recollect the names of the candi- 
dates for the council. There were about eighty votes cast that day, to 
the*best of my recollection. I was acquainted with a great many of 
the^ people of that precinct. I think there were one hundred and fifty 
resident voters there altogether at that time, and the pro-slavery party 
had the majority at that time, and always had had ; I should suppose 
fromStwenty to twenty-five majority at that time. I think the voters 
of the district were generally present that day at the place of election. 
A few of the free State party voted that day, but a good many of them 
did not vote. Everything was quiet at that election, and there was 
no disturbance at all during the day, that I saw. The pro-slavery 



222 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

candidate there was, without doubt, elected by a majority of the legal 
Totes given that day. 

To Mr. Sherman : 

I moved from Jackson county, Missouri, into the Territory of Kan- 
sas. I did not take my family with me, but I lived there myself, all 
the time, for one year and upwards, and some of the time I had some 
of the blacks of my family with me. I had a farm in Missouri at that 
time, and still carried it on. My wife and the members of my family 
remained on it, at times, and sometimes in other counties of Missouri, 
and sometimes in the Territory. I had a clerk part of the time, and 
part of the time a partner in my store in the Territory. After I sold 
out in Kansas Territory, I returned to this State. I have not voted 
in the Territory since I left there. The old Santa Fe road is north of 
my house, in the Territory ; the new road, as travelled, is a small dis- 
tance south of my house. I lived on the extreme verge of the district. 
I never canvassed that district in any way. My information in regard 
to the people of the district was derived from the nature of my busi- 
ness there, they generally trading at my store, more or less, from all 
parts of the district. I am not mistaken about the two judges 
appointed by the governor resigning that morning of election. I am 
certain I saw them there, then, before I was appointed to act as judge 
of election. I do not know as they assigned any particular reason 
for resigning. 

THOMAS MOCKBEE. 

WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 5, 1856. 



ANDREW S. JOHICSON called and sworn. 

To Mr. Scott: 

I was born and raised in the seventeenth district of Kansas Terri- 
tory, and was living at the Shawnee Mission, in that district, at the 
time of the election of the 30th of March, 1855. I was not at the 
-election in that district. I was a candidate for the house of represen- 
tatives, and went about a week before election into the fourth district, 
which was a portion of my representative district. 

Thomas Johnson, my father, and E. Chapman, were the candidates 
for council, pro-slavery, and S. N. Wood, and a Mr. Goodwin, free 
State; and Mr. Powell, free State, and myself, pro-slavery, were the 
candidates for the house of representatives. 

The election in the fourth district was held at the house of Dr. 
Chapman. I was at the place of election about 7" o'clock that morn- 
ing. The judges of election appointed by Governor Keeder were Mr. 
Fuller, Mr. Moore, and Mr. Pultz. The time came for opening the 
.polls, and Mr. Pultz was the only judge present. The polls were not 
held at Dr. Chapman's residence, but at another house on the same 
.claim. According to the proclamation, Mr. Pultz appointed Mr. 
Hockbee and Mr. Davis judges of election, in place of those who 
were absent. I asked some one present at the time, and Pultz said 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 223 

the time for opening the polls had arrived, and I heard several saying 
that the polls should he opened. At the time the judges were ap- 
pointed hy Mr. Pultz, I heard no one ohject to the polls "being opened 
on account of the hour not having arrived. 

When I got to Dr. Chapman's residence in the morning Dr. Chap- 
man was not at home. Mrs. Chapman said that as some of her family 
were unwell, and their house was small, she would take it as a favor if 
we hold the polls at the other house on their claim. The house was 
between three and four hundred yards off, unoccupied, in full view of 
his residence. We held the election there as a matter of favor to Mrs. 
Chapman. The houses were easy of access to each other. At the 
time the new judges were appointed I cannot say that there were any 
free State men on the ground that I knew. Mr. Pultz announced to 
the crowd who the judges were whom he had appointed, and asked if 
they were all satisfied with them, and I heard no dissenting voice. 
Everything the whole day was carried on quietly and peaceably, no 
threats or resistance of any kind were shown in regard to voting, and 
all had an opportunity to vote their sentiments without molestation. 
Mr. Mockbee was residing at that time, as he had been for several 
months previous, at Willow Springs, about six miles from the place 
of voting. I had been at his residence at Willow Springs. I knew 
him to be a citizen of the Territory at that time, and not a citizen of 
Missouri. I had not been in the fourth district for some time until 
about a week before the election, and I visited most of the settlement 
in that district during that week. My own party were of the opinion 
that the pro-slavery party were much the strongest. I did not visit 
the free State party but little. I was informed by some of them that 
they thought they had the majority in the district. 

I had no information in regard to the strength of parties in that 
district except what I got that week. Soon after the polls were opened, 
about ten or twelve of the free State party I was acquainted with 
came up to the polls, and I think two of them voted. They then went 
off and consulted together, and came back and said that these were 
not the judges appointed by the governor, and they were not going to 
vote. They went off some hundred yards from the polls, and were 
joined by others of the free State party, and remained there for some 
time. I sent three messages to them, requesting them to come up and 
vote, explaining that the election was conducted according to the 
governor's proclamation, and that I wished each party to have a fair 
show. 

I am acquainted with Mr. Javens_, and was before he moved from 
Missouri into the Territory. I was acquainted with his reputation for 
truth among his neighbors, and it was not good. I would not beliere 
him under oath. I did not see him at the place of election during 
that day, and am confident he was not there, as I did not see him. ' 

To Mr. Sherman: 

I voted at that election. 

A. J. JOHNSON. 
WESTPORT, MISSOURI, Jwus 5, 1856. 



224 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



B. S. KEZER called and sworn. 

To Mr. King : 

I lived in the fourth district on the 30th of March, 1855, and also 
before that time, living on my claim there. 

I was present at the election of that day at the house of Dr. Chap- 
man, in Willow Springs precinct. To the best of my information, the 
understanding with the judges of election was that, as Dr. Chapman's 
family were sick, they would hold their election in another house on 
his claim and belonging to him, he having requested them to do so. 

I heard no objection from any one as to the propriety of that being 
done. I saw nothing that day that indicated any disposition, on the 
part of any one, to prevent any one from voting according to his sen- 
timents. 

I believe that, according to the time pieces there, the polls were 
opened at the time fixed by the proclamation of the governor. I was 
occasionally at the polls during the day. I do not recollect, particu- 
larly, of hearing the judges swear any voters that day, or that any 
one challenged the voters, for I was not immediately at the polls, but 
generally among the crowd. Thomas Mockbee was one of the judges 
of election who served. 

All the judges did not appear at the time of opening the polls, and 
as one of the judges were lacking he was appointed by the voters pre- 
sent, according to instructions. As far as I recollect one of the judges 
was elected by the people, but I do not recollect who it was. Mr. 
Mockbee lived at Willow Springs and was doing business there at 
that time, and I never heard any one dispute his residence there in 
that district. I knew he lived there myself, and I was acquainted 
with him. I saw numbers of persons there I was not acquainted with. 
I saw none I knew to be illegal voters give their votes that day. I 
saw some who said they had come to the Territory to live and they 
voted. I am not acquainted with the relative strength of the pro- 
slavery or free State parties in that district. I saw no hindrance and 
heard no threats against any man coming up to vote who desired to 
do so. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Sherman : 

I moved into that district some time previous to the election, I think 
the fall of 1854. I occasionally live there now, as I still hold my 
claim and have improvements upon it, and have a family living there. 

My business calls me away a good deal. I have no family. I heard 
Mrs. Chapman complain of being unwell that day. 

Mr. Mockbee lives directly on the Santa Fe road. I think he lived 
at that time on the north side of the road. I do not know whether 
he had his family there or not, or whether or not he had a store in 
the State. I know he lired there himself, and I have called there to 
see him. It was proposed on the morning of election, after a person 
was nominated to be judge of election,, to put the motion to the crowd. 
I put the vote as to whether they were satisfied or not, and they 
answered "aye." 

I did this that all should be satisfied. I do not recollect of any 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 225 

announcement being made beforehand as to who should be selected in 
the place of the judge who was absent. There were a great many 
there who were strangers to me, and I do not know where they wer% 
from. There were two or three that went with me, and who had been 
living in Missouri, and expected to,, and thought it likely they would, 
make Kansas their home. I did not see them vote, but they said 
they voted. The other strangers I do not know where they lived. I 
dicf not know all who lived in the district. 

B. S. KEZER. 
WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 3, 1856. 



FIFTH DISTRICT. Bull creek, Pottawatomie, Big Sugar, Little Sugar, 



Dr. B. C. WESTFALL called and sworn. 

I moved into the Territory about the 5th of January, 1856, from 
Missouri. I had resided for three years previous at New Santa Fe, 
Jackson county, immediately on the Missouri line, within ten feet of 
it. Some few clays prior to the 30th of March, 1855, companies were 
organized to go over the Territory to various places to vote, and some 
of my neighbors prevailed upon me to go with them to Bull creek, at 
Baptiste Peoria, in the fifth district. We went out on the 29th o f 
March, probably thirty in the company I was with, and when we got 
to Bull creek we found two encampments near there ; the one that I 
camped in was principally from Jackson county and near the place of 
election, and the other was about a mile off, and those there were 
principally from ;Cass county, but some from Lafayette. I knew 
personally a great many of them, perhaps half of them, as I had lived 
in C'ass, Jackson, and Johnson counties for the ten years previous. 
The evening we arrived there Mr. Park, from Kentucky, and Mr. 
Payne, from Missouri, claiming to be two judges appointed by G-over- 
nor Reeder, came to me and told me that the third judge the governor 
had appointed would not be at the election, and requested me to act 
as judge with them, as they had the appointment of judge in the ab- 
sence of the other. I told them I would serve. About ten o'clock, 
when the most of us had retired to our tents, Judge Hamilton, one of 
the members of the county court for Cass county, Missouri, came in 
from Pottawatomie precinct, and woke us all up and told us there was 
not a sufficient number of men down at P otawatomie to carrry the 
day, and requested us to send about sixty more down there if we could. 
A portion of our company went with him to that precinct, about six- 
teen miles from our camp. In the morning those who remained came 
lo the house where the election was to be held. We judges convened 
and opened the polls. I asked the other two judges what we would 
do with regard to all the voters from Missouri, and whether or not 
H. Rep. 200 15* 



226 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

we could reconcile that with the oath prescribed by the governor. 
They stated we were not to be sworn. We opened the polls and they 
ommenced voting. I think there were three hundred in the company 
but I do not know how many voted. I think nine-tenths or more of 
those who voted were residents of Missouri, as there were but few set- 
tlers in that precinct at that time. The judges were not sworn. We 
closed the polls and went to making out the returns, and the magis- 
trate, or one who called himself a magistrate, certified to the governor 
that he had sworn the judges. One gentleman by the name of Samue 
Wade, near New Santa Fe, called out his name and we took it down-, 
Shortly after he voted he came back and called out Jim Wade's name 
and I am pretty confident that was taken down. Jim Wade was j 
son of the old gentleman, some nine or ten years old at that time, 
asked Mr. Wade afterwards why he had called out Jimmy's name a 
a voter, and he said he had made him a claim on Bull creek, adjoin 
ing his own, and he expected Jemmy would become a resident of the" 
Territory and a voter. The returns were then made out and sent to 
Governor Keeder. The men who went out were all heavily armed, 
and asserted that if they were prevented from voting they would assert 
their rights and vote anyhow. The party left for Missouri, a few the 
evening of the election, but the main body of them the next morning. 
They voted for Mr. Lykins for council, and Colonel Coffee for council, 
also; Henry Younger, who lives in Jackson county, Missouri, Mr. 
Haskell, Mr. Wilkinson, and Scott, for the lower house. Mr. Lykins 
lived near Peoria, Missouri, at that time. Colonel Coffee did not have 
his family on Bull creek at that time, though he has them there now. 
I understood there that his family at that time were in Bates county, 
Missouri. Mr. Wilkinson resided in the, district. I do not kno s w 
anything about Scott. Mr. Haskell, I think, was a citizenjof the di - 
trict at that time. I had been acquainted with him for some time- 
He had left Missouri then, and I had understood he was in that dis- 
trict keeping a trading house. Henry Younger is a man of consider- 
able wealth and has much land and many slaves in Jackson county, 
Missouri. I have known him since the fall of 1847, and he resided near 
Independence at that time. I do not know that he had moved into 
the Territory, and I do not think he has ever changed his residence 
since I knew him. I think he has never taken his family into the 
Territory, as I never heard of any such thing, and I am, in fact, cer- 
tain that he has never brought them out to the Territory "to live any 
length of time. 

To Mr. Sherman: 

I do not recollect of any double voting on that day except that man 
who voted for his son. I do not know how many had gone to Potta- 
watornie. 1 was told by Payne and Park that they had been appointed 
by the governor, but I do not know for myself how it was. No one 
took command of our company at Bull creek. They generally went 
in small bands of twenty or thirty. 

To Mr. Howard: 

I live in the fourth district now. I think I saw five hundred in 






KANSAS AFFAIRS. 227 

the two camps from Missouri, including those who went to Pottawato- 
mie. I saw a great many who told me they went directly to Potta- 
watomie and voted there. 

B. C. WESTFALL. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



B. C. WESTFALL recalled. 

I find upon the poll books some memoranda under the names of 
several persons " rejected, refusing to swear." This was all got up 
for effect, as some free State men were looking on. It was all under- 
stood between the voters and the judges. When one of them would 
come to the window the judge would say., " I think you live in Mis- 
souri, do you not?" To which the man would reply, "I have a claim 
in the Territory." The judge would ask them if they would be sworn 
that they were residents of the Territory, at which they would pre^ 
tend to get angry and threaten to whip the judges, and refused to be 
sworn. The matter, however, was all arranged beforehand. No one 
was sworn that day. 

B. C. WESTFALL. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 



JESSE W. WILSON called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory the 26th of August, 1854, in the fifth 
district, and in the Bull creek precinct. I moved there from Missouri, 
Jackson county. I am well acquainted in the fifth district, and was 
one of the first settlers there. I think there was but one white family 
there before within ten miles of where I live. I was at the election 
of the 30th of March, 1855. I reached the polls about ten o'clock, 
having walked about ten miles to get there. I saw a great many men 
when I got there, and I should suppose that there were not less than 
200 men there non-residents ; some I was acquainted with, and some 
I was not. I conversed with a great many of them, and they told me 
they were from Missouri. I was acquainted, among the rest, with Mr. 
Samuel Wade, Mr. Kauffman, and two sons-in-law of Wade, all from 
Jackson county, Missouri, where I was personally acquainted with 
them. They said they were coming here to vote, and that they came 
to retaliate on the eastern Aid Society, who were sending out paupers 
here to vote; and they were going to poll as many votes as these pau- 
pers, and perhaps more. I do not know of any in our district who 
came out here under the auspices of the Aid Society. Our settlers 
were from Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and other western 
States, I think. Those persons I talked with said it was their inten- 
tion to make Kansas a slave State. They said they had voted, though 
I did not see them vote. These non-residents were armed with re- 
volvers and Bowie knives, shot guns and muskets; and, as the saying 



228 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

is, were armed to the teeth. I saw no disturbance created while I was 
there. I do not suppose I saw more than twelve or fifteen men that 
I knew to he settlers in our precinct, and I think they all voted. The 
people of our neighborhood, as near as I can judge from conversation 
with many of them, were in favor of making Kansas a free State. In 
my judgment, if none but the settlers had voted that day, the free 
State candidates would have had a good majority in the precinct. I 
do not know of Mr. Younger ever living in the Territory, or of any 
property or claim he has ever had in the Territory. Doctor Westfall, 
one of the judges of the election, with whom I am personally ac- 
quainted, was a resident of the State of Missouri at that time. I have 
examined, with Mr. Gearhart, the poll books for the 30th of March, 
1855, and we can find the names of but thirteen that we know to have 
been residents of that precinct at that time. From our acquaintance 
with the district, I am satisfied that if any other residents had voted 
we should have known it. The names of these thirteen residents are 
stated in Mr. Gearhart's testimony. I arn acquainted with Samuel 
Wade, and know that he voted for his son, James Wade, a boy about 
ten years old at that time. 

J. W. WILSON. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 



JOSEPH M. GEARHART called and sworn. 

I came into the Territory in November, 1854, from Missouri, and 
settled on the Marais des Cygnes river, in .the fifth district, in Bull 
Creek precinct, and have lived in that district ever since. I was at 
the election of March 30, 1855. I reached the polls about 10 or 11 
o'clock. I saw a great many strangers there, and some I knew, from 
the State of Missouri, with Joseph Christopher, Jack Yocum, James 
Yocum, and others. These men lived in Cass county, Missouri, and 
told me they came there to vote ; but I did not see them vote. Most 
of the strangers to the district had shot guns and other arms. I rode 
through the camp going to the polls, but stopped on going back after 
the election at Lug Freeman's camp. I should reckon there were 200 
persons there I did not know. I am acquainted with pretty near 
every man in the district, and was one of the first settlers in it. The 
district at that time was rather thinly settled. In the Bull Creek 
precinct at that time I think there could not have been more than fifty 
voters. There were some settlers on Bull Creek higher up I was not 
well acquainted with ; some of them were these. But I do not think 
there were ten from our neighborhood that were there. I heard be- 
fore I started that men from Missouri were there ; and I heard before 
I left Missouri that men from Missouri were coming over to vote ; and 
as I was passing backwards and forwards for provisions, some of these 
same men told me they were coming over to vote. I think I was once 
in the State a month or so before the election, and some of these men 
then told me they intended to come over and vote, as they had claims 
in the Territory. I voted that day. I staid at the polls some two or 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 229 

three hours. There appeared to be some difficulty, and considerable 
noise and cursing. I did not myself see any of the Missourians vote, 
though they said they voted. I do not know exactly, but I think Dr. 
Westfall, one of the judges at that election, lived in Missouri. Mr. 
Younger, a candidate elected for representative, was a resident of 
Missouri, where I have seen his farm and house. I saw him once in 
the Territory before this election, at a meeting at Dutch Henry's for 
the purpose of nominating candidates for the legislature. Mr. 
Younger made a speech, saying that he thought Missourians had a 
right to come here and vote. He was a pro-slavery ' man. A Mr. 
Fox got up and contradicted him, saying that he thought the men who 
came here and smote down the trees and made the paths were the ones 
to vote. Fox was a candidate of the free soil party. This was a few 
days before the election. 

No nominations were made that day by the pro-slavery party. I 
do not know where Younger and other pro-slavery men were nomi- 
nated. I never heard of their being nominated by any public meet- 
ing in the Territory. Lykins and Coffee, for council, and Scott, 
Younger, Wilkinson, and Haskell, for representatives., were voted for 
by the Missourians that day. Younger 's house and farm is this side 
of Independence. I have passed it twice. I do not think he has any 
claim in the Territory now, though at the time of the election he said 
he had a claim on Sugar creek. I never heard that his family ever 
lived in the Territory. Some of the citizens remained away from the 
polls, but I do not know whether it was from fear or not. 

I have carefully examined the poll books in connexion with Mr. 
Wilson, and I can find but the following names on the list of resi- 
dents of this district, that I know to have been residents at that time : 
Barnet Hall, James Shaw, David Lykins, James D. Keid, John Van- 
horn, Isaac Jacob, Harrison Standiford, J. M. Marshall, Joseph M. 
Gearhart, J. W. Wilson, Linge Ferris, and Mr. Linden ; 13 in all. 

JOS. M. GEARHART. 

LAWRENCE, K. T., May 9, 1856. 



WILLIAM CHESNUT called and sworn. 

I moved into the Territory on October 23, 1854, and settled u at 
Ossawatomie, in the fifth district, and have resided there ever since. 
I am a farmer. I came from Connecticut. I was at the election of 
March 30, 1855. I was appointed by Governor Reeder as one of the 
judges of the election at Pottawatomie precinct. I got there about 
eight o'clock, or a little after, in the morning of the election. The 
other two judges, except Wilkinson, who was a candidate, and there- 
fore unqualified, were not there. I claimed the privilege of appoint- 
ing two to fill the vacancies, when a stranger came forward and told 
me he was from Missouri. He was armed with a revolver and a knife, 
and had a rifle in his hand. He told me his party woujd appoint the 
judges. I remonstrated with him, and named two persons for judges 
that I thought were qualified. He told me that if I made any trouble 



230 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

with, them they would dispose of me with very little ceremony. He 
then asked with a kind of sneer in what manner I would like to have 
the election conducted, and I said, in conformity with the instruc- 
tions contained in the governor's proclamation. He said the gover- 
nor had no right -to impose such conditions and restrictions upon 
them ; that their being there that day constituted them legal voters ; 
that they had come on purpose to vote, and I could see they had come 
well prepared, and would vote, let the consequences he what they 
might. I insisted that as I had been appointed I would preside, and 
if I had not the power to prevent fraudulent voting, I would at least 
be a witness as to the manner in which they did it. He said if I 
insisted upon it, it would be at my own peril. A few minutes after 
he came to me, and said he thought the better way to avoid difficulty 
would be to allow their people to vote without asking them any ques- 
tions, or requiring them to swear they were residents. He said there 
was a large party from Boston on the creek above, who came on pur- 
pose to vote, and his people had been holding a consultation and had 
come to the conclusion that the best way was to allow our people to 
vote without asking any questions, if we would extend the same privi- 
lege to their people. I refused to consent to any such arrangement, 
when, without any farther ceremony, they appointed two individuals 
to preside as judges, one of whom I have since learned was a resident 
of Clay county, Missouri, and, I think, was named Wear. The 
other was named Fur guson, and was a resident of Bull Creek precinct, 
and not entitled to vote at Pottawatomie, though he said he had his 
washing done there and was, therefore, a voter. 

One of the clerks was Barnaby. I insisted on taking down a list 
of the names, and acted as clerk also. They then declared the polls 
opened and commenced to take votes, which were handed as fast as we 
could take them. Over four-fifths of the votes were handed in by 
armed men, strangers to me. I knew at that time most every legal 
voter in the precinct. I objected to several when they offered to vote, 
believing they were not legal voters, and the other two that acted as 
judges would immediately take the ballot and put it in the ballot box, 
without taking any notice at all of my remonstrance, ex cept to say, 
by way of reply, that they knew the gentleman, that he lived up the 
creek and had a claim there. 

We were kept pretty busy taking votes until about noon, when one 
of the judges, Mr. Wear, I suppose, though I did not know him then, 
proposed to adjourn for about an hour for dinner. He then picked up 
the ballot box, saying he would take care of it, took it under his arm 
and walked out with it. I followed him, and a short time after he 
got out he stepped up to Mr. Fur guson and told him Mr. Wilkinson 
had invited them down to his house to dinner. Wilkinson was one 
of the pro-slavery candidates. I told them, as I was very well 
acquainted with Mr. Wilkinson, I would go down too, determined to 
keep in sight of the ballot box. We went down through their camp 
to Mr. Wilkinson's house. They were encamped on both sides of the 
road, some in tents, and more in wagons ; and the men were there 
lying around on the ground in groups, some under the influence of 
liquor, and all armed, generally with knives, 'revolvers, and rifles. 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 231 

When we came in sight of Mr. Wilkinson's house, the one who had 
the ballot box turned round and looked at it for a moment, and 
finally said: "I believe we wont go down there/' He then turned 
and came back to Henry Sherman's house, where the meeting was 
held. Shortly after one o'clock we again commenced to take votes, 
and kept the polls open until sundown, though we did not take very 
many in the afternoon. 

We then counted over the votes. The tally list was presented to 
each of the judges, with the request to sign it as being a correct 
return of the legal voters in that precinct. When they handed it to 
me for my signature, I remarked that I could not consistently put my 
name to it, because in doing so I would commit perjury. The house 
was immediately filled with as many armed men as could stand on 
the floor. Until then they had all kept outside. General Coffee, 
candidate for councilman, was among the crowd, and another person 
I think they called Anderson, from Missouri. They both addressed 
the crowd. General Coffee stated that he admitted that it was very 
aggravating for a public officer to refuse to do his evident duty, but 
still he hoped there would be no bloodshed, nor personal violence used, 
on that occasion. After he got through, he came to me and remarked 
that he thought the best way was to put iny name to it, it would look 
better in the eyes of the public,, and there was no use in my making 
any trouble about it. I told him that I had said I could not do it, 
and had given my reasons, and I would not do it. I said I knew I 
was entirely at their mercy, and they might keep me there until mid- 
night if they saw fit, but I would not testify that that was a correct 
return of the legal voters, when I knew it was very far from it. The 
judges then said they did not see much use in saying any more on 
the subject, as they thought they could make it answer without my 
name. I then got up and came out of the house. On my way home, 
when I had got about fifty or sixty rods from Mr. Sherman's house, a 
party of armed strangers, who stood at a distance of probably fifty 
rods from me, discharged a number of rifles. They called names, 
and hooted and yelled as long as we remained in sight or hearing. I 
then proceeded home. 

Those strangers voted for Lykins and Coffee for councilmen. I am 
pretty confident Coffee did not live in the district at that time. It 
was generally understood that he lived in Missouri. They voted for 
Younger, Wilkinson, Haskell, and Scott, for representatives. I was 
not acquainted with any of the candidates but Wilkinson. I should 
think there were not over fifty or sixty legal votes polled there ; not 
over seventy-five, at all events. A good many residents I did not 
know by name, but by sight. From the information that I possessed 
at that time, and from watching the voting, I thought there were 
frorn^ one hundred and fifty to two hundred illegal votes polled at that 
election. I do not think there was one individual in the Boston com- 
pany, the gentleman I have referred to spoke about, in the district. 
I think the most of the settlers were from Iowa. I do not know posi- 
tively of any who came out under the auspices of any aid society 
except myself ; and I came out under the auspices of the New York 
society, called the Kansas League. I paid my own expenses, and de- 



232 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

rived no service from the society, except information about the bes 
modes of getting here and the country here. They asked me no 
questions about my politics. At that time I think a decided majority 
of the residents were in favor of making Kansas a free State. 

WILLIAM CHESNUT. 
LAWRENCE, K. T., Mty 9, 1856. 



JAMES M. ARTHUR called and sworn. 

I moved my family into this Territory on the 7th of August, 1854, 
from Indiana", and settled in the fifth district, and have lived there 
ever since. I was in Big Sugar Creek precinct at the election of March 
30, 1855. I was at the election. I was appointed one of the judges 
of election by the governor, and also Elisha Tucker and John E. Brown. 
We went on in the morning and opened the polls by swearing each 
other in, as there was no justice of the peace there. We took the 
oath as prescribed by the governor. About the time the polls were 
opened, a large number of strangers came into the yard and demanded 
to vote. I wanted to swear them as to whether they were residents or 
not, and they refused to swear. Mr. Brown, one of the judges,, told 
me then, I must take their votes or resign. I asked Mr. Tucker, the 
other judge, what should be done, and he said he considered ,them 
legal voters, without swearing or asking them any questions. I 
thereupon resigned. Some eighteen or twenty votes had been given 
when I resigned. They appointed Hickman Smith in rny place, and 
went on with the election. I heard no questions asked of any voter, 
whether he was a citizen or not, during the day. I think there was 
some eighty or ninety votes polled there, and I think there were not 
more than thirty-five or forty citizens there, and a great many of them 
did not vote. I was tolerably well acquainted in that precinct, as I 
had been riding around considerable in that precinct. Mr. Younger, 
who was elected to the legislature, was there, and voted. He never 
has been a resident of that district. He said he had a claim about 
three or four miles below where I lived, and built a little shanty there 
three or four days before the election ; but he has never covered or 
floored it, and has never lived in it. I remained there until they had 
closed the polls, and had done counting the votes I saw the strangers 
have. They did not leave in a body, but went away at various times 
as they got done voting. I had conversation with, them during the 
day, but principally at supper, with those who remained there. I had 
a long talk with Mr. Younger during the day. He said he had a 
right to vote there, as he had a claim. I had a conversation with 
several of the party, who said they were then living in Jackson county, 
Missouri ; but they said they had claims in the Territory, and had a 
right to vote. A great many of them I have not seen back since. 
Mr. Younger said the Missourians had as much right to vote here as 
the Yankees had, of whom some four boat loads had landed a few days 
before, at Kansas City, Missouri. He said all who happened to be in 
the Territory on the day of election had a right to vote, according to 
Douglas' bill. To the best of my knowledge, the political opinion 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 



233 



of the precinct was greatly free State ; a very decided majority of the 
whole district was free State, so far as I know anything about it. I 
have been in almost every neighborhood of the district, and have 
talked with all the prominent men about the matter, and I am satis- 
fied that at that time a large majority of the district was free State. 
These strangers were armed. They came principally in wagons, some 
on horseback. One two-horse wagon was loaded with guns. I did 
not see anything else in it. They unloaded it in the yard and stacked 
their guns around a forked apple tree in the yard. They also had 
very large knives afoot or more in length that looked like "they 
were home made. Some of them had pistols. I have examined the 
poll books of that precinct, and think the following list is the names 
of resident voters of Big Sugar precinct, fifth district, at the election 
of March 30, 1855: 

17". J. M." Hampton, 



1. A. M. Smith, 

2. L. B. Willson, 

3. Beubin Noel, 

4. James E. Wadkins, 

5. Thomas Smith, 

6. Henry Littlejohn, 
T. Silas Young, 

8. William Cash, 

9. John Gr. Robinson, 

10. James B. Fleming, 

11. James M. Freeman, 

12. D. P. Fleming, 

13. James M. Arthur, 

14. R. M. Daniel, 

15. Jonah Daniel, 

16. Allen Stewart, 



18. Lewis Thompson, 

19. John B. Robinson, 

20. Henryllclviney, 

21. Ransom Elliot, 

22. John Eliot, 

23. William M. Smith, 

24. L. M. Eliot, 

25. J. W. Regan, 

26. John Wykle, 

27. Samuel Clark, 

28. George Wykle, 

29. M. C. D. Osburn, 

30. L. M. Love, 

31. J. E. Brown, 

32. Elish a Tucker. 



Some of the above names may not have been residents at that time, 
but they are now. 

JAMES M. ARTHUR, 
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 8, 1856. 



S. W. BOUTON called and sworn. 
To Mr. Matthias : 

I moved into the Territory in the month of May, 1854, and resided 
here until April 1855, in the fifth election district. I was at the 
jelection of the 30th of March, 1855, held at the house of William 
j Stockton. The judges of election were David Finlay, William Stock- 
;ton, and some one I did not know. I understood that those who 
| served were those appointed by Governor Reeder. 

There were something like one hundred votes cast, some sixty for 
hthe free State, and some forty for the pro-slavery ticket. I do not 
know of any one being there not entitled to vote, and the election was 
orderly and quiet. 

S. W. BOUTON. 

WESTPORT, MISSOURI, June 3, 1856. 



234 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

SIXTH DISTRICT. Fort Scott. 



JOHN HAMILTON called and sworn. 

I first came into the Territory in 1835, but I have been out andi 
back at times. I came back last in March, 1855, and settled at Fort! 
Scott, in the sixth election district. I emigrated from Pennsylvaniai 
to Missouri, and thence to the Territory. 

I was present at the election of the 31st of March, 1855, at Fort; 
Scott. William J. Godefroy, Mr. Bay, and William Painter, were the 
judges appointed by the governor. They served as judges. I went! 
to the polls between nine and ten o'clock. There were strangers who 
had collected near the polls the day of election and the day before, 
from between one hundred and one hundred and fifty. They came 
from the direction of Missouri, and came in wagons and on horseback. 
Some encamped and some put up at public houses there. Some oj 
these strangers I knew ; C. L. Harris, Mr. S. H. Loring, Mr. Benja- 
min Eichardson, Dr. Stone, and a great many more whose names I 
do not recollect. They lived in Bates county, Missouri. They were 
with the companies who came in. I conversed with some of them the 
evening before the election ; they said they came there to vote, and 
seemed to think they had a perfect right to do so. They were armed 
generally with pistols. They said they came to vote ; they did not 
say what their purpose in voting was. I cannot say certain that more 
than one of these men I knew voted, for I was not about the window 
much. Afterwards, Mr. Loring and Mr. Kichardson, when the polls 
were closed, came to me and said they came to me as friends, to know 
if I intended to contest the election. I stated that if I had a majority 
of the legal votes in the district I should certainly contest it. They 
said if I did it would certainly be detrimental to the interests of myseli 
and family. They said nothing further. The pro-slavery candidates fon 
representatives were Mr. Williams and Mr. Anderson. William Mar- 
graves was an independent pro-slavery candidate. I was a free State 
candidate. William Barbee was the pro-slavery candidate for council, 
and had no opposition. The election was held in the house I occupy, 
and I was there at the opening of the polls, but was not present in the 
room of the judges, and cannot say whether or not they were sworn. 
William Barbee lived at that time in the town of Fort Scott. I do not 
know where Mr. Anderson lived at that time. He was staying in our 
district a few days before the election, and I presume was boarding, 
there. I do not know where he came from to the district ; I do not 
know where he lives now. I think he does not live at Fort Scott 
now, unless since I left, four days since. S. A. Williams lives now 
at the town of Fort Scott, but I do not know where he lived then, 
though he had been around Fort Scott some days before the election. 
He has a family, but I never saw them there before the election. I 
do not know when and where Mr. Williams and Mr. Anderson were 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 235 

nominated. I learned, first, several days before the election, that 
they were candidates, but know nothing in regard to how they were 
brought out. Some of these strangers told me they had voted, but 
i not all of them for whom ; though some said they voted for me, but 
I supposed they were joking with me. There were persons coming 
into the district at different times. I am acquainted with a great 
many at different points in the district. The district was somewhat 
: thinly settled. There was no town at Fort Scott at that time. It 
; had been occupied as a fo-rt, and citizens occupied the place merely by 
permission of the agent left in charge of the property,, and stayed 
there. Some days after the election the property was sold. There 
^was no disturbance at the polls. I do not know that any of the voters 
i were sworn. I saw some votes handed in. I saw some strangers about 
ithe windows, but there was such a crowd there that I could not see 
what they were doing. I do not know whether or not any of the citi- 
zens who came in that day went away without voting. I had not 
canvassed the district. I believed that, at that time, a majority of 
the settlers of the district were in favor of a free State. I know of 
no double voting that day. I do not think the number of votes of 
that district was more than 125. I have carefully examined the poll 
lists of that election in our district of the 30th of March, and I have, 
as near as possible, selected from them the names of all those I knew 
to be resident voters at that time. After I had made that list, I com- 
pared the poll lists with the census roll. The census was taken by 
Mr. Barbee and his assistants. I have added the names taken from 
the census rolls of residents. I did not know who voted on the 30th 
of March, and I make 62 in all. This list includes the names of all 
I know to have been residents, and whose names I find on the poll 
books and the census. So far as I know, this would be a correct list 
of the legal voters at that election. To supply those I did not know, 
I examined the poll lists and census returns. There were many per- 
sons coming in at that time. In this list I have included Mr. Ander- 
son and Mr. Williams, whom I did not believe to be citizens, though 
their names are on the census returns. The following is the list of 
names on the poll books and census roll of the Fort Scott, or sixth 
district, as I find them : 

William Barbee, B. F. Wilkinson, K. Beth, William Breeze, L. S. 
Broyles, T. B. Arnott, A. P. F. Davis, W. F. Alexander, F. Dewint, 
John B. Smith, James Marr, Emery B. Cook, H. Watkins, E. Fly, 
John Gnthree, William January, J. W. Sharp, Jerome Moody, A. 
Ward, S. Potter, Jesse Eay, John Crook, James H. Fleming, John 
B. Fleming, Michael McCann, Wm. Kay, Joseph Harrison, Thomas 
H. Fox, Wm. A. Randolph, H. Bledsoe, James 'Waldron, Daniel F. 
Burkhardt, Lewis Davis, L. Sharp, N. II. Bennett, John Graves, M. 
Dawson, Samuel Beaver, Samuel Moore, P. S. Moor, J. Field, John 
Culton, James Kay, Win. J. Godfrey, D. Guthree, William Painter, 
P. D. Caning, J. C. Anderson, John Grant, Thomas Graves, Wm. 
Watkins, John Brown, Charles Milan, Thomas Summers, J. Jefries, 
J. W. Fly, William Musgrave, G. Wood, J. W. Arnott, Charles 
Hurd, H. S. Wilson, William Ewing. 

In addition to those not on the foregoing list, are twelve names of 



236 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

persons resident voters not on the census returns, and whom I know 
to have been residents : 

J. N. Newmew, George W. Morris, J. M. Ward, T. Mathias, A. 
Snow, John January, H. Varbal, M. Sellers, J. T. Ray, F. F. York,, 
"Win. Humphries. 

I find no other names on the census book that are also on the polll 
list, except those I have given. The census list is alphabetically 
arranged ; I took up the poll book name by name, and whenever I 
found a name on the poll book that was on the census list, I put it 
down in my list. I put on the list names I did not know, but I found 
their names both on the census and poll lists. I have also given the 
names of those I know to have been resident voters who were not on 
the census returns, but were on the poll lists. 

Upon examining the poll books, I found the names of persons I 
know to be residents of Missouri at that time, the 30th of December, 
1855. The following are their names: 

G. Oldham, G. W. Oldham, P. Zeal, C. Mitchell, J. S. Mitchell, 
H. C. Weire, John Knight, G. T. Jones, G. L. Harris, N. Godefroy, 
E. Dean, Wm. March Banks, S. A. Williams, J. C. Anderson, Wm. 
D. Lynde, William Merick, J. M. Newman. 

I do not know with regard to the other names I find there. There 
are names I am familiar with, but do not know the given names, and 
do not recollect to have seen them on the ground. I do not know 
where those live whose names I have not mentioned, and whom I find 
on the poll list. 

Cross-examined by Joseph C. Anderson: 

I understood the district at that time commenced in the channel of 
the Little Osage, and followed the stream up ; and there was no dis- 
trict west of it in the Territory. It run to the southern boundary of 
the Territory ; it was about seventy miles wide ; it included the 
Indian lands and nations, and there was very little of it open to set- 
tlement. I had been in the Territory about twenty days before the 
election. I did not know the voters in the district, as I had not can- 
vassed it ; there might have been many men there, legal voters, I did 
not know ; I would not say all the names I have not given were ille- 
gal voters. I heard no one say, as I recollect, what induced them to 
come there to vote. I should judge, of those I saw there that day, \ 
two thirds were armed. It is customary for citizens of the Territory 
to have arms. Those men generally had pistols. I was not induced 
to any course of conduct by any threats made towards me. I had re- 
peatedly stated I should contest that election if I thought I had a 
majority of the legal votes there then. I did not contest it at that 
time, because there was not time enough to contest it ; and I believed 
at the time a majority of the votes were against me. There were 
thirty-five votes counted out as given for me. I never have ascer- 
tained that I received a majority of the legal votes there ; I do not 
know of any more. I knew men from Missouri who voted for me ; 
two told me they had voted for me. I did not send to my friends in 
Missouri to come to that election, or intimate to them in any way that 
I should like to have them come. I do not know that Joseph C. An- 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 237 

. 

derson had not been in the district before I came there ; I never had 

heard of his being here. I think the census was finished a few days 

after I came into the Territory. I find the name of Joseph C. Ander- 

|i son on the census book, but do not know why it was placed there. 

i! The grounds of my belief that Anderson was not a citizen of the dis- 

i| trict, at the time of the election, were, that he left the next morning, 

i| and I did not see him until after the adjournment of the legislature. 

I do not know where Mr. Anderson was during that time. It was 

understood in the district that while Mr. Anderson was away he was 

in the legislature. I did not know that he had any other home at 

the time of the election but at Fort Scott. 

I do not think Mr. Williams was a resident of Fort Scott at that- 
:|time any more than was Mr. Anderson. Mr. Williams did not buy 
any property there, at the sale, that I know of, though I heard Mr. 
Wilson bid off a house for them together. Mr. Williams occupies 
ijthat house now with his family^ and has been residing there since the 
i: election, and is now probate judge of that county by appointment of 
; the territorial legislature. The pro-slavery party was and are very 
favorable to the election of Mr. Anderson, so far as I have heard, 
j There were many persons living in the houses at Fort Scott at the 
'time of the election by permission of the agent. E. Oldham came the 
night before the election, and went back not long after the election. 
I do not recollect that I had any conversation with him, and do not 
know anything that would go to show he intended to live there. I 
jdo not know that there was any one frightened from the polls. So far 
ias I know, the residents of the district who were there that day voted. 
jjl do not know how many of the residents were not there. There were 
people living there who had no horses and did not get to the polls, 
but were not prevented from going to the polls upon account of fear, 
'I think. I do not know how many strangers voted and how many 
did not vote. No endeavors were made, to my knowledge, to prevent 
;Mr. Loring from voting. 

Question. Was it not the common rumor that there would be 500 
inen sent out by the Emigrant Aid Company to control the election 
at Fort Scott? 

Answer. It was not a common rumor. 

I was not round the polls all day. I lived in the house where the 
voting took place, I was at the polls several times, but not much.' 
E was not preyented from going to the polls by threats. If I mistake 
;jnot I voted for William Barbee for council, and Mr. Margraves for 
representative. I considered Barbee, from what he said to me, a free 
; State man, until after the election. I was not aware of any caucus 
held by the free State party on the morning of the election at Fort 
Scott, to decide upon the question of bringing out a candidate against 
Barbee. 

I never heard tell of the Mitchells coming to Fort Scott until after 
the sale, which took place on the 16th of April, 1855. They bought 
j some property there, but did not move on it until some time after- 
wards that I know of. They are now residents of Fort Scott. It 
| may have been that some of the names I say I am familiar with, but 
liilo not know the given names were legal votes. Some of the legal 



238 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

voters in the district were not on the census hook. I was not myself 
There were a great many came into the district after the census an< 
"before the election, but I do not know where they came from. 

By Mr. Sherman : 

The following names in the list of sixty-two names are persons 
-did not know to he citizens, but whose names I found in both censui 
returns and poll lists. 

F. Dewint, James Marr, E. Fley, J. W. Sharp^ S. Potter, Join 
Crook, James H. and John B. Fleming, H. Bledsoe, James Waldron; 
D. F. Buckhardt, Lewis Davis, L. Sharp, John Graves, M. Dawson 
J. Field, John Grant, Thomas Graves, Charles Milan, J. Jeffreys^ 
J. W. Fley, and G. Wood. 

By Mr. Anderson : 

There are many settlements in the district I am not acquainte' 
with. 

JOHN HAMILTON. 
LEAVENWORTH CITY, K. T., May 20, 1856. 



EMERY B. COOK called and sworn. 

I carne into the Territory in March, 1854, and have resided nea; 
Fort Scott ever since. I came from Ohio and Missouri, and thence t 
the Territory. There were a few settlers at the Fort ; but none in m 
neighborhood when I came. I am a mason by occupation. I am toli 
erably well acquainted in the district ; and have been asked, and hav 
gone, all over the neighborhood to house raisings. I should thin 
there were about from seventy-five to one hundred and twenty-fi v 
voters in the district on the 30th of March, 1855. William Barbe 
took the census of the district, and subsequently he run for council 
I was present at the election of the 30th of March. There were a grea 
many strangers came there the day before election, and on the day c 
^election. A great many came from the southern part of Missour: 
where I did the most of rny work as a mason. These men came thi 
day before the election, in wagons, of four or five in company ; some 
times I counted as high as twelve in one wagon, and some as low aa 
two or three. They had tents with them, and generally carried 
demijohn, as I usually call a pistol. I did not know any of those ii 
the wagons. Many came on horseback, on the day of election, wlioi 
I knew. Those in the wagons brought their own provisions, but n 
baggage, and no families, or signs of moving. I was at the polls beforr 
it was open. I saw a great many of these people around the polls ; an 
a, great many of them said they were going to vote. Afterwards, oni 
man came to me and told me he had voted, and wanted to know why I di 
not vote. I said I would vote when I got ready. There was a famil 
of Houcks, from Cooper county there, as they said that they came t 
v vote, and it seemed to be understood that the north was imposing on th 
south, and they were going to try to keep up with them. There was ODD 
or two persons there I had seen in Missouri, so. as to know their names' 



KANSAS AFFAIRS. 239 

There was no claim that they resided in the district. I heard nothinS 
said about the residences of the people there, except that the Houcks 
said they were from Cooper county. I saw these men walk up to the 
polls in bodies, generally, with tickets in their hands, though I did not 
see the votes actually given in. I thought at first that there were two 
hundred there ; but, after some had gone off on horseback, I think there 
were but one hundred or one hundred and fifty. They were coming 
and going all day. Some who came in wagons left the day of elec- 
tion, and some the day after, going the main road to Missouri. The 
most of those who came in wagons came from towards Missouri up 
north. I voted that day. I think, as a general thing, the settlers 
did not vote that day. I had been watching for some fifteen or twenty 
I knew, and did not see them. I cannot say whether any there did 
not vote. I have looked over the poll book, in connexion with Mr. 
Hamilton, and we have drawn off a list we know to be legal voters ; 
some few of them, such as we found on the poll books. . He recognized 
some three or four names I did not, and I recognized two he did not. 
They are all put in the list. William Barbee was candidate for coun- 
cil in that district, and had no opposition. Mr. Anderson and Mr. 
Williams were the pro-slavery candidates, and Mr. Hamilton the free 
State candidate. Mr. Anderson was boarding in the district some 
week or two, electioneering around amongst us, but I did not consider 
him a resident. He left a short time after the election, and I think I 
did not see him any more until he came back from the territorial legis- 
lature in September last. There was a public pro-slavery dinner, as it 
was called, the Saturday before the election, last fall. I did not attend 
the dinner, though I had intended to go. I think I saw Mr. Ander- 
son leave the next day after the election, and think I have not seen 
him there since. I do not know where he resides now. I was at the 
Fort the bigger part of the time last fall, and if he had been there be- 
tween the two .elections I should probably have seen him. I do not 
know anything about the residence of Mr. Williams at the time of 
the election, though he moved into the district with his family after 
he was elected. He was in the district himself some week or ten 
days before the election. He resides in the district with his family 
now. I do not know whether the persons named by Mr. Hamilton in 
the latter clause of his deposition were citizens or not ; I do not know 
any such persons in the district. I think I know all the names, be- 
sides this latter clause, that he has furnished on his list, some forty- 
eight of them. I have heard his deposition ; and so far as it relates 
to the lists and the persons named, I think he is right, from all I 
know of the district, and from my examination of the poll lists and 
census returns. I think there were about fifty who voted that day 
that I consider citizens at that time. What I mean by a citizen is 
Q ne who makes his only home in the Territory, and without regard to 
t he length of time. 

Cross-examined by Mr. Anderson: 

I know the various settlements in the district, but am not acquainted 
with the mall. I am not well acquainted with the district far from 
home, but I am well acquainted within 10 or 12, or 15 miles of my 



240 KANSAS AFFAIRS. 

home, but not with everybody. I am not acquainted with Mr. Guth- 
rie's nephews, the Floys, though I am acquainted with the Gutliries. 
I have, to the best of my knowledge, with Mr. Hamilton, prepared of 
all I knew to have been residents, but I will not say that is all. I 
was around the polls on the morning of the election and during the 
day. I saw no men hindered from voting and heard no threats made 
against free State men about voting. A good many free State men 
did not vote. Some two or three of the herdboys said they did not 
vote. They live about five, six, or seven miles above the Fort on the 
Marmitau. They had been living there some three or four weeks be- 
fore the election. I saw no others there, that I recollect of, who said 
they did not vote. I never heard of any caucus of the free State party 
on the day of the election to decide upon the question of bringing out 
a candidate against Barbee. I know of a good many men of both par- 
ties who did not come to the election, as they told me. I think these 
strangers were armed more than was usual in this country. There were 
persons who came in from Missouri in the morning and went back in 
the afternoon. Some of them I knew to be from Missouri and to be 
living there at the time ; about twenty I should say ; I cannot name 
all, though I know where they lived. I can recollect A. G. Hay, John 
Hay, William Hay, William Lynd, James Brown, a Mr. Woods, 
another William Lynd, William Merrick, Elias Dean, James Logan, 
William Hereford, (I think,) William Miller, Jacob Miller, C. D. 
Ball, Dick Bond, N. Dodge, and Abraham Redfield. I do not know 
whether those men voted or not. I heard Logan and Dean say that it was 
right for every citizen of Missouri to vote. It was the general rumor 
of the Missourians that they ought to vote, because the north came flock- 
ing into the election and running out again. In the part of Missouri 
where I worked it was rumored that one part of the General Aid So- 
ciety's emigrants were coming to this Territory to live and make this 
a free State, and another set coming in to vote and then go out again. 
I voted on the 30th of March, 1855. These strangers, generally, con- 
ducted themselves as well as people usually do at western elections. 
A man came and asked to see my ticket, I showed it to him and asked 
if it suited him. He said it did not. I asked him where he lived, he 
said down on the Marmitau, between Henry Barber's and the line, but 
I never saw the man there, though I have often been along there, and 
I think have seen every man along the line. It is customary for per- 
sons to live in temporary affairs, such as tents, when they first come 
to the Territory. I heard several of these strangers say they were 
citizens of the Territory, five or six of them, perhaps more. Some 
men living in the western part of the district, I understood, left on 
account of the Osage Indian difficulties, and the question of the New 
York reservation has prevented some two or three from settling there. 
I believe the strangers generally claimed that the citizens of