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Full text of "Report of the State Botanist"

X/e. B^9 




BULLETIN 271 



Published monthly by the 

University of the State of New York 



NOVEMBER 1903 



New York State Museum 

Frederick J. H. Merrill Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 



Bulletin 54 
BOTANY 5 






REPORT OF THE STATE' BOTANIST 1901 



CHA.RLES H. PECK M.A. 



Introduction 931 

A Plants added to the herbarium . . . 935 

B Contributors and contributions.. 939 

C Species not before reported 944 



PAGE 

D Remarks and observations 957 

E Edible fungi 966 

Explanation of plates 978 

Index 983 



ALBANY 

UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 
1902 



Mbio2m-Di-asoo 



Price 40 cents 



University of the State of New York 

REGENTS 
With years of election 

1892 William Croswell Doane D.D. LL.D. 

Vice Chancellor, Albany 
1873 Martin I. Townsend M.A. LL.D. - - Troy 

1877 Chauncey M. Depevv LL.D. _ _ _ _ New York 

1877 Charles E. Fitch LL.B. M.A. L.H.D. - Rochester 

1878 Whitelaw Reid M.A. LL.D. _ _ _ _ New York 
1881 William H. Watson M.A. LL.D. M.D. - - Utica 
1881 Henry E. Turner LL.D. _ - - _ - Lowville 
1883 St Clair McKelway M.A. L.H.D. LL.D. D.C.L. Brooklyn 
1885 Daniel Beach Ph.D. LL.D. - - - - Watkins 
1888 Carroll E. Smith LL.D. _ _ _ - Syracuse 
1890 Pliny T. Sexton LL.D. _____ Palmyra 
1890 T. Guilford Smith M.A. C.E LL.D. - - Buffalo 

1893 Lewis A. Stimson B.A. LL.D. M.D. - - - New York 
1895 Albert Vander Veer M.A. Ph.D. M.D. - Albany 
1895 Charles R. Skinner M.A. LL.D. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio 
1897 Chester S. Lord M.A. LL.D. _ ._ - - Brooklyn 
1897 Timothy L. Woodruff M.A. Lieutenant Governor, ex officio 

1899 John T. McDonough LL.B. LL.D. Secretary of State, ex officio 

1900 Thomas A. Hendrick M.A. LL.D. _ _ _ Rochester 

1901 Benjamin B. Odell jr LL.D. Governor, ex officio 

1901 Robert C. Pruyn M.A. _____ Albany 

1902 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. _ _ _ Syracuse 
One vacancy 



SECRETARY 

Elected by Regents 



1900 James Russell Parsons jr M.A. LL.D. 

directors of departments 

1888 Melvil Dewey M.A. LL.D. State Library and Home Education 
1890 James Russell Parsons jr M.A. LL.D. 

Adnmiistrative, College and High School DepHs 
1890 Frederick J. H. Merrill Ph.D. State Museum 



University of the State of New York 



New York State Museum 

Frederick J. H. Merrill Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 

Bulletin 54 
BOTANY 5 

REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 

To the Regents of the Umversity of the State of New York 

I have the honor of submitting to you the report of work done 
in the botanical department of the state museum during the 
year 1901. 

Specimens of plants for the herbarium have been collected in 
the counties of Albany, Essex, Franklin, Rensselaer, Warren 
and Washington. Specimens have been received from corres- 
pondents, either as contributions or for identification, that were 
collected in the counties of Albany, Columbia, Chautauqua, 
Essex, Franklin, Herkimer, Monroe, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, 
Schoharie, St Lawrence, Warren and Washington. The number 
of species of which specimens have been collected and added to 
the herbarium is 374. Of these, 57 were not before represented 
in it. Of the newly represented species, 37 are found in the 
collections of the botanist, 20 in those of his correspondents, and 
of the whole number, 16 are considered new to science and are 
described as such in the following pages. All of these are 
fungi and with one exception belong to the collections of the 
botanist. Specimens of the remaining 317 species make the 
representation of these species more complete and satisfactory. 

Of these, 282 belong to the collections of the botanist and 35 to 
Co 
C^j those of his correspondents. A list of the names of the added 

^ • species IS marked A. 

^^ The number of those who have contributed specimens for the 

__ herbarium or for identification is Si. Of these, 14 have sent 

extralimital specimens. A list of the names of the contributors 

and of their respective contributions is marked B. 



932 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

A record of species not before reported, witli notes concern- 
ing them, time and place of collecting the specimens and descrip- 
tions of new species is marked C. 

A part of the report containing remarks on previously 
recorded species and descriptions of new varieties is marked D. 

The investigation of our edible species of mushrooms has been 
continued. Of those whose edible qualities have been tried, 11 
species have been thought worthy of addition to the list of 
edible fungi. Descriptions of these may be found in a part of 
the report marked E. Colored figures of these and also of seven 
of the new species have been prepared. 

At the request of the director of the state museum a botanical 
exhibit was prepared for the Pan-American exposition at Buf- 
falo. But little time was given for the preparation of this 
exhibit, yet specimens were selected from material on hand that 
should fairly represent the herbarium, and the principal divi- 
sions and groups of plants that constitute our state flora. Seed- 
bearing or flowering plants, ferns and fern allies, mosses, 
lichens, marine algae and fungi were all represented by speci- 
mens of one or more species'. So far as possible, specimens were 
selected that have more or less economic importance and there- 
fore popular interest, because of some utility of the plants them- 
selves or of some of their products, or because of some injurious 
character either as troublesome weeds or harmful or destructive 
parasites or saprophytes. Among the parasitic fungi the smuts 
were represented by several species because they are so injuri- 
ous to our crops of cereals. Among saprophytic fungi those 
destructive to wood and also those valued for their edibility 
were specially represented. The specimens placed on exhibition 
have been safely returned to the herbarium, but those of the seed- 
bearing plants have suffered a little deterioration in appearance 
because of their long exposure to strong light. Their green 
color has faded. 

The herbarium has been moved from the capitol to geological 
hall where it has a place far more suitable, more commodious, 
better lighted, more convenient for botanical work and more 
accessible to the public. Thanks are due to all who have aided 
in bringing about this change. It is very desirable that it may 
not again be necessary to store any part of it where it may not 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 933 

be under the immediate control of the botanist in charge. Such 
Si condition of things, as in the present case, is very likely to 
result in injury to or loss of specimens. Some of the stored 
specimens were destroyed by insects, some by moisture, having 
been placed apparently where they became wet by a leak in the 
Toof. A glass case containing puff balls was broken and its 
contents spoiled or destroyed, and two boxes, one containing 
specimens and the other mushroom models, could not be found. 

The room in geological hall which has been assigned to the 
botanical department is on the second floor in the southern 
■extension of the building. It is divided into two parts, the front 
part being used as a show room and containing the sections of 
the trunks of our trees arranged in wall cases, and photographs 
and thin sections of the wood of the trees exhibited in swing- 
ing frames supported by upright standards. It is expected also 
to contain table cases in which will be exhibited specimens of 
•our edible and poisonous mushrooms and other plants or parts 
-or products of plants that may have such importance or eco- 
nomic value as to be of special public interest. The rear part 
■of the room contains the office of the botanist, the library, the 
herbarium and duplicate specimens together with specimens of 
•t^xtralimital species. It will also be used in part as a botanical 
workroom. 

Several species of thorn recently described, having been 
reported as occurring at Crown Point, that locality was visited 
late in May with the purpose of collecting fl^owering specimens 
for the herbarium. The thorn shrubs and small trees were 
found in abundance along the northern and western shores of 
the promontory, and about the ruins of the old fort. Their 
leaves were generally badly infested by plant lice, a condition 
which it is said is repeated every year. The cockspur thorn is 
the prevailing species and was in better condition than the 
•others. The large fruited thorn, Crataegus punctata, 
the long spined thorn, C. macracantha, the Champlain 
thorn, C. c h a m p 1 a i n e n s i s, Pringle's thorn, C. p r 1 n - 
g 1 e i, and the pruinOse fruited thorn, C. p r u i n o s a, were 
found there. 

The last three are additions to the previously known species 
•of our flora. The red seeded dandelion, Taraxacum ery- 



934 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

throspermum, and the flickweed, Sophia sophia^ 
were also found there and are additions to our flora. 

In July a trip was made to North Elba, specially to visit Mt 
Clinton and the southeastern cliffs of Mt Wallface. Mt Clin- 
ton is the most southern of the three prominent peaks in the Mt 
Mclntyre range and so far as known to me had never been 
visited by any botanist. Its open summit was found to be less 
extensive than had been anticipated and it furnished no addi- 
tions to our flora. The alpine juniper, Juniperus com- 
munis alpina, was found there in greater abundance 
than on the higher summit of Mt Mclntyre and was fruiting 
sparingly. The dwarf paper birch, Betula papyracea 
minor, was also abundant and fruiting freely though only 
2 or 3 feet high. The arbor vitae, Thuja occidentalism 
in a dwarf irregular form ascends to the open summit of the 
mountain. 

On the southeastern cliffs of Mt Wallface the twisted whitlow- 
grass, Draba incana arabisans, was found in abund- 
ance in fruiting condition. It probably flowers here in June. 
Fine fruiting specimens of the spiked wood-rush were associated 
with it. This had been previously discovered on the top of Mt 
Wallface. This mountain is at present the only locality known 
to me in our state where these two plants are found. 

In August, Bolton and the surrounding region on the west 
shore of Lake George was explored botanically and found to be 
prolific in fungi. Showers had been frequent and weather con- 
ditions were favorable to the growth of mushrooms. In this 
visit and a subsequent one in September, which was extended 
northward to Hague, many species of fungi were added to the 
list of New York plants and several were tried and found wor- 
thy of addition to our list of edible mushrooms. 

Respectfully submitted 

Charles H. Peck 

State botamst 
Albany, 11 Dec. 1901 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 



935 



PLANTS ADDED TO THE HERBARIUM 



New to the herharvum 



•Conringia orientalis (L.) Dumort. 
Cteum vernum T. d O. 
Crataegus champlainensis Sarg. 
•C. pringlei Sarg. 

O. holmesiana Ashe 

<3. pruinosa Wend. 

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Britton 
Antenniaria pai'l. arnoglossa Fern. 
Centaurea jacea L. 
Lactiica morssii Robins. 
Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. 
Hedeoma hispida Pursh 
Panicularia laxa Scribn. 
Mylia anomala {Hook.) S. F. Gray 
Scapania irrigua (Nees) Dumort. 
Cetraria aurescens Tuckm. 
Stereocaulon denudatum Fl. 
Endocarpon fluviatile DC. 
Pannaria leucosticta Tuckm. 
Lepiota adnatifolia Pk. 
Tricholoma rimosum Pk. 
Olitocybe regularis PA:. 
<3. subconcava Pk. 

Pleurotus minutus Pk. 
Laotarius foetidus Pk. 
Hygrophorus glutinosus Pk. 
Volvaria speciosa Fr. 
V. hypopitbys Fr. 

Cortinarius submarginalls Pk. 
■C. obliquus Pk. 



Cortinarius violaceo-clnereus (Pers.) 

Fr. 
Boletus multipuuetus Pk. 
Fistulina pallida B. d R. 
Poria mycelio'sa Pk. 
Hydnum umbllioatum Pk. 
Thelephora exigua Pk. 
T. multipartita Scliw. 

Oorticium portontosum B. & C. 
C. arachnoideum Berk. 

Peniopbora parasitica Burt 
P. affinis Burt \ 

Asterostroma bicolor E. d E. 
Clavaria bicolor Pk. 
Phallogaster saccatus Morg. 
Cyathus lesueurii Tul. 
Didymium fairmani Sacc. 
Pbysarella multiplicata Macb. 
Empusa gnili Fresen. 
Marsonia pyriformis {Riess) Sacc. 
Septoria polygonina Thum. 
Cbalara paradoxa (Seynes) Sacc. 
Ck)lletotrichum antirrbini Stewart 
C. rudbeckii Pk. 

Helvella adbaerens PA:. 
Lachnella corticalis (Pers.) Fr. 
Antbostoma diyopbilum (Curr.) 

Sacc. 
Mycenastrum spiuulosum PA;. 



Not new to the herhariwm 



Clematis virginlaiia L. 
Trollius laxus Salisb. 
Ranunculus bulbosus L. 
Hepatica acuta (Pursh) Britton 
Berberis vulgaris L. 
Podophyllum peltatum L. 
•Castalia tnberosa (Paine) Greene 
Aj-abis hirsuta (L.) Scop. 



Dentaria laciniata Muhl. 

D. maxima Xutt. 

Draba incana arabisans Mx. 

Xantboxylum aniericanum (Mill.) 

Rhus copallina L. 

Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britton 

Ivychnis flos-cuculli L. 

Malva sylvestris L. J 



936 



NBTT YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Amorpba fruticosa L. 
Meibomia paniculata (L.) Kuntze 
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench 
Oassia marylandica L. 
Polyg-ala viridescens L. 
Spiraea salic. latifolia Ait. 
Potentilla arguta Piirsh 
Rubus strigosus Mx. 
Cnataegus macracantha Lodd. 
C. modesta Sarg. 

Ludwigia alternifolia L. 
Ohamaenerion angustifolium (L.) 

Scop. 
Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. 
Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray 
Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaie 
Galium verum L. 
Valerianella chenopodlfolia (Pursh) 

DC. 
Aster Timiueus Lam. 
A. laiteriflorus (L.) Britton 
Solidago juncea Ait. 
S. caesia L. 

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. 
Antennaria neodioica Greene 
Liaotuca spicata (Lam.) Hitch. 
L. spi. integrifolia (Gr.) Hitch. 

Onopordou acanthium L. 
Rudbeckia triloba L. 
Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T. & O. 
Kalmia angustifolia L. 
Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B. S. P. 
Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr. 
Dianthera americana L. 
Ouscuta epithymum Murr. 
Scrophularia leporella Bickn. 
Pentstemon pentstemon (L.) Britton 
Solanum carolinense L. 
Tetragonanthus deflexus (Sm.) 

Kuntze 
Monarda fistulosa L. 
Euphorbia platyphylla L. 
Myosotis verna Nutt. 
Chenopodium anthelminticum L. 
Betula pap. minor Tuchm. 



Hickoria minima (Marsh.) Britton 

Juniperus com. alpina Garid. 

Potamogeton lonchites Tuekm. 

P. obtusifolius M. & K. 

Gyrostachys gracilis (Biyel.) Kuntze 

G. romansioffiana (Cham.} 

MacM. 

Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. 

Cliutouia borealis (Ait.) Raf. 

Juucoides spicatum (L.) Kuntze 

Eleocharis ovata {Roth) R. d S. 

E. diandra Wright 

Eriophorum virginicum L. 

Scirpus peckii Britton 

S. rubrotinctus Fern. 

S. atrocinctus Fern. 

Rhynehospora glomerata (L.) Vahl 

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. d 8, 

Hemicarplia micrantha (Vahl) Brit- 
ton 

Pauicum dichotomum L. 

Agrostis alba L. 

Poa flava L. 

Panicularia canadensis (Mx.) Kuntze 

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. 

Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) Gray 

D. spin. dila.tata (Hoffm.} 

Undcrw. 

Woodsia obtusa Torr. 

Botrj'chium lanceolatum Angst. 

B. matricariaefoliumA.5r, 

B. obliquum Muhl. 

B. disseotum Spreng. 

Equisetum lit. gi-iacile Milde 

Lycopodium annotinum L. 

L. trisitacbyum Pursh 

Sphagnum pylaesii Brid. 

Dicranum elongatum Schwaegr. 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. 

Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. 

Polytrichum strictum Banks. 

Riccia fluitans L. 

Marchantia polymorpha L. 

Theloschistes parietinus (L.) Norm. 



REIPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 



937 



Cetraria islandlca (L.) Ach. 

C. nivalis Ach. 

Baeomyces aeruginosus (Scop.) DC. 

Stereocanlon pasehale (L.) Fr. 

Cladonla deformis (L.) Eoffm. 

C. cristatella Tuchm. 

O. cornucopioides (L.) Fr. 

C. unoialis (L.) Fr. 

C. raiifriferina (L.) Eoffm. 

Oaliciiim subtile Pers. 

Amanita phallo-ides Fr. 

A. frostiana Pfc. 

A. spreta Pk. 

A, muse, formosa {G.& R.)Fr. 

Amanitopsis volvata (PA-.) Sacc. 

A. vaginata (BuU.) Roze 

Lepiota friesii Lascli. 

L. aciitesqua,mosa Weinm. 

Li. felina Pers. 

Li. granulosa Batsch 

Li. nigosoreticulata Lorin. 

Li. cristatella Pk. 

Li. illinita Fr. 

Tricholoma russula (Scliaeff.) Fr. 

T. rutilans (Schaeff.) Fr. 

T. variegatum (Scop.) Fr. 

T. tricolor Pk. 

T. peckii Haue 

T. fallax Pk. 

T. alboflavidum Pk. 

T. fuligineum Pk. 

T. album (Schaeff.) Fr. 

Clitocybe anisaiia Pk. 

C. dealbata Sow. 

C. infundibuliformis(>Scftae/f.) 

C. adirondackensis Pk. 

O. laccata (Scop.) Fr. 

C. oclaropurpurea Berk. 

Collybia radicata (Relh.) Fr. 

C. platyphylla Fr. 

C. maculata (.1. d S.) Fr. 

C. butyracea (BuU.) Fr. 

C. dryophila (Bull.) Fr. 

C. esculentoides Pk. 

C. velutlpes (Curt.) Fr. 



Collybia conflueus (Pers.) Fr. 

Mycena immaculata Pk. 

M. galericulata (Scop.) Fr. 

M. pseudopura Cke. 

Omphalia umbellifera (L.) Fr. 

O. atratoides Pk. 

O. fibula (Bull.) Fr. 

O. swartzii Fr. 

O. camp, sparsa Pk. 

Hygrophorus laurae Morg. 

H. pratensis (Pers.) Fr. 

H. chlorophanus Fr. 

H. nitidus B. d C. 

Lactarius cilicioides Fr. 

L. indigo (Schw.) Fr. 

L. chelidonium Pk. 

L. subpurpureus Pk. 

L. aquifluus PA;. 

Jj. theiogaluvs (BuU.) Fr. 

L. chrysorrheus Fr. 

L. pyrogalus (BuU.) Fr. 

L. alpinus PA-. 

L. camphoratus (BuU.) Fr. 

Russula decolorans Fr. 

R. rugulosa Pk. 

Cantharellus floceosus Schtc. 

C. umbonatus Fr. 

C. lutescens Fr. 

Xyctalis asteropbora Fr. 

Marasmius peronatus Fr. 

M. subnudus (EUis) Pk. 

M. semibirtipes Pk. 

M. spongiosus B. d C. 

M. impudicus Fr. 

Lentinus ursiuus Fr. 

L. lepideus Fr. 

Panus stipticus (BuU.) Fr. 

Lenzites bet. radiatus Pk. 

Li. sepiaria Fr. 

L. vialis Pk. 

Entoloma sinuatum Fr. 

E. sericeum (BuU.) Fr. 

Clitopilus micropus Pk. 

C. abortivus B. d C. 

Pholiota squarrosa MuU. 



938 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Pholiota praecox Pers. 

Inocybe infelix Pk. 

I. geophylla Sow. 

Strophiaria aerugluosa {Curt.) Fr. 

Hypholoma incertum Pk. 

H. aggre. sericeum Pk. 

Cortinarius berlesianus Sacc. 

C. siiblatei-itius Pk. 
B'oletiuus pictus Pk. 
Boletus bioolor Pk. 

B. chrys. defonmatus Pk. 

B. pallidus Frost 

B. variipes Pk. 

B. eximius Pk. 

B. ornatipes Pk. 

B. felleus Bull. 

B. cyaneseens Bull. 

Fistulina hepatica Fr. 

Polyporua ovinus (Sclmeff.) Fr. 

P. poripes Fr. 

P. confluens (A. & 8.) Fr. 

P. resinosus {Schrad.) Fr. 

P. chioneus Fr. 

P. adustus iWilld.) Fr. 

P. gilvus Schw. 

Gloeoporus conchoidies Mont. 

Ftomes lucidus (Leys) Fr. 

F. applamatus (Pers.) Wallr. 

F. fomentarius (L.) Fr. 

F. roseus (A. <€ S.) i^r. 

F. conchatus (Pers.) Fr. 

Polystictus radiatus Fr. 

P. hirsutus Fr. 

P. pergamenus Fr. 

P. pseudopergamenus 

(Thum.) 
Poria subacida Pk. 
P. mutans Pk. 
Trametes trogii Berk. 
T. sopium Berk. 

T. seiialis Fr. 

T. cinnabarina (Jacq.) Fr. 

Daedalea conf ragosa Pers. 

D. unicolor Fr. 
Cyclomyces greonii Berk. 



Caldesiella ferruginosa (Fr.) Sacc. ' 
Hydnum scrobiculatum Fr. 
H. zonatum Batsch 

H. venereum PA;. 

H. sepitentriouale Fr. 

Irpex lacteus Fr. 
I. ambiguus Pk. 
Mucronella min. couferta Pk. 
Craterellus lutescens {Pers.) Fr. 
C. cornucopioides (L.) Pers. 

0. caatharellus {Schw.) Fr. 

Tlielephora caryophyllea {Schaeff.) 

Pers. 
Stereum fasciatuin Schw. 
S. complieatum Fr. 

Hymenochaete tabacina {Sow.) Lev. 
Oorticium evolvens Fr. 
C. aluitaceum (Schrad.) 

C. investiens (Schtc.) 

C. lilacino-fuscum B. & C. 

Guepinia spathularia {Schw.) Fr. 
Glavaria flava Schacff. 
C. cristata Pers. 

C. gracilis Pers. 

C. pyxidata Pers. 

C circinans Pk. 

C pinopbila Pk. 

G. aurea Schaeft. 

G. pulchra Pk. 

Physalacria inflata (Schw.) Pk. 
Phallus ravenelii B. d C. 
Cyatbus striatus {Ends.) Hoffm. 
Bovista plumbea Pers. 
Scleroderma vulgare Eornem. 
S. verrucosum {Bull.) Pers. 

Calvaitia cyatbiformis {Bosc.) 
Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch 
L. pyriforme Schaeft. 

L. subineai'natum Pk. 

Ij. cruciatum Rost. 

L. fi-ostii Pk. 

L. curtisii Berk. 

Fuligo ovata {Schaeft.) Macb. 
Tubifera ferruginosa (Batsch) Mach. 
Reticularia lycoperdon Bull. 
Spumaria alba (Bull.) DC. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 



939 



Physarum compressum A. d S. 

Tilmadoche viridis (Bull.) Sacc. 

Diachaea leucopoda {Bull.) R. 

D. subsessilis Pk. 

Dldymium melanospermum (Pers.) 
Mach. 

Stemonltis fusca (Roth) R. 

S. smithii Macb. 

Oomatrlcha stemonitis (Scop.) Shel- 
don 

C. aequalis Pk. 

Dletydlum cancellatum (Batsch) 

Lachnobolus g:lobosus (Schw.) R. 

Arcyria cinerea (BnU.) Pers. 

A. denudaita (L.) Sheldon 

A. nutans (Bull.) Grev. 

Heml'trlchia vesparium (Batsch) 

Trlchla favoginea (Batsch) Pers. 

Uredo polypodii (Pers.) DC. 

Coleosporium solidaginis (Seftic.) 

Melampsora farinosa (Pers.) Schroet. 



Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Vng. 
U. uftriculosa CNees) Tul. 

U. auoniala Kze. 

Septoi'ia irregularis Pk. 
S. aceriua Pk. 

Pilacre faginea (Fr.) B. d Br. 
Monilia fnictigena Pers. 
Ramularia tulasnei Sacc. 
Glomerularia corni Pk. 
Spatliularia crispa Pk. 
S. clavata (Schaeff.) 

Leotia lubrica (Scop.) Fr. 
Helvella inf ula Schaeff. 
H. gracilis Pk. 

Vibrissea truueoruim (A. d S.) 
Lachnella citrina Pk. 
Dasyscypha bioolor (Bull.) Fckl. 
Phyllachora pteridis (iJeft.) Fckl. 
Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Fr. 
Hypoxylon perforatum^ Schw. 



B 

CONTRIBUTORS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS 

Mrs N. L. Britton, New York 



•Gymnostomum rupestre Schwaegr. 
Seligeria doniana (Siv.) All. 
Dlcranella heteromalla Schp. 
Dicranum fulvum Hook. 
D. flagellare Hedw. 

Dldymodon rubellus B. d S. 
D. riparius Atist. 

Orlmmia apocarpa Hedic. 
Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. 
Amphoridium lapponicum Schp. 
Drummondia clavellata Hook. 
TJlota hutchinsiae Schp. 
Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. 
Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. 
Phllonotis fontana Brid. 
Bryum roseum Schreb. 
Webera albicans Schp. 
Mnlum afflne Bland. 
M. punctatum Hedw. 

M. elatum B. d S. 

M. spinulosum B. d S. 

Pogonatum alpinum Roehl. 



Diphyscium foliosum Mohr. 

Fontinalis antip. gigantea Sull. 

Leptodon trich. immersus Sull. 

Horn alia jamesii Schp. 

Myurella eareyana Sull. 

Anomodon rostratus Schp. 

A. attenuatus Hueben. 

A. viticulosus H. d T. 

Cylindrothecium cladorrhizans Schp. 

Climacium americanum Brid. 

Hypnum delicatulum L. 

H. rusciforme Weis. 

H. pulchellum Dicks. 

H. reptile 3Ix. 

H. imponens Hedw. 

H. haldanianum Grev. 

H. eugyrium Schp. 

H. brevirostre Ehrh. 

H. triquetrum L. 

H. radicale Bv. 

Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. 

Mitrula phalloides (Bull.) Chev. , 



940 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Mrs M. A. Knickerbocker, Douglastoii 
Ontaurea jacea L. \ Galium verum L. 

Miss Emma S. Thomas, Schoharie 
Lepiota acutesqiiamosa TFe/nm. | rvycopordon pyrlforme Schaeft. 

Miss Harriet A. Edwards, Port Henry 
Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. 

Mrs G. M. Dallas, Philadelphia Pa. 
Thelephora caespitulans Schw. 

Mrs T. B. Bishop, San Fi-ancisco Cal. 
Xerophyllum tenax Ntitt. 

Miss M. L. Overacker, Syracuse 



Lythrum saliearia L. 
Stropharia aeruginosa (Curt.) 



Podophyllum peltatum L. 
Viola sitriata Ait. 
Crepis virens L. 

Miss N. li. Marshall, New York 
Volvaria hypopithys Fr. 

E. A. Burt, Middlebury Vt. 



Dacryomyces deliquescens {Bull.} 

Dub. 
Grandinia granulosa Fr. 



Poria subtilis (Sehrad.) Bres. 
Oorticium sulphureum Pers. 
Peniophora parasitica Burt 
Asterostroma bicolor E. d E. 

M. li. Fernald, Cambridge Mass. 
Carex atlantica Bailey ] Carex elachycarpa Fern. 

B. D. Gilbert, Clayville 
Botrychium dissectum Spreng. | Lycopodium tristachyuim Piirsh 

C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati O. 
Oalos'toma cinnabarinuan Desv. j Lycoperdon glabellum Pk. 

Geaster coliformis [Dicks.) Pers. I 

G. B. Fessenden, Boston Mass. 
Pluteolus coprophilus Pk. 
P. C. Stewart, Geneva 
Ck)lletotrichum antiiThini Steicart I Marsonia pyriformis (Riess) Saoc. 
O. rudbeckiae Pk. ' 

S. H. Burnham, Vaughns 
Hepatica acuta iPu7-sh) Britton 

E. B. Sterling, Trenton N. J. 
Phallogaster saccatus Morg. \ Morchella angusticeps Pk. 

J. J. Hastings, Albany 
Clitocybe multiceps Pk. i Hypholoma incertum Pk. 

Pholiota praecox Pers. I 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 



941 



E. B. Conger, Peninsula O. 
Erythronium albldum Nutt. 

H. L. Clapp, Roxbury Mass. 

Hy}<rophorus ventricosus B. d Br. 

J. B. Ellis, Newfield N. J. 

Phyllosticta limitata fnietigena Ellis 

F. S. Boughton, Pittsford 
Polyporus morg'ani Frost I Fistulina pallida B. d R. 
Lycoperdon frostii Pk. I 

A. P. Hitchcock, New Lebanon 
Boletus felleus Bull. 

Rev. J. M. Bates, Callaway Neb. 
Tylostoma campestre Morg. I Catastoraa subterraneum Pk. 

T. poculatum White ' Geaster eampestris Mwg. 

Simon Davis, Boston Mass. 



Armillaria nardosmia Ellis 
Hygrophorus sordidus Pk. 
H. pallidus PA;. 

Russula ventricosipes Pk. 



Rhizopogon rubescens Tul. 
Scleroderma veiTUCOsum 
Pers. 



{Bull.} 



W. F. Bade, Bethlehem Pa. 
Anychia dichotoma Mx. 

C. S. Banks, Manila, Philippine islands 



Aquilegia canadensis L. 
Trifolium repens L. 
Potentilla canadensis L. 
Geum rivale L. 
Hamamelis virginiana L. 
Zizia aurea (L.) Koch 
Rum ex acetosella L. 
Oypripedium hirsutum Mill. 

F. J. Braendle, Washington D. C. 

I Clavaria grandis Pk 

J. V 



Asarum cauadense L. 
Eriophorum polystachyon L. 
Oarex sterilis Willd. 
Onoclea sensibilis L. 
Adiantum pedatum L. 
Asplenium platyneuron L. 
Dryopteris acrostichoides (Mx.) 



Polyporus lacteus Fr. 



Ranunculus bulbosus L. 
TroUius laxus Salisi. 
Arabis hii-suta (L.) Scop. 
A. laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. 

Oonringia orlen talis (L.) Dtimort. 
Dentaria laciniata Muhl. 
D. maxima Nutt. 

Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britton 
Creum vernum T. & O. 



Haberer, Utica 

Opulaster opulifolius (L.) Kuntze 

Polygala viridescens L. 

Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. 

Saroithra geutianoides L. 

Galium mollugo L, 

Valerianella chenopodlfolia (Pursh)- 

DC. 
Vernonia gigantea {Walt.) 
Hieracium praealtum Till. 



^42 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Rhododendron maximum L. 
Lysimachia quadrifolia L. 
Tetragonantbus deflexus {Sm.) 

Kuntze 
Monarda fistulosa L. 
Hedeoma hispida Pursh 
Koellia virginiana (L.) Mac}f. 
Pentstemon pentstemon (L.) Britton 
X)ianthera amerieana L. 
Scirpus sylvaticus L. 
S. rubrotinctus Fern. 

Eriophorum virg-. album Oray 
Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Tahl 

H. H. Hume, 

Exobasidium peckii Halst. 
Entomospoiium macula turn Lev. 
Pyricularia grisea {Cke.) Sacc. 
■Sorosporium everhartii E. & O. 
Puccinia graminis Pers. 
P. fuirenae Cke. . 

P. hydroeotyles (Mont.) Cke. 

P. hieracii (Schum.) Mart. 

Ravenelia glanduliformis B. & C. 
TJromyces elegans (B. d C.) Lagh. 
XT. caladii (Schw.) Farl. 

TJ. spermacoces (Schtc.) 

Thum. 
U. graminicola Burrill 

TJ. hedysari paniculati 

iScTixo.) 
TJstilago floridana E. & E. 
•Caeoma nitens Schic. 
Scolecotrichmii caricae E. d E. 
Thecapsora vacciniorum B. d C. 
Phyllosticta nerii West. 
P. roberti B. d J. 

P. phaseolina Sacc. 

P. ipomaeae E. d K. 

P. phomiformis Sacc. 

P. vaccinii Earle 

P. caiyae Pk. 

P. curtisii (Sacc.) E. d E. 

P. livida E. d E. 

P. acericola C. d E. 

Pestalozzia palmarum Cke. 
P. crataegi E. d E. 

Septoria oenotberae ^Vest. 
S. lycopersici Speg. 

S. drummondii E. d E. 



Hemicarpha micrantha iTahl) Brit- 
ton 

Flmbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. d B. 

Eleocharis diandra Wright 

E. vigens (Bailey) 

Botrychium laiicoolatum Angst. 

B. matricariaefoliumA.Br, 

B. obliquum Muhl. 

B. tern. intermedium 

Eaton 

Equisetum lit. gracile Milde 

Lycopodium inuudatum L. 



Lake City Fla. 
Graphiola phoenicis (Moug.) Poii. 
Macrosporium asimini Hume 
M. solani E. d M. 

Helminthosporium ravenelli B. d C. 
Peronospora gonolobii Lagh. 
Plasmopara eubensis {B. d C.) Hume 
Cystopus candidus (Pers.) Lev. 
C. ipomaeae-pandurartae 

(Schtc.) 
Exoascus varius Atk. 
Cercospora i>etersii [B. d C.) Atk. 
C. flagellaris E. d M. 

C. hamamelidis E. d E. 

C. phyllitidis Hume 

C. hibisci T. d E. 

C. vignae E. d E. 

C. callicaiiDae Cke. 

C. hydroeotyles E. d E. 

C. ricinella S. d B. 

C. apii Fres. 

C. beticola Sacc. 

C. catalpae Wint. 

Sphaerostilbe coccophila Tul. 
Meliola palmicola Wint. 
Asterina inquinans E. d E. 
Taphrina caerulescens (D. d M.) 
Phyllactinia suffulta {Reh.) Sacc. 
Uncinula clintonii Pk. 
Microsphaera quercina (Schw.) Burr. 
M. calocladophora Atk. 

Sphaeria andropogicola Schio. 
Rhytisma vaccinii Earle 
Linospora ferruginea E. d M. 
Phyllachora cyperi Rehm. 
Phleospora mori Sacc. \ 



REI'ORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1001 



943: 



Mrs Carolyn W. 
Usnea barbata (/>.) Fr. 
U. barb, florida Fr. 

U. barb, rubiginosa Mx. 

U. long^issimia Ach. 

Alectoria jub. chalybeiforniis Ach. 
Ramaliua calic. fa.stigiata Fr. 
R. calic. farinacea Schaer. 

Evernia pniiiastri (L.) Ach. 
Cetrai'ia ciliaris Ach. 
C. lacunosa Ach. 

C. aurescens Tuckm. 

Sticta pulmonaria (L.) Ach. 
S. amplissima (Scop.) Mass. 

Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Hoffm. 
P. eanina (L.) Hoffm. 

P. polydactyla (.Yecfc.) Hoffm. 

P. rufescens (Neck.) Hoffm. 

P. pulverulenta (Tayl.) Nyl. 

Umbilicaria dilLenii Tuckm. 
U. vellea (L.) Nyl. 

U, muhlenbergii (Ach.) 

Tuchm. 
U. pustulaita (L.) Hoffm. 

Pyxine sorediata Fr. 
Solorina saccata (L.) ^^i/Z. 
Parmelia perlata (L.) ^c7i. 



Harris, Brooklyn 

I I'arniclia sa.xatilis (L.) Fr. 

P. sax. sulcata Nyl. 

P. sax. panuiforniis (Ac/f.) 

P. caperata (L.) Acft. 

P. couspersa (Ehrh.) Ach. 

P. borreri rwrn. 

P. physodes (L.) Ach. 

P. tiliacea (Hoffm.) FL 

Physcia stellaris (L.) Tuckm, 

P. aquila (Ach.) Nyl. 

Theloschistes polycarpus (Ehrh.) 
Tuckm. 

Pannaria lanuginosa (Ach.) 

P. leucosticta Tuchm. 

Leptogium pulchellum (Ach.) NyL 

Li. lacerum (Sic.) Fr. 

L. tremelloides (L.) Fr, 

Collema flaccidum Ach. 

Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Fr. 

Oladonia squamosa Hoffm. 

C. furc. racemosa Fl. 

Endocarpon fluviatile DC. 

E. min. complicatum 

Schaer. 

E. min. aquaticum Schaer. 



Mrs E. Watrous, New York 
Oortinarius violaceo-cinereus (Pers.) Fr. 

Mrs E. C. Anthony, Gouverneur 
Uredo polypodii (Pers.) DC. 

M. S. Baxter, Rochester 
Graphiola phoenicis (Moug.) Poit. 

George E. Morris, Waltham Mass. 



Tricholoma peckii Howe 
Mycena strobilinoidea Pk. 
Hygrophorus pudorinus Fr. 
Cortinarius sanguineus (Wulf.) Fr. 
Boletus parasiticus Bull. 
Mutinus ravenelii (B. d C.) Fisch. 
Calvatia elata (.Vass.) Morg. 
Hypoxylon howeanum Pk. 
Oordyceps capitata (Holm^k.) Lk. 



Cordyceps ophioglossoides 

Lk. 
Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. 
H. ephippium Lev. 

H. macropus brevis Pi; 

Geoglossum farlowi Cke. 
G. peckianum Cke. 

Bulgaria rufa Schic. 



(Ehrh.). 



94:4 NEW YORK STATIB MUSEUM 

SPECIES NOT BEFORE REPORTED 

C 

Thalictrum occidentale Gray 

Shore of Lake Champlain near Port Henry. The leaves of 

this plant bear some resemblance to those of Thalictrum 

d i o i c u m, but in stature and time of flowering it suggests T. 

purpurascens to which it was doubtfully referred in a 

former report. 

Conringia orientalis (L.) Dumort. 

Along the N. Y. C. railroad near Utica. J. V. Haberer, This 
is an introduced plant having a tendency in some places to 
become a troublesome weed. 

Sophia Sophia (L.) Britton 

Thin soil in rocky places. About the ruins of the old fort on 
Crown Point. May. This is Sisymbrium sophia L. 

Geum vernum T. & G. 

Mohawk flats. Deerfield, Oneida co. Abundant in a meadow 
near a little lake on the north side of Mohawk river about a 
mile below Utica. It may have been introduced from the west. 
It is distinguished from closely related species by its stalked 
receptacle. June. J. V. Haberer. 

Crataegus champlainensis Sarg. 
Crown Point and near North Albany. May and June. The 
species of Crataegus have recently been made the subject of 
special investigation by some of the botanists in this country. 
The result has been the recognition of many species previously 
overlooked or confused with other known forms. Good specific 
characters have been found in parts of the plant formerly dis- 
regarded or considered unreliable in the identification of species. 

Crataegus pringlei Sarg. 

Crown Point and near North Albany. May and June. This 
species may be recognized by the peculiar habit of its foliage. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 945 

The mature leaves, by the deflection of their margins, have a 
drooping appearance, the upper surface being convex, the lower 
concave. This is sliown to some extent in the dried specimens in 
the herbarium. The leaves do not flatten fully in the plant 
press but present folds or wrinkles when dried. 

Crataegus modesta Sarg. 

Dry hills and slaty knolls. Near North Albany and Lansing- 
burg. June. The specimens which we have referred to this 
species meet the description fairly well but the plant is quite 
variable. On dry clayey hillocks north of Albany it has a strag- 
gling starved appearance, bears small leaves and few or no 
thorns. On slaty knolls north of Lansingburg it is more thrifty, 
has larger leaves which are often somewhat three lobed by rea- 
son of the greater development of the basal lobes, and it bears 
more numerous thorns which are sometimes 2 inches long. It 
flowers a little later than the two preceding species and is also 
later in ripening its fruit. It is a rather small shrub, usually 

4 to 6 feet high. 

Crataegus holmesiana Ashe 

Near North Albany and Lansingburg, also in Sandlake where 
it is the prevailing species. May. The number of stamens 
varies from 5 to 8, and serves when the plant is in blossom as a 
■distinctive mark of the species. The fruit ripens early in Sep- 
tember and has an agreeable flavor. 

Crataegus pruinosa Wend. 
Crown Point, North Albany and Lansingburg. The pruinosity 
of the fully grown fruit is a convenient mark for the recognition 
of this species. 

Vernonia gigantea (Walt.) Britton 

Stony, hilly pastures. New Hartford, Oneida co. September. 
J. V. Haberer. 

Antennaria parlinii arnoglossa Fern. 
Pastures. Crown Point. May. 



946 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

/ 

Centaurea jacea L. 

Douglaston, Queens co, August. Mrs M. A. Knickerbocker. 
It has also been reported from Deerfield by Dr Haberer but I 
have seen no specimens from that locality. The plant is some- 
times cultivated for ornament and has escaped from cultivation* 

Arctium minus Schk. 

Near Loon lake station, July. This was formerly considered 
a variety of A. lappa. 

Lactuca morssii Kobins. 

Clearings and waste places. North Elba and Loon lake sta- 
tion. July. In general appearance this species resembles L. 
canadensis and L. leucophaea. From the former 
it may be distinguished by its purplish or violet colored flowers 
and the shorter beaked achenia, from the latter by its snowy 

white pappus. 

Hedeoma hispida Pursh 

Thin naked soil covering rocks. Little Falls. June. Prob- 
ably introduced from the west. J. V. Haberer. 

Panicularia laxa Scribn. 

Margin of a pond near Loon lake station. July. The speci- 
mens have the small few-flowered spikelets of this species but 
the upper sheaths do not overlap as in the typical form. 

Mylia anomala (Hook.) S. F. Gray 
Marshes. West Fort Ann. November. S. H. Burnham. 

Scapania irrigua (Nees) Dumort. 
Marshes. West Fort Ann, October. S. H. Burnham. 

Stereocaulon denudatum Fl, 

Bare rocks. Mt Marcy, Mt Mclntyre and Mt Wallface, July.. 
All the specimens are sterile, 

Endocarpon fluviatile DC. 
Near Chilson lake. June. Mrs C. W. Harris. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 947 

Cetraria aurescens Tuckm. 

Bark of pine, Pinus strobus. Near Chilson lake. June. 
Mrs C. W. Harris. 

Pannaria leucosticta Tuckm. 
Granitic rocks. Near Chilson lake. July. Mrs Harris. 

Lepiota adnatifolia n. sp. 
Pileus thin except in the center, broadly convex or nearly 
plane, minutely granulose or squamulose, isabelline, alutaceous 
or reddish ferruginous, the margin usually appendiculate with 
fragments of the veil, flesh white; lamellae thin, moderately 
close, adnate, white; stem short, generally slightly thickened at 
the base, solid when young but sometimes becoming stulBfed or 
hollow with age, glabrous or slightly squamulose below the 
small often evanescent ring, pallid or subrufescent; spores 
minute, .0002-.00024 of an inch long, .00016-0002 broad. 

Pileus 1-2.5 inches broad; stem 1-1.5 inches long, 2-4 lines 
thick. Ground under pine trees. Bolton and Hague, Warren 
CO. September. 

The color ornamentation and size are nearly the same as in 
L. granulosa, from which it differs in its slight veil, larger 
spores and specially in its adnate lamellae. By this character 
some species of Lepiota show an affinity with the genus Armil- 
laria. Our four species having this character may be indicated 
by the subjoined synoptic table. 

Plant growing on the ground 1 

Plant growing on decaying wood L. granosa 

1 Plant having a disagreeable odor L. rugosoreticulata 

1 Plant inodorous 2 

2 Stem 1-2 lines thick, pileus generally umbonate L. amian- 

t h i n a 
2 Stem 2-4 lines thick, pileus not umbonate. L. adnati- 
folia 

Tricholoma rimosum n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy, convex becoming nearly plane, often split on 
the margin, glabrous, hygrophanous, watery brown and shining 



^48 NEW YORK STATE MtJSEUM 

when moist, paler when dry, flesh colored like the pileus when 
moist, whitish when dry, taste farinaceous; lamellae thin^ 
narrow, very close, rounded behind, adnexed, uneven on the 
edge, whitish or subcinereous; stem nearly equal, silky-fibrillose, 
hollow, whitish; spores elliptic, .0003-00035 of an inch long, 
.00016-.0002 broad. 

Pileus 1-1.5 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 1.5-2.5 lines 
thick. Woods. Bolton. September, 

This species is related to T. h u m i 1 e from which it may be 
distinguished by its smaller size, hollow silky fibrillose stem, 
the rimose margin of the pileus and its farinaceous taste. 

Clitocybe regularis n. sp. 

PLATE K, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus thin, flexible, broadly convex becoming nearly plane, 
often slightly depressed, in the center, orbicular, regular, 
whitish when moist, white when dry, flesh white, taste mild; 
lamellae thin, narrow, crowded, decurrent, whitish; stem firm, 
equal, glabrous, solid, rarely with a very small cavity, whitish, 
spongy thickened at the base; spores minute, .0002 of an inch 
long, .0001-.00012 broad. 

• Pileus 1-2.5 inches broad; stem about 1 inch long, 1.5-2.5 lines 
thick. Among fallen leaves in woods. Bolton. August. 

This species is related to C. t o r n a t a, from which it differs 
in its thin flexible moist pileus, its distinctly decurrent lamellae 
and in its solid stem with the spongy mass of mycelioid tomen- 
tum at the base. 

Clitocybe subconcava n. sp. 

PLATE K, FIG. 8-13 

Pileus thin, convex, deeply umbilicate, glabrous, hygrophan- 
ous, brownish or reddish brown and usually striatulate on the 
decurved margin when moist, whitish when dry; lamellae arcu- 
ate, decurrent, close, pallid or subcinereous; stem equal, firm, 
solid or stuffed, sometimes with a small cavity, slightly fibril- 
lose, colored like the pileus; spores minute, .0002-.00024 of an 
inch long, .00012-.00016 broad. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 949 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 1.5-2 lines thick. 
Pine woods. Bolton. August. 

Closely related to C. concava from which it may be separ- 
ated by its much smaller spores and paler color. The decurved 
margin of the pileus is even, not wavy as in that species. It is 
also allied to C. cyathiformis and C. e x p a 1 1 e n s, 
from both of which its smaller spores and deeply umbilicate 
pileus separate it. It is without any distinctive odor. 

Pleurotus minutus n. sp. 

Pileus minute, reniform or suborbicular, at first resupinate, 
sometimes becoming reflexed with age, often slightly depressed 
in the center; flocculose pruinose, white, the margin involute; 
lamellae unequal, very narrow, distant, decurrent, white or 
whitish; stem short, eccentric, curved, pruinose, whitish with a 
white mj^elioid tomentum at the base. 

Pileus 1-2 lines broad; stem about 1 line long. Much decayed 
ivood of birch. Near Loon lake. July. 

The very small size, narrow distant decurrent lamellae and 
pruinose pileus and stem are the prominent characters of this 
minute species. The specimens are sterile. 

Lactarius foetidus n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, nearly plane or centrally depressed, min- 
utely downy or velvety, pale yellow or buff, becoming brownish 
where bruised, flesh whitish, milk white, taste mild, odor fetid; 
lamellae subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, yellowish 
white, becoming reddish brown where wounded or bruised; stem 
short, equal, solid, glabrous, whitish; spores broadly elliptic or 
subglobose, .00024-00032 of an inch long, nearly as broad. 

Pileus 2-3 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 4-6 lines thick. 
TiOw damp ground in woods. Snyders, Rensselaer co. August. 

The fetid disagreeable odor and buff color of the pileus are 
•distinguishing characters of this rare species. The downy sur- 
face of the dry pileus is soft to the touch, like that of L. 
vellereus. 



950 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Hygrophorus glutinosus n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex, glutinous, white, sometimes tinged 
with yellow by the drying of the gluten, the margin involute^ 
flesh white; lamellae subdistant, adnate, white; stem equals 
solid, white, floecose tomentose and glutinous below the glutin- 
ous annulus, studded above with glandular drops of moisture 
which in drying form reddish dots; spores .0003-0004 of an inch 
long, .0002-.00024 broad. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem about 1 inch long, 3-4 lines thick. 

In the fresh plant the lower part of the stem appears to be 
coated with a floecose tomentum smeared with gluten, in the 
dried plant the gluten assumes an orange yellow or bright straw 
color and the tomentum disappears. The species differs from 
H. g 1 i o c y c 1 u s in its adnate lamellae and from H. e b u r - 
n e u s in its solid stem with reddish points at the top. 

Volvaria speciosa Fr. 
Westfield, Chautauqua co. June. E. B. Sterling. 

Volvaria hypopithys Fr. 
Lake Placid. September. Miss N. L. Marshall. 

Cortinarius submarginalis n. sp. 

PLATE L, FIG. 6-10 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex becoming nearly plane, or concave 
by the elevation of the margin, viscid when moist, yellowish 
brown, generally a little paler on the rather definite and com- 
monly fibrillose margin, flesh whitish; lamellae thin, close, ad- 
nate, creamy yellow when young, soon cinnamon; stem rather 
long, equal or slightly thickened at the base, solid, silky fibrillose, 
slightly viscid, whitish or pallid; spores subelliptic, .0004-.0005 
of an inch long, .0002-.00024 broad. 

Pileus 2-4 inches broad; stem 3-6 inches long, 4-6 lines thick. 
Low moist places in woods. Bolton. August. 

The margin of the pileus is generally paler than the rest and 
separated from it by a definite line. It is from 3-6 lines broad 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 951 

and is sometimes curved upward and conspicuously fibrillose. 
This difference between the margin and the rest of the pileus ia 
not clearly shown in the dried specimens. The species belongs 
in the section Myxacium. 

Cortinaxius obliquus n. sp. 

PLATE L, PIG. 1-5 

Pileus rather thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, dry, silky 
fibrillose, white or grayish, generally with a slight violaceous 
tint, flesh whitish; lamellae thin, close, adnate or slightly 
rounded behind, minutely crenulate on the edge and obscurely 
transversely striate on the sides, deep violet becoming cinna- 
mon brown with age; stem equal, solid, shining, silky fibrillose, 
whitish tinged with violet, violet within, with an abrupt flat- 
tened oblique bulb at the base; spores elliptic, uninucleate, 
.0003 of an inch long, .0002 broad. 

Pileus 2-3 inches broad; stem 2-3 Inches long, 3-5 lines thick. 
Among fallen leaves in woods. Bolton. August, 

This species is well marked by the white or grayish white 
pileus, the deep violet or almost amethystine color of the young 
lamellae and the oblique flattened bulb of the stem. It belongs 
to the section Inoloma. C. a 1 b i d u s Pk. has an oblique bulb 
at the base of the stem and a white pileus but it belongs to the 
section Phlegmacium as its pileus is viscid. Its young lamellae 
are also white. 

Cortinarius violaceo-cinereus (Pers.) Fr. 

Pine woods. Hague, Warren co. June. Mrs E. Watrous. 
A large cespitose form. A scattered or gregarious form occurs 
in woods near Bolton. September. In Systenia mycologioum and 
in Epicrisis, Fries gives C. violaceo-cinereus as the 
name of the species, but in E'l^menomycetes Europaei he changed 
the form of the name to C. cinereo-violaceus without 
giving any reason for the change. This name has been adopted 
in Sylloge, but we have retained the older form. 



952 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Boletus multipunctus n. sp. 

PLATE K, FIG. 19-22 

Pileus fleshy, convex or nearly plane, dry, brownish ocher^ 
sometimes with a slight reddish tint, the central part adorned 
with many minute slightly darker areolate spots or dots, flesh 
whitish, taste mild; tubes small, adnate or depressed about the- 
stem, ventricose in the mass, the mouths subrotund, at first 
whitish, becoming greenish yellow; stem equal or tapering 
upward, pallid, solid, fibrous striate; spores dark olive green^ 
oblong, .00045-.0006 of an inch long, .00016-.0002 broad. 

Pileus 3-5 inches broad; stem 3-5 inches long, 4-8 lines thick. 
In woods. Bolton. August. 

The species belongs to the section Edules. It was not found 

in sufficient quantity for testing its edibility but it is probably 

edible. 

Fistulina pallida B. & R. 

Pittsford, Monroe co. July. F. S. Boughton. These speci- 
mens correspond to the description of F. pallida except in 
their larger size. They are distinct from F. fir ma Pk, in. 
their darker color and decurrent tubes. 

Poria myceliosa n. sp. 

Subiculum membranaceous, separable from the matrix, con- 
nected with white branching strands of mycelium which per- 
meate the soft decayed wood, or with radiating ribs which run 
through the broad sterile fimbriate white margin; pores very 
short, subrotund angular or subflexuous, the dissepiments thin, 
aoute, dentate or slightly lacerate, pale yellow; spores minute^ 
subglobose, .00008-00012 of an inch broad. Round Lake, Sar- 
atoga CO. August. 

This fungus forms patches several inches in extent on much 
decayed wood of hemlock. It follows the inequalities of the 
surface on which it grows. It is scarcely more than half a line 
thick. The pores develop from the center toward the margin 
and at first are mere concavities in the subiculum. The species 
is apparently related to P . tenuis Schw., from which it 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 953 

differs in habitat, color and the prominent mycelial strands. 
In this last character it bears some resemblance to 
P. vaillantii (DC.) Fr. 

Hydnum umbilicatum n. sp. 

PLATE K, FIG. 14-18 

Pileus fleshy, convex, glabrous, umbilicate, reddish buff or 
burnt sienna color, flesh white, taste mild; aculei plane in the 
mass, fragile, nearly equal, a little paler than the pileus; 
stem nearly equal, glabrous, solid, whitish; spores globose, 
.0003-.0004 of an inch in diameter. 

Pileus 6-18 lines broad; stem 1-1.5 inches long, 2-4 lines 
thick. Among fallen leaves in woods. Hague. September. 

This species is related toH. repandum and H. rufe- 
seens, from both of which it is easily separated by its small 
but usually deep and distinct umbilicus. Sometimes a definite 
line separates the paler margin from the more highly colored 
center of the pileus. In the last report it was mentioned as a 
form ofH.rufescens. 

Thelephora multipartita Schw. 
Grassy ground under trees. Bolton. August. This species 
is variable in size, in the number of divisions of the pileus and 
consequently in its general appearance. It is related to T . 
anthocephala and T . c a r y o p h y 1 1 e a , but the upper 
surface of the pileus or of its component parts is usually paler 
than in these species. 

Thelephora exigua n. sp. 

Pileus very thin, submembranaceous, tubaeform or infundi- 
buliform, faintly radiately fibrous striate, slightly lacerate on 
the margin, pale alutaceous; hymenium even or faintly striate, 
pruinosely pubescent, pallid; stem slender, solid, pruinosely 
pubescent, brownish; spores .elliptic, .00016 of an inch long, 
about half as broad, 

Pileus 1.5-3 lines broad; stem 2-3 lines long. Vegetable 
mold. Westport, Essex co. October. 



954 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

This minute species may be separated from T. ravenelii 
Berk, and T. regularis Schw. by its smaller size and by 
the minute pubescence of its hymenium and stem. 

Corticium portentosum B. & C. 
Decorticated wood of spruce. North Elba. July. 

Corticium arachnoideum Berk. 
Decorticated wood of pine. Bolton. September. 

Peniophora affinis Burt in litt. 
Bark of dogwood, C o r n u s f 1 o r i d a. East Schodack. 
August. Closely allied to P . 1 a e v i s (Fr.) Burt. 

Peniophora parasitica Burt in litt. 
Under side of branches of juniper, Juniperus com- 
munis, lying on the ground. Hague. September. 

Asterostroma bicolor E. & E. 

Decaying wood of spruce. Floodwood, Franklin co. August. 

E. A. Burt. 

Sebacina calcea (Pers.) Bres. 

Under side of dead spruce branches. Hague. September. 

Clavaria bicolor n. sp. 

Small, 8-12 lines high, gregarious; stem slender, .5-1 line 
thick, straight or flexuous, solid, tomentose, pale yellow, divided 
above into two or more short, orange colored compressed 
branches which are themselves once or twice dichotomously 
divided, tips acute, concolorous. 

Under pine trees. Bolton. September. 

The rather tough tomentose stem indicates an affinity to the 
genus Lachnocladium. 

Phallogaster saccatus Morg. 

Decaying wood. Westfield, Chautauqua co. June. E. B. 
Sterling. 

Cyathus lesueurii Tul. 

Lyndon villo, Orleans co. C. E. Fairman. Also in Bethlehem, 
Albany co. In our specimens there are small cavities in the 



REIPOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 955 

interior of the poridium near its base in eacli of which a 
sporangiolo rests. The funirulus is short, but when moist it 
can be stretched to a great length. This species may be dis- 
tinguished from C, vernicosus by the less spreading mar- 
gin of the open peridium and by its much larger spores. 
Craterium minimum B. & C. 
Dead sticks and leaves. West Albany. C. cylindricum 
Massee is a synonym. 

Craterium minutum (Leers) Fr. 
On mosses. East Berne, Albany co. August. 

Didymium fairmani Sacc. 

On foliage of two leaved Solomon's seal, Unifolium 
€anadense. Ridge way, Orleans co. C, E. Fairman. 
Closely allied to D. melanospermum, from which it 
differs in its rather smaller peridium and spores. The typical 
form is sessile, but specimens sometimes occur with a short 
slender stem. 

Physarella multiplicata Macb. in litt. 
Spreading over ground and living plants. Menands, Albany 
CO. June. The white Plasmodium spreads over anything in its 
way and the mature fungus develops from it in 24 hours in 
very warm weather. 

Empusa grylli Fresen. 

It attacks and kills grasshoppers. Surfaces on which the 
dead bodies of the grasshoppers rest become whitened by the 
pyriform conidia of the fungus shed from the bodies of the 
insects. 

Marsonia pyriformis (Riess) Sacc. 

Upper surface of leaves of silver poplar, Populus alba. 
Penn Yan. September. F. C. Stewart. 

Septoria polygonina Thuiii. 
Living leaves of the fringed black bindweed, Polygonum 
c i 1 i n o d e . Near Loon lake. July. In our specimens the 



956 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

spots on the leaves have not the violaceous margin attributed 
to the typical form of the species and they are generally marked 
by a few elevated lines or ridges. Their color is usually reddish 
brown rather than ochroleucous. The difference in the host 
plants is probably the cause of the difference in the spots. 

Chalara paradoxa (Seynes) Sacc. 

Decaying pineapple. Menands. June. The inner flesh of 
the affected fruit is blackened by the fungus. 

Colletotrichum antirrhini Stewart 

Living stems and leaves of great snapdragon, Antirrhi- 
num ma jus. Geneva. September. F. C. Stewart. 

Colletotrichum rudbeckiae n. sp. 

Pustules minute, numerous, closely gregarious, round or 
hysteriiform, black, at first covered by the epidermis, then 
erumpent; setae few, black; spores straight or slightly curved^ 
acute, hyaline, .0005-.0006 of an inch long, .00016 broad. Dead 
stems of cultivated cone flower, Rudbeckia laciniata. 
Geneva. July. F. C. Stewart. 

Helyella adhaerens n. sp. 

PLATE L, FIG. 11-15 

Pileus thin, irregular, deflexed, whitish or smoky white, be- 
coming brownish with age or in drying, the lower margin at- 
tached to the stem, even and whitish beneath; stem slender, 
even, solid, pruinosely downy, smoky white or brownish, the 
upper part concealed by the deflexed pileus and smaller than the 
lower exposed part; asci cylindric, 8 spored; spores elliptic, 
often uninucleate, .0007-0008 of an inch long, .0005 broad; 
paraphyses filiform, hyaline, thickened or subclavate at the top. 

Ground in woods. Bolton and Hague. August and September. 
Related to H. e 1 a s t i c a , from which it is easily distinguished 
by having the deflexed margin of the pileus attached to the 
stem. When young and fresh the whole plant is whitish or 
dingy white, but it is apt to become brownish with age or in 
drying. 



RBrORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 957 

Lachnella corticalis (Pers.) Fr. 
Dry naked bark or among mosses on tbe base of living aspens^ 
Populus tremuloides. North Elba. July. 

Orbilia luteo-rubella (Nyl.) Karst. 
Damp decaying wood, specially of deciduous trees. North 
Elba. July. A common species, usually becoming more highly 
colored in drying. 

Anthostoma dryophilum (Curr.) Sacc. 
Dead branches of chestnut. Lyndonville, Orleans co. C. E. 

Fairman. 

Mycenastrum spinulosum Pk. 

• Grassy ground about the ruins of the old fort on Crown Point. 
September. Three young specimens and two fragments of an 
old specimen were found. This material is scarcely sufficient for 
a satisfactory identification of the species, but the peculiar 
threads of the capillitium and the character of the spores indi- 
cate this species. The locality, however, is very distant from 
that of the original specimens. It is desirable that mature 
specimens in good condition may yet be found. 

D 

REMAEKS AND OBSERVATIONS 

Hepatica acuta (Pursh) Britton 

Vaughns, Washington co. April. S. H. Burnham. The speci- 
mens represent a variety in which each of the three lobes of 
the leaf is itself three lobed. 

Castalia tuberosa (Paine) Greene 
Abundant in the sloughs and still waters about Fort Ann, 
Washington co. In deep water the leaves float on the surface, 
but in shallow water they stand erect above the surface, sup- 
ported by their stout firm petioles. 

Draba incana arabisans (Mx.) Wats. 
Precipices of Mt Wallface. This is the only locality in the 
state, so far as known to me, where this plant is found. It 
flowers in June or early in July. Specimens collected July 19^ 
were past flowering. 



^58 NEW YORK STATIB MUSEUM 

Meibomia paniculata (L.) Kuntze 

In rocky places at Bolton a form occurs in which the midrib 

and, to some extent, the principal veins are bordered by a pale 

stripe. 

Viburnum pauciflorum Pylaie 

In our state this species is apparently limited to the Adiron- 
dack region and is scarce even there. It occurs sparingly along 
some of the cool shaded streams that fiow down the steep rocky 
sides of Mt Marcy, Mt Mclntyre and Mt Clinton. It is in flower 
in the latter part of June, but the fruit is not ripe before 
August. 

Ludwigia alternifolia L. 

Abundant in a swampy place about a mile west of Menands. 
The persistent colored foliaceous lobes of the calyx give it the 
appearance of being in flower late in the season, even when its 
fruit is mature. 

Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. 

A pale flowered form occurs near Loon lake. It is interme- 
diate between the common form and the white flowered form. 

Galinsoga parviflora hispida DC. 
Waste places. Bolton. August. Escaped from cultivation. 
More hairy or hispid than the common form and having the 
pappus narrowed above into a bristle. The upper part of the 
branches and specially the peduncles are glandular hairy in our 
specimens. These characters and the coarsely toothed margin 
of the thicker leaves give the plant a peculiar appearance and 
would seem to make it worth}' of specific distinction. 

Rudbeckia triloba L. 
East Schodack, Rensselaer co. August. Neither the MmvuM 
nor the Lllu^trated flora credits this species to New York, but 
it has been found growing wild in Dutchess and Ulster counties. 
The station in Rensselaer co. is the most northern one in which 
I have found it. 

Gaylussacia resinosa glaucocarpa Robinson 
Fort Ann, Washington co. and Glen lake, Warren co. August. 
S. H. Burnham. 



REPORT OF THK STATE BOTANIST 1901 959 

Euphorbia platyphylla L. 
Rare. On the east shore of Bulwagga bay southeast of Port 
Henry. September. 

Betula papyracea minor Tuckm. 
Plentiful and fertile on the open summit of Mt Clinton. 

Juniperus communis alpina Gaud. 
The alpine juniper is more abundant on Mt Clinton than on 
the higher summit of its near neighbor, Mt Mclntyre. It bears 
fruit sparingly here. The arbor vitae, Thuja occident- 
al i s , ascends to the open summit of this mountain, but the 
trees are small and unthrifty. 

Potamogeton lonchites Tuckm. 

Small but fertile plants of this pond weed and of P. obtusi- 

f o 1 i u s , occur in shallow water in a small pond near Loon 

lake station. 

Juncoides spicatum (L.) Kuntze 

The spiked wood rush was found growing on the top of Mt 

Wallface in 1898. This remained the only known station for it 

in our state till this year. In July fine fruiting specimens of 

it were found growing near the base of the cliffs on the western 

side of Indian pass near its southern end. In these specimens 

the lowest fruit cfustcr is 1 or 2 lines distant from the rest. 

Eleocharis diandra Wright 
This beautiful spike rush has generally been treated as a mere 
form of the ovoid spike rush, E. o v a t a , but a fine series of 
specimens collected on the shore of Oneida lake by Dr Haberer 
and contributed by him to the herbarium leads me to keep it 
distinct. 

Scirpus peckii Britton 

A station for this rare bulrush was discovered in July near 
Loon lake in Franklin co. 

Scirpus rubrotinctus confertus Fern. 
Swampy places near Loon lake. July. This variety was 
found growing with the typical form, which is not rare in the 
Adirondack region. 



"960 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Scirpus atrocinctus brachypodus Fern. 
Swampy or wet places. North Elba and near Loon lake. 
This bulrush also grows in company with the typical form and 
clearly passes into it by intergrading forms. July. 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. 
Low ground on the shore of Lake George at Hague. A form 
in which all the panicles are included in the leaf sheaths, except 
in occasional specimens in which the terminal panicle is ex- 

serted. September. 

Agrostis alba L. 

Specimens of this common and useful grass were collected 
near Loon lake. In them the glumes of nearly all the flowers of 
the panicle are elongated to three or four times their usual size. 
This gives the grass a singular appearance. These flowers are 
sterile. A similar form of A. alba vulgaris is already 
represented in the herbarium. 

Poa flava L. 
This grass usually grows in low Wet ground or in marshy 
places, but a slender form with small two or three flowered 
spikelets scarcely more than 1 line long occurs in the Adiron- 
dack region growing on rocky ledges. Specimens were collected 
on the cliffs of Mt Wallface in July. 

Equisetum littorale gracile Milde 
Gravelly inundated shore of Oneida lake. June. J. V. Haberer. 

Lycopodium annotinum L. 
A slender form of this species is found in Indian pass, 
approaching variety pungens in character but having the 
leaves more distant and spreading. It is intermediate between 
the variety and the common form. 

Lycopodium clavatum monostachyon Hook. 

Eocky places. North Elba. July. Growing with the com- 
mon form. 

Woodsia obtusa angusta Pk. 

Rocky places in the Highlands. Specimens of this variety 
were collected many years ago on Crow's Nest mountain between. 



REPORT OF TUB STATE BOTANIST 1901 961 

Cornwall and West Point. In his TAst of North Amer-ican 
Pteridophijtes, Mr B. D. Gilbert, to whom specimens were sent, 
has recognized this variety and published a description of it 
under the name here given. This variety is represented on the 
eheet placed in the herbarium by Dr Torrey to illustrate the 
jspecies, but no locality is recorded for it. The broader or com- 
mon form is represented by specimens Jfrom Rensselaer and 
Warren counties. 

Amanita phalloides striatula n. var. 

Pileus thin, nearly plane, slightly striate on the margin, white; 
stem long, slender, slightly sheathed at the base by the remains 
of the ruptured volva. Bolton. August. 

This amanita departs so distinctly from the character of A. 
phalloides in having the margin somewhat striate, that it 
would seem at first thought best to separate it as a distinct 
species, but that is such a variable species and this is so closely 
allied, differing only in the striate margin from small forms of 
A. phalloides verna, it seems best to regard it as a 
mere variety. The pileus is 1-2 inches broad and the stem 3-5 
inches long and 2-3 lines thick, with a small bulb at the base. 
The annulus is well developed and the spores are globose and of 
the same size as in the typical form of the species. 

Amanita muscaria f ormosa (G. & R.) Fr. 

If we regard the beautiful amanita as a mere variety of the 
fly amanita it may be said to be the prevailing representative 
of the species in the eastern and northern parts of the state. It 
was very abundant the past season about Lake George. Its 
pileus is generally pale yellow or citrine color and its warts are 
also pale and easily removable. Sometimes specimens occur 
which are red or orange in the center of the pileus. It is 
apparently less poisonous than the true fly amanita, or else 
some persons are not easily affected by it. An instance was 
recently reported to me in which one person by mistake cooked 
and ate two caps of it without experiencing any ill results. 
This is the third person who has made a similar report to me. 



962 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Still the relationship i^ so close between this variety and the 
true fly amaiiita that I would not advise any one to experiment 
with it as food. 

Tricholoma peckii Howe 

This species agrees very closely with the description given by 
Fries of Armillaria aurantia, from which it scarcely 
differs except in the character of the ornamentation of the 
stem and in the absence of any semblance or form of an annulus. 
In our plant the scales of the stem are very small and not 
verrucose nor concentrically arranged as indicated by the 
Friesian description and figure of A. aurantia in loones 
Hymenomycetum. Fries himself says that there is no distinct 
annulus present in A. aurantia, but the scales of the stem 
definitely and concentrically ceasing 2-3 lines from the top of 
the stem afford an annular zone. It seems strange that on 
such slight evidence as this he should place the species in the 
genus Armillaria while its alliance with the genus Tricholoma 
is much more strongly indicated by other characters. In our 
plant there is a slight downy pruinosity on the margin of the 
pileus in the young state, which is good evidence of its relation- 
ship to the genus Tricholoma, but it is possible that this char- 
acter is not present in the European plant, for I find no men- 
tion made of it in the descriptions of A. aurantia. The 
viscid pileus and the change of color assumed by the lamellae 
with advancing age in our plant point so clearly to an intimate 
alliance with such species as T. flavobrunneum, T.. 
a 1 b o b r u n n e u m , T. u s t a 1 i s , and T. s t a n s , that 
stronger evidence than any we have yet seen in it would be 
necessary to induce us to disregard this alliance and place it 
in Armillaria. It is perhaps worthy of note that while desig- 
nating the European plant, which he considers the same as the 
Agaric us aurantius of Schaeffer, as an Armillaria, 
Fries, in the work already mentioned, has actually placed both 
the description and the figure of it among the descriptions 
and figures of species of the genus Tricholoma, and he himself 
says that the species is ambiguous between Armillaria and. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 963- 

Tricholoma. We do not think there is any ambiguity about 
the proper place for the American plant. Schaeffer describes 
his plant as having the pileus striate with filaments, and the 
stem also as striate with filaments, destitute of a veil but 
having a spurious annulus. His figure supports this descrip- 
tion and also indicates the presence of concentrically arranged 
squamules on the stem. Gillet says that the plant has an 
incomplete annulus and his figure of the species, like that of 
Schaeffer, indicates one formed by the abrupt termination of 
the scaly surface of the stem. He also attributes a strong 
nauseous odor and an acrid and bitter taste to the plant, but 
says nothing of the farinaceous odor and taste which is so evi- 
dent in our plant. These discrepancies between the European 
plant and the American lead us to keep our plant separate, 
though it may be only a variety. 

Tricholoma fallax Pk. 

In Illustrations of British fungi 8:1151 this species is 
figured with white lamellae. I have never seen the American 
plant with white lamellae, not even when young. They are 
yellow^ when young inclining to ochraceous as they become older. 
In the moist plant they are a little paler than the pileus, but 
when dry they have nearly the same color. 

CoUybia confluens campanulata n. var. 

Pileus campanulate, 1-3 inches broad; lamellae and stem 
whitish or subcinereous. Growing in circles under pine trees. 
Bolton. September. 

This variety is remarkable for the large size and persistently 
campanulate form of its pileus and for its habit of growing in 
clusters which stand in arcs of circles. The clusters are often 
so compact that the pilei are crowded and very irregular in 
consequence. 

Another variety was found in small quantity near Bolton in 
August. In it the stem and lamellae are clear white. I would 
call it variety niveipes. 



9G4 XBW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Omphalia campanella sparsa n. var. 

Pileus convex, with a small umbilicus; lamellae j-ellow, decur- 
rent, rather broad, subdistant, interspaces veiny; stem long, 
slender, equal, straight, glabrous, with a copious tawny tomen- 
tum at the base and sometimes a slight tawny mealiness at the 
top, hollow, black or brownish black. 

Scattered or loosely gregarious. Among fallen leaves and 
sticks under pine trees. Bolton. August. Several varieties 
of this species have already been described but this corresponds 
to none of them. In its habitat and mode of growth it ap- 
proaches varieties b a d i p e s and p a p i 1 1 a t a , from the for- 
mer of which it differs in the color and character of both pileus 
and stem, and from the latter in the shape of the pileus. The 
small umbilicus is not deep and it sometimes contains a small 
blackish papilla. The pileus is 4-6 lines broad and the stem 
1-2 inches long but scarcely more than half a line thick. 

Nyctalis asterophora Fr. 

This fungus with us is nearly always affected by what seems 
to be a parasitic fungus which covers the pileus with a pulveru- 
lent coat of tawny brown or cervine stellate spores. This ap- 
pears to prevent in some cases the development of the lamellae 
and consequently of its own spores. But the form having 
lamellae does sometimes occur. Such specimens were found 
near Bolton in August. When young the pileus is white and 
its margin involute. It has a farinaceous taste and odor. The 
stem also is at first white externally, but brown within. It is 
stuffed or hollow. The lamellae are rather distant and nar- 
row. Such specimens sometimes become pulverulent and dis- 
colored after collection and before they can be dried. 

Lentinus ursinus Fr. 

This species varies beyond the limits assigned to it in the 
description. Specimens were found growing on an old pros- 
trate birch trunk, Betula lute a, near Bolton, that were 
from 2-4 inches broad. When young the pileus is convex with 
an involute margin, glabrous and whitish, but with advancing 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 965 

age a fusoons tomentnm appears about the base and sometimes 
extends till it covers the whole surface. The flesh is rather 
thick, tough and flexible, and has a hot peppery taste. The 
edges of the lamellae are dentate rather than lacerate. Some- 
times the pilei are clustered or imbricated. 

Lenzites betulina radiata n. var. 

Pileus thin, about 1 line thick, 1.5-3 inches broad, coriaceous, 
velvety hairy, narrowly multizonate, beautifully radiate stri- 
ate, brown, substance white; lamellae unequal, occasionally 
forked, not anastomosing, smoky white or brownish. Dead 
trunks of beech. Hague. September. 

The radiate striate appearance of the surface of the pileus is 
due to a linear arrangement of minute tufts of hairs radiating 
from the base to the margin. In the description of the species 
the lamellae are said to anastomose, but in this variety they do 
not, and in most American specimens that I have seen and that 
have been referred to this species, the lamellae are simple or 
occasionally branched. The species must be very variable if 
reliance is to be placed on the illustrations of it by European 
authors. Schaeffer's table 57 represents a thin nearly plane 
pale form with lamellae irregularly branched and slightly anas- 
tomosing, Berkeley's Outlines t. 15 f. 3 shows a thick triquetrous 
form with lamellae abundantly anastomosing, and Cooke's ITVus- 
trations of British fungi t. 1145 A indicates a thin brown zonate 
hairy pileus with white lamellae sparingly forked but not anas- 
tomosing. This corresponds well to our common American 
form except in the white color of the lamellae. 

Hypholoma aggregatum sericeum n. var. 
About old stumps in woods. North Bolton. September. 
This variety differs from the typical form of the species in its 
larger size and in having the pileus silky fibrillose and destitute 
of spots or scales. For a more full description see the part of 
this report devoted to edible fungi. 



966 NEW YORK STAT3B MUSEUM 

Boletus chrysenteron deformatus n. var. 

Pileus small, scarcely more than an inch or an inch and a half 
broad, very irregular, brick red or tawny red; stem very shorty 
often irregular, ventricose or tapering downward. 

Bare earth on sloping banks by roadside. Bolton. August, 
The stem is but little longer than broad, and the pileus scarcely 
rises above the surface of the earth. 

Cyclomyces greenii Berk. 
In 1872 a single specimen of this rare fungus was found itt 
Sterling, Cayuga co. A second specimen of it was found in 
September of the present year near Bolton, Warren co. This 
specimen is peculiar in having two stems but one pileus. 

Mucronella minutissima conferta n. var. 

Aculei very numerous, crowded and forming continuous 
patches. Otherwise as in the typical form. Decaying wood of 
birch. Bet u la lute a. Near Loon lake. July. 

E 

EDIBLE FUNGI 

Tricholoma russula (Schaeff.) Fr. 

REDDISH TRICHOLOMA 

PLATE 77, FIG. 1-5 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex becoming nearly plane or some- 
times concave above by the elevation of the margin, viscid when 
moist, often minutely squamulose spotted in the center, slightly 
floccose pruinose on the margin when young, pale pink or rosy 
red, flesh white, taste mild; lamellae thin, moderately close, 
slightly rounded behind, white usually becoming reddish spotted 
with age or where wounded; stem firm, solid, white, often with 
reddish stains toward the base; spores white, .00025-0003 of an 
inch long, .00016 broad. 

The reddish tricholoma is a pretty mushroom. Its cap with 
us is usually a pale pink or rosy red, though the European plant 
is sometimes figured with a much brighter color and the typical 
form is described by Schaeffer as pale purple. He also describes 
and figures his plant as having the cap finely punctate or dotted^ 



RBrORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 967 

"but I have seen no American specimens showing this character 
fully. The dots in our plant are generally limited to the central 
part of the surface of the cap, and sometimes they are wanting 
•entirely in the young plant. The reddish color is similar to that 
seen in siome species of Russula and is suggestive of the specific 
name of this mushroom. It may be distinguished from similarly 
colored species of the genus Russula by the downy pruinosity of 
the margin of the cap in the young plant, by the different texture 
of its flesh and the different shape of its spores. The color of 
the cap of the European plant is said to be varied sometimes 
with yellow spots but I have seen no such variation in the Amer- 
ican plant. The cap being viscid when moist is often soiled by 
adhering particles of dirt, fragments of twigs or fallen leaves. 

The gills are white but sometimes become spotted with red- 
dish hues when old or bruised. They are slightly excavated or 
notched on the edge at the end next the stem. The stem is 
short in proportion to the size of the mushroom, solid, and com- 
monly white, specially in the young plant, but when old it is 
often more or less varied with reddish stains. It is sometimes 
slightly adorned with flocculent particles or scales near the top. 

The cap is 2-5 inches broad; the stem 1-2 inches long and 5-8 
lines thick. The plants are found late in the season growing in 
thin woods either singly or in tufts. When growing in tufts 
the caps are often irregular from mutual pressure. From my 
own experience in eating this mushroom I am prepared to 
indorse Mr Mcllvaine's words concerning it. " It is an excellent 
fungus, meaty, easily cooked and of fine flavor." 

Hygrophorus laurae Morg. 
LAURA'S HYGROPHORUS 

PLATE 77, FIG. 6-14 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex becoming nearly plane or centrally 
depressed, sometimes umbonate, glutinous, white, usually 
clouded with brown, tawny brown or reddish brown in the cen- 
ter, flesh white; lamellae distant, decurrent, white; stem equal 
or tapering downward, solid, glutinous, roughened at the top 



968 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

with scaly points, white or yellowish white; spores white, ellip- 
tic, .00025-.0003 of an inch long, .0001G-.0002 broad. 

This hygrophorus is a beautiful mushroom when fresh but its 
cap and gills change color in drying, by which it loses much of 
its beauty. Both cap and stem are smeared with a 
viscid substance or gluten that makes it unpleasant to 
handle. In the typical form the cap is white except 
in the center where it has a reddish or brownish tinge 
which sometimes spreads faintly toward the margin, but 
there is a variety in - which the cap is entirely white 
or only faintly tinged with j^ellow. We have named this variety 
unicolor. Sometimes the center is slightly prominent or 
umbonate and the margin is irregular or wavy. The gills are 
decurrent and rather wide apart. They are white when fresh, 
but like the cap they become brown or reddish brown in drying. 
The stem is white or nearly so, solid, commonly tapering to a 
point at the base but sometimes nearly equal in all its parts. 
Its viscidity makes it difficult to pull the plant from its place of 
growth with the fingers. 

The cap is 1-4 inches broad; the stem 1-4 inches long and 2-6 
lines thick. This mushroom grows among fallen leaves in woods 
and appears during August and September. It appears to be 
peculiar to this country. It is related to the ivory hygrophorus 
and the goat moth hygrophorus of Europe but from the former 
it differs in its solid stem, elliptic spores and change of color in 
drying and from the latter by the absence of odor. I have eaten 
the white form only, but give a figure of the other also. 

Clitopilus abortivus B. & C. 

ABORTIVE CLITOPILUS 

PLATE 78, FIG. 13-19 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex nearly plane or sometimes slightly 
depressed in the center, regular or occasionally irregular on the 
margin, dry, clothed at first with a minute silky tomentum, be- 
coming smooth with age, gray or grayish brown, flesh white, taste 
and odor subfarinaceous; lamellae thin, close, adnate or strongly 
decurrent, whitish or pale gray when young, becoming salmon 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 9G9 

colored with age; stem nearly equal, solid, minutely flocculose 
or fibrous striate, colored like or a little paler than the pileus; 
spores angular, uninucleate, salmon color, .00035-.0004 of an inch 
long, .00025-.0003 broad. 

The abortive clitopilus takes this name because it is usually 
found growing with an imperfectly developed subglobose form 
in which there is no distinction of cap, stem or gills. It is sim- 
ply an irregularly rounded mass of cellular tissue of a whitish 
color, originally described as a subglobose umbilicate downy 
mass. It is not always umbilicate nor is the surface always 
downy. It growls singly or in clusters of two or more. 

The well developed form is generally a clean neat appearing 
mushroom but one of a very modest unattractive grayish colored 
cap and stem and with gills similarly colored when young, but 
becoming salmon huedwhen mature. The flesh is white and has a 
farinaceous taste and odor though the last is not always distinct 
unless the flesh is broken. The surface of the cap is usually 
coated when young by a minute silky flocculence but with 
advancing age this disappears or becomes scarcely visible. The 
gills are often very decidedly decurrent in old or fully expanded 
plants but only slightly so in young plants. When young they 
have a pale grayish color but with advancing age they assume 
the salmon color of the spores. They are closely placed to each 
other and not all of equal length. The stem is nearly equal in 
diameter in all its parts, solid, minutely flocculose or downy 
and sometimes slightly fibrous. Its color is similar to that of 
the cap though it is often paler. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad; stem 1.5-3 inches long and 3-6 
lines thick. The species is commonly gregarious in its mode of 
growth, but sometimes it is single, sometimes tufted. It grows 
on the ground and on much decayed wood, either in woods or in 
open places and may be found from August to October. 

When taken in good condition and properly cooked it is an 
excellent mushroom. If stewed gently for a short time it is less 
a.greeable than if thoroughly cooked or fried in butter. The 
abortive form is also edible and is thought by some to be even 
better than the ordinary form. 



970 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Clitopilus micropus Pk. 

SHORT STEMMED OLITOPILUS 
PLATE 78, FIG. 1-12 

Pileus thin, fragile, convex or centrally depressed, umbilicate, 
silky, gray, often with one or two narrow zones on the margin, 
taste and odor farinaceous; lamellae narrow, close, adnate or 
slightly decurrent, gray becoming salmon color with age; stem 
short, solid or with a slight cavity, often slightly thickened at 
the top, pruinose, gray, with a white mycelioid tomentum at the 
base; spores angular, uninucleate, salmon color, .0003-0004: of 
an inch long, .00025-.0003 broad. 

The short stemmed clitopilus is a small mushroom and not 
very plentiful and for these reasons it is not very important as 
an edible species, but it sometimes occurs in such abundance as 
to make it possible to obtain a sufficient number for the table. 
Its color is similar to that of the preceding species but in size 
it is much less. Its cap is thin and tender, broadly convex or 
centrally depressed. It is umbilicate and has a silky surface 
which is sometimes marked with one or two narrow zones near 
the margin. The gills are rather narrow and closely placed, 
broadly attached to the stem or slightly decurrent, and gray 
when young becoming salmon color when mature. The stem is 
short even when growing among fallen leaves or in grassy 
places, it is usually solid but in large or old specimens it is 
sometimes hollow. Its color is similar to that of the cap but it 
is slightly pruinose above and with a white tomentum at the 
base. In large and irregular specimens it is sometimes 
eccentric. 

The cap is 6-16 lines broad; the stem is generally less than 
an inch long and is 1-2 lines thick. The mushrooms are found 
among fallen leaves in thin woods or in open grassy places and 
occur from July to September. They have a farinaceous or 
mealy flavor which is destroyed by cooking. 



REPORT OF THE STATE ROTAN'IST 1901 971 

Pholiota squarrosa Mull. 
SCALY PHOLKyrA 
PLATE 79, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, dry, adorned with 
•floccose tawny spreading or recurved scales, tawny, paler or 
yellowish on the margin, flesh whitish; lamellae thin, close, 
emarginate, adnexed, whitish becoming pale olivaceous, finally 
brownish ferruginous; stem rather long, firm, nearl}' equal, 
adorned with revolute scales, stuffed or hollow, tawny ferrug- 
inous, paler above when young, whitish above the commonly 
laciniate annulus; spores brownish ferruginous, elliptic, .00025- 
.0003 of an inch long, .00016-.0002 broad. 

The scaly pholiota is not a very common mushroom but it is 
attractive in appearance. It is closely related to the sharp 
scale pholiota which it resembles in general appearance but 
from which it differs in its dry, not viscid, cap, in its scales 
which are flat instead of terete and not prominent and erect ' 
on the disk as in that species, and in its larger spores. The 
European plant is represented both by Schaeffer and by Bulliard 
as sometimes having a prominent and rather pointed elevation 
or umbo in the center of the cap, but I have not seen such a 
form here. In the American plant the young plant is almost 
hemispheric becoming convex or nearh' plane with age. Its 
margin is paler than the center, fading to a yellowish color. 
The gills are thin and closelj' placed side by side. At the stem 
end they are more or less excavated on the edge. In the very 
young plant they are concealed by the veil and the incurved 
margin of the cap. They are then whitish but after exposure 
they became tinged with pale yellowish green and finally they 
assume a dull rusty brown hue. The stem is rather long, firm 
and scaly like the cap. It is stuffed or hollow, rusty tawny and 
furnished with an imperfect ragged collar near the top. This 
is at the upper termination of the scaly part and above it the 
stem is smooth and whitish. The cap is 2-4 inches broad; the 
stem is 3-5 inches long and 4-6 lines thick. The plants grow 
on old stumps and prostrate trunks of trees in woods, often 



972 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

forming dense tufts. In such cases the caps are apt to be 
irregular and the stems narrower toward the base. They occur 
in August and September. 

Hypholoma aggregatum sericeum Pk. 

SILKY TUFTED HYPHOLOMA 
PLATE 79, FIG, 8-14 

Pileus fleshy, thin, oval when young, soon becoming campanu- 
late or convex, silky fibrillose, white becoming grayish white 
with age, flesh white, taste mild; lamellae thin, close, adnate or 
slightly rounded behind, concealed by the veil in the young plant 
and then white, brown with a purplish tint when mature; stem 
long, flexuous, hollow, striate at the top, white; spores purplish 
brown, elliptic, .0003 of an inch long, .00016 broad. 

The silky tufted hypholoma is so closely related to the tufted 
hypholoma, Hypholoma aggregatum Pk., that it ia 
considered a mere variety of it. It differs from it in its larger 
size, in the entire absence of scales or spots from its cap and in 
the broader attachment of its gills to the stem. It is also re- 
lated to the European forest hypholoma, Hypholoma 
silvestre Gill., from which it differs in the color of the cap 
and in the absence from the cap of the broad brown or blackish 
scales of that species. It has some points of resemblance to 
Candolle's hypholoma, H. candolleanum, and to the dingy 
white hypholoma, H. 1 e u c o t e p h r u m, but it is to be kept 
separate from these because it is not hygrophanous. 

The cap is quite white when young, but with advancing age it 
assumes a more dingy or grayish hue and gradually becomes 
more broadly convex. Its surface is furnished with white silky 
fibrils which are suggestive of its varietal name. The margin 
is often wavy or irregular because of its crowded mode of 
growth and before maturity it is usually appendiculate with 
fragments of the veil. The flesh is white but when the cap is 
cut through vertically a narrow watery streak may sometimes 
be seen along the part next the gills. The gills are concealed at 
first by the copious white flocculent or webby veil. They are 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 973' 

then white, but after exposure thej soon become brownish and 

final]}' assume the color of the spores, which is brown tinged 

with purple. They are not at all or only slightly rounded at 

the stem and the edges in the mature plant often remain white. 

The stems are rather long and tlexuous, hollow, white, marked 

with short parallel longitudinal lines at the top and sometimea 

with reddish stains at the base. 

The cap is 1.5-5.5 inches broad; the stem 3-5 inches long and 

2-5 lines thick. The plants grow singly or in tufts about old 

stumps and appear in September. They are very good as an 

edible mushroom. The typical form has also been found to be 

edible by one of my correspondents but I have had no oppor- 

tunitv to try it. 

Boletus bicolor Pk. 

TWO COLORED BOLETUS 
PLATIE 81, FIG. 6-11 

Pileus convex, firm, becoming softer with age, dry, glabrous 
or merely pruinose tomentose, dark red becoming paler and 
sometimes spotted or stained w'ith yellow when old, flesh yel- 
low, not at all or but slightly changing to blue where wounded, 
taste mild; tubes nearly plane in the mass, adnate, short and 
yellow when young, longer and ochraceous when mature, their 
mouths small, angular or subrotund, slowly and slightly chang- 
ing to blue where wounded; stem nearly equal, firm, solid, dark 
red, usually yellow at the top; spores pale ochraceous brown, 
narrowly elliptic or subfusiform, .0004-.0005 of an inch long, 
.00016-.0002 broad. 

The two colored boletus has the cap and stem dark red or 
Indian red and the tubes and flesh yellow, w'hich is suggestive 
of the name applied to it. The cap becomes paler in color and 
softer in texture as it becomes older, and it often becomes yel- 
lowish on the margin and spotted or stained with yellow else- 
where. The surface sometimes cracks in small areas revealing^ 
the yellow flesh beneath. The tubes are at first short and 
bright yellow but they become longer and assume orchraceou» 
hues as they grow^ older. The mouths are small and the dis- 



974 NETW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

sepiments slowly assume a blue color where wounded. The 
stem varies in length but it is generally nearly equal in thick- 
ness in all its parts. It is colored like the cap except at the 
top where it is generally yellow like the tubes. It is solid as 
in most boleti and by this character it may be distinguished 
from the closely related European Boletus barlae. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad; the stem 1-3 inches long and 4-6 
lines thick. This boletus grows in thin woods or open places 
and seems to prefer localities where chestnut trees grow. It 
may be found from July to September. When properly cooked 
it is tender and has a fine flavor and merits a place among first 
class mushrooms. 

Boletus pallidus Frost 

PALE BOLETUS 

PLATE 81, FIG. 1-5 

Pileus fleshy, convex becoming nearly plane or slightly con- 
cave above by the elevation of the margin, soft, dry, glabrous, 
whitish, grayish or brownish, sometimes tinged with red, flesh 
white; tubes nearly plane in the mass when young, adnate or 
slightly depressed around the stem, pale yellow or whitish, 
usually tinged with green, becoming darker with age, their 
mouths small, subrotund, the dissepiments assuming bluish 
hues where wounded; stem commonly rather long, straight or 
flexuous, solid, equal or slightly thickened at the base, glabrous, 
whitish, sometimes streaked with brown and tinged with red 
within; spores pale ochraceous browm tinged with green, sub- 
fusiform, .0004-.0005 of an inch long, .0002-.00025 broad. 

The pale boletus or pallid boletus is appropriately named. 
Its cap and stem are not a clear white but just enough shaded 
with brown to suggest the term pale. Whitish, dingy white, 
smoky white, grayish or grayish white are expressive of its 
varying hues. There is sometimes a slight reddish tint in the 
cap. Its color is apt to become darker in drying. Its surface 
is dry and smooth or nearly so and the cuticle is sometimes 
marked by fine cracks, specially on the margin. These reveal 
the white flesh beneath. The tubes generally form a nearly 



RBrORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 975 

plane surface below, but sometimes this is distinctly concave 
in the young plant and convex in the mature one. They are 
often slightlj' depressed around the stem and then their mouths, 
in the depressed part are usually a little larij^er than elsewhere. 
Their color is a very pale yellow or greenish yellow and they 
change to bluish where wounded or bruised. The stem is gener- 
ally rather long and flexuous though sometimes it is short and 
straight. It is solid, smooth and whitish, but sometimes 
streaked with brown and tinged with red within. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad; the stem 2-5 inches long and 
3-8 lines thick. The plants inhabit thin woods, groves and 
open places, and may be found from July to September. This 
is an excellent boletus for the table, is easily recognized and 
generally free from the attacks of insect larvae. This and the 
preceding species, together with the red cracked boletus, 
B. chrysenteron, show how unreliable is the rule that 
directs the avoidance of all boleti whose flesh or tubes change 
to blue where wounded. 

Boletus ornatipes Pk. 

ORNATE STEMMED BOLETUS 
PLATE 80, FIG. 1-5 

Pileus fleshy, firm, hemispheric becoming convex or nearly 
plane, minutely tomentose or glabrous, gray, grayish brown 
or yellowish brown, flesh yellow; tubes nearly plane in the 
mass when young, convex when old, adnate or slightly de- 
pressed around the stem, golden yellow, their mouths small, 
subrotund; stem equal or nearly so, solid, firm, distinctly and 
beautifully reticulated, yellow without and within; spores 
ochraceous brown, oblong or subfusiform, .00045-00055 of an 
inch long; .00016-.0002 broad. 

The attractive characters of the ornate stemmed boletus and 
those by which it may readily be recognized are the beautifully 
reticulated yellow stem, yellow tubes and clean dry grayish or 
brownish cap. The cap is hemispheric in the young jjlant, 
broadly convex or nearly plane in the mature one. It is dry 



•976 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

and smooth or nearly so and variable in color. The prevailing 
colors are gray and brown variously blended and often inter- 
mingled w^ith 3^ellow. It may be brown when young fading to 
grayish brown or yellowish brown when mature. The flesh is 
yellow but this also varies in depth of hue. The tubes some- 
times form a plane surface beneath the cap but sometimes 
those around the stem are a little shorter than the rest thereby 
forming a depression in the surface. They have a clear yellow 
color which becomes darker with age. They do not assume 
blue tints where bruised or wounded. The stem is usually of 
equal thickness throughout. It is solid and reticulated with a 
network of ridges from top to bottom. Its color both exter- 
nally and internally is yellow. 

The cap is 2-5 inches broad; the stem 2-4 inches long and 
4 to 6 lines thick. This boletus grows in thin woods or in open 
places. It is sometimes found on earth banks by roadsides. 
It appears during July and August. It is clean, sound and well 

flavored. 

Boletus eximius Pk. 

SELECT BOLETUS 

PLATE 80, FIG. 6-12 

Pileus fleshy, very compact and globose or hemispheric 
when young, becoming softer and somewhat paler with age, 
dry, glabrous or nearly so, purplish brown or chocolate color, 
flesh brittle, gray or purplish gray varied with darker dots, 
taste mild; tubes in the young plant short stuffed or closed, 
concave or nearly plane in the mass, colored nearly like the 
pileus, becoming longer and sometimes convex in the mass 
when older, adnate, their mouths minute, rotund; stem equal 
or nearly so, sometimes slightly ventricose, solid, scurfy, colored 
like or a little paler than the pileus, purplish gray within; 
spores brownish ferruginous, oblong, .00045-.0006 of an inch 
long, .00016-.00025 broad. 

The select boletus is a large robust species nearly of one 
color throughout, quite constant in its characters and easily 
recognized. It has a purplish brown or chocolate color which 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 977 

sometimes becomes a little paler with age. The flesh has a 
grayish hue tinged with purple and in the cap varied with 
darker dots. It is very firm and brittle when young but be- 
comes softer with age. It is so peculiar in color and so unlike 
any of our other species that it is easily recognized and needs 
no extended description. 

The cap is 3-10 inches broad; the stem 2-4 inches long and 
6-15 lines thick. It grows in woods or their borders and 
appears in July and August. It is one of the best edible species 
but unfortunately it is not abundant. Its large size however, 
may compensate to some extent for its deficiency in numbers. 
Sometimes a single large specimen is found growing entirely 

alone. 

Bovista plumbea Pers. 

LEAD COLORED BOVISTA 
PLATE 81, FIG. 12-19 

Peridium globose or nearly so, 6-14 lines in diameter, smooth, 
double, the exterior coat fragile, separable from the inner, break- 
ing up and falling away at maturity, white when young, the 
inner thin, papery but tough, smooth, plumbeous when old, 
paler when first exposed, rarely becoming blackish with age, 
mouth apical, small; threads of the capillitium branched, free, 
the ultimate branches long, slender, gradually tapering to a 
point, purplish brown; spores brown or purplish brown, sub- 
globose, .0002-00025 of an inch long, nearly or quite as broad, 
their pedicels slender, hyaline, persistent, two to three times 
as long as the spores. 

The lead colored bovista is a small globular puffball found 
growing on the ground in grassy places or in pastures. It ap- 
pears both in autumn and in spring or early summer. It varies 
in size from half an inch to one inch in diameter. When young 
it is white both externally and internally, and while in this 
condition it is available for food. It should be discarded if 
the flesh has begun to lose its white color. As it approaches 
maturity the exterior coat is easily broken and removable in 
flakes or fragments. Its removal reveals the pale papery but 



978 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

tough and flexible inner membrane or peridium. With advanc- 
ing age this assumes a dull grayish blue or leaden hue and 
opens by a small aperture at the top for the escape of the 
spores. Any sudden pressure applied to it at this time will 
cause the ejection of a mass of its spores in little smokelike 
puffs as in other puffballs. Occasionally old specimens are 
found in which the inner peridium is almost black. The small 
size, peculiar color and distinctly double coat of the immature 
plant are characters which make this bovista easily recog- 
nizable. Its flavor is much more agreeable than that of many^ 
of the small species of the genus Lycoperdon, 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE K 

Clitocybe regularis Pk. 

Regular Clitocybe 

FIG. 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant with convex cap 

3 Mature plant with nearly plane cap 

4 Vertical section of an immature plant 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

6 Transverse section of a stem of a mature plant 

7 Four spores x 400 

Clitocybe subconcava Pk. 
SuBcoNCAVE Clitocybe 

8 Plant with the cap moist 
9, 10 Two plants with caps dry 

11 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

12 Transverse section of a stem 

13 Four spores x 400 

Hydnum umbilicatum Pk. 
Umbilicate Hydxum 

14 Immature plant showing the upper surface of the cap 
15, 16 Two mature plants showing both surfaces of the cap 

17 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

18 Four spores x 400 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 97D 

Boletus multipunctus Pk. 
P,Q Many Dotted Boletus 

19 Plant with a convex cap 

20 Plant with the cap nearly plane 

21 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

22 Four spores x 400 

PLATE L 

Cortinarius obliquus Pk. 
Oblique Bulbed Cortinarius 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant 

3 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

5 Four spores x 400 

Cortinarius submarginalis Pk. 

SUBMARGIXED CORTINARIUS 

6 Immature plant 

7 Mature plant 

8 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

9 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 
10' Four spores x 400 

Helvella adhaerens Pk. 
Adhering Margined Helvella 

11 Small pale plant 

12 Large plant of darker color 

13 Vertical section of a plant 

14 A paraphysis and an ascus containing spores x 400 

15 Four spores x 400 

PLATE 77 

Tricholoma russula (Schaeff.) Fr. 
Reddish Tricholoma 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant with convex cap 

3 Mature plant with cap nearly plane 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

5 Four spores x 400 



980 IMEW YORK STATIB MUSEUM 

Hygrophorus laurae Morg. 

j,jg IjALUA's JJVGKOI'HORUS 

6 Immature phiut 

7 Mature plant with umbonate cap 

8 Mature plant with cap nearly plane 

9 Plant showing the colors assumed in drying 

10 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

11 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

12 Four spores x 400 

var. unicolor 

13 Immature plant 

14 Mature plant 

TLATK 78 

Clitopilus micropus Pk. 
Short Stemmed Clitopilus 

1 Immature plant 

2 Immature plant with the margin of the cap slightly 

zoned 
3-6 Mature plants with caps differing in form 

7 Mature plant with lobed cap and eccentric stem 

8 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

9 Vertical section of the upper part of .a mature plant 

with solid stem 

10 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

with hollow stem 

11 Transverse section of a hollow stem 

12 Four spores x 400 

Clitopilus abortivua B. & C. 

Abortive Clitopilus 

13 Immature plant 

14 Mature plant with convex cap 

15 Mature plant with the cap centrally depressed 

16 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

17 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

18 Four spores x 400 

19 Two abortive plants 



RBI'ORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1901 981 

PLATE 79 

Pholiota squaxrosa Mull. 
p,a Scaly 1*holiota 

1 Cluster of three young plants 

2 Immature plant 

3 ^Mature plant 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

Transverse section of a stem 

7 Four spores x 400 

Hypholoma aggregatum sericeum Pk. 
Silky Hypholoma 

8 Cluster of four young plants 

9 Immature plant 

10 Mature plant 

11 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

12 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

13 Transverse section of a stem 

14 Four spores x 400 

platti;. 80 ' 

Boletus omatipes Pk. 
Ornate Stemmed Boletus 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant with convex cap 

3 Mature plant with cap more expanded 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

5 Four spores x 400 

Boletus eximius Pk. 

Select Boletus 
G Immature plant 

7 Mature plant with convex cap 

8 Mature plant with cap more expanded 

9 Mature plant of larger size 

10 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 
1:1 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 
12 Four spores x 400 



983 NEW YORK STATIB MUSEUM 

PLATE 81 

Boletus pallidus Frost 
pjQ Pale Boletus 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant with convex cap 

3 Mature plant with cap more expanded 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

5 Four spores x 400 

Boletus bicolor Pk. 

Two Colored Boletus 

6 Young plant 

7 Immature plant 

8 Mature plant 

9 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

10 Vertical section of the ujiper part of a mature plant 

11 Four spores x 400 

Bovista plumbea Pars. 
Lead Colored Bovista 
12, 13 Immature plants differing in size 

14 Plant nearly mature showing inner coat in three places 

15 Mature plant with part of outer coat remaining at the 

base 

16 Mature plant with outer coat wholly gone 

17 Small mature plant with inner coat nearly black 

18 Part of a branching thread of the capillitium x 400 

19 Four spores and their pedicels x 400 




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MANY DOTTED BOLETUS 




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SILKY HYPMOLOM* 




Fio. 1-5 BOLETUS PALLIDUS 
PALE BOLETUS 



INDEX 



The superior figures tell the exact place on the page in ninths; o. g. 
9G1' means page 901 beginning in the third ninth of the page, i. e. about 
one third of the way down. 



AgT.-ostis alba, 000*. 

Amanita uiuscaria forniosa, 961°-62'. 

phalloides striatula, *J01'. 
Antennaria parlinil arm>glossa, U45°. 
/Vnthostoma dryophilum, i)57\ 
Arctium minus, 940-. 
Asterostroma bicolor, 954^ 

Betula papyracea minor, 959". 
Boletus bicolor, 973^-74'; explanation 
of plate, 982^. 
chrysentei'on deformatus, 9CG\ 
eximius, 970^-77^; explanation of 

plate, 981'. 
multipunctus, 952'; explanaticm 

of plate, 979\ 
ornatii)€s, 975''-7G'; explanation 

of plate, 981". 
pallidus, 974^-75°; explanation of 
plate, 982'. 
Bovista plumbea, 977^-78'; explana- 
tion of plate, 982°. 

Castalia tuberosa, 957^ 
Centaurea jacea, 94£>\ 
Oetraria aurescens, 947'. 
Chalara paradoxa, 95G-. 
Chamaenerion angustifolium, 958\ 
Olavaiia bicolor, 954". 
Oitocybe regularis, 948'; explana- 
tion of plate, 978'. 
subconcava, 948M9=; explana- 
tion of plate, 978". 
Clitopilus abortivus, 96S'-69''; ex- 
planation of plate, 980'. 
micropus, 970^; explanation of 
plate, 960^. 
Colletotrichum antirrhini, 956'. 

radbecliiae, 956*. 
Collybia confluens campanulata, 
963'. 



Conringia orientalis, 944^ 
Corticium arachnoideum, 954^ 

portentosum, 954'. 
Cortinarius obliquus, 951'; exi)lana- 
tion of plate, 979^. 

submarginalis, 950"-5r; explana- 
tion of plate, 979\ 

violaceo-cinereus, 951". 
Crataegus champlainensis, 944'. 

holmesiana, W5". 

modesta, 945-. 

pringlei, 944''-45-. 

pruinosa, 945'. 
Craterium minimum, 955-. 

minutum, 955^ 
Gyathus lesueurii, 954'''-5.5-. 
Cyclomyces greenii, 966^ 

Did3rmium fairmani, 955'. 
I>raba incana arabisans, 957'. 

Edible fungi, 932^, 9G6''-78'. 
Eleocharis diandra, 959'. 
Empusa grylli, 955'. 
Endocarpon fluviatile, 940". 
Equisetum littorale gracile, 960'. 
Euphorbia platyphylla, 959'. 
Explanation of plates, 978^-82'. 

Fistulina pallida, 952^. 

Galinsoga parviflora hispida, 958°. 
(Jaylussacia resinosa glaucocai-pa, 

958°. 
Geum vernum, 944'. 
Gifts, 939'-43^ 

Hedeoma hispida, 946'. 
Helvella adhaerens, 956°; explana- 
tion of plate, 979^ 
Hepatica acuta, 957". 



984 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Homalocenchrus oryzoides, 960'. 
Hydnum umbilicatum, 053'; explan- 
ation of plate, 978^ 
Ilygrophorus glutinosus, 9o0'. 

laurae, 967'-68'; explanation of 
plate, 980'. 
Hypholoma aggrcgatuni serioouni, 
965*, 972--73';. explanation of plate, 
981'. 

Juncoides spicatum, 959*. 
Juniperiis communis alpina, 959^ 

Lachnella corticalis, 957'. 
Lactai-ius foetidus, 949°. 
Lactuea morssii, 946^ 
Iventinus ursinus, 964''-G5\ 
Lenzites betulina radiata, 965'. 
Lepiota adnatifolia, 947-. 
Ludwigia alternifolia, 958^ 
Lycopodium annotinum, 960\ 

clavatum monostachyon, 960^. 

Marsonia pyriforrais, 955". 
Meibomia panlculata, 958\ 
Mucronella minutissima conferta, 

966*. 
Mushrooms, 932", 966^-78'. 
Mycenastrum spinulosuiii, 957\ 
Mylia anomala, 946'. 

North Elba, visited, 934'. 
Nyctalis asterophora, 964". 

Omphalia campanella sparsa, 964'. 
Orbilla luteo-nibella, 957*. 

Pan-American exposition, botanical 

(>xliil)it, 932*. 
Panicularia laxa, 946". 
Paunaria leucosticta, 947'. 
Peniophora afHnis, 954'. 
parasitica, 954*. 



Phallogaster saccatus, 954'. 

Pfioliota s^quarrosa, 971'-72'; explan- 
ation of plate, 981'. 

Physarella multiplicata, 955'. 

Plants, species added to collection, 
931^ 985'-30''; list of contributions, 
939°-43''; species not before re- 
ported, 944'-57^. 

Plates, explanation of, 978'-82^ 

Pleurotus minutus, 949*. 

Poa flava, 960». 

Poria myceliosa, 952'-53'. 

Potamogeton lonchites, 959*. 

Rudbeckia ti'iloba, 958^ 

Scapania irrigna, 946*. 
Scir[)us atrocinctus brachypodus, 
960'. 

pecliii, 959^. 

rubrotinctus confertus, 959". 
Sebacina calcea, 954''. 
Septoria polygonina, 955°-56'. 
Sophia sophia, 944*. 
Stereocaulon deuudatum, 946\ 

Thalictrum occidentale, 944'. 
Thelephora exigua, 953'-54'. 

multipartita, 953'. 
Thorn, species reporte*! on, 933". 
Tricholoma fallax, 963°. 

peckii, 962'-63*. 

rimosum, 1M7M8'. 

russula, 966''-67'; explanation of 
plate, 979". 

Vernonia gigantea, 945*. 
Viburnum paueiflorum, 958'. 
Yolvaria hypopithys, 950*. 
speciosa, 950°. 

Woodsia obtus^a angusta, 960°-6P. 



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1846. » 



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and Chemung Groups. 18+268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.^0. 

Lamellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, 

Portage and Chemung Groups. 62+293p. 51pl. 1885. $2.jo. 

pt2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helderberg, 

Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2v. 1879. v. 1, text. 15+492p. 
V. 2, 120pl. %2.^ofor2v. 

V. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Upper Helderberg and Hamilton 
Groups. 24-f-298i). 67pl. 1887. $^.50. 

V. 7 Trilobites and other Crustacea of the Oriskany, Upper Helderberg, Hamil- 
ton, Portatre, Chemung and Catskill Groups. 64+236p. 46pl. 1888. Cont. 
supplement to v. 5, pt2. Pteropoda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 42p. 18pl. 
1888. %2.so. 

V. 8 ptl Introduction to the Study of the Genera of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 
16-f 367p. 44pl. 1892. %2.so. 

pt2 Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16-f394p. 84pl. 1894. %2.So. 

Museum handbooks 1893-date. 7^^x12^ cm. 

In quantities, 1 cent for each 16 pages or less. Single copies postpaid as 
below. 

H5 New York State Museum. i4p. il, 3c. 

Outlines history and work of the museum ; with list of staff and scientific 
publications, 1893. 

H13 Paleontology. 8p. 2c. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition ; 
Relation to biology ; Relation to stratigraphy ; History of paleontology in New 
York. 

H15 Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. 
1 2 op. 8c. 

Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of paleozoic rocks, pre- 
pared specially for the use of teachers and students desiring to acquaint them- 
selves more intimately with the classic rocks of this State. 

H16 Entomology. 8p. Out of print. 

H17 Geology. In preparation. 

Maps. Merrill, F: J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the State 

of New York. 59x67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. Out of 

print. 

New edition in preparation. 
f Printed also with Museum bulletin 15 and the 48th museum report, v. 1. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch. In 

atlas form $3; jnounted on rollers SS- lower Hudson sheet 60c. 
The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, 

Dutchess, Putnam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and 

Nassau counties, and parts of Sullivan, Ulster and Suffolk counties; also north 

eastern New Jersey and part of western Connecticut. 



BULLETIN 1!86 



Published tnoiHily by the 

University of the State of New York 



MAY 19(« 



New York State Miiseiini 

Frederick J. H. Mkrrili. Director 
Charles H. PtCK State Botanist 

Bulletin 67 

BOTANY 6 

REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 

BY 

CHARLES H. PECK 



PAGE 

Introduction 3 

A Plants added to the herbarium 7 
B Contributors and contribu- 
tions 10 

C Species not before reported ... 18 

D Remarks and observations. . . 32 

E Edible fungi 39 



PAGE 

F Plants of the Susquehanna 
valley and adjacent hills of 
Tioga county. Frank E. 

Fenno 47 

Explanation of plates 160 

Plates M, N, 82-84 follow 163 

Index 165 



AIvBANY 
UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OP NEW YORK 

1903 



Mbl03m-Ja3-2500 



Price 50 cents 



University of the State of New York 

REGENTS 

with years of election 

1892 W1LI.1AM Croswkll Doank D.D. LI^.D.. 

Chancellor, Albany 

1878 Whitelaw Reid M.A. LL.D. Vice Chancellor, New York 

1877 Chauncey M. Depew lyl^.D. - - - - New York 

1877 Charles E. Fitch IvIy.B. M.A. L.H.D. - Rochester 

1881 WiLUAM H. Watson M.A. M.D. I,I,.D. - Utica 

1881 Henry E. Turner Lly.D. - - - - I^owville 
1883 St Clair McKelway M.A. L.H.U. Lly.D. 

D.C.Iv. Brooklyn 

1885 Daniel Beach Ph.D. IvL-D. - - - . Watkins 

1888 Carroll E. Smith LL.D. - - - - Syracuse 

1890 Pliny T. Sexton EL.D. . . . . Palmyra 

1890 T. Guilford Smith M.A. C.E. LIv-D. - Buffalo 

1893 Lewis A. Stimson B.A. LL.D. M.D. - - New York 
1895 Albert Vander Veer M.A. Ph.D. M.D. - Albany 
1895 Charles R. Skinner M.A. LL.D. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio 

1897 Chester S. Lord M.A. LL.D. - - - Brooklyn 

1900 Thomas A. Hendrick M.A. LL.D. - - Rochester 

1901 Benjamin B. Odell JR LL.D. Governor, ex officio 

1901 Robert C. Pruyn M.A. - - - - - Albany 

1902 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. - - Syracuse 

1903 Frank W. Higgins Lieutenant Governor, ex officio 
1903 John F. O'Brien Secretary of State, ex officio 

1903 Charles A. Gardiner LL.B. M.A. Ph.D. - New York 

1903 Charles S- Francis B.S. - - - - Troy 



SECRETARY 

Elected by Regents 

1900 James Russell Parsons jr M.A. LL.D. 

DIRECTORS OE DEPARTIvIENTS 

1888 Melvil Dewey M.A. LL.D. State Library and Home Educcition 
1890 James Russell Parsons jr M.A. LL.D. 

Administrative, College and High School Dep' ts 
1890 Frederick J. H. Merrill Ph.D. State Museum 



University of the State of New York 



New York State Museum 

Fkkderick J. H. Mkrrill Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 

Bulletin 67 

BOTANY 6 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST J 902 

To the liegenis of the UnivGrsity of the i^tate of New York 

I have the honor of suhniitting to you the report of work done 
iu the botanical department of the State Museum during the past 
year. 

Specimens of ])lants for the herbarium have been collected in 
the counties of Albany, Columbia, Essex, Fulton, Hamilton, 
Herkimer, Oneida, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Suffolk, Washington 
and Westchester. Specimens have been received from correspon- 
dents that were collected in the counties of Albany, Cayuga, Dela- 
ware, Erie, Essex, Herkimer, Monroe, New York, Oneida, Onon- 
daga, Ontario. Saratoga, Schenectady, Seneca, Schoharie, St 
Lawrence, Suffolk, Tioga, Wayne and Westchester. 

The specimens collected and contributed represent 289 species, 
of which 235 belong to the collections of the botanist, 54 to those 
of correspondents ; 59 are new to the herbarium, 230 are now more 
fully and completely represented than before. Of the 59 species, 
17 are considered new species and are herein described as such. 
Of these, 15 are among the collections of the botanist, two belong 
to those of correspondents. All of the new species are fungi. 
The number of species added to the flora of the State is 73. but 
14 of these have previously been united with other species either 
as forms or varieties. They have recently been published as dis- 
tinct species and are now included in the additions to our flora. 
A list of the species of which specimens have been added to the 
'herbarium is marked A. 



4 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Names of species added lo oiii- floi-a. 1(tt»etlier with notes con- 
cerninp: their hahitals, loralities, time of collection of the speci- 
mens and <lescrij»tions of new species, are contained in a part of 
the report marked C. 

The number of jtersons wlio have contributed specimens is 52. 
Their names and their respective contributions are recorded in 
a part of the report marked B. Some of these contributions 
consist of specimens of extralimital species and are not included 
in the enumeration just given. Some of the specimens were 
sent for identification ; but, if for any reason their preserva- 
tion seemed desirable and they were in snflQciently jjood con 
dition, they have IxH^n preserved and credited to the sender 
as a contribution. The number of those who have sent specimens 
for identification is 90. The number of species identified for them 
is 1054. These are chiefly fungi. 

Remarks and results of observations on previously reported 
species, new stations of rare plants, unusual habitats and descrip- 
tions of new varieties are given under D. 

During summer and early autumn the weather was un- 
usually wet and showery, a condition often supposed to be favor- 
able to mushroom growth. Nevertheless, the result was by no 
means an abundant crop. Many species which in ordinarily 
moist seasons grow gregarious]}^ or are scattered through fields 
and woods in abundance Avere either wholly wanting or were few 
and far apart. Certain species of Amanita, Lepiota, Lactarius 
and Russnla, which are usually common were noticeably scarce 
or not seen at all. The common mushroom crop was almost a com- 
plete failure. The prevailing low temperature combined with an 
excess of moisture probably prevented the development of the 
mycelium and caused the absence of many species. But oppor- 
tunity was afiforded for the trial of the edible qualities of several 
of our wild mushrooms. Of those tested, eight species have been 
found edible. Colored figures of natural size have been prepared 
to illustrate these, and descriptions have been written according 
to the plan followed in similar cases in previous reports. These 
descriptions constitute a part of the report marked E. 

The investigation of our Crataegus flora, which was begun last 
year, has been continued. The close resemblance many of our 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 5 

species of Crataegus have to each other and the need of a correct 
knowledge of all their distinguishing characters in order to 
identify the species satisfactorily, make it necessary to have 
specimens showing flowers, mature fruit, immature and mature 
foliage. Our species blossom in May and early in June, but do 
not ripen their fruit till late in August, during September and 
early in October. It is therefore necessary to make at least two 
collections of samples from each individual tree or shrub to be 
identified. One taken in flowering time will show the flowers and 
young leaves, the other taken in fruiting time should show the 
ripe fruit nnd mature leaves. It is desirable also to have samples 
of young and vigorous shoots with their mature leaves, which 
often difl'er somewhat from the leaves of ordinary shoots ; also of 
twigs of the first and second year's growth and of the early 
growth of the season with stipules and thorns. Specimens of all 
the unrecognized species of Crataegus growing in the vicinity of 
Albany and in the Champlain valley from Fort Ann on the south 
to Westport on the north and in North Elba have been collected. 
The localities in the immediate vicinity of Albany have been vis 
ited several times; those in the Champlain valley, in North Elba 
and the country between it and Westport twice; once in May and 
early June and once in September. A large amount of material 
has been collected, duplicate specimens having in all cases been 
taken. By reason of the peculiar difficulties attending the iden- 
tification of these plants, owing to the confusion of species and 
the omission in older descriptions of any record of characters now 
deemed important, it has seemed best to avail myself of the aid 
of Professor C. S. Sargent, the distinguished dendrologist and 
specialist in this branch of botany. Accordingly a set of these 
specimens has been sent to him for identification. 

Mr P. E. Fenno, an active botanist of Tioga county, has from 
time to time contributed to the herbarium specimens of rare and 
interesting plants from his county. He has given much time to 
the collection and study of the plants of his region and has 
recently sent me a very full annotated list of the species known 
from his own observation to occur there. In all doubtful cases 
these have been identified by specialists. The Illustrated Flora 



6 NKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

has chiefly been followed in the arrangement and nomenclature 
of the list, and the territory covered is described as the Susque- 
hanna valley and adjacent hills of Tioga county. This territory 
includes the greater part of the southern half of the county. It 
is apparently rich in species, the list containing a remarkable 
number for such a limited region. It has therefore seemed to me 
desirable that this list should be published. It, with the Flora 
of the Upper Susquehanna by W. N. Clute, will give a very fair 
knowledge of what species of flowering plants and ferns occui- 
in the southern central part of our State and will be an aid in 
determining the range of little known and rare species. It has 
therefore been added to this report as appendix F. 

Respectfully submitted 

('iiARL?:s 11. Peck 

State Botanist 
Albany, Dec. S, 1902 



EBPORT OK THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



PLANTS ADDED TO THE HERBARIUM 
New to the herharium 



1 )il|jhiiiiiiiu ajiicis L. 
liopidiuni ruderalo L. 
Hypericum boreale (Britton) lilrktt. 
I^actuca scariola L. 
Ifypocliaeris radicata L. 
Artemisia stelleriana Bens. 
Xanthiuin commune Britton 
Aster roscidus Burgess 
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter 
Antennaria fallax Greene 
A. amhigens (Greene) Fern . 

A. brainerdii Fern. 

A. petaloidea Fern. 

Pottia riparia Aust. 
Tortula ruralis Ehrh. 
Racomitrium heterostichum Brid. 
Encalypta rhabdocarpa Schiraegr. 
Hypniun lindbergii Limpt. 
Liochlaena lanceolata Nees 
Tricholoma radicatum PA;, 
("litocybe inversa (Scop.) Fr. 
Mycena rugosoides Pk. 
Hygrophorus subrulescciisV'A. 
Lactarius luteolus Pk. 
Russula magnifica Pk. 
R. earlei PA:. 

Marasmius bit'ormis Pk. 
M. leptopus^PA-. 

M. insititius Fr. 

M. thujimis PA . 



Leptoiiiu iiorten.sis PA-. 
Flammula pu.silla PA-. 
Craterellus subundulatu.'s PA-. 
Clavaria crassipes PA;. 
Secotium warnei PA;. 
Licea variabilis Schrad. 
.\ecidium ligustri Strauss 
Ciiitractia affinis PA;. 
Phyllosticta grisea Pk. 
Gloeosporium phaeosonim Sacc. 
Sporotrichmn poae Pk. 
Penicillium digitatum (Fr.) Sacc. 
P. pallidofulvum PA;. 

Macrosporium lagenariae llirun. 
Fusarium laxum PA:. 
Stilbum resinariae PA*. 
Helvella ambigua Karst. 
Detonia fulgcns (Pers.)Rehm 
Geopyxis carbonaria A . & S. 
Calloria caulophylli (E. &E.)Hehni 
Lachnum inquilinum (Karst.) Schni't. 
Sclerotinia smilacinae Durand 
Ciboria americana Durand 
C. sulphureWa, (E. &.E.')Rehvi 

Caldesia sabinae (Dellol) Rehm 
Peziza violacea Pers. 
Helotium scut, vitellinum Rehm 
Ascobolus atrofuscus Ph. A PI. 
Melano.^pora vervecina (/)esw.) Fckl. 



Not new to the herharium 



Actaea rubra L. 
Agrimonia striata Mx. 
Agrostis stolonilera L. 
.\morpha fruticosa L. 
Ainelanchier canadensis (L.) Med. 
Anthemis cotula L. 
Antennaria canadensis Greene 
A. neglecta Greene 

A. plantaginea R. Br. 

A. neodioica Greene 

Arenaria groenlandica (Retz.) Spreng. 
Arisaema pusillum (PA:.) Nash 
Asclepias exaltata Muhl. 



Astci- coiu-iiiiiii^ Willfl. 
.\. schrcljeri See-'t 
Brassica rapa L. 
B. arvensis (L.) B. S. P. 

Blephilia liirsuta (Pursh) Torr. 
B. ciliata (L.) Raf. 

Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray 
Campanula rotundifolia L. 
Cassia nictitans L. 
Chelidonium majus L. 
Chrysopis graminifolia (Mx.) Nutt. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 
Convolvulus arvensis L. 



8 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Convolvulus spithamaeus L. 
Cypripedium hirsutum Mill. 
Dianthus armeria L. 
Drosera rotundifolia L. 
Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B. S. P. 
E. philadelphicus L. 

Eriophorum polystachyon L. 
Eupatorium maculatum L. 
Fraxinus americana L. 
Galium concinnum T. & G. 
Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. 
Geranium maculatum L. 
G. carolinianum L. 

Habenaria clavellata (Mx.) 
Hamamelis \'irginiana L. 
Helianthus giganteus L. 
Houstonia longifolia Gaert. 
Hypericum mutilum L. 
Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spach 
Lactuca sagittifolia EU. 
Lobelia cardinalis L. 
Lepidium virginicum L. 
L. apetalum Willd. 

Lilium canadense L. 
Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. 
Lycopus communis Bickn. 
Malus malus (L.) Britton 
Malva rotundifolia L. 
Medicago sativa L. 
Myi-iophyllum humile Raf. 
Onagra oakesiana {Gray) Britton 
Origanum vulgare L. 
Panax trifolium L. 
Panicum lanuginosmn Ell. 
Polymnia can. radiata Gray 
Physalis het. ambigua {Gray) Rydb. 
Polygonum convolvulus L. 
P. hartwrightii Gray 

PotentiUa anserina L. 
P. canadensis L. 

P. pmnila Poir. 

Quercus alexanderi Britton 
Ranunculus abortivus L. 
Raphanus raphanistrum L. 
Ribes rub rum L. 

Rhynchospora macrostaehya Torr. 
Rubus hispidus L. 
R. procumbt^ns Muhl. 
R. occid. pallidus Bail. 
Sporobolus longifoliiis ( Torr.) Wood 



Sporobolus neglectus Nash 

Salix balsamifera {Hook.) Barratt 

Salsola tragus L. 

Sanicula gregaria Bickn. 

Saxifraga virginiensis Mx. 

Sibbaldiopsis tridentata {Soland.) Rydb. 

Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) Karst. 

T. erythrospermum Andrz. 

Tetragonanthus deflexus {Sm.) Kuntze 

Viola palmata L. 

V. pap. domestica {Bickn.) Poll. 

V. arenaria DC. 

V. rostrata Pursh 

Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br. 

Xanthium canadense Mill. 

X. echinatum Murr. 

Xyris carol iniana Walt. 

Polypodium \'ulgare L. 

Dicranum schraderi W. & M. 

Hypnum oakesii Sulliv. 

H. pratense Koch 

H. deplanatum (Sc/i/j. 

Brachythecivun starkii Brid. 

B. salebrosum {Hoffm:) 
Porella platyphylla Lindb. 
Anthoceros laevis L. 

Amanita flavoconia Atk. 
A. caesarea Scop. 

A. onusta Howe 

Amanitopsis strangulata Fr. 
A. volvata {Pk.) Sacc. 

A. farinosa {Schio.) 

Armillaria mellea Vahl 
Tricholoma vaccinmn {Pers.) Fr. 
T. imbricatum Fr. 

T. equestre L. 

T. subacutum Pk. 

T. silvaticum Pk. 

Clitocybe dealbata Sow. 

C. tortilis {Bolt.) Fr. 

C. amethystina {Bolt.) Fr. 

CoUybia platyphylla Fr. 

C. familia Pk. 

C. uniformis Pk. 

C. acervata Fr. 

Mycena subincarnata PA;. 

M. clavicularis Fr. 

M. pterigena Fr. 

Omphalia campanella {Batsch) Fi 

O . umbellifera L. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



Hygrophorus pudoiiims Fr. 

H. spleudens Pic. 

H. capreolarius Kalchb. 

H. pratensis (Pers.) Fr. 

H. nitidus B. & C. 

H. peckii Alk. 

Lactarius volemus Fr. 

L. subdulcis Fr. 

L. cinereus Pk. 

L. griseus Pk. 

L. parvus PA;. 

llussuhi I'oetens (Pers.) Fr. 

R. granulata Pk. 

R. crustosa Pk. 

II. variata Banning 

R. olivascens Fr. 

R. rugulosa PA;. 

R. simillima PA;. 

('antharellus cibarius Fr. 

C. minor PA;. 

C, cinnabarinus Schw. 

C. cinereus Fr. 

C. infundibuliformis (Scop.) 

Marasmius subnudus PA;. 

M. polyphyllus PA-. 

M. filopes PA;. 

Tjenzites sepiaria Fr. 

Pholiota vermiflua PA;. 

P. togularis (Bull.) Fr. 

P. squarrosoides PA;. 

P. confragosa Fr. 

Cortinarius rimosus PA;. 

C. berlesianus S. & C. 

Inocybe geophylla Sow. 

Stropharia depilata (Per.s.) Fr. 

S. johnsoniana PA". 

Hj-pholoma suhaquilum Banning 

Coprinus inicaceus Fr. 

Boletus auriporus PA;. 

B. clintonianus PA;. 

Polyporus sulphureus (Bull.) Fr. 

P. rcsiiio.sus (Schrad.) Fr. 

P. benzoinus (Wahl.) Fr. 

P. caesius (Schrdd.) Fr. 

Trametes variifornii.s Pk. 

T. serialis Fr. 

Fomes pinicola Fr. 

F. fomentarius (L.) Pr. 

F. roseus .4 . ci- S. 



Polystictus abietinus Fr. 

Daedalea quorcina (L.) Pers. 

D. unicolor (Bull.) Fr. 

Merulius tenuis PA;. 

M. fugax Fr. 

M. niveus Fr. 

Phlebia radiata Fr. 

Hydnuni iin))ricatuin L. 

H. repandum L. 

H. albidum PA;. 

H. caput-ursi Fr. 

Radulum (irbiculare Fr. 

Odontia lateritia B. & C. 

Tremellodon gelatinosum (Scop.) Pers. 

Craterellas cornucopioides (L.) Pers. 

Clavaria botrj'tis Pers. 

C. cristata Pens. 

C. stricta Pers. 

C. muscoides L 

C. ligula Fr. 

C. argillacea Fr. 

C. tsugina PA;. 

Calocera cornea Fr. 

Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch 

L. subincamatuin Pk. 

Granularia pulvinata (Sckw.) White 

Didyniium melanosperinum (Pers.) 

Macb. 
Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks.) R. 
Trichia favoginea (Batsch) Pers. 
Hemitrichia clavata (Pers.) R. 
Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Ung. 
Puccinia podophylli Schw. 
Urocystis anemones (Pers.) 
Gymnosporangium davipes C. tfc P. 
Septoria ludwigiae Cke. 
Glomerularia corni PA-. 
Botrytis vulgaris Fr. 
Helvella macropus (Pers.) Karsl. 
Geoglossum ophioglossoides (L.) Sacc. 
Mitrula vit. irregularis (PA;.) Sacc. 
Leotia lubrica (Scoj).) Peis. 
Cudonia circinans (Pers.) Fr. 
C. lutea (Pk.) Sacc. 

Dasyscypha agassizii (B. A C) Sacc. 
Lachnea scutellata (L.) Sow. 
L. scubalonta C. & (r. 

Sarcoscypha floccosa Schw. 
Pezicula carpinea (Pers.) Tul. 



10 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Pezicula acericola PA;. 
Exoascus confusus Atk. 
Sphaerotheca humuli (DC.) Burr. 



Hypomyces lactifluorum Schw. 
Xylaria digitata (L.) Grev. 
Colpoma morbidum (Pk.) Sacc. 



B 



CONTRIBUTORS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS 

Mrs A. M. Smith and Mrs C. W. Harris, Brooklyn 

Funaria hygrometrica Slbth. 
Georgia pcllucida Rahenh. 
Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. 
G. leucophaea Grev. 

Gymnostomum nipestre Schwaegr. 



Amblystegium fluitans De N. 
A. riparium B. & S. 

Amphoridiuni lapponicum Schp. 
Anomodon apiculatus B. & S. 
A. attenuatus Huebn. 

A. obtusifolius B. & S. 

A. rostratus Schp. 
Aulacomnion palustre Schwaegr. 
Barbula caespitosa Schwaegr. 

B. convoJuta Hedw. 
Bartramia oederiana Swartz 
B. pomiformis Hedw. 
Brachythecium acuminatum Bv. 
B. laetum Brid. 

B. populeum B. cfe S. 

B. rivulare B. & S. 

B. salebrosum B. & S. 

B starkii Brid. 

B. velutinum B. & S. 

Bryum bimum Schreb. 

B. caespiticium L. . 

B. capillare L. 

B. nutans Schreb. 

B. roseum L. 

B. torquescens B. & S. 

Buxbaumia aphylla L. 

Catherinea undulata Bv. 

Ceratodon purpureus Brid. 

Climacium dendroides W. & M. 

Cylindrotheciumi cladorrhizans Schp. 

Dicranum flagellare Hedw. 

D. montanum Hedw. 

D. longifolium Hedw. 

D. schraderi IF. & M. 

D. viride Schp. 

D. drummondi Muell. 
Diphyscium foliosum Mohr. 
Encalypta rhabdocarpa Schwaegr. 

E. streptocarpa Hedw. 
Fissidens adiantoides Hedw. 
Fontinalis biformis Sulliv. 

F. leseurii Sulliv. 



Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. 

Hylocomium brevirostre B. & S. 

H. squarrosum B. & S. 

H. triquetrum B. & S. 

Homalia jamesii B. & S. 

H. trichomanoides B. & S. 

Hypnum chrv'sophyllum Brid. 

H. cordifolium Hedw. 

H, cuspidatum L. 

H. deplanatum Schp. 

H. fertile Sendt. 

H. haldanianum Grev. 

H. hispidulum Brid. 

H. imponens Hedw. 

H. lindbergii Limpt. 

H. recMTv a.ns Schwaegr. 

H. rusoiforme B. & S. 

H. schreberi Willd. 

H. serrulatum Hedw. 

H. splendens Hedw, 

H. stellatum Schreb. 

H. strigosum Hoffm. 

H. uncinatum Hedw. 

Leptobryum pyrifornie Schp. 

Leucobryum glauoim Schp. 

Leucodon julaceus Sidliv. 

Myurella careyana Sulliv. 

Mnium affine Bland. 

M. cuspidatum Hedw. 

M. drummondi B. & S. 

M. medium B. & S. 

M. orthorrhynchum B. d- S. 

M. punctatum Hedw. 

M. rostratum Schp. 

M. serratum Brid. 

M. spinulosum B. & S. 

M. stellare Hedw. 



RRPOKT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



11 



Neckera oligocarpa B. & S. 

N. pennata Hedw. 

Oncophorus wahlenbergii Brid. 

Orthotrichum fallax Schp. 

O. anomalum Hedw. 

Porotrichum alleghaniense Grout 

Philonotis fontana Brid. 

P. muhlenbergii Brid. 

Pottia riparia Aust. 

Plagiothecium denticulatum B. <fc .S. 

P. elegans Schp. 

P. pulchellum B. & S. 

P. striatellum Lindb. 

Pogonatuni alpinuiu Roehl. 

P. tenue E. G. Britton 

Hacoinitriuiii heterostichum Brid 
R. microcarpum Brid. 

Rhabdoweisia denticulata B. & S. 
Seligeria doniana C. Mucll. 
Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. 
S. cuspidatum £'/ir/j. 

S. quinquefarium Warn.'tt 

S. squarrosuni Pers. 



Tortula caespitosa //. & G. 
T. tortuosa Ehrh. 

Thuidium delicatulum Mitt. 
T. recognitum Lindb. 

T. paludosum R. & H. 

Anthoceros laevis L. 
Asterella hcmisphaerica Bv. 
Bazzania trilobata S. F. Gray 
Blepharistoma trichophylla Dumort. 
Cephalozia curvifolia Dumort. 
C. multiflora Spruce 

Conocephalus conicus Dumort. 
Frullania asagrayana Mont. 
Geocalj^x graveolens Nees 
Jungermannia barbata Schreb. 
Kantia trichomanis S. F. Gray 
Liochlaena lanceolata Nees 
Lejeunea serpj-llifolia Libert 
Porella platyphylla Lindb. 
Ptilidium ciliare Nees 
Scapania nemorosa Dumort. 
Trichocolea tomentella Dumort. 



Mrs E. G. Britton, New York 



Dicranella heteromalla Schp. 

Dicranum longi folium Hedw. 

D. fuscescens Turn. 

Dicranodontimn longirostre B. & S. 

Weissia ulophylla Ehrh. 

W. americana Lindb. 

Didymodon cylindricarpus B. & S. 

Georgia pellucida Rabenh. 

Tortula ruralis Ehrh. 

Mnium affine Bland. 

i\I. spinulosum B. & S. 

Ulota crispa Brid. 

Aulacomnion heterostichum B. & S. 

Polytrichum juniperinum Willd. 

FontinaUs dalecarlica B. & S. 

.\nomodon rostratus Schp. 

A. viticulosus H. & T. 

Webera proligera (Lindb.) 



Drummondia clavellata Hook. 

Bryum nutans Schreb. 

B. concinnatum Spruce 

Pylaisaea velutina B. & S. 

Raphidostegium recurvans Schwaegr. 

R. jamesii Lesq. 

R. laxepatulum L. & J. 

Plagiothecium denticulatum B. & S. 

P. mullerianum Schp. 

P. striatellum Lindb. 

Hypnum fertile Sendt. 

H. splendens Hedw. 

H. umbratum Ehrh. 

H. oakesii Sulliv. 

H. crista-castrensi.s L. 

H. pratense Koch 

Pogonatuni alpinuiu Roehl 

Typhula muscicoia Fr. 



Agaricus abruptus Pk. 
Armillaria mellea Vahl 
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. 



Miss H. C. Anderson, Lambertville X. J. 

j Hydnum cyaneotinctum Pk. 

i Panus strigosus B. & C. 

! Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) 



12 .\i:\V VOKK STATK MLSKLM 

Miss M. L. Overacker, Syracuse 

Hepatica acuta (Pursk) Britton liibes prostratum L'Her. 

^'iola selkirkii Pursh ^ R. lacustre Poir. 

\ . renifolia Gray Tiarella cordifolia L. 

Claytonia virginica L. \ Trillium grandiflorum {Mx.) Salisb. 

C. caroUniana Mx. ' Polymnia can. radiata Gray 

Asclepias exaltata Muhl. Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch 



Miss V. S. White, New York 

Tricholoma t'allax Pk. I Leptonia serrulata (Pers.) Ft. 

(Jlitocybe marginata Pk. 

Russiila adusta Fr. 

R. sordida PA:. 

R. basifurcata PA;. 

R. purpurinaQ. & S. i Polyporus confluens (A. & S.) Fr. 

R. fingihiUs Br itz. P. carpineus S<n«. 

Marasrnius viticola B. & C. 



Flammula granulosa PA;. 
Galera lateritia Fr. 
Boletus scabripes PA;. 
B. purp. fumosus PA;. 



Miss Emma S. Thomas, Schoharie 

Daedalea uuicolor Fr. Calvatia maxima (Schaeff.) Morg. 

Taraxacum' taraxacum (L.) Karst. 

Miss Flora Zinsmeister, Syracuse 
Geaster triplex Jungh. 

Mrs A. C. Shanks, Round Lake 

Polypodium vulgareL. 
Mrs P. B. Brandreth, Ossining 
Polyporus umbellatus Fr. 

Mrs E. C. Anthony, Gouverneur 

Secotium warnei PA:. Cystopus tragopogonis (Pers.) Schroet 

Miss Edith Wilkinson, Tannersville 

Pluteus cervinus albipes PA;. 

F. E. Fenno, Nichols 

Crataegus tomentosa L. | Polygonum hartwrightii Gray 

Potentilla pumila Poir. \ Salsola tragus L. 



Tarax acum'ery throspermum A ndrz. 
Ilysanthus gratioloides (L.) Benth. 
Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Torr. 



Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer 
Agrostis stolonifera L. 
Panicum lanuginosum Ell. 



F. S. Earle, New York 



Amanitopsis volvata {Pk.) Sacc. 
Olitocybe tort, gracilis Pk. 
Russula earlei PA;. 



Hypholoma incertiun PA;. 
Stropharia sice, radicata Pk. 



RKPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



18 



Tricholoma acre Pk. 
ITygrophorus peckii Atk. 
Merulius tenuis PA;. 
Cudonia circinans (Pers.) Fr. 



G. F. Atkinson, Ithaca 

Clavaria muscoides L. 
C. pinophila Pk. 

Helvella ambigua Karst. 
H. elastica Bull. 



Acalypha gracilescens Gray 

Acer rubrum L. 

Amianthum inuscaetoxicum Gray 

Antennaria brainerdii Fern. 

A. canadensis Greene 

A. fallax Greene 

A. neglecta Greene 

A. neodioica Greene 

A. parlinii Fern. 

A. pari, arnoglossa Fern. 

A. petaloidea Fern. 

A. plantaginea i2. fir. 

A. i-upicola Fern. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 

Arenaria serpj'^Uifolia L. 

.\ristida dichotonia Mx. 

Aspidium crist. x inarginaie Daven. 

Asplenium viride Huds. 

Aster divaricatus L. 

A. glomeratus Bernh. 

A. herveyi Gray 

A. junceusAii. 

A. linariifolius L. 

A. long, villicaulis Gray 

A. polyphyllus Willd. 

A. schreberi Nees 

.\. subulatus Mx. 

A. lind. comatus Fern. 
.\triplex arenaria Nutt. 
Bidens bipinnata L. 

B. discoidea Britton 

B. trichosperma Britton 

Botrychium matricariaefolium I'raun 
B. virginianum Sw. 

Carex albicans Willd. 



S. Sherwood, Delhi 

Agaricus placomyces Ph. 

D. Griffiths, Takoma Park, D. C. 

Ustilago aristidae PA;. 

H. C. Magnus, Albany 

Penicilliuin digitatumi {Fr.) Sacc. 

B. L. Bobinson, Cambridge, Mass. 

I Carex arctata Boott 



C. backii Boott 

C. capillaris L. 

C. castanea Wahl. 

C. cephalophora Muhl. 

C. chordorrhiza Ehrh. 

C. crawfordii Fern. 

C. cristata Schw. 

C. deflexa Hornem. 

C. eburnea Boott 

C. exilis Dew. 

C. femaldii Bail. 

C. fuscaAZ/. 

C. gynocrates TT'ormsA;. 

C. interior Bail. 

C. intumescens Rudge 

C. laxiflora Lam. 

C. lenticularis Mx 

C. livida Willd. 

C. longirostris Tott. 

C. lurida Wahl. 

C. oligosperma Mx. 

C. pedunculata Michl. 

C. pilulifera L. 

C. prasina Wahl. 

C. pubescens Muhl. 

C. seorsa Howe 

C. stipata Muhl. 

C. tenella Schk. 

C. teret. ramosa Boott ■ 

C. tetan. woodii Bail. 

C. tener. richii Fern. 

C. umbel, tonsa Fern. 

C. umbel, brevirostris Boott 

C. vaginata Tausch 



14 



.MOW YORK STATE MUSK CM 



C'arex varia Muhl. 

( '. vesicaria L. 

Campanula ameiicana L. 

Chrysopsis falcata FAl. 

("litoria mariana L. 

Crataegus punctata ./r/rt/. 

(.'vperus nuttallii Torr. 

C diandrus Torr. 

Discopleura capillacea DC. 

Dirca palustris L. 

Desmodium acuminatum DC. 

Elatine americana Am. 

Eleocharis ovata R. Br. 

E. intermedia (Sc/w/^cv 

F,. palustris R. Br. 

Elymus striatus Willd. 

K. virginianus L. 

Epilobium hornemanni Reich. 

Eriocaulon decangulare L. 

Eriophorum alpinum L. 

Er|uisetum variegatum Schleich. 

Eiipatorium hyssopifolium L. 

Euphorbia poljgoni folia L. 

Euphrasia amer. canadensis Rolnn.'<. 

E. oakesii Wett. 

E. williamsii Robins. 

l-rimbristyiis capillaris Gray 

Festuca elatior L. 

Y . nutans Willd. 

(ialium latifolium Mx. 

Geum ciliatum Pursh 

Gerardia skinneriana Wood 

Gratiola aurea Muhl. 

Heraicarpha subsquarrosa Nees 

Hfuchera villosa Mx. 

Halenia deflexa Griseh. 

Hypericum nudicaule Walt . 

Iris virginica L. 

Juncus brachycephalus Bncli. 

J. dudleyi Wieg. 

.1. nodosus L. 

J. ten. williamsii Fern. 

.1. .><ubtilis Meyer 

Krigia ^'ire:iIlica Willd. 

Lobelia kalniii L. 

Luzula \eruali.-: DC. 

Lycopodium clav. monostachvou G 

If. 
L. obscunim L. 

L. sal)inaofolium Willd. 



liycopodium[sit( Ik 'iM- Itu ii. 

L. tristachvum Pur-"!) 

Lycopus sessililoliu.s (jvay 

Lespedeza capitata Mx. 

Muhlenbergia wlldenovii Trin . 

( )ryzop.sis asperifolia Mx. 

PaTiicum pauciflorum Gray 

Paronychia argyrocoma iS utl. 

I'etUcuIaris t'urbi.shiae Watn. 

Fentstemon pubescens Solatul. 

Piims contorta Dougl. 

Pluchea camphorata DC. 

Podostemou ceratopliyllus .l/.r. 

Polygola nuttallii T. & (1. 

Poa compre.s.sa L. 

P. pratensis L. 

P. serotina Ehrh. 

Polygonum acre H. B. K. 

P. maritiraum L. 

P. ram. atlanticvun /iV(/> //(.-;. 

P. vi\iparum /,. 

rolygonella articulata MciKii. 

Potamogetou het. graminifoliu^ 1!'. <^' (^ 

P. lucens L. 

P. pectinatus L. 

P. robbin'sii Oake.'i 

P. vaseyi Rohhinfi 

P. zosteraefolius Schu»i. 

Potentilla canadensis L. 

P. norvegica L. 

Pyrus ariiutifolia L. 

(Juercus prinoides Willd. 

Q. ilicifolia Wang. 

Raiumculus fascicularis Muhl. 

R. repens L. 

R. septentrional is Pair. 

Rhyuchospora capillacea DC. 

Rosa nitida Willd. 

Rotala ramosior Koehne 

Rulius arg. randii Bail. 

Ruppia maritima L. 

Sabbat ia stellaris Pursh 

Salicorne mucronata Bigel. 

Salix balsamit'era BurraU 

Sal.'iola kali L. 

Sangui.sorba canadensis L. 

Saxifraga leucanthemifolia Mx. 

8. virginiensis Mx. 

Senecio obowatus Muhl. 

Scirpus atroeinctus Fern. 



RICFORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 15 



Spartina juncea Willd. 
Sporobolus aspericaulis ScriJ> 
Trifolium hybridum L. 
Vaccinium coryinbosum L. 



Scirpus caespitosus L. 

S. deb. wdlliiunsii Fern. 

S, pauciHorus Light. 

S. peckii Britton 

Sibbaldia procumben.s L. , Veronica serp. borealis Laesi. 

Silene antirrhina L. Vicia sativa L. 

Solidago huniilis Pur.s/i I Viola arenaria DC. 

Ralph E. Matteson, Grand Kapids Mich. 

Polyporus obtusus Btrk. \ Irpex crassus B. <t- C. 

N. li. Britton, New York 

Rhexia aristosa Britton 

C. E. Clark, Newark 

Clitocybe dealbata deformata Pk. 

J. M. Clarke, Albany 

Clitocybe illudens Schw. 

F, S. Boughton, Pittsford 

Polyporus squamosus {Huds.) Fi . 

W. R. Griffiths, Douglastou 

Eucalyptus calophylla R. Br. \ Arbutus menziesii Pursh 

Schinus moUe L. 1 

F. J. Braendle, Washington D. V. 

Clitocybe morliifera Ph. | Stropharia siccipes KarsL 

Tylostoma punotatuni Pk. ' Panaeolus epiniyces Pk. 

A. M. Baker, Coeymatis 

Plioliota \enuifhia Pk. 

N. M. Glatfelter, St Louis .Mo. 

Bolbitius glatfelteri Pk. I Polyporus giganteus {Pers.) Fr 

Gyroniitra brunnea Underw. I 

C. J. Elting, Highland 
Arisaema pusilluiii ( l'k.)^N(fKh \ Hypholoina iiu ertiiiii Pk. 

E. J. Durand, Ithaca 

<ieopyxis carbonaria .1 . <(• S. Sclerotinia smilacinae Durand 

Peziza violacea Pers. 

P. fusicarpa Ger. 

Detonia fulgens {Peru.) Rehm 

Calloria caulophylli {E. cfc E.) Rehm 

\j-M-\\n\\m aquirumiu (Kar.-^t.) Schrocl. 

J. E. S. Heath, Waterloo la. 

Scleroderma vulsjan- Fr. I Geaster mammosus Che 

Calvatia craniitormis (^'c/nt'.) Mary. I 



Ciboria sulphurella (E. & E.) Rehm 
C. aniericana Durand 

Ascobolus atrofuscus P. A P. 
Caldesia sabinac (Dell.) Rehm 



16 MCW YORK STATK ^USECM 

D. R. Sumstine, KittaTning Pa. 

Lactaiius sumstinei Pk. i Russula earlei PA'. 

Boletus parasiticus Bull. I 

W. P. Judson, Albany 

Liliuiii canadense L. 

C. S. Sargent, Jamaica Plain Mass. 

Populus nigra elegans Bail. 

A. R. Sweetzer, Eugene Ore. 

Sparassis herbstii Pk. 

P. M. Van Epps, Glenville 

^ Chlorosplenium acruginosum {Oeder)\DeN. 

M. S. Baxter, Kochester 

• Buxbaumia indusiata Brid. 

H. P. Burt, New Bedford Mass. 

.\garicus placomyces PA;. 

E. M. Freeman, Minneapolis Minn. 

Entoloma graveolens PA;. | Polyporus obtusus^^erA;. 

J. C. Arthtir, Lafayette Ind. 

Aecidium'euphorbiae Schw. \ Puccinia xanthii_;(ScAw;. 

R. B. Mackintosh, Peabody Mass. 

Lepiota rhacodes Vitt. i Lepiota cristata A. & S. 

Agaricus pusillus Pk^ \ 

B. C. Willianis, ISewark 

Clitocybe multiceps PA;. | Clitocybe dealb.'deformata PA;. 

r. C. Stewart, Geneva 

Gloeosporium phaoosorum Sncc. \ Sporotrichum poae Pk. 

A. P. Saunders, Clinton 

Morchella angusticeps gracilis PA;. 

S. E. JellifEe, New York 

Thamnidium elegans Lk, 

E. B. Sterling, Trenton N. J. 

Agaricus tal^ularis PA;. Phallus imperialis Sckulz. 

A.^§ hacmorrhoidarius Schulz. Secotium warnei PA;.^ 

Coprinus comatus Fr. Catastoma ciroumscissum B. & C 

O-i ^ atramentarius,'.BwW. Calvatia pachyderma PA;. 

Charles Mcllvaine, Cambridge Md, 

Merulius lacryinans {Jacf].) Fr. 

G B. Fessenden, Boston Mass. 

Cortinarius intrusus PA-. 



ItCI'OUr OK Tliy STATK BOTANIST 1902 



17 



G. B. Morris, Waltham Mass. 

Cortinarius squaniulosiis Pk. | Coprinns silvaticus PA;. 

I^oletus spectabilis PA:. | Boletinus paluster PA;. 



J. G. Jack, Jamaica Plain Mass. 



Crataegus acutiloba Sarg. 



c. 


anomala Sarg. 


C. 


lucorum Sarg. 


c. 


coccineoides Ashe 


c. 


macracantha Lodd. 


c. 


collina Chapni. 


c. 


mollis (T. & G.) Sch 


c. 


caiiadensis Sarg. 


c. 


peorieasis Sarg. 


c. 


champlainensis Sarg. 


c. 


pedicellata Sarg. 


c. 


densi flora Sarg. 


c. 


pastorum Sarg. 


c. 


dilatata Sarg. 


c. 


praecox Sarg. 


c. 


elhvangeriana Sarg. 


c. 


pruinosa Wend. 


c. 


fecunda Sarg. 


c. 


rotundifolia (Ehrh.) 


c. 


flabellata (Spach) Rydb. 


c. 


scabrida Sarg. 


c. 


holmesiana Ashe 


c. 


submollis Sarg. 


c. 


illinoiensis Ashe 


c. 


succulenta Lk. 


c. 


integriloba Sarg. 


c. 


■ suborbiculata Sarg. 


c. 


intricata Lange 


c. 


venusta Beadle 


c. 


joucsae Sarg. 







Crataegus laurentiana Sarg. 



R. A. Harper, Madison Wis. 

Pluteus patricius Schiilz. \ Gyromitra sphaerospora (PA;.) Sacc. 

P. tjervinus (Schaejf.) Fr. \ Peziza amplispora C. & P. 



Irpex fuscoviolaceus Fr, 
Polyporus aurantiacus Pic. 



Puccinia mesomegala B. & C. ■ 
Septoria salliae Ger. 

W. L. Smith, Albany 
Macrosporinm lagenariae Thum. 



C. M. C. Lloyd, Gloversville 
A specimen of "six-leaved" clo\cr 
New York State Ag^c. Society 

Mi-ccll.incous collcftioii of dried phmts, 39X miiiilxT-; 



IS NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

c 

SPECIES NOT BEFORE REPORTED 
Delphinium ajacis L. 
Near Niagara Falls. August. E. M. Wilcox. This is an intro- 
duced plant, which is cultivated for its flowers, but it sometimes 
escapes from cultivation. It resembles the closely allied D. 
c o n s o 1 i d a , from which it may be distinguished by its pubes- 
cent seed vessels. 

Hypericum boreale (Britton) Bickn. 

Shore of Piseco lake. August. Closely related to the common 
H. m u t i 1 u m but separable from it by the stem, which is 
scarcely branched, except at the top, by the small bracts of the 
cymes being similar in shape to the leaves and specially by the 
seed vessels, which are decidedly longer than the sepals. 

Vicia angustifolia Roth 

Adams, Jefferson co. June. This is closely related to V. 
sativa, the common vetch, as a variety of which it is recorded 
in 4Cth Museum report, p.l22. It is now considered a valid 
species and may be separated from its near relative by its more 
narrow linear or oblong, pointed leaflets. 

Kneifiia longipedicellata Small 

Sandy soil near Eastport, Suffolk co. August. A peculiar 

form having a flexuous much branched stem and leaves a little 

broader than in the typical form. A specimen collected near 

Quogue more nearly represents the typical form. The large 

flower and long peduncle are distinguishing characters of the 

species. . 

Lactuca virosa L. 

This introduced plant is rapidly spreading and is already found 
growing freely in waste places about many of our cities and 
villages. It was formerly confused with L. scariola, a species 
which it closely resembles and which may be distinguished by its 
lower leaves being sinuate or sinuate pinnatifid and by its pale 
achenes. Specimens of this species were collected near Trenton 
Falls in August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 19 

Hypochaeris radicata L. 
Fields and roadsides. Cedarhurst, Nassau co. June. (i. 
D. Hulst. Introduced It has also been reported from Richmond 
county. 

Artemisia stelleriana Bess. 

Seabeach. Rockawaj L. I. July. G. D. Hulst. The beach 
wormwood is very distinct from our other species of this genus 
and may easily be recognized by its dense, whitish coat of 
tomentum and its large, erect and crowded heads of flowers. 

Xanthium commune Britton 
Moist ground. Whitehall. September. In our specimens the 
hairs on the lower half of the beaks and prickles of the burs are 
whitish, instead of brown. 

Aster roscidus Burgess 

Roadside. Piseco, Hamilton co. August. A beautiful aster 
related to the large leaved aster, A. macrophyllus, but easily 
distinguished by the abundance of the glands on the upper part 
of the stem and also on the leaves. 

Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter 
Waste places and roadsides. Lansingburg. June. This intro- 
duced plant is easily separated from our other species of the 
genus by the absence of ray flowers. In size and foliage it 
resembles the common mayweed, Anthem is cotula. 

Antennaria fallax Greene 

Bushy places, groves and borders of woods. Menands and 
Westport. May. 

Antennaria ambigens (Greene) Fern. 
Roadsides. Sandlake, Rensselaer co. May. Related to the 
preceding species but separable from it by its shorter stem, 
broader and closer stem leaves, which are glandular on the upper 
surface, and by the glandular, purplish hairs of the stolens. 

Antennaria brainerdii Fern. 
Pastures and shaded banks. Westport and Keene, Essex co. 
May. Related to A. n e o d i o i c a , from which it may be sepa- 



20 NKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

lilted by the purple hairs of the stem, though these are sometimes 
few and scattered and easily overlooked. The plants of the 
Keene locality grew on a moist, i)artly shaded bank near the 
Willey house and are larger than the others. 

Antennaria petaloidea Fern. 
In a recent clearing, ^'orth Elba, Essex co. June. 

Plantago halophila Bickn. 

Sandy soil near Eastport, Suffolk co. and near Saranac lake, 
Franklin co. September. This plantain has generally been con- 
f^idered a form of 1*. major, but it may be distinguished by its 
pubescence, its smaller, thicker leaves with petioles shorter than 
Ihe blades and by its curved scapes. 

Lycopus communis Bickn. 

Near Port Jefferson, Suffolk co., and in the Adirondack region. 
This is closely related to L. virginicus, with which it has 
been confused and from which it may be separated by the tuber- 
ous base of the stem. 

Arisaema pusillum (Pk.) Nash 

Fine specimens of this plant, which was formerly considered 

a variety of A. t r i p h y 1 1 u m , were found near Highland, Ulster 

CO., in June, by C. J. Elting and contributed by him to the 

herbarium. 

Limnorchis media Rydb. 

Swamps and wet places near Jordanville, Herkimer co. July. 
This and the next species were formerly thought to be forms of 
Habenaria hyperborea, which they closely resemble. 
State Museum report 50, 1 :126. 

Limnorchis huronensis (Nutt.) Rydb. 

Wet places and swampy ground about Jordanville. July. Also 
in Petersburg, Rensselaer co. A much smaller plant than the 
preceding. L. dilatata lineari folia Rydb. is represented 
in the herbarium by a specimen collected many years ago by 
Rev J. A. Paine near ITidden lake, Herkimer county. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 21 

Carex crawfordii Fern. 

This sedge, which has long been known as C. scoparia var. 
minor, is common in wet places in the eastern and northern 
parts of the State. It has been raised to specific rank and given 
a new name by Mr Fernald. 

Botrychium raatricariae (Schrank) Spreng. 
South Corinth, Saratoga co. August. 

Pottia riparia Aust. 
Limestone rocks. Near Chilson lake, Essex co. July, 
Sterile, Mrs A, M, Smith and Mrs C, W. Harris. This is a 
very small moss and one that is easily overlooked. It is rarely 

fertile. 

Tortula ruralis Ehrh. 

Limestone rocks. Green lake near Jamesville, Onondaga co. 
July. Mrs E, G. Britton. The specimens are without fruit. 

Racomitrium heterostichum Brid. 
Eagle rock gorge near Chilson lake. June. Mrs Smith and 
Mrs Harris, This is variety gracilescens, a slender moss, 
and these specimens are without fruit, 

Encalypta rhabdocarpa Schwaegr. 

Near Chilson lake, June. In fruiting condition. Mrs Smitli 
and Mrs. Harris. 

Hypnum lindbergii Limpt, 

Regina swamp and Pyramid lake, near Chilson lake, Septem- 
ber. Mrs Smith and Mrs Harris, 

Liochlaena lanceolata Neos 
Regina swamp near Chilson lake, growing on decaying wood. 
June, Mrs Smith and Mrs Harris. The specimens are fertile 
and in fine condition. 

Amanita flavoconia Atk. 
Woods and thickets, Adirondack mountains. July and Aug- 
ust. Closely resembling A. frostiana in size and color but 
distinguishable by the even margin of the pileus, the floccose 
edge of the lamellae and the fragile character of the volva, which 



ZL MOW VORK STATIC MLSKl.M 

easily separates from the slightly bulbous base of the steui and 
adheres to the soil that surrounds it. Both it and the annulus 
are of a beautiful, chrome yellow color. 

Tricholoma radicatum n. sp. 

PLATK S2, FIG. I,-)-19 

Pileus fleshy, firm, umbraculiform or broadly convex, dry, 
minutely silky fibrillose or obscurely fibrillose squamulose, some- 
what shining, pale grayish brown, the center usually darker and 
often tinged with reddish brown, the margin thin, cuticle sepa- 
rable, flesh white, taste disagreeable; lamellae thin, close. 
emarginate, adnexed, having a decurrent tooth, white ; stem firm, 
nearly equal, hollow with a small cavity, slightly fibrillose, dis- 
tinctly radicating, -white; spores broadly elliptic, .(M)02-.00024 
of an inch long. .0001G-.0002 broad. 

Pileus 2-3 inches broad; stem 1.5-4 inches long, 3-5 lines 
thick. Under coniferous trees. North Elba. September. 

This mushroom loses its unpleasant flavor in cooking and is 
edible. A more full and popular description is given in another 
part of the report. 

Clitocybe inversa (Scop.) Fr. 

Pine groves. Near Northville, Fulton co. August. A stout 
form with a lliiok stem. 

Mycena rugosoides u. sj). 

I'LATK .\l, I'K;. 17":-!4 

Pileus fleshy but thin, campanulate, usually broadly umbon- 
ate. glabrous, hygrophanous, even but striate on the margin when 
moist, paler and uneven when dry, with close irregular radiating 
lugae, variable in color; lamellae subdistant, rounded or emargi- 
nate next the stem, adnexed, whitish or smoky white; stem long, 
even, glabrous, hollow, radicating, villose tomentose at the base, 
white or pallid, often tinged with reddish brown at the base; 
spores elliptic, .0003 of an inch long, .0002 broad, granular. 

Pileus fi-12 lines broad; stem 1.5-3 inches long, .5-1.5 lines 
thick. Gregarious on much decayed, nmssy, prostrate trunks of 
coniferous trees. North Elba. September. 

Three forms occur which are se|»arable by color. One is wholly 
while, another has 1 he ])ih'iis and sleiii cinereous or grayish 



REPORT OK rilK STATE BOTANIST 1902 23 

brown and the lamellae white, the third has the pileus blackisli 
brown, the stem pallid or grayish brown and the lamellae sniokA 
white. Reddish stains sometimes occur on any part of the plant. 
These are possibly due to insect injury. The umbo is often ver.\ 
obtuse or almost flat at the top. This species is separated from 
.VI. rugosa by its moist umbonate pileus, its long stem, ils 
straight, not oblicpie, rooting base and by its habitat. The villos- 
ity at the base of the stem is grayish white. 

Hygrophorus subrufescens n. sp. 

I'l.ATK M, FIG. 1-C. 

Pileus fleshy, but thin on the margin, convex or nearly ]>l;mc. 
dry, minutely floccose squamulose, pale ])ink oi- grayish red. 
flesh whitish, faintly tinged with pink, taste mild; lamellae sub 
distant, decurrent, whitish; stem rather long, etjual or nearly so. 
flexuous, glabrous, solid, white; spores elliptic, .0003 of an inch 
long, .0002 broad. 

Pileus about 1 inch broad: stem 1.5-3 inches long. 2-4 lines 
thick. Among fallen leaves in woods. Port Jefferson. Sufl'olk 
<o. August. 

This species belongs to the section Camarophyllus, and is 
related to H. leporinus. from which it may be separated by 
its different color, thinner margin of the pileus and glabrous 
stem. 

Hygrophorus peckii Atk. 

Woods, pastures and bushy |»laces. July and August. Ithaca. 
G. F. Atkinson. Ganscvoort, Saratoga co., Westport, Essex co. 
nnd Piseco. Hamilton co. It is most closely related to 
11. p s i 1 1 a c i n u s. from which it is separated by its odor 
and decurrent lamellae. 

Lactarius luteolus Pk. 

ri.AlK .s:i. MC. 7-1 1 

Among fallen leaves in wood^s. Port Jefferson. August. A 
very distinct species, easily known by its mild taste, copious milk, 
fhanging from white to brown on exposuie 1o the aii*. and by the 
somewhat viscid pubescence of the pileus and stem. Milk flows 
readily from any part of the plant on the slightest injury, and 
wounds assume a dark brown color. The plant is edible: and 
is more fully described in another part of this report. 



24 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Russula magnifica d. sp. 

PLATE N, FIG. 1-4 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex and umbilicate when young, cen- 
trally depressed or infundibuliform when mature, glabrous, viscid 
when young and moist, even, but the cuticle sometimes rimose 
squamose in the center, even on the margin, the thin pellicle sub- 
separable, flesh white or whitish, odor and taste alkaline, strong 
and disagreeable; lamellae narrow, crowded, unequal, adnate or 
slightly decurrent, whitish with a faint pinkish reflection, becom- 
ing reddish brown where bruised and rusty brown when old; 
stem equal or narrowed downward, solid, becoming spongy or 
sometimes cavernous within when old, white; spores white, even 
or nearly so, subglobose, .0003-.0004 of an inch long, .00025-.0003 
broad. 

Pileus 4-10 inches broad; stem 2-5 inches long, 8-18 lines 
thick. Among fallen leaves in woods. Port Jefferson. August. 

This is the largest species of Russula known to me. It is 
related to R. d e 1 i c a and R. brevipes, from which its large 
size, peculiar odor and viscid j)ileus separate it. Sometimes the 
surface of the pileus is irregularly spotted with small unequal 
depressions or cavities. The odor persists in the dried specimens. 

Russula earlei u. sp. 

PLATE N, FIG. .5-10 

Pileus fleshy, firm, hemispheric, becoming broadly convex or 
nearly plane, sometimes centrally depressed, glabrous, very viscid, 
the margin even when young but sometimes rimose and uneven 
when old, stramineous, becoming paler with age, flesh whitish 
or yellowish, taste mild ; lamellae thick, distant, adnate, with a 
few intermediate short ones near the margin, whitish becoming 
yellowish; stem short, firm, equal or nearly so, solid, becoming 
spongy within, white; spores white, subglobose, .0002-.00024 of 
an inch broad. 

Pileus 1.5-2.5 inches broad; stem 1-1.5 inches long, 3-5 lines 
thick. Among fallen leaves in woods. Port Jefferson. August. 
The spores of this species are unusually small for the genus. 
This character, with the pale glutinous pileus and distant lamel- 
lae, marks the species as very distinct. I take pleasure in dedi- 
cating it to its discoverer. Professor F. S. Earle. 



UIOl'OK'l' OF THE STATE HO'i'ANIST 1902 25 

Marasmius biformis u. sp. 

I'ileus thin, submembranaceous, campanulate or nearly plane, 
generally umbilicato, glabrous, bay red or pale chestnut color and 
striatulate when moist, paler or grayish and rugosely striate 
when dry ; lamellae rather close, adnate and joined together at 
the stem, grayish tinged with creamy yellow; stem slender, 
stuffed or minutely hollow, covered with a dense, downy pubes- 
cence, which is brown when moist, cinereous when dry, sometimes 
slightly tawny toward the base. 

Pileus 4-8 lines broad ; stem about i inch long, .5 of a line thick. 
Gregarious in groves of coniferous trees. Sandlake, Kensselaer 
CO. August. 

The species is closely related to ^I. subnudus, but the plant 
is much smaller, the pileus is usually umbilicate and the stem 
not inserted. The mycelium binds together a mass of dirt and 
needles which adhere to the base of the stem when the plant is 
taken from the ground. In some groups nearly all the pilei are 
campanulate, in others they are nearly plane. This feature is 
suggestive of the specific name. 

Marasmius tomentosipes Pk. 
Much decayed, mossy, prostrate trunks of trees. North Elba. 
September. Similar in color to Omphalia campanella, 
but differing in its more scattered mode of growth, its longer 
straight stem sprinkled with tawny mealy particles or covered 
with tawny tomentum and in its less distinctly umbilicate pileus. 
In our specimens the stem is flocculent mealy at the top, has 
scattered flocculent particles below and a copious tomentum at 
the base, all of a tawny color. The specimens revive under the 
influence of moisture as in the genus Marasmius, and for this 
reason they have been referred to this genus. The species was 
founded on specimens collected in Idaho. 

Marasmius leptopus n. sp. 
Pileus thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, glabrous, obscurely 
and rugosely striate on the margin, reddish brown ; lamellae thin, 
narrow, close, adnate, white; stem slender, glabrous, hollow, 
inserted, whitish or pallid; spores oblong or narrowly elliptic, 
.0003-.00035 of an inch long, .()0012-.00015 broad. 



26 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Pileus 3-5 lines broad ; stem 1-1.5 inches long, about .5 of a 
line thick. Fallen leaves. Botanical garden, Bronx park. 

August. 

Marasmius insititius Fr. 

Fallen oak leaves. Port Jefferson. August. 

Marasmius thujinus n. sp. 

Pileus membranaceous, hemispheric or convex, often slightly 
umbilicate, subglabrous, distantly striate on the margin, cinere- 
ous tinged with lilac; lamellae few, distant, adnate, white; stem 
capillary, hollow, inserted, glabrous or with a few minute, scat- 
tered flocci toward the base, pallid, sometimes slightly brownish 
toward the base. 

Pileus 1-1.5 lines broad ; stem 6-12 lines long, scarcely thicker 
than a hair. Fallen leaves of arbor vitae, Thuja occident- 
al i s . North Elba. September. 

Under a strong lens the pileus is seen to be minutely pulveru- 
lent tomentose, and the stem adorned with a few minute, scat- 
tered flocci. 

Leptonia hortensis n. sp. 

Pileus thin, convex, umbilicate, hygrophanous, reddish brown 
and striatulate when moist, paler and silky when dry; lamellae 
thin, close, adnexed, whitish when young, pinkish when mature ; 
stem short, thin, glabrous, hollow, colored like the pileus; spores 
angular, uninucleate, .0003-.0()04 of an inch long, .0003 broad. 

Pileus 5-10 lines broad ; stem 8-12 lines long, about 1 line thick. 
Naked ground in gardens. Menands, Albany co. July. 

Flammula pusilla n. sp. 

PLATE xM, FIG. 35-41 

Pileus thin, convex becoming nearly plane, glabrous, viscid, 
pale buff or yellow ferruginous; lamellae narrow, close, adnate. 
whitish when young, brownish ferruginous when mature; stem 
short, equal, solid or stuffed, floccose fibrillose, whitish becom- 
ing ferruginous toward the base, which is slightly villose 
strigose, flocculent pulverulent at the top; spores elliptic, .0003 
of an inch long, .00016 broad. 



REPORT OP THE STATE KOTANIST 1902 27 

Pileus 6-12 lines broad; stem 8-15 lines long, about 1 line 
thick. Roots of stumps and water-soaked wood in open places. 
Smithrowu, Suffolk co. August. 

This species resembles small forms of Naucoria semior- 
b i c u 1 a r i s in shape and color, but its more viscid pileus, adnate 
lamellae, solid or merely stuffed stem and peculiar habitat dis- 
tinguish it. In very young plants a slight whitish veil is 

perceptible. 

Craterellus subundulatus \*k. 

Pileus thin, firm, subinfundibuliform, slightly tioccose squamu- 
lose or fibrillose, grayish or grayish brown, wavy or lobed on the 
margin, the lobes often overlapping; hymenium slightly radiately 
rugose, creamy white; stem short, firm, solid, colored like the 
pileus; spores elliptic, .0003 of an inch long, .00016 broad. 

Pileus 4-8 lines broad; stem 5-10 lines long, 1-1.5 thick. 
Gregarious or cespitose. Under beech trees. New York Botani- 
cal garden. August. 

Closely related to C. s i n u o s u s , from which it differs in its 
smaller size, solid, darker colored stem and slightly smaller 
spores. Formerly referred to the genus Thelephora. 

Clavaria crassipes n. sp. 

Stem thick, firm, solid or sometimes with a cavity at the base, 
glabrous white or whitish, repeatedly branched above, the 
branches very numerous, crowded, solid, terminating in obtuse 
or obtusely dentate tips, whitish or slightly yellowish; spores 
oblong, uninucleate, .0006-.0007 of an inch long, .00025-.0003 
broad, with an oblique apiculus at the base. 

Plant 3-6 inches high, 2-4 inches broad in the widest part, with 
the short stem about 1 inch thick. In woods and groves. Sand- 
lake. August. 

The flesh of the stem when cut or broken slowly assumes a 
smoky brown color. 

Clavaria tsugina n. sp. 

Stem very short, glabrous, branching from the base, solid, the 
branches few or many, suberect, sometimes crowded, flexible, 
rather tough, solid, terminating in acute tips, young plants and 
growing tips creamy yellow, older parts and mature plants 



28 XKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

vinaceous cinnamon or reddish brown, spores orchraceous, ellip- 
tic, .0003 of an inch long, .00016 broad. 

Plants 1-3 inches high, nearly as broad in the widest part. 
Prostrate, decaying trunks of hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. 
Adirondack mountains. July and August. Closely allied to 
C abietina, from which it differs in its naked stem, in having 
no bitter flavor and in wounds not assuming a green color. 

Secotium warnei Pk. 
Near Gouverneur, St Lawrence co. October. Mrs E. C. 
Anthony. This is the most eastern station known to me for this 
western species. It has been thought by some mycologists to be 
the same as S. acuminatum, but it appears to me to differ 
constantly from the description of that species in shape and 
color. It is very variable in shape and is sometimes umbonate, 
but I have never seen any specimens that could properly be called 
acuminate, nor any having an ochraceous or alutaceous color. It 
does not soem to be wise to give up a certainty for an uncertainty 
and to throw together forms which are constantly diverse. 

Tylostoma poculatum White 
Sandy soil. Earner, Albany co. Our specimens are a little 
smaller than the typical form, which was collected in Nebraska. 

Tylostoma punctatum Pk. 

Sandy soil. West Albany. May. Formerly confused with 
T. fimbriatum, from which it may be distinguished by the 
punctate inner peridium. 

Licea variabilis Schrad. 

Decaying wood of spruce. Oldforge, Herkimer co. August. 

Very variable in form. Sometimes the spores adhere to each 

other in groups. 

Aecidium ligustri Strauss 

Living leaves of privet, Ligustrum vulgare. Menands. 

June. Altamont. F. J. H. Merrill. 

Cintractia affinis n. sp. 
Stroma continuous, usually surrounding the stem of the host 
plant and forming patches 6-24 lines long, at first covered by a 



RKPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 29 

white crust, which at length ruptures and disappears, exposing 
the surface of a jet black, firm, but slightly pulverulent spore 
mass; spores globose or subglobose, minutely and closely papil- 
lose, involved in a thin, obscure, hyaline, gelatinous coat, black, 
.000G-.0008 of an inch broad. 

Living stems of K h y n c h o s p o r a m a c r o s t a c h y a 
Torr. Smithtowu, Suffolk co. August. 

This interesting species is closely related to (1 1 e u c o d e r m a, 
from which it differs in its longer, thinner and more intensely 
black spore mass, which occupies the stem instead of the sheaths 
and flower spikes, and by its more globose spores, which are 
minutely and closely but not spirally papillose. Two spore masses 
usually develop on one stem. These are commonly separated by 
a slight interval. Occasionally the lower is free from the white 
crust, while the upper still retains it. The thickness of the spore 
mass, including the inclosed stem, is usually 1-1.5 lines. 

Phyllosticta gxisea n. sp. 

Spots suborbicular, small, 1-1.5 lines broad, arid, gray with a 
purplish brown margin, brown beneath, occasionally brown 
above; perithecia epiphyllous, minute, erumpent, black; spores 
elliptic, hyaline, .00025-.0003 of an inch long, .00016 broad. 

Living leaves of Crataegus praecox. Crown Point. 
September. 

Gloeosporium phaeosorum Sacc. 

Dead canes of blackberry. Farmer, Seneca co. May. F. C. 
Stewart. 

Sporotrichum poae n. sp. 

Hyphae slender, .00008 -.00012 of an inch thick, procumbent, 
branched, slightly interwoven, white; spores colorless, subglobose. 
.00016 -.00032 of an inch broad. 

Sheaths and culms of Kentucky blue grass, Poa pratensis. 
Geneva. June. F. C. Stewart. The fungus occurs both without 
and within the sheaths of culms that have died, but whether their 
death was due to the attack of the fungus or of insects is nol clear. 



30 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Penicillium digitatum (Ft.) Sacc. 

Decaying lemons. Albany. Sometimes the whole surface of 
the lemon is covered with a dusty, bluish green coat of this mold. 

Penicillium pailidofulvum n. sp. 

Sterile hyphae creeping, forming a stratum of dense, tawny 
tomentum; fertile hyphae erect, septate, simple or with one lo 
three short branches or protuberances at the top; spores caten- 
ulate, elliptic, .00012--. 00010 of an inch long, at tirst white, soon 
pale tawny or ochraceous. 

Parasitic on Lactarius deceptivus. Kound J^akt'. 

July. 

Macrosporium lagenariae Thum. 
On fruit of gourds, Lagenaria vulgaris. Albany. -Ian 

uary. W. L. Smith. 

Fusarium laxum u. sp. 

Tufts minute, loosely gregarious, white; sporophores slen- 
der; spores narrowly fusiform, slightly curved, 3-5 septa t<'. 
hyaline, .001-,002 of an inch long. 

Dexid stems of scouring rush, Equisetum hiemale. I )el- 
mar. July. Apparently a peculiar species belonging to the 
section Fusisporium but having tufted sporophores. 

Stilbum resinaria n. sp. 

Stem cylindric, about .25 of a line long, white; capituluni 
globose or depressed globose, creamy yellow; spores minute 
subglobose, .00008-.00012 of an inch long, nearly as broad. 

Resinous spots on bark of balsam fir, Abies b a 1 s a m e a. 
Adirondack mountains. Closely allied to S. r e h ni i a n u m . 

Helvella ambigua Karst. 
Decaying wood. Piseco. August. G. F. Atkinson. This 
species may easily be confused with H. infula, from which it 
scarcely differs except in its pileus having a reticulated sur- 
face and in its longer, more fusiform spores. 

Detonia fulgens i I'ers.) Rehm 
Under spruce and balsam fir trees. North Elba. May. Near 
Ithaca. April. E. J. Durand. 



REPORT OF THK STATP^ BOTANIST i902 31 

Geopyxis carbonaria A. & S. 
Pturnl soil. Ithaca. Ma^'. Specimens of lliis and the nine 
following species were contributed by Mr Durand. 

Calloria caulophylli (E. & E.i Ixclmi 
Dead stems of blue cohosh, Cau 1 o p li \ I I urn tlmlir- 
t r o i d e s. Ithaca. May. 

Lachnum inquilinum (Karst.) Schroet. 

Dead stems of scouring rush, Equisetuni hiemale. 

Ithaca, May. 

Sclerotinia smilacinae Durand 

Dead rootstocks of wild spikenard, S m 11 a c i n a r a c e ni o s a. 

Ithaca. May. 

Ciboria americana Durand 

Dead chestnut burs. Ithaca. October. 

Ciboria sulphurella (E. & E.) Kehm 
Dead petioles of ash leaves. Farmingtou, Ontario co. Sep- 
tember. 

Peziza violacea Pers. 

Burnt soil. Ithaca. May. 

Caldesia sabinae iDellot) Kehm 
Loose bark of red cedar, Juniperus Virginian a. Ithaca. 

November. 

Helotium scutula vitellinum Rehm 

Dead stems of herbs. Ithaca. October. 

Ascobolus atrofuscus Vh. & PI. 
Charred wood. Canandaigua. September. 

Melanospora vervecina (Desm.) Fckl. 
Decaying wood of yellow birch, Betula lute a. North Elba. 

September. 

Leptosphaeria variegata n. sp. 

Perithecia numerous, minute, depressed globose, seated on in 
determinate spots of a pinkish, grayish or brownish color, at first 
covered by the epidermis, then erumpent, black; asci cylindric; 



32 NKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

spores oblong or siibfusiform, triseptate, colored. .Oi .0008 of 
an inch long, .00016-.00018 broad. 

Dead stems of pokeweed, Phytolacca decandra. Near 
Trenton Falls. September. 

D 

REMAEKS AKD OP.SERVATIONS 
Lepidium virginicum L. 
A dwarf form, 4 to 8 inches high and without branches, or 
nearly so, was found growing in sandy soil near Delmar. A 
similar form ofL. apetalum Willd. was found growing from a 
thin coating of vegetable mold covering flat surfaces of outcrop- 
ping rocks near Westport. This was in flower in May, the other 

in July. 

Lepidium ruderale L. 

Fine specimens of this species were found by the roadside near 
Lansingburg. May and June. 

Raphanus raphanistrum T.. 
A form with flowers of a peculiar brownish buff color, changing 
to reddish brown with age, was found growing in sandy soil near 
Karner. It was associated with the ordinary form and with the 
cultivated radish, R. sativus. 

Viola papilionacea domestica (Bickn.) Poll. 
Waste places about Port Jefferson. August. In fruit from 
cleistogamous flowers. 

Drosera rotundifolia L. 
A form of the round leaved sundew occurs near Port Jefter 
son, in which the scape divides above, forming two flowering 
branches with a flower in the axil. 

Rubus occidentalis pallidus Bail. 

Near Albia, Rensselaer co. In fruit in July, This diflfers from 
the common form of the species in having pale yellowish fruit. 

Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spach 
A much branched form, with branches straight and erect, or 
nearly so, and flowering abundantly, was found near North 
Albany in July. 



uroroRT OF tmk statk i'.otanist 1902 33 

Myriophyllum humile (l\;if.) Moioiig- 

Muddy shore of a sum II pond near Sniithtown. Suffolk co. 
August. A small, rare and pretty little plant. 

Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B. S. P. 

The variety discoideus has been unusually plentiful about 
Albany the piist season. The ])e("uliarlY cool, wet season wa.s 
probably favorable to it. 

Galinsoga parviflora hispida DC. 

This introduced plant is reported by Mrs M. A. B. Kelly to be 
acting like a pestilent weed in a »;arden at Gloversville. 

Antennaria neglecta simplex n. var. 

Stems 7-9 inches long, heads of flowers single or occasionally 
two, very rarely three; involucral bracts oblong or linear, acute 
or the outer obtusish, brownish with white tips. Sandlake. May. 

These plants grew in a patch about 6 feet in diameter. They 
have a peculiar appearance by reason of the single heads. 

Helianthus giganteus L. 

Roadsides. Keene, Essex co. September. A rare plant in this 
part of the State. 

Polymnia canadensis radiata Gray 

Near Syracuse. June. Miss M. L. Overacker. 

Xanthium canadense L. 
A dwarf form of this species, 6-10 inches high, is plentiful on 
sandy and gravelly shores of Lake Champlain at Crown Point. 
The burs sometimes have but one beak, and the prickles are 
strongly curved. 

Verbena hastata L. 

A plant having a close resemblance to this species was collected 
at Trenton Falls. Its spikes are less dense, and its flowers are 
pink. It is probably a hybrid of V. hastata and V. urtici- 
folia. 



34 NKVV YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Origanum vulgare L. 
A white flowered form occurs at Trenton Falls. 

Tetragonanthus deilexus (Sm.) Kuntze 
This is Halenia deflexa of the Manual and is a rare 
plant in our State. It was found many years ago near Trenton 
Falls by Br J. V. Haberer. In company with him, I visited the 
locality in August last and found the plant still there but in small 
quantity. A specimen in the herbarium represents another local- 
ity for it in Sullivan county. In New York State Flora Dr Torrey 
credits it to margins of lakes in the northern part of the State on 
the authority of Dr Hadley. It is desirable that any one finding it 
within our State should guard as far as possible against its ex- 
termination. 

Physalis heterophylla ambigua (Gray) Rydb. 
Sandy soil. Karner, Albany co. June and July. In our 
specimens the anthers and their short, thick filaments are purple 
when young. The greenish yellow corolla has the brown central 
spot lobed, and from the lobes brown lines radiate, giving the 
spot a fringed appearance. The lower leaves are often orbicular. 

Polygonum convolvulus L. 

A form having a short, erect, sparingly branched stem occurs 
in sandy soil about Karner. It corresponds to variety breve of 
P. cilinode. 

Lilium canadense L. 

The Canada lily was found growing in great abundance in a 
low, wet meadow near Mount Kisco, Westchester co., by W. P. 
Judson. The plants were small, the stems short and slender, each 
bearing, in most cases, a single small flower, and the leaves were 
smaller than usual. In an adjoining meadow on higher and drier 
ground the usual form of the species was plentiful. The two 
forms aft'ord a good illustration of the influence of soil and mois- 
ture on plant development. The cold, wet soil of the low meadow 
was evidently unfavorable to the proper development of this lily, 
and suggests the importance of a well drained soil for plants that 
do not like cold, wet feet. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 35 

Scirpus sylvaticus bissellii Fern, 

Low ground. West Albany. Several years ago a single speci- 
men of this variety, was collected by the lato Rev. J. U. Wibbee 
and presented to the herbarium. The station has since been de- 
stroyed, and I know of no other in the State where this variety 
has been found. 

Sporoholus longifolius (Torr.) Wood 

Rocky sides of Skenes mountain, Whitehall. September. It 
was associated with Sporobolus neglect us and Aster 
concinnus. Quercus acuminata ( Mx, ) , the eastern 
form of which isQ. alexanderi Britton, was growing near 
it. This mountain is an interesting botanical station. 

Buxbaumia indusiata Brid. 

Near Rochester. October. M. S. Baxter. This is the fourth 
and most western station for this rare moss in our State. It has 
been found in the Catskill mountains and in two places. Horse- 
shoe pond and Lake Placid, in the Adirondack mountains. 

Amanitopsis volvata (Pk.) Sacc. 
An unusual form of this species was found in the wooded 
grounds of the New York botanical garden. A part of the volva 
was closely adherent to the center of the pileus, as in Amanita 
calyptrata, and the base of the stem was more closely 
sheathed than usual by the remains of the volva. 

Amanitopsis strangulata Fr. 

Piseco and North Elba. August and September. This north- 
ern form differs from the more southern one in having the pileus 
adorned with unequal fragments of the ruptured volva instead 
of nearly equal, wartlike remnants. 

Clitocybe dealbata deformata n. var. 
Pileus thin, very irregular, convex or centrally depressed, 
wavy or lobed on the margin, the upper surface sometimes partly 
transformed into a hymenium consisting of daedaloid pores in 
the center and branching and anastomosing lamellae toward the 
margin, snowy white where free from hymenial development, 



36 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

flesh pure white, taste farinaceous; lamellae close, adnate or 
slightly decurrent, transversely venose, often anastomosing or 
connected by veins, frequently eroded on the edge and sometimes 
transversely split, whitish; stem irregular, sometimes com- 
pressed, more or less confluent at the base, stuffed or hollow, 
white, with a soft, pure white, downy tomentum below; spores 
subglobose .00012-.00016 of an inch long, nearly as broad. 

On mushroom beds in a greenhouse. Newark, Wayne co. 
March. C. E. Clark and.B. C. Williams. The specimens grew 
in mushroom beds made in a poorly lighted apartment, in which 
a temperature of 55°-60° was maintained. These conditions 
doubtless had' some influence in causing the irregular, tufted 
mode of growth. In their pure whiteness and in the tendency of 
the gills to anastomose these mushrooms resemble Clitocybe 
s i m i 1 i s, but the thin pileus and the farinaceous taste and odor 
indicate a relationship with C. d e a 1 b a t a so intimate that it 
is recorded as a variety of it. That species is also sometimes 
found growing in mushroom beds. 

Clitocybe multiceps Pk. 

A singular form of this species was found growing under a 
flagstone in Newark by Mr B. C. Williams. In the effort to ex- 
pand the pileus in the open air, the stem was greatly elongated. 
In one specimen the stem was 13 inches long, in the other, 16. 

Clitocybe tortilis gracilis n. var. 

Pileus thin, convex and slightly umbilicate, becoming centrally 
depressed or infundibuliform with age, irregular, striate on the 
margin and reddish flesh color when moist, paler when dry; 
lamellae broad, distant, adnate or decurrent. pruinose when old 
and dry; stem slender, Arm, glabrous, hollow but the cavity small. 

Pileus 3-6 lines broad ; stem 6-10 lines long, about .5 of a line 
thick. Gregarious on moist, shaded ground. New York Botani- 
cal garden. August. F. S. Earle. 

This differs from the typical form of the species in its more 
slender stem, more distant lamellae and more funnel-form pileus. 



RKPOBT OF THE SIA'IK I'.OIANIST 1902 37 

Collybia uniformis Tk. 

I'l.ATE M, FIG. 7-l(i 

Specimens larger than the topical form were found in North 

Elba, growing on decaying wood of balsam tir, Abies bal 

samea. After the moisture has escaped from the pileus, it has 

a pruinose appearance, which is due to a minute, whitish pubes 

cence. The stem is sometimes compressed. In its general char 

acters and tufted mode of growth it is closely allied to (J. 

f a m 11 i a. 

Lactarius subdulcis oculatus n. v.w. 

PLATE 83, FIG. 20-24 

Pileus moist, subhygrophanous. vinaceous buff with a small 
central spot or umbo persistently reddish brown or chestnut 
color. Otherwise like the species. Under spruce and balsam fir 
trees. North Elba. September. 

Hygrophorus capreolarius Kalchb. 
This beautiful species inhabits groves of spruce and balsam 
fir in North Elba, but I have seen it in no other part of the 
State. It is gregarious or cespitose, has an attractive appear- 
ance and an agreeable flavor when fresh, but when fried in butter 
it develops a bitter taste which makes it objectionable as an 
edible mushroom. 

Russula olivascens Fr. 

Port Jefferson. August. European authors in their descrip- 
tions of this species do not mention the color of the spores. In 
our plant they are ochraceous. 

Russula granulata lepiotoides Atk. in liti. 
This variety differs from the typical form in its pileus. whose 
upper surface soon becomes rimose squamose. It was common, 
in August, in the woods about Piseco, Hamilton county. 

Cantharellus cibarius albipes u. var. 

This differs from the usual form of the species in having the 
stem white. 

Stropharia siccipes radicata ii. var. 

Differs from the species in having a long, radicating base to the 
stem. This probably depends on and is due to the fact that it 



38 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

grows from manure buried in the earth. New York Botanical 
garden. June. F. S. Earle. Menands. July. 

Marasmius resinosus niveus n. var. 

Whole plant pure white. In other respects like the species. 
Port Jefferson. August. 

Hypholoma sublateritium squamosum Cke. 

Differs from the typical form in having the pileus spotted 
with brownish, fibrillose scales. In the dried specimens these 
scales are less distinct. Piseco. August. 

Hypholoma subaquilum lUuming 

Decaying, prostrate trunks of trees in woods. Piseco. August. 
This species sometimes occurs in great abundance. The margin 
of the pileus is often adorned with whitish, tioccose fibrils of the 
veil, which in the young plant may be interwoven and form a 
delicate membrane which conceals the lamellae. As tlic |)ileus 
expands, this separates from the stem and adheres to the margin 
of the pileus, curving under and still hiding the outer extremities 
of the lamellae. In the mature plant, however, all vestiges of the 
veil have generally disappeared. This species is most closely 
allied to H. appen dicu latum, scarcely differing from it 
except in the darker color of the young lamellae and the smaller 
spores. Like that species it is hygrophanous, becoming paler and 
rugose in drying. 

Coprinus micaceus Fr. 

Specimens of the glistening coprinus were found growing from 
a stratum of its coarse, felty ozonium or mycelium, which had 
overspread a part of the surface of an old, prostrate tree trunk in 
woods near Piseco. August. 

Merulius tenuis Pk. 
Much decayed wood. Piseco. The type specimens of this 
species were collected near Ithaca by Professor W. R. Dudley. 
Fine specimens of it were collected at Piseco by Professor G. F. 
Atkinson. It is n rare species. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 39 

Odontia lateritia B. & C. 

On a decorticated, prostrate pine trunk in woods. North Elba. 
September. The specimens on pine are thinner than those on 
oak, and, where the surface of the wood is smooth, the fungus 
is to some extent separable from it. The species is doubtless 
the same as Phlebia hydnoidea Schw. and should take 
the name Odontia hydnoidea (Schw.). 

Nidularia pulvinata (Schw.) Fr. 

Fine specimens were found in North Elba, growing on decor- 
ticated wood of spruce. This fungus was first described by 
Schweinitz under the name Cyathus pulvinatus. Fries 
changed the name to Nidularia pulvinata, and recently 
the species has been transferred to another genus, and it stands 
as Granularia pulvinata (Schw.) White. 

E 
EDIBLE FUNGI 

Tricholoma subacutum Pk. 

SUBACUTE TRICHOLOMA 

PLATE 82, FIG. 7-14 

Pileus ovate or subcampanulate, becoming broadly convex or 
nearly plane, usually prominently and acutely umbonate, dry, 
silky fibrillose or virgate with innate brown or blackish fibrils, 
cinereous, grayish brown or blackish brown, the umbo commonly 
darker, sometimes black; lamellae rather close, rounded behind, 
adnexed, white; stem rather long, equal, solid, silky fibrillose, 
white; spores broadly elliptic or subglobose, .00025-.0003 of an 
inch long, .0002-.00025 broad. 

The subacute tricholoma is easily recognized by its prominent 
pointed umbo, by the minute, radiating, brown or blackish lines 
or fibrils on its dry cap and by the white color of its flesh and 
stem. It is not abundant, and has been found by me in North 
Elba only. It grows in woods and in groves of young spruce 
and balsam fir trees, appearing in September. The cap varies 
in color, being pale graj', grayish brown or blackish brown. The 
umbo is frequently darker than the rest, and in dark colored 



40 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

specimens it is nearly or quite black. The cuticle is separable 
from the white flesh beneath. The flesh has no decided odor, and 
its taste is sometimes acrid and sometimes mild. The gills are 
rather broad but close, rounded behind and slightly attached 
to the stem. They are white, but are apt to become dingy or 
brownish in drying. The stem is rather long, equal, smooth or 
slightly fihrillose, solid, or hollow from the erosion of insect 
larvae and white. 

The cap is 1.5-3 inches broad ; the stem 2-4 inches long, 3-6 
lines thick. The species is so closely related to the European 
virgate tricholoma, Tricholoma virgatum, that it is with 
some hesitation that I have kept it distinct. In the virgate 
tricholoma the taste is described as bitter, intensely bitter or 
bitter in the young plant and more mild in the mature one, the 
umbo is represented as low, broad and blunt and the cuticle on 
it as breaking up and forming scales. The stem is described 
and figured as more or less bulbous. These characters are not 
found in our plant, and their absence seems to justify its 
separation. 

Tricholoma radicatum l*k. 

ROOTED TRICHOLOMA 
PLATE 82, FIG. 15-19 

Pileus fleshy, deeply or broadly convex, dry. silky fibrillose or 
minutely squamulose, grayish brown, the center darker and often 
tinged with reddish brown, flesh white, taste disagreeable; 
lamellae thin, close, emarginate, adnexed, white; stem equal or 
nearly so. radicating, hollow, white; spores broadly elliptic or 
subglobose, .()002-.00024 of an inch long, .00016-. 0002 broad. 

The rooted tricholoma is a rare species with us. It occurs 
under spruce, balsam fir and other cone bearing trees in North 
Elba, and is solitary or scattered in its mode of growth. It 
was found in September and is apparently an autumnal species. 
Its cap is broadly convex when mature, but in immature plants 
it is similar in shape to an open umbrella. It is firm but flexible, 
and its cuticle is separable from the white flesh. The surface is 
dry, minutely silky and sometimes roughened with minute scales. 
Its color is gray or grayish brown, generally a little darker in 
Ihv ((Muci-. w hcic i1 is tinoed with reddish brown. The flesh is 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 41 

while, but its taste is unpleasant. The gills are closely placed, 
wide in the middle, excavated at the stem end, where there is a 
slight prolongation running down on the stem and giving its top 
a striated api)earan(e. Their color is white and unchangeable. 
The stem is smooth or slightly fibrillose, hollow but with a small 
cavity and white. There is a rootlike prolongation at the base, 
which tapers downward and penetrates the earth. 

The cap is 2-3 inches broad; the stem 1.5-4 inches long, 3-5 
lines thick. The unpleasant flavor is lost in cooking. 

Tricholoma silvaticum Pk. 

WOOD TRICHOLOMA 

PLATE 82, FIG. 1-6 

Pileus convex or nearly plane, dry, glabrous, subumbonate, 
whitish; lamellae broad, ventricose, subdistant. adnexed, white; 
stem equal or nearly so, glabrous, solid, white; spores elliptic 
.00045-.0005 of an inch long, .0002.5-.0008 broad. 

The silvan tricholoma is a small, well formed mushroom, grow- 
ing among mosses or fallen leaves in woods. Its cap is convex or 
nearly plane with decurved margin. It is generally crowned with 
a broad, slightly elevated umbo, and is smooth, dry and whitish. 
The flesh is thin and white, the taste farinaceous. The gills are 
broad with broad interspaces. They are deeply notched next the 
stem and white. The stem is equal in diameter in all its parts 
or sometimes slightly tapering upward. It is smooth or ob- 
scurely fibrillose, slightly mealy or pruinose at the top, solid, firm 
and white. 

The cap is 1-1,5 inches broad ; the stem 1-2 inches long, 2-4 
lines thick. This species has been found by me in North Elba 
only. It occurs in September. It may be separated from the 
white cap tricholoma, T. leucocephalum, and from the 
disagreeable tricholoma, T. inamoenum, by the absence of 
any distinct odor and by the color of its cap, which is not pure 
white, as in these species but a creamy white or pale buff. 

Hygrophorus pudorinus Fr. 

BLUSHING HYOROPHORLS 
PLATE 83. FIG. 1-6 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex becoming nearly plane, glabrous, 
viscid wiien moist, pinkish bufl". flesh white, taste mild ; lamellae 



42 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

distant, adnate becoming decurrent, white; stem stout, solid, 
equal, white, roughened with white points at the top; spores 
white, elliptic, .0003-.0004 of an inch long, .0(>01t)-.00024 broad. 

The blushing hygrophorus is a large and beautiful species, 
clean and attractive and a fine addition to our list of edible 
mushrooms. It is gregarious or tufted in its mode of growth 
and grows most frequently but not always under spruce and 
balsam fir trees, or where these trees have previously grown. It 
appears late in the season. Our plant differs in some minor 
features from the description of the European plant, but in 
essential characters the agreement is so close that there can be 
little doubt of its identity. Its fleshy, firm cap is convex or 
broadly conic wheu young, with the margin involute and often 
downy and studded with drops of moisture, though the margin 
in the European plant is described as naked. When mature it 
is broadly convex or nearly plane, but sometimes has a broad 
but slight central elevation or umbo. It is very smooth, viscid 
when moist and of a beautiful, delicate pinkish buff color, some- 
times slightly tinged with brown or reddish brown in the center. 
The flesh is white, slightly tinted under the thin, separable 
pellicle with the color of the cap. The flavor is mild, and it has 
no very distinct odor. The gills are at first attached to the stem 
by the entire width of the inner extremity, but, when the cap is 
fully expanded, they are somewhat decurrent. They are rather 
wide apart, white and sometimes have a slight salmon-colored 
reflection. The stem is stout, nearly equal in diameter through- 
out but sometimes abruptly pointed at the base, solid, white and 
roughened with white points at the top. These points or dots 
are apt to become reddish in drying and they sometimes extend 
nearly to the base of the stem. The stem of the European plant 
is described as constricted at the top, but figures of it by Euro- 
pean mycologists do not show this character, from which I con- 
clude that it is not constant. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad ; the stem is 2-5 inches long, 6-10 
lines thick. Fried in butter, it has an agreeable flavor and may 
easily be placed among the first class mushrooms. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 43 

Lactarius luteolus Pk. 
YELLOWISH LACTARIUS 

I'LATE S-4. FIG. 7-11 

I'ileiis Heshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, sometimes um- 
bilicately depressed in the center, pruinose, more or less rugose, 
yellowish or buff color, flesh white, becoming brown where 
wounded, taste mild, milk copious, white or whitish, changing to 
brown ; lamellae close, adnate or slightly rounded behind, whitish, 
becoming brown where wounded; stem short, equal or tapering 
downward, firm, solid or somewhat spongy within, white or buff 
color; spores white, globose, .0003 of an inch broad. 

The yellowish lactarius is a very distinct species, easily known 
by its buff color, copious white milk, changing to brown on ex- 
posure to the air, and by its minutely velvety cap, which to the 
naked eye has a pruinose appearance. The cap is broadly convex 
or nearly flat when mature, sometimes with a slight central de- 
pression. Its surface is seen by the aid of a. lens to be covered 
with a minute velvety pubescence, which is soft to the touch and 
when moist is slightly sticky. The surface is sometimes even 
but more often rugose. Occasionally there is a narrow encircling 
furrow or band near the margin. The color is whitish, buff or 
yellow buff, becoming more pronounced in drying. The flesh is 
white or whitish. Wounds of any part of the plant assume a 
brown color. The gills are narrow, closely placed, attached to 
the stem but scarcely decurrent on it, whitish. The stem is short, 
cj lindric or rarely tapering downward, solid or somewhat spongy 
in the center and colored like the cap. 

The cap is 1.5-3 inches broad; the stem is 1-1.5 inches long, 
8-5 lines thick. The plant grows in a scattered manner among 
fallen leaves in woods and appears in August. Lactarius 
feet id us, the fetid lactarius, is closely related and may yet 
prove to be a mere variety having a strong disagreeable odor and 
less copious milk. 

Lactarius subdulcis (Bull.) Fr. 
SWEET LACTARIUS 

PLATE S3, FIG. 12-24 

Pileus thin, broadly convex becoming nearly plane or centrally 
depressed, usually with a small papillalike umbo, even, glabrous. 



44 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

zoneless, tawny red, bay red or cinnamon red, tlesh whitish, often 
tinjjed wilh red, taste slightly or tardily acrid, milk white, un- 
changeable; lamellae thin, close, adnate or slightly decurrent, 
whitish, pallid or nifescent; stem short, equal or tajjering up- 
ward, stuffed or hollow, glabrous, colored like or a little paler 
than the pileus; spores white, globose, .0003-.00035 of an inch 
broad. 

The sweet lactarius is one of our most common species. It is 
rather small, but it often grows in sufficient abundance to com- 
pensate for its deficiency in size. It is gregarious in its mode 
of growth and occurs in a great variety of soil and location. It 
may be found in woods and in open places, on naked soil or 
among fallen leaves or growing from decaying wood or among 
living mosses. In dry weather, when it can no longer be found in 
exposed dry places, it still persists in swamps, sphagnous marshes 
and wet, shaded places. It appears from June to October. 

Its cap is generally broadly convex or nearly plane, but some- 
times by the elevation of the margin it becomes centrally de- 
pressed or almost funnel-form. Usually there is a small promi- 
nence or umbo in the center, but often this is entirely absent. 
The surface is quite smooth and sometimes moist and shining. 
Its color varies from light red or yellowish red to bay red. The 
margin is sometimes wavy or lobed. The gills are thin, narrow, 
closely place;! and vary in color from whitish to rufescent. re- 
sembling the cap in color. The stem may be short or long accord- 
ing to its place of growth. When growing among mosses, it is 
apt to be longer than on bare ground. Sometimes there is a 
coarse villosit}' or hairiness at the base of the stem, otherwise it 
is smooth. It is generally hollow and brittle. In color it is 
similar to or a little paler than the cap. The white milk does not 
change color, and the taste varies somewhat, being in some cases 
almost mild, in others tardily but decidedly acrid. 

The cap is usually 1—2 inches broad; the stem 1-2.5 inches 
long, 1—3 lines thick. The acrid taste is lost in cooking, and 
when fried in butter it may be regarded as a fairly good though 
not highly flavored mushroom. Several varieties of this variable 
species have been described, but a well marked one, of which I 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 45 

tind IK) description, was discovered in North Elba, and is de- 
scribed in another place in this report, under the name 
L a c t a r i n s s u b d u 1 c i s o c u 1 a t u s. The varietal name 
is suggested by the dark colored umbo or eyelike spot in the 

center of the cap. 

Russula crustosa Pk. 

CRUSTED RUSSULA 
PLATE 81, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus fleshy, firm, ver}^ convex becoming nearly plane or cen- 
trally depressed, slightly viscid when moist, even or striate and 
rimose areolate on the margin, commonly even in the center, 
flesh white, taste mild or sometimes tardily acrid; lamellae 
moderately close, narrow^ed behind, some of them forked, white; 
stem short, stout, equal, stutted or hollow, white; spores white, 
subglobose or broadly elliptic, .0()03-.0004 of an inch long, .00025- 
.0003 broad. 

The crusted russula is closely related to the greenish russula, 
R. V i r e s c e n s, and the cracked russula, R. cutefracta. 
Prom the former it differs in its slightly viscid cap of which the 
cuticle cracks and forms small, crustlike patches or scales on 
the margin but usually remains entire in the center; from the 
latter it is distinct by the absence of any red or purplish tints in 
the flesh and the stem. Even in purplish specimens the flesh 
and stem are wholly white. 

The cap is very convex or almost hemispheric when young, 
nearly plane or centrally depressed when mature. The surface 
cracks toward the margin as in R. cutefracta, while the 
center nearly always remains entire. These surface chinks form 
small areolae or scales which appear like fragments of a crus- 
taceous cuticle. 

The color varies greatly. It may be straw yellow, pale 
ochraceous, brownish ochraceous, greenish with a yellowish or 
pale ochraceous center or a dull brownish purple. The center 
is sometimes paler, sometimes darker than the margin. The 
flesh is white, and the taste mild or sometimes slightly and tardily 
acrid. The acridity if present is destroyed by cooking. The 
gills are white, narrowed toward the stem and nearly free. They 
are sometimes forked, specially near the stem, and intervening 



46 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

short ones occur near the margin. They are white and unchange- 
able. The stem also is white. This mushroom is more common 
with us than the greenish russula, which it resembles in size and 
flavor. It grows in woods and open ground and appears in July 
and August. 

Cantharellus dichotomus Pk. 

DICHOTOMOUS CHANTARELLE 

PLATE 84, FIG. 8-21 

Pileus fleshy, soft and flexible, subconie when young, with the 
margin involute and downy or flocculent, convex, nearly plane or 
centrally depressed when mature, even or with a small pointed 
umbo, dry, glabrous, variable in color, flesh white, taste mild; 
lamellae narrow, close, dichotomous, decurrent, white or yellow- 
ish; stem equal or tapering upward, solid, glabrous or slightly 
fibrillose; spores narrowly elliptic, .0003-.0004 of an inch long, 
.00016 broad. 

The dichotomous chantarelle is a small but common species in 
our hilly and mountainous districts. It grows in woods among 
mosses or in pastures and bushy places among grasses and fallen 
leaves. The cap is generally broadly convex with decurved 
margin, but sometimes it becomes centrally depressed by the 
elevation of the margin. The umbo is small and usually acute, 
or papillalike, but it is often entirely absent. The margin is 
involute and minutely flocculent or downy when young, but it 
soon becomes naked. The surface is smooth or obscurely silky 
and occasionally becomes minutely rimose areolate. The color 
is very variable and may be grayish white, grayish brown, yel- 
lowish brown, blackish brown or bluish gray. The flesh is white 
or whitish, and the taste mild. The gills are narrow, thin, close, 
decurrent and 1-3 times forked. They are white or whitish, 
sometimes tinged with yellow. In moist weather wounds of 
them and also of the stem sometimes become reddish. The stem 
is equal in diameter or slightly tapering upward. It is glabrous 
or slightly fibrillose, solid, whitish or pallid or colored like the 
pileus, and when growing among mosses is clothed below with 
a soft, dense, white tomentum, which binds it so closely to the 
mosses that it is difficult to take a specimen without breaking 
the stem unless the mosses are taken with it. 



REPORT OK THE STATE BO'J'AMST 1902 47 

The cap is G-18 lines broad, the stem is 1-3 inches long, 2-4 
lines thick. It is gregarious and appears from July to Sep- 
tember. As an edible mushroom it is not as tender as some nor 
as highly flavored, but it is satisfactory and enjoyable. 

It is related so closely to C a n t h a r e 1 1 u s u m b o n a t u s 
that it has sometimes been regarded as a variety of it or has even 
been confused with it, but the gills of that species are described 
as straight, and in our plant they are constantly repeatedly 
forked asinC. aurantiacus and C. a 1 b i d u s. The umbo 
in our plant is small and pointed and often wholly wanting, but 
in C. umbonatus it is represented as broad and blunt. Be- 
cause of these discrepancies it seems best to keep our plant 

distinct. 

F 

PLANTS OF THE SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY AND 
AD.JACENT HILLS OF TIOGA COUNTY 

BY FRANK E. FENNO 

The territory included in this flora consists of a strip of land 
about 8 miles wide, lying on both sides of the Susquehanna river 
and extending nearly east and west through the county. Its 
surface is broken by the foothills of the Alleghany mountains. 
These consist of a series of ridges from 1200 to 1500 feet above 
tide. They are divided diagonally by the valley of the Susque- 
hanna and separated laterally by the valleys of the Apalachin, 
Wapasening, Owego, Catatonk, Pipe and Cayuta creeks. These 
creeks have rapid currents. Their valleys are narrow in the 
upper part, but expand toward the river into broad and level 
fields. 

The Susquehanna winds its way through a tortuous valley 
bordered on either side by banks, which generally slope grad- 
ually to the broad and rolling hilltops. Yet the valley is defined 
in some places by steep and rocky acclivities which rise from 
300 to 400 feet above the surface of the river. These acclivi- 
ties furnish congenial homes for many rock-loving species of 
plants. The soil in the valleys is mainly alluvial, lying on a deep 
drift consisting of sand, gravel and clay. This drift forms the 
isoil of the adjacent hills. The territory contains very little 



48 NKW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

broken country, and the rock outcrops are all sandstone belotig- 
ing to the Chemung group. Yet the conditions are such as are 
favorable to plant life and lo a rich and diversified flora. A 
few plants of the region farther north have been brought down 
by the mighty torrent of the river, while others have slowly 
crept up from the ocean, and have found congenial homes in the 
alluvial soil along the river. The writer's knowledge of this 
flora has been acquired during his past seven years' residence in 
Tioga county. He has gone over the entire territory and has 
collected specimens of nearly every species and varietj- included 
in this list. 

The Illustrated Flora of Britton and Brown has chiefly been 
followed in nomenclature and in the arrangement of orders. 
When the names of the species and varieties ditter from those 
in the sixth edition of Gray's Manual, the names in the latter 
are given second place. 

Cordial acknowledgment of assistance in the identification of 
critical species is hereby tendered to Professor F. Lamsou Scrib- 
ner, Edward S. Burgess, Dr John K. Small, Dr Nathaniel Jv. 
Britton and specially to Charles H. Peck and the late Dr Thomas 
C. Porter. They have, by their correspondence extending over 
several years, aided and encouraged the writer in the study of 
the plants of this region. 

PTERIDOPHYTA 

Ferns and fern-allies 
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 
Botrychium obliquum Muhl. 
B. t e r n a t u m var. obliquum D. C, Eaton 
Ohlique grape fern 
On knolls in old clearings and pastures. Frequent. Sep- 
tember. 

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 
B. ternatum var. dissectum D. C. Eaton 
Cut-learned grape fern 
Damp pastures. Barton. Rare. September. 

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. 
Rattlesnake fern 
Rich moist woods. Common. August. 



UEPOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 49 

OSMUNDACEAE 
Osmunda regalis L. 
Royal fern 
Swamps and wet woodlands. Frequent. June- July. 

Osmunda cinnamomea L. 
Cinnamon fern 
Low woods, thickets and swamps. Common. May-July. 

Osmunda claytoniana L. 
Clayton's fern 
Fields and woodlands. Common. May-June. 

POLYPODTACEAE 
Onoclea sensibilis L. 
Sensitive fern 
Wet places. Common. Auoust. 

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.i Todai-o 
Onoclea struthiopteris Hoffm. 
Ostrich fern 
Along streams in alluvial soil. Common. August. 

Dennstaedtia punetilobula iMichx.) Eernh. 
Dicksonia pilosiuscula Willd. 
Hay-scented fern 
Open woods and thickets. Common. August. 

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bei'nli. 
Biilhlet-hcariiig fern 
Kocky woodlands. Rare. Near Campville. July-August. 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernli. 
Brittle fern 
In wet. shaded soil and on cliffs. Common. May-July. 

Dryopteris acrostichoides |]\Iichx.) Kuntze 
A s p i d i u m acrostichoides Sw. 
Christmas fern 
Woods, specially under evergreens. Common. August. 

Dryopteris noveboraeensis (L.) Gray 
Aspidium noveboracense Sw. 
New York fern 
Moist woods. Common. August. 



50 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dryopteris thelypteris (L.i (Jiay 
A s p i d i 11 111 thelypteris Sw. 
Marsh shield fern 
Swamps and low grounds. Common. Summer. 

Dryopteris cristata (L.) (Irav 
Aspidiuni cristatum Sw. 
Crested shield fern 
Swamps. Common. July- August. 

Dryopteris cristata clintoniana (1). C. Eaton) rndcrw. 
A s p i d i u m cristatum c 1 i n t o n i a n u m (I). C. Eaton ) 

Underw. 
Wet woods. Rare. August. 

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Cray 
Aspidiuni m a r g i n a 1 e Sw. 
Marginal shield fern 
Rocky banks in deep shade. Common. July- August. 

Dryopteris spinulosa (Retz) Kuntze 
Aspidium spinulosum (Sw.) Kuntze 
Spinulose shield fern 
Wet woods and swamps. Infrequent. 

Dryopteris spinulosa intermedia (Miilil.i I iiderw. 
Aspidium spinulosum var. intermedium D. ( '. Eaton 
In woods wet or dry. Common. August- September. 

Dryopteris boottii (Tuckm.) I'lideiw. 
Aspidium boottii Tuckm. 
Boott's shield fern 
Swamps. Rare. Barton. July-September. 

Phegopteris phegopteris Hj.) I'uderw. 
P. polypodioides Fee 
Long heech fern 
Rich woods. Frequent. August. 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Miclix.) Fee 
Broad heech fern 
Rich woods. Frequent. August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 51 

Phegopteris dryopteris (L.) Fee 
Oak fern 
Rich moist woods. Common. Tlie three species of Phegopteris 
are frequently seen growing together. August. 

Woodwardia virginica (L.) J. E. Smith 
Virginia chain fern 
Bogs north of Barton. Rare. July. 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link 

Walking fern 

Found sparingly on a few rocks west of Barton. Au 

October. 

Asplenium trichomanes L. 

Maidenhair spleenwort 

Rocky walls of deep ravines and on stony banks. Common. 

July-September. 

Asplenium platyneuron (L.j Oakes 

A. e b e n e u m Ait. 

Ebony spleenwort 

On rocks and banks. Infrequent. July-September. 

Asplenium acrostichoides Sw. 
A. thelypteroides Michx. 
Silvery spleemcort 
Rich moist woods. Infrequent. August-October. 

Asplenium filix-foemina (L.) Bernh. 
Lady fern 
In woods, thickets and by walls and fences. Common. The 
fronds are quite variable. July- August. 

Adiantum pedatum L. 
Maidenhair fern 
Abundant in moist woodlands. July-September. 

Pteris aquilina L. 
Brake, Bracken. 
On shrubby hillsides, borders of fields and roads and in open 
woods. Common. July-September. 



52 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Polypodium vulgare L. 
Common pohjpody 
On rocks and rocky banks. Common. Found occasionally in 
swamps on trunks of trees. June-October. 

EQUISETACEAE 
Equisetum arvense 1.. 
Field horsetail 
Along railways and roadsides. Common. May. 

Equisetum sylvaticum \.. 
Wood horsetail 
Moist woods. Common. May. 

Equisetum fluviatile T>. 
E. 1 i m o s u m L. 
^icamp horsetail 
Kiver shores. Common. May-June. 

Equisetum hyemale L. 

Scouring rush 

Wet places and on banks. Frequent. May -June. 

LYCOPODIACEAE 

Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. 

Shining club moss 

In damy> hemlock woods. Common. August-October. 

Lycopodium obscurum L. 
Ground pine 
Moist woods. Common. July- September. 

Lycopodium annotinum L. 
Stiff cluh moss 
in a thicket near Apalachin. Rare. September-November. 

Lycopodium clavatum L. 
Running pine. Oluh moss 
Found in thickets, open woods and along bushy roadsides. 
Common. August- October. 

Lycopodium complanatum T.. 
Trailing Christmas green 
Thickets, open woods, specially in groves of young coniferous 
trees. Common. Autumn, 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 53 

Lycopodium chamaecyparissus A. Br. 
Found with the last aud generally considered a variety of that 
species. Professor Underwood makes it a distinct species in his 
work, Otir Native Ferns. Autumn. 

ISOETACEAE 
Isoetes engelmanni A. Br. 
Engelmann's quillwort 
Frequent along the Susquehanna at Apalachin. August. 

Isoetes engelmanni gracilis Engelm. 
Found with the last. August. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

Seed-hearing plants 
PINACEAE 

Pinus strobus L. 

White pine 

Very common. Formerly this was the principal forest tree 

of this region, but now it occurs chiefly as a small tree, though, 

scattered here and there, specimens of primeval trees are still 

found. .n- • A -^ 

Finus resinosa Ait. 

Red pine. Canadian pine 
Very rare. A single specimen was observed near Barton in 
1897. According to old settlers it was formerly quite frequent. 
'i^^^- Pinus rigida Mill. 

Pitch pine 
Common. A much smaller tree than the white pine and less 
valuable. May. 

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. 
Hemlock 
Common. The young trees are the most graceful of evergreens. 

May. 

Taxus minor (Michx.) Britton 

T. canadensis Willd. 

Ground hemlock. American yeio 

Moist, shaded banks and along streams. Frequent. Abundant 

near Apalachin and at the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 

narrows west of Owego. Sometimes mistaken for a juniper. 

May. 



54 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

TYPHACEAE 
Typha latifolia L. 
Broad-leaved cattail 
Swamps. Abundant. June. 

SPARGANIACEAE 

Sparganium eurycarpum Eugelm. 

Broad-fruited hur reed 

Marshes and borders of streams. Common. May-August. 

Sparganium simplex Huds. 
Simple-stemmed hur reed 
The same situations as the last, but less frequent. June- 
August. 

NAIADACEAE 

Potamogeton natans L. 
Common floating pondioecd 
Ponds and slow streams. Common. July- August. 

Potamogeton nuttallii Cham. & Sch. 
P. p e n n s y 1 V a n 1 c u s Cham. 
NuttalVs pondweed 
Ponds and streams. Common. July-August. 

Potamogeton lonchites Tuckerm. 
P. f 1 u i t a n s Roth 
Long-leaved pondweed 
In the river. Frequent. July-October. 

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. 

Clasping-leaved pondweed 

Tn the river. Frequent. July- September. 

Potamogeton crispus L. 

Curled-leaved pondweed 

In the river. Infrequent. August. 

Potamogeton zosteraefoliiis Sohnm. 
Eelgrass pondweed 
In the river. Frequent. July-August. 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. 
Fennel-leaved pondweed 
In the river. Common. July-August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 55 

1 

Zannichellia palustris \.. 
Zanniclieliia 
The Susquehanna river. Infrequent. July- September. 

Naias flexilis (Willd.) Eost. & Schmidt. 
Slender naias 
Frequent in the river. Summer. 

ALISMACEAE 
Alisma plantago-aquatica L. 
Water plantain 
Swamps, low grounds and along streams. Common. Summer. 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. 
S. variabilis Engelm. 
Broad-leaved arrowhead 
In wet ground or shallow water. Common. Summer. 

Sagittaria rigida TMirsh 
S. heterophyUa Pursh 
Sessile-fruiting arrowhead 
Along the border of the river. Frequent. Generally found in 
shallow water. July-September. 

Sagittaria graminea ]Miehx. 
Grass-leaved arrowhead 
Shallow water along the Susquehanna. Frequent. Abundant 
at Apalachin. July-September. 

VALLISNERIACEAE 

Philotria canadensis (Mich.) Britton 

Elodea canadensis Michx. 

Ditch moss 

Ponds and streams. Common. May- August. 

Vallisneria spiralis L. 
Eelgrass 
Common in the river. Summer. 

GRAMINEAE 

Andropogon scoparius Michx. 
Little hlue stem. Broom 'beard grass 
Dry banks along the river. Common. August-September. 



56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Andropogon furcatus Muhl. 

Big blue stem. Forked bearded grass 

Dry banks along the river. Common. This grass has a very 

wide range east of the Rocky mountains. It is very abundant 

in the Missouri region, and is highly prized for hay. August- 

Beptember. 

Chrysopogon avenaceus iMichx.) Henth. 

Indian grass 
Found with the two preceding species but less common, A 
grass of wide distribution and specially abundant in South 
Dakota, where it is highly valued as a hay-producing species. 
August-September. 

Snytherisma sanguinalis |L.) Kasli 

Panicum sanguinale L. 

Large crab grass 

Cultivated ground. Common. A grass of no agricultural 

value in the north, but in the south it is frequently cut for hay. 

July-August. 

Snytherisma linearis (Krock.) Nash 

Panicum glabrum Gaud. 
Small crab grass 
Cultivated fields. Common. July- September. 

Panicum crus-galli L. 
Barnyard grass 
Cultivated soil and along streams. Common. A coarse, 
succulent grass and valuable forage plant for the silo. Autumn. 

Panicum agrostidiforme Lam. 

P. agrostoides Muhl. 

Agrostis-Uke panicum 

Wet, gravelly shores along the river. Frequent. July-Sep- 
tember. 

Panicum porterianum Nash 

P. 1 a t i f 1 i u m L. 
Porter's panicum 
Open woods and thickets. Frequent. June-July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 57 

Panicum commutatum Schiiltes 
Variable panicum 
Dry bank. Apalachin. Eare. June-July. 

Panicum macrocarpon Le Conte 
Large-fruited paiiicum 
Open woods and thickets. Common. July. 

Panicum clandestinum L. 
Hispid panicum 
On the banks of the river and along streams. Common. June- 
July. 

Panicum xanthophysum Graj'^ 

Slender panicum 
Dry bank 2 miles east of Campville. Rare. June-July. 

Panicum dichotomum L. 
Forked panicum 
Thickets both dry and wet. Common. June-July. 

Panicum pubescens Lam. 
Hairy panicum 
Fields and thickets. Abundant. June-August. 

Panicum depauperatum Mnhl. 
Starved panicum 
Dry banks. Frequent. June-September. 

Panicum lineirifolium Sciibn. 
Linear-leaved panicum 
Dry banks. Common. This species is more plentiful than the 
last, which it closely resembles. June- August. 

Panicum virgatum. L. 
Tall smooth panicum. Switch grass 
Along the river. Common. August-September. 

Panicum miliaceum L. 
Millet 
A cultivated grass which frequently escapes. July. 

Panicum proliferum Lam. 
Spreading panicum 
Eiver shore. Frequent. Abundant in some places. August. 



58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Panicum capillare L. 

Witch grass 

Cultivated grounds, woods, fields and along streams. Common. 

Summer. 

Ixophorus viridis iL.) Nash 

Setaria viridis Beauv. 

Green foxtail 

Cultivated fields. Common. Juh-September. 

Ixophorus glaucus (L.) Nash 
Setaria glauea Beauv. 
Yelloiv foxtail. Pigeon grass 
Fields and roadsides. Common. July- September. 

Ixophorus italicus (L.) Nash 
Setaria italic a Kunth 
Italian inillet. Hungarian grass 
Waste places. Infrequent. This species together with 
T. ge r m a n i c u s is found in cultivation throughout. August. 

Homalocenchrus virginicus (Willd.) Britton 
L e e r s i a v i r g i n i c a Willd. 
White grass 
Damp, shaded places. Common. August-September. 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. 
Leersia oryzoides Sw. 
Rice cut grass 
Marshes and wet places along streams. Common. August- 
September. 

Phalaris arundinacea L. 

Reed canary grass 
Borders of ponds and streams. Infrequent. July- August. 

Phalaris canariensis L. 

Canary grass 

Waste places. Infrequent. Does not persist long. August. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. 
Sweet vernal grass 
Roadsides and pastures. Frequent. June-July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 59 

Aristida dichotoma Michx. 
Poverty grass 
In poor, thin soil at Apalachin. September. 

Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. 
White-grained mountain rice 
Upland woods. Frequent. May. 

Oryzopsis melanocarpa Mnhl. 
Black mountain rice 
Rocky hillsides in woods west of Barton. Plentiful. August. 

Milium effusum L. 
Wild millet 
Damp woods. Infrequent. June-July. 

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. 
Mexican drop seed 
Low grounds. Common. August-September. 

Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) B. S. P. 
M. glomerata Trin. 
Marsh muhlenbergia 
Dry, stony bank at Apalachin. Apparently not found in our 
swamps. September. 

Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr. 
Woodland drop seed 
Banks of the river and along streams. Common. September. 

Muhlenbergia tenuiflora (Willd.) B. S. P. 

M. w i 1 1 d e n V i i Trin. 

Slender-floicered drop seed 

Dry thicket near Apalachin. Plentiful. August-September. 

Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. 
Nimble icill 
Woods and roadsides. Frequent. Found also in shady lawns. 
September. 

Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. 

B. a r i s t a t u m R. & S. 
Brachyelytrum 
Moist woods. Common. July-August. 



60 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Phleum pratense L. 
Timothy. Herd's grass 
Fields and waysides. Abundant. 

Alopecurus geniculatus L. 

A. geniculatiis var. aristulatus Torr. 

Marsh foxtail 

Marshland swamp and along streams at Apalachin. Frequent. 

This grass is said to make a beautiful lawn, remaining green 

throughout the winter. July- August. 

Alopecurus pratensis L. 
Meadoiv foxtail 
Meadow lands at Apalachin. Infrequent. An excellent pas- 
ture grass. June- July. 

Sporobolus vaginaeflorus (Torr.) Wood 
Sheathed rush grass 
Roadside in poor soil. Common. September. 

Cinna arundinacea L. 

Wood reed grass 
Borders of ponds and streams. Common. Found also in 
swamps. August-September. 

Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. 
(J. p e n d u 1 a Trin. 
Slender wood reed grass 
Damp woods and borders of ponds and streams. Frequent. 
August-September. 

Agrostis alba L. 

Redtop 
Grass lands. Common. July-August. 

Agrostis vulgaris With. 
Redtop. Herd's grass 
Meadows, fields and pastures. Common. July-August. 

Agrostis stolonifera L. 
Creeping hent grass 
Damp f?hores and pasture lands. Frequent. This and the pre- 
ceding one are regarded by some as only varieties of Agrostis 
alba. July- August. 



EBPOKT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 61 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. 
Thin grass 
Shaded places. Common. July-August. 

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. 
• A. scab r a VVilld. 

Rough hair grass 
Damp shaded places. Common. July- August. 

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. 
Blue joint grass 
River banks. Common. Found at Apalachin on a hilltop. 

August. 

Calamagrostis cinnoides i.Muhl.) Scrilni. 

C. n u 1 1 a 1 1 i a n a Steud. 
NuttalVs reed grass 
Two miles east of Campville. Rare. August. 

Holcus lanatus L. 
Velvet grass. Meadow soft grass 
Meadows and pasture lands. Frequent. June- August. 

Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. 
Tufted hair grass 
River shore. Infrequent. Near Campville. August. 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. 
Wavy hair grass 
River bank at Apalachin. Infrequent. July- August. 

Avena striata Michx. 
Purple oat 
Damp woods. Infrequent. Woods at Mutton hill pond. -Inly. 

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.i Beauv. 
Oat gj-ass 
Meadows and pastures at Apalachin. Frequent. Cultivated 
for hny. June-August. 

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. 
Wild oat gt'ass 
Dry, sterile soil. Common. A form of this grass with the 
leaves and lower sheaths clothed with long, soft hairs is frequent 
in dry thickets. July-August. 



62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Danthonia compressa Austin 
Flattened wild oat grass 
Woods and shaded places. Frequent. August. 

Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Willd. 
Fresh-water cord grass 
River shores. Infrequent. August-September. 

Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees 
Capillary eragrostis 
Dry banks and meadows. Frequent. Campville flats. 

Eragrostis frankii Steud. 
Frank's eragrostis 
River shores. Infrequent. Abundant in an old gravel pit near 
Apalachin. September. 

Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv. 
Tufted eragrostis 
Roadsides in poor soil. Common. August. 

Eragrostis purshii Schrad. 
PursU's eragrostis 
Plentiful at a sand bank at Apalachin and along roadsides. 
August- September. 

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Steud. 
Purple eragrostis 
Meadows at Apalachin. Rare. A beautiful species. August. 

Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. 
E. reptans Nees 
Creeping eragrostis 
Along the river and in wet places. Common. August. 

Eatonia pennsylvanica (DC.) Gray 
Eaton's grass 
Moist thickets and swamps. Frequent. July. 

Eatonia nitida (Spreng.) Nash 
E. d u d 1 e y i Vasey. 
Slender eatonia 
Frequent on wooded banks at Apalachin. May-June. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 63 

Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. 
Koeleria 
Dry bank near Campville. Infrequent. A western species 
which reaches its eastern limit with us. August. 

Dactylis glomerata L. 
Orchard grass 
Grass lands. Common. June-July. 

Cynosurus cristatus L. 

Dog-tail grass 

Plentiful in a pasture at Campville. Adventive from Europe. 

July. 

Poa annua L. 

Low spear grass 
Dooryards, lawns and waste places. Common. May-October. 

Poa compressa L. 
English blue grass. Wire grass 
Meadows and other grass lands. Common. A slender form is 
found in woods. June- July. 

Poa pratensis L. 

Kentucky hliie grass. June grass 

In all meadows and pastures. The most common of our grasses. 

June-July. 

Poa trivialis L. 

Roughish meadow grass 

Plentiful in swamps and wet places at Apalachin. July. 

Poa flava L. 
P. serotina Ehrh. 
False redtop. Fotcl meadoio grass 
Low meadows and along streams. Common. July- August. 

Poa debilis Torr. 
Weak spear grass 
Woods and thickets. Frequent. May-June. 

Poa aisodes Gray 
Grove meadow grass 
Wet woods. Infrequent. May-June. 



64 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Panicularia laxa Scribn. 
Nornwrn manna grass 
Swamps at Apalachin. Infrequent. August. 

Panicularia canadensis (Michx.) Kuntze 
G 1 y c e r i a canadensis Trin. 
Rattlesnake grass 
Swamps. Coninion. Juh -August. 

Panicularia nervata (Willd.) Kuntze 
(t 1 y c e r i a nervata Trin. 
Nerved manna grass 
Swamps, woods and damp places. Common. June- September. 

Panicularia americana (Torr.) MacM. 
Glyceria grandis Wats. 
Tall manna grass 
Swamps and along streams. Frequent. July- August. 

Panicularia pallida (Torr.) Kuntze 

Glyceria pallida Trin. 

Pale manna grass 

Marshland swamp and swamp east of Oampville. Frequent. 

July- August. 

Panicularia fluitans (L.) Kuntze 

Glyceria fluitans R. Br. 

Floating manna grass 

Marshland swamp and swamp east of Campville. Frequent 

July- August. 

Panicularia borealis NmsIi 

Northern manna grass 

Marshland swamp. Frequent. Apparently a slender form of 

the preceding species. July- August. 

Panicularia acutiflora iToiim Kuntze 

Glyceria acutiflora Torr. 

Sharp-scaled manna grass 

Marshland swamp and swamp east of Campville. Infrequent. 

June-August. 

Festuca ovina L. 

Sheep's fescue 

Plentiful in pastures and at Campville. June. 



EEPOET OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 65 

Festuca ovina duriuscula (L.) Hack. 
Hard fescue 
Banks of the river. Frequent. July. 

Festuca elatior L. 
Tall fescue 
Grass lands. Common. A valuable grass either for mowing 
or for pasture. July- August. 

Festuca nutans Willd. 
Nodding fescue 
Damp woods. Frequent. July. 

Bromus ciliatus L. 

Wood chess 

Low woods and banks of streams. Common. July-August. 

Bromus pubescens Mulil. 
B. ciliatus purgans (L.) Gray 
Soft chess 
Thicket near Apalachin. July. Distinct from the last both in 
appearance and habitat. 

Bromus kalmii Gray 
Kalni's chess 
In rocky woods. Frequent. July-August. 

Bromus secalinus L. 
Cheat. Chess 
Frequent in wheat fields. June-August. 

Bromus racemosus L. 
Upright chess 
In fields and along railways. Frequent. July-August. 

Lolium perenne L. 
Rye grass 
Pasture land at Campville. Frequent. July. 

Lolium italicum A. Br. 
Italian rye grass 
Meadow lands at the Marshland farm. Frequent. A much 
coarser grass than the last. July. 



66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. 

Quack grass 

Grass lands, specially around barns and dwellings. Common. 

July-September. 

Agropyron caninum (L.) R. & S. 

Awned wheat grass 

Open woods and thickets and along their borders. Frequent. 

July. 

Hordeum jubatum L. 

Squirrel tail grass 

Along the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and 

in gardens, as a weed, at Apalachin. Infrequent. July. 

Elymus striatus Willd. 

Slender ivild rye 

River banks in shade. Common. June. 

Elymus virginicus L. 

Terrell grass 

River banks. Common. July- August. 

Elymus canadensis L. 
Nodding ivild rye 
River banks. Abundant. July- August. 

Elymus canadensis glaucifolius (Willd.) Torr. 
Glaucous wild rye 
With the preceding species and evidently only a glaucous form 
of it. July-August. 

Hystrix hystrix (L.) Millsp. 
Asprella hystrix Willd. 
Bottle l)rush grass 
In rocky woods and along streams. Frequent. Spikelets 

easily detached. July. 

CYPERACEAE 

Cyperus diandnis Ton-. 
Low cyperus 
Along streams in wet soil. Frequent. August- September. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 67 

Cyperus rivularis Kunth 
Shining cyperus 
Tn wet soil, specially along Apalachin ci-(hM<. Frequent. 

August- September. 

Cyperus inflexus Muhl. 

C. a r i s t a t u s Rottb. 

Atcned cyperus 

In wet soil along the river shores. Infrequent. August. 

Cyperus esculentus L. 
Yellow nut grass 
Along streams and in damp fields. Common. In some places 
a troublesome weed. xVugust-October. 

Cyperus strigosus L. 
Straw-colored cyperus 
In moist meadows or along streams. Common. A species pre- 
senting numerous forms. August-October. 

Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton. 
D. spathaceum Pers. 
Dulichium 
Swamps. Very common. August-October. 

Eleocharis ovata (Roth) R. & S. 
Ovoid spike rush 
Swamps and in all wet soil. Common. July-September. 

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. «& S. 
Needle spike rush 
In wet soil. Common. July-September. 

Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britton 
Fimbristylis capillaris Gray 
Hairlike stenophyllus 
(Jampville river flats. Frequent. August. 

Scirpus planifolius Muhl. 
Wood clul) rush 
In dry woods and thickets. Frequent. May- June. 



68 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Scirpus americanus Pers. 
S. p u n g e n s Vahl 
Chair-maker's rush 
On the river shores. Frequent. Abundant at Apalachin. 
August. 

Scirpus torreyi Olney 

Torrey's bulrush 
Plentiful at Mutton hill pond in the outlet. August. 

Scirpus lacustris L. 
Great bulrush. May rush 
In shallow water along the river. Common. August, 

Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. 
Dark green bulrush 
Swamps and wet places. Common. July. 

Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl 
Leafy bulrush 
Wet woods and along streams. Frequent. August. 

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth 
Eriophorum cyperinum L. 
Wool grass 
In all swamps and other wet places. Abundant. August- 
September. 

Scirpus cyperinus eriophorum (Michx.) Britton 
Eriophorum cyperinum var. 1 a x u m Gray 
With the type. Common. Spikelets mostly peduncled. 

August- September. 

Eriophorum polystachyon L. 

Tall cotton grass 

Mutton hill pond. Rare. June- August. 

Eriophorum virginicum L. 
Virginia cotton grass 
Common in bogs. A form is found at Barton, which approaches 
the var. album Gray. July-September. 

Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl 
White beaked rush 
On bogs at Mutton hill pond. Common. July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 69 

Carex intumescens Rudge 
Bladder sedge 
In wet woods, bogs and swamps. Common. June-July. 

Carex asa-grayi Bailey 
C. g r a y i Carey 
Gray's sedge 
Plentiful in a small swamp at Barton. July. 

Carex lupulina Muhl. 
Hop sedge 
Swamps. Common. July. 

Carex lupulina bella-villa (Dewey) Bailey 
Swamp east of Campville. Infrequent. July. 

Carex utriculata Boott 
Bottle sedge 
Abundant at the Marshland swamp. June-July. 

Carex monile Tuckerm. 
Necklace sedge 
Swamps. Common. July. 

Carex tuckermani Dewey 

Tuclcerman's sedge 

In swamps, bogs and wet meadows. Common. June-July. 

Carex retrorsa Schwein. 
Retrorse sedge 
Swamps. Infrequent. June- July. 

Carex lurida Wahl. 
Sallow sedge 
Swamps and low grounds. Abundant. June-July. 

Carex baileyi Britton 
C. lurida var. gracilis Bailey 
Bailey's sedge 
Swamp near Campville. Infrequent. July. 

Carex hystricina Muhl. 
Porcupine sedge 
Swamps. Infrequent. June-July. 



70 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carex pseudo-cyperus L. 
Ci/perusUke sedge 
Swamp east of Campville. Rare. July- August. 

Carex comosa Boott 
C. pseudo-cyperus var. amerieana Hochst. 
Bristly sedge 
Swamps. Common. July-August. 

Carex trichocarpa Muhl. 
Hairy-fruited sedge 
Along the river banks. Abundant. Found also in swamps. 

June-July. 

Carex riparia Curtis 

River bank sedge 

Abundant at the Marshland swamp. June. 

Carex scabrata Schwein. 
Rough sedge 
In wet, shaded places. Common. June-July. 

Carex lanuginosa Michx. 
C. f 11 i f o r m i s var. 1 a t i f o 1 i a Boeckl. 
M^oolly sedge 
Mutton hill pond. Infrequent. June. 

Carex filiformis L. 
Slender sedge 
Frequent in all swamps in the vicinity of Apalachin. June- 
July. 

Carex stricta Lam. 

Tussock sedge 
Along the river and on the edges of swamps. Common. May- 
June. 

Carex torta Boott 

Tivisted sedge 
On banks of streams. Frequent. June. 

Carex prasina Wahl. 
Drooping sedge 
Plentiful at Mutton hill pond. May-July. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 71 

Carex crinita Lain. 
Fringed sedge 
Swamps, wet places and ditches. Frequent. June-July. 

Carex gynandra Schwein. 

Nodditig sedge 

Found in the same situations as C. crinita, but much more 

(common. June- July. 

Carex "virescens Muhl. 

Doivny green sedge 
In grassy places. Infrequent. June. 

Carex triceps Michx. 
C. triceps var. h i r s u t a Bailey 
Hirsute sedge 
On dry knolls. Frequent. June. 

Carex gracillima Schwein. 
Graceful sedge 
In moist woodlands. Common. June. 

Carex longirostis Torr. 
Long-Leaked sedge 
Plentiful in thickets along the river banks at Barton. May- 
June. 

Carex arctata Boott 
Drooping wood sedge 
In open woods. Infrequent. May-June. 

Carex tenuis Kndge 
C. debilis var. r u d g e i Bailey 
Slender-stalked sedge 
Low woods. Common. June-July. 

Carex grisea W'nhl. 
irray sedge 
In shaded places. Common. June. 

Carex amphibola Steud. 
Narroio-leaved sedge 
River bank at Apalachin. Infrequent. Verified by Dr Thomas 
C. Porter. June. 



T2 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carex granulans Muhl. 
Meadow sedge 
Moist ground in meadows. Infrequent. June. 

Carex pallescens L. 
Pale sedge 
In fields and along roadsides at Apalachin. June. 

Carex laxiflora -Lam. 
Loose-flowered sedge 
Woods, ravines and open places. Common. May-June. 

Carex laxiflora blanda (Dewey) Boott 
Woods and fields. Frequent. May-June. 

Carex laxiflora varians Bailey 
Found with the type. Frequent. May-June. 

Carex laxiflora patulifolia (Dewey) Carey 
In ravines and damp shades. Common. May-June. 

Carex styloflexa Buckley 
C. laxiflora var. stj'loflexa Boott 
Bent sedge 
Damp soil at Barton. Rare. June. 

Carex digitalis W^illd. 
Slender wood sedge 
Open woods and thickets. Infrequent. June. 

Carex albursina Sheldon 
C. laxiflora var. 1 a t i f o 1 i a Boott 
White hear sedge 
Rich, moist soil in woods, specially in shaded ravines. Fre- 
quent. June. 

Carex plantaginea Lsuu. 

Plantain-leaved sedge 
Shaded banks and open woods. Infrequent. Near Owego. 
May-June. 

Carex laxiculmis Schwein. 

Spreading sedge 
In woods and coppices. Frequent. June. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 73 

Carex pedunculata Muhl. 
Long-stalked sedge 
Plentiful in a damp thicket at Barton. May-June. 

Carex pedicellata (Dewey) Britton 
C. communis Bailey 
Fibrous-rooted sedge 
Dry banks in open thickets. Common. May-June. 

Carex pennsylvanica Lam. 
Pennsylvania sedge 
Dry soil in woods, thickets and open places. Very common. 
May-June. 

Carex varia Muhl. 

Emmons sedge 
On hilltops in either dry or damp woods at Apalachin. Infre- 
quent. May-June. 

Carex pubescens Muhl. 

Pubescent sedge 
Open woods at Barton. Infrequent. June. 

Carex leptalea Muhl. 
C. polytrichoides Muhl. 

Bristle-stalked sedge 
Swamps. Common. June. 

Carex stipata Muhl. 
Atvl-fruited sedge 
Swampy fields. Very common. June. 

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. 
Fox sedge 
Swamps, ditches and fields. Very common. June. 

Carex xanthocarpa Bicknell 
Yellow-fruited sedge 
In dry fields at Apalachin. Common. Easily distinguished 
from C. vulpinoidea by its bright yellow, plano-convex 
perigynia. June. 



74 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carex tenella 8( lik. 
Soft-leaved sedge 
Swamp north of Campville. June. 

Carex rosea Schk. 
Stellate sedge 
Woods and open places. Common. June. 

Carex rosea radiata Dewey 
With the type. June. 

Carex retroflexa Mulil. 
C. rosea var. retroflexa Torr. 
Reftewed sedge 
Rich woods. Infrequent. June. 

Carex muricata L. 
Lesser prickly sedge 
Dry bank at Apalachin. Introduced from Euro]»e. June. 

Carex sparganioides Muhl. 
Bur reed sedge 
Shaded places, wet or dry. Common. June- July. 

Carex cephaloidea Dewey 
Thin-leaved sedge 
Moist places in woods and fields. Frequent. June-July. 

Carex cephalophora Muhl. 
Oval-headed sedge 
Dry knolls and open woodland. Common. June. 

Carex muhlenbergii Selik. 
Muhlenberg's sedge 
Dry bank at Apalachin. Rare. June. 

Carex sterilis Willd. 
C. echinata var. microstachys Boeokl. 
Little pricldy sedge 
Bogs. Mutton hill pond. Frequent. May-June. 

Carex sterilis cephalantha Bailoy 
C. echinata var. cephalantha Bailey 
With the type at Mutton hill ]>ond. IMay-June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 75 

Carex canescens L. 
Silvery sedge 
Plentiful at Mutton hill pond. Maj-June. 

Carex trisperma Dewey 
Three-fruited sedge 
Swamps near Barton and Campville. June-August. 

Carex deweyana Schwein. 
Deioey's sedge 
Dry. open woods. Common. June. 

Carex bromoides Schk. 
Broomlike sedge 
t^liaded swamps and wet woodlands. Common. June. 

Carex tribuloides W'alil. 
Blunt hroom sedge 
LoA\ moist ground, swamps and swales. Common. July. 

Carex tribuloides bebbii Kailcv 
Wet places. Occasional. July. 

Carex scoparia Schk, 
I'ointed hroom sedge 
Common in open fields and ditches. July. 

Carex scoparia minor Boott 
Dry woods. Barton. June. 

Carex cristatella Brittou 
C. tribuloides var. c r i s t a t a Bailey 
Crested sedge 
Plentiful in fields at Apalachin. July-September. 

Carex foeiiea Willd. 
Haij sedge 
Dry banks at A}»alachin. Rare. June-July. 

Carex straminea Willd. 
Straw sedge 
Coppices and oi>en fields. Fiv(iiient. June-July. 



76 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carex festucacea Willd. 

C. straminea var. b r e v i o r Dewey 

Fescue sedge 

In a dry thicket on a hilltop near Apalachin. Bare. June. 

ARACEAE 

Arisaema triphylluni (L.) Torr. 
Indian turnip. Jack-in-the-pulpit 
Rich moist woodlands and ravines. Common. The corm, when 
fresh, is very acrid. June. 

Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott 
Green dragon 
Shaded alluvial soil along the river. Frequent. June. 

Calla palustris L. 
Water arum. Wild calla 
Swamps. Common. Generally found growing in water. May- 
June. Spathyema foetida (L.) Eaf. 

Symplocarpus foetidus Nutt. 
Skunk cahhage 
Alluvial soil along the river and its branches. Common. 

March-April. 

Acorus calamus L. 

Sweet flag 

Wet places, specially near dwellings. Frequent. June. 

LEMNACEAE 
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. 
Great duckweed 
Stagnant pools and water holes. Common. Summer. 

Lemna minor L. 
Small duckiueed 
With the last but less common. Summer. 

PONTEDERIACEAE 

Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. 
H. g r a m i n e a Vahl 
Water star grass 
In shallow water along the river. Common. August. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 77 

JUNCACEAE 

Juncus effusus L. 
^Soft rush 
Wet places. Common. Summer. 

Juncus bufonius L. 
Toad rush 
Koadsides. Common. Summer. 

Juncus tenuis Willd. 
Yard rush 
Along paths and waysides. Common. Summer. 

Juncus nodosus L. 
Knotted rush 
River shores and damp places. Common. Summer. 

Juncus canadensis J. Gay 
J. canadensis var. longicaudatus Engelm. 
Canada rush 
Wet places. Mutton hill pond and Marshland swamp. Summer. 

Juncus canadensis brevicaudatus Engelm. 

J. canadensis var. coarctatus Engelm. 

Narroiu-panicled rush 

Juncus acuminatus Michx. 
^harp-fruited rush 
Marshes and ditches. Common. Summer. 

Juncoides pilosum (L.) Kuntze 
Luzula vernalis DC. 
Hairy wood rush 
Damp woods and bushy places. Common. May. 

Juncoides campestre (L.) Kuntze 
Luzula campestris DC. 
Common wood rush 
Dry soil in pastures and clearings. Common. April-May. 



78 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

MELAX'IH ACEAE 

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) (Jrjiv 
C. c a 1- o 1 i 11 i a ii u m Willd. 
Blazing star 
Woods and thickets, wet or dry. Frequent. Jniie. 

Veratnim viride Ait. 
Hellebore. Indian poke 
Alluvial soil along the river and other streams. Coimnon. ,Iune. 

Uvularia perfoliata L. 
Perfoliate helkvort 
Kicli woods and coitpices. Common. ^Nlay. 

Uvularia grandiflora J. E. Siuitli 

Large-flowered bellwort 

Woods and thickets. Frequent. Plentiful at Barton. May. 

Uvularia sessilifolia L. 
Oakesia sessilifolia Wats. 
Sessile-leaved bellwort 
Low Avoods and ravines. Common. May. 

LILIACEAE 
Hemerocallis fulva T.. 
Day lily 
Escaped from cultivation and established by roadsides. June- 
August. 

Allium tricoccum Ait. 

Wild leek 
Alluvial soil along the river. Common. July. 

Allium cernuum Roth 
Nodding wild onion 
High banks of the river and rocky places. Frequent. Barton. 
July. 

Allium canadense L. 
Meadow garlic 
Thickets along the river. Frequent. May. 

Lilium philadelphicum L. 
Wood lily 
Dry woods and thickets. Frequent. June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 79 

Lilium canadense L. 
Canada lily 
River banks. Frequent. June-July. 

Lilium superbum L. 
Turk's cap lily 
River banks. Abundant at Apalachin. July-August. 

Erythronium americanum Ker 

Yellow adder' s-tongue 

Damp woods and pastures, specially along streams. Common. 

April-May. 

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 

Star of Bethlcliem 

Escapes from cultivation. Occasional. May. 

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. 

Occasionally escapes from cultivation. Roadside at Owego. 

April. 

CONVALLARIACEAE 

Asparagus officinalis L. 
Asparagus 
Fields and roadsides. Infrequent. May-October. 

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. 
Yellov) clintonia 
Cool, damp woods. Frequent. May-June. 

Vagnera racemosa (L.) Msiron^ 
S m i 1 a c i n a racemosa I )esf . 
False Solomon's seal 
Woods, ravines and river banks. Common. May. 

TTnifolium canadense (Desf.) ({lecni^ 
M a i a n t h e m u m canadense Desf. 
False lily of the valley 
Dani]) woods and tbickets. Common. May-June. 

Streptopus roseus Miclix. 
Sessilc-leai'ed twisted stalk 
Cool, damp woods. ^lay-.Tune. 



80 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. 
Hairy Solomon's seal 
Woods, fence rows and river banks. Common. May. 

Polygonatum commutatum (R. & S.) Dietr. 
P. giganteum Dietr. 
Smooth Solomon's seal 
River banks. Common. June. The young shoots are used 
as a substitute for asparagus. 

Medeola virginiana L. 
Indian cucumber root 
Rich, moist woods. Common. May-June. 

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. 
Large-flowered ivake-rohin 
Woods and river banks. Common. May. 

Trillium erectum I.. 
Ill scented waJce-rohin 
Rich woods, ravines and river banks. Common. May. 

Trillium undulatum Willd. 
T. erythrocarpum Michx. 
Painted wake-robin 
Cool, damp woods. Infrequent. Apalachin. June. 

SMILACEAE 

Smilax herbacea L. 

Carrion flower 

Woods, fence rows and banks of streams. Frequent. June. 

Smilax hispida Muhl. 
Hispid green brier 
Thickets. Frequent. June. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville 

H. ere eta L. 

Star grass 

Dry woods. Frequent. May-October. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 81 

DIOSCOREACEAE 
Dioscorea villosa L. 

Wild yam root • 

Thickets along the river. Frequent. Apalachin. June-July. 

IRIDACEAE 

Iris versicolor L. 

Larger hlue flag . 

Swamps and shores. Common, May-July. 

Sisyrinchium graminoides Bickn. 
S. a n c e p s Cav. 
Stout hlue-eyed grass 
Grassy places. Frequent. June. 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. 
Pointed hlue-eyed grass 
Meadows and pastures. Common. May- August. 

ORCHIDACEAE 

Cypripedium acaule Ait. 
^'^teinless lady's slipper 
Woods, specially on the site of decayed logs. Frequent. May- 
June. 

Cypripedium liirsutum ^lill. 

C. pubescens Willd. 

Large yellow lady's slipper 
Wet woods and swamps. Infrequent. June. 

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. 
Small yellotc lady's slipper 
Wet or dry woods. Common. June. 

Orchis spectabilis L. 
Showy orchis 
Damp woods. Tioga Center. Rare. May. 

Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr. 
Large round -leaved orchis 
Rich woods. Barton. Infrequent. July. 



82 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Habenaria hooker iana Gray 

Hooker's orcJiis 
I );niii) \v(M)ils. r>ai<itii. lufi'ccjucnl. -lune. 

Habenaria clavellata (Miclix.) i^prcnji;. 
H. trident at a Hook. 
ShiaU green wood orchis 
Swamps near P>ar((ni. rnfreciiieiif. August. 

Habenaria lacera (Miclix.) W. \\v. 
Ragged arch I. s 
Swamps. ApalachiiJ. Frequent. July. 

Habenaria psycodes (L.) (iiay 
Purple-pinged orchis 
I)am[» woods. Common. July-August. 

Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker 
Rose pogonia 
Mutton hill pond and bogs north of Barton. July. 

Gyrostachys cernua (L.) Kuntze 
Spiranthes cernua Rich. 
Nodding ladies' tresses 
Damp 0])en places. Common. September. 

Gyrostachys gracilis (Eigel.) Kuntze 
Spiranthes gracilis Bigel. 
Slender ladies' tresses 
Dry thickets and specially in jtine groAcs. Iiili('(ni('iit, 

Apalachin. August. 

Peramium repens (L.) Salisb. 

Goody era repens R. Br. 
Small rattlesnake plantain 
Evergreen woods. Infrequent. July-August. 

Peramium repens ophioides Fern. 
Witli the type but more frequent. July-August. 

Peramium pubescens (Willd.) INIacM. 

Goodyera pubescens R. Br. 

Downy rattlesnake plantain 

Woods, usually under evergreens. Frequent. July- August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 83 

Leptorchis loeselii (L.) MacM. 
L i p a r i s loeselii Richards. 
Fen orchis 
Damp ]»laces. Barton and Apalacliin. Rare. June. 

Corallorhiza odontorhiza (^yllld.) Nutt. 
/Sinall/ionered coral root 
\A'oods and thickets. Infrequent. August- September. 

Corallorhiza multiflora Nutt. 
Large coral root 
T\"oods and thickets. Frequent. August. 

Limodorum tuberosum L. 
Calopogon pulchellus R. J3r. 
Grass pink. Calopogon 
Bogs north of Barton. July. 

JUGLANDACEA 
Juglans nigra L. 
Black walnut 
Banks of the river and along streams. Frequent. April-May. 

Juglans cinerea L. 
Butternut. White walnut 
Banks of the river and along streams. Common. April-May. 

Hicoria minima (Marsh.) Britlon 
C a r y a a m a r a Nutt. 
Bitternut 
Borders of fields. Frequent. May- June. Nut with a thin 
shell and very bitter kernel. 

Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britlon 

Carya alba Nutt. 
Shoghark. Shellhark hickory 
Woods, thickets and fields. Common. May. The principal 
hickory nut of the market. A form with very large compressed 
nuts occurs near Apalachin. 



84 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Hicoria alba (L.) Biitton 
Gary a tomentosa Nutt. 
Mockernut. White-heart hickory 
Fields and woods. Not common. Nut thick shelled, seed 
sweet. Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britten 

Carya microcarpa Nutt. 
Small-fruited hickory 
Frequent in fields and along their borders. May-June. Nut 
small, kernel sweet. 

Hicoria glabra (Nutt.) Britton 
Carya porcina Nutt. 
Pignut 
Infrequent. May-June. Nut pointed, thick shelled, kernel 

somewhat astringent. 

MYRICACEAE 

Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter 
Myrica asplenifolia L. 
Sweet fern 
Thin sterile soil. Common. April-May. 

SALICACEAE 

Populus alba L. 

White poplar 

An introduced shade tree, which spreads freely by menna of 

suckers. 

Populus balsamifera candicans (Ait.) Gray 

Balm of Gilead 

River banks. Abundant in some places. April. 

Populus grandidentata Michx. 
Large-toothed aspen 
Hillsides. Common. April. 

Populus tremuloides Michx. 
American aspen 
Woods and thickets. Common. April. 
Populus dilatata L. 
Lomhardy poplar 
An introduced tree, frequent near the sites of deserted 
dwellings. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



85 



Salix nigra Marsh. 
Black willow 
Banks of the river, along streams and on the shores of ponds. 
Common. May. 

Salix hicida Muhl. 

Shining willow 
Banks of streams. Frequent. May. 

Salix fragilis L. 
Crack ivillow. Brittle willow 
River banks. Barton. Infrequent. May. 

Salix alba vitellina (L.) Koch 
White willow 
Banks of streams. Common. May. 

Salix fluviatilis Nutt. 
S. 1 o n g i f o 1 i a Muhl. 
Sandbar willow 
Low land along the river. Frequent. April-May. 

Salix bebbiana Sarg. 
S. rostrata Richards, 
Beaked willow 
Sv^amps and wet places. Common. May. 

Salix humilis Marsh. 
Prairie willow 
Dry hills. Frequent. April. 

Salix tristis Ait. 
Dwarf gray loillow 
Uplands. Frequent. March-April. 

Salix discolor Muhl. 
Pussy willow. Glaucous willcw 
Wet soil. Common. March- April. 

Salix sericea Marsh. 
Silky willow 
Swamps. Common. May. 



86 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Salix cordata Mnlil. 
// eui't- lea ved icillo w 
Abundant along tlie i-iver and other streams and in wet places. 
April-Ma}. 

BETULACEAE 

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. 
Water beech 
Damp woods and along streams. Common. May. 

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Willd 
O. virginica ^V'illd. 
Ironwood 
Woods and thickets. Frequent. May. 

Quercus rubra L. 
Bed oak 
AA'oods. Common. June. 

Quercus coccinea Wang. 
Scarlet oak 
Woods and thickets. Infrequent. May-June. 

ftuercus velutina Lam. 
Q. coccinea var. tinctoria Gray 
Black oak 
Woods, thickets, fields and along fences. Common. May- June. 

Quercus nana (Marsh.) Sarg. 
Q. i 1 i c i f o 1 i a Wang. 
Scriih oak 
Hillsides. Common. May. Forming thickets near Campville. 
Quercus alba L. 
White oak 
Common. This species. Q. rubra, Q. velutina, Q. prinus 
and Castanea deiitata constitute the principal forest 
Irees of the region. 

Quercus macrocarpa INIiclix. 

Bur oak 

Common along the v\\er fit Barton. Mav-June. 



UBPOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 87 

Quercus platanoides (Lam.) Budw. 

Q. b i c o 1 o r Willd. 

iSwamp white oak 

IJamp grounds. Apalachin. Rare, but formerly quite pleiiti 

ful. Ma J- June. 

Quercus prinus L. 

Bock oak 

Upland woods. Common. May-June. 

Quercus acuminata (Michx.) Sarg. 
Q. muhlenbergii Engelm. 
Chestnut oak. Yellow oak 
Darton. Rare. May. 

Quercus prinoides ^Vilkl. 
Scrub chestnut oak 
Hillsides. Frequent and even abundant in some places. May. 

ULMAC'EAE 
Ulmus americana L. 
WJiite elm. Aiiicricfni elm 
LoAv grounds. Common. April. 

Ulmus racemosa Thomas 
Rock elm 
A^'oods and thickets. Frequent. March- April. 

Ulmus fulva Michx. 
Slippery elm 
Along the river and creeks. Frequent. March- April. 

Celtis occidentalis L. 
Hackherrij. Sugar tree 
River banks. Scarce at Apalachin but more plentiful at Bar 
ton and in the western part of our range. April. 

MORACEAE 
Humulus lupulus L. 
Hop 
Abundant along the river banks. August. 

Cannabis sativa L. 
Hemp 
Waste places. Occasional. August. 



88 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

URTICACEAE 
TJrtica gracilis Ait. 
Slender nettle 
Fence rows. Common. June-July. 

TJrticastrum divaricatum (L.) Kuntze 
Laportea canadensis Gaud. 
Wood nettle 
Moist, shaded places. Common. July-August. 

Adicea pumila (L.) Raf. 
Pile a pumila Gray 
Richweed. Clearweed 
Damp, shady places. Common. July-September. 

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Willd. 
False nettle 
Wet soil. Common. July-September. 

SANTALACEAE 
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. 
Bastai'd toad flax 
Dry thickets. Common. May-July. 

ARTSTOLOCHIACEAE 
Asarum canadense L. 
Wild ginger 
Abundant in thickets along the river. May. 

Asarum reflexum Bickn. 

Short-lohed wild ginger 
Plentiful in a deep ravine near Campville. Closely resembling 
A. canadense, and by some regarded as a form of that species. 
May. 

POLYGONACEAE 

Rnmex acetosella L. 
Sheep sorrel. Field sorrel 
Everywhere common. Very abundant in newly seeded land. 
May- September. 

Rumex verticillatus L. 
Swamp dock 
Swamps. Common. May- July. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 89 

Rumex britannica L. 
Great water dock 
Swamps, Frequent. July-August. 

Rumex crispus L. 
Curled dock 
Waste places. Common. June-August. 

Rumex sanguineus L. 
Red-veined dock 
Waste places. Infrequent. Apalachin. May-August. 

Rumex obtusifolius L. 
Bitter dock 
Gardens and fields. Common. June-August. 

Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L.) Karst. 
F. esculentum Moench 
Buckwheat 
Frequently persists in fields. June- September. 

Polygonum ampMbium L. 

Water persicaria 

In water and along muddy shores. Common. July- August. 

Polygonum emersum (Michx.) Britton 
P. muhlenbergii Wats. 
Siuainp persicaria 
Shores of the river. Common. July-September. 

Polygonum pennsylvanicum L. 
Pennsylvania persicaria 
In moist, rich soil. Common. July-October. 

Polygonum persicaria L. 
Lady's thumJ) 
Common everywhere. June-October. 

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. 
Mild tcater pepper 
Along the river at Apalachin. Abundant in one station. June- 
September. 



00 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Polyg-onum hydropiper L. 
^martweed 
Ditches and wet places. Common. July-September. 

Polygonum punctatum Ell. 
P. acreH. B. K. 
Water smarttoeed 
Shores of the river. Frequent. June-October. 

Polygonum virginianum L. 
Virginia knotweed 
Damp thickets. Frequent. July-October. 

Polygonum orientale F.. 
Prince's feather 
Waste places. Escaped from cultivation. Infrequent. August- 
September. 

Polygonum aviculare T.. 

Door treed. Ku otgra.s.s 
In dooryards and along footpaths. Common. June-November. 

Polygonum erectum L. 
Erect knoticeed 
Roadsides. Common. July- September. 

Polygonum convolvulus T.. 
Black bindweed 
Cultivated and waste grounds. Common. July- September. 

Polygonum cilinode Michx. 
Fringed hlack hindiveed 
Infrequent. West of Owego. June- September. 

Polygonum scandens L. 
CliiiihiiKj fdJ.-iC buclirheat 
lianks of streams. Common. August-September. 

Polygonum sagittatum L. 
Arroiv- leaved tear-thumh 
Swamps and low grounds. Couinion. July-September. 

Polygonum arifolium T.. 
Hdlbcril-lcared tear-thunib 
^larshes. Frequent. July- September. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 91 

CHENOPODIACEAE 

Chenopodium album I.. 

Pigirecd 

Cultivated and waste grounds. Abundant. June- September. 

Chenopodium album viride (L.) Moq. 
With the type. Frequent. June-September. 

Chenopodium glaucum L. 

Oak-leaved goosefoot 

Along the railroad at Apalachin. Infrequent. June-Sep 

teniber. 

Chenopodium hybridum L. 

Maple-leaved goosefoot 

Waste places. Infrequent. .July- September. 

Chenopodium botrys L. 
Jerusalem oak 
Waste places. Infrequent. Apalachin. July-September. 

Atriplex hastata L. 

A. p a t u 1 u m var. hastatum Gray 

Halberd-leaved or ache 

Waste places. Infrequent. August-October. 

AMARANTH Af'EAE 

Amaranthus retroflexus L, 

Rough pigweed 

Gardens and waste places. (Common. August-October. 

Amaranthus hybridus L. 
A. hypochondriacus L. 
Slender pigweed 
Waste places. Infrequent. Barton. August-October. 

Amaranthus hybridus paniculatus (L.) V. & B. 
A. paniculatus L, 
Red amaranth 
Waste places. Infrequent. August-October. 

Amaranthus blitoides Wats. 
Prostrate amaranth 
Along railroads. Infrequent. Canipville. June-October. 



92 ' NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Amarantlius graecizans L. 

A. a 1 b u s L. 

Ttunhleioeed 

In waste and cultivated places. Common. June- September. 

PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Phytolacca decandra L. 

Poke. Pigeonherry. Garget 

Pastures and borders of woods, specially in newly cleared 

land. Frequent. July. 

AIZOACEAE 

Mollugo verticillata L. 
Carpetioeed 
Cultivated ground, where it often forms dense mats. Common. 

Summer. 

PORTULACACEAE 

Claytonia virginica L. 
Spring 'beauty 
Moist woods and banks. Common. April-May. 

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. 
Carolina spring beauty 
Damp woods. Infrequent. April-May. 

Portulaca oleracea L. 
Purslane. Pussly 
Gardens and waste places. Common. Summer. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

Agrostemnia githago L. 
Lychnis githago Scop. 
Co7'n cocJcle 
Frequent in wheat fields. July. The seeds are said to be very 
poisonous. siig^g g^gll^^^ (L ) ^.^ 

Starry campion 
Dry thickets. Common. June-July. 

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke 
S. cucubalus Wibel 
Bladder campion 
Waste places. Infrequent. Barton. Summer. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 " 93 

Silene antirrhina L. 
Sleepy catchfly 
Along railroads and in waste places. Frequent. Summer. 

Silene armeria L. 
Sweet William 
Spontaneous in gardens. July. 

Silene noctiflora L. 
'Night-flowering catchfly 
Waste places. Frequent. June-September. 

Saponaria officinalis L. 
Soapwort. Bouncing bet 
Koadsides and along streams. Common. Summer. 

Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britton 
Saponaria vaccaria L. 
Coio herb 
Along the railroad at Apalachin. Rare. July. 

Dianthus armeria L. 
Deptford pink 
Roadsides. Infrequent. Apalachin. Summer. 

Dianthus barhatus L. 
Sweet icilliam 
Roadsides and waste places. Common. Summer. 

Alsine media L. 
Stellaria media Smjth 
Common chickweed 
Very common in damp grounds. March-April. 

Alsine longifolia (Muhl.) Britton 
Stellaria longifolia Muhl. 
Long-leaved stitchwort 
Moist, grassy places. Common. May-July. 

Alsine graminea (L.) Britton 
Stellaria graminea L. 
Lesser stitchwort 
In fields and along roadsides. Frequent. May-July. 



94 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Alsine borealis (Bigel.) Britton 
Stellaria borealis Bigel. 
Northern stitchioort 
Along Apalachin creek. Rare. Summer. 

Cerastium vulgatum L. 
Mouse-ear cJiicktveed 
Roadsides, fields, coppices and waste places. Common. May- 
October. 

Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl. 

C. nutans Raf . 
Nodding chickiveed. Poicderhorn 
River flats at Barton. Abundant. May-June. 

Cerastium arvense L. 
Field cJiickweed 
Dry banks at Barton. Frequent. May- June. 

Cerastium arvense oblongifolium iToir.i H. & B. 
With the last but more common. May- June. 

Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 
Thyme-leaved sandwort 
Along railroads. Common. June. 

Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl 
Arenaria lateriflora L. 
Blunt-leaved sandwort 
Shaded places nlonp; the river. Frequent. -Tune-July. 

Spergula arvensis L. 
Co)-n sjmrry 
Common as a weed in cultivated soil. Summer. 

Anychia canadensis (L.) B. S. P. 
Slender forked chickiveed 
Dry woods. Frequent. June-August. 

WMPHAEACEAE 

Brasenia purpurea (Michx.) Casp. 

Ji. p e 1 ( a t a Pursh 

Water target 

Mutton hill pond. Summer. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 95 

Nymphaea advena Soland. 
N u p h a 1- a d V e n a Ait. f . 
Large yellow pond lily 
Mutton hill pond. Summer. 

Nymphaea kalmiana (Michx.) Sims 
Nuphar kalmianum Ait. 
Small yellow pond lily 
Marshland swamp. Summer. 

Castalia odorata (Dryand.) W. & W. 
Nymphaea odorata Ait. 
Stveet-scented white water lily 
Mutton hill pond. Summer. 

CER AT( )PHYLLACEAE 
Ceratophyllum demersum L. 
Homwort 
In the river. Frequent. June-July. 

MAGNOLIACEAE 
Magnolia acuminata L. 
Cucimiber tree 
Frequent throughout the valley as a small tree, the larger trees 
having been cut for lumber. June. 

Liriodendron tnlipifera L. 

Tulip tree. Whiteivood 

Rare. June. This tree has been nearly exterminated by the 

ax of the lumberman. 

RANT'XCrLACEAE 

Caltha palustris L. 

Coiuslip. Marsh marigold 

Swamps and wet woodlands. Infrequent. May. 

Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. 
Gold thread 
Damp, mossy woods. Common. May. 

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. 
A. s p i c a t a var. rubra Ait. 
Red haneherry 
Woodlands. Frequent. ^lay-June. 



96 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Actaea alba (L.) Mill, 
White haneheny 
Rich woods. Common. May. 

Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. 
Black cohosh. Black snakeroot 
Along the banks of the river, in thickets and borders of woods. 
Common. June-July. 

Aqnileg^a canadensis L. 
Wild columbine 
Rocky woods and in meadows. Common. May-June. 

Aquilegia vulgaris L. 

European columbine 

Escapes from cultivation and is frequent along roadsides. 

May-July. 

Delphinium consolida L. 

Field larkspur 

Waste places about Apalachin. Summer. Naturalized from 

Europe. 

Anemone virginiana L. 

Tall anemone 

River banks and borders of woods. Common. June- August. 

Anemone cylindrica Gray. 
Long-fruited anemone 
Rare. Barton. June. 

Anemone canadensis L. 
A. pennsylvanica L. 
Canada anemone 
Along the river. Common. May-August. 

Anemone quinquefolia L. 
A. n e m o r o s a L. 
Windftower 
Moist thickets and woods. Common. May. 

Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst. 
H. triloba Chaix 
Round-lohed Uverleaf 
In thickets and woods. Common. March-May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 97 

Hepatica acuta (Pursh) Britten 
H. a c u t i 1 o b a DC. 
Sharp-lohed Uverleaf 
In the same situations as the former bnt less common. March- 
May. 

Clematis virginiana L, 

Virgin's hoiver 
Fence rows, banks of streams and thickets. Common. July. 
A plant more beautiful in fruit than in flower. 

Atragene americana Sims 
Clematis verticillaris DC. 
Purple virgin's bower 
Rocky hillsides. Rare. Owego. May. 

Ranunculus reptans L. 
R. f 1 a m m u 1 a var. reptans E. Meyer 
Creeping spearwort 
Shores of the Susquehanna. Infrequent. Apalachin. Summer. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. 
Kidney-leaved croivfoot 
Woods and moist ground. Common. May-June. 

Ranunculus sceleratus L. 

Ditch crowfoot 

Ditches. Infrequent. Apalachin and Barton. May-August. 

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. 
HooJced crowfoot 
Damp woods. Common. May- June. 

Ranunculus acris L. 
Meadoiv buttercup 
Fields and meadows. Common. May- September. 

Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. f. 
Bristly buttercup 
Swamps. Frequent. July- August. 



98 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ranunculus septentrionalis Toir. 
Sicanip hiitteA'Cuj) 
Along the river and streams and in swami)s. Common. May- 

v'" Ranunculus hispidus Michx. 

Hispid buttercup 
Dry woods and thickets. Common. April-May. 

Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl. 
Early huttercup 
In the same places as the last species but less common. A [nil- 
May. Thalictrum dioicum L. 
Early meadow rue 
In shaded stony soil. Common. Ajjril-May. 

Thalictrum polygamum Muhl. 
Tall meadow rue 
In wet meadows and along streams. Common. July. 

BERBERIDACEAE 
Berberis vulgaris L. 
European barberry 
In yards and occasionally as an escape. May-June. 

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. 
Blue cohosh 
Rich woods and thickets. Frequent. May. 

Podophyllum peltatum L. 
Mandrake. May apple 
Low woods, thickets and fence rows. Common. May. 

MENISPERMACEAE 
Menispermum canadense L. 
Canada moonseed 
Along the river banks. Frequent. June. 

LAT'RACEAE 

Sassafras sassafras (L.) Karst. 
S. officinale Nees 
Sassafras 
U'oods, thickets and fence rows. Frequent. May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 99 

Benzoin benzoin (L.) Coulter 

Lin (1 era benzoin Blume 

Spice bush. Benjamin bush 

In swamps and wet places. Frequent. April-May. The leaves 

of young shoots are much larger than those of the matured 

branches. 

PAPAVERACEAE 

Papaver somniferum L. 
Garden poppy 
In waste places. Occasional. Summer. 

Sanguinaria canadensis L. 
Bloodroot 
Thickets along the river. Common. April-May. 

Chelidonium majns L. 
Celandine 
Koadsides and waste places. Frequent. May-September. 

Bicnculla cucullaria (L.) Millsp. 
Dicentra cucullaria DC. 
Dutchman's breeches 
Rich woods and thickets, specially along the river. Common. 

April-May. 

Bicucnlla canadensis (Goldie) Millsp. 

Dicentra canadensis DC. 

Squirrel corn 

In the same places as the last but much less frequent. May. 

Adlumia fungosa (Ait.) Greene 
A. cirrhosa Eaf. 
Climbing fumitory. Alleghany vine 
Moist woods and thickets. Infrequent. Tioga Center. Abund- 
ant along the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad in 
the narrows west of Owego. A very beautiful vine. June-October. 

CRUCIFERAE 
Lepidinm campestre (L.) E. Br. 
Co 10 cress 
Fields, waste places and along railroads. Common. May-July. 



100 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Lepidium virginicum L. 
Wild peppergrass 
Koadsides. Common. May-November. 

Lepidium apetalum Willd. 
Apetalous peppergrass 
Roadsides in dry soil. Common. June-July. 

Lepidium sativum L. 
Peppergrass 
Roadsides at Apalachin. Escaped from gardens. Infrequent. 
June- August. sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. 

Hedge mustard 
Waste places. Common. May-November. 

Sisymbrium altissimum L. 
Tall sisymlirium 
Waste places, specially along railroads. Owego. Summer. 
This is a bad weed of recent introduction, but it is now estab- 
lished in many parts of the State. 

Brassica nigra (L.) Koch 
Black mustard 
Fields and waste places. Common. June-November. 

Brassica arvensis (L.) B. S. P. 
B. sinapistrum Boiss. 
Charlock. Wild mustard 
Fields and waste places. Common. May-November. 

Brassica campestris L. 
Turnip 
Occurs occasionally in waste places, but does not persist long. 
Summer. Brassica napus L. 

Rape 
This is cultivated for sheep pasture, but sometimes escapes and 
persists for a short time. 

Raphanus sativus L. 
Garden radish 
This occasionally escapes from cultivation and is spontaneous 
for a vear or two. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 101 

Barbarea barbarea (L.) MaeM. 

B. vulgaris var. a r c u a t a Gray 

Yellow rocket 

Fields. Common. May-Jnne. Young plants are sometimes 

used for a pot herb. 

Barbarea stricta Andrz. 

B. vulgaris var. stricta Gray 

Erect-fruited winter cress 

Fields and waste places. Frequent. ISIay-June. 

Roripa sylvestris (L.) Bess. 

Nasturtium sylvestre K. Br. 

Creeping yellow water cress 

Shores of the Susquehanna at Apalachin. Rare. Summer. 

Roripa palustris (L.) Bess. 
Nasturtium p a 1 u s t r e DC. 
Marsh loater cress 
Wet places, specially along the river. Common. Summer. 

Roripa hispida (Desv.) Britton 
Nasturtium p a 1 u s t r e var. hispid um Gray 
With the last but less common. Summer. 

Roripa nasturtium (L.) Rusby 
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 
Water cress 
In brooks and small streams. Frequent. May-November. 

Roripa armoracia (L.) A. S. Hitchcock 
Nasturtium armoracia Fries 
Horse radish 
Waste places and along streams. Common. Summer. 

Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. 
Pennsylvania hitter cress 
Swamps and wet places. Common, May- June. 

Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.) B. S. P. 
C. rhomboidea DC. 
Bulbous cress 
Damp fields and thickets. Common. May-June. 



102 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. 

Gut-leaved toothwort 

Moist soil in rich woods, specially along the river. Common. 

May. 

Dentaria diphylla Michx. 

Tico-leaved tootJitvort 

Rich woods and along small streams. Frequent. May. 

Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton 
Oapsella burs a-p a s t o r i s Medic 
Shepherd's purse 
Fields and waste places. Abundant. March- January. Fre- 
quently used as a pot herb. 

Arabis lyrata L. 
Lyre-leaved rock cress 
Along the river at Apalachin, growing on stony banks, upturned 
roots of trees and even on their trunks. Infrequent. May- August. 

Arabis dentata T. & G. 
Toothed rock cress 
River shores. Infrequent. Barton. May- June. 

Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. 
Hairy rock cress 
Thickets in stony soil. Infrequent. Apalachin and Campvllle. 
May-August. 

Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. 

Smooth rock cress 
River banks. Frequent. May. 

Arabis canadensis L. 

Sickle pod 

Woods and thickets, specially those along the river. Common. 

June-August. 

Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. 

A. perfoliata Lam. 
Toioer mustard 
Stony soil in a thicket near Apalachin. Infrequent. May- 
August. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



103 



Erysimum cheiranthoides L. 
Treacle mustard 
Fields and along streams. Common. Summer. 

Hesperis matronalis L. 

Dames rocket. Dames violet 

Fields and thickets along the river. Common. May-August. 

RESEDACEAE 
Beseda odorata L. 
Mignonette 
Roadsides and waste places. Tioga Center. 

SARRACENIACEAE 
Sarracenia purpurea L. 
Pitcher plant 
Plentiful in peat bogs in the vicinity of Barton. June. 

DROSERACEAE 

Drosera rotundifolia L. 
Round-leaved sundew 
Bogs and specially on partly decayed logs. Mutton hill pond. 
Barton. July. 

CRASSULACEAE 

Sedura telephium L. 



Live forever 
In fields and along roadsides. Common. 



July. 



Sedum acre L. 
Mossy stonecrop 
Occasionally escapes from cultivation. July. 

Penthorum sedoides L. 
Ditch stonecrop 
Swamps, ditches and along streams. July- August. 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 
Saxifraga pennsylvanica L. 
Sivaiuj) saxifrage 
Swamps. Frequent. May. 



104 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. 
Early fiaxifrage 
Stony banks of the river and in thickets. Common. Ai)pil-May. 

Tiarella cordifolia L. 
CooltDort. False miterivort 
Rich, moist woods and shaded ravines. Common. May. 

Mitella diphylla L. 
Bliterwort 
In rich woods with the preceding. Common. May. 

Chrysoplenium americanum Schwein. 
Golden saxifrage. Water carpet 
Wet, shaded places. Common. May. 

GROt^SULARIACEAE 
Ribes cynosbati L. 
Wild goosederry 
Old fields, thickets and fence rows. Frequent. May. 

Ribes rotundifolium Michx. 

Round-leaved gooseberry 

Rocky woods in the vicinity of Barton. Infrequent. May. 

Ribes prostratum L'Her. 
Fetid currant 
Cold, wet places near Barton. Occasional. May. 

Ribes floridanum L'Her. 
Wild black currant 
Woods and thickets. Rather common. May. 

Ribes rubrum L. 

Red currant 

Cultivated for its fruit, but sometimes it escapes to roadsides. 

May. 

Ribes aureum Pursh 

Golden currant 

This also is cultivated for its fruit and its fragrant flowers, but 

it occasionally escapes and grows spontaneously. May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 105 

HAMAMELIDACEAE 
Hamamelis virg-iniaiia L. 
Witch hazel 
A common shrub in woods and thickets and along fence rows. 

Autumn, 

PLATANACEAE 

Platanus occidentalis L. 
Buttonwood. Sycamore 
Along the river and streams. Common. May. 

ROSACEAE 

Opulaster opulifolius (L.) Kuntze 

P h y s o c a r p u s opulifolius Maxim 

Nitiehark 

River banks. Common. June. 

Spiraea salicifolia L. 
Meadowsweet 
Swamps and moist ground. Common. July. 

Spiraea tomentosa L. 
Hardliack. Steeple hush 
Swamp east of Campville. Rare. August. 

Porteranthus trifoliatus (L.) Britton 
G i 1 1 e n i a t r i f o 1 i a t a Moench 
Indian physic. Bowman's root 
Open upland woods. Frequent. June-July. 

Rubus odoratus L. 
PvA'ple-flowering raspherry 
Rocky woods and ravines. Frequent. 

Rubus strigosus Michx. 
Wild red raspherry 
Neglected fields and along roadsides and fences. Common. 
June. It frequently flowers and fruits in late summer and 
autumn. j^^^^g neglectus Pk. 

Purple wild raspherry 
In the same localities as the la^st, but infrequent. June. It 
has dark red or puri)le fruit, long recurved stems and much re- 
sembles R. occidentalis. 



106 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Rubus americanus (Pers.) Brittou 
R. t r i f 1 o r u s Richards. 
Dwarf raspberry 
Swamps and low woods. Frequent. June. 

Rubus nigrobaccus Bailey 
R. V i 1 1 o s u s Ait. 
Eigli hush hlackherry 
Woods, lields and thickets. Abundant. June. The white- 
fruited form occurs near Barton. 

Rubus villosus frondosus Bigel. 
This variety occurs with the typical form. 

Rubus allegheniensis Porter 
Mountain blackberry 
Thickets and fields. Common. June. 

Rubus hispidus L. 
Running swamp blackberry 
Plentiful in swamps and low grounds. June. 

Rubus procumbens Muhl. 
R. canadensis T. & G. 
Dewberry 
Fields and railroad banks. Common. This is our earliest 
fruiting blackberry. May. 

Dalibarda repens L. 
Dalibarda. False violet . 
Moist woods. Infrequent. Apalachin. June- August. 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne 
Strawberry 
Fields and pastures. Common. May-June. 

Fragaria vesca L. 
European wood strawberry 
Fields and roadsides. Frequent. May-June. An escape from 
cultivation. 

Fragaria americana (Porter) Britton 

American wood strawberry 
Rocky woods. Common. May-June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 107 

Potentilla arguta Puish 
Tall cinquefoil 
Along roadsides at Barton. Common. June. 

Potentilla argentea L. 
Silvery cinquefoil 
Dry fields and roadsides. Common. June- August. 

Potentilla monspeliensis L. 
P. n o r V e g" i c a L. 
Rough cinquefoil 
Fields and waste places. Common. June- September. 

Potentilla canadensis L. 
Fivefinger 
Abundant in dry fields. May-August. 

Potentilla pumila Poir. 
Dwarf -fivefinger 
Dry fields and banks. Common. April-June. 

Comarinm palnstre L. 
Potentilla palustris Scop. 
Marsh cinquefoil 
Plentiful about Mutton bill pond and in Marshland swamp. 
June-August. 

Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. 
Barren strawberry 
Woods and thickets in dry or moist soil. Common. May. 

Geum rivale L. 
Purple avens. Water avens 
Swamps and low grounds. Frequent. May-.June. 

Geum canadense Jacq. 
G. album Gmelin 
White avens 
Shaded places. Common. June. 

Geum virginianum L. 
Rough arms 
FjOw ground. Fretjuent. June. 



108 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Geum strictum Ail. 
Yclloiv avens 
Fields, thickets and borders of woods, ('ouiiiion. June. 

Agrimonia hirsuta (Muhl.) Bieknell 
Tall hairy agrimony 
\\'oods and thickets. Frequent. June- August. 

Agrimonia striata Michx. 
Woodland agrimony 
Dry woods. Common. July- September. 

Rosa blanda Ait. 
Snioofh rose 
Kocky ] daces. Common. June. 

Rosa Carolina L. 
Sivaynp rose 
Swamps and Ioav grounds. Common. Sometimes forming 
dense thickets. June-July. 

Rosa humilis Marsh. 
Dwarf rose 
Dry or rocky soil. Common. June. 

Rosa humilis lucida (Ehrli.) Best 
R. lucida Ehrh. 
Shining irild rose 
Rock}' soil. Occasional. June. 

Rosa rubiginosa L. 
Sioeethrier 
Fields and roadsides. Occasional. June-July. 

Rosa cinnamomea L. 

Cinnamon rose 
Roadsides in the vicinity of dwellings. 

roMACKAK 

Sorbus americana Marsh. 

P y r u s n m e r i c a n a DC. 

American mountain ash 

Swam])S. Rare. Barton. June-July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 109 

Pyrus communis L. 
Choke pear 
Near dwellings and occasionally in fields. Fruit very astrin- 
gent. May. 

Malus coronaria (L.j Mill. 

Pyrus coronaria L. 
American crab apple 
Scattered throughout our territory. Flowers rose-colored, frag- 
rant ; fruit greenish yellow, fragrant and very acid. May. 

Malus malus (L.) Britton 
Pyrus malus L. 
Apple 
Woods, thickets and fence rows. Fruit sweet or sour. Fre- 
quent. May. 

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. 

Pyrus arbutifolia L.f , 

Red chokeherry 

Marshland swamp. This is the only station observed. May. 

Aronia nigra (Wild.) Britton 
Pyi'us arbutifolia var. mclanocarpa Hook. 
Black cJiokeherry 
Swamps and bogs. Common. ]\ray-June. 

Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medic 
Juneberry 
Woods, thickets and fence rows. Common. May. 

Amelanchier botryapium (L.) DC. 
A. canadensis var. o I) 1 o n <i' i f o 1 i a T. & G. 
^hnd hush 
Woods and thickets. Common. May. 

Amelanchier spicata (Lam.) DC. 
JjOW Jimeherry 
Rocky banks. Infrequent. Barton and Apalachin. A shrub 
2 to 3 feet high, which fruits very abundantly. 



110 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Crataegus crus-galli L. 
Cockspur thorn 
Woods and thickets. Frequent. May. 

Crataegus punctata Jacq. 
Large-fruited thorn 
Thickets and fields. Common. May. 

Crataegus oxyacantha L. 
Hawthorn 
Yards and their borders. Frequent. May. 

Crataegus coccinea L. 
iScarlet thorn 
Woods, thickets and pastures. Common. May. 

Crataegus macracantha Lodd. 
C. coccinea var. macracantha Dudley 
Long-spined thorn 
Woods at Apalachin. Occasional. May. 

Crataegus tomentosa L. 
Pear thorn 
Roadsides near Barton. Bare, It flowers later than our other 
species of thorns. June. 

Prunus americana Marsh. 

Wild red plum 

Along streams and in moist woods, often forming thickets. 

Frequent. May. 

Prunus cerasus L. 

Sour cherry 

Escaped from cultivation to roadsides and thickets. May. 

Prunus avium L. 
Stveet cherry 
Escaped from cultivation to roadsides. May. 

Prunus pennsylvanica L.f. 
Wild red cherry. Pin cherry 
In thickets and along fences. Common. May-June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 111 

Prunus virginiana L. 
Choke cherry 
Fence rows, roadsides, banks of the river and along streams. 
Common. Fruit dark red or almost black, astringent. May. 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 
Wild Mack cherry 
Along fence rows and in woods and clearings. Sometimes grow- 
ing to a large size. May. 

Amygdalus persica L. 
Prunus persica L. 
Peach 
Roadsides and neglected fields. April-May. 

CAESALPINACEAE 
Cassia nictitans L. 
Sensitive pea 
River shore west of Campville. August. 

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 
Honey locust 
Abundant in hedges on the river flats at Campville. May-June. 

P API LION ACE AE 

Lupinus perennis L. 

Wild lupine 

Banks, specially along railroads. Abundant in some places. 

May- June. 

Medicago sativa L. 

.4 Ifalfa. lAicerne 

In fields and along railroads. Frequent. Summer. 

Medicago lupulina L. 
Black medic. Nonesuch 
Fields, waste ])laces and specially along railroads. May-No- 
vember. 

Melilotus alba Desv. 

White sweet clover 
Waste places and along railroads. Common. June-October. 



112 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. 
Yellow sweet clover 
Waste places. Infrequent. Apalachin and Canipville. Summer. 

Trifolium agrarium L. 
Yclloiv clover. Hop clover 
Fields and roadsides. Frequent. May- September. 

Trifolium procumbens L. 
Low hop clover 
Fields in the vicinity of Campville. Infrequent. May-Sep- 
tember. 

Trifolium incarnatum L. 

Crimson clover 
Meadows. Frequent. A beautiful species with conspicuous, 
bright crimson flowers. Often cultivated. Summer. 

Trifolium arvense L. 
Rahhit foot, ^tone clover 
Along roadsides at Apalachin and Barton. Common. Summer. 

Trifolium pratense L. 
Red clover 
Fields and meadows. Abundant. Mny-October. 

Trifolium hybridum L. 

Alsike clove ) 
Grass lands. Common. June-October. 

Trifolium repens 1>. 
White clover 
Fields, open and waste places. Very common. May-December. 

Robinia pseudacacia L. 
Locust tree 
Naturalized along the banks of the Sus(|nehainin ;uid often 
forming almost impenetrable thickets. June. 

Robinia viscosa Vent. 
Clammy locust 
Roadside near Wnverlv. June. 



REPORT OF THK 8TATE BOTANIST 1902 113 

Meibomia nudiflora (L.) Kuntze 
1) e s 111 o (I i 11 111 11 u d i f 1 o r u m DC. 
'Naked-flowered tick trefoil 
Dry woods and thickets. Common. July-August. 

Meibomia grandifiora (Walt.) Kimtze 
D e s m o d i u m acuminatum DC. 
Pointed-leaved tick trefoil 
Woods. Conmion. Summer. 

Meibomia michauxii Vail 
Profitrate tick trefoil 
Dry woods in various ])laces near Campville. July- September. 

Meibomia paniculata (L.) Kuntze 
D (' s 111 () d i u m p a n i c u 1 a t u ni DC. 
Panicled tick trefoil 
Dry soil in (■<)])])icps. Common. July-September. 

Meibomia dillenii (Darl.) Kuntze 
D e s m o d i u m dillenii Darl. 
Dilleu's tick trefoil 
Dry woods and fields. Common. Summer. 

Meibomia canadensis (L.) Kuntze 
Desinodiuiii canadense DC. 
Shoivij tick trefoil 
Abundant along the river shores and railroad embankments. 

.Inly- September. 

Meibomia marylandica (L.) Kuntze 
D e s m o d i u m in a r y 1 a n d i c u m Boott. 
Smooth, small-leaved tick trefoil 
Dry soil. Frequent. .luly-Septendier. 

Lespedeza procumbens Michx. 
Trailing hush clover 
Dry soil at the base of a hill near Apalachin. The only station. 
.Vug ust- September. 

Lespedeza violacea (L.i Pers. 
Bush clover 
Dry banks of the v'wvv -it .Vpalar-hin and Barton. Infrequent. 
August- September. 



114 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Lespedeza fmtescens (L.) Britton 
L. s t u V e i var. intermedia Wats. 
Wandlike hush clover 
Dry open coppices along the river. August-September. 

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Ell. 
L. p o 1 y s t a c h y a Michx. 
Hairy hush clover 
Dry thickets. Common. August-October. 

Lespedeza capitata Miclix. 
Round-headed hush clover 
Dry banks in the river valley. Abundant. August- September. 

Vicia cracca L. 

Tufted vetch 

Along roadsides and in dry fields. Frequent. May- August. 

Vicia americana Muhl. 
American vetch 
Damp soil along the river. Common. May- August. 

Vicia caroliniana Walt. 
Carolina vetch 
River valley. Common. May-July. 

Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. 
Cream -colored vctchUnr/ 
Infrequent at Apalachin but common in the western part of 
our range. May-July. 

Falcata comosa (L.) Kuntze 
Amphicarpa monoica Nutt. 
Wild peanut 
Moist thickets. Common. August-September. 

Apios apios (L.) MacM. 
A. tuberosa Moench 
Ground nut 
Damp grounds, specially along the river. Common. July- 
September. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 115 

GERANIACEAE 

Greranium maculatum L. 

Spotted crane's-hill. Alum root 

Woods, thickets and moist meadows. Common. May-July. 

Geranium robertianum L. 
Herb rohert. Red rohin 
Rocky woods. Infrequent. May- September. 

Geranium carolinianum L. 
Carolina cranesMll 
River valley. Frequent. May-August. 

Geranium bicknellii Britton 
BicknelVs craneshill 
With the last but more common. May- September. 

OXALIDACEAE 
Oxalis acetosella L. 
White wood sorrel 
Cold, damp woods, specially under hemlocks. It bears cleis- 
togamous flowers and yields the so called *' salt of lemons." Com- 
mon. June-July. 

Oxalis violacea L. 
Violet wood sorrel 
Open woods at Campville and in alluvial soil along Apalachin 
creek and along the river at Apalachin. May-June. 

Oxalis stricta L. 
O. corniculata var. stricta Sav. 
Yellow wood sorrel 
Woods and fields. Common. May-October. 

Oxalis cymosa Small 
Tall yelloio wood sorrel 
Woods, cultivated and waste ground. Frequent. May-October. 

LINACEAE 
Linum usitatissimum L. 
Flax 
Along railroads. Frequent. Summer. 

Linum virginianum L. 
Wild yellow fax 
In an old field near Campville. The only station. June. 



110 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

JUTACKAK 
Xanthoxylum americanum Mill. 
Prhhlji (tsli 
Roadsides at Apalachiii and Barton. May. 

SIMARniXCKAK 
Ailanthus glandulosus Dcsf. 
7Vrc of h('(irOH 
Introduced from China. Esen]HMi from cnltivation at Barton. 
It spreads freely both bv seeds and suckers. 

POLYGALACEAE 

Polygala verticillata L. 
Whorled milkwort 
Fields and roadsides in dry soil. Common. June-November. 

Polygala viridescens L. 
P. s a n g u i n e a L. 
Purple milkuort 
Hilltops near Apalachin. InfrequcMit. June-September. 

Polygala senega L. 
Seneca snakeroot 
A])alachin, Owego and Barton. Infrequent. June. 

Polygala paucifolia Willd. 
Flowering nyintergreen. Fringed milkwort 
Open \\'Oods and Ihickets. Common. May-June. 

EUPHoKliTACEAE 
Acalypha virginica T.. 
I'hree-seeded mercury 
A weed ]»lentiful in fields. June-October. 

Euphorbia maculata L. 
Spoiled spurge. Milk purslane 
Dry, gravelly soil, specially along railroads. Very common. 

June October. 

Euphorbia nutans Lag. 

1'^. p r e s 1 i i Cuss. 
Large spotted spurg^ 
^^'ith (he last bul less common. Mav-October. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 117 

Euphorbia corollata L, 
Floivering spurge 
Waste places. Occasional. JMay-Sei)tember. 

Euphorbia lucida W. «& R. 
E. nicaeensis All. 
Nicaean spurge 
About villages throughout the river valley. June-July. 

Euphorbia cyparissias L. 
Cypress spurge 
Roadsides and waste places. Common. Abundant in old 
cemeteries. May-September. 

calli^richac^eap: 
Callitriche palustris L. 

C. v e r n a L. 
Vernal irater star wort 
Slow streams. Occasional. Jnly. 

AXACARDIACEAE 

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw, 
R. t y p h i n a L. 
^taghorn sumac 
Dry or rocky soil. Common. June. 

Rhus glabra L. 
Smooth sumac 
Dry soil. Common. June. 

Rhus vernix L. 
R. venenata DC. 
Poison sumac 
Swamps and their borders. Frequent. Plentiful about Mut- 
ton hill pond. June. 

Rhus radicans L. 

R. toxicodendron L. 
Poison ivy 
Damp thickets, along fences and river banks. Common. June. 



118 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ILICACEAE 

Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray 
Black alder. Winter herry 
Swamps. Common. A shrub rendered conspicuous in late 
autumn and winter by its bright red berries. 

Ilicioides mucronata (L.) Britton 
N e ni «) }) a n t h e s f a s i c u 1 a r i s Raf . 
Mountain liolly 
Swamps and bogs. Frequent. May. 

CELASTRACEAE 

Euonymus europaeus L. 

Spindle tree 

Escaped from cultivation. Infrequent. Apalachin. June. 

Celastrus scandens L. 
Clinibing Mttersweet 
Rich soil along fences and streams. An attractive plant when 
in fruit. Frequent. June. 

STAPHYLEACEAK 
Staphylea trifolia T.. 
American bladder nut 
Abundant along the south bank of the river at Barton. For- 
iiiorly found at Apalachin. May. 

ACERACEAE 

Acer saccharinum T.. 

A. d a s y c a r p u m Ehrh. 

Silver maple 

Along banks of streams. The principal tree along the banks of 

the river. Common. March- April. 

Acer rubrum L. 
Soft maple. Red maple 
Wet or dry soil. Common. March-April. 
Acer saccharum Marsh. 
A. saccharinum Wang. 
Hard maple, .s'^r/ar maple. Rock maple 
Woods and fields. Common. April-May. This is often 
planted as a shade tree. Its sap is the main source of maple 
sugar. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 119 

Acer nigrum Michx. 
A. saccharinuni var. nigrum T. & G. 
Black sugar maple 
Less common than the preceding species, which it closely re- 
sembles, but from which it may easily be distinguished by the 
bark and leaves. The sap is rich in sugar. April-May. 

Acer pennsylvanicum L. 
Striped maple. Moosewood 
Rocky woods and ravines. Common. June. 

Acer spicatum Lam. 
Mountain maple 
Along streams, in glens and ravines. Common. June. 

HIPPOCASTANACEAE 
Aesculus hippocastanum L. 
Horse-chestnut 
Cultivated as a shade tree, and occasionally escapes from cul- 
tivation. June. 

BALSAMINACEAE 
Impatiens biflora Walt. 

I. fulva Nutt. 
Spotted touch-me-not 
Damp, shaded places. Common. July-September. 

Impatiens aurea Muhl. 
I. pallida Nutt. 
Pale touch-me-not 
With the last but more abundant along the river. July-Sep- 
tember. The mature capsules of both species burst at the slight- 
est touch and expel the seeds with much force; hence the name 

'' touch-me-not." 

RHAMNACEAE 
Rhamnus cathartica L. 
Buckthorn 
Planted for hedges, but it occasionally escapes to fields and 
fence rows. June. 

Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. 
A Ider-leaved huckthorn 
Swamps north of Barton. Infrequent. June. 



]2() NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ceanothus americanus L. 
iSiew Jersey tea. Redroot 
Dry, open woods and neglected fields. Abundant. June. The 
leaves are said to have been used as a substitute for tea by the 
American troops during the Revolutionary War. 

VirACEAE 
Vitis aestivalis Michx. 
Summer grape 
Fence rows and along the river banks. Common. June. The 
fruit ripens early in autumn. 

Vitis vulpina L. 
Sweet-scented grape 
Banks of the river. Frequent. May-June. Fruit ripe in Au- 
gust and September. 

Vitis cordifolia Michx. 

Frost grape. Chicken grape 
Thickets and banks of streams. Common. May- June. Fruit 
ripe in October and November. 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia Michx. 
Virginia creeper. American ivy 
Woods, thickets and fence rows. Common. July. 

TILIACEAE 

Tilia americana L. 
Bassivood. American linden 
Rich soil. Common. June-July. 

MA].VA(^EAE 

Malva sylvestris L. 

High mallow 

Waste places and along roadsides. Infreiiuent. Summer. 

Malva rotundifolia L. 
Loic mallov). Cheeses 
Gardens and waste places. Abundant. May-November. 

Malva moschata L. 
Musk mallow 
Meadows and roadsides. Frequent. Summer. 



REPORT OF Tin; STATE 150TANIST 1902 121 

Abutilon abutilon (L.) Rusby 
A. avieeniiae Gaertn. 
Velvet leaf. Indian mallow 
Gardens and waste i)laces. ('onimon. August-October. 

Hibiscus trionum L. 
FJotrci -of-(i ii-hour 
Waste places at Barton. Advenrive from Europe. August- 
September. 

HYPERICACEAE 

Hypericum ascyron L, 
a rent »s'/; .John's icort 
Banks of the river. Common. July. 

Hypericum ellipticura Hook. 
Pale ^t John's icort 
Swamps and banks of streams. Common. July-August. 

Hypericum perforatum L. 

Conihion St John's loort 
Abundant in fields and waste places. June- September. 

Hypericum maculatum Walt. 
Cori/nihed St John's wort 
Fields, roadsides and open woods. Common. July- September. 

Hypericum mutilum L. 
Dwarf St John's ivort 
Common in damj). sterile soil. July-Aiigust. 

Hypericum canadense L. 
Canadian St John's ivort 
Wet sandy soil. Frequent. July-September. 

Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. 
El odes camiianulata Pursh 
Marsh St John's wort 
Swamps and alonii- streams. Common. July-September. 

CISTACEAE 
Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx. 
Frostweed 
Plentiful along both banks of the river at Apalachin. May- 
Julv. 



122 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

VIOLACEAE 

Viola palmata L. 

Early Mue violet 

Dry, open thickets, specially along roadsides. Frequent. May. 

The leaves of this species are very variable, and some forms of the 

plant closely resemble V, atlantica Britton. 

Viola obliqua Hill 
V. palmata var. cucullata Gray 
Hooded violet 
Damp woods, meadows and swamps. May-June. 

Viola papilionacea Pursh 
Common 'blue violet 
About dwellings and in grass lands. Our most common spe- 
cies. May-June. 

Viola domestica Bicknell 

Yard violet 
Yards and cultivated ground. Frequent. April-May. Some- 
times considered a variety of the preceding species. 

Viola cucullata Ait. 

Marsh hlue violet 
Near the mouth of Apalachin creek. Infrequent. May-June. 

Viola villosa Walt. 

Southern wood violet 

Dry, shaded soil. The "hogback" near Apalachin, the only 

station for it in our range. Its leaves are closely pressed to the 

ground, and it much resembles the false violet, D a 1 i b a r d a 

r e p e n s. April-May. 

Viola sororia ^^'illd. 

Woolly blue violet 

Fields and roadsides. Common. Plentiful along the Mutton 

hill road. May-June. 

Viola sagittata Ait. 
Arroio-leavcd violet 
Meadows near Apalachin. Rare. May. 

Viola ovata Nutt. 
Ovate-leaved violet 
Fields and roadsides in dry soil. Common. April-May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



123 



Viola rotundifolia Michx. 
Round-leaved violet 
Cold, damp woods. Frequent. April-May. Its leaves are 
small at flowering time, but they are 3-5 inches broad in summer 
and appressed to the ground. 

Viola blanda Willd. 
Sweet white violet 
Swamps, wet woods and along streams. Common. April-May. 

Viola blanda amoena (Le Conte) B. S. P. 
V. blanda var. p a 1 u s t r i f o r m i s Gra^? 
Wet woods. Not common. 

Viola pubeseens Ait. 
Hairy yellow violet 
Woods in dry soil. Common. May. 

Viola scabriuscula (T. & G.) Schwein. 

V. pubeseens var. scabriuscula T. & G. 

Smooth yelloic violet 

Damp woods and thickets along the river. Common. April- 
May. 

Viola canadensis L. 

Canada violet 

Woods. Infrequent. May-July. 

Viola striata Ait. 
Pale violet. Striped violet 
Low woods and thickets in the river valley. Very common. 
May. 

Viola labradorica Schrank. 
V. c a n i n a var. muhlenbergii Gray 
Dog violet 
Moist woods and fields. Our most abundant caulescent violet. 
April-May. 

Viola rostrata Pursh 
Long-spurred violet 
Moist, rocky places. Scarce. June. 



124 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

THYMELEACEAE 
Dirca palustris L. 
3{oosewood 
Cold, damp woods, specially along mountain streams. Infre- 
quent. April-May. 

ONAGRACEAE 

Isnardia palustris L. 
L u d w i g i a palustris. Ell. 
Marsh purslane 
Swamps and muddy places along brooks. Common. June- 
October. Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. 
E p i 1 b i u m a n g u s t i f o 1 i u m L. 
Great willoiv herh. Fireweed 
Wet or dry soil. Often abundant in woodlands recently over- 
run by fire. June-August. 

Epilobium lineare ^lubl. 
Linear-leaved willow-herh 
Swamps. Common. July- August. 

Epilobium coloratum Mubl. 

Purple-leaved loilloiv-herh 

Low grounds. Infrequent. July- September. 

Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. 

North em loilloiv-herb 

Moist ground. Common. July-September. 

Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. 
Oenothera biennis L. 
Evening primrose 
Roadsides and fields. Common. June- September. 

Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spacli 
Oenothera pumila L. 
iSm all sundrops 
Fields in wet or dry soil. Common. June-July. 

Kneiffia fruticosa (L.) Raimann 
Oenothera fruticosa L. 
Corn Dion SKiidrops 
Dry soil. Frequent.. June-July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 125 

Gaura biennis L. 
Biennial gaura 
Meadows and pastures along the river. July- August. 

Circaea lutetiana L. 
Enchanter's nightshade 
Rich, moist woods. Common. June-July. 

Circaea alpina L. 

Smaller enchantei^s nightshade 

Cold, moist woods. July-August. This plant seems to prefer 

the sites of old logs. 

HA LOR AGID ACE A E 

Myriophyllum spicatum L. 
Sjnked ivater milfoil 
Susquehanna river in deep water. Infrequent. Summer. 

ARALIACEAE 
Aralia nudicaulis L. 
Wild sarsaparilla 
Woods and thickets. Common. May-June. 

Aralia racemosa L. 
Spikenard 
Damp, shaded places. Frequent. July. 

Aralia hispida Vent. 
Bristly sarsaparilla. Dwarf elder 
Swamps and openings on dry hemlock knolls. Infrequent. 
June. 

Panax quinquefolium L. 

Aralia quinquefolia D. & P. 
Ginseng 
Rich woods. Rare. July. Formerly more common but now 
fast disappearing, because of the high price paid for its roots. 

Panax trifolium L. 
Arali a trifolia D. &P. 
Ground nut 
Moist woods and thickets. Common. May. 



126 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

UMBELLIFERAE 
Daucus carota L. 
Wild carrot 
Fields and roadsides. Very coinnion. June- September. 

Angelica atropurpurea L. 
Purple-stemmed angelica 
Along streams. Common. June-July. 

Angelica villosa (Walt.) B. S. P. 
A. hirsuta Muhl. 
Eairy angelica 
Dry, open woods. Common. July. 

Heraclenm lanatnm Michx. 
Cow parsnip 
Low ground along the river and its branches. Common. June. 

Pastinaca sativa L. 
Wild parsnip 
Roadsides and waste places. Common. Summer. 

Thaspinm trifoliatnm aureum (Nntt.) Britton 
T. aureum Nutt. 
Golden alexanders 
Woods, thickets and meadows. Common. June. 

Thaspinm barhinode (Michx.) Nutt. 
Meadoio parsnip 
Alluvial soil. Frequent. May-June. 

Sanicula marylandica L. 
Sanicle. Black snalceroot 
Rich woods. Common. May-June. 

Pimpinella integerrima (L.) Gray 
Yelloiv pimpernel 
Rocky soil. Common. May. 

Washingtonia claytoni (Michx.) Britton 
Osmorrhiza brevistylis DC. 
Hairy sweet cicely 
Woods. Common. May-June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 127 

Washingtonia longistylis (Torr.) Britton 
Osmorrhiza longistylis DC. 
Smooth sweet cicely 
Woods and shaded places in fields and by roadsides. Common. 
May-June. 

Conium maculatum L. 

Poison hemlock 
Waste places. Frequent. June. The root is very poisonous. 

Slum cicutaefolium Gmel. 
Water parsnip 
Swamps. Common. July-September. 

Zizia aurea (L.) Koch 
Golden meadow parsnip 
Fields and meadows. Common. May. 

Zizia cordata (Walt.) DC. 
Heart-leaved alexanders 
Open woods and thickets. Frequent. May. 

Carum carni L. 
Caraway 
Dooryards and waste places. Common. May- June. 

Cicuta maculata L. 
Water hemlock. Musquash root 
Swamps. Common. . June-July. 

Cicuta bulbifera L. 
Bulb-hearing water hemlock 
Swamps, ponds and along streams. Frequent. Plentiful about 
Mutton hill pond. July-August. 

Deringa canadensis (L.) Kuntze 

Cryptotaenia canadensis DC. 

Honewort 
Woods. Common. June. 

Hydrocotyle americana L. 
Marsh pennywort 
Wet, shaded places. Common. June- September. 



128 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

CORNACEAE 

Cornus canadensis L. 
Dwarf cornel. Bunchherry 
Low woods and damp, shaded places. Abundant. May-June. 

Cornus florida L. 

Flowering dogwood 

Upland woods. Common. April- May. This shrub or small 

tree is conspicuous in early spring by reason of its large, white, 

bracted flowers and again in autumn by its bright red leaves. Its 

wood is hard and used in the manufacture of toys. 

Cornus circinata L'Her. 
Round-leaved cornel 
Thickets. Frequent. June. 

Cornus amomum Mill. 

C. s e r i c e a L. 

Silky cornel. Kinnikinick 

Low woods, borders of swamps and along streams. June. 

Cornus stolonifera Michx. 
Red osier 
Borders of swamps. Common. June. 

Cornus candidissima Marsh. 
C. paniculata L'Her. 
Panicled cornel • 
Thickets and fence rows. Common. June. 

Cornus alternifolia L. f. 
Alternate-leaved cornel 
Open woods. Common. June. 

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 

Pepperidge. Sour gum 

Moist soil, specially along the borders of swamps. Frequent. 

May. This tree is conspicuous in autumn by its bright crimson 

leaves. Its wood is soft but hard to split, and at an early day 

was much used for ox yokes. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 129 

PYKOLACEAE 
Pyrola rotundifolia L. 
Round -leaved icinter green 
Rich woods. Common. July. 

Pyrola chlorantha Sw. 
Greenish-flotvered wintergreen 

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. 
8hin leaf 
Rich woods. Common. July. 

Pyrola secunda L. 
One-sided icintergreen 
Woods and thickets. Common. July. 

Chimaphila maculata L. 
Spotted wintergreen 
Dry woods west of Barton. Rare. June- July. 

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Xutt. 

Prince's pine. Pipsissewa 

Dry, rich woods. Common. June July. 

MOXOTROPAC'EAE 

Monotropa uniflora L. 

Indian pipe 

Moist, rich woods. Frequent. July. 

ERICACEAE 

Azalea nudiflora L. 

Rhododendron n u d i f 1 o r u m Torr. 

Azalea. Mayflower 

Woods and thickets. Common. May. 

Azalea canescens Michx. 
Mountain azalea 
Brush lots and borders of swamps. Common. May. 

Kalmia latifolia L. 
Mountain laurel 
Rocky woods, specially on the sides of rocky ravines. Near 
Campville, in the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western narrows 
near Owego, and on Watch hill. June. 



130 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Kalmia glauca Ait. 
Pale laurel 
Bogs north of Barton. Rare. June. 

Andromeda polifolia L. 
Wild rosemary. Moorwort 
Bogs north of Barton. Infrequent. May. 

Xolisma ligustrina (L.) Britton 
Andromeda ligustrina Muhl. 
Andromeda 
Wet or dry soil but more frequently in swamps. Common. 

June. 

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench 

Cassandra calyculata Don 
Leather leaf 
Bogs and swamps, where it forms low, dense thickets. Abund- 
ant. May. 

Epigaea repens L. 

Trailing arhutus. Maijfloioer 

Woods and bushy fields, preferring damp situations. April- 
May. 

Gaultheria procumbens L. 

Wintergreen 

Woods and thickets in soil wet or dry. Common. June-July. 

VACCINIACEAE 

Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T. & G. 

B la ck h u ck leh erry 

Woods and thickets, preferring rocky soil. Common. May. 

Vaccinium corymhosum L. 
Swamp hlueheiry 
Swamps and their borders. Common. May. 

Vaccinium atrococcum ((iray) Heller 
V. c r y m b o s u ra var. atrococcum Gray 
Black blueberry 
Swamps. Frequent. May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 131 

Vaccinium pennsylvanicum Lam. 
D taarf h lueb erry 
r^ry, rocky or sandy soil. Common. May. 

Vaccinium nigrum (Wood) Britton 
V. pennsylvanicum var. nigrum Wood 
Lori: hlack hlueherry 
Dry, rocky soil. Frequent. May. 

Vaccinium vacillans Kalm 
Loiv blueberry 
Dry soil. Common. May. 

Vaccinium stamineum L. 
Deerberry 
Dry thickets, specially on hillsides. Common. May. The 
Canada blueberry, V. canadense, which is common in nearly 
all elevated swamps, is apparently wanting in our limits. 

Chiogenes hispidula (L.) T. & G. 
C. serpyllifolia Salisb. 
Creeping snoivherry 
Bogs and cold wet woods north of Barton. May. This plant 
has the odor and flavor of birch. Its fruit is white. 

Oxycoccus oxycoccus (L.) MacM. 
Vaccinium oxycoccus L. 
Small cranberry 
Bogs north of Barton. June. 

Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait.) Pers. 
Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. 
Large cranberry 
Mutton hill pond and bogs near Barton. June. More common 
than the preceding species. 

PRIMULACEAE 
Lysimacliia quadrifolia L. 
Whorled loosestrife 
Thickets and neglected fields. Common. June-July. 



132 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B. S. P. 

L. striata Ait. 

Bulb-oearing loosestrife 

Swamps, moist thickets and the river shores. Commou. .luly- 

September. 

Lysimachia nummularia L. 

Moneywort 

Lawns and roadsides near houses. Common. June-August. 

Steironema ciliatum (L.) Eaf. 
Fringed loosestrife 
Moist thickets. Common. June- July. 

Naumbergia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby 
Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. 
Tufted loosestrife 
Swamps north of Barton. Infrequent. May-June. 

Trientalis americana Pursh 
Star flower 
Damp woods. Common. May. 

OLEACEAE 
Syringa vulgaris L. 
Lilac 
Roadsides, specially near deserted dwellings, occasionally in 
fields. Common, May. 

Fraxinus americana L. 
White ash 
Common in rich woods. Max. 

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 
F. p u b e s c e n s Lam. 
Red ash 
Moist soil. Frequent. May. 

Fraxinus nigra Marsh. 
F. s a ni b n c i f o I i a Lam. 
Black ash 
Swamps. Common. May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BO'lANIST 1902 133 

Ligustrum vulgare L. 

Privet 

Escaped from (cultivation to roadsides in tlie vicinity of Barton. 

July. 

GENTIANACEAE 

Gentiana crinita Froel. 

Fringed gentian 

Plentiful in a moist field near Apalachin. This is its only 

known station in our limits. Autumn. 

Gentiana quinquefolia L. 
G. quinque flora Lam. 
Btifl gentian. Ague weed 
Neglected fields. Common. September. 

Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. 
Closed gentian 
Moist soil, specially along streams. Frequent. August-Sep- 
tember. 

MENYANTHACEAE 
Menyanthes trifoliata L. 
Buck Ijean. Bog hean 
Bogs. Mutton hill pond. Infrequent. May-June. 

APOCYNACEAE 
Vinca minor L. 
Myrtle. Periwinkle 
Dooryards and specially abundant about old graveyards. May. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. 
Spreading dogbane 
Fields, thickets and fence rows. Common. July. 

Apocynum cannabinum L. 
Indian hemp 
Abundant on gravelly shores of the river. July-August. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 
Asclepias tuberosa L. 
Butterfly weed. Pleurisy root 
Dry fields and along railroads. Frequent. August. Abun- 
dant along the Erie railroad east of Campville. 



134 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Asclepias incamata L. 
Swamp milkueed 
Swamps and wet places. Common. July- August. 

Asclepias exaltata (L.) Mulil. 
A. p h y i o 1 a c c o i d e s Pursh 
Tall milkweed 
Open woodlands. Common. July. 

Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. 
Four-leaved milkioeed 
Woods and thickets. Common. June- July. 

Asclepias syriaca L. 
A. c o r n u t i Dec. 
Coinmon milkweed. iSilkiveed 
Fields and waste places. Very common. July. 

CON VOL V U L ACE AE 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth 
Morning-glory 
Waste places. Frequent. Escapes from cultivation. 

Convolvulus sepium L. 

Hedge hindweed 

Thickets and fields. Abundant on the river flats. Common. 

Summer. 

Convolvulus spithamaeus T.. 

Upright blndioeed 

Rocky banks. Common. June. 

Convolvulus arvensis L. 
Field Mndweed 
Along the railroad at Apalachin. Rare. July- August. 

CUSCUTACEAE 

Cuscuta coryli Engelm. 

C. i n fl e X a Engelm. 

Hazel dodder 

River flats at Campville. Rare. August. It grows on hazel 

bushes. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 135 

Cuscuta gronovii Willd. 
Dodder. Love vine 
Damp, shaded grounds, parasitic on herbs and low shrubs. 
Very common. August. 

POLEMONIACEAE 
Phlox paniculata L. 
Garden phlox 
Cultivated for its flowers, but it frequently escapes from 
gardens. July. 

Phlox maculata L. 

Wild stceet tvilliam 

Cultivated for its flowers, but it occasionally escapes from 

gardens. June-July. 

Phlox divaricata L. 

Wild hlue phlox 

Moist woods along streams, specially along Apalachin creek. 

r^ommon. May. 

Phlox subulata L. 

Ground pink. Moss pink 
Common on hillsides from Smithboro to the western limit of 
our range. April-May. 

Polemonium reptans L. 
Greek valerian. Jacob's ladder 
Low woods along the river at Barton. Scarce in the eastern 
part of our range. May. 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE 
Hydrophyllum virginicum L. 
Virginia ivaterleaf 
Woods and shady places. Common. June. 

Hydrophyllum canadense L. 
Broad-leaved watei'leaf 
Plentiful in bottom woods near Barton but not observed else- 
where in our limits. 

BORAGI>:ArEAE 

Cynoglossum officinale L. 
Hound' s-to7igue 
Fields and waste places. Frequent. June-July. 



136 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Cynoglossum virginicum L. 
Wild comfrey 
Open woods. Infrequent. May. 

Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene 
E ch i n osperm 11 ni virgin! cum Lehm. 
Beggar's lice. Virginia sticJcseed 
Woods and thickets. Common. Summer. 

Mertensia virginica (L.) DC. 
Lungioort 
Banks of the river and along streams. Abundant in some 
places. May. 

Myosotis palustris iL.) Lam. 

Forget-me-not 
Occasionally escapes from cultivation. May-June. 

Myosotis laxa Lehm. 
Small forget-me-not 
Streams and muddy places. Common. June-July. 

Lithospermum arvense L. 
Corn gronvwell 
Along railroads. Barton and Campville. Infrequent. June- 
July. 

Symphytum officinale L. 

Comfrey 
Fields and waste places. Occasional. June. 

Lycopsis arvensis L. 
Small hugloss 
Near Tioga Center. Rare. June- August. 

Echium vulgare L. 
Blueiveed. Viper's hiigloss 
Along railroads and in waste places at Owego. Common. July. 

VKRBEXACEAE 
Verbena urticifolia L, 
White vervain 
Fields, woods and waste places. Common. July- August. 



REPORT OF THE STATK P.OTANIS'I' 1902 137 

Verbena hastata L. 

Blue vervain 

Fields and waste places, specially along streams. Common. 

Jnly-Aiigust. 

LABIATAE 

Teucrium canadense L. 

Wood sage. Germander 

Common on the river flats. July- August. 

Trichostema dichotomum L. 
Blue curls 
Plentiful on the river flats opposite Apalachin. August-Sep- 
tember. 

Scutellaria lateriflora \a. 

Mad-dog skullcap 
Swamps and wet places. Common. August. 

Scutellaria galericulata L. 
Marsh skullcap 
Marshes, borders of ponds and along streams. Common. July- 
August. 

Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Willd.) Kuntze 

Lophanthus scrophulariaefolius Benth. 
Giant hyssop 
Thickets along the river banks. Infrequent. August-September. 

Nepeta cataria L. 
Catnip. Catmint 
Waste places. Common. July-November. 

Glecoma hederacea L. 
Nepeta glechoma Benth. 
Ground ivij. Gill-over-the-ground 
Woods, thickets, swamps and waste places. Common. April- 
May. 

Prunella vulgaris L. 

B r u n e 1 1 a vulgaris L. 

^elf-heal. Heal-all 

Fields, woods and pastures. Very common. June-October. 



138 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Galeopsis tetrahit L. 
Hemp nettle 
Waste places. Common. July- August. 

Leonurus cardiaca L. 
MotJierwort 
Waste places about dwellings. Common. July-August. 

Lamium amplexicaule L. 
Heribit. Dead nettle 
Thickets, waste places and cultivated ground. Infrequent. 
Apalachin and Barton. May- September. 

Lamium maculatum L. 
Spotted dead nettle 
Koadsides at Barton. June-September. 

Stachys aspera Michx. 
Rough hedge nettle 
Low grounds. Not common. July-August. 

Monarda didyma L. 

Osicego tea. American &ee balm 

Moist soil, specially along the river and creeks. Common. 

July- August. 

Monarda clinopodia L. 

Basil halm 

Plentiful on the Marshland farm, in thickets along the river and 

in Mutton hill pond woods. July. 

Monarda fistulosa L. 
Wild hergamot 
Dry soil in neglected fields. Common. July- August. 

Monarda media Willd. 
M. fistulosa var. r u 1> r a Gray 
Purple hergamot 
Moist thickets at Barton. Bare. June- August. 

Blephilia ciliata (L.) Baf. 
Doivny hlephilia 
Thickets near Apalachin. Bare. July- August. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 139 

Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. 
A m erican penn ijroya I 
Dry lielfls, specially on hills. Abundatit. August. 

Clinopodium vulgare L. 
Oalamintba cl in opod in in Benth. 
Wild l)asil 
Woods, fields and thickets. Common. Summer. 

Koellia flexuosa (Walt.) MacM. 
P y c n a n t h e ni u m 1 i n i f o 1 i u m Pursh 
Narroiv-leaved mountain mint 
- Fields near Campville. August. 

Koellia virginiana (L.) MacM. 
Pycnanthemum lanceolatum Pursh 
Virginia mountain mint 
Fields near Campville and Barton. August. 

Koellia incana (L.) Kuntze 
Pycnanthemum incanum Michx. 
Hoary mountain mint 
Thickets and dry hillsides. More common than the two pre- 
ceding species. September-October. 

Thymus serpyllum L. 
Creeping thyme 
Old graveyards. Naturalized. Summer. 

Lycopus virginicus L. 
Bugleiceed 
Wet soil. Common. August. 

Lycopus americanus Muhl. 
L. s i n u a t u s Ell. 
Cut-leaved icater hoarhound 
!>;nnp grounds. Common. July-September. 

Mentha spicata L. 
M. V i r i d i s L. 

Spearmint 
\\'('t .mound and along' streams. Common. August. 



140 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Mentha piperita L. 
Peppermint 
Wet soil and along streams. Common. August. 

Mentha citrata Ebrli. 
Berganiot mini 
Roadsides. Occasional. August. 

Mentha canadensis L. 
American wild mint 
Low ground. Common. August-September. 

Collinsonia canadensis L. 
Horse halm. Richweed. Stoneroot 
Moist woods and thickets. Common. August. Its flowers 
have an odor like that of lemons, 

SOLANACEAE 

Physalodes physalodes (L.) Biitton 

N i c a n (1 r a physalodes Gaertn. 

Apple of Peru 

Waste places, specially about gardens. August-September. 

Physalis philadelphica Lam, 
Philadelphia ground, cherry 
Waste places at A]»alachin. Rare. August. 

Physalis heterophylla Nees 
V. V i r g i n i a n a Mill. 
Clammy ground cherry 
Cultivated grounds and along railroads. Common. August- 
September. 

Solanum nigrum L. 
Black nightshade 
Waste ground at r>arton. Rare. August-September. 

Solanum carolinense L. 
Horne nettle 
Plentiful in cultivated fields near Ai>alachin. June- September. 

Solanum dulcamara L. 
Nightshade. Bittersiveet 
Waste places, along streams and in swamps, often growing in 
water. Conmion. June-September. 



REPOR'l OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 141 

Lycium vulgare (Ait.) Duual 
M a tri m ony vine 
About old. deserted dwellings. Frequent. June-August. 

Datura stramonium L. 
Thorn apple. Jimson weed 
Waste grounds. Infrequent. August. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

VerbascTim thapsus L. 
Great niullen 
Dry soil in fields. Concimon. July. 

Verbascum blattaria L. 
Moth m alien 
Pastures, fields and waysides. Frequent. July-October. 

Cymbalaria cymbalaria (L.) AVettst. 
Linaria cymbalaria Mill. 
Kenihcorth ivy 
Introduced from Europe but well established at Owego and 
growing on stone abutments facing the river. June- August. 

Linaria linaria (L.) Karst. 
L. vulgaris Mill, 
Yelloiv toadflax. Butter and eggs 
Fields and waste places. Abundant. June-October. A trouble- 
some weed. 

Scrophularia marylandica L. 

S. n (» (1 s a var. m a r .^- I a u d i c a Gray 
Figicort 
I'^ields, thickets and roadsides. Frequent. August. 

Scrophularia leporella Bickn. 
Hare figicort 
With the preceding vspecies but more common. Abundant along 
the river. June-July. 

Chelone glabra L. 

Snakehead. Balmony 
Swamps and along streams. Common. August- September. 



142 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Pentstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. 
P. p u b e 8 c e n s Solnnd. 
Hail)) hcard-tonguc 
Roadsides and banks in dry soil. Common. June. 

Pentstemon digitalis (Sweet) Nutt. 
P. laevigatus var. digitalis Gray 
Foxglove heard-tongitc 
In a meadow at Apalachin. Rare. June. 

Mimulus ringens L. 
Monkey flower 
Wet soil, specially along streams. Common. July-Sei>(eiiiber. 

Gratiola virginiana T^. 
Clam nig hedge hyssop 
Mnddy places. Common. June-September. 

Ilysanthes gratioloides (L.) Henth. 

I. riparia Raf. 

False pimpernel 

Wet soil on the shores of streams and ponds. ('omnion. 

August. 

Veronica anagallis-aqiiatica L. 

V. anagallis L. 

Water speedwell 

Plentiful in a ditch opposite Apalachin. June-August. 

Veronica americana Schw^in. 
A m erica n hroo k Urn e 
Swamps, ditches and brooks. Coiumoii. May-August, 

Veronica scutellata L. 
Marsh speedivell 
Swamps. Common. May- September. 

Veronica officinalis L. 
Common speedwell 
Dry soil in fields and woods. Common. June-August. 

Veronica serpyllifolia L. 
Thyme-leaved speedwell 
Fields and thickets. Very common. May-July. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 143 

Veronica peregrina L. 
Purslane speedwell 
An abundant weed in cultivated ground. June-September. 

Veronica arvensis L, 
Corn speedwell 
Woods, fields and cultivated ground. Common. May-August. 

Veronica byzantina (S. & S.) B, S. P. 
V. b u X b a u ni i i Tenore 
Byzantine speedwell 
Waste places and gardens. Frequent. May- September. 

Veronica spicata L. 
^■Spiked speedwell 
Establisb(Hl in iiM'addw lands near Apalacbin. August. 

Leptandra virginica (L.) TS'utt. 
Veronica ^' i r g i n i c a Iv. 
Culver's root 
River flats. Common. June-August. 

Dasystoma pedicularia (L.) Bentb. 
G e r a r d i a pedicularia L. 
Fern-lea red false foxglove 
Dry soil in woods and thickets. Frequent. August. 

Dasystoma flava (L.) W^ood 
Gerardia flava L. 
Doiriij/ false foxglove 
Dry, open woods and thickets. Common. July-August. 

Dasystoma virginica (L.) Britton 
Gerardia quercifolia Pursh 
Smooth false foxglov>e 
Dry soil in woods and thickets. Frequent. July- August. This 
and the two preceding species are sometimes found growing to- 
gether. 

Gerardia tenuifolia Vabl 
Slender gerardia 
Roadsides and coppices on hillsides. Frequent. August-Sep- 
tember. 



144 NEW YORK STATE MUSEr:M 

Pedicularis canadensis L. 
Wood hetony. Louseworf 
Drj', open thickets. Common. May-June. 

Melampyrum lineare Laii'. 
M. americanum Michx. 
N a rrow -leaved coicwheat 
Dry woods and thickets. Common. June-August. 

LENTIBULARIACEAE 
Utricularia vulgaris L. 
Co in I IK) It B la dderwort 
Still or sluggish waters. Common. July. 

OKOHANCHACEAE 

Thalesia uniflora (L.) Britton 

Aphylloii uniflorum Gray 

Naked broom rape 

Dry thickets near Apalachin. May. 

Leptamnium virginiamim (L.) Raf. 
E p i p h e 2: n s v i r g i n i a n a Bart. 
Beech drops 
I'nder beech trees. Frequent. September-October. 

BIGN()XI.\('EAE 

Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst. 

C bignonioides Walt. 

Catalpa. Indian bean 

Planted as a shade tree, but sometimes becomes spontaneous. 

July. 

AC^AXTHACEAE 

Dianthera americana L. 
Water willow 
Common in the river from Sniithboro westward, but not 
found in the eastern part of our range. July- August. 

Pllin MACKAE 
Phryma leptostachya L. 
Lopseed 
Woods and thickets. Frequent. July-August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 145 

PLANT AGINACEAE 
Plantago major L. 
Common plantain 
Waste places. Common. Summer. 

Plantago rugelii Dec. 
RugeVs plantain 
Waste places. Common. Summer. 

Plantago lanceolata L. 
English plantain. Rihgrass 
Waste places and grass lands. Very common. May-October. 

Plantago aristata Michx. 
Recently introduced into a grain field and now spreading 
rapidly. June- September. 

Plantago virginica L. 
Dwarf plantain 
Meadows 1 mile south of Barton. Plentiful. May-June. 

RUBIACEAE 
Houstonia coerulea L. 
Bluets. Innocence 
Meadows and pastures, specially in moist soil. Common. July. 

Galium trifidum L. 
Small hedstraio 
Bogs and cold swamps. Frequent. Summer. 

CAPRI FOLIACEAE 

Sambucus canadensis Michx. 

Siveet elder 

Roadsides, fence rows and bottom lands. Common. July. 

Sambucus pubens Michx. 
S. r a c e m s a L. 
Red-berried elder 
Moist soil in rocky woods. Common. May. 

Viburnum alnifolium Marsh. 
V. lantanoidps Michx. 
HohhlehiisJt 
Low woods Frequent. May. 



14(1 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Viburnum opulus L. 
High hush cranhernj. Cramp hark 
Swamps near Barton. Infrequent. June. 

Viburnum acerifolium L. 
Maple-leaved arroicirood. Dockniackie 
Dry, rofky woods. Common. June. 

Viburnum pubeseens (Ait.j Pursh 
Doivny-leaved arrowwood 
Roiky woods. Common. June. 

Viburnum dentatum L. 
Arrowtcood, 
Borders of swamps. Common. June. 

Viburnum cassinoides L. 
Withe-rod. Appalachian tea 
Swamps and low ground. Common. June. 

Viburnum lentago L. 
Isfannyherry. Sheepherry 
Low ground. Common. May. 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. 
Feverwort. Horse gentian 
Borders of woods, specially along the river. Frequent. June. 

Linnaea borealis L. 
Twin floicer 
Dam]), shrubby field near Apalachin. Rare. June. 

Symphoricarpus racemosus Michx. 
Snoivherry 
Plentiful along the river banks at Barton, also frequent by 
roadsides where it has escaped from cultivation. June-August. 

Lonicera dioica 1.. 
L. glauca Hill 
(J la H con s lioHi '!/siii •/.• le 
Dry soil in thickets and along fences. Fre(}uent. June. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 147 

Lonicera ciliata Miihl. 
Fly honeysuckle 
Moist woods. Com Dion. May. 

Lonicera tatarica L. 
Tartarian l)ush Jioneysuckle 
Eoadsides. Escaped from cultivation. May. 

Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM. 

D. trifida Moench 

Bush honeysuckle 

Dry, rocky, woodland roadsides and fence rows. Common. 

June. 

^■ALEHIA^'ACEAE 

Valerianella chenopodif olia ( Pursh ) 1 )C. 

Goosefoot corn salad 

Moist meadows along the river. Frequent. June-July. 

Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr. 
Beaked corn salad 
Bottom land at Barton. Frequent. June-July. 

DIPSACACEAE 
Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. 
Card teasel 
Waste places. Common. July-August. 

CUCURBITACEAE 

Micrampelis lobata (Michx.) Greent' 

Echinocystis lobata T. & G. 

Wild halsam apple 

River banks and waste places. Common. July- August. 

Sicyos angulatas L. 

Star cucumber 

River banks and waste places. Common. July-September. 

CAMPANULACEAE 
Campanula rotundifolia L. 
Harebell 
Rocks near Barton. Rare. July-August. 



148 NEW YORK STATE Ml'SEUM 

Campanula rapunculoides L. 
European hellflower 
Roadsides and about old dwellings. Common. July-Septem- 
ber. 

Campanula aparinoides Pursh 

Marsh hellflower 
Wet, grassy places. Common. July-August. 

Legouzia perfoliata (L.) Brittcni 
Specularia perfoliata A. DC. 
Venus looking-glass 
Fields, roadsides and in cultivated soil. Common. June. 

Lobelia cardinalis L. 
Cardinal floicer 
Shores of streams. Common. July- August. 

Lobelia sypliilitica L. 

Great lohelia 

Wet meadows and borders of swamps. Frequent. August. 

Lobelia spicata Lam. 
Spiked lohelia 
Meadows and pastures. Common. July. 

Lobelia inflata L. 
Indian tohacco 
Fields and thickets. Common. July. 

CICHOKIACEAE 
Cichorium intybus L. 
Chicory 
Fields and roadsides. Frequent. August. 

Tragopog'on pratensis L. 
Goafs heard 
Frequent along railroads. Summer. 

Tragopogon porrifolius L. 
Oyster plant. Salsify 
Escapes from cultivation. Summer. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 149 

Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) Karst. 

T. officinale Weber 

Dandelion 

Fields and waste places. Very common. April-December. 

Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. 
Red-seeded dandelion 
Fields and waste places. Common. Easily distinguished from 
the last by its brownish red seeds. 

Sonchus oleraceus L. 
Annual sow thistle 
Waste places, specially along railroads. Common. June- 
October. 

Sonchus asper (L.) All. 

Spiny sow thistle 
With the last. Common. June-October. 

Lactuca virosa L. 
Prickly lettuce 
Waste places. Common. August-September. A very trouble- 
some weed, which is fast spreading. 

Lactuca canadensis L. 
Tall lettuce 
Thickets and fence rows. Common. July-September. 

Lactuca villosa Jacq. 
L. acuminata Gray 
Blue lettuce 
Thickets. Frequent. August. 

Lactuca spicata (Lani.) Hitch. 
L. 1 e u c o p h a e a Gray 
Tall hlue lettuce 
Moist soil. Common. August- September. 

Hieracium aurantiacum L. 
Orange haicku'eed. Paint brush 
Fields. It often forms dense patches. Common. June-Sep- 
tember. 



150 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Hieracium praealtum Vill. 
King devil 
111 a meadow near Apalachin. Rare. June- August. 

Hieracium venosum L. 
Rattlesnake weed 
Dry woods and thickets. Common. June- August. 

Hieracium canadense Michx. 
Canada liawkweed 
Dry woods and thickets. Frequent. August. 

Hieracium paniculatum L. 
Panicled hawkweed 
Dry, open woods. Common, August. 

Hieracium scabrum Michx. 
Rough hawkweed 
Dry soil in woods and clearings. Common. August. 

Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook. 
1 * r e n a n t h e s a 1 1 i s s i m a L. 
Tall 'White lettuce 
Woods and thickets. Common. August-October. 

ISTffbalus albus (L.) Hook. 
P r e n a n t h e s alba L. 
White lettuce. Rattlesnake root 
Thickets and borders of woods. Common. August- September. 

Nabalus serpentarius (Pursh) Hook. 
P r e n a 11 1 h e s s e r p e n t a r i a Pursh 
Lion's foot. Gall-of-the-earth 
Thickets and o{)en woods. Common. August- September. 

AMBROSIACEAE 
Ambrosia trifida L. 
Great ragweed, 
Abundant along the river banks. August- September. 

Ambrosia trifida integrifolia (Mnhl.) T. & G. 
With the type. Frequent. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 151 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L. 
Ragweed. Hogweed 
Cultivated soil and waste places. A very common weed. 
August- September. 

Xanthium canadense ^lill. 

American cocklehur 
River banks, along streams and in waste places. Common. 
August- September. 

Xanthium strumarium L. 
Bur weed 
>\'aste places. Occasional. .Vugust-September. 

COMPOSITAE 
Eupatorium piirpureum L. 
Trumpet weed. Gravelroot 
?i!ois1 soil. Common. August-September. 

Eupatorium purpureum falcatum (Michx.) Britton 
U itli the type, specially along the river. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 
Boneset. Tlwrouglircort 
^\■et places. Common. August-Septeinber. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum truncatum fMuhl.) Gray 
Vicinity of Apalachin. Infrequent. 

Eupatorium ageratoides L.f. 
White snokeroot 
Woods and thickets. Common. Occasional in shaded places 
near dwellings. August- September. 

Solidago squarrosa Muhl. 
Stout ragged goldenrod 
Dry, rocky soil on hill (ops and along roadsides. Common. 
September. 

Solidago caesia L. 

Blue-stemmed goldenrod 
Woods and thickets. Common. August-September. 

Solidago caesia axillaris (rursh) Gray 
Woods and thickets. Common. 



152 NEW YORK STATE MUSKUM 

Solidago flexicaulis L. 
S. 1 a t i f o 1 i a L. 
Broad-leaccd goldenrod 
Kich, moist woods and thickets. Common. August- September. 

Solidago bicolor L. 
White goldenrod 
'I'liiokets and I'oadsides. Common. August- September, 

Solidago hispida Mubl. 
S. hi (() I () r var. c o n e o 1 o r T. «.V: (1. 
Edirjj goldenrod 
hrv soil in thickets. Frequeut. August- September. 

Solidago rugosa Mill. 

Rough goldenrod 

F'ields. fen(:e rows and roadsides. Very common. August- 

Sei»tember. 

Solidago patula Muhl. 

Rough-leaved goldenrod 

Swantps at Apalachiu and Barton. Infrequent. September. 

Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. 
Elm-leaved goldenrod 
Woods, coppices and dry slopes. Infrequent. August-Sep- 
tember. 

Solidago juncea Ait. 

Earlij goldenrod 

Dry, rocky soil of fields and banks. Common. July. This is 

our earliest blooming species and is sometimes found in flower 

late in June. 

Solidago arguta Ait. 

Cut-leaved goldenrod 

.M(»ist thickets. Frequent. July-September. 

Solidago serotina Ait. 
Smooth goldenrod 
.Moist soil. Common. August-September, 

Solidago serotina gigantea (Ait.) Gray 
With the type and nearly as common. August-September. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



153 



Solidago canadensis L. 
Canada goldenrod 
Old fields, fence rows and roadsides. Abundant. August- 
September. 

Solidago nemoralis Ait. 

Field goldenrod 

l*oor, rocky soil in old fields. Very common. August-tSep- 

tember. 

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. 

Solidago lanceolata L. 

Narroiv-leaved goldenrod 

r'ields and roadsides. Very common. August. 

Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. 
S. eonyzoides Nees 
White-topped astei' 
Dry woods. Frequent. August. 

Aster divaricatus L. 
A. corymbosus Ait. 
White wood aster 
Open woodland and thickets. . Common. September. 

Aster curvescens Burgess 
Dome-topped, aster 
Moist, shaded soil. Common. September. 

Aster macrophyllus L. 
Large-leaved aster 
Woods and thickets. Common. August. A species having 
many different forms. 

Aster ianthinus Burgess 
Violet wood aster 
Wooded banks and paths. Frequent. August-September. 

Aster cordifolius L. 
Common hlne wood aster 
Open woods, fence rov.s. lliickcls and s]»e(ially along woodland 
roads. Common. September-November. 



154 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Aster cordifolius polycephalus Porter 
With the type. Occasional. 

Aster lowrieanus Porter 
Loiorie's aster 
Woods. Common. September-October. 

Aster lowrieanus lancifolius Porter 
With the type. 

Aster undulatus L, 

Wavy-leaf aster 
1 )ry soil. Common. September. 

Aster undulatus loriformis Burgess 
With the type. Common. September. 
Aster patens Ait. 
Late purple aster 
Dry, open places. Fre()nenl. September. 

Aster novae-angliae L. 

l<[ew England aster 

Fields and fence rows. (Common. August-September. A 

splendid species. 

Aster puniceus L. 

Ihirple-stem aster 
Swamps and wet places. Common. September. 

Aster puniceus firmus (Nees) T. & C 
A s t e r puniceus var. 1 a e v i c a u 1 i s (Ji-iy 
With the type. Frequent. September. 

Aster prenanthoides Muhl. 
Vrooked-stcin aster 
Moisi soil. Common. September-October. 

Aster iaevis L. 

Smooth aster 

liordors of woods and tliickets. (-ommon. September. A 

beautiful species. 

Aster acuminatus Michx. 

Mountain aster 

Moist woods. Common. August-Se}>tember. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 155 

Aster paniculatus Lam. 
Tall ivJiite aster 
Moist soil, Comraon. September. 

Aster ericoides L. 
White heath aster 
Dry soil. Common. September-November. 

Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton 
A. diffusus Ait. 
Starved aster 
Fields, roadsides and thickets. Common. September. 

Aster vimineus Lam. 
Small luhite aster 
Borders of thickets. Frequent. September. 

Erigeron pulchellus Michx. 
E. bellidif olius Muhl. 
Robin's plantain 
Banks. Common. May. 

Erigeron philadelphicus L. 
Philadelphia fleahane 
Moist, grassy fields and woods. Common. May-June. 

Erigeron annnus (L.) Pcrs. 
Sweet scahious 
Fields and roadsides. Common. May-October. 

Erigeron raniosus (Walt.) B. S. P. 
E. s t r i p; o s u s Muhl. 
Dainy fieahaiie 
A common weed in meadows. June- September. 

Leptilon canadense (L.) Britton 
Erigeron canadensis L. 
Canada fleabane. Horse weed 
A very common weed in fields and waste places. July-Se])- 
tember. 

Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees 
Aster u m b e 1 1 a t u s Mill. 
Tall fat-top white aster 
Afoist soil near Apalachin. August. 



I of) NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Doellingeria infinna (Michx.) Greene 
Aster infirm us Michx. 
Cornel-leaved aster 
Dry, rocky soil in woods and thickets. Frequent. August- 
September. 

Antennaria neglecta Greene 

Field cat's-foot 
Pastures. Common. April-May. 

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards. 
Plantain-leaf everlasting 
Woods and old fields. Common. April-May. 

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. 
Pearly everlasting 
Old fields. Common. August. 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. 
G. polycephalum Michx. 
White halsani 
Dry, open places. Common. August. 

Gnaphalium decurrens Ives 
Clammy everlasting 
Dry, open places. Common. August. 

Gnaphalium uliginosum L. 
Loiv cudweed 
Damp soil, specially along roadsides. Common. August. 

•Inula helenium L. 
Elecampane 
Fields, roadsides and along streams in woods. Common. Au- 
gust. 

Polymnia canadensis L. 
Small- flowered leaf cup 
" Hog back " near Apalachin. Rare. August. 

Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) B. S. P. 
H. laevis Pers. 
Oxeye 
Common on the banks of the river and along streams. August. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 157 

Rudbeckia hirta L. 
Bknk-ejjed siisaii. Yellow daisy 
Meadows and pastures. Common. June-August. 

Rudbeckia laciniata L. 
Tall conefloicer 
Damp soil in thickets. Common. July- August. 

Helianthus annuus L. 
Common sunfloiuer 
Waste places. Frequent. August. 

Helianthus divaricatus L. 
Rough sunflo'icer 
Dry thickets. Common. July-August. 

Helianthus decapetalus L. 
Thin-leaved sunfioicer 
Along the river and in moist woods. Common. August-Sep- 
tember. 

Helianthus strumosus L. 

Wood sunflower' 
Plentiful in a thicket near Apalachin. August-September. 

Helianthus tuberosus L. 
Jerusalem artichoke 
River banks and waste places. Common. September. Appa- 
rently indigenous in the river valley. 

Bidens laevis (L.) B. S. P. 
B. chrysanthemoides Michx. 
Larger bur marigold 
Swamps, ditches and wet meadows. Common. August-Sep- 
tember. 

Bidens cernua L. 
Smaller hiir marigold 
Wet soil. Common. August- September. 

Bidens connata Muhl. 
Swamp h eg gar ticks 
Swamps and moist soil. Common. August- September. 



158 NEW YORK S'l'ATE MUSEUM 

Bidens frondosa L. 
Beggar ticks. Stick-tight 
Damp soil in fields. Very common. An gust- September. 

Galinsoga parviflora Cav. 
GaUnsoga 
Dooryards and waste places at Owego and Waverly. Plentiful. 
August-September. 

Helenium autumnale L. 

Sneezeiveed 
Banks of the river, along streams and in swamps. Common. 
September-October. 

Achillea millefolium L. 

Yarrotv. Milfoil 
Fields, pastures and roadsides. Common. June- September. 

Anthemis cotula L. 
Mayweed 
Fields, waste places and roadsides. Common. June-Septem- 
ber. 

Anthemis arvensis L. 

Corn camomile 
Fields, specially on the river flats. Common. May-June. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 
White daisy 
Meadows and fields. Abundant. May-August. 

Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers. 
Common feverfew 
Frequent in waste places at Apalachin. Summer. Escfipes 
from cultivation in gardens. 

Tanacetum vulgare L. 
Tansy 
Fields, roadsides and along streams. Common. August-Sep- 
tember. 

Artemisia absinthium L. 

Wormwood 
Waste i)laces at Barton. July-September. 



REPORT OF THE STATE ROTANIST 1902 159 

Artemisia vulgaris L. 
Common mugwort 
Waste places at Barton. July- September. 

Tussilago farfara L. 
Coltsfoot 
Moist soil by roadsides. Infrequent. April-May. 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. 
Fireiceed 
Woodland and thickets, specially in recent clearings and burnt 
districts. Common. August-September. 

Synosma suaveolens (L.) Raf. 
Cacalia suaveolens L. 
Sweet-scented Indian plantain 
Alluvial soil and woods along the river. Frequent. Septem- 
ber. 

Senecio aureus L. 

Golden ragivort. Liferoot 
Swamps. Avet meadows and along streams. Common. May- 
June. 

Arctium lappa L. 

Burdock 
Waste places. Frequent. July-September. 

Arctium minus Schk. 
Common burdock 
Waste places, specially about dwellings. Common. July-Oc- 
tober. 

Carduus lanceolatus L. 

Cnicus lanceolatus Hoffm. 
Common tur thistle 
Fields and waste places. Common. July-October. 

Carduus discolor (Muhl.) Nutt. 
Cnicus altissimus var. discolor Gray 
Field thistle 
Plentiful in fields along the river. Julv-October. 



1()() NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carduus odoratus (Muhl.) X*orter 
C n i c u s p u m i 1 u s Torr. 

Pasture thistle. Fragrant thistle 
Fields. Frequent. July-Angust. 

Carduus muticus (Michx.) IN^rs. 
Cniciis muticus Pursh 
Swamp thistle 
Swamps and along streams. Common. August. 

Carduus arvensis (L.) Robs. 
Cnieus arvensis Hoffm. 
Canada thistle 
Abundant in fields and waste places. Jnly-Septoinbcr. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE M 

Hygrophorus subrufescens Pk. 
Reddish Hygrophorus 
L 2 Two plants with convex cap 
3, 4 Two plants with margin of cap curved upward 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

6 Four spores X 400 

Collybia uniformis Pk. 
Uniform Collybia 

7 Cluster of four plants growing from the upper surface 

of a piece of wood, two of them young, two mature 

8 Cluster of three mature plants growing from the lateral 

surface of a piece of wood 
9-11 Three mature plants, one with curved stem 

1 2 Vertical section of the upper ])art of a mature plant with 

fully expanded cap 

13 Transverse section of a stem 

14 Vertical siection of the upper part of a plant with convex 

cap 

15 Transverse section of a compressed stem 
10 Four spores X 400 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 161 

Mycena rugosoides Pk. 

Wrinkled Mycena 
17-19 Three plants with dark brown cafjs, two moist, one dry, 
two with caps unibonate 

20 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

21 Transverse section of a stem 

22 Four spores x 400 

23-25 Three plants with grayish brown caps, one moist, two 
dry, two with caps umbonate 

26 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

27 Transverse section of a stem 

28 Four spores X 400 

29-31 Three plants with whitish caps, one moist, two dry, two 
with caps umbonate 

32 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

33 Transverse section of a stem 

34 Four spores X 400 

Flammula pusilla Pk. 
Small Flammula 
35, 36 Two immature plants 

37 Mature plant with convex cap 

38 Mature plant with plane cap 

39 Vertical section of the upjjer part of an immature plant 

40 Vertical section of the upj)er part of a mature plant 

41 Four spores X 400 

PLATE N 

Russula magnifica Pk. 
Magnificent Russula 

1 Small immature plant 

2 Mature plant of medium size 

3 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

4 Four spores X 400 

Russula earlei Pk. 

Earle's Russula 

5 Immature plant 

6, 7 Mature plants with convex caps 

8 Mature plant with cap nearly plane 

9 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 
10 Four spores X 400 



162 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

PLATE 82 

Tricholoma silvaticum Pk. 
Wood Tricholoma 
1, 2 Two i»lants with umbonate caps 

3 Plant with convex cap 

4 Plant with plane cap 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

Fuiii- spores X 400 

^ Tricholoma subacutum Pk. 

Subacute Tricholoma 

7 Immature plant with grayish brown cap 

8 Mature plant with grayish brown cap 

9-11 Three plants with blackish brown fibrillose caps 

12 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

13 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

14 Four spores X 400 

Tricholoma radicatum Pk. 
Rooted Tricholoma 
15, 16 Two plants with smoothish caps 

17 Plant with minutely scaly cap 

18 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

19 Four spores X 400 

plate 83 

Hygrophorus pudorinus Fr. 
Blushing Hygrophorus 

1 Cluster of four young plants 

2 Mature plant with convex cap 

3 Mature plant with slightly umbonate cap 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a young plant 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 
() Four spores X 400 

Lactarius luteolus Pk. 

Yellowish Lactarius 

7 Immature plant 

8 Mature plant with even cap 

9 Mature plant with cap rugose 

10 Vertical section of the u])]»or part of a plant 

11 Four sjiores X 400 



UEl'OR'l' OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 163 

Lactarius subdulcis Fv. 
Sweet Lactarius 

12 luimatiire plant 

13-15 Mature plants, two having caps with a small umbo 

16 Mature plant with margin of cap wavy 

17 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

18 Transverse section of a stem 

19 Four s])orPS X 4<t() 

Lactarius subdulcis oculatus Pk. 
Eye-spot Lactarius 

20 Immature ]>lant 
21, 22 Mature plants 

23 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

24 Four spores X 40O 

PLATE 84 

Russula crustosa Pk. 
Crusted Russula 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant with striated margin of cap 

3 Mature plant with even margin of cap tinged with green 

4 Mature plant with plane cap 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a young plant 

6 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

7 Four spores X 400 

Cantharellus dichotomus Pk. 
Forked Chantarelle 
8-10 Three plants with dark gray umbonate caps, two of them 
with reddish stains on the stems 
11, 12 Two plants with pale gray caps, one with a small umbo 

13 Plant with a grayish brown, wavy, margined cap 
14, 15 Vertical sections of the upper part of two plants 

16 Four spores X 400 
17-20 Four plants with short stems 

21 Diagrammatic representation of the forking of the gills 




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INDEX 



Abutilon abutilon, 121 

avicennae, 121 
Acalyphavirginica, 110 
Acanthaceae, 144 
Acer dasycarpum, 118 

nigrum, 119 

peimsylvanicum, 119 

rubrum, 118 

saccharinum, 118 
var. nigrum, 119 

saccharum, 118 

spicatum, 119 
Aceraceae, 118 
Achillea millefolium, 158 
Acorus calamus, 76 
Actaea alba, 96 

rubra. 95 

spieata var. rubra, 95 
Adder's-tongue, yellow, 79 
Adiantum pedatum, 51 
Adicea pumila, 88 
Adlumia cirrhosa, 99 

fungosa, 99 
Aecidium ligustri, 28 
Aesoulus hippocastanum, 119 
Agastache scrophulariaefolia, 137 
Agrimonia hirsuta, 108 

striata, 108 
Agrimony, ta'l hairy, 108 

woodland, 108 
Agropyron caninum, 66 

repens, 66 
Agrostemma githago, 92 
Agrostis alba, 60 

hyemalis, 61 

pernnans, 61 

scabra, 61 

stolonifera, 60 

vulgaris, 60 
Ague weed, 133 
Ailanthus glandulosus, 1 16 
Aizoaceae, 92 
Alder, black, 118 
Alexanders, golden, 126 

heart-leaved, 127 
Alfalfa, 111 



Alisma plantago-aquatica, 55 
Alismaceae, 55 
Alleghany vine, 99 
Allium canadense, 78 

cernuum, 78 

tricoccum, 78 
Alopecurus geniculatus, 60 
var. aristulatus, 60 

pratensis, 60 
Alsine borealis, 94 

graminea, 93 

longifolia, 93 

media, 93 
Alum root, 115 
Amanita fiavoconia, 21-22 
Amanitopsis strangulata. 35 

volvata, 35 
Amaranth, prostrate, 91 

red, 91 
Amaranthaceae, 91-92 
Amaranthus albus, 92 

blitoides, 91 

graecizans, 92 

hybridus, 91 
paniculatus, 91 

hypochondriacus, 91 

paniculatus, 91 

retroflexus, 91 
Amaryllidaceae, 80 
Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, 151 

trifida, 150 

integrifolia, 150 
Ambrosiaceae, 150-51 
Amelanchier botrj^apium, 109 

canadensis, 109 

var. oblongifolia, 109 

spieata, 109 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 120 
Amphicarpa monoica, 114 
Amygdalus persica. 111 
Anacardiaceae, 117 
AnaphaHs margaritacea, 156 
Andromeda, 130 

ligustrina, 130 

polifolia, 130 



IGd 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Andropogon furcatus, 56 

scoparius, 55 
Anemone, Canada, 96 

long-fruited, 96 

tall, 96 
Anemone canadensis, 96 

cylindrica, 96 

nemorosa, 96 

pennsylvanica, 96 

quinquefolia, 96 

virginiana, 96 
Angelica, hairy, 126 

purple-stemmed, 126 
Angelica atropurpurea, 126 

hirsuta, 126 

villosa, 126 
Antennaria ambigens, 19 

brainerdii, 19-20 

fallax, 19 

neglecta, 156 
simplex, 33 

petaloidea, 20 

plantaginifolia, 156 
Anthemis arvensis, 158 

cotula, 158 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, 58 
Anychia canadensis, 94 
Aphyllon uniflorum, 144 
Apios apios, 114 

tuberosa, 114 
Apocynaceae, 133 
Apocynum, androsaemifolium, 133 

cannabinum, 133 
Apple, 109 

thorn, 141 

wild balsam, 147 
Apple of Peru, 140 
Aquilegia canadensis, 96 

vulgaris, 96 
Arabis canadensis, 102 

dentata, 102 

glabra, 102 

hirsuta, 102 

laevigata, 102 

lyrata, 102 

perfoliata, 102 
Araceae, 76 
Araliahispida, 125 

nudicaulis, 125 

quinquefolia, 125 



Aralia racemosa, 125 

trifolia, 125 
Araliaceae, 125 
Arbutus, trailing, 130 
Arctium lappa, 1 59 

minus, 159 
Arenaria lateriflora, 94 

serpyllifolia, 94 
Arisaema dracontium, 76 

pusillum, 20 

triphyllum, 76 
Aristida dichotoma, 59 
Aristolochiaceae, 88 
Aronia arbutifolia, 109 

nigra, 109 
Arrhenatherum elatius, 61 
Arrowhead, broad-leaved, 55 

grass-leaved, 55 

sessile-fruiting, 55 
Arrowwood, 146 

downy-leaved, 146 

maple-leaved, 146 
Artemisia absinthium, 158 

stelleriana, 19 

vulgaris, 159 
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 157 
Arum, water, 76 
Asarum canadense, 88. 

reflexum, 88. 
Asclepiadaceae, 133-34 
Asclepias cornuti, 134 

exaltata, 134 

incarnata, 134 

phytolaccoides, 134 

quadrifolia, 134 

syriaca, 134 

tuberosa, 133 
Ascobolus atrofuscus, 31 
Ash, American mountain, 108 

black, 132 

prickly, 116 

red, 132 

white, 132 
Asparagus, 79 
Asparagus officinalis, 79 
Aspen, American, 84 

large-toothed, 84 
Aspidium acrostichoides, 49 

boottii, 50 

cristatum, 50 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



1G7 



.Aspidium cristatum cruitoniaiium, 50 
marginale, 50 
noveboracense, 49 
spiniilosum, 50 

var. intermedium, 50 
thelypteris, 50 
Asplenium acrostichoides, 51 
ebeneum, 51 
filix-foemina, 51 
platyneuron, 51 
thelypteroides, 51 
trichomanes, 51 
Asprella liy.strix, 60 
Aster, cornel-leaved, 156 
crooked-stem, 154 
dome-topped, 153 
large-leaved, 153 
Lowrie's, 154 
mountain, 154 
New England, 154 
purple, late, 154 
purple-stem, 154 
smooth, 154 
starved, 155 
wavy-leaf, 154 
white, small, 155 

tall, 155 

tall flat-top, 155 
white heath, 155 
white-topped, 153 
wood, common blue, 153 

violet, 153 

white, 153 
Aster acuminatus, 154 
cordifolius, 153 

polycephalus, 154 
corymbosus, 153 
curvescens, 153 
diffusus, 155 
divaricatus, 153 
ericoides, 155 
ianthinus, 153 
infirmus, 150 
laevis, 154 
lateriflorus, 155 
lowrieanus, 154 

lancifolius, 154 
macrophyllus, 153 
novae-angliae, 154 
paniculatus, 155 



Aster patens, 154 

prenanthoides, 154 

puniceus, 154 
firmus, 154 
var. laevicauli.s, 154 

roscidus, 19 

umbellatus, 155 

undulatus, 154 
loriformis, 154 

vimineus, 155 
Atragene americana,j97 
Atri);lex hastata, 91 

patulum var. hastatum, 91 
Avena striata, 61 
Avens, purple, 107 

rough, 107 

water, 107 

white, 107 

yellow, 108 
Azalea, 129 

mountain, 129 
Azalea canescens, 129 

nudiflora, 129 

Balm, American bee, 138 

basil, 138 

horse, 140 
Balm of GUead, 84 
Balmony, 141 
Balsam, white, 156 
Balsam apple, wild, 147 
Balsaminaceae, 119 
Baneberry, red, 95 

white, 96 
Barbarea barbarea, 101 

stricta, 101 

vulgaris var. arcuata, 101 
var. stricta, 101 
Barberry, European, 98 
Barnyard grass, 56 
Basil, wild, 139 
Bass wood, 120 
Bean, Indian, 144 
Beard grass, broom, 55 

forked, 56 
Beard-tongue, foxglove, 142 

hairy, 142 
Bedstraw, small, 145 
Beech, water, 86 
Beech drops, 144 
Beggar ticks, 158 



168 



NliVV YOKK STATK MUSEUM 



Beggar ticks, swamp, 157 
Beggar's lice, 136 
Bellflower, European, 148 

marsh, 148 
Bell wort, large-flowered, 78 

perfoliate, 78 

sessile-leaved, 78 
Benjamin bush, 99 
Benzoin benzoin, 99 
Berberidaceae, 98 
Berberis vulgaris, 98 
Bergamot, purple, 138 

Avild, 138 
Betony, wood, 144 
Betulaeeae, 86-87 
BicucuUa canadensis, 99 

cucullaria, 99 
Bidens cernua, 157 

chrysanthemoides, 157 

connata, 157 

frondosa, 158 

laevis, 157 
Bignoniaceae, 144 
Bindweed, black, 90 

field, 134 

fringed black, 90 

hedge, 134 

upright, 134 
Bitternut, 83 
Bittersweet, 140 

climbing, 118 
Black-eyed Susan, 157 
Blackberry, high bush, 1 06 

mountain, 106 

running swamp, 106 
Bladder nut, American, 118 
Bladderwort, common, 144 
Blazing star, 78 
Blephilia, downy, 138 
Blephilia ciliata, 138 
Bloodroot, 99 
Blue curls, 137 
Blue-eyed grass, pointed, 81 

stout, 81 
Blue grass, English, 63 

Kentucky, 63 
Blue joint grass, 61 
Blue stem, big, 56 

little, 55 
Blueberry, black, 130 



Blueberry, black low, 131 [ 

dwarf, 131 

low, 131 

swamp, 130 
Bluets, 145 
Blueweed, 136 
Boehmeria cylindrica, 88 
Bog bean, 133 
Boneset, 151 
Boraginaceae, 135-36 
Botrychium dissectum, 48 

matricariae, 21 

obliquvun, 48 

ternatuum var. dissectum,' 48 
var. obliquum, 48 

virginianum, 48 
Bouncing bet, 93 
Bowman's root, 105 
Brachj^elytrum, 59 

aristatum, 59 

erectum, 59 
Bracken, 51 
Brake, 51 
Brasenia peltata, 94 

purpurea, 94 
Brassica arvensis, 100 

campestrls, 100 

napus, 100 

nigra, 100 

sinapistrum, 100 
Brier, hispid green, 80 
Britton, Nathaniel L., acknowledg- 
ments to, 48 
Bromus ciliatus, 65 
purgans, 65 

kalraii, 65 

pubescens, 65 

racemosus, 65 

secalinus, 65 
Brooklime, American, 142 
Broom rape, naked, 144 
Brunella vulgaris, 137 
Buck bean, 133 
Buckthorn, 119 

alder-leaved, 119 
Buckwheat, 89 

climbing false, 90 
Bugleweed, 139 
Bugloss, small, 136 

viper's, 136 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTAXIST 1902 



109 



Bulrush, dark green, 68 

great, 68 

leafy, 68 

Torrey's, 68 
Bunchberry, 128 
Bur reed, broad-fruited, 54 

simple-stemmed, 54 
Bur weed, 151 
Burdock, 159 

common, 159 
Burgess, Edward S., acknowledg- 
ments to, 48 
Bursa bursa-pastoris, 102 
Bush clover, hairy, 114 

round-headed, 114 

trailing, 113 

wandlike, 114 
Butter and eggs, 141 
Buttercup, bristly, 97 

early, 98 

hispid, 98 

meadow, 97 

swamp, 98 
Butterfly weed, 133 
Butternut, 83 
Buttonwood, 105 
Buxbaumia indusiata, 35 

Cacalia suaveolens, 159 
Caesalpinaceae, 111 
CalamagrostLs canadensis, 61 

cinnoides, 61 

nuttalliana, 61 
Calamintha clinopodium, 139 
Caldesia sabinae, 31 
Calla, wild, 76 
Calla palustris, 76 
Callitrichaceae, 117 
Callitriche palustris, 117 

verna, 117 
Calloria caulophylli, 31 
Calopogon, 83 

pulchellus, 83 
Caltha palustris, 95 
Camomile corn, 158 
Campanula aparinoides, 148 

rapunculoides, 148 

rotundifolia, 147 
Campanulaceae, 147-48 
Campion, bladder, 92 

starry, 92 



Camptosorus rhizophyllus, 51 
Canary grass, 58 

reed, 58 
Cannabis sativa, 87 
Cantharellus cibarius alljipcs, 37 

dichotomus, 46-47 

explanation of plate, 163 
Caprifoliaceae, 145-47 
Capsella bursa-pastoris, 102 
Caraway, 127 
Cardamine bulbosa, 101 

pennsylvanica, 101 

rhomboidea, 101 
Cardinal flower, 148 
Carduus arvensis, 160 

discolor, 159 

lanceolatus, 159 

muticus, 160 

odoratus, 160 
Carex albursina, 72 

amphibola, 71 

arctata, 71 

asa-grayi, 69 

baileyi, 69 

bromoides, 75 

canescens, 75 

cephaloidea, 74 

cephalophora, 74 

communis, 73 

comosa, 70 

crawfordii, 21 

crinita, 71 

cristatella, 75 

debilis var. rudgei, 71 

deweyana, 75 

digitalis, 72 

echinata var. cephalantha, 74 
var. microstachys, 74 

festucacea, 76 

filiformis, 70 
var. latifolia, 70 

foenea, 75 

gracillima, 71 

granularis, 72 

grayi, 69 

grisea, 71 

gj-nandra, 71 

hystricina, 69 

intumescens. 69 

lanuginosa 70 



170 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Carex laxiculmis, 72 
laxiflora, 72 

blanda, 72 

var. latifolia, 72 

patulifolia, 72 

var. stj'loflexa, 72 

varians, 72 
leptalea, 73 
longirostis, 71 
lupulina, 69 

bella-villa, 89 
lurida, 69 

var. gracilis, 69 
monile, 69 
miihlenbergii, 74 
muricata, 74 
pallescens, 72 
pedicellata, 73 
pedunculata, 73 
pennsylvanica, 73 
plantaginea, 72 
polytrichoides, 73 
prasina, 70 
pseudo-cyperus. 70 

var. Americana, 70 
piibescens, 73 
retroflexa, 74 
retrorsa, 69 
riparia, 70 
rosea, 74 

radiata, 74 

var. retroflexa, 74 
scabrata, 70 
scoparia, 75 

minor, 75 
sparganioides, 74 
sterilis, 74 

cephalantha, 74 
stipata, 73 
straminea, 75 

var. brevior, 76 
stricta, 70 
styloflexa, 72 
tenella, 74 
tenuis, 71 
torta, 70 
tribuloides, 75 

bebbii, 75 

var. cristata, 75 
triceps, 71 



Carex triceps var. hirsuta, 71 

trichocarpa, 70 

trisperma, 75 

tuckermani, 69 

utriculata, 69 

varia, 73 

virescens, 71 

vnlpinoidea, 73 

xanthocarpa, 73 
Carpet weed, 92 
Carpinus caroliniana, 86 
Carrion flower, 80 
Carrot, wild, 126 
Carum oanii, 127 
Carya alba. S3 

amara, 83 

microcarpa, 84 

porcina, 84 

tomentosa, 84 
Caryophyllaceae, 92 
Cassandra calyculata, 130 
Cassia nictitans. 111 
Castalia odorata, 95 
Catalpa, 144 

bignonioides, 144 

catalpa, 144 
Catchfly, night-flowering, 03 

sleepy, 93 
Catmint, 137 
Catnip, 137 
Cat's-foot, field, 156 
Cattail, broad-leaved, 54 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 98 
Ceanothus americanus, 120 
Celandine, 99 
Celastraceae, 118 
Celastrus scandens, 118 
Celtis occidentalis, 87 
Cerastium arvense, 94 
oblongifolium, 94 

longipedunculatum, 94 

nutans, 94 

\'ulgatum, 94 
Ceratophyllaceae, 95 
Ceratophyllum demersum, 95 
Chamaedaphne calyculata, 130 
Chamaelirium carolinianum, 78 

luteum, 78 
Chamaenerion angustifolium, 124 
Chantarelle. dichotomous, 46-47 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



171 



Chantarelio, forked, 46-47 

explanation of plate, 163 
Charlock, 100 
Cheat, 65 
Cheeses, 120 

Chelidonium inajus, 99 
Chelone glabra, 141 
Chenopodiaceae, 91 
Chenopodium album, 91 
viride, 91 
botrys, 91 
glaucuni, 91 
hybridiim, 91 
Cherry, choke, 111 
ground, clammy, 140 

Philadelphia, 140 
pin, 110 
sour, 110 
sweet, 110 
wild black. 111 
wild red, 110 
Chess, 65 
Kakn's, 65 
soft, 65 
upright, 65 
wood, 65 
Chick weed, common, 93 
field, 94 
mouse-ear, 94 
nodding, 94 
slender forked, 94 
Chicory, 148 
Chimaphila maculata, 129 

umbellata, 129 
Chiogenes hispidula, 131 

serpyllifolia, 131 
Choke cherr}-. 111 
Chokeberry, black, 109 

red, 109 
Christmas green, trailing, 52 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, 158 

parthenium, 158 
Chrysopogon avenaceus, 56 
Chrysosplenium americanum, 104 
Ciboria americana, 31 

sulphurella, 31 
Cichoriaceae, 48-50 
Cichorium intybus, 148 
Cicuta bulbifera. 127 
maculata, 127 



Cimicifuga racemosa, 96 
Cinna arundinacea, 60 

latifolia, 60 

pendula, 60 
Cinquefoil, inarsh, 107 

rough, 107 

silvery, 107 

tall, 107 
Cintractia affinis, 28-29 
Circaea alpina, 125 

lutetiana,'^125 
Cistaceae, 121 
Clavaria crassipes, 27 

tsugina, 27-28 
Claytonia caroliniana,[^92 

virginica, 92 
Clearweed,f88 
Clematis verticillaris,'97 

virginiana, 97 
Climbing fumitory, 99 
Clinopodium vulgare, 139 
Clintonia, yellow, 79 
Clintonia borealis, 79 
Clitocybe dealbata deformata, 35-36 

inversa, 22 

multiceps, 36 

tortilis^'gracilis, 3() 
Clover, alsike, 112 

bush, 113 
hairy, 114 
round-headed, 114 
trailing, 113 
wandlike, 114 

crimson, 112 

hop, 112 
low, 112 

red, 112 

stone, 112 

sweet, white.'lll 
yellow, 112 

white, 112 

yellow, 112 
C'lub moss, 52 

shining, 52 

stiff, 52 
Clute, W. N., Flora of the upper Su.- 

quehanna, 6 
Cnicus altissimus var. discolor, 159 

arvensis, 160 

lanceolatus, 159 



172 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Cnicus muticus, 160 

pumilus, 160 
Cocklebur, American, 151 
Cohosh, black, 96 

blue, 98 
Collinsonia canadensis, 140 
CoUybia uniformis. 37 

explanation of plate, 160 
Coltsfoot, 159 
Columbine, European, 96 

wild, 96 
Comandra umbellata, 88 
Comarium palustre, 107 
Comfrey, 136 

wild, 136 
Compositae, 151-60 
Comptonia peregrina, 84 
Coneflower, tall, 157 
Conium maculatum, 127 
Convallariaceae, 79-80 
Convolvulaceae, 134 
Convolvulus arvensis, 134 

sepium, 134 

spithamaeus, 134 
Coolwort, 104 
Coprinus micaceus, 38 
Coptis trifolia, 95 
Coral root, large, 83 

small-flowered, 83 
Corallorhiza multiflora, 83 

odontorhiza, 83 
Cord grass, fresh-water, 62 
Corn cockle, 92 
Corn salad, beaked, 147 

goosefoot, 147 
Corn spurry, 94 
Cornaceae, 128 
Cornel, alternate-leaved, 128 

dwarf, 128 

panicled, 128 

round-leaved, 128 

silky, 128 
Cornus alternifolia, 128 

amomum, 128 

canadensis, 128 

candidissima, 128 

circinata, 128 

florida, 128 

paniculata, 128 

sericea, 128 



Cornus stolonifera, 128 

Cow herb, 93 

Cowslip, 95 

Cowwheat, narrow-leaved, 144 

Crab apple, American, 109 

Crab grass, large, 56 

small, 56 
Cramp bark, 146 
Cranberry, high bush, 146 

large, 131 

small, 131 
Cranesbill, BickneU's, 115 

Carolina, 115 

spotted, 115 
Crassulaceae, 103 
Crataegus coccinea, 110 

var. macracantha, 110 
Crataegus crus-galli 110 

flora, 4-5 

macracantha, 110 

oxyacantha, 110 

punctata, 110 

tomentosa, 110 
Craterellus subundulatus, 27 
Cress, bulbous, 101 

cow, 99 

erect-fruited winter, 101 

Pennsylvania bitter, 101 

rock, hairy, 102 
lyre-leaved, 102 
smooth, 102 
toothed, 102 

water, 101 

creeping yellow, 101 
marsh, 101 
Crowfoot, ditch, 97 

hooked, 97 

kidney-leaved, 97 
Cruciferae, 99-103 
Cryptotaenia canadensis, 127 
Cucumber, star, 147 
Cucumber tree, 95 
Cucurbitaceae, 147 
Cudweed, low, 156 
Culver's root, 143 
Currant, fetid, 104 

golden, 104 

red, 104 

wild black, 104 
Cuscuta coryli, 134 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



173 



Cuscuta gronovii, 135 

inflexa, 134 
Cuscutaceae, 134-35 
Cymbalaria cymbalaria, 141 
Cynoglossum officinale, 135 

virginicum, 136 
Cynosurus cristatus, 63 
Cyperaceae, 66-76 
Cyperus, awned, 67 

low, 66 

shining, 67 

straw-colored, 67 
Cyperus aristatus, 67 

diandrus, 66 

esculentus, 67 

inflexus, 67 

rivularls, 67 

strigosus, 67 
Cypripedium acaule, 81 

hirsutum, 81 

parviflorum, 81 

pubescens, 81 
Cystopteris bulbifera, 49 

fragilis, 49 

Dactylis glomerata, 63 
Daisy, white, 158 

yellow, 157 
Dalibarda, 106 

repens, 106 
Dames rocket, 103 
Dames violet, 103 
Dandelion, 149 

red-seeded, 149 
Danthonia compressa, 62 

spicata, 61 
Dasystoma flava, 143 

pedicularia, 143 

virginica, 143 
Datura stramonium, 141 
Daucus carota, 126 
Day lily, 78 
Deerberry 131 
Delphinium ajacis, 18 

consolida, 96 
Dennstaedtia punctUobula, 49 
Dentaria diphylla, 102 

laciniata, 102 
Deringa canadensis, 127 
Deschampsia caespitosa, 61 



Deschampsia flexuosa, 61 
Desmodium acuminatum, 113 

canadense, 113 

dUlenii, 113 

marylandicum, 113 

nudiflorum, 113 

paniculatum, 113 
Detonia fulgens, 30 
Dewberry, 106 
Dianthera americana, 144 
Dianthus armeria, 93 

barbatus, 93 
Dicentra canadensis, 99 

cucuUaria, 99 
Dicksonia pilosiuscula, 49 
Diervilla dier villa, 147 

trifida, 147 
Dioscorea vUlosa, 81 
Dioscoreaceae, 81 
Dipsacaceae, 147 
Dipsacus sylvestris, 147 
Dirca palustris, 124 
Dock, bitter, 89 

curled, 89 

red-veined, 89 

swamp, 88 

water, great, 89 
Dockmackie, 146 
Dodder, 135 

hazel, 134 
Doellingeria infirma, 156 

umbellata, 155. 
Dogbane, spreading, 133 
Dogwood, flowering, 128 
Doorweed, 90 
Dropseed, Mexican, 59 

slender-flowered, 59 

woodland, 59 
Drosera rotundifolia, 32, 103 
Droseraceae, 103 
Dryopteris acrostichoides, 49 

boottii, 50 

cristata, 50 
clintoniana, 50 

marginalis, 50 

noveboracensis, 49 

spinulosa, 50 
intermedia, 50 

thelypteris, 50 
Duckweed, great, 76 



174 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Duckweed small, 70 
Dulichium, 67 

arundinacelini, G7' 

spathacemn, 67 
Dutcliman's Ijreeehes, 99 

Eatonia, slender, 62 
Eatonia dudleyi, 62 

nitida, 62 

pennsylvanica, 62 
Echinocystis lobata, 147 
Echinospernium virginicum, 136 
Echium vulgare 136 
Edil4e fungi, 4, 39-47 
Eelgrass, 55 
Eelgrass pondweed, 54 
Elder, dwarf, 125 

red-berried, 145 

sweet, 145 
Elecampane, 156 
Eleocharis acicularis, 67 

ovata, 67 
Ebn, American, 87 

rock, 87 

slippery, 87 

white, 87 
Elodea canadensis, 55 
Elodes campanulata, 121 
Elymus canadensis, 66 
glaucifolius, 66 

striatus, 66 

virginicus, 66 
Encalypta rhabdocarpa, 21 
Enchanter's nightshade, 125 
Epigaea repens, 130 
Epilobium adenocaulon, 124 

angustifolimn, 124 

coloratum, 124 

lineare, 124 
Epiphegus virginiana, 144 
Equisetaceae, 52 
Equisetum arvense, 52 

fiuviatile, 52 

hyemale, 52 

limosum, 52 

sylvaticum, 52 
Eragrostis, capillary, 62 

creeping, 62 

Frank's, 62 

purple, 62 



Kragrostis, Pursh's, 62 

tufted, 62 
Eragrostis capillaris, 62 

frankii, 62 

hypnoides, 62 

pectinacea, 62 

pilosa, 62 

purshii, 62 

reptans, 62 
Erechtites hieracifolia, 159 
Ericaceae, 129 
Erigeron annuus, 155 

bellidifolius, 155 

canadensis, 155 

philadelphicus, 155 

pulchellus, 155 

ramosus, 33, 155 

strigosus, 155 
Eriophorum cyperinum, 68 
var. laxurn, 68 

polystachyon, 68 

virginicum, 68 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, 103 
Eiythronium americanum, 79 
Euonymus europaeus, 118 
Eupatorium ageratoides, 151 

perfoliatum, 151 
truncatum, 151 

purpureum, 151 
falcatum, 151 
Euphorbia coroUata, 117 

cyparissias, 117 

lucida, 117 

maculata, 116 

nicaeensis, 117 

nutans, 116 

preslii, 116 
Euphorbiaceae, 116-17 
Euthamia graminifolia, 153 
Evening primrose, 124 
Everlasting, clammy, 156 

pearly, 156 

plantain-leaf, 156 
Explanation of plates, 160-63 
Fagopyrum esculentuin, 89 

fagopyrum, 89 
Falcata comosa, 114 
Fenno, Frank E., Plants of the^Sus- 

quehanna A'alley and adjacent hills 

of Tioga countv, 5, 47-160 



INDEX TU UKFOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



175 



Fern, beech, broad, oU 
long, 50 
brittle, 49 
bulblet-bearing, -19 
Christmas, 49 
cinnamon, 49 
Clayton's, 49 
grape, cut-leaved, 48 

oblique, 48 
hay-scented, 49 
lady, 51 
maidenhair, 51 
New York, 49 
oak, 51 
ostrich, 49 
rattlesnake, 48 
royal, 49 
sensitive, 49 
shield, Boott's, 50 
crested, 50 
marginal, 50 
marsh, 50 
spinulose, 50 
sweet, 84 
Virginia chain, 51 
walking, 51 
Ferns and fern-allies, 48-53 
Fescue, hard, 65 
nodding, 65 
sheep's, 64 
tall, 65 
Festuca elatior, 65 
nutans, 65 
ovina, 64 

duriuscula, 65 
Feverfew, common, 158 
Fever wort, 146 
Fig wort, 141 

hare, 141 
Fimbristylis capillaris, 67 
Fireweed, 124, 159 
Fivefinger, 107 

dwarf, 107 
Flag, larger l:>lue, 81 

sweet, 76 
Flammula pusilla, 26-27 

explanation of plate, 161 
Flax, 115 

wild yellow, 115 
Fleabane, Canada, 155 



Fleabane, daisy, 155 
Philadelphia, 155 
Flower-of-an-hour, 121 
Forget-me-not, 136 

small, 136 
Foxglove, false, downy, 143 
fern-leaved, 143 
smooth, 143 
Foxtail, green, 58 
marsh, 60 
meadow, 60 
yellow, 58 
Fragaria americana, 106 
vesca, 106 
virginiana, 106 
Fraxinus americana, 132 
nigra, 132 
pennsjdvanica, 132 
pubescens, 132 
sambucifolia, 132 
Frostweed, 121 
Fumitory, clunbing, 99 
Fungi, edible, 39-47 
Fusarium laxum, 30 
Galeopsis tetrahit, 138 
Galinsoga, 158 
parviflora, 158 
, hispida, 33 
Galimii trifidum, 145 
Gall of the earth, 150 
Garget, 92 
Garlic, meadow, 78 
Gaultheria procumbens, 130 
Gaura, biennial, 125 

biennis, 125 
Gaylussacia, resinosa, 130 
Gentian, closed, 133 
fringed, 133 
horse, 146 
stiff, 133 
Gentiana andrewsii, 133 
crinita, 133 
quinquefiora, 133 
quinquefolia, 133 
Gentianaceae, 133 
Geopyxis carbonaria, 31 
Geraniaceae, 115 
Geranium bicknellii, 115 
carolinianum, 115 
maculatum, 115 



176 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Geranium robertianum, 115 
Gerardia, slender, 143 
Gerardia flava, 143 
pedicularia, 143 
quercifolia, 143 
tenuifolia, 143 
Germander, 137 
Geum album, 107 
canadense, 107 
rivale, 107 
strictum, 108 
virginianiim, 107 
Gifts, 10-17 

Gill-over-the-ground, 137 
Gillenia trifoliata, 105 
Ginger, wild, 88 

short-lolsed, 88 
Ginseng, 125 
Glecoma hederacea, 137 
Gleditsia t riacanthos. 111 
Gloeosporiuui phaeosoriuni, 29 
Glycoria, acutiflora, 64 
canadensis, 64 
fluitans, 64 
grandis, 64 
nervata, 64 
pallida, 64 
Gnaphalium decurrens, 156 
obtusifolium, 156 
polycephalum, 156 
uliginosuni, 156 
Goat's beard, 148 
Gold thread, 95 
Goldenrod, blue-stemmed, 151 
broad-leaved, 152 
Canada, 153 
cut-leaved, 152 
early, 152 
elm-leaved, 152 
field, 153 
hairy, 152 
narrow-leaved, 153 
rough, 152 
rough-leaved, 152 
smooth, 152 
stout ragged, 151 
white, 152 
Goodyera pubescens, 82 

repens, 82 
Gooseberrv round-leaved. 104 



Gooseberry, wild, 104 
i Goosefoot, maple-leaved, 91] 
I oak-leaved, 91 
Gramineae, 55-66 
Grape, chicken, 120 
frost, 120 
svmamer, 120 
sweet-scented, 120 
Grape fern, cut-leaved, 48 

oblique, 48 
Grass, barnyard, 56 
blue, English, 63 
Kentucky, 63 
blue-eyed, pointed, 81 

stout, 81 
blue-joint, 61 
bottle brush, 66 
broom, beard, 55 
canary, 58 

cord, fresh- water, 62 
cotton, tall, 68 
Virginia, 68 
crab, large, 56 

small, 56 
creeping bent, 60 
dog-tail, 63 
Eaton's, 62 
forked bearded, 56 
hair, rough, 61 
tufted, 61 
wavy, 61 
Herd's, 60 
Hungarian, 58 
Indian, 56 
June, 63 

manna, floating, 64 
nerved, 64 
northern, 64 
pale, 64 

sharp-scaled, 64 
tall, 64 
meadow, fowl, 63 
grove, 63 
roughish, 63 
soft, 61 
nut, yellow, 67 
oat, 61 
wild, 61 

flattened. 62 



INDEX TO REPORT OF 'JTIE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



Grass, orcnard, 63 

pigeon, 58 

poverty, 59 

quack, 66 

rattlesnake, 64 

reed, canary, 58 
Nuttall's, 61 
wood, 60 
slender, 60 

rice cut, 58 

rush, sheathed, 60 

rye, 65 

Italian, 65 

spear, low, 63 
weak, 63 

squirrel tail, 66 

star, 80 
water, 76 

sweet vernal, 58 

switch, 57 

terrell, 66 

thin, 61 

velvet, 61 

wheat, awned, 66 

white, 58 

wire, 63 

witch, 58 

wool, 68 
Gratiola virginiana, 142 
Gravelroot, 151 
Green dragon, 76 
Gromwell, corn, 136 
Grossulariaceae, 104 
Groundnut, 114,125 
Ground pine, 52 
Gyrostachys cernua, 82 

gracilis, 82 

Habenaria clavellata, 82 

hookeriana, 82 

lacera, 82 

orbiculata, 81 

psycodes, 82 

tridentata, 82 
Hackberry, 87 
Haloragidaceae, 125 
Hamamelidaceae, 105 
Hamamelis virginiana, 105 
Hardback, 105 



Harebell, 147 
Hawkweed, Canada, 150 

orange, 149 

panicled, 150 

rough, 150 
Hawthorn, 110 
Heal-all, 137 

Hedeoma pulegioides, 139 
Helenium autumnale, 158 
Helianthemum canadense, 121 
Helianthus annuus, 157 

decapetalus, 157 

divaricatus, 157 

giganteus, 33 

strumosus, 157 

tuberosus, 157 
Heliopsis helianthoides, 156 

laevis, 156 
Hellebore, 78 

Helotium scutula vitellinum 31 
Helvella ambigua, 30 
Hemerocallis fulva, 78 
Hemlock, 53 

ground, 53 

poison, 127 

water. 127 ■ 

bulb-bearing, 127 
Hemp, 87 

Indian, 133 
Hemp nettle, 138 
Henbit, 138 
Hepatica acuta, 97 

acutiloba, 97 

hepatica, 96 

triloba, 96 
Heracleum lanatum. 126 
Herb robert, 115 
Herd's grass, 60 
Hesperis matronalis. 103 
Heteranthera dubia. 76 

graminea, 76 
Hibiscus trionum, 121 
Hickory, shellbark, 83 

small-fruited, 84 

white-heart, 84 
Hicoria alba. 84 

glabra, 84 

microcarpa, 84 

minima, 83 

ovata. 83 



178 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Hieracium aurantiacum, 149 

canadense, 150 

paniculatum, 150 

praealtum, 150 

scabrum, 150 

veiiosum, 150 
Hippocastanaceae, 119 
Hoarhound, cut-leaved water, 139 
Hobbleljvish, 145 
Hogweed, 151 
Holciis lanatus, Gl 
Holly, mountain, 118 
IToinalocenchrus oryzoides, 58 

\irginicus, 58 
Honewort, 127 
Honey locust, 111 
Honeysuckle, Ijush, 147 

fly," 147 

glaucous, 146 

Tartarian l)ush, 147 
Hop, 87 

Hordeum jubatuni, 66 
Horn wort, 95 
Horse-chesnut, 119 
Horse radish /1 01 
Horsetail, field, 52 

swainp, 52 

wood, 52 
Horse weed, 155 
Hound's-tongue, 135 
Houstonia coerulea, 145 
Huckleberry, black, 130 
Humulus lupulus, 87 
Hydrocotyle americana, 127 
Hydro phyllaceae, 135 
Hydrophyllum canadense, 135 

virginicum, 135 
Hygrophorus, blushing, 41-42 
explanation of plate,' 162 

reddish, 23 

explanation of plate, 1 60 
I i \grophorus capreolarius, 37 

peckii, 23 

pudorinus, 41-42 

explanation of plate, 162 

subrufescens, 23 

explanation of plate, 160 
Hypericaceae, 121 
Hypericum ascyron, 121 



I Hypericum Ijoreale, 18 
I canadense, 121 

ellipticum, 121 

maculatum, 121 

mutilum, 121 

perforatum, 121 
Hypholoma subaquilum, 38 

sublateritium squamosum 38 
Hypnum hndbergii, 21 
Hypochaeris radicata, 19 
Hypoxis erecta, 80 

hirsuta, 80 
Hyssop, clammy hedge, 142 

giant, 137 
Hj^strix h3'strix, 66 

Ilex A-erticillata, 118 
Ilicaceae, 118 
Ilicioides mucronata, 118 
Ilysanthes gratioloides, 142 

riparia, 142 
Impatiens aurea, 119 

biflora, 119 

fulva, 119 

pallida, 119 
Indian bean, 144 
Indian cucumber root, 80 
Indian grass, 56 
Indian hemp, 133 
Indian physic, 105 
Indian pipe, 129 

Indian plantain, sweet-scent t-d,'; 159 
Indian poke, 78 
Indian tobacco, 148 
Indian turnip, 76 
Innocence, 145 
Inula helenium, 156 
Ipomoea purpurea, 134 
Iridaceae, 81 
Iris versicolor, 81 
Iron wood, 86 
Isnardia palustris, 124 
Isoetaceae, 53 
Isoetes engelmanni, 53 

gracilis, 53 
Ivy, American, 120 

ground, 137 

Kenil worth, 141 

poison, 117 
Ixophorus glaucus,'58 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



179 



Txophorus italicus, 58 

viridis. aS 
Jack-in-the-pulpit, 76 
Jacob's ladder, 135 
Jerusalem artichokf, 157 
Jerusalem oak, 91 
Jinison weed, 141 
Juglandacea, 83-84 
Juglaiis cinerea, 83 

nigra, 83 
Juncaceae, 77 
Juncoides cainpestre, 77 

pilosuni, 77 
Juncus aouniinatus, 77 

hiilonius, 77 

fauadensis, 77 
brevicaudatus, 77 
var. coarctatus, 77 
var. longicaudatus,\77 

effusus, 77 

nodosus, 77 

tenuis, 77 
Juneberry, 109 

low, 109 

Kalmia glauca, 130 

latifolia, 129 
King devil, 150 
Kinnikinick, 128 
Kneiffia fruticosa, 124 

longipedicellata, 18 

pumila, 32, 124 
Knotgrass, 90 
Knotweed, erect, 90 

Virginia, 90 
Koeleria, 63 

cristata, 63 
Koellia flexuosa, 139 

incana, 139 

virginiana, 139 

Labiatae, 137-40 
Lachnum inquilinum, 31 
Lactarius, eye-spot, 37 

explanation of plate, 163 
sweet, 43-45 

explanation of plate, 163 
yellowish, 43 

explanation of plate, 162 
Lactarius luteolus, 23, 43 

explanation of plate, 162 



Lactarius subdulcis, 43-45 

explanation of plate, 163 
oculatus, 37 

explanation of plate, 163 
I.actuca acuminata, 149 

canadensis, 149 

leucophaea, 149 

spicata, 149 

\Tllosa, 149 

virosa, 18,149 
Ladies' tresses, nodding, 82 

slender, 82 
Lady's slipper, stemless, 81 

yellow, large, 81 
small, 81 
Lady's thumb, 89 
Lamium amplexicaulc, 138 

maculatum, 138 
Laportea canadensis, 88 
Lappula virginiana. 136 
Larkspur, field, 96 
Lathyrus ochroleucus, 114 
Lauraceae, 98-99 
Laurel, mountain, 129 

pale, 130 
Leafcup, small- flowered, 156 
Leather leaf, 130 
Leek, wild, 78 
Leersia oryzoides, 58 

virginica, 58 
Legouzia perfoliata, 148 
Leinna minor, 76 
Lemnaceae, 76 
Lentibulariaceae, 144 
Leonurus cardiaca, 138 
Lepidium apetahnn. 100 

campestre, 99 

ruderale, 32 

sati\Tim, 100 

virginicum, 32 , 100 
Leptamnium \drginianuni. 1 4 \ 
Leptandra virginica, 143 
Leptilon canadense, 155 
Leptonia hortensis, 26 
Leptorchis loeselii, 83 
Leptosphaeria variegata, 31 
Lespedeza capitata, 114 

frutescens. 114 

hirta, 114 

polystachya, 114 



180 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEr'M 



Lespedeza procumbeus, 113 

stuvei t'or. intermedia, 114 

violacea, 113 

Lettuce, blue, 149 

tall, 149 

tall, 149 

prickly, 149 

white, 150 
tall, 150 
Licea variabilis, 28 
Liferoot, 159 
Ligustrum \'ulgare, 133 
Lilac, 132 
Liliaceae, 78-79 
Lilium canadense, 34, 79 

philadelphicum, 78 

superbum, 79 
Lily, Canada, 79 

day, 78 

pond, large yellow, 95 
small yellow, 95 

Turk's cap, 79 

water, sweet-scented white, 95 

wood, 78 
Lily of the valley, false, 79 
Limnorchis huronensis, 20 

media, 20 
Limodorum tuberosum, 83 
Linaceae, 115 
Linaria cymbalaria, 141 

linaria, 141 

vulgaris, 141 
Linden, American, 120 
Lindera benzoin, 99 
Linnaea borealis, 146 
Linum usitatissimum, 115 

virginianum, 115 
Liochlaena lanceolata, 21 
Lion's foot, 150 
Liparis loeselii, 83 
Liriodendron tulipifera, 95 
Lithospermum arvense, 136 
Live forever, 103 
Liverleaf, round-lobed, 96 

sharp-lobed, 97 
Lobelia, great, 148 , 

spiked, 148 
Lobelia cardinalis, 148 

infiata, 148 

spicata, 148 

syphilitica, 148 



Locust, clamm}-, 112 
Locust tree, 112 
Lolium italicum, 65 

perenne, 65 
Lonicera ciliata, 147 

dioica, 146 

glauca, 146 

tatarica, 147 
Loosestrife, bulb-bearing, 132 

fringed, 132 

tufted, 132 

whorled, 131 
Lophanthus scrophulariaefolius I'M 
Lopseed, 144 
Louse wort, 144 
Love vine, 135 
Lucerne, 111 
Ludwigia palustris, 124 
Lungwort, 136 
Lupine, wild. 111 
Lupinus perennis. 111 
Luzula campestris, 77 

vernalis, 77 
Lychnis githago, 92 
Lycium vulgare, 141 
Lycopodiaceae, 52-53 
Lycopodium annotinum, 52 

chamaecyparissus, 53 

clavatum, 52 

complanatum, 52 

lucidulum, 52 

obscurum, 52 
Lycopsis arvensis, 136 
Lycopus americanus, 1 39 

communis, 20 

sinuatus, 139 

virginicus, 139 
Lysimachia nummularia 1 32 

quadrifolia, 131 

stricta, 132 

terrestris, 132 

thyrsiflora, 132 

Macrosporium lagenariae, 30 
Magnolia acuminata, 95 
Magnoliaceac. 95 
Maianthemum canadense 79 
Maidenhair fern, 51 
Mallow, high, 120 

Indian, 121 

low, 120 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THK STATE BOTANIST 1902 



181 



Mallow, musk, 120 
Malus coronaria, 109 

malus, 109 
Malva moschata, 120 

rotundifolia, 120 

sylvestris, 120 
Malvaceae, 120 
Mandrake, 98 
Manna grass, floating, 64 

nerved, 64 

northern, 64 

pale, 64 

sharp-scaled, 64 

taU, 64 
Maple, hard, 118 

mountain, 119 

red, 118 

rock, 118 

silver, 118 

soft, 118 

striped, 119 

sugar, 118 
black, 119 
Marasmius biformis, 25 

insititius, 26 

leptopus, 25-26 

resinosus niveus, 38 

thujinus. 26 

tomentosipes, 25-26 
Marigold, bur, larger, 157 
smaller, 157 

marsh, 95 
Marsh foxtail, 60 
Marsh marigold, 95 
Marsh muhlenbergia, 59 
Matricaria matricarioides, 19 
Matrimony vine, 141 
Matteuccia struthiopteris, 49 
May apple, 98 
Mayflower, 129, 130 
Mayweed, 158 
Meadow garlic, 78 
Meadow grass, fowl, 63 

grove, 63 

roughish, 63 
Meadow rue, early, 9S 

taU, 98 
Meadow soft grass, 61 
Meadowsweet, 105 
Medeola virginiana, 80 



Medic, black. 111 
Medicago lupulina, 111 

sativa, 111 
Meibomia, canadensis, 113 

dillenii, 113 

grandiflora, 113 

marylandica, 113 

michauxii, 113 

nudiflora, 113 

paniculata, 113 
Melampj'runi americanum, 144 

lineare, 144 
Melanospora vervecina, 31-32 
Melanthaceae, 78 
Melilotus alba. 111 

officinalis, 112 
Menispermaceae, 98 
Menispermum canadense, 98 
Mentha canadensis, 140 

citrata, 140 

piperita, 140 

spicata, 139 

viridis, 139 
Menyanthaceae, 133 
Menyanthes trifoliata, 133 
Mercury, three-seeded, 116 
Mertensia virginica, 136 
Merulius tenuis, 38 
Micrampelis lobata, 147 
Mignonette, 103 
Milfoil, 158 

spiked water, 125 
Miliuni effusum, 59 
Milkweed, common, 134 

four-leaved, 134 

swamp, 134 

taU, 134 
Milkwort, fringed, 116 

purple, 116 

whorled, 116 
Millet, 57 

Italian, 58 

wild, 59 
Mimulus ringens, 142 
Mint, American wild, 140 

Bergamot, 140 

mountain, hoary, 139 
narrow-leaved, 139 

Virginia; 139 
Mitella diphylla. 104 



182 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Miterwort, 104 

false, 104 
Mockernut, 84 
Moehringia lateriflora, 94 
Mollugo verticillata, 92 
Monarda clinopodia, 13S 

didyma, 138 

fistulosa, 138 
var. rubra, 138 

media, 138 
Moneywort, 132 
Monkey flower, 142 
Monotropa uniflora, 129 
Monotropaceae, 129 
Moonseed, Canada, 98 
Moorwort, 130 
Moosewood, 119, 124 
Moraceae, 87 
Morning-glory, 134 
Moss, club, 52 
shining, 52 
stiff, 52 

ditch, 55 
Motherwort, 138 
Mountain rice, black, 59 

white-grained, 59 
^lugwort, common, 159 
Muhlenbergia, marsh, 59 
Muhlenbergia diffusa, 59 

glomerata, 59 

mexicana, 59 

racemosa, 59 

sylvatica, 59 

tenuiflora, 59 

willdenovii, 59 
Mullen, great, 141 

moth, 141 
Muscari botryoides, 79 
Mushrooms, 4, 39-47 
Musquash root, 127 
Mustard, black, 100 

hedge, 100 

tower, 102 

treacle, 103 

wild, 100 
Mycena, wrinkled, 22-23 

explanation of plate, 161 
Mycena rugosoides, 22-23 

explanation of plate, 161 
Myosotis laxa, 136 



Mj'^osotis palustris, 136 
Mj^rica asplenifolia, 84 
Myricaceae, 84 
Myriophyllum humile, 33 

spicatum, 125 
Myrtle, 133 

Nabalus albus, 150 

altissimus, 150 

serpentarius, 150 
Naiadaceae, 54 
Naias, slender, 55 
Naias flexilis, 55 
Nannyberry, 146 
Nasturtium annoracia, 101 

officinale, 101 

palustre, 101 

var. hispidum, 101 

sylvestre, 101 
Naumbergia thyrsiflora, 1 32 
Nemopanthes fascicularis, 118 
Nepeta cataria, 137 

glechoma, 137 
^^ettle, dead, 138 
spotted, 138 

false, 88 

hemp, 138 

horse, 140 

rough hedge, 138 

slender, 88 

wood, 88 
Nicandra physalodes, 140 
Nidularia, pulvinata, 39 
Nightshade, 140 

black, 140 

enchanter's, 125 
smaller, 125 
Nimble will, 59 
Ninebark, 105 
Nonesuch, 11 1 
Nuphar advena, 95 

kalmianum, 95 
Nymphaea advena, 95 

kalmiana, 95 

odorata, 95 
Nymphaeaceae, 94-95 
Nyssa sylvatica, 128 

Oak, black, 86 
bur, 86 
chestnut, 87 



INDEX TO REPOKT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



183 



Oak, red, 86 

rock, 87 

scarlet, 86 

scrub, 86 

scrub chestnut, 87 

swamp white, 87 

white, 86 

3'ellow, 87 
Oakesia sessilifoUa, 78 
Oat, purple, 61 
Oat grass, 61 

wild, 61 

flattened, 62 
Odontia lateritia, 39 
Oenothera biennis, 124 

fruticosa, 124 

pumUa, 124 
Oleaceae, 132-33 
Onagra biennis, 124 
Onagraceae, 124-25 
Onion, nodding mid, 78 
Onoclea sensibilis, 49 

struthiopteris, 49 
Ophioglossaceae, 48 
Opulaster opulifolius, 105 
Orache, halberd-leaved, 91 
Orchidaceae, 81-83 
Orchis, fen, 83 

Hooker's, 82 

large round-leaved, 81 

purple-fringed, 82 

ragged, 82 

showy, 81 

small green wood, 82 
Orchis spectabilis, 81 
Origanum ^allgare, 34 
Ornithogalum umbellatum, 79 
Orobanchaceae, 144 
Oryzopsis asperifolia, 59 

melanocarpa, 59 
Osier, red, 128 
O.smorrhiza brevistylis, 126 

longistylis, 127 
Osmunda cinnamomea, 49 

claytoniana, 49 

regalis, 49 
Osmundaceae, 49 
Ostrya virginiana, 86 

virginica, 86 
Oxahdaceae, 115 



Oxalis acetosella, 115 

corniculata var. stricta, 115 

cymosa, 115 

stricta, 115 

violacea, 115 
Oxeye, 156 
Oxycoccus macrocarpus, 131 

oxycoccus, 131 
03'ster plant, 148 

Paint brush, 149 

Panax quinquefoliuin, 125 

trifolium, 125 
Panicularia acutiflora, 64 

americana, 64 

borealis, 64 

canadensis, 64 

fluitans, 64 

laxa, 64 

nerA'ata, 64 

pallida, 64 
Panicum, agrostislike, 56 

forked, 57 

hairy, 57 

hispid, 57 

large-fruited, 57 

linear-leaved, 57 

Porter's, 56 

slender, 57 

spreading, 57 

starved, 57 

tall, smooth, 57 

variable, 57 
Panicum agrostidifonne, 56 

agrostoides, 56 

eapillare, 58 

clandestinum, 57 

commutatum, 57 

cnis-galli, 56 

depauperatum, 57 

dichotomum, 57 

glabrum, 56 

latifolium, 56 

linearifolium, 57 

macrocarpon, 57 

miliaceum, 57 

porterianum, 56 

proliferum, 57 

pubescens, 57 

sanguinale, 56 



184 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Panicum virgatum, 57 

xanthophysum, 57 
Papaver somniferum, 99 
Papaveraceae, 99 
Papilionaceae, 111-15 
Parsnip, cow, 126 

meadow, 126 
golden, 127 

water, 127 

wild, 126 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia, 120 
Pastinaca sativa, 126 
Pea, sensitive. 111 
Peach, 111 
Peanut, wild, 114 
Pear, choke, 109 
Peck, Charles H., acknowledgments 

to, 48 
Pedicularis canadensis, 144 
Penicillimn digitatum, 30 

pallidofulvum, 30 
Pennyroyal, American, 139 
Pennywort, marsh, 127 
Penthoruni sedoides, 103 
Pentstemon digitalis, 142 

hirsutus, 142 

laevigatus vor. digitalis, 142 

pubescens, 142 
Pepper, mild water, 89 
Peppergrass, 100 

apetalous, 100 

wild, 100 
Pepperidge, 128 
Peppermint, 140 
Peramium pubescens, 82 

repens, 82 
ophioides, 82 
Periwinkle, 133 
Persicaria, Pennsylvania, 89 

swamp, 89 

water, 89 
Peziza violacea, 31 
Phalaris arundinacea, 58 

canariensis, 58 
Phegopteris dryopteris, 51 

hexagonoptera, 50 

phegopteris, 50 

polypodioides, 50 
Philotria canadensis, 55 
Phleuni pratense, 60 



Phlox, garden, 135 

wild blue, 135 
Pill ox divaricata,^135 

maculata, 135 

paniculata, 135 

subulata, 135 
Phrjrma leptostachya,^144 
Phrymaceae, 144 
Phyllosticta grisea, 29 
Physalis heterophylla, 140 
ambigua, 34 

philadelphica, 140 

virginiana, 140 
Physalodes physalodes, 140 
Physocarpus opulifolius, 105 
Phytolacca decandra, 92 
Phytolaccaceae, 92 
Pigeon grasS; 58 
Pigeonberry, 92 
Pignut, 84 
Pigweed, 91 

rough, 91 

slender, 91 
Pilea pumila, 88 
Pimpernel, false, 142 

yellow, 126 
Pimpinella integerrima, 126 
Pinaceae, 53 
Pine, Canadian, 53 

ground, 52 

pitch, 53 

prince's, 129 

red, 53 

running, 52 

white, 53 
Pink, Deptford, 93 

grass, 83 

ground, 135 

moss, 135 
Pinus resinosa, 53 

rigida, 53 

strobus, 53 
Pipsissewa, 129 
Pitch pine, 53 
Pitcher plant, 103 
Plantaginaceae, 145 
Plantago aristata, 145 

halophila, 20 

lanceolata, 145 

major, 145 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



is-j 



Plantago rugelii, 145 

\arginica, 145 
Plantain, common, 145 

downy rattlesnake, 82 

dwarf, 145 

English, 145 

robin's, 155 

Rugel's, 145 

small rattlesnake, 82 

sweet-scented Indian, 159 

water, 55 
Plants, contributors, list of, 10-17 

species added to collection, 3,7-10 
Platanaceae, 105 
Platanus occidentalis, 105 
Plates, explanation of, 160-63 
Pleurisy root, 133 
Plum, wild red, 110 
Poa alsodes, 63 

annua, 63 

compressa, 63 

debilis, 63 

flava, 63 

pratensis, 63 

serotina, 63 

trivialis, 63 
Podophyllum peltatum, 98 
Pogonia, rose, 82 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, 82 
Poison ivy, 117 
Poke, 92 

Polemoniaceae, 135 
Polemonium reptans, 135 
Polygala paucifolia, 116 

sanguinea, 116 

senega, 116 

verticillata, 116 

viridescens, 116 
Polygalaceae, 116 
Polygonaceae, 88-90 
Polygonatum bifiorum, 80 

commutatum, 80 

giganteum, 80 
Polygonum acre, 90 

amphibium, 89 

arifolium, 90 

aviculare, 90 

cilinode, 90 

convolvulus, 34,90 

emersum, 89 



Polygonimi erectum 9(i 

hydropiper, 90 

hydropiperoides, 89 

muhlenbergii, 89 

orientale, 90 

pennsylvanicum, 89 

persicaria, 89 

punctatum, 90 

sagittatum, 90 

scandens, 90 

virginianum, 90 
Polymnia canadensis. 156 

radiata, 33 
Pol3^podiaceae, 49-52 
Polypodium vulgare, 52 
Polypody, common, 52 
Pomaceae, 108-11 
Pond lily, large yellow, 95 

small yellow. 95 
Pond weed, clasping-leaved: 54 

common floating, 54 

curled-leaved, 54 

eelgrass, 54 

fennel-leaved, 54 

long-leaved, 54 

Nuttall's, 54 
Pontederiaceae, 76 
Poplar, Lombardy, 84 

white, 84 
Poppy, garden, 99 
Populus alba, 84 

balsamifera candicans, 84 

dilatata, 84 

grandidentata, 84 

tremuloides, 84 
Porter, Thomas C, acknowledgments 

to, 48 
Porteranthus trifoliatus, 105 
Portulaca oleracea, 92 
Portulacaceae, 92 
Potamogeton crispus, 54 

fluitans, 54 

lonchites, 54 

natans, 54 

nuttallii, 54 

pectinatus, 54 

pennsylvanicus, 54 

perfoliatus. 54 

zosteraefolius, 54 
Potentilla argentea, 107 



186 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Potent ilia arguta, 107 

canadensis, 107 

monspeliensis, 107 

norvegica, 107 

palustris, 107 

pumila, 107 
Pottia riparia, 21 
Powderhorn, 94 
Prenanthes alba, 150 

altissima, 150 

serpentaria, 150 
Primrose, evening, 124 
Primulaceae, 131-32 
Prince's feather, 90 
Privet, 133 
Prunella vulgaris, 137 
Prunus americana, 110 

avium, 110 

cerasus, 110 

pennsylvanica, 110 

persica. 111 

serotina, 111 

virginiana, 111 
Pteridophyta, 48-53 
Pteris aquilina, 51 
Purslane, 92 

marsh, 124 

milk, 116 
Pussly, 92 
Pycnanthemum incanum, 139 

lanceolatum, 139 

linifolium, 139 
Pyrola chlorantha, 129 

elliptica, 129 

rotundifolia, 129 

secunda, 129 
Pyrolaceae, 129 
Pyrus americana, 108 

arbuti folia, 109 

var. melanocarpa, 109 

communis, 109 

coronaria, 109 

malus, 109 

Q,uack grass, 60 
Quercus acuminata, 87 

alba, 86 

bicolor, 87 

roccinea, 86 

var. tinctoria, 86 



Quercus ilicifolia, 86 

macrocarpa, 86 

muhlenbergii, 87 

nana, 86 

platanoides, 87 

prinoides, 87 

priiuis, 87 

rubra, 86 

velutina, 86 
Quillwort, Engelmann's, 53 

Rabbit foot, 112 
Racomitrium heterostichum, 21 
Radish, garden, 100 
Ragweed, 151 

great, 150 
Ragwort, golden, 159 
Ranunculaceae, 95-98 
Ranunculus abortivus, 97 

acris, 97 

fascicularis, 98 

flammula var. reptans, 97 

hispidus, 98 

pennsylvanicus, 97 

recurvatus, 97 

reptans, 97 

sceleratus, 97 

septentrionalis, 98 
Rape, 100 

broom, naked, 144 
Raphanus raphanistrum, 32 

sativus, 100 
Raspberry, dwarf, 106 

purple flowering, 105 

purple wild, 105 

wild red, 105 
Rattlesnake fern, 48 
Rattlesnake root, 150 
Rattlesnake weed, 150 
Red robin, 115 
Redroot, 120 
Redtop, 60 

false, 63 
Reed canary grass, 58 
Reedgrass, Nuttall's, 61 

slender wood, 60 

wood, 60 
Reseda odorata, 103 
Resedaceae, 103 
Rhamnaceae, 119 



INDEX TO REPOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



187 



Rhamnus alnifolia, 1 19 

cathartica, 119 
Rhododendron nutlifioniiii, ri9 
Rhus glal)ra, 117 

hirta, 117 

radioans, 117 

toxicodendron, 117 

tvphina, 117 

venenata, 117 

vernix, 117 
Rhynohospora macrostachya, -9 
Ribes aureuni, 104 

cyno-sbati, 104 

floridanum, 104 

prostratum, 104 

rotundifolium, 104 

rubrum, 104 
Ribgrass, 145 
Rice, mountain, black, 59 

white-grained, 59 
Rice cut grass, 58 
Richweed, 88, 140 
Robinia pseudacacia, 112 

viscosa, 112 
Rock cress, hairy, 102 

lyre-leaved, 102 

smooth; 102 

toothed, 102 
Rocket, yellow, 101 
Roripa armoracia, 101 

hispida, 101 

nasturtium, 101 

palustris, 101 

sylvestris, 101 
Rosa blanda, 108 

Carolina, 108 

cinnamomea, 108 

humilis, 108 
lucida, 108 

lucida, 108 

rubiginosa, 108 
Rosaceae, 105-8 
Rose, cinnamon, 108 

dwarf, 108 

smooth, 108 

swamp, 108 

wild, shining, 108 
Rosemary, wild, 130 
Rubiaceae, 145 
Rubus allegheniensis, 106 



Rubus americanus, 10() 

canadensis, 106 

hispidus, 106 

neglectus, 105 

nigrobaccus, 106 

occidentalis pallidu.s, '.V2 

odoratus, 105 

procumbens, 106 

strigosus, 105 

triflorus, 106 

villosus, 10<) 
frondosus, 106 
Rudbeckia hirta, 157 

laciniata, 157 
Rue, early meadow, 98 

tall meadow, 98 
Rumex acetosella, 88 

britannica, 89 

crispus, 89 

obtusifolius, 89 

sanguineus, 89 

verticillatus, 88 
Running pine, 52 
Rush, Canada, 77 

chair-maker's, 68 

knotted, 77 

May, 68 

narrow-panicled, 77 

scouring, 52 

sharp-fruited, 77 

soft, 77 

spike, needle, 67 
ovoid, 67 

toad, 77 

white Ijeaked, 68 

wood, common, 77 
hairy, 77 

wood club, 67 

yard, 77 
Rush grass, sheathed, 60 
Russula, crusted, 45-46 

explanation of plate, 163 

Earle's, 24 

explanation of plate, 161 

magnificent, 24 

explanation of plate, 161 
Russula crustosa, 45-46 

explanation of plate, 163 

earlei, 24 

explanation of plate, 161 



188 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Russula granulata lepiotoide.s, 37 
magnifica, 24 

explanation of plate, 161 
olivascens, 37 
Rutaceae, 116 
Rye, wild, glaucous, 66 
nodding, 66 
slender, 66 
Rye grass, 65 
Rynchospora alba, 68 

Sage, wood, 137 
Sagittaria graminea, 55 

heterophylla, 55 

latifolia, 55 

rigida, 55 

variabilis, 55 
St John's wort, Canadian, 121 

common, 121 

corymbed, 121 

dwarf, 121 

great, 121 

marsh, 121 

pale, 121 
Salicaceae, 84-86 
Salix alba vitellina, 85 

bebbiana, 85 

cordata, 86 

discolor, 85 

fluviatilis, 85 

fragilis, 85 

humilis, 85 

longifolia, 85 

lucida, 85 

nigra, 85 

rostrata, 85 

sericea, 85 

tristis, 85 
Salsify, 148 
Sambucus canadensis, 145 

pubens, 145 

racemosa, 145 
Sandwort, blunt-leaved, 94 

thyme-leaved, 94 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 99 
Sanicle, 126 

Sanicula marylandica, 126 
Santalaceae, 88 
Saponaria officinalis, 93 

vaccaria, 93 



Sargent, C.^S.,\ identification of speci- 
mens, 5 
Sarracenia purpurea, 103 
Sarraceniaceae, 103 
Sarsaparilla, bristly, 125 

wild, 125 
Sassafras, 98 

officinale, 98 

sassafras, 98 
Saxifraga pennsylvanica, 103 

virginiensis, 104 
Saxifragaceae, 103-4 
Saxifrage, early, 104 

golden, 104 

swamp, 103 
Scabious, sweet, 155 
Scirpus americanus, 68 

atrovirens, 68 

cyperinus, 68 
eriophorum, 68 

lacustris, 68 

planifolius, 67 

polyphyllus. 68 

pungens, 68 

sylvaticus bissellii, 35 

torreyi, 68 
Sclerotinia smilacinae, 31 
Scouring rush, 52 

Scribner, F. Lamson, acknowledg- 
ments to, 48 
Scrophularia leporella, 141 

marj'landica, 141 

nodosa var. marylandica, 141 
Scrophulariaceae, 141-44 
Scutellaria galericulata, 137 

lateriflora, 137 
Secotium warnei, 28 
Sedge, awl-fruited, 73 

Bailey's, 69 

bent, 72 

bladder, 69 

bottle, 69 

bristle-stalked, 73 

bristly, 70 

broom, blunt, 75 
pointed, 75 

broomlike, 75 

bur reed, 74 

crested, 75 



INDEX TO REPORT OF TIFE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



189 



Sedge, cyperuslike, 70 
Dewey's, 75 
downy green, 71 
drooping, 70 
Emmons, 73 
fescue, 76 
fibrous-rooted, 73 
fox, 73 
fringed, 71 
graceful, 71 
gray, 71 
Gray's, 69 
hairy-fruited, 70 
hay, 75 
hirsute, 71 
hop, 69 

long-beaked, 71 
long-stalked, 73 
loose-flowered, 72 
meadow, 72 
Muhlenberg's, 74 
narrow-leaved, 71 
necklace, 69 
nodding, 71 
oval-headed, 74 
pale, 72 

Pennsylvania, 73 
plantain-leaved, 72 
porcupine, 69 
prickly, lesser, 74 

little, 74 
pubescent, 73 
reflexed, 74 
retrorse, 69 
river bank, 70 
rough, 70 
sallow, 69 
silvery, 75 
slender, 70 
slender-stalked, 71 
soft-leaved, 74 
spreading, 72 
stellate, 74 
straw, 75 
thin-leaved, 74 
three-fruited, 75 
Tuckerman's, 69 
tussock, 70 
twisted, 70 



I Sedge, wood, drooping, 71 
slender, 72 

woolly, 70 

yellow-fruited, 73 
\ Sedum acre, 103 

telephium, 103 
j Seed-bearing plants. 53-160 
Self-heal, 137 
Senecio aureus, 159 
Sericocarpus asteroides, 153 

conyzoides, 153 
Setaria glauca, 58 

italica, 58 

viridis, 58 
Shad bush, 109 
Shagbark, 83 
Sheepberry, 146 
Shepherd's purse, 102 
Shield fern, Boott's. 50 

crested, 50 

marginal, 50 

marsh, 50 

spinulose, 50 
Shin leaf, 129 
Sickle pod, 102 
Sicyos angiilatas, 147 
Silene antirrhina, 93 

armeria, 93 

cucubalus, 92 

noctiflora, 93 

stellata, 92 

vulgaris, 92 
Silkweed, 134 
Simarubaceae, 116 
Sisymbrium, tall, 100 
Sisymbrium altissimum, 100 

officinale, 100 
Sisyrinchium anceps, 81 

angustifolium, 81 

graminoides, 81 
Sium cicutaefolium, 127 
Skullcap, mad-dog, 137 

marsh, 137 
Skunk cabbage, 76 
Small, John K., acknowledgments to, 

48 
Smartweed, 90 

water, 90 
Smilaceae, 80 



190 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Smilacina racemosa, 79 
Sniilax herbacea, 80 

hispida, 80 
Snakehead, 141 
Snakeroot, black, 96,126 

Seneca, 116 

white, 151 
Snee/eweed, 158 
Snowberry, 146 

creeping, 131 
Soapwort, 93 
Solanaceae, 140-41 
Solanum carolinense, 140 

dulcamara, 140 

nigrum, 140 
Solidago arguta, 152 

bicolor, 152 

var. concolor, 152 

caesia, 151 
axillaris, 151 

canadensis, 153 

flexicaulis, 152 

hispida, 152 

juncea, 152 

lanceolata, 153 

latifolia, 152 

nemoralis, 153 

patula, 152 

rugosa, 152 

serotina, 152 
gigantea, 152 

squarrosa, 151 

ulmifolia, 152 
Solomon's seal, false, 79 

hairy, 80 

smooth, 80 
Sonchus asper, 149 

oleraceus, 149 
Sorbus americana, 108 
Sorrell, field, 88 

sheep, 88 

wood, violet, 115 
white, 115 
yellow, 115 
tall, 115 ' 
Sour gum. 128 
Sparganiaceae, 54 
Sparganium euryoarpum, 54 

simplex, 54 



Spartina cynosuroides, 62 
Spathyema foetida, 76 
Spear grass, low, 63 
Spearmint, 139 
Spearwort, creeping, 97 
Specularia perfoliata, 148 
Speedwell, Byzantine, 143 

common, 142 

corn, 143 

marsh, 142 

purslane, 143 

spiked, 143 

thyme-leaved, 142 

water, 142 
Spergula arvensis, 94 
Spermatophyta, 53-160 
Spice bush, 99 
Spikenard, 125 
Spindle tree, 118 
Spiraea salicifolia, 105 

tomentosa, 105 
Spiranthes cernua, 82 

gracilis, 82 
Spirodela polyrhiza, 76 
Spleenwort, ebony, 51 

maidenhair, 51 

silvery, 51 
Sporobolus longifolius, 35 

vaginaeflorus, 60 
Sporotrichum poae, 29 
Spring beauty, 92 

Carolina, 92 
Spurge, cypress, 117 

flowering, 117 

large-spotted, 116 

Nicaean, 117 

spotted, 116 
Spurry, corn, 94 
Squirrel corn, 99 
Stachys aspera, 138 
Staphylea trifolia, 118 
Staphyleaceae, 118 
Star flower, 132 
Star grass, 80 

water, 76 
Star of Bethlehem, 79 
Starwort, vernal water, 117 
Steeple bush, 105 
Steironema ciliatum, 132 



INDEX TO UEPOUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



191 



Stellaria borealis, 94 

graminea, 93 

longifolia, 93 

media, 93 
Stenophyllus, hairlike, 67 
Stenophyllus capillaris, 67 
Stickseed, Virginia, 136 
Stick-tight, 158 
Stilbum resinaria, 30 
Stitchwort, lesser, 93 

long-leaved, 93 

northern, 94 
Stonecrop, ditch, 103 

mossy, 103 
Stoneroot, 140 
Strawberry, 106 

barren, 107 

wood, American, 106 
European, 106 
Streptopus roseus, 79 
Stropharia siccipes radicata, 37-38 
Sugar tree, 87 
Sumac, poison, 117 

smooth, 117 

staghorn, 117 
Sundew, round-leaved, 103 
Sundrops, common, 124 

small, 124 
Sunflower, common, 157 

rough, 157 

thin-leaved, 157 

wood, 157 
Susquehanna valley, plants of, 47-160 
Sweet cicely, hairy, 126 

smooth, 127 
Sweet flag, 76 
Sweet scabious, 155 
Sweet william, 93 

wild, 135 
Sweetbrier, 108 
Switch grass, 57 
Sycamore, 105 

Symph or i carpus racemosus, 146 
Symphytum officinale, 136 
Symplocarpus foetidus, 76 
Synosma suaveolens, 159 
Syntherisma linearis, 56 

sangninalis, 56 
Syringa vulgaris, 132 



Tanacetum vulgare, 158 

Tansy, 158 

Taraxacum erythrospermum, 149 

officinale, 149 

taraxacum, 149 
Taxus canadensis, 53 

minor, 53 
Tea, Appalachian, 146 

New Jersey, 120 

Oswego, 138 
Tear-thumb, arrow-leaved, 90 

halberd-leaved, 90 
Teasel, card, 147 
Tetragonanthus deflexus, 34 
Teucrium canadense, 137 
Th;ilesia uniflora, 144 
Thalictrum dioicum, 98 

polygamum, 98 
Thaspium aureum, 126 

barbinode, 126 

trifoliatum aureum, 126 
Thistle, Canada, 160 

common bur, 159 

field, 159 

fragrant, 160 

pasture, 160 

sow, annual, 149 
spiny, 149 

swamp, 160 
Thorn, cockspur, 110 

large-fruited, 110 

long-spined, 110 

pear, 110 

scarlet, 110 
Thorns, 4-5 
Thorough wort, 151 
Thyme, creeping, 139 
Thj^meleaceae, 124 
Thymus serpyllum, 139 
Tiarella cordifolia, 104 
Tick trefoil, Dillen's, 113 

naked-flowered, 113 

panicled, 113 

pointed-leaved, 113 

prostrate, 113 

showy, 113 

small-leaved, smooth, 113 
Tilia americana, 120 
TiUaceae, 120 
Timothy, 60 



192 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Tioga county, plants of, 47-160 
Toadflax, bastard, 88 

yellow, 141 
Tobacco, Indian, 148 
Toothwort, cut-leaved, 102 

two-leaved, 102 
Tortula ruralis, 21 
Touch-me-not, pale, 119 

spotted, 119 
Tragopogon porrifolius, 148 

pratensis, 148 
Trailing arbutus, 130 
Trailing Christmas green, 52 
Tree of heaven, 116 
Trefoil, tick, Dillen's, 113 
naked-flowered, 113 
panicled, 113 
pointed-leaved, 113 
prostrate, 113 
showy, 113 

small-leaved, smooth, 113 
Triadenum virginicum, 121 
Tricholoma, rooted, 40-41 
explanation of plate, 162 
subacute, 39-40 

explanation of plate, 1 62 

wood, 41 

explanation of plate, 162 

Tricholoma radicatum, 22, 40-41 

explanation of plate, 162 

silvaticum, 41 

explanation of plate, 162 
subacutum, 39-40 

explanation of plate, 162 
Trichostema dichotomura, 137 
Trientalis americana, 132 
Trifolium agrarium, 112 
arvense, 112 
hybridum, 112 
incarnatum, 112 
pratense, 112 
procumbens, 112 
repens, 112 
Trillium erectum, 80 
erythrocarpum, 80 
grandiflorum, 80 
undulatum, 80 
Triosteum perfoliatuni, 146 
Trumpet weed, 151 
Tsuga canadensis, 53 



Tulip tree, 95 

Tumble weed, 92 

Turk's cap lily, 79 

Turnip, 100 

Tussilago farfara, 159 

Twin flower, 146 

Twisted stalk, sessile-leaved 79 

Tylostoma poculatum, 28 

punctatum, 28 
Typha latifolia, 54 
Typhaceae, 54 

TJlmaceae, 87 
Ulmus americana, 87 

fulva, 87 

racemosa, 87 
Umbelliferae, 126 
Unifolium canadense, 79 
Urtica gracilis, 88 
Urticaceae, 88 

Urticastrum divaricatum, 88 
Utricularia vulgaris, 144 
Uvularia grandiflora, 78 

perfoliata, 78 

sessilifolia, 78 

Vaccaria vaccaria, 93 
Vacciniaceae, 130-31 
Vaccinium atrococcum, 130 

cor3'mbosum, 130 
var. atrococcum, 130 

macrocarpon, 131 

nigrum, 131 

oxy coccus, 131 

pennsylvanicum, 131 
var. nigrum, 131 

stamineum, 131 

vacillans, 131 
Vagnera racemosa, 79 
Valerian, Greek, 135 
Valerianaceae, 147 
Valerianella chenopodifolia, 147 

radiata, 147 
Vallisneria spiralis, 55 
Vallisneriaceae,. 55 
Velvet leaf, 121 
Venus looking glass, 148 
Veratrum viride, 78 
Verbascum blattaria, 141 

thapsus, 141 
Verbena hastata, 33, 137 



IM)i:X TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1902 



193 



Verbena urticifolia, 136 
Verbenaceae, 136-37 
Vernal grass, sweet, 58 
Veronica americana, 142 

anagallis, 142 

anagallis-aquatica, 142 

arvensis, 143 

buxbaumii, 143 

byzantina, 143 

officinalis, 142 

peregrina, 143 

scutellata, 142 

serpyllifolia, 142 

spicata, 143 

virginica, 143 
Vervain, blue, 137 

white, 136 
Vetch, American, 114 

Carolina, 114 

tufted, 114 
Vetchling, cream-colored, 114 
Viburnum acerifolium, 146 

alnifoliimi, 145 

cassinoides, 146 

dentatum, 146 

lantanoides, 145 

lentago, 146 

opulus, 146 

pubescens, 146 
Vicia americana, 114 

angustifolia, 18 

caroliniana, 114 

cracca, 114 
Vinca minor, 133 
Viola blanda, 123 
amoena, 123 
var. palustriformis, 123 

canadensis, 123 

canina var. muhlenbergii, 123 

cucullata, 122 

domestica, 122 

labradorica, 123 

obliqua, 122 

ovata, 122 

palmata, 122 

var. cucullata, 122 

papilionacea, 122 
domestica, 32 

pubescens, 123 

var. scabriuscula, 123 



Viola rostrata, 123 

rotundifolia, 123 

sagittata, 122 

scabriuscula, 123 

sororia, 122 

striata, 123 

villosa, 122 
Violaceae, 122-23 
Violet, arrow-leaved, 122 

blue, common, 122 
early, 122 
marsh, 122 
woolly, 122 

Canada, 123 

dames, 103 

dog, 123 

false, 106 

hooded, 122 

long-spiu-red, 123 

ovate-leaved, 122 

pale, 123 

round-leaved, 123 

southern wood, 122 

striped, 123 

sweet white, 123 

yard, 122 

yellow, hairy, 123 
smooth, 123 
Virginia creeper, 120 
Virgin's bower, 97 

purple, 97 
Vitaceae. 120 
Vitis aestivalis, 120 

cordifolia, 120 

vulpina, 120 
Wake-robiii, ill scented, 80 

large-flowered, 80 

painted, 80 
Waldsteinia fragarioides, 107 
Walnut, black, 83 

white, 83 
Washingtonia claytoni, 126 

longistylis, 127 
Water arum, 76 
Water carpet, 104 
Water cress, 101 

creeping yellow, 101 

marsh, 101 
Water lily, sweet-scented white, 95 
Water target, 94 



104 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Waterleaf, broad-leaved, 135 

Virginia, 135 
Whitewood, 95 
Willow, beaked, 85 

black, 85 

brittle, 85 

crack, 85 

dwarl' gray, 85 

glaucous, 85 

heart-leaved, 86 

prairie, 85 

pussy, 85 

sandbar, 85 

shining, 85 

silky, 85 

water, 144 

white, 85 
Willow-herb, great, 124 

linear-leaved, 124 

northern, 124 

purple-leaved, 124 
Windflower, 96 
Winter berry, 118 
Wintergreen, 130 

flowering, 116 

greenish-flowered, 129 



Wintergreen, one-sided, 129 

round-leaved, 129 

spotted, 129 
Witch grass, 58 
Witch hazel, 105 
Withe-rod. 146 
Wood sorrel, violet, 115 

white, 115 

yellow, 115 
tall, 115 
Woodwardia virginica, 51 
Wormwood, 158 

Xanthium canadense, 33. 15! 

commune, 19 

strumarium, 151 
Xanthoxylum americanuni 1 16 
Xolisma ligustrina, 130 

Yam root, wild, 81 
Yarrow, 158 
Yew, American, 53 

Zannichellia, 55 

paluslris, 55 
Zii-ia aurea, 127 

cordata, 127 



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Published tnC7tthly ly the 

University of the State of New York 



BULLETIN 3r3 



New York State Museum 

Charles H. Peck State Botanist 



Bulletin 75 
BOTANY 7 



/ 



CA 



•REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 



PAGE 

Introduction * 3 

A Plants added to the herbari- 
um 7 

B Contributors and their con- 
tributions 9 

C Species not before reported 12 

D Remarks and observations. . 23 

E Edible fimgi 27 



PAGE 

F New York species of Cratae- 
gus ■ 35 

G Supplementary list of plants 
of Susquehanna Valley. 

Frank E. Fexxo . . -. . . 57 

Explanation of plates 60 

Plates O, 84-86 follow 63 

Index ; 65 



ALBANY 

.UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 
1904 



Mbio4m-F4-25oo 



Price 40 cents 



University of the State of New York 



REGENTS 1903 
With years of election 

William Croswell Doane D.D. LL.D. Chancellor, Albany 



New York 

- - New York 

- Rochester 
- Utica 

- Lowville 
D.C.L. Brooklyn 

- - Watkins 

- - Palmyra 

Buffalo 

- - New York 

Albany 



1892 

1878 Whitelaw Reid M.A. LL.D. Vice Chancellor - 

1877 Chauncey M. Depew LL.D. _ _ _ 

1877 Charles E. Fitch LL.B. M.A. L.H.D. 

1881 William H. Watson M.A. LL.D. M.D. 

1881 Henry E. Turner LL.D. _ _ _ _ 

1883 St Clair McKelway M.A. L.H.D. LL.D. 

1885 Daniel Beach Ph.D. LL.D. 

1890 Pliny T. Sexton LL.D. - _ _ 

1890 T. Guilford Smith M.A. C.E. LL.D. 

1893 Lewis A. Stimson B.A. LL.D. M.D. 

1895 Albert Vander Veer M.A. Ph.D. M.D. 

1895 Charles R. Skinner, M.A. LL.D. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio 
1897 CHEsfER S. Lord M.A. LL.D. _ _ _ - Brooklyn 

1900 Thomas A. Hendrick M.A. LL.D. _ - - Rochester 

1901 Benjamin B. Odell jr LL.D. Governor, ex officio 
1901. Robert C. Pruyn M.A. _ _ _ _ 

1902 William Nottingham ■ M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. 

1903 Frank W. Higgins Lieutenant Governor, ex officio 
1903 John F. O'Brien Secretary of State, ex officio 
1903 Charles A. Gardiner LL.B. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. 
1903 Charles S. Francis B.S. _ _ _ _ 

One vacancy 



Albany 
Syracuse 



New York 
Troy 



SECRETA.RY 

Elected by Regents 

1900 James Russell Parsons jr M.A. LL.D. 



DIRECTORS OF DEPARTMENTS 

1888 Melvil Dewey M.A. LL.D. State Library and Home Education 
1890 James Russell Parsons JR M.A. LL.D. 

Administrative, College and .High School DepUs 
1890 Frederick J. H. Merrill Ph.D. State Museum 



University of the State of New York 



New York State Museum 

Frederick J. H. Merrill Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 



Bulletin 75 
BOTANY 7 

REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 

To the Regents of the University of the State of Neio York 

I have the honor of submitting to 3^011 the following report of 
work done in the botanical department of the State Museum 
during the past year. 

Specimens of plants for the herbarium have been collected in 
the counties of Albany, Columbia, Essex, Hamilton, Oswego, 
Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schoharie, • Warren and Washington. 
Specimens that were collected in the counties of Chautauqua, 
Chemung, Essex, Herkimer, Onondago, Ontario, Richmond, Sara- 
toga, Schoharie, Seneca, Steuben, Suffolk, Wayne and Westchester 
have been received from correspondents. 

Specimens collected and contributed represent 193 species. Of 
these, 4(5 are new to the herbarium and 13 are considered new or 
undescribed species. Of the 46 species, 35 are from the collections 
of the state botanist, 11 from those of correspondents. Of the 
13 species, 12 belong to the collections of the botanist, one to 
those of his correspondents. A list of the names of the species 
added to the herbarium is marked A. 

A list of the names of contributors and of the names of their 
respective contributions is marked B. The number of those who 
have contributed specimens is 41. Some of the specimens con- 
tributed belong to extralimital species. Some were sent merely 
for identification, but if for any reason their preservation seemed 



4 NEW YOUK STATE MUSEUM 

desirable and their condition was satisfactory, they have been pre- 
served and credited to the sender as a contribution. The number 
of those who have sent specimens for identification is 90, the 
number of identifications made is 623. 

Names of species added to our flora, with notes concerning 
their habitats, localities and time of collection of the specimens, 
with descriptions of new species are contained in a part of the 
report marked C. 

Eemarks and observations on species previously reported, new 
stations of rare plants, unusual habits and descriptions of new 
varieties may be found in a part of the report marked D. 

Specimens of many species of fleshy, corky and coriaceous fungi 
are specially subject to the attacks of destructive insects. In 
order to attain greater security against these attacks a series of 
such specimens representing about 500 species has been placed 
in small pasteboard boxes with close fitting covers. These boxes 
are in different sizes that they may be suitable for the reception 
of specimens of species of different sizes. The dimensions of the 
boxes vary in such a way that they present a certain degree of 
uniformity when arranged in proper order on the shelves of wall 
cases. They are 3x4, 4x6 or 6x8 inches in width and length and 
1^ or 2^ inches deep. The alphabetic arrangement of the genera 
represented by their contents has been adopted to facilitate refer- 
ence to them. 

The investigation of our mushroom flora has been continued, 
but the crop of wild mushrooms has been unusually deficient 
and the additions to the herbarium correspondingly small. Still, 
a few species have been tested for their edible qualities and found 
to be worthy of addition to the list of New York edible species. 
Colored figures of these have been prepared and plain descriptions 
of them may be found in a part of the report marked E. 

In my last report the general deficiency of the mushroom crop 
and the almost total absence of the common mushroom, 
Aga. ricus c a m p o s t e r, were recorded and the peculiar 
character of the season was assigned as the probable cause. The 
season of 1903 has been similar to that of 1902 in its abundance 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 5 

of rain and in its prevailing low temperature. It has also been 
similar, at least in the eastern part of the State, in its adverse 
influence on mushroom growth. In some respects its adverse 
character seems to have been intensified. Possibly the excessive 
drouth in the early part of the season may to some extent be 
responsible for this by preventing the development of the my- 
celium of some species. In 1895 and 1896 the abundance of the 
crop of the common mushroom and of the smooth mushroom was 
remarkable. They had then apparently reached their greatest 
abundance. In the few following years they appeared in moderate 
but diminishing quantity. In 1901 but few were seen in the 
vicinity of Albany. In 1902 they were still less in number and 
in 1903 I did not see a single specimen of the common mushroom 
in the whole region about Albany. This species at least seems 
to have reached its lowest point of productiveness. The proba- 
bility is that there will now be a gradual return to greater crops 
of this mushroom. It is very evident that much moisture, 
specially if attended by prevailing low temperature, is not favor- 
able to large crops of mushrooms. Probably the most favorable 
seasons will be found to be those of moderate rainfall and 
medium or rather high temperature, the rains being gentle and 
frequent. 

Specimens of about 75 species and varieties of edible mush- 
rooms have been placed in trays and arranged in table cases for 
permanent exhibition. Specimens of species of fungi injurious 
to wood have also been placed in table cases, and also species of 
parasitic fungi destructive to cultivated and useful plants. 
These and samples of wood and bark affected by mycelium of 
various wood-destroying fungi constitute an economic collection 
of fungi which should be instructive and of popular interest. 

The study of the Crataegus flora of the eastern part of the 
State has been continued and considerable time devoted to it. 
Specimens have been collected in the counties of Albany, Saratoga, 
Warren, Essex, Washington, Rensselaer and Columbia. A few 
have also been collected in the counties of Hamilton and Scho- 
harie, but only a single visit was made to each of these localities, 



b NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

and therefore the specimens from them are too incomplete to be 
satisfactory. These places must be again visited earlier in the 
season in order to get flowering specimens. Those who have made 
a special study of these trees and shrubs and have recently pub- 
lished many new species have given specific value to such charac- 
ters as require a very complete set of specimens to make the 
identification certain and satisfactory. There are also some 
characters that are not well shown by the dried specimens and 
in order to make these available notes must be taken of them at 
the time the specimens are collected. The number of species 
recently described is so great that it seems very probable that 
mere varieties and perhaps mere forms have been in some cases 
described as species. But error in this direction may have a ten- 
dency to stimulate closer observation on the part of others in 
their efiforts to recognize the fine distinctions made and may in the 
end be productive of better results than error in the other direc- 
tion would be. According to the present understanding of these 
plants the number of species of Crataegus added to our flora is 
19. They are specially noticed in a part of the report marked F. 

A supplementary list of plants of the Susquehanna valley is 
marked G. It is composed of the names and annotations of 
species detected since the previous list was written and of species 
accidentally omitted from that list. It includes about 30 species. 

Kespectfully submitted 

Charles H. Peck 

Albany, Dec. 2, 1903 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 



A 

PLANTS ADDED TO THE HERBARIUM 

l!^ew to the herbarium 



Asarum reflexum Bick. 

Aster ciirvescens Burgess 

Crataegus ascendens 8. 

C. brainerdi 8. 

C. conjuncta 8. 

C. contigua 8. 

C. delucida 8. 

C. dllatata 8. 

C. dissona 8. 

C. egglestoni 8. 

C exclusa 8. 

C. flabellata (Spacli) Rydb. 

C. gravesii 8. 

C. irrasa 8. 

G. intricata Lange 

C. lobulata 8. 

C. praecoqua 8. 

C. matura ;Sf. 

C. peckii 8. 

C. succulenta Lk. 

Daphne mezereum L. 

Entoloma griseum PA;. 

Geoglossum farlowi Glee. 

Haplosporella maclurae E, & B. 



Hebeloma socialis Pk. 

Hypomyces boletinus Pk. 

Hydnum balsameum Pk. 

H. macresceus Banker 

Inocybe eastanea Pk. 

I. excoriata Pk. 

I. fallax Pk. 

I. serotina Pk. 

I. squamosodisca Pk 

Isaria brachiata (Batsch) Solium. 

Iva xanthiifolia {Fres.) Nutt. 

Lactarius subvelutinus Pk. 

Nardia obovata (Nees) 

Oxalis brittonae 8mall 

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton 

Phacelia dubia (L.) 8 mall 

Phaeopezia retiderma (Cke.) 8acc. 

Podosphaera leucotrieha {E. & E.) 

8alm. 
Sarcoscypha rhenana Fckl. 
Stereum burtianum Pk. 
Tricholoma subluteum Pk. 
Ulmaria rubra Hill 



Not new to the herbarium 



Agaricus arvensis 8chaeff. 
Agrostemma githago L. 
Agastache scrophulariaefolia 

{Willd.)' 
Agrostis perennans {Walt.) Tiickm. 
Allium canadense L. 
A. vineale L. 

Alsine graminea (L.) Britton 
Althaea rosea Cav. 
Amelanchier botryapium (L. f.) D C. 
A. rotundifolia (Mx.) 

Roem. 
Antennaria parlinii Fern. 
A. plantaginea R. Br. 

Arcyria punlcea Pers. 
Aster rose, variifolius Pk. 
A. undulatus L. 



Berberis vulgaris L. 

Bidens cernua L. 

Boletus americanus Pk. 

B. chry. albocarneus Pk. 

B. elbensis Pk. 

B. luridus 8chaeff. 

B. piperatus Bull. 

B. rubinellus Pk. 
Bronius tectorum L. 
Cantharellus cibarius Fi: 

C. infundibuliformis 

(8cop.)Fr. 
C. ' tubaeformis Fr. 

Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. 
Collybia acervata Fr. 
G. familia Pk. 

G. velutipes Curt. 



8 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Claudopus nidulans (Pers.) PJc. 

Clavaria inaequalis Mull. 

C. krombbolzii Fr. 

Conium maculatum L. 

Coprinus micaceus Fr. 

Cornus candidissima Marsh. 

C. stolonifera Mx. 

Cortinarius amarus PJc. 

C. canescens PJc. 

C. cinnabarinus Fr. 

G. rigjdus Fr. 

C. uliginosus BerJc. 

Craterellus clavatus (Pers.) Fr. 

Crataegus cbamplainensis 8. 

C. coccinea L. 

O. crus-galli L. 

C. bolmesiana AsJie 

C. ruacracantha Lodd. 

C. modesta 8. 

C. oxyacantba L. 

C. pringlei 8. 

G. pruinosa Wend. 

C. punctata Jacq. 

Dalibarda repens L. 

Daucus carota L. 

Ecbium vulgare L. 

Entoloma grayanum PJc. 

Euonymus obovatus Nutt. 

Forues fomentarius (L.) Fr. 

F. igniarius (L.) Fr. 

F. pinicola Fr. 
Galera lateritia Fr. 
Galium mollugo L. 

G. tinctorium L. 
Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. 
Gratiola virginiana L. 

Heliopsis belianthoides (L.) E. S. P. 

Helvella ambigua Karst. 

Hirneola auricula-judae (L.) BerJc. 

Hydnum coralloides 8cop. 

H. grav. subzonatum PJc. 

Hygrophorus capreolaris KalcJih. 

H. pudorinus Fr. 

Hypericum arcyron L. 

Hypboloma capnoides Fr. 

H, subaquilum Bann. 

Hypocrea fungicola Karst. 

Lactarius affinis PJc. 

L. deliciosus Fr. 

L. glyeiosmus Fr. 



Lactarius subd. oculatus PJc. 
L. vellereus Fr. 

Lenzites sepiaria Fr. 
Lepiota amiantbina Scop. 
Lycbnis alba Mill. 
Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. 
Lycopodium clavatum L. 
L. obscurum L. 

Marasmius scorodonius Fr. 
Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) 

Porter 
Meibomia bracteosa (Mx.) Kuntze 
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. 
Moneses uniflora (L.) Ora'!/ 
Mycena galericulata (Scop.) Fr. 
Myosotis laxa LcJim. 
Myrica gale L. 
Osmunda regalis L. 
Otidea onotica (Pers.) FcJcl. 
Pinus echinata Mill. 
P. strobus L. 
Pleurotus porrigens Pers. 
Polyporus cuticularis (Bull.) Fr. 
P. picipes Fr. 

Polystictus abietinus Fr. 
P. hirsutus Fr. 

P. perennis (L.) Fr. 

Protoniyces erythronii PJc. 
Puccinia suaveolens (Pers.) Rostr. 
Ribes floridum UHer. 
R. rubrum L. 
Rubus canadensis L. 
R. nigrobaccus Bail. 
R. occid. pallidus Bail. 
Russula furcata (Pers.) Fr. 
R. dens, paxilloides PJc. 

R. flaviceps PJc. 

R. fragilis (Pers.) Fr. 

R. purpurina Q. d 8. 

Salix discolor MuJil. 
S. fragilis L. 
Sanicula gregaria BicJc. 
Scirpus atrocinctus Fern. 
S. atrovirens MuJil. 

S. pedicellatus Fern. 

Septoria rboina B. d C. 
Sisymbrium altissimum L. 
Solidago canadensis L. 
Spiraea salicifolia L. 
Sti'opharia depilata (Pers.) Fr. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 



Symphytum officinale L. 
Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) Karst. 
Thelephora palmata (Scop.) Fr. 
Thymus serpyllum L. 
Tragopogon pratensis L. 
Tricholoma sejunctum Sow. 
T. subacutum Pk. 

T. vaccinum (Pers.) Fr. 

Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) TJng. 



Uvularia sessilifolia L. 

Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufour 

Verbena angustifolia Mx. 

Viola blanda Willd. 

V. cucullata Ait. 

V. labradorica Schrank 

V. rotundifolia Mx. 

V. selkirkii Pursh 



B 



CONTRIBUTORS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS • 



Mrs E. G. 
Anomodon attenuatus Huehen. 
A. apiculatus B. cC- S. 

Bryum nutans ScJireh. 
Buxbaumia aphylla L. 
Cephalozia curvifolia Dumort. 
Collema plicatile Ach. 
Cylindrotheciura seductrix Sull. 
Dicranum flagellare Hedtv. 
D. viride Schp. 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedtv. 
Hypnum brevirostre Ehrh. 
H. chrysophyllum Brid. 

H. imponens Hediv. 

H. lindbergii Limpt. 

H. novae-angliae S. d L. 

H. proliferum L. 

H. schreberi Willd. 



Britton, New York 

Hypnum triquetrum L. 
Homalia gracilis James 
Leptotrichum pallidum Hampe 
Leucodon brachypus Brid. 
Mnium aff. ciliare C. d M. 
M. cuspidatum Hediv. 

M. medium B. & S. 

Philonotis fontana Brid. 
Platygyrium repens B. & S. 
Polyti'ichum juniperinum Willd. 
Porella platyphylla Lindh. 
Pylaisaea polyantha B. & S. 
P. velutina B. & S. 

Sphagnum cymbifolium Ehrh. 
Trichostomum brev. holtii Dixon 
Ulota crispa Brid. 
Weisia viridula Brid. 



Mrs H. C. Davis, Falmouth Me. 
Thalesia uniflora (L.) Britton \ Lysimachia vulgaris L. 

Mrs M. S. De Coster, Little Falls 
Daphne mezereum L. 

Mrs P. H. Dudley, New York 
Carex stricta Lam. (Culms and leaves) 

Mrs L. L. Goodrich, Syracuse 
Phacelia dubia (L.) Small 

Miss M. Hope, Seattle Wash. 
Pseudotsuga mucronata Ca)T. (Piece of bark) 

Mrs M. A. Knickerbocker, San Francisco Cal. 



Arbutus menziesii Pursh 
Quercus dumosa Nutt. 
Tumion californicum Greene 



Umbellularia calif oi-nica 'Nutt. 
Rhamnus californica Eschs. 



Miss J. A. Moses, Jamestown 
Viola rotundifolia Mx. 



10 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Miss E. S. Thomas, Schoharie 
Craterellus clavatus (Pers.) Fr. 

J. C. Arthur, Lafayette Ind. 



Phragmidium speciosum Fr. 
Puccinia amphigena Diet. 
Ravenelia portoricensis Arth. 



Uromyces acuminatus Arth. 
Puccinia eleocharidis Arth. 



H. J. Banker, California Pa. 
Craterellus dubius Pk. 

W. C. Barbour, Sayre Pa. 
Corticium salieinum Fr. I Irpex paradoxus (/Sfc7?m(Z.) Fr. 

Dasyscypha virginea {Batsch) FcJcl. \ Isaria brachiata (Batsch) Schuni. 
Fuligo yiolacea Peis. Xylaria grandis Pk. 

P. J. Braendle, Washington D.C. 



Amanitopsis vaginata {Bull.) Roze 
Clitocybe virens {Scop.) Fr. 
Collybia strictipes Pk. 
C. tort, setipes Pk. 



Flammula spumosa Fr. 

Lachnea hemisphaerica {Wigg.) Gill. 

Pholiota lutea Pk. 

Thelephora vialis Schiv. 

E. Bartholomew, Rockport Kan. 
Tylostoma mammosum {Mich.) Fr. I Pluteus longistriatus Pk. 
T. jiocnlatumWhite \ 

S. H. Burnham, Vaughns 
Asarum reflexum Bick. Paspalum muhlenbergii Nash 

Aster cnvvescens Burgess Perilla. trntescens {L.) Britton 

Oxalis brittonae Small ' Xanthium commune Britton 

G. D. Cornell, Cooper's Plains 
Hydrangea arborescens L. \ Lilium superbum L. 

J. Bearness, London Out. 



Hemitrichia vesparium {BatscJi) 
Lycogala exiguum Morg. 
Trichia incarnata Pers. 



Diaporthe microstroma E. & E. 
D. velata Pers. 

Dichomera prunicola E. & D. 

W. G. Farlow, Cambridge Mass. 
Nardia obovata Nees 

F. E. Fenno, Nichols 
Carex flava L. 1 Verbena angustifolia Ma: 

Salix myrtilloides L. | Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm 

A. 0. Garratt, Salt Lake City Utah 
Puccinia calochorti PA;. | Puccinia plumbaria Pk. 

C. Gramesly, Charleston 111. 
Agaricus abruptus Pk. 

N. M. Glatfelter, St Louis Mo. 



Flammula eccentrica Pk. 
Galera capillaripes Pk. 
Hypholoma ornellum Pk 
Lactarius subvelutiuus Pk 
Pholiota detersibilis PJc. 



Pholiota autumnalis Pk. 
Russula luteobasis Pk. 
R. pusilla Pk. 

Tricholoma viscosum PJc. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 11 

L. W. Hahn, Silver Creek 
Euonynius obovatus Nutt. 

C. C. Hanmer, East Hartford Ct. 
Geoglossum farlowi Cke. 

-W. Harriot, Gait Ont 
Bromns cil. laeviglumis ScriJ). \ Panicum lanuglnosum Ell. 

R. B. Hough, Lowville 
Pinus echinata Mill. 

F. G. Howland, Saratoga 
Collybia velutipes Curt. 

U. B. Mackintosh, Peabody Mass. 



Tricholoma grammopodium (Bull.) 
Fr. 



Clitocj-be cerussatu F?: 
Deconica bryopbila PA;. 
Pleurotus petaloides (Bull.) Fr. 

C. Mcllvaine, Cambridge Md. 
Hypomyces viridis (A. <& S.) Karst. Phytophthora phaseoli TJiax. 
Panaeoius epimyces Pk. 

W. S. Moffatt, Chicago 111. 
Clitocybe piceina P7c. | Pholiota comosa Fr. 

G. E. Morris, Waltham Mass. 
Boletinus grisellus Pk. I Lentinus tigrinus Fr. 

Boletus parasiticus B«n. I Otidea onotica (Pers.) Fc7c?. 

R. S. Phifer, Danville Va, 
Boletus morgani Pk. ] Polyporus curtisii Berk. 

B. caespitosus Pk. \ 

E, B. Sterling, Trenton N, J. 



Geaster minimus ScJiid. 
G. pectinatus Pers. 

G. giovanellae Brcs. 

Catastoma subterraneum {Pk.) Morg. 



Agaricus cothurnatus Pk. 
A. rutilescens Pk. 

A. solidipes Pk. 

A. sphaerosporus Pk. 



R, H. Stevens, Detroit Mich. 
i Ilelvella stevensii Pk. 

F. C. Stewart, Geneva 
Haplosporella maclurae E. & B. 

D. R. Sumstine, Kittanning Pa. 
Dictydiaethalium plumbeum ! Podosphaera oxyacanthae DC. 

(Scliurn.) Puccinia cryptotaeniae Pk. 

Lentinus ursinus Fr. j Stropharia squam. aurantiaca Cke. 

Merulius tremellosus Schrad. I Urnula craterium (Schw.) Fr. 

W. E. Warner, Washington D. C. 
Amanita radicata Pk. I Pluteus cervinus (ScTiaeff.) Fr. 

A. muse, f ormosa (G. d R.) \ Polyporus cuticularis Fr. 

B. C. ■Williams, Newark 
Inocybe serotina Pk. 



12 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

J. R, Cushier, New York City 
Panaeolus solidipes PA;. 

A. Znechtel, Albany 
Picea canadensis (Mill.) B. S. P. (Trunk section) 

L. H. Watson, Chicago III. 
Clitocybe piceina PJc. 

C 

SPECIES NOT BEFORE REPORTED 

Asarum reflexum Bick. 
Ravines. Williams Bridge, Westchester co. May. S. H. Burn- 
ham. 

Aster curvescens Burgess. 

Woodlawn cemetery, Westchester co. July. S. H. Burnham. 

Crataegus ascendens Sarg. 
Clayey soil in pastures and borders of woods. North Green- 
bush and Rensselaer. May, July and September. 

Crataegus brainerdi Sarg. 
Rocky places in pastures. Sandlake. May and September. 

Crataegus conjuncta Sarg. 
Clayey and sandy soil. North Greenbush and in various places 
north and northeast of Albany. May, September and October. 

Crataegus contigua Sarg. 
Shaly soil. Lansingburg. May and September. 

Crataegus delucida Sarg. 
Clayey hillsides north of Albany. May and September. 

Crataegus dilatata Sarg. 
Clayey soil, roadsides and pastures. Thompsons Lake, Albany 
CO. and Gansevoort, Saratoga co. June, July and September. 

Crataegus dissona Sarg. 
Clayey soil. Near Albany, Rensselaer, Lansingburg, Copake 
and Thompsons Lake. May, July and September. 

Crataegus egglestoni Sarg. 
Rocky places. Crown Point. May, July and September. 

Crataegus exclusa Sarg. 
Clayey soil. Crown Point. May, July and September. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 13 

Crataegus flabellata (Spach) Kydb. 
Rocky places near the lake shore. Crown Point. May and Sep- 
tember. This is a beautiful species well marked by its deeply 
and sharpl}- lobed shining leaves, its 20 stamens with pink 
anthers and its globose fruit. 

Crataegus gravesii Sarg. 
Clayey soil. Albany, North Greenbush and Westport. May, 
June, September and October. 

Crataegus irrasa Sarg. 
Clayey soil. North Greenbush. May, June and September. 

Crataegus intricata Lange 
Hillsides near Albany and north of Lansingburg. May, June 
and September. 

Crataegus lobulata Sarg. 

Clayej soil. Crown Point. May and September. 

Crataegus macracantha Lodd. 

Clayey and sandy soil. North Greenbush, Thompsons Lake, 

Fort Ann and North Elba. May, June and September. This was 

formerly reported as a variety of Crataegus coccinea, 

but is now considered a distinct species. The name indicates that 

it has long spines, but they are not always conspicuously long. Its 

stamens vary in number from 7 to 10 and its anthers are .whitish 

or pale yellow. 

Crataegus matura Sarg. 

Rocky or bushy pastures. Gansevoort, Saratoga co. and Lake 

Pleasant, Hamilton co. June, August and September. 

Crataegus peckii Sarg. 
Shaly soil. North of Lansingburg. May and October. 

Crataegus praecoqua Sarg. 
Clayey soil. Crown Point. May and September. First discov- 
ered here by W. W. Eggleston. 

Crataegus succulenta Link 

Clayey soil. Albany, Albia, Rensselaer co. and Central Bridge, 
Schoharie co. May, July and September. 

In view of the growing interest in the study of our species of 
Crataegus it has been thought best to give descriptions of such 



14 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of onr species as are not described in any of our manuals. These 
descriptions and remarks on the genus will be found in another 
part of the report. 

Daphne mezereum L. 

Gravesville, Herkimer co. Mrs M. S. DeCoster. The spurge 
laurel or mezereon is an introduced shrub. It is sometimes culti- 
vated but escapes from cultivation and grows wild. 

Entoloma griseum n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, broadly campanulate or convex, obtuse or 
slightly umbonate, glabrous, often irregular, hygrophanous, 
grayish brown when moist, paler when dry, flesh whitish, odor 
and taste farinaceous; lamellae adnexed, emarginate, with a de- 
current tooth, about 2 lines broad, pale pink; stem equal or 
slightly tapei*ing upward, silky fibrillose, pruinose or mealy at 
the top, stuffed or hollow, grayish white; spores angular, nearly 
as broad as long, .0003 of an inch long. 

Pileus 1-3 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 3-5 lines thick. 
Under spruce and balsam fir trees. Lake Pleasant. August. 

It is closely related to E. grayanum from which it may be 
separated by its darker color, more narrow gills and different 
place of growth. 

Euonymus obovatus Nutt. 

Woods. Silver creek, Chautauqua co. L. W. Hahn. 

This decumbent or trailing shrub was reported by Dr Torrey to 
belong to our flora, but he considered it a mere variety of 
Euonymus a m e r i c a n u s . It is now regarded as a dis- 
tinct species differing from the strawberry bush in its smaller 
flowers, obtuse and more finely crenulate leaves, earlier time of 
floAvering and decumbent or trailing mode of growth. 

Geoglossum farlowi Cke. 
Fishers island, Suffolk co. September. C. C. Hanmer. This 
fungus is much like G.hirsutum in external appearance, but 
its spores have but three septa. 

Haplosporella maclurae E. & B. 
Dead stems of wistaria. Geneva. April. F. C. Stewart. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 15 

Hebeloma socialis n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy but thin, convex, becoming phane or nearly so, 
glabrous, slightly viscid when moist, dingy yellowish white, flesh 
concolorous, taste nauseous ; lamellae thin, close^ slightly rounded 
behind, adnexed, at first whitish, then yellowish, finally brownish 
ferruginous; stem short, fibrous, flocoose fibrillose, hollow with a 
small cavity, white; spores brownish ferruginous, elliptic, .00025- 
.0003 of an inch long, .00016-.0002 broad. 

Pileus 8-15 lines broad; stem 12-18 lines long, 1.5-3 lines thick. 
Closely gregarious or subcespitose. Among "short grass in pas- 
tures and golf ground. Menands. October. Distinguished from 
our other white or whitish species by its peculiar habitat and 
mode of growth and by its small spores. 

Hypomyces boletinus n. sp. 

Perithecia minute, conic or subglobose, closely nestling in a 
pallid or whitish subiculum, pale red or orange; asci slender, 
linear, .00'l-.()05 of an inch long, scarcely .0003 broad; spores sub- 
fusiform, continuous, acuminate or apiculate at one end, .0008-.001 
of an inch long, .00025 broad. 

On some unrecognized decaying boletus, associated with 
Sepedonium chrysospermum. It differs from H . 
p o 1 y p o r*i n u s , to which it is most closely related, in its 
more highly colored perithecia and longer spores, and from 
H . b 1 e t i e o 1 a in the color of the subiculum. 

Hydnum balsameum n. sp. 

Resupinfite with a very thin whitish or pallid subiculum ; aculei 
mere conic brown points closely scattered but not crowded, giving 
to the surface a brown color. 

Decorticated wood of balsam fir. North Elba. September. It 
sometimes grows on the bark also. 

Hydnum macrescens Banker in lit. 

Resupinate, effused, the thin subiculum less than 1 mm thick, 

ochraceous, subfarinaceous, specially in the thinner portions and 

on the wood}' substratum, rimose, the margin indeterminate; 

mycelium white, arachnoid, spreading in places bej^ond the subic- 



16 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

uliim; teeth scattered, minute, .1-.25 mm long, .05.1 mm broad, 
obtuse, often forked, colored like the subiculum but paler or white 
at the subciliate tips. Growing chiefly on the hymenial surface 
of Stereum frustulosum but often spreading over the 
substratum of decayed wood. Mt McGregor, Saratoga co. July. 
The growth is most vigorous on the surface of the Stereum, 
where the subiculum becomes thickest and the teeth most numer- 
ous. On the woody substratum the growth is poor, the subiculum is 
thin and often the mycelium spreads naked over the surface of the 
wood. This has suggested the specific name. The thinning out of 
the subiculum indicates that the fungus finds its proper nourish- 
ment in the tissues of the Stereum and it is doubtful if it will be 
found dissociated from that plant. It appears to be related to 
H. sulphurellum Pk. but difiPers from it in color, in the 
indeterminate margin and in the ciliate teeth. 

Inocybe castanea n. sp. 

PLATE O, FIG. 1-8 

Pileus conic or convex, umbonate, rimose fibrillose, the margin 
incurved, dark chestnut brown; lamellae thin, narrow, close, 
adnate, whitish or pallid when young, ferruginous brown when 
mature; stem equal, hollow, glabrous, slightly pruinose or mealy 
at the top ; paler than the pileus ; often whitened at the base by 
mycelioid tomentum; spores angular, nearly or quite as broad 
as long, .00025-.0003 of an inch long and broad; cystidia subfusi- 
form, .002.0024 of an inch long. 

Pileus 5-8 lines broad ; stem 10-18 lines long, about 1 line thick. 
Mossy ground under spruce and balsam fir trees. Lake Pleasant. 
August. 

This species is very closely related to I. umboninota from 
which it may be separated by its smaller size, the chestnut tint of 
the cap, its hollow stem and smaller merely angular spores. 
Cystidia are more abundant. The species belongs to section 
Rimosi. 

Inocybe excoriata n. sp. 

PLATE O, FIG. 14-19 

Pileus fleshy, broadly conic, soon broadly convex, umbonate, 
fibrillose or fibrillose squamulose, somewhat silky or tomentose 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 17 

on the margin, grayish brown or pale vandyke brown, the cuticular 
surface often cracking and separating in places but remaining on 
the disk and sometimes on the margin, flesh white; lamellae nar- 
row, close, emarginate, adnexed, decurrent with a tooth, crenu- 
late on the edge, white becoming brownish gray ; stem equal, solid, 
silky fibrillose, white or whitish without and within; spores yel- 
lowish brown (raw umber), elliptic, even, .0003-.0004 of an inch 
long, .0002-.00024 broad; cystidia flask shape, .002-.0024 of an 
inch long. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 2-3 lines thick. 
Among fallen leaves in woods. Lake Pleasant. August. 

The surface of the pileus cracks longitudinally and therefore 
the species belongs to the section Rimosi. The peeling and disap- 
pearance of parts of the cuticle suggest the specific name. A 
slight whitish webby veil is present in the young plant. 

Inocybe fallax n. sp. 

PLATE 0^ FIG. 20-24 

Pileus thin, campanulate or convex, umbonate, obscurely fibril- 
lose, sometimes minutely and obscurely squamulose, whitish or buff 
white, somewhat shining, the margin decurved or incurved, often 
splitting; lamellae thin, close, rounded behind, slightly adnexed, 
pallid when young, becoming rusty brownish when old; stem 
long, equal, hollow, flexuous, minutely pruinose, mealy, whitish; 
spores angular, slightly nodulose, .0003-.0004 of an inch long, 
.00024-.0003 broad ; cystidia .0016.002 of an inch long, .0006-.0007 
broad, oblong elliptic. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem 2-3 inches long, 2-4 lines thick. 
Among fallen leaves in woods. Lake Pleasant. August. 

This species might easily be taken for a large form of I. 
geophylla, but an examination of its spores shows it to be 
distinct. Its cystidia are short and broad. 

Inocybe serotina n. sp. 

Pileus fleshy, firm, varying from campanulate to nearly plane, 

fibrillose toward the margin, white, sometimes tinged with yellow 

or brownish yellow, flesh white; lamellae close, rounded behind, 

nearly free, subventricose in fully expanded specimens, whitish 



18 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

becoming brownish cinnamon; stem nearl}' equal, bulbous or nar- 
rowed at the base, long or short, solid, fibrous, white; spores 
oblong, even, .0005-.0006 of an inch- long, .00024-.0003 broad. 

Pileus 1-2.5 inches broad; stem 1-2 inches long, 3-6 lines thick. 
Sandy shores of Sodus bay and Lake Ontario. October. E. B. 
Burbank. Communicated by B. C. Williams. 

Related to I. s a m b u c i n a from which it differs in the 
fibrillose margin of the cap, in the darker color of the mature 
lamellae, in the larger spores and in its habitat. From H e b e- 
loma colvini, which also grows in sandy soil, it differs in 
its whitish color, longer spores and solid stem. Its mycelium 
binds together a mass of sand which forms a somewhat bulbous 
base to the stem. Mr Burbank says that it occurred in great 
abundance in October and that it is edible. 

Inocybe squamosodisca n. sp. 

PLATE O^ FIG. 10-13 

Pileus fleshy, firm, convex, dry, fibrillose on the margin, rimose 
gquamose in the center, ochraceous buff, flesh whitish or yellowish 
white; lamellae rather broad, moderately close, adnate, pale 
ochraceous, becoming darker with age; stem short, firm, equal, 
solid, fibrillose, colored like the pileus; spores elliptic, even, 
.0003-.0004 of an inch long, .0002- .00024 broad. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad ; stem about 1 inch long, 2-3 lines thick. 
Gregarious. Under pine trees. Shore of Sacandaga lake. August. 

The scales of the pileus are flat and spotlike and are formed by 
the cracking of the cuticle. 

Isaria brachiata (Batsch) Schum. 
On decaying Tremellodon gelatiuosum. Van 
Etten. October. . W. C. Barbour. 

Iva xanthiifolia (Fres.) Nutt. 
Waste places in the northern part of Albany. August. Intro- 
duced from the west but growing freely here. 

Lactarius subvelutinus n. sp. 
Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, subumbilicate, dry, 
minutely velvety or pruinose velvety, sometimes rugose, golden 
tawny, flesh white, milk white, taste mild; lamellae narrow. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 19 

close, adnate or slightly decurrent, yellowish or cream color, 

becoming darker with age; stem short, equal, solid, colored like 

or a little paler than the pileus; spores white, globose, nearly 

smooth, .0003 of an inch broad. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem .5-1 inch long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Woods and open places. Meadowdale and Cemetery, Albany co. 

August. 

Nardia obovata Nees 

Kocks. Rainbow falls near Lower Ausable lake, Essex co. 

September. W. G. Farlow. 

Oxalis brittonae Small 
Van Cortland park, Westchester co. June. S. H. Burnham. 

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton 
Sleepy Hollow near Tarrytown. October. S. H. Burnham. 
This is an introduced species. 

Phacelia dubia (L.) Small 

Shady places on limestone rocks near Jamesville, Onondaga co. 
October. Mrs L. L. Goodrich. 

In our botanies, Pennsylvania is the northeastern limit assigned 
to the range of this plant. Its discovery near Jamesville by Mrs 
Goodrich extends its range northward and adds a beautiful little 
wild flower to our flora. Its usual flowering time is in spring, 
but these specimens were found in flower the last week in October. 
The plants grew in patches several feet in diameter. The species 
is described in Gray's Manual under the name Phacelia 
parviflora Pursh, 

Phaeopezia retiderma (Cke.) Sacc. 

Ground in shaded places. Sandlake, Rensselaer co. 
Podosphaera leucotricha (E. & E.) Salmon 

Parasitic on living twigs of appletrees. Clyde, Wayne co. W. L. 
Devereaux. 

This species of mildew is peculiar in its perithecia having 
two sets of appendages, one apical, the other basal. It is specially 
injurious to the young branches of trees in the nursery, but it 
rarely attacks the twigs of old trees, though suckers from the base 
or roots are said to be more liable to attack. 



20 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Puccinia simillima Arthur 
Leaves and sheaths ofPhragmites phrag mites. Near 
Savannah, Wayne co. September. 

Paspalum muhlenbergii Nash 
Bedford Park, Westchester co. September. S. H. Burnham. 

Paspalum prostratum Nash 
Sandy soil. Manor, Suffolk co. August. 

Russula densifolia Seer. 
Among decaying leaves in woods. Lake Pleasant. August. 
This species is closely related to R. a d u s t a from which it 
may be separated by the slight reddening of the flesh where 
wounded. Our specimens are a peculiar form in which many of 
the lamellae are forked at the base. They also separate at the 
inner extremity from the stem and pileus and curl outward reveal- 
ing the hymenophore beneath. All the specimens found exhibited 
this character. It indicates a feeble attachment of the hymenium 
to the hymenophore and is suggestive of a relationship to the 
genus Paxillus. The white spores, however, show that it is not 
referable to that genus. It may be called variety p a x i 1 - 

1 o i d es . 

Russula furcata (Pers.) Fr. 

Ground in woods. Near Albany. July. An edible species. 

Sarcoscypha rhenana FcM. 

Capular, stipitate or subsessile, single or cespitose, often irreg- 
ular, incurved on the margin when young, externally pruinose 
tomentose, pale yellow; hymenium pale yellow becoming orange 
tinted with age or in drying, sometimes slightly pruinose; stem 
short or almost none, when well developed whitened by a short 
downy tomentum ; asci cylindric ; spores elliptic, verrucose, .0008- 
.0009 of an inch long, .0004-.00t)5 broad, commonly containing one 
or two shining nuclei. 

Cups 4-8 lines broad ; stem 2-6 lines long, 2-4 thick. Decaying 
leaves and other vegetable matter in woods. Lake Pleasant. 
August. Its relationship is with S. imperialis from which 
it differs in the character of its spores and in its more highly 
colored hymenium. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 21 

Stereum burtianum n. sp. 

PLATE 0^ FIG. 30-34 

Pileus thin, submembranaceous, coriaceous, fibrous, subinfundi- 
buliform, sometimes dimidiate, slightly uneven with radiating 
fibrous ridges, pallid with a slight cervine or rufescent tint, some- 
what shining, the thin margin erect, spreading or decurved, 
slightly wavy or uneven on the edge and often incised or laciniate ; 
hymenium even or slightly radiately uneven, decurrent, from pale 
buflf to ochraceous buff; stem short, tough, solid, minutely tomen- 
tose or pruinose tomentose, subcinereous ; spores minute, hyaline, 
even, globose or subglobose, .00012-.00016 of an inch broad. 

Pileus 4-8 lines broad; stem 2-3 lines long, about half a line 
thick. Bare ground in bushy places. Shokan, Ulster co. Sep- 
tember. 

Sometimes the pilei of two or more plants growing close 
together are confluent. When well developed the pileus has a 
central stem, but sometimes one third or one half is wanting and 
then the stem is lateral though the pileus is usually erect. In 
such cases the pileus often appears as if perforate and the upper 
part of the stem as if hollow. This very distinct species is dedi- 
cated to Prof. E. A. Burt who has made a special study of the 
group of fungi to which it belongs and to whom I am under obliga- 
tions for aid in the identification of some of the species. 

Tricholoma subluteum n. sp. 

PLATE 0^ FIG. 26-29 

Pileus broadly campanulate becoming convex, umbonate, 
obscurely fibrillose, yellow, flesh white; lamellae close, emargin- 
ate, adnexed, white; stem equal or slightly tapering upward, 
solid, fibrillose, yellow, whitish at the pointed base, white within ; 
spores globose, .0002-.00024 of an inch broad. 

Pileus 2-4 inches broad; stem 3-4 inches long, 4-8 lines thick. 
Under coniferous trees. Lake Pleasant. August. 

This is a beautiful but apparently a very rare species. It 
belongs to the second group of section Sericella. It is related to 
T. c h r y s e n t e r u m and T. chrysenteroides, but 
may be distinguished from them by its white flesh and lamellae. 



22 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ulmaria rubra Hill. 
Balfour place near Aiden Lair, Essex co. July. 
The queen of the prairie has been introduced into our State from 
the West and is found in dooryards and flower gardens where it is 
cultivated for ornament. It sometimes escapes from cultivation 
or persists about the sites of old destroyed or abandoned dwell- 
ings. It is described in Gray's Manual under the name Spi- 
raea lobata. 

D 

REMARKS AND OBSERVATIONS 

Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Willd.) Kuntze 
Roadside. Wells, Hamilton co. August. A showy form 
having purplish bracts and calyx lobes. It is sparingly pubescent 
and in this respect it approaches A. nepetoides, but it has 
the thicker spikes and more pointed calyx lobes of A. scroph- 
ulariaefolia. 

Amanita muse aria formosa (G. & R.) Fr. 
Several instances have been reported to me in which this variety 
of the fly amanita, a poisonous species, has been eaten without 
harm. In all these instances except one, the mushroom was eaten 
by those who were at the time ignorant or unsuspicious of its 
true relationship. In September, Mr A. P. Hitchcock of New 
Lebanon reported to me a case in which a sheep ventured to try 
the edible qualities of this mushroom. He says : 

While I was gathering a few specimens of boletus in the pas- 
tures one evening last week, my cosset buck sheep, which follows 
me about like a dog, watched my proceedings with close attention 
for a time. Then, having assured himself of what I was doing 
he walked to a small group of the fly amanita, which grows luxuri- 
antly in places in my fields, and proceeded to gobble down about 
a dozen fair sized specimens, eating the caps as greedily as he 
eats lump sugar from my hand. This was at least three days ago 
and perhaps more. He is still with us and in no way worse for 
his indulgence. Does this mean that I have mistaken some other 
sort for the fly amanita or that what is food for a buck sheep may 
be poison for a man? The amanita in question had the orange 
yellow color and the bulbous stem of A. muscaria. 

In this as in all other cases of harmless eating of the fly amanita 
that have been reported to me the variety formosa is indicated. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 23 

The caps were either wholly or partly yellow. This is the com- 
mon form in our State. It has the upper surface of the cap either 
wholly pale yellow or the center only tinged with red or orange, 
the margin remaining yellow. The form having the whole upper 
surface of the cap uniformly bright red or orange red is very rare 
with us. Yet this is the form commonly figured by European 
mycologists as Amanita muscaria. The form having 
the pale yellow cap was described by Gonnermann and Rabenhorst 
as a distinct species but Fries reduced it to a variety. The 
instances mentioned above are strong presumptive evidence of its 
harmless character and may be taken as another point of differ- 
ence between this plant and the poisonous fly amanita. They 
strengthen the claims of those who have regarded the plant with 
the yellow cap as a distinct species. Still these two mushrooms 
are so closely allied in size, shape and structure that it does not 
seem prudent to regard^them as distinct species and the yellowish 
capped one as edible, till full trial and investigation has estab- 
lished the fact beyond question. 

Aster roscidus variif olius n. var. 

Lower stem leaves ovate or oblong ovate, cordate, acuminate, 
serrate, petiolate, 2-5 inches long, upper stem leaves much smaller, 
oblong, entii*e, sessile or with a very short, widely winged petiole, 
scarcely more than 1 inch long. 

Woods along the shore of Lake Ontario north of Mexico. Sep- 
tember. 

The whole plant is glandular. The three or four upper leaves are 
abruptly reduced in size. 

Aster undulatus L. 
A small form, 1.5-2 feet tall, with leaves ovate or subrotund, 
the lower petiolate, cordate and serrate with broad teeth, occurs 
near Minerva. It is related to A. undulatus abrupti- 
f o 1 i u s , but is a much smaller plant. 

Antennaria neglecta Greene 
A dwarf form having the heads densely capitate, the stems of 
the pistillate plant only 2-4 inches long and of the staminate plant 
2 inches or less, occurs at Minerva. It is in flower the first week 



24 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

in May. In appearance it resembles the western A. c a m - 

p e s t r i s Rydb. 

Boletus nebulosus Pk. 

In State Museum report 51, page 292 a description of this 

species was published, but it was derived from mature specimens, 

no examples of the young plant having at that time been seen. 

Young specimens were found near Lake Pleasant in August. The 

pileus in them is hemispheric, soon becoming convex and is dark 

gray becoming brown with age. The tubes are at first closed and 

pallid or brownish. The stem is sometimes pointed at the base 

and varied above with pale streaks. 

Cantharellus cibarius longipes n. var. 
Pileus irregular, lobed or wavy on the margin, often centrally 
depressed and rimose squamose; lamellae very narrow, crowded, 
strongly decurrent, frequently anastomosing; stem long, its length 
equal to or exceeding the diameter of the pileus. In groves of 
spruce and balsam fir. North Elba. September. 

Cortinarius amarus Pk. 
A form of this species was found having the stem 2-3 inches long. 
It grows under spruce and balsam firtrees in North Elba, and is 
easily recognized by its small, irregular, yellow, viscid pileus and 
its very bitter flavor. 

Dalibarda repens L. 

Fine specimens of this pretty little plant were found by the 
roadside between Minerva and Aiden Lair. These have several 
short peduncles bearing mature seeds and one or two long ones 
now, July 24, bearing flowers. The early flowers were evidently 
clistogamic and very fruitful. 

Eriophorum alpinum L. 
Along the roadside 2 miles south of Aiden Lair. This little 
alpine cotton grass is rare in our State and it is interesting to 
find it maintaining itself along the side of a much used public 
highway. 

Hydnum graveolens subzonatum n. var. 

Pileus thin, nearly plane, slightly umbilicate, fibrously radiate 
Rtriate, zonate with narrow, slightly darker zones, fuscous or 
grayish brown ; aculei whitish. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 25 

North Elba and Lake Pleasant. August and September. 

This northern variety agrees with the typical form in its mode 
of growth and in its odor, but differs from it in having the pileus 
more or less zonate and the spines of the hymenium whiter. 

Mnium afElne ciliare C. M. 

Catskill mountains. Mrs E. G. Britton. A fine variety readily 

known by the long ciliae or hairs that adorn the margin of the 

leaf. 

Otidea onotica (Pers.) Fckl. 

Gregarious or cespitose, growing in damp shaded places on de- 
caying wood and bark. North Elba. September. The base is 
sometimes whitened by mycelioid filaments. The receptacle is 
rather tough, but the more tender hymenium is sometimes eaten 
by insects or their larvae. 

Pilosace eximia Pk. 
This rare little species is peculiar in having reddish spores. 
They are .00025 of an inch long, .00016 broad. The color of the 
spores appears to vary in the different species of this genus. In 
one they are described as black, in another as purplish brown. In 
structure the genus agrees with Pluteus of the pink spored series. 
At present it contains six species, two of which occur in Europe, 
two in the West Indies, one in Africa and one in the United 
States. 

Puccinia suaveolens (Pers.) Rostr. 

This parasitic fungus may be classed among the useful species. 
It attacks the noxious Canada thistle and assists in keeping it in 
check by preventing it from producing seeds. But it also attacks 
another plant, Centaur ea cyanus, blue bottle or bache- 
lor's button, which is often cultivated for ornament. In this case 
also it prevents the development of the flowers and seeds and it 
may therefore be classed as an injurious fungus, since the flower 
is the special part for which the plant is cultivated. This plant 
escaped from cultivation at Menands and was growing like a 
weed in waste places. On these wild plants the fungus appeared 
in its uredo stage in May. Later in the season this was followed 
by the appearance of the teleutospores, the final stage, on the 



26 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

same plants. The fungus on this host plant is designated form 
cyani. 

Senecio vulgaris L. 

The common groundsel is sometimes a troubl^^some weed in 
gardens. It begins to flower early in the spring and in wet 
seasons successive crops spring up and continue the production 
of seed till cold weather stops their growth. In poor soil it will 
flower when but two or three inches high, in rich soil it may grow 
12 inches high and bear many branches. It grows rapidly and 
requires but a few days in which to develop from seed to maturity. 
The soil sometimes becomes so filled with its seeds that as fast 
as one crop of the plants is destroyed another takes its place. 

Sisymbrium altissimum L. 
The tall sisymbrium is an introduced plant which has proved 
to be quite troublesome as a weed in some of the northwestern 
states. The past summer it appeared in the vicinity of Albany. 
It was probably brought here either from the north or the west 
where it has become firmly established. By destroying such 
troublesome weeds when they first appear much future labor and 
trouble may be saved. 

Solidago canadensis glabrata Porter 
Generally the early goldenrod, Solidago juncea, is the 
first species to blossom in our latitude. It begins to flower in July, 
The past season, which is notable for its peculiar influence on 
some plants, seems to have hastened the time of flowering of some 
species. On July 24, S. juncea, S. canadensis glab- 
rata, S. arguta and S . r u g o s a were all found growing 
near each other at North Creek and all were nicely in flower. The 
glabrate Canada goldenrod is a northern variety and perhaps in 
its effort to meet the requirements of the short northern seasons 
it has acquired the habit of blooming early. 

Viola cucuUata Ait. 

In the cold bogs and wet places of the Adirondack region where 

this blue violet delights to grow, it is not unusual to find it with 

flowering scapes 6-9 inches long. The flowers much surpass the 

leaves, often standing twice as high. Such specimens were col- 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 27 

lected in North Elba. ^Ncar .Meauowdale a variety occurs in 
wliicli tlie petals are variegated with blue and white. This variety 
has been observed there for several years and appears to be con- 
stant in its characters. I have also received specimens of it from 
other places and it seems strange that it has not been designated 
by name by some of those botanists who have made a special study 

of the violets. 

Viola rotundifolia Mx. 

Fine specimens of the round leaved yellow violet showing the 

branched i)eduncles of the clistogamic flowers were found by the 

roadside 2 miles south of Aiden Lair in July. 

Viola selkirkii Pursh. 

This prett}-, but with us rare, little blue violet has disappeared 

from its former station in a pine grove near West Albany. It was 

found last spring in a grove of arbor vitae trees near Minerva, 

Essex CO. 

Xylaria grandis Pk. 

Van Etten, Chemung co. W. C. Barbour. The specimens on 

which this species was founded were sent me by G. W. Clinton 

in 1872. No other specimens of the species had been seen by me 

till these came from Mr Barbour. They are smaller than the 

typical form and two of the three specimens sent have the clubs 

merely mucronate rather than acuminate. The radicating base 

is wanting in all the specimens, but it appears to have been broken 

off in collecting. The spores are of the same character as those 

of the type specimens and I have no doubt of the specific identity 

of the two fungi. It must be a rare species to escape a second 

discovery for 30 years. 

E 

EDIBLE FUNGI 

CoUybia acervata Fr. 
TUFTED COLLYBIA 

PLATE 84, FIG. 8-13 

Pileus slightly fleshy, convex becoming expanded or nearly 
plane, glabrous, hygrophanous, pale tan color or incarnate red" 
and sometimes obscurely striatulate on the margin when moist, 
whitish after the escape of the moisture; lamellae narrow, thin, 



28 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

close, rounded behind, slightly adnexed or free, whitish; stem 
equal, hollow, glabrous, usually white tomentose at the base, red- 
dish brown or purplish brown ; spores white, elliptic, .00024.0003 
of an inch long, .00016 broad. 

The tufted collybia is an inhabitant of the woods of our hilly 
and mountainous districts. It grows in dense tufts on decaying 
prostrate trunks of trees and among decaying leaves or on bits 
of rotten wood half buried by fallen leaves. The caps are rather 
thin and convex when young, but they expand with age and be- 
come broadly convex or nearly plane. When young and moist 
they are of a pale tan color or brownish red sometimes with, a 
pinkish tint but as the moisture escapes they fade to a whitish 
color. In the European plant they are said to be umbonate but 
in the American plant the umbo is rarely present. The gills are 
quite narrow and close. They are rounded at the inner extremity 
and either slightly attached to the stem or quite free from it. 
They are whitish or slightly tinged with pink. The stem is 
rather slender, rigid but brittle, hollow and smooth except at the 
base where it is usually clothed with a white tomentum. The 
color is reddish brown or pui*plish brown but in the young plant 
it is often whitish at the top. 

The cap is commonly 1-2 inches broad ; the stem 2-3 inches long, 
1.5-2.5 lines thick. The plants usually grow in clusters and occur 
during August and September. Though the individual plants are 
small they grow in such abundance that it is not difficult to obtain 
a sufficient supply for cooking. They are slightly tough but of 
good flavor and harmless. 

Collybia familia Pk. 

FAMILY COLLYBIA 

PLATE 84, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus thin, fragile, hemispheric or convex, glabrous, hy- 
grophanous, while moist sometimes slightly striatulate on the 
margin, whitish, grayish or pale smoky brown, sometimes 
brownish or more highly colored in the center; lamellae thin, 
narrow, close, rounded at the inner extremity, nearly free, white; 
stem slender, glabrous, hollow, white or whitish, commonly with 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 29 

a white villosity at the base; spores globose, .00016-.0002 of an 
inch in diameter. 

The family collybia is similar to the tufted collybia in its 
mode of growth. It grows in similar localities but is limited in 
its habitat to decaying wood of coniferous trees. It is smaller 
and less frequent in occurrence but the tufts or clusters are 
generally composed of many more individual mushrooms. The 
caps are thin and fragile but are usually free from insect attack. 
They are whitish, grayish or brownish sometimes tinged with 
yellow but they have none of the reddish hues of the tufted 
collybia. In drying they are apt to become darker than when 
fresh. The gills are thin, narrow, crowded, white and free from 
the stem or but slightly attached to it. The stem is smooth, hol- 
low and white or whitish, but like the pileus it becomes darker in 
drying. Sometimes it appears to be pruinosely pubescent in the 
fresh plant when viewed with a lens. A wholly white variety 
very rarely occurs. 

The cap is 6-12 lines broad ; the stem 2-4 inches long, 1-1.5 lines 
thick. The time of its appearance is during July and August. 
Its edible qualities are similar to those of the tufted collybia from 
which it is easily separated by its smaller size and different color. 

Russula mariae Pk. / 

MARY'S RUSSULA 
PLATE 85, FIG. 1-8 

Pileus at first nearly hemispheric, soon broadly convex, nearly 
plane or centrally depressed, pruinose and minutely pulverulent, 
dark crimson or purplish, sometimes darker in the center than 
on the margin, rarely striate on the margin when old, flesh white, 
pinkish under the cuticle, taste mild; lamellae moderately close, 
adnate, white when young, pale yellow when old; stem equal, 
solid or slightly spongy in the center, colored like or a little 
paler than the pileus, usually white at the top and bottom, 
rarely entirely white; spores pale yellow, globose, .0003 of an inch 
broad. 

This russula is a beautiful and easily recognizable species, 
though somewhat variable in its colors. The cap is at first 



30 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

nearl}' hemispheric, but it soon becomes convex and continues to 
expand till it is nearly plane or centrally depressed. The margin 
is even when young and generally remains so in maturity, but 
sometimes it becomes radiately striate. The surface appears to 
the naked eye to be piniinose or covered with a bloom, but under 
a lens it is seen to be dusted with minute particles which, under 
the action of water, are separable and give reddish stains to any 
white surface against which the moistened cap may be rubbed. 
This pruinosity is one of the best distinguishing features of the 
species. A little boy once went with his mother to look for mush- 
rooms. They came on a group of Mary's russula and the little 
boy, noticing the bloom on the caps and recognizing in it a 
resemblance to the bloom of plums, cried out in childish glee 
" plummies, plummies." He was evidently a close and thoughtful 
observer and could distinguish at sight this russula from all 
others. The flesh of the cap is white, but has a pinkish tint 
immediately beneath the cuticle which is separable on the margin 
but adnate in the center of the cap. The taste is mild, but occa- 
sionally a specimen may be found in which it is slightly and 
tardily acrid. The color varies from deep crimson to purple. 
The center is sometimes more highly colored than the margin 
and in the purple specimens the margin in old plants is apt to 
fade to a whitish color and to become striate. The gills are white 
when young but with advancing age they become yellowish. They 
are nearly all of full length and are therefore wider apart at the 
margin of the cap than at the stem. A few are forked at the 
base and the interspaces are veiny. The stem is generally' cylin- 
dric but occasionally tapering downward or pointed at the base. 
It appears to the naked eye to be smooth but under a lens it is 
slightly pulverulent. It is solid or slightly spongy and white 
within and colored like or a little paler than the cap externally 
except at the ends where it is white, ronns occasionally occur 
in which the stem is entirely white. 

The cap is 1-3 inches broad; the stem 1-2 inches long, 3-5 lines 
thick. It grows both in woods and in open grassy places and is 
found in July and August. It is not as highly flavored as some 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 31 

other russulas but I have no hesitation in placing it among the 

edible species. 

Russula furcata (Pers.) Fr. 
FORKED RUSSULA 
PLATE 85, FIG. 9-14 

Pileus convex becoming nearly plane, centrally depressed or 
funnel form, glabrous, even on the margin which is at first 
incurved, then spreading and acute, the thin adnate pellicle sub- 
separable on the margin, greenish or brownish green, flesh white, 
taste mild; lamellae thickish, subdistant, often forked, with 
shorter ones intermixed, adnate or slightly decurrent, white; 
stem equal or nearly so, solid or spongy in the center, white; 
spores white, subglobose, .0003-.00035 of an inch long, .00025- 
.0003 broad. 

The forked russula grows in woods and is a variable species. 
Two distinct European varieties have been described but our 
specimens do not fully agree with either of them nor with the 
typical form. The cap varies in color from a pale yellowish 
green or olive green to a dark brownish green, the center often 
being darker than the margin. Sometimes purplish hues are 
intermingled with the green, but these are apt to disappear from 
the dried specimens. The surface is slightly viscid when moist 
and sometimes it is rugosely roughened or reticulate in places. 
The margin, though thin, is not striate. The flesh is white and 
its taste mild. I have detected no bitter flavor to our form but 
the European form is said to have it. The gills are rather thick, 
moderately wide apart, persistently white and attached to the 
stem by their full width. Many of them are forked, the bifur- 
cations occurring most frequently near the stem and the mar- 
gin. There are also short gills which do not reach the stem. 
The interspaces are marked by transverse veins or ridges, but 
I do not find this character ascribed to the European form. The 
stem is nearly or quite cylindric, solid or when old somewtiat 
spongy in the center, smooth and white. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad; the stem 1.5-3 inches long, 5-8 lines 
thick. It may be found in July. In my trial of its edible quali- 
ties it seemed more tough than some other russulas, but the 



32 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

flavor was satisfactory and the species is deemed worthy of a 
place in our edible list even though the European plant has been 
published by some writers as poisonous. 

Pholiota vermiflua Pk. 
WORMY PHOLIOTA 

PLATE 86, FIG. 13-20 

Pileus convex or nearly plane, glabrous or occasionally floccose 
squamose on the margin, sometimes areolate rimose in the center, 
white, occasionally slightly tinged with j^ellow; lamellae close, 
adnexed, white becoming ferruginous brown, generally minutely 
eroded on the edge; stem hollow, equal, striated at the top, white, 
the annulus more or less floccose on the lower surface, lacerated 
or evanescent, white; spores elliptic, ferruginous brown, .0005 of 
an inch long, .0003 broad. 

The wormy pholiota is closely related to the early pholiota, 
from which it may be separated by its larger size, thicker flesh, 
stouter stem, whiter color and the tendency of its pileus to crack 
into areas in the center. It is very liable to be infested by the 
larvae of insects and this is suggestive of the specific name. 

The cap in the 3'oung plant is very convex or hemispheric but 
with advancing age it expands and becomes nearly or quite plane. 
The central part of the surface often cracks into areas giving it 
a scaly appearance. It also sometimes splits on the margin. It 
is smooth or occasionally slightly floccose scaly on the margin 
from the remains of the veil. The flesh is white. The gills are 
at first white but they become rusty brown with age. They are 
closely placed, excavated at the stem end and often whitish and 
minutely eroded on the edge. The stem is nearly cylindric, hollow, 
smooth, white and often striated at the top. Its collar is also 
white, somewhat floccose on the lower surface, often slight, lacer- 
ated and disappearing in mature plants, leaving the stem without 
a collar. 

The cap is 2-4 inches broad; the stem 2-3 inches long, 3-5 lines 
thick. The plants are usually found in rich soil in grain fields, 
waste places and about manure piles and occur from June to 
August. When sound and well cooked the flavor is excellent and 
the mushroom is a fine addition to our table delicacies. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 33 

Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.) Fr. 

HAYMAKERS PSILOCYBE. MOWERS MUSHROOM 

PLATE 86, FIG. 1-11 

Pileus thin, campanulate or convex, obtuse, glabrous, hygroph- 
anous, brown or reddish brown when moist, paler when dry ; gills 
broad, adnate, minutely crenulate on the edge, ventricose, subdis- 
tant, brown ; stem slender, nearly straight, hollow, rigid, fragile, 
glabrous, pminose at the top, pallid or rufescent; spores brown, 
subelliptic, .0005-.000G of an inch long, .00025-.0003 broad. 

The haymakers psilocybe is a small but very regular, neat and 
attractive species which gets its name from its usual place of 
growth. This is in grassy places, on lawns or in meadows, where 
it is often destroyed by the mower while cutting grass. Its cap 
is conic or somewhat bell shaped when young, but it becomes 
more convex with age. AVhen fresh and moist it is dark brown or 
reddish brown and is usually marked on the margin by darker 
parallel radiating lines. By the escape of the surplus moisture 
these lines disappear and the cap becomes paler, assuming a 
grayish or ashy gray color. The moisture generally escapes first 
from the center of the cap though the flesh is thicker there than 
on the margin. This gives a somewhat variegated appearance to 
the cap while the moisture is escaping, but after the evaporation 
is completed the color is nearly uniform. Sometimes the center 
of the cap has a reddish or tan colored hue, in which case this 
color is generally retained for a time after the escape of the 
moisture. The cap is generally brown in completely dried and 
shriveled specimens. The gills are rather broad, not crowded, 
somewhat narrowed behind and attached to the stem. They are 
pale brown when young, blackish brown when old. The stem is 
slender, usually long and nearly straight, hollow, easily broken 
and paler than the moist cap. It is sometimes tinged with red. 
The spores in our plant slightly exceed the dimensions given to 
the spores of the Eurojjean plant. 

The cap is 6-12 lines broad; the stem 2-3 inches long, about 1 
line thick. This mushroom grows gregariously in rich grassy 
places, generally appearing in May and June. Sometimes it ap- 
pears in great numbers and in successive crops, otherwise it would 



34 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

be unimportant as an edible mushroom on account of its small 
size. It has been very abundant in the capitol lawn the last two 
seasons. It has not a very high flavor but it is harmless and 
relishable when fried in butter and may therefore be classed as an 
edible species, though some authors say that there are no edible 
species of Psilocybe. When uncooked its taste is strong and dis- 
agreeable. 

Bovista pila B. & C. 
EOUND BOVISTA 

PLATE 84, FIG. 14-18 

Peridium globose or' subglobose, 1-3 inches in diameter, the 
outer coat very thin, at first smooth, white or whitish, soon break- 
ing up into minute scurfy scales or becoming minutely rimose 
squamulose, finally disappearing and revealing the rather firm 
papery but persistent, tough, glossy brown inner coat; capil- 
litium dense, persistent, brown ; spores even, globose, .00016-.0002 
of an inch broad. 

The round bovista takes its specific name from its resemblance 
to a ball. It is quite globose and about 2 inches in diameter 
when well developed, but sometimes it is more or less irregular. 
When young it is white or whitish externally and pure white 
within. It is edible only while in this condition. As soon as 
the interior begins to change color it is no longer fit to eat and 
should be discarded. As it advances in age the surface or outer 
coat shrivels and breaks up into minute scales or scurf and after 
a time disappears. The inner coat is then smooth and tough 
like parchment. In maturity it is brown, purplish brown, seal 
brown or dingy coppery brown, sometimes shining and sometimes 
showing obscure patches of the exceedingly thin dried and 
brownish outer coat still adhering to it. It ruptures irregularly. 
The interior is then seen to be a dense towy and more or less 
dusty mass similar to the interior of a fully matured puffball. 
In this condition it often persists through the winter and may be 
found in fairly good condition for specimens after its hibernation. 
It grows either in woods, pastures or meadows and in suitable 
weather may be found from July to So]itember. 



UEl'OUT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 35 

F 

Xi:\>' YORK SPECIES OF CRATAEGUS 

The number of published species of Crataegus found in the 
United States and Canada has increased surprisingly within the 
last five jears. In the edition of Gray's Manual issued in 1890, 
10 species and three varieties are recognized as belonging to the 
territorj' covered by its flora. In the Illustrated Flora of Britton 
and Brown, the second volume of which contains the descrip- 
tion of the species of this genus and which was issued in 1897, 
15 species and three varieties are recognized, but the territory 
covered is somewhat larger than that of the Manual. Britton's 
Manual issued in 1901 increases the number to 31 species and 
retains but one variety. In the Silva of North America, volume 4, 
published in 1892, 14 species are described, but in volume 13, 
which appeared in 1902, the number of species is increased to 84 
and the statement is made that this does not include some im- 
perfecth' known arboreous species nor the merely shrubby species. 
In the Flora of the Southern States by J. K. Small, issued in 1903, 
185 species are diescribed. Varieties are not recognized. In an 
article devoted to the species of Crataegus found in Rochester 
and its vicinity and published in the Proceedings of the Rochester 
Academy of Science, volume 4, 1903, C, S," Sargent has described 
28 new sjiecies and recorded the occurrence of 13 others exclu- 
sive of two introduced species which occasionally escape from 
cultivation. This makes 41 species for the limited area of 
Rochester and its vicinity, a number greater than that given 
in Britton's Manual for the entire area covered by it two years 
ago. From these data the inference is scarcely avoidable that 
many of the recently described species must resemble each other 
closely and must be founded on slight variations of specific char- 
acters. If this inference is well founded, the conclusion is evi- 
dent that such closely allied species can not be recognized without 
a thorough knowledge of their distinguishing characters and this 
knowledge can scarcely be obtained without careful study and 
close observation. To properly represent such species in the 



36 NEW YORK STATE :MUSEUM 

herbarium, a set of good and well prepared speeiinens taken in 
the various stages of development from flowering time till the 
ripening and fall of the fruit, is required. 

The genus Crataegus, as represented by our species, includes 
shrubs and trees which may be roughly but easily separated from 
species of other genera of the same family by the long spines or 
thorns with which their trunks and branches are armed. The 
common and local names applied to these plants are thorn, thorn 
apple, thorn bush, thorn tree, haAv and hawthorn. They are nearly 
all suggested by this very prominent character of these plants. 
Some species are small shrubs, only 2 or 3 feet high Avith a basal 
stem diameter of scarcely 1 inch, others are trees 30 feet or more 
high with a basal diameter of the trunk of 1 foot or more. There 
is no well marked line of distinction between those which are 
classed as trees and those which should be called shrubs. They 
insensibly run together. The same species may be a shrub in one 
place and a tree in another. 

The branches of many species are widely spreading giving a 
broad rounded head to the tree similar to that of an appletree. 
Often the lower branches spread horizontally and the upper 
diverge at a small angle giving a more conic outline to the top. 
The punctate thorn usually has most of its branches horizontally 
spreading. This gives it a broad, flattened or depressed head and 
makes the species easily recognizable at a distance. The shrubby 
species branch from the base and when several clumps grow near 
each other they form almost impenetrable thickets. The young 
shoots of the branches are at flrst green but with advancing age 
the upper surface gradually assumes a reddish brown or other 
color which later encircles the whole shoot. During the second 
or the second and third years the color becomes, in most species, 
some shade of gray or ashj gray. 

The spines that grow from the trunk and branches are modified 
or peculiarly develojjed branches. They are themselves sometimes 
branched and generally they agree in color with the branch to 
which they are attached. They usually have a bud at one side of 
the base and sometimes one on both sides. These buds develop 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 37 

into a leaf, a branch or a cluster of flowers the next year. In 
breaking a spine from its branch the leaf, branch let or flower 
cluster is likely to be torn away with it unless care is taken to 
avoid it. The 3'oung spine is often adorned with one or more 
narrow foliaceous bracts which are quickly deciduous. The spines 
of the hawthorn are sometimes elongated and leaf bearing. They 
then appear like a short leafy branch terminating in a sharp leaf- 
less point. 

The leaves are alternate and simple but generally more or less 
distinctly lobed and serrated on the margin. Those of young and 
vigorous shoots often difl'er from others on the same tree in size, 
shape and lobing. The teeth of the margin are nearly always 
tipped with glands which may vary in color in different species. 
The teeth themselves vary according to the species. They may be 
short or long, narrow or broad, blunt or sharp pointed, straight 
or incurved. The surface of the leaf blades may be smooth, 
pubescent or scabrous. In many species the upper surface of the 
young leaves may be coated with deciduous hairs which soon dis- 
appear leaving the surface of the mature leaves glabrous. The 
lower surface is generally paler than the upper. In some species 
the young unfolding leaves are tinged with brownish red or bronze 
red but they become green with advancing age. The leaves are 
normally petiolate and stipulate but the stipules soon disappear 
and in some species the petioles are short and so widely margined 
by the decurrent leaf blades that the leaves appear to be sessile. 
The petioles are often furnished with a few glands which may be 
either sessile or stalked. They are often more highly colored 
when old than when young, and are apt to be shorter on vigorous 
shoots than on fruiting or lateral branches. In general outline 
the leaf blades may vary in different species from oblanceolate or 
spatulate to obovate, ovate, oblong ovate, elliptic, oval or orbicu- 
lar. 

The buds are compact and globular with very broad blunt 
scales. In some species they are covered with a varnish which 
becomes sticky in warm weather. When they burst in spring the 
inner scales enlarge rapidly, become elongated and assume pink 



38 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

reddish or yellowish hues. Thej' are glandular on the margin and 
in some species on the surface also. These scales are generally 
soon deciduous. 

The flowers in our species are, with one exception, Cratae- 
gus uniflora, produced in clusters at the ends of short 
leafy terminal or lateral branches. In the earliest species to 
flower in our latitude they appear about the end of the first week 
in May, in the latest, the first week in June, making the flowering 
season about one month long. In nearly all cases the flowers open 
and their petals fall before the leaves are fully developed. The 
flower stems or peduncles may be long or short, simple or 
branched, glabrous or hairy, according to the species. The 
branching peduncles frequently support three flowers each, the 
central flower opening a little earlier than the two lateral. The 
calyx is superior and five lobed, the petals are five, the stamens 
vary from 5 to 20 and the pistils from 1 to 5. The stamens 
are normally 5, 10, 15 or 20 in any given species, but by the sup- 
pression of some or the union of two adjacent filaments such 
definite numbers are not always found. Nevertheless the number 
of the stamens is now utilized as a specific character. The color 
of the anthers may be pale yellow or whitish, pink or rosy red, 
purplish red or violaceous, and though these colors are very fleet- 
ing they are recognized as having, in many cases, specific value. 
The calyx lobes are generally tipped with a single gland, their 
margins may be entire or furnished with sessile or stalked glands. 
They are erect in bud but spreading or reflexed in anthesis and in 
some species they later become again erect or incurved. In many 
species they also become red on the inner basal surface as they 
advance in age. They are sometimes deciduous from the ripe 
fruit, specially in species belonging to the section Tomentosae. 
The petals are nearly always white in our species. In one or two 
they show a tendency to become rosy tinted when they begin to 
wither. They are quickly deciduous. They are sometimes eroded 
or wavy on the edge, and are generally furnished with a short claw 
at the base. 

The time of ripening of the fruit extends from the middle of 
August to the middle of October, The number of fruits in any 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 39 

cluster is generally less than the number of its flowers because 
some flowers fail to produce fruit. The fruit may be globose, oval, 
oblong, ovate or pyriform. It is not invariably of the same size 
and shape on the same tree but it is now thought to furnish char- 
acters of specific value. When the flower stem is short and stout 
the ripe fruit is likely to be erect. If the flower stem is long and 
slender the ripe fruit is likely to droop on its stem. In some 
species the hairiness of the calyx tube of the flower persists and the 
fruit is hairy, in others it disappears and the fruit is smooth. In 
some the fruit falls when it is ripe or soon after, in others it hangs 
on the branches after the leaves have fallen, persisting sometimes 
till winter or in rare cases and partially till the following spring. 
In most species the color of the ripe fruit is some shade of red, 
either orange red, scarlet, vermilion or crimson. In some it is 
yellow, greenish yellow, or these colors varied with a red cheek. 
In some species the fruit has a distinct pruinosity or bloom, in 
others an indistinct or scarcely noticeable bloom is present. Such 
fruits have a dull or opaque color but a little rubbing of the sur- 
face brings out a shining color. The cuticle in some species may 
be stripped from the fully ripe fruit as from a very ripe peach or 
pear. The flesh or pulp in some is dry and mealy, in others juicy 
and soft. It may be whitish, greenish jellow, orange or red. In 
many species the fruit has an agreeable flavor and is sweet or 
slightly acid and edible. In some cases it has been utilized in 
making jelly. In size it varies much, being but three or four lines 
in diameter in some and nearly an inch in others. In most of our 
species it is from five to seven lines in diameter. The number of 
nutlets of the fruit generally equals the number of styles in the 
flower. In the section Tomentosae the nutlets differ from those 
of the other sections in having the inner faces excavated. Thorn 
bushes appear to have in some cases their " off years " like apple- 
trees. A bush may be loaded with fruit one year and the next 
have none. Sometimes the fruit fails because of late frosts. This 
happened about Lake Placid the past season. A severe frost the 
last week in May killed the stamens and pistils even in the 
unopened flower buds, and though the petals were apparently 



40 NEW YORK STATE ^MUSEUM 

unharmed and the flowers appeared as usual at a distance, the 
essential organs having been killed, no fruit developed. 

Cattle sometimes browse on the twigs of thorn bushes. In such 
cases the injured branches put forth many new shoots which are 
short and dense and form an almost impenetrable surface growth. 
If the bush is low enough to be browsed from top to bottom it 
gradually assumes a conic shape. If it is so tall that cattle can 
not reach the ends of the upper branches these continue their 
normal growth and the lower part of the bush assumes a conic 
shape and the dense ramification. The whole bush then appears 
somewhat like two cones with their vertices united, the lower 
with its vertex pointing upward, the upper with its vertex point- 
ing downward as in an hourglass. Tliis behavior of thorn bushes 
under the pruning given them by browsing cattle indicates their 
suitability for hedges. 

Herbarium specimens of species of this genus should be col- 
lected at three different times. The first collection should be 
made when the plant is in floAver. This collection will show the 
characters of the flowers, of the young shoots and of the young 
and unfolding leaves. The second should be made when the leaves 
have become fully developed. This will show the character of the 
mature leaves and of the young fruit. The leaves at this time are 
in much better condition than late in the season when the fruit 
is ripe. At this time it is also well to collect specimens of the 
3'oung vigorous shoots, since the leaves on these are often larger 
and differ more or less in shape from those on older and less vigor- 
ous lateral or fertile branches. The third collection should be 
made w^hen the fruit is ripe. Its object should be to get this in 
as good condition as possible. Insect larvae and parasitic fungi 
often injure and deform the fruit and it is well to select as far as 
possible such specimens as are most free from these pests. Some- 
times nearly every fruit on a shrub or tree is found to be injured 
by them. In some species the fruit ripens very late. In such 
cases the leaves are ready to fall or have already partly fallen 
when the fruit is ripe. Specimens bearing ripe fruit should not 
be severely pressed lest the fruit be crushed. It is well to dry 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 41 

some of the fruit without pressing. It is iinportaut that the 
three collections be made from the same tree or shrub in order to 
avoid the danger of confusing two or more closely related species. 
Sometimes two or more species grow together in one clump and 
in such cases special care is necessary lest the intermingled 
branches lead to inextricable confusion of species. To guard 
against any slip of memory it is well to mark the trunk of every 
tree or shrub from which specimens are taken, giving to each a 
number corresponding to a number attached to the specimens 
taken from it. With a pocket knife shave the rough bark from a 
small place on one side of the trunk and inscribe the number on 
this smooth place. It is well in every case to select the same side 
of the trunk, for example, the north side. Then no time need be 
lost in looking for the mark on the other sides. 

Because the branches are often coarse and crooked and armed 
with stout spines, strong pressure is necessary to make good 
herbarium specimens of them. A screw press is recommended for 
this purpose. It is also well to loosen the spines by partly split- 
ting them from the branch before putting the samples in press. 
It is desirable to know the date of each collection. It should 
therefore be recorded on the ticket. 

PIIUINOSAE 

Fruit medium, red when ripe, pruinose; stamens 10-20; leaves 
thick or subcoriaceous, commonly bluish green, glabrous when 
mature. 

The pruinosity of the unripe fruit is one of the most available 
characters by which to recognize the species of this grouj). The 
two species here described differ in the number of their stamens 
and the color of their anthers. 

Stamens 20, anthers pale yellow or whitish C. c o n j u n c t a 
Stamens 10, anthers pale purple or pink C. d i s s o n a 

Crataegus conjuncta Sarg. 

Conjoined tliorn 

Rhodora, 5 : 57 

Large shrub 8-12 feet tall with widely spreading or ascending 

branches; leaves ovate, broadly ovate or oval, acute or subacu- 



42 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

minate at the apex, rounded or sliglith' ciineate at the base, or 
on vigorous voung shoots larger, truncate or slightly concave 
cuneate, sometimes broader than long, sharply and unequally 
serrate, generally with 3-4 short, acute or sharp pointed lobes each 
side, glabrous, yellowish green, 1-2 inches long and nearly as 
broad at flowering time, larger, thicker and bluish green above 
when mature, pale below, petioles slender, 6-15 lines long, usually 
slightly margined and bearing a few scattered glands; inflores- 
cence glabrous, flowers 5-10 in a cluster, peduncles 0-10 lines 
long, stamens 20, anthers pale yellow or whitish; fruit globose 
or depressed globose, somewhat angular, often broader than long, 
pruinose, erect or drooping, red when ripe, crowned by the in- 
curved, spreading or reflexed, persistent calyx lobes, nutlets 4-5. 

Clayey hillsides. Albany and North Greenbush. Flow^ers from 
the middle to the end of May, fruit ripens from the first to the 
middle of October and falls gradually, but sometimes a few fruits 
hang on the branches all winter. The unfolding leaves are some- 
times tinged with brownish red. On young and vigorous shoots 
the basal pair of leaf lobes are sometimes larger and more widely 
spreading than the others. 

Crataegus dissona Sarg. 
Dissonant thorn 
Rhodora, 5:60 
Shrub 6-10 feet tall with widely spreading or nearly erect 
branches; leaves ovate, broadly ovate or Wiomboidal, 1-1.5 inches 
long and nearly as broad at flowering time, thin and yellowish 
green, acute or sharp pointed at the apex, rounded or broadly 
cuneate at the base, often tinged with brownish red as they unfold, 
sharply serrate, with 3-4 slight, acute or sharp pointed lobes each 
side, glabrous, larger, flrmer and bluish green above when mature, 
paler below, those on vigorous young shoots larger and often 
truncate at the base, sometimes with the basal pair of lobes en- 
larged, petioles slender, 6-12 lines long, often slightly enlarged 
and glandular at the top ; flowers on slender glabrous pedunclevs, . 
5-8 in a cluster, stamens generally 10, sometimes 7-9, anthers pale 
purple or pink ; fruit globose or depressed globose, pruinose, dark 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 43 

red or crimson when ripe, the boat-shaped calyx lobes erect or 
spreading, their tips often deciduous, nutlets 3-5. 

Clayey soil. Albany, Copake, Lansingburg and Thompsons 
Lake. Flowers about the middle of May, fruit ripens from the 
first to the middle of October. Distinguished from the preceding 
species by its fewer stamens, pink or purplish anthers and crimson 
fruit. C. pruinosa dififers from both in having 20 stamens 
with pink anthers. It is a common species about Albany. 

INTRICATAE 

Fruit medium, yellowish green, orange red or crimson, nutlets 
2-5, ridged on the back ; corymbs few flowered ; leaves thick, sub- 
coriaceous. 

Small, rather late -flowering shrubs. 

Leaves hairy when young 1 

Leaves glabrous C. intricata 

1 Anthers ])ink or pinkish purple C. p e c k i i 

1 Anthers pale yellow C. modesta 

Crataegus intricata Lange 
Intricate thorn 

Small shrub 3-8 feet tall with few erect or spreading branches ; 
leaves ovate, broadly ovate, elliptic or oblong elliptic, thin when 
young, becoming thick and firm with age, acute at the apex, 
broadly rounded or cuneate at the base, sharply serrate, with 3-4 
acute lobes each side, the basal pair, on leaves of young vigorous 
shoots, often enlarged and distinctly separated from the pair 
above by deep sharp excavations, glabrous both sides, petiole 
slender. 1-12 lines long, glandular, slightly margined at the apex; 
fiowers in clusters of 4-8, on short, mostly glabrous peduncles, 
calyx lobes lanceolate, slightly laciniate serrate, stamens 5-10, 
anthers pale yellow; fruit erect, svibglobose or obovate, pointed 
at the base, pale red or orange red, nutlets 3-4. 

Hillsides and shaly knolls. Albany and Lansingburg. Flow- 
ers May 20 to June 1, fruit ripens the last week in September and 
the first week in October, and soon falls. In falling it often car- 
ries the peduncle with it. The spines are slender, straight or 
nearly so and usually 1-1.5 inches long. 



44 NEW YORK STATK :MrSEUM 

Crataegus modesta Sarg. 
Modest thorn 
Rhodora, 3:28 

Small shrub 2-5 feet tall with irregailar short branches; leaves 
broadly ovate, ovate or oblong ovate, acute at the apex, rounded 
or cuneate at the base, on young and vigorous shoots often trun- 
cate or slightly cordate, serrate, with 3-4 short, broad, acute lobes 
each side, at flowering time pale green and hairy above, paler and 
villose below, specialh' on the midrib and principal veins, when 
mature thick and firm, dark green and scabrous above, much paler 
below, 1.5-2 inches long, 1-1.5 broad, petioles 4-12 lines long^ 
glandular, villose, margined at the apex, sometimes on vigorous 
shoots nearly to the base, often becoming red with age; flowers 
large, 3-6 in a cluster, on short, villose, mostly simple, peduncles^ 
calyx tube hairy, its lobes slightly hairy, laciniate serrate, reflexed 
in flower, stamens 10, anthers pale jellow; fruit erect, subglobose^ 
short oblong or pyriform, greenish yellow, orange red or greenish 
with a red cheek, hair}^, nutlets 3. 

Clayey and shaly soil. Albany, Rensselaer and Lansingburg. 

Flowers open the last week in May or the first week in June, fruit 

ripens late in September. The spines are variable, being slender 

or stout, straight or curved, and 1-1.5 inches long. On some 

clumps they are very scarce. The 3'oung shoots are more or less 

villose. 

Crataegus peckii Sarg. 

Peck's thorn 

Rhodora, 5 : 63 
Small shrub 2-6 feet tall, sparingly branched; leaves ovate or 
broadly ovate, acute at the apex, broadly rounded or concavely 
cuneate at the base, on young and vigorous shoots often truncate,, 
serrate, divided into 3-4 short, broad, acute or blunt lobes each side, 
when young, hairy above with appressed whitish hairs, villose below 
on the midrib and princijial veins, when mature, firm, dark green 
and scabrous above, much paler below, the basal pair of lobes often 
much enlarged and more distinct, 1.2-2 inches long, nearly as 
broad or on j^oung vigorous shoots 2-2.5 inches long ; flowers large^ 
3-6 in a cluster, supported on short, villose, simple peduncles^ 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1003 45 

cnlvx tube glabrous, its lobes glabrous, laciniate serrate above the 
middle, stamens 10, anthers pink or pinkish purple, filaments 
usually white ; fruit erect on short slightly villose peduncles, sub- 
globose or short oblong, glabrous, yellowish green when ripe, the 
calyx lobes mostly deciduous, nutlets 34. 

Shaly soil. Lansingburg. Flowers the last week in May or the 
first week in June, fniit ripens early in October and soon falls. 
The species is closely related to C. modesta from which it 
may be separated by its mostly broader leaves, its less hairy 
inflorescence, pink or pinkish purple anthers and glabrous yellow- 
ish green fruit. In this as in the two preceding species the fruit 
is crowned by a prominent rim which surrounds the calyx cup. 
The spines are slender, straight or slightly curved and 1.2-2.5 
inches long. 

MOLLES 

Fruit, large, bright red and shining when ripe, often hairy, 
specially when young; inflorescence villose tomentose; leaves large, 
broad, softly hairy when young. 

The three species here recorded are trees or large shrubs with 
edible fruit. 

Anthers pale yellow or whitish C. c h a m p 1 a i n e n s i s 

Anthers pink, dark red or purple 1 

1 Leaves often convex, calyx lobes hairy on the 

inner surface C. pringlei 

1 Leaves plane, calyx lobes hairy on both surfaces C. e x c 1 u s a 

Crataegus champlainensis Sarg. 

Chaniplain tliorn 

Rhodora, 3:20. Silva N. A. 13:105, t. 669. N. Y. State Mus. 

5.5th Au. Rep't p.944 

Tree or large shrub 10-20 feet tall with widely spreading 
branches; leaves ovate or broadly ovate, 2-2.5 inches long, 1.5-2 
broad at flowering time, larger when mature and on vigorous 
young shoots, acute at the apex, rounded, truncate, broadly 
cuneate or slightly oordate at the base, slightly and sharply lobed, 
coarsely and sharply serrate, when young pubescent above with 
whitish appressed hairs, pubescent beneath and \illose on the 



46 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

midrib and princip,il veins, petioles villose and glandular; 
corymbs commonly few flowered, peduncles and calyx co%'ered 
with long matted whitish hairs, stamens 10, anthers pale yellow 
or whitish; fruit oblong obovate or subglobose, often narrowed 
toward the base, bright red or scarlet, 7-8 lines long, 6-7 broad, 
nutlets 3-5. 

Clayey soil. Port Henry, Crown Point, Fort Ann, Albany. The 
trees found in the vicinity of Albany differ from those found in 
the more northern localities in having broader and more rounded 
leaves, which are sometimes blunt at the apex and often have the 
margin coarsely wavy, curved or arched as if there was an ex- 
cessive development of the lateral tissues. The anthers are 
whitish, not pale yellow as in the type, and the fruit is globose or 
oval, slightly umbilicate and persistently hairy. It is the first 
species to blossom about Albany, the flowers appearing from May 
10-15, and the fruit ripens and falls early in September. Perhaps 
these trees belong to a distinct species. The trees in the Fort Ann 
locality have recently been cut down. 

Crataegus pringlei Sarg. 

Pringlc's thorn. 

Rhodoi-a, 3:21. Silva N. A. 13:111, t. 672. N. Y. State Mus.. 

55th An. Rep't, p.9M 

Tree or large shrub 12-25 feet tall with widely spreading 
branches and a broad rounded head ; leaves broadly ovate or oval, 
1-2 inches long and nearly as broad at flowering time, acute or 
bluntly pointed at the apex, subtruncate or broadly cuneate at the 
base, coarsely and sharply serrate, with 3-4 short broad acute lobes 
each side, pubescent above with short appressed whitish hairs, 
slightly villose below on the principal veins and midrib, yellowish 
green above, paler below, often convex by the deflection of the 
margins, petioles slender, villose; corymbs few flowered, stamens 
5-10, anthers pink or pinkish purple, calyx lobes hairy on the inner 
surface, peduncles short, villose; fruit subglobose, oval or oblong, 
sometimes slightly narrowed toward the base, generally hairy at 
the ends, 6-7 lines long and nearly as broad, bright red or scarlet, 
the cah'x lobes spreading or erect. 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 47 

Clayey sioil. Albany and Albia, Rensselaer co. 

When in flower the colored anthers easily separate this species 
from the preceding one, later it may be recognized by the con- 
vexity of many of the leaves. The young unfolding leaves are 
sometimes tinged with red. On vigorous young shoots the leaves 
often have the basal pair of lobes somewhat enlarged and more 
distinct than the others. 

Crataegus exclusa Sarg. 
Excluded thorn 
Rhodora, 5 : 108 
Shrub 8-12 feet tall, with widely spreading or ascending 
branches ; leaves similar to those of the preceding species but with- 
out the convexity seen in them ; flowers similar but the calyx and 
peduncles more densely villose or tomentose, the calyx lobes more 
narrow, elongated and hairy on both surfaces; fruit longer and 
more narrowed toward the base. 

Clayey soil. Cro^Ti Point and Fort Ann. May, September. 
Formerly united with C. p r i n g 1 e i but separated from it 
because of its more shrubby habit, more hairy inflorescence and 
longer fruit. 

DILATATAE 

Fruit medium or large, subglobose, bright red or scarlet, nutlets 
5, ridged on the back ; flowers having 20 stamens with rose colored 
anthers; leaves broad, thin. 

Crataegus dilatata Sarg. 
Broad leaved thorn 
Bot Gaz. 31 : 9. Silva N. A. 13 : 113, t 673 
Tree or large shrub 10-20 feet tall with widely spreading or 
ascending branches and a broad rounded head ; leaves thin, ovate 
or deltoid ovate, acute at the apex, subtruncate or slightly cordate 
at the base, with 4-6 short, acute or sharp pointed lobes each side, 
serrate with unequal sharp pointed teeth, when young minutely 
pubescent above with short, stiff, appressed, whitish hairs, gla- 
brous below or with a few hairs on the midrib and in the axils 
of the principal veins, 1.5-3 inches long when mature, nearly as 
broad, those of vigorous young shoots often with the basal pair 



48 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of lobes enlarged and more distinct, petioles slender, 8-18 lines 
long, slightly villose in the furrow when young, distantly glandu- 
lar, often reddish toward the base, becoming more red with age, 
this color sometimes extending to the midrib and princijjal veins; 
corjmbs G-10 flowered, peduncles slightly hairy or glabrous, rather 
long, stamens 20, anthers rose color, calyx tube slightly hairy, its 
lobes glandular serrate, hairy on the inner surface; fruit globose 
or oval, 6-8 lines long, 6-7 broad, umbilicate at the base, drooping, 
bright red, nutlets 4-5, flesh yellowish, well flavored, edible. 

Clayey soil. Flowers the last week in May, fruit ripens in Sep- 
tember. Thompsons Lake, Albany co. and Gansevoort, Saratoga 
CO. In the latter locality it forms a tree 15-20 feet tall with a 
trunk diameter of 4-6 inches. On some trees the fruit is globose, 
on others it is oval. The leaves sometimes become convex as in 
C. p r i n g 1 e i. The fruit stems sometimes become red in the 
upper part. 

LOBULATAE 
Fruit medium or large, subglobose or oblong, bright red or crim- 
son, nutlets 3-5, distinctly grooved on the back; inflorescence 
villose or glabrous, stamens 5-15, anthers rose color. 

Leaves glabrous beneath, stamens 5-8 C . h o 1 m e s i a n a 

Leaves somewhat hairy beneath, stamens 5-10 C . 1 o b u 1 a t a 

Crataegus holmesiana Ashe 

Holmes thorn 

Bot. Gaz. 31 : 10. Silva N. A. 13 : 119, t. G76 

Tree or large shrub 12-25 feet tall with widely spreading or 

ascending branches; leaves thin, ovate, 1-1.5 inches long, 9-15 

lines broad at flowering time, larger and firmer when mature and 

on vigorous young shoots sometimes with the basal pair of lobes 

enlarged and more divergent, acute at the apex, broadly rounded 

or subtruncate at the base, sharply serrate with slender pointed 

teeth, with 4-5 short acute lobes each side, pubescent above when 

young- with minute apj^ressed whitish hairs, glabrous and slightly 

paler below, petiole slender, 6-12 lines long, glabrous or with a 

few hairs and reddish glands ; flowers 8-12 in a cluster, 5-8 lines 

broad, on slender, glabrous or slightly hairy peduncles, calyx 

glabrous, often tinged with red, the lobes narrow, linear, slightly 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 49 

glandular, stamens generally 5, sometimes 5-8, anthers purple; 
fruit subgiobose, oblong or obovate, generally narrowed toward 
the base, bright red or crimson, crowned with the persistent, erect 
or incurved calyx lobes, nutlets 3-5, flesh yellow. 

Clayey soil. Crown Point, Fort Ann, Thompsons Lake and 
Albany. It flowers from May 15-25, fruit ripens the last week in 
August and the first week in September. The foliage is commonly 
yellow green, but it is sometimes dark green. 

Crataegus lobulata Sarg. 

Lohulate thorn 

Rhodora, 3 : 22. Silva N. A. 13 : 117, t. 675 

Tree 15-30 feet tall and a trunk diameter of 6-12 inches ; leaves 
oval, ovate or oblong ovate, at flowering time 1.5-2.5 inches long, 
1-2 broad, larger when mature, pubescent with soft appressed 
whitish hairs above, slightly hairy below, specially on the midrib 
and principal veins, acute at the apex, rounded or broadly cuneate 
at the base, sharply serrate, with 4-5 sharp pointed distinct lobes 
on each side, petioles slender, loosely villose or tomentose, 1-1.5 
inches long, becoming reddish or tinged with red in maturity; 
flowers on slender, villose or tomentose i)eduncles, the calyx often 
hairy below and its lobes hairy on the inner surface, stamens 
usually 10, sometimes 5-10, anthers reddish jnirple; fruit oblong 
or subglobose, croAvned by the persistent erect or incurved calyx 
lobes, when ripe, crimson, 6-S lines long and nearly as broad, nut- 
lets 3-5, flesh yellow, edible. 

Clayey soil. Crown Point. It blossoms from the 20th to the 
end of May and ripens its fruit late in September. Its foliage is 
yellowish green. It is closel}^ related to the preceding species 
from which it may be separated by its larger size, the hairiness of 
the lower surface of the leaves, the more hairy inflorescence, more 
numerous stamens and its later ripening fruit. 

FLABELLATAE 

Fruit medium, scarlet or dark red, nutlets 3-5, ridged on the 

back ; stamens 10-20 ; leaves membranaceous but firm when mature. 

Anthers pink or purplish C. contigua 

Anthers pale yellow or whitish C. i r r a s a 



50 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Crataegus contigua Sarg. 

Contiguous thorn 
Rhodora, o : 115 

Bhrub G-10 feet tall with spreading or ascending branches; 
leaves thin, ovate, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded or 
broadly cuneate at the base, serrate, with 4-5 distinct, sharp 
pointed or acuminate lobes each side, at flowering time pale green 
and clothed above with short appressed whitish hairs, glabrous 
below, when mature, firm, dark green above, paler below, 1.5-2.5 
inches long, 1-2 broad, petioles slender, glabrous, slightly glandu- 
lar, 6-12 lines long; flowers on slender glabrous peduncles, calyx 
lobes abruptly narrowed from broad bases, linear, entire or with 
occasional glands toward the base, stamens 20, anthers purple or 
pinkish purple; fruit erect or drooping, subglobose or oblong, 
scarlet, flesh yellow, nutlets 4-5. 

Shaly soil near Lansingburg. Flowers open about the middle 
of May, fruit ripens early in September and soon falls. In our 
plants the flowers open and the fruit ripens two or three weeks 
earlier than in the type and the number of stamens ranges from 
12-19. In no case have I found a flower with 20 stamens. Never- 
theless these variations do not seem to be of sufficient importance 
to warrant a separation of the plants. The unfolding leaves are 
tinged with brownish red. 

Crataegus irrasa Sarg. 

TJnpolislied thorn 
Rhodora, 5 : 116 
Shrub G-12 feet tall with numerous slender spreading or ascend- 
ing branches; leaves thin, ovate or oval, acute at the apex, cuneate 
at the base, laciniate serrate, when young clothed .above with 
appressed whitish hairs, villose below on the midrib and principal 
veins, when mature firm, dark green and shining above, paler or 
yellowish green below, petioles 6-12 lines long, slender, slightly 
margined at the apex, sparingly glandular ; flowers 6-7 lines broad, 
supported on villose peduncles, calyx tube densely villose, its lobes 
lanceolate, glandular serrate, villose, reflexed, appressed, stamens 
20, anthers pale yellow ; fruit subglobose or oblong, dark red, nut-^ 
lets 4-5. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 51 

Clayey soil. North Greenbush. The plants which are here 
referred to this species diverge so much from a rigid agreement 
with the description of the species to which we have referred them 
that it seems best to consider them a variety which may be called 
var. divergens. 

It is characterized as follows : 

Leaves oval, serrate with blnnt gland-tipped teeth, divided 
above the middle into 4-5 short narrow strongly pointed lobes each 
side, petioles villose ; corymbs 5-10 flowered, stamens 10-18, anthers 
whitish ; fruit globose or oval. 

The young shoots are villose tomentose. The flowers open about 
the middle of May and the fruit ripens the last week in August 
or early in September, which is two or three weeks earlier than in 
the type. Only a single clump of this shrub was found. It ap- 
proaches C. d e n s i f 1 o r a in its characters but dififers from it in 
its more numerous stamens and in having the lower surface of the 
leaves hairy on the midrib and principal veins. 

TENUIFOLIAE 

Fruit medium, oblong, pyriform or subglobose, crimson or scar- 
let, nutlets 2-5 ; inflorescence glabrous or nearly so, stamens 5-20, 
anthers pink, rose color or dark red; leaves membranaceous, gen- 
erally pubescent on the upper surface when young, glabrous or 
scabrous when mature. 

The three species here recorded may be tabulated as follows : 

Leaves ovate or oblong ovate C. ascendens 

Leaves ovate, oval or rhomboidal 1 

1 Calyx lobes hairy on the inner surface C. m a t u r a 

1 Calyx lobes glabrous on the inner surface C. d e 1 u c i d a 

Crataegus ascendens Sarg. 

Ascending thoni 

Rhodora, 5 : 141 

Shrub 6-10 feet tall with slender ascending branches bearing 

short, straight or slightly curved spines rarely more than an inch 

long; leaves thin, ovate or oblong ovate, at flowering time 1.5-2 

inches long, 8-15 lines broad, acuminate at the apex, rounded or 

cuneate at the base, finely and sharply serrate, with 4-5 acuminate 



52 , NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

lobes each side, often tinged witli brownish red as they unfold and 
clothed above with minute appressed whitish hairs which soon 
disappear, dark yellowish green above, paler below, larger, darker 
green and glabrous when mature, petioles slender, 9-15 lines long, 
dotted with a few scattered glands and slightly margined at the 
apex; flowers 6-12 in a cluster, on slender rather long glabrous 
peduncles, calyx lobes narrow, elongated, entire or with a few 
minute glands, stamens 5-10, anthers pink or pinkish purple ; fruit 
subglobose obovate or oblong, dark red when ripe, drooping, the 
calyx lobes subpersistent, spreading or reflexed, nutlets 3-4. 

Clayey soil. North Greenbush and Rensselaer. Flowers May 
12-20, fruit ripens during September. This species is very distinct 
and easily recognized by its peculiar oblong ovate leaves with acu- 
minate apex and on fertile branches with cuneate base, making 
them pointed at each end. On 3''oung and vigorous shoots they are 
usually broadly rounded at the base, and are sometimes 3.5-4 
inches long and 2-2.5 inches broad. They are generally more 
elongated when growing in the borders of woods than when in 
more open exposed places. The autumn buds are clothed with a 
varnish which is sticky in warm weather. Though found in sev- 
eral places on the east side of the Hudson river, no example of it 
has yet been found on the west side of the river. 

Crataegus matura Sarg. 

Mature thorn 
Rhodora, 3 : 24 
Shrub 5-10 feet tall with many slender ascending or nearly erect 
branches or occasionally with the lower widely spreading; leaves 
broadly ovate, oval or rhomboidal, thin, acute or acuminate at 
the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base, finely and sharply ser- 
rate, deeply and sharply divided into 4-6 very distinct sharp 
pointed or acuminate lobes on each side, yellowish green when 
young and clothed with short appressed whitish hairs, darker 
green and glabrous when mature, 2-2.5 inches long, 1.5-2 inches 
broad, petioles slender, 6-12 lines long, slightly glandular and 
sometimes wing margined at the apex; flowers 4-8 in a cluster, 
on short glabrous or slightly hairy peduncles, calyx lobes elong- 
ated, narrow, entire or slightly glandular, often red at the tips, 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 53 

slightly hairy on the inner surface, becoming bright red at the 
base, stamens usually 10, sometimes 5-9, anthers red or reddish 
purple; fruit subglobose or oval, about 6 lines long, 5-6 broad, 
dark red or crimson, nutlets 2-5, flesh yellow, pleasant, edible. 

Clayey soil and rocky pastures. Gansevoort, Saratoga co. and 
Lake Pleasant, Hamilton co. Flowers in May, ripens its fruit 
the latter part of August. 

The early ripening of the fruit is one of the distinguishing 
characters of the species. In our specimens the fruit is scarcely 
oblong as in the typical form, and the styles are 2-3, but in other 
respects the agreement of the characters is good. The bright red 
color of the inner bases of the calyx lobes in the Gansevoort speci- 
mens contrasts beautifully with the pale green color of the imma- 
ture fruit. 

Crataegus delucida Sarg. 

Delucid thorn 
Rhodora, 5 : 139 

Shrub 6-10 feet tall with erect or ascending branches; leaves 
thin, ovate, broadly ovate or oval, acute, sharp pointed or acumi- 
nate at the apex, broadly rounded, subtruncate or rarely broadly 
cuneate at the base, finely serrate, with 4-6 distinct, sharp pointed 
or acuminate lobes each side, generally tinged with bronze red 
when they unfold and then covered above with short appressed 
whitish hairs, at flowering time yellowish green, 1-1.5 inches long, 
9-18 lines broad, paler and glabrous below, larger, darker green 
and glabrous above when mature, petioles slender, 6-12 lines long, 
usually shorter on young and vigorous shoots with the blades 
larger and broader, slightly glandular; flowers 6-12 in a cluster, 
about 6 lines broad, on slender branched glabrous peduncles, 
calyx lobes narrow, elongated, entire or with few minute glands, 
often red at the tips, stamens usually 5-8, sometimes 10, anthers 
red or reddish purple; fruit oblong, bright red or scarlet, droop- 
ing, the calyx lobes spreading or reflexed, often deciduous from 
the ripe fruit, nutlets 3-4, flesh yellow. 

Clayey hillsides and rocky pastures. Albany and Sandlake. 
Flowers about the middle of May, fruit ripens during the last half 
of September or early in October. 



54 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

This is one of the prevailing species on the hillsides north of 
Albany. The flowers have a strong potash odor. It is closely re- 
lated to C. acutiloba Sarg. with which it was formerly 
united, but its flowers are smaller and its nutlets more numerous, 

COCCINEAE 

Fruit medium, subglobose, crimson or scarlet when ripe, nutlets 

2-5, distinctly ridged on the back ; leaves thin or subcoriaceous. - 

Anthers pale yellow or whitish C. gravesii 

Anthers purple or red 1 

1 Stamens 20 C.brainerdi 

1 Stamens 10 C.praecoqua 

1 Stamens less than 10 C.egglestoni 

Crataegus gravesii Sarg. 
Graves thorn 
Rhodora, 5 : 159 

Shrub or small tree with widely spreading or ascending 
branches ; leaves ovate, obovate, elliptic or subrotund, thin, acute 
or rounded at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the entire base, une- 
qually serrate with rather broad blunt teeth, with 3-4 short, broad, 
acute or rather blunt lobes each side, at flowering time 
pale green, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs above, when 
mature firm, glabrous, dark green and shining above, paler below, 
1-2 inches long and nearly or quite as broad, petioles slender, 4-12 
lines long, slightly margined at the apex, sometimes slightly 
villose and glandular when young; flowers 5-12 in a cluster, on 
slender, short, glabrous or slightly hairy peduncles, calyx glabrous,, 
its lobes narrow, elongated, minutely glandular, stamens 4-8, 
occasionally 10, anthers pale yellow or whitish ; fruit globose or 
depressed globose, erect, pale red or orange red when ripe, 
crowned by the short erect or spreading calyx lobes, nutlets 2-3. 

Clayey soil. Albany, North Greenbush and Westport. Flow- 
ers late in May or early in June, fruit ripens late in September. 
Closely related to C. coccinea rotundifolia, from 
which it may be separated by its thinner leaves, mostly fewer 
stamens, paler fruit and fewer nutlets. Our examples are shrubs 
more glabrous than the type. The young unfolding leaves are 
sometimes tinged with brownish red. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 55 

Crataegus praecoqua Sarg. 

Early tliorn 

Rhodora, 3:27, 5:167 

Shrub 8-10 feet tall with spreading branches ; leaves ovate, oval 
or rhomboidal, acute or blunt at the apex, broadly cuneate at the 
base or on young vigorous shoots sometimes rounded, serrate, 
slightly divided into numerous short, narrow, sharp pointed lobes 
on each side, at flowering time thin, pale green and clothed above 
with short appressed whitish hairs, paler below and villose along 
the midrib and principal veins, when mature thick, dark green, 
shining, glabrous or scabrous above, paler below, 1.5-2 inches long, 
nearly or quite as broad, petioles stout, 4-6 lines long, margined 
on the upper part; flowers on villose, often branching peduncles, 
calyx tube hairy, its lobes narrow, elongated, glandular serrate, 
stamens 10, anthers pink; fruit subglobose, erect or drooping, 
slightly hairy, dark red. 

Clayey soil. Crown Point. Flowers the latter part of May, 
fruit ripens the last of August or early in September. The species 
was first published under the name Crataegus praecox, 
but this was afterward changed to C. p r a e c o q u a . 

Crataegus egglestoni Sarg. 
Eggleston^s thorn 
Rhodora, 3 : 30 
Shrub 5-10 feet tall with slender spreading or ascending 
branches; leaves oval, elliptic or suborbicular, acute or sharp 
pointed at the apex, broadly rounded or cuneate at the base, ser- 
rate, divided into 4-5 short inconspicuous acute lobes on each side, 
at flowering time thin, yellow green and hairy above with short 
whitish appressed hairs, paler and glabrous below, when mature 
thick or subcoriaceous, dark green and scabrous above, 1.5-2 
inches long and nearly or quite as broad, petioles slender, 6-12 
lines long, slightly margined at the apex, sparingly glandular; 
flowers 6-8 lines broad, 5-10 in a cluster, on rather long, loosely 
villose often branched peduncles, calyx tube glabrous or slightly 
hairy, its lobes entire or minutely glandular serrate, hairy on the 
inner surface, stamens 5-8, usually 5, anthers red or rose color; 
fruit subglobose or oval, crimson when ripe, the mostly persistent 
calyx lobes reflexed, appressed, nutlets 2-3, 3 lines long. 



56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Cla3'e3' and slialy soil. Crown Point and Lansingburg. Flow- 
ers May 20-30, fruit ripens in September. The shrubs in the 
station near Lansingburg have recently been cut down. The 
spines are slender, straight or nearly so and 1.5-2 inches long. 
This species was originally placed in the section Anomalae, but 
there seems to be no character by which it may be clearly sepa- 
rated from the section in which it is here placed. 

Crataegus brainerdi Sarg. 

Brainerds thorn 

Rhodora, 3:27 

Shrub 6-10 feet tall with ascending or suberect branches; leaves 
at first thin, ovate or broadly ovate, acute or acuminate at the 
apex, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, or on young and 
vigorous shoots often subtruncate or slightly cordate, sharply 
serrate, divided into 4-5 slight, acute or sharp pointed lobes each 
side, when young slightly hairy above with short appressed whit- 
ish hairs, glabrous below, when mature thicker and firmer, dark 
green above, paler below, 1.5-2 inches long, 1-1.5 broad, larger on 
young and vigorous shoots, petioles slender, 4-12 lines long, 
glabrous, with few or no glands; flowers in clusters of 6-12, 9-10 
lines broad, very fragrant, supported on slender, glabrous, simple 
or branched peduncles, calyx lobes linear lanceolate, entire or 
slightly glandular, often tinged with red, stamens 20, anthers 
bright red, filaments elongated, often becoming red or pink, very 
persistent ; fruit erect, subglobose or short oblong, 5-6 lines long, 
4-5 broad, bright scarlet, flesh yellow, edible, nutlets 3-4. 

Kocky or bushy pastures. Sandlake, Rensselaer co. Flowers 
May 15-25, fruit ripens the latter part of September. The long 
erect persistent reddish filaments afford an attractive and easily 
recognized character. They sometimes remain plump and fresh 
till the beginning of September. The blossoms have a decided 
potash odor and are very attractive to honey bees. The styles are 
generally 3 but occasionally 4. The species is rare with us, but 
well marked and beautiful both in flower and fruit. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 57 

TOMENTOSAE 
Fruit small or medium, subglobose, oval or pyriform, orange 
red or scarlet, nutlets 2-5 with a cavity on each of the ventral 
faces ; flowers usually many in a cluster ; leaves thin or coriaceous, 
usually pubescent beneath. 

Crataegus succulenta Link 

Succulent thoi'n 
Silva N. A. 13:139, 1. 181 

Shrub or bushy tree 8-15 feet tall with widely spreading or 
ascending branches; leaves elliptic or subrhomboidal, acute or 
sharp pointed at the apex, cuneate at the entire base, serrate, with 
4-6 short, acute lobes each side above the middle, at flowering 
time thin, slightly hairy above, pubescent beneath, when mature 
coriaceous, dark green and glabrous above, paler below, usually 
2-2.5 inches long, 1.5-2 inches broad, on young and vigorous shoots 
somewhat larger and broadly or concavely cuneate or rounded at 
the base, petioles stout, 4-8 lines long, margined at the apex, often 
becoming red or reddish with age; flowers 7-8 lines broad, many 
in a cluster, supported on long, slender villose branching 
peduncles, calyx tube hairy or glabrous, its lobes laciniately 
glandular serrate, elongated, soon reflexed, hairy, stamens 15-20, 
anthers small, pink; fruit globose, scarlet, drooping, 4-6 lines long, 
flesh yellow, juicy, edible, nutlets 2-3. 3 lines long. 

Clayey soil. Albany and Albia, Rensselaer co. Flowers from 
May 15-25, fruit ripens in September and usually hangs on the 
branches till late in October. Sometimes a few persist through the 
winter. 

G 

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF PLANTS OF THE SUSQUE- 
HANNA VALLEY 

BY FRANK E. FENNO 

Dryopteris goldieana (Hook.) Gray 

Aspidium goldieanum Hook. 

Goldie's shield fern 

Hillsides near Nichols. Infrequent. August. 



58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Panicum waiter! Pursh 

Panicum crus-galli var. h i s p i d u m Torr. 

Cockspur grass 

Common along the river. August-October. 

Panicum minus (Muhl.) Nash 

Wood panicum 

Dry woods and thickets near Nichols. Not common. August, 

September. 

Eragrostis major Host 

Pungent meadow grass 

Roadsides and along railways. Frequent. August, September. 

Panicularia elongata (Torr.) Kuntze 

Glyceria elongata Trin. 

Long manna grass 

In a swamp near Smithboro. Infrequent. August, September. 

Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. 

Creeping spike rush 

Low wet grounds, specially along the river. Common. August, 

September. 

Smilax rotundifolia L. 

Green brier. Catbrier 

Thickets near Nichols. Rare. Stem more or less quadrangular 

and high climbing. Leaves five nerved. May, June. 

Lemna trisulca L. 

Ivy-leaved duckweed 

Ditches and sloughs. Frequent. July, August. 

Corylus americana Walt. 

Hazelnut 

Thickets along the river. Common. Apparently not found here 

on the uplands. March, April. 

Corylus rostrata Ait. 

Beaked hazelnut 

Fence rows and thickets. Common. April. 

Betula populifolia Marsh. 

White birch 
Plentiful along the valley road 3 miles south of Owego. May. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 59 

Betula lenta L. 

Black Mrch 

Rich woodland. Common. April, May. 

Betula lutea Mx. 

Yellow Mrch 

Rich moist woodland. Common. April, May. 

Alnus incana (L.) Willd. 

Tag alder 

Borders of streams and swamps. Common. February-April. 

Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) K. Koch 

A. s e r r u 1 a t a Willd. 

Smooth alder 

Mutton hill pond. This is its only station. February-April. 

Fagus americana Sweet 

Fagus ferruginea Ait. 

Beech 

Scattered throughout our territory. May. 

Castanea der.tata (Marsh.) Borkh. 

Castanea sativa var. a m e r i c a n a Wats. 

Chestnut 

A very common tree. July. 

Syndesmon thalictroides (L.) Hoffmg. 
Anemonella thalictroides Spach 

Rue anemone 
Woods and thickets. Common. April-June. 

Rubus occidentalis L. 

Black raspberry 

Fence rows and neglected fields. Common. May, June. 

Rhus copallina L. 

Mountain sumac. Dicarf sumac. Upland sumac 

Dry soil 3 miles south of Owego. Rare. June, July. 

Paxsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby 

Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. 

Blue wax weed. Tarweed 

Abundant in a neglected field near Nichols. August-October. 

Fine flowering specimens were collected as late as Oct. 24. Tlie 

whole plant is very viscid pubescent. 



60 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUJI 

Mitchella repens L. 

Partridge "berry. Tivin terry 

Woods. Common. June. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. 

Button hush 

Swamps. Common. July, August. 

Galium aparine L. 

Cleavers 

Damp shaded ground. Common. Summer. 

Galium pilosum Ait. 
Hairy hedstraw 
Dry bushy places. Frequent. Summer. 

Galium lanceolatum Torr. 

Torrey's icild liquorice 

Dry woods. Common. Summer. 

Galium circaezans Mx. 

Wild liquorice 

Dry woods. Common. May- July. 

Galium boreale L. 

Northern hedstraio 

Rocky soil, specially along streams. Common. June. 

Galium asprellum Mx. 

Rough hcdstraiD 

Swamps and low grounds. Common. Summer. 

Galium triflorum Mx. 

Sweet-scented hedstraio 

Damp woodland. Common. Summer, 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE O 

Inocybe castanea Pk. 

Chestnut Inocybe 
J, 2 Two immature plants 
3, 4 Two mature plants 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

6 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 61 

7 Transverse section of a stem 

8 A cystidium, x 400 

9 Four spores, x 400 

Inocybe squamosodiscaPk. 
Scaly Disked Inocybe 

10 Immature plant 

11 Mature plant showing scaly disk 

12 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

13 Four spores, x 400 

Inocybe excoriata Pk. 
Excoriated Inocybe 

14 Immature plant 

15, 16 Mature plants showing the excoriated surface of the caps 

17 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

18 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

19 Four spores, x 400 

Inocybe fallax Pk. 
Fallacious Inocybe 

20 Immature plant 

21 Mature plant 

22 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

23 Transverse section of a stem 

24 A cystidium, x 400 

25 Four spores, x 400 

Tricholoma subluteum Pk. 
Two Colored Tricholoma 

26 Immature plant 

27 Mature plant 

28 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

29 Four spores, x 400 

Stereum burtianum Pk. 
Burt's Stereum 

30 Small plant 

31 Plant with lacerated margin of the pileus 

32 Plant with incomplete pileus 

33 Three plants with confluent pilei 

34 Four spores, x 400 



62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

PLATE 84 

Collybia familia Pk. 
Family Collybia 

1 Cluster of small plants 

2 Cluster of large plants with the center of the oap colored 

3 Single large plant 

4 Single large plant with the center of the cap colored 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a large plant 

6 Transverse section of a stem 

7 Four spores, x 400 

Collybia acervata Fr. 
Tufted Collybia 

8 Cluster of eight plants, four with caps moist and more 

highly colored 

9 Plant with pale tan colored cap 

10 Plant with whitish cap 

11 Vertical section of the upper part of a large plant 

12 Transverse section of a stem 

13 Four spores, x 400 

Bovista pila B. & C. 

Round Bovista 

14 Immature plant 

15 Mature plant ruptured at the apex 

16 Vertical section of a young plant in edible condition 

17 Part of a branching filament of the capillitium, x 400 

18 Four spores, x 400 

plate 85 
Eussula mariae Pk. 
Mary's Russula 
1, 2 Immature plants 

3 Mature plant 

4 Immature plant of darker color 

5 Mature plant of darker color 

6 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

7 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

8 Four spores, x 400 



REPORT OP THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 63 

Russula furcata (Pers.) Fr. 
Forked Russula 
9 Immature plant 

10 Mature plant with the cap partly expanded 

11 Mature plant with the cap fully expanded 

12 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

13 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

14 Four spores, x400 

PLATE 86 

Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.) Fr. 
Haymaker^s Psilocybe 
1-3 Immature plants with moist striatulate caps 

4 Plant after the moisture has partly escaped from the cap 
5-7 Mature plants with caps destitute of moisture 
8, 9 Vertical sections of the upper part of two plants 

10 Transverse section of a stem 

11 Four spores, x 400 

Pholiota vermiflua Pk. 
Wormy Pholiota 

12 Young plant with gills hidden by the veil 
13, 14 Immature plants showing the whitish gills 

15 Mature plant with the cap fully expanded 

16 Mature plant with the cap rimosely areolate 

17 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

18 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

19 Transverse section of a stem 

20 Four spores, x 400 




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INDEX 



Agaricus campester, 4-5 
Agastache scrophulariaefolia, 22 
Alder, smooth, 59 

tag, 59 
Alnus incana, 59 

rugosa, 59 

sevrulata, 59 
Alpine cotton grass, 24 
Amanita, fly, 22 

Amanita muscaria formosa, 22-23 
Anemone, rue, 59 
Anemonella thalictroides, 59 
Antennaria neglecta, 23-24 
Asarum reflexum, 12 
Aspidium goldieanum, 57 
Aster curveseens, 12 

roscidus variifolius, 23 

undulatus, 23 



Beaked hazelnut, 58 
Bedstraw, hairy, GO 

northern, 60 

rough, 60 

sweet-scented, 60 
Beech, 59 
Bietula lenta, 59 

lutea, 59 

populifolia, 58 
Birch, black, 59 

white, 58 

yellow, 59 
Boletus nebulosus, 24 
Bovista, round, 34 

explanation of plate, 62 
Bovista pila, 34 

explanation of plate, 62 
Brainerds thorn, 56 
Brier, green, 58 
Britton and Brown, cited, 35 
Burbank, cited, 18 
Burt, E. A., acknowledgments to, 21 
Burt's stereum, 61 

explanation of plate, 61 
Buttonbush, 60 



Cantharellus cibarius longipes, 24 
Castanea dentata, 59 

sativa var. aniericana, 59 
Catbrier, 58 

Cephalanthus occidentalis, 60 
Champlain thorn, 45-46 
Chestnut, 59 
Chestnut Inocybe, explajiation of 

plate, 60-61 
Cleavers, 60 
Coccineae, 54-56 
Cockspur grass, 58 
Collybia, family, 28-29 

explanation of plate, 62 

tufted, 27-28 

explanation of plate, 62 
Collybia acervata, 27-28 
explanation of plate, 62 

familia, 28-29 

explanation of plate, 62 
Contiguous thorn, 50 
Oortinarius amarus, 24 
Corylus americana, 58 

rostrata, 58 
Cotton grass, alpine, 24 
Crataegus, New York species, 5-6, 

35-57 
Crataegus ascendens, 12, 51-52 

brainerdi, 12, 54, 56 

champlainensis, 45-46 

coccinea var., 13 

conjuncta, 12, 41-42 

contigua, 12, 49, 50 

delucida, 12, 53-54 

dilatata, 12, 47-48 

dissona, 12, 41, 42-43 

egglestoni, 12, 54, 55-56 

exclusa, 12, 45, 47 

flabellata. 13 

gravesii, 13, 54 

holmesiana, 48-49 

intricata, 13, 43 

irrasa, 13, 49, 50-51 
var. divergens, 51 

lobulata, 13, 48, 49 



66 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Crataegus macracantha, 13 

matura, 13, 51, 52-53 

modesta, 43, 44 

peckii, 13, 43, 44-45 

praecoqua, 13, 54, 55 

pringlei, 45, 4G-47 

succulenta, 13-14, 57 

nniflora, 38 
Creeping spike rush, 58 
Cuphea viscosissima, 59 

Dalibarda repens, 24 
Daphne mezereum, 14 
Delucid thorn, 53-54 
Dilatatae, 47-48 
Dissonant thorn, 42-43 
Dryopteris goldieana, 57 
Duckweed, ivy-leaved, 58 
Dwarf sumac, 59 

Edible fungi, 4, 27-34; specimens, 5 
Egglestons thorn, 55-56 
Eleocharis palustris, 58 
Entoloma griseum, 14 
Eragrostis major, 58 
Eriophorum alpinum, 24 
Euonymus americanus var., 14 

obovatus, 14 
Explanation of plates, 60-63 

Fagus amerieana, 59 
ferruginea, 59 

Fenno, Frank E., Supplementary 
List of Plants of the Susque- 
hanna valley, 57-60 

Flabellatae, 49-51 

Fly amanita, 22 

Forked russula, 31-32 

Fries, cited, 23 

Fungi, economic collection, 5 

Galium aparine, 60 

asprcllum, 60 

boreale, 60 

circaezans, 60 

lanceolatum, 60 

pilosum, GO 

triflorum, 60 
Geoglossum farlowi, 14 
Glyceria elongata, 58 



Goldenrod, early, 26 
Goldie's shield fern, 57 
Gonnermann, cited, 23 
Grass, alpine cotton, 24 

cockspur, 58 

long manna, 58 

pungent meadow, 58 
Graves thorn, 54 
Gray, Asa, cited, 19, 22, 35 
Groundsel, common, 26 

Hairy bedstraw, 60 
Haplosporella maclurae, 14 
Haw, 36 
Hawthorn, 36 
Haymakers psilocybe, 33-34 

explanation of plates, 63 
Hazelnut, 58 

beaked, 58 
Hebeloma socialis, 15 
Hitchcock, A. P., cited, 22 
Holmes thorn, 48-49 
Hyduum balsameum, 15 

graveolens subzonatum, 24-25 

macrescens, 15-16 
Hypomyces boletinus, 15 

Inocybe, chestnut, 16 

explanation of plate, 60-61 
excoriated, 16 

explanation of plate, 61 
fallacious, 17 

explanation of plate, 61 
scaly disked, 18 

explanation of plate, 61 
Inocybe castanea, 16 

explanation of plat^, 60-61 
excoriata, 16-17 

explanation of plate, 61 
fallax, 17 

explanation of plate, 61 
serotina, 17-18 
squamosodisca, 18 

explanation of plate, 61 
Intricatae, 43-45 
Intricate thorn, 43 
Isaria brachiata, 18 
Iva xanthiifolia, 18 
Ivy leaved duckweed, 58 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1903 



67 



Lactarius subvelutinus, 18-19 
Lemna trisulca, 58 
Liquoi'ice, wild, GO 
Torrey's wild, 60 
Lobulatae, 48-49 
Lobulate thorn, 49 

Manna grass, long, 58 
Mary's nissula, 29-31 

explanaliou of plate, 62 
Meadow grass, pungent, 58 
Mezereon, 14 
Mitchella repens, 60 
Mnlum affine ciliare, 25 
Modest tborn, 44 
Molles, 45-47 
Mountain sumac, 59 
Mowers mushroom, 33-34 
Mushrooms, deficiency, 4-5; edible, 

5 

Nardia obovata, 19 

Otidea onotica, 25 
Oxalis brittonae, 19 

Panicularia elongata, 58 
Panicum, wood, 58 
Panieum crus-galli rar. hispidum, 
58 

minus, 58 

waiter!, 58 
Parsonsia petiolata, 59 
Partridge berry, 00 
Paspalum muhlenbergli, 20 

prostratum, 20 
Peck's thorn, 44-45 
Perllla frutescens, 19 
Phacelia dubia, 19 

parviflora, 19 
Phaeopezia retiderma, 19 
Pholiota, wormy, 32 

explanation of plate, 03 
Pholiota vermifiua, 32 

explanation of plate, 63 
Pllosace eximla, 25 
Plants, contributors, list of, 3, 9-12; 

species added to collection, 3, 7- 

9; species not before reported, 4, 

12-22 



Plates, explanation of, 60-63 
Podosphaera leucotrlcha, 19 
Pringles thorn, 46-47 
Pruinosae, 41-43 
Psllocj'be, haymakers, 33-34 

explaualion of plate, 63 
P.silocybe foenisecli, 33-34 

explanation of plate, 63 
Puociula similllma, 20 

suaveolens, 25-26 

Queen of the prairie, 22 

Rabenhorst, cited, 23 
Raspberry, black, 59 
Rhus copallina, 59 
Rimosi, 16, 17 
Rubus occidentalis, 59 
Rue anemone, 59 
Rush, creeping spike, 58 
Russula, forked, 31-32 

explanation of plate, 63 
Mary's, 29-31 
explanation of plate, 62 
Russula densifolia, 20 
var. paxilloides, 20 
furcata, 20, 31-32 

explanation of plate, 03 
mariae, 29-31 
explanation of plate, 62 

Sarcoscypha rhenana, 20 
Sargent, C. S., cited, 35 
Senecio vulgaris, 26 
Sericella, 21 

Shield fern, Goldie's, 57 
Sisymbrium altissimum, 26 
Small, J. K., cited, 35 
Smilax rotuudifolia, 58 
Solldago arguta, 26 

canadensis glabrata, 26 

juncea, 26 

rugosa, 20 
Spike rush, creeping, 58 
Spiraea lobata, 22 
Spurge laurel, 14 
Stereum burtianum, 21 

explanation of plate, 01 



68 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Sumac, dwarf, 59 

mountain, 59 

upland, 59 
Susquehanna valley, supplementary 

list of plants, G, 57-GO 
Syndesmon thalictroides, 59 

Tag alder, 59 
Tarweed, 59 
Teuuifoliae, 51-54 
Thorn, 36 

ascending, 51-52 

Brainerds, 56 

broad leaved, 47-48 

Champlain, 45-4G 

conjoined, 41-42 

contiguous, 50 

delucid, 53-54 

dissonant, 42-43 

early, 55 

Egglestons, 55-56 

excluded, 47 

Graves, 54 

Holmes, 48-49 

intricate, 43 

lobulate, 49 

mature, 52-53 

modest, 44 

Peck's, 44-45 

Pringles, 46-47 



Thorn, succulent, 57 

unpolished, 50-51 
Thorn apple, 36 
Thorn bush, 36 
Thorn tree, 36 
Tonientosae, 38, 39, 57 
Torrey, cited, 14 
Torrey's wild liquorice, 60 
Ti"icholoma, two colored, 21 

explanation of plate, 01 
Tricholoma subluteum, 21 

explanation of plate, 61 
Tufted collybia, 27-28 
Twin berry, 60 

Ulmaria rubra, 22 
Upland sumac, 59 

Viola cucuUata, 26-27 

rotundifolia, 27 

selkirkii, 27 
Violet, blue, 26-27 

round leaved yellow, 27 

Waxweed, blue, 59 
Wood panicum, 58 
Wormy pholiota, 32 

Xylaria grandis, 27 



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This is a revision of En4 containing the more essential facts observed since that was prepared. 
Enl6 (59) Grapevine Root Worm. 4op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. 15c. 

Sic En 19. 

Enl7 (64) i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. nop. 6pl. 

May 190,3. 20c. 
Enl8 (68) Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322p. 

52pl. Aug. 1903. 80c, cloth. 
Enl9 (72) Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. 58p. I3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c. 

This is a revision of Eni6 containing tlie more essenti il facts observed since that was prepared. 

En20 (74) Felt, E. P. & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 

8Sp. T4pl. May 1904. 25c. 
Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1903. In press. 

Mo.squitos or Culicidae of New York. In press. 

Botany. Bol (2) Peck, C : H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of 

New York. 66p. 2pl, May 18S7. Out of print. 

Bo2 (8) Boleti of the United States. 96p. Sep. 1889. [50c] 

Bo3 (25) . Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. Spl. Oct. 1899. 

Out of print. 

Bo4 (28) Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. ^oc. 

Bo5 (54) Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c. 

B06 (67) Report of the State Botanist 1902. I96p. 5pl. May 1903. 50c. 

Bo7 (75) . Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 40c. 

Archeology. Arl (16) Beauchamp, W: M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Im- 
plements of New York. 86p. 23pl. Oct. 1897. <?5<r. 
Ar2 (18) Polished Stone Articles used by the New York Aborigines. 

i"4P- 35pl- Nov. 1897. 25c. 
Ar3 (22) Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. 78p. 33pl. Oct. 

1898. 25c. 
Ar4 (32) Aboriginal Occupation of New York. I90p. i6pl. 2 maps. 

Mar. 1900. 30c. 
Ar5 (41) Wampum and Shell Articles used by New York Indians. i66p. 

28pl. Mar. 1901. 30c. 
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43pl. Mar. 1902. 30c. 
Ar7 (55) Metallic Implements of the New York Indians. 94p. 38pl. 

June 1902. 25c. 
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Dec. 1903. 30c. 
Ar9 Ilfstory of the New York Iroquois. In press. 

Perch Lake Mounds. In press. 

Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. In press. 

Miscellaneous. Msl (62) Merrill, F: J. H: Directory of Natural History 
Museums in United States and Canada. 236p. Ap. 1903. 30c. 

Ms2 (66) Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New York State Natural 
History Survey and New York State Museum 1837-1902. 4i8p. June 
1903- 7.5c J cloth. 

Museum memoirs 1889-date. Q. 

1 Beecher, C : E. & Clarke, J: M. Development of some Silurian Brachi- 

opoda. 96p. 8pl. Oct. 1889. Out of print. 

2 Hall, James & Clarke, J: M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 350P- i'- 7opl. 

1898. $1, cloth. 

3 Clarke. J : M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co. 

N. Y. I28p. 9pl. Oct. 1900. 80c. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 
(continued) 

4 Peck, C: H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. 75C- 

This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of fungi reported in the 4gth, 51st and 520! 
reports of the state botanist. 

5 Clarke, J: M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 

New York State. I96p. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.50, cloth. 

6 Naples Fauna in Western New York. 268p. 26pl. map. $2, cloth. 

7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pti Graptolites of the 

Lower Beds. In press. 
Felt, E. P. Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees. In preparation. 

Natural history of New York. 30V. il. pi. maps. Q. Albany 1842-94. 

DIVISION I ZOOLOGY. Dc Kay, James E. Zoology of New York; or, The 
New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals 
hitherto observed within the State of New York with brief notices of 
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropri- 
ate illustrations. 5v. il. pi. maps. sq. Q. Albany 1842-44. Out of print.. 

Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W : H. Seward. i78p. 

V. I pti Mammalia. 13+146P. 33pl. 1842. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

^v. 2 pt2 Birds. 12+380?. i4ipl. 1844. 
Colored plates. 

V. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Atnphibia. 7+98p. pt4 Fishes. 15+415?. 1842. 
pt3-4 bound together. 

V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia 23pl. Fishes 79pl. 
1842. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 5 pt5 Mollusca. 4+271?. 40pl. pt6 Crustacea. 7cp. I3pl. 1843-44. 

Hand-colored plates : pt5-6 bound together. 

DIVISION 2 BOTANY. Torrey, John. Flora of the State of New York; com- 
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith- 
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and med- 
ical properties. 2v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1843. Ont of print. 

V. I Flora of the State of New York. 12+484?. 72?1. 1843. 

300 copies with hand colored plates. 

v. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 572?. 89pl. 1843. 

300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com- 
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State 
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. ?1. 
sq. Q. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

V. I pti Economical Mineralogy. pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. 24+536?. 
1842. 

S plates additional to those printed as part of the te.xt. 

DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W: W.; Emmons, Ebenezer ; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4v. il. ?1. sq. Q. Albany 
1842-43. Out of print. 

V. I pti Mather, W: W. First Geological District. 27+6sZ9- 46pl. 1843. 

.V. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10+437?. i7?l. 
1842. 

V. 3 pt3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 306?: 1842. 

V. 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22+683?. igpl. map. 
1843. 

DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Emmons. Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1846-54. Out 
of print. 

V. I Soils of the State, their Composition and Distribution. 11+371?. 2ipl. 
1846. 

v. 2 Analyses of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8+343+46?. 42?!. 1849. 

With hand-colored plates. 



UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

V. 3 Fruits, etc. 8+340p. 1851. 

V, 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 95pl. 1851. 

Hand-colored. 

V. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8-P272P. SOpl. 1854. 
With liand-colorcd plates. 

DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, Janics. Palaeontology of New York. 8v, 

il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 
V. I Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New York System. 

23+338P. Q9pl. 1847. Out of print. 
V. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the New York System. 

8+-362P. io_4pl. 1852. Out of print. 
V. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 

Sandstone, pti, text. I2+S32p. 1859. [$3.50] 

pt2. I43pl. 1861. [$2.50] 

V. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 
Chemung Groups. 11+1+428P. 99pl. 1867. $2.50. 

V. 5 pti Lamellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. i8+268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.30. 

■ Lamellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham- 
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62+293P. sipl. 1885. $2.50. 

pt2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder- 
berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2v. 1879. v. i, text. 
15+492P. v. 2, i20pl. $2.50 for 2 V. 

V. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Upper Helderberg and Hamil- 
ton Groups. 24+?98p. 67pl. 1887. $2.30. 

V. 7 Trilobites and other Crustacea of the Oriskany, Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill Groups. 64+236?. 46pl. 1888. 
Cont. supplement to v. 5, pt2. Pteropoda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 
42p. i8pl. 1888. ^2-50. 

V. 8pti. Introduction to the Study of the Genera of the Paleozoic Brachi- 
opoda. 16+367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50. 

pt2. Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16+394P. 84pl. 1894. $2.50. 

Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and 

of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242?. O. 
1853. 
Handbooks 1893-date. 7J^xi2^ cm. 

In quantities, i cent for eacn 16 pages or less. Single copies postpaid as below. 

H5 New York State Museum. 52p. il. 4c. 

Outlines history and work of the museum with list of staff 1902. 

H13 Paleontology. I2p. 2c. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

H15 Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. 

I24p. &c. 

Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 
for the use of teachers and students desiring to acquaint themselves more intimately with the 
classic rocks of this State. 

H16 Entomology. i6p. 2c. 

H17 Economic Geology. In press. 

H18 Insecticides and Fungicides. 20p. 5c. 

H19 Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. sc 

Maps. Merrill, F: J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the State of New 
York; issued as part of Museum bulletin 15 and tlie 48th Museum Report, 
V. I. 59x67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. Separate edition out of 
print. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch. In atlas 

form $3; mounted on rollers $5. Lower Hudson sheet 60c. 

The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, Put- 
nam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and .N'assau counties, and parts of Sullivan, 
Ulster and Suffolk counties; also northeastern New Jersey and part of western Connecticut. 

• Map of New York showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds. 

1901. Scale 12 miles to,i inch. 13c. 
Clarke, J : M. & Luther, D. D. Geologic map of Canandaigua and Naples 
Quadrangles. 1904. 20c. 

Issued as part of Paleontology 7. 



Published monthly by tht 

New York State Education Department 



BULLETIN 349 



JULY 1905 



New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 



Bulletin 94 
BOTANY 8 



/- ' 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 



PAGB 

Introduction 5 

Plants added to the herbarium .... 9 
Contributors and contributions.. .12 

Species not before reported 19 

Reoaarks and observations 35 



PAGB 

Edible fungi 44 

Explanation of plates So 

Plates P, Q, R, 87-93 follow 53 

Index 55 



Mbiosni-Jas-2Soe 



ALBANY 

NBW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 
1905 

Price 40 cents 



STATE OP NEW YORK 
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

Regents of the University 

With years when terms expire 

1913 Whitelaw Reid M.A. LL.D. Chancellor - - New York 

1906 St Clair McKelway M.A. L.H.D. LL.D. D.C.L. 

Vice Chancellor -- Brooklyn 

1908 Daniel Beach Ph.D. LL.D. Watkins 

1914 Pliny T. Sexton LL.D. -------- Palmyra 

1912 T. Guilford Smith M.A. C.E. LL.D. - - - Buffalo 

1907 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. - - Syracuse 

1910 Charles A. Gardiner Ph.D. L.H.D. LL.D. 

D.C.L. ------------- New York 

1915 Charles S. Francis B.S. ------- Troy 

191 1 Edward Lauterbach M.A. LL.D. - - - New York 

1909 Eugene A. Philbin LL.B. LL.D. - - - . New York 

1916 LuciAN L. Shedden LL.B. Plattsburg 

Commissioner of Education 

Andrew S. Draper LL.D. 

Assistant Commissioners 

Howard J. Rogers M.A. LL.D. First Assistant Commissioner 
Edward J. Goodwin Lit.D. Second Assistant Commissioner 
Augustus S, Downing M.A. Third Assistant Commissioner 

Secretary to the Commissioner 

Harlan H. Horner B.A. . ' 

Director of Libraries and Home Education 

Melvil Dewey LL.D. 

Director of Science and State Museum 

John M. Clarke LL.D. 

Chiefs of Divisions 

Accounts, William Mason 

Attendance, James D. Sullivan 

Examinations, Charles F. Wheelock B.S. LL.D. 

Inspections, Frank H. Wood M.A. 

Law, Thomas E. Finegan M.A. 

Records, Charles E. Fitch L.H.D. 

Statistics, Hiram C. Case 



New York State Education Department 

Science Division, Jan. i6, IQ0§ 
Hon. Andrew S. Draper 

Commissioner of Education: 
My dear sir: I have the honor of submitting to you the fol- 
lowing report of work done in the botanical department of the 
State Museum for the year 1904. 

Very respectfully yours 

John M. Clarke 

Director 
State of New York 
Education Department 
commissioner's room 
Approved for publicatioji Jan. 16, 190^ 



JS)lb 



Commissioner of Education 



New York State Education Department 



New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke Director 
Charles H. Peck State Botanist 

Bulletin 94 
BOTANY 8 

REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 

Specimens of plants for the state herbarium have been collected 
an the counties of Albany, Columbia, Essex, Fulton, Genesee, 
Hamilton, Lewis, Livingston, Madison, Monroe, Otsego, Rensselaer, 
.Saratoga, Schenectady, Suffolk, Tompkins, Warren and Wyoming. 

Specimens have been contributed that were collected in the 
coimties of Albany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Essex, 
Greene, Hamilton, Herkimer, Monroe, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, 
Orleans, Richmond, Saratoga, Suffolk, Tioga, Tompkins and 
Washington. 

The number of species of which specimens have been added to 
the herbarium is 321. Of these, 72 were not previously represented 
in it and the remaining 249 are now better or more completely 
represented. Of the 72 species, 9 are considered new or previously 
undescribed species. These are all fungi. Descriptions of them 
will be given in the following pages. The names of the species of 
which specimens have been added to the herbarium are given 
under the title "Plants added to the herbarium." 

The names of those who have contributed specimens and the 
names of the species represented by their respective contributions 
are given under the title "Contributors and their contributions." 
Many of the contributed specimens belong to extralimital species. 
Some of the specimens of mosses and hepatics contributed by 
Prof. John Macoun, botanist of the Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Canada, represent species found in the extreme western 
and northwestern part of British America. In some cases, speci- 
mens sent for identification have been in good condition and desir- 
able for the herbarium. These have been preserved and credited 
to the sender as a contribution. The number of contributors 
is 54. 



6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

In a third chapter, under the heading "Species not before re- 
ported," are the names of species new to our flora. This contains 
the names of a few species that had previously been recorded and 
were represented in the herbarium as varieties of other species, 
but they have now been raised to specific rank and are herein 
recorded as good species. Remarks concerning habitats, descrip- 
tions of new species, and the time of collecting the specimens, are 
given under their respective species. The number of species re- 
corded is 80. Of these 35 belong to the genus Crataegus. 

In a fourth chapter, bearing the title "Remarks and observa- 
tions," there is a record of new stations of rare plants, descriptions 
of new varieties, remarks concerning peculiar or distinguishing 
features of certain plants and new names given to some species as 
required by the law of priority. 

The number of identifications of species made for correspondents 
and others, who have sent or brought specimens of plants to the 
office of the botanist for this purpose, is 675. The number of per- 
sons for whom identifications have been made is 100. 

The number of species of mushrooms that have been tried and 
approved as edible is 8. Descriptions of these and of a new variety 
of a species previously found to be edible constitute a chapter 
entitled "Edible fimgi." Colored figures of natural size have been 
prepared of all these and placed on 7 plates, octavo size. The 
number of New York species and varieties of edible mushrooms 
previously reported is 153. 

Colored figures of 5 new species are given on 3 similar plates. 
The study of our Crataegus flora has been continued, and many 
specimens of trees and shrubs of this genus have been collected. 
The specific identity of many of these has not yet been determined. 
Rochester and its vicinity have furnished plants from which 31 
species of Crataegus have been described by Prof. C. S. Sargent. 
Many of these were found within the limits of the city parks. By 
the wise and careful forethought of Mr C. C. Laney, superintend- 
ent of parks, labels have been placed on the particular thorn trees 
and shrubs which furnished the material from which the descrip- 
tions of the several new species were derived. Type trees, in a 
genus in which many species resemble each other as closely as they 
do in the genus Crataegus, possess a peculiar value and importance 
and it is very fortvmate in this instance, where so many type trees 
and shrubs grow in such close proximity to each other and where 
they can be protected, that they have been properly labeled with 
their botanical names. It reduces very much any danger of mis- 
takes in their identification. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 7 

In order to collect t3'pical flowering specimens of as many of 
these species as possible, this prolific locality was visited in the 
flowering time of these plants and specimens were collected. It 
was again visited in autumn and a corresponding set of fruiting 
specimens was collected, so that now most of the Rochester species 
are well and, we believe, correctly represented in the state her- 
barium. These specimens will serve as a standard with which to 
compare specimens of closely related species collected in other 
localities. They exhibit the specific characters in some respects 
with greater precision than the words of descriptions can do. 

It has been observed that there is some variability in the fruit 
of some species even on the same shrub. The fruit on a certain 
shrub of Crataegus delucida in 1903 was small, irregu- 
lar and "wormy." The present year it was noticeably larger, fair 
and sound. The fruit of the Graves thorn, C. gravesii, 
which is produced by a clump of bushes near North Albany, is 
variegated when mature and ripening, dull red and green colors 
being intermingled. Three years in succession this clump has 
borne fruit of this character. Its failure to ripen its fruit evenly 
is due to the attacks of a parasitic fungus related to, if not the same 
species as, the one that causes apple scab on apples. A clump of 
bushes of the same species growing in Tivoli hollow bears fruit that 
is fair and tmiformly colored when ripe. It appears to be exempt 
from the attacks of the fungus. The fruit on some plants has been 
more persistent this year than it was last year. This is perhaps 
largely due to the absence of many of the insects that usually prey 
on thorn apples. It is probably also due in part to favorable 
weather conditions. A plentiful supply of moisture has enabled 
the plants to maintain their growth and vigor late in the season. 
The more vigorous the plant the stronger its tendency to hold its 
foliage and fruit. In some species the fruit regularly persists long 
after the leaves have fallen. 

The tendency of numerous species to crowd together in certain 
localities is a noticeable character in these plants. It is not uncom- 
mon to find two and three species growing close to each other and 
intermingling their branches so intimately as to appear at first 
sight to be a single intricately branched individual. If specimens 
for the herbarium are taken from such a clump great confusion and 
perplexity is likely to result unless the greatest care is taken not 
to mingle samples from different species. But association on a 
larger scale excites our wonder. That there should be 41 species 
of Crataegus growing spontaneously in the parks of the city of 
Rochester and in its immediate vicinitv is a remarkable fact. On 



8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Crown Point promontory, within an area of scarcely 50 acres, 13 
species have been recognized, and in a certain locaUty within the 
limits of Albany on an area of scarcely 2 acres there are 15 species 
of Crataegus. Certain peculiarities of these groupings of species 
are not devoid of interest. In the Rochester locality the section 
Pruinosae is represented by 8 species, though C. pruinosa, 
the pruinose thorn itself is absent. The section Tenuifoliae is 
represented there b}^ 11 species, but in the Crown Point locality 
this section has no representative and the section Pruinosae has 
but one and that is the pruinose thorn, the very one which is 
absent from Rochester. Only 5 species are common to the two 
localities, and these are species known to have a wide distribution. 
The two most abundant species at Crown Point are the cockspur 
thorn, C. crus-galli, and the round leaved thorn, C. c o c - 
cinea rotundifo'lia. These two species apparently con- 
stitute fully one half of all the thorn growth of the locality. Sev- 
eral of the other species are represented by only a few individuals 
each. The dotted fruited thorn, C. punctata, is one of these 
scantily represented species. It is a species of wide range and 
probably occurs in more localities in our State than any other 
species. If any place has but one species of thorn it is most likely 
to be the dotted fruited thorn. If there are but two or three 
species this is likely to be the most abundant one. About Albany 
it and the cockspur thorn are common and nearly equal in abun- 
dance. Its slight representation in the Crown Point locality is 
therefore somewhat strange. 

The botanical department contributed specimens of 16 species 
of edible mushrooms to the St Louis Exposition and, through the 
Forestry Commission, photographs and other representations of 
80 species of trees. 

Mr Stewart H. Burnham was employed as temporary assistant 
from July i to Sep. 21. He has made a rearrangement of the 
books and pamphlets of the library, and of the duplicate and 
extralimital specimens of the herbarium, has put typewritten labels 
on the shelves of the library and of the herbarium in order to facili- 
tate reference to books and to specimens, and has prepared type- 
written labels for a series of several hundred species of fungi that 
are kept in pasteboard boxes, placed these labels on the boxes and 
arranged them alphabetically. He has also assisted in the corres- 
pondence of the office and in disinfecting specimens. By his em- 
ployment it was possible to keep the office open in the absence of 
the botanist while engaged in field work. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 



PLANTS ADDED TO THE HERBARIUM 



New to the herbarium 



Amanita crenulata Pk. 



Crataegus leiophylla Sarg. 



A. 


lignophila Atk. 


C. 


lennoniana Sarg. 


A. 


radicata Pk. 


c. 


macauleyae Sarg. 


Arenaria leptoclados Giiss. 


c. 


maineana Sarg. 


Arisaema stewardsoni Britton 


c. 


opulens Sarg. 


Boletus atkinsoni Pk. 


c. 


omata Sarg. 


B. 


laricinus Berk. 


c. 


par^'iflora Sarg. 


B. 


nobilis Pk. 


c. 


pedicellata Sarg. 


B. 


rugosiceps Pk. 


c. 


persimilis Sarg. 


Botrych 


ium tenebrosum A. A. Eaton 


c. 


rubicunda Sarg. 


Bryum pendulum Schp. 


c. 


spissiflora Sarg. 


Clavaria botrytoides Pk. 


c. 


streeterae Sarg. 


C. 


xanthosperma Pk. 


c. 


tenuiloba Sarg. 


Collybia 


amabilipes Pk. 


c. 


verecunda Sarg. 


Convolvulus repens L. 


Craterellus taxophilus Thorn 


Cortinarius heliotropicus Pk. 


Dipsacus laciniatus L. 


Crataeg 


us acclivis Sarg. 


Eocronartium typhuloides Atk. 


C. 


baxteri Sarg. 


Falcata 


pitcheri {T. & G.) Kuntze 


C. 


beat a Sarg. 


Fusarium aquaeductuum R. & R. 


C. 


beckwithae Sarg. 


Galera capillaripes Pk. 


C. 


benigna Sarg. 


Gyrostachys ochroleuca Rydb. 


c. 


colorata Sarg. 


Hypholoma rugocephalum Atk. 


c. 


compta Sarg. 


Hypomyces banningiae Pk. 


c. 


cupulifera Sarg. 


h' 


inaequalis Pk. ■ 


c. 


deweyana Sarg. 


Lachnocladium semivestitum B. & C 


c. 


diffusa Sarg. 


Lactarius brevis Pk. 


c. 


dunbari Sarg. 


L. 


colorascens Pk. 


c. 


durobrivensis Sarg. 


Pholiots 


L appendiculata Pk. 


c. 


ellwangeriana Sarg. 


Salix serissima (Bail.) Fern. 


c. 


ferentaria Sarg. 


Sisyrinchium arenicola Bickn. 


c. 


formosa Sarg. 


Stachys 


sieboldi Miq. 


c. 


fuUeriana Sarg. 


Teucrium boreale Bickn. 


c. 


gemmosa Sarg. 


Viola amoena Le Conte 


c. 


glaucophylla Sarg. 


V. latiuscula Greene 


c. 


hudsonica Sarg. 


V. septentrionalis Greene 


c. 


laneyi Sarg. 


Zygodesmus granulosus Pk. 



Not new to the herbarium 



Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. 
Agaricus abruptibulbus Pk. 
A. campester L. 

A. subrufescens Pk. 

Allium tricoccum Ait. 
Alsine borealis {Bigcl.) Britton 
Amanita caesarea Scop. 
A. muscaria L. 

Amanitopsis volvata iPk.) Sacc. 



Amanitopsis vaginata {Bull.) Roze 
Antennaria ambigens (Greene) Fern. 
A. canadensis Greene 

A. fall ax Greene 

A. neglecta Greene 

A. petaloidea Fern. 

A. plantaginea R. Br. 

Anthemis cotula L. 
Aquilegia vulgaris L. 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. 
Aristolochia clematitis L. 
Artemisia stelleriana Bess. 
Asplenium angustifolium Mx. 
Asterodon ferruginosum Pat. 
Bactridium ellisii Berk. 
Bartonia virginica (L.) B. S. P. 
Bidens frondosa L. 
Blephariglottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb. 
B. grandiflora (Bigel.) 

Blephilia hirsuta {Pursh) Torr. 
Blitum capitatum L. 
Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 
B. obliquum Muhl. 

B. obliquum elongatum 

G.& H. 
B. obliquum habereri Gilb. 

B. obliquum oneidense 

Clute 
B. simplex Hitch. 

Boletinus grisellus Pk. 

B. porosus (Berk.) Pk. 

Boletus clintonianus Pk. 

B. cyanescens Btdl. 

B. eximius Pk. 

B. felleus Bull. 

B. frostii Russell 

B. illudens Pk. 

B. nebulosus Pk. 

B. rubropunctus Pk. 

Bovista plumbea Pers. 

Brassenia purpurea {Mx.) Casp. 

Brassica arvensis (L.) B. S. P. 

B. rapa L. 
Callitriche heterophylla Pursh 
Cantharellus cinnabarinus Schw. 

C. floccosus Schw. 
Carex castanea Wahl. 

C. comosa Boott 

C. crawei Dew. 

C. formosa Dew. 

C. hitchcockiana Dew. 

C. lur. exundans Bail. 

C. setifolia {Dew.) Britton 

Cercospora circumscissa Sacc. 

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) 

Clavaria botrj'^tes Pers. 

C. cristata Pers. 

C. platyclada Pk. 



Claytonia caroliniana Mx. 

Clitocybe albissima Pk. 

C. candicans Pers. 

C. centralis Pk. 

C. clavipes Pers. 

C. cyathiformis Fr. 

C. eccentrica Pk. 

C. ochropurpurea Berk. 

CoUybia nigrodisca Pk. 

Convolvulus spithamaeus L. i 

Coprinus micaceus L. 

Cornus canadensis L. 

Cortinarius cinnamomeus Fr. 

Crataegus holmesiana Ashe 

C. macracantha Lodd. 

C. pringlei Sarg. 

C. tatnalliana Sarg. 

C. succulenta Lk. 

C. tomentosa L. 

Cudonia circinans {Pers.) Fr. 

C. lutea {Pk.) Sacc. 

Cudoniella marcida {Mull.) Sacc. 

Daedalea unicolor {Bull.) Fr. 

Daphne mezereum L. 

Dianthera americana L. 

Diplodia conigena Desm. 

Discina orbicularis Pk. 

Eatonia pennsylvanica {DC.) 

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. 

E. acuminata {Mx.) Nees 

E. pal. vigens Bail. 

E. pal. glaucescens {Willd.) 
Eragrostis eragrostis (L.) Karst. 
Eriophorum alpinum L. 
Erythronium americanum Ker 
Eurotium herbariorum {Wigg.) Lk. 
Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. 
Filix bulbifera (L.) Underw. 
Fistulina hepatica Fr. 

Fragaria americana {Porter) Britton 

F. vesca L. 
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. 
Geoglossum ophioglossoides (L.) 

G. velutipes Pk. 
Gaum canadense Jacq. 
Gratiola aurea Muhl. 
Gyalecta pineti {Schrad.) Tuckm. 
Gyrostachys cernua (L.) Kuntze 
G. stricta Rydb. 

G. plantaginea {Raf.) 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1 904 



II 



Helvella infula Schaefj. 

Hieracium praealtum Vill. 

Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. 

Hydnum adustum Schw. 

H. fennicum Karst. 

H. imbricatum L. 

H. vellereum Pk. 

H. zonatum Batsch 

Hydrangea arborescens L. 

Hygrophorus flavodiscus Frost 

H. fuliginosus Frost 

H. immutabilis Pk. 

H. lau. decipiens Pk. 

H. pratensis {Pers.) Fr. 

Hypholoma incertum Pk. 

H. sublateritium Schaeff. 

Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray 

Iris versicolor L. 

Juncus acuminatus Mx. 

J. balticus Willd. 

J. brachycephalus (Engelm.) 

J. marginatus Rostk. 

Juniperus nanus Willd. 

Lactarius alpinus Pk. 

L. volemus Fr. 

Larix laricinus (DuRoy) Koch 

Lathyrus myrtifolius Muhl. 

Lentinus lepideus Fr. 

L. suavissimus Fr. 

Lenzites sepiaria Fr. 

Lepiota cepaestipes Sow. 

Leptoglossum luteum {Pk.) Sacc. 

Leptorchis loeselii (L.) MacB. 

Lilium superbum L. 

Limnorchis dil. linearifolia Rydb. 

Lithospermum officinale L. 

Lobelia cardinalis L. 

Lychnis alba Mill. 

L. chalcedonica L. 

Lycium vulgare {Ait.) Dunal 

Malus coronaria (L.) Mill. 

Marasmius res. candidissimus Pk. 

M. oreades Fr. 

Mentha canadensis L. 

Mikania scandens Willd. 

Morchella bispora Sor. 

M. deliciosa Fr. 

Myriophyllum verticillatum L. 

Naias flexilis {Willd.) R. & S. 

Naumbergia thyrsiflora (L.) 



Omphalia austinii Pk. 
Onagra oakesiana {Gr.) Britton 
Osmunda claytoniana L. 
Oxalis corniculata L. 
O. cymosa Small 

Panax quinquefolium L. 
Panicum lanuginosum Ell. 
Peramium pubescens {Willd.) 
Phacelia dubia {L.) Small 
Phlox subulata L. 
Pholiota adiposa Fr. 
P. togularis {Bull.) Fr. 

Phytophthora infestans {Mont.) 
Picea canadensis {Mill.) 
P. mariana {Mill.) B. S. P. 
Pleurotus ostreatus {J acq.) Fr. 
P. ulmarius Fr. 

Pluteus cervinus {Schaeff.) Fr. 
Polygonum lapathifoHum L. 
Polystictus pergamenus Fr. 
P- pseudopergamenus 

Thuni. 
Potamogeton natans L. 
Potentilla argentea L. 
Protomyces erythronii Pk. 
Prunus americana Marsh. 
P. cuneata Raf. 

P. nigra Ait. 

P. pennsylvanica L. 

Pterospora andromedea Nutt. 
Quercus acuminata {Mx.) 
Q. nana {Marsh.) Sarg. 

Q. prinos L. 

Ranunculus hispidus Mx. 
Rhamnus cathartica L. 
Rosa sayi Schw. 
R. setigera Mx. 
Rubus canadensis L. 
R. nigrobaccus Bail. 

R. odoratus L. 

Rudbeckia hirta L. 
R. laciniata L. 

Rumex acetosa L. 
Russula compacta Frost 
R. earlei Pk. 

R. flavida Frost 

R. lepida Fr. 

R. magnifica Pk. 

R. mariae Pk. 

R. virescens {Schaeff.) 



12 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Rj'nchospora alba (L.) Vahl 

Salix amygdaloides Anders. 

S. pet. gracilis Atiders. 

Sarracenia purpurea L. 

Scirpus occidentalis {Wats.) 

S. pedicellatus Fern. 

Scrophularia marylandica L. 

Selaginella apus Spring 

Silene antirrhina L. 

S. vulgaris (Moench) 

Sisymbrium altissimum L. 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. 

Smilax hispida Muhl. 

Solidago uniligulata {D C.) Porter 

Specularia perfoliata (L.) D C. 

Stach}'^ aspera Mx. 

S. palustris L. 

Stereum complicatum Fr. 

S. spadiceum Fr. 



Scleroderma vulgare Hornem. 

Teucrium boreale Britton 

Thymus serpyllum L. 

Tricholoma personatum Fr. 

Umula craterium {Schw.) Fr. 

Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong 

Veronica byzantina (S. & S.) 

Viburnum dentatum L. 

V. lent ago L. 

V. opulus L. 

Viola blanda Willd. 

V. palm, dilatata Ell. 

V. pap. domestica (Bickn.) 

V. pubescens Ait. 

V. rotundifolia AIx. 

V. scabriuscula {T. & G.) Schw. 

V. sororia Willd. 

Xyris montana Ries 

Zygadenus elegans Pursh 



CONTRIBUTORS AND TPIEIR CONTRIBUTIONS 

Mrs E, B. Blackford, Boston Mass 

Amanita radicata Pk. 

Mrs F. B. M. Cholwell, Old Forge 
Amanita phalloides Fr. 

Miss J. F. Conant, Melrose Mass 
Hygrophofus pallidus Pk. 

Mrs G. M. Dallas, Philadelphia Pa. 
Er5mgium virginianum Lam. | Geopyxis nebulosa (Cke.) Sacc. 

Mrs C. F, Davis, Falmouth Me. 
Clitocybe clavipes (Pers.) Fr. 

Mrs M. S. De Coster, Little FaUs 
Daphne mezereum L. 

Miss H. A. Edwards, Port Henry 
Pterospora andromedea A'tttt. 

Miss R.C. Fish, Norwich Ct. 

Clitopilus tarduus Pk. 

r 

Mrs L. L. Goodrich, Syracuse 
Pha-celia dubia (L.) Small 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTAXIST 1904 



13 



Miss C. C. Haynes, 

Bazzania triloba (L.) S. F . Gray 
Blepharostoma trichophyllum (L.) 

Dmnort. 
Cephalozia curvifolia (Dicks.) 

Dnmort. 
C. lunulaefolia Dutnort. 

Cololejeunea biddlecomiae {Aust.) 

Evans 
Conocephalum conicum Duniort. 
FruUania asagrayana Mart. 
F. eboracensis Gottsche 

Jamesoniella autumnalis (DC.) 

Steph. 



Highlands N. J. 
Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dnmort. 
Lophozia barbata (Schreb.) 
L. incisa {Schrad.) 

Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) 

Dumort. 
Porella platyphylla (L.) Lindb. 
Ptilidium ciliare (L.) Nees 
Radula complanata (L.) Dumort. 
Scapania nemorosa (L.) Dumort. 
S. undulata (L.) Dumort. 

Sphenobolus exsectus (Schm.) 
Trichocolea tomentella (Ehrh.) 



Mrs M. A. Knickerbocker, San Francisco Cal 



Berberis pinnata Lag. 
Chrysoma ericoides {Less.) Greene 
Croton califomicus Miiell. 
Garrya elliptica Doug. 
Heteromeles arbutifolia Roem. 



Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) 
Rhus integrifolia B. & H. 
Ribes sanguineum Pursh 
Sequoia sempervirens Endl. 
Vaccinium ovatum Pursh 



Miss J. A. Moses, Jamestown 
Viola rotundifolia Mx. 
Miss C. S. Parsons, Albany 
Rudbeckia hirta L. 
Mrs J. M. Peters, Pleasant Valley 
Hypholoma sublateritium {Schaeff.) Fr. 
Miss T. L. Smith, Worcester Mass. 
Cantharellus brevipes Pk. Hypocrea pallida E. & E. 

Clitocybe decora Fr. Lepiota amianthina Scop. 

Hexagona micropora Murrill \ Pleurotus porrigens (Pers.) Fr. 

Hydnum adustum Schw. \ Polyporus pubescens Schum. 

H. vellereum Pk. P. varius Fr. 

Miss M. S. Whetstone, Minneapolis Minn 
Pluteus vimbrosus Pers. 
J. C. Arthur, Lafayette Ind. 
Puccinia brickelliae Pk. I Puccinia simillima Arth. 

P. malvacearum Mont. \ P. viguierae Pk. 

G. F. Atkinson, Ithaca 



Amanita caesarea Scop. 
A. lignophila Atk. 

A. mappa Fr. 

Clitocybe asperulospora Atk. 
Collybia amabilipes Pk. 
Coprinus ebulbosus Pk. 
Eocronartium typhuloides Atk. 
Hydnum imbricatum L. 



Hypholoma rugocephalum Atk. 
Lachnocladium semivestitum B.&C. 
Lactarius colorascens Pk. 
Pholiota adiposa Fr. 
Russula sordida Pk. 
Tricholoma sulphureum (Bull.) 
Uredinopsis atkinsonii Magn. 
U. osmundae Magn. 



14 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A. M. Baker, Irondequoit 
Geaster triplex Jiingli. 

H. J. Banker, California Pa. 
Physalacria inflata {Schw.) Pk. \ Scorias spongiosa (Schw.) Fr. 

E. Bartholomew, Rockport Kan. 
Uromyces gaurinus {Pk.) Long | Uromyces oenotherae Burrill 

F. S. Boughton, Pittsford 
Hyphomyces banningiae Pk. 

F. J. Braendle, Washington D. C. 
Cortinarius braendlei Pk. I Thelephora palmata Scop. 

I Torrubia militaris (L.) Lk. 



Phallus imperialis Schulz. 



Viola cucullata Ait. 
V. latiuscula Greene 
V. obliqua Hill 



E. Brainerd, Middlebury Vt. 

Viola palmata dilatata Ell. 
V. septentrionalis Greene 
V. sororia Willd. 

S. H. Burnham, Vaughns 



Aronia atropurpurea Britton 
Aster lat. thyrsoidea {Gr.) Sheldon 
Bidens frondosa L. 
Favolus europaeus Fr. 
Gyrostachya ochroleuca Rydh. 
Hebeloma illicitum Pk. 
Hieracium niarianum Willd. 
Hypomyces lactifluoruni Schw. 
Monarda punctata L. 
Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook. 
Poh'porus elegans Fr. 
P. ' pallidus S. & K. 



Rhus glab. borealis Britton 
Rosa sayi Schw. 
Salix pet. gracilis Anders. 
Sisyrinchium arenicola Bickn. 
Stachys sieboldi Miq. 
Steironema lanceolatum {Walt.) 
Thj'mus serpyllum L. 
Trametes rubescens Fr. 
Tremella fuciformis Berk. 
Tricholoma personatum Fr. 
Urnula craterium {Schw.) Fr. 
Vicia angustifolia Roth 



G. D. Cornell, Cooper's Plains 
Panax"quinquefolium L. 

S. Davis, Boston Mas?. 
Agaricus comtulus Fr. I PhoHota togularis {Bull.) Fr. 

Clitocybe brumalis Fr. ' Tricholoma pallidum Pk. 

Hypholoma incertum Pk. ' T, terr. fragrans Pk. 

F. DoblDin, Shushan 
Convolvulus repens L. j Stemonitis fusca Roth 

C. spithamaeus L. I 

C. E. Fairman Lyndonville 
Armillaria nardosmia Ellis I Hydnum spongiosipes Pk. 

Clitocybe eccentrica Pk. I Russula crustosa Pk. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 



15 



Crataegus tomentosa L. 

Juncus acuminatus Mx. 

J. balticus Willd. 

J. brachycephalus (Engelm.) 

J. marginatus Rostk. 

Lobelia kalmii L. 

Panicum xanthophysum Gray 

Pamassia caroliniana Mx. 

Polygala viridescens L. 

G. B. Fessenden 



F. E. Fenno, Nichols 

Polygonum lapathifoHum L. 
Roripa sylvestris (L.) Bess. 
Rosa setigera Mx. 
Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl. 
R. capillacea Torr. 

Scirpus pedicellatus Fern. 
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke 
Smilax hispida Muhl. 
Solidago uniligulata {D C.)Porter 

Boston Mass. 



Lactarius regalis Pk. 
B. D. Gilbert, Clayville 
Bryum pendulum Schp. \ Camptothecium nitens Schp. 

N. M. Glatfelter, St Louis Mo. 

Gyromitra brunnea Underw. \ Panus meruHiceps Pk. 

C. C. Hanmer, East Hartford Ct. 

Guepinia spathularia Schw. 

J. V. Haberer, Utica 



Achroanthes monophj'lla (L.) Greene 
A. unifolia {Mx.) Raf. 

Adopogon carolinianum Britton 
Alsine borealis {Bigel.) Britton 
Arenaria leptoclados Giiss. 
A. serpyllifolia L. 

Antennaria canadensis Greene 
A. fallax Greene 

A. neglecta Greene 

A. parlinii Fern. 

A. petaloides Fern. 

A. plantaginea B. Br. 

Artemisia stelleriana Bess. 
Asclepias tuberosa L. 
Bartonia virginica (L.) B. S. P. 
Blephariglottis grandiflora {Bigel.) 
Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 



B. 


obliquum 


Muhl. 


B. 


obliquum 
G.& H 


elongatum 


B 


obliquum 


habereri Gilb 


B. 


obliquum 
Clute 


oneidense 


B. 


simplex Hitch. 


B. 


tenebrosum Eaton 


Callitriche 


heterophylla Pursh 


Ceanothus 


americanus 


L. 


Fragaria vesca L. 




Galium moUugo L. 





Geranium bicknellii Britton 

Gyrostachys cernua (L.) 

G. ochroleuca Rydb. 

G. plantaginea {Raf.) 

G-. praecox {Walt.) Kuntze 

G. stricta Rydb. 

Lactuca virosa L. 

Leptorchis loeselii (L.) MacM. 

Limnorchis dil. linearifolia Rydb. 

Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh 

Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B. S. P. 

Myriophyllum verticillatum L. 

Naias fiexilis {Willd.) R. & S. 

Oxalis comiculata L. 

Peramium pubescens {Willd.) 

Polygonella articulata (L.) 

Rhamnus cathartica L. 

Rumex acetosa L. 

Scrophularia marylandica L. 

Selaginella apus Spring 

Silene antirrhina L. 

Sorbus aucuparia L. 

Specularia perfoliata (L.) D C. 

Stachys palustris L. 

S. aspera Mx. 

Teucrium boreale Bickn. 

Valeriana uliginosa Rydb. 

Verbascum lychnidis L. 

Xyris montana Ries 



i6 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Carex lupuliforniis Sart. 
Leontodon hispidus L. 



Anthoceros laevis L. 



W. Herri ot, Gait Ont. 

I Linaria minor Desf. 

H. H. Hindshaw, Albany 

I Bulgaria inquinans Fr. 



E.. A. Lehman, Winston-Salem N. C. 
Merulius lacrymans (Jacq.) Fr. 

R. B. Mackintosh, Peabody Mass. 



Boletus parasiticus Bull'. 
B. rubropunctus Pk. 

Hydnum fennicum Karst. 

J. Macoun, 

Amblystegium fluviatile B. & S. 

A. subcompactum C. M. 

& K. 
Andraea petrophila Ehrh. 
Aneura latifrons Lindb. 
A. pinguis Dumort. 

Anthoceros laevis L. 
Aulacomnion palustre (L.) Schwaegr. 
A. palustre imbricatum 

B. & S. 
A. palustre subimbrica- 

tum Kindb. 

A. turgidum {Wahl.) 
Barbula circinnatula C. M. & K. 

B. convoluta Hedw. 
Bazzania trilobata (L.) S. F. Gray 
Biatora uliginosa (Schrad.) Fr. 
Blepharostoma setiforme (Ehrh.) 
B. trichophyllum (L.) 
Brachythecium glareosum Bruch 
B. salebrosum B. & S. 
Bryum arcticum B. & S. 

B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 



auromontanum Kindb. 
caespiticium L. 
capillare L. 
cirrhatum H. & H. 
cyclophyllum B. & S. 
dawsoniense Will. 
duvalii Voit 
ery. gaspeanum Kindb. 
haematophyllum Kindb. 
intermedium Brid 
klondikense Kindb. 
micans Limpr. 
mucronigerum Philib. 



Hydnum vellereum Pk. 
Lepiota rhacodes {Vitt.) Fr. 

Ottawa Can. 

Bryum pseudotriquetrum Schwaegr, 

Calliergon cordifolium Hedw. 

C. giganteum Schp. 

C. stramineum Dicks. 

C. subgiganteum Kindb. 

Camptothecium nitens Schreb. 

C. nitens microtheciurrk 

Kindb. 
Campylium stellatum Schreb. 
Catascopium nigritum Brid. 
Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) 
C. leucantha Spruce 

C. media Lindb. 

C. pleniceps (Aust.) 

Ceratodon columbiae Kindb. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthos Cd. 
Climacium dendroides W. & M. 
Corticium canadense Burt 
I C. calc. glebulosum Fr. 

C. croceum (Kunze) 

C. crustaceum Karst. 

C. effuscatum C. & E. 

C. galactinum (Fr.) Burt 

C. greschikii Bres. 

C. pinicolum Tul. 

Cynodontium strumiferum Ehrh. 
C. torquescens {BrucKy 

C. wahlenbergii {Brid.) 
Dicranella crispa Schp. 

D. secunda {Sw.) Lindb. 
Dicranum bergeri Bland. 

D. bergeri brevifolium Lindb.. 

D. bergeri rupincola Kindb. 

I D. elongatum Schwaegr. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTAXIST 1904 



17 



Dicranum elongatum attenuatum 

Kindb. 
D. elongatum subfragilifo- 

lium K. 
D. fragilifolium Lindb. 

D. fuscescens Turn. 

D. leioneuron Kindb. 

D. muehlenbeckii B. & S. 

D. schisti Lindb. 

D. spadiceum Zett 

D. sphagni Wahl. 

D. subpalustre C. M. & K. 

D. sulcatum Kindb. 

Didymodon baden-powelli Kindb. 
Diplophylleia albicans (L.) Trev. 
D. taxifolia {Wahl.) Trev. 

Distichum capillaceum B. & S. 
Ditrichum flex, densum Kindb. 
D. inclinatum Ehrh. 

D. macouni C. M. & K. 

D. pallidum Hampe 
Eurhynchium edentulum Kindb. 

E. strigosum (Hojfm.) 
E. strigosum praecox 

Hedw. 

E. strigosum robustum 

Kindb. 
Fissidens grandifrons Brid. 

F. osmundoides (Sw.) 
Fontinalis hypnoides Hartm. 

F. novae-angliae Sulliv. 

F. squamosa L. 

Fossombronia foveolata Lindb. 
FruUania'eboracensis Gotts. 
Grandinia papillata B. & C. 
Gymnomitrium coralloides Nees 
Hymenochaete corrugata Fr. 
Hypnum aduncum L. 
H. amblyphyllum Will. 

H. cupressiforme L. 

H. exannulatum Giiemb. 

H. fluitans L. 

H. kneiffia B. & S. 

H. moUuscoides Kindb. 

H. plumiferum Mitt. 

H. revolvens Swartz 

H. rugosum L. 

H. schreberi Willd. 

H. subimponens Lesq. 

H. uncinatum Hediv. 



Isothecium myosuroides (L.) Brid. 

Kantia trichomanes (L.) S. F. Gray 

Lecanora elatina .Ach. 

L. elatina ochrophaea Ttickm. 

L. pallescens (L.) Schaer. 

Leptobryum pyriforme (L.) Schp. 

Lophocolea foveolata Lindb. 

L. minor Nees 

Lophozia barbata (Schreb.) 

L. floerkii (W. & M.) 

L. inflata (Huds.) 

L. kunzeana Hueben. 

L. lyoni Tayl. 

L. minuta Crantz 

L. rutheana Limpr. 

L. saxicola (Schrad.) 

L. ventricosa (Dicks.) 

Meesia albertini S. cS" S. 

M, trichodes (L.) Spruce 

M. uliginosa Hedw. 

Merulius bellus B. & C. 

Mnium blyttii B. & S. 

M. hymenophyllum Br v. Eur. 

M. macouni Kindb. 

M. macrophyllum Kindb. 

M. medium 5. (5= 5. 

M. pseudolvcopodioides C. M. & 

K. 
M. rugicum Laur. 

M. subglobosum ^. & S. 

Myurella apiculata B. & S. 
M. julacea B. & S. 

Odontoschisma macouni Aitst. 
Orthotrichum anomalum Hedw. 
O. porteri .Aust. 

O. schimperi Hatnm. 

Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook.) 
Paludella squarrosa (L.) Brid. 
Peniophora cinerea (Fr.) 
Phascum cuspidatum Schreb. 
Philonotis aciculare-pungens C. AT & 

K. 
P. alpicola Jurat. 

P. iont.micTotha.mniaeK indb. 

P- trichophorum {Spruce) 

Polytrichum hyperboreum R. Br. 
P- juniperinum Willd. 

P- juniperinum alpinum 

Kindb. 
P. piliferum Schreb. 



i8 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Polytrichum strictum Banks 

Porella pinnata L. 

Pseudoleskea malacoclada C. M. & 

K. 
Psilopilum glabratum Lindb. 
Ptilidium ciliare (L.) Nees 
Saxicola lophozioides Evans 
Scouleria muelleri Kindb. 
Sebacina calcea {Pers.) Bres. 
Sphagnum acutifolium R. & W. 



Sphagnum girgensohni Riiss. 
S. medium Limpr. 

Stereum sulcatum Burt 
S. tuberculosum Fr. 

Thvaidium abietinum B. & S. 
Thuidium philiberti Limpr. 
Webera albicans Schp. 
W. annotinum Schwaegr. 

W. cruda Schp. 

W nutans Hedw. 



C. Mcllvaine, Cambridge Md. 



Lentinus vulpinus Fr. 



Simblum rubescens Ger. 



F. H, Mickleborough, Brooklyn 

Hypomyces inaequalis Pk, 

G. E. Morris, Waltham Mass. 
Agaricus micromegethus Pk. 



Boletinus grisellus Pk. 
Boletus clintonianus Pk. 



I Cortinarius morrisii Pk. 
I Hydnum adustum Schw. 

C. H. Prescott, Albany 

I Boletus laricinus Berk. 



C. S. Sargent, 

Crataegus acclivis Sarg. 

C. baxteri Sarg. 

C. beata Sarg. 

C benigna Sarg. 

C colorata Sarg. 

C. compta Sarg. 

C. conjunct a Sarg. 

C. cupulifera Sarg. 

C. deweyana Sarg. 

C. diffusa Sarg. 

C. dunbari Sarg. 

C. durobrivensis Sarg. 

C. elhvangeriana Sarg. 

C. ferentaria Sarg. 

C. forbesiae Sarg. 

C. formosa Sarg. 

C. fucosa Sarg. 

C. gemmosa Sarg. 

C. glaucophylla Sarg. 
C. 2j laneyi Sarg. 



Jamaica Plain Mass. 

Crataegus leiophylla Sarg. 

C. lennoniana Sarg. 

V holmesiana Ashe 

C. macauleyae Sarg. 

C. maineana Sarg. 

C. matura Sarg. 

C. ornata Sarg. 

C. opulens Sarg. 

C. parvillora Sarg. 

C. pastorum Sarg. 

C. pedicellata Sarg 

C. persimilis Sarg. 

C. pringlei Sarg. 

C. rubicunda Sarg. 

I C. spissiflora Sarg. 

\ C. streeterae Sarg. 

I C. succulenta Lk. 

i C. tenuiloba Sarg. 
. C. _ thayeri Sarg. 

C. verecunda 5arg. 



E. B. Sterling, Trenton X. J. 
Cyclomyces greenei Berk. \ Lactarius corrugis Pk. 

F. C. Stewart, Geneva 
Ccleosporium senecionis (Pers.) Fr. | Fusarium aquaeductuum R. & R. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 19O4 I9 

D. R. Sumstine, Kittanning Pa. 
Grifola sumstinei Mttrrill l Pholiota luteofolia Pk. 

Hydnum earleanum Siimst. \ Pleurotus umbonatus Pk. 

C. Thorn, Storrs Ct. 
Craterellus taxophilus Thorn 

C. Thai, Milwaukee Wis. 
Cortinarius heliotropicus Pk. 

H, L. Ward, Milwaukee Wis. 
Lepiota acutesquamosa Weinm. 

J. E. Weaver, Rochester 
Lentinus lepideus Fr. 

D. 0. Wickham, Hotel Champlain 
Clavaria pistillaris L. J Clitocybe multiceps Pk. 

Geaster minimus Schw. 

D. B. Young, Albany 
Morchella deliciosa Fr. 

SPECIES NOT BEFORE REPORTED 
Amanita crenulata Pk. 
Among fallen leaves in woods. Port Jefferson. August. In 
our specimens the pileus is more yellow and its margin more dis- 
tinctly striate than in the type specimens. The mealiness at the 
top of the stem and the flocculent edge of the lamellae in some of 
the specimens are also yellowish. 

Amanita lignophila Atk. ined. 
Decaying wood in woods beyond Forest Home near Ithaca. 
G F Atkinson. A rare species similar in size and shape to 
Amanita mappa but separable from it by the grayish 
brown color of the pileus, the solid stem and the thicker mem- 
brane of its volva. The spores are globose, granular within and 
.0003-. 0004 of an inch in diameter. 

Amanita radicata Pk. 

Sandy soil in woods and open places. Port Jefferson, Suffolk co. 
August. In our specimens the warts of the pileus are smaller 
than in the typical form. 

Arenaria leptoclados Guss. 
Wet rocky-'places near Little Falls. October. J. V. Haberer, 
This is A. serpyllifolia var. t e n u i o r Koch of Synop- 
tical Flora oj North America, isisc. 2 p. 239. Introduced. 



20 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arisaema stewardsoni Britton 
Moist rich soil in woods. Lake Bonaparte. June. Similar to 
A. triphyllum in size and general appearance, but easily- 
separated from it by the white spadix and spathe. Forms having 
a pale but striped spathe sometimes occur and appear to be inter- 
mediate between the two species. 

Boletus atkinsoni n. sp. 

PLATE R, FIG. I-5 

Pileus fleshy, convex or nearly plane, dry, grayish brown or 
yellowish brown, sometimes minutely rimosely squamulose, flesh 
white, taste mild; tubes convex, plane or slighth' concave in the 
mass, adnate or slightly depressed around the stem, 3-4 lines long, 
the mouths minute, at first whitish and stuffed, soon open and 
yellow or subochraceous ; stem stout, equal or slightly thickened 
at one or both ends, solid, reticulated wholly or at the top only 
with fine anastomosing brownish lines, pallid; spores fusiform or 
oblong, .0004-. 0005 of an inch long, .0001 6-. 0002 broad. 

Pileus 3-4 inches broad; stem 2-4 inches long, 6-12 lines thick. 

Woods. Port Jefferson. August. The species belongs to the 
section Edules. The reticulations of the stem are so delicate 
that they sometimes nearly disappear in drying. 

Boletus laricinus Berk. 
Under larch trees, Larix decidua Mill. Washington 
park, Albany. October. C. H. Prescott. Edible. 

Boletus nobilis n. sp. 
Woods. Port Jefferson. August. Edible. For description of 
the species see article on edible fungi. 

Boletus rugosiceps n. sp. 

PLATE Q, FIG. 6-IO 

Pileus firm, fleshy, very convex or hemispheric, becoming broadly 
convex, dry, rugosely pitted, ochraceous, sometimes tinged with 
red or orange, occasionally rimose areolate, the thin margin often 
extending slightly beyond the tubes, flesh white or whitish; tubes 
at first closed, depressed around the stem, their mouths yellow, 
becoming darker with age, minute, round; stem firm, subequal, 
solid, with elevated longitudinal lines or ridges, do-tted with numer- 
ous browmish or yellowish points, pallid, often narrowed at the 
base; spores oblong fusiform, .0006-. 0008 of an inch long, .0002- 
.00024 broad. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 21 

Pileus 1-3 inches broad; stem 3-4 inches long, 6-8 Hnes thick. 
Woods. Port Jefferson. August. This species grows with 

B. rubropunctus, from which it is easily separated by its 
dry pileus, smaller tubes and stouter stem. This is large in pro- 
proportion to the size of the pileus. In both the scabrously dotted 
stem is suggestive of Boletus scaber, but both are separ- 
able from that species by the yellow color of the tubes and the dif- 
ferent dots of the stem. 

Botrychium tenebrosum A. A. Eaton 
Deerfield, Oneida co. July. J. V. Haberer. This is one of 
the smallest of the grape ferns. 

Bryum pendulum Schp. 
Clayville. Oneida co. B. D. Gilbert. 

Cladonia verticillata Hoffm. 
Adirondack mountains. Formerly considered a variety of 

C. gracilis, but now deemed worthy of specific distinction. 

Clavaria botrytoides n. sp. 

Ground in woods. Port Jefferson. August. Edible. For de- 
scription of the species see the article on edible fungi. 

Clavaria xanthospenna n. sp. 

Stem very short, firm, solid, divided into numerous branches, 
white, sometimes becoming red where wounded, ultimate branches 
short, blunt or obtusely dentate at the apex, the axils rounded, 
the whole plant white, becoming yellowish or cream-colored with 
age; spores pale yellow, oblong, .0005-. 0006 of an inch long, .00016- 
,0002 broad, slightly and obliquely pointed at one end. 

Woods. Smithtown, Suffolk co. August. 

It forms tufts about 2 inches high. 

Collybia amabilipes Pk. 

Dead trunks. Near Ithaca. June. G. F. Atkinson. Readily 
distinguished by|.its tawny, velvety stem. 

Convolvulus repens L, 

Shushan, Washington co. August. F. Dobbin. This species 
may be distinguished from C. spithamaeus by its long 
trailing or twining stems and by the rounded basal lobes of its- 
leaves. 



22 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Cortinarius heliotropicus n. sp. 

PLATE P, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus thin, broadly campanulate, convex or nearly plane, 
fibrillose, viscid, heliotrope purple, generally spotted or variegated 
by yellowish white spots, flesh whitish, taste mild or slightly and 
tardily acrid, odor slight, resembling that of radishes; lamellae 
narrow, thin, close, roimded behind, adnexed, concolorous with 
the pileus when young, cinnamon when mature; stem firm, solid, 
or spongy within, usually slightly thickened at the base, silky 
fibrillose, viscid, whitish, spotted with purple or colored like the 
pileus, white within, spores elliptic, .0004-.0005 of an inch long, 
.0002-. 00024 broad. 

Pileus 1-2.5 inches broad; stem 1.5-3 inches long, 2-4 lines 
thick. 

Woods. Smithtown. August. This is one of the most beauti- 
ful species of Cortinarius. It belongs to the section Myxacium. 

In some specimens the spots on the pileus are large or confluent, 
in others the}^ are almost or entirely absent, but usually they are 
small and distinct. The purple color of the lamellae is persistent 
for some time. In large specimens the margin is sometimes 
adorned by fibrillose scales of the veil. 

Craterellus taxophilus Thom 
Decaying vegetable matter under branches of ground hemlock, 
Taxus canadensis. Ithaca. October. C. Thom. 

Crataegus persimilis Sarg. 
Near Eastern avenue continued, Rochester. This species is 
allied to C. crus-galli from which it may be separated by 
its smaller flowers, more numerous stamens, more highly colored 
fruit and more conspicuously glandular serrate calyx lobes. 

Crataegus beata Sarg. 
Near the roundhouse of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Rochester, 
Also reported from several other places in and near Rochester. 
The 20 stamens with dark maroon colored anthers constitute a 
peculiar character of this species. It and the seven following 
species belong to the section Pruinosae. In all of them the fully 
grown but unripe fruit is more or less pruinose. 

Crataegus lennoniana Sarg. 
Seneca park, Rochester. Reported from Adams Basin, Monroe 
CO., and Murray, Orleans co., by M. S. Baxter and from Bufi'alo by 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 23 

J. Dunbar. In this and the preceding species the flowers have 20 
stamens with red anthers and the fruit is longer than broad. 

Crataegus leiophylla Sarg. 
Seneca park, Rochester. This thorn takes its specific name from 
the smoothness of its leaves. Its flowers have 20 stamens but the 
anthers are pale yellow. Its fruit remains green and pruinose late 
in the season, ripening in November. 

Crataegus formosa Sarg. 
Seneca park, Rochester. It has been reported from Buffalo by 
Mr Dunbar. Its stamens are 20 and the anthers pale yellow. Its 
fruit also is longer than broad. The tips of the calyx lobes are 
often deciduous from the ripe fruit. 

Crataegus compta Sarg. 
Seneca park and Genesee Valley park, Rochester. It has also 
been found at Rush, Monroe co. and Avon, Livingston co. by Mr 
Baxter and at Buffalo by Mr Dunbar. Its stamens are 10 and the 
fruit is generally longer than broad, and is often somewhat pointed 
at the base. It is peculiar in having a bitter taste. The mature 
leaves are dark bluish green on the upper surface. 

Crataegus diffusa Sarg. 
Seneca park, Rochester. Niagara Falls. C. S. Sargent. A 
shrub with numerous stems and widespreading branches. Its 10 
stamens with purple anthers constitute one of its peculiar features. 
On vigorous young shoots the leaves are sometimes as broad as 
they are long and they have petioles shorter than those of the 
leaves on lateral or fertile branches. The fruit is similar in size 
and shape to that of C. compta. 

Crataegus opulens Sarg. 
Eastern bank of the Genesee river in the northern part of Roches- 
ter. The opulent thorn is a rare but w^ell marked species. In the 
leaves of young and vigorous shoots the basal pair of lobes is 
enlarged and distinctly separated from the pair above by deep clefts 
in the margins of the leaf. This gives a three lobed appearance to 
the leaf. Sometimes the basal lobes are themselves slightly lobed. 
The fruit is either globose or depressed globose. 

Crataegus maineana Sarg. 
West side of Seneca park, Rochester. Near Portage, Livingston 
CO. Also found at Adams Basin by Mr Baxter and at Buffalo by 



24 XEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Mr Dunbar. The late ripening globose fruit and the bronze red 
autumnal foliage are noticeable characters of this species. It has 
lo stamens with purple anthers as in C. diffusa, but in its 
almost deltoid or triangular leaves and its nearly entire calyx lobes 
it is quite distinct from it. 

Crataegus baxteri Sarg. 
Seneca park, Rochester. It has also been found at Honeoye 
lake by Mr Baxter and at Chapinville, Ontario co. by Professor 
Sargent. It and the next following species belong to the section 
Intricatae. 

Crataegus verecunda Sarg. 

Seneca park, Rochester. This is at present the only known 
locality of this very rare thorn. It is a smaller shrub than the 
Baxter thorn and its smaller fruit is longer than broad. The fruit 
of C. baxteri is nearly or quite globose and ripens later. 

Crataegus fulleriana Sarg. 
In the northern part of Rochester on the east bank of Genesee 
river. It has been found at Rush and Rochester Junction, Mon- 
roe CO., by Messrs Baxter and Dunbar. This and the two follow- 
ing species belong to the section M611es. The Fuller thorn is a fine 
and an attractive species. Its flowers have 20 stamens and its large 
scarlet hairy but shining fruit is longer than broad. It may be 
either rounded or pointed at the base and is crowned by the long, 
very narrow and persistent calyx lobes which constitute a peculiar 
feature of the species. 

Crataegus ellwangeriana Sarg. 
Rochester and near Portage, Livingston co. The Ellwanger 
thorn becomes a tree of considerable size. It differs from the 
Fuller thorn in having only 8-10 stamens in its flowers, in its 
shorter, stouter spines, shorter pedicels and broader calyx lobes. 

Crataegus spissiflora Sarg. 
Genesee Valley park, Rochester. Between North Albany and 
Menands, east of Troy road. The peculiar character of this species 
and one suggestive of the specific name is its small compact clus- 
ters of flowers. Much of the hairiness of its inflorescence and 
early foliage disappears with age. Its fruit is generally a little 
longer than broad. It is glabrous when ripe and of a bright scar- 
let color, beautiful to behold. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 25 

Crataegus durobrivensis Sarg. 

Banks of the Genesee river in the northern part of Rochester. 
Near North Albany. It has also been found at Niagara Falls by 
C. S. Sargent and at Buffalo by J. Dunbar. The Rochester thorn 
has flowers with 20 stamens, rose-red anthers and 4-5 styles. The 
calyx lobes are slightly hairy inside, the fruit is globose or nearly 
so and is said to persist on the branches till midwinter. The species 
has been placed by Professor Sargent in the section Dilatatae, 
though somewhat aberrant in its characters. In our svnopsis of 
the species we have placed it temporarily in the section Lobulatae. 
from which it diverges in its more numerous stamens. 

Crataegus acclivis Sarg. 
Steep banks of the Genesee river in the northern part of Roches- 
ter. It has also been found at Rush by M.S. Baxter and at Niagara 
Falls by C. S. Sargent. It is a large fine species easily recognized 
by its nearly erect branches and its large bright red fruit which is 
generally a little longer than broad. It sometimes retains, when 
ripe, some of the hairiness which is so noticeable on the calyx at 
flowering time. A peculiar feature of the species consists of the 
broad, lunate, coarsely serrate and persistent stipules which are 
found on young and vigorous shoots. The lowest pair of lobes 
on some of the large leaves of these shoots is larger than the others. 
The flowers have 5-7 stamens with pink anthers. This and the 
next following species belong to the section Lobulatae. 

Crataegus pedicellata Sarg. 

Rochester. The pedicellate thorn is a large, handsome and 
attractive species scarcely less beautiful in fruit than in flower. 
The fruit is either oblong or pyriform and of a bright scarlet color. 
It is crowned by the generally persistent, erect or incurved, glan- 
dular serrate calyx lobes. Its 10 stamens have rose-red anthers. 

The 10 following species belong to the section Tenuifoliae. 

Crataegus parviflora Sarg. 

Seneca park, Rochester. It has also been found at Rush by 

M. S. Baxter. It may be recognized when in bloom by its loose 

clusters of small flowers supported on long, branched, slender 

peduncles. The stamens are 5-6, the anthers pink and the stvles 2-3. 

Crataegus streeterae Sarg. 
Genesee Valley park, Rochester. A peculiar feature of this 
species is the long acuminate point of its leaves. The blades of 



2Z NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

some of the leaves of vigorous young shoots are more or less wrinkled. 
The stamens are 7-10, the anthers rose-red and the styles 3-4. 

Crataegus glaucophylla Sarg. 
Seneca park and Genesee Valley park, Rochester. Westport, 
Essex CO. In the typical form of this species the leaves at flower- 
ing time have a glaucous bloom on the upper surface and are pale 
and glaucous beneath. This glaucous bloom is sometimes wanting. 
The stamens vary from 5-10 and the anthers are rosy red. On 
vigorous shoots the leaves are sometimes slightly cordate. The 
fruit is longer than broad, bright red or scarlet and sometimes 
hangs on the branches long after the leaves have fallen. 

Crataegus ornata Sarg. 
Genesee Valley park, Rochester. Found also at La Salle, 
Niagara co., by J. Dunbar. On fertile branches the leaves are 
often oblong ovate but on vigorous young shoots they are broadly 
ovate. The stamens are 10, the anthers rose-red and the styles 
2-3. The fruit hangs in drooping clusters, is of a bright scarlet 
color and quite ornamental. 

Crataegus rubicunda Sarg. 

Genesee Valley park, Rochester. It has been found at Buffalo 

by J. Dunbar. It closely resembles the preceding species, from 

which it differs in the slight hairiness of the calyx and pedicels, in 

the red flesh of the fruit and in the yellowish green color of the 

foliage. 

Crataegus tenuiloba Sarg. 

River bank south of Rochester. The thin lobed thorn has ovate 
or broadly ovate leaves and is similar in its general characters to the 
two preceding species but it differs from them in having smaller, 
fewer flowered clusters and in its bright scarlet fruit which is gradu- 
ally narrowed toward the base. 

Crataegus colorata Sarg 
Genesee Valley park, Rochester. It has also been found at Mur- 
ray, Orleans co. by M. S. Baxter and at Buffalo by J. Dunbar. It 
differs from the five preceding species in having its ripe fruit crim- 
son instead of scarlet. Its stamens are 10, anthers rose-red and 
styles 3-4. Its branches bear numerous spines which are slender or 
stout, straight or curved. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 27 

Crataegus beckwithae Sarg. 
Genesee Valley park, west side of the river, Rochester. The 
Beckwith thorn differs from all the preceding species of this section 
in its globose fruit, It is sometimes full and rounded at the base 
and sometimes pointed. It is dark crimson when ripe and its flesh 
is tinged with red. The calyx lobes at flowering time are marked 
on the inside toward the tips with minute white dots. This peculiar 
character is present in all our flowering specimens. The leaves are 
broadly ovate or almost triangular. On vigorous young shoots 
some of them are slightly cordate. 

Crataegus dunbari Sarg. 
East bank of the Genesee river in the northern part of Rochester. 
It has also been found at Adams Basin by M. S. Baxter and in Dela- 
ware park, Buffalo by J. Dunbar. The Dunbar thorn differs de- 
cidedly from all the preceding species of this section in its leaves 
which are oval or suborbicular and become much thicker and firmer 
with age. The fruit is globose or subglobose and crimson when ripe. 
The stamens are lo, anthers red, styles 3-4. 

Crataegus benigna Sarg. 
Genesee Valley park, Rochester. The benignant thorn is unlike 
any of the previously recorded species of this section in having 15-20 
stamens. The anthers are red and the fruit, which is longer than 
broad, is scarlet. The leaves are often truncate or slightly cordate 
at the base, specially on leading vigorous shoots. 

Crataegus cupulifera Sarg. 
Seneca park, west side, Rochester. It has also been found at 
Rush and Honeoye lake by M. S. Baxter, and at Buffalo by J. Dun- 
bar. The cup-bearing thorn has the flowers cup-shaped. The 
stamens are 10, the anthers pink, the styles 3-4 and the calyx lobes 
hairy inside. The fruit is globose or nearly so and is scarlet when 
ripe. 

Crataegus macauleyae Sarg. 

Genesee Valley park, Rochester. The Macauley thorn may 
readily be distinguished from the preceding one by its 20 stamens 
with pale yellow anthers. It has 4-5 styles and its ripe fruit is crim- 
son and has a more prominent calyx rim. The fruit in both is nearly 
alike in size and shape. Both species belong to the section Coccineae. 

Crataegus gemmosa Sarg. 1| -^i 

Genesee Valley park, Rochester. In this species the leaves are 

oval or occasionally rhomboidal or obovate. The stamens are 20, 



28 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

anthers rose-red and styles 2-^,. The ripe fruit is scarlet, a little 

longer than broad and crowned with a calyx rim. The calyx lobes 

are hairy inside, refiexed and fringed on the margin with long stipi- 

tate glands. 

Crataegus deweyana Sarg. 

Hagaman swamp near Rochester. It has also been found at 
Rush by M. S. Baxter. In the Dewey thorn the leaves are ovate or 
broadly ovate and sharp pointed or acuminate. The stamens are 
7-10, the anthers dark rose-red and the styles 2-3. The ripe fruit is 
scarlet, globose or subglobose and destitute of a calyx rim. The 
calyx lobes are not strongly or conspicuously glandular serrate. 

Crataegus ferentaria Sarg. 
Near the roundhouse of the Pennsylvania Railroad, Rochester. 
The light armed thorn has oval or rhomboidal leaves acute at the 
apex and rounded or broadly cuneate at the base. The petioles are 
generally less than half an inch long and they often become red 
toward the end of the season. The stamens are 10, anthers pale 
yellow, styles two and calyx lobes distinctly glandular serrate. 
The ripe fruit is crimson, globose or subglobose and destitute of a 
prominent calyx rim. The ventral cavities of the nutlets are deep 
and sometimes crowd upon or cut through the lateral walls. 

Crataegus laneyi Sarg. 

Genesee Valley park, Rochester. The Laney thorn may be dis- 
tinguished from the three preceding species by its having 10-15 
stamens, pale yellow anthers, 2-4 styles and a villose inflorescence. 
It and the other three species mentioned belong to the section 
Tomentosae. 

Crataegus tatnalliana Sarg. 

North and west of North Albany. In this plant the fruit is globose 
or oval, and the leaves are often more or less twisted or contorted 
on the margin, as if there was an excessive development of tissue in 
that part of the blade. In the leaves of C. pringlei the reverse 
condition appears to prevail. The margin of the leaf is decurved, 
apparently because of a deficient development' of the marginal 
tissue or an excessive development of the central portion of the 
leaf. This makes the leaf convex above, concave beneath. 

Crataegus hudsonica Sarg. 
Tivoli hollow between Albany and West Albany. This species 
is closely related to C. suborbiculata Sarg. and like that 
species it has suborbicular leaves. It differs from it in having the 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I9O4 29 

leaf lobes more sharp pointed, in having fewer styles and nutlets 
and in its globose mostly drooping and uniformly red fruit. Its 
styles and nutlets are generally 3. Its flowers open about May 20 
and its fruit is ripe about the middle of October. 

Of the 35 species of Crataegus here recorded, specimens of ^^ 
were collected in and near Rochester. In order to indicate more 
clearly the distinguishing features of the Rochester species, some of 
which resemble each other very closely, the following synoptic 
tables of the sections and species have been prepared. The table of 
the sections is intended to include only the Rochester species. A 
few species found in and about Rochester but not recorded in the 
preceding pages, they having been previously reported, have been 
included in the table of species. They are Crataegus crus- 
galli, C. punctata, C. pringlei, C. holmesiana, 
C. matura, C. macracantha, C. succulenta and 
C, tomentosa. 

Synopsis of the sections 

Nutlets with the ventral faces excavated Tomentosae 

Nutlets with the ventral faces not excavated i 

I Leaves gradually narrowed to a short petiole 2 

I Leaves not having this character 3 

2 Upper surface of the leaves shining Crus-galli 

2 Upper surface of the leaves not shining Punctatae 

3 Fruit large, more than 6 lines long 4 

3 Fruit medium or small, 6 lines long or less 5 

4 Flower clusters hairy, ripe fruit more or less hairy 

except inC. spissiflora MoUes 

4 Flower clusters hairy or glabrous, ripe fruit glabrous 

except in C. a c c 1 i v i s Lobulatae 

5 Fruit distinctly pruinose before ripening Pruinosae 

5 Fruit not distinctly pruinose before ripening 6 

6 Leaves thin, glabrous except when young Tenuifoliae 

6 Leaves becoming thick or subcoriaceous with age 7 

7 Fruit falling while yet hard Intricatae 

7 Fruit becoming soft before falling Coccineae 

Synopsis of the species 

CRUS-GALLI 
Stamens 10 C. crus-galli 

Stamens 10-20 C. persi mills 

PUNCTATAE 
Stamens 20 ' C . p u n c t a t a 



30 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

MOLLES 
Stamens 15-20 C. fulleriana 

Stamens 8-10 i 

I Ripe, fruit hairy 2 

I Ripe fruit glabrous C. spissiflora 

2 Some of the mature leaves convex C. pringlei 

2 None of the mature leaves convex C. ellwangeriana 

LOBULATAE 

Stamens 20 C.durobrivensis 

Stamens 10 C.pedicellata 

Stamens 5-8 3 

3 Fruit hairy C . a c c 1 i v i s 

3 Fruit glabrous C. holmesiana 

PRUINOSAE 

Stamens 15-20, anthers red or maroon 4 

Stamens 15-20, anthers pale yellow or whitish 5 

• Stamens 7-10 ' 6 

4 Anthers dark maroon color C . b e a t a 
4 Anthers red C. lennoniana 

5 Fruit ripe in November, calyx rim prominent C. leiophylla 

5 Fruit ripe in October, calyx rim absent C. formosa 

6 Fruit longer than broad 7 

6 Fruit not longer than broad 8 

7 Fruit bitter, anthers red C . c o m p t a 

7 Fruit sweet, anthers purple C . diffusa 

8 Leaves on vigorous shoots often trilobed, anthers red 

C . o p u 1 e n s 
8 Leaves on vigorous shoots not trilobed, anthers purple 

C. maineana 
INTRICATAE 
Fruit subglobose, 6 lines long C. baxteri 

Fruit oblong or obovate, 4-5 lines long C. verecunda 

TENUIFOLIAE 

Fruit longer than broad 9 

Fruit not longer than broad 14 

9 Stamens 5-6, anthers pink, fruit crimson C. parviflora 

9 Stamens 7-10, anthers red, fruit scarlet C. streeterae 

9 Stamens 7-10, anthers purple, fruit scarlet 

C. glaucophylla 

9 Stamens 10 10 

9 Stamens 15-20 C . b e n i g n a 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1 904 3! 

10 Fruit narrowed toward the base, obconic 

C. tenuiloba 

10 Fruit not obconic ii 

II Ripe fruit scarlet • 12 

II Ripe fruit crimson 13 

12 Pedicels and calyx glabrous C . o r n a t a 

12 Pedicels and calyx slightly hairy C. rubicunda 

13 Fruit ripe in August C . m a t u r a 

13 Fruit ripe in September C. colorata 

14 Leaves triangular ovate, styles 5 C. beckwithae 

14 Leaves oval or suborbicular C. dunbari 

COCCINEAE 
Stamens 10, anthers pink, fruit scarlet C. cupulifera 

Stamens 20, anthers pale yellow, fruit crimson 

C. macauleyae 

TOMENTOSAE ' 

Stamens 20, anthers red 15 

Stamens 10, anthers pale yellow 16 

Stamens 7-10, anthers red C. deweyana 

Stamens 10-15, anthers pale yellow C . 1 a n e y i 

15 Leaves ovate or ovate oblong C. tomentosa 

15 Leaves elliptic C, succulenta 

15 Leaves orbicular ' C.gemmosa 

16 Fruit drooping, spines 1.5-2,5 inches long C. ferentaria 

16 Fruit erect, spines 2.5-4 inches long C. macracantha 

Dipsacus laciniatus L. 

Near Beaver park, Albany. August. This is a recently intro- 
duced species but it appears to be well established here but being 
within the city limits it may not persist many years. It may be 
distinguished from the common teasel, D . s y 1 v e s t r i s, by its 
laciniate or pinnatifid leaves. Its flowers are paler than in that 

species. 

Eocronartium typhuloides Atk. 

Living moss, Anomodon attenuatus. Cascadilla 
woods near Ithaca. July. G. F. Atkinson. 

Falcata pitcheri (T. & G.) Kuntze 
North Greenbush and West Albany. This species is not very 
unlike F. comosa, (Amphicarpaea monoica of the 
older botanies) with which it was formerly united. It is chiefly 
distinguished by its larger leaves and the tawnj'- villosity of its 
stem. 



32 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Fusarium aquaeductuum R. & R. 

Refrigerator drains. Geneva. September. F. C. Stewart. Our 
specimens of the "refrigerator fungus" were taken from the drain- 
pipe of a house refrigerator. The fungus sometimes multiplies till 
it chokes the drain and stops the outflow of the water. 

Galera capillaripes Pk. 

North Elba, Essex co. August. This little mushroom resembles 
G^'a lerajtenera in color, but it is much smaller and has a very 
slender, ; almost ,. filiform stem, more narrow and distant lamellae 
and smaller spores. 

Geranium bicknellii Britton 

Ledges and rocky places. Near Brownsville, Jefferson co. 
June. C. H. Peck. Little Falls. October. J. V. Haberer. 

Gyrostachys ochroleuca Rydb. 
Roadsides and pastures in rather dry soil. Lake Pleasant. 
August. C. H. Peck. Dry hillsides, near Ballston lake. S. H. 
Burnham. This species is closely allied to G. c e r n u a. 

Hexagona micropora Murrill 

Dead branches. Verona, Oneida co., and South Bay, Madison 
CO. July. 

This species is closely related to and was formerly included in 
Hexagona alveolaris (DC), which is equivalent to 
Favolus europaeus Fr. It may be separated from it, by 
its smoother pileus and smaller pores. 

Hypholoma rugocephalum Atk. 
Low moist ground. Port Jefferson. August. G. F. Atkin- 
son. This species is at once recognizable by its brown rugose 
pileus. 

Hypomyces banningiae Pk. 

Parasitic on some mushroom which it transforms to such a degree 
as to render it unrecognizable. Pittsford, Monroe co. August. 
F. S. Boughton. 

Hypomyces inaequalis Pk. 

Parasitic on Amanita rubescens. Catskill mountains. 
F. H. Mickleborough. The parasite prevents the expansion of the 
pileus and whitens both stem and pileus. In the preceding species 
the spores have no septum, in this one they have a single septum 
near one end. They are therefore divided into two unequal parts 
and this suggests the specific name. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 33 

Lachnocladium semivestitum B. & C. 

Low marshy places. Smithtown. August. G. F. Atkinson. 
This fungus might easily be mistaken for a species of Clavaria, but 
careful inspection shows that it is clothed toward the base by a 
minute downy white tomentum. 

Lactarius brevis n. sp. 

PLATE Q, FIG. I-5 

Pileus thin, broadly convex, plane or slightly depressed in the 
center, glabrous, azonate, whitish, sometimes with a slight aluta- 
ceous tinge, flesh white, milk wdiitish, quickly changing to sulfur 
yellow on exposure to the air, taste acrid; lamellae thin, narrow, 
crowded, adnate, whitish or pallid; stem short, equal or slightly 
tapering downward, solid or somewhat spongy within, glabrous, 
white; spores subglobose, .0003 of an inch long, .00025-. 0003 
broad. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem about i inch long, 2-4 lines thick. 
This species is closely related to L. theiogalus from which 
it may be separated by its white or whitish color, its smaller size, 
solid or stuffed stem and the absence of tomentum from the base 
of the stem. 

Lactarius colorascens n. sp. 

Pileus thin, nearly plane, becoming centrally depressed, moist, 
glabrous, whitish or pallid when young, becoming brownish red 
with age, milk white, changing to sulfur-yellow on exposure to the 
air, taste bitter; lamellae thin, close, adnate or slightly decurrent> 
whitish, becoming yellowish with age; stem equal, solid, even, 
whitish, becoming brownish red with age; spores globose, rough, 
.0003 of an inch in diameter. 

Pileus 1-2 inches broad; stem 1-1.5 inches long, 2-3 lines thick. 

Woods. Port Jefferson. August. G. F. Atkinson. In the 
mature plant the color is similar to that ofL. camphoratus, 
but the species is very distinct in the color of its milk and in its 
bitter taste. 

Pholiota appendiculata n. sp. 

PLATE P, FIG. 8-17 

Pileus fleshy, firm, broadly convex or nearly plane, viscid when 
moist, shining, squamose with appressed spotlike scales, appendi- 
culate on the margin with fragments of the veil, dark red when 
young, soon fading to pink and sometimes becoming yellowish 
brown or grayish brown, flesh at first purplish red, specially in the 
lower part, whitish or pale yellow when mature; lamellae thin, 



34 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

close, rounded behind, adnexed or decurrent with a tooth, pale 
yellow or almost white, becoming brownish; stem short, firm, 
solid or with a small cavity, white above, brownish and squamose 
below the slight evanescent annulus, white within, the veil white, 
at first concealing the young lamellae, soon breaking into frag- 
ments and partly adhering to the margin of the pileus, partly to 
the stem. 

Pileus 1-3 inches broad; stem about i inch long, 2-4 lines thick. 

Decaying sawdust. McLean, Tompkins co. July. The annu- 
lus consists of a row of scales or fragments of the veil around the 
upper part of the stem, the greater part of the veil usually adhering 
to the margin of the pileus. The color of the spores prevents the 
reference of the species to the genus Hypholoma. 

Salix serissima (Bail.) Fern. 
North Elba and Lake Bonaparte. June. This willow has 
recently been separated from Salix lucida to which it was 
formerly joined as a variety. Its leaves are merely acute or short 
pointed at the apex, paler on the lower surface, very finely glandu- 
lar serrate, the petioles have 1-3 pairs of glands at the top and the 
fertile aments are very late in ripening their capsules. 

Scirpus occidentalis (Wats.) Chase 
Oneida lake, Thompson lake and Lake Bonaparte. This bul- 
rush was formerly considered a variety of Scirpus lacustris, 
but it has recently been published as a distinct species. It is dis- 
tinguished from S. lacustris by its two cleft style, its smaller 
lenticular achene and its pubescent scales. 

Sisyrinchium arenicola Bickn. 
Sand barrens between Rossville and Kreischerville, Richmond co. 
May. S. H. Burnham. 

Stachys sieboldi Miq. 
Cinder dumps along the railroad north of Whitehall. Sep- 
tember. S. H. Burnham. Introduced. 

Teucrium boreale Bickn. 
Low moist ground. South side of Oneida lake. J. V. Haberer. 

Uredinopsis atkinsonii Magn. 
Living fronds of the marsh shield fern, Dryopteris the- 
1 y p t e r i s. Near Ithaca. August. G. F. Atkinson. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 35 

Uredinopsis osmundae Magn. 

Living or languishing fronds of cinnamon fern, Osmund a 
cinnamomea. Near Malloryville, Tompkins co. August. 
G. F. Atkinson. 

Viola amoena LeConte 

Wet places. Common in hilly and mountainous districts. In 
Flora of the State of New York this is united with V iola blanda, 
but as the tendency at the present time is toward the separation 
of closely related forms it seems best to restore this violet to its 
original specific rank. 

Viola latiuscula Greene 

Light gravelly soil. Minerva. This species was found in flower 
early in May. In our specimens the lower leaves have a slight 
purplish tinge. 

Viola septentrionalis Greene 

Borders of woods and grassy places. Warrensburg, Warren co., 
and Minerva, Essex co. The northern blue violet was found in 
flower the last week of May, Its lower leaves are small, reniform 
or suborbicular, its upper ones are bluntly pointed and its sepals 
are ciliate. 

Xyris montana Ries 

Borders of White lake, Forestport, Oneida co. July. J. V. 
Haberer. It also occurs in Cranberry marsh, Sandlake, Rensselaer 
CO. It was formerly thought to be a variety of X. f 1 e x u o s a, 
but it is now separated as a distinct species. 

Zygodesmus granulosus Pk. 

Decaying wood of poplar. East Schaghticoke. August. 

REMARKS AND OBSERVATIONS 
Agaricus abruptus Pk. 

In his Monograph I, p. 348, Elias Fries described a mushroom 
under the name Agaricus abruptus. In Hym. Eur., 
p. 245, he placed this species in his subgenus Flammula, still 
retaining for it the original name. In Sylloge the subgenus Flam- 
mula, with many other subgenera of Fries, was given generic rank 
and the name Agaricus abruptus was changed to 
Flammula abrupt a, thus vacating the name Agaricus 
abruptus and leaving it available for some other applica- 
tion. But Rule 5 of what is known as the Rochester code 
forbids the use of such names, and though this rule may not be 
accepted in its present form by the coming international congress 



36 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of botanists, I have thought it best to change the name Agaricus 
abruptus Pk. and several other names given under similar 
conditions, so that they shall not conflict with this rule. I there- 
fore substitute the name 

Agaricus abruptibulbus for Agaricus abrup- 
'tus Pk. N. Y. State Mus. Mem. 4, p. 163 

Agaricus chlamydopus for Agaricus cothur- 
natus Pk. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 31, p. 181 

Agaricus halophilus for Agaricus mariti- 
mus Pk. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 26, p. 66 

Agaricus magniceps for Agaricus magnifi. 
cus Pk. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 26, p. 67 

Agaricus micromegethus for Agaricus pusil- 
lus Pk. N. Y. State Mus. 54th An. Rep't, p. 152 

Agaricus praerimosus for Agaricus tabu- 
lar is Pk. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 25, p. 325 

Agaricus pilosporus for Agaricus sphaero- 
s p o r u s Pk. Torr. Bot. Club Bui. 31, p. 181 

Agaricus cothurnatus Fr. is considered in Sylloge 
the equivalent of Stropharia cothurnata Fr. In like 
manner ■ 

Agaricus maritimus Fr. is Inocybe maritima 
Fr. 

Agaricus magnificus Fr. is Amanita mag- 
n i f i c a Fr. 

Agaricus pusillus Pers. is Volvaria parvula 
Weinm. 

Agaricus tabularis Pers. isTricholoma gram- 
mo p o d i u m (Bull.) 

Agaricus sphaerosporus Krombh. is L e p i o t a 
n a u c i n a Fr. 

Antennaria canadensis Greene 
Near North Albany. May. This species is common in the 
northern and eastern part of the State, but the staminate plants 
are rarely seen. I have found them only in the single locality 
here indicated. 

Blephariglottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb. 

Karner. July. This is Habenaria ciliaris R. Br. in 

Gray's Manual. It is a rare species in our State at the present 

time, but it is said to have been more common many years ago. 

In New York State Cabinet of Natural History, i8th Rep't, p. 136, 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 37 

it is recorded as having been found on the Pine plains of Schenectady 
but in my numerous botanizing trips in this region it was not found 
till this year. It appears to have recently become established in 
the Karner locality, as it was found in a place frequently visited 
before. The plants were few and were growing among low shrubs 
in a rather dry place. The flowers are very beautiful. 

Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Torr. 
Low moist ground. East Schaghticoke. August. Rare. 

Botrychium obliquum Muhl. 
This grape fern is common in Oneida county, and is as variable 
as it is common. Dr Haberer has collected numerous specimens 
of it in the vicinity of Utica and has contributed to the herbarium 
a fine series of specimens representing all of our published varieties 
of it. 

Cantharellus cinnabarinus Schw. 
This small chantarelle was found in abundance near Port Jef- 
ferson in August. In one station several forms of it were growing 
in close proximity. In one form the whole plant had the usual 
cinnabar red color, but in some of the plants the stem was hollow. 
In another form the color of the pileus and stem was red as usual, 
but the lamellae were yellow. In a third form the cap was pale 
pink as if its normal color had faded. A fourth had pale pink 
lamellae and the margin of the pileus was strongly curved upward, 
making the pileus appear narrow and giving the whole plant a 
club shape. In a fifth form the whole plant was yellow. In all 
except the first the stem, so far as investigated, was hollow. But 
the most remarkable thing in the variations is the difterence in the 
color of the spores. We are disposed to consider the color of the 
spores in any given species as one of its most constant and reliable 
characters. But in this case the plants with red or pink lamellae had 
spores that appeared pink in the mass, those with yellow lamellae 
shed yellow spores. Yet the spores were alike in size and shape, 
and we are obliged to conclude that all these forms belong to one 
species. 

Carex castanea Wahl. 
This rare sedge was credited to Essex county in the Flora of the 
State of New York, on the authority of Dr Kneiskem. In my own 
explorations in the county I had never met with it till the past 
season. It was found growing sparingly near Minerva. It is an 
early flowering species. It is Carex flexilis Rudge. 



.38 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Carex formosa Dew. 
This rare species was found in Seneca park, Rochester, on June i. 
It was then in good condition for collecting. 

Carex setifolia (Dew.) Britton 
Limestone rocks, cliffs and precipices are generally given as the 
habitat of this pretty little sedge. But it is not limited to such 
places. Fine specimens of it were found in July growing in wet, 
mucky soil in woods about Bergen swamp. In more open wet 
places near it the rare Carex crawei Dew. was found. 

Cercospora circumscissa Sacc. 
This fungus was plentiful in the region about Lake Pleasant the 
past season. It attacks the living leaves of the chokecherry and 
the wild blackcherry. It kills the leaf tissues in small circular spots, 
and the dead tissues soon separate from the living and fall, leaving 
clean-cut circular perforations in the leaf. 

Cypripedium reginae Walt. 
A form of this showy species occurs in Bonaparte swamp in 
which the whole flower is white, 

Eleocharis palustris vigens Bail. 

This is a tall stout variety growing in shallow water. It was 
found growing in Oneida lake at Lakeport and specimens were 
collected. Variety glaucescens was found growing in low wet 
places at South Bay and in Bonaparte swamp. Judging from the 
external appearance alone it would be difficult to believe that 
these two plants are varieties of the same species. 

Eriophorum alpinum L. 

The alpine cotton grass is now plentiful in one place in Bona- 
parte swamp though it was not seen in my exploration of the 
swamp in 1899. It is also abundant in an old meadow near Elm 
lake in Hamilton county. 

Fragaria americana (Porter) Britton 
This strawberry is abundant in groves and the bordsrs of woods 
at Lake Bonaparte. The flowers are scarcely more than 3 lines 
broad. 

Gratiola aurea Muhl. 

Fine specimens with slender weak stems a foot or more long 
were found growing in the marshy borders of a lake near Smith- 
town, Suffolk CO. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 39 

Hieracium praealtum Vill. 
This noxious weed has become very abundant in Lewis county. 
From Lyon Falls to Carthage it is plentiful along the railroad, in 
pastures and meadows and by roadsides. It is also common along 
the Carthage and Adirondack Railroad. It rivals buttercups and 
daisies in giving color to meadows infested by it. The orange 
hawkweed, Hieracium aurantiacum, which is asso- 
ciated with it in some places and which is no less pestilential, was 
not seen here. 

Hydnum adustum Schw. 

An unusual form of this fungus was found in the western part 
of the State by G. E. Morris. The pileus is shaped like the bowl 
of a goblet by the upward curving of its margin and the stem is 
central. The whole plant is white. 

Hygrophorus laurae decipiens n. var. 
Pileus thin, stem slender, less than 6 lines thick, generally ces- 
pitose and attenuated at the base, pileus not changing color in 
drying, gills also nearly unchangeable. Edible. Near Elm lake, 
Hamilton county. September. 

Hypholoma sublateritium (Schaeff.) Fr. 

In October specimens of the brick-red hypholoma were sent to 
me with the statement that two persons who had eaten stewed 
mushrooms of this kind had been made sick by them. In one case 
" a severe headache with tingling and numbness in hands 
and arms and a feeling of general weakness and relaxation" devel- 
oped in 15 hours after eating and lasted half an hour. In the 
other case the person "was attacked with violent nausea and 
purging." The difference in the symptoms of the two persons 
and the long time between the eating and the development of the 
symptoms led me to think that the mushrooms were not responsible 
for the sickness. It seemed to me that by some mistake the sam- 
ples sent me were not the same kind as those that had been eaten 
or that the sickness was due to some other cause. As the samples 
sent me were still in fairly good condition, I concluded to try 
their edible quality myself. Three caps were selected, fried with 
butter and eaten. No harm and no unpleasant results followed, 
and my opinion of the innocence of the mushrooms was confirmed. 

It is proper to add that in the typical form of the species the 
taste is said to be bitter, but in these specimens no bitter flavor 
was perceptible, though in other respects they exhibited the char- 
acters of the species. 



40 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Juniperus nanus Willd. 
A large form of this juniper occurs at Lake Bonaparte. It 
forms circular patches as usual, but the branches are more erect 
and much taller. They are 6-8 feet tall and have a basal diameter 
of 2-4 inches. The leaves are 4-6 lines long and sometimes abruptly 
sharp pointed, sometimes gradually tapering into a subulate point. 
This form seems to make an approach toward Juniperus 
communis. 

Limnorchis dilatata linearifolius Rydb. 
Hidden lake, Herkimer county. J. V. Haberer. This variety 
may be distinguished from the typical form of the species by its 
more narrow linear leaves. 

Marasmius resinosus niveus Pk. 

As there is a Marasmius niveus Mont, a rigid observ- 
ance of the rules of the Rochester code requires that this variety 
name should be changed. I therefore substitute for the name 
given in the report for 1902, p. 38, Marasmius resinosus 
candidissimus. 

Osmunda claytoniana L. 

This common fern sometimes grows in "fairy rings." Three 
examples of this kind of growth were seen at Lake Pleasant. In 
one there was a continuous line of fronds forming an ellipse of 
which the long diameter was about 3 feet. In another they formed 
about three fourths of the circumference of a circle, the line being 
interrupted in one place. In the third example the line was con- 
tinuous and formed the circumference of a circle of which the 
diameter was about 2 feet. All the rings were near each other in 

a meadow. 

Oxalis cymosa Small 

This is a common species in the eastern part of the State. It is 
very variable, being glabrous or villose above and glabrous below 
or wholly villose. Its flowers are usually ^^ellow, but sometimes 
they are very pale yellow or almost white. The color of the stem 
and leaves varies from yellowish green to purplish brown. 

Phacelia dubia (L.) Small 
Near Jamesville, Onondaga co. May. Mrs L. L. Goodrich. 
The specimens are in fine flowering condition. Specimens collected 
and sent by Mrs Goodrich in October 1903 were also in flower. 
The two sendings show that the plant may flower either in spring 
or in autumn. 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 4I 

Picea canadensis (Mill.) B. S. P. 
Lake Pleasant. June. The white spruce occurs sparingly in 
various parts of the Adirondack region. All of our spruces as well 
as the hemlock drop their leaves from the drying branches in con- 
sequence of which it is difficult to prepare satisfactory herbarium 
specimens. I have tried in various ways to overcome this diffi- 
culty and have inquired of many botanists both of this country 
and of Europe if they could tell me how to prepare specimens of 
these branches so that they might retain their leaves. Recently 
Mr William Richards gave me a recipe which was intended to 
meet this difficulty. It was taken to a druggist who prepared a 
sufficient quantity for trial. As soon as opportunity was given, 
specimens of suitable size both of the white spruce and the black 
spruce were taken and treated according to directions. The 
result has been quite satisfactory. The specimens have dried and 
retained their leaves to the present time. The color of the leaves 
is slight!}^ affected, but the specimens are far more satisfactory than 
the bare twigs with leaves placed in packets by themselves. For 
the benefit of any who may wish to avail themselves of this 
method of preparing specimens of this kind a copy of the recipe 
is here given. 

Recipe 

For the treatment of fresh herbarium specimens of spruce and 
hemlock trees to prevent the leaves from falling from the twigs. 



alum 


500 gr- 


salt 


125 " 


saltpeter 


60 " 


potash 


300 " 


white arsenic 


100 " 



Dissolve in i quart of water, cool and filter. To i quart of this 
solution add 4 quarts of glycerin and i quart of alcohol. 

Immerse the fresh specimens in this mixture, letting them remain 
in it at least 48 hours. When taken out wash away any excess of 
mixture adhering to them with warm water. 

After the external moisture has evaporated the specimens may 
be placed in drying papers and put in press in the usual way. When 
thoroughly dry they may be mounted on the herbarium sheets and 
placed in the herbarium. 

Prunus americana Marsh. 
This species of "wild plum is common in the vicinitv of Albany. 
It blossoms a little later than Prunus nigra. Its calyx 
lobes often terminate in two or three minute teeth. 



42 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. 

A small tree of the wild red cherry was observed at Lake Bona- 
parte, the ripening fruit of which was white. Is it an albino? 

Pterospora andromedea Nutt. 
Port Henry. August. Miss H. A. Edwards. The contributed 
specimen is in fruiting condition, 35 inches long with a stem dia- 
meter of ^ of an inch and bears more than 60 capsules. In Flora 
of New York State this species is credited to "various places in the 
vicinity of Albany," but it seems to have disappeared entirely 
from this locality. It is also credited to Port Henry, having been 
found there more than 60 years ago. It is gratifying to know that 

it still exists there. 

Rosa sayi Schw. 

Griswold's Mills, Washington co. July. S. H. Burnham. 
This rose also occurs in the vicinity of Westport. 

Rudbeckia hirta L. 

Two forms of this very common weed, both of which were new 
to the herbarium, were found by Miss C. S. Parsons in the western 
suburbs of the city. 

Rudbeckia laciniata L. 

This plant is subject to the attacks of a gall-producing insect. 
Specimens sent by Mrs Burnham from Washington county have 
from 1-3 globular green galls developed from the side or base of 
■each head of flowers. In one example a branch 1.5 inches long had 
developed at a right angle to the stem just beneath the flower head. 
The branch itself bore a flower head. 

Salix amygdaloides Anders. 
A single tree of this species was found by Mr R. B. Hough at 
Lake Bonaparte. It is 25 or 30 feet tall, with a trunk diameter 
of about 8 inches. It extends the range of the species in our State 
farther north than before, but the species is known to occur still 
farther north in Canada. Its presence at Lake Bonaparte may 
be accidental, as only a single tree has yet been found there. To 
the six species of willow previously found in Bonaparte swamp, 
Salix cordata and Salix nigra should be added, 
making eight species in all. 

Sarracenia purpurea L. 

Two specimens of the pitcher plant were found growing on the 
margin of the roadbed of the railroad that runs through Bona- 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 43 

parte swamp. This roadbed is a sandy gravel of which a com- 
ponent part is decomposed crystalline limestone, which is abund- 
ant in that vicinity. The plants were only a few inches above 
the general level of the swamp. Both were in flower, but the 
flowers were very abnormal. Instead of the usual sepals, petals and 
stamens, there were numerous oblong or spatulate petaloid organs, 
green on the inner surface and more or less tinged with reddish 
brown on the outer. In one there were about 30, in the other about 
45 of these pseudopetals. The ovary was imperfectly developed 
and the usual peltate stigmatic disk was transformed into erect 
irregular folded or crumpled leaf like lobes. The whole flower was 
suggestive of a " double blossom" of greenish petals. The tmnatural 
habitat of limestone gravel and sand was the only apparent cause 
of the transformation. Other plants with flowers of the usual kind 
were growing near these, but in the soft wet soil of the swamp. 

Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke 
Machias, Cattaraugus co. July. F. E. Fenno. This is a pecu- 
liar form having few flowered simple stems and narrowly elliptic 
or ovate leaves. 

Stereum spadiceum Fr. 

A form of this species was found near Port Jefferson in which 
the pilei were crispate complicate as in Stereum compli- 
c a t u m . 

Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong 

The fruit of the star-flowered Solomon's seal is described in our 
botanies as sometimes black, and sometimes green with six black 
stripes. A form was found in Bergen swamp the fruit of which 
was green with three black stripes. 

Viburnum lentago L. 

The leaA'es of this species are described as ovate. A form was 
found near Delanson, Schenectady co. of which the leaves vary 
from very broadly ovate to nearly orbicular. Another form was 
found on Crown Point of which the leaves are oblong and pointed 
at each end. Its fruit is destitute of bloom and ripens earlier than 
in the typical form. This may prove worthy of varietal dis> 
tinction. 

Viola palmata dilatata Ell. 

Wooded hillside near Saugerties. May. In these specimens 
some leaves have the broad central lobe, others are not lobed at 
all. It seems to be intermediate between the variety and an 
entire leaved form. 



A^ NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Viola papilionacea domestica (Bickn.) Poll. 
Streets and waste places of Port Jefferson. August. This so 
called variety is so unlike the typical form of the species that to 
most minds it would be far more satisfactory to consider it a dis- 
tinct species unless there are connecting forms. 

EDIBLE FUNGI 

Lepiota cepaestipes Sow. 

ONION-STEMMED LEPIOTA 

PLATE 87, FIG. 1-5 

Pileus thin, fleshy in the center, ovate or obtusely conic, be- 
coming campanulate or expanded, broadly umbonate, soon squamu- 
lose except in the center, dry, plicate striate on the thin margin, 
white, the umbo and squamules brownish, flesh white, taste mild; 
lamellae thin, narrow, close, free, white; stem slender, enlarged 
toward the base, slightly mealy pruinose or glabrous, stuffed or . 
hollow, white, the slight annulus sometimes evanescent; spores 
white, .0003-. 0004 of an inch long, .0002-.0003 broad. 

The onion-stemmed lepiota takes its name from the peculiar 
shape of the lower part of the stem. There is an enlargement below 
the middle which gives the stem a shape similar to that of the flow- 
ering stem of an onion. The flesh of the cap is thin except in the 
center where it is thickened into a prominence or umbo. On the 
margin it is very thin and marked by closely placed radiating fur- 
rows or striations with narrow ridges or folds between them. The 
surface of the cap is covered by a dense flocculent coat or veil which 
soon breaks into minute scales or points and with the expansion of 
the cap they give it a roughened or dotted appearance. The veil 
however remains entire on the umbo and gives it a brownish color. 
The cap is dry, flexible and slightly tough. The gills are closely 
placed side by side and do not reach the stem. They are minutely 
floccose on the edge and white while young and fresh, but they 
assume a brownish hue with age or in drying, similar to that as- 
sumed by the gills of the smooth lepiota, L. naucinoides^ 
under the same conditions. 

The stem is rather long and except in the enlarged part is scarcely 
thicker than the stem of an ordinary tobacco pipe. Occasionally 
the enlargement is absent and the diameter of the stem is about the 
same from top to bottom. In the young plant it is stuffed with a 
webby pith, but usually it becomes hollow with age. The surface 
is covered with a slight mealiness but this may disappear when the 
plant is old. It is white or whitish. This mushroom generally 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 45 

grows in tufts or close clusters in rich soil, tan bark, sawdust or 
decomposing vegetable matter. It is perhaps found quite as often 
in greenhouses or conservatories as in the open air. Our specimens 
were found growing in a bed of decaying sawdust in the open air. 
The heat generated by the decaying sawdust was doubtless very 
acceptable to it. A yellow form of the species is said to occur but I 
have not met with it in my explorations. In my trial of its edible 
qualities it seemed to me to have an excellent flavor but a slightly 
tough texture. According to one author "the entire fungus is 
tender and delicious cooked in any way." 

Hygrophorus nitidus B. & C. 

SHINING HYGROPHORUS 

PLATE 88, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus thin, fragile, convex, umbilicate, viscose, pale yellow, 
shining, and striatulate on the margin when moist, whitish when 
dry; lamellae arcuate, distant, decurrent, pale yellow; stem 
slender, viscose, hollow, colored like the pileus; spores broadly 
elliptic or subglobose, .00025-. 0003 of an inch long, .0002-. 00025 
broad. 

The shining hygrophorus is a small species of a beautiful yellow 
color throughout. Both cap and stem are very viscid and both are 
fragile. The cap has a conspicuous central depression or umbilicus. 
When moist, obscure radiating lines may be seen on the margin. 
These are merely the shadowy appearance of the gills beneath and 
are due to the thin translucent character of the margin. As the 
moisture escapes from the cap it becomes whitish and the shadowy 
lines disappear. The gills are wide apart and their inner end is 
gradually narrowed and extends downward on the stem. In dried 
specimens the interspaces are usually wrinkled or venose, specially 
in large specimens. The stem is rather long in proportion to the 
size of the cap. It is so viscid and fragile that it is difficult to pull a 
specimen from the ground without breaking it. In some cases the 
stem is gradually thickened as it enters the cap. It and the gills 
usually retain their color longer than the cap. 

The cap is rarely more than i inch broad; the stem is 1.5-3 inches 
long and 1-2 lines thick. The species is generally gregarious in its 
mode of growth, but sometimes it is cespitose. It grows in moist 
soil full of humus in swamps or low damp places. As an edible 
mushroom it is not very important because of its small size, but it is 
tender and agreeable in flavor and may sometimes be convenient to 
add to a scanty supply of larger species. It is foimd in July and 
August. 



46 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Hygrophorus laurae decipiens Pk. 

DECEIVING HYGROPHORUS 

PLATE 88, FIG. 8-1 1 

Pileus thin except in the center, broadly conic with involute 
margin when young, becoming convex or nearly plane, glutinose, 
white with a dingy yellow or smoky brown spot in the center, flesh 
white, taste mild; lamellae subdistant, adnate or decurrent, white; 
stem rather long, slender, viscid when moist, solid, attenuate at the 
base, white with white particles at the top; spores .00028-. 0003 of 
an inch long, .00016-. 0002 broad. 

The deceiving hygrophorus is most closely related to the laura 
hygrophorus, from which it can scarcely be separated in the fresh 
or living condition. The thinner flesh of the cap, the more slender 
stem more constantly narrowed and pointed at the base and its 
tufted mode of growth are the principal marks of distinction in the 
fresh plant. It is likely to be taken for a slender tufted form of the 
laura hygrophorus and the persistency of its colors in drying is the 
chief reason for considering it a variety of the species instead of a 
mere form. The cap is 1.5-3 inches broad; the stem 1.5-2 inches 
long, 3-5 lines thick. It grows in tufts among fallen leaves in woods 
or their borders, and may be found in September. Its edible charac- 
ter is similar to that of the laura hygrophorus. 

Boletus laricinus Berk. 
LARCH BOLETUS 

PLATE 89, FIG. 1-7 

Pileus fleshy, broadly convex or nearly plane, viscid when moist, 
sometimes squamose, dingy white or grayish white, flesh white; 
tubes short, adnate or slightly decurrent, whitish when young 
becoming darker and brown with age, their mouths large, angular, 
subcompound; stem short, solid, annulate, reticulate above the 
ring, grayish or brownish below; spores brown, oblong .0004-. 0005 
of an inch long, .00016-. 0002 broad. 

The larch boletus takes its name from its place of growth. It 
always grows under or near larchtrees. It is closely related to the 
Elba boletus, B. elbensis Pk., which is found under or near 
tamarack trees in the northern part of our State. In the larch 
boletus the cap is paler and has no pinkish brown tint which often 
is seen on the cap of the Elba boletus. Its cap is sometimes adorned 
by brown or blackish scales which are easily rubbed or washed 
away, leaving the whitish cap entirely naked. The flesh is soft and 
white or whitish. The tubes are at first whitish but they change 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 47 

with age to brownish and then to a dark sepia color. The mouths 
are large and angular. In some cases shorter dissepiments within 
the larger tubes give them the appearance of being composed of 
two or more smaller ones. The tube walls extend downward on 
the stem to the ring and by anastomosing give the reticulated ap- 
pearance called cribrose in the older descriptions. This is one of 
the distinguishing characters between the larch boletus and the 
Elba boletus. I have not yet tested the edible qualities of the latter, 
but the former is worthy of a place among our esculent species. It 
was collected in October. 

Boletus rubropunctus Pk. 

>RED DOTTED BOLETUS 

PLATE 90, FIG. 1-9 

Pileus fleshy, very convex or broadly convex, glabrous, viscid 
and shining when moist, variable in color, pale red, crimson or bay 
red, flesh white; tubes plane or convex in the mass, depressed 
around the stem, their mouths small, round, pale yellow when 
young, becoming bright golden yellow; stem equal or slightly 
thickened toward the base, solid, punctate or minutely squamulose 
with red or pallid points, pallid or tinged with red; spores oblong 
fusiform, .0005-. 0007 of an inch long, .0002-. 00024 broad. 

The red dotted boletus is a very variable species. The cap is 
strongly or slightly convex, smooth and shining, viscid when moist 
and covered with a thin tenacious pellicle which can be torn away 
like the skin from an overripe peach. In the young plant the thin 
margin sometimes extends a little beyond the mass of tubes. In 
color the cap may be pale red, bright red or crimson, reddish brown 
or chestnut color. The flesh is whitish, sometimes tinged with yel- 
low. The tubes are plane or convex in the mass, depressed around 
the stem, pale yellow when young, becoming bright golden yellow 
with age. Their mouths are small and round. The stem is rather 
long and slender for the size of the cap, solid, equal in diameter in 
all its parts or sometimes slightly thicker at the base. It is marked 
with numerous small dots or points of a red, brownish or pallid 
color which at first sight suggests a similarity to the stem of a small 
specimen of Boletus scaber. The color of the stem may be 
whitish, pallid or reddish. The species is related to Boletus 
i n f 1 e X u s Pk. but it differs from it in having its tubes depressed 
about the stem, in its tube mouths being destitute of red granules 
and in its larger spores. 

The cap is 1-2.5 inches broad; the stem is 1-3 inches long, 2-4 
lines thick. It occurs in thin woods in July and August. 



48 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Boletus nobilis Pk. n. sp. 
NOBLE BOLETUS 

PLATE 91, FIG. 1-4 

Pileus firm, convex, dry, glabrous, yellowish brown or reddish 
brown w^hen young, becoming ochraceous or reddish ochraceous 
with age, flesh white, taste mild; tubes white and stuffed when 
young, becoming yellow or pale ochraceous with age, nearly plane 
in the mass, adnate or slightly depressed around the stem, the 
mouths small, round; stem equal or slightly thicker at the base, 
solid, glabrous, generally reticulated at the top, whitish or pallid ; 
spores oblong fusiform, .0005-. 0006 of an inch long, .0002-. 00024 
broad. 

This large and fine species grows singly or in groups in thin 
woods and in cleared or bushy places. It belongs to the section 
Edules. It differs from the edible boletus, B . edulis in its 
tubes being less depressed around the stem and in having no 
green tint. From the related boletus, B. affinis, to which 
it is also closely allied, it is separated by its larger size, the paler 
color of the cap, the paler stem and its larger spores. The flesh 
is thin for the size of the cap and is yellowish next the tubes. 
The cap is 4-8 inches broad; the stem 3-6 inches long, 6-10 lines 
thick. It may be found in August. In preparing it for cooking 
the long tubes should be removed from the cap and be rejec;ted 
with the stem. 

Strobiiomyces strobilaceus (vScop.) Berk. 

CONELIKE BOLETUS 

PLATE 92, FIO. 1-6 

Pileus fleshy, firm, subglobose, hemisp-heric or convex, dry, 
covered with a dense thick coat of blackish or blackish brown 
tomentum which separates into prominent tufts or scales with 
intervening chinks or spaces of a pale gray or smoky white color, 
flesh whitish, changing to reddish on exposure to the air, then to 
blackish, tubes rather long, depressed around the stem, plane or 
convex in the mass, whitish when 'young and fresh, becoming red 
where woimded and then blackish, also becoming blackish or 
blackish brown with age; stem equal or tapering upward, solid, 
often sulcate at the top, covered with a tomentum similar to that 
of the pileus; spores blackish brown, globose or nearly so, rough, 
.0004-. 0005 of an inch in diameter. 

This boletus has such a peculiar shaggy appearance and black- 
ish color and is so unlike any other mushroom in our flora that 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 49 

it is scarcely possible to confuse it with any other. It grows in 
woods or their borders, generally only a few in place. The cap is 
usually 2-4 inches broad; the stem 2-5 inches long, 4-8 lines thick. 
It may be found from July to September. In preparing it for 
cooking use only the flesh of the caps, peeling away the tomentum 
from the upper surface and removing the somewhat tenacious 
tubes from the lower surface. It is harmless and though it may 
not be considered a first class mushroom for eating purposes, it 
is much better than none. 

Clavaria botrytoides Pk. n. sp. 

GRAPELIKE CLAVARIA 

PLATE 93, FIG. 5-7 

Stem small, short, divided near the base into branches which are 
repeatedly and irregularly branched, the ultimate branches short, 
crowded, blunt, usually terminating in two or more blunt teeth 
or protuberances, red or pink at the tips when young, soon fading 
and becoming concolorous, stem and branches solid, flesh white, 
taste mild ; spores narrowly elliptic or oblong, rusty brown or 
subcinnamon, .0003-. 0004 of an inch long, .00016-. 0002 broad. 

The grapelike clavaria is very closely related to the red tipped 
clavaria and probably has been confused with it. It may be 
separated from that species by its thinner stem, the fading or 
evanescent character of the color of the ultimate branchlets and 
by its shorter and differently colored spores. The tips of the 
branches in mature or old plants are whitish like the branches 
themselves, but often a few small branches may be found near 
the base of the plant which have red tips and are therefore pre- 
sumably of later development. It is possible that these two 
clavarias have been confused in Europe for European mycolo- 
gists do not agree in their description of the spore characters of 
the red tipped clavaria. Stevenson describes them as subhy aline, 
12-15 f^ loi^g. 6 /J- broad. Massee describes them as white, 8 fx 
long, 5 fj. broad. In our plant the spores in mass have a rusty 
brownish or subcinnamon color when collected on white paper 
and they are 8-10 /a long, 4-5 /x broad. 

The plants are 2-4 inches tall and 1.5-3 inches broad. Thev 
grow in thin woods on rather poor soil and may be found in August 
and September. The edible qualities seem to me to be similar 
to those of the red tipped clavaria. 



5° 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Clavaria pistillaris L. 

LARGE CLUB CLAVARIA 

PLATE 93, FIG. 1-4 

Club simple, large, soft, fleshy, glabrous, clavate or oblong 
clavate, obtuse, solid or slightly spongy within, even or nearly so, 
ochraceous buff, flesh white, taste mild; spores elliptic, .0004-. 0005 
of an inch long, .0002-. 00024 broad. 

The large club clavaria is not very common and is quite variable 
in size and shape. It is usually 2-6 inches long and 6-12 lines 
thick. Sometimes the club gradually enlarges from base to top, 
again it is swollen at the base and at the top or it may be nearly 
cylindric in the lower half and gradually enlarged upward in the 
upper half. Large thick specimens are sometimes cracked at the 
top, revealing the white flesh. The color is sometimes yellowish, 
sometimes ochraceous buff or tan color. It is often more highly 
colored at the top than toward the base. The plant is generally 
clean and free from the attacks of insects. It usually grows in a 
scattered manner, only a few specimens being found in a place, 
but occasionally it may form tufts of two or three plants. It 
grows in woods and may be found from August to September. 
The species is easily recognized and is not likely to be mistaken 
for any harmful mushroom. It is similar in its texture and flavor 
to the umbonate clavaria, C. pistillaris umbonata. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE P 

Cortinarius heliotropicus Pk. 

Heliotrope Cortinarius 

1 Immature plant with unexpanded pileus 

2 Immature plant with expanded pileus 

3 Mature plant with unspotted pileus 

4 Mature plant with spotted pileus 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

6 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

7 Four spores, x 400 

Pholiota appendiculata Pk. 

Appendiculate Pholiota 

8 Young plant showing unbroken veil beneath the pileus 

9 Young plant vShowing stem and pileus 

10, II Two immature plants, one showing lamellae beneath the 
pileus 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST I904 51 

12, 13 Two mature plants, one showing lamellae beneath the pileus 
14, 15 Vertical sections of two young plants 

16 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

17 Four spores, x 400 

PLATE Q 

Lactarius brevis Pk. 

Short Lactarius 

1 Young plant 

2 Mature plant with convex pileus 

3 Mature plant with fully expanded pileus 

4 Vertical section of a plant showing the color which the 

flesh soon assumes on exposure to the air 

5 Four spores, x 400 

Boletus rugosiceps Pk. 

Rough Cap Boletus 

6 Young plant showing small pileus and large stem 

7 Immature plant showing pale yellow tubes 

8 Mature plant 

9 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 
10 Four spores, x 400 

plate r 
Boletus atkinsoni Pk. 
Atkinson's Boletus 

1 Immature plant 

2 Mature plant 

3 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

5 Four spores, x 400 

plate 87 
Lepiota cepaestipes Sow. 
Onion-stemmed Lepiota 

1 Cluster of three yoimg plants 

2 Cluster of six plants, four of them with caps mature 

3 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

4 Transverse section of a stem 

5 Four spores, x 400 



52 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

PLATE 88 

Hygrophorus nitidus B. & C. 
Shining Hygrophorus 
I, 2 Two plants with moist yellow caps 

3, 4 Two plants after the excess of moisture has escaped 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

6 Transverse section of a stem 

7 Four spores, x 400 

Hygrophorus laurae decipiens Pk. 

Deceiving Hygrophorus 

8 Cluster of five plants with moist caps 

9 One plant after the excess of moisture has escaped. Tht 

lower part of the stem has been removed 
10 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 
■ II Four spores, x 400 

plate 89 

Boletus laricinus Berk. 

Larch Boletus 

I, 2 Two small young plants showing scales on the caps 

3 One small but mature plant with no scales on the cap 

4, 5 Two mature plants of usual size 

6 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant 

7 Four spores, x 400 

plate 90 
Boletus rubropunctus Pk. 

Red Dotted Boletus 
I, 2 Two immature plants with red caps and reddish stems 
3 An immature plant with paler cap and stem 
4.5,6 Three mature plants 

7 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

8 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

9 Four spores, x 400 

PLATE 91 

Boletus nobilis Pk. 

Noble Boletus 

1 An immature small plant 

2 A mature plant of medium size 

3 Vertical section of the upper part of a plant " • 

4 Four spores, x 400 



REPORT OF THE STATE BOTAXIST I9O4 53 

PLATE 92 

Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Scop.) Berk. 

Conelike Boletus 

1 A small immature plant 

2 A larger immature plant showing the whitish tube mouths 

3 A mature plant of medium size 

4 Vertical section of the upper part of an immature plant 

5 Vertical section of the upper part of a mature plant 

6 Four spores, x 400 

plate 93 
Clavaria pistillaris L. 

Large Club Clavaria 

2 Two plants, one showing cracks in the apex 

3 Vertical section of a plant 

4 Four spores, x 400 

Clavaria botrytoides Pk. 

Grapelike Clavaria 

5 Immature plant with tips of branchlets red 

6 Mature plant with most of the tips colored like the branches 

7 Four spores, x 400 



INDEX 



The superior figures tell the exact place on the page in ninths ; e.g. 36^ 
means page 36, beginning in the third ninth of the page, i.e. about 
one third of the way down. 



Agaricus abruptibulbus, 36^. 

abruptus, 35^-36^. 

chlamydopus, 36^. 

cothurnatus, 36^, 36^. 

halophilus, 36^. 

magniceps, 36^. 

magnificus, 36^, 36*. 

maritimus, 36^, 36^. 

micromegethus, 36^. 

pilosporus, 36'*. 

praerimosus, 36''. 

pusillus, 36^, 36*. 

sphaerosporus, 36'*, 36^. 

tabularis, 36'*, 36'. 
Alpine cotton grass, 38^. 
Amanita crenulata, 19^. 

lignophila, 19". 

magnifica, 36'. 

radicata, 19'. 
Amphicarpaea monoica, 31'. 
Anomodon attenuatus, 31^. 
Antennaria canadensis, 36*. 
Appendiculate pholiota, explanation 

of plate, 50^-51^. 
Arenaria leptoclados, 19*. 

serpyllifolia z^ar. tenuior, 19'. 
Arisaema stewardsoni, 20^ 
Atkinson's boletus, explanation of 

plate, 5I^ 

Beckwith thorn, 27^ 

Benignant thorn, 27^. 

Blephariglottis ciliaris, 36*-37^. 

Blephilia hirsuta, 37^. 

Boletus, Atkinson's, explanation 

of plate, 51*. 
conelike, 48^-49^; explanation of 

plate, 53'. 



Boletus, larch, ,46'-47'; explanation 
of plate, 52^. 
noble, 48'; explanation of plate, 

red dotted, 47''; explanation of 

plate, 52'. 
rough cap, explanation of plate, 

Boletus atkinsoni, 20^; explana- 
tion of plate, 51°. 
laricinus, 20*, 46*-47^; explana- 
tion of plate, 52'. 
nobilis, 20', 48'; explanation of 

plate, 52^. 
rubropunctus, 47^; explanation of 

plate, 52'. 
rugosiceps, 20^-21^; explanation of 
plate. Si*. 
Botrychium obliquum, 37^. 

tenebrosum, 21'. 
Bryum pendulum, 21*. 
Bulrush, 34'. 
Burnham, Stewart H., work of, 8'. 

Cantharellus cinnabarinus, 37^. 
Carex castanea, 37'. 

crawei, 38^. 

flexilis, 37*. 

formosa, 38^ 

setifolia, 38^. 
Cercospora circumscissa, 38^. 
Chantarelle, 37''. 
Cherry, wild red, 42'. 
Cladonia gracilis, 21^. 

verticillata, 21*. 
Clavaria, grapelike, 49^; explanation 
of plate, 53^. 

large club, 50'; explanation of 
plate, 53^ 



56 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Clararia, botrytoides, 2I^ 49'; expla- 
nation of plate, 53^ 

pistillaris, 50'; explanation of 

plate, 53^ 
xanthosperma, 21^. 
Coccineae, 27', 29*, 31'. 
Cockspur thorn, 8*. 
Colly bia amabilipes, 21^ 
Conelike boletus, 48''-49'; explana- 
tion of plate, 53^ 
Convolvulus repens, 21*. 
Cortinarius heliotropicus , 22'; ex- 
planation of plate, 50'. 
Cotton grass, alpine, 38'. 
Crataegus, New York species, 6"; 

synopsis of sections, 29*; synop- 
sis of species, 29^-3 1°. 
Crataegus acclivis, 25^, 30^. 

baxteri, 24^, 30'. 

beata, 22*, 30^. 

beckwithae, 27^ 31^. 

benigna, 27^, 30°. 

coccinea rotundifolia, 8^. 

colorata, 26*, 31^. 

compta, 23'*, 30". 

crus-galli, 8'', 29^, 29°. 

cupulifera, 27", 31^. 

delucida, 7^. 

deweyana, 28^, 31'. 

diffusa, 23^, 30^. 

dunbari, 27^, 31'. 

durobrivensis, 25', 30^. 

ellwangeriana, 24', 30^. 

ferentaria, 28^ 31*. 

fomiosa, 23^, 30^. 

fulleriana, 24^, 30^ 

gemmosa, 27"-28\ 31'. 

glaucophylla, 26^, 30'. 

gravesii, 7'. 

holmesiana, 29'', 30^. 

hudsonica, 28^-29^ 

laneyi, 28°, 3l^ 

leiophylla, 23^, 30^. 

lennoniana, 22^-23*, 3°^. 

macauleyae, 27*, 31^. 

macracantha, 29*, 31". 

maineana, 23^-24^ 30'. 

matura, 29^, 31^. 

opulens, 23', 30*. 



Crataegus, omata, 26*, 31'. 

parviflora, 25', 30^. 

pedicellata, 25*, 30'. 

persimilis, 22", 29'. 

pringlei, 29*, 30^. 

punctata, 8^, 29'*, 29°. 

rubicunda, 26^, 31^. 

spissiflora, 24*, 30^. 

streeterae, 25^-26^ 30*. 

succulenta, 29^, 31^. 

tatnalliana, 28'. 

tenuiloba, 26', 31'. 

tomentosa, 29'', 31^. 

verecunda, 24', 30'. 
Craterellus taxophilus, 22°. 
Crus-galli, 29*, 29'. 
Cup-bearing thorn, 27'. 
Cypripedium reginae, 38*. 

Dewey thorn, 28^ 
Dilatatae, 25^. 
Dipsacus laciniatus, 31'. 
Dunbar thorn, 27^ 

Edible fungi, 6^ 44^-50^ 
Edules, 2o^ 48^ 

Eleocharis palustris vigens, 38*. 
Ellwanger thorn, 24'. 
Eocronartium typhuloides, 31'. 
Eriophorum alpinum, 38^. 
Explanation of plates, 5 0^-53 . 

Falcata comosa, 31'. 

pitcheri, 31'. 
Favolus europaeus, 32°. 
Fern, common, 40^. 

grape, 21^, 37'. 
Flammula abrupta, 35*. 
Fragaria americana, 38'. 
Fries, Elias, cited, 35*. 
Fuller thorn, 24'. 
Fungi, edible, 6^ 44^-50'. 
Fungus, refrigerator, 32*. 
Fusarium aquaeducttium, 32'. 

Galera capillaripes, 32^. 

Geranium bicknellii, 32^. 

Grape fern, 21^, 37'. 

Grapelike clavaria, 49^; explanation 

of plate, 53^ 
Grass, alpine cotton, 38^. 
Gratiola aurea, 38*. 



INDEX TO REPORT OF THE STATE BOTANIST 1904 



57 



Graves thorn, 7*. 
Gray, Asa, cited, 36®. 
Gyrostachys ochroleuca, 32^ 

Habenaria ciliaris, 36". 

Heliotrope cortinarius, explanation 
of plate, 50^. 

Hexagona alveolaris, 32'. 
micropora, 32^. 

Hieracium praealtum, 39'. 

Hydnum adustum, 39^. 

Hygrophorus, deceiving, 46'; ex- 

planation of plate, 52^. 

Hygrophorus, shining, 45^; explana- 
tion of plate, 52'. 

Hygrophorus laurae decipiens, 39*, 

46^; explanation of plate, 52^. 

nitidus, 45^; explanation of plate, 

Hypholoma, brick-red, 39*. 
Hypholoma rugocephalum, 32'. 

sublateritium, 39*. 
Hypomyces banningiae, 32'. 

inaequalis, 32*. 

Inocybe maritima, 36'. 
Intricatae, 24^, 29^, 30'. 

Juniper, 40^ 

Juniperus nanus, 4o^ 

Lachnocladium semivestitum, ^^^. 
Lactarius, short, explanation of plate. 

Si;. 

Lactarius brevis, ^^'^■, explanation 
of plate, Si^. 
colorascens, 33^*. 
Laney thorn, 28^. 
Larch boletus, 46'-47'; explanation 

of plate, 52^. 
Lepiota onion-stemmed, 44^-45'; ex- 
planation of plate, Si^. 
Lepiota cepaestipes, 44^-45^; expla- 
nation of plate, 51^. 
naucina, 36'. 
Limnorchis dilatata linearifolius, 40'. 
Lobulatae, 25', 25*, 29^, 30^. 

Macauley thorn, 27*. 
Marasmius resinosus candidissimus, 
40». 
niveus, 40'*. 



Massee, cited, 49*. 

Molles, 24', 29^, 30'. 

Moss, living, 31". 

Mushrooms, edible, species sent to 

St Louis Exposition, 8'. 
Myxacium, 22''. 

Onion-stemmed lepiota, 44^-45^; ex- 
planation of plate, 51'. 
Osmunda claytoniana, 40*. 
Oxalis cymosa, 40^. 

Phacelia dubia, 40°. 

Pholiota appendiculata, 33^-34^; ex- 
planation of plate, 50^-51^. 

Picea canadensis, 41'. 

Pitcher plant, 42'-43''. 

Plants, contributors, list of, 5^, 12^- 
19^; species added to collection, 
5*, 9'- 1 2'*; species not before re- 
ported, 6', i9°-35*. 

Plates, explanation of, 50^-53 . 

Plum, wild, 41*. 

Pruinosae, 8^, 22', 29', 30''. 

Prunus americana, 41*. 
pennsylvanica, 42^ 

Pterospora andromedea, 42'. 

Punctatae, 29^, 29^. 

Refrigerator fungus, 32^ 
Rochester thorn, 25^. 
Rosa sayi, 42*. 
Rudbeckia hirta, 42^. 
laciniata, 42^. 

St Louis Exposition, botanical ex- 
hibit, 8^ 

Salix amygdaloides, 42'. 
cordata, 42*. 
lucida, 34*. 
nigra, 42*. 
serissima, 34*. 

Sargent, cited, 25^. 

Sarracenia purpurea, 42^-43''. 

Scirpus lacustris, 34*. 
occidentalis, 34". 

Sedges, 37*, 38^. 

Silene vulgaris, 43^. 

Sisyrinchium arenicola, 34^. 

Solomon's seal, star- flowered, 43°. 

Spruce, white, 4I^ 

Stachys sieboldi, 34*. 



58 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Stereum spadiceum, 43*. 
Stevenson, cited, 49^ 
Strawberry, 38'. 
Strobilomyces strobilaceus, 48'-49' 

explanation of plate, 53^ 
Stropharia cothurnata, 36^. 



Tenuifoliae, 8^ 23^, 29*, 30* 
Teucrium boreale, 34'. 
Thorn, Beckwith, 2f. 

benignant, 27^ 

cockspur, 8^. 

cup-bearing, 27'. 

Dewe3^ 28^. 

dotted fruited, 8^ 

Dunbar, 27'*. 

Elhvanger, 24'. 

Fuller, 2 4^ 

Graves, J*. 

Laney, 28". 

light armed, 28*. 

Macauley, 27^. 

Rochester, 25^. 

round leaved, 8^. 

thin lobed, 26'. ' 



31' 



Tomentosae, 28', 29^, 31^. 
Tricholoma grammopodium, 36^ 

Uredinopsis atkinsonii, 34*. 
osmundae, 35*. 

Vagnera stellata, 43*. 
Viburnum lentago, 43'. 
Viola amoena, 35^. 

blanda, 35^. 

latiuscula, 35^. 

palmata dilatata, 43* . 

papilionacea domestica, 44^ 

septentrionalis , 35''. 
Violets, 35^. 

northern blue, 35''. 
Volvaria parvula, 36'. 

Willows, 34*, 42^ 

Xyris flexuosa, 35". 
montana, 35^. 

Zygodesmus granulosus, 35'. 



New York State Education Department 
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NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

Museum bulletins 1887-date. O. To advance subscribers, $2 a year or soc 
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Bulletins are also found with the annual reports of the museum as follows: 

Bulletin Report Bulletin Report Bulletin Report Bulletin Report 

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The figures in parenthesis indicate the bulletin's number as a New York State Museum bulletin. 

Geology. Gi (14) Kemp, J. F. Geology of Moriah and Westport Town- 
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Sep. 1895. IOC. 
G2 (19) Merrill, F: J. H. Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections 

of the New York State Museum. i62p. iigpl. map. Nov. 1898. [50c] 
G3 (21) Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Lake Placid Region. 24p. ipl. map. 

Sep. 1 89 8. 5c. 
G4 (48) Wood worth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of Nassau County and 

Borough of Queens. 58p. il. gpl. map. Dec. 1901. 2SC- 
G5 (56) Merrill, F: J. H. Description of the State Geologic Map of 1901. 

42p. 2 maps, tab. Oct. 1902. loc. 
G6 (77) Cushing, H. P. Geology of the Vicinity of Little Falls, Herkimer 

Co. 98p. il. i5pl. 2 maps. Jan. 1905. 30c . 
G7 (83) Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of the Mooers Quadrangle. 

62p. 25pl. map. June 1905. 25c. 
G8 (84) Ancient Water Levels of the Champlain and Hudson Valleys. 

In press. 
G9 (95) Cushing, H. P. Geology of the Northeast Adirondack Region. In 

press. 
Ogilvie, L H. Geology of the Paradox Lake Quadrangle. In press. 
Econoniic geology. Egi (3) Smock, J : C. Building Stone in the State of 

New York. i52p. Mar. 1888. Out of print. 
Eg2 (7) First Report on the Iron Mines and Iron Ore Districts in 

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Eg3 (10) Building Stone in New York. 21 op. map, tab. Sep. 1890. 

40c. 
Eg4 (11) Merrill, F: J. H. Salt and Gypsum Industries of New York. 92p. 

i2pl. 2 maps, iitab. Ap. 1893. \_50c.'\ 
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Mar. 1895. 30c. 
Eg6 (15) Merrill, F: J. H. Mineral Resources of New York. 224P. 

2 maps. Sep. 1895. {spc] 

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2 maps 34x45, 68x92 cm. Oct. 1897. I§c. 

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Eg8 (30) Orton, Edward. Petroleum and Natural Gas in New York. i36p. 

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456p. i4opl. map. June 1900. $1 , cloth. 

Egio (44) Lime and Cement Industries of New York; Eckel, E. C. 

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Egi2 (85) Rafter, G: W. Hydrology of New York State. 902P. il. 44pl. 

5 maps. May 1905. $1.50, cloth. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 

Egi3 (93) Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York. 
78p. July 1905. ijc. 

Mineralogy. Mi (4) Nason, F. L. Some New York Minerals and thoir 
Localities. 2op. ipl. Aug. 1888. [loc] 

M2 (58) Whitlock, H. P. Guide to the Mineralogic Collections of the New 
York State Museum. i5op. il. 39pl. 11 models. Sep. 1902. 40c. 

M3 (70) New York Mineral Localities, nop. Sep. 1903. 20c. 

Contributions from the Mineralogic Laboratory. In press. 

Paleontology. Pai (34) Cumings, E. R. Lower Silurian System of East- 
ern Montgoinery County; Prosser, C: S. Notes on the Stratigraphy of 
Mohawk Valley and Saratoga County, N. Y. 74p. lopl. map. May 
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Pa2 (39) Clarke, J: M.; Simpson, G: B. & Loomis, F: B. Paleontologic 
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Contents: Clarke, J: M. A Remarkable Occiirrence of Orthoceras in the Oneonta Beds of 

the Chenango Valley, N. Y. 
Paropsonema cryptophya; a Peculiar Echinoderm from the Intumescens-zone 

(Portage Beds) of Western New York. 

Dictyonine Hexactinellid Sponges from the Upper Devonic of New York. 

The Water Biscuit of Squaw Island, Canandaigua Lake, N. Y. 

Simpson, G: B. Preliminary Descriptions of New Genera of Paleozoic Rugose Corals. 
Loomis, F: B. Siluric Fungi from Western New York. 

Pa3 (42) Ruedemann, Rudolf. Hudson River Beds near Albany and their 
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Pas (49) Ruedemann, Rudolf; Clarke, J: M. & Wood, Elvira. Paleon- 
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Clarke, J : M. Limestones of Central and Western New York Interbedded with Bituminous 

Shales of the Marcellus Stage. 
Wood, Elvira. Marcellus Limestones of Lancaster, Erie Co. N. Y. 
Clarke, J: M. New Agelacrinites. 
Value of Amnigenia as an Indicator of Fresh-water Deposits during the Devonic of New 

York, Ireland and the Rhineland. 

Pa6 (52) Clarke, J: M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1901. 28op il. 

9pl. map, I tab. July 1902. 40c. 
Pa7 (63) Stratigraphy of Canandaigua and Naples Quadrangles. 

78p. map. June 1904. 25c. 
Pa8 (65) Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the New 

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Paio (80) Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 2opl. map. 

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Pan (81) ■ & Luther, D. D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32p. 

map. Mar. 1905. 25c. 
Pai2 (82) Geologic Map of the Tully Quadrangle. 4op. map. Ap. 1905. 

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Z5 (38) Miller, G. S. jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North 

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Z6 (40) Simpson, G: B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris 

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2pl. map. Ap. 1901. IOC. 



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Z8 (51) Eckel, E. C. & Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batra- 
chians of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Ap. 1902. 15c. 

Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States. 

Paulmier, F. C. Lizards, Tortoises and Batrachians of New York. 

Zp (60) Bean, T. H. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784p. Feb. 

1903. $1, cloth. 

Zio (71) Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 

3op. 4pl. Sep. 1903. IOC. 
Zii (88) Letson, Elizabeth J. Check List of the Mollusca of New York. ii4p. 

May 1905. 20c. 
Z12 (91) Paulmier, F. C. Higher Crustacea of New York City. ySp. il. 

June 1905. 20c. 
Eaton, E. H. Birds of New York. In preparation. 
Entomology. En i (5) Lintner, J. A. White Grub of the May Beetle. 32p. 

il. Nov. 1888. IOC . 

En2 (6) Cut-worms. 36p. il. Nov. 1888. loc. 

En3 (13) San Josd Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York 

State. 54P- 7pl- Ap. 1895. 15c. 
En4 (20) Felt, E. P. Elm-leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. spl. 

June 1898. 5c. 

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Ens (23) 14th Report of the State Entomologist 1898. i5op. il. gpl. 

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En6 (24) Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lint- 
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Supplement to 14th report of the state entomologist. 

En7 (26) Collection, Preservation and Distribution of New York In- 
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En8 (27) Shade Tree Pests in New York State. 26p. il. 5pl. May 

1899. sc. 

EnQ (31) 15th Report of the State Entomologist 1899. i28p. June 

1900. i§c. 

Enio (36) i6th Report of the State Entomologist 1900. ii8p. i6pl. 

Mar. 190 1. 2jc. 
Enii (37) Catalogue of Some of the More Important Injurious and 

Beneficial Insects of New York State. S4p. il. Sep. 1900. loc. 
Eni2 (46) Scale Insects of Importance and a List of the Species in 

New York State. 94p. il. i5pl. June 1901. 2jc. 
Eni3 (47) Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the 

Adirondacks. 234P. il. 36pl. Sep. 1901. 45c. 
Eni4 (53) Felt, E. P. 17th Report of the State Entomologist 1901. 232P. 

il. 6pl. Aug. 1902. joc. 
Eni5 (57) Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 8pl. Aug. 

1902. i§c. 

This is a revision of En4 containing the more essential facts observed since that was pre- 
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£ni6 (59) Grapevine Root Worm. 4op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. ijc. 

See En 19. 

Eni7 (64) i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. nop. 6pl 

May 1903. 20c. 
Eni8 (68) Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322P 

52pl. Aug. 1903. 80c, cloth. 
Eni9 (72) Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. 58p. i3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c 

This is a revision of Eni6 containing the more essential facts observed since that was pre 
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En20 (74) & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p 

i4pl. June 1904. 25c. 
En2i (76) Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1903. i5op 

4pl. 1904. i^c. 
En22 (79) Mosquitos or Culicidae of New York. 164p.il. 57pl. Oct 

1904. 40c. 

En23 (86) Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and Midges of New York 
352p. il. 37pl. 80c, cloth. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 

Felt, E. P. 2oth Report of the State Entomologist 1904. In press. 

Botany. Boi (2) Peck, C: H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of 
New York. 66p. zpl. May 1887. Out of print. 

B02 (8) Boleti of the United States. 96p. Sep. 1889. isoc] 

B03 (25) Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. 5pl. Oct. 1899. 

Out of print. 

B04 (28) Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 20c. 

B05 (54) Report of the State Botanist 1 90 1. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c. 

B06 (67) Report of the State Botanist 1902. 196P. 5pl. May 1903. 

50c. 

B07 (75) Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 40c. 

B08 (94) Report of the State Botanist 1904. 6op. lopl. July 1905. 40c. 

Archeology. An (16) Beauchamp, W: M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Im- 
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Ar2 (18) Polished Stone Articles used by the New York Aborigines. 

io4p. 35pl. Nov. 1897. 25c. 

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Ar4 (32) Aboriginal Occupation of New York. 190P. i6pl. 2 maps. 

Mar. 1900. joc. 
Ars (41) Wampum and Shell Articles used by New York Indians. 

i66p. 2 8pl. Mar. 1901. joc. 
Ar6 (50) Horn and Bone Implements of the New York Indians. ii2p. 

43pl. Mar. 1902. ^oc. 
Ar7 (55) Metallic Implements of the New York Indians. 94p. 38pl. 

June 1902. 25c. 
Ar8 (73) Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians. 12 p. 37pl. 

Dec. 1903. 50c. 
Arg (78) History of the New York Iroquois. 34op. i7pl. map. Feb. 

1905. y^c, cloth. 

Ario (87) Perch Lake Mounds. 84p. i2pl. Ap. 1905. 20c. 

Aril (89) Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. 190P. 35pl. June 

1905. 3^^c. 
Miscellaneous. Msi (62) Merrill, F: J. H. Directory of Natural History 

Museums in United States and Canada. 236P. Ap. 1903. joc 
Ms2 (66) Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New York State Nat- 
ural History Survey and New York Slate Museum 1837-1902. 4i8p. 

June 1903. y^c, cloth. 
Museum memoirs 1889-date. Q. 

1 Beecher, C: E. & Clarke, J: M. Development of Some Silurian Brachi- 

opoda. 96p. 8pl.' Oct. 1889. Out of print. 

2 Hall, James & Clarke, J: M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 3Sop. il. 7opl. 

1898. $1, cloth. 

3 Clarke, J: M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co. 

N. Y. i28p. 9pl. Oct. 1900. 80c. 

4 Peck, C:H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. 7§c. 

This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of fungi reported in the 49th, 51st and sad 
reports of the state botanist. 

5 Clarke, J: M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of 

New York State. 196P. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.50, cloth. 

6 Naples Fauna in Western New York. 2 68p. 2 6pl. map. $2, cloth. 

7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt i Graptolites of the 
Lower Beds. 35op. i7pl. Feb. 1905. $i.j^o, cloth. 

Felt, E. P. Insects Afifecting Park and Woodland Trees. In press. 

Clarke, J: M. Early Devonic of Eastern New York. In preparation. 

Natural history of New York. 30V. il. pi. maps. Q. Albany 1842-94. 

nivisioN I ZOOLOGY. De Kay, James E. Zoology of New York; or, The 
New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals 
hitherto observed within the State of New York with brief notices of 
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropri- 
ate illustrations. 5 v. il. pi. maps. sq. Q. Albany 1842-44. Out of print 

Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W: H. Seward. i78p. 

V. I pti Mammalia. 13+146P. 33pl. 1842. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 




LEPIOTA CEPAESTIPES sow. 

ONION-STEMMED LEPIOTA 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 




Fig. 1-7HYGR0PH0RUS NITIDUS B.&c. Fig. 8-11 H. LAURAE DECIPIENS 



SHINING HYGROPHORUS 



DECEIVING HYGROPHORUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



PLATE 89 

















BOLETUS LARICINUS berk. 

LARCH BOLETUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



PLATE 90 








BOLETUS RUBROPUNCTUS pk. 

RED DOTTED BOLETUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 




BOLETUS NOBILIS pk. 

NOBLE BOLETUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



ediblp: fungi 



PLATE 92 









4^. 












^\ i^ ^^ '*^'#. 




./*A>>«^ 







'?^s. 









-^flfcs 










% 






a."^p*>-^ 









>--•'" ^ -K"^ -^ 






"! I ! } n>. 






~^i.'. 



1 r 



>>. 



w 



STROBILOMYCES STROBILACEUS (scop.) berk. 

CONE-LIKE BOLETUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



EDIBLE FUNGI 



PLATE 93 



^ 




''>*.v' 



'\:mh 






-^'TT^^ 




/ ■ //^^ 







Fig. 1-4 CLAVARIA PI8TILLARIS l. 

LARGE CLUB CLAVARIA 



Fig. 5-7 C. BOTRYTOIDES pk. 

GRAPE-LIKE CLAVARIA 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



FUNGI 



^ 



3 



;•*» H 



\ 



2 )* 




jna^ 







^^ 



hS 



M 




IV 






.^•^%|. .^?S?5?*^.: 




'^= 



12 






% 
17 



13 



FiG.l-7C0RTINARirS HELTOTROPICUS pk. Fig. 8-17 PHOLIOTA APPENDICULATA pk. 

HELIOTROPE COKTINARI0S APPENDICULATE PHOLIOTA 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



FUNGI 



PLATE Q 




Fig. 1-5 LACTARIUS BREYIS pk. 

SHORT LACTARIUS 



Fig. 6-10 BOLETUS RUGOSICEPS pk. 

ROUGH CAP BOLETUS 



N. Y. STATE MUS. 58 



FUNGI 
















^ --uu^ 




BOLETUS ATKINSONI pk. 
Atkinson's boletus 



MUSEUM PUBLICATION'S 

V. 2 pt2 Birds. 12 +380P. i4ipl. 1S44. 

Colored plates. 

V. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Amphibia. 7 +98p. pt4 Fishes. 15+415P. 1842. 

pt3-4 bound toijether. 

V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia 2 3pl. Fishes 79pl. 
1842. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 5 pt5 Mollusca. 4+271P. 4opl. pt6 Crustacea. 7op. i3pl. 1843-44. 
Hand-colored plates: pt5-6 bound together. 

DIVISION 2 BOTANY. ToTTey, John. Flora of the State of New York; com- 
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith- 
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and medical 
properties. 2'v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1843. Out of print. 

V. I Flora of the State of New York. 12 -f 484P. 72pl. 1843. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

V. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 572p. 89pl. 1843. 
300 copies with hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com- 
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State 
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi. 
sq. Q. Albany 1842. Out of print. 

V. I pti Economical Mineralogy. pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. 24+536P. 
1842. 

8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text. 

DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W: W.; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, Lard- 
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4V. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 
1842-43. Out of print. 

V. I pti Mather, W: W. First Geological District. 37 +653P. 46pl. 1843. 

V. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. io-f437p. i7pl 
1842. 

V. 3 pt3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 3o6p. 1842. 

V. 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22 -}-683p. iQpl. map. 

1843- 

DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Emmons, . Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York; 
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution 
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological 
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri- 
cultural productions of the State. 5 v. il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1846-54. Out 
of print. 

V. I Soils of the State, their Composition and Distribution. 11 -f 37ip. 21 pi. 
1846. 

V. 2 Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8-f343-f46p. 42pl. 1849. 

With hand-colored plates. 
V. 3 Fruits, etc. 8-f34op. 1851. 
V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 95pl- 1851. 

Hand-colored. 

V. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. S-f272p. 5opl. 1854. 

With hand-colored plates. 

DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, James. Palaeontology of New York. 8v. 
il. pi. sq. Q. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth. 

V. I Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New York System. 
' 23 +33Sp. 99pl- 1847. Out of print. 

V. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the New York System. 
8 +362P. io4pl. 1852. Out of print. 

V. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany 
Sandstone, pti, text. 12 +532p- 1859- l$3-5o] 

pt2, i43pl. 1861. [$2.50] 

V. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and 
Chemung Groups. ii+i+428p. 99pl. 1867. $2.50. 

V. 5 pti Lamellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg, 
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. i8-|-268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.50. 

Lamellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham- 
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62-f-293p. 5ipl. 1885. $2.50. 



NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

pt2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder- 

berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2V. 1879. v. i, text. 
15+492P. V. 2, i2opl. $2.50 for 2 V. 

Hall, James & Simpson, George B. v. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and 
Upper Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. 24 +298P.. 67pl. 1887. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 7 Trilobites and other Crustacea of the Oris- 

kany, Upper ' Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill 
Groups. 64 + 236P. 46pl. 1888. Cont. supplement to v. 5, pt2 Pterop- 
oda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 42p. i8pl. 1888. $2.50. 

& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pti Introduction to the Study of the Genera 

of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16+367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50. 
& Clarke, John M. pt2 Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16 +394P. 84pl. 

1894. $2.§0. 
Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and 

of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242P. O. 

1853- 
Handbooks 1893-date. 7^x12^ cm. 

In quantities, i cent for each i6 pages or less. Single copies postpaid as below. 
H5 New York State Museum. 52p. il. 4c. 

Outlines history and work of the museum with list of stafi igo2. 

H13 Paleontology. i2p. 2C. 

Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to 
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York. 

Hi 5 Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. 
i24p. Sc. 

''' Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially 

for the use of teachers and students desiring to acquaint themselves more intimately with the 

classic rocks of this State. 

H16 Entomology. i6p. 2C. 

H17 Economic Geology. 44p. 4c. 

H18 Insecticides and Fungicides. 2op. jc. 

H19 Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. jc. 

Maps. Merrill, F: J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the State of New 
York; issued as part of Museum bulletin 15 and the 48th Museum Report, 
V. I. 59^67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. i^c. 

Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch. In atlas 

form $j; mounted on rollers ^5. Loiver Hudson sheet 60c. 

The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, Put- 
nam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and Nassau counties, and parts of Sul- 
livan, Ulster and Suffolk counties; also northeastern New Jersey and part of western Connecticut. 

Map of New York showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds. 

1 90 1. Scale 12 miles to i inch, i^c 

Geologic maps on the United States Geological Survey topographic base; 
scale I in. = I m. Those marked with an asterisk have also been pub- 
lished separatel3^ 

*Albany county. Mus. rep't 49, v. 2. 1898. ^oc. 

Area around Lake Placid. Mus. bul. 21. 1898. 

Vicinity of Frankfort Hill [parts of Herkimer and Oneida counties]. Mus. 
rep't 51, V. I. 1899. 

Rockland county. State geol. rep't 18. 1899. 

Amsterdam quadrangle. Mus. bul. 34. 1900. 

♦Parts of Albany and Rensselaer counties. Mus. bul. 42. 1901. loc. 

♦Niagara River. Mus. bul. 45. 1901. 25c. 

Part of Clinton County. State geol. rep't 19. 1901. 

Oyster Bay and Hempstead quadrangles on Long Island. Mus. bul. 48. 
1901. 

Portions of Clinton and Essex counties. Mus. bul. 52. 1902. 

Part of town of Northumberland, Saratoga co. State geol. rep't 21. 1903. 

Union Springs, Cayuga county and vicinity. Mus. bul. 69. 1903. 

*01ean quadrangle. Mus. bul. 69. 1903. loc. 

*Becraft Mt with 2 sheets of sections. (Scale i in.= \ m.) Mus. bul. 69. 
1903. 20c. 

*Canandaigua-Naples quadrangles. Mus. bul. 63. 1904. 20c. 

♦Little Falls quadrangle. Mus. bul. 77. 1905. i^c. 

*Watkins-Elmira quadrangle. Mus. bul. 81. 1905. 20c. 

♦Tully quadrangle. Mus. bul. 82. 1905. loc. 

♦Salamanca quadrangle. Mus. bul. 80. 1905. 10c. 



New York Botanical Garden Librar 



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