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Full text of "Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the Year Ending June 4, 1906"

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Superintendent of Public Instruction 








Letter of transmittal, Ill 

School accommodations V 

Contradictory legislation , VI 

Schooling and Crime, VI 

The Loss of School Virtues, VII 

The Classes of Children to be provided for, VIII 

Empty School Houses , IX 

Good Teachers, X 

Substitute Teachers, X 

Examinations XI 

The School Appropriation , XII 

Comparison of appropriations made by the Legislature in 1895 and 1905,.. XII 

Teachers' Retirement Fund , XIII 

Enrolment of Children, XIV 

High School Inspection , XIV 

More Money for School Purposes XIV 

Statistical Statement, XVI 





Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Department of Public Instruction, 
Harrisburg, Pa., November 23, 1906. 

To His Excellency Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of Pennsyl- 

Bear Sir: In compliance with the requirements of law, I have 
the honor herewith to submit the annual report of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction for the school year ending June 4, 
1906, being the seventy-third report upon the public schools of the 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 





Department ol Pul)lic Instruction. 

To the Senate and House of Representatives: 

Gentlemen: The two greatest problems in school administration 



In the solution of these problems many minor problems must be 
met, each big enough to tax the wisdom of school officials and the 
resources of the Commonwealth. 


In the first place sufficient school accommodations must be pro- 
vided. Cities which grow rapidly seldom have room enough in 
their schools for all the children. Without a well-defined policy 
in the location and erection of new school buildings, it is impossible 
to provide a place for every child in the newer sections of our cities. 
Pittsburg boasts that it had a seat for every child at the opening 
of the present school year. Through increased taxation for school 
purposes and through the breaking- down of the barriers w^hich kept 
children from going across ward lines Philadelphia is making rapid 
I^rogress in the direction of providing school facilities for all its 
children. Other cities are constantly struggling with the same prob- 
lem, the chief difficulty being lack of sufficient funds for building 
purjioses. In counties whose total population has been diminishing, 
a new phase of the problem is presenting itself. , The closing of a 
school by reason of small attendance sometimes leaves several chil- 
dren unprovided with school facilities. The condition of the public 
roads makes transportation impossible during a portion of the year. 
From this point of view the sparsely populated districts ofi'er prob- 


vl REl^ORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

lems as difficult of solution as the rapidly growing cities. Where 
taxation has reached the maximum allowed by law, there is a loud 
call for more liberal school appropriations on the part of the State. 

The educator welcomes every agency that helps to bring all the 
children to school. More than 125,000 children are enrolled in the 
private and parochial schools of Pennsylvania. It should be the 
ambition of every one connected with the public schools to make 
them so efficient that no parent shall wish any other for his chil- 
dren. But since many persons feel it their duty to support other 
schools, every friend of children and every lover of his country will 
wish those schools to be made so efficient as to be a constant spur 
to the public schools. "The best is not too good for my children," 
said a father not long ago, and the parent is always justified in 
sending his child to a private school, if he cannot find a public school 
equally good. 

The attendance officer should put forth his best efforts to secure 
the regular attendance of pupils in all classes of schools, and the 
teacher in charge of a private or parochial school should not hesi- 
tate to report to this officer the names of those who violate the law 
by absence without sufficient excuse. In this respect the patriot 
must rise above all questions of rivalry and aim at the best possible 
schooling for every child. 


Some of our legislation tends to keep children out of school. We 
have enacted laws making attendance at school compulsory, and 
we have passed other laws depriving certain children of the right to 
attend any public, private, parochial or Sunday school. The child 
who cannot read and write simple sentences in the English language 
is not allowed to go to work before the age of sixteen is reached. 
The boy who spends the first sixteen years of his life in idleness or 
play is always in danger of becoming a confirmed loafer, and is on 
the highway to illiteracy, vagrancy and crime. 


The statistics of our penal institutions are frequently manipulated 
in such a way as to make a case against the school. The result is 
obtained by neglecting denominators. The number of criminals who 
cannot read and v\ rite is compared with those who have had more or 
less schooling; and since there are less of the former than of the 
latter, the conclusion is drawn that intelligence does not lessen 
crime. The number of criminals who cannot read and write should 
be compared with the total population above a given age (say ten 
years) that cannot read and write; and this ratio should then be 


compared with the ratio obtained by comparing the number of 
criminals who have been at school with the total population that 
has enjoyed schooling. The result is invariably in favor of the 
school, because it is thus shown that the percentage of the illiterate 
who are criminals is larger than the percentage of criminals among 
those who can read and write. Few persons appreciate the moral 
influence which a good school exerts upon the life of the child. Take 
for example so simple a matter as veracity in regard to one's age. 
Many children have three ages. The first is the age obtained from 
the family Bible, or the baptismal certificate. It is the child's cor- 
rect age and is given whenever there is no motive for deception. 
The second is the railway age which is one or more years less than 
the real age. This age the child is taught to give whenever it 
wishes to ride free or for half fare, in cases in which half fare or 
full fare should be paid. From the habit of cheating the railway 
or the trolley line, it is easy to pass to dishonesty towards the em- 
ployer, the municipality, the State and the nation. The third age 
is the factory age which is a j^ear or two more than the real age. 
It is given whenever the child is to begin work before the law al- 
lows, or whenever a minor wishes to get a drink contrary to law. 
Fi'om these forms of law breaking the step is easy to the violations 
of law known as crimes. If the boy who, under our law, has no 
school privileges, does not become a vagrant, he is almost sure to 
break the law by misrepresenting his age in order that he may go 
to work. The law which deprives him of the right to go to school 
therefore tends in two directions to make him a criminal. 


The child who gets no schooling suffers loss in other directions. 
In every good school the pupil acquires habits of industry, obedi- 
ence, politeness, punctuality, regularity, silence, self-restraint, habits 
which become virtues when the will consciously enters into them, 
giving rise to the so-called School Virtues in the life and conduct of 
the pupil. Without these school virtues which are never acquired 
upon the street, the individual cannot hold a job or a position in any 
mercantile or industrial establishment. 

The illiterate man lacks adjustment to the institutions of the 
twentieth century. He cannot keep accounts, nor mark his ballot, 
nor sign his name to a legal document. He cannot write a letter 
home, nor read the letters that are sent to him from home. He 
cannot think the best thoughts of the best men as these are en- 
shrined in literature; nor can he enjoy the instruction and consola- 
tion of the sacred scriptures, unless he finds some one who is willing 
to read to him. The newspapers are to him a sealed volume; he 

viii REPORT OF THE Oft. Doc. 

must learn the news from hearsay. The man or woman who cannot 
read and write is out of place in a civilized community. To grow 
up in the midst of civilization and to be denied the education which 
civilization presupposes, involves hardships which remind one of 
the persecutions of antiquity and which the enlightened Greeks 
sought to prevent. A Roman Emperor in his desire to exterminate 
the Christians, forbade the schooling of their children, a fate which 
they feared worse than martyrdom. The Mytilenians, when masters 
of the sea, punished their allies who had revolted by not allowing 
their children to be taught, deeming this the severest punishment 
which they could inflict. Exile in Siberia has been the fate of some 
who were rash enough to teach Hebrew peasants how to read and 
write. According to the laws of Solon, all the Athenian youth were 
expected to attend school for the purpose of learning to read; tardi- 
ness and truancy were punished by a fine. The father who failed to 
instruct his son in reading, writing, swimming and a trade could 
claim no support from that son in old age. Aristophanes mentions 
it as quite an exception that the sausage seller got no education. 
So necessary did daily school going seem that when the women and 
children of Athens fled to Troezen at the time of the Persian inva- 
sion, the inhabitants, besides supporting them, paid persons to teach 
their children. In the days of George Wolf and Thaddeus Stevens, 
Pennsylvania planted herself on the side of the leader "whose ban- 
ner streamed in light." The design was to bring the blessings of 
education and intelligence within reach of every child. If Pennsyl- 
vania is to carry to its legitimate conclusion the policy that was then 
inaugurated, her law makers must not rest satisfied until every child 
is brought to school. 


In view of the irreparable loss which children deprived of school- 
ing must suffer, ii behooves the legislature to make provision for 
the schooling of the following classes of children: 

1. Children who, after repeated attempts, have not been success- 
fully vaccinated, because they are, or at least seem to be, immune 
from small-pox and vaccinia. 

2. Children whom reputable physicians refuse to vaccinate by 
reason of scrofulous, tubercular or other adverse conditions. 

8. Children whose parents will not allow them to be vaccinated 
on account of prejudices due largely to the excitement caused by anti- 
vaccination literature, 

4. Defective and backward children for whom education cannot 
be provided in schools of the ordinary type. 

5. Children so situated that no school is accessible to them. 



There are sections of this Commonwealth in which (he school 
houses are empty because the parents will not allow their children 
to be vaccinated. One should not shut his eyes to the immense good 
which has been accomplished by the enforcement of our vaccination 
laws. To-day onl3' one case of small-pox is known to exist in the 
State of Pennsylvania. On the other hand, one should not ignore 
the fact that the courts have repeatedly decided that no fine can be 
imposed ui)on parents or guardians for the non-attendance of the 
unvaccinated child. All the punishment, therefore, falls upon the 
innocent child. 

If it were necessary to choose between small-pox and illiteracy, 
the rational man would choose the former as the less of the two 
evils. It is easy to say that the man of sense will shield his child 
from both evils by the aid of vaccination and the school. Maxims 
like these, however true, fail to bring all the children to school. If 
vaccination can be made compulsory, as in German}^, it will go far 
toward solving the problem before us. But if the experience of Eng- 
land and Canada, where troops had to quell the anti-vaccination dis- 
turbances, should cause our legislators to shrink from the enact- 
ment of such drastic legislatioii, then some provision in the form of 
separate schools should be made for the education of children who 
hav-e no school rights under existing laws. 

In any event, the problem should be squarely faced, and no legis- 
lation should be enacted which punishes the innocent for the guilty. 
The parent, or the physician to whom the neglect of vaccination is 
due, should suffer the penalty, rather than the helpless child. If 
the health of the State reqmres that children at school be preserved 
from contact with the unvaccinated, then vaccination should be re- 
quired of teachers, school directors, school officials, health othcers, 
clergymen and Sunday school superintendents; but above all else 
special schools should be provided for the unvaccinated children to 
save them from the consequences of illiterac}', vagrancy and crime. 

Separate schools are also needed for the so-called defective 
classes. These include the deaf, the blind, the feeble-minded, the 
morally delinquent. The act of May 18, 1870, P. L., 157 provides for 
the establishment of special schools for deaf mutes in school dis- 
tricts which have a population of more than twenty thousand in- 
habitants and eight or more deaf mute children of proper age for 
attending school. This law has remained a dead letter upon our 
statute books. The State maintains, separate and apart from the 
public schools, institutions for the education of the deaf, the blind 
and the feeble-minded. Nevertheless some children who belong to 
the defective classes receive no schooling. We also need special 


schools for backward children who do not belong to the defective 
classes, and who by special methods can be advanced to the plane 
of normal children. Philadelphia has taken steps to provide in- 
struction specially suited to backward children, and our other cities 
should in no long time follow this example. The child who asks 
mother to pray that it be made like the other children that get along 
at school, deserves treatment not as morally delinquent, but as a 
backward child whom manual training and other exercises may give 
control of its hands and its mental powers, thus fitting it to play a 
useful part in the life of the community. 


The most potent help in getting the children to school is to put 
them in charge of good teachers. A good teacher makes the school 
the place to which the children best like to go. Children have 
rights as well as duties. One of the rights of the child is the right 
to be happy at school. How can children be happy under a teacher 
who is not happy in his or her work? How can the teacher be 
happy if he or she is inefficient or ill prepared, or poorly paid? 

The inefficient teacher fails to create an interest in study and 
thereby increases the difficulty which the attendance officer experi- 
ences in keeping the truant at school. Where the pupils do not at- 
tend of their own accord, the work of the attendance officer must 
be done over and over again. And of what avail is it to force a 
pupil into a school where he is poorly taught and daily discouraged 
over tasks in which he takes no interest? Without good teachers, 
it is labor lost to build school houses and hire officers whose duty 
imposes upon them the task of bringing the unwilling child t ^ school, 
only to sit there and wait for school to let out. The directors have 
performed the chiefest of their duties when they have selected and 
secured good teachers for all the schools under their jurisdiction. 

Among the hindrances which prevent the putting of good teachers 
into all the schools, are the unsatisfactory methods of employing 
substitute teachers, the multitudinous examinations which must be 
passed to secure promotion or even to hold one's position, and the 
inadequate salaries which cause the brightest minds to look out- 
side of the school room for the chance to earn a livelihood. 


It is folly in the highest degree to put half trained and inexperi- 
enced young girls in charge of a school when the regular teacher is 
absent. By the time the latter returns, the pupils have lost their 
interest in study and the discipline of the school has gone to pieces. 
The substitute teachers should be the best paid and, the most skill- 


ful of those who are regularly employed; and they should be familiar 
with the work in all grades. Under a substitute teacher of this 
kind the pupils do not suffer during the absence of the regular 
teacher. Should a beginner at teaching fail in discipline or methods 
of instruction, she can be sent to visit the best schools whilst the 
substitute takes charge and puts the school into satisfactory shape. 
When the substitute teachers are not needed to take the place of 
others, they can spend the time in helping backward pupils catch 
up in their work, thus saving them from the most — disheartening of 
school experiences — that of dropping back into a lower grade. 


The superintendent who treats the examination as if it were a 
farce soon finds that his teachers and their pupils begin to de- 
teriorate, and that high standards of efficiency cannot be maintained 
without honest tests of scholarship. On the other hand, the superin- 
tendent who relies upon the annual examination of teachers as the 
chief stimulus to study and improvement, thereby shows that he is 
no longer a live coal from the altar, or (to change the figure of speech) 
that he is himself perilously near the dead line. Examinations 
should not be considered a panacea for all the ills by which a school 
system may be afflicted. Those who have carefully studied the ef- 
fect of examinations liken their action to that of drugs which may 
depress, as well as stimulate the person who takes them. If ex- 
aminations possessed the wonderful efficacy which many persons 
ascribe to them, the Chinese schools would be the best in the world, 
and periodic examinations should be prescribed for all school offi- 
cials, including State Superintendents and the United States Com- 
missioner of Education. Teaching is the only profession in which 
such tests are a life-long possibility, and this is due largely to the 
fact that educators and law-makers have not studied the action of 
examinations. Latham who made a specialty of this subject says 
that one great etfort in the way of a heavy examination is a very 
valuable piece of mental discipline, that more than two such efforts 
usually impair the elasticity of the mind, and that a series of them 
would cramp and enfeeble it. He further claims that a succession 
of small efforts has a decidedly injurious effect, there being in them 
''none of the discipline of a grand effort, no gathering of energies 
and concentration of them on a single purpose." The ideal arrange- 
ment is preparation at school for a supreme test as a condition of 
entrance upon any profession, follow^ed by a license setting forth 
that the required standard of qualification has been attained. The 
teacher who wins a life license, or permanent certificate, can af- 
ford to forget the things which it is useless to remember, except 
for examination purposes, and can devote his spare time to the 

xii REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

exploration of new fields of knowledge, tliereby finding the mental 
food whose assimilation is essential to the best growth of the in- 
dividual in his profession. 


For at least a decade the appropriation to the common schools 
has been decreasing, whilst the number of pupils has been increasing. 
The following comparison is very significant: 


Pupils in the public schools, 1,070,612 

School appropriation, |5,500,000 00 

Rate per pupil, 5 14 


Pupils in the public sohools, 1,209,908 

School appropriation, |5,212,500 00 

Rate per pupil, ."". ."r.; , 4 30 

Moreover the appropriations to the other departments of the State 
government have been increasing, whilst those for public schools 
have been diminishing, as will be seen from the following com- 
parison : 

LATURE IN 189.5 AND 1905. 

1895. 1905. 

Charitable institutions, |8T1,873 00 |2,499,975 00 

Indigent insane, 667,181 00 1,621,300 00 

Penitentiaries and reformatories 307,127 00 446,925 00 

Department expenses, 558,041 00 1,446,228 00 

Judiciary, 667,300 00 928,700 00 

Public printing and binding 256,711 00 325,000 00 

National Guard, 350,000 00 400,000 00 

Educational institutions, 6,911,015 6,701,750 

Appropriation to common schools in 1895, |5, 500, 000 00 

State aid to Normal School stnd(Mits 130,000 00 

15,630,000 00 


Appropriation to common schools in 1905, |o,5o0,0U0 00 

From this amount is deducted by the Legislature 
|237,500 for Htate aid to Normal school students and 
1100,000 for township high schools leaving for the 

common schools, 5,212,500 00 

Number of pupils in 1805, 1,070,612 

Number of pupils in 1005, 1,200,908 

It will be accepted as almost an axiom that the appropriation to 
the common schools should keep pace with the increase in wealth 
and in the number of children. No better use can be made of the 
surplus in the State Treasury than to devote it to the right educa- 
tion of the people. Without doubt the boast that of all the States 
in the Union, Pennsylvania makes the largest appropriation for 
school purposes, has obscured the fact that this is the only channel 
through which many forms of our corporation wealth can be made 
to contribute towards the support of the public schools. Much of 
the wealth which we tax only for State jjurposes would in other 
States be taxed locally and in that way be made to contribute to- 
wards the education of the children. Unless the compensation of 
teachers can be materially advanced, it will be impossible to keep 
the schools up to the high standard which they have attained. In 
a number of districts the limit of taxation has been reached and 
the needed advance in teachers' salaries cannot be made without 
more liberal school appropriations by the State Legislature. 


The need of providing for teachers in old age is keenly felt in all 
our cities. ''The pitiable condition of public school teachers who 
liave grown old and inferior in the service," says a w-riter in one of 
the leading dailies, ''has long borne testimony to a sad defect in 
the public school system. The pay gave a meagre living and noth- 
ing more, and made accumulation impossible, except at the cost of 
present privation. It drove the more resourceful teachers into bet- 
ter paying callings ; and by making the profession of school teaching 
unattractive, it is responsible in part for the shortage of school 
teachers at the present time." Cities like New York and Philadel- 
phia have i)rovided a retirement fund for superannuated teachers, 
and if it is at all possible, the Legislature should take steps to make 
similar action possible in the school districts which belong to the 
second, third and fourth class. If retirement funds for firemen de- 
signed to ])romote greater efficiency in the service, are constitutional, 
it is also legitimate for the State to make similar provision for 
teachers, with a view to the improvement of the service. 

xiv REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 


There is a waste of money every second year in the double enrol- 
ment of children. The law, as it now stands, requires an enrolment 
of children under the compulsory law to be made annually, and an 
other enrolment of the children between six and sixteen years of age 
to be made biennially, the latter at a different time of the year, 
thus requiring two enrolments every second year for practically the 
same object— that is, to obtain the names and number of children 
between six and sixteen years. Money can be saved by the enact- 
ment of a law requiring the enumeration under the compulsory at- 
tendance law to be used as the basis for the distribution of one-third 
of the school appropriatioh. Experience has shown that the school 
directors can make this enrolment with more accuracy and at less 
expense than the assessors. 


The liberality of the last Legislature in setting apart one hundred 
thousand dollars in aid of township high schools for each of two 
years has brought the amount paid to the several districts almost 
to the maximum allowed by law. High schools of the first grade 
received |T60; those of the second grade received |570; and those 
of the third grade received |380. Some of these high schools are 
doing excellent work; others are on trial; one was discontinued. 
The total number of township high schools is 234. A State Inspector 
is needed to visit these schools to classify them after personal in- 
spection and to see that the bounty of the State is wisely applied. 
In some sections there is a tendency to put an elaborate course of 
study on paper in the hope of securing a larger share of the State's 
money. It is impossible for one teacher to do justice to more than 
the studies of a high school of the third grade; two are needed for 
a high school of the second grade; and not less than three should 
be employed by the district that is ambitious to have its high school 
rated as a high school of the first grade. 

Many boroughs need help as sadly as the townships; and it is 
hoped that the Legislature may see its way clear to be as liberal 
toward borough high schools as it has been toward those of the 
townships. Simple justice would also require an equal degree of 
liberality towards the high schools of the cities. 


Education is the common creed of the American people. The school 
is the one institution in which all Americans believe. They may 
differ as to the kind of education best suited to the boy and the girl, 


but tliey agree that without good schools we cannot assimilate the 
children of the foreigner to our free institutions, nor can we con- 
tinue to hold the place which we have attained among the nations. 
And jet school teachers are the most poorly paid of all our public 
servants. Good schools cost money, an(i parsimony in school ap- 
propriations is the worst policy which a Commonwealth can adopt. 
Out of the money which has accumulated in the State Treasury the 
next Legislature should make a more liberal appropriation for the 
common schools. Pennsylvania is rich enough to give her children 
all the education they are willing to take, and no more important 
question can occupy the attention of our law-makers than the bet- 
terment of our public schools. 

Kespectfully submitted, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 




Ivelatiiig- to the Public Schools of Pennsylvania for the School Year 
Ending June 4, lOOG — Including Philadelphia. 

Number of school districts in the State, 2,572 

Number of schools, 32,031 

Number of township high schools, 234 

Number of graded schools, 16,227 

Number of superintendents, 155 

Number of male teachers, 7,874 

Number of female teachers, 25,357 

AVhole number of teachers, 33,231 

*Whole number of directors, 16,022 

Average salaries of male teachers per month, |53 16 

Average salaries of female teachers per month, 31) 41 

Average length of school term in months, 7. 69 

Whole number of pupils, 1,229,046 

Average number of pupils, in daily attendance, 938,866 

Cost of school houses — purchasing, building, renting, 

etc., 16,103,741 33 

Teachers' wages, 15,141,652 46 

*Cost of school text-books, 702,273 33 

Cost of school supplies other than text-books, includ- 
ing maps, globes, etc., 748,550 31 

Fuel, contingencies, fees of colhM-tors and other ex- 
penses, 7,482,820 34 

Total expenditures, 30,239,037 77 

Kegular appropriation to common schools for the 

school year ending June 4, 1906, 5,212,500 00 

Appropriation for free tuition of students in State 

Nornml schools for school year ending June 4, 1906, 237,500 00 

Appropriation for township high schools, 100,000 00 

♦Philadelphia not included in this item. 



Items Compai'C'd witli those of tlie rreceding Year Ending- June 5, 
l!)0o — Philadelphia Included. 

Increase in number of districts, 11 

Decrease in number of graded schools, 3,421 

Increase in number of schools, 712 

Decrease in number of male teachers, 154 

Increase in number of female teachers, .' 1,033 

Increase in salarj^ of male teachers per month, |1 35 

Increase in salary of female teachers per month, . . 27 

Decrease in length of school term in months, .48 

Increase in number of pupils, 19,138 

Increase in teachers' wages, |()99,181 G2 

Increase in cost of buildings, purchasing and renting, 742,475 46 
Decrease in cost of fuel, contingencies, debts and in- 
terest paid, 74,350 64 

Condition of System, not Including Philadelphia, with Comparisons. 

Number of districts, 2',o71 Increase, 11 

Number of schools, 27,993 Increase, 598 

Number of pupils, 1,061,406 Increase, 15,318 

Ayerage daily attendance, 784,144 Decrease, 4,398 

Per cent, of attendance, .. .86 No change. 
Ayerage length of school 

term in months 7.65 Decrease, .49 

Number of male teachers.. 7.588 Decrease, 175 
Number of female teach- 
ers, 21,605 Increase, 940 

Whole number of teachers, 29,193 Increase, 765 
Ayerage salai-y of male 

teachers per month, . . . .fSl 36 Increase, $1 45 
Ayerage salary of female 

teachers per month . . / . 38 92 Increase, 37 
Cost of supplies other than 

text-books, 576.052 36 Increase, 35,704 68 

Teachers' wages 11,858,661 36 Increase, 621,499 40 

Fuel and contingencies, . . 6,831,798 48 Increase, 338,175 17 

Cost of text-books 762,273 .33 Increase, 58,501 70 

Purchasing building and 

repairing houses, 4,730..329 65 Increase, 149,056 12 

Total expenditures, 24,759,115 18 Increase, 1,202,937 07 

xviii REPORT OF THE Off. Doc. 

Average number of mills, 
levied for school pur- 
poses, 6 . 65 Increase, .36 

Average number if mills 
levied for building pur- 
poses, 1.60 Increase, .11 

Amount of tax levied, . . . $15,981,970 73 Increase, |1,115,416 73 


Number of schools, 4,038 

Number of male teachers, 286 

Number of female teachers, 3,752 

Average salary of male teachers per month, $172 35 

Average salary of female teachers per month, 72 18 

Number of pupils in school at end of year, 167,640 

Average attendance, 154,722 

Teachers' wages, $3,282,991 10 

Cost of school houses and repairs, 1,373,411 68 

Cost of books, fuel, stationery and contingencies, .... 172,497 95 



County Superintendents. 

ADAMS COUNTY— H. Milton Roth. 

At our annual teacliers' meeting which was held at Gettysburg on 
the first day of September we were assisted by Miss Lillian John- 
son, of Kutztown, who instructed in "The Rational Method of Read- 
ing," and Prof. R. M. McNeal, of Harrisburg, who delivered an im- 
pressive address on the subject of "Personal Influence of the 
Teacher." These meetings are of great value, especially to the in- 
experienced teachers. There were in attendance one hundred and 
sixty-six- teachers to inspire each other with fresh zeal and enthu- 
siasm for the work of the new year. 

Our county institute was never better. Every teacher was 
present to receive the helpful and spirited instruction given by the 
able corps of speakers who occupied the platform. Dr. S. D. Fess, 
of Chicago, and Hon. H. R. Pattengill, of Michigan, were with us 
the entire week. The other instructors w^ere Drs. E. O. Lyte, Jos. 
F. Barton, S. G. Hefelbower and H. U. Roop. Prof. Jerry March, 
of Philadelphia, was director of music. Prof. March stands at the 
head of the class as a music director and the singing proved to be 
one of the special features of the institute. As lecturers we had 
Mattison Wilbur Chase and Mr. J. E. Comerford. The entertain- 
ments were given by the Montauk Ladies' Quartet, Whitney Brothers 
Quartet, and Durno Company. 

The Directors' Convention was very largely attended and proved 
to be the most successful meeting ever held by the directors. They 
decided by a unanimous vote to remain in session two days next 
year. This is a commendable step. Messrs. J. A. Knouse, of 
Arendtsville; H. W. Taylor, of Butler; H. C. Lady, of Franklin; D. 
C. Rudisill, of Mount Joy; E. C. Weisensale, of Conewago township, 




were named as delegates to represent the association at the State 
convention. The first four of the above named delegates were in 
attendance at the State convention which met at Harrisburg in 
February. The officers of the association are as follows: President, 
Kev. C. P. Bastian, Littlestown; Vice President, Mr. J. H. Diehl, 
Franklin, and Mr. P. 0. Smith, of East Berlin; Secretary, Mr. H. W. 
JButler, Couewago township; Treasurer, Dr. T. C. Billheimer, Gettys- 

The usual number of institutes and educational meetings were 
held in many districts. Owing to a lack of interest and profes- 
sional spirit on the part of some of the teachers of several districts 
organizations for institute work were not effected. 

Butler built a new brick school house in the Bridge district, 
twenty-eight by thirty-two feet. 

Fairfield borough enlarged their school grounds and erected a new 
one-story brick building. The building contains three school rooms, 
cloak rooms and a vestibule, and is heated by means of a hot^ir 
furnace in the cellar. 

The Mount Joy board supplied all their schools with excellent out- 
line maps. 

The Butler board purchased maps and charts for two of their 

The McSherrystown high school held a festival at the beginning of 
the term from which they realized the sum of fifty dollars to increase 
their library. 

One hundred dollars were expended to better equip the science 
department of the Gettysburg high school. 

Number of school houses, 170 

Number of schools, 197 

Number of graded schools, 41 

Number of pupils, G,321 

Number of pupils who attended every day, 395 

Number of examinations, 17 

Number of provisional certificates granted, 108 

Number of male teachers, 85 

Number of female teachers, 114 

Average age of teachers, 28 

Number of teachers holding college diplomas C 

Number of teachers holding normal school diplomas,. . 40 

Number of teachers holding permanent certilicates,. . 2? 

Number of teachers holding professional certificate's,. . 2!' 

Number of teachers holding provisional certificates,.. 93 

Number of schools visited by the Superintends nt 197 

Number of schools visited by the directors 15' 

Number of high school graduates, 2 


Number of rural school graduates, 50 

Total number of rural school graduates, '<'56 

Total uumber of rural school graduates graduated from 

State normal schools, 85 

Total number of rural school graduates graduated from 

colleges, 3-^ 

Number of school libraries, 65 

Number of books added, 1^5 

Number of teachers attending school, ^^ 

I am grateful to the School Department, the public press of the 
county, the directors, the teachers, and the friends of education for 
courtesies, co-operation and assistance in carrying forward the work 
of popular education. 

ALLEGHENY COUNTY— Samuel Hamilton. 

You cannot measure the results of school work with mathematical 
exactness. Mental development and growth in character elude the 
efforts of all tangible measurements. We can organize and guide 
the means, but mental and moral growth can be approximated only 
in a general way. 

Our schools, we believe, have made excellent progress during the 
year. The intellectual and ethical results, as far as we can esti- 
mate them, have been good. And if thorough organization, earnest 
co-operation and skillful effort are guarantees of quality and quan- 
tity in these results, our progress educationally has been at least 
as great as in any former year. It is true that some of our directors 
gave no more thought or attention to their schools than if the chil- 
dren were mere articles of merchandise; but upon the whole our 
boards are to be commended for their fidelity and co-operation, and 
our teachers for the earnestness and A'igor of their efforts. 

The Fifty-sixth Annual Session of the Allegheny County Institute 
was held in Allegheny, August 27-31, 1006. It was possibly the 
largest county institute ever held in the State. There were 1,381 
teachers regularly enrolled; but since more than 1,G()0 teachers were 
employed in our county last year, at least 200 teachers were not in 
attendance at the institute. 

The instructors were Hon. Henry Houck; Dr. Andrew W. Edson, 
Associate Superintendent of New York City; Franklin E. Edmonds, 
Esq., Philadelphia. The music was in charge of Prof. T. L. Gibson, 
Ebensburg, Pa. 


During the year, with the aid of our assistant Mr. Dickey, we were 
able to visit practically all the schools in the county, A few were 
missed in Elizabeth and Mifflin townships, but, aside from these and 
an odd school here and there, every school in the county was visited 
once, and some few twice. Not for many years has it been possible 
for one man to visit all the schools annually, and our plan was to 
visit part of the schools in each district every year. Under the pres- 
ent arrangement, however, we expect to be able to make at least 
one short visit to every school in the county each year. 

ARMSTRONG COUNTY— Miles A. Milliron. 

In submitting this, my first report of the schools of Armstrong 
county, it gives me pleasure to state that the work of education has 
made continued advancement along all lines. After assuming the 
responsible duties of the office of County Superintendent, and mak- 
ing a careful review of the existing conditions, we were led to be- 
lieve that the one thing most needed for our schools, especially 
those taught by the younger teachers, was a course of study. Dur- 
ing the month of August we arranged a course of study for the rural 
schools and had a thousand copies printed ready for distribution. 
In order to have the course uniform through the county we pre- 
sented the subject to the directors convention, at which time it was 
unanimously approved and recommended for adoption in the schools; 
the work of having it put into practice required no little effort and 
we were retarded somewhat on account of sickness, during which 
time, our thanks are due to teachers and directors, who so nobly 
stood by us and assisted us in keeping the work in a prosperous con- 

During the year we have attended nearly all the educational meet- 
ings held throughout the county; five county institutes and the 
County Superintendents' Convention at Harrisburg. 

While we have many good teachers among those who have taught 
and those beginning, for various causes there are some who should 
never enter the school room as instructors. They secured a cer- 
tificate, then a school and had reached the goal of their ambition. 
They were no longer students but depend upon the knowledge re- 
ceived from attending some school six or eight years ago. It has 
been our aim, whenever the opportunity afforded itself, to place the 
responsibility of the success of the school upon the teacher, for it 
is our belief that four-fifths of the success of any school depends 
upon the one who is in charge. If we have not succeeded in doing 


any one other thing, we have impressed the teachers of the need of 
greater preparation, and are happy to state that at least eighty 
per cent, if those having taught in the county last year are now 
attending school. Although the work during the past year, in a 
large measure, has been pleasant, we were compelled to perform 
one unpleasant duty; that of annuling three certificates on which 
the marks had been changed by the teacher. We are led to be- 
lieve that our county is not alone in this as we have refused to 
employ teachers coming from other counties for the same reason. 

The county institute was pronounced by all as being one of the 
best ever held in the county; the instructors were the best obtain- 
able, the entertainments were of the highest order and gave uni- 
versal satisfaction. Our teachers attended well and manifested 
an interest that spoke volumes for the advancement of the schools. 
We had with us the following array of talent: Dr. Ruric N. Roark, 
Dr. Francis H. Green, Dr. W. W. Black, Dr. ^Y. W. Deatrick, Prof. 
A. J. Mooney, Miss Anna Leasure, Miss Myrtle June McAteer. 
The following entertainments occupied the evenings: Gen. Z. T. 
Sweeney, Frank Dixon, Katharine Ridgeway Concert Company 
and Roland D, Grant. 

The self reporting system was used for the first time and the 
teachers were placed on their honor. We never had better at- 
tendance or more interest not only with the teachers but every 
one. We were unable to find room for every body who wished to 
attend and possibly 400 to 500 people were turned away at each 
session. There is no better source of inspiration to the teacher 
than a high rated county institute. 

The directors met in their annual convention in the court house 
December the first and second and about 150 of the 282 directors 
were present. There never has been held in our county a more 
enthusiastic convention. A large number of those present took 
part in the discussions and we believe much good was derived from 
the meeting. Dr. T. B. Noss, principal of California Normal, and 
J. George Becht, principal Clarion Normal assisted in the discus- 
sions. S. S. Blyholder, of Bethel township was elected president; 
Hon. G. W. McNeese, of Applewald borough, secretary, and I. K. 
Loomis, of Mahoning township, treasurer. 

Bradys Bend township erected a modern four roomed building 
at Kaylor. Dayton borough erected a four roomed brick building. 
Many other improvements throughout the county added greatly to 
the appearance of the school buildings. 

In closing this report we wish to render our sincere thanks to 
teachers and directors for their hearty support and co-operation, 
to the press of the county for wholesome educational influence., 
and to the Department of Public Instruction for courteous treat- 


BEAVER CO LINT r— Andrew Lester. 

It is difficult to express adequately in a few lines, the work for 
a year of the schools of a county. We might say that in common 
with most counties we had a few schools in Beaver county last 
year that were failures, a number that w'ere successful and a great 
many fairly successful. 

In this, the first year of our administration, we have found a 
very commendable spirit among the teachers in their desire and 
effort to elevate the standard of learning in the county. We shall 
not allow ourselves to become discouraged with teachers who may 
be deficient in scholarship as long as they are making the effort 
to progress. We are glad to say that we have but few teachers 
who are willing to sit down with folded arms to await the good 
will of the school directors and the county superintendent. Our 
teachers, and, we are glad to say, our patrons and school directors 
no longer look upon the school as an auxiliary to charity, but rather 
as a business; a business from which the returns will be com- 
mensurate with the capital invested. 

During the year there were training classes in algebra and civil 
government conducted at three points in the county in which nearly 
one hundred teachers enrolled; more than fifty pursued work by 
correspondence; and we are assured that during the summer al- 
most two hundred will attend school either in the county or at 
neighboring Normal schools. ^ 

In recognition of the efforts put forth by our teachers, we are 
assured that quite material advances will be made in salaries. Last 
year there were eighty schools in the county paying the minimum 
salary; this year there will be no more than one-half that number. 
From careful investigation we are convinced that many patrons 
and school directors of Beaver county are walling and glad to pay 
good salaries to deserving teachers; but we regret that so many 
school boards have not yet adopted the i)lan of graded salaries. 
Good teachers are obliged each year to leave the country dis- 
tricts because as they grow in ability to teach, the salary does not 
grow also. Unless the rural districts offer better inducements 
to retain their experienced teachers, they will soon become train- 
ing schools for the borouglis and for the townships paying higher 
salaries. The fact is patent that a teacher of a few years suc- 
cessful experience should receive a belter salary than a beginner 
or a poorly prepared teacher. We hope shortly to be able to 
require a years special training or at least two summer terms 


of those entering the profession in the county. Our plan is to 
begin the professional training of our teachers at about the age 
of fifteen or sixteen and when they become of a teacher's age they 
will then be ready to take up the work. We would urge parents 
and teachers to encourage the more advanced pupils to begin early 
their preparation to teach. 

In looking over the whole field, we can see much cause for en- 
couragement; yet we wish to mention a few phases of the work 
where we hope improvement will soon be made. Doubtless the 
lack of co-oijeration on the part of parents and directors with the 
teacher is prevalent in other counties, but we confess our share 
of the evil. The average number of visitation in the rural schools 
during the year by directors was two; the average number by 
parents four. We have known teachers who taught successfully 
for seven months without receiving a single word of commenda- 
tion from either director or parent and who left the school with- 
out even a hint that they might return next year. Some of our 
teachers set apart special days, called parents' days, one or two 
during the year, when invitations were issued to all parents in 
the district. Work of the pupils prepared for the occasion was 
placed on exhibition and quite a lively interest was manifested 
and much good done in the districts. We hope that the coming 
year all the schools of the county will arrange to have similar 

Not only do our schools lack unity of interest, but they also 
lack uniformity of purpose and plan. During the directors meet- 
ing at the county institute the question of a uniform system for 
the rural and village schools of the county was discussed and a 
course of study, Berkey's Manual and Guide for Teachers, was 
adopted. It is expected that the course of study will go into 
operation in all parts of the county the coming year. As soon as 
we secure some degree of uniformity in our work, we expect to 
hold examinations for common school graduation. 

Be it said to the shame of Beaver county that not half the schools 
have proper outbuildings. There is a question of morality involved 
here for which many school directors do not seem to consider 
themselves accountable. The first thing that many school boards 
ought to do in this county is to erect at every school house nice 
new water closets; then to see that they are kept clean and that 
they are cared for and disinfected properly. There is no moral 
question involved in a poor blackboard, but there may be in a 
poor water closet. 

Two new school buildings were completed during the year; one 
in New Sewickley township and one in the borough of Monaca. 
The latter building is among the best in the county, being erected 



on plans approved by the best school men, and costing about thirty 
thousand dollars. At least two new buildings are contemplated for 
the coming year. We have been urging the directors of the county 
to improve and beautify not only the school buildings but also the 

We cannot yet report any centralized schools or township high 
schools. The six academies which long did such excellent work 
for the county have gone into disuse and the need of high schools to 
take the place of these academies is very apparent. A high school 
is under consideration in Ohio township and we believe that when 
one high school is established, others will soon follow. 

Our annual county institute was held December 30, to January 4. 
From the comments that were made by the teachers and others, 
we feel warranted in saying that the institute was a success. The 
day instructors were Dr. R. N. Roark, Dr. Edwin Erie Sparks, and 
Dr. H. R. Pattengill. The evening entertainments consisted of 
lectures by Drs. Sparks and Pattengill, Roland D. Grant, Guy C. 
Lee, a recital by Mrs. Beecher, and a concert by the Green Family 
Concert Company. We were much pleased at the interest shown 
not only by teachers but also by visitors in the institute; and we 
are indebted to the patrons for the hearty support in trying to make 
the event one of pleasure to all concerned. 

The almost total lack of direct personal supervision by the county 
superintendent over the individual schools of the county leads us 
to mention the matter of district superintendents. It is impos- 
sible for a superintendent to visit all the schools of Beaver county 
more than once each year. Last year we visited all the schools in 
the county but seven. Some we visited twice; and a few three 
times. These visits averaged less than two hours each. We believe 
that the greatest amount of good done by a county superintendent 
does not consist in his visitations. The casual observer judges the 
superintendents work hj its outward manifestations; the visitations 
and the teacher's examinations. The first of these duties is looked 
upon as a mere formal duty and indeed to some extent it is, for no 
one can do a great amount of good by visiting a school two hours per 
year. We feel that if Beaver county were divided into six districts 
with a district superintendent over each having about forty schools 
for each superintendent, we could accomplish grand results for the 
county; but this would mean an additional cost to the county of at 
least eight thousand dollars. When we consider the cost, we dis- 
miss the idea. 

A scheme which would accomplish the same ends, only less ef- 
fectively might properly be submitted. For an expense of about 
one-tenth of the above sum, six good teachers, one in each district 
could be secured who could teach a school and work in conjunction 


with the county superintendent in their respective districts. The 
salary of such a superintendent would be paid by the district over 
which he would have supervision. This superintendent would be 
appointed by a convention of school directors from all the town- 
ships composing the district together with the advice of the county 
superintendent. A teacher who is now receiving a salary of |45, 
would, with the superintendency, receive, say |60 or |65. This 
superintendent would arrange for local institutes, conduct teachers 
classes on Saturdays, visit teachers who might need help, especially 
beginners, report and meet with the county superintendent at stated 
times, and do various other things that the county superintendent 
cannot do because of the large scope of territory he has in charge. 
The cost of such supervision would not exceed |5 per school; the 
results would be incalculable. We have known many promising 
young teachers fail merely because there was no one to come up 
and give a little timely assistance. With district supervision, our 
efforts could be concentrated where assistance is needed. 

We wish to express our gratitude to the Department of Public 
Instruction and to the directors and teachers of Beaver county for 
the kindly assistance and co-operation during this first year of our 
administration. We hope for even more united effort the coming 
year in an attempt to make the schools of Beaver county the equal 
of any in the State. 

BEDFORD COUNTY— J. Anson Wright. 

The work done in the schools of the county during the past year 
was, in the main, honest, thorough and efficient. While there were 
no striking examples of superior achievement, there were, on the 
other hand, very few of the discouraging features that not infre- 
quently interfere with the steady progress of the schools. The prin- 
ciple that the best way to improve the school is to raise the standard 
of teachers' qualifications has been followed as closely as practicable. 
The recent advance in teachers' wages under the new salary law is 
no doubt responsible, in large part at least, for an increase last year 
in the number of applicants for a teacher's certificate. The number 
advanced from 356 to 410. Taking advantage of this fact, the mini- 
mum age of those who were to be regarded as eligible to receive a 
teacher's certificate was advanced in this county from 17 years to 
18 years and the requirements in examinations were made more rigid. 


The result may be only partially shown by figures. Last year 81 
applicants, or but 24 per cent, of those who entered the examina- 
tions, were refused certificates. This year 136 applicants, or 33 per 
cent., were rejected. Thus both in the average age and the scholastic 
attainments of the teachers the effort was made to raise the stand- 
ard. In theory the requirements may be regarded by some as still 
much too low. True as this claim may be, the law of supply and 
demand so operates here as to prevent a more rapid advance. As a 
matter of fact scarcely more were commissioned to teach than were 
necessary to fill the schools. Teachers' wages have been steadily, 
though very slowly, advancing in the county during the past six or 
seven years. The average monthly salary paid to men teachers, 
based on the number of the same, is now $38.95, an increase of 9 
cents over that of last year, and of women teachers, |35.67, a gain 
of 18 cents over that of the preceding year. While many district are 
now paying teachers apparently all they can afford to pay them 
under present conditions, it is evident that the wages are still not 
high enough in most districts to command the services of trained and 
experienced teachers. The problem before us along this line is to 
make it possible for every district to pay sufficient salaries to obtain 
superior teachers and to educate the public to demand such teachers. 
In regularity of attendance the statistics for this year equal 
those of the improved record for last year, the average monthly per- 
centage of attendance being 87, while the number in attendance 
every day of the term advanced from 945 to 1018 and is now equal to 
nearly 10 per cent, of the total number enrolled. The enrollment, 
however, dropped from 10,840 to 10,534. Since there were but 65 
pupils of school age not in any school during the term as against 
67 last year, the falling off in the enrollment is evidently due to an 
actual decrease in the number of pupils of school age. The pro- 
portion between the number of teachers holding only a provisional 
certificate and those holding a certificate of higher grade was as 
207 to 139, the ratio last year being as 200 to 142. It is to be re- 
gretted that the change, while slight, was in the wrong direction. 
The number of women teachers in the county is 184 and exceeds the 
number of men teachers by 20. Until within a very few years the 
men were in the majority, but as in most other counties, though to a 
lesser extent in our case, the majority in favor of the women is in- 
creasing. A one-room house in Broad Top township is the only 
school building erected in the county during the year. It is a sub- 
stantial and well-planned building embodying some good modern 
features of construction. The improvement of the school grounds 
at Defiance is worthy of special mention. A good picket fence was 
built around the grounds and, under plans submitted by a competent 
landscape gardener, walks were laid out and cori&tructed, trees were 


set, flower plots were made, and shrubbery was planted. The cost 
of planting- and fencing the grounds was about |4(J0. In placing 
new pictures on the walls and making additions to libraries, many 
of the teachers of the county showed commendable zeal in continu- 
ing a good w^ork recently begun in this direction. In the matter of 
libraries, the work done in Bloomfield township is worthy of special 
notice. In the Broad Top township high school and in the Everett 
schools valuable commercial and geographical cabinets were in- 
stalled during the year. The number of graduates from the common 
schools in 1906 was 95, eight of whom were graduated from our two 
township high schools, in the three years' course. 

The county school directors' convention held at Bedford in De- 
cember last was the largest and most successful of the three an- 
nual meetings so far held. Thirty-six of the forty-one districts of 
the county, or all but five, were represented by one or more di- 
rectors, w^hile a few districts sent full delegations. The total en- 
rollment w^as 115, exceeding that of the preceding year by 42. The 
president, F. E. Colvin, in his opening address emphasized the value 
of a convention such as this. What the grange is to farmers, the 
bar association to lawyers, synods and conferences to ministers, in- 
stitutes to teachers, this convention should be to school directors. 
The law makes it the duty, as it should be the pleasure, of every di- 
rector to attend; and all must enter into the discussions if the best 
results are to be attained. The law now provides for the reasonable 
compensation of the directors who attend the convention, and 
rightly so. The directors were particularly fortunate in having the 
State Superintendent, Dr. Schaeflfer, wdth them in this convention. 
Among the many good things that he said was his statement that, 
in the matter of securing good teachers, the greatest obstacles to be 
overcome are party, family, and church influences. Again, a form 
of "inbreeding" is practiced in many districts whereby only home 
teachers are emploA^ed. The teaching talent thus deteriorates. The 
best teachers obtainable should be employed, let their residence be 
where it may. New ideas are beneficial in school work, as new 
blood is vivifying to stock. 

The institute held in December last was attended by 328 of the 
335 teachers of the county. The work and the interest, as well as 
the attendance by teachers and the public, were up to the same high 
standard as in former years. The instructors were Dr. Brumbaugh. 
Prof. Albert, Prof. Green, and Supt. McGinnis; reciter. Miss Her- 
ring. The evening lectures and entertainments were given by J. 
Hampton Moore, Dr. Brumbaugh, Kussel H. Conwell, Carmen's 
Italian Boys, and the Cosmopolitan Concert Company. 



Four new school buildings were erected the past year. 

Longs wamp erected a model four-roomed township high school 
building with all of the modern conveniences and appliances at a 
cost of |10,000. The structure is of brick with sandstone trim- 

Caernarvon erected a substantial four-roomed township high 
school building at Morgantown at a cost of |8,000. This building 
is of stone, with suitable basement for manual training. 

It was dedicated on the first of the year and reflects the public 
school spirit of this enterprising community in a marked degree. 

Lower Alsace erected a handsome two-roomed brick structure at 
Stony Creek Mills, thus centralizing and grading part of its schools. 
The two former one-roomed buildings were abandoned. The di 
rectors of this township deserve great credit for their foresight and 

Heidelberg erected a one-roomed brick structure with all con- 
veniences — «ellar heat, slate blackboards, cloak rooms, library room, 
porch, steeple, with bell, artesian well on grounds, etc., at a cost of 

Birthday Celebrations. 

The past year the birthdays of two authors were celebrated in 
the schools with suitable exercises. 

November 13 was observed as Robert Louis Stevenson Day. An 
eight-page circular containing suggestive matter for observance of 
the day was forwarded to each teacher in the county. Interest was 
renewed in his writings and many patrons, teachers and pupils 
bought and read the most popular of his writings. 

In his tribute to Stevenson, Andrew Long says: "I have known 
no man in whom the pre-eminently manly virtues of kindness, 
courage, sympathy, generosity, helpfulness were more beautifully 
conspicuous than in Mr. Stevenson, and none so much loved — ^it is 
not too strong a word — by so many and such various people." 

The bi-centenary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin was cele- 
brated in many of the schools on the 17th of January. His auto- 
biography was read in the higher grades while his achievements as 
printer, statesman, diplomat, inventor and scientist were told by 
the teachers in all grades. 

Franklin was one of the rare men who, to astonishing, if not 
indeed quite unequaled, variety of talent, add those qualities of the 


heart which rank him high among the benefactors of the race. 
What a really wonderful career it was in its scope, in its length 
and continuity, in steadfast and alert energy, in its influence on 
the lives of men and nations. No wonder that the whole civilized 
world is paying tribute to the memory of this great American. 

Township High Schools. 

During the past year township high schools were established at 
Wernersville, Robesonia, Longswamp and Oley. There are now 
nine of these schools in the county — high schools in fact as well 
as name — and every one comes up to expectations. 

Longswamp by properly locating its magnificent newly erected 
high school building — consolidated and centralized part of its 
schools. There are now three grades with an additional grade to 
be opened another year. The pupils attending are only too glad 
under the present improved school facilities to transport them- 
selves. Two first class one-roomed buildings were abandoned. 

Consolidation and centralization of schools is rapidly gaining 
ground in this county. Longswamp is again slowly, but surely re- 
suming its former place in the educational ranks of the districts in 
the county. 

Oley merged the Academy into a township high school of the 
second grade and its Principal, C. Waldo Leinbach, a graduate of 
Franklin and Marshall College, became principal of the township 
high school. This was the last Academy in the county and has been 
in existence since 1857. No other institution of learning in the 
county outside of the Keystone State Normal School has been more 
potent in raising and maintaining the standard of education in rural 
Berks than this school. Its many students who are graduates of 
higher institutions of learning, are testimonies to its usefulness. 
The benefits arising to the immediate locality of the school were 

A modification of courses of study should be made which should 
provide for the introduction in these schools the elements of agri- 
culture and domestic science and such further lines of industrial 
education as local conditions may make feasible. The strictly agri- 
cultural or industrial high school is found in but few localities in 
this country, but the character of the work already done in exist- 
ing schools of this class, the interest they aw^aken, and the hearty 
support they receive from the agricultural communities maintain- 
ing them, the history of these schools in foreign countries, the value 
of their work, both for disciplinary and practical purposes, all com- 
bine to present the strongest reasons for schools of this type. 

These schools are an absolute necessity for the proper develop- 
ment and re-organization of the rural school system. These schools 


should be distinctively industrial in their character. A revolution 
in industrial methods is going on to-day and our educational ma- 
chinery must be remodeled sufficiently to meet it. 

Protection to Child Labor. 

The arrest and conviction of a number of manufacturers in sev- 
eral of our towns for disregarding the child labor law had a whole- 
some effect on school attendance in those districts. It is a dis- 
grace to this great State that the cause of the child workers in the 
mills has not been taken up and its laws rigidly enforced until quite 
recently. The child labor blot is now being gradually swept from 
Pennsylvania's escutcheon. Yes, there are better forces at work 
in our American life. What we need is the full awakening, the 
time when we can desist from the struggle for wealth to consider 
the cost. We, as a nation, are money-mad. We worship the golden 
calf. So long as we all feverishly want the myriad things that 
money will buy, so long will we go through fire and water, regardless 
of results, to get wealth. There are hopes that this wave of riotous 
living will some day run its course; it will leave much wreckage be- 
hind, but it will purify society and clear the way for a finer civiliza- 
tion, under which the dollar will no longer be the autocrat that it 
now is. 

In history we read of the acts of despots in time of slavery, but 
never was there slavery more cruel than that to which the children 
of the present day are subjected in the daily grind of the mills. 
The cause is greed, greed, greed. It forms a new page in the story 
of man's inhumanity to man. 

There is no general crime so diabolical as to rob a child of the 
very fundamentals of an all-round educational discipline, of every 
feature of boyhood joyousness, of physical elasticity and mental 
hopefulness by putting him to work for long hours in mine, mill, 
or factory. Christian faith, economic sanity, social rectitude are 
never natural to such a child. The tendency is to dwarf him phy- 
sically, as well as mentally and morally. 

Organized labor may have its faults, but it also has its virtues, 
not the least of which is its uniform, intelligent, and ardent opposi- 
tion to child labor, and its advocacy of the best child labor laws in 
every State in the Union. Dr. Felix Adler, the noted New York 
ethical culturist, recently said: 

"The emancipation of childhood from economic servitude is a 
social reform of the first magnitude. If it comes to be an under- 
stood thing that a certain sacredness 'doth hedge' around a child, 
that a child is industrially tabooed, that to violate its rights is to 
touch profanely a holy thing, that it has a soul which must not be 
blighted for the prospects of mere gain — if this be generally con- 


ceded with regard to the child, the same essential reasoning will be 
found to apply also to the adult workers; they, too, will not be 
loked upon as mere commodities, as mere instruments for the ac- 
cumulation of riches. I have great hopes for the adjustment of our 
labor difficulties on a higher plane, if only we can gain the initial 
victory of inculcating regard for the higher human nature that is 
present potentially in the child." 


It is with a great deal of pride to report that during the vaccina- 
tion "upheavel" of last winter fully 90 per cent, of the patrons 
throughout the county readily complied in having their children 
vaccinated. Nothing has given us greater satisfaction than the 
general compliance of the vaccination law. It speaks volumes for 
our people. The level of intelligence is rising in this county. The 
presumptive individual intelligence which has been relied upon to 
adopt a personal protection to health and life, the value of which 
has been universally demonstrated, has not been a delusion and a 
snare. The cry of the ignorant, incompetent and demagogue availed 
very little. 

Those curious people who believe the dial hand of progress should 
turn backward, esi)ecially in the matter of prevention and cure of 
diseases, hare received very little encouragement. It is indeed a 
pity that those who are so fond of fighting the very hand that is 
lifted to help them should not migrate to those "happy" countries 
in the Orient, where nobody bothers about modem sanitation or 
preventive means, where everj body is free to give and free to ac- 
quire disease and do it and where the plague-stricken die like flies, 
with none to care, none to help. It is in civilized lands and among 
people that believe that there is a community of interest on the 
part of many in the individual, and who are determined that the in- 
dividual shall not sacrifice the community, nor the community the 

Opposition to vaccination is criminally unreasonable. It would 
be more of a credit to the people of our Commonwealth if they would 
erect a monument to the State Health Commissioner, Dr. Dixon, 
for enforcing the health laws of the State, than by burning him in 
effigy or condemning him in resolutions for doing his duty. The 
effort to make vaccination universal should be supported by all in- 
telligent citizens. In a few districts the excitement was intense 
and the prejudices approached fanatical superstition. There were 
sporadic cases of fanatical opposition. In one district the teacher 
went to school every iaj for four months and sat before empty 
benches. The directors would not listen to a resignation and stood 
noblv bv the teacher. 


The directors of the county, at their annual convention in the fail 
were practically unanimous in giving their unqualified support to 
the teachers in their enforcement of the law and in only one in- 
stance was any attempt made by a local Board to intimidate their 
teachers to openly violate the law by admitting unvaecinated chil- 
dren, but the teachers magnanimously refused to become law- 
breakers. Our teachers deserve great credit for their heroic part 
under the most trying circumstances. They are imbued with the 
right idea that to obey the law is the most important duty of an 
American citizen. 

That it is more important to teach respect for law than it is to 
teach the three R's. 

Better a nation of ignorant people who obey the law than a nation 
of educated law-breakers. 

One teacher was arrested and fined for non-compliance with the 
law. In another district a bellicose and belligerent parent during 
a noon intermission laid violent hands upon a young athletic teacher 
for not accepting his vaccinated children without a physician's cer- 
tificate. The parent was hors de combat in less than two minutes 
and was confined to bed badly bruised for several days. The teacher 
was arrested, but the plaintiff is not pressing the case. 

A highly cultured and refined young lady in a one-teacher district 
was driven into the street from her boarding place by an irate patron 
for sending home his unvaecinated children. She readily obtained 
another boarding place. Her pluck made her a heroine and her 
other patrons, to a man, rallied to her support and denounced the 
offending patron in not very complimentary terms. 

Mrs. Lora C. Little, editor of an anti-vaccination journal published 
in Minneapolis, tried to organize a number of anti-vaccination socie- 
ties and leagues in the county, but failed to get any enthusiastic 
support and encouragement. We are opposed to the law as it 
stands, as it punishes the innocent instead of the guilty. 

Law Should be Amended 

So as to put the responsibility on the parents, physicians and health 
authorities and not on the teachers. Children should be vacci- 
nated before school age. 

No one will ever succeed in doing away with a vaccination law 
in this State. While other States and the federal government are 
passing laws to protect the health of their people we certainly will 
not take a step backward toward the dark ages. 

Every child should go to school and every child should be vacci- 
nated. The sooner these two principles are recognized the better. 

No. 6. BLAIR COUNTY. 17 


We are still moving in the right direction. Last year we had 
237 school rooms, this year 245, a gain of 8. 

Seven new houses were built and occupied during the year, all 
being built of brick, costing from $1,600 to |10,000 each, heating, 
ventilating and furnishing of the latest approved modern designs. 

Out of the 159 houses in the county, we have (11) eleven that 
should be torn down, blown down, or burned down, they are eye 
sores in the communities in which they are located. Two of them 
will be replaced with modern brick buildings this year. 

I wish I could say as much for the outbuildings and surroundings 
of school properties. A great deal of missionary work remains to 
be done in this field. We try to impress upon school officials, and 
teachers in particular that time spent upon beautifying grounds 
and keep out houses locked and cared for is just as important as 
courses of study, programs, recitations, etc. 

We have a gain of 6 graded schools over last year. 

Algebra is not taught in as many schools as last year. Teachers 
were starting classes in algebra before the pupils had enough 
knowledge of arithmetic to make the study profitable. Better to 
know something well than to know more things poorly. 

Two hundred eleven (211) provisional certificates were granted, 
and of these 122 were elected to teach in the schools of the county. 
Of this 122, thirty-five (35) had no previous experience. Twenty-five 
(25) of these beginners would make good teachers if they would re- 
main in the business and improve their minds by study and obser- 
"\ ation, but so many of the good teachers of a few years experience 
leave to enter some other business that pays more money that it 
makes a superintendent heart sick when he looks around and sees 
the people that appear to be chosen of God to lead the young, drift 
off into clerkships, business pursuits, or matrimony, and their places 
taken by the young, immature and often helpless. 

If only some way cOuld be devised to hold the truly worthy and 
pay the price to keep them. Many school men think it looks too 
much like discrimination to pay one teacher |40 per month and 
another |80 per month to teach the same grade of school in the 
same township but I think it shows discrimination to pay them 
both alike when the one is worth double, yes ten times the other 
in the amount and quality of work done. 



I am well aware it would be a difficult affair to adjust, for wlio 
should be tlie judge of the work of the two teachers? 

Our average age of teachers this year is 27, a gain of 3 years over 
last when it was 24. 

Twenty-eight per cent, of our teachers are males. 

Eighty-nine of our teachers have taught over five years, a loss of 

19 over last year. 

We have lost in Normal graduates, and gained in professional 
and permanent certificates. Also gained in college graduates. 

More books have been added to school libraries, new libraries have 
been started in school houses where none existed before, better 
wages are paid to teachers, a few dollars more per month, more 
interest has been manifested in educational meetings. 

The only thing that shows a serious loss is the per cent, of at- 
tendance and that is owing almost entirely to the ''obnoxious vac- 
cination law." The majority of the people in the rural districts 
of this county look upon it as an infringement upon their personal 
liberties. They say: ''What is to hinder the State from passing 
a law that we must all eat bran bread and our clothing must be 
uniform?" The worst case of small-pox we had in the county was 
that of a vaccinated person and this did not help the matter any 
but made room for more opposition to the law. One school dropped 
to two pupils and remained at that the balance of the term. 

A new uniform course of study for the rural schools of the county 
was introduced into all the rural schools by the Superintendent. 
It more nearly folloM's the plan of the Michigan course of study for 
rural schools than any other. At the close of the schools or during 
the last two weeks of school one hundred and one (101) pupils were 
examined in the county as having completed this course. Diplomas 
were given to eighty-seven (87). By combining districts, the Super- 
intendent was personally able to examine these pupils. It required 
seven different examinations. Those receiving diplomas are ready 
to enter a high school. We believe that in a very few years the 
number of applications for diplomas will be doubled. 

The County Institute was a success. Dr. M. G. Brumbaugh, of 
University of Pennsylvania; Supt. W. W. Stetson, of Maine, and 
Prof. J. A. Myers, of Juniata College were the day instructors, Jerry 
March, of Philadelphia was the music leader. 

The night lectures were given by Dr. Brumbaugh and Dr. Sch- 
mucker, of West Chester, Pa. There were two entertainments 
given, one by Whitney Brothers Male Quartette, the other by Car- 
men's Italian Boys. 

Four teachers were absent, detained by sickness, large crowds of 
the public attended. 

The directors' convention was attended bv one hundred eleven 


(111) directors out of 156 in the county, each district had, at least, 
one representative. Dr. O. T. Corson, of Columbus, Ohio, was in at- 
tendance and j^ave three talks to directors and the public. 

Our local institutes were well attended this year, especially by 

Since sending in our last report, Justice John Dean of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania, a resident of this county, a superintendent 
of the county schools from 1857 to '59, and a much loved and re- 
spected citizen of this community, has passed away. His forefathers 
were the pioneer settlers of this locality, some of the members of the 
earlier families were massacred by Indians. 

Justice Dean was strong in body and intellect and had an unsur- 
passed knowledge of men and affairs and a truer man to his friends 
never breathed. Peace to his ashes. 

I thank the Department, the press, teachers, patrons and pupils 
for assistance in this great educational work. 


Strict adherence to the higher standard of qualifications demanded 
for teachers' certificates required a great amount of examination 
work iH'ior to the opening of the schools. Fourteen public exami- 
nations were held, 276 provisional certificates and 24 professional 
certificates were granted and 67 applicants were rejected. The num- 
ber of schools opened was 462, being an increase of 13 over last 
year. There were employed 88 male teachers and 385 female 
teachers; their average age was 25 years. Fifty-eight had had no 
previous experience while 197 had taught more than five years: of 
the teaching force 252 held provisional certificates, 110 held profes- 
sional certificates, 24 permanent certificates, 87 were Normal gradu- 
ates, 43 had attended a Normal school but did not graduate, and 53 
received all their education in the common schools, 15 were gradu- 
ates of colleges. These figures show a constant increase in the 
qualification of the teachers over former years, with possibly this 
exception, that the number of male teachers employed has been 
growing less from year to year. 

The Annual Teachers' Institute was held at Towanda the week 
of October 9. The instructors were Dr. Martin G. Brumbaugh of 
the University of Pennsylvania; ex-Commissioner O. T. Corson, of 
Columbus, Ohio; Deputy Superintendent Henry Houck, of Harris- 
burg, Pa.; Professor Charles H. Albert, of Bloomsburg, Pa.; Super- 
intendent Charles Lose, of Williamsport, Pa.; Miss Maude Willis, 


of Lock Haven, Pa.; Prof. O. H. Yetter, of Bloomsburg, Pa., musical 
director, and Mrs. C. R. Stiles, of Towanda, Pa. The evening lec- 
tures and entertainments were as follows: Monday — Dr. Martin G. 
Brumbaugh, lecture on "Americanism and Puerto Rico;" Tuesday — 
Dr. W. Quay Rosselle, "The University of Adversity ;" Wednesday— 
Dr. Frank Bristol, "Brains;" Thursday— Recital, Miss Willis; Ad- 
dress- Supt. Houck; Friday— The Lotus Glee Club and Minnie Mar- 
shall Smith. 

Nearly all the teachers were in attendance at the Institute and 
showed their appreciation of the high order of the instruction re- 
ceived, by words of commendation and it was generally voiced by 
all persons present that no better Institute had ever been held in 
this county. 

Three interesting sessions of the Bradford County Educational 
Association were held during the year. In the different sections of 
the county eleven local institutes were held and were attended by 
nearly all the teachers in the several communities. 

The Bradford County Directors' Association held a two day ses- 
sion at Towanda on February 21st and 22d. There were present 
about 200 directors. Great interest was shown in the discussion 
of the various topics. The evening session was addressed by Super- 
intendent James M. Coughlin, of Wllkes-Barre. The association 
adopted a constitution and by-laws and put itself on a sound finan- 
cial basis by assessing each member in attendance 50 cents to meet 
the expenses of delegates to State Directors' Association and other 
expenses not provided for by the county appropriation. 

Early in the year a course of study was sent to all the schools in 
the county which had not already an adopted course. Each teacher 
classified her pupils and made a report to the County Superin- 
tendent, giving the name, age and grade of each pupil in her school. 
To all teachers having eighth grade pupils, examination questions 
for completion of the common branches were sent, and from the 
report received it appears that 352 pupils took the examination and 
that 117 were successful in passing. About 600 pupils received 
perfect attendance certificates, which was a remarkable increase 
over last year, and when consideration is taken of the fact that so 
many of the schools were largely broken up by the enforcement of 
the vaccination law, this number reflects much greater credit for 
the interest the pupils have taken in their school work. No ques- 
tion in recent years has interfered so much with the successful opera- 
tion of the schools as the enforcement of the law requiring the 
vaccination of pupils before their admission to the school. Nearly 
all our teachers made strong effort to enforce the law and some were 
humiliated by finding that teachers in neighboring schools, who 
did not enforce the law, were neither arrested or interfered with by 

No. e. BUCKS COUNTY. . 21 

the Commissioner of Health, although frequent announcement to 
this effect was made by the aforementioned person. 

There should be speedy legislation on this question to the end 
that a child shall not be deprived of the right to become an intel- 
ligent citizen and religious person because his parent or guardian 
will not consent to have him vaccinated. 

The average country child is in less danger of getting small-pox 
while in school than when out of school for the reason that he comes 
in contact with fewer persons who might be infected with the dis- 
ease. If compulsory vaccination is necessary let a law be enacted 
requiring all persons to be vaccinated but do not put the penalty on 
the child's right to an education. 

Township high schools at Smithfleld, Orwell and Campton were 
in successful operation last year and held very creditable commence- 
ment exercises at the close of the term. The new law giving pupils 
who have no high school privileges in the districts in which they 
live, the privilege of attending high schools in neighboring districts, 
has resulted in a large number of young people taking advantage 
of the privileges of the act. Some dissatisfaction has arisen on the 
part of the districts who are obliged to pay for the tuition, the 
criticism being that pupils are accepted in the high schools who are 
not qualified. Uniform examinations for applicants wishing to 
attend high schools would strengthen the law and serve as an in- 
ducement for better work in the grades leading up to the high school. 

The consolidation of schools is gradually becoming more popular, 
and much success has been obtained in the different townships 
which have done the most in the direction of centralizing schools. 

lUJCKS COUNTY— J. M. Shelley. 

Although I have served in my present capacity but the latter half 
of the present year, if I have been able to read the signs of the 
times correctly there has been a decided advance in the work of 
education in the county since the last report. 

The start was made at the last triennial Directors' Association 
Convention when the salary of the superintendent was raised from 
|1,800 to |2,200. This not only showed the directors' appreciation 
of the work of my. predecessor but aroused an increased interest in 
the work of the superintendent. 

During the first month of the school year a series of educational 
meetings w^as held throughout the county in which the superin- 


tendent met all the teachers for the consideration and discussion 
of plans for the coming year's work. 

One of the most successful institutes in the history of the county 
was held at the county seat from October 30 to November 3, 1905. 
The instructors were Dr. S. D. Fess, Chicago University; Dr. John 
S. Stahr, President of Franklin and Marshall College; Dr. Martin 
G, Brumbaugh, University of Pennsylvania; Hon. John H. Landis, 
Huperintendent of the U. S. Mint ; Kev. O. S. Kriebel, Principal Per- 
kiomen Seminary; Prof. H. A, Surface, State Econo\nic Zoologist; 
Dr. George W. Hull, Millersville State Normal; Dr. G. M. Philips, 
West Chester State Normal, Prof. A. C. Rothermel, Kutztown State 
Normal; Dr. Woodrow Wilson, President of Princeton University. 
The music of the institute was under the excellent direction of Prof. 
Jerry March, Girard College. 

The graded course of study has now been adopted by a majority 
of the districts and has done much to bring about that uniformity 
and concerted action for which we are all striving. 

Toward the end of the year each teacher of the county was sup- 
plied with two classification blanks one of which has been deposited 
with the local secretary and the other in the office of the Superin- 
tendent. These reports contain a complete record of the school, 
the grades of the pupils last year and next together with their 
class averages in each subject for the year past. On the reverse 
side is the complete program as followed during the past year and 
other miscellaneous statistics. These reports are intended to aid 
in the re-organization of the school at the opening the next term. 

The teaching force has been somewhat disturbed during the year 
owing to considerable sickness and a number of deaths which to- 
gether with the resignation of the Superintendent to accept the po- 
sition as Superintendent of City Schools of Norristowu and the 
consequent appointment of his successor from the ranks of the 
county caused considerable shifting throughout the year. It 
brought out invariably the desirability of having regularly employed 
substitutes wherever it is possible to do so. 

All but two of the ''short" term districts have lengthened the 
term to eight months and in many districts throughout the county 
the salaries have been raised. 

Economy of the right kind has been practised by some of the 
districts in closing certain schools having only from five to ten 
pupils on the roll and transporting them at the expense of the 
district to the nearest school. 

The annual Directors' Association discussed very favorably the 
adoption of a uniform minimum course of study for the high schools 
of the county. We hope to be able to report next year that this 
has been accomplished. 

No. 6. BtJTLP]R COUNT V 23 

New townsliip high schools have been established during the year 
at Feasterville, Southampton township, and Sohibury, Solebury 
township, making a total of eleven townships having approved high 
schools and twelve township high schools. 

The twenty-six township graduation and high school graduation 
examinations conducted by the superintendent showed progress in 
most districts but a lack of uniformity of standards in the various 

I took up my work in the middle of the year with some degree of 
anxiety but with the kind indulgence of the State Department and 
the cordial co-operation of the directors of the county the year has 
been closed with some feeling of satisfaction and gratification that 
the break in the year's work has not been greater and I look for 
ward to the coming year with hopeful anticipation. 

Gratefully acknowledging the kind assistance of the State Super- 
intendent and of former superintendent, Prof. Martin, in break- 
ing in a 'green' man in the middle of the year. 

BUTLER COLTNTY— R. S. Penfleld. 

To sum up the year's labors in the various avenues of school duties 
is a difficult matter. For we patiently sow and plant and water 
and watch, but the harvest is not yet; the fruitage perhaps not ours 
to gather. Yet it is a pleasure to pass in review the doings of di- 
rectors, teachers and pupils for a jjeriod of twelve months, for it 
brings with it encouragement and suggests to us wherein we can 
improve our systems and methods and thus gradually come nearer 
our ideals. 

Our present system of public instruction commands the appro- 
val of all thinking men. The logic of events has forced us to realize 
the inseparable relations of universal intelligence and probity to 
the strength and perpetuity of a republican government, and the 
moral claim of every child to an education commensurate with the 
importance and dignity of his obligations and duty as an upright 
and loyal citizen. I think there never has been a time in the history 
of the public schools when their condition was more encouraging 
than now. 

A review of the year just closed indicates steady substantial pro- 
gress as the result of earnest and faithful effort on the part of 
teachers and school officers. On every hand there has been ob- 
served a steady and unpretentious, but earnest and faithful dis- 


charge of duty which is more productive of substantial progress 
than more spectacular but less thorough and persistent efforts are 
likely to be. We feel confident that, in the main, the trend of effort 
on the part of teachers and directors is along the line of broader 
development and keener discrimination in the character of instruc- 

County Institute. 

Our county institute which was held the week beginning Decem- 
ber 18, 1905, was the center of much interest .and good work. An 
effort was made to secure for instructors and lecturers the best 
talent available. Prominent among those who gave instruction 
were State Superintendent Stetson, of Maine; Dr. S. Y. Gillan, of 
Milwaukee; Dr. D. C. Murphy and Dr. A. E. Maltby, of the Slippery 
Rock Normal School; Superintendent John A. Gibson, of Butler; 
Chancellor S. B. McCormick, of the AYestern University and Presi- 
dent W. H. Crawford, of Allegheny College, Meadville. The work 
presented was practical and the wants of the district schools were 
kept uppermost, for as was declared by one of the instructors, "Only 
the best is good enough for the district schools." The institute does 
much toward awakening interest in education and in shaping 
methods of instruction used in the schools throughout the county. 

The local Institutes the past year have been prosperous. The 
able principals of our borough schools, together with the leading 
teachers and directors, have made these meetings a source of much 


Our schools frequently suffer from the incompetency of persons 
who undertake the work of teaching as a mere make-shift and hav- 
ing made no preparation for the work, lack both professional train- 
ing and professional skill. Many of our schools are in the care of 
well qualified, live, progressive, teachers meriting only commenda- 
tion in their work, -but too large a proportion are in the hands of 
the untrained and the inexperienced, who having been able to obtain 
a certificate, consider their school days ended and study a thing of 
the past. Our great need is the trained teacher. It would be of 
little avail, for instance, to man the locomotives on our railroads 
with youths who had no training for engineers and expect the trains 
to be on time and passengers to be landed safe. Such engineers 
should go for a time out of the cab into the tender. The scarcity of 
well qualified teachers has sometimes made it necessary, on the 
part of Superintendents, to license those who might better be pupils 
in a Normal or some other good school than be employed as teacher. 
We want more men and women who make teaching their calling for 


life, more "permanent teachers in permanent schools." The cease- 
less law of change has worked evil in our common schools. 


Our directors as a class are representative men; the office of school 
director is an important one carrying with it great responsibility. 
Most of our school boards are showing a growing appreciation of 
their duties by being more attentive to them. There are a few 
districts in the county where a spirit of false economy stands in the 
way of more rapid progress. A few directors forget that the educa- 
tion of our children is a matter of business and should be attended 
to in a practical business-like way. There is a growing disposilion 
in our more progressive townships to make it a practice no longer 
of hiring a teacher with a certificate merely, but a teacher who has 
power to supplement fair scholarship with a cheerful, sympathetic 
heart, tact, enthusiasm and other natural stamina, so essential to 
intelligent school work. 

School Buildings. 

In some parts of our county there are school buildings sadly lack- 
ing in school accommodations, standing like a blot on the face of 
nature. Those should give place to better buildings, which should 
be made attractive by beautifying the surroundings, and so ar- 
ranged within as to give some degree of comfort to both teachers 
and pupils. 

The public is bound to surround its children with an environment 
which will promote their intellectual and moral health. Neat, 
cleanly, wholesome, cheerful rooms which are free from defacement, 
of themselves inspire happiness, thrift, punctuality, obedience, and 
mental and moral vigor. Grounds neatly arranged and well cared 
for lead children to w^holesome sports as naturally as the sounds of 
a fife and drum impel the veteran to fall into the measured step of 
the military parade. 

High Schools. 

We now have four well organized township high schools in the 
county and a growing sentiment in favor of the organization of 
more of these schools. The want of the means for a higher educa- 
tion for every boy and girl is becoming more sensibly felt each year. 
The township high school provides the "missing link" between the 
common school and the college. The time is ripe for the organiza- 
tion of these schools. Many parents demand for their children a 
more advanced culture than is afforded by the common schools. 
This culture will fit them for a higher walk in life and enable them 


to exert a leading and more refined influence in society and the 
State at large. 

Course of Study. 

In most of our schools effective results are very much impaired by 
the frequent change of teachers and by the fact that there is very 
little classification of pupils or uniformity of text books. No course 
of study, no incentive to effort and no fixed orderly plan of opera- 
tion. In too many schools mental arithmetic, spelling, and pen- 
manship, three studies which count for much in the practical affairs 
of life, are not given so much attention as in earlier days, and the 
results are not gratifying. None but the fundamental studies 
should be taught in our country schools and no pains should be 
spared to teach them with all thorougnness. Under a good course 
of study the teacher feels the stimulus of specific requirements, 
within definite periods of time, and systematic and substantial 
progress results. 


In several schools of the county, the average attendance is not 
more than ten pupils. The law provides for the consolidation of 
small schools but it is hindered by local sentiment which is satis- 
fied to cling to the past with all its clumsiness. Small contiguous 
schools should be united when it can be done without great incon- 
venience to the most distant pupils. The practice of discontinuing 
weak schools and of convening pupils at public expense to stronger 
schools continues to give favorable results and jjromise of further 
expansion in the near future. 


The importance of efficient supervision can scarcely be over esti- 
mated. The supervision of the schools of a county carries with it a 
bane or a blessing as the case may be. The superintendent should 
be a mine of suggestion for the improvement of methods of teaching; 
he must be a mentor, gentle but firm to warn the indolent, the care- 
less, the injudicious of their errors. 

It has been my endeavor during the year to broadcast ideas on 
the importance of education and the benefits it will bring to the in- 
dividual, the family and the State. We have tried to aid the efforts 
of parents and teachers to increase the opportunities of their chil- 
dren for a better education and to guide them in the most profitable 
channels. During the year I have examined 460 candidates for 
teachers' certificates. Seventy-one of them entered the classes 
more than once, making a total of 531 sets of papers, averaging 
twenty-one pages to the set. Three hundred and seventeen certifi- 


cates were granted. Two hundred and seventeen pupils were ex- 
amined for the common school diplomas; one hundred and thirteen 
diplomas were granted. From the middle of September to the 
middle of April, 404 school visits w^ere made, averaging one and one- 
fourth hours. Every school in the county was visited once and 92 
of them the second time. Twenty-four educational meetings were 
attended. School visitation and attendance at educational meetings 
required approximately 2,700 miles of travel. Over 1,900 separate 
letters and packages were mailed. In conclusion, I gratefully ac- 
knowledge the kindness and hospitality of school directors, the co- 
operation of teachers, the faA'ors of the ijress, the suggestions and 
the assistance of the Department of Public Instruction. 

CAMBRIA COUNTY— Herman T. Jones. 

In reviewing the history of our schools during the past year we 
find evidences of progress that are most gratifying. The hearty 
co-operation of the different school forces is a vital factor in good 
school work. The success of the school does not depend upon the 
work of the teacher alone nor of the director alone, nor of the 
parent alone, nor of the pupil alone. Each contributes his share 
toward making school work efficient and the failure of any one 
of these to perform his full duty must inevitably affect the whole 


During the year 437 teachers were employed, of wdiich 259 held 
provisional certificates, 56 professional, 39 permanent, 79 were Nor- 
mal graduates and 4 held college diplomas. These figures reveal 
a state of affairs that is most encouraging. College and Normal 
diplomas, permanent and professional certificates are more com- 
mon than in any previous year. Some school boards will not con- 
sider anything less than a permanent certificate. Others are regu- 
lating their salaries according to the mark in teaching. It is un- 
just to pay the young person just beginning the same wages as 
those who give year after year of their life in acquiring the art. 
Such a state of affairs always breeds dissatisfaction. It pays to 
reward faithful service in a substantial way. When this is done 
it will tend toward holding young people in the profession. As a 
rule our teachers bring to their school work a thorough book train- 
ing. This is an essential for good school work. No one can teach 
what he does not know-. From observation we have learned that 


professional training is almost as essentia] as book knowledge. 
Many of the teachers who held provisional certificates came from 
our high schools where no attention is paid to art of teaching. The 
rural schools also furnish their share of teachers. We believe the 
time is not far distant when professional training will be as much 
a part of a teacher's equipment as knowledge itself. 

It is a dangerous experiment to place a young person who has 
paid no attention whatever to the art of teaching in a school. The 
consequences are too serious. In these days there is hardly an 
excuse for any one not having at least some professional training. 
Schools that aim to make teachers are common. The State has 
located a school in our midst that deals primarily with method. 
We take pleasure in again calling the attention of our teachers to 
this school. Our county was fairly represented at this school the 
last summer. This was the unanimous testimony of those present, 
"It is a splendid institution." Should this school be in existence 
another year we trust that more of our teachers will enbrace this 
opportunity for improvement. We wish to suggest this also. Some 
teachers are so located that they could visit the Johnstown City 
schools or some of our borough schools. There is no better way 
of learning how to deal with children and of acquiring better 
methods than by observing those who are known as successful 
teachers. Such visits should not be confined to beginners alone 
but to the whole teaching profession. Teachers who visit and 
mingle with their co-laborers will be able to furnish a running 
stream from which their own pupils can drink. 

County Institute. 

The thirty-ninth annual session of the Cambria County Teachers' 
Institute was held in the court house November 13th to 17th, 1905. 
It was the largest institute ever held in the county. Four hundred 
and twenty-two teachers were enrolled. The work was in charge 
of the following instructors: Dr. W. N. Ferris, Big Kapids, Mich.; 
Hon. O. T. Corson. Columbus, Ohio ; Hon. Henry R. Pattengill, Lans- 
ing, Mich., and Prof. E. H. Davis, Ebensburg, Pa. The evening at- 
tractions were as follows: Monday, Rev. Samuel Parks Cadman; 
Tuesday, Lyric Glee Club; Wednesday, Rev. F. W. Gunsaulus; 
Thursday, Rev. Francis T. Moran. The teachers as a body are to 
be complimented on their good deportment and the lively interest 
taken in these meetings. Unfortunately however there are always 
a few teachers in attendance who forget the purpose of an institute. 
It should be a place of social enjoyment but when every other 
feature is subordinated to this the sooner such a one quits teach- 
ing the better will be the profession. We might look on miscon- 
duct with some degree of allowance, were these meetings dull. 


uonpiactical, and uninteresting. Cambria county secures strong 
men for institute worl^. The}' always have a message for teachers, 
presenting it in a clear, strong, practical manner and the teacher 
who fails to absorb the message robs not only himself but steals 
from the children that which is rightfully theirs. 

Local institutes were held in a number of districts. These prop- 
erly conducted give an impetus to school work. Unfortunately 
teachers who need help most were absent. In some districts the 
boards make it obligatory on the part of the teachers to attend 
these meetings. The true teachers will not have to be driven. They 
feel under moral obligation to improve in whatever way they can. 
We attended seventeen such meetings in various parts of the county 
and always carried away some new ideas. 

Farmers' Institutes w^ere held in Carrolltown, St. Augustine and 
Richland township. Of course these meetings were devoted largely 
to agricultural interest. One evening at each place was spent dis- 
cussing matters that pertained to school. We cheerfully testify 
to the wholesome w^ork done at these meetings. 

Directors' Association. 

The School Directors' Convention was held in the court house, 
February 28, 1906. About one hundred and sixty directors were 
present. This was the largest number that ever assembled at a 
like meeting. Dr. Waller and Prof. J. H. Cessna delivered able ad- 
dresses. Col. Geo. W. Bain lectured in the evening. The most 
encouraging feature in connection with this meeting is the willing- 
ness on the part of the director to take part in the discussion. The 
school director by virtue of his office can speak more intelligently 
on local school difficulties than any one else. A number of di- 
rectors were invited to open discussions. The willingness with 
which the response came makes it a pleasant matter to arrange 
a program. Live up to date school questions were discussed as 
only men who know the practical side can discuss them. 


The buildings erected during the year are handsome substantial 
structures. Adams township made a move during the year that 
will contribute greatly toward keeping her in the front rank in 
education work. 

In the town of Danfair an annex of two rooms was made to 
the old building, making it a four room structure. This centralizes 
and consolidates the schools in that village. Children residing 
there now receive the same advantages as those in our boroughs. 
Those living under both conditions realize the advantage that comes 


from centralized scliools. We trust the movement will bear fruit, 
that it will mould a public sentiment in other parts of the county 
friendly to centralization. In the rural districts of many of our 
western states they educate their children in this way. Pupils are 
conveyed for miles to centralized schools. Statistics go to show 
that it is but little more expensive than the old system. To in- 
augurate a system of this kind will require new buildings. Boards 
may hesitate to make such a radical change on account of this ex- 
penditure of money. In districts where the buildings are old and 
school boards are facing the problem of new ones they would act 
wisely to give the matter careful consideration. When rural school 
boards solve this problem, the child in the country will begin life 
as well equipped as his town cousin. 

Blacklick township erected a two-room structure during the year. 

Carroll township has to its credit a new one-room building. An 
annex was made to the Cover school in Conemaugh township, mak- 
ing it a two-room building. 

Croyle built a two-room building at Eockville, East Taylor a 
one-room building; Jackson a one-room building at Vintondale; 
Eichland a one-room building; Kosedale a one story two-room house. 
The comfort and health of the child must have been uppermost in 
the school board's mind when they were considering plans. It 
h well lighted and heated and is a model of school architecture. 

Spangler erected one four-room structure during the year. It 
is a handsome brick building and one to which the citizens of any 
community could point with pride. The two-room building ei;ected 
at Beaverdale in Summerhill township ranks among the best rural 
school buildings in the county. The boards who have built during 
the year are to be congratulated. The buildings all indicate a 
healthy progressive school sentiment among our school directors. 

CAMERON COUNTY— Mattie M. Collins. 

The work in most of the schools during the past year has been 
of a progressive character. However, I regret to report that a few 
schools have fallen below the standard of previous years. This 
is due to the fact that the directors were, in a few instances, un- 
fortunate in the selection of teachers. 

There has been a slight increase in the number of schools in the 
county, also an advance in salary in Gibson, Shippen and Lumber 
townships. , 


Two new scliool houses were built in Gibson township. An ad- 
dition of four rooms to the East ^Vard building, Emporium, is now 
in course of construction. iS'ew slate black-boards were placed in 
some of the Shippen township schools. The black-boards are now 
in very good condition, but there is need of more black-board sur- 
face in many of the schools. 

Five public examinations and one special were held for teachers' 
certificates. There were forty-nine applicants in all, of whom thir- 
teen were rejected. Examinations were held for high school 
graduates, and also for eighth grade pupils in several schools in 
the county. 

All schools were visited three times, with two exceptions, and 
many of them were visited four and five times. 

The annual teachers' institute was held in Emporium, October 
30th to November 3d. Every teacher in the county was present 
the first day and attended throughout the week. The instructors 
were Dr. A. J, Kinnaman, Danville, Ind.; Prof. Smith Burnham, 
West Chester Normal School; Prof. Frank C. Lockwocd, Meadville; 
Prof. B. W. Griffith, Clarion Normal School; Miss Margaret Flynn, 
Ridgway. The evening entertainments were Monday, Mrs. Carter; 
Tuesday, Mrs. Isabel Garghill Beecher; Wednesday, Rev. Frank 
Dixon; Thursday, The Apollo Glee and Minstrel Club. The in- 
struction and attractions were of a high order. The institute ranlis 
among the most successful in the history of the county. 

-Only three local institutes were held in the county during the 
year. They were interesting and helpful. We are sorry to report 
these meetings not so well attended by directors and patrons. 

The Second annual convention of the Directors' Association met 
in the court house. Emporium, February 3. The trains being late 
the morning session was poorly attended. About two-thirds of the 
directors of the county enrolled for the afternoon session; Prof. R. 
M. McNeal was the principal speaker. Much interest was mani- 
fested by all the directors present. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks to the Department 
of Public Instruction for assistance, to the. directors, teachers and 
citizens for their co-operation, and to the public press for their in- 
terest manifested in popular education. 

CARBON COUNTY— James J. Bevan. 

In the school year just closed some progress has been made in the 
work of improving the conditions that determine the character and 
quality of the w ork of our schools. The same general lines of effort 


have been pursued and the same ends have been sought in the 
supervision of school work as in previous years. As compared with 
the school conditions of one year ago there is to be noted some 
improvement in the school buildings and grounds of certain dis- 
tricts, more attention to the ventilation and care of school rooms, 
u better spirit of willingness to work for professional advancement 
among our teachers, and in a number of districts a marked advance 
in public sentiment toward public education. 

In every effort made for the betterment of schools and school 
conditions, the teacher will always be the first consideration. The 
character of the school, the influence it exerts, the results it attains 
must -depend largely upon the sense, the conscience, and the gen- 
eral fitness of the teacher. The best teacher is not always the 
oldest nor the best educated teacher; but the one who grows in 
power and fitness through constant study, observation, and ex- 
perience. As a rule the best work of the past year was done in 
schools where such teachers were found, regardless of grade, salary, 
or situation. In the rural schools the best results were shown in 
the schools in which good teachers have been retained term after 
term. The policy of retaining competent teachers in the same 
grade is quite generally followed in the boroughs and towns but in 
the rural districts it is not. Not one-half of the ungraded schools 
of the county were taught by the same teachers as were engaged 
one year ago. This policy of changing teachers about from one 
school to another in a district is a costly one to teachers and pupils 
alike, for it deprives both of the fruits of mutual experience and 
knowledge of each other. Changes in teachers are often desirable 
and sometimes imperative. In such cases they cannot be made 
too soon. If there is good reason to believe that a teacher will do 
better work in a different school in the district, it is wise to do 
it, provided such change promises to prove beneficial to both schools 
involved. But when a teacher fails to do satisfactory work after a 
reasonable trial, he ought not to be retained in any school what- 
ever. If school directors would adopt and adhere to the policy of 
retaining good teacher in the same schools and rejecting poor 
teachers altogether, the conditions for doing efficient work would 
be at once greatly improved. 

The past year was one of activity in professional work by many 
of the teachers of the county. More teachers took an active part 
in the local institutes and other educational meetings of the year 
than ever before. Our aim in all this work was to involve as many 
of the ungraded and lower grade teachers as possible. The prepa- 
ration that actual institute work requires on part of the teacher 
is most valuable to him who makes it. Every teacher ought to 
be able to explain and justify the methods and principles he adopts 


and employs in the school room, and the best way to acquire this 
ability is to give the best service possible in local institutes and 
other professional teachers' conventions when requested to do so. 
In addition to the general work of the County Institute, we con- 
ducted or took part in three large local institutes and fifteen other 
educational meetings. The local institutes were largely attended 
and the work thereof reached many teachers in a practical and 
helpful way. The educational meetings were held principally in 
the country districts in order to reach the people of the communi- 
ties as well as the teachers. The large attendance and the deep 
interest of the people at these meetings indicate the willingness 
and even the eagerness of many of them to learn more about the 
question of public school betterment. The annual County Insti- 
tute was held at Lehighton, November 13-17, 1905, and was more 
largely attended than any previous institute in our history. The 
instruction offered at this Institute was fully up to the high stand- 
ard of former years. The County Institute continues to be in this 
county the mightiest single force, in the work of awakening and 
elevating popular educational sentiment. 

The School Directors' Convention was held at Mauch Chunk on 
January 11, 1906. In point of attendance, interest, and enthusiasm 
it was the most successful convention we have yet held in this 
county. The speakers were Mr. David J. Pearsall, of Mauch Chunk; 
Mr. Albert Breithaupt, of Kidder township, and Prof. C. H. Albert, 
of Bloomsburg. The address by Mr. Pearsall on "The EflSciency of 
the Teacher from the Director's Standpoint" was a thoughtful vig- 
orous discussion of this timely theme by one of the most intelli- 
gent, progressive, and useful school directors that this county has 
ever had. Mr. Breithaupt's address on "Needed Reforms in Rural 
Schools" was clear, comprehensive, and convincing, and showed the 
speaker to be an unusually well informed man on the present con- 
ditions, limitations, and needs of the country school, and progres- 
sive in his ideas of what should be done by school boards and com- 
munities to improve them. Carbon county is fortunate in having 
the benefit of the services of directors of the calibre and character 
of these two speakers. A very pleasant and much appreciated 
featurj? of this convention was a complimentary dinner to all the 
school directors present by Mr. David J. Pearsall, of Mauch Chunk. 
Every district in the county was represented by one or more of 
its directors, and Franklin Independent District had the honor of 
having every member of its board enrolled. Beaver Meadow, East 
Penn, Mahoning, Mauch Chunk township and Packer had all but 
one present from each board. 

A substantial improvement was made by the Mauch Chunk School 
Board in the erection of a modern school building in the Second 


ward of this place. This building contains <^ight large school rooms, 
a library, a teachers' retiring room, and an auditorium. It is well 
lighted and contains the Carpenter system of heating and ventila- 
tion. The furniture of the entire building, the books, periodicals 
and other furnishings of the library, the equipment of the teachers' 
room, the pictures and other decorations, the piano in use, and the 
arrangement and improvement of the school grounds — all were 
provided and presented without cost to the district by Mrs. Mary 
Packer Ctimmings, a benevolent, public spirited woman of Mauch 
Chunk, who made this splendid contribution to public education 
in this borough in honor of the memory of her distinguished father, 
Asa Packer. The building by a resolution of the school board will 
be hereafter known as the Asa Packer School as a token of re- 
spect to the donor of this gift. As it now stands it is undoubtedly 
one of the most completely furnished and equipped school build 
ings of its kind in the State and is well worth a visit of inspection 
by any who may be interested in public school buildings. The people 
of Mauch Chunk are justly proud of it. The dedication took place 
on August 25, 1905, and consisted of a large parade of school offi- 
cers, pupils, civic societies, and appropriate exercises on the school 
grounds. The addresses of the occasion were given by Mr, David 
J. Pearsall, president of the School Board and the County Super- 
intendent of Schools. Mr. Charles Neast, of Mauch Chunk, is the 

Two of our rural schools have the honor of having graduated 
classes in the common school course of this county; one was the Hud- 
sondale School, Packer township, taught by Mr. Adam Ulshafer, 
and the other, the Pleasant Corner School, Mahoning township, of 
which Mr. C. A. Sensinger was the teacher. The closing exercises of 
each of these schools were successfully conducted and largely at- 
tended. The township high schools at Nesquehoning and Palmer- 
ton are in a prosperous condition. In the former school, the studies 
of the third year were completed, and in the latter school, a class 
of four pupils was graduated in the second year high school studies 
as prescribed by the State Superintendent. The borough high 
schools continue to do much commendable work, the smaller schools 
imder unfavorable conditions. In all, fifty-six pupils were gradu- 
ated from the high schools of Franklin Independent District, Le- 
highton. East Mauch Chunk, Mauch Chunk, Packerton, Parryville, 
Summit Hill and Weatherly. 

For all the hearty co-operation and kindly sympathy that the 
superintendent has received from directors, teachers, the public 
press, and in many communities of the county, he hereby expresses 
his grateful appreciation and at the same time the hope that the 
same shall accompany his labors during the coming year. 


CENTRE COUNTY— David O. Etters; 

Our progress Las been gradual but sure. With faithful work 
and fair success we have learned to realize that substantial de- 
velopment is the result of steady growth and patient toil. Much 
has been accomplished in recent years by way of general improve- 
ment, very much still remains to be done. Methods, ancient and 
time honored, are rapidly fading in the stronger light of the present 

Of all school agencies, the teacher is by far the most important 
factor. It can be said in truth, "Like teacher, like school." And 
we are glad to see that school boards are coming to recognize the 
importance of primary teaching. While it is highly important that 
all grades be afforded the best instruction possible, yet we think it 
of specially prime importance that the most skillful teacher avail- 
able should be placed in charge of the little beginners; for a right 
start will go far to make for success in later years. 

It would be well if boards were to select only those who already 
are, or those who show a disposition to become leading teachers. A 
leading teacher is one who can shape the will, build up public sen- 
timent, and leave lasting impressions for good with pupil and patron. 

There seems to be a tendency on the part of some high schools to 
become somewhat sifting in character, to seek for brains of a cer 
tain quality only, for minds with a certain bent and no other, thus 
often making these schools a land of worry and ill health to many 
sensitive young people. Far too often has the young mind been 
molded rather than educated. He is a mere molder who takes the 
untutored mind and fits it to a particular groove only. He educates, 
who takes the unschooled child and successfully leads him up to a 
full mastery of the profoundest problem in life — a searching knowl- 
edge of himself, of all his powers and possibilities. 

An effort has been made to encourage teachers to do more read- 
ing. The teachers of each school district should form a reading club 
which should meet once or twice a month for the interchange of 
ideas and for the discussion of professional topics. 

Eight township high schools were in operation during the past 
year and three others are to be instituted at the opening of the com- 
ing term. 

These schools have done good work, and still better results will 
follow with a fuUer establishment of the grade. 

In conclusion I wish to thank the county press, the teachers, di- 


rectors, and patrons, also the State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion for kindness and courtesy shown me at all times. 

And now, I desire to commend to the good people of our county, 
the best interests of her richest treasure — her boys and girls. And 
I trust that the influence and guidance of the home and school shall 
combine so to shape their minds and hearts as to make them ap- 
proach perfection in all the graces of which human kind is sus- 


During the past year we made four hundred and fourteen visits 
to the schools of our county, with the exceptions of eight schools, 
all were inspected. We were not able to visit the first year teachers 
a second time, as is our custom, owing to our being quarantined a 
few weeks on account of scarlet fever in our home. 

Our schools have made marked progress during the year. Large at- 
tendance and keen interest on the part of the teachers in the various 
educational meetings of the county were in evidence. The County 
Institute was a great success. The instructors were Dr. G. M. 
Philips, principal of the West Chester State Normal School; Dr. 
S. D. Fess, Chicago, 111.; Dr. Bird T. Baldwin, West Chester State 
Normal School; J. M. Coughlin, superintendent of schools at Wilkes- 
Barre; Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion; Miss Mabel C. Bragg, Lowell State Normal School, Mass.; 
Supt. L. E. McGinnes, Steelton, Pa., and Prof. Jerry March, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ! I 

The evening entertainers were Dr. S. Parkes Cadman, New York 
City; Miss Evelma Walton, soloist of Coatesville, Pa.; Miss Mabel 
C. Bragg, Lowell, Mass., and The Bostonia Ladies' Orchestra. 

Local institutes were held at Avondale, Oxford, Spring City, 
Cedarville and Chester Springs. These meetings were interesting 
and helpful. The attendance was large. Two directors' conven- 
tions were held during the year, at which excellent papers and dis- 
cussions interested the directors. Perhaps the most notable educa- 
tional event of our county is the passing of the peripatetic examina- 
tions of teachers. 

We believe we have reached the desideratum in regard to teachers' 
examination for provisional certificates. During our first year in 
oflfice, we conducted thirty of these examinations at as many places 
throughout the county, the enrollment at these daily examinations 
varying from two to forty. From yejaj- to ,year these examinations 


have been decreasing in number without protests from the various 
districts, the primary cause from these conditions being the increas- 
ing demand for teachers who had graduated at our Normal schools. 
The increasing desire to make the appointments early in June cause 
the applicants to attend the first examinations held. These condi- 
tions continued along the lines indicated, until last year we held 
but ten examinations in our county. This proved too large a num- 

The Superintendent being impressed with the thought for sev- 
eral years, that the system of examination lacked dignity, thorough- 
ness and uniformity, as well as to cause much travel on the part 
of very many candidates who usually attend several examinations 
before entering the class, decided to crystallize sentiment on this 
subject. Among leading educators there is but one opinion — ''an 
advanced educational movement greatly needed." 

The subject of a two days' examination in a body was submitted 
to a vote of the applicants at the examinations last summer and 
was unanimously approved. At the annual convention of the school 
directors of our county, held in West Chester, February 26, 1906, the 
County Superintendent presented the subject to the convention as 
above stated, with the result that the convention unanimously en- 
dorsed the Superintendent's efforts to hold a unift)rm examination 
of all applicants in our county, to be held in West Chester on two 
consecutive days. 

In pursuance to the unusual interest and support manifested in 
this line of our work, we conducted a two days' examination in West 
Chester, June 1st and 2d, when all applicants (130) for provisional 
certificates registered for examination. The time, indeed, proved 
not too long. All manuscript was most carefully examined and 
placed on file during the following week. The equity and uniformity 
of the test was admirable. The new policy worked out without 
any complications arising whatever. It surely proved to be most 
successful and satisfactory examination that we have ever con- 
ducted. Up to this time we have been unable to gather any valid 
objections to the policy. We think it can be improved on next 
year in a manner that will be most acceptable to the candidates. 
We are glad to make this report of the experiment, as we believe 
it to be one of the best things we have done for the educational in- 
terests of our county. 


In submitting this brief report of the schools of Clarion county 
for the year ending June, 1906, will say the work of the year has 


been uneventful and much of it unsatisfactory, especially in the 
rural schools. 

This was caused by an effort on the part of the directors and 
teachers to enforce the vaccination law, causing a great falling off 
of the attendance, and in several of the schools all of the pupils 
were absent during the last two or three months of the term. 
IJuring my annual visits, I found two schools without any pupils 
present, although fort}^ pupils were enrolled in one and thirty-live 
in the other; one school with one pujjil present; two schools with 
four present, and a number of schools with less than one-half of 
the enrollment present. This condition caused much dissatisfaction 
and bitter feeling among teachers, directors, pupils and parents. 
It is the opinion of the writer that a speedy remedy should be found 
to prevent the child from being deprived of the chance of an educa- 
tion. The parent decides whether the child shall or shall not be 
vaccinated. The child has no say in the matter whatever. 

In many of our rural schools, and all of the borough schools, the 
enforcement of the vaccination law caused little or no trouble. 
These made commendable and substantial progress. 

Beaver township and Licking township each had the misfortune 
of having a school house destroyed by fire. As no suitable build- 
ing could be obtained in which to finish the term, the pupils were sent 
to the nearest adjoining schools. 

One of the events of educational interest was the county insti- 
tute held December 18 to 22. It was well attended by teachers, di- 
rectors and the public. The regular instructors were Dr. C. E. 
Keber, of Clark University, who instructed in primary work, inter- 
mediate work, advanced work, common sense in education, hygiene 
of education and the teacher. 

Dr. Francis Ingler, of Muncie, Indiana, discussed Methods, Man- 
agement, Discipline and Punishments. 

Dr. J. George Becht-, Literature, Reading, Writing. 

Dr. John Ballentine, Civics and Citizenship. 

Prof. J. W. Wilkinson, Money and Mathematics. 

Prof. C. M. Parker, of Binghamton, N. Y., had charge of the 
music, with Miss Melissa Davie, of Clarion, Pa., as pianist. 

The evening entertainments: 

Monday evening, John Thomas Concert Company. 

Tuesday evening, Rev. F. L. Vaughn, ''Sermons from Shakespeare." 

Wednesday evening, The Cincinnati Ladies' Cremona. 

Thursday evening. Col. George W. Bain, "A Searchlight of the 
Twentieth Century." 

The county was divided into eight districts for local institutes. 
These meetings were well attended, and have been of special benefit 
to the county teachers. 


The Clarion County School Directors' Association convened in 
the court house, Kovember 23, and held a two days' session. The 
following program was prepared for the first day: Object of the 
Association, J. C. Rairigh, director from New Bethlehem ; Township 
High Schools, D. L. McAninch, M. D., director from Salem town- 
ship; Law on Vaccination, G. G. Sloan, Esq., director from Clarion; 
Attending High Schools in Other Districts, Dr. O. G. Moore, secre- 
tary of Knox Board; Relation of Normal and Public School, Prin- 
cipal J. George Becht, of Clarion Normal. 

The township high school, organized in Salem township, has been 
a success and has furnished opportunity for better education to 
all the pupils of the township. The school is popular and well 
patronized. Porter township has completed arrangements to or- 
ganize a township high school next year. There are a number of 
other townships that have very favorable condition to do likewise. 

In conclusion, we wish to thank the Department, and all others 
that co-operated, for their valuable aid, suggestions, and loyal sup- 
port which have been the source of inspiration to many others as 
well as myself. 


In reviewing the work of the schools for the last year, we feel 
gratified at results. While the advancement has not been as rapid 
along some lines as we wish, yet we feel that the work throughout 
the schools of the county has been in a measure satisfactory. In 
visiting the schools, with a very few exceptions, I have found the 
teachers doing good work. Enthusiastic, vigorous and painstaking. 
Teachers are realizing more and more each year that it is not only 
necessary to have a thorough knowledge of the branches to be 
taught, but also to have a thorough professional training. We be- 
lieve that the day is past when it can be truthfully said that the 
vocation of teaching is not a profession. The fact that so many 
of our teachers, during the past year, have taken professional train- 
ing in the State Normals and in the summer terms of the various 
colleges, proves that the teachers have awakened to the realization 
that they must prepare thoroughly for their work, if they wish to 
keep up with the procession. There were ten summer normals in 
different parts of the county which did good work in preparing the 
younger teachers. 

The attendance during the last half of the term was not what it 
should have been, The enfgrcement of the vaccination law was 


largely responsible for this. In some districts the attendance was 
cut down one-half. 

During the year I visited all the schools in the county but three j 
a few of them twice. The county is so large that these visits were 
necessarily short. It being necessary to visit at least four schools 
each day in order to cover the county during the term. 

Twenty-nine examinations for provisional certificates were held 
during the year. Four hundred and eigth^^-niue applicants were 
examined. Three hundred and lifty-four certificates were issued. 
Our aim shall be to raise the standard each year. We hope the di- 
rectors will assist us in this by emplo^dug the best qualified teachers. 
School officers can encourage preparation on the part of the teacher 
by selecting those who are most efficient and by paying fair salaries 
to those who are thoroughly educated and prepared for their work. 

Three township high schools have been established during the 
year — Lawrence, Beccaria and Penn. Beccaria started off with a 
junior class of twenty-two, Penn and Lawrence with seven and eight 
respectively. We now have seven township high schools in the 
county. They are all doing excellent work. The sentiment in favor 
of these schools is growing and at least two more will be organized 
during the coming year. 

The Directors' Convention convened on June 23. There were 
about one hundred directors present. The attendance was not as 
large as it should have been on account of the meeting being held 
in harvest. The discussions in regard to vaccination, the compulsory 
attendance law, school visitations, township and borough high 
schools, etc., were interesting and profitable. Supt. Berkey, of Al- 
legheny addressed the convention in the evening. At a meeting of 
the officers of the Directors' Association it was decided to change 
the date of meeting to September 24. 

The Annual Teachers' Institute was held during the week preced- 
ing Christmas. There were four hundred and sixty-seven teachers 
enrolled. The attendance was the largest of any institute ever 
held in the county. Dr. S. D. Fess, Dr. George P. Bible, Miss Van 
Stone Harris, Supt. Charles Lose and Prof. Pierce were the day in- 
structors. Opie Read, Judge A. A. Ellison, The Lulu Tyler Gates 
Company and Dr. Newell D wight Hillis were the entertainers at 
the evening sessions. 

Eight district institutes were held at different points in the county 
during the year. The^se were well attended. The programs were 
gotten up on the round table plan and the discussions were largely 
informal, and bore directly on the class work of the teacher. 

One hundred and thirteen eighth grade diplomas were granted to 
pupils who completed the common branches. These examinations 
were made quite rigid as we believe that a diploma should mean 


just what it says. Every pupil should be thoroughly grounded in 
the common branches before he is allowed to enter the examination. 
Otherwise he gets a false idea of his acquirements and he will be 
handicapped during the remainder of his course. 

In conclusion I wish to thank the teachers, directors and patrons 
for their co-operation and support during the school year which has 
just closed. 

CLINTON COUNTY— Ira N. McCloskey. 

Our schools have made commendable progress during the year. 
The teaching force was stronger, professionally, and superior ex- 
cellence characterized the school work. A movement has been in- 
augurated towards a higher standard of professional qualification 
which has done much to uplift the public schools of the county. 

The graduating classes of Salona, Flemington, Mill Hall and Re- 
no vo were the strongest in average scholarship, and, in total num- 
ber, the largest in the history of our high schools. The majority 
of these graduates will enter 'Central State Normal School" at the 
opening of the fall term. 

While a number of children were debarred from school in many 
districts for want of successful vaccination, yet the attendance 
throughout the county has been excellent. We trust the next ses- 
sion of the Legislature will relieve the teachers from all responsi- 
bility in the enforcement of the vaccination law, as many teachers 
were made the object of censure for complying with the law. 

Eight very successful local institutes were held in different sec- 
tions of the county. Increased interest is being manifested in these 
meetings by patrons, directors and teachers. The latter responded 
with carefully prepared papers or talks which, with the discussions 
that followed rendered these meetings profitable to all present. 

A number of literary societies and debating clubs were organized 
in different districts of the county, which did very effective work. 
In many instances the patrons of the schools were deeply interested 
in these weekly meetings. 

The county institute, held at Lock Haven, December 18 to 22, was 
a grand success intellectually, socially and financially. The attend- 
ance and interest exceeded any former year. Many directors and 
patrons were in attendance during the entire week. The instructors 
were Dr. Henry Houck, Deputy State Superintendent; Dr. George 
L. Omwake, of Ursinus College; Dr. Chas. C. Boyer, of Kutztown 
Normal, and Hon. F. C. Bowersox, of Wilkes-Barre. J. E, Probvn 


jed the music and Miss Elizabeth McCloskey presided at the piano. 
Local singers aud elocutionists gave us help during the week. The 
evening lecturers and entertainers were Dr. Houck, Hon. Emerson 
Collins and the Dunbar Bell Ringers. 

The Directors' Association was convened at Lock Haven on Feb 
ruary first. One hundred and twenty-five directors were present. 
Prof, R. M. McNeal and Hon. F. C. Bowersox were the chief speak- 
ers. The meeting was full of inspiration. Many directors took part 
in the discussions. Members of the city high school furnished the 
music, which was highly appreciated. 

The following named directors represented the county at the 
meeting of ''State Directors' Association" at Harrisburg on the 
Sth and 9th of February, viz: M. B. Rich, Pine Creek township; W. 
C. Weaver, Chapman township; John C. Brown, Renovo; E. E. Tev- 
ling. Mill Hall, and F. E. Ritter, Lock Haven. These annual meet- 
ings are conducive of much good. 

The examinations were held for teachers' certificates. There were 
one hundred applicants of whom thirty-eight were rejected. In 
addition to the examination for teachers, three examinations were 
held for students of the township high schools. The results were 
very encouraging and complimentary of the good work done in these 
schools. A system of examinations for senior grammar grades in 
the county have been a stimulus for good work. 

The township high school established in Pine Creek township 
meets a popular demand. The other districts having such schools 
are Lamar and Leidy. 

There is a growing interest and general awakening throughout 
the county in the matter of improving school houses and school 
grounds. Teachers are making an effort to secure high grade pict- 
ures and paintings for their rooms. New books are being added to 
the already established libraries, and new libraries have been put 
into several schools. 

A fine new two-roomed building has been erected at Woolrich 
to take the place of the one destroyed by fire last December. Sparks 
from a locomotive set fire to the school building of Jones, Ind. dis- 
trict, and destroyed both building and furniture. 

During the year 398 visits were made to the schools. Whole num- 
ber of directors accompanying was 134. It was our good fortune 
to be present at every local institute and at all high school com- 
mencements of the county. 

Notwithstanding the increase made in the salaries in many of our 
districts, we annually lose a number of our best male teaehers, 
who accept more lucrative positions in business. 

"Cupid" robbed us of five lady teachers whose places in the school 
room were eagerly sought after by other eligible young ladies. 


We are sorry to record the death of four prominent school 
directors whose services extended over many years. Their places 
will be hard to till. Names were as follows: B. F. Klepper and J. D. 
Hubler of Logan township; Wallace Gakle of East Keating, and 
Andrew E. Lind of South Kenovo. 

We feel ourselves greatly indebted to the press of the city and 
county for their extreme liberality in the cause of education. I 
desire to express my sincere gratitude to the Department of Public 
Instruction for the help given, and to the teachers, directors and 
patrons of the county who have co-operated with us in the one 
great common cause — Education. 

COLUMBIA COUXTY— William W. Evans. 

The past school year in the county has been productive of much 
that is commendable. Never before have the directors been so 
deeply interested in educational problems. The majority of our 
teachers have made marked improvement in efficiency and profes- 
sional interests. The pupils have made greater progress than for- 
merly and public sentiment is more positive in its support than ever 

The meeting of our Directors' Association held on Thursday of 
institute week was attended by 99 members, at which time Hon. 
N. C. Schaeffer, Dr. Charles A. McMurry and Dr. Kuric N. Koark 
made instructive and inspiring addresses. The regular annual meet- 
ing of the association was held March 21, with an attendance of 
1-31 directors, the largest number ever enrolled at such a conven- 
tion. Superintendent Charles Lose made two very practical ad- 
dresses, but the greater portion of the time was occupied by the 
directors themselves in the presentation and discussion of their 
own problems. It is generally agreed that this was the best meeting 
of the kind ever held in the county. 

The 49th annual teachers' institute was held the week following 
Thanksgiving and was universally pronounced the best. The in- 
structors were Hon. N. C. Schaefter, Dr. Charles A. McMurry, Dr. 
Ruric N. Roark and Prof. O. H. Yetter. The evening lectures were 
given by Dr. Edward Amherst Ott and Col. George W. Bain. The 
Roger-Grilley Concert Company and the Leonora Jackson Company 
furnished the entertainments. 

Local institutes of three sessions each were held at Espy, Mifflin- 
ville, North Berwick, Benton, Hidlay's church, Stillwater, Jersey- 
town, Buckhorn, Central, Canby, Esther Furnace, Mainville, Beaver 


Valley, Orangeville, Centralia and Rohrersburg. The superintend- 
ent took an active part in all of these meetings except the last 
two. Our teachers deserve great credit for the able manner in 
which this important work has been conducted. 

The County Educational Association held seven regular monthly 
meetings during the year. Tlie object of this association is to ele- 
vate the teaching profession, to increase opportunity for the indi- 
vidual advancement of its members, and to stimulate a deeper 
interest in the educational questions of this county. The meetings 
were well attended, especially by the more progressive teachers of 
the county. 

The second annual session of our summer school was held in 
Benton for a term of eight weeks beginning May 8th. The object 
of this school is to afford the teachers an opportunity to study over 
carefully the work for the following year as outlined in the county 
course, and at the same time give them professional instruction. 
The superintendent had direct charge of the school. The enroll- 
ment was 105. Of those teaching with provisional license, 61 were 
students at this school. 

The personnel of our teaching force has improved considerably 
during the past four years. Of th(> number this year 130 are Normal 
graduates, 26 held permanent and 21 x^rofessional certificates, while 
there are 100 who hold the provisional license. About 30 per cent, 
of those examined were licensed. 

An average of six monthly teachers' meetings were held during 
the term in the districts of the county, with the total attendance 
of 1,2.57 teachers. The total number of educational papers or ad- 
dresses prepared by the teachers during the year is 516. 

A large commodious four-room addition was built to the Blooms- 
burg high school to provide for increasing attendance and better 
equipment. At Buckhorn a splendid two-room brick building was 
erected, which reflects great credit upon the school board and is 
an object of pride to the people of the community. The Hemlock 
township high school is located in this building. A substantial two 
story frame building was built at Newlin; this also accommodates 
the township high school of the district and is a credit to the com- 
munity. Sugarloaf built a new frame building to replace the one 
destroyed by fire. 

In many districts considerable improvement in school surround- 
ings has been made; directors are gradually coming to realize that 
it pays to make school buildings attractive and hygienic in respect to 
heating, ventilation, lighting and color effects. We hare hopes that 
people will eventually be as much interested in their school building 
as they are in their churches. 

At the close of the term we examined 192 seventh grade pupils. 


105 of whom wore promoted. Of Hie 241 eighth grade pupils ex- 
amined, 180 were granted common school certificates. For these, 
common school commencements were held at Mt. Zion, Numidia, 
Mainville, Beaver Valley, Mifflinville, North Berwick, Hidlays, Espy, 
Rupert, Buckhorn, Ikelers, Orangeville,. Greenwood, Jerseytown, St. 
James, Kulp, Millville and Central; the superintendent took an 
active part in all of these meetings except the last three. 

Township high schools were established in Hemlock and Sugar- 
loaf. The country people have come to look upon the township 
high school as of great value to them. The pupils attend with 
remarkable regularity, notwithstanding many are required to walk 
several miles each day. Both pupils and patrons are delighted to 
know that an opportunity is thus given the country children to 
obtain an adequate education at home. We have never seen more 
faithful work on the part of both teachers and pupils. The results 
in these schools are fully as gratifying as those obtained in the 
large borough schools. 

The high school course which is uniform in all village and town- 
ship high schools throughout the county contains the following: 
Junior year: Algebra, General History, Local Government, English 
Composition and Literature, Botany, Book-keeping and Beginning 
Latin; review of seventh grade Arithmetic and Grammar. Middle 
year: Algebra, General History, State Government, English Compo- 
sition and Literature, Physical Geography or Agriculture, Geology, 
Caesar and Latin Composition; review of the 8tli grade Arithmetic 
and Grammar; Senior year: Plane Geometry, Mensuration, Ameri- 
can History, National Government, English Composition and Litera- 
ture, Natural Philosophy and Cicero; review of Orthography and 

Competitive examinations for high school pupils were held at 
Espy, Benton and Catawissa, the total number examined being 201. 
A very satisfactory average was attained Avhile less than 10 per cent 
were conditioned. 

In several districts the experiment of transporting pupils and 
consolidating small schools was tried. In spite of the fact that the 
children made far greater progress than formerly and were delighted 
with the arrangement, it seems that in many instances the taxpayers 
prefer to allow their children to grow up with meagre education 
rather than permit the local school to be closed. The condition of 
the roads during a portion of the term is such that transportation 
is difficult, but not so difficult that the problem could not be solved 
if the proper educational spirit prevailed. 

The enforcement of the vaccination law hindered the cause of 
education considerably. While it is true that a majority of our peo- 
ple are disposed to regard vaccination as necessary, public sentiment 


is strongly opposed to the Iqav as it stands and the methods used 
to enforce it. The State health officer visited some of our schools, 
sent the pupils home and created the impression that he would 
enforce the law in every school. But this he failed to do with the 
result that the law was enforced upon many pupils, some of whom 
remained out of school several months, while often in the same dis- 
trict other teachers allowed their pupils to attend school paying 
little or no attention to the law. This naturally created bitterness. 
According to reports made by the teachers, the total number of 
weeks lost by pupils solely on account of vaccination is 3,825. Un- 
fortunately, the greater portion of this time was lost by the older 
pupils many of whom will never return to school. In some places 
teachers were shamefully treated, directors were abused and in a 
few instances we lost excellent directors who either resigned or 
failed to be elected because of public agitation over the question. 

During the year we have worked out a plan by which every school 
in the county may be supplied with proper library facilities. The 
county is districted into library circuits each containing six schools. 
Six different libraries Avere made up properly arranged as to sub- 
jects and grades comprising about 35 well bound volumes. When- 
ever a school raises twelve dollars to pay for the books and the 
case, a station is established in that school, and it is entitled to 
receive and use the entire six libraries, one at a time, the various 
series circulating from station to stationJn systematic order. The 
management of these libraries is intrusted to the County Educa- 
tional Association through their representative, the county librar- 
ian. During the year about SO of these libraries were started. 

The schools of the larger boroughs are steadily advancing. The 
people select their best men to direct their schools. The directors 
are progressive men whose wholesome influence extends to and aids 
the directors of the rural and village schools. The principals and 
teachers are the best we have ever had; the attendance in many of 
the borough schools has been remarkably regular; there has never 
been a time when the people have been so well satisfied with the 
efficiency of their schools. 

Our Normal School is having a wonderful growth. To accommo- 
date this increased attendance a large science building is being 
erected which will prove a valuable addition to the equipment of 
the school. The cause of education is deeply indebted to the mem- 
bers of the faculty for their hearty support and co-operation. 

In conclusion we desire to extend our appreciation and gratitude 
to the public press for the valuable and willing assistance it has 
rendered the cause of education; we are grateful to the State De- 
partment for what it has done. All that we have accomplished that 
is worthy has been possible largely because of the active co-opera- 


lion of the teachers, directors and friends of education throughout 
the county. To all these we feel deeply indebted and sincerely 


In submitting this report, I am pleased to state that most of our 
teachers worked faithfully and effectively in their respective schools, 
and accomplished results accordingh. Our aim has been to make 
continued improvement; hence all phases of school-work received 
our most careful attention. Where deficient or defective work was 
observed helpful suggestions were given. • We had the usual num- 
ber of inexperienced teachers with us, whom we tried to make as 
effective as possible, in order that the advancement of the children 
under their instruction would not be retarded. The enforcement 
of the vaccination law met with such opposition that the attendance 
in many of our schools was reduced to forty, thirty, and even twenty 
per cent, of the total enrollment. These schools, of course, failed 
to accomplish very much for the young people of the districts. 

Shiremanstown borough remodeled their school building, contain- 
ing two rooms and erected an addition also containing two rooms. 
This gives them a very fine four-room building, modern in appear- 
ance, equipment and plan. The directors are to be commended for 
taking this needed and progressive step to supply better educational 
facilities for this rapidly growing town. 

The third annual teachers' and directors' picnic was held in the 
Mt. Holly Springs Park, Saturday, August 26. 1906. Addresses were 
delivered by the late Rev. Miles O. Noll, of Carlisle, and Dr. G. M. D. 
Eckels, of the C. V. S. N. S. There was a large attendance of teach- 
ers, directors and patrons. 

The county institute was held December 4 to 8. The popularity of 
the istructors and the mild weather attracted an unusually large 
attendance at all the sessions. The instructors were Drs. N. C. 
Schaeffer, S. D. Fees, J. C. Willis, W. L. Gooding, C. E. Reber, G. 
M. D. Eckels, and State Superintendent Jones, of Ohio. Addresses, 
were made by Prof. H. B. Markley and J. M. Rhey, Esq. The evening 
lecturers were Drs. S. D. Fess, J. C. Willis and Frank Bristol. The 
concert was given by the Odeon Male Quartette, accompanied by 
Miss Nettie M. Jackson, reader. The directors' session was well 
attended and the discussions were spirited and profitable. 

The School Directors' Association held its annual meeting in the 
chapel of the C. V. S. N. S., Shippensburg, Pa., Saturday, February 
17, 1906. The following officers were elected: President^ R. M. Gra- 


ham; vice presidents, Kev. T. J. Ferguson and W. C. Creamer; secre- 
tary, T. Grove Tritt; treasurer, James A, Steese. Subjects of import- 
ance to the schools were fully presented and discussed by the 
members. During the evening session the association was favored 
with addresses by J. M. Rhey, Esq., of Carlisle, and Dr. T. B. Noss, 
of the California State Normal School. 

Our teachers deserve commendation for the hearty support they 
have been giving the local institute work in the county. These 
meetings have been very helpful to all teachers, especially the inex- 
perienced teacher and the teacher who teaches only as he or she was 
taught twenty-five years ago by a teacher who had taught as he had 
been taught thirty years before, etc. Twenty-three of these insti- 
tutes were held, all of which were interesting and largely attended 
by our people. 

Our four township high schools have been doing very good work. 
Each one had a graduating class and commencement exercises. 
Eighteen young men and women completed the prescribed course. 
The closing exercises were equal to those held in connection with our 
borough high schools. Most of these young people will continue 
their studies in higher educational institutions. The entire class 
of the Penn township high school, consisting of seven pupils, en- 
tered the C. V. S. N. S. for the closing weeks of the spring term, a 
record which cannot be surpassed and I doubt if equaled in the 
State. The creating of higher aspirations, higher ideals, and the 
seeming opening of opportunities to realize them, form the greatest 
argument for the establishing of the rural high school. What the 
country boy and girl want and need is an opportunity. No better 
quality of material is presented by any class of individuals than that 
presented by the country youth. We need many more such schools 
in this county for the developing and training of these young people. 
The directors and teachers, especially in the districts distant from 
the larger towns, should prepare the way for the establishment of 
a high school and thus give the boys and girls an opi>ortunity to 
get a higher education which will better equip them to fight life's 
battles. Without these advantages in their home district they are 
doomed not only to obscurity, but also to failure and comparatively 
little influence in the community in which they live. 

The number of teachers holding the different grades of certifi- 
cates remains about the same. The lengthening of the normal 
school course three years ago caused a decrease in the number of 
graduates, and of course, Cumberland failed to receive as many as 
formerly. This condition, I notice, exists throughout the State. 
Under these circumstances it was necessary for our school boards 
to elect more teachers holding provisional certificates. But with 


the increase of salaries we expect uo further decrease in teachers 
holding the higher grade certificates. 

The diploma examinations were held March 17. Forty-seven 
pupils took the examination, and forty-four were granted diplomas. 
The examination work of these pupils indicated more care in pre- 
paring the work, more thoroughness in mastering the subjects, and 
a greater effort on the part of the teachers to have the pupils reach 
a higher standard of proficiency in the different subjects. The 
character of the examination questions has been effective in bring- 
ing about these results. 

An examination for the admission of pupils to the Penn township 
high school was held. The senior classes of the high shools of East 
Pennsboro township, South Middleton township, Penn township, 
New Cumberland, Newville and Mt. Holly Springs w^ere examined. 
Forty-six young people were graduated from these schools. The 
commencement exercises held by these classes, including those of 
Oakville, Shippensburg and Mechanicsburg, were commendable to 
the pupils and their instructors as well as largely attended. 

In closing this report, I desire to commend the teachers for their 
earnestness and faithfulness in performing their duties; the di- 
rectors for their wise management and direction of their respective 
schools; and the patrons for their interest and co-operation in all 
that pertains to the welfare of their boys and girls. 


We say and hear it said that boys and girls of the rural schools 
should have the same school advantages as the children of the 
boroughs and cities. This is only too true, but how will it ever 
be the good fortune of the children of the rural schools to enjoy 
such schools in the rural districts so long as the constituency of 
the director who wishes re-election is constantly demanding lower 
taxation? I am glad to say that w^e have only nine districts that 
pay the minimum salary; yet this is twenty-five per centum of the 
districts under by supervision. There should not be so many, in 
fact none during the prosperous times which we now enjoy. The 
teachers of the future citizens should share in this prosperity by 
being paid a self sustaining salary for teaching. 

The salaries of the principals of schools of the county are, with 
few exceptions, as good as the average. In some districts the sal- 
aries should be raised. We have been urging the directors to in- 



crease the salaries in such districts, but I fear that all of us forget 
the assistant principal and the lower grade teachers' salaries. In 
some districts the principal does not earn nor is he worth in dollars 
and cents to the district as much as the assistant or any of the 
other grade teachers but is paid from forty (|40) to fifty (|50) 
dollars per month more. If the grade teacher prepares himself 
for his work in the school room as the principal is expected to 
prepare himself, and does his work well why should he not be paid 
nearer what the principal receives? More attention must be given 
to the selection of teachers in our lower grades and we think that 
better salaries and then a more careful selection of teachers will 
remedy a great weakness in our school system. 

The compulsory attendance law was more rigidly enforced in the 
majority of the districts than any previous year. In a few districts 
the enforcement of the law ends with the school board sending 
notices to the parent or the person in parental relation to the 

The law passed by the last Legislature authorizing directors to 
pay the tuition of pupils attending neighboring high schools will 
give every child in the county an opportunity to secure a high school 
education, and the blessings this privilege will bring to many of the 
young people of the county can never be fully estimated. 

The fifty-third annual session of the institute was held at Harris- 
burg, from October 30th to November 3d. The institute was a 
success, if we are allowed to judge by the comments. 

The Directors' Association held the fifteenth annual session on 
Thursday, November 2d, during week of institute. This meeting 
was attended by one hundred seventy-five (175) directors. This 
attendance broke all former records. The second meeting of the 
association for the year was held at Middletown. Dr. Schaelfer, 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, delivered a very whole- 
some address for the patrons and directors at the evening session. 

Many districts have their teachers meet every month to discuss 
topics concerning school work. It is in these districts that I find 
systematic school work well executed. Every district should have 
and could have these meetings. 

Local institutes were held in all the districts during the year. 
Some of the districts held two or more sessions which shows that 
a healthful interest was manifested. The gentlemen serving as 
the oflicers of the local institute districts are to be congratulated 
for arousing such great interest in education in th(>ir respective 

Millersburg graded the school ground at one of their buildings, 
remodeled the inside by tearing down the antiquated heating appa- 
ratus which consisted of stoves and placed in the building an up-to- 

No. 6. fiLK COUNTY. 51 

date hot air furnace, painted the walls and ceilings of the rooms 
and put sewer and water into the building. 

Upper Paxton township added a cozy one room building to their 
number. We urge them to continue this each year until they have 
rebuilt all their buildings unfit for use. 

Susquehanna township built an annex containing four commodious 
rooms to one of their buildings. 

Upper Swatara built an annex containing two rooms to the build- 
ing at Oberliu and put in an up-to-date steam heating plant for the 
entire building. If directors could realize how injurious it is to 
the health of children to heat school rooms with stoves, the stoves 
would be a heating apparatus of the past in one year's time. 

The principals of the schools of the county held a meeting at 
Millersburg to discuss topics concerning their work in the schools. 
The ijrincipals with few exceptions were present and took part in 
the discussions. We hope these meetings will continue and result 
in much good for the schools. 

Some schools under my supervision are trying to do too much. 
I refer more particularly to the graded schools in boroughs where 
the system is copied after the larger boroughs and cities. If the 
curriculum would be arranged to meet the demands of the com- 
munity as it should be there would not be such a deficiency in the 
common English branches. 

I trust that nothing may occur to interfere with the work of the 
schools for the coming year^ I look forward for a decided advance 
in the efficiency of the schools. 

We wish to thank all who assisted in making the schools what 
they were last year, and sincerely hope they will continue assisting 
in this work. 

ELK COUNTY— J. W. Sweeney. 

The past year was one of general progress along all educational 
lines in Elk county, due to the fact that all factors in the cause co- 
operated to produce the best results. 

Public Opinion: The grea,t lever that advances or retards any 
cause is public opinion, and it is gratifying to report the general 
ascendancy in this particular, for it guarantees a continuance and 
improvement of the conditions that have given us a favorable stand- 
ing in the State. 

Salaries: Because of a public demand for professional teachers, 
salaries have very perceptibly advanced to all grades of teachers, 


thus enabling us to retain those who have proved their worth, and 
also to invite others of high standing to seek service in our schools. 
But yet we have a few directors who do not give this matter the 
attention it deserves and in some instances the salary is set ac- 
cording to the school rather than to the worth of the teacher. This 
is a great mistake as is also that of selecting any kind of a teacher 
for a small or remote school. The fact is, that these are just 
the schools that require the inspiration and uplifting influence of 
the ablest teacher. 

School Term: Perhaps the greatest drawback to rapid advance- 
ment in a few schools is the short or minimum school term. The 
director should realize that in considering wages the teacher looks 
to what he receives for the term rather than the monthly pay, and 
consequently the best teachers go to the district having the longer 
term, unless convenience to home or other local conditions govern. 
The short term also works an injury to the children in another 
way, for in the course of the eight years of school life it robs the child 
of one whole year or eight months' schooling. 

School Buildings: Much attention has been given during the 
year to the improvement of school buildings and now nearly all 
houses are large, comfortable and convenient. All are kept properly 
painted, repaired and decorated giving to them a homelike artistic 
appearance. During the year just closed, many single room houses 
were built or old ones rebuilt. Benezette township completed and 
opened at the beginning of the year a modern five room brick build- 
ing for the use of their excellent graded and high school. The 
building is of modern design, is properly ventilated and heated 
throughout with steam, and adds much to the appearance of the 
town. Jay township also erected at Weedville a high school build- 
ing and established a high school, which will mean much to. that 
growing community; Eidgway township doubled the size of the 
high school building at Rolfo, a suburb of Johnsonburg, to provide 
for the increased number of pupils. Jones township erected a 
modern brick and stone structure at Wilcox, which in all particulars 
is the equal of any ten room building in the State. The building 
presents a large imposing appearance, has wide corridors, large, 
well lighted class rooms, each having its separate cloak room, the 
ventilation and heating is up-to-date, there is a cemented basement 
under the entire building which is ijsed for toilet rooms, play 
rooms and for ventilation and heating purposes, while there is 
a large auditorium on the third floor which furnishes an admirable 
place for general exercises. The building cost approximating .f25,- 
000, and will all be used for the graded schools and high school, with 
a four years' course of study. 

High Schools: The three borough high schools of the county have 

No. 6. ELK COUNTY. 53 

advanced and enriched their courses of study until they give the 
students a comprehensive and practical course, fitting them for life 
or preparing them for entrance to higher institutions of learning. 
St. Marys and Ridgway high schools in addition to a strong four 
3^ears' regular course offer the advantages of a complete commercial 
course where a thorough knowledge of stenography, typewriting, 
book-keeping, and other commeTcial knowledge may be had with- 
out cost, thus preparing them to accept positions in the many offices 
in the county, where they give a good account of their training. 

The township high schools which now number eight and are pro- 
vided in all but two of the districts of the county, pursue two, 
three or four years' courses of study, and are doing most satisfac- 
tory work, particular stress being placed on thoroughness in the 
common branches, on business education, on literature and on the 
elements of science, including the elements of agriculture. 

At the opening of the last school year township high schools of 
the third class were established in Millstone and Jay townships, 
both of which started off well for the first year. Benzinger town- 
ship by arrangement with St. Marys borough provides a four years' 
high school course for all pupils of the district free of cost, an ad- 
vantage that is appreciated as shown by the increased number that 
come from the country schools each successive year. Besides the 
regularly established high schools there are a great number of 
graded schools in all parts of the county that pursue a two years' 
course of study, thus enabling nearly all pupils to prepare for higher 
work without leaving home. All these graded schools are under 
local supervision thus insuring the highest proficiency in the work 

The county superintendent as the agent of the State closely super- 
vises the township high schools, courses of study are outlined and 
at the close of the year examinations for promotion and graduation 
are held, covering the three higher grades of work as outlined. 
At this same time the pupils from the country schools and smaller 
graded schools are required to come to the township building, to 
take examinations under the superintendent and committee for pro- 
motion to any of the high schools, grades, or for standings in the 
subjects mastered. In each succeeding year there has been an in- 
creased number from the outside schools owing to the progress 
of the system and also because of the work of the local superin- 
tendent who supervises the work and inspires bright young people 
to seek a higher education or at least to thoroughly complete the 
common branches. 

School Libraries: The establishing and advancing of school li- 
braries continue to command the attention of the educators of the 
countv. Manv books of reference or of literary worth have been 


added to the libraries and new libraries have been added in all dis- 
tricts. This is a matter that should receive the closest attention 
for much of the future life of the child will be determined by what; 
he reads. Would it not be along the line of progress for the State 
to furnish good reference libraries for the high schools and then 
each year, as an incentive, appropriate a sum equal to the amount 
raised by the district for library u»e? 

Vaccination and Compulsory Laws: Much annoyance and loss of 
time has been occasioned during the year by the conflicting of the 
vaccination and compulsory laws in some cases practically breaking 
up the schools and seriously interfering with the work of the high 

Educational Meetings: The annual county institute was held at 
Kidgway in December and was well attended. It was one of the 
most inspiring and profitable meetings ever held in the county. 
Local institutes were held during the year at frequent intervals in 
all parts of the county and they continue to be a great agency for 
uplifting public sentiment and for making a more interesting and 
better teaching body. The third annual institute of high school 
teachers was held at the county seat and all the supervisory and 
high school teachers attended and took an active part in the work, 
to the end that brighter and better high school work is done. The 
school directors of the county held their third annual convention 
at Ridgway in February, for two days, Avhen the delegates to the 
State convention made a most interesting report of the State meet- 
ing after which the large delegation of directors all joined in dis- 
cussing the timely subjects on the program prepared for the meet- 
ing. The principals of the several high schools were present and 
with the superintendent joined the directors in the discussions. 

Prof. R. M. McNeal, of the Clarion Normal School, was present 
and in the evening gave a most inspiring and helpful address to 
the directors, superintendents, teachers and patrons present. 

At College and Normal Schools: A reliable measure of the effi- 
ciency of our schools is the increased number of students who yearly 
attend higher institutions of learning. Never in the history of our 
county were there so many of our young people in tlie several col- 
leges and normal schools pursuing courses leading to graduation, 
and in addition a greater number are attending summer schools to 
advance themselves. 

Conclusion: We desire in conclusion to express our sincere thanks 
and appreciation for sympathy and support, to the Department of 
Public Instruction for assistance, to the press of the county for 
generous support, to the directors for their support and readiness 
to accept suggestions, to the supervisory principals for their co- 


operation, to the teachers for their earnest work and to all who 
have in any way contributed to the success of the schools during the 


Continued interest has beeii manifest in the school work of the 
county for the year. 

Our school directors are eA'er ready to make suitable provisions 
for the children committed to their care. Haverford township school 
board has erected an attractive two story school building at Lla- 
nerch. It is built of stone and contains two very light, cheerful 
rooms on the first floor, one of which was occupied this year. In 
Middletown the directors built a very neat one room stone building 
and furnished it with single desks. The Upper Providence school 
board erected a four room building for the better accommodation 
of the pupils of the district. It is suitably furnished and is a credit 
to the township. Only three of the rooms were occupied this year. 
The directors are considering the advisability of establishing a 
township higli school. The directors of Sharon Hill and Swarthmore 
have each had erected two story additions to their school buildings 
which add very much to their appearance as well as suitably pro- 
viding for the increased needs of these districts. A new two story 
stone building was erected by the directors of Thornbury at Glen 
Mills. It contains four rooms and is the most attractive rural 
school building in the count3\ Two rooms are occupied at present. 
It is suitably furnished throughout and Avell adapted for school 
purposes. They also repaired the Central school which gives it a 
much more cheerful appearance. Both school buildings were refur- 
nished with single xiesks. The directors of Aston township refur- 
nished the school at Village Green with single desks and are plan- 
ning for a new building at Chester Heights. 

The directors of Clifton Heights have maintained a night school 
for the last two years for the benefit of those who were obliged tt> 
leave school at an early age to enter the mills. The attendanco 
was quite encouraging, two teachers being required one year, and 
the work done by the scholars was very gratifying to the directors 
who have taken an unusual interest in the educational welfare of 
the children of the borough. 

The annual convention of the school directors of the county was 
held at Media, Thursday, March 8th, and was attended by a good 
percentage of the directors. Interesting addresses were made by 


speakers invited from other parts of the State and considerable 
time was given up to general discussions. The prompt manner in 
which many of those present made use of this time indicated their 
interest in the work committed to their care. The officers elected 
for next year are: Prof. George A. Hoadley, Swarthmore, president; 
Hon. Isaac P. Garrett, Lansdowne, vice president; J. Milton Lutz, 
Upper Darby, secretary, and William T. Galbraith, Upper Chi- 
chester, treasurer. 

The teachers are zealous in their work and faithful in their attend- 
ance at all educational meetings held in the county. They appre- 
ciate the demands being made for better trained teachers and a 
number each year attend the summer schools of the State, and a 
still greater number are pursuing courses of special study on Sat- 
urday in the University of Pennsylvania and other educational in- 
stitutions in Philadelphia. 

An incident occurred in Haverford township worthy of mention 
since it shows a tangible appreciation of a teacher's services. At 
the close of the school term a few friends and patrons of a faithful 
primary school teacher called upon her and presented her with a 
little package which when opened was found to contain two hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars, with the donors' best wishes for a 
pleasant vacation for the recipient. This was a most practical way 
of showing appreciation of services well rendered. 

The facts set forth in the statistical report will reveal other 
matters of interest and I suggest their perusal. During the year 
I have had the hearty co-operation of patrons, teachers, directors 
and the press, for all of which I am grateful. 

ERIE COUNTY— Samuel B. Bayle. 

The schools of Erie county are still progressing. Our teachers 
are striving each year to do better work. Our pupils are working 
hard and trying to be regular in their attendance. 

Our directors are demanding good schools and good teachers and 
their demands are being met. Nothing but the best satisfies the 
people of Erie county. 

During the past year I visited every school in Erie county. 
I examined some of the classes and made a record of their 
work. I studied the work of each teacher and made a record 
of the same. The schools of Erie county are all graded. Over 90 
per cent, of the pupils passed my examinations and were promoted 


Three hundred and sixty pupils took my eighth grade examinations. 
Of these about 90 per cent, passed, received my diploma and will be 
admitted to our high schools this coming fall. In our grading we 
have four years of primary work and four years of grammar. And 
concerning these grades I can honestly report that they are alive 
and doing good work. These schools are the feeders of our high 
schools and the greater number of our school districts are giving 
to the children of said districts high school advantages. vSummit 
township and Lake Pleasant (Ind.) districts are organizing high 
schools. Many of the graduates of our high schools will enter 
college at the beginning of the college year. Others will take up 
life's work. 

The time spent by these pupils in the high schools has been well 
spent because our high school courses are up to a high standard 
and for graduation a thorough completion of the work is required. 

During the closing months of the school year I attended and 
made addresses at about twenty commencements. And everywhere 
the "house was crowded." This shows the interest our people are 
taking in matters of education. 

Another year 'is done; its labors are over; its record has been 
made up; and I can truthfully say so far as the work of the public 
schools of Erie county is concerned, it has been a good year; the 
labor has been well performed; the record is clear and shows 
progress. I thank you all. 

FAYETTE COUNTY— C. G. Lewellvn. 

In submitting this, my first annual report, I am gratified to say 
that the schools are in a good, healthy condition which denotes the 
steady and continued progress in the educational affairs of the 
count}', the increase of interest in our public schools, and the spirit 
of advancement manifested by the teachers, directors and parents. 
The schools have done substantial work all along the line. I am 
happy to report such a condition. 

The school year just closed had 638 schools as against 601 in the 
preceding year. The outlook for the coming year is very bright 
and there will be about 700 schools in the county, a rapid increase in 
number. This increase is due to the large industrial development 
throughout the count}', and is to a large extent responsible for our 
having so many inexperienced teachers. Many school boards are 
compelled to hire this class of teachers in order to make up their 


teaching force. To my mind this is a hindrance to rapid progress 
in school work. 

We need more experienced teachers^ — more trained teachers. Out 
of G48 teachers in the county, only 79 are Normal School graduates; 
1)4 hold permanent certificates; 72 hold professional certificates and 
403 hold provisional certificates. There are 569 teachers who are 
not graduates of Normal Schools and only 94 of these have attended 
a State Normal School; three have attended seminaries and seven 
are college graduates. 

The above statistics lead me to say that we need better trained 
teachers. Many school boards appreciate this fact, and no few 
directors have expressed themselves as being in favor of giving 
those teachers who desire to become more proficient, leave of ab- 
sence for the year in order to attend some institution of higher 
learning or some training school for teachers. This is certainly 
to be commended. I am pleased that there is a growing sentiment 
throughout the county to secure better qualified teachers. Better 
Avages are being paid than ever before, and better service must be 
given 4n proportion to the increase in salaries. 

Twenty-one public examinations were held during the year. Five 
hundred and eighty provisional certificates and five professional 
certificates were issued, and 174 applicants were rejected. 

On March 31st and April 28th, examinations for graduation from 
the common schools were given at 20 different places in the county. 
There Avere 227 applicants of which 168 making the required grade 
received diplomas. 

The School Directors' Association assembled in the court house 
at Uniontown, Pa., Saturday, November 4, 1905. One hundred and 
seven directors were present. This was the largest convention of 
the association ever held in the county. It Avas a most profitable 
meeting. Addresses were made by Dr. Theo. B. Noss, of the South 
Western State Normal School, Supt. W. W. Ulerich, of Ligonier, 
Pa., and ex-Supt. John S. Carroll, of Dunbar, Pa, Queries were 
opened for discussion by the following named directors: George L. 
Moore, of Brownsville, Pa. ; A. E. Jones, Esq., Uniontown, Pa., and 
Dr. J. L. Cochran, of Star Junction, Pa. 

The county institute was held in Uniontown, Pa., December 18- 
22. It was considered by all to be one of the most successful meet- 
ings ever held in the county. The following named instructors Viere 
present: Dr. T. S. Lowden, Worcester, Mass.; Dr. Charles B. Gil- 
bert, New York City; Dr. F. B. Pearson, Columbus, O.; Supt. W. W. 
Ulerich, Ligonier, Pa. Prof. Hamlin E. Cogswell, of EdinDoro State 
Normal School conducted the music for the week and proved very 
popular in his Avork. The vocal soloists were Miss Jean D. Seamen, 
of Washington, Pa., and Miss Edna Allan Cogswell, of Edinboro, 


Pa. Miss Caii'ie Waggoner, of Brownsville, Pa., was the pianist. 
Tlie evening entertainments were of tlie highest order and gave 
general satisfaction. 

For a long time local institutes were lost sight of, but in recent 
years they have taken on new life. Last year almost every school 
district in the county held a local institute and some districts held 
as many as four or five. There were as many as five or six educational 
meetings held on the same date. I am glad to report this and firmly 
believe that many of the young teachers gain a great deal from 
them. Many districts are making preparations at this time for meet- 
ings next year. 

Parents' Day was observed on Friday, February 2.3, 1906. This 
has become a great day with us in our schools. Teachers and pupils 
take great delight in having parents and other visitors come to see 
them in their everyday work. 

There w'ere fifteen new school buildings erected in the county 
during the year. Dunbar township built a four room brick building 
at Greenwood at a cost of |S,000, a six room brick building at Lib- 
erty at a cost of |1 6,000, and four room high school building at 
Leisenring at a cost of |15,000. These are as good as the best. Bed- 
stone tow nship erected two four room brick buildings. Washington 
township built a new six room frame building. Fayette City a new- 
four room building. George township one new house, Franklin one 
two room building, Bullskin one new building, Menallen tw'O new 
buildings, Brownsville township one building, German township 
one and Springhill township one. Perry township has let the con- 
tract for a high school building and Uniontown has the plans draw'n 
and are ready for bids on a new eight room brick building. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion for the many favors I hare received from it. I wish to express 
my appreciation of the courtesies extended to me by the school di- 
rectors, teachers and the press of the county and for their untiring 
efforts in helping me in the great work I have to perform. 

FOREST COUNTY— D. W. Morrison. 

• In submitting my report for the year ending 1906, I am glad to 
state that we have had a very good year. The only unpleasant 
feature of the year's work was occasioned by the enforcement of 
the vaccination law. In very many schools the enrollment was 
materially lessened by parents refusing to have their children vac- 


The number of schools in operation was ninety-seven, a decrease 
of four from the previous year. 

Every school in the county was visited twice by the superintend- 
ent, and some were visited oftener. In all 234 visits were made. 

The township high school at Marienville graduated a class of six 
pupils and the borough high school at Tionesta a class of twelve. 
Both schools closed with excellent commencement exercises. 

During the year the school building at Buck's Mills, Kingsley 
township, together with all furniture, books and supplies was 
burned. This makes the second building burned on those grounds 
within twelve months. 

One of the finest modern school buildings in the county was 
erected in Harmony township during the term. 

The third annual convention of the School Directors' Association 
of Forest county was held in the court house at Tionesta on June 
19th and 20th. Twenty-five directors were present and an interest- 
ing meeting resulted. The following subjects were fully discussed: 
The Compulsory School Law; County Uniform Course of Study; 
Joint Meetings of Teachers and Directors; Some Points Needing 
More Attention; The Value of Teachers' Term Reports, and Selec- 
tion and Change of Teachers. Arrangements were made with J. M. 
Berkey, ex-superintendent Johnstown, to address the convention on 
Monday evening, on "Business Management of Schools," but he did 
not arrive on account of missing railroad connections. Messrs T. F. 
Ritchey and A. 0. Brown, members of the Tionesta board and local 
attorneys, gave excellent talks. 

One of the most successful annual teachers' institutes ever held 
in the county was held in Marienville October 30-Nov. 3. Eighty- 
nine teachers were in attendance. The instructors were Dr. Geo. 
P. Bible, of Philadelphia; Miss Cora M. Hamilton, of Macomb, 111., 
and Dr. J. Geo. Becht, of the Clarion Normal School. Prof. A. J. 
Mooney, of Ridgway, Pa., had charge of the music. The evening ses- 
sions were as follows: Monday evening Dr. Bible lectured on "Life 
and Opportunity;" Tuesday evening Miss Hamilton gave a talk on 
"Story Telling," illustrated with stories; Wednesday evening Pitt 
Parker entertained in cartooning, and Thursday evening "The Lyric 
Glee Club" gave a musical entertainment. 

The great educational stimulus of the year, and the one farthest 
reaching in its application, was the awarding of twelve free scholar- 
ships to the Clarion State Normal School for the spring term of 
1906 by the same generous benefactor who did so much good in this 
direction the previous year. Out of a class of sixty-eight contest- 
ants, the following pupils earned scholarships: Marie Dunn, Dott 
Bates, Flossie M. Braden, Bessie Douglas, Marjorie Hill, Dean Mech- 


ling, Mamie Eugdahl, Charles Dotterrer, Alta M. Ledebur, Elizabeth 
Daltoii, Johu II. Osgood and Howard N. Hepler. 

Fifty-four of the teachers and prospective teachers of the county' 
are in attendance at the Clarion Normal School during the spring 
term. The county superintendent has been with them during the 
last six weeks of the term engaged in assisting in their instruction. 
Influenced by desires to unify the teaching w^ork and bring the 
teacher into contact with Normal school life as a means of better- 
ment to both school and teacher, has been his reasons for w^orking 
with the teachers. 

The past year has been a very pleasant one and the factors are 
working to make the future of our schools more pleasant and more 
profitable in the years to come. 

To the State Department, the Clarion Normal School, the un- 
known philathropist, the press of the county, the directors and 
teachers and patrons and students who have showered a multitude 
of favors and helped in the great w^ork of education, to them I owe 
a lasting debt of gratitude. 

FKANKLIN COUNTY— L. F. Benchofif. 

We are glad in a general way to report much progress in the 
schools for -the past year, however we have not accomplished as 
much as desired in comparison with the previous year's work. A 
comparison of statistics reveals the fact that the enrollment w^as 
less, the attondance Avas poorer and the results obtained not as good 
as in the former 3'ear. The enrollment of 1905 compared with that 
of 1906 is as follows: 

1905, boys, 4,901; girls, 4,-556; total, 9,4.57; average, 7,078. 

1906, boys, 4,720; girls, 4,432; total, 9,152; average, 6,374. 
There were 76 students who passed the public school examination 

and received diplomas in 1905. In 1906 45 passed and were granted 
diplomas. This disorganization of the schools and lack of interest 
was brought about by the vaccination law which practically an- 
nulled the compulsory law. This state of affairs was unfortunate. 
The schools are for the children — to train them and fit them for the 
highest usefulness — to teach them to be patriotic, loyal law abiding, 
ambitious, intelligent and responsive to the demands of duty. I am 
somewhat apprehensive as to the results of lessons taught in civics 
during the past year, not only in Franklin county, but in the Com 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. 


We held seventeen public and special examinations in which 182 
applicants were examined. Thirty-one were rejected. Washington 
township built one new house and an addition of two rooms to the 
Rouzerville Academy, which consisted of four rooms. Each addition 
is well built and well suited to the needs of school work. Mercers- 
burg district placed a new bell on the high school building. 

The annual directors' convention was held October 19th and 20th, 
in the court house in Chambersburg. A marked interest was shown 
in the discussions of the various subjects brought before the con- 
vention. The meeting was successful, many of the directors assist- 
ing in the program along with ex. Supt. McNeal and Supt. McGinnis, 
who aided in making the institute a success. 

The county institute, which convened in Rosedale Opera House 
in Chambersburg, November 20-24, was one of the most interesting 
and profitable sessions ever held, due in a large measure to the in- 
spiring addresses delivered by Drs. S. D. Fess, G, M. D. Eckels, W. 
W. Stetson, Amy Tanner, Profs. C. H, Gordenier and Orval H. 
Yetter. The attendance was large, the meetings enthusiastic and 
all present were convinced of the fact that the county institute is a 
great public educator. The evening sessions were as follows: 

Dr. S. D, Fess— A Scene in the U, S, Senate, 

Carmen's Italian Boys and Foland, 

A Day and Night with Our Life Savers. 

Odeon Male Quartette and Miss Jackson. 

Local institutes were held at Mercersburg, Greencastle, Welsh 
Run, Rouzerville, Quincy, New Franklin, Lemaster, St. Thomas and 
Fannettsburg. Great enthusiasm was manifested in this work 
throughout the county. The teachers of the county deserve much 
credit for the active interest they took in the county and local insti- 
tutes. There are 366 teachers in Franklin county and three super- 
intendents. Of these 295 are under the direct supervision of the 
county superintendent. One hundred and two teachers hold pro- 
visional certificates, 17 hold professionals, 83 hold permanents, and 
93 hold normal diplomas. 

The county superintendent controls 134 male teachers and 161 
female teachers. 

In closing my report I wish to express my appreciation of the 
many kindnesses shown me by the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, the press, of the work of the various boards of directors, in 
their efforts to meet their duties as they saw them, of the loyalty 
and hearty co-operation of the teachers, the good conduct of the 
pupils, and the kindly interest shown by the patrons. 

No. 6. 


FULTON rOTTNTY— Charles E. Barton. 

In reviewing the school work of the past year we feel that sub- 
stantial progress can be reported. A comparison of the work of 
the year just closed, with that of previous years, shows advancement 
along all lines of school work. Directors and patrons have given 
more time and attention to the schools than in former years, this 
was especially true in the selection of teachers, in school visitations, 
and in the support of the compulsory attendance law. This interest 
on the part of directors and patrons, coupled with faithful and 
efficient work on the part of an enthusiastic corps of teachers, makes 
educational advancement certain. 

The county teachers' institute of the week of December 4:th, 
marked the educational high-water mark in the history of the 
county. Every teacher of the county was present at every session 
of the institute, thus breaking all former records in point of teach- 
ers' attendance. It was also a record breaker in point of general 
attendance and in practical and efficient work. In the past few^ 
years our county institute has awakened such interest and en- 
thusiasm among our people that we can not accommodate those 
who would attend — hundreds must be turned away from the ses- 
sions for want of room. 

The directors' annual convention was held at the county seat on 

March 28th and 29th. This convention surpassed any previous one 
in point of attendance and interest. We believe that these yearly 
meetings of directors will become as strong factors in educational 
progress as the teachers' institutes. 

Teachers' prelinynary meetings were held in all districts of the the 
county on Saturday preceding the opening of the schools. At these 
meetings questions pertaining to school organization were discussed, 
and the local institute work organized for the term. Local institutes 
were held monthly in all the districts throughout the term. Most 
of our teachers are thoroughly alive to the advantages of these 
meetings and make sacrifices to attend all within their reach. How- 
ever, there are a few who seem to feel themselves beyond the neces- 
sity of any further improvement, hence are growing weaker each 
successive year. 

Our teachers' reading course has continued to grow in favor and 
has become a strong element in the improvement of the teachers. 

Five new school libraries were established during the year and 
additions made to twenty-two others. These libraries in the hands 


of wide-awake and judicious teachers are giving our boys and girls 
an opi>ortunity tliat we trust will develop habits of study and re- 
search that will continue to educate long after leaving the public 

Ten were graduated from the McConnellsburg high school and 
five from the Wells township high school. Appropriate commence- 
ment exercises were held by each class. - Twenty-four pupils in the 
rural schools passed the spring examinations and received diplomas. 

No new school houses Avere built during the year but we are glad 
to be able to report that a new building will be erected in McCon- 
nellsburg during the coming year. At an election held in May it 
was voted to bond the town in a sum sufficient to insure the erec- 
tion of a thoroughly modern and up-to-date school building, some- 
thing that our town has greatly needed. 

Some of our rural schools are so situated and are becoming so 
small that it Avould be wisdom on the part of the directors to close 
them. Ayr tOAvnship closed one school this year and we trust that 
other districts may follow this example. Where schools have an 
attendance of only half a dozen pupils, as is the case with a few in 
the county, it were better in our opinion to arrange for the educa- 
tion of these boys and girls in other schools where conditions are 
more favorable. 

The subject of centralization and township high schools is now 
receiving consideration in several of our districts. Public sentiment 
is growing in favor of these movements, and both could be carried 
into effect' in at least one-half bf the districts of the county with 
much profit to both the tax payers and the children. 

In closing this report I wish to thank the Department for assist- 
ance given me, and the directors, teachers, and citizens of the county 
for their cheerful support and co-operation. 

GREENE COUNTY— John C. Stewart. 

In summarizing the work of the past year previous to making this 
annual report, we can see many encouraging signs of progress along 
educational lines. The teachers, as a rule, were earnest and faith- 
ful in the performance of every duty. 

The sentiment in favor of higher education in the rural districts 
is gradually growing and we hope before the close af another year 
to have the pleasure of reporting at least two township high schools 
in the county. 


The most discouraging problem that has confronted us during the 
past two or three years has been a dearth of teachers. It was with 
some difficulty that we kept the schools open this year. This was 
probably due to the development of the county's resources. The 
coal, oil and gas bringing immense wealth into this section has 
opened new fields of labor and is offering many good positions that 
are more remunerative to those of average ability than school teach- 
ing, as a result many of our successful teachers have chosen other 
lines of work. In many districts the directors were led to see the 
condition into which we were drifting and advanced the wages to 
forty-two dollars per month. In two districts they were increased 
to forty-five dollars per month. The directors of the county have 
shown a growing interest in the work by repairing, painting and 
papering a number of houses also by the construction of several 
comfortable and attractive buildings. 

The usual number of examinations were held with a small de- 
crease from last year in the number of applicants. 

The Directors' Convention w^as held in September. This was a 
very interesting, and we believe, a very profitable meeting. About 
fifty per cent, of the directors were in attendance. Many questions 
pertaining to school administration were ably discussed by the mem- 
bers of the convention. Superintendent Samuel Bayle, of Erie 
county delivered a very able and practical address before the con- 

The County Institute was held at Waynesburg, October 16-20. 
This annual meeting was the crowning event of the year in educa- 
tional work. The interest manifested by the public as well as by 
the teachers was the greatest in the history of our institutes. The 
instructors Dr. Francis H. Green, Prof. Charles H. Albert, Dr. Stan- 
ley Krebs and Prof. O. H. Yetter. The evening lecturers were 
Hon. Frank Hanley, Guy Carlton Lee, Gen. J. T. Sweeney and 
Thomas McClary. The names of these instructors and lecturers are 
sufficient to indicate the character of the work. 

In our Institute Manual we suggested the holding of at least 
four local institutes in each district, during the year. Every dis- 
trict acted on this suggestion and some districts held more than 
four of these educational meetings. The director and patrons aided 
the teachers in this work and they have proven great: factors in 
creating a healthy educational sentiment in the county. In addi- 
tion to these educational meetings, several districts held a teachers 
and directors meeting on the first Saturday of each month, which 
was a source of strength to the teachers. 

In closing this report, we wish to express our gratitude to the 
Department, press, directors, teachers, patrons and pupils for their 
assistance in this great educational work. 



The school year ending in this report, has, we believe, been one 
of marked progress. Though it was predicted by some that the en- 
forcement of the compulsory vaccination law would ruin our schools, 
the reports, sent me by the teachers, show that a higher percentage 
of attendance was had where the law was enforced early in the term 
than in the districts which ignored the law. Though scarlet fever, 
diphtheria and measles invaded every quarter of the county during 
the winter, the average attendance is above normal and 248 pupils 
each made 100 per cent, of attendance. 

Our houses are now nearly all nicely papered and most of them 
are supplied with good furniture. Pictures decorate the walls gen- 

Beginning on the 5th day of June, 1905, we conducted 31 public 
examinations, and four special examinations were conducted dur- 
ing the year. Three hundred seventeen (317) applicants were ex- 
amined, ninety-eight (98) of whom were rejected. Excepting those 
who took the examination for permanent certificates, but two pro- 
fessional certificates were granted. But eighteen applicants took 
the examination for township diploma. Four of this number were 
rejected. Our high schools graduated eleven. For the purpose of 
raising our standard of proficiency, several classes were held over 
for the spring of 1907. Our one township high school, which is 
located at Spruce Creek, graduated but two this year. 

Only 27 per cent, of the teachers who were with us five years ago 
are now teaching in the county. This will show that a large ma- 
jority of our teaching force is made up of persons of limited ex- 
perience; but we are pleased to say that, as a whole, we found bet- 
ter teaching during the year than we did during either of our 
previous years. Most of our teachers are enthusiastic, many of them 
studious in the principles of pedagogy, and most of them do good 
work. The teachers of Jackson, West, Dublin and Tell townships 
deserve special mention because in each of these townships the 
teachers organized and made a systematic study of our reading 

The county institute was said to be a decided success. Two 
hundred fifty-one (251) teachers were enrolled and the average daily 
attendance was two hundred forty-nine (249). Excellent instruc- 
tion was given by Dr. J. 0. Willis, of Lexington, Ky.; Dr. C. E. 
Reber, of Worcester, Mass.; Profs. J. A. and O. R. Myers, of Juniata 
College. We are greatly indebted to Supt. Barclay and ex-Supt. 


S. G. Rudy for assistance rendered. Prof. P. H. Meyer, of Belle- 
fonte, bad charge of the music. 

During the year thirty-two regular local institutes were conducted 
in the county. Several educational and literary meetings, not 
above counted, were held in the different districts. The superin- 
tendent attended twenty-seven of the local institutes not including 
several addresses made at educational meetings. In county and 
local institutes he attended thirty-three. At our local institute in 
Spruce Creek, we had the honor of having Dr. Henry Houck, of 
Harrisburg, who was the center of inspiration. 

Our directors were well represented at the State Directors' As- 
sociation, and the superintendent attended the meeting of the county 

The Directors' Convention of the county was well attended. Our 
directors are manifesting more interest in educational affairs each 
year. Prof. R. M. McNeal did good work for us in this convention. 

Two new houses were built during the year. At Franklinville, 
a modern two-room building was erected, while in Smitiifield the 
old building was so remodelled that we have a very good four-room 
building. Superintendent T. B. Patton, of the P. I. R., presented 
the township with a good bell for this building. 

Omitting many points of interest because of a lack of space, I 
have the honor to close this my fourth report. 


Another school year is numbered with the past and in reviewing 
the work done during the year we have nothing of special interest 
to (re|)ort, but, yet we think that we have been in the line of pro- 
gress. We experienced much trouble in securing; a sufficient num- 
ber of efficient teachers for the schools. Our teachers, as a bod}'', 
were interested in their work. The majority of them were readers 
of educational papers and books on theory and literature. We are 
very much encouraged with the work that our teachers are doing 
along that line of literature. 

The annual institute, which was held in Indiana, December 18 to 
22, was a decided success in every particular. The teachers were 
very faithful in their attendance and gave excellent attention. We 
never had so many directors and citizens in atendance from the 
county districts as we had last year. Our day instructors were Dr. 


Kobt. A. Armstrong, West Virginia University, of Morgantown, 
W. Va.; Prof. C. C. Ellis, of Philadelphia; Dr. Thomas E. Hodges, 
West Virginia University, of Morgantown, W. Va.; Prof. G. H. 
Yetter, of Bloomsburg, Pa., musical director, and Miss Irene Cooper, 
of Homer City, reader. 

The evening lectures were delivered by Rev. Russell H. Conwell 
and Rev. Frank Dixon. The musical attractions were given by The 
Dunbar Male Quartette and Bell Ringers and the Boston Orchestral 
Company. We went aside from the regular program and gave an 
entertainment of moving pictures by Lyman H. Howe. The enter- 
tainment was intensely interesting and instructive. 

The fourteenth annual session of the Directors' Association was 
held in the court house, Indiana, Pa., on Thursday and Friday dur- 
ing institute week. Our directors were well pleased to have their 
meeting held the same week as the annual institute, consequently 
we had the largest attendance in the history of the association. The 
sessions were very interesting. Prof. C. C. Ellis gave a very prac- 
tical and interesting address. Directors say that they never had 
any one before them who pleased them better. 

Local institutes were held regularly in the majority of the dis- 
tricts and were well attended. It was my pleasure to be present at 
ten local institutes and take part in the discussions. We feel that 
great good is done by our local institutes. 

During the year 454 applicants were examined for teaching; and 
of this number 278 were licensed to teach. Of the number employed 
to teach, 216 were females and 127 were males; 82 had no previous 
experience and 80 had taught five or more annual terms; 222 held 
provisional certificates, 34 professional certificates, 48 permanent 
certificates and 39 Normal diplomas. Four were college graduates. 

At the close of the school term, the examination for graduation 
in the public schools was held in each township. The number of 
graduates increases each year. We find that this examination is 
very beneficial. It stimulates both teacher and pupils to do better 
work and enlists the interest of parents having children to be ex- 
amined. It is a-help to those who wish to prepare themselves for 
teaching. Pupils who graduate are required to read a number of 
good books. 

During the year the teachers were required to read and study 
^'White's Art of Teaching," "Common Sense Didactics" by Henry 
Sabin; "The Making of a Teacher," by Martin Brumbaugh; the writ- 
ings of two standard American authors and one English author. 

With few exceptions all the schools were visited during the year. 
The average time spent in each school was one hour. During the 
year the following new buildings were erected: a two-room building 
in Green township, a two-room building in Pine township, a one- 


room building in Biirrell township, and one-room building remodeled 
in Canoe township. 

In closing I wish to thank the Department of Public Instruction 
for kind and courteous treatment, the teachers, directors, patrons 
and press that have so kindly assisted me in promoting the educa- 
tional interests of the county. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY— Keed B. Teitrick. 

The educational interests of our. county were never more pros- 
l^erous and progressive than during the past year. Teachers have 
been faithful and directors and patrons have been attentive to the 
wants of the schools. The general trend of public opinion and sen- 
timent has been in the right direction. 

Some years ago the question, "What does the country need most?" 
was ask in England. Her statesmen pondered over it and referred 
it to the throne; and from the sovereign, who had herself been a 
model along that line, came the answer, "More good mothers." In 
these days of hurry and social activity in which the school stands 
for so large a part of the training of the youth of our land, and 
in which everj^ citizen is a sovereign the answer would most cer- 
tainh' include — more gdod teachers. The industrial world is offer- 
ing so many advantages to earn good salaries that one of our first 
considerations must be — suflBcient remuneration to retain our most 
promising teachers. Every district should encourage its directors 
to secure only good teachers even though at an advanced salary. 
"Let your boys be taught by your slave," said an old Greek, "and you 
will then have two slaves instead of one." 

The best results were not obtained in some districts because of 
the rigid enforcement of the vaccination law. As this law stands, 
it is all loss and no gain. Pupils neither go to school nor are the^ 
vaccinated. It renders the compulsory law void where it is most 
needed. The responsibility of vaccination should not be on the 
teacher, nor the penalty on the child. 

Our county institute, the leading educational event of the year, 
was in eA'ery particular a success. The instructors were Hon. N. C. 
Schaeffer, Hon. O. T. Corson, Dr. Geo. E. Vincent, Dr. S. C. Sch- 
mucker, Dr. J. George Becht and Prof. Jerry March. Evening lec- 
tures were delivered by William Hawley Smith and Dr. Newell 
Dwight Hillis. Musical entertainments were given by The Leonora 
Jackson Concert Company and The John Thomas Concert Company. 

The Directors' Association continues to be a valuable factor in 


our eductitioual work. The third annual meeting was held in the 
court house at Brookville, November 2d and 3d. It was one of the 
best meetings the association has known. Hon. John W. Reed, 
Dr. D. J. Waller and Dr. Theo. B. Noss addressed the convention. 
Clhoice music was furnished by the people of Brookville. Every 
district represented was benefited through its directors. Many im- 
provements are clearly traceable to the influence of this associa- 
tion. Four educational meetings were held in ditferent parts of 
the county during the first month of the term with telling effect. 
Dr. J. George Becht, principal of Clarion Normal School and Miss 
Emma Acherman, superintendent Model School, Indiana State Nor- 
mal and Prof. F. A. Hildebrand of the same institution were pres- 
ent and gave most practical and inspiring instruction. Many local 
institutes were held during the year. 

Wednesday, January 24, was observed as Patrons' Day and Thurs- 
day, February 22, set apart as Flag Day. On Patrons' Day the regu- 
lar work of the school was carried on. Exhibition work done dur- 
ing the term was presented for the inspection of parents. On Flag 
Day suitable decorations were made and a patriotic literary pro- 
gram observed. The observance of these days has brought teachers, 
patrons and pupils into closer relation. No school reaches its 
highest possibilities without the co-operation and sympathy of its 

Two hundred and fifteen pupils completed the county course of 
study and after passing a thorough examination, one hundred and 
fifty-four were granted common school diplomas. Our township 
high schools as well as our borough high schools are doing very 
commendable work. 

Several houses were built during the year. They are neat frame 
structures and reflect credit on the directors of those districts. 
Many old houses were repaired and painted. 

One of the special needs of our schools is better school room ven- 
tilation. We have laws for the protection of human life in factories 
and mines. We have pure food laws and inspectors to enforce these 
laws. Next to pure food and water is sufficient pure air. There 
are more people in our public schools than in all our factories and 
mines. The vitiated atmosphere of a school room is a prolific 
source of disease and a great hindrance to good work. 

Educational advancement is limited only by the interest, energy 
and intelligence of those engaged in it. The hearty co-operation 
of teachers and directors, the interest manifested by citizens, the 
clergy and the press, and the counsel and assistance of the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction are gratefully acknowledged. May our 
united efforts be still more effective. May we not only command 
success but deserve it. 



The year closed has beeu marked by quiet steady work. The 
teachers labored earnestly and the pupils were studious and gen- 
erally a heart}' co-operation prevailed. Contagious diseases inter- 
rupted the attendance less than in former years. 

Of our 112 teachers, 54 were males and 58 were females. There 
were 14 beginners. For these a special meeting was held before 
the opening of the term and instructions given in general school 
work. This was the first it was done. Apparently great good re- 
sulted from this meeting and it will be continued. Fifty-one of the 
teachers held provisional certificates. In the examinations 37 ap- 
plicants were rejected, being 33 per cent, of those examined. A 
still higher standard of qualifications is needed. A few of the old 
careless teachers were "shelved." 

Local institutes were held at the usual places. They are a great 
medium of educational activity. The superintendent was present 
at all of them. People that fail to hear the "gospel" of education 
otherwise can be reached in these meetings. 

The annual institute was held during Thanksgiving week. The 
instructors w^ere: Dr. J. C. Willis, of Lexington, Ky.; Prof. Jno. G. 
Scorer, Philadelphia, Pa.; Prof, J. I. Woodruff, Selinsgrove, Pa.; 
Supt. L. E. McGinnes, Steelton, Pa.; Supt. G, W. Walborn, Snyder, 
and Prof, Witmer, New Berlin. The lectures and entertainments 
were: Prof. Scorer, "Mirth and Its Mission;" Dr. Chase, "The Prob- 
lem of Life;" Durno, and The Odean Male Quartet. 

The reading course committee placed Dr. Brumbaugh's great 
work "The Making of the Teacher," on the course for the year. 
Teachers who read it pronounce it an excellent book. One who 
has heard the doctor imagines hearing him in his vivid style while 
reading the book. 

The directors met in annual session December 20. Their meeting 
was marked with lively discussions. The following subjects were 
discussed: "Obstacles to Progress in the Schools," "Relation of 
the Board to the Pupil," and "Laws that need Attention." Hon. 
Frank C. Bowersox was also present and addressed the convention. 

Examinations in the common branches were held in six of the 
districts for those who completed the county course. Thirty-nine 
pupils were examined and diplomas given to thirty-two. Fayette 
township again was in the lead in numbers. The number complet- 
ing the course is increasing each year, 


A number of the buildings were improved by paint and paper. 
Quite a number more need attention. Tuscarora put up a neat 
two-room brick building in place of the one destroyed by fire. 

The compulsory attendance act is not complied with in some of 
the districts. Some directors from fear of personal injury are timid 
in enforcing it. Such should step aside and make way for others 
who would be mlling to perform their duty. 

Much remains yet to be done, ideals have not been realized, but 
the zeal and inspiration of the best promise good results in the 


From my annual statistical report covering all districts under 
my supervision (18 townships and 15 boroughs), I quote the follow- 

Number of school buildings, 125 

Number of school rooms, 264 

Number of day schools, 252 

Seating capacity of buildings, 10,762 

Number of pupils enrolled, 10,042 

Average number of months taught, 8 2-5 

Average number mills levied, 16 

Average salary male teachers, |65 34 

Average salary female teachers, |37 65 

Number of male teachers employed, 38 

Number of female teachers employed, 234 

Average age of teachers, 27 years. 

Number of teachers with annual certificates, 54 

Number of teachers with professional certificates, ... 37 

Number of teachers with permanent certificates, 26 

Number of Normal school graduates, 153 

Number of college graduates, 2 

As a general rule conditions were favorable to the schools through- 
out the year. The weather was unusually fine, and, aside from the 
prevalence of measles in some districts, health was good. In con- 
sequence, attendance was fairly regular, and results as compared 
with preceding years was in most cases satisfactory. In three 
schools discipline was so poor that the instruction was of little value. 


Rural Schools. 

Final examinations in common branches were taken by 80 pupils 
in seventh and eighth j-ear work, and papers were reviewed by the 
county superintendent. High school admission cards were issued 
to 36 of the eighth 3-ear pupils. About 75 pupils from rural dis- 
tricts attended the high schools of Dalton, Waverly, South Abing- 
ton, Moscow, and Carbondale during the year. While the work in 
rural schools is steadily improving, results are not what they should 
be. The practice of keeping the older pupils out of school to work 
on the farms in September and October and of withdrawing them 
in April before the close of school still cripples the work in ad- 
vanced grades. I regret to say that the moral sense in some dis- 
tricts is so low that patrons can see no harm in destroying the 
schools and robbing the children of their school privileges in this 

Nature Study. 

Lectures in Nature Study have been given in our county insti- 
tutes for several years, and this year an effort was made to do sys- 
tematic work in this line in all the schools. To help the teachers 
in making a beginning, two books were recommended: Bert's First 
Steps in Scientific Knowledge and Overton and Hill's Nature Study. 
These books were to be used only for guidance by the teachers, the 
instruction being wholly oral and from the object. Teachers were 
requested to give at least one lesson each week, and to make the 
nature lesson the basis of language work. About one-half the 
teachers made an honest effort to do this work and with very good 
results. We hope to do better next year. 

The great value of nature study in developing the powers of 
accurate observation and clear thinking is not yet clearly appre- 
ciated by some teachers. 

High Schools. 

Township high schools have been organized and are in successful 
operation in South Abington, Madison and Fell townships. An- 
other opens in Carbondale township in September, 1906. Those of 
South Abington and Madison enrolled about 50 pupils from adjoin- 
ing districts for whom tuition was paid. 

Other townships that have enough schools to warrant township 
high schools are Benton (9), Covington (7), Jefferson (6), Lackawanna 
(11), Newton (7), Ransom (6), Scott (11), and perhaps Greenfield (4), 
North Abington (4), and Spring Brook (4). 

In most cases a two-year high school course is all that should 
be attempted, forming a township high school of the third grade, 
for which the special appropriation from the State is $400 per year. 


A large township like Scott or Benton can better afford to have its 
own high school than pay tuition to other districts. For, if a 
township sends 20 pupils to a high school in another district, their 
tuition will be at least |240 a year, which added to the high school 
appropriation of |400 will make |640, or enough to pay the salary 
of a high school principal. In addition to this is the great ad- 
vantage of having the high school pupils live at home with their 

Nine boroughs, Blakely, Dalton, Dickson, Jermyn, Mayfield, 
Moosic, Throop, Vandling, and Waverly have well established high 
schools, doing two or three years of high school work. Ninety-six 
students completed high school courses in the high schools of the 
county this year. 

County Association of School Directors. 

The annual meeting of the School Directors' Association was held 
in the Y. M. C. A. Hall in Scranton, on Thursday, November 9, 1905. 
One hundred and seventy-six school directors were present and 
every district in the county except Carbondale city and Gouldsboro 
borough was represented. 

President Wm. L. Allen spoke on ''School Libraries." Dr. N. C. 
Schaeffer delivered two addresses, "Work and Play in Education," 
and, "Helps and Hindrances in Securing Good Teachers." Dr. Geo. 
M. Philips discussed "Schools and Schoolmasters Abroad," with 
special reference to the German schools and also "Needs of Penn- 
sylvania Schools." Supt. J. C. Taylor spoke on matters of local 
interest including the compulsory attendance law and overcrowded 
primary schools. It was the largest and most enthusiastic di- 
rectors' meeting ever held in this county. The following officers 
were chosen for the ensuing year: President, George W. Beemer, 
of Newton; Vice Presidents, J. H. Snyder, of Roaring Brook and 
A. L. Siglin, of Clifton; Secretary, F. M. Francis, of Dalton; Treas- 
urer, Frederick Sturges, of Old Forge. 

The officers of the association w^ere also appointed delegates to 
the State Association of School Directors held at Harrisburg, in 
February, 1906; but only President Beemer and the writer attended 
this meeting. 

The County Institute. 

The county teachers' institute for 1905-6 was held in the Y. M. 
C. A. Hall in Scranton during the first week of January, 1906. The 
total enrollment was 370 and the average attendance 361. In- 
structors and subjects were as follows: Dr. S. D. Fess, Civics and 
American History; Dr. S. C. Schmucker, Nature Study; Miss Maude 
Willis, Reading aod Physical Culture; Dr. Andrew T. Smith, Peda- 


gogy; Professor Emory Russell, Vocal Music. If one may believe 
the resolutions and the newspapers, it was a good institute. 


Dickson borough has erected a new four-room building and Throop 
borough has laid foundations for a new high school. A new steam 
heating plant has been placed in the Moscow high school. 


With deep regret I record the death of a veteran worker in the 
schools. On April 10, 1906, Professor John A. Moyles, for thirty 
years principal of the schools -of Winton borough, passed from this 

The schools of Wintou were closed and the School Board and 
teachers of Winton attended the funeral in a body. Nearly all 
the school principals of the county were present. While he was 
modest and unobtrusive, Mr. Moyles was a man of positive con- 
victions. Always present at every session of the annual teachers' 
institute, he was personally known to nearly every teacher in the 
county. He had many friends and no enemies. 


The schools of the county were progressively active during the 
year. School work and school sentiment moved forward largely 
upon parallel lines. There was a responsive note of sympathy and 
co-operation in evidence between school people and school inter- 
ests and the community at large. While the changes made were 
not radical or otherwise marked by a striking departure from the 
established order of school life yet those made were sufficiently de- 
fined to indicate a gratifying unrest that is looking toward higher 
standards and tests of school training and a closer correspondence 
between the growth of the schools and the progress of the world. 

The few houses erected during the year are larger, more com- 
plete in plan and appointment and better in finish than the build- 
ings put up a few years ago. The single room house erected for 
the Washington school in West Donegal township is the best and 
most complete type of rural school building in the county. In 
point of health, comfort, convenience, heat and light it is equal to 
and in no ways excelled by the best modern school room in the 


town. The attention given to school property throughout the county 
was marked by "a thoughtful interest to make adequate provision 
for the health and comfort of the children. New furniture, chiefly 
the single desk, was placed in a number of rooms, porches and 
rooms were enlarged, stoves replaced by cellar heat, walks and out- 
buildings improved, grounds enlarged, walls painted, trees jjlanted 
and new floors laid and finished in oil. 

The educational meetings of the year were large spirited and 
suggestive. The platform work of the county institute was es- 
pecially broad and luminous and seemed to breathe new tone and 
vigor into the work and purpose of the whole teaching corps. It 
was a meeting of unusual strength such as leaves its mark high for 
a generation to come. The local meetings were of a very high order. 
Their programs were varied yet sufficiently specific to give special 
emphasis to school questions of a purely local character. Our local 
institute system was organized upon the present basis twenty years 
ago and the meetings have been gradually growing in influence and 
popularity. They long ago passed the experimental stage and to- 
day are a permanent part of the school machinery of the county. 

Compulsory vaccination held the public mind for a brief spell at 
highest tension. The various protests and arguments offered against 
its midwinter enforcement however soon gave way and in a reason- 
ably short time existing differences were adjusted and the require- 
ments of the new law recognized. With the exception of a few 
scattering districts individual objections and prejudices in all sec- 
tions yielded after a plain statements of facts by the authorities 
to the demands of the State. In many districts a rare degree of 
tact and intelligence in handling human nature was evinced by the 
teachers which invariably acted as a solvent and disposed of the 
more stubborn cases. Upon the whole the speedy and cheerful 
manner in which the community complied with the new order of 
things stands out as a good example of the growing conviction 
among our people that every oue has a duty to perform in safe- 
guarding the public health. 

The elements of drawing and color work were given increasing at- 
tention in our schools. Even in many of the isolated country dis- 
tricts an attempt was made to introduce the subject in some sort 
of systematic way. Some of the boroughs have organized the sub- 
ject upon the plan of special department work and placed it in all 
the grades under the supervision of one head. Thus far most ex- 
cellent results have been obtained in the study of form, color 
schemes, tone effects and fundamental lines of construction. The 
skill discovered among many of our young people to observe and 
reproduce the necessary details to make the copy tell the true story 
of the original has been a surprising revelation of the talent that 


lies latent in this field among the children of the county and an en- 
couraging feature in its reaction to push the work forward upon 
a larger scale. The character of the progress made in this work 
and the genuine interest taken in its pursuit by the young people 
induced a few rural school boards to take up the matter with a 
view of placing it upon a systematic basis. 

The point of chief interest in our school work last term was mov- 
ing around the high school problem. Several circumstances con- 
tributed towards that end. The recent legislation compelling town- 
ships without a high school to pay the tuition of their own pupils 
who attend such schools in adjoining districts brought the high 
school sentiment to an acute focus in many sections of the county. 
It practically made the high school the question of the hour in school 
circles throughout the term. The subject received further impetus 
from the flattering reports heard upon all sides of the superior 
work done in these schools where they were already in operation. 
Furthermore it was told they were very popular with the young 
people attending them and the community at large in their imme- 
diate neighborhood. These reports upon closer inquiry were more 
than confirmed. The schools were found teeming with a spirit of 
enthusiasm and degree of earnestness that quickened the whole 
community to take a deeper interest in popular education. Through 
the prestige gained each of these schools became the head or center 
that invigorated all the schools of the outlying district and served 
to unite them into a definite system of graded work for all the 
grades from the beginner in the primary grade to the graduate in 
the high school. There are now nine of these schools in operation, 
A number more will be opened the ensuing fall making then with 
those established in the boroughs about thirty high schools in the 
county. The standard in some of them is high enough to admit 
into our best colleges. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY— Robert G. Allen. 

For the year just closed I have nothing of special importance to 
report. We have had no contagious diseases, and as a consequence 
the schools have been open regularly during the whole of their 
respective terms. 

Very much good work has been done in many of the schools 
while in others, as usual, much was left undone which ought to 
have received attention. 

The trend along educational lines in Lawrence county shows a 
gradual improvement in school work. Directors seem to give more 


attention to the hiring of teachers and to the detail of school work, 
than formerly. This is particularly noticeable in the equipment of 
buildings for the comfort and convenience of the children. 

The compulsory attendance law was strictly enforced in almost 
every school district in Lawrence county. There may have been a 
few evasions of the law in foreign populated districts during the 
past year, but the number of truants was very small. The vaccina- 
tion law was thoroughly enforced throughout the county. We 
anticipate little thouble on account of this law during the coming 

New school houses were erected in Shenango and Hickory town- 
ships and supplied with furniture. 

There is a demand for more graded schools, and for the establish- 
ment of more high schools in the county. The evidence of the good 
work done in many of our high schools is responsible for this de- 

Teachers' local institutes were held in various parts of the county 
throughout the school term. These teachers' meetings, as hereto- 
fore, have resulted in very much good work for both teachers and 
patrons. Many speakers from the city of New Castle have attended 
these meetings and have freely given their time and services for the 
promotion of the right school spirit. 

The Directors' Association held its annual meeting in the month 
of December. The attendance was not so large as it ought to have 
been. At this meeting a number of valuable talks were given by 
Walter Reynolds, Esq., Robert K. Aiken, Esq., and others. Charles 
McCullough, of Edenburg, was elected president of the State Di- 
rectors' Association. 

The annual teachers' institute was held in the third week in 
October. The attendance was large. Every teacher in both city 
and county was enrolled. It has been the custom for many years 
past for Lawrence county and city of New Castle to combine their 
teachers' institute. This seems to be a satisfactory arrangement, 
as better lecturers can be had on account of this, than where each 
should hold a separate institute. The institute was successful. One 
can judge of the truth of this statement by seeing the results at- 
tained by the teachers in their work during the remainder of the 
school year. 

As in the past, many school libraries, school bells, and other para- 
phernalia have been placed in the schools of the county by live 
energetic teachers and pupils by their own efforts. 

In conclusion, I have to thank the teachers and patrons for their 
kind consideration and help in making the schools what they were. 

It is my sincere wish that the schools of Lawrence county may be 
made second to none. 


LEBANON COUNTY— Jolin W. Snoke. 

In submitting this, another annual report of the public schools of 
Lebanon county, it affords me great pleasure and much satisfaction 
to be able to say that substantial progress has been made during 
the last year. In many particulars the year's work has been more 
prolific in its results than any other year since I have filled the office 
of county superintendent. Of this there are evidences in the con- 
tinued interest our directors take in the schools, in the excellent 
work done by nearly all our teachers in the school room, at the 
county institute, at the local institutes and in the reading circles 
and in the creditable manner in which the children uniformly ac- 
quitted themselves by the work done during my annual visits. T^'e 
must, however, not be deceived by any vain glory in the achieve- 
ments of the past. We are conscious of our growth, yet upon care- 
fully surveying all the grounds there are manifestations of weakness 
and discord. Our aim is to make weakness strength and discord 

Excepting in schools in which compulsory vaccination interfered 
the attendance throughout the county was remarkably regular. In 
quite a number of instances the teachers' reports showed a perfect 
attendance during the first and second months of the term. The 
annual term report issued by our teachers at the close of every 
term revealed the fact that a large number of children never missed 
a day. This is strong evidence of the interest the patrons are 
taking in the schools. 

Recognizing the fact that our county always held successful county 
institutes, and having due regard for the very able men whom we 
had previously as instructors, it can consistently be said that the 
last year's institute was the best ever held in our county. All the 
teachers except two who were unavoidably absent were enrolled. 
The instructors were Drs. C. B. Gilbert, W. N. Ferris and Ruric N. 
Roark. Prof. W. D. Keeny, of Manheim, Pa., had charge of the 
music. The sessions during the entire week were well attended by 
the public. 

More local institutes have been held than during former years. 
The teachers in this kind of work acquitted themselves highly 
creditably, and deserve commendation. Teachers and patrons are 
beginning to realize that the local institute is the great agent by 
means of which closer co-operation between the schools and the 
homes can be established, and both are therefore beginning to take 
a deeper and a more genuine interest in this highly important edu- 


cational factor. These meetings were usually lield in churches and 
spacious halls and they were frequently filled to overflowing. 

We hope that the good work of local institutes will continue 
and that it may in the future outgrow our most sanguine expecta- 

A highly successful session of our annual directors' convention 
was held at Lebanon, January 6, 1906. Every district except one 
was represented, and from the majority of districts nearly all the 
directors were present. Since the law provides that the directors 
shall be paid for attending these annual conventions, nothing short 
of the very best excuse should allow a director to be absent. In 
order to do, a man must know what to do. In other words a director 
must be intelligent along the line of his duties. 

These conventions are intended to make him intelligent. A true 
school director, one who is anxious to know fully his duties will 
never find an excuse to be absent from the sessions of these con- 
ventions. The school system of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 
intrusts to our directors all its vital functions. 

Into their hands is directly placed all authority over our schools. 
Under their direction shall our courses of studies be arranged. They 
shall adopt our text-books. They shall' hire our teachers. They 
shall fix the length of the school term. In short, all that must be 
carried into execution is placed into their power. In view of the 
fact that almost unlimited power is placed into our directors' hands, 
it behooves the citizens of every community to ask the following 
questions: What manner of man is the candidate for school di- 
rector? What prompts his being a candidate? Does he take an 
interest in anything that promotes the welfare of his community? 
Is he a candidate for the office for selfish ends and selfish purposes? 
Is he parsimonious and seeks the office to keep down the school 
taxes? Is he extravagant and does not know the value of a dollar? 
I am highly gratified to be able to say that the vast majority 
of our directors are in my opinion performing their duties faith- 
fully and conscientiously. I believe that our directors as a body of 
men are earnestly devoted to the cause of popular education. On 
the other hand we have a few men filling this all important office 
who are directors in name only and not in deed. They do not, as 
the name of the office they fill implies, direct school work. May the 
public conscience of communities in which such men are filling the 
office of school director be quickened, and may in every community 
men be elected to this important office who know their full duty 
and knowing it dare to perform it. 

All our directors might do more in visiting our schools. During 
my second annual visits to the schools, I am frequently accompanied 
in the various districts by the full board of directors. This is very 


commendable, but not sufficient. The schools should be visited once 
each month by some members of the board. To accomplish this 
it would be wise for each board to form itself into three committees 
consisting of two members each, and have all the schools visited 
each month by one of these committees. While in this way the 
schools would be visited every month the different directors would 
be obliged to make only three visits to all the schools in a term 
of nine months. I am quite confident that a great deal of good 
would result from such a plan of visitations. 

The number of professionally trained teachers is gradually in- 
creasing in our county. Of the two hundred thirty-two teachers 
employed last year, eight are college graduates, sixty-two are nor- 
mal school graduates, fifty-six hold the permanent certificate and 
ninety hold the provisional certificate. Of the last grade of teach- 
ers thirty-one were beginners. 

It is, therefore, readily seen that a very large number of our 
schools are in the hands of teachers who have neither by experience 
nor by special training fitted themselves as completely as the im- 
portant work of the teacher really demands and merits. May the 
day speedily come when no one who is not professionally trained 
and thoroughly equipped for the great work of educating our chil- 
dren will be employed as a teacher. 

Two new buildings have been erected as follows: One in North 
Londonderry district, in the town of Palmyra, and the other in 
North Lebanon (Independent) district. These are among the best 
and the finest buildings in the county. Conveniences for heating, 
light and ventilation are of the latest improvements, and the artistic 
designs and the thorough workmanship of the entire part of both 
structures reflect merited credit upon the architect, the contractors 
and especially upon the directors of these two districts. 

Both buildings are furnished throughout with the latest improved 

In conclusion, I wish to extend my heartfelt thanks to the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction for courtesies received, tlie public press 
for the generous and extended reports of our schools and educational 
meetings, the directors and teachers for their kind assistance and 
wholesome advice, and all who have in any way helped to advance 
the educational interests of the county. 


On the whole, the year just closed was a prosperous one for the 
schools of Lehigh county. There were no innovations of any kind to 
mar or jar the school machinery. 


Two new school buildings were erected, one a four-room building 
at Fountain Hill, and the other a one-room building at Orefield. 
Both of them are model buildings, and speak eloquently of the 
progressive spirit manifested by the directors who were instru- 
mental in their erection, 

A one-room annex was added to Keiper's school house in Han- 
over township, and also to Rex's school house in Washington town- 
ship. Graded schools were established at both places. 

School apparatus was supplied for many of the schools of the 
county, notably, in both of the Milfords, where a set of Rand & 
McNally's outline maps was placed in each school. Each of the 
schools of Hanover township was furnished with a historical map 
of Pennsylvania. 

Our high schools all did excellent work during the term, and 
highly merit the approval which they receive from the friend,^: of 
education in the various districts. 

Arrangements have already been made for opening, at least, two 
new township high schools, with the opening of the next term: One 
in Upper Milford and the other in North Whitehall. 

In Catasauqua and Hokendauqua, especial attention was given 
to the subject of music. A supervisor of music was employed in 
each of these districts, who taught two days each month in the 
former, and one day in the latter. The results obtained are very 

The annual county institute was held during the week of October 
16, 1905, and was the educational event of the year. Every teacher 
in the county was in attendance and evinced a marked degree of 
interest. Our instructors were: Drs. Brumbaugh, Ellis, Fess, Fer- 
ris and Houck. That the work of these gifted men was highly appre- 
ciated was plainly shown by the undivided attention which they 
received from the teachers and others. 

As usual, six local institutes were held in different sections of 
the county. These were well attended by the teachers, who took 
a lively interest in the discussions following the treatment and 
exposition of the various subjects previously assigned. It may 
truthfully be said that the institute work in this county was never 
more helpful and inspiring than during the past school year. 

A very noticeable feature in the constituency of our corps of 
teachers is the increasing number of female teachers, and the cor- 
responding decrease in the number of male teachers employed. 
Not many years ago the number of female teachers was compara- 
tively small, especially in the rural districts; this year, in some of 
these districts, they were in the majority. This change is due, in 
a large measure, to the fact that men, who are able-bodied and intel- 
ligent, can earn much more in other lines of employment. Unless ' 

No. 6. Luzerne county. 83 

the salaries paid for teachers are materially increased in the near 
future, only a very small percentage of our schools will be in the 
hands of experienced male teachers. 

Our school population was exceptionally free from contagious 
and infectious diseases, yet our attendance was not by any means 
as regular as it should have been. This was due to the effort made 
by the Department of Health to enforce the vaccination laws, and 
the prejudice on the part of many against vaccination. 

When the edict went forth, about ninety per cent, of the children 
were vaccinated, but the remainder were obstinate and refused to 
comply with the law, and, as a consequence, either remained out 
of school altogether, or became very irregular in their attendance. 
The enforcement of the compulsory education law was also more 
or less neglected, largely because of the confusion which followed 
upon the attempt made to enforce the vaccination law. 

While I believe in vaccination as a protection against small-pox, 
I cannot refrain from registering a protest against the wisdom and 
policy of placing the burden of its enforcement upon the teacher. 
It will invariably cause strained relations between some of the 
parents and the teacher, and create a spirit detrimental to the in- 
fluence, and retarding the progress of the school. I sincerely hope 
that some way may be found by which the teachers may be relieved 
from the necessity of performing this unpleasant duty. 

XTZERNE COUNTY— Frank P. Hopper. 

In submitting my seventh annual report of the condition of the 
schools of Luzerne county it gives me great pleasure to state that 
"progress" is still our watchword. Townships continue to establish 
high schools wherever funds are available and the time is sure to 
oome when all of our boys and girls will have an opportunity to se- 
cure an advanced education at home. In the boroughs where courses 
of study have been in operation for some time the results obtained 
are very satisfactory. 

In the twenty examinations held this year, 481 apx>licants w^ere 
examined. Of these, 318 received provisional certificates, 29 received 
professional certificates and 113 were rejected. In granting licenses 
to teach it is my puri>ose to raise the standard as rapidly as condi- 
tions will warrant. 

Our county institute was held in the Y. M. 0. A. auditorium 
during the week beginning Monday, October 23d. The instructors 


were Prof. Francis H. Green, of the West Chester State Normal 
School; Dr. Judsou Perry Welsh, principal of the Bloomsburj? State 
Normal School; Dr. J. C. Willis, of Lexington, Ky.; Prof. Jonathan 
Rigdon, of Worcester, Mass., and Prof. Jerry March, of Philadel- 
phia. Miss Ethel Siers, of Altoona, was engaged as vocal soloist 
for the week. Our evening course consisted of lectures by Strick- 
land W. Gillilan and Leon C. Prince, and entertainments by Rogers- 
Grilly and the Rosa Linde Concert Company. For the first time 
Nanticoke borough held its own institute this year, but our attend- 
ance did not fall oft" to any appreciable extent, there having been 
an enrollment of 852 teachers. The institute was a great success 
from every point of view. 

The sixteenth annual meeting of the Luzerne County School Di- 
irectors' Association was held in the Y. M. C. A. lecture room on 
Thursday, February 1st. Addresses were made by Nathan C. Schaef- 
fer, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; D. J. Waller, prin- 
cipal of Indiana State Normal School; John A. Opp, Esq., president 
of the association, and John G. Myers, president of the Nescopeck 
independent school board. The musical part of the program con- 
sisted of vocal solos by Mr. Geo. W. Chubbuck, of Mouroetou, and 
a class drill in vocal music by pupils of Pittston City schools under 
the direction of Prof. M. E. Golden. The largest attendance in the 
history of the association was recorded at this meeting and all the 
directors present were greatly benefited. 

During the year I made in all 638 visitations. The number of 
visits this year was smaller than that of last year for various good 
reasons which I will not take the time to cite. In some districts, 
however, I found the schools closed for the purpose of giving the 
children a chance to be vaccinated and it was impossible to return 
to them, owing to lack of time. 

New school houses were opened during the year in Buck, Dorrance, 
Foster and Plains townships and in the boroughs of Edwardsville 
and Duryea. New buildings are now in process of erection in Frank- 
lin, Hanover and Jenkins townships and in the boroughs of Ply- 
mouth and Edwardsville, the two latter being to replace buildings 
that were destroyed by fire. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my sincere gratitude to the 
Department of Public Instruction for the kindly assistance ren- 
dered me from time to time, to the school directors and teachers for 
their loyalty and to the local press for their unbiased treatment of 
educational questions. 

No. 6. Lycoming county. 


The statistical report for the year shows the following results: 
Whole number of schools, 309; number of graded schools, 318; num- 
ber of visits, 373; number of educational meetings held, 28; number 
of pupils enrolled, 10,824; number of schools in which higher 
branches were taught, 129; number of male teachers, 119; number of 
female teachers, 198; average age of teachers, 23; number with 
no previous experience, 65; number who have taught five or more 
annual terms, 129. One hundred seventy-four teachers held pro- 
visional certificates, 63 professional certificates, 48 permanent cer- 
tificates, 22 State normal diplomas, and 11 college diplomas. 

Compared with last year's statistics the report shows a slight 
increase in the number of female teachers, in the number having 
no previous experience, and in the number having taught five or 
more annual terms. There was a decrease in the number of profes- 
sional certificates, but an increase in the number of permanent cer- 
tificates, State normal and college diplomas and schools in which 
higher branches w^ere taught. The statistics seem to indicate that 
on the whole the teaching force was stronger than that of the pre- 
ceding year. 

The annual county institute was held at Muncy, December 18-22. 
The sessions were interesting and profitable. The instructors were 
Dr. Nathan C. Schaeft'er, State Superintendent of Public Instruction; 
Dr. Charles McMurry, California State Normal School; Dr. Sherman 
Davis, State University, Bloomington, Indiana; Miss Maude Willis- 
Lock Haven State Normal School; Supt. Charles Lose, and Hon. 
Emerson Collins, Williamsport. Prof. C. C. Case, of Gustavus, Ohio, 
conducted the music. Three sessions were taken up with section 
work when questions of a practical nature having a direct bearing 
upon the needs of the schools were discussed. The evening attrac- 
tions were Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, Dr. A. A. Wlllits, the Dunbars, 
and Maro, the magician. On Directors' Day Hon. Emerson Collins 
delivered a masterly address on The Township High School before 
the large audience of directors, teachers and friends of education. 

The following books were selected by the committee on teachers' 
reading: Roark's ''Method in Education," McMurry's "Special 
Method in Language," "Special Method in Geography," and "Type 
'Studies in United Slates Geography." Many of these books were 
purchased by the teachers at the county institute and were reviewed 
and discussed at the subsequent meetings of the Teachers' Exchange. 

The thirtieth annual meeting of the Lycoming County Teachers' 


Association was held in Hughesville, February 24tb, Nearly one- 
half of the teachers in the county were present at one or more of 
the three sessions. Supt. Chas. Lose, of Williamsport, gave an inter- 
esting address in the afternoon on "Literary and Rhetorical Exer- 
cises of the, School.'' In the evening Dr. Houck, Deputy Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, delivered his celebrated lecture, ''A 
Journey to Jerusalem." It was thoroughly enjoyed and appreciated 
by the immense audience present. 

At this meeting of the association a committee previously ap- 
ponted, of which W. W. Champion, Esq., of Williamsport, was 
chairman, presented a special program for the observance of the 
second annual Pennsylvania Day in the public schools of the county, 
March 30th. While the program contained a number of literary 
and historical topics treating of the important events and characters 
in connection with our State history, the life, public services and 
writings of Benjamin Franklin were made the leading feature of 
the exercises. Considerable interest was manifested in the event 
and the observance of the day was in general satisfactory. 

The directors of the county held their third annual meeting at 
Williamsport, May 26th. The attendance was the largest in the 
history of the association. Among the directors who took part on 
the program were: W. T. Pepperman, J. W. Levegood, Asher Wil- 
liamson, T. F. Connelly, David Wurster, W. L. Garverich, Dr. J. L. 
Mansuy, H. G. Eisenmenger, Dr. A. T. Welker, J. S. Cranmer, I. R. 
Fleming and H. P. Keyte, Dr. J. George Becht, principal of the 
Clarion State Normal School; Dr. T. B. Noss, principal of the Cali- 
fornia State Normal School, and Supt. Chas. Lose, of Williamsport, 
were present and gave helpful and inspiring addresses. The asso- 
ciation passed resolutions favoring (1) The adoption of the new 
course of study as revised by the county superintendent. (2) The 
transportation of pupils where necessary. (3) The organization of 
township high schools where conditions are favorable. (4) Profes- 
sional improvement on the part of teachers and corresponding 
increase in salary. (5) Enforcement of the vaccination law before 
the opening of the school term. (6) A revision of the school law. 

During the year twenty-eight educational meetings were held in 
various parts of the county. At these meetings the subjects that 
received most attention were: The Township High School, The Reci- 
tation, Elementary Methods, and The Home and the School. There 
was also a visible increase in the number of townships holding local 
teachers' meetings. 

The opportunity of attending borough high schools, offered pupils 
of the rural districts, had a tendency to secure a longer attendance 
and more thorough preparation on the part of the older pupils. 
This probably accounts for the increase in the number of common 

No. 6. McKEAN COUNTY. 87 

school diplomas issued, with no apparent decrease in the average 
age of the applicants. The growing sentiment for better educa- 
tional advantages in the rural districts resulted in arrangements 
being completed for the organization of township high schools at 
Cliutonville, in Clinton township, and at Oval, in Limestone town- 
ship. The Mclntyre school has extended its course and is now 
ranked as a township high school of the second class. 

In conclusion I wish to acknowledge the hearty co-operation of 
teachers and directors, the continued courtesy of the public press, 
and the generous assistance of the Department of Public Instruction. 

McKEAN COUNTY— Burdette S. Bayle. 

ADother year's work is ended and the seven thousand pupils of 
McKean county have completed another seventh of their average 
school life. The thought that this one year is such a large part 
and means so much to each boy and girl restrains me speaking in 
too glowing terms of what we have done. We have done well, but 
have we done our best? If not, we must do better. 

We are growing. This year we have had more teachers and more 
pupils than ever before. But I am glad to be able to state that our 
growth is not confined to numbers alone. I believe Ave are growing 
in knowledge; that our teachers are better prepared; that they 
read more and think more than ever before. The educational senti- 
ment of the county is growing. The j^ear has witnessed advancement 
in the line of improved methods, in the earnestness of the teaching 
body, and in the co-operation of the public. 

While the geographical conditions of our county are not favora- 
ble to centralization, several districts are seriously considering the 
advisability of partial centralization. This year two wagons have 
been in operation, one in Ceres, the other in Norwich. 

The high school tuition law has been a great blessing to our peo 
pie, and dozens of our most promising boys and girls have been 
taking advantage of its provisions who might not otherwise have 
been able to continue their education. Some of the districts have 
found the additional expense rather burdensome, but the burden 
consists not so much in high tax as in inability to raise sufficient 
money on ridiculously low valuations with a thirteen mill limit. 
Hamlin and Hamilton have already taken steps towards establish- 
ing township high schools, and others are contemplating the same 
move. Foster township high school, our only one at the present 


time, is having a steady growth, and this year graduated eight stu- 
dents in its three year course. 

The county institute was held in Smethport, October 9 to 18. The 
instructors were Dr. J. C. Willis, Dr. Geo. P. Bible, Dr. C. C. Miller 
and Prof. A, J. Mooney, who were present during entire week. 
Besides these. Dr. J. Geo. Becht, Dr. Andrew Thomas Smith, Prof. 
W. M. Peirce, Prof. Fred. S. Breed and Prof. H. M. Griffith each 
gave one or more talks. 

The evenings comprised a lecture by Dr. Miller, "High School Con- 
test," "Pot Luck with a Poet,'^ by Edmund Vance Cook, and the 
Lyric Glee Club. Like all its predecessors, "it was the best institute 
ever held in the county." At least everyone seemed to thoroughly 
enjoy it, and we have yet to hear any unfavorable comment. 

The high school contest consisted of one reciter and two debaters 
from each of our five borough high schools. The interest aroused 
can be judged from the fact that seats in the opera house were at a 
premium. The enthusiasm created among students and teachers 
led to several other contests during the year. 

The Directors' Association met in March. Every district was rep- 
resented except one, and several districts had full boards present. 
The directors in attendance took a lively interest in all the proceed- 
ings, and the general verdict was "a most profitable time." 

The local institute spirit has been centralized into two teachers' 
association meetings, held this year at Mt. Jewett and Eldred. Both 
were well attended, and enthusiastic discussions followed every 
paper. They were certainly very helpful to all present. 

The Home School and Visitor was published four times during the 
year. The October number contained the institute announcements, 
the December, the institute report, the February, the association an- 
nouncements, and the April, the examination and commencement 
announcements. Besides these special features each number con- 
tained much school information which the teachers and directors 
seemed glad to get. It is very helpful in keeping the teachers and 
superintendent in touch with each other, and saves much valuable 
time in correspondence and personal explanations. An effort, started 
among the teachers, to put it into the homes is progressing very 
satisfactorily and bids fair to greatly increase its usefulness. Finan- 
cially, it has paid all its own bills and earned about |50 for the insti 

Nearly one hundred dollars has been raised for the Thaddeus 
Stevens Memorial fund. 

In closing I wish to express my appreciation of the hearty co-opera 
tion received from teachers, directors and parents, and from tlu- 
Department of Public Instruction, in the'great work which is ours. 



In submitting our first report, we have no statements to make 
of any revolutions accomplisLed or any radical changes made dur- 
ing the year. We believe, however, that Mercer county has kept 
within right and even advanced lines in school affairs in the term 
just closed. 

The teachers in the main have been well qualified and deligent in 
their work. They have been made to feel that only conscientious 
work will be accepted and above all that the profession is a re- 
sponsible one. Several beginners not adapted to the profession 
were advised of the fact and will not teach next year. 

We are attempting to raise the standard and try to make our ex- 
aminations serve* two purposes — to test the applicant's fitness and 
to point him to something more advanced. If we are criticised be- 
cause of diflScult examinations, we are conscious of right motives. 

Mercer county has always been asked to supply other sections 
with experienced teachers and this year has been no exception. We 
are sorry indeed that some of our best teachers are attracted by 
higher salaries and longer terms in other counties. 

The county institute was held at Mercer, November 13-17. The 
instructors included Hon. N. C. Schaeffer, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction; Prof. C. C. Miller, Dr. F. W. Hays, Supt. L. E. McGin- 
nes and Dr. A. E. Winship. Three hundred and fifty-three teachers 
were in attendance and were unanimous in their approval of the 
eminent and able men who instructed us. We believe the insti- 
tute was productive of much good. The teachers were interested 
and as usual attentive. The evenings were filled by Dr. L. B. 
Wickersham, Dr. A. E. Winship, Senor Ramon Reyes Lala, and The 
Ion Jackson Recital Company. 

On January 9, the directors met in convention and carried out a 
very interesting program. The questions which provoked the most 
discussion were ''Vaccination and the Compulsory Attendance Act," 
"What Shall be Done with the Small School?" and "Advantages 
of Recent School Legislation." Prof. J. M. Berkey addressed the di- 
rectors on the subject: "The Business Management of the Schools." 
More and more of our directors are taking an active part each year 
as they recognize the purpose and value of those meetings. 

The county was divided into seventeen local institute districts 
and from one to four institutes were held in each district. In some 
places the teachers had crowded houses and the programs were 
usually a credit to the teachers. 


Grove City erected a tine eight-room building and opened five 
rooms after the holidays. Lackawanuock and Pymatuuing also built 
new houses. 

One hundred pupils passed the eighth grade examinations held 
throughout the county on March 24 and were awarded common 
school diplomas. Many of these boys and girls will enter the 
various high schools next year. We hope that many more will en- 
deavor to finish the course in succeeding years. 

The county superintendent made 318 visits and traveled approxi- 
mately 1,800 miles in doing so, held 12 examinations, issued 294 pro- 
visional certificates, refused 94 applicants, attended and took part 
in 14 educational meetings (11 within the county), sent out about 
2,000 pieces of mail, arranged for the county institute, and attended 
to many other matters connected with the schools. 

While the work of the schools was encouraging, we feel that we 
ought to do better. The county is fortunate in having two Normal 
schools within easy reach and in having one college and four acade- 
mies within her borders. All of these are doing excellent service 
in preparing young people for the teaching profession. Many young 
teachers seem perfectly satisfied when they receive their first cer- 
tificates and as a consequence attend these higher schools no longer. 
We need more teachers who continue to be students and readers, 
teachers with clean-cut convictions with reference to imparting in- 
struction—teachers with method and judgment to apply the proper 
methods to particular conditions. We make a plea for teachers 
with higher professional training. 

We also need a new uniform course of study and an intelligent 
understanding on the part of the teachers in grading the schools 
and carrying this course into successful operation. No teacher can 
do satisfactory work unless she knows what is expected of her, un- 
less the school is graded and classified — in short unless there is 
system. We trust the next convention of directors will aid us in 
perfecting plans looking to this end. 

The outlook for the coming term is bright. Many of our success- 
ful teachers are engaged for another year — a majority of them in 
the same schools; our academies have a larger enrollment than 
usual; several townships are considering the establishment of high 
schools; and the larger boys and girls are staying in school hoping 
later to attend these high schools. 

We wish to say to the people who have the welfare of our com- 
mon schools at heart that you get just what you want. It is only 
as the patrons demand better teachers, better buildings, and better 
conditions generally that they get them. You elect the directors 
and they in turn cannot but comply with your wishes if they are 
reasonable. Directors as a rule are glad to know what the people 


In conclusion, we wish to say that we appreciate the support which 
has been accorded us during our first year in office. We thank the 
directors for their co-operation, the teachers for their loyalty, the 
patrons for their kindness, the Department for many courtesies, 
and the press for their willingness to throw open their columns to 
us. With all this help w^e hope to advance the school interests of 
the county. 

MIFFLIN COUNTY— James F. Wills. 

In submitting this our first annual report of the schools of Mifflin 
county, we can make no comparison of this year's work with that of 
former years. On the whole, the schools were found in good con- 
dition, which speaks well for my predecessor and his co-laborers, 
the directors and teachers. We believe that no retrograde step 
has been taken this 3'ear, but that real progress has been made along 
all educational lines. 

During the year we visited all the schools in the county once and 
all but thirty twice. Had it not been for diphtheria in our home, 
we would have visited all twice. In general, we found the teachers 
earnest and progressive in their work; teaching of a high order be- 
ing done in many of the schools visited; and whatever progress our 
schools have made during the past year, the credit is mostly due 
to the honest efforts of skillful, conscientious teachers, aided by 
the hearty co-operation of many painstaking directors in all parts 
of the county. 

Along the line of progress, we are pleased to report a fine new 
four-room brick building, modernly equipped, in the Sixth ward, 
Lewistown, Pa. In this same progressive tow^n, extensive altera- 
tions were made in the Wayne street building — the entire third 
floor being converted into a home for the high school. Rooms on* 
the first floor were arranged for the primary grades. 

Kauffman's school house in Bratton township was enlarged 
thereby enhancing the comfort of the pupils. Minor repairs were 
made to a number of other school houses in the way of papering, 
painting, new bells purchased and belfries built, window-blinds and 
furniture bought and arranged. A few outbuildings received some 
much needed attention. 

Maps were put into a few schools. Some apparatus for laboratory 
w^ork was bought by the Milroy schools. A large library was built 
in the Belleville High School to meet the demand of increasing 
Aolumes. Through a lecture course, about fifty dollars were raised 
by this school for new books. 


The directors of Brown township issued a very neat up-to-date 
manual of their schools. Among the many good things this manual 
contained, were the course of study, the alumni of the township 
high school, the duties of principal, teachers, pupils, and janitor, 
some of the recent school laws, and a letter from the principal to the 
patrons giving the educational advantages offered, the progress of 
the schools, and plea for some things that were absolutely essential 
to the highest success of the schools. 

Salaries were increased in some districts, which is a good sign of 

Having recited the prosperous and progressive condition of our 
schools, we must now confess that along some lines improA^ement 
might be made. 

A uniform course of study for the ungraded schools in the county 
would systematize the work and be a great help to the pupils and 
to the teachers especially those teachers who are teaching their 
first term. We can see how such a course would aid the superin- 
tendent in his visitation, and make his visits and his work produc- 
tive of more direct good. 

We found in our visiting that some rooms needed window-blinds, 
some needed new and more blackboard; the walls and ceiling in 
some were in bad condition — dirty and unattractive — remedy, a little 
kalsomine; a book-case is needed in every school; maps, dictionaries, 
and a globe would add greatly to the working facilities of the school. 
In a few instances, bare walls greeted our eyes. A f^w good pictures 
add much to the educational advantages of every school. Out- 
buildings should be in good condition. There is nothing that lowers 
the moral tone of a school so much as improper defaced outbuildings. 
We found some of these. Along these suggested lines, we hope to 
report improvement in the future. 

The attendance in some of our schools was very poor caused prin- 
cipally by the vaccination law. Indeed, several of our schools were 
almost broken up because of the refusal of parents to comply with 
the law. Many parents objected to having their children vaccinated 
during the cold weather, but promised to attend to the matter dur- 
ing the summer months, so we are hopeful of less trouble from this 
source the coming year. 

The county institute was held November 27-December 1, and was 
a success. Our day instructors were all practical men, hence much 
was gotten and put into use by the teachers — the children reaping 
the good fruit. We had two good papers read, and after the read- 
ing, interesting discussions by the teachers. 

We departed somewhat from the custom and had but four even- 
ing sessions instead of five as in former years. This plan seemed 
to meet with the general approval of the teachers. Having but four 


evenings, we endeavored to get the very best talent available. Our 
county is small and if the best talent is to be secured for day and 
evening, the general public must patronize us. We were pleased 
with our patronage last year and hope for a continuance of same. 

The day instructors were Supt. L. E. McGinnis, Dr. \V. W. Par- 
sons, Prof. C. C. Ellis, Dr. Geo. P. Bible, Miss Ella King Vogel, and 
Rev. Dorsey N. Miller. The evening attractions were lectures by 
Mattison Wilbur Chase and Frank Dixon; entertainments by Car- 
min's Italian Boys and the Lyric Glee Club. 

A directors' session was held on Wednesday morning, November 
29, where some twenty-five or thirty directors discussed important 
topics. In the afternoon, the directors met with the teachers. 

The regular annual Directors' Convention was held the latter part 
of January, and fifty-four of the eighty-four directors were present. 
Some able papers were read and spirited discussions took place, 
Supt. L. E. McGinnis and Dr. Geo. P. Bible addressed the session. 

The majority of our teachers are earnest, competent, and con- 
scientious in the discharge of their duties, yet there are some who 
are asleep, putting no life, no snap, no interest into the work. 

The salaries paid to teachers are entirely disproportionate to 
the kind and amount of work done in return. If one teacher in a 
district is worth |35 per month, another may be worth double or 
even treble that amount. 

In conclusion, we tender our most sincere thanks to the school 
directors for their many acts of co-operation and kindness, to the 
teachers who have aided us much by their wisdom and sympathy, 
to patrons who have received and entertained us most cordially, 
to the almost six thousand pupils whose manifestations of friend- 
ship we most heartily appreciate, and to the Department of Public 
Instruction from which we have received much aid. 


In submitting this, my first annual report of school conditions in 
our county, it affords me pleasure to say, that, measured by the 
standard of improvement in school facilities and a desire on the 
part of the public for better schools, this has been a very prosperous 
and progressive school year. The attendance, in several districts, 
was very poor on account of the unpopularity of the vaccination 
law. However, in the majority of districts, teachers, directors, and 
patrons respectfully complied with the requests of the law. 


Our teachers as a body labored faithfully in the school-room, yet 
we are sorry to note, that there are four or five who were unsuc- 
cessful, or in other words ''misfits." This was due largely either 
for want of proper interest in school work, or for want of tact in 
teaching the different branches. Most of our teachers are striving 
to advance in intellectual attainments; those holding provisional 
certificates are attending academies and Normal schools during the 
vacation months; those holding professional certificates are apply- 
ing for permanent certificates. In general, there seems to be a 
craving on the part of the teachers for higher and broader educa- 
tional qualifications. 

Nine regular examinations were held during the year; also two 
special examinations. 

There were one hundred and twenty-seven applicants; of these, 
one hundred and five were granted certificates. 

Eight pupils were examined for graduation in the course of study 
adopted for our rural districts. All were granted diplomas. 

The County Institute was held November 13-17, at Stroudsburg, 
Pa. The instructors were. Professors A. C. Rothermel, Kutztown, 
Pa.; R. M. McNeal, Harrisburg, Pa.; Dr. Geo. L. Omwake, Col- 
legeville, Pa.; Dr. C. E. Reber, Worcester, Mass.; Dr. Frank S. Fox, 
Columbus, Ohio; Dr. E. L. Kemp, East Stroudsburg, Pa,; Dr. C. 
H. Johnston, East Stroudsburg, Pa.;, Prof. E. T. Kunkle, Broadheads- 
ville, Pa.; Prof. Amzi A. Frey, Musical Instructor, Martin's Creek, 

The evening lectures were delivered by Dr. Frank S. Fox, "Life's 
Navy," and Dr. Frank Dixon, "The Man Against the Mass." 

The evening entertainments were given by The Imperial Concert 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and Mr. and Mrs. Labadie, also from 

All the teachers attended the Institute except one. She could 
not attend on account of sickness. 

The Institute was also largely attended by directors and other 
friends of education. Judging from the interest and enthusiasm 
manifested by teachers, directors, and others in attendance, it 
may be inferred, that the Institute was one of the best ever held 
in the county. 

Seven local institutes were held at convenient places throughout 
the county. These were attended by one hundred and twenty-five 
teachers, eighteen directors, and many patrons of the schools. We 
have one hundred and fifty-two teachers in our county; it is a matter 
of deep regret that I cannot report that every teacher in the county 
attended at least one of these Institutes. Many of our best teachers 
as well as directors participated in discussing topics of local inter- 
est, and in my visits to the schools, I could find indications of direct 


benefit derived from these discussions. It is hoped, that another 
year all directors as well as teachers will attend these local insti- 

The third annual convention of the school directors of our county 
was held, on Wednesday. January 17, 190G, at Stroudsburg, Pa. 

There are one hundred and twenty directors in the county; of 
these eighty-nine attended the convention — this being the largest 
number ever assembled in our county on a similar occasion. 

Very appropriate and instructive addresses were made by the fol- 
lowing directors: Messrs. B. F. Morey, E, H. Everitt, Robert Brown 
and Dr. Geo. H. Rhoads. 

Prof. Frank Transue, of Stroudsburg, Pa., and the County Super- 
intendent also addressed the convention. 

A number of other directors also participated in the discussions. 
These conventions have been a fountain of living water to many 
directors. The large attendance, the intense interest on the part 
of directors, and the enthusiastic discussions, are but tokens of 
the good that will result from such meetings. At the close of the 
convention, a certain director remarked: ^'I have learned more con- 
cerning the needs of our schools and their management than I ever 
knew before; I feel that some improvements can and must be made 
in our rural schools." 

The school-room should be made as attractive and pleasant as the 
home; school plaj'-grounds should also be suitably improved. 
Patrons of the schools should co-operate with the directors in mak- 
ing these needed improvements. 

Paradise township has made a decided step forward in this direc- 
tion, by painting their school-houses outside and inside; the fur- 
niture also being re-varnished, thus presenting a very attractive 
appearance; some of their play-grounds were filled up and properly 

In Jackson and Ross townships new water-closets were erected. 
Heretofore these places had but one closet for each school-house. 

In Stroudsburg, several rooms were supplied with new furniture. 

At the Water Gap, a new furnace was placed in the basement 
of the school, at a cost of several hundred dollars. 

At East Stroudsburg, suitable cases with glass fronts were made 
by order of the board, at a cost of more than a hundred dollars, in 
which cases were placed geographical collections presented by The 
Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 

There were under my jurisdiction during the year one hundred 
and fifty-two schools.. All of these were visited once; many were 
visited twice; and several were visited three times. 

Most of the teachers were doing satisfactory work; some were 
found lax in disciplining their schools; a few seemed very indifferent 


concerning their work. To all these, the Superintendent gave per- 
sonal encouragement or personal advice according to the necessity 
of the case. 

The Superintendent believes that teachers who labor faithfully' 
and diligently ought occasionally to be told of their success and 
good work by patrons of the schools as well as directors; in order 
that they may be stimulated to do even nobler work in future years. 
On the other hand, some teachers are in sad need of advice; a kind 
word of advice on the part of parents and other school officers, may 
oft-times result in much good. Emerson once said, "A teacher who 
considers himself above advice, should have no place in the school- 

Throughout the county, we find a number of school libraries; to 
some of these a number of volumes were added during the year; in 
a few other places, new libraries were started. Too much en- 
couragement cannot be given in this direction. 

It was my pleasure to witness the commencement exercises held 
by the Stroudsburg High School ; at which time a class of nine were 
graduated. All of whom completed the commercial course. The 
exercises were very elevating and instructive. 

I desire to extend my heartfelt thanks to the State Department 
for the prompt and kind help given; to the press of our county for 
publishing the news of our educational meetings, and many other 
favorable comments; to the directors for their co-operation and 
kind words of encouragement; and to the teachers for their earnest 
and loyal devotion to duty. 


The results obtained in the county for the year ending June, 
1906, with few exceptions, have been very gratifying. 

The Superintendent made 746 visits in the schools, visiting almost 
every school twice. Several schools, the teachers of which needed 
special help, he visited oftener. 

Four examinations for graduating pupils were held, and 209 pupils 
passed successfully, and were granted diplomas. The pupils' ex- 
aminations were conducted by the teachers and directors of the re- 
spective districts, each district holding its own examination. 

The County Superintendent furnished all the equestions and ex- 
amined all the papers. To facilitate this work the county was di- 
vided into four districts, as follows: 7 months' term constituted the 
first district; 7| and 8 months' terms constituted the second dis- 
trict; 8^ and 9 months' terms constituted the third district; 9^ and 
10 months' terms constituted the fourth district. 


The dates of these examinations were April 14, May 5, May 19 
and June 2 respectively. 

Fourteen regular examinations for teachers were held, and at 
these examinations 166 provisional certificates were granted and ten 
teachers received professional certificates. Forty-three candidates 
were rejected. 

Four hundred and twenty-seven teachers in the county were under 
the direct supervision of the County Superintendent. Of these, 139 
held provisional certificates; 34 professional certificates; 55 per- 
manent certificates, and 199 Normal diplomas. Fifty-three teachers 
were employed who had no previous experience. 

The principal educational events of the year were the local in- 
stitutes, the meetings of the Directors' Association and the annual 
County Institute. 

The local institutes were an interesting feature of the work in 
country districts, and created a very favorable educational senti- 
ment in the districts in which they were held. Five such institutes 
were held at the following centres: Harleysville, East Greenville, 
Hatfield, Sumneytown and Centre Point. 

The Directors' Association held two meetings during the year; 
a very successful annual meeting at Norristown, October 26, dur- 
ing the session of the County Institute, and a semi-annual meeting 
at Jenkintown, March 15. 

At Jenkintown, as usual, morning, afternoon and evening sessions 
were held, and 35 directors were present despite the severe blizzard 
that was in progress the entire day and evening. The entire pro- 
gram, as arranged, was given, and was excellent and instructive. 
The questions discussed were: "Are we Spending too Much Money 
for the Maintenance of our Schools?" "Are we Ready for Manual 
Training?" Supt. Geo. W. Twitmyer, of Wilmington, Del., and Dr. 
Charles Calvert Ellis addressed the meeting in the afternoon. Their 
talks were full of good, wholesome advice to all present concerning 
their duties to the schools. "Backward Children" was the subject 
of an excellent evening lecture by Prof. Lightner Witmer. 

It was decided that hereafter the regular annual meetings of the 
Directors' Association shall be held during County Institute week, 
in October, and the semi-annual meeting in March. 

The annual County Institute convened at Norristown on October 
2.3, and continued in session one week. The instructors were Dr. 
S. D. Fess, Dr. A. E. Winship, Dr. S. C. Schmucker and Prof. P. M. 
Pearson. The program, from beginning to end, was a source of 
much inspiration and instruction. The concensus of opinion was 
very encouraging and gratifying. The evening entertainments were 
by the Rosa Linde Company and the Roney Boys. The evening lec- 
turers were Dr. John Merritte Driver and Dr. S. D. Fess. 


The death of Supt. Jos. K. Gotwals, of Norristown, occurred Oc- 
tober 9, 1904. In his death the institute lost one of its most earnest 
and devoted members. The success of the County Institute in the 
past years was mainly due to his efforts. He was connected with it. 
as an active worker and leader, from its inception, and was influen- 
tial in plans for its success up to the last day of his life. His ad- 
vice and counsel were sought and appreciated by the committees, 
and always proved safe and reliable. 

Supt. Gotwals was first vice president of the Institute, since 1872, 
and it was deemed fitting that the Monday evening session of the In- 
stitute be changed to a memorial session in honor of his life and 
works. At this session, tributes were offered by County Superin- 
tendent J, Horace Landis; Mr. W. H. Lehman, principal of Bridge- 
port schools; Mr. W, E, Beyer, principal of Whitpain High School; 
Miss Caroline E. Niblo, assistant principal of Conshohocken High 
School; Supt. C. A. Wagner, of Cheltenham; Mr. A. D. Eisenhower; 
principal of Norristown High School; IT. S. Commissioner W. W, 
Craig; President Judge A. S. Swartz; Dr. A. E. Winship, and Dr. S. 
D. Fess. These tributes were beautiful and sincere, and attested 
the fact that it pays to lead a right life. 

The erection of new buildings and the enlargement of some of 
the older buildings are encouraging signs of interest in our schools. 
West Pottsgrove township has erected a new four-room building; 
Springfield township added four rooms at Wyndmoor; Abington 
township has in course of construction a new eight room building, 
and Narberth has arranged to enlarge their building by an annex 
of three or more rooms. Most of the school buildings of the county 
are modern in their appointments. 

The enforcement of the compulsory attendance and vaccination 
laws .met, generally, with favor. 

I gratefully acknowledge the aid given me by the Department of 
Public Instruction, the loyal support of the directors of the county, 
and the faithful performance of duties by the teachers of the county. 

MONTOUR COUNTY— Charles W. Derr. 

After the close of one of the most successful years among the 
schools of our county, we again send a report of progress which is 
both a duty and a verj great pleasure. 

Montour county possesses few school houses that are not in ex- 
cellent condition. All the houses are supplied with patent fur- 


niture. No new houses have been erected during the year but 
many have been improved and beautified. Few buildings are with- 
out slate boards and the necessary appliances. 

Teachers realizing the greater demand and higher standard of 
the County Superintendent, have endeavored to fit themselves in a 
more efficient way professionally. This has shown itself in the 
better management and consequently greater progress of the schools 
under their care. 

We are glad that the directors of our county ask the Superin- 
tendent in the selection of their teachers, and we are glad that the 
teachers are always willing to work along the lines we suggest. 

We received in our county, from The Philadelphia Museums last 
year five of their most excellent collections, they all have received 
very fine cases and we are glad that directors are willing to get 
the cases. 

Only the newest and best school books should bo used in the 
schools. By the best book I mean the one that stands the school 
room test. Directors should not always change books at the time 
they run out by law but should retain them as long as they give 
good service. 

The most grievous fault of the schools of Montour county the last 
year was the irregularity of attendance on the part of the pupils, 
through a true knowledge of compulsory vaccination law. We 
hope that all parents will see that their children are properly vacci- 
nated and thereby give them the needed education. 

We had one of the best Institutes at Danville, the first week in 
December, ever held in the county. The instructors were Prof. 
Dieffenbacher in music, one of the best instructors we have had, 
also Supt. L. E. McGinnes, of Steelton; Prof. R. M. McNeal, of Har- 
risburg, and Prof. C. H. Albert, of the Bloomsburg Normal. We 
had an enrollment of all the teachers of the county. 

We are glad that the pupils who have finished the course are 
willing to take the examination at the end of the term. Forty-two 
(42) out of those who took the examination received their diploma. 

We express our thanks to the public press of the county and also 
to the Department of Public Instruction for its aids during the year. 


Due to unprecedented industrial activity, many of our strong 
teachers are leaA'ing a service, that offers employment for only a 
fractional part of a year; and a salary that is not commensurate. 


Several of our districts have been compelled to hire inexperienced 
and inferior teachers, but have learned their mistake and in many 
sections the salaries have been increased. The near future promises 
an average salary of forty dollars per month, for rural teachers. 

The Directors' Association was well attended and much useful 
information and animation was gleaned from the meeting. 

The following instructors at our County Teachers' Institute merit 
praise, for their suggestions and good cheer. Ih: Henry Houck, who 
always radiates sunshine, Dr. O. T. Corson, Trof. A. Davison, Dr. 
G. W. Gerwig, Mrs. Bessie B. Rogers, Prof. O. H. Yetter. - The Com- 
mandery Quartette from Bloomsburg rendered appreciated musical 
selections. Dr. Koland D. Grout,, delivered his lecture on — Snakes 
in Paradise — the lecture was one of the best ever delivered in Easton. 
Thursday forenoon Dr. Grout addressed the teachers, and displayed 
for their examination several thousand gems, and original, rare 
historical manuscripts. The teachers manifested sincere interest 
in Dr. Grout's collections. 

The entertainments on Thursday evening was furnished by the 
Hawthorne Company. The teachers earned praise for their lady- 
like and gentlemanly conduct. None of the speakers were annoyed, 
neither was the chairman compelled to call for order. 

The local institutes were well attended, all the speakers save one, 
to whom subjects had been assigned came well prepared. 

In several sections the vaccination laws were the cause of some 
unpleasantness. We do not expect trouble next year. 

Arbor Day was fittingly celebrated in a number of our schools. 
The most interesting celebration was at Bath. The tree planted and 
dedicated in honor of Theodore Roosevelt, was a young shellbark, 
taken from what was originally the farm of Daniel Craig, the first 
white settler in Bath, and a direct ancestor of the President. Tlie 
principal speaker was Rev. Smith, D. D., president of the School 
Board, who paid a glowing tribute to the President and compared 
him to the hickory, you can bend it, but cannot break it. , 

The following letter explains itself: 

White House, Washington, D. C, April 9, 190G. 

My Dear Sir: Thank you for your letter of the 7th instant. I 
most heartily believe in Arbor Day and inculcating among children 
The love for trees which you are striving to inculcate. I know not 
what to say as to my favorite tree. The hickory is such a distinctly 
American tree that I am particularly fond of it; but there are 
many others — the oak, beech, birch, chestnut, pine, and under cer- 
tain circumstances, the maple and locust, of which I am equally 
fond, and I have a peculiar feeling for the tulip tree. In short. 


there are so many trees that are lovely that I would not be able 
to choose among them. You see that even in the above list I have 
forgotten the elm, than which there can be no more beautiful tree. 
My advice would be to select the tree that would thrive best in the 
particular locality where you plant it. 

Sincerely yours, 

To. Asa K. Mcllhaney, Bath, I'a. 


In submitting this, my first report of the conditions of the schools 
of Northumberland count}', I am not in position to rightly compare 
the work of this year with that done in previous years, but I wish 
to recognize and praise the high and efficient work of my prede- 
cessor. Prof. Benjamin Apple in his effort to better systematize and 
grade the work in our schools. During the year, it has been my 
earnest effort to bring our teachers to realize that it is by proper 
grading, an outlined course of study, a definite purpose in view and 
hard honest work on their part that the best results may be reached. 
When we consider that 21 per cent, of our teachers are doing their 
first year's work, the results are very gratifying. Many of them 
are young but enthusiastic and energetic and have labored for the 
best interests of our schools. 

We held 19 public teachers' examinations, at which 210 appli- 
cants were examined, and 149 provisional and 9 professional cer- 
tificates were granted. Many of the failures were caused by appli- 
cants attending schools where the higher branches receive too much 
attention before the fundamental principles have been thoroughly 

From the standpoint of attendance and progress in the schools, 
the vaccination law was somewhat detrimental to the best inter- 
ests. While in some districts the parents readily consented to 
have their children vaccinated, yet in other places many persons 
refused, and, as a consequence, such children were compelled to 
remain out of school. In certain districts where some of the 
teachers took a decided stand for the enforcement of the law I am 
of the opinion that it cost them their popularity among the patrons 
and the schools did not do their best work. Among our patrons are 
those who claim that the law should be repealed, or at least so 
amended, that it would not affect the country districts, while others 


ask for a revision of the law so as not to place tbe entire responsi- 
bility of its enforcement on the teacher. I am very much in favor 
of the latter view. 

At Greenridge in Mt. Carmel township, a one-roomed annex was 
added to the building. The room is large, well ventilated, finely 
finished and well furnished. A one-roomed building was erected at 
Kulpmout, also in Mt. Carmel township. Kulpmont had recently 
been laid out in lots and there was no way of estimating the probable 
number of children of school age. On the opening of school, the 
room was crowded and a second teacher was necessary. Contract 
has been let for an annex. Furnace heat was placed in one of the 
buildings of Upper Augusta township and the patrons are glad that 
the old stove has gone. 

The people of the rural districts are realizing the need of higher 
education. The township high school is meeting with more and 
more approval. The high school in West Chillisquaque township 
which had been discontinued for one year was re-established and 
preparations are under way to remove the old building and erect a 
modern four-roomed structure. 

We held eleven educational meetings in different sections of the 
county. Tbe interest manifested by many of the teachers and 
patrons was very encouraging. A few of the teachers, who seem to 
make teaching a temporary occupation rather than a profession, 
do not take the interest in these meetings that I vdsh to see. Men 
of skill and experience in teaching accompanied me and addressed 
the teachers and aided in a general way. 

The county institute which convened at Sunbury during the week 
of December 18-22 was the great educational event of the year. 
Every teacher under my jurisdiction was present. The total enroll- 
ment was 302 — the largest for several years. Our teachers were 
enthusiastic in their praise of the instruction given, which was prac- 
tical, helpful and could be readily applied in the school room. The 
instructors during the week were Prof. Paul M. Pearson, Prof. Pres- 
ton W.^ Search and Superintendents James M. Couglilin, W. A. Wil- 
son and Joseph Howerth, of Wilkes-Barre, Milton and Shamokin re- 
spectively. For our evening sessions we had Dr. A. A. Willits, Dr. 
Wm. Hawley Smith, Montaville Flowers and Lula Tyler Gates Com- 

The Directors' Association held two meetings during the year. 
The first on Wednesday of institute week. The vaccination law and 
township high schools received the most consideration. Lively dis- 
cussions were the order of the day. Prof. Search addressed the 
meeting. In the afternoon the directors met in the auditorium with 
the teachers. The second meeting, the regular annual meeting of 
the association, was held January 25. This was the largest meeting 

No. 6. PERRY COUNTY. 103 

since the organization of the association under the new law. One 
hundred and two directors were present. To say that Dr. Houck 
and Dr. Groff were present and addressed the directors speaks for 
itself of the enjoyable and profitable time we had. 

We regret to state that death claimed one of our directors, J. 
F. Bower, of Lewis township. In his death our schools lost a loyal 
and able supporter. 

We wish to thank the Department for its kind consideration and 
help, the local press for its interest in the educational work of the 
county, and the directors and teachers for their encouragement and 
loyal support. • 

PERRY COUNTY— S. S. Willard. 

Just as an explorer, when once he has left the beaten paths of 
civilization and plunged into the wilds of a new country, constantly 
meets with new situations and unforseen difiQculties, undergoes 
many cares, anxieties and hardships, and climbs at last some dis- 
tant height in the hope of discovering the goal of his endeavors, 
only to find a still vaster unknown and unexplored region unfolding 
itself before him, so the educator, called suddenly from the quiet 
precincts of the class room to the supervision and direction of the 
many and varied schools of a county, is also sure to find himself in 
many new and trying situations, sure to be confronted by many new 
and unexpected problems, and to realize more and more clearly, as 
each month goes by, the importance, the magnitude, and the great 
responsibilities of the work he has undertaken. When on the 15th 
of last November, we received our appointment as superintendent 
of this county, the date for the holding of our annual county insti- 
tute was but two weeks distant, and although winter was at hand 
none of our one hundred and ninety-two schools had as yet been 
visited. Having received our appointment, we began work imme- 
diately, and by the end of the month we had made our preparations 
for the institute, and had visited thirty-five schools, spending from 
an hour to an hour and a half in each. 

Our institute was thoroughly successful, and received the com- 
mendation of tlie great body of our teachers of whom all but five 
were present. The day instructors were Dr. C. C. Ellis, Dr. E. A. 
Jones, Dr. J. C. Willis, Dr. H. U. Rupp, Pl-of. Walter D. Myers and 
ex-County Superintendent R. M. McNeal. The evening lecturers were 
Dr. C. C. Ellis and Rev. John W. Weeter, and the entertainers, the 
"Parland-Newhall Company," and the "Whitney Brothers." 


Seven local institutes were held in different sections of the county 
during the winter. These were well attended by the teachers and 
citizens of the respective districts, and as the work at each was 
carried on solely by the teachers, directors and citizens, the greatest 
possible amount of interest was manifested, and great good ac- 

Our first annual convention of school directors under the act 
of 10th April, 1905, was held in the court house at New Bloomfield 
on the 3d of Februarj^. One hundred and seventeen out of a total of 
,one hundred and eighty directors were present — the largest num- 
ber ever attending a meeting of this character in our county. The 
questions, ''The Vaccination Law vs. Compulsory Attendance," 
"A Uniform Course of Study for our Rural Schools," and "Township 
High Schools," aroused a general and most active discussion, and 
while no pronounced or decisive action was taken, nevertheless the 
foundation was laid for future results. Prof. L. E. McGinnes, Presi- 
dent of the State Teachers' Association was present and gave an 
able, forcible and most practical talk on the duties, relations, and 
rewards of directors. 

An analysis of the teaching force of our county during the past 
year gives the following results: 

Number who had no prevy)us experience, 30 

Number who had taught five or more annual terms, . . 88 

Number who held provisional certificates, 110 

Number who held professional certificates, 26 

Number who held permanent certificates, 9 

Number who were graduates of a State Normal school, 48 
Number who attended a State Normal school but did 

not graduate, 46 

Number who were educated in the common schools, . . 40 

Number who were educated in academies or seminaries, 58 

Number who are graduates of colleges, 3 

We do not have the data at hand to compare these figures with 
those of former years. We are, however, highly gratified at the large 
number of teachers and other students who, desiring a higher educa- 
tion than that afforded by the common schools, are, at the present 
writing, in attendance at our State Normal schools, at the New 
Bloomfield Academy, and at several private schools in different sec- 
tions of the county. Such students number two hundred and fifty, 
of whom fifty are at State Normal schools, and seventy-five at the 
New Bloomfield Academy. 
^ Our oldest educational institution, the New Bloomfield Academy, 
has during the past year taken upon itself a new lease of life. Pub- 

No. 6. PIKE COUNTY. 105 

lie spirited citizens, having formed a company and obtained a char- 
ter of incorporation, purchased the property and spent fifteen thou- 
sand dollars on new buildings and other improvements. With in- 
creased facilities, and an able faculty of six instructors at the head 
of which are Prof. Geo. B. Roddy, A. M. (Princeton) and Rev. J. 
Thomas Fox, A. M. (F. & M.), and with a board of regents composed 
of prominent citizens from almost every district of the county, the 
institution deserves and is gradually securing an increase of at- 
tendance greater than it has enjoyed for many years. 

PIKE COUNTY— Lucian Westbrook. 

We regret to report that the results of the school work for the 
past year have not been satisfactory owing to the depletion of at- 
tendance by the enforcement of the vaccination law. In some dis- 
tricts the law was complied with, affecting the attendance but 
little, while in others as high as 80 per cent, of the pupils were 
refused admission to the schools. The majority of these were later 
readmitted upon presentation of the proper certificate. However, 
quite a large number remained out of school either a portion or the 
whole of the term owing to the refusal of their parents to permit 
them to be vaccinated. Since the State contributes so generously to 
the support of the schools to the end that all children may receive 
the essentials of an education that is to aid them to become useful 
citizens, it seems a shame that they should be deprived of that privi- 
lege which the school law grants to every child, the privilege of a 
common school education. We are heartiiy in accord with our 
worthy State Superintendent in his recommendation that "Either 
vaccination should be made compulsory, or some provision should be 
made by which education becomes possible in the case of children 
whose parents will not permit them to be vaccinated." 

We believe that our corps of teachers for the past year was the 
best we have ever had. We do not mean to convey the impression 
that all were models of excellence because they were not. Indeed, 
some were failures, but on the whole, taking all things into consid- 
eration, we believe their work will compare with that of other 
teachers in similar sections of the State. But while the character 
of their work is so gratifying, we feel that the professional quali- 
fications of many of them could be considerably improved. 

The majority of diitCiOrs comprising the various school boards 
are representative men, eager to improve school conditions in their 


respective districts and public spirited enough not to let their 
personal feelings influence them in the discharge of their duties. 
There are still a few who seek and obtain the office of school director 
for the purpose of securing a position as teacher for a daughter or 
a friend, often rejecting a more experienced or a better qualified 
teacher, thus sacrificing the best interests of the schools. However, 
we rejoice that the people are taking a more lively interest in educa- 
tional matters and are demanding that the best men available be 
(Elected to the ofiice of school director. 

Before the opening of the term Milford indepeudent district thor- 
oughly remodeled the building at Shocapee, placing therein new 
furniture and slate blackboards. Blooming Grove built new out- 
buildings which example some other districts would do well to fol- 
low as the outbuildings connected with some of the schools are a 
disgrace to the communities and are corrupters of the morals of the 

School libraries were started in the Baisden and Rowland 
schools in Lackawaxen district with 50 and 30 volumes respectively. 
Many other teachers have worked faithfully, holding box socials 
and entertainments and collecting money with which to make addi- 
tions to libraries or to purchase flags or school bells. 

Local institutes were held at Paupac, Lackawaxen, Matamoras 
and Dingman's Ferry, all being well attended by interested patrons. 
Papers replete with practical suggestions and showing much thought 
in preparation ,/ere read by the teachers and fully discussed. Prof. 
James M. Coughlin was with us at Paupac and gave two very able 

The county institute was held in Milford, October 30 to Novem- 
ber 3. The instructors and lecturers were Professors James M. 
Coughlin and John G. Scorer, Rev. E. M. Smead-and Mrs. Kathryn 
St. John. Judging from the comments heard we may report it as 
being up to the standard of any held in the past. 

Our Directors' Association convened in Milford, December 4 and 
5 with an attendance of forty-four, the largest in the history of 
the association. Two timely addresses and a lecture were given 
by Dr. J. P. Welsh. Directors entered heartily into the discussions, 
and we believe more good has resulted from this one convention than 
from both of the others held. 

"Patrons' Day" was observed in the schools of the county Decem- 
ber 22. Over 700 patrons visited the various schools on that day 
thus encouraging both pupils and teachers to greater efforts, and 
themselves being impressed with the character of the work being 

In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the courtesies shown and 

No. 6. POTTER COUNTY. 107 

tlie advice given me by the Department, and the hearty co-operation 
of directors, teachers, patrons and the public press in the educa- 
tional affairs of the county, for which I am truly grateful. 

POTTER COUNTY— Otis A. Kilbourn. 

The work of our schools has been very much interrupted during 
the past year by the enforcement of the vaccination law. During a 
portion of the 3'ear the attendance in many schools was diminished 
to less than one-half the total number enrolled, and in a number of 
cases practically' all of the pupils had to be excluded, some of the 
schools being closed and others continuing in session with an attend- 
ance of from two to five or even less. With this exception we 
have had a prosperous year. Our teachers show an increasing 
enthusiasm and desire for professional advancement. Our county 
sent more students to normal schools this spring than ever before. 
A teacher who has not had any normal training is now the excep- 
tion in this county rather than the rule. 

Ten public examinations w^ere held during the year. In addition 
to these several private or special examinations were held for the 
accommodation of teachers who w^ere away attending school or 
who for any reason were unable to be examined at the regular time. 
Two hundred nineteen applicants were examined and fifty-seven 
rejected. Eight holders of professional certificates were recom- 
mended for permanent certificates and all passed the examination 
very creditably. The eighth grade final examinations were held 
on April 29, and thirty-five applicants passed and received the county 

With six exceptions all the schools of the county were visited 
once during the year, many of them twice and a few of them three 
times, the total number of visits made being two hundred sixty. 

The annual county institute was held in Coudersport in October 
and was as usual a. great success. The instructors were Dr. J. 
George Becht, Clarion, Pa.; Dr. T. S. Lowden, Worcester, Mass.; Dr. 
J. C, Willis, Lexington, Ky., and Prof. Thomas L. Gibson, Ebens 
burg. Pa. Dr. E. H. Ashcraft, of Coudersport, county medical ex- 
aminer, gave an excellent address on the subject of vaccination 
and small-pox. A session of the institute was held on Friday after- 
noon and an entertainment giyen Friday evening, making two more 
sessions than we have ever had before. This new departure seemed 
to meet the approval of a large majority of the teachers and nearly 
all remained to the two extra sessions. 


The County Directors' Association was held on October 19th and 
20th. Sixty-six directors were in attendance representing nearly 
every district in the county. The meeting was addressed by Dr. 
T. S. Lowden, Dr. J. George Becht, and Dr. J. C. Willis. 

The semi-annual session of the County Teachers' Association was 
held at Galeton in March. Local institutes were held as usual in 
different sections of the county. 

The school board of Austin borough erected a new primary build- 
ing to replace the one destroyed by fire last year. It is built of 
concrete blocks and cost approximately $12,000. It is two stories 
high and contains eight school rooms. Ample provision is made 
for light and ventilation, the rooms are furnished with comfortable 
seats and plenty of blackboard, and everything considered the build- 
ing is one of the very best in the county. 

The Hebron township school board have enlarged the building at 
Coneville and put the school in charge of two teachers. The Eleven 
Mile school in Oswayo township was divided in the same way. The 
primary room of the Shinglehouse borough schools was furnished 
with new single seats. One school in Pleasant Valley township 
was also supplied with new furniture during the year. 

SCHUYLKILL COUNTY— Livingston Seltzer. 

This being my first year's work in the superintendency, it has been 
a period of observation rather than direction. I have studied the 
needs of our schools and am now better prepared to direct. 

In some districts owing to a lack of interest on the part of parents 
and directors, school sentiment is rather sluggish and the schools 
are not what they should be. However the reports received from 
school directors and friends of education lead me to be hopeful of 
a general advancement of solid improvement in the near future. 

We have many excellent teachers, men and women who are lead- 
ing thousands of children in our county to become cultured and 
useful citizens. It is equally true that we have many who teach 
with no other view than for the salary. An effort should be made 
to get rid of the latter class. Many of those holding provisional 
certificates and getting the minimum salary are doing the best 

In the selection of teachers by school directors, one of the evils 
is nepotism. Too often the politician's candidate displaces experi- 
enced teachers. This is well enough, if the politician's candidate is 


a better teacher, but in most cases of this kind his candidate is 
by far the inferior. We hope the time is not far distant when the 
peopki will awake to the enormity of the wrong and crush it by 
selecting for school director, men who are interested in the welfare 
of the children, and who will hold the good teacher as long as they 

Seven experienced teachers in a township of nearly a score of 
teachers did not apply for re-appointment. Why? Upon inquiry 
they told me that they could earn twice as much money by seeking 
employment on the trolley cars. Teaching school seven months at 
$35 a month, and conducting a trolley car twelve months at |50 a 
month, make a difference at the end of the year of |3o5 in the latter's 

No wonder, that many of our best teachers leave the profession. 
Pay less for useless apparatus,* "blocks," etc., and add to the good 
teacher's pay and you will be able to keep him. Your children will 
get the benefit of the increased pay. 

The lack of co-operation betw een the home and the school is often 
very detrimental to the advancement of the school. These two 
forces should be united and a resultant of higher citizenship would 
be the consequence. The indifference of the public and the spirit 
of open fault finding should be supplanted by hearty co-operation 
and recognition of honest effort. 

The training of the home, if it is good, and the school should be 
parallel. The teacher needs the sympathy, esteem and confidence 
of parents and children. Failures are often due to a lack of under- 
standing between the teacher and the parents. 

Five new school houses were built during the year. Several 
houses were enlarged so as to have an additional room. In various 
places buildings w^ere repaired. 

There are in various parts of the county at least 30 houses that 
should be replaced by new ones. A number of districts should have 
additional rooms. In several districts I found as many as 142 pupils 
in one small room. The primary schools of McAdoo, Tower City, 
Palo Alto, Port Carbon, Frackville, West Mahanoy and Rahn have 
entirely too many pupils for one teacher. Most of these contem- 
plate building additional rooms. 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the directors was held in 
Union Hall, Pottsville, Tuesday, January 30th. There were present 
352 members. It was the largest and most enthusiastic meeting ever 
held. Superintendents Coughlin and McGinnes, and two of our 
directors, F. V. Filbert, Esq., and Harper T. Bressler, addressed the 

The annual county institute, which was held in Mahanoy City, 


December 18-22, was a pronounced success; 862 teachers were in 

Our instructors were William W. Parsons, president Indiana State 
Normal School, Terre Haute, Indiana; Prof. John G. Scorer, Phila- 
delphia; Supt. James M. Coughlin, Wilkes-Barre; Miss Louise Con- 
nolly, Newark, New Jersey; Dr. A. C. Rothermel, Kutztown; Dr. 
G. M. Philips, West Chester; Dr. E. O. Lyte, Millersville, and Prof. 
George C. Young, of Kutztown, musical director. 

The instruction was practical and helpful and was of a high order 
of merit. The attention given to the instructors and the order were 
good from the beginning to the end. 

The method of recording the attendance of teachers at the insti- 
tute is worthy of special mention in this connection. For the first 
time the "Honor System" was introduced. This plan, which is 
cordially approved and recommended, will be continued. 

The newspapers of the county are a helpful agency in diffusing 
knowledge and are doing much to promote a growing sentiment in 
favor of education. Much good can be accomplished by the timely 
and valuable assistance of the press in emphasizing the great im- 
portance of the public schools. 

In conclusion, I publicly thank the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, the press of the county, the directors, the ex-superintendents, 
the teachers and the patrons for the helpful assistance they have 
rendered in advancing that which is of inestimable value to the 
prosperity and welfare of our people — the cause of education. 

SNYDER COUNTY— George W. Walborn. 

In submitting this, my fourth annual report of the public schools 
of Snyder county, I have nothing new or unusual to report. 

Professional zeal and steady improvement was manifest in the 
majority of the schools during the year just closed; but several 
of the teachers employed didn't seem to be interested in their work 
beyond that of putting in time and drawing their salaries; and 
consequently their schools made little if any improvement. 

In conducting my visits to the schools, I grade every teacher 
visited on five points which I consider vital elements of a good 
school. The average of these grades forms the basis upon which 
I mark the teacher in the item called "Practice" on the certificate 
granted at the examination following the school term, and I mark 
this in such a way as to make the teacher's practice count for one- 


half of the value of his certificate. This enables me to get rid of 
such teachers who have a fair knowledge of the branches but who 
lack professional enthusiasm and interest in the welfare of their 

Eighteen public examinations were held. 

One hundred and thirty-three applicants were examined of which 
number fifty-one were rejected. 

A number of our teachers have been holding professional certifi- 
cates for many years, some of these were among our best teachers, 
but others depended entirely upon their certificates for their tenure 
of office and became less efficient year after year; hence this year 
I requested all persons holding professional certificates for three 
years or more, either to take the examination for permanent certifi- 
cates or to appear before me to take examinations for new profes- 
sionals. The result of this examination was that a number failed 
even to pass the examination for a provisional certificate. 

The county institute was held in the court house at Middleburg 
during the week of December 4th. 

One hundred and twenty-five teachers were present. The only 
one absent had been excused from institute in order that she might 
visit the primary schools in the city of Steelton, where she obtained 
some new and valuable information with respect to primary work. 

It is useless for us to say that our institute was a success, when 
it is remembered that our dear friend, Deputy Supt. Houck was 
with us during the whole week. Dr. Houck is certainly a great 
favorite with our people. 

The other instructors were Dr. T. S. Louden, of Worcester, Mass.; 
Miss Maude Willis, of Lock Haven; Dr. J. I. Woodruff, of Selins- 
grove, and Prof. Witmer, of New Berlin. 

The lecturers and entertainers for the evening sessions were: Dr. 
T. S. Louden, Dr. Henry Houck, Miss Maude Willis, the Odeon Male 
Quartette, supported by Miss Nettie Jackson, an elocutionist, and 
Dr. Mattison Wilber Chase, of Chicago. 

The directors of the county met in their third annual convention, 
in a two day session in the month of January. The day sessions were 
devoted to interesting and profitable discussions by the directors 
and in the evening they were addressed by the Hon.-^Wm. N. Collins. 

A greater number of the directors were present at this convention 
than at any i>revious session, and the benefits of the convention 
have already been felt in our schools. 

Joint teachers' institutes were held at Eichfield, Beavertown, 
Paxtonville, Fremont, Port Trevorton, Shamokin Dam and New Ber- 
lin. These institutes are productive of much good, for here it is 
that teachers, pupils and patrons meet together and learn to under- 
stand and appreciate one anothers interest all the better. 


[n coiielusiou I wish to thank the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, the teachers and patrons of the county, and the public press 
for the willing and valuable assistance they have given me in keep- 
ing up a steady wholesome growth of our public schools. 


After a careful examination of the past year's work we take 
pleasure in reporting commendable progress. 

The greatest hindrance to successful work in our schools has 
been the opposition to the vaccination of children. The recent 
court decisions on the compulsory school law offer a relief to that 
class of parents and others who have control of children and wish 
to evade their legal duty. Attendance in our public schools is too 
largely regulated by the convenience of parents. It is a very difficult 
matter to bring children to school when there is a sentiment of 
evasion and opposition at home. Schools are sustained for the pur- 
pose of educating all the children of the different districts and the 
law also directs that they shall attend but patrons do not realize 
that much unprofitable expenditure is incurred when the children 
are not in school. The injury is not only inflicted upon those who are 
irregular but also upon those who attend regularly. The natural 
advance of the whole school is greatly retarded by the re-appearance 
of those who stay away much of the time forgetting at home what 
they have learned at school. Instruction at home is sometimes made 
a shield for practically no instruction. 

Notwithstanding the undesirable conditions we believe that the 
public schools of the county were never so effective as they are now. 
Thoroughness and discipline have supplanted the haphazard method 
of pouring in unsystematic instruction. The training of teachers 
is given more attention and the demand is becoming more nearly 
universal, that they shall grow intellectuallj^, morally and in the 
art of teaching. Text books that meet the wants of the school are 
procured. In the erection of buildings it is no longer considered a 
waste of money to consult an architect nor to have the houses fur- 
nished with modern equipments throughout. The number of people 
who believe that the education of the children is the most important 
of all business is becoming larger. 

We held nineteen teachers' examinations in different parts of the 
county. Five hundred eighty-three were examined, of this number 


four hundred sixteen were granted provisional certificates, eighteen 
professional and one hundred forty-nine applicants rejected. 

It is vitally important that we should have the best teachers 
that can be obtained, and in many instances our citizens have been 
putting forth every effort to bring about this result. There are 
some places, however, where they do not properly appreciate the 
value of good teachers and have signified this fact in the manner in 
which they have compensated them. While the salaries 0/ teachers 
have been increased we are still unfortunately a long way off from 
properly recognizing the value of good teachers. When we awake 
fully to the situation -there will be no shortage of good teachers 
for the profession because the compensation offered to those com- 
perent will be sufficient to secure the best material in abundance. 

In the rural schools especially do we need every inducement that 
will aid them in keeping pace with the graded schools of the towns. 
We have many earnest and faithful teachers in the rural schools but 
they remain only a short time, until they are called to the towns and 
cities. The country districts need w^ages that will justify young peo- 
ple to enter the profession and remain in it, so that their schools 
will not simply be training places for city teachers. 

The teachers as a whole have done excellent work during the year. 
They have been energetic in maintaining local institutes and all 
organizations that aid in the improvement of the schools. However, 
we have some w^ho are careless and seem to have reached the height 
of their ambition in teaching. Many of these formerly were success- 
ful but they have ceased to be students. We have some who need 
more general information and skill in conducting recitations. 

The examinations for pupils in the common schools were held 
March 31st. One hundred and twenty applicants presented them- 
selves for examination. Of this number ninety made averages en- 
titling them to diplomas. 

The annual county teachers' institute was held at Somerset, No- 
vember 23 to 27, 1905. Only two teachers of the county were absent. 
The interest and attention of the teachers were most gratifying. 
Both instructors and lecturers were of the highest order. We had 
with us Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Dr. W. N. Ferris, Dr. F. S. Fox, Mrs. Mary G. Noss, 
Prof. O. H. Yetter, Kev. Sam. P. Jones, Hamlin Garland, Lou J. 
Beauchamp and Rouey's Boys Concert Company. 

The directors met in their annual convention in the temporary 
court house at Somerset, February 21st and 22d. The attendance 
should have been larger but the discussions were most inspiring and 
helpful to all who attended. Ex-County Supt. W. W. Ulerich 



delivered two addresses and Prof. Johu G. Scorer a lecture. Every 
director should have the benefit of these meetings. 

Ten new school houses were erected during the year. The build- 
ing at Somerset is a handsome two story brick structure. It contains 
spacious halls, eight large class rooms, two teachers' rooms and a 
library. The directors sought the latest and best educational ideas 
in furnishing and equipping the building. 

Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer was present and delivered a masterly 
address at the dedicatory exercises which were held May 15th. 

Over five hundred volumes have been added to the libraries of the 
schools of the county during the year. The Somerset schools have a 
library of more than eleven hundred volumes. 

In conclusion I wish to express my indebtedness to the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, the directors, teachers, citizens and the 
county press. 

SULLIVAN COUNTY— J. E. Reese Killgore. 

The work of the public schools of Sullivan county during the past 
year has been very gratifying. While the year has presented un- 
usual difficulties, yet we feel that in spite of the discouragements 
the work has been well done. 

The Summer Normal, instructed by Profs. S. D. Molyneux, D. M. 
Flick and T. V. Kelly, was unusually successful. A large number of 
teachers, active and prospective, attended the school and manifested 
commendable interest in the work. This school has performed a 
most excellent service in the past. Much of the success our schools 
have attained is attributable to the inspiration it imparts. 

The township high school established at Sonestown, Davidson 
township, graduated a class of two young ladies. It was my privi- 
lege to examine the class and I was more than pleased with the 
evidence I received of the faithfulness with which their work had 
been done. Other districts are considering the advisability of estab- 
lishing township high schools and I hope to be able to report next 
year that this action has been taken. 

Dushore borough has added two j^ears to the high school course. 
No public high school to-day presents better advantages. 

The county institute was held in Dushore during the week of 
January 1st. Dr. C. C. Ellis, Dr. J. G. Becht, Miss Mary Brevard 
Roberts, Supt. W. W. Evans and Prof. O. H. Yetter were the in- 
structors. The evening sessions consisted of a lecture by Dr. Ellis, 
a recital by Miss Roberts, a lecture by Rev. W. Quay Rosselle, and 


a musical recital by the New York Artists. One hundred one teach- 
ers were enrolled. Four of the five absentees were unable to attend 
because of illness. The institute was successful in every particular. 
The instructors were helpful and by their earnestness and the prac- 
tical character of their work made the sessions unusually inter- 

Educational meetings were held monthly in different sections 
of the county. The attendance at the meetings was remarkably 
good, the average attendance of the teachers being six educational 
meetings during the year. Mass meetings were held at central 
points and were largely attended by teachers, directors and patrons. 
All entered into the discussions of question of educational interest 
making the meetings most interesting and helpful. 

Hon. M. E. Hermann, Mr. G. T. Deegan and Dr. J. R. Davies repre- 
sented the directors of the county at the Harrisburg convention 
and presented interesting reports to the Sullivan County Directors' 
Association which convened at Laporte, Wednesday, March 14, 1906. 
The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: F. H. Ma- 
gargle, president; F. Lusch and G. McDonald, vice presidents; H. L. 
Molyneux, secretary; Richard May, treasurer. Prof. H. R. Henning, 
C. F. Hunsinger, Prof. J. H. Ballentine, Dr. J. R. Davies, G. T. Dee- 
gan, F. W. Meylert, Esq., Hon. T. J. Ingham and the county super- 
intendent addressed the association. Hon. Emerson E. Collins, of 
Williamsport, delivered an eloquent address during the afternoon 
session. Dr. Davies and Misses Mary and Barbara Farrell and Mar- 
jorie Killgore contributed to the program several musical selec- 
tions. Two-thirds of the directors of the county were in attendance 
and entered into the discussion of the various subjects considered. 
This meeting was undoubtedly the most interesting and helpful 
of its kind ever held in the county. 

The Illinois course of study for common schools has been adopted 
in every district in the county. The schools have been graded, 
pupils have been classified and definite work has been outlined for 
each grade. At the close of the first year of its adoption we are 
more than ever convinced of the necessity of sj^stematizing the work 
of the so-called ungraded schools. We expect the course of study 
to very materially increase the efficiency of these schools. 

The enforcement of the vaccination law has seriously affected the 
attendance in some districts. This is true, however, in only three 
districts. For the greater part the people have obeyed the law and 
have not permitted it to interfere with the education of their chil- 
dren. We feel that the law should be amended as in its present 
form it places an unjust and unnecessary burden npon the teacher. 

Cherry township and Laporte borough lost good school houses by 


fire. New buildings are beiug erected aud will be ready for occu- 
pancy by November 1. 

Some districts are suffering from a lack of funds. Three dis- 
tricts find it impossible to keep their schools open seven months. 
ft seems to us unjust to deprive the boys and girls of these districts 
of advantages which the children of more populuous and more pros- 
perous districts enjoy. We think that the resolution, passed at 
the meeting of the county superintendents at Harrisburg and recom- 
mending legislation providing an additional appropriation of |50 
per school in such districts, is a good one and should receive the 
favorable attention of our legislators. 

In concluding this report I desire to thank the public press for the 
many kindnesses it has extended during the past year; the teachers 
of the county, for the earnestness and faithfulness with which they 
have labored to advance the educational interest intrusted to their 
care; the directors for the co-operation and encouragement which 
they have invariably extended; the general public for the many evi- 
dences they have given of sympathy and appreciation; the State 
Department for the many courtesies extended and the uniform 
kindness which has characterized its attitude to me when in need 
of advice and help. 


In presenting this, our first report, it is with a feeling of regret 
that we call attention to a seeming retrogressive movement. 

Owing to the recent salary act, the close of the year 1905 saw 
several of our districts in debt, and others with their usually small 
balances entirely wiped out. As a result, nine of our districts, find- 
ing thirteen mills insufficient, felt obliged to reduce their terms to 
six months. 

Some of these districts had, the year before, closed some of their 
smaller schools; but public sentiment seemed to demand the re-open- 
ing of them, thus entailing additional expense. ''What to do 
with these small schools?" is the most pressing question now await- 
ing a satisfactory solution. 

About forty schools were kept open last year with an average 
attendance of five or less. Teachers of experience and ability do 
not care to engage such schools, and these pupils are usually in 
charge of those without previous practice or special training. 

Brooklyn and Herrick have each very successfully consolidated 
their small schools by drawing the pupils to the villages and mak- 


iug tliem an integral part of their township high schools. Other 
districts are coming to recognize the benefits and necessity of such 
a system, and Auburn and Rush townships are already planning t^? 
organize township high schools, with primary and grammar grades 

They will thus be able to consolidate satisfactorily several of 
their smaller ones. 

The success or failure of this system depends first, upon the ability 
of the teacher in the central school, and secondly, upon the equip- 
ment of the conveyance and the character of the driver, where a con- 
veyance is necessary. When people are assured of much better 
educational advantages, and know that their children will receive 
the proper comforts and attention on the road, they will not seriously 
oppose the system. 

About seventy-five students availed themselves of the high school 
tuition act. The payment of these tuitions placed a new burden 
upon many districts, and several, not being prepared to meet it, now 
find themselves in debt in consequence. These obligations were 
met, however, without opposition. 

One district, Springville, organized a township high school this 
year, and the outlook for it the coming year is encouraging. 

The attempted enforcement of the vaccination law had a depre- 
ciating effect on the eificiency of many of our schools. It has prac- 
tically annulled the compulsory act, as those to whom the latter act 
is especially applicable will not be vaccinated, or will refuse to 
present their certificates if they have them. We thoroughly agree 
with State Superintendent Schaeffer in his last report and sugges- 
tions, and believe that a revision of the act is imperative. It has 
certainly failed to produce the desired results in many parts of this 
county, and has done much injury to the schools. 

We have called attention to the dark side of the situation first; 
there is a brighter side. We seem to be passing through a transi- 
tionary period in school work. The salary act, the tuition act, and 
incidentally the vaccination act, and the problem of the small rural 
school — these are compelling us to face new conditions, and a little 
time is required to make the re-adjustment. We have, however, a 
strong, healthy educational sentiment in the county, and our ablest 
people are giving their support and assistance in meeting the 
changed conditions. The present is, we believe, better than the 
past; but the future must be better than the now. 

During the past year seven local teachers' meetings have been 
held in the county after we had visited the schools around some 

These meetings were, as a rule, well attended. They were eon- 
ducted in an informal way, and every teacher present took active 


part, either by giving their own views and methods, or by asking 
questions, and many expressed a wish to have them continued. 

The Teachers' Association held two meetings as usual. Both 
were well attended, and a marked degree of interest was manifest. 

A principals' meeting was held in March, and a syllabus of work 
outlined for graded schools upon which the superintendent's ex- 
aminations of students will hereafter be based. They also recom- 
mended the medium slant system of writing. 

The County Institute was held at Montrose the week of October 16. 
The following corps of instructors, largely of national reputation, 
bespeaks for itself the excellent quality of the work done : 

Dr. A. E. Winship, Boston; Dr. Ruric N. Roark, Worcester, Mass.; 
Dr. Geo. M. Philips, West Chester, Pa.; Dr. A. T. Smith, Mansfield, 
Pa., and Prof. H. B. Larrabee, of Keuka Park, N. Y. The attendance 
was unusually large and the interest was sustained throughout. 

The Directors' Association met the week of the Institute, and 
was addressed by Dr. Winship, and Supt. Longstreet, of Tioga 
county. The addresses of both were practical and appreciated. 
Several directors presented subjects of live interest. The attendance 
was the largest in the history of the association, and all were anxious 
to know how to improve along educational lines. They recognize 
the present hindrances to more efficient school work, and show a 
determination to break away from them. We believe they will suc- 

We are appreciative of favors from the Department, from di- 
rectors, and from the public in general. 

TIOGA COUNTY— W. R. Longstreet. 

While our progress during the past year has not been unprece- 
dented, I feel that the educational interests of this county have 
steadily advanced. With few exceptions, teachers have been active 
and faithful. Pupils have shown the usual interest in their work, 
and school officers have labored with marked zeal. 

The thirty-eighth annual session of the Tioga County Teachers' 
Institute was held at Wellsboro, October 30, to November 3. The 
total enrollment comprising both teachers and students preparing 
to teach numbered four hundred one (401). The following persons 
constituted the corps of instructors: Drs. Chas, A. McMurry, S. Y. 
Gillan, Andrew Thomas Smith, Supt. Chas. Lose and Prof. G. C. 
Chaffee. The evening entertainers and lecturers were as follows: 
Monday, Roney's Boys; Tuesday, Jacob A. Riis; Wednesday, Apollo 

No. 6. TIOGA COUNTY. 119 

Glee Club; Thursday, William Elliott Griffis. The instruction given 
during the day was especially practical, and the evening course was 
never more satisfactory. 

The Directors' Association was held on Thursday of Institute 
week. The attendance was the largest in the history of the asso- 
ciation. An excellent program was provided, the following persons 
delivering addresses: Dr. A. T. Smith, Supt. Chas. Lose, Prof. H. E. 
Raesly, Howard F. Marsh, Esq., and Hon. Charles Tubbs. Unusual 
interest was shown in all the discussions. We are confident that 
our schools are being greatly benefited by these meetings, and, now 
that the Legislature has provided so liberally for the expenses of 
all directors who attend these meetings, it does seem that there 
is no good reason why nearly every director in the county should 
not be present. 

There were two meetings of the Tioga County Teachers' Associa- 
tion and fourteen local institutes held. On the whole the attendance 
and work done at these gatherings were highly creditable. 

We have continued our practice of granting certificates of award 
to pupils who have a perfect record of attendance for the year — 
and have now granted over 300 of these certificates, with a num- 
ber of schools yet to hear from. It is gratifying to know how hard 
many of our little friends have labored to secure these certificates. 

I do not feel that I can report an entirely successful enforcement 
of the vaccination law. In a number of districts there was little 
or no opposition to it, while in others the opposition was so strong 
teachers feared to enforce the law, believing that a strict enforce- 
ment would reduce the attendance to the extent of closing the school. 
One thing is certain that a strict enforcement of this law seriously 
obstructs the enforcement of the compulsory law. If an improve- 
ment in this law can be made or a remedy effected whereby the en- 
forcement of these laws do not conflict, I sincerely hope that the next 
Legislature will see that this is done. 

A township high school has now been established at Arnot. A 
course of study has been adopted and other steps taken to comply 
fully with the law, and the district is now entitled to the extra ap- 
propriation the grade of school demands. There are several other 
districts that should follow. 

The law allowing pupils living in districts having no high schools 
to attend such a school in a nearby district at the expense of the 
district in which they reside, has been undoubtedly the cause of 
putting many young people in these schools, who otherwise never 
would attend them. It is an encouragement for many deserving 
to pursue an advanced course, who otherwise would be unable to do 
so. Another result will be that it will increase the nuinber of town- 
ship high schools. 


A new four room brick sclioolhouse is uow in process of construc- 
tion in Clymer towusliip at Sabinsville. This will supply a long feU, 
need, and I trust, too, it will hasten the time when the schools of 
that district will be centralized. 

Our teachers have been alive to the value of good libraries to 
the public schools, and, through their efforts, a large number of 
schools have been provided with libraries. Also, many valuable ad- 
ditions have been made to libraries already established. 

During the year I have examined 354 applicants for teachers' 
certificates, made 367 visits to schools, attended 18 educational 
meetings besides the week of the annual institute, written over 2,000 
official letters, and attended to other official duties too numerous to 
mention in this report. 

In conclusion I would thank all school officers, patrons, teachers 
and pupils for the many courtesies received from them during the 
past year, and would extend my thanks to all who have in any way 
contributed to the advancement of the educational interests of this 

UNION COUNTY— D. P. Stapleton. 

The school year has been marked with earnest and faithful effort 
on the part of teachers and directors and hearty co-operation on 
the part of patrons and the general public. Steady and continued 
growth in interest and progress is manifest everywhere. Children 
are more inclined to attend school as a matter of duty and eager- 
ness for knowledge rather than that of compulsion. 

The school houses are as a rule, of substantial structure and well 
supplied with modern furniture. Because of the expected centrali- 
zation of schools some boards hesitate to replace the worn out struc- 
tures with the necessary modern houses. 

There are still some grounds unimproved. Where grounds are 
kept in proper condition the community can be looked upon as pro- 
gressive, giving to their children an ethical training not often found 
about dilapidated school houses and neglected grounds. 

The community that does not see that the school grounds are im- 
proved, neglects a duty it owes to public property and exemplary 
youthful training. The well kept school house and grounds are 
ornaments to any community, a measure of interest on the part of 
parents, and a continued teacher to the young. 

In these strenuous times of business the schools are feeling the 
want of better trained teachers. Too many are using teaching as a 

No. 6. UNION COUNTY. 121 

stepping stone to more remunerating occupations. Teachers are 
largely recruited from the ranks of recent high school graduates 
with little training in the teacher's art. 

With great labor on the part of the County Superintendent, and 
because of the good judgment of teachers we had no failure of 
teachers in the county this year. 

Progress was the watch word, the child's good the object, and 
success perched upon the banner of every teacher and school. 

Each year adds largely to the list of public school graduates. 
Common school graduation has been a great stimulus to pupils ad- 
mission to high schools. Kelly township again was first in the 
public graduating exercises with a class numbering ten ladies and 
gentlemen. Lewis township and Hartley township high schools 
held graduating exercises of a very high order, wath sixteen gradu- 
ates. Lewisburg and Mifflinburg each had large graduating classes 
and excellent exercises. Tw^enty-five common school, five grammar 
school, thirty-five high school and fifteen township high school 
graduates finished the several prescribed courses this year. 

The several colleges, seminaries and academies were never better 
patronized. Union Seminary, at New Berlin, under Profs. Witmer 
and Xace, received new life and prepared an excellent class of 
teachers. Bucknell University, with its Ladies Seminary and Acad- 
emy, has had a very prosfjerous year. Two new and artistic build- 
ings have been added, the Ladies College and the Carnegie Library. 
Bucknell graduated more than one hundred young ladies and gentle- 
men this year, from an attendance of eight hundred students. 

The Van Gundy private school has met with success and is teach- 
ing and training a number of Mexican youths. 

Each district is organized and meets regularly for the improve- 
ment of teachers, schools and community. This is a great source of 
educational profit and interest in a district. The Union County 
Teachers' Association continues its leadership in moulding senti- 
ment along educational lines. 

The County Institute w^as enthusiastic, instructive and well at- 
tended. Among the instructors were Dr. C. E. Keber, of Clark 
University; Supt. J. M. Coughlin, Wilkes-Barre; Dr. G. G. Groff, 
Bucknell University; Prof. W. M. Witmer, Union Seminary; Prof. 
I. D. Gresh, Milton, and Prof. Wilson, superintendent of Milton 
schools. The Boynton Concert Company, Miss Maude Willis, the 
Progressive Orchestra and the discussion of papers by teachers con- 
tributed much to the success of the County Institute. 

An interesting program was carried out at the Directors' Con 
vention on January 17, Supt. J. M. Caughlin, Supt. D. P. Stapleton, 
Rev. W. W. Clouser, director, Alfred Kaup, Dr. C. H. Dimm and 
Prof. A. D. Miller were among the speakers of the day. The T)i- 


rectors' Association is a necessary adjunct to the success of the 
schools from which much good may be derived. 

Each line of educational work has met with success during the 
year. To our faithful teachers, earnest and judicious directors, an 
intelligent public and a generous press must be given great credit. 

VENANGO COUNTY— Dallas W. Armstrong. 

We are glad to report that the schools of our county in general 
have made reasonable progress during the last year. The educa- 
tional sentiment is good. The teachers are improving every oppor- 
tunity to better qualify themselves for their work. The school 
officers and the majority of the citizens have confidence in our pub- 
lic school system, and all are trying to make it reach its greatest 
efficiency. This interest and this effort are giving our county better 

There were 241 teachers employed in the county this year. Of 
this number 70 were male teachers, 171 were female teachers; 41 
had graduated from a State Normal school; 88 had attended a State 
Normal school but had not graduated; 24 had graduated from col- 
lege; 14 had graduated from an academy or a seminary; 74 were 
educated in the common schools only; 31 had had no previous ex- 
perience in teaching; 81 had had more than five years' experience in 
teaching; 129 had had previous experience in teaching but less than 
five years; 109 held provisional certificates; 50 held professional cer- 
tificates; 43 held permanent certificates; 41 held Normal school di- 

On account of not accepting any marks from, any previous ex- 
amination or from any school whatever, it was necessary to give 
four special examinations for teachers' certificates during the year. 
There were eighteen public examinations given for teachers' certi- 
ficates. In all there were 257 applicants for certificates. Of this 
number 160 were granted provisional certificates; no professional 
certificates were granted; 97 teachers, or 37.74 per cent, of those 
entering the classes, were refused certificates. This percentage of 
failures is high, but our schools, have need of thoroughly prepared 
teachers only. This guarding more strictly of the entrance to the 
profession of teachiug is giving us better schools. 
. There were 124 pupils passed the examination successfully for 
''eighth grade" diplomas this year. Theva were about 75 students 
graduated from our borough and our township high schools this 


year. The high school law of 1905 causes a great deal of discus- 
sion among our school authorities; there is much difference in the 
construction put upon this law in several of its essential points. As 
a whole, this law is having a wholesome effect upon high school work 
in the county. 

The vaccination law has caused all concerned with our schools 
much trouble. The misunderstanding that has arisen in some cases 
has prevented the re-election of both good teachers and good di- 
rectors. The law is being obeyed, but there is prevalent opinion 
that there should be other provision made for its enforcement, for 
as it is, it seriously interferes with the proper administration of 
other important phases of public school work. 

In order to secure a better interest among the patrons of our 
schools, and to induce them to visit their schools and to become ac- 
quainted first-hand with the work done, a day known as Patrons' 
Day was named for the schools of the county. The work for a part 
of this day was regular, and for a part of it there was a specially 
prepared program; written invitations in many cases were sent out; 
these invitations were usually written by the pupils. There were 
in the schools of the county on this day 1,372 parents and patrons. 
The teachers feel paid for their effort in this matter. 

During the month of September the Venango County Bar Associa- 
tion celebrated the centennial of the founding of the courts of this 
county. The whole proceedings were of educational interest. Sep- 
tember 14 was given to the public schools and their work. In the 
parade on that day there were about two thousand children in line. 
The results produced on this occasion will affect the county schools 
very favorably and permanently. 

The third annual meeting of the Venango County Directors' Asso- 
ciation was held in the court house at Franklin on December 7. 
There were a greater number of directors present than there had 
been at any previous meeting. All took part and interest in the 
questions up for discussion, and no doubt gained some information 
that will help them materially with much of their difficult work. 
The proceedings of this meeting were published in full in pamphlet 
form and mailed to every director and every teacher in the county. 
This plan has a good effect in emphasizing the importance of this 
association. Many of the patrons of the schools write for a copy 
of this pamphlet. Space will not permit the giving the organiza- 
tion and the program in detail, but we can say that it was good 
and that this association is one of the strongest educational factors 
in our State. 

There were thirteen local institutes in the county last year. There 
was a total of 2G8 teachers and 55 directors at these meetings, or an 
average of 20 teachers and 4 directors at each one. This is above 


the usual attendance of school officers. At each meeting there 
were also many parents and friends of education present. In order 
to secure this attendance, each teacher and each director was noti- 
fied by letter of the time and place of the meeting for his respec- 
tive district. To obviate the necessity of this extra work and ex- 
pense, there has been a permanent schedule of dates and places for 
these institutes made out. There was an accurate list of the names 
of the teachers and the directors attending the local institutes this 
year kept and printed. This list was mailed to each school director 
of the county; our directors are anxious to secure teachers that are 
really interested in educational work, and this list of names fur- 
nishes them some valuable information along this line. The local 
institute is also one of our strongest educational factors. 

Our county institute was held the first week in January in the 
court house at Franklin. By unanimous consent it goes on record 
as one of the very best that has ever been held in Venango county. 
There were many patrons from every part of the county that at- 
tended the institute the entire week. The attendance and the at- 
tention of the teachers were excellent. We already see great re- 
sults from this institute. The day instructors were as follows: 
Dr. Henry Houck, Dr. O. T. Corson, Supt. J. M. Coughlin, Hamlin E. 
Cogswell. The evening entertainers were as follows: Dr. Henry 
Houck; Russell H. Conwell, Isabel Garghill Beecher and the ''Boston 

In closing this report, I wish to thank the teachers, the directors 
and all those interested in public school work for their interest, 
help and support; also the Department of Public Instruction for 
its assistance and advice in matters pertaining to the work of this 

WARBEN COUNTY— O. J. Gunning. 

During the past year the schools of Warren county have made 
substantial progress, the vaccination problem has been the great- 
est hindrance, many schools being practically ruined by an effort 
of the teachers to enforce the law, some school boards being openly 
opposed, in nearly all instances where the directors loj^ally sup- 
port the Department of Health, in their efforts to protect against 
small-pox, the patrons accept the situation and the success of the 
school is not hnmpored by the indecision of the patrons. 

The fear of bad results following vaccination (which deters some 
people), seems groundless, as far as our experience is concerned, 


several hundred children were successfully vaccinated last year, in 
our county, the most serious cases keeping the children from school 
but a few days. Laying aside the matter of protection, this trifling 
indisposition is no sound reason why the opportunities of school 
life should be sacrificed. 

The school buildings started last year in Clarendon and Youugs- 
ville, have been completed. Warren has added four fine rooms to 
her facilities, by remodeling the old Central school building. This 
expenditure of some six thousand dollars, added a building to the 
school valuation worth at least, three times as much. Brokenstraw 
and Pine Grove districts have also each added a one-room struc- 
ture, that of Brokenstraw township is of brick. Ground has been 
broken in Farmington township for a new four-room house destined 
for a township high school, this building will be made of cement 
and brick. From the outlook, the new school year will find in opera- 
tion, fifteen high schools, eleven of which will be township high 
schools. The township high school idea, is very popular with our 
populous districts, as it affords opportunities for an advanced educa- 
tion, while it presents no tendenc}'^ to wean the child from the home 
life on the farm. 

Three hundred and twelve schools have been in operation during 
the last year, of the teachers one hundred and forty-eight held pro- 
visional certificates, forty-six held professional certificates, forty- 
eight held permanent certificates while sixty-nine held Normal di- 

The teaching force of the county included forty-one males and 
two hundred and seventy female teachers, of these fifty-four were 
without previous experience while one hundred and sixtA-four had 
taught five years or more. 

The Indian school has experienced a prosperous term under the 
supervision of Miss Estella Noyes, this school recently received 
from the Jury of Awards, a fine bronze medal, for the excellency 
of their display in the educational department of the exposition 
at Saint Louis. 

Twelve educational meetings were held during the year among 
which we wish to mention the Teachers' Annual Institute and the 
annual meeting of the school directors of the county. 

The Teachers' Institute convened at Warren on December 18, 
and remained in session five days, eflScient service was rendered 
during this meeting — as instructors, by Dr. Andrew Thomas Smith, 
of the Mansfield State Normal; Dr. J. Geo. Becht, of the Clarion 
Normal; Prof. F. C. Lock wood, of Allegheny College; Prof. W. L. 
MacGowan, of The Warren High School, and Prof. J. A. Cooper 
formerly of the Ediuboro Normal. The evening sessions were ad- 
dressed by Capt. Richmond P. Hobson and Prof. John B. DeMotte. 


Prof. J, A. Sprenkel, of New Cumberland had charge of the music. 
The meeting was one of our best, and largely attended. 

A series of local institutes were held throughout the county prov- 
ing the means of much help to the districts where held. 

In April fifty diplomas were granted to the successful candi- 
dates in the district course examinations, at the same time twenty- 
one diplomas were granted to those who passed the county high 
school uniform examination. 

For the success of the past year we wish to thank the teachers, 
the directors and the Department at Harrisburg for their earnest 


We have carefully taken a retrospection of the schools of 1905- 
1906, and feel safe in saying the work done during the year has re- 
ceived general commendation. We have many good, earnest 
teachers that work for the benefit of the schools and the advance- 
ment of the children. They know you can't work upon wood, stone, 
or iron without sharpened tools, neither can you work upon the 
human mind without scholastic tools, keenly sharpened by special 
effort. These teachers are always in demand at good wages. 

The year began with examinations for teachers. Twelve were 
given at different points in the county. Four hundred and fifty- 
nine candidates presented themselves. Of this number two hun- 
dred and eighty-nine received provisional, fifteen professional, and 
one hundred and fifty-seven failed. Of those that failed some had 
taught, but failed to adA^ance in the work and consequently dropped 
out of the way. Some had been flattered into the belief that they 
were ready to teach. These were surprised, disappointed, grieved. 
They felt wronged but did not know where to charge their wrongs 
or lay the cause of their failure. 

We are aiming universally in the county for better teachers. The 
standard of excellency has been raised. Directors do not hesitate 
in turning aside a teacher they have tried and found wanting. They 
have placed a premium on success and it is telling for good. As a 
result of this our schools are advancing. 

Of the 694 teachers, 151 were male and 543 females. Of the whole 
number 90 had no previous experience, 238 five years or more, 325 
had provisional certificates, 47 professionals, 126 permanent and 
193 Normal diplomas. Thirty-two were college graduates. 

When we began the work of the superintendency in 1896, there 
were 456 schools; now there are 671, an increase in 10 years of 215. 


This growth is the result of prosperity, the demand for laborers, 
the influx of population, the building of new towns and the enlarge- 
ment of the old, all adding to the school population, thus increas- 
ing the number of schools within our county. 

The new buildings that have gone up are modern in structure, 
are well equipped with seats and teaching appliances, and most of 
them heated with hot air or gas stoves. We have but few poor 
houses in the county. By the enlargement of school facilities and 
the proper distribution of the new houses, almost every child is 
conveniently situated, enlarging thereby his chances for an educa- 
tion. Twenty-one new houses were occupied for the first time last 
fall; the most expensive costing |60,000 and the least expensive 
costing about |2,000. 

When we consider the money that is put into our schools and 
make a comparison of the different items of cost, it comes to us 
that the teachers get but a small part of the amount expended. 
Consequently the weakest part of the whole system is the teaching 
force. The money put in grounds, buildings, and necessary equip- 
ments is legitimate and right, but the standard for the privilege of 
teaching should be raised. Nothing less than a Normal, academic 
or college education should admit one to the profession of teaching. 
To induce young people to enter into the work, pay them the equiva- 
lent of other fields of labor, or other professions. 

When girls can get from |10 to |15 per week for office work fifty- 
two weeks in the year, they will not teach for |10 or |12 a week and 
only twenty-eight weeks of the year. 

The Principals' Round Table was active in many good works. By 
the union the schools became better known. The work of each in- 
dividual was given for the benefit of all. Schools were visited and 
a course of pedagogical reading under the direction of the prin- 
cipals was adopted and proved highly beneficial to the teachers. 

The rural schools were classified or grouped and each group placed 
under the care of one or two principals. The teachers of the sepa- 
rate groups met with the principals, talked over school work, and 
arranged for local institutes. The principals entered into the work 
of these institutes adding much to their interest and profit. It was 
a delightful hit for the rural schools. 

A course of reading was recommended to the teachers with the 
privilege of selecting to suit individual wants. "Common Sense 
Didactics" was the one book selected for the public examinations. 

Roark's Pyschology in Education, James's Talks to Teachers on 
Pyschology, Wilson's Pedagogues and Parents, Sabin's Common 
Sense Didactics, Roosevelt's Oliver Cromwell and Nebelungen Leib. 

World's Events. The Pathfinder. 

Primary Education, American Primary Teacher. 

Teacher^s Magazine, Popular Educator, Journal of Education, 


School News, Pennsylvauia School Journal, 

School Journal and Penman's Art Journal. 

The county institute came up to our expectations. We made pro- 
vision for success and we were not disappointed. The instructors 
were: Dr. K C. Schaeffer, Dr. W. N. Ferris, Dr. Henry R. Patten- 
gill, Dr. Ruric N. Roark, Dr. Theo. B. Noss and Dr. George W. Ger- 
wig. Our music director was Prof. Charles S. Cornell, California. 

The entertainers were: 

The Prize Singers, Pittsburg. 

Roland Dwight Grant, Vancouver, B. C. 

Dr. Morgan Wood, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Lenora Jackson Company, New York. 

William Hawley Smith. 

Our teachers attended promptly every session and went home 
strong for their work. 

Each year the Director's Convention grows more and more in- 
teresting. We have, as a class, directors in W^ashington county 
that have the interest and success of the schools at heart. In some 
districts they are more progressive than the teachers. They pro- 
vide every want that is necessary, with high hopes of fine schools. 
'Tis sad to say, sometimes they are disappointed. 

The attendance at the convention was large. The discussions 
were free and instructive. During the afternoon of the second 
day they attended and occupied the center block of seats at the 
Teacher's Institute. They were addressed by Dr. W. N. Ferris, "Care 
and Culture of the Teacher," and Dr. T. B. Noss, "The Director and 
His Work." There is no part of the county institute that leaves 
more lasting impressions than the mingling of teachers and di- 
rectors. It adds dignity to the work and stimulates to greater ac- 

Our high schools are in a flourishing condition. So far as we can 
see they are here to stay. Last year Morris, Robinson and North 
Strabane townships, each established a high school, making a total 
of eight in the county. Three of the schools, Cecil, Cross Creek, 
and Mt. Pleasant have two teachers. Five had classes that finished 
the three years' course. The principals, with one exception, were 
college graduates. The graduating classes and commencements 
have awakened considerable ambition among the young people to 
be counted among the aspirants for high school honors. The out- 
look for the coming year is superfine. The stand our directors have 
taken in opening up these opportunities for a better education is one 
of the encouraging signs of the future. There is a great work for 
the high school to do. 

Our needs are: 

A higher general qualification for teachers. 

The minimum term eight months. 

No. 6. WAYNE COUNTY. 129 

Five, or seven directors instead of six. 

A pension for teachers having spent 30 years in school work. 

The school appropriation increased to seven and one-half millions. 

A course of study prepared by the State Superintendent. The 
course to begin with the primary work and include the high school. 

Provisions made for an assistant superintendent in large counties. 

The demand for higher grade teachers, the many visits by di- 
rectors to the schools, the general attention given to cleaning and 
beautifying the school rooms and grounds, the interest taken in our 
schools by children, patrons, directors and friends, are hopeful signs 
for the future advancement of our schools. 

We are sincerely thankful to the Department for counsel and 
advice; to the county press for the many courtesies and assistance 
in the furtherance of the cause of education; to the directors, 
teachers and patrons for their hospitality and co-operation accorded 
us in our work and efforts in the interest of the schools for the en- 
tire year. 

We hope prosperity and progress will continue with the schools 
throughout the coming year. 

WAYNE COUNTY— David L. Hower. 

It is exceedingly gratifying to report another school year of 
progress and good work. There has been a gradual improvement 
along nearly all lines. Many of our teachers have manifested 
greater earnestness in their work, have made a more systematic 
study of advanced methods of teaching, attended more teachers' 
meetings and passed better examinations. Educational conditions 
are steadily improving, and many of the teachers who were satis- 
fied with doing indifferent work have been aroused to better efforts, 
while others were dropped from the profession because of their 
self-satisfied, inanimate teaching. Most of the young teachers did 
good work. They come better prepared, have a broader knowledge 
of things, and a higher idea of the requirements of the real teacher. 
School officers generally have been anxious to faithfully perform 
their duties. "Fewer changes have been made, and in many instances 
the strong work of the teacher has been recognized by an increase 
in salary. But we need still more well equipped teachers, better 
school buildings, more energetic directors who will visit the schools 
and thus get a knowledge of the inner working of the schools under 
their supervision instead of being governed by the mere talk of the 


neighborhood. One great problem is what to do with the small 
rural schools. I have visited a number of schools with from three 
to eight present, and but few more enrolled. Surely this is expen- 
sive for the taxpayer, and a waste of much energy on the part of 
the teacher. Directors are indifferent in regard to the closing of 
many of these schools, apparently afraid of public sentiment. In 
Buckingham township a number of these small schools were closed 
and pupils carried to a graded school at public expense. In a few 
other districts the school house was moved to accommodate the 
children of several schools. This is a serious problem in Wayne 

Our annual institute was held at Honesdale, November 13 to 17, 
and was pronounced by all the best ever held in the county. The 
instructors were Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, Dr. S. D. Fess, Dr. W. W. 
Stetson and Prof. John T. Watkins. The evening entertainments 
were given by Dr. Fess, Miss Eleanor Sears Kimble, Hon. L. I. Handy 
and Roney's Boys' Concert Co. 

The tenth meeting of the Directors' Association was held Novem- 
ber 17 and 18. The meeting was one of the best ever held in the 
county. A number of directors gave strong talks, while the ad- 
dresses given by ex-Supt. H. B. Larrabee, of Keuka College, N. Y., 
and Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, were especially instructive and helpful. 
Eighty-two directors were in attendance and all but five districts 
were represented. 

The local and district institute were well attended, forcefully con- 
ducted and generally helpful and suggestive. The two meetings of 
the county teachers' association at White Mills and Honesdale were 
noted for the large attendance of wide-awake, progressive teachers 
and excellent discussions. 

Many schools observed arbor day and practically all the teachers 
held special exercises on patrons' day. Several thousand patrons 
enjoyed the class drills and special work and the school and the 
home were brought into closer fellowship. 

The nine township high schools in the county did the best work 
in their history during the past year. Buckingham built a new sub- 
statial three roomed building. Strong classes were graduated in 
Mt. Pleasant, Damascus, Preston, Dreher, Lake, Lehigh and Clinton 
townships. More and more do we realize the effectiveness of these 
schools, and the wisdom of their organization and maintenar.ce. 

Some trouble was caused because of several districts refusing to 
pay tuition for pupils attending high schools in other districts. The 
vaccination law occasioned more difficulty throughout the county 
than any other school matter for years. In many districts the 
law Avas universally obeyed, while in some schools nothing was done, 
the school directors often being the most rigorous opposers. 


The two examinations for rural schools were given in December 
and March, and better results are shown at each examination. Sev- 
enty-four common school diplomas were issued. Of the two hundred 
thirty-four applicants examined for licenses to teach, 73 per cent, 
received certificates. Much good work was done, especially in 
theory. The weakness was chiefly in grammar, arithmetic, history, 
civics and algebra. 

The course of study has been enlarged in several of our township 
high schools and at Seelyville, and new high schools were organized 
in Buckingham and Texas townships. All the high schools in the 
county continue to do efficient work, and all graduated classes, the 
one at Honesdale graduating a class of twenty-four, the largest in 
the history of the school. The attendance at the high schools has 
been larger than ever, and their gradual growth is a source of great 
gratification. Twelve years ago the Hawley high school had an 
enrollment of eighteen, while this year there was an enrollment of 
forty-three. Much of this increased popularity and efficiency is due 
to the energetic work of the principal, Prof. Mark Creasy. 

Taking all things into consideration the educational interests in 
the county are in good condition, the future prospects are bright, 
and with the energetic co-operation of all our educational forces a 
much higher ideal can be reached. 


The schools of our county have had a very successful year. Great 
interest has been shown by directors, patrons and teachers to ad- 
vance the cause of education and give to the boys and girls of the 
county all the advantages possible. Progress has been made along 
almost all lines. In many of our districts a great deal of attention 
has been given to the beautifying of school houses and grounds. 
This is especially true of Rostraver and Mt. Pleasant townships. 
We hope to create an interest in many other districts along this 
same line. We believe that our schools should be just as attractive 
as our homes, and indeed they must be in order to keep our pupils 
in the school. Boys and girls as well as men and women go where 
the environments are most conducive to happiness. 

More than one-half of our townships held township institutes regu- 
larly. In most of these great interest was taken. The teachers 
were addressed by educators of experience and by those interested 
in education. The teachers were helped by coming in contact with 


and having the association of those interested in the same work. 
These meetings go far toward creating an educational enthusiam 
throughout the country districts. 

A number of school houses were built and well equipped for work. 
Mt. Pleasant township erected a high school building. It is a beau- 
tiful brick building and well arranged for high school work. 

Allegheny township is starting a high school, making three town- 
ship high schools in our county. I believe that more will be organ- 
ized soon. 

For the most part our teachers did very good work. They fully 
realize the importance of their work and do their best to perform 
their duty. We have in our county 826 teachers, 172 males and 654 
females. A large number of these have made special preparation 
for their work and we are glad to know that a great many spend 
most of their summer vacation fitting themselves for their next 
year's work. Chautauqua, New York, and Ebensburg, Pa., are well 
attended by our teachers. 

Our institute was pronounced by all one of the best ever held 
in the county. The instructors were among the best. Our enter- 
tainments were of a very high order. We had an enrollment of 
884 teachers. The honor system was used. The teachers were 
punctual and very attentive. The following instructors were pres- 
ent: Jonathan Eigdon, R. G. Boone, J. C. Willis, G. M. Philips, S. B. 
McCormick, D. J. Waller, Theo. B. Noss, A. J. Gantvoort. 

The evening entertainments consisted of the following: Russel 
H. Conwell, Gov. Frank Hanley, Dunbar Quartet, Chas. Emery 
Smith, Mrs. Isabel Garghill Beecher. The soloists for the week 
were: Miss Marie Carroll, Miss Bertha Albert, Mr. R. G. Shorthouse 
and Mr. Chas. Richards. The music was a special feature of the 

The directors' convention was held on the 18th and 19th of Jan- 
uary, in the Greensburg high school auditorium. The attendance 
was very large. Nearly 200 directors were present. Mr. Edward H. 
Bair, of Greensburg, was president of the convention and Dr. W. W. 
Miller, of Jeannette, secretary. Addresses were made by A. H. 
Bell, Esq., of Greensburg, Jas. S. Kennedy, Esq., of Penn, Rev. J. 
N. Baughman, Jeannette, Dr. J. D. Moffat, Washington, J. Syman 
Loucks, Alverton, and by the superintendent. A great deal of 
interest was manifested in the discussions of many of the subjects. 
As a result of the convention a movement is on foot in the county 
to have the assessors and the commissioners to unite upon a policy 
to bring about a more equable valuation of properties throughout 
the county. 

Twenty-seven examinations were held in the county. Four hun- 
dred and fifty-four provisional certificates were issued and thirty-six 


professionals. One hundred and ninety-seven applicants were re- 
jected. Nineteen educational meetings were attended by the super- 
intendent. All the office work belonging to the office was done by 
the superintendent himself. Five hundred and forty schools were 
visited. The county institute was arranged for and i^resided over 
by the superintendent. 

Valuable assistance has been rendered by the press of (he county, 
by the directors, principals and teachers, and also by the Depart- 
ment at Harrisburg. To all of these I wish to extend my heartiest 

WYOMING COUNTY— Frank H. Jarvis. 

On looking over the work of the past year it is gratifying that we 
are warranted in reporting improvement in the condition of our 
schools. Marked improvement of teachers and employment of 
teachers of more experience. 

Nearly all of our teachers have shown anxiety to succeed in their 
work and success has crowned their efforts. While some possess 
a thorough preparation for their duties, others have too limited a 
knowledge of the common school branches. All with few exceptions 
are making efforts to grow along lines both professional and gen- 
eral. A majority feel a necessity to obtain a knowledge of educa- 
tional movements and a familiarity with the ouv.ard progress of 
educational research. Therefore, we have more who are reading 
pedagogical literature, more who are a source of inspiration to their 
pupils and more who are laboring to arouse educational enthusiasm 
among the citizens whom they serve. I take pleasure in that I am 
warranted in saying our teachers, as a class, deserve the hearty co- 
operation of every friend of education in our country. 

Much additional burden was imposed upon our teachers in the 
efforts to comply with Dr. Dixon's rulings respecting the vaccina- 
tion law. Rather than submit their children to vaccination some 
parents persistently refused to send their children to school. If 
the act must be enforced to entitle their children to school privi- 
leges there should be less obligatory responsibility to be assumed by 
the teachers. In fact, I believe the present law is in some particu- 
lars admissable of modification for the general good and well being 
of the people of the State and we await, with interest, developments 
or otherwise, by our next Legislature. 

Wo believe that the act of March 16, 1905, Sec. 1, P. L. p. 40, re- 
ferring to a child's home district, in Avhich there is no high school, 
paying the cost of tuition and school books to the directors of a 


nearby district in which a high school is maintained is, as applied 
to many children, a most wise law. We also commend the State 
Superintendent for his rulings which tend to secure benefits to such 
children as should become beneficiaries of the act. For so far as 
the act fosters high schools in rural districts, I am, with ''Farmer 
Creasy," in favor of it. We believe a high school education more 
than pays the cost therefor. First, because the higher education 
increases that power of intellect which is the essential and therefore 
the highest attribute of the human mind. Second, because it thus 
enlarges the mental horizon. Third, because it makes far richer 
one's life. Fourth, because it provides, at an important stage of 
development, a social element and a contact with one's fellows, 
which is in itself an invaluable training for the coming battle of 
life. Fifth, because it immeasurably increases the earning capacity 
and the chances of distinction of a person. Sixth, because there is 
now a growing demand for education in every department of life. 
Seventh, because the best thought of the best thinkers is unaimously 
in favor of, at least, in extent, such an education. However, we 
believe the act needs modifying. 

The school board of the home district of the child should have 
some tangible evidence that they are paying the tuition of persons 
who are meritoriously entitled to the same. We believe the home 
board should, by some disinterested provision, have, at least equal 
chance with the district maintaining a high school for passing upon 
the justice of the candidate being classified for high school work. 
We have nine independent school districts of one teacher each, ex- 
cept in one, there are three, and in another, two teachers. 

Against one and two teacher independent districts, the act is 
working a hardship, with us, which will increase. These districts' 
indebtedness will increase owing to limited taxable valuation, and 
if no high school can be therein maintained, they will soon be in 
the midst of embarrassing discrimination. We, therefore, believe a 
law should be enacted providing for a special annual State appro- 
priation of at least flOO.OO, for independent school districts that 
cannot possibly under our present system of limited taxation, main- 
tain a high school. 

The school directors of Meshoppen borough and of Noxen town- 
ship had their seats vacated by the court. The directors of the 
first named district, because they deadlocked over the election of a 
principal; and the other, deadlocked over the election of a school 
treasurer. This demonstrates more forcibly than ever what we 
have heretofore advocated, a law composing a board of three, five 
or seven school directors. 

There was improvement in school attendance by the scholars 
as indicated by the perfect attendance certificates awarded by the 


superintendent. Certificates of perfect attendance were given to 
133 scholars who were reported as having been neither absent from 
nor tardy to school during the entire school term. The year be- 
fore 129 awards were made. 

Six central examinations were held, 43 were examined, 24 of whom 
passed, averaging 70 per cent., and not falling below 50 per cent, in 
any subject. Nineteen of those passing central took the final exam- 
ination conducted by the superintendent and held at the county seat. 
As a result, 18 common school diplomas signed by the county super- 
intendent, the teacher and the president and secretary of the school 
board were given. Honorable mention is given to Misses Florence 
E. Powell and Berneta Collins, whose averages in the central exam- 
ination were 90 4-5 per cent, and 90 2-5 per cent, respectively, being 
the two highest in the county. Likewise honorable mention is made 
of William O'Mara and Berneta Collins for passing the final exami- 
nation with marks 96 5-11 per cent, and 93 10-11 per cent, respect- 
ively, the same being the tw^o highest grades. 

There were 140 schools, the Bible was read in 121 and some of the 
higher branches were taught in 85. During the j-ear there were 
3 public examinations held, 113 applicants examined, 38 not receiv- 
ing certificates. 

At the written request of school boards 11 special examinations 
were held during the year. Seven professional certificates were 

Of the teachers, 2G had no previous experience, 64 had more than 
five years, 68 held provisional certificates, 23 held professionals, 10 
permanent certificates, 37 were graduates of normal schools, 51 were 
educated in the common schools, 25 attended normal school but did 
not graduate, and 24 were educated in academies or seminaries and 
3 were graduates of colleges. 

On February 20 the question of centralization of schools was sub- 
mitted to the voters of Falls township, resulting viz: For centrali- 
zation. Yes, 71; for centralization, No, 86. 

The progressive directors of Ttmkhannock borough realizing the 
necessity for a school lavatory erected a building and installed one 
with up-to-date furnishings at a cost of |1,877. The district also 
expended |697.43 foj' repairs. The total amount paid for repairing 
in the county was |1,735.42. The total for building and furnishing 
houses was |1,927.64. 

The county institute was pronounced a great success. The atten- 
tion and interest of the teachers were all that could be reasonably 
desired. The instruction was of a choice quality. All but three of 
the teachers were present. With the following no county institute 
could be a failure: Dr. Nathan C. Schaeffer, Dr. J. C. Willis, Dr. 
Byron W. King, Dr. G. L. Omwake, Maude E. Willis and Prof. Franl? 


E. Cliaffee, director of music and soloist. As lecturers and enter- 
tainers, we had Anna Delona Martin, Dr. B. W. King, Prof. John 
Chambers, Durno & Co., Dr. S. L. Krebs and Will Carleton. All of 
whom performed their duties with a high degree of satisfaction to 
the teachers, public and management. 

Several local institutes were held during the year. The most of 
them were well attended and doubtless much good resulted from 
them. However, the best work was done where we had directors 
who encourage the teachers by their attendance and support and 
where we had active and progressive teachers in the work. More 
good could be done in these meetings were the attendance compul- 
sory and the directors to share the interest and responsibilty equally 
with the teachers. 

Farmers' institutes were held in December at Tunkhannock, Nich- 
olson and Falls. At each place a special educational session was 
held. These institutes are doing much good to the cause of educa- 
tion, since some can be reached there that are not, in any other 
public way. We are especially in sympathy with the present plan 
on which the farmers' institutes of the State are being conducted in 
that the Department of Agriculture recognizes our system of public 
schools with so much deference. 

The annual meeting of the School Directors' Association was held 
in Piatt's Opera House, Wednesday, December 13, 1905. N. A. Doty, 
of Mehoopany, was the presiding officer, and Samuel Decker, of 
Falls, the secretary. 

The sessions were better attended than was expected. Of the 
192 directors of the county, 115 were present. It was the banner 
meeting in the history of the association both in points of attend- 
ance and in interest. It is highly gratifying to notice the growth 
of interest taken by the directors in the discussions of questions 
pertaining to their duties. Nearly every person who had been 
assigned posts on the program responded and the instructions given 
and the enthusiasm awakened should result in much good to the 
schools of the county. 

The high schools must make clear thinkers, thoughtful readers 
and independent managers, and well informed citizens. Henry 
Ward Beecher once declared that nineteen meij out of every score 
depend upon the twentieth man for direction and support. This 
may not be true of every community; but it is true that in every 
section of our great State there are yet many, too many, who are 
simply at the mercy of surrounding circumstances. They drift help- 
lessly and hopelessl}^ with the current; sometimes into the ranks 
of disgrace and crime, sometimes to the charity home; but always 
a dead weight upon the community, because they lack the essential 
principle of true manhood and true womanhood, the abilty to think 


and know and do for themselves. When once the sons and daugh- 
ters of toil will realize fully that they will prosper in life just in 
proportion as they mix brain and muscle, mind with body, thought 
with labor, then and not till then will the public schools as the 
fountain of mental power receive from them proper recognition 
and support. 

However, a citizen who is merely intelligent may be either use- 
less or dangerous to the State. He must be industrious also. To 
labor is duty, the common lot of humanity and a blessing to the - 
world. One had better not exist, than live to be merely a blank 
in the world's work. The public schools must therefore develop 
workers. How and when and where? 

First, by teaching that which is useful and practical in life, cul- 
ture for its own sake is not worth the getting unless it makes its 
possessor more helpful, more useful, more practical. An education, 
whether elementary or advanced, should make a man more enthusi- 
astic, skilled and better paid workman, and it should make a woman 
a more thoughtful, artistic and helpful housekeeper. The school 
curriculum must, and we think does more and more tend to link the 
text book with the workshop, the teacher with the toiler, the school 
with home. The industrial side education, in the way of industrial 
and manual training, domestic science, mechanical and artistic skill, 
is receiving additional attention upon the part of educational leaders 
everywhere. The purpose of this is clearly apparent. It is to dig- 
nify honest toil, to make the skilled hand and the quick eye, the 
ready servants of a stored mind and through the practical and useful 
to lead the youth to the higher lines of worthy ambition and genuine 

But the demand of the times should not only be for clear heads 
and strong, willing hands, but above all else for the "square deal" 
from and to every one of our sons and daughters. There never was 
a time when there was a more urgent need of men — high minded 
true men who could be trusted in responsible positions — than there 
is to-day. It is not all nor even the best of life to battle for dollars 
or bread. The best gifts, the greatest successes and the highest 
usefulness grow out of a right appreciation of the true and the 
good. To be honest is to be trusted, and to be trusted is to bear a 
due share of the responsibility of a worthy citizen. 

Our public schools, therefore, must, above all else look to the 
development of character, the cultivation of those elements of 
true citizenship, without which, neither intelligence nor industry 
can produce the citizen that the State and the community wants and 
knows and trusts. 

We would not fail to recognize the valuable help which the news- 
papers are rendering to the schools. Without exception editors 


of six county papers have uniformly assisted us in our efforts to ad- 
vance the cause education — a condition for which we are deeply 

Our schools can never be much better than the people want them 
to be, nor will they long remain below the demands of public opinion. 
Hence, one can hardly overestimate the influence of the newspapers 
in creating a public sentiment that demands good teachers, good 
schools and the best schooling that the rising generation is willing 
to take. 

On May 7, 1906, Orrin V. Love, one of our most worthy school di- 
rectors, passed away from the activities of life to enter the home 
of eternal rest. 

Brother Love was a straightforward, conscientious christian gen- 
tleman, being honest in his convictions of right and having courage 
to act accordingly. Although a very busy man, having lumbering 
interests, being bank director, township auditor, Sunday school su- 
perintendent, he was loyal to the public school interests and never 
lost an opportunity to proclaim their virtues. Because of his strong 
personality and noble character, he endeared himself to many who 
deeply feel his loss — one of whom is the writer. 

When we look back over the year's work we are not, by any means 
satisfied with it; still we know that some advancement has been 
made, and at the beginning of the coming term teachers and pupils 
will start in on a higher plane than that of a year ago and with this 
purpose to do our best in the future, and with many pleasant recol- 
lections of the kind indulgence received from the Department, the 
assistance and encouragement we have received from directors, 
teachers, citizens and children we rest in the consolation that we 
have done what we could. 

YORK COUNTY— C. W. Stine. 

In taking a retrospective view of the working of the schools just 
closed, I am led to believe that the progress has been encouraging. 

Considering the experience and advantages of our teachers, they 
will compare favorably with those of other counties. 

Many are studious and ambitious to attain that proficiency which 
their i>rofe'Ssion demands in successful teaclijng while others are 
making teaching merely a stepping-stone, 

No. 6. YORK COUNTY. 139 

About liiiit'ty-six per cent, are subscribers to educational papers, 
aud are keeping- themselves well informed on the educational topics 
of Ihe day. 

I visited all but three of the schools of the county. To some I 
returned several times. I made 539 visits. I also visited several 
schools in other counties. 

In visiting the ungraded schools during the year, particular atten- 
tion was paid to classiflcation. It was found that most of the schools 
taught by teachers of little experience were badly classified. This 
year a circular or course of study will be issued to all the teachers of 
ungraded schools, outlining a system of classification to be followed 
as closely as the conditions of the schools will permit. 

Experience has made it clear that it is as easy to grade a rural 
school as a town school. The only danger lies in making and at- 
tempting too much in the way of details. The course of study is well 
suited to the wants of the ungraded schools. We believe that the 
practical teacher will find it of great service in the organization, 
classification, and management of the schools. 

Our country boys and girls are entitled to the same advantages 
as those of the town. 

It is no wonder the larger pupils of our country districts drop 
out of school when the same bill of fare is served out to them year 
after year. If they are the children of poor parents, usually, their 
school days are past, and they are handicapped for life, on account 
of modest equipment. 

The watchfulness of parents is a mighty factor in bringing many 
boys and girls through a crucial period of their lives. 

Country home environment has been a blessing to many a youth. 

The young people would not be driven into centres of population 
if each district had a good township high school, and the school 
house would become the centre of intellectual life, as a church does 
of the spiritual life. 

At present, few boys and girls may attend such a high school, 
without leaving home and paying for both board and tuition in a 
private school. 

To send a boy or girl to a boarding school for a year, seldom costs 
less than |200 or |2.50, and the help which a child should give in the 
affairs of the home, as well as the home influence, so necessary at this 
age, is lost. 

A farmer has five children. To send each of them to a boarding 
school for four years will cost at the lowest figure $600. The sec- 
ondary education of the five will cost $3,000 in money. Few farmers, 
mechanics and small merchants are able to pay so much money! So 
their children do not attend school after they have finished the 
limited course of the elementarv school. 


Only here and there do we find a family from which one or two 
boys and girls go away to school, and then only for a year or two, 
the burden being too heavy. Were there a good high school in each 
township, or even ten or twelve in each county, any man who would, 
might send all his children until they finished the full course, and 
be none the poorer for it. Except in cities, the cost of feeding and 
clothing children is not necessarily great, and the cost of the school 
would not be felt as a burden to any community. 

The most inexpensive things on the market to-day are teachers, 
school houses, books and chalk. 

Eleven local institutes were held in different parts of the county, 
during the year. In most cases they were well attended by teachers 
and patrons. In my opinion, there is no better way of enlisting the 
co-operation of the patrons of the schools than by meetings t)f this 
kind. The teachers deserve much praise for the efforts made, and 
the pains taken to make the institutes what they were — a success. 

There has been two school houses built during the year. These 
are good houses, substantially built, with good light and plenty of 

Some townships have repaired their buildings and made them 
more suitable for the purpose they were erected. 

The annual institute was a success in every particular. Six hun- 
dred and seventy-six teachers were in attendance. The sessions 
were largely attended by patrons and citizens and young people from 
all over the county. The people seem to manifest more interest in 
education every year. The instruction was of the highest order, and 
could not fail to be of much profit to all who heard it. 

The philosophy of teaching, and principles of school government 
received much attention. 

The day instructors were Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, Dr. S. C. Schmuck- 
er. Dr. Charles C. Boyer, Dr. Paul M. Pearson, Dr. Charles H. Al- 
bert, Dr. James M. Coughlin, Dr. E. O. Lyte, Dr. G. M. Eckels. Prof. 
John Denues had charge of the music. 

Our evening attractions were as follows: Monday, Dr. Levin Irvin 
Hardy, '^Growing Up and Growing Old;" Tuseday, Whitney Bros. 
Male Quartet; Wednesday, J. E. Comerford, "A Day and a Night 
With Our Life Savers;" Thursday, Durno, the Magician and Com- 
pany; Friday, Carmen's Italian Boys. 

The annual York County Directors' Association was held in York, 
January 18, 1906, with 258 directors present, the largest attendance 
since its organization. 

The following was the order of business: Report of secretary, Dr. 
J. P. Galbreath; address, "What Should be the Guide of Directors 
in Selecting Teachers?" S. J. Barnett; address, "School Room Sani- 
tation," Dr. C. G. Hilderbrand and Dr. H. F. Gross; address, "The 


Directors' Three R's/' Prof. L. E. MeGinnis; address, Dr. James M. 
Coughlin; discussion, "Should Directors Require Teachers to Attend 
Local Institutes and Hold p]ducational Meetinj^s?" Kev. Fred Gee- 
sey; address, subject, "Diftlculties That Confiont Directors, and How 
to Meet Them," Kev. A. S. Atkin; address, "Forces that Supplement 
the Schools." 

The directors continue to advance our educational interests in a 
material way, by building good houses and supplying better furni- 

My work for the first year as county superintendent is now ended. 
I have tried to discharge my duty earnestly and faithfully. How 
well I have succeeded, the public must judge. With the experiences 
of the past year, I believe that I will be able to discharge my duty 
more effectively in the coming year. 

In concluding my report, I must say that everywhere in the county 
the directors, teachers, citizens and scholars have received me with 
kindness and courtesy. 

My thanks are hereby extended to the press of the county for 
their kindness, without which aid my work could not have been suc- 

I cannot in words express my gratitude for kindness received at 
the hands of the Department. 

I return my thanks to directors, teachers and all true friends of 
education for their cordial support. 

*CRAWFORD COUNTY— John D. Goodwin. 

In submitting this my fourth annual report, it is pleasing to 
be able to state that the educational progress in the schools of 
this county has been steady and encouraging throughout the year. 
The attendance lias been larger and more regular, the general inter- 
est on the part of patron.s, teachers and pupils was greater than for 
any previous 3'ear, and ihe unanimous verdict is, that, as a whole, 
our schools never were in better condition. 

The health of the pupils has been exceptionally good, and school 
work has suffered no interruptions, except in a few instances, due 
to the compulsor}' vaccination law. 

Our teachers have been energetic and faithful, and almost all 
are deserving of much credit for the neat clean condition in which 
they have kept their schol rooms, for systematic work, and the ac- 
complishment of definite results. Our schools are all graded, and 

♦Report not received in time to appear In its proper place. 


the year's work was so carefully and thoroughly done that two 
hundred and fifty-one pupils of the eighth grade successfully met 
the highest qualifications yet required for graduation, and were 
granted diplomas. 

Our directors have been faithful in the discharge of their duties. 
The school property of the county has been well looked after, and 
is in good condition. 

We have no poor school houses. The only lack is in the amount 
and quality of blackboard surface; but this is being remedied 
rapidly. The school supplies furnished are ample and of good 

Our township high schools have done good work, and have demon- 
strated that it pays to give the boys and girls in the country the 
same advantages that are provided in the towns and cities. 

The County Institute, judging from results, was a pronounced 
success. Care was taken to get practical teachers as instructors, 
and instruction was given that made better teachers, and proved 
of practical use in the school rooms of the county. 

A number of local institutes were held during the year — all to 
the profit of those present and taking part. The attendance was 
large in every instance. Several districts held monthly meet- 
ings, and the effect on their schools was very noticeable. 

Taking all things into consideration, I am confident that we have 
had a very good year, and wish to thank the citizens of the county 
for their hospitality, the teachers for their kindness, and the di- 
rectors for their many favors, hoping that with their hearty co- 
operation, I may be able to advance still more the educational in- 
terests of our county, and to make our schools reach a still higher 
degree of excellence. 

No. 6. ALLENTOWN. 143 



ALLEGHENY— John Morrow. 

The Allegheny schools finished a successful years work June 1, 

No adverse circumstances transpired since my last report to mar 
or retard our progress. 

An elegant new manual training building, three stories high, has 
been erected in the Second Ward. This building is furnished with 
the very best modern machinery and other appliances for the pur- 
pose of carrying on shop-work, cooking, sewing, and the arts of house 
work and home-making. 

In many resx>ects Allegheny is in as good shape educationally as 
most other cities in the State. Twenty-two of our twenty-five school 
buildings have successful kindergartens in operation. This is a 
larger proportion of kindergartens than is found in any other city 
in I:*ennsylvania. 

Twelve of the fifteen wards in the city have installed manual train 
ing in their schools, embracing several "kinds of shop-work for boys, 
and all the different branches of domestic science for the girls. 
These departments have been fitted up with the very best of modern 
apparatus necessary for the successfal accomplishment of the wbrk. 
This, again, I think, is a larger proportion of manual training de- 
partments than will be found in the schools of any other locality in 
the State. 

In addition to the above we have a successful system of physical 
culture practiced daily in all our schools. 

We make an effort, also, not to neglect the three "R's." 

ALLENTOWN— Francis D. Raub. 

The work progressed regularly throughout the year, and the re- 
sults were satisfactory. No innovations were attempted, excepting 


a cliange in the system iof penmanshiii to the semi slant, which at 
iirst was looked upon by teachers with a great deal of distrust. But 
after a fair trial it is considered an improvement over the regular 
slant which was in use. 

The night schools were in session and afforded an excellent oppor- 
tunity for those, who by stress of circumstances were compelled to 
leave schotol at an early age, to improve themselves. It is unfortu- 
nate, however, that the attendance on the part of siome was so ir- 
regular, that their progress was limited. The Compulsory School 
Law could not affect these pupils. 

The law vesting the power of issuing employment certificates in 
the Superintendent or his Deputy, whdlst entailing some labor and 
annoyance, istill is a great impriovement over the previous law. The 
Superintendent generally has knowledge or means of learning the 
age and fitness of applicants, and in many instances, when conditions 
are favorable, can induce some to remain in school, and in all cases, 
cej'tificates are granted only to those entitled to them under the law. 

The school population lof the city showed an increase of 190 over 
that of the preceding year, and resulted in overcrowding certain 
rooms. The annex of four rooms to the Fianklin Building now under 
construction, will serve to relieve the western part of the city tem- 
porarily. I have recommended that in other parts of the city where 
the enrollment exceeds fifty in any room, that an assistant be aip 
pointed, wboise duty it shall be to assist pupils in the work assigned 
them, and attend to other detail work, -vvhilst the other teacher is con- 
stantly engaged in conducting recitations. This was done in one 
room this year, and the result was very satisfactory, thus following 
out the idea of the Batavia system. 

Kow in donchision, I with, to thank the Department for the uni- 
foi'm courtesy to us in the past. 

ALTOONA— H. J. Wightman. 

The year 1905-1906 has been a menjorable one in the history of 
education in Altoona. The city has had a very progressive Board 
of Education composed of six men elected at large from the city. 
The year marks the erection and equipment of a modern High school 
at a cost of over |.300,000. The Science, Commercial and Industrial 
Departments of this schoiol are most complete. Tlie Pennsylvania 
Railroad have undertaken the equipment of the Drafting Depart- 
ment. Forge Shoij^, Foundries, Wood Working Machinery, Metal 
Working Machinery, Wood Turning, Glue and regular Manual Train- 
irg rooms. One feature of the equipment will be the absence of 

No. 6. ALTOONA. 145 

shafting, all iiiachines being run by individual motors. The build- 
ing has complete departments for Art, Cooking, Sewing, Dressmak- 
ing and Household duties for the girls. The structure has its own 
power and light plant in duplicate. Each room in the schoiol as well 
as each building in the city has a telephone and connection with 
the switchboard in one of the High School offices. There are two 
large gymnasiums, a swimming p'ool and shower baths, with indi- 
vidual lockers for 750 pupils. An auditorium on the first floor seats 
1,610. The building is equipped with automatic heat and ventilat- 
ing thermostats and the Frick regulating clock system. The building 
is constructed of Hummelstown brownstone; the stairways of steel 
and Brocadillo marble; the floors of toilets and main corridors are 
of Italian marble mosaic, and the building is practically fire proof. 

The year also marks the reorganization of the High School under 
the following departments with a director for each department: 
English, Mathematics, Modern Languages, History, Latin, Commer- 
cial, Science, Domestic Art, Industrial. Tlie sch'ool offers five 
courses, each four years in length but the Commercial and Indus- 
trial and General Courses are so arranged that three years or even 
two will give a definite course. 

The year marks the establishment of night schools with an initial 
enrollment of over 300; the establishment of a Central Grammar 
School with department teaching for the 8th grade pupils; individual 
promotions with individual help to' the backward pupil to some ex- 
tent; general assistants for both Primary and Grammar grades, in 
eluding the best teachers obtainable who have taken charge of 
classes when regular teachers have had visiting days, assisted in 
some of the larger scho'ols, and when not thus employed aided the 
wealver teachers of the city. I feel that no money has been better 
spent than for these general teachers who have been under the daily 
direction of the Superintendent. 

The Institute has been administered in homeopathic doses to the 
good of the schools and the betterment 'of the mental digestion of 
teachers. It has enabled us to get just the people we have needed. 

An Educational Council, meeting bi-monthly, was formed early in 
the year and did excellent work in the study of vital educational 
problems and in arranging public lectures to help build up public 

The teachers' meetings this year have been largely grade meetings 
for the discussion of the revised outlines of work. Nature Study 
although undertaken for the first time has been handled very sat- 
isfactorily. The excursions of teacheis and pupils for the purpose 
of Nature Study have helped to establish a closer sympathy between 
both parties. 



A small working- and reference libiary has been placed in each of 
the ward schools. Although only about 50 volumes were placed in 
each school it is the nucleus of greater things yet to come. 

The plan of sending representative teachers to Boston, New York, 
Yonkers, Washington and other cities of the east and west to lo'ok 
into educational methods and results and then report to the home 
teachers has been a leaven of the right sort. 

An attempt has been made to establish a rational basi& for teach- 
ers* salaries. One of the steps has been a tri-yearly rating of teach- 
ers' work by PrincipMs, Supervisors and Superintendents. The fol- 
lowing blank has been used: 

1. Influence upon pupils in interesting them in study; in inspir- 
ing them to better doing; in implanting nobler ideas of life, etc. 

2. Teaching Ability — Methods; professional skill; originality; 
ability to adapt means to fit actual conditions, etc. 

3. Results measured by preparation of pupils; comparative num- 
bers that are able to advance in grade and do goiod work, etc. 

4. Scholarship — Accuracy in things taught; fund of supplementaii'v 
information; preparation for lessons, etc. 

5. Discipline^ — Whether repressive or directive; whether through 
restraint or through interest. 

6. Relations with Parents — Impartiality yet amicable feelings, etc. 

7. Relations with other Teachers — Attitude toward principal; 
manner of taking suggestions, etc. 

8. Growth^ — Improvement; professional zeal. 

9. Energy — Snap; life; go; force in class work. 

10. Experience^ — Number years; where; grade of work; (a) grade 
of Avork preferred; (b) grade of work Principal thinks best fitted for. 

11. Training — Where educated; when graduated; length of course; 
work taken since graduating, in summer schoiols, etc. 

Directions — Use E, G, M, P, for marking first nine points. Insert 
answers to 10 and 11 under each teacher's name, writing across full 
width of paper. 

Results have been greatly improved by this plan, as teachers have 
been told wherein they were weak and have made an effort to im- 

During the year several additions have been made to the city in- 
cluding the towns of Millville and Fairview, each of which districts 
have first-class brick school houses and graded schools. 

To the Superintendent the year hais been an active one, and I feel 
content at what has been accomplished during my first year in the 

No. 6 ASHLAND. 147 

ARCHBALD— W. A. Kelly. 

The school j'ear of 1905-00 was a very successful one. Very 
pointed talks by the superintendent and directors created a stir 
among the teachers thereby getting better results in the class-rooms. 

The attendance was far below what was expected, being the result 
of contagious diseases. During the erection of the High School 
building which lasted the whole term, we could not find suitable 
quarters to carry on class work for the eight grades that occupied 
the old High School building, so it was necessary to have seven of 
the teachers double up in their corresponding grades in other build- 
ings, having the pupils from the central district attend those other 
schools thereby overcrowding. 

In the face of those obstacles our teachers did very creditable 
work. We did not conduct any class exercises at the end of the 
term, for it was decided during the month of May to create a new 
course of study for the Higli School which I hereby submit. First 
year, Latin, Algebra, Civics, Geometry, General History. Second 
year Latin, Algebra, Civics, Geometry, General History, Book-Keep- 
ing with Arithmetic and Spelling throughout the second year. 
Pupils intending to take up Normal School work after finishj,ng here 
may substitute Botany and Trigonometry for Book-Keeping. The 
course covers two years work which will require thoroness on the 
part of the teachers and pupils. 

It is intended to have auspicious opening of the High School 
building, both teachers and pupils are exhibiting an anxiousness 
to get to work. I have made out an ii.stitute Program for our next 
term's work, which will cover five teachers' and three general insti- 
tutes. Each teacher is to be represented on a program some time 
during the term on an educational subject, each subject open for dis- 
cussion. The general Institutes will be conducted by able profes- 
sional men or women from other fields. I intend to give the liocal 
Institute question a thoro test, because of the arguments I hear for 
and against. 

The school directors during the i^ast term regularly visited the 
difiVrent schools of the district and are much pleased with the year's 

ASHLAND— Wm. C. Estler. 

Vocal music was added to the coui^e of study, a special teacher on 
eight singing was employed to visit the rooms daily and instruct the 


pupils. The lessons were taught froin the blackboard; so that, out- 
side of teachers' salary, the cost to the district for music was very 

Commencement exercises were held in the opera house Monday 
evening. May 28. There were twenty-three in the class, eight boys 
and fifteen girls. Caps and gowns were worn. 

New books to the value of fifty-five dollars were purchaised for the 
High School Library. 

BANGOR— J. W. Gruver, 

Tills is my first annual report as Superintendent of the public 
schools of the borough of Bangor. Having been principal of our 
schools for the two preceding years, the change from principal to 
superintendent was comparatively easy. My work as superintendent 
was somewhat hampered during the year, inasmuch as I was com- 
pelled to work in the double capacity of superinteudent and teacher, 
caused by the crowded condition of the schools and a lack of teach- 
ing force. 

This will be remedied to a certain extent for the ensuing year, as 
two new teachers have been elected, which will enable me to devote 
more of my time to the supervision of the schools. 

Or.r teachers have proved to be ^ery loyal in their co-operation 
with our plan of work and management of the schools. They have 
worked faithfully to awaken a desire on the part of the pupils to re- 
ceive an education. 

The patrons of the schools have shown their appreciation of the 
efforts put forth by the directors and teachers in trying to raise the 
standiard of the schools, and in this way have been very helpful. 

We cannot fail to speak words of praise for our board of directors, 
for the willingness they have shown, in doing everything in their 
power to advance the best interests of our schools. They are pro- 
viding for us the very best materials, so necessary for doing good 
work. Much of the sucecss of our schools is due to their harmoni- 
ous and united efforts, and the encouragement given to superinten- 
dent, teachers and pupils. 

Jt is onr aim to bring the school and the home as close together 
as possible, for the securing of good results depends largely upon the 
influences that surround the child outside of the school room, es- 
pecially the home. Parents have been invited to visit the schools 
frequently, that they may see the kind of work being done, and how 
their children are being cared for. 

Our teachers' meetings during the year were very helpful. We 
held a regular monthly meeting of all the teachers, when methods 

No. 6. BEAVER FALLS. 149 

of teaching and questions pertiaining to schbol management .were 
thoroughly discussed. We also had our weekly grade meetings, 
where work suitable for those particular grades was discussed by the 
older teachers, and which proved to be beneficial, especially to the 
younger teachers. 

The number of pupils enrolled during the year is 1,018. The per- 
centage of attendance, which was lowered siomewhat by an epidemic 
of measles and whooping cough, was 93 per cent. The compulsory 
attendance law is being strictly enforced and is benefitting that 
class of children whose parents are not concerned about the educa- 
tional welfare of their children, and who would otherwise spend 
their time in idleness on the streets. 

We also began work along musical lines. Not having a special 
teacher in music, the teachers met weekly for the purpose of study- 
ing music and becoming familiar with the subject. A go'od be- 
ginning was made and it is hoped that ere long we may have a su- 
pervisor of music to take charge of that department, for our people, 
especially the Welsh, are a music loving people, and are delighted 
to know that their children are being taught music in the public 

Aware of the crowded condition of our schools, and re*aliziug that 
real good work cannot be done with so many pupils (often from GO 
to 70) under the charge of one teacher, the board purchased a site and 
began the erection of a new four-room school building. This build- 
ing will be fitted up with all modern improvements, and located at a 
suitable place for those children living farthest from the present 

Two new silk mills have located in our borough and have drawn 
heavily upon our grammar and lower high school grades. This we 
feel is a detriment to the good work of our schools, since often, those 
children badly needing further school training, leave school when 
attaining the age of 14 years, 'and go to work in these mills. 

In closing, I desire to say that the results obtained during the 
past year were very satisfactory, and on account of the perfect 
harmony existing on the part of the patrons, directors, superinten- 
dent and teachers, the result for the ensuing year Cannot help but 
be likewise. 

BEAVER FALLS— Edward Maguire. 

In submitting this report for the year 1905-190G, I am glad to 
acknowledge the courtesies extended by the Department of Public 
Instruction and to express appreciation therefor. 


The year has been a good one for our school interests. Fewer 
changes were required, understanding of courses and methods was 
more th'orioiigh, and, consequently, progress was more consistent and 
solid, a result more likely to be attained when teachers and super- 
intendent have worked harmoniously together for some time. I wish 
to say here too that the Board of Education has as a body loyally 
sustained the schools. 

Attendance has improved since last year; especially in the High 
School where the gain is 18 per cent. The percentage of attendance 
is 9?, and the total enrollment 1,823, of whom 890 were boys and 933 
girls. St. Mary's Parochial School has registered about 350, and a 
good many are attending commercial schools. Sickness did not in- 
terfere with our work much till late in the year, when measles and 
throat troubles kept a good many pupils at home. 

Our school population is probably 2,400 to 2,500, but even the new 
compulsory law does not enable us to reach all of them. In 1905, 
the assessors' lists contained 1,802 names, but there are always a 
good many who move in after the lists are made up and who' do not 
enter school. Some form of supplementary census should be de- 
vised to inform school authorities of the presence of such children. 
Our attendance officer has wtorked most efficiently. He investigated 
566 cases of non-registration, of those whose names appeared on 
the assessors' lists and accounted for all satisfactorily or caused 
them to enter school. During the rest of the year he investigated 
1,433 cases reported by the teachers. Of these 385 were absent with- 
out good excuse. All of these were returned to school. Of course 
it happened frequently that a number of visits were required by the 
same pupil. 

Our teaching corps is being gradually strengthened. One more 
grade teacher was emploj-^ed and one more in the High School. By 
strengthened is meant not only increased in numbers but also greater 
efficiency. The new salary schedule will enable this work to con- 
tinue. It provides a minimum for inexperienced teachers and a 
yearly increase for successful teachers for ten years, when the max- 
imum is reached. Next year all the experienced teachers will re- 
ceive an average advance of more than thirty-three and one-third per 
cent, above what they received four years ago. This move is in the 
right direction; the next generation should not be hanidicapped by 
the inefficient teaching of the present. 

Our High School is gaining steadily and its quarters are too small. 
A strong sentiment in favor of a new building is growing up, and 
its construction can not long be delayed. To meet the local demand 
we need a strong business department and a teachers' training de- 
partment — needs that can not be met without a new building. Com- 
mencement was held Friday evening, June 1, 1906. The class con- 

No. 6. BETHLEHEM. 151 

taiiicd twenty-two members, more than half of whom expect to attend 

Music and drawing, introduced two years ago, have progressed 
steadily under efficient supervisors. In connection with other sub- 
jects considerable practical nature worki is being done. Field ex- 
cursions, window boxes, acjuariums, and the making of collections 
make this subject aid other w'ork very materially. This year 800 
packages of seeds were given out for home planting. 

Our room libraries are helping greatly to influence the reading 
taste of the children. The books this year circulated to the extent of 
23,698 volumes. The number of books in these libraries is 2,192, the 
circulation of each book being nearly eleven times. This was about 
13 books per pupil registered. Besides these we have 3,552 books 
used to supplement the regular work. 

My specific recommendations to our Board of Education this y(Mn 
included (a) a new building, (b) a business department in the high 
school, (c) a teachers' training department, (d) beginnings in kinder- 
garten and manual training work. 

BETHLEHEM— Fred. W. Bobbins. 

The past year has been one of progreas. In general, the teaching 
was well done, discipline successfully maintained, and methods of 
instruction improved. Teachers' meetings were largely attended, 
and all teachers took part in the discussion of topics assigned. Al- 
though there was an epidemic of children's diseases during the win- 
ter, the average attendance equaled that of other yeai's. On the 
whole, the term just closed is full of encouragement to all concerned. 

Congratulating ourselves, however, on what has been done satis- 
factorily will not induce further progress, nor even maintain the 
present standard. It is encessary to take note of the weak points in 
our system and strengthen them. 

During the last six years the growth of our high school has been 
remarkable. The enrollment has increased from one hundred eigh- 
teen to two hundred fifteen — almost one hundred per cent — although 
the toital enrollment of pupils in the borongh has remained station- 
ary. In spite of this increase, the work in the high school is being 
done with one additional teacher, and one additional room. Evi- 
dently, a new high school building, and an increase in the present 
teaching force is one of our needs. 

The attention of the board has been called to the general tendency 
in writing from the vertical to an intermediate slant; to the lax ad- 
ministration of the compulsory attendance law; and to the necessity 


oi the supervision of high sehod atheletics by the school authorities. 
The charge is frequently made in these days that the public schools 
teach socialism. The charge seems a most unjust one. There is no 
one of our institutions that teaches respect for authority, obedience, 
and other civic virtues, as does the public school. Besides, it is a 
significant fact that the present leaders of socialism and anarchism 
are not products of the public schools. What we need is a better 
appreciation of the positive, but unheralded and generally unnoticed 
work in the school room. 

BRADDOCK— Grant Norris. 

I have the honor of submitting the following report of the Brad- 
dock public schools for the school year ending the first day of June, 

Enrollment; males, 1,221; females, 1,192; total, 2,413. 

Average attendance; males, 887; females, 866; total, 1,753. 

Average enrollment per room, 38. 

We were crippled a little during the year by the resignation of 
some of our best teachers. More money was offered and we were 
compelled to go out and possibly cripple other schools tO' fill the 
vacancies. Where one teacher resigned it caused six other vacan- 
cies, one following after the other antil a teacher without employ- 
ment was secured. This seems lamentable. Having a principal in 
each building and a cadet teacher from the last year's graduating 
class from the high school, we are not embarrassed so much by resig- 
nations as other schools where there is no experienced teacher on 
hand to take the room until a teach(!r can be secured. 

During the year a series of luncheons were served in the Domestic 
Science Department to other classes in the high school to which the 
directors were invited. At these luncheons educational problems 
were talked over and the needs of ^he schools discussed. One gen- 
eral reception was given during the year to the patrons and friends 
of education. The reception was held in the diiferent departments 
on different days. It proved more satisfactory than to hold the re- 
ception in each department at the same time. 

While the issuing of employment certificates, during office hours, 
at home night and day, Saturdays, and the children even call on Sun 
days, has caused the superintendent some annoyance and trouble, 
yet it is proving its merit and reflects great credit upon the persons 
who were instrumental in having the law passed. 

During the year twenty pictures were purchased and placed in the 
schools. The cost of these pictures ranged from -|6.00 to |20.00. No 
cheap pictures were purchased. We shall soon have one excellent 

No. 6. BRADFORD. 153 

picture in each room in the schools. The money was raised by the 
teachers and school children, 

A course of pedagogical study is maintained by each principal with 
her corps of teachers. They meet about twice a month to read to- 
gether and discuss what they are reading. The meetings are proving 
to be of great interest and profit. 

BRADFORD— E. E. Miller. 

Much has been written of the "Correlation" (whatever that means) 
of high school work with that of the grades, so there may be no break 
or fissure between these two. Whatever juggling or manipulation 
of studies may be done to secure this so-called ''Correlation" there 
will remain a marked change from the system in the grades, in 
which one teacher instructs the pupils in all subjects, to the depart- 
mental system of the high school in which the pupil recites different 
subjects to different teachers. 

I am aware that departmental instruction has, in some places, been 
carried into the grades. I have given that plan a practical test and 
it proved a failure. Hence conditions under which the pupil works 
in the high school are different from the conditions under which a 
pupil w^orks in the grades. The first year high school pupil is 
thrown more upon his own resources. A part, at least, of his studies 
is new; there is not the opportunity for individual help as in the 
grades. The pupil does not prepare his lessons under the eye of 
the teacher. More of "Home work" is required; the pupil does not 
become so' well acquainted with his teachers. The teachers in the 
high school, on account of a much greater number of pupils, do not 
become so well acquainted with the individual pupil, as does the 
grade teacher. 

The first year pupil in the high school, has a better opportunity to 
shirk his lessons than he had in the grades, consequently there is 
quite a large per cent, of first year high school pupils, who get so 
far behind in certain subjects that they drop one or more subjects 
during the year, or fail to pass in those subjects at the close of the 
year. I assume that these conditions prevail in all high schools, ex- 
cept Batavia, where by virtue of an adopted scheme no one ever fails 
in anything. 

It has seemed to the superintendent and the faculty of the high 
school, that something could be done to improve present conditions 
in regard to failures in high school, especially in the first year class. 
Accordingly the superintendent recommended to the school board 
that a special teacher be employed to devote her entire time to the 


assistance of such individual pupils, as umy, for any cause, be falling 
behind, or need individual help in any subject. What was done by 
this teacher, and the manner in which it was accomplished is per- 
haps best told by the teacher herself. Her report to the superinten- 
dent at the close of the school year is submitted herewith. 

Report of Individual Instructor in the High School. 
E. E. Miller, Superintendent: 

Sir: In response to j^our request of some report of my work during 
the past year the following is submitted: 

As the school year 1905-06 was the first year of individual instruc- 
tion in the Bradford High School, it has,, 'of necessity, been somewhat 
experimental. As a result various methods have been tried and 
various conclusions drawn, of which the following is a brief sum- 
mary : 

The individual teacher has given to the woi'k five periods a day 
regularly; two periods have been given to class work. Latin and 
Greek the first part of the year, and Botany and Greek the latter 

The work has been of two sorts (1) assistance of pupils, who came 
of their own accord for some explanation, who were given from five 
to fifteen minutes or longer according to their needs. Such pupils 
comprise a majority of those who have been helped. (2) The assist- 
ance of pupils sent by teachers on account of some deficiency in their 
work. These were given daily appointments for a week or longer 
until such deficiency had been made up. 

At first the work was entirely individual, tliat is, but one pupil 
at a time. Later, it became evident that pupilsi who needed thf 
same kind of assistance in the same branch could be taught in groups 
of four or five thus saving much time. This plan was followed es- 
pecially in Latin and Germian. Toward the end of the term, the 
plan was adopted of giving one daily* period to Latin and one to Alge- 
bra in which pupils of the same grade (classes) could come so long 
as they needed help. 

In regard to the number assisted, statistics taken from the reooi'd 
kept by the special teacher represents the approximate result. 

Average number assisted per week 75 to 100. Average length of 
period 15 minutes. Total number of appointments during the year 
about 3,100. 

The following are the records of two weeks work; the former rep- 
resenting the rather light work early in the term; the second one of 
the busy week in January. 

Monday— Latin, 6 pupils; Algebra, 1 ; German, 2; English, 1; Solid 
Geometry, 1; Debate, 2; total, 13. 




Tuesday — Latin, G; Algebra, 4; French, 1; (Jerman, 3; Geometry, 1; 
total, 15. 

Wednesday— Latin, 9; Algebra, 4; French, 1; German, 1; Geometry, 
1; Debate, 1; total, 17. 

Thursday— Latin, 11; Algebra, 2; French, 1; Geometry, 1; Total, 15. 

Friday — I^tin, 5; Algebra, 2; French, 1; Caeser, 2; German, 1; 
total, 11. 

By subjects the result of the week was, 37 received help in Latin; 
13 in Algebra; 4 in French; 7 in German; 3 in Caesar; 2 in English; 
4 in Solid Geometry ; 3 in Debate, total, 73. 

Second Week (in 





























As to the practical and tangible results of this plan, one year per- 
haps may not be sufficient time for a. Snal decision. However the 
following data submitted by the high school principal at the close 
of the year furnishes some evidence. 

Comparative Results of A Few Representative Subjects. 








C I 



















German, all classes 

First year, Latin 

Caesar, first year. Algebra, 

First year, English, 

Senior, English 








This report shows that in the first year Latin, the number of with- 
drawals and failures was reduced about 50 per cent. In first year 
Algebra and in German about 30 per cent., while in the higher grades 


the pel' cent, of failures has been reduced to a less extent, this is 
probably due to the fact that there are usually fewer failures in the 
higher classes, and alsio that there were fewer pupils from these 
grades who went to the individual instructor for assistance. 

Of course much depends upon the teacher employed for this work. 
Her manner may be such as to draw pupils willingly to her, or to 
repel them. She must be a woman of thoTongh and diversified 
scholarship. We were most fortunate in the selection of a teacher, 
but at the close of the school year, she resigned as many good teach- 
ers do, to accept a miatrimonial engagement. 

I am fully persuaded that the work of this teacher has been valua- 
ble, and the plan will be continued. 

In other lines, there is nothing of special interest to report. Ex- 
cellent work was done throughout the year, and no friction of any 
kind occurred. The annual reception to the teachers of the city by 
the members of the school board has been found profitable and en- 
joyable, and will be continued. An excellent lunch was served by 
the girls from the Senioir Class of the Domestic Science Department. 

The Manual Training Department has been extended and much 
additional equipment added. 

A class of 80 pupils was graduated at the close of the school year. 

The Commercial Course has been extended to cover a period of 
three years. 

A number of our high school teachers left us at the close of the 
school year to accept higher salaries elsewhere. 

Prof. E. E. McClain goes to New York city, Miss Swinington to 
Long Branch, N. J., Prof. Rockwood engages in other business. Miss 
Crans gioes to McKeesport. 

All were excellent teachers. I wish to express my appreciation 
of the cordial support received from the school boiard, principals, 
teachers and parents. 

BRISTOL^Louise D. Baggs. 

The year 1905 1906 has been of more than ordinary interest in 
the schools in many ways. In the first place, the increased number 
of pupils necessitated more rooms and more teachers. One new 
room was secured for a first primary grade, and seventy-five little 
ones began their school life in very pleasant quarters with two 
teachers. Each of the other first year grades were also divided and 
assistant teachers added, so that all children were on full time. 
One of the most encouraging features of the progress of the schools 
was the promotion of a class of thirty-six from the grammar school 

No. (J. BUTLER. 157 

to the high school, every one of the thirty-six returning in Septem- 
ber, and but five of them (lropi)ed out during the year. There seems 
to be an appreciation on the part of parents and pupils of the im- 
portance of higher education and more children are remaining longer 
at school. German was introduced into the high school course and 
the very complet<? Crowell Laboratory for the study of Physics was 
bought, thus giving the school the opportunity of much better work 
in that subject. 

The president of the School Board stimulated the graduating 
class in the work of English Composition by offering prizes for 
the best work in that subject. The first essays were on the "Cathe- 
drals of England" and the second on a "Visit to the Wool Mill" of 
Bristol. On the first subject he gave them a very interesting illus- 
trated lecture and in the second case he conducted them through 
the mill. The pupils gained much of profit and pleasure from these 

In the early spring a prize was offered to the graduate who came 
out first. There was the A'ery unusual circumstance of a tie be- 
tween two girls. One was given the medal and the other a beautiful 
silver loving cup, appropriately engraved. 

The commencement exercises of the class of 1906 were particularly 
interesting and we feel gave a stimulus to the succeeding classes. 

During the year a step has been taken in the adornment of the 
school rooms. Very fine pictures were presented to the Assembly 
Hall by the teachers, and a handsome pedestal and bust of Long- 
fellow by the older pupils. In the grade rooms also pictures were 
added. We feel that the schools are in a very healthy condition and 
the sentiment is in favor of progress. 

BUTLER— John A. Gibson. 

The public schools of Butler borough have passed through an un- 
eventful term in the school year of 11)05-1906. In seeking to find 
what is worth chronicling in the volume of the State Report, one is 
impressed by the level plain of the year's landscape with few promi- 
nences of conspicuous elevation. 

All factors laboring for the good of the public schools, general 
public, patrons, School Board, and teachers, worked harmoniously 
for the advancement of the system. The year was reasonably fruit- 
ful of substantial results, not in any showy form, but in the primary 
essentials of elementary public education. The statistical report 
shows the gradual growth of the schools, though in this respect we 
are scarcely increasing our attendance at an equal rate with the in- 


crease of the population of the borough. This is due to several new 
conditions, the large increase in foreign population, widening oppor- 
tunities for the employment of children, and an increasingly^ more 
intense industrial pressure. 

Isolated attempts have been made with more or less success by 
various philanthropic organizations to meet the need of educating 
our foreign population beyond the limits of what can be done by 
the public schools. It is now proposed to unite these isolated en- 
deavors under one management through a federated action of the 
local churches and other organizations. What results can be se- 
cured time will show. A strenuous effort is made to enforce com- 
pulsory attendance among the foreign element, but, as the initiated 
well know, there are a few obstacles in the way in the form of fre- 
quent shifting of residence, affidavits of age, dirt, disease, etc., etc. 
It must be said, however, that large elements of this new population 
are anxious to keep their children in 'school until they can be set to 

The School Board has persistently pursued the new high school 
building proposition throughout the year and the ground is now 
being broken for what is expected to be one of the most commodious 
and best adapted buildings of its class in the State. 

Prof. Kolla H. McQuistion, one of our efficient supervising prin- 
cipals, resigned bis position at the opening of the school year 1906- 
1907 to take up the study of law in Harvard University. The School 
Board rewarded efficient and faithful service and attested its con- 
tinued adherence to the system of supervising principals by assign- 
ing the position left vacant to Prof. Loyal Freeman Hall, as an ad- 
dition to the work he has previously performed. 

CARLISLE— John C. Wairner. 

Our schools closed June 18. A class of twenty-three (23) was 
graduated from our high school. This is the largest €lass graduated 
since the establishment of a four years' course. Our total enroll- 
ment for the year was sixteen hundred three (1,603). This was forty- 
three (43) more than last year. Of this increase, twenty-one (21) 
were in the grammar school and twenty-one (21) in the high school. 
This increased attendance necessitated the election of an additional 
teacher, which enabled us to organize the work to better advantage. 
November 29 the Board of Directors i)assed the following: 
"Resolved, That the superintendent be authorized and directed 
to notify at once the principals and teachers of all the schools of 


this district that on and after December 11 next they will be re- 
quired to enforce the act of Assembly of June 5, 1895, which pro- 
vides that no child shall be admitted to their respective schools ex- 
cept upon a certificate signed by a physician setting forth that such 
child has been successfully vaccinated or has had small-pox." 

Less than two hundred (200) of our pupils had ever been vacci- 
nated, and for about a month our schools suffered badly. The local 
press supported us nobly in our efforts to comply with the law, and 
by January all but a few of the pupils had been successfully vacci- 

May 17 was observed as "Patrons' Day." Invitations were sent 
to all the patrons of the schools requesting them to come out and 
examine the drawing and written work which had been tastefully 
arranged in the several buildings, as well as to witness the regular 
school work which was continued in all the schools. In response to 
this request two thousand two hundred fifty (2,250) visits were made 
to the schools on that day. The renewed interest manifested in 
school work by pupils, patrons and teachers makes this one of the 
most profitable days of the school year. 

The ''Civic Club," a band of public spirited ladies, presented to 
the schools during the year twenty-one (21) choice pictures. This 
makes a total of one hundred sixty-five (165) excellent selections 
hung upon the walls of our school rooms by this organization, rep- 
resenting a cost of a little more than five hundred (|500) dollars. 
When we consider w^hat one of our greatest educators says, "In no 
place has a beautiful picture more influence for good than on the 
walls of an elementary school," we can appreciate to some extent 
the services these ladies are rendering to the cause of education. 

C. P. Humrich, Esq., presented a library of fifty books to each 
school of ihe fifth grade. With this we have a small library of 
choice literature for every school above the fourth grade. The chil- 
dren enjoy telling and writing about the books they have read — a 
period being set aside now and then for this purpose. Some of the 
teachers taking advantage of this interest have materially improved 
their language and composition work. 

December 16 we were called upon to mourn the death of Miss 
Kate A. Diller, for thirteen years one of Carlisle's most earnest, 
eflficient and devoted teachers. 

CHAMBERvSBUKG— Samuel Gelwix. 

With every other district in the State, Chambersburg has had its 
trouble with the vaccination law. Complying with the directions 
of the Health Commissioner, we dismissed 511 pupils in one day. 


A large percentage of this number subsequently returned, but our 
schools were so demoralized as to compel us to say that the year 
was not very satisfactory. 

The conflict between existing laws interfered with the enforce- 
ment of the compulsory attendance law. The opponents of this 
statute refused to have their children vaccinated, thus evading the 
payment of fines for absence from school. Every effort was made 
to secure regular attendance by all who had the necessary vaccina- 
tion certificate. 

Thus far we have been disappointed in the erection of a new high 
school building. This has not been the fault of our directors, but 
is mainly due to the dilatory tactics practiced by those who are op- 
posed to the selected site. From present indications, we will be 
obliged to make the best of our present cramped conditions for some 

The thoroughness of the work done in our high school is attested 
to in the following extract from a letter received from the dean of 
Wilson Female College: ''We are glad to speak in the highest terms 
of the high school students whom we receive in college. Three of 
these students have received honors this year. They come to us 
excellently well prepared." To meet the advance in the entrance 
requirements of Wilson, it will be necessary to somewhat enlarge our 
high school course, but this can be done without detriment to any 
who do not wish to pursue a college course. 

The conservatism of our citizens is frequently construed errone- 
ously. Advancement along educational lines meets with popular 
favor, but before adopting new measures it is deemed preferable to 
move cautiously, lest we make mistakes that may be hard to rectify. 

Encouraged by the past, we anticipate greater success in the 



The school work of our district has this year taken its strongest 
and firmest hold of our people. The work of our teachers in Study- 
ing the Individual Child has impressed parents, mc^mbers of the 
Board, and the teachers themselves, as no one of them had ever 
been impressed, with the simple truth that trouble with children 
in school is the result of the teacher's ignorance of the child and of 
the child's home. W^e have h^ad fewer cases of disputes in discipline 
between homes and teachers, and we have had no case of discipline 


to refer to the Board, this year, and to the intimate acquaintance 
of teachers with children first, and then with jjarents, is attributable 
this wholly peaceful and desirable result. The work required is not 
burdensome after it is understood. An Observation Blank (filled in 
duplicate) calls for the points upon which information should be in 
possession of the teacher. An outline of terms in which the in- 
formation is to be briefly, tersely, and systematically recorded is sup- 
plied along with the blanks. The information is then gathered 
slowly, carefully, cautiously, and recorded. This process gives the 
teacher an intimate knowledge of the pupil and a ready sympathy 
with him in his strength and weakness. Intelligent instruction and 
discipline follow as the inevitable consequence. The entire idea 
is merely the practice of the old pedagogic principle, ''Know the 
nature of the taught," a principle quite frequently cited in the ut- 
terance but more frequently violated in the fulfilment. 

During the year the superintendent has issued thirty-eight em- 
ployment certificates to children between the ages of 14 and 16 

The Board this year appointed an attendance officer to look up 
violators of the compulsory attendance law, whom it paid by the 
day for the hours actually spent in looking up delinquents. He 
has made about 150 visits during the term to 110 families. In only 
fifteen cases did he need to visit the same home twice or more. A 
serious imperfection in the system is the matter of enrollment. The 
law should be made mandatory in the matter of making the Board 
responsible for the assessment of the children. From a list con- 
taining about 1,200 children more than 200 names had been omitted. 
Our Board is pleased with the results of the system and has taken 
action to improve upon this year's practice in its next year's en- 

From two to four additional titles have been added to the list 
of books for each grade from I to VIII inclusive. The entire list 
includes about 130 titles. Seven hundred of the pupils of the dis- 
trict belong to the circle (membership is entirely voluntary) and 
have read during the year 3,563 books. Eeading taste, reading 
habits, and a knowledge of good books are our aim. "Learn to do 
by doing" is our motto. 

On March 19, 1906, our township high school moved into its new 
building. On May 10 the building was dedicated. G..W. Flounders, 
Ph. D., district superintendent of schools of Philadelphia; Rev. Robt. 
Ellis Thompson, principal of the Central High School, Philadelphia, 
and Prof. M. G. Brumbaugh, now superintendent of schools of Phila- 
delphia, made the leading addresses. The building is pronounced 
the finest high school yet erected in a rural community in this State. 
It is comfortable, simple, substantial, adequate to its purposes, and 


wins the adiuiration and commendation of all who have entered its 
walls. An auditorium, with almost perfect acoustic properties, and 
seating 700 people, is one of its distinctive features. Already com- 
mittees from other districts have visited the building for ideas for 
buildings of their own. 

With this report the present superintendent ends his official ca- 
reer, having served five years in the office. He desires to extend 
to the Department and its officers his sincere thanks and gratitude 
for such help and friendship as any or all of them may at any time 
have shown to him or to his requests. He is conscious of having 
endeavored to discharge the duties of his office fully, fairly, and 
with sincere fidelity during his term of service, a^d for his failures 
and shortcomings he once again asks the indulgence and oversight 
of his associates and superiors. 

CHESTEK— A. Duncan Yocum. 

My last annual report concluded with the statement that future 
progress along right lines was largely dependent upon the success 
of a campaign for increased school income that had been inaugu- 
rated. The success of this movement is now assured. Public demon- 
stration of the losses due to the carelessness of ward assessors, the 
failure to collect the personal tax, the absence of premium on the 
early collection of the tax on real estate, and the consequent pay- 
ment of unnecessary interest on loans with no compensating in- 
terest on average deposits, combined with a threatened cut in the 
length of the school term to compel action. The correction of the 
returns of the ward assessors has resulted in an aggregate saving 
from 1901 to 1907 of about |12,000. An annual census of taxables, 
a system of recording changes of address, the limitation of exonera- 
tions to taxables who have died or removed from town, and legal 
action against those who fail to pay, should almost triple the an- 
nual income of |3,000 that has been received for years on a total of 
almost 10,000 taxables. A discount of one per cent, on all real 
estate taxes paid before September and a penalty of five per cent, 
on those remaining unpaid after December 1 means the early pay- 
ment of the tax, which with the State appropriation on interest at 
two per cent, for such time as it remains on deposit will reduce 
loans and interest on loans to the minimum. 

If a movement now on foot to compel the publication of real 
estate assessments is carried out, the Board of Education will soon 

No. 6. CHESTER, 163 

be in possession of the maximum income possible without increas- 
ing the present six mill rate. The principle at stake is the main- 
tainance of an income adequate to meet necessary school expenses 
as opposed to curtailing of expenses in order that they may fall 
within an insufficient income. 

No radical departures were made during the past year either in 
general school organization or in methods of instruction. With 
the new term, however, drawing abolished about eight years ago 
at the time of the general reaction in favor of the three R's, will 
be re-introduced into the curriculum, and a sweeping change made 
in the form of school supervision. 

For some years it has been my judgment that the American school 
system is rapidly approaching its limit as regards the individual 
expert supervision of special branches. It is not branches but 
teachers that need supervision. In response to repeated recom- 
mendations, the Board of Education has at last seen its way clear 
to unanimously adopt a scheme of grade supervision, in which in 
place of three supervisors of special subjects, the supervisors will 
divide between them the grades from the first to the sixth inclu- 
sive — one having charge of the first, another of the second and third, 
and the third of the fourth, fifth and sixth. Each will be solely 
responsible to the superintendent for the work of from thirty-five 
to thirty-eight teachers, in the closely related subjects taught in 
one or two grades, with pupils in approximately the same stage of 
mental development; in place of each being responsible for the work 
of 150 teachers, in one subject more or less isolated from all others, 
with pupils of all ages from six to sixteen. It is believed that this 
concentration of supervision on the teacher rather than the subject 
and the centralizing of responsibility, will result in much more 
eflficient service. 

With the exception of the substitution of the non-consecutive 
sessions of the annual institute for the usual week during the Easter 
recess, the systematic scheme for the after-training of teachers out- 
lined in a previous report remains unmodified. The non-consecutive 
session with its more moderate demands upon the teachers' energy 
and opportunities for discussion and reflection, proved itself to be 
far more helpful and popular than the usual protracted meeting. 
We had four night sessions, two Saturday sessions, and one holiday 
session. For the first time the teachers shared Easter week with the 
pupils as a period for rest and recuperation. 

The system of plural grading now in successful operation for over 
two years, has proved itself economical. The advantage of the plan 
is that no pupil is held back in one branch on account of his failure 
in another. The holding in check of a stronger mental activity for 
the sake of a weaker, with which it in no way interferes, results iu 


arrested development and possibly more or less atrophy of certain 
areas in the cerebral cortex. 

The disadvantages of the plan are wholly mechanical with the 
exception of the increasing number of pupils who are working 
simultaneously in two grades. Since investigation of the records 
of a thousand children made three years ago showed that only about 
40 per cent, passed through the grades without the loss of one or 
more years, I am inclined to think that eventually about 50 per cent, 
of the pupils will be plurally graded. 

With the new system supervision, I am looking forward to the 
most successful year's work in our history. 


An encouraging feature of the year's work is the determination 
of the Board to reduce the number of pupils per teacher. To this 
end two new buildings and an annex to the high school building were 
erected, and three additional annexes planned for the current year. 
Apart from the evident purpose of meeting present requirements, 
they will be adequate to the growing demands of these communi- 
ties for a number of years. They are handsome structures, and 
thoroughly modern in all their appointments. 

In accordance with an act establishing a system of humane educa- 
tion, a course of work was outlined for grades one to four inclusive. 
By means of stories, anecdotes, literary gems and nature work, em- 
phasizing the care, utility, and beauty of birds and animals, the sub- 
ject was dealt with in a regular and systematic way twice a week. 
It was a prolific source of material for oral language and in the form 
of question and answer was correlated with it. Close watch was 
kept on the playground and every effort made to eradicate all habits 
of cruelty and selfishness. In fine, while not unmindful of the other 
virtues, teachers endeavored at all times to enlist, in their most 
comprehensive signification, the sympathy and kindness of the 

The child labor law, regulating the employment of children about 
coal mines, had a very marked effect upon our enrollment. It ex- 
tended the jurisdiction of the school so as to embrace a very de- 
sirable portion of our population. However, the law would operate 
with less friction' and with greater eflQciency, if employment certifi- 
cate number one was abolished and certificate number two amended 

No. 6. COATESVILLE. 166 

SO as to effect all children alike. The proficiency clause would then 
be rendered intelligent and what it now only purports to do would 
be accomplished in fact — the establishment of an educational re- 
quirement as a basis of employment. This would have the imme- 
diate effect of prolonging the school-life of children over 14 years of 
age seeking employment, yet unable to obtain exemption under the 
qualification. It, too, would be a notable factor in the solution of 
the compulsory educational law. The priority of this educational 
qualification would reverse the position of many parents in refer- 
ence to the employment and education of their children. For where 
the financial motive is most potential, the same reasons that urge 
an earl}' employment of the child, would prompt a stricter attention 
to the regularity of its attendance at school. Nor would such leg- 
islation fail by virtue of prematurity. 

The adoption of the ''Batavia experiment" as a permanent feature 
of our organization followed as a logical sequence to our success 
with its trial last year. The plan was pursued in a modified form 
and the scope of the work limited to grades one, two and three. 
Twelve additional teachers were appointed to assist the regular 
teachers in conducting the work of these grades. 

A well equipped commercial department was added to the high 
school and the course extended from two to three years. This met 
with the approval of our patrons. The new commercial course was 
elected by thirty-four. Delay in the erection of the new annex handi- 
capped us somewhat, though, in the main, results were very satis- 

The work of the year closed with the graduation of our high 
school class — sixteen young ladies and gentlemen — in the G. A. R. 
Opera House, Shamokin, on the evening of May 25. 

COATEi^iVILLE— Wm. T. Gordon. 

On Friday, June 1, 1906, we closed one of the most successful years 
in the history of our schools, notwithstanding the demoralization 
wrought by an epidemic of measles during the late winter and early 
spring. The term was marked only by faithful and conscientious 
work on the part of both teachers and pupils. Where these con- 
ditions prevail, success is sure to follow. 

Perhaps the most important educational event of the year was the 
opening of a new Parochial School on January 2, 1906. This took 
frpm pur public schools about one hundred thirty Catholic chil- 


dren, but still left many of our rooms iu an overcrowded condition. 

We have, to the best of our ability, endeavored to enforce the com- 
pulsory attendance law. In a number of instances parents have 
been summoned before a justice and lined. The publicity of these 
cases has always had the effect of improving the attendance of a 
certain class of children — children who would remain out of school 
if they dare do so. 

To relieve the overcrowded condition of some of our departments 
and to better enable us to classify our pupils, the Board of Educa- 
tion has decided to add another story to a portion of our old build 
ings and to erect a new six-room building to be used as a school 
for the colored children of the borough. This building will be 
equipped in a thoroughly up-to-date manner, and will be equal to 
any of the other school buildings of the town, thus affording the 
colored children equal educational advantages with the white chil- 

In the high school, the year has been decidedly the best that we 
have ever had. This department is constantly increasing in num- 
bers and improving in both the quantity and quality of the work 
done. Our graduates can now be admitted to almost any of the 
eastern colleges without further examination. We are not, how- 
ever, satisfied with our present attainments; but are determined 
to press forward until our high school shall stand second to none 
in the State. To this end we are now revising and strengthening 
our course of study; and the Board of Education has already de- 
cided to grant three additional teachers to the high school faculty. 
With these increased facilities, we shall be prepared to do better 
work than ever before. 

On the whole, the future outlook for Coatesville public schools 
is certainly bright. 

COLUMBIA— Daniel Fleisher. 

During the year our work has been good. The teachers fully 
realized that with them rested the general success or failure of the 
work of the schools. In individual cases, either through a lack of 
aptitude for the work of the teaching profession, or through a lack 
of zeal or energy due to various causes, the work was only partially 

During the past year, in all the grades, .34.3 new pupils were en- 
rolled. The total enrollment was 2,063. Thus nearly 17 per cent, 
of the total number wex'e not in our schools the previous year. The 

No. 6. COLUMBIA. 167 

unusually large number of new pupils was offset by a huge loss 
made necessary by the tiansfei- of parents engaged in the railway 
service. As those who left us were familiar with the work of our 
schools, while those coming from other schools were trained along 
different lines, to some extent this large withdrawal weakened our 

To-day nearly all parents recognize the excellence of the present 
compulsory law and faithfully and conscientiously send their chil- 
dren to school, yet there are others who through pure shiftlessness 
and carelessness, or through utter indifference to the welfare of 
the children under their control, give the attendance officer con- 
siderable trouble. Those so disposed can readily find excuses to 
render, and, in some cases, the lack of shoes and clothing, given as 
an excuse for non-attendance, is due to laziness, extravagance, or 
lack of self denial on the part of one or both of the parents. 

The new law w"ith reference to the employment of children be- 
tween the ages of 14 years and IG years has added considerable to 
the work of the superintendent's office. 

These duties are at times both annoying and unpleasant. How- 
ever, in its general ett'ects and results the law is such an excellent 
one that all superintendents should willingly assume the additional 
duties imposed upon them. 

In our public school system the course of study should be so 
planned and arranged, and the teaching should be of such a char- 
acter that a given point in the education of a child may be reached 
as early as possible. All waste of time and energy should be guard- 
ed against, so that through discouragement and impatience the boys 
will not drop out before reac4iing the high school. More of our 
boys should be in the high school. Both the boys and their parents 
should fully realize that without a high school education many of 
the best positions are closed to the boys. Everywhere in industrial 
lines the call comes for boys with a good education, and a high 
school course should be regarded as a necessity in the present day 
life. The work of the elementary school should be of such a char- 
acter that in the shortest time possible the boys and girls can 
be prepared for the difficult work of the high school. 

One of the features of the work of the year was the excellent 
and striking results gained in the art work of the schools. For 
years drawing has been taught in our schools and many of our 
teachers were able to get good results, but under the skillful and 
expert supervision of Mr. W. D. Campbell the art work at once 
began to demonstrate the skill of the teachers and the capabilities 
of the children. Those who saw the work of the different grades 
were convinced of the value and importance of this line of work. 
Unless a subject has a real educational value, and unless it has a 


tendency to give increased enjoyment and power in actual life, 
such a subject should have no place in the public school curriculum. 
There is an intensely practical value in art. Art is one mode of 
expression, and as such it must be classed with language. In our 
present industrial life the boy who can not interpret a drawing and 
who cannot express his ideas by correctly executed figures is very 
seriously handicapped. In our shops and elsewhere blue prints 
have- taken the place of written and oral description. 

As in man}^ other places our children pass out from our schools 
with a very imperfect knowledge of their mother tongue. So few 
children can read intelligently, and fewer still can write good Eng- 
lish. The blame for this must not be laid entirely upon our schools. 
The fact, however, remains, and, so far as possible, it is our duty to 
improve the conditions. During the past year special attention 
was paid to the English in the schools. This work is very slow, 
and it will require years of careful, patient toil on the part of the 
teacher to effect much improvement. The teachers themselves 
must be models for the children, and uniformly good English must 
be used by those who wish the children to be correct in expression. 

In past years the graduates of our high schools have been eligible 
to positions as teachers, although many of them had very little 
practical training for the work. In the future better training will 
be demanded by our directors, and our schools will be benefited by 
this action of our board. The fact that the schools are for the chil 
dren of the community must never be overlooked. The claims of 
the individual should never be considered superior to the welfare 
of the community. The children are entitled to the wisest leader- 
ship and to the best teaching that can be given them. Teaching 
is a profession. It can not be learned except by training and ex- 
perience. The true teacher brings health, mental vigor, and life 
to the child; the one not possessing the qualities of a teacher blights 
and deadens. The one who enters into her work with energy and 
who brings joy and hope to the child should be well rewarded by 
the people. The one who can not arouse ambition, who fails to 
stimulate, to encourage, to help, would be happier in some other 
field of labor. The teaching profession should never be entered 
for the mere sake of securing remunerative employment. The 
teacher should be able to bring love, happiness, and skill into the 
school room. 

The future needs of our schools are great, and I believe that our 
l)eople will be ready to meet the demands about to be made upon' 
them. Our board is looking forward to the erection of a new high 
school building so soon as a desirable location can be secured. 



Important inipiovoiuoiits have been made in the scliool gionuds, 
and in the furnishing of the buildings. The phiyground has been 
paved, improving its appearance, as well as lightening the work of 
the janitor. Single desks have been put in several of the rooms. 
In two rooms the walls have been tinted. The School lioard has 
been most generous in supplying new maps, charts and supplement 
ary text books. 

Some time ago, the Board decided that they would not elect any 
teacher to fill a vacancy unless she was a Normal graduate, or had 
taught three years as a substitute, or had been successful as a regu- 
lar teacher elsewhere. This made it impossible for a girl graduat- 
ing from the high school, but having no practical training, to ob- 
tain a position; and instead of three years of rather irregular sub- 
stituting, our graduates who expect to teach, are making prepara- 
tion at Normal school, and our vacancies this year have been filled 
by Normal graduates. 

Our teachers' meetings, held every two weeks, have been very 
interesting. During the year, we have read and discussed Dutton's 
'"Social Phases of Education," McMurray's "General Method," and 
Hinsdale's '^4.rt of Study." Not only have these books been read 
and discussed, but some of tlie ideas gained have been put into 
practice, so that the influence of our meetings is felt in the school 

The teachers have done careful and conscientious work through- 
out the term. We have been more thorough. The reading, par- 
ticularly in the lower grades, has been greatly improved. Charts 
for the mechanics of reading, combined with the New Educational 
Readers, have given most gratifying results. Our language work 
has advanced v.ith the reading. We are getting more enthusiasm 
along this line, from the primary dei)artment to the high school. 

The annual exhibit of school work was held the second Saturday 
in June. This shows the actual grade work, gives the parent a 
chance to see just what his child can do, and to compare the work 
of the different pupils. The interest shown this year by the parents 
fully repaid the teachers for the time and energy spent in prepara- 

The graduating class numbered fourtc^Mi — fiv(^ morc^ than last 
year. There were nine boys and five girls. Two of the boys have 
received college scholarships. Three others, two boys and a girl, 
expect to go to college in the near future. Three of the February 


class have nearly completed a business course, and two others ex- 
pect to enter a business college in the fall. 

The commencement was well attended. Prof. Charles Albert, 
of Bloomsburg, made the address. The class acquitted themselves 
creditably, and the whole programme was a most appropriate close 
to a high school course. 

The number of pupils in our high school is increasing rapidly. 
This is probably due in part to the new factory law. It keeps the 
boys and girls in the upper grades, until they reach a point where 
interest gets hold of them, and keeps them in the school until they 
graduate, but notwithstanding the increased number in our upper 
grades, we have granted during the year eighty-four certificates. 

This makes additional work for the superintendent, who in addi- 
tion to supervision and office work, must teach Latin and Science 
in the high school. There is imperative need for another teacher 
in the high school, and he hope in our next report to tell you of an 
increased force in that department. 

CORRY— V. G. Curtis. 

Returning to the scene of my former labors after an absence from 
the State of over twenty years, it has been a pleasure to find the city 
of Corry still in the forefront of educational progress. The elegant 
new high school with its artistic architecture and its complete mod- 
c-rn equipment, the free public library conveniently accessible to 
teachers and students, a faithful and enthusiastic corps of teachers 
keenly alive to the responsibilities of their high calling, a competent 
progressive board of directors unanimous in their desire to promote 
the important interests committed to their care, and last though not 
least, a strong sentiment in the coinmunity which demands the best 
possible schools to be had with the means at hand, are still positive 
indications of substantial progress and show plainly what a powerful 
bold the schools of Corry have on the minds and consciences of the 

Under these favorable conditions and on account of the intimate 
and agreeable relations which I have alwaysi sustained with the peo- 
ple of Corry, resulting from my former experience in the manage- 
ment of their schools, I apprehended no difficulty in being able to 
harmonize and unify the schools work and to stimulate andi encour- 
age all the educational forces in the community. To that end' I have 

No. 6. CORRY. 171 

dkected my most earnest efforts. With what degree of success we 
shall have to await the answer of time and perhaps the judgment of 
the next generation, 

Kealizing the full truth of that very old educational maxim " as is 
the teacher, so is the school," my first efforts w^ere directed to the 
improvement and inspiration of the teaching force. The usual means 
of professional training were made use of. General teachers' meet- 
ings and grade meetings were held at which general educational 
topics were discust and special work pertaining to the grades was 
outlined and illustrated. 

The teachers manifested a most excellent spirit and were always 
ready and willing to respond to any appeal for extra effort or study 
which promised to give them increased power to train the minds and 
strengthen the characters of their puj)ils. These meetings we trust 
have produced good results and have given our school work a general 

In order to improve the surroundings and adorn the somewhat bar- 
ren school rooms, special stress was laid on school room decoration 
at the beginning of the year. Some of the teachers' meetings were 
devoted to this subject, and prizes were offered in the way of pictures 
to those keeping their school rooms in the most perfect order and 
state of cleanliness. Both teachers and pupils responded admirably. 
Many reproductions of art masterpieces now adiorn the walls of the 
school rooms and the interest is still maintained. 

Another new feature in the way of "mind, heart and hand train- 
ing" was introduced in the schools with excellent results, and that 
was the school gardening and the improvement of vacant lots. The 
seventh, eighth and ninth grades of the schools were organized under 
the name of Junior Civic Improvement Leagues, whose object was to 
lend their aid in keeping the school grounds and the streets of the 
city cleaner and more sanitary and in beautifying home and public 
grounds. Several of the leagues selected vacant and uncared for 
city lots, spaded and leveled them, and planted them with flowers 
and vegetables. 

Some unsightly were thus transformed into beauty spots and one 
of these school gardens received a prize of |5.00 offered for open 
competition by the "North American" of Philadelphia for the great- 
est improvement in an unimproved city lot. 

Both the autumn and Spring Arbor Days were observed in all the 
schools with a special effort to inculcate in the minds of the pupils 
a love of nature, a know^ledge of soils and the processes of plant 
growth and a realization of the inestimable value of the products of 
the soil and of the urgent necessity of forest preservation and of 
tree culture from an economic standpoint. 

Ot^mmittees from the local Post of the G. A. E. visited all tlie 


schools on Memorial Day, in accoTdanc(,' witli a pit-airangcd sclicdule, 
and with sliort patriotic talks from the old soldiers, including; the 
illustration and explanation of the army bugle calls, and with the 
programs of music and recitations rendered by the pujjils the oc- 
casion was fraught with much interest and a profound impression 
was made on the minds of the children, which will doubtless be of 
great influence in laying- the foundation of patriotic citizenship. 

The public library established only a few years ago under the gen 
eral library laws of the State, is becoming an important factor in 
the educational life of the city. The number of patrons and tht^ num- 
ber of books drawn are mateirially increasing with every month. 

Large additions have been made during the year to the juvenile 
department and under the direction of the teachers, a taste for a 
wholesome class of literature is being lieveloped am'ong the young 

The high school of the city of Corry has been long noted for its 
higli standard of efticienicy and I am pleased to note that it continues 
to maintain the same standard of excellence and continues to grow 
in popularity and power. The courses are thorough and compre- 
hensive, and under the competent and skillful management of Miss 
Mary L. Breene and her faithful assistants most excellent work is 
accomplished. The graduates stand high in scholastic attainments 
and are able to enter the first class colleges and technical schools 
without further preparation, and as a rule maintain excellent stand- 
ing in the higher institutions. Seventeen students were graduated 
from the high school at the close of the year and ten have entered 
college or university. 

Commencement exercises were held as usual in the high school 
auditorium and the keen interest of Ihe general public was evinced 
by a large attendance. Ur. Thomas M. Crowe of Bulfalo, of the 
class of '80 delivered the address to the graduating class, which was 
an eloquent and suggestive appeal foi higher ideals in American 

The high school furnished the music and part of the literary pro- 
gram. A pleasing feature of the graduating exercises was the 
awarding of the two prizesi for excellence in composition. These 
prizes were given by Mr, Frederick J. AVest of New York, a graduate 
of the Corry High School, class of '81. 

The thirty-ninthi annual reunion of the High School Alumni Asso- 
ciation was an event of more than ordinary interest. It was the 
largest and most enthusiastic gathering in the history of the Asso- 
ciation. Members were present from many different states, from 
the far Dakotas to sunny Louisiana. Some were in attendance who 
had not met their classmates for a quarter of a century, but from the 

No. 6. DANVILLE. 173 

(hiss of '74 to tlie class of 'OG all were aniniated by the same loyalty 
(o llii'ir Alma Mater. 

I)iiiiii<; the toasts and speech making after the banciiiet, (lie mat- 
ter of manual traininj;- was taken up ami the Alumni present sboweil 
their loyalty to the school by offeriiij; to raise a sum sufficient to 
purchas<' (he necessary eciuipment to install a manual i)lant provided 
the board of directors would employ an instructor. Unfortunately 
the state of finances would not warrant the board in the expense of 
an additional instructoi' for the coming year, and we are obliged to 
posiiKmc^ the introductioii of this important and valuable feature of 
modern education into our schools. It is earnestly to be hoped that 
the board will see its way clear to make a beginning in this direction 
before another year passes. 

DANVILLE— U. L. Gordy. 

In my annual report to the Department of Public Instruction, I 
wish to state that the work in. all its features has been carried on 
throughout the year in a most desirable way, and gratifying results 
have been obtained. Unity of purpose and effort on the part of those 
concerned seems to be the proper explanation of this. The general 
public, directors, teachers and pupils appear to have their interest 
centred in making the public school system an efficient factor for 
good in the community, and spare no reasonable means of support 
to attain this end. 

The schools were opened August 28 for a term of nine mouths, and 
closed May 25. Thirty-one teachers were regularly employed, and 
1,233 pupils enrolled; of these, four teachers and 155 pupils were in 
the high school. The pupils attended an average of 94 per cent., 
one teacher resigned unceremoniously during the term, and one was 
ill of diphtheria. 

Every provision of the Compulsory School Law was successfully 
enforced. A few arrests for non-attendance were made, and fines 
imposed; sufficient to convince the indifferent pupil and parent that 
the State regulations must be observed. Thirty-four pupils failed 
to attend 75 per cent, of the time belonged as required by local ar- 
rangement, but invariably on account of sickness. 

The new rules governing employment certificates to children be- 
tween 14 and 16 years of age caused more or less confusion at the 
beginning of the year, but the public seems to have been educated to 


them, and no difficutly is now experienced. Tlie provisions of the 
act were lived up to faitlifully, though your superintendent is of the 
humble opinion that the matter can be materially simplified without 
sacrifice of desired ends. 

The much exploited (piestion of vaccination was not a feature in 
our school district. No pupil was admitted befoTe presenting a cer- 
tificate of successful vaccination from a reputable physician. No 
difficulties were encountered, and few or no adverse criticisms were 

The most difficult thing to get established is the quarantine law in 
cases of certain cioiitagious diseases, and the matter of excluding from 
school pupils from infected homes 30 days following the fumigation 
of the house. The cause seems to lie with the thoughtlessness of 
some physicians whose professional opinion is that all danger has 
passed when 10 or 15 days have elapsed after fumigation, and give 
a note to the pupils to that effect. Refused admission with such a 
certificate, agrieved parties can hardly be made to understand what 
the school authorities are obliged to do. However, we succeeded in 
enforcing a strict interpretation of the law. 

The new course of study, ordered published about a year ago, was 
put in effect at the beginning of the year. No radical changes in 
the line of work done ui> to this point were made. The purpose was 
to systematize and state the outline of studies in such a way that the 
teacher could grasp as a whole the work to be done in her grade; also 
gain a comprehensive idea of what her pupils had done in the grade 
below, and were expected to do in the grade above. General instruc- 
tion meetings of teachers with this in view were held from time to 
time during the year. A copy of this course of study has been filed 
at the Department. 

The most conspicuous change in our work was the arrangement of 
a grad'ed course of reading for pupils. A list of 12 or 15 books was 
provided for each grade, including fairy stories, folk-lore, works of 
fiction, travel, nature, biography, history and poetry. These selec- 
tions were made upon the principle that children of a school age are 
not able to select their own reading properly, and many parents 
are just as incapable, while many woiild do no reading at all without 
definite direction. The trustejes of the Thomas Beaver Free Library 
generously extended to us the use of their books, and the results, 
though not what we have in mind to attain, were all that could be ex- 
pected. The librarians tell us that never in the history of the in- 
stitution were so many and good books read as during the past year. 
To see that these books are read as they should be, written outlines 
are referred to the teacher, and these made the basis of Friday after- 
noon exercises. 

The graduating class of the high school numbered 27 "this year, 

No. 6. DUBOIS. 175 

the largest in the history of the school. Of these, 15 were students 
from the eommercial course, the first to graduate from that depart- 
ment. Some of these have since been located in city offices as 
stenographers and typewriters, book-keepers, etc., and proved satis 
factory to their employers. AVith our good eipiipment, we feel that 
commercial work, as the business w'orld requires it, is a demonstrated 
success with us, and a feasible proposition in any public school where 
the proper conditions are supplied. Morever, it is a line of instruc- 
tion that the public has a right to demand. 

Your superintendent attended the meeting at Altoona, and Mr. 
Jacob Fischer and Mr. W. H. Orth were delegates to the directors' 
convention at Harrisburg. Extended reports of proceedings and 
benefits derived were made t'o the local board at subsequent meetings. 

Without further detail, we repeat that a school year has just ended 
in which there is little for us to regret, and much to encourage. 
Already plans are being formulated for the work of next year. With 
no projects in view that are new, but with a firm resolve to do and 
have done better work along lines hertofore operative, we hope for 
great things, and with the same hearty co-operation of all exponents 
of the public school system — the publie, the directors, the teachers, 
the pupils, the press, and prominently among these — the Depart- 
ment — as that manifest heretofore, who shall say that we can not 

DU BOIS— J. H. Alleman. 

The work of the term has been very satisfactory. With the ex- 
ception of several weak teachers, we have had nothing to mar the 
progress and even tenor of the previous years' work. All educational 
facilities must dwindle into insignificance when placed into the hands 
of incompetent, indiiferent, easy-going, drift-along teachers. No in- 
competent or negligent teacher should be permitted to blast the 
future [jossibilities of child-life. Who can estimate the loss? 

Who is the good teacher in school work? This question submitted 
to public sentiment would often places the crown upon the heads of 
the most unworthy. The easy-going, drift-alonj;-. happy-go-lucky 
worker, who flatters parents and pu])ils with marks on re]>ort cards 
that have never been earned, and \vhose gilt-edgtd statements to 
Johnny's mother or father picture the remarkable brilliancy and pro- 
gress of a remarkable pupil taught by a remarkable teacher; 


such often get the crown of honor, the palm of victory, and the almost 
unanimous approval of the community. Such cases are rare; but 
every community has its atflictions plong this line. Often no one 
possesses the necessary courage and manliness to expose such decep- 
tion and weakness, owing to the inevitable scathing sentiment ex- 
pressed by the misguided and deceived public. 

The greatest farce can often muster the strongest battalions of 
friendship, sympathy and popularity. Parents and citizens too fre- 
quently judge teachers without even visiting their schools; without 
ever observing their work and results; without the slightest knowl- 
edge of their work, except such as is based upon the judgment of 
a well-pleased or a prejudiced little child. What business man would 
be willing to be guided by the judgment of a little child, even in such 
a trifling matter a® the purchase of a. horse, a shovel or a. saw? Yet 
in the responsible duties of school work, judgment based upon such 
assumption, is often proclaimed upon the house-tops by very good 

It requires close obsei-ration of a tfacher's work, frequent visits 
to her school, a thorough knowledge of what good teaching really is, 
a careful test of the work accomplished and the results obtained, 
in addition to good judgment, to form an accurate idea and to give 
a fair unbiased report of each teacher's work and abilities. Such 
work is not the result of a single day. Superficial supervision never 
discovers the actual facts and results in any teacher's schiool. Close 
supervision so often reveals, "That things are not what they seem." 

The term just ended may justly be called a year of close supervi- 
sion. Tlie methods and plans of supervision have been such that 
few, if any, weaknesses could escape liunoticed. It is a hopeful con- 
dition for the schools when teachers realize and openly remark that 
poor teaching and results can no longer escape detection in the 
Du liois schools. 

Among various plans was that of giving tests on the work covered 
in the different grades and examining such tests in the superinten- 
dent's office. The results of the various grades were averaged com- 
parisons were made with the marks of the monthly report cards, 
general reports were issued to teachers and pupils concerning the re- 
sults — suggestions were given to the teachers who needed them — iu 
shioi t, the enltire plan served as stimulation, inspiration and perspira- 
tion to teacher and pupils. Carelessness, lack of thoroughness, etc.. 
were exposed and corrected. The drift-along, kill-time teacher and 
pupils were, figurative^ly speaking, placed in the sweat box to receive 
the necessary inforniiation and reformation. 

All the rooms of our four buildings were well filled, and one extra 
school was conducted in the C. Y. M. C. A. building. Next term it 
will be necessary to have from three to four extra schools in rented 

No. 6. d'UBOIS. 177 

iHWiiis — this often proves unsatisfactoiy and (Irtrhuental to the best 
interests of the sehools. 

The high school numbered one lumdied and ninety-tive pupils, the 
largest enrollment in the history of the sehools. The total enroll- 
ment of all the schools was nineteen hundred ninety-five, present in- 
dications are that we need a modern high school building, sutficieiitly 
large to accommodate the high school and the grammar grades, to 
relieve the over-crowded conditions in the various ward buildings. 
Such building should be up-to-date in every particular, providing for 
the introduction of manual training, domestic science, etc. Senti- 
ment is slowing growing along these lines among the directors and 
the citizens who are interested in the welfare of the rising genera- 

At the close of the commencement exercises. President M. I. Mc- 
Creight, who has served on the board in the capacity of President 
for the last thirteen, years, delivered a very able address on the neces- 
sity of Manual Training in our schools. Du Bois is blessed with an 
up-to-date, progressive board of directors who labor zealously to at- 
tain the highest possible standard for our schools. 

The address by M. I. McCreight is submitted in part as follows: 

"The main reason for schools is that our boys and girls may be 
taught how to be successful men and women. It is that they may 
be self dependent in the great practical working world. 

We purport to teach them what they need to know to be success- 
ful in life — but do we succeed? 

We send the boys out able to say how to saw a board and weigh 
a pound of nails and keep a set of books; but can they do it? Have 
we a boy in the class who can dig coal; survey a mine ov run an en- 
gine? I doubt it, yet our whole community depends largely upon 
just that kind of work. If "the ladder of fame" were a thing of 
wood — our boys could not ascend — if first required to build one. 

Our girls here graduated will match the best in the branches of 
our high school course, yet if I asked for volunteers to bake good 
bread or trim a hat, or milk a cow, you would not see a hand go up 
in all the class. We send out our b'oyh and girls to make their way 
in the w^orld, yet if this class were turned loose in a field of corn, 
they would probably starve for want of knowing how to bake a 
pumpkin pie. This is a practical age. It is the man or woman who 
can do things if we would have them succeed. We must progress. 
Times have changed and we must change. We want the x>eople of 
Du Bois to ecjualize the tax list that we may pay more salaries. The 
high priced teacher is the cheap tearher. We pay flOO a month for 
a man to train mir horse; we pay 140 or |50 a month to train our 
boy; the man for flOO handles one horse; the man for |50 handles 50 



boys — flOO a month for the horse — fl a month for the boy. We 
want the people of Du Bois to join tlie board and superintendent in 
reforming ourselves. We want to install in our school the hammer 
iind anvil, the saw and plane, the dynamo, the transit, the lathe and 
the book-keeper's desk. The kitchen cabinet and the sewing ma- 
chine. Then — ^then when our boys and girls go out to earn money 
to go to college and become lawyers or football players, they will 
get positions, for they are able to do. They know how. It is^ the boy 
who can do things that makes his way, and the world is full of places 
for him. Let us teach the thing in school that will help the boy after 
he leaves school. It is only the ammunition we need supply, the 
man behind the gun will do the rest." 

The graduating class numbered twenty-nine pupils, the largest 
in the history of the school. Rev. Elliot A. Boyd delivered the ad- 
dress to the class on the subpject, "The Seen and the Unseen." 

DUNMORE— C. F. Hoban. 

Despite the fact that we lost some very able teachers at the be- 
ginning of the school year, the past year has been one of general pro- 
gress in Dunmore. Handicapped at the outset by the resignations 
of Prof. Costello, head of the department of Latin; Miss Mary Mc- 
Lane, principal of the Commercial department, and Prof. Davis, prin- 
cipal of the high school, acceptable candidates were found in the 
persons of Prof. Ellis, who was made principal of the high school; 
Prof. Tuckley, who was made vice-principal, and Mis» Estelle Wilz, 
who was made head of the Commercial department. Through the 
excellent service of these teachers, the work of the high school has 
been carried successfully on, and with almost double the number of 
pupils of any former year. 

The work in the grades has been particularly gratifying. The at 
tendance in all grades has been the largest in the history of the 
schools, and the percentage of promotions the highest yet attained. 
This record is due entirely to the greater enthusiasm manifested by 
the teachers and the masterful drill work in the essentials. 

An impetus to the broader education of the teacher was given in 
the recpiest of one of our teachers for n leave of absence during the 
year that she might take some higher work. At the close of th(^ 
year thirteen teachers took special work at a normal school. 

The music in the Dunmore schools has been a matter of great 

No. 6. DUNMORE. * j ' 179 

pride to the teachers and parents, ^^'e believe it to be as good as 
in any city or borougli in tlie State. During tlie year contests were 
held in each grade above the second. Tliese contests not only 
aroused a great deal of enthusiasm, but gave opportunity to com- 
pare the work of the ditterent teachers in vocal music. 

The annual oratorical contest was neld on March 1(;, and as usual 
a great crowd was in attendance. The decisions were not announced 
until the evening of commencement, an innovation that proved very 

The compulsory education law was rigidly enforced throughout 
the year. Fifty-nine arrests were made, and one factory proprietor 
I>rosecuted for employing girls under 33. One hundred and seventy- 
three certificates were issued to boys and girls who went to work in 
factories. But one certificate was issued under the mine law. It 
will be observed from this that the officials to whom the duty of en- 
forcing the mine law has been entrusted, are absolutely indifferent; 
in fact, I have no hesitancy in saying that no attention whatever is 
paid to the enforcement of the law. The school authorities insist on 
the boys attending school until they are 13, but after they reach that 
age, they have no trouble in securing employment about the mines 
and breakers. The mine law is a dead letter in Dunmore. I am pre- 
pared to present to the proper authorities dozens of names of boys 
who are under 14 and working about the mines. 

By a unanimous vote of the teachers last February, it was decided 
to hold a separate institute the first week in September. There were 
four reasons for doing this, viz: It would be possible to hold the in- 
stitute at a time best suited to the needs of the schools; it would 
enable the teachers to secure instructors of their own choosing, ones 
wlio would give instruction along the lines of our greatest needs; it 
would give Dunmore its owui permanent certificate committee, and 
would afford an opportunity to the members of the higher classes 
of the high school, of attending the hctures thereby benefitting by 
the inspiration. Arrangements for this meeting have been com- 
pleted and the teachers are very enthusiastic over the class of in- 
structors that has been provided. We have been especially fortu- 
nate in securing the services of Hon. Henry Houck, Prof. F. H. 
Green of West Chester, Prof. W. S. Monroe of the Westfield Mass. 
Normal, Mrs. Bessie Clements of Jersey City, and Dr. W. M. Reedy 
of Scranton 

"We are looking forward to the coming year with very bright pros- 
pects. We have lost three teachers, but their places have been filled 
with applicants of known ability. 


EASTON— ^^'m. W. Cottiugham. 

As no change of noteworthy importance affecting either the policy 
or the administration of the schools of this locality is presentable, 
and as the achievements of the year are fully up to the standard of 
scholastic attainment usually reached in this district, there is seem- 
ingly no need of special comment on the work of the schools of this 

Indications of assured progress were visible in all departments of 
school work, and by reason of a well fcnuulated system of classifica- 
tion and instruction under the guidance of a painstaking corps of in- 
telligent and earnest teachers, the work accomplished was most 
gratifying in its results. 

With the view of instilling right principles of character and con- 
duct, a systematic course of instruction in morals was introduced as 
a special exercise in all the schools of this city. In this era of graft, 
greed and corruption with their train of demoralizing influences vic- 
timizing the integrity of the community, there is an urgent demand 
foi' an effort to fortify our youth against these and Mother insidious 
and pernicious influences. Our aim therefore has been to lay special 
stress upon pnr(^ morals as the basis of true character, and in pur- 
suance thereof every teacher was enjoined to devote a portion of time 
daily throughout the entire term in an effort to inculcate in the 
minds of their pupils high moral aims and purposes as the surest 
guide to a complete, successful and honorable life. 

In obedience to the requirements of the act of Assembly, humane 
in t^ tract ion was incorporated as an addtional branch of study in the 
schoiol curriculum, and proved a subject of special interest to cliil- 
(Iren, and of great value to teachers as a means of instilling in the 
minds of pupils a just conception of the true and beautiful in the 
realm of benevolence and justice. 

This year, 1906, marks th(^ fiftieth class that has graduated from 
the Easton High School, and in commemoration of this half century 
event, the class for the first time in the history of the school, donned 
the mortarboard and gown on the octasion of the late commence- 
ment exercises. 

This year's graduating class consisted of fifty-six members equally 
divided as to sex, and distributed as follows in tlic^ several depart- 
nu'ntal courses of high school instruction: 

Connuercial course, 7 males, 14 tduales; general scientific, 15 
males, 8 females; Latin scientific, 4 nuiles, 4 females; Greek scientific, 
I female; classical, 2 males, 1 femq,le. 

A veiy pleasing and inteicsting feature of the closing (^xercises of 

No. 6. ERIE. 181 

the late nij,di School Coiumencenicnr, was the t'uiinal presentation of 
sehohirships and a, conuuercial priz<^ to the followinji,- deserviuj^' mem- 
bers of the Class : 

'Mr. Joseph F. Crater having- attained the highest final grade of the 
class, was awarded the free scholarship at I^fayette College wMch 
was presented by I'rof . John M. Mecklin of the College Faculty. 

Miss Kalte Ernst having fulfilled all the required conditions, was 
awaided the free scholarship of the Woman's College of Baltimore, 
Md., which was presented by George F. P. Young, Esq., a member of 
the board of control. 

The commercial prize consisting of a sum of money annually do- 
nated for the purpose by a proininent mercantile firm of this city, 
was awarded to Mr. George W. Sitgreaves the leader of his in point 
of grade in the commercial course, and presented by Mr. A. D. Mc- 
Ilhaney the head of the commercial department. 

A new feature of the occasion was the awarding of a free scholar- 
shii> of Lafayette College placed at the disposal of the High School 
Alumni Association by the trustees of the College, and to be granted 
by said association to a needy male grjiduate on specified conditions 
of class standing and deportment. Mr. Arthur I. Beilin having ful- 
filled all the required conditions, was awarded the Alumni Scholar- 
ship by Mr. Wesley M. Heiberger a representative member of the 
Alumni Association. 

The enthusiasm of the teachei-s in support of the University Ex- 
tension Course established during the year, has not diminished as 
evidenced not only by the attendance and interest displayed but oy 
the general appreciation extended to the lecture course as a means 
of culture. 

The local teachers' institute, weekly grade meetings and Normal 
class were maintained as usual, and composed the chief agencies that 
were operative in inspiring higher aims in professional knowledge 
and skill and in stimulating activity in the direction of harmonizing 
effort and rationalizing practice in school room work. 

ERIE— H. C. Missimer. 

Our total public school enrollment foi the year ] 00.5-00 was 8,28C, 
a net increase of 25:^ over the preceding y<^ai-. It was distributed as 
follows : 


High school (including :>1 in Normal ncpartment), 747 

Grades, 7,(H;(i 

Kindergarten, 7s 

Ungraded school ol), 14 duplicated 25 

Night schools, 'M'2 

Mechanical drawing school 58 

Total, 8,286 

Parochial and other schoiols :^,842 

Total in all schools 12,128 

P'stimated jiopulation of the city, on the basis of five times 

the school enrollment, G0,G40 

No new features were added to the schools during the year. Ger- 
man is still taught in all grades from the primary up. Though an 
optional study, 85 per cent, of the ciiildrcn in the grades take it, on 
the card request of the parents. 

Manual training was given to 788 })upils during the year from our 
5th, 6th and 7th grades for one hoiir every two weeks. A display of 
their work in one of our store windows on the main street attracted 
wide attention. Instruction in cooking and housework reached about 
200 girls from the 6th and 7th grades, and the 1st and 2d years of the 
high school. These two f(^atures of oui school work are deservedly 
popular with our people. 

The work of the public scIkwiI in the elementary grades must neces- 
sarily be conservative. 

Sixty-six per cent, of the school enrollment in our city are in the 
primiary grades; twenty-five per cent, are in the grammar grades; 
nine per cent, are in the high school. 

These figures may vary slightly from year to year, but they uni- 
formly declare that the great woi-k of the public school lies in the 
grades below the high schoiol. With ari average school life there is 
but four or five years of 200 days each at the most, that work must 
be oonfined to the things and subjects that are fundamental every- 
where to the intelligent citizenship requisite to government by the 
people. There is no time for experimental or sentimental "side 
issues" of any kind. The business of the school is to do its essential 
work as thoroughly as possible by the simplest, the clearest, the most 
direct methods, and by the best possible teaching. We aim to do 
this in Erie. 

A miatter of grave and seiious concern atfecting the school sys- 
tems of oair citi(^s is the raj)idly growing- increase in child labor. 
Erie has not escaped this industrial infectiou. It is safe to sav that 

No. «. ' FRANKLIN. 183 

there are from tive to six hundred children in our city between the 
ages of 14 and 10 engaged in child Irbor. It is greatly to be de- 
plored. To put a child to a round of monotonous work, for ten hours 
a day, before he has reached his full growth is a crime against the 
child, a crime against society. ( 'iiildreii on a farm may work and yet 
live sane and healthy lives. In a factory it is different. The fac- 
tory kills children, physically, meutaiiy and morally. Yet there are 
thousands of immature children in the factories of this free country 
to-day. Keep them at it only a few years and we have weaklings 
and degenerates that no after care can help. They may grow up 
after a fashion, but they will be utterly lacking in physique, in the 
mental vigor which is needed to overcome difficulties, and in the 
moral stamina which makes a man stick to his work whether he likes 
it or net. 

Premature labor day by day breaks down the human system, and 
brings on premature decay and disease. Thousands of children go 
to work prematurely every year, when they ought to be going to 
school. Many of them are working in the shop, the store, or the 
mill against every law, civil and moral. The great industrial states 
of 'Massachusetts, New York, rennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois are 
the- largest employers of such labor. They are not the only ones, nor 
art they the worst. Such an industrial policy in the long run will 
be sure to breed social, physical and moral decay throughout the 

FRANKLIN— Charles E. Lord. 

During the school year ending June 4, 1906, good work was done 
in our schools though it was impossible to do as well as we wished 
in one of the buildings on account of its crowded condition. Fifty 
to fifty-five pupils are too many for one teacher to handle to good 
advantage. A two-room addition to the building in question is be- 
ing built and will be ready for use at the opening of the next term. 

For years the work in a number of rooms has been seriously 
inteifered with by a few boys and girls who were in some cases 
truants, in some inclined to be disorderly, in some dull and back- 
ward and consequently much older than the great majority of pupils 
of their grade. It seems to me that it would be better for all con- 
cerned if such pupils were cared for in a room by themsi'lves under 
the charge of a thoroughly competent teacher and I hojte to see the 
plan tried soon. 

Early in the year the Board made it possible for all the grade 


teaeiieis to obseive the work doue in other rooms of the same or 
nearly the same grade by authorizing the superintendent to select 
the visiting teacher, the time, and the school to be visited, while 
the visiting teacher's place was tilled by a regular supply teacher. 
The teacht^rs were glad of the chance to see what their co-workers 
were doing and much good resulted to both the teachers and the 
schools. One teacher told me she had taught in Franklin for nearly 
twenty years and that she had never before had an opportunity 
to visit a room in Franklin where work of her grade was going on. 
This plan will probably be followed more extensively next year. 

In the belief that there ought to be more time given to oral spell- 
ing, special attention was given to that subject and careful division 
of words into syllables was required. Thorough and persistent drill 
on the fudamental operations of arithmetic was a prominent feature 
in all rooms where that subject was taught; while such subjects as 
compound proportion, compound interest, exchange, cube root, pro- 
gressions, and several others, were either entirely omitted or treated 
very briefly. Accuracy, rapidity, and neatness of written work were 
made special objects to be attained. 

To secure promotion from the eighth grade to the high school 
each pupil was required to obtain a standing of 75 per cent, in each 
and e\ ery subject pursued during the eighth grade year. This stand- 
ing depended almost entirely upon the work done from day to day 
and upon tests given from time to time as seemed best. Het ex- 
aminations had very little to do with the final results. Those fall- 
ing below in not more than two subjects were conditioned with the 
privilege of making up deficiencies during the summer and being 
admitted in the fall. Those who failed in more than two subjects 
are to take the work again next year. Two were conditioned on ac- 
count of their slovenly and careless writing, although well prepared 
in all other subjects. Both are busily and earnestly engaged with 
their copy books this summer. 

The idea that a pupil should be admitted to the high school on 
age, whether he has ever tried to do good work w noit, on tiie ph a 
that he will have a chance to show what he can do and may do well, 
does not appeal to me favorably. No one has been admitted who 
has not made a creditable record in the eighth grade and who does 
not appear capable and inclined to take hold of high school work. 
It has been my experience that poorly prepared pupils and those 
admitted for the purpose of trying their mettle almost always make 
a failure of their work and receive little or no benefit themselves 
while their presence often does the rest of the school harm instead 
of good. 

The only exception 1 would make would be in the case of the boy 

No. 6. GREENSBURG. 185 

or girl from the coimtry distiiots wlio lias liad but little chance to 
attend school hut who appears bright and anxious to learn. 

At the close of the term 14 girls and 6 boys were graduated. The 
commencement address was delivered by Hon. J. A\'. Lee, of Pitts- 

GREENSBURG— Thos. 8. March. 

The past year has been one of unusual progress. At the first 
meeting of the Board an aggressive policy was decided upon. xVf ter 
talking over the various repairs needed it was decided that the build- 
ing committee give an exhaustive report of the needs of the district 
at an adjourned meeting. This was done and during the summer 
the suggestions embodied in that report were carried out. Among 
the more important of these were the cleaning and calcimining all 
the buildings; the frescoing the auditorium in the high school build- 
ing; the placing of granolithic walks about the new building in the 
Fifth ward, grading and sodding the grounds and planting shade 
trees about them; the cutting dov^n trees in front of the Second 
ward properties; the cementing the floor of the basement in the 
Fourth w'ard building and connecting the well of the engine with 
the sewer, the placing of steel ceilings in a number of rooms, and 
putting the engines in the high school and number two buildings 
in proper repair. All these things occupied most of the summer but 
as few repairs had been made for years, they were very necessary. 

Many other things were done by the Board which entailed much 
work upon their part. At the command of the State Factory In- 
spector lire escapes were erected upon the high school building; 
the basement of the building was remodeled s^o as to be suitable 
for a gymnasium and the needed work of beautifying the Fourth 
ward grounds was started. The latter necessitated the construc- 
tion of many yards of concrete wall and pavement and much grad- 
ing. The total cost will be between three and four thousand dol- 

In September a new eight room building w^as opened in the Fifth 
ward with every room filled. It had been finished last year but it 
was thought best to wait until this year before occupying it. It 
is heated and ventilated by a fan system and all of its sanitary 
arrangements are the latest and best. It is a credit to the town 
and adds very much to the beauty of that section of the community. 

The e(iuipping that building with books and materials made addi- 
tional work for the committee on books and supplies. The adop- 


lion of a new course of study containing a course in literature neces- 
sitated otlier extensive purchases by the same committee; but the 
work was so thoroughly done that the schools were probably never 
better equipped than they have been during the past year. 

The new building necessitated a reclassitication of the town. Dis 
satisfaction was to be expected, but as the readjustments were made 
with absolute impartiality, surprisingly little developed. 

A number of changes were made in the arrangement and personel 
of the teaching force. An additional teacher was chosen in the 
grades, the position of principal was created in the grammar school 
and an additional department in the high school. These were all 
required on account of the crowded condition of the schools. Yet 
even then the rooms were overcrowded. During the year there 
were in all fourteen new teachers chosen and as great care was taken 
in their selection almost all of them were undoubted successes, and 
none of them failures. The superintendent was sent over a thou- 
sand miles to look up good teachers and the Board was guided en- 
tirely by his judgment, realizing that it would not be right to hold 
him responsible for the condition of the schools if they did not per- 
mit him to choose those through whom alone he could expect to 
realize success. 

In the high school probably the most notable advances were made. 
The employment of a fifth teacher made it possible to create a 
IJepartment of Modern Languages. German had been taught be- 
fore, but that course was strengthened and French added. United 
States history was also introduced in the Senior year. 

A gymnasium was furnished by the Board at a cost of about |7()0 
and equipped by the pupils with apparatus valued at about |600. 

During the year a school journal was published by the pupils and 
it has not only been a credit to them but has given them valuable 

The Underwood trustees with their usual generosity and good 
judgment presented the school with a handsome piano and music 
books were purchased by the Board. This created a new atmos- 
phere in the school which was very beneficial. The high school 
music was placed in charge of Mr. Shorthouse the grammar school 
principal, who is an accomplished musician. In addition to the 
piano the Underwood trustees gave the school what chemicals were 
needed in the laboratory and many useful and valuable books. 

During the year some of the schools suffered from contagious 
diseases. This led to the adoption of more stringent rules for the 
government of the janitors. Every building, in addition to the 
usual daily cleaning, is now thoroughly mopped or scrubbed once a 
week with disinfectants. In order to hnv<> this done the salaries 
of the janitors were increased 58 per cent. The total increase of 

No. 6. HANOVER. 187 

salaries for teachers and janitors for the whole borough for the com- 
ing 3'ear over the last is over |11,000 or more than 40 per cent, of the 
original amount I'aid. 

In June, 11)05, letters patent were issued which consolidated the 
boroughs of Greeusburg, East Greensburg, Southeast Greensburg 
and Ludwick into the new borough of Greensburg. This increases 
the number of directors from 15 to 20, the number of teachers from 
34 to 55, and the number of pupils from 1,500 to 2,1-500. The bring- 
ing of these systems to a common standard means largel}^ increased 
expense and work. The board has met the issue fairly by levying 
a total tax of 15 mills for next year, and they have formulated plans 
which will result in the uniform equipment of the whole district. 
This brightens a prospect which might otherwise be far from en- 
couraging and all are looking forward to a successful year. 

HANOVER— J. C. Carey, 

The school year just closed has been a year of growth and pro- 
gress. With the support of a Board of liberal and progressive di- 
rectors advances have been made in several lines. 

The course of study for our high school was lengthened to four 
years and scientific and commercial courses added. For the use 
of classes in physics $350 worth of apparatus was purchased and an 
excellent microscope was secured for work in Zoology and Botany 
which subjects were taught this year for the first. The remodeling 
of our high school building includes a laboratory of good dimen- 
sions with which it will be possible to teach science work in the 
modern way. 

In charge of an excellent teacher the commercial department has 
made a very good start and if present interest is maintained this 
will undoubtedly prove a successful venture. The course extends 
throughout four years and in addition to commercial branches in- 
cludes all of the English and the mathematics of the other courses. 

Crowded conditions in the grades necessitated the opening of an 
additional school after the regular opening of the schools in Sep- 
tember, and later it was necessary to divide a primary school, each 
of the two sections having n half day session. In order to over- 
come the crowded conditions and secure much-needed additional 
room a large annex to the present high school building was planned 
and is now well under way. This will provide four grade-rooms 


aud give greater facility for carrying- on high school work — a labora 
tory and a typewriting room being included in the plans. 

Under the direction of our commercial teacher who visited each 
grade school once a w(^ek, penmanship received great stimulus and 
marked progress in this direction was made. 

The vaccination law was thoroughly enforced and, although there 
was some opposition to it, only five pupils out of an enrollment of 
1,045 were refused admission because of failure to comply with its 
in-ovisions. • This year for the first, attendance oflficers were ap- 
pointed and fair results were obtained. Our factories employ many 
children and some parents are inclined to keep children from school 
for the most trivial causes. One prosecution with beneficial effect 
was made. We anticipate the great improvement in this direction 
which an energetic and fearless truant officer can produce. 

Our thanks are due the Department for valuable assistance rend- 
ered during the year. 

HAKRISBURG— F. E. Downes. 

The annual institute in Harrisburg was held during the last week 
in August. An attempt was made to vary the program somewhat 
by securing a larger number of instructors than usual. Our teachers 
seemed to enjoy the change, not simply because by it they were 
brought into contact with this greater number of prominent edu- 
cators, but for the reason that the usual monotony of the week was 
to a large degree avoided. We were fortunate in securing for the 
occasion the following strong corps of instructors: Dr. C. T. McFar- 
lane. Dr. Charles B. Oilbert. Dr. George W. Twitmyer, Dr. George 
Edward Reed, Dr. John Howard Harris, Dr. George M. Philips, 
Principal A. C. Rothermel. and Dr. S. S. Bishop. 

Our percentage of attendance during the past year has been the 
best in the history of our schools, in spite of the fact that there has 
been much absence on account of sickness. This result has been 
brought about in part by the fair weathtn' conditions, and in part, 
l)erhaps, by a more rigid enforcement of the compulsory education 
law. We have brought legal action for violation of the law upon 
five different occasions, involving ninety-seven specific cases of viola- 
tion. These suits certainly produced the desired effect in a large 
majority of the cases involved, and the presumi)tion is that they 
prevented violation of the law on the part of many others. 

I am pleased to be able to report a very important change in 
the salary schedule of our teachers. Heretofore our maximum 

No. 6 HARRISBURG. 189 

nioiitlil.v salai'ics have been |50, |55, |65 and $70, according to grade, 
from the lowest primary grades to the highest grammar grades. 
In the future these maxima will be |75, |7() and |75 taken in the same 
order as indicated above. This adjustment will mean eventually 
to our teachers increases in salary ranging from seven to fifty per 
cent., the largest percentage of increase being provided in the low- 
est primary grade. It will be seen that by the new arrangement 
teachers in the lowest primary and the highest grammar grades will 
eventually obtain the highest salaries paid in the grades, namely 
|75, while all others will attain to a maximum of |70. These 
changes, we believe, will make it possible to secure skill and ex- 
perience in the lower as well as the higher grades and will prevent 
the customary experimentation with beginners. 

High school salaries also show improvement. Heretofore the 
monthly salaries of teachers in the high schools have ranged from 
a minimum of |70 to a maximum of -f 110. Under the new schedule 
the minimum is |80 and the maximum |140, an increase of from 14 
to 27 per cent. 

For a number of years, owing to rapid increase of population, 
but more especially because our principals, excepting those of the 
high schools, are required to teach continuously, Harrisburg has 
been without adequate supervision of teaching. The only super- 
vision that has been possible, aside from that in the high schools, 
is such as the Superintendent has been able to give in connection 
with his many other duties. During the past year the Superin- 
tendent made 1,018 visits to schools, though perhaps no more than 
one-half of this number were made with the distinct purpose in view 
of supervising teaching. Want of time prevented more than this. 
It is evident that each of the 2.30 teachers in the district can receive 
but a small portion of the Superintendent's time in helpful criticism 
— perhaps an average of two hours annually. Recognizing this fact, 
the Board of Directors recently created two district supervisorships 
and elected to these positions two of the most experienced and com- 
petent employes of the Board, namely, Dr. L. S. Shimmell, formerly 
superintendent of the Huntingdon schools and for the last thirteen 
years connected with our high school, and Prof. J. J. Brehm, for the 
last nine years principal of one of our largest buildings. It is noit 
expected that these officials will, in any sense, relieve the Superin- 
tendent from his usual duties. Their services will be additional, 
not substitutional. The special purpose in the creation of the new 
offices is to secure increased efficiency in the work of teaching. Some 
cities in our judgment are over supervised; in Harrisburg the con- 
trary condition has prevailed. For years the district has suffer«Hl 
from want of adecjuate supervision. The new officials will begin 
their work in September. 


In the year 190-4-1905 the total amount paid to teachers was |120,- 
864.14; during the year just past, 1905-1906, the amount paid for 
the same purpose was |128,995.45; and for the coming year, 1906- 
1907, 1145,000 has been appropriated. Though this represents an 
increased expenditure in salaries of twenty per cent. I am glad 
to be able to state that there has been no increase in the millage as- 
sessment for school purposes during the last two years. 

We have now in operation a new and completely equipped tech- 
nical high school. The new building was opened for use in January 
and forms an important and necessary adjunct to our educational 
system in this industrial community. 

Our plans for the coming year are not fully formulated, but we 
expect to make "•Individual Work" the watch-word. The idea of the 
"survival of the fittest," too often used as an excuse for the failure 
of pupils, has no place, in our judgment, in elementary education, 
except in so far as children are mentally deficient. The end of 
effort should be to make the backward pupils fit to survive. 


The total enrollment in the public schools of Hazle township for 
the year ending June 4, 1906, was 3,432. Of this number more than 
three per cent, were enrolled in the high school, a larger proportion 
of the total enrollment than is found in the high schools of most 
townships. About 22 per cent, were enrolled in the grammar grades, 
29 per cent, in the intermediate grades, 40 per cent, in the primary 
grades and 6 per cent, in mixed schools. 

Fifty-four per cent, of the pupils are descendants of Italians, Hun- 
garians, Poles and Slavs. 

Our evening schools are well attended. During the winter we 
had seventeen teachers employed. Average number of months 
taught, 3.2. Total amount paid for teachers' wages, |1,362.50. Con- 
tingent expenses, |189.79. Total number of scholars, 653. Average 
evening attendance, |300. Cost of each pupil per month, |0.75. 

The annual commencement exercises were held in Hazle Hall, 
May 30. The class numbered fifteen, two boys and thirteen girls. 

The hall was tastefully decorated and a large audience was pres- 
ent and enjoyed the exercises. 

Every feature of the program was well rendered and showed the 
training the graduates have received in their four years' course. 

Supt. James M. Coughlin, of Wilkes-Barre, was the speaker of 
the evening. His address, which was very instructive, was full of 
wit and he had the audience in good humor. 

No. 6. . HAZLETON. 1»1 

HAZLETON— D. A. Haiman. 

The work of the past year was made somewhat difficult on account 
of having a number of schools in rented rooms and others upon 
half-day sessions until the completion, in January, of a sixteen- 
roomed school house in the southwestern part of the city. The 
building is a tine brick- veneered structure, modern in arrangement 
and equipment and retiects much credit upon the Board of Con- 
trollers who planned its erection and upon the citizens who, by a 
vote of almost five to one, permitted them to bond the city for about 
fifty thousand dollars above what the Board could have legally 
done without their consent. All of our buildings are now modern 
in the appointments except two and we have just let the contract 
for the modernizing of one of them. 

The course of study in the high school was enlarged so as to pro- 
vide for a business department. Pupils now have the privilege of 
electing a course that will fit them for college, normal school or, 
if they are not privileged to pursue their studies further, for the 
practical affairs of life. 

Death invaded the ranks of our teaching force taking from us 
Mr. Christopher Fagan, teacher of an A grammar grade and the prin- 
cipal of the building that had been dedicated but a few weeks prioe 
to his death. The following is a partial report upon his death by 
the Superintendent of Schools to the Board of Controllers: 

The adage, "Death loves a shining mark," has been strongly ex- 
emplified in the death of Mr. Christopher Fagan. This community 
has lost a valuable citizen, the schools a competent and faithful in- 
structor, and his family a devoted husband and father. At a recent 
meeting of the teachers of the city, appropriate resolutions upon the 
loss that they sustained by his death were unanimously passed and 
touching eulogies upon his life and character were expressed, * * * 

Mr. Fagan's death is a loss to our schools that is keenly felt by 
all who knew him best. He possessed to a large degree the vir- 
tues that combine to make the truly successful teacher. His quali- 
ties of mind and heart commanded the love and esteem of his asso- 
ciates and pupils. He taught both by precept and example and 
hence his influence for good will live in the hearts and lives of others, 
though his voice is silent. 

"Peace to the True Man's ashes ! Weep for those 
Whose da3's in old delusions have grown old; 
Such lives as his are triumphs, and their close 
An immortality; weep not for him." 


Of late years we have been much encouraged by the progress 
of the schools and the hearty support that has been given them by 
the Board of Controllers, the press and the citizens generally. Op- 
position to modern ideas of school organization, control, courses of 
study, methods of instruction and fair salaries has almost entirely 
ceased. The desire to provide the best possible education for the 
youth of Hazleton is well-nigh universal and as a result school work 
in the community is most pleasant and encouraging, All honor 
to those men who, notwithstanding adverse criticism and misrepre- 
sentation, persevered in pursuing a policy of advancement that has 
resulted in giving the city excellent buildings and equipment, well- 
balanced and complete courses of study and an earnest and efficient 
corps of teachers. 

HOMESTEAD— J. M. Norris. 

On May 31, Homestead closed what we were pleased to call a good 
year. While all that could have been done was not done, yet our 
teachers were, as a body, faithful and earnest in the work, and 
merited the praise of the school board and the patrons of the school 

The citizens of Homestead are interested in their schools to an 
unusual degree. Much of this public interest has been aroused by 
mothers' meetings which were held in all the schools of the bor- 
ough. Nearly every teacher of the borough bought pictures to 
adorn the school room and make it homelike and attractive to the 

The pupils in one ward planted trees, vines and flowers and other- 
wise beautified the school ground. 

The enrollment in the ward schools last year was less than the 
year previous, owing to very many of the children attending parochial 
schools. However the attendance in our high school was large, 
having enrolled about 160 pupils. We have recently installed a two 
years' commercial course in our high school which has proven very 
helpful in giving many of our boys and girls the opportunity of do- 
ing office work at a reasonably good salary. 

Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker attended the Founder's Day 
exercises of the C. M. Schwab manual training school and by his 
stirring address aroused much enthusiasm in this branch of our 

Our teachers were organized into a reading club which met 

No. 6. HUNTINGDON. 193 

moiithly, and many piobltMus of interest to the sehools were dis- 
cnssed at these meetings. 

Bryan's "Jiasis of J'ractieal Teaching" was read and studied. For 
the year of 1!)((0-1!M)7. Dr. Samuel Hamilton's book on "The Kecita- 
tion" will be read and discussed by the teachers. 

The directors of the borough of Homestead cannot be commended 
too highly for the interest they take in the affairs of our schools. 
There are fifteen members on the Board, which meets monthly, and 
rarely is there an absentee. A sanitary committee has so skillfully 
handled the matter of contagious diseases, that we have not had the 
usual depletion caused by them. 

HUNTINGDON— E. R. Barclay. 

The work in and for the schools of Huntingdon during the year 
just closed has moved steadily forward along the essential lines of 
progress. We have little that is new to report. Our energies were 
spent in improving the teaching of those branches most essential 
to the acquisition of knowledge and the power to use it for good. 
We aimed to teach good habits to our pupils and I think we suc- 
ceeded through the persistent and faithful efforts put forth by our 
Number enrolled in the primary and intermediate grades,. . 993 

Number enrolled in the grammar grades, 172 

Number enrolled in the high school grades 13S 

Total, 1,303 

Number who were graduated from the high school, 26 

Forty-eight per cent, of all pupils below the grammar grades were 

Forty-four and one-half per cent, of all grammar grade pupils were 

Thirty-three and one-third per cent, of the high school pupils were 

Seventy-six and one-third per cent, of all pupils below the gram- 
mar grades were promoted. 

Sixty-three per cent, of those in the grammar grades were pro- 

Seventy-two per cent, of those in the high school were promoted. 

Eleven and one-half per cent, of the school population were in 
the high school. 



One-twelfth of one per cent, of the average attendance was tardy. 

Two and one-half per cent, of the total enrollment were truants. 

Eight monthly teachers' meetings were held during the year. 

One of the most common criticisms heard about the schools in 
Huntingdon as elsewhere is that we are teaching too much; that 
the health of pupils is often impaired by over work, &c., &c. To 
this class I must cite a few arguments from the other side: During 
the year just closed no less than fifty of our high school pupils were 
taken from their lessons every night for two weeks at a time and 
on two different occasions to aid in the rendering of an entertain- 
ment which certainly would not articulate or correllate with any 
course of study know^n to the writer. The practices were held in 
a dingy, dirty room and often lasted until eleven o'clock. The 
scanty costumes worn were not sufficient to keep them warm. These 
same children came to school next day with colds; they were tired; 
they were fatigued and sleepy; they were irritable and disinterested 
because they were not prepared to recite. Yet several of these 
same pupils were taking medicine for nerves said to be wrecked in 
school and others were represented in the Superintendent's office 
soon after the promotions were made. When parents are made to 
realize that growing children need at least eight hours of sleep and 
that it should be taken at regular hours; that good wholesome food 
for children should be taken at regular hours and that as a rule ex- 
ercise need not be taken on the street after nine o'clock at night; 
that the little socials and home talent entertainments given several 
times a week are not conducive to good study and are not regarded 
as being on the. list of nerve tonics; that no child can keep irregular 
and late hours and eat a mixture of unmixable foods without suffer- 
ing for the folly. When these truths of nature are known and 
obeyed we will have better students-bright-eyed, rosy-cheeked, keen- 
visaged healthy boys and girls. Something every teacher will hail 
with delight. 

Our work during the year has been marked by progress. The 
teachers have been faithful and in most cases competent and suc- 
cessful. The aforesaid thoughtlessness on the part of parents and 
sickness are the only things which have militated against our work. 
The thanks of the superintendent are due the teachers for their 
loyalty and promptness in acting on suggestion. The Board of Di- 
rectors too havft manifested a commendable interest and a generous 
amount of liberality and good judgment in the management of the 

No. 6. JOHNSTOWN. 196 

J E ANNETTE— Theo. B. Shauk. 

There were no material changes in our schools during the past 
year. The average attendance was good and the interest mani- 
fested on the part of pupils and teachers was not below the aver- 
age. None of us are very well satisfied with our work and at times 
are justly disgusted and discouraged, but then on the whole pro- 
gress seems to have been made. The subject of arithmetic in the 
lower grades has always given us more or less concern and the 
teachers have a tendency to push the subject too much and as a re- 
sult, the children fornv a distaste for the thing that should be the 
most interesting. 

A teachers' reading class was organized in which James' "Talks 
to Teachers" and another work were used and with fair success. So 
many teachers think that when the closing hour arrives, they are 
done for the day and few give their work any thought until they 
come again in the morning. Allow the Superintendent to name his 
own teachers as was done here this year and there is more activity. 

We had a great many cases of diphtheria last winter though few 
fatalities. However, the schools were at times almost entirely 
closed, which seemed to do little toward breaking up the disease. 

JOHNSTOWN— James N. Muir. 

Total enrollment in all schools during the year, 6,770. Of this 
number 858 were enrolled in high school. The greatest monthly 
enrollment was 6,141. This was in the fourth school month. Of 
this number 334 were enrolled in high school. There was a gradual 
falling off in attendance from the fourth month to the end of the 
school term with but 5,753 pupils enrolled during the ninth school 
month. Of this number 300 were enrolled in high school, 131 boys 
and 169 girls. Thirty-nine of this number received diplomas of 
graduation. There ^^ere 572 pupils in the elementary schools who 
were perfect in attendance; 33 were perfect in attendance in high 
school; 178 pupils received certificates of promotion to enter high 
school in the fall. We may expect at least 400 pupils in the high 
school next term. 


The Board of Education has decided to build three uew school 
buildings, one twelve-iooni and two six-iooui buildings. The twelve- 
room building to be built on the site and take the place of the old 
Bheam. One of the six roomed buildings to be built on the Meadow- 
vale site to relieve the crowded condition of the Seventh ward, the 
other on a uew site in Moxham to relieve that district. These build- 
ings are to be modern in every respect. They are to be ventilated 
by the mechanical system and heated by hot air. They are to have 
the individual closet system. The buildings will cost about |100,000. 

The Teachers' Institute was held in the high school auditorium, 
November 6-10, inclusive. The instructors were Dr. Charles A. 
Shaver of the Educational Department of the State of New York; 
Dr. K. N. Koark, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.; Dr. S. H. Al- 
bro, Fredonia, N. Y.; Mrs. Maud Wentz McDonald, of Columbus, 
Ohio, and Gen. Z, T. Sweeney. These instructors will long be re- 
membered by our teaehers. They were instructors with strong, fresh 
messages, and each delivered his message with magnetic earnestness. 
The most popular part of the program was the fre(iuent appearance 
of Mrs. Maud Wentz McDonald, vocalist. 

One of the interesting events of the year was the opening of two 
kindergarten schools. These two schools have been a decided suc- 
cess. A great deal might be said of the kindergarten and its "re- 
lation to the home and the community." I am pleased to report 
that our kindergartens have been doing their best to illustrate these 
relationships during the past year. They have visited the homes 
of the parents, and in return the parents have visited the kinder- 
gartens. The social interchanges have been decidedly helpful. Much 
has been done for the children. It has served for an introduction 
for all who for the first time left home, to the more formal work of 
the first school year. Their work has been in the main construc- 
tive, cultivating with the motor sense habits of politeness, cleanli- 
ness, kindness to animals, and to their playmates, obedience to 
teachers and parents and to all in authority. 

A glance at the register of the kindergarten schools will show us 
that our schools have been attended by the children of the rich and 
l)Oor alike, regardless of social position. The little ones have met 
on a level for their first instructions. The kindergarten to be of 
greatest usefulness to the community the closest bonds should exist 
between the kindergarten and the first primary grade. 

Taken as a whole the year's work has been quite satisfactory. 
It is impossible to measure the moral uplift of 6,000 pupils and 166 
teachers by any statistical data or any unit system yet devised. 
Heretofore the basis of promotion has been on six branches, gen- 
erally known as the essential branches, w^hich subjects are required 
by the State laws of Pennsylvania. They are reading, spelling. 

No. 6. JOHNSTOWN. 197 

arithmetic, giamiiiai-, geograpliy and history. To secure dettniteness 
and unity in all grades a synopsis of the several different subjects 
was sent from the superintendent's office that the same grades in 
different buildings may cover idiotically the same amount of work. 
Uniform examinations were sent from the superintendent's ottice in 
conformity with this synopsis sent out. At tlie beginning of the 
year the pupils were informed just when those examinations would 
occur, and ample time given to qualify themselves for these reviews. 
Instead of the general average in all branches in the grade, it was 
required to pass each slubject at an average of 75 per cent, in the 
quarterly examinations. No iron-clad rule was followed. If the 
child did good class work and came under this standard in examina- 
tion and in the teacher's opinion, that child should go on, he was 
promoted to the next higher grade. No child whom the teacher 
could conscientiously recommend for a higher grade was held back 
because he fell below a certain per cent. Each child has been as- 
signed to the grade where the teacher and superintendent believe 
that he will derive the greatest good for his future work in the 

Despite the fact of this change the results have been very grati- 
fying. Both pupils and teachers have made commendable effort 
to reach this standard and make their work uniform. The pupils 
most affected by this change were the third grammars. The change, 
however, acted as a spur and gave us 178 pupils from that grade 
who will enter high school next fall. I believe all the pupils, have 
been greatly benefited in their endeavor to reach this standard. 

Arbor Day, April 20, was observed in all our schools. Prominent 
men and women of the city w'ere secured to speak to the children 
in the various grades throughout the city. We were especially 
favored in having with us Miss Mira Dock, a member of the State 
Forestry Commission, who delivered an address in the high school 
on "A Forest Arbor Day, and Village Improvement Pilgrimage." 
Miss Dock is thoroughly conversant with her subject and gave us 
many things to think about concerning the beautifying of our city. 

The children of the city responded to the call of the relief fund 
for the San Francisco sufferers in a very generous manner, and as 
the result of their efforts |476.40 were turned over to the general 
committee in charge of the fund and sent directly to San Francisco. 

In conclusion I desire to express my appreciation of the work 
of the Board of Education and the various committees with whom 
I have labored during the past year. No Board ever gave more 
freely of time and energy to the duties of looking after the affairs 
of any school system. Serious problems have been met effectively. 
I wish to express my thanks to the members of the Board for their 
confidence and support, and to the teachers, supervisors, and prin- 
cipals for their devotion to their school duties. 


LANCASTEK^K. K. iiueliile. 

It lias been suggested that city as well as eounty supenntendeuts' 
annual reports should describe the conditions under which educa- 
tion is carried on, and thus afford a larger and more correct view of 
the educational work performed in and by the community. A brief 
statement of such conditions will accordingly be found in this report. 

The population is fairly homogeneous, and uses the English lan- 
guage almost exclusively, altho there are some Germans and Rus- 
sians, a very few of various other nationalities, and very many de- 
scendants of Germans among our people. 

According to the provisions of a special act, the public schools are 
placed in charge of a bi-partisan board of school directors composed 
of thirty-six members, four from each ward, equally divided between 
the two political parties, and voted for by the citizens at large with- 
out regard to ward lines. The oflices to be filled at the organization 
of the board are amicably divided between the adherents of the two 
parties. There has not been a dead-lock or an unseemly quarrel over 
the offices, between the parties in tv^enty-five years, and the best 
men in the community deem it an honor to be enrolled in the micm- 
bership of the board. 

The financial condition of the district is of the very best. Its 
credit is so good as to enable it to sell its four per cent, school bonds 
at a premium of upwards of four per cent.; for, notwithstanding that 
eighteen school houses of antique pattern have given place Avithin 
the last twenty-six years, to substantial, well-arranged, oomfortable 
and sanitary modern structures of which the latest built and equipt 
has involved an expenditure of over |200,000, the school debt is only 
1280,000 on school property valued at |711,800, and the tax for school 
purposes — five mills — does not call foi* more than about three and a 
half mills on the basis of the real valuatiou of the property, and for 
all purposes, exclusive of water, on the same basis, for about ten 
mills. Thus while the salaries of our teachers are entirely too mod- 
est, there is compensation in the fact that they are promptly paid — 
often before the close of the month — and that the cost of living is 
not as high as in neighboring cities. 

The city as yet boasts no free public library, but the board of 
school directors has placed small libraries in every grammar school 
room, and also in the high school. There are no museums open to the 
pui>ils, except those provided by mother Nature in the surrounding 
country. Up to the present time the board appointed no supervisor 
of music, but Prof's. Matz and Kevin>.",ki inspired a love of vocal music 
in the youth of the city and Prof. Thorban is probably the first pro- 

No. 6. LANCASTER. 199 

fessor of orchestral music appointed and paid as a member of the 
high school faculty in the United States. The city is well supplied 
with private schools also. It is the seat of Franklin and Marshall 
College, its academy and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed 
Church, Lancaster College and Sacred Heart Academy for girls, St. 
Mary's Academy, four other church schools, one select school for 
girls, and two kindergartens. Within easy reach is Yeates Academy 
for boys and the First Pennsylvania State Normal School at Millers- 
ville. The Y. M. C. A. also provides tor educational work during the 
winter, and three commercial schools give instruction in book-keep- 
ing, stenography and typewriting. To these should be added the 
Linnean Society and the Lancaster County Historical Society. 

Supervising principals have not as yet been appointed in the 
grades below the high schools but the principals of buildings ex- 
ercise general supervision over the pupils outside of their respective 
school rooms; in all respects the teachers with their schools are di- 
rectly responsible to the superintendent and the board. While this 
condition lessens supervision as compared with cities having super- 
vising principals, it conduces to harmony and places greater respon- 
sibility on every teacher. There is therefore very little friction be- 
tween principals and teachers and the cost of supervision is less than 
five per cent, of the cost of instruction. 

The great educational event of the year was 'the dedication of the 
Slevens High School building in December and its occupation by 
the girls' high school in January. 

All our primary grade schools (the first four years of school) are 
attended by pupils of both sexes, in the grammar grades — fifth and 
sixth years — ten rooms are not co-educational and sixteen are. In 
the upper grammar grades — seventh and eighth years — ^only three 
rooms are oo-educational and thirteen are not. Our people as a rule 
seem to prefer grammar grade schools exclusively for one sex, tho 
not to such an extent as to object to co-education where the econo- 
mic conditions are highly favorable. In the high schools the sexes 
have occupied separate rooms in the same building for years, but in 
January last, the new Stevens High School was occupied by the girls 
alone, and the boys were given the exclusive use of the old high 
school building. It may therefor be confidently affirmed that our 
people are not inclined to co-education. 

As a rule the boys' grammar and the boys' high schools have been 
taught by male teachers, but in recent years two innovations were 
made in the high school and two in the grammar schools. In the 
girls' high school there now serve three male and six female teach- 
ers, and all the teachers in the boys' high school are male, while three 
additional boys' grammar schools are placed in charge of female 
teachers. There is thus on the whole a tendency toward the employ- 


ment of more female piiueipals in the {grades, and towards more male 
teachers in the high schools. Of our one hundred and forty teachers 
forty-three are graduates of State Normal schools, and five of col 

A most delightful evening was spent when early in the term, a 
number of the Alujnnae with their fiiends made a presentation of 
five hundred dollars in gold to Miss Sarah H. Bundell on her retire- 
ment after forty years of service in the high school. 

Dr. J. P. McCaS'key, the princi])al of the boys' liigh school closed 
a fifty years' connection with that institution only to assume the 
duties of mayor of the city, he having been accorded the rare honor 
of an election to that office in February, and Miss M^ry Martin, the 
practical yet gentle spirit of the bo\s' high scho'ol retired at the 
close of her twentieth term: there to experience the well-merited en- 
joyments of private life after "a career of forty years in the school 

Frof. J. C. Gable, Dr. McCaskey's associate for almost forty years 
was suddenly called away in mid-winter from the scene ol his 
earthly labors to his eternal rest. 

LANSFORD— E. E. Kuntz. 

The past school year has been a successful one. Our highest en- 
rollment for the year was 1,264, with an average of 90 per cent, for 
the entire school year as against an average ,of 88 per cent, the pre- 
vious year. Had it not been for a small-pox scare induced by sev- 
eral cases in our town and many cases in neighboring towns, a preval- 
ence of measles and mumps, our percentage of attendance would 
have been higher. Even with these conditions, we consider an ex- 
oellent showing has been made. 

We feel proud of our eni-ollment of pnpils for a town of about 6,0U0 
inhabitants, and the fact that so many are foreigners who send their 
children to the mines and the silk n:ill, makes our aittendance the 
more remarkable. One of our principal troubles is with the pupils 
who go to work, as many parents send children to work under 14 
years of age, making affidavit that they are 14 years of age. We 
succeeded in breaking one affidavit by presenting a church certificate 
of birth. In most cases these cannot be secured. 

One school roomi was added to oar number of schools at the be 
ginning of the year. All the lower grades were crowded, due to the 
closing of the Parochial school. They now have a new building 

No. 6. LANSFORD. 201 

nearly completed and durin}; the year their puiiils will be taken 
l.aek to the new schoid. This is an annoyance to onr jiublic schools, 
taking out and putting back their pupils into our schools. However, 
we expect this year to be the last of these changes. 

Teachers' meetings were held monthly with meetings by grades 
during the month, (ieneral instruction and announcements were 
given at the regular meetings and particular instruction on various 
subjects in the grade meetings. Paiticular stress was placed on 
writing, grammar and arithmetic. A decided improvement was 
made in the writing, and noticeable improvement was made in the 
ether branches. The success of the work in the grades is better 
seen in the percentage of promotions. The average percentage for 
the term for all grades was between 91 and 92 per cent. 

Very efficient Avork was done in our high school during the year. 
There was a decided improvement made in the English branches, and 
an extended course in classics was made. Book-keeping received more 
attention than formerly and excellent work was done by the class. 
The instruction includes a thorough course in book-keeping and busi- 
ness foriHs. In addition to this, attention is given to commercial 
law and business arithmetic. Commendable work was done in our 
High School Literary Society, and good use made of the High School 
Library. From funds raised by the society and commencement ex- 
ercises 164 volumes were added. Also, about 75 volumes were do- 
nated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co. 

Our high school course is four ye'ars, but bright and ambitious 
pu])ils can have the course so arranged that they can make it in 
tliree years. We do this by allowing these pupils to take some of the 
work of year ahead. 

"We opened a four-months' term of night school during the year 
with an average attendance of 25. There were about 95 different 
pupils enrolled during the term. 

We experienced no trouble in enforcing the vaccination law\ due 
to small-pox scares in our own and neighboring towns. We en- 
forced very rigidly the Compulsory Attendance Law, and after mak- 
ing examples of several parties by lining and imprisoning them, we 
had little trouble in enforcing the laws. 

Our commencement exercises were pronounced a decided success 
and the best in years. There were seven gi^aduates, four girls and 
three boys. Prof. F. H. Green of ^V^est Chester State Normal de- 
livered the commencement address. One of our graduates will enter 
State College in September. 

Our schools had excellent support from the board of directors. 
Everything necessary for the maintenance of the schools was readily 
furnished. All our teachers were granted an increase of ^o per 


nnonth for the year just past, and several more increases were granted 
for the coming year. 

The teaching body as a whole can be commended for their work 
during the year. With two exceptions, our entire force of teachers 
will be retained for the coming year. These two exceptions will 
enter the list of ex-school marms by being married. 

Our population is rapidly increasing by families moving to the town 
to take advantage of the prosperoas condition of the coal mines. 
Many new houses are being erected, and we hope to have soon a new 
high school building. At the present rate of progress, we predict 
a bright future for the Lansford schools. 

LEBANON— R. T. Adams. 

Number of school buildings, 12 

Number of school rooms, 77 

Number of teachers employed, 77 

Number of pupils enrolled, 2,811 

Average daily attendance, 2,383 

Percentage of aittendance, 93 

Number of pupils in the high school, 216 

Number of pupils graduated from the high school 21 

Number of pupils promoted to the high school, 92 

One year ago I was able to say that we had just closed one of the 
most successful terms of school that we had ever had in Lebanon. 
This year I am glad to say that the work done was just as good and 
in several cases there were marked features of improvement. 

The entire enrollment for this year was not quite so great as last 
year, but the average attendance was a little better. This shows 
that our children came to school a little more regularly this year. 
Seven years ago our entire enrollment was 2,820, while it was only 
2,811 this year; but the average attendance seven years ago was 
1,969, while this year it was 2,383, a gain in average attendance of 
414. Our percentage lof attendance has increased during the same 
time from 88 to 93, and in the high school there has been a gain of 
35 per cent, in the number of pupils. All these figures go to show 
that our schools are gradually increasing in efficiency. Another 
feature of improvement along the same line is shown by the fact that 
the number of schools in the upper elementary grades, especially in 
the fifth, sixth and seventh grades, is gradually increasing; in fact, 

No. 6. LEBANON. 203 

we shall be obliged to provide for three extra schools, one for each 
of these grades. 

The compulsory law was quite rigidly enforced. I should like to 
have had it more rigidly enforced, but it seems to me that the people 
who do not know the value of an education, can find some excuse 
for keeping their children out of school, although the law in question 
is quite adequate. The one standing excuse seems to be that of sick- 
ness, and it is hard to enforce the law in cases in which parents are 
willing to testify that there is sickness at home, and when, in most 
cases, they can get a doctor to certify to the sickness. 

One year ago we added two regularly employed substitutes to our 
corps of teachers, in fact, two of the best suited teachers from the 
corps to act as special substitutes, with the understanding that they 
should teach for other teachers who might, for any reason, be unable 
to be on duty or who might wish to visit other schools in this city cr 
elsewhere. When these teachers were not employed as substitutes, 
they gave special help to children who had fallen behind the other 
pupils of the grade. 

The work of these special teachers was a very great boon to the 
corps of teachers in many respects. In the first place, if the teacher 
should happen to be sick or be out of school for a day or two, she had 
the assurance that there was a teacher to take her place who would 
have her school in as good a condition when she would return as 
it was when she left it. In former year when a teacher would be 
absent for a few days on account of sickness, she would be worrying 
all the time about her school and wondering what it was going to be 
like when she would get back; and it not infrequently happened that 
when she did get back, her school was so disorganized that it would 
take her two or three days to get it into the shape that it was when 
she left it and the over-exertion in putting the school into a good 
condition again often renewed the illness. This year, with the 
special substitutes, we found that the teachers did not lose more 
than half as much time on account of sickness as they did last year, 
and I verily believe that the difference between the sickness of this 
year and last was largely due to the fact that we had these special 
teachers to call upon. In the second place, our teachers have visited 
in most all of the cities and towns in Lebanon Valley, also in Phila- 
delphia and New York city. We found that when they returned from 
their visits they had acquired broader views, insight and encourage- 
ment. In the third place, the help that the special substitutes ren- 
dered to those who were misfits in the grades proved to be a very 
great service to the corps of teachers and the pupils as well. In many 
cases they succeeded in finding the cause of backwardness in pupilss 
even if they could not remove it, and in helping the slow ones to such 


an extent that almost all of those in the intei'mediate and grammar 
grades were promoted, 

At the beginning of this year we trtgaged an assistant supervisor 
oi music who took cluiirge of the music in the first eight grades of the 
elementarj schools, thus giving Miss Field, who formerly was su- 
pervisor of both music and drawing, more time to devote to drawing. 
Next year we will have a supervisor tc take charge of all the music 
and give all the drawing to Miss Field who will teach this subject in 
the high school, as well as in the grade>.. 

During the coming sumniei we intend to add an addition ol four 
rooms to one of our four-roomed buildings, making it an eight- 
roomed building. This has become necessary to accommodate the 
number of pui>ils in the higher grades of the elementary schools, 
spoken of in the previous part of this repoTt. 

We shall be obliged to add one more teacher to the high school 
faculty. This will give us seven teachers who are employed in the 
high school all the time, besides the supervisors of music and draw- 
ing, who will teach in the high school part of the time, and the 
teacher in shorthand and typew-riting, who will teach one or two 
classes in these subjects each day. 

In conclusion, I wish to extend my sincere and heartfelt thanks 
to the members of the Department foi their courtesy and advice in 
all instances in which they have beeii called upon; to the members 
of the board of school control, who have stood by me and who have 
been willing to assist in bettering the schools as far as the means at 
their disposal enabled them; to the teachers, who are largely respon- 
sible for the good results obtained in our schools, and to the press 
for their hearty oo-operation in helping to advance every movement 
that the superintendent has suggested. 

LOCK HAVEN— John A. Kobb. 

The monthly reports to the Department, together with the annual 
statistical report, contain all the facts relative to length of school 
term, number of teachers, number of pupils enrolled, and average 
daily attendance. Our schools closed on May 18, after an eight 
month term. 

The results -of the year's work wer.' as satisfactory as could be ex- 
pected for so short a school term, and (he adverse conditions we had 


to contend with. One-thiid of our best teachers resigned durins; 
the school year to accept better positions elsewhere. The majority 
of our school board is not progressive. Their sole ambition is to 
lower the tax rate, and to reduce the indebtedness of the school dis- 
trict, at the expense of the teachers and the pupils. 

Does it not refleet upon the intelligence of a school board when 
they i>ay a janitor more than any school teacher? 

The average yearly salary of our janitors is |43.5.00. The average 
yearly salary of our teachers, including the high school teachers, is 
$352.00. The average salary of the teachers below 'the high school 
is 1313.85. Is brawn Avortli more than brain? The janitors are not 
paid too much, but our teachers are paid too little. 

Our high school curriculum, formerly comprised three courses. A 
college preparatory course designed to prepare boys and girls for our 
leading colleges. A science course, in which special attention was 
given to the sciences. A commercial course, designed to give those 
who select it, a good business education. This course of study, during 
the past year has been rearranged and instead of broadened, has 
been narrowed to two courses, neither of which is what it should or 
could be. 

The compulsory attendance law was faithfully enforced during the 

Although we are able to report some progress during the past 
year, we realize that there is much yet to be accomplished. 

Reist Rutt. 

During the past year considerable advancement has been made 
both in the improvement of the school property and in the efficiency 
of the work done in the class room. 

During the vacation the board repaired the desks in thirty-one 
rooms; calcimined the walls and ceilings of fifteen rooms; erected 
five glass cases for the commercial exhibits ; purchased new teacher's 
desks for three rooms. During the year they also opened an addi- 
tional school, equipping it with new single desks and slate boards. 

Of the teachers employed eight are college graduates, two grad- 
uates of business college, and thirty-five are graduates of Normal 
schools. Three hold permanent certificates and two hold profes- 


sional certificates. No teachers were employed who did not have 
previous experience. General teachers' meetings were held every 
month and meetings were held at the several school buildings at 
such times during the year as they were deemed necessary. 

During the year the superintendent made 755 visits to the several 
schools of the district; spent 283 days in ollicial duties; and attended 
25 meetings of teachers. 

The several schools of the district donated flOO.OO to the recon- 
struction fund of San Francisco. 

Measles, chicken-pox and whooping cough affected attendance very 
materially, but we were almost free of the more serious diseases. 

For every child that attended the Lower Merion public schools, 
the district raised |30.82 by taxation ; the State appropriated |4.9G, 
and there was received from other sources |4.24. Of this amount 
there was expended for instruction and supervision |19.69; for books 
12.17; for school supplies, |2.48; for fuel and contingencies, |2.83; for 
repairs, |4.03; and |5.74 was applied to the debt of the district. 

MAHANOY CITY— ^^^ N. Ehrhart. 

Our average monthly enrollment for the school year just ended 
was 2,393, and the average attendance was 2,143. The average en- 
rollment was 35 in excess of the previous year, and the average at- 
tendance was greater by 15. The total number of different pupils 
enrolled was 2,600. The ward assessors after exercising unusual 
care to find all the children between the ages of six and sixteen 
years, returned 2,956 names. About 300 children attended the vari- 
ous parochial and private schools. It thus appears that 2,900 of the 
children attended school in town during the year. Since the number 
of children between the ages of fourteen and sixteen not in school 
was far in excess of the number above sixteen who were in school, 
it also appears that the compulsory attendance law which requires 
all children between the ages of eight and fourteen to attend school, 
was faithfully complied with. An attendance officer was employed 
eight months. According to a regulation adopted by the board, the 
time required for compulsory attendance was raised from seventy 
per cent, to one hundred per cent. 

The erection of a new six-room annex to the Spruce Street Build- 
ing gave a happy relief to the crowded condition of the schools in 

No. 6. MAHANOY CITY. 207 

the western part of the town. A new grammar school was formed 
at the beginning of the term, thus indicating a^ increased interest 
in advanced elementary education. Several years ago we had but 
three small grammar schools. This year we had four very large 
ones. The attendance in these schools was excellent. All the com- 
mon school branches except algebra are taught in this grade. Geo- 
graphy and United States History are completed. Ninety certifi- 
cates of graduation were granted to pupils. 

The erection of a new building, the formation of a new grammar 
school, the employment of three additional primary teachers, and the 
increase of salaries in some of the grades, have compelled the dis- 
trict to provide for additional expenditures. But these expenditures 
were, beyond a doubt, wise. Where the schools lie close to the 
hearts of the people — and this is certainly the case in Mahanoy City 
— there can be no just ground for complaint, when money is gener- 
ously and judiciously expended for the proper comfort, instruction 
and enlightenment of the rising generation. 

The child labor legislation of 1905 did not impose as much extra 
labor upon the superintendent as was first supposed. There being 
but few factories in this district, only about sixty certificates for 
factory employment were issued. These were all issued to girls. 
It is believed that there were no violations of the factory laws in 
this district. About two hundred certificates were issued to boys 
for employment in the breakers and mines. There was a great rush 
for certificates during the first half of October, but this ceased when 
the law was declared unconstitutional by the Luzerne county court. 
Though the law itself failed, the agitation which it caused resulted 
in some good. The moral effect of the legislation, together with the 
strict orders of the Chief Mine Inspector, served to a considerable 
ex'tent the purpose the law was designed to serve. The intent of the 
law was most excellent, and it is unfortunate that bad wording 
caused it to be declared unconstitutional. It is, however, pleasant 
to note that, if the returns for children between the ages of six and 
sixteen given above are correct and a special effort was made to 
have them so, the number of boys employed in the breakers under 
faurteen j^^ars of age is very small in this district. 

Our high school commencement exercises were held in the Kaier 
Opera House June 1. The house was crowded from pit to dome. 
The exercises were of an unusually high order, and were much ap- 
preciated by the vast audience. The class consisted of twenty-six 
young people, thirteen boys and thirteen girls. Fifteen took the 
regular high school course, and eleven the new commercial course. 
The exercises were a delightful winding up of the year's work. 



The results and measure of success durin<>- the term vary in the 
ditferent schools, largely in proportion to the interest parents take 
in enforcing- attendance and the interest teachers take in their work. 
The attendance of the schools has not been as regular as desired 
nor as regular as the school law requires. 

Compulsory attendance is a problem that can be considered with 
some advantage. 

The operating expense of the district is practically the same for 
a 70 per cent, attendance as for a 90 per cent. 

It costs the district just as much to keep the schools open for a 
comiparatively small attendance as for a full attendance. Pupils 
most irregular in attendance are generally back in their studies and 
are dragged along with the classes each succeeding year. They make 
but little progress. The parents of those children usually complain 
of poor schools. It sometimes occurs that children attending regu- 
larly make slow progress. Every year in school should represent a 
certain growth or advancement. We have endeavored to soi organize 
the primary schools the twO' preceding terms by having uniformity in 
work and method for primary teachers that attendance being the 
same, equal results could be looked for in all these schools. Much 
however, depends upon the earnestness with which teachers apply 
themselves to the work. However, T feel that it is only just to the 
parent and children that a definite amount of work should be a course 
each year for a teacher to accomplish and the responsibility for its 
accomplishment, rest with the teacher, the superintendent, the board 
and the parent. If results are not realized, some of the responsible 
parties are at fault, and an earnest conscientious effort should be 
made to right it. 

In my three years of supervision I have noticed some very gratify- 
ing results and excellent school work by some teachers, but the fol- 
lowing year teachers that produce these results fail of election by 
the board. I believe that if the board had seen the excellence of 
the work of these teachers and had become acquainted with the work 
by inquiry or personal inspection, that the directors would hesitate 
before making a displacement to make room for political friends. 

Every director should feel that his first duty is to promote the 
education of the school children of ihe district. In some schools I 
find the board-work of the teachers very neat — ^in their best hand 
writing, the board clean, and all the essentials and details looked 

No. 6. MEADVILL.E. 209 

The pupils of tlicsc Icaclu'is make the best progress in writing. 
They eDdeavor to be just as neat and careful with their slates and 
tablets as the teacher has been with her board-work. 

It is not the ditTereuee in pupils but the difference in the applica 
tion of method that makes the difference in results. As the election 
and location of teachers rests solely with the board, it will add 
greatly to the efificiency of the schools were th(? board to become 
acquainted with the results attained by the teachers it elects. The 
fi'cquent change of teachers establishes the fact that the most vigor- 
ous efforts and earnest application in the school-room will not insure 
a teacher's re-election. The repeated dead-locks over the election 
of teachers go to show that the mistaken opinion prevails that a di- 
rector's only duty is to take care^ of liis factional friends. The in- 
terests of parent and school children are entirely lost sight of. 

In the grammar schools we are now so graded that we can exact 
the same unifortnity as in the primary. The effort has been to weed 
out the advanced books and secure thoroughness in the intermediate 
ones in the grammar schools. The entrance examination to the high 
school is based on a fair knowledge of the primary and intermediate 
books. Entrance to the high school is determined by a competitive 
exaniination of 'the pupils of the A classes of the different schools. 
Permits have been issued to twenty of these ])upils for entrance at 
the next school term. 

Of the thirty-four school rooms, there are three rooms, in each of 
rt'hich two teachers are employed. The advisability of a separate 
room for each teacher was discussed in my two preceding reports and 
in this report it may be unnecessary to repeat. The conditions are 
the same to the disadvantage of teacher and pupil. 

MEADVILLE— U. G. Smith. 

Ihf past school year with us was marked by steady onward pro- 
gress along all lines. Our schools 'Opened on the first Monday of 
September, 190.5, with a large enrollment, especially in the grammar 
schools and in the high school. Tho number of pupils admitted to 
the first year class in the high school was 89.9 per cent, of the num- 
ber admitted to the primary schools for the first time, during the 
year. The attendance in all our schools for the year was 93^ per 

\>'e are grieved to chronicle the death of Miss Virginia Affantran- 
14_6— 1906 


ger who had been a teacher for nineteen years, most of which time 
was spent in the Meadville schools. We also regret to report the 
separation from our teaching corps ami from the profession, by resig- 
nation, Miss Martha Cooper who had taught thirty-two years and 
Miss Fayetta Walp who had taught nine years. The death of Miss 
Affantranger and the resignations of Miss Cooper and Miss Walp, 
occurring at about the same time, removed from our teaching force 
three teachers whose work was characterized by inspiring children 
to broader views and higher ideals of life by the examples they 
themselves set. 

Fitting and appropriate exercises were held in our schools com- 
memorating Thanksgiving day, Christmasi day, Washington's and 
Lincoln's birth day and Decoration day. Besides these special ex- 
ercises, regular instruction was given with a view to inspire and de- 
velop patriotic thoughts and feelings in the children, to teach civic 
rights and duties, kindness to one another, and to animals. 

Oni teachers are 'to be commended for the interest, enthusiasm 
and persistence with which they carried on their work throughout 
the year. Our board of school oontrollers kept in close touch with 
the schools and were always ready to take such forward steps as 
seer/jed to be for the progress and advancement of the schools. 

MIDDLETOWN— H, J. Wickey. 

Our schools opened the firsit Monday in September with 1,042 
pupils enrolled. The attendance was good for several months when 
epidemics of scarlet fever and diphtheria broke out necessitating the 
closing of our schools for a period of ten days. The town council 
organized a board of health to cope with the conditions and the sit- 
uation was soon under control. The law requiring victims and con- 
tacts of these diseases to remain out of school for a penod of thirty 
days after recovery, etc., reduced our average attendance much 
lower than it has been for ten years. 

In the latter part of October an order was issued that all school 
children would be required to present a certificate of vaccination 
to be admitted to school after the county institute. Nine hundred 
of our children had not been previously vaccinated. All of these 
except six presented their certificates in a very short time and vac- 
cination with us was not a very serious matter. 

Although these conditions interfered with the school work, our 

No. 6. MILTON. 211 

teachers during the year did exceptionally good work, stimulated, 
DO doubt, by the slight increase of salaries which affected all the 
teachers. This was the first general increase in salaries for ten 
years. Our salaries are still too low to attract and hold first class 
teachers. We are losing a number of good teachers, higher salaries 
drawing them to other places or into other lines of work. The di- 
rectors realizing the conditions will likely readjust salaries next 

^Considerable interest is being manifested in onr schools as evi- 
denced by the fact that Swatara Council, Jr. O. U. A. M. of town 
offered a prize to the boy and girl in each of our grammar schools 
who would complete the work of the grade with the highest average. 
The pupils entered into the spirit of the thing and did very credita- 
ble work. At our public transfer exercises to the boys was presented 
a year's membership in our local Y. M. C. A. and to the girls, beauti- 
ful gold lockets. At the same time the Order made a similar offer 
for next year. 

Patrons' Day was observed near the close of the term. Special 
in\ilations were sent out to the parents to visit the schools on thijb 
occasion to which many responded. The results of the day were so 
gratifying to the teachers that a similar occasion will be anticipated 
with much pleasure next year. 

The Dauphin County School Directors Mid-winter Convention met 
in oui town. Tlie attendance was large and the discussions of es- 
pecial interest to the scbools throughout the county. Dr. Schaeffer 
made the chief address at »the evening session which was eagerly 
listened to by about 500 patrons. 

During the year we held monthly teachers' meetings. "Common 
Sense Didactics" was adopted by the teachers for special reading 
and study. 

Our high school course is now a full fledged four years course, 
this year's class being the first to complete it. The class had six- 
teen members, eight boys and eight girls. Most of these young 
people anticipate taking up college work. 

MILTON— W. A. Wilson. 

The past year has been my first )n Milton and in Pennsylvania. 
For that reason the year has been as uneventful as I could make it. 

I have been studying and learning. We have added another 
teacher to the high school faculty and another teacher to the corps 
of giade teachers. The year as a whole has been marked by quiet, 
steady, upward work. 


>riNI^:KS\'lLLK -n. H. Si.nyd. 

Ill liiis my tirst juiimal k'ImiiI Id lli;' di'iiarhiicnt, I note with 
pleasure tliat llic length of tlic liif-li scliool course has been increased 
from three years to four, but whether this course can be successfully 
maintained is very doubtful on account of the rapid influx of non- 
English speaking people who are beat upon earning money and ac- 
(piiring i»roperty and not upion obtaining an education for their chil- 
dren. INIauy of the chihli''n of this class, as well as some of the 
older residents, leave scluio! for tlu^ factory or the mine as soon as 
th(\v reach the legal age. For jsll tliese (here is no high school 
couise possible. 

The children of our non-English speaking residents are, as a rule, 
a year or two older than the American children in the same grade. 
From this we see that many of them cannot even reach th(^ grammar 
grade by the time they are fourteen years old. 

So far only one of this class passed through the high school. We 
entertained the hope that this graduate would arouse the pride of 
others to complete the course but iii this we were disapi)oiuted. 
Until the parents, and the boys and giils of this class of people, can 
be m.ade to realize that there is something higher and nobler than 
the almighty dollar, very little can be done with these children ex- 
cept to hold theni by compulsion during the legal school period. 

Since these facts confront us, we have laid special stress upon 
reading, arguing that if they can read, they have the key to all that 
lies beyond. 

How these shall be taught the English language is an important 
problem with us. While a pupil can learn to read a language in any 
school, few teachers can teach pupils to speak a language, hence 
these children must learn the spok n language on the streets and 
on llu play ground, and since this language is often very poor, these 
pupih^ have to learn two languages— one the street language, the 
other the bo'ok language'. The street training being free and spon- 
tanc(uis often predominates and chokes the good seed sown in the 

The educational features of the child labor law having been declar- 
ed unconstitutional, it is to be hoped that a new law will be passed 
at the next session of the State Legislature without the objectionable 
features. An educational test to- go to work is a good feature. We 
had already felt the good etTects of the law in the brief time it was 
being enforced. 

Dining the year the addition to the high school building was com 
pleted at a cost ol |1(),0(H), giving better accommodation to the high 
school and giving us five additional school rooms. 

No. 6. MONESSEN. 213 

Our borough is oue of those unfoituuate districts which educates 
the cl ildreu of peopk^ wlio work at th<^ uiines lying in the surrounding 
townships in which the vahiable tavable pro[)erty is located. This 
places a heavy burden upon the people of the borough, and with the 
highest legal levy, we are not ablc^ to have the full length ol scbool 
term, nor can we pay the salaries commensurate with the services 
rendered by the teachers. The increase of population is greater than 
the increased amount of money that cjiU be raised from year to year. 
In view 'of this condition of atlairs, some other system of raising 
money for the support of the schools should be devised, and a much 
larger appropriation should be made by the State. While the State 
appropriates |5,50(),()()() a year, the school districts of the State pay 
back, in taxes on their bonded indebtedness, a very large sum, es- 
timated by some newspapers at |1,0()(I,()(M>. giving the schools only 

We make a plea for at least 110,000,000 a year, and ask the legis- 
lature to make this appropriation without increasing the taxes any- 
where, by a more careful expenditure of the public funds. We be- 
lieve this can be done without jeopardizing any of the essential in- 
terests of the State. Indirect taxation is always preferable to direct 

The board has made provision to place an extra teacher in the 
grarmar schools to introduce the system of individual insitruction. 
We tried a system of this kind or eight years ago, but were 
compelled for lack of funds to abandon it. We believe it has ad- 

The percentage of attendance attained by our schools is very high 
and some people have questioned whether it is not too high, show- 
ing that children must have been at school when they should have 
been at home. For a number of years we had 93 to 95 per cent, of 
an attendance. Under the most favorable conditions a regiment of 
1,000 men could not present from day to day during a year 950 men 
for duty, and yet we expect it of children who are subject to the ail- 
ments of childhood. Are wx' not expecting too much? 

During the year that Minersville has been an independent dis- 
trict the superintendent has had the hearty support and co-opera- 
tion of the directors and the teachers. This is essential to the suc- 
cess of any school system. The great majority of our people are also 
loyal to our schools. 

MONESSEN— R. W. Himelick. 

In presenting this the first report of the jNlonessen schools under a 
superintendent theie are many thin.;s that might be of interest, yet 


I know not bow to keep out of the lut and present only interesting 

Seldom does it oceur that one has the opportunity of suiveyiuf;,- 
the entire history in the manner in which it may be done here. We 
are so young that some who are now on the board have definite recol- 
lections of everything that has transpired since the opening of tlie 
schools. In the course of seven years you have grown from, three 
teachers to thirty-seven. In the matter of school buildings the ad- 
vancement has been greater. In 1898 there were but three rooms in 
mere shacks while at present there are thirty-seven rooms in three 
of the most magnificient buildings to be found in this wonderful val- 
ley. The number of children has increased from less than 100 to 
1,403. The expenses of maintaining the schools have increased from 
13,001.26 in 1899 to |29,623.63 in 1901. These few figures reveal the 
wonderful growth of the public school system of Monessen. 

The rapid growth has brought with it great responsibility, which 
has been met in a Avay that reflects credit on the men who 
have been fortunate enough to be members of the school board. Out 
of the entire number who have served as members of the board, all 
but seven are still residents of the town. 

We have always believed that the place to begin in the organiza- 
tion of a school system is with the teacher. This was held con- 
stantly before the board and as a result we have as thoroughly pre- 
pared teachers as will be found anywhere. This has enabled us to 
meet the conditions as they would arise in a manner that has been 
fairly satisfactory. 

This has been a. feature at one of our buildings. While we have 
followed some of the beaten paths along this line yet in a large meas- 
ure we have worked as the nature of the community and other things 
demanded. As a result there has been much good come from the 
work. Many homes have both flower and vegetable gardens as a 
result of the school garden. . 

The board has equipped a manual training room in which wo'od 
wor': and sewing will be done the coming year. 

Figures are not always the most interesting part of a report of 
thijj kind. In them we may often see the miost marked signs of pro- 
gress. I hope that this will be true with regard to the statistics 
given below. Enrollment for each year since 1899. 

1899, 244; 1900, 336; 1901, 501; 1902, 909; 1903, 1,087; 1904, 1,270; 
1905, 1,403. 

Statistics for 1905-1906. 

Total enrollment, 692 boys; 711 girls; average daily attendance, 
990; per cent, of attendance, 93; number of teachers, 37; number who 
are college graduates, 7; number who are Normal graduates, 23; 
number of visits made by superintendent to rooms, 614; number of 

No. 6. MONESSEN. 215 

teachers' meetings, 16; number of teachers who resigned during 
3 ear. 4; number of students promoted, 024; number who fa'ded, 170; 
per c(:nt. who were promoted, 85; per cent, who failed, 15. 

The (.'omimlsorj Education Law has been very carefully enforced. 
The truant ollicer has done very faithful work. The men at the head 
of tJic mills have done what they could to help in this matter. The 
greatest problem is whait to do with the foreign boy who is past 
fourteen when he comes to this country. We are not authorized to 
give him a permit on account of his not being able to read and write 
English. The mills cannot employ him without a permit. We have 
no place in the schools to take care of such boys and girls. 

Teachers' meetings have been held monthly during the year. In 
these meetings general questions as well as the details of the work 
are considered. We believe that much good must come out of regu- 
lar meetings where teachers discuss problems that are of vital in- 
terest. Special stress was laid upon the work to be done each month. 
We found this was necessary because of the constant shifting of 
many pupils from one place to another during the year. If parallel 
grades were doing the same work there w'ould be little loss of time 
on aL'y subject matter to the pupil. 

iSo oLher subject has taken so much of our time as the question of 
''Individual Instruction.'' The 'time will never come when teachers 
will have so few pupils that they can devote all their time to this. I 
doubt very much whether it would be advisable if it might be so. 
What we need is to have the work so arranged that the teacher will 
have time to talk with the slow and indifferent pupil about the work. 
This will give the teacher a chance to get in closer sympathy with 
each child. She can learn more of the conditions at home and else- 
where that may have an influence upon her pupils. And above all 
it w'ill reveal to the intelligent teacher the fact that she cannot and 
should not attempt to get exactly the same results from each child. 
No two are exactly alike. 

The principals have done considerable during the past year along 
this line. Many pupils have been sent to the office to consult with 
the principals. In many cases it has been revealed that some physi- 
cal defect such as the hearing, eyesight or other troubles lie at the 
basis of the failure to do the work. It has been revealed to us in a 
general way that we have many pupils in school that have either 
defective eyesight or hearing and some have both. Some of these 
cases have been reported to the parents with desired effects. In 
otlier cases we found the parents entirely indifferent. 




During the past year our work lias been about the same as in 
previous years. Our enrollment for the year was 2,037 with an 
average attendance of 1,515. Our per cent, of attendance was 91. 
There were reported 1,945 tardy marks and 32 eases of corporal 
punishments. There were but two cases of suspension, one of 
which was due to an injury that developed a nervous (-ondition that 
made the child dangerous. During the year we had very few cases 
of contagious diseases. Our local institutes were very valuable to 
our teachers. Dr. Charles McMurry and Dr. J. E. Redway in geog- 
raphy, language and history were very helpful. Our new six-roomed, 
modern, up-to-date, building, lieated with the Carpenter system, will 
be ready for opening in the fall. 

It is to be hoped that the Legislature will make an appropriation 
to pay superintendents for making out certificates for boys and 
girls to work in factories and mines. I would suggest that if a 
superintednent can swear a boy who wishes to work in the mines, 
he can also do it for a girl who can less afford the twenty-five cents. 

Vaccination ought to be made compulsory to everybody in Penn- 
sylvania and then all children being vaccinated could not have that 
excuse to stay out of school. 

NANTICOKK—John W. (hifiith 

Just prior to the time appointed for the opening of the schools 
typhoid fever visited our community. So severe was the epidemic 
that six weeks passed by before it was deemed safe to open the 
schools. Attendance did not resume normal proportion until after 
the holidays. These conditions seriously affected the efficiency of 
the schools, and notwithstanding the honest efforts of the teachers 
and pupils to overcome^ these disadvantages the progress of the 
schools was not so marked as in other years. However, the knowl- 
edge that many things remain but partially done, and that the high 
conception we have of the ideal school is far from attainment are a 
guarantee of better results in the future. Integrity of purpose com- 
bined with earnest, persistent, and intelligent application of rational 
methods, must ultimately result in substantial progress. We have 

No. 6. NEW BRIGHTON. 217 

on the whole, au excellent industrious and conscientious corps of 
teachers. The directors appreciate the fact that the call of to-day 
is for the best — the best by nature, and the best by (jualitication and 
preparation. The teacher is a leader; he must know the road, else 
he cannot show the way. As au incentive to secure and hold such 
teachers the directors added from |2.0U to flU.OO a month to the 
salaries of the teachers. Hasten the day when the brains in the 
teachers' calling;- is to be rewarded as it is in the doctors' and 
lawyers' calling! 

For the first time in its history Nanticoke held the annual insti- 
tute apart from that of the county. I am expressing the sentiment 
of all our teachers in saying that no mistake was made in selecting 
speakers and topics best suited to our local needs. Advantage was 
taken of the law approved April L'O, 1005, emi)0weriug the superin- 
tendent to hold the institutes throughout the school year, on any 
live days, or any ten ha If -days. The results were so satisfactory 
that the teachers unanimously requested a like method for the en- 
suing year. The institutes were held on December 9, 1905;.January 
13, 1906; February KMT, and jNIarch 23-24, 1906. The instructors 
were K. M. McNeal, Harrisburg; Charles H. Albert, Bloorasburg; 
James M. Coughlin, Wilkes-Barre; J)r. Henry Houck, Harrisburg, 
and l)r. John H. Harris, Lewisburg. 


Prof. W. D. Bright well resigned his office as superintendent of 
the New Brighton public schools July 31 and the present incumbent 
was elected August 16. 

We find an efficient corps of teachers and an excellent school 
spirit in the communit3\ • 

The excellent reputation which the New Brighton schools have 
enjoyed in the past serves as a spur to bring forth the best efforts 
of everyone connected with their management. 

We are planning to introduce a system of physical culture. 

A professional library has been provided for the teachers. Special 
attention is being given to systematic Child Study. We are en- 
deavoring to make this work as practical as possible. 

We believe in professional training for teachers. Teaching is a 
serious matter and should not be attempted by young i)eoi)le who 
know practically nothing of the psychical processes involv(-d in learn- 
ing and of the peculiarities of childhood at the various stages." 


NEW CASTLE— T. A. Kiraes. 

Juue 1st marked the close of a very quiet but successful school 
year. We had locked forward to the close of the term with much 
interest as this was the first year under the new course of study 
which provides for eight, instead of nine years, below the high 

The results obtained are such, that we have confidence in our 
ability to eliminate non-essentials from the course and prepare the 
children for high school in eight years. 

Our teachers have worked earnestly and faithfully and have by 
their zeal in the work contributed largely to the success of the 

Our new Home street building was opened on October 16, 1905, 
with an enrollment of over three hundred pupils. The entire en- 
rollment for the year is the highest in the history of our city. 

The changed course of study resulted in a greater number being 
promoted to the high school than ever before. 

We held a number of regular teachers' meetings during the year. 
On these occasions, our teachers were addressed by educators of 
note on subjects pertaining to school work. Grade meetings were 
held each week. These were conducted by the superintendent and 
the details of the grade work were discussed. 

During the year much stress was placed on the subject of language 
in the primary grades and the results are very gratifying. The work 
in some schools being exceptional. 

Our institute was held in conjunction with the county institute 
and much benefit was derived from the high class of instruction re- 

Special teachers were employed for the subjects of music, pen- 
manship and drawing. Our school board continues its progressive 
policy. A conscientious endeavor has been made to recognize merit 
in selection of teachers. 

The spirit of co-operation existing between the teaching force and 
the school board has been very gratifying and has done much to 
make the work of the superintendent enjoyable. 


The work of the past year has been very pleasant and satisfactory. 
The unfavorable conditions mentioned in the last report were 
changed and the schools were comfortably housed in the new build- 
ings. Six rooms were furnished with the single adjustable desks. 

No. 6. NORRISTOWN. 219 

There were 1,640 pupils enrolled in the regular grades, and 375 
in the eight evening schools. The increase in attendance required 
the opening of another primary grade. 

A new room was furnished with the Globe-Wernicke book-cases, 
leather upholstered furniture, statuary and pictures. This makes a 
very attractive room for the accommodation of those who use the 
public library. 

The regular teachers' meetings were held each month. In addi- 
tion to these meetings, three evening lectures were given as fol- 
lows: January 12, at Wanamie, by Supt. James M. Coughlin; Feb- 
ruary 16, at Glen Lyon, by Prof. Charles H. Albert; April 6, at Alden 
Station, by Dr. E. L. Kemp. These meetings were well attended 
and highly appreciated by the teachers and the people of the district. 

During the latter part of the term the teachers used "The Ameri- 
can Bird and Nature Study Chart" which proved to be very helpful 
in the nature work. 

The work in drawing w^hich was exhibited in the different build- 
ings was inspected by a large number of people who were delighted 
with the work. We regret that more of our people do not take ad- 
vantage of these annual exhibitions to become better acquainted 
with the school work. 

The commencement exercises were held at Wanamie on the even- 
ing of June 14, at which time a class of one young lady and three 
young men were graduated. 

NORRISTOWN— A. S. Martin. 

Several notable events occurred in the Norristown school district 
during the school year ending June 1, 1906. 

On Saturday, September 2, the new school building known as the 
James A. Welsh School was inspected by the public. The building 
is colonial in style, two stories in height and contains eleven class 
rooms, a teachers' room and a sewing room. The building is ad- 
mirably adapted to school purposes and represents a high type of 
school architecture. 

Superintendent Joseph K. Gotwals died after a brief illness on 
Sunday evening, October 8. His many excellent qualities endeared 
him to the pupils and citizens of Norristown as well as to the super- 
intendents and educators of the State. He served this town as a 
principal and as superintendent for more than forty years. The 
schools and town felt keenly their great loss. Many tributes on the 


value of the services, fidelity to duty and noble character of Super- 
intendent Gotwals were paid by pupils, teachers, directors and 

During the interim of the death of Superiniendent (lotwals and 
the installation of his successor, on January 1, the principal of the 
high school, Prof. A. D. Eisenhower, directed the schools. 

The five months just passed were spent in becoming acquainted 
with the details of office and the condilions of the schools. In this 
work I was much assisted by the interest manifested in the schools 
by the school board and by the courteous treatment which I re- 
ceived from the teachers and principals. With few exceptions I 
found the teachers earnest and the schools in good condition. 

In addition to the grade meetings and the principals' meetings, 
the Teachers' Institute convened monthly on the second Tuesday 
evening of each month. Among the instructors were Prof. Smith 
Burnham, of West Chester; Prof. AVitmer Stone, Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, who gave an illustrated lecture on 
the ''Life History of Some of our Native Birds" and Prof. Steward- 
son Brown of the same institution who gave an illustrated lecture 
on "Our Native Plants." 

The report of Mr. Wm. N. Easton, chairman of the committee on 
school savings submitted in June shows a deposit of |85,388.02 in 
favor of the school children. 

OIL CITY— C. A. Babcock. 

During the year our schools have done exceptionally good work. 
Marked improvement has been apparent in the work of oral reading, 
in English composition from the third grade through the eighth, 
and in the cooking, sewing and wood working departments of the 
manual training school. 

The deportment of the pupils of all the schools has been noticably 
good. It would be difficult to And a pupil in any of our schools that 
is engaged in making trouble in the school, or that could be classed 
as a vicious or troublesome pupil. 

With very few exceptions the pupils are advancing finely in their 

Algebra is now taught in the eighth grade without books, as a 
class exercise, the pupils covering in this way, the four fundamental 
operations and fractions. The time taken by this subject is twenty 
minutes a day, four days in the week. The children are very en- 
thusiastic in this work. There has been a marked increase in their 
ability to handle arithmetical problems, since thev have had the 

No. 6. OLYPHANT. 221 

.ilgebra. We believe that algebra, and a foreign language either 
French or German taught by the natural method, should be added 
to the grades just below the high school. 

This year we tried for the first time, the plan of having a city 
institute. Our teachers all meet in the grade meeting for instruc 
tion and comparison of work every month. It was therefore thought 
that the institute should not attempt instruction in the routine work 
of the teacher, but should rather make for culture, that the teacher's 
vision might be broadened, her power increased. Five days in- 
struction were provided, Dr. C. H. Catterall, of Cornell University, 
lectured two days upon the History of the French Revolution. Dr. 
Charles F. Thwiug was instructor for one day upon the teacher's 
work, and ideals, and also gave a fine lecture upon Gladstone. Dr. 
George Vincent, of Chicago University, gave us one day upon Social 
Psychology and in addition delivered his famous lecture upon Chil- 
dren versus Grownups. Dr. Winship, of Boston, was the instructor 
for one day and evening with the general topic — The New Forces 
in Education. All these men are among the best in the country and 
their work here was a great intellectual uplift to our teachers and 
to many of our citizens. 


The term ending June 6, 1906 completed the eighteenth consecu- 
tive year during which the public schools of this borough have been 
under my supervision. During this time, the number of our schools 
has increased from eight to twenty-two, a gain of one hundred sev- 
enty-five per cent., representing a gain of nearly ten per cent, a year. 
During the same time, our enrollment has increased from 450 to 
1,150. representing approximately, the same gain. This rapid 
growth of our schools will be better appreciated when we take into 
consideration the fact that in 1888 all the children of the district 
attended the public schools, while at the present time we have two 
parochial schools, attended by over .300 pupils residing in the bor- 

While our schools have advanced in efficiency during the same 
time, I cannot truthfully claim that such advancement has been pro- 
portionate to our numerical gain. Many reasons might be advanced 
for this, principal among them being the fact that our increase in 
poi)u]ation during the period in question, has been made up chiefly 
of foreigners, and while their children are intelligent and quick to 
learn, they do not, as a rule, make the same progress as children of 
American parentage. Again the parents of many of these children 


are of limited meaus, and just as soon as they reach the legal work- 
ing age, they are withdrawn from school, and sent to work to help 
sujjport the family. 

The practice of withdrawing children from school on their at- 
taining the legal working age, is not alone confined to people of 
foreign birth, as many parents, American for several generations, 
resort to the same practice. Indeed this is one case in which 1 verily 
believe that the establishment of a legal limit for children to work, 
has resulted in a direct injury to our schools, especially in a com- 
munity like this. The impression seems to prevail with many 
parents that they are under some legal obligation to put their boys 
and girls to work as soon as they reach the age of fourteen years, 
while the average boy and girl taking the same view of the matter, 
look longingly forward to the time when they will be relieved from, 
what they consider the drudgery of school life. 

The discussion of the above conditions naturally brings up the 
working of the child labor law of May 2, 1905. So far as my ob- 
servation and experience have gone, I believe the law has been 
honestly enforced in the factories in this vicinity. No doubt many 
violations of the law have occurred, but such cases are usually out- 
side the power of the parties concerned to control. With regard to 
the mines and breakers, however, the law has been a dead letter 
since the very day on which it was intended to go into effect. This 
is most surprising from the fact that when the bill for the enact- 
ment of this law was pending in the Legislature both corporations 
and labor organizations agreed upon its terms; yet after its passage, 
and even before it went into effect, both sides were anxious to test 
its constitutionality, the one to avoid the employment of more 
nmture persons to whom increased wages would have to be paid — 
the other to secure the miserable pittance earned by the child at the 
sacrifice of his intellectual development, and his future usefulness 
to himself and to the State. 

Besides the law itself was clumsily drawn, and the forms intended 
to carry out its provisions more clumsily prepared. It imposed ardu- 
ous duties on a class of persons already overworked, for which no 
compensation was allowed, and in falling by its own weight, it seems 
(o me that the law has met the fate intended for it by the very men 
who enacted it, and who "amended it to death," before its passage. 

The progress made during the year was fairly good. The enroll- 
ment, compared with last year does not show the usual annual in- 
crease, a fact no doubt, which must be attributed to the rigid en- 
forcement of tlu' vaccination law by the board. This action many 
parents resented, with the result that their children in several in 
stances were withdrawn from the public schools and sent to the 
parochial schools, where the law was not enforced. 



At the opening ol" the schools iu ISeptember a regradiug went into 
elt'ect. We now liave the annual grades — eight — corresponding to 
the number of years in S(-hool, in place of a half-year system as here- 
tofore. In the high school — four year course — it will require two 
more years for the old plan, with half of the graduating class com- 
pleting their studies in January, to work itself out. These schools 
have been unfortunate in recent years in the continual changing of 
high school principals. Again this year the principal resigned, early 
in the year, and the position was tilled temporarily until Mr. H. D 
Kobbins, of rhillipsburg, was elected in November and he has been 
re-elected for next year. The graduating class numbered twenty 
(20) of whom seven (7) were from surrounding townships. 

The savings bank system as maintained in relation with the Dime 
Savings Bank of West Chester seemed to require too much time 
from the teachere and in its continuance this year important changes 
were adopted. Deposits are received and held from actual school 
children, once a month, and only in amounts which are multiples 
of five (5). 

The teachers have met regularly for institute work throughout the 
year. The history of education was studied biographically. The 
superintendent's class studied Dutton's "School Management" and 
Royce's "Outlines of Psychology." Some attention was given to the 
enrichment of the educational section in the local library. 

Among other things we may note an improvement in the quality 
of supplies furnished, advances in the adoption of text-books, de- 
crease in the number of studies and increase in the length of periods 
in the high school, introduction of a card system of enrollment and 
record, addition of a typewriter to the oflSce equipment, an art ex- 
hibit with the resulting purchase of pictures, and the furnishing of 
another first grade room. 

We have issued fifty (50) employment certificates and have given 
ranch attention to truancy and absence with the result that two 
(2) incorrigibles were placed in a reformatory but all other former 
habitual truants have been largely reclaimed to regular attendance 
and the number of cases of absence and tardiness have been notice- 
ably lessened. 

In music Prof. Jerry March who has had charge of the work in 
our schools for a long term* of j^ears resigned through inability to 
spare sufficient time for our needs and in recognition of his ser- 
vices was i)resented a large oil painting by the alumni association. 
The new supervisor, Miss Josephine Duke, formerly at Tyrone will 
have the advantage of residence and full time. 


PITTSBUEG— Samuel Andrews. 

The marked progress made during the past year in professional 
spirit and in material equipments affords just reason for congratula- 
tion. It is safe to say, that in no preceding year have the facilities 
for instruction been more generously supplied; and zeal for their 
work been more profoundly aroused among the teachers. Yet, not- 
withstanding this encouraging outlook, there is a wholesome de- 
mand for greater things in many directions. 

You are aware that throughout this country and, indeed through- 
out all countries, great movements are in progress. Chief among 
these is the "education of the masses." In this movement America 
has taken and must continue to take the lead and upon no city of 
this country does the call for a larger share in this leadership come 
more loudly than to Pittsburg. 

In these "changeful" times, no line of progress has been more 
novel and phenominal than the evolution of popular education in 
America. From the most insignificant beginning it has become an 
immense organization taking care, in the public schools alone, more 
than 20,000,000 children, and employing for this purpose more than 
400,000 teachers. In reaching these proportions, the progress in ma- 
terial equipments, teaching and teachers has more than kept pace. 
From a temporary business, adopted too frequently as a stepping 
stone to something higher, teaching has advanced to an honorable, 
if not lucrative profession, including in its ranks men and women of 
the highest and widest influence. In all of our great cities, it is 
especially manifest. Many of us can recall the time, when, in Pitts- 
burg, it was not an uncommon thing, even among the highest 
teachers, to speak slightingly of all forms of professional culture; 
when books on "methods" were ridiculed; the science and art of 
teaching depreciated; the study of the history of education little 
valued; a knowledge of psychology pronounced of no practical use 
to the teacher. But, now, how changed ! While there may be still 
among us a few "relics of the elder way," I am glad to be able to re- 
port that, with very few exceptions, all the teachers of all grades 
from primary to high school are engaged in one or more lines of pro- 
fessional study or reading. 

In all grades the teachers have shown a new and a most com- 
mendable activity in their efforts toward higher scholastic and pro- 
fessional attainments. 

This has been manifested in the larger and more enthusiastic at- 
tendance at the general institute sessions, and in the practical char- 
acter of and free participation in the grade institutes; in the great 

No. 6. PITTSBURG. 225 

iiiiiiibt'is availiu"* thoniyelvt's of the University Extension Lectures, 
of the courses ottered by the \Vestern University of rennsylvania on 
Pedagogy, and •)! the popular lectures given gratuitiously by Dr. 
Blaisdell on the Teaching of English; and most especially in the or- 
ganization of and enrollment in the Pittsburg Teachers' Reading 

This important feature of the educational system of Pittsburg 
was inaugurated by the teachers' own initiative in the September 
session of the institute. Its management was placed in charge of a 
central committee of five. The committee organized promptly and 
issued a circular to the teachers giving suggestions and directions 
and the course of study for the year, emphasizing clearly the value 
of the work and the plan of credits adopted. 

The arrangements were entered into most heartily and almost 
unanimously by the teachers of all grades including the high school. 
Over nine hundred ^out of the eleven hundred public school teachers 
are now enrolled. In many cases principals have taken charge at the 
local circles organized in their sub-districts; in other cases teachers 
are doing their reading individually. 

The central committee recommending each year at least nine 
books, three of which are to be books on the Art of Education, three 
books on the Science of Education, and three books of General Cul- 
ture. Each member to read annually at least one book from each of 
the three groups. 

The enthusiasm with which the teachers have accepted this op- 
portunity for larger professional preparation and culture augurs 
well for the future of our schools. Such reading must bring better 

The fact that manual training matters with the help of our newly 
elected supervisor, are soon likely to take some very important steps 
forward, make it unnecessary for me to devote space to their con- 
sideration at the present time. 

The vacation schools had a larger attendance last year than ever 
before, the Central Board of Education increasing its appropria 
tion to $5,000.00. This work is no longer an experiment and should 
be more closely affiliated with our public school work. 

The work of the kindergartens is increasing steadily, we now have 
forty-one throughout the city, the Central Board of Education again 
showing their appreciation of the work by appropriating |35,000.00 
for their maintenance. 

New buildings have been erected in the following districts: Hiland, 
the ''Fort Pitt" building consisting of eight rooms; Moorhead, a 
building of seventeen rooms; Peebles. "Roosevelt" building consist 
ing of thirteen rooms. A twelve room addition, a gymnasium and a 
kindergarten room have been added to the Homewood School ; a 


tire-proof annex to the Beltzhoover School; and additions have been 
made to ihe Lincoln and the Minersville buildings Nos. 2 and 3, and 
also to the Morse. 

FOTTSTOWN— Wm. W. Rupert. 

The work for the year 1U05-1906 has been reasonably satisfactory. 
We have fallen below our ideals;, but, since these are constantly ris- 
ing, this is no cause for discouragement. Teachers and pupils have 
worked faithfully and the results have been gratifying. 

Last April, Pottstown, held her first Teachers' Institute. We 
have for some time been convinced that our interests would be 
best served by having an institute of our own. The results have 
fully justified our decision. 

The following program will indicate the nature of the work done 
at our first Institute: 



• 9:55, 














Morning Session. 

8:45. Music— Teachers and School Orchestra, Prof. A. W. Weiser. 

Devotional Exercises Rev. J. F. Behrens. 

The Voice in the School Room, Miss Mary Brevai-d Roberts. 

Nature Study and Natural Sciences, Dr. Edward F. Bigelow. 


The Batavia System Supt. John Kennedy. 

Afternoon Session. 

The Voice in the School Room , Miss Roberts. 

The Cui Bono of Nature Study Dr. Bigelow. 


The English Language Supt. Kennedy. 


High School Building, 8 o'clock. 

Reception to Parents and Teachers. 


Morning Session. 

8:45. Music— Teachers and School Orchestra Prof. A. W. Weiser. 

Devotional Exercises Dr. L. K. E^ans. 

9:15- 9.55. A Classical Pilcrimage Suipt. Kennedy. 

9:55-10:35. How to Study Plants in Growth and Structure Dr. Bigelow. 

10:35-10:50. Recess. 

10:50-11:30. Physical Education Miss Roberta. 

No. 6. POTTSTOWN. • 227 

Afternoon Session. 

1:30- 2:10. The Teaching of History Supt. Kennedy. 

2:10- 2:50. Honey Bees in the School Room— The Educational Hive for Obser- 
vation and Experiment Dr. Bigelow. 

2:50- 3:05. Recess. 

3:05- 3:45. Physical Education, Miss Roberts. 


Morning Session. 

8:45. Music— Teachers and School Orchestra, Prof. A. W. Weiser. 

Devotional Exercises Dr. O. P. Smith. 

9:15- 9:55. Reading Miss Roberts. 

9:55-10:35. How to Study Birds and Pour- Footed Animals, Dr. Bigelow. 

10:35-10:50. Recess. 

10:50-11:30. Language in Relation to Arithmetic Supt. James M. Coughlin. 

Afternoon Session. 

1:30- 2:10. Reading Miss Roberts. 

2:10- 2:50. Books and Apparatus— Indoors and Outdoors, Dr. Bigelow. 

2:50- 3:05. Recess. 

3:05-3:45. School Discipline Supt. Coughlin. 


Morning Session. 

8:45. Music— Teachers and School Orchestra Prof. A. W. Weiser. 

Devotional Exercises Rev. H. M. Dyckman. 

9:15- 9:55. Reading Miss Roberts. 

9:55-10:35. Opening of "Question Box," Dr. Bigelow. 

10:35-10:50. Recess. 

10:50-11:30. Concrete Methods in Arithmetic Supt. Coughlin. 

Afternoon Session. 

1 : 30- 2 : 10. Reading Miss Roberts. 

2:10- 2:50. Outings in Fields, Forests and Meadows, Dr. Bigelow. 

(Practically illustrated by excursion with entire Institute.) 
2:50- 3:05. Recess. 
3;05- 3.45. How to Study Supt. Coughlin. 



High School, 8 o'clock. 

Music— Vocal Selections , Miss Sue Richards. 

Lecture— "Twentieth Century Standards," Dr. A. E. Winship. 


Morning- Session, 

8:45. Music— Teachers and School Orchestra Pro. A. W. Weiser. 

Devotional Exercise, Rev. W. H. Ford. 

9:15- 3:55. Reading, Miss Roberts. 

9:55-10:35. The Interpretation of Original Problems Suipt. Couglin. 

10:35-10:50. Recess. 

10:50-11:30. "The Latest and Best in Education," Dr. Winship. 

POTTSVILLE— B. F. Patteison. 

One of the features pf educational progress inthePottsville schools 
during the last year was the building ol a four roomed two-story 
building. While the present requireinents only demanded three 
looms, yet our school directors always think that it is economy to 
build a little beyond the present wants and in this way keep a little 
ahead of the immediate requirements. This school house is located 
near the plant of the Eastern Steel (.'onipany. In this locality it 
ib sujiposed that there will be quite an increase of pcquilation in a 
year or two. 

During the latter part of the closing school- term, there was a new 
duty infl)0'sed upon the superintendents of the State. That of issuing 
certificates to children between the -ages of fourteen and sixteen 
who were desirous of going to work under the "so-called child labor 
law," It would be interesting and profitable to know how this snb- 
j< ft has been treated by the superintendents in general, 

I have had no opportunity of knowing what others have done, but 
will give a little sketch of what we have done in Po'ttsville. The 
children in the borough who have applied for certificates, have gone 
to the stores, to the silk mill and to the factories^ — so far none have 
applied to go to the mines. 

The benefits to be derived from this law will greatly depend upon 


the conditions upon which the certificates are issued. If the sui>er- 
intendent honestly carries out the law, then the standard of educa- 
tion among children leaving school and going to work will be quite 
considerably raised. Heretofore boys and girls too in many in- 
stances would go to school for a year or two and then be kept out 
bj their parents, or would play truant in spite of parent until they 
were old enough to be employed at some kind of work. When this 
class of children had an opportunitA^ to do something, they worked 
about in the same manner that they had studied in school. In fact 
they knew nothing of books and nothing of work. But if we bold 
theiii down to what the law requires before issuing a certificate, in 
our district it will require them to have passed at least through what 
we call the sub-grammar grade. This will give them a fair knowl- 
edge of reading, spelling, writing, English grammar throngh simple 
sentences, and geography, and they will be familiar with the funda- 
meii+al operations of arithmetic as far as percentage. This gives 
them work for at least five or six years in school preparing to get 
a certificate, which time would otherwise have been spent on the 
streets. This will be a benefit to the schools, and a lasting help to 
the boy who would otherwise have gone to work in total ignorance. 


The oft-repeated statement that ''the teacher makes the school" 
is well exemplified in the schools of Ihis township whose gradually 
increasing efficiency may be attributed largely to the work of our 
corps of well-trained and expenenced teachers whose services we 
have been able to retain from year to year. The i>olicy of elimination 
adopted some years ago has resulted in our having at the present time 
a group of progressive teachers who receive good salaries and whose 
tenure of office depends solely upon personal fitness for the position;* 
which they hold. While the rule of requiring all candidates for po- 
sitions to have had either normal or college training combined with 
at least one year's successful experience may seem unjust to the re- 
cent graduate, yet experience has proved that it is the safest policy 
from the point of view of the school. 

Two innovations introduced this year promise to be of value in 
imi>?'oving our schools. In the high school, pujjils who receive in- 
struction in either vocal or instrumental music from private teach- 
ers will receive credit for such work in proportion to the amount 
of time spent upon the subject. All music lessons must be taken 


at snch times as do uot conflict with the school hours aud three hours 
credii yearly is the inaximuiii allowed at the present time. Certifi- 
cates are required from the teachers stating that the work done in 
this way is satisfactory and in addition a board of examiners will 
pas? upon the pupils' work at the close of each year. 

The reason for granting this privilege is found in the fact that 
many pupils upon entering the high school find that the heavy de- 
mand made upon their time by the increased home study required, 
atfoids them little opportunity for practice in music, and as a result, 
mau^^ prefer to leave school to continue their musical studies while 
others discontinue their music lessons. Under the present arrange- 
ment it is hoped that neither of these steps will be necessary. 

In the lower grades of the primary and grammar schools a modi- 
ficalion of the one-session plan in vogue in other places has been 
tried with satisfactory results. 

In the primary grades the pupils are divided into two divisions 
according to their ability. Both divisions attend the morning ses- 
sion while the second or slower division alone attends the session 
in the afternoon. As the afternoon session is largely devoted to re- 
views of the work of the morning and to individual help, the slower 
pupils are by this means enabled to keep pace fairly well with the 
stronger section while the presence of the brighter pupils in the 
mioining acts as a stimulus to their less brilliant associates. The 
chief criticism against such a plan is the fact that the pupils who at- 
tend but one session lose time from school but as they are for the 
most part children of greater nervous activity the out-of-door free- 
dom of the afternoon is beneficial rather than 'otherwise. 

In the lower grammar grades a somewhat similar plan has been 
followed. Both divisions attend both morning and afternoon ses- 
sions but the first division is dismissed a half hour or an hour earlier 
according to grade and the balance of the session is devoted to re- 
^iews and to individual assistance as in the case of the primary 

Ai-5 a result of this plan the number of pupils who failed of promo- 
tion at the close of the present school year was less than half of the 
number who failed at the end of the preceding year. 

READING— Charles S. Foos. 

For the school year 1905-1906, Reading reports a substantial 
growth. Growth, I think, has characterized every phase of our work, 
whether administrative or pedagogical. For several years our 

No. 6. READING. 231 

schools have been one might say in a state of transition. The aim 
at all times, however, has been to promote better conditicHis. To 
this end, during the past year we have emphasized the work of the 
teaclier as well as the work of the pupil. AVith the help of two ex- 
celh'nt supervisors we have labored to improve methods of teaching. 
This work has been constructive rather than destructive. It has 
been in the way lof suggestion rather than criticism. It has aimed 
at UiOre intelligent teaching, a closer correlation of the work, a sim- 
plilication of the course of study, a more flexible dailj' programme 
and more aid for individual pupils. 

Ifi order to accomplish these conditions the teachers are provided 
with outlines of the several branches taught. These outlines are 
based on the text-books used, but the important features are em- 
phasized and the unimportant minimized. In geography, for in- 
stance, one outline deals with New England. The salient facts that 
make this section interesting are prominent in the outline, the irrele- 
vant facts are in the background or omitted. By a system of cap- 
tions and sub-captions the natural adaptability or non-adaptability 
for the several industries is defined. Each state is outlined accord- 
ing to physical, industrial and political features, with special men- 
tion to those facts peculiar to a particular state. Suggestive notes 
for teachers, calling attention to characteristic features, follow each 
section. The teacher thus grasps at a single glance the central theme 
for her geographical lessons in New England — that on account of 
natural conditions this section is adapted to fishing, lumbering, 
manufacturing and commerce rathei' than to agricuJture, herding and 
mining. These outlines have entailed much labor, but the results 
have rej>aid the effort in their preparation. The aim of geography 
teathing is better understood by the teacher. In the other branches 
of study similar outlines have been or are being prepared. This 
work, together with the perstonal work of the supervisors with the 
teachers, has naturally brought about a simplification of the course 
of scudy, a closer correlation of the several subjects taught, a more 
(. conomical division of time and more intelligent teaching. In reach- 
ing the individual pupil, wherever the study period, the period for 
personal work, and the group plan have been conscientiously and 
patiently used the result has been gratifying. 

The chief obstacle in the prosecution of our plans has been the 
sensitiveness of teachers. It is unfortunate that many teachers re- 
sent criticism of their work. Unless a teacher is willing to discuss 
the merits and demerits of her work she will not progress. Not one 
of us is sufficient unto himself in teaching. The day of experience 
without progress is passing. The era of ''my ways" and my ways 
only will soon be no more. Dr. Brumbaugh well says: "The accepted 



teacher of yesterday is by uiu meaus the accepted teachei- of to-mor- 

An iiniijoitant feature of the work in Reading has been the effort 
to improve the condition of pupils physically unfortunate. Of 
coui'se, this has been laige'ly a work of cha'rity, but nevertheless de- 
serves at least passing notice. Through the kindness of Mr. ^^'altcr 
Boas, the H'omoeopathic Hospital, and several other persons, needy 
pupils receive free treatment for defects of the eyes. Through the 
public spirit of the physicians in the board indigent pupils have been 
treated for other complaints. In several instances they have also 
inspected schools, reported infectious condititm and rendered in- 
valnable counsel. During the winter, Prof. (). H. Ennis, of Cliicago, 
a specialist in stuttering and stammering helped many of the pupils 
to overcome vocal difticulties, and in the future the supervisors will 
endeavcrr to follow up this work. 

The equijjment of the new high school for boys has loccupied much 
time and attention. To decide and (o jjass upon more than twelve 
thousand items were overwhelming problems, but by autumn we 
exp-eet to have the school splendidly ecpiipped for an enlarged work 
in all departments. The cost of the building and ecpiipment will be 
about 1360,000. In the girls' high school the department of business 
will also be more fully developed. F(mr additiona! teachers will be 
added to the faculties of these schools. It may be a matter of inter- 
est to add that the enrollment in the high schools, June 1, 1902, was 
530. Jn September it will be over 1,100. My prediction four years 
ago that a regrading of the schools would result in doubling the en- 
rollment in the high schools has been verified. Rigid inquiry re 
veals the fact that the capacity and the capability of the pupils has 
not lessened, but, on the contrary, the average capacity is better. 
This will still further improve as we improve our methods of teach- 

Our evening schools closed a very successful term with the third 
evening high school commencement Thursday, May 16. The total 
enrollment for the year was very nearly 1,000, of which a third was 
female, distributed as follows: High, 437; grammar, 180; elementary, 
355. This does not include the large number who come in only a 
few evenings and when confronted with work drop out. These 
schools have become a permanent and important part of our school 
system. They appeal especially to me because they help a class of 
young men and young women, who otherwise would probably go 
through life more handicapped thian they will now. 

The enforcenu^nt of the vaccination law m,et with considerable op- 
position in Reading, but we hope- before the opening of another 
school year, all may realize the advisability of complying with the 
law. Since the courts, both lower and higher, have sustained the 

No. 6. READING. 233 

State HcaUh (.'(miinissionci- in his efforts to eufoice the law, it is 
usel«'ss for individuals to resist. It is the law of the state, and as 
such must be obeyed whether personally we favor the law or not. 
Reading has been enjoined not to admit any pupils, old or new. with- 
out a certificate of successful vaccination, and it is incumbent upon 
us to obey the law. 

The new factory law has also given us considerable trouble. Dm 
ing the first year of its operation 853 certificates were issued and 
possibly a third as many refused. Tlie importunities for these cei 
^tificales have often been insistent, and the pleas varied and often 
touching. Many p<»ople feel that the superintendent has discretiou- 
ary p()\^er in the matter, and. beyond question, it has added to tiie 
already long list of his short-comings before the community. Per- 
sonally. I think that some provision should be made that boys of 
proper ])hysique and age be permitted 1o work in vaccation. Already 
••)ur boys are insuflSciently safeguarded, and I forsee some danger in a 
lot of idle boys, roaming the streets juid the surrounding country in 
the summer days. 

Keading entertained the Forty-ninth Annual Session of the Penn 
sylvania Educational Association, July 11, 12, 13, 1905. To Read- 
ing and its teachers this was an imitortant educational event, and 
to the visitors, according to reports, it was a pleasant and profitabh? 
gathering. We rejoice in the fact that the officers of the association 
voted the meeting one of the best in the history of the association, 
and we hope that Reading may have the pleasure of entertaining 
another meeting before the lapse of another quarter of a century. 
The State Association should increase in numbers and in usefulness. 
Teaehers who attend grow not only socially but pedagogically. Con- 
ventions break down the walls of ultra -conservatism, set one think- 
ing, impress the fact that one may not be in possession of all that 
is meritorious. I>et us stand by our association and make it a i>oten- 
tial factor for the dissemination of what is best in education. 

In brief permit me to report that the x>lan of grade supervisors 
has been signally successful in Reading; that in seven schools we 
have very satisfactorily done departmental work; that a system 
of badges for newsboys has been begun, whereby these boys may be 
more readily managed; more readily detected, if not regular carriers; 
and more uniformity maintained among the carriers of the several 
papers in the city; that the board has decided to erect four-room ad- 
ditions to two buildings, and will purchase additional ground in the 
growing sections of the city. I cannot close this report without a 
word of c'omment about the financial j)oli<'y of the Reading Board 
of Education. In spite of a substantial raise in salaries, the build- 
ing and equipment of the new high school for boys, the doubling of 
the number of grammar school teachers, the addition of six high 


scliool teacliers, the tax-rate remains at f'our mills. The financiering 
of Ihf bond issues is also such as to save the board thousands of 
dollars in interest. 

ROCHESTER— Orrin C. Lester. 

I hereby submit to the Department of Public Instruction my first 
report of the Rochester public schools. 

W(t believe we have had a. go'od year. While the work of our 
schools is not as good as we want it to be, yet we have had a lively 
interest taken by both teachers and pupils, to whom I desire to ex- 
press acknowledgment of my appreciation of their work, and their 
faitlifulness in carrying out our plan as outlined. 

The salaries of all the teachers getting |50.00 or less was increased 
$5.00 per month, this change taking effect at the beginning of the 
school year 1905 and 1906. For the school year beginning Septem- 
ber, 3906, another increase of from J^2.50 to |10.00 has been effected 
for the most of the grades. We hope that through increases in 
teachers salaries and through increase of scho'ol spirit on the part of 
all to whom the school is a benefit, that the work of the teacher may 
indeed stand out in the dignity of an honorable profession. 

Since this is the first report of the Rochester public schools, we 
feel that we ought to mention siomething of the progress of our high 
school. Within the last four years the enrollment has almost 
doubled itself. Our teaching force has been increased from two to 
five teachers, which now gives us a teacher for English; one for 
Latin; one for German; one for history, and one for mathematics 
and science. Our course of study has been extended from a three to 
a four year course. On account of this change in the c'ourse, we had 
a very small graduating class last year, containing only three mem- 
bers, but we are glad to say, that they all propose attending more ad- 
vanced school during the coming school year. 

Friday afternoon before our holiday vacation was given to an en 
tertainment in all grades. There was quite a nice interest shown 
on the part of pupils, teachers and parents. Quite a number of 
parents and other friends of education were present who seemed 
much pleased with the recitations and songs of the pupils. 

About the first of May we gave an exhibit of the wiork of out 
schools from the first grade to the high school. This included work 
in all the branches of study from every pupil in the schools. The 
work of all the schools was exhibited in one building. Invitations 

No. 6. SCRANTON. 235 

were sent to all parents and other friends of education of the town 
and even to some in neighboring- towns. Nearly four hundred peo- 
ple were present who showed themeselves to be interested in our 
work and in us. We think we have realized results from, this ex- 
hibii that will help us in our work of the coming school yeair. 

SCRANTON— George W. Phillips. 

Reports published annually concerning any esitablished operation 
must to a greater or less extent become stereotype in form. The 
process of education is old, yet, with each successive generation of 
children, some different phase of work calls f oi* distinctive treatment. 

Scranton, as a city, is but forty years old, and its school cionsolida- 
lion less than thirty, hence a single generation has witnessed the 

Population increased to 120,000; day school enrollment, 19,104; 
nighi school enrollment, 2,567; graded schoiol buildings, 40; high 
school buildings, 2; manual training school, 1; teachers' training- 
school, 1; kindergartens, 21; night schools, 36; evening high school, 1. 

The most valuable additions to our public schoiol system during 
the past year were the opening of a second high school to relieve the 
crowded condition of the central school and the presentation to the 
district by Mrs. W. T. Smith, as a memiorial to her husband, of the 
William T. Smith Manual Training School. Agreeable to the ex- 
pret^sed wish of Mrs. Smith no public presentation or acceptance of 
the gift was made. The building, one of the best of its kind in the 
country, will stand as a most eloquent tribute to one generous 
hearted enough to Consider the needs of those future generations of 
children who will possibly receive here their first full conception of 
the dignity of labor, whether mental or physical. The freedom from 
restrictions concerning the building gives the board of control com- 
plete management. The dourse has been outlined to cover a period 
of four years, but as the work is to be introduced year by year the 
real benefit will not be fully appreciated until the end of the course. 

We have not yet seen the way practicable for extending the cus- 
tomary work of the institute over periods throughout the year, yet 
I am coming to the belief that these meetings should be more largely 
cultural than purely didactic. It is incumbent upon those who have 
charge of young people to improve the social as well as educational 
environment of the child. The former has not been given the atten- 


lion its Jiui)()i'taii((' demands. It is neccssaiy for the teacher tb be 
given and to embrace c-\eiy opportunity lor pe'rsonal develo[)nH'nt 
along lines Ihat are not always easily within reach. 

In accordance with this idea soni- lof onr teachers have been de- 
veloping an interest along the esthetic side by placing in the schools 
works^ of literature and art secured by donations from themselves 
and from public entertainments held. While the cry of "fad" and 
"folly" is sometimes heard, yet there is more to be learned in school 
than a knowledge of text-books and the so-called common branches, 
if a child is to appieciatetthe best things of life. 

V;hile appreciating the fact that the work of the graded school is 
the important part of any school system, and, while not in any way 
OAcrlotoking its importance, attention should be ealled to what might 
furjiish a ipiite true index of the citizen's real interest in our public 
schools. Taking the first thirty veais of the history of the high 
shcool we tind that in the first ten year period, 109 graduated from 
the high school. In the second ten year period, 300 graduated, and 
in the third ten year period, 1070 graduated. This ratio far exceeds 
the ratio of increase in the population of the city. 

Night schools are not new in Soranton and a large attendance in 
them not unusual. This year, however, an experiment was made of 
chariging the plan of session, consolidating schools into central build- 
ings and teaching four evenings a week instead of five. These changes 
give an increased impetus to this department but the great handicap 
to best results here, as elsewheire, is the securing of experienced 
teachers. Next year a new plan may be tried that if put in operation 
will be more encouraging in results. While everything possible 
should be done for boys and girls who are conipelled to wo'rk, the 
mistake is sometimes made of thinking that those who work can by 
attending night school do as well ~:is those who attend day school 
wholly. This is impossible both for physical and mental reasons 
and parents and children should not be thus deluded. If we are to 
assiniiliate foreign born children into the best ideals of Am,eriean citi- 
zenship it is necessairy to keep them in day school longer than the 
tendency appears to be at present. Thei'e were in the grade night 
schools 1,738 boys and 437 girls making a total of 2,170 in these 

For the first time in the history of the city an evening high school 
was established and English, mathematics, modern languages, book- 
keeping, stenography, typewriting, mechanical and free hand drawing 
wer( taught. The interest in the school is best shown by the at- 
tendance of 208 young men find 189 young woinen a total of 397. mak- 
ing the full enrollment of night schools 2,.507. 

The agitation being made to have a system of high school inspec- 
tion on the part of the Department of Public Instruction would do 

No. 6. SHAMOKIN. 237 

much to solve the question of coiuelatioii of hij;h schools and nonual 
schools.. As soioii as the status oi" eadi is established towards the 
other, so soon will be settled, to a laige extent, the vexed (luestion 
of city training land State Normal schools. When this relation is 
established, the educational and professional (lualiflcations of the 
teachers of the State can then be readily determined so far as cities 
are conoerned. 

Entirely too much responsibility has been placed upon school of- 
ficials under the child-labor law. It has been literally carried out so 
far as qualifications under it are concerned, but wheal a change takes 
place either by ruling of court, or otherwise, it would seem but scant 
courtesy that the Department of Labor should acquaint those grant- 
ing labor certificates of any change of attitude as to the provisions 
of the law, whether compulsory or voluntary, and thus prevent un- 
necessary labor and annoyance on the part of those issuing these 

^^'hile the actual progress or improvement of any definite period 
may not be well defined, yet a comparis'on of one year with a pre- 
vious year, or years, will give a pretty accurate estimate of results. 
We believe we are making progress. Teachiers, as a whole, are faith- 
ful in their work and if the proposed teachers' retirement fund will 
be successful in its outcome an added interest will be given to the 
teachers' calling. It will be too long to wait for sufficient advance- 
ment in salary to meet the situation. Let us 'all encourage this bene- 
ficent measure for a most worth v vocation. 

SHA^NIOKIN— Joseph Howerth. 

In every depalrtment of our schools there are evidences of progress. 
The crowded conditions that have tended t'o hamper the work of the 
schoels for several years past have been relieved by the completion 
of two new grade buildings during the yeiar. Each of these build- 
ings contains fifteen school rooms and all the improvements and 
equipments kniown to modeirn schWl architecture. The total cost of 
the buildings and equipments is about |88,000. 

The crowded condition of the high school has a tendency to in- 
terfere with good work. The high school is becoming more popular 
eacii year. Last year 92 per cent, of those who completed the work 
in the eighth grade entered the high school, bringing the total en- 
rollment to 340 pupils. On the evening of June 8th, the commence- 
ment exercises were held in the G. A. K. Opera House, when a class 


of 58 young ladies and gentlemen were graduated. Several of these 
have decided to enter higher insititutions of learning next ye'ar. 

The lattendanee for the year has been particularly goiod, and the 
registration has increased 162 over last year. This is especially en- 
couraging and is due to two principal causes; First, the compulsory 
school law, and secondly, the new child labor law. 

Ac a recent meeting of the directors it was decided to introduce 
Manual Training in the grades. 

SHARON— S. H. Hadlev. 

The schools closed this year June 1. On that evening commence- 
ment Exercises were held, and a class of thirteen were graduated. 
Aside from the statistical report, I think the following subjects 
are worth reporting. 

To this time our schools have had nine years of work in the 
elementary course. Knowing that the elementary course in most 
places consisted of eight years' work, about four years ago we be- 
gan working toward this end. Each year additional work was added 
to each grade. Also many subjects in different branches of study 
were eliminated, since it was generally conceded these were worth- 
less both from stand-point of knowledge and mental discipline. 

The attendance throughout the term was good, the average per 
cent, of attendance being 96 per cent. One hundred eight more 
pupils were enrolled this year than last, of which number 33 were 
in the high school. Owing to the change of the course of study the 
number promoted to the high school this year is larger than ever 

Both in kind and amount of work done in the music department, 
we think the work better this year than ever before. More diffi- 
cult and better music is taken up and mastered than was ever at- 
tempted before. Special mention must be made of the untiring 
effort of the director, Mr. D. A. Vaughn. 

The annual art exhibit was held the last week of May. The work 
of all the grades was exhibited and thrown open to the inspection 
of the public. It was pronounced by all to be far superior to any 
work ever shown before. This work was under the supervision of 
our very efficient teacher, Miss Louise McCurdy. 

While reporting our progress in our special subjects, the work 
along the regular lines should be mentioned, as being of a high 

No. 6. SHENANDOAH. 239 

order, and mention sliould be made of the zeal and enerj^y of our 
teachers, in both high school and ward schools. 

In the line of books and supplies nothing which would tend to 
the improvement of our schools has been denied us by our very effi- 
cient Board of Directors. 

SHENANDOAH— J. W. Cooper. 

For another year the schools of this borough have moved quietly 
onward. The members of the teaching force have done faithful 
work. The pupils seemed to be imbued with the same spirit as 
the teachers and the results were, in general, quite satisfactory. 
The agitation and trouble among the directors had very little, if 
any, effect on the working of the schools, for the work done and 
the results obtained during the past term were in no way inferior 
to those of previous j'ears. When it is remembered that there were 
more contagious diseases to contend with than there have been dur- 
ing any year for the last decade, the parents should be pleased with 
the work done by their teachers. 

There are two lines of work which may deserve special mention. 
They are the advanced grammar work and the primary grade read- 
ing. The more advanced education does not receive, in this town, 
the encouragement that it should. It is difficult to keep pupils in 
school after they have passed out of the first grammar school, and 
not fifty per cent. (50 per cent) of those who enter the advanced 
grammar school ever enter the high school. With three different 
courses of study and a good corps of instructors, the high school did 
not average one hundred pupils (100) for the term. The spirit of 
putting pupils to work early has gotten a grip on this borough which 
it seems almost impossible to break. This school has received a 
further drawback by the principal, Mr. L. B. Edwards, resigning at 
the end of the term to take up the study of law. He is a man of 
considerable ability, had tact in discipline, method in instruction, 
was well liked by his pupils, and obtained good results. Besides 
teaching in other positions in this borough, he had served the Board 
faithfully as principal for a period of two (2) years. 

During the past term, the teachers, pupils and parents of the 
advanced grammar school felt the onward impulse and caught the 
spirit of progress which demands a more general education than is 
obtained in the primary school. Under the master hand of Miss 
Mary A. Connelly, principal, who controlled her two hundred and 


sixty-five (265) pupils with perfect east. Most of the pupils re- 
mained iu school till the end of the term, and ninety-nine (DDj, all 
of the A class, were graduated, oi- passed for entrance to the high 

The results in the tirst year reading were especially satisfactory. 
At the opening of the term, the Ward system of reading was intro- 
duced, and the constant sound drill required in that system proved 
a great help in enunciation and articulation in a community made 
up, as this district is, of so many tongues. Outside of the change 
in the system of primary reading, the system of instruction was the 
same as previously reported. 

During the year one new tirst grammar grade school was opened, 
and tifty-four (54) new single desks were purchased for the same. 
The librarj' trustees purchased nearly four hundred dollars (iP4()()) 
worth of new books for the library. 

In order to advance the education of the children of this district, 
a strong effort was made to enforce the laws governing the em- 
ployment of children about the anthracite mines and in industrial 
institutions with a considerable degree of success until Judge 
Wheatou gave his decision on the constitutionalit3^ of certain parts 
of the laws. After that, many of the colliery superintendents re- 
turned to the old method and accepted the affidavit of the parent, 
guardian, or custodian as sufficient evidence as to the age and quali- 
fication of the api)licant for work, provided the applicant could read 
simple sentences in the English language. 

SIIEKADEN— F. L. llannum. 

In a rapidly growing borough such as Sheraden it is a matter of 
great difficulty to provide sufficient school accommodations for the 
incoming troops of children. During the year just past our school 
facilities were pretty severely taxed. In only one school building 
was there a vacant room. Enrollment has nearly doubled in the 
last five years. 

Our high school is also fast out-growing its bounds. About 75 
per cent, of the graduates of our common schools enter high school. 
The new Commercial Course, covering stenography, typewriting 
and the usual "business" branches, has attracted many who would 
otherwise never have entered high school. We had some fear lest 
the older courses might suffer in popularity when thrown into open 


couipetition with one fitting especially and speedily for business. 
That fear, we find, jvas groundless. 

Our two libraries are steadily growing, both in actual size and in 
usefulness. They now contain about 4,000 well-selected volumes. 
The latest records indicate about 12,000 book loans for the year. 

The year has not been marked by any startling innovations. Our 
courses of study for the common schools have been slightly changed, 
but only in matters of minor detail. A new graded course in litera- 
ture for children's home-reading has been suggested, and parents 
are cordially co-operating with us in this plan for developing taste 
for good literature. The system of making an annual physical ex- 
amination of all children in our schools — recording on the regis- 
tration cards the results, especially those relating to sight, hear- 
ing, weight, etc. — has now been in use with us for five years. The 
results prove conclusively that the time and effort required have 
been used to good purpose. 

The laws relating to vaccination, compulsory education, and child- 
labor, have been strictly enforced by us. Every child in our schools 
has a certificate of vaccination on file in my office, and we have had 
no difficulty in enforcing thnt requirement. The inherent weak- 
nesses of both the compulsory education law and the child-labor law 
have produced some trouble, but we have rigidly enforced both laws 
in so far as we had legal authority. Bluff is a poor weapon for re- 
peated use, and unconstitutional laws hurt the causes they are in- 
tended to help. 


The six public school buildings of the borough with a seating 
capacity sufficiently large to accommodate more than two thousand 
pupils are in good condition, and are adequately provided with book 
closets, clothes closets or wardrobes and well lighted lavatories. 
One of the buildings — the oldest in the borough was recently reno- 
vated — its ceilings apd walls were painted in light blue, the furni- 
ture and woodwork repainted and varnished. Externally our build 
ings make a fine appearance; the outside walls are covered with 
creeping vines; the yards well supplied with shade trees, ornamental 
trees, shrubbery, flowering plants and grass plots. The portions 
of the yards used for playgrounds are generally kept in suitable con- 
dition. Our people regard a well kept play ground of great import- 
ance. In our case it serves as a cheap gymnasium. There is no 


better place for children to take bodily exercise than one in the 
open air. 

The home schools started a year ago were a success. In these 
schools the children of the borough receive their first school train- 
ing. It is astonishing to know how much they learn in one school 
term. They learn to submit to commands — to keep busy, to walk, 
to run, to write, to sing, to play, to read, to do easy handwork. Al- 
ways doing something and always want something to do. The home 
schools are dear little gardens for little children. 

I am glad to report that the Board has recognized the long con- 
tinued service of its faithful primary teachers by increasing their 
wages. A faithful primary teacher deserves recognition as well as 
a faithful teacher of a higher grade. Keep the experienced and 
skilled primary teachers in the primary grade and increase their 
pay for staying there. 

I regret to state that on account of failing health two of our most 
active and successful primary teachers were compelled to discon- 
tinue their school room work. 

Except a few cases of diphtheria and scarlet fever we had very 
little illness among the pupils during the term. 

On account of the overcrowded condition of the upper grades, and 
for the purpose of retaining pupils a year longer in the grammar 
and high schools the Board established a grammar B grade in five 
of the buildings. By this plan the grammar school pupils will re- 
ceive a better training in grammar school work and will be better 
prepared for admission into high school. It will also lessen the 
work in the high school by completing more of the common branches 
before beginning high school work. 

The laws regulating the public schools of the state have been 
fully complied with. We do not claim that all children of school 
age residing in the borough were in attendance at school, but we 
know that a large number was brought to school whose parents 
would, without a compulsory attendance law, have kept them at 
home, or permitted them to live on the streets of the borough. 


In this the fourth year in the history of the school-life of this 
community there was a marked im])rovement in the character of 
work done by onr teachers. The standard of certificate has been 
raised, salaries increased, and the result is better teaching and 
schools. Our enrollment reached 1,327 an increase of 219 OA^er that 

No. 6. SOUTH SHARON. 243 

of last year. The average per cent, of attendauce was 93. Frequent 
visits by the parents and a liberal patronage of the school library 
with a large attendauce at public exercises shows a good public 
senlinient that aids greatly in all school-work. 

Because of increased attendance, an assistant teacher in the high 
school has been secured and several for the grades are required. 
Our buildings are kept in excellent condition, being painted and 
decorated throughout, while deep wells are drilled at each building 
furnishing water that is altogether wholesome. A special instructor 
in music has been provided for, pianos are in use in each of the large 
buildings which have greatly aided in the movements of large num- 
ber of pupils at midday and at the closing sessions. 

The greatest task perhaps is found in so providing sufficient room 
that our schools will not be overcrowded. An assistant teacher was 
employed for the year whose time was divided among several of 
the tirst year schools in giving additional instruction where most 

This proved very beneticial under the conditions and greatly bene- 
fiting irregular ones in these schools who were low in their grade 
because of attendance or slow in mastering the language. A few 
more than SOU pupils were enrolled in the first year's work. 

Emphasis is placed upon the work in English and history. Our 
people are among the most cosmopolitan in the State and the con- 
ditions and results are such as to demand and seemingly justify this 

In a professional way, regular meetings of all the teachers were 
held each month as well as grade meetings for particular discussion 
and instruction. 

An excellent book on Pedagogy was read and copies of the 'Penn- 
sylvania School Journal" were provided by the "Board of Directors" 
that our teachers became familiar with the educational activities of 
the State also with much of the best in the educational progress of 
a much wider field. 

In the closing exercises, a class of 24 was transferred to the high 
school — certificates of promotion being granted. 

A class of three completed the three-year high school course, who 
with several hundred citizens assembled in the Broadway Theatre 
were addressed in a very able manner by Rev. T. B. Roth, D. D., of 
Greenville, Pa. 

The exercises were brought to a pleasant close by the presenta- 
tion of the di})lomas l»y the president of the ''P.oard of Directors," 
Mr. A. R. Maxwell. 


STEELTON— L. E. McGiimes. 

Good schools Hie tlic product of at least three essentials; sys- 
tematic and thoiough oi-ganiation, earnest and hearty co-operation, 
jind intelligent and skillfnl teaching. Such organization implies 
that each director, each supervisor, each teacher and each j)upil is 
placed to the best advantage, and that each in turn is doing his best 
in the place to which he has been assigned. 

Such co-operation demands that the fundamental law of educa- 
tional unity dominates the organization, the home and the school 
and such teaching requires a cultured intellect, possessed of a 
knowledge of mind as well as ma.tter, and much more, it requires a 
sympathetic heart, i)rompted by a keen appreciati<m of the needs 
of childhood. 

To claim that the ideal was reached in providing these essentials 
in onr schools during the past year would be to claim more than the 
truth will admit. Suflfice it to say that progress was made along all 
of these lines. On the whole the Board is to be commended for its 
fidelity and its self-sacrifice, the patrons for their sympathy and 
generous support and llie teachers for their faithfulness and their 

SUNBURY— Ira Shipman. 

Our annual school enrollment has not materially changed since 
1900, even though the population of the town has greatly increased. 
The chief reason for this seems to be that there are many lines of 
work open for the services of boys and girls above the age of four- 
teen years. The enrollment for the year 1900 to 1006, inclusive was 
as follows: 2,147, 2,086, 2,008, 2,120, 2,138, 2,150, 2,190. 

Employment certificates have not noitceably reduced the number 
of persons between the ages of fourteen and sixteen years who chose 
to enter a factory. The evidence of age is easily obtained and the 
literary requirements are so simple that but very few can be re- 
jected on that basis. In our locality nearly every applicant "Is able 
to read and write simjile sentences in the English language." 

The work of nearly all of our teachers may be classed as good and 
very good. The liigh school teachers were elected for three years 
and some of them seem to have worked u])on the princi])le, "We 
liave been ehM-ted for three years and now we will do as w<' please." 

No. C. SUNBURY. 245 

The election of teachers is one of the most important duties of 
lioaids of Education. Too much care and deliberation can not be 
exercised in tlie discluirge of this duty. The best interests of the 
scliools in tlie fullest sense of the term should be served. 

The best teachers are not always those who can pass the best 
examinations, or those who have si>ent most time in hij-hcr institu- 
tions of learning. There are some natural qualifications that out- 
weij^h acquired qualifications. Love for children, liberal views, in- 
dustry and genuine interest are valuable considerations. 

The true teacher endeavors to lay a broad foundation; to be liberal 
rather than pessimistic; to teach with earnestness; to cheerfully 
comply with established rules and regulations; to take an interest 
in educational meetings; to know duty and do it; to take an interest 
in the particular school to be taught; to work for the best interests 
of the school system as a whole. 

Teachers made monthly, in many cases more frequent reports of 
non-attendants. The secretary gave immediate notice which in most 
instances had the desired effect. The attendance otHcer wris fre- 
({uently called upon to place truants in school. Two habitual 
truants were sent to reformatories. Provision lias l)e(Mi made in 
our schools for all pupils entitled to school privileges. Boys and 
girls should either be in school, or employed in some useful line of 
work. Street and alley education leads to inferior citizenship. 

June 14, 1905, flag presentation exercises were held at the high 
school building, and a large new flag floated, for the first time, from 
the newly erected steel flag tower. Mrs. J. K. Cressinger was the 
prime mover in securing the new flag and tower. 

April, 1906, prize essays were read and prizes awarded by the 
society, "The Daughters of the American Revolution," to Albert B. 
(Jopenhaver and Margaret E. Kuebler. 

The efficiency and harmony of the Sunbury schools have been 
marred by the interference of local book agents. 

Music was taught in all the grades under the supervision of Miss 
Clara A. Wheeler. The study was pursued with varying interest and 
results, upon the whole creditable to the supervisor, the teachers 
and the pupils. 

The graduating exercises were held May 25, 190G, in the Chestnut 
Street Opera House.' There were thirty-three members in the class. 
Col. C. M. Clement made the commencement address and presented 
the dii)lomas. 

During the school year ending June, 1900, the superintendent 
taught in the higher grades nearly three months for teachers who 
were ill ; n»ade 5:?2 visits to schools; held .ST teach<'rs' meetings; spent 
131 days in oflflce work, and a total of 301 days in official duties. 

Thanking the Department of Public Instruction, directors, 


teachers and others who have aided me in my efforts to advance the 
efficiency of the schools, 1 respectfully submit this, my seventh an- 
nual report of the Sunbury schools. 

TAMAQUA— Kobt. F. Ditchburn. 

Another term has followed the last and I am glad it has followed 
for it has not been a good one. About the middle of the term, some 
unkindly party introduced small-pox into our town and a more un- 
kindly party closed our schools for six long weary weeks. And 
the wisdom of the school closing, neither helped nor hindered the 
small-pox. For the children played on the streets, ran after the 
pest wagon and congregated around the pest house, the people visited 
one another as of yore, saloons and stores were run as usual and 
school teachers vaccinated and nursed sore arms. Here I would 
like to ask a question, "If a school board has the power and right 
to order and compel teachers to be vaccinated, is there not some 
power somewhere to compel the professional man, the merchant, 
the mechanic, the miner, the laborer or any other man to be vacci- 
nited?" But to return to the school closing business. During the 
epidemic everybody kept on working as before and were paid as be- 
fore, and we teachers who had no hand in the small-pox affair were 
not allowed to work and were told that we must lose our pay at 
the rate iof |1,700 a month, and the people especially those who pay 
one dollar school tax ran after the school directors and made them 
believe that it was unlawful and morally and physically wrong to pay 
the teachers, and the directors being taxpayers themselves felt it 
was their duty and only duty to take care of the taxpayer. Now 
there are some people so old fashioned as to think that the great 
duty and only duty of the director is to care for and promote educa- 
tion. If this is done then the taxpayer will be amply cared for and 
get the worth of his money. But isn't it remarkable what a soul- 
destroying thing taxpaying is? How often I have seen and heard 
saint and sinner, the wise and the foolish, lie to the assessor and 
swear at the tax collector. I believe the greatest question to be 
discussed by educators is "how to pay teachers without taxes." 

Terhaps the above stuff is not suitable for such a report as you 
ie(|nir('. I will only add, our school board after all paid the teachers 
ill full. So you see, if as some say right is nearly dead in the land 
it is still alive in Tamaqua. 

To come down to reality we admitted during the past term 1,711 
pupils. Average age, 10 years. 

No. 6. TARENTUM. 247 

.Vuinitted: Boys, 862; girls, 841); total, 1,711. Average monthly: 
Uoys, 737; girls, 726; total, 1,4G3. Average daily: Boys, 047; girls, 
035; total, 1,282. Average per cent.: Boys, 88; girls, 88; total, 88. 

Our schools are graded or numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, sub-grammar, gram- 
mar, high school. 

The average number of pupils in each grade during the term : 

First grade, 2'54 with 4 teachers. 

Second grade, 181 with 4 teachers. 

Third grade, 344 with 8 teachers. 

Fourth grade, 255 with 6 teachers. 

Sub-grammar, 174 with 4 teachers. 

Grammar, 167 with 4 teachers. 

High school, 88 with 2 teachers. 

The first grade is where the child first comes to school. In this 
grade half the pupils come in the morning and the other half in 
the afternoon. 

In the fourth grade all the common school branches are taught 
except algebra. 

In the sub-grammar the same branches as those of the fourth 
grade only more so. 

In the grammar grade all the common school branches and 

From the second grade on to the high school inclusive, drawing is 

Last evening we held our high school commencement. The class 
was composed of 13 young ladies and 7 young gentlemen and the 
public attendance was the usual crush. 

TARENTUM— A. D. Endslev. 

The office of superintendent of schools in Tarentum was estab- 
lished by our Board in May, 1905. Accordingly this is our first re- 

During the past year the borough has maintained two free kinder- 
gartens with an enrollment of 123 pupils; the common schools with 
26 teachers and 1,163 pupils; and the high school with six teachers 
and 166 pupils. Thirteen pupils were graduated from the high 
school, having completed a four years' course, 

A course in physical training was introduced at the beginning of 
the year in all the grades. 

We have also tried a modified form of the Batavia plan with suc- 


ct'ss. The special teacher for this woilv has a small room to her- 
self. To this room are seut from the \arious grades the pupils who 
need individual help in the ditferent branches. This teacher also, 
at times, works in the ditferent class rooms during study periods, 
and thus keeps herself thoroughly informed as to the progress of 
the class as a whole. This plan has resulted in interesting in their 
school work, pupils who have never before liked to come to school. 

The difference between the compulsory attendance law and the 
factory law has resulted in quite a little confusion in our district. 
In this section boys are in great demand for our mills and factories. 
Many of our boys between 13 and 14 years of age leave school and 
go to work without employment certificates. As the compulsory at- 
tendence law excuses children over 13 who can read and write and 
are engaged in useful employment, we have had to permit these boys 
to remain out of school. The department of factory inspection has 
not been able to \\vv\) these boys from securing employment in this 

TAyL(>R— M. J. Llo\d. 

Substantial progress in grade woivic, tcniching ].>ower and general 
school oirganizalion was made over the conditions of preceding years. 
These were due to the increased capacity and beitter facilities that 
came with the opening of our new high school. This building was 
completed and occupied the latter part of last September. 

Tv^eu'ty-fise entered the high school department and eighteen the 
commercial department. There was six'ty in the eightli grade and 
seventy in grammar B grade. This indicates remarkable growth in 
the upper grades where a few years jireceding there was little oi' 
no alignment in gradi^ work, and no attempt at high school work. 

The professional topics studied and discussed during the year in 
the monthly teiachers' meetings miaterially helped to make the teach- 
iMS more etficient in teaching power and school management. 

The coiniHilsory attc^ndance law as applies to factories is rigidly 
enforced. A\'e have no child woirking undeir age in any of the several 
silk mills here. This coirditioii is due to th'e strict adherence tO' the 
l<>(ter lof the law in gramting certificaites by the superintendent and 
also to thie cloise ins})ection on the part of tlie factoiry insjXM-tor of 
.ev( ry cei'tificate granted. I wish 1 could make a, similar leport foi' 
the mine compulsiory law. 

The ]iresent compulsory act is Hagi'antly violated by the officials 

No. 6. TYRONE. 249 

of (lie several (mkiI bicakiMs licrc, in (Miii»l()yiii«; cliildn'n to work in 
and around the sivcial laij^o brcakc^is willionr I lie jnoper qiialificta- 
tions. The law as it now stands is abortive and will renuiin so, until 
it shall be anjended to appoint inspcctoi'S whose entire duty will be 
to conipej each boy to jn-oiicrly (jnalify before being allowed to work. 
The b'oiard recently purchased CroweH's complete ]diysical api)ara- 
tus \A'lth this we believe more thmough work will be done in the 
subject of phj'Sics. 

TITUSVILLE— Henrv Pease. 

As superintendent of schools for the city of Titusville, I have very 
little to report of special interest or of value. Our schools have been 
doin^- steady, progicssive work, without any experiments, excej)t 
that we continue to devo'te a definite amount of tinu' in all grades 
to individual work with the children who seem to need it most. With 
us, this is no longer an experiment, but an accepted method of teach- 
ing which brings the best results. 

The sewing classes introduced into our schools ;a few years since 
hav(? become an esitablished fact which no one would think of dis- 
continuing. There has been a very iioiticeable improvement in the 
care which the school girls give their iiersoual apix^arance which 
miore than justifies the expense. It is evident that those who most 
need to learn economy in domestic mij'tters are being helped. We 
hope to do as much for th(^ boys by (establishing mianual training 
(lasses in the future. 

TYRONE— I. (\ M. Ellenberffer, 

The aim of our ti^acheis during the pasit year has been genuine 
])i'ogre;SS. Our course of study has been somewhat improved and en- 
riched by the addition of niiucli suitable sujtphMmnitary leading ma-t- 

Our attendance throughout the year has been good, and this is es- 
jici ially tiue in the grammar schools; whei-eas hei-etofore we have 
lust (juile a number of our gr'aniuiar grade pujvils, at least 00 per 
( ent. of those remained to com]dete the work of the grade. This is 
encouraging'^ when it is reniiend)ered that in the grammar gr'a(h^s the 
jirciitcst number of ])upils ai'e lost. 


Owing to the crowded condition of the Adams Avenue Building a 
new scho'ol was opened. For several }ears the board has realized 
vile iiec( ssity of preimriiig accomniod'ationiSi for our higher grade 
students and thus relieve the crowded condition of the lower grades. 
We purchased for |8,50() one of th(^ juost comniianding sites in town 
for a high school. We hope suon to erect the much needed high 
school building. 

>^'hait we are greatly in need of is a modern high school building 
serviceable and useful in all of its a^jpointmeiits, with a spacious 
and thoroughly eijuipped manual training department. 

Successful liocal iustitu'tes were held during the year in this and 
adjoining districts. These institutes always found a goodly num 
ber of our teachers i>resent taking an active part in the discussions 
and in preparing and reading papers on educiational subjects. We 
adopted a course of systematic reading and study of professional 
works, which course each teacher is expected to complete during the 

\ ocial music has been taught in all Uie grades for two years and 
has become well established. Every provision was made to make 
this department strong. Teachers' meetings were held semi-iiKmthly 
foi' instruction. 

The attendance throughout the term w^as good. Both the com- 
pulsory attendance law and the vaccination law were rigidly en- 
forced. Eleven students were graduated from the classical depart- 
ment of the high school and seven from the commercial department. 


The Waynesboro schools closed May 21. The term was one of 
conJinuouiS annoyance on account of the attempted enforcement of 
(he coinpulsory vaccination law and of an epidemic of measles which 
O'vertpread the town about two months before the end of the term 
and coiiitinued until after the close of school. Thus we cannot re- 
port moi'e than the equivalent of six months' good solid work. The 
eiHoUniienit was the largest in the history of the schools, and as there 
is a constant growth in l^opulation, we anticipate a large incj-ease 
next term. 

('oinmencement exercises were held Tuesday evening, May 22, 
when a, cl'ass of fifteen was graduated — fourteen young ladies and 
oni' lone ge^ntU'inan. Two prizes were given^ — 'one, a five dollar 

No. 6. WEST CHESTER. 251 

gold piece, to Mr. Scott Buhrmau, for the highest average; another, 
to :Miss Ella Sheeley for not being once tardy during her public school 
course. Supt, McGinnes, of Steelton, addressed the audience in 
words that should leave a lasting impression. 

It is a fact to be deplored that so many of our pupils — especially 
the boys — leave school before they have completed their course, to 
ent<-r shops and stores. There is a consitant demand for them, and 
the temptation of the few paltry dollars is too strong for them to 
resist. Many of them see their mistake when it is too late. The 
worst feature about it is that the employer takes our best and most 
reliable pupil. We have entered a crusade against the practice, but 
we have not yet succeeded in reaching a large number. 

One of the most conspicuous evidences of growth and progress is to 
be seen in the increase of the number and character of our school 
h'ouses. All, built within the last fifteen years, h^ve large rooms 
with an abundance of light well distributed; they are all supplied 
with modern sanitary equipments for heat, ventilation and closets-, 
they have cloak rooms, class rooms and spacious halls; they have 
an abundance of slate blackboards in every room, mostly single 
desks, and many wther devices for the comfort and convenience of 
teacher and pupil in the prosecution of their daily tasks. The Clay- 
ton Avenue Building is in process of erection and will be ready for 
occupancy at the opening of next term. It will be a beautiful struc- 
ture of pressed brick and trimmings of cement stone. An electric 
progj-am clock (the grandfather style with automatic winder, manu- 
factured by the Fred. Frick Clock Co., Waynesboro, Pa.), will be 
placed in the superintendent's office, with a secondary clock in each 
school and recitation room. Tte entire building will be equipped 
for electric lighting which is in keeping with the time and supplies a 
long felt need. Heretofore we have been much embarrassed for want 
of a lighted building in which to hold meetings of \^arious kinds. 

During the yeiar a physical laboratoi'^' outfit was added to the 
etpiipment of our high schooil. Our school libraries received a large 
number of new books and many more will be added next term. Our 
next great need will be a central high school building to meet the 
steady growth of our town in population. These are a few of the 
signs of the progress we are making. 

WEST CHESTER— Addison L. Jones. 

During the year special stress was l.iid on the teaching of language, 
including reading, spelling and written and oral composition. Many 
failures in geography, history and arithmetic in the grades, and all 


tlio l)rauclies in the high school, are caused by an inability to get 
thought from the printed page and an eqnai incapacity to express 
'orall;\ oi' in writing what lias been learned, t^arefnl, thorough, and 
well-directed teaching in the subjects mentioned will remove, in 
some measure, much ©1 the diflflculties encountered, and help more 
pupils to independent study and self-reliant effort. 

Tiie ch^aracter of the work done in drawing and other fornns of 
hand work, has changed materially in the last few years. The 
cohrse now goes from paper cutting, folding, weaving, plaiting, bask- 
etry sewing, woodworking, together with drawing and painting, in 
the first grade through the higli school. All of this is coi'related so 
clo«('ly with the othe'r branches of the schools that the work of the 
supervisor in drawing and manual training has become of greatest 
importance. TTie results in his department are not only of prtomi- 
nence in any course of study, but thi^y are so tangible that the most 
conservative critic readily sees, and usually acknowledges the value 
in the work. It is one of the few subjects in the curriculum in 
which every pupil has an interest. Its use is found in all industrial 
pursuits, and a knowledge of the several forms of art work found 
in Ihe schools adds mucli to the pleasures and enjoyments of life. 

The school board uses just care in the selection of teachers. It is 
the aim to get those w^ho have ample academic training and profes- 
sional experience; as well as strong and noble character that will, 
by close and daily contact with pupils, impress itself upon them with 
effects more potent for good than all formal and skillful teaching. 
If there can be placed in every school room a teacher, honest and 
sincere, unselfish and sympathetic, patient and enthusiastic, deeply 
interested in every boy and girl, the pupils will strive earnestly to 
do well, and the school will be known for its efficiency, and the 
pupils for their steady growth in knowledge and character. 

The year in the high school was on^ of the best. The teaching was 
generally excellent, the discipline easily managed, and the deport- 
ment of the pupils exemplary, and the results in nearly all cases 
commiendable. The addition of new courses and combination of 
studies, and the improvement of the facilities for giving instmction 
in several subects, have given the school 'a, reputation that has drawn 
many pupils fromi the adjacent districts; and besides, many families 
move into the borough to avail themselves of the educational ad- 
vantages afforded. In June a class of thirty-four (34) was graduated, 
seventeen boys and seventeen girls, of whom twenty-nine will con- 
tinue their education at college, normal schools, or other institution 
of higher learning. 

A commercial conrse has been added to the curriculum of the 
high school, in which spelling, etymology, composition, penmanship. 

No. 6. WEST CHESTER. 253 

letler writing in all its forms, a niodi-ru language, science, history, 
iniatlitmatics, will all be taught with a view to the mastering of the 
subjects studied. In addition, thorough and comprehensive courses 
in, book-keeping, commercial geogra]>hy, stenography and typewrit- 
ing are parts of the course in Junior and Senior years. 

This new course is more generally helpful to pupils who cannot 
continue their education be\-ioud the high school. It must make tht 
pupils mot-e broadly intelligent and 'it them to think for themselves 
and stand as practicial men of alfair>i. The business man needs th*-, 
britad basis of general culture which he gets in the high school, with 
the added training and skill which come from his technical knowledge 
reached through his grasp on comrt'.ercial and practical subjects. 
The gc^neral and commercial courses in the high schoiol should pre- 
pare pupils for business whether it be in the home, the store, the 
bank, the foundry, or on the farm. The diploma from the high 
school should signify that the holder is ready to begin work. 

The crowded condition of the high school building prompted the 
school board to begin the erection of a new building for high school 
purposes lonly. In planning foir the i^tructure, the best models were 
studied, and the features adapted to the needs of our community, in- 
corporated in the new building. Ample provision is made for class^ 
rooniis, library, reading rooms, office, teachers', directors', and su 
perintendent's rooms. Laboratories with facilities and proper aji 
pliances foT teaching the sciences are provided. Rooms for manual 
training and the gymnasium are placed on the ground floor. The 
best known means of lighting, heating and ventiMing are used. It 
is likch' the building will be dedicated during the Christmas holidays. 

The child study agitation of a few years ago, has not reached the 
bounds desired by its proniotoirs, but it has awakened an abiding in- 
terest in the individual pupil, which hias wrought wonderfully in 
teaching and discipline. Kindness, sympathy and firmness, com- 
bined with an interest in every child make an ordinary teacher in- 
valuable to a community. Such a teacher may know little of child 
study technically, but her pupils are known by her, and she teaches, 
leads and controls them with a heart that shows only affection and 
love, and a hand whose touch brings enconragement and strength. 

In more of lour schools do we find such teachers as understand 
their pupils. Out from these schools will come youth with, charlac- 
ter well formed; and all agree that character is the true end of all 
education, all others are only means to this one. It gives our boys 
and girls will power. It will enable them to stand amid trials; it 
enables them to rise above their envii-ionment "and lead their fellows; 
it nu kes them a power in the Avorld. 

It is the business of our schools to use all means and forces that 
the pupils may develop for themselves well rounded, symmetrical 


stable character. A better understanding of ciiild nature, a fuller 
academic traininj;-, and a more intelligent view of the ends to be 
reached, in our schools, make the teacher of today a wonderful 
means of reaching- the highest ideals in education. 

WILKE^-HARKE— James M. Coughliu. 

In submitting the sixteenth annual report of the public schools 
of Wilkes-Barre city, it is believed that this report can be made with 
the assurance that the work of the year was thoroughly done, more 
thoroughly than usual. No year in. the history of the schools was 
more favorable to continuous effort by pupils and teachers than 
the one just cl'osed. The teachers took advantage of these favorable 
conditions and correspondingly good results Mlowed. 

The observations made on the year's work as compared with other 
years are made with special reference to the thoroughness in whic^h 
the prescribed work was done; the intelligence entering into the in- 
struction given; the appropriateness of directions on the prepara- 
tion of tasks assigned; the real grasp of educational purposes and 
proc< ;bses, and the expression of all ol these effoi'ts by the pupils in 
ways indicating knowledge and culture. 

The work of teaching as related to an organized system of educa- 
tion is not a general forward movement but a repetition of each 
year's work by a new set of pupils. 

There are progressive steps for the children as they pass on in 
the gi^ades but the individual school repeat® year after year the work 
of the preceding year, with minor changes only, and with varying 
degrees of thoroughness. These conditions develop two marked 
chaiadteristics in the teacher's wtork. The one shows a tendency to 
drop into routine, crystalizing in method, takes a fixed gait, and be- 
comes lifeless and spiritless, wanting in force and action. The other 
shows the teacher becoming more skillful in her department; vary- 
ing the details of method and processes but maintaining unity in 
purpose and work. She keeps her mind and the children's minds 
active on the thought side of things and approaches the verge of 
possibility in skill and effectiveness with each year's experience. 

Where changes are not too frequently made and speoial care is 
exercised in selecting persons of fort^e and adaptability the working 
force of the schools should become more and more expert and skill- 
ful, better prepared to take the initiative, better able to meet 
unusual cases and bring all pupils to their highest possible attain- 

No. 6. WILKES-BARRE. 255 

meuis, with the least loss of time and energy. The superintendent 
labored continually to stimulate the latter tendency, to eliminate the 
foi iner, and is pleased to report that the latter tendency dominate?* 
the teaching force of this city, and that a keen appreciation of 
thoroughness, and what really makes for thomughness is a cons'tant 
growth here. 

Jt is proper too to bear in mind that the standard of excellence 
changes and advances with achievement. Our ideals become more 
clearly defined the closer we worlv to our patern and we uncon- 
sciously require others to approach more and more nearly our ideals. 

The year was especially noted for excellent atitendance. The first 
four months of the term had an average attendance of ninety-four 
per cent., and the entire term of ninety-three and three-tenths per 
cent. The total enrollment in the day schools shows an increase over 
last year of 617 pupils. To meet this increase in the schoiol popula- 
tion, the school board has under way improvements of the school 
properties in different parts of the city that will add fourteen new 
rooms for next year. This will provide liberally for present needs 
buit will not meet similar demands .or the future. 

Promotions are made at the close of the year on the reconrniend'a- 
tion of the teacher of the grade and the approval of the principal of 
the building. These recommendations are made under three head- 
ing: Promoted, not promoted and doubtful. The superintendent ap- 
proves these recommendations, after giving those marked not pro- 
moted and doubtful his personal attention. 

This plan of promotion is believed to be sensible and effec'tive. 
It is fair to assume that if the work of the grade is properly adjusted, 
suitable subjects of study prescribed, a competent teacher put in 
charge of the claiss, at the close of the year should pass on, and if 
any of its members are not prepared to do so, it is the business of 
supervision to look into the reasons why such pupils are mot ready 
for promotion, rather than why the others are prepared for promo- 

Piight thousand two hundred and ninety-five pupils were on the 
i^olls' at the close of the school year, of this number 3,413 boys and 
3,509 girls were promoted, making a total of 6,922 promotions. Of 
those retained 911 are in the first year grades. In these grades the 
pupils enter at irregular intervals during the year and have not 
covered sufficient work to be considered. 

The percentage of promotions not including those of the first year 
is 91 '. including the first year classes 82^ per cent, were promoted. 

For the school year ending June, ]906, the high school enrollment 
was 955, showing an increase over 1905 of 111 students. 

In 1890, at the time of the consolidation of the three school districts 
of the city under one school government, the elementary schools were 


well (ii-JL^'anized all over the eity, the main woak Iteiug to bring the 
di.shicls toj^e'ther and nnify the sy.stcm. Iniiiiovenieufis and addi- 
tions to the coarse of study for the elementary schools, have been 
made from year to year, aiming at greater utility as well as broader 

The high school, howe\'er, in its presemt usefulness and future pos- 
sibilities belongs to the history ol the schools since that time. Irs 
growth has been (piite remarkable, but steiady and natural, not stim- 
ulated by advertising or foTC(^d by enthusiasm. Its growith is due 
to an appreciation by the whole community, of its value and the nec- 
essity of taking advantage of the privilege otfered for the higher 
education of the children, Since 18!)(), one thousand five hundred and 
thirtj-six studenits have been gTiaduated. 

The career of these young people since graduation has been credita- 
ble to the high ischoiol and honorable to themselves. They are found 
in tin schools as educators; in, the professions as lawyers, doctors 
and ministers; in the banks and business houses of the city and 
county; they have graduiated from the technical schoolis and are 
associated in engineering projects; and many of those more recently 
graduated are pursuing courses of study in higher institutions of 
learning, and are found enrolled, the past year at Harvard, Wes- 
leyan, AVellesley, Vassiar, Smith, Syracuse, Cornell, University of 
Pennsylvania, Lafaye'tte, State College and the Normal schools of 
the State. 

Drawing, vtocal music and manual training, ho'ld a prominent place 
in the course of study and are appreciated by the people both for 
their utility and culture. 

Tin schools of the city ar(» in a wholesome progressive state. 

3 he people approve them and pay taxes willingly to support them. 

Tiiey are well govei-ned, economically administered, but not hin- 
dered in their progress by witliholding judicious expenditures. 
Teachers are well paid, their work and worth appreciated and their 
pofeitic-ns certain where good service is rendered and a conscientious 
discharge of duty noted. 

WILKINSBTTRG— James L. Allison. 

It seeniis a hard task to sum up the good i-esults of a school term 
to make a report of the year's work to the School Department. This 
seems the more ditificult when there has been no great movements in 
school work but when all hav(^ worked earnestly and faitMully fof- 
the best interests of the school. 

No. 6. WILKINSBURG. 257 

'llicTL arc however, a few featuieH of the work that I think de 
«<'ive meiitiou iu this annual leport. 

A sj)ecial teacher in music lias had charge of tliis work foi' four 
years and it seems, now. that the results of this work are manifesting 
themsielves. At several teachers' meetings and a(t public meetings 
of the literary societies of the high school, the musical part of the 
programs was furnished by the members ol the school and the re- 
sults were satisfactory and complimentary to the work being done 
in that line. It will prove more gratifying from- j'ear to year that 
music is a part of the daily Work of the pupils and the ability to read 
music and sing simi»le music will be a pleasure to many in years to 

Drawing is another feature that has received special attention 
under the direction of a competent teacher and suix^rvisor during 
the I'ast six years. During the year, an exhibition of the draw- 
ing of all the pupils was held in each building and the patr^ons were 
invited to inspect the work during an afternioon while the school* 
were in sessi'on. Many of the patrons visited the schools on these 
occasions and all were pleased and gratified at the results of the 
children in this work. 

The Woman's Club of AMIkinsburg has always been mindful of 
the schools and is always doing something to show their interest iu 
them. Each year, this organization has presented a beautiful pic- 
ture to each building and it will not be long until the buildings wall 
be well provided w ith works of art. 

Last September, a plan of individual instruction was established 
in all the grades above the fourth and the plan has proved so help- 
ful to the teachers and pupils that every teacher who bas used the 
plan asks that it be continued next year. Fewer pupils failed to be 
promoted than has been tlie case at the end lof any term for many 
years and there has been a greater bond of sympathy between the 
teachers and pupils than I have ever observed in any schools. T 
attribute this largely to personal contract of the pupils with the 

• The high school has become much crowded on account of the ex- 
tension of the ciourse w hicli now covers a period of four years. There 
was no graduating class this year and tbere have about one hundred 
and fifteen qualified to enter at the beginning of the next term. One 
teacher was added to the faculty last year, making eight, and one 
more will be necessary this coining year. 

The board lias completed arrangements tO' build a modern sixteen- 
rooined building for the accoinniodati'on of the grades but the build- 
ing will not be completed for over a year. The building is to coii- 



taiu sixteen school rooms, a iwincipaFs room, teachers' room:, supply 
room and a library. 

The success of the schools for the year has been due largely to the 
e£Iici( nt work of the teachers, the earneistness of the board, the readi- 
ness of the press to take up tlie cause of the schools, and the sym- 
pathy and coui^tesy of the Department. All of these have made the 
work successful and pleasant, and we look back over the year with 
gratefulness and look forward to the coming year with hopefulness 
that it may exceed in efficiency that of the one just cliosed. 


During the last school year more than the usual attemtion was 
paid to the matter of the responsibility of the schools in the moral 
training of the youth of the district. The changes recommended in 
this conneotion are systematic and regular teaching of morals in the 
schools, such improvements as are necessary to bring our system of 
discipline in full accord with the established principles of mioral 
training, and some slight alterations in the school curriculum. 

The schools of every city must, in n measure, be held responsible 
for the profanity, obscenity and cigarette smoking of boys ; for the 
loitering lalte at night of girls on the streets; for the rude and bois- 
terous conduct of children in public places; for the offenses of youth 
that bring them into the clutches of the law; for the loafing and idle- 
ness of young persons; for the readicg by the young of bad books 
and the attendance at cheap and immoral shows; for the extrava- 
gance of young men and women and a dispo'sition to run into debt; 
for a lack of filial obedience and of respect for the aged and superior; 
and for other bad habits that are more common than they should 
be. In spite of the fact that all of the teaching and the work of the 
schools have a strong moral tendency and that influences for evil 
outside of the school and over which the school can have no direct 
control are always active and powerful, the thoughtful person who 
sees the conduct of a considerable number of boys and girls on the 
streets and in public places and v»'ho reads daily the newspaper 
accounts of youthful offenders and leairns of the many cases of young 
persons over whom parents have lost control and who are fast going 
astray, is driven to the conclusion that all the forces for good are 
none too strong to meet the temiptations and attractions of urban 
life and that we must look to the schools to "so counterajcit and cure 

No. 6. 


iiK);al disease in its incipeiit forms as- to attord to all of our youth a 
fundamental training in habitual morality." 

It is said that in the schools of rtance everything else is subor- 
dinated to moral instruction. In both England and Germany the 
question of mwal instruction in the schools is the subject of most 
cairnest study and careful planning. Students of education in our 
own country have found that ''the moral purpose is acquiring a su- 
preme authority and. all agencies of the school are finding their place 
and adjusitmenit in subordination to this controlling influence." In 
many cities it has been decided that the incidental and informal 
teaching of morals together with the moral influences of the school 
studies and exercises is not sufficient and moral instruction has con 
sequeutly been made a part of the school curriculum and given a 
place on the weekly or semi-monthly programme. There is every 
reason to believe that regular and systematic instruction in morals, 
with one of the newer textbooks on this subject in the hands of 
each teacher, and with the same amount of time devoted to the dis 
cussion of its methods in teachers' meetings as is given to other sub- 
jects would bring results in the moral training of our pupils that 
would please all good people. 

In connectioni with the question of moral training it is necessary 
to consider the matter of punishment and discipline by force. The 
nunjber of cases of corpoiral punishment reported in all of the schools 
of mciist cities makes an unpleasantly large total. An investigation 
of the causes that lead to this punishment shows that offences rangt> 
from whispering to incorrigibility and rebellion and that whipping 
in niany schools is a common punishment for certain bad habits and 
immoi al conduct in cases where the ofl'enders are surely made worse 
rather than better by it. A thoughtful writer on the subject of 
moral training says on this particular topic: "No doubt there are ex- 
cellent schools where force is occasionally used, and doubtless con- 
venience and the practical ends of an immediate success seem to de- 
mand that force be applied; but it is certain considering the school 
as a whole that the use of physical force occasions a loss in that fine 
feeling of co-operation between pupils and teacher which we look 
for in the best schools." There are other improper punishments oc- 
casionally used by teachers that may have just as serious an effect 
on the child's character as corporal punishment, but they have be- 
( ome so uncommon in modern schools as to warrant little attention. 
If corporal punishment can be reduced to the minimum in our schools 
and finally be abandoned entirely and if instead of this discipline by 
force we can substitute a discipline in all of our schools secured 
through that skillful teaching that induces quiet, attention, and in- 
dustry and through appeals to high and worthy motives there is cer- 
tain to be a great gain for the cihild. "The relations of teachers and 


pii]Mls to one aiiotlu'i- in the iiciessai-y social contact of school life 
are e^sentialiv moral and should be shaped u^iion moral ideas and 

The effects of the nnodern school curriculuni on the moral d<^velop- 
meut of the child is now jiretty well undeiwtood. The old time school 
with its narrow range of studies and the meagre list of ideas pre- 
sented in those studies lacked pleasure for children and fostered 
idleness and mischief. Arithmetic was the principal study and the 
three "R's" were only the subjects ever studied by a large j-art of 
the school. The work, confined almost entirely to the study of the 
text book and to' memory drill, was too abstract and too general, 
had little or no cionnection with life outside the school room, and 
seldom or never appealed to the best that was in the pupils. That 
miany men who were educated in these schools made a success of 
their lives must be attributed to the men and the times rather thftn 
to the schools. 

The modern school with its rich course of study administered by 
well trained teachers who are in symjiaithy with child life is a mioirally 
healthful place for children. Music and art beautify the work of 
the schools and de^■elop the emotioiial nature of the child. Through 
literature there 1ms been incorporate'l into the course of study great 
moral ideas expressed in the most beautiful language. Through 
manual training the pupils have been given an experimental ac- 
quaintance with the fundamental arts of life and sympathy with rail- 
lions of artisian.s in their daily toil." Nature study with its excur- 
sions and physical culture witli its games and plays have led children 
by pleasant paths up to a greater appreciation of the works of natuie 
and a healthier and happier kind of living. History and geography 
which contain rich and varied thought material and which give Jv 
broad outlook toward men and things receive much time and atten- 
tion. And such studies as rc^ading, spelling, writing, language and 
formal arithmetic which are the tools of an education are made to 
contribute to the moral ends of life by eiiuipping children:, by cor- 
rect methods and i>roper material and in a reasonable time, ^'with 
those necessary instruments of knowledge without which they can- 
not cai ry on the purpose of life." Through the introduction into the 
primary school of many of the methods and much of the spirit of the 
kindergarten teacher the school life of the smaller children has beiMi 
made happier and more wholesome; and by broadening the scope of 
the high school until instead of the single classical course preparing 
for the classical college^ it now offers to the youth of a city a number 
of courses including an English course, a coniinercial course, a scien- 
tific course and a varielty of technicil courses and by the adoption 
of such new methods as these courses demand the young men and 
women are receiving not only a training in the elements of culture 

No. 6. YORK. 261 

bill a inx'paiatiou foi- a j^ood and usctul life and fui- the proper dis- 
charj-e of those social duties that the\ owe to the community aud 
the State. * 

YORK— A. Wauuer. 

A new sixteen room buildiuj; was completed and occupied in the 
beginning of the school year. The additional facilities thus sup- 
plied, gave ample room for the proper location of pupils. For the 
first time in fifteen years rooms were not overcrowded aud teachers 
had the proper opportunity to give individual instruction. Results 
arising from this more favorable condition were very gratifying 
and greatly surpassed expectations. 

The noteworthy event of the year was the organization of night 
schools. Instead of waiting for patrons to present the customary 
petition, the board took the initiative. Three buildings, in different 
sections of the city, were opened at a designated time for the regis- 
tration of those over fourteen years of age engaged in some useful 
employment who desired to attend night schools. The total regis- 
tration was two hundred and sixty-seven. 

As a result schools were organized to be held from seven to nine 
during four evenings of each week, beginning with Monday night. 
The purpose in holding only four sessions each week was to pro- 
mote regularity in attendance. 

A high school was organized for all those sufficiently prepared to 
do advanced work. Both sexes were admitted to it. For the first 
two months there were no other mixed schools, nor were the sexes 
sent to the same buildings. 

Schools were opened or closed to best meet varying conditions. 

Fifteen pupils was the average number assigned to each in- 
structor. When the enrollment was greatest fourteen teachers were 
employed in twelve schools. They were wholly selected from the 
corps of day school teachers. 

The attendance was, in part, a disappointment. Two-thirds of 
those enrolled in the beginning had dropped out before the close of 
the third month. Those who subsequently enrolled attended some- 
what better. Excuses were required and systematic inquiry made 
to determine the causes of absence. In many instances they were 
wholly insufficient. Pupils did not appreciate the educational value 
of the opportunity and failed to exercise the proper degree of self 
denial to insure regularity in attendance. 


In some cases owing to night work in places of employment, pupils 
were able to attend only some of the sessions. Omitting days ab- 
sent for that reason, but including days absent for all other reasons, 
the attendance was seventy-four per cent. 

Probably if one takes into consideration the absence of change 
in the kind of work required in the factory and the innate demand 
of the growing mind for variety and entertainment the attendance 
was all that could have been expected. 

Tte progress of a class of pupils numerically representing less 
than half of those enrolled was most gratifying and wholly satis- 
factory. To this class belonged some adults who learned to read 
and write with marked proficiency. 


Reports of Principals 

State Normal Schools, 


Geo. Moii'is Philips, Principal. 

The past year has been one of nnnsiial success. The total enroll- 
ment of students in the normal department has been 817, and in the 
model school 207. These numbers Avould have been much increased 
if we had been able to provide dormitory room for all who apply. 
About 150 of our students were obli.ned to room and board in the 
town last year. 

Our new laundry and boiler plant building will be ready for use 
at the beginning- of the fall term, an important improvement. It is 
at a considerable distance from the school buildings, so as to leave 
the main campus free for the erection of additional school buildings 
proper, as they may be needed, and also to remove the smoke and 
other objections from the main school plant. This building is most 
complete and well equipped. No expense has been spared in its con- 
struction. It is connected with the main school buildings and they 
with each other by large tunnels, six by six feet, through which the 
steam and other pipes and electric wires pass. These tunnels may 
also be used as passage ways, especially in stormy weather. The 
total cost of this improvement is about $100,000. 

Our graduating class numbered 167. Their average age was 20.9 
years, and their average attendance at the normal school 113 weeks, 
or more than two and four-fifths years. Of these, 97 were high 
school graduates, 46 from high schools with four years' courses, 38 
from high schools with three years' courses, and 13 from high 
schools with two years' courses, and 41 others had either graduated 
at private schools or had taken partial courses at colleges or high 
schools, leaving but 29 whose only previous training had been in 


ungraded schools or graded schools below the high school. Twenty- 
nine of the class were experienced teachers. All but six of the class 
will teach dufing the coming year, and of these six five will enter 
college. The demand for graduates of this school, as doubtless of 
all the other normal schools in the State, is cantinually increasing, 
and for several years we have not been able to entirely supply it. 
The demand this year has been greater than ever before. 

The Hon, Wayne MacVeagh delivered a notable address at our 
commencement, which was of special interest to the community 
because of Mr. McVeagh's long residence in and connection with 
West Chester. The original plot of ground for the normal school 
buildings was bought from Mr. McVeagh when the school was pro- 
jected thirty-six years ago. 

This commencement completed my twenty-fifth year as principal 
and a period of more than thirty years as a member of the faculty of 
this school. These years have been full of work and full of joy, and 
I am exceedingly grateful to the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion and his colleagues for all their aid, to a progressive board of 
trustees, to an efficient and loyal faculty, and to an earnest and 
enthusiastic body of alumni and students, who have had by far 
the largest share in the success of the school. 


Eliphalet Oram Lyte, Principal. 

I have the honor to forward to the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion the report of the First Pennsylvania State Normal School for 
the fifty-second year of its existence as a normal school. 

The total attendance for the fall term of 1905 was 701; the winter 
term, 721; and the spring term, 969. The total number of graduates 
receiving the first diploma in the regular course was 97; two were 
graduated in the second year of the supplementary course, receiving 
the degree of master of pedagogics; 7 were graduated in the first 
year of the supplementary course, receiving the degree of bachelor 
of pedagogics ; and one received the teacher's State certificate in the 
regular course. All of the graduates attended this school for the 
purpose of teaching in the public schools of the State, and all are 
now employed as teachers. The school year was successful. The 
attendance was large. In the spring term it was necessary for a 


large number of ladles to board in boarding houses selected for the 
purpose in the village. 

The increase in the cost of provisions and in salaries made it 
necessary for many of the normal schools to increase their rates for 
tuition and boarding. In common with other schools in this part 
of the State, Millersville increased its rates to |220 a year. It is 
but just to say that the increase was not sufficient to cover the great 
increase in the price of provisions and labor of all kinds. 

The trustees of this institution, realizing the fact that our "plant" 
needs a thorough remodelling in order to bring it up to the modem 
ideas of school buildings, have had an architect prepare plans for 
the reconstruction of the interior of the entire structure. These 
plans include the installation of an electric light plant, a modern 
heat plant, the refurnishing of the dormitories, etc., etc. A conser- 
vative estimate of the cost for the necessary improvements that must 
be made in a short time is considerably over |100,000. A commodious 
front entrance is now being erected, and the contract has been given 
out for the complete equipment of toilet accommodations. It is 
hoped that the State will assist in making these necessary changes 
with liberal appropriations. 

I believe that the time has come for radical changes in the educa- 
tional requirements of the normal schools. Pennsylvania is a great 
State — the greatest in many respects in the Union — and her normal 
school system should be the equal of the best of the normal school 
systems in the United States. The time was when the normal 
schools had to take the place of high schools for many sections of the 
State, but this time has gone by. The State normal schools of 
Pennsylvania should not receive any students in any department 
(except its model school) that are not preparing to become teachers. 
To receive students, as all schools now receive them, from every 
source, and to try to conduct '^departments" of various kinds, bring 
us into constant competition with academies, commercial schools and 
public high schools. Our normal schools must always do so-called 
academic work. Every normal school in the country does academic 
work, but when we receive only such pupils as are preparing to 
teach, the academic work that we do will be professional in its 
character, and be of a different grade from the academic work done 
in the best high schools. When this change is made, the normal 
schools will be able to devote their energies to the preparation of 
teachers, and will do still more than they are now doing to uplift 
the teaching force of the State. 

I will repeat another recommendation which I made a year ago, 
to the effect that a limit should be placed upon the amount paid by 
the State to the students of any one State normal school for free 
tuition. This limit should be placed high enough so that the larger 


schools could conduct their educational departments without em- 
barrassment, but there should be a limit. Such a limit would tend 
to build up the smaller schools, and make educationally strouger the 
larger schools by bringing before the school authorities another and 
better ideal for the measure of efficiency than mere numbers. The 
State now pays the tuition of students preparing to teach at the 
rate of |1.50 a week, or |60 a year of 40 weeks. This is not enough. 
The amount shauld be raised to at least |1.75 a week or |70 for the 
year, or, what would seem fairer, |2.00 a week, or |80 a year. 

In conclusion, let me say that in spite of what seem to me to be 
defects in our normal school system, the State normal schools of 
Pennsylvania have been and are a most important factor in the eleva- 
tion of the great public school system of the Commonwealth, and 
it is gratifying to know that year by year their work is more highly 
appreciated by all intelligent citizens. 


A. C. Rothermel, Principal. 

The Keystone Normal School began the school j^ear of 1905-6 with 
an incease of 10 per cent, in its attendance. This increase was 
maintained throughout the entire school year. Before the school 
year opened the school determined to exclude the undesirable ele- 
ment that can be no credit to the school after the completion of 
the course of Btudy. True, we have always had a large number of 
splendid young men and women, but we have also for years, had a 
small proportion of an undesirable class. We resolved to exclude 
these from the scho'ol, and the result of this action was that the 
intellectual and moral tone of the school was raised considerably. 
It is my conviction that a normal school should admit only those 
students who either have an aim when they enter, or can be inspired 
with a desire to do something worth doing, and who in addition to 
this, stand for Avhat is right and honorable. The success of the school 
can never be judged by numbers only. It is my opinion that the tone 
of the school is the chief factor in determining its Avorth and 

Toward the end of the school year we determined to eliminate 
football from the number of athletic sports. This action grew out 
of the fact that in a game played away from home one of our 
boys was so seriously injured, that for 24 hours his life was despaired 


of, aud also out of the fact that it is almost impossible to eliminate 
all of the brutality aud rowdyism that usually accompany the 
sport, t^everal persons who claimed to speak from definite knowl- 
edge and with the voice of authority, warned us that this would 
mean a decreased attendance. I am glad to say that the predictions 
of these men have not come true, and, if the new year is any criterion 
by which to judge, I may be safe in saying that, if there has been 
any effect at all upon the number of students in attendance, it has 
been to increase rather than to diminish the number. 

During the year we put into operation the kindergarten depart- 
ment planned four or Ave years ago. We were somewhat slow in 
starting this department of our school, for the reason that we found 
it difficult to get some one thoroughly competent to take charge of 
the work. We acted on the suggestions of those who had tried the 
experiment to select some one for the department, and urge her to 
prepare herself for the work. The department is in charge of Miss 
Carolyn V. Hoy, State College, Pa., and I am glad to say that she 
has taken hold of this work with a hand of a master. The results 
thus far have been very satisfactory. 


E. L. Kemp, Principal. 

This year has been in many respects a gratifying one It did not 
begin auspiciously. The unpleasant results to us of the unwar- 
ranted and malicious attacks made upon the school by one of the 
large city papers and a loeal paper were very apparent at the 
opening. We suffered the loss of some of our former students and 
of a considerable number of prospective ones. Without stopping to 
shed tears we went about the work appointed to us and made the 
year a prosperous one. 

In the internal development of the school we made two distinct 
advances. In the first place, we extended our course in psychology 
to cover one full year, and began the equipment of a psychologic 
laboratory. The beginning is a humble one, but our apparatus 
enables us to illustrate a number of subjects and train the students 
to appreciate and do that sort of work. We can give them the 
benefit of more than three hundred different experiments. 

Our second improvement was the fitting up and equipping of a 
manual training room for wood-work. One of the most successful 


manual training teachers in New York City who has looked over 
our plant informs us that our equipment is much more complete 
than that at his command. The results have proved very satis- 
factory. There is nothing in our course to which the students attend 
with more enthusiasm, and the benefits they derive from the work 
are apparent both to us and to them. 

In spite of the loss in attendance and prestige, our enrollment has 
been good. It steadily increased throughout the year and our finan- 
cial showing is not poor. 


Andrew Thomas Smith, Principal. 

In submitting to you this report for the school year ending June 
22, 1906, I am pleased to note one more evidence of the substantial 
growth of the normal school of the Fifth District. 

The number of different students enrolled during the year is 
exactly the same as was shown in the report of one year ago, 610 
in the normal school and 195 in the model school. But the school 
has been decidedly larger in each of the three terms than it was 
in the corresponding terms of last year. 

This permanency of attendance throughout the year, and conse- 
quent reduction in the floating population of the school, makes 
progress possible along several lines. It insures greater stability 
in scholarship, the subjects being taken up in their rational order 
and being pursued upon their proper bases. It brings into the lives 
of more pupils all the things the school is endeavoring to do for the 
student body throughout the entire year. It arouses more of the 
spirit of abiding loyalty to the institution — an attitude based upon 
an intelligent appreciation of men and measures. 

Notwithstanding the charge still occasionally made that the nar- 
mal schools are rushing people through their courses and graduating 
them too young for service, we are able to show in the present 
senior class the following record: The class is composed of 47 
ladies and 23 gentlemen; 14 of them have taught school an aggre- 
gate of 30 years; 8 of them entered the school with advanced stand- 
ing, beginning above the junior class. Taking their last birthday 
as the basis of reckoning, the ladies average at graduation 20 5-47 
years of age, and the gentlemen average 20 10-23 years. The aver- 


age number of weeks in attendance is 111 23-47 for the ladies, and 
127 17-23 for the gentlemen. 

In closing this report, I would respectfully submit to the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction the recommendation that the efforts of 
the department be put forth toward securing such needed legislation 
as shall place the power of the normal school boards of trustees in 
the hands of the trustees representing the State, thus making the 
normal schools of our Commonwealth an integral part of our great 
school system and doing it in a manner that shall make it possible 
for the State to control them. 

Whether this shall be done by increasing the proportion of State 
trustees upon the several boards, or by having the State take over 
the stock now held by individuals — thus removing the necessity for 
stockholders, and lifting the schools from their present position of 
quasi-private institutions — should, of course, be left to the judgment 
of those who are asked to act in the premises for the betterment of 
the normal school system of the State. 


J. P. Welsh, Principal. 

We have catalogued during the past year 758 different students. 
From this number 485 are ladies, and 273 are gentlemen. I regret 
very much that as the years go by, we have fewer men taking the 
course for teachers. During the past year I have not been able to 
find enough men for principalships and other positions that pay well 
to supply the demand. The demand for men at good salaries in the 
teaching profession is on the increase. Something should be done 
to interest the young men of the Commonwealth in the profession of 
teaching. If, as some prophesy, the day is at hand when practi- 
cally all the teaching in our public schools will be done by women, 
the fact is to be regretted. Without in any way disparaging the 
excellence of women as teachers, all who have studied the question 
must admit that children need in their education and during their 
physical and mental development, to come in contact witb the 
masculine mind. This subject is well worthy of serious considera- 

At teachers' institutes and other educational meetings throughout 
the Commonwealth, this subject should be brought to the attention 
of the people. It is to be hoped that the "male teacher," to use the 


old fashioned teim, will again become prominent and numerous in 
the ranks of public school teachers. 

The work in the various dei>artments of the school during the past 
year has been excellent, in spite of the fact that the attendance was 
too large for the accommodations. The new science building, now 
being erected, will relieve the congested condition of the school 
during the ensuing year. 

This building (which is being built of brick, trimmed with terra 
cotta) provides for the science subjects in the main. One laboratory 
(in size 37 feet by 44 feet) on the first floor, will be devoted to 
zoology and physiology; another (the same size) to botany and geo- 
logy; and still another on the same floor for the medical preparatory 
students (27 feet by 35 feet). For the use of all these laboratories 
there is provided a large sui>ply room, in which there will be kept 
specimens and materials for use in the laboratories. 

Adjacent to this floor will be a lecture room to accommodate 250 
students. It is so arranged that it can be darkened, and thus made 
suitable for the use of the stereopticon. 

On second floor are two large laboratories the same size as those 
below-^one for the work of physics, the other for chemistry, and a 
large room (27 feet by 44 feet) in which to place a very excellent 
collection of products gathered from all parts of the world useful 
in teaching commercial geography. The geography class-room, just 
across the hall from this room, is a light and beautiful room, in 
size 27 feet by 44 feet. 

On this floor also is provided a lecture room, the same size as the 
one on floor below, and with the same equipment. 

That part of the top story which is above the lecture rooms will 
be finished for the art department, and will he admirably suited to 
the work. That part which is over the main portion of the building 
will be finished for the use of the two literary societies of the school, 
giving each society a large and beautiful room. 

The school has adopted the recommendation of the board of prin- 
cipals that an increase be made in the charge for boarding students. 
Accordingly, an increase of 50 cents per week was made. At the 
time of writing this report, almost every room in the school has 
been engaged for the ensuing year, and the prospects are that the 
attendance will be larger than ever before, showing that the increase 
is clearly understood by the patrons of the school, to be a necessity. 

Near the close of this school year, as is true nearly every year, a 
large number of high school graduates presented themselves for 
examination for admission to the middle and senior classes. About 
50 per cent, of those presented passed successful examinations. 
Those who failed showed weakness in the common branches, and 
this experience is common in this and other normal schools. It 


seems important that some an-aiigcniiciit should be made that would 
enable students either to be examined at the time when they have 
finished their subjects in the high school, or else their examinations 
under the high schools should be endorsed (within certain limits) 
for admission to the normal school. It is not within reason to expect 
high school graduates at the end of a three or four years' course to 
pass successfully, examinations in subjects which they had in the 
first or second year of that course. 

I know all the difficulties that arise and all the objections that 
can be made to admission to normal schools on high school certifi- 
cate, but I believe that most of them are imaginary and the others 
can be overcome. Students who are admitted on high school cer- 
tificate need not be graduated, or need not be allowed to pursue 
any year's work, longer than they show ability to carry the work. 
Many colleges admit to their freshman class on certificate, and some 
admit to advanced standing on certificate. All of them, however, 
throw out students who are not able to maintain good standing in 
the class to which they are admitted. Normal schools could do the 
same. High schools should be classified. The b^st of those whose 
courses are good and whose training fs also good, should be allowed 
to place their graduates in the middle class of the normal school 
course without examination. If they show insufficient training at 
the end of the first term to carry the work of the middle year, they 
should be set back in the junior class, the same as is done in the 

This year closes my connection with the normal schools of Penn- 
sylvania. I have been in the service twenty-four years. I cherish 
the warmest regard for the normal school work and all who are 
engaged in it, and this is true not only of the normal school work 
but of the entire public school work of the Commonwealth. I shall 
never lose my interest in it, and shall always stand ready to do what 
I can to improve it. 

As I look back over this period — almost a quarter of a century — 
I see that progress has been made in all lines of the work. There 
are those who claim that the public schools are no better than they 
were twenty-five years ago. They are surely mistaken. Those 
who claim that the men and women who are laboring in this great 
field are not consecrated to their work, are also mistaken. All wish 
that greater progress might have been made, and can see many 
obstacles to progress which might have been removed, and many 
mistakes which might have been avoided; but this is inevitable in 
the develoimient of a system of education in any great Common- 

I have been considerably interested in comparing notes with one 
of the school superintendents in one of the Philippine Islands where 


the work has been in progress only six years. The work there began 
free from an inheritance of bad methods, preconceived whims, and 
patrons and directors who were unable to appreciate the highest and 
best, and as a result it seems as if they had accomplished in tiv;e 
or six years what it has taken Pennsylvania a quarter of a century to 


G. M. D. Eckels, Princii 

The school year ending June, 1906, was in its essential features 
a most satisfactory one. The number of students in attendance was 
the largest in the history of the Cumberland Valley State Normal 
School. Forty-four graduates received their second diplomas, eighty 
seniors received normal certificates, ninety-six middlers passed the 
middle year examination, and one hundred and fifty-two juniors 
passed the junior examination. All the students recommended by 
the faculty were passed by the State Board. 

Three members of the faculty resigned their positions at the close 
of the year. Dr. Jos. F. Barton, who had charge of the science de- 
partment for a period of seventeen years has accepted a similar 
position in Hamline University, Minneapolis; Prof. C. H. Gordinier, 
who had charge of the Latin and Greek department during the last 
two years, become the Dean of Kee Mar College, Hagerstown, Md.; 
Miss May Cook, who conducted the department of vocal music for 
the past two j^ears, resigned her position because of ill health. The 
vacancies caused by these resignations have been filled by the elec- 
tion of Prof. J. Frank Newman to the science department, Prof. 
John K. Stewart to the Latin and Greek department, and Miss L. 
Ethel Gray to the department of vocal music. 

Since my last report two of our State trustees have died: Hon. 
H. C. Greenawalt, of Fayetteville, Pa., died April 22, 1906, and Mr. 
John M. Hamilton, of Shippensburg, Pa., died August 17, 1906. Mr» 
Greenawalt was a member of the board for more than a quarter of 
a century and during this time he was faithful and efficient in the 
discharge of the duties belonging to his position. Mr. Hamilton 
was a member of the board for more than ten years, and during this 
time was very much interested in all matters pertaining to the suc- 
cess of the school. 


The new laundry mentioned in last year's report, has been delayed 
in its construction owing to a number of circumstances, the chief one 
being its location. In order to locate the building to the best ad- 
vantage it was necessary for the school to have in its possession 
land which it did not own when the building was first contemplated. 
This difficulty has been removed and in a short time the new laundry 
will be completed. 

The school is very much in need of a new model school building. 
The Cumberland Valley State Normal School has always laid great 
stress on the work in the model department, and we believe much 
of the success of our graduates in teaching is due to the fact that 
our students teach throughout their entire senior year in the model 
school under the supervision and direction of expert teachers. Our 
graduates, when they have finished their normal course, have had 
the kind of experience which guarantees them against failure so./ar 
as any sort of experience can do this. We look forward with great 
pleasure to the near future when we hope to have a model school 

The demand for normal graduates as teachers is becoming greater 
with each succeeding year. This year the demand was far beyond 
the supply. Normal school graduates, even those who had never 
had any experience in public school work, had little or no difficulty 
in securing positions to teach. The demand for teachers in the 
advanced grades of the public schools was this year beyond all 
precedent. The growing demand for this grade of teachers shows 
clearly the wisdom of young men and women in preparing them- 
selves thoroughly for advanced work. Good teachers can secure 
good positions at good salaries and normal school graduates take 
the lead for this class of positions. 

The greatest need to-day in our public schools is more profes- 
sionally trained teachers. The State has established normal schools 
for the purpose of meeting this great need. This want could be 
much more rapidly filled if directors would make the wages of the 
teacher to correspond more nearly with his experience and prepara- 
tion. The schools can never be what they should be until all the 
teachers are professionally as well as academically prepared for 
their work. 

The new grand stand erected on the athletic field was opened to 
the public early in May, and most of the spring term games were 
played on the new field. The new grounds are as nearly perfect for 
athletic purposes as it is possible to have them. 




J. 1\. Flickinger, rrincipal. 

I bave the honor to state that th(3 Central State Normal School, 
Eighth district, had a very successful year. The attendance was 
larger than heretofore and the work done, both by teacher and pupil, 
more thorough and more satisfactory. Tlie consolidation of the li- 
braries of the school was a much needed improvemenit. The books 
have now been catalogued and have been placed in charge of a 
competent librarian. The biological department has been placed 
in a large, well lighted, commodious and well equipped room. The 
classes have become too large for the old quarters. 

We have been able thus far to require a full year's teaching in 
the model school of all seniors and the improvement is marked. For 
a number of years past, this school has pursued the policy of re- 
quiring actual teaching in all the grades with a result that we have 
each year a wider demand for our teachers until as a matter of fact 
we are in a position to say that we can provide, if present conditions 
continue, all our worthy graduates with schools. Being located in 
the central part of the State, the school has a great opportunity for 
advancing public education in a diversified section. It has, therefore, 
endeavored to keep in touch with the demands of the public schools 
in this section and has invited and offered -co-operation, with the 
county superintendents. Every section of the State has its own 
problems and we believe it to be the duty of the Normial school to 
adjust its work so that it will be in haimony with the best prevailing 
educational sentiment. We are plej^sed to state that the county 
superintendents have generously given us advice and help and that 
we have been benefitted thereby. 

In conclusion we beg to state that while our growth is gradual it 
is extremely encouraging and we believe that the day is not far dis- 
tant when the patronage will exceed the accommodations. This is 
already true during the spring term and approximately true even 
during the fall and winter. 

We desire to thank the school deijartment, the county and city 
superintendents and the newspapers for co-operation and support. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 



). J. Walkn-, Jr., riincipal. 

The atteiidancc, health and npii-it of tlie students tliroii<^liont tlu> 
year were highly satisfactory. On the afternoon of December Isl, 
the boys' dormitory, Silas M. Clark Hall, burned down. The tire 
originated in the cellar at one of the heaters consuming natural gas. 
The public water supply failed to rise above the window sills of tlie 
first floor before the fire was beyond control. Many of the occupants 
lost the entire contents of their rooms. The insurance upon the 
building did not cover the loss, but the trustees promptly decided 
to rebuild upon the same site. The new edifice is nearly completed. 
While the dimensions are almost the same as before, Silas M. Clark 
Hall is now most attractive and substantial, built of brick, roofed 
with tile, having a consistent color scheme throughout, adorned with 
porches designed with excellent architectural effect. The highest 
point upon the campus is now crowned with a building befitting the 
place, and more nearh' worthy of the great man with whose name 
it is honored. 

In the death of Hon. A. W. Kimmell, the school lost one of the 
early trustees, who throughout liis long tenure of office, discharged 
the arduous duties that devolved upon him with fidelity and ability. 
He had a lively interest in the body of .students, as well as in the 
property, and his addresses to them from the chapel platform were 
always happy and helpful. 

The department of music ssas put upon a broader basis by the 
election of Prof. H. E. Cogswell, Chairman of the Department of 
Music of the National Educational Association, with a view to the 
establishment of a musical conservatory for Western Pennsylvania, 
and the training of supervisors of music for the public schools. 

The second and third stories of Thomas Sutton Hall, set aside 
for this purpose, are most suitable, attractive and commodious. 

Notwithstanding the great losses suffered, the school is better 
equipped than ever before, and the year closed upon a prosperous, 
united, enthusiastic institution. 



Theo. B. Noss, Principal, 

The Southwestern State Normal School has made substantial pro- 
gress during the past year. Our efforts have been directed chiefly 
towards making the school more distinctively professional both in 
aims and methods of work. We have had more students who were 
entitled to State aid as prospective teachers than we have ever 
had before, and a smaller number of other students than in recent 
former years. 

It is to be earnestly hoped that ere long this school as well as 
the other State normal schools can be adequately supported by the 
State so as to be better able to develop its professional work, that 
is, the special work of preparing as teachers those who have obtained 
a good general education, such as is given in high schools and 
academies, before they enter the normal school. 

Owing to a lack of high schools, in the past, except in the larger 
towns and cities, the normal schools have been compelled to do the 
work of both high school and normal school. Has not the time now 
come when the normal schools should be relieved of this high school, 
or merely academic work, and be permitted to devote all their ener- 
gies to the specific work of preparing teachers? Such a change 
would be more economical for the State, since it is cheaper to 
educate pupils in high schools than in normal schools. It would 
benefit the high schools, since it would retain in them for the entire 
course a desirable class of pupils that now take but part of the 
course before entering the normal, and would bring to the high 
school many pupils that at present do not enter it at all. The 
individual student would gain by such policy. His tuition in the 
high school is free and the time required for him as a boarding 
student in the normal school would be reduced from a third to a 
half. But the greatest gain of all would be in the normal school 
itself. If no students were admitted by the normal school except 
those who are adequately prepared to enter and who are preparing 
to teach, conditions would be changed for the better at once. 

In view of recent and important legislation concerning high 
schools (which it is to be hoped will be followed by other legisla- 
tion of a like nature) why should there be found hereafter in our 
normal schools any pupils except the children in the model school 
and the adult students in the training classes? The presence of 


other (lassos of students dissipates instead of concentrating the 
energies of the normal school and lowers its professional aim and 

Of course, the change from old conditions to new should not be 
made abruptly, but it should be made as speedily as possible. 

I am glad to be able to report that a large new building that 
has been long and greatly needed is now being erected. It is to be 
used chiefly as a dining hall and ladi(^s' dormitory. The general 
dimensions of the building are about 80 feet by 130 feet, for the 
first and second stories. The dining hall will accommodate about 
500 persons, and the dormitory about 100. The building will include 
a large and well-arranged kitchen on the same floor as the dining 
room; it will include also several recitation rooms in the basement 
story. The cost of the building, which will be of brick and stone, 
will approximate sixty thousand dollars, including furniture. Even 
with this new building, it is expected that before the close of the 
present school year we will not be able to provide rooms for all of 
our boarding students. 

Some changes have recently been made in the faculty, owing to 
the resignations of teachers, all of whom we regret to lose; but the 
work of these teachers will be carried on by teaclieis of equal 

The trustees have very kindly granted me a leave of absence for 
one year, in order that I ma3' spend thjc year with my family in 
Europe. The greater part of my time in England and on the con- 
tinent will be devoted to the observation of schools and the study 
of school problems. In my absence the trustees have had the good 
fortune to engage, as acting principal. Dr. Charles A. ^fi ^M-Hrv. the 
well known teacher and writer. 


Albert E. Maltby, Principal. 

The prosperity and growth of this State normal school has con- 
tinued. During the past year the attendance was the largest in the 
history of the school, and was more nearly uniform throughout the 
year than ever before. The present school year o]>ens with still 
greater numbers and moi'e brilliant prospects. 

Considerable attention was given during the early part of the 
year to improvements in the rooms on the third floor of the boys' 


dormitory in preparation for tlie increased attendance of the sprinji 
term. In the ladies' dormitory many repairs were made, and a 
hirge number of rooms newly papered and furnished. Work on the 
new music hall and gymnasium has progressed with good results, 
although delays incident to the injury and practical destruction of 
two car-loads of the cut stone required in the building have seriously 
interfered with our plans for an early entrance upon the use of the 
building in the economy of the school. 

There have been few changes in the personnel of the faculty 
during the past year. At the beginning of the year Prof. W. E. 
Wenner, of Wooster University, was elected professor of English 
literature. His work during the year was of high order, and main- 
tained the standard of scholarship for which that department has 
been justly noted. Miss Lucy A. Bell, a most etficient teacher, who 
has been in charge of the department of music in this institution 
during the past six years, resigned to accept a position in the 
eastern part of the State. The department has since been placed 
in charge of M. Edith Lacy, a music student from Leipsic, Germany, 
a young lady with extended experience in the work. She has en- 
tered upon her work with enthusiasm and success. 

During the past years the demand for new buildings has been 
urgent and has detracted in some measure from the internal devel- 
opment and efficiency. An increase in the library and greater 
facilities in the line of educational apparatus are among the improve- 
ments urgently demanded by the best interests of the school. Some 
upward tendency is shown each year, perhaps, in each of these 
points, but the amount of expenditure is in no sense equal to their 
relative importance to the school's welfare. We hope to secure much 
greater attention to these matters in the future. 

It has ever been the object of the authorities of this school to 
keep up a'^high standard of efficiency in all the departments of 
work, and to labor toward the advancement of education by striving 
to the best of their ability to make skilled teachers of the students. 
Various lines of work have opened up at different times, and have 
contributed not a little toward the enhancement of methods. The 
people have come to look to the schools for the correction of many 
of the evils of our national life. Hence has arisen the desire that 
the principles of domestic science be taught in the schools. It has 
been said that a well-to-do French family would live on what an 
American household in the same condition in life wastes; and this 
is probably no great exaggeration. The greatest source of waste 
in our families lies in the blunders of the inexperienced. Every 
young housekeeper must begin at the very beginning of the exper- 
iences of the race and blunder into a practical knowledge of the 
duties and methods of the household, wasting time, temper, and 


money in mistakes. Some simple instruction in the principles oT 
scientific cookinj; would serve as a <;ni(le and prevent many of these 
errors in judgment. 

Nor need such instruction be j;iven in a mere empirical way, by 
any means. Diicct scientific instruction in rej;ard to the food-prin- 
ciples to be found in the simple food-products would place the 
j)reparation of such materials for man's use on a basis which is much 
needed to-day. Home economics, in that broader sens<*, would be- 
conu' a science in which the practical a])plication of the jtrinciples of 
jdiysics and chemistry would find most beautiful illustration. Econ- 
omy in housekeeping means wealth in the household. 

The proverbial hospitality and good cheer of the homes in oui- 
Oomiuonwealth are not without historic origin. The followers of 
the founder landed in no season of severity with breaking, dashing 
waves on a rocky coast; but sailed smoothly up the quiet waters, on 
a mild midsummer day, between grassy banks and flowery meadows. 
And good cheer has distinguished the Pennsylvania home CTer since. 
In distant Oregon a railroad projector detected the Pennsylvania 
housewife by her supper of chicken and waflHes. And pies! Of all 
]>ie'S that are pies none approach the perfection of those toothsome 
morsels produced in a State where the art of pie-baking has reached 
a stage where improvement seems scarcely possible. And then the 
glori( s of the Moravian sugar-cakes transcend description and must 
be left to the imagination. 

But one may say that the teaching of the facts concerning proteids, 
carboyhydrates, hydro-carbons, and mineral salts can have no effect 
upon the young people in bringing them up to perform similar 
magical transformations with the crude materials placed in their 
hands. Not so, go to! It was my good fortune this past summer to 
have my eyes gastronomically opened while I took time to ''stop, 
look, and listen," to the genuinely scientific instruction in cookery 
given by a teacher in domestic science from the public schools of 
Asbury Park, New Jersey. Carbohydrates, proteids, fats, and salts! 
Yes, but mixed with such skill in manipulation and delicacy of 
touch, that out of clarifying fats in which various foods were cook- 
ing in deep fat came the most delightful combinations of dough- 
nuts, rice croquettes, fritters, Scandinavian rosettes, bow-knots, and 
potato chips. And air was used as leaven in certain delicious phases 
of cherry-pie and custard. Perhaps the uninitiated masculine mind 
may have been a little mixed amid the various leavens, drop-batters, 
stiff doughs, sugar cookies, soft doughs, and gingerbread; but out 
of it all arises the idea that some really good lessons in scientific 
cookery might well be substituted for the chemistry at present set 
forth in the curriculum. At least the option might be allowed to 
the young ladies in the normal schools. 



John F. Bigler, Principal. 

The year 1905-1906 has been one of the most successful years in 
the history of the Ediuboro State Normal School. The attendance 
was the largest in its history, numbering in all departments 729 
different students during the year. Seventy-two teachers were grad- 
uated from the school, eighty-four middle year students and one hun- 
dred and thirty-nine juniors were examined and passed by the State 

The continuous growth of the school for the past seven years has 
made it necessary for the trustees to make many improvements and 
to enlarge the facilities in many directions. The campus has been 
increased in acreage from time to time until it now contains about 
thirty acres. Two dwelling houses were purchased by the trustees 
as additional buildings for the accommodation of the professors of 
the school. A new water-tower and tank for fire protection and 
water supply for general use is the latest improvement, and by the 
way, a very much needed one. The new gymnasium, erected at a 
cost of nearly |20,000, is one of the greatest improvements added 
the past year. We have in this one of the most complete and com- 
modious buildings in all its appointments in the State. It contains 
a fine floor for gymnastic work; a running track; shower, needle and 
tub bath rooms; locker rooms, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. rooms, 
a large reception room, and the physical director's quarters. We 
are justly proud of this invaluable acquisition to our equipment. 

We succeeded in adding upwards of 475 volumes to our already 
fine library. Our library is well catalogued and is used daily by 
nearly every one of the students. We purpose adding 600 volumes 
the coming year. 

The training department did very good work. The trustees elected 
Prof. O. 0. Coon as principal and Mrs. Adalene Q. Hood as assistant. 
During the year Mrs. Hood resigned her position as assistant prin- 
cipal, and Miss Kaira M. Sturgeon, of Erie Central High School, 
was chosen to fill the vacancy. Our model school numbered 100 
pupils. It was well classified and excellent work was a result of the 
year's labor. 

We had a strong faculty composed of well trained, conscientious, 
hard working men and women, numbering in all twenty-three. We 
doubt if there was a stronger faculty in any State normal school in 
Pennsylvania, but we are confronted with a difficult problem as to 


the retention of our faculty, and that difficulty is a matter of salary. 
From year to year we have been obliged to make a chanj?e of from 
four to six teachers and the reason is almost invariably the salary 
question. We sincerely hope that the time will soon come when 
Pennsylvania State normal schools can pay their teachers sufficient 
salary to retain them. 

The student body was composed of strong, healthy, intelligent, and 
ambitious young men and women. We doubt if a better class of 
students can be found anywhere. The moral tone of the students 
was good, and yet we think that there is room for improvement along 
this line. The question of morals is a very serious one indeed, and 
while these young men and women come from good homes generally, 
and while they have good examples set them usually while at school 
by the teachers, yet we find that there is apparently an inherent 
tendency and inclination in many to do the wrong thing. The agen- 
cies for directing and keeping young men and women in the proper 
moral atmosphere here are ver}^ good. Our chapel service every 
morning, church influence, including the students' prayer meeting, 
the Y. M. C. A, and Y. W. C. A. as well, the constant admonition 
of the teachers, and our strict discipline are powerful aids toward 
keeping yonng men and women in the "straight and narrow way." 
Edinboro Normal will not grow lax in her obligation to the morality 
of the young men and women that attend school here. 

The athletics of any growing school is no small concern of the 
management of the same. We had in the school a strong Athletic 
Association and the interest continues to grow. Last year our 
teams played ball of various kinds with teams outside of school, 
some of which were school teams, including colleges, and other were 
semi-professional. We got on with this work fairly well, but there 
was a little difficulty here and there with the semi-professionals or 
those that were not school teams. It is our purpose to play, if we 
play at all, clean games with teams outside of our own school, and 
there is a growing sentiment with us now that we will not schedule 
games with any other than school teams, and that of our own class. 
Games played by the teams within the school are the most satis- 
factory and the most enjoyable. Under these circumstances a proper 
school spirit is maintained and the playing is done for the love of 
the game. When our teams go to other places and other teams play 
here, almost invariably one team or the other, and sometimes both 
teams, are bound to win at any cost. Under these circumstances 
trouble is the result. We have excellent athletes and well traineil 
young men and women in the athletic sports, and we purpose ruling 
out everything that would retard or hinder us in the development of 
clean athletics in our school. 

We find that the literary societies are valuable aids in the Intel- 


leetual development of our students. Our literarj^ societies were 
never in better working condition tluin they are at the i>resent time. 
\\'e have four strong literary societies, and the membership in 
each one is limited to fifty. The societies meet each week at G 
o'clock on Monday evening. There is a friendly rivalry among all 
the societies, but this seems to give each society the proper impetus 
to spur them on to good work. The" work consists of music, oration, 
essay, recitation, declamation, debate, impromptu and parliamentary 
drill. At commencement time at the end of the scholastic year, the 
societies contest with one another for the championship as to debate, 
declamation, essay, oration, and recitation. These contests have 
grown to be great events in the school. They are much enjoyed by 
the audiences and are very helpful and inspiring to the contestants. 
We feel justly proud of our strong literary societies in this institH- 

Our trustees are very much interested in the success of our normal 
school and are in every way trying to promote its best interests. 
They deem it absolutely necessary that a dormitory for the young 
men be erected in the near future, as the old dormitory is not fit 
for use and has been abandoned. They expect to ask the next Legis- 
lature for a special appropriation for the purpose of erecting a 
dormitory for the young men, as well as a science building. It is 
sincerely hoped that we shall fare better at the hands of the next 
Legsilature than we did by the last. 

We were very much pleased and satisfied with the work of the last 
Board of State Examiners. The examination was begun on Saturday 
and was finished on Tuesday afternoon. The last board was not in 
so much of a hurry as is usual for these examiners, and on the whole 
the students and faculty were well pleased with the results. We 
believe that the character of the examinations of the State Board 
has very materially changed in the past ten years. The recent 
boards seem to examine to find out what the students know, not 
what they don't know. We find them all to be men of large ex- 
perience and very fair and reasonable in all their examinations. 
We are very much in favor of the present system of examining the 
students in the State normal schools of Pennsylvania. 

In conclusion we wish to extend our thanks to the Department of 
Public Instruction as Avell as to the press of the Twelfth District, 
the County Superintendents, and all others who have in any way 
contributed to tlie success of the institution for their many kind- 
nesses during the past year. 



J. George Betht, Piiiieipal. 

The past year at the Chorion State Normal School was significant 
in many ways. In point of attendance, character of work done by 
students and teachers, fine enthusiasm on the part of all conuect<'d 
with the institution, the year was singularly characteristic. The 
class room work was of a very high order, every department being 
well maintained. Thorough mastery of the subject matter of 
branches taught, inculcation of right habits of study, stimulation 
in the direction of greater professional zeal — all these are unmis- 
takable evidences of progress. In addition to this, the other activi- 
ties of the school were well organized. The Christian Associations 
exerted a splendid influence upon the school life. These were 
conducted by the young men and women in such a waj- as to attract 
unusual attention to them. The literary societies had exceptionally 
good meetings. The programs were arranged with a view to pleas- 
ure and profit. Many students owe their success in life to the train- 
ing received in these societies and for this reason every effort was 
put forth to maintain a high standard for them. The work in the 
music department was highly satisfactory. A fine enthusiasm, which 
is very gratifying, prevails among the students in this department. 
A glee club was organized and won unique distinction as a musical 
organization. In addition to this the girls' chorus rendered most 
effective and pleasing numbers on various social and literary occa- 

Professional faculty meetings were organized in which matters 
of general and particular professional interest were discussed. Mem- 
bers of the senior class attended and took part in certain of these 
meetings. The following schedule was arranged for the spring term: 
"What are the immediate needs of the Clarion State Normal School?" 
The principal, Prof. Shoemaker, and Prof. Wilkinson. "The Place 
of the Practice School in the Training of Teachers," Miss Liggett, 
Prof. Welch. "The Recitation — Purpose? How shall it be con- 
ducted? What to do with the dull pupils in recitation? How much 
tiem shall be devoted to review of preceding lesson? Method of 
Questioning." Dr. Ballentine, Miss Givan, Miss Ross. "Can Nor- 
mal School Students derive more benefit for their teaching from 
the study of methods in a general methods class than from a study 
of special methods taught in connection with the subject matter of 
a particular branch?" Prof. McNeal. Prof. Griffith. 

All in all the year's work was thoroughly enjoyed by all who 
were connected with the school. 




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■s^ooq-jxa:) lOoqos jo jsoo 

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'^utpiinq 'SuisBqoand 
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puB looqos joj patAai 


•sasodand auipiinq joj 
P9IA3I siuui JO aaquitiN 

•sasodand jooqos Joj 
paiAai siiiui JO jaquitiN 


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-xa JO -jaaa jad aSBjaAv 

•looqos 3ut 
-puai^B jaqranu aSBjaAv 

•sai'Bniaj jo jaqinnN 

•B91-BUI JO jaqtnnN 


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•q}uoai Jad 

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's>[Ooq-}xaj UBm' jaqio 
'sajidclns looqos }o jsoo 

•s3iooq-jxa; looqos jo ;soo 

•saSBAi ,sjaqD-Baj, 

•o^a '3ai}uaj 
'auipiinq 'autsBqoand 
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•s^diaoaj ibjoj. 

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pajAai Biiiui JO JsqtunN 

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pajAai siijui JO jaquinM 


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'BaSBM .sjaqoBax 

•oja 'Suijuaj 
'Suipiinq 'SujsBqojnd 
'sasnoq jooqos 30 ^soo 

•sjdiaoaj ibjox 

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•SBSodand Sujpitnq 

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paiAai sinm io aaqiuriM 

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paiAat sinm JO jaqujiiM 



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■qiuom jod 
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IIB puB 'sjoioaiioo JO 
saaj 'sapuaSuijuoo 'lanji 

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•asSvii. .sjaqoBai 

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'sasnoq looqos jo jsoo 

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-noji'Biaaojaaw e^Bjg 



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xBj JO lunoiuB IB^OX 

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paiA9i siuca JO jaqtunN 

•sasodjnd looxios joj 
paiAai sinm jo jaqiunM 



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'Bajntipnsdza ibjoj, 

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•qiuoiu Jad 


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JO jaqiunu a 3 b j a a y 

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's»in;(puadx3 ibjox 

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U-B puB 'sjo^oaiioo 30 

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'SHOoq-?xai uv\i% jamo 
'saiiddns looiios jo }soo 

•s3iooq-}xai lOoqDS jo isoo 

•BS3-BM. .saaiiOBax 

•o^a '3unuaj 
'Suipiinq 'aujSBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo ^soo 

•B^diaoaj iB^oj, 

e^-Big jdaoxa 'saojnos 
aaqio n^ puB saxB^ uioj^ 





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puB looqos joj paiAai 


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paiAai siiiui jo jaqtunjM 

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paiAai siuui JO jaquinN 


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saiBuiaj joXjbibs sSbjbav 

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saiBW JO Xjbibs aSBjaAV 

•BaiBuiaj JO jaqiunK 

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JO jaquinu a 3 b a a a v 

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•S9Jn}IpUddX9 IBIOI, 

•S3SU8ClX9 jamu 

IIB puB 'sjojoaiioo JO 
saej 'sapuaSuijuoo 'jen^ 

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'sanddns looqos jo }soo 

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■eaSBAi ,Bjaiio-Bax 

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'Suipiinq 'SuiSBqoand 
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non'BiJdoaddB ajBjg 


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puB iooii,)s joj paiXai 
xb; jo ;unoujB [bjoj. 

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paiAai siiuu JO jaquiriM 


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tooqos Sui 
-puajjB aaqtunu aSBJaAV 

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saiBUi JO jaqiuriM 


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saiBtu jo Xjbibs aSBjaAv 

saiBuiaj jo jaqtunM 

•sajBui jo jaqiuriM 


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JO Jaquinu a 3 b j a a v 

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•sajniipnadxa ibjox 

•SBsuadxa asq^o 


saaj 'saiouaSunuoo "isn^ 

'saqoiS 'sdBui Suipnioui 
'sjiooq-ixai uBqj aaqjo 
'sanddns looqos jo jsoo 

■SJiooq-}xa; looqos jo jsoo 

•sa3BM. .eaaqoBax 

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'Basnoq looqos jo jsoo 


•Sidjaoaj ib^oj, 

a}B}s ^dsoxa 'saojnos 
Jamo UB puB saxB? uioj^ 










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•uon'BudojdclB a^Big 




■sasodand Suipjinq 

puB lOOlIOS JOJ paiAOl 
XBJ JO ?unouiB [BJOJ, 

•sasodand Suipiinq joj 
paiAai Slum jo aaquinN 

■sasodjnd looijos joj 
paiAai Slum jo jaquinM 



■muooi jad jsoo 

-^•B JO -juao aad aSBjaAv 

•looqos Suj 
-pua^jB aaquinu aSBjaAy 

■saiBuiaj JO jaquinN 

•saiBui JO aaquinM 


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saiBtuaj jOiCaBiBs aSBjaAy 

•qjuom jad 
sai-Bui JO jtj-BiBS aSBJaAv 

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•saiBui JO jaqmnN 


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JO jaquinu a 3 b j a a y 

■aaquinu aioiiAV 



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No. 6 



•Baanjipuadxa i«iOi 

'sssuadxa J3q:)o 
IIB puB 'sJo^oeiioD 30 
S39J 'saiou93ui}uoD "lati^ 

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'sajiddns looqoe jo ^soo 

•SHOoq-^xa} looqos jo jsoo 

•Ba3BM ,sjaqoBax 

•o^a 'auijuaj 
'3uipiinq 'aujsBqojnd 
'sas'noq looqos jo }soo 

•B;diaoaj ibjox 

a^B^s idaoxa 'saojnos 
Jaq)o IIB puB saxB} uioaj 


o S-M CO 

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•uon'BiadoaddB a^Bjg 

■saaodjnd auipjinq 
puB lootios joj paiAai 
xb:> jo ^unoujB [bjoj, 

•sasodJnd Sufpimq aoj 
paiAai sinui ;o JsqmnM 

•gasodand looqos joj 
P9IA81 siniu JO jdquiriN: 

■qjuoui jad ;soo 

Tooqos Sui 
-puanB jaqumu aScaaAv 

•BajBraaj jo aaquin^j 

ssiBiu JO Jsqiun^ 

•qjuoiu jad 
saiBinaj jOitjB[Bs agBJaAy 

muoiu Jad 
sai'Bui JO Xjbibs aSBjaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquin^ 

•saiBui JO aaqmriiV 

■jqSnB; sqjuom 
JO jaqmnu a 3 b j a a v 

■Jaquinu aioqAl 


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No. 6. 





•sesuadxa .ism 
IIB puB "saoiosiioo .1 
sasi "sspuaSunuoo 'i^ 

'saqoja 'sdBui auipniau! 
's5iOoq-}xa; uem .iditjo 
'sajiddns [ooijos jo jsfo 

■S5iooq-;xaj looiios jo jsoj 

saSBM .saaqoBaj, 

•oja 'Sunuaj 
'Suipimq 'auiSBqoand 
'sasnoq jooqDs' jo ;soo 

Bjdiaoaa ibjox 

ajE^S tdaoxa 'saojnos 
Jamo IIB puB saxBj moj^ 


5 00 . • ; I J" 


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■sasocluncl Suipnnq 
puB looqos joj poiAai 
XB} JO ^unoiuB [BJOX 

■sssodjnd Suip[tnq Joj 
paiAai siiiui io jaqmnN 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
paiAai snim jo jaqmnH 


•q;uoiu jad ;soo 

-;-E JO -^uao jad aSBaaAy 

•looqos Sui 
-pua;}B jaquinu a3BJaAV 

■saiBiuaj JO jaqiuriM 

•saiBiu JO jaquin^ 

•muoui Jad ^ 
saiBtuaj jo^jBiBs aSBjeAy 

■qjuoui Jad 
saiBiu JO .Obibs aSBJaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquin>j 

■saiBiu JO jaqiuiiiN: 


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JO jaquinu a S B J A V 

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•sajn;ipuadx9 jejox 

•sasuadxa jaiijo 
IIB puB "sjoioaiioo JO 
S93J 'sapuaSunuoo "lanj 

'saqoiS 'sclBtu Suipnioui 
'S5iooq-}xej UBq; jaqjo 
'sanddns looqos jo jsoo 

•S3iooq-ixaj looqos jo ;soo 

•sa3BAi .saaqoBax 

■0}a •Suijuaj 
'Suipiinq 'SuiSBqoand 
'sasnoq jooqos jo }soo 

•sidiaoaj injox 

r 55 g ?^ o ?! c-T o S:' « " o S S c 

t- L-i « 25 05 eg O to * M S rH Us H CO c 


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rj cc o i.ra o en s ""='>"'' c~ =■ o r-i ' 

= Ci lo t- O rl CO t- tc to >xMO lO O C»» « 


a^Bjs Klaoxa •sa.unos ' j^;'' 
J^qjo UB puB saxB} luoajj «* 

p 3 gj 

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No. G. 





S^5:^ S5 



•non-BjJdoJddB 9;Bjg 




■easodjnd 3nipnnq 
puB looqos joj pajABi 
XBl JO lunoiuB IBJOJ, 

•sasodJnd Suipjinq joj 
P9IASI siuiu jo aaquiriN 

sasodJnd looqos joj 
paiAsi siijui JO jaquinN 



•qjuoiu jad jsoo 

-JB JO -juao J9d aSBjaAV 

•looqos Sui 
-puajjB jaquinu aSBjaAy 

•eaiBuiaj jo jaquinM 

•saiBui JO jaqiunN 


•muoui jad 
sai-Buiaj joXaBiBS aSBJaAV 

Uiuoui Jad 
sai-Bui JO itJBiBS aSBJaAV 

•saiBiuaj JO jaquin^[ 

•saiBui JO jaqmnM 


^■^^Snn■^ sqjuoui 
JO jaquinu a S b j a a v 

•jaqtunu aioq^vv 




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5 oj t- -r ire CO c; I— 00 > oo cr ec "* 


(Ma:b-cOvn "toocp- 


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•saanjipuadxa iBioj, 

•sasusdxa jaqjo 
we puB 'sjojoanoo jo 
saaj 's9(ouaau!}uoo "isn^ 

'saqoia 'sdBtu Suipnioui 
's}(ooq-?xa} uBm asqjo 
'saiiddns jooqos ^o }soo 

•sjiooq-;xaj loonos jo isoo 

'BaSBM .sjaqoBax 

■0}a 'auijuaj 
'aujpiinq 'aujSBqojnd 
'saenoq looqos jo ;soo 

•Bidjaoaj iBjoi 

Jaq;o ub pue saxB; luoaj; 






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834 60 
152 18 
371 97 
089 37 
286 92 
453 60 
686 97 
59 1 78 
997 99 
614 81 
271 20 
337 72 
9.8 62 
274 45 
414 66 
936 79 
912 19 
183 74 

071 06 
762 14 
367 59 
609" 53 
134 38 
404 82 
761 33 
903 30 
631 87 
370 03 
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•nou-BudoaddB ejBig 



•easodjna Suipiinq 
puB looqos joj pa[A3i 


•sasodjnd Snipimq joj 
paiA9i siiitu JO aaqmn^r 

•sasodjnd looijos joj 
pajAai sinw JO asqmnN 



•qiuoui jad ;i3oo 

-?T» JO -ina* jad aSBjaAv 

•looqos 3m 
-puajjB Jaquinu aSBaaAV 

•saiBtaaj jo jaquinN 

•saiBta JO jaqtunM 


•qiuom J9d 
saiBUiaj jOitJBiBS aSBaaAv 

•qiuooi Jad 
saiBui JO iUBiBs aSBjaAv 

•BaiBoiaj JO jaqainN 

•eaiBta jo jaqcanN 


•;qSnB; sqiuoui 
JO jaqEunu a S b j a a v 

•Jaqmnn aioqjij 


(M'^coco'^ioO'-<«dcot-i l— i-iiflCT>mo«5CO^ mooio rA oooq to lo 







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No. 6. 





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Off. Doe. 

*89Jn}{pxia<]z<> IBJ11.L 

•sasu3dxa jaqjo 
IIB puB "sjojoaiioj .10 
saaj "seiouaSuiiuoo 'i^nj 




'saqota 'sdBin Suipniouj 
'sj(Ooq-jxsj UBq} J^mo 
'saiidilns [ooqos jo }>ioo 

■BJiooq-jxaj looqoa ;o jsoo 

■ssSbm .BjaqoB^x 

'Suipiinq 'SujSBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos ;o jsoo 

3 3;S'-i<=" 



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No. 6. 



8a '-Siois « 



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•^on•B^(Ioad(IB a?B;s 



•sasodjnd Sutpunq 
puB looqos JOj pajAai 
XBl JO lunouiB IBJOX 

•sssoaand Suipimq joj 
paiAai siuui jo jaqiunN 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
patAai sinui JO jaqmnH 



■qjuoui J3d ;soo 

-j-B JO -^aaa jad aSBjaAV 

■lOoqos Sui 
-pua^^B jaquinu aSBjaAv 

•saiBraaj jo jaquinH 

•BaiBta JO jaquinN 


•qjuoHi aad 
saiBinaj joXiBfBS a3BjaAV 

•muoul Jad 
Bai-Bin JO jUbibs aSBJaAy 

•eaiBtnaj jo jaquinu 

•saiBin JO jaqmnM 


•;q3nB^ smuoui 
JO jaquinu a S b J a a v 

•jaqmnu aioqM 






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c-oociOini<^ cio 

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No. 6. 



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'BSJn^ipnsdza ibjoj, 

•sasusdxa jemo 


ssaj 's3ioua3unuoo 'lanj 


'ssqoiS 'sdBui Suipnioui 
'sjiooq-^xaj uBm jsmo 
'sanddns looqos jo ;soo 

•s3iooq-}X3i looqaa jo ;soo 

'S3SBM .sjaqoBax 

•o^a '3u[}uaj 
'Suipimq '3u!SBqojnd 
looqos JO }soo 

•Sidjaaaj ibjox 

ajBJS jdaoxa 'saoanos 
jaq^o iiB puB saxB} luoa^ 




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No. 6. 



3 0rH^t-COCOT-<00«5t^QeOb-'*'*05rHOS 

J t^OrH^Oi 00^-^ •tj'ot'O'^t-"^ ^COO- 

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■nou'BiJdoaaa* •vnw 




•B3B0(Und Suip\inq 
pu« looqoB aoj pajAai 
xb; jo junoraB iB^oi 

•sasodjnd Suipunq aoj 
paiAsi sniui JO jaquinM 

•sesodjnd looqos joj 
paiAsi siijui JO aaqranM 



•q;uoiH jad ;soo 

-i-B JO -^naa jad aSBjaAy 

•looqos Sui 
-pua:HB jaqtanu aSBaaAv 

•saiBinaj jo jaqranM 

•eaiBin jo jaquiriM 


•q^uoui jad 
sareniaj jOiLiBiBS aSBjaAy 

•muoui Jad 
sarBiH JO Xj-bibs aSBaaAV 

•saiBiaaj jo JoquiriK 

•saiBui JO jaqtunN 


•jqSnB^ sitiuoui 
JO jaqmnu a S b j a a y 

•Jaqinnu aioq^vi 


) V O IM O CO,^ t- So CP II 


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No. 6. 



•89Jn}IpU3dX3 IB^OX 

•sasaadxa aaqjo 


saaj 'saiouaauijuoo 'lan^ 

saqoia 'sdBoi Suipn[oui 
'sjtooq-^xai u-Bqj jsmo 
'saiiddns looqos jo ^soo 

■sjtooq-jxaj jooqas jo jsoo 

•saSBAi ,sjaqoB9j, 

•oja 'Sanuaa 
Sutpitnq 'SuisBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo }soo 

•s;dtaoaj ibjox 

aj-B^g ^daoxa 'saojnos 
Jaq^o n^ pnB saxBj luoj^ 


8 :S! : : : : :2S 


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aon^l-idoJddB ajBjg 



sssodjnd 3u[piinq 


puB loonos joj paiAai 



XEl JO junouiB IBJOJ, 

■^ , 




•sssodjnd Suipjinq joj 


paiAai sniui JO jsquinjM 





•sasodjnd looqos joj 

paiAsi siiiui JO aaquinM 


•qiuom J9d jsoo 




-}B JO -juao jad aSBjaAV 



•looqos Suj 



-puaUB jaquinu aSsjaAV 


sajBcaaj jo jaqtanM 



■saiBoi jo jaquinN 




•qjuoui jad 

saiBLuaj joXjbibs aSBJaAy 

•inuoui Jad 


sarem jo jIjbibs aSBJaAV 





eaiBtuaj jo jaqinnN 




•sa[Bui JO jaquinN 



•iqSnBj sqjuoui 



JO jaqtunu a S b j a a y 




•jaqninu aioqw 























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No. 6. 













Off. Doc. 

•sajniipuedxa iB;oi 

•S3su8(ixa jamo 
11^ puB 'sjojoanoD JO 
saaj 'ssiousSunuoo "lan^a; 

'saqoiS 'sdBui Sujpniout 
's3iooq-ix3i u^m jamo 
'sanddns looqos jo ;soo 

•SJiooq-}xaj jooqDS ;o jsoo 

■saSBM .sjaqoBai 

•oia 'auiiuaj 
'Suipiinq 'SutSBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos' jo jsoo 

•Bidjaoaa ibjox 

a}-B5s idaoxa ''saoanos 
aaq}o uv puB saxB; uiojjI 

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No. 6. 











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HOU'BiJdojddB ajB^s 



•easodJnd 8u;pimq 
puB looijos joj psjAai 
xb; ;o junouiB [Bjoi 

•B98odjnd auipiinq joj 
paiAai eniM ;o jaquinM 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
paiAai Biniu JO jaquiriN 


•qjuoui J9d jsoo 

-}B JO -jnao J9d aSBjaAV 

•looqos Su\ 
-pua^jB jaqianu aSBJaAy 

•BsiBuiaj JO jaqmnN 

•aaiBin jo jaqmriN 

■qiuoui jad 
saiBUiaj joXJB[Ba aSBjaAy 

•muoui Jad 
saiBui JO itJBiBB a3BjaAv 

■aaiBtaaj jo jaqranM 

•saiBui JO jaqmn>i 


•;q3nBj sq;uoui 
JO jaquinu a 3 b J a a y 

•jaqiunu aioii,\\. 



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No. 6. 








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's3iooq-}xsj uBiii' jaqjd 
'sanddns looqos jo :jsoo 

•S5iooq-;x9; looqos jo jsoo 

•saSBM ,sjaqD-B3x 

'Suipitnq 'SuisBqoand 
'sasnoq lOoqos jo isoo 

•Bjdiaoaj iBjoj, 

ajBjg idaoxa "saojnos 
jaq:(0 wb puB saxBj utoj^ 

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OOi-HOOOSTHO-t— i-4c: 





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No. 6. 



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non'BiJdOJddB 8}bis 






•sasodand Sufpunq 
puB looqos joj psiAai 
xb; jo ;unouiB Ib^oj, 

sssodjnd Sujpitnq ao.i 
paiAai siijui JO J3quin>j 

■sasodjnd looqos joj 
psiAai S[iiui JO jaqiunM 




•IIJUOLU jad jsoo 

-;b jo -^uao jad aSeaaAV 

•looqos 2nt 
-pua^iB aaquinu ^Svis\\r 

•saiBuiaj JO uaqumN 

•saiBui JO jaquitiK 



•q^uoiu jad '•■ 
eaiBuiaj jo/Cjbibs aSBaaAy 

•inuoui jad 
saiBiu JO ^JB[BS aSBJaAV 

■saiBuiaj JO jaqmnN 

•saiBtu JO jaqujn>i 


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JO jaquinu a 3 b j a a y j 


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No. 6. 


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Off. I>oc. 

•sajinipxiadxa ib^ox 

•sasuadxa jaino 
l\v puB "sjoioaiioo JO 
saaj 'sapusSunuoo "lan^ 

'ssqoja 'sdBUi Suipnpui 
's>^ooq-}x^:^ uvm jaino 
'sajiddns loonos jo }soo 

•s>iooq-;xaj looqos jo :jsoo 

•esavM. .sjaqoBax 

•o;a 'Sunuaj 
'Suipimq 'SuisBqoand 
'sasnoq looqos jo ^soo 

•sidiaoaa jbjoj. 

aaqjo hb puB saxB} luoj^ 






5 <M t> Oi rH U^ t2 £ 



No. 6, 





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•uon»iJd0J(M» ejBjg 




•sasodjnd aujpnnq 

XBi JO ^unoiuB IB^OX 

•BSBodand Suipunq Joj 
pajAsi siiiai ;o jaquinjsi 

■sasodjnd iooijob joj 
p»!Aai siijia JO jsqwnjsr 


•q;aoiii J3d isoQ 

-;tj jo -jaao jad aSBJaAv 

•looqos Suj 
-pna^iv jaquinu aSBJaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinN: 

•saiBui JO aaqiutijst 


•q}uoui aad ' 
saiBOiaj JO iCjBiBS aSBjaAy 

•muoui Jad 
sai-Boi JO Xjbibs aSBjaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinN 

•saiBui JO jaqtutiM 


•JHSnBj sq;uom 
JO aaqtunu a 3 b J a a y 

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saaj 'sapuBSuuuoD 'lan^ 

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'saiildns looqos jo :jsoo 

•B3|ooq-jxaj (ooqas jo }soo 

99SVM. .BJaqoBax 

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'sasnoq jooqae jo jsoo 

tjdjaoaj iBjoi 

a^B^s }daox9 'saojnos 
Jaqio iiB puB saxB; moj^j 

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peiAai Binui JO aaqmnN 


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JO jaqtunu a g -b a a a v : 

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IIB puB "saojoriiioa ju 
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's^ooq-jxa^ UBin aainJ 
'sajiddns [ooiios jo ?soo 

35(ooq-}xai lOOUDS jo jsoo 

saSBM .sjaqoBBi 

•oja 'Suijuaj 
'Suipimq 'auisBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo ^soq 

•s^diaoaj ibjox 

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^aq^o HB puB sax-B; vios^ 


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paiAai Binui JO jaquinN 


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paiAai sinm jo jsqmriM 




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No. 6. 






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jaqjo iiB puB saxB? uioa^ 







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•uou'BiacIoaddB 8;«is 




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puB looqos aoj psiAai 
xb; jo ^unom-B ib^oj. 

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paiAsi Biiitu JO jaqiunN 

sasodjnd looqos joj 
pajAai Bium jo aaquinM 



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•saaBM. .sjaqoBaj, 

•0}a 'Sunuaj 
'Suipimq 'SuiSBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo jsoo 

•s^diaoaj ii3;ox 

a?B;g idaaxa 'saoanos 
aaqjo jib puB saxBj uioa^ 






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xBi JO lunouiB iB;oi 

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psiAai silliu JO jsquiriM 


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•looqos Sui 
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saiBiuaj jojObibs aSBjaAv 

■muom Jad 
saiBxu JO Xjbibs aSBjaAy 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinjM 

•saiBui JO jaquinM 


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JO jaqmnu a 3 b j a a v 

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IIB puB •sjOlOailOO JO 

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XBJ JO junotuB IBJOJ, 

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PSIA31 sinui JO aaquin^ 

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paiAsi sinui JO jaquinN 




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No. 6. 








•Bsanjipuadxa ibjox 

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ItB puB •saojoaiioa jo 
saaj 'sapuaaunuoo 'lan^ 

'saqoiS 'sdBoi Suipnioui 
•sHOoq-ixaj u^m Jsmo 
'saiiddns looqos jo isoo 

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'auipnnq 'SutSBqojnd 
'sasnoq lOoqos jo jsoo 


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a^B}S jdaoxa 'saojnos 
aaqjo ub puB saxBj uioj^ 




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•uou'BiadoJddB y>'\-e-\^ 




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pUB lOOqOS JOJ p3!Ae[ 

xb; jo junoiuB ie^Oi 


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paiAai siiiiu JO jeqain^ 


•sasodjnd {ooijos joj 
paiAai sinui JO jsqiunM 



•muoLU aad ;soo 



-j-e JO -juao aad aSeaaAV 

•looqos Sui 
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•saiBuiaj JO jaqiunM 

•saiBtu JO jaquinM 


■qjuoui jad 
saiBtusj jo^JBiBS aSuaaAv 




"muoui jad 
saj-Bui JO Xjb[bs aSBjaAV 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinM 


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No. 6. 









■saanjipuadxa iejox 



•sasuadxa jaijio 


IIB puB 'saojoedoo jo 

saaj 'sapuaSunuoo 'lan^ 






'eaqoia 'scIbiu Suipntoui 


'snooq-jxaj ucm aau;o 


'saiiddns looqos jo jsoo 





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•013 'Suiiuaa 


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aaq;o \\t3 pue saxBj tuoa^ j 




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xb; jo lunouiB [BJOJ, 




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paiAai Slum Jo aaquiriN 





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patAai siniu JO jaqiuiiM 



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•looqos Sui 


-puauB Jaquinu aSBaaAy 





seiBmaj jo jaquiriN 




■S9IBIU JO jaquiriM 



■qiuoux jad 


saiBuiaj jo^JBiBs aSBaaAy 




"muoiu jad 

saiBui JO jCjbibs aSBjaAv 






saiBuiaj JO jaquinx 






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No. 6. 







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■B»jn}ipa3<lx3 [B^OJ, 

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'saiiddns looqos jo jsoo 











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Jamo nv pnB saxB; uioa^ 










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puB looMOs joj paiA9i 
XBi JO iunoiuB IBJOJ, 

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P3IA91 Biiiw JO aaqiunN 



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'Bejn:)ipu8dx3 ib^ox 

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8}B}S Jdaoxa 'saojnos 
Jsqjo UB puB S9xb; uioj^ 










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paiAai siiuu JO .laqumM 


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No. 6. 



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'Sutpunq 'SufsBqoand 
'sasnoq lOoqDS jo JSOQ 

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ajBig ^daoxa 'saojnos 


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psiAai sinui JO aaquinM 

•B9so(ljnd looiios JOJ 
paiAai siiiui JO jaqmn^t 



■qiaoni aad ^soo 

-%-B JO -inas J3d saBjaAV 

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-pua^jB jeqrana aSBasAv 

•saiTJcaaj jo jaqmnN 

•saiBUi JO JaqmriN 


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saimnaj joXjbibs aSBJaAv 

•qiuotn Jad 
saiBta JO Xj-bibs aSBjaAV 

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'Suipiinq 'SuisBqoand 
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No. 6. 


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•uou'BiJdoJddB ajEiri 


■sasodjnd 3uipnnq 
puB looijos aoj pai.\9i 1 
XBj JO iunouiB IB^OX 

•sasodjnd Suipnnq Joj 
paiAai Biiiui JO jaquinN 

•sasodjnd looiios joj 
paiAai siuui JO jaqtunN 


•q;uoui Jad jsoo 

-;b jo -^uao jad aSBjaAv 

•looqDs Sui 
-pua^^B jaquinu aSBJaAV 

•sajBUiaj JO aaquinM 

■saiBui JO JaquinN 


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saiBiuaj joXjbies aSBJaAV 

•qjuoiu Jad 
eaiBiu JO Xjbibs aSBjaAV 

•saiBiuaj JO jaquinM 

■soiBui JO JaqmnM 


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•sajniipuadxa ibjox 

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saqo[S 'sdBta Suipnioui 
's5iooq-;xai uvm' jamo 
'saiidclns looqos jo ;soo 

•s5iooq-ix9} looqos jo ;so3 

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Suipjinq 'SuiSBqojnd 
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'ssnddns looqos jo :(soo 

•S3iooq-;xaj looqDS jo ;soo 


•autpiinq 'SuisBqojnd 
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•uou'BIJdoJddB ajBjg 


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•sajtijipuadxa iB^oj;, 

•sasu9(Ix3 aaqjo 
IIB puB "sjoioaiioo JO 
S33J 'sapuaSupuoo "lan^ 


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"sjiooq-ixaj uBm Jaijjo 
'sandclns looqos jo jsoQ 

■s5iooq-;xa} looqos jo isoo 

•sbStsm. .SJaqo-Bai 

•oja 'Sauuaj 
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•aou-BijaoJddw «jBjg 



•sasodjnd anjpjinq 
puB looqos joj psiAai 
xb; jo ;nnouiB ib^ox 

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paiAai siniH JO jaqiunN 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
paiAai sijiui JO jaquitiM 



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-j-B JO -iuao jad a3BJ9Av 

•looqos Sui 
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•saiBuiaj JO jaquiriM 

•saiBui JO jaquinN 


•muoui jad 4 
saiBUiaj jo^JBiBs aSBJaAy 

■qiuotu Jad 
sai-Bui JO Xjbibs aSBjaAV 

•saiBOiaj JO jaqnmN 

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JO jaquinu a S b J a a v 

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No. 6. 



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puB looiios joj psjAai 
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saSBM ,sjaqoB3X 

•oia 'Suijuaa 
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•nou'BudoJddB sjejs 




•sasodJnd Suipimq 
puB looqos joj pajASi 
xb; jo junouiB ib^oj. 

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paiAai Biiini jo jaquinN 

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paiAai siijui JO jaquitiN 


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•q^uoui Jad 
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JO jaqmnu a 3 b J a a y 

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•eaaniipuadxa ibjoj, 

•sesuadxa Jaiijo 


ssaj 'sapuaSuuuoo "lan^ 

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'sancldns looqos jo }soo 

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'sasnoq looijos jo }so3 

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•sasocUnd aujpimq 
puB looqos JOJ pSIASf 
xBi JO ;unouiB [b^oi, 

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P3IA91 BiutH JO jaqwnN 

•sesodjnd xooqos joj 
P3IA91 sinm JO jaqiunN 


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No. 6. 



•Bsjniipuadxa i^^oj, 

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IIB puB 'sao^oaiioo }0 
saaj 'sapuaSunuoo- 'lan^ 

'saqoia 'BdBtu Suipnioui 
'SHOoq-ixa? ubhj jaqjo 
'saiiddns looiias jo }soo 

•BJiooq-^xa^ looqos jo ^soo 

■B3SBM iSjaqDBax 

•0}3 'SUIJU3J 

'Sutpiinq 'auisBqojnd 
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No. 6. 



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•aou'Bijaojda'B ajBjg 

•sasodind anjpnnq 
puB looqos joj pajA9i 
XBJ JO ;unouiB ib;ox 

'sasodjnd Sujpnnq joj 
pajAai Biutn jo jaquinN 

•sasodana looqos joj 
pajAai Slum jo jaqtunM 

•qjnoiH jad jsoo 

•V* JO 'jnaa jad aaBjaAy 

•looqos Suf 
-pn3;;v jaqtana a3BjaAV 

•saiBcaaj jo jaqianM 

•saiBoi JO jaquiriM 

•qjuoia jad ' 
saiBinaj jOitJBjBS aSBJaAy 

•qjuoui Jad 
saiBm JO i£jBiB3 aSBJaAv 

•saiBcaaj jo jaquinM 

•saiBui JO JaquinM 

■jqSnBj sqjaom 
JO Jaqoinu a a b j a a v 

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No. 6. 




■ssjnjipuadxa ib}Ox 

•sasuadxa Jamo 
saaj 'sapuaSunuoo 'jan^ 

'saqnta 'sdBiu Suipnioui 
■siiooq-jxa; uBqj jamo 
■saiiddns looqos jo isoo 

•s5iooq-;xa} looqos jo jsoo 

'saSBM .saaqDBSX 

■Dja 'Suijuaj 
'Suipijnq 'Sujs-Bqoand 
'sasnoq looqos jo ?soo 

•sadiaoaa ibjox 

ajEjs idaoxa 'saojnos 
aaq^o UB puB saxB; luojj 

i O 5 i^ CO t^ t-'-^ SwO»H&JM<X>C:< 

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•noij'BiJdoaddB ajB^g 




■sasocljnd Sutpimq 


xBi JO ?unouiB ib;oj. 

■sssodJnd Sutpnnq JOj 
paiAai Biiiui jo jaquinN 

•sasodjnd looijos Joj 
paiAai sniui JO jaqtunN 


•qiuoui J8d jsoo 

-}B JO -juao Jad aSBaaAV 

•looqos 3vL\ 
-pua^B jaquinu aSBaaAV 

•saiBoiaj JO jaqiunN 

•BaiBtH JO jaquinN 


■q}uoui jad 
saiBuiaj joXjb[Bs aSBaaAy 

•qjuotu Jad 
saiBui JO Xjbibs a3BjaAV 

•BaiBuiaj JO jaquin^ 

■saiBui JO jaqmnM 

•iqSnBj sqr>uoui 
JO jaquinu a 3 b a a a v 

•jaquinu aioiiM. 







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No. 6. 



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•Bajinipuadxa ib?ox 

•sasuadxa jaino 


S99J 'sspuaSunuoD 'I3n^ 

'saqoiS 'sdBiu auipniouj 
's>iooq-}xsi UBUj' jaqjo 
'sa|[(Jdns [oonos jo ;soo 

•s3iooq-;x3j looqos jo jsoo 

-B3S«M .sjaqoBax 

'Suipijnq 'auisBqojnd 
looqos JO JS03 

•s;di3DSj IBJOX 


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•uoH'BIJdOJddB 3}b;s 

•sasodand Suipimq 
puB looqos joj paiXai 
xb; ;o junoiuB [bjox 

sasodjnd auipjinq joj 
paiAat sniui ;o jaqtutiN 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
paiAai siniu JO aaquiriM 

•muoui aad }soo 

-I'B JO -juao jad aasjaAv 

•looqos Sui 
-puajjB jaqmnu aSBjaAy 

•saiBtuaj JO jaqmn^ 

•saiBiu JO JaquinM 

•qjuotu Jad 
saiBui JO jtJBiBs aSBjaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinM 

•saiBca JO jaqianis[ 

•jilSnBj sqjuoiu 
JO Jaqmnu a 3 b j a a y 

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No. 6. 



•93Jinipnadx3 ibjoj. 

•sasuadxa jaq;o 
HB puB "sjoioanoo }0 
saaj 'saiDuaSunuoo 'lan^ 

'saqoja 'sdBui Suipnioui 
's5iooq-}X3j UBm jaqjo 
'sanddns looqos jo ;so3 

•sJiooq-;xa; looqos jo isoo 

•saSBM .SJaqoBBi 


'aujpnnq 'SutSBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo jsoo 

•sjdiaoaa ibjox 

ajBjg jdaoxa 'saojnos 
jaq:;o ub puB saxB? uioa^ 

s^l is ji 

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■ao^'B^doJdd« e)v;3 




BasoclJnd Sujpnnq 
puB [oo^os joj pajAaj 
XBi ;o ;unouiB ib;ox 

•sasodJnd Suipnnq joj 
paiAai Slum JO jaquitiM 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
pajAsi siHiu JO jaqtunN 


•qjuoui jad ^soo 

-IB JO -juaD jad aSBjaAy 

•jooqDS Sut 
-pua«B jaquinu aSBJaAy 

•eaiBmaj jo jaqcunN 

•saiBui JO jaqmnM 


•muoui jad 
saiBuiaj joXjbibs aSBjaAy 

■muoui Jad 
sai-Bui JO Xjbibs a3BjaAv 

•saiBuiaj JO JaqmnM 

•saiBoi JO jaqiunM 



•jqSnB; sqjuom 
JO jeqcunu a 3 b j a a y 

•jaqranu aioq^^ 




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No. 6. 





47 50 
35 00 

35 00 

36 25 
35 OO 
35 00 
35 00 
35 00 
47 92 
41 67 
35 00 
40 00 


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•saaniipuadxa ib^oj. 

\iv puB 'sjo^oaiioo JO 
saaj 'sapuaSupuoo "lan^ 

'saqoi3 'sdBiu Sujpnioui 
'siiooq-;xai uvm aamo 
'sajiddns looqos jo jsoo 

•snooq-ixa; looqos jo ^soo 

■Baa^ii. .sjaqo-eax 

•o;a '3u!}uaj 
'Suipiinq 'SuiSBqoand 
•sasnoq looqos jo ;soo 


•sidjaoaj ib^oj, 

a;-B}s idaoxa 'saoanos 
Jamo n^ PUB sax^; uioj^ 





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5 ^ . ■ p CO ts ^ » 





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Srfsoiljnil auipiinq 
puB lOoqjrJ joj pa(Aa| 
xb:j ;o junuuiB IBjox 

•sesodjnd Suipnnq joj 
pajAsi snitu iu aaqiuriK 

"Basodjnd looqos joj 
P9IA91 siiiui JO jaquinN 

■qjuoui J9d }soo 

■looqos Su! 
-puajjB jaquinu aSejaAV 

•Bsi'BUiaj JO jsquitiM 

•saiBiu JO jaqturiM 

•l(JUOUI J3d 

BaiBUjaj jojtJBiBS aSBJaAV 

•qjuouj Jad 
saj'Biu JO Xjb[bs aSBjaAV 

•saiBiuaj JO jaquinjsj 

•saiBui JO Jaquinji 

JO jaquinu a S B J a A v 

•jaquinu aioHjVi 


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No. 6. 





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ssjnjipnaaxB ibjoj. 

•S9BUadX3 JSllJO 


'saaoja 'sdBui Suipniauj 
'S3jcoq-;xai UBqj' aamo 
•sanddns jooqas jo jsoo 

8]iooq-)X3} looqos jo jsoo 

wSvA .sjaqoBax 

•0J3 'Sunnaj 
'anipijnq 'aujsBqojnd 
'saenoq looqos jo jsoo 

•jdiaow iBjoi 


ajBis jdaoxa 'saojnos 
jaqjo iiB puB B3XB) nioj^ 

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No. 6. 






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aouviJdoJddv 3;b)s 

CftcDlOC'icooCOCOOO'^O 00 coo* 

•easodind 3uiptinq SI 

puB looqoa jo; pajAai T' 

XBj JO junouiB ib;oj, j S' 

"sssoclJncI 3u!pi|nq joj 
p?IAai Slum JO jsquiriM 

sasodjnd jooiios joj 
paiABi siiiui JO jaquitiN 

- t- lO ■$* ^ 

•muoui J3d }soo 

i 'cSo?£ 
•souBpua; i 
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■saiBuiaj JO jaqmnN 


SSI-BUI JO jaqmtiM 

•q,uoux.3d€ ' SSSSSSSg-goSI 

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•muoui Jad coooo^ ...Ln^oou^Sou, lo-. 

saiBtu JO itJBiB3 aSBJaAv j "^=SS5 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinjs: 

•saiBoi JO jaomnx 

•;q3nB; smuotu 
JO joqtunu a S B J a A V 

•jaquinii aioii^i 


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No. 6. 









Bajnjjpuaclxa i^^oj, 

•saeuadxa jaijjo 


saaj 'saiouaaunuoo 'lanj; 

'saqota 'sdBta 3uipnioui 
'S3iooq-;xa^ u-em jamo 
'sanddns loonos jo ;soo 

•ssjooq-^xaj looqoa jo ?soo 

•aSBM .sjaqoBax 

•oja =aui}u9J 
'Suipiinq 'SuisBqojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo jsoo 


•B^djaoaj iBioj, 

ai-BJS Idaoxa 'eaoanos 
Jsq^o HB puB saxB^ uioj^ 



OT ". j '• ov '' : : : : : '^ 


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" C- Jh c3 !«• Cl 00 N " 08 12 lO o S Jo ^ M 5 » « O N M t- S> ti 

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o ^ » Mo 50^ 
V > > ^ S^'^-.^ 

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No. 6. 





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Off. Doc. 

Boanjipuadxa iB^ox 

IIB puB "sao^oaiioo jo 
BS9J 'sapuaSunuoo 'lan^ 

'Suipiinq 'auisBiiojnd 
'sasnoq looqos jo ;soo 

■Bjdiaosj i-Bjox 

a;B;g jdaoxa 'saojnos 
JOHIO iiB puB saxB; luojj 



'saqojS 'sdBLu Suipnpui 
•s5iooq-}xai uBqj jaq}o 
'saiiddns louqos jo jsoo 

?52 26 
52 56 
86 04 
8 86 

126 SO 
43 05 
41 37 

159 IS 
478 53 
147 92 

1,265 51 
85 50 
181 28 
59 50 
47 27 

160 65 
1,608 84 

132 99 
156 60 

93 76 
124 11 

49 75 

54 69 
124 04 
227 77 

76 16 
354 81 
113 62 

■siiooq-}xaj looqos jo ;800 

495 98 
274 77 
1,375 00 
65 45 
£69 22 
58 37 
48 05 
143 98 
2.303 20 

329 36 

7:9 10 

328 71 
50 70 
344 39 
100 74 
473 18 
42 00 
204 84 
68 19 

■saSBM. .sjaqoBax 

$1,443 75 

2,279 37 

2r541 88 

265 OJ 

2, Obi 87 

685 00 

658 75 

5,314 00 

7,384 OO 

3,075 00 

23,824 39 
2,031 25 
2,537 50 
1,776 25 
1,268 75 
2,519 13 

38,698 38 

2,478 63 
2,569 00 
2,520 00 
613 75 
1,260 00 
2,826 75 
3,708 25 
1,434 00 
1,733 75 
2.259 GO 


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No. 6. 











Off. Doc. 

•uon-BiJcIoaddB a}E)s 

•sasodjnci Suipimq 
puB tooqos jo; ps!.\9i 
XB} JO }unouiB IBJOX 

•sasodjnd Sujpiinq joj 
paiAai BUjui jo aaquiriN 

■sasodjnd looiios joj 
paiAai siiitu JO jaquinx 

•qiuoui jad :)soo 

-;b jo "^uao jsd aSBJSAV 

•looqos Sui 
-pua}}B jaquinu aSBJaAV 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquin^ 

•satBtu JO jaquinM 

■muom jad 
sajBtuaj joXjbibs aasjaAv 

•muoui Jad 
saiBui jo Xjbjbs aSBJaAy 

•saiBuiaj jo jaqmn^^ 

•saiBui JO jaquin^ 

•}q3nBj smuoiu 
JO jaqiunu a 3 b j a a v 

•jaquinu BloqAi 




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No. 6. 



•83Jnjipu8dxa ibjoj, 

•sasuadxa janjo 


S93J 'Bapu93unuoa 'lan^ 

'saqojS 'sdBai 3uipniou! 
'sjiooq-jxaj weii% jaiijo 
'saiiddns looqos jo ;soo 

•s3iooq-}xaj looqos jo jsoo 

'saSBM. .sjaqoBajL 

•o;a '3unuaj 
'Suipiinq •3uisBqDind 
■sasnoq jooqos jo jsoo 

•Bjdjaoaj iBjox 

3?Bjg jdaoxa 'saojnos 
Jaq^o iiB puB saxB} uioj^ 



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aou'BiadoaddB ajBJS 





•sasodincl auipitnq 


xb; jo junouiB ib;oj. 

sasodJnd aujpijnq joj 
pa;Ae[ snim Jo jaqiunN 

•sasodand loouos joj 
paiAai sniiu JO jaquinN 


•qjuoui asd jsoo 

-JB JO juaa jad aSBjaAv 

•looqos S\i\ 
-puaijB jaquinu aaBJaAy 

•eaiBOiaj jo jaquinM 

■saiBtu JO jaqiunM 


•qiuoui J9d 
saiBiuaj jOiCJBiBs aSBjaAy 

•q^uoui jad 
saiBuj JO Xjb[bs aSBjaAV 

•saiBuiaj JO aaqcunM 

•saiBiu JO aaquitii^ 


iqanB^ Bijjuoui 
JO jaquinu a a b j a a y 

•aaquinu aioij.w 



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No. 6. 




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•S9Jn;ipu3dx9 iB;oi 

•sasuaclxa jamo 
ITB puB ■sjo^oaiioo JO 
S98J 'saioueSupuoD 'lan^ 


'S9qoi3 'sdBui Suipnpui 
•s5iooq-ix9l u^m J9ino 
'sgiiddns looqos jo isoo 

•S3iooq-ix9} looqos jo isoo 

•S9SBAi. ,SJ9qOB9i 

•o;9 'SutjuaJ 
'Suipimq 'SuiSBqoancI 
's9snoq looqos jo }soo 


•Sld!9D9J IT310J, 

81-B}g ;d90X9 'sgoanos 
jaqio iiB puB s9xb; uioj^ 



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Off. Doc. 

•noiJ'BiJdoJddB a}B}S 

•sasodand Sujpnnq 
puB jooqos joj paiAai 
xBi JO :junouiB IB^oj, 

•sasodjnd Suipijnq joj 
pajAai siijiu JO jaquinM 

•sasodjnd looqos joj 
paiAai sinui JO jaquin]^ 

•muoui jad isoo 

•looqos Sui 
-pua^jB jaqtunu aSBaaAy 

•saiT3iuaj JO jaqtunM 

•sai'Bui JO JaquiriM 

■qjuoui jad 
saiBuiaj joXjb[bs aSBjaAV 

•qjuoui Jad 
sai^tu jo Xjbibs aSBjaAV 

■saiBuiaj jo jaqmnN 

•saiBui JO jaqmnM 

•jqSnB^ sq;uom 
jo aaquinu a 3 b a a a v 

•jaqinnu aioqAi. 










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No. 6. 




■••jn^ipnadxs iv^ox 

'S38U9(IX3 J9l{)0 

S39J 'sapusSunuoo 'isn^ 

'saqoiS 'sdBoi auipnjoui 
's3{ooq-}xai uBm Jamo 
'saiiddns lOoqDS jo }800 

'S}iooq-)z3} looqoa }0 )boo 

-■aa«M ,«jaqo«9x 

■oja 'auijuaj 
'Suipiinq 'auiSBqojnd 
'sasnoq iooijdb jo jboo 

•8idl309J IBJOJ, 

ajBlS Idaoxa 'saojnos 
J3q:;o hb pus saxB; uioj^ 

:|Wg;M« W 


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2*^ =•: 


aon'BiJdoJddB a^c^s 


■sasodjnd Suipjinq 

pUB [OOqOS JOJ P3!A3[ 

xb; jo :>unouiB ibjox 

•sasorUnd Suipimq joj 
paiABi Slum JO aaquinN 

•sasodand looqDS joj 
paiAsi siniu JO aaquiriM 


■qjuoui jad }soo 

-?B JO -juao jad aSBjaAV 

■looqos Sat 
-pua;}B jaqtunu aSBjaAV 

•saiBuiaj JO jaquinN 

•saiBta JO jaquitiM 

•muom jad 
saiBuiaj jOiiJBiBs aSBJaAy 

•q:moui .lad 
saiBui JO vCjbibs aSBJOAV 

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301 35 
628 27 
356 34 
260 95 
914 67 
115 29 

044 69 
236 01 
761 33 
858 07 
983 08 
796 31 
320 84 
196 39 
811 26 
004 05 
154 41 
673 89 
909 14 
707 87 
990 31 
587 60 
597 99 
944 70 
149 73 
849 64 
728 66 
377 52 
319 90 
191 87 
086 43 
994 74 
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278 17 
477 31 
464 76 
131 59 
596 01 
499 77 
536 91 
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No. 6. 

statististicszyork: county. 


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No. 6. 



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No. 6. 



209 91 
778 44 
638 08 
159 01 
951 56 
660 29 
496 86 
686 17 
568 51 
822 30 
954 02 

336 46 
035 40 
358 34 
852 74 
93; t4 
462 84 
749 30 
029 88 
609 94 
294 46 
656 61 
199 73 
921 79 
402 46 
429 47 

004 90 

005 35 
913 15 
073 21 
347 19 
259 73 
280 16 
246 06 
684 20 
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No. 6. 




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5 m. 

2 da 

. 11,967 

?29 31 

$12 81 



$0 41 




5 m. 


23 291/2 

14 89% 







10, 697 

5 m. 



22 29 

15 85% 








5 m. 



24 00 

16 60 








5 m. 



24 25 

17 22 








5 m. 



24 26 

17 79 



50 12 





5 m. 



24 20 

IS 11 








5 m. 



25 68 

19 71 








5 m. 



23 81 

18 55 






1, 820 


5 m. 



23 84 

18 56 

634, 699 







5 m. 



25 42 

20 16 








5 m. 


14, 286 

31 82 

24 21 








5 m. 



37 38 

27 76 

666 3'6 






5 m. 



35 87 

27 51 

660, 165 





'.'.'.'.'■'. l!918 


5 m. 



37 38 

27 76 








5 m. 



38 18 

29 80 








5 m. 



39 63 

30 55 








5 m. 



40 03 

31 12 

700, 04O 







6 m. 



40 55 

31 98 








6 m. 



41 58 

32 44 








6 m. 



41 88 

33 33 










40 03 

31 03 

740, 2S3 









38 72 

30 42 









36 34 

28 90 










34 54 

27 35 










32 .59 

26 07 










31 36 

25 14 










22 64 

26 04 










34 35 

27 19 










36 23 

28 30 







17, "751 



37 28 

29 22 










37 06 

25 59 










37 10 

29 29 










37 10 

29 29 










37 12 

29 m 










37 57 

29 76 









91 8S6 

38 46 

29 S3 









22', 231 

39 34 

30 46 




1 00 






30 83 

.30 89 










41 64 

32 53 




1 15 






31 84 

32 55 










41 78 

32 70 






2, 477 




41 80 

32 7S 




1 25 






41 71 

32 S6 




1 22 






41 06 

32 50 




1 26 






41 fi8 

32 73 




1 29 






41 62 

32 66 


72s, 4"3 


1 32 






42 14 

33 OS 




1 34 






31 31 




1 38 






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U 10 




1 45 






47 12 

35 09 




1 54 






49 91 

38 55 




1 67 






51 36 

38 92 





No. 6. STATISTICS. 509 



$156,389 25 

159,554 17 

164,330 OO 

164,723 55 

188,646 00 

186,841 12 

193,503 34 

209, 813 97 

210,752 00 

211,784 60 

216,087 03 

210,134 08 

223,463 67 

239,813 19 

218,521 87 

307,718 00 

321,300 00 

318,451 34 

429,152 65 

375,332 71 

521,345 13 

533,625 13 

728,207 19 

823,784 S3 

723,082 57 

497,030 76 

747,297 13 

865,819 70 

684,127 86 

696,478 18 

700,340 81 

803,103 18 

803,344 24 

802,411 12 

803,190 71 

1,207,009 52 

1,206,204 94 

1,564,603 81 

1,560,267 38 

2,901,116 80 

4,039,766 22 

4,432,647 24 

4.439,752 79 

4,389.029 79 

4,391,574 31 

4,637,585 07 

4,622,822 98 

4,291,154 93 

4,355,601 04 

4,658,210 43 

4,597,616 S3 

4,576.413 32 

4,483.153 51 

$1,157,119 32 
1,401,300 15 
1,603,844 15 
1,180,143 07 
2,009,437 00 
2,039,684 05 
2,015,785 20 
2,108,487 44 
1,965,164 91 
1,980,473 26 
2,143,348 20 
2,438,640 37 
3,013,057 33 
3,616,285 23 
4,016,919 12 
4,438,946 66 
4,731,049 86 
5,016,801 73 
5,229,024 63 
5,543,985 23 
5,787.833 95 
5,983,004 90 
6,003.443 31 
5,627.943 56 
5,289,646 25 
4,923,874 62 
4,818,594 36 
5,031,779 70 
5,452,902 28 
5.676,545 57 
6,313,832 62 
6,519,927 78 
6,672.185 29 
6,946,949 23 
7.134.701 52 
7,869,505 56 
7,923,622 43 
8,061.137 92 
8,187.893 57 
7.776,101 62 
8,677.582 67 
8.598.542 71 
9,296.162 78 
9.351,011 31 
9.725.229 60 
10,078.540 87 
10,500,962 67 
10.887.613 25 
12.687,415 80 
17,781.589 84 
13,085.707 94 
14,866.554 00 
15.981,970 73 




4. S3 


5.. 51 


$1,127,922 61 
1,371,706 14 
1,534,732 32 
1,554,780 64 
1,621,370 00 
1,639.383 23 
1.783,114 48 
1,756,307 38 
1,797,347 36 
2,016,310 17 
2,318,069 18 
2,801,759 31 
3.489,237 31 
4,314,028 52 
5.068.316 72 
5.684.977 21 
6,023,451 64 
5,438.656 29 
6,671.949 93 
6.808,917 69 
7,247.263 63 
G. 918, 811 03 
6,623,273 00 

.6,229,714 59 
6,282,110 78 
5,859,009 06 
6,469,120 91 
6.686.256 93 
7,365.217 19 
7,623.678 37 
8,095,942 18 
8,105,866 59 
8,845.087 22 
8,836.053 35 
9.008,852 33 
9,851,095 75 
8,4.50,909 25 
10,820.029 55 
10,289,198 07 
11,131.332 03 
12,053.899 69 
12,424,198 47 
13,528.246 38 
13,276.078 00 

■13,992.387 52 
15,224.091 77 
16,314,489 32 
20,786.9.54 07 
17.781.589 84 
18,860,273 03 
21.480.604 93 
23.196.386 38 

$256,735 92 
266,198 76 


$1,041,571 19 

$110. 3S3 9*; 


322,125 37 

1,145.730 22 

240,615 29 


444. 2&5 56 

1,137.357 92 

172,572 92 


454.343 53 

1,235.992 65 

162,670 P8 


531,413 85 

1,407.159 35 

167,721 07 


448.426 28 

1,442,171 70 

209.956 38 


496.124 67 

1,430, 063 CO 

223,497 .19 


305,796 90 

1,367,181 38 

232.337 31 


394,767 35 

1,698,040 01 

250. 56n 52 


488.517 09 

1,098,664 01 

390.227 30 


374,450 97 

1,980,777 83 

410.346 26 


596.66') C9 

2, 211,. 521 70 

458,317 61 


985.1,52 55 

2, 482, .512 63 

601,087 21 


1.357.726 99 

2,019,109 93 

643.217 88 


1,104,860 21 

2,819.444 00 

727.624 05 


2,560.137 42 

3.010,690 33 

S07.713 82 


3,006.194 41 

3.183,418 86 

799,275 48 


2.536,637 39 

3.221,121 78 

863,738 96 


1,477.831 OO 

2,424,970 91 

1,756,111 73 


1.600.131 62 

3,596,004 47 

1.652,651 94 

18 r4 

1,722,103 54 

3.755.309 66 

1.961.341 60 


1,245,387 23 

3, 82'!, 987 12 

2,006,8.33 88 


961,915 02 

3.742.728 80 

1.948.470 46 


877.382 06 

3.651,883 00 

1.817,934 11 


878.808 93 

3,544,552 72 

1,672,927 20 


809,896 51 

3,606,911 82 

1,584.365 92 


1,067,471 34 

3,673,223 S3 

1,703.224 99 


1,139.3.55 44 

3,830.079 52 

1,687,912 96 


1,431,670 08 50 

1.850,8:9 50 


1,405,526 81 

4,282,191 12 

1.965.706 f3 


1,566.323 91 

4.447,618 69 

2.C86.595 98 


1.537,565 15 

4.582,374 25 

2,117,667 28 


1,461.673 13 

4.673,324 30 

2,171,481 66 


1,642,961 33 

5,044.3.85 15 

2,297.3R4 51 


1,799.121 10 

5,240,826 22 

2,504.880 71 


2,131,322 71 

5,438.587 21 

2.656,958 93 


2,892.667 68 

5.693.332 84 

2.829,690 66 


2.378.780 77 

6,028.019 91 

2,378,780 77 


2.979.271 21 

6,672.850 02 

2,5a5.96S 49 


2.834,091 22 

6,995.022 56 

3.637.038 74 


3,182,749 40 

7.206,202 88 

3.912,622 13 


3.297.416 07 

7,460.547 01 

4.016.808 96 


3,296.294 14 

7,839,216 45 

4.104,615 -.2 


2,933.813 23 

8.020,396 81 

4,095.817 03 


2,736,897 04 

8.358,092 99 

4.402,261 43 


3.061.523 90 

8,772,5615 65 

4,474,192 82 


3,394,531 34 

8,874,295 97 

4.819.126 03 


3,186,783 18 

9,302.405 95 

5,182,928 92 


3,647,771 24 

9.9-.0.4''l 38 

5.386.212 07 


3.675,240 30 

10.303.035 43 

6.119.444 34 


4.581,273 53 

11.237.161 96 

6.493.623 31 


4.730.329 65 

11.858. 661 36 

6,831.798 48 




Off. Doc, 


Receipts and expenditures for the school year ending June, 1906, 
for the Cornplanter Indian School, situated on the Allegheny river, 
in Warren county, as certified to by O. J. Gunning, superintendent 
of schools of Warren county, as per act of Assembly, approved July 
3, 1895. 


Balance on hand from last year, 

Appropriation for 1905, 

|1 82 
500 00 

Total, 1501 82 

Teacher's wages, 8 months at |4o per month, , 

Fuel and drayage, 

Books and supplies, 

Repairs and miscellaneous expenses 

1360 00 
92 75 
44 55 

5 85 


503 15 


Number of pupils belonging to school, 

Number in attendance during last month, . . . 
Percentage of attendance during last month,, 

Percentage of attendance during term, 

Oost per month per pupil, , 




|1 33 



|2 16 

Distribution of State aid to Normal School Students for the School 
Year Ending June, 1906. 




?30,600 50 
24,859 50 


19 005 00 


15 267 00 



19,044 CO 


15 252 00 


20 221 50 


24,951 00 


19,162 50 

Thirteenth^ «... . 

14,869 50 


$259,659 50 

(Note.— The above amounts paid the tuition of the students in full, the State thus furnishing 
free tuition to all persons desiring to prepare themselves for teaching In the public schools. 



Following is a list of township high schools for the school year 
ending June i, 1906, which were entitled to a pro rata share of the 
appropriation to township high schools. 

The appropriation made by the Legislature in 1905 to these schools 
for the school year ending June 4, 1906, was |100,000, which was 
sufficient to pay 95 per cent, of the amount to which the several 
schools were entitled. First grade schools should have received 
|800; second grade, $600; and third grade, |400, but the appropria- 
tion was only sufficient to pay first grade schools, |760; second 
grade, |570; and third grade, |380. 

A township high school maintaining a four years course beyond 
the common branches constitutes a first grade school; one maintain- 
ing three years course, a second grade school, and one maintaining 
a two years course, a third grade school. 

County. Township. Keceivea. 

ALLEGHENY Harrison, $380 

Shaler 380 

BEAVER, Harmony BiO 

BEDFORD, Broad Top : 380 

Liberty, 380 

BERKS Caernarvon, 380 

Cumru, 380 

Heidelberg 380 

Heidelberg, Lower 380 

Longswanr^p, 380 

Oley 380 

Onteliaunee 380 

Perry 380 

Spring 383 

BRADFORD Orwell 570 

Wyalusing, 5*0 

Smithneld 380 

BUCKS Durham 570 

Lower Makefield, 570 

Doylestown 380 

Falls 380 

Middletown 380 

New Britain, 380 

Nockamixon 380 

Northampton 380 

Solebury 380 

Southampton, 380 

Springfield, 380 

BUTLER Concord 380 

Franklin 380 

Muddy Creek 380 

Penn 380 

CAMBRIA Reade 570 

CARBON Mauch Chunk 570 

Lower Towamenslng 380 

CENTRE Harris 570 

Walker 570 

Ferguson ^|3 

Gregg 380 

Haines 380 

Liberty 380 

Spring 380 

Worth 380 

CHESTER Easttown ™ 

Tredyffrin 760 

West Fallowfield, 570 

East Marlboro. 


East Nottingham 570 

West Bradford ^™ 

East Brandywine 380 

North Coventry "*; 

East Coventry 380 



County. Township. Received. 

CHESTER— Conlinued. New Garden. 

East Goslien 380 

Honey Brook 380 

West Nantmeal 380 

New London 380 

East Pikeland 380 

west Pikeland 380 

Uwchlan, 3S0 

West Vincent 380 

Wallace 380 

Warwick 380 

East Whiteland 380 

.Salem 380 

. Beccaria 380 

Bigler 380 

Huston 380 

Lawrence 380 

Morris, 380 

Penn 380 

Woodward 380 

CLINTON Lamar, 570 

Noyes 670 

Pine Creek 380 

COLUMBIA Mifflin 570 

Briar Creek 380 

Fishing Creek 380 

Hemlock, 380 

Locust, .' 380 

Roaring Creek, 380 

Scott 380 

Sugarloaf 380 

CRAWFORD, Bloomfield 380 

East Fallowfield 380 

Hayfield, 380 

East Mead, 3S0 

Randolph 380 

North Shenango 380 

Summit, 380 

Wayne 380 

CUMBERLAND^. South Middleton, 380 

Newton 380 

Penn 380 

East Pennsboro, 380 

DAUPHIN Derry 380 

Wiconisco 3~0 

Williams 3S0 

DELAWARE Radnor 760 

Upper Darby 570 

Upper Chichester 380 

Upper Providence 380 

Nether Providence 380 

ELK Benezette, 570 

Fox 570 

Horton 570 

Jones 570 

Spring Creek, 570 

Millstone 38) 

Ridgway 380 

ERIE Girard 760 

Springfield, 761 

Elk Creek 570 

Mill Creek 570 

Fairview 3S0 

Greenfield, 38) 

Harbor Creek 3S0 

Venango 3S) 

Washington SS") 

FAYETTE Dunbar 3S0 

Perry 3S0 

North Union 38) 

FOREST Jenks 570 

FRANKLIN Qnincy 570 

Metal 380 

FULTON Wells 3«!0 

HUNTINGDON Spruce Creek 38) 

JEFFERSON Eldred 38) 

Snydpr .'i^O 

Washington 3S) 

LACKAWANNA South Abington 3s!i 

Madison, 380 


Little Britain 3S1 

Conoy 3^0 

East Donegal, 3^0 

Drumore 38) 

East Earl 3S0 

Wett Earl 380 

Fulton 3S0 

ParadiFC 3Ri 

LAWRENCE North Beaver 38) 

Hickory 380 

Pulaski 380 

Scott 380 

Slippery Rock 380 

No. 6. 









MIFFLIN, .... 





POTTER, .... 















North Annville, 

South Annville 


West Cornwall 



White Hall 












Lower Merion, 



Upper Gwynedd 


West Pottsgrove 



Lower Saucon, 



East Chillisquaque 

West Chillisquaque 










Frailey r 











Sugar Creek 









Fieehold - 



Pine Grove 

Sugar Grove 


Cross Creek 

Mount Pleasant 





North Strabane 




Mount Pleasant 






East Huntingdon 

Mount Pleasant 






Average Monthly Wages of Male Teachers by Counties for the School Year 
Ending June 4, 1906. 

1. Allegheny, $95 

2. Delaware 

3. Elk, 

4. Lackawanna, 

5. McKean , 

6. Chester, 

7. Luzerne 

8. Cameron, 

9. Westmoreland 

10. Washington , 

11. Warren, 

12. Montgomery 

13. Beaver 

14. Fayette 

15. Schuylkill, 

16. Potter, 

17. Carbon 

18. Susquehanna .' 

19. Venango, 

20. Erie, 

21. Cambria, 

22. Jefferson 

23. Blair 

24. Tioga, 

25. Bucks 

26. Lehigh, 

27. Lancaster 

28. Berks, 

29. Northampton 

30. Wayne, 

31. Dauphin, 

32. Butler, 

33. Clearfield 

34. Bradford 

35. Northumberland 

36. Armstrong 

37. Crawford 

38. Mercer 

39. Lawrence 

40. Lebanon , 

41. Wyoming 

42. Columbia, 

43. Greene 

44. Mifflin, 

45. Clinton, 

46. Sullivan, 

47. Clarion - 

48. Forest 

49. Lycoming 

50. Pike, , 

51. Somerset , ■ 

52. Indiana 

53. Cumberland 

54. Franklin , 

55. Centre, 

56. Bedford 

57. York 

58. Union, 

59. Perry, 

60. Monroe 

61. Huntingdon, 

62. Montour 

63. Juniata, 

64. Adams , 

65. Snyder, 

66. Fulton 

78 86 

75 57 

69 78 

67 90 

67 14 

65 73 

63 33 

62 61 

60 96 

60 94 

60 20 

59 24 

58 76 

57 91 

57 88 

56 68 

55 82 

55 75 

55 00 

54 12 

53 89 

53 65 

53 22 

53 15 

52 53 

51 96 

51 66 

51 51 

50 92 

50 57 

49 76 

49 72 

49 31 

48 61 

48 42 

47 73 

47 30 

46 79 

46 30 

46 02 

45 90 

45 83 

45 56 

45 39 

45 33 

45 11 

44 53 

44 39 

44 38 

44 34 

43 72 

43 62 

42 68 

42 66 

42 25 

41 44 

40 94 

40 86 

40 54 

40 36 

40 08 

39 90 

39 60 

No. 6. STATISTICS. 515 

Average Monthly Wages of Female Teachers by Counties for the School Year 
Ending June 4, 1906. 

9- w^l^'^"^ =553 07 

2. Washington , 47 7^^ 

3. Delaware 47 37 

4. Westmoreland 46 01 

5. Fayette 44 59 

6. Lancaster _ 43 65 

7. Montgomery 43 06 

"" 42 25 

9. Bucks, 

10. Schuylkill '..'.'.'.'.'.'. 41 64 

11. McKean , [ [ 4^ 53 

12. Cambria, , ' ] ." 41 61 

13. Luzerne, 41 28 

14. Chester, 41 20 

15. Beaver, 41 18 

16. Greene, 41 15 

17. Blair, 40 97 

18. Butler '. .' '. .' 40 95 

19. Lebanon , 40 64 

20. Jefferson , ..']'' 39 gg 

21. Northampton , ] 39 qi 

22. Lehigh [ 39 74 

23. Venango, 39 27 

24. Lackawanna 39 23 

25. Lawrence, 39 03 

26. Clearfield 38 69 

27. Dauphin, 38 62 

28. Northumberland 38 57 

29. Armstrong 38 55 

30. Forest 38 43 

31. Carbon, 38 12 

32. Cumberland, 38 10 

33. Cameron 38 07 

34. Mifflin, 37 65 

35. Warren 37 64 

36. Lycoming 37 64 

37. Somerset, 37 58 

38. Franklin, , 37 53 

39. Union 37 28 

40. York, 37 09 

41. Erie 37 03 

42. Mercer 36 99 

43. Berks, 36 88 

44. Monroe 36 87 

45. Indiana 36 83 

46. Clarion 36 78 

47. Potter, 36 70 

48. Clinton 36 61 

49. Adams , 36 49 

50. Centre, 36 46 

51. Tioga, 36 42 

52. Bradford, 36 25 

53. Susquehanna, 36 17 

54. Crawford 36 13 

55. Columbia, 36 12 

56. Montour 36 00 

57. Sullivan 35 90 

58. Pike 35 72 

59. Wayne, 35 70 

60. Bedford 35 67 

61. Huntingdon 35 67 

62. Wyoming, 35 55 

63. Perry 35 51 

64. Juniata, 35 39 

65. Snyder 35 10 

66. Fulton 35 00 


Average Length of the Annual School Term by Counties for the School Year 
Ending June 4, 1906. 

1. Delaware 9.42 

2. Allegheny 9.41 

3. Lackawanna, 9.38 

4. Montgomery 9.24 

5. Schuylkill 8.83 

6. Northampton 8.79 

7. Chester, 8.71 

S. Luzerne 8.69 

9. Bucks 8.68 

10. Dauphin 8.53 

11. Erie 8 . 44 

12. Carbon 8.42 

13. Lehigh, 8.41 

14. Northumberland 8.39 

15. Berks 8.30 

16. Blair, 8.15 

17. McKean 8.08 

18. Beaver, 8.00 

19. Lawrence 7.99 

20. Elk, 7.94 

21. Lebanon 7.84 

22. Venango 7.84 

23. Lancaster 7.81 

24. Cambria 7.81 

25. Montour 7.80 

26. Lycoming 7.80 

27. Washington 7.79 

28. Warren 7.78 

29. Mercer, 7.77 

30. Westmoreland 7 . 76 

31. Columbia, 7.73 

32. Crawford, 7-69 

33. Potter 7.68 

34. York 7.68 

35. Cumberland, 7.61 

36. Forest, 7.61 

37. Pike, 7.59 

38. Bradford 7.58 

39. Cameron 7 . 57 

40. Mifflin, 7.57 

41. Butler, ••••-■ 7.56 

42. Fayette, 7.53 

43. Tioga, 7.50 

44. Monroe 7.49 

45. Wyoming, 7.48 

46. Clearfield 7.48 

47. Jefferson 7 . 43 

48. Armstrong, 


_,. Franklin, 7.38 

50. Wayne, 7.38 

5L Clinton 7.35 

52. Union, 7.35 

53. Perry 7.32 

54. Centre 7.27 

55. Adams 7.22 

56. Clarion, 7.17 

57. Huntingdon 7.15 

58. Somerset 7.14 

59. Indiana, 7.13 

60. Juniata, 7.11 

61. Bedford 7.11 

62. Greene 7.09 

63. Susquehanna '-Yj^ 

64. Snyder 7.07 

65. Fulton , '-"0 

66. Sullivan "-^"^ 

No. 6. 





1. Adams 

2. Allegheny •••• 

3. Armstrong '. 1-9*^1 

4. Beaver 

5. Bedford, 

6. Berks 

7. Blair .■.■.".■.■.'.■:.'.■;:.■ 324 

8. Bradlord 

9. Bucks, 

10. Butler . 96 

11. Cambria '.'.'.'.['.'.'.'.'. ^^ 

12. Cameron, ... 

13. Carbon 

14. Centre, .■.■.';■; -9 

15. Chester '. •••• 

16. Clarion WO 

17. Clearfield 

18. Clinton 

19. Columbia, .... 

20. Crawford 

21. Cumberland, 49 

22. Dauphin '. 35 

23. Delaware 222 

21. Elk 298 

25. Erie '. 

26. Fayette 245 

27. Forest 

28. Franklin, .. 

29. Fulton : 

30. Greene 

31. Huntingdon, ... 

32. Indiana 

33. Jefferson, ] • • • • 

34. Juniata 

35. Lackawanna ••• 

36. Lancaster '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.[ iiS 

37. Lawrence 

38. Lebanon, — 

39. Lehigh .'.'.'.'.■.'.■ 

40. Luzerne ■ • ■ • 

41. Lycoming .. ■ "^ 

42. McKean '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

43. Mercer, 

44. Mifflin '.'.'.'■'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. 

45. Monroe _[ ' 

46. Montgomery •;:■ 

47. Montour 412 

48. Northampton, •••• 

49. Northumberland, . 'H 

50. Perry 29 

51. Pike ; 

52. Potter 

53. Schuylkill ;; •:• 

54. Snyder ^sS 

55. Somerset ' 

66. Sullivan, '.'...W 

57. Susquehanna 

58. Tioga 

59. Union '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

60. Venango ' ' * 

61. Warren 

62. Washington 

63. Wayne .' ' 

64. Westmoreland 

65. Wyoming 

66. York '■■'■'■'■'.'■'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.". 

Total — -— - - 

Philadelphia ••• -^ •^^■■■■' i::;::::::;:: till 

'^°'^^ .' -JjTo - 








27, 993 



Off. Doc. 


«2 .c c £ 


I i £ ^ . 

F, B '^ > ^ 

H g ^ S 



































Lackawanna, . . . 













Northampton, .. 








Susquehanna, . . . 







Westmoreland, .- 




Philadelphia, ... 


No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 





■ ■iiim:^"-Mii>Ms, 

















Name of Principal. 

Adams County. 
East Berlin borough, 
Fairfield borough, ... 
Gettysburg borough, 
Littlestown borough, 

Allegheny County. 

Allegheny City 

Aspinwall borough, 

Avalon borough 

Bellevue borough, .. 
Braddock borough, .. 
Carnegie borough, .. 
Coraopolis borough, . 

Crafton borough 

Duquesne borough, . 
Edgewood borough, . 
Elizabeth borough, . 
Harrison township, . 

Homestead borough, ... 
McKeesport borough, .. 

Millvale borough 

N. Braddock borough,.. 

Oakdale borough 

Oakmont borough 

Pitcairn borough 

Pittsburg, Academic, .. 
Pittsburg, Commercial, 

Pittsburg, Normal, 

Shaler township, 

2% 10 

4 :io 

2 I 8 

Sheraden borough 4 i 9 

Tarentum borough, 
Turtle Creek borough, 

"Verona borough 

Wilkinsburg borough, 

Armstrong County. 

Apollo borough 

Ford City borough, .. 

Freeport borough 

Kittanning borough. 
Leechburg borough, . 
Parker City borough, 

4 9 

3 I 9 
2 ; 9 

4 9 

3 , 8 

3 9 

3 9 

3 i 9 

Beaver County. 

Beaver borough 

Beaver Falls borough,.. 
Bridgewater, West, 

Freedom borough 

Harmony township, ... 

Monoca borough 

New Brighton borough, 
Rochester borough 

Bedford County. 
Bedford borough, .. 
Broad Top township, 

Everett borough, ... 
Hyndman borough, . 
Liberty township, ... 

Saxton borough 

Schellburg borough, 

Berks County. 
Bemville borough, 
Blrdsboro borough, 

215 336 ; 1 

20 33 ( 

22 1 38 ; ' 

23 3S I : 

17 i 34 ! 

15 , 21 1 

€65: 1,377 1 5 

3751 691 1 41 

331j 331... 

= ' 10 : 


J. Paul Kaufiman. 
C. A. Landis. 
William I. Book. 
Willis A. Burgoon 

1 I 

W. L. Smith. 

E. J. Robinson. 

E. T. Daugherty. 

Oreo. M. Johnston. 

J. E. Little. 

T. J. George. 

C. C. Marshall. 

O. P. Fuller. 

H. E. Winner. 

W". Edward Borger 

Mary J. Park. 

J. Elwood Wherry, 

Na trona. 
L. P. Williams. 
J. B, Richey. 
J. C. R. Johnston 
Erastus F. Loucks 
H. H. Hanna. 
W. E. Bair. 

Edward Rynearson. 
Edward Rynearson. 
Edward Rynearson 
Alice E. Davis, Glen- 

E. W. Reed, Sheridan- 

S. H. Gardner. 
H. W. Goodwin. 
Minnie E. Claypoole. 

W. A. Rodgers. 

C. M. McNaughton. 

H. H. Elliott 

Carlton P. Fairbanks. 

F. D. Neal. 

R. L. Hlldebrand. 

J. Brad Craig. 
George G. Starr. 
Wm. McCaughtry. 

C. F. Hetche. 
Floyd At well, E 

David C. Locke. 
Loula King. 
J. B. Hawk. 

2 W. M. Edwards De- 
^ H. L. Rinehart. 
2 .L A. Erhard. 

1 E. S. Rice. Saxton. 

2 T. E. Holsinger. 

1 George L. Wolfe. 

1 Richard Noll, 
llj. A. Grler. 

•Copied from last year'i 




Off. Doc. 

ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 































Name of Principal. 

Boyertown borough, . 
Caernarvon township, 

Cumru township, 

Fleetwood borough, ... 
Hamburg borough, — 
Heidelburg township, .. 

Heidelburg, Lower, 

Long Swamp township, 
Ontelaunee township, .. 

Oley township, .. 
Perry township. 
Beading boys, .. 
Reading Evening, 
Reading, Girls, .. 

Spring township, 

Womelsdorf borough, .. 

Blair County. 

Altoona city 

Bellwood borough 

Hollidaysburg borough, 

Juniata borough,* 

Martinsburg borough,.. 
Roaring Spring bor- 
Tyrone borough 

Bradford County. 

Athens borough, 

Canton borough, 

Monroe borough, 

New Albany borough,*. 

Orwell township 

Sayre borough 

Smithfleld township, .. 
Towanda borough, . . . 

Troy borough 

Ulster, Ind 

Wyalusing borough, .. 
Wyalusing township, .. 

Bucks County. 

Bristol borough,* 

Chalfont borough 

Doylestown borough, . 
Doylestown township, . 
Durham township 

Falls township, 

Lower Makefield town- 
Middletown township, . . 
New Britain township, . 

New Hope borough, .. 
Newtown borough, ... 
Nockamixon township, . 
Northampton township, 

Perkasie borough 

Quakertown borough, . . 

Sellersville borough,*. 
Solebury township, ... 

























2, 1' 


Samuel I. Henry. 

E. W. Billmann, Mor- 

A. M. Dietrich, Read- 

Wm. C. Sampson. 

E. J. Conner. 

David L. Hersteln, 

Wm. A. Strieker, Wer- 

A. F. Kemp. 
Howard C. Snyder, 

C. Waldo S. Leinbach. 
A. L. Riland. 
Robert Birch. 
H. R. Brunner. 
Mary H. Mayer, 4th 

& Court Sts. 

F. O. Hartman, Sink- 
ing Springs. 

Wm. H. Matters. 

G. D. Robb. 

J. A. Herman. 

Le Vrrne Alden Marsh. 

A. M. Jacobs. 

E. S. Kagarise. 

J. K. Ritchey. 

4; 1| 5 I. C. M. Ellenberger. 

Geo. E. Rogers. 
J. A. Chrestensen. 
Budell Phillips. 
Philip tieiUy. 
Philip Reilly. 
I. F. Stetler. 
F. W. Gorham. 
J. H. Humphries. 
W. M. Denison. 
W. T. Clarke. 
Clinton P. McCord. 
Joseph H. Hurst, 











Jennie C. Adams. 

John D. Goldsmith, 

Carmon Ross. 

A. James Gayman. 

I. R. Baker, Riegles- 

H. C. Neagley, Falls- 

O. E. Batt, Edge- 

E. W. Martindell. 

Paul S. Gayman, Doy- 

A I. Underwood. 

J. H. Hoffman. 

Wayne Burns. 

Wayne Burns, Rlch- 

Albert C. Rptter. 

Gordon Luckenbill, 
Richland Center. 

W. R. Nauman. 

Edith Michener. 

•Copied from last year's report. 

No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4. 1906. 
























Name of Principal, 

Southampton township, i 3 
Springfield township, ..3 

Yardley borough, 2 

Butler County. j 

Butler borough 4 

Concord township 2 

Franklin township, ' 3 

Muddy Creek township. 

Packerton, Ind 

ParryvlUe borough, ... 
Summit Hill borough, 
Weatherly borough, . 
"Weissport borough, .. 

Centre County. 

Bellefonte borough, ... 4 

Centre Hall borough,*. 3 

Ferguson township, ... 3 

Gregg township, 2 

Haines township, 
Harris township. 

Liberty township 

Millheim borough, . . . 
Philipsburg borough. 
Spring township, 

State College borough,* 
"Walker township 

Worth township. 

Penn township 

Portersville borough. 

Cambria County. 

East Conemaugh bor- 3 8 


Ebensburg borough,* ..3 8 

Gallitzin borough 3 S 

Johnstown city, 4 9 

Patton borough 3 9 

Reade township 3 7 

South Fork borough, ..3 S 

Cameron County. 

Emporium borough, ... 4 8 

Carbon County. 

E. Mauch Chunk bor- 3 9 


Lansford borough 4 9 

Lchighton borough, ..3 9 

Lower Towam.ensing 2 8 


Mauch Chunk borough, 4 10 

Mauch Chunk township, ' 4 9 

3 10 
3 9 
3 9 

Chester County. 

Atglen borough 

Avondale borough, ... 

Cain township,* 

Coatesville borough, . 
Downingtown borough, 

97 160 257 

30 16 26 

12 1 12 24 

13 21 

20 .... 

13 .... 
37 1 7 

19.... 5 
30 2 1 

27 .... 1 2 












27 1 




25 1 
















20 . 





75 1 10 11 

4 7 
51 5-2 7 
16 2, 2 4 















.... ! 









H. W. Davis. 

Wm. T. Melchior, 

Guy E. Albert. 

V. K. Irvine. 

Bliss G. Elliott. 

Carl S. Brown. 

T. E. McDougall, 

Grove City. 
J. B. Storey, Pen- 

T. E. McDougall, 

Grove City. 

H. M. Farr. 

W. T. Clarke. 

R. H. Biter. 

W. P. Long. 

Bruce I. Myers. 

J. C. Williams. Moun- 

M. S. Bentz. 

Edward S. Ling. 

P. H. McCabe. 

H. M. Dengler. 

P. A. Ebert. 

M. C. Hoffman, Pa'- 

Edw. W. Romberger. 

A. E. Wagner, Nes- 

J. F. Arner. 
Wm. H. Krill. 
H. M. Webber. 
N. S. Murphy. 
Clinton S. Felmlee. 

lonns E. Wagner. 
S. W. Gramley. 
L. E. Poffinbergpr. 
W. P. Hosterman, 

H. D. Krape, Aarons- 

H. C. Rothroc, Boals- 


Milford Pletcher, 


C. R. Neff. 

D. H. Robbins. 
S. S. Williams, 

Effie C. Snyder. 
W. S. Gerhard, 

J. A. Williams, 




1 Edw. W. Keenan. 

2 William H. Snvder 
ll Helen Whiting. 

6 Elmer E. Hess. 

3 John R. Hunsicker. 

•Copied from last year's report. 



Off. Doc. 

ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 























Name of Piincipal. 

E. Brandyvvine town- 
E. Coventry township, . 

E. Goshen township, .. 

E. Marlboro township, . 

E. Nottingham town 

E. Pikeland township, . 

Easttown township, .. 

E. Whiteland township. 

Honey brook borough,.. 
Honeybrook township, 
New Garden township. 

New London township, 
North Coventry town 

Oxford borough 

Phoenixville borough,.. 
Spring City borough, . . . 
Tredyffrin township, .. 

Uwchlan township 

Wallace township. 

Warwick township 

West Bradford town 

West Chester borough, . 

W. Pallowfield town- 

W. Grove borough 

W. Nantmeal township, 

W. Pikeland township, . 

W. Vincent township, . . 

Clarion County. I 

Clarion borough,* 

Edenburg borough, 

Poxburg, Ind 

New Bethlehem bor.,.. 
Rimersburg borough, .. 

St. Petersburg bor 

Salem township, 

Sllgo borough. 

Clearfield County. 
Beccaria township, . 

Bigler township 

Brisbin borough 

Clearfield borough 

Curwensville borough,. 

Du Bois borough 

Houtzdale borough 

Huston township 

Irvona borough,* .. 
Lawrence township, 

.Mahaffey borough, 
Norris township, 










5 ... 


4 11 

W. I. Taylor, Jermyn. 

H. M. Mendenhall, 

Parker Ford. 
John T. Gyger, West 

Hugh W. Alger, 

A. L. Eby, Oxford. 

J. T. Shoffner, Kib- 

A. M. Snyder, Berwyn. 

Warren K. Terger, 

C. B. Deehm. 
Martha K. Buyers. 
Ethel E. Webster, 

Anna H. Eves. 
H. R. Vanderslice, 

R. L. Johnson. 

D. H. Robbins. 
Thos. A. Bock. 
Irwin M. Sabold, 

M. Iva Miller, Down- 

M. Elsie Philips, Glen 

R. LeRoy Dengler, 

Martha Lindsay, Mar- 

Addison Jones. 
A. R. Bechtel, Coch- 

A. A. McCrone. 
Clyde I. Martin, 

Elma M. Philips, 

Chester Springs. 
S. L. Shanaman, Bir- 


E. M. Sweitzer. 
N. E. Heeter. 
A. F. Milford. 
Frank H. Rimer. 
R. R. Stuart. 
Elmer E. Brown. 

C. A. Middleswarth, 

John W. Rutherford. 

Fred. Wingert, Coal- 

A. L. Soofield, Madera. 

D. B. McCracken. 

E. E. Pawling. 
H. J. Barrett. 
C. E. Plasterer. 
E. O. Tobias. 

E. L. Bowman, Pen- 
J. A. Green. 

B. W. Erhard, Glen 

C B. Hanawalt. 
W. W. Eisenhart, 
Morrisdale Mines. 

•Copied from last year's report. 

No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 
















Name of Principal. 

Penn township 

Woodward township, . 

Clinton County. 
Lamar township, . . 

Lock Haven bor., . 
Mill Hall borough. 
Noyes township, . . 









Pine Creek township, 
Renovo borough 

Columbia County. 

Benton borough 

Berwick borough 

Bloomsburg borough, . 
Briar Creek township. 

Catawissa borough, 
Centralia borough. . 
Fishing Creek twp. 
Hemlock township. 

Locust township 3 

Mifflin township 

Millville borough, ... 
Orangeville borough. 
Roaring Creek twp., 

Scott township 

Stillwater borough, . 
Sugarloaf township, . 
W. Berwick borough, 

Bloomfield township, . . 

Cambridge Springs bor.. 
Cent ervi lie borough, .. 
Cochranton borough, .. 
Conneautville borough, 

Conneaut Lake bor 

E. Mead township 

3. Fallowfleld twp., 

Geneva borough. .. 
Hayfield township, 

Hydetown borough, • 
Linesvjlle borough, . 

Meadville city 

North Shenango twp. 

Randolph township., 

Saegertown borough, 
Sprlngboro township. 
Summit township, . . 

Titusville borough. . 
Townville borough, . 
Venango borough. .. 
Wayne township, ... 











































' 59 




30! 4 
303 I 7 : 
3( 4 













1 iJ K 

E. S. Bream, Gettys- 

B. F. Rinehart, W. 

D. "Walter Steckbeck, 
Salona . 

A. A. Killian. 

B. J. Bowers. 

W. I. Fechman, West- 
W. G. Pearson, Avis. 
Oden C. Gortner. 

E. E. Beare. 
.T. W. Snyder. 
L. P. Sterner. 
Elbert A. Roberts. 


.T. Morris Roberts. 

D. H. Krise. 

Gerdon Baker. 

Emma Hause, Jersey- 

Rimber H. Knorr, 

F. A. Berkenstock. 
Luther B. Rissel. 
D. J. Snider. 

Tra Cherrington, Mill 

R. V. Wolfe, Hunt- 
ington Mills. 

Anna Hess. 

A S. Fritz. Jamison. 

H. R. Snyder. 

H. IT. Bently, Beaver 

■R. W. Anderson, 

Union Citv. 
W. T>. T.ew's 
Grace E. Clark. 
Geo. W. Zann. 
T, G. Bennett, 
ciinton M. D'ckey. 
rp r. Cheeseman. 

G. T. Minnis, Ken- 

'Walter D. Kinnev. 
John R. Giblyn. 

r> O. Honkins. 
F. A. McK^lvey. 
E R. Haxton. 
A B McCain. 

coner. N. T. 
E. S. Stover. 



P M. Woodward. 
Ir'vin N. Salisbury. 
Geo. 1j. Hayes, Har- 

H. r>. Hopkins. 
T. E. Kingslev. 
Ogden C. Bole. 
F L. Smith. Millers 


•Copied from last year's report. 



Off. Doc. 

ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 


















Name of Principal. 

Cumberland County. 

Carlisle borough 4 

E. Pennsboro twp 3 

Mechanicsburg- bor.,* ..| 4 

Mount Holly Springs i 4 


New Cumberland bor., 1 3 

Newton township, ] 3 

Newville borough, 
Penn township, .. 

Shippensburg borough, . 
South Middleton twp.,. 

Dauphin County. 
Berrysburg borough, .. 
Dauphin borough 

Derry township, 

Elizabethville borough, 

Gratz boroflgh, 

Halifax borough 

Harrisburg city, | 

Harrisburg Technical,.. 
Hummeistown borough, ' 

Lykens borough ' 

Middletown borough, .. 
Millersburg borough, .. 

Penbrook borough 

Royalton borough 

Steelton borough, 

Uniontown borough, .. 

Wiconisco township, .. 
Williams township 

Delaware County. 

Chester city, 

Darby borough 

Lansdowne borough, .. 

Media borough 

Providence, Nether, 

Radnor township 

Ridley Park borough, .. 
Swarthmore borough, . . 

Upland borough 

Upper Chichester twp.,. 





































































Upper Darby twp., 1 3 

Upper Providence twp., ! 2 

Elk County. 
Benezette township. 
Fox township 

Horton township, 

Johnsonhurg borough, . 
Jones township, 





















3 I 8 

3 j 

Millstone township 

Ridgway borough 

Ride-way township 

St. Mary's borough. .. 
Spring Creek township, 

2(6 3S1 19 44 

50 77 .... fi 

52 77 2 9 

32 €3 3 5 

19 24 2 6 























25 .... 4 4 

74 4 1 9 13 

29 5 5 10 

8 12 3 

S. C. Beitzel. 

John Hetrick, W. 

A. B. Hess. 
George H. Whetstone. 

G. P. Klugh. 

R. E. McPherson, New 

J. I. Martin. 
Jane H. McCuUough, 

Lees X Roads. 
Edwin R. Brunyate. 
A. J. Dohner, Boiling 


Thomas Matterness, 

A. R. Gilbert. 

J. T. Hoitman. 

P. L. Hocker. 

W. S. Steele. 

C. B. Eager. 

J. H. Garbrick. 

W. M. Tengst. 

L. B. Nye. 

J. F. Adams. 

J. W. McGarvey. 

R. D. Reider, Middle- 

Chas. S. Davis. 

C. L. Grimm, Pillow. 

14 Thos. S. Cole. 
2 1 Chas. P. Sweeny. 
5;H. Emilie Groce. 
Leon H. Watters. 
W. Reid Kirkland, 

G. H. Wilson, Wayne. 
George G. Chambers. 
Wm. G. Cleaver. 

A. P. K. Krout. 
Anna L. Hannum, 

Elizabeth D. Turner, 

Margaret McCandless, 


C. M. Rosenberry. 
C. M. Sullivan, Nor- 
wood. N. Y. 
I. H. Cloos, Brockport. 

G. B. Gerberich. 
E. S. Hopkins, Wil- 
P. A. Noll. Pillow. 
W. M. Peirce. 

B. H. Rhinesmith. 
.T. J. Tjynch. 
M. A. Hallahan, Port- 
land Mills. 

♦Copied from last year's report. 

No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4. 1906. 



















Name of Principal, 

Erie County. 
Albion borough, . . 

Corry city 

E. Mill Creek twp. 

E. Springfield borough 
Edinboro borough,* .. 
Elk Creek township, 

Erie city 

Fairview borough, . 
Fairview township, 

Girard borough, . 
Girard township. 

Greenfield township, 
Harbor Creek township 
McKean township,* . 
Middleboro borough, . 

Mill Creek township. 

Mill Village borough 
North East borough. 

Platea borough 

South Mill Creek twp 
Springfield township. 


















Union City borough, 
Venango township, .. 

Washington township, 

Waterford borough, .. 
Wattsburg borough, . 

Fayette County. 
Connellsville borough, . 

Dunbar township 

Perry township 

North Union township, , 

Uniontown borough. 

Forest County. 
Jenks township 

Tionesta borough 

Franklin County. 
Chambersburg borough, 
Greencastle borough, .. 
Mercersburg borough, . 

Metal township 

Quincy township 

Waynesboro borough... 

Fulton County. 
McConnellsburg bor. , . . 
Wells township, 

Greene County. 
Waynesburg borough, 

Huntingdon County. 
Alexander borough, 
Huntingdon borough, 
Mapleton Depot bor., 
Mt Union borough, 
Orbisonia borough. . 
Petersburg borough, 
Spruce Creek township 











































































































1 2 





























4 6 
10 12 






























F. A. Shaw. 
Mary L. Breene. 

A. G. Weidler, Erie, 
229 E. 17th. 

W. N. Strawbridge. 

J. F. McArthur. 

George R. Mcintosh, 
Lundys Lane. 

John C. Diehl. 

Wm. R. .Lingo. 

R. R. Weigel, Mc- 

C. F. Armour. 

Helen A. Selinger, N. 

Mary O. Davis. 

H. M. Schabacker. 

M. Agnes Daley. 

M. Agnes Daley, Mc- 

H. J. McCreary, W. 

B. L. Dearing. 
I. H. Russell. 
Chauncey Ferguson. 
M. B. Kitts, Erie. 
Robert B. Proudflt, W. 


S. C. Humus. 

L. M. Blakely, Watts- 

Harry Gibson, Edin- 

E. M. Mixer. 

G. B. Jones. 

J. P. Wiley. 
R. K. Smith, Dawson. 
T. H. Means, Percy. 
J. B. Snyder, Perry- 

Ella Peach. 

G. W. Mitchell, 

J. O. Corson. 

W. F. Zumbro. 
L. E. Smith. 
Garry C. Myers. 
J. T. Ruhl, Carlisle. 
G. Chas. Clever. 
J. F. Newman. 

Emery Thomas. 

W. D. Morton, 


Geo. F. Martin. 

Ralph C. Gardner. 

E. S. Gerhard. 

R. F. Beatty. 

S. W. Gramley. 

W. A. Lausons. 

J. F. Weidenhammer. 

V. B. Lefier. 

♦Copied from last year's report. 



Off. Doc. 

ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 

Indiana County. 
Blairsville borough, .. 
Saltsburg borough, ... 

Jefferson County. 

Big Run borough 2 

Brockwayville borough, 
BrookviUe borough, ... 3 

Corsica borough 

Eldred township 

Falls Creek borough,. 
Punxsutawney borough, 4 
Reynoldsville borough, 
Snyder township, : 2 7 

Summerville borough,..' 2 7 
Washington township, 

.Tuniata County. 
Mifnintown borough, 
Patterson boi-Btigh, ...! 3 

1 i 
Lackawanna County. I 

Archbald borough ' 2 

Blakely borough, | 3 

Carbondale city ' 4 

Dalton borough i 2 

Dickson City borough, . 2 

Dunmore borough ' 4 

Jermyn borough,* 3 

Lackawanna township,. 2 

Madison township, j 3 

Mayfield borough 2 

Moosio borough. 2 

Olyphant borough, 2 

Scranton city 4 

Scranton Technical, .-4 

S. Abington township,.' 3 i 8 

Throop borough 2 i 9 

Waverly borough '3 8 

Winton borough , 2 j 8 

Lancaster County. | 

Bart township j 3 I 7 

Christiana borough 3 8 

Columbia borough ' 3 ! 9 

Conoy township ] 3 1 7 

Denver borough 

Drumore township. . 
E. Donegal township, 

E. Earl township 

Elizabethtown borough, 

Ephrata borough. 

Fulton township, 

Lancaster, Boys 

Lancaster, Girls 

Lititz borough 

Little Britain township. 

Manheim borough 

Marietta borough 

Mount Joy borough, .. 
Paradise township 

Quarryville borough, .. 




















Name of Principal. 






















! m 




'i 2 














i 13 


1 16 






































. . . i 










































































3. Jackson. 

C. E. Wilson. 

Margaret Earia Mit- 

J. G. McNulty. 

L. M. Jones, Sigel. 

Chas. W. Shaffer. 

A. M. Hammers. 

C. J. Scott. 

J. F. Gibson, Brock- 

C. B. Carrier. 

W. M. Jones, Rock- 

W. C. Donnelly. 
Clair N. Graybill. 

W A. Kelley. 

H. B. Anthony, Peck- 
D. Bryden. 

C. B. Hauyen, Jr. 

James P. Wilson. 

C. F. Hoban. 

Ralph M. Archibald. 

Thomas P. Joyce, 

W. E. Brown, Mos- 

J. R. Miller. 

James J. Powell. 

Thos. F. Hanahue. 

Albert H. TVells. 

Ronald P. Gleason. 

F. H. Greene, Clark's 

John J. O'Hara. 

Ralph Wood. 

John J. Judge, Jes- 

Alvin P. Wenger. 

James D. Arnold. 

Mary Y. Welsh. 

H. S. Brinser, Bain- 

O n. Fogel.sanger. 

Ira R. Kraybill. 

A. S. Longehecker, 
May town. 

.In cob Tanger, 

John F. Kob. 

H. E. Gehman. 

Chas. E. Workman. 
Peters Creek. 

A. E Kraybill. 
E M. Sparlin. 

a. Herman Goetz. 
John S. Simons. 

B. P. He'ges. 
John H. Shenok. 
Geo. E. Mark- 

I. S. Simons. Leaman 
' Place. 
H. D. Weller. 


*Copied from last year's report. 

No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 





















Name of Principal. 

Strasburg borough 3 

W. Earl township, ; 3 

Lawrence County. 

Ellwood City borough, .i 4 

Enon Valley borough,..! 4 

Hickory township, ..... 3 

New Castle city 4 

New Wilmington bor.,. 2 

N. Beaver township, .. 4 

Pulaski township • 3 

Scott township, 4 

Slippery Rock twp., ..I 3 

l.,ebanon County. 

Cornwall township, 3 

Heidelberg township, . . 2 

Jackson township 3 

I^ebanon city 4 

North Annville twp 2 

South Annville twp., .. 2 

VV. Cornwall township, . 3 

Lehigh County. 

Allentown city, 3 

Catasauqua borough. .. 2 

Coopersburg borough,.. 2 

<:oi)lay borough, 2 

Smaus borough 2 

Fountain Hill borough, 2 

Hokendauqua, Ind., .. 2 

Salirturg township, ... 2 

Slatiijgton borough, ... 4 

White Hall township,.. 2 

I.uzerne County. 

Ashley borough, 3 

Avoca borough 3 

Dorroncet-Dn borough,.. 3 

Duryea borough 4 

Edwardsville borough,. 3 

Exeter borough 2 

Pairview township 2 

Freeland borough 4 

Hanover township 3 

Hazle township 4 

HazJeton city, 4 

Kingston borough 3 

Luzerne borough 3 

Nanticoke borough 4 

Nescopeck borough 3 

Newport township 3 

Parsons borough 2 

E. Plymouth twp 4 

Shickshinny borough, ..3 

W. Pittston borough, .. 4 

W. Wyoming borough..; 2 

White Haven borough,. 3 

Wilkes-Barre city : 4 

Wyoming borough, _. ..; 3 

Lycoming County. '■ 

Brown township 1 3 















5 7 











4 6 
2 .*... 

....| 1 





16 15 
2 4 




2 .... 

2 1 
8 3 




11 13 

2 4 

Dotter, Ann- 

Rachael Bean. 
Roy S. McCulloch, 

C. W. Cubbison. 

J. R. Wright. 

Wilson V. Grove. 

G. A. Dickson. 

S. K. Cunningham. 

.J. L. Hazelett, Mt. 

W. C Anderson. 
W. R. Walton, New 

Ralph H. Gardner, 
' Rose Point. 

A. P. Weaver. 

Alvin Binher. 

P. L. Reber. 

L. I. Loveland. 

H. M. B. Lehn, Ann- 

C. G. 

R. P. 

J. H. Schwartz. 

H. J. Reinhard. 

S. M. Smyser. 

W. E. Musselman. 

E: Elmer S^nsenig. 

Chas. W. Fourl. 

Gus E. Oswald. 

M. J. Wertman, S. 

Henrv D. Andreas. 
P. H. Breinig, E. 


Geo. W Houck. 
M. J. Tnnle. 
David Wiant. 
F. J. Regan. 
.Tames O. Herman. 

E. J. Sullivan. Wil- 

O. D. Coughlin, Moun- 
tain Top. 
Thos. M. Farquhar. 

F. W. Nyhart, Wilkes- 

M. W. Garrette, Haz- 

J. Donald Geist. 

Geo. E. Evans. 

T. G. Osborne. 

A. P. Diffendafer. 

Chas. A. Goss. 

Geo. "W. Coxe, Wa- 

John C. Hart. 

D J. Cray. Wilkes- 

Harry M. Pers'ng. 

L. P. Bierlv. 227 Del. 
ave., Pittston. 

Willnrd Alliner. 

M. G. Read'nger. 

J. P. Breidinger. 

R. W. Williams. 



Off. Doc. 

ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 




























Name of Principal. 

Hughesville borough, . . 
Jersey Shore borough,.. 

Mclntyre township 

Montgomery borough, . 
Montoursville borough, . 

Muncy borough, 

Picture Rocks borough, 
S. Williamsport bor., .. 
Williamsport city 

McKean County. 

Bradford city, 

Eldred borough, ... 
Foster township, ... 

Kane borough 

Mt. Jewitt borough, 
Port Allegheny bor. 
Smethport borough, . 

Mercer County. 
Greenville borough, . 
Grove City borough, 
Jamestown borough, 
Lackawannock twp.. 

Mercer borough 

Sandy Lake borough, 

Sharon borough 

Stoneboro borough, . 

Mifflin County. 
Armagh township. 

Brown township, 4 

McVeytown borough, 
Menno township,* . 

Union township, 

Monroe County. 
Coolbaugh township, , 

E. Stroudsburg bor.,. 

Montgomery County. 
Abington township, .. 

Ambler borough , 

Bridgeport borough, ., 
Cheltenham township 
Collegeville borough, , 
Conshohocken borough, 
E. Greenville borough 
Hatfield borough, ... 
Jenkintown borough, 
Lansdale borough, . . . 
Lower Merion twp., . 

Moreland township, . 
Narberth borough, ... 
Norristown borough, 
N. Wales borough, .. 
Pennsburg borough, .. 
Plymouth township, . 

Pottstown borough, . . 
Royersford borough, . 
Souderton borough, .. 
Upper Gwynedd twp., 





























































103 156 

311 49 

78 ; 114 

48 81 




























































34 .... 

24' 1: 

19 32 3 5 8 

15 31 2 3 5 

89 159 2 11 13 

19 23 1 7 i 8 

11 21 
3 3 

3' 6 

3 3 

5 I 8 

2 8 

10 I 8 

2! 5 

6; 14 

2 4 

3 6 
2 ! 3 

12; 15 

10 1 15 


2 .... 

1 .... 

J. G. Dundore. 
H. H. Weber. 
J. J. Behney. 
W. E. Schnee. 
W. A. Kohler. 
Harris A. Spotts. 
Geo. A. Ferrell. 
Chester B. Penn. 
P. M. Bullard. 

M. D. Morris. 

C. W. Lillibridge. 

Bert Montgomery, 

Foster City. 
John A. Yanny. 
H. W. Willier. 
H. M. Wilson. 
T. T. Allen. 

J. J. Palmer. 

E. B. Smathers. 
Wm. D. Gamble. 

F. Judson Sewall, New 

Wm. D. Gamble. 
Chas. L. Bartz. 
O. W. Raney. 
Malcolm M. Simons. 

Geo. T. Cooper, Lewis- 

Raymond M. Freed, 

M. C. Swigart. 

S. Lena Detweller, 

C. E. Roundabush 

Jacob Hill, 

R. M. Van Horn 

E. L. Fiack. 
Warren R. Rahn. 
W. W. Lehman. 
M. T. Ziegler. 
Bertlia Moser. 
E. B. Ziegler. 
A. W. Zerlee. 
C. C. Berger. 
Wilmer K. Grnff. 
H. S. Gottshall. 
Chas. W. Hobbs, 

Harry H. Fox. 
Gerald Gordon. 

A. D. Eisenhower. 

B. A. Kline. 
M. N. Huttel. 

W. R. Hartzell, Nor- 

W. E. Pollison. 

J. L. Eisenbeig. 

M. N. Huttel. 

Harry E. Barndt, 
West Pointi 


*CopIed from last year's report. 

No. 6. 



ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 



















Name of Principal. 

W. Conshohoclien bor 
W. Pottsgrove twp., 
Wliitpain townsliip, 

Montour County. 
Danville borough, ... 

Northampton County 
Alliance borough. 

Bangor borough, ... 
Bethlehem borough, 

Easton city^ 

E Bangor borough, 
Hellertown borough, 
Lehigh township, ... 

Nazareth borough. 
Pen Argyl borough 
Portland borough, 
Saucon, Lower, twp., 

S. Bethlehem borough, 

Northumberland Cou'y. 
Coal township 

Zerbe township 

Perry County. 
Liverpool borough, . 
Marysville borough, 
Millerstown borough, 
Newport borough, .. 

Philadelphia County 
Central Man. Train., 

N. E. Man. Train., 

N. E. Cor. Broad and 

Green, Boys. 

Commercial, Girls 

17th & Spring Garden 

Sts., Girls. 

Pike County. 
Delaware township, ... 

Milford. Ind. 

Westfall township,* ... 

Potter County. 

Austin borough 

Coudersport borough, .. 



















10 I 15 

9 22 38 60 1 

9 ' 15 i 20 35; 2 

10 11: 6 17 1....; 

142 1 U HI 22 

Delaware township, ..2 7 

E. Chillisquaque twp.,. 3 8 

McEwensville borough, ... 7 

Milton borough, 4 9 

Mt. Carmel borough,.. 3 9 

Northumberland bor.,.. 4 9 

Ralpho township 3 7 

Shamokin borough, ... 4 9 

Sunbury borough 4 9 

Turbotville borough, ..4 8 

Watsontown borough, . 4 8 

West Chillisquaque twp. 3 7 

8 10 

8 7 

8 ; 17 

81/2 25 

10 648 

10 828 

10 2,35o' 

68 7 9 
22 1 1 
15 1 2 


125 10 14 
9 111 


9 11 

648 119 .... 119 

828 158 .... 158 
2,350 187 ... I 187 

10 I , 1,613 1,613 .... 299 299 

10 2,307 2,307 .... 250 250 

1; Titus J. Steltz. 
IjE. F. Wade, Stowe. 
■ W. D. Beyer, Blue 

John W. Taylor. 

W. D. Landis, Sieg- 

R. S. Wagner. 

J. B. Geissingcr. 

Wm. A. .Tones. 

William S. Lesh. 

A. I. Reinhard. 

Q. A. Kuehner, Wal- 

Howard E. Shimer. 

Nicholas M. Male. 

Ira L. Kinney. 

Howard Mitman, Hel- 

M. Alton Richards. 

S. C. Tocum, Sha- 

Geo. F. Bailets, Mif- 

Charles R. Myers, 

H. E. Fegley. 

A. B. Wallize. 

C. D. Oberdorf. 

Lindley H. Dennis. 

Eugene K. Richard, 

.T. W. Alexander. 

H. N. ron.ser. 

R. E. Shannon, Jr. 

W. L. Leopold. 

S. Irvine Shortess, 

Charles I. Boyer. 

F. A. Hamilton. 
ID. A. Kline. 

1 Jesse F. Troutman. 

2 A. L. Eby. 

2i|Wm. L. Sayre, 17th & 

."tt^ood Sts. 
35 Andrew J. Morrison. 

71 Robert Elis Thompson. 

47 Emilv L. Graham. 
83 W. W. Birdsall. 

? Allen W. Jones, I 

man's Ferry. 
1;A. W. Marvin. 
1 R. Lee Saunders. 

•Copied from last year's report. 

34_6_1906 ■ 



Off. Doc. 


ENDING JUNE 4, 1906. 
















Name of Principal. 

Davidson township, ... 

Forksville boroiig-h. .. 
Hills Grove township, 
La Porte borough 

Susauehanna Tounty. 
Brooklyn township, ... 

Harford township 

Herrick township 

Montrose borough 

Rprinfiville township 
Susquehanna borough. 
Thompson borough, ... 

Tioga rounty. 
Bloss township 

Blossburg borough, 
Elkland borough, , 

Galeton borough j 3 i 9 18 

Harrison township ] 4 ! 8 27 

Lewisville borough, ..I 4 I 81/2 18 

Oswayo borough 2 8 2 

Roulette township 3 8 10 

Stewardson township, .48 28 

Scliuylkill County. 

Ashland borough, ^3 | 9 35 

Auburn borough, 3,9 7 

Branch township 3 10 21 1 


Cass township 2 10 j 9 

Cressona borough 3 9 I 18 

Delano township 3 9 | 14 

Frackville borough, ... 4 ; 9 , 22 

Frailey township 4 9 

I I 

Glrardville borough, ... 3 ; 9 27 

Gordon borough 3 i 9 19 

Hegins township 4 7 

Mahanoy City bor 4 9 ! 64 

Mlnersville borough, ... 4 9 • 35 

Orwigsburg borough, ..4 9 I 22 

Pinegrove borough, ... 4 9 ! 18 

Port Carbon borough,.. 4 9 12 

Porter township 3 9 9 

Pottsvllle borough 4 10 80 

Rahn township 3 10 1 15 

Shenandoah borough, ..:4 9 | 44 

Tamaqua borough :4 %Vz\ 32 

Tower City borough, .. 1 4 9 24 

Tremont borough 4 9 24 

Union township, 3 7 20 

Yorkville borough 3 10 26 

Snyder County. 
Middleburg borough, .. 4 
Selinsgrove borough. .. 4 
Washington township, . 2 

Somerset County. 
Myersdale borough, 

Sullivan County. 
Therry township, ... 
Colley township 





























































































Leon D. Taggart. 

R. O. Weffling, Har- 
rison Valley. 

Delbert E. Hall, Uly- 

J. Milton Lord. 

A. B. Benn. 

J. Widdowson, Cross 

T. E. Garber. 

C. A. Ritter. 

M. "W. Metzger, Lie- 

M. C. Butler, Mlners- 

J. E. Sones. 

J. M. Schrope. 

Jane Dingle. 

E. J. Henninger. 

P. H. Monaghan. 

N. M Frank. 

Edward W. Taylor. 

Chas. E. Hower. 

W. G. Jones. 

P. W. M. Pressel. 

J. J. Kehler, Jr. 

6. 'W. Channel!. 

H. M. Rickert, Rein- 

S. A. Thurlow. 

Joseph Daley. 

L. B. Edwards. 

J. F. Derr. 

E. B. Jenkyn. 

Ira S, Wolcott. 

I. G. Miller, 

M. F. Fitzpatrick. 


T. A. Stetler. 
S. M. Smyser. 
Geo. F. Dunkleberger, 

F. G. Masters. 

Jas. A. Bowles. 
Harry R. Henning, 

.T. H. Ballentine, 

D. Merritt Fliok. 
.T. Robert Molyne^iux. 
Francis F. Shoemaker. 

E. B. B