3 Dlfl Dlfc,
i ^^' VXKTS .^ orl H
PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION, 1867.
REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES COMMISSIONERS.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS,
CLASSES TWENTY-SEVEN TO THIRTY-NINE
UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER.
GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE.
The United States Commissioners to the Paris Exposition of 1867
appointed a committee consisting of Professor J. Lawrence Smith, Doc-
tor W. E. Johnston, and myself, to report on the Products of Chemistry,
on the Preparation of Food, and upon Clothing.
It was not found convenient to pursue this labor jointly, and the report
on chemicals was undertaken by Commissioner Smith, the report on food
by Commissioner Johnston, and that upon clothing was left to the under-
Without any special qualifications for this work derived from my
habitual pursuits, or any opportunity for preparation, I occupied myself
with the collection of materials and memoranda for the report. Among
the more important of these materials I mention the valuable reports in
French upon some .of the classes by members of the International Jury,
from which translations have been freely made. With these reports,
and with the excellent assistance I was able to procure, I have completed
the task which fell to me, and now submit the result to the Department
with the hope that it may be found of some practical interest and value.
United States Commissioner.
CHANGES IN THE FASHION OF WEARING APPAREL COSTUMES.
The variety of objects, included under the head of clothing History of the changes in
clothing Laws enacted to prevent extravagance in dress Progress of fashion in
various countries Causes of changes in fashions The motive of gain Rapid spread
of new modes due to increased facilities of communication Esthetic influences of
dress Paris the great center of modern fashions Science and industry stimulated
by changes in fashion Exhibition of specimens of costumes of various races His-
torical and fancy costumes Influence of costumes upon the habits of the people
The costumes of various countries. pp. 7-25.
MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING.
Cotton fabrics from France, Great Britain, and other countries Cotton manufacture
in the United States Linen and linen fabrics ; enormous consumption of, in France
Various styles of linen goods shown in the French section Relative importance of
the linen manufacture in various countries Flax and linen in Italy Manufacture of
wool and worsted The British artizans on worsted and mixed textile fabrics Silk
as a material for clothing The silk trade of France Sericulture in France General
observations upon the silk industry of various countries Ribbons. pp. 27-44.
THE INDUSTRY OF READY-MADE CLOTHING.
The artistic excellence of wearing apparel produced in Paris Statistics of the manu-
facture in France The tailoring trade in France Ready-made clothing for women
The seamstresses' art in Paris The manufacture of hats for men and women Cork
hats Centers of the hat trade in France, and statistics of the manufacture Boots
and shoes Manufacture of clothing in the United States Head-dresses for ladies
Artificial flowers. pp. 45-59.
LACES, FANS, GLOVES, ETC.
The manufacture of rare and costly lace by hand Notices of specially interesting
exhibitions of lace Machine-made laces Wages, conditions, and divisions of
labor Education of lace-makers The British artisans upon lace Manufacture of
lace in various countries Embroidery Manufacture of fans Manufacture of gloves
in France, England, and other countries Elastic tissues, suspenders, belts, garters,
and bracelets. pp. 61-78.
6 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
INFLUENCE OF CLOTHING UPON HEALTH.
The influence of woolen clothing Effects of woolens upon the skin Shaggy woolen
goods Protection afforded by woolens from the effects of sudden changes of temper-
ature Woolens should be worn at night Evil effects of clothing impervious to air.
CHANGES IN THE FASHION OF CLOTHING COS-
THE VARIETY OF OBJECTS INCLUDED UNDER THE HEAD OF CLOTHING HISTORY OF THE
CHANGES IN CLOTHING LAWS ENACTED TO PREVENT EXTRAVAGANCE IN DRESS PRO-
GRESS OF FASHIONS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES CAUSES OF CHANGES IN FASHIONS THE
MOTIVE OF GAIN EAPID SPREAD OF NEW MODES DUE TO INCREASED FACILITIES OF
COMMUNICATION ESTHETIC INFLUENCES OF DRESS PARIS THE GREAT CENTER OF
MODERN FASHIONS SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY STIMULATED BY CHANGES IN FASHION
EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS OF COSTUMES OF VARIOUS RACES HISTORICAL AND FANCY
COSTUMES INFLUENCE OF COSTUMES UPON THE HABITS OF THE PEOPLE THE COS-
TUMES OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
In the classification adopted by the Imperial Commission, "Clothing,
including fabrics and other objects worn on the person," were assigned
to Group IT, Classes 27 to 39.
It was obviously impossible to enter upon an exhaustive discussion
of the wide range of subjects which were here grouped together. It
was one of the most comprehensive groups in the whole Exposition,
including not only made-up clothing for both sexes, but cotton, linen,
woolen and silken fabrics ; hats, bonnets, gloves, umbrellas, articles
used in traveling, laces, and ornaments of all kinds. Special reports
upon cotton, wool and silk, as raw materials, and partly upon the manu-
factures of each, having been made by others, the present report is
confined more exclusively to clothing, and those objects which are
accessory either for comfort or ornament, and the effort has been made
to present some statistical data of general interest and application.
The number of exhibitors in these classes was considerably over one
thousand. France had two hundred and nineteen, Great Britain forty-
two, and the United States nine.
HISTOEY OF CLOTHING.
The history of clothing, it may be said, is coeval and intimately asso-
ciated with the social and political history of man ; and when the task
of setting forth intelligibly the subject of clothing, as one of the great
prime necessities of the human family, and in its economic relations to
other industries represented at the Universal Exposition, is entered
upon, it will be proper that some historical outline of the changes which
8 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
have occurred in the attire of both sexes should at the same time be
placed before the reader. lu fact, as it was intended that the Exposi-
tion should be universal, not only showing the present stage of advance-
ment in all useful productions of human industry or skill and the modes
of production throughout the world, but all of the various preceding
stages of progress, the articles, the manner of using, and the processes
of fabrication, to omit such a retrospect as that referred to would be
ignoring the spirit in which this comprehensive epitome of the pro-
ductive energies, inventive resources, and progress of the world was
In the early ages of the world dress was simple as the manners of the
people who inhabited it, being at first composed of leaves, feathers, and
the skins of animals. Gradually the inventions of tanning, spinning,
weaving and dyeing were adopted, and mankind yielded to the tempta-
tions of vanity. They abandoned the simple modes of their forefathers
and gave themselves up to the most luxurious and costly adornment
of their persons.
To such a height did this devotion to dress and finery attain, that
decrees and ordinances have from time to time been adopted by many
nations to lessen the growing evil. So great has been the passion for
dress in some periods, that revolutions have resulted from the attempted
enforcement of sumptuary laws and edicts intended for the prevention
When the Tartar conquerors of China ordered that the luxuriant
tresses of the native inhabitants should be cut off, the victims regarded
it as such an indignity that in many instances the native Chinese pre-
ferred losing their heads to submitting to the decree.
In Spain, also, violent disturbances were caused in the last century
by an attempt to prohibit the use of the capa and sombrero.
In England many efforts have, at times, been made by the governing
powers to check not only extravagance in dress, so far as richness and
splendor of materials were concerned, but also to change the cut and
style of various parts of the apparel of both sexes. Several of the
earlier monarchs attempted to restrict the length of pointed shoes, and
though fashion yielded to the sustained attacks, she revenged herself
by the introduction of shoes of such extravagant width that another
restraint was soon imposed by the royal authority.
Queen Elizabeth made many laws affecting the attire of her subjects,
though she was proverbial for her fondness of dress and the singularity
of the fashions she preferred. She compelled the peasantry to wear a
cap of a certain shape, and, probably to encourage home industry, as
well as to restrain the mania for foreign fashions which had long been
prevalent among her subjects, she ordered that this head-dress should
be of domestic wool and manufacture. She also limited the size of ruffs
and swords to be worn by her courtiers to the proportions she regarded
becoming in subjects to adopt, and appointed officers to watch for vio-
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 9
lations of the law, and to break all swords and clip all ruffles exceeding
the prescribed limit. She also entered with much detail into the regula-
tion of the costume worn at the inns of court, specifying forms, colors,
and the quantity of embroidery, to be used.
, The Turks have also in times past set their faces against the use, on
the part of Grecian ladies, of long skirts peculiar to their traditional
and classic mode, and officers have been appointed to cut off any su-
perfluous length. The Turks have established many other regulations
concerning distinctive dress, such as a monopoly to themselves of yellow
slippers, rich silk or muslin turbans, and shawls of the gayest designs
and textures, while they required their Grecian vassals to wear dark
cotton caps, the Armenians to adopt grotesque pumpkin -shaped capas,
while brimless caps, shaped like inverted flower-pots, were prescribed
for the Jews.
Of late years, however, the Turks themselves have yielded reluctant
obedience to a decree of Sultan Mahmoud, ordering that a red cloth fez
or military cap should be worn by Mussulmans in place of the calpac or
turban. This ordinance was violently opposed and protested against, and
those vho favored it had their houses fired ; and though the will of the
Sultan prevailed, the Turks have never recovered from their disgust at
the supplanting of the cherished turban so long worn by their ancestry.
Charles the Second, of England, prescribed a particular costume for
the nobility to wear, dispensing with extravagant display of gold, sil-
ver, lace, and jewels, which had distinguished the preceding period of
Gustavus, one of the kings of Sweden, prescribed a court dress for
each sex, to be worn when they were admitted to his presence.
Xapoleon the First, against much opposition and criticism, exercised
his imperial authority in the same direction ; and in times of great
political agitation, his proceedings on the subject were discussed with
much vehemence and interest in the national convention of France.
It is difficult to realize that France, the dispenser of modes and of
the most elaborate and beautiful materials and articles of dress, was in
her infancy as primitive and rude as any of the other countries of Eu-
rope in matters of costume and toilet. Skins fashioned into a form
which might be described as a tunic, with the addition in winter of a
cloak which, fastened over one shoulder, descended nearly to the
ground, and a skin cap of very simple form, constituted the dress of the
men. The women wore almost the same attire, only the tunic was
longer, and the cap triangular in shape. But even in that primitive
period, tradition says, they exhibited a marked predilection for such
personal decorations as necklaces, bracelets, rings, and chains. Ancient
statuary has been exhumed in that country, in which the figures were
dressed in tunics with long sleeves reaching to the hand, the over dress
being similar to the Roman sagum, with the addition of sleeves. On
the heads of the figures were caps resembling the Phrygian bonnet.
10 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Some variety is exhibited in the minor details of their dress. For along
period the higher classes wore long robes trimmed with ermine or other
valuable furs. The early kings of France, beginning with Clovis, wore
a tunic and a mantle resembling the Grecian chlamy.
Changes are first to be noticed in the garments which are represented
in two statues of Charlemagne. The first gives a moustache, but is
without any indication of a beard, a tunic terminating above the knees,
and a chlamy with a wide border ; fillets bound crosswise cover the
legs. The costume of the other figure consists of a garment similar to
a modern surtout. It has large broad sleeves with deep cuffs turned
back, and a square collar. It is quite remarkable that this dress is or-
namented with large round buttons, an article generally supposed to
have been unknown at so early a period.
In the manuscript illuminations of the reign of St. Louis, the princes
are portrayed in variously shaped habits. This leads to the belief that
fashion was then taking her place as an institution which was to exert
a powerful and lasting influence upon mankind.
Prince John wears hanging sleeves over the close ones of his tunic,
and he holds in his hand a glove. Another of the princes has upon his
head a cap, and wears a garment like a surtout, which shows tlie vest
underneath. Another sports a hat like some of modern form.
About the middle of the fourteenth century was a period of great
extravagance in regard to everything pertaining to the toilette. Gar-
ments were made brilliant with gold and silver, and such was the
demand for precious stones, that they became very scarce, and the price
of them advanced materially. Embroidery usually adorned the cote hardi,
the under-sleeves fitted very closely, while the upper ones were long and
narrow. Feathers were now first worn on the caps of gentlemen. The
ladies' bonnets assumed an almost endless variety of forms about this
time, and for the first time since the introduction of variable fashions,
the female head relied upon the hair, without cap, bonnet, or hood. A
large curl or plait on either side of the face, and a small spray of flowers
or jewels, constituted its only ornament. The trains of the gowns be-
came very long, and they were held up by pages.
In England, during the reign of Edward the Third, many new devices
were introduced, most of which were from foreign lands. The Monk of
Glastonbury writes, that " the Englishmen haunted so much unto the
folly of strangers, that every year they changed them in diverse shapes
and disguisings of clothing, now long, now large, now wide, now strait,
and every day clothingges new and destitute and divest from all
honesty of old arraye or good usage ; and another time to short clothes,
and so strait-waisted with full sleeves, and tapetes of surcoats and
hodes over-long and large, all so nagged and nib on every side, and all'
so shattered, and all so buttoned, that I with truth shall say, they seem
more like to tormentors or devils in their clothing and also in their
shoging [shoeing] and other array, than they seem to be like men."
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 11
In the reign of Kichard the Second, great extravagance in dress pre-
vailed, and most of the novelties of the toilette were drawn from France,
Italy, Bohemia, Poland, Spain, and Germany.
During the reign of Elizabeth, pins, ribbons, and knit silk and
worsted stockings were manufactured in London for the first time. At
the death of Elizabeth, it is stated that there were three thousand suits
in her wardrobe. The reigns of James and William and Mary were dis-
tinguished from that of their predecessor chiefly in the difference in
coiffures. Enormous hoop-skirts came into wear at this time and
remained a favorite article of dress until the nineteenth century, when
George the Fourth condemned them as cumbersome and inelegant.
From the early part of the nineteenth century, the fashions originating
in France have generally been adopted with little or no change by the
English, as well as by nearly all other civilized nations, and this seems
likely to be the case so long as the French are able to command facilities
superior to other nations in rapidity and excellence of designs, and to
retain for a long time the lead in the manufacture of silks and many
other delicate fabrics.
CAUSES OF CHANGES IX FASHIONS.
It is obvious that aside from love of ever- varying novelties on the part
of the consumers, there must be the great commercial motive of gain,
inspiring and impelling the producing classes to call for the acceptance
of new changes with as short intervals as can be tolerated ; and though
among sensible people of moderate incomes the rule seems to have been
adopted and followed of restricting purchases "to such quantities as will
last in good condition only until the usual season for the expected change,
or such material as can be made by alteration to conform to the mode,
there is a general tendency among the arbiters of fashion to make the
transition as radical as possible, in order to force a more general demand
for the new styles. One month we have coat skirts hanging near the
heels, when suddenly the decree of fashion abridges them to such a de-
gree that we seem like schoolboys in roundabouts. The same is true as
to length of waists, fullness or scantiness in the legs of pantaloons, the
forms of shoes or of hats ; and so, also, in female attire, equally extreme
and arbitrary changes occur.
It is natural that the very prosperous group of clothing industries
should be subject to occasional periods of overgrowth, especially where
they are centralized as in Paris, gathering into their service too large a
force of artists, artisans, and operatives. It is natural, also, that all of
these classes of producers should share in a desire to have as constant
and profitable occupation as they can obtain. It is noticeable that since
the general adoption of steam-power conveyance of travelers by land
and sea, the facilities of intercommunication have vastly increased the
currents of foreign travel; and thus has the spread of detailed intelligence
been quickened and made more frequent, and designs of new modes and
12 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
descriptions, samples of new materials, emanating every mouth or two
from the great centers of fashion, have been scattered like falling leaves
in every land, and thus the danger of an overstocked labor market is
lessened, and the hands trained to industry are kept supple and expert.
Matters of taste being among the highest worldly evidences of the
degree of civilization of a nation, France is naturally ambitious to main-
tain the vantage-ground ; and having got so far the advance in all the
preparatory systems of study and training, it is probable that all efforts
at competition with her in these specialties will prove futile, until the
new young republic of the West, guided by the experience of the older
nations, and having established systems of industrial and art education
and training, combining the best features of all of their prototypes of
the eastern continent, and having collected in her museums and schools
reproductions of the art treasures of Europe, shall, in maturer age, de-
velop, in connection with the material resources of silk, linen, cotton,
and every useful fiber and fleece, the originality, invention, and enter-
prise which in other branches of endeavor have become national char-
It is doubtless an experience common even to persons of taste and
Tefinement, that the impression which the mind receives, whether of ap-
proval or disapproval, of some peculiar fashion, depends upon its origin,
association, uniformity, and succession. A sudden transition, unheralded
by the journals which lend sanction and authority to every mode,
however inconsistent with all requirements of taste, or opposed to ideas
of convenience or health, and if imitated by a lady unknown to what are
considered leading fashionable circles, would only excite merriment on
account of its singularity ; while if the same change had originated among
those upon whom the fashionable world had been accustomed to look as
the legitimate inventors and dispensers of modes, and had been simul-
taneously ushered in and adopted by those who, being on the alert, and
possessing wealth, are regarded as leaders of fashion, then, although
some faint protests and incredulity may be at first expressed, the new
style rapidly gains adherents, and suddenly the invasion is complete.
From this state of things arises the significance of the phrase in fash-
ionable parlance of the " air distingue." All modes, however bizarre and
absurd they may seem at first observation, having once passed through
this ordeal, become, either suddenly or gradually, invested with the
quality which that phrase is intended to describe. The gravity with
which the fair wearers move about, involved in combinations and forms
which distort or caricature nature's graceful proportions, unconscious,
apparently, of any departure from her laws, leads us to the inquiry
whether the implicit obedience yielded to the decrees of fashion, without
appeal to reason and judgment, has not, even in modern times, been too
much like an abject submission to a despotism which is not devoid of
mischievous consequences; whether some code of principles cannot be
established by which the canons of pure taste and the requirements of
CLOTHINO AND WOVEN FABRICS. 13
symmetry in form and harmony of color shall be the first essentials ot
the air distingue, and that any behest of fashion which ignores these
shall fall as a dead letter from the moment of its utterance.
Some of the whims of fashion have been so inopportune as even to
affect injuriously the health of myriads of her followers, of both sexes.
A love of dress, if indulged by a cultivated intelligence without over-
taxing the pecuniary resources of the individual, far from injuring or
obscuring any mental qualities, may, by the constant appeal to the
judgment and taste, especially in woman, tend to develope those quali-
ties of the mind in the wearer, as well as in that of the producer, which
exercise a refining influence upon character. In familiarizing the mind
extensively with combinations the essentials of which are invention,
grace, harmony of color and design, and elegance of material, texture,
and workmanship, all of which are to enter into a harmonious combina-
tion with the most graceful and beautiful of objects, the female form,
thus presenting an ensemble which shall fulfill the highest demands of
taste, every kindred esthetic faculty is drawn into activity, and by the
quickened and refined perceptions, what is discordant, bizarre, and gro-
tesque in prevailing modes is eliminated and discarded.
PAEIS THE GEEAT CEXTEE OF MODEEN FASHIONS.
The establishment of Paris as the central authority and oracle of
fashion for the civilized world has been by no means the result of acci-
dent, nor has it been devoid of profound political significance and subtle
Owing to the superior means adopted for retaining the ascendency
early acquired in matters of design and taste, France has thus far suc-
cessfully maintained that position, and her experience has proved that
even much abused fashion is not without its healthful influence on the
substantial utilitarian progress of mankind. This is easily realized
when we consider what are the studies essential for qualifying the arti-
san and laborer to originate and carry out designs fulfilling the require-
ments of critical taste in all the branches of production which supply
to the world articles for the adornment as well as the comfort and health
of the person, articles for domestic use in dwellings, combining utility
with the beauty and grace which artistic genius or cultivation can
impart, articles of vertu and of decorative art, produced chiefly as lux-
uries for the wealthy, and, finally, works involving a mastery of the
highest principles of art, such as design, painting, and sculpture. These
studies, pursued in the best organized methods, with access to the gal-
leries of paintings and sculpture, and to the best examples of every art
winch appeals to the esthetic sense, inevitably carry the intelligent
student into wider and wider fields of information, enlarging the opera-
tion of his mental organization, and expanding his view far beyond
the narrow limits of the special object of his pursuit.
The cumulative results of the application of a people to particular
departments of productive industry, with the powerful co-operation of
14 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
science and art, is illustrated in the case of France, and she is confes-
sedly the leading nation in the respects to which reference has just been
made. She has elevated the standard of quality in those branches to
which she has given her energies and her science, and has, by exempli-
fying the benefits of her system, excited a spirit of emulation among
the leading nations which will greatly promote the progress of all.
But in another view the apparent frivolities and rapid mutations of
fashion contribute something real and substantial to the well-being of
society, if restrained within such reasonable limits that the benefits are
not counterbalanced by the extravagance or wastefulness which too fre-
quent changes involve : for they give constant employment to thous-
ands of industrious hands, stimulate the inventive faculties and inspire
the student and savant with new motives for penetrating more deeply
into the mysteries of nature, and revealing latent properties and powers,
which, when called into action, may surpass all preceding discoveries.
A striking instance of this character may be mentioned here :
In the year 1856 one of the great chemical discoveries was made
which from time to time have so signally vindicated the claims of
science to the first rank as a guiding spirit to productive industry. It
was the discovery of the aniline colors derived from coal tar, and
generally classed under the heads of violets, reds, blues, greens, blacks,
yellows, &c., and giving a variety of beautiful secondary combinations.
Manufacturers of textile fabrics have thus been furnished with a series
of colors of the most brilliant and varied hues.
From the very interesting and instructive report of Mr. John L.
Hayes on wools, accompanying this series, 1 take the liberty of making
the following extract, which sums up the merits of these discoveries in
a most eloquent and appreciative manner :
" The use of these colors gives a marked character to the dyed tissues
of the present age. The great change effected by them was remark-
ably illustrated at the Exposition by a display of parallel series of
wools dyed by the ancient and the new aniline processes. The aniline
hues were predominant in the richly colored fabrics of the Exposition,
and, adopting the figure of Colbert, that i color is the soul of tissues,
without which the body could hardly exist/ we might say that these
colors fix the psychological character of the fabrics of the present day.
Among the wonders of modern science, what is stranger than this, that
the gigantic plants buried in the coal measures of the ancient world are
made to bloom with all the tints of the primeval flowers upon the tissues
of modern industry f"
EXHIBITION OF COSTUMES.
SPECIMENS OF POPULAR COSTUMES.
Class 92 was devoted to specimens of popular costumes of different
countries in methodical collections, showing the costumes of both sexes
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 15
of all ages and those most characteristic of each country. This plan
was realized to a great extent, especially in the Eussian, Swedish, and
Norwegian sections, where, in promenading, the visitor was often startled
by the life-like figures of peasants and of interior tribes. In tte Chilian
exhibition the costume of the miners of that country was shown in accu-
rate detail, by the life-size figures standing by the side of the heaps of
copper aud silver ores sent from the mines of the Andes.
But perhaps the most striking feature of the occasion, disconnected
with classifications of the Exposition, was the extensive display of cos-
tumes upon the persons of many of the visitors and some of the attend-
ants at the various sections. Of the male delegation there were Orientals
in bright colors and flowing draperies, and people from the Western
countries in garments of more somber material and more formal cut.
There were Greeks and barbarians of the European world, and natives
of the Celestial Empire, and their more flowery Japanese neighbors ;
and here and there, as strangely picturesque as any, peasants in ante-
revolutionary costume, still preserved, coming from remote side vil-
lages of Napoleon's home provinces.
Most noticeable on the female side- were the waiting girls at the differ-
ent national shops, restaurants, and beer-houses, sharp-eyed for business,
and ornately decked in the highest style of their quaint local modes.
HISTORICAL AND FANCY COSTUMES.
A few choice specimens of historical and fancy costumes for both
sexes were exhibited by Madame Delphine Baron, one of the eminent
practitioners in the art of costuming, which is carried to so great per-
fection in Paris. Its successful practice in the higher grades requires
no inconsiderable historical study, and calls in play really artistic qual-
ities. Xot unfrequently the dancer at a carnival ball carries on his back
the work of a distinguished master.
The costumes in Don Juan d'Autriche, when that play was revived at
the Theatre Francais a few years ago, were said at the time to be com-
posed or corrected by Meissonier ; those for Eistori's Medea, when she
first appeared in Paris, by A?y Scheffer ; those of Sardori's Don Qui-
xote, and of Offenbach's buffo opera Ste. Genevieve de Brabant, by Gus-
tave Dore. The late excellent historian, Bouviere, himself a painter as
well, in his Faust and Hamlet, followed in pose and apparel the mas-
terly illustrations of Delacroix much more closely than the translators
permitted him to follow the text of Gothe and Shakspeare.
POPULAE COSTUMES OF DIFFEEE^T COUNTEIES.
ABSTRACT OF A REVIEW OF CLASS 92. 1
Costume is sometimes, in its material and form, directly regulated by
climate, as in the hyperborean regions of Lapland, Siberia, and Finland r
1 Translated and condensed from the report of M. Armand-Dumaresq in the Rapport du Jury Inter-
16 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Alaska and Greenland, which are located far from the great commercial
centers. A glance at the Ostiaks, Yakouts, and Aleutians will show
that these peoples, dressed in reindeer or other skins, living among eter-
nal snows, in grand solitudes, subsisting by hunting, having few wants,
are satisfied with what we would hardly call the necessaries of life.
Though the varieties are very distinct, those which are peculiar to
metropolitan centers are difficult to classify. The date of the origin of
a costume is easy to ascertain from the form of a garment, but why the
rustic of Batz has retained in the nineteenth century the dress of the
time of Louis XIII, elsewhere regarded as a relic of antiquity, we can-
not tell. It may, perhaps, be attributed to his particular calling. When
the salt man entered a village his arrival was announced by the bells
or rattles on his mules. Before his fanciful hat and elegant jacket were
seen, the housekeepers ran out to get their supply of salt ; thus that
costume was preserved as a sign. But let us consider those conse-
quences of these customs which are of most importance to us.
Manners, customs, and usages are still preserved, and they have a
mysterious connection with costumes. A girl cannot often make up her
mind to marry a man not of her village ; gradually a distinct race forms,
and the men remain at home, forming a self-governing colony. We find
patriotism and love of home most developed in those countries where
the rustic has preserved the costume of his ancestors, and this inces-
sant and reciprocal supervision insures honesty and unity among the
inhabitants. There is a touching harmony in the existence of those
people that is sure to strike the eye of an observer.
Now let us state the distinction between costume and dress.
Costume is the same for all, for the man or boy, the woman or girl,
and does not change. It is composed of solid and durable material,
without regard to fitness ; what was once a Sunday costume, soon be-
comes a working costume 5 hat, jacket, and pants are often repaired,
but never undergo a change of form. That is what we call costume.
Dress belongs to cities. It changes with the whim of the fashion. Every
part of it has a peculiar destination, that is, for show or for work. The
laborer is not dressed if he is obliged to wear his week-day clothes on
Sunday. He must have two suits at least. This expense is to make
him look like his fellows, and to follow the fashion of the wealthy
classes. Yet, what is fashion ? Merely an invention for worldly people
to know each other by. Ought sensible people who have something to
do, to be compelled to follow the fashion? In France, as elsewhere,
fashion is a tyrant that even city work-people consider themselves
obliged to obey. Though expensive, they wish to get fashionable clothes
as cheap as possible ; no matter about the material, so long as the style
is fashionable. In France the laboring man must have a new suit, no
matter how poor the material $ whereas in England he is satisfied with
the cast-off fashionable clothing of the better classes. The gaudy gar-
ments of a fop in Hyde Park serve the dock laborer, and at last the
unfortunate Irish resident of Saint Martin's Lane.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 17
The rustic's choice of something strong, solid, and well made is the best.
He wants the garment to be of good material, without regard to form,
for it has to live on him for many years, till it becomes a part and parcel
of himself. The old dress gives the history of the man.
If a comparison is made between the expenses of the rustic who pays
dearly for his clothing, and the city laborer who seems to buy cheaper,
the former will have the advantage in the durability of his material.
The morals of a people are favorably affected by a peculiar costume,
and the artistic aspect of costume is evident to the least attentive ob-
server. Wherever we find originality in men's or women's costumes,
we like to represent it in pictures and albums, to be kept with care.
The inhabitant of the country is more attached to his costume than the
artist who studies it merely to find an attractive harmony of colors.
With six hundred costumes for exhibition, it is not surprising that
there were so many ways of showing them. The lay-figure was, how-
ever, generally adopted with great success, as by Sweden and Norway.
It consisted of an iron frame, stuffed with straw, so as to show all the
curves of the figure, and vary the movements. The heads and hands,
giving the type of the country and race, were moulded from nature in
plaster j the heads were retouched and finished by an artist; the hands
were nicely made to exhibit every indenture of the cuticle. This method
was effective, but costly. If we look to the result alone, it was perfect.
The other lay -figures, such as are used in shops, were far inferior to
the kind we have just mentioned, and the heads and hands were very
imperfect. Pasteboard figures were used by the French commission,
because of their cheapness, and they were generally rudely made in the
department whence they came.
Ethnology, connected with the study of costume, is a science much
cultivated in Europe. Eussia has long had museums of costumes,
and statuettes of the different people in the empire. Turkey has
collected at Constantinople all the ancient costumes of that coun-
try j so has Sweden, Xorway, and Hungary, in their respective centers.
In many countries costumes are faithfully represented in statuettes
made of colored clay, baked and dressed, as in Italy, Spain, Portugal,
India, Malta, and America, where there are excellent specimens. There
is no science more striking or easier learned ; it is not a labor, but a
diversion, a pleasure j hence the success of that part of the Exhibition.
Crowds always filled the different halls of Class 92, and never failed to
stop where the use of the articles was understood. The public felt that
such an exhibition was a study where much could be learned, and the
visitors sought instruction.
^Yhen costumes are preserved without modification in a country,
classification is easy to make by cities or nationalities ; but if the cos-
tume is becoming obsolete, and clothes no longer worn are brought to
you, the classification becomes difficult j it is impossible to follow a sin-
gle method ; and this happened at the Exposition of 1867. In France,
2 c WF
18 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
particularly, it was necessary to collect costumes of the last century,
still worn by very old men ; rare, it is true, but still partially used.
The classification adopted by the international jury was independent of
these different systems ; it was dictated by the importance of each lot ;
and such is the system followed in the succeeding review of the cos-
tumes on exhibition.
SWEDEN AND NORWAY.
The royal commissioners of Sweden and Norway furnished seventeen
groups, of thirty-two figures, varying by groups. This lot was in the
first class. All the principal Scandinavian costumes were there repre-
sented, and at the same time, the different ages, trades, and customs of
the country, executed under the direction of Mr. Dardel, a distinguished
artist and superintendent of the fine arts in Sweden, assisted by Mr.
Soederman, a Swedish sculptor. The lot is artistic and natural in its
composition 5 it forms a collection of genre pictures, representing " Har-
vest, " " A girl dressing," " The rustic oracle," " The groom's visit," "Ask-
ing the mother, 77 " The betrothed," " The Laplander in a sled drawn by a
deer," " Two Lapland women and children," &c. The heads and hands,
as has been already stated, are very true to nature. This lot may be
considered as a model of its kind.
The Ottoman government sent a very curious collection of popular
costumes of different classes of society ; the number was eighty ; here
are some of the most important: the Zerbek, from the province of
Smyrna; the Arnaut, Bulgarian, Bosniak, Laz, province of Trebizond;
Circassian of both sexes ;' a man and his wife of Mount Lebanon ; Alba-
nian, Kurd and his wife ; a Jew of Jerusalem and one of Bethlehem ; a
man of Damascus and one of Salonica; a woman of Asia Minor; a
weaver and a cook of Constantinople ; a Turk citizen, laborer, and shep-
herd; a Bulgarian wife; a man of Djedda, another of Bagdad, and one
These costumes are very varied in form ; many are covered with gold
embroidery and gaudy braid of all colors. Cloth, velvet, muslin, gauze,
fur, and morocco, are strangely mingled in their composition. Draw-
ings would represent them better than any description. Their price is
low, considering their richness and elegance. It is the Oriental taste in
Greece has furnished rich costumes, so covered with gold that the
cloth is not seen from the profusion of ornaments. The white fusta-
nelle, a small skirt of a thousand pleats, is the most original part, and
the leggings as richly embroidered as the jacket. Their elegance is
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 19
renowned and their form has become popular so much so, that we see
them in pictures everywhere, and they are much used for masquerades.
The most beautiful of the costumes were exhibited by Andreon and
Tzenos, both for men and women. The costume of an Athenian rustic
with his wife, of a new fashion, was sent by Magnissalis; that of a man
of the Morea, sent by Zappas, and a costume of ancient Greece, that
might be taken for that of Phedra, is perfect tunic, peplum, and sandals,
all of fine cashmere, embroidered with gold. It was said to be intended
for wear, though one would not think so from its elegance. The same
would not be said of the costume of the woman of Psara: the white,
silk turban, the waist of velvet, and the skirt of purple silk, were of the
The Greek cases also contained parts of costumes of different prov-
inces, varying according to locality, though with a general resemblance.
They are dresses for daily use, their prices varying from twenty-five to
two thousand francs.
Eussia, with so many different people, might have sent more costumes
to the Paris Exposition, but for an ethnographical exhibition at Moscow,
where there were more than six hundred costumes. In the Exposition
there were only twenty-seven from Eussia, but they were choice, taste-
ful, and new to many. First among them was an Ostiak costume from
Korthern Siberia, near the mouth of the Obi, covered with furs. The
man, woman, and children of the group are dressed alike. The fur of the
skins is on the outside of the garments, as in all cold countries, to make
them warmer. The bottom of he hood and the hem of the sleeves are
ornamented with colored pearls from the north of China, making them
The agricultural commission of Tiflis, Caucasia, sent a Touchine man
and woman, a Kefsaur man, one Cossack, and two Kurd uniforms.
They differ from those mentioned above, in ornaments, in brilliancy of
colors, and solidity of the material, which is manufactured in the coun-
try. The woman's hair is carefully plaited ; she has a necklace of coins ;
the men carry splendid arms and wear riding boots, thus indicating the
tendencies of the Eastern people.
The Crimea sent but one Tartar man and woman ; their dress, very
tasteful, is loaded with gold embroidery ; the stuff is variegated, of cloth,
velvet, silk, and muslin.
It is only necessary to mention the fish-skin costumes of the Yakouts
and Aleutians, exhibited by Mr. Pavloff, and similar costumes of Lap-
landers from the grand-duchy of Finland. Eussia might give us many
samples from its tributary lands. It is to be regretted that a Eussian
countryman with his family was not seen, but, as each province has its
peculiar dress, arbitrarily embroidered, it would be hard to find what
could be called a Eussian rustic. To have an idea of their taste we
20 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
have but to glance at the towels in the Isba, or in the woolen and linen
section. Why were not such costumes sent? Perhaps because common
things are not appreciated.
Lay figures play a great part in the presentation of costumes, partic-
ularly if the costumes are short and narrow, and for that reason those
sent from Murcia must be praised. They were of carved wood, with
jointed shoulders j real painted statuettes, with enameled eyes. They
show the dress of the males and females of Murcia to a great advantage ;
and are so elegant that they are readily accepted abroad as the general
type of the whole country.
The provincial deputation of Coruna and the institute of San Isidro
also sent some interesting specimens j but much more was expected
from a country like Spain.
Egypt had an exhibition of popular costumes, organized by order of
his highness the Viceroy. The first portion, Class 91, was in cases ;
the second was on lay figures. They represented the farmer, the
laborer, the negro of Upper Egypt, the Sais Berber, the Arab peddler,
the Copt woman, the Abyssinian woman and the negress. The manni-
kins used were made of hard pasteboard, modeled by the sculptor Cor-
dier. They were very well made, very graceful in their movements,
represented their types perfectly, and did honor to their author. But
that was not all that Egypt had to show. Quitting the palace and
going into the park, might be seen the workmen just as they are at Cairo:
the barber, the goldsmith, the embroiderer, the rush-mat maker, whose
bronzed faces and herculean forms made a deep and lasting impression
on the spectator, and caused him to forget for a moment the costumes
Moldavia and Wallachia had many costumes ; fifteen of the principal
ones were on figures. They represented the surongio, the postilion of
Argech, the royal postilion dressed in white cloth covered with red em-
broidery. The herdsman, the pea-gatherer, the reaper of Arto, the
Danube fisherman, the mountain hunter, &c., were characteristic cos-
tumes of the country. Then there were graceful female costumes, em-
broidered by Madam Odobesco and Madam Zucasiewitz, filling two large
glazed cases. The bride of Turno was also observed, and portions of
costume of admirable workmanship, and of such taste that an innate
thirst for elegance in those people is palpable.
The government of Saxe-Altenburg and Mecklenburg-Schwerin had a
curious collection. The vestments of the bride of Altenheiui were pecu-
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 21
liar quite black, the wreath and bouquet of variegated flowers, and
the stockings red. It seems they avoid white as carefully as it is sought
in Paris. The husband wears a small Louis XI hat. A protestant pop-
ulation was discovered in these austere fashions ; but what particularly
attracted attention was the narrow skirt of a woman from the neighbor-
hood of Erfurth or Gotha; it only reached the knee, and was buttoned
tight in front 5 though it impedes walking, the wind can get no hold
under it. A large number of specimens might have been sent, for the
costumes of the married women are very different from the girls' dresses.
This distinction was first enforced by lawj and afterward became a cus-
tom, which has lasted to the present time.
Austria, justly celebrated for its elegant Croatian, Servian, Moravian,
Hungarian, Sclavonian, and Tyrolian costumes, disappointed many at the
Exposition. Only partial representations, such as cloaks, pants, caps,
and belts, and a few specimens on dolls were given. However, the
costumes were well known, and have long furnished patterns to dra-
matic artists and painters.
THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
The Argentine Eepublic had three groups, and the gauclio was the
hero in all of them; he was on horseback preparing to throw his lasso,
or had his woman behind him, or was sucking his mate through a silver
bomMlla, held up to him by a girl. His costume and the caparison of
his horse had many silver spangles on them, and the whip handle,
stirrups, bridle bit, and saddle pommel, were covered with silver, in justifi-
cation of the name of the country.
The Bey of Tunis sent a rider and horse in festive caparison, like
those of the old tournaments ; three Moorish costumes, the more curious
as they showed the home dress of the Arab woman ; and three male
dresses, all richly and elegantly embroidered.
Japan exhibited two lots ; one from the Tycoon, the other from Prince
Satsuma. Though separate, they were very much alike, both represent-
ing warriors, horsemen, and footmen, loaded down with arms, helmet on
the head and shield on the arm. Their faces were hid by masks of hid-
eous appearance; their arms were singular and odd in form, so as to
terrify the enemy. One would think the entire costume was intended
to frighten, from the fierce aspect it gave to the wearer. All the arti-
cles were carefully and elaborately fashioned, showing the skill of
22 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Denmark had four handsome country groups, men and women from
the islands of Zealand, Amak, and Iceland, very like their neighbors the
gwedes. One must belong to that country to discover differences that
do not strike a stranger. There was, however, a singular detail of cos-
tume peculiar to them, which was initial letters of gold that the woman
wears on her belt, her family name and her husband's combined, a sym
bol of fidelity placed near the heart.
Portugal had a male costume from Honras de Miranda, in the province
of Tras-os-Montes ; it was brown in color, and was covered with black
ornaments, with a blue vest. The cloak, with a scooped collar, is gener-
ally worn at festivals and weddings. The contrast between the jacket
and vest was odd 3 but attractive.
The province of Minho was well represented by a large collection of
small figures sent from Porto : among them were the farm laborer, the
fisher, the water carrier, the Yalongo and Avintes baker women, the
fish woman of Espinho, and the einbroidress of Braya, the lace-maker of
The costumes of the province of Aluntejo brown dress, short breeches,
broad brirn hat and those of the fine looking people of the Azores ;
those of Madeira, where we find the embroidress, the shirt-maker, the
laborer, and the vilon, in his ruffle shirt and pointed cap of such a queer
fashion were wanting. But what can be said against this omission?
when the Netherlands, the Pontifical States and Italy, all rich in varied
costumes still worn, sent nothing 9 India sent nothing but a few small
figures, very pretty indeed ; Malta sent two life-size earthen statues,
that looked as if intended for a garden; England, rich in all other classes
at the Exposition, did not send her fine Scotch costumes. These omniis-
sions were much to be regretted.
France had forty-five exhibitors : sixteen had painted studies or designs
well calculated to illustrate the type, fashion, and manner of dress in
Eaphael Jacquemin sent a beautiful work, a colored iconography of
costumes from the fourth to the nineteenth century. Each plate was
etched by himself and gave all the details most conscientiously. It is
a work indispensable to libraries and very useful to artists.
The costumes on lay figures numbered seventy. It was hard work
to make this collection, yet provincial varieties were far from being
FINISTERE. Jacob, of Quimper, exhibited country costumes of Brit-
tany, as men and women of Scaer, a bridal pair from Plouarej the
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 23
woman dressed in red, like the Roman Campesine, and a groom of
Kerfimtun. These costumes, made on the spot, were richly garnished
with gold and silver embroidery on silk and woolen 5 and what was
most singular, the work was done by men. We can understand how
proud the Breton is of this costume, and why he wears it yet: it is well
made and showy, composed of various materials of excellent quality,
and calculated to last long, a consideration highly estimated by an
economical and industrious people.
Beside this lot, Mr. Jacob has inaugurated a new industry by appro-
priating Breton embroidery and trimmings to coats, vests and other
garments used by men and women as traveling suits. It has been a
benefit to the tailors of Quimperj and its success is proved by the extent
of the business and the imitators of it that have suddenly sprung up.
The Loire Inferieure was well represented by a man and a bride from
Clisse, and by a man and woman of Sailly. These were all the costumes
exhibited from Brittany.
PUY DE DOME. Mr. Foulhouse was commissioned by his department
to collect the costumes of Auvergne; this he did with the intelligence
and skill of an artist and archaeologist. There were ten types of the
The woman of the Tour d'Auvergne, with her dark woolen head-gear,
held on by a brass band, goes back to the Celtic period, if we may trust
tradition, and might have been worn in the time of the Gauls when
they conquered Alaric, near Latour. The brass fillet may have been
taken from the head-dress of the conquered as the emblem of triumph,
and the black stuff as the token of mourning, in commemoration of the
death of their countrymen who died on the field of battle. A widow in
that part of the country still wears the black veil, without the band, in
token of sorrow.
A man and woman of Chapdes, Beaufort, finished the highland series
of costumes. All these dresses are of blue woolen, and are made by the
women ot the country. They prepare the wool, spin it, weave it, and
dye it at home. The importation of foreign articles at a cheap rate has
tended to abolish this domestic manufacture.
The lower part of Puy-de-Dome, known as Limagne, sent a male and
female costume of St. Bonnet, near Eiom. The robe is of wool or cot-
ton, and always of gayer colors than those worn in the highlands. It
gives the elegant type of the women of Auvergne, whom all travelers in
that province see dancing the bourree on Sunday evenings. It is very
similar to the dress in the district of Issoire, where the Sauxillange
women still wear the tucked skirt, such as we see in Watteau's pictures-
We also see the common dress of the people of Eiom worn by the por-
ters at the feast of St. Amble, the patron of the city, with the high-
crown slouch hat, as worn by the incroydbles in directory times. It
was worn in Limagne only forty years ago.
In the valley of the Dare the vine dressers lived in common during
24 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
the last century, and were called the Guitard Pinon, from the chief who
wore a red velvet belt with a silver buckle containing the emblems of
agriculture, given to him by the king's intendant in the reign of
The women employed to tend flocks and herds still wear a broad-rim
straw hat worked with their own hands. This hat is tied over the head
with a ribbon, and is a perfect protection from sun and rain. The
pleats of their coarse woolen gowns are formed by the strokes of a mal-
let, which is one of the necessary instruments of the tailor.
The section of Puy-de-Dome was finished with a collection of archaBo-
logical objects connected with the history of costume. The first seen
was a bundle of distaffs of carved wood, painted by the mountain shep-
herds. They came from villages near Clerinont, and were fashioned
like those used in the Pyrenees and in Algeria. The next object was a
Celtic belt, very curious, from the village of Oorent, once a walled town
of Gaul. On the medals connecting the brass links were crosses carved
by hand to consecrate the articles. They must go back to the time
when Christianity was introduced into Auvergne by St. Austremoine.
These chains were used up to the commencement of the present century
to carry house and trunk-keys on. There were also clasps, buckles, and
sleeve-buttons of Celtic origin, and these 'are now imitated in sleeve-
buttons with Vercingitorix's horse stamped on them. The old jewelry
of Auvergne, that will certainly come into fashion again, must also be
VENDEE. La Vendee was portioned into three sections, the woods,
plain, and sea-coast. The committee went to a great expense in the
exhibition: it sent three genuine costumes, but all tended towards the
same model except the winter cloak of the St. Gervais fish- women and
the women's caps, much like those of Kochelle. The men's dress is
more original ; it is the true type of the old Vendean with his broad hat,
short coat, and tight breeches; no socks, but straw in his hard, heavy,
wooden shoes. The costume is not often seen now, but it is very char-
The Lower Pyrenees had three specimens from the valley of Ossau;
the women wore a flounced skirt, high gaiters, and a red hood; two
herdsmen had red caps; one was knitting as if watching his flocks; the
other had a lute and flageolet, and he played both at once.
ARIEGE. Baron Bardis sent a male costume from the valley of Oust,
a man and woman from the valley of Massat, and a woman from the
valley of Bethmale. These costumes are still worn in the contiguous
valleys, and the cloth is made in the country. In the snow mountains the
leg-gaiters leave the knee-joint free, so as not to hinder progress through
the snow, while they protect the lower leg. Men wear the broad hat
common to the country, or the cap called the berette. In winter the
women add a hood to their cloaks to keep their heads warm.
LOWER EHINE. The department committee sent a man and woman
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 25
from the neighborhood of Strasburg, and two costumes from the vicinity
of Wisseinburg; but Alsace might have sent many more. These came
from a Protestant region, as might have been seen from the woman's
deep green petticoat and the man's vest of the same color. Catholics
always wear red.
CHEK. Berry had also many souvenirs, chiefly from Asnieres-les-
Bourges, a small village three miles from the capital, where the people
are Protestants. The manners and customs of that part of the country
have not altered since the edict of Nantes. The old men still wear
the dress of the time of Louis XIV, and yet they all know how to read
and write. It is singular they are so attached to the dress of the olden
LOWER CHARENTE. Mr. Fournier sent a Eochelle and Marenne
female costume, with magnificent head-dresses, made of tulle and lace,
resembling those of La Manche, exhibited by Mr. LeMaillier. They had
a domestic look to the eye of a stranger, and were very different from
those of Normandy. The head-dress tells the province here and it
becomes a science, but it is unfortunate that we see the Norman bonnet
now only on the heads of old women, and on Sunday another obsolete
head-dress, found chiefly in the departments of the Aube, was called the
tocca. It might be called a large crown of lace, very pretty and graceful
YONNE. The departmental committee sent a country costume of
Avallon, the general type in all the central departments of France, and
well known in Paris through the Morvan nurses that have made it pop-
ular. This coquettish costume requires a good figure to show it.
The house of Babin furnished several well-made costumes for the
Exposition; among the most notable were a girl of Gueinene, one of
Bressanne, and a Corsican laborer.
We must give a few words to the cases containing the jewels. Most
of them, as the Norman crosses of General Hecquet and Mr. Singer, are
of Alengon silex ; they are collars, brooches, and ear-rings of Provence
and Dauphine. These adornments of the last century have become rare,
and are only found in the hands of amateurs. The articles of provincial
gold jewelry, still sold in remote districts, are quits interesting as curi-
osities in Paris, and show the difference between what was formerly used
and what is now made for fashionable people. We would recommend
the adoption of these old fashions for the benefit of modern industry.
MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING REPRESENTED AT
COTTON FABRICS FROM FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, AND OTHER COUNTRIES COTTON
MANUFACTURE IN THE UNITED STATES LlNEN AND LINEN FABRICS, ENORMOUS CON-
SUMPTION OF, IN FRANCE VARIOUS STYLES OF LINEN GOODS SHOWN IN THE FRENCH
SECTION RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE LINEN MANUFACTURE IN VARIOUS COUN-
TRIES FLAX AND LINEN IN ITALY MANUFACTURE OF WOOL AND WORSTED THE
BRITISH ARTISANS ON WORSTED AND MIXED TEXTILE FABRICS SILK AS A MATERIAL
FOR CLOTHINC THE SILK TRADE OF FRANCE SERICULTURE IN FRANCE GENERAL
OBSERVATIONS UPON THE SILK INDUSTRY OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES ElBBONS.
In the present age, cotton fabrics being the cheapest and most univer-
sally used materials entering into the production of clothing, are natur-
ally the most important to the largest mass of consumers.
France, being very properly ambitious to have every department of
her wonderful industrial interests well represented in an exposition pro-
jected and carried out in her great metropolis, surpassed all other coun-
tries in completeness of exhibition in this department. For the same
grade of goods made by other nations, the French, as a general rule, use
a better quality of cotton, and twist their yarn more evenly and with a
harder twist than other manufacturers.
In all grades of shirtings, fine cottons, calicoes, lawns, and muslins,
the French maintain an acknowledged ascendency. Their exports of
these goods for the five years ending with 1865 were as follows : 1860,
$13,920,000; 1861, $11,280,000 ; 1862, $12,660,000; 1863, $17,640,000;
1864, $18,740,000; 1865, 18,700,000; and 6,250,000 spindles furnish the
yarns from which these fabrics are woven.
It appears that, from some cause or other, many leading staples of the
cotton manufacture of Great Britain were not represented. But the
capacity of British manufacturers to meet the requirements of the world
at large is attested by the facts that she exports of yarns over $5 J,000,000
worth, of calicoes over $115,000,000, other printed goods, 880,000,000,
and of sewing cotton upward of $3,000,000 in all a value of $ 248,000,000 ;
yet none of these branches of the trade were represented to any extent
in the Exposition.
Our own manufacturers in this department of industry declined to
appear ; a case of sewing-cotton from the Clark Thread Company being
the only article exhibited in the class of manufactured cottons.
The Oriental nations, with the exception of Persia, were scarcely rep-
resented. Persia contributed, after the date at which they should have
28 PAEIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
been received, some very rich fabrics, among which were some printed
goods in the traditional style of the country.
Italy, Eussia, Sweden and Norway, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Wur-
teinberg, Baden, Prussia, and North Germany, Belgium, and the Nether-
lands, were all more or less extensively present in the examples of this
class, and generally with credit to themselves.
The manufacture of cotton goods is the most prominent feature of
the textile industry in Wurtemberg. This branch has been developed
mainly within the past fifteen years, and supports twenty-one establish-
ments engaged in cotton-spinning, employing about 245,000 spindles,
and 3,550 hands ; consuming 5,60 J,000 kilogrammes of raw material, val-
ued at $3,222,613 84.
COTTON MANUFACTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.
The very comprehensive report of my colleague, Commissioner Nourse,
renders the presentation in this place of statistics of the cotton supply
and manufacture of the United States superfluous. It will be sufficient
to direct attention to the fact that the country did not make that display
of cotton manufactures which justice to this important industry required ;
and also to the fact that notwithstanding the great increase of produc-
tion of all kinds of cotton goods, the demand is not supplied.
The average annual value of foreign cotton manufactures imported,
from 1821 to 1839, inclusive, was $10,624,687 5 and from 1840 to 1856, in-
clusive, $16,795,418 ; the yearly exportation for the same period aver-
aging only $909,114. From 1854 to 1856, the average annual imports
amounted to $28,811,966. These values, during the later periods, con-
sisted largely of piece goods from Great Britain. Of plain white British
calicoes alone our importations increased from 10,000,000 of yards in
1846 to 85,000,000 in 1856. and of printed or dyed calicoes, from 13,500,000
yards in the former to 97,000,000 yards in the latter year; and in 1860 we
received from that country altogether 226,776,939 yards of cottons ; but
in the first two years of the late civil war, 1861 and 1862, this importa-
tion creased to 74,680,537 and 97,375,709 yards, respectively.
This industry, so vast and important to this country, and which de-
served so prom nent a place at the Exposition of 1867, was practically
unrepresented there. It is not, however^ to be inferred from this omis-
sion to appear in the greatest of industrial competitions, that the Amer-
ican manufacturers lack confidence in their ability to compete in the
quality of those classes of cotton goods which form the great staple fab-
rics demanded by the masses of mankind ; but a vague impression that
the relative cost of production was to be taken into account in deciding
upon the question of comparative merit, seems to have influenced them
in withholding their fabrics.
The very general and earnest efforts which have been and are being
made by the government and manufacturers of the United States to
ameliorate the condition of the laboring classes by the payment of
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS.
liberal wages, the reduction of the hours of labor, and the diffusion
among them of all means tending to their elevation and moral, social,
and intellectual improvement, render it impossible, and it is cons'dered
undesirable, for American manufacturers to compete with those of foreign
countries in the cheapness of manual labor.
It is to be regretted, however, that they did not present a complete
exhibition of this class of goods, had it only been for the benefit of such
criticism as competent and faithful experts would have made, as well as
for the eclat which they might have shared with some of our woolen
manufacturers in bearing off golden rewards of success.
The number of gold medals awarded in this branch was twenty-six ;
of which, France received fifteen ; Great Britain, five j Switzerland and
Belgium, two each ; Austria and Prussia, one each.
Of one hundred and thirty-seven silver medals, France took seventy-
five ; Switzerland, thirteen ; Austria and Prussia, twelve each ; Belgium,
seven ; Russia, six ; Great Britain, five ; Saxony, Holland, and the
Uuited States, two each ; Spain, one. The bronze medals being distrib-
uted in about the same proportion.
The countries represented, and the number of exhibitors from each,
in Class 27, Group VI, being cotton yarns and fabrics, are as follows :
Denmark . .
LISTED AXD LIXEX FABEICS.
Xaturally succeeding cotton comes linen, the production of which was
visibly stimulated during the civil war in the United States by the sud-
den and protracted interruption of the supply of cotton. The results of
this stimulation were manifest in the linen exhibits of the Exposition.
France devoted a larger space to this than to any other single industry,
in her section of the building, as did also Belgium and Prussia. It was
stated in a report to the Chamber of Commerce of Belfast, Ireland, by a
deputation sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1855, that the annual con-
sumption of linens in France then amounted to two hundred and fifty
PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
million yards a larger quantity than is used in any other country and
French statistics show that on the 1st of January, 1866, there were in
that country two hundred and twenty-six linen mills, containing 705,350
spindles, and that in the Departement du Kord there were 4,305 power-
looms ; since which they have been increased, so that in all France there
cannot be less than 8,000 power-looms engaged in weaving linen. Added
to the supply from this source, an importation was reported for 1866 of
3,800,000 pounds of yarn, and 3,500,000 of linen. Among the prin-
cipal styles of linen fabrics for clothing purposes exhibited in the French
section are the various types used in the naval and military services, in
which, as well as in hospitals and prisons, the French adopt the use of
linen instead of cotton. Then come blouse linens, blue, drab, and slate-
colored, and of various shades. These with French fancy drills, which
are largely exported, light linens, and linen handkerchiefs, from the
Oholet district, and damasks, were the most notable varieties exhibited.
Belgium, Prussia, North Germany, and Austria were represented in a
manner showing that this industry is well maintained among them ; but
Great Britain established a claim to undisputed pre-eminence. Her ex-
ports of manufactured linen for six years preceding 1867 were, for 1861,
over $17,960,000; for 1862, $22,900,000; for 1863, $29,330,000, and up-
ward; 1864, over $37,525,000; 1865, $41,220,000, and upward; 1866,
EXTENT OF THE LINEN INDUSTRY IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
The following table, indicating the number of spindles in activity and
in construction at the commencement of the year 1865, gives an idea of
the relative importance of the linen manufacture of each of the principal
countries engaged in that industry :
1, 263, 000
1, 460, 638
2, 505, 025
3, 007, 663
Ireland produces very good qualities for the spinning of medium num-
bers, liussia exports considerable quantities, principally from Riga.
Her linens are pliant and easily worked, but they never bleach to a per-
fect white. They serve for the coarser numbers only.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS.
Algeria has entered successfully upon the culture of flax. The progress
in this culture which she has made under the benign guidance of science
as perpetuated in the mother country, is illustrated by the fact that the
specimens which she exhibited in 1855 were not adapted to the produc-
tion of finer yarns than English No. 25, (17 millimetres, French,)
while those in the Exposition of 1867 were perfectly capable of pro-
ducing threads of No. 100.
In France, linen fabrics are manufactured principally in the Departe-
ment du Nord, Picardie, the environs of Bernay, and in the Pays de Caux.
The linens of this last district as those of Picardie are of inferior quality.
Those of Bernay and du Nord, although superior, do not equal in quality
the linen of the Lys, (Belgian,) that are gathered in the environs of
Courtray, and which are all of highest grade. The environs of Gand,
Lockeren, and Malines, furnish also linen fiber of a quality perfectly
adapted to yarns or threads of fine numbers.
The annexed tabular statement shows the magnitude of the linen
industry of Belgium from the years 1855 to 1864 :
2, 762, 587
3, 485, 024
3, 549, 901
3, 418, 752
3, 381, 423
4, 230, 458
4, 495, 007
4, 412, 859
4, 228, 528
4, 243, 602
12, 467, 000
15, 832, 000
29, 165, 000
27, 704, 000
27, 396, 000
26, 741, 000
28, 281, 000
29, 132, 000
33, 097, 000
41, 061, 000
FLAX AND LINEN GOODS IN ITALY.
The production of flax in the kingdom of Italy is estimated to be about
135,000 metric quintals, 1 that of hemp about 500,000 metric quintals, in
all 635,000 metric quintals. The principal varieties cultivated are the
ordinary hemp, the Chinese hemp, and giant hemp ; the stalks of this
last variety sometimes attain a height of five metres, (sixteen feet.)
This product forms quite an important item in Italian commerce; the
imports and exports for the years 1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865, averaged
respectively 16,956 metric quintals, valued at 1,600,000 francs, and
157,033 metric quintals, valued at 15,324,000 francs. Three-quarters of
the exports go to Austria, principally in a raw state. During the three
years 1863, 1864, and 1865, the imports of hemp made into cordage
averaged 11,130 metric quintals, valued at 878,000 francs, while the
z The quintal = 100 kilogrammes, or 220.46 pounds.
32 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
exports for the same period averaged 15,356 metric quintals, valued at
The spinning of flax and hemp is still generally done by hand, there
being but few factories in which power is used. There are, however, three
in Lombardy, having in all 14,120 spindles and giving employment to
980 persons, of whom 245 are men, and 735 women and children.
The wages for the women and children vary from twenty-five to forty-
five centimes per day ; that of the men from one franc thirty-two cen-
times to two francs per day.
The quantity of flax and hemp which is consumed in these establish-
ments is 12,500 metric quintals, from which is produced 9,000 metric
quintals of all qualities. To the work which is done in the factories
must be added the work done with hand looms by 300,000 peasants, who
are employed in spinning one hundred and fifty days during the year.
Their average earnings are fifteen centimes a day, and the whole
amount paid annually for this work is 6,330,000 francs.
The city of Bologna possesses two factories capable of producing 5,000
metric quintals of thread per annum.
The amount of hemp and flax spun in Italy is not sufficient to supply
the home consumption. The greater part of this material is exported in
a raw state, and returns in the form of thread, having been spun in the
great factories of England and France. The average exports and im-
ports of thread for the years 1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865 are as follows: Ex-
ports, 3,042 metric quintals, valued at 789,000 francs : Imports, 29,575 me-
tric quintals, valued at 7,772,000 francs. In weaving linen there are em-
ployed 120,000 looms and 171,000 workmen. The entire production may
be valued at 60,000,000 francs per annum. There are many factories es-
tablished in Piedmont, in Lombardy, and in the southern provinces, but
in the country there are local manufactures which supply the home
The fine linen used in Italy is almost all imported. The importations
from France and England have increased of late years to a great extent,
while the exports have fallen off proportionately ; the average imports
for three years, from 1863 to 1865, inclusive, being 14,924 metric quintals,
valued at 8,287,000 francs, against 5,666 metric quintals, valued at
2,097,000 francs, exported during the same period.
MANUFACTURES OF WOOL AND WORSTED.
In an economic point of view, and as a branch in which the national taste,
skill, and thoroughness of workmanship were brought to the test, this
feature of the Exposition was not surpassed. France and England vied
with each other in presenting to the admiration of the world series of
tissues of great beauty and utility for female wear, such as double men-
noes, poplins, beaded stuffs, figured and fancy goods, material made
from the wool of the Angora goat, printed merinoes or cashmeres, and
de laines, heavy Orleans cloth and alpaca, mixed goods made from fine
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 33
organziue with silk warp, and weft of mohair, the last named being
exhibited only by the French. It is a gratifying fact that although the
United States were not represented in these fabrics, her enterprising
manufacturers are gradually entering the same field and that her stock-
raisers are paying more and more attention to the growth and improve-
ment of wools, so that we are in a fair way, at no distant day, to com-
pete handsomely with Bradford and Rubaix, the respective centers of
these industries in England and France. The latest and most valuable
information on the woolen industries may be found in the report of Mr.
John L. Hayes already referred to.
Austria, Prussia, and Saxony displayed a more limited range of simi-
lar fabrics, so also did Russia and Belgium, all of which received high
As in the spinning of flax, France shows in the production of the fine
yarns necessary for all-wool goods and wool and silk goods the qualities
which give to her fabrics woven therefrom their undisputed superiority.
England, however, excels in her mixed fabrics, from a similar superior
practice in preparing the yarns from long wool, which requires processes
of treatment differing radically from those for spinning carded wool.
Another quite distinct branch, namely, that of carded wool and woolen
fabrics, upon which wearing apparel of both sexes is largely dependent,
remains to be noticed, before we reach the more delicate and luxurious
materials. Here again we are filled with admiration of the beauty and
variety of the French representation. The complete system of indus-
trial education will, no doubt, account for the thorough skillfulness of
manipulation in spinning and weaving, as it does for the taste and
fertility of design displayed in French fabrics. In figured coatings, Mos-
cow beavers, sable furs, and Witneys, France verifies the importance of
this system of education and her velvet piles and naps of wool and
Astrakhans for ladies' mantles are unrivalled. France exhibits also the
novel combinations of velvet cloth adorned with glass, steel, and gold
beads, and brass shavings, and cloth made from felted yarns, which are
beautifully soft and elastic and not dear in price; and makes a very
excellent display of fine cloths and beautiful examples of fine fancy
trouserings, worthy of the source of their production. Prussia, Austria,
Holland and Belgium, Russia, Italy, and Turkey, all figure respectably in
, the same line, and in some qualities attain preeminence: for instance y
. Belgium for heavy overcoatings, such as ribbed cloths, reversible beav-
ers, Moscows, deer and doe skins, and other ribbed cloths ; Austria for
the brightness and clearness of dyes, and original and tasteful patterns.
The strong point in British woolens is the superior quality of superfine
broadcloths, cassimeres, doeskins, and beavers, which especially are
Huddersfield, one of the greatest centers of production, exhibits coat-
! ings, trouserings, vestings, mohairs, imitation skinrugs, and velvet piles,
of moderate cost, yet excellent in quality. Scotland sent a varied col-
3 c w F
34 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
lection of trouserings, shawls, and the soft, beautiful and durable fabrics
for which she is celebrated ; and Ireland some good tweeds, freezes, and
WORSTED AND MIXED TEXTILE FABRICS.
The following is an extract from the report made by Daniel Illingworth,
of Bradford, England, one of the British artisans, and published by the
Society of Arts :
"After taking a general survey of the exhibition, we began looking
the Bradford goods. We found various makes, including lastings, cam-
lets, cords, a few Coburgs, Orleans, various stripes and mottled fabrics;
nothing made for the special purpose of show, but goods taken from our
present stocks. Similar goods can be seen in our market at any time.
They are made from cotton, wool, and silk.
" In looking over the fabrics of continental manufacturers, the French,
I must say, are superior to any other, both in quality and dye. No com-
parison can, however, be fairly instituted between goods made of
wool, wool and silk, and goods made of mixed wool and cotton.
" We were told in France that we could not dye merinoes ; that when they
sent them in the gray to England, they had to be sent back to Paris to
dye and finish. Their merino weft and warps are carded and spun with-
out oil, to which is attributed the deficiency of our shades; but if w<
cannot dye the French goods, which are without oil, our dyers must fine
some other excuse.
"In looking over the French goods in the all-wool, wool and silk, the
merinoes are particularly good. The reps made of all-wool, wool and
silk, are beautiful. They have also the plain poplin, all-wool, which is
also good 5 of these they have an enormous and most varied display. No
prices were affixed to the French goods in this class, but from the fine-
ness of the quality they must be very costly. They are goods that will
not be extensively made in England. The competition is so pressing
that we are obliged to make a cheap article.
"The collective show of Koubaix was good. Upon inquiry we found
that they had been made expressly for show, regardless of expense.
This contains goods similar to the Bradford manufactures in mixtures of
cotton, wool, and silk fabrics, but nothing new in design.
"Messrs. Delattre, sr. & Co. had a first-class show of merinoes, poplins,
reps, and mottled fabrics, which had been made regardless of cost and
of superior material to any that I saw afterwards in the working process.
"The goods shown from Eoubaix are superior to ours in quality.
" On visiting Eoubaix we encountered much difficulty in gaining admit-
tance to the places of business ; and where we were allowed to see the comb-
in g, drawing and spinning, we were not allowed to see the weaving; and
only in one instance did we succeed in doing so, but in that we found
nothing to learn. In Eoubaix we found some of the lowest classes of
wool in process, and spun into weft.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 35
" We next went to the manufacturing town of Kheims, where we were
well received. We visited several firms in the town and district. There
are made poplins, reps, and cashmeres and merinoes, the last named being
the principal manufacture. We visited the firm of Dauphinot and
Brothers, who have a good show in the exhibition of reps, cashmeres,
poplins, yarns, tops, wool, &c., but merinoes are their principal make at
present. The woolen warp is spun in single threads, on caps ; then it is
taken and twisted two-fold on a roving bobbin, from which it is warped
onto a beam to form one sixth of the warp ; then it runs from the six
beams onto one, and as it runs from the six beams it passes through a size
of glue and water. When it comes out of the size every end is separated
and dried with two fans before it reaches the beam, and all this is man-
aged by one girl. There are no dressers, no warping mills, and very
little labor attending the process. This method of sizing and beaming
is nothing new; it is similar to the cotton process.
"There are both one and two-loom tenters; but as far as we could see
and learn, quality is more sought after than quantity. We noticed a first-
rate machine for finishing or cleaning knots from the face of merinoes
and other fabrics. By this machine the superfluous ends, &c., are
shaven off, and at the same time the ground is raised, by which process
a richer appearance is given to the cloth. This machine is in the form
of two going parts of a loom, and works the same way. The pieces pass
over the surface of the going part, where a peculiar knife is fixed, which
takes off all the fibers. A great number of women are also employed to
clean the pieces, and every care is taken to make them as perfect as pos-
sible. In one piece room were fifty, and in another twenty-five, of those
women employed. If an end was out it was sewn in, and all ends or
fibers cut from the edges and superfluities of every kind cleared off.
" We visited the firm of Messrs. Seydoux, Sieber & Co., Le Catiau.
This is the largest firm in France. We noticed their case in the exhi-
bition. It consisted of reps, poplins, cashmeres, and merinoes ; a really
"We noticed a very good case from Prussia, of goods similar to our
" With regard to machinery, we found it very difficult to gain
admittance to the French department. At last, however, we succeeded,
and on examining the looms we did not find anything to learn. There
was the plain and drop box loom, but nothing new, and none equal to
the Yorkshire looms for the Yorkshire trade. We consider it unneces-
sary to dilate upon the excellence of our looms.
" In the Exhibition we were indebted to Messrs. Larsonnier Brothers
& Company for the opportunity of examining several cases of French
goods. They very kindly opened, not only their own case, but others
for our inspection, and also gave us samples.
"There are few goods exhibited by the continental manufacturers for
the use of the middle and working classes. The Bradford goods are
36 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
most suitable and substantial; and the surprising cheapness of these
fabrics it is hoped will attract the attention of our foreign merchants
in this class, and obtain from them a due appreciation, and stimulate a
demand for our goods."
SILK AS A MATERIAL FOE CLOTHING.
The opportunity presented at this Exposition for the study of the
production and the products of silk, was probably the best ever offered
to the world ; for the competing exhibitors in the French section, rely-
ing on their ability to keep in advance of all rivals in a manufacture so
entirely dependent upon individual skill, which may be regarded with
them as an accumulated heritage descending from one generation to
another, eagerly revealed, in compliance with the requirements of the
Imperial Commission, all the methods and processes of their industry.
To no country, in its bearing on national industry, wealth, and taste, is
the subject of more urgent moment than to the United States, and the
opportunity has been well improved by my able colleague Elliot C.
Cowdin, esq., of New York, who has so exhaustively discussed the
subject of the production and treatment of the raw material, as to leave
scarcely anything to be said on this branch of the subject.
The rich stores, in the French section, of silk materials are many of
them marvels of beauty in color and design. Though the newly dis-
covered colors now extracted from coal tar and oil, known as aniline
colors, have done much in this direction, the artistic taste and feeling
developed by the admirable system of technical or industrial art educa-
tion, which, as before intimated, lies at the basis of French pre-eminence
in the fabrication of articles of elegance or luxury admitting of the
application of design, has done still more.
In silk, which has such a remarkable capacity for receiving colors,
and at the same time retaining its sparkling freshness and power of
reflecting light, the knowledge of design and of the proprieties of color
is even more important than texture and quality of material.
Artistic designing is itself an important industry in Paris, and is
liberally consulted by the manufacturers, who thereby maintain novelty
and excellence in their tissues, shawls, brocades, ribbons, and embroid-
Lyons and St. Stienne were shown, by their specimens at the Exposi-
tion, to be the seats of highest development in the silk manufacture.
This was demonstrated by the collective exhibition of the Association
des Tisseurs de Lyons, and the superb tapestry or damask silk contrib-
uted by Messrs. Pillet-Meauze et Fils, (102,) as well as that of Messrs.
Methevon and Bouvard, (148,) of regal richness; by the specimen of
taffeta brocaded silk with lace patterns enriched by garlands of
flowers, and also a taffeta silk with velvet representing birds, flowers,
and feathers, imitating nature so cunningly as almost to deceive the eye.
Some impression of the beauty of design attained in the manufacture
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 37
of woven silk may be derived from illustrations, but they can give no
idea of the crisp fresh gloss and play of light and shade, nor of any of
the delicate qualities which make silk what it is when the highest work-
manship, skill, and taste have been bestowed on its production.
The relative position of Great Britain to the other silk manufacturing
nations, was not perhaps justly presented at the Exhibition, but the
most favorable exposition of her products in that line would leave her
far behind France. Moire antiques, Irish poplins, black crape, and plain
and glace silks of good quality each in their grade, illustrate the general
tendency of British manufacturers to supply the substantial fabrics of
established quality generally demanded by the great mass of consumers,
leaving the French to supply the more ornate and elaborate varieties
called for by the classes who lavish wealth in keeping pace with the
fleeting fancies of fashion. One very rich material of the kind known
as tissue de rerre, for furniture and curtains, reflected credit upon the
exhibitors, Messrs. Grant and Gask, of London. It was brilliant with
fine spun glass, which is getting to be much used in decorative tissues.
The great London Exhibition of 1862, at which the English displayed
marked progress over her former exhibitions in silk manufacture, as well
in design as in other qualities, seems to have stimulated France to
renewed vigor and originality, while the subsidence of the English
would convey the idea that they had formerly made, by a spasmodic
effort, exceptional specimens for the purpose of carrying off the prizes.
Professor Leoni Levi, L.L.D., in his able ancl instructive report upon
the silk manufactures at the Exposition to the British government, gives
the following statistical information upon this subject :
" Within the last twenty-five years there has been a great oscillation
in the imports of raw silk. In 1840 the imports amounted to 3,759,000
pounds; from that time they increased enormously, till in 1860 they
reached 9,200,000 pounds. But afterwards there was a considerable
decrease, and in 3867 they were not more than 5,800,000 pounds." He
then shows that the disease in silkworms caused a great competition in
the purchase of China and India unmanufactured silk, causing a rise of
from eighty to one hundred per cent., and that in an industry where the
raw material enters so largely in the total value, such a rise left but
little surplus either for labor or capital."
He further observes :
" Following the unsatisfactory condition of the raw material, the
exports of British silk have suffered greatly. In 1846, when Sir Kobert
Peel reduced the duty on silk manufactures from thirty per cent., as it
was left by Mr. Huskisson, to fifteen per cent., the value of exports
amounted to no more than 608,000. From that time it increased regu-
larly, till in 1856 the value amounted to 1,758,000. Soon after, the
disease in silkworms appeared, prices rose, and the cheaper descriptions
of silk became dearer in proportion than similar articles in wool or
PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
"Then, too, in 1860 America, our chief market, became the prey of a
fearful civil war, and the exports fell in 1861 to 1,395,000, and from
that time they further fell to 1,028,000 in 1867. Even the six months
ending July, 1867, showed a considerable diminution as compared with
the similar period in 1866. To a certain extent the check to the pros-
perity of the manufacturer has been as much felt in Lyons as in Spital-
fields and Manchester ; but while England did not get the better of it,
France did. Of ribbons, for instance, in 1851 the export from France
amounted to 1,200,000 ; in 1855 they rose to 4,700,000; and in 1861
fell to 1,800,000; but they have since recovered to 3,500,000 in 1866.
"The silk trade of France, as a whole, exhibits a very different
progress from that of England as regards the exports of silk manufac-
ture. When the two are placed side by side the comparison is very
1 130 000
7 350 000
1 082 000
9 650 000
1 395 000
11 560 000
1 318 000
1 850 000
" The difference between France and England from 1851 to 1855, and
from 1861 to 1866, is very-notable.
"What, however, alarms the British manufacturer is the fact, that
while the exports of British manufacture decreased, the imports of
French and other foreign manufactures have greatly increased. In 1855
the real value of foreign silk manufacture imported was only 1,800,000.
In 1860 it was 2,800,000; and in 1867, 8,000,000. There is nothing
surprising in the fact of such increase, the diminution or abolition of
import duty being always followed by a larger trade, by which the com-
munity at large is benefited. Only in this case the natural result was
more sudden, from the fact that just when we opened our ports, the
American markets being closed, a large portion of French and German
silk, which would otherwise have been sent thither, found its way to
" From these accumulated evils the manufacturer in this country has
been placed under no ordinary straits and difficulty, and there is no
doubt that thereby the ability of England to compete with France in
certain descriptions of silk manufacture has been greatly put to the
SERICULTUKE IX FRANCE. 1
Sericulture is not so prosperous as it was in 1855, on account of the
silk- worm disease. Although it has long been known, its disasters
1 Extract (translation) from the report of Jules Eainibert, of the International Jury.
Rapports clu Jury International, torne quatrieme, p. 1C2.
CLOTHING AXD WOVEN FABRICS. 39
in France began after the Exposition of 1855 and spread over all silk-
producing countries. For eighteen years, every remedy has been tried
in vain to arrest its ravages.
The silk crop in France, previous to the epidemic of 1840-'48, was
estimated at twenty millions of kilogrammes of cocoons, worth, at the
average of five francs, one hundred millions of francs. At that time
one ounce of eggs yielded thirty kilos of cocoons, and seven hundred
thousand ounces of eggs were required for France.
Xow more than a million ounces of eggs are put to hatch, to allow for
losses, and they only yield an average of ten million kilos of cocoons,
bringing fifty-eight millions of francs. This is a loss of forty-two mil-
lions ; and it is more evident if we compare the quantity of raw silk
formerly produced, and that produced now. Then, the quantity
produced was nearly two million kilos, costing seventy-two francs the
kilo ; the yield now is not over six hundred thousand kilos, but the
price has arisen to one hundred and twelve francs. Thus, silk is from
sixty to one hundred per cent, dearer than formerly, and its production
has diminished two-thirds. To supply this deficiency, silk is imported.
At the time of the Paris Exposition of 1855, domestic silk was used
to the quantity of eighty per cent. Lyons and St. fitienne were the two
centers of the flourishing manufactures.
At the time of the London Fair of 1862, the silk crisis was at its
height, and silkworm eggs were brought from Caucasia and the lower
Danube to supply the business in western Europe. In 1865, such was
the scarcity in France, that seventy -five per cent, of silk was imported ;
and in 1867, when the Exposition opened, the silk industry was in a
Subsequent to 1862 another important event had occurred : the early
cocoons of Europe had died out and fresh eggs had to be brought from
the East, chiefly from Japan. The cocoons of that country are of an
inferior quality, and are often double. They are yellow, white, green,
gray, and generally smaller than ours, thus making their manipulation
more difficult. A good spinner formerly made three hundred and forty
grammes a day ; now she hardly makes two hundred.
SPINNING AND MILLING.
The position of the silk spinners was becoming critical, from priva-
tions of sources of former prosperity, and contention with unknown
rivals; and milling suffered from the same causes. The quality of the
raw silk became inferior, and its winding difficult; its manufacture
became more expensive, on account of the working classes of the coun-
try nocking into the towns. From 1862 to 1867, the cost of labor rose
as much as twenty per cent.
But in spite of the bad material and against all difficulties, we are
proud to say that France is still at the head of the silk-producing coun-
tries. The spinners and millers of Ardeche, Drome, and Yaucluse form
40 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
a phalanx unrivaled for the manufacture of organzines, plush, and satin.
The number of these factories is about the same as in 1862 5 for we
found the same houses exhibiting at the late Exposition that exhibited
at the London Exhibition in 1862.
The spinneries of the Cevennes keep up their reputation for their silks.
They have had to contend with Japan, that shows many elegant speci-
mens in cases, such as green silk, which is now taking the place of white
and yellow. What was injurious to the spinners of pure silk, proved
beneficial to those that worked the tow and refuse of silk. Owing
to the high price of silk, that industry has increased considerably in
France, Switzerland, Italy, and England, particularly for three-ply cord.
Considerable improvements have been made in the preparation of
this material, before combing and in the subsequent manipulation of it ;
and they have raised the price of tow, which is now used for many
articles that used to be made of pure silk. Paris and Mines furnish the
best specimens of sewing silk, and silk used for embroidery and fringes.
In spite of the obstacles that scarcity of the raw material has thrown
in the way of this industry, it has prospered.
Winding has also improved by now furnishing skeins of regular size
and quantity. Specimens were first exhibited in 1855, but now skeins
are made very large for the use of sewing machines, that have come
into use since that time.
The scarcity, and, as a natural consequence, the dearness of all sorts
of silk, have given a real importance to that kind called douppiom, once
used in ordinary fabrics only, but now made up by many Paris houses,
some of which make it a specialty.
The little business of winding, spooling, and balling silk, has reached
an importance through machines that have cheapened the processes,
once so tediously performed by hand.
Though outside of our line, we cannot refrain from mentioning the
improvements made by the dyers of Paris and Lyons. The chemists
and dyers of those cities have made discoveries of new coloring materi-
als, called aniline, fuchsine, &c., that have produced wonderful effects.
The exhibitors of those cities had purple, violet, blue, and green silks at
the Paris Exposition, unequaled by any colors heretofore displayed at
fairs. Twenty years ago, the French blue and black silks were the most
admired as fixed colors.
The production of silk has not succeeded well in our African colony,
Algeria ; many cocoons and a few tissues were sent to the Exposition ;
there was but one specimen, however, that could compare with the silk
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS UPON THE SILK INDUSTRY OF VARIOUS
In glancing at the silks sent by different countries to the Exposition,
we can study the character of the people that produce them without
going to their homes to see them.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 41
At the first Expositions the rival efforts seemed to try to show that
all kinds of tissues could be produced, but such stuffs could not be
generally looked on as articles of commerce. National pride was
satisfied, but the manufacturers were not remunerated for their ingenuity
and apparent disinterestedness, and they afterwards adopted more
utilitarian views, in more precise accordance with their interests.
Eecent commercial treaties between different European nations have
established a sort of industrial equilibrium that regulates the nature
and importance of the productions of each country; and now, instead
of trying to carry on all industries in the same country, it is thought
better to leave neighbors unmolested in the business in which they
excel, and have no rivalry in trade.
In reference to silk, this new condition of affairs, not obstructing the
production of certain articles for home consumption, seems to concen-
trate the fabrication of fancy silks in France; of velvet, in Prussia; of
lighter stuffs, in Switzerland.
These results, which must have been foreseen by the commercial
treaties, will injure those industries of each country that owed their
prosperity to protection; but the surer consequence will be, to place the
productions of each country within reach of all the others, and thus to
create, by a sort of reciprocal dependence, a solidarity of interest, which
will be a certain pledge of cordial relations and a continuation of pros-
According to recent statistics, the ribbon industry amounts to two
hundred and fifty millions of francs in all Europe. Out of this sum,
France manufactures one hundred and fifteen millions' worth of ribbons,
and then come England, Switzerland, Prussia and Austria. During
prosperous years, this amount has been exceeded ; but it has not been
the case in late years.
In France the manufacture of ribbons of pure silk, or mixed, began,
about the eleventh century, at Saint Chamond, whence it extended to
Saint fitienne, where it is now carried on most extensively. AYhen the
bar loom was imported, and later the Jacquard machine was adopted,
the business took a rapid start.
Saint Etienne was once famous for its manufactories of wooden ware,
fire-arms and hardware; and when workmen were wanted to make the
new looms and silk machinery, they were found ready on the spot.
Bibbon-weaving was found so profitable, that the capital amassed in
other business in that part of the country was soon invested in it, and
the ribbon manufacture increased tenfold. This beginning explains
why labor at Saint Stienne is distributed among families, instead of
being confined in factories, or monopolized by rich houses. This state
1 Extract; translated, from the report by M. Girodon, of the International Jury, vol. IV.
42 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
of things will certainly change in time; but it cannot change so much
as other kinds of manufactures, because of the peculiarity of the ribbon
Two kinds of ribbon are made here, the fancy ribbon and the common
ribbon. The latter employs three-fourths of the labor, and supports a
large portion of the population. Since large factories have been estab-
lished elsewhere, the manufacturers of Saint Stienne have been obliged
to exert themselves to keep up their merited reputation.
The fancy ribbon manufacture requires an infinity of designs that
must be made by hand ; for, machinery, perfect as it may be, cannot
bend itself to all the variety of hand- weaving in ribbons. The variations
and changes in these looms are effected by the weavers themselves, who
must be workmen of skill and taste.
As the workmen are interested in the success of their machinery and
its product, the work is always of a superior kind. Stimulated by
personal interest, they are constantly improving their business, and
perfecting the mode of operation : they all want to become inventors.
It is singular that no invention or improvement has been discovered
by a professional mechanic or engineer ; all the discoveries are due to
operatives or workingmen. Hence the success of emulation, which is
the prosperity of Saint fitienne. The most intelligent operatives see
the possibility of rising ; they see that one-third of the manufactories
of Saint fitienne belong to men who were former overseers 5 and they
know that most of the rich men began in the same way. In fact, it is
very easy to become a manufacturer at Saint fitienne ; it does not require
a big house nor much capital. The looms and tools belong to the
operatives ; it only requires two or three looms to entitle a person to a
license to begin business. The success of the beginner depends on his
invention of some fancy article that will take. Expectation is often
deceived ; but the places of those who are dissappointed and leave are
soon filled by newcomers,' and the competition continues. This explains
the reason why we see so many new names at every Exposition.
There are more than two hundred establishments at Saint fitienne
engaged in the manufacture and sale of ribbons. For many years the
business has reached near one hundred thousand francs per annum.
The saying of Colbert, that taste is the essence of trade, is particularly
applicable to the ribbon business, and is especially exemplified at Saint
Etienne. Division el' labor is nowhere so well arranged as there.
Paris is the chief market for fancy ribbons; but they are sent to
foreign countries from there, and get the name of French or Paris ribbons.
But England and the United States buy their ribbons directly from
Previous to 1860 the ribbon manufacture took an unhealthy flight ;
but since that year it has subsided into reasonable limits. The Ameri-
can war and the silk- worm disease were the causes of depression in the
business since 1860 ; and then the small hats for women and the substi-
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 43
tution of plain for fancy ribbons, and lace and fringes for both, did much
harm to the ribbon industry.
Since 1862 the business has been stationary, and there seems to be a
tendency to condense labor into large factories. By the invention of
new machinery called compensators, Chinese silk is worked to advantage.
It is not only important for ribbons to be smooth, but they must be
brilliant, and that brings dyers into important use. This branch of the
business is reduced to a fine art at Saint ^tienne. Besides furnishing
coloring for material used at home, these artists dye for the Lyons man-
ufacturers that used to send their silks to Saint Chamond. The twenty-
nine steam-dyeing establishments at Saint Etienne give work to more
than one thousand persons.
In 1812 a school of design was founded at Saint fitienne, and it has
educated the skilled artists that have kept up the prosperity of the
place. Independent of the different day-schools of design, decoration, and
painting, there is now a night-school, where more than one hundred
pupils assemble every night to learn arts that will be useful to them the
In the department of the Loire, there are twenty-four thousand persons
employed in the ribbon manufacture, not counting the operatives that
work in large factories. The twenty-four exhibitors at the Exposition
had every variety of ribbon; fancy, plain, fringed, velvet, laced, net, meshed
for cravats, elastic, &c. Several houses make elastic tissues for drawers,
garters, and other uses. The gum is brought from England, where it is
prepared in large quantities, and its use is extending in France.
RIBBON MANUFACTURE IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN FRANCE.
At the London Fair of 1862, Coventry, England, was represented by
nine manufacturers of ribbons. Only three sent their samples from
England to the exhibition of 1867. The specimens were ordinary, and
seemed to be intended for commerce alone. There was no velvet ribbon
among them. In 1862 there were elegant broad ribbons, with worked
flowers, gothic letters, and other ornaments, neatly executed; but at the
Exposition we have nothing of the kind. What became of them? The
English seem to want initiative taste in artistic composition. They can
copy French designs, but invent nothing; yet, the solidity of their fabrics
commends them to certain buyers.
The factories at Coventry are increasing in importance, and the pro-
duce is all consumed at home.
The factories at Basle, Switzerland, are quite different from those of
Saint fitienne. At the latter place, a small number of producers had
democratized the business ; at Basle, it is in the hands of wealthy man-
ufacturers. There are only twenty-six manufacturers in that city, and
sixteen exhibited at Paris. The collection was arranged with admirable
taste, so as to catch the light in the most effective manner. The manu-
facturers there are more of merchants than artists, so they make plain
44 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
ribbons that find a ready sale anywhere. We are certain they made
nothing expressly for the fair. There are between six and seven thou-
sand looms at Basle, and they are all confined to well-made, low-priced,
All varieties are collected in a single case. The principal style is the
taffeta ribbon, of various breadths, and of every quality. There were
plain and glazed ribbons, black and blue belts, and many other articles
for which Basle is famed. The business at Basle is estimated at thirty
or thirty-five millions. The city deserves credit for having kept up the
business against such killing competition.
In 1834 Basle exported only ten millions in ribbons. The business
has since increased three-fold, though the number of looms has not
increased in the same proportion. The machinery has been greatly
improved, and the work shows the advantage of perfect machinery in
any business. With this increase of production, wages have remained
Basle ribbons find their way all over the world. The plainest and
most substantial find a ready sale in England and America.
At former international fairs we were astonished at the sluggishness
of the manufacturers on the banks of the Ehine in taking part in the
industrial tournaments of the world; and we were still more astonished
in 1867 to see only four Prussian exhibitors in the palace of the Champ
de Mars. This seems the more strange, inasmuch as the prosperity of
those ribbon factories is known to the whole world.
Besides five thousand looms for velvet ribbons, and many hundreds
of hand looms for the same, there are more than ten thousand English
looms used in Prussia for making colored velvet ribbons. Their sale is
good at all times, and the business amounts to forty or forty-five millions.
In addition to these, there are about one thousand bar looms for plain
ribbons, black and colored taffetas, and pure or mixed silk. Prussia
also produces a large quantity of lacings, braids, and mixed gold cord.
Since the last treaty of commerce, most of these articles are exported
to the United States, England, and France.
Austria was represented at the Exposition by six ribbon manufacturers;
but we are not to judge of Vienna by what we see at the Exposition ; we
must look into the past. It is plain that the work of the articles on exhi-
bition is rude, and the designs are evidently from France.
The dress of Vienna ladies is remarkable for neatness and taste, and
the men dress with elegance and care; these elegant habits certainly
have an influence on the manufacture of ribbons in that country; but
the manufacturers need boldness in design and innovating enterprise.
Austria does not export much in the way of ribbons; fancy ribbons
are imported from France; taffetas and black velvet from Prussia; but
these importations are diminishing daily, on account of improvement in
the domestic manufacture.
There are supposed to be from one thousand eight hundred to two
thousand ribbon looms at work in Vienna and in the neighborhood.
THE INDUSTRY OF READY-MADE CLOTHING.
THE AUTISTIC EXCELLENCE OF WEARING APPAREL PRODUCED IN PARIS STATISTICS
OF THE MANUFACTURE IN FRANCE READY-MADE CLOTHING FOR WOMEN THE
SEAMSTRESSES' ART IN PARIS THE MANUFACTURE OF HATS FOR MEN AND WOMEN
CORK HATS CENTERS OF THE HAT TRADE IN FRANCE, AND STATISTICS OF THE MANU-
FACTURE BOOTS AND SHOES MANUFACTURE OF CLOTHING IN THE UNITED STATES
HEAD-DRESSES FOR LADIES ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS.
To no other general exhibition of industry could this feature of wear-
ing- apparel be so peculiarly suitable as to one held in the French
metropolis, the fertile mother city of the world's fashions. The branches
of trade centering in the general production of wearing apparel are
among the most important specialties of Paris in an economical point of
view. The aggregate value of their yearly products is estimated by the
hundred of millions of francs; they furnish a large item of exportation
for foreign commerce. As a general rule, her exhibitors easily surpassed
all competitors from abroad; and where these last successfully sustained
comparison, they oftenest only furnished a tribute to the taste and skill
of French men and women who have emigrated to the workshops of
foreign employers. This statement is especially applicable to all articles
of female attire, from under garments to the patent elegancies of skirt
and corsage; from the neatest of foot-gear and gloves of proverbial fit-
ness to the fanciful hat.
An attempt to explain the remote causes of this French superiority
would be most instructive. It is of no modern date. It was practically
admitted by our English ancestors, five centuries ago. King Edward,
returning from French conquests, brought home conquering French
fashions in his baggage train, which, subsequently, and more than once,
stirred Chaucer's satiric humor. The subject is not an altogether trivial
one, and justifies a passing indication of some of the more immediate
and apparent causes of the admitted excellence of Parisian taste in the
matter of dress; an excellence, it should be first observed, that is not
confined to any one social class, and that is common to wearers and
makers of apparel ; who act and re-act on each other with mutual
instruction, as do intelligent actors and audience. This taste seems
innate, and innate it doubtless is, at least to the extent that any sense
or faculty exercised from generation to generation becomes an hereditary
aptitude. The numerous public galleries, the yearly exhibition of French
painting and sculpture, the finer of the public monuments, and the shop
windows in the streets, are so many free schools for the constant, uncon-
scious education of the Parisian's sense of form and color. They are
born appreciative, and become critical unawares. Besides these, and
46 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION
more directly productive of practical results, there are special schools of
design, with reference to its application to the useful arts, supported or
encouraged by government aid and voluntary subscriptions, among
which evening classes exert a conspicuous influence, gratuitous instruc-
tion being there given to artisans both in the theoretical principles of
beauty and their practical application. The result is that the worker
brings not only expert manipulation and a practiced eye, but some
capacity of original design and independent judgment to the work in
hand, and crowns its completion with that indescribable quality that
gives the masterpiece its cachet de distinction. The French style of
artiste applied to milliners and mantua-makers is hardly an abuse of
language; their profession, if not strictly within the domain of fine art,
borders close on its outskirts. Their chief and best encouragement, as
must always be the case where art in any kind flourishes, is from an
appreciating public ; at the present epoch they have a high and gener-
ous patron in the person of the Empress. This gracious lady is not only
a finished connoisseur and zealous amateur, ever ready to duly reward
the ingenious devices of others, but on more than one occasion has con-
tributed felicitous inventions of her own, originating modes whose
imperial sway has ruled willing subjects in all the ball-rooms of the world.
Throughout the temperate zone the outbreak of new styles is a nearly
simultaneous phenomenon. They are deliberated over and their publi-
cation is resolved on, in solemn secret conclave held by the heads of
certain houses. To their correspondents in the principal foreign cities
they forward drawings, illustrative colored plates, and specimen models,
in advance of the season, so that they can be issued at the same open-
ing day for example in New York and San Francisco. Besides its first
value of rarity, which belongs to anything that requires so much power
of invention, a bold and seasonable novelty promises very considerable
pecuniary profit to its originator and first introducers.
Of wearing apparel for men the variety was not very remarkable.
Each nation, for the most part, produces its own supply in this kind ;
and the competition is rather local than international. In the designs
of stuffs, Paris held well its own, but for other qualities the London
goods were preferable.
As the first of these cities maintains unquestioned the first rank for
women's attire, so the second for men's, conscious of its right, would
laugh at the falsity of a report denying its supremacy. Each, however,
borrows something from the other the French gaining rather the most
by the exchange. For heavy garments especially, they of late years
follow the English in shapes and names, omitting only a little of the
original amplitude, adding only a little native grace of form. The two
capitals supply the models, which are adopted in other countries, subject
to the trifling modifications of local tastes and wants.
CLOTHING* AND WOVEN FABRICS. 47
The principal exhibitors of ready-made clothing were French, Belgian,
and Austrian. The contributions of the latter were noteworthy for
their meritorious combination of form and finish with cheapness. Among
the curiosities which, though not unknown in America, attracted much
observation here, was a seamless coat. It was first molded while the
material was in a pulpy state, and afterward pressed into a consistency
that is said to be favorable to long wear. For army purposes, and where
large quantities need to be furnished in the briefest time, the process
may have its uses; but it is not sufficiently perfected as yet to be of any
general advantage. Army clothing was mostly of a very indifferent
quality. The defect was the more striking from contrast with snugly
fitting brilliant uniforms, of which plentiful specimens were constantly to
be seen at the Exhibition, worn by the military visitors of all nations
Under the head of costuming should be placed a good part of the
childreus' dresses, multiform, many-colored, and "of most excellent
fancy.' 7 Their bright tints and pretty quaintness of cut, not inappro-
priate to the fresh cheeks and mobile vivacity of youth, offered happy
solutions of the grave problem how to distinguish the mother's attire
from her daughter's.
In made-up clothing for both sexes, France, as in most other classes
of the Exposition, was the principal exhibitor. The committee of
admission in this class, for France, collected some very important statistics,
a brief resume of which may be interesting.
The trade in ready-made clothing, finding its central market in Paris,
is quite extensive. The cheaper classes of articles are principally pro-
duced in the provinces. Several of the larger houses have their chief
workshops in the departments of the north, Pas-de-Calais. Giroude, Gard,
&c. Much of this work, which was formerly done by hand, is now done
by sewing machines, to an extent which is truly astonishing, the greater
part of the seams being sewed in this way. The cost of labor on clothing
for men amounts to about one-fifth of the value of the goods. The
workmen employed by the tailors are of two divisions, those who prepare
and cut out work, and those who put it together. Five-sixths of the
tailors work at home, the other sixth being employed in the tailors'
work-rooms. There are about one-half as many women engaged in this
trade in Paris as there are men. Working either by the day or the
piece, the men earn from three to six francs 1 per day, though some
expert hands gain from eight to ten francs per day. The women earn
from two francs to three francs fifty centimes per day, and a few from
five to six francs. The tailors generally do their own cutting out, but
the dealers in ready-made goods employ cutters.
The exportation is generally done through the instrumentality of
agents. There is great difficulty in estimating accurately the production
of men's garments ; but the tailors and clothiers of Paris do business to
1 A franc is equal to nineteen and three-tenths cents in coin.
48 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
the amount of more than one hundred and fifty millions of francs per
annum, the exports amounting to about one-tenth of the whole. Great
progress has been made in the extent of the business since 1855. Many
foreign governments look to French clothiers for the equipment of their
troops, a branch of the business which has been very active.
THE TAILOKS IN PAEIS. 1
At the end of the seventeenth century the journeyman tailor, boar'ded
by his master, earned about fifty cents a month, equivalent to ten francs
of our present money. At the end of the eighteenth century the journey-
man working on his own account earned one franc seventy-five centimes
a day. In 1825, under the restoration, he earned from two to three francs
a day ; in 1850, under the empire, from three to three and a half francs a
day; and in 1867, from four to seven francs daily.
Such was the progress of wages for labor.
Next the sewing machine came to the assistance of the working
classes, and it was truly a Godsend to them.
Since the adoption of the sewing machine in 1854, wages have
increased at least thirty per cent. As it lessens manual labor, thus econo-
mizing physical force, and makes more in less time, it is undoubtedly a
benefit to the workman. A man who is able to buy a machine gains
from twenty to thirty per cent., and a woman, from thirty to forty per
cent, on their wages.
The tailor has marked advantages over the workmen of other trades:
if he is intelligent, active, and industrious, he can soon become master ;
if orderly and economical, he can get work by the piece; and then
gradually acquire a profitable custom. We have numberless examples
of this in the many tailors that have made a name and a fortune from
We will now proceed to give the advancement in this industry during
the last twenty years. In 1827 there were but three hundred and twen-
ty-two tailors in Paris, and only one of them exported his manufactures ;
and they were made to peddle, and gave no credit to French-made goods.
At that period exportation was restricted, and goods of this kind were
not generally sent abroad. We have nothing definite about their export-
ation till 1849. In that year, the export amounted to forty millions;
in 1866 it was sixty millions. We have already mentioned that the
cutters, or tailors proper, were injured by their indifference toward the
makers and wholesale manufacturers. The result of the latter business,
in 1849, was twenty-five millions ; in 1866 it was one hundred and nine
Two incidents have happened to aid tailors commercial treaties have
opened foreign commerce to them, and railways have brought foreign
customers to them in Paris. These visitors have carried fashionable
1 Extracts translated from the report of M. Auguste Dusatoy, Vol. IV of the Rapport
du Jury International.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 49
clothes away with them, giving affixed reputation to Paris fashions and
a good and permanent custom to Paris tailors.
In the statistical reports of 1860 we find six houses doing business
to the amount of one- million of francs; in 1866 we find six doing a
business of twelve millions. In 1866 we find seventeen hundred
licensed tailors doing a business of two hundred and five millions of
francs. Their materials were wool, silk, linen, cotton, and fringe and
buttons, at a cost of one hundred and seven millions. The labor cost
98 millions, making a total of two hundred and five millions, as stated.
We find in 1866 thirty -four thousand men and eight thousand women
working at home or in shops. Dividing the earnings of their labor among
them, we have four francs sixty-five centimes as the average for men,
and two francs thirty centimes the average gains for women.
Thus we see a sensible increase of wages for working men and women
in the last six years. But we must observe that out of this two hun-
dred and five millions, nine millions were for military clothing.
The following is a substance of the observations made by Mr. E. Sin-
clair, tailor, published in the British Artisans' Reports.
% " After my arrival at the Paris Exposition I saw a great display of
cloths, with but little tailoring from any country exhibiting. * * *
with a total want of military work, which is much to be regretted, as it
is the most difficult part of our trade. ******
"English tailoring was from two London houses, and consisted of a
few uniform tunics wretchedly made and no way fit to cross the Channel,
and a few garments, anything but well made for a West End firm, mostly
for sporting purposes.
"In the French department, the tailoring was larger than in the Eng-
lish, without style or workmanship to recommend it, and cloth to match,
supplied by slop and export houses.
"Both in France and England the slop- worker is in a wretched condi-
tion, who supplies this export work, and yet the profits accruing to these
houses are enormous.
"The Austrian tailoring sent to the Exhibition was by far the best,
and certainly was the best I ever saw (civilian work) for style, cut, and
workmanship, and taste displayed to give effect; it could not be sur-
passed by any firm in Europe. This work was sent by J. Rothberger,
"In the American department, there were a few garments badly made,
army and navy clothing, chiefly made by machine, and I expect they
were only sent to show the uniforms of the United States.
"The French tailors in Paris are more than outnumbered by foreign
workmen, including Germans, who are very numerous; Alsatians, whom
the French class as foreigners; Italians; a few Spanish; Belgians, called
Flamands in Paris; Dutch; Swiss; with a goodly sprinkling of Rus-
sians. Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. But the French workman in
Paris is a better workman than the larger bulk of this stock of foreigners,
4 c w F
50 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION. ,
most of the latter being young and residing in France for two objects,
to learn the language and improve themselves in workmanship.' 7 * *
There was nothing in all this Exhibition more complicated, and rich,
and gorgeous with embroidery and colors and barbaric gold, than the
clerical raiment. The old Gaul of ten centuries ago had two principal
articles of clothing. One of them , as it grew longer under Italian culture,
took the longer and more mentionable name of pantaloon. The other
was a species of shirt, and named casula, the diminutive of casa, a house;
it was his cottage, cot, or coat. This same casula is, almost without
change, the modern French workman's blouse; and from it came also
the magnificent chasubles. The manufacture of official church garments
is a special and considerable business; but beside the offerings of pro-
fessional fabricants, some of the most elaborate, and, in their kind,
beautiful specimens of ecclesiastical apparel on exhibition, were the
painstaking works of love, wrought by the hands of devout women.
BEADY-MADE CLOTHING FOE WOMEN.
The trade in ready-made clothing in France is chiefly confined to the
"magasins de nouveautes? or dry-goods shops, where ladies' ready-
made clothing is a staple portion of the stock. This is, of course,
generally somewhat cheaper than that made to order and less elaborate
in workmanship, but often rivals the latter for quality of material and
elegance of forms. The most striking display of ladies' goods in the
Exhibition was of this second class, and formed an exception to the gen-
eral rule, being remarkable for thoroughness and finish of make. We
refer to the dresses exhibited by Enout & Co., who, in their most
charming patterns, were honored with the co-operation of the Empress
Eugenie. An embroidered trimming in pansies deserves particular
mention for its beautiful effects of harmony or of brilliancy, according
as it was applied to a taffetas silk of a color corresponding or contrasting
with the leading tint of the flowers. The most noticeable characteristics
of the singularly rich and varied show of ball-dresses were the beauty
of the patterns, which were mainly floral, lightness of tissues, and
fullness of drapery. Even in their stillness they suggested floating,
mazy motion. The finest two in their kind, whose "loveliness" excited
the ejaculatory enthusiasm, of female spectators, came from the work-
shop, one might almost term it studio, of Opiger Gagelin. It is one
of the most famous in Paris, and its graduates may be found in all
quarters of the city. Its importance may be guessed from the fact that
it turns out no fewer than four hundred model dresses annually that
serve as the studies from which nearly all the periodical fashion-plates
The Cornpagnie Lyonnaise and the vast Magasin du Louvre both made
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 51
large displays; the first remarkable for extremely luxurious articles and
costly fabrics; the latter, for its complete assortment of ornamental
articles of female attire. Three magnificently embroidered mantles in
the cases of the last-named house drew great attention, rather, however,
as curiosities of ingenious and painstaking labor, than for originality
or beauty of design. Equally elaborate and more eccentric was a white-
satin dress, exposed by M. Bouillett, embroidered en clwnille, with
immense peacock feathers, most exactly rendering the natural colors
and form and texture to the eye; a grand spreading imperial robe
worthy of a Juno for its wearer. An opera-cloak in the same case was
composed of swan's down covered with butterfly wings.
The probabilities are that these eccentricities of manufacture, if they
ever come to human wear, will be borne on foreign, or, at least, provin-
cial shoulders. With the Parisian the toilette is a composition in which
not only the material, shape, and tint of each item of apparel, but the
figure, features, and complexion of the individual are to be combined in
subordination to that admirable whole, a well-dressed woman. She
gives her mind to it. She devoutly holds to that dogma laid down by
a serious preceptive writer on the subject: " Une toilette est toute une
science;" and to that other maxim pleasantly amended and pieced out
from Buffou: u Le style, c'est Vhomme et surtout la, femme." Her apparel
bespeaks herself; it is the "make-up* 17 of her person. She dresses in
For the manufacture of ladies' clothing Paris is the greatest center,
and in it is consumed an immense quantity of material of every grade
of quality and price from the most ordinary printed cottons to velvet of
the highest cost. For articles of summer wear the light fabrics of
Koubaix, Elbeuf, Sedan, and Eheims, French merinoes and Scotch
cashmeres, are principally used. For the trimming of ladies 7 clothing
pillow and machine-made lace, also that of Paris and St. ICtienne, and
guipures and gimps from Lyons, are employed. The stuffs, cut or uncut,
are given to dressmakers, or ladies 7 tailors, who employ from four to
forty work\vomen, besides those who work at home. The articles are
generally vsewii together by hand, the trimmings being added by the
use of sewing machines. Outer clothing for the use of females is made
almost entirely by women, and the sewing machines are generally
operated by women. The average earnings of men at this trade are
five francs a day; of women, about half that rate. A very considerable
portion of female wearing apparel is exported, principally to England,
Eussia, Holland, Belgium, Spain, Italy, Turkey, North and South
America, and Australia, The articles chiefly exported are paletots,
talmas, pelisses, mantelets, embroidered shawls, scarfs, and jackets.
Dresses, hoods, and children's clothing also enter into the export trade.
These articles are furnished to the small provincial linen-drapers and
commission merchants, while the principal linen-drapers in Paris and
the provinces generally buy the patterns and have the articles made up
52 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
for themselves. The value of these articles produced annually in all
France is estimated at one hundred millions of francs, or nearly twenty
millions of dollars in our coin. Five-sixths of the whole are used in
France, the exports being only one-sixth.
THE SEAMSTBESSES' AET IX PAEIS. 1
In estimating the progress of the seamstresses' art by their number at
different periods, it has not advanced like some other industries. Thus,
in 1780, the independent seamstresses numbered two thousand ; in 1849,
they were two thousand five hundred; and in 1867, only four thousand.
We do not think their number has sensibly increased since 1860, but the
business, then estimated at nineteen millions of francs, has more than
doubled. The fourteen thousand sewing girls employed by the four thou
sand mistresses, with a business of forty millions, earn from two and one-
half to three francs a day.
The trade in ready-made clothing for women did not actually begin
till 1845. Before that time a few houses made Crispins, spencers, and
mantelets ; but as they were sold at retail by a few fancy stores, or were
sent abroad or into the country as models, they did not constitute a
branch of commerce. Since our commercial treaties have opened the
world to us, the industry has continued to increase until it has become
an important branch of our commerce.
Articles of women's dress were once excluded from exhibition; bat,
in 1867, the industry was elegantly represented at the Exposition. We
judge of this by the number of distinguished persons that crowded round
the show-cases, by the considerable business produced by the models
exposed, and by the approbation of knowing persons, that declared no
country would compete with France in the line of women's garments.
As no other nation exhibited samples of women's clothing ,we must con-
fine our judgment to the French articles, regretting, however, that we
have no foreign samples for sake of comparison.
After 1846, many establishments for the special manufacture of women's
clothing were instituted; one of them does business to the amount
of three millions of francs annually, and several others manufacture more
than one million's worth per annum. Besides these many fancy stores
have special departments for the sale of women's garments, and do a
very good business in that line.
Many ready-made dresses are sent abroad as samples to all parts of
the world to avoid the prohibitory tariff on ready-made clothing, which
exists in many countries; in Spain, for example. In Portugal our ready-
made clothing has to pay a duty of eighty per cent.; and in many other
countries a duty of fifty or seventy-five per cent.
If the government would revise our commercial treaties and open
foreign countries to our fabrics, the business in Paris would take a new
1 Extract translated from the report of M. Dusatoy, of the International Jury, Vol. IV
of the Jury Reports.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 53
flight upwards. The business of^women's clothing amounted to fifty-five
millions of francs in 1867; the pay was twenty-five or thirty per cent.,
and the number of seamstresses employed was about seventeen thousand.
In the general statistics of the Paris Chamber of Commerce for 1860
this business was estimated at twenty-seven millions seven hundred and
sixty-five thousand, and we may justly reckon it at double for the year
1867 ; this, added to the forty millions done by seamstresses, will make
the entire business amount to ninety-five millions of francs per year.
We cannot estimate the quantity of material used by dressmakers, its-
fineness and value; because the variety of stuffs is so great, and they
change the fashion so often, certainly the quantity used cannot be
reckoned with justness.
Every industry that is controlled by fashion is so changeable that the
material used in it escapes all analysis, and cannot be correctly esti-
We think we have shown that we were right in affirming that the
clothing industry is the most extensive industry in the world. In fact,
is there a single business that can compare with the figures we have given,
and which employs seventy-five thousand working men and women, one-
twentieth of the population of Paris, at salaries amounting to more than
eighty millions in the aggregate! If the question be studied in a family
point of view, with humanitarian and moral considerations, the conse-
quences and benefits of the industry are incalculable. The married
woman finds a remunerative labor in making clothes, a labor she can
carry on at home, and which helps the housekeeping; the young girl can
work at home, in the business, or in a shop with other girls, at good wages,
and is not obliged to work in large manufactories, where crowds of men
and women, old and young, often produce lamentable and immoral
If the question be examined in an economical light, from an indus-
trial point of view, we are instantly struck with the immense quantity
of material used in the business, which in Paris alone amounts to one
hundred and fifty millions, forty millions of which are sent abroad.
But for this business, which makes the fashions of Paris known all
over the world, our material, not better than that of other nations,
would not have such extensive consumption. The clothes-making busi-
ness, in fact, is the main support of our manufacture of tissues, and is
certainly the principal cause of the prosperity of our grand industrial
These consequences are due to the causes we have enumerated, as well
as to the men who have taken such a large part in the manufacture of
articles of clothing for both sexes. If we take as a basis the forty mill-
ions of tissues exported by clothing establishments, and the labor
required to work up the raw material, we must give credit to the cloth-
ing business for much of our prosperity.
54 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
HATS FOE MEN AND WOMEN.
The word hat, according to etymology and the standard dictionaries,
signifies u a covering for the head made of various materials and worn
by men or women, for defending the head from rain or heat, or for orna-
ment. 77 We have italicised the only part and in proportion to the sub-
ject it is a large one of the definition applicable to the articles that were
exposed under the title of hats for 'women. There was a large collection
.of them, marvellous for diversity of material and form and devices of
littleness capricious snips of things "pricked in with the humor of
forty fancies. 7? They had their fantastic charm withal, though nothing
about them was so astonishing to a mere man's mind, seeing their
diminutiveness and apparent frailty, as to learn what heavy prices they
bore. Some were made of ivory and pearl, others of leather. There
were some composed entirely of feathers, others of paper, yet other
fragilities of glass.
In the manufacture of hats for men Paris excels London for lightness,
but not durability. Cork enters largely into the composition of the finest
qualities, securing both lightness and imperviousness to rain. Much
ingenious machinery is used for preparing the cork and cutting it into
the thinnest of leaves. In the Italian section was a cork hat made up
of two thousand one hundred pieces. Felt hats, of which there is a
large manufacture in France mainly for exportation, were exposed in
profusion. They are made by molding and pressure in the same man-
ner as the seamless coat spoken of above. The whole process was seen
in operation in the machinery department, where the raw material was
transformed in a few minutes to the finished hat. In the same depart-
ment, boot and shoe making machinery from Alexandria was working
rapidly and well. There were several varieties of straw hats from
South America; very cheap and serviceable articles in like kind, such
as are commonly worn by sailors and fishermen from Malta; others
made of the fibre of a plant, very strong and impervious to sun, wind,
and rain, from the Cape of Good Hope. Besides felts, Italy sent some
exceedingly fine specimens of straw from Leghorn and other places;
and England presented a handsome show of chip hats.
The most picturesque caps, embroidered with gold, were from the
Eastern countries. Austria excelled in red cloth tasselled caps. The
plainest came from England, the cheapest and most serviceable from
MANUFACTURE OF HATS FOR MEN.
The centers of the hat trade in France are Paris, Marseilles, Lyons,
Aix, Toulouse, Bordeaux, and some other southern towns. The mate-
rials most used in the manufacture are the skins of the beaver and
muskrat, imported from Canada, that of the Goudin rat, from South
America, hare and rabbit fur, and various kinds of wool. There are two
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 55
distinct divisions of the manufacture, namely : that of the soft and firm
felt hats, and that of silk hats. Workmen, whose special business it is to
cut the hair from the skins, furnish the makers with their raw materials.
The manufacture of French hats consists of several distinct processes.
The fur is first beaten either by hand or machine. A felt bag twice the
size of the hat is thus produced, which is then filled by hand or by a ma-
chine constructed specially for this purpose. The hat is now scraped
with a knife, to take off the long hairs, rubbed with pumice stone, and
stiffened, or not, as the case may require. IsText come the processes of
dyeing, blocking into form, binding, and the insertion of the head lining
A different system prevails for silk hats. First the form is made of
the fabric preferred, stiffened with gum shellac. A kind of silk plush
is made to adhere to the exterior of this form, and within is inserted
material suited for a lining. Many silk hats are made with the adhesive
linings, in which case the interior surface becomes part of the solid shell.
The skilled workmen command high wages, comparatively getting as
high as ten francs per day. The average, however, is between forty and
fifty francs a week. The work is done by the piece, under the supervision
of foremen chosen from among the best workmen. The latter earn from
two thousand to three thousand francs per year. Women in this trade
are paid from eighteen to twenty francs per week. Most of the operatives
work in the factories. French hats are exported to nearly all parts of
the world, and sold from three or four francs to twenty-five or thirty.
Opera hats, made with compressible spring sides, are exported in con-
siderable quantities. The manufacture amounts to about five millions
of dollars estimating on the gold basis, the exports being about twelve
million francs. Great improvements ill hat-making machinery are con-
stantly coming into use. Pretty much the same materials continue to be
used, but the wages of workmen have increased. The great manufac-
turers now make and finish completely their goods, and practically the
hatter whose name is in the crown is only an agent between the pro-
ducer and consumer.
Twenty millions of francs' worth of caps are also made per year in
France, the sewing and embroidery being in a great measure done by
machinery; not many of these are exported. The Icepi, which has since
1848 been introduced into the army, the public schools, and administra-
tions, constitutes quite a proportion of the manufacture, and a considera-
ble number of Greek or Fez caps are made, either knit or felted ; the
principal places for the manufacture of these being Paris, Orleans,
Eueil, Condom, and Chalons, and many of them are exported.
BOOTS A^D SHOES.
Boots and shoes were exhibited in great abundance by many nations.
Among them a case in the American section, from Burt & Co., of
56 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
York, bore favorable comparison with the best of foreign make. The
present style of French boots is, like Achilles, open to attack ID the
heel, which is too high and brought so far forward as to change the nat-
ural point of support, throw the weight of the body too heavily on the
toes and unsteady the pose. It makes the foot look smaller from the
front, and pitches the body slightly forward.
THE BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURE IN FRANCE.
Many ingenious improvements in machinery for this manufacture have
been made. The business is divisible into three classes sewed boots
and shoes, those pegged or nailed, and those fastened by screws. Most
of the French sewed boots and shoes are made in Paris, Nantes, Mar-
seilles, Bordeaux, and Fougeres; pegged ones in Paris, Liancourt, Ro-
mans, Blois, and Angers ; those made with screws are only produced in
Paris. Most of the findings and trimmings of boots and shoes of the
French manufacture are made in France. The workmen are divided
into three classes, the foremen, receivers, and cutters. Half of the opera-
tives are women, who receive about half the rate of wages paid to the men,
the men being paid about four francs per day. The ready-made trade
is carried on by commercial travelers who sell to the provincial dealers.
Commission merchants buy for exportation. The average price of good
boots and shoes is sixteen francs for those worn by men, eight francs
for women's, and six francs for children's. The more common sorts
for men are sold on an average at eight francs, those for women at five
francs, and those for children at three francs a pair. These produc-
tions of the French trade are exported principally to North and South
America, East and West Indies, England, Italy, &c. Paris alone pro-
duces boots and shoes to an amount of one hundred million francs; the
provinces also contribute largely to this trade, and about forty million
francs worth are exported. Since 1855, the use of sewing machines for
sewing together the upper leathers has become very general.
MANUFACTURE OF CLOTHING IN THE UNITED STATES.
In the earlier days of this republic most of the clothing used, except
among persons of wealth, was of household or strictly domestic origin.
Great simplicity of dress was a requirement of the austere ideas of pro-
priety prevailing in those days, and the colonial codes, many of them,
contain statutory restrictions on the subject, the violations of which were
punished by penalties of various degrees of severity.
The first fulling mill in America was erected about the year 1643
at Rowley, in 'Massachusetts; yet, in the year 1713 it is recorded that
there was but one clothier in Connecticut, who could do little more than
full a portion of the homespun made, much of which was worn unshorn
The wealthier classes in the colonial period imported much of their
clothing material and all of the finer cloths from England. In the larger
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 57
cities and towns, however, tailoring establishments found ample patron-
The tailors were sufficiently numerous and important in Philadelphia
in 1718 to apply to the city government for an act of incorporation. A
Master Tailors' Society was incorporated in that city in 1805.
The branch of ready-made clothing business commenced in 1825, and
was started chiefly to supply a demand for ready-made clothing in the
southern States and certain foreign countries. The production of cloth-
ing by the wholesale, with the aid of labor-saving processes, naturally
made a great reduction in the prices of this class of wearing apparel, and
its use has become very general among persons of moderate incomes.
Our import duty on ready-inade x clothing has ranged as follows: from
1816 to 1828, (inclusive,) thirty per cent, ad valorem; from 1828 to 1846,
fifty per cent.; 1846 to 1857, thirty per cent; 1857 to 1862, twenty-four
per cent. ; since that time, thirty-five per cent.
The average annual value of ready-made clothing imported into the
United States from Great Britain in 1827 and 1828 was about $803,000.
For the next six years it fell to an average of $498,000; for the ten years
ending 1844, the average was about $808,000; for the years 1851 and
1852, $97,032. Our exports of clothing for 1827 and 1828 averaged
$119,510; for the next five years $75,576; and for the ten years from
1833 to 1843, the annual average was $118,730. In 1851 and 1852 the
average annual exports reached the value of $250,102.
Four cities manufactured more than one-half of the whole quantity
produced in the United States, namely: New York, $17,011,370; Phila-
delphia, $9,984,497; Cincinnati, $6,381,190; and Boston, $4,567,749.
An extensive and important change has taken place of late years in
the dry-goods trade, through the extension of the ready-made clothing
business, which has thrown the importation and sale of foreign and
domestic cloths to a great degree into the hands of wholesale clothing
merchants, and thus the jobbing business is united with that of manu-
facturers and dealers in clothing on a large scale. These branches, in
consequence of the high cost of materials, the long credits given, and
other circumstances, require heavy investments of capital and a high
degree of discrimination and judgment in the selection of goods. Some
of the establishments are so extensive as to require several thousand
persons to perform the various duties pertaining to the manufacture and
sale of clothing. The male hands have been principally German and
Irish immigrants, the cutters being principally American, and they have
uniformly received higher wages than the same classes could earn in
Europe. The sewing machine has been extensively used in this business
for several years, and has given a vast impetus to the trade. It has
done this by cheapening the expense of production, as well as by
enabling the manufacturer to turn out his work at the shortest notice,
and thus keep pace with the changes of fashion in regard to the cut of
the clothing and the style of material. In fact, it was mainly the result
58 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
of the introduction of the sewing machine that the many small shops
have been to a great extent superseded by the large wholesale establish-
ments. This change is most forcibly illustrated by the fact that, from
1850 to 1860, the number of establishments was reduced eleven per cent,
and the number of hands increased two and four- tenths per cent, only,
yet the capital invested in the business increased nearly one hundred
per cent., and the aggregate value of the product five and one half per
HEAD-DRESSES FOE LADIES.
The head-dress is among the most conspicuous of the articles which
determine the style or fashionable character of a lady's appearance ; and
it is in Paris, chiefly, that the novelties of this department are originated.
The materials used in the manufacture of bonnets and caps, such as
buckram, whalebone, wire, various stuffs, flowers and lace, are obtained
from special manufacturers. There is no fixed method of preparing
articles of millinery. It is altogether a matter of taste and ingenuity.
The workmanship forms only a small item in the value. * The average
of wages of working milliners is two and a half francs per diem. Nearly
all the milliners sell direct to the purchaser. Some firms, however, make
up articles specially for exportation, and these alone employ under-milli-
ners, who receive the necessary materials for a certain number of bonnets
and head-dresses, and prepare the work by arranging and fastening the
various stuffs upon the ready-made shapes which they furnish. The
ribbons and flowers are always added by the milliner herself. It is
difficult to estimate the exact value of millinery annually produced in
France; but it must be considerable, as the Parisian milliners' returns
amount to nearly twenty millions of francs, or nearly four million dollars
in gold. About one-tenth of this is exported, chiefly to America,
England, Spain, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Prussia, and to the French
and English colonies.
The annual French chiefly Parisian production of artificial flowers,
of which about three-fourths are exported, amounts in value to eighteen
million francs. The display of them, in what may be styled the ladies'
department of the Exhibition, was one of its most attractive features.
The fidelity to nature of these counterfeit presentments in leaf, and
blossom, and pistil, in exquisite fineness of line, and tenderest shade in
gradation of color, to the very dew glistening on the petals is so decep-
tive that it is only by an appeal from the eye to the sense of smell that
nature can sustain her prior claim. The counterfeit representatives of
every clime in this international floral display vied in hue and form with
their living originals in the park and horticultural annex. For certain
purposes of ornamentation they are, indeed, superior to the growth of
the garden. They do not droop and fade as the gaiety of the ball room
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 59
rises, nor by their perfume weigh the heated atmosphere with an addi-
tional sickly element.
The production of artificial flowers may be named among the artistic
specialties of Paris, in which she stands without a rival. The materials
which it consumes are various and delicate ; for the leaves and blossoms,
jaconet, nansook, cambric, muslin, velvet, crape, satin, silk, French
cambric, feathers, paper, and wax are made use of; and for the stems,
berries, and fruits, wire, silk, cotton, floss-silk, paper, starch, gum", gela-
tine, wax, paste, chenille, quills, whalebone, gauze, chopped wool, and
glass balls. For mounting the flowers, silk, paper, gauze, and iron and
brass are required. The workmen always use the same instruments,
goffering irons, stamps, &c. The galvanoplastic process is sometimes
employed. The cost of workmanship amounts to about four-tenths of
the value of the productions, and the materials employed to about three-
tenths. The remaining three-tenths represent the profit of the producer.
This manufacture is divided into a great many different branches.
For the preparation of the colors there are special workshops. The work
is generally carried on at the homes of the work-people. This trade
employs fifteen thousand persons, nine-tenths being women and girls.
The men earn about four francs a day, the women two francs twenty-five
centimes. The mounting and sale of flowers is carried on for the most
part in handsome shops and show-rooms, where all kinds of flowers are
generally sold as well as the different sortsof ornamental feathers. Three-
fourths of the entire manufacture are exported through the medium of
commission agents. The value of the trade is about fifteen million
francs per annum. The flowers are exported to America, England,
Belgium, Russia, and Germany.
LACES, FANS, GLOVES, ETC.
THE MANUFACTURE OF RARE AND COSTLY LACE BY HAND NOTICES OF SPECLVLLY
INTERESTING EXHIBITIONS OF LACE MACHINE-MADE LACES WAGES, CONDITIONS,
AND DIVISIONS OF LABOR EDUCATION OF LACE-MAKERS THE BRITISH ARTISANS
UPON LACE MANUFACTURE OF LACE IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES EMBROIDERY MAX-
UFACTUKB OF FANS MANUFACTURE OF GLOVES IN FRANCE, ENGLAND, AND OTHER
COUNTRIES ELASTIC TISSUES, SUSPENDERS, BELTS, GARTERS, AND BRACELETS.
THE PRINCIPAL DISPLAYS OF LACE.
The manufacture of lace of the most rare and costly descriptions is
performed by hand labor, the designs being furnished by artists who
possess a high degree of skill the result of long-continued studies and
practice under circumstances most favorable to the attainment of profi-
ciency in the specialty of producing designs adapted to this manufacture.
The point laces of Alen9on and that of Brussels are so intricate and
the manipulations so delicate and difficult that it is necessary to give a
life-long training to the operators to secure excellency in each distinct
characteristic of fabrication.
The art of lace-making has been carried to such perfection that a suf-
ficient indication of light and shade can be introduced to give an approx-
imation even in such transparent tissues as the Brussels and the Alen-
on point to the relief effects attained in engraving.
The specimens of Alenon point and other French lace at the Exposi-
tion were carefully selected and very beautiful in design and workman-
ship. The black lace of Bayeux and Calvados is the most important
and extensively manufactured in France.
One of the leading firms in the production of this lace is Messrs.
Lefebure, who exhibited a dress of point d'Alenon, combining the high-
est qualities of the art, the price of which was $16,456 in gold. This
dress, consisting of two flounces and trimmings, took the labor of forty
women for two years to produce it. The same firm had also a superb
point or half-shawl of black lace; the design consisted of a large central
bouquet of roses perfectly shaded and standing out as it were from the
ground. This central cluster was surrounded by a border of roses, upon
which equal skill was displayed. The price was a trifle less than two
thousand dollars in gold.
Another example by the same exhibitors was a bridal veil, the ground
of which was needle point, the flowers application made at Ghent, and
the border in the style of Venice point, while figures in point d'Alen^on
formed part of this rich and harmonious composite. The lace of Maliues
or Mechlin lace, as well as the ancient rose or Venice point in high re-
lief, were shown by the same house.
62 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Among the many admirable specimens of black Bayeux laces were the
following, by Messrs. Verde-Delisle : a point ornamented with beauti-
fully shaded flower forms, a parasol of finest quality, and a flounce of
ferns and flowers, and a dress pattern. They also displayed a flounce of
point d'Alengon, style of Louis XV, the flowers in medallions ; a dress of
Brussels mixed points, and some specimens of Cluny guipure, and some
altar cloths. Messrs. Lefe'bure and Messrs. Verde-Delisle enjoy an envi-
able distinction for superiority in the design and quality of their fabrics.
Among the other notable specimens in the French section were a
very elegant tunic of white lace made partly in Brussels and partly at
Mirecourt; a black lace flounce of exquisite fineness of texture, a black
lace parasol, a Bayeux flounce in roses, handkerchiefs bordered with
Venice point and filet from the Convent of Notre Dame du Puy, black
silk guipure shawls and laces printed in colors or embroidered with
pearls, from Auvergne.
The Belgian section, too, presented an exhibition of laces hardly infe-
rior to those of similar grades in the French; the Dromment varieties
being Brussels, point a Paiguille, plat, application, Grammont and
Mechlin. A dress of "point gaze" exhibited by Hoorickx was valued at
The principal manufacture of lace in Belgium is that of the Valencien-
nes variety. It is made throughout East and West Flanders, the finest
qualities being Ypres, West Flanders. Grammont, West Flanders, is
the seat of an extensive manufacture of black lace in which considerable
improvements have been made.
There was a creditable display of shawls of this lace by the collective
exhibitors of Grammont. These are not so carefully worked, however,
as the Bayeux laces of the same class.
Prussia and the German states exhibited only some needle point
flounces of Berlin edgings from Nurtingen. Austria, a point impe-
rial and the coarser laces of Bohemia. Spain, the lace of Barcelons
Sweden, the torchon lace of the peasantry. Russia, that of Helsingfors.
Italy, the black and white pillow-made laces of Genoa and imitations of
French laces. Rome, a remarkable specimen of old Venetian poinl
Turkey, white silk crochet lace from Smyrna and the Island of Rhodes
Malta, her traditional black and white guipures. England, Devonshii
lace, Honiton, Cluny, and needle-made laces. Ireland, guipure. Central
and South America are represented to a very limited extent in lac<
characteristic of Paraguay, Uruguay, Chili, Venezuela and Brazil.
NET AND MACHINE LACE.
Imitations of some of the standard laces have been successfully made
by machinery of ingenious construction, chiefly at Calais and Amiens
in France, and Nottingham in England. The French produce in this
way imitations of Valenciennes, Cluny, colored laces, white and black
blondes, especially excelling in white blondes, which are to a great degree
taking the place of the hand-made lace of the same type.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 63
Amiens produces the finest llama and yak shawls. Plain and embroid-
ered silk tulles are made chiefly at Lyons.
Brussels net made by machinery now used as a ground for laces has
superseded the pillow-made ground, at an immense saving of labor and
expense and giving equally satisfactory and artistic results.
WAGES, CONDITIONS, AND DIVISIONS OF LABOR.
There are in Calais and St. Pierre seven hundred and eighty machines,
the best of which were built in Nottingham and its vicinity. They are
all iu factories worked by steam-power, running all hours, commencing
work from six to seven o'clock on Monday morning, continuing until ten
o'clock on Saturday evening; in some establishments working up to
ten and twelve o'clock on Sunday morning.
A great deal of liberty is allowed the workmen for social intercourse,
and a large amount of affability and familiarity exists between employers
and employed in the various workshops.
There are two men at each machine taking alternate shifts or turns
in working, one commencing on Monday, from 6 to 7 a. m., continuing
until 9 a. m., and the other coming on at 9 a. m., and working until 1
p. m., the first coming back at 1 p. m., remaining until 6 p. m. The one
leaving off at 1 p. m. returns at 6 p. m. and works until 2 a. m., and so
on through the week.
The law in France is that a week's notice shall be given and taken by
the employed ; the man, if these conditions have been fairly complied
with, receiving what is termed his livret, in which is described his per-
sonal appearance, answering the purpose of a passport to any part of
France. If the employer refuse to give the livret he is liable to a fine
of fifty francs. If the workman leaves in debt it is inserted in his
Hvret, and his next employer, according to law, can stop one-fourth of his
earnings for the purpose of refunding the debt to his former master.
In the lace trade terms are used to denote the width of machines, such
as "quarters;" any number of inches a machine is in width upon being
divided by nine inches (a quarter of a yard,) gives the number of quar-
ters. " Gauges" are counted by the number of points or combs contained
in au inch. All gauges are calculated from the ten-point standard.
The workmen are paid by the "rack," consisting of one thousand nine
hundred and twenty motions of the machine.
EDUCATION OF LACE-MAKERS.
As a means of artistic education, the perfect freedom of access to the
picture galleries appears to be taken great advantage of, and fully appre-
ciated by the people ; as upon our visit to the Louvre, in one gallery
alone, we witnessed fifteen persons, old and young of both sexes, copying
the paintings of the great masters. The beautiful gardens are another
source of attraction and instruction to the people. The intimate and
64 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
social freedom we noticed existing between the employer and employed,
is another source of great improvement to the work-people.
THE BRITISH ARTISANS UPON LACE.
In the reports by the British artisans there is one upon lace by Edward
Smith, Joseph Bird, and George Dexter, delegates recommended by
the Nottingham Chamber of Commerce, from which the following is
"Believing in its importance," (the lace manufacture,) "we have
endeavored to the best of our ability to ascertain the quality of work
turned out by different nations ; influences affecting the character of the
work and trade generally, such as cost of material, wages, conditions
and divisions of labor, education, habits of life, amusement, and trade
"The first class of goods we inspected was the French department,
Group IV, Class 33.
"The hand-made laces are of surpassing beauty: the intricacy of and
perfect following out of the leaves and flowers of various plants introduced
into the designs are very delicate and truthful. We are of opinion that
the carrying out of the design in the hand -made lace must have an
abiding and elevating power upon the minds of the females engaged in
this branch of industry, implanting a taste for the beautiful that no doubt
descends to their children, widening and spreading in its character and
influencing all who may come in contact with them.
" The total number of lace makers is estimated at two hundred thousand
women and girls. They gain on an average one franc twenty-five cen-
times per day ; some who are particularly skillful and industrious earn as
much as three francs fifty centimes for ten hours' hard work. Lace-m akers
are for the most part peasant women, who all, without exception, work at
their own homes, often quitting their lace pillows and babes to attend to
household duties or to work in the fields ; lace-making has the advantage of
being carried on at home, and, therefore, of not depriving agricultiire of
too many able hands. French lace is sold in all markets in the United
States, the Brazils, Russia, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, the East and
the West Indies. Paris is the principal center of consumption , the young
females wearing a very tasteful description of head-dress composed of
all kinds of lace.
" The machine-made laces are of a very high character both as regards
quality of material and design. It is impossible to carry out the design
to perfection unless a sufficient number of motions of the machine is
gone through so as to give an opportunity for the figuring threads to lay
in the work in that smooth and rounded form, successfully tracing the
design upon the lace as upon paper. This is pre-eminently the feature of
the French machine-made laces. All the articles from the broadest to
the narrowest widths exhibit the same beauty of construction. The laces
exhibited consist principally of blondes, black laces, edgings, guipures,
CLOTHING AXD WOVEN FABRICS. 65
and Clnnys. The blondes Lave a bright silvery appearance; the black
laces, in the form of shawls, flounces, &c., display great beauty of design
and brightness in the thick-thread silks, not only in the goods exhibited,
but those we saw in the course of manufacture at Calais and St. Pierre
"A first-class article would appear to be the ruling feature in the minds
of the manufacturers, the design in no way being sacrificed for the sake
MANUFACTURE OF LACE IS YAEIOUS COUXTKIES. 1
The generic term lace comprises all those fine thread works made by
spindle or needle.
Spindle lac;e is made in a simple portable frame, in the operative's lap,
with spindles and thread, and pins to guide the thread or point out the
design. There has been no recent change in this frame or loom, nor in
the method of lace-making ; the same process has been followed for four
hundred years. Spindle lace is made of any textile fiber; flax, cotton,
silk, wool, hair, and even gold and silver wire are used in its fabrication,
producing the common picot, at five centimes a yard, or the sumptuous
lace that sells like precious stones. Needle lace, generally termed point
lace, is made with a common needle, after a pattern held in the hand ;
and white thread is the usual material for it.
The manufacture of lace is very varied; so much so that we might say
there were as many varieties as factories. Lace is made in every part of
the world, and no two kinds are alike, though the mode of making be
similar ; and for that reason laces generally take their names from the
places where they are made. It is said the business of lace-making in
Europe gives employment to more than half a million women and girls;
they all work at home and- earn ten or fifteen centimes an hour.
All the large lace manufactories were represented at the Exposition. ^
We will only notice some of the principal ones in Europe. France and
Belgium are the great lace-making countries, and give work to four-fifths
of the females employed in that peculiarly feminine industry.
SPAIN ART) PORTUGAL.
Spain was once renowned for its blonde silk lace; the prosperity of
the business has been declining for many years, and now it is almost
extinct. The lace made there now is for robes, mantillas, veils, and
garments used at home or in the American colonies. Barcelona is the
central lace market of Spain. The operatives of Catalonia are not
wanting in skill; and they often excel in this delicate work. With
proper encouragement they might supply the world, at a reasonable
The production of Portugal and Madeira is less important than that of
1 Extracts translated from the report of M. Felix Aubry, Class 33, Vol. IV, Jury Reports.
5 C W F
66 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Spam ; and it is confined chiefly to narrow lace for trimming. The work
of the Portuguese operatives is good, solid, and cheap ; but the designs
are old and are wanting in taste ; with proper direction they could make
as good lace as is found in Pay, and might rival that part of our country
in its production.
Spindle lace, which is made all over Germany, even in Denmark and
Bohemia, is known in commerce as Saxon lace. The principal centers
of its production are Aunaberg, Dresden, Eibenstock, Carlsbad, and
Tonderu. The different kinds of German lace are generally common
looking and of inferior quality ; the designs are old and ugly, unless
copied from French designs; and the workmanship is far inferior to
any of ours, in fact, is not as good as that of Auvergue. But the Saxon
lace has one advantage over ours, that of price ; the cost of making it
in the Erzgebirge and Vogtland is much less than in France. In this
very important point of view, the Saxon lace beats us in the markets of
America and Russia.
Three varities of lace are made in the United Kingdom: Irish lace,
Buckingham lace, and Honiton lace.
Irish lace is like nothing in France or anywhere else ; it is cheap, and
the great number of women who work it do not get so much for it as
our operatives. The different kinds of Irish lace partake of the nature
of embroidery, fringe, crochet work, spindle and needle lace ; they are
sold only in England and America ; the use of them has decreased in
The Buckingham lace of England is chiefly made in the counties of
Northampton, Bedford, Oxford, and Buckingham. The English lace-
makers are skillful, they work with silk or thread and produce an article
of excellent quality. In 1802 the business prospered, but it is now under-
going a crisis that may prove fatal to it. It sent nothing to the Expo-
sition this year ; the reason of this decline is the competition of Caen
in edging and insertion, and of Grammont for larger pieces.
Honiton lace has a peculiar and characteristic quality ; it is made in
Devonshire, resembles white spindle gimp, with fine embroidered
relief; some large pieces excel all other lace in elegance, perfection, and
value. The samples of Honiton, exhibited by Hay ward of London, were
particularly admired; they united beauty of workmanship, grace of
design, fineness of material, and harmony of particulars. It is so much
in vogue that it has become the court etiquette of England to wear it,
being distinguished for finish, brilliancy, and freshness. The guipure
and application of Belgium are so dark they could not be used if not
bleached in a solution of powdered carbonate of lead. This process is
very injurious to the health of the bleachers, and for that reason the
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 67
English have abandoned it, and give premiums to the lace-makers that
will deliver their work in a clean and natural state. This Honiton lace
is the best in England; it is even superior to the best that is made in
France or Belgium. Lace is also made in some of the English colonies;
the best known is the thread and silk guipure of Malta ; it is well made,
of excellent quality, and is reasonable in price.
Xext to France, Belgium gives employment to the largest number of
lace-inakers ; the number is said to be over one hundred thousand, dis-
persed over the provinces of Hainaut, Flanders, and Brabant. They
produce five kinds of lace: Valenciennes, Mechlin, Grammont, Brussels,
and Flanders guipure.
VALENCIENNES is the best ; it is extensively known, much sought for,
and appreciated for its strength, lightness, and elegance. The business
done in this lace amounts to twenty millions of francs a year. It has been
vainly attempted to produce this lace in other countries, but Belgium
enjoys the monopoly for its manufacture, and furnishes it to the world.
The four principal centers of manufacture are Ypres, Ghent, Bruges,
and Court-ray. The Valenciennes of Ypres, called square point, is the
most esteemed. The execution of this elegant tissue seemed to have
reached perfection long ago, and no improvement could be made in it ;
yet the rich collection of Valenciennes from the town of Ypres, varied in
design, and clear in meshes, demonstrate an incontestable superiority in
the skill of the operatives and the cleverness of their employers.
MECHLIN LACE was much in vogue a few years ago, it is a fine, light,
elegant lace, to be had for a reasonable price ; but it is out of fashion
now, and very little is made.
GRAMMONT LACE has undergone a change ; twenty years ago it was
made entirely of white thread ; now black silk is used for it. Its manu-
facture has increased five-fold since 1855; this is due to its good quality
and low price. The meshes are not so close as in France; the difficulties
of making it are so utilized as to substitute choice designs and intelligent
combinations of execution, and thus furnish showy pieces at a lower
price than anywhere else. Much is sent to America, Germany, England,
and Eussia. It certainly cannot compare with our elegant productions
of Bayeux, but it may offer a formidable competition.
BRUSSELS LACE. The lace factories of Brussels rival all the others
in Belgium. Two kind of laces are chiefly made there: Single flowers,
made by pin or needle, and intended to be applied on tulle, and gauze
point, called Venice point. Application on tulle improves every day, yet
it is strange its production does not increase, and we can give no reason
for it. Gauze point, however, made a splendid show at the Exposition,
it was rich, regular, clear, and of tasteful design. We must mention the
establishment of Lefebure & Son, of Paris, carried on at Destelberghe,
where application flowers are worked, as well as gauze point. This model
68 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
establishment unites the excellencies of the spindle and needle lace work,
it sends new designs to the Paris market, that are artistically got up
and rendered with perfect taste.
FLANDERS GUIPURE. Other kinds of lace are made in Belgium, but
they belong to the preceding categories. However, we owe a special
mention to white guipure, made with a shuttle, called Flanders guipure.
This lace is made at Bruges and in the neighborhood ; it is an excellent
imitation of the seventeenth century guipure ; rich and loaded with
designs, it is very light and elegant. It is like Houiton; but it is not
so fine ; the meshes are not so small, yet it is furnished at a reasonable
price. It is one of the prettiest productions of the lace industry.
LACE-MAKING IN FRANCE.
There are six varieties of lace made in France: Alenon point; Lille
and Arras lace; Bailleul lace; Chantilly, Caen, and Bayeux lace; Mire-
court lace ; and Puy lace.
ALENyoN. The French point lace, called point d'Alengon, is made
at Alenon and Bayeux; it is the only kind of French lace that is made
entirely with a needle ; it has reached an incomparable perfection, and
certain pieces are real objects of art. This is the most sumptuous of
all laces, it has a strength that defies time and the Vasher- women, for that
reason it merits the surname of queen of laces. Ever since the time of
Colbert, Alen9Oii and Argentan have been the center of this manufac-
ture; but in 1855, Auguste Lefebure, one of our best manufacturers,
started a factory for it at Bayeux, where he modified and improved the
style so as to give it a desirable peculiarity. We have never seen any-
thing to equal the Alencon lace from Bayeux, exhibited at the late
LILLE AND ARRAS. The manufactories of Lille and Arras formerly
produced many blonde laces, on a clear ground, greatly esteemed for
their freshness, lightness and good quality. When fashion no longer
favored that style of lace, the manufacture diminished sensibly.
BAILLEUL. At Bailleul and in the neighborhood, they weave a kind
of Yalencienne less fine and clear than that of Ypres, but which is greatly
esteemed for its whiteness, its solidity and its cheapness.
CHANTILLY, BAYEUX, AND CAEN. The dark-colored laces of these
three places are identical ; they are chiefly composed of large pieces, as
shawls, robes, flounces, and veils, made of strips and patches admirably
joined together by a peculiar stitch. The making of white silk blonde
having been abandoned, on account of machine rivalry, attention has
been turned to the manufacture of black laces, which has reached a
great degree of perfection. The lace of Calvados and Chantilly cannot
Caen is celebrated for its varieties of black lace; it is in fact the
comm ercial product of the place ; much of it is exported. In 1855 Bayeux
gained the first prize for lace, and it still retains its merited reputation
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 69
in that line. It produces the best large pieces of extra-fine meshes and
rich designs, such as are sought after by the opulent classes.
Some years ago Mr. Schneider, president of the legislative body,
wishing to give employment to the wives and daughters of his operatives,
put up lace factories at.Creusot, where elegant point lace is made, re-
sembling that of Chantilly and Bayeux.
MiRECornT. The factory at Mirecourt has a repiitation for the
novelty, variety, and good quality of its laces; the operatives there are
very skillful in their work; under an intelligent direction, they follow
the freaks of fashion, and invent new patterns that are instantly
accepted by customers and soon imitated by foreign manufacturers. It
is certainly the most active and inventive lace-making place we know;
being a kind of leader to all rivals. The articles exhibited were varied
and of neu* style, and of course much admired, particularly a bed spread,
a robe, and a chasuble in relief guipure.
Four or five years ago Madam Gandillot, a woman of taste, tried to
get the operatives of Mirecount to revive old abandoned fashions; she
finally succeeded, and her art guipures were immediately accepted, and
gave origin to a new and cheaper style, called Cluny lace, which had
wonderful success greatly benefiting French manufactures.
PUY. If the Mirecourt factory is more ready at invention, that of
Puy is more important. Its work spreads over four departments of
Auvergne, and employs near one hundred thousand women and girls of
the mountains. The central market is Puy.
The Auvergne laces, very various in style, are celebrated for cheap-
ness; the operatives of this manufacturing cluster, stimulated by a few
energetic and enlightened persons, have progressed sensibly within the
last ten years. They can yield to the whim of the moment and use any
textile material, flax, silk, cotton, wool, and wire, and when the demand
for one style ceases, they modify their labor, invent a new style and
spread it rapidly.
The manufacture here is very active and it improves every day* It
exhibited a specimen for the first time, and it was found to be of diffi-
cult imitation ; the piece was a botirnous of Cashmere wool, having all the
gaudy colors of an India shawl; the combination of variegated flowers
on a lace foundation created much admiration. It cannot become an
article of commerce, but it denotes progress and exhibits the skill of the
Auvergne operatives, and the inventive talent of its manufacturers.
There is also made in a small quantity at Puy, needle point lace of
extreme fineness and of an artistic character, almost equaling the Yen-
ice point, now obsolete. Of all the lace-manufacturing districts of
France, Puy sends the most productions abroad.
The number of lace-makers in France is estimated at 200,000 women
and girls; their average pay is from one franc to one franc and a half
70 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
per day of ten hoars' work; yet some earn as much as three francs and
a half. This pay is influenced much by fashion with its imperious
and ephemeral exigencies. All these operatives, scattered over fourteen
departments, work at home, combining the labor of the spindle and
needle with field labor and the more urgent duty of housekeeping. Thus
lace-niaking has the advantage of being done at home in the family, with-
out disturbing agricultural labor; it provokes no emigration and does
not crowd girls in factories, but keeps them from all contact that would
endanger their morals. For such reasons the business deserves encour-
agement as beneficial to health, to morals, and to comfort.
This industry also has the sympathy of all practical and elevated
minds. Her Majesty, the Empress, has opened a concours for lace-makers,
and has spent much money for their benefit. Many manufacturers and
directors of benevolent institutions are trying to introduce this industry
into families. In almost all our northern departments of France, as well
as in Belgium and Germany, persons favored by fortune are rivaling
each other in the establishment of schools for instruction in lace-making.
At Alengon, Dieppe, and Caen, the authorities join private individuals
in the establishment of such institutions: but it is chiefly in Auvergne
that the most has been done in this way. The prefect, the agricultural
society, and the board of commerce at Puy, and all enterprising men of
wealth there, have done what they could to improve the moral and
hygienic conditions of the lace industry. Schools for apprentices are
founded in all the communes; feasts are given to the best manufacturers,
and premiums are distributed to the most expert operatives as encour-
agement to their energy.
The relations between manufacturers and their operatives are very
cordial. In fact the lace-maker does not yield her liberty while she sells
her time and skill ; she can vary her occupation, and her labor is restricted
to no certain term. If she is not satisfied with her pay she is at liberty
to quit the work when she pleases and try some other; she can even
give up what she has begun, if she finds the task too hard, or the com-
pensation not sufficient.
Lace-making requires so many and varied designs, that the industry
has created the specialty of art-designers.
Machinery is fast taking the place of hand labor in the production of
garments; plain sewing and even embroidery can be done by machines,
but they cannot make lace. Lace-making has nothing to fear from
machines, which are fast giving a democratic tendency and popular sim-
plicity to dress : dress now-a-days hardly distinguishes the different
social classes. Clothes are now bought to wear for the season, not to
keep, for fashion militates against that. The useful is more looked to
now than the brilliant in costume; dresses are no more handed down as
heir-looms like jewelry. Without deciding whether this is good or bad
in itself, we must say it benefits the working classes. In spite of this
change in the consumption of fine and costly articles of dress, lace-mak-
ing has flourished, though the more costly styles of lace are not so much
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 71
in demand as formerly. The art must suffer a crisis; but every crisis
produces a contest, encourages work, and provokes a healthy energy.
This, our national industry, is more favored in France than in other
countries; in fact, there is little similarity between French and foreign
laces. Each of our manufacturing districts has a peculiarity in its lace
that defies imitation, and of course competition. Though the black lace
of Grammont and the white of Saxony may be sold cheaper than ours,
they cannot compete with us in novelty of execution. We are the crea-
tors, the inventors; foreigners are the copiers, the imitators. Their lace
can sell ouly when ours is out of fashion. In short, the superiority of
France in this industrial specialty is indisputable; it does not merely
belong to the initiative spirit, nor to the perfect taste found in all our
home inventions; it is the manifest consequence of the concentration of
two forces, found combined in no national industry so perfectly and so
harmoniously; that is, man's genius of discovery and the commercial
expansion of the product; the talent of woman in the execution of a
labor essentially of her domain, and in its appropriateness to all the
caprices of a mode essentially French.
France, Switzerland, Saxony, Scotland, and Ireland, monopolize the
industry of white embroidery, which is performed by machinery as well
as by hand, by the tambour frame, the crochet hook, and the needle.
Embroidery in colors is more characteristic of the Orient, and from
the eastern nations we find the most gorgeous and varied examples of
that style; some of which may be mentioned, namely: From Turkey,
slippers, caps, purses, handles for hookahs, and housings for horses, all
rich with silk, gold and silver, embroidered over velvet and other mate-
rials ; Egypt, carpets for prayers, one of violet and one of lilac velvet
with gold scroll, and borders of silver; Eussia, gold embroideries from
Tiflis, upon crimson velvet of excellent design and skillful preparation.
The ecclesiastical vestments produced at Lyons and Paris are among
the most elaborate and costly specimens of the art. Prominent among
them was a chape of silver tissue by Barban, of Lyons, embroidered
with gold, and a chasuble of gold tissue upon which, in bold relief, were
figures partly composed of jewels; and from Paris, by Biais, a chasuble
of cloth of gold, embroidered in gold, with vine, leaves, and wheat.
MANUFACTURE OF FAXS. 1
The making and sale of fans form one of the oldest branches of
French industry, under the term of Paris articles. As early as the
beginning of the sixteenth century, Italian perfumers introduced the use
of fans at the court of France; later, when fashion assumed a Spanish
tone, the fan was in great favor, and from that time to the end of the
Extract, translated from the report of M. Duvelleroy, of the International Jury,
Vol. IV, p. 322.
72 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
last century it became an essential part of a French lady's toilet. Thus
we find that fan-makers were formerly among the guilds of art and trade
in the city and suburbs of Paris. In 1673, an edict of Louis XIV con-
stituted them into a legal body and approved their by-laws.
Fan-making has always given einployrneDt to a number of workmen
of various trades, as joiners, gilders, glaziers, paperers, plumbers,
painters, and embroiderers. All these had a hand in the manufacture of
fans, which, however simple, require the aid of many trades. It was
not unusual to see goldsmiths, jewelers, carvers, and painters at work
in their various ways on this trifling object.
At that time fans were made at Paris of all values, from fifteen cents
to forty pistoles. The commerce in fans, for exportation as well as home
consumption, amounted to a considerable sum. Some manufacturers
were said to make twenty thousand livres annually, by exporting fans, not
counting profits from home sales of the same article. Spain, England, and
Holland were the great customers of France for fans at that period.
Spain was the only country that kept them; from the others they were
sent to South America and the Baltic coast. France imported a few
fans from China and Japan; but they were brought out because of their
exquisite workmanship, and their value was exorbitant as objects
of curiosity from a distance.
The part of the fan which forms the segment of a circle is called the
leaf. This is sometimes plain, and of a single piece; but usually it is
formed of two pieces of paper or other material, glued or pasted together ;
and often thin kid-skin is pasted on the paper. Satin, gauze, tulle, lace,
crape, and other thin stuffs are used for the body or lining of the fan.
The leaf is fixed on a mounting called the heft or handle, without
regard to other component parts; thus they say a heft or handle of pearl,
ivory, steel, silver, &c. The strips that form the neclc are of the same
number as the pleats of the leaf; this is from twelve to twenty-four.
Before the leaf is fixed on the handle, it is put into a stiff paper mold,
with the number of pleats desired. On closing this mold of two pieces,
and pressing it, the required pleats are made on the paper "fan leaf.
Between each pleat a copper plate called a sound is introduced. This
process of pleating was once very complicated; the paper was first
minutely marked ; and in pleating, the lines had to be followed with
great precision; the mold now does away with that tedious process.
The strips are from ten to twelve centimetres in length, and it is on this
surface that the carving, gilding, and painting are done. The outside
strips are stouter than the others, to sustain the leaf. All the strips
are united at the lower end by a rivet, the ends of which are sometimes
ornamented with jewels or the precious metals.
The frames of fans are made in the villages of FOise, between Meru and
Beauvais. The communes of Audeville, Coudray, Noailles, Boissiere, and
Ste. Genevieve are devoted to this work, which employs three hundred
persons, men, women, and children. The principal materials used are
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 73
mother-of-pearl, ivory, horn, bone, tortoise shell, citron and sandal wood,
ebony, cherry, locust, plum, pear, a*pple, and all sorts of exotic hard
wood. The workmen carve, cut, gild, and chisel these woods with great
skill; but unfortunately they are ignorant of the theoretical principles
of design, which the younger generation is now introducing. They ex-
ecute charming mosaics on the side pieces; they have long known the
process of enameling, and some of the simple country people can rival
the best artists of Paris in this kind of work. But it is in making
open- work in ivory, pearl, and shell, that they have no rivals; and this
solid lace is made by means of small saws, which they make themselves
out of watch springs. They carve flowers and other ornaments ex-
quisitely, and they are beginning to make figures in relief. If they will
.only study drawing, a prosperous future will open to them. In short,
the fan frame goes through the hands of the woodman, the carver, the
polisher, the dyer, the varnisher, the sawyer, the gilder, the burnisher,
the sculptor, and the spaugler.
The fan-leaf is all made in Paris. A painter furnishes the designs,
which are lithographed, xylographed, or engraved on copper or steel;
then the paper is printed, pasted, colored, or painted; made up,
trimmed, spangled, rireted, and inspected. Thus a finished fan has to
pass through twenty different hands, at least, though it may not sell
for more than five centimes, or one cent.
The number of artists and workmen employed in this business in
Paris and the Oise is over four thousand. The annual profits are ten
millions of francs; three-fourths of the fans are sent abroad. Though
this business has been carried on in Spain for thirty years, only common
articles are produced. Italy makes a great use of fans, but manufac-
tures none ; we furnish fans to Italy. Portugal is the third European
fan market in rank. The Spaniards and Portuguese carried with them,
to South America the habit of using the fan. Brazil, Mexico, Cuba,
St. Thomas, Chili, Peru, and the Argentine Eepublic are famous
markets for French fans. France also sends a few to the East Indies
and Manila; but there China is a rival in the trade of the common
article, but cannot compete with France in the production of fine fans.
France also does a good business with the United States of America,
where nothing but Paris fashions are acceptable. The late civil war
that desolated that fine country injured the French trade considerably,
but the business is again reviving.
There are no certain rules for the fan trade ; it depends entirely on
fancy. Tastes are infinite. The dealer must watch caprice, for there is
no article of manufacture that requires less solidity; show is all that is
necessary in a fan. All South American countries want gaudy articles,
of brilliant colors, and odd designs; they require grace, beauty, and
brilliancy even in a fan. The people there like subjects that depict the
habits of their country, and have reference to their ideas of political
independence. Experience and tact in this trade is the only guide for
74 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Some writers have attempted to prove that th,e fan is of Chinese
origin, although it is found in every Indian country as well as in China.
In support of this assertion the testimony of legends is invoked; hence
the superiority that has long been attributed to China. Any one who
will take the trouble to examine into the matter will find that France
has nothing to fear from China, except in the production of ordinary
fans; and that is not because we do not know how to make them, but
because our workmen require and enjoy more material comfort than the
Chinese can command in his country. Except in common fans we
surpass the Chinese in the tastefulness and infinite variety of our
designs, which are constantly changing. Paris and China monopolize
the trade in fans, but all the fashionable people in Europe prefer French
The flourishing condition of this commerce in the reigns of Louis
XIY, Louis XV, and Louis XVI, was suddenly destroyed by the revo-
lution; but when the peace of 1815 reopened the world to us, orders for
fans came from all quarters, and they were manufactured hastily in
great quantities, but of indifferent quality. It could not have been
otherwise, for all the good old artists and workmen were dead, or had
adopted some other business. Things continued thus till 1830, when
the taste for antiquities having revived, objects of ancient art were
much sought after. A few years before that period the Duchesse de
Berry gave historical fancy festivals, and set everybody hunting over
Spain, Holland, and Germany for the fine old fans the French refugees
had carried with them into those countries. Many were found, but
they were very costly, and that suggested the idea of reviving the
industry as one of the fine arts.
With the assistance of eminent artists, like Gavarni, Diaz, Eugene,
La-mi, Camille Koqueplau, Glaize, Hamon, Ciceri, Eugene Isabey, Jac-
quemart, Feuchere, and the like, all painters and sculptors of the first
order, the author of this notice, guided by the models he had on hand,
attempted to imitate them and revive the manufacture of tasteful and
costly fans without giving up the making of common fans, that gave
constant work to country people, who tilled the ground in summer and
made fans in winter.
It remains for us now to mention that France took the first rank for
fans at the great French Exposition of 1867. Japan, India, and China
sent to all our Expositions fans, screens ornamented with feathers,
beetles, spangles of a thousand colors, pearls, and embroideries of silk,
gold, and silver. All those articles are remarkable for the very brilliant
'colors, a secret in the land, and for the cheapness of the workmanship;
but nothing was new, the same models had served them for centuries.
Spain has made no progress in common articles, and France still ftirn-
'ishes fine fans to that country. Austria exhibited some fans of carved
wood; they are called broken fans in trade. The article is a passing
fancy, and can never form a special industry; moreover, France makes
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 75
the same articles at less price and in better taste than Austria. Mr.
Schwartz, a Danish trade- sculp tor of Copenhagen, exhibited an ivory
fan with bas reliefs representing Thorwaldsen 7 s seasons; it is a beauti-
ful piece of work, but is the labor of an amateur and not of a mechanic.
Belgium exhibited some splendid black and white lace fans in Class 33.
The collections of fans at the Exposition were of two kinds, fans for
the rich, and fans for export. Three houses, Duvelleroy, Alexandre,
and Aloys van de Voorde, furnished most of the costly fans; their arti-
cles were adorned by some of the first modern artists, as Gavarni,
Colin, Hamon, Philippe Rousseau, Karl Muller, Diaz, Eugene Larni,
Mi ss Meley, and Madame Girardin. Of the trade-sculptors and designers
we must mention Jean Feucheres, Kagmann, Jacquemart, Fanniere
brothers, Lanoy, Vailland, and Norest. The most important house, m
a commercial view, manufacturing export fans, is that of M. F. Meyer.
Kext to that comes the house of Fayet, Buissot, Brecheux, Toupiller &
Co., Vanier, Taveaux, and Caumont. All these houses do their best to
unite art and industry in the articles they manufacture for exportation,
catering to the taste of the countries where the products are sent.
Among the principal inventors we must mention Edward Petit, who
improved the closing fan, and Alphonse Bnude's fan mold. The latter
invented the machine for punching fan-frames, the best known at
AVe are convinced, from our attentive examination through the Exhi-
bition, that France has no foreign competition to fear, and that France
still holds the first rank among the tasteful industries combining art
GLOVES AXD SUSPEXDERS. l
Gloves were better represented this year in the Champ de Mars
palace, Class 34, than they were at any former Exposition. France had
twenty-seven exhibitors; Belgium, Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, Den-
mark, and Poland took part in the exhibition. We will examine the
business in each one of those countries, beginning with France.
France produces, annually, nearly two millions of dozens of kid gloves,
of first, second, and third qualities, at the average price of forty francs a
dozen, ranking a business of eighty millions of francs. Three-fourths of
these gloves go abroad ; for in no other country of the world are gloves
made so elegantly, well fitting, and cheaply as in France. Seventy
thousand persons are employed in the glove business in France.
The principal glove factories are at Annonay, Paris, and Milhau, for
white leather; Paris, Grenoble, Chaumont, Saint Junien, Luueville,
Renues, Xancy, and Blois, for gloves; Xiort for buck, beaver, and chamois
military gloves; Yendome, Niort, and Milhau, for chamois.
1 Translated from the report of M. Carceiiac, of the International Jury, Vol. IY, p. 330.
76 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Next to France, England is the country that produces the most and
best articles ; yet it is largely indebted to our industry, and imports
from us every year quantities of raw material for its factories. Till
recently England had the monopoly of dog-skin gloves, but after some
trials France has succeded in making them as well as our neighbors.
Our knowledge is confined to a sjngle English house, that of Dent, J
Alcroft & Co., which does a business of thirty millions of francs a year,.]
buying, at the same time, twelve millions in gloves from France.
England had no exhibitors at the Exposition.
A few French manufacturers settled in Eussia and opened their
industry in that country ; they continue to buy their white skins from
France, and even have them dyed and cut here; and, as they make the
best quality, their business rivals ours, and has absolutely closed Eussia
to our manufacturers.
BELGIUM, GERMANY, AND AUSTRIA.
Glove-making has not remained stationary in those countries, and
the trade was well represented at the Exposition of 18G7. Cheap arti-
cles are in favor there. Lamb skin gloves are extensively manufactured,
except in Belgium, where kid is preferred, and they are generally sold
at home, very few being sent abroad. Our manufacturers should
notice this competition and prepare to contend with it, as it is likely toj
increase, and, perhaps, become formidable.
Gloves are cheap in Italy, but the quality is not good. Most that
are made there are consumed in the country, so our manufacturers have
nothing to fear from that quarter.
The gloves made in all these countries are consumed at home ; how- :
ever, Spain is making improvement in the manufacture of gloves, and
they are well made. We must mention that some handsome Swedish
gloves were exhibited by a Frenchman living in Copenhagen.
Up to this time France has kept the lead in the glove market of the
world; but our success excites emulation abroad, and many foreign
manufacturers in other countries are now making gloves of such ele-
gance as to attract the attention of distant customers and excite our
own envy. Our exports to Eussia, Germany, and Belgium have percep-
tibly diminished, and other markets of the world may soon be closed to us.
In consideration of future impediments to French glove-making, our
manufacturers should hunt out and adopt the best methods of produc-
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 77
tion ; we allude to the division of labor, a system that was opposed at
first, but will finally succeed, as it will cause a better style of manufac-
ture, and will become more profitable to the laborer. The prosperity of
the large establishments that have adopted the system of division of
labor shows its advantages.
It is impossible to see that machine-cutting is far preferable to hand-
cutting, just as the adoption of the riddle has produced regularity in
I cutting. The great advantage in the system of labor division consists
in correctness and management of work, and customers have lately
i found this out. The system of the division of labor has already been
adopted in Belgium and Austria. Since its adoption in France the pay
of glove-makers has advanced from twenty to fifty per cent., and it
furnishes constant work to. women and girls, giving them an honest
The introduction of tawing in France helped the Annonay factory, facili-
tated the treatment of hides, and utilized much raw material that was
formerly useless; thus doe-skins that were only used for inferior gloves
: up to 1862, now serve for a glove equal to the English dog skin glove.
The production and consumption of skin gloves has greatly increased
in ten years, and, of course, the raw material has increased in cost; thus
hair-skins that sold for forty-five francs a dozen at Poitiers or Chalons,
ton years ago, now bring sixty -three francs a dozen; and though this
, has raised the price of gloves to the consumer, the manufacture of gloves
has in no way decreased.
Skins intended for gloves undergo many manipulations, according to
] the quality of gloves to be made out of them ; thus they are tawed for
I glossy gloves and Swedish gloves, and furred or u ramaillees" for buck or
beaver gloves. The tawing of skins is intended to deprive them of hair,
1 and take out the fatty matter of the skins, as well as to give them the
softness necessary for the factory. After maceration in a solution of
lime and orpiment for some time, the skins are curried and beat, and
subjected to various processes to take out the lime and grease, and give
,' them the requisite softness. They are then fermented to soften the fibers,
the fermentation being stopped by a mixture of flour, yolk of eggs, and
alum ; they are then dried and spread out.
Chamois skins undergo a similar process. To dress sheep and lamb
skins properly, they must lie longer in lime, to remove the wool. The
, sheep-skins are then split by means of a fine saw. The hair side serves
for morocco; the flesh side is used for coarse army gloves. Lamb skins
are too thin to undergo this proces.8, but they are shaved or ruifed, and
serve thus for castor gloves. After passing over the trestle, all skins are
pressed and fulled; then they are put into a tub of greasy water, to
1 remain till used. After having been dried they are pumiced. *
Beaver and deer skins are pumiced after they have been colored.
As we have already mentioned, sheep and lamb skins are chiefly used
for castor gloves; ordinary doe-skin may be used for the same purpose ;
doe-skins from Servia have been tried on a small scale.
78 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
ELASTIC TISSUES. 1
SUSPENDERS, BELTS, GARTERS, AND BRACELETS.
France, Austria, and England represented this industry at our fair ;
France took the lead. The progress in this has been great and rapid,
for it only dates from the time when India-rubber was first made into
fiber, not many years ago; yet it has reached a great degree of perfection.
Judging from the articles exhibited, Austria has not succeeded in
making suspenders. England is represented by one house, that sent
enough articles to show the style of her manufacture. If the houses in
Leicester and Birmingham, that manufacture this kind of goods exclu-
sively, had sent some of their productions, we could have judged better
of the importance of this business among our neighbors.
We make nine millions of francs' worth of suspenders, belts, and gar-
ters, per year, one-third of which sum is sold at home ; the rest is sent
to America, Holland, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium.
Before the use of gam tissues canie into fashion, the bodies of sus-
penders were made of cotton or leather, and the springs were of brass
wire placed at each end, to give them elasticity. When Ratlier and
Guibal introduced gum cloth into France, the old-style suspenders and
garters disappeared. Rouen was the first city to take advantage of this
novelty, and the two large houses of Lucien Fromage & Co., and Riviere
& Co., make at least half the articles of this kind produced in France.
Mr. Fromage has done most for the business. He was first a weaver,
then overseer, designer, machinist, and inventor. When we are told
that the house sells suspenders at ten centimes and six francs a pair,
and garters at four centimes and three francs, we can judge what the busi-
ness must be, knowing the amount done per year.
The gum-cloth business gives employment to fifteen hundred operatives
at Rouen. The pay of men is from three to five francs a day ; for women,
one to three francs; and for children, from ninety centimes to one and a
half franc. The other factories for such articles are at Paris and Saint
The war in the United States forced manufacturers to use flax and
jute instead of cotton, to keep their productions at a reasonable price ;
and competition now affects them. The use of cotton has been resumed
in the tissues.
1 From the report of M. Carcenac of the International Jury, Vol. IV, p. 337.
INFLUENCE OF CLOTHING UPON HEALTH.
INFLUENCE OF WOOLEN CLOTHING UPON HEALTH EFFECTS OF WOOLENS UPON THE
SKIN SHAGGY WOOLEN GOODS PROTECTION AFFORDED BY WOOLENS FROM THE
EFFECTS OF SUDDEN CHANGES OF TEMPERATURE WOOLENS SHOULD BE WORN AT
NIGHT EVIL EFFECTS OF CLOTHENG IMPERVIOUS TO AIR.
Kegardiug it as not uninteresting and as of great practical value to
add to this report some remarks upon the hygienic influences of
woolen clothing, I have procured the following memorandum on the
subject from Dr. A. P. Merrill of Xew York, formerly a surgeon in the
United States Army, and latterly a medical practitioner and writer of
Notwithstanding the common use of woolen clothing in both ancient
and modern times, and the favorable impression made upon the minds
of men in regard to it in civilized and in barbarous com ui unities every-
where, its virtues and excellences are as yet scarcely understood and
appreciated among the mass of mankind. Woolen clothing is very gen-
erally adopted and worn without inquiry as to its effects, or the manner
of producing them. The proper study of the subject implies a knowl-
edge of physiology as connected with its hygienic influences, and more
or less of pathology in reference to its remedial power. Without ad-
verting to these in their details, which would occupy too much time and
space, I venture to present some views briefly, upon the general subject.
The porosity of woolen goods is greater than that of silk, cotton, and
linen fabrics, by which both absorption and evaporation of the perspir-
able fluids is facilitated, and thus are they dissipated from the body,
keeping the surface comparatively dry and warm in cold weather, and
reducing the temperature of the skin in hot by the cooling process of
greater evaporation. By virtue of this porosity, also, air is retained in
woolen textures, serving to increase their nou- conduct ion of heat, and
thus affording protection from the deleterious effects of sudden changes
of temperature. This important feature of porosity in woolens is in-
creased by the nap upon the surface, and they therefore become less
efficient in shielding the body from cold when worn threadbare. Shaggy
woolen goods, in the making of which the manufacturer attempts an
imitation of the arrangements of nature in protecting animals from the
influence of cold, are valuable as outer coverings, on account of the in-
crease of this quality afforded by the nap. The sheep, of all animals, is
best protected in this way ; but the wild animals inhabiting hyperborean
regions, and especially such as seek their food in the icy waters of the
Arctic Ocean, are provided with a dense coating of fine fur next the skin,
with a longer, coarser, and less compact hairy covering, both which are
80 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
imperfectly copied in woolen fabrics, with a shaggy surface. In the use
of flannel next the skin, this non-conducting power is increased by wear-
ing two thicknesses of thin woolens, which afford better protection in
cold weather than can be derived from a single covering containing an
equal quantity of wool. More air is retained between the folds, and
non-conduction of heat is further facilitated by the threads of one of the
textures covering the interstices of the other.
To this valuable quality of porosity and non-conduction of caloric in
woolens is added the wholesome irritation of the skin produced by the
friction of the woolly fiber, which, except in persons of undue cutaneous
sensitiveness, is not a source of discomfort. The proportion of cases is
small in which this difficulty may not be overcome by the habit of wear-
ing flannel next the person, in both cold and warm weather. The fact
of its being felt in some instances to an uncomfortable degree is evidence
that the uniform excitation of the skin by woolens, even when unnoticed
by the wearer, is one of the qualities to which its hygienic and remedial
powers are due. This is not only useful to the skin itself, increasing
and sustaining its functions as an important emunctory organ, but by
reason of the sympathy existing between all the dermoid tissues, and
especially the skin and the mucous tissues of the digestive organs, this
cutaneous excitation caused by woolen garments exercises beneficial influ-
ences over the internal organs of the body in both health and disease.
Hence the advantages derived from clothing debilitated persons, and
especially children pf slender organization and impaired digestion, in
flannel. Children suffering from an abnormal irritability of the intesti-
nal canal, causing either habitual constipation, or, more commonly,
persistent diarrhea, derive great benefit from the use of woolen clothing.
Under the erroneous impression that the invalid may suffer discomfort
or injury from the supposed heating influence of woolen goods, the use
of them is sometimes restricted to the winter season 5 but besides the
exceptional cases to which I have referred, it is found by experience
that both comfort and health are subserved by the constant wearing of
flannel next the skin. Changes of season and climate require no, other
modification than the substitution of thick flannels for thin in winter, or,
what is generally better, the addition of another garment over the one
worn in summer.
The agency of woolens in protecting the body from the evil effects of
sudden changes of temperature is well illustrated by the use of loose gar-
ments of thick woolen goods in furnaces and smelting works, where the
bodies of the operatives are much of the time exposed to a high tempera-
ture, inducing them to seek, as often as they may have it in their power, the
comforting influences of cold air. All observation proves that the con-
stant use of woolens under such circumstances is conducive to both com-
fort and health ; and we have little need of other argument in favor of
the proper use of flannel garments in warm weather.
Were it not that people are constantly exposed to the action of causes
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 81
of disease in these sudden transitions of temperature, in serious errors
habitually practiced as regards the choice of both food and drink; in all
the irregularities of exercise, rest and sleep ; in malarial, epidemic, and
contagious influences, and in all the uncertain and little understood
agencies of bodily and mental disorder by which we are surrounded, it
would be of little consequence about the choice of clothing for healthy
subjects. But when we consider that some one or more of these dis-
turbances of health is always acting, and that individuals are liable to
the disorders produced pretty much in proportion to their predisposition
to disease, it becomes important that we should be able to avail our-
selves of every known preventive agency. In doing this it must be
borne in mind, that this predisposition is generally greatest in the night
and during sleep, at which time most attacks of disease are inaugurated.
So common is this, indeed, that it has been and may well be doubted,
whether any of the fatal epidemics prevailing in modern times ever
make their onset upon an individual in the day-time. Certainly it has
been sufficiently proved by long experience and observation, that
persons residing in the neighborhood of places infected with yellow fever,
cholera, or plague, may visit and administer to the sick during the day
with safety to themselves ; but if they venture to pass the night among
them, especially should they have the temerity to sleep at night where
the disease prevails, an attack is well-nigh inevitable.
The danger of night exposure to the causes of disease is illustrated
by the experience of sailors on the coast of Africa ; and also by the
imprudent exposure of white men in the rice fields of the southern States.
Such exposures during the night almost invariably invite a serious
attack of endemic disease, even when such disease is not prevailing to
an unusual extent in the locality visited. In numerous instances, also,
children are attacked by disease in the night, in consequence of an expo-
sure of the body to the atmosphere without proper covering. These dele-
terious influences of night in creating predisposition are apt to impress
people with the idea of the constant unwholesouieness of night air, as
differing in some respects from that respired during the day ; but in most
cases the effects are probably due to other causes. Were it not so, we
could place little reliance upon preventive measures, for we have no
means of dispensing with the use of night air. The principal if not
the only injury resulting from its respiration, is probably from its chill-
ing influence upon the lungs, which is instinctively guarded against by
animals and savages by covering the nosfe. The birds place their beaks
beneath their wings and feathers, other animals bury their noses in their
furs or under their legs, and the negro instinctively hides his head
beneath his bedding in the midst of his soundest sleep. Perhaps this
practice, so universal, affords evidence, also, that in night respiration
the animal system requires less oxygen.
We are thus admonished of the necessity of adopting precautionary
measures against both predispositions to and attacks of disease during
G c w F
82 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
the night ; and of all the suggestions which have been made with these
views, none are believed to be of greater value than that of wearing
flannel next the skin. All the arguments in favor of such use during
the day are of equal and even greater force at night, for the body requires
the superficial irritation, the absorption and transmission of the per-
spirable fluids, and the non-conduction of heat, even more during the
sleeping than during the waking hours ; and then, there are said to be
certain physiologic necessities for air to be brought into contact with
the skin both in sleeping and waking. The garment worn next. the
person while sleeping, therefore, should always be of wool, and those
worn during the day dispensed with. To make the arrangement com-
plete, and to give the sleeper the full benefit of woolen stuffs at the time
of his greatest need, the sheets should also be of wool, and all the cov-
ering above the sheets.
In cold weather complaint is sometimes made that woolen bedding
does not afford sufficient warmth without an uncomfortable amount of
weight. Every additional thickness, however, aids in the retention of
air amid the textures, retarding evaporation and the radiation of heat
from the body, and affords a medium, also, for the absorption of the
fluids of perspiration, all which are facilitated by the selection of woolens
well covered with nap. Additional warmth may readily be secured by
placing over all the woolen coverings, or between the different textures,
cotton or linen spreads, sheets, or even paper. But after a while, in
this case, the body of the sleeper, for want of evaporation, becomes
moistened with the fluids of perspiration, making him liable to cold,
besides removing the oxidating quality of the air, subjecting the sleeper
to more or less depression of nervous energy. It is not uncommon,
therefore, for persons trying this experiment to rise in the morning with
headache, and with a feeling of languor and exhaustion, disqualifying
them for their performance of their daily duties. The use of quilts,
bed-spreads of various kinds, comforts filled Avith cotton or feathers, oil-
cloths, paper, and cotton and linen sheets, is to be deprecated as in some
degree detrimental to health. Kobust and vigorous subjects may not
readily feel the injurious effects, but feeble constitutions, women of great
nervous excitability, and children, cannot subject themselves to these
evils habitually without becoming aware of declining health and energy.
Next to flannel and woolen blankets the best covering is the comfort
filled with carded wool, but this should be made of woolen textures of
some kind. When impenetrable coverings are used they should be
placed exterior to all the rest, that there may be a better chance for the
absorption of the perspiration by the intervening woolens, and for the
circulation of air in contact with the body. Sometimes it is sufficient
to lay such coverings across the feet, leaving all the rest of the body to
be covered by woolens alone.
In the selection of woolen clothing the same principles are applicable,
and the same precautions advisable as in the arrangement of bedding.
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS. 83
Garments worn next the person are better made of flannel than of the
hosiery now in common use. The better nap of the flannel gives it an
advantage, and what is of greater importance, the flannel garment is
not apt to embrace the person so closely. Tightly fitting garments
impede the circulation of the blood in the skin, and retard the import-
ant functions of secretion and absorption, besides preventing in some
degree the contact of air. There are objections to every kind of
woolen hosiery, and also to the use of the corset, which probably does
more injury to health by its pressure upon the skin, confined as it is
between the corset and the ribs, and its imperviousness to air, than by
the embarrassment given to the organs of respiration. Many women
wear their corsets too loosely laced for the latter effect, without escaping
the former. As this article of dress is not likely to be dispensed with,
it would be improved by being made porous, so as to favor the trans-
mission of vapor and air; and by being shaped and fitted to answer its
purposes of compression, with a broad opening at the places of lacing
upon the back and sides.
In the further application ot the views and principles herein advo-
cated, as applicable to personal clothing, it is desirable to avoid the
use of cotton or linen fabrics over the woolens worn next the person.
To these there are the same objections as to the sheet over the woolen
night-gown. If such obstructions to evaporation and circulation of
air be used during the day, it is better that they be worn more remote
from the surface of the body, with a greater number of woolen tissues
intervening. Perhaps the water-proof overcoat may be less objection-
able in the day, than the counterpane and comfort at night, even,
although it may be less porous, and a better conductor of heat, because
it sets more loosely upon the person, and admits of a better circulation
of air beneath it. In the manner of using coverings of the body for
the preservation of health and comfort, as well as in the means of pre-
serving a healthy skin by frictions, and even in the matter of selecting
food in reference to quality and quantity and times of feeding, we may
sometimes derive useful instruction from the practice of men skilled in
the care and management of valuable horses. The skins of these ani-
mals are subjected to frictions, bathings, and protection from cold,
requiring an amount of labor and skill, one-half of which might often
secure the children of the family from attacks of painful and danger-
The feet are best protected by stockings made of common flannel,
while boots and shoes should be sufficiently porous for the transmission
and evaporation of the perspiration, to prevent the accumulation of
moisture. Neither the stocking nor shoe should fit so closely as to
impede the cutaneous circulation. Water-proof shoes secure warmth for
a certain time, but when worn too long and the feet become moist from
the accumulation of moisture this advantage is lost, and warmth and
dryness can hardly be restored without exposing the bare feet to the
84 PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
fire. Excessive and morbid secretions are often caused by confining the
feet in close-fitting and impervious coverings, giving rise to habitual
coldness, arid operating injuriously upon the general health.
Silken fabrics are next to be preferred to woolen, and cotton stuff's
are better than linen. ^Something might be said of electric influences in
connection with all these, the greatest non-conducting-power being
awarded to silk. But this is a branch of the subject less thoroughly
understood, and the reports which have been made in regard to electric
treatment of disease leave the question of these influences in much
doubt. Indeed the action of electric currents, and the use of conductors
and non-conductors of electricity in clothing, either as remedies for or
preventions of disease, afford little encouragement to hope for or expect
important results, until new discoveries are made in regard to these
Although the views given in this paper may be in the main correct,
there are exceptions and anomalies in connection with them which
deserve consideration. Sometimes there exists in individuals and in
families a sensitiveness of the surface of the body which renders the
irritation of woolens painful and even productive of cutaneous eruptions,
and occasionally cases are met with in which colored flannels prove more
troublesome than white. Used as a remedial agent also, woolens, so
often useful, fail to produce the good effects expected from them, and
rheumatic and neuralgic pains are relieved by wearing linen, cotton, or
silk next the skin, woolens being continued as outer garments. It should
be stated, also, that although woolens should in general be loosely worn,
it is often the case that both adults and children, suffering with chronic
diseases of the stomach and bowels, derive great advantage from wearing
a broad woolen band drawn evenly and somewhat firmly round the body
below the chest. For want of the firm resistance prevented by the ribs
in the use of the corset, cutaneous circulation and secretion are not
seriously impeded, while the pressure thus given appears to afford
increased tone and vigor to the organs of digestion, and to all the
CLOTHING AND WOVEN FABRICS.
s" "~ i s" " : ^ a" -~
uf ef oo~
P 8 8 3 S S S
= " " -"
<n n V f " ef ocT -T sf of
irT o~ " r-~ i-T i-~ t-~ "*" ** si t-~ o"
So ^i* o ci o "** o ^^ o o t-
ef oi m 9 co ei 8 <; o
a" <* sf s ~ - -
-^< r- ao o i- o
H OD 00 r- O <?
a o "
1 2 1 I
1 1 1 1 I
PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION.
Statistics of manufactures of such textile fairies and articles worn on the
person as were taxed under the internal revenue laws as the production
of the United States, for the year endinf/ June 30, 1868.*
Value of pro-
(Jlotli and other fabrics of cotton . . .
$6 322 000
$126 000 000
Haw cotton t ....
22 501 000
Cloth and all textile knit or felted fabrics other than flax or
jute and not elsewhere enumerated
2, 464, 000
2 813 000
112, 520, 000
Silk and manufactures of
2, 666, 000
Articles of, not of wool, woven, felted, or knit, or from
2 420 000
3 800 000
Articles of from India-rubber
Boots and shoes, including those of India-rubber, and shoe
2 000 000
leather - .
1 600 000
64, 000, 000
Hats caps bonnets and hoods . .. - -
21, 250, 000
Umbrellas and parasols
AVatches and chains
1, 120, 000
2 620 000
4 700 000
Paper collars and all articles of dress made of paper
2 555 000
3 340 000
450, 247, 000
Diamonds, emeralds, precious stones and imitations thereof. .
$6, 752, 000
Condensed Jrom the Commissioner's report.
1 3 and 2 cents per pound.
RETURN TO the circulation desk of any
University of California Library
or to the
NORTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY
Bldg. 400, Richmond Field Station
University of California
Richmond, CA 94804-4698
ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS
2-month loans may be renewed by calling
1-year loans may be recharged by bringing
books to NRLF
Renewals and recharges may be made 4
days prior to due date.
DUE AS STAMPED BELOW
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY