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Full text of "Report on the coals of the three forks of the Kentucky River, beginning at Troublesome Creek on North Fork; at Beginning Branch on Middle Fork; at Sexton Creek on South Fork; and extending to the heads of the respective forks"

BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OP 
CALIFORNIA 



EARTH 

SCIENCES 
LIBRAfTV 




Kentucky Geological Survey 

CHARLES J. NORWOOD, Director 



BULLETIN No. I I. 



REPORT ON THE COALS 

OF THE 

Three Forks of the Kentucky River, 



Beginning at Troublesome Creek on North Fork ; at Begin- 
ning Branch on Middle Fork ; at Sexton Creek 
on South Fork ; and Extending to 
the Heads of the Respect- 
ive Forks. 



By JAMES M. HODGE. 



OFFICE OF THE SURVEY: LEXINGTON, KY. 



Printed by The Continental Printing Co., Louisville, Ky. 




v\ 



EARTH 

NCES 



Ill 



INDEX A. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Page. 
Analyses, meaning of "r" and "1" 7 

Analyses of Coals: 

Beattyville . 8, 11 

Elkhorn 8, 106, 146, 172, 173, 181, 200 

Fireclay (Hyden, Dean), 8,30,31,75,76.78,89.92,93,97,102,122,135,140, 
143, 166, 179, 189, 193, 203, 206, 210, 215, 242, 245. 

Fireclay Coal Rider,* 8,217,222,258,261,264 

Flag . 8, 27, 28, 29, 33, 37, 39; 69 

Haddix 8,27,29,43,67,71,72,73,178,180 

Hazard ___ 8,33,43,63,75,80,82,120,186,196,244,247 

Hindman .87,210,214,223,226 

Hyden. See Fireclay Coal. 
Manchester. See Rockhouse Coal. 

Rockhouse 8, 136, 156. 2'68, 269, 271, 274 

Whitesburg 159, 250 

Analyses, Table of ^ 8 

Area of Region Covered by the Report .'_. 1 

Beattyville Coal, Description, etc. : ___6, 8, 10 

Cannel. Beds that carry 6 

Coals, Description of. See Description of Coals. 
Coals of the Middle Fork. See Index C. 
Coals of the North Fork. See Index B. 
Coals of the South Fork. See Index D. 

Cumberland River, Coals on 233 

Dean (Fireclay, Hyden), Coal Described 15 

Descriptions of Coals: 

Beattyville - 10 

Dean (see Fireclay Coal) 15 

Elkhorn (also see Indexes B, C and D) 12 

Fireclay (also see Indexes B, C and D) 15 

Fireclay Coal Rider (also see Indexes B, C and D) 18 

Flag (also see Indexes B, C and D) 22 

Haddix (also see Indexes B, C and D) +. 19 

Hazard (also see Indexes B, C and D) 20 

* The "Upper Dean" of Cumberland River waters C. J. N. 



250920 



iv INDEX 

Description of Coals Continued: Page 

Hindman (also see Indexes B, C and D) 24 

Hyden. See Fireclay Coal 15 

Manchester. See Rockhouse Coal 11 

Rockhouse (also see Indexes B, C and D) __ 11 

Rider to Hindman Coal (also see Index B) 6 

Sand Lick. See Rockhouse and Manchester. 

Whitesburg (also see Indexes B, C and D) 14 

Dip of the Strata 4 

Dwarf P. O. _ 16,19 

Elkhorn Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Elkhorn Coal, Description of 12 

Elkhorn Coal, Distribution of (also see Indexes B, C and D) _ 12 

Fireclay (Dean, Hyden) Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Fireclay Coal, Correlated with Dean Coal, etc 202 

Fireclay Coal, Description of i 15 

Fireclay Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 15 

Fireclay Coal, Sandstone over 2 

Fireclay Coal, Synonyms ; 15 

Fireclay Coal Rider, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Fireclay Coal Rider, Description of 18 

Fireclay Coal Rider, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 18 

Flag Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Flag Coal, Description of 20 

Flag Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 20 

Flint on Russell Branch, North Fork__ __42, 44 

Flint Ridge 21, 23 

General Section Showing Intervals Between Coals 5 

Haddix Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Haddix Coal, Description of 19 

Haddix Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 19 

Haddix Coal, Sandstone over 3 

Hazard 16, 21 

Hazard Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Hazard Coal, Description of 20 

Hazard Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 20 

Hindman 21 

Hindman Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Hindman Coal, Description of 24 

Hindman Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 24 

Hyden . 201 

Hyden Coal. See Fireclay Coal. 

Intervals Between Coals 5 

Iron Ore on Limestone 154 

Kentucky Ridge 23 

Laurel Branch of Straight Creek, Harlan County, Coal 234 

Letter of Submittal. 



INDEX v 

Page. 
Limestone, Bastard, near Haddix Coal 54,55 

Limestone, Fossil _ 54, 129, 153, 160, 222, 258, 261, 267 

Manchester 270 

Manchester Coal, Analysis of." See Analyses. 

Manchester Coal, Description of 11 

Manchester Coal, Distribution of. See Indexes. . 
Maps. See Page Maps. 

Map, Meaning of Figures Thereon 1 

Middle Fork of Kentucky River 174 

Middle Fork, Coals on. See Index C. 

North Fork 26 

North Fork,* Coals on. See Index B. 

Numbering of Coals Discarded 2 

Page Maps: 

North Fork Regions: 

Heads of N. Fk. Ky. River, Elkhorn and Shelby Creeks _. 167 

South Fork Regions: 

Big Creek, of Red Bird _ 240 

Blue Hole Branch, of Red Bird 263 

Gilberts, Elisha, Sugar, and Bowen Creeks, of Red Bird 248 

Jacks Creek and Philips Fork, of Red Bird.- . 256 

Katys Creek, of Red Bird 253 

Pebbles from Sandstones, 3, 90, 91, 118, 160 

Peter Branch of Straight Creek, Harlan County, Coals on 233 

Rockhouse Coal. See Manchester Coal. 

Rush Creek Mines, Middle Fork _ 13 

Salt Trace P. O., Harlan County 233 

Salt Trace (Cumberland River Drainage), Coal 011 233 

Samples for Analysis, How taken 7 

Sand Lick Coal. See Rockhouse. 

Sandstone Overlying Haddix Coal 

Sandstone under Fireclay Coal 2, 35 

Scope of the Report 1 

Sections. See Indexes B, C and D. 

South Fork . 235 

South Fork, Coals on. See Index D. 

Stinking Creek Cannel, Knox County 273 

Straight Creek, Cumberland River Drainage 

Straight Creek, Dean Coal at Head of . 267 

Synclinal Axis along North Fork 4 

Topography of the Region 

Whitesburg 157 

Whitesburg Coal, Analysis of. See Analyses. 

Whitesburg Coal, Description of 

Whitesburg Coal, Distribution of, (also see Indexes B, C and D) 14 



VI 



IKDEX B. 



FOR THE NORTH FORK. 



Page. 
Adams (R. N.) Entry 63, 64 

Allen, E. 40 

Amazon Post-office 111 

Amburgy, Alfred 111 

Amburgy, Francis 108 

Amburgy, John * 106 

Babcock, John 112 

Baker, Jasper 62 

Balls Fork of Troublesome, Coals on 53 

Bear Branch of Rockhouse Creek (Troublesome Drainage), Coals on 46 

Beech Fork of Leatherwood Creek, Coals on 116 

Bentley, J. L. 146 

Bentley, John 168 

Bentley, J. Q. _._ 145 

Bentley, Riley 144 

Bert Estis Br. of Cowan Creek, Coals on 153 

Betty Troublesome Creek (Carr Fork Drainage), Coals on 63, 109 

Big Branch, above Troublesome, Coals on 66 

Big Branch, above Maces Creek, Coals on 113 

Big Branch of Rockhouse Creek, Coals on 144 

Big Branch of Troublesome Creek, Coals on 61 

Big Creek, Coals on 84 

Blair, B. M. 133 

Blair Branch of Rockhouse Creek, Coals on 133 

Blair, Patrick 161 

Boone Fork, Coals on 168 

Brannon Creek (of Carr Fork), Coals on 110 

Breeding Branch (of Carr Fork), Coals on 104 

Breeding, Dr. 138 

Browning, Friley 120 

Buck Branch (of Grapevine Creek), Coals on 76 

Buck, John 104 

Buckhorn Creek (of Troublesome), Coals on 46 

Buffalo Creek, Coals on 98 

Burt & Brabb Lumber Co. ___ 112, 130 

Bush, Samuel 56 

Camp Branch (of Rockhouse Creek)__ 136 



INDEX vii 

Page. 
Campbell, Abner 79 

Campbell, J. E. 39 

Campbell, Joseph 78 

Campbell, Woolsey 112 

Caney Creek . 72 

Carnegie Branch 88 

Carr Fork _. 100 

Caudill Coal Bank, Letcher County 154 

Chestnut Gap _ 48 

Childers, Jane 62 

Christian's, Section at 132 

Clear Creek (of Troublesome) 60 

Clover Fork of Leatherwood Creek 118 

Coals: 

Dean. See Fireclay. 

Elkhorn. 6, 8, 12. 61, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 115, 118, 123, 127, 132, 137, 138, 

139, 142. 145, 148, 152, 157, 159, 163. 164, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173. 
Fireclay, 5, 6, 15, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 42, 48, 51. 54, 55, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 71, 
74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 
102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119 
121, 124, 125, 126, 128. 129, 132, 133, 134, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 147. 
148, 150, 151, 152, 163, 164, 165. 169, 172. 

Fireclay Rider _ 6, 8, 18, 59, 75, 77, 86, 93, 94, 95 

Flag, 5, 6, 8, 22, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 36. 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47,49, 
52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 78, 84, 85, 88, 92, 95, 103, 112, 122, 
123, 125, 128. 
Haddix, 5, 6, 8, 19, 26, 28, 29, 32, 41, 43, 46, 48. 49, 52, 59, 65^ 66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 

75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 108, 113, 115, 123, 128, 129, 130, 131, 161. 
Hazard, 5, 6, 8, 20, 27, 32, 33. 34, 36, 39, 42, 43. 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 
54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 64, 65, 67. 68, 69. 75, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 93, 94, 95, 
99, 113, 115, 117, 118, 119, 121,122, 124, 125, 128, 130, 151. 

Hindman . --5,24,65,85,102,108,109,117,123,128 

Hyden. See Fireclay. 
Manchester. See Rockhouse. 

Rider to Hindman , __6 86 

Rockhouse, 6, 8, 10, 134, 136, 138, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150, 152, 

154, 155, 157, 159. 161, 162, 163, 164. 
Sand Lick. See Rockhouse. 
Whitesburg, 6, 14, 97, 108, 110, 114, 124, 133, 134, 138, 148. 150, 151, 159, 161, 163 

Cockerell Fork of Lost Creek (Troublesome Creek Drainage) 33 

Coils Branch of Line Fork 130 

Coles Creek, Knott County 50 

Colley Creek IgO 

Collins Branch of Lost Creek (Troublesome Creek Drainage) 35 

Collins, J. M. 136 

Collins, Jas. 144 



viii INDEX 

Page. 

Collingsworth, John 35 

Colman (Geo.) Entry 42 

Combs, Alexander 89 

Combs Branch of Troublesome 56 

Combs, Fielding ,_ 91 

Combs, J. H. 96 

Combs, Nancy 88 

Combs, Robert 89 

Combs, Shade 162 

Combs, Thomas B. 90 

Combs, Van Buren 99 

Combs, William ^ ___ 84 

Combs & Horton : 37 

Cook, George 144 

Cornett, Elijah 98 

Cornett, Esquire t 101 

Cornett, J. B. C. 117, 119, 122 

Cornett, Joseph 127 

Cornett, William 129 

Cowan Creek 153 

Craft, Jasper 163 

Crawford, E. 90 

Dans Fork of Troublesome 50 

Dark Fork, or Helen Combs Branch, of Lots Creek 91 

Davidson, E. ^ 76 

Davidson, John : 76 

Davidson, Thomas 77 

Davis (Clinton) Mine 41 

Day, D. B. 153, 154 

Deacon, John 72 

Dean Coal. See Fireclay Coal. 

Dean Post-office 146 

Defeated Creek (of Line Fork) 126 

Doty Branch of Rockhouse Creek 133 

Dry Creek '. 152 

Dry Fork of Line Fork 127 

Dwarf Post-office 16 

Elkhorn Coal. See Coals. 

Elk Lick Fork of Lots Creek 95 

Engle, Henry 58 

Evans, William 140 

Eversole, Alfred 84,85,98 

Eversole Branch 76 

Farley, William 113 

Field Cannel 148 

Field, William _ 113 



INDEX ix 

Page. 

Fields, John 86 

Fifteen Mile Creek of Lost Fork (of Troublesome) 36 

Fireclay Coal. See Coals. 

Fireclay Coal Rider. See Coals. 

Fireclay (Dean, Hyden) Coal; "Black-Jack" replacing Fireclay parting in 87 

Fish Trap Branch 79 

Flag Coal. See Coals. 

Frasier, Jack 126 

Frazier, J. H. 161 

Frazier Mine, Letcher County 159 

Fugitt Branch (Troublesome Drainage) 44 

Fugitt, Mrs. '. 48 

Gayheart, R. 56 

Gayheart, Riley 92 

Gayheart, Robert 92 

Georges Branch of Carr Fork 100 

Georges Creek . 70 

Godsey, Charles 93 

Gough & Co. ___ 67, 69 

Grapevine Creek ' 74 

Grave Branch of Leatherwood Creek 117 

Grigsby, B. F. 93 

Grigsby, B. W. 94 

Grigsby, D. 94 

Grigsby, J. 94 

Grigsby, Silvester 95 

Grigsby (E.), Opening on Balls Fork of Troublesome 54 

Haddix Coal. See Coals. 

Haddix Coal, Analysis of. See General Index. 

Haddix (Sewell) Mine 26 

Hall, Ira 126 

Halliday, L. 53 

Hargis Mine 27 

Hart, Samuel C. 162 

Hazard Coal. See Coals. 

Hawkins, H. _ 153 

Hayes (Now Pardee) Tract 50 

Henson Branch 77 

Hindman Coal. See Coals. 

Holcomb Elkhorn Coal on Laurel Branch, Letcher County 172 

Holcomb, H. 128 

Holcomb, Jesse 128 

Holliday, Lewis 53 

Holmes, John 75 

Honeycutt, G. 111 

Hoskins, Albert 83 



x INDEX 

Page. 

Huff, Charles; Coal Opening of 55 

Hyden Coal. See Fireclay Coal. 

Indian Creek of Rockhouse Creek 141 

Ingalls, Jefferson 57 

Ingalls Opening on Balls Fork of Troublesome 53 

Irishman Creek of Carr Fork 102 

Isom, G. 133 

Isom, Moses 125 

Jent, Noah 105 

John Little Branch 68 

Jones, Paris : 40 

Jones, Mahlon 38, 39 

Jones (W. D.) & Co. 149 

Kings Creek 148 

Kizer Coal 142 

Laurel Branch 171 

Leatherwood Branch of Lost Creek (of Troublesome) 32 

Leatherwood Creek : 115 

Left Fork of Maces Creek 111 

Left Fork of Millstone Creek__ 165 

Left Fork of Rockhouse Creek ___ 146 

Left Fork of Troublesome Creek 61 

Lewis, W. R. 131 

Lick Branch 67 

Lick Branch of Balls Fork of Troub-tesome 53 

Licking Rock Branch 161 

Limestone, Fossiliferous --129, 160 

Line Fork of North Fork 123 

Little Branch of Carr Fork .__ 103 

Little Carr, of Carr Fork 105 

Little Colley Branch of Rockhouse __ 134 

Little Leatherwood 115 

Long Fork of Troublesome Creek 47 

Lost Creek (of Troublesome) 29 

Lots Creek i 91 

Love Branch of Rockhouse Creek 142 

Maces Creek 111 

Mallet Fork of Breeding Creek (of Carr Fork) 105 

Manchester Coal. See Rockhouse Coal. 

Martin, Allen 141 

Mclntosh. Roderick 81, 83 

McNapier Opening, Balls Fork of Troublesome 53 

Mead Coal, Letcher County 164 

Meadow or Long Branch 161 

Mill Branch of Lost Creek 29 

Miller Opening, Bear Branch of Buckhorn 46 



INDEX xi 

Page. . 

Millstone Branch of Rockhouse Creek 134 

Millstone Creek 164 

Mullins, Samuel 103 

Napier, Fish 41 

Napier, John 79 

Napier, S. M. 91 

Niece, Jacob 3g 

Nickels Coal Bank, Letcher County 154 

Nickels Splint Coal, Letcher County 159 

Noble Branch of Troublesome Creek 28 

Noble's, G. W., Coals near 31 

Noble, L. H. 1 32 

Noble (S. M.) Opening on Bear Branch of Buckhorn 47 

Oldhouse Branch of Leatherwood Creek 119 

Owen, Mr. 57 

Pardee (formerly Hayes) Tract 50 

Patton (R.) Entry on Balls Fork of Troublesome 55 

Peach Orchard Branch 88 

Pendleton, James 162 

Pigeon Roost Branch of Troublesome , 56 

Pigeon Roost Branch (above Willard Creek) _ 82 

Pigman. William 63 

Pine Top Post-office 110 

Potter Fork of Boone Fork 170 

Pratt, John . 113 

Quillan Fork of Boone Fork 168 

Quillan, Sherman 170 

Razor Blade Post-office 145 

Rider to Hindman Coal 6, 86 

Rholley's (Jas.) Spring, Coal near 42 

Right Fork of Camp Branch (of Rockhouse) 138 

Right Fork of Maces Creek 112 

Right Fork of Millstone Creek 165 

Right Fork of Rockhouse Creek 147 

Right Fork of Troublesome Creek 62 

Ritchie, Josh 60 

Rockhouse Creek 132 

Rock Lick Branch 78 

Rockhouse Coal. See Coals. 

Rowdie Branch of Carr Fork 101 

Rush Branch of Long Fork of Troublesome 47 

Russell, A. C. 43 

Russell Branch of Troublesome Creek 42 

Sand Lick Coal. See Rockhouse Coal. 

Sand Lick Creek 155 

Sargent, Steven 141 



xii INDEX 

Page. 
Sections on North Pork: 

Allen's (E.) At; Mouth of Rock Fork 40 

Ambargy Branch, On 

Bentley's (J. Q.), At; Rockhouse Creek 145 

Big Branch, On 66 

Camp Branch; At Mouth of 136 

Carnegie Branch, On 

Childers' (Jane). At; Right Fork of Troublesome 62 

Cornett's (E.), At; Above Mouth of Buffalo Creek 98 

Dry Creek, On 152 

Farley's (W.), At; Right Fork of Mace's Creek 113 

Forks of Big Creek, On 86 

Grapevine Creek, On - 74 

Haddix Mine, At ___ 26 

Holcomb's (H.), At; Two Miles above Dry Fork _. 128 

Holcomb's, At; on Laurel Branch 171 

Isom's (M.), At; near Mouth of Defeated Creek 125 

John Little Branch, On 1 68 

Lick Branch, On . 67 

Little Leatherwood, At Forks of 115 

Love Branch, On 142 

Mclntyre's (W.), At; on Big Branch 114 

Mill Branch of Lost Creek, On . 29 

Niece's (J.), At; on Lost Creek 36 

Noble's (G. W.), At; below Leatherwood Branch 31 

Noble's (L. H.), At; on Leatherwood Branch 32 

Rock Lick and Fishtrap Branch, On 78 

Russell Branch, On 42 

Rush Branch and Williams Fork, On 48 

Sand Lick Creek, On 155 

Singleton's (J.), At; on Beech Fork of Leatherwood 116 

Smoot Creek, On 150 

Sparkman's (H.), At; on Coils Branch _ 130 

Stamper's (I.), At; on Turkey Creek 124 

Stony Fork, On 121 

Stony Fork, At Head of 123 

Thornton Creek, On 162 

Tolson Creek, At Head of 148 

Trace Branch of Rockhouse Creek, On 139 

Troublesome Cr. ; From R. N. Adams to Gap at Head of Irishman Cr. 64 

Troublesome Creek; on Left of 41 

Troublesome Creek, Two Miles Below Balls Fork 57 

Tunnel Mill on Troublesome Creek, At _ 59 

Watts' (T.), At; on Lost Creek 35 

Whittaker's (S.), At; on Left Fork of Right Fork of Willard 81 

Whittaker's (M.), At; on Tolson Creek 148 

Whitesburg, At . 158 



INDEX xiii 

Page. 

Sewell (Old Haddix) Mine 26 

Sexton, John 134 

Shepard, William 119 

Singleton, James 116 

Singleton, Henry _ 116, 117 

Singleton, William 111 

Sixteen Mile Creek, of Lost Creek (of Troublesome) __ 38 

Slemp Coal Co _. 95 

Sloane, Isom 110 

Smith Branch of Carr Fork 103 

Smith Branch of Stony Fork (of Leatherwood) 122 

Smith, Hillard _ 104 

Smith Openings; Head of Long Fork of Troublesome 49 

Smoot Creek __ 150 

Sparkman, H. 130 

Spicer, Marian 68 

Spencer, John 75 

Stacy, Harmon 101 

Stacy, Martha 99 

Stall's Branch of Sixteen Mile Creek ___ 38 

Stamper, Ira 124 

Stony Fork of Leatherwood _ 120 

Strong (Judge) Coal Opening 29 

Sugar Branch of Carr Fork 104 

Synclinal Axis Along North Fork 4 

Taulbee & Allen Coal Opening ___ 47, 48 

Thacker (Robert) Entry 61 

Thornton Creek _. 163 

Thornton, H. T. _ 87 

Thompson, J. N. 156 

Tolliver, Melvin 165 

Tolson Creek 147 

Toms Branch of Troublesome Creek 52 

Trace Fork of Lots Creek 92 

Trace Branch of Rockhouse Creek . 139 

Troublesome Creek 26 

Turkey Creek, of Line Fork 124 

Turner, A. H. 96 

Viper Post-office 111 

Virginia I. C. & C. Co 95 

Walker Branch 96 

Wells Opening 27 

Whitesburg Coal. See Coals. 

Whitesburg, Coals in Region of 157 

Whittaker, M. 148 

Whittaker, Samuel _ 81, 82 



xiv INDEX 

Page. 

Will Branch of Lost Creek (of Troublesome) 39 

Willard Creek _ 80 

Wiley Fork of Balls Fork (of Troublesome) 55 

Williams Branch of Troublesome 52 

Williams Fork of Long Fork (of Troublesome) 48 

Wolf Creek 72 

Wolf Pen Branch of Little Carr (of Carr Fork) 106 

Wrights Fork of Boone Fork 170 

Yonts Fork of Boone Fork 169 

Young, "William 95 



INDEX xv 



INDEX C. 



FOR THE MIDDLE: FORK. 



Page. 
Aimers Branch of Greasy Creek 217 

Anderson, Orville 177 

Asher, A. J., Coal in Leslie County 233 

Asher Branch 199 

Asher, Hughes 201 

Asher Mines . 13 

Bailey, John 190 

Bailey, Minter : 1 190 

Baker, John 214 

Barnes, G. B. 181 

Beech Pork 221 

Beginning- Branch 174 

Begley, Henry 186 

Big Laurel Creek (of Greasy) 219 

Bledsoe, Dale 226 

Boggs, L. 194, 195 

Bowling, James 181 

Bowling, John 205 

Bowling, William 181 

Brewer, J. C. 189 

Bull Creek, Mouth of; Coal at 198 

Burnt Camp Branch 206 

Canoe Creek 175 

Chappell, Henry 208 

Chumley Branch of Beech Fork L 227 

Chumley Rock 227 

Coals: 

Dean. See Fireclay. 

Elkhorn 6,8,12,180,181,182,183,198,199,200 

Fireclay, 5, 6, 15, 174, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 

198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 215, 216, 

217, 218, 221, 222, 224, 227, 229, 230, 231, (Cumberland River, on Straight 

Creek, 233.) 
Fireclay Rider, 6, 8, 18, 185, 193, 195, 209, 212, 215, 217, 218, 219, 222, 224, 231 

(Cumberland River, on Straight Creek, 233.) 



xvi INDEX 

Page. 
Coals Continued: 

Flag 5, 6, 8, 175, 182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 204, 209, 226 

Haddix, 5, 6, 8, 19, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 191, 192, 195, 198, 200, 204, 

205, 207, 209, 211, 221. 

Hazard, 5, 6, 8, 20, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 189, 190, 191, 193, 196, 197, 200, 204, 206, 

207, 210, 212, 219, 221, 225, 232. 

Hindman, 5, 24, 187, 188, 190, 209, 211, 213, 214, 220, 221, 223, 225, 226, 227, 231, 

232 (Cumberland River, on Straight Creek, 233.) 
Hyden. See Fireclay. 
Manchester. See Rockhouse. 

Rockhouse 6, 8, 10 

Sand Lick. See Rockhouse. 

Upper Dean. See Fireclay Rider. 

Whitesburg 6, 14, 175-6, 182-3, 192-3, 205-6, 221, 228, 229 

Confluence Post-office 182 

Cooper, G. W. 227 

Cornett, Arch. 196 

Couch, William 199 

Crawford, O. 174 

Creech, Samuel 228 

Creech, William 220 

Cutshin Creek 186 

Deacon Coal Bed, Longs Creek 177 

Duff, James; Heirs of 225 

Ellis, Charles . 228 

Elk Branch of Greasy Creek 208 

Feckley Branch of Cutshin Creek 187 

Feds Branch of Laurel Fork of Greasy 208 

Gabes Branch of Greasy Creek 218 

Gill Branch of Laurel Fork of Greasy 211 

Grassy Branch : 183 

Greasy Creek 206 

Gross, Peter - 178 

Groundhog Branch of Long's Creek 176 

Guthrie Fork of Cutshin 197 

Guys Creek 179 

Harmon Branch of Greasy 220 

Hart Branch of Feckley Branch of Cutshin 187 

Hart, Jonathan _. 187, 188 

Hell-for-Certain Creek 184 

Helton, R. L. 231 

Helton, William 232 

Hignite, Moses 182 

Honey Branch of Greasy 207 

Hoskins, Charles 228 

Hoskins, G. W. . 225 



INDEX xvii 

Page. 
Howard, Elias 206, 207 

Hurst Branch 204 

Hyden, Coal in Region of 201 

Hyden Coal, Synonyms of 202 

Isaac Branch of Greasy 220 

Johnson, Henry 177 

Kate Spring 227 

Laurel Fork of Cutshin 195 

Laurel Fork of Greasy 208 

Leding-ton, J. 222 

Lewis Creek (of Greasy) 215 

Lewis, Christopher 191 

Lewis, James 202 

Lewis, John 204 

Lewis, John C. 189 

Lewis, Joseph 203 

Lewis, R. J. 230 

Lick Branch of Greasy 207 

Limestone, Black, Fossiliferous 184 

Limestone, Fossil 215, 222 

Longs Creek 176 

Mackintosh Creek (of Cutshin) 187 

Maggard, Reuben 188, 189 

Melton, John 190 

Minard, Benjamin 216 

Minard, J. B. 216 

Morgan, Hughes 221 

Nantz, Silas 223 

Napier, J. H. 203 

Nighway Branch 199 

Oldhouse Branch of Beech Fork 221 

Oldhouse Branch of Hell-for-Certain Creek 185 

One Mile Branch 198 

Pace Trace of White Oak Creek (of Greasy) 213 

Peach Orchard Branch, Limestone on 184 

Pennington, I. 192, 193 

Pennington, T. 229 

Polecat Branch of Wooten Creek (of Cutshin) 191 

Reuben Branch of Beech Fork 225 

Roark Branch 230 

Roberts Branch 200 

Roberts, Nathaniel 201 

Rockhouse Creek 201 

Rush Creek 181 

Schell N and McC. _ .210 



xviii INDEX 

Page. 
Sections: 

Abner's Branch, On 217 

Boggs' (L.), At; 6 miles above Pauls Creek 194 

Bowling's (J.), At; on Hurst Branch 205 

Bull Creek, near Mouth of 198 

Grassy Branch, On 183 

Harmon Branch, On 220 

Hell-for-Certain Creek, On 184 

Helton's (W.), At; On Rainbow or Meadow Branch 232 

Hignite's (M.), At; near Confluence Post-office 182 

Honey Branch, On 207 

Lewis's (C.), At; On Wolf Creek, of Coon Creek 191 

Maggard's (R.), At; 2 miles above Mackintosh Creek 188 

Napier's (J. H.), At; On Rockhouse Creek 203 

Oldhouse Branch, On 221 

Pennington's (I.), At; Half Mile Above Pauls Creek 192 

Pennington's (T.), At; On White Oak Branch 229 

Reuben Branch, On 225 

Spicer's (G.),. At; On Canoe Creek i 175 

Upper Double Creek, On 208 

White Oak Creek, On 212 

Sisemore, Bart 199 

Sisemore, William 198, 202 

Sizemore Coal, Synonym of 202 

Spicer, Granville : 175 

Spruce Pine Branch 231 

Squabble Creek 178 

Steel, Mrs. Annie 200 

Tantrough Branch of Greasy 214 

Tolliver, Elijah 226 

Trace Branch of Beech Fork 224 

Turkey Creek 175 

Turner, Berry 176 

Turner, John 212, 213 

Upper Double Branch of Laurel Pork (of Greasy) 208 

White Oak Branch 229 

White Oak Creek (of Greasy) 212 

Wilder Branch 183 

Wolf Creek of Coon Creek (of Cutshin) 191 

Wooten Creek (of Cutshin) 190 

Wooten, W. D. _ 187 

York, C. K. . .__212, 213 



iXDHX xix 



I^DEX D. 



FOR THE SOUTH FORK. 



Page. 
Adams, James 272 

Aery Branch of Collins Fork (of Goose Creek) 272 

Ammie Postoffice (old Salt Works) 235 

Asher, A. J. 258, 265 

Asher Fork of Left Fork of Goose Creek _. 277 

Asher, Lucy (or James) : 260 

Asher, R. W. ___ 265 

Bear Branch of Big Creek (of Red Bird) _' 1 241 

Bear Creek (of Red Bird) 255 

Beech Creek (of Goose Creek) 267 

Big Branch of Bullskin 236 

Big Creek, of Red Bird 239 

Big Double Creek, of Red Bird 245 

Bird, Thomas 257 

Blue Hole Creek, of Red Bird 262 

Bowen Creek, of Red Bird 251 

Bowling Branch of Jacks Creek (of Red Bird) 238 

Bowling, D. 238, 239 

Bullskin Creek . 236 

Buzzard Creek (of Goose Creek) .__: 271 

Byron, L. A. 272 

Coals: 

Beattyville 6, 8, 10,235 

Dean. See Fireclay. 

Elkhorn ___ ___, 6, 8, 12, 273, 278 

Fireclay, 5, 6, 15, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 250, 251, 254, 
255, 257, 259, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 272, 273. 276, 278. 

Fireclay Rider 6, 8. 18, 236, 245, 255, 257. 258, 260, 262, 264, 273, 275, 276 

Flag 5,6,18,245 

Haddix 5, 6, 8, 19, 245 

Hazard -_5. 6, 8, 20, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 250, 258 

Hindman 5, 24, 265, 266 

Hyden. See Fireclay. 

Manchester (No. 1) 6,8,10,235,236,250,267,269,270,271,273,274,275 

No. la 268 

No. 2 235, 272, 273, 276, 277, 278 

Rockhouse. See Manchester. 



xx INDEX 

Coals Continued: Page 

Sand Lick. See Manchester. 

Upper Dean. See Fireclay Rider. 

Whitesburg 6, 14, 249, 250, 259 

Collins Fork of Goose Creek 271 

Collins, Richard 244 

Cow Fork of Red Bird 260 

Davidson Coal 236 

Davidson, S. 236 

Elishas Creek (of Red Bird) 249 

Finley, J. M. - 242 

Flat Creek (of Red Bird) 250 

Gap in Kentucky Ridge, Between Red Bird Creek (of S. Fork) and Left 

Fork of Straight Creek (of Cumberland River) 266 

Garrard Mine 270 

Gilbert Cannel 249 

Gilberts Creek (of Red Bird) 247 

Goose Creek 267 

Hammonds Fork of Collins Fork (of Goose Creek) ___ 273 

Hector Creek (of Red Bird) . 238 

Hogskin Branch of Sexton Creek 235 

Hopper, Mrs. 273 

Hornsby, J. L. 269 

Horse Creek (of Goose Creek) . 270 

Hoskins, William . 245 

Hubbard, Alvis _ 254 

Hun Jackson Branch (of Left Fork of Goose Creek) 278 

Indian Grave Branch (of Left Fork of Goose Creek) 279, 280 

Ingram Branch (of Collins Fork of Goose Creek) 272 

Jacks Creek (of Red Bird, above Bowen Creek) 255, 257 

Jacks Creek (of Red Bird, above Hector Creek) 238 

Jackson, D. , 262 

Jackson Mill 278 

Jackson* Milton 278 

Jones, J. M. 267, 268 

Katys Creek (of Red Bird) 252 

Knuckles, B. S. 266 

Knuckles, George 266 

Knuckles, J. B. 267 

Laurel Branch of Sugar Creek (of Red Bird) 246 

Laurel Creek (of Goose Creek) - 269 

Lewis, Addison 

Lick Branch (of Red Bird) 264 

Limestone, Bastard 258 

Limestone, Fossil 258, 261, 267 

Manchester, Coals in Vicinity of 270 

Martins Creek (of Left Fork of Goose Creek) 275 



INDEX xxi 

Page. 

Martins Creek Gap 251 

McCullom Coal 246 

McFadden Branch of Big Creek (of Red Bird) 243 

McFadden, W. 243 

Meadow Fork of Red Bird 266 

Mills, Woodson 277 

Morgan, Elisha 259 

Morgan, E. L. 261 

Otter Creek (of Left Fork of Goose Creek) 275 

Patton Branch of Big Creek (of Red Bird) '. 244 

Philips Fork of Red Bird 259 

Pups Branch of Philips Fork (of Red Bird) 260 

Red Bird Creek 238 

Red Bird Creek, Coal at Head of 6 

Rich Branch of Red Bird 265 

Right Fork, Panther Branch of Flat Creek (of Red Bird) 250 

Roark's Coal, Pups Branch . 260 

Salt Works 270 

Schoolhouse Branch, Ulysses Fork of Big- Creek (of Red Bird) 242 

Sections: 

Big Double Creek, of Red Bird, at Wm. Hoskins', On__ 245 

Blue Hole Branch of Red Bird, On 263 

Bowens Creek, of Red Bird, On . 251 

Byron's (L. A.) At; on Ingram Branch of Collins Fork 272 

Davidson's (S.), At; on Bullskin Creek 236 

Gilberts and Elisha Creeks, of Red Bird 248 

Hopper's (Mrs.), At; on Ingram Branch of Collins Fork 273 

Indian Grave Creek (of Left Fork of Goose Creek), On 279 

Jacks Creek and Philips Fork, of Red Bird, On 256 

Jones's (J. M.), At; on Beech Creek, of Goose Creek 267 

Katys Creek, of Red Bird, On 253 

Lewis's (A.), At; on Hector Creek of Red Bird 238 

Lick Branch of Red Bird, On 264 

McFadden Branch, Red Bird, On 243 

Morgan's (E.), At; on Philips Fork of Red Bird 259 

Schoolhouse Branch of Big Creek, Red Bird, On__ _. 240 

Sexton Creek 235 

Short, James 250 

Sisemore, Pleasant 244 

Sisemore, Willet 255 

Smith (B.) Heirs of 278 

Smith, J. T. 276 

Spring Creek (of Red Bird) 252 

Spruce Pine or Piney Branch of Sugar Creek (of Red Bird) 246 

Stinking Creek, Knox County '. 279 



xxii INDEX 

Page. 

Stinking Creek Cannel, equivalent of Fireclay Coal Rider 273 

Sugar Creek (of Red Bird) 246 

Swafford, Isaac 271 

Trace Branch of Bullskin Creek 237 

Trace Branch of Left Fork of Goose Creek 276 

Walker, J. B. 275 

Warnock, James , 237 

White, Mrs. S. A. _ 274 

Wilson, E. _ '. 274 



INDEX xxiii 



TO STREAMS. 

NAMED IN THEIR ORDER, ASCENDING THE STREAM. 



For Alphabetical Arrangement, See Index for the Respective Forks. 



North Fork Water*: Page. 

Troublesome Creek 26 

Noble Branch 28 

Lost Creek 29 

Mill Branch 29 

Leatherwood Branch 32 

Cockerel Fork 33 

Collins Branch 35 

Fifteen Mile Creek 36 

Sixteen Mile Creek 38 

Will Branch 39 

Russell Branch 42 

Fugitt Branch 44 

Buckhorn Creek 46 

Bear Branch 46 

Long Fork 47 

Rush Branch 47 

Williams Fork 48 

Dans Fork 50 

Toms Branch 52 

Williams Branch 52 

Balls Fork 53 

Lick Branch 53 

Wiley Fork 55 

Pigeon Roost Branch 56 

Combs Branch 56 

Clear Creek 60 

Shop Hollow - 60 

Big Branch 61 

Left Fork 61 

Right Fork 62 

Big Branch __ 66 

Lick Branch 67 

John Little Branch 68 

Georges Creek 70 

Caney Creek 72 

Wolf Creek . 72 



xxiv INDEX 

Page. 
North Fork -Wo tens Coutiuued: 

Grapevine Creek 74 

Buck Branch . 76 

Eversole Branch 76 

Henson Branch 77 

Rock Lick Branch 78 

Fish-Trap Branch 79 

Willard Creek 80 

Pigeon Roost Branch 82 

Big Creek 84 

Peach Orchard Branch 88 

Carnegie Branch 88 

Lots Creek 91 

Dark Fork (Helen Combs Branch) 91 

Trace Fork 92 

Elk Lick Fork 95 

Walker Branch 96 

Buffalo Creek 98 

Carr Fork 100 

Georges Branch 100 

Rowdie Branch 101 

Irishman Creek 102 

Little Branch 103 

Smith Branch ___ 103 

Breeding Branch r_- 104 

Sugar Branch 104 

Mallet Fork 105 

Little Carr 105 

Wolf Pen Branch 106 

Amburgy Branch 108 

Betsy Troublesome 109 

Brannon Creek 110 

Maces Creek . 111 

Left Fork 111 

Right Fork 112 

Big Branch 113 

Leatherwood Creek 115 

Little Leatherwood ' 115 

Beech Fork 116 

Grave Branch 117 

Clover Fork 118 

Oldhouse Branch 119 

Stony Fork 120 

Smith Branch 122 

Line Fork 123 

Turkey Creek 124 

Defeated Creek . 126 



INDEX xxv 

North Fork Waters Continued: p 
Line Fork Continued: 

Dry Fork 127 

Coils Branch 130 

Rockhouse Creek 132 

Doty Branch 133 

Blair Branch 133 

Little Colles 134 

Millstone Branch . 134 

Camp Branch 136 

Right Fork 138 

Trace Branch 139 

Indian Creek _ 141 

Love Branch 142 

Big Branch 144 

Left Fork ___ 146 

Right Fork _ 147 

Tolson Creek 147 

Kings Creek 148 

Smoot Creek 150 

Dry Creek 152 

Cowan Creek : 153 

Bert Estis Branch 153 

Sand Lick Creek _ 155 

Whitesburg 158 

Colly Creek _ 160 

Meadow, or Long Branch 161 

Licking Rock Branch 161 

Thornton Creek 163 

Millstone Creek 164 

Left Fork . 165 

Right Fork 165 

Boone Fork 168 

Quillan Fork 168 

Yonts Fork . 169 

Wrights Fork 170 

Potters Fork 170 

Laurel Branch 171 

Middle Fork Waters: 

Beginning Branch 174 

Turkey Creek 175 

Canoe Creek 175 

Longs Creek 176 

Groundhog Branch 176 

Squabble Creek 178 

Guys Creek 179 

Rush Creek _ 181 



xxvi INDEX 

Page. 
Middle Fork Waters Coutiuued: 

Grassy Branch 183 

Peach Orchard Branch 184 

Hell-for-Certain Creek 184 

Oldhouse Branch 185 

Cutshin Creek 186 

Mackintosh Creek 187 

Feckley Branch 187 

Hart Branch 187 

Wooten Creek 190 

Polecat Branch 191 

Coon Creek 191 

Wolf Creek 191 

Laurel Fork 195 

Guthrie Fork 197 

Bull Creek 198 

One Mile Creek 198 

Nighway Branch 199 

Asher Branch 199 

Roberts Branch 200 

Rockhouse Creek (Hyden) 201 

Hurst Branch 204 

Burnt Camp Branch . 206 

Greasy Creek 206 

Lick Branch 207 

Honey Branch 207 

Elk Branch 208 

Laurel Fork 208 

Feds Branch 208 

Upper Double Branch 208 

Gill Branch 211 

White Oak Creek 212 

Pace Trace 213 

Tantrough Branch 214 

Lewis Creek 215 

Abners Branch 217 

Gabes Branch 218 

Big Laurel Creek 219 

Isaac Branch 220 

Harmon Branch 

Beech Fork 221 

Oldhouse Branch 221 

Trace Branch 

Reuben Branch 225 

Chumley Branch 227 

White Oak Branch . 229 



INDEX xxvii 

Mi. I ill.- Fork Waters Continued: Page. 

Roark Branch 230 

Spruce Pine Branch 231 

South Fork Waters: 

Sexton Creek 235 

Bullskin Creek 236 

Big Branch ; 236 

Trace Branch 237 

Red Bird Creek 238 

Hector Creek 238 

Jacks Creek 238 

Bowling Branch 238 

Big Creek 239 

Bear Branch 241 

Ulysses Fork, Schoolhouse Branch 242 

McFadden Branch 243 

Patton Branch 244 

Big Double Creek : 245 

Sugar Creek . 246 

Spruce Pine or Piney Branch 246 

Laurel Branch 246 

Gilberts Creek 247 

Elisha's Creek 249 

Flat Creek 250 

Right Fork, Panther Branch 250 

Bowens Creek 251 

Spring Creek 252 

Katys Creek 252 

Bear Creek 255 

Jacks Creek (above Bowens) 255 

Philips Fork 259 

B\ue Hole Creek 262 

Lick Branch 264 

Rich Branch 265 

Meadow Fork . 266 

Cow Fork - 266 

Goose Creek 267 

Beech Creek 267 

Laurel Creek - 269 

Manchester 269 

Horse Creek 270 

Collins Fork 271 

Buzzard Creek 271 

Aery Branch 272 

Ingram Branch 272 

Bull Creek 273 

Hammonds Fork 273 



xxviii INDEX 

Page. 
South Fork Waters Continued: 

Left Fork 274 

Martins Creek 275 

Otter Creek 275 

Toms Branch 276 

Asher Fork . 277 

Hun Jackson Branch 278 

Indian Grave Branch 279, 280 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



To His Excellency, AUGUSTUS E. WILLSON, 
Governor of Kentucky. 

Sir: This report on the coals of the region drained by the 
Three Forks of the Kentucky River was, as is indicated Iby the author's 
letter of submittal, ready for publication near the close of 1907. It 
lias been in the hands of ifhe /printer somewhat more 'than two and a 
half years. As you are aware, the writer is not responsible for the 
long delay in putting it through the press. 

Very respectfully, 

C. J. NORWOOD, 

Director, State Geological Survey. 
Lexington, Ky., 

November 28, 1910. 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



PKOF. CHARLES J. NORWOOD, 

Director, Kentucky Geological Survey. 

DEAR SIR: According to your instructions, I have made 
a somewhat hasty exploration of the greater part of the drain- 
age area of the three forks of the Kentucky river, with a view 
to revision of my reports thereon of 1885 and 1886. 

In the course of that work it was found that for greater 
convenience of reference a new arrangement was desirable, 
and, in consequence, the accompanying entirely new report 
has been written, in which is collected, and presented in 
geographical sequence, all available geological information of 
the territory meriting notice. 

Respectfully, 

JAMES M. HODGE. 
November, 1907. 



REPORT ON THE COALS 



OF THE 



THREE FORKS OF KENTUCKY RIVER. 



The title to this report includes somewhat more territory 
than is covered by it, the lower portions of each Fork having 
been, of necessity, omitted. The area covered is, on the North 
Fork, its drainage from the mouth of Troublesome creek, in- 
cluding that of the latter stream; the Middle Fork drainage 
through Breathitt, Perry and Leslie counties ; the South Fork 
from the Owsley-Clay county line to its heads. 

Following a general review of the various coal beds are 
given detail, of openings and localities, with running com- 
ments upon them. The geographical arrangement there 
adopted gives opportunity for reference in one place to all the 
coals of each locality, so far as they have become known to the 
writer. It should be borne in mind that many openings were 
not visited for want of 'time fo<r it, and far more because of 
their having fallen in. 

The accompanying map gives, in 'blue figures, tide-water 
elevations of some of the principal points of the region, and, 
in underscored black figures the sea level elevation of the Fire- 
clay coal bed, wherever found with its characteristic flint clay 
or "jack-rock" parting. These latter elevations and others in 
the text were obtained, usually, by barometric measurement of 
the height of the opening from the adjacent main stream, to 
which was added the height of that stream as determined from 
the topographical maps of the II. S. Geological Survey. Two 



1 2 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

sources of error are, therefore, involved, which, doubtless, 
have led' to considerable variation from the true heights, but 
the general results show an unexpected 'conformity, and are 
of much assistance in correlations. 

The numbering of coal beds, heretofore adopted with ad- 
vantage, is now discarded in favor of names for them. Few 
of the beds are continuous in thickness and in character 
.throughout the eastern part of the State; and local names are 
more easily adopted into general use. 

The topography of the region varies but little in its whole 
extent, being a succession of narrow winding valleys, inclosed 
by steep ridges with sharp summits. Width of valley is in 
general roughly proportional to the >size of its stream, and the 
rate of its fall inversely proportional to it. When the Lower 
Conglomerate measures appear above drainage, as on the 
North Fork from Whitesburg to Thornton creek, and on the 
South Fork from Bullskin creek to Collins Fork, a soft shale 
at 'the top of those measures has caused a more rapid wearing 
and widening of the valleys. Shales on the Middle Fork in 
the vicinity of Crockettsville have bad a like effect. 

The top of the Conglomerate formation rises to a height 
of 40 feet in sandstone cliffs with 50 feet of softer sandstone 
on them at Whitesburg, and at M^anchester to a freight of 100 
feet. 

Of other sandstones, that one close under the Fire-clay 
coal is mo'st worthy of remark, though perhaps not 'the most 
conspicuous. It is most apt to form cliffs or narrow ravines 
where it lies near drainage level, and the streams have 
recently cut through it. This is especially noticeable on Lost 
creek below Ten Mile creek, and on the North Fork at Squab- 
ble creek. At these points the extreme crookedness of the 
streams is attributed to a cross-roll of strata running about 
with the county line southwestward from Lost creek; iwhich 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 3 

may also have been influential in causing the near approach 
of the two forks a few miles further south. 

The cliffs appear on Cutshin creek, and on the Middle 
Fork drainage above Hyden for a long distance, and seem to 
have deterred farming along those streams to a considerable 
degree. 

On the eastern branches of Red Bird above Big creek the 
place of the Fire-clay coal can often be approximately located 
by the opening of the ravines and reduced rate of fall of the 
streams on top of the sandstone, which seems to be particu- 
larly hard here. 

Loose pebbles have been found on this horizon at several 
points along the North Fork, as detailed later, oftener above 
the coal, and, according to one statement, they have been 
found incorporated in the sandstone over the coal, but verifi- 
cation is yet needed that conglomeratic rocks are to be found 
near this horizon; their occurrence as such is certainly rare. 

The most prominent sandstone above the Lower Con- 
glomerate lies directly over the Haddix coal, in Breathitt 
county, about 200 feet above the Fire-clay coal. Its cliff- 
making tendency is seen at almost every opening of the coal 
under it, yet it can seldom be identified without help from the 
neighboring coals, for other sandstones, especially higher 
ones, are of much the same character. Pebbles believed to 
have come from this rock were found on Clover fork of 
Leotherwood creek- (See page 118.) 

About 500 feet above the Fire-clay coal over most of the 
region, and probably 700 feet in its extreme southern part, is 
a sandstone not especially conspicuous, of little area because 
of its height, which may become of much interest as the top 
of the Upper Conglomerate, prominent about the heads of the 
Cumberland river. The correlation is not fully established, 
and the only evidence yet obtained of its being conglomerate 
on Kentucky river waters is in a single pebble found lying 



4 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

loose in the road from Hazard to Hyden, in the gap at the 
head of Mackintosh creek; but no especial attention has been 
paid to the rock. 

Excepting the north face of Pine Mountain, strata lie in 
long, broad, undulating slopes of light pitch, nowhere averag- 
ing over one per cent., other than in local rolls of minor im- 
portance. Arrows on the map stow the direction of dip, as 
do also the Fire-clay coal elevations there given, covering the 
greater part of the region under review. Without too close 
reliance on the accuracy of the figures, they still impart much 
information. 

From near the mouth of Troublesome creek, at the foot 
of the southeasterly downward slope from the -border of the 
ooal field in Wolfe county, a synclinal axis is foujnd to lie 
along the North Fork southward through Breathitt into Perry 
county, and thence crossing into Leslie county, following the 
general direction of Cutshin creek up to its head; rising some 
300 feet in that distance of 40 miles. The rise is not uniform 
but is confined mostly to its southern half, and there the rise 
alp>pears to increase southward. 

East of this axis there is an easterly and southeasterly 
rise, which brings the Lower Conglomerate to the surface 
along the North Fork between Sand Lick creek and Boone 
Fork. These and intermediate tributaries of the North Fork, 
on the nortih, have strata lying nearly level, but east and 
north of them the rise is continuous throughout the North 
Fork drainage area. 

The foot-hills of Pine Mountain show strata somewhat 
distorted by the fault which came with its uplifting. The Coal 
Measures are cut off at the main base of the mountain by this 
fault. 

West of the synclinal axis there is a southwest rise which 
extends through Kentucky Eidge to Pine Mountain, but on 
Goose creek from Manchester up to Asher fork of the main 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 5 

stream and to Hammond's fork of Collins fork this dip is 
reversed. 

The foregoing deductions disregard slight undulations of 
strata, which may sometimes give reversals of the general dip, 
especially likely to occur where the course o'f the stream is 
contrary to that dip. Every locality must eventually be 
worked out by itself, for which this general description may 
serve as a guide; and this may be mo-dined to some extent on 
gaining a more accurate knowledge of elevations. 

The following general section gives the approximate 
relative position, in descending order, of the principal coal 
beds of the region, with names as adopted in this report, in 
part new and in part as locally known: 

Hihdman Coal Bed. 

Interval, 100 to 150 feet in Knox county and northern 
Perry county. 

Flag Coal Bed. 

Interval, 40 to 80 feet in Breathitt and Knox counties, and 
in northern Perry county. 

Hazard Coal Bed. 

Interval, 80 to TOO feet, except in the extreme south and 
west. 

Haddix Coal Bed. 

Interval, 200 feet, except in the extreme south and west. 
Fire-Clay or Hyden Coal Bed. (Formerly called No. 4.) 
Interval, 30 to 60 feet. 



6 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Whitesburg Coal Bed. 

Interval, 150 feet. 
Elkhorn Coal Bed. (Formerly called No. 3.) 

Interval, 200 feet in Southern Knox and Letcher counties. 
Rockhouse or Manchester Coal Bed. (Formerly called No. 1.) 

Interval, 200 feet at Beattyville. 
Beattyville Coal Bed. 

The interval between the Fire-clay coal and the Hind- 
man bed, about 530 feet between Hindman and Hyden, is 
believed to increase to about 730 feet at the head of Middle 
fork. 

Two other beds, at least, are known to be workable, one 
of them being between the Ro-ckhpuse and Elkhorn beds, the 
other a rider to the Fire-clay coal, sometimes rising to 60 
feet above it. 

Nine beds are known to carry cannel coal. They are: 

(1) A thin bed in Clay county, over the Manchester coal. 

(2) The Elkhorn bed in Letcher county. (3) The Whites- 
burg bed in Letcher county and on Middle Fork and Elisha's 
creek, Leslie county. (4) The Fire-clay coal at intervals over 
much of the region. (5) The rider to the Fire-clay coal at 
intervals over much of the region. (6) The Haddix coal in 
Breathitt and Perry counties. (7) The Hazard coal in south- 
eastern Leslie county. (8) The Flag coal in Breathitt and in- 
to Perry county. (9) A rider to the Hindman bed on Big 
creek. Perry county. A cannel coal opening at the head of 
Red Bird in Bell county, not correlated, is either of the Hind 
man bed or of one close to it. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE PORKS. 7 

Splint coal in varying proportions is common to all the 
beds. 

Analyses of coals are given under the headings of .the 
respective localities from which they were taken, and in ad- 
dition thereto some of those representative of the several beds 
are repeated in the following table. 

In many instances, as noted, however, the samples for 
analysis were necessarily taken from outcrops, and therefore 
gave an excessive proportion of ash, with corresponding re- 
duction of valuable constituents, for which due allowance 
should be made. Though the coals are generally variable in 
quality in each bed, it is believed that they will rarelv fall 
below a fairly high standard of excellence. 

The numbers in the first column of the table followed by 
the letter "r" refer to the numbers used in the Chemical Re- 
ports of the Survey; those followed by the letter "1", to the 
laboratory records. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



TABLE OF ANALYSES 



Labor'y 
No. (1) 
Rep. 

No. (r) 


Name of Eed 


Location. County 


Total Coal 
Inches 


2703? 


Beattyville 


1 

Sturgeon Cr. _ _ -Lee 


47 


27041 


Beattyville 


Sturgeon Cr. Lee 


34 


2357r 


Rockhouse 


Rockhouse Cr. Letcher 


44 


2358r 


Rockliouse 


Mouth of Sand Lick Cr. _ Letcher 


25$ 


2359r 


Rockhouse _ _ 


Mouth of Sand Lick Cr. Letcher _ 


28t 


2649r 


Manchester 


Goose Creek . . ciav 


39 


2756J 


Elkhorn 


Mouth of Little Carr Knott 


46 


2352r 


Elkhorn _ 


Laurel Br. North Fork Letcher 


96 


236 Ir 


Elkhorn 


Same opening; Lower seam Letcher 


70 




Elkhorn 


Potters Fork - Letcher 


83 




Elkhorn 


Same, 48-hr. Coke - Letcher 






Elkhorn _ 


Same, 72-hr. Coke _ _ Letcher 




2528r 


Fireclay Coal 


Lost Cr. _ Breathitt 


24 


27541 


Fireclay Coal 


Rockhouse Cr. _ _ _ Letcher 


\ c. c. 


27531 


Fireclay Coal 


Millstone Cr. Letcher 


| 18 
66 


2737r 


Fireclay Coal 


Rockhouse Cr. _ Leslie 


69 


2735r 


Fireclay Coal 


Greasy Cr. _ _ Leslie 


44 


2647r 


Fireclay Coal _ 


Indian Grave Br. _ Clay 


51 


2739r 


Rider to Firwlav CoaL 


Beech Fork Leslie 


j c. c. 


2282r 


Haddix _ _ 


Mouth Troublesome Cr Breathitt 


{ 38 

C. r ' . 


2530r 


Haddix 


Russell Br. Breathitt 


58 


2795r 


Haddix 


Mouth of Squabble Cr Perry 


36 


2735? 


Hazard 


Mouth of Dan Fork Knott 


58 


27551 


Hazard _ _ 


Hind man Knott 


42 


27381 


Hazard* 


Laurel Fk. Cutshin Leslie 


67 


27371 


Hazard 


Laurel Fk. Cutshin Leslie 


1 c. c. 


27331 


Flag _ 


15 Mile Cr. Perrv 


I 23 

86 


27321 


Flag 


16 Mile Cr. Perry 


58 











iUpper seam. 



ttower seam. 



*Analysis of bituminous portion. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 



KENTUCKY RIVER COALS. 



ANALYSIS. 



Specific 
Gravity. 


Moisture. 


Volatile 
Comb. 
Matter. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 


Ash. 


Sulphur. 


Character of 
Coke. 


1.345 


4.16 


38.97 


49.24 


7.63 


1.97 


Spongy. 


1.299 


3.53 


40.51 


49.00 


6.96 


2.60 


Spongy . 


1.242 


1.46 


35.84 


58.60 


4.10 


1 .063 


Light Spongy. 


1.277 


1.30 


39.60 


55.20 


3.90 


2.812 


Light Spongy. 


1.286 


1.60 


30.40 


56.60 


5.40 


1,060 


Light Spongy. 


1.278 


1.48 


35.92 


54.70 


7.90 


0.885 


Spongy. 


1.367 


2.92 


34.90 


54.36 


7.82 


0.65 


Friable. 


1.291 


3.26 


32.24 


61.60 


2.90 


0.656 


Dense. 


1.319 


2.86 


31.54 


62.10 


3.50 


0.535 


Dense. 




1.950 


37.350 


57.367 


2.800 


0.533 






0.302 


1.623 


91.320 


6.165 


0.590 






0.170 


1.135 


91.731 


6.505 


0.459 




1.366 


1.40 


35.90 


52.50 


10.20 


3.483 


Spongy. 


1.309 


0.39 


46.11 


40.50 


13.00 


2.00 


Dense. 


1.333 


1.43 


37.00 


53.35 


8.22 


0.71 


Spongy. 


1.279 


0.74 


36.06 


54.00 


9.20 


1.307 


Spongy 


1.251 


1.72 


35.02 


57.60 


5.66 


0.599 


Spongy . 


1.288 


1.10 


35.60 


56.90 


6.40 


0.885 


Light Spongy. 




1.10 


44.20 


49 7A 


UOP 


Ofion 










TO t \J 


Uv 


.O'JU 


Dense. 


1.212 


1.60 


46.60 


46.80 


5.00 


0.824 


Dense Spongy. 


1.345 


3.80 


35.60 


54.80 


5.80 


0.875 


Dense. 


1.257 


1.90 


37.10 


57.90 


3.10 


0.749 


Spongy. 


1.294 


1.76 


41.98 


49.67 


6.59 


1.83 


Dense Spongy. 


1.264 


1.44 


41.67 


52.24 


4.65 


1.05 


Spongy. 


1.290 


1.67 


38.78 


53.91 


5.64 


1.34 


Dense Spongy. 


1 . 225 


1.56 


46.94 


45.16 


6.34 


0.72 


Dense. 


1.337 


2.48 


35.51 


52.43 


9.58 


1.05 


Dense Spongy. 


1.297 


2.09 


38.61 


54.21 


5.09 


0.83 


Dense Spongy. 



10 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Eeattyville Coal Bed. This Inter-Conglomerate coal, the 
lowest of the series, is given its name because of its having 
been mined at Beattyville for nearly fifty years. It is now 
mined to a considerable extent at various other points in the 
vicinity, with generally 3 to 5 feet thickness of coal, but it 
sometimes runs below workable limit. 

It sinks below drainage at St. Helens, at the junction of 
the North and Middle Forks, and farther up those streams its 
depth below them is governed not alone by the fall and dip 
of the strata, but probably also by an increase in the thickness 
of Conglomerate measures overlying the coal. 

This would probably result in carrying the coal, within 
a few miles of those two Forks, to a depth prohibitive of min- 
ing for many years to come, for, though in the vicinity of 
WMtesburg the Conglomerate measures appear above the 
North Fork level, their thickness, as developed on Pine Mount- 
tain, is such as to carry the coal far below the .surface. 

On the South Fork the case differs. There the strata rise 
with the stream, and the Conglomerate measures probably in- 
crease to much less extent, so that there is a fair prospect of 
finding the bed of workable thickness at 'moderate depth as far 
up as and even beyond Manchester. 

Similar coal of equal thickness in the Conglomerate of 
Pine and Stone mountains tends to the theory of a rather 
uniform deposit underlying mo'St of the intervening region. 

The coal is a bright, pitch-black block and splint coal, 
which, in spite of its carrying more sulphur than do the higher 
coals of the Three Forks, stands well in the market as a steam 
and domestic coal, after long use especially in Richmond and 
other towns of Central Kentucky. 

Analyses of the coal are given below; Nos. 1865, 1866, 
1867 by Dr. R. Peter from samples collected for the Survey 
by Prof. A. R. Crandall from the vicinity of Beattyville; Nos. 
2703 and 2704 by A. M. Peter from my samples taken from 
Sturgeon creek. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE PORKS. 



1 1 



BEATTYVILLE BED. No. 1865 No. 1866 No. 1867 No. 2703 No. 2704. 



Moisture - 


_ _ 2.30 


2.10 


4.00 


4.16 


3.5U 


Volatile comb, matter 


38.10 


38.10 


35.50 


38.97 


40 51 


Fixed carbon _ 


51.64 


51.64 


55.50 


49.24 


49.00 


Ash - - - 


_ 7.96 


8.26 


5.00 


7.63 


6.96 














Sulnlmr . 


100.00 
. _2.356 


100.00 
3.991 


100.00 
1.041 


100.00 
1.97 


100.00 
2.60 



L't. 

Coke spongy 

Specific gravity 1.331 

Color of ash lilac 

gray 



L't. 

spongy spongy 
1.334 1.307 
lilac light 

gray lilac gray 



spongy spongy 
1.345 1.299 

brownish purple 



Rockhouse or Manchester Coal Bed. This bed, numbered 
Coal 1 in former reports and known as the Sand Lick bed in 
the vicinity of Whitesburg, is here given the name of Rock- 
house, because of its many good exposures along that stream 
in Letcher county. For Clay county the name of the town of 
Manchester is applied to the bed, its coal being the only source 
of supply in that vicinity. 

The bed is the lowest of the Carboniferous formation, and 
is supposed to be some 200 feet above the Beattyville bed, 
where the latter goes below drainage at St. Helens. The 
former is below drainage throughout the region ex- 
cept in Letcher and Clay counties. In Letcher county 
the bed >crops out near the. base of the hills along Rockhouse 
creek from below Camp branch nearly to the head of the creek, 
about 4 feet of clean coal. It is exposed on the North Fork 
and branches, also low down, from Kings creek nearly to 
Thornton, but with more variable section, running from 2 
to 5 feet of coal; but where thickest it is divided into two 
nearly equal parts, with the parting sometimes giving it the 
appearance of two distinct beds. 

In Clay county the bed is in outcrop low down along the 
South Fork and up the. Red Bird to Flat creek, where it goes 



12 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

below drainage. At Manchester it is 100 feet high, and thence 
southward falls below drainage near the county line on the 
Right fork and on the Left fork above Otter creek. In this 
county it varies generally from 2 to 4 feet without parting, 
its best condition being found on Laurel and Horse creeks, 
where it closely approaches 4 feet of clean coal. It was 
formerly mined to considerable extent for use at the salt 
works along Goose creek, but with the abandonment of that 
industry the mines fell into disuse. 

As in Northeastern Kentucky, the coal seems to be re- 
markably pure, and especially as regards sulphur. The 
quality of the coal is perhaps more uniform than in any other 
bed of the series. Analyses of it are given in the detailed sec- 
tion of this report under the headings of the streams from 
which samples were taken. 

Between the Rockhouse and Elkhorn beds, 80 to 120 feet 
from either, is a workable bed not included in the preceding 
enumeration of beds, as it cannot yet be identified elsewhere 
than in a rather restricted area of Letcher county. On Colly 
and Thornton creeks and Boone fork it gives a nearly uniform 
section closely approaching 4 feet in thickness, without 
parting; corresponding with sections of the Rockhouse bed on 
Rockhouse creek. It appears, though, to be of poorer quality. 
On Colly it has a thin streak of cannel and an inconstant part- 
ing. 

Elkhorn Coal Bed. This bed, called No. 3 in a former 
report, lies near drainage level on the lower part of Trouble- 
some creek, where it is thin or badly split up with partings. 
This seems to be the case in the vicinity of Hindman, where it 
appears to have risen above the creek, but it may possibly 
be. still below. 

It rises to Carr fork at the mouth of Breeding creek and 
has 3 1-2 to 4 feet of coal, injured by partings, at the mouth 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 13 

of Little Carr. Further up C'arr and on Rockhouse creek, 
rising somewhat faster than the stream-beds, it appears to 
run about the same thickness of coal without parting, the 
lower 6 inches to 12 inches frequently cannel coal. 

The bed disappears below the main North Fork near the 
mouth of Troublesome creek and rises again near the mouth 
of Line fork with coal too thin to make identification posi- 
tive. Thence it rises to some. 150 feet above the mouth of 
Rockhouse creek and 350 feet above Whitesburg. Thence up 
the river it rises but slowly, being only 180 feet above the 
mouth of Potter's fork. On Colly and Thornton creeks the 
bed is reported of workable thickness, but only on crossing to 
the east of Boone fork does it appear with 8 feet of coal, 
which it carries through into Pike comnty.* This coal in 
Letcher county appears generally to be good, but only that 
of the thickest openings has been thoroughly tested for coke. 
The results have been so satisfactory as to leave no question 
of its availability for that purpose, and raise it to estimation 
as one of the most valuable beds of the State. 

On the Middle Fork the bed probably rises to outcrop 
about at the mouth of Guy's creek and is opened to 4 feet 
nearly clean coal on Rush creek. Thence to Bull creek it lies 
unopened at or near river level, but two miles above Bull 
creek, at the Asher mines, it is 50 feet above the river, and 
with 4 1-2 feet of coal. For the next two miles, to Hyden, the 
bed shows but about 2 1-2 feet of coal and above Hyden still 
less. 

At the Rush creek and Asher mines the coal is apparently 
of excellent quality, the main body of it being splint coal. 



*For a description of this coal in Pike county, see Bulletin No. 4, Ken- 
tucky Geological Survey. 



14 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Elsewhere on the Middle Fork, where noted, it seems to be 
softer and more of the nature of coking coal. 

On the South Fork waters the bed has not been found any- 
where of workable thickness, though at the mouth of Asher 
fork, Goose creek, it is nearly so. 



Whitesburg Coal Bed. Lake the Elkhorn, this bed is 
thin and not positively identified on Troublesome creek waters 
near its mouth, though its usual occurrence with black slate 
roof should make correlation comparatively easy. The bed 
soon goes delow drainage up Troublesome and Lost creeks, 
and appears only as thin coal when risen to surface near 
Hindman. 

On the main North Fork it is also mostly below drainage 
up to Hazard, where it has been worked in an entry at road 
level at the upper end of the town, where its partings ruin the 
bed, and it is not known to. be of workable thickness lower 
down stream than Rockhouse creek. At the head of Camp 
branch it has 4 feet of what appears to be excellent coal, 
but so high in the hills there that its area is not large. If of 
equal thickness farther down Rockhouse a deposit of much 
value remains to be found, and openings on the North Fork 
give favorable prospect for it. 

On Smoot creek the bed has H to 3 feet of cannel coal 
with a little soft coal on top of it, and across the ridge on 
Dry creek nearly 5 feet of soft coal, its best exhibit. Beyond 
this the bed is recognized only opposite Whitesburg, 500 feet 
above the river, where it has 3 to 3i feet of coal, mainly splint. 
The high hill here gives it a considerable area. 

On the Middle Fork it is conspicuous, but thin, along the 
road from Long to Guys creek, its black slate covering being 
especially noticeable. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 15 

But few openings into the bed are known to have been 
made above Guys creek, and they are thin, except two on the 
main stream near the mouth of Beech fork, where there is 
nearly 4 feet of clean coal within 60 feet of the river. The 
extent of this coal needs development, and in this connection 
the 32-inch coal, half cannel, of the same bed in Elisha's creek, 
should be noted, though the bed thins toward the head of that 
creek. 

Excepting this opening on Elisha's creek, the bed is not 
known of workable thickness on South Fork waters. 

Where of workable thickness, the coal appears to be 
of excellent quality, generally in large proportion splint coal. 
As 'cannel it is rare 



Fire-Clay-Coal Bed. This bed, previously called No. 4, 
may be given the name of Hyden to conform with the nomen- 
clature now adopted, though, as it is quite generally known 
on the Three Forks as the Fire-clay coal bed, that name is 
preferred in this report. It is the "Dean" coal of the Cumb- 
erland river basin, and carries its characteristic flint-clay 
parting, rarely wanting, but sometimes forming the floor of 
the bed in the absence of the lower seam of coal. Occasion- 
ally a "jack-rock" takes the place of the pure flint clay. 

Because of this usually unmistakable parting, the bed 
serves as a safe key to correlation throughout nearly the 
whole region, and far beyond its limits. 

The general map accompanying this report gives in un- 
derscored black figures the elevation of the bed above tide, as 
deduced from the U. S. topographical maps. The more accur- 
ate height above drainage of each opening is given in the 
latter part of this report. 

The bed is first recognized on North Fork waters just 
before going below drainage on Lost creek, with 2 feet of 



16 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

rather poor coal. It emerges on Troublesome, creek probably 
in the neighborhood of Dwarf P. 0. (half way between Bulls 
Fork and Montgomery branch), and at Hindman it is about 
230 feet above the creek. Only near the head of the Eight 
Fork, where the bed is low in the hills, is the bed known to be 
of workable thickness on Troublesome waters. 

On the North Fork above Troublesome, the bed is first 
recognized on Grapevine creek near its mouth, 3 feet of 
coal, but it thickens to 5 feet on Eversole branch, where 
it is 100 feet above the river. On Henson branch, cannel coal 
appears at the bottom of the bed, which is hardly workable 
there, according to the section obtained, but beyond it im- 
proves to Fish-Trap branch, where it has over 4i feet of clean 
coal. On Willard creek it is thin and continues so to beyond 
Big creek, but thence to Hazard it is workable. 

From Hazard, where the bed is about 80 feet above the 
river, up to the head of Carr fork and on Bockhouse creek 
the bed has generally 3 to 5 feet of coal, sometimes part 
cannel, sometimes, where with most coal, with several partings, 
nowhere prohibitive of mining. On Carr its maximum height 
above the creek is about 200 feet, but toward the head of 
Rockhouse it lies clo'se to the tops of the hills. On Line fork 
it appears to be thin, except near Pine Mountain, where it has 
3 feet of coal on the. parting and none under it. It goes 
below drainage about three miles west of Hurricane gap. 

Above Line fork the coal has not been found of workable 
thickness. 

On Middle Fork the bed has not been recognized below 
Guys creek, where it is about 240 feet above the river, 4 
feet of coal with thin characteristic 'parting. Beyond this 
creek it is thin to Cutshin creek, where it runs nearly the 
whole length of the creek, 3 to 4 feet of coal near the bases 
of the hills. 

It reaches probably its maximum thickness on Middle 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 17 

Fork, nearly 6 feet of coal, 170 feet above the river, two 
miles up Rockhouse creek, but is thin again at the head of 
the creek. 

From Hurst branch southward what little is known of the 
bed indicates worthlessness, until it comes near to drainage 
level. Then for a few miles before going below drainage 
towards the heads of Greasy creek, Beech, and the main forks 
the bed shows 3 to 4 feet of coal in many places, with hardly 
any not workable. 

On the South Fork numerous openings into this bed on the 
east side of Red Bird creek indicate a constant workable 
thickness of coal, which a closer examination shows to be 
illusive. There are, doubtless, a number of areas which can 
be worked profitably when means of transportation is pro- 
vided, but they need to be examined in detail to determine 
their extent, and for this purpose the latter part of this report 
will serve as a beginning. 

On the west side of Eed Bird the bed has been found of 
workable thickness first on the head of Flat creek, high in 
the hill. From this point southward detached workable areas 
may be found, increasing in size as the head of Red Bird is 
approached, toward which the strata dip. 

The bed goes below drainage with good thickness about a 
mile from the head of Red Bird, and appears again, its upper 
seam over 4 feet thick, (with parting three inches below the 
coal), two miles down the Left Fork of Straight creek. 

With some uncertainty as to correlation, the 4 feet 
of coal, low down near the head of Goose creek, is referred to 
this bed. It is the only thick coal above the Manchester bed 
on Goose creek waters known to the writer. 

The quality of the coal in this bed is as variable as the 



18 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

thickness. It is occasionally in whole or in part cannel, and, 
where thick, usually a considerable portion is splint coal. The 
soft coal, with few exceptions, appears to be good and some- 
times suitable for making coke. 



Fire-Clay Coal Rider. This bed is probably the most 
variable of any coal of the region both as to its position 
relative to the coal below it and as to the thickness and 
quality of its coal, and it owes its importance largely to 
its association with the Fire-clay coal. Its distance 
above the latter varies, apparently, from actual con- 
tact up to 30 feet, and sometimes even 60 feet, though 
it is quite possible that in the latter case another seam 
of coal has been mistaken for it. Its thickness of coal 
varies from nothing up to 5 or 6 feet, and though probably 
most frequently found as cannel, in whole or in part, it often 
carries only common coal. 

On North Fork waters the bed is generally absent or so 
thin as to be unnoticed, only on Lost creek and Line fork 
(Defeated creek) showing a thickness approaching im- 
portance, having in both places 35 inches of coal with thin 
parting additional. Mention should also be made of the splint 
bed at Thomas Johnson's shown in figure 59. 

On the Middle Fork, Hell-for-Certain creek gives the 
bed's first exhibit, with 1-| feet of coal, but only well up the 
main streams above does it give indications of value, 
and these are not continuous. Its 5 feet of coal on Cutshin 
above Pauls creek; its apparent contact with the Fire-clay 
coal on Greasy creek, Elk branch; and reported 46 inches 
cannel on Tantrough branch, and 38 inches on Beech fork, 
Oldhouse branch, prove possible working areas, which, how- 
ever, must be regarded of small extent, because openings not 
far distant from each show the bed of much less thickness. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 19 

On the South Fork the bed is first noticed on Red Bird 
creek, thin, on the head of Big creek; and again thin, but 
cannel coal, near the head of Red Bird. Between these two 
points a few openings of thick coal have been found, but 
the amount of coal which can be obtained from them is 
probably very small. 

About the main heads of Goose creek other workable 
deposits may be found, but the bed has not been identified 
on Goose creek waters. Opposite the head of Collins fork, on 
Stinking creek, it has 3 feet of solid coal. 



Haddix Coal Bed. Comparatively little is known of 
this bed, partly because frequently in part cannel it par- 
takes of the nature of that coal in occurring only at intervals 
in thick pockets, and largely because of its being 
ordinarily under a massive sandstone, its outcrop at 
the back of a wide bench where it is deeply covered. 
Its exposures are somewhat rare and its identifica- 
tion is apt to be difficult. Wherever tested it has proved 
remarkably pure, both as cannel and as bituminous coal. 
Though probably without any large continuous workable 
area, its pockets furnish a large amount of particularly fine 
fuel, and probably far rrjore than is yet developed. 

One of its most promising areas is on Lower Trouble- 
some creek and its vicinity, where the bed is well known 
though not fully developed. At the mouth of the creek the 
coal reaches a thickness of nearly 4 feet, and on Russell branch 
4^ feet, but with thin partings. Up Lost creek it 
soon becomes thin, but on Bear branch and on Williams 
fork of Buckhorn it appears as nearly or quite 3 feet 
thick. On Trace branch of Troublesome (near Dwarf P. 0.), 
it has a foot of cannel, with less bituminous coal, and, so far 
as known, does not attain workable thickness farther up the 
creek. 



20 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Probably a second pocket lies up the North Fork, the 
bed showing well on Caney and Georges creek and reaching 
its maximum known thickness, 88 inches, on Wolf creek. 

On Grapevine creek it has over 4 feet of coal, running 
down to 3 feet on Bo-ck Lick branch, and to 32 inches on Pigeon 
Boost branch. Farther up North Fork waters it has been 
found only thin, excepting on Line fork towards its head, 
where it has nearly 5 feet of coal. Between Leatherwood and 
Line fork, and perhaps farther west, the bed appears to sep- 
arate into two distinct beds. 

On the Middle Fork it is first recognized on Long's creek, 
6 feet thick, but is down to 3% feet five miles above Long and 
to 3 feet near Squabble creek. At five miles above Guys creek 
it has 2 feet of bituminous on 10 inches cannel coal, and be- 
yond, up Middle Fork waters, it has been found only with 
such heavy partings or thin coal as to make it of no value, 
except in one place on Cut shin creek. On Coon creek, a branch 
of Wolf, it has 4 feet of coal and 3 thin partings. 

On South Fork waters it has little workable area except- 
ing near Kentucky ridge, and nowhere there is it known to 
have workable thickness of coal. 



Hazard Bed. This bed appears to have good thickness, 
ranging generally from 4 to 8 feet of coal, on North Fork 
waters, with an average of perhaps 4i to 5 feet. It has 
usually two partings, sometimes three and even four, but they 
are generally thin and occasionally wholly absent. Though 
containing more, or less splint, the coal is generally softer than 
that of the beds below and more likely to make good coke. 

About the mouth of Troublesome creek the bed is too 
high in the hills to carry large areas, but its 4^ to 5 feet of 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 21 

coal will induce early working, and in Flint ridge, between 
Troublesome creek and Jackson a considerable area is avail- 
able. Also, on the ridges between the North Fork, Lost and 
Troublesome creeks, Ball's and Long forks and Buckhorn, 
large areas of the coal have been found, reaching a thickness 
of over 7 feet, and nowhere but on Fifteen-Mile creek, near 
the head of Lost creek, known to be under 3 feet in thickness. 
There it has 34 inches of coal without parting, and at other 
points where there is less than 4 feet of 'Coal the partings have 
been found absent. About the heads of the shorter of the 
above streams the coal is near water level and consequently 
has good area. 

Up Lots creek and on the ridges north of it the coal ap- 
pears to continue of good thickness, but being largely cut out 
by side valleys comparatively little is known of it. At the 
head of Lost creek it has considerable area with 4 feet of 
coal opened, and small area near Hindman with 3i feet 
mined. 

On the North Fork waters from Troublesome creek to 
Hazard the bed appears to be continuously good, except that 
on Carnegie branch, opposite the head of Sixteen-Mile creek, 
the coal shows a little less than 3 feet. Opposite Hazard, 
on the Big creek road, it makes a fine showing at the Combs 
mine, 55 inches of coal, largely isplint, without parting. 

Between Carr fork and Rockhouse creek, up to Love 
branch, there is a considerable area of the coal, but nothing 
is known of it there. 

Between Kockhouse and the North Fork it is too high 
for workable area. 

Towards the head of Leatherwood it ranges from 4 to 
5i feet of workable coal, and on upper Line fork from 5 to 
71 feet, with considerable areas on each stream. 



22 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

On the Middle Fork waters it has been found thick only 
in the vicinity of Kentucky ridge, where it has large areas. 

On Cutshin creek, Laurel fork, it has 5i feet of nearly 
clear coal, of which almost two feet is cannel, and at the mouth 
of Isaac branch, head of Greasy creek, 4i feet bituminous. 
On Beech fork it has 3i to 4 feet, but on the main head the 
bed is not known. 

On South Fork waters there are but two known openings 
into the bed giving thick coal. They are on Big and on Sugar 
creeks, not far apart, giving 4 and 7 feet, respectively, of 
workable coal. 

A good area of this coal lies in the main ridge east of 
Eed Bird creek, but the coal has been found only thin or much 
split up farther up Red Bird. It is not known on Goose creek 
waters, being generally high in the hills or too high to touch 
them. 

Flag Coal. This coal lying often near the Hazard bed, 
and sometimes with similar coal and partings, may easily be 
mistaken for the latter. It is not infrequently in part cannel 
coal, which is rarely the case with the lower bed. 

About the mouth of Troublesome creek the bed shows 
favorably, but too near the tops of the hills to be of much 
importance. 

Up Lost creek it appears to be thin to above Ten-Mile 
creek, but then, on Collins branch, it has nearly 5 feet of 
coal; and from Fifteen-Mile creek to the head it is finely 
developed, with openings on either side of the main ridges 
Tanging from 3i to nearly 9 feet of coal, most of them over 
.5 feet, and a large, area available. In connection with the Haz- 
ard coal below it, this region is particularly favored, but its 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 23 

prominence may be due in considerable measure to the more 
thorough development than has been made elsewhere. 

Another valuable area lies in Flint ridge, west of lower 
Troublesome creek where the coal is 4 to 6 feet thick. 

On the head of Long fork of Buckhorn it is 5 feet thick, 
with the Hazard coal opened to about the same thickness 
directly under it. 

On Troublesome for a few miles above Buckhorn it ap- 
pears to be thin, but riser, to 7 feet of coal opposite the head of 
Lost creek, falling back soon to 3i thick. Farther up Trouble- 
some it is unknown. 

On the North Fork above Troublesome it soon gets thin, 
and then has not been identified until on Peach Orchard 
branch, across from the head of Sixteen-Mile creek, where it 
has nearly 8 feet of coal, of which one and one half feet is 
cannel ; and again on Carr fork, at the head of Irishman 
creek, 5 feet of coal. On Maces creek, near its mouth, what 
is probably the same bed has nearly 5 feet of >coal, while 
on Line fork it shows less than 2 feet, and again, near its head 
over 5 feet. As with the bed below, it is too high to be 
workable east of Rockhouse creek or south of it, but the Ken- 
tucky ridge extension along Line fork must have a good area 
of it, 

On the Middle Fork waters it appears to be thin and 
generally of small 'area, excepting towards the main heads, 
and but few openings into it are known. With 3 feet on 
Wolf creek (of Cut shin),' over 5 feet on Reuben branch, Beech 
fork, and 82 and 4 feet on the main head, the prospect is good 
for a very valuable bed all along Kentucky ridge, which 
apparently has had no openings made on its north side, except 
where natural exposures of coal induced them. A systematic 
search for coal may reasonably be expected to develop much 
heretofore unknown. 

On the South Fork the bed can be only in the vicinity of 
Kentucky ridge, where it is not known to have been opened. 



24 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Hindman Coal Bed. With hardly more than a dozen 
openings into this bed in the whole region, it may 
yet be ' said of it that it is probably the one of 
most constant good thickness, and it seems to be a 
question of area rather than of thickness which gives it 
value. A num'ber of heavy coal stains seen, but not opened, 
tend to confirm this opinion. The coal appears also more 
uniform in quality than that of other beds, and more promis- 
ing as a coking coal. 

On the Left fork of Troublesome creek it gives its least 
thickness, hardly 4 feet of coal, and on the Eight fork its 
greatest, 9i feet, but with little area at either place. 

On the heads of Big creek (west of the mouth of Carr 
fork) it has 5 to 6 of coal, with six inches of cannel in one of 
them, and on Little Carr 6 feet, also with little area at either 
place. 

The remaining eight known openings are all on Middle 
Pork waters above the mouth of Cutshin creek, and they range 
in thickness of coal from 4 to 7 feet. But excepting in Ken- 
tucky ridge and the high spurs jutting northward from 
it, 'there can be little available working area of the bed. 
A systematic development of the bed there is much needed. 



On the following pages are given details of openings 
visited, together with a running description of such matters 
-&s might merit notice in connection with them. For conven- 
ience of reference they are arranged geographically, the main 
streams being taken up in succession from left to right; and 
they are followed from lower points up to their heads, taking 
their tributaries as they come, and always working as far as 
this allows from left to right. These terms, left and right, are 
used invariably as when looking ur stream, being preferred 



KENTUCKY RIVER, THREE FORKS. 25 

to the use of points of the compass because of the crooked- 
ness of the streams. 

Surface distances, given in miles, are from the best sources 
available, often simply guesses, never from measurement on 
the ground. They are, like the sea-level elevations, intended 
to serve as a convenient approximation and aid to future ex- 
amination, whether by the casual visitor or for thorough 
exploitation. While elevations are without doubt in many 
cases far from correct, they will serve for relative heights 
in all localities, and help in correlations, which are not yet 
fully determined. In the same way underground distances, 
in yards, are given without attempt at accuracy. Thicknesses 
of strata given in feet are approximate only; given in inches 
they may be relied upon as correct. 



26 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, TROUBLESOME CREEK. 

Figure 1 represents the coal of the old Haddix or Sewell 
mine (Now llargis Mine?) opposite the mouth of Troublesome 
creek, and of a higher old opening on the east side of the 
river, as given by P. N. Moore, formerly a member of the 

Survey. Those openings lie near the 
loot of the long southerly slope of 
strata extending from the Wolfe 
county boundary of the coal fields, 
the center of a small stratigraph- 
ical basin having been formed about or 
near the mouths of Troublesome and 
Quicksand creeks. For a short distance 
southward from the moiuith of Trouble- 
some and Lost creeks a somewhat rapid 
rise of strata has occurred. 

The lower of the two coals, 240 feet 
above the river, is of the Haddix bed. 
Northward and westward this bed ap- 
pears to be of little value, but up Trou- 
blesome a few promising openings, and 
up the North Fork more of them, give 
assurance of its being an important fac- 
tor in the development of the field in this 
vicinity. 

The quality of the coal, generally 
excellent in this bed, is well indicated 
by the following analyses, Nos. 160, 170 
and 2282, the two former sampled by 
Mr. Moore, the latter by Mr. C. G. Blakeley, analyzed by 
Dr. R. Peter of the Kentucky Geological Survey; and "A" 




Cannel Coat 



Hacfct/x Coctt 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



27 



and "B", samples from the Hargis mine, analyzed by Prof. 
Thomas Egleston. of Columbia College. 



HADDIX COAL. 



Moisture 


1.10 


1.30 


1.60 


2.78 


Volatile comb, matter 


48.90 


47.00 


46.60 


48.22 


Fixed carbon 


47.00 


44.40 


46.80 


44.24 


Ash 


3.00 


7.30 


5.00 


4.76 












Sulphur 


100.00 
0.241 


100.00 
1.574 


100.00 1 
0.824 


00.00 
0.78 


Specific gravity 


1.211 


1.65 


1.212 




Color of ash 


buff 


brownish 


brownish 


s'dust 


Coke _____ _ . 




gray 
dense 


gray 
dense 










spongy 





HADDIX MINE. HARGIS MINE. 

No. 160 No. 170 No. 2282 "A" "B" 

Cannel Cannel Cannel Cannel Bituminous 

5.27 
38.00 
52.02 
4.71 



100. OC 



0.84 



s'dust 



The eannel is a clean, tougii, elastic, pitch-black coal, in 
appearance as in the above analyses well meriting the high 
regard in which it was held in Central Kentucky, where it was 
much uised before the introduction of cheap coal by rail led 
to the abandonment of shipments by boat down the river. 

Fifty feet below the upper bed of figure 1, iand 350 feet 
above the river, Mr. Moore noted a coal stain, reported 4 
feet thick, which belongs to what is now named the Hazard 
bed. The report of its thickness is probably true, but in view 
of the excessive partings which the bed sometimes carries, it 
cannot be predicted a workable bed, though the probability is 
in favor of it. 

The upper coal, figure 1, is the Flag coal as found in the 
Wells opening, here 400 feet above the river. Though it is 
not unlikely that the 39 inches of coal is below the normal for 
this immediate vicinity, its nearness to the tops of the hills, 
and consequent small area and difficult access, and the fact 
that its partings are here constant, are unfavorable for early 
attack. Sampled by Mr. Moore, and analysed, with results 
below, by Dr. R. Peter, the coal shows much heavier ash than 
belongs to it, because the sample was taken in outcrop. 



28 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

FLAG COAL. Chem. Report No. 1710. 

Moisture 2.78 

Volatile combustible matter 35.52 

Fixed carbon 44.94 

Ash (light lilac gray) 16.76 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.423 

Specific gravity 1.398 

Coke (dense-spongy) 61.70 

"Sample from the outcrop where the coal is dirty, and 
hence will give somewhat more than the average ash percent- 
age. A splint coal with thin partings of fibrous coal con- 
taining fine granular pyrites." 

It does not appear that there are any other coals than 
those given that are of present value in this vicinity. The 
most favorable prospect is in the coals worked at Jackson and 
at Beattyville, which are below drainage here. That they will 
be worked in the future is probable, but unless they prove 
better than there is now reason to anticipate, the time when 
they can be made remunerative is yet far off. 

Noble Branch. 

The section from Sewell and Little's land, figure 2, taken 
from Bulletin No. 3 of the Survey, was 

Fig . Z . 

measured probably by Charles Hendrie 
/z" and referred to No. 4, or Fire-clay coal. 
Its resemblance to the Haddix sections 
about the mouth of the creek makes it a 
23" question if it does not belong to that 
bed. An outcrop sample of the cannel 
sent by Mr. Hendrie, analysed by Dr. 
noble. Br. R. Peter, gave. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



29 




77S 



S.S. 



(s.s. /o' 

I Caa.1 8" 

J Sf. 2." 
) Coal 2f 

I Ca^~! C. itf* 



Coal 

fh. 7" 
Coat 



Sp.Coa.t 



'Coal 
Sh. 
Coa.1 



Cafe C/c 



Mouth of Br. 



HADDIX BED. Chem. Report No. 3111. 

Moisture 0.70 

Volatile combustible matter 50.90 

Fixed carbton 36.70 

Ash (gray) 11.70 



Mill Br. Jecf/o/7 



100.00 

Sulphur 3.845 

Coke (dense) 1 48.40 



Lost Creek. 

In Lost creek at its mouth is a thin 
bed of coal with parting, which, rising 
above drainage, appears among the 
small lower coals of the sections, 
figures 3, 6, 23 and 48, too numer- 
ous and unimportant to trace. They 
serve mainly to show that, up to the 
Haddix coal, there is little inducement 
here for further search. 

What is probably the Haddix coal 
was opened by Judge Strong near his 
house at the mouth of the creek, ap- 
parently with unsatisfactory results. 
Though wholly bituminous in the entry 
there, its outcrop gave blocks of cannel 
coal in an adjoining field. 

Mill Branch. This branch is tribu- 
tary to Lost creek, on the right about 
two miles up. 

The most promising of the lower 
beds is that of the section, figure 3, 180 
feet above Lost creek, which belongs to 



30 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

the Fire-clay, or Hyden, coal bed. It has been mined here 
to a slight extent, though yielding but 24 inches of rather 
poor coal. My underground sample gave, by Dr. R. Peter's 
analysis : 



FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2528. 

Moisture 1-40 

Volatile combustible matter 35.90 

Fixed carbon 52.50 

Ash (dark purplish gray) 10.20 



100.00 

Sulphur 3.483 

Coke (spongy) 62.70 

Specific gravity 1.366 

"A pure-looking rather dull black coal; generally break- 
ing in irregular laminae, with some little fibrous coal between, 
but no apparent pyrites, some portions breaking with irregu- 
lar shining fracture." 

At the time the section was taken, 
the Haddix and Hazard beds had not 
been found on Mill branch, but the Flag- 
coal was opened, showing well, as in 
figure 4. 

Though risen somewhat over 100 
feet from the mouth of Troublesome, the 
coal probably has no less area here than 
there, because of the greater height of 
hills. It appears to be at this point on 
the crest of a wave of the strata, or rim 
of a basin, but a correction of errors of 
elevation may reverse the apparent 
slight, dip southward to Cockerel fork. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



31 



/ . S 



Coal 22. 




Coal 17 



s.s.caff 



Coal in slip 



Thin Coat iron 
ore. in alt a 



S.3. 
3.3. 

Sp.Coal \ Coal 
S.S. 



3.S. 



Coal 9' 



A half mile west of G. W. Noble's 
house, below Leathe.rwood branch, the 
Fire-clay coal shows, as in figure 5, such 
improvement as to induce further in- 
vestigation, but its quality needs careful 
testing before its value can be fixed. 

The section, figure 6, shows in its 
lowest bed a continuation probably of 
the lowest bed of figure 3, (a bed quite 
conspicuous about Hazard, but valueless 
there because of its many partings). Its 
increased distance from the Fire-clay 
coal, at elevation 940, is due not so much 
to a greater interval between the two 
beds, as to the pitch of strata between 
the two points where the beds were ex- 
posed. The actual distance is probably 
less than 100 feet. 

The Fire-clay coal was opened a 
mile above Mr. Noble's house. My 
sample of the 33-in. coal, analyzed by Dr. 
E. Peter, gave: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2527. 

Moisture 1.40 

Volatile combustible matter 33.90 

Fixed carbon '- 51.90 

Ash (dark gray) 12.80 

100.00 



Coa.1 

F Lost 



.790 Sulphur 3.156 

c .-. Coke (spongy) 64.70 

Oecr/o/r at 

G. w. A/O 6 / '.j Specific gravity 1.363 



32 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



67S- 



toe 



"A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Fracture mostly ir- 
regular and shining. Very little fibrous coal apparent in it. 
No appearance of pyrites. ' ' The similarity of the Mill branch 
with this analysis is significant. The heavier ash of the latter, 
2.6 per cent, difference, is due to having taken the. sample from 
a muddy outcrop opening. 

The upper, slipped, coal of the section is the Haddix coal, 
and the Hazard coal comes in on the sandstone at the top of 
the hill. While without working area on the hills by the miain 
creek, it is but necessary to go back to the North Fork and 
Fig> 7 Troublesome main dividing ridges to 

find the coal in bodies large enough to 
*j" work. 



a.3.(C*nn*l St. if. 

**> "5 ,- J 

/ 3* 



( Sff.S.S. 
J ShaLt* 
-\ Coa.t 
\ >?A<x/ 

Caa.1 
I Sha.lt 
Coat 
Stittff 
Coa.t 
**/ 
C.o / 



/i 

S" 

IS 



Coat 



Thin Coat 



Co t^l 



Coat 



CreeX 



Br. Section 



Leatherwood Branch. The section, 
figure 7, shows what is probably the Fire- 
clay <coal at elevation 925. It was ex- 
posed, thin, in the branch by L. H. 
Noble's house. The 28-in. coal next 
above it is 'then the Haddix bed, which, 
showing greater thickness and cannel 
coal at frequent openings in the vicinity, 
should lead to further investigation here. 

The Hazard bed, with its 5 feet 
of coal, on L. H. Noble 's land, shown in 
figure 8, gives promise of an excellent 
working field in this ridge. The open- 
ing, when visited was in a very muddy 
condition, but, nevertheless, was sampled 
by me. In the following analysis a large 
allowance in the ash should be made for 
mud unavoidably included. With a cor- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



33 



rig. 8 




responding increase in the other con- 
stituents a much better result would, 
doubtless, be obtained. 

The Flag coal, not too high to yield 
a workable area, and of good thickness, 
is also shown in figure 8. The sample 
from this opening also included much 
mud which should be allowed for in 
analysis below. Both samples I col- 
lected, and both were analyzed by Dr. E. 
Peter. 



Chem. Report No. 2614 2615 

Hazard Coal Flag Coal 



Moisture 9.60 

Volatile combustible matter __ 29.46 

Fixed carbon 44.14 

Ash (light brownish gray) __ 16.80 



2.80 
31.16 
53.34 
12.70 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.478 0.690 

Specific gravity 1.384 

Coke (pulverulent) 60.94 (dense) 66.04 



Co*/ Cockerel Fork. The next recorded 
opening of the Fire-clay coal bed is at 
i}lQ mouth of Cockerel Fork, 30 feet 
above the stream, and with section as in figure 9. The coal is 
not attractive in appearance, showing much marcasite, and 
the small hard parting of black-jack and sulphur is decidedly 
hurtful, if constant. It is the first appearance of the distinct- 
ive parting which characterizes the Fire-clay coal bed farther 
south, its occurrence as black-jack, instead of Fire-clay, hav- 



34 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



fig . 9 




**' 






C/ay 6.* 



ing been noted at several widely distant 
points. 

Passing several abandoned entries, 
at one-fourth mile up Cockerel fork is 
the upper one having 3 to 4 feet thick- 
ness including four partings. A mile 
up, where the bed goes into the creek, 
nearlv level with the <coal at the mouth, 



f Coctterc.( forH 



Shale and shaly sandstone ___ ^ ------ 30 ft. 

Hard coal ------------- 11 in ' 

Shale _______________ 3 in ' 

Hard coal -------- 8 in - 

with possibly more coal below the creek bed. 

On the head of the Eight fork, on the Noble farm, an old 
opening on a conspicuous bench shows the Hazard bed at 
elevation 1,100, about 3 feet thick, with sandstone roof. 

The Flag coal half mile down stream from the Hazard 
opening, at elevation 1,200, with opening also fallen in, is 
evidently thicker. The dump shows some splinty, slaty, can- 
nel coal similar to that across the ridge on Collins branch, 
where the bed is 5 feet thick. An increase of interval, from 
50 to nearly 100 feet, between the Hazard and Flag coals is 
here noted. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



35 



f/gr. 10 




//o 



870 



<tfi. (Coal f" 
J3h. 7~ 
\Coat t,~ 



Kidney Iron Or 
Coa.1 if." 

Coa.1 it," 



Coat 33' 

s.t. 



Action at 7*o,i. 



In Lost creek section, figure 10, 
taken above the mouth of Cockerel fork, 
near the Perry county line, the lowest 
coal, 33 in., is probably the Fire-clay 
coal. The 26-in. coal above it is notice- 
able as representing the Fire-clay coal 
rider, of considerable importance farther 
south, especially in Leslie county. 

The thin splint coal with parting 
seems to be the Haddix bed, which ap- 
pears to be without value farther up 
Lost creek. 

From Cockerel fork up Lost creek 
for two miles the sandstone under the 
Fire-Clay bed becomes prominent along 
the sides of the narrow, crooked creek 
valley, hardly enough so to merit notice 
here, but that it becomes at other points 
a characteristic feature of that rock. 

Cliff-making sandstones, their tops 
50 to 200 feet or more above the Flag 
coal, form the crests of the ridges, here, 
, and most of the way on either side of 
ost creek. 



Collins Branch. Perry county. On the left, two miles 
above Ten-Mile creek. 

A half mile up the branch, on the left, is John Collings- 
worth's opening into the Flag coal, figure 11. The bed is 




Canne/ and 
Splint Coal 



is 



f~/a<j Coal 
\Jno . Co //t'n gsuu 
Collins Or. 



970 



frfoafiy Coutrtd 



Ceal 
Htporttd. Car 



Tftin Jyo. Coett 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

barely uncovered, and in driving to roof 
it is not unlikely that the clay partings 
disappear. As it is the coal makes 
/s a good showing though the 18 in. of 
slaty cannel and splint coal does not 
add greatly to the value of the bed. 
That the cannel will continue slaty 
through the ridge is almost certain, for 
it is found so on Cockerel fork, but it 
may be marketable. 



About a mile above Collins branch 
and below Fifteen-Mile creek the section, 
figure 12, was taken. A slight rise of 
strata would bring the Fire-clay rider 
of figure 10 to the level of the bottom 
coal of figure 12, of the same thickness, 
but instead there appears to be from 
Ten-Mile to Fifteen-Mile creek another 
reversal of the general pitch of strata, 
and the rider should be about 70 feet 
below the creek at Niece's. With such 
the case, the Hazard and Flag coals, the 
latter with cannel as in many cases, are 
shown higher in the section. No attempt 
was made by the Survey to open the 
coals here. 



*; 



A e *f 



o.t Jacob /Y/'eces 



Fifteen-Mile Creek. On the right, 
| mile up and 115 feet above the mouth 
of this creek, the Hazard bed shows 
about the same thickness as on Cockerel 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



37 



fork, being 34 in. thick, with sandstone roof, clean coal ap- 
parently, but the bottom eight inches was in water when 
visited and it may be in part shale. 



fig. 1 3 



Coa.1 
(a<fjfi. 

Coa( 



Co a. I 7o 



Fla.g Coa.1 
Com 6s a. not H or ton 
/SMi/e Cr, 



On the right, a mile up and 180 feet 
above the mouth of the creek, on the 
Combs & Horton tract, an 8-yard entry 
has been driven into the Flag coal, with 
the section shown in figure 13. The 
upper seams of this coal are soft, in- 
clined to block; the main seam is mixed 
throughout with splint coal. My sample 
analyzed for the Survey, by S. D. 
.Vveritt, gave the following results: 

FLAG COAL. Laboratory No. 2733. 

Moasture 2.48 

Volatile combustible matter 35.51 

Fixed carbon 52.43 

Ash (yellowish gray) ^__ . 9.58 



100.00 

.Sulphur 1.05 

Phosphor 0.033 

Specific gravity 1.337 

Coke (dense-spongy) 62.01 

Total carbon 70.95 

B. T. U. per pound of coal _ 12,958 



From this creek up to the head of Lost creek develop- 
ments already prove a remarkably fine coal field. If, as 
laboratory tests indicate, good coke can be made from the coal, 
its value is immensely enhanced. 

No other good coking coal lies so near to the northwestern 
markets. 



38 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



fig.ff- 



Coat 

==^g j/7a/ 

Coa/ 

Thin ft 
feat 



Coal 



Sixteen-Mile Creek. A mile up this 
crock to Stall's branch on the right, 
a mile up Stall's branch, in a right 
branch is again the Flag coal, poorly 
opened, but showing as in figure 14. It 
lies 60 feet above the mouth of Stall's 
branch and 240 feet above the mouth of 
Sixteen-Mile creek. The section and 
coal are so nearly like the preceding as 
to require no further comment. 



Flag Coat 
fails Or. 
lie Mile Cf. . 



Again, at the Mahlon Jones entry 
on the left, a half mile above Sixteen- 
Mile creek and 180 feet above Lost creek, 
the Flag coal has the section at its face, 
six yards in, given in figure 15. It is 
more of a block coal, with less splint 
than in the two preceding openings, yet 
a glance at the figures shows their sim- 
ilarity and indicate correlation. 



FVg. IS 



COCL( 

(J r..r. I 

3 Shale f 



IS" 



Coal 



/Zoo 

Flag Coal 
Mahlan Uones 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



39 



S.J. 



CoaL *8' 
Hazard Coat 



Mahlon 



Witt &r. 



F/g . /7 




J. E Carr>f)6e/( Entry 
f/ay Coa.( 



Will Branch. A branch on the left, 
three-quarters mile above Sixteen-Mile 
creek. 

On the right of the branch, one- 
quarter mile up it, on Mahlon Jones' 
land, is the Hazard bed, approximately 
as in figure 16. Coal had been taken out 
from under the sandstone roof till the 
latter had fallen in and prevented ex- 
act measurement. The coal is good, 
bright and clean. 

At J. E. Campbell's, on the left of 
Lost creek, two miles above Sixteen- 
Mile creek, the Flag coal is opened with 
an entry of some 30 yards, figure 17. 
The coal is divided into two nearly equal 
benches by a parting running from two 
inches down to nothing. The roof of 
massive sandstone is unusual for this 
bed, though the cliff frequently shows 
itself a little above the coal. Called a 
shop coal, its appearance is favorable 
for coking. My samples, analyzed by 
the Survey chemists, gave: 



FLAG COAL. Laboratory No. 2732. 
Moisture #.09 

Volatile combustible matter 38.61 

Fixed carbon 54.21 

Ash (light buff) 5.09 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.83 

Phosphorus 0.007 

Coke (dense spongy) 59.30 

Specific gravity 1.297 

Fixed carbon 74.24 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 14,018 



40 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig. 1 6 



Coat 



/"i 



Flag Coal 
farris Jonm<s 



"Soft, light, rather pure-looking 
coal, with some ferruginous incrusta- 
tions. Its low phosphorous and sulphur 
and moderate ash are worthy of especial 
notice." 

The Farris Jones opening figure 18, 
near the mouth of Rock fork and 180 feet 
above it, two and one half miles above 
Sixteen-Mile creek, gives the Flag coal 
at its best, though Fig. 19 
imperfectly open- 
ed. It appears like- 
ly to prove equal in 
quality to the Fif- 
teen-Mile creek 
coal analyzed. 



The section, figure 19, shows the 
coal seams found about the mouth of 
Rock fork in 1885. 

There being at that time no reason 
to suspect the presence of thick coal in 
Ihis vicinity, the position of the beds 
found was noted, but no further investi- 
gation madfe. The hills here show the 
^prevalence of 'sandstone, largely replac- 
ed by shale farther down the creek. 






J.3.C//// 



Coat <S/~ait 
<S.S. 



Coat Sfar 



Th in Coa ( 



Ftintu L.3. float 



Cree/C 



Sect/on a.-f .At(en's 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



41 



rig. 2.0 




Coal 



At Fish Napier's four miles above 
Sixteen-Mile creek, one quarter mile up 
a small branch on the right, the Flag 
coal is opened again, 100 feet above the 
creek, a,s in figure 20. 

Fig. ^l 






Again, one quar- 
ter mile farther 
up and a half mile 
i'rom the head of the 
creek, an old opening on the left of the 
road, 40 feet above it, gave the section, 
figure 21. Twenty-five feet under this 
coal is eight inches coal, the interval 
mostlv shalv sandstone. 




\5~/' 



A mile above Lost creek a small 

branch enters Troublesome creek from 
r the left, along which the following sec- 
tion wiais obtained: 



Coal 



"' 



Coat /' 



Coal 



Coat 



Hadeli'x. Coal 
ClinT Davis Entry 



10-ft. Massive Sandstone 1135 

10-ft. Laminated Sandstone 1112 

Davis Mine H05 

Big Bench 1005 

Top ( ?) of cliff sandstone 910 

Thin coal 845 

15-ft. Shaly sandstone. 

Thin coal 830 

(Cliff sandstone under coal) 
Mouth of branch 735 

The benches here have served to 
allow the coal beds to be covered deeply, 
and also are an aid to their approximate 
location. It is probable that the Fire- 
clay coal is on the sandstone at elevation 
830, and the Haddix on the bench 175 
feet higher. The Clinton Davis mine, at 
elevation 1105, a half mile up the branch 



42 



/Jio 



;z0o 



/Otf.0 



49 



T*o 



2 _ E _^ 


1 . C.V 

n;.nt 

Sp.Coa.1 f-f" 

fCoat __ /fe" 
. J Caa.t 3f-" 










1 Coat /3." 

{St. z" 
Coai ^20 
Coat l<o" 
SA. 9 ' 
Coa ( .,6 
Jtt. J 
Coat if 

Sp. Coat 2l" 
Thin Coat 








Thin Coa t 




Coat etAout Jo 




~ fs>,r* s.- , 

..J Coa[ 




\Jf>. 4." 

^Co^^ a. 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



and 100 yards to the right, is in the 
Hazard bed. The prospect of a material 
reduction of partings farther under- 
ground is not good, as they show badly 
where well under cover. 

The George Colman entry, recently 
opened, about two miles above Lost creek 
and a mile below Russell branch, 40 feet 
above the creek, has 30 inches coal and 
eight inches shale in three partings. Its 
roof is bituminous shale. This bed prob- 
ably lies some 120 feet below the Fire- 
clay coal. 



Russell Branch. The section, fig- 
ure 23, was taken from the mouth of 
Kussell branch nearly to its head, but 
the strata between beds seem to lie 
nearly level along the stream, so the in- 
tervals are nearly correct. 

The Colman coal is here the 30 in. 
clean coal near the bottom of the section, 
the Fire-clay coal probaby the thin coal 
of elevation 990; above this its rider 
with a variation of 21 in. in thickness 
of coal in a distance of 100 yards. (From 
James Eholley's spring nearly to the 
outcrop crossing of the branch). The 
possibility of a further increase of thick- 
ness of this fine, bright, splint coal under 
the branch should lead to a thorough 
test of it. 



Ba 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



43 



<Sf>tin t Coa t 



/33.0 

J.Rholtey 
~ 



Coa.( 



Coa-i 



Of the three principal Russell branch 
beds, represented in figure 24, the two 
lower, the Haddix and Hazard beds, were 
measured at outcrop openings where the 
partings were probably excessive, and 
my 'samples, including all the coal seams 
of each bed, must have included some 
extraneous matter. Though each sample 
showed weathering, the difference be- 
tween a solid outcrop, as in No. 2530 and 
a soft outcrop, as in No. 2531, is well 
illustrated in the ash of the following 
analyses by Dr. R. Peter: 



Coal 



Chem. Report No. 2530 

Haddix B>ed 

' Moisture 3.80 

Volatile combustible matter __ 35.60 

Fixed carbon 54.80 

Ash . 5.80 



2531 

Hazard Bed 
4.20 
32.40 
52.26 
11.14 



3. J. 



Coat 

h'aiarcf Coal 
/ZSo 



St. 



/Z.* 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.875 

Specific gravity 1.345 

Coke (dense) 60.60 

Color of ash _ ,__salmon 



100.00 

0.848 
1.426 
63.40 

very light 
gray. 



Co a.1 



2.0 



Coa./ /& 



No. 2530. "In rather thin, irregu- 
lar laminae, with ferruginous stains on 
some, exterior surfaces. ' ' 

No. 2531. "Seems to be splint 
coal." 



coa.( 6" The Flag coal (figure 24) has here 

hai& vj" no cann el, but is a very attractive-look- 
4" ing, bright splint, with covering enough 



COOL(. 



to make it an important bed of this ridge. 



Hctcfdt'x Coa t 



44 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




The remarkable occurrence of flint 
shown at the top of the section (figure 
23) lies for some miles along the crest 

/j" jf the ridge, about 30 feet thick, varying 
in color from white, through yellow and 

/5 J rowns to black. Though weathered, and 
the fragments carried in abundance down 
the branches to Quicksand creek, very 
p ew of them appear to be taken towards 
Troublesome creek. 



** 



s.s. 

5ha/e 
Coo.1 

COCL( 
Shalt 

Coo.1 



Fugitt Branch. Considerable coal 
lias been taken for local use from an 
entry into the Hazard coal shown in fig- 
ure 25, nearly level with and by the low 
gap at the head of this branch. The 

. **" coal is 440 feet above the mouth of the 
/ 

branch, 'but a good working area of it lies 
on either side of the gap. A large bench 
2* .narks the position of the bed here as at 
/0 many other points. 



The Flag coal opening, just above 
he Hazard mine, having fallen in, ac- 

a curate measurement of the bottom coal 
,vas not obtained, but the 24 in. given in 
figure 25 is nearly correct; it is in one 
solid block. The 15 in. seam above it is 

/v channel, but of rather poor quality ap- 
parently. The opening needs extension 

Vazarrf Ca/ 

Hea.d. cf Fugiff Or. * determine the value of the bed, both 
as to quality and quantity, but, on the whole, it gives good 
promise. 



Coo.( 



Coo.1 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



45 



. 2 6 



Coat 



Coal 



Conn el Coat 22. 



Flat) Coal 



Near the mouth of Fugitt branch 
Mr. Moore examined on the Robert's 
farm what is probably the Hazard bed, 
with section shown by figure 26. But the 
presence of cannel in the bottom seam 
makes the correlation doubtful, and, 
again the cannel coal is of uncertain 
character. Mr. Moore's samples of the 
three seams of the bed, analyzed by Dr. 
E. Peter, gave the following results. It 
is to be inferred that the top seam, with 
its high ash, was sampled from a very 
muddy outcrop. 



Chern 


. Report No. 


1702 


1704 


1703 






Top. 


Middle. 


Bottom. 










Cannel . 


MoiS'tur 


e _ 


3.30 


2.20 


3.40 


Volatile 


combustible matter - - 


31.44 


39.20 


43.40 


Fixed ( 


arbon - - 


49.76 


51.14 


46.96 


Ash 




15.50 


7.46 


6.24 













100.00 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.991 2.525 0.630 

Specific gravity 1.405 1.290 1.280 

Coke 65.26 58.60 53.20 

dense friable spongy friable 

Color of ash pinkish-gray lilac-gray light buff gray 

No. 1702. "A splint coal, splitting into very thin laminae 
with fibrous coal between, but with no appearance of pyrites. 
The sample has a weathered and tarnished appearance, show- 
ing ferruginous and earthy stains." 

No. 1704. "Bather a dull-looking coal, apparently pretty 
pure, having but little apparent fibrous coal or pyrites between 



46 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



its laminae. Exterior of some of the lumps covered with fer- 
ruginous incrustation. ' ' 

No. 1703. " Called cannel. A pure-looking coal with but 
little fibrous coal and no apparent pyrites. Sample somewhat 
mixed in character. Some pieces of cannel coal ; others splint 
coal ; others apparently shaly. ' ' 

The questionable character of the cannel sample as des- 
cribed above by Dr. Peter leads to the belief, in the absence 
of conclusive data, that this is the Hazard bed, showing a 
tendency to cannel coal in its bottom seam, a very unusual 
occurrence. 

BUCK HORN CREEK. 

Bear Branch. A mile and a half up this branch, on the 
right fork, just beyond and 100 feet higher than Andrew Mil- 
ler's house, the Haddix coal has been opened, but is now 
partly covered. Somewhat more than three feet of coal, ap- 
parently without parting, with five feet of shale roof, was in- 
dicated. Being but about 340 above the mouth of the branch 
a large area of workable coal may be confidently looked for 
here. 

Near the head of the left fork, 30 
feet above the conspicuous bench of the 
Hazard bed, the Flag coal has been open- 
ed by Mr. Miller, at a height of 490 feet 
above the mouth of the branch, yet still 
with a fair amount of covering. Figure 
27 shows this coal with parting of but 
one inch mother coal or bituminous clay. 
The top seam is a good, bright, some- 
what soft coal : the bottom 25 in. has one 
1 in. and one 6 in. seam of dull, splint 
coal, apparently not bone, and this whole 
seam is comprised in what may be mined 



-5 S. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



47 



as one block. In this 30 yard entry the bed makes a fine 
showing. The direction of the faces of the coal changes in 
that distance perhaps 10 degrees. 

At the mouth of Long fork, 330 feet up, S. M. Noble has 
an eight yard entry, partly filled with water when visited, 
which was judged by eye to have about the section given below. 
Two gray bands on the coal may have come from two thin clay 
partings additional, but they are probably outcrop effects only. 

The bed is so like in section to the Roberts opening, page 45, 
as to leave no doubt of their identity. 



Shale 8 ft. 

Coal .2 ft. 

Shale \ ft. 

Coal 2 ft. 

Shale 1 ft. 

Coal _ __l ft. 



Fig. 2.8 




Br. 

Ho.-io.rd. Coa.1 



LONG FORK. 

Rush Branch. A small branch on 
the right two miles up Long Fork. 

The Hazard bed is open here, on the 
Taulbee & Allen tract, at the head of a 
branch on the right, less than a half 
mile from and 320 feet above the mouth 
of Bush branch. Its section is given in 
figure 28, corresponding well with the 
coal opened at the mouth of Long fork 

Toward the head of Bush branch 
and on the right, 80 feet higher than 
the preceding opening, the Flag coal bed 
gives 31 in. coal without parting. 



48 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Williams Fork. This stream is also on the right of Long 
fork and two and one half miles up. 

A quarter mile up Williams fork, 60 feet above its mouth, 
on a right branch, what is probably the Fire-clay coal, with 
sandstone roof, is opened by a small entry showing 32 in. to 
35 in. of fine-looking coal, mostly splint. 

Still on the Taulbee and Allen tract, on the opposite side 
of Williams fork, 200 feet above its mouth, the Haddix bed, 
with sandstone roof, has 33 in. coal without parting. 

Combining the openings of Eush branch and Williams 
fork the following section is obtained, which -should be useful 
in further much needed prospecting in this region. 

Flag Coal 31 in. 

Interval 80 ft. 

Hazard bed (2 partings) coal 55 in. 

Interval 90 ft. 

Haddix bed (S. S. roof) coal 33 in. 

Interval 50 ft. 

Coal 20 in. 

Interval 90 ft. 

Fire-Clay coal (S. S. roof) 32 to 35-in. 

Interval 60 ft. 

Coal in mouth of Williams' fork thin 

At the widow Fugitt's, in front of her house, at elevation 
1220, and 270 feet above the mouth of Williams fork, an entry 
showed about three feet of coal with, perhaps, two feet more 
under water. This is probably in the Hazard bed with the 
lower seam still undiscovered there. With Chestnut gap (to 
Lick branch) 250 feet higher, and peaks rising some 200 feet 
above it, a large area of this coial is here available. 



r'9- 

Coa.1 

S/afe 
Coa/ 



Coo./ 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



49 



'9" 



// 




Coat 



Sha/e 



Coat 



COOL/ 



Coal 



// 7o 

Ha.-za.rct Coa.1 
'//, 



The Haddix coal shows again at 
water level one quarter mile below the 
Smith house at the head of Long fork 
on the road to Lick branch, coal 34 in. 
under sandstone: elevation 1170. 



The Smith openings into the Hazard 
and Flag coals are shown in figure 29, 

Coa/ 



creek. 

By elevations given for these coals 
there is a slight dip up stream, but it is 
not unlikely that this is an error due to 
variation of barometer. The lower bed 
is given from my own measurements; 
the upper by reliable report, though the 
slate therein should probably more prop- 
erly be called shale. But that the two 
openings are one directly above the other 
it would be presumable that they were 
duplicates of one bed. The two beds so 
close together make a particularly hand- 
some showing. 



50 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig .<3o 



U=^^H 3 hale ,r' 



Coat 



3 Shale z 

Coal j" 

3t ftafe Z." 
Coa I <o 



18 



Coa/ 



Coal 



of Dan's Fork 
. Coa.t 



Little prospecting seems to have 
been done on Buckhorn above Long fork, 
and most of the openings made are not 
in condition to examine. Thick coal is 
reported found on Coles creek in Knott 
county, but openings fallen in. 

Dan's Fork. On the right, 7 miles 
above Long fork. 

At the mouth of this stream, on the 
liayes tract (now Pardee) 250 ft. above 
the creek, the section shown in figure 30 
was obtained, in an eight-yard entry. 
My sample, analyzed by S. D. Averitt, 
including all the coal of this bed, of 
which the lower benches appeared par- 
ticularly fine, gave the following results: 



Laboratory No. 2735. 

Moisture 1.76 

Volatile combustible matter 41.98 

Fixed carbon 49.67 

Ash (reddish yellow) 6.59 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.83 

Phosphorus 0.013 

Specific gravity 1.294 

Coke (dense-spongy) 56.26 

Total carbon 72.97 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 13,862 

"Average sample like 2732, (soft and light) but consider- 
ably weathered, and with a good deal of ferruginous incrusta- 
tion." No. 2732 is from the Hazard bed at the heiad of Lost 
Creek. 

That this is one of the two Smith coals at the head of 
Long fork can hardly be questioned, but in the absence of any 
data by which they can be distinguished here, the other needs 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



51 



to be found to determine which this is. It more nearly resem- 
bles the general characteristics of the Hazard bed. 



fi 3, <3l 



//*$ 



880 
2. 



^: 



S.S. 



Coal 



Ba.3Ta.rd i. . 



hin Coo.t 
Thin Coa I 



Cree/r 



The section, figure 31, was taken on 
Troublesome creek, about six miles above 
Buckhorn creek and two miles below 
Ball's fork. It is likely that the fire-clay 
coal is represented by one or both of the 
thin coals at the bottom of the section; 
the Haddix is then near the bastard lime- 
stone. The Hazard bed, unusually 
thin for this vicinity, is shown in detail 
in figure 32. The Flag coal also, under 
its customary sandstone cliff, is remarka- 
bly thin. It is quite 
possible that anoth- 
er bench of this bed 
lies underneath the 
coal found, with a 
thick parting be- 
tween. Above this 
coal the hill is not 
high enough to af- 
ford a workable 
area to a higher 
bed. r , 

Coat of //6*5~ 
2 Knifes, Aefouj Ba/tsf 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



fig. 




Tom's Br. 
Ha.ia.rdi Coal 

Pig. 3<j- 

\Coal tifa'tn ?" 



TOM'S BRANCH. 

On the right of Troublesome creek, 
opposite the line of section just given, the 
Hazard and Flag coals have been found 
of excellent thickness, as shown in fig- 
ures 33 and 34. 

The lower bed, 245 feet above the 
mouth of the branch, is opened enough to 
show a good bright coal, inclined to 
block, with thin clay partings which 
may be expected to run out. 

The upper bed, 95 feet higher, 
though not opened to a roof, is proven 
very satisfactory in thickness. 

Both beds being well developed on 
Lost creek makes fully certain in this 
locality a large area of thick coal in 
each. Lying nearly level they can be 
worked to advantage on either the Lost 
creek or Troublesome creek side of the 
dividing ridge. 



Coa / 



7/ 



WILLIAMS BRANCH. 



On the left, one mile above Tom's 
branch and below Ball's fork. This 
branch heads against Williams fork of 
Buckhorn. 

On it, one and one quarter miles from 
and 200 feet higher than its mouth, at 
elevation 1100, the Haddix coal has been 
opened with the section following : 



j 1200 

' F/a? Coal 
Tom's Br, 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 




Sandstone 10 ft. 

Shaly sandstone 15 ft. 

Shale 3 ft. 

Coal is in . 

Canuel coal 4 i n . 

Shale _, 9 in . 

8 in. 

._ e in. 



Coal 



Co/ 



3 Sha/ 



Coctl 



1/200 

M f Napier 
Hazard Coo./ 



B. 



BALL'S FORK. 

Lick Branch. One mile up Ball on 
the left. 

At Lewi? Holliday's, one-quarter 
mile up the branch, the Haddix coal is 
opened 230 feet 
above the mouth 
of Ball, thin, as in 
figure 35, but of ex- 
cellent appearance, 
the soft coal being 
remarkably fine 
with no visible sul- 
phur. 



J/i.vf.tf. 
Coa.1 

\<Sh<*/e 



Farther up, at 
McNapier's, and 
again at the Ingall 

'" opening at the 
head of the branch, 
three miles .up, 

3 the Hazard bed is 
well shown, as in 
figure 36. 

In the McNapier 



Coa I 

C/ay 
Coat 



Ha* oral Coal 



54 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



37 



r^=^-= JAa/e to' 



opening the 42 in. seam looks like a good coking coal. The 
bottom seam being under water and mud could not be 
measured, but was stated to be 3 to 3 feet thick. The eleva- 
tions given for these three openings are more than usually 
uncertain owing to change of barometer, with no opportunity 
for correction, but they are believed to be not very wide of 
the mark. 

From Lick branch up Ball's fork to Trace fork, two miles 
above Laurel creek no investigation was made. Thick coal 
was reported, fallen in, on the head of Laurel. It is likely 
to continue through to the next opening noted. 

On the right, a mile above Trace 
fork, 310 feet above Ball's fork and near 
the top of the Trace fork ridge, Elijah 
Grigsby has a five-yard entry, with sec- 
tion shown in figure 37. The lowest part- 
H . ing, of shale and black-jack is indica- 
tive of the Fire-clay coal, but the bed is 
9- clearly too high for that. It appears to 
be of the Hazard or Fliag coal, with the 
presumption in favor of the latter. The 
, 6 bench of the bed below is prominent. 

The Fire-clay coal should then be 50 
to 100 feet under the creek, but there is 
little reason to believe it a workable coal 
in this region. 

A quarter of a mile above Grigsby 's 
house, in the road, 50 feet above the 
creek, is a thin fossil limestone or lime 
shale on thin coal, which may serve as 
cm u,^a in iuture correlation. 

On Dry creek, below Whitesburg, a fossil limestone lies 
somewhat over 100 feet above the Fire-clay coal, and on Middle 
fork waters above Hyden, and on Red Bird creek what appears 
to be the same fossil limestone is known in several places, 
distant above the Fire-clay coal about 170 feet. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



55 



On the right three miles above Trace fork, Eobert Patton 
has a small entry, 290 feet above the creek, with the following 
section. 

Sandstone- 

Coal 11 in. 

Soft shale 5 in. 

Coal 18 iu. 

Elevation 1480. 

Possibly this is the same coal as the Grigsby coal noted 
just above, with the bottom seam either undiscovered 1 or ab- 
sent, but it is considered more likely that, the former being 
the Flag-coal, this is of the Hazard bed. The change to sand- 
stone roof as well as the elevation is in favor of this supposi- 
tion. 

Wiley Fork. At the forks of Wiley, six miles above 
Trace fork and one mile from the head of the creek, a bastard 
limestone goes below drainage, which is probably the fossil 
rock near Trace fork, making a slight rise of strata up stream. 
The Fire-clay coal, therefore, is likely to be but slightly below 
drainage. 

A quarter mile up the left fork, and 
on the right at Charles Huff's, 470 feet 
above the forks, the coal of figure 38 is 
opened on a good bench. The bottom 
was not seen owing to mud and water, 
but could be felt. 

If, as supposed, the Fire-clay coal is 
a little below creek level at Wiley forks, 
this bed is the Hindrman. Though its 
area is not great enough for extensive 
mining, it is not without value here. 
There is enough area for working the 
bed in the hill between the forks of Wi- 
ley, and doubtless elsewhere to a limited 
(Marks H FF extent. No large body of the coal need 




2. I 



"ft 



56 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



be expected in this region. The road gap from Wiley Right 
fork to . Troublesome creek is about 125 feet lower. Beds 
lower down are likely to prove more valuable. 




PIGEON-ROOST BRANCH. 

This branch is on the right a mile above Ball's fork. 
f- J * Near its head, and consequently 

near to Lost and Lots creeks, the Hazard 
and Flag coals have been opened at 230 
and 300 feet above the mouth of the 
branch as given in figure 39. 

The Hazard bed, on Samuel Bush 
land, was reliably reported, as in the fig- 
ure, the upper bench a block coal, the top 
18 in. of the miain bench a block splint (1 
in. bony) separated from the block coal 
below by three quarter in. bony coal. 

The Flag coal is on the Robert Gay- 
heart lantd 1 , a bright coal with much 
splint. The bed is known locally as the 
,- Gayheart coal. 

COMBS BRANCH. 

This branch, four miles above Balls' 
2* fork on the right, gives the main road 
from Troublesome creek at Dwarf P. 0. 
to Hazard. 

By the school house at the forks of 
the branch, three feet above water level 
is a 23 in. coal, with roof of black slate 
and shale under sandstone, which is 
Ho.2.a.re( ceo.i probably the Fire-clay coal rider. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



57 




/. / ' ngal/S 
Uff ForH 



Fig. V-t 



Coa.f 




Loft 



On the left fork th& Jefferson In- 
galls opening, 390 feet above Trouble- 
some creek, is as shown in figure 40. It 
appears to be of the Flag coal, and, to- 
ward the end of the spur from the Lots 
creek ridge, with but about 100 feet of 
covering, to have little value. 

By Owen's house is a coal at eleva- 
tion 1270, reported two feet thick, which 
should <answer for the Hazard coal. The 
opening being in the point of a hill, the 
full thickness of the bed here was prob- 
ably not attained. A quarter 'mile south- 
west of the house the coal, figure 41, is 
opened, which is made (with uncertain 
barometer) the same elevation as the 
preceding Ingalls coal, and, therefore, 
disregarding the differing bed-sections, 
must be considered of the same Flag 
coal. Nearly 300 feet of covering gives 
the bed here a good area much increased 
as the main ridge is approached. 



Near the head of the Bight, or Road fork of Combs 
branch the Hazard coal has been opened in the old Stacy, or 



Coal 



/<> 



Coal 



Hazard Coo./ 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Henry Engle, bank, 260 feet above Troub- 
lesome creek, showing as in figure 42. The 
upper parting is here a soft black shale, 
likely to be considerably reduced under 
ground. The coal appears all good ex- 

? " cepting, perhaps, two in. bony coal, two 
in. from the bottom of the bed, which, 
doubtless, has increased the ash of the 
following analysis, No. 2543. Both an- 
alyses give ash too high because the 

* samples were taken from a muddy out- 
crop. They are Dr. B. Peter's analyses 
of my samples, No. 2542 of the upper 
two seams, No. 2543 of the bottom seam. 



HAZARD BED. 

Chem. Report Nos. 

Moisture 

Volatile combustible matter 31.56 

Fixed carbon 56.54 

Ash . 10 ' 40 



100.00 



2543 

3.00 
32.80 
56.14 

8.06 

100.00 



Sulphur 0.849 

Specific gravity !- 338 1 ' 31 

Coke (light spongy) 66.94 pulver- 64.20 

ulent. 

Color of ash white light 

gray-brown. 

No. 2542. "A pure-looking coal generally. Portions ir- 
regularly laminated, with a little fibrous coal but no apparent 
pyrites between. Other portions break with irregular cuboid- 
al fracture and shining irregular surfaces." 

No. 2543. "A much weathered and soiled sample of what 
seems to be a splint coal." 



ft'y. 13 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



59 



"to 



970 




S.S. 



m 



Coal 



5.3. 



(Coat 
13*,. J 
\Coaf 



Coal 



3.S. 



Basftird L.<S. 



S.S. (Coa/ 
. ___ J rfA. 

I Coat 
\C.C. 



u' 



3.S. 
Cool 



(Coal / 
{B/.Sf. 10- 

Bl. Sh. 



Coal 



Troublesome Cr. 
at A7/// 

gives a workable coal. Though near the 
top of the hill where found, the cliff 
sandstone above it gives a quick en- 
trance into solid coal, so that little area 
is lost in outcrop coal, and in receding 
from the main creek the covering and 
area increase. 



In the section, figure 43, the Fire- 
clay coal rider, or one of its near neigh- 
bors, shows at the bottom; the Haddix 
is the Trace branch cannel coal at ele- 
vation 1160, its last appearance on 
Troublesome creek so far as known; the 
Stacy splint coal at 1260, on Combs 
branch, is of the Hazard bed as given 
above, and the top coal at 1400 is prob- 
ably the Flag coal, its distance on the 
section from the Hazard bed being ap- 
parently increased by a rise of strata 
between the two points at which the 
openings were measured. The Flag coal 
here shown in figure 44 is thinner than at 
any of its other openings, by which 
it is nearly surrounded. Further de- 
velopment is necessary to determine if 
this is not an accident of opening rather 
than an actual thinning of the bed; but 
even with such thin- Fig. 
ning the bed still 



Coal 




60 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Co a/ 



CLEAR CREEK. 

Shop Hollow. On the right, six 
miles above Ball's fork. 

In this Knott county hollow, on the 
left, one quarter mile up Clear creek, the 
Flag coal of figure 45 is opened 410 
feet above the creek. The upper four 
feet is of good bright coal, but the lower 
ten in. was under water when visited, 
and may contain a parting. 



[AvU oo/ % 

hNVM 



A half mile up the main creek, ten 
feet above it, what is probably either the 
Fire-clay coal, or its rider, has 26 in. 
Flag coal solid bituminous coal with a nine in. can- 

nel slate roof under sandstone. Some fairly good float can- 
nel coal along the creek, supposed to come from the same 
bed, indicates a change of the cannel slate, to cannel coal in 
this vicinity. Across on Lots creek the Fire-clay coal has 
much good cannel. This, or a slightly higher bed goes under 
drainage three quarters mile farther up, at elevation 1100. 
with coal reported 34 in. thick, but the cannel slate may have 
been included. 

At Josh. Kitchie's, two miles up the creek, at elevation 
1390, the Flag coal is opened again, four feet of solid coal 
showing, and with a foot more reported underneath but cover- 
ed up. A foot of shale here intervenes between the coal and 
sandstone above it. At the time of visiting this coal it was 
supposed to be of the Hazard bed, but its height and relation 
to other openings give stronger evidence of its being Flag coal. 
No conclusive evidence was available. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 61 

Big Branch. On the right, 12 miles above Ball's fork. 

Thick coal is reported about two miles up this branch, but 
the opening wa,s not visited. It tends to confirm the continua- 
tion in good condition of the Flag (or Hazard) bed. 



LEFT FORK. 

From Hindman up the Left fork of Troublesome there 
seems to be no coal of much value close above drainage, but 
in approaching the main field of the Elkhorn bed, that coal, 
probably near the level of Troublesome at Hindman, becomes 
of interest; and there is also a favorable possibility in the 
Eockhous-e bed below it, which gives workable coal on Carr 
fork and on Eockhouse creek. 

On a branch from the left, two miles above Hindman there 
are three thin coals 20, 35 and 50 feet above the Left fork, 
which may possibly be the Elkhorn bed split up, though they 
seem to be rather high for it. The lower one of these is prob- 
ably in the mill pond, a half mile farther up the fork, the 
middle seam showing over 18 in. coal in the road beside the 
pond. Fifteen feet higher is a massive sandstone over another 
coal. 

Not correlated, but apparently about 100 feet above these 
seams, is the Eobert Thacker entry, six miles above Hindman, 
ten feet above the creek and road to the head of Ball fork. 
The coal is 32 in. thick with massive sandstone roof, and seems 
most likely to be of the Fire-clay coal. 

There should be at least one bed of thick coal toward the 
tops of the hills, which are high enough to catch the Flag coal, 
but it appears to have been searched for but little. 



62 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

RIGHT FORK. 



* 

At Jane Childers ', on the right of the creek at the upper 

end of Hindman, the following coals were obtained, the middle 
one being, probably, of the Fire-clay coal. 



Elevations . 
Sandstone 5 ft. 

Shaly sandstone 8 in. 

Black shale 4 in. 

Coal 24 in. 1330 

Coal and black slate _1305 

Fine thin coals in shale 1260 

Troublesome Creek _ 1075 



A half mile from Hindman and a half mile up a left 
branch, Jasper Baker has -done considerable mining for the 
town supply, having put into use the first aerial tramway on 
the upper Kentucky river waters. The mines, 460 feet above 
the creek, are at elevation 1540, and being 235 feet above the 
middle Childers coal are probably of the Hazard bed. 



Figure 46 gives a section taken from 
the old mine, near its mouth. In the new 
mine 40 yards west of 'the old, barely 
under roof, the following section was 
taken : 

Sandstone drift 10 ft. 

Sandstone 2 ft. 

Coal 3 in. 

f~ Soft shale 4 in. 

Coal _ 32 in. 



The lower seam is a single block of 
Jasper BaHcr fine, bright, mixed splint and blocK: coal, 

and the upper seam looks nearly as good, but softer with less 
splint coal. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 63 

Analysis by Dr. Alfred M. Peter of my sample, including 
both seams of coal of the old mine gave : 

1 i ! ; Laboratory No. 2755. 

Moisture 1.44 

Volatile combustible matter 41.67 

Fixed carbon 52.24 

Ash (reddish brown) 4.65 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.05 

Phosphorus .009 

Coke (spongy) 56.89 

Specific gravity 1.264 

Total carbon 79.33 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 14,329 

"Average sample 'of clean-looking coal." 

Four miles above Hindman on the road to Brannon creek, 
185 feet above the creek, at elevation 1385, Wm. Pigman has 
an entry from which coal is hauled to town. This coal, with the 
following 'section, is possibly the same as the Childers middle 
coal at Hindman, probably of the Fire-clay bed, beginning in 
its floor to make the change to fire-clay, which shows as such 
parting on the Eight fork road, toward Betty Troublesome. 

Sandstone 3 ft. 

Shale 3 ft. 

Black slate 4 in. 

Coal 28 in. 

Hard bituminous shale. 

Coal under the present floor should be looked for. 

Four miles from Hindman on the road to Betty Trouble- 
some the section, figure 47, was taken, from the creek at E. N. 
Adam's to the gap to the head of Irishman creek, including, in 
the upper two coals, the head of the second right branch above 
Hindman of the Eight fork of Troublesome. Being nearly on 



64 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



/f8o Irishman Gap 








--. 

Yt 


N 



































cc C/a V 



Coal 



(Shale 
\ Coal 
\ 



IV fo --~ 



$.3. 2.0' 
L.S. 2.' 
v5.S. / o' 



Thin Coa/ 
in road 



Coal 
ff>e. C/ 
Coal 



29' 
7' 



at Adai 



the line of strike the section is there- 
fore correct, except for barometric in- 
accuracies believed to be slight. 

The Adams entry, at elevation 1260, 
is the only known place on Troublesome 
creek waters where the Fire-clay coal 
shows its parting as the characteristic 
brown flint fire-clay common over most 
of the region where the bed appears 
farther south, though on Lost creek 
the parting is recognizable. 

Possibly the next coal, 120 feet high- 
er, slipped into the road, is the Haddix 
coal, but this can be surmised only, at 
present. 

If intervals between the coals are 
about the same as in the Lost creek re- 
gion the Hazard coal is on the level of 
the .gap at elevation 1580. 

The next coal above the gap is then 
the Flag coal, and it may be of consider- 
able value, though its area in this region 
is confined to the tops of the ridges. The 
main body of coal was covered when 
visited, so that the thickness of the bed 
could be guessed at only by the depth of 
the opening, and its partings, if any, are 
unknown, but, taken in connection with 
the opening on Irishman creek, (p. 103), 
a good thickness is evident. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH PORK. 65 

f'9 +8 In spite of the thickness of the open- 

^^^ ing represented in figure 48, the Hind- 

man bed in this locality, cutting only 
through the tops of the peaks, has areas 
of such narrow limits as to give it a very 
slight value. The opening was not in 
condition to 'measure the coal with ac- 
curacy, and its bottom was covered with 
water, but it can be affirmed with confi- 
dence that nowhere else on Kentucky 
I . river waters, or, probably, north of Pine 

mountain in the State, is there shown 
such a thickness of coal without parting. 
To the bed is therefore given the name 
of the nearest town, Hindman. 

^H /7<fo 



The openings about the mouth of 
Troublesome creek, in the Haddix, Haz- 
ard and Flag beds, as obtained from 
earlier reports, have been given at the 
beginning of this detailed description. 
o No record of recent examination of 

this region is at hand, and through 

freeman Parks 

Hind.** coa.i Brcatliitt county only old information 

is here repeated. Of this kind are the two cannel coal analyses 
following ; No. 1705 from the Haddix bed above Troublesome, 
collected by P. N. Moore; No. 3110 from the "Joe Little 
bank" on the North Fork, Breathitt county, sent by Charles 
Kendrie. 

CANNEL COAL. 

Chem. Report No. 1705 3110 

Moisture 1.30 0.10 

Volatile combustible matter 47.00 62.42 

Fixed carbon 44.40 31.48 

Ash (brownish gray) 7.30 6.00 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.574 .969 

Specific gravity 1.265 

Character of ooke _. Dense Dense 



6S8 

8JB 

in 

788 
76* 
7-30 





Coa I Sta!n 
3. Thin f'f'ys 



Coal y 3.' 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

No. 1705. "A very tough coal. It 
has but little fibrous coal, but some 
7 .. pyrites." Notes at hand do not definite- 
ly locate the coals. 

BIG BRANCH. 

The Big Branch section, figure 49, 
on land of Grough & Co., shows the Fire- 
clay coal as one of the upper two coals 
of the series at the bottom of the section. 
Of these the upper bed appears as 
though it might be workable at an early 
date, because of its convenient height, 
but until it has been more thoroughly 
investigated it remains of uncertain 
value. Its workable area at best can 
hardly be very great, as the bed does not 
appear very thick elsewhere in the vicin- 
ity. 

The 42 in. coal, at elevation 1050, is 
of the Haddix bed, the opening having 
been a 17-yard entry driven into the 
river-hill above Big r '9- So 
Branch. At the 
mouth of the entry 

Big Br. Section tne bed is about six 

inches thicker than at the face, the latter 
as given in figure 50. The coal in being 
wholly bituminous, part splint 'Coal, 
varies from that found in the nearby sur- 
rounding openings, which have cannel in 
the bottom seam. My sample of this coal 
from the face of the entry gave, by analysis of Dr. E. Peter : 



( Coat 
.. . jSh. 

( Coal 



Coat 



Coat 



Coat 



Mouth of Br. 




Coal tf-3.' 






KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



67 



Fig. Si 



1170 



96 S 



8/S 



7<>o 



PI a ce of Iron Of e 

*"*' (Coal 8" 

Sh. C/au //* 
. - . < Coot I /o 

1 CunnelC ,2. 

\ c /a v 



Bench 



Coa/ 



Coat 



'Coal 

3ha/t 

[Coaf 



tl Coa/ 



TIADDIX BED. 2529 

Chem. Report No. 

Moisture 1.74 

Volatile combustible matter 34.06 

Fixed carbon 53.80 

Ash (light gray) 10.40 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.808 

Specific gravity 1.362 

Coke _ Spongy 

The heavy coal stain near the top 
of the section indicates the Hazard coal 
in good condition here, as elsewhere in 
the neighborhood. Without large area 
here it is still capable of profitable yield 
in the higher hills of the main ridge. 

The Flag coal, nearer to the Hazard 
bed here than elsewhere, is also thinner 
than elsewhere in the vicinity. The 
lower Lost creek openings, previously 
given, indicate a workable area of thick 
coal. 



/7 



LICK BRANCH. 

The section, figure 51, was obtained 
in going nearly the length of this branch, 
tand the lower coals do not, therefore, 
show correctly their distances apart, and 

the position of the Fire-clay coal is consequently altogether 

uncertain. 



Coal 
<3 Thi 



of 
L/'c* Br. 



68 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig. 



Coal 



Hacfcti'x. Coal 
Marian 



But the upper coals were found more 
nearly one above the other, and there is, 
therefore, little reason to doubt that the 
Marian Spicer, 61 in. coal, figure 52, 1 
miles up o-n the right fork, is of the Had- 
dix bed, although its section differs ma- 
terially from any other in the vicinity. 
Its elevation shows a westward dip, and 
indicates that the southern rise of strata 
east of North Fork is much reduced, or 
not continued west of it. 

The bench .above this bed marks the 
position of the Hazard coal, nearly, and 
gives opportunity here and on streams 
above for a deep deposit to lie as a covering on the outcrop 
of the bed, and prevent its accidental discovery. It is safe 
to assume this as a reason why the bed is little known farther 
up the North Fork, though unsafe to predict it of continuous 
workable thickness. 

The Flag coal shows in the section, with its cannel, an 
approach to value sufficient to encourage further search, 
but it lies too near the hill-top to become here a very 
important bed. 

JOHN LITTLE BRANCH. 

This branch is on the left two miles above Lick branch. 
On it the following section was obtained : 

Elevations. 

Sandstone 50ft. 

Flag coal 

Coal 19 in. 

Sandstone 5 ft. 

Coal, partly splint 24 in. 

Shaly sandstone 10 ft. 

Black slate 4 in. 

Massive sandstone 

Coal - 9 in. 920 

Coal near mouth of branch 790 

Mouth of branch 765 



1230 
1185 

950 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



69 



The 24 in. coal at elevation 950, found near the head of 
the branch some two miles up, is probably slightly below the 
Fire-clay ccnal. 

The 19 in. coal at elevation 1185 is of the Hazard bed, 
but having been opened on a flat point of hill the normal thick- 
ness was not obtained. It should reach a thickness of over 
four feet to correspond with other openings in this region. 



Fig, S3 



s.s. 



Coal 



3 Shale 




t-ICoa/ //' 



F/aq Coa/ 
Gouqh > Co. 



The Flag coal of elevation 1230, as 
opened on land of Gough & Co., is shown 
in figure 53. Taking this in considera- 
tion, with openings of Mill and Leather- 
wood branches of Lost creek, a fairly 
remunerative field of this bed is reason- 
ably assured, although its height is ob- 
jectionable. My selected specimen of 
the cannel and sample of the middle 
seam of bituminous coal of this opening 
yielded, to Dr. E. Peter's analysis: 

Chem. Report Nos. 



2618 
FLAG COAL. Cannel. 

Moisture 1.20 

Volatile combustible matter_53 . 80 

Fixed carbon 39.46 

Ash . - 5.54 



2612 

Bituminous. 

7.40 

30.20 

52.04 

10.36 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.722 

Specific gravity 1.177 

Coke . dense 



100.00 

0.621 

1.410 

pulverulent 



Color of ash Light brick very light salmon 

The remarkably light ash and abundant volatile matter 
of the cannel marks this as an unusually fine gas coal, but 
the small quantity of it attainable will prevent its establish- 
ment as a factor in the market. 



70 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Of the bituminous coal Dr. Peter remarks, "A weathered 
sample of what appears to be splint coal." The high ash of 
this analysis is in the main due to the mud included, which, 
in the imperfect opening, prevented taking for analysis any 
of the upper seam of coal. 



GEORGES CREEK. 

This stream is on the right three miles above Lick branch. 

The George's Creek mines in former years were noted 
in Central Kentucky for the excellence of their cannel coal 
sent down the river in boats and on rafts, but now they are 
all abandoned, pending the coming of railroad facilities, and 
but a few outcrop openings give access to the coal 

Figure 54 represents the bed a mile 

r ' 9 ' s * up, on the right, according to my mea- 

3" sure of 1884. Mr. Hendrie's measure- 
ment, in 1891, of an opening 40 yards in 
gave coal 12 in., splint coal six in., cannel 
coal 18 in. At a 1906 opening one-fourth 
mile up on the left, the cannel block is 
14 in. thick ; at a small entry at the forks 
two and one half miles up, the coal above 
coat the cannel (of which the top only could 

be seen) is 20 in. thick. It is said to run regularly on this 
creek, bituminous coal about 20 in., on cannel coal 14 in. to 20 
in. This is remarkable especially because of its variations 
on adjacent streams. The resemblance of the bed to numerous 
sections of the Haddix coal heretofore given, and its elevation 
corresponding, gives assurance that this is of the Haddix bed, 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 71 

though heretofore it lias been assumed to belong to the Fire- 
clay coal, or No. 4 bed. 

At the mouth of the creek the bed is 150 feet high, and 
it is 30 feet above drainage at the forks, giving nearly level 
strata. What rise up stream there is appears to be all in 
the upper mile, and here is probably the beginning of a long 
rise southward. 

The following analyses of the cannel are, No. 1711, an 
average specimen from the stock pile, taken by P. N. Moore, 
No. 3109, received from Charles Hendrie, both by Dr. B. 
Peter, "C", sample and analysis by Prof. Thomas Egleston, 
Columbia College. 



Chem. Report Nos. 

CANNEL COAL 1711 3109 C. 

Moisture 0.94 0.50 1.54 

Volatile combustible matter 52.38 58.02 45.43 

Fixed carbon 35.54 34.00 40.14 

Ash . .11.14 7.48 12.89 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.423 1.098 1.74 

Specific gravity 1.280 

Coke dense friable 

Color of ash light-lilac gray white 

gray 



No. 1711. Dr. Peter describes this sample as, "a pure- 
looking coal. Has some ferruginous stain on the exterior sur- 
faces, but no apparent pyrites. ' ' 

No. 3109, "An exceedingly tough, elastic coal, compact 
and uniform in structure. 



72 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



CANEY CREEK 

But one opening of importance 
is noted on this stream, at John 
Deacons, near its mouth, 145 feet above 
it, in a point of a hill where the full 
thickness probably was not obtained. 
The bed-section is given in figure 55. 
Dr. Peter's analysis of my sample of the 
bituminous seam (with upper 6 in. ex- 
cluded because so badly weathered) and 
of the cannel seam, show in their ash- 
results that the bed was insufficiently opened. It is again 
the Haddix bed. 




C/ay I 

Camne/ Co a/ 
9io 

C/ay 

H act eft*. Coct/ 
John JJeocon 



Fig. 



COOL! (ol 

I Hlain/y \Sf)lint 



Chem. Report No. 2616 

HADDIX BED Bituminous 

Moisture 3.80 

Voltatile combustile matter 32.30 

Fixed carbon 48.80 

Ash . -15.10 



100.00 



2617 
Cannel 
0.80 
41.70 
33.30 
24.20 

100.00 



Sulphur 0.840 0.952 

Coke pulverulent pulverulent 

Color of ash light reddish light pink 

No. 2616 "weathered". 

No. 2617 "much weathered". 



\870 

dLi'x C 
Wolf Cr. 



WOLF CREEK. 

On Wolf creek but one opening is 
noted, on land of John Deacon, on the 
right f mile from the river and 90 feet 
above it. Here is the finest known open- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 73 

ing in this bed, shown in figure 56. The. upper seam of 61 in., 
is mainly splint coal, the lower, of 27 in., is a semi-cannel, 
showing here partly completed the change from the George's 
creek cannel to bituminous coal, which on Lick branch is en- 
tirely accomplished. 

The following analyses though from samples collected 
at times far apart, are doubtless from the same bed on 
Wolf creek and probably from the same opening; No. 1713, 
by J. E. Procter and P. N. Moore, samples from coal 
badly weathered. No. 2610, my own sample, from a 
muddy outcrop and therefore too high in ash; both 
analyzed by Dr. E. Peter; "D" and "E" the two parts 
of the bed separately, sampled and analyzed by Prof. Thomas 
Egleston, Columbia College. 

D E 

Chem. Report Nos. Upper Lower 

HADDIX BED No. 1713 No. 2610 seam seam 

Moisture 2.76 2.80 4.88 1.60 

Volatile combustile matter 36.68 33.60 36.83 48.72 

Fixed carbon 56.50 54.20 51.41 47.59 

Ash . . 4.06 9.40 6.88 2.09 



100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.865 0.695 0.75 0.75 

Specific gravity 1.290 1.351 

Coke light spongy dense 

Color of ash light brownish saw-dust light brown 

yellowish-gray gray 

No. 1713. "A pure-looking soft splint coal in thin lami- 
nae, which have quite a glossy 'cross-fracture. Very little 
fibrous coal OT fine granular pyrites between the laminae." 

The analysis "E" from the lower seam shows the coal 
to resemble cannel in its high volatile constituents, and to be 
superior to cannel or common coals in its low ash. 



74 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



800 



57 






Bench 



Coal -Stain 



(BI.SI. 

} Coa.1 g" 

(Coot/ ' 7" 



Sh.S.S. 

Coa.1 
Coat 



oa.1 



Cacti 
Coa.1 

Sho*'e cuiff, 
i.!mn Cone. 

. Mouth of 



GRAPEVINE CREEK. 

The dip up the North fork, which 
appears to have been 'constant to Wolf 
creek, changes its direction shortly above 
that stream, so that the Fire-clay coal 
comes above drainage probably near the 
Perry county line, and it is opened on 
the branch (called Eight fork) flowing 
into Grapevine creek f mile from its 
mouth. A half mile up the Left fork 
of Eight fork, and one and one-half mile 
from the mouth of Grapevine, 175 feet 
above it, the bed has this section: 



Elevation 



Shale 8 ft. 

Coal 20 in. 

Slaty coal 6 ft. 

Flint fire-clay 3 in. 

Coal _ 6 in. 



975 



Gra.j3Q.ts/tie. Cr. 



The 20-in. coal elevation 945 in the 
section, figure 57, is the top of the coal 
given above, the bottom having been dis- 
covered later; and it is possible that the 
35-in. coal 10 feet higher is of the same 
bed at a different point, as no trace of it 
is now visible. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



75 




n 



Hdzarct Coa.f 
J. S/oencer 





The higher coals of the section were 
found on the right fork of the Eight 
fork, that at elevation 1,135, the Haddix 
bed apparently, being now opened, but 
partly covered, on the John Holmes 
place, on a large bench to the left of his 
house. 

From a former (John Spencer) 
opening the lower section of figure 58 
was obtained. My sample of this coal, 
with four in. at the top omitted, yielded 
to Dr. E. Peter's analysis results as 
given below, No. 2789. 

The Hazard bed at elevation 1240 
figure 58, with its abundant covering 
here invites further investigation. 
Analysis of my sample of this coal from 
John Spencer's, as obtained by Dr. E. 
; Peter, is given under No. 2791. 

Both of these analyses were from 
muddy outcrop samples. 



Chem. Report Nos. 2789 

F. C. Coal 
Rider 

Moisture 4.36 

Volatile combustible matter 30.34 

Fixed carbon 54.90 

Ash (very light gray) 10.40 



100.00 



Coaf 



2791 

Hazard 

Bed 

6.48 

30.32 

47.80 

15.40 

100.00 
0.491 



; Sulphur 0.450 

Specific gravity 1.366 

Coke friable pulverulent 

No. 2789. "Generally dull black. 

f/re cfo. v c OA f /rioter Fibrous coal and some little pyrites be- 
f>e tween the laminae. Some portions 

pitch-black." 



76 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

No. 2791. "A somewhat weathered sample of splint 
coal." 

Developments on the river above Grapevine creek and 
about the heads of Lost creek give promise for the Hazard 
bed of an excellent field about the heads of Grapevine, with a 
fair prospect for a large addition from the Haddix and Flag 
beds. 

At Elijah Davidson's, two miles up the creek, however, 
what is probably the Haddix bed, at elevation 1150, gives but 
eight in. of rather slaty cannel coal under eight in. 'bituminous, 
with four in. clay parting. 

Buck Branch. Three miles up, on the right. 

John Davidson has a small entry % mile up the branch, 
at elevation 930, into what is either the Fire-clay coal or a near 
neighbor to it. The coal, with two feet shale roof under sand- 
stone, is 33 in. thick. 

EVERSOLE BRANCH. 

A mile up this branch and 100 feet above its mouth an 
incomplete opening was made into the Fire-clay coal giving 
45 in. coal above the fire-clay, supposed to be the floor of the 
bed. My sample of this 45 in. coal, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter, 
gave: 

FIRE-CLAY BED. Chem. Report No. 2788 

Moisture 3.30 

Volatile combustible matter 34.90 

Fixed Carbon 52.20 

Ash (purplish-gray) 9.60 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.763 

Specific gravity 1.334 

Coke _ .--dense friable 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



77 



Shate 



Coat 



18' 



Coaf It' 



Coaf 



37' 



/>rr Coal io' 



" Apparently a splint coal, some- 
what weathered. Some fibrous coal be- 
tween the laminae, but no apparent 
pyrites." 

The increase in thickness of this bed 
here is made especially remarkable by 
the appearance along with it of the rider 
to the bed in considerable dimensions, 
the double bed being opened, as in figure 
59, at Thomas Johnson's, 100 feet above 
and 1^ miles from the river. Cannel 
coal in the rider is a common occurrence, 
but a second rider over sandstone is un- 
usual, or so distant as to be generally 
unnoticed. 

HENSON BRANCH. 

This branch is on the left about five 
miles above Eversole branch. The 
strata after rising up to and across 
Grape vine cr eek li n , thence nearly level 
up to Willard^gf 6 
creek, 11 miles by 
river above Ever- 
sole branch. 



'? A half mile up 

' r ^t*%i**? Henson branch, 

about 2-3- miles southeast of the Grape- 
vine Fire-clay coal opening, the samejg| 
bed has been opened, 80 feet above the 
river, with the much broken up section 
shown in figure 60. Some improvement 
as to partings would probably result in e = = = s ' rAa/<; 
going underground. ***/. 




78 

Pig .' 6 / 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



COQ/ 



Coctt <S<o 



Coat 



J.J. 



C/ay 

/rtect \Secf /on on 
^ B 



ROCK LICK BRANCH. 

On the left, eight miles above Ever- 
sole branch. 

The section, figure 61, shows three 
coals found on this branch: the Fire- 
clay bed at elevation 900, the Haddix 
230 feet higher, and the Flag coal stain, 
unopened, at 1290. 

The Fire-clay coal is exposed at 
Joseph Campbell's, 50 feet up in a cliff 
by the river road, its section being 
given in figure 62. My sample of this 
coal analyzed by Dr. E. Peter gave: 



FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2792 

Moisture 2.80 

Volatile combustible matter 29.60 

Fixed carbon 58.50 

Ash (purplish-gray) 9.10 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.505 

Coke friable 

"A weathered sample of splint coal.".. 




Coo. I 



//Jo 
H'etddix. Coa L 



.'s.s 



Coat 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 79 

ti The Haddix 36-in. coal of figure 62 

was measured at the mouth of a 20-yard 
entry. At the face it was but 30 in. 
J6 ~ thick, and the general condition of the 
bed is not so favorable as to lead to ex- 
pectation of recovery farther under, but 
the coal is too valuable to warrant the 
neglect of additional exploration. 

A half mile above Eock Lick branch 
and across the river at John Napier's, 
an 8-yard entry into the Fire-clay coal 
gives : 

Elevation 900; 50 ft. above river. 

" Sandstone 5 ft. 

Coal 25 in. 

Flint fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal 10 in. 

An inch of shale in the bottom coal 
at the month has disappeared at the face. 



Fire 



Bed 




Coa/ 



SplinTCoal 28 



\I23S~ 

. Campbell 
Hazard. Coa/ 



FISH-TRAP BRANCH. 

On the left, one mile above Eock 
Lick branch. 

At Abner Campbell's, f mile up this 
branch, is the 56-in. coal shown at ele- 
vation 1235 in the section, figure 61, its 
relation to other coals there determining 
it to be of the Hazard bed. It is given 
on enlarged scale in figure 63. My 
sample gave to Dr. E. Peter's analysis, 
the following results: 



80 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

HAZARD BED. Chem. Report No. 2787 

Moisture 5.26 

Volatile combustible matter 30.34 

Fixed carbon 55.20 

Ash (light purplish-gray) 9.20 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.475 

Specific gravity 1.359 

Coke . ..friable 



"Some portions dull, like cannel coal; others bright. 
Some fibrous coal between the laminae, but no apparent 
pyrites. ' ' 

WILLARD CREEK. 

On Willard creek near its mouth the Fire-clay coal bed 
gives the following section: 

Elevation 925; 70 ft. above river 

Sandstone 5 ft. 

Shale 5 ft. 

Coal 2 in. 

Fire-clay 4 in. 

Coal 10 in. 

Clay 4 in. 

Black slate 3 in. 

Clay 

A half mile up the creek to the first left branch and a half 
mile up the latter, the Haddix coal has been opened, at ele- 
vation 1130, between two prominent cliffs, the upper one show- 
ing at intervals to a height of 70 feet above the coal, reported 
here, but not now visible, 3 feet thick, the top 2 in. cannel coal. 
The opening indicated somewhat less coal. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



81 



If 



One hundred feet higher, 375 feet f, 

above the river, Eoderick Mclntosh has 
opened the Hazard bed with 57 in. solid 
coal, figure 64. The foot of bony coal 
appears to be fairly good, and the whole 
bed should be readily marketable. 
Fig 6 T 

v In the section, 

\ N figure 65, taken at 

Samuel Whittak- 
er's, on the left 
fork of the Eight 
Fork of Willard, 
two and one-half 
miles from the 

bench of the Fire-clay coal bed is lacking, 
but the lower bench is given in the 15 in. 
coal under Fire-clay at elevation 975. 
s.s. Both benches of coal and the Fire-clay 

are well-nigh gone across on Hell-for- 
Certain and Bull creeks. 



Bench 




f\. Mclntosh 
Ha.ia.rd. Coa./ 

river, the 



upper 




The rather slaty cannel coal at ele- 
vation 1095 is probably of the Haddix 
bed, though its roof is not the usual 
sandstone; and its interval to the Fire- 
* 00 sma H> possibly because 



JL.S. v /ran Ore 3' 

Coa/ '^"vS"" ^ C a ^ 3 

cannei con.1 23" of barometric variation. 

C f of tf 



~oa/ 2 



. Whit tatter 



Much of this error, if such it is, is 
eliminated on reaching the Hazard bed, 
at 1225. This coal as found at an open- 
ing a mile above Whittaker's, at the 
head of the fork, is given in figure 65, 



82 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig . (a (o 



and another opening into the same bed 
at Whittaker's is shown in figure 66. 
This latter opening was not carried far 
enough for more than an approximate 
measure of coal and coverings, nor was 
a that of figure 65 carried so far that my 
sample obtained from it was not injured 
by the adherence of mud. The following 
analysis, by Dr. E. Peter, serves to show 
j.w/7/y/aA-er this in its undue proportion of ash. 

d. Coo./ 

HAZARD BED. Chem. Report No. 2794 

Moisture 3 - 96 

Volatile combustible matter 

Fixed carbon - 52.80 

'Ash (purplish-gray) - 10.40 




100.00 

Sulphur 0.722 

Specific gravity I- 390 

Qoke -friable 

"Portions of the sample dull splint coal. Some fibrous 
coal between the laminae, but no apparent pyrites. Some 
pieces bright pitch black." 

On the bench 185 feet above the upper coal of figure 65, 
elevation 1410, is a coal reported thick, probably correctly, 
as it corresponds with the height of the Hindman bed, opened 
little more than a mile southwest on Big Creek. 



PIGEON ROOST BRANCH. 

On the left one mile above Willard creek. 
The Haddix coal was opened one mile up from, and 265 
feet above, the river, with but 2 in. shale roof under sandstone 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



83 



the coal 32 in. thick, half splint coal, corresponding with that 
on Rock Lick branch: it is at the same level and not far 
distant. 



. (of 



Half Jpl/ni- 

Coa/ 60 y- 



\'/9f 
Pigeon i 
Ha.TLQ.rdL Coat 



Only 60 feet (by barometer) above 
the last opening the Hazard coal, figure 
67, was partly opened, showing 60 in. 
coal of which about half was splint. A 
few more inches might, perhaps, have 
been found by more digging, but the 
amount obtained was sufficient for iden- 
tification, and to prove the continua- 
tion of this valuable coal. 

At Albert Hoskins' on the right of 
the river, one quarter mile above Lower 
Second creek, the following section was 
obtained: 



Hill-top 1350 

Coal, 6 ft 1250 

Main bench 1190 

Coal, reported 3 ft 1160 

Bench 1070 

River 870 

The Fire-clay coal is probably at elevation about 950. 
The reported three feet coal is of the Haddix bed, though 
its three feet shale roof is unusual. The six feet coal with 
five feet shale roof is then of the Hazard bed, corresponding 
with the Mclntosh coal of Willard creek. This opening is a 
small entry, and with a foot of water in it, no measurement 
taken. The visible coal between the timbers appeared to be 
about five feet thick without parting, but near the bottom of 
the bed is four in. of very poor bone coal. The height of 
the hill indicates that it is necessary to go back from the river 
to get good area. 




84 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

BIG CREEK. 

Near the top of the hill on the road 
from Big creek to Hazard, Win. Combs 
has made several entries into the 
Hazard bed, 315 feet above the Fire-clay 
coal by the road, where the latter is 100 
feet above the river at Hazard. The 

Coa( 55 

coal is a bright nearly uniform block 
coal, showing as in figure 68, and with 
no material variation in thickness or 
quality in the one small mine now ac- 
,3,5- cessible. With little more than 100 feet 

w,'n. Combs f covering the area of the coal in 

Ho.-2.Ara. coa/ this vicinity, though not large, is 

sufficient to invite early working, because of its easy delivery 
to the river valley. 

The stain of the Flag coal shows on a very conspicuous 
bench by the Combs house, 60 feet above the mine. The gap 
to the river north of the house is but 50 feet higher. Sand- 
stones in cliffs are above and below both beds. 

On the central fork the Hazard bed is still thicker than 
found on the Left fork and has a heavier covering, but a 
parting detracts from its value. 

At Alfred Eversole 's, three miles from the mouth of Big 
creek, where the Fire-clay coal is probably about 20 feet below 
drainage, the Hazard bed lies 280 feet above the creek, and 
measured : 

Soft coal 19 in. 

Splint coal 24 in. 

Soft coal 3 in. 

Parting 10 in. 

Coal . __16 in. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



85 



But as the bottom 26 in. was under water, and the floor 
level somewhat indefinite, the lower measures are inaccurate. 
The top seam by itself makes a handsome appearance. 

Forty feet higher is the Flag coal, containing cannel, but 
it appears never to have been opened. 



Another opening of Alfred Ever- 
sole 's into the Hazard bed is shown in 
figure 69. It is a mile to the left of Left 
fork, up Jenny Lick branch, and is about 
level with the preceding two Hazard 
bed opening's. 




7o' 



J.J. 




Sptinl- Coal 13 



^^r3 Sh<x.le 



r. c/c 



Again, some two 

miles above Ever- 

sole's near the 

head of the fork, 
/8 - the Hazard bed is 

opened, showing as 

in figure 70. 

The top 19 in. of 

the first Eversole 

opening is entirely gone, but the remain- 
der of that seam is unchanged except 
for the intrusion of an inch of shale. 
The heavy parting below, if it continues, 
will forbid the working of the upper 
seam, but some compensation lies in the 
thickening of the under seam. But the 
lower half of this having been measured 
under water, it possibly may not be clean 
coal. 

The hill here is high and at an ele- t . .. _ 

Head of Left Fork 

vation of 1660, the Hindman coking H 0.1 a ret c oa / 
(?) coal bed appears, five to six feet thick, probably w^nout 
material parting. Though the peaks here rise 300 to 400 feet 





Co a./ 



86 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




C. 



1 

3L 



above the coal the gaps cut deep and the area of this bed is 
not large enough to make it a very important factor. 

On the Eight fork the bottom coal 
of the section, figure 71, is probably of 
the Fire-clay coal bed, the fire-clay, not 
noted here, being visible where it goes 
below drainage near the head of the fork 
on the road to Mackintosh creek. The 
bed here also, where dug from the creek, 
is thin, though having about one foot 
of coal below the parting. 

The 21 in. coal of the section, 15 
feet higher, becomes 32 in. including two 
thin partings, and continues, under a 
black slate roof, in the cliff just above 
the Fire-clay coal digging in the creek. 
As the rider to the Fire-clay bed it 
becomes important south of Hyden. 

The top bed of the section shown 






3 S. 



I Cafinel 
1 Sho.lc 
} Caa.1 
\ Sho.1*, 
\~ Coa.1 
Iron /< 



S.S. 
Coo/ 



s.s. 
a i s i. 

Coa/ 
Thin Coat 



'S 



Forks of 
Biq Cr. 



in detail in figure 
72, is of the Hind- 
man bed, 480 feet 
above the Fire- 
clay coal. It has 
here a rider of can- 
nel coal, not known 
to it elsewhere. 
The ridges here 
are still too low 
and narrow to 
furnish any very 
great amount of 
coal from this bed, 
yet they are long 
enough to warrant 



r,- g . 7 1 




Jrro. f~/'e/ds 
Hmdman Coal 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



87 



working the bed, when transportation facilities are supplied 
to the lower beds. 

From the imperfect opening made Mr. James I. Profitt 
sampled for the Survey the lower 36 in. of coal, which, 
analyzed by Dr. R. Peter, gave: 

HINDMAN BED. Chem. Report No. 2783 

Moisture 3.50 

Volatile combustible matter 35.30 

Fixed carbon 53.14 

Ash (light brownish-gray) 8.06 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.035 

Specific gravity 1.333 

Coke _ dense. 



"A weathered sample of splint coal. Some fibrous coal 
between the thin laminae, but no appearance of pyrites. 
Some ferruginous incrustation." 



Fiy. 



A half mile above Big creek, on the 
right of the river, 85 feet above it, the 
section of figure 73 was obtained, at the 
mouth of H. T. Thornton's 20-yard en- 
try. This is the first opening into the 
Fire-clay coal bed on the river above 
Willard creek to give a workable coal. 
The black-jack parting, similar to the 
"jack-rock" of the Middlesboro region, 
takes the place of the usual flint fire- 
clay. Of rare occurrence in the central 
part of the Kentucky river field, this 
characteristic is found on Lost creek and 
elsewhere near the rim of the field, and 

is common towards the heads of Middle Fork and on Bed Bird 

creek. 




H '. T. Thornton 

fire C/ay Coa.1 



88 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



PEACH-ORCHARD BRANCH. 

On the left one mile above Big 
Creek. 

At the head of this branch, 415 feet 
above the river, on land of Nancy Combs 
heirs, the Flag coal gives the section 
shown in figure 74, the bottom 6 in. mea- 
sured in water at the mouth of a four- 



f,'y. 



9 7s 



977 



8<)o 



eat. h Or eft a ret 

8' COOL/ 



S.S S 
Coal 

Qio Sen 
(/ Co<*> t 



So star ci L .S . 2. 
Sh.S.S f-o' 



Thin Coal 

3h. + Cla.y Jo' 

AV<y*y /ran Of 
Thin Coal 



Thin Coa.1 
Sh. r Clay 10' 



f C/o y Be 



Th'.r, Coat 

Shot* 

' 



,. . 

outh of or. 

,e Br. 



yard entry. Though 
high on the hill 
there is still 
enough area to 
yield large returns 
if the very favor- 
able condition of 
the bed continues 
through to Lost 
creek, as the open- 
ings there indicate. 



Sha/ -f '' 
Sh.V-C. 2.' 



Coa( 



Coal 



/ 3oo 

Fla.<j Co a./ 



Nancy Combs Heirs 



CARNEGIE BRANCH. 

On the left, two miles above Big 
, 4 ~ creek, three miles below Lots creek. 

The section, figure 75, represents the 
strata as exposed along the road up the 
spur on the east to the head of the 
branch, with the Fire-clay coal at the 
branch and the Flag coal of Peach Or- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



89 



chard branch (a half mile west of the 
Hazard opening) included. 

The Fire-clay coal, 85 feet above the 
river, a quarter mile up the branch, open- 
ed to a five-yard entry by Robert Combs, 
has here no parting, but shows 42 in. 
clean coal as in figure 76. The fire-clay 
under the coal, where the parting not in- 
frequently lies gives no flinty charac- 
teristic, and is clearly the floor of the 
bed. Nor can this be the rider of the 
bed as the same coal is found close a- 
bove on the river with the fire-clay part- 
ing. Its absence is also noted on Lots 
creek. This is especially remarkable as 
its presence is so usual as to have been 
regarded as even more constant than the coal itself. 

An earlier measure of the bed, when belonging to Alex- 
ander Combs, gave but 39 in. coal, probably at the mouth of 
the present entry. My sample taken then was analyzed by 
Dr. R. Peter with the following results: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2793 

Moisture 1.76 

Volatile combustible matter 36.04 

Fixed carbon 56.20 

Ash (very light gray) 6.00 




i're. C/att/ 
Robert Com 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.557 

Specific gravity 1.290 

Coke light spongy 



"Apparently good splint or semi-bituminous coal. No 
apparent pyrites." 

The 33 in. coal, at elevation 1225, figure 75, 335 feet above 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



the river, owned by Thomas B. Combs, is of the Hazard bed. 
With about five feet of coal in this bed at numerous points, 
north, west and south of this opening, the bed does not give 
here the thickness which should be expected for this immediate 
locality. Other openings are needed before this can be ac- 
cepted as representative here. 

The upper coal of the section is described as found on 
Peach Orchard branch, page 88. 

From 90 to 110 feet above the river are scattered con- 
glomerate pebbles in some quantity, which appear to have 
come from the friable sandstone on which they lie, but none 
were discovered imbedded in it here or elsewhere on this 
horizon where the pebbles were found. Their occurrence at 
a height of 10 to 100 feet above the Fire-clay coal bed is in- 
frequent, and seems to be confined mainly to the close vicinity 
of the North fork. 

At one and one quarter miles below 
Lots creek, north of the river and 50 
feet above it, are several old mines be- 
longing to Elhannon Crawford, from one 
of which the section, figure 77, was ob- 
tained. The fire-clay parting is here 
bituminous and not flint, and the 1 in. 
coal below it signifies that on Carnegie 
branch the parting has run into the floor. 

On the road up Meadow branch (a 
mile below Lots creek) toward Sixteen- 
". Crauiford Mile creek the following section was 

taken to aid in locating the source of theconglomerate pebbles. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 91 

Conglomerate pebbles (abundant) 1055 

Conglomerate pebbles on level by house 990 

Coal stain (on sandstone) 970 

Fire-clay coal at spring (river road) 950 

River 900 

The chief source here appears to be about 100 feet above 
the Fire-clay coal bed, though on Carnegie branch they ap- 
pear but 20 to 40 feet above it. 



LOTS CREEK. 

By the road one quarter mile up this creek, 50 feet above 
it, an opening into what is presumably the Fire-clay coal bed 
shows 35 in. coal, with possibly an inch or two more at the 
bottom covered. The seam of coal below the fire-clay parting 
is probably lacking. The roof is here a shale changing to 
shaly sandstone, the whole eight feet thick, with five feet 
visible sandstone above. 



Dark Fork, or Helen Combs Branch. On the left, three 
quarters mile up the creek. 

On the right of the branch, one eighth mile up it, 60 feet 
above the creek, the old Fielding Combs opening, (now S. M. 
Napier), gives the section of figure 78. The coal is bright and 
looks rich in bitumen, a part of it seeming to be nearly cannel 
coal, but the analysis does not indicate it. 

My sample, analyzed by Dr. R. Peter, yielded : 



92 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



78 




FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2541 

Moisture 5.20 

Volatile combustible matter 31.80 

Fixed carbon - 52.94 

Ash (very light buff) 10.00 



100.00 



Sulphur _______________________ - - 588 

Specific gravity ----------- 1.570 

_______________ _________ pulverulent 




JS 



fire C/aif Bed 
Ho I lid ay 



80 



f/rt C/ay B&d. 
\3. M . Napier 



Trace Fork. On the left one mile 
up. 

A mile up the fork behind the Hol- 
liday school-house, 10 feet above the 
creek, the Fire-day coal, (or its rider) 
is opened in a small entry giving the 
section, figure 79. 

Three miles up the fork, toward Lost 
creek, at the head of a branch on the 
right, Kiley Gayheart had opened the 
Flag coal, as in figure 80, part of it a 
good splint coal, and the rest attractive 
in appearance. The Eobert Gayheart 
openings into the same bed on Pigeon 
Boost and Combs branches of Trouble- 
some and the openings at the head of 
Lost creek, all indicate that a minimum 
of not less than four feet of coal may be 
expected in this region. The chief ques- 
tion here regarding the coal must be in 
relation to its area, of which there is 
certainly a considerable amount. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



93 




Two miles up the fork in a field on 
the left of the road to Troublesome, 
Charles Godsey land, the Hazard bed 
gave the section of figure 81. Openings 
into this bed surrounding the ridge at 
the head of Lost creek assure a fine 
working field, perhaps to become one of 
the most profitable of any of the Ken- 
tucky river, though in its extent of thick 
coal the bed gives excellent promise 
in other localities. 

On the Eight fork, or main Lots 
creek, from one to two and one half miles 
c.Goetsey above Trace fork, a line of openings ten 

Ha.za.rct Ceo. i to 30 feet above the creek gives the re- 

lation of the Fire-clay bed to its rider here. Figure 82 gives 
the principal ones at distances about one half mile apart. 

Probably nowhere else, but on Carr fork does the Fire-clay 
coal give thicker cannel combined with enough bituminous 
coal to make mining easy, but it is not likely that this con- 
dition extends far beyond the limits developed. On Combs 
branch, Troublesome creek, the bed is too thin to work; 
farther up on Lots creek it is thin or unopened, and along the 
river above and below Hazard the cannel is changed to bi- 
tuminous coal while the rider is missing altogether. My 
sample of the B. F. Grigsby cannel, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter, 
gave : 

FIRE-CLAY CANNEL. Chem. Report No. 2540 

Moisture 0.44 

Volatile combustible matter 44.16 

Fixed carbon 49.40 

Ash (light gray-brown) 6.00 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.766 

Specific gravity 1.250 

Coke dense spongy 



94 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



=-; J/7.5.J. /o' 
Coo./ /o' 




Fire C/ay Coa/ 



F/re C/ay Coo./ 



83 



Fire C/a y Coa. f Fire C/a y Coot f 

t/''Gr/ys6y O.Gr/y$6y 

"A pure-looking cannel coal. Tough. Fracture very 
broad, irregular 'conchoidal. " The weight of ash makes it a 
remarkable cannel. 

It needs be said of these openings that there is no con- 
clusive evidence that the upper bed, instead of the lower, may 
not be the Fire-clay coal. It is assumed 
otherwise from the fact that the main 
bed, not infrequently part cannel, often 
has 'S>uch a rider as here, while nowhere 
is a workable bed below the Fire-clay 
coal known to approach so near. 

Above this cannel, at elevation 1300, 
and 285 feet above the creek, the Hazard 
bed has the section of the coal of figure 
83. Here the ridge is high enough to 
' v/a z a ret coal S ive a ^ ood working area. 




^^" 



8 y. 



Sf- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 95 

At the height of 1470 feet an opening giving 18 in. coal 
with two 12 in. partings is probably representative of the 
Flag coal; but further development is needed to establish 
the values of the higher coals of this vicinity. 

Elk Lick Fork. On the right, three and one-half miles 
above Trace fork. 

At elevation 1025, fifteen feet above 
the mouth, an old opening probably into 
the Fire-clay coal rider, developed some- 
what under three feet of coal with 20 
feet of shale and sandstone above it and 
20 feet of sandstone exposed over that. 

On the upper right fork, on the 
Sylvester Grisby tract, (now Va. I. C. 
& C. Co.) the Hazard bed (probably) 
with 54 in. of clean coal, as in figure 84, 
has a fine appearance, with a consider- 
able proportion of good splint coal and 
no pyrites visible. Its apparent height 
of perhaps 380 feet above the Fire-clay 
coal at the mouth of the fork instead of 
the usual 300 feet, is in part due to the 
rise of strata along the fork, easily 
amounting to 60 feet. 

On what is by the U. S. topographi- 
cal map the upper Elk Lick fork in Knott 
county, a mile from the road to Mill 
creek, on William Young's land, now 
Slemp Coal Co., 20 feet above the creek, 
the section of fignire 85 is opened. No 
other coals having been seen in the vi- 
cinity correlation is uncertain, but there 
Ha.io.rot COQ./ is little reason to doubt that it is in the 




Coal 



\ J/a f e 
Caa/ 

j=--=l S. 1C, 



Coat 

( tfil.'nt) 



Coo.! 



96 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Hazard bed. It is 'also probable that in going underground 
a much, more satisfactory face of coal as to partings could 
be obtained, and especially is it likely that the splint coal of 
the two bottom seams woiuld combine into one solid block. 



3.S. S 




WALKER BRANCH. 



Coal -- 



f/re C/at/ Sect 
Peter Wctf/rer 



On the left one mile above Lots 
creek. 

Of the half dozen entries, one quar- 
ter to one half mile up this branch, ten 
to 20 feet above it, that one given in 
figure 86 alone was in condition for meas- 
urement of the upper coial seam. The 
flint fire-clay was 'unmistakable, and the 
bottom coal was found under the fire- 
clay and both these had been left undisturbed in mining. 

A. H. Turner has a 20-yard entry 
by the road a half mile below Hazard, 
60 feet above the river, from which the 
section of figure 87 was obtained. As 
on Walker branch the flint clay part- 
ing clearly defines this as of the Fire- 
clay coal bed. 

Across the river from the last open- 
ing, 100 feet above it (more or less) on 
land of J. H. Combs, an old opening into 
the upper seaim of the same bed, given 
as three feet thick, was sampled by Prof. 
A. E. Crandall, and three years later, 
measuring 33 in., by myself. The two 
samples, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter, gave 




Fire. C/ay flee/ 
/). //. Turner 



the following results: 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 97 

Chem. Report Nos. 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. 2398 2546 

Moisture 1.50 1.50 

Volatile combustible matter __ 36.10 33.50 

Fixed carbon 59.06 61.20 . 

Ash (light gray) 3.34 3.80 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.618 0.794 

Specific gravity 1.272 1.287 

Coke spongy light spongy 

Dr Peter remarks of the first sample, "A pure-looking 
pitch-black splint coal. Shows very little fibrous coal and no 
visible pyrites between its irregular laminae." Of the other 
practically the same is said. 

In the town of Hazard, about 30 feet above the river an 
old entry, of which no record is at hand, was made into a 
coal-bed 75 feet under the Fire-clay coal. The same coal is 
exposed 15 feet above the river, in a cliff by the road above 
Hazard, where the following section obtains: 

Sandstone 20 ft. 

Coal 35 in. 

Flint fire-clay 7 in. 

Coal 3> in. 1015 

Clay 

Sandstone 60 ft. 

Shale 5 ft. 

Black slate 5 ft. 

Coal and 12 partings 40 in. 940 

River 925 

This lower bed with its many partings is of no value here, 
and little elsewhere so far as known, except in a consider- 
able region about Whitesburg. To it is therefore given the 
name of the Whitesburg Coal bed. The bed can often be 
identified by its heavy black slate roof, which appears to 
accompany the coal throughout most of the North and Middle 
fork areas. 

The Fire-clay coal, at elevation 1015, is opened in a small 
entry with chute to the river road. 



98 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

BUFFALO CREEK. r; 9 .ss 

On the right, three miles above Haz- 
ard. 

By the creek, a mile up it, at Alfred 
Fversole's, the Fire-clay coal is opened 

F,q. 81 



. S 



Ob 



Coat 



3/ 



6f3. Coal 



S.S. 

( Coal 
S/o.C.iS*. / 
[ Coo./ 





(a* 



Bed 



3 Nf. ABOVE. 

<r> a~t E. . Cornc.tfs 



3? 

90 feet above the 
river, as shown in 
figure 88. In two 
measurements tak- 
en three years 
apart, the open- r ire . 

ings having been /} . 
worked slightly meantime, the upper 
coal seam had decreased three in., and 
the lower increased two in. 

The section of figure 89 was taken 
at Elijah Cornett's, opposite and above 
the mouth of Buffalo creek. The 
Whitesburg coal at elevation 965, though 
o-aining thickness, is still valueless. 

The Fiire-iclay r/>. 9o 
coal at elevation 
1060 with its large 
proportion of splint 
coal and its thin 
shale parting in 
place of Fire-clay 
as shown in figure 
90, presents an un- 
usually fine section 
for this bed, but 
the mine appears 
now to be abandon- 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



99 



The 31 in. coal, at the top of the Cornett section, appears 
about at the level of the Hazard coal, but more data are re- 
quired to determine this with certainty. My sample of this 
coal gave to Dr. E. Peter's analysis: 



Chem. Report No. 2544 

Moisture 4.50 

Volatile combustible matter 32.50 

Fixed carbon 57.50 

Ash (nearly white) 5.50 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.670 

Specific gravity 1.381 

Coke pulrerulent 




C/cty B&d 
B . Combs 



"A somewhat weathered sample of 
splint coal. Some fibrous coal, but no 
pyrites apparent between the laminae. 

By the road, four and one half miles, 
above Hazard, Van Buren Combs has a 
30-yard entry, 85 feet above the river, 
in which the parting has returned again 
to fire-clay, the bed showing the section 
of figure 91. 

Below the road, five miles above 
Hazard, Martha Stacy has tw<o entries, 
100 feet above the river, driven at nearly 
a right angle to one another. Water in 
them prevented seeing the floor, but the 
fire-clay parting, shaly here, was meas- 



100 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



f/o 92 



ured with the coal above it, both as 
shown in figure 92. 

The foregoing openings from Haz- 
ard up prove the presence of a fine field 
of the Fire-clay coal, which extends up 
to and beyond Sassafras creek, Carr fork. 

CARR FORK. 

Scattered along the road opposite 
the mouth of Carr fork, probably 30 feet 
below the level of the Fire-clay coal, are 
many pebbles which seem to have come 
from a friable sandstone in place there, 
but, as below Lots creek none were found 
in the rock itself. They were reported 
seen also in the cliff above the road below Carr fork, in 
former years, probably above the level of the Fire-clay coal, 
but their location could not be closely described. 





Georges Branch. On the right, four 
miles or more up Carr fork. 

On the left, one quarter 'mile up the 
branch and 170 feet above its mouth an 
entry has been made into the upper seam 
of the Fire-clay coal, figure 93. The coal 
here seems to differ from that of the bed 
generally, and is apparently coking coal. 
The floor of the entry, or parting perhaps 
consists of 4 in: 6 in. of black-jack and 
black slate, representing the fire-clay 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



101 



parting. An unusual quantity of huge, rough, hard boulders 
lie about the place, having come from a short distance higher 
up. 

At the forks one and one half miles 
up the branch, ten feet above it, in a 
rockhouse, the same bed shows as in 
figure 94, with the parting a true flint 
j?"clay, and the under seam present. The 
section accords with that on Big branch 
across the ridge to the south. The eleva- 
tion was not taken. 




fire C/O.L/ Q&ct. 

of George's Br. 



Rowdie Branch. On the right, in 
Knott county, one mile above Yellow 
creek. 

Harmon Stacy has an 8-yard enrry 
into the Fire-clay coal, mile up the 
branch, 130 feet above its mouth, repre- 
sented in figure 95. The upper seam, 
varying from 34 in. to 37 in. coal, is 
thinner than the openings on either side 
of it would lead one to expect, and other 
openings in the 'dose vicinity should 
prove better. The parting of dark flint 
fire-clay, over slate like that of George's 
branch, confirms the statement that the 
floor of the latter opening is the usual 
parting. 

At the mouth of Sassafras creek Esq. Cornett's coal, re- 
ported by Prof. A. R. Crandall as in figure 96, is probably of 
the Fire-clay coal bed, but its height not being given, this must 
be conjectural. The bed should lie about 170 feet above Carr 
fork, as on Rowdie branch. The bone coal may represent the 




Coo./ 



/"/> 



Seat 
Gr. 



102 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



fire-clay parting, but an undiscovered seam of coal below the 
floor is not improbable. 

Prof. Crandall's sample, analyzed by Dr. B. Peter, 
yielded : 




fire. Clay Beat 
Co m e // 



Chem. Report No. 2399 

Moisture 1.30 

Volatile combustible matter 34.70 

Fixed carbon 56.10 

Ash (buff-gray) 7.90 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.437 

Specific gravity 1.305 

Coke Spongy 

"Generally a bright splint coal. No 
apparent pyrites and very little fibrous 
coal between its laminae. -The ap- 
parent ash percentage is no doubt 



increased by the adherent dirt in the sample. 



Pi g. 97 

Irishman Creek. By the school- 
house at the mouth of this creek, 150 
feet above it, the Fire-clay coal is 
opened as in figure 97, the main part 
ing being a true flint clay. The bed is 
opened, as previously stated, at eleva- 
tion 1260 on the right fork of Trouble 
some, and the course of Irishman creek, 
heading near that opening, is about on 
the line of strike of strata, so that a 
very favorable opportunity is afforded 
to obtain the intervals to the high 

beds about the head of the creek. From the Fire-clay coal to 

the Hindman bed is about 530 feet. 




8 



Fire C/cet/ jBe.ct / 
Cf.\ 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



103 




12. 



Ffa.<j Coo./ 



Figure 98 shows the lower one of 
the two beds noted on page 64, opened 
on Samuel Mullins' land at the head of 
Irishman, Eight fork, the upper big bed 
being about 100 feet higher. The Mul- 
lins' opening presents a very handsome 
appearance in a well-opened entry in- 
to the Flag coal, but it is too high to 
afford rauch area in this vicinity. 

The higher bed is of interest in this 
locality only because of its remarkable 
thickness, for it occurs only in small 
areas in the highest peaks. 




Little Branch. On the right, i mile 
above Irishman creek. 

A half mile up this branch, 40 feet 
above it and 195 feet (or less) above its 
mouth, the Fire-clay coal bed is opened 
as in figure 99, the parting a flint clay. 



Smith Branch. On the right, 
above Irishman creek. 



mile 



104 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



r. 190 




The section, figure 100, shows the 
same bed with like parting, in a rock- 
house, 1-| miles up the branch, 10 feet 
above it and 180 feet (or more) above 
its mouth. The elevations here and on 
Little branch indicate a slight reversal 
of dip, but it is more likely that they are 
incorrect, the latter probably being too 
high. 



Fire c/y Be* Breeding Creek.-On the right, If 

>//////<* Smith. miles above Irishman creek. ("Little 
Carr" by early map of Kentucky Geological Survey.) 

At the mouth of this creek a thick coal bed is said to have 
been penetrated in the stream, from which coal for local use 
was obtained. The bed rises with the stream, and a foot of 
the top of the coal shows above the water half mile up the 
creek. It is doubtless the Elkhorn bed, if the report is true, 
the interval from it to the Fire-Clay coal being about 200 feet. 
The bed should be found close above drainage for one or two 
// miles or more up Breeding creek, and is 

not likely to exceed 3^ feet in thickness 
of coal, judging from openings farther 
up Carr. 






Coal 



Oont K 

f. C/aif 

Coetl 



Sect 



Sugar Branch. On the right, If 
miles up Breeding creek. 

A quarter mile up this branch, at 
John Buck's, the Fire-clay coal, with 
bone coal and flint clay parting, is 
opened as in figure 101, at 230 feet above 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



105 



Breeding. The coal below the parting was in water and not 
accurately measured. 



Pig. IQZ. 




Fi're C/y /I* of 
Nocth Jerrt 




\fOff 

of Lftf/e Car/* 
Clkhorn Coo./ 



Mallet Fork. On the right two 
miles 'up Breeding. 

A mile up this fork to Mare branch 
on the left, and \ mile up and to the 
left of the branch, Noah Jent has a 15- 
yard entry into the Fire-clay coal, which, 
at its mouth, has the section, figure 102. 
At the face the coal has diminished 
30 in. and the parting 3 in., but this is 
probably due to a roll of little im- 
portance. 

Little Carr. On the right, 4i miles 
above Irishman creek. ("Amburgy 
branch" by early map of Kentucky Geo- 
logical Survey.) 

The Elkhorn coal, which appears in 
the creek at the mouth of Breeding is 
about ten feet higher than the mouth of 
of * '-Little Carr, where it shows along the road 
up the main fork, and whence the section 
of figure 103 was obtained. My sample, 
taken from the 44 in. coal as exposed in 
the cliff, analyzed by Dr. A. M. Peter, 
yielded: 



y ) 



106 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ELKHORN BED. Laboratory No. 2756 

Moisture __________________________________ 2.92 

Volatile combustible matter _______________ 34.90 

Fixed carbon ______________________________ 54.36 

Ash (salmon) _____________________________ 7.82 



100.00 

Sulphur .65 

Phosphorus .009 

Specific gravity 1.367 

Coke friable 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 12,616 

Total carbon 72.78 

"Contains a good deal of dust and iron stain." Friable 
coke does not indicate a coking coal, but the appearance of 
the coal itself and its analysis are so favorable as to urge a 
more thorough test of its coking qualities. 

An entry 200 yards up Little Carr, fallen in, shows the 
top coal no longer mixed with shale, 8 in. thick, then a part- 
ing of 17 in., with apparently solid coal below. 



Wolf-Pen Branch. The measure- 
ments of figure 104, at John Amburgy's 
opening on this branch, were taken by 
Prof. Crandall. The bed is undoubtedly 
the Fire-clay coal or its rider, and its 
section is remarkably like the Grigsby 
openings of Lost creek, with shale be- 
tween the cannel and common coal 

ei Coat 27" representing the fire-clay parting. Anal- 
yses by Dr. E. Peter of the two coals of 

' this opening, sampled by Prof. Crandall, 

are given below : 



Coal 




Uohn 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 107 

Chem . Report 
No. 2367 No. 2368 

FIRE-CLAY COAL Bituminous Cannel 

Moisture 5.46 0.26 

Volatile combustible matter 31.68 47.94 

Fixed carbon 57.46 44.86 

Ash . 5.40 6.94 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur .488 .751 

Specific gravity 1.385 

Coke pulverulent dense 

Color of ash light purplish buff-gray 



No. 2367. "A much weathered sample, in small lumps 
and powder. Soiled with clay." 

No. 2368. "A firm pure-looking cannel coal." 

In a cliff and at water level, 1^ miles up Little Carr, the 
Elkhorn bed appears again with this section: 



Shaly sandstone 20 ft. 

Coal 3 in. 

Shale 14 in. 

Coal 28 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Bone coal _ 4 in. 



The coal here is less than at the mouth or main head of 
Little Carr, (as shown below) but seems to be poorer yet, 
J mile up the right fork, where the parting has become six 
feet thick, the coal on it about 8 in. and under it but about 24 
inches. 



108 
Fig. toS~ 



Hill 7<S ' 

~y (Coa.1 

\S. V 



S.S. 
Coal 



Btx.-af9.ral / . S. 



Upf>f.r Cetnn+l C. 



S.S. 



Cat rr not Coc./ 



Coat/ 



S.S. 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Amburgy Branch. 
This branch is 
on the right of 
Little Carr near its 
head. 

Prof. Crandall 's 
section, figure 105, 
shows the Elkhorn 
coal 25 feet above 
Little Carr at 
Francis Ambur- 
gy 's. The lower 
bed of figure 106 
represents another 
opening there into 
the same coal, a 
very decided im- 
provement on the 
bed as exhibited 
along the main 
road down the 
creek. 

The next bed of 
the section, 160 
feet higher, is 
p r o b a b ly the 
Whitesburg bed, 
not known to be 
workable on Carr 
fork. 

The cannel coal 
35 feet higher at 
elevation 1390 is 
then of the Fire- 



&r. 



g. io 

\Shale. 



Coat 



Coa.1 



rf-~ 

Coat 



Coa.1 



Coal 



Coat 



clay coal bed, 195 feet above the Elkhorn. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 109 

The upper cannel coal shown seems likely to prove of the 
Haddix bed, though it may be one yet unknown. Its interval 
of 140 above the Fire-clay coal is small, and of 395 feet to the 
Hindman bed at the top of the section is large for the Haddix 
bed; but the long distance from any other point where the 
latter has been recognized is sufficient to account for the varia- 
tion. 

The interval between the Fire-clay and Hindman beds, 
495 feet corresponds closely with that found on Troublesome, 
Right fork. The upper bed of figure 106 represents the open- 
ing into the Hindman bed here. Though having less coal here 
than on Troublesome, there is still enough to make it im- 
portant, except for its slight area. Farther up Carr and the 
North fork the bed overreaches the hill-tops. 



Betty Troublesome. On the left, mile above Little Carr: 
on one of the main roads between Hindman and Whitesburg. 

Two miles up this stream, 30 feet above it, and 190 feet 
above its mouth, the Fire-clay coal has been opened with the 
following section, below the limit of present workable coal, 
but of future value: 



Elevation 

Sandstone 1 ft. 

Shale 2 ft. 

Bituminous shale 2 ft. 

Coal 27 in. 

Flint fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal . ._ 9 iB. 1280 



110 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



*/o 



Brannon Creek. On the left, four miles above Little Carr: 
on mail 'road between Hindman and Whitesburg. 

The Elkhorn bed, (or one very near it) shows at the 
mouth of this creek, 20 feet above it, only 18 in. thick, with 
20 feet of shale covering. 

A half mile up the stream and | mile 
up a left branch Isom Sloane has started 
an entry, figure 107, into a coal rather 
unsatisfactory because of its number of 
partings and 7-in. bone coal. The part- 
ings, however, will probably diminish 
farther underground. The bed being 
210 feet above the mouth of Brannon, it 
is probably the Fire-clay coal, but may 
be its rider, in which case a bed once 
opened 25 feet under it, said to be three 
feet thick, is the main bed. The presence 
of black slate on the dump of the lower 
bed is rather indicative of its being of 

the Whitesburg bed. 
/$o/r> *S/oa/ie 

About H miles above Brannon Creek, mile above Pine 
Top P. 0., what is probably the Elkhorn bed shows by the 
road, 50 feet above the creek, this section: 

Sandstone 15 ft. 

Coal 25 in. 

Black slate - 3 in - 

Coal 2 in. 

Though remaining above drainage some four miles 
farther up Carr fork, it does not appear that the bed has been 
opened in that distance. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



Ill 



Fig. loS 
J. 5. 




fr're C/ay Co a. I 
F,y. /09 




G . Honey cuff" 
Fire. C/ay Coo./ 



At Amazon P. 0. three miles above 
Brannon creek, Alfred Amburgy has a 
ten yard entry, 270 feet above Carr fork, 
into the Fire-clay coal, figure 108, the 
brown flint-clay parting being unmistak- 
able. 



Agam at Grant Honey cutt's, 2| 
miles farther up, (on the road to Bock- 
house creek) 110 feet above the fork, 
here rising rapidly, the almost identical 
section of figure 109 was obtained; the 
flint clay being here black instead of 
brown. 



A half mile or more above Honey- 
cutt 's some coal has been taken from the 
rider, at elevation 1560, apparently 40 
feet above the Fire-clay coal. It is made 
conspicuous by a roof of black slate two 
feet thick, the coal itself, covered, being 
probably not more than that. 



MACE'S CREEK. 

Left Fork. iAt William Singleton's, Viper P. 0., a half 
mile from and 140 feet above the mouth of the creek, at eleva- 
tion 1130, the Fire-clay coal has the following section: 

Sandstone ,10 ft. 

Coal 28 in. 

Flint fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal 8 in. 

Black slate 3 in. 

Bone ooal _ ._ 2 in. 



112 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fi g. 110 




At Woolrey Campbell's, a mile from 
the river, the section of the same bed is 
as given in figure 110, but further devel- 
opment is needed before this can be con- 
sidered as representing more than a 
very moderate area. A considerable part 
of the upper seam is splint coal, and the 
wn l e makes a very good appearance. 



Pi re C/ty Co o.l 

W. Ca 



Right Fork. In the river hill, I 
mile up the first right branch of this 
fork, on the John Babco'ck land, (now 
Burt .& Brabb Lumber Co.) 570 feet 
above the river, and about 440 feet above 
the Fire-clay coal, a short entry gave 
the section of figure 111. Of the upper 
two feet of the bottom seam much is 
splint coal; the lower 14 in. was meas- 
ured under water and may contain a 
small parting. The coal appears to be 
harder than that of the Hindman bed, 
and probably belongs to the Flag coal 
bed below it, to which its distance from 
the Fire-clay coal 'conforms. It is an unusually good ex- 
hibit for this bed, and there is enough covering over it to 
provide a good working area. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



113 



x/2. 



//8.T 



I* i' ca - -S.S-f Coal 7" 



S.S. 



Coal 
Sh. t" 
Co-./ 
Sh. (p 
Coa.t 



Coa( 



Coa.( <Sta.rn 



S.S.'SA. . 

/ Coo./ r Sh. 2.0 
\ Ooa.1 /3~ 

(B/.SI. /8~ 

.JCotx.1 'J-" 

7 C/.y i~ 

( CoeJ/ '3." 



S.J. 



Cr. # frt. ct/o . 



(Se C t/Ofi o.t Wm. Fctr/e 

value has heretofore been acquired. 



The Fire-clay coal two miles up the 
Eight fork (250 yards below John 
Pratt 's), elevation 1100, has but 22 in. 
coal, divided one foot down by a 4 in. 
fire-clay parting. At two and one-half 
miles up, 30 feet above the creek, the 
bottom seam has doubled, to 20 in., and 
the roof here has some coal in it, pos- 
sibly indicative of further increase. 

But the prospect of increase to a 
workable thickness is much diminished 
four miles up, where, in the William Far- 
ley opening, the lowest coal of figure 112, 
the bed has but 28 in. of coal, if, as it 
appears, this is the same bed. 

That other coals of this section do 
not give good thickness (although the 
Haddix and Hazard beds may be repre- 
sented) is not enough reason for con- 
demning the locality entirely. The con- 
stancy of the Hazard bed particularly 
leads to the hope that it, at least, had 
not been discovered when the section was 
taken, over 20 years ago, and though 
perhaps no later discovery has been 
made, there still remains opportunity for 
it. No definite knowledge of the succes- 
sion of coal beds and their approximate 



BIG BRANCH. 

William Field has made two openings into the Fire-clay 
coal, on the right, two miles up the branch, 100 feet above 
the mouth. Following is the section of the lower one. 



114 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




Coek.1 
lloo 

P/'re C/eiy Coa.1, 
Wm. r/e/ofs 



Sandstone. 

Coal 30 in. 

Flint fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal _ .. 6 in. 



The upper one in a ten yard entry, 
ten feet above the creek, has the section 
of figure 113. 

On the left of the 
branch, behind the 
house a third open- 
ing shows the up- 
per seam 34 in. 
thick. 



2.9 



- Conrr&f 8 



In the section, figure 114, taken one 
and one-half miles above Big branch, a 
rather rapid rise of strata is made evi- 
dent, which brings what is probably the 
Elkhorn coal up to the river bed. Its 
thickness of 24 in. may be increased by 
a lower seam of coal under what was ' 2fo 
considered the floor of the bed, but the 
probability is rather against this. The 
distance of 240 feet to the Fire-clay bed"*' 5 " 
is 30 to 50 feet more than is found 
towards the head of the river and on 
Carr fork. 

The Whitesburg coal, conspicuous 
at Hazard, here a good, but thin splint 
coal, has a black slate floor instead of 
roof as usual. 

The Fire-clay coal, at elevation 1250 '<" 
has here fallen below the limit of WOrk- 




Coo/ 



Sh. 



Coci/ 9 ' 



(Coaf if-" 

\f-.Ct. + ' 

la'.'si. 6" 

/ Coa.1 & 

I C/ccy 

S.S. 

'Sa.C. r/ /J 

Sa.C- \3 

'ot.st. j- 

C/aty 
5.J. 



Th'tn Coo,/ 



Coa.1 a-f 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



115 



able coals, and is not known to rise to it again elsewhere along 
the main stream above. 

For higher coals it is necessary to go somewhat back of 
the low river hills here, in order to get much area. 



Ft'q. ItS 



tfyo 



Coal Jfat'n 



Cotti <f' 



Bt.Sl.t2." 
vTA. /" 
Cea.1 3.6, 



Co ex/ 
S*. 
Coa.1 
Sh. 
Coat 



<S.S . 



- Creek 

F~o fi ff j o F~ 



LEATHERWOOD CREEK 

Little Leatherwood. The section of 
figure 115, taken about four mies up Lit- 
tle Leatherwood in 1884, contains no 
workable coal, and it is hardly probable 
that any has been discovered there since 
then. 

The Elkhorn bed, at or below drain- 
age level begins to thicken to its large 
proportions only towards the head of the 
river above Whitesburg. 

The Fire-clay coal is, presumably, 
the 26 in. coal at elevation 1410. The 
surrounding openings of this bed, though 
they are distant, are against any favor- 
able anticipation of this vicinity. 

The stain of the Haddix bed might 
give a satisfactory result if opened, but 
the bed appears to have nearly run out 
before reaching as far south as Hazard, 
and does not seem to recover working 
thickness except at far distant points. 

The only favorable prospect is in 
the Hazard bed, which is in good condi- 
tion on main Leatherwood and on Line 
Fork. The hill with the section taken 
is not high enough for a mining area 
of this coal, but others in the vicinity 
are. 



3" 



116 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



rig. 1/7 



'/ . J 



Bench 



Coa.1 Stu'tn 



Bench 
L.S.Iran Or. 



Bench 
Coa 



3.S. 



s.s. 




c 00 .t 




Cree/c 



At Henry Sin- 
gleton's, 4 miles up 
main Leatherwooa, 
mile up a right 
branch and 240 feet 
above the creek, the 
Fire-clay "coal has 
been entered some 
80 yards. The bot- 
tom seam of coal 
is here absent, the 
dark, flint tire- 
clay floor be- 
ing the usual parting. The remainder 
of the bed, showing as in figure 116, is 
not seriously injured by its parting, 
which, being a soft bituminous shale, can 
be made available as a mining seam. 



Beech Fork. Figure 117 represents 

a section taken two and one-half miles up 

Beech fork. Without additional infor- 

mation the identity 

of the coal beds 

cannot be decisive- 

ly stated, but it is 

probable that the 

.Fre-clay coal is the 

lowest of the sec- 

tion, ( shown en- 

larged in figure 

118) its rider being 

20 feet above it. 



F~ f '. //<? 




</. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



117 



A new bed, or one not elsewhere on the North fork 
worthy of note, appears then 70 feet above the Fire-clay coal, 
become conspicuous because of its many partings. What is 
perhaps the same bed is found at rare intervals on Middle fork 
waters, sometimes so close to the lower bed as to have become 
a rider to it, and to have absorbed the more usual rider. 

The coal stain 230 feet higher in the section is probably 
of the Hazard bed, and should develop into good thickness 
with a large area in the high hill where it was found. 

The higher coal stain, reported carrying cannel coal, 
should be of the same bed as the Babcock coal (57 in. thick) 
on Mace's creek near its mouth. While the bed is rather 
variable the prospect is fair of finding it workable here. 

The upper bench may mark the level df the Hindman 
bed, and its 100 feet of covering gives promise of a restricted 
r/ 9- "t workable area, obtainable at such height 

../ j-' on ^ ^7 a thick and valuable coal, such 

as that bed is found to be at other points. 



Coctl 



6,0 



Coett 



rt Coit.cfr 



Grave Branch. On the left, one and 
one-half miles above Beech fork. 

Beside this branch 90 feet above 
its mouth, an opening has been made 
into what is called the four foot bed, (the 
Fire-clay coal of Oldhouse branch far- 
ther up Leatherwood), but it is now 
closed so that nothing can be seen of the 
coal. It is believed that the Fire-clay 
coal is about 80 feet higher, at elevation 
1390, corresponding more nearly with 
the Henry Singleton (p. 116) and J. B. C. 



Cornett opening (p. 119). 



118 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The opening shown in figure 119, on the right of Grave 
branch | mile up it, is then in position for the Hazard coal, 
but the correlation of this, as of other high coals toward the 
head of the main creek, requires more data for certainty. 

On the main creek, at its level, two miles above Beech 
fork, openings have been made into a 3 foot bed of clean coal, 
elevation 1225, which, though apparently too high for it, may 
be the Elkhorn coal. It does not appear that the bed main- 
tains its thickness farther down the creek, and farther up 
it is below water level. 



Clover Fork. Coal, said to be two and one-half feet thick, 
has been dug from a bed in the right fork of this creek, two 
miles from its mouth, at elevation 1400. This appears to be 
the level of the Fire-clay coal. 

Fig. i z.0 At the extreme head of the fork, 

,<*///, about three miles up, to the right of the 

path to Laurel fork of Cutshin creek, 
340 feet above the lower coal, the coal of 
figure 120 is opened. This, as on Grave 
branch, appears to be of the Hazard bed. 
It is opened again on Laurel fork of Cut- 
shin, having cannel coal there. 

An interesting occurrence of con- 
glomerate pebbles in quantity was noted, 
in the stream below this opening. In 
tracing to their source they seem to come 
from a soft sandstone, two feet thick, 
. "** outcropping in the bed of the stream 90 

fouer For At 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 319 

feet below the coal ; but none of them were found in the sand- 
stone itself. They probably come from the upper Conglomer- 
ate sandstone especially conspicuous in the Black Mountains 

of Harlan county. 



Oldhouse Branch. On the right, one and one-fourth miles 
above Clover fork. 

On J. B. C. Cornett's land at the road forks, mile up 
this branch the top of an old opening on the right showed: 

Shale and clay 10 ft. 

Coal 14 in. 

Shale 10 in. 

Coal 5 in. 

Shale 2 ft. 

Some four to six feet of the opening below was covered, 
but in a private report to the Tennis Coal Co., there is stated 
to be in the entry driven there 46 in. fine bright coal, (more 
or less of it soft and coking coal). The measurement is 
without doubt accurate and is shown in the lower bed of figure 
121. 

The elevation of the bed, 1455, makes it probably the 
Fire-clay coal, with its rider still visible above it. It is 125 
feet above the mouth of the branch. 

On the left road fork, one and one-half miles from the 
main creek, William Shepard has a small entry 375 feet high- 
er than that just described, with coal as represented in the 
upper bed of figure 121. This is probably of the Hazard bed, 
the apparent increased interval from the Fire-clay coal being 
due to a rise of strata between the openings. 

In my sample of this coal the upper 17 in. was not in- 
cluded, and it is stated, in the report before referred to, that 
at no time in mining was more than 46 inches of coal used, 



120 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



fiy. /SLI 



Coal 



the mixed coal and shale at the bottom 
providing a mining seam. The 46 in. 
solid coal underground, which may be 
considered the true thickness, is a fino. 
bright coal, partly splint. My sample, 
taken on the discovery of the coal by the 
Survey, was from the outcrop, and is evi- 
dently too high in ash. Dr. E. Peter 
gives its analysis as follows: 



\ Sfta.lt 
Coa.1 

fl Col." 
Coa.1 

|/J 




Co a/ 



Chem. Report No. 2545 

Moisture 1.40 

Volatile combustible matter 28.60 

Fixed carbon ___, 58.00 

Ash (very light gray) 12.00 



OIvLnou&e. 

This coal is 
are 20 to 30 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.958 

Specific gravity 1.362 

Coke . dense 



"A weathered sample of what ap- 
pear to be bituminous and splint coals, 
which seem to be pretty pure." 

y-4> 

On the right fork, one mile from the 
main creek, at elevation 1800, an old en- 
try with the bottom coal covered still 
has visible three to three and one-half 
feet of coal, with shaly sandstone roof. 

Brj 

evidently of the same .bed as the preceding; both 
feet below a very conspicuous bench. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



121 



'1,0 



Iv.V 




y. /22 



S.S. 
S p. Coa.1 



Coat 




Sh.fOre 13' 
Cornel C. -7" 
u 7* - 

CociC tl. 

Gl.SC. 3" 



S/t.S.S. 




J.J. 

FA. r Coo./ ^" 

.. . JBf.Sf. 3 

I J/J.C. J" 



Mouth <Stontf 

f. 



Stony Fork In 
the section, fig- 
aire 122, the low- 
est bed of note is 
the Fire-clay coal 
of elevation 1490, 
which is exposed 
along a cliff at 
Friley Browning's, 
a mile up the fork 
and 25 feet above 
it. In the 20 to 30 
yards exposure, 
partly mined under 
roof, there is little 
variation in the 
upper coal seams 
and partings, but 
the bottom seam 
varies from 30 in. 
to 41 in. in thick- 
ness, and in char- 
acter from a mixed 
splint and block 
coal, to the same 
partly slickenseit. 
A second measure- 
ment of the bed is 
given in the lowest 
coal of figure 123. 

My sample of 
the bottom bench 
of this coal and 
specimen of this 



Pig. 




'/I**- 



Goaf 



<f,o 
F~lo. q Co a I 




Ha za.rct Coo./ 




re CYay Co a I 



122 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

slickenseit were analyzed by Dr. E. Peter with the following 
results: 

Chem. Report No. 2539 2547 

FIRE-CLAY COAL Lower Bench Slickenseit 

Moisture 1.40 1.44 

Volatile combustile matter 28.20 38.06 

Fixed carbon 53.90 54.90 

Ash . _ 16.50 5.60 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.978 0.972 

Specific gravity 1.799 1.276 

Coke dense dense 

Ash very light gray nearly white 

No. 2539. Though taken from a muddy outcrop Dr. Peter 
reports: "A pretty pure-looking sample. Breaking into thin, 
irregular laminae, with some fibrous coal apparent, but no 
pyrites visible." The excessive ash cannot all be attributed 
to adhering mud, nor does a late view of the well-opened bed 
indicate a poor coal. 

No. 2547. "Pitch-black pure-looking coal. Fracture 
irregular. No fibrous coal or pyrite apparent." 

The coal at elevation 1805 of the section, shown enlarged 
in figure 123, is taken ifrom a report to the Tennis Coal Co., as 
found on land of J. B. C. Cornett. The bottom is said to be 
hard block coal, and the 27 in. next above a bright block. It 
is doubtless the same coal as that described farther down 
Leatherwood as presumably of the Hazard bed. 

Smith Branch. The Flag >coal, the upper coal of figure 
123, found on this branch of Stony fork, but not identified 
elsewhere in >a long 'distance, gives incentive for a special 
search for it in this region. The three beds together make 
a rich field, especially as even the higher ones have a large 
area in the extension of Kentucky ridge between the heads of 
Leatherwood 'and Line fork. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



123 



'ivo 



Coa.1 iSfcLtrt 
i.S. Iron Ore. 



3.S. 



S.3. 
Coat 
Coa.1 

3.9. 



Coal 
Con/ 



s.s. 

... Coat 



20 
17' 



Sh.S.S. 



In the section, figure 124, the Fire- 
clay coal, at elevation 1460, appears to 
have diminished to 19 in., but this seems 
likely to be due to a local disturbance of 
small area. The cannel coal at the top 
of the bed gives added inducement to 
further investigation. 

What variation of interval from the 
Fire-clay coal to the Haddix may have 
occurred in the many miles from the 
nearest recognized opening of the latter 
is not known, but is probably slight, and 
the 29 in. coal, of which most is slicken- 
seit, may answer for the latter bed. The 
known irregularities in thickness and 
quality of this bed should lead to, rather 
than discourage further investigation in 
this region (as well as elsewhere.) 

The Haddix and Flag beds, the lat- 
ter the top coal of the section, both have 
large areas in the main ridge at the head 
of the creek, and the Hindman bed is 
also worth looking after. The ridge is 
high enough to give them workable 
areas, and there is almost a certainty 
that the Hindman bed will disclose a 
thick coking coal. 

LINE FORK. 



At the mouth of Line fork the strata 
have so far emerged above the river that 
_ T <tr* of s* ony /r.the Elkhorn bed should be above drain- 
er HEAD OF cn. age, as well as other coals below it, but 



Coo./ 



a." Bo.sTo.rd. 



124 



(Caett & 

\C ann *(C. /z. 
4-Sho.i* *" ,; 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



none of any value have been found near 
their level and it seems that nothing has 
been done toward their identification. 
Some coal was mined from a bed report- 
ed four feet thick, with shale parting 
and black slate roof, some 300 feet above 
the creek, which may be of the Whites- 
burg or Fire-clay coal; but the opening 
having been abandoned was not visited. 



Coa,/ y-7' 



^:>Xx 



Coa./ Sto.in 
Coo./ 



Tftirt Coat 



Thin 3/ocA: /ran Ort 



,J Coa/ 
IC/ary 

5.J. 

(A/.S/. 
< Coa./ 



Secft'on oJ~ Ira. <STa.mtirj 

low deserves notice 



In going up Line fork there is an ad- 
ditional emergence, but still the lower 
beds, so far as yet discovered, remain 
thin. 



Turkey Creek. The section, figure 
125, taken near the head of Turkey creek, 
should show, if complete, the Elkhorn 
bed near its base, the Fire-clay bed and 
its rider being probably represented in 
the <coal stains at elevation 1605-1620. 



The Hazard bed 
is then, and with 
little reason to 
doubt, the thick 
coal at elevation 
1895, shown en- 
larged in figure 
126. The preval- 
ence of thick coal 
in this bed, and the 
uniformity of its 
distance (about 
300 feet) from the 
Fire-clay coal be- 
here. 



13 6 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



125 



>83> 



Hill 7S' H/yher 



Coo./ 



i at? 



'I: 



Thin Iron Ore 



Coo.1 
Sho.lt 

Coo./ 
Shot/a 

Coo./ 



COOL/ 



Coa.1 
S.S 



Green <Sha./e 



Coat 



Cant 



The Flag coal, if such it is, (mostly 
cannel) near the top of the section, is 
higher than usual above the Hazard, but 
if there is no actual thickening this may 
be accounted for 
by the pitch of 
strata between the 
two openings, or 
by barometric in- 
accuracy. 

The section of 
figure 127, near the 
mouth of Defeated 
creek, gives per- 
haps the lowest 
strata exposed on 
Line fork, about 
600 feet below the 
Hazard coal, and 
probably within 
100 feet olf the con- 
glomerate meas- 
ures. 

The Fire-clay 
coal appears to be 
cut out by sand- 
stone here, and the 
36 in. coal, at ele- 
vation 1480, to be 
too high for its 
rider, yet a bed of 
the same thickness 
appearing lower on 
Defeated creek, 
tends to such cor- 
relation. There can 
be little question of 
the identity of the 
thicker coal at ele- /n oaef t # om 

vation 1660, shown in enlarged scale, the upper bed of figure 

128. It is of the Hazard bed. 



tf-AfaS 




at Mose s 



126 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




Defeated Creek. At Ira Hall's, some 
two miles up this creek and 60 feet above 
it, the Fire-clay coal, at elevation 1400, 
has been stripped with the following 
section : 



Ira. Hall 



Massive sandstone. 

Shale with coal 3 ft. 

Cannel coal 15 in. 

Cannel slate _: , 3 in. 

Cannel coal 7 in. 

Cannel slate _. 



The slate is apparently the bottom of the bed, and below 
this is a thick shale mixed with black slate and sandstone, in- 
stead of the cliff-making sandstone found down the river. 
Where this coal goes under the branch on the left of the creek 
it measures 36 in. solid cannel, as in figure 129, and lies di- 
rectly under the massive sandstone. 

A mile farther up Defeated creek, behind Jack Frasier's 
house, the rider is opened 70 feet by barometer above the 
cannel openings, but, allowing for rise of strata, probably 
about half that distance above the Fire-clay coal. Under 
sandstone, it has 35 in. bituminous coal separated by one in. 
to two in. bone coal, and eight feet below this is another seam 
of coal six in. to eight in. thick. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



127 



s s. 
t^f^ET- shd/e /'' 




Co A/ 



'I fo 



/jo By the road, 40 feet above Line fork 

at Joseph Cornett's, two miles above De- 
feated creek, an entry is driven into the 
.coal and slate represented in figure 130. 
None of the coal looks very good, and 
there is no clear line of demarkation be- 
tween the coal and slate, the two coming 
jout easily in one block. More coal is said 
,to lie below, but it is probably nothing 
more than black slate and it is not mined. 
Analysis by Dr. A. M. Peter, of my sam- 
ple of the 43 in. cannel from the mouth 
u Comett of the entry as given below, shows the 

:oal to be worthless, but it is evidently of the same bed as the 
excellent King's creek coal, four miles east of it. It lies close 
to the horizon of the Elkhorn bed. 

Laboratory No. 2736 

Moisture 1.01 

Volatile combustible matter 34.04 

Fixed carbon 39.10 

Ash (reddish brown) 25.85 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.54 

Specific gravity 1.493 

Coke friable. 

Total carbon 58.63 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 11,307 

"Average sample of bright rather pure-looking cannel 
coal, somewhat weathered as if from near the outcrop. ' ' The 
ash was not materially increased by inclusion of foreign mat- 
ter in the sample. 

Dry Fork. On the left, two and one-half miles above 
Defeated creek. 

The same bed shows in outcrop by the road but little over 
one foot of cannel coal. 



128 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fi 



g. 



-, , 

**". ( 

" ( 



Coatl 



tney /ran Ore. 



At the mill a mile above Dry fork the coal and slate of 
the same bed have been taken from, the creek, with thickness 
not ascertained. The best of this coal does not present an 
attractive appearance. 

The section, figure 131, taken about 
two miles above Dry fork, though show- 
ing no coal beds in characteristic form, 
y * is" can be used to approximate the position 
of some of them. 

The 22 in. coal at elevation 1330 ap- 
pears to be of the Fire-clay bed, recog- 
nized a mile farther up the creek. The 
Haddix coal is then one, or both, of the 
coals at elevations 1475 and 1500, and 
the Hazard and Flag coals are represen- 
ted by the beds at elevation 1575 and 
1630. The exhibit is not promising for 
the region, but it is quite possible that 
the main coal beds may be in the spaces 
covered with earth, left blank in the sec- 
tion, or that an unfortunate selection of 
place was made for taking the section. 
The fact that nothing better has been 
discovered in the vicinity in the last 22 
years, since the section was taken, is 
not encouraging. 

In this end of the extension of Ken- 
tucky ridge there is area enough and 
should be good thickness of coal in the 
Hindman bed. Its height has rendered 
its discovery less likely than that of 
lower beds. 

'*" At Jesse Holcomb's, three miles 

above Dry fork, (one mile below the 
~ e f rH Hurricane Gap road) at elevation 1400 
H Ho/con&s an d 140 feet above the creek, mile up 



Elkhorn Iron Ore 
Coat 3i 



fC S/. //" 
Coa.1 /3 

1 Sh.vOrc Ji" 
i Coat Z 

I Sha/e tf. ' 
( Coa/ 7 



Coal 

(Coo./ 
I -Shatf 
) Coo./ 

---- -t Sho./e 
} Cocn 
{ Shatf 
( Coa.1 



3.S. 



COCL( ^ 

Sh S-3 . 
T"/7/^> Coa./ 
S S 
Coal t 

Sh.&.S. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 129 

the branch, the Fire-clay coal, is opened 30 in. to 32 in. thick 
in an eight yard entry. It is a hard, compact, brecciated coal, 
partly slickenseit and with some splint. Only the upper seam 
of the bed is present, brown flint fire-clay, the usual parting, 
making the floor of the bed. The strong sandstone roof has 
permitted making the entry broader than it is long, almost 
without props. 

Higher coals have not been opened here, but 220 feet 
above the entry is what is called the main bench of the moun- 
tain, the floor, probably, of the Haddix coal. 

An impure black and gray limestone a foot or more thick 
containing small fragments of shells in no great abundance 
lies 270 feet above the Fire-clay coal. (See also figure 173, 
elevation 1945.) 

At William Cornett's, two miles above the Hurricane Gap 
road, 50 feet above the creek, at elevation 1390 as obtained, 
but probably higher, the Fire-clay coal bed has 34 in. clean 
coal under sandstone. The brown, flint fire-clay parting forms 
the floor, and contains here abundant plant remains and some 
lime. 

rig. 132. A mile farther up, on William Cor- 

nett's land, elevation 1535, (145 feet 
above his Fire-clay coal) is the coal of 
figure 132. The bed is probably the Had- 
dix with the 200 feet interval to the Fire- 
clay bed farther down the North fork 
diminished, as openings on lower Line 
fork indicate. The latter bed must be 
near the creek level. The apparent dip 
of strata from Jesse Holcomb's, below 
Dry fork is probably due to errors in 
ascertaining heights, for the strata as 
exposed evidently lie nearly level along 
_ the creek. 

Corneff 




130 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



. 



F.ig. 



Iron Ore. Bto&aom 
Co a/ 6z" 



Co At 
C/ay 



for/r 



<Sect>' on a* **,<*; Spartans 



Coils Branch. On the Hardin 
Sparkman tract, now Burt and Brabb 
Lumber Co., four miles up from Hurri- 
cane Gap road, the section of figure 133 
was taken. 

According to the elevations of the 
last two preceding openings the Haddix 
and Hazard beds should be somewhat 
under the two sandstones of the section, 
and the upper coal then corresponds in 
distance above the Hazard to the Flag 
coal on Turkey creek, figure 125. It is 
rather difficult to believe, however, that 
this is not the same bed as the Hazard of 
Turkey creek, and until further investi- 
gation is made the 'Correlation must re- 
main in doubt. 
Whatever bed it is n 
there is a lar^ 
area of it in the I 
high Kentucky 
ridge, and it is a 
very pure coal as 
shown by the fol- 
lowing analysis by 
Dr. E. Peter of my 
muddy outcrop 
sample. It isl 
shown on larger 
in figure 134. H. 



Coa.1 62. 



I&OO 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 131 

Cliem. Report No. 2537 

Moisture 3.06 

Volatile combustible matter 33.54 

Fixed carbon 59.20 

Ash (salmon colored) 4.20 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.547 

Specific gravity 1.321 

Ooke dense. 

"A pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Fracture generally 
irregular; some portions in irregular laminae. No appear- 
ance of pyrites and very little of fibrous coal. " " This appears 
to be remarkably pure and good coal- It is probable that 
beyond the weathered outcrop the proportion of its ash may 
be somewhat smaller, while its sulphur percentage may be 
slightly larger." 

At the forks of the creek, a mile farther up, W. B. Lewis 
has opened two coals as given below. 

Elevation 

Shale 8 ft. 

Slickenseit coal 31 in. 1580 

Sandstone 3 ft. 

Shale 5 ft. 

Coal 3 in. 

Shale 4 in. 

Coal 12 in. 

Clay 12 in. 

Coal 11 in. 1520 

Creek at forks 1480 

One or other of these appears to be of the Haddix bed, 
possibly both are, for a separation of the bed into two parts 
seems to have begun farther down the creek (See figure 131, 
elevation 1475 and 1500) and coals on streams farther west 
indicate it. 



132 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Coal 



<Sh i Sh. 
Coa.1 




,, {: 



s.s. 



>Ax/e IT. 
Coa.1 */- 



S S 



(Cann^tC. i." 
Coal J' 

<S/>a'e 2.' 
Sp.Ccat Ij' 

C/ay 



\5ecf-/on acf 



Four miles up the river from Line 
fork was taken the section given in figure 
135. The coal at elevation 1150 is, with 
little doubt, the Elkhorn bed. The ten- 
dency of the bed toward cannel, shown 
in the two inch cannel at the top of the 
bed here, being duplicated in the bottom 
of the bed at the mouth of Potter's fork 
and elsewhere near the head of the river. 

The Fire-clay coal, 260 feet higher 
is determined here without question by 
its distinguishing parting. The lower 
partings contain siderite in the shale, as 
do those of two higher beds on Line fork. 
(Figure 131, elevations 1475 and 1575) 

The Hazard being the next bed above 
the Fire-clay coal at all likely to be thick, 
and some 600 feet above the river, with 
small area in the river hills, the coal of 
this vicinity can be of but little value. 

ROCKHOUSE CREEK. 

At the mouth of Doty branch, on the 
left, five miles up Eockhouse, Grant 
Isom opened what is probably the Elk- 
horn bed, 80 feet above the creek, under 
sandstone. He reported it a very hard 
coal 32 in. thick. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



133 



fiy. /Jfc 




f/'re C/a.y Co a.1 
Gra.nt 



Fig. 137 



Above it, 185 feet, the following bed 
section was found, probably of the 
Whitesburg bed: 



Elevation 



tj-o" .Shale 4 ft. 

Coal 6 in. 

Shale 2 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

, Bituminous sandstone 1 in. 

Coal _ 12 in. 

/o 



1335 



Doty Branch. At 45 feet above the 
preceding coal, or 230 feet above the 
probable Elkhorn bed, Isom's 30-yard 
entry into the Fire-clay coal gives the 



section of figure 136. 



Coo./ 



-0 



Coat 



B. M. 
Fire 



Coo.( 



Blair Branch. On the right, six 
i.-iles up Eockhouse. 

B. M. Blair's 17-yard entry into the 
Fire-clay coal, 330 feet above the creek, 
a half mile up the branch, having water 
in it, was measured at its mouth with 
the result given in figure 137. 



134 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Coo./ 



'-* Little Colly. No information was 

' obtained of the coals on this stream, 
excepting opposite the extreme head of 
Camp branch. Some 15 feet above the 
road there an entry has been made into 
the Whitesburg bed, showing 41 in., as 
/( in figure 138, of hard bright coal without 
face or butt cleavage. It is the first 
known opening of workable thickness 
into this bed above Hazard, and, when 
taken in connection with those on Snaoot 
of Ltrtie Cot/y and Dry 'creek, it proves a good area of 
:fesi>u.rtj c oa ( rather high but workable coal. 
The Fire-clay coal was once opened about 30 feet higher 
in the same cove. 




/7fJ~ 



Millstone Branch. On .the left, three miles above Little 
Colly creek. 

Ten feet above the mouth of this branch, at elevation 
1115, is a coal with parting about two feet thick to which 
Prof. A. R. Crandall of the Survey gave the name of Sand- 
Lick. Being most conspicuous, more regular and typical on 
Rockhouse creek, the name of that creek is now adopted for 
the bed. On its covering of 30 feet shaly sandstone and shale 
is one foot more of coal very persistent for some miles up the 
creek, the two seams showing frequently in close proximity. 

Another thin seam, less conspicuous, lies about the same 
distance below the Rockhouse bed. 

John Sexton has a 10-yard entry into the Fire-clay coal, 
a half mile up the branch and 350 feet above its mouth. Its 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



135 



section as taken at the mouth of the entry, is shown in figure 
139, the bottom 8 in. having been measured in mud and water. 

Surrounding, though distant, openings 
indicate that the upper partings will not 
u remain constant, and the middle parting 
of bituminous shale is particularly likely 
to disappear. The cannel coal, ap- 
parently in one block, presents an 
u especially handsome appearance, and a 
specimen of it was taken for analysis, 
from which Dr. Alfred M. Peter obtained 
the following results: 



F, 9 . /Jf 
- _| ^' s - ' 

y^=^I==J 3f-,a./<i ' 

Coot/ 

Coal 
Bit. 3h. 



COOL I 



limj&F.Cfav 



ne / Coot/ '8 



John iSejffo/7 
Fire Clay Coat 



FIRE-CLAY CANNEL. Laboratory No. 2754 

Moisture .39 

Volatile combustible matter 46.11 

Fixed carbon 40.50 

Ash (grayish brown) 13.00 




Coo./ 



Co at/ / 8 



II /O 



Mouth of Caf-np 3r. 
se Coo./ 



100.00 

Sulphur 2.00 

Specific gravity 1.309 

Coke dense. 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 13,893 

Total carbon 74.3 

By the road just below the mouth 
of Camp branch is an entry into the 
Rockhouse (or Sand-Lick) bed, which 
has at its mouth the section shown in 
figure 140. 



136 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 





, 
Colling C. 



S. J. 
Coat 



Camp Branch. The section of figure 
141, taken on Camp branch near its 
mouth, is, like all other figures of sec- 
tions on North fork waters following in 
this report, reproduced from an early 
report of Prof. Crandall for the Survey. 

(coa.1 U)' 

lcZ~n*/c. The Eockhouse coal, at elevation 

V ZV-" 

1190, rising slightly faster than the 
stream bed, is somewhat thicker here 
than below Camp branch, and probably 
continues so with some exceptions nearly 
to the head of Eockhouse. 

Prof. Crandall 's sample of this coal 
from the J. M. Collins ' opening, where it 
?6 " is 44 in. thick, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter 

gave: 



*Th'/n COOL/ 



Coa.1 2*4-" 
S.S. 

Co A t 
S.S 

Coo.1 
. Beet of Cree.fr 



ROCK HOUSE BED. Chem. Report No. 2357 

Moisture 1.46 

Volatile combustible matter 35.84 

Fixed carbon 58.60 

Ash (brownish gray) 4.10 



\5ecf-ron a./ S71ou.f^ of 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.068 

Specific gravity 1.242 

Coke (light spongy) 62.70 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



137 



'76-r 



F/'a. /V-3 



m 



CTH 



S.-S. 



vS.vT. 



Coat 



(Coa.1 
\Sha./e /* 
J 
] 
( 



3 
/* 

Coa.1 / 

v3 " 

Coa.( V 



s.s. 

Coo./ 

SA.S. s. 

C0et f /Z 

_ Bed of Ct 
r - of Cctm/o 



The Elkhorn bed is shown in the 
section 150 feet higher, and again in the 
bottom coal of figure 142. 



Pig. 



Co a / 60 " f 



The Fire-clay 
coal, 205 feet high- 
er, is shown next 
in both figures, 
with the cannel 
at the bottom in- 
creased to 24 in., 
but the measure- 
ments of the whole 
bed are given with 
some question, 
doubtless due to 
imperfect opening. 

The section, 
figure 143, taken 
near the head of 
Camp branch, 
shows the three 
principal beds of 
lower Camp 

branch at about 

C.IHhorn Coai 

me same respective , . 

CoU/rts 

lieights from the creek and intervals 
part as at the mouth of the creek. The 



r=^--=* SA*/e i" ? 



7anne/ Coot/ 



Fire CVay Coo.1 




Coat,/ 



138 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




Clkhorn Coo./ 



r/ 9 . /*v middle, Elkhorn, bed is given on en- 

_ larged scale in figure 144. 

Farther up the stream, toward 
Thornton creek, the thin coal 30 feet 
above the Rockhouse bed is conspicuous 
for some distance just before it goes 
under drainage. 

There is little reason to expect a 
workable quantity of coal here higher 
on the hill than the upper one of these 
beds, but they all three are probably 
workable throughout the length of the 
creek; the highest being but little more 
than 400 feet above drainage, and they 
all appear to be of excellent quality, one of them probably a 
good coking coal and another in part cannel of good quality, 
as judged by its condition on Millstone branch. (See 
page 135). 

Besides these three, under the Fire-clay coal, is the 
Whitesburg bed with 41 in. clean coal just across the divide, 
on the head of Little Colly, likely to give workable coal on 
Camp branch. Altogether it is one of the most promising 
localities of the Kentucky river basin. 



Right Fork. Two miles up Camp 
branch. 

The Rockhouse coal shown in figure 
145 contains four knife-edge partings 
not likely to be continuous underground. 
The opening is at stream level a quarter 
mile up the fork and 2 miles from the 
main creek. 

About 30 feet higher is 8 in. coal 
under sandstone. 



[ =- \-Sha./e Co 




Rockhou $ Co a. t 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



139 



The Fire-clay coal is well opened in 
a 10-yard level entry 100 yards to the 
left of the road in the Sand-Lick gap, its 
parting of flint clay having increased 
somewhat, and its coal much less. Its 
bed section is shown in figure 146. 

Trace Branch. On the left, one mile 
above Camp branch; Hindman- Whites- 
burg road. 

The thin coal 
formerly mined by 



Coal 

S . S. 



Co a./ <Sfa 



S S 
Coa.1 



.5. ,5. 

Co mis Co a. / 

<Secf/ofi on~7~jra.CH 4 




\>ancL L/'cX Ga/s 
fire C/ay Coa.1 

Mr. Combs, at the mouth of this branch, 
shown in the 'bottom coal of the Trace 
branch section, figure 147, was identified 
by Prof. Crandall as the bed 30 feet be- 
low the Rockhouse bed. The latter bed 
appears not yet to have been opened 
about here. 

The 26 in. coal, 110 feet higher on 
the section, is probably the Elkhorn coal 
(needing further examination to prove 
its reduction from usually constant 
thickness). The opening was probably 
made some distance up the branch, and 
as the strata dip in that direction the 
actual interval between this bed and 
those below is greater than is shown and 
doubtless is nearly in accord with those 
obtained on Camp branch. 



140 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



. m-a 



Coot/ 



32. 



|S^?=| tJ/ct/y Co a/ 8 
Coott /&. 



TVoece Br. 
Fire C/ct CooY 



The Fire-clay coal shown enlarged 
in figure 148, called a splint coal, has a 
parting of slaty splint coal in place of 
the usual fire-clay. The analysis by Dr. 
R. Peter of the 32 in. upper seam shows 
it a remarkably pure coal. 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2369 
Moisture 1.30 

Volatile combustible matter 38.10 

Fixed carbon 58.40 

Ash (purplish-gray) 2.20 

100.00 

Sulphur .71 

Coke (light spongy) 60.60 



f/g. 



S .S. to 



"A very pure-looking, pitch-black coal. Fracture gen 
erally irregular, with brilliant surfaces. Small bird's-eye 
structure in parts. No fibrous coal apparent, and very little 
of bright pyrites." It seems to resemble 
cannel in appearance, but not in com- 
position. 

Two miles above Camp branch, 20 
feet above the creek, is the coal shown 
in figmre 149, which, from its position and 
thickness, is judged to be of the Rock- 
house bed. Those beds immediately 
above and below it are not known to 
attain -a workable thickness anywhere 
on the creek. 



Coo./ 




// gs- 



Euan s 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



141 



' o 
8 



/ Jo o 

ftockhou.se Co o / 
Mai-tin 



S . S: to 



Indian Creek. On the right, three 
and three quarter miles above Camp 
branch. 

At Allen Martin's, two miles up the 
creek, the Bockhouse bed, at creek level, 
has four feet of clean, good coal, as in 
figure 150. For half a mile or more the 
bed is in view in long exposures with 
almost unvarying thickness, rising with 
the stream and nowhere more than five 
feet above it. At the forks, three miles 
up, the bed is no longer visible, but is 
still close to stream level. 



A half mile up the point between 
the forks is the Sargent, Fire-clay coal 
of figure 151. The lower six in. of this 
coal, in water when visited, was said to 
be cannel. The parting is without the 
usual flinty character of the Fire-clay 
coal, but the bed could hardly be mis- 
taken. The sandstone roof shows a tend- 
ency toward shale. Though the bed is about level with the 
road gap to Millstone, there is a large area of it available in 
this region. 




fire Clo-if COOL I 



142 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



/(f/O 



:?:<& 



3V 



Coo,/ 



72.' 



COOL I Sf'tt.in 



Coat,/ 



S.S. 



Co o.l 



3.3. 



f Br. 



f,'g./S3 



COCLI 



Love Branch. On the left, four and 
one half miles above Camp branch. 

In the section, 
figure 152, the low- 
est coal is evident- 
ly of the Bock- 
house bed, and the 
42 in. coal, of 
which the lower 
half is splint, 
doubtless repre- 
sents the Elkhorn 
bed, although the 
interval shown is 
smaller than is 
usual. This is to 
be accounted Ifor, 
as on Trace branch, 
page 139) by the 
supposition that 
the higher bed was 
found farther up 
the branch and 
down the dip than 
was the lower. 
The lower coal of 
figure 153 repre- 
sents this Elkhorn 

n Ct>a.l 



Coa.1 



Love. &/, 




,'~+ Coa.1 



opening. 

The Fire-clay coal of elevation 1610 is shown on enlarged 
scale, the solid, Kizer, 72 in. coal of figure 153. The measure- 
ment of this bed having been taken where it had broken off 
and slipped from the rest of the bed, it is quite possible that 
its fire-clay (and perhaps other) parting had slipped out 
altogether. The following analyses of the coal, by Dr. B. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



143 



Peter, were made from samples collected for the Survey by 
J. A. ShackelfoTd; No. 2365 from the bed in place, showing 
a very superior coal; No. 2366 showing the effect of a large 
infusion of mud into the bed, increasing the ash at the 
expense of the valuable constituents. 

Chem. Report Nos. 
FIRE-CLAY COAL. No. 2365 No. 2356 

Moisture 7.70 6.66 

Volatile combustible matter 35.50 31.00 

Fixed carbon 51.96 46.94 

Ash . . 4.84 15.40 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur .832 .488 

Coke (pulverulent) 56.80 62.34 

Specific gravity 1.373 1.483 

Color of ash light grayish purplish 

brown. gray. 

No. 2365. "A much weathered sample of what seems to 
be a splint coal. Much soiled with ferruginous and argilla- 
ceous material." 

No. 2366. "A much weathered sample, much soiled with 
clay, etc. In small pieces." 

F3-'5-+ The bed with many partings, figure 

154, was opened also on Love branch, 
and, correlated in a former report with 
the preceding coal, it was used to il- 
lustrate the variations which the bed 
displays. Inasmuch as the rather ex- 
ceptional upstream dip was probably 
undiscovered at that time, it may be re- 
garded as an open question if this cor- 
relation is correct. Across the ridge 
from the head of Carr fork down it for 
some miles on Big branch the Fire-clay 
coal has been found quite regular in 
thickness and parting. 

The dip continuing through the 
ridge on the north brings the Hazard 
coal down to a level likely to provide in 




144 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



the future a workable area, but it is too difficult of access to 
receive further consideration now. Though a moderate 
amount of prospecting for it might enhance the value of the 
region considerably. 

fi 



Cea.1 
C/a.y 



. 
/Z 



Coo./ 



37' 



f. C/* 
Co o.l 



// 



Semi -Carrie/ <& 
1(3*0 




Qeo. Cooftc 
flockhou.te Coo./ 



Big Branch. On the left, five and 
one-fourth miles above Camp branch. 

On this branch the Bockhouse bed 
is at stream level, |- mile up it and 50 feet 
above Rockhouse, elevation 1270, 33 in. 
coal with five feet shale over it. 

On the left, a mile up the branch, 
at elevation 1630, is the Collins Fire-clay 
coal, with flint clay parting, shown in 
figure 155. Its height above the Rock- 
house coal exposure, 360 feet, is some- 
what-less than the actual interval be- 
tween beds because of the dip in going 
up-stream. A large area of this coal with 
excellent thickness can be depended upon 
in the dividing ridge and spurs between 
Rockhouse creek here and the head of 
Carr fork. 

Fig. 156 represents the Rockhouse 
coal at George Cook's entry, just started, 
five and three-fourth miles from Camp 
branch and directly under the low gap 
and road through it to Indian creek. It 
is 45 feet above the creek, elevation 1270. 

Again the Rockhouse bed is opened 
in an entry of Riley Bentley's, -J mile far- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



145 



fig. 



/fis 



tide 



(COO.L 
\Cannel 



Jy' 




ther up, at the same elevation, and with 
the same thickness of coal and same 
roof. 

In the cliff opposite Bentley's house 
the bed below the Rockhouse coal, 25 feet 
above the creek, has the section : 



Sandstone 5 ft. 

Coal 2 in. 

Shale 3 in. 

Coal 26 in. 

It is a rather poor looking coal as 



well as thin. 

At J. Q. Bent- 
ley's, where was 
formerly Eazor Blade P. 0. at the mouth 
of Mill branch, on the left, 7 miles above 
Camp branch, the section of figure 157 
was taken. 

The 42 in. coal at elevation 1330 is 
of the Rockhouse bed, maintaining a 
nearly uniform height above the creek. 
It is shown enlarged in figure 158. 

The upper coal of the section, and 
of figure 158, is of the Elkhorn bed, hav- 
ing here, as at the mouth of Potter's 
fork, a thin seam of cannel at the bottom. 
A specimen of this cannel, collected by 
J. A. Shackelford, was analyzed by Dr. 
R. Peter with the results following: 



Fig. IS8 




Jtf 



Ca.HHel Coa.1 



Elk-horn Coo/ 




Coaf 



146 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

ELKHORN CANNEL. Chem. Report No. 2364 

Moisture 1.90 

Volatile combustible matter 39.32 

Fixed carbon 51.88 

Ash (purplish gray) 6.90 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.115 

Coke (dense) 58.78 

Specific gravity 1.305 



1 ' Sample much soiled with argillaceous material. No ap- 
parent pyrites. It seems to be a weathered sample." 

At John L. Bentley's, Dean P. 0., opposite the left fork 
of Eockhouse, seven and one quarter miles above Camp 
branch, the lower coal, (the Kockhouse) partly opened 25 
feet above the creek, shows fully 48 inches of clean coal. 



F,' 9 . ts? Left Fork. A half mile up this fork 

, from Dean P. O. a cliff by the road 

shows the section given in figure 159, 
the coal at the bottom ten feet above the 
<creek. This is the Eockhouse coal 
y<" again. A quarter mile farther up stream 
it is opened in a small entry by the road, 
five feet above the creek, with about 42 
in. coal. Beyond this point it goes below 
drainage, the creek having a much more 




A/&&r Hmat of 

ra P id descent. 



co*, 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



147 



fig 1 6 o 




Co a/ 



'33e 



* Mite a.6 Dean 
Rockheu.se Coo. 



^==^d Sfjo./ t 



3*" 






Co*/ /" 

Ja.c.A: r-ocf( 2." 

Coo./ fo" 

Bane Cat*./ ? 

'ay beef. 



Right Fork. At the Splash dam, 
three quarter mile above Dean P. 0., 
eight miles above Camp branch, the 
Eockhouse coal is exposed with the sec- 
tion of figure 160. But ten feet abovb 
the creek, it must go below drainage a 
short distance, farther up stream. 

In a left branch near the head of 
Bockhouse, about ten miles above Camp 
branch, the Fire-clay coal has been open- 
ed in a small entry with the section 
given in figure 161. The double parting 
is unusual and the fire-clay is not char- 
acteristic, but the identity of the bed 
can hardly be questioned. The hard 
bone coal at the bottom appears to be 
the floor of the bed. 



A small stream, on the right of the 
', two miles above Eockhouse creek. 



148 



1 + toS- 



II (To 



ill? 



107 



Thin Sfl. Co o.t 



s.s. 

Coue.r-e.oC 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Figure 162, giving a section from 
this creek, shows little more than the 
paucity of coal in this vicinity, further 
illustrated in the section (fig. 135) be- 
low Kockhouse creek. 

There is little opportunity for, and 
less reason to expect, good coal in the 
lower part of the section, the Eockhouse 
coal being, probably, one of the thin 
seams near the bottom ; and in the upper 
part of the section the Whitesburg and 
Fire-clay coals alone give hope of value. 
One of these is probably represented by 
the thin splint at elevation 1460. The 
other should be found. 



Co a. / 
-S.J. 
Coal 



if 



' (e 



'Co 



Coa.1 



Coa.1 

Mo, 



fi 



g. 



KINGS CREEK. 

The section 

given in figure 163 

shows the Kings 

Creek, or "Field 

cannel," coal and 

seams lying direct-' 

ly over it near the 

head of the creek. - 

No search was 
n tU- ^./v/4 /'//a >**/ j made on this 
stream for higher beds. 

The quite noted coal at the bottom 
of the section is of the same bed as the 
Cornett coal (page 127) of Line fork, 
but here it is of far finer quality. It ap- 
pears to be a local enlargement of the Section o.t- heo^ct. * 
Elkhorn bed, elsewhere in this vicinity generally thin. 



.Tf, 7~o(o/1 Cr 



>3~jo 



Coa.1 



Coo.1 



Coctt 



Coo./ 



( S/a Coo. I 

:\ Coo.1 



Cr. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



149 



Though called cannel coal but little of it is cannel, though 
the splint coal has much the appearance of it. It seems to 
be just about at the transition point. A full length block cut 
for exposition purposes had no cannel in it, and the 
measurements of figure 164 were taken from that block. An 
earlier sample of the bed, taken by Prof. Crandall from a 
five feet face of splint and cannel, six feet thick, yielded, to 
Dr. B. Peter's analysis: 



fi 



g. 



FIELD'S COAL. Chem. Report No. 2353 

Moisture 1.10 

Volatile combustible matter 34.30 

Fixed carbon 58.10 

Ash (light buff-gray) 6.50 



100.00 



Sulphur .890 

Ooke (spongy) 64.60 

Specific gravity 1.292 



Coal *v" u^ mixed sample, partly of bright 
pure-looking splint coal, of pitch-black 
/Z9 color; partly of tougher, brownish-black, 

w D Jone* w Co ^ u ^' canne ^ coa l some small ferrugin- 
ous stains on the exterior surface, no appearance of pyrites, 
and very little of fibrous coal." 



150 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



>Sio 



ste'si 



SMOOT CREEK. 



t* S.S. 



'9 



f.S. 



Coat 
3.S. 



S.S. 



fc" 
Jfc' 



S. f. K- 

J/i. j r. 



Coo./ v3 



S.S. 

Coa.t 2.' 



Figure 165 repre- 
sents a section from 
near the mouth of 
this creek to near 
the top of the hill, 
on the left vabout 
half way up the 
creek. The three 
thickest coals are 
shown on larger 
scale in figure 166. 
Eockhouse creek 
coals furnish a key 
to correlation here. 

The two feet 
coal near the bot- 
tom of the section 
is probably a part 
of the Eockhouse 
bed, which appears 
in similar form on 
lower Eockhouse, 
but it may be of a 
(contiguous higher 
seam. The three 
feet coal 110 feet 
higher, the bottom 
coal of figure 166. 
appears to be of an 
unnamed bed, 

found nowhere be- 




Coctl 



Fi re C/ay Coo.f 



COOL/ <t>" 



Car>r>./ C. 



Wh /Ye s 6 ury Coa.1 




KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 151 

low on North fork waters of workable thickness, thin on 
Dry creek (the next creek east), but quite constantly work- 
able towards the head of the North fork. However that may 
be, the 380 feet from the bottom to the top coal corresponds 
closely with the distance from the Rockhouse to the Fire-clay 
coal, 410 feet at the head of Camp branch, where about 30 
feet deduction should be made for dip. The Smoot creek sec- 
tion was taken, apparently, nearly on the strike and with 
strata not far from horizontal. The elevations given show 
a slight dip through the ridge southeast from Blair branch of 
Rockhouse, due, possibly, to inaccuracy of assumed elevations 
of streams, from which the heights were obtained. Probably 
the southeast rise is continuous from Troublesome creek 
waters, but in this vicinity, and above near the main North 
fork, it is evidently slight. 

The top coal of the section being of the Fire-clay bed, 
the coal 95 feet below it, as given in the section, is doubtless 
of the Whitesburg bed, though the interval is 35 feet greater 
than should be expected, and than is found on the next creek 
above. The cannal was found to vary within the limits of the 
section from 36 in. to 18 in. These two coals are shown on a 
large scale in figure 166. 

With a height of hill of 400 feet or more above the Fire- 
clay coal, it is not unlikely that small workable areas of the 
Hazard coal may be found in the ridge north of Smoot creek : 
South of it there probably are none. 



152 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fig. 





^ 


^YoQ/ f~o$S'/.*S- 


/{jZo 




L. S. Ore 






tCoaf ..Jto" 






( Co'a./ 22." 

Co&/ vT*" 










'>. "^T.' 


J.J. 










; ^4- 

'/'-; 


J S. 








/Zoo 




f.S r Ore 


j/y J 





_ *f. ffeiwki/rlBr. 
Coo. I 1*+" 



\5ee//o/7 erf Dry Cf*. 



DRY CREEK. 

This stream is on the left of the 
river, three miles above Smoot creek. 

Here the section, figure 167, is so 
like that of Smoot creek that their cor- 
relation is almost self-evident. 

The 24 in. coal outcropping on the 
creek below the level of the mouth of 
Hawkins branch (on the left one and one 
half miles (?) up the creek) is again 
probably one seam of the Eockhouse bed. 

The 31 in. coal at elevation 1280 is 
then of the Elkhorn bed, now approach- 
ing workable thickness. 

The Fire-clay coal is, again, the top 
bed of the section, showing here a shale 
parting in place of fire-clay with the 
largest seam of coal above the parting, 
as is most common on North fork waters. 
Its distance from the bottom coal is 
about right for the interval between it 
and the Kockhouse bed. 

The 58 in. coal at elevation 1430, 
shown enlarged with the Fire-clay coal 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



153 



Fig. l<o 




\ fire Cta.Lf Coo./ 



in figure 168, is of the Whitesburg bed. 
This opening in connection with those 
on Little Colly and opposite Whitesburg 
indicated an important bed in this vicin- 
36 " ity, which, though not reliable in thick- 
ness deserves full investigation. 

The occurrence of a fossil limestone 
above the Fire-clay bed conforms with 
findings of the same on Troublesome 

2.2." 

creek above Trace branch and at several 
places on Middle fork above Hyden, and 
on Red Bird creek, Clay County. 




Coaf 



WhifeskcLrg Coo./ 



COWAN CREEK. 

Bert Estis Branch. On the left, three 
miles from the river, one mile above 
Little Cowan. 

A half mile up the branch, 110 feet 
above its mouth, on land of Daniel B. 
Day, coal has been opened showing the 
section following: 



Sandstone 5 ft. 

Coal 4 in. 

Shale 4 in. 

Coal 31 in. 



Elevation. 



1360 



154 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

r,'g./t>9 The main seam appears to be a 

coking coal. A quarter mile farther up, 
MASS. 3.3. /,$-' a ^ ^ ne same elevation and level with the 
branch, what appears to be a higher coal 
is opened to 36 in. thickness at its best, 
as in figure 169, but it shows also but 
26 in. by the side of the thicker coal. 
No attempt was made at correlation. The 
coal is at the base of Pine mountain, and 
was evidently much disturbed by its up- 



:-T^; / 

MB 



lift. 

Near the head of Cowan, at elevation 1610, 35 feet above 
a coal stain in the road to Kings creek, to the right of which 
it lies, is a rather fine showing of iron ore on a limestone 
apparently pure, possibly the sub-carboniferous limestone. 
The deposit appears to be of very small area. 

The following analyses by Dr. K. Peter of samples col- 
lected by Prof. Crandall are presumably from the Rockhouse 
bed. No. 2356, from Mr. Nickels' coal-bank, below Whites- 
burg, on the Kentucky river, Nos. 2358, 2359 the upper and 
lower seams, respectively, from Cau dill's bank, one and one 
half (or two) miles below Whitesburg, on the Kentucky river. 
The bed-section of the Caudill bank is given as top coal 25 in., 
slate parting including a thin coal 8 in. to 14 in., bottom coal 
28 in. 

Chem. Report Nos. 

No. 2356 No. 2358 No. 2359 

Moisture 1.84 1.30 1.60 

Volatile Combustible matter 33.26 39.60 36.40 

Fixed carbon 59.70 55.20 56.60 

Ash . 5.20 3.90 5.40 



100.00 100.00 100.09 

Sulphur .678 2.812 1.060 

Specific gravity 1.286 1.277 1.286 

Coke dense light spongy light spongy 

Color of ash _ It. buff-gray brownish brownish-gray 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



155 



No. 2356. "A much weathered sample of splint coal. 
Shows some fibrous coal in the form of reed-leaf-like impres- 
sions between the irregular laminae; no pyrites apparent, but 
a red ochreous incrustation on some of the exterior surfaces." 

No. 2358. "Appears to be a pure sample of splint coal, 
some fibrous coal between the laminae, but no apparent py- 
rites. ' ' 

The high sulphur appears to be exceptional: The up- 
per bench of the coal on Sand Lick creek yielded but half 
as much. 

No. 2359. " A weathered sample; approaches cannel coal 
in some of the laminae." 



SAND-LICK CREEK. 

The section, figure 170, shows the 
relation of the lower coals on this creek. 



Fig.no 



ftfo 






Ca/e. 
Cone. 



Coo./ 

se.s.s. 

~Thift Coot/ 



~SancL L/'cK C 
*r. ~r JA. J. S. 



Bif.Jft. 

Co a.t 




3e c tion on 6o.net t/ 



The Rockhouse bed 
is represented in 
figure 171 as meas- 
ured lately at the 
mouth of a small 
mine on the right, 
a quarter mile up 
the creek, 90 feet 
above its mouth. 

In an early re- 
port the bed is giv- 
en the following 
^ section: 



f> '9 . 



2-7 



===3 Coo.t 2. a 



Coctt Z8 



<-t/o 
ftoc.fr he use Coo./ 



156 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Coal 20 in. : 28 in. 

Shale 2 in. : 16 in. 

Coal 30 in. : 38 in. 

As measured at J. N. Thompson's on Sand-Lick, one and 
one-half miles from Whitesburg. 

There is little doubt that these openings are all in the 
same bed, yet it appears that the opening a quarter mile 
up the creek is 60 feet lower than this one about a half mile up. 
A part of this difference can be accounted for by barometric 
inaccuracy, but there is probably a low syncline within a mile 
of the mouth of the creek. 

The upper and lower seams, respectively, of the Thomp- 
son coal, sampled by J. A. Shackelford, analyzed by Dr. R. 
Peter, gave results as shown under numbers 2354, 2355. 

Chem. Report Nos. 
ROCKHOUSE COAL. No. 2354. No. 2355. 

Moisture 1.10 1.10 

Volatile combustible matter 40.90 34.30 

Fixed carbon 55.40 57.20 

Ash . 2.60 7.40 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.453 .889 

Specific gravity 1.191 1.279 

Coke (spongy) 58.00 64.60 

Color of ash brownish-gray light gray. 

No. 2354. "A pure-looking pitch-black splint coal, quite 
brilliant on the fractured surfaces and on some of the faces of 
the laminae. Very little fibrous coal apparent, and no visible 
pyrites. ' ' 

No. 2355. "This sample contains some dull layers, with a 
thin pyritous laminae (sic) and more fibrous coal than in the 
preceding sample." 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



157 



9- '72. 



Coa.1 



About three miles up the creek an 
opening into the same bed, by the road, 
at elevation 1210, shows coal an.l eight 
partings five and one-half feet thick, but 
50 yards farther up the better and more 
characteristic section given in figure 172 
obtains. Beyond this the bed is below 
drainage. 

These Sand-Lick sections in connec- 
tion with those on Colly creek, next 
above, where the parting is eliminated, 
give an excellent prospect, doubly valu- 
able, if, as appears, the coal will coke. 
The Elkhorn coal shows in the road 
on the ascent to the gap to Camp branch, 
probably in two seams, 20 feet apart, the 
lower seam two feet thick and the upper 
three to three and one-half feet, the floor, interval and roof, 
all being shale. The three and one-half feet seam, at elevation 
1400, is 190 feet above the Eockhouse bed, and 180 feet below 
the Fire-clay coal at the head of Camp branch. On account 
of the dip an addition of 15 to 20 feet should be made to 
obtain the actual interval about 200 feet in each case. 



Coa.1 



flocfthoLtse Ceo./ 



WHITESBURG. 

Whitesburg, (like Manchester, Clay county), is built main- 
ly on the upper part of the Conglomerate formation, the top of 
which is 90 feet above the river. The first 40 feet up from 
the river is a hard sandstone forming the cliff at the upper 



158 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



2.010 
'Iff 

it 7o 
'77f 

'fcJC 

f-Tto 


" ^ 




7-,, C/A//Y anc ^ l wer en ds f the town. On this is 
a thin coal above town, cut out in the 
Basted. L.s. town itself. Then 50 feet of sandstone, 

F*> *// /. .5 THO^tl V Soi ? i" tllP ^OllTPP aT~>T>aT*PTltl V ("f 




abundant pebbles found in the town, but 


W: 


*'* not seen imbedded in the rock. On the 

Mass. $.. 

sandstone lie 40 feet of yellow shales up 
to old coal openings into the bed below 
r r,, s.s. the Backhouse (or Sand-Lick) coal. 

The latter has not been found in 
/r/rf/,y / satisfactory condition near town. It is 
likely that its two seams are split far 
or -' y - apart. 

J* Following are notes taken along the 

Coo.( *fo* 

road from Whitesburg towards Cowan 
creek, and a section, figure 173, by Prof. 
Crandall from the next hollow east, taken 
before the road was made. 

S,S. 

Couer e a Elevation. 
Road Gap to Cowan _ 1550 








^^?= 


n 






^^ 


*+ 1 _ . _ 




. " - . " - 


\s v5 Coal stain in road 1649 


Kidney Iron Ore in Road 1545 




Shale _____ 2 ft- 


ro</^ Q oa j __ _ s in 


Shale _ 8 in. 


s - s - Coal _ _ _ 11 in. 1635 




' Sf ' a - ff Coal (figure 174) 1595 


" '*^s~'~ 

j. -1__ V 


s.s. Sandstone _ _ 


Shale . 3ft. 


flao 


<"-'" "-** 


Cotx,t 

f* Coal and Shale _ _ Sin. 


Shale _ _ _ _ 18 in. 


Ca<tf . 3f Coal __ ._ 6 in. 1575 


**9o 




9o o.teof f?>ar- ^ 

Coal 2 ft. 1220 


7<tj rYhite.iA,,*, River . 1100 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



159 



fiy. 



tf. i5. v? 
r^=^6it.<SS>. /' 
Coa.t 
-S/xx/e /' 



Coat <3& 




f{oa.oL fb Coc*ja.rr Of. 
Coo.1 



fig. /7f 




Coal +0 



Whifesbu-rtf Cea.1 
Fr alter 



The Rockbouse coal is shown in the 
figure at elevation 1235, and the Elk- 
horn coal lies still undiscovered in the 
blank space, 180 to 200 feet higher. 

The Whitesburg coal lies at elevation 
1595, opened, as in figure 174, in a small 
entry on the right under the sharp turn 
of road near the top of the hill. Unlike 
its general condition the coal here is 
mostly soft, and instead of slate the roof 
is a bituminous shale. In the figure, the 
40 in. coal, at elevation 1620, formerly 
Nickels' Splint, now Frazier mine, is of 
the Whitesburg bed. Enlarged it is 
shown in figure 175. The roof here, as 
almost invariably, is black slate, though 
not so found on Smoot and Dry creeks. 

Prof. Crandall's sample of this coal, 
mainly splint, from the seven-yard entry, 
yielded, to Dr. R. Peter's analysis: 



WHITESBURG BED. Chem. Report No. 2362 

Moisture 1.34 

Volatile combustible matter 34.16 

Fixed carbon 56.70 

Ash, (chocolate-gray) 7.80 



100 00 

Sulphur 1.318 

Specific gravity 1.320 

Coke _ spongy. 



160 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

"Quite a pure-looking pitch-black coal. Some fibrous 
coal between the laminae, but very little granular pyrites. 
Quite a firm coal." 

The coal stain in figure 173, at elevation 1695 is probably 
represented by the 19 in. coal in the road. Either that or the 
coal in the gap, and perhaps both, is of the Fire-clay coal bed. 

The fossil limestone, shown near the top of the section, 
figure 173, 250 feet above the fire-clay coal found also on Line 
fork, is of interest as giving possibly an additional clue to the 
correlation of these coals with those south of Pine mountain. 
The Fire-clay coal, having been identified as the Dean coal of 
the Cumberland river, some 400 feet below the fossil limestone 
there, there is good reason to believe that this fossil limestone 
will eventually be correlated with that in Harlan county. 

At several points in the road between Whitesburg and 
Colly creek at a height above the river of 60 to 100 feet, 
floating pebbles indicate (but do not prove) the conglomerate 
formation. They all appear to have come from friable sand- 
stone, but search for them in the rock itself has as elsewhere 
been unsuccessful. 



COLLY CREEK. 

At J. B. Stallard's, on the left of the creek, three-fourths 
mile up it, the following coals were found: 

Elevation. 

Shale 4ft. 

Coal 23 in. 

Shale with coal 4 ft. 

Coal 9ft. 1330 

Shale 5ft. 

Reported, Coal 3ft. 

Reported. Sandstone 3ft. 

Reported, Coal 2ft. 1315 

Coal 10 in- 118 

Creek . 1170 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



161 



The 10 in. coal appears to be that belonging in the Con- 
glomerate, 40 feet above the river at Whitesburg, and the 
upper coal of the Whitesburg bed. The intermediate bed may 
possibly be a slip from the upper. Part of its upper seam 
only was visible when visited. 



Meadow or Long Branch. On the 
right, tw;o and one-half miles up. 

At James H. Frazier's, on the right, 
three-fourths mile up this branch the 
coal of figure 176 is opened in a small 
entry. It is 710 feet above the mouth of 
the branch, and 630 feet above a coal 
showing one-fourth mile up the branch 
supposed to be of the Eockhouse coal. 
If so, this is probably of the Haddix bed. 
There is enough covering to give a fairly 
good area, and if the intermediate coals 
prove workable, as seems likely, an un- 
usually favorable locality is existent here. 




Licking Rock Branch. On the right, three miles up. A 
road to Thornton creek follows this branch. 

A quarter mile up this branch, at Patrick Blair's, and 
one-eighth mile up his branch on the left, he has opened the 
Eockhouse coal, just above drainage, in a 30-yard entry with 
section as follows : 



162 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



F/ 9 m 



2.2. 



Elevation. 

Laminated sandstone 10 ft. 

Shale 6 ft 

Coal 1-2 ft - 

Soft shale with coal li ft. 

Coal 2i ft. 1380 

The bottom was not visible. The roof at the face is shaly 

sandstone. 

The same bed is opened again at the 
same elevation, about 20 feet above Lick- 
ing Bock branch, three-eighths miles 
from its mouth, by James Pendleton. Its 
section is shown in figure 177. 

The coal has an irregular fracture 
and much is dull and bony-looking as 
shown in the dump. It includes a thin 
streak of cannel and shows much pyrites. 
The gap at the head of this branch 
is so low that all r f ' 9 ., 7 t 
coals above the 
Elkhorn are cut 
out by it. 

At Samuel C. Hart's, three and one- 
half miles up Colly, the Bockhouse bed is 
opened again, 10 feet above the creek, 
with section as in figure 178. 

And, again, at creek level a quarter 
mile farther up, one-eighth mile up the 
right fork, at Shade Comb's, where the 
section is identical, except that the five 
in. of shale parting has increased to ten 

/Joc/f/rouse Coo./ 
in - (Sas&ue/ C. Hart 




SAa/e 
&/. -Sf. 



S' 

z' 



Rock houLi c Co 



Co a. I 2S' 



Coo.( 




Co a.1 H 



Co a.1 



Coal / 

Sf>. /i" 
Can**/ C. <f* 



3.-S. 



3 s 

COCL( 
3.3. 
Coo.' 



Coo./ 



'oa-t trt C re 




Coa.1 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 

THORNTON CREEK. r/ g .180 

/79 In the section, 

figure 179, the 59 
in. coal of Jasper 
Craft's entry, one- 
fourth mile up the 
creek, appears toj 
be of the Eock| 
house bed; thejs^^ 
cannel, 180 
higher, of the Elk- 1 
horn bed; the next 
coal of the Whites- 
biurg bed, and the 
upper coal shown,) 
of the Fire-clay I 
coal.The three beds, 
opened are shown; 
enlarged in figure |=^^~-=i Sf *<*'* 7/ 
180. 



163 



36' 




2V' 



*5cc//o/ en Thornton Cr. 



At one and 
one-half miles up 
Thornton, on a 
branch road to Col- 
ly creek, one of the 
lowest beds of the 
above section is 
partly opened, 
showing the sec- 
tion: 




Lower Thornton Cr. 
Elevation. 



Shaly sandstone 10 ft. 

Coal 20 in. 

Shale with coal 4 in. 

Coal _ __is in. 



1315 



164 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ton, 



An eighth mile farther up the road, 100 feet above Thorn- 
at elevation 1400, the Eockhouse bed is opened, showing 
46 in. coal under three feet of shale. 

181 

Numerous other openings have been 
made into this bed up to where it goes 
under the creek, three and one-half miles 
from its mouth, with 51 in. coal, at ele- 
vation 1380. Two on the left of the creek 
remaining open, were measured as 
shown in figure 181, one and three- 
fourths miles up, and in figure 182, three 
and one-fourth miles up. 

MILLSTONE CREEK. 




Coctf 



' Sha/e 4 Prof. Crandall gives, in an early re- 

port, the coal of figure 183, found near 
the mouth of the creek. He gives it no 
elevation, but re- r.g.iea 
fers it to the Elk- 
horn bed. If, as it 
appears, this coal 
is the same as the 
Mead coal, near 
the head of the 

creek, it must be of the Eockhouse 

bed, for the latter coal is nearly 400 feet 

below the Fire-clay coal, lately opened 

farther up the creek. 




/ j ft- 



v3t 



i fe & 



OeeA- 
Coa.1 




Co a f 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



165 



= "=-l Shale / o 




Co a.1 



Left Fork. A mile up this fork, 50 
feet above the creek and again one and 
one-half miles tip it, are openings into 
the Rockhouse bed, each with about 4 
feet of coal and both at elevation 1360. 
The latter is shown in figure 184. 



fiochhou.se coo. i Right Fork. Two miles up this 

r/ 9 . is s fork, on a right branch near its mouth, 

^^, 15 feet above the fork, at elevation 1405, 

Meads (!) entry into the Rockhouse 

bed shows 48 in. coal as in figure 185. 

At three miles r/g.tat 

I Co*/ 48" up ig Melvin Tolli _ 

ver's house. A half 

mile up the left 

branch there, 315 

^^^1 '+ OJ ~ feet above its 

F\ock house. Coaf 

/v?eacf mouth, at eleva- 

tion 1800, is opened the Fire-clay coal 

bed as shown in figure 186. It is the 
farthest up the North Fork of any 
known opening into this bed. It has a 
fairly good area here. 

My sample of the coal analyzed by 
Dr. A. M. Peter, gave : 



Coetf 



Coett 



8 



Coal 
igoo 
F/'re C/eu/ Co o.l 

/V7. 



166 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Laboratory No. 2753 

Moisture 1.43 

Volatile combustible matter 37.00 

Fixed carbon 53.35 

Ash (buff) 8.22 

100.00 

Sulphur .71 

Phosphorus - -007 

Specific gravity 1.333 

Coke -spongy 

Total Carbon 75.43 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 13.893 

"Average sample. Some pieces iron-stained." 

For locating openings on the North Fork waters above 
Millstone creek reference is made to the page-map following, 
duplicated from Bulletin No. 4 of the Survey. It is the only 
map of the region yet published approaching accuracy. 



167 



NORTH F'K'KY RIYE.R, 
LLKHORN 



Scole ^"- 1 M, I e 
Coal Opening n 
'' above 




168 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




\Joh 



BOONE FORK. 

John Bentley has an opening, one 
and one-half miles up Boone, one-fourth 
mile up a branch on the right and 180 
feet above its mouth, elevation 1515, rep- 
resented in figure 188. The lower part 
of the bed was not seen, but the measure- 
ment is nearly exact. It is the first ex- 
hibit going up the river, where the Elk- 
horn coal begins to approach the thick- 
ness which, beyond, has. made it noted. 

At the mouth of Potter's fork, two 
miles up, this bed is still 180 feet above 
the stream, elevation 1525. At the mouth 
of Wright's fork it is opened to over 5 



feet thickness, 155 feet above stream, elevation 1520. 



Quillan Fork. This name is applied to the left fork of 
Boone (or Yonts Fork) a mile above Wright's fork. 

A quarter mile up is an incomplete opening on the right, 
showing over 3 feet of coal, which, by following by eye 
the benches up from Wright's fork, appears to be about 80 
feet below the Elkhorn coal. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



169 



Fig. 189 




A half mile up, 100 yards up a 
branch on the right, this bed is opened 
at the same elevation, 1470, in an entry 
20 feet above the fork, 51 in. coal, as in 
figure 189. The lower half of the coal is, 
in part, of irregular cleavage. 

The thickness of this coal, its fine 
shaly sandstone roof, and position rela- 
tive to the drainage, all make it difficult 
to believe that this is not the 4 foot 
bed, so often opened and so constant in 
character on the three creeks below and 

uniformity of the results there obtained, viz.: the Elkhorn 
coal 200 feet -and the Eockhouse, 4 foot bed, 400 feet be- 
low the Fire-clay coal, establishes that correlation almost be- 
yond the possibility of doubt. The conclusion is then forced 
that this 51 in. bed is one not heretofore f,\ 
recognized on the Kentucky river 
waters, except on Smoot creek, and is! 
the 36 in. coal of the Elkhorn section on 
the margin of the page-map, figure 187.^^B r*t *+ 
The 9 foot coal of that section, 150 
feet above the Elkhorn, is evidently ofj 
the Fire-clay coal, or of the Whitesburgj 
bed. 



Yonts (or Yantz) Fork.* On the 
right of this stream, one and one quarter) 
miles up and 135 feet above it, is the 
Elkhom section of figure 190. An 
earlier opening, location not given, 
showed : 



/6o a 



Coa.1 



*The following North Fork notes are taken almost wholly ' 

from the report of Prof. A. R. Crandall, made for the Survey. of fonfs for^f 



170 

F~/q . 191 



=^-= . <S/>a./e 




KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Coal 26 in. 

Shale lin. 

Coal . 35 in. 



Coo./ 



Co a/ 



Wright's Fork. 

, A half mile up 
the fork, and three 
and one half miles 
up the main fork, 
are the Elkhorn 
sections figures 191 
and 192. 



Potter's Fork. 
At Sherman Quil- 

lan's, one quarter 
mile up this fork, 
180 feet above its 



Coo.1 8+* 



Elk horn Coo. I 
Heo-dof Wr,qh1s 

"mouth, elevation 1525, an entry partly 
closed showed over 8 feet of coal, 
with cannel reported 3 in. thick at the 
bottom. There is some slickenseit coal, 
but the cleavage is generally regular. 
Roof is of shale. 

At two miles up, on the right, the 
section of figure 193 was obtained, 115 
feet above stream; at two and one half 
miles up, one half mile up a right branch, 
a like section. 



2 M/'/es tjL 

CIHhorn Coat 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH FORK. 



171 



Coo I 



Co a/ 



3o 



Coa/ 



Mi'/es up 
Elkhorn Coa.1 



On the right, three and one half miles 
up and 150 feet above the stream, is the 
section of figure 194. 

The following analyses by McCreath 
for parties interested, it is stated, are 
from samples collected with reference to 
reliable average results. 

ELKHORN COAL POTTERS FORK. 

Elevation 1600 Thickness 83 in. 

Coal 48 h'rs coke 72 h'rs coke 



Water 


1.950 


0.302 


0.170 


Volatile C. M. 


37.350 


1.623 


1.135 


Fixed C. _ 


57.367 


91.320 


91.731 


Ash . 


2.800 


6.165 


6.505 


Sulphur _ - - 


.533 


.590 


.459 












100.00 


100.00 


100.00 






fig. i 


?.T 



The value of the , 7C 
Elkhorn coal is too 
well established to 
require comment 
here. 



LAUREL BRANCH. 



On the left, two miles above Boone' 
fork. 

The section, figure 195, shows 
principally the Elkhorn coal, enlarged 



Y-.tv 



:^*^ ; : 



5/3 I 



Coo-f 



S.S. 

(C. if 

_.. , \S. Z" , 

Elkhorn J c. JL 
Cov.1 ] OJ. 7" . 
I C. 7o 
Coo./ 22." 



s.s. 



...Coa.1 2t4 

~ Mou.th of Or. 



'Sect ''on o.f Ho(com6s 



172 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



r; g . 



Coat 



Coo.f 
l <Sha.t* 7 



Coat 



Holcomb 
Elkhorn Coo./ 



in figure 196, and what is probably the 
Fire-clay coal, 220 feet above it. The 
nearness to Pine Mountain appears not 
to have affected materially the section 
or the level of the coals. 

Samples of the coal from Holcomb 's 
collected by Prof. Crandall, analyzed by 
Dr. B. Peter, yielded: 



Chem. Report Nos. 2360 

Upper 
2ft. 

Moisture 8.00 

Volatile combustible matter 30.06 

Fixed carbon 57.60 

Ash, (light buffi) 4.34 



2361 
Lower 

68 in. 

2.86 
31.54 
62.10 

3.50 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur .494 .535 

Specific gravity 1.355 1.319 

Coke _ pulverulent dense 



No. 2360. " Sample much weathered and somewhat 
friable, the seams covered generally with 'a greyish incrusta- 
tion, part of which seems to be clay, which may increase the 
apparent ash percentage. Some fibrous coal between the 
laminae, but no pyrites apparent." 

No. 2361. "Generally a bright, pitch-black, pure-looking 
coal, except in the somewhat weathered portions. A little 
fibrous coal and fine granular pyrites between the laminae, 
and a few bright, thin pyrites scales in some of the seams. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, NORTH PORK. 



173 



Coo./ 



Coal 



Coo./ 



On the left of the river, four miles 
above Boone the section of Elkhorn coal, 
figure 197 was taken. 

For description of the coal field as 
it extends down the waters of the Big 
Sandy river see Bulletin No. 4 of the 
Survey. 



ElKhorn Coo./ 
Head of North Fork 



174 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



KENTUCKY RIVER. MIDDLE FORK. 



Little prospecting appears to have been done on Middle 
Fork waters in Breathitt county, or else results were not 
satisfactory, for on a recent visit to the upper part of the 
county no new important openings were reported in that 
vicinity. 

It is to be hoped that this paucity is due to want of system- 
atic search, which probably may be aided by the descriptions 
given in this report of contiguous coals on the North Fork, to 
which are added for that purpose, rather than as descriptive 
of the coal region, such notes as have been obtained from 
along the lower part <of Middle Fork. 

BEGINNING BRANCH. 

On the left, one and one half miles above the Wolfe- 
Breathitt county line. 

A cannel coal opened at 0. Crawford's in what appears 
likely to prove of the Fire-clay coal, lying 230 feet above the 
river, elevation 940 feet, was reported 18 in. thick, in two 
blocks of 7 in. and 11 in. The dip is southeastward, probably 
about 40 feet to the mile. My specimen of the cannel, stained 
strongly with iron peroxide, yielded, by analysis of Dr. B. 
Peter: 

CANNEL. Chem. Report No. 2619 

Moisture 1.00 

Volatile combustible matter 41.10 

Fixed carbon 46.70 

Ash (dark gray) 11.20 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.120 

Specific gravity 1.274 

Coke _ dense. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



175 



TURKEY CREEK. 

Fifty-five feet above the mouth of the creek and three 
quarters mile up it is 16 in. coal in a thick bed of black shale, 
possibly of the Whitesburg bed, for the cannel of Beginning 
branch shows again, 25 feet above it, at Isaac Terry's, the 
following section: 



/ <? a 



fQ 10 



Sfc 



7lf 



Can ml Coat 
a.6au.f Z f. 



Thin COOL( 



Thin Co 0.1 



Coa.t 
Coo.1 



Thin Coal 



Canoe for Ac 



a./ 



Elevation. 



Sandstone 3 ft. 

Cannel coal 6 in. 

Coal 14 in. 

Sandstone L ft. 

Shale . 



775 



The up-stream dip is very much re- 
duced here, but this seems to result from 
a change in its direction to more nearly 
eastward and across the river. From 
this point up the river to above Long's 
creek there is a slight rise of strata. 

CANE CREEK. 



The section of figure 198 does not 
promise well for this region, but it was 
taken over 20 years ago, when it was 
easy to overlook important coals. 

The thin coal at the bottom of the 
section is nearly in the place of the Fire- 
clay coal. 

The Granville Spicer coal at eleva- 
tion 1090, likely to be of the Flag coal 
bed, was reported 20 in. cannel coal 
under 6 in. bituminous. The cannel coal 
is of uniisua i ly fine appearance, but 
seems inclined toward a change to bituminous coal. 



176 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

LONG'S CREEK. 

Deacon's coal, | mile up this creek, 15 feet a^ove its 
mouth, shows the following section: 



Elevation. 



Shale 5 ft. 

Black slate 3 ft. 

Coal 13 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Coal 2< in. 

Shale 5 in. 

Coal ._ 8 in. 



An earlier measurement gave 31 in. coal with 4 in. part- 
ing. Its black slate roof is indicative of the Whitesburg bed. 



Ground-Hog Branch. On the left of Long's creek, 
mile up it. 

The Berry Turner coal of figure 199, \ mile up the branch 
r 'i '" and mile up a left branch, 250 feet 

above the preceding, is supposed to be 
of the Haddix bed. My muddy outcrop 
sample of the lower 30 in. of this coal, 
analyzed by Dr. E. Peter, gave the fol- 
lowing results : 



Coal 



3.1 



Co o.t 



COOL( 



Co*/ 



LOWER 30 IN. Chem. Report No. 2611 
Moisture 2.00 

Volatile combustible matter 35.36 

Fixed carbon 57.36 

Ash (white) - 5.28 



2-0 



100.00 



Turner 



Sulphur i- 019 

Specific gravity 1.275 

Coke _. light spongy. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



177 



No. 2611. "A pure-looking, pitch-black coal; fracture 
irregular, with shining surfaces. No pyrites apparent and 
very little fibrous coal." 

The Deacon bed of Long's creek shows along the river 
road above the creek, and is especially noticeable where it is 
seen to be wholly cut out in a sandstone cliff about three miles 
above Long. 

At three and three quarter miles above Long, Orville An- 
derson has opened what appears to be the same bed, without 
the black slate. 30 feet above the river, one eighth mile up a 
branch on the left, with the section following: 



Sandstone 5 ft. 

Clay sandstone 2 ft. 

Coal 26 in. 

Shale 7 in. 

Coal ._ 5 in. 



Elevation . 



775 




Johnson? 

Ha-ctctiX. Ceo./ 



At five miles above Long, Henry 
Johnson's opening, figure 200, into the 
Haddix bed, is 245 feet above the river. 

From this point there seems to be 
a rapid up-river rise of strata, corres- 
ponding to a similar rise on the North 
Fork between Wolf and Grapevine 
creeks, and perhaps barely noticeable on 
Lost creek above Cockerel fork. It may 
have caused the extreme crookedness of 
the North and Middle. Forks where 
crossing them, and have resulted in the 
sudden termination of the high hills 
south of Little Bull skin on the South 
Fork. 



178 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

SQUABBLE CREEK. 

A mile up this creek, 305 feet above its mouth, is a bed 
of some local renown from which .the following section was 
taken : 



Elevation. 
Black slate 3 ft. 

Cannel slate 20 in. 

Black slate 20 in. 

Cannel coal 5 in. 

Black slate _. 1050 



It lies near the level of the Haddix bed, and probably 
is a local variation of it. In the near vicinity an old opening 
showed blocks of cannel, thicker than five in., probably from 
the place of the cannel slate. 

On the right of the river, 285 feet above it, one quarter mile 
above Squabble, is the Peter Gross mine opened into the Had- 
dix bed, figure 201. My sample of it was 
taken from the face 25 yards under- 
s. *. ground, and, analyzed by Dr. R. Peter, 

it gave: 



I 



Coa.( 



HADDIX BED. Chem. Report No. 2795 
Moisture 1.90 

Volatile combustible matter 37.10 

Fixed carbon 57.90 

Ash (light purplish gray) 3.10 



_, 

Peter 6ro** gpecific gravity 



100.00 
Sulphur __________________________________ . 0.749 



61<00 



11 Generally pitch-black coal, breaking irregularly with 
irregular shining surfaces, a few pieces dull and laminated. 
No pyrites apparent, and but very little fibrous coal." 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



179 



As mined, the coal is of particularly fine appearance; a dull 
black, hard and strong, and nearly uniform coal, a part of it 
almost without visible lines of lamination. By general report 
of the neighborhood it was the finest coal shipped down the 
Middle Fork, and brought an advanced price in the market. 
It is perhaps the only bituminous coal from the Haddix bed 
ever sent down the Middle Fork. 



GUYS CREEK. 

The Fire-clay coal bed shows its characteristic parting 
of hard black fire-clay for the first time on Middle Fork at 
an opening one quarter mile up the creek, 245 feet above the 
river, with its section as shown in figure 202. My sample of 
the upper seam was taken from a muddy outcrop and is there- 
fore too high in ash, as analyzed by Dr. R. Peter, his results 
being given below: 



FIRE-CLAY COAL BED. Chem. Report No. 2790 
Moisture __________________________________ 3.40 

Volatile combustible matter ______________ 31.00 

Fixed carbon ______________________________ 55.30 

Ash (very light gray) --------------------- 10.30 

100.00 

Sulphur ----------------------------------- 0.557 

Specific gravity ___________________________ 1.366 

Coke ------------------------------------- friable. 



Coaf 




Coaf 



990 



/+. 



rt/e cf/ Cree* 
r* c/ay Ceo./ 



"Generally dull-black splint coal. 
Some fine fibrous pyrites and fibrous 
coal. Portions shining pitch black." 



180 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




fire C/a.i/ Coo./ 

u/9 Creetc, 



At two miles up the creek the same 
bed, 55 feet lower, has a total thickness 
of 47 in. No fire-clay parting was no- 
ticed in it, but the section is probably 
about as represented in figure 203. The 
openings of the bed on Eversole branch, 
North Fork, give good reason to expect 
a continuous working and nearly uniform 
section through the dividing ridge. 

A mile up the creek, at elevation 805, 
and therefore about 160 feet, below the 
Fire-clay bed, is a coal 21 in. thick with 
two in. parting, with floor of shale, containing siderite, and 
eight feet of black slate roof. This is too far below the for- 
mer bed to be considered of the Whitesburg, but it may be 
of the Elkhorn bed. Becoming of workable thickness at in- 
tervals farther up the river, it is still of little importance so 
far as developed, and even if that name is properly applied, it 
is liable to be misleading as indicative of a deposit of great 
value. 

A mile above Leatherwood and about five miles above 
Guy's creek, 445 feet above the river, the Haddix coal was 
opened in 1886 with the section shown in figure 204. My 
F; 9 . 2. o ^ specimen . of the ten in. cannel seam, 

analyzed by Dr. R. Peter, yielded: 



HADDIX CANNEL. Chem. Report No. 2784 

Co at /7~ Moisture 0.80 

Volatile combustible matter 44.80 

Fixed carbon 37.60 

Cannot C. >o" Ash (gray-brown) 16.80 




Co a/ 
1 2osr 



100.00 



3 Miles 06 Guys Cr. Sulphur 0.970 

Coo/ Coke . pulverulent. 



KENTUCKY RIVER. MIDDLE FORK. 



181 



"A somewhat weathered sample. Ferruginous incrus- 
tation on some of the surfaces." This gives an unusually 
heavy ash for Haddix cannel. 

G-. B. Barnes, on the left of the river, had, in 1906, a 
five-yard entry near (or possibly in) the same place. Fallen 
in, the upper and cannel seams measured about the same as 
above, and the bottom coal is nearly the same. The bed is 
covered by a massive sandstone cliff, common to the Haddix, 
about 40 feet high. 



RUSH CREEK. 

At former William, now James Bowling's a mile up the 
creek, at its level and 60 feet above its mouth, is the same 
probable Elkhorn coal found on Guy's creek, with the section 
here of figure 205, lying on a heavy sandstone. My samples 
of the two seams taken separately were analyzed by Dr. E. 
Peter with results following: 



Fig. 2of 

\B/.S/. /o' 

Coal 2.0' 

Cfa.y T " 
Coa.1 2-f- 

fif 
AV/77. Bouul/nef 



Chem Report. 



No. 2785 No. 2786 



Upper 
Seam 
Moisture ____________________ 1.20 

Volatile combustible matter.. 39.60 
Fixed carbon ________________ 52.70 

Ash ------------------------- 6.50 

100.00 

Sulphur --------------------- 1.327 

Specific gravity ______________ 1.279 

Coke ------------------------- spongy 

Ash 



lilac gray 



Lower 
Seam 

1.20 
35.90 
55.30 

7.60 

100.00 

0.654 
1.300 
spongy 
nearly 
white 



182 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



HSo 



/2fo 




lit 



880 



3.S. 



S.S 



Bench 




s.s 



2. Thin Co a. Is a net 




No. 2785. "A pure-looking coal. 
No apparent pyrites. Some little fibrous 
coal." 

No. 2786. "Resembles (the above,) 
but is somewhat brighter." 

A quarter mile above the mouth of 
Elkhorn creek, on the river and 70 feet 
above it, is a 35 in. coal with shale roof, 
elevation 830, which is probably of the 
same bed as Bowling's, on Rush creek, 
the black slate roof not being continuous. 

The section of figure 206 was taken 
at Moses Hignite 's near Confluence P. 0., 
five miles above Elkhorn, and may serve 
as a guide to find coals not yet dis- 
covered. That at 855 appears to be of 
the Whitesburg bed and the Bowling coal 
is therefore below river level; the Fire- 
clay coal is about at elevation 920; the 
Haddix shown at 1130; the Hazard on 
the bench at 1250 ; and the Flag coal at 
about 1325, under the high peaks. 



R/i/er 



Sec ft on at 

Mo set Hi 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 183 

GRASSY BRANCH. 

In the section, figure 207, the Bowl- 
ing coal is below drainage. It is evi- 
dent that the Whitesburg and Fire-clay 
coals are of no account, the latter be- 
longing at elevation about 900. The Had- 
dix belongs probably on top of the upper 
M. sandstone shown in the section; the 

Hazard bed above the upper coal. 



s/>.s.s. 
~ /** 



S.J 



\ -.-./., 

Coa.1 8 



,n Co 0.1 



WILDER BRANCH. 



. ~ ' Coaf tf." 

Co, #,*, g" Q n the right of the riyer ^ ^ ^^ 

above Grassy branch. Thick coal is re- 
ported in the river at the mouth of this 

co a/ 8 " branch, evidently the same as the Bush 

creek, Bowling coal. The report is 
probably true, but there is also a report 
that this river coal, here or above Cut- 
shin creek, is so cut up by partings and 

coo./ 6" so sulphurous as to be worthless. Can- 

s nel coal 8 in. thick, supposed to be 

of the Haddix bed, is exposed, at eleva- 
tion not noted, in the midst of massive 

Yi9u.ih*F&r. sandstone. It should be some 350 feet 
&r. above the river. 




90f 



fit 



184 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Fig. Zo8 

PEACH-ORCHARD BRANCH. 

On the right, one and one half miles 
above Grassy branch. 

The only note taken on this stream 
was of a hard, black, fossiliferous lime- 
stone five feet thick, at elevation 1330, 
on the head of the branch. It was found 
345 feet above a Fire-clay coal opening 
with strata lying probably nearly level 
between the two points. It is shown in 
the section, figure 208. Considerable 
work has been done upon it in a futile 
search for silver ore. 

No similar deposit, so thick and at 
such height, on Kentucky river waters, is 
known to the writer, but that found op- 
posite Whitesburg by Prof. Crandall, 
about 250 feet above the Fire-clay coal 
may possibly be of the same character 
and bed ; that on Line fork appears quite 
different. The Peach-Orchard limestone 
probably lies between the Hazard and 
Flag 'coal beds. 

HELL-FOR-CERTAIN CREEK. 

The section given in figure 208 is 
representative (like some other sections 
given) only of what it shows. Thick 
coal has been found on the creek since it 
was taken. 

From the bottom of the section up 
to the Fire-clay coal at elevation 985 
considerable reduction should probably 
be made in vertical distances, because of the rise of strata in 
the horizontal distance covered, that coal opening being on 



(Coal 
\ Sh. J" 
JCoat 
\-tt> t" 
\CUAI 



Sh. 

a/.si. 

C/ay 



SA. 
Coatf 



Coal 
9.3. 



{ 



Ceo.t 



Coo.1 

Coo./ 

Coo,/ 
Sh 



-3.S 



7' 
4" 

fo 



f Cr 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 185 

Devil 's Jump branch, two and one half miles from the mouth of 
the main creek. A less reduction should be made on the re- 
mainder of the section, carried one and one half miles farther 
up the creek. The down stream dip is probably about at the 
rate of 20 feet per mile. 

The Fire-clay coal rider, 19 in. splint coal, is noticeable 
here for the first time on Middle Fork. Farther nip it be- 
comes quite important. 

The Haddix bed is represented at elevation 1190, and the 
Hazard bed, probably the thick one of more recent discovery, 
was not found. 

The limestone is referred to on page 185, and the coal 
shown just above it is of the Flag coal bed. 

In the low gap, five miles up, at the head of Bullskin 
creek the sandstone often forming cliffs over the Haddix coal 
is peculiarly conspicuous. 

OLDHOUSE BRANCH. 

On the left, one mile above Hell-f or-Certain creek. 

A quarter mile up, a quarter mile up a left branch, and 
again, on the right, three quarter miles up main Oldhouse, the 
latter five feet lower than the former, has been opened the 
Haddix bed, with the sections following: 

Elevation . 
Earth 

Coal stain 6 in. 

Clay 8 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

Shale 7 in. 

Coal 14 in. 

Bituminous shale 1 ft. 

Covered .__ 7 ft. 

Hard splint coal 17 in. 1330 

Clay 1 ft. 

Coal 6 in. 

Yellow earth 

Clay and shale li ft. 

Hard splint coal , 14 in.=h 1325 



186 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



More digging in the latter would probably have developed 
the higher seams where only yellow earth appeared. 

rf 2e On the left, a mile up Oldhouse, 20 

feet above it and 450 feet above its mouth 

|V^\j **'* 

Lg^M is the Henry Begley, ten-yard entry into 

; the Hazard coal, shown in figure 209. My 

^ sample of this coal was analyzed by S. D. 

I Co a/ 2. 9 . 

; : Averitt, for the Survey, with the results 

v J below: 



one C. 
Coat 



C. 



Coat 



HAZARD COAL. Laboratory No. 2734 

Moisture 1.91 

Volatile combustible matter 38.29 

Fixed carbon 52.45 

Ash (light buff) 7.35 

100.00 



I i +0 



Haz a.rd . Coa / 



Sulphur 0.74 

Phosphorus 0.023 

Coke (dense spongy) 59.80 

Specific gravity 1.299 

Total carbon 73.62 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 13.613 



"This should be a fairly good coking coal." It is a hard 
coal, with considerable mixture of splint, little injured by the 
bone coal included. 

CUTSHIN CREEK. 



No investigation has been made of the coals on this creek 
near its mouth, but at W. C. Wooten's, on the left, two miles 
up, the Fire-clay bed has been opened, 100 feet above the creek, 
at elevation 915. It is reported 3 feet of coal on 3 in. of 
fire-clay and 1 foot of coal under it. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



187 



rig. 2.10 



s.s to 




W. D. Wooteti 
Fire C/ay Co a/ 



Mackintosh Creek. But one open- 
ing is known on this creek, which gives 
the main road from Hyden to Hazard. 
It is at W. D. Wooten's, an entry on the 
left, at the month of the <creek and 115 
feet above it, at elevation 935. It is 
shown in figure 210. The flint-clay part- 
ing varies from 4 in. to 7 in. The coal 
is mostly a good rich-looking block coal 
with a little splint and an inch of bone. 



Fiy. in 



.- 1 Sfle^/ff (o 



Feckley Branch. On the right of 
Cutshin, one mile above Mackintosh 



Co i vsva. in i a " cr eek . 



3 Coa.1 crSA. 



Coa.f 



Hart Branch. On the right, oao 
and one quarter miles up Feckley 
branch. 



The following section was obtained 



here : 



I /J~6o 

I 

Jonalhatn Hexi*1~ 
Hi rid man Coal 



Hilltop _ 1620 

Hindman coal bed 1560 

Flag coal bed 1460 

Fire-clay coal bed 1015 

Month of Hart branch _ _ 960 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



r ' 



'9 



/330 



920 



s. ,y. 

Coa.1 ne 



The opening into the Fire-clay coal bed, at stream level 
one quarter mile up Hart branch, had fallen in so that the coal 
was not visible. The coal above it, at suitable elevation for the 
FJag coal, imperfectly opened, gave 22 in. 
coal under massive sandstone with 5 
in. shale and -clay between. Under the 
- coal is about 18 in. shale (with some coal 
included,) the bottom of the cut not 
visible. 

The opening into the Hindman bed, 
figure 211, showed a full face, but the 
parting, if such it is, has so much 
bitumen in it that there is reason to 
doubt if it be not coal. Though carry- 
ing 6 feet of coal, the bed is here of 
no value because of its restricted area, 
ror does there appear to be much greater 
area anywhere in the vicinity. 

The three openings, all on land of 
Jonathan Hart, being near together and 
nearly in the direction of the line of 
lh strike, give close approximation to the 
actual distances apart of the several 
beds, 535 feet from the lower to the up- 
per here corresponding with the interval 
of 530 feet found on the head of Trouble- 
some creek, Eight Fork. 



(Sh. 
Coaf 
C/a.y 
'Coo/ J 
] C/a. y 
Coaf Sf- 
C/xy 



S.5. 

Coal 0.6011. f 

s.s. 

Co a.1 



'Sh. 



2. " 

2.0 



Coo./ 



OL+ 



The section of figure 212 was taken 
about two miles above Mackintosh creek. 
Here the Whitesburg coal, at the bottom 
of the section, is found 55 feet below the 
Fire-clay coal at elevation 920. The 
rider to the latter is also shown. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



189 




Fi re 



Apparently a thickening of the sand- 
stone on the Hazard coal has cut the lat- 
ter, at elevation 1200, down to almost 
nothing, but the Flag coal at the top of 
the section is more nearly of normal 
thickness. 

* 7 ' The 51 in. coal of the Fire-clay bed 
was found at John C. Lewis', and its 
bed-section is given in figure 213. My 
sample of the coal from solid outcrop 
yielded, to analysis by Dr. E. Peter: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2535 

/Vla^tfa.ro( Moisture 2.00 

I/ Coo./ Volatile combustible matter 31.00 

Fixed carbon 59.94 

Ash (nearly white) 7.06 




ni Coa.1 



U. C. 



Fir* C/oy **" 



Brewer 
Clatf' Coal 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.665 

Coke (spongy) 67.00 

Specific gravity 1.319 

"A portion of the sample is in pure- 
looking, pitch-black fragments, breaking 
irregularly, with shining surfaces; 
another portion is dull-black and irreg- 
ularly laminated. Very little fibrous 
coal and no pyrites 'apparent. : ' A 
weathered sample, as its considerable 
proportion of moisture indicates. No 
doubt it gives more ash than will be 
found in the unweathered coal." 

A mile farther up the creek, and 80 
feet above it, is the J. C. Brewer opening 
into the Fire-clay coal, shown in figure 
214. 



190 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fi ' q . 



Coat/ 3.1 




C/oy Coo./ 




Wooten Creek. At Minter Bailey's, 
one and one half miles Tip this creek and 
one. quarter mile up a branch on the 
right, near water level, is the Fire-clay 
coal opening of figure 215. 

On the same branch one and one half 
miles up and on the Right Fork, at John 
Melton's house, is a big bench, at 
elevation 1320, probably marking the 
location of the Hazard coal. A 20- 
foot sandstone cliff is exposed direct- 
ly above it. At elevation 1560 Mel- 
ton's opening at the head of the Right 
Fork, fallen in, is said to have 7 
feet of coal, underlaid by 2 feet 
of coal and shale. Without correc- 
tion for dip, which is doubtless very 
slight, this bed is 570 feet above the Fire- 
clay coal. It is therefore of the Kind- 
man bed, with an apparent interval from 
the Fire-clay bed 35 feet more than on 
Feckley branch, a difference possibly 
due to barometric inaccuracy but more 
likely to thickening of strata. 

On the main creek, 25 feet above it, 
at the school house two and one half 
miles up. the outcrop of the Fire-clay 
bed gives the section of figure 216. 

At John Bailey's, at the mouth of 
Cane branch, three miles up, an entry, 
five feet above the stream, at elevation 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



191 



1010, has been made into the upper seam of the Fire-clay coal, 
38 in. thick, without parting and with massive sandstone roof. 
Beyond this the bed soon goes below drainage. 



2/7 



JS30 



Jijo 



Coa.1 



-3" Co.nnel 



fron Ore 



Coat 



Coa-f 



Coa-t z 
-Sh. /" 
Coaf Z 

Bl.S/ 8" 

/a y J" 
oei/ 2. 

Coo./ g 



Polecat Branch. On the left foui- 
miles up Wooten creek. 

On the right, one half mile up this 
branch, some 40 feet above it, at eleva- 
tion 3220, the Haddix bed shows cannel 
coal in an old opening, fallen in. An- 
other opening, 40 feet higher, also closed, 
though unusually close to the Haddix 
seems to be of the Hazard bed. 



Coon Creek. 

Wolf Creek. The section of figure 
217 was taken from Christopher Lewis' 
house, a mile up the creek, along 
it for a mile above the house. The 
Fire-clay coal at 1060 has its usual 
parting, but the clay is not as pure as 
usual. The whole bed is cut out by 
sandstone in a neighboring rock-house. 
The Haddix bed appears to be repre- 
sented by the splint coals at eleva- 
tion 1170. The Hazard bed was proba- 
s s bly not discovered, but the 37 in. coal at 

1370 may be the Flag-coal; it is all very 
bright, the lower eight in. splint coal. 
The coal at 1530, though rather low for 
creek the Hindman bed, and containing cannel, 

in of CAr;s.tecL"*' seems likely to be of that bed, as its stain 



192 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



is frequently prominent near the hill- 
tops. 

With a reduction of partings and 

increase of coal the Haddix (?) bed 

shows far better on Coon creek, two 

Pig. 2/9 



(Coal tf." 

la/ J/. V-" 

IS.S v3o" _. 
1 Coal tt* 

^C/ay 2. if." 

S.S.S. 
Ba.sta.rct .S. t,' 



S.S. 



Coa/ 13.' 




Thin Coal 



S.5. 



Ctjitihin CV. 




/7 



2.0 



<L Mites ct*o</e 



miles above Wolf, 

at elevation 1180, 

as shown in figure 

218. The distance 

of this bed from 

the Fire-clay bed 

is much less than 

was to be expected, but there appears 

to be a similar reduction of interval on 

Line fork, Perry county. There seem 

to be in this region more irregularities 

of the coals than is usual, as is more 

fully shown on White Oak creek, next 

south of Coon. 

At 2^ miles above Wolf the Hazard 
bed gives (if the last opening is of the 
Haddix) the following section: 



Elevation 



Shale and sandstone 30 ft. 

Coal 3 in. 

Parting 10 in. 

Coal 10 in. 

Parting 3 in. 

Coal 2 in. 

Parting 2 in. 

Coal 11 in. 

Parting 25 in. 

Coal _ 3 in. 



1270 



atj_;Pen*,n?to n '* 



In the section, figure 219, taken 
about |- mile above Paul's creek, the thin 
coal near tlie bottom is in the place of 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 193 

Z.2o 

the Whitesburg coal. The Fire-clay coal 
at 1030 is inconsequent, though reported 
in good condition and mined considera- 
bly for local use on Paul's creek. The 
rider here with its 5 feet of coal needs 
to be more fully developed. There seems 
to be a tendency in this bed to thicken 
and to carry cannel coal on the main 
heads, of the Middle Fork. The upper 
coal of the section is, apparently, of the 
Hazard bed. 

Figure 220 shows the Fire-clay coal 
and its rider on enlarged scale. The 
bituminous slate at the bottom of the 
lower bed looks so much like cannel that 
my sample of the coal for analysis was 
taken with the slate included. The result 
as given below, even with liberal allow- 
ance for a muddy outcrop sample, shows 
that the slate cannot be utilized; and the 
lower bed is therefore not workable at 
this point. Analysis by Dr. E. Peter: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL, 
(with slate floor included.) Chem. Report No. 2536 

Moisture , 2.20 

Volatile combustible matter ._ 26.14 

Fixed carbon _ 33.05 

Ash (very light gray) _ _ 39.50 




100.00 



Sulphur 0>519 

Coke (pulverulent) _ 71.56 

Specific gravity 1.595 



194 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



"A much weathered and soiled sample of what looks like 
a bituminous shale." 

The light rise of strata up the creek, which is shown by 
the foregoing openings into the Fire-clay coal, continues at 
the rate of about 20 feet per mile to near its head. 

At three miles above Paul's creek, 
"* on the left, 60 feet above the road and 
130 feet above the creek, the rider is 
opened with: 






Hi it 



Coo.( t Iron Ore 
in 



*" 



A 0. 




Shaly sandstone 7 ft. 

Coal 1 ft. 

Shale 1 ft. 

Coal _ _ li ft. 



Elevation. 



113Q 



At four and one half miles above 
Paul, five feet above the creek, what is 
either the Fire-clay coal or bed below it 
shows. 



Massive sandstone 4 ft. 

Shaly sandstone 4 ft. 

Coal 6 in. 

Splint coal 12 in. 



Elevation. 



1085 



Sec tt art a./ 2. 



If this is of the Fire-clay coal a roll 
has carried it down 50 feet below the 
level to which a uniform rise would take 
it. 

Figure 221 represents the section 
found six miles above Paul's creek, and 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



195 



. 22.2. 




figure 222 its two principal beds, the 
Fire-clay coal and its rider. The former, 
though rare as cannel on the Middle Fork 
is quite common as such on the North 
Fork; and the rider has cannel to the 
southwest on Greasy creek and else- 
where. A quarter to half mile farther 
up, at the mouth of Mud Lick, and 80 
feet above it, elevation 1230, there is 
32 in. clean coal probably belonging to 
the Fire-clay coal rider. Over it is three 
feet of shale. 



Laurel Fork. In the creek at the 
Coo./ 3Z mouth of this fork is 29 in. coal under 
massive sandstone roof, which appears 
to be also of the Fire-clay coal rider. 



C/oy Coat 



In a rockhouse one quarter mile up 
the fork, 170 feet higher than its mouth, 
the following section is exposed: 



Massive sandstone 20 ft. 

Coal 9 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

Bituminous clay shale 5 in. 

Fire-clay 3 ft. 



Elevation. 



1420 



While this seems likely to be of the Haddix bed more 
knowledge of the coals of the vicinity is requisite for its de- 
termination. 

Three miles up Laurel fork, one eighth mile to the left 
up "Wolf -pen branch, and 50 feet above it on the right, is 



196 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Co a.f 



^ Sha.f i 



Coo.1. 



Coo.{ 31' 



3-23 the Arch. Cornett opening shown in 

figure 223. Assuming a rise of strata of 
about one per cent up Laurel fork would 
bring this coal into position of the Haz- 
ard bed, and such it probably is, con- 
forming with the deductions as to coals 
on Leatherwood creek. Just across the 
ridge from this opening is one into the 
,same bed on the head of Clover fork of 
Leatherwood, containing 5^ feet of 
nearly clean, mainly soft coal. 

Of the following analyses of coal 
from this opening Nos. 2532-3-4 were by 
Dr. E. Peter, and Nos. 2738-7 by Dr. 
A. M. Peter, all from my samples, the 

former collected from the solid outcrop in 1885, the latter from 
two yards underground in 1906. In Noi 2737 the 6 in. bitu- 
minous coal was included because of no visible cleavage, the 
whole 29 in. appearing to form one solid block. 




HAZARD (?) BED Chem. 

2532 
Upper 10 in. 

&Lower 10 in. 

Moisture 1.80 

Volatile com. matter 34.60 

Fixed carbon 57.70 

Ash . 5.90 



Report Nos. 
2533 
18 in. 



Laboratory Nos. 



2534 



Cannel 



2738 
Upper 10 in. 



2737 
Cannel & 



Seam 



&next 18 in . 6 in below 



1.60 


0.60 


1.67 


1.56 


32.06 


45.30 


38.78 


46.94 


61.24 


47.20 


53.91 


45.16 


5.10 


6.90 


5.64 


6.34 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.055 

Phosphorus 

Coke > spongy 

Specific gravity 1.243 

Color of ash brown 

gray 



100.00 



0.737 



100.00 



100.00 



100. oa 



0.72 



spongy 
1.243 

light brown 
gray 



0.683 1.34 

0.004 ._ 

dense dense spongy dense 

1.255 1.290 1.225 

light brown light buff 
gray brown 



Total carbon 76.65 74.56 

B. T. U. per pound of coal 14.142 14,143 

No. 2532. "A portion of the sample has irregular laminat- 



KENTUCKY RIY^ER, MIDDLE FORK. 



197 



ed structure, showing very little fibrous coal and no apparent 
pyrites; another portion breaks with irregular fracture and 
shining surfaces; is pitch black and pure-looking." 

No. 2533. "Mostly a pure-looking, pitch-black coal with 
irregular shining fracture. Some portions are irregularly 
laminated and more dull in appearance. Very little fibrous 
coal and no pyrites apparent. ' ' 

No. 2534. "A very tough, dull-black coal. Fracture very 
flat, imperfect conchoidal. No apparent fibrous coal or pyrites. 
Some parts of the sample somewhat soiled with clay." 

No. 2738. "Average sample of soft, bright coal, somewhat 
weathered and with some ferruginous incrustation. 

No. 2737. "Average sample, mostly cannel, but 

with a small proportion of soft, bright, pitch-like coal." 




Gu.1hr'/e. 



Guthrie Fork. On the left one and 
one-half miles above Laurel Fork. 

A half mile up this fork and one 
quarter mile up its Eight fork, in a field 
on the right, at elevation 1620, is the 
coal of figure 224. It is probable that 
this does not represent quite the full 
thickness of the bed as the opening was 
partly covered when visited, and only 
the visible coal was measured. With a 
like allowance for rise of strata as for 
the Laurel fork opening, this one also 
comes to the level of the Hazard bed, to 
which it is referred with little doubt. 



198 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Ftq.lZf 



89, 



S.S. 

Co a.1 

C/oy 



,5.5. 




(Coa.1 
,-iSfto.te 8 

(_ C90.C 

S.3. 



ftto u.th 



Figure 225 represents a section taken 
near the mouth of Bull creek. Coal is 
reported as having been taken from the 
river bottom along here, from a bed 
about 9 feet thick, but including so much 
shale and sulphur as to be almost worth- 
less. Its location corresponds well with 
the Bowling coal on Rush creek, below, 
and such thickness as was reported 
tends to correlation with the Elkhorn 
coal, and adds interest to the bed in this 
redon. The thin coal lowest in the 

O 

section is noticeable as being worked one 
and one-half miles above Bull creek. 
The Fire-clay coal with its one in. part- 
ing is barely distinguishable, at elevation 
995 and the rider is either absent or is in 
the much split coal above it in the sec- 
tion. Apparently the 16 in. coal at the 
top is the Haddix coal, but further 
search for this bed is desirable before 
final conclusion. 



ONE MILE BRANCH. 

On the right, one and one half miles 
above Bull creek. 

On the left, one quarter mile up the 
branch, William Sisemore has opened, in 



<Secf''on near mau.ih 

a five a yard" entry, the lowest bed of figure225 with 30 in. clean 
coal with laminatedsandstone roof, elevation 875. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



199 



ffg. 226 




NIGHWAY BRANCH. 

On the right, one and three quarter 
miles above Bull creek. 

A quarter mile up, 205 feet above the 
river, Bart. Sisemore has opened the 
Fire-clay coal with the following section, 
shale and bone coal here taking the place 
of the usual parting. 



Elevation. 



Shale or shaly sandstone 5 ft 

Coal 2 in. 

Shale i in. 

Coal 31 in. 

Shale \ in. 

Bone coal 1 in. 

Coal 11 in. 



1010 



On the right of the river, two miles above Bull creek the 
William Couch opening, at the same level as the preceding, 
gives the section of figure 226, in which the flint clay is black 
and looks much like coal. 



ASHER BRANCH. 

On the right, four miles above Bull creek and two miles 
below Hyden. 

Of the two openings on this branch shown in figure 227, 
the lower is of the Elkhorn bed, giving its maximum thick- 
ness in this region, so far as seen. Considerable coal was ship- 
ped down the river in former times from the entries here, 50 
feet above the river and one eighth mile from it, but they are 
now all fallen in. They are known as the Asher mines. My 



200 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



sample taken from three yards underground gave the follow- 
ing results to .Dr. B. Peter's analysis: 



fia. 227 



=ir==g JA. S' 



Coo. I 



Coa,l 



Coet.1 J~' 

I OJTo 

t Fire CYo.y Coo./ 




ELKHORN BED. Chem. Report No. 2742 

Moisture 1.80 

Volatile combustible matter 34.14 

Fixed carbon 57.86 

Ash (light lilac gray) 6.20 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.613 

'oke (dense) 64.06 

Ipecific gravity 1.321 

"Some fibrous coal between the la- 
minae, but no apparent pyrites." 

On the left a half mile up the branch, 
a 20-yard entry of Mrs. Annie Steel's 
^ives the upper coal of figure 227, with 
flint day parting characteristic, and the 
upper seam but little hurt by the bone 
coal it contains. The whole bed gives 
here an unusually fine section of the Fire 
clay coal bed. 

On the right, three quarters mile up, 
245 feet above the Fire-clay coal, at ele- 
vation 1295, are two thin coals, three feet 
apart, under massive sandstone. They 
are apparently too high for the Haddix 
bed and too low for the Hazard. 



ROBERTS BRANCH. 

On the right, five and one half miles 
above Bull creek and one half mile be- 
low Hvden. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 2O1 

Nathaniel Roberts' entry, one eighth 
mile up and 240 feet above the river, 
shows the Fire-clay coal as in figure 228. 
AA^ater in the entry prevented investigat- 
ing its floor, which is probably of the 
flint-clay parting, with coal below it. 

Hughes Asher has an opening on the 
right one quarter mile up and 260 feet 
above the Fire-clay coal, which has the 
following section: 

Elevation. 
Sandstone (prominent cliff) 20 ft. 

Coal 11 in. 

Bituminous shale 1 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

Bituminous shale 3 in. 

Coal 14 in. 

Clay l* in. 

Coal 3 in. 1320 

The sandstone here indicates the same bed as the upper 
one on Asher branch, but more knowledge is required to de- 
termine its correlation beyond that. 

ROCKHOUSE CREEK. (Hyden). 

The lower coal of Asher branch is opened just below and 
at the upper end of Hyden, both places in rather thin coal, but 
the latter in the point of a spur, unfavorable for finding full 
thickness. It is on the right, about 50 feet above and one 
eighth mile from the river, and at the face of the entry, four 
yards in, gave the section: 



202 




'James 

f/'re C/a.tf Coo./ 

ft'g. 23o 






Coa( 



Coa.( 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Elevation. 

Sandstone 10 ft. 

Shale 2 ft. 

Coal 27 in. 

Clay i in. 

Bony coal 5 in. 875 



The main seam looks like a coking 
coal, and the bony coal at the bottom 
not bad. 

The section at the mouth of the James 
Lewis mine in Hyden is given in figure 
229. The upper seam, a block coal, alone 
is mined, and the flint clay and coal be- 
low are given as reported by a miner 
there. At the face, some 150 yards in, 
the main coal is 51 in. thick. A test of 
the coal, over night in the grate, showed 
it to be non-coking. 

The coal is delivered by incline upon 
the main street of the town, and in view 
of the fact that here is the only coal 
incline now on either of the three forks, 
and that the bed is well developed here, 
the name of Hyden is particularly ap- 
propriate to it. Though often called the 
Sizemore coal in this vicinity, it is quite 
generally known as the Fire-clay coal 
bed throughout the whole region, and 
hence that name is used in this report. 
It is the Dean coal of the Jellico and 
Cumberland river regions. 



2.6, 



Coo./ 



fire Clay Coo. I 



The bed-section of figure 230 is 
from two miles above Hyden and one 
half mile up a right branch. The ele- 
vation obtained is probably too low. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



203 



f/tj. -2 31 



tefo 



10 10 



S - S 




Mat/t/y S.<S. 



The upper seam of coal may be here 
the rider to the bed, making the whole 
of unusual thickness. 

My sample of the upper 63 in. of 
this coal gave to Dr. E. Peter's analy- 
sis: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2737 

Moisture 0.74 

Volatile combustible matter 36.06 

Fixed carbon 54.00 

Ash (grayish brown) 9.20 



^ "-' 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.307 

Coke (spongy) 63.20 

Specific gravity 1.279 

" A pure-looking firm coal, generally 
breaking irregularly, with irregular sur- 
faces. A portion with lamellar fracture, 
and some fibrous coal; no pyrites ap- 
parent. ' ' 

At the Joseph Lewis' opening, 3^ 
miles up the creek, 100 feet above it on 
the left, the fire-clay parting and coal 
below it were reported, but not visible, 
the main seam is reduced to 31 in., and 
the rider, with 25 feet of shaly sand- 
stone between, is 22 in. thick. 

At the forks, four miles up, and 
thence up the Left fork the section of 
j.H,NaLpters figure 231 was taken. 

The Fire-clay coal, at elevation 1080, still diminishing in 
thickness, gives little promise of anything beyond, yet on its 



*-fCoo.f 
. . J Coo./ 



S6.S.S. 

Coo./ 
Sb.S.S. 

fCoa.{ 

\ Coo./ 
3.S 



f Cr. 



204 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



first appearance across the ridge, and at intervals on Bed 
Bird creek, it has good thickness. 

Other coals of the section are quite as unpromising, but 
one thick coal may have been missed. The Hazard bed, 300 
feet above the Fire-clay coal has 7 feet of coal across on 
the head of Sugar creek. The Haddix bed at 1280 and Flag 
bed at 1485, if such they are, are of no avail here. 



HURST BRANCH. 

The A slier coal shows again, mile up this branch, 40 
feet above the river, with the following section : 



.232. 



Coo./ /7' 



^^^ COO.1 



Cotx.1 



Coa.1 



Elevation . 

Shaly sandstone 10 ft. 

Coal 27 in. 

Shale 3 in. 

Coal 8 in. 88 

And \ mile up, 200 feet above the 
river, the Fire-clay coal as in figure 232. 
The lower parting is an impure fire-clay; 
the main coal in part splint, and the up- 
per seam of coal possibly the rider. 

It is said that fossil limestone from 
this branch was used for making lime 
for the Hyden courthouse, an unusual 
instance of the utilization of such mater- 
ial. The position of the quarry relative 
to the Fire-clay coal is not known, but 
is probably 150 to 200 feet above it. 
A mile above Hyden, at Morgan's, 



KENTUCKY RIVER. MIDDLE FORK. 



205 



/ofco 



96 1 




vsfc'/.V 

' 



, 

(.C/.y 



*.C/. i 

y 
. s.s. 




Coo.t 

i. f Iron Ore 
Co.f 



Jo' 



S.S. 




32.' 

J " 



. a." 



S*- 

Coo./ 
S.5. 



f7' 



f?/</er 



Af/'/S 



See f /'on o.t </no. 



200 feet above the river, the Fire-clay 
coal has the following section: 



Elevation. 



Coal, sandstone and shale. 3 ft. 

Coal -: 30 in. 

Fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal _ _ 5 in. 



1045 



At two miles above Hyden the sec- 
tion of figure 233 was taken, in which 
the Fire-clay coal is again 200 feet above 
the river. The 17 in. coal near the bot- 
tom, with its shaly sandstone roof, ap- 
pears to represent the Asher mine coal, 
with perhaps the 32 in. coal, which has 
two thin partings, an offshoot from it. 

The ribbed coal 
at elevation 990 is 
in position of the 
Whitesburg bed, 
but the black slate 
over the next seam 
above seems to 
designate that as at 
least a part of the 
Whitesburg, though 
abnormally near 
the Fire-clay coal 
at elevation 1060. 
A second opening, 

at Bowling's, Of /r/ re C /a V Coa/ 




the Fire-clay coal gives the section shown in figure 234. 

Of the higher beds the Haddix appears not to have been 



206 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



found (under its massive sandstone), and the Hazard bed, 
highest in the section shows pretty thorough disintegration. 

BURNT CAMP BRANCH. 



The Fire-clay coal of figure 235 is 
210 feet above the river. 

My sample of coal from this opening 
analyzed by Dr. R. Peter gave: 



3S- FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 2738 

Moisture 0.70 

Volatile combustible matter 34.70 

Fixed carbon 55.20 

Ash (light purplish gray) 9.40 




/& 100.00 

Sulphur 0.983 

Coke (spongy) 64.60 

Jesse MorqcL*t Specific gravity 1.291 

f~/ff C/Q.y COOL/ 

These results are remarkably close to those of the Size- 
more coal, Kockhouse creek, page 203. "The sample seems to 
have more splint coal." 

From this creek up, the river becoming more rapid, the 
Fire-clay coal gradually approaches it. 



GREASY CREEK. 

At Elias Howard's, three miles up the creek and 30 feet 
above it, the Whitesburg (?) bed has 31 in. coal under sand- 
stone roof and with a cliff immediately below it. A 12 in. 
coal under shale lies 40 feet higher, possibly the lower seam 
of the Fire-clav coal. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



207 



.236 




tofo 



;. v 



:t--y^- 



o. s. 

Coa.f' 2/' 



ir> Coaf 



<S 
Ceo./ 



S S 



5/i. f tren Ore 
Coo./ , 



7- 



COOL/ /^' 



Mai4.lt> 



Lick Branch. On the right, 3 
miles up Greasy creek. 

Also at Elias Howard's. The Fire- 
clay coal on this branch is 24 in. thick, 
with impure fire-clay floor and 30 feet 
sandstone covering. Elevation 1130. A 
half mile up the branch, elevation 1255, 
is 21 in. coal under 15 feet massive sand- 
stone. 



Honey Branch. On the right, 5 
miles up Greasy creek. 

In the section, figure 236, either the 
lowest coal or the next to it is of the 
Fire-clay coal, but the parting of the 
latter is soft and white, instead of flint- 
clay. In either case the thin coal at 
elevation 1410 is of the Haddix bed, or 
a part of it. The next coal is probably 
of the Hazard bed, and the 24 in. coal at 
the top is of the Flag coal bed. 

On Carnegie branch, North Fork, 
below Hazard, iron ore lies in shale 100 
feet above the Fire-clay coal, as in this 
section. 



208 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



235 



Co a/ 



Sf,. 
Coaf toy.' 



/tttf 



r oa / 





Co a.( 



Coa.1 
C/ay 



c 00 .f 73 



Elk Branch. On 

the right, 1\ miles 
up. 

The Henry Chap- 
pell opening, figure 
237, i mile up Elk 
and 20 feet above 
its mouth, is prob- 
ably of the Fire- 
clay coal, with per- 
haps, the rider in- 
cluded. The bot- 
tom 24 in. is whol- 
ly splint coal. 



r/ f i37 




//. Cha./>j>e// 



Laurel Fork. On the right of 
Greasy creek. 

Feds Branch. On the left, | mile 
up Laurel Fork. 

A quarter mile up this branch, 40 
feet above its mouth, the following sec- 
tion was obtained. 



Elevation . 

Shaly sandstone 15 ft. 

/8 - Shale : 7 ft 

Coal 28 in. 

Fire-clay 6 in. 

Coal 6 in. 1140 

Shale 

The fire-clay parting returned here 
to its normal condition. 



Upper Double Branch. On the 
o ot A6/ e Br. Y \g\^ 9 m ii es up Laurel fork. 
The section taken on this branch, shown in figure 238, 



KENTUCKY RIVER. MIDDLE FORK. 209 

gives, doubtless, the Fire-clay coal and its rider in the 73 
in. coal at the bottom, though the fire-clay parting is again 
wanting or altered here. 

The coal at elevation 1355 is probably the same as that 
found on Line fork, Perry county, considered a split down 
from the Haddix bed. 

The coal at elevation 1625 cannot now be correlated 
though it comes about in the place of the Flag coal as found 
farther down stream. 

The coal at elevation 1925 is believed to be of the Hind- 
man bed, although by barometer 705 feet above the Fire- 
clay coal, instead of about 500 feet as in Perry county. But 
little of this increase can be accounted for by barometric error 
or by pitch of strata. Either a new bed above the Hindman 
is discovered here, or a thickening of strata southward be- 
tween the Hindman and the Fire-clay coal has occurred, and, 
assuming the thick coals found high on the hills here, on 
White Oak creek (on the left of Greasy next above Laurel 
fork) on Oldhouse branch (lower Beech fork) and on Reuben 
branch and at Kate Spring (Beech fork, near head) assuming 
these to be of one bed, a constant increase of interval toward 
Pine mountain is evidenced. This in itself is almost con- 
clusive proof that the assuption is correct and that this upper 
coal is of the Hindman bed. 



210 

f/y .23? 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




Coa.f 



Cocif 



C oa .t 



C/o y i 
Coa.f 
/ 1 2,0 



N 
fire C/o.y CooS 



Figure 239 re- 
presents, enlarged, 
the lowest coal of 
the section, and 
figure 240 the up- 
per opening. My 
outcrop samples of 
the three lower 
seams of the Fire- 
clay coal, and of 
the two lower 
seams of the upper 
bed, analyzed by 
Er. E. Peter, yield- 
ed. 



COOL( 



Coa.( 



C/<xy '* 
Coo./ &" 



N. 



Co a. I 



Fire-clay Coal Hindman Bed 



Chem. Report No. 2733 

Moisture 3.20 

Volatile corn, matter 29.70 

Fixed carbon 57.50 

Ash . . 9.60 



100.00 



2734 

1.72 

35.68 

51.20 

11.40 

100.00 



Sulphur 0.626 1.367 

Coke dense light spongy 

Color of ash light brownish light purplish 

gray 

Specific gravity 1.342 1.363 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 211 

No. 2733. "A weathered and somewhat soiled sample of 
what seems to be a good coal." 

No. 2734. "Seems to be a splint coal. Sample somewhat 
weathered. Some little fibrous coal, but no pyrites apparent." 
The coal will probably make good coke, and there is a fair 
working area of it in this vicinity. 

Figure 241 represents either the 
>s*. *.' Fire-clay coal or its rider as opened 
where going under Laurel fork. The 
lower seam of coal was partly covered, 
and further exploration is necessary to 
disprove the presence of such thick coal 
(>"- as was found at the mouth of Lower 




M// e a 6ove 

Qou.6/e 8r. 



Double branch. 



Gill Branch. On the left, five miles up Laurel Fork. 

At 540 feet above the forks of Laurel at Incline P. 0., 
the following section was obtained of a coal probably some- 
what under the Hindman bed, opened on the Gill branch side 
of the spur. 

fig. 2</-z Elevation . 

Sandstone. 
Shale containing iron ore _ 4 ft. 




Shale --------------------------- 16 in. 

Coal ---------------------------- 32 in. 1990 

On the left of Laurel fork at the 
town of Incline, five feet above the forks, 
elevation 1455, is the coal of figure 242, 
possibly of the lower Haddix bed. It 
is a slickenseit coal rich in bitumen and 
<it /~r///7e rather heavy in ash. 



212 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



trn Off 



Coo,/ 




Sh. 
Ceo.( 



Coa.1 



S.S. 
Co 



-SA J 5 

<*/>. 

-.. (Coa.1 

Sh. ( Ck/ 
J S. 

COO.C 

JA. a. j. 
. (Coo./ 

(Coo./ 



MouJh of C 



>Sha.fe. 



White Oak Creek. The section of 
figure 243 was taken along the creek, 
via Pace Trace up to the head of Coon 

and Upper Bad 
creeks. The Fire- 
clay coal near tl 
bottom is shownl 
again in figure 244.1 
The rider appears! 
in the long section,] 
but thence to the 
top coal correla-H| 
tion is uncertain, 



though it 




seems /="/> c/a y coo./ 

,-, fVea.r mou.fh of Cr. 

that the 



-^-=^ Sha,/e 8 
Coa.1 

\Sha.l* JO 



Coa.1 



J6 



<$ect 



likely 

Hazard bed lies at 
elevation 1480. 
Figure 245 repre- 
sents this bed as 
found above John 
Turner's, 3| miles 
up the creek, and 
the following in I 
pabular form shows 
the variations in^^^ /36 
this bed and the Jno.~Tu.mer 
two below it, and of intervals between 
them, which occur within a short dis- 
tance, C. K. York's being about 1^ miles 
below Turner's. A reversal of the gen- 
eral direction of dip is also indicated. 
Correlated coals are between the same 
horizontal lines. 



toft on 



OO.A- Cr 



KENTUCKY RIVER. MIDDLE FORK. 



213 



At C. K. York's, 2 Miles 
up Creek. 


% Mile up Left Fork 
From J. Turner's. 


Y Mile up Right Fork 
From J. Turner's. 


Y 4 Mile up Right Fork 
From Turner's 


Shale 3" 


8' Shale 


Heavy coal stain 


Shale 4" 


Coal 3" 


Coal 2" 




Coal 3" 


Shale 35 


Shale 10" 


Elev. 1,390 


Shale 9" 


Coal . 9 


Sp. coal 36 




Coal 9" 




Clay 






Elev 1 480 










Elev. 1,360 




Elev. 1,440 


{35' Covered 
5 Sandstone 
4 Shale 
1 Sandstone 




20' Covered 


20' Covered 


Bitum. coal, 19" 




Bit. coal and can. si. 9" 


Bit. coal 14" 










01 \ Covered 
( Shale 




7' Covered 
2' Yellow shale 


! Shale 
Covered 
2' yellow shale 


Coal 1" 






Coal 8" 


Shale 12" 




Block Bit. c. 17" 


Shale 2" 


Sp coal 15" 






Coal 4" 











Strata exposed below York's show a rise up stream con- 
siderably in excess of the average, and it is believed that near 
and above his house an anticlinal axis of an unusually large 
roll, running southeast, crosses the creek and determined its 
course, so nearly contrary to the direction of the general 
drainage. 

Pace Trace. On the left, two miles up White Oak creek. 

The coal at the top of figure 243, shown in detail in figure 
246, found at the head of the Trace, may be slightly above its 
normal position on account of this roll, and it appears in the 
section higher above the Fire-clay coal than its normal interval 



214 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



because of the actual rise of strata. This rise would suffice 
to bring the upper coal into position to correlate with the Hind- 
man bed, which it undoubtedly belongs to, as its bed-section 
and relation to the hill-top both imply, but a part of the 625 
feet difference in elevation of the openings in the two beds 
is attributable to an increase in thickness of strata between 
them. 



F/ "g .2.4-6, 



Coa.( 



r^^^^d 3ho.fe // 



The opening made into the upper 
bed was not carried far enough to reach 
solid coal, and my sample of the lower 
53 in., which seemed to be of fairly good 
coal, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter with re- 
sults as given below, is, doubtless, con- 
siderably too high in ash: 

HINDMAN BED. .Chem. Report No. 2736 

Moisture 9.40 

Volatile combustible matter 32.20 

Fixed carbon 48.80 

Ash (nearly white) 9.60 



Coctf 



100.00 



/ 8s~ 
. Bo./cer 

/-/r'r7ctrrja.r7 Co a/ 



Sulphur 0.433 

Coke (pulverulent) 58.40 

Specific gravity 1.509 

" A weathered sample of what seems 
to be a good splint coal." 



Tantrough Branch. On the left, one mile above White 
Oak creek. 

Cannel coal, reported 46 in. thick, has been taken from 
openings on this branch, one eighth mile up, five to ten feet 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



215 



above it, and 50 feet above Greasy creek. It appears to have 
come from the Fire-clay coal rider, though the sandstone 
under it looks like that under the main bed. 

Lewis Creek. A half mile up, 35 feet above the mouth, 
the Fire-clay coal was opened with the section of figure 247. 
The upper seam is in part splint, inclined to slickenseit. My 
sample yielded to Dr. B. Peter's analysis: 



FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chern. Report No. 2735 

Moisture 1.72 

Volatile combustible matter 35.02 

Fixed carbon 57.60 

Ash (light brownish gray) 5.66 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.599 

Coke (spongy) 63.26 

Specific gravity 1.251 



Fi'q. 2.47 




"A somewhat weathered sample of 
what seems to be a good splint coal." 

The rider to this bed, opened 25 feet 
* higher, has 13 in. good cannel coal on 
10 in. bituminous, under shale roof. 

Fossil limestone reported in the creek 
one eighth mile up the right fork is ap- 
parently less than 100 feet above the 
Fire-clay coal. 



216 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




Figure 248 represents in the 45 in. seam a part of the 
Fire-clay coal at an opening on the left, 30 feet above Greasy 
creek and three quarters mile above Lewis creek. 

Neither roof nor floor was visible. The same bed is 
opened on the right, 25 feet above Greasy and a mile above 
Lewis creek, with the bed-section shown in the middle of the 
figure. Again the floor was covered, but the 21 in. coal at the 
bottom was evidently the full thickness of that seam less 
than half that in the preceding opening. On the right of the 
figure is shown the whole of the Fire-clay coal as opened op- 
posite the mouth of Abner's branch, 10 feet above it. The 
main parting is here a true flint clay. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



217 



f~' . 2. tTo 



Abner's Branch. On the right, two 
miles above Lewis creek. 



Fry. 



73 7 



Mass S.S. 
Coa.1 





Coo. I 2.3' 



8 



Ha.(f A///e Br. 







Coals found on 
the right, one-half 
mile up Abner's 
branch, are shown 
in figure 249. It 
appears likely that 
the lowest coal, shown again in figure 
250, is of the Fire-clay coal bed, and that 
an intrusion of sandstone has carried the 
rider (with its cannel coal) to elevation 
1370, far above its usual distance from 
the main bed. Comparison with the 
Gabe's branch coals, following, supports 
this view. 

Muddy outcrop sample of the three 
thickest bituminous seams of coal in the 
higher bed figure 251 and including also 
r One seven in. cannel seam, analyzed by 

V 

Dr. E. Peter, yielded: 

Chem. Report 
FIRE-CLAY COAL RIDER (?) No. 2538. 

Moisture 5.10 

Volatile combustible matter 24.70 

Fixed carbon 52.00 

Ash (light buff) 18.20 



&r. / 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.725 

Coke (pulverulent) 70.20 

Specific gravity 1.505 



218 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Coa t 



Coo./ 



3.9 



f 'fort erg 



C/e 



Coa./ 



Con fie/ Coat.1 7* 



\BI. -si. 



J~ 

Coa/ 



Co o>.l 



"No doubt this coal will be found to 
give less ash deeper in the bed, where it 
has not undergone the process of weath- 
ering. But, even with its more than 
twenty-three per cent, of ash and mois- 
, ture, it yet contains more than seventy- 
six per cent, of combustible matters, and 
hence it may be available for fuel, in 
many cases, in the vicinity of the mine. ' ' 



Gabe's Branch. On the right, four 
miles above Lewis creek. 

On the right, one eighth mile up this 
'branch and 25 feet above its mouth, at 
elevation 1325, is 20 in. coal under 15 
feet or more of sandstone, which seems to 
be one seam of the Fire-clay coal, though 
j'possibly of its rider. 

In the branch, one half mile up, at 
elevation 1325, nearly up to the level of 
the variegated bed on Abner's branch, 
which also carries black slate, is the fol- 
lowing section, which may be correlated 
with that on Abner's branch. 



Laminated sandstone 10 ft. 

Shale 4 ft. 

Coal (with shale partings) 30 in. 

Black slate (with coal) 12 in.+ 

Coal _ ._ 7 in. 



The bottom coal is a slickenseit, and so is the black slate, 
an occurrence not known to the writer elsewhere in the region. 



/J/o 
fire C/ay 

Co a./ /f / cfe r 

/V 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE PORK. 



219 



Big Laurel Creek. On the left, five miles above Lewis 
creek. (Little Laurel is on the left one and one-half mile? 
farther up). 

On the right of the road and stream, two and one half miles 
up, 60 feet above it and 1 20 feet above its mouth is 32 in. coal 
with 3 in. hard shale parting, the upper seam in part a 
fine, hard, splint coal. This is about on the level of the Shepard 
coal on Oldhouse branch of Leatherwood and is either of the 
same, or of a bed near it. Thick coal is reported found in the 
creek, a mile or more above at about this level. 

The section given in figure 252 is of 
coals found one half mile above Big 
Laurel, supposed to represent a part of 
the Fire-clay coal rider. Its base is at 
creek level. 

On the left, six miles above Lewis 
creek, one half mile from Pine Mountain. 
50 feet above Greasy, an entry gives the 
bedsection of figure 253. The same bed 
measured in 1886, near the mouth 



Bl S 
, Cot 



' t*f 

.. ICe 

(c/ 



*' S 

* 



I tCoa.1 
\ 6/. St 



Qaitorct JL .S. 




For** of 



Cr. 



Isaac branch and 25 feet above it, gave 
55 in. coal with 8 in. in two partings, 
elevation 1650. An opening into the 
same bed, on the right, just above the 
mouth of Isaac branch, now fallen in, is 
reported to have thick coal. The bed 
appears to be in the neighborhood of the 
Hazard coal, and is most likely that one, 
though the coal is softer than is usual 
in it. It is a good, clean, bright, cok- 
ing (?) coal, the lowest seam of the 
earliest opening a slickenseit. The en- 
try now supplies the town of Incline, on 
the head of Laurel fork, and the locomo- 
tive running to it over tramroad for 
timber. 



220 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Coot/ 



/<* 



Isaac Branch. On the left at base of Pine Mountain, six 
and one half miles above Lewis creek. 



r/ y .2ft. On the left, a 

half mile up the 
branch, 170 feet I7cf 
above it, elevation 
1790, William 
Creech has 20 in. 
coal with three , 6if 
shale partings ag- 
gregating 6 in., 
and above this is 
the coal of figure 
254, which appears 
to be of the Hind- 
man bed. It is be- 
lieve'd that the / 
partings of the lat- 
ter will diminish materially when the 
opening is carried to solid cover. 






Hill no h'<$ 


t/r *' 




""]!? 


*" '*>' 


:--rir .">.".' 


AIai/ Co*/ 

S.S V. C/ay 












I C/a.y 


/4" 


'j~Stv 


J. S. 




.^-"v^^. 




A* 



Harmon Branch. The three lower 
coals of the section, figure 255 were 
found on the right of the mouth of 
Saltwell branch, the others on the left 
of Harmon branch, one-half mile or more 
above its mouth. 

The section shows the Whitesburg' 
bed with its black slate roof, detailed in 



Coa.1 




Coa.1 



Coa.1 



Coa.1 



S3, 

MouLth -Sa.lfuue'1 6p 

n a,t 
Harmon &r~ 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



221 



>7So 



/6to 



if So 



1379 



a tf 



fl/ vJ/Ol- 

Coat 



Coo./ 

S*c./ f 

CooY 

5Ao/a 
Coo/ 



Coa/ 



Huqhes 



9 2 r 7 figure 256, at eleva- 

tion 1055, as a good 
workable coal, 
which, being at the 
base of the hill, is 
well worth thor- 
ough investigation. 
It has a like sec- 
tion above Beech 
fork. 

The two coal 
stains next above 
in the section are 
evidently of the 
Fire-clay coal and 
its rider, while the 
Haddix and Haz- 
ard beds appear to *w,/<.*4<xr 9 c oa / 
be represented above them. 

It is probable that the Hindman coal 
is above the upper coal of the section, 
but the three beds shown near the top 
of the section are of interest, because 
little is known of what coals lie near 
that bed in this region. One of them 
was opened again on Feckley branch, 
Cutshin creek, and one or two higher 
beds on Reuben branch, toward the head 
of Middle fork, but their correlation can- 
not yet be determined. 

BEECH FORK. 

Oldhouse Branch. On the right, five 
it otaLho^teBr. m il e s up the fork. 





Top of hill LaS 
N<n.nT$ COA/ \S 




(Coat /3" 





(Coa/ to~ 

(SS. to' 
\Sh. *' 
"S Coa.* 7" 

Coa/ 1 2" 


SS5Sr5 


Sh. 
(Sh. /f* 

Jfosj,'/ L. S 9" 
/( Co'^r'*' ',* 




SA. 


",^ 


S.4. 




Thin Ceetf 






V-TV'.V ' -' 




==Srd??3 


COA./ V-~ 




Co a.1 /* 


^^^" 




."?--.' '.' 


*. 1 Com.( ft * 







222 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Fi 




Considerable detail work, following 
my original exploration, was made on 
this branch for the Survey in 1891, by 
H. M. McConathy, but without finding 
any new coals of importance. The orig- 
inal section, given in figure 257, probably 
includes all coals up to the Nantz coal 
near the top of the section. 

The Fire-clay coal is nearly down to 
j stream level, and the 38 in. cannel is, 
in whole or in part, of the rider above it. 
* I>oth beds are shown on enlarged scale 
in figure 258. 

My sample of the 38 in. outcrop of the 
oannel rider was analyzed by Dr. R. 
Peter with the following results: 

Chem. Report 
FIRE-CLAY COAL RIDER. No. 2739. 

Moisture 1.10 

Volatile combustible matter 44.20 

Fixed carbon 43.70 

Ash (light gray-brown) 11.00 



Coat 



f/Sf 



100.00 

Sulphur ___. 0.690 

Coke (dense) 54.70 



Coo.( 



At 185 feet above the Fire-clay coal 
Mr. McConathy discovered a dark fossil 
limestone 6 in. to 12 in. thick, apparently not continuous 
there, yet marking the horizon of what seems to be a wide- 
spread bed, or the approximate location of two or more beds, 
often, if not always, fossiliferous. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



223 



The Silas Nantz coal, figure 259, was opened one and 
three quarters miles up the branch, 590 feet above its mouth 
(one quarter mile and 140 feet above the Nantz house). 

At 565 feet above the Fire-clay coal, 
it is assuredly of the Hindman bed, for, 
though there is room for a slight cor- 
'*" rection for dip, the openings of the two 
beds are not far off the line of strike, and 
there is no other known bed in this region 
of such thickness near this level. 

Analysis by Dr. E. Peter of my sample 
of the 46 in. splint coal follows. The 
ash content is surprisingly large, as the 
coal is fine-looking. Probably an under- 
Tround sample would give much better 
^sults. 



IINDMAN BED. Chem. Report No. 2743 

loisture 1.30 

Volatile combustible matter 32.36 

Fixed carbon 50.34 

Ash (lilac gray) 16.00 




<S/7a.s 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.409 

Coke (dense spongy) 66.34 

Specific gravity 1.502 



"Seems to be somwhat weathered. Ferruginous incrusta- 
tion on some pieces. Some fibrous coal apparent, but no 
pyrites. ' ' 

On a left branch above the Silas Nantz house Mr. McCon- 
athy found the bed with but one bench of coal 44 in. thick, 
with a knife edge parting a foot from the top. 



224 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

More recent openings of the Fire-clay coal and rider, on 
the left, * * just above the mouth of Oldhouse branch, near the 
level of the wagon road" are reliably reported: 

Cannel coal i 40 in. 

Shale 8 ft. 

Coal and four partings 46 in. 



Trace Branch. On the right, one and one half miles up 
Beech fork. 

On the right, one quarter mile up (?), the cannel coal is 
15 in. thick, with 12 in. bituminous coal directly under it; 
elevation 1210. 

At six and one half miles up Beech fork the rider is re- 
duced to the section following, and is but 15 feet above the 
fork: 

Elevation. 

Sandstone 25 ft. 

Black slate 5 in. 

Cannel coal 6 in. 

Bituminous coal 14 in. 1205 

Figuring on a rise of strata of 20 feet per mile up stream 
from Oldhouse branch would bring the Fire-clay coal about 
100 feet below drainage at Eeuben branch, 11 miles up from 
the mouth of Beech fork, and this is probably pretty nearly 
correct. For this vicinity it will be assumed quite so. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



225 



fi 



'9- 



s.s. 



Coa.t <, 3 



2./' 



Coo./ 
Coo./ 



s.s. 



Roc Ar 



(Co a.1 2. 

;.;:i*< ** 

(Qoo.t 2.y 

_ - - i JT/J. tt." 

\ Coa.f 



** 



. . Mouith fi ecx6e n Br. 



s. s. 

Coat '8" 

. Bee c h for /f 

n Br. 




S.S. g 



Coo.1 



Coaf 



He i r s of Jo. s . 
Ho.-z.ard Coo.1 



The Fire-clay r '9- 
coal being assumed 
at elevation 1300, 
the coal of figure 
260, on the left one 
quarter mile below 
Eeuben branch, 
finds place as of 
the Hazard bed. 
Its section was 
measured here at 
the face of an 
eight-yard room, 
five yards under- 
ground. At the main face, seven yards 
in, the parting is 18 in. thick; one quarter 
mile down the river at G. W. Hoskins' it 
is nine in. thick, with coal as shown in 
figure 261, elevation 1630. 

Reuben Branch. On the right, 11 
miles up Beech fork. 

The coals found on this branch are 
shown in the section, figure 261, to- 
gether with coals at elevations 1370, 
1630 and 1780, found a half mile below 
the branch, and the coal of Chumley 
rock, one half mile above the branch. 

The coal at 1630 being recognized as 
the Hazard coal, that at 2080 is most 
probably of the Hindman bed, with inter- 



226 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



J.J. 



Coat 2.1 

o.lf -S/fft'nf- 



C/y 



C/a.y 

". To//tver 

HincLman Coo./ 



val of 450 feet between them, an increase 
from about 300 feet near Hyden. 

Without much additional investiga- 
tion it is impossible to determine where 
in the strata this thickening takes place, 
but it is believed to be almost wholly be- 
low the coal at 1985, which then is the 
Flag coal. This coal was opened on the 
left, three quarters mile up the right 
fork, one and one quarter miles from 
Beech fork. 

On the right, one mile up the right 
fork, at Elijah Tolliver's, is the (former) 
Dale Bledsoe coal, at elevation 2080, 
shown in detail in figure 262. Ample 
covering to provide good working area 
lies over it. My muddy outcrop sample 
of this coal, analyzed by Dr. E. Peter 
with results below, contained much ex- 



traneous matter to increase the percentage of ash . 



HINDMAN BED. Chem. Report No. 2667. 

Moisture 1.60 

Volatile combustible matter 33.30 

Fixed carbon 49.70 

Ash , (lilac gray) 15.40 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.491 

Coke (spongy) 65.10 



"A somewhat weathered sample. Has no, apparent 
pyrites. ' * 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 227 

A mile up the left fork, at G. W. Cooper's, are two 
openings which would correspond with those on the right 
fork except that the former are 230 feet higher, by barometer, 
than the latter. 

Possibly the lower Cooper is the same as the Tolliver coal 
of the right fork, but more likely they are both of higher beds. 

An entry into the lower one gives 3 feet of coal with 

2 feet more reported under a thick parting; elevation 2220. 

An unfinished cut in the upper one gave about 2 feet of 

coal on li feet of shale, with 2 feet of coal below; elevation 

2310. 

The top of the ridge is about 150 feet higher. 



At the mouth of Chumley branch, 11^ miles up Beech fork, 
is "Chumley rock" a cliff rising from the water nearly 100 
feet. At 35 feet up on this cliff, elevation 1485, say 170 feet 
above the Fire-clay coal, is 2 feet of limestone, apparently, 
which, opposite the mouth of Oldhouse branch, 12^ miles up, 
shows at the edge of the stream bed one and one half feet 
fossil lime shale; elevation 1520. 

On the Oldhouse branch, five miles up Beech fork, fossil 
limestone is found 185 feet above the Fire-clay coal, as before 
noted. 

At 12^ miles up, at "Kate Spring," and 12f miles up are 
entries giving the bed-sections shown in figure 263, (see next 
page) (the lower 8 in. of each measured in water). With 
the Fire-clay coal at a calculated elevation of 1380 these open- 
ings, about 750 feet above it, appear to be of the Hindman bed. 
This view is supported by the gradual increase of interval 



228 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

-_=r ..\Lam.S.3. 2o' 



Coat 



Fi 9 . <L (o 3 



Coo.( 

J h a. ( e 
Coat 



COCL( 



lllj.0 



Fig. 





Z." 



Coat 



l/3o 



Coo./ 



\$a m u.f/ C/ 1 e e c h 

between the two beds evidenced at points 
above Hyden noted herein. 

There is a large area of this coal in 
. Kentucky ridge, and the high ridges on 
each side of Beech fork should contain 
much of it. 

9 

In a cliff on the right, one and one 
half miles above the mouth of Beech 
fork, 40 feet above Middle Fork, the 
Whitesburg bed has been opened as in 
figure 264. The main seam of coal is 
probably not given its full thickness, as 
the lower foot was measured in water 
and mud, and the floor was not reached. 
Both coal seams have black slate roof. 
The resemblance to the coal of figure 
256 is close, and argues for a good work- 
ing area of this coal. 




/7* 



Htf 



ihin Iron Ore 



Coal 
Coa.1. 

S.S. 






S" 
(S 



s 







c i 



~r. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



WHITE OAK BRANCH. 

On the right,five Q n 

miles above Beech 
fork. 

As on Oldhouse 
branch of Beech 
fork, Mr. McCon- 
athy has made 
careful investiga- 
tion for the sur- 
vey of the coals on 
this branch. His 
section " B " 
figure 265 is plac- 
ed in juxtaposit- 
ion with my earlier 
one "A". Both 
show the Whites- 
burg coal with 
cannel at the bot- 
tom, both the Fire- 
clay coal, not work- 
able, a,nd, with the 
hill too low for the 
Hindman bed, no- 
thing workable 
above the 
clay coal. 

On the left, by 
the road, six and 
one-half miles a- 
above Beech fork,, 
feet above the 
creek, is the fol- 
lowing: -r, P&nnt 



229 



3o ' 

2. O 



7- 



jn 


-.r^; 


* 

s.s. 




56 

h 


-^ 


S. J. 




1- 


^_2_ 


Co a( f 3h 


' 


e 


rTpE 






17 


=-^3^ 


(Coo./ 7 


If- 


I- 




'' ; i' 


Co a./ 


>7' 


.- 

n 


; v ' . * 


Coa.1 


* 
/ O 






Coat 




s 
f 


, -//. 




/ 




^ - ^ 






>_ 


--^-_ -_ 


(Coal 
\Coo.l * 


"I" 




- 




Coctf 





r 

h 

h 

" /V70 


m 


fast// L. S. 








Coal 


/ 9 ** 


e 


SS 


(Coal 


2." 


e 


. * 


S/t. Z" 






=_= L- 


Coal 


8" 







Sh. '/* 




t 


r- -*''. 


Coo./ 


9" 


- 


= =3^ 


(Co a/ 
Stt.fC. J" 


3" 




r-^-^= 


Coo. 1 


J" 


/J/O- 


'.''V..;' 


Coo./ 


So" 






Coat 


1 mL ' 


1 


^ - '^_ 


.Coo./ '. 


* t~ 


/ 2.8f~- 


^^^: 


I^C/JK/ ; 

loaf 


r ' 
ti" 




JtZ-SJ- 


""..'/ ; 


/Coo./ 


#' 


| 


\^--;~ 


\Coo./ 
ICon.S/. i 


i* 






(Bony C.C. 


IV-' 







Coo./ 


//' 



230 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 



Elevation. 



Sandstone. 

Shale 2 ft. 

Coal 4 in. 

Parting 1 in. 

Coal 12 in. 

Parting 5 in. 

Coal 11 in. 



1300 



F!tj, 266 



Coo./ 
===^=1 -Sha./* 

Coot/ 



. C/ay 



This is evidently of the Fire-clay coal 
bed, but the lower parting, not a true 
flint-clay, is a "jack rock," similar to 
that found occasionally in the bed on 
North Fork waters, and near the head of 
Red Bird creek. 

At seven miles up, near the mouth of 
Marrow T bone branch, the Fire-clay coal 
has the section of figure 266. 

On the point of a hill in a barren field 
on the left eight and one half miles above 
Beech fork, 25 feet above the stream, 
the Fire-clay coal outcrop is exposed in 
shale with the characteristic flint clay, 
very prominent, about 3 in. thick. Ele- 
vation 1380. 

ROARK BRANCH. 






c/y 



On the left, nine miles above Beech 
fork. 

At E. J. Lewis' store at the mouth of this branch, the upper 
seam of the Fire-clay coal at elevation 1420, has been dug from 
the branch, ten feet above the river, 26 in. thick, and coal below 
a hard parting was reported, but was deep in water when 
visited. A thin coal with two partings lies 20 feet higher, 
with shale between. 

On the left, nine and one half miles up, five feet above the 
river, is 35 in. coal under 20 feet shale with 5 feet laminated 
sandstone above the latter. This seems to be the last ap : 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 231 

pearance of the top of the Fire-clay coal on this fork at 
elevation 1380. 

On the left, nine and three quarter miles up, 25 feet above 
the river, at elevation 1425, the rider shows 35 in. fine, hard 
coal, partly slickenseit, with five feet of shale over it. It 
probably goes below drainage at the mouth of Spruce Pine. 

SPRUCE PINE BRANCH. 
On the left, ten miles above Beech fork. 

On the right of the first right branch 
of Spruce Pine, an opening 695 feet 
above its mouth is stated, in a report to 
the Tennis Coal Co. by Neil Eobinson, 
to have the section shown in figure 267. 
The Fire-clay coal being probably 
about 30 feet under the mouth of Spruce 
Pine makes this, the Hindman bed, about 
725 feet above it. 

On. the left, 11 miles above Beech fork 
near the head of the 
branch at E. L. 
Helton's, his coal 

-Spruce P/'n e &r . , f 

has the section ot 

riinaLmart Coa/ 

figure 268. It is again the Hindman coal, 
showing finely as exposed in a wide out- 
crop opening. The coal looks favorable 
for coking, though in part splint. A 
streak of pyrites six in. from the bottom 
on one side of the opening, gives the only 
visible sign of sulphur. 

Though this coal is cut out, or nearly 
so, by gaps at the heads of Peter branch 
and Salt Trace, Straight creek, the main 
Kentucky ridge, being several hundred 
feet higher, gives scope for large mining 
operations in this bed. ///v,eCmo co/ 




IbS 



COOL 



Coal 



COCL! 



2.1 fo 



,9' 



232 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Zo* 



a." 

it." 



The section of figure 269, with bt*se 
at the junction of the road to Philips 
fork of Red Bird with that down Middle 
fork, shows the coals found on Rainbow 
(or Meadow) branch, along the road to- 
ward Philips fork. 

The upper coal, at William Helton's, 
shown also in figure 270, may be of the 
Hazard bed, the Hindman bed being here 
probably near the top of the hill. The 
same bed is opened again, in better con- 
dition, at the head ft 9. Z7o 

of the main stream, ^^^ 
as shown above. 

On the right of 
the splash-dam at 
the forks of the 
main stream, one 
and three quarter 
miles from the 
splash- dam at the 
above road forks, 

a.f w. Helton's coal 26 in. thick, at 
elevation 1845, is exposed in a rockhouse, evidently the same 
as the 26 in. coal of figure 269. 

Nearly one half mile up the left fork from this coal, on 
the right, 100 yards beyond the upper house on the Middle 



. 
Coo.1 



s.s. 

Coo.1 
Coo./ 
Coo./ 



s. s. 

Coo.1 






Belche 




18' 



20 2.0 



Helton 



KENTUCKY RIVER, MIDDLE FORK. 



233 



S.S. t' 
SH . J~ 

_ c../ 

r^^Zj $></* 



Coal 



Ft $ in Fork, is the coal of figure 271. This, in 

connection with the opening of figure 270 
indicates a good workable coal of possi- 
2." ble large area lying 150 to 200 feet below 
the Hindman coal, likely to prove of 
much value in this vicinity, especially in 
Kentucky ridge. A still higher bed may 
20 prove workable. Notes of some coals 
on the south side of the ridge therefore 
follow, which should aid development. 

CUMBERLAND RIVER. 

Straight Creek. 

Peter Branch. On the left, one mile 
above Salt Trace (on which is the road 
from Middle Fork). 

At Millard Whitehead's, two miles 
up, one quarter mile up a right branch, Hindman(!) coal, 43 
in. without parting; elevation 2150. 



Coo./ 



Salt Trace. On the right, by the road, what is probably 
the Fire-clay coal or its rider, coal reported 28 in. under ten 
feet of shale containing siderite; elevation 1485. 

On the left at Salt Trace P. 0. three quarter mile up. 



Elevation. 

Shale arid sandstone 15 ft. 

Black slate or slaty coal 8 in.+ 

Shale 8 in.+ 

Coal 32 in.+ 1795 



234 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Laurel Branch. On the north, one and one half miles 
below Salt Trace. 

Opening near head of branch, one and one quarter miles 
west of Salt Trace P. 0. 

Elevation. 

Shale, clay and earth 10 ft. 

Coal 1 ft. 

Clay with coal 2i ft. 

Coal, reported 4 ft. 2265 

Of the 4 feet of coal reported only 8 in. of the top was 
visible, but the excavation indicated a bed of that thick- 
ness. Some extra fine, splint coal lay on the dump. The bed 
fs about 100 feet above the Hindman ( I ) coal, and seems likely 
to be of the upper Cooper coal of Reuben branch, page 228. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



KENTUCKY RIVER. SOUTH FORK. 



No investigation by the writer has been made of the coals 
on this fork in Lee and Owsley counties, hence this area must 
be passed over with but the statement that the Beattyville 
coal, going under drainage probably close above the mouth of 
the South Fork, lies but little below the stream level up to the 
Clay county line, or even to Manchester. 

Its favorable condition in the vicinity of Beattyville and on 
Sturgeon creek should induce boring for it on South Fork 
waters. 

SEXTON CREEK. 

Not having examined recently the coals on this creek the 
following are introduced as matter of record only, taken from 
my report of 1886. 

On Hogskin branch of a left fork of Sexton a coal 21 in. 
thick is referred to Coal No. 2 and at Mrs. Eeid's at the head 
of Sexton, coal 31 in. thick, with black slate roof, is probably 
of the same bed, 100 to 125 feet above Coal 1, which here will 
be called the Manchester bed. 

At the old Salt works, Ammie postoffice, one quarter mile 
below Bullskin, the Manchester bed is about 3 feet thick, 
without parting, as mined on both sides of the river and but 
little above its level. 



37' 



Daui cL<son 
Ma. *? c h e s fe r Go a. I 



Big Branch. On the right, six miles 
up Bullskin creek. 

Mr. S. Davidson has a six-yard 
entry on a left branch, a mile up and 265 
feet above the mouth of the branch, into 
the Fire-clay coal, which gives the fol- 
lowing section: 



236 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

BULLSKIN CREEK. 

At the mouth of Little Bullskin, close to its level, the Man- 
chester bed is 24 in. thick without parting; elevation 740. 
r,'g .2.72. At Mr. Davidson's, three and one half 

miles up, it has 39 in. coal as in figure 

272, the strata having risen so that the 

bed is here 30 feet 

above the creek. 

At Samuel Dav- 
idson '>s, four and 
one half miles up,-* 
the section of fig-" ' 5 ' 
ure 273 was taken, 
in which the Man- 
chester coal is at 

or below drainage level, and the Fire- 
clay coal, at elevation 1205, makes 
its first known appearance on this fork, 
thin here, but showing well at a number 
of places on Bed Bird tributaries. The 
rider to the Fire-clay coal is also ap- 
parent. 




Co 0.1 
St.. 



COCL/ 

Coat 



i nil/ 5 5 



Sh. 
Co*./ 
C/ay 



at. sr. 

Coo.1 



Coo.1 '2. 
Co a.1 
Sh. 
Coo./ 

Sf>. 
Coo./ 



i.s * fs> cvff 
COL/C . Co n e . 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



237 



Sandstone 5 ft. 

Shale 6 in. 

Coal 27 in. 

Flint fire-clay 5 in. 

Coal _ ._ 6 in. 



Elevation. 



1075 




Showing, if elevations are correct, a 
considerable dip from four and one half 
0/ - miles up the creek almost due east. 

At seven and one half miles up, 15 
feet above the creek, is 25 in. coal under 
eight feet of shale, elevation 860, which 
is probably the equivalent of the 27 in. 
coal at elevation 930 in the section of 
figure 273. 



Trace Branch. On the right, eight 
and one quarter miles up Bull skin. 

' ' f 6 C/dy too./ 

On the Tight, one-half mile up the branch, 205 feet above 
its mouth, James Warnock's four-yard entry gives the bed- 
section of figure 274, nearly level with the Fire-clay coal on 
Big branch. 

By the road, some 12 miles up Bullskin and a mile from 
the head of Hell-for-Certain creek, the top seam of the Fire- 
clay coal is opened 26 in. thick under sandstone roof. The 
flint clay shows on the floor and coal is probably under it: 
elevation, with some question, is 1075. 



238 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



990 -- 



) st>. 

/Coo./ 
\. CVoy 

, COAf 



3." 



Coo./ 



Coo./ 



Co a.1 



RED BIRD CREEK. 

Hector Creek. The section taken at 
Addison Lewis', five miles up the creek, 
shown in figure 275, gives the two beds 
under the Fire-clay coal varying in 
thickness and relative position remark 
ably little from what was found on Bull- 
skin, figure 273. 

The Fire-clay coal at 1370 is 165 feet 
higher than on Bullskin, and has either 
lost its lower member, or it was not 
found, while the usual parting is here an 
impure fire-clay. The rider, too, resem- 
bles closely that of figure 273. 



Jack's Creek. On the left, one mile 
above Hector (there is another Jack's 
creek above Bo wen creek). 



Bowling Branch. On the left, two miles up Jack's creek. 

On the left, one eighth mile up the branch, 160 feet above 
Eed Bird, Bowling's six-yard entry gives the Fire-clay 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



239 




coal as shown in figure 276. Directly 
across the ridge to the north on Big 
branch of Bullskin, the same bed gives 
33 in. coal, as noted. 

The bed is reported opened again 
farther up the creek. 



Big Creek. In 1891, Mr. G. M. Sulli- 
. van made for the State Survey a detailed 
. . ., . . examination of parts of this and other 

DcLUtoL Oousltrtg 

F.'re c/ v coo./ ^ ec ^ Bird tributaries above it, and, 

in addition to my own notes, his report is largely incor- 
porated, and his page maps inserted. The location of his 
openings can be seen on the maps, and their elevations can be 
estimated generally by reference to the base of his sections, 
to which I have given elevations as obtained from the United 
States map. His page maps, though based on that map, 
earlier and less accurate than his, have their details sketched 
in with a fair approach to accuracy. 

On the following page is his map of Big creek and branches 
and his section taken on School-house branch of Ulysses fork. 



rig . 2 T 7 




KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



241 




fire C/at 



Bear Branch. A mile up this, branch, 
openings by Mr. Clarkson, probably un- 
2 ,-> finished, developed, according to Mr. 
Sullivan : 

Coal 6 in. 

Clay 5 in. 

Coal 20 in. 

And coal 33 in. , the latter 5 feet below the former. 



In apparently the same place (on 
the right of a left branch), my recent 
visit found a six-yard entry with coal 
as in figure 278. The floor of the entry 
is a common hard underclay with thick 
sandstone below it. The entry is in the 



Bear Br. 

F/re C/a.y Co a./ 

Fire-clay coal bed. 

Between the upper forks of the branch, one and one quarter 
miles from its mouth, at water level of the left fork, the bed 
shows: 

Coal , 16 in. 

Shale 5 in. 

Coal 24 in. 

the lower 6 in. in water and bottom 
nearly but not quite found. 

Mr. Eoberts has opened, on the north 
of Big creek and just below Ulysses fork, 
the same bed with the result shown in 
figure 279. An upper bench of coal (the 
rider (?) was hidden by timbering. No 
flint clay in this or the two next preced- 
ing openings was found, but there is no 



Fiq . 27? 



C/at 



COOL/ 



C/oy 



Co a.1 



Fire Cloy Coat 




/tf." 



question as to identity of the bed. 



242 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Ulysses Fork School-House Branch. Mr. Sullivan's 

vertical, section, with his page-map, gives probably all the 

coals in o'utcrop on this section, with none but the Fire-clay 

rf*9~:<e.6' coal of workable thickness. Of four 

openings made, but one, nearest the 

I mouth of the fork, is in thick coal, 

and it probably includes the rider, as 
Co a/ 27" shown in figure 280. 
Mr. Sullivan's sample from the badly 
weathered outcrop of the 38 in. seam 
.. 
: c/ y st> gave, to Dr. R. Peter's analysis: 

FIRE-CLAY COAL. Chem. Report No. 3129. 

Moisture 5 - 80 

Volatile combustible matter 27 84 

Co A/ Jg" Fixed carbon - 55.16 

Ash (light gray) 11.20 




100.00 

Sulphur -526 

Coke (pulverulent) 66.36 

f/re C/OLt/ Coat 

The next two openings up the fork 
are as follows, the latter dipping at a 
sharp angle, N. 20 degrees W. 




i. 

Coal 3 in. 

Clay 1 in. 

Coal 24 in. 

Flint-Clay 4 in. 



2. 

Coal 24 in. 

Flint-Clay 4 in. 



The fourth opening is also in thin 
coal. 

Near the head of the branch, on the 
road to Jack's and Bullskin creeks, J. M. 
Finley has a 50-yard entry of more recent 
date, showing at its mouth as in figure 
281. The floor is a bituminous shale, 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



243 



and the lower 8 in. exposed is a bony coal not now mined. 
At the face about 4 feet of coal is taken. It is evidently 
of the Fire-clay coal bed. 



McFadden Branch. 

On the right of 
the road to Bock- 
house creek and 
Hyden, one mile 
above Hall's (or 
Hal's) fork. 



CO 0.1 



*fa.//r/y J 3. 



Br. 



Of the two prin- 
cipal coals shown 
in the section fig- 
ure 282 the lower 
is of the Fire-clay 
coal bed, and the 
upper, unless the 
interval has chan- 
ged largely from 
that on the Middle 
Fork below Hyden, 
is of the Hazard 
bed. These are 
represented on en- 
larged scale in fig- 
ure 283. 



My sample of the 
upper coal gave 
the following an- j$j$\ F - 
alysis, by Dr. E. 
Peter: 



2o 



Coo./ /Z~ 



; HcL-*.a.rct Coal 




C/ay Coo./ 



244 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



HAZARD BED. Chein. Report No. 2740. 

Moisture 1.60 

Volatile combustible matter 34.94 

Fixed carbon 55.46 

Ash (lilac gray) 8.00 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.066 

Coke (spongy ) 63.46 

Specific gravity 1.322 

"No pyrites apparent, and but little fibrous coal." 
On the right, opposite the mouth of Patton branch, 60 
feet above it, elevation 1075, the Fire-clay coal shows good 
thickness in an opening too much covered for measurement. 
A streak of pyrites, 2 in. thick, 18 in. from the top, appears 
to have replaced the 5 in. shale parting in the McFadden 
branch opening. 



Pation Branch. On the left, two 
miles above Hall's fork. 

A half mile up, at stream level, is an 
opening into the Fire-clay coal bed show- 
ing as in figure 284. 



Coo./ 



Coo./ 
3 h a. I e 
' i h o 

Pa. ~ffo n 
Fire C/ay Co 0.1 



On the left of Big creek, five feet 
above it, two and one quarter miles above 
Hall's fork the former Pleasant Sisemore 
opening, now Richard Collins bank, 
shows the Fire-clay coal, also as in figure 
284, except that the flint-clay parting is 2 
in. thicker. The main seam is in part 
splint coal. 

My sample of this coal, formerly 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



245 




Coo./ 



(Co 



Coo./ 
Coa.1 



S' 

a.( S" 



Coo./ f iff. 
Sh.S.S 



Bt. S*. 
Coo./ /J. 



COOL.I 



tjt6/c Cr. 
out 
m. Ho &krrr 



given as on Hal's fork, and Prof. Cran- 
d all's sample of the same, reported from 
Howell's fork, analyzed by Dr. B. Peter, 
gave results, respectively, as reported 
under Nos. 2741 and 3187. 



Chem. 
FIRE-CLAY COAL BED. No. 2741 

Moisture 1.40 

Volatile combustible matter 35.68 

Fixed carbon 58.92 

Ash (light reddish gray), 

(brownish gray) 4.00 



Report 

No. 3187 

2.98 
33.98 
59.98 

3.06 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.667 

Coke (spongy) 62.92 

Specific gravity 1.285 



100.00 

.404 
63.04 



No. 2741. "No apparent pyrites, 
and but little fibrous coal." 

The ash is remarkably low, and es- 
pecially for this bed. 

The rider shows in the cliff above this 
opening, 22 in. thick, with 10 feet of sand- 
stone and shale between and with a roof 
of sandstone, eight feet exposed. 

Big Double Creek. Figure 285 
represents a section taken on this 
creek, two miles up from its mouth. 
The Fire-clay coal and its rider are 
of chief interest here though of 
no value. Coals below it cannot now 
be correlated, nor can coals above 
it, though they are suggestive of 
the Haddix, Hazard and Flag coals, 



246 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



as found on the North Fork, and the cannel of the upper bed, 
common in the Flag coal, strengthens the suggestion. 



Sugar Creek, Spruce Pine or Piney Branch. On the left, 
one mile up Sugar creek. 

Mr. Sullivan gives the measure of an opening into the 
Fire-clay coal on the right, one eighth mile up, (now fallen 
in) as: 

Coal 3 in. 

Shale 3 in. 

Coal 26 in. 

Flint Clay 5 in. 

Its elevation I make 1125. 



s.s. 



CO A/ 



Coo.t 



Coo./ 



s-r 



Ha tar d. Co a/ 



Laurel Branch. On the left two 
miles up Sugar creek. 

At the extreme head of this branch, 
across from the head of Spruce Pine 
branch, on the McCullom tract, an excel- 
lent entry has been driven into the Haz- 
ard bed, from which figure 286 is de- 
rived. Being only 60 feet under the hill- 
top no mining can be done here, but 
with the coal dipping eastward into 
the higher main ridge, a good field of 
it may be found in that direction. The 
upper McFadden coal of Big creek (fig- 
ure 283) gives additional reason for ex- 
pecting it, but it has not been found of 
workable thickness elsewhere on Bed 
Bird waters. 

Prof. A. E. CrandalPs sample from 
the lower 55 in. of coal yielded, to Dr. 
R. Peter's analvsis: 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 247 

HAZARD BED. Chem. Report No. 3188. 
Moisture 1.80 

Volatile combustible matter 34.00 

Fixed carbon 57.06 

Ash (light gray) - 7.14 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.742 

Coke (spongy) 64.20 

It looks like a good coking coal, as seen at the face of the 
entry. 

Gilbert's Creek. The following page-map by Mr. Sulli- 
van, figure 287, gives the location of openings on this creek, 
and the vertical section on the left shows the paucity of its 
coals. 

The complete section was taken about two miles up the 
creek, and but little over four miles southward from that of 
School-house branch, Ulysses fork. It includes fourteen 
coals, none of them two feet thick. 

The Fire-clay coal, opened in five places, each having the 
flint-clay as parting or floor, gave a maximum thickness of 
coal of 22 in. The Hazard coal was found thin, but there is 
yet possibility of its being thick (as on Sugar creek) near 
the head of the creek, where its area must be fairly large. 



Fig .2.87 



I INCH * / AT/ LE 




KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



249 



Elisha's Creek. The page-map and vertical section of 
figure 287 give thirteen coals on this creek as found by Mr. 
Sullivan. The principal coal is of the Whitesburg bed, known 
in the vicinity as the Gilbert cannel coal. 

This bed more recently opened on the right, a mile up the 
creek, 130 feet above it, gave, in a six-yard entry, the coal of 
figure 288. The bituminous coal is bright and fine-looking, 
r ' 9 ' i86 the cannel of light weight and excellent 

fracture and there is no plane of cleav- 
age between them. 



-^-"=j -Shale 




Coal 



nnel Coal '7 



Gilbert- 
Vtfhi fesAurq Coal 

The bed-sections 



Mr. Sullivan reports four openings 
into this bed, one a 50 foot entry one half 
mile up the main creek, two on the 
middle fork and one on the left fork, the 
first of them alone having cannel coal, 
of three of them measured: 



MAIN CREEK. 
Shale 

Coal 1 in. 

Slate 1 in. 

Coal 17i in. 

Cannel coal _. 12 in. 



MIDDLE FORK. LEFT FORK. 

Shale , Coal - 4 in. 

Coal 27 in. Shale 2 in. 

Clay 1 in. Coal 2 in. 

Coal -i in. Clay 11 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

Clay 25 in. 

Coal . __11 in. 



250 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Mr. Sullivan's sample of the firm oannel coal, analyzed by 
Dr. B. Peter, gave : 

WHITESBURG BED. Chem. Report No. 3128. 
Moisture 0.60 

Volatile combustible matter 49.20 

Fixed carbon 43.00 

Ash (light brownish gray) 7.20 



100.00 

Sulphur .483 

Coke (very dense) 50.20 

The Fire-clay coal 60 feet above the next preceding, is 
noted at six different points, each with flint clay and coal 
over it varying from one in. to eight in. 

The 24 in. coal under black slate, 200 feet above the Fire- 
clay coal 10 in. thick on Gilbert creek (of the Hazard bed (?) 
appears to be the next in importance. 



Flat Creek. In the bed of Bed Bird, 
near the mouth of this creek, what is 
probably the Manchester bed goes below 
drainage with about 2 feet of coal. 



Right Fork, Panther Branch. On 
the left, near the head of the fork, Flat 

Short creek. 

Figure 289 represents the coal at an opening north of Mr. 
Short's house, below the road to Martin's creek. He reports 
2 feet more of coal in the bottom of the bed, under a parting 
of li feet, and also 3 feet of coal 40 feet lower. 




KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



251 



100 

gap 



f-SAo/e 
Cca/ 





Coa/ 



Figure 290 represents coal opened 

yards north of the Martin's creek 

and 25 feet above it. Mr. Short's 
reports would indi- 
cate that this coal, 
said to be shown 
complete, lies be- 
low that which he 
has opened, and 
its elevation and 
the general pitch 
of strata tend to 
confirm this view, 

but the Section? Martin s Cr. 

of the two openings are so like that 
there is good reason to believe that they 
are of the same bed. With the 2 feet 
of reported coal added underneath the 
bed-section resembles that of Mr. Walk- 
er's cannel coal on Martin's creek, 
page 281- 

These coals are too high in the hills 
to be of ;any very great value here, but 
southward their areas increase rapidly. 
Until additional data are obtained their 
correlation must remain in doubt, but 
they are not far from the Fire-clay coal 
bed. The opening at the gap appears 
most likely to be of that bed. 



Cr. 



Cr. 



Bowen's Creek. In addition to my 
early section of the lower coals on this 
creek, given in figure 291, a number of 
openings since made for the N. Y. & 



252 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Ky. Land & Lumber Co., were all reported thin. A very thick 
bed is currently reported, however, as opened in 1906. 

Spring Creek. This stream also has been prospected by 
the N. Y. & Ky. Land & Lumber Co. without finding any 
thick coal. 



Katy's Creek. On the following page is given in figure 
292, Mr. Sullivan's map of this region, and, on the right of 
that map, his vertical section of strata found on the creek. 



F!g. 2*2. 



/ INCH = / MILE. 



9oo 

Sect -/on 
on 

Aa/y* Cr. 




254 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Of the ten coals he found, the Fire-clay coal at elevation 
1155 is of most interest, showing itself here in a new phase, 
with cannel slate in place of the coal on the flint-clay, and the 
lower coal separated from it by common clay. 

My early section is given on the left of the map, all coals 
in it but the upper one having been found in a right branch 
about two miles up; the upper one three miles up. 

Opposite the right branch, three miles up the creek and 
next above the Alvis Hubbard house, 80 feet higher than the 
latter, the coal of figure 293 was found. Allowing for a rapid 
rise, for such there is, from the location of Mr. Sullivan's 
section, this coal must be near the horizon of the Fire-clay 
coal bed. It is, perhaps, the upper seam, apart from its usual 
parting, or else the rider to that bed. My outcrop sample of 
this coal, too high in ash to represent the coal fairly, analysed 
by Dr. E. Peter, gave : 



Chem. Report No. 2654. 

Moisture l.GO 

Volatile combustible matter 34.28 

Fixed carbon 54.82 

Ash (purplish brown) 9.30 



-38 




100.00 

Sulphur 1.766 

Coke (dense spongy) 64.12 

Specific gravity 1.290 



"A somewhat weathered sample." 
Mr. Sullivan, in search of this open- 
Hu66a.rd ing^ found, probably in the same bed, on 

the opposite side of the creek as shown on this map, but 24 in. 
coal, without parting. Local knowledge of the original open- 
ing had been lost. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



255 




Bear Creek. On the left of tho 
creek, behind the Sisemore house two 
miles up, the coal of figure 294 is opened. 
The floor is not flint clay, but, as with 
the 40 in. coal on Katy's creek, this 
seems most likely to be the upper seam 
of the Fire-clay coal, or its rider. The 
coal dips quite rapidly southeast and an 
anticline is probably between this and 
Katy's creek. 



Jack's Creek. The general results of Mr. Sullivan's 
work on this creek are given in the section on the right of 
the page-map, figure 295. 



Co a./ t 

Coa./ uj',rt> PcLrli'mff 




KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



257 



Coo/ 




f CVee/f 
fire C/ay Coa.1 ft, tie 

the sections stated below: 



"A complete section was made near 
the mouth, and a partial one about three 
miles above, and near the forks of, the 
creek. Thirteen coals were developed in 
this region and all of them were thin 
excepting one." 

The Fire-clay coal was found on 
Oakley Cave branch, near its level, and 
on Beech fork near its mouth, carrying 
flint-clay and but little coal. 

Thirty feet higher the rider was 
opened at the mouth of the creek, badly 
split up, as in figure 296. Other open- 
ings, on the Left fork and on Oakley 
Cave branch, near ^/> .297 
their mouths have 



LEFT FORK}, OAKLEY CAVE. 

Coal 15i in 13$ in. 

Clay 2i in 1 in. 

Bit. shale 1$ in l in. 

Coal 26 in 24 in. 

A fourth opening into this bed, on 
the left of a right branch, one-half mile 
up the Eight fork, gave the section of 
figure 297. The two lower seams of 
coal are not now visible. 

From all but the first of these four 
openings samples of firm coal were taken 
by Mr. Sullivan, and analyzed by Dr. K. 
Peter with the results following: : 



Coal 



Coo./ 

C/o-y 



Co a. I 



i" 



Coat 



/o 



B/'ret 
C/ay COOL/ 4/ofr 



258 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Chemical Report 

No. 3183 No. 3184 No. 3186 

FIRE-CLAY COAL RIDER. Left Fork Oakley Cave Right Fork 



Moisture 


1.20 


1.04 


0.74 


Volatile com. matter 


27.88 


33.36 


33.86 


Fixed carbon 


64 . 92 


59.68 


57.48 


Ash _ _ 


_ _ 6.00 


5.92 


7.92 











100.00 



100.00 



100.00 



Sulphur .721 .357 .532 

Coke - 70.92 dense 65.60spongy 65.40spongy 

Color of ash very light gray gray light gray 

Higher coals appear not to have been investigated toward 
the head of the creek, where there is some reason to believe 
thick coal may be found, especially in the Hazard bed, 300 
feet above the Fire-clay coal. Strata lie nearly level along the 
creek and through the ridge down White Oak branch to Mid- 
dle Fork. 

Fossil limestone is not known to occur elsewhere 50 feet 
under the Fire-clay coal, and its position in the section is 
doubtless erroneous. It is located on the map well up the 
creek, where the Fire-clay coal must be below drainage, and 
Mr. Sullivan reports, "a bituminous fossil limestone was 
noted about 170 feet above the flint clay coal." This corres- 
ponds closely with its estimated position 
near the head of Middle Fork. In the 
creek bank, on the left about two miles 
up, and about 70 feet below the Fire-clay 
coal, (possibly but 50, as in the section) 
is a bastard limestone, 1^ feet thick, 
unique in its cleavage into blocks, some- 
what like cannel coal. I saw this from 
across the creek and did not look for 
fossils in it. 



-Sha/e 




/t ./.>? $/> e r 
Fire C/a</ Co a I 



Mr. Neil Robinson reported to the 
Tennis Coal Co. the coal of figure 298, 
at "Jack" Asher's, at the mouth of Phil- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



259 



199 




Caa.1 J/a/'/r 




6.3. 



COCL{ 
SA. S.S. 



(Co* I 

-\r.cto.u 

' (Co a/ 

,. Co./ 
-' (Co a./ 
,-} iff. 
(Ceo/ 



af 



ip's fork and 115 feet above it; the 29 
in. seam a block coal. This, the Fire- 
clay coal, has not shown such thickness 
elsewhere in the vicinity, but the report 
should not be discredited. 



Philips Fork. The preceding page- 
map, figure 295, includes Philip's fork, 
and on its left margin is Mr. Sullivan's 
section, with seventeen coals, obtained 
on that fork. My earlier and less com- 
plete section, figure 299, taken in the 
same vicinity, shows variation of coals, 
as well as some barometric inaccuracies, 
resulting in apparent differences of in- 
tervals between coals. 

The splitting up of the Whitesburg 
bed, 60 feet below the Fire-clay coal, 
into several thin ones is made evident in 
my section. 

Mr. Sullivan made four openings in- 
o the Fire-clay coal bed, all giving about 
J in. of coal above, and 13 in. below, 
.he flint clay parting, none quite as fa- 
vorable as mine, and all far inferior to 
that at the mouth of the fork. He re- 
ports the bed as going below drainage 
near the mouth of Eocky Point branch. 



260 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



f"f o . 3ee 




Coo./ 



f/'re 



Coal ffi dfr 



The rider to the Fire-clay coal was 
not discovered in my early examination, 
but was found at a recent opening as in 
figure 300 at Lucy (or James) Asher's, 
on the left, one-half mile up the fork. 
The bottom of the bed, in water, was not 
seen. 

In A, B and C of figure 301 are Mr. 
Sullivan's measurements of the bed as 
'+ opened, respectively, on the left and on 
the right, 1^ miles up "below the old 
Matilda Asher house," and at Mr. 
Eoark's just above the mouth of Pups 
branch. 

He gives the bed, also the following 

Fi<j. So i _ 



\Coal 



Coat to 

^^^ $ha-le I" 

Coal //' 
C/ay 3" 



Coa/ 



C/atf / 
Co*/ 



Coal 

C/oy / 
Coa( 

C/ay / 
Co <L( 

C/Oy /' 

Coo./ 



Coo./ 



Coo./ 



/o 



^^=3 QhoL/e 12." 

Coo.1 S-' 



Coct. I Jo 



Fire Clay Coo.1 Rider 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 261 

section, as found on a small branch on the west of the main 
creek, mile below E. L. Morgan's house: 



Cannel slate 4 in. 

Coal 18 in. 

Clay l in. 

Coal 6 in. 

Clay 4 in. 

Coal _ l In. 



It is not impossible that on pushing well underground the 
above partings would disappear, and higher benches of coal 
come in ; nor does it appear likely that all the clay of the 
figured openings continues far underground. 

Mr. Sullivan's sample, from the opening U A," "slightly 
weathered and containing infiltered clay," gave the following 
results to Dr. E. Peter's analvsis: 



Chem. Report 
RIDER TO FIRE-CLAY COAL ("A") No. 3185 

Moisture 0.74 

Volatile combustible matter 32.90 

Fixed carbon ; 58.44 

Ash (light gray) . 7.92 



100.00 

Sulphur .892 

Coke (spongy) 66.36 

' * Sample from the outcrop, taken from lower 44 in., with 
one thin clay parting." 

As on Jack's creek, the fossil limestone was found about 
170 feet above the Fire-clay coal, but here it is close above 
14 in. of coal. 



262 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



<3o 3 



4 </ 



On the left, mile above Philips 
fork, the rider to the Fire-clay coal, 
figure 303, is opened, 235 feet, as 
recorded, above the creek. Actually it is 
probably considerably less, as the place 
of the bed at the mouth of Philips fork 
seems to be but 145 feet up, at elevation 
1105, and there is little reason to sup- 
pose such rapid inclination oif strata 
here, as such a difference in level would 
necessitate. Approximate measure of the 
bottom coal was due to water 'covering it. 



o. 1/cLcAson Blue Hole Creek. On the right, two 

c/ay c oa ./ A/cttr miles above Philips fork. 
Mr. Sullivan's page-map of this creek, accompanied by 
his vertical section on both sides of the map, is given in figure 
304. Though no workable coal was found on the creek, the 
results are not without value. 




Coa./ 9" 

Coa./ 2- 

Coal 2e>" 

'COO. I J ' 

l.cct/ /'a 

'.foe 



Coa/ 
C/ov 
Coa/ 

Coo./ 
Cfa.fi 
Coa.( 
'-Coa./ 
Coa./ 
Fl. Cta. 



8 " 



S~ 

2. * 



( 

< 

'jt 



A7e>. of Or 



Sccfion on 
B/ueho/e Br. 



- / MILE: . 




S.5 



Cfat <," 
C/oy *" 

' 



Coa I l ' 



264 



O /*;// 



:y.;7.i 



Coo.* 
Co a/ 
Sft. 

Co a/ 



'<* 
9 



I . 

1 (Cetktt ih. 



Co a. I 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The Fire-clay coal was opened 240 
^ ee ^ ' a k ve the mouth of the creek, thin, 
as shown in the section ; and the rider u 
but little better. Its bed-section, near 
the mouth of Bear Wallow, 1^ miles up, 
and analysis by Dr. E. Peter, from Mr. 
Sullivan's sample of the firm coal at that 
point, are given as follows: 

" RIDER TO FIRE-CLAY COAL. 

Coal --------------------------------------- 5i in. 

Clay __________________________ _ ____________ \ in. 

Coal -------------------------------------- 26J in. 

Chem. Report No. 3127 
Moisture ---------------------------------- 1.20 

Volatile combustible matter _______________ 29.80 

Fixed carbon ___ _ __________________________ 65.00 

Ash (light brownish gray) _________________ 4.00 



../ 
( 

'1 
(C 



./- , 
(Co a. I 



Coo.t 



Ceo. I 
Coat 

\ J ** 
< " St. 



COO.L 

9.9. 



6" 



Co< 
JA. S.I. 



.f 



s.s: 

Wot+tt, 



f Br. 



100.00 

Sulphur .755 

J " Coke (dense) 69.00 

a./ * 

The nine coals found above this bed 
were all thin, as shown in the section. 



Lick Branch. On the right, four 
miles above Philips fork. 

The section taken on this creek, 
running from its mouth well up toward 
its head, is shown in figure 305, the Fire- 
clay coal at elevation 1330, having been 
opened a mile up this branch. A rise 
of strata, in general about with the 
creek, is noted in coming up Eed Bird 
from Philips fork, but a westerly dip 
going up Lick branch reduced the inter- 
vals shown between 'coals in the section 
somewhat below what they actually are. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



265 



Fiq. Jo 6 



i Shaft 




The Fire-clay coal as opened on the 
left, -| mile up and 240 feet above the 
mouth of the branch, is shown in figure 
306. The "jack rock" is a change from 
the pure flint clay which is not uncom- 
mon. This is the second place above 
Sugar creek where the bed has been 
found workable, and a mile up the 
branch it is thin again, as shown in the 
section, figure 305. The impure fire-clay 
parting there is, perhaps, a transition 
stage from the jack-rock just mentioned, 
/j . j. /\$her The 80 feet apparent drop of the bed in 

Fire c/ay Coal the half mile between the two openings 

needs verification. 

The 32 in. rider to the Fire-clay coal is of consequence 
only as it may lead to its discovery in better condition else- 
where. It is very much as on Blue Hole creek. 
F; <f . 307 

The three coals near the top of the 
section are of interest, as being, perhaps, 
of the Hindman bed, lost sight of above 
Sugar creek, coming back now towards 
a working condition. 



Rich Branch. On the left, 5f miles 
above Philips fork. 

On the right, $ mile up this branch, 
70 feet above its mouth an opening into 
the Fire-clay coal gives the section of 
figure 307. If the opening had been 
started lower, it is likely that lower 
seams of the bed would have been uncovered. 




^r' 



266 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



if. Jo 8 

(.f-lL/Jy^ C/ay S.S. 

Coo./ 



JWWWVKI // - 

mRww c/<x v 7 

\V///-v\vd 

ra./ 



Meadow Fork. On the right, six 
miles above Philips fork, (giving the 
road to Left fork, Straight creek). 

On the left, f mile up this fork, 30 
feet above it, a 3-yard entry gives the 
Fire-clay coal as in figure 308, again 
with jack-rock parting, possibly with 
coal below it. The measurements ob- 
tained of coal and partings varied con- 
siderably, the entry having a very ir- 
regular roof. 



the P ath a half mile to the left of 

the gap to Left fork, Straight creek, 180 
hiher than it and 40 feet under the 



c/a</ Coo./ 

top of Kentucky ridge, is an old cannel coal opening showing 

several feet thickness; at elevation 2140, some 650 feet above 
the Fire-clay coal, it is probably either of the Hindman bed, 
or of one close to it. 



Cow Fork. On the left, i mile 
above Meadow fork, 6| miles above 
Philip's fork. 

A 5-yard entry into the Fire-clay 
coal on the left, 15 feet above the fork r 
a mile up, gives the section of figure 309. 
The jack-rock parting serves to establish 
its correlation. 



^s 




ire c/ay Coal 



On the head of the main creek, on 
\ mile above Cow fork a 60- 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



267 



S.-S. Zo 



Coal 




\J. 3- A>T u.c/f /es 
Fire C/at/ Coaf 



r/ 9 .j,o yard entry with 

rooms gives coal 
of varying thick- 
ness in a consider- 
able roll. On its 
slope the bed has 
been mined where 
over 6 feet thick, 
and elsewhere the 
top seam is down 
to 27 in. thickness. 
Figure 310 gives 
the section where 
it appears to be 
nearest normal. 
The bottom coal is not mined. The dis- 
tinctive parting may be lower, but in any 
case, intermediate in direction and level 
between the Cow and Meadow forks coals 
and with a like roof, it is confidently as- 
sumed to be of the Fire-clay coal bed. 

This bed, 100 feet higher on the head 
of Left fork, Straight creek, has the flint- 
clay parting in its floor. A cannel coal lies 
30 feet above it there, and fossil lime- 
stones 180 and 420 feet above it. It is 
known widely on Cumberland river 
waters as the Dean coal. 

GOOSE CREEK. 



S.S 



Sf,. i S. 
(Coo./ 



Sfi.S.S. 



Sf,. S. S. 



Sf, S.S. 

( Coa.{ Ji" 
(Ca.r,net f. / f ' 



Sf, 
Co a. I /J " 

i a( J. M- Jones 



Beech Creek. On this creek, near its mouth, the Man- 
chester, or No. 1, coal has been opened with a thickness of 
about 3 feet. 



268 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



The section of figure 311, taken about four miles up the 
creek, shows but one coal of workable thickness, cor- 
^/>.J/z related as No. la in my report of 1886. 

Its bed-section is given in figure 312, and 
analyses by Dr. K. Peter, of my samples 
of the cannel and of the 32 in. bituminous 
coal, are given below. Both are unduly 
high in ash because of included mud, but 
j." the cannel sample evidently included, 
also, black slate from the bottom of the 
bed. to which the good cannel changes 
s~" by imperceptible degrees. If but 10 in. 
to 12 in. of cannel had been sampled, the 
result would have been but a fair per- 
centage of ash, and perhaps a great 
J. M.Jones diminution of sulphur. 




( Co 



Chem. Report No. 2652 

Cannel 

Moisture 0.42, 

Volatile com. matter 32.38 

Fixed carbon 35.20 

Ash . _ 32.00 



2651 
Bituminous 

0.92 
37.54 
53.44 

8.10 



100.00 



100.00 



Sulphur 6.042 1.601 

Coke dense spongy 

Specific gravity 1.313 

Color of ash brown light brownish 

gray 

The Fire-clay coal is the only higher coal which gives 
any promise of being of value, and as that must lie well up 
towards the tops of the hills, and is thin on Hector creek, its 
promise is very slight. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



269 




J. L. Horn<s6y 



COOL/ 



Laurel Creek. Rising quite rapidly, 
up this creek, the Manchester coal, a 
mile from the mouth, has the section of 
figure 313, one of its best in Clay county. 
My sample from this opening, taken 
from 3 yards underground, gave the 
following results to Dr. E. Peter's 
analysis : 



MANCHESTER BED. Chem. Report No. 2650 

Moisture 1.46 

Volatile combustible matter 34.84 

Fixed carbon , 57.70 

Ash (nearly white) 6.00 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.531 

Coke (spongy) 63.70 

Specific gravity 1.292 

" Apparently a good splint coal. No apparent pyrites, 
but some ferruginous .stains ; seems to be a somewhat weather- 
ed sample." 

A mile beyond the Hornsby opening the coal is but 30 
inches thick, but farther up the creek it is said to be thicker 
again. < 

Manchester. The Conglomerate formation which barely 
rises to river level at the mouth of Goose creek makes here 
the foundation for the town and rises to 100 feet above the 



270 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

creek. Close above it is the Manchester coal, which has been 
opened in several places in the immediate vicinity, all 
abandoned for thicker coal at a greater distance. 



Horse Creek. Numerous mines on 
this creek are worked for town supply 
in the Manchester bed, which is a little 
above creek level and rises with it 
for several miles. It is called here 
Coat <js" a 4_f 00 t bed, but the coal is nowhere 
quite so thick, and rarely reaches 3 
feet. Figure 314, an opening a mile 
up the 'creek, reproduced from a former 
report, is believed to give a fair average 
Coo./ thickness on this creek, where the bed 
is at its best in Clay county so far as yet found. 



From Manchester the coal dips southward about 60 feet 
per mile to the Garrard mine at the former Salt works, on 
the right of the creek, 25 feet above it. The coal in this mine 
varies in thickness ''from 12 in. to 42 in. with an average of 
32 in.* By a later measure at 400 yards in, it had increased 
to 44 in. thickness. On the left of the creek, at the face of 
another Garrard mine, it measured 31 in. My sample from 
this point, 70 yards in, analysed by Dr. E. Peter, gave : 




*C. J. Norwood, report of State Inspector of Mines. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 271 

MANCHESTER BED. Chem. Report No. 2648 

Moisture 1.20 

Volatile combustible matter 38.10 

Fixed carbon 54.90 

Ash (lilac-gray) 5.80 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.793 

Coke (spongy) 60.70 

Specific gravity 1.287 

"A pure-looking pitch-black coal with very little fibrous 
coal and only a few specks of pyrites. ' ' 



Collins Fork. The southerly dip of strata from Man- 
chester to the mouth of Collins fork, and again farther south, 
led to the belief that the dip was continuous, but by a late 
examination, needing verification, it appears that a short 
reversal of dip, or long roll, occurs just south of the Garrard 
mines, by which the Manchester coal is brought well above 
the bottom lands again. This will be assumed as the case 
in the following Goose creek details. 

Buzzard Creek. Two miles up on the left fork of Buz- 
zard, Isaac Swafford had an entry into the Manchester bed, 
at elevation 1000, with coal 36 in. thick, but the entry is 
now abandoned (probably because of running down the dip) 
for one in which the coal is 31 in. thick at the mouth, and 
but 30 in. at the face, 20 yards in. Directly under this, as 
shown by an abandoned opening by the roadside, is: 

Shale 3 ft. 

Coal and shale 9 in. 

Coal _ 16 in. 



272 



szzo 



9* f 




<5.<S 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

corresponding with exposures on Otter 
creek, where the upper seam is wanting. 
A reported thick cannel coal open- 
ing, fallen in, far up the right fork of 
Buzzard, is likely to prove of the Fire- 
clay coal rider. 

At James Adams', 1^ miles up Col- 
lins fork, ^ mile up a left branch, au old 
opening into the Manchester bed gave: 



S . S- 



COCL/ 




fl/.S/. 
Coo./ 



<S.S. 



a.t L.A Byron'S 



Elevation. 



Shale 5 ft. 

Coal 9 in. 

Shale 6 in. 

Coal .__24 in. 



960 



Showing a very slight westward dip 
from Swafford's on Buzzard creek. 



Aery Branch. On the right, 1| 
miles above Buzzard creek. 

A 9 in. splint coal under 21 in. 
black slate, found J mile up the branch, 
at elevation 1045, is of the No. 2 Coal, 
and of value only for tracing the beds. 



Ingram Branch. On the left, two 
miles above Buzzard creek. 

The section, figure 315, was taken 
from the mouth to two miles up ths 
branch. 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



273 



The lowest coal shown, found also on Aery branch, in- 
dicates a southerly dip again, but not enough to carry the 
Manchester coal below drainage. It probably lies directly on 
the sandstone at the bottom of the section. 

The coal at elevation 1100 is, in its position and con- 
dition, at least a reminder of the Elkhorn coal, but much more 
development is necessary before it can be correlated with 
any degree of confidence. 

The upper' coal of the section is nearly on the horizon 
of the Fire-clay coal. It is believed that coal should be 
r/j.^/6 found here to correspond with the can- 

nel reported on Buzzard creek. 




Bl. JA 
Cea/ 



B /.SI. f' 
. v IS 



?.,$. 



. 

Ca/7/re/ Coaf 



COOL! //' 



Figure 316 shows a section as taken 
near the mouth of Bull creek, below and 
opposite Hammond's fork. From In- 
gram branch the strata appear to rise 
about with the creek, so the 26 in. very 
slaty cannel, somewhat inclined to splint 
coal and with black slate roof, is 
probably the bottom coal of the next 
preceding section. (The No. 2 of my 
former report.) This 26 in. coal was 
found m il e up Bull creek. At T. 
Jones', two miles up the creel^, the same 
bed has the following section: 

Elevation. 



Shale 3 ft. 

Spliuty cannel 15 in. 

Bituminous coal 1 to 4 in. 

Lime concretions 3 to in. 

$ecf-tona.t Mr3,Hof>je.r*] Bituminous coal 7 in. 1100 

The Manchester coal should then be close below the creek 
level, and the Fire-clay coal rider, the Stinking creek cannel 
coal, well up toward the top of the hill. 



274 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



At Mrs. S. A. White's mine, on the main or left fork of 
Goose creek, five miles above Manchester, is the coal of figure 

317, now correlated with the Manchester 
bed. Analysis by Dr. E. Peter of my 
sample, omitting the bottom 4 inches, 
from seven yards underground, is given 
below: 

MANCHESTER BED. Chem. Report No. 2649 
Moisture 1.48 

Volatile combustible matter 35.92 

Fixed carbon 54.70 

Ash (light lilac gray) . 7.90 




100.00 

Sulphur 0.885 

Coke (spongy) 62.60 

Specific gravity 1.278 



" Resembles the preceding, 
pyrites apparent." 



(The Garrard coal.) No 



The bed shows itself conspicuously at several points along 
the road up to Martin's creek. At Elhannon Wilson's entry, 
by the road ^ mile below that creek, it has the following sec- 
tion: 



Elevation. 



Shale 8 ft. 

Coal 2 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Coal 2 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Coal 16 in. 

Shale 10 in. 

Coal . 15 in. 



1020 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



275 



Martin's Creek. By the road, f mile up this creek, the 
Manchester bed shows the following: 



F,'<j.3i8 



Shale ____________ 8 ft. 

Coal 

Shale ___________ 14 ft. 



Elevation. 



23 in. 
2 in - 



1 <Sha/e 



coo. i 



7" with possibly more seams of coal below. 
At J. B. Walker's two miles up, the bed 
lying nearly horizontal, is probably 
2i" about at creek level. 

Mr. Walker has an entry into the 
Fire-clay coal rider, as it appears, which 

. . 

is represented, in figure 318, as measur- 
ed at the mouth. At the face, 60 yards 
s" i nj the bottom coals are reduced from 18 
,0 in- to 15 in. and the parting next above 
them is increased to 24 in. The cannel 
is fine-looking, of light weight and with- 

. . 

out division plane between it and the coal on it. 

The opening is close to the hill-top, and, perhaps, drains 
into Timber-tree creek, but it is reached by road from Mar- 
tin's creek. 



\ Caffftf ( 



B. Walker 



Otter Creek. The Manchester bed is opened in an entry 
at the mouth of this creek, 30 feet above it, and also at frequent 
intervals along the creek until it goes below drainage. Sections 
are here given taken at the mouth and at an entry a mile up the 
creek, five feet above it. 



276 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



' /Sit C/AV 

l*.*r. /*; 

j Ceo./ /, 

vr.j*. 5 -y. 
Thin6inlr Iron 
Co a. I <f 



/...S. 



COOL I 
C/ay 



<?/-. 3* 
// COOL I 



S.3. 

Coo./ 



> Coo./ 
ISA. 
l.Coa.f 
.J.5. 



Co*,/ 



C. 



Jo 



Tom'* Ar. 



AT MOUTH. 

Shale 8 ft. 

Coal and shale 9 in. 

Coal 16 in. 

Shale 8 in. 

Coal 2 in. 

Under-clay. 
Sandstone cliff. 

ONE MILE UP. 

Laminated sandstone 15 ft. 

Shale and coal 7 in. 

Coal _ .__22 in. 



The laminated sandstone shows a 
tendency to honeycomb. The bed rises 
about 20 feet in the mile. 



Tom's Branch. On the right, three 
miles above Otter creek. 

The Manchester coal, having passed 
below drainage about half way up from 



Otter Creek is 
some 40 feet under 
at the mouth of 
Tom's branch. 

The cannel coal 
bed near the bot- 
tom of the section, 
figure 319 shown 
enlarged in figure 



F"t'a . <3 ? o 



- . Sh S S.. 



Coal 




Jo 



nnff Coat 



/T Q.I J.T. $m,-th'* 320, is therefore ,/ 
85 feet more or less, above the Manchester coal. This bed 
carries cannel also on Beech creek (below Manchester) and on 
Bull creek, at the head of Collins fork. My sample of the 30 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 277 

in. bituminous and of a specimen of the cannel coal, from Mr. 
Smith's entry, taken from five yards underground, yielded, 
on analysis by Dr. E. Peter : 

Chein. Report 

COAL No. 2. No. 2653. No. 2653. 

Bituminous. Camiel. 

Moisture 2.80 0.30 

Volatile combustible matter- 29.40 44.16 

Fixed carbon 57.00 43.74 

Ash . _ 10.80 11.80 



100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.178 1.244 

Coke dense friable dense 

Color of ash light brown dark gray 

Specific gravity 1.160 

Compared with the bottom coal of figure 315, Ingram 's 
branch, a very slight northwesterly dip is evidenced, so slight 
that the line of strike is probably about northwest. 

It appears that the Fire-clay coal and its rider are near 
the levels of the two top coals of the section, but nothing was 
found by which to identify them. 

Woodson Mills has an opening opposite the mouth of 
A slier fork, 135 feet above it, in which the following measure- 
ments were taken: 

Elevation. 

Shale 5 ft. 

Coal _ 1 in. 

Shale 5 in. 

Coal 1 in. 

Shale 1 in. 

Coal 4 in. 

Shale 2 in. 

Coal 18 in. 

Black slate 3 in. 

Coal 4 in.f . 1185 



KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




He/rs of 
Pi re C/ctty Co a. I 

r/ .322 



Coal 




The Tom's branch cannel (No. 2 
Coal) is at or slightly below the creek 
level, and the opening is, therefore, near 
the level of the Elkhorn bed, and proba- 
bly represents it. 

On the left 1| miles above Asher 
fork, at the Jackson mill, an old opening, 
85 feet above the creek gave the bed-sec- 
tion of figure 321. With much doubt as 
to correlation it is assigned to the Fire- 
clay coal bed. 




MHion Jackson) 
r/r c/ay 



Hun Jackson Branch. On the right 
miles above Asher fork. 

An eighth mile up this branch the 
same bed is opened as shown in figure 
322. It is difficult to believe that this 
does not give the Fire-clay bed and its 

rider, the latter as cannel coal, as often 

tj 

Pound and especially conspicuous as such 
across Kentucky ridge on Stinking 
creek; and no coal below it in the Ken- 
tucky river region is known to have such 
a section. Moreover, considering this 
as the Fire-clay coal, an unusual similar- 
ity is apparent between the section of 



KENTUCKY RIVER, SOUTH FORK. 



279 



figure 323, in which this coal is shown, and that of the Blue- 
hole creek section, figure 304, taken a few miles east from 
the former. 

The Jackson opening is lower in the 
ridge than was to be expected of the 
Fire-clay coal ; it is apparently over 100 
feet lower than the latter on Blue-hole 
creek, directly east, and on Stinking 
creek directly west, but half of that dif- 
ference may be due to error in ascer- 
taining its level. Nothing was seen in 
going up Goose creek from Asher fork 
to indicate such a dip as would bring the 
Fire-clay coal bed to the level of the 
Jackson opening. Notwithstanding all 
this the preponderance of evidence is in 
favor of the proposed correlation. 

Analysis of my sample of the 51 in. 
bituminous coal, by Dr. E. Peter, yield- 
ed: 



'.X 




55. 



3.S. 



S.J 



a/ v?/. 

Co a. I 



9. S, 
Cot 



FIRE-CLAY COAL (?) Chem. Report No. 2647 

Moisture 1.10 

Volatile combustible matter 35.60 

Fixed carbon 56.90 

Ash (light brownish-gray) 6.40 



Cr.at 



<Sech'on art / 



100.00 

Sulphur 0.885 

* *f /'// Coke (light spongy) 63.30 

6s-ave Br, Specific gravity 1.288 



' ' A pure-looking coal. No apparent pyrites and but little 
fibrous coal. Ferruginous stains on some of the pieces." 

The section of figure 323 shows only the lower coals found 



280 KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

along Indian Grave branch in a distance of two miles. While 
there are no thick coals above the Fire-clay coal known on this 
creek, or toward the head of Red Bird, the high Kentucky 
ridge and spurs from it about the heads of these creeks still 
offer a fair field for search of them, with reasonable prospect 
of finding workable beds. 



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