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Full text of "Report on the forests of North America (exclusive of Mexico)"

,|JNIYEHSITV OF B c LIBR 



.3 9424 00126" i 194 



SIORAUE ITEM 
PROCESS lNc;-CM 



U.B.C. LIBRARY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of British Columbia Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/reportonforestsOOsarg 



department of the interior, 

cejN^sxjs office. 



FR^\.NCIS -A.. "W-A.LKER, Superintendent, 

Appointed April 1, 1879; resi|n>cd Xorembcr 3, 1861. 



CHAS. ■W. SE.A.XON-, Superintendent. 

Appointed Kovember 4, 18SL 



REPORT 



FORESTS OF NORTH AMERICA 



(EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO), 



CHARLES S. SARGENT, 

AKXOLD TKOFESSOK OK AKnOKIcrLTUKK IX HAKVARD COLLEGE, 
SPECIAL ^AlGE^fT XE:N^'riI CEiXSTJS. 




W A S II I y (^. TON: 

GOVE K N M I;NT V K I X TI N G O F F I C E. 

1884. 



LETTER OF TRANS^IITTAL. 



Department of the Interior, 

Census Office, 

Washington, I>. C, September 1, 1884. 
Hon. H. M. Teller, 

Secretary of the Interior. 

Sir: I liave tlie lionor to transmit herewith the Report ou the Forests of North America (eschisive of Mexico), 

by Charles S. Sargent, Arnold Professor of Arboriculture in Harvard College. 

This report constitutes the ninth volume of the series forming the final report on the Tenth Census. 

I have the honor to be, most respectfullj-, your obedient servant, 

CHAS. W. SEATON, 

Superintendent of Cetisus. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Lkttkk of Transmittal . 



PART I. 

THE FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO. 

The Forests of North America — General remarks 3-16 

The Atlantic region 3-6 

The Pacific region 6-10 

Distribution of genera 10-12 

Distribution of species 12-16 

A Catalogue of the Forest Trees of North Aimerica, exclusive of Mexico, vma remarks upon their Synonomy, 

bliiliographical history, distribution, economic values, and uses 17-219 

Index to Catalogue 220-243 

PART II. 

THE WOODS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Preliminary' iibmarks 247 

Specific gravity and ash 24*-2ol 

Fuel value 251,252 

The strength of wood 252 

Comparative values 252 

Table of relative values 253-255 

Table of averages 256-259 

Table illustrating the relation between transverse strength and specific ukanity in the wood of certain 

SPECIES 259-264 

General remarks 264,265 

Tannin values , 265 

Table I. — Specific gravity', ash, and weight per cubic foot of dry" specimens of the woods of the United States. 266-349 

Table II.— Actual fuel value of some of the more important woods of the United States 350-353 

Table III. — Behavior of the principal woods of the United States under transverse strain 354-tlo 

Table IV. — Behavior of soaie of the woods of the United States under trans\'erse strain: specimens eight 

centimeters square 414-117 

Table V. — Behavior of the principal woods of the United States under compression 41;*-4t>l 

Part III. 

THE FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES IN THEIR ECONOMIC ASPECTS. 

General remarks 4S5 

The lumber industry' 4?5-4S9 

Fuel 4!?9 

Wood used as fuel for various purposes JiS 

Estimated consumption of wood for domestic purposes 4S9 

Consumption of charcoal 4ty 

Forest fires 4iU-4l»3 

Table of forest fires occurring during the census Y'ear 491. 492 

North Atlantic division -. 4lM-olO 

Maine 4iM-4'A> 

New Hampshire t;i<i-49.'* 

Vermont 4i>ji-vVX) 

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut .t00,501 

New York .' 501-506 

New Jersey 506 

Pennsylvania 506-510 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Pngo. 

SovTii ATiJkNTic pi\nsiox 5ii-riv>;5 

Delaware T)!! 

Mar VLAXD ; '>n 

District of Columbia 511 

ViRcixiA • 511,512 

West Virgixl\ 512-015 

XoitTii Carolina 515-518 

Naval storvs .' 51(5,517 

SorTH Carolina 518, 51i) 

Buruiiig off (lend herbage 518 

Georgia 510,520 

Florida 520-523 

Pencil cedar ." 522 

Cypress 522 

Southern Central division 524-54S 

ALABAJitA 524-5:10 

The Maritime pine region 525-627 

Cypress swamps of the Tensas river 525-527 

The forests of the Chattahoochee in eastern Alabama, mixed forest growth, etc 527, 598 

Forests of the Tennessee valley 528,529 

General remarks 529 

The pine belt of central Alabama 529 

The pine region of the Coosa 529 

Naval stores 529, 5:10 

Mississippi '. 530-53() 

The pine forests of sonthcrn Mississippi 5;U, 532 

The northeastern ponnties 532-5:54 

Central pine hills 534 

Western Mississippi 534,535 

The Yazoo delta 535,536 

Louisiana 536-540 

Moss ginning 536,537 

Texas 540-543 

Indian territory 543 

Arkansas 543,544 

Tennessee 544, 545 

Effect of 6res upon the forest 545 

Kentucky 545, 546 

Pasturage of woodlands 546 

Northern Central division 547-56:! 

Ohio 547 

Indiana 547 

Illinois ■ 547-550 

Michigan 550-554 

Fori-st fires 550,551 

.Statistics of growing timber 551 

Wisconsin 554-658 

Minnesota '. 558-.560 

Forests on Indian reservations 559,560 

Iowa 560 

Missouri •_ 560,561 

Dakota '. 561,562 

Nebraska 562 

Kansas ,562, .563 

Western division .564-.')80 

Montana 564-566 

WvoMIXO .566, .567 

Colorado • 567,568 

New Mexico 568 

Arizona '. 568,560 

Utah 56'J-.571 

Lake range, west of Utah Like .570 

.Sanpete Valley range 570 

Sevier Kiver monntains '570 

Nevada 571 

Idaho .571-57:t 

Washington ,. .573-57() 

Oregon .576-57^* 

California 578-580 

Pasturage of mountain forests .579, 5t0 

Alaska 580 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Pag*. 
Map of thk United States, showing the character of the Fuel used in the different sectioxs of the settled 

PORTION OF the country 4^ 

Map of the United States, showing the proportion of Woodland within the settled area burned over during the 

census year 491 

Map showing Density- op Forests in Maine, New Hajipshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 

Nkw York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania 496 

Map of Maine, showing the Distribution of Pine and Spruce Forests 4;t6 

SIap of New Hampshire and Vf.umont, showing the Distridution of the Pine and Spruce Forests 497 

Map of Pennsylvania, showing the Distribition of the Pixi: and Hemlock Forests !506 

Map showing Density' of Forests in Delawap.e, Mary'land, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Kentucky', 

Tennessee, Indiana, and Ilunois Oil 

Map of West Virginia, showing the Distribution of the Hardwood, Spruce, and Pine Forests .012 

Map of North Carolina, showing the Distribution of the Pine Forests 515 

Map showing Density of Forests in South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, MissiIbippi, and Locislana 518 

Map of South Carolina, showing the Distribution of the Pin-e Forests 519 

Map of Georgia, showing the Distribution of the Pine Forests 5-20 

Map of Florida, showing the Distribution op the Pine Forests 522 

Map of Alabama, showing the Distribution of the Pine Forests 524 

Map of Mississippi, showing the Distribution of the Pine Forests 530 

Map of Louisiana, showing the Distribution of the Pine Forests .■ 536 

Map showing Density of Forests in Texas 540 

Map of Texas, showing the Distribution of the Pint; Forests 541 

Map showing Density' of Forests in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Indian Territory.. 54.'? 

Map of Arkansas, showing the Distribution of the Pink and Hardwood Forests 544 

Map showing Density of Forests in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa 550 

JLvp of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, showing the Distribution of the Hardwood and Pine Forests 551 

Map of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, showing the Distribution of the Hardwood and Pine Forests 551 

Map of Wisconsin, showing the Distribution of the H.4.rdwood and Pine Forest.s 554 

Map of Minnesot.\, showing the Distribution of the Hardwood and Pine Forests 5oe 

Map showing Density' of Forests in Dakota 561 

Map showing Density of Forests in Nebraska 562 

Map showing Density- of Forests in Montana 564 

Map showing Density' of Forests in Wyoming 566 

Map showing Density- of Forests in Color.vdo 567 

Map showing Density- of Forests in New Mexico 566 

Map siiow-ing Density of Forests in Arizona 569 

Map showing Density- of Forests ix Ut.^h .070 

Map showing Density- of Forests in Nev.\da 571 

Map showing Density- of Forests in Idaho 572 

Map showing Density- of Forests in Washington 574 

Map siiow-ing Density- of Forests in Oregon 576 

Map showing Density- of Forests in California 578 

Map of .v portion of California, showing the Distribution of the Kkdwood Forests 580 

MAPS CONTAINED IN TOETFOLIO ACCO.MPANTTING THIS VOLUME. 

-Map showing the position of the Fore.st, Prairie, and Treeless Regions of North America, exclusive of Mexico. 

-Map showing the Natural Divisions of the North A.merican Forests, exclusive of Mexico. 

-Map showing the Distribution of the genus Fraxinus (the Ashes) in North America, exclush-e of Mexico. 

-Map of the United States, showing the Distribution of the genera Cary-a and Umb"ellularia (the Hickories and 

California Laurel). 
-Map of the United St.*.tes, siiow-ing the Distribution ok the genus Jugi.ans (the Walnuts). 
-Map showing the Distribution of the genus Quercus (the Oaks) in North A.merica. exclusive of Mfjlico. 
-Map of the I'nited States, showing the Distribution of the genera Castanea and Castanopsis (the Chkst.vtts 

and Chinquapins). 
-Map showing the Distribution of the genus Pinus (the Pines) in North America, kxclus^-e of Mexico. 
-Map showing the Distributio.n of the genera Abies and Picea (the Firs and Spruces) in North America, exclu- 
sive of Mexico, 
- Map of the United States, showing the Distuibution of l.iuionKNDRON Tuijpifer.v and Pinus L.vmberti.\na. 
-M\i' OF THE United States, showing the Distribution of PKost)Pis Jcliflora, Qukrcus .\lba. and Qukrcus Densiflora. 
-Map showing the Distribution of Fraxinus A.mericana and Pinus Ponderosa in North America, exclusive of 

Mexico. 
-Map showing the Distribution of the genera Cuam.ix-ypakis and Cupressus in North America, exclusive op 

Mexico. 
-Map showing the Distribution of the genera Thuya, Taxodium, and Sequoia in North America, exclusive op 

Mexico. 
-Map showing the Distribution of Pinus Stuobu.s, Pinus Palustris, and Pseudotsuga Douglasii in North America, 

exclusive of Mexico. 
-Map of the United States, showing the Rkijltive Average Density of Existing Forksts. 



No. 


1. 


No. 


2. 


No. 


3. 


No. 


4. 


No. 


5. 


No, 


6. 


No, 


7. 


No. 


8. 


No. 


9. 


No. 


10. 


No. 


11. 


No. 


12. 


No. 


13. 


No. 


14. 


No. 


15. 


No. 


16. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Beookline, Massachusetts, July 1, 1883. 
To THE Superintendent of Census. 

SiE: I have the honor to submit the following report upon the nature and condition of the forest.s of the 
United States, to which are added statistics of the lumber and other industries directly dependent npon the forest 
for their support. 

Mr. Andrew Robeson, of Brookline, Massachusetts, has prepared the maps which accompany this rei)ort : he 
has supervised the entire statistical work of this division and has conducted its corresi)ondence. 

Mr. Stephen P. Sharpies, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has conducted the various experiments undertaken 
with the view of determining the value of the dilicrent woods produced in the forests of the United States. 

Mr. C. G. Pringle, of East Charlotte, Vermont, has examined the forests of northern New Eugland and New 
York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia ; and subsequently, as an agent for the American Museum of N.itural 
History, has greatly increased our knowledge of the trees of Arizona and southern California. 

Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Jacksonville, Florida, has studied the forests of Georgia and Florida, and subsequently, 
as an agent of the American Museum of Natural History, has added to our knowledge of the semi-tropical forests 
of southern Florida. 

Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile, Alabama, has explored the forests of the Gulf states. 

Mr. H. C. Putnam, of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, has gathered the forest statistics of Pennsylvania, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 

Mr. George W. Letterman, of Allenton, Missouri, has examined the forests extending west of the Lower 
Mississippi Eiver, and Professor F. L. Harvey, of Fayetteville, Arkansas, has gathered the foivst statistics of that 
state. 

Mr. Sereno Watson, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has studied, during a long and arduous journey, the Ibrests 
of the northern Eocky Mountain region, and Mr. Kobert Douglas, of U'aukcgan, Illinois, those of the Black hills 
of Dakota. 

I take this opportunity to call your attention to the faithful and admirable manner in which my associates 
have performed the difficult duties to which they were assigned; their zeal and intelligence have made ]>ossible 
the preparation of this report. 

It is my pleasant duty also to call your attention to the fact that this investigation has been greatly aided 
from the first by the experience and knowledge of Messrs. G. JI. Dawson, John Macoun. and Robert Bell, members 
of the Geological Survey of Canada; the information in regard to the distribution northward of the trees of the 
eastern United States is entirely derived from the latter's paper upon the Canadian forests. publishe«l in the 
Report of the Geological Survey of Canada for the years 1870-80. 

I am under special obligation to Dr. George Engelmann, of Saint Louis, Missouri, my companion in a lon^ 
Journey through the forests of the Pacific region, for valuable assistance and advice; his unrivaled knowledge of 
our oaks, pines, firs, and other trees has been lavishly placed at my disposal. 

Mr. M. S. Bebb, of Rockford, Illinois, the highest American authority upon the willow, has given me the 
benefit of his critical advice in the study of this dilMcult genus. 1 desiiv to exjiress to him and to Dr. Laurence 
Johnson, of New York, who has furnished nu» with a full series of notes upon the medical ju-operties ot the trees 
of the United States, the deep sense of my obligation. i\Iy thanks are also due to Mr. Henry Gannett, Geographer 
of the Tenth Census, for cordial cooperation in the work of this division; to Colonel T. T. S. Laidley. of the 
United States army, in command of the arsenal at Watertown, ^Massachusetts, and to Mr. James E. Howanl, in 
(iharge of the testing machine tiiere, for advice and assistance afl'orded Mr. Sharpies wliile eouducting the 
exi)eriments upon the strength of woods, as well as to a large number of con-espoiulents in all i>arts of the Cnited 
States who have favored me with their cordial co operation. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, 

SfKcial Agent. 



P^I^T I. 



THE FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, 

EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO. 



THE FORESTS OF NORTH AMERICA. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The North American continent, or that part of it situated north of Mexico, whicli will alone be considered here, 
may be conveniently divided, with reference to its forest geography, into the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by a 
line following the eastern base of the Rocky mountains and its outlying eastern ranges from the Arctic circle to 
the Rio Grande. The forests which cover these two divisions of the continent differ as widely, in natural features, 
comi)osition, and distribution, as the climate and topography of eastern America differ from the climate and 
topography of the Pacific slope. The causes which have produced the dissimilar composition of these two forests 
must be sought in the climatic conditions of a geological era earlier than our own and in the actual topographical 
formation of the continent; they need not be discussed here. 

The forests of the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, dissimilar in composition in the central part of the continent, 
ai-e united at the north by a broad belt of subarctic forests extending across the continent north of the fiftieth 
degree of latitude. One-half of the species of which tiiis northern forest is composed extends from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific; and its general features, although differing east and west of the continental divide, in conlbrmity with the 
climatic conditions peculiar to the Atlantic and the Paciiic sides of the continent, still possess considerable 
uuiformity. The forests of the Atlantic and the Pacific regions arc also united at the south by a narrow strip of the 
flora i)eculiar to the plateau of northern Mexico, here extending northward into the United States. Certain 
characteristic sj)ecies of this flora extend from the gulf of Mexico to the shores of the Pacific, and while the peculiar 
features of the esistern and the western sloi)es of the interior mountain system of the continent are still maintained 
here, the Atlantic; and the Pa(;ific regions of the Mexican forest belt possess ma'ny general features in common. Tyi)ical 
North American S])ecie8, moreover, jieculiar to the forests of the .\tlantic or of the Pacific, mingle ujion the Black 
hills of Dakota, and upon the Guadalupe and other mountains of western Texas, the extreme eastern ridges of the 
Rocky Mountain range, and the outposts between the Atlantic and the Pacific regions. 

THE ATLANTIC REGION. 

The forests of the Atlantic region may bo considered under six natural divisions: the Northern Forest, the 
Northern Pino Belt, the Southern Maritime Pine Belt, the Deciduous Forest of the Mississippi Basin and the 
Atlantic Plain, the Semi tropical l-'orest of Florida, and the Mexican Forest of Southern Texas (Map No. '2, 
portfolio). 

These natural divisions, although composed in part of species found in other divisions and possessing many 
general features in (iomnion, are still for the most part well characterized by predominant species or groups of 
species, making such a separation natural and convenient. 

The yortliern Forest stietches along the northern shores of Labrador nearly to the sixtieth degree of north 
latitude, s\vce|)s to the south of Hudson buy, and then northwestward to within the Arctic circle. This Northern 
Forest extends southward to the filtieth degree of north latitude on the Atlantic coast, and nearly to the fifty-fourth 
degree at the lOOtli meridian. It occuiiies 10 degrees of latitude ui)on the Atlantic seaboard and nearly '20 degrees in 
its greatest extension north and south along the eastern base of the Bocky mountains. The region occupied by this 
Northern Forest, except toward its southwestern limits, enjoys a cojiious rainfall; it is divided by innumerable 
streams ami lakes, and abounds in swamjjy areas often of great extent. The nature of the surface and the low 
animal mean temperature cheek the spread of forest growth and reduce the number of arborescent si)eeies, of 
whicIi this forest is comiyosed, to eight ; of these, four cross to the Pacific coast, while the remainder, with a single 
exception, are replaced west of the continental divide by closely allied forms of the Pacific forest. The white and the 
black spruces are characteristic trees of this region ; they form an open, stunted forest upon the low divides of the 

3 



4 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

water sbeds, antl reach a liifrln'r latitmlo than any other arborescent si)eeies of the continent; the vaHcys and 
wide bottoms are clothed with broail sheets of jjophirs, dwarf birches, and wiUows. Tlie forest of this entire 
region is scattered, ojieii. stunted, and of no {{reat economic value. It embraces, south of the sixtieth degree of 
aortb latitude, the northern extension of the great midcontinental jilateau, which will be considered hereafter. 

South of the Northern Forest the Xorilieni Pine licit extends from the Atlantic coast to the ninetv-sixth meridian 
of longitude: east of the Apalacliian Mountain system it extends south over nearly degrees of latitude, with a 
long. luirrow sjiur following the higher Alleghany ridges for nearly .'5 degrees farther south ; west of the Alleghan.T 
mountains, in the region of the great lakes, the pine forest is re])laceil south of the forty-third degree of latitude by 
the deciduous growth of the Mississippi basin. This second division of the Atlantic forest may be characterized 
by the white pine [Piniix Slioliit'i). its most imi)ortaut, if not its most generally-distributed, species. East of the 
Apalachiai) system this tree often forms extensive forests njjon the gravelly drift plain of the Saint Lawrence 
iasin, or farther south and west appears in isolated groves, often of cousiderable extent, scattered through the 
deciduous Ibrest. Forests of black spruce are still an imi)ortant feature of this region, csi)ecially at the north, 
and within its boundaries the hemlock, the yellow cedar, the basswood, the black and the wliite ash, the sugar 
maple, and several species of birch and elm find their northern limits and the center of their most important 
distribution. The hickories and the oaks, characteristic features of the deciduous forests of all the central 
portion of the Atlantic region, reach here the northern limits of their distribution, as do the chestnut, the 
sassjifnis, the tulip tree, the magnolia, here represented by a single si)ecies, the red cedar, the tui>elo, the sycamore, 
the beech, and other imj)ortant genera. 

T\u' Southern ^[a^■^time Pine Btlt extends from thcMhirty sixth degree of nt>rth latitudi^ along the coast in a 
nanow belt, varying from one hundred to two hundred miles in width, as far south as cape Malabar and Tami)a bay ; 
it .sti-etches across the Florida pcnin.sula and along the coast of the gulf of Mexico until the alluvial deposits of the 
Mississippi are encountered; it reappears west of that river in Louisiana, north and south of the Red river, and 
here gradually mingles with the deciduous forests of the Mississijipi basin iu Arkansas and eastern Texas. This 
belt is well characterized by the almost (continuous growth, outside of the broad river bottoms and the immediate 
iieighl)orhood of the coast, by the oi)en forest of the long-leaved ])ine {P. paliistris). The live oak, the ])almetto, 
and various sjjecies of jiine characterize the coast forest of this region; through the river bottoms and along the 
bortlers of the shallow ponds, scattered through the i)ine forest, dilferent gums, water oaks, hickories, and 
atihes attain nolde dimensions. The southern cy])ress (7V/jw/(«)//), although extending far beyond the limits of 
this natural division, here attains its greatest development and value, atul, next to the long- leaved pine, may be 
considered the characteristic species of the maritime pine belt. 

The Jhcidiioufi Fortut of t lie Missinnippi Pasin and the Atlantic Plain oecni>ies, with two iinim)K>rtant cxce])tions 
to be considered hereafter, the remainder of the Atlantic region. Through this deciduous forest, where jieculiar 
geoloi^ic.il features have favored the grpwth of Coni/era; belts of pine, growing gregariously o;- mixed with oaks 
and other broad leaved trees, occur, especially u|»on some jiortions of the Atlantic plain and toward the limits of 
the Southern JLiritime Pine Belt, west of the Mississippi river. The characteristic features of the forest of thi.s 
whole region are founil, however, in the broad leaved species of which it is largely comi>ose(L Oaks, hickories, 
walnuts, magnolias, ami ashes give variety and value to this forest, and here, with the exeeptiou of a few s])ecies 
peculiar to a more northern latitude, the deciduous trees of the Atlantic; region attain their greatest development 
and value. Upon the shipes of the southern Alleghany mountains and in the valley of the lower lied river, regions 
of coi)ious rainfall and rich .soil, the di'cidiious forest of the continent attains unsurpassed variety and richness. 
Ujmu the Alleghany mountains northern and southern si)ecies are mingled, or are only separated by the altitude 
of these mountains; rhododendrons, laurels, and magnolias, here attaining their inaximiim develoimieiit, enliven the 
forest.s of northern jiines ami hemlocks which clothe the tlaiiks of these iiiountains or arc scattered through forests 
of other broad leaved species. The cherry, the tulip tree, and the chestnut here reach a size unknown in other 
parts of the country. The forest of the Ked Itiver valley is hardly less varied. The northern sjiecies which the 
elevation of the Allegliany mountains has carried south are wanting, but other species peculiar to the southern 
Atlantic and (iulf coasts are here mingled with ])!ants of the southern deciduous forest. The seven species of 
Cari/a (the hickories) are nowhere else «lose!y as.sociated. A great variety of the most imi)ortant oaks grow here 
Bide by side: here is the center of distribution of the North American hawthorns, which do not elsewhere attain 
sncli size and beauty. The osage orange is jieculiar to this region; the red cedar, the most widely distributed of 
American Coni/crtr, the .southern and the yellow ]>ine {Pimm jtaluxtrix and wilin) hen; reach their best develoitment. 
Just outside of this region, njioii the "blutf" formation of the lower !klississij)pi valley and of western Louisiana, the 
stately southern magnolia, jierhaps the most beautiful of the Noilli Aiiieiican trees, and the heecli assume their 
greaterst beauty, and give a jieculiar (tharm to this southern forest. 

The western third of the Atlantic region is subjected to very did'erent climatic conditions from those prevailing 
in the eastern jtortion of the continent; it consists of an elevaterl ]ilateau which falls away from the eastern b^ise of 
the I'o{'ky mountains, forming what is known as the (ireat Plains. This gnvit interior region, on account of its 
?emoteiiess from natural reservoirs of moisture, receives a meager an<l uncertain rainfall, sufKcient to insure a 
growth of herlKige, but not suflicieuf tosuijjiort, outside the narrow bottoms of the iiificcjiieiit streams, the scantiest 



GENERAL REMARKS. 5 

forests. This treeless plateau extends north to the fitly second degree of north latitude; it follows southward the 
trend of the Rocky mountains far into Me.xico, extending eastward at the point of its greatest widtli, in al>out latitude 
40^^ N., nearly to the ninety-seventh meridian. This wiiole region is generally destitute of forest. Tlie narrow iKJttonis 
of the large streams are lined, however, with willows, jioplars, elms, and hackberrics, trees adapted to tlourish 
under sueh unfavorable conditions. These diminish in size and nund)er with the rainfiill, and often disiii.jM'ar 
entirely from tlie banks of even the largest streams toward the western limits of the plateau, south of tlie forty iiftU 
degree of latitude. North aud east of these central treeless plains a belt of praii ie extends from the sixtieth degr<,»e 
of north latitude to southern Texas. The average widtli east and west of this prairie region, through much of its 
extent, is not far from 150 miles. Its eastern extension, between the; fortieth and forty-fifth degrees of latitude, is 
much greater, however, here reaching the western shores of lake Jlichigan, and forming a great recess in the western 
line of the heavy forest of the Atlantic region with a ilepth of nearly GOU miles. The transition from the heavv 
forest of the eastern and central portions of the Atlantic region to the treeless plateau is gradual. The change 
occurs within the prairie region. Here is the strip "of debatjible ground wliere a continuous struggle between the 
forest and the plain takes place. There is here sutlicient ])recipitation of moisture to cause, under normal condition-s, 
a growth of open forest, but so nicely balanced is the struggle that any interference rpiickly turns the scale. Trees 
planted within tliis prairie belt thrive if .protected from lire and the encroachment of the tough prairie .sod, and so 
extend the forest line westward; if the forest which fringes the eastern edge of the prairie is destniyed it <Ux's not 
soon regain possession of the soil, aud the prairie is gradually pushed eastward. 

The eastern line of the plain where arborescent vegetation is confined to the river bottoms, and which divides 
it from the prairi(! where trees grow naturally, to some extent, outside of the bottoms, and where they may be made 
to grow under favorable conditions every wl)ere, is determined by the rainfall enjoyed by this part of the continent. 
The extreme eastern point reached by this line is found, upon the fortieth degree of uorth latitude, near the northeru 
boundary of the state of Kansas. Xorth of the fortieth degree it gradually trends to the west, reaching the castera 
base of the Eocky mountains in about latitude 52°. This noithwestern trend of the eastern plain line may be 
ascribed to the comparatively small evaporation which takes place during the shorter summer of the north and to 
a slight local increase of spring aud summer rainfall. South of the fortieth degree the plain line gradually trends 
to the southwest under the influence of the gulf of .Mexico, reaching its extreme western point in Texas upon the 
one hundredth meridian. 

Other causes, however, than insuflicieut rainfall and a nicely balanced struggle between the forest and the 
plaiu have jjrevented the general growth of trees in the prairie region east of the ninety-fifth meridian. The rainfall 
of this region is sutlicient to insure the growth of a heavy forest. The rain falling upon the prairies of Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri equals in anumnt that enjoyed by the Michigan peninsula and the whole 
region south of lakes Ontario and Erie, while prairies exist within the regiou of the heaviest forest growth. It is 
not want of suflicient heat, or of sufficient or equally distributed moisture, which has checked the geneial spread of 
forest over these i)rairies. The soil of which the prairies are composed, as is shown by the fact that trees planted ui>ou 
them grow with vigor and rapidity^ is not uusuited to tree growth. It is not perhaps improbable that the forests 
of the Atlantic region once extended continuously as far west at least as the uiuety-fifth meridian, although 
circumstantial evidence of such a theory does not exist; and the causes which first led to the destruction of the forests 
in this region, supi)Osing that they ever existed, canimt with the i)reseut kiu>wledge of the subject beeven guessed at. 
It is, however, fair to ifssume that forests once existed in a region adapted, by climate, rainfall, aud soil, to i)nHlue« 
forests, and that their absence under such conditions uuist be trace<l to accidental causes. It is not ditlicult to 
understand that tht^ forest once destroyed over such a vast area could not easily regain possession of the soil 
protected by an iuii)enetrablc covering of sod aiul subjected to the annual burnings which have ix-curri'd ilowu to 
the present tinu>; while the force of the wind, unchecked by any forest barrier, over such an area would, even without 
the aid of fires, have made the spread of forest growth slow and ditlicult. The assumjition that these eastern 
prairies may iiavc once been covered with forests is strengthened by the fact that siuce they have been devoted 
to agriculture, and the annual burning has been stopped, trees which were formerly confined to the river bottoms 
have gradmdly s[)reail to the uplands. Small prairies situated Just within the western edge of tiu' forest have 
entirely ilisai>peared within the memory of persons still living ; the oak opening.s — open forests of large oaks tlinmgh 
which the animal fires played without greatly injuring the full-grown trees — once the chaiacteristie featun- of these 
prairies, have disapi>eared. They are rei)laceil by dense forests of oak, which only require pixUectiou from tire to 
s})ring into existence. lu western Texas, the mesquit, forced by annual burning to grttw ahuost entirely K'low 
the surface of the ground, is, now that prairie fires are less cimuuou and destrueti\e, s]»iva<ling over what a few 
years ago was treeless i)cairie. The prairies, then, or the eastern portions of them situated in the n-giou of abundant 
rainfall, are fast losing their treeless character, and the forest protected friiin fire is gradually gaining in every 
direction ; regions which fifty .wars ago were treeless outsitle the river bottoms now contain tbrests covering 10 or 
even L'O per cent, of their area. These eastern, well-watered prairies must not, however, be contbuudod with 
their dry western rim adjoining the plains — the debatable ground between foiest and plain — or with the plains 
themselves. There is now no gradual, constant spre.ul tif forest growth npiui the plains. Theyare treeless, on aceotiut 
of insufficient moisture to develop forest growth ; aud while trees amy, perhaps, if planted, survive during a few years 



6 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

beyonil tbe western limits of the prairie as Lero laiil down, tlio penniinent establishment of forests there does not 
seem practicable, and, sooner or later, a period of unusual droujrht must put an end to all attempts at forest 
cultivation in a region of such insufficient and uncertain rainfall (Map No. 1, portfolio). 

It remains to consider the Semi-tropical Fortut of Florida and the Meuican Forct of Southern Tejcas. 

A jn^up of arborescent species of West Indian origin occupies the narrow strip of coast and islands of 
southern Florida. This belt of .semi-tropical vegetation is confined to the immediate neighborhood of the coast 
and to occasional hummocks or islands of high ground situated in the savannas which cover a great i)ortion of 
southern Florida, checking, by the nature of the .soil and want of drainage, the spread of forest growth across the 
jH-ninsula. This semi-trt)pical forest belt reaches cajje Malabar on the east and the sliores of Tampa t)ay on the 
west coast, while some of its representatives extend fully 2 degrees farther north. It is rich in composition; 
nearly a cpiarter of all the arliorc.seent sjiecies of the Athiiitic forest are found within this insignilicaut region. 
The .semi-tropical forest, in spite of its variety, is of little economic imi)ortance. The species oF which it is composed 
here reach the e.xtreme northern limit of their distribution; tiiey are generally small, stunted, and of coin|)aratively 
little value. Certain species, however, attain rcsi)ectable proportions; the mahogany, the mastic, tiie royal palm, 
the mangrove, the sea-grajie, the .lamaiia dogwood, the iiianchinfcl. and nihcr sj)eci(s here become considerable 
and important trees. 

lu western and .southern Texas the trees of the Mississippi basin, checked by insiiflicient moisture from farther 
extension .southward outside the river bottoms, are rei)lace(l by spei'ics of the plateau of northern Mexico. The 
streams llowiiig into the gulf of Mexico are still lintd, however, east of the one-hundredth meridian, with the species 
of the Atlantic basin, whicii thus reach southward to beyond the liio (Jrande. The ^Mexican forest belt of Texas 
extends from the valley of the Colorado river, near the ninety eighth meridian, to the Kio Grande. It touches the 
coast not far from the Nueces river and extends to the eastern ba.se of the mountain ranges west of the Pecos; 
here the species of which it is comjjo.sed mingle with tho.se peculiar to the racitic-JIexican forest. Tiie forest of 
this region, like that of all countries of insufficient moisture, is open, stunted, and comparatively of litth^ value. 
It is ehar.icterized by enormous areas covered with chai)arral (den.se and often impenetrable thickets of thorny 
shrubs and small trees), by a stunted and occasional arborescent growth upon the hills and plains, and by fringes 
of heavier timber along the river bottoms. The most valuable and perhaps the most characteristic species of this 
whole region, the mesipiit, extends to the I'acilic coast. With this excei)tion, none of the arborescent species 
peculiar to this region attain any considerable size or importance, although tin; forest of small junipers which 
covers the low limestone hills of the Colorado valley are locally valuable in a country so generally destitute of 
trees. The region immediately adjoining the Uio (Irande al)ounds in ditferent species of >lcacia, ieuctcna, and other 
Mexican Le{iui»iiioMr ; and farther west, upon the dry plains of the Presidio, the Spanish baj'onet (Tucca haccata) 
covers wide areas with a low, open, and characteristic forest growth. 

THE PACIFIC KEGION. 

The Pacific forest region is coextensive with the great Cordilleran Mountain system of the continent. Thecau.sea 
which have iriHiienced the present position and density of these forests must be .sought in the jieculiar distribution 
of the rainfall of the region. The ]>recipitation of moisture upon the northwest coast is uneipialed by that of any 
other [lart of the continent. It gradually ilecreases with the latitude until, in southern California, thi^ tein()erature 
of the l;ind .so far exceeds that of the ocean that ju-ecipitation is impossible tiiroiigli a large ]>art of the year. The 
interior of all this great region, shut otf by the high mouiitaiii ranges which face the ocean along its entire extent, 
is very im[>erfectly sujiitlied with moisture. It is a region of light, uncertain, and unequally distributed rainfidl, 
heavier at the north, as upon the coast, and decreasing gradually with the latitude in nearly the same proportion. 
This entire region is comjiosed of a mass of mountain ranges with a general north and south trend, separating long 
aiirl generally narrow valley.s. The precipitation of moisture within the interior region is largely regulated by the 
position of tlie mountain chains. Warm currents ascending their sides become cold and are forced to deposi* the 
moisture ihey contain. It follows thiit, while the interior valh-ys are rainless or nearly so, the mountain ranges, 
and especially the high ones, receive during the year a considerable iirecipitation of both rain and snow. If the 
distribiitiiin of the forests of any region is depenileiit upon the distribution and amount of moisture it receives, 
forests ex<:eeding in density those of any other jiart (>f the continent would be foil ml upon the northwest coast; 
thr-y would gradually diminish toward the south, and entirely disappiMr near the southern boundary of the United 
States, while the forests of all the interiir region, from the summit of the principal Coast Kaiiges to the eastern base 
of the I'ocky mountains, woiil-. be confined to the flanks and summits of the mountains. These forests would be 
he.'ivy upon the high ranges, esjjecially toward the north; they would disappear entirely from the valleys and 
low mountain ranges. An examination of the forests of the Pacific region will show that in general distribution 
and density they actually follow the distribiition of the rainfall of the region. These forests well illustrate the 
influence of moisture upon forest growth. Within the I'ai-ific regirm the heaviest and the. lightest forests of the 
continent coexist with its heaviest and lightest rainfall. 

The forests of the PaciHc region maybe considered under four divisions: the Northern Forest, the Ooaat 
Forest, the Interior Forest, and the Mexican Forest (Map No. 1,', jiortfolio). 



GENERAL REMARKS. 7 

The Northern Forest of the Pacific logioii extends Irom nearly the seventieth to about the tifty-eiphth degree of 
Yiorth hifitudo, or, immediately ujjon tlie coast, is replaced by the; Coast Forest nearly 2 degrees farther north; it 
extends from the continental divide, here mingled with the Northern Forest of the Atlantic region, to the shores of 
the I'acilic. The southern limit of this open, scanty Northern Forest, composed of species which extend across the 
continent, or of species closely allied to those of the Northern Forest of the Atlantic region, is still imiiertectly 
known, esiiecially in the interior. The determination of the southern range in Alaska and British Columbia of 
several species, as well as the northern range here of a few others, must .still be left to further exploration. The 
white spruce, the most important and the most northern species of the forest of the North Atlantic region, is here 
also the most important si)ecies. It attains a considerable size as far north as the sixty-fifth degree, forming, in 
the valley of the Yukon, forests of no little local importance. The canoe birch, the balsam jioplar, and the a-sjieii, 
familiar trees of the North Atlantic region, also occur here. The gray pine and the balsam fir of the Atlantic 
region are replaced by allied forms of the same genera. The larch alone, of the denizens of the extreme Northern 
Forest of the Atlantic coast, finds no congener here in the northern Pacific forest. 

The Pacific Voant Forest, the heaviest, although far from the most varied, forest of the continent, extends south 
along the coast in a narrow strip from the sixtieth to the fiftieth parallel; here it widens, embracing the shores of 
Puget sound and extending eastward over the high mountain ranges north and south of the boundary of the 
United States. This interior development of the Coast Fore-st, following the abundant rainfall of the region, ia 
•canied northward over the Gold, Selkirk, and other interior ranges of British Columbia in a narrow spur exieuding 
north nearly to the fifty-fourth iiarallel. It reaches southward along the Cceur d'Aiene, Bitter-Boot, and the 
western ranges of the Pocky Mountain system to about latitude 47° 30', covering northern Washington territory, 
Idaho, and portions of western Montana. 

The Coast Forest south of the fiftieth degree of latitude occupies the region between the ocean and the eastern 
slopes of the Cascade Pange; in California the summits of the principal southern prolongation of these monntains, 
the Sierra Nevada, marks the eastern limits of the Coast Forest, which gradually disappears south of the thirty-fifth 
parallel, although still carried by the high ridges of the southern Coast Pange nearly to the southern boundary of the 
United States. The Coast Forest, like the forests of the whole Pacific region, is largely composed of a few coniferous 
species, generally of wide distribution. The absence of broad-leaved trees in the Pacific region is striking; they 
nowhere form great forests as in the Atlantic region; when they occur they are confined to the valleys of the coast 
and to the banks of mountain streams, and, econoniically, are of comparatively little value or importance. The 
characteristic and most valuable si>ecies of the northern Coast Forest are the Alaska cedar (Chamcrcyparix), the 
tide-land spruce, and the hemlock. These form the jirincipal forest growth which covers the ranges and islands of 
the coast between the sixty first and the fiftieth parallels. Other species of the Coast Forest reach here the northern 
limits of their distribution, although the center of their greatest development is found farther south. 

The red fir {Pseudot.sjtjia), the most imi)ortant and widely-distributed timber tree of the Pacific rt>gion, reaches 
the coast archipelago in latitude 51°; farther inland it extends fully 4 degrees farther north, and in the region of 
Puget sound and through the Coast Forest of Washington territory ami Oregon it is the prevailing forest tre«. 
The characteristic forest of the northwest coast, although represented by several species extending south as far aa 
cape Mendicino, near the fortieth i)arallel, is replaced south of (he Pogue Piver valley by a forest in which forms 
peculiar to the south rather than to the north gradually predominate. The forest of the northwest coast ivachee 
its greatest density and variety in the narrow region between the summits of the Cascade Pange and the ocean. 
North of the fifty-first i)arallel it gradually detireases in density, and south of the forty -third ])arallel it changes 
in composition and character. This belt of Coast Forest is only surpassed in density by that of some portions of 
the redwood forest of the California coast. The red fir, the great tide-land spruce, the hemlock, and the ix-d cedar 
{Thntja) reach hero enornums dimensions. The wide river bottoms are lined with a heavy growth of maple, 
Cottonwood, ash, and alder, the narrow interior valley with an open growth of oak. In this great coniferous forest 
the trunks of trees two or three hundred feet in height are often only separated by the sjiace of a few fi>et. The 
ground, shaded throughout the year by the im])enetrable canopy of the forest, never becomes dry ; it is ilensely 
covered by a thick carjjct of mosses and ferns, often of enormous size. The uioiv open portions of this forest are 
choked by an impenetrable growth of various T'««'(Hca'of alinost arborescent proportions, of hazel, the vine-maple, 
and other shrubs. The soil which has ])roduted the niaximiun growth of forest in this region is, outside the river 
bottoms, a thin, porous gravel of glacial origin, rarely more than a few inches in dei)th ; the luxuriance of vegetable 
growth^ therefore, illustrates the intluenee of a heavy rainfall and temperate climate upon the forest. 

The general character of this forest in the interior, although composed largely of the species i)eculiar to the 
coast, differs somewhat from the Coast Forest proper in composition aiul largely in natural features. The dense, 
imj)enetrable forest of the coast is replaced, east of the suuunit of the Cascade Pange, by a more open growth, 
generally largely destitute of undergrowth. The red fir, the hendock, and the red cedar ( Thuya) aiv still imi>oitant 
elements of the forest. Less valuable species of the Coast I'orest — the white fir {Ahks yriuniin), the yew, the alders, 
the mountain hemlock (TAXj/d ruttouiana), the hawthorn, the buckthorn, and the white pine (iVwH.v montu-ola) — 
are still rei)resented. The latter, a local species upon the coast, only reaches its greatest development towiirxl 
the eastern limit of this region, here forming considerable and important forests. Other species peculiar to the Coast 
Forest, the maples, the ash, the oak, the arbutus, and the Alaska cedar, do not exteud east of the Cascades. The tide- 



8 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AiAIERICA. 

laud spruco is replaced by an allied species of the interior region. The widely-distributed yellow pine {I'inus 
ponderoso), barely represented in the northern portions of the immediate Coast Forest, becomes east of the mountains 
one of the most important and ehanicteristic elements of the forest. The Coast Forest south of the forty-third degree 
of latitude changes in composition. The tid(?-land spruce, the heudock, and the Thuya are gradually rei)laced by 
more southern species. The sugar pine (P. Lambvrtiaua) here lirst appears. The California laurel {Umbellularia) 
covers with maguilicent growth the broad river bottoms. The Liboiidntx, several oaks, and the chiniiuapin here reach 
the northern limits of their distribution. The change from the northern to the southern forest is marked by the 
api)ear.inee of the Port Orford cedar {Cliamaei/jiaris Lawxoniana), adding variety and value to the forests of the 
southern Oregon coast. Farther south, near the uorthex'u boundary of California, the redwood forests (.^'e^Hom) appear. 

The Coast Forest of Califoi'nia will be most conveniently discussed under three subdivisions : the forest of the 
Coast IvJinge, the forest of the western !<lope of the Sierra Nevada, which, toward the northern boundary of the 
state, extends to the coast, covering the mass of mountains which here unite the Sierra Nevada and the Coast 
Range; and, third, the open forest of the long, narrow valleys lying between the Coast Range and the Sierra 
Nevada, south of this northern connection. The important feature of the Coast Itauge, as far south as the thirty- 
seventh degree of latitude, is the belt of redwood oceupying an irregular, interrupted strip of territory facing the 
ocean, and hardly exceeding thirty miles in width at the points of its greatest development. The heaviest growth 
of the redwood forest occurs north of the bay of San Francisco, and here, along the slopes and bottom of the narrow 
canons of the western slope of the Coast liauge, the maxiinum productive capacity of the forest is reached. No 
other tbrest of similar extent equals in the amount of material which they contain the groups of redwood scattered 
along the coast of northern California. The red fir reaches, in the California Coast Range, a size and value only 
8ur]>assed in the more northern forests of the coast; the jellow pine is an important tree in the northern 
portions of this region, and here Hourish other species of the genus endemic to this region. The forest of the Coast 
Eangc is marked by the presence within its limits of several species of singularly restricted distribution. Oiiprensus 
macrocarpa and Pinus imi(jni>s are conlined to a few isolated groves upou the shores of the bay of Monterey; Abies 
bracteata occupies three or four canons high up in the Santa Lucia mountains; it is found nowhere else; and I'iiius 
Torrei/diia, the most local arborescent species of North America, has been detected only in one or two small grou])s 
upon the sand-dunes just north of the bay of San Diego. The characteristic forest of the Coast Kango is checked 
from farther southern devel<>i)ment, a little below the thirty-fifth parallel, by insuflicient moisture; the scanty 
forests which c!othe the high declivities of the Coast Range farther south belong in composition to the Sierra 
forest.s. 

The heavy forest which covers the western .slopes of the Sierra Nevada, a forest only surpassed in density by 
the redwood belt of the coast and the fir forest of Paget sound, occupies, in its greatest development, a belt 
situated bt'tween 4,000 and 8,000 feet elevation. This forest belt extends from about the base of mount Shasta at 
the north to the thirty-fifth parallel; forther south it diminishes in density and disai)pears upon the southern 
ridges i)f the Coast Range just north of the southern boundary of California. Its greiitest width occurs in northern 
California, where to the south of mount Shasta the Sierra system is broken down into a broad mass of low ridges 
and jn-aks. The characteristic species of this forest is the great sugar pine {P. Lmubertiana), which here reaches 
ibH gieatest development and value, and gives nnsuri)assed beauty to this mountain forest. With the sugar i)ine 
are associated the red fir, the yellow pine, two noble Abies, the Libocedrus; and, toward the central part of the 
state, the great Sequoia, a|)pearing first in small i.solated groups, and then, forther south, near the headwaters of 
Kern river, in a narrow belt extending more or less continuously for several miles. This heavy forest of the 
Sierra.s, unlike the forest which farther north covers the western Hanks of the Cascade Range, is almost destitute 
of nndt.Tgro« th and young trees. It shows the inllnence of a warm climate and um;venly distriltuted rainfall 
npfjn forest growth. The trees, often remote from one another, have attaincsd an enormous size, but they have 
grown slowly. Above this belt the Sierra forest stretches upward to the limits of tree growth. It is here 
subalpine and alpine in character and of little economic value. Dillerent pines and firs, the mountain heudock, 
and the v-estern juniper are s<'attered in open ritretches of forest upou the high ridges of the Sierras. The 
forest Ik'Iow the belt of heavy growth gradually becomes more open. Individual trees are smaller, while the 
nmuber of species increases. The small pines of the upper foothills are mingled with oaks in considerable 
variety. These gr.ulually increase in number. Pines arc less frequent and finally disappear. 

The forest of the valleys is compo-sed of oaks, tJto individuals often widely scattered and of great size, but 
Dowht-re forming a continuous, compact growth. The (Joast Forest of the Pacific region, unsurpas.sed in density, 
iacomiKised of a «x»niparatively .small nuujber of species, often attaining enormous size. It presents the .same 
general features throughout its entire extent, except as modified by the climatic conditi(Uis of the rt!gions which it 
covers. The species which compo.se this forest range through nearly liO degrees of lalitiule, oi' northern si)ccies, 
are replaced in the south by closely allied forms; and, as in the Atlantic region, the southern sjiccies far exceed 
in nundter those peculiar to the north. 

The Interior Forent extends from the southeiii limits of the northern subarctic; forest to the plateau of 
northern .Mexico; it occuiiies the entire region between the eastern limits of the Pacific Coast Forest and the extreme 
western limits of the Atlantic region. The forests of this entire region, as compared with the forests east and 
west of it, are stunted and remarkable iu their poverty of composition. They are confined to the high slopes 



GENERAL REMARKS. 9 

and cauons of the uumerous mountain ranges composing the interior region, while the valleys are treeless, or, 
outside of the narrow river bottoms, nearly treeless. The interior forest attains its greatest development and 
considerable importance upon the western slope of the California Sierras and ui>on the flanks of the high [teaks 
of the toutheru IJocky Mountain system, from Colorado, where the timber line reaches an extreme elevation of 
13,000 feet, to southern New Mexico and western Arizona. The minimum in North American fore.st development, 
outside the absolutely treeless regions, both in the number of species ami in the proportion of forest to entire 
area, is found south of the Blue mountains of Oregon, in the ariil region between the Wahsateh monutains and 
the Sierra Nevada, known as the Great Basin. Uere the open, stunted forest is confined to the highest ridges and 
slopes of the infrequent caiions of the low mountain ranges which occn])y, with a general north and south trend, 
this entire region. The individuals which compose this forest are small, although often of immense age, and 
everywhere show the maiks of a severe struggle for existence. Seven arborescent species only have been detected 
in the forests of the northern and central portions of this region. The mountain mahogany (Cercocarpux), the only 
broad-leaved species of the region, with the exception of the asjien, which throughout the entire interior region 
borders, above an elevation of 8,000 feet, all mountain streams, reaches here its greatest development. This 
tree, with the nut pine {Pinus monophylla), characterizes this region. Stunted junipei-s are -scattered over the 
lowest slopes of the mountains, or farther south often cross the high valleys, and cover with open growth the mefag, 
as the lower foot-hills are locally known. An open forest of arborescent yuccas (I'wca 6rer//b/irt) uj)on the high 
Mojave plateau is a characteristic and peculiar feature of the flora of this interior region. The red fir and the 
yellow pine, widely distributed throughout the Pacific region, do not occur upon the mountain ranges of the Great 
Basin. 

The heavy forests of the interior region, found along the western slopes of the California Sierras and ujion the 
Rocky Jlauntain system, are, for the most part, situated south of the forty second degree of latitude. The forests 
of the whole northern interior portion of the continent, outside the region occupied in the northern Kocky mountains 
by the eastern development of the Coast Forest, feel the influence of insutlicient moisture; the number of species of 
which they are composed is not large; the individuals are often small and stunted, while the forests are open, srattered, 
without undergrowth, and confined to the cauons and high slopes of the mountains. The most generally ilistribnted 
species of tliis northern region, a scrub i)ine {Pinus Altirrayana), occupies vast areas, almost to the exclusion of other 
species, and is gradually taking possession of ground cleared by fire of more valuable trees. South of the fifty- 
second parallel the red tir {Pseudotsiiga) and the yellow pine (rinits jwndirosa) appear; with them is associated, in 
the Blue mountains and in some of the ranges of the northern liocky mountains, the western larch {Larijc occidental^), 
the largest and most valuable tree of the Coliunbian basin. 

The forest covering the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada consists almost exclusively of various species of 
pine, often of great size and value. The characteristic species of this region are the yellow jtine and the closely- 
allied Pinux Jeffreyi, here reaching its greatest development. The red fir is absent from this forest, while the oaks. 
multii)lied in many forms on the western slopes of these mountains, have here no representative. 

The forests of the southern Eocky Mountain region, less heavy and less generally distributed than those of the 
western slope of the Sierras, are, as compared with those of the Great Basin, heavy, dense, and valuable. They owe 
their existence to the comparatively large precipitation of moisture distributed over this elevated region. The 
characteristic species of the Colorado mountains is a s[)ruce (Picea Engelmanni) ; it forms, at between S,000 and 10.000 
feet elevation, extensive and valuable forests of considerable density and great beauty; with it are associ.ited a 
balsam fir of wide northern distribution, and various alpine and siibalpine species of piue; at lower elevations 
forests of yellow piue and red fir cover the mountain slopes, while the bottoms of the streams are lined with 
cottimwood, alder, and maple, or with an open growth of the white fir (Allies concolor), a species of the Coast Forest, 
here reaching the eastern limits of its distribution; the foot-hills above the treeless plain are coven'd with scant 
groves of the nut piue (Pinus cdiilis), stunted junipers, and a small oak, which in many forms extends through a large 
area of the southern interior region. A forest similar in general features to that of Colorado, and largely eomposinl 
of the same species, exteiuls uiver the high mountains of New ilexico to those of western Texas and western and 
northwestern Arizona, where a heavier forest of piue covers the elevated region lying along the thiriy-fiith p;!rallel. 
ciUminating in the high forest-clad San Francisco mountains of nortliern Arizona. 

The species of the interior Pacific region mingle along its southern borcU'rs with the species peculiar to the 
plateau of northern Mexico. The Pacilic-.Mexicau Forest, although ditfering widely in natural features from the 
Atlautic-^Mcxican Forest, possesses several species peculiar to the two. The forests of this region are eoufiued to 
the high mountaius and their Jbothills, and to the baidcs of the rare water comses. They disappear entirely 
from the Colorado desert and from the valleys ami low mouutaiu ranges of southwestern Arizona. The most 
important and generally distributed species peculiar to the valleys of this region is the mesiiuit, the characteristic 
species of the Atlantic-Mexican region. The suwarrow, however, the great tree cactus, is perhaps the most 
remarkable si)ecies of the region, giving an unusual and striking appearance to the dry mesas of central and 
southern Arizona. The high mountain ranges, extending across the bouiulary of the United State.", between the one 
hundreil and filth and the one hnndreil and eleventh meridiaus, enjoy a larger and more regularly distributed rainfall 
than the regions east, and especially west, of these meridians. The forests which cover these southern mountain 
ranges are often dense and varied. Ufton their summits and almost inaccessible upper slopes the firs and pines of 



10 



FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERtCA. 



the Pacific regrion are minglwl with pines, a juniper, an arbutus, and various other species peculiar to the Mexican 
plate:ui. Extensive forests of a cypress of Mexican orisrin also characterize this mountain vegetation. The 
bottoms of the canons are lined with a dense growth of cottonwi>od, hackbi-rry, a noble sycamore, an ash, a 
cherry, and other deciduous trees. The high foothills and i)iik(i.s arc covered with open groves of various oaks 
l)eculiar to the Mexican-Pacific region, here reaching, within the I'nited States at least, their greatest develoi)nient. 

Such are some of the i)rominent forest features of North America: a dense forest, largely composed, except 
at the north, of a great variety of broad leaved species, and extending from the Atlantic sea-board in one nearly 
unbroken sheet until checked by insufticient moisture from further western development — the ibrest of the Atlantic 
region ; a forest of conifers, o<cupying the ranges of the great Cordilleran mountain system, unsurpassed in 
density in the humid climate of the coast, o])en and stunted in the arid interior — the forest of the Pacific region. 

A more detailed examination of the distiibution of North American arborescent genera and S|)ecies will serve 
to illustrate the wealth of the forests of the Atlantic and the comparative poverty of those of the Pacific region. 
It will show, too, more clearly how widely the forests of these two great regions difier in composition. 

DISTRIBUTION OF GENERA. 

The forests of North America contain arborescent representatives of 158 genera; 142 genera occur in the 
Atlantic and 59 genera in the Pacific region. Of the Atlantic genera, 48 are not represented in the United States 
outside the semi-tropical region of Florida. 

The following table illustrates the distribution of these genera; the genera of semi-tropical Florida are 
designated by a •. 



Uagnolia 

Liriodendron 
Asiniina 

•Anoiia 

'Capparis . 

•Cau.lla 

•Clnsiii 

Gonluiiia 

Fremontia 

TiUa 



'ByrMtDima ... 

'Giiaiacnm 

Porlii-ra 

Xaiitlioxyliim 
Pttlia 



Canotia ... 
*8iuariiba . 
"BiiixTa ... 

•Aniyrin 

'Swiett-nia . 
'Ximi'iiia .. 

Ilex 



Cyrilla 

ClilUioia .. 

EaonTmiiM 
•MyKiu'la .. 
•.Soh.iff.-ria. 
"Kcyiiiixia .. 

C'otidalia. .. 

Rhainiina.. 

Ccanothn)!. 
•Coluliriria . 

X,tri]\<m . . . 

(Tnitnadia . 

Sapiiidiifi .. 
'Ilypvlato.. 

Acer 

Nc};iindo .. 

Rbna 

PUtacia... 



Genera ! Geuora 

repre«eDled represented , 

by arbo- i by arbo- 

reaceDt rescent 

Bpecies in | epecies in 



tbe Atlantic tbo V 
region. region. 



iflc 



Eysenhardtia . . 

Dalea 

Robinia 

Olneya 

'Piscidia 

Cladrastis 

Sophora 

Gymnocladus.. 

Glcditschia 

Parkinsonia . . . 

Cercis 

ProBopis 

Leuciona , 

Acacia 

'Lyttiloma 

'Pithtcolobinm. 
'Clirysobalanus . 

Piiinus 

Vatiquclinia... 
Cerc«CBrj)U8 . . . 

Pyrus 

Cratipgus 

llctcroinelcs 

Anu'lancliier ... 

HaiiiauioliH 

Liqiiidambar .. 

Khizopbora 

Conocarpiis 

'La;;uiicularia.. 
'Calyptrantbcs . 

'EiiKfnia 

ClTCUg 

Corniiii 

NyHHa 

SambucuH 

Vibnrnum 

'KxoHtointna 

Pincknoya 

Gcnipa 

Ouettarda 



Gen era 
repreaentcd 
by arbo- 
rescent 
ftpeciee in 
tbe Atlantic 
regiot 



Genera 

repi-e«enteii 

by iirbo- 

lesient 

species io 

the Pactflo 

region. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



11 



Vacciuiiim 

Andromeda 

Arbutus 

Oxydoudrnm ... 

Kalmia 

Rhododendron . . 

"Myrsino 

"Ardi.sia 

"Jacqninia 

•Chrysopliylliim . 

'Sideroxylon 

*Dipholi8 

Bumelia 

''Mimtisops 

Diospyros 

Synii>loco8 

Hulesia 

Fraxinus 

ForeKtiera 

Chiouanthns ... 

OsmanthuB 

Cordia 

•Bonrreria 

*Ebretia 

Catalpa 

Chilopsis 

'Cresoontia 

"Citharexyliim . . 

'Avicennia 

'Pisouia 

"Cocfoloba 

Persea 

•Ncctandra 

Sassafras 

Uinbellularia ... 

'Drypctes' 

•Sfbastiauia 

"Hippomano 

Ulmus 



Gpncra 
renreffented 

by arbo- 

rt8c«iit 

npec-ioH in 

the Atlantic 

re|{ion 




PlaDera 

CeltiB 

'Ficus 

Moms 

Madura 

Platanus 

JuglaiiH 

Carya 

Myrica 

Qiicrcus 

Castauopsis 

Castanea 

Fagns 

Ostrya 

Carpinus 

I Betula 

Alnus 

Salis 

Populus 

Libocedrus 

Tbuya 

CbamiEcyparis 

C iipressus 

Juniperus 

Taxodium 

Sequoia 

Taxus 

Torrey a 

Pinus 

Pieea 

Tsnga 

Pseudotsnga 

Abies 

Larix 

Sabal 

Washingtonia 

•Tbriuax 

*Oreodoxa 

Yucca I •\/ 



Gewra 
npreMDted 

by arbo. 

mccDt 

8p«cl»« in 

the Atlanlk 

region. 


Gmer« 
mmrnlsd 

by arbo. 

moral 
■ptfin ia 
tbr l'aci«« 

rrgioa. 


v' 




• 


• 


• 




• 


• 


v/ 




• 


V 


• 


V 


• 




V 


V 


V 




v^ 


V 
v/ 








V 


• 


V 


V 


V 


1 V 


V 




V 


V 


V 


V 




V 
V 


V 


V 






V 
V 


V 


V 


V 


V 


V 


• 


• 


• 


• 




• 


V 


V 


• 


^ 




V 


V 

1/ 





Arborescent .species of 4.'? genera occnr within the limits of the two regions. They are 



Ptelia. 

Condalia. 

Rhamntis. 

.^sculus. 

Uugnadia. 

Sapiudns. 

Acer. 

Negundo. 

Ev.senhardtiii. 



Robiijia. 

Parkiiisouia. 

Prosopis. 

Acacia. 

Prunus. 

Pynis. 

Crattpgus. 

Cornus. 

Saii>bucu.s. 



Arbutus. 

Buniolia. 

Fraxinus. 

Chilopsis. 

Coltis. 

Morus. 

Platanus. 

Juglaus. 

Mvrica. 



Quorcus. 


Taxns. 


Betula. 


Torreya. 


Alnus. 


Pinus. 


Salix. 


Picea. 


Populu.-t. 


Tsiga. 


Thuva. 


Abi,-s. 


(.'hainteovparis. 


Larix. 


Juniperus. 


Yucca. 



The following genera, 44 in inunber, of the Atlantic region, exclusive of those of sctni-tropieal Tlorida, aro not 
represeiiteil in the Pacific forest : 



Magnolia. 

J.iriodendrou. 

Asiniina. 

Gord'inia. 

Tilia. 

Porliera. 

Xauthoxyliun. 

Ilox. 

CyrUla. 



Cliftonia. 

Pi.slaeia. 

Clailrastis. 

Sophora. 

(Jyiuiioeladus. 

Glcilitschia. 

Louca>na. 

Hamanielis. 

Liqiiidambar. 



Khizopbora. 

Ny.ssa. 

Viluirnuni. 

Piuckneya. 

Andromeda. 

Oxydendrum, 

Diospyivs. 

Syinplocos. 

Halcsia. 



Forest iera. 

Chionantbus. 

Osnianthus. 

Cordia. 

Catalpa. 

Person. 

Sassafras. 

Ulmus. 

Planora. 



Maclur.i, 

Cary;v. 

Ca-stantMi. 

Fagus. 

0.strya. 

Carpinus. 

TaxoiUuiu. 

S;ibal. 



12 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

The following genera of the Atiantic region, 9 iu number, are represented in the Pacific liora by one or more 
frutescent, but by no arborescent, species : 

Enonynius. AinelaucUiiM-. Vacciuuui. Rhododendrou. 

Rhus. Vibuninm. Kalniia. Foresticra. 

Ccrcis. 

Ptelia, Coiulatid, i^apiiidux, liobinia, Bitmcliti, Cclti.i, Moms, and Jiifflans, genera reaching their greatest 
development in North America iu the Atlautic region, extend with a singk> arborescent representative into the 
Pacific region. lihamntts, ^sciihis, Acer, yeijutulo, Pninu.i, I'yni.i, Cratcegus, Coriui^, Sambuous, Fraxinitu, Ptatamtit 
Mj/rica, Qiiercus, B'tula, Alnus, Salix, Popuht.s, Tliui/a, Cltama'C!/p<xris,Jiiiiipcrm, Taxita, Torrcya, Pinus, Pivca, Tmiga, 
Abie.s, and L<iru; characteristic Xorth American genera, are widely represented in the two regions. 

Unijnadiii, Eysenhardtia, Paikinsonia, Proso2)is, Acacio, Chilopsis, and Yucca, geuera of the Mexican tlora, are 
common to the two regions. 

Arbiitiix, a genus of the Pacific region, just reaches, witli a doubtful species, the Atlautic region through western 
Texas. 

The following geuera of the Pacific region, 13 in numiier, have no lepreseutatives iu the Atlautic regiou: 

Fronioiitia. Cercocarpus. Castauopsis. Sequoia. 

Canutia. Hetcroiuilcs. Lil>oceilru3. Pscudotsiiga. 

Olneya. Unibi'Iliilaria. Ciipressus. Wasbiiigtouia. 
Vauqufliiiia. 

The following gentra of the Pacific, 3 in number, are represented iu the Atlautic region by frutescent species : 
Ceanothus. Dalea. Cercua. 

The Atlautic forest, exclusive of semi-tropical Florida, contains 45 genera entirely unrepresented in the Pacific 
region and 7 geuera without Pacific arborescent representatives. The Pacific forest coutains 13 genera unrepresented 
in the Atlantic regiou and 3 genera without Atlautic arborescent rei)resentatives. 

The following genera of the Mexican region, 1-4 in number, are not elsewhere represented in North America. 
Genera with arborescent representatives iu both the Atlantic- and PaciticMexicau regions are designated by a 
star (•): 

Porlicra. Putacia. Olneya. Acacia. "Chilopsis. 

Canolia. 'Eysvnbardtia. 'Parkinsouia. Vauqucliiiia. Wasbiiigtouia. 

'Unguadia. Dalca. Leucxua. Cereiis. 

Porliera and Leucana belong to the Atlautic; Canotia, Dalea, Olneya, Vavquelinia, Cercus, and Washiitgtonia 
to the Pacific region. 

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES. 

In the forests of North America 412 arborescent species have beeu detected; of these, 292 species belong to 
the Atlautic region, and 1.J3 occur within the limits of the Pacific regiou. Species common to the two regions are 
rare; they are piineipally confined to the subarctic Northern Forest and to the narrow belt along the southern 
boundary of the United States. 

The following Kpecies, 10 in number, cross the continent: 

Prosopis julillora. .Saiiiljiiciirt Mexitaiia. .Salix lonyilolia. I'opulim balBamifera. Picea alba. 

Pyrus Kauibiic'ir»lia. Uctiila papyrifera. Pupiiliis trviuuloides. Juiiipt-rus Virgiiiiana. Yucca l)accata. 

ProHopiH julijlura, Sambiicun Mexicana, and Yucca haccata belong to the Mexuan flora of the south; Salix . 
longifol'ui al.-^j belongs here, altliough extending no:thward into the Atlantic and through the Pacific Coast regiou 
of the United States. Pupulus hahumifcra, Jictnla papyri/era, and Picea alba belong to the Northern Forest. 
Pyrug namhiiri/olia, PapuluH InmuloidcH and Junlpents Viiyiniana are widely distributed through the central 
portions of the Atlautic and Pacific regions; they are the only re:dly continental arborescent species. 

The following Hpe(.ie.i of the Atlantic region, 15 in number, extend from the Atlantic into the I'aeific region :, 

l" Xfgiiinlo .-iccroidiH. Cratu^gua toiiienlosa. Qucrciis Eiiioryi. 

( 1. i'arkiiiKODia aciili-ata. * Fraxiiiii8 viridis. AIiiiim iiicaiin. 

s ■i.itn.M. Pniiiiiii Auii-iiiaiia. Ccltis oceiili^iitalis. ' Salix uigra. 

1 a. Pruiius IVmisylvauica. MiiriiH iiiicrupliylla. 

I'Uli.i ■■ ,,..;, a widely ilistribute.d K|)ecies of the Atlantic regiou, exteiuls through western Texas into the 
extreme .sontheasti^rn portion c>f the Pacific region. Vondalia oborata, Ungnadia Hpeciosa, PurUinxouia ueuleata, 
itoruH micropliylla, and Qkcvcuh IJmoryi, of the Atiaiitic-.Mexican forest, extend into the I'acilic-Mi'xii'an region. 
SapinduH viarginalus, of the soutliern Atlantic region, extinds Ihrougli western Texas 1(j the Pacific-Jlexican 
region. Prunun Americana, Pninim Pininti/lcariica, aud Almm iiicano, widely distributeil through the northern 
portions of the Atlantic region, just reach the eastern limits of the central Pacific region. 

Xtgundo aceroiden, CraUcgun tomcntona, Fraxinm riridin, and C'cltin occidcntalin are widely distributed through 
the interior Pacific region, although nowhere reaching the coast. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 13 

The following species of the Pacific region, 8 in number, extend through the Mexican into the Atlantic region : 

Eysenhardtia orthocarpa. Acacia Grcfjgii. Chilopsis saligua. Juniperaii occidcntalis. 

ProsopiH pubcscens. Fraxiiius pistacia^folia. Juglans rnpestriH. Junipoms pachji)hlu>a. 

Juglan.1 rupcstris and Juniperus occidental^ reach their greatest development in the Pacific Coast region, and 
extend through the Pacific-Mexican region into western Texas; no other species are common to the Pacific Coast 
forest and the Atlantic-Mexican region. The G remaining Pacific-Atlantic species belong to the Pacific-Mexican 
region, just reaching western Texas. 

The following species of thu Southern Pacific region extends into the Atlantic region: 

Salix amygdaloides. 

The following species of the Pacific forest, 12 in number, endemic to the interior arid region, do not extend 
beyond its limits: 

Acer grandideutatum. Crat.-pgus rivularis. Populus aiigiistifolia. Pinus monopliyUa. 

Kobinia Neo-Mexicana. I'raxinus anomala. PiniiH flexilis. Picea pun'-ens. 

Cercocarpus ledifoliiis. Qnercus uudulata. Piuns cdulis. Yucca brevifolia. 

A detailed examination of the distribution of the arborescent species composing the Xorth American forests 
shows that — 

Magnolia is represented by seven Atlantic species, with the center of its distribution in the southern Alleghany 
region. 

Liriorlendron is repi'esented by a single species, widely-distributed through the eastern and central portions of 
the Atlantic region. 

Asimina is represented by a single widely-distributed arborescent species and by three frutescent species of 
the Atlantic region. 

Anona^ Capparis, GaneUa, and Chis'a are represented each by a single semi-tropical species. 

Gordonia is represented by two species of the southern Atlantic region, one of wide distribution, the other 
rare and local. 

Fremontia, a genus endemic to the Pacific region, is represented by a single species of the -southern Pacific 
Coast region. 

Tilia is represented by two Atlantic species, with its center of distribution in the southern Alleghany region. 

Byrsonima is represented by a single semi-tropical species. 

Guaiacum is represented by a single semi-tropical species. 

Porliera is represented by a single species of the Atlantic-Mexican region. 

Xantltoxijluin is represented by two si)ecies of the Atlantic region, by a semi-troiiical species, and by a second 
semi tropical species which reaches the Atlantic-Mexican region. 

Ptclia is represented by a single arborescent species of wide distribution in the Atlantic, reaching also the 
Pacific region, where a frutescent species occurs, and by a second frutescent species of the south Atlantic region. 

Canofia, a genus endemic to the Pacific-^Iexican region, is represented by a single s])ecies. 

Simaruba, Amyris, Sicieteniu, Ximcnia, are each represented by a single semi-tropical species. 

Ihirsera is represented by a single semi-tropical species and by a second frutescent species of the Pacific- 
Mexican region. 

Jle.r, an Atlantic genus, is represented by four arborescent and several frutescent species, with its center of 
distribution in the southern Atlantic region. 

Ci/iilla and Cli/lonia are each represented by a single species of the southern Atlantic region. 

Ijiionjimus is represented by a widely-distributed arborescent species in the Atlantic, and by a frutescent species 
in both the Atlantic and the Pacific regions. 

Myyindn, Scha'ffcria, and Eeynosia are each represented by a single semitroi)ical species. 

Condalia is represented by one semi-tropical and by one species of the Atlantic-Mexican reaching the Pacific- 
Mexican region. 

lihamniiH is represented by one arborescent and by one frutescent species in the Atlantic, by two arlwrescent 
4>nd one frutescent si)ecies in the Pacific region, atid by one frutescent species common to the two regions. 

Ccanothus is represented by ;\ single arborescent species in the Pacific Coast region and by several frutescent 
species widely distributed through tlu^ Atlantic and the Pacillc regions. 

Colubrina is rcpresentc<l by a single semi-tropical species. 

^Hcuhix is represented by two arborescent and by three frutescent .species in the Atlantic, and by an arboivscent 
species in the Pacific region. 

Ungnadia, an endemic genus of the Atlantic-JIexican region, and just reaching the PacificMexican ivgion, i.s 
represented by a single species. 

Sapindus is represented by one species widely distributed through the southern Atlantic, and reaching the 
Pacific region, and by one semi-tropical species. 

Acer is represented by five Atlantic and four Pacific sjiecies. 

Ncgundo is represented by one species widely distributed through the Atlantic ami the Pacific ix\iiions and by 
a second species in the Pacific region. 



14 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Rhus is repreRented by five arborescent spcoii's in the Atlantic and by several frnte«cent species in both tho 
Atlantic and the Pacific refrions. 

ristacin is reprusented by a single species in the Atlantic-Mexican region. 

Eysenluirdtia is represented by a single arborescent species in the Pacitic-Mexicau, extending into the Atlantic- 
Mexican region, where a second frntescent sjjecies occurs. 

Dalea is represented by a .single arborescent species in the Pacific-Mexican and by numerous frntescent and 
herbaceous species in the Atlantic and the Pacific regions. 

Rnliinia, with its center of distribution in the southern Alleghany region, is represented by two arborescent 
and one frntescent siHH-ies in the Atlantic and by one arborescent species in the Pacific region. 

Olneita, an endemic genus of the Pacific Mexican region, is there represented by a single species. 

Puicidia is n-pre.sented by a single semi-tropical species. 

C:adrastig is n»pre.sented by a single local si)ecies in the southern Atlantic region. 

Sophora is represented by a si)ecies in the southern Atlantic and by a second species in the Atlantic-Mexican 
region, and by four frntescent or suflVutescent species. 

G_i/miiocIadus is represented by a single species in the central Atlantic region. 

GlediUchia is rejireseuted by two widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region. 

Farkiimonia is represented by an arborescent sjjecies common to the Atlantic- and the Pacific-Mexican regions, 
by two arborescent and one frutescent species in the Pacific-Mexican, and by a frutescent species in tho Atlantic- 
Mexican region. 

Cercis is represented by a widely-distributed species in the Atlantic, by a second species in the Atlantic- 
Mexican, and a fnitescent species of the California Coast region. 

Prosopis is represented by two arborescent species common to the Atlantic- and tho Pacific-Mexican regions, 
and by two frutescent species. 

l^ucwna is rejiresented by two species in the Atlantic-Mexican region. 

Acacia is represented by two arborescent species in the Atlantic-Mexican, by one arborescent species of the 
Pacific-Mexic;in extending into the Atlantic-Mexican region, and by several frutescent species widely distributed 
through the two regions. 

LyHiloma is represented by a single semi-troi)ical species. 

Pithecvlobium is represented by a single ])olymorpbous arborescent species of semi-tropical Florida, and by a 
shrubby species of the Mexican Boundary region. 

Chnjuobalanttx is represented by one arborescent and one frntescent semi-tropical species. 

Pruvuis is represented by seven arborescent sjjecies in the Atlantic region ; of these, one is semi-troi)ical and 
two extend into the Pacific region. This genus is represented in the I'acitic region by four sju'cies, of which one 
belongs to the Mexican region, and by several frutescent sfjccies. 

Vauqueliuia, an endemic genus of the Pacific Mexican region, is there represented by a single si)ecies. 

Cercocarpm is represented by two widely distributed species in the Pacific region. 

PyruH is represented by one .species common to both Atlantic and Pacific, by three arborcsiu-nt and one 
frutescent species in the Atlantic, and by one arborescent species in the Pacific region. 

Crata^luH is rejiresented by twelve arborescent and frutescent sjiecies in the Atlantic, of which one extends 
into the Pacific region, and by two species in the Pacific region. 

UeteromeleH is represented by a single species in the Pacific Coast region. 

Amelanchier is represented by one arborescent species in the Atlantic and by one frutesc-?nt species in tho 
Pacific rr-gion. 

Ilnnutmdiif and Liquidambar are each represented by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region. 

Jihuophura is represented by a single si»ecies in the southern Atlantic region. 

Conocarpm, Laf/unculnria, and CahjptrantheH are each represented by a single senii-tro])ical species. 

Euyeiiia is repre.s^-nted by five semi-tiopical species. 

C'er«/« is represented by a single arborescent siteeies in the Pacific .iiid l>y several frutescent sjjccies in tho 
Atlantic and Pacific regions 

CornuH is represented by two arborescent species in the Atlantic, by a single arborescent s]iecies in the Paciific 
region, and by several frutescent and herbaceous si)ecies in tho two regions. 

yijHxa is represented by three species in tiie Atlantic region. 

titimbucu» is repre-sented by one arborescent species of wide distribution in the I'aciflc, by one si)ec,ies in tho 
Pacific-Mexican extending into the Atlantic-Mexican, by a frntescent species in the Atlantic, by a second frutescent 
•I)ecies in the I'acific, and' by a frute.-cent species common to the Atlantic and Pacific regions. 

Viburnum is rei)resented by two arborescent species in tho .\thiiitic and by several frute«c«;nt species in tho 
Atlantic and the Pacific regions. 

ExoHtemma is re])reseuted by a single semi-tropical species. 

Pinckrui/a, an endemic genus of the southern Atlantic region, is there represented by a single species. 

Genipa is represented by a single semi trojiical sjiecies. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 15 

Ouettarda is represented by one arborescent and by one fnilescent semi troj»ical species. 

Vacciiiinm is represented by one arborescent species in tiie Atlantic and by several Irutescent species in the 
Atlantic and tbc Pacific rejrions. 

Andromeda is representf'<l by an arborescent and several friitescent species in tlie Atlantic region. 

Arbutus is represented by one species in the Pacitic Const, by a second species in the Pacific Mexican, and by 
one sjjccies in the Atlantic-Me.xican resion. 

Oxiidfindnnii, an endemic genns of the Atlantic region, is there represented by a sinj;ie si)ecies. 

Kalmia is represented by one arborescent species and by tliree frutescent species in tlie Atlantic region, of 
which one extends to the Pacific region. 

Rhododendron is represented by one arborescent and by several fnitescent siiecies in the Atlantic and bv 
several I'riitescent species in the Pacitic region. 

Mj/rsine, Arduia, Jacquinia, Chrysophyllum, ISidcroxylon, and Dipholin are each represented by a single semi- 
tropical species. 

Bnmelia is represented by four species in the Atlantic and by one sjjecies in the Pacific-Mexican region. 

Mimuseps is represented by one semi-tropical si)ecies. 

Diospyros is represented by one species in the Atlantic and by one in the Atlantic Mexican region. 

Symplocos is represented by one species in the southern Atlantic region. 

Halesia is represented by two arborescent and by one frutescent species in the .southern Atlantic region. 

Fraxinnfi, with its center of distribution in the southern Atlantic region, is represented by seven species in 
the Atlantic, of which one extends into the Pacific region, and one belongs to the Mexican region, and by three 
arborescent and one frutescent sjjecies in the Pacific, of which one belongs to the .Mi'xican region. 

Forcsficra is lepresented by one arborescent and seven frutescent s])eeies in the Atlantic regiun, of which ono 
reaches the Mexican-Pacific region. 

Chionantlius and O.wianthus are each represented by a single si)ecies in the southern Atlantic region. 

Cordia is represented by one arborescent and by one frutescent semitroi)ical species and by one arborescent 
and one frutescent species in the Atlantic Mexican region. 

Boiirreria and Ehrctia are each represented by a single semi-tropical species. 

Catfilpa is represented by two species in the southern Atlantic region. 

Chilopsis is represented by a single species in the Pacific-Mexican region, extending into the Atlantic-MexicaD 
region. 

Crescent id, Citharcxyluw, and Ariccnnia are each represented by a single semi tropical species. 

Pisonia is represented by one arborescent and by two frutescent semi-tropical species. 

Goccoloba is represented by two semi-tropical species. 

Pcrsca is represented by one s])ecies in the southern Atlantic region. 

Nectandm is reiiresented by one semi-tropical species. 

Sassa/ras is rei)r.-seiited by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region. 

Umhelhilaria is represented by a single sjjecies in tlie I'acilic Coast region. 

Drypete-s, Seba.'itianin, and Hiiipomaiic are each represented by a single semi-troi)ical species. 

Ulrmi.i, with its center of distribution in the Mississippi basin, is represented in the Atlantic region by five 
species. 

Plaiiern is represented by a single species in the southern Atlantic region. 

Ccllin is represented by a single jiolymorphous species of wide distribution in the Atlantic region, extending 
into the Pacific region, and by a frutescent species cominon to the Atlantic- Slexican and the Pacific-Mexican regions. 

FicuK is iei)resented by three semi-tropical species. 

Morus is represented by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region, and by one species in the Atlantic- 
Mexican, extending into the Pacific-Mexican region. 

Madura is represented by a single local species in the .southern Atlantic region. 

Plalanus is represented by one widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region, by a species in the Pacific 
coast, and by a species in the Pacific-.Mexican region. 

JuyUms is represented by two widely-distributed species in the Atlantic region and by a species in the Pacific 
coast, extending through the Pacific Mexican into the Atlantic-JIi'xican region. 

darya. an endemic genus of the Atlantic region, with its center of distribution west of the Mississippi river, is 
represented by seven species. 

Mijrica is rejireseuted by one arborescent and two tiutescent species in the Atlantic region and by ono 
arborescent species in the Pacilic Coast region. 

Qucrcun, with its center of most imiiorlaiit distribution in the basin of the lower Ohio river, is n>i)resented in 
the Atlantic region by twenty-four arborescent species, of which one, belonging to the Mexican region, extends into 
the PacificMexican region; and in the Pa<ific region by twelve arborescent species, of which one belongs to the 
interior and four to the Mexican region, and by two frutescent si)ecie8. 

Caalanopsix is represented by a single species in the Pacilic Coa«t region. 



16 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Cu.stanea is ropiesontod by two species iu tlie Atlantic refjion. 

Fdfjwi, Ontrya, Ain\ Carpinim ure each represented bv a single widely distribnted species in the Atlantic region. 

Hetultt, with its center of distribntion in tbe nortbern Atlantic region, is represented by one arboiesceiit and 
by one tVntescent species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by lour arborescent and one frutescent 
species iu the Atlantic region, and by one arborescent si)ecies in the Pacific region. 

AInuti is repivseuted by three arborescent species in the Atlantic, of which one extends to the Pacific region, 
by three arborescent species iu tlie Pacific region, and by two frutescent species couiuiuu to the Atlantic and the 
Pacific regions. 

Salix is representcil in the Atlantic region by five arborescent sjiecies, of which three are found in the Pacific 
region, and by many frutescent s[)ecies. This genus is rci)resentcd in the Pacific region by ten arborescent and 
by many frutescent species. 

ropuhis is rei)rcsented by two species common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by three si)ecies in tlie 
Atlantic region, and by three species in the Pacific region. 

LibocedruK is rejiresented by a single species in the Pacific Coast region. 

Thuyn is rei»resented by one s])ecies in the Atlantic and by one species iu the Pacific region. 

CliaiiKTci/paris is rejireseuted by one species iu the Atlantic and by two species in the Pacific Coast region. 

Cujyressm is rei)resented by four species in the Pacific region, of whicli three occur in the coast and one iu the 
Mexican region. 

Jiiniperm is rei)reseuted by one arborescent species in the Atlantic region, by three arborescent sjiecies iu the 
Pacific, of which one belongs to the Pacific-Mexican and one extends to the Atlantic-Mexican region, and by two 
frnfe-scent species common to both regions. 

Taxoflium is represented by a single species iu the southern Atlantic region. 

Stqiioia, an endemic genus of the Pacific Coast region, is there represented by two sjiecies. 

Tajnm is reiiresentcd by an exceedingly local arborescent species iu the .southern Atlantic region, by a trute.sceut 
species iu the northern Atlantic region, and by an arborescent sj)ccies in the Pacific Coast region. 

Torrcyn is represented by a single exceedingly local arborescent species in the southeru Atlantic region and by 
a single sjiecies in the Pacific Coast region. 

rinux, with its center of distribution in the southeru Pacific Coast region, is represented by thirleeu si)ecies 
iu the Atlantic and by twenty-two sjiecies iu the Pacific region, of which three belong to the interior and four to 
tbe Mexican region. 

Pirca is rejiresented by one sjiecies common to the Atlantic and the Pacific regions, by one spciics in the 
Atlantic, and by three sj»ecies in the Pacific region, of which one belongs to the interior region. 

Txuya is rejiresented by two sjiecies in the Atlantic and by two sjiecies in the Pacific region. 

Pnvudotmiga, an endemic genus of the Pacific region, is there rejiresented by a single widely-distributed sjiecies. 

Alien is rejiresented by one widely-distributed and by one exceedingly local sjiecies in the Atlantic region aud 
by seven sjiecies iu the Pacific region, of which one is exceedingly local. 

Larij- is rejiresented by one sjiecies in the Atlantic aud by two sjiecies in the Pacific region. 

.Sahul is rejiresented by a siugle sjiecits iu the southeru Atlantic region. 

Waxliingtonifi is rejiresented by a single species in the Pacific Mexican i-egion. 

Tlirinaj- is rejiresentcfl by two semi-trojiical species, and Orcodoxa by one. " 

Yitccn is rejiresented by one arborescent aud one frutescent sjiecies common to the Atlantic and the Pacific 
regions, by one arborescent aud by two frutescent species in the Athmtic, and by two arborescent and by one 
frutescent sjiecies in the Pacific region. 



A CATALOGUE 



FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCLUSIVE OF MEXICO, 



REMARKS UPON THEIR SYNONYiMY, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY, 
DISTRIBUTION, ECONOMIC VALUE, AND USES. 



'2 FOE 



FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Species which grow from the ground with a siugle stem, either wholly or over a large portion of the area of 
their distribution, are admitted as trees into the following catalogne, without reference to the height or size thej' 
may attain. 

The line which divides trees from shrubs is entirely arbitrary, and is often unsatisfactory in application. A 
eeparation of this nature, however, based upon habit rather than upon size, is i)erhaps less objectionable, all things 
considered, than any other, and serves at least to keep this catalogue within reasonable limits. 

The word "compact", used in the description of various woods mentioned in the catalogue, indicates that they 
show no tendency to check or open in drying, and does not refer to their structure. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 



MAGNOLIACE^. 



1. — Magnolia grandiflora, Liuuasus, 

Spec.2ed. 755.— Marshall, Arbustum, 84.— Ain. Gewacli'. t. 185, 186.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 158.— Gtertuer, Frnct. i, 343, t. 70.— B. 8. 
Barton, Coll. 1, 13 ; ii, 20.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251 ; 2 ed. iii, 329.— Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 62.— Lamarck, Dic(. iii, 672 ; HI. iii, 35, t. 
490. — Mojnch, Moth. 274. — WillUeuow, Spec, ii, 1255; Enum. i, .579.— llichaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 327. — Xouveau Duhamel, ii, 219, t. 
65.- Desl'outaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5. — Robin, Voyages, iii. 265. — Andrews, Bot. Rep. viii, t. 51b. — Tittord, Hort. Bot. Am. 76.— Michaui 
f. rii,-.t. Arb. Am. iii, 71,t.l; N. American Sylva,3 ed. ii,H, t.51.— Piirsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii,380.— Xuttall, Genera, ii, 18 ; Sylva, i,ei; 
2ed i,9C.— DeCandolle.Syst. i,450; Prodr. i, 80.— Hayne, Deud. Fl. 116.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 36.— Loddiges.Bot.Cab. t.814.— Sprengol, 
Syst.ii. 642.— Audubon, Birds, t. 5, 32.— Ratiuesque, Med. Bot. ii,32.— Don, Miller's Diet. i,82. — Eaton, Manual, ed. 218.— Croom 
in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. xxvi, 314.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 261 & t.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 188.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.— Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 42.— Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 470.— Dietrich, Syu. iii, 308.- Seringe, Fl. Jard. iii, 225.— Darby, Bot. 
S. States, 210.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 13.— Curtis in Rop. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina. 
1860, iii, 06.— Wood, CI. Boqk, 214; Bot. it Fl. 24.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 38.— Baillon, Hist. PI. i, 133, f. 165-169.— Koch, 
Dendrologio, i, 307. — Young, Bot. Texas, 148. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6. 

it. Virginiana, var. /J. fcetida, Liuna-us, Spec. 1 ed. 536, in part. 

M. grandiflora, var. elliptica and obovata, Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 360. 

If. grandiflora, var. lanceolata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 380.— Bot. Mag. t. 1952.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218. 

BIG LAUREL. BULL BAY. 

Cape Fear river, North Carolina, south near the coast 1^ Mosquito inlet, and Tampa bay, Florida ; basin of 
the Mississippi river south of latitude 32° 30', extending westward to southwestern Arkansas, and along the Texa.s 
coast to the vol'c^j of the Brazos river. 

One of ti)y r.iost magnificent trees of the Atlantic forest, evergreen, IS to 27 meters in height, with a trunk 
O.OO to 1.20 rj'jtps in diameter ; reaching its greatest development on the " bluff" formations along the eastern bank 
of the ]MiS6'ssippi river from Vicksburg to Natchez, and of western Louisiana. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, satiny ; medullary rays very numerous, 
thin ; color, creamy white or often light brown, the heavier sap-wood nearly white; specific gra\ity, 0.6300; ash. 0..')."? : 
little used except aa fuel ; suitable for interior finish, fine cabinet work, etc. 

2. — Magnolia glauca, Linmeus, 

Spec. 2 ed. 755.— Kalin, Travels, English ed. i, 204. — Schoppf, Mat. Med. Am. 01. — Marshall, Arbustum, 8;i. — Wangenheim, Amer. tiO, 1. 19, 
f. 46.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 1,58.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 13; ii. 20.— Lamarck, Diet. Iii. 674.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251 ; 2 ed. iii, 
329.— Mocnch, Meth. 274.— WilUlenow, Spec, ii, 1256; Enum. i, 579.— Schknhr, llandb. ii, 1441, t. 148.— Michaux, Fl. r>or.-Am. i, 
327. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 223, t. 66. — Desl'ontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 5.— Tittord, Hort. Bot. Am. 76. — Bonplaud, PI. Malm. 10'.!. t. 
42. — Michaux f. llist. Ai-b. Am. iii, 77, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3ed. ii, 12, t. 52. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii,381. — Eaton, Manual, 6 <->l. 
218.— Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii, 67, t. 27 ; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 244.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pliiladelph. ,">!) ; Mod. B<it. i, 
"7,t.7; Compend. Fl. Philadelpli. ii, 17.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 215.— De Candolle, Syst. i, 4,52; Prodr. i, 8l>.— Hayne, Dond. Fl. 
116.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 37.— Bot. Mag. t. 2164.— Spreugel, Syst. (>42.— Torroy, Compend. Fl. N. States, 221; Fl. N. York, i, 17, t..'..- 
Audubon, Birds, t. 118. — Raliuesiiue, Med. Bot. ii, 34. — Don, Miller's Diet, i, 82. — Eaton, Manual, 6 e<l. 218. — Hooker, .Tour. Hot. i. 
188.— Beck, Bot. 15.— Sertuni Botanicum, v & t.— Keicheubach, Fl. Exot. v, 37, t. 342.— Lindley, Fl. Mod. 2:1.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 
312.— Torrey &, Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 42.— Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 473.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.— Griffith, Mod. Bot. W, f. .V.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, i, 267 «fc t. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 527 ; 2 ed. il,(i(l:i & t. — Seringe, Fl. .laril. iii, 22ti. — Gray, G*non>, 
i,61,t.2;!; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49.— Schnizleiu, Icon. t. 176.— Darlington, Fl. Ce.strica, 3 ed. 8.— Darby, B*it. S. States,211.— 
Cooper in Smithsoui.an Rep. 1858, 250. — Chapmau, Fl. S. States, 13. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 6C. — 
Lesqueroux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 374.— Wood, CI. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 24. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, ;>6. — Koch, 
Dendrologio, i, 369.— Young, Bot. Texas, 148. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Troes, 6. 



20 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

if. Virf/iniana, var. a. glauca, Liuna'us, Spec. 1 od. 53r>. 

Jf. fra/jrann, Salisbury, I'rodr. 3T9.— Uafiiipsquo. Kl. Liulovici.-iiui, 'Jl ; Mt-d. Bot. ii, 32. 

M. longifoUa, Sweet, Hort. Brit. 11.— Dou, Miller's Diet, i, 6:1.— Dietrich, Syu. iii, 308. 

M. glauca, var. lati/oUa, Aiton, Hort. Kew. -J o<l. iii, 350.— Pur«b, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 381.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed.21ri. 

il. glauca, var. longi/olia, Aiton, Hort. Ivrw. -Jid. iii, 330.— Pursh, Kl. Am. Sept. ii, 361.— RaCnesquo, Fl. Ludovioiana, 
91.— Hayiie, Deud. Fl. IIG.— Eaton, Manual, Ii cd. 21H. 

SWLET HAY. WHITE BAY. BEAVEK TKEE. WHITE LAUREL. SWAMP LAUREL. 

CajM} Ann, Massacliusctts; New Jersey southward, {jeneralty near the coast, To bay Biscayne anil Tani])a bay, 
Florida; basin of the Missis.sippi river south of hititude .'i50, extending west tt) southwestern Arlcansas and the 
valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A tree 15 to 22 nieter.'^ in beifrht, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 meter in diameter, or toward its northern limits 
reducc<l to a low shrub; swamps or low wet woods, reachiufi its greatest develoi)ment on the rich huinniocks of 
the interior of the Florida peninsula and along the low sandy i)anks of pine barren streams of the (lulf states. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, light brown 
tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white ; si)ecific gravity, 0.5035 ; ash, 0.47 ; in tlie Guli' states sometimes u.sed in 
the mainifacture of broom handles and small woodenware. 

The (tried bark, especially of the root, of this s])ecies and of M. acuminata and M. UmhreUn is included in the 
Americ;in .1/ofe/ifl Jf«/ica, furnishing an aromatic tonic and stiuiulant used in intermittent and remittent fevers; 
a tincture made by uiacerating the fresh fruit or bark in bniiidy is a i)opiilar remedy for rheumatism (U. 8. 
Dispensatory, 14 ed. 507. — Xat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 891). 

3. — Magnolia acuminata, Linnaina, 

Spec. 2. ed. T5C.— Marshall, Arbustum, 8:!.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua, l.')9.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 13.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 251 ; 2 ed. 
iii, 331. — Lamarck, Diet, iii, 674. — Willilenow, Spec, ii, 1257; Enum. i, .079. — Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 329. — Nouvoau Dubamel, ii, 
222. — Deslontaiues, Hi.st. Arb. ii,5. — Micbanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 82, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 15, t. .SS. — Pursb, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii, :i81.— De Candolle, Syst. i, 4.'i3; Prodr. i, 80.— Loddi^cs, I!ot. Cab. t. .118.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18.— Bot. Mag. t. 2427.— 
Hayne, Deud. Fl. 117.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 37.— Ralincsque, Med. Bot. ii, 32.— Guimiuf. Otto & Ilaync, M>h. Holz. 18, t. 17.— 
Spnngcl, Syst. ii, G42.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 221 ; Fl. N. Y'ork, i, 28.— Ralincsque, Med. Bot. ii, 34.— Beck, Bot. 15.— 
Sertnm Botanicura, v. & t. — Don, Miller's Diet, i, t'i. — Roicbenbaeb, Fl. Esot. t. 251. — Eaton, Manual, G ed. 218. — Loudon, 
Arboretum, i, 273 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, I, 43.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308.— Griffith, Mod. 
Bot. O''.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3. ed. 9.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.50. — Chapman, Fl. S. 
States, M. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18i>0, iii, (57. — Wood, CI. Book, 214; Bot. & Fl. 24.— Porchcr, Resourcoa 
8. Forests, 38.— BalUou, Hist. PI. i, 140.— Gray, Manual N. Slates, 5. ed. 49.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 371.— Y'oung, Bot. Texas, 
149._Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 6.— Nat. Dispensatory, *cd. 891.— Ridgway in Proo. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 58. 

^f. Virginiana, var. e. Linna;u.s, Spec. 1 ed. 5:}6. 

M. DeCandoUii, Savi, Bibl. Ital. i, 224 & t. 

•Tulipastnim Aviericanuin, Spach, Hist. Veg. vii, 483. 

CUCUMBER TREE. MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA. 

Western Xew York to soutbern Illinois, southward along the Alleghany mountains, and scattered throagh 
easteni and middle Kentuckj* and Tennessee, usually on Carboniferous dei)08its, to southern Alabama (Stockton, 
Mohr) and nr)rtlieastern Mississii)pi; Arkansas, Crowley's ridge, and in the southern and southwestern part of the 
state (Te.varkana, Harvey, and in Polk, Howard, Cross, iind Pik(^ counties). 

A large tree, 20 to .'50 ineteis in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter; rich woods, reaching its 
greatest development on the .slope." of the southern Alleghany inountaiuH. 

WfK)d ilurable, light, soft, not strong, close-grained, comjiatit, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, 
yellow brown, the sap wood ligiiter, often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4G90; ash, 0.29; used for i>umi) logs, water- 
troughs, flooring, cabinet-making, etc. 

4. — Magnolia cordata, Michaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, .328. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 o<l. iii, 331. — Poiret, Suppl. iii, 547. — Michanx f. HiKt. Arb. Am. iii, 87, t. 4; N. American 
Sjlva, 3c<l. ii, 18, t. .5-1.— I'nrMli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 382.— Limlley, Bot. Reg. iv, t. 325.— Nuttall, Gcner.a, ii, 18.— Do Candollo, Syst. 
i, .J.',5: Prodr. i, 80.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 118.— Elliott, S,<. ii, 38.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 474.— Sprengcl, Syst. ii, 04-.'.— Ratiuesquo, 
Med. Bot. ii, 32.— Eaton, Manual, (i ed. 218.— .Sertnm Botanicum, v & t.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 83.— Kci<'henbach, Fl. Exot. t. 
2J0. — London, Arboretum, i, 275 & t. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 
308.— Darby, Bot. 8. States, 211.— Coop»)r in Smithsonian Rep. ia'>8, 2.50.— Chapman, F1.8. Stat«», 14.— Cnrtis in Rop. Geological 
Snrv. N. Carolina, 1800, iii, f>8.— Wood, CI. B»)ok, 214 ; Bot. «t Fl. 2.5.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 371.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, (>. 

TuUpastrum Americanum, var. subcordatum, Spach, Hist. Vcg. vii, 483. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 21 

CUCUMBER TREE. 

Sonthein Alleghany Mountain region, near Augusta, Georgia {Michaux, Elliott),he&d of Sipsey creek, "valley 
of Davidson creek", Winston county, Alabama (Mohr). 

A tree 22 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter ; low, rich woods ; very rare 
and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, clo.segrained, compact; medullary rays very numerous, thin ; color, light brown 
streaked with yellow, the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.4139; ash, 0.32. 

5. — Magnolia macrophylla, Micbaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 327. — Nouvoau Dubainol, ii, 221.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii,5. — Aitou, Hort. Kcw. 2 ed. iii, :$.31. — Poiret, Snppl. iii, 
573.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 99, t. 7 ; N. American Sylva, li, 26, t. 57.— Boupland, PI. Malm. >i4, t. 3:5.- Piireh, Fl. Am. 
Se]it. ii, 381.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 18 ; Sylva, i, a3; 2 ed. i,99.— DeOaiidolle, Syst. i, 454; Prodr. i, 80.— But. Mag. t. 21-9.— Hayne, 
Dcnd. Fl. 117.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 40.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 642.— Rafinesqiie, Med. Bot. ii, 31, t. 62.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.— 
Scrtum Botanicum, v & t.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 83. — Croom iu Am. Jour. Sci. 1 eer. xxv, 76. — Rcichenbacb, Fl. Exot. ii, 44, t. 
139.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 271 & t. — Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 312. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i,43. — Spacb, Hist. Veg. Tii, 
479.— Dietricb, Syn. iii, 308.— Griflitb, Med. Bot. 98, f. 57.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.— Cooper in Smithsonian R. p. 1858, 250.— 
Seriuge, Fl. Jard. iii, 230. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 14.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 67. — Wood, CL 
Book, 214 ; Bot. & Fl. 25.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 374.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6. 

LARGE-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE. 

North Carolina, eastern base of the Alleghany mountains (Iredell and Lincoln counties); southeastern Kentacky 
southward to middle and western Florida and southern Alabama, extending west to the valley of Pearl river, 
LouLsiaua; central Arkansas (Garland, Montgomery, Hot Springs, and Sebastian counties). 

A tree to 18 meters iu height, with a trunk rarely O.GO meter in diameter; rich woods, reaching its greatest 
development in the limestone valleys of northern Alabama ; rare and local. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, brown, 
the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.5309 ; ash, 0.35. 

6. — Magnolia Umbrella, Lamarck, 

Diet, iii, 673. — Nouveau Dohamel, ii, 221. — De Candolle, Prodr. i, 80. — Loiseleur, Herb. Amat. iii, t. 198. — Sprengel, Sybt, ii, 642. — 
Don, Miller's Diet, i, 83.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 43.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. vii, 475.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 308. -Scringe, FL 
Jard. iii, 227. — Gray, Genera, i, 62, t. 24; Proc. Liumean Soc. ii, 106, f. 1-18; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 49. — Cooper in Smithsonian 
Rep. 1858, 250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 13.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 67.— Wood, CI. Book, 214; 
Bot. & Fl. 25. — Porcber, Resources S. Forests, 38. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 6. 

M. Yirginiana, var. tripefala, Linnaeus, Spec, l ed. 536. 

Al. tripetala, Linnasus, Spec. 2 ed. 756.— Marshall, Arbustum, 84.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 159.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 14.— 
Alton, Hort. Kow. ii, 252; 2 ed. iii, 331.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1258; Enum. i, 579.— Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 327.— 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, .5.— De Candolle, Syst. i, 452.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 90, t. 5; K. American Sylva, 
3 ed. ii, 20, t. 5.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 381.— Nuttall, Genera, ii. It*; Sylva, i, 84: 2 ed. i, 100.— Guimpel. Otto A. 
Haync, Abb. Holz. 20, t. 18.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 116.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 38.— ToiTcy, Compend Fl. N. States, 221.— 
Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 32.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 218.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 312.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 98.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, i, 269, t. 5.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 211.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 370.— Xat. Dispensator>-,2 ed. 891. 

UMBRELLA TREE. ELK WOOD. 

Southeastern Pennsylvania, southward along the Alleghany mountains to central Alabama (Prattvillo, Mohr) 
and northeastern Mississii)pi, westward througli Kentucky and Tennessee; in central (Hot Springs) and 
southwestern Arkansas (rulton, valley of the Ked river, IJarvcy). 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.40 meter in diameter; rich, shady 
hillsides ; most common and reaching its greatest develoiuncnt along the western slope of the southern Alleghimy 
mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, comi)iU't; medullary rays vexy numerous, thin; color, brown, the 
heavier sap-wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.4487; ash, 0.20. 



99 FORKST TRKKS (»K N'oirni AMERICA. 

7. — Magnolia Fraacri, Waii.r, 

n. C«r«lltil»n«, I, N» 4 l.-Tormy A (Irny, Kl. N. Aimrli'tt, 1, -i;!.- Wiilprnt, Urp. I, 70.— DIntrloli, Hyii. hi, 308.— ChnpniMi, Fl. H. 
HialM, U.— Ciirll. In Urp. (Irol.iK'"'"' ""rv. N, <'ttn>llii«, mM), III, IW,-\V<mmI, CI. Hook, !iU; Hot. A Kl. tffi.-Uro.v, Miiiiiiul N. 
HUIM, r> p<l. 411- KiM'li, I)riiclriilo||li<, I, ;irj. - Viiwy, r'ttt. Kon-Hl TnM>«, (1. 

M. auiicultlta, l.iiniank, I»l'l. Ill, ll?:!.- Hurl rum, Trnvi-U, 'i «mI. :i:I7.- \vm.l.«n..w, Hp<«r. II, ViM; Kiiiiiii. I, r.71».— Mii'liiiiix, 
Kl. Ilui. Am. I, :'VN. Noiivi'iiii DiiliiitiK'l. II, ■.•■J'J.-|)i'Nrniiliiliii>H, llml. Arli. II. r>. — Mlrliiiiix f. IIUI. Ail>. Am. ill, iU.t. «; 
N. AiiHTlrnii Hylva, :i I'tl. II, «;t, I. .'.(I. Aiulri'Wi., Ili>l. K.-p. Ix, t. MM. Hot. Mii({. (. iy(m.-('nl>lorcH, Mini. Mhk. A t.- 
Alloii, lloit. Ki'W. l/«l. Ill, :i:W. I'iiibIi, Kl. Am. «rpl. II, ;iMW. -Niiltiill, (ii-m.rii, li, |H; Sylvii, i, H.| ; 'J .d. I, '.tH.-Oo 

Cmiilollt., Hv»l. I, 4.'hI; I'riMlr. I, M<(.- lliiyiiK, II 1. Kl. 117. — KUIoM, KU. II, :W.— Hprc<iiK<l, HyHl,. II, iMa.— Amliitxm, 

IlinU, 1. :IM. Don, Mlllt-Hii IHil. I, Mil. - Kiiton, Miuimil, (1 «1. !ilH.- lloiik«r, .lour. Hot. I, IMM.— Hpuoli, IIIhI. V«({. vII, 
477 I.0111I011, ArlioK'tiim, I, i<7l> A l.-K«ilnK«. Kl, .laiil. Ill, 'M). 

M. pyKimiilolil, llintriim, Tittvi-U. 'i id. XW.- I'niHJi, Kl. Am. Hi«pt. II, :»Ha.- 1).. Ciin.l.illc, Hynl. i, .|r,.» ; I'luclr. I, W.-Miiyuo, 
|ti>ml. Kl. 117.- l.lnilli'y, lltil. 1{.«k. v,t. I07.-I,ciil<ll|{ri., Ilol. Ciili. I. lOiy.- Kullncmino, Mcil. Hot. 11,:W.— Don, Millor"* 
Dill. I, Kl.- Kiilon, MiMioul, <l <<1. VUI. — London, Arliori'lnm, 1, S77 & t.— SiThiKO, Kl. .Iiird. Ill, 'ZW.— Darby, Hoi. 
H. HialiH., «ll. 

M. auncuhirin, NalUlmiy. I'ani.l. I.ond. I, I. VX K.in. 1. lloil. t, :i<10. 

l.dNlJ I.KAVKK ( rcllMllKU IKKK. 

All«'||liuii.v inoiintiiiiiH, Ironi N'irjjiniii wMilliwanl lo llic ('lialliiliooclu'o n'(,'i()n of wohDtii I'Mtnidii, and Noiitliorn 
Aliibuiiiik (riaiK < il.N, Molir), cxli-nilinn w<-hI lo lli<> valloy of IVail riv<>r, MiNsiHHippi. 

A Ninall (rt'i-, H to ll! iiu'Icin in licinlil, with ii trunk (l.ir» lo (l.'JO nu-tt'r in dianiclfr; ricli woodH. 

Wood liclil, Kol1, not Htronn, cloNOKrninfd, conipacl ; nii'duJlary la.VH vory nuMKMouN, tliin; color, liiown, (li« 
nap wood n(iiil> «lill«'; spi'cilli' niavil.v , lt.'><ltl.'t ; anli, ((.'JH. 

8. — Liriodcndron Tulipifcra, i.inmi im, 

HiM>r 1 .'.I 1, [i;«i. -Kalm, 'I'ravi'lH, KiikHhIi "I. 'i U<W.- -Marnliall, ArlinNlum, 7H.— \ViinK"nlmlm, Amor. :W, I. l;l, I'. :i'J.- Wiillor, Kl. 
Cunillnliina, l.'.H. Sulnnlill, Arli. I, 4H. II. H, llarton. Coll. I, 14, 4.'').- Alton, llorl. Kmv. II, '.'Ml; >i vi\. ill, :W!>.— Ua>rlnor, Kinot. 
II, t. 17".- Hot. MaK. t .•J7!i. Mo-ni'li, Mntli. Wi.— Aldiot, Iiihoi'Ih (liH)rKlii, II, I. 10'.J.— SoliUnlir, llandli. Ii,i):i, t. 147.- 'I'row, Iron. 
I.ltl- Wlllilrnow, .Sprc. II, IVM; Knnin. I, rwlt.- Mli'lianx, Kl. Hor.-Ani. I, ;Wli.-Noiivi'iin Dnhamcl, III, tl'J, I. IH.- Druronluini-H, 
Hint. Arl.. II, 1:.. I'olr.'t lo LamairU, Dirt, vlll, 1:I7; 111. ill, :tll, t. 4!»l. -HI. Illliiiro, I'l. Kn.n.'.', ill, I.. ;I77.- Tllfoid, II. ol,. Hot. 
Am. 7<l Ml.'luoix r Hut. Aili Am. Ill, li"',', t. fi ; N. Ami'iiran Hjlva, 11 «il. li, Mf., t. til.- Ijilon, Manual, li:t; Hod. !JtW.~- Nutlall, 
(Irnrrii, II, |H; 8>lva, I, H4 ; ii rd. I, IIMI,- Harlon, I'ro.lr. Kl, l<liila<l<'lpli. Ml; Mod. Hot. I, 1)1, 1. H; Compond. Kl. I'lilladolpli. II, 
|H D.' Cnmlollo, HvM. 1. 4lW; I'rodr. I, «!. HIkoIow, Moil. Hot. II, itl7, t. III.- Ilayiio, Dond. Kl. I Ifi.— Kllioll, Sli. ii, 4I>.— Torroy, 
CompKhd. Kl. N. Htttlon, Wl ; Kl. N. York, I, 'JM.-Uallnrmpi.., M.d. Hot. II, '.'MlL-Hiilinp.-l, t)llo A llayno, AM>. Ilol/,. :14, 1. '.".I.— 
C.dd..tl, Wooillandi., No. Mil. SpronK«d, HyM ll,tll'J.- Andiilion, HirdN, t. fJ.— Don, MiIIoi'h Dl.t. I, Hil, — H...k, Hot. U..— Mndloy, 
Kl MiMl.Xt. Hpntli, llUt, Vig. M,4HM, London, Ailion>tiim, l,yMI A I. -I'.aton A WriKlit, Hot. Iltlv.'. - I'riin. Cy.l. xx\ , :t4l.— 'I'oiioy 
A llri»\, Kl N, AimTlon, I, 44,- -Dlotrlidi, Hyn, III, :ilil»,-t;rilllili, Mfd. Hot. HH, I", frft.- I'.mi'iNon, 'riooM MamiailinHollH, r.!>'.l| 2 cd. 
II, iMi:. A I S..||lini', Kl .laid. Ill, ".'411.- tliay, tlonorii, I, tl4, t. V:. : Manoal N. StatoH, f. id. fitl.— Daillnnton, Kl. CoMiii'a, :i cil. It.— 
Durliy, Hot. 8. HInliw, aiU. -AkukIIi, 'I'luHir. A Kyut. I'l. t. II, f. -.i.— Coopor In Hmltliaoiilan Kip. IW.H, 'J.Ml.— Clnipioan, Kl. H. 
HmiM. 14, fnilU In K.p, tJi-oloHl. ul Hni v, N, Carollnii, iwtltl, ill, 77. -LomaliK, 111, llorl. If., I. r>7l, -Wood, (;l, Hooli, 'Jl!^.; Ilol. 
A 11 •.'.■ -I'or.liir, Kmonnoii 8, Koii>Ht»., :«», KiiKidmann in 'rraim. Am. I'lill, Hon, now hit, xII, IKI. Halllon, IHhI, I'l, I, 14;i, f, 
1, 1;- Koili, Di'iiilioloKJi', I.IIMO, tinilionn, lli»l, Hh.hioh, T .•,!. ill, 7411, -HI<lK"iiy in Am, Nat, vi, ilii:!; I'loc, II, S.Nat, Miih. 
I -•■. 'I Vawv, Cat. Koli-t Ti.th, ll. Kiildor, Hit. Ilol, Itrand. xvli, m:I, f, l-X- IJidl In (loologloal Kop. Canada, IH7l>'H(l, Kl'. 

Iiilif>if'itii l.iriiiihiiilioii, Milli'i, Dirt. No, I. 

/.. ;»»(»(r»«l, Sail. Inn \, I'lodr :I71I 

It Ml' TUKIC. YKI.LOW I'Ori.AK. WIIITK WOOD. 

.SoiillmrMlriii \ « iiiioiil, tliioiiuli wisliTii Now Knulaiid, south waid to norlliciii IMorida (laliliid« ;W") ; wt^st, 
UimiiKli Ni'vv York, Oiitaiii^, and MIcIiIk'HI to lak<^ .Mii'lii;;iiii, soiilli of latlliidi' t.'i'^ .'10', tliciico south Jo latittido 
31<^ in llii< Onlt'nliilcHcaNl of llii< .MJHNJ.sHippi livor; tliroii^li sonllicrn IliiiiolN and HoiilhiMislorn I\li.<4soiiri to < 'lowlcv's 
riil^i', noithi'iiHliTn .VikaiiNUN. 

()iii< III' till' liirK<',-<l and nioMi viiliialilo ticcs ot tin' .Mlaiitir lori<,st,s, .'ttl lo till ni(>l('i,s in lii>i;;iil, with a trunk 13 lo 
4 nii<li'i'?4 III diaiiD'ttT ( /I'li/f/iro)/) ; ru'h woods and iiilorvah' landN, ri<ai-hin;; it,s ^roalcsl dovciopnu'iit in tiii< \'alh\v 
of tln< liiwor NNiiliaNli iim-i and alonj; th<' wi'stcni slopes of tln< Ail«'j;lian.v nionntains In 'r(>iiii<'s,stM> and Noilli 
Cikiolina. 

Wood liyhl. "I'll, iioi Minnie I'lilllc, very closo utiiiinlit K'"''"'''. fonipail, easily woiUed; ineilnllary niys 
nniniMoiiN, not pnnninenl ; eolor, lit;hl m-IIow or lirown, tlie tliln sap wood nearly while ; spieille (gravity, l),l'J.'(0 ; 
lUtli.t).*,!; htiKi'ly nianiHiielnred Inio liiinlier and used foi' eonHlrnetion, inleiior llnish, sliin^'les, in hnal liiiildln^, 
and i<Mpeeiall.\ in llii< niaiiiilaeltii-e of wooiIimi pmnps, woodetiware, eir, ; varittllcs var.\ iiit; Mli^lilly in color and 
d(<iiNlt\ are l'eeO);iilr,e<l liv lilinlierinen. 

l.inoilrHilrin, a Htiiiiiihtnt ttmio, wilJi di.iphorclic propcrlicN, In ohtaiiH-d li,\ niaccralin^^ the inner hark, 
MIMH'iillly of tliKi^Mil (Jour. I'hiliUlrliihiii Col. /Vidr. ill. ft. — f/. N, />t,>/»cHMi/<>r//, II ed, [iM. — ,V<ir. IH>iii<ii.siitorii, L.' ed. .S71). 



CATALOGUK OK KOIMIST 'I'IMOKS. 23 



ANON A(!Kyl<] 



9. — Asiinina trilobii, iininil, 

Moil. Alien. H;i.-1)o Ciimliillr, HyHt. I, '«7ll; rriiilr. i, H7. r.lli.ill, Kk. II, C-'.- (itiliii|M-l, Otio *. Iliiyiio, Al.li. IliiU. M, I. r>:i,-IUyii«., 
Dniil. V\. IIH, S|iniiK,-l, S.vhI. II, CkIK. •|'.iir..,v, <'mii|mii,l. Kl. N. Slut.w, a'."J ; Ann. I.yn. N. Vi.ik, il, \K. - l»f.k. Hoi. If, -Ih.u, 
Milli'i'H Diol. I,i)l. Niiltiill III Jour. riiila(li'l|)lila Ariul. vll, II.- Dinlilr.li, Hyii. lii, :i()4. -I,i)Uil(.ii, Arl.ornliiiii, I, !ai;i, f. :Ht.-<lrii.v! 
Qmiorn, i, III), t. 2*1, 'J7; Manual N. Kliiliw, rx'il. Ul.- I'liriy In Oivrn'N l{(i|i. (101). - DiirlliiKton, l''l. ( 'iwl riru, :i rtl. t). — Darliy, Kol. h. 
8tiiU>H, aia.— (^M)pm' In HniltliMiiiilaii l{i'|). IW.S, yW). -(Mia|iiiiiin, l''l. H. Hlalnit, I.^.-CiiiIIh in Hi-p. (iit(ilii((i<ml Miirv. N. (.'nrnllii*, 
IHCd, lii, ill. — l,('N(in<Mi'nx in Owkii'n •.'(! K<'|). ArkaiiHiiM, :M7. Miioiit A DrraUiiK, Dot. KiikIihIi imI. IIMI A, llj(«.- Il<il. M»k, ». 
r.H.VI.- WimmI, (M. Itixik, -Jir.; \M.. A I'M. yd. I'onliri-, Kmonr.oM H. I'oi.wIm, 11. KiiKxIniunii in Truiw. Am. I'lill. K<h>. ikim iwf. 
xli, lH:t. Ki.cli, |)c*ii.lr..li>Kii', ii, :Ih:i. YiMiii).;, lliil,. 'IVxiiM, Mil. Vimn), Vul. Koirnl Tiwh. tl. Hlilnwiiy In I'ro.-. II. H. Nut. Mn«. 
1HH-.', lid. lliirj;rMM in CiihII.m'h llnl. Oiizt'tt.-, vii, !).'■.. 

Alliina hilohil, l,lmiHMiH,,S|irr. 1 ,m\. kit. - Maislmll, AiIhimIiiiii, Id. Liiiiiairk, DIrl.. II, r.'r..-\Viiltor, I'l. (;ari>linlitiiit, IW.- 
II. S. lliiiloii, (Nill. I, •Jl».-Aili>n, II. .It. Kkw. 11, '.'.VI ; 2 oil. ill, ;i:iri. \Vlllil.>n..w,H|irr, 11, la(17 ; Kiiiiin. I, ■':»«).- N..iiv.«u 
Diiliiiiiirl, 11, Kl, I. •.>.-., -DrHloiilalnrH, IIInI. Aili. II, 21.— Mliiluinx f. IIIhI. Arl.. Am. ill, Itil. t. l» ; N. Aiiinrlciin Hylva, 
:i imI. ii, :i:t, l. liO. IIimIoh, l-icilr. I<'l. I'lilla<i.'l|>li. IJl).— Hohkiilir, llanilli. 11, l)r>, I. Mil. 

Anona piiiilitla, .SaiiNi.my, I'miii-. :iH(i. 

Orchidocitrjium (triitiiiuin, Mi.iwuix, I'l. lior. Am. I, iiy.i. 

I'orrilitI Iriliihil, I',.|m(.„ii, Syn. 11, %. rniHli, Kl. Am. Hr|.|. 11, :Im:I. ltiillii«Hi|im, Kl, l.nilovloluna, IC*. - llnrlon, Conipcn.l. 
Kl. I'lillaili'lpli. II, IH.~NiiIIhII, (Jonoiu, 11, I!).- I'oirol, Siippl. Iv, r>V!|).- Kaloii, Mnniiitl, (I imI. '/TH.-- Auiliihon, IllnU, t. 
2, l(!2.-KHt<.ii A. WiIkIiI, IIoI. :17I. 

Uvmia friloixt, Tmii-y A Oiay. Kl. N. Aiiii<rUia, i, .If..— Tiiiroy, Kl. N. Ynrk, 1, ;iO.— t'nrnri in Ann. Mm. Klrrim<, l(«4, «, t. 

t, r. t-7,- iiaiiiim, AiiaiiMoiiiii, viii, :i:i;i ; iii»i. ri. I, iiiH, r, 220-22H. 

^1. aim pan i /hint, Spmli, IIIhI. Vrj;- vil, r>21i. 

I'Al'AW. (tllHTAWK Al'l'MO. 

VV*tHl(M'n N(<\v ^ ink ( l,iii'k|iiirl mid in Moiiror ciiiiiilv) ; Onliirio (Qii(M<iiHtowii l)(>i(;litfl) ; (MUtl^rii iiiid ciMitrikl 
roiiiiHyh'iiiiiii, \v(>nI Io Ndiillifi'ii Mii'lii^iiii, hoiiIIicim liiwn, and riisli-rn Kiiiiniin (Miiiiliiittiiti)i Hniilli to iniildU^ 
li'loiiilii niid (lu^ viillt\v of llic Hlll)in(^ river, 'IVixiiH. 

A Hiiiall lr(M', Mi)in<>liiiic.M 113 nirlcrH in lii'i;;lil, wil li :i Iriiiik tiircly r.M'rcdinu 0..'t() nirlcr in iliaiii<<l4<r, or orti'ii 
HMlncrd III a ,Ml(Mi(li>r .hIiiiiIi ; ricli, ratlier low woocIn, rrarliin^' its ;^i'fiilOHl, dovolopiiwnl in llir luwrr WuIiiihIi vhIIi'T 
itiid ill IIkn vall(\v of llio VVIlit(^ river, ArkaiiMa.s. 

Wood V(>rv li^lit, very Non, and wealt, coarse* grained, N|>onn.v ; layers of annuiil (growth clearly inurktMl l»y 
Hoveral row.M of lar^e open iIiicIh; color, li|.;lit. yellow Nliadcd with jjret>n, the Hiip wood llKl>ti<r; Npvciflo (fni\ ity, 
O.aOOlt; a.sh, O.'Jl. 

10. — Anona laurifoHa, Dnmii, 

Mmi. Anon. (if.. Iii< ('iiiiili>llr, Hyal. I, tllH; Kioilr. 1, HI.- SpriMiK«l, SyHt. 11, till. Mii(lli<y, llol. KrR. xvl, t. l:t2M.-8rbiiUlKln, loon. 
I. 171, r. ll.-(iiiHi<l>ii<li,KI. MiiliNliWrnl Iiulii n, t.-- Cimpi-r In Siiill iiMinian Krp. lh4M),4:ia-Ctiapiiiiin, Kl. H. H(atr«, Hnppl.nai. 

A. (llahrUf Cliupmim in (.'oiiIIki-'n Itiil. (la:ri<tto, 111,2 | not Miimi>im|. 

A, HpeciioH, ViiHoy, Cut. KiiroHt TrrivH, (1. 

I'liNii Ai'ri.i;. 

Heini-tr<>|>iciil I'Morida, cape Maliiliar (o luiy lliMca,\ iic, on llie wcnI <'oa.'<t, Pease creeh lo the ('uIoohu river, 
mid tliroiif;li the West Indies. 

A small tree, soinelinics inelers in liei);hl, with a Iniiik ll..'!l) inelcr in diiiiiietcr, or towiiid its noilliern liiiiil mid 
on IIk* west coast ol'ten reduced lo a slont, wide spreading shrill) ; coininon and reiichini; its ^reiitcNt development 
within tlu* United Slates on the low islands and ^ hores of the lOxei'Klades in tin* nei^liliorliood of bay ItiHCJi.Mie. 

Wood li^lili Holt'i >>i>l strong, rather clost^^rrained, compact, conlainiiiK many sealterfd open iliictN ; color, llclit 
brown streiiked with yellow, sap wood li;;liter; spccille ;;i'avity, 0.."iOr».'l ; iihIi, -LSIl. 

Tli« 1hi(;o fruit (O.ll lo (l.US meter lonj;) scarcely »'dil)U>. 



24 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CAPPARIDAOEiE. 



11. — Capparis Jamaicensis, Jacquin, 

Stitp. Am. IGO, t. 101.— Aitou, Hurt. Kcw. v.' od. iii, -iS-'i.—Dc Cauilollr, I'roilr. i, 252.— Descourtilz, Fl. Mod. Antilles, y. t. 273.— 
Macfadycu, Fl. Jamaica, :!9. — Grisrbacli, I'l. Britisli West Inclios, 18. — Cbapinau, Fl. S. States, 32. — Porcher, Resources S. Foroeta, 
".'•. — Eicliler in Martins, FI.Brasil. siii, 270, t. 04, f. 11. — Yasi-y, Cat. Forest Trees, 0. 

C. Breynia, Liuuteus, Spec. 2 ed. 721, ill part.— Aitou, Hort. Kow. 2 cd. iii, 285.— De Candollc, Prodr. i, 252, iu part.— 
Swartz, Obs. 210 [not Jacquin]. — Macf.idycn, Fl. Jamaica, 39. 

C. Cl/nophyUophora, Liumeus, Spec. 1 cd. 504 [not subsequent ed. /irfe Eichler, (. c.].— Alton, Hort. Kow. 2 ed. iii, 285.— 
Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 39. 

C. siliquosa, Linn.Tue, Spec. 2 ed. 721. 

C. iorulosa, Swartz, Prodr. tl.— Do Candollc, Prodr. i, 252.— Grisobaob, Fl. Britiali West Indies, 18. 

C. tincinata. I.oddigps, Cat. [not Wallich]. 

C. emarflinaia, Kicbard, Fl. Cuba, 78, t. 9.— Walpers, Eep. i, 201. 

Semitropiual Florida, cape Canaveral to tbe soutboru keys ; in the West Indies and soutbward to Brazil. 

A 8niall tree, sometimes G meters in beifilit, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter, or reduced to a low shrub; 
common and reaching its greatest development within the United States on Upper Metacombe and Umbrella Keys. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many evenly-distributed large open ducts; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, yellow tinged with red, tbe sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.C971; 
ash. 4.7G. 



CANELLACE^. 



12. — Canella alba, Murray; 

LinoiEus, Syst. 14 ed. iv, 443. — .Swartz, Obs. 190; Trans. Linna-an .Soc. i, 9C, t. 8. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 851; Enum.i, 496. — Aiton, Hort. 
Kew.2 ed. iii, 144.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. Snppl. 3, t. 10, f. 4.— Do Candollc, Prodr. i, 5G3.— Hayne, Arzn. 9, t. 5.— Stevenson 
& Cbnrchill. Med. Bot. ii, t. 06.— WoodviUc, Med. Bot. 3 ed. iv, C94, t. 237.— Liiidley, Med. Bot. 116.— Carson, Med. Bot. i, 24, t. 
IC.— Griffilb, Med. Bot. 181, f. 98.— Miers in Ann. Nat. Hist. 3 Bcr. i, 348; Contrib. i, 116.— Grisobacb, Fl. Britisb West Indiea, 
109.— Cliaj.nian, n. S. State.t, 93.— Gnibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 021, f. 707.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.— Bontley &. 
Trimen, Med. I'l. i, 26, t. 20. 

C. Winteriina. Oaertner, Fmct. i, 377, t. 77. 

M'intcra Canella, Linna;u», Spec. 2 ed. 636.— Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, viii, 799, t. 399. 

C. laini/olia, Loddigrs, Cat.— Sweet, Ilort. Brit. 0.").— Dou, Miller's Diet, i, 030. 

WHITE WOOD. CI.V.VAMOX BARK. WILD CINNAMON. 

Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys (Elliott's l\ry, Key Largo to Jew Fish Key); through the West 
Indies. 

A small tree, otti-ii Id meters in liciglil, with a trunk (t.'_'J meter in diameter; not rare. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, clo.se. grained, cxjinpact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, 
dark redtlish brown, the siiji wood light brown or yellow; s])ec,i(ic gravity, 0.9893; asii, 1.75. 

The pale inner bark ai)pears in the rharmacoprrn under the name of Cortex cnnellm alba;, furnishing an 
aromatic stimulant and tonic, occii.sionally employed in ca.ses of debility of the digestive organs, or as an adjunct 
to more active remedies {Miers, I. c. — FlUckif/cr t{- JJatihuri/, I'harmnrographia, G8. — U. S. Dispensafori/, 14 ed. 
aiO.— A'ar. JHnpematory, 2 ed. .337). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 25 



GUTTIFER^. 

13. — Clusia flava, Limiieus, 

Spec. 2 ed. 1495.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 977; Eoum. ii, 1043.— Aitoii, Hort. Kew. 2 od. v, 444.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 105.— D« 
Caiidolle, Prodr. i, 559.- Macfadyeu, V\. Janiaicn,, 134.— Nuttall, Sjlva, ii, 111, t. 77; 2 ed. u, 58, t. 77.— Grisebach, F). BritiBh 
West Indies, 407.— Cooper in Smitlisonian Rep. 1858, 2G1.— Chapman, I'l. .S. States, 43.— Plancbon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 
ser. xiii, 352.— Walpera, Ann. vii, 340.— Vasey, Cat. Forest TrcPH, 7. 

C. rosea, Torrcy & Gray, FI. N. America, i, 168. 

Jamai(!a and other West Indian islands; Key West {Blodgett) prior to 1840. Not detected by later exi)lorer« 
{Palmer, Garbcr, Chapman, Curtiss) of the botany of semi tropical Florida, and probably not now growing 
Bpontaneously within the limits of the United States. 

Wood not examined. 



TERNSTRCEMIAOE^ 



14. — Gordonia Lasianthus, Linnivus, 

Mant. i, 570.— Ellis, Phil. Trans. 60, 518, t. 11 ; Letters, t. 2.— L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 156.— Cavanilles, Diss, ii, 307, t 161.— Walter, Fl. 
Caroliniana, 177.— Alton, Hort. Kcw. ii, 231 ; 2 ed. iv, 234.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 770 ; III. iii, 146, t. 594, f. 1.— Swartz, Obs. 271.— 
Willdenow, Spec, iii, 840.— Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 43.— Bot. Maj;. t. 6.i8.— Nouveau Duhaniel, ii, 236, t. 68.— Desfontaines, Hist. 
Arb. i, 484.— Persoou, Syu. ii, 2.')9.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 131, t. 1 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 29, t. .58.— Pnn-h. Fl. Am. 
Sept. i, 451.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, .84.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, .528.- Klliolt, Sk. ii, 171.— Spreugcl, Syst. iii, 125.— Don, Miller's Diet. 
i, 573, f. 99.— Audubon, Birds, t. 168.^Reichenbaeh, Fl. Exot. t. 151.— Spaeb, Hist. Veg. iv, 79.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 379, f. 93.— 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 223. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 161. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 2,'>S.— Browne, Trees of America, 52. — 
Dietrich, Syu. iv, 862.— Gray, Genera, ii, 103, t. 140, 141; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 104.— Choisy, Mem. Ternst. & Camel. 51.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 256. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. I&'i8, 250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, GO.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surr. 
N. Carolina 1860, iii, 80.— Maont & Decaisne, English od. 274 & tigs.— Wood, CI. Book, 274; Bot. & Fl. 65.— Baillon, Hist. PI. iv, 
230, f. 254, 255.— Viisey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7. 

Hypericum Lasianthus, Linnseus, Spec, l ed. 783.— Hill, Veg. Syst. XV, t. 1, f.3. 

O. pyramidalis, Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. 386. 

LOBLOLLY BAY. TAN BAY. . 

Southern Virginia, south near the coast to ciipe Malabar, and cape Romano, Florida, west along the Gulf 
coast to the valley of the Mississii)])i river. 

A tree 15 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk oflcii (i.l.") to 0.50 meter in diameter; low, sandy swamps. . 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, not dural)le ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, 
light red, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.4728; ash, 0.7G ; somewhat employed in cabinet making. 

The bark, rich in tannin, was once occasionally used, locally, in tanning leather {Bartram, Travch, 2 ed. IGO). 

15. — Gordonia pubescens, L'Heritier, 

Stirp. Nov. 156.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 770.— Cavanilles, Diss, ii, 308, t. 162.— Aiton, Hort. Kow. 11,231; 2 ed. iv, 2;V4.— Willdenow, 
Spec, iii, 841.— Miehaux, FI. Bor.-Am. ii, 43.— Ventenat. ,Iard. Malm. t. 1 (Schrader, Neues Jour. Bot. IrOG, 121).— Nonvean 
Duhaniel, ii, 237.— Krenig & Sims, Ann. Bot. i, 171.— Desloulaines, Hist. .\rb. i, 484.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 2.'.9.— Miehaux f. Hist. Arb. 
Am. iii, 135, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. il, 31, t. 59.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 451.— Nultall, Genera, ii, 84.— Loiselenr, Herb. 
Auiat. iv, t. 236.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 171.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 528.— Spreugel, Syst. iii, 125.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 673.— EaWn, 
Manual, 6 ed. 161.— Audubon, Birds, t. 185.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 60.— Loudon. ArbonMnni, i, 380, f. 94.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N. America, i, 223i — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 2.58.— Browne, Trees of America, 54.— Dietrich. Syn. iv, SiW.- Gray, Genera, ii, 
102, t. 141, f. 11-14, t. 142.— Choisy, Mem. Ternst. &. Camel. 51.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 2,".7.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 18r>8, 
250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 60.— Wood, CI. Book, 274; Bot. & Fl. 65.— Vasey, Cat. Fon>at Trws, 7.— Gootlale & Sprague, Wild 
Flowers, 193, t. 47. 

FrankUnia Altaniaha, Marshall, Arbustum, 19.— Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 16, 41^..— Ratinesqne, Atlant. Jour. Til A- f. 

0. FranMini, L'Heritier, stirp. Nov. l.'iO.— Willdenow, Spec, iii, 841.— Nouveau Duhaniel, ii, 237.— Divsfontaine*, Hist. 
Arb. i, 484. — Persoou, Syu. ii, 259.— Poii-et, Suppl. ii, 816. 

Michauxia Sessilis, Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. 386. 

Lacathea Jlorida, Salisbury, Parad. Lond. t. 50.— Colla, Hort. Ripul. Appx. i, 134. 



26 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

FRANKLINIA. 

Near Fort Barriugton, on the Altanialia river, Georgia (J. d* W. Bartram, Ih: Moses ^farshall). 

Careful exi)lorations of Bartram's original locality by later botanists, especially by Mr. H. W. Kavenel, have 
faile<l to rediscover this species, which is, however, still i)reserved in cultivation through the original plants 
introduced by the Bartranis. '•Florida" given as a locality by Torrey & Gray, /. c, ou the authority of 2Zcr&. 
Schiceinit:, and followed by Chapman, /. c, is probably an error {Itavenel in Am. Xatttralist, xvi, 235). 



STERCULIACEiB. 



16. — Fremontia Californica, Torrey, 

Smithsonian Contrib. vi, 5, t. 2, f. 2; Proc. Am. Assoc, iv, 191 ; Pacific R. R. Rop. iv, 1.5, 71. — Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi,68. — 
Walpers, Ann. iv, 319. — Gr.iy in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 14(5. — Bentham & Hooker, Genera, i, 212, 982. — Bot. Mag. t. 5.591. — 
Lemaire, 111. Hort. xiii, t. 4%.— Beige Hort. xvii. 236, t. i:t.— Carrifere in Rev. Ilort. 1867, 91 & t.— Kocb, Dcn<lrologie, i, 483.— 
Masters in Lontlon Gard. Chronicle, 1869, CIO. — Sccniann, Jonr. Bot. vii, 397. — London Garden, 1873, 54 & t. — Planchon in Fl. des 
Sorres, xxii, 175.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 88; ii, 437. — Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 41, 3.57. 

Cheiranthodendron Californicum, Baillou, Hist. PI. iv, 70. 

SLIPPEKY ELM. 

California, valley of Pitt river, southward along the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, and in the Santa 
Lncia mountains southward through the Coast ranges to the San Jacinto mountains ; rare at the north, most 
common and reaching its greatest development on the southern sierras and the San Gabriel and San Bernardino 
ranges. 

A small tree, fi to 10 meters in height, the short trunk often 0..30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a tall, 
much branched shrub; dry, gravelly soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, containing many groups of small ducts parallel to the 
thin, conspicuous medullary rays, layers of annual growth obscure; color, dark brown tinged with red, the thick 
sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7142; a.sh, 1.69. 

The mucilaginous inner bark used locally in poultices. 



TILIACE^. 



17. — Tilia Americana, Linnasus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 514.— Manihall, Arbnstnm, 153.— Wangcnheim, Amer. 55.— Alton, Hort. Kow. 11, 229; 2 ed. ill, 299.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 
11G2; Enum. i, 6C5.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. li, 37.— Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 66.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 311, t. 1; N. American 
Sylva, 3 o<l. iii, ?1, t. 131.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pliiladelpb. :«; Compcnd. Fl. Pbiladclpb. ii, C.— Eaton, Manual, 59.— James in 
Long's Exped. i, 09.— Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, 134, t. 134.— Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 214 ; Fl. N.York, i, 116.— Loudon, 
Arlx)retnm i, :f73 Sc t.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Ami'rica, i, 239.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 227.— Emerson. Trees Massachusetts, 
511 ; 2 e<l. ii, 584 & t.— Browne, Trees of America, 47.— Gniy, Genera, ii, 96, t. X'MS; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 103; Hall's PI. Texas, 
5.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 38.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 2C2.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 250.— Chapman, Fl. 8. States, 
59. —Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.— LcBfjuereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkaufas, .3.52.— Wood, CI. Book, 
272; Bot. i FI. 64. — Porcber, Resources .S. Forests, 103. — Eugelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 186. — Wiil()erH, Ann. 
vii, 449.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 480.— Young, Bot. Texas, 188. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.— Maeonn in Geological Rep. Canada, 
1875-'7C, 191.— S<-ars in Bull. Essex lust.xiii, 174.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, .51':.— Ridcway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mos. 1882,61. 

T. nujra, Borkbauscn, Handb. d. Forstbot. ii, 1219. 

T. glabra, Vcntenat in Mem. Acad. Sci. iv, 9, t. 2.— Nouveau Dnbamel, i, 228.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vii, (Wl.— Pursh, 
Fl. Am. .Sept. ii, :562.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, .3.- De Caudollo, Prodr. i, 513.— Hayne, Dend. FI. 112.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 2.— 
GuimiMjl, Olto Si. Hayne, Abb. Holz. 5.5, t. 45.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 108.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 5.53.— Eaton, 
Manual, 6 ed. :}65.— Beck, Bot. 59.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 312.— Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 452.— Dietrich, Syn. 
iii, 2:{7. — Richardson, Arctic Expcd. 422. 

T. lati/olia, .Sali.tbury, Prmlr. :167. 

T. Canadetmiil, Michanx, Fl. B«r.-Am. 306.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.- Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vii, 683. 

T. neglecia, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 'MO, %. 15; Hist. Veg. iv, 27, 29.— Walpers, Rep. i, 359. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 27 

LEUE TREE. BASS WOOD. AMEEICAN LmDEN. l.TS. BEE TEEE. 

Northern Now Brunswick, westward in British America to about the one hun(ired and second meridian, 
southward to Virjiinia and along the Alleghany mountains to Georgia and southern Alabama; extending west in 
the United States to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and southwest to 
the valley of the San Antonio river, Texas. 

A large tree, 20 to L'4 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or, exceptionally, 30 to 45 
meters in height, with a trunk 0.92 to 1.84 meter in diameter (valley of the lower Waba.sh river, liidgicay); common 
in all northern forests, and always au indication of rich soil; toward its western and southwestern limits onlv 
along river bottoms. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, easily worked ; mednllarj- rays numeroas, rather 
obscure ; color, light brow n, or often slightly tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable : specific gravity, 
0.4525; ash, 0.55; largely used in the manufacture of woodenware and cheap furniture, for the panels snd bodies 
of carriages, the inner soles of shoes, in turnery, and the manufacture of paper-pulp (the quickly-discolored sap 
renders it unfit for making white paper). 

The inner bark, macerated, is sometimes manufactured into coarse cordage and matting; the flowers, rich in 
honey, highly prized by apiarists. 

Aqua tilicv, an infusion of the flowers, buds, and leaves of the different species of Tilia, is used in Europe as 
a domestic remedy in cases of indigestion, nervousness, etc. (Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1429). 

Var. pubescens, London, 

Arboretum, i, 374 & t. — Browne, Trees of America, 48.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 103 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 5. 

T. Caroliniana, Miller, Diet. No. 4.— Wangenheim, Amer. 56.— Marshall, Arbustura, 154. 

T. Americana, Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 153 [not Linnasus], 

T. pubescens, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 229 ; 2 ed. ili, 299.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1162 ; Euum. i, 566.— Ventenat in Mem. Acad. 
Sci. IT, 10, t. 3.— Nonveau Duhamel, i, 228, t. 51.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 37.- Micbaui f. 
Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 317, t. 3 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 85, t. 133.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 363.— De Candolle, Prodr. 
i, 513.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 112.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 3.— Watson, Dcnd. Brit, ii, t. 135.— Torrey, Comp. Fl. N. States, 215.— 
Don, Miller's Diet, i, 553.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 365.— Beck, Bot. 59.— E.iton & Wright, Bot. 452.— Penn. Cycl. xxiv, 
447.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 262.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 59.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. 
N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.— Walpers, Ann. vii, 449.— Koch, Deudrologie, i, 479. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7. 

T. laxiflora, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 306.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vii, 683.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 66.— Willdenow, Enum. 
Suppl. 38.— De CaudoUe, Prodr. i, 513.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 113.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 215.— Don, Miller's 
Diet, i, i^Sa.- Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 365.— Beck, Bot. .59.— Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 343, t. 15 ; Hist. Veg. iv, 32.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 48. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237. 

I. grata, Salisbury, Prodr. 367. 

T. pubescens, var. leptophylla, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. Ii, 63. 

f T. stenapetala, Eafinesquo, Fl. Ludoviciana, 92.— Eobin, Voyages, iii, 484. 

T. truncata, Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, :142; Hist. Veg. iv, 30.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 237. 

T. Americana, var. Walteri, Wood, CI. B«ok, 272: Hot. & Fl. 64. 

North Carolina (o the Chattalioochee region of western Florida, usuallv near the coast ; Houston. Textis (E 
Ball). 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 15 meters in height, w ith a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter; swamps or low ground ; 
rare, or often confounded with the tyiiical T. Americana. 

Wood lighter, but not otherwise distinguishable from that of T. Americana ; specific gravity 0.4074; ash, 0.65. 

18. — Tilia heterophylla, Ventenat, 

Mem. Acad. Sci. iv, 16, t. 5.— Nouvoau Duhamel, i, 229.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet. vii. 6.-3.— Piirsh, Fl. Am. S.-pt. ii.;«5.—Nutl.all. 
Genera, ii, 3 ; Sylva, i, 90, t. 23 ; 2 ed. i, 107, t. 2:!.- De Candollo, Prodr. i, 513.— Don. Millers Diet. i. r>53.— Eaton. Manual, 6 ed. ;it.5.— 
Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 345; Hist. Veg. iv, 31.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 2.'a\— Eaton & Wri-ht, Bot. 4:.2,— 
Penn. Cycl. xsiv, 447.— Walpers, Kep. i, X)9.— Dietrich, Syn. iii,237.— Cotipcr in Smithsonian Kep. 185f , 2."i0.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
60.— Curtis in Kep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii,79.— Wood, CI. Book, 272 ; Bot. & Fl. 64.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 
103.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7.— Nat. Disinnieatory, 2 ed. 1429.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. M us. 18S.', 61. 

T. alba, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 315, t. 2 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 84, 1. 132 [not Waldstein & Kitaibel].— E»tou A- 
Wright, Bot. 452— Darby, Bot. S. States, 262. 

T. laxiflora, Pursh, Fl. Am Sept. ii, 363 [not Michaux].- Elliott, Sk. ii, 2. 

T.Americana, var. heterophylla, Loudon, Arboretum, i, 375 & t. 

T, heterophylla, var. alba. Wood, CI. Book, 272; Bot. & Fl. 64. 



28 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WHITE BASS WOOD. WAHOO. 

Mountains of Pennsylvania, southwanl along the Alleghany mountains to northern Alabama and Florida 
(valley of the Apalachieola river, ojiposite Chattahoochee, Mohr), west to middle Tennessee and Kentucky, southern 
Indiana, and southern and central Illinois (valley of the Illinois river). 

A tree 15 to 20 meters iu height, with a trunk O.GO to l.liO meter in diameter; rich woods and river bottoms, 
often on limestone; most common and reaching its greatest development along the western slopes of the southern 
Alleghany mountains and in middle Tennessee. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
light brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; specific gravity, 0.4253 ; ash, 0.02; generally confounded with 
that of Tilia Americana^ and used for similar purposes. 



MALPIGHIACE^. 



19. — Byrsonima lucida, HBK. 

Kov. Gen. & Sp«c. v, 147.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 560.— Jubsieu, Mod. Malpig. ii, 40.— Walpors, Eep. v, 168.— Richard, Fl. Cab*, 
115, t. 26».— Grisebach, Fl. BrilisU West Indies, 115.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 82. 

Malpif/hia lucida. Swartz, Fl. Ind. Oco. ii, 8.->2. 

TALLOWBEERY. GLAMBERRY. 

Semi-tropical Florida, on the .southern keys (Boca Ohica, No-Name Key, etc.) ; through the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes to 8 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or often branching 
from the ground, and frutescent in habit. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact; medullarj' rays numerous, thin; color, light red, the sap-wood 
a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.5SS8; ash, 2.4C. 

Fruit edible. 



ZYGOPHYLLACE^. 



20. — Guaiacum sanctum, Linnains, 

Spec. I ed. 382.- De CandoUe, Prodr. i,707.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 16, t. 86; 2 cd. ii, 86, t. 86.— Gray, Genera, ii, 123, t. 148.— Schiiizlein, 
Icon. t. 253, f. 21. —Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. Ifc58, 264.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 134. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 64. — 
Wood, Bot. &. hi. 67.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 7. 

O.rcrticale, Richard, Fl. Cuba, 321. 

LIGNUM-VIT.1E. 

Semi-tro|>ical Florida, Ui)iier Metacombe and Lignum-Vitaj Keys, common; Ivower Metacombc and Umbrella 
Keys, rare; in tlic JJahamas, St. Domingo, Cuba, I'orto Rico, (^tc. 

A low, gnarled tree, not exceeding, within tiie limits of tlie United States, S meters in height, witli a trunk 
sometimes 0..50 meter in diameter. 

Woodexceedinglylieavy, very hard, strong, brittle, chwe-graiiied, compact, dillienltto worlv,si>Iitting irregularly, 
contaniing many evenly-distriljutcd resinous ducts; niedujlarj- rays numerous, obscure; color, rich yellow brown, 
varying in older s|)ecimens to almost blaclc, the saji-wood liglit yellow ; specific, gravity, l.M;52; a.sli, 0.82; used in 
turnery and for the sheaves of sl)i]»s' blocks, for which it is iireCcrred to oth(;r woods. 

Lignum Guaiaci. Guaiacum icood, the heart of this and the allied G. offudnale, Linnieus, formerly largi^ly used in 
the treatment of syphilis, is now only retained in the Materia Mcdica as aii ingredient in the (compound decoction of 
sarsaparilla. 

Ouaiac, the resinous gum obtained from these species, is astimnlat ing diaphoretic and alterative, or in large doses 
cathartic, and is still employed in cases of chronic rheumatism, gout, etc. (Fidckiijcr & Ilanbunj, I'harmacixjrnphia, 
S2. — U. S. DiHpennatory, 14 ed. 45G. — A'a<. Jyinpcmatory, 2 ed. WMt.—Guihourt, Ilint. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 551. — Berg, 
Pharm. Anat. Atl. 5.'}, t. 27). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 29 

21. — Porliera angustifolia, Gray, 

Bniithsoniaii Contril). iii, 'J8. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. IJouinLiry Survey, 42. 

Ouaiacum angusti/oUum, Engclmann, Wislizcnns' Ecp. 29.— Gray in Jour. KoHton Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, I.'jS; Genera, ii, 123, 
t. MO.— WalpcrH, Ann. iii, WO.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 334. 

Western Texas, valley of the Colorado river to tlie Rio Grande (Austin, Matagonia bay. New Braunfels, San 
Autonio, Brownsville, Fort Melntosli), extending; west to the Kio Pecos {Uaiarrl); in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, <S to 10 meters in height, w itli a trunk 0.15 to O.liO meter in diameter, or toward its eastern, northern, 
and western limits reduced to a low shruh; teaching its greatest develojiment in the United States on the calcareous 
hillsides bordering the valley of the Gua(lalni)e river. 

Wood exceedingly heavy, very hard, close-grained, c()m])act, the open ducts smaller and less regularly 
distributed than in Gimiacum ; medullary rays very thin, numerous; color, rich dark brown, turning green with 
exposure, the sap-wood bright jellow ; specific gravity, 1.1101 ; ash, 0.51; probably possessing medicinal properties 
Bimilar to those of lignum-vitiB. 



RUTAOE^ 



22. — Xaothoxylum Americanum, Miller, 

Diet. No. 2. — Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 57. — Wangenheim, Araer. 116. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 214.— Torrey in Nicollet's Rep. 147. — 
Emerson, Trees Massacliuectts, 509; 2 ed. ii, 5H1.— Gray, Genera, ii, 148, t. 15G; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii-, 41; Manual N. States, 5 
ed. 110. — Richardson, Arctic Esped. 42:5. — Parry in Owen's Kep. GIO.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 253. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 
1858, 250.— Wood, CI. Book, 282; Bot. & Fl. 70.— Engelniann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. now ser. xii, 187.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 
563.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. 

X. Clava-Hercillis, Lamarck, Diet, ii, 38; 111. t. 811, f. 3 [not Linnicus]. -Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 399.— Micucb, Meth. 340. 

X. fraxinifolium, Maishall, Arbnstum, 167.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 52; ii, 38. 

X.frn.rivcum, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 757; Enum. 1013; Bed. Baumz. 413.— Persoon, Syn. ii, ei.'i.— Desfontaine-s Hist. Arb. 
ii, 343.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v. :i83.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 210. -Nuttall, Genera, ii, 236. — Xouvean Dnhamel, \i\, 
3. t. 2.— Ilayne, Dend. Fl. 197.— Bigelow, Med. Bot. iii, 15(), t. 59; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 4U."i.— De Candolle. Prodr. i, 726.— 
Spren^el, Syst. i, 945.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 373.- Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 113, f. 96.— Don, Miller's Diet, 
i, 802.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 399.— Beck, Bot. 70.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 364.— Lindl.y, Fl. Med. 216.— Loudon. 
Arboretum, i, 488, f. 158 & t.— Dietrich, Syn ii, 1000.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 118.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 4S2.— Necs, 
PI. Wied. 5.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 195, f. 103.— Browne, Trees of America, 150.— Agardh, Theor. & Syst. PI. t. 19, f. 9.— 
Schnizlein, Icon. t. 250, f. 1-14.— Maout & Decaisne, Bot. Euglish'ed. 324 & figs.— Baillon, Hist. PI. iv, 398. f. 433-438. 

X. inite, Willdenow, Enum. 1013.— Poiret, Suppl. v, 622.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 727.— Don. MilU>r's Diet, i, 802.— London, 
Arboretum, i, 489. 

X ramillorum, Midiaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 235. 

X. tricarpum, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 118 [not Michaux]. 

Thylax fraxineum, Kafincsque, Med. Hot. ii, 114. 

PRICKLY ASH. TOOTHACHE TREE. 

Eastern Massacliusetts, west to northern Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, and eastern Kansas, south to the 
mountains of Virginia and northern Missouri. 

A small tree, not often 7 meters in hei.ght, with a trunk 0.15 to O.'JO meter in diameter; or, ivdueed to a shrub, 
1.50 to l.SO meter in height; eommon and reachiug its greatest develoi)ment in the region of the givat lakes; 
rocky hillsides, or more often along streams and rich river bottoms. 

Wood light, soft, coarsegrained; medullary rays luimerous, thin ; color. light brown, the sap wood lighter; 
specific gravity, 0.5054; ash, 0.57. 

The bark of Xanthnxt/lum, an active stimulant, is used in deeoetion to produce diaphoresis in eases of 
rheumatism, syjihilis, etc., and as a jiopular remedy for toothache (f. iS. Dispntxatory. \\ ed. 040. — Dcntlcj/ in 
Tjondon Pluirm. Jonr. '2 ser. v, ;VJO. — Guihourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 5(i'J. — Nat. Dispensatory, '2 ed. 15;V>). 



30 FOREST TREP:S OF NORTH AMERICA. 

23. — Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis, Liuniuiin, 

Spec. 1 ed. 270, in part.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 25, 52; ii, 38.— W'ilUlenow, Spec, iv, 754, in part.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 382.— 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 090.— Planchon & Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 scr. liv, 312. 

X. fraxini/oliuvt, Wultir. FI. Caroliniana, 243 [not Miirshall]. 

Fagara Jraxinifolia, Lamarck, 111. i, XU. 

X. Carolinianum, Lamarok, Diet, ii, :19; 111. 4t):!, t.811, f. 1.— Torrey <t Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 214.— Engelmanu & Gray 
in .lonr. Bo.stou Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 213.— Gray, Genera, ii, 148, t. 156, f. 13, 14; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 110; Hall's PI 
Te^as, .■>.— S«.befk- in Ra>mer, Texas, 432.— Nuttall. Sylva, iii, 8, t. 83; 2 eJ. ii, 78, t. 83.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 2:i3.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. Is58, 250. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, CO. — Curlis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, 
iii, 103.— Wood, CI. Book, 282; Bot. & Fl. 70.— Young, Bot. Texas, 194.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. 

X. aromaticvm, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 755 (escl. syn.).- Jacquin f. Eclogae, i, 103, t. 70. 

X. tricarpum, Jlicliaus, Fl. Bor.-Ara. ii, 235.— Poiret, S ppl. ii, 294.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 383.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 
i, 210.— De CandoUe, Prodr. i, 726.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 690.- A. de Jussiou iu Mem. Mns. xii, t.25, f. 38.— Sprengel, Syst 
i, 945.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 803.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 365.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 468.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 399.— 
Eaton & Wright, Bot- 482.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1000. 

Kampmania fraxini/oUa, Rafinesque, Med. Rep. v, 354. 

Pseudopetalon glandulosum, Rahnesque, Fl. Luiloviciana,*108; Med. Bot. ii, 114. 

Pneudopetalon tricarpum, Rafinesque, Fl. Ludoviciaua, 108; Med. Bot. ii, 114. 

X. Catcithianuill, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 114. 

TOOTHACHE TEEE. PKICKLY ASH. SEA ASH. PEPPER WOOD. WILD ORANGE. 

Soutberu Virgiuia, southward near the coast to bay Biscayne and Tampa bay, Florida, westward through th© 
Gulf states to northwestern Louisiana, southern Arkansas (south of the Arkansas river), and the valley of the 
Brazos river, Texas. 

A small tree, rarely 12 to 14 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, of very rapid growth; 
usually along streams and low, rich river bottoms, reaching its greatest develojiment iu southern Arkansas, 
Louisiana, and eastern Texas. 

A form with trifoliate leaves is — 

X. macrophyllum, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 10; 2 ed. ii, 80.— Lesqnercux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 353. 
X. Clara-Herculis, var. Wat.son in Pmc. Am. Acad. xvii,335. 

Wood light, bard, not strong, soft, coarse-grained, not durable, containing many scattered open ducts; 
medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap wood lighter; specilic gravity, 0.5056; ash, 0.82. 

X^. ClavallcrvuliH probably pos.sesses .similar medicinal proi)erties to those of the last s\iec\G& {Nat. Dispensatory 
2 ed. 1535). 

Var. fruticosum. Gray, 

Smilbnonian Contrib. iii, 30. — Torrey & Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 161. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundarj- Survey, 43. — Chapman, Fl. 
S. Slates, G6f — Wood, Bot. & Fl. 71. 

X. hirsiltum, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1861, 4.''.0; 1870, 136 (see Gray in same, 1862, 162).— Young, Bot. Tcxaa, 
I'J.-.. 

Western Texas, Corpus Christ i (liiullcij), mouth of the Colorado river {^fohr), near Austin, and west to Devil's 
river and Eagle jjass; I'lorida (!) {Chapman I. c). 

A low .shrub, or on the Texas coast a small tree, to .S meters in height, w ith a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in 
diam«'ter. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, c(iiiii>act; meduUaiy rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown, the sap-wood 
yellow; sj)ecilic gravity, 0.5907 ; ash, 0.70. 

24. — Xanthoxylum Caribaeum, Lamarck, 

Diet. ii,40.— GartuiT, Fnict. i, 3X1, t. 6^, f. 8.— DiMoiirtilz, II. Mid. Autillew, ii, .')8.— Planchuu &, Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5.s<ir. xiv, 
315.— Onibonrt, Hint. DrogaeR, 7 ed. iii, 562. 

A'. Clara-Herculis, LinnaMis, Spec. 1 e.l. 270, iu i)ail.— Di: Candolle, Prodr. i, 727.- MaciVulyen, Fl. .Jau)aica, 194.— Griscbach, 
Fl. IlritiHli West Indies, 138. 

X. lanceolatum, Poiret, Snppl. ii,293.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 727. 

X. Floridanvm, Nuttall, .Sylva, iii, 14, t. 85 ; 2 ed. ii, 8.5, t. 85.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 66.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 70.— Young, 
Bot. Texas, 194.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 31 

SATIN ■WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, south Baliia Honda and Boca Cliica Keys; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, G to 10 meters in lieiglit, with a trunk 0..'i() to 0.40 meter in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, finegrained, compact, satiny, suscejjtible of a beantiful 
polish; medullary rays numerous, thin, consi>icuons ; color, light orange, the sapwooa lighter; specific gravity, 
0.9002 ; ash, 2.02. 

25. — Xanthoxylum Pterota, iiiiK. 

Nov. Gou. & Spoc. vi, ;!.— Kuntb, Syn. iii, 325.— Do Candollo, Prodr. i, 785.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 680.— Macfadyen, FL 
Jamaica, 190. — Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 11, t. 84 ; 2 cil. ii, 81, t. 84. — Scemann, Hot. Herald, 275. — Torrey, Bot. Mcs. Bonndary Survey, 
43. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2G4. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 6C. — Young, Bot. Texas, 195. — Plauchon & Triana in Ann. 
Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xiv, 311. — Engler iu Martins, Fl. Brasil. xii-, 154. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. — Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 
169. — Watson iu Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 33.->. 

Fagara Pterota, LiunsBus, Amoen, v, 393, in part.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 444 ; 111. i, 335, t. 84.- W'illdenow, Spec, i, 666.— 
Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. i, 263.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 40.— Tnqiin, Diet. Sci. Nat. xvi, 107, t. 127. 

Fagara lentinci/olia, Willdenow, Enum. i, 166.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 137. 

WILD LIME. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys, on the west coast from about latitude 29° to cape 
Sable ; southwestern Texas, and southward through Mexico to Brazil. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter, or often 
reduced to a slender shrub ; in Florida common, and reaching its greatest development on the keys of the west 
coast; in Texas not common, but widely distributed as a small shrub, or on the shores of Matagorda bay, west 
of the Nueces river, and in the valley of the Eio Grande a low tree. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays thin, numerous; color, brown tinged with red, the 
sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7444; ash, 0.78. 

26. — Ptelia trifoliata, Linnaius, 

Spec. 1 cd. 118. — Medicus, Bot. Boobacht. 215. — Marshall, Arbustum, 115. — Walter, Fl. Camliuiana, H8.— Aiton. Hort. Kew. i, 162 ; 2 ed. 
i,264. — Lamarck, 111. i, 336, t. 84. — Moench, Meth. 55. — Willdenow, Spec, i, 670; Ennra.i, 116. — Kouveau Dnhauiel, i.252, t. 57. — 
Michaux, Fl. Bor. Am. i, 99. — Sehkuhr, Handb. 63, t. 83. — Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 706. — Pcrsoou, Syn. i, 145. — Desfoutaiues, 
Hist. .\rb. ii, 343.— Robin, Voyages, iii, 509.— Piirsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 107.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 104.— Guimpol, Otto i Hayne, Abb. 
Uolz. 94, t. 74.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 8.— Elliott, Sk. i, 201.— Rcemer & Schnltes, Syst. iii, 291.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 189 ; Corapend. Fl. N. 
States, 86.— Fl. N. York, i, 133; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 73; Bot. Mex. Boundary SBr>-ey, 43.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii.82.— Sprcngel, 
Syst. i, 441. — Turpin, Diet. Sci. N.at. sliv, 2, t. 128.— A. do Jussieu iu Mem. Mus. xii, t. 26, f. 42.— Beck in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. x, 264 ; 
Bot. 71.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 806.— Spach, Hist.Vcg. ii, 369.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 215.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, i, 489 & t. — Eaton, Manual, 6 od. 288. — Torrey &. Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 215. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 379.— Dietrich, 
Syn. i, 497. — Browne, Trees of America, 153. — Scheele in Rcemer, Texas, 432. — Gray, Genera, ii, 150, t. 1.57 ; Manual X. States, 5 ei. 
110. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 610. — Agardh, Theor. & Syst. PI. t. 19, 1". 7,8. — Cooper in Sinilhsouian 
Rep. 1858, 250.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 254.— Chapman. Fl. S. States, 66.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 
107.— Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 3.53.— Wood, CI. Book, 283; Bot. & Fl. 71.— Schnizlein, Icon. t. 250, f. 15-26.— 
Young, Bot. Texas, 195. — Baillon, Hist. PI. iv, 395, f. 445, 446. — Koch, Dendrologie, i, 566. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Tree*, 8. — 
Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 171. — Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95. 

Amyris elemifera, Linnaeus, Spec. 2 ed. 295.- St. Hilaire, Fam. Nat. i, 253. 

P. viti&ifoHa, Salisbury, Prodr. 68. 

HOP TREE. SHRUBBY TREFOIL. WAFER ASH. 

Ontario and New York (banks of the Niagara river), Pennsylvania southward to northern Florida, west to 
Minnesota and the headwaters of the Canadian river; through western Texas to the valley of the Mimbres river, 
New Mexico {Bigclow), and southward into northern ^lexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 4 to meters in height, with a trunk 0.1,5 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more otiou 
reduced to a slender shrub ; shady, rocky hillsides. 

A variety with more or less pubescent leaves, not rare on the south Atlantic coast, and the common form of 
western Texas, is — 

var. mollis, Torrey & Gr.-vy, Fl. N. America, i, 680.— Engelmaun & Gr.iy in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 213.- Torrey 
in Marcey's Kep. 282.— Gray in Smithsonian Coutrib. iii, 31; Hall's PI. Texas, 5.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 71.— Watson in 
Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 335. 

P. mollis, Curtis in Am. Jour. Soi. 2 ser. vii, 406 ; Uop. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1^60, iii, 107.— Walpers, Ann. ii, 259.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 67.— Young, Bot. Texas, 196. 



32 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, satiny, the amiiiai j^rowths cU\irly marked l>y two or three rows ot 
open dints; meduUary rays few, thin; eoh)r, yellow-brown, the sap wood liardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 
0.8310; ash. O.-K). 

The bark of the root possesses tonic ])ro|)erties and is employed by herbalists in the form of tinctures aud fluid 
extracts in ca.ses of dysi>epsia, debility, etc. {Am. Jour. Piianii. 18G2, 198; 18G7, .'Jo". — U. S. J>ix])cniia(ory, 14 ed. 
1740. — Xat. Dixpetusatory, '_' ed. IITO); the bitter fruit is occasioiuilly used domestically as a substitute for hops. 

27. — Canotia holocantha, Tomy, 

Pacifio K. H. Ki'p. iv,t>S. — Gray in Ives' Rep. 15; Proc. Am. Acad, xii, 109. — Baillou, Adaiisonia. x, 18; Hist. Vcg. vi, 7, 4'.'. — Brewer &. 
Wat<M>ii, Bot. California, i, I'JO.— Rotbrock in WIiuoUt's Rep. -Jl, 81, t. 1.— Maxiiiiow icz in Act. Ilort. St. Petersburg v, 256. — 
Rusby iu Bull. Torn-y Bot. Club, ix, lOG. 

Arizona, White Mountain region, valley of the Gila river {liotlirock), valley of Bill Williams Fork (Bigeloic). 

A small tree, G to 8 meters iu height, with a trunk sometimes 0..'{0 meter in diameter, or often a large nhrub; 
dr>, rocky mesas. Wood heavy, hard, clo.se-grained, comi)act; medullary rays numerous, not prominent; color 
light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specitic gravity, 0.G88.5; ash, 5.33. 



SIMARUBE^. 



28, — Simaruba glauca, De CaDdolle, 

Diss, in Ann. Mns. xvii, 323 ; Prodr. i, 7.33.— Humboldt, Boniilami & Ivuutli, Nov. Gen. et Spec, vi, 10.— Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, 
i, 06, t. 14.— Planchon in London Jour. Bot. v, 5U7.— Gray, Genera, ii, 152.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 20, t. 87 ; 2 ed. ii, 88, t. 87.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264. — Grisebach, Fl. British West lDdie.<i, 139.— Chaimian, Fl. S. States, 67.— Wood, Bot. & ¥\. 
72.— Planchon &, Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xv, 357.— Engler in Martins, Fl. Brasil. xii'^, 223.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.— 
Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, i, 173. 

(/uanitia Simaruba, Linnitus, Snppl. 2:54.— Wright, Trans. Edinburgh Soc. ii, 73, t. 1, 2; Bot. & Med. Account of Q. 
.Simaruia.— Ctrtner, Fruct. i, '.iAO, t. 70.— Lamarck, HI. ii, 478, t. 343, f. 2.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 568.— Alton, Hort. 
Kew. 2ed. iii, 42. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, i, 23, t. 5. 

QuaJtKia dioica, Bergius, Mat. Med. 355. 

6'. amara, Aublet, Guian. t. 331.— Hayne, Arzn. iv, t. 15.— Schnizlcin, Icon. t. 249, f 1-6. 

S. mtdicinalis, Endliohei, Mcdz. Pf. .'.25.— Berg, Hand!., i, 373.— Berg & Schmidt, Otr. Gew. ii, t. 13. 

PARADISE TREE. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cajjc Canaveral to the southern keys; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A tree sometimes U> meters in height, with a trunk O.GO meter in diameter; within the United States not 
common, aud reaching its greatest develoi)ment on the shores of bay Bist^ayne. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, containing many large scattered open ducts; mcdullarj' rays 
few, thin; color, light brown, tiie sap-wood a littU; darker; specific gravity, 0.413(i ; ash, 0.03. 

The bark of this species lias been occasionally used as a substitute for that of !S. officinalis, DC as au aromatic, 
bitter tonic (U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 838. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. ll.'04). 



BURSEllACE^. 



29. — Bursera gummifera, .lacqnin, 

Am. Pict. t. Tm.— Linnans, Spec. 2 ed. 741.— Lamarck, III. ii, 392, t. 256.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1119.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v,4Hl.— 
Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 107.— Do Candiille, Prodr. ii, 78.— Dcscourtilz, Fl. Med. Antillen, ii, t. 97.- Spnch, Hist. Veg. ii, 2:i9.— 
Macfa<lyen, Fl. Jamaica,22y.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 117, t. 79; 2 ed. ii, 61, t. 79.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 390.— Browne, Trees of America, 
169.— Gri»cb.-ich, Fl. BritiMi West Imlics, 173.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1*58, 264 ; 1860, 440.— Chapman, Fl. 8. States. 68.— Wood, 
Bot. & V\. 72.— Planchon &, Triana in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 wr. xv, 3(RJ.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 177.— 
EnglfT in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 39. 

}i. acuminata, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1120.— Dc Candollo, Prodr. ii, 78. 

Elaphrium integerrimum, Tulaano in Ann. Sci. Nat. Sscr. vi, 369. (Fide Engler, l.o.) 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 33 

GUM ELEMI. GUMBO LIMBO. WEST -INDIAN BIRCH. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast Caloosa river and Caximbas bay; 
through the West Indies. 

A tree often IS meters in height, with a trunk 0.50 to 0.70 meter in diameter; one of the largest and most 
common trees of southern Florida, ©f very rapid growth and decay. 

Wood very light, exceedingly soft and weak, spongy, containing many scattered open ducts ; mciluUary 
rays numerous, tliiu ; color, light brown or gray, quickly discoloring with decay; specific gravity, 0.3003 ; ash, 
2.04; used in making live-fences, pieces of the truuk when planted in the coral rock of the keys throwing out roota 
and growing ra])idly. 

Tlie aromatic resin obtained from this species was formerly somewhat used in various forms, under the name of 
Garanna, as a remedy for gout { Tl'a<^s, Chem. Diet, i, 749. — Guibourt, Hist. Droguai, 7 ed. iii, 525, f. 749) ; and in the 
West Indies is manufactured into a valuable varnish. An infusion of the leaves is occasionally used as a domestic 
substitute for tea. 

30. — Amyris sylvatica, J;i<<iniii, 

Am. Pict. t. lOrf.— Willdenow, Si)ec. ii, 333.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 351.— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 61.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1271.— 
JIacfudyeu, Fl. Jamaica, 231. — Richard, Fl. Cuba, 393. — Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 174. — Plauchon & Triana in Ann. 

Soi. Nat. 5 ser. xv, 3\J1. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. 

Toxicodendron arborescens, Miller, Diet. No. 9. 

A. dyatripa, Sprengel, Neue Entdeck. iii, 18.— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 81. 

Rhus arboreseens, De Caudolle, Prodr. ii, 73. 

A. Plumieri, De Candollo, Prodr. ii, 81. 

A. Floridana, Nuttall in Am. Jour. Sci. v, 294; Sylva ii, 114, t. 78; 2 cd. ii, 61, t. 78.— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 81.— Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 221.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 16.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 123.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 561.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 68.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 72.— Tasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. 

A. cymosa, Reicheubach in Sicb. PI. Trin. No. 29 1. 

A. maritivia, Itlchaid, Fl. Cuba, 39-' [not Jacquiu]. 

TORCH WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree sometimes 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.2.1 meter in diameter; common. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong, close-grained, compact, resinous, exceedingly durable, susceptible 
of a beautiful polish ; medullaiy rays obscure; color, light orange, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 1.0459; 
ash, 01)9. 



MELIACEJ5 



31. — Swietenia Mahogoni, Linmous, 

Spec. 2 od. 548. — Jacquiu, Stirp. Am. t. 127. — CavauiUes, Diss, ii, 3G5, t. 209. — Ga>rtuer, Fruct. ii, tf, t. 9(i. — Laui.iivk, Diet, iii, 678. — 
Willdenow, Spec, ii, 557. — Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 od. ii, 338. — Titibrd, Uort. Bot. Am. 64.— Deseourtilz, Fl. Mod. Antilles, ii, 125, t., 
99.— De Candollo, Prodr. i, 62r>.— Turpin in Diet. Sci. Nat. Atlas, t. 170.— Tussao, Fl. Antilles, iv. t. 33.— H.i>nie. Ann. i. t. 19.— 
Hooker, Bot. Misc. i, 21, t. 16, 17.— A. de Jussiou in Mom. Mus. xix, 248, t. 11.— Don. .Miller's Diet, i, (»87. f. IU>.— Woixlville. Med. 
Bot. 3 ed. iii, 620, t. 220.— Sp.ach, Hist. Veg. iii, 164, t. 21.— Lindley, Fl. Mo.l. l;>,"i.— Maotadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 175.- Torr<>y & Gray, 
Fl. N. America, i, 242.— Eaton, JIanual,6 ed. 360.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 447.— Walpers, Rep. i, 43t!.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, ?8. t. 75; 
2 ed. ii, 46, t. 75.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 304.— Schuizlein, Icon, t.226, f. 1.— Cooper in Smilhsoniau Rep. lb.S8, 264.— Darby, Bot. S. 
States, 263.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 62.— Grisebadi, Fl. British West Indies, 131.— WoihI, Bot. & Fl. 66.— Baillon, Hist, PI. v. 
478, f. 472-476.— Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, ,")96.— Tippol & Bollevar, Ausland. Cult. PH., Atlas, i. t. 2, 1". 1.— C. De CandoUe, 
Suites, i, 723.— Homsley, Bot. Am.-Ceut. i, 183. 

<S. ii'encgal<;nsis, Desronssoaux in Lamarck, Diet, iii, 678. 

Cednts Mahogoui. Miller, Diet. No. 2. 
.') Kci: 



34 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

MAHOGANY. MADEIRA. 

Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys (Key Largo, Elliott's Key); tliron;;li the West Indies, and in 
Central America. 

A large tree, on the Florida keys rarely exceeding l.j meters in height, with a trnnk sometimes O.OO meter in 
diameter. 

Wootl heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, very durable, susceptible of 
a high i>olish: mednllary rays numerous, obscure; color, rich reddish-brown, turning darker with age, the thin sa[)- 
wood yellow ;■ specific gravity, 0..72S2; ash, 1.09; varying greatly in quality in different regions; largely used and 
preferred to all other woods for cabinet-making of all sorts, interior finish, etc.; formerly somewhat employed in 
ship-building. 



OLACINE^ 



32. — Ximenia Americana, LiuniBus, 

Spec. 1 ed. Appx. 1193.— Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 11'2.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 435, t. 297.— WiUdeuow, Spec, ii, 338.— Aitou, llort. Kew. 2 
ed. li, 352.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, .5;$3. — Nuttall, Sylva, i, 124, t. 36 ; 2 cd. i, 138, t. 36.— Schnizlein, Icon. t. 223, f. 1-9, 30, 31.— 
Caml>C8.se<le8 in St. Hilaire, Fl. Brasil. i, 341. —Wight & Walker-Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Or. i, 89.— Walpers, Rep. i, 377; Ann. 
vi, 565.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 304. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. lt?58, 264. — Grisebacli, Fl. British West Indies, 310.— Baillon, 
Adansouia, ii, t. 9, f. 5, 6.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 61.— Engler in Martins, Fl. Brasi!. xii, 9, t. 2, f. 1.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
8.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 185. 

Heymassoli Spinosa, Auhlet, Guian. i, 324, t. 12.").— Lamarck, III. ii, 435. 

X. multiflora, Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 106, t. 177, f. 31.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 435, t. 297, f. 1, 2.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xiii, 264. 

X montana, Macfadyen, Fl. .Jamaica, i, 121, 

WELD LUIE. TALLOW NUT. HOG PLUM. MOUNTAIN PLUM. 

Florida, east coast from the Saint John's river to the southern keys, west coast Caloosa river to ('aximbas 
bay; through the "West Indies to Brazil, and on the coast of tlie Indian i^eninsula (introduced?, A. Be Candolle, 
Qeog. Bot. ii, 1027). 

A small, low, wide -.spreading tree, rarely exceeding 4 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter, 
or in pine-barren soil and toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub; common and reaching its greatest 
development in Florida on the west coast. 

Wood very heavy, tough, hard, close-grained, comi)act, containing numerous regularlydistrihuted open ducts; 
medullary rays few, thin; color, brown, tinged with red, the sap- wood lighter; specific gravity, O.OliXi; asli, 0.73. 

Hydrocyanic acid has been obtained from the edible plum-shaped fruit {Fliicldgcr d- Hanbury, I'harmacographia, 
222). 



ILICINEiE. 



33. — Ilex opaca, Alton, 

Hort. Kew. i, 160; 2 ed.i,277.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 708; Ennm. 172; Berl. Bauraz. 190.— Noureau Dnhanul, i, 8.- Michaux, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. ii, 228.— Pcrsoon, Syn. i, 151.— Poirct, Suppl. iii, 65.— Miohanx f. Hist. Arb. Aiii. ii, 191, 1. 11 ; N. American .Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 122, t. 
84.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadolph. 95; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. 94.— Pursh, n. Am. Sept. i, 117.— Ralincsquc, Fl. LndoviciaTia, 1 U ; 
Med. Bot. ii, 7, t. 53.— N'nttall, Genera, i, 109.— Rtrmer & Schnltes, Syst. iii, 487.— Link, Enum. 147.— .Tames, Cat. 176; Long's Expcd. 
ii, 294.- Hayne, Demi. Fl. 10.— Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, il, 173; Fl. II. .S. 194 : (Compend. Fl. N. States, 87 ; Fl. N. York, ii,2.— 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 679.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, t. 3.— Beck, Bot. 230.— Eaton, Manual, 
6 ed. 18<'..— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 516 &. t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 121 ; Jour. But. i, 201.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 282.— Bigelow, 
Fl. Boston. 3 cd.64.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 17.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 427. —Dietrich, Syn. i,. 5.54.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 432.— Emerson, 
Trees Jlassachnsctts, Z\\; 2 cd. ii, 385 & t.— Browne, Trees of America, 167.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 426.— Darlington, Fl. 
Ccstriea, 3 cd. 17.— Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1*58, 2.53.— Cha])nian, Fl. S. States, 269.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. 
Carolina, 1860, iii, 58.— Le8<inerenx in Owen's 2<1 Rep. Arkansas, 373.— Wood, CI. Book, 496; Bot. & Fl. 207.— Gray, Manual N. 
States, 5cd. :106.— Young, Bot. Texas, 372.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8.— Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix. No. 3, 20.-- 
Mellichamp in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, viii, 113. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 35 

I. aquifolhrnt, Marshall, Aibustuin, r.:i [not Liiiiucus].— Walter, I"l. Caroliniaua,241. 

I. Canadensis, Marshall, Arbustnm, G4. 

I. laxijlora, Lamarck, Diet, iii, 147; 111. 1,355.— Piirsh, Fl.Aui. .Sept. i, 117.— R<j;nicT& Schultes, Syst. iii, 494 ; Mant.l'M.— 
De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 14.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.— Don, Miller'.s Diet, ii, 17.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 427.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 
.555. — London, Arboretum, ii, 517. — Eaton, Manual, Ced. IHO. — Eaton & Wrijjht, Bot. 282. 

I. quercifolia, Meerburgli, Icon, ii, t. 5. 

Ayiria opaca, Kalinesciue, .Sylva Tt-llnriana, 47. 

AMERICAN HOLLY. 

Quincy, Massachusetts, soiitliward, near tbe coast, to Mosquito inlet and Charlotte harbor, Florida, valley of 
the Mississippi river, southern Indiana .southward to the gulf oflMexico, and southwest through ilis.souri, Arkansas, 
and eastern Texas to the valley of the Colorado river. 

Au evergreen tree, sometimes l.j meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or toward its 
northei-n limits reduced to a shrub; generally iu low, rather moist soil ; most common and reaching it.s greatest 
development iu the rich bottoms of southern Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, tough, rather hard, close-grained, very compact, easily worked ; medullary i-ays 
numerous, inconspicuous; color, nearly white, turning to light brown with exposure, the sap-wood still lighter: 
specific gravity, 0.5818 ; ash, 0.70 ; used and admirably adapted for cabinet work, interior finish, and turnery of tbe 
highest class. 

A bitter principle {Ilicin), common to other species of the genus, has been obtained from the fruit of this tree 
{Am. Jour. Pharm. xxviii, 314. — U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1670. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 7.^4). 

34. — Ilex Dahoon, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliuiaua, 241.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 228.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 109.— Roomer & Scbultes, Syst. 
iii, 489 ; Mant. 332.— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 14.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 680.— Watson, Deud. Brit, ii, t. 114.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.— 
Audubon, Birds, t. 4S.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 19.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.— E.iton, Manual, 6 ed. 18(5.- Eaton & Wright, 
Bot. 262.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 519.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 4La.— D.-irby, Bot. S. 
States, 42a.-:Chapmau, Fl. S. States, 269.— Curtis in Kep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1-60, iii, 53.— Wood, Bot. &. Fl. 207.— 
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 30(i. — A'asey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. — Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxis, No. 3. 29. — 
Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 755. 

I. Cassine, Linnieus, Sl>ec. 125, iu part. — Marshall, Arbustum, (54. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 170, in part ; 2 ed. i, 279. — Lamarck. 
Diet, iii, 147; 111. i, 355.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 709; Enum. i, 172 ; Hort. Berol. i. t. 31.— Nonveau Duh.imel. i. 9.— 
Persoon, Syn. 151. — Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 362. — Poiret, Suppl. iii, 05. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117. — Rtemer & 
Schultes, Svst. iii, 490.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 10.— Dc CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 14.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 495.— Don, Millers Diet. 
ii, 17. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 544 — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 517, f. 184.— Eaton & Wright. Bot. 
282. — Goeppert in Del. Sem. Vratisl. 1885 {Linnwa, xxvi, 746). 

I. Cassine, var. latifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew, 2 ed. i, 278. 

I. eassinoides, Link, Enum. i. 148,— Rujmer & Schultes, Syst. iii; Mant. 332, 

I. laurifoUa, Nuttall in Am, .Jour. Sci. 1 scr. v, 289.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 166.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282. 

Ageria palustris, Ealiuesque, Sylva Telluriana, 47. 

Agcria oborata, Raliucsque, Sylva Telluriaua, 47. 

Ageria heterophylla, Ralinr.sque. Sylva Telluriana, 48. 

DAHOON. DAHOON HOLLY. 

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to Mostpiito inlet aiul Tampa bay. Florida, west along the Gulf 
coast to the i)rairie region of western Louisiana. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in lieight, with a trunk from 0.20 to 0.30 meter iu diameter: low. wot soil : 
not eomnion, and running into numerous lV»rms, of which the best marked are — 

var. angUStifolia, Torrcy & Gray, I'l. N. America, iiifrf. 

I. Cassine, var. angustifolia. Willdonow, Spec, i, 7(Ht.— Alton. Hon. Kow, 2 ed. i, 278.— Xouvoau Duhamol. i, 9, t. 3. 

I. angustifolia, Willdonow, Enum, i, 172,— Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept, i, 118,— Nuttall, Genep.», i. 109.— Rivmer & Schultes, Syst. 
iii, 489.— De Caudolle, Prodr, ii, 14.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, I, 4.— Sprengel, Syst. i. 495.— Don, Miller's Diet. ii. 17 — 
Hooker, .lour. Bot. i. 201.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. ii, 428.— Dietrich, Syn. i. ,V>4.— Loudon, .\rlum<tum, ii, 517, f. 185. 



36 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

/. UfiuMrina. Elliott. Sk. ii. 708 [not Jacqiiiu].— Spncli, Hist. Vop. ii, 4a<).— Eatou, Manual, 6 cd. 187.— Eaton & Wright, 
Bot. use.— Darby, Bot. S. States. 123. 

f I. Watsoiliana, Si>ailj, Hist. W-g. ii, 4'2l). 

var. myrtifolia (.only in low cyinx-ss 8waini)s and ponds). Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 755. 

I. myrd/oUa, Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua, 214.— Nonvean Duhamol, i, 10, t. 4. — Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 229.— Poirot, Snppl. 
iti, 65. — Willdeuow, Enum. Suppl. 8. — Koomer & Scbnltos, Syst. iii, 489. — Link, Enum. 148. — Spach, Hist. Vog. ii, 
429. — Eaton, Manual, C ed. 187.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 426.— Gray, Manual N. States, 
.'led. 306.— Maximowicz in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 26. 

T. rosniarifolia, Lamarck, 111. i. 35C.— Persoon, Syn. i, 151.— Poiret, Suppl. iii, (i5. 

I. liflUStri/oUa, Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 19.— Eaton, Manual, ti od. 187.— Wood, 01. Book, 497 ; Bot. & Fl. 207. 

Wood light, .soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, O.-iSOG; ash, 0.91; that of var. mijrtifoUa heavier, nearly white; specific 
gravity, 0.5873; a.-*h, 0.90. 

35. — Ilex Cassine, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniaua, 241. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 170, in part.— James, Cat. 176; Lou-i'-s Exped. ii^ 294.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.— Eaton, 
Manual, 6 ed. 186. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 269. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 59. — Lesquereux in 
Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 208.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 od. 306.— Young, Bot. Texas, 373.— Maximowicz 
io Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix, No. 3, 22. 

/. Cassine, ^. LiumEus, Spec. 1 ed. 125. 

Cassine Peragua, Linnoius, Mant. ii, 220. — Mar8hall, Arbustuui, 2(i.— I'lcnck, Icon. t. 239. 

Cassine Caroliniana, Lamarck, Diet, i, 652 

I. vomitoria, Aitun, Hort. Kew. i, 170; 2 cd. i, 278. — Salisbury, Prodr. 70.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 709.— Enum. Suppl. 8. — 
B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 36, 50.— Nouveau Dnhamel, i, 10. — Persoon, Syn. i, 151. — Dosfontaiucs, Hist. Arb. ii, 362. — 
Titlnrd, Hort. Bot. Am. 41.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 118.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 109.— Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iii, 491 ; 
Mant. 333.— De Caudolle, Prodr. ii, 14. — Sprengel, Syst. i, 495. — Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 173.— Don, Miller's 
Diet, ii, 17.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 430.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 393.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 555.— 
I.K5udou, Arboretum, ii, 518, f. 186.— Eaton, Manual, 6cd. 187.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 282.— GrifTitli. Mod. Bot. 433.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 169. — Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 544. 

/. ligustrina, Jacquin, Coll. iv, 105; Icon. Rar. ii, 9, t. 310 [not Elliott].— Lamarck, 111. i, 356. 
I, Floridana, Lamarck, HI. i, 3.56. 

I. Cassena, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. il, 229.— Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65.— Ra-mer &. Schultes, Syst. iii, 490.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 681.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States 426.— Wood, CI. Book, 497. 

I. rcUgiosa, Barton, Fl. Virgiuica, 6li. 

Cassine raniulosa, Rafincsquc, Fl. Ludovieiana, 363. 

Hicrophyllus Cassine, Rafincsquc, Med. Bot. ii, 8. 

Ettutila ramulosa, Rafiuesque, .Sylva Tclluriana, 45. 

Agcriv Caxm-na, Haflucsrpie, Sylva Tclluriana, 47. 

Ageria gcinimita, Rafinesque, Sylva Tclluriana, 48. 

CAHSENA. YAUPON. YOPON. 

Southern Virginia, fiouthward, near the coast, to the Saint John's river and Cedar Keys, Florida, west along 
the Gulf coa.st to .southern Arkansas, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texas. 

A small tree, to 8 meters in height, with a trnidi 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a shriili, sending 
np many slender stems and forming deii.se thickets; sandy, moist s((51, ahmg jiDiids and streams, reaching its 
greatest (levelojimcnt in the river Vwttoms of eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in drying; medullary rays numerou.s, conspicuous; color, 
nearly white, becoming yellow with exj)08ure, the sajiwoofl lighter; specific gravity, 0.7270; ash, 0.87. 

Tlie leaves pos.scss jiowcrful emetic properties, and were emjjloyed by the southern Indians, togethei' i»eiliaps 
with those of /. JJahoon, in the picparation of their "black drink" {Am. Jvuj: riiarm. xliv, 217. — U, iS. iJinpensatory, 
14 ed. 1G70. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 751). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 37 

36. — Ilex decidua, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniana, 241. — Poiret, Suppl. iii, 65. — CbapmaD, Fl. S. States, 269. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1*)60, iii, 58. — 
Lesquereux in Owen's 2(1 Rep. Arkansas, 373. — Wood, CI. Book, 497; B0I.& F1.20e.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 e<i.30C.—Yoaii|;, 
Bot. Texas, .373. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 8. — Maximowicz in Meui. Acad. St. Petersburg, xxix. No. 3, 30. — Wateon in Proe. 
Au). Acad, xvii, 335. 

I. prinoides, Aiton, Hort. Ke\v. i, 169; 2 ed. i, 278.— Lamarck, 111. i, 355.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 709.— Nouvcan Dubamel, i, 
11.— Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Ain., ii, 229.— Persoon, Syn. i, 151.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 3C2.— Pursb. Fl. Am. .Sept. i, 
118.— Kuttall, Genera, i, 109.— Earner & Scbultesi, Syst. iii, 4e8; Mant. 332.— Watson, Dend. Brit. i. t. 15.-Sprengel, 
Syst. i, 495.— Audubon, Birds, t. 89.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 187.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 282.— Darby, Hot. S. States, 426. 

I. WStivalis, Lamarck, Diet, iii, It" ; 111. i, .356. 

Prinos decidmis, De CaudoUe, Prodr. ii, Iti.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 20.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 202.— L.Midon, Axboretnm, 

ii, 52U. 

I. ambiguus, Elliott, Sk. ii, 705. 

Southern Vii'sinia, southward, through the middle districts, to western Florida, valley of the Mississippi 
river, southern Illinois vsoutliward to the Gulf of Mexico, and through southeastern Missouri, Arkansas, and eastern 
Texas to the valley of the Colorado river. 

A small tree, 8 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states a 
tall, straggling shrub; low, wet woods along streams, reaching its greatest development in the Iron Mountain 
region of Missouri and in southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullarj rays numerous, thin; color, creamy-white, the sap-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.7420; ash, 0.70. 



CYRILL ACEJE. 



37. — Cyrilla racemiflora, Linnains, 

Mant. i, 50; Syst. 14 ed.241.— Jacquiu, Icon. Rar. t. 47; Coll. i, 162.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 103.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 245 ; lU. ii, 
144, t. 147, f. 2.— Nouveau Dubamel, i, 215, t. 46.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 255.— Elliott, Sk. i, 294. —Eaton. Manual, 6 ed. 119.— 
Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 218.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 256.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 96, t.74 ; 2 ed. ii, 43, t. 74.- Plaucbon in 
Hooker's Jour. Bot. v, 2.54.— Scbnizleln, Icon. t. 240, f. 1-4, 6, 17, 19, 21.— D.arby, Bot. S. States, 4 17.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 
1858,253.— Chapman, Fl.S. States, 272.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N.Carolina, 1860, iii, 105.— Porcber, Resources S. Fore«ta, 
130.— Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 540 & f.— Baillon, Adansonia, i,203, t. 4.— Wood, CI. Book, 493: Bot. & Fl. 205.— Vaaey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 18. 

Andromeda plumata, Bartram, Cat.— Marshall, Arbustuui, 9. 

C. Caroliniana, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,15S.— Giertner, f. b^uct. Suppl. 147, t. 209, f. 8.— Persoon, Syn. i, 175.— Pursb, FL 
Am. Sept. i, 170.— Nuttall,Gener.a, i, 145.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 436.— Ra>mer& Scbultes, Syst. v, 408.— Bot. Mag. t. 2456.— 
Walpcra, Rep.vi, 421.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 805. 

J^ea Cj/ri/te, L'Heritier, Stirp. i, 137, t.OO.- Swartz, Prodr. 50; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 506 ; Ob8.94,t. 4.— Willdenow, Spec i, 1146.— 
Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 37. 

C. racemosa, Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2577, f. 2503. 

C. polystachia, C, parci/olia, C.fmcata, Ralinesquo, Aulikon Botauikon, 8. 

IKON WOOD. 

North Carolina southward, near the coast, to middle Florida (latitude 300). westward, along the Gulf coast, 
to the valley of the Pearl river, Mississippi. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.1 "> to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a tall 
shrub, sending u]) many stems from the root; open swamps and low thickets; a variety {Chapman, Curtiss) with 
narrower, i)ersistent leaves, and thicker spongy bark, in pond holes aiul wet depressions of the pine barrens of the 
Apalachicola region of western Florida, forms dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood heavy, weak, hard, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays thin, not conspicuous; color, brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; speciUc gravity, 0.(>784 ; ash, O.-lL'. 



38 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

38. — Cliftonia ligustrina. Bunks, 

Ex. GiiTtner f. Fruct. Suppl. '^4(5, t. 22.").— Bartram, Travels, 2 e<l. :U.— Tonvy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 25(5.— NuttaU, Sylva, ii, 
92. t.73: 2 ed. ii, 39. t.73. — Planchou iu Hooter's Jour. Bot. v, 255.— W'alpers, Rep. vi, 422. — Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1412.— Schnizlein. 
Icon. t. 240", f. 5, 7-10, 20.— Cooper in Sniitbsunian Rep. 1858, 2,51. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 273. — Porcber, Resources S. 
Forests, 130.— Baillon in Adansonia, i, 202, t. 4, f. 3-6.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees. 18. 

Mylocaruuvi ligustrinum, WillJlenow, Enum. i, 454.— Bot. Mag. t. 1H25. — Lamarck, 111. iii, 616, t. 952, f. 1. — Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. i, 302, t. 14.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 41.— Elliott, Sk. i, 508.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 231.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 
323.— Darby, Fl. S. States, 417.— Wood, CI. Book, 4^3; Bot. &, Fl. 205. 

TITI. lEON WOOD. BUCKWHEAT TREE. 

Valley of the Savannah river. Georgia, son th ward to the Chattahoochee region of west Florida, westward along 
the Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl river, Louisiana. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 meters in heijiht, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 meter in diameter, or toward its southern 
limits in Florida reduced to a shrub; margins of i)ine-barreu ])onds atul streams. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-gi-ained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood lighter: specific gravity, 0.0249; ash, 0.42; largely used as fuel, burning with a clear flame. 



CELASTRACEiE. 



39. — Euonymus atropurpureus, .lacquin, 

Hort. Vind. ii, 155, t. 120.— Lamarck, Diet. 11, .'i7;!; 111. ii, ;»H.— .\itou, Hort. Kew. i, 274 ; 2ed. ii, 29.— Willdonovr, Spec, i, 1132: Enum. i, 
250.— Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 1.5,5. — Pcrsoon, Syn. 1,243.— Nouvcau Dubamel, iii, 26.— Desfontiiines, Hist. Arb. ii,3.56. — Pursb,Fl. 
Am. Sept. i, 163. -Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. xvii, 532, t. 272.— Eaton, Manual, 2»: 6 ed. 140.— Nuttall, Genera, 155.— Roemer & Scbultes, 
Syst. T, 466.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 24.— Elliott, Sk. i, 293.— Dc CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 4.— Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 173 ; Fl. U. S. 
261 ; Compend. Fl. N. States, 120; Fl. N. York, i, 141; Nicollet's Rep. 147.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 788.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 5 — 
Bock. Bot. 72.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 201.— Spacli, Hist. Veg. ii, 405.— Rafiiiesque, New Fl. 60.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 499, f. 1G7.— 
Torrey i Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 257.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 819.— Eaton & Wngbt, Bot. 240.— Griffith, Med. Rot. 219, f. 112.— Gray, 
Genera, ii. 1-?; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 116.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 
268.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 48.— Baillon in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, v, 314.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 76.— Curtis in Rep. 
Geological .Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 102.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354.— Wood, CI. Book, 289 ; Bot. & Fl. 76.— 
Porcber, Resources S. Forests, 129.— Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii. 187.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 629.— Young, 
Bot. Texas, 205.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9. 

E. CarolinenniJi, Marshall, Arbustum, 43. 

E. latifoUuH, Marshall, Arbustum, 44 [not Alton]. -Agardh.Tbeor. & Syst. PI. t. 22, f. 4. 

BURNING BUSH. WAHOO. SPINDLE TREE. ARROW WOOD. 

Western New York, west to the valley of the upper Missouri river (^Fort Union)^ Montana, southward to northern 
Florida, southern Arkansas, and eastern Kansas. 

A small tree, rarely to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a shiub 2 to 3 
meters in height; low, rich woods, reaching its greatest development west of the Mississippi river. 

Wood heavy, very close-grained, liable to check badly in seasoning; medullary rays hardly discernible; color, 
white tinged with orange; specific gravity, 0.0592; ash, 0.58. 

Wahoo bark, a mild but rather uncertain purgative, is used by herbalists in the form of decoctions, tinctures, 
fluid extracts, etc. [Am. Jour, ritarmacy, .\x, 80.— U. S. Dispenmtory, 14 ed. 402.— i\^a«. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 559). 

40. — Myginda pallens, Smith, 

Beerf Cycl. xxv, No. 4.— De CandoUe, Pro<lr. ii, 13.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 554.— Grisebacli, 11. British West Indies, 14G.— Chapman iu 
Conker's Bot. Gazette, iii, 3; Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612. 

Semi-troiHcal Florida, Upper Metacombe Key; in the West Inilies. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 4 meters in height, witli a trunk 0.15 meter in (liaincter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very do.se-grained, comjjact, satiny ; layers of annual growth and numerous medullary 
rays hardly distingni.shable ; color, dark brown or nearly black, tiie tliick siip-wood lighter brown tinged with red; 
specific gravity, 0.9048; ash, 3.42. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 39 

41. — Schaefferia frutescens, Jacquin, 

Stirp. Am. 259.— Gaertner f. Fruct. Suppl. 249, t. 2-.J5, f. 7.— Lamarck, 111. iii, 402, t. 809.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 727.- De 
CandoUc, Prodr. ii, 41.— Karstoii, Fl. Columbia!, i, t. 91.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 76. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit lull West Indies, 146.— 
Walpers, Ann. vii, 5S1. 

8. COmpleta, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 327, t. 7, f. A.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 741.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. -i e<l. v, .571.— Macfadyen, 
Fl. Jamaica, 207. 

8. huxifolia, Nnttall, Sylva, ii, 42, t. .%; 2 ed. i, 190, t. 56.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 2C4. 
YELLOW WOOD. BOX WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, soutbeiu keys from Metacombe Key eastwaid, Caloosa river and sparingly on the 
Eeef Keys; in tlie West Indies. 

A small tree, occasionally 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, generally hollow 
and defective. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish ; medullary rays numerous, obscure; 
color, light bright yellow, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.7745 ; ash, 2.54. 



RHAMNACE^. 



42. — Reynosia latifolia, Grisebach, 

Cat. PI. Cuba, 34.— Eggers, Videuskab, Medd. Ira. Nat. For. 173 & t. ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. xiii, 40.— Gray in Coulter's Bot. Gairtte. ir, 
208.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 612. 

fEhamnuS hevigatUS, Vahl, SymboUe, iii, 41. 

Ceanoihus hevigatus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 30. 

Sciltia ferrea, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 72 [not Brongniart]. 

fBhamindium revolutum, Chapman, Fl. S. states, Suppl. 612. 

RED IRON WOOD. DARLING PLUM, 

Semi-tropical Florida, Miami (Garher), bay Biscayne, and on the southern keys (Curtiss); in the West Indies. 
A small tree, sometimes 8 meters in height, with a tiunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter iu diameter. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly bard, strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin : color, rich 
dark brown, the sap-wood light brown; si)ecilic gravity, 1.0715; ash, 3.20. 
The edible fruit, ripening in April and May, of agreeable flavor. 

43. — Condalia ferrea, Grisebach, 
Fl. British West Indies, 100.— AValpere, Ann. vii, 5??.— Gray in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iv, 208.— Chapman, Fl. S. States. Suppl. C12. 
Rliamnm ferrea, Vahl, Symbohe, iii, 41, t. 58. 
Zizyphus emarginatus, Swartz, Fl.lnd. Occ iii, 19.'>4. 
Ccanothus ferreus, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 30. 
Scutia ferrea. Brongniart in Anu.Sci.Nat. 1 ser.x, 363 [not Chapninn, Fl.S. States, 72].— Vasey. Cat. Forest Tnn^s, 9. 

BLACK IRON WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to bay Bi-scayue, on the southern keys; in the West ludio^. 

A small tree, sometimes 11 meters in height, with a trunk O.2.") to O.oS meter in diameter, generally hoHow and 
defective; common. 

Wood exceedingly heavy and hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, ditlicuU to work; remarkable for 
the large perceutage of ash; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, rich orange-brown, thesap-woixl lighter; 
specific gravity. I.o(i20: asli. S..?!. 



40 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

44. — Condalia obovata, Hooker, 

Icon. t. 2f«7. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. i, 685. — Gray in Jonr. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 169 ; Genera, ii, 17-2, 1. 164 ; Smithsonian Coutrib. iii, 
32; V, 27 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 5. — Torrey, Bot. Mes. Boundary Survey, 47. — Watson in Proc. Am. Aoail. xvii, 3^0. 

BLUE WOOD. LOGWOOD. PUKPLK IIAW. 

Eastern and southwestern Texas, westward tliroiiyli soiitberu New Mexico to soutluiii Arizona; jnobably 
extending into u;-:theru Mexico. 

A small tree, to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to O.JO meter in diameter, or ol'ten a shrub; reaching 
its greatest development along the streams of eastern Texas; one of the common "chaparral" plants of western 
Texas, here forming dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, liable to check in seasoning, containing many groups of large 
irregularly-arranged open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light red, the sap-wood light yellow; 
specific gravity, 1.1999; ash, 7.03. 

45. — Rhamnus Caroliniana, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniana, 101. — Lamarck, 111. ii, 83; Diet, iv, 476. — Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 153. — Nouveau Duhamel,'iii, 47. — Porsooo. Syu. 
i, 239.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 166.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 153.— Roeuier & Schultes, Syst. v, 285.— Elliott, Sk. i, 289.- De Candollc, 
Prodr. ii, 26. — Sprengel, Syst. i, 'tiS. — Torrey in Ann. Lye. X. York, ii, 174. — Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 32. — Hooker, Jour. Bot. i, 
202.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 262.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 807.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 537.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 300.— Eaton 
& Wrifht, Hot. 390.— Scheele in Roemer, Texas, 432.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 50, t. 59; 2 ed. i, 198, t. 59.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 269.— 
Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354. — Wood, CI. Book, 219 ; Bot. & Fl. 77. — Koch, Dendrologie, i, 610. — Gray, Hall'» 
PI. Texa.s, 5. 

f Frangtlla fragiUut, Rafinesiiue, Fl. Ludoviciana, 320; Sylva Telluriana, 27. 

SarcomphahlS Carolintanus, Ralincsque, Sylva Telluriana, 29. 

Frangula Caroliniana, Gray, Genera, ii, 178, t. 167 ; Manual N. states, 5 ed. 115.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary S irvcy, 
46. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 251.^Curti8 in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 92. — Chapman, 
Fl. S. States, 73.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9. 

INDIAN CHERRY. 

Long Island, New York, west along the valley of the Ohio river to southern Illinois, Missouri south of the 
Meramec river, ea.stern Kansas, and the Indian territory, south to northern Florida (latitude 30°), and through 
the Gulf states to western Texas. 

A small tree, G to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states 
generally a tall shrub ; rich woods along streams and river bottoms, reaching its greatest development in southern 
Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, coarse-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown, 
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0..5462; ash, 0.64. 

The edible fniit sweet and agreeable. 

46. — Rhamnus Californica, Eschscholtz, 

Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, x, 281 ( Linnaa Litt.-Ber. 1828, 149.— Prewl, Ecp. Bot. i, 197).— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 38.- Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. America, i, 263.— Dietrich, Syu. i, 806.- Katon & Wright, Bot. 390.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 101.— lleuisley, 
Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 197. 

R. olei/oUm, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 12:}, t. 44.— Hooker & Amott, Bot. Beechcy, 136, 328.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 
America, i, 260.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 390.— Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 10; PI. Hartweg. 302.— Durand in Jour. 
Philadelphia Acad. 1855, &5.— Carrifere in Rev. Hort. xlvi, 354, f. 47-49. 

Endotropis olei/olia, Rafinesqne, Sylva Telluriana, 31. 

ii;. laurifolius, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 200.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. .390. 

Frangula Californica, Gray, Genera, ii, 17H ; Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 146.— Torrey in Sitgrcaves' Hi:]). l.'>7 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 74 ; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 46; Bot. Wilkes Expcd. 261.— Newberry in Piicilie, K. U. 
Rep. vi, 69. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 78. 

California, west of the Sierra Nevadas, from the valley of the upjicr Sacramento river southward to Siiuta 
Barbara and fort Tejon. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 41 

A small tree, rarelj' 7 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.37 meter in diii.ineter {Pringle), or commonly 
a shrub, along the sea-coast and at high elevations often i)rostrate; common and reaching its greatest develoi)ment 
in the valleys of the Santa Cruz mountains. A low shrubby form, densely white tomeutose, especially on the 
under side of the leaves, of southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico, i.s — 
var. tomentella, Hrewer & Watsou, Bot. California, i, 101. 

E. tomenteliun, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 303.— Seemaun, Bot. Herald, 275.— Walpers, Ann. ii,20T. 

Frangula Gali/ornica, var. tomentella. Gray Id Smithsonian Contrib. vi, 28. -Torrcy in Pacific R. E. Eep. iv, 74; vii, 9. 
NVood light, soft, rather coarse-grained, checking in drying; layers of annual growth marked by many rows of 
open ducts ; medullary rays narrow, obscure ; color, brown or light yellow, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 
0.0000 ; ash, 0.58. 

47. — Rhamnus Purshiana, Do C'andoUe, 

Prodr. ii, 25.— Loudou, Arboretum, ii, 538, f. 211.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 123, t. 43; LoDdou Joor. Bot. ri, 78. — Don, MilK'r« Diet. 
ii, 32.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 2G2.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 807.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 52; 2 ed. i, 200.— Richardson, ^Vrclic 
Esped. 423. — Newberry in Pacific R. E. Rep. vi, 6'J. — Koch, Dendrologie, i, CIO.— Gray in Proe. Am. Acad, viii, 37y. — Brewer & 
Watson, Bot. California, i, 101.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, SG. 

Ii. alnifoUuS, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 166 [not L'Heritier]. 

Cardiolepis obtusa, Rafinesque, Sylva Telluriana, 28. 

Frangula Purshiana, Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259; Pacilic R. R. Rep. xii», 29, 57.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
9.— Torrey, Bot. WilUes Exped. 262. 

BEARBEKKY. BEAR WOOD. SHITTIM WOOD. 

Puget sound, east along the mountain ranges of northern Washington territory to the Bitter Root mountain, 
Idaho (JIullau pass, Watson), and the shores of Flathead lake, JMontana {Canby d: i>argent), southward through 
western Washington territory, Oregon, and California, west of the Sierra Xevada, to about latitude 40^. 

A small tree, often 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; depressions and along 
the sides and bottoms of carious in the coniferous forests, reaching its greatest development along the western slope 
of the Coast Range of southern Oregon. 

Wood light, very haid, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light 
brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood somewhat lighter; speciliC gravity, 0.5071'; ;ish. 0.07. 

The bark, like that of other species of the genus, possesses powerful cathartic properties, and, under the name 
of Cascara sagrada, has recently been introduced by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts, tiuctores, etc., 
immense quantities being gathered for this purpose in the Oregon forests (Xat. Dispensatory, Ii ed. 659). 

48. — Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, Eschscholtz, 

Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, s, 285.— Hooker, Fi. Bor.-Ani. i, 126.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 37.— Hooker & Amott, Bot. Beechoy. 136, 
328. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 266.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 813.— Loudou, Arboretum, ii, .540.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 185. — 
Lindley, Bot. Reg. ssx, t. 38.— Nuttall, Sylva, Ii, 44, t. 57 ; 2 ed. i, 193, t. 57.— Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 10: PI. Hartweg. ;502.— Ann. 
Gand. 1847, 1. 107.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 14; Bot. Mcs. Boundary Survey, 45; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 263.- Xewlierr>- in 
Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 69. — Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii'^, 57. — Bolander in Proe. California Acad, iii, 78. — Koch, Dendrologie. i, 
621. — Watson in Proe. Am. Acad, x, 334. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 102. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9. 

BLUE MYRTLE. 

California Coast ranges, from Mendicino county south to the valley of the San Louis Key river (Pala, Parixh. 
Brothers). 

A small tree, 8 to 10 meters in heiglit, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or toward the southern 
limits reduced to a low shrub; common and reaching its greatest develoi)ment in tiie iSequoia forests near Santa 
Cruz. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays very obscure; color, light brown, the sapwiHMl 
darker; specific gravity, 0.5750; ash, 0.09. 

The bark of the root niiiy be expected to possess similar astringent i)roperties to that of the shrubby C. 
Americana, used with advantage in cases of diarrhea and dysentery, and as a domestic remedy in throat troubles 
(U. )S'. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1009. — Mat. Disjiensalory, 2 eil. 373). 

49. — Colubrina reclinata, Brongniart. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. I ser. x, 369.— Richanl, Fl. Cuba, 3,V.).— Grisjobiuh, Fl. British West Indies, 101.— Eggers in Bull. V. S. Nat. Mus. No. 13. 40. 
Rhamnus ellipticus, Alton, Hort. Row. i, 205 ; 2 ed. ii, 17.— WilhUuow, Spec, i, 1098.— Swartz. I^nxlr. 50 : Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 497. 
Zi::yphiis Dominigensis, Nouvoau Duhamel, iii, r>6. 

Ccanotlius ncliuatHS, L'Heritier, Sert. l>.— Kanuer & Sohultes, Syst. v, 288.— De Caudollo, Prodr. ii, 31.— M.icfadycn, FL 

.Jiiniitio.i, 211. 



42 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

NAKED WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Umbrt-lla Key. ou tlic north eiul of Kev Laryo, and si)arin'rly on the small i.slaiuls south 
of Elliott's Key; through the West Indies. 

One of the largest trees of the region, deciduous, 112 to IS meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.25 meter in 
diameter; reaching its greatest development within the United SUites on Umbrella Key, here forming a dvnso 
forest. 

Wootl heavy, hanl, very strong, brittle, close-grained, comi)act, satiny, susceptible of a good polish, containing 
many small open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark brown tinged with yellow, the saii-wood light 
yellow ; si)ecific gravity, 0.820S ; ash, 1.75. 

"The trunk attains a size of over 1 meter and is most extraordinary. When 0.1D2 meter thick it becomes 
furrowed, and the furrows and ridges multiply and extend in all directions; trunks 0.75 to 1 meter in diameter 
api>ear like a mass of braided serpents. Ou small trunks the bark breaks up into flakes which curl up aud drop 
■off". Between the ridges where the bark persists the edges of dozeus of papery layers may be seen" {Curtins in let). 



SAPINDACE^ 



50. — .ffisculus glabra, Willdenow, 

Enam. 40.'i.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,'2.o5.— Nutt.-iU, Gen.-ra, i, 241.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.— Toircy, FI. U. S. .384; Compeud. Fl. 
N. States, ItM.— Guimpcl, Otto & Hayuo. Abb. llolz. 28, t. 24.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 44.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 1G6.— Don, Miller's Diet. 
i,r>.'.2.— Heck, Bot. 65.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 467, f. 133.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 251.— Dietricb, Syu. ii, 1225.— Eaton 
& Wright, Bot. 115.— Walpers, Kep. i, 424.— Gray, Genera, ii, 207, 1. 176, 177; Manuel N. States, 5 ed. 118.— Cooper in Smith.souian 
Rep. li-o«, 251.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 79.- Wood, CI. Book, 288; Bot. & Fl. 85.— Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. 
xii, 187.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 508.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.— Ridgway in Proc. II. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 61. 

^.pallida, Willdenow, Enum. 406.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.— Guimpcl, Otto & Ilayuo, Abb. 
Holz. 29, t. 25.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 166.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 650. -Eaton, Manual, 6ed. 6.— Lindlcy, Bot. Reg. xxiv, 
t. 51. — Loudon, Arboretum, i, 468, f. 134. 

/?? ■ echinata, Muhlenberg, Cat. 38. 

^. Ohioetisis, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 242; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. u, l.")6, t. 92.— Poiret, Supiil. iii, .'>93.— De 
Candolle, Prodr. i, 597.— Don, MiUer's Diet, i, 652.— Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 6.— Riddell, Syu. Fl. W. States, 34.— Liudley, 
Bot. Reg. xxiv, 51, t. 51.— Xuttall, Sylva, ii, 71 ; 2 ed. ii, 17. 

tJE. carnea, Guimpcl, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 25, t. 22.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 43.— Lindley, Bot. Reg. xiii, 1. 1056.— Watson, 
Dend. Brit, ii, t. 121. -Don, Miller's Diet, i, C52.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 253.— Walpers, Rep. i,425. 

Paria glabra, Spath in Ann. .Sci. Kat. 2 ser. ii, 54 ; Hist. Veg. iii, 23. 

Faria pallida, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54 ; Hist. Veg. iii, 2;;. 

t Paria carnea, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54 ; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.— Don in Sw.-et's Brit. Fl. Card. 2 ser. t. 301. 

fPavia Watwniana, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 54 ; Hist. Veg. iii, 23.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 2.53. 

fjE. Watxoniana, Dielricb, Syn. ii, 1225.— Walpers, Hep. i, 425. 

^. HippocaHtanum, var. OhioemiH, Loudon, Arboretum, i, 407.— Hrownc, Trees of America, 110. 

JE. Uippocaxlaniim, var. glabra, London, Arboretum, i, 467.— Browne, Trees of America, 111. 

^. Hippocantanum, var. pallida, London, Arl.oretum, i, 46H.— Browne, Trees of America, 111. 

OniO ni'CKKYE. FETID BUCKEYE. 

Western .slopes of the Alleghany mountains, Pennsylvania to northern Alabama, westward through southern 
Michigan (rare) to southern Iowa, eastern Kansas to about longitude 97° west, and the Indian tenitory. 

A small tree, 8 to 15 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.;!0 to (>.ri() meter in diameter; rich .soil along streams and 
river bottoms, reaching its greatest development in the liigh valleys of the .southern Alleghany nionntains. 

Wood light, .soft, not strong, close-graiued, compact, didicult to sj)lit, often blemisiied by <Iark lines ol decay; 
medullary rays obscure; color, white, the sa]) wood darker; sjjecific gravity, 0.4512; ash, 0.80; largely u.scd in 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. -13 

common witli that of tlie other .sjtccics of the genus in the mamifaetiue of woodenware, aitifieial limbs (for wliich 
the wood oi JEsculuH is i)ieferred to that of all other American trees), i)ai)er-]mli(, wooden hats, less commonly for 
the bearings of shafting and machinery, and occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

The bark of the allied old world species^'. Jlippfjcastanum occasionally has been found efficacious as a sub.'Stitute 
for cinchona bark in the treatment of intermittent fevers (U. .s'. IHspvnsutorij, 14 ed. IJG.j. — Xat. Dispematory, 'J ed. 
712), and similar properties may be looked for in the liark of ^7:. rjlahra. 

51. — iEsculus flava, Aiton, 

Hort. Kovv. i,494; 2 ed. ii,335.—B. S. Barton, Coll. i,13; Bot. Appx. 26, t. 15,f.2.— Willdenow, Spec. ii,2^: Enum.i,405; Berl. Baamz. 
13. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 385. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 255. — Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.— James in Long's Exited, i, 22.— Gaimpel, 
Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 27, t. 23.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 44.— Elliott, Sk. i, 43*5.— Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, t. ItB.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 
t. 1280.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 202.— DietricU, Syn. ii, 1225.— Eaton, Manual, Ged.T.— Eaton & Wrigbt. Bot. 116.— 
Walpers, Rop. i, 424.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 260.- Torrey in P.atilic K. R. Rep. iv, 74.— Browne, Trees of Auierie:., lli?.— Sebnizlein, 
Icon. t. 230""=, f. 3.— Cooper iu SmitliHonian Rep. 1858, 251.— Cbapman, Fl. S. States, 80.— CnTlis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, 
1860, iii,48. — Lesquereuxiu Owen's 2(1 Kep. Arkansas, 354. — Wood, CI. Book, 2^8: Bot. &F1. 75. — Gray, Manual X. Stales. 5 ed. 118. — 
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9. 

JB. octandra, Marsball, Arbustum, 4.— Millers Diet. Xo. 1. 

Pavia flava, Moencb, Motb. 66.— De Candolle, Piodr. i, 598.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 653.— Spacb in Ann. Sci. Xat. 2 ger.ii, 
55; Hist. Veg. iii, 25. — Loudon, Arboretum, i, 471 &. t. 

^. liltea, Wangenheim in Scbrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, viii, 133, t. 6. — Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 219. — Persoou, Syn. 
i, 403. — Kocb, Deudrologie, i, 509. 

Pavia lutea, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 94. — Xouveau Dubamel, iii, 155, t. 38. — Miebaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 2:1", t. 11; 
N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 153, t. 91. 

JB. neglecta, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xii, t. 1009. 

Pavia neglecta, Don, Miller's Diet, i, 6.53.— Spacb iu Aun. Sci. Xat. 2 ser. ii, 55 ; Hist. Veg. iii, 24. — London, Arboretum, i. 472. 

SWEET BUCKEYE. 

Allegheny county, Pennsylvania (T. C. Porter), southward along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia 
(Augusta) and Alabama, west along the valley of the Ohio river to southern Iowa, the Indian territory, and the 
valley of the Brazos river, eastern Te.xas. 

A tree 18 to 28 meters iu height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 meter in diameter, or toward its southwestern limits 
reduced to a shrub ; rich woods and along streams, reaching its greatest development ou theslopesof the Alleghany 
mountains of North Carolina ami Tennessee. 

A variety with pur[)le or llesh-eolored flowers, the leaflets pubescent beneath, is — 

var. purpurascens, Gray, Manual N. states, 5 ed. 118. 

^. hybrida, De CandolUs Hort. Monsp. 1813, 75.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 334. 

^. discolor, Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 255.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 242.— Bot. Reg. iv, t. 310.— Elliott, Sk. i. 4;W.— Sprvngel, 
Syst. ii, 167. — Sertura Botanicnm, iv «!t. t. — Eaton & Wvigbt, Bot. 116. — Walpers, Ann. iv, 381. 

Pavia discolor, Poiret, Suppl. V, 769.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 65:!.- Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 7.— Spacb iu Ann. Sci. Xat. 2 ser. 
ii, 57; Hist. Veg. iii, 28. — Loudon, Arboretum, i. 472. 

Pavia hybrida, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 598.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 653.— Eaton. Slannal, 6 ed. 6.-Spaeb iu Ann. Sci. Xat, 
2 ser. ii, 56; Hist. Veg. iii, 27. — Loudon, Arboretum, i, 472. — Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 116. — Kocb, Deudrologie. i. oli 

JE. Pavia, var. discolor, Torrey »V Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 2,'i2.— Walpers, Rep. i, 424.— Gray iu Jour. Boston Soc. X.tt. 
Hist, vi, 167. 

Wood light, soft, close grained, compact, diflScuIfc to split; medullary rays luimerous. obscure: color, oreamy- 
nhite, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; .specific gravity, 0.4274 ; ash, 1.00. 

52. — iEsculus Californica, Nuttall: 

Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 251 ; Sylva, ii, 69, t. 61 ; 2 cd. ii. l(i. t. 64.— Hooker & .\ruott. Bot. Beecbey. ;W7.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 
1225.— Eatou & Wrigbt, Bot. 116.— Walpers, Rep. i, 424.— Beutbaui, Bot. Sulpbnr, ".' ; PI. Hartweg. 301.— Dnrand in .lour 
Pbiladelpbia Acad. 1855, 85.— Rev. Hort. iv, 150, 1". 10, 11.— Torrey iu l^uilie R. K. Rep. iv, 74: Bot. ilex. Boundary Survey. 4^; 
Bot. Wilkes Exped. 260.— Newberry iu Paeilic R. R. Rep. vi, 20, 69, f. 1.— Hot. Slag. t. .5077.— Fl. des Serns. xiii. ;19. t. 1312.— 
London Gard. Cbrouiclo, 18.'>S, 844. — Beige, Hort. ix, 121 & t. — Gray iu Proc. Boston Soe. Nat. Hist. vii. 146. — Bvlauder in Proo, 
California Acad, iii, 78. — Walpers, Ann. 624. — Kocb, Deudrologie, i, .M3. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Caliloruia. i, U>>. — Vasey. 
Cat. Forest Trees, 9. 

CalothyrsHS Californica, Spaeb in Aun. Sci. Xat. 2 .ser. ii,t;2; Hist. Veg. iii, ilT.. 

Pavia Californica, Hartweg in Jour. Hort. Soe. London, ii, 12:t.—Carri6r* iu Rev. Hort. 18iH.:W.)& i". 



44 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

CALIFOENIA BUCKEYE. 

California, valley of the tipper Sacramento river and Mendocino county, southward along; the Coast ranges to 
San Luis Obispo, and along the western foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino mountains. 

A low, widelybninching tree, 8 to 12 meters in heij;ht, with a short trunk 0.(10 to 0.00 meter in diameter, often 
greatly expanded at the base, or more often a much-branched shrub 3 to 5 meters in height; borders of streams, 
reaching its greatest development in the canons of tlie Coast Kange, north of San Francisco bay. 

\A"ood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, white 
slightly tinged with yellow, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable: specilic gravity, 0.4980; ash, 0.70. 

53. — Ungnadia speciosa, Eudliclur, 

Atacta Bot. t. :W; Xov. Stirp. Desc. is, 75. — Torrcy & Gray, Fl. X. America, 1,084; Pacific E.E.Eep. ii,162. — Walpers, Rep. i, 423-; v, 
371; Anu. vii, ti2o. — Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Xat. Hist, vi, 167 ; Genera, ii, 211, t. 178, 179; Suiitbsoniau Contrib. iii, 38;v, 30; 
Mcin. Am. Acad, new ser. v, 299; Hall's PI. Texas, 5.— Fl. ilos Scrres, s, 217, t. 1059.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 48.— 
ScbBizlcin, Icon. t. 230, f. 2, 8. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kcp. 1858, 265.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 515.— Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 423. — 
Vasey. Cat. Forest Trees, 9. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, svii, 337. 

V. heterophylla, Scheelein Linniea,xxi,.')S9; Kcemer, Texas, 58i). 

U. heptaphylla, Scheele in Linna-a, xxii,352; Eoemer, Texas, 432. 

SPANISH BUCKEYE. 

Valley of tke Trinity river (Dallas, h'everchon) through western Texas to the canons of the Organ mountains, 
>'ew Mexico (Bigelow) ; southward into Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or toward its 
eastern and western limits reduced to a low shrul); commou west of the Colorado river; bottoms and rich 
hillside"*, reaching its greatest development in the valley of the Guadalupe river, between New Braunfels and 
the coast. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, containing numerous evenly-distributed open 
dacts; medullary rays numerous, inconspicuous; color, red tinged with brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific 
gravity, 0.0332; a.sh, 1.17. 

Fruit reputed poisonous. 

54. — Sapindus marginatus, Willdenow, 

Ennm. i, 432.— Mulilenberg, Cat. 41.— De CandoUc, Prodr. i, 007.- Sprengel, Syst. ii, 250.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 6G5.— Spach, Hist. 
Veg. iii, 54.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 255, 665 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 102.- Eaton, Manual, G ed. 323.— Eaton & 
Wright, Bot. 411.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii,72, t. 65; 2 ed. ii, 19, t. 65.— Leavenworth in Am. Jour. Sci. i, 49, 130.— Engelmann & Gray 
in Jour. Boston .Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 241.— Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ri, 169; Genera, ii, 214, t. 180; Smithsouiau 
Contrib. iii, 38; Hall's PI. Texas, 5.— Engelmann in Wislizenus' Rep. 12.— Torrcy in Emory's Rep. 138; Marcy's Ecp. 282; 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 2, 74; Bot. Mex. Bnundary Survey, 47.— Scheele in Kcemer, Texas, 433.— Schnizleiu, loon. t. 230, f. 22.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 79.— Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 354.— Wood, CI. Book, 288; Bot. & Fl. 75.— Porcher^ 
Resources S. Forests, 85.— Young, Bot. Texas, 208.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 9.— Hcmsloy, Bot. Am. -Cent, i, 214.— Watson in Proc. 
Am. Acad, xvii, 337. 

8. saponaria, Lamarck, 111. ii, 441, t. 307 [not Liunieus].— Wieliaux, Fl. lior.-Aui. i, 212.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 
663, in part.— Persoon, Syn. i, 444.— Pursli, Fl. Am. .Sept. i, 274.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 257.— Elliott, Sk. i, 460.— Torrey 
in Aon. Lye. N. York, ii, 172.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 267. 

t8. inaqualis, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 608. 

iS'. falcatUH, Ralinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 261. 

<S'. acuminata, Kafincsque, New Fl. 22. 

iS". Drummondi , Hooker & Amott, Bot. Beechey, 2H1 (excl. var.).— Walpers, Rep. i, 417. 

WILD CHINA. SOAPBERRY. 

Atlantic coast. Savannah river to the Saint John's river, Florida, and on Cedar Keys ; southern Arkansas, 
valley of the Washita river (I'rescott, Lettennan) through western Louisiana and Texas to the mountain valleys of 
southern New Mexico and Arizona; southward into Mexico, and in the West Indies (? IS. ina;qualk). 

A tree, sometimes 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.00 meter in diameter; west of the Colorado 
river much smaller, rarely 9 meters in lieiglit; along strt^ams or toward the western limits of its distribution only 
in mountain valleys, reaching its greatest deve]<i|)tnent along the river bottoms of eastern Texas. 



CATALOGUE OF FOliEST TREES. 45 

Wood heavy, strong, hard, close-giaiued, compact, easily split into thin strips; layers of annual prf)wth clearly 
marked by several rows of large oiien ducts; medullary rays thin, obscure; color, light brown tinged with yellow, 
the sap-wood lighter ; si)ecific gravity, 0.S12G; ash, 1.50; largely used in Texas in the maunfacture of cotton-baskets, 
and in New ^Mexico for the frames of pack-saddles. 

Saponin, common in several species of the genus, and aflbrding a substitute for soap, may be looked for in the 
fruit and roots of this tree. 

55. — Sapindus Saponaria, Limiajus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 367; Swartz, Obs. 152. — Lamarck, 111. ii, 441, t. 307. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 468. — ^Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 424. — Titford, 
Hort. Bot. Am. 61. — Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, vi, 663. — Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, iv, 121, t. 261. — De CandoUe, Prodr. i, 607.— 
Spach. Hist. Veg. iii, 53. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 323. — Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 159. — RaCncsque, New FI. 22.— Xuttall, .Sjlva, ii, 
72 ; 2 ed. 20.— Eichard, Fl. Cuba, 280.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 126.— Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 349, f. :J53.— Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 10.— Chapman in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 3; Fl. S. States, Suppl. 613. 

SOAPBEERY. 

Seiui-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne, cape Sable, Caximbas bay, Thousand Islands, Key Largo, Elliott's Key; 
in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 6 to 10 meters in height, with a truak sometimes 0.38 meter in diameter; common ou cape Sable, 
and reaching its greatest development within the United States on the Thousand Islands and along the shores of 
Caximbas bay. 

Wood heavy, rather hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown tinged 
with yellow, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.83C7 : ash, 4.34. 

The fruit and roots rich in saponin and used in the West Indies as a substitute for soap [Guibonrt, Hist. Drogues, 
7 ed. iii, 598. — U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 1751) ; the round, black seeds for beads, buttons, and small ornaments. 

56. — Hypelate paniculata, Cambe^sedts, 

Mem. Mns. xviii, 32.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 671.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 295.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies. 127.- Chapman. Fl. S. 
. States, 79. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10. 

Mel icocca paniculata, Jussieu in Mem. Mus. iii, 1*7, t. 5.— De Candollo, Prodr. i, 615.— Xuttall, Sylva, ii, 74, t. 00; 2 ed. 
ii, 21, t. 66. 

Exotliea oblongtfoUa, Macfadyen, Fl. Jamaica, 232. 

H. ohlongifolia, Hooker in London Jour. Bot. iii, 226, t. 7. 

INK WOOD. IRON WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, ea.st coast, Mosquito iidet to the southern keys ; iu the West Indies. 

A tree often 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 meter in diameter. 

Wood verj- heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, suseei)tible of a good polish, cheeking iu drying; 
medullarj- rays obscure; color, bright reddish-brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9533 ; ash, 1.25 ; 
used in ship-building, for the handles of tools, and piles; resisting the attacks of the teredo. 

57. — Hypelate trifoliata, Swartz, 

Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 655, t. 14.— Delesscrt, Icon, iii, t. 39.— De CandoUe, Prodr. i, 014.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 7S.— Grisebach, FL 
British West Indies, 127; Cat. PI. Cuba, 46. 

WHITE IKON WOOD. 

Senii-tiopical Florida, Upiier Metjicombe and Umbrella Keys; in the \\ est In<li«.-. 

A tree sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to O.GO nutter in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close grained, compact, susceptible of a fine polish, durable in contact with the soil; 
medullary rays thin, obscure; color, rich light brown, the sai)-wood darker; specific gravity, 0.9102; ash, 1.38; 
used in ship-building, for the handles of tools, post.s, etc. 



46 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AM K RICA. 

58. — Acer Pennsylvanicum, l.imiieus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1055. — Aitoii. Hon. Kew. iii, 43.'>. — ilicluuix, Kl. Bor.-.\iu. ii, 'J5'2. — Willdcnow, Spec. iv,0S9; Enum. i, 1045. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. i, 391.— N'oiivean Duhiiniel. i v. 3-.'.— Trattinick. Arihiv. i. 1. 11.— Hnyne, Deud. FI. 210.— Elliott, Sk. i, 451.— Torroy, Fl. U. 
S. 3y": Coiiipi'iiil. Fl. X. folates, 170; Fl. X. Yviik, i. l:!.'>. — Sprcn>;cl, Sjst. ii, 224. — Eatou, Manual, C ed. 2. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 
Anitrico, i, '.Mti.— Hunker. Fl. Bur. -Am. i. lU.— Euioi-son. Trees Massjichusetts, 490; 2 ed. ii, tvlMi & t.— Gr.ay, Genera, ii, 200, 1. 174, 
f. 1-3; Manual X. States, .'> ed. 119.— Kiebardson, .Vrctie Exped. 422.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 2li5.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. IS.'jy, 
251.— Chapman. Fl. S. States, tO.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, 1860, iii, 52.— Buehenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 285, t. 
2. f. 24.— Wood. CI. Book. 2%; Bot. & Fl. 74.— Koch. Dcndrolo-.'ie. i, 521.— Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 373, f. 416-420.— Vasey, Cat. Fore«t 
Trees, lU.— Sears in Bull. Esses Inst, xiii, 17.').- Bell in (ieolnjiical Kep. Canada, 1879-'S0, 53<:. 

A. Canadt^nsf, Marshall, Arbustum, 4. 

A. striatum. Dn Roi, Diss. 58; Harbk. i, 8, 1. 1.— Wangenheim. Anier.29, 1.12, f.2.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 381.— Ehvhart, Beitr 
iv. -ii.— Ma-nch, Meth. 56.— Persoou. Syu.i 417.— Miehaux I". Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 242, t.l7; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. 
ii. 17.'>. t.47.— Pnrsh, Fl.Aui. Sept. i. 267. — Xuttull, Genera, i, 258.— De Candollc, Prodr. i, .593.— Watson, Deud. Brit. 

j_ t_70. Don, Millers Dict.i, 648.— Beck, Bot. 64. — Loudon, Arboretum, i, 407 & t.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 85; Ann. 

Sci.Xat.2ser.ii, 162.— Dietrich, Syn. 1281.— E.iton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 407.— Browne, 
Trees of America, 76. 

STRIPED MAPLE. MOOSE WOOD. STRIPED DOGWOOD. GOOSE-FOOT MAPLE. WHISTLE WOOD. 

Valk-y of the Saiut Lawreute river (UaHa bay), iiortliern sliores of lake Outario, i.slauds of lake Huron, 
south through the iiortberu Atlantic states, and aloiiR the Alleghany mouutaiiis to uortheru (ieorgia, west through 
the lake regiou to uortheastern Minnesota. 

A small tive, C to 10 meters iu height, with a tmiik 0.1.") to 0.20 meter in diameter; cool ravines and mouutaiu 
sides. 

Wood light, .soft, close-grained, compact, satiny; medullary rays numerous, thiu; color, light brown, the sap- 
wood lighter; specitic gravity, 0..">l'99; ash, 0.36. 

59. — Acer spicatum, Lamarck, 

Diet, ii, 381.— ^Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 485.— Persoou, Syn. i, 417.— De CandoUe, Prodr. i, .'iOS.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 648.— Audubon, 
Birds, t. 134.— Penn. Cycl. i, 77.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.— Beck, Bot. 64.— Spach, Hist. Veg. 87 ; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 163.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, i, 406, t. 26.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 246.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1281.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— 
Torrey, Fl. X. York, i, 165.— Browne, Trees of America, 74.— Emerson, Trees Mas-sachusetts, 497; 2 ed. ii, 567 & t.— Parry iu 
Owen's Rep. 610.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 80.— Curtis iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, 
iii, .52.— Wood, CI. Book, 287 ; Bot. & Fl. 74.— Gray , Manual X. States, 5 ed. 119.- Koch, Dendrologie, i, 522.— Macoun in Geological 
Rep. Canada, 187.>-76, 192.— Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 175.— Bell in Geological Eep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54'=.— Nicholson in 
London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 172. 

A. Pennsylvanicum, Du Roi, Diss. 61: Harbk. i, 22, t. 1 [not Linuicus].- Wangenlnini, Anier. 82, t. 12, f. 30.— Marshall, 
Arbustum, 2. 

A. parrifionim, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv, 25; vi, 40.— Mawicli, Meth. 56. 

A. montunum, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 435; 2 ed. v, 447 (excl. syn. «(rio<«m).— Miehaux, Kl. 15or.-Ani. ii, 253.— Wilhknow, 
Spec, iv, 988; Euum. i, 1045.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 391.— Nouveau Dubaniel, iv, 33.— Trattiuick, Archiv. i, t. 
13.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 267.— Xuttall, Cienera, i, 253.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 59, t. 48,— Hayne, 
Dend. Fl. 213.— Elliott, Sk. i, 452.— Torrey, Fl. I". S. 398; Compend. Fl. N. States, 170.— Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 224.- 
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 111.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 408.— Darby, Hot. S. States, 26.5. 

MOUNTAIN MAPLE. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence river, west along the northern shores of the great lakes to northern Minnesota 
and the Sa.skatchewan region, south through the northern states, and along the Alleghany mountains to northern 
Georgia. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 10 meters in height,- with a trunk dirt to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a tall 
shrub ; cool woods and mountain ravines, reaching its greatest develoiiment on the western slopes of the Allegliaiiy 
mountains of North Carolina ;iTid Tennessee. 

Wootl light, soft, clo.sc-graiued, compact; medullary rays inconspicuous; color, light brown tinged with red, 
the sap-wood lighter ; specitic gravity, 0.5.'J30 ; ash, 0.43. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 47 

60. — Acer macrophyllum, I'm-h. 

Fl. Am. Sept. i, 207.— Poirct, Suppl. v, G69.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 253; Sylvu, ii.TT, t. (JT : 2 td. ii. 24, t. 67.— De CaudolU, Prodr. i, 
.594.— Si>rengel, Syst. ii, 225.— Peun. Cycl. i, 78.— Eaton, Manual, C cd. 2.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Aiii. i, 112, t. ife.— Don, Miller'* Diet. 
i, G48. — Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 scr. ii, 16.5. — Torrcy & Gray, Fl. N. Auieriea, i, 246.— Hooker & Amott, Bot. Beechey. 327. — 
Dietrich, S>ti. ii, 1281.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 408, t. 28, f. 117, 118.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Beuthani. PI. Hartweg. 301.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 78. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 423. — Dnrand in Jonr. Philadelphia Acad, li^l.-), 84. — Torrey in Pacific 
R. K. Rep. iv, 74 ; Bot. Mex. Boundary .Survey, 47 : Bot. Wilkes Exped. 2ii'^.- Newberry in Piioific K. R. Rep. vi, 21. 67. — C'>o|>er 
in Pacilic R. R. Rep. xii, 28, 57; Smithsonian Rep. 185ci, 258. — Lyall in Jour. Linna-au Soc. vii, 134, 144. — Bolauder in Proc. 
California Acad, iii, 78.— Wood, CI. Book, 287 ; Bot. &. Fl. 74. — Rothroek in .Smithsonian Rep. 1667, 334. — Koch, Dendrologie. i, 
528. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, viii, 379. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 107. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10. — Macoun iu 
Geological Rep. Canada, 187ri-'76, 192. — G. M. Daw.son in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 330. — Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 
1881,10. 

A. palmatum, Raliuesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48 [not Thuuherg]. 

BROAD-LEAVED MAPLK. 

Coast of Alaska, from !;]titiule 55° south aloug- the. islands and coast of British Columbia, through western 
Washington territory and Oregon, and along the California Coast ranges and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada 
to the San Bernardino mountains and Hot Spring valley, San Diego county (Pa rM Brothem), not ascending above 
4,000 feet altitude. 

A tree 24 to 30 meters iu height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.50 meter in diameter; along streams and river bottoms, 
reaching its greatest development on the rich bottom lands of the Coquille and other rivers of .southern Oregon, 
where, with the California laurel, it forms dense, heavy forests. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, susceptible of a good polish ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin; color, rich light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; si)eeific 
gravity, 0.4009; ash, 0.54; largely used in Oregon in the manufacture of furniture, for ax ;uid broom hauiUes, 
frames of snow-shoes, etc. ; specimeus with the grain beautifully curled and contorted are common and valued in 
cabinet-making. 

61. — Acer circinatum, Pursh. 

Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266. — Poiret, Supj)!. v, 669. — Nuttall, Genera, i, 253; Jour. Philadelphia Acad, vii, 16 (excl. syn.); Sylva, ii, 80, t. 
67; 2 ed. ii, 27, t. 67.— De CandoUe, Prodr. i, 595.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.— Penu. Cycl. i, 79.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.— Don. 
Miller'.s Diet, i, 6.51. — Spach iu Ann. .*ci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 166; Hi.st. Veg. iii, 07. — Loudon. Arhoretiim, i, 422, f. 112, 127. — Torn»y \- 
Gray, X''l. N. America, i, 247.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-.\m. i, 112, t. 39.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282.— Browne, 
Trees of America, 91. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 422. — Lindley in Paxton's Fl. (Jard. ii, 156, f. 210 (Loiidou Ganl. Chronicle, 
1851, 791, f. 211).— Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep.vi, 21, 69. — Cooper iu Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 28, 57 ; Smithsonian Rep. 1358, 458.- 
Lyall in Jour. Liumoan Soc. vii, 134. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, viii, 379. — Wood, CI. Book. 2c7, B01.& Fl. 74. — Koch. 
Dondrologie,i, 523. —Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 2.58.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 107.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tn>es. 10.— 
Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii. 85. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76. li>2. — G. M. Dawson, Canadian Nat. new s«^r. 
ix, 330.— Nicholson in Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 10. 

A. rirgatum, Ratiuesque, New Fl. it Bot. i, 48. 

VINE MAPLE. 

British Columbia, valley of the Fraser river (Yale) and probably farther north, southward through Washington 
territory and Oregon, west of the Cascade mountains to the Mount Shasta region of northern California, rarely 
ascending to 4,000 feet altitude. 

A small tree, sometinuis 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0,20 to 0,30 meter in diameter; along streams; 
the stems often prostrate and forming dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or 
often nearly white, the sap-wood lighter ; specilic gravity, 0.(5060 ; ash, 0,39 ; used as fuel ; by lumbermen for ax 
and shovel handles, and by the coast Indians for the bows of fishing nets. 

62. — Acer glabrum, Torrey. 

Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 172; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 259.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 651).— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.— Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. 
America, i, 247, 684.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Walpers, Rep, i, 409,— Nuttall, Sylva. ii, 86; 2. ed., ii,;W,— Newliorry iu Paoitio 
R. R. Rep.vi. 69. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 18.58. 258; PaciUe R. R. Rep. xii,51,.57; Am. Nat. iii,40i>. — Engelmanu in Trans. 
Am. Pl\il. Soc. now sor. xii, 187. — Gray in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiv,259; Proo. Philadelphia Aoad. 18ti3. 5;*. — Porter in Haydeu's 
Rep. 1870, 474; 1871,480.— Watson in King's Rep. v, .52.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado: Haydeu's Snrv. Mise Pub. No. 4. 19.— 
Coulter iu Haydeu's Rep. 1872, 76;{. — Macoun iu Geological Rep. Canada, l!?75-'76, 192. — Bnnver iV Watson, Bot. California, i. loT.— 
Rothroek iu Wlicelor's Rep. vi, 83. — Nicholson in Loudon Ganl. Chronicle, 18S1, 750. 



48 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

A. bnrbaium, Douglas in Hooker, Kl. Bor.-Aiii. i, li:i.— Loudon, Ailiorctuni, i, -I'iO, f. 125 (pscl. syn.). 

A. Douylasii, Hooker in LouUon Jour. Bot. vi, 77, t.6. 

A. triparlitum, Nuttnll in Ton-ey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 'J47.— Dietrich, Syn.ii, 12(^1.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— 
Wal)vers. Rep. i, 409.— Nuttall. Sylva, ii. 85, t. 71 ; 2 ed. ii, :«, t. 71.— Gray in Mom. Am. Acad, new eer. iv', 28; Pacific 
R. R. Rt-p. iv. 7:{.— Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 69. 

DWAKF MAPiE. 

British Columbia, valley of tbe Fra.ser river and probably faither north, south through Washington territory, 
Oregon, and along the Sierra Nevada of Califoiiiia to the Yoseniite valley; e^ist along the niountaiu ranges of Idaho 
and Montana to the eastern base of the Kocky mountains, south through Colorado and Utah, in the east Humboldt 
Kange, Nevada, and in the mountain ranges of western New Me.xico and eastern Arizona. 

A small tree, 8 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often reduced 
to a low shrub 1 to 2 meters in height; borders of streams, reaching its greatest development in the mountain 
canons of western New Me.xico and eastern Arizona. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, comi)act; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, or often nearly 
white, the sap-wood lighter: specific gravity, 0.G02S; ash, 0.30. 

63. — Acer grandidentatum, Nuttall; 

Torrey & Gray. Fl. X. America, i, 247.— Dietrich, Syn.ii, 125o.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 112.— Walpcrs, Rep. i, 409.— Nuttall, Sylva, li, 
&2, t.C9: 2ed. ii, 29, t. 69.— Watson in King's Rep. v, .52; PI. Wheeler, 7.— Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 480.— Vaspy, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 10.— Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 201, 2<'i«.— Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 83.— Rnsliy in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 106.— 
Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 338. — Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 172. 

Western Montana, headwaters of the Columbia river (li'uttaU), canons ol' the ^^'ah.satch mountains, Utah, and 
south through eastern Arizona to southwestern New Mexico (Mogollon mountains, E. L. Greene), and reported in 
the ranges east of the Eio Grande; southward into Coahuila {Palmer). 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 10 meters in height, with a tjuiik 0.20 to 0.2D meter in diameter; along streams ; 
not common. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin, distinct; color, light brown, or 
often nearly white; .specific gravity, O.G902; ash, 0.G4. 

64. — Acer saccharinum, Wangenheim, 

Aiuer. 36, 1. 11, f. 26.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 379.— Walter, Fl. Caroliuiaua, 251.— Aiton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 434 ; 2 ed. v, 447.— Ehrharl, Heitr. 
iv. 24. — Persoon, Syn. i, 417. — Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 29, t. 8. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 985 ; Euum. ii, 1044. — Uesfontaines, Ilist. Arb. 
i. :!92.— Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 3.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. .\ni. ii, 218, 1. 15 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 153, t. 42.— Titford, Hort. 
Bot. Am. 105.— Purah, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.— Eaton, Manual, 44; 6 ed. 2.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 214. —Elliott, 
Sk. i, 4.50. -Richardson, Franklin Jour. 26; Arctic Expcd. 422.— Do Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 396; Compend. Fl. N. 
States, 170; Fl. N. York, i, 13.5.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.— Penn. Cycl. i, 79.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 113.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 
050.— Beck, Bot. 63.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 406.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 170; Ann. Sci. Nat.2 ser. ii, 99.— Loudon, Arboretum, i, 
411, t. 31, f. 122.- Torrey &c Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 248.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282.— Walpers, Kep. i, 410.— 
Nees, PI. Med. 5. — Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 88 ; 2 ed. ii, 35. — Browne, Trees of America, &!. — Euier.son, Trees Massachusetts, 480 ; 2 od. 
ii, 258 & t. — Gray, Genera, ii, 200, 1. 174 ; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 45.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 
265. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 010.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 80.— Lcstinerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 354. — Wood, CI. Book, 
2e0 ; Bot. & FI.74.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 80.— Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. .Soc. new ser. xii, 187.— Young, Bot. Texas, 
20t;.— Va.sey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 606.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mns. No. 22, 73.— Sears in Bull. 
Essex Inst, xiii, 175. — Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'eO, 51'^.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 62. 

A. sacclutrum, Marshall, Arbnstnm, 4. 

A. barbatum, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. ii, 253.— Willdenow, Spec iv, 989.— Poiret,Suppl.ii, 57.5.— Pursh.Fl. Am. Sept. 1, 206.— 
Nuttall, Genera, i, 255.— Elliott, Sk. i,451.— De Candolle, Prodr. i,5C5.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 396; Compend. Fl. N. Slates, 
109.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2.— Sprengel, .Syst. ii, 224.— Don, Miller's Did. i, 649.— Beck, Bot. 6:5.— Spach, Hist. Veg. 
iii, 178; Ann. S< i. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 11«.— Torrey & Gray, Fl.N. America, i, 249, 084.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Curtis 
in Rep. Geological .Surv. N. Carolina, 18(i0, iii. 51. 

8UGAE MAPLE. SfOAU TREE. lIAltl) MAPLE. UOCK MAPLE. 

Southern Newfoundl.ind, valleys of the Saint Lawrence and Saguenay rivers, shores of lake Saint John, 
•west along the northern shores of the great lakes to Lake of the Wooiks ; south tiirough the northern states and 
along the Alleghany mountains to northern Alabama and the Chattahoochee region of west Florida (var. 
Floridanum, Chapman, I. c); west to Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas (rare), ami eastern Texas. 

A tree of great economic value, 2-1 to 30 meters in height, with a liunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter, or 
toward its sonthwestem limits greatly reduced in size; rich woods, often forming extensive forests, and reaching 
its greatest development in region of the great lakes. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 49 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tongh, close-grained, compact, .susceptible of a goo<l polish; medullar)- rays 
numerous, thin; color, light brown tinged with red, the saji-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.0012; ash, 0..54; 
largely used in t^ie maniit'acturo of furniture, shoe lasts and pegs, saddletrees, in turnery, for interior finish, and 
flooring; in shipbuilding for keels, keelsons, shoes, etc., and furnishing valuable fuel; "curled" majde and 
"bird's-eye" maple, accidental forms in which the grain is beautifully curled and contorted, are common and 
highly prized in cabinet-making. 

Maple sugar is princii)ally made from this species; the ashes of the wood, rich in alkali, yield large quantities 
of potash. 

Var. nigrum, Torrey & Gray, 

Fl. N. America, i, 248. — Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 136. — Loadon, Arboretum, i, 411. — Browne, Trees of America, 84. — Gray, Manual N. 
States, 5 ed. 119.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54"^. 

A. saccharinum, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2,52 [not ■\Vangeuheim]. 

A. nigrum, Miehaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 238, t. 16; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 163, t. 43.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,266.— 
Poiret, Suppl. v, 669.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.— Elliott, Sk. i, 450.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 595.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 397 ; 
Compend. Fl. N. States, 170.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 650.— Beck, Bot. 63.— Eaton, Manual, 6 
ed. 2.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 104; Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 170.— Dietrich. .Syn. ii, 12f*J.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— 
Koch, Dondrologlo, i, 53-2.— Gray in Am. N.i(. vi, 767; vii, 422.— Woiul, (1. Rook, 286; Bot. & Fl. 74. 

BLACK SUGAK MAPLK. 

Western Vermont, shores of lake Champlain, westward to southern Missouri, south through Tennessee to 
northern Alabama, the valley of the Chickasaw river, Mississippi {Molir), and southwestern Arkansas (Fulton, 
Letterman). 

A large tree along streams and river bottoms, in lower ground than the species with which it is connected by 
numerous intermediate forms. 

Wood heavier than that of the species; specific gravity, 0.6915; ash, 0.71. 

65. — Acer dasycarpum, Ebrhart. 

Beitr. iv, 2'1.— Mceuch, Moth. 56.— Persoon, Syn. i, 417. — WilUlcnow, Spec, iv, 985; Enum. ii, 1044. — Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 446. — 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 266.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 252; Sylva, ii, 87; 2 ed. n, 35.— Hayne. Deud. Fl. 213.— Elliott, Sk. i, 449.— 
Ton-ey, Fl. U. S. 39G; Compend. Fl. N. States, 169; Fl. N. York, i, 136, t. 18; Nicollet's Kep. 147.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 225.— 
Tauscb, Rogonsb. Fl. xii-, .553. — Eatou, Manual, 6 ed. 2. — Loudon, Arboretum, i, 423, (ig. 129 & t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 113; 
Jour. Bot. i, 200.— Bigolow, Fl. Boston. 3 od. 407.— Torrey & Gr.ay, Fl. N. America, i, 248.— Eatou & Wright, Bot. 112.— Emerson, 
Trees Massachusetts, 487; 2 ed. ii, 5,56 & t.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.— Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 ed. 46.— Richardson. 
Arctic Expod. 423.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 81.— Cnrtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 51. — Lesqueroux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, '.$54. — Wood, CI. Book, 2f<6; Bot. Jt Fl. 
74.— Engelmauu in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new scr. xii, 187.— Buchenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 285, t. 11.— Gray, Manual N. States, 
5 ed. 119.— 'Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Coulter's Bot. Gazette, v, 68.— Koch, Deudrologie, i, 541.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst. 
xiii,3.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-80,53":.— Nicholson in Loudon Card. Chronicle, 1881, 136,f.24.— Ridgway in Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 62. 

A. saccharinum, Linnieus, Spec. 1 ed. 1055. 

A. riibnun, var. pallidum, Alton, Ilort. Kew. iii, 434. 

A. eriocarpum, Miehaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,2,-.3.— Desfoutaines in Ann. Mus. vii, 412, t. 25, f. 1 ; Hist. Arb. i. 392.— Poiret, SnppL 
ii, 573.— Trattinick, Archiv. i, t. 8.— Miehaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 205, t. 13 ; N. American Sylva, 3 .ni. i, 146, t. 40.— 
Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 30.— Do Candolle, Proilr. i, 595.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, 650.— Peuu. Cyd. i, 79.— Beck, Bot. 6;».— 
Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 116; Ann. Soi. Nat, 2 ser. ii, 177.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 245.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 
1282. — Browne, Trees of America, 95. — Mcehau in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1868, 140. 

SOFT MAPLE. WHITE MAPLE. SILVEK MAPLE. 

Valley of the Saint John's river, New Brunswick, to Ontario, south of latitude 45°, south to western Florida; 
west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the valley of the Blue river, Kansas, autl the Indian territory. 

A large tree, IS to SO or, exceptionally, .'>(> nutters in height, with a trunk l.'JO to l.SO meter in diameter; along 
•treams and intervales, in rich soil ; most coinniOH west of the Alleghany mountains, and reaehiuj; its gn\»test 
develoi)uu'ut in the basin of the lower Ohio river. 

Wood light, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, easily worked; nu'dullary rays numerous, thin : 

specific gravity, O.-^^Ol); ash, 0..'J3; somewliat u.sed in the manufacture of cheap furniture, for flooring, ettv ; maple 

sugar is occasionallv madt> from this spt-cies. 
t Foi; 



50 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

66. — Acer rubrum, Linna-us, 

Speo. 1 ed. ItKxi.— Dii Boi, Diss. 5t».— Marshall, AHuiBtiiiii, 3.— Lamarck, llict. ii,300; 111. iii, 4:i«*, t. Ir'-H, f. 3.— Khihait, Beitr. iv,'23.— 
Abbot, Ios«'ct8 Gforgia. ii, 93.— Aiton, Hort. Ift-w. iii, 434 (oxcl. var.) ; -2 cd. v, 44(;.— Mu-ucli, Meth. Sti.— Michuux, I'l. Bor.-Am. 
ii,'253.— Poreoon, Syu. i, 417.— Robin, Voyages, iii, 471.— Noiivoau Duliamel, iv,31.— WilUlonow, Spec. iv,984; Kmiiii. ii, 1014.— 
Dcsfoutaines in Ann. Miis.vii,413, t. 'i'.. f.2; Hist.Arb. i, 391.— Poiri-t, Snpiil. ii, 574.— Tratfinick, Arcbiv. i, t. It.— Slirh.ti.x f. 
Hist. Arb. Am. ii.210,t. 14 ; N. Amorican Sylva,3 otl. i 149, t.41.— riir>h,l'l. Am. !?e]>l. i, 2().'>.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 377.— Niii tall. 
Gt-nt-ra. i,a.VJ.— Eaton, Manual, 44 ; God. 2.— Haync, Uend. Fl. '213.- Elliott, Sk. i, 449.- Toney, Fl.U. S. 39,') ; Compond. Fl. N. St;ite«, 
l»jt>: Fl. N. York, i, 137.— Watson, Dend. JJrit. ii, 1. 1(39.— Spivngol, Sy^I. ii, '22.").- .Vudnboii, Birds, t. 54, (i7.— Tansoli, IJogcnsh. Fl. xii«, 
55->._Pcuu.Cycl. i.79.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 114 ; Jour. Hot. i, 199.— Don, MMl.-r's Diet, i, CoO.— Beck, Bot. 03.- Spacli.HisI . Vcg. iii. 
113: Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 sor.ii, 176.— London, .\rborotum,i, 424, f. 130 & t.—Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 249, C»l.— Dii'trieh, Syn. 
ii, 12f2.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 112.— Bigilow, Fl. Boston. 3(d. 40,'>.— Walpevs, Rep. i,4i;9.— R.id in London Card. Clironielc, 1>!44, 
27»j.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 4C:3 ; 2 cd. ii, 561 & t.— Parry in Owcu's Ivcp. 010.— Kichardsou, Arctic Exped. 422.— Nuttall, 
Sylva,U,e7; 2 cd. ii, 34.— Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 cd.4G.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 265.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. lA'JS, 251. — 
Chapman, Fl.S. States, 81.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1*)0, iii, 50. — Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 
354.— Wood, CI. Book, 286; Bot. & F1.74.— Eugelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187.— Porcher, Resotirces S. Forests, 
79.— Buchenau in Bot. Zeit. xix, 265, t. 11.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 119.— Koch, Dcndrologie, i, ,')42.— Young, Bot. Texaa, 
•^00.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Macoun in Geological Rop. Canada, 1875-'7ti, 192.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 176.— Bell in 
Geological R< p. Canada, 1879-'60, 54"=.- Nicholson iu London Card. Chrouicle, 1881, 172, f. 30, 31.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mu8. Twfi. 62. 

/ A. glauviim, Marshall, Arbnstum, 2. 

f A. Caroliniana, W'altcr, Fl. Caroliniana,2ol. 

A. coccincum, Michaux f. Hist. Arb.Am. ii,203; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 142. 

*-l. saiuiulneum, Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 115 ; Ann. Sei. Nat. 2 ser. ii, 176.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1282. 

BED 3IAPLE. SW^ASIP 5IAPLE. SOFT MAPLE. WATER MAPLE. 

Xiw liniii.swick, Quebec and Ontario, south of latitude 49°, north and west to the Lake of the Woods, south 
to Indian and t'alooaa rivers, Florida, west to eastern Dakota, eastern Nebraska, the Indian territory, and the 
valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A large tree, 20 to 30 or, exceptionally, 32 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 meter iu diameter ; 
borders »)f ^treams and low, wet swamps, reaching its greatest development iu the valleys of the lower Wal")a,sh 
and Yazoo rivers. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, closegjained, compact, easily worked; medullary rays numerous, obscure; 
i.olor, brown, often tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specilic gravity, 0.G178; a,sh,0.37 ; largely used iu cabinet- 
making, turnery, and for woodenware, gun stocks, etc.; an accidental variety with undulating grain is highly 
valued. 

Ink is occa.sionally made, domestically, by boiling the bark of this species in soft water and coinhining the 
tannin with sulphate of iron; formerly .somewhat used in dyeing. 

Var. Drummondii. 

A. Drummondii, Hooker &, Arnott in Hooker, .lour. Bot. i, 199.— Nnttall, Sylva, ii,83, t.70; 2 ed. ii,30, 1.70. 

Southern Arkansa-s, eastern Texas, western Louisiana, and sparingly tlirough tlui Gulf states to southern 
Georgia. 

Well characteiized by its obovate or truncate leaves, the base entire or slightly crenulate-toothed, densely 
covered, as well as the petioles and young shoots, with a thick white tomentum ; fruit convergent, the wings bright 
red, even when fully ripe. 

A large tree, in deep, wet swanijis, connected with the species by numerous Interiuediatc forms of Georgia, 
Florida, and Alabama. 

Wood ligliter than that of the species; specific gravity, O.-'JioU; ash, 0.34. 

67. — Negundo accroides, Mtmch, 

Metb. 334.— Torrcy Sc Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 250.— Eatou & Wright, Bot. 327.— Torrey in Nicollet's Reji. 147 ; Fremouts Rep. 88; 
PaciBc K. R. Rep. iv, 73.— Nnttall, .Sylva, ii, 92; 2 ed. ii, 38.— Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 166; Mem. Am. Acad. 
new wr. iv, 29; v, .309; Genera, ii, 202, t. 175; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 41 ; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 120.— Richardson, Arctic 
Exped. 42:1.- Parry in Owen's Rep. 610.— Darlington, Fl. Ciwtriea, 3 ed. 46.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251; Am. Nat. 
iii, 306.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 81.— Curtis iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, IdOU, iii, 53.— Wood, CI. Book, 287; Bot. <t 
Fl. 74.— EngelmaDn iu Trans. Am. Phil. .Soc. new ser. xii, 188.- Port«r iu Hajdeu's Rep. 1870, 474.— Watson iu King's Rep. 
V, 52; PI. Wheeler, 7.— Port<-r & Conller, Fl. Colorado ; Haydeu's Snrv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 19.— Macoun & Gibson in Trims. Bot 
Soc. Edinburgh, xii, 319.— Y'oung, Bot. Texas. 207.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Miiconn in Geological Rep. Canada, 
1875-'76, 192.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 108.— Rothroek in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 84.— Heuislcy, Bot. Am. -Cent, i, 214.— 
Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 176.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, l879-'e0, 4^":.- Nicholson iu London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 
615.— Ridgway in Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mnfl. 1882, 63.— Watson iu Proc. Am. Acad, ivii, 338. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES 51 

Acer NegU7ldo, Liuuujue, Spec. 1 eU. 1050. — Waugenheim, Ainer. 30, t. Vi, f. ii9.— Marsball, Arbuhtuui, ;.•.— Lauiarok, Diet ii, 
380.— Walter, Fl. Caroliiiiana, 2o0.— Aiton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 4:i(); -icd. v, 448.— Michaiix, Y\. Bor. Am. ii. 253.— Penoon, 
Syn. i, 418. — DcKfontaiiifH, Hist. Arli. i,3yi. — Willdciiow, Spec, iv, 992; Ennm. ii, 104fi. — Nouvpaii DiibauicI, iv. 27, t. 
7.— Tiattinick, Archiv. i, t. 40.— Michaiix 1". Hist. Arli. Am. ii,^47, 1. 18; X. Ainericaii Sylva, 3 c-d. i, IT'i, t. 46.— Painh, 
Fl. Am. Sept. i, 268.— Hayno, Deud. Fl. 210.— Elliott, Sk. i, 4.">2.— James in Long's Expe<l. ii, 09.— iorrcy, Fl. U. 8. 
298; Compend. Fl. N. States, 170; Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 173; Emorj-'s Eep. 407.— Sprengc-l, Syst. ii, 2-J5.— Guiinp<-I, 
Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 119, t. 95.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2. — Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1283. — London, Arboretuiu, i, 
460, t. 46, 47.— Darby, 15ot. S. States, 265.— Buchenan in Bot. Zeit. xiv, 285, t. 11 &. fiss.- Koch, DendmloBie, i, 
544.— Baillon, Hist. PI. v, 374, f. 426. 

Xegwndiumfraxiinfolium, Kafincsquf, Med. Rep. v, 354.— Desvar.N, Jour. Bot. >, 170. 

Negundo fraxinifolium, Nuttall, Genera, i, 253.— De Candolle, Prodr. i, 596.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 114; Jf>nr. Bot. i, 
200.— Don, Miller's Diet, i, C51.— Beck, Bot. 64.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iii, 119.— Rafinesqne, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48.— Browne, 
Trees of America, 106. — Scheele in Ecomer, Texas, 433. — Scbnizlein, Icon. t. 227, f. 2, 18. 

f N. Mexicanum, De Candolle, Prodr. i, 596.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Ccnt. i, 214. 

N. trifoliatum, Eafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 48. 

N. lohatum, Katinesqne, New Fl. &. Bot. i, 48. 

N. Californicmn, Scheele in Ra-mcr, Texas, 433 [not Torrey & Gray]. 

BOX ELDER. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE. 

Shores of the Winooski river and lake Cbani plain, Yciiiiont, near Ithaca, New York, eastern Pennsylvania, 
and south to Hernando coiintj-, Florida (not detected in northeastern Florida) ; northwest through the lake region of 
the United States and Manitoba to the Dog's Head, lake Winnii)eg, and along the southern branch of the Saskatchewan 
to the eastern base of the llocky mountains; west in the United States to the eastern sloj>es of the Rocky 
mountains of Montana, through Colorado to the Wahsatch mountains, Utah; southwest through the basin of the 
Mississipjji river, western Texas, and New Mexico to the ^MogoUon mountains, eastern Arizona ; southward into 
Mexico. 

A tree 15 to 22 meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to (».!I0 or, excej)tionally, l.'JO meter in diameter; moist 
soil, borders of streams, etc.; in the Rocky Mountain region in high valleys, between 5,000 and 0,000 feet elevation; 
one of the most widely distributed trees of the American forest, reaching its greatest development in the valleys 
of the Wabash and Cumberland rivers. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, creamy-white, 
the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4.'$2S ; ash, 1.07; occasionally used in the interior finish of 
houses, for woodenware, cooperage, and paper-pulp. 

Small (luantities of ma]de sugar are .sometimes obtained from this species. 

68. — Negundo Californicum, Torroy & Gray, 

Fl. N. America, i, 250, 684.— Hooker i Arnott, Bot. Beechoy, 327, t. 77.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. ;B7.— Walpers, Hep. i. 410.— Bentbam, 
PI. Ilartweg. 301. — Nuttall, 8ylva, ii,90, t. 72; 2ed. ii, 37, t. 72. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1S58, 258, in part. — Koob, Dendrolopie, 
i, 545.— Brewer & Watson, Hot. Calil'oniia, i, 108. — Vaeey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Nicholson in London Gai-d. Chronicle. 1 S^- 1. r- 15. 

Acer Galifornicum, Dietrich, .«lyn. ii, 1283. 

If. aceroides, Torrey in Pacilic R. R. Kep.iv,74; Bot. Mcx. Boundary Survey, 47; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 25t» [not Moencii].— 
Bolandor in Proe. California Acad, iii, 78. 

BOX ELDER. 

(California, valley of the lower Sacramento river (Sacramento, and in Marin and Contra Costa counties*), 
southward in the interior valleys of the Coast ranges to about latitude 35°, canons of the western slopes of the San 
Bernardino mountains [rarish lirotherx). 

A snuill tree, to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.tiO meter in diameter; borders ot stn'ams. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, nearly white, or 
slightly tinged with yellow; specific gravity. 0,4821; ash. 0.54 ; occasiomdly used in the maiuifacture of cheap 
furniture. 



52 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



A N A C A R D I A C E iS 



69. — Rhus cotinoides, Nuttall, 

Mm. in Herb. Philadelphia Acad. ; Travels, 177.— Cooper in Smithsonian Kei>. 1858, 250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 70.— Wood, CI. 
Book, 285; Bot. i Kl. TJ.— Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acid. 1881, 125.— Mohr in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1881, 217. 

R. cotinusf Toire.v 4 Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 21C.— Wood. CI. Book, 285. 

Cotinus Americanus, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, l, t. 81; 2 cd. ii, 71, t. 81. 

Cotinm COggygria, Engler in De Candolle, Snites, iv, .T51, in part. 

Indian territorj, "on tbe ligbt, broken, calcareous, rocky banks of tbe Grand river, a large tributai-y of the 
Arkansas, at a place then known as tbe Eagle's Nest," (Xuttall, I. c); Alabama, north of tbe Tennessee river on 
southern slopes of tbe Cumberland mountains (on a bill near Bailie's farm, twelve miles from Huntsville, on tbe 
Madison road, Buckley, Mohr), and doubtfully reported north of the Alabama line, in Tennessee. 

CHITTAM WOOD. 

In Alabama, a small wide-branching tree, 9 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter; 
on limestone benches from 700 to 900 feet elevation, in den.se forests of oak, ash, maple, etc.; local and very rare; 
not re<li.scovered in Arkansas or the Indian territory ; in Alabama nearly exterminated. 

Wood light, .soft, rather coarse-grained, checking badly in drying, very durable in contact with tbe soil ; layers 
of annual growth marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays, tnunerous, very obscure ; color, 
bright, clear, rich orange, tbe thin sap-wood nearly white ; sijcciiic gravity, 0.(>425; ash, O.-W; largely used locally 
for fencing, and yielding a clear orange dye. 

70- — Rhus typhina, Mmiii-tis, 

Ajncen. iv, 311. — MedicoM, Bot. Beohacht. 1782, 228. — Wangcphoini, Anier. H"). — Marnhall, Aibiistiiui, 129. — Walter, Fl. Caroliuiaua, 
255.— Alton. Horl. Kew. i, 3C5; 2 ed. ii, 1G2.— Ehrhart, Beitr. vi, 811.— Ma>nch, Meth. 72.— Willdeiiow, .Spec i, 1478; Ennni. i, 323.— 
B.S.Barton, Coll. i, 51.— .Schkuhr, Handb. 2.37.— Michaiix, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 182.— Nonveaii Uuhaiiiel, ii, KM, t. 47.— Persoon, Syn. i, 
324. — DeKfontaincii, Hist. Arb. ii, 325. — Poiret in Laniarik, Diet, vii, 503. — Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadulph. 39; Compend. Fl. 
Philadeljih. i,l.'>:<.— Pnrsli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 204.— Eaton, Manual, 35 ; Oed. 302.— Nut tall. Genera, i,203.— Koemer &. SchiiltcB, Syst. vi, 
C43.— Hay ue, Dend. Fl. :«.— Elliott, Sk. i, 360.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 322 ; Compend. Fl. N. States, 140 ; Fl. N. York, i, 128.— De Candolle, 
Prodr. ii, fi7.— .Sprengel, Syst. i, 'J:!C.— Walsou, Dend. lirit. i, t. 17, 18.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 12(i.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 70.— 
Beck, Bot. 76.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii. 212.— Bennett, PI. Jav. Rar. 80.— London, Arboretum, ii, ',^(>, f. 224.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. 
N. America, i, 217, 680.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 392.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 126.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1002.— Emerson, Trce.s 
MawiachuflettM, 501; 2 cd. ii, 571 & t. — Browne, Trees of America, 184. — Gridith, Med. Hot. 186. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 610. — 
Darlington, Fl. Ce«trica, 3ed. 43. — Richardson, Arctic Ex])cd. 424. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 254. — Coojier in Suiitlisoniau Rep. 18.'i8, 
•^•0. — Chapman, Fl. .S. States, 69. — (;urtis in Rep. Gi-ological Snrv. N. Caroliiui, l'^60, iii, 93. — Le.sqnerenx in Owin's 2d Rep. 
Arkan«i8, 35:i.— Wood, CI. Book, 384; Bot. & Fl. 73.— Porcher, Resonrccs S. Forests, 208.— Gray, Manual N. States,5ed. 111.— 
Koch, Dendrologie, i, 576. — Yonng, Bot. Texas, 197. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 10. — GuibonrI, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, 488. — Nat. 
Disp<-nsatory, 2e<l. 12:».— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63.— Engler in De Candollo, Snites, iv, 377. 

Datima liirta, lAuwitin, sped «1. 1037.— Don, .Millers Diet, i, 2<W. 

R. ht/pnelodendron, Moench, Meth. 73. 

R. Canadenne, Miller, Dicf.No. .5.-Nouveau Duhaniol, ii, 16;!. 

R. riridijlora, Noovean Duhamol, ii, 16:t.— Poirfct in Lamarck, Diet, vii, f«4.— Do Candollo, Prodr. ii, 67.— Nuttall, Genera, 
i, 2(0.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 70. — Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1002. — Loudon, Arborettun, ii, 551. — Browne, Trees of America, 
184. 

R. typhina, var. viridiflora, Engler In De Candolle, Suites, iv, 378. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 53 

STAGHOEN StTMACH. 

New Brunswick, wost tlirougli the valley of tbe Saiut Lawrence river to southern Ontario and Minnesota, 
Boutli through the northern states and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia, cential Alabama and 
MiNsis!si|)])i. 

A small tree, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0..30 meter in diameter, or often a shrub; dry 
hillsides or often along stream.s in sandy, moist soil. A variety with laeiniate leaves occurs near Bauover, New 
Hampshire, vai-. laciniata, Wood, CI. Booh; 2Si.—Bot. <t- Fl. 73). 

^\■()()(l lighr, brittle, soft, coarsegrained, comiiact, satiny, susceptible of a jrood polish ; layers of annual growth 
clearly marked by four to six rows of large oiien ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, yellow streaked 
with green, the sai)-woo(l nearly white: sjieeitic gravity, 0.4.'5.j7; asii, 0.50; occasionally used for inlaying cabinet 
work; the young shoots for "sap (juills" in drawing the sap of the sugar maple. 

Bark and leaves astringent, rich in tanuin, and somewhat useil locally as a dye and in dressing skins {Special 
Rep. i^'o. 20, U. S. Ay. l)ep. 22, t. .'{); an infusion of the berries used domestically as a gargle in ca.ses of catarrhal 
sore throat. 

71. — Rhus copallina, i.iuuuMis, 

Spec. 1 ed 266. — \fedieiis, Bot. B(>ol)acht. 17.-'2, '22-1. — Xlarsball, Arbii>tum, 128. — Wangenheim, Amer.'.Mj. — Walter, Kl. C'arolJniaiia,25.'i. — 
G;eitiier, Fruct. i, 20:>, t. 44.— Aitou, Hort. Kew. i, 3tJ6; 2 o<l. ii, 16:5.— I'lciuk, loon. t. 233.— Lamarcls. 111. ii, 346, t. 207, f. 3.— 
Jacquiu, Hort. Scbonb. iii, Uti, t. 341.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1480 ; Ennm. i, 324. — Micbaux, I'l. Bor.-Am. i, l52. — .Sebkubr, Uanilb. 
237. — Nouveau Diibamcl, ii, 100. — Persoon, Syn. i, 324. — Desfoutaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 325. — Poiret in Lamarck. Diet, vii, iX)6. — 
Barton, Pn.dr. II. Pbilailolph. 39.— Pur.sb, FI. Am. Sept. i, 205.— Eaton. Manual, 34 ; 6 vA. 302.— Xattall, Gpnora, i. 203.— Etrmer & 
Scbultes. i^jst. vi, 647.— Hayne, Di'nd. Fl. 34.— Elliott, Sk. i, 362.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 323 ; Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 140 ; Fl. N. York, 
129.— DeCainlollc,Prodr. ii, 68.-8prongel, Syst. i, 936.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 72.— Beck, Bot. 7.').- Hcmker in Jour. B.it. i, 202.— 
Spacb, Hist. Vcg. ii, 214.- Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 217.— Eaton & Wriglit, Bot. 392.- Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 126.— 
Dietricb. Syn. ii, 1003. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 554. — Enier.son, Trees Miissai^bnsetts, 503 ; 2 ed. ii, 574. — Gritlith, Med. Bot. 186. — 
Gray in Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. vi, 28 ; Manual N. States, 5 ed. Ill; Hall's PI. Texas, .5. — Scheele in Rceuier, Texas, 431. — 
Darlington, FI. Cestrica, 3 ed. 43.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 255.— Cb.apman, Fl. S. States, 69.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. 
Carolina, ISfiO, iii, 92. — Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, :?52. — Wood, CI. Book, 284 ; Bot. & Fl. 7:?. — Engelniaon in 
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 187. — Porcber, Resources S. Forests, 207. — Koch, Dendrologie, .575. — Young, Bot. Texas, 197. — 
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.— Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1236.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mns. No. 22, 73.— Eidgway in Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63. — Engler in De Caudollo, Suites, iv, 384. 

9 R. copallina, vars. laiifolia, latialafa, angusti/oUa, and serrata, Engler in Do CandoUe, Snites, iv. 384. 

DWARF St^MACn. 

Northern New England, south to Manatee and Caximbas bay, Florida, west to Missouri, Arkansas, and the 
valley of the San Antonio river, Texas. 

A small tree, G to 9 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or at the north a low shrub 
1 to 2 UK^ters in height ; dry hills and ridges, reaching its greatest development in southern Arkansas and 
eastern Texas; running into various forms. The best marked is — 

var. leucantha. Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 68.— Gray in Jonr. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vi. 158. 

R. leucantha, Jacquin, Ilort. Seboul). iii, 50, t. 342.— Spach, Hist. Vog. ii, 215. 

R. copallina, var. angKHtialata, Eni;lor in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 384. 

Shrubby, leaflets lanceolate, flowers white. 

Wood liglit, soft, not strong, eoarse-grainetl, comi)act, satiny, susceptible of a good poli,><h ; layers of annual 
growth clearly marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays thin, not inomiuent; color, light 
brown streaked with green, or often tinged with red; the sap-wood lighter; sjiecitic gravity. 0.527.'?; ash. O.Gt). 

Leaves and bark astringent, rich in tiinnin ; the leaves largely collected, principally in Maryland, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and Tennessee, and ground for tanning and dyeing {Sjtccial Kq>. No. 20, I'. S. Aij. Dep. 2t», t, 5)j 
the fruit, acid and astringent, used, as well as that of the shrubby Rhus ijlabra, by herbalists iu the form of 
decoctions, tluid extiacts. etc., as a gargle in the treatment of .sore throat. 

Var. lanceolata. Gray, 

Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 1,58.— Torrey, Bot. Mcx. Boundary Survey, 44.— Watson iu Proc. Am. Acad. xvii. 338. 

R. copallina, var. intcgri/olia, Engler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, :?84. 

Western Texas, Dallas {Revereho)i) to the Rio Grande. 

A small tree, with lanceolate, elongated leaflets, 5 to G meters in height, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.15 meter in 
diameter; calcareous soil; common; specific gravity, 0.5184; ash, 0,S,5. 



54 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

72. — Rhus venenata, Do CandoUo, 

Prodr. u, 68.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 126.— Don. MilUr's Diet, ii, 71.— Beck, Bot. 76.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ji,215.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 284.- 
LondoD. Arboretum, ii. 502, f. 22C. — Torrey. & Gniy, Fl. N. Aiucrieo, i, 21t', OSl. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 392. — Dictrieh, Syu. ii, 
10t«.— Torrcy, Fl. N. York, i, 130.— Brtnvuo, Trees of America, 186.- Griffitb, Med. Bot. 185.— Emerson, Trees Massaclnisetts, 
5(M; 2 e*l. ii. 57.") & t. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 44. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rop. IS.'iS, 
250.— Chapman, Fl. S. States CO.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 18G0, iii, 03.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. 
Arkansas, XtS.— Wood, CI. Book, 281; Bot. & Fl. 73.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 111.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.— 
Bailey iu Am. Xat. vii, 5, f. 3.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22. 73,— F.ngler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, 397. 

R. rerilid; Linnxus. Spec. 1 ed. 205, in part. — Kalm, Travels, English ed. 177. — Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 1782, 223. — Marshall, 
Arbustnm, 130.— Waugenheim, Anier. 92. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 30C ; 2 ed. ii, 163. — Plenck, Icon. t. 234. — Lamarck, III, 
ii, 346, t. 207. f. 2.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1479; Enum, i, 323,- B, S. Barton, Coll. i, 23, 50.— Schknbr, Han.lb. 2:!6.— 
Michaux. Fl, Bor,-Am, i, 183, — Nouveau Dnhamel, ii, Kiy. — Per.soon, Syn, i, 324. — Desibntaincs, Hist. Arb. ii, 32.5. — 
Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vii, ."05,— Nuttall, Genera, i, 203,— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelpb. 39 ; Couipend, Fl, Pbiladeli)h, 
154,— Pursh, FI,Am. Sept. i,20.->.— Eaton, Manual, 34; C ed. 302.— Bigelow, Med. Bot. i, 96, t.lO; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 
126.— Roemer i Schultes, Syst. vi, 646.— Hayuc, Dend. Fl. 34.— Elliott, .Sk. i, 362.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 323; Compond. 
FL X. States, 20:?.- Sprengel, Syst. i, 9.W.— Hooker, .lour, Bot. 1,202.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 255.— Porcher, Resources 
S, Forests, 206. 

POISON SUMACH. POISON ELDEE. 

Northern New Euglaud, 80iitli to tiortlieiii Georgia, Alahaiiia, and western roui.siana, west to northern 
Minnesota, Missouri, and Arkansas. 

A small tree, to 8 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 0.20 ni<'ter in diameter, or more often a 
tall shrub; 4ow, wet swamps or, more rarely, on higher ground. 

"Wood light, soft, coarse-grained, moderately com])act ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by three or four 
rows of large open duets; medullary rays thin, very obscure ; color, light yellow streaked with brown, the sap-wood 
lighter ; specific gravity, 0.4382 ; ash, O.Cl. 

The whole plant, as well as the allied R. Toxicodendron, to most persons exceedingly poisonous to the touch, 
owing to the presence of a volatile principle, Toxkodendrie add ( TJ. S. DiKpcnsatory, l-l ed. 908. — Nat. Dhpennatory^ 2 ed. 
1404); the white milky sap turning black in drying and yielding a valuable lacquer {Bif/elow, Med. Bot. 1. c.) 

73. — Rhus Metopium, Linnajus, 

Amajn. v, 395.— Titford, Hort. Bot, Am, 51,— Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, 49, t. 79.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 67.— Macf'adyen, Fl, 
Jamaica, 225,— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 121, t. 80 ; 2 ed. ii, 68, t. 80.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 381.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.— 
Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 175.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 69.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 73.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11. 

Metopium Linnwi, Eugler in De Candolle, Suites, iv, :J67. 
POISON WOOD. CORAL SUMACH. MOUNTAIN MANCUINEEL. UTIM WOOD. HOG PLUM. DOCTOR GUM. 

Seroi-trojjical Florida, bay IJi.scayne to the, southern ki'ys; in the West Indies. 

A tree 12 to l.'i meters in height, with a trunk sometimes O.GO meter in diameter, reaching in the United 
States its greatest development on the shores of liay Biscayne, near Miami; one of the most common trees of the 
region, the large specimens generally decayed. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, checking batlly in drying, containing many evenly-distributed 
open ducts; medtdlary rays numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood light brown 
or yellow; specific gravity, 0.7tU7; ash, 2.'.i'.i; little esteemed. 

A resinous gum, emetic, purgative, and diuretic, is obtained from incisions made in the bark of this species 
(Pharm. Jour, vii, 270. — Guibourt, Hist. Drogttcs, 7 ed. iii, 489). 

74. — Pistacia Mexicana, HBK. 

Nov. Gen. &. .Si>cc. vii,22, t. 608, — De Candolle, Prodr, ii, 64. —Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. v,27. — ToiToy, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 
44. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858. 2<J5, — Brevfer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 109. — Vasey, Cat. Forest TYees, 11. — Homsley, 
Bot, Am, -Cent. i,221. — Watson iu Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 338, 

Texas, valley of the Rio Grande (near the moutli of the Pecos river, Bigelaw); southward into Mexico (Saltillo, 
Palmer, etc.). 

Wood not collected. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 5n 



LEGUMINOSJ]. 



75. — Eysenhardtia orthocarpa, Watson, 
Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 3.39. 

E. amorpjioides, var. orthocarpa, Gmy in SmitliBonian Contrib. iii,40; v,237. 
Jl aniorphoides, Torroy, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 51, in part. 

Western Texas, valleys of the upper Guadalupe and Eio Grande, west to the Santa Rita and Santa Catalina 
raountain.s, Arizona (Print/le) ; southward into northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 5 to meters in height, with a trunk 0.09 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a low shrub; 
dry, gravelly soil, reaching its greatest development near the summit of the Santa Catalina mountains, at 3,000 
feet altitude. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, very compact; layers of annual growth clearly defined by numerous rows of 
open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light reddish-brown, sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity 
0.8740; ash, 1.28. 

76. — Dalea spinosa, Gray, 

Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. v, ;U5 ; Ives' Rep. 10. — Torrcy, Pacific E. R. Rep. iv, 78; vii, 0, t. 3.— Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, .53.— 
Walpons, Ann. ir, 48,5.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 266. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xi, 132.— Brewer & Wat»on, Bot. 
California, i, 143.— ^Hemsloy, Bot. Am. -Cent. 249. 

Asagrcea Hjmwsct, Baillon in Adansonia, ix, 232 ; Hist. PI. ii, 288. 

Colorado de.sert, southern California (Agua Caliente, Toras, et-c), and eastward to the valley of the lower Gila 
river, Arizona. 

A small tree, sometimes G meters in height, with a short, stout trunk 0.45 to O.oO meter in diameter (Parry, 
Parish Brothers), or often a low shrub; dry, gravelly, rocky soil. 

Woo<l light, soft, rather coarse-grained, containing many evenly-distributed oiien ducts; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color, walnut-brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specitic gravity, 0.553G; ash, 4.04. 

77. — Robinia Pseudacacia, Linn.-ens, 

Spec. 1 ed. 722. — Marshall, Arbustum, 133. — ^Wangenheim, Amer. 16, t. 7. — L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 156. — Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 16C. — 
Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 53 ; 2 ed. iv, 323.— Gairtner, Fruct. ii, :!07, 1. 145.— Willdonow, Spec, iii, 1131 ; Euum. i,769.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.- 
Adi. ii, 65.— Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 60, t. 16.— Poiret. in Lamarclc Diet, vi, 222; 111. iii, 163, t. 606.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 311.— 
Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 302. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 245, t. 1 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 92, t. 76. — Punsh, Fl. Am. Sept. 
ii, 487.— Eaton, Maunal, 82; 6 ed. 300.— Thomas in Am. Month. Mag. & Crit. Rev. ii, <X1.— Nuttall, Ctenera, ii. 118.— Hayne, 
Deud. Fl. 140.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 242.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 261.— Sprengol, Syst. iii, 247.— Torn-y ii> Ann. l.yc. X.York, ii. 
178; Compoud. Fl. N. States, 271; Fl. N. York, i, 165; Emory's Rep. 408.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 140.— Audubon, Birds, t. 
104.— Don, Milloi-'s Diet, ii, 237.— Beck, Bot. 82.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. i, 2,58.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 294.— Loudon. 
Arboretum, ii, 60!), f. 305 & t.— E.aton & Wright, Bot. 397.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 295.— Browne, Trees of America, 197.— 
Emerson, Trees, Massachusetts, 460; 2 ed. ii,522 &, t.— Oriftith, Med. Bot. 238, f. 123. — Dietrich, Syn. iv, 105:5, — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestrica, 3 ed. 65. — Darby Bot. S. States, 280.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251. — Chapman, Fl. S, States. 94.— Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 48. — Lestiuereux in Owen's 2d Rep, Arkansas, 356. — Wood, CI. Book, 319: Bot. & Fl. 
95. — Lemairo, 111. Hort. xii, t. 427. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 188. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 131. — Koch, Don«lr«logie, 
i, 55.— Verlot in Rev. Hort. 1873, 152 & f.— Young, Bot. Texas, 22t?.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11.— Eidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 1R82, 65. 

Pscuflamda odorata, Munch, Metb. 145. 

E.friKjiKK, Salisbury, Prodr. 336. 

LOCCST. BLACK LOCUST. YELLOW LOCUST. 

Alleghany mountains, Pennsylvania (Locust ridge, Monroe county, Porter) to northern Georgia; wiiloly and 
genenilly naturalized throughout the United States east of the Koeky mountains, and possibly indigoiums in 
northeastern (Crowley's ridge) and western Arkansas and the jiriuries of eastern Indian territory, 

A tree 22 to L*5 meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to \.2Q nuHer in diameter; west of the Jlis.sissippi river 
much smaller or often a low shrub 1.80 to .'3 meters in height, reaching its gwatest develoi)ment on the western 
slopes of the monntaius of West Virginia. 



66 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Wood heavy, exceediugly hard and strong, close-grained, compact, very durable in contact with the ground; 
layers of annual growth dearly marked by two or three rows of large open ducts; color, brown or, more rarely, light 
green, the sap-wood yellow; specitic giayity. 0.7;53.{; ash. O.r.l (Trtcul in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 eer. six, 182, t. 2, f. 1 ; 
t. G, 7. f. 10. ) : largely used in ship-buililing. for iwsts of all sorts, construction, and in turnery; preferred to 
other American woods for treenails, antl in this form largely exported. 

The bark of the root tonic, or in large doses i)iirgativc and emetic (U. S. Diyjiciixatorii, 1-1 ed. lH*i.—Nat 
Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1233) ; formerly widely i)lanted as a timber tree [Cohhett, Woodlands, \y.n: 323); its cultivation in 
the United States now generally abandoned on account of the desti active attacks of the locust borer {Cyllene picta, 
Packard in Bull. U. S. EntomiiUujical Com. No. 7, 0.")). 

78. — Robinia viscosa, Vi iittn.it, 

Hon. (.'«-• Is, 4, t. 4.— Hot. Man;, t- iniU.— WilliJi-uow. Sin-c. iii, 1 i;tl ; Enuiu. ii, (lit*.— .Micbaiix, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 65.— Nouvean Dubamcl, il, 64, 
1. 17.— Poirct in Laiiiarok, Diet. vi,"i2-->.-^B. S. B.-irton, Hot. Appx. 29, t.-il.— PcrsDon, Syn. ii,:Ul.— Desfont.iinos, Hist. Arb. ii, 302.— 
Alton, Hort. Kew. Sed. iv, :VJ:$.— Micbaiix 1". Hist. Arb. Am. iii, aCi, t. 2; N. Auiericau Sylva, ii, 104, t 77.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 488.— 
Kuttall, Gcm^ra.ii, 118.— Hiiyue, Deiid. Fl. 140.— Elliott, <5;k.ii.24'2.— Dp Camlollo.Prodr. ii, 202.— Giiiinpi-I,Otto& Haym-, Abb. Hob!. 
81, t. C5.— Sprengcl, .'^yst. iii. 247.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 23G.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. :iOC.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. i, 260.— Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. America, i, 21t5.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 626, t. b7, f. 306.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 397.— Browne, Trees of America, 209.— 
DietricL.Syu. iv, 1053. — Darby, Bot. S. tjtates, 280. — Cooper in Smithsuuiau Uep. 18^8,251.— Chapuiau, Fl. S. States, 94.— Cnrtis in 
Eep. Geological Sur%-. N. Carolina, 18(», iii, 49. —Wood, CI. Book, 319; Bot. &. Fl. 95.— Porcber, Resources S. Forests, 193.— Gray, 
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 131.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 11. 



I{. glntinosa, Curtis, Bot. Mag. t. .''160. — Kocb, Dendrologie, i, 59. 



Cl.AMMV LOCUST. 

" High Alleghany moiiiitaiiis south of latitude 35°" (Micliaux). "Open woods, slopes of Buzzard ridge, altitude 
4,500 feet, near Highland, Macon county, North Carolina" (J. DouncH Smith). 

A small tree, !» to 12 meters in height, with a trunk not exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; very rare, and not 
rediscovered until 1882 by the numerous botanists who have visited, during the last thirty years, the localities where 
the Michauxs, father and sou, discovered tliis species; widely cultivated and now occasionally naturalized in th« 
Atlantic states. 

WofKl (of a cultivated specimen) heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked 
by many rows of open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown, the sap-wood light yellow; specific 
gnivity, 0.8094; ash, 0.20. 

79. — Robinia Neo-Mexicana, Gray, 

Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. v, 314.— Torrey in Pacific IJ. R. Rep. iv, 79 ; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 53.— Walpers, Ann. iv, 491.— 
Coojier in Smithsonian Eep. 1858,265.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 419.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Haydeu's Surv. Misc. Pub. 
No.4,23.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11. 

LOCUST. 

Colorado, valley of the Purgatory river (near Trinidad), headwaters of the Canadian river, tluougli western and 
Bouchwe.stern New Mexico to the Santa Catalinaand Santa Itita mountains [Lemnion, Prini/k), Arizona (■1,.'jOO to 7,000 
feet altitude), southern Utah, Mount Zion cafiou, west fork of the Kio Virgin, and near Kanah. 

A small tree, sometimes to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or toward it« 
u])per limits of growth reduced to a low shrub; reaching its greatest development in the valley of the Purgatory 
river, Colorado. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hanl. (strong, close-gniiiied, (•om))act, satiny, containing many evenly-distributed 
open duct.s; medullary rays, thin, consi>icuous; color, yellow stn-aked with brown, the sap-wood light yellow; 
specific gritvity, 0.8031 ; .xsli, 0.00. 

80.— Olncya Tesota, Gray. 

M«-ni. Am. Acad, new wr. v, 328; Ivo«' Rop. II.— Torrey in Pacitic Ii. R. Rep. iv, 11, 82; vii, 10, t. 5; Bot. Mox. Boundary Survey, 
5(^._WaIp<-ni, Ann. iv, 470, 587.— Cooper in SniithHonian Rep. IH08, 26.'>— Brewer & Wat«on, Bot. California, I, 157.— Vasoy, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 11. — Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent. i.2C<). 

IKON WOOIJ. AI!HI»1. I)K HIKKUO. 

Califoniia, valley of the Colorado river south of tlic Mohave inonntaiiis, valley of the lower Gila river, 
southwestern Arizona ; .southward in Honora. 

A small tree in the United States, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.45 meter in diameter; 
dry arroijox and caiTons; in Sonora more couimoii and of larger size. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. T)? 

Wood very heavy and hard, stroiif;, brittlo, close-graiucd, coDiiiact, the grain generally contorted, diflBcult to 
cut and work, susceptible of a high i)()lish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, rich dark brown streake<i witk 
red, the sap-wood clear bright yellow; specilli; gravity, l.OOOL!; ash, 2.29 (the heart-wood, 1.1480; ash, 2.59; sap- 
wood, 0.8958; ash, 1.85); occasionally manufactured into canes. 

81. — Piscidia Erythrina, Limm-us, 

Spec. 2 ed. 99;?.— Jacquin, Amor. 206.— Swartz, Obs. 277.— L.amarck, Diet, i, 443; 111. iii, 163, t. 605.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 84.— 
Lnnan, Hort. Jam. i, 269. — Humboldt, Bouplaud & Kunth, Nov. Gen. & Spec. vi,382. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 267. — Descourtili, 
Fl. Mod. Antilles, iii, 203, t. 196.— Macfadyea, Fl. Jamaica, i, 258.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 31, t. 52; 2 ed. i, 180.- BentUam in Joor. 
Linnican See. iv, Suppl. 116 ; Bot. Sulphur, 81 . — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 110. — Grisebacb, 
Fl. British West Indies, 200. — Porchev, Resources S. Forests, 175. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 11. — Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent. i,319. 

Erythrina piscipula, Linmens, Spec. 1 ed. 107. 

P. Carthagenensis, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 267. 

JAMAICA DOGWOOD. 

Semi tropical Florida, bay Biscayne, west coast, Pease creek to cape Sable, and on the southern keys ; in the 
West Indies and southern Mexico. 

A tree 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.75 meter in diameter. 

Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, comi)aet, susce])tible of a high polish, containing few large 
scattered open ducts; medullary rays thin, not conspicuous ; color, yellowish-brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific 
gravity, 0.8734; ash, 3.38; one of the favorite woods of the region for boat-building, fire-wood, and charcoal. 

The bark, especially of the root, narcotic, occasionally administered in the form of tinctures, or used, as well 
as the young branches and leaves, to poison or stupefy fish. 

82. — Cladrastis tinctoria, Railuosque, 

Fl. Kent. 1824; Neog. 1825; Med. Bot. ii, 210; New Sylva, iii, 83.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 390.— Walpers, Rep. i, t07.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 192. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 294.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
113.— Porcher Resources S. Forests, 175.— Wood, CI. Book, 301 : Bot. & Fl. 84.— Gray. Manual N. States, 5 ed. 143.— Vasey. Cat. 
Forest Trees, 11. 

Virgilia lutea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 2G(i, t. 3 ; Travels, 2*9 : N. Anieri(;in Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 106, t. 7?.— Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. i, 309.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 284.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 53.— Loi.selcnr, Herb. Amat. t. 297.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 
93.— Sprengel, Syst. iv-, 1, 171.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 112.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 397.— Spach. Hist. Veg. i, 16:^!,— Eaton 
& Wright, Bot. 480.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1501.— Loudon, .\rboretuni,ii, 565, t. 78. 

G. lutea, Koch,Dendrologie,i,6. 

YELLOW WOOD. YELLOW ASH. GOPHER WOOD. 

Central Kentucky, clifls of the Kentucky and Dick's rivers; middle Tennessee, mountains of east Tennessee to 
Cherokee county. North Carolina. 

A tree 9 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.90 or, exceptionally, 1.20 meter in diameter; rich 
hillsides; in Kentucky on the Trenton limestones, and reaching its best development in middle Tennes.see; nu-e 
and very local, the largo trees generally hollow or defective. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish ; layers of annual growth 
clearly marked by several rows of open ducts, and containing many evenly-distributed similar ducts; color, bright, 
clear yellow, changing with exposure to light brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.G27S; ash. 0.28; 
used for fuel, occasionally for gunstocks, and yielding a clear yellow dye. 

83. — Sophora secundiflora, Lagasca: 

Do Candolle, Cat. Hort. Monsp. 148; Prodr. ii, 96. — Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 110. — Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 54. — Rev. Hort. 4 
ser. iii, SOI, t. 11. — Beutham & Hooker, Genera, i, .'>55.— Hem.sley, Bot. Am. -Cent, i, 321.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 347. 

Broiisnonetia secundiflora, Ortega, De< , v, oi, t. 7. 

Virgilia nccundiflora, Cavanillcs, Icon. t. 401. 

Agastianin secundiflora, Ealii-esque, New Sylva, iii, 86. 

Bermatophyllum speciosum, Seheole in Linnaa, xxi, 458. 

S. speciosa, Bentbam in Jour. Boston Soo. Nat. Hist, vi, 178. — Gray in Mom. Am. Acad, now 8«r. iv», 38 ; Smith.sonian Contrib. 
iii, .^)4; Hall's PI. Toxa.s, 7.— Walpois, .\nn. ii, 439.— Torroy, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 58.- Young, Bot. Texas, 
242.— \'a8ev, Cat. Forest Tree.s. 12. 



58 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

FRIGOLITO. 

Matagorda bay, Texas, west to the mountains of ^'ow Mexico {Havcird). 

A small tree, sometimes n meters in beig:lit, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diami-ter, or often, especially 
west of the San Antonio river, a tall shrub, rarely exceodiuK 2 meters in heijjht, forniinj; dense thickets; borders 
of streams, generally in a low, rather nioi.st soil. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, eomjiact, susceptible of a high polish; medullary rays numerous, thin; 
color, orange .streaked with red. the iieavier sap-wood brown or yellow; sjiecific gravity, 0.0842; a,sh, 1.59; 
furnishing valuable fuel. 

The seeils contain an exceedingly poisonous alkaloid, Sophoria (H. C. Wood in. Philadelphia ^[ed. Timcn, August 
4, ISll.—Rothroik in Coulter^n Bot. Gazette, ii, Vi6.—Nat. Dixpensatory, 2 ed. 1333). 

84. — Sophora affinis, Torrey & Gray, 

FI. N. America, i, 390. — Leavenworth in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. ix, 130. — Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. HiHt. vi, 178; Hall's PI. 
Texas, 7. — Scheole in Roemer, Texas, 428. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12. 

Slt/phnolobinm affine, Walpers, Rep. i, 807. 

Arkansas, valley of the Arkansas river [Letterman) to the valley of the Sau Antonio river, Texas. 

A small tree, 5 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter; borders of streams 
and prairies. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, coarse-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several 
rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays thin, conspicuous^ color, light red, the sap-wood bright, clear yellow ; 
specific gravity, 0.8509 ; ash, 0.73. 

Ink is occa.sionally made domestically from the resinous exudations of the pod. 

85. — Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lamarck, 

Dict.i,733; Ill.iii, 412.t.823.— Michanx, FI. Bor.-Am. ii, 241, t. 51.— Willdeiiow, Spec, iv, 400; Enum. ii, 1019; Berl. Baumz. 169.— 
Pereoon, Pvn. ii,626.— Desfontaines, Hi.'»t. Arb. ii, 250. —Alton, Hort. Kew. 2ed.T, 400.— Miclianx f. Hist. Arb. Ara. ii,272, t.23; N. 
American .Sylva,3 ed. i, 182, t..'.0.— Ptirsh, FI. Am. Sept. i, 304.— Nuttall, Geuera,ii,243.— Hayne, Dcnd. FI. 203.— James in Long's 
Exped. i, 1:1-'.- Rfichenlmch, Ma<:. Bot. t. 40.— De CaiidoUe, Prodr. ii, 480.— SprenRol, Syst. ii, 327.— Torrey in Ann. Lye. N.York, 
ii, 193; Conipcnd. FI. N. States, 37G ; FI. N. York, i, 190; Emory's Rep. 407.— Hooker, FI. Bor.-Am. 1, 16C.— Don, Miller's Dict.429.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. Ili2.— Beck, Bot. 93.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. i, ^^.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 2.")G & t.— Torrey & Gray, FI. N. 
America, i, 398. — Eaton & AVri;;ht, Bot. 2.58. — Richard.son, Arctic Exped. 424. — Walpers, Rep. i, 809. — Browne, Trees of America, 
218. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 18o8, 251.— Lesfiuereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 358.— Wood, CI. Book, 300 ; Bot. & FI. 83.— 
Engelmaiin in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 145. — Briot in Rov. Hort. 1870,436. — Vasey, 
Cat. Foretit Trees, 12.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, lb79-'80, 54'.— Ridgway in Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 63.— Chapman, FI. 
8. States, SuppLei". 

Guilandina dioica, Linnajus, Spec. 1 ed. 381.— Marshall, Arbustnm, 56.— Alton, Hort. Kew.ii, 56. —James in Long's Exped. 
i, 138. 

Eyperanthera dioica, Vahl,8ymbol!B, i,31. 

O. dioica, Koch, Dendrologie, i, .''..- Baillon, HUt. PI. ii, 87, f. 52, 53. 

KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE. COFFEE NTTT. 

Conococheague creek, Franklin county, Pennsylvania (Porter); western New York, shores of Cayuga and 
Bencea lakes, west through southern Ontario and southern Michigan to the valley of the Minnesota river, 
Minnesota, east«'rn Nebniska, eastern Kan.sas, .southwestern Arkansas, and the Indian territory, to about 
longitude 9(»3 west, south to miildle Tennessee. 

A tree 25 to .33 meters in heiglit, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.!i0 meter in diameter; ricli woods and bottoms; not 
common. 

WfKjd heavy, not hard, strong, coarse grained, durable in contact with the ground, liable to ehecik in drying, 
easily worked, sn.sceptible of a high ]»olish ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one or two rows of 
open duet.s; mediillarj- rays numerous, thin; color, rieli light brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood lighter; 
■pecific gravity. O.C9.54; a*ih, 0.07; occasionally used in cabinet making, for j)OHtH, rails, &e. 

The fresh le^ives, macerated and sweetened, are used in Tennessee as a poi.son for lioiisc-flies ; tlio seeds 
formerly as a domestic substitute for eoflee. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 59 

86. — Gleditschia triacanthos, Mnniuus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1056 (excl. var.).— Modicns, Bot. Bcobacht. 1782, a30.— Laniiirck, Diet, ii, 465 ; 111. iii, 446, t. 857, f. 1.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 
444 (oxcl. vars.); 2 ed. v, 474.— Mconcli, Meth. 6'J.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 285.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2.07.— Schkuhr, 
Ilandb. iii, .V^, t. S.'iU.— Uobiii, Voyages, iii, 497.— Porsoon, Syu. ii, 12:5.— DcslontainoR, Hint. Arl>. ii, 246.— WUldenow, Spec, i v. V>37; 
Euum. 10,')8 ; Bcil. Baumz. 103. — Nouvoau Duhauiel, iv, 100, t. 25. — MicLaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 104, 1. 10 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. 
108, t. 79.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 821.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 239.— lames in Long's Exped. i, 138.- Hayne, Dend. Fl. 218.— Elliott, Sk. 
ii, 709. — Gninipel, Otto & Hayno, Abb. llolz. 157, t. .132.— De Candollc, Prodr. ii, 479.— Sprengcl, Syst. iii, 918. -Torrey, CompencL FL 
N. States, 375; Fl.N. York, i, 192.— Andubon, Birds, t. 42,146, 150.— RoBmcr & Schnltes, Syst. vii,78.— Don, Millei-'s Diet, ii, 438.— 
Beck, Bot. 93.— Eaton, Manual, G ed. 158.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 92.— Torrcy & Gray,Fl. N. America, i, 398.— Loudon, Arlmretam, 
ii,G.50, t. 90, 91.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 254.— Browne, Trees of America, 212.— Dietrich, Syn. iv, 539.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 295.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251. — Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep.xii^42; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 145. — Oliaj>man, Fl. S. States, 115. — 
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 49. — Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 358. — Wood, CI. Book, 300 ; Bot. 
& Fl. 8:i. — Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 195.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 8. — Hunt 
in Am. Nat. i, 433.— Young, Bot. Texas, 246. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 64.— Burgess in 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii,95. 

G. Hjnnona, Marshall, Arbustum, 54. 

0. Meliloba, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 254. 

0. macrantha, Willdeuow, Berl. Baumz. 164. 

0. degans, Salisbury, Prodr. 323. 

Mclilohlis heterophylla, Rafmesqne, Sylva Telluriaua, 121. 

HONKY LOCUST. BLACK LOCXTST. THREE-THORNED ACACIA. SWEET LOCUST. HONEY SHUCKS. 

Pennsylvauiii, western slopes of the Allesluxny monutains, west tbrouf;h soutbeni .Michigan to eastern Nebraska, 
eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory to about longitude 9C° west; south to Tampa bay, Fh)rida (not th'toeted 
in eastern Florida), northern Alabama, northern Mississii)])i, and the valley of the Brazos river. Texas. 

A tree, 25 or .30 meters, or exceptionally 40 meters, in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter iu diameter; low, 
rich bottom lands, or more rarel.v on dry, sterile hills; the characteristic trta- of the "barrens" of middle Kentucky 
and Tennessee, reaching its greatest development in the bottoms of the lower Ohio River basin; widely cultivated 
for shade and as a hedge plant, and now somewhat naturalized in the Atlantic states east of the Allegiiauy 
mouu tains. 

A not uncommon form, nearly destitute of thorns, is — 

var. inermis, Pursh, Fl. Am.Si^pt. i, 221. —Do Candolle, Mem. Leg. t.22, f. 109; Prodr. ii, 479.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.— 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398. ^Loudon Arboretum, ii, 650, t. 92, 93. — Browne, Trees of America, 213. 

G. inermis, LiiuKm.s. Spec. 15()<>. in part.— NoMviMu Dubaniel, iv, 100. — Benthara in Trans. Linnaean Soc. xxx', 557. 

A form with sjiines and fruit shorter tlian those of the type is — 

var. brochycarpos, Micliiiux,Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 257.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398. —Browne, Trees of America. 213. 
G. hrachlicarpa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 221.— De Candolle, Prodr, ii, 479.— Sprt>ngel, Sy.st. iii, 919.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 428. - 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 158.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 254.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 653. — Dietrich, Syu. iv,53ii. 

Wood lieavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, moderately compact, very durable in contact with the .soil, 
susceptible of a high ))o!ish ; layers of annual "growth strongly marked by many rows of ojien ducts; medullary 
rays numerous, conspicuous; color, bright brown or red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, O.G740; ash, O.SO; 
nsed for fence i)osts and rails, wagon hubs, construction, etc.; its value hardly appreciated. 

Beer is sometimes made domestically by fermenting the sweet, unripe fruit (Porcher I. c). 

87. — Gleditschia monosperma, Walter, 

Fl. Carolini.ana, 254.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2.57.— Schkuhr, Handb. iii, 5.5r>.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 623.— Desfontjjines, Hist. Arb. ii, 
o4,_wiii,icnow. Spec, iv, 1097; Enum. 10.58; Berl. Baumz. 165.— Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 101.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 e<l. v, 474.— 
Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 169, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, IU. t. 80.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 221.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 
641. -Nuttall, Genera, ii, 239.— Hayno, Dend. Fl. 218.— Elliott, Sk. ii,709.— De CaudoUe, Prodr. ii, 479.— Spmigel, Syst. iii, 910.— 
Don, Miller's Diet. 428.— Eaton, Manual, 6 eil. 15f^.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 98.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 398.— Eaton & Wright, 
Bot.254.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 6,53, f. 364.— Browne, Trees of America, 215.— Dietrich, Syn. iv,!".;!9.— Darby, Bot. S. States. AVi.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 115.— Wood, CI. Book, 300 ; Bot. & Fl. 8;?.- Gray Manual X. .States, 5 ed. 145.— Vasey. Cat. Forest Trees, 
12— Kidgw.ay in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 6-1. 

G. triacanthos, var. mono.sperma, Liun;eus,Spec. l ed. 1057.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 444. 

G. aquatica, Marshall, Arl.iistum, 51. 

G. CaroUnensis, Lamarck, Diet, ii, 465; III. iii, 447, t. 857, f. 2.— Ra>mer & Schulte8,Sy8t. vii,74. 

G. triacailtha, Giertner, Fruct. ii, 311, 1. 146, f. 3 [not Liunteus]. 

G. inermis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 9 [not Liumens]. 



60 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WATER LOCUST. 

Soutli Carolina to Matauzas inlet anil Tampa bay, Floriihi. thnnigli tbc Gulf states to the valley of the Brazos 
river, Texas, and tbroiiprh Arkansas to midiUe Kentucky and Tennessee, soutbern Indiana and Illinois. 

A tree 1- to IS meters in bei^bt, witb a trunk sometimes 0.00 or, exceptionally, 0.90 meter in diameter; deep 
swamps; rare in the south Atlantic and Gulf states; common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom 
lands of soutbern Arkansas. Louisiana, and eastern Texas, here often covering extensive areas. 

Wood heavy, very bard, strong, rather coarse-gr.iined, compact, susceptible of a high polish; layers of annual 
growth clearly marked by one to three rows of open ducts; medullary rays thin, conspicuous; color, rich bright 
brown tinged witb re^l. the thick heavier sap-wood clear light yellow; specific gravity, 0.73i:i; ash, 0.73. 

88. — Parkinsonia Torreyana, Watson, 
Proc. Am. Acad, si, 135. — Brewer it Watson, Bot. California, i, 162. 

Cercidium floridum, Torrcy in Pacific R. R. Kep. iv, 11, 82; v, 3G0, t. 3; Bot. Mex. Boundarj- Survey, 59.— Gray in Ive** 
Rep. 11. — V;isey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12. — James in Am. Nat. xv, 982. — Hcmslcy, Bot. Ain.-Cent. i, 327. 

GBKBN-BABK ACACIA. PALO VERDE. 

Colorado desert, southern California (Inio, Toras, etc., Parish Brothern), east to the valley of the lower Gila 
river, Arizona. 

A low, much-branched tree, 8 to 10 meters in height, the short trunk sometimes 0.45 to 0.50 meter in diameter; 
low caiions and depressions in the sandhills of the desert; common and reaching its greatest development in the 
valleys of the lower Colorado and Gila rivers. 

Wood heavy, not strong, soft, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing many 
small evenly-distributed open ducts; medullary rays very numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood clear 
light yellow; .specific gravity, 0.6.331 ; ash, 1.12. 

89. — Parkinsonia microphylla, Torrey, 

Pacitic B. li. Rep. iv, 82; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 59. — Walpers, Ann. vii, 812. — Gray in Ives' Rep. 11.— Bontham iu Martins, Fl. 
Brazil. xv=, 78.— Watson, PI. Wheeler, 8; Proc. Am. Acad, xi, 136. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 162. — Hemsley, Bot. Am.- 
Cent. i, :«7. 

Valley of the lower Colorado and Bill Williams rivers, eastward through southern Arizona. 

A small, much-branched tree, to 7 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.30 meter iu diameter (Wickeuburg, 
Pringlc), or often a low shrub I to 3 meters in height. 

Wooil heavy, hard, coarse-grained, compact, containing numerous large, scattered, open ducts; medullary 
rays numerous, thiu, conspicuous; c^lor, rich dark brown streaked witb red, the sap-wood light brown or yellow; 
specific gravity, 0.7449; ash, 3.04. 

90. — Parkinsonia aculeata, Linnajus, 

Sped cd. 375.— Jacquin, Stirp. Am. 121, t. ai.— Lamarck, III. ii, 475, t. ;536.— WlUdenow, Spec, ii, 513.— Aifon, Hort. Kow. 2 cd. iii, 
24.— De C:indollc, Mem. Ix'^. ii, t. 21; Prodr. ii, 430.— Descourtilz, FI. Med. Antilles, i, 54, t. 12.— Macfadycn, Fl. Jamaica, 
3:m.— Bentham, Bot. .Sulpliur, 87; Martius, Fl. Brasil. x\^, 78, t. 26.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. la'^iS, 265.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. 
Boundary Survey, .19.— Gri»el>ach, Fl. British West Indies, 204; PI. Loreutz.81.— Gray, Ilall's PI. Texas, 8.— Brewer & Watson, 
Bot. California, i, 102.- Va.-M-y, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.— Uemsley, Bot. Am.-Cont. i, :J27.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 348. 

Corpus Christi, Texas, west along the Mexican boundary to the valley of the Colorado river, Arizona (Yuma); 
and southward into Mexico; probably of American origin, but now widely naturalized throughout the tropical 
and warmer regions of tlie globe (A. Be Candolle, Gcotj. Bot. ii, 710, 770, 79.5). 

A small tree, to 12 meters in lieigiif, witb a trunk .sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter. 

Wood lieavy, bard, very dose grained, incbned to check in drying, containing many evenly-distributed small 
open ducts ; medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, light brown, the very thick sap-wood lighter, 
often tinged with yellow; specific gravity. O.GllC; ash, 2.32. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 61 

91. — Cercis Canadensis, i.inna'us, 

Spec. 1 ed. 37-1. — Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 10. — Manshall, ArliuatDDi, 32. — Lamurck, Diet, ii, 586. — WaDgenheiui, Amer. i;-!.— Walter, FL 
Caroliniana, 1X>. — Alton, Ilort. Kcw. ii, 47; 2 ed. iii, 22. — Willdcncw, Spec, ii, 508; Eiium. 4:J9; Berl. Banmz. KJ. — Noavean 
Dnhamcl, i, 19. — Michniix, FI. Bor.Am. i, 2()."). — Schkuhr. Haiidh. ;{54. — Persoon, Syn. i, 454. — Desfontaines, Hi»t. Arb. ii, 254. — 
Pur.Hh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 308.— Eaton, Manual, 4(>; C ed. 89.— Xnttall, GeiiiTa, i, 2*5.— Haync, Dend. FI. .''/!.— Elliott, Sk. i. 470.— Torrey 
in Ann. I>yo. N. York, ii, 194; Fl. U. S. 441; Compfind. Fl. N. Slatits, 188; Fl. N.York, i, 188; Nicollet's Rep. 149; Enjory'a Ecp. 406.— 
De Oandollc, I'rodr. ii, 518.— Sprenscl, Synt. ii, 340.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Hoi/.. 116, t. 92.- Hooker, Fl. Bor. Am. i, 1G7; 
Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.— Don, Millei^s Diet, ii, 468.— Beck, Bot. 94.— Spaeh, Hist. Ve^. i, 129.— Toirey & Gray, n. N. America, i, 
392.— London, Arborotnni, ii, 659 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 190.— Dietrich, Syn.ii, l.V"..— Browne, Trees of America, 221. —Gray 
in Mem. Am. Acad, new sor. iv', 38; Manual N. StateH, 5 ed. 144. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 424. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 611. — 
Darlin!;ton, Fl. C'cHtrica, 3 ed. 67.- Darby, Bot. S. Slates, 294.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 251.— Chapman, Fl. S. States. 114.— 
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 50. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 357. — Wood, CI. Book, 301 ; Bot. 
& Fl. 84. — Engelmauu in Trans. Am. Pliil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 197. — Koch, Dendrologie i, 14. — 
Baiilou, Hist. PI. ii, 121.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65. 

Silujnastrutn cordatum, Momcli, Metli.54. 

C. Canadensis, Vtir. pubescens, Pnrsh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 308.— Loudon, Mboretum, ii, 659. 

EEDBILTD. JUDAS TREE. 

Western I'euusylvauia, south \vard to Taiupa bay, Florida, uortberii Alabama and ^Mississippi, westward through 
Bontheru Michio-au and Minnesota to eastern Nebraska; southwest through Missouri and Arkansas to the eastern 
portions of the Indian territory, Louisiana, and the valley of the Bi-azos river, Texas. 

A small tree, 12 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter; rich woods, borders 
of streams and swamjis; most common and reaching its greatest developtneiit in southern Arkansas, the Indian 
territory, and eastern Texas, here, when in bloom, a conspicuous feature of the forest. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather coarse-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish ; layers' of annual 
growth clearly marked by one to three rows of ojieii ducts; medullary rays exceedingly numerous, thin ; color, rich 
dark brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6;J03; ash, 0.72. 

92. — Cercis reniformis, Engelmann; 
Scheele in Rcmer, Texas, 428.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 348. 

C. OCCtdentalis, var. Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 177.— Walpors, Ann. ii, 440.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary 
Survey, 58. — Brewer & Watson, Bob. California, i, 161. 

C. OCcidentulis, Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 7 [not Torrey].— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 340, in part. 

C. occidentalis, var. Tcxensis, Watson, Index, i, 209. 



Middle and westi^rn Texas west of the Colorado river ; in northern Mexico. 

A small tree, (> to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a shrub forming dense 
thickets; liiiiestone hills; formerly often confounded with the shrubby C. occidentalLs of the California coast 
region. 

Wood heavy, liiird, close grtiined, compact ; layers of annual growth clearly marked by one to throe rows of 
oi)en ducts; medullary rays numerous, not consi)iciious ; color, brown streaked with yellow, the sap-wood lighter; 
specitic gravity, 0.751,3; ash, 0.77. 

93. — Prosopis juliflora, De Candollo, 

Prodi-, ii, 447.— DestH)urtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, viii, 107, t. 550.— LindUy, Fl. Med. 270.— Wnlpers, Rep. i, 8t)l.— Bentham, Rev. Mim. 
iu Trans. Linna'au Soo. xxx, 377. — Schuizlein, Icon. t. 277, f. 13. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 163. — Rothrock in 
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 42, 107. — llemsley, Bot. Am.-Cont. i, 344. 

P. glandulosa, Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 192, t. 2 ; Emory's Rep. 139 ; Pacitic R. K. Kep. iv, 82.— Don. Miller's Diet, 
ii, 400.— Dietrich, Syn. ii. 1424.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 376. — Walpers, Rep. i.8l)l. — Bentham in Hooker's Jonr. 
Bot. iv, 348; London .lour. Bot. v, 81.— Griaebach, Fl. British West Indies, 217.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 43J; PI. 
Wheeler, 8.— Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 7.— Vasey. Cat. Forest Tre<>s, 12. 

Algarobia glandulosa, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 399 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 164.— Engelmann & Gray in Jour. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 242.— Engelmann in Wislizenus' Rep. 10.— Scheele in RaMner,Tex!»s, 427. — Gray in Jour. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hi.st. vi, 181 ; Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 60; v, 51 ; Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. v, 3t)4 ; Ives' Rep U.— 
Torrey iu Sitgreaves' Rep. 1,58; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 20, 82; vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 60.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 18.58, 259; SoieutiUe Press, San Francisco, Nov. 1^71. \- t".— Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 5SM. 

P. odorata-, Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 313, t. 1 (excl. fruit). 



62 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

MESQUIT. ALGAIIOBA. UONEY LOCUST. HONEY POD. 

Texas, valley of the Tiinity river (Dallas, etc.) to the northern and western limits of the state; west throngh 
New Mexico and Arizona to the jhcwj-s west of the San Bernardino mountains, California, reaching sonthern 
('olonulo. southern Utah (Saint George), and southern Nevada; soutliward through southern Mexico ; in Jamaica. 

A tree of the first economic value, sometimes 'J to lo meteis in height, witli a trunk O.'JO meter in diameter, 
or much smaller, often reduced to a low shrub ; on dry jjrairies and high rocky plains, or west of the Kocky mountains, 
along desert streams, here often forming incn forests, and reaching its greatest development within tlic United 
States in the valley of the Santa Cruz and otiu r streams of southern Arizona; in western Texas (Fort Stockton, 
etc.), on account of the annual burning of the prairies, rarely 1 meter in height, the roots then enormously 
developed, often weighing several hundred pounds, forming, as they are here locally known, "underground forests" 
and furnishing the best and cheapest fuel of the region. 

Wood heavy, very hard, not strong, close-grained, couipact, diflicult to work, alwiost indestructible in contact 
with the soil, containing many evenly-distributed, rather large, open ducts; medullary rays numerous, distinct; 
color, rich dark brown or often red, the sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity, 0.7().52 ; asli, L'.IS; of the root, 
specific gravity, 0.8493 ; ash, 3.02 ; exclusively used for the beams and underjiinnings of the adobe houses of Nevr 
Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico; for posts and fencing, and occasionally in the manufacture of furniture, the 
fellies of heavy wheels, etc. ; the best and often the oidy fuel of the region, burning slowly with a dear llame, and 
I)roduciug valuable charcoal, bnt unsuited for the generation of steam on account of its destructive action upon 
boilers. 

A gum resembling gum arabic is yielded by this species ; the unripe and pulpy pods rich in grape sugar, edible, 
and furnishing valuable and important fodder. 

94. — Prosopis pubescens, Bentham, 

London Jour. Bot. v, 62; Rev. Mini, in Trans. Linntean Soc. sss, 380. — Walpers, Ann. i. 259. — Watson in King's Itep. v, 420; PI. 
Wheeler, 8. — Brewer &. Wataon, Bot. California, i, 163. — Rothrock in Wheeler's Eep. vi, 42, 107. — Honisley, Bot. Am. -Cent. 
i,344. 

P. odorata, Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 313, 1. 1 (for fruit). 

P. Emoryi, Torrey in Emory's Rep. 139. 

Strombocarpa puhescens, Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 60 ; v, 51 ; Ives' Rep. 9.— Torrey & Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 
163.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 11, 20, >ii; v, 360, t. 4; vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 60.— Cooper ia 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259 ; Scientific Press, San Francisco, Nov. 1871 ife f.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 12. 

Strombocarpa odorata, Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 158. 

SCREW BEAN. SCREW-POD MESQUIT. TOENILLA. 

Valley of the Rio Grande (Presidio), western Texas, westward through New Mexico and Arizona (valley of the 
Gila and Colorado rivers) to southern California (Wliite Water, Parish Brothers, Vallecito, Thurber), and southward 
into Mexico; southera Utah (Saint George), and southern Nevada (Ash ^leadows). 

A small tree, rarely 'J meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 to 0.4.5 meter in diameter, or often a tall, 
much l)rai)(hcil shrub; san<ly or gravelly bottom lands, reaching its greatest development within the United 
States in the valleys of the lower (Jolorailo and Gila rivers. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, not strong, brittle, clo.se-grained, compact, containing many evenly-distributed 
ojien ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood somewhat lighter; specific gravity, 
0.7G00: ash, O.D.j; used for fuel and fencing. 

The pods used as fofhh-r, and sometimes mailc into Hdiip by the Indians. 

95. — Leucaena glauca, B.nthaiu, 

Hooker's London Jour. But. iv, -117 ; Rev. .Mini, in Trans. Linuioan Soc. xjcx, 443. — Walpers, Rep. i,884. — Grisehach, Fl. Briti'<li West 
Indii'M.iWl. — Ili-iMHley, Bot. Am. -Cent. i,:J51. — Watson in Proi-. Am. Acad, x vii, 350. — Ch.'vpman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 619. 

Mimona glauca, Linnasus, Spec. 2 ed. 1.504. 

.4cacirt ijlavca, Willdr-now, .Spic iv.lOT.^.- De Candollc I'rodr. ii,467. 

Acacia frowhma, Willdenow, .Spec, iv, 1076.- De (,'iindoll.', Prodr. ii, 408. 

Acacia hicqiK, Willdenow, .Spec. iv,l(J75.—l)c C'andolle. Prodr. il,4t>7. 

Mimosa leucoce/ihala, Lamarck, Diet. 1, 12. 

Acacia Icuc/icephala, Link, Knnm. Hon. lii rl. ii, 1 1 1. — 1> I aodolli-, I'mdr. ii,467. 

MimoKo biceps, P(>irr-»,Siij>pI. i,".";. 

Mimosa frondosa, Kh-ln in Piiiri-t,Snppl.i,76. 



CATAL(JGUE OF F01iE«T TREES. 63 

"Western Texas, San Saba to Devil's river (BxtcMeij); sontliward into Mexico ; semi-tropical Florida (iDtrodaced, 
Curti.is), and Uiroufjli tlie West Indies. 

A .smiill tree, 7 to !) nutters in lieiylit, willi a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or often a tall or, in Florida, 
low slirul), sending' np niany steins from tlie ground. 

Wood heavy, liard, close graiued, compact, containing many small, regularly-distributed oi)eu ducts; layers of 
annual growth and medullary rays hardly distinguishable; color, rich brown streaked with red, the sap-wood clear 
yellow; si)ecific gravity, 0.9235; ash, 3.29. 

96. — Leucaena pulverulenta, Bentbam, 
Hooker'8 Ldiuloii .lour. Bot. iv, 417 ; llev. Mini, iu TraiLs. Linnasaii Soc. xxx, 443. — Hemsley, Bot. Am.-CeDt. i, 351. 
Acacia pulverxtlenta, SchlochtuKhil in Linujca, xii, .'i'l. 
Acacia esculenta, Martens &, Galcotti iu Bull. Aoad. Brux. x', 3ia. 

Southern Texas, valley of the lower Eio Grande ; southward into Mexico. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, often forming dense 
thickets; rich, sandy loam. 

Wood heavj', hard, very close-grained, compact, containing many small, regularly-distributed open ducts; 
medullary rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, rich dark brown, the sap-wood clear yellow; specific 
gravity, 0.0732; ash, 1.01. 

97. — Acacia Wrightii, Bentbam, 

Smithsonian Contrib. iii,64; Rev. Miin. in Trans. Linnajan Soc. xxx, 521. — Gray, Smitb.sonian Contrib. v, 53. — Walpers, Ann. iT,6"26. — 
Torrey, Bot. Mox. Boundary Survey, 101. — Brewer & WatHon, Bot. California, i, 61. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 351. 

CAT'S CLAW. 

Western Texas, valley of the Guadalupe river (New Braunfels), westward and southward to the valley of the 
Eio Grande; iu northern Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter, or often a 
low, much-branched shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by one or two rows of 
small open diu.as, and containing many scattered smaller ducts; medullary rays hardly distinguishable; color, 
bright, clear brown streaked with red and yellow, the sap-wood clear yellow; sijecific gravity, 0.9392; ash, 0.03. 

98. — Acacia Greggii, Gray, 

Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 65; v,53; Ives' Rep. 11. — Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 158; Pacific R. R. Rep. vii, 10; Bot. Mex. Bouudaiy 
Survey, 61. — Wiilpcrs, Ann. iv,625. — Bentbam, Eov. Mini, in Trans. Linnioan Soc. xxx, 521. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1660, 442. — 
Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 164. — Rotbrock iu Wheeler's Rep. vi, 108. — Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent. i,353.— Jamea iu Am. 
Nat. XV, 981. 

cat's claw. 

Western Texas, valley of the Rio Grande, westward through southern New Mexico and Arizona to San Diego, 
California; southward into northern Mexico. 

A low, much-branched tree, sometimes 9 metcrvS in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 meter in diameter, or often 
a shrub ; dry memfi and iu low canons ; i^ommon ; the large specimens geuemlly hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, e.xceedingly hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth marked by 
numerous rows of rather large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, rich brown or red, the sap-wood 
light yellow; specific gravity, 0.8550; ash, 0.91 ; used for fuel. 

A resinous gum resembling gum arabio is produced by this species (Am. Jour. I'barm. Iii, 119). 

99. — Acacia Berlandieri, Hentham, 

Loudon Jour. Bot. i,52-.i; Kov. Mini, in Trans. Liiinjean Soc. xxx, 529. — Walpers, Rop. i,;Uy. — Dietrich, Syu. iv, 500. 

A. tcphroloba, Gray iu Smithsonian Coutrib. iii, 65; v, 54.— Walpers, Ann. iv,625.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 
01. — Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Ceut. i,352. — Watson iu Proc. Am. Acad. svii,351. 

Southern Texas, valley of the Nueces (La Salle county) to Devil's river; southward into Jlexico. 
A small tree, sometimes (5 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more often a 
tall shrub, sending up iimny steins from the ground; the large specimens usually hollow and detective. 
Wood not examined. 



64 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

100. — Lysiloma latisiliqua, Uontbimi, 

Rev. Miiii. iu Tr;!^l^. Linnsau Soc. xxx, 534. — CUiipiiinn, Fl. S. States, Siippl. Oil). 

Mimosa latisiliqua, I.innirus, Spec. 2 ed. I."i04. 

Acacia latixiliqua, Willdeuow.Spec. iv, 1067.— Persoou, Syn. ii, aTw.— DeCaudoUo, Prodr. ii,4G7.— Maofadyen.Fl. Jamaica, 
31d.— Xuttall, Sylva, ii, H, t. 53 ; vj ed. i, 183, t. 53.— Cooper iu Smitlisouiau Rep. 1858, 204. 

L. Bahamensiflj Benthani in Hooker's Loudon Jour. Bot. iii, 83. 

Ac^icia Bahamennia, Grisolmch, Fl. British West Indies, 221. 

WILD TAMARIND. 

Semi-tropical Florida, .sonthei-n keys (Key Largo, Elliott's, Plantation, and Boca Chica Keys); through the 
West ludie.-<. 

A tree sometimes 15 meters iu height, with a trunk O.tJO to 0.90 meter in diameter; bark of the young, 
vigorous trees smooth; the older trees geuerally decayed and defective, with rough, dark bark (Curtiss). 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, tough, close-grained, c()ini)act, susceptible of a fine polish, containing many 
scattei-ed, open ducts; medullary rays numerous, not consi)icui)us; color, rich dark brown tinged with red, the 
sap-wood white; specific gravity, O.GUS; ash, 2.112; somewhat used locally iu boat- and shipbuilding, and (ronsidered 
eqai^l to mahogany for this purpose. 

101. — Pithecolobium Unguis-cati, Benthara, 

Uookur'a Loudon Jour. Bot. iii, 20(J; Kuv. Mini, iu Trans. Liuuajau Soc. xxx, 572, 048. — Grisebach.Fl. British West Indies, 276. — 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 110.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13. 

Mimnxn Unguis-cati, Linuajus.Spec. 2 ed. 1497.— Jacquin.Hort. Schoenb. iii, 74, t. 392.— Doscourlilz, Fl. Mod. .Antilles, 
i,t. 11. 

Inga Unguiscati, Willdenow, Spec iv, lOOC— Do Caudolle, Prodr. ii, 436.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 37, t. 54 ; 2 ed. i, 86, t. 54. 

Mimosa rosea, Vabi.Eclogio, iii, 33,t. 25. 

Inga rosea, Steudil in Do Caudolle, Prodr. ii, 437. 

Inga /or/ex, Kuutb.Miui. i-J, 1. 16. 

P./or/eJC. BiMithaiu iu Hooker's Loud(ui Jour. Bot. iii, 199. 

Inga Guadalupeims, Desvaux, Jour. i.70. 

Mimosa Guadalupensis, Persoon.Syn. ii,262. 

Inga microphylla, Humboldt & BouplaiKl in Will(l.-uo\v,Spec. iv, 1004. 

p. mierophyllum, Uenthaui in Hookei^s London Jour. Bot. iii, 200. 

P. Guadalupensis, Cbapmau.Fl. S. States, lie. 

cat's CLAW. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Caximba.s bay, and on the southern keys; thiongh the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter, or often 
throwing out many spreading, vine-like stems from the ground. 

Wootl very heavy, haril, close-graine*!, checking badly iu drying; medullary rays numerous, inconspicnous; 
color, rich red varying to j)ur[)le, sap-wood clear yellow; specific gravity, 0.9049; ash, 2.40. 



ROSACEJ^:. 



102. — Chrysobalanus Icaco, Liunaius, 

Spec. 1 ed. 513.— Jacquin,Stirp. Am. 154, t. <J4.— Luuiarck, Diet, iii, 2^ ; 111. ii,5l2,t. 428.— Poirot, Suppl. iii, 135.— Alton, Hort. Kow 
2 ed. iii, 2U0.— De CaDdolli', Prodr. ii, .525.— Liudley iu TrauH. Ilorl. Soc. Londrm, V, 98.— Turpin, Diet. Sci. Nat. 230.— Tussac, 
Kl. Aotille.i, iv, 91, t. 3I.--Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 369, 1. 5, f. 4.— Torrcy i. Gray, I'l. N. America, i, 400.— Waljiers, liep. ii, 1; Aiiu. i v, (i42.— 
Bcntbam, Bot. .Snipbur, 91 ; Fl. .N'ijjritiaua, 3;;G.— .Spieiigi-I, Icon. 1.274, f. 1-13.— Coiipir in SiiiiibHouiun Rep. 1W(K),439.— C'liai)Uian, 
H. .S. States, 119.— Gri-*.-bacb, Kl. BrItiKb West lu.lic-.., 2-2'J.— Bailb.n in Adausonia, vii, 221 ; Hist. PI. i, 427,f. 480, 487.- Hooker 
f. in Martini, Fl. Braxil. ii.7.— Ouibourt. Hist. Drogui-s, 7 ed. iii,2»7. — Henisley, Bot. Am. -Cent. i,:t65. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 65 

OOOOA PLUM. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to bay Biscayiie, west coast Caxioibas bay, and on the soathem keys; 
throusli the West Indies and troi)ic,aI America to Brazil. 

A small tree, 7 to 10 meters in height, witli a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or along sandy beaches a 
low, prostrate shrtib'l.08 to 2.1G meters ia height; reaching its greatest development within the United States on 
the bo)(lers and islands of the Everglades, near bay Biscayne. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact, containing few irregularly-distributed, not large, open 
ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown often tinged with red, the sap wood lighter; specific 
gravity, 0.770'J ; ash, 0.87. 

Varieties are distinguished by A. H. Curliss with the skin of the edible fruit white or black, the latter more 
ovate with narrower, softer stones (? var. peUocarpa, HooJcer f. I. c. — C. pellocarpa, Miquel,Prim. Esseq. 193. — 
Grisebach, I. c). 

103. — Prunus Americana, Marshall, 

Arbnstiim.iii. — Darlinjjton in Ann. Lye. N. York, iii, 87, 1. 1 ; Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 7;J. — Eaton, Manual, G ed. 285. — Beck, Bot. 95. — Torroy 
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 407 ; Pacilie E. R. Eep. ii, 164.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 377.— Niittall, Sylva, ii, 19, t. 48; 2 ed. i, 109, t. 43.— 
Torrey.Fl. N. York, i, 194 ; Emory's Rep. 403 ; Pacific R. E. Rep. iv, 82.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 449; 2 ed. ii.-'ll.- Hooter 
in London Jour. Bot. vi, 217. — Rcenior, Syn. Mou. iii, 59. — Gray in Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. iv', 40 ; Manual N. States, 5 e<l. 143. — 
Scheele in Roemer, Texas, 430.— Richardson, Arctic Esped. 424. — Parry in Owen's Rep. Gil. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119. — Curtis 
in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 56. — Lesquerens in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 353. — Wood, CI. Book, 327 ; Bot. <t Fl. 
102. — Engelmaun in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xiii, 190.— Koch, Dreudrologie, i, 101. — Porter «& Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's 
Snrv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 33. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— Macoun in Geological Eep. Cana<la, 1375-'76,194. — Broadhead in Coulter's 
Bot. Gazette, iii, 52.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54<:.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65. 

P. Mississippi, Marshall, Arbustum,l 12. 

P. spinosa, Walter, Fl.Caroliniana, 146 [not Linnaius]. 

P. nigra, Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 165 ; 2 ed. iii, 198.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 993 ; Berl. Baumz, 311.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, t, 
674.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.— Bot. Mag. 1. 1117.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 331.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 469; Compend. Fl. N. States, 
199.- Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477. — Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 59. 

Cerasus nigra, Loiseleur in Nonveau Duhamel, v, 32.— Seringe in De CandoUe, Prodr. u, 538.— Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i, 167; 
Coiiipauion Bot. Mag. i, 24. —Don, Miller's Diot. ii,513. — Beck, Bot. 96. — Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 399. — Loudon, Arboretmn, 

ii,704,f.411, 412. 

P. hiemalis, Elliott, Sk. i, .512 [not Michaux]. 
P. COCCinea, Ralinesque, Fl. Lndoviciana, 135. 

WILD PLUM. CANADA PLUM. HOESE PLUM. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence (Quebec) to the valley of Eainy and Assiuaboine rivers and southern shores of 
lake Manitoba; northern Vermont, western Kew England, and southward through the Atlantic states to the 
Chattahoochee region of western Florida, west to the valley of the upper Missouri river, Dakota, and Cheyenne 
canon. Pike's Peak region, Colorado, southwest through Arkansas, the Indian territory, to about longitude 102°, 
and the valley of the lower Concho river, Texas. 

A small tree, 6 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter ; rich woods, 
or along streams and borders of ponds nnd swamps, reaching its greatest development on the bottom lands of 
eastern Texas. 

A form with the young leaves and pedicles pubescent is — 

var. mollis, Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 407. 

P. hiemalis, Michaux, FL Bor.-Am. i, 284.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 679.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. 
ii, 206.— Nonveau Duhamel, v, 184.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 73.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 477.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 398.— Roomer, 
Syn. Mon. iii, 59. 

P. mollis, Torrey, FL U. S. 470 ; Compond. FL N. States, 199.— Beck, Bot. 95. 

Cerasus hiemalis, Seringe in De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 538.— Hooker, FL Bor.-Am. i,16S.—Bcok, Bot. 96.— Loudon, Arboretum, 
ii, 704.— Don, Miller's Diet. ii,504. 

Ceras^lS Americana, Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary 
rays numerous, thin; color, rich bright brown or often red, the sap-wood lighter; speoitic gravity, 0.7215; ash, O.IS; 
used for the handles of tool.s, etc. 

Often cultivated for theyellow, red, or rarely nearly black, acid or risroly sweet fruit, and turnishing an excellent 
stock on which to graft the varieties of tho domestic plum. 
5 FOR 



66 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

104. — Prunus angustifolia, Marshall, 

Arbostmn, iii. — Kocli, Demlrologie, i, 103. 

P. Chicasa, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Ain. i, a?4.— Poirct in Lauiarck, Diet, v, 080.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.— 
Xouvian Dnhamcl, v, IS?.— Elliott, Sk. i, IJ4-J.— Torrcy in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 194; Paeific E. K. Eop. iv, 82.— 
Sprengcl, Syst. ii, 47G. — Audubon, I3inls, !.,>!. — Katoii, Manual, (i ed. 265. — Spach, Hist. Vcg. i, 397. — Torrcy & Gray, Fl. 
N. America, i, 407 ; Pacific K. K. Rop. ii, 1G4. — Eaton &, Wright, 13ot. 377. — Koeuier, Syn. Mon. iii, 58. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestrica, 3 cd.73. — Darby, Dot. S. States, 29;i. — Browne, Trees of America, 250. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 
251. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina 1860, ii-i, 5U. — Lesciue.reux in 
Owens 2d Rep. Arkansas, 858.— Wood, CI. Book, 328; Bot. & Fl. 102.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 148; Hall's 
PI. Texas, 9.— Young, Bot. Texas, 1251.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden'.s Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 33.— Vasey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 65. 

P. insititia. Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 140.- Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. GO. 

Cerasus Chicasa, Seringe in De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 5:58.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 168; Companion Bot. Mag. i, 24.— Don, 
Miller's Diet, ii, 514. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 705. 

CHICKASAW PLUM. HOG PLUM. 

Probably native of the eastern slopes of the southern Rocky mountains, where it is found at an altitude of 
7,000 feet, and of the high phxteau east and southeast of them ; now widely naturalized by early cultivation 
throughout the Atlantic forests south of Pennsylvania, and west of the Alleghany mountains extending as far 
north as .sonthern Michigan. 

A small tree, C to 8 meters in height, with a trunk, 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a low slirub; 
generally along streams or borders of prairies, in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary I'ays numerous, thin; color, light brown or 
red, the sap wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.0884 ; ash, 0.28; often cultivated for its globose red or yellow fruit. 

105. — Prunus Pennsylvanica, Linuaius f. 

Sappl. 252. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 992 ; Ennm. 518 ; Berl. Baumz. 310. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, t. 45. — Poirct in Lamarck, Diet, v, 673. — 
Persoon, Syn. ii, 35.— Xouveau Duhamel,v, 9.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 198. — Ptinsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,331. — Nuttall, Genera, i, 
302.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 4f)S ; Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 198.— Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 477.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 73.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed., 235.— 
Beck in Am. Journal Sci. 1 ser. xlv,112. — Dietrich, Syn. iii,42.— Chapman, Fl. S. St.ates, 130. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. 
Carolina, 1860, iii, .07.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 102.- Gray in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1863, 61 ; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 148.— Koch, 
Dendrologie, i,117. — Porter &. Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Haydcu's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 33. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 2 ed.ii, 
513.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 194.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 
54'. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 176. 

TP. laneeolata, Wnidenow, B<rl. Baumz. 240, t. 3, f. 3. 

CerasUS borealin, Michaux. Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 286.— Nouveau Duhamel, v, 32.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 159, t. 8; N. 
American Sylva, 3ed.il, l.')2. t. 90.— Scringe in De C'andollo, I'rodr. ii, 558.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 513.— Beck, Bot. 
97. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 703, f. 410. — Eoemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 78. 

P. borealis, Poirct in Lamarck, Diet, v, 074.- Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, ,538.— Eaton, Manual, 54.— Barton, Compcnd. Fl. 
Phlladclph. i, 22:5.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 1. 1598.— Bigclow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 205. 

f P. persici/olia, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 205. 

fCerasun persici/olia, holnclenr in Nouveau Duhamel, v, 9.— Seringe in Do CandoUc, Prodr. ii,. 537. —Don, Miller's Diet, 
ii, 512. — .Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 411. — Roemcr, Sjni. Mon. iii, 81. 

CeranUH Pennsylvanica, Scringe in Do Candolle, Prodr. ii,5:i8.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 16».— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 514.— 
Beck, Bot. 97.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. A,merica. i, 409. —Loudon, Arboretum, il, 705.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.— 
Torrcy, Fl. N. York, i, 196.— Nuttall, Syiva, il, 15; 2 ed. i, 165.- Browne, Trees of America, Sffil.- Emerson, Trees 
MaB»achy.settfl, 1 ed. 451. — Rfcmcr, Syn. Mon. iii,.57.— Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 115. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 611. — 
Kicharilson, Arctic ExyM-d. 42.5. — Coopi.'r in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,251. — Wood, CI. Book, '327. 

WILD RED CUKURY. PIN CUlvURV. PIGEON CIIEKBY. 

Labrador, shores of Hudson's bay, and west through the Saskatchewan region to the valley of the upi)er Fraser 
river (8oda creek, yVacoun); south through the northern states to Pennsylvania, centrarMichigan, northern Illinois, 
central Iowa, and along the high Alleghanj' mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, and the Rocky mountains 
of Colorado. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 67 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter, or in the 
Eocky Mountain region reduced to a low shrub ; common in all the northern forests, in northern New England 
taking possession of ground cleared by fire of tlje coniferous forests. 

Wood light, soff, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, sap-wood clear 
yellow; specific gravity, 0.5023; ash, 0.40. 

The small acid fruit used domestically and by herbalists in the preparation of cough mixtures, etc. 

106. — Prunus umbellata, EUiott, 

Sk. i, 541.— Eaton, Manual, id. -286.— Diotricb, Syn. iii, 44.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 119.— Wood, CI. Book, 328; Bot. & FI. 102.— 
Young, Bot. Texas, 251. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Tree.s, 13. 

P. immila, Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua, 146 [not Linnseus]. 

Cerasus umbellata, Ton-ey & Gray, Fl. N.America, i, 409.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 190.— Rcemer, Syn. Men. iii, 78. 

SLOE. BLACK SLOE. 

South Caroliua, south near the coast to Mosquito iulet and Tampa bay, Florida, and through central Alabama 
to eastern Mississippi (Holly Springs and Eutei-prise, Mohr). 

A small tree, 5 to 6 meters in height, with a trunk O.'-'o to 0.38 meter in diameter ; dry, sandy soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-graiued, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, dark reddish-brown, the 
sap-wood much lighter ; specific gravity, 0.8202 ; ash, 0.12. 

The black or red pleasantly acid fruit used as a preserve. 

107. — Prunus emarginata, Walpers, 

Rep. ii, 9. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 42. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 714. —Watson in King's Rep. v, 79. — ^Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Esped. 284. — 
Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167. 

GerasilS emarginata, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 515.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, 
i.410. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189. — Kcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 79. — Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iT, 83. — Bolander in 
Proc. California Acad, iii, 79. 

Cerasus erecta, PresI, Epimel. Bot. 194.— Walpers, Ann, iii, 854. 

• Cerasus glandulosa, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad, i, 59. 

Vancouver's island and the valley of the lower Fraser river, south through western Washington territory and' 
Oregon, cast to the western slopes of the Bitter Eoot mountain, Idaho (Lolo trail, Watson), and the valley of the 
Jocko river, iMoutaua [Canby & Sargent). California along the western .slopes of the Sierra Xcvadas and on the 
Coast ranges, from Sau Francisco bay to the Santa Lucia mountains {O. R. Yasey), reaching an elevation of from 
3,000 to 4,000 feet. 

A tree often 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter ; at high 
elevations and throughout central (Jalifornia reduced to a shrub 2 to 3 meters in height, or in the Santa Lucia 
mountains 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 motor in diameter ( Tascy) ; generally along streams 
or in low, rich woods. 

The wood of the type not collected. 

Var. mollis, Bi-ower, 
Bot. California, i, 107.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 86. 

Cerasus moUin, Douglas in Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169.— Hooker, London Jonr. Bot. vi, 217.— Don, MiUer".") Diet, ii, 515.— 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Anu^rica, i, 410.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 417.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.- XuttaU. Sylra, ii, 
14, t. 46; 2 ed. i, 164, t. 46. — Rtomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 79. — Richarxison, Arctic Esped, 425. — Newberry in Pacific R, R. 
Rep. vi, 73.— Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 29, 59; Am. Nat. iii, 406.— Lyall in Jonr. Linniean Soc. vii, 131. —Gray 
in Proc. Am. Acad, viii, 381. 

P. mollis, Walpers, Kep. ii, >.).— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 42.— Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 284.— Va*oy, Cat. Forest Troos. 1.^— 
Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875--'76, 194. 

The common northern and Idaho form, more or less wooly pubescent, especially on the uiuloi siilo of the leaves. 
Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, brown 
streaked with green ; specific gravity, 0.4502; ash, 0.21. 



68 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

108. — Prunus serotina, EhrUart, 

Bcitr. iii.ao. WUldenow, Spec, u, 986 ; Ennui, fil"; Bcrl. Baumz. 'Ml. — Pcreoon, Syn. ii, 34. — DesfontaiDes, Hist. Arb. ii, 204. — Aiton, 

Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 196.— Eaton, Manual, 54; fi e<l. 284.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 302. — Barton, Compeud. Fl. Philadelph. M.— Gniuipel, 
Otto <t Haj-no, Abb. Holz. 4ri, t. :??.— Hayuo, Deiid. Fl. 70.— Spreiigel, Syst. ii, 478.— Noes, Fl. Neuwied, 9.— Hooker f. in Trans. 
Linnxan Soc. ssii', 327.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, If^OO, iii, M.— l.esqnerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 
338.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 102.— Eugelmanu in Trans. Aiu. Phil. Soc. now ser sii, I'.IO.- Chapman, Fl. S. States, 120.— Gray, Manual 
N.States,5ed. 149; Hall's PI. Texas, 9.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 122.— Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exjied. 284.— Emerson, Trees Massachufetts, 
2 ed. ii, 515 & t.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— Bentley & Triuien, Med. PI. ii, 97, t. 
gr.- Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xiii, 176.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, lH79-'60, 54'^.—Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,66. 

P. Virginiana. Miller, Diet. No. 3 [not Liuu;cus]. — Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 12; Harbk. ii, 191.— Wangenheini, Ainer. 34, t. 14.— 
Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. 17^2, 315. — Marshall, Arbustuiu, 112. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 14G. — Aiton, Hort. Kow. ii, 
16:5.- Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 664.— PursU, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 329.— Elliott, Sk. i, 540.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 467; 
Compend. Fl. N. SUtes, 189.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 204. 

Cerasus Virginiana, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,285. — Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 151, t. 6; N.American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 147, 
t. 68.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 109 (excl. syn.).— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 515.— Bock, Bot. 97.— Darlingtou, Fl. Ce8trica,2 
ed. 289. — London, Arboretum, ii, 710, f. 418.— Browne, Trees of America, 268. 

Cerasus serotina, Loiselcurio Nouveau Duhan3cl,v, 3. — Seringo in Do CandoUo, Prodr. ii,540.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i,416. — 
Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Amcrica,i,410.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 712, f. 419 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 189.-Torrey, 
Fl. N. York, i, 19C; Pacific R. R. Rep. vii, 11.— Penn. Cycl. yi, 432.— Carson, Med. Bot. i, 41, t. 35.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 
2«8. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 1 ed. 4r>3. — Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 115; Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 
166.— Darlington, Fl. Ce8trica,3 ed. 75.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 299.—Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252.— Porcher, 
Resources S. Forests, 169.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 425.— Wood, CI. Book, 326.— Bolander in Proc. California 
Acad, iii, 79. 

P. cartilaginea, Lehmanu, Ind. Sem. Hamburg, 1833. 

Padus serotina, Agardh, Theor. &, Syst. PI. t. 14, f. S. 

Padus Virginiana, Rocmer, Syn. Mon. iii,8G. 

Padus cartilaginea, Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 86. 

WILD BLACK CHEERY. BUM CnEEEY^. 

Sonthcrn Outario, southward through tho Atlantic forests to JIatanzas iulet and Tampa bay, Florida, west to 
the valley of the Mis.souri river, Dakota, eastern Kansas, the ludian territory, and the valley of the upjier Sau 
Antonio River, Texas. 

A tree 18 to .30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.!)0 to l.L'O or, exceptionally, 1.50 meter in diameter; rich, 
generally elevated woodlands; common and reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the 
Alleghany mountains from West Virginia southward ; not common and of small size in the <4ulf region and 
Texas 

Wood light, hard, strong, close, straight-grained, compact, easily worked ; medullary rays numerous, thin; 
color, light brown or red, growing darker with exjmsure, the thin sap-wood yellow; s])ecific gravity, 0.5822; ash, 
0.15; largely u.sed and esteemed in cabinet work, interior linish, etc., and now becoming -scarce. 

The bark contains a bitter tonic principle, and infused with cold water generates a small percentage of 
hydrocyanic acid ; emi)loyed as a tonic and sedative in cases of piihnonary consamjition in the form of cold 
infu.sion.s, sinip.s. and fluid extracts (Proc. Am. Phir. Assoc. x\\i\,20U.—Glol>lc)j in Jour. Pharm. ct CIiimie,x\-,iO.— 
Guihovrt, Bint. Drogues, 7 ed. iii, .317.— P/iarw. Jour. .3 ser. iv, il.—FlUcl:igcr £ Ennbury, rharmocographia, 224.— 
U. S. Dinpensalori/, 14 i-d. 119.— Xat. Dispensatory, 2ed. 1177) ; the bitter fruit u.sed domestically in the preparation 
of cherry brandy. 

XoTE.— The oloscly-allied P. Virginiana of the north Atlantic region, a tall shrub, homelimcs 6 to 8 meters in height, does not 
BMnmc arborescent habit. 

109. — Prunus Capuli, Cavunilles, 

Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 477.— Schlechtendal in Linnaa, xiii, f-'J, 404.— Koeh, Dendrologie, i, 123.— Hemsloy, Bot. Am. -Cent. 1, .367.— 
Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, ivii, 3.52. 

Cerasus CapolUn, Do Candolle,Pro.lr. ii, .539.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 515.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 713, f. 420.— Bontham, 
PI. Hartweg. 10.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 232.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 432.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.America, i, 412.— Gray in 
Smithsonian Contrili. v, TiA. 

Cerasus CnpuU, Seringo in Do Camloll.', Prodr. ii, 541.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 516.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 422. 

P. CapoUin, Znccarini in Abhandl. Acid. Munich, ii, 345, t. 8.— Ro-mer, Syn. Mon. iii, 87.— Torrey, Bot. Me.x. H<.Mii(lnry 
Snrvey,C2.— Riisby in liulL Toirey But. Club, ix.. 53. 

P. Canadensis, Mocifio & Seas^, PI. .Mex. Icon. inrd. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 69 

Wn.D CHERRY. 

Apache and Guadalupe mountains, Texas, west through southern New Mexico and Arizona to the southern 
slopes of the Sau Francisco mountains; southward through nortliern New Mexico, and in Peru. 

A small tree, in the United States, rarely 12 meters in height, with a trunk often (1.30 meter in diameter* 
bottoms of callous and mountain valleys, generally between 5,000 and 7,000 feet elevation. 

Wood heavy, moderately hard, close-grained, compact; njedullary rays very numerous, thin; color, brown or 
often bright, clear red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7879; ash, 0.20. 

110. — Prunus demissa, Walpera, 

Ro)!. ii, 10.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 4:5.— Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 307.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 63.— Watson in King's Rep. t, 60; 
PI. Whooler, 8.— Porter in Haydon's Rep. 1871, 481.— Coulter in Haydon's Rep. 1872, 764.— Rothrock, PI. Wlipeler, 37.— Brandcgoe in 
Hayden's Rep. 1875, 236.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 167.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, 
ii, 86. — Maconn in Geolojjiical Rep. Cauad.a, 1875-76, 194. — Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, i, 368. 

■ CerasUS serotina^ Hookir, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 169, in part. 

Geraxus demism, Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, FI. N.America, i, 411.— Gray in Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. iv>,40.— Dnrand in 

Jonr. Philadelphia Acad. 18.55, 87. — Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83. — Newberry in Pacific R. R. Eep. Ti,73. Cooper 

in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259 ; Pacifio R. R. Rep. xii^, 59. 

Padus demissa, Rcemer, Syn. Mon.iii,87. 

P. Yirg'miana, var. demissa, Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 284.— Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. viii,381. 

WILD CHEKRY. 

Vancouver's island east to the western slopes of the Eocky mountains of Montana, south through the Pacific 
region; in Souora. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 to 10 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a 
low shrub ; reaching its greatest development in the rich valleys of southern Oregon and northern California, near 
the coast; in soutlicru California, and east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges, a low shrub confined to high, 
mountain valleys. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact ; medidlary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color, light 
brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.G951 ; ash, 0.50. 

HI. — Prunus Caroliniana, Aiton, 

Hort. Kew. ii, 163 ; 2 ed. iii, 196. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 987. — Poirot in Lamarck, Diet, v, 667. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 34.— Desfontaines, Hist, 
Arb.ii, 203.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 302.— Sprengel, Ncuo Entdeck. i, 304; Syst. ii, 478.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 71.— Elliott, Sk. i, 540.— 
Audubon, Birds, t. 1.59, 190. — Eaton, Manual, G ed. 286. — Schlechtendal in Linniea, xiii, 69. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 43.— Chapman, 
Fl. S. States, 120.— Curtis iu Rep. Gcologiial Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 57.— Wood, Bot. &, Fl. 103.— Koch, Dentliologie, i, 124.— 
Young, Bot. Texas, 252.— Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 9.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13. 

P. Carolinn, Miller, Diet.— Du Roi, Ilarbk. ii, 198. 

P. set-rat i/oUa, Marshall, Arbustum, 114. 

P. Lusitanica, Walter, FI. Caroliniana, 146. 

Cerasus CaroUmana, Michaux, 'Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 285.— Nouveau Dnhamel, v, 5.— Miohans f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 156, t. 7; 
N. American Sylva, 3<d. ii, 150, t. 89.- Soringe in De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 540. — Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 516.— Spach, 
Hist. Veg. i, 420.— Pcnn. Cycl. vi, 432.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 720, f. 423.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 411.— 
Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 190.- Browne, Trees of Auu>rica, 272.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 21)9.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 291.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 252. — Poroher, Resources S. Forests, 171. — Wood, CI. Book, 326. 

P. sempervirens, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 33. 

fBumeUa serrata, Pursh, I''l. Am. Sept. 155.— Rojmcr & Schultes, Syst. iv, 49a 

fAchras serrata, r,iii<-i, Suppl. v, 36. 

Leptocarpa Caroliniana, Nuttall. Sylva, ii, 18; 2ed. i, 167. 
Ghimanthns annjgdalinus, Ra(inesqiu\ Fl. Ludovioiana, 159. 
Laurocera^is Garoliniana, Roemer, Syu. Men. iii, 90. 



70 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WILD ORANGE. MOCK ORANGE. WILD PEACH. 

North Carolina, .sontli, near the ooast. to bay Biscayno, Fhirida, and southern Ahibama, west, along the Gulf 
coast, to the valley of the Guadalupe river, Texas. 

A small tree, evergreen, 10 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; 
common and reaching its greatest development in the rich, light, deep soil of the bottoms of eastern Texas, here 
often covering extensive tracts known as "peach brakes"; not common in the eastern Gulf states. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, chet:king badly in seasoning, susceptible of a good polish ; medullary 
rays numerous, thill ; color, light reddish-brown, or, more rarely, rich dark brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific 
gravity, 0.SCS8; ash, 0.41. 

Generally jilanted in the southern states as an ornamental and hedge plant; foliage, bark, and fruit contain 
prussic acid, the leaves, especially when partly withered, often proving fatal to animals browsing upon them. 

112. — Prunus spheerocarpa, Swartz, 

Prodr. 61 ; Fl. lud. Occ. ii, 927 [uot Micbaux]. — Willdoiiow, Spec, ii, 987. — Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 666. — Peraoon, Syu. ii, 34.— Don, 
^tiller's Diet, ii, 516. — Schlechtendal in Linnxa, xiii, 87. — Walpers, Rop. ii, 10. — Grisebach, Fl. Britisb West Indies, 2i!I. — 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, Snppl. 020. 

Cerasus xphcerocarpa, Loiseleur in Nouveau Dnliamel, v, 4. — Seringe in Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 540. — Loudon, Arlioretara ii, 
721.— Bot. Mas. t. 3141.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. i, 421. 

Semi-tropical Florida, western shores of bay Biscayno (Curdsn) ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, in Florida uot exceeding meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter; high 
rocky woods or, more rarely, along the borders of streams and ponds; rare. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many very small open ducts; layers 
of annual growth and medullary rays obscure; color, light, clear red, the sap-wood pale yellow; specific gravity, 
0.8998; ash, 0.S7. 

113. — Prunus ilicifolia, Walpors, 

Kep. ii, 10. — Dietrich, .Syn. iii, 43. — Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 63; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 285. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. 
California, i, lOS; ii, 443.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13. 

Ceraxm ilicifolia, Nnttall in Hooker & Aruott, Bot. Beoehey, 340, t. «3.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 411.— Nuttall, 
Sylvii, ii, IC, t. 47 ; 2 ed. i, 1C5, t. 47.— Torrey iu Emory's Kep. 139; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 83.— Paxton, Brit Fl. Garden, 
iii, 44, f. 2.14. — Walpers, Ann. iv, G54. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 18.i8, 2.")9. — Kellogg in Proc. California Acad, ii, 
22. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 79; iv, 22. — London Garden, 1873, 131 & fig. 

Laurocerasm ilicifolia, Roomer, .Syn. Mon. iii, 92. 



California, Coast ranges from San Francisco bay south to the southern boundary of the state, extending to 
the western slopes of the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains. 

A small tree, evergreen, often 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter, or when 
distant from the coast often reduced to a low shrub. 

Wood very heavy, bard, strong, close-grained, checking in seasoning, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, 
containing many regularly-distributed rather small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, bright 
reddish brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.9803; as-h, 0.7b; furnishing valuable fuel. 

114. — Vauquelinia Torreyi, Wataon, 

Proc. Am. Aca*!. xi, 147.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 169. — Maximowicz in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, v', 237. — Homsley, Bot. 
Am.-Cent. i, 370. 

Spircca Californica, Torrey in Emory's Rep. 140. 

V. corymhom, Torrey, Bol. Mex. Boundary Survey, 64 [not Correa]. 

Arizona, high mountains near the Gila (Emory), summits of the Santa Cataliiia mountains (Pringle, Lemmon)-, 
in Sonora. 

A small tree in the Santa Catalina mountains, 4 to meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.20 meter in 
diameter; dry slopes and rocky blufl's at 2,700 to 1,000 feet elevation, granitic soil; generally hollow and decayed. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very clo.se-grained, (!omi)act, suscei)tible of a benntifnl polish; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown streaked with red, the sap-wood yellow; si)ecific gravity, 1.1374; ash, 1.45. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 71 

115. — Cercocarpus ledifolius, Nuttall; 

Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427.— Hookor, Icon. t. :iJ4.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 28,t.51; 2 ed. i, 178, t. 51.— Walpere, Eep. u,.«5.— 
Dietrich, Syn. iii, 119.— Watson in King's Kep. v, 83, 420; PI. Wheeler, 8.— Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1671, 481.— Conlter in 
Hayden's Eep. 1872,765. — Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 201, 270; Proc. Davenport Acad, i, 146. — Engelmann in Simpson'n Eep. 435. — 
Brewer & Watson, liot. California,!, 174. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13. — Sargent in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xvii, 421. — Eothrock in 
Wheeler's Eep. vi, 43, 111, 360. 

MOXTNTAIN MAHOGANY. 

Cceur d'Alene mountains, Idaho, southward along the western slopes of the Rocky mountains of Montana and 
Wyomiufi ; ea.stern extremities of the Blue mountains of Washington territory and Oregon, Wahsatch mountains, 
Utah, and west along the mountain ranges of the Great Basin to the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of 
California, extending southward into Arizona and New Mexico. 

A small, low tree, rarely 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or north 
of Utah and Nevada reduced to a low shrub; dry, rocky mountain slopes, between 6,000 and 8,000 feet elevation, 
reaching its greatest development on the high ranges of central Nevada. 

A shrubby variety of the Wahsatch mountain and other ranges of Utah, characterized by its rigid, intricately 
branched growth, short, revolute leaves and smaller flowers and fruit, is — 

var. intricatUS, M. E. .Tones in herb. 

C. intricatuS, Watsou in Proc. Am. Acad, x, 346.— Parry in Am. Nat. ix, 270; Proc. Davenport Acad, i, 147. 

C. brevifulius, Watson in King's Rep. v,83 [not Gray]. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, brittle, difficult to work, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; 
medullary rays very numerous, thin ; color, bright, clear red, or often rich dark brown, the sap-wood clear yellow ; 
specific gravity, 1.0731 ; ash, 1.04; furnishing the most valuable fuel of the region, and largely manufactured into 
charcoal. 

116. — Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nuttall; 

Hooter & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 337.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. ii, 164.— Hooker, Icon. t. 323.— Walpers, 
Rep. ii, 4.5. — Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 89 ; Emory's Rep. 139; Sitgreaves' Rep. 158 ; Pacific E. E. Eep. iv, 83; Bot. Mex. Boundary 
Survey, 63; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 287. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 119. — Gray in Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. iv', 41 ; Smithsonian Contrib. iii, 
68; V, 54 ; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 146 ; Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiii, 411 ; Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1863, 61. — Engelmann 
in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 190.— Bolander in Proc. California Acail. iii, 79. — Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1870, 475; 1871, 
481.— Wat.sou in King's Eep. v, 62.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4,34.— Rothrock, PI. Wheeler, 
37 ; Wheeler's Rep. vi. 111, 359.— Brewer & Watsou, Bot. California, i, 174 ; ii, 444.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— M. E. Jones, 
Excur. Bot. 12, 15,20, 21.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. i, 374.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, 353. 

MOUNTAIN 3IAH0GANY. 

California, valley of the Klamath river, southward through the Coa.st ranges to the San Bernardino and San 
Jacinto mountains, and in Lower California ; Kocky mountains of Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, mountains 
of southern Arizona, and southward into Soiiora. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to !> meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often a 
shniV) ; dry, gravelly soil, reaching its greatest developmeut on the moiuitains of southern New Mexico and Arizona, 
at an elevation of 6,000 to 8,000 feet. 

A glabrous variety of southern California, with dark green leaves, is — 

var. glaber, Watsou,Bot. California, i,175. 

C. bctulw/olius, Nuttall in Hooker, Icon. t. 322.— Walpers, Rep. ii,46. 

G. betuloides. Nuttall in Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 427.— Hooker in London Jonr. Bot. vi,ai8. 

A form with small entire or sparingly toothed leaves, of northern Mexico, is — 

v:n-. paucidentatUS, Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xvii, ;?53. 

Wood very b<\>vy. hard, close-grained, compact, difficult to work, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary 
rays luimerous, thin ; color, bright reddish-brown, the .sap-wood light brown; specific gravity, 0.9365; ash, O.-tS; 
funushing valuable fuel. 



72 FOREST TREK6 OF NORTH AMERICA. 

117. — Pyrus coronaria, Linnusns, 

Spec 1 ed. 480.— Kalm, Travels, Englished, ii, llkv— Du Koi, Harbk. i, 229.— Marshall, Arbustum, 118.— Alton, Hort. Kow. ii, 176; * 
ed. iii, 209.- Willdonow, Spec, ii, 1019; F.uuin. r.-'7; Borl. Hauiiiz. :t:iO.— IVrsoon, Syti. ii, 40.— Piireh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 340.— Eaton, 
Manual. oG ; C cU. 291. — Kuitall, Genera, i, :W7. — Barton, C'ompeud. FI. Pbiludt'li>b. i, -2s. — llnjne, Dond. Fl. W). — Torrcy, Fl. U. 
S. i, 160; Comiwnd. Fl. X. States, 203; FI. N. York, i, 2-J3.— Bot. Mag. t. 2009.— Elliott, SU. i, 559.— Bot Ueg. viii, (iol.— SprengeO, 
SysU ii, 610.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 635.— Don, Millei-'s Diet, ii, 647.— Beck, Bot. 113.— Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.— 
Beicbenbacb, Fl. Exot. t. 240. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 223. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, 154. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 908 &t. — 
Bronne, Trees of America, 297. — Kichanlsou, Aictie Kxped. 425". — Parry in Owen's Rep. 612. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 307. — Cooper 
in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 252. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 128. — Curtis in Eep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 18t)0, iii, 69. — 
LeMqucn-ux iu Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 359. — Wood. CI. Book, ;>;?2; Bot. & Fl. 112. — Porcher, Hesources S. Forests, 149. — Gray, 
Mannul N. States, 5 ed. liil. — Koch, Deudrologie, i, 214. — Weuzig in Liuucea, xxxviii, 40 (excl. var. ). — Macoiin & Gibson in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, xii, 325.— Vasey.Cat. Forest Trees, 13.— London Garden, xix, 400, t. 280. —Ward in Bull. U. S. N.it. Mus.No. 
22.7S.— Eidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat.Mus. 1882,06. 

MalUK coronaria, Miller, Diet. No. 2.— Ma!ncb,Meth.(«2. —Miibaux, Fl.Bor.-Am.i, 292.— Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, v, 562.— 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 140.— Xouveau Duliamcl, vi, 139, t.44, f. 1.— Miehaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, '15, t, 10; N. 
American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 58, t. &5.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 55.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 136, t. 8.— Roomer, Syn. Men. 
iii. 191. — Decaisno in Nouv. Arch. Mns. x, 154. — Carri^re in Eev. Hort. 1877, 410 & t. 

Cratagus coronaria, Salisbury, Prodr. 357. 

Malus microcarpa coronaria, Carrifcre in Rev. Hort. 1884, 104, f. 24. 

AMERICAN CRAB. SWEET-SCENTED CRAB. 

Ontario, valley of the Hiimber river, shores of hike Erie, southward through western New York and 
Pennsylvania to the District of Columbia, and alons the Alleghany mountains to central Alabama and northern 
Mississippi; west to southern Jlinnesota, Iowa, ea.stern Kansas, the Indian territory, and nortluMii Louisiana. 

A small tree, rarely G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk often 0.30 meter in diameter; rich, rather low woods, 
reaching its greate.st development iu the valleys of the lower Ohio region. 

Wood heavy, rather sott, not strong, very close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure; color, brown varying to light red, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.7018; ash, 0.52; used for 
levers, handles of tools, and in turnery. 

Often plauted for ornament on account of its fragrant blossoms ; the small, yellow-green austere fruit used for 
preserve-s, and occasionally made into cider. 

lis. — Pyrus angustifolia, Alton, 

Hort. Kew. ii, 176; 2ed. iii,209.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1020.— Poirot iu Lamarck, Diet, v, 455.— Persoou, Syn. ii,40.— Pursh, Fl, Am. Sept. 
i,341.— Elliott, Sk. i, 559.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 480; Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 203. -Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 509.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii,0:l5.— 
Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, t. 132.— Bot. Reg. xiv, 1207.— Don, Miller'sDict. 647.— Beck, Bot. 113.— Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. i, 25.— 
Torrcy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 471.— Loudou, .\rboretnm, ii, 909 & t. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 3rf2.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 1.54.— Nuttall, 
Sylva, ii, 24; 2 ed. i, 174. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 307. — Cooper in Smith.sonian Rep. Id58, 252. —Chapman, Fl. S. States, 128. — 
Curtis in Rep. Goologcal Surv. N. C.irolina, 1860, iii, 69.— Lcsquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359. — Wood, CI. Book, 3.13; 
Bot. & Fl. 112.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 161.— Koch, Dendrolo;;ie, i, 213.— Vasey.Cat. ForcKt Trees, 14.— Ridgway in Proc. 
U. S. Nat.Mus. 18^,66. 

P. coronaria, Wangeuhcim, Amer.61,t.21,f. 47 [not Linna»u.sJ.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148. 

Malm angiuitifolia, Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 292.— Decaisno in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155. 

Malus aempc rcirens, Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 141.— Nouvean Dnhamel, vi, 638, t. 43, f. 1.— Poirot, Snppl. iv, 524.— Spach, 
Hist. Veg. ii, i:t5, t. 8, figs.— Roomer, Syn. Men. iii, 191. 

P. coronaria, var. angustifolia, Wenzigin Linna;a,xxxviii,41. 

Chloromeh'H semperrirens, Dccaisnc in FI. des Serres, xxiii, 126. 

ASIERICAN CRAB APPLE. SOUTHERN CEAB APPLE. 

Pennsylvania Y, southern Delaware, and tlie valley of the lower Wabash river, Illinois, south to the Chattahoochee 
region of western Florida. 

A small tree, G to meter.s in height, with .i trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter ; low, rich woods; most common 
and reaching its greatest development along tlici river boitoms of the south Atlantic states; less common west of 
the Alleghany mountains. 

Wood heavy, hard, clo.sc grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numenjus, obscure; color, light 
brown tinged with red, the sap wood yellow; Ki)ecilic gravity, O.G.SO.l; ash, 0.33; use<l for levers, haiuUesof tools, etc. 

The austere fruit used for preserves and made into eider. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 73 

119. — Pyrus rivularis, Douglas; 

Hooker, Fl. Bor. -Am. i, 203, t.6S.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, G47.— Tonoy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 471. —Eaton <t Wright, Bot. 383.— 
Walpera, Rep. ii, 53.— Dieliich, Syn. iii, l.')4.— Lcdoboiir, Fl. Eossica, ii,9!».— Nuttall, Sylva, ii,2'.J, t.49; 2ed. i, 172, t. 49.— Richardson, 
Arctic Exped. 428. — Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rop. iv, 85; Bot. Wilkes Expcd. 292.— Newberry in Pacific E.R.Rep. vi,73. — Cooper 
in Sniithsouiaa Kep. 1858,259; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, 29, 60. — Rothrock in Smithsonian Rep. 18C7, 4'.{5, 440.- Koch, Dendrolo^e, 
1, 212.— Gray in Proc. Ain. Acad, viii, 382. — Weuzig in Liunasa, xxxviii, 38. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California,!, 166. — Vaaey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 14. — Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 87. — Macoiin in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 1S5.— Dawson in 
Canadian Nat. now ser. ix, 330. 

P. diversifolia, Bongard in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, 6 ser. ii, 133. 

P.fusca, Rafinesqno, Med. Bot. ii,254. 

P. suhcordata, Ledebonr, Fl. Rossica, ii,95. 

Mollis rivularis, Reamer, Syn. Mon. iii, 215. — Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155. 

Malus diversifolia, Roomer, Syn. Mon. iii, 215. —Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 155. 

Mains suhcordata, Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 192. 

OREGON CRAB APPLE. 

Coast of Alaska, southward along the coast and islands of British Columbia, through Washington territory 
and Oregon, west of the Cascade inouutaius, to Sonoma county, California. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter ; rich, low woods, 
generally along streams, often forming dense thickets. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, liable to check badly in drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 
0.8310; ash, 0.41; used for mallets, mauls, bearings of machinery, etc. 

The small, black, pleasantly acid fruit occasionally used as a preserve, and prized by the Indians as food. 

120. — PjTus Americana, Do CandoUe, 

Prodr. ii, 637.— Watson, Dend. Brit. i. t. 54.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 511.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 204.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 648.— Beck. 
Bot. 113.— Audubon, Birds, t. 363.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 472.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 920 & t.— Eaton & Wright, 
Bot. 383.— Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, 224.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 155.— Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 25, t. 50; 2 ed. i, 17.'<, t. 50.— Browne, Trees of 
America, 326. — Euicrsou, Trees M.issachusetts, 439 ; 2 ed. ii, 499. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 612. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 428. — 
Lange, PI. Grceul. 134. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rop. 1858, 252.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 129. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Snr\. 
N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 70.— Wood, CI. Book, 333; Bot. & Fl. 112.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 168.— Gray. Manual X. States, 
5 ed. 161.— Koch, Dondrologie, i, 190.— Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.— Mnconn in 
Geological Rop. Canada, 1875-'76, 195. — Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xiii, 176. — Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54'. 

SorbltS Americana, Marshall, Arbustum, 145.— Willdonow, Euuni. 520.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 341.— Poiret, Snppl. v, 
104.- Eaton, Manual, 55; 6 ed. 351.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 75.— Torrey, Fl .U. S. 477 ; Compend. 
Fl. N. States, 202.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii,95.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 207.— Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, l;58.— Maximowio* 
m Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, xix, 174. — Wenzig in Linua?a, xxxviii, 71. — Decaisne in Nonv. Arch. Mus, x, 158. 

Sorbus aucuparia, Poirot in Lamarck, Diet, vii, 234, in p.art.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 1. ed. 119.— Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. Mas. 
X, 158, in part. 

Sorbiis aucuparia, var. Americana, Persoou, Syn. ii, 38 & addend. 

P. aucuparia, Meyer, PI. Labrador, 81, in part.— Schlochtendal in Linniea, x, 99.— Hooker f. in Trans. Linna>an Soo. ixii«, 
290, 327, in part. 

SorbliS hlimifusa, Rafinosque, Med. Bot. ii, 265. 

MOUNTAIN ASH. 

Greenland 1, Ijubrador, Newfoundland, Antioosti island, and westward along the southern shore of James' bay- 
to the valley i>f the Nelson river (White Mud falls), soutliward through all mountainous regions of the uortheastorn 
states, and almig the high mountains of Virginia and North C!arolina; in northern Mii-liigan. Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota. 

A small tree, G to It meters in heigiit, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter iu diameter; borders of swamps and in 
moist, rocky woods, reaching its greatest development on the northern shores of lakes Huron and Superior. 



74 P\')REST TKEES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

A form with smaller fruit, jieculiar to the high soiitheru AUegliauy mountains, is — 
var. microcarpa, Torrey i Gray, Fl. N. Ami-rica, i,472. 
Sorbun auctiparia, var. o. Michaux,Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 200. 

Sorbus murocarpa, Pureh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 341.— Poiret, Suppl. v, 164.— Elliott, Sk. i. 555.— Torroy, Fl. U. S. 477.— Eaton, 
Manual, eil. 351.— Spadi, Hist. Veg. ii,95.— Rofinir, Syu. Mon. iii, 138. 

P. microi-arpa, Sprongel, Syst, ii, 511.— De Caudollo, Prodr. ii, C:tC.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, C48.— Beck, B»t. 113.— Eaton 
& Wri;;lit, Bot. 3*"l. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 921. 

Sorbu* America7ia, var. microcarpa, Won/.ig in Limura, xxxviii,7i. 

Sorbus ripar.ia, Ralinesque, New .Sylva, 15. 

Wood liglit, soft, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown, the sap-wood 
lighter; ."specific gravity, 0.5451 ; ash, 0.H3. 
Often planted for ornament. 

121. — Pyrus sambucifolia, 

Cbamisso & Schlfclit«ndal in Linnica, ii, 36. — Bongard in Mem. Acad. Set. .St. Peteisbiirj;, (i ser. ii, 133. — Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 648. — Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. X. America, i, 472. — Walpers, Rep. ii, 53. — DIeiricb, Syn. iii, l.">.">. — Ledebour, Fl. Eossica, ii,99. — Trautvettcr & Meyer, 
Fl. O<hot.37. — Maximowicz, Prim. Fl. Amnrensis, 103. — Rotlirock in Smitbsonian Ki-p. l^**)?, 446. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 
161; Pnic. Am. Acad, viii, 3>'J. — Purter in Haydfu'fi Kep. IrJO, 475. — Watson in King's Rep. v, 92. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; 
Hayden's Surv. Misc. Piib. No. 4, 'i-i. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189. — Macoiiu in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 195. — 
riall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 87. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 10.— Sears in Bull. Esses Inst, xiii, 176. 

Sorbus aucuparia, var. /9. Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 290. 

Sorbus aucuparia, Scbrank, PI. Labrador, 25, in>part [not Linnajus]. 

P. Americana, Newberry in Paci6c R. R. Rep. vi, 73 [not Do CandoUe].— Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii^ 60.— Torrey, Bot. 
Wilk.s Expcd. 292. 

P. aucuparia, Meyer, PI. Labrador, 81, in part. — Schlecbtendal in Linna)a,x,99, in part. — Hooker in Tranv. Linnajan Soo. 
xsii-,290, .327. in part. 

Sorbus sambucifolia, Ro3mer, Syn. Mon. iii, 139.— Maximowicz in Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petereburg, xix, 174.— Wenzig in 
Linnu.'a. xxxviii, 73. — Decaisne in Nonv. Arch. Mus. x, 159. 

Sorbus Sitchensis, Rosmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 139. 

MOUNTAIN ASn. 

Labrador to northern New England and the shores of lake Superior; high mountain ranges of the Pacific 
region from Ala.ska to southern New Mexico ; in Kamtchatka. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or in the Pacific forests 
generally reduced to a low shrub ; cold, wet swamps or borders of streams, reaching its greatest devcIo[)meut ia 
northern New England and Minnesota. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerons, obscure; color, light brown, the 
Bap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5928; ash, 0.35. 

The bark and unripe fruit of the American mountain ashes, like those of the nearly-allied P. aucuparia of 
Europe, are extremely astringent, and occasionally used, domestically, in infusions, decoctions, etc., in the treatment 
of diarrhea {Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1333). 

122. — Crataegus rivularis, Nuttall; 

Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 161.— Walpers, Rep. ii, .58.— Nuttall, Sylva, li, 9; 2 ed. i, 160.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2.58; Am. Nat. iii,407.— R.-gel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 107.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 92. —Porter 
in Haydeu's Hep. 1871, 482.— Conlter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 7a5.— Brandegeo in Hayden's Rep. 1875, 236.— Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 14.— Maconn in Geological Rep. Canadii, 1875-'76; 195.— Eiigelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 128. 

C. sanguinea, var. Dovglasii, Coulter in Hayden's R.-p. 1872, 765 [not Torrey & Gr.iy]. 

British Columbia, sontii through east<>rn Oregon and Wa.shington territory, east and southeast along the 
mountain ranges of Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado, to the Pinos Altos mountains. New Mexico {Greene). 

A small tre<', « to « meters in height, willi a trunk rarely exceeding 0.;iO meter in diameter, or often a tall, 
much-branched Khrub, forming dense, imi>enetral)le tiii<;kels along borders of streams and swamps. 

Wood heavy, hard, close grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, bright reddish-brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7703; ash. 0.35. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 75 

123- — Crataegus Douglasii, Lindley, 

Bot. Reg. xxi, 1. 1810. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, t!2;i, f. 064 & t. — Koch, Demlroloj^io, i, 147. — Kaleniczenko in Ball. .Soc. Imp. Nat. Moecow, 
slviii, 20. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. Californiii, i, 189. — Macoiin in Geological Hop. Canada, 1875-'76, 195. — EDgelmann in Conlter'e 
Bot. Gazette, vii, 128. 

? C glandulosa, Pursli,Fl. Am. Sept. i,.!37, in part. 

C. punctata, var. brevispina, Donglasin Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201. 

C. sanguinea, var. Douglasii, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 4G4.— Walpers, Eep. ii, 58.— Dietrich, 8yn.iii, 160.— 
Torrey, Bot. Wilkes E.Npcd. 292.— Kegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 116. 

G. sanguinea, Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 6, t. 44 ; 2 ed. i, 1,57, t. 44 [not Pallas].— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1658, 259 ; Am. Nat. 
iii, 407. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

Anthomeles Douglasii, Roemer, Syu. Mon. iii, 140. 

G. rivularis, Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 189 [not Nuttall]. 

British Goluuibia, valley of the Parsuip river, in about latitude 55° N., south through Washiugtou territory 
and Oregon to the valley of the Pitt liver, California, extending east tlirough Idaho and Montana to the western 
base of the Rocky uiountaius {valley of the Flathead river, Ganhy ib Sargent). 

A small tree, sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or often a tall shrub 
throwing up many stems from the ground sind forming impenetrable thickets ; rather wet, sandy soil along 
streams, and reaching its greatest development in the valleys west of tlie Cascade mountains; toward its eastern 
limits a low shrub. 

Wood heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful iwiish ; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color, nearly white tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, O'.COoO ; ash, 0.33; 
used ibr wedges, mauls, etc. 

The small, sweet, black fruit, ripening in August, is largely collected by the Indian.s. 

124.— CratOiguS brachyacantha, Sargent & Euglemann; 
Engelmann in CouUei-'s Bot. Gazette, vii, 128. 

HOGS' HAW. 

New Orleans?, {Dnnnmond in herb. Gray); Minden, Louisiana (Mohr)x Concord, Texas {Sargent); Lougview, 
Texas (in fruit, Lctterman). 

A tree 9 to 12 meters in height, with a truidc sometimes O.GO meter in diameter ; borders of streams in low, 
very rich soil ; the largest North American representative of the genus. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, 
very obscure; color, light browu tinged with rose, the sap-wood lighter ; specilic gravity, 0.6793 ; ash, 0.42. 

The large blue-black fruit greedily eaten by hogs and other animals. 

125. — Crataegus arborescens, Ellioit, 

Sk. i, 550.— Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 112.- Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i,4(i(;.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.— Dietrich, Syu. iii, 160.— 
Walpers, Rep. ii, .^8. —Nuttall, Sylva, ii, 10, t. 45 ; 2 cd. i, 160, t. 45.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.— Cooper in Smithsouian Rep. 1358, 
252.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.— Wood, CI. Book, 331 ; Bot. & Fl. 111.— Young, Fl. Texas, 259.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tree«, 14.— 
Engehnann in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 4. 

Phwnopyrmn arborescens, RaMucr, Syn. Mon. iii, 153. 

C. GrUsgaUi, var. 2)y''ncanthi/'olia, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 109, in parr. 

Valley of the Savannah river. South Carolina (Aiken, RavencI), south to the Chattahoochee region of western 
Florida; valley of the jMississii)pi river, near Saint Louis {Engelmann), south and southwest to western Ltniisiana, 
and the valley of the lower Colorado river, Texas. 

A small tree, to 9 u)eters in height, witli a t nuik soiiietinu>s 0A~> to 0.(!0 meter in diameter ; borders of streams 
and in rather low, wet swamjjs. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medulhuy rays very 
numerous, obscure ; color, light browu tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.G491 ; ash, 0.57, 

The small globular fruit bright red or, more rarely, orange. 



76 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

126. — Crataegus Crus-galli, Liunions, 

Spec. 1 cd. 476. — Kalm, Travels, EDglisb ed. i, llfi. — Modicus, Bot. Ueobacht. ii, 3-14. — Walter, Fl. CaroliniaDQ, 147. — Aiton, Hort. Kow. 
ii.l70; 2ed. iii.aoa.— Wilkleuow, Spec, ii, 1004.— Micaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,2*.— PorBOon, Syn. ii, 37.— Pursli, Fl.Aiii. Sopl. i, XIS.— 
Eaton, Manual, 56 ; t> is\. Ml.— Nut tall, G.iiiTa, i, 305.— Barton, Compciul. Fl. Pl.iladelpli. i, 22.'> ; Prodr. Fl. Pliiladclpli. r>4.— Elliott, 
Sk. i, ;>4^.— Torrcy, Fl. T. S. 476 ; Coiniieud. Fl. N. Stati-.s, yOd ; Fl. N. York, i, 221.- Watsou, Dond. Brit, i, t. .'')(■..- Do Caiulollc, Prodr. 
ii,62C.— Hooker, Fl. Bor. -Am. i,'JCO; Companion Bot. Mag. i,-J5— Don, Miller's Diet. ii,59S.— Beck, Bot. 111.— Toiroy & Gray,Fl.N. 
America, i, 46:1.— London, Arboretum, ii, 820. f. 574, 575 &. t.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 212.— Bigelo\v,Fl. Boston. 3 ed.20(i.— Dietrich, 
Syn. iii, 15<i. — Browne, Trees of America, 278. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 433 ; 2 cd. ii, 492 &, t. — Ra'uier, Syn. Mou. iii, 117. — 
Parry in Owen's Kep. 612. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 83. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 305. — Cooper in Sinithsonian Kep. 1858,252. — 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127.— Curtis in Kep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 83. — Lesqmreux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 
359.— Wood, CI. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111.— Porcher, Kesourccs S. Forests, 148.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 160; Hall's PI. 
Texas, 9. — Young. Bot. Texas, 258. — Kegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i,10S. — Kaleniczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Xat. Moscow, 
llviii, 19.— Vasi-y, Cat. Forest Trees, 14.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 54"^.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. 

C. lucida, Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 13.— AVangcnheim, Amer. 53, 1. 17, f. 42.-Sprengol, Syst. ii,506.— Dc Candolle, Pnidr. ii,629.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 599.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212. 

Mespilus CniSgalU, Marsh.all,Arbustnm, 88.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 441.— Desfoutaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 157.— Nouveau Dnhainel, 
iv, 149.— Willdcnow, Euum. 522; Berl. Baumz. 244.— Hayne,Dend. F1.80.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 142. 

t 2fespilus cuneifomiis, Marshall, Arbustum, 88. 

Mespilus lucida, Ehrhart, Beitr. iv, 17.— Mcench, Meth. 685.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii,57. 

Me-tpilus cuneifolia, Mcench, Metli. 684. 

C. Cru.sgalli, var. Sjylendens, Alton, Hort. Kow. 2 ed. iii, 202. 

Mespilus WatSOniaua, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 5". 

C. Wutsoniana, Roiuier, Syn. Mon. iii, 117. 

COCKSPUB THORN. NEWCASTLE THORN. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence river, west through southern Ontario to Manitoba, south through the Atlantic 
forests to the valley of the Chipola river, western Florida, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texas. 

A small tree, 4 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, running into various 
forms. The best marked are — 

var. pyracanthifolia, Alton, Hort. Kew. ii, 170; 2 ed. iii, 202.— De CaudoUo, Prodr. ii, 626.— Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, 
i,4('.4.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 820, 1. 128, f. 580.— Browne, Trees of America, 278.— Rogel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, 
i, 109, in part. 

C. sttlicif'olitl, Medicus, Bot. Beobacht. ii, 345.— Rajmcr, Syn. Mon. iii, 117. 

C. Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, Aiton, I. c ; 2 ed. I. c. — Willdonow, Berl. Banmz. 244. — De Candollo, I. o. — London, I. o. t. 
551-.'j53, ."j78 &. t.— Browne, /. c— Eegel, I. c. 110. 

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, Hayne, Dend. Fl. 80. 

Mespilus Crus-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, Hayne, l. c. 

Mespilus salicifolia, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 144. 

0. Courstliana, Rccmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117. 

var. ovalifolia, Lindlcy, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. I860.— Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 404.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159.— Loudon, 
Arljorctiun, ii, 821, f. 579 & t.— Regcl in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 109. 

Mespilus iivalifolia, Homcmaun, Hort. Hafn. Si.ppl. 52. — Koch, Dendrologio, i, 143. 

Mespilus jtrunellifolia, Poiret, Suppl. iv, 72. 

C. ornlifolia, De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 598.— Rocraer, Syn. Mon. iii, 117. 

C. prunellifolia, De Candolle, /. c— Don, I. c— Ra-mer, I. c. 

ifespilus elliptica, Gnimpel, Otte &, Hayne, Abb. Holz. 170, t. 144 [not Lamarck].— Spach. Hist. Veg. ii,68. 

var. linearis, Dc Candolle, Prodr. ii, 626.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.— Dietrieli, Syn. iii, 159.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, li, 821, f. .577.— Browne, Trees of America, 278.— Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 110. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 77 

Mespilus lucidity var. angustifolia, Ehrhart, Bcitr. iv, 18. 

C. linearis, Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.— Roemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 113. 

Mespilus linearis, Dosfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 156.— Pfiiret, Suppl. iv, 70.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 57. 

var. prunifolia, Torrey &. Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 464.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 159.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 821, f. 576 &. t,— 
Kcpl ill .\ct. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 110. 

Mespilus prunifolia, TMarsliall, Arbustnm, 90.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 441!.- Nouveau Diihamel, iv, 150, t. 40.— SprengeL 
Syst. ii, 506. 

Mespilus rotundifolia, Ebrbart, Beitr. iii, 20. 

C. prunifolia, Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.— Bosc in Do Candolle, Prodr. ii, 6->7.— Don, Miner's Diet, ii, 598.— Lindloy, Bot. Eeg. 
sxii, t. 1868.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212. 

Mespilus Bosciana, Spacb, Hist. Veg. ii, 58. 

G. Bosciana, Rcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 118. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a fine polish ; medullary rays 
numerous, very obscure ; color, browu tinged with red, the sap-wood rather lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7194: ash, 
0.5G. 

The long, strong spines are occasionally collected and used to fasten sacks and for similar purposes. 

127. — Crataegus coccinea, Linnasus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 476. — Walter, FI. Caroliniana, 147. — Alton, Hort. Kew. ii, 167 ; 2 ed. iii, 200. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1000 (excl. syn.). Michaux 

Fl. Bor.-Ain. i, 288. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 36. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337. — Eaton, Manual, 55; 6eJ. 111. — Nuttall, Genera, i, 305. 

Schrauk, Pfl.Labrador, 26. —Barton, Compend, Fl. Philad<^Iph. i, 22(!.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 77. — Elliott, Sk. i, 553. — Torrey, FI. U. S. 474 • 
Compend.Bot.N. States, 201; Fl. N. York, i, 221; Emory's Kep. 403.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii,G27.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201 ; Bot. 

Mag. t. 3432. — Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 599. — Meyer, PI. Labrador, 8 i. — Beck, Bot. 112. — Lindley, Bot. Keg. -^3, 1. 19.'>7. Torrey &GRiy 

Fl. N. America, i, 405.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 206.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.— Walpers, Rep. ii, 5i. 

Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 816, f. 564-566, t. 121. — Sclinizlein, Icon. t. 270, f. 18-20,22. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 434; 2 ed. ii, 
493 & t. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 427. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3ed. 8'3. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 30.'>. — Cooperiu Smithsonian Eeo. 
1858, 252. — Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. sii, 43 ; Manual N. Sf.ates, 5 ed. 160. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127. — Curtis in Rep. Geological 
Surv. N. Carolina, 1850, iii, 82. — Losiiuereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 309. — Wood, CI. Book, 331 ; Bot. &. Fl. HI.— Kaleniczcnko 
in Bull. Soe. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 9. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. — Soars in Bull. Esses Inst, si ii, 177. — Bell in Geolcical 
Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55^- Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 66. 

Mespilus coccinea, Marshall, Arbustum, 87.— Mcench, Meth. 684.— Lamarck, Diet. iv,442.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb ii, 156.— 
Willdenow, Enuui. 523; Berl. Bauniz. 233. — Wendland in Regeusb. Fl. 1823, 699. — Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507 —Spach, 
Hist. Veg. ii, 64. 

Mespilus rotundifolia, Ehrhart, Beltr. Ui, 20.— Wendland in Regen.sb.Fl. 1823, 700.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, t. 58.— Koch, 
Deudrologie, i, 148. 

Pyrxts (jlanihdosa, Mooncb, Meth. 680. 

C. glandulosa, Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1002 (excl. syn.).- Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i,337, in p:irt.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 475; Compend. 
Fl. N. States, 201.— Do Candolle, Prodr. ii,627.— Loddigos, Bot. Cab. 1. 10(2.- Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201.— Don, Miller's 
Diet, ii, 599.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. HI.— Beck, Bot. 112.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 817, 
f. 550, 567, 568 & t. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 427. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18Cl\ iii, 84.— 
Kegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 120. 

Mespilus glandulosa, willdenow, Enum. 523.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 62.— Koch, Deudrologie, i, 145. 

Mespilus pubcxccns, Wendland in Regeusb. Fl. 1823,700. 

C. Crus-gaUi, Bigolow,Fl. Boston. 2 ed. 194 [not Liunajus]. 

f Mespilus Wendlandii, Oniz in Regeusb. Fl. 1834, 590. 

C. macraeantha, Loddigos in London, Arboretum, ii, 819, f. .572, 573 & t. 

C. glandulosa, var. macraeantha, Lindley in Boi.Reg. xxii,t. 1912. 

MesiiihiS Jlabcllafa, Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 63.— Kocb, Deudrologie,!, 148. 

Halmta Jlahcllata, Rmmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 136. 

Antllomch'S rotundifolia, UVvraer, Syn. lion, iii, 140. 

Plianopijruni tonintltmjlmwr, Syn. .Mon. iii, l.V!. 

Plia'nopi/rum Wendlamli!, Kiem.i-.Syu.Mou. iii, i.'>6. 



78 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

SCARLET HAW. RED HAW. WHITE THORN. 

West coast of Xewfoundlaud, we.st alongr the valley of the Saint Lawreiiee iiv»T ami t he northern shores of the 
great lakes to Manitoba, south through the Atlantic forests to northern Florida and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, sometiuies meters in height, with a trunk O.oO meter in diameter; open upland wooils or along 
streams and borders of prairies; very common at the north, rare at the south ; running into many forms, varying 
iu the size and shape of the leaves, size of the fruit, etc. The best marked are — 

var. viridis, Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 4G5.— Torrey in NicoUct's Eei). 149. 

C. riridix, LiniKius, Spec. 1 e<l. 476.— Willdcnow, Si>ec. ii, 1001.— IVrsoou, Syu. ii, :!(j.— Elliott, Sk. i, 551.— De CautloUe, Prodr. 
ii, 630. —Dou, Miller's Diet, ii, 601.— Eaton, Maiiuiil, 6 cd. 112. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica,2 cd. 293.— Eiiton & Wright, 
Bot. 212.— Beck, Bot. no5.—Darby, Bot. S. States, 305.— Wood, CI. Book, 332; Bot. & Fl. 111. 

t Phwnopyrum viride, Ecemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 156. 

Mespilm viridis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 149. 

C. glandulosa, var. rotundifolia, Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i,120. 

var. populifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 4t)5. 

C. populifolia, Elliott, Sk. i, 553 [not Walter].— Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112— Beck, Bot. 305.— Eaton &■ 
Wright, Bot. 212.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 305. 

Mespilus populifolia, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 447. 

Phwnopyrum populifolium, Eoenier, Syn. Mon. iii, 156. 

G. COCCinea, var. typica, Eegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 121. 

var. oligandra, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays thin, very obscure; color, brown tinged with red, 
the snp-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.SG18; ash, 0.38. 

128. — Crataegus subvillosa, Schrader, 

IncL Sem. Hort. Goett.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 35.— Eidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 1882, 66. 

C. COCCinea, var. mollin, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 465.— Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vi, 186.— Parry in 
Owen's Rcji. C12. — Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 121. 

Phcenopyrum SUbvillosum, Rd-mcr, Syn. Mon. iii, ir)4. 

C mollis, Scbeeli! iu Liuuaja, xxi, 569; Rcemer, Texas, Appx. 473.— Walpers, Ann. ii,523. 

C sanguinea, var. rillosa, Itnpri'clit & Maximowicz, Prim. Fl.Amurcnsis, 101. 

C. Texana, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1861, 454 (see Gray iu same, 1S62, 163).— Young, Fl. Texas, 258. 

C. tomentosa, var. mollis, Or.iv, .Manual X. States, 5 ed. 160.— Wood, CI. Book, 330; Bot. «t Fl. 121.— Vasoy, Cat Forest 
Trees, 14. 

MespihlS tiliafolia, Koch, iJiinlrolonic, i, 151. 

SCARLET HAW. 

Ea.stem Ma.s.sachnHetts (possibly introduced); central Midiigan toeastern Nebraska, south to middle Tennessee, 
and southwest thrftugh ^Mis.souri, Arkansas, tlie Indian territory, atul Texas to the valley of tlu* San Antonio river. 
, A snuiU tree, 7 to 9 meters in hejgiit. with a trunk rarely <l.l.'> m<'t<^r in diameter; rich woods and along Ixu'ders 
of streams and i>rairies. 

Woo<l heavy, hard, not strong, clo.se-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; cohjr, light 
brown or light re<l, the sap-wood lighter ; specilie, gravity, ((.795.'! ; ash, 0.69. 

The large red fruit often downy, edible, and of agreeable flavor. 



CATALOGUE OF POOREST TREES. 79 

129. — Crataegus tomentosa, Linnains, 

Spec. 1 ed. 476 (excl. syn. Gronovius). — Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii, 151. — Du Roi, Harbk. i, 183. — Torrey Sc Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 
46G.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.— Torrey, Fl. N. York, i, S-.ia.— Ecuersoii, Trees Massachusetts, 1 cd. 435; 2 cd. ii, 494 <t t.— Parry in 
Owen's Kop.Gli. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 185.^,252. — Chapman, Fl. S. .States, 127. — Lcsqncrenx in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 
359. — Wood, CI. Book, :!30. — Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. !•». — Young, 
Bot. Texas, 258. — Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. — Macoun in Geological Kep. Canada, lfe75-'76, 195. — Bidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mas. 18S2, 66. 

G. leucophlccos, Mceuch, Hort. Weiss. 31, t. 2. —Kegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 106. 

Mespilus Calpodendron, Ehrhart, Beitr. ii,67. 

G. pyrifoUa, Aitou, Hort. Kew. ii, 168 ; 2 ed. iii, 200.— Willdcnow, Spec, ii, 1001.— Perooon, Syn. ii, 36.— Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 
131.— Poiret, Suppl. i, 292.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 337.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 306.— Elliott, Sk. i, 550.— Torrey, Fl. U. 8. 
475; Compeud. Fl. N. States, 201.— De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 627.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201. —Don, Millers Diet, ii, 
599.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 111.— Liudl v, Bot. Reg. xxii, 1. 1877.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 819, f. .571 & t. --Eaton &. 
Wright, Bot. 211. 

Mespilv^ latifolia, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 444. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 156. — Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 150. — Spach, Hisu Veg. 
ii,60. 

0. latifolia, Persoon, Syn. ii, 36.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 598.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.— Ecemer, 
Syn.Mon.119. 

Mespilus pyrifoli a, Willdenow, Ennm.523; Berl. Bauniz. 240.— Kaleniczenko in Bnll. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 15.— 
Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507. — Hayne, Dend. Fl. 78. 

Mespilus lobata, Poiret, Suppl. iv, 71. 

Mespilus odorata, Wendland in Regensb. Fl. 1S23, 700. 

Mespilus pruinosa, Weudland in Rogensb.Fl. 1823,700. 

0. lobata, Bosc in De Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628. 

C.flava, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 202 (excl. syn.). 

Halmia tomentosa, Roemer, Syn. Men. 135. 

Halmia lobata, Roemer, Syn. Mon. 135. 

Pheenopyrum pniinosum. Rammer, Syn. Mon. 155. 

f G. COCcinea, Viir. viridis, Torrey in Pacitic R. R. Rep. iv, 86 [not Torrey & Gray]. 

G. tomentosa, var. pyrifolia, Gray, JIanual N. States, 5 ed. 160.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 111. 

C. COCmea, Brandegeo in Hayden's Rep. 1875', 236 [not Linna>us]. 

G. leucocephalus, Lavallde, Arboretum Sogrez. 78, t. 22 [not Moench]. 

G. COCCinea, var. cordata, LavalMe, Arboretum Segrez. 81, t. 22. 

BLACK THORN. PEAK HAW. 

New Briinswitik, westward along the valley of the Saint Lawience river and tbe northern shores of the preai 
lakes to the Saskatchewan region, southward through the Atlantic forests to the Chattahoochee region of western 
Florida, and eastern Te.xas west to the mountains of eastern Washington territory and Oregon, southwestern 
(JoUirmlo, ;iml soulliwi'.storu Now Mexico. 

A sni;ill tree, to !) moters in height, with a trunk I'aroly OA't meter iu diainetor. or often, especially west of 
the Rocky ruoiiiitains, reduced to a low shrub, here lorming dense thickets along uioiuitain stix»ams ; the most widely- 
distrihuti'd of the Xorth American Cratagi, varying greatly in the size, shape, and color of the fniit, form of the 
leaves, amount of luibesccnce, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays luimerous. thin: color, bright reddish- 
brown, the sap-wood lighter; specilic gravity, 0.7(W.'{; ash, 0.50. 



80 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

X'ar. punctata, Gray, 

Haiiaal N. States, 2 ed. VU. — Coopor in Smithsuuiuu Rep. li?58, 2,V2. — Chiipmau, Fl. S. Stat«3, 1'27.— Porter iu Hayden's Rep. 1871, 
481. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

C. punctata, Jacquin, Hort. Vindob. i, 10, t. 28.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 169; 2 ed. iii, 202.— Willdctiow, Spec, ii, 1004.— 
Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Aiii. i, 2Si».— Persoou, Syu. i, ^7.- Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, J38.— Elliott, Sk. i, 54S.— Tonoy, Fl. U. 
S. 476 ; Compeud. Fl. N. States, 202 ; Fl. N. York, i, 222.— Do Caudollo, Prodr. ii, 627.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 201 (oxol. 
van); Couipauiou B.it. Ma^. i, 2o.— Djii, MIIKt's Diet, ii, 589.— Eatou, Mauual, ed. 111.— Beck, Bot. 111.— Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. \. Aiinrica, i, 466.— Loudon, Arboretnui, ii, 818, f. 569, 570 & t. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.— Dietrich, 
Syu. iii, 15U. — Browne, Trees of Aiueriea, 277. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 4:!5 ; 2 ed. ii, 495. — Gray, Mauual 
N. States, 1 ed. 128.— Richardson, Arctic Expcd. 427.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 84. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 
306. — Lesqnereux iu Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 3.')9.— Wood, CI. Book, 330; Bot. & Fl. 111. — Engelinann iu Trans. 
Am. Phil. Soc. new set. xii, 191. — Kaleuiczuuko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 14. 

Me*pilu-i corni/otia, Mutnchhausen, Hausv. v, 145. — Lamarck, Diet, iv, 444.— Koch, Deudrologio, i, 134.— Spach, Hist. Veg. 
ii, 60, t. 10, f. c. 

C. Cms gain, Wangenheim, Auier. 52. — Du Roi, Harbk. i, 195 '"not Linnicus]. 

Mespilus cuneifolia, Ehrhart, Biitr. iii, 21.— Spreugel, Syst. ii, 506.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 61. 

Mespilus punctata, Loiseleur in Nouveau Dnhaciel, iv, 1,52.— Willdenow, Enum. 524; Berl. Baumz. 243.— Poiret, Snppl. 
iv, 70. — Hayne, Dend. Fl. 79. — ^Watson, Deud. Brit, i, t. 57. — Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, CI. — Weuzig in Linntea, xxxviii, 128. 

Mespilus pyrifolia, Desfoutaines, Hist.Arb. ii, 15.5. 

C. punctata, var. rubra and aurea, Aiton, Hort. Kow.2ed. iii, 202. 

C. latifolia, De CaudoUe, Prodr. ii, 627. 

t C. flexuosa, Schweinitz iu Long's 2d Exped. ii, Appx. 112. 

C.flava, Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 292 [not Aiton]. 

C. cuneifolia, Rimier, Syn. Mon. iii, 118. 

C. Obovatifolia, Rccmer, Syn. Mon. iii, 120. 

Halmia punctata, Rn?mer, .Syn. Mon. iii, 134. 

Halmia COrnifolia, Ra:mcr, Syn. Mon. iii, 1:54. 

C. tomentosa, var. plicata, Wood, Cl. Book, .330; Bot. &F1. ill. 

C. punctata, var. xanlhocarpa, Lavalldo, Arboretum Sogrez. i, 53, t. 16. 

Fruit l:ir;,'C!- tlian tliat of tlie Kpecies, dull red or yollow. 

130. — CratsEgus cordata, Aiton, 

Bort. Kew. ii.KW; 2 ed. iii,200.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1000.— I'ersoon, SyM. ii, 36. — Eaton, M.annal,!)5; 6 ed. 111.— Elliott, Sk. i,554.— 
Torrey, Fl. U.S. 474; Conipend. Fl. X. States, 201.— Do Caiidolle, Prodr. ii, 628.— Wat.son, Dcnd. Brit, i, t. 63.— Liiulley, Bot, Reg. 
liv, t. 1151.— Hooker, Fl. B»r.-Aui. i, 201.— Don, Miller's Diet. ii. 599.— Beck, Bot. 112. -Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 4(i7.— 
London, Arboretum, ii, 825 &. t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211 —Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.— Browne, Trees of America, 280.— Ri^ihardson, 
Arctic Expe«l. 427.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 83.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1808, 252.— 
Chapman, Fl. 8. States, 127.— Cnrtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 82.— Wood, Cl. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. HI.— 
Gray. .M.iuual N. Stales, 5 ed. 159.— Young, Bot. Texas, 257.— Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 114.— Kaleniczonko in Bull. Soc. 
Imp. Nat. Mo'-cow, xlviii, 31. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

MeHpiluH Phmnopyrum, Ehrhart in Linnajus f. Snppl. 2.'>4 ; H.itr. i, 181; ii, 67.— Moonch, Mcth. 685.— Lamarck, Diet, 
iv, 446. 

C. populifolia, W.-ilter, Fl.Caroliniana, 147 [not Elliott].- Piir.sh, Fl. Am. .Sept. i,3:!7. 

MetipiluH aceri folia, Burgsdorf in Lamarek.Dict.iv, 442.— Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 151.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 6.5. 

MexpihlH cordata. Miller, Icon. t. 170.— Willdenow, Ennm. 523; Berl. Banmz. 239.— Ilayne, Dend. Fl. 77.— Sprongel, Syst. U, 
.'•''7.— Koch, Deudrologio, i, 1*8. 

PllCCnopi/rum Cinlatum, Rrnmer, Syu. .Mon. iii, 1.57. 

riucnopi/ruin n<< ril'iiUiun, KajuuM , ,Syn. Mon. iii, 157. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 81 

WASHINGTON THORN. 

Valley of the upper Potomac river, Virgiuia, .southward along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia 
and Alabama, extending west through eastern and middle Kentucky and Tennessee to the valley of the lower 
Wabash river, Illinois. 

A small tree, 6 to 8 meters in height, witli ;i trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter; generally along banks of 
streams. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, brown tinged with red, 
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7293; ash, 0.46. 

Formerly widely planted as a hedge plant. 

131. — Crataegus apiifolia, Michaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 287.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 38.— Piirsli, Fl. Aui. Sept. i, 3:Jti.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.— Elliott, Sk. i, 552.— DeCandoUe, Prodr. ii, 
627.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 599.— Audubon, Birds, t. 192.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112.— Hooker, Companion Hot. Mag. i,25.— Torrey 
& Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 467. —Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 824, f. 588, 589 «fc t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 3ilC.— Kcemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 121. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1658, 2.52. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 127. — Wood, 
01. Book, 331 ; Bot. & Fl. 111.— Gniy, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 159 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 9.— Young, Bot. Tex.is. 2.i7.— Kaleniczcnko in 
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 99. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

G. oxyacantha, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147 [not Linnieus]. 

MespihlS apiifolia, Marshall, Arbustum, 89.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 68.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 508.— SpacU, Hist. Veg. ii, 67. 

Mespihtu monogyna, var. aplifoUa, Koch, Dendrologie,i, 160. 

C. oxyacantha, var. apiifolia, Kegel iu Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, 119. 

PARSLEY HAW. 

Southern Virginia, southward near the coast to about latitude 28", extending west through the Gulf states to 
southern Arkansas and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a slender stem rarely exceeding 0.08 to 0.10 meter in diameter, 
or more often a low shrub, throwing up many stems from the ground ; low, rich soil, reaching its greatest 
develoi)meiit iu tlie pine barren hummocks of central Florida. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays thin, very 
obscure; color, bright brown tinged with red or rose, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7453 ; ash, 
0.97. 

132. — Crataegus spathulata, Micbaux. 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 228. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 37. — Barton, Compond. Fl. Pbiladelpli. i, -iiij. — Elliott, Sk. i, 552. — Loddiges, Bot. Cub. t. 12iil. — 
Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 599. — Hook<r, Couii)anion Bot. Mag. i, 25. — (iray in Lindloy, Bot. Reg. xxiii under 1. 1957 ; Manual X. St.ites, 
5 ed. 159. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 112. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N.America, i,467. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 825, f. 591 & t. — Eaton &, 
Wright, Bot. 212.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 160.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 30().— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 126.— Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. 
Arkansas, 359.— Wood, CI. Book, 331; Bot. & Fl. 111. — Young, Bot. Texas, 257. — Kaleuiczenko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 
xlviii, 31. — Ridgway in Am. Nat. vi, 728. 

Mespilus Azarolus, Marshall, Arbustum, S9 [not Liun;eus]. 

MexpibtS spathulata, Poiret, Suppl. iv,t">8.—Desfontaines. Hist. Arb. ii. 1.57.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 507.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 
66. — Koch, Dendrologio, i, 137. 

C. microcarpa, Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 184t;. 

Phamopyrum spathvlatmu, Ra>mer, Syn. Mon. iii, 355. 

SMALLFRITITED HAW. 

Virginia, .southward to the (.'hattaliooche*' region of western Florida, west through the Gulf states to the valley 
of the Washita river, Arkansas (Hot Sjiiings, Lctierman), and the Colorado river, Texas. 

A small tree, (! to S meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.2.") meter iu diameter, or often reduced to a low 
shrub; margins of streams and jjrairies; common and reaching its greatest development ahMig the bottom lands of 
western Louisiana and eastt>ru Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact : medullary rays very numerous, obscure : color, light 
hrown or red. the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7159; ash, 0.66. 
(! FOR 



82 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

133. — Crataegus berberifolia, Torrey & Gray, 

Kl. N. America, i, 4(iy.— Dietrich, Syu. iii, 10i».— Walpers, Hep. il, oi).— Kituier, Syii. Mon. iii, 115.— Wood, CI. Book, 332.— Kegel in Act. 
Hort. St. Petersburg, i, li>3.— Eugcluiuim in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, ViS. 

Mespilus berberifolia, Weuzig in Limiaea, xxsviii, lib. 

Phtmopyrum ellipticuvi, Rcpmer, .?yn. Mon. iii, 15r.. 

Phccnopyrum Virginicum, Roemcr, Syu. Mon. iii, 155. 

Nevr Orleans? {Brummovd, No. 105'); Opelousas, Louisiana (Car2)enter, Sargeni). 

A small tree, 6 to S meters in Leigbt, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter; borders of prairies, in low 
ground ; the fruit and wood not yet lollected. 

134.— Crataegus aestivalis, Torrey & Gray, 

Fl. N. America, i, 4t>S.— Walpcrs, Eej). ii, 58.— Dietricli, Syn. iii, 16C.— Xuttall, Sylva, ii, 12 ; 2 ed. i, 16-,'. —Darby, Bot. S. States, 306.— 
Chapman. Fl. S. States, 127.— Lesquereus in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 359.— Wood, CI. Book, 331 ; Bot. & FI. 111.— Kegel in Act. 
Hort. St. Petersburg, j, 124.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

Mespilus (EStiralis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 447. 

C. elliptica, Elliott, Sk.i, 548 [not Alton]. 

C. lucida, Elliott.Sk. i,o49[notEhrhart]. 

C. opaca, Hooker & Amott in Companion Bot. Mag. i, 2."i.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv,2563. 

Anthomeles (BStitalis, Ecemer, Syn. Mon. iii, 141. 

MAY HAW. APPLE HAW. 

South Carolina, .«outh to northern Florida, west through the Gulf states to southern Arkansas and the valley 
of the Sabiue river, Texas. 

A small tree, G to meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; generally in sandy soil along 
the margins of streams and ponds ; common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of western 
Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

^ ood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown 
or red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.65t)4; ash, 0.57. 

The large, globular, fragrant, red fruit, of agieeable subacid flavor, used as a preserve, in jellies, etc. ; ripening 
in May. 

135. — Crataegus flava, Aiton, 

Hort. Kew. ii, 1G9 ; 2 ed. iii, 201.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 1002.— Persoou, Syn. ii, 37.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i , 336.— Nut tall, Genera, i, 305.— 
DeCandoUe,Prodr.ii,C-.'^.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, t. 59.— Don, Miiier's Diet, ii, 600.— Lindlcy, Bot. Reg. xxiii, t. 1939.— Toncy & 
Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 40-'.- Eaton, Manual, G ed. 112.— London, Arboretum, ii, 823, f.585 & t.— Eaton & AV right, Bot. 911.— 
Dietrich, Syn. iii. IGO.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 30fi.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. lKi8, 252.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 28.— CurUs 
in Hep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 83.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, :J59.— Woo<l, CI. Book, 332; Bot. 
& Fl. 111.— Gray, Manual X. States, 5 ed. 160.— Regel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 122.— Kaleniczcnko in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. 
Moscow, xlviii, 27.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

Mespilus flexinpina, Ma;nch, Verz. Banm. 62, t. 4.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 139. 

C. glandulosu, Alton, Hort. Kew. ii, 168; 2 ed. iii, 201 [not .Michaux].— Porsoon, Syn. ii, 37.— Point, Suppl. iv, C.'.l. in i)art. 

Mespilus Caroliniana, P„iiet in Lamarck, Diet, iv, 442.— Desfontaincs, Hist, Arb. ii, 156.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, .">07. 

C. Caroliniana, Per^.on, Syn. ii, .36.— Elliott, Sk. i, 554.— Eaton, Manual, G cd. 112.— Eaton <fc Wright, Bot. 212. 

Mespilus flava, Willdenow, Ennm. 523.— Poirot, Suppl. iv, 70.— Watson, Dond. Brit, i, t. 59.— .Spach, HiHt. Vog. ii, .W. 

C. turbinate, purhh, Fl. Am. Sept. Addend. 735.— Poiret, Suppl. v, 543.— Elliott, Sk. i, 549.— Dc CandoUc, Prodr. ii, 627.— 
Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 599.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 212. 

Mespilus turbinata, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 506.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 60. 

C. flava, var. lobata, LindUy, Bot. Keg. xxiii, t. 1932. 

C. lobata, Bohc in Dc Candolle, Prodr. ii, 628.— Don, Miller's Diet, ii, .599.— London, Arboreium, li, S24, f. 5.54, 586. 

Phaynopyrum Carolinianum, Rromer, Syn. Mod. iii, 1.'2. 

Anthomeles flava, glandulosa, and turbinata, Rcemer, Syu. Mon. iii, Ml. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 83 

SUM5IEE nAW. YELLOW IIAW. 

Virginia, southward, generally near the coast, to Tampa ba^v, Florida, west through the Gulf state* to 
eastern Texas and southern Arkansas. 

A small tree, rarely 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 meter in diameter, or reduced to a mucb-brauched 
shrub 2 to 3 meters in height ; borders of streams, in low, sandy soil subject to overflow. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, satiny, susceptible of a good polish ; medullary 
rays very numerous, obscure ; color, light brown tinged with red or rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 
0.7809 ; ash, 0.79. 

Fruit small, red or yellow, acid. 

Var. pubescens, Gray, 

Mauual N. States, 5 ed. 1(J0. 

Mespilus Memalis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 447. 

C. viridis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 147 [not LinnaBus]. — Elliott, Sk. i, 551. 

G. elliptiea, Alton, Hort. Kew. il, 168; 2ei. iii, 201.— Walldenow, Spec, ii, 1002.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 37.— Pursb, Fl. Am. 
Sept. i, 337.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. 475; Compend. Fl. N. States, 201.— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 
627.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,201.—Don, Miller's Diet, ii, 598.— Beck, Bot. 33.— Eatou, Manu:il, 6 ed. 111.— Torrey & 
Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 469.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 211.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 109.— Darby, Bot. S. States. 306.— 
Cnrtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18(50, iii, 84. — Kegel in Act. Hort. St. Petersburg, i, 182. 

Mespilus elliptiea, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 447.— Wenzig in Linnisa, xxxviii, 125.— Koch, Dondrologie, i, 140. 

G. glandtdosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 288 [not Aiton].— Nuttall, Genera, i, 305.— Chapman, Fl. S. Stat.-s, 128.— Vasey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 14. 

C. Micliatixii, Persoon, Syn. ii, 38. 

G. spatlmlata, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 336 [not Michaux].— De CandoUe, Prodr. ii, 627.— Liudley, Bot. Reg. xxii, t. 1890; 
xxiii, under 1. 19.57. 

Mespilus Michauxii, Honiemann, Hort. Hafn. 455.— Poiret, Suppl. i v, 69. 

G. flava, Elliott, Sk. i, 551 [not Aiton J. 

G. Viryinica, Loddiges in London, Arboretum, ii, 842, f. 560, 615. — Kalcniczenko in Bnll. Soc.Imp. Nat. Moscow, xlviii, 58. 

SUMMER-HAW. RED HAW. 

Virginia, southward to Tampa bay, Florida, and sparingly through the Gulf states to western Louisiana. 

A low tree growing with the species, from which it is distinguished by the pubescence of the calyx and 
young branches, the smaller flowers, and larger, bright red or yellow, globular or pear-shaped fruit. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-graiued, compact ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; coior, bright 
red or rose, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7083; ash, 0.91. 

The large, edible fruit used in the south Atlautic states in preserves, jellies, etc. 

NoTK. — Crata'guii jtarrifolia, Aiton, of the south Atlautic region, a low shrub, is not included in this catalogue. 

136. — Heteromeles arbutifolia, Roemer, 

Syn. Mon. iii, 105. — Decaisue in Nouv. Arch. Mus. x, 144, t. 9. — Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, lirt- ; ii, 444. 

Crataegus arbutifolia, Poirot in Nouveau Dubamel, iv, 131 ; Diet. Suppl. i, 292.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 202.— Loddiges, 
Hot. Cab. t. 201. 

Aronia arbutifolia, Nuttall, (ji'uera,i, 306. 

Photinia arbutifolia, Lindloy in Trans. Linmean Soc.xiii,103; Bot. Reg. vi, 491 & under t. 19,'6.—Sprengel, Syst. ii, ;"iO>.— 
De CaudoUe, Prodr. ii, 631. — Chanii.sso & Schlechteudal in Linntea, ii, 542. — Don, Miller's Diet. ii. 002. — Spacli, Hist. 
Veg. ii, 80.— Hooker & Ariiott, Bot. Boechoy, i:i9. 340.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 473.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 16S.— 
Loudou, Arboretum, ii, 868, f. 619.— Bcnthain, Bot. Sulphur, 14; PI. llartweg. 307.— Torn-y in Emory's Kep. 140: 
Sitgrcaves' Rep. 119; Pacilic R. R. Rep. iv, 85; Bot. Jlex. Boumliuy Survey, 64; Bot. Wilkes Exped.2!U.— Wood, CL 
Book, 329. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 80. — Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. — Palmer in Am. Nat. sii, 50i>. — 
Maximowicz in Bnll. .\ead. Sci. St. Petersburg, xix, 180. — Wenzigiu Liuua'a, xxxvili.SW. 

Mespilus ((rliutifolia. Link, Kumn. Hon. Berol. ii,3t). 

rhotilliu salicifolia, I'real, Kpiuiel. Hot. -^tU.— Walpers, Ann. iii, ^.i^. 

E. Fremontiana, Decaisue in Xouv. Arch. Mus. x. 144. 



84 FOKEST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

TOVON. TOLLON. CALIFORNIA HOLLY. 

California Coast ranges, Mendocino to Sau Diego county, extending east to the loot hills of the Siena N«5vada 
and San Bernardino mountains. 

A suiall, low branched evergreen tree, rarely exceeding 9 meters in height, the short trunk sometimes 0.30 to 
0.43 meter in diameter, or more often a low, much-branched shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close graiued, inclined to check in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; 
medullary lays numerous, very obscure; color, dark reddish-brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9326; 
ash, 0.54. 

137. — Amelanchier Canadensis, Torrcy & Gray, 

Fl. N. America, i, 473. — Walpers, Rep. ii, 55. — Uii-lrich, Syii. iii, UiA. — Torrey, Fl. N. York, i. 2i5. — Browne, Trees of Ami-rica, :i&i. — 
Emerson, Trees MassachuBetts, i, 443; 'i ed. ii, 503 & t.— Parry iu Oweu's Rep. 612. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 cd. 86. — 
Richardson, Arctic Exped. 428. — Seemann, Bot. Herald, 52. — Hooker f. in Trans. Liuniean Soc. xxii-, 290, 327.— Cooper m 
Smithsonian Rep. 1^58. 252. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 120. — Curtis in Rep. Geolojiical Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 68. — Lesqnereux 
in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 359. — Wood, CI. Book, 329; Bot. & Fl. 110. — Engelmanu iu Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191. — 
Porchi-r, Resources S. Forests, 16^. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 162. — Koch, Deudrologie, i, 180. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 14. — 
Maxiraowicz in Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, six, 175. — Ridgway iu Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. 1882, 66. 

Mespilun Canadennis, Linnaeus, Spec. 1 ed. 478 (oxcl. syn. Grouovius).— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 148.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 
ii, 173. 

Cratcrgiis tomentosa, Linn.-eus, Spec. 1 ed. 476 (excl. syn. Gronovius). 

Pyrun Botryapium, Linnaeus f. Suppl. 255.— Waugenheim, Amer. 90, t. 28, f. 65.— Ehrhart, Beitr. i, 183 1; ii, 68.— Willdcnow, 
Spec, ii, 1013; Enum. 525; Berl. Baumz. 322.— Alton, Hort. Kow. 2 ed. iii, 207.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i,339.— Hayue, 
Dend. Fl. 83.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, 100, t. 79.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 509.— Audubon, Birds, t. 60.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 
3 ed. 308. 

Crataegus racemosa, Lamarck, Diet, i, 84.— Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 148.— Nouveau Duhanicl, iv, 133.— Poiret, Suppl. i, 292. 
MespUxiS niven, Marshall, Arbustum, 90. 

Mespihi.t Canadensis, var. cordata, Micha«x,Fl. Bor.-Am. i,291. 

Aronia Botryapium, Persoon, Syn. ii, 39.— Nuttall, Genera, i. 557.— Elliott, Sk. i,.^'.— Torrey, Fl. U. S.479: Conipend. Fl. 
N. States, 203.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 29.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 135. 

Menpihis arhorea, Michaux f. Hist. .Vrb. Am. iii, 68, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, ()0, t. 66.— Barloii, Prodr. I'l. 
Pliiladelph.55. 

A. Botryapium, Lindley iu Trans. Linniean Soc. xiii, 100.— De Candollc, Prodr. ii, 632.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Aui. i, 202.— 
Pen. .Miller's Diet. ii. 604.— Berk. Bot. 112.— .Spaeh, Hist. Yes;, ii, 84.— Li)n<l(in. Arbi.retuni. ii, H74, (. 627-62!) & t.— 
Roomer. Syn. Mon. iii, 145. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 307. — Wcnzig in Linnffia, xxxiii, 110. — Decaisne in Nouv. Arch. 
.Mus. X. 135. 

Aronia arhorea, Barton, Compend.Philadelph.i, 228. 

Aronia cordata, Rjifine.sque, Med. Bot. ii, 196. 

A. oralis, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-.Ym. i, 202, in part. 

ByrUH Jtnrtramiuna, Tausch, Fl. xxi,7I5. 

I 
I'yrus Wanyenheimiana, Tausch, Fl. xxi,715. 

A. Bartramiana, Rccmer, Syn. Mon. iii,145. 

A. Want/enheimiana, Rremc-r, Syn. Mon. 146. 

JUNE BEUBY. SUAD BUSH. SERVICE TREE. MAY CHERRY. 

Newfoundlanil and Labrador, west along the southern shores of Flndson bay to the Saskatchewan region, 
south through the Atlantic forests to nortiiern Florida, southwestern Arkansas, and the Indian territory. 

A small tree, 9 to 1.5 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.4o meter in diameter, or in some forms reduced to 
a low shrub (var. rotnndifolin, Torrey & (;ray : var. oliyocarpn, i-oney &- Gray); common at the north, rare at the south, 
and reaching its greatest development on the high sloi)es of the Honthern Alleghany mountains; varying greatly 
in the shape of the leaves, size of the llowers, amount of pubescence on the leaves and \ onng shoots, etc. 

The best marked arborescent variety i« — 

var. oblongifolia, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 473.- Walpers, Rep. ii, ."iS.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 158.- Torrey, 11. N. 
Y"irk, i,22.'.: Xicollet's Rep. 149.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, i, 444; 2 e<l. ii, 504 & t.— Wood, CI. Book, 330; Bot. 
& Fl. 110.— Gray, Manuel N. States, 5 cd. 1G2.— Macoan iu Geological Rep. Canada. 187.'>-'76, 195. 



CA^l^ALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 85 

Cratagus spicala, Jjaiiiarck,Dict. i,84. — DcBlbutaincs, Hist. Arb. ii, 14?. — Nouvcaii Dubamel, iv, 132. — Poiret.SuppL i,292. 

Mespilus Canadensis, var. obovalis, Michaux,FJ.Bor.-Am. i, 2i»i. 

Fyrus OValis, Willdenow, Spec ii, 1014 ; licrl. IJaumz. 323.— Piirsli, I'l. Am. Sept. i, 340.— Sclirank, PI. Labrador, 2C.— Bigclow, 
Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 207. 

Aronia OValis, Toi-rev, Fl. U. S. 47U ; Compend. Fl. N. States, 203.— Eaton, Manual. C cd. 29.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 135. 

A. OValis, Do Candolle, Prodr. ii,032.—Mn}pr, PI. Labrador, 81. —Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,202, in part.— Don, MUler's Diet, ii, 
604.— Beck, Bot. 112.— Spach, Hist. Vog. ii, 85.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 876, f. 632. 

A. intermedia, Spaoh, Hist. Veg. ii,85.— Wcnzig in Linna,'a, xxxiii, 112. 

.-1. oblongi/olia, Eoemer.Syn.Mon. iii,147. 

A. spicata, Decaisne in Nonv. Arch. Mus. x, 135, t. 9, f. 5. 

Wood heavy, exceediogly hard, strong, close-grained, checking somewhat in seasoning, satiny, susceptible of 
a good polish ; medulliiry rays very nnmeroiis, obscure ; color, dark brown often tinged with red, the sap-wood 
mucli lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7838 ; ash, 0.55 ; the small fruit sweet and edible. 

Note. — The closely allied Amtlunch'ier almfoUa, Nuttall, a low shrub, is widely distributed over the mountain ranges of the interior 
Pacific region. 



HAMAMELACEJ^. 



138. — Hamamelis Virginica, Linua^us, 

Spec. 2ed. 124.— Marshall, Arbustura, 58.— Du Eoi, Harbk. i, 423.— Wangenheim, Amer. 89, t.29, f. 62.— Lamarck, Diet, iii, 6.S; III. i, 
350, t. 88.— Aiton, ITort. Kew. i, 167; 2 cd. i,275.— Schkuhr, Handb. i, 88, t. 27.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 701 ; Enum. 171 ; Berl. Baumz. 
172.— Michanx, Fl. Bor. Am. i, 100.— Persoon, Syn. i, 150.— Dcsfontaiucs, Hist. Arb. ii, 29.— Pnrsh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 116.— Xuttall, 
Genera, i, 107.— Nouveau Duhamel.vii, 207, t. 60.— Elliott, Sk. i, 219.— Ramer & Schiiltes, Syst. iii, 433.— Loddiges,Bot. Cab. t. 598.— 
Barton, Fl. N. America, iii, 21, t. 78.— ToiTOy, Fl. U. S. 192; Compend. Fl. N. States, 86; Fl. N. York, i, 260.— Guimpel. Otto &. 
Hayne, Abb. Holz. 95, t. 75.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 401.— Rafiuesque, Med. Bot. i, 227, f.45.— De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 268.— Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Aui. i, 275 ; Companion Bot. Mag. i, 48.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 396, f. 69.— Beck, Bot. 152.— Eaton, Manual 6 ed. 164.— Spach, 
Hist, Veg. viii, 79. — Dietrich, Syn. i, 550. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 597. — London, Arboretum, ii, 1007, f. 75ti, 7.'i7. — 
Eaton & Wright, Bot.260.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 63.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 416; 2 ed. ii, 473 & t.— Darby, Bot. S. 
States, 328.— Darlington, Fl. Ce.sfrica, 3 ed. 98.— Agardh, Theor. & Syst. PI. t. 13, f. 7.— Schuizlein, Icon. 1. 167, f. 18-25, 27-29.— 
Gray in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 scr. xxiv, 438 ; 3 sor. v, 144 ; Manual N. States, 5 ed. 173.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 1.57. — Curtis in Rep. 
Geological Surv. N. Carolina, iii, 105. — Leaqnereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 362. — Wood, CI. Book, 375; Bot. & Fl. 120. — 
Engclmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new scr. xii, 193. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 58. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii,45P. — Baillou in 
Adansonia, x, 123; Hist. PI. iii, 389, f. 462-464.— Young, Bot. Texas, 291.— Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 408 & f. 

H. dioica, Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 255.— Guioliu, Syst. Veg. i, 281. 

H. androgyna, Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 2,55.— Gmeliu, Syst. Veg. i, 282. 

H. COryli/oUa, MtEncli, Moth. 273. 

H. macropJnjlla, Pur.sh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 116.— Poiret, Suppl. v, 698.— Elliott, Sk. i, 220.— Roomer & Sohulte-s Syst. iii, 4SJ.— 
Ealinesqne, Mod. Bot. i, 230.— Eaton, Manual. 6 cd. 164.— Don, Millet's Diet, iii, 396.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 261. 

Trilopun Virginiana, nigra, rotiindifolia, and dentatu, Katinesque, New Sylva, ir>-17. 

H. Virginiana, var. parvifolia, Nuttall, Genera, i, 107.— Torrey, Fl.U. S.193; Conipend.Fl.N. States, 87.— Don,Miller'i 
Diet, iii, 396.— Beck, Bot. 152.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 597. 

H. parvifolia, Rafincsqnc, Med. Bot. i, 230. 

TrilopUS parvifolia, Eafincsquo, Now Sylva, 17. 

WITCU UAZKL. 

Northern New England and southern Ontario to Wisconsin, south through the Atlantic region to northern 
Florida and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, exceptionally 7 to meters in height, with a trunk 0..'iO to 0.31 meter in diameter, or more often 
a tall shrub throwing \^^ many stems from the ground; common; rich, rather damp woodlands, reaching its 
greatest development in the region of the southern Alleghany mountains. 



86 FOREST TREES OP^ NORTH AMERICA. 

Wood heavy, hard, very closegraiucd, c'ouipact ; hjyers of annual growth hardly distinguishable; medullary 
rays numerous, thin, obseure; eolor, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity 
O.6S06: ash, 0.37. ' ■ ' 

The bark and leaves rich iu tannin, and largely used by herbalists in the form of fluid extracts, decoctions, 
etc., iu external applications, and as a reputed remedy in hemorrhoidal affections [Ketc York Jour. Med. x, L>08.— 
Tram. Am. Med. Assoc, i, 350. — U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. KiGl. — Nat. Dis2)ensatonj, 2 ed. 704). 

139. — Liquidambar Styraciflua, Linuicus, 

Spec. 1 (><1. 999.— Marshall, Arbustam, 77.— Wangenhoim, Amer. 49, 1. 16, f. 40.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniaiia, 237.— Lamarck, Diet, iii, 533; 111. 
iii, 367, t. 783.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 365 ; 2 ed. v, 306.— Giertner, Fruct. ii, 57, t. 90.— Moench, Jleth. 340.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, 
•"•—B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 16.— Willdenow, Spec. iT,475; Ennni. 98.".; Berl. Banmz. 214.— Miclianx, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 202.— Persoon, 
Syn.ii.573.— Desfontaines, Hist.Arb. ii, 541.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 97.— Schkuhr, Handb. iii, 275, t. 307.— Nouveau Duhamel.ii, 
42, 1. 10; vii,207,t.00.— Michaus f. Hist. Arb. Aiu. iii, 194, t.4 ; N.American Sylva,3 cd. ii, 42, t. 64. —Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladelph. 
92; Couipend. Fl. Phila<lclph. ii, 177.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 635.— Eaton, Manual, 110; 6 ed. 208.— Ealinesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 
116.— Xuttall, Oenera, ii, 210 : Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 2 ser. v, IflS.- Nces, Fl. Offic. t. 95.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 621.— Sprengol, Syst. iii, 864.— 
Hnmboldt. Bonpland & Kiinth, Nouv. Gen. & Spec, vii, 273.— Audubon, Birds, t. 44. — Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 357; Fl. N. 
York, ii, 217.— Beck, Bot. 326.— Hooker, Comp.anion Bot. Mag. ii , 64. —Eaton & Wright, Bot. 302.— Spach, Hist. Veg. x, 84.— Loudon, 
Arboretuin,iv,2049, f. 1961 & t.—Lindley, Fl. Med. 322.— Griffith, Med. Bot.581,f.254.— Broomfield in London Jour. Bot. vii, 144.— 
Schnizlein, Icon, t.98, f.5-21.— Secmann, Bot. Herald, 346.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 509.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 252.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 157.— Curtis in Eep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1660, iii, 77.— Lesquenux in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 
362.— Wood, CI. Book, 375; Bot. & Fl. 120.— Porcher, Besources S. Forests, 344.— De CanJolle, Prodr. xvi^ 157.— Oliver in Hooker 
f. Icon, xi, 13.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 174.— Koch, Deudrologie, ii, 464.— Yomig, Bot. Texas, 291.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
15.— Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 412 & ligs.- Baillon, Hist. PI. iii,397,f. 471-474.— Guibonrt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii, 300, f. 
445.— Eidgway in Am. Nat.vi, 664; Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 67.— Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii,53.— Hemsley, Bot. 
Am.-Cent. i,400. 

L. Styraciflua, var. Mexicana, Or.ste<i, Am.-Ceut. svi, t. il. 

L. macrophylla, Orsted. Am.-Cent. xvi, t. 10. 

SWEET GUM. STAE-LEAVED GUM. LIQUIDAMBER. BED GUM. BILSTED. 

Fairfield county, Connecticut, to the valleys of the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash rivers, south to cape 
Canaveral and Tampa bay, Florida, southwest through southern Missouri, Arkansas, and the Indian territory to 
the valley of the Trinity river, Texas; in central and .•^x)uthern Mexico. 

A large tree, often 30 to 36 or, exceptionally, 48 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter iu 
diameter; iu low, wet soil; very common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of the 
Mississippi basin, here, with the cotton gum, forming a large proportion of the heavy forest growth. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, rather tough, close-grained, compact, inclined to shrink and warp badly in 
seasoning, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, bright brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood nearly white; s])ecific gravity, 0.5010; ash, O.Cl ; manufactured into lumber and used 
in the con.struction of buildings for plates, boarding, and clapboards, in cabinet work as a substitute for black 
walnut, and for veneering and street pavements; its great economic value hardly appreciated on accouiit of 
the difficulty experienced in proi)erly seasoning it. 

The balsamic exudation obtained from this species at the south collected by herbalists and sometimes used in 
the form of a sirup as a substitute for storax in the treatment of catarrhal aflfoctions, or externally as an ointment in 
dressing frost-bite, abscess, etc., and in the maiuifixcture of chewing gums {FUicldger <fe Hanhury, Pharmacographiii, 
246.— Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 834). 



rhizophoracej:. 



140. — Rhi^cphora Mangle, Linnajus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 443.— Jacqnin, Amer. 141, t. 89.— Guirtucr, Frnct. i, 212, t. 4ii, f.l.— Lamarck, III. ii, 517, t. 396; Diet, vi, 160.— Willdonow, 
Spec, ii, 844.— Persoou, Syii. ii, 2.— Decourtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, i, 45, 1. 10.— VoUozo, Fl. Flum. 1. 1.— Do Candollc, Prodr. iii, 32.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 301.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 332, t. 34.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 484. -Nuttall In Am. .Tour. Sci. 1 sor. 
V, 29.5.— Hooker & Amolt, Bot. Beechcy, 290.— Amott in Ann. Nat. Hist. i,361.— Walpcrs, Eep. ii, 70.— Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 
14.— Darby, Bot. .S. States, 312.— Porcher, Besources S. Forests, .55.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 274.— Schnizlein, Icon. t. 
26.3, f. 1-7.— Maout & Decaisne, Bot. English ed. 419.— Eichler in Martins, Fl. Brasil. xii», 426, t. 90.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
15.— Baillon, Hist. PI. vi, 284, f. 253-2,59. 

R. racemosa, .Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 185.— De CandoUe, Prodr. iii, 32. 

R. Americana, Nuttall, Sylva, i, 95, t. 24; 2 ed. i, 112, t. 24.— Cooper in Smithsonian Hop. 1858, 264. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 87 

MANGEOVE. 

Scuii-tropical Florida, Mosquito ink-t and Cedar Keys to the southern keys; delta of the Mississippi river 
and coast of Texas ; soutliward through the West Indies and tropical America ; now widely naturalized throngboat 
the tropics of the old world (A, Be Candolle, Geog. Bot. ii, 772). 

A tree 12 to 18, or, exceptionally, 27 meters in height, witli a trunk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter, or more 
commonly not e.xceeding 4 to 7 meters in height; low saline shores, reaching in the United States it.s greatest 
develo])raent on bay Biscayne and cape Sable; south of latitude 29°, bordering with almost impenetrable thickets 
the coast of the Florida peninsula, ascending the rivers for many miles, especially those flowing from the Everglades, 
and entirely covering many of the southern keys. 

Wood exceedingly heavy, hard and strong, close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful 
jwlish, containing many evenly-distributed r;ither small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark 
reddish brown streaked with lighter brown, sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 1.1617; ash, 1.82; furnishing 
valuable iuel ; not greatly aftected by the teredo, and used for piles. 



COMBKETACEiE. 



141. — Conocarpus erecta, LiiiuBeus, 

Sped ed. 176.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 96; 111. i, 126,f. 1.— Jacquin, Amer. t. 78.— Ga!rlner, Fruct. ii, 470, t. 177, f. 3.— Swartz, Obs. 79.— 
Willdenow, Sp. i, 994.— Aitoii, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. i, 381.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 47.— De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 16.— Decoortilz. Fl. 
Med. Antilles, vi, 68, t. 399.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 304.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 485.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 113, t. 33 : 2 ed. 
i, 128, t. 33.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 526.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136.— Grisebach, Fl. Britisk 
West Indies, 277. — Eichler in Martiu.f, Fl. Brasil. xiv", 101, t. 35, f. 2. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15. 

BUTTON WOOD 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, Tampa bay to cape Sable ; through the 
West Indies to Brazil. 

A low tree, often 8 or, exceptionally, 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in 
diameter ; common and reaching its greatest development in the United States on Lost Man's river, north of cape 
Sable; or reduced to a low under shnib (var. procumbens, De Candolle, 1. c— Eichler, /. c. ; C. procumbens, Linmeus, Spec. 
led. 177.— Jacqnin I. o. 79, t. .52, f. 2. — Grevtner, l. c. iii, 205, f. 4— Griseb.ieh, 1. c; C. acUtifoUa, Willdenow in Rcrmer A. Schnltes, 
Syst. V, 574). 

Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure; color, dark yellow brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9900 ; ash, 0.32; burning 
slowly like charcoal, and highly valued for fuel. 

142. — Laguncularia racemosa, Caatmr f. 

Fraet. Suppl. 209, t. 217.— De Candolle, Prodr. iii, 17.— Spach, Hist. Veg. iv, 305.— Nuttall. Sylva, i, 117, t. 34 ; 2 ed. i, 132, t. 34.— Bentham, 
Bot. Sulphur, 14, 92.— Riohard, Fl. Cuba, 527. — Eichler in Martins, Fl. Br.isil. xiv', 102, t. 35, f. 3. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 
1858,264.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies. 27f>.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trcc8, 15.— Baillou, Hist. PI. 

vi, 278. 

Conocarpus ra<iemosa, Linuanis, Spec. 2 ed. 2r.l ; Syst. 1^-11.- .lacquin. Amor. 80, t. .".3.— Swartz, Obs. 79.— WilUleuow, Sl>CC. 
i,P95. 

Schousboca COmmiltata, Sprongcl, Syst. ii, 332. 
Bucida Buccras, Vellozo, Fl. Flum. iv, t. 87 [not Liuunnis]. 

L. (jlahrifoUa, Presl, Kcil. Hunk, ii, 22.— Walp.rs, Rep. ii, 63.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 136. 
WHITE BUTTON WOOD. WHITE MANGROVE. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cai)e Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast. Cedar Keys to cape Sable; through 
the West Indies and tropical America; coast of tropical Africa. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 or, exceptionally, 22 meters in height (Shark river, Florida, Curtiss). with a trunk 
0.30 to O.tiO meter in diameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub ; very common ; saline shoi^es 
of lagoons and bays. 

Wood very heavy and hard, strong, close-grained, very comi»act ; su.^Jeeptible of a b-^autiful i>i>lish : int diiUary 
rays numerous, obscure; color, dark yellow-brown, the sap wood much lighter: specific gravity, 0.7137; ash, 1.62. 



88 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



M Y R T A C E ^ . 



143. — Calyptranthes Chytraculia, Swartz, 

Prodr. 79; Fl. InJ. Oce. ii, ShJl.— WilkUnnw, Spec, ii, UT,').— Ailou, Ilort. Kfw.2 cd. iii, 192.— Do Caudolle, Prodr. iii, 2:i7.— Nuttall, 
Sylva, i, 101, t.2G; ied. i, 117, t. 211.— Berg iu Liiina-a, xxvii, 26. — Cooper iu Smitlisouian Rep. 1858,264.— Chapman, Fl. S. .States, 
131.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 232.— Hemsley. Bot. Am.-Cont. i, 408. 

Myrtus Chytraculia, Lluna^ns, Amcen. v, 396.— Swartz, Obs. 202. 

Eugenia pallens, Poiret, Snppl. iii, 122. 

Semi tropical Florida, shores of bay Biscayne, Key Largo ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes S meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, containing many evenly-distributed rather large open tlucts^ 
mednllary rays numerous, thin ; color, browu tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.8992;, 
Mb, 3.32.' 

144. — Eugenia buxifolia, Willdcuow, 

Spec. ii,960.— Persoon,Syn.ii,28.— De Candolle,Prodr.iii,275.— Nuttall,Sylva,i,108,t.29; 2ed. i, 123, t. 29.— Cooper in Smithsonian 
Kep. 1858, 2(>4.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 236.— Vaaey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15. 

Myrtus buxifolia, Swartz, Prodr. 78; Fl. Iiid. Occ. ii,899. 

Myrtus axillaris, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, iv, 412. 

E. myrtoides, Poiret, Snppl. iii, 125. 

Myrtus Poireti, Sprengel, Syst. ii,4H3. 

E. triplinervia, Berg in Linn;ia,xxvii, 100, in part. 

GUEGEON STOPPEK. SPANISH STOPPER. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, Caloosa river to cape Bomano; in 
the West Indies. 

A small tree, rarely 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, reaching its 
greatest development on the rich hummocks of the Everglades. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, very compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; 
color, dark brown shaded with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.9300; ash, 1.50 ; somewhat used 
for fui'l. 

145. — Eugenia dichotoma, De CaudolU-, 

Prodr. iii, 278.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 103, t. 27; 2 ed. i, 120, t. 27.— Berg in Linna'a, xxvii, 261.— Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2(14.- 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15. 

E. divaricata, Lamarck, Diet, i, 202. 

fMyituH dichotoma, Vahl in Point, Snppl. iv, 53. 

Anamomis punctata, Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 240. 

NAKED WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to cap'.' Canaveral, comm«n ; west coast, CJaloosa river to cape Komano; 
in the West Indies. 

A .small tree, sometimes 6 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.15 meter in diameter. 

A form with the leaves, buds, and calyx more or less pubescent {E. diclwtoma, var. fragrans, Nnttall, i, c; E. 
pungens, Wiiblenow, Sine, ii, !h;4; Bot. Mag. t. 1212; E. montaiia, Anbict, Gnian. I, 495, t. 195), not rare in West Indies, 
and, according to Xuttntl, collected by Mr. Baldwin in the vicinity of New Smyrna, Florida, has not been 
retliscovcrcd within the limits of the United States. 

Wood very heavy, hard, clo.se-grained, comi)act ; medullary rays nuinerons, thin; color, light lirown or nd, 
sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 0.8983; a.sli, 0.71. 

The small, edible fruit of agreeable aromatic flavor, and greatly improved by cultivation in rich .soil. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 89 

146. — Eugenia monticola, Do Candollc, 
Prodr. iii, 27.5.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.— Oriscbach, Fl. BritiHh West iDdice, 236. — Vascy, Cat. Foroet Trees, 15. 
Myrfus monticola, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 898. 
E. triplinervia, Berg in Liunaia, xxvii, 193, in part. 
E. hxiKari.s, Bei.; in Linnie.i, xxvii, 201, in part. 

STOPPKR. WHITE STOPPKE. 

Floridti, Saint John's river to Umbrella Key ; rare; in the West Iudie.s. 

A small tree, rarely 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0..30 meter in diameter, or in northern Florida reduced 
to a low shrub. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerons, thin ; color, brown, 
often tinged with red, the sap-wood darker; specific gravity, O.OloG; a.sh, 1.89. 

147. — Eugenia longipes, Berg, 
Linntea, xxvii, 150. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. C20. 

STOPPER. 

Semi-tropical Florida, No-Name Key ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, 4 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; rare. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many evenly-distributed open 
ducts ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color, dark brown or nearly black, the sap-wood brown tinged 
with red ; speciiic gravity, 1.1235 ; ash, 3.48. 

The small red frnit with the flavor of cranberries. 

148. — Eugenia procera, Poiret, 

Suppl. ii, 129.— De CandoUe, Prodr. iii, 268.— Niittall, Sylva, i, 106, t. 28; 2 ed. i, 122, t. 28.— Berg in Linnaja, xxvii, 207.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 131.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 238.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15. 

My rt US procera, Swartz, Prodr. 77; Fl. Ind. Occ. ii, 887.- Willdenow, Spec, ii, 968. 
E. Barucnsis, Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cub. [not Jacquin], 87. 

RED STOPPER. 

Semi-tropical Florida, shores of bay Biscay ne. Key Largo, Elliott's Key; in the West Indies. 

A tree, 12 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter ; often forming extensive groves, 
and reaching its greatest development in the United States in the neigiiborhood of Miami, bay Biscayne. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very sti-ong and close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, 
hardly distinguishable ; color, light yellow-brown, the sai>-wood darker ; specific gravity, 0.9453 ; ash, 2.G2 ; 
probably valuable in cabinet-making and as a substitute for box-wood for coarse wooti-eugniviug. 

Note.— /"/M'rfiiim Guaiara, Raddi, the Gnava, widely cultivated iu the tropics for its frnit, is now sparingly naturalized in semi-tropical 
Florida. 



C ACTACE^ 



149. — Cereus giganteus, Kngdmaun; 

\;mory's Eop. 158 ; Am. .Tour. Sci. 2 ser. xiv, :!:!5; xvii, 231 ; Proo. Am. Acad, iii, 287; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey. CiKtacca-, 42, t. 61, 
()2 & front.; Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 247.— Thurber iu Mem. Am. Acad, new ser. v, 302, 305.— Fl. des St-nvs, x. 24. 
& t. ; XV, 187, t. IGOO.— Bigelow iu Pacific K. E.Kcp. iv, 12.— Fngelmann & I'.igelow in Pacific R. R. Kep. iv. 36.— Walpors, 
Ann. V, 46.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rop. la'SS, 259.— Loniaire, 111. Ilort. ix. Misc. 95.— Marcou in Jour. Hort. Soc. Franc.-. 2 scr. iii, 
C76.— Lindlcy, Treasury Bot. 256, t. 17.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 15.— Rotbroek in Wheeler's Rep. vi. front.— Henisley. Bot. 
Am.-Ceut. i, 343. — James in Am. Nat. xv, 982, f. 3. 

Piloccreus Engclmanni, Leuiaire, ill. llort. ix, Misc. 95. 



90 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

SrWARROW. SAGUABO. GIANT CACTUS. 

Valley of Bill Williams river, Arizona, south and ea.st through central Arizona to the valley of the San Pedro 
river: southward in Sonora. 

A tall, eoliunnar tree, 8 to 18 metei's iu height, with a trunk .sometimes O.GO meter in diameter : dry, stony 
mesas or low hills risinjr from the desert. 

Wood of the large, strong ribs, very light, soft, rather coarse-grained, solid, satiny, susceptible of a line polish, 
almost indestructible in contact with the ground ; medullary rays very uumeious, broad ; color, light brown 
tinged with yellow; specific gravity. 0.31SS; ash, 3.45; used in the region almost exclusively for the rafters of 
adobe houses, for fencing, and by the Indians for lances, bows, etc. 

The edible fruit largely collected and dried by the Indians. 



C R N A E ^ 



150. — Cornus alternifolia, Linua>us f. 

Snpi.l. 125.— Lamarck, Diet, n, UG; 111. i, 303.— L"Horitier, Corutis, 10, t. 6.— Ehrliart, Beitr. iii, 19.— Alton, Hort. Kew. i, 159; 2 ed. 
i.'Jea.- Willdenow, Spec, i, 6(54; Kuiim. 165; Beil. Baumz. 104.— Michaiix, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 93.— Persoon, Syn. i, 144.— Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arh. i, 351.— Xonveau Dnhamol, ii, I'.', t. 45.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 100.— Nnttall, Genera, i, 99.— Eoerner & Scliultes, Syst. 
iii, 323; Mant. 251.— Elliott. Sk. i. 210.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, AM). Holz. 53, t.43.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 8.— Torrey, Fl. U.S. 180; 
Compcnd. Fl. N. States, Si; Fl. N. York, i, 28?.— Spicngel, Syst. i, 451.— De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 271.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Aui. i, 275.— 
Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 398.— Beck, Bot. 154.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 109.— Tausch iu RogensI). Fl. xsi, 732.— Spacli, Hist. Veg. viii, 92.— 
Dietrich, Syn. i, 503.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 649.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1010, f.7G0.—Eatou & Wright, Bot. 210.— 
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3ed. 00.— C. A. Meyer in Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, v, 6, 13. — Walpers, Rep. v, 932.— Eracrsou, Trees 
Massachusetts, 409 ; 2 ed. ii, 403 & t.— Parry in Owen's Rip. 013.- Darlington, Fl. Ceslrica, 3 ed. 110.— Cooper in Smithsonian 
Bep. 1858, 252.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 107.— Curtis iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 167.— Wood, CI. Book, 391 ; Bot. 
& Fl. 143.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 201.— Koch, Deudrologie, i, 690.— Young, Bot. Texas, 303. 

C. alterna, Marshall, Arbustum, 35. 

DOGWOOD. 

New Brunswick, west along the valley of the Saint Lawrence river to the northern shores of lake Superior, 
south through the northern states and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia and Alabama. 

A small tree, 4 to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; low, rich woods and liorders 
of streams and swamps. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown 
tinged with red, the sap wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.C696; ash, 0.41. 

151. — Cornus florida, Linnseus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 117.— Marbhall, Arbustum, .35.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 114; 111. i, 302.— Wangenheim, Amer. 51, t. 17, f. 41.— Walter, Fl. 
Caroliuiana, 88.- L'Heritier, Cornus, 4.— Alton, Hort. Kew. i, 157; 2 ed. i, 261.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 661; Enuni. 164; Borl. 
Banmz. 100.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 73.— B. .S. Barton, Coll. i, 12, 45; ii, 17, 19.— Bot. Mag. t.526.— Michaux, Fl. Hor.-Am. 
i, 91.— Persoon, .Syn. i, 143.— De^fontaine8, Hist. Arb. i, 3.50.— Schkuhr, Handb. 82.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 41, 1. 16, f. 7.— Nouveau 
Duham.-l, ii, 1.-j3.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 1:18, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 170, t. 48.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 108.— 
Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii, 69, t.73; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. .59.— Eaton, Manual, 19; 6 ed. 108.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 98.— Barton, Med. Bot. i, 
43, t.3.— Rtemer & Schultcs, .Syst. iii, 319.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 6.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 21, t. 19.— Elliott, Sk. i, 207.— 
Torrey iu Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 208; FJ. U. 8. 178; Conipend. Fl. N. States, 82; Fl. N. York, i, 290; Nicollet's Rep. 151; Emory's 
Bep. 408.— Sprengcl, .Syst i, 451.— Beck in Am. Jour. .Sci. 1 .^er. x, 204; Bot. 1,53.— Audubon, Birds, t. 8, 73, 122.— Rafinesquo, Med. 
E<it. i, 131, f. as — De Candolle, Prodr. i v, 273.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. I, 277, in part ; Companion Bot. Mag. I, 48.— Don, Miller's Diet, 
iii, 4IHJ.— Lindley, Fl. .Med. 81.- Dietrich, Syn. i, .j04.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Amerirn, i, 652.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1017, f. 
769.— Eaton &. Wright, B<jt. 209.— Rcid in London Gard. Chronicle, 1844, 276.— Browne, Trees of America, 350.— Emerson, Trees 
Maasachusetts, 413; 2 ed. ii, 407 Sc t.— Griffith, Med. Bof. 347, f. 164.— Carson, Med. Bot. i, 50, t. 42.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 
•29.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 111. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 339. — Cooper in Smithsouiau Rep. 1K58, 252. — Chajimuii, Fl. S. 
Slates, 16-'.- Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 60.— Lesqucreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 304.— Wood, CI. 
Book, 391; Bot. &, Fl. 143.— Blakio in Canadian Nat. vi, 1.— Engelniann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 191 — Ponihor, 
Hcaourccs S. Forests, 59.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 200; Hall's PI. Texas, 11.— Koch, Deudrologie, i, 094.— Young, Bot. Texas, 
303.— Vaw-y, Cat. Forest Trees, 16.— Baillon, Hist. PI. vil, OH, f. 46.— Broa<lhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, .53.— Bcntloy & 
Trimen, Med. PI. ii, 136, t. i:}f;.— Bell in Geological Bep. Canada, 1879-'80, .5.5^.- Ri.lgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 67. 

Benthamidia florida, Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 107. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 91 

FLOWERING DOGMOOD. BOX WOOD. 

Southern New England, southern Ontario, southern Minne.sota, and through the Atlantic forests to latitude 28<* 
50' in Florida, and the valley of the Brazos river, Texa.s. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.4.5 meter in diameter, or toward its northern 
limits reduced to a low shrub; rich woods; very common, especially at the south. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough, checking badly in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beantifal 
polish; meduUarj- rays luimerous, conspicuous; color, brown, changing in difl'ereut sjiecimens to shades of green 
and red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.8153; ash, 0.G7; used in turnery, for wood engravings and the 
bearings of machinery, hubs of wheels, barrel hoops, etc. 

The bark, especially of the root, in common with that of the other species of the genus, possesses bitter tonic 
])roperties, and is used in decoctions, etc., in the treatment of intermittent and malarial fevers {Am. Jour. 
Pharm. vii, 109. — Maisch in Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 315. — U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 351.'. — Sat. Dispensatory, 2 ed- 
467). 

152. — Cornus Nuttallii, Aiulubou, 

Birds, t. 467.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, i, 652.— Walpers, Rep. ii, 435.— Bentham, PI. Hartweg. .312.— Xnt tall, Sylva, iii, 51, t. 
97 ; 2 ed. ii, 117, t. 97.— Durand in Jour. Philadelphia Acad. 1855, 89.— Torrey in Pacific E. E. Eop. iv, 94 ; Bot. Mex. Boondaiy 
Survey, 71; Bot. Wilkes Espcd. 326. — Newberry in Pacific E. E. Rep. vi, 24, 75. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 185)?, 259; 
Pacific R. E. Rep. xii^ 29, 63.— Lyall in Jonr. Linnican Soc. vii, 134.— Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, viii, 337.— Brewer &, Watson, 
Bot. California, i, 274; ii, 452.— Vasey.Cat. Forest Trees, 16.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Ga/.ette, ii, 8S.— >faeonn in Geolojrical Rep. 
Canada, 1875-'76, 198. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 331. 

G.fiorida, Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 277, in part. 

FLOWERING DOGWOOD. 

Vancouver's island and along the coast of southern British Columbia, through western Washington territory 
and Oregon, and southward through the Coast ranges of California and along the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada to the San Bernardino mountains. 

A small, slender tree, sometimes 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.45 meter in diameter ; ascendiug 
the Cascade mountains to 3,000 feet, and the Sau Bernardino mountains to Irom 4,000 to 5,000 feet elevation ; 
common; rich, rather damp soil, generally in the dense shade of coniferous forests. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish: medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7481; ash, 
0.50 ; somewhat used in cabinet-making, for mauls, handles, etc. 

153. — Nyssa capitata, Walter. 

Fl. Caroliniana, 253.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 508.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 257, t. 20; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 37, t. 113.— 
Alton, Ilort. Kew. 2 ed. v,480.— Poiret, Snppl. v, 740.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 685.— Hooker, Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 62.— Eaton, Maanal, 
6 ed. 236.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 329.— Spach, Hist. Veg. x, 464.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 493.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1658, 
253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 168.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 3t)4.— Wood, CI. Book, 892 ; Bot. & Fl. 143.— Koch, 
Dendrologie, ii, 456.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 16. 

N. Ogevhe, M.-irshall, Arbustum, 97. 

N. eoccinea, Bartram, Travels, 2 ed. 17. 

2f. tomentosa, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, iv, 508. 

N. candicans, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 259.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 614.— Desfoutaiue.s, Hist. Arb. i, 37.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 
1113.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.— Poiret, Snppl. iv, 116.— Nuttall, Genera, ii. 236; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. v, 1«>7.— 
Ewmer & Scbnltes, Syst. v, ,'i57.— Sprengel, Syst. i. 832.— Dietrich. Syn. i, 879.— London, Arboretum, iii. 1318, f. 1199. — 
Browne, Trees of America, 426. 

iV. montana, Gfertncr, Fmct. iii, 201, t. 216. 

OGEECHKE LIJIE. SOUK TUPELO. GOPITER PLUM. 

Georgia, from the valley of the Ogeecheo to the Saint Mary's river, west Florida (near Vernon. Mohr). and 
in southern Arkansas. 

A tree 9 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 meter in diameter; deep swamps and river 
bottoms ; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, tough, rather coarse-grained, compact, uuwedgeable. containing iniiny regularly- 
distributed open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, white, the sap-wood hanlly distinguishable : specific 
gravity, 0.4G13 ; :isli, 0.34. 

A conserve, under the name of" Ogeechee limes", is made from the large, acid truit. 



92 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

154- — Nyssa sylvatica, Marshall, 

Arbustuiu, 97.— Michanx f. Hi»t. Arb. Am. ii, 'iiW, I. -Jl ; N. .\imTioaii .S.vlva. :t e«l. iii, 29, 1. 110.— Poiret, Snppl. iv. 116 — Barton, PixMlr. Kl. 
Philadolph. 97 ; Comi>end. Fl. Pbiladelpb. ii, 193. 

X. aquatica, Liun.i-iis, Spec. 1 f<l. 10rK>i, in part.— St. Hilaire, Fani. Nat. ii, IM.— Persoou, Syn. ii,614.— Michaiix 1'. Hist. Arb. 
Am. ii. Its, t. 22; K. American Sylva,3cd. iii, 31, t. 111. — KiEuiorttScbultos, Syst. v, r>7t). — Barton, Prodr. Tl. Pbiladelpb. 
97; Conipend. Fl. Pbiladelpb. ii, 192.— Sprengel, Sy.st. i, 83-2.— .■Vndubon, Birds, 1. 13;!.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 681.— Dietrich, 
Syn. i, 878.— Eaton, Manual, t; ed. 23<).— Eaton & Wri{,'bt, Bot. 329.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. x, 464.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 
492. — Chapman, Fl. S. States. 168. — Curtis iu Rej). Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii. 168. — Porchor, Kesourecs S. 
Forests. :t47. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 455. — Young, Bot. Texas, 304. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 16. 

A". niuUiftora, Wangenhcim, Anicr. 46, t. IG, f. 39.— Elliott, Sk. ii, C84.— W'altt'r, Fl. Caroliniana, 253.— Beck, Bot. 307.— Eaton, 
Manual, 6 ed. 236.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 329.— Spach, Hist. Veg. x, 463.— Torroy, FI.N. York, ii, 161, t. 95.— Emerson, 
Trees Massachusetts, 312, t. 17; 2 ed. ii, a53 & t.—Schnizlcin, Icon. 1. 108, f. 1,2.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica. 3 ed. 254.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 492.— Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2r!2.- Chapman, Fl. S. States, 168.— Curtis in Rep. 
Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 62. — Lcsquercux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 364. — Wood, CI. Book, 392; Bot. 
& Fl. 143.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 201.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 554.— Young, Bot. Texas, 304.— Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 16. — Broadbead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette,' iii, 53. — Bessey iu Am. Nat. xv, 134. — Bell in Geological Rep. 
Canada, 1879-80, 5,y.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 68.— Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95. 

N. Carolittiaua, Voiietia Lamarck, Diet, iv, 507; Lamarck, 111. iii, 442, f. 851, f. 1. 

A', biflora, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 253.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 508.— Michaux, Fl. Bor. -Am. ii, 259.— Willdcnow, Spec, iv, 1113; 
Enum. 1061; Berl. Baumz. 256.— Dcsfontaincs, Hist. Arb. i, 37.— Ga-rtner f. Frnct. Suppl. 203, t. 216.— Alton, Uort,. 
Kew. 2 ed. v,479.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 177.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 236; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc.v, 167.— Poiret, Suppl. 
iv, 115. — Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. Y'ork. ii,200 ; C'<>nii)end. Bot. N. States, .372. — Hayue, Deiid. Fl. 229.— Eaton, Manual, 
116.— Beck, Bot. 307.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1317, 1. 1195, 1196.— Browne, Trees of America, 423.— Baillon, Hist. PI. 
v, 266, f. 241-244. 

X. integrifolia, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii,446.— Pci>oon,:<vn.ii,614. 

X. Canadensis, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, iv, 507. 

X. villosa, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,258.—Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1112.— Dcsfontaincs Hist. Arb. i,37.— Alton, Hort. Kcw.2 ed- 
v. 479.— Bigelow.Fl. Boston 3ed.380.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 117.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 276.— Ra'mer& Scbultes, Syst. 
v,57ii. — Sprengel, Syst. i, 832. — Torrey, Conipend. Bot. N. States, 372.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 878.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 
1317, f. 1197. 1198. 

A', mvltiflora, var. sylvatica, Watson, Index, 442. 

TUPELO. SOTIB GUM. PEPPKRIDGE. BLACK GUM. 

Valley of the Kennebec river, Maine (Kent's Hill, Prof. Stone), West Milton, Vermont, west to central Jlidiifjan, 
Booth to Tampa baj', Florida, and the valley of the Brazos river, Texas. 

A tree 15 to 30 meters in heiphf. with a trunk O.GO to l..'JO meter in diameter, or at the nortli much smaller; 
borders of swamps, or on rather liifrli, rich hillsides ami pine uplands; at the south often in pine-barren ponds 
and deej) swamps, the base of the trunk then greatlj' eidaij^ed and swollen {X. aquatica). 

Wood heavy, rather soft, strong, very tough, unwedgeable, dilliculf to work, inclined to check unless carefully 
sca.soned, not durable in contact with the soil, containing numerous regularly distributed small open dticts; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light yellow or often nearly white, the sap wood hardly distinguishable; 
specific gravity, 0.635.'}; ash, 0.52; now largely used Ibr the Imlis of wheels, rollers in glass factories, ox yokes, 
and on the gulf coa.st for wharf piles. 

NoTK.— Various forms of \yiita, which at different times have been considered by botanists as entitled to specific rank, aro 
connected by no many intermediate forme, anil oiler so few diKtinctive characters, that they are here united into one polymori>hoH8 
upecies, which thus enlarge<l may properly bear Marshall's earlier name of A'i/«»u syhatica, rather than tlie more familiar Siihku multijloni 
of Wangenbeim. 

155. — Nyssa uniflora, Wangenbeim, 

Amer. Ki, t. 27, f. .'•>7.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, a.^^!.- Elliott, Sk. ii, 686.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 329.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 493.— Cooper 
in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.53.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 1(W.— Curlis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18(i0, iii, ()2.— Wood, 
Cl.Book,3!l2; Bot. &. Fl. 143.— Gray, Manual N. .States, 5 ed. 201.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 455.— Young, Bot. Texas, .304.— Vaaey, 
Cat. Forest TreeB. 16. 

X. aquatica, Linmeus, Spec. 1058, in part.— Marshall, Arbustuiu, 96.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 607. — Dcsfontaincs, Hist. Arb. i, 36. 

X. denticulata, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 446; 2 ed. v, 480.— Pcrsoou, Syu. ii, 015.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1114.— Gajrtuer f. 
Fruct. Suppl. 203, t. 216.— Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 178.- Poiret, Supjil. iv, 115.— Nuttall, G> nera, ii, 236.-nayne, Dcud. 
Fl. 229.— Roemer & Scbultes, Syst. t, 577.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 832.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 879. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 93 

N. angulosa, Poin-t in Lamarck, Diet, iv, :i07; III. iii, 442, t. 8ril, f. 2.— Kctmtr & Schultes, .Syst. v, 578. 

N. pahistris, SaliKbury, Prodr. Ur,- 

N. tomcntosa, llichaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 269.— Persoon, Syn. ii, G15.— Willdouow, .Spec. iv. 1113.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sej.t. i, 
177. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, WM. — Rojmer & Schultcs, Syst. v, 577. — Elliott, Sk. ii, G85. — .Sprcngel, Syst. i, e32. — Audabon, 
Bird.s, t. 13.— Dietricli, Syn. i, 879.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 329.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 493. 

N. angulisans, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2.'>9.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 879.— Spach, Hist. Veg. x, 465. 

If. gratldidentata, Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 252, t. 19 ; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. ii, 34, t. 112.— Loudon, ArboretTun, iii, 
1319, f. 1200, 1201.— Lesqnorcnx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 304. 

.A''. capHata var. graitdidentaia, Bmwnc, Trees of America, 426. 

LAKGE TUPELO. COTTON GU3I. TUPELO GtJM. 

Southern Virginia, south near the coast to tho valley of the Saiut Mary's river, Georgia, through the Gulf 
states to the valley of the Ncches river, Texa.s, and through Arkan.sas and southern and .southeastern Missouri to 
the valley of the lower Wabash river, Illinois. 

A large tree, 21 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter ; deep swamps and river 
bottoms subject to frequent overflow ; one of the largest and most common trees of the bottom lauds of the lower 
Mississippi river basin, and reaching its greatest development in the cypress swamps of western Louisiana and 
eastern Texas, near the coast. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, unwedgeable; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light 
brown, or often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5194; ash, 0.70; used in turnery, largely for wooden ware, broom 
handles, and wooden shoes ; that of the root for the floats of nets, etc., as a substitute for cork. 



CAPRIFOLIA CE^. 



156. — Sambucus glauca, Nuttall: 

Toney & Gray, l''l. N. America, ii, 13. — Walper.s, Rep. ii, 453.— Torrey iu Paeilic R. R. Rej). vi, 12 ; Ives' Rep. 15; Bot. Mex. Boundary 
Survey,71. — Gray iu Smithsonian Contrib.v,60; Proc. Am. Acad. vii,387 ; .Syn. Fl. N.Aineriea, i^, 9. — Watson in King's Rep. v, 
I.U.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 16.- Brewer & Watson, Bot. California, i, 278.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, SS.— Rotbrock in 
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 135, 363. 

8. Californica, Hort.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 72. 

f 8. Mexicana, Newberry in Paeilic R. R. Rep. vi, 75 [not Presl]. 



^'alll•y of the Fraser river and Vancouver's island, British Columbia, southward tlirough Csvlifornia to the 
INIexicau boundary, extending west to the Blue mountains of Oregon and the Walisatch range, Utah. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 to 9 meters in height, witli a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter iu diameter, or towanl its 
northern limits reduced to a large shrub ; conflned to valleys, in dry, gravelly soil. 

Wood light, soft, weak, coarse-grained, checking in drying; medullary rays numerous, rather conspicuous; 
color, yellow tinged with browu, tho sap-wood lighter; spei-ilic gravity, O.'iDST ; ash, 1.57. 

The large bhu'-black fruit edible and sometinses cooked. 

157. — Sambucus Mexicana, Presl. 

Hon. lla'nk. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv,o22. — Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 437. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, UI30. — Gray in Smithsonian Contrib. 
v, 66; SjTB. Fl. N. America, i-', 9. — Torrey in Paeilic R. R. Rep. iv, 95; Bot. Slex> Boundary Survey. 71. — Brewer & Wafsou, Bot. 
I'niifornia, i, 278.— Rolliiock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 135.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. ii. 1. 

jS. glauca, Bcntham, PI. Hartwog. 313 [not Nuttall]. 

<S. rehtina, Dnrand vt Hilgard in .Tour. Philadelphia Acad, new .ser. iii, 39. 



94 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

ELDER. 

Valley of the Niu-ccs river (Sau Patricio), south and west alonji the southern boumiary of the United States 
to Posa creek, Kern county, California, and southward into ^lexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 6 meters in lieijxht, with a trunk 0.15 to O.L'5 meter in diamc^ter; bottom lands, in 
moist, frravelly loam. 

Wood light, soft, rather eoarae-graiued, compact ; medullary rays mimerous, thin, conspicuous; color, light 
brown, the sap-wood lighter : specific gravitx', 0.4(>14: ash. L'.OO. 

158. — Viburnum Lentago, Linnaeus, 

Spec. 1 eil. "iS!?. — MoTsball, Arbustum, liiO. — Waugenheim, .\iuer. 100. — Walter, Fl. Caroliuiaua, IIG. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. i,:{72; 2 eii. 
ii, ItiS. — WilMenow, .Spec, i, 1491; Euum. :<27; Berl. Bawmz. 5:U. — Nouveau Diihamel, ii, l'J9. — Schkuhr, Handl). '23-1. — Michaux, 
Fl. Bor.-Aui. i, ITS. — Persoon, Syn. i, S27. — Desfontaincs, Hist. Arb. i, '.UA. — Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, viii, 668. — Piirsli, Fl. Am. 
Sept. i, 20L— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. JO.— E.itou, Manual, 34 ; C cd. 387.— Nuttall, Genera, i,20-J.— llayne, Demi. Fl. 37.— 
R(rnier& Scbulte8,Sy8t. vi,t>37.— Elliott, Sk. i, 3&=..— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 318; Couipend. Fl. N. States, l:i8 ; Fl. N. York, i, 305.— 
Watstm, Dend. Brit, i, t. 21. — Sprengel, Syst. i,934.— Guiuipel, Otto & Huyuo, Abb. Holz. 125, 1. 102.— Do CaudoUe, Prodr. iv,325.— 
Hoi>ker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 279.— Beck, Bot. 156.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 440.— Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 311.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1033, 
I". 7H).— Dietrieh, .Syn. ii, 1011.— Eaton & Wri^bt, Bot. 4:3.— Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Amerira, ii, l.''>.— Eigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 123.— 
Penn. Cyrl. xxvii,294.— Eiiurson.TrecsMassaebusetts.ot)! : 2 ed. ii, 412.— Darliiijjtcm, Fl. Ceptrica,3 ed. 115.— Darby, Hot.S. States, 
342. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 171. — Wood, CI. Book, 3y,s; Bot. & Fl. 147. — Engclraann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 194; 
Trans. St. Louis .\cad. ii, 269.— Gray, Manual N. States. 5 ed. 206; Syn. Fl. N.America, i^ 12.— Koch, Deudrologie, ii, 62.— 
Yonug. Bot. Tes.is, 309.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 16.— Maconu in Rep. Geological Surv. Canada, 1875-'76, 198.— Eidgway in 
Proc. U. S. Xat. Mua. 1882, 68. 

SHEEPBEEEY. NAKNYBEBEY. 

Southern shores of Hudson bay west in British America to about longitude 102°, .south through the northern 
states to southern Indiana and Saint Louis county, Missouri, and along the Alleghany mountains to northern 
Georgia. 

A small tree, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk .sometimes 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter; rocky ridges 
and along borders of streams and swainjjs, in rich, moist soil ; most common and reaching its greatest development 
far north. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, emitting a disagreeable odor; medullary rays thin, barelj' 
dlBtingui.shable ; color, dark orange-brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7303; ash, 0.29. 

159. — Viburnum prunifolium, Linnajus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 266. — Marshall, Arbustum, 160. — Wangenheira, Amer. 98. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 116. — Aiton, Hort. Kow. i,371; 2 ed. ii, 
167.— Willdenow. Spec, i, 1487; Ennm. 326; Berl. Baumz. 530. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, !>3. — Nouveau Dnbamel, ii, 128, t.38.— 
Schkubr, Hand'). 2:t3. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 17''. — Persoon, Syn. i, 326. — Desfontaines. Hist. Arb. i, 344. — Poiret iu Lamarck, 
Diet, viii, 6.'>3.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 201. —Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadeph. 39; Compend. Fl. Philadelpb. i, 151.— Nuttall, Genera, 
i,202.— Riemer & Scbultes, .Syst. vi,631.- Hayne, Dcud. Fl. 37.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 31S; Compend. Fl. N. States, 138.— Elliott, Sk. 
i, 365.— Sprengel, .Syst. i, 9;J3.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayno, Abb. Holz. 125, 1. 101.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, t. 23.— Audubon, Birds, t. 23.— 
DoCandolle.Prodr. iv, 325.— Beck, Bot. 156.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 440. —Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 312.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1034, 
1. 193.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-.\ra. ii, 27 9. —Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, ii, 14.— Walpers, Kep. ii, 451. -Darlington, Fl. Cestriea,3 ed. 
11.5.— Darby, Bot. .S. States, :J42.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 171.— Wood, CI. Book, '.m ; Bot. &. Fl. 147.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 
206; Syn. Fl. N. America, i*, 12. — Engeluiann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii, 269. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 62. — Young, Bot. Texas, 30!). — 
Va«ey,Cat. Forest Trees, 16.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1862, 68.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. xviii,96. 

V. pt/rifolilim, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 6.')8.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 201.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 202.— Barton, Compend. 
Fl. Philadelpb. i, 152.— Rojmcr & Schulte.s, Syst. vi, 631.— Hayno, Deud. Fl. 37.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, t. 22.— 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 345; Cat. Hort. Paris, 3 cd. 404. — De Candolle, Prodr. iv, 325. — Beck, Bot. 156. — Loudon, 
Arlwretum, ii, 1034, f. 781. 782.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston, 3 ed. 123. 

V. prunifoliltm, VHT.ferrugineum, Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. America, ii, 15. 

BLACK UAW. STAG BUSH. 

Fairfielil county, Connecti<;ut, valley of the lower Hudsf)n river (Fishkill lauding), south to Uernando county, 
Florida, and the valley ol the Colorado river, Texas, west to Jlis.soun, Arkansas, and the Indian territory. 

A small tree, sometimes to 9 meters in height, witli a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diaiiu-ti r, or at 
the north generally reduced to a low, much-branched shrub ; usually on rocky hillsides, in rich .soil. 

Wood heavy, veiy hard, strong, brittle, close grained, liable to check in drying; medullary rays numerous, 
verj" ob.scure; color, browti tinged with red, the Maj)-wood nearly white; sjx'cilic, gravity, 0.8332; ash, 0.52. 

The edible fruit sweet and insi])id ; the tonic and astiingent bark somewhat used in the treatment ot uterine 
disorders in the form of decoctions or fluid extracts {Boston Med. and Surg. Jowr. October 10, 1867. — U. S. Dispeimatori/, 
14 ed. 1783.— ^'(^^ ffittpinnafon/. 2 ed. 1821). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 95 



RUBIAOEiE. 



160. — Exostemma Caribaeum, RoBmer & Schultes, 

Syst. V, 18.— Spreugol, Syst. i,705. — De CandoUe, Prodr. iv, 359. — Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 481. — Dietrich, Syn. i,72-2. — Spacb, Hist. Veg. 
viii, 395.— Torrey <fc Gray, Fl. N. America, ii, 36.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 180.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 324.— 
Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. iii. 187, f. 028.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, i«, 23. 

Ci7lchona Garibaa, Jacquin. Stirp. Amcr. t. 176, f. 65.— Gaertner, Frnct. i, 109, t. 33.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 228; 2 ed. i, 
372. — Ijambert, Ciiichoua, 38, t. 12 (excl. syn.). — Andrews, Bot. Rep. %ni, t. 481. 

Cinchona Jamaicencis, Wright in Trans. Royal Soc. Ixvii, 504, 1. 10. 

Seuii-tropiciil Florida, on the soutliern keys ; tbrough the West Indies. 

A small tree, soinetiines 7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.30 meter in diameter. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful 
polish; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, light brown, beautifully streaked with different shades of 
yellow and brown, the sap-wood clear, rich yellow; specific gravity, 0.9310; ash, 0.23. 

161. — Pinckneya pubens, Michaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 103, t. 13.— WiUdenow, Emim. Suppl. 30.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. i, 372.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 276, t. 24 ; N. 
American Sylva, i, 180, t. 49. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 158. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, 37. — Barton, Fl. N. America, i, 25, t. 7. — Sprengel, Syst. 
i, 705.— Elliott, Sk. i, 269.— Rafiuesque, Med. Bot. ii, 57, t. 72.— De CandoUe, Prodr. iv, 366.— Audubon, Birds, 1. 165.— Eaton, Manual, 
6 ed. 263.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 486.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 433.— Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 400.— Eaton & 'bright, Bot. 357.— Torrey & 
Gray, Fl. N. America, ii, 37. — Browne, Trees of America, 354. — Griffith, Med. Bot. 365, f. 174. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 347. — Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858,253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 179.— Wood, CI. Book, 401; Bot. & Fl. 150.— Porcher, Resources S. Fore.ste, 
404.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 17.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, i«, 23. 

Cinchona Caroliniana, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 40. 

p. pubescens, Persoon, Syn. i, 197.— Gajrtucr f. FnuC. Suppl. 81, t. 194, f. 3. 

GEORGIA BAKK. 

South Carolina, near the coast; basin of the upper Apalachicola river in Georgia and Florida. 

A small tree, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.30 "meter in diameter; borders of streams, in low, 
sandy swamps ; rare. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, checking badly in drying; layers of annual growth clearly marked by 
four to six rows of large open ducts; medullary rays few, obscure; color, brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific 
gravity, 0.5;?50 ; ash, 0.41. 

Infusions of the bark are successfully used in the treatment of intermittent fever, as a substitute for ciuchona 
{U. 8. Dispensatory, 14 ed.l734). 

162. — Genipa clusiaefolia, Griseba.h. 

Fl. British West Indies, 317.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, i^, 29. 

Gardenia clusiwfoUa, .lacquin, Coll. Appx. 37, t. 4, f. 3.— IVrsoon, Syn. i. 199.— De CandoUe, Prodr. iv, 381; Dietrich, 
Syn. i, 790. 

Bandia clusiw/olia, chapman, Fl. S. States, 179.— Va.sey. Cut. Forest Trees, 17. 

SEVEN-TEAR APPLE. 

Scmitroi)ical Florida, on the southern keys; in the West Indies. 

A^'small, umchbranclied, knotty tree, sometimes 7neters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.10 meter 
in diameter, or in Florida more often a shrub; saline shores. 

Wood very heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medullary rays numerous, 
thin; color, rich d;irk brown shaded with orange, the sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 1.0310; ash. 1.0(i. 

The large insipid fruit popularly but incorrectly supposed to require seven years in whicli to ripen. 



96 FOKKST TRKE8 OF Xoimi AMERK^A. 

163. — Guettarda elliptica, 8wartz, 

Prodr. ;>9 ; Kl. lud. Oic. i, ia4.— Laiuarck, 111. ii, 21S.— r«r.soon, Syu. i, 'JOO.— Poirct, Siippl. ii, 859.— R<Etuer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 412.— De 
CandolUsProdr. iv,4JT. — Dictruh, Syn. i. T.tT. — Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 551. — Torroy & Gray, Fl. N. America, ii, 35. — Grisobacli, Fl. 
British West Indies, :?;ti>. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, i-,30. 

G. Blodgettii, Shuttleworth in herb.— Chapman, Fl. S. Stat<?.s, 17?.- Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 17. 

Seuii-tropical Florida, on the southern keys; througli the West Indies. 

A small tree, 4 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.20 meter in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, containing 
numerous scattered small open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown tinged with red; 
specific gravity, 0.8337; ash, 1.05. 



ERICACEJi. 



164. — Vaccinium arboreum, Maishall, 

Arbustum. 157.— Michans, Fl. Bor.-Ain. i, 230.— Persoou, Syn. i, 479.- Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i,270.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 285.— 
Nultall, Genera, i,263. — Elliott, Sk. i, 495.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, ST):! — London, Arboretum, ii, 1159.— De Candollo, Prodr. vii, 
567.— Uietrich, Syn. ii, 1264.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 414.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 18^.— Walpers, Ann. ii, 1096.— Chapman, Fl. S. 
States, 2:.9.— Wood, CI. Booli,4?:2; Bot. & Fl. 196.— Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373.— Young, Bot. Texas, 369.- 
Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 15; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii',20.— V.-isey, Cat. Forest Trees, 71. 

V. viticronatum, Walter, Fl. Carolinians, 139 [not Linna;us]. 

V. diffusuni, Aiton.Ilort. Ken. ii, a')6.— Bot. Mag. f. 1(;07.— Kocb, Dendrologie, ii,9C. 

Bnlndindron (irhoreiim, JCutiall in Trans. Am. Phil. Soe. 2 ser. viii,2Gl; Sylva, iii, 43; 2 ed. ii, 111. 

FARKLEBEEBY. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to Hernando county, Florida, through the Gulf states, and from southern 
Illinois and .southern ^lissonri south through Arkansas and eastern Texas to the .shores of Matagorda bay. 

A small tree, 7 to meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.25 meter in diameter, or toward its northern 
limits often reduced to a low shrub; very common throughout the jiinc belt of the Gulf states along the larger 
ponds and streams, in moist, sandy soil, and reaching its greatest devcloi)ment in eastern Texas, near the coast. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, liable to twist in drying, satiny, susceptible of a bcautifid 
jiolish ; medullary rays numerous, broad, conspicuous ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly 
ilistinguishable; specific gravity, 0.7610; ash, 0.39; .somewhat used in turnery in the manufacture of .small 
handles, etc. 

165. — Andromeda ferruginea, Walter, 

I'l. Caroliniaua, 138.— Alton, Hort. Kew. ii,()7 ; 2ed. iii, 52. — Willdenow, Sp. ii,609. — Michaux.Fl. Bor.-Am. 1,252. — Nonveau Uuhamel, 
i, 190.— Ventenat, Hort. Malmaison; 80, t. 80.— Persoon.Syn. i, 480.— Desfontaines, Ilist. Arb. i, 257. —Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,292.— 
Elliott, Sk.i,489.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 420. -Chapman, Fl. S. States,263.— Wood, CI. Book, 488; Bot. & Fl. 202.— Gray, .Syn. Fl. 
N. Amciiea ii',33. 

.1. rllomhrAdalift, Nouveau iJnbainel, i, 192. 

A./rntifjinca, var. nrhvrcucivn, Miclian:t, Fl. Bor.-Am. i,252. 

A.Ji-rniginea, \nr. frvtkoHd, Miehanx, Fl. Bor. Am. i,2.'j2. 

A. rigida, Pnrch, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 292.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t.430. 

Lyonia ferruginea, Nnttall, Genera, i, 266.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 8;iO.^I.(.ii(li.n, AiIm.i. tun], ii. 1109.— Dietrich, .Syn. ii, 
1399.— Dc Caudolle, Prodr. vii.OOO.- Koch.Dcndrologie, ii, 12v!, 

Lyonia rigida, Nnttall, Genera, i,2fi<;.— Don, Miller's Diet. iii. 830.— Dc ( andnlic', liodr, vii,i;ijii. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 97 

South Carolina to iiortlicni Florida, near the coast. 

A small tree, in rich liuniniocks, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.2.5 meter in diameter, often 
crooked or semi-prostrate; or in sandy pine-barren soil reduced to a low shrub, O.CO to 0.90 meter in height; the 
leaves varying greatly in shape, venation, etc. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, checking in drying, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful 
IJOlish ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, bright brown tinged with red, the sap-wood a little lighter; 
specific gravity, 0.7("i00 ; ash, 0.4G. 

166. — Arbutus Menziesii, Pursh, 

Fl. Am. Sept. i,282.— Spreugol, Syst. ii,28C.— Don, Miller's Diet. iii,834. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1122. — Do CandoUe, Prodr. vii, otaj. — 
Dietrich, Syn. ii, i:i87.— Hooker, Fl. I5or.-ADi. ii,3G. — Hooker & Aruott, Bot. Beecbey, 143. — Nuttall,Sylva, iii,42, t.95; 2 cd.ii, 109, 
t. 95.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 110 ; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 378.— Newberry in Pacific E. R. Rep. vi, 23, 79, f. 22.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rop. 18.58, 260 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii^, 29, GG.— Lyall in Jour. Linniean Soc. vii, 131. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 393; 
Bot. C'aliforuia, i, 452, in part ; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 27, in part. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Tree8,17. — Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 
88. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76. 203. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 331. — Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. 
ii, 27G. 

A, procera, Douglas in Lindley's Bot. Reg. xsi, t. 1753. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1121. — De CandoUe, Prodr. vii, 5^. — 
Dietrich, Syn. u, 1387.— Paxton, Mag. Bot. ii, 147 & t.— Walpers, Rep. vi, 416. 

A. laurifolia, Liudley, Bot. Reg. xxx, t. 67.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 36. 

MADRONA. 

Islands of British Columbia, from Seymour narrows southward through Washington territory and Oregon, 
near the coast, and through the Coast ranges of California to the Santa Lucia mountains. 

A small tree, sometimes 15 to 25 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or, exceptionally, 
much larger (the great specimen near San llafael, Marin county, California, G.85 meters in circumference 2 meters 
from the ground); south of San Francisco bay much smaller, often reduced to a low shrub; hillsides, in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, sti'ong, close-grained, checking in drying; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, 
light brown shaded with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7052; ash, 0.40; largely used in the 
manufacture of gunpowder, the bark in tanning. 

167. — Arbutus Xalapensis, HBK. 

Nov. Gen. & Spec, iii, 281. — Sprengel, Syst. ii, 286. — Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 834. — Hooker, Icon, i, t. 27. — Bentbam, PI. Hartweg. 06. — 
De Candolle, Prodr. vii, 583.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1388.— Walpers, Ann. ii, 1105.— Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 192 & t. 

fA. variens, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 77.— Paxton, Brit. Fl. Gard. ii, 118.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. U, 277. 

fA. macrophylla. Martens & Gakotti in Bull. Acad. Brux. ix, 9.— Walpers, Rep. U, 725. 

A. Menziesii, Gray in Bot. California, i, 452, in part; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii", 27, in part.— Eotbrock in Wheeler's Rep. 
vi, 25, 183 [not Pursh]. 

Southern Arizona, Santa liita mountains, between 4,500 and 7,000 feet elevation ; southward through northern 
Mexico. 

A small tree, with white, scaly bark, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to O.GO meter iu diameter ; 
dry, gravelly slopes ; large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, checking badly in drying, susceptible of a good polish; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7099; 
ash, 0.25. 

168. — Arbutus Texana, Buckley, 

Proc. PbUadelphia Acad. 1861, 460.— Gray iu Proo. Philadelphia Acad. 1862, 165.— Young, Bot. Texas, 370. 

A. Menzicnii, Gray in Bot. California, i, 4.52, in part ; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 27, in part. 

fA. XahipCHNis, Watson iu Piw. Am. Acad, xviii. 111. 

Western Texas, Hays and Travis counties {£«cfr/cy), west to the Guadalupe and Eagle mouuiains {ffavard), 
and southward, probably into northern IMcsico. 

A small tree, 5 to G meters in height, with a Inink 0.15 to 0.25 hieter in diameter; dry Jimestouo hills and 
ridges ; rare. 
7 FOE 



98 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Wood heavy, hartl, closegraiueil, compact; lucduUary rays imincrous, obscure; color, brown, tho sap-wood 
lighter, tinged with red; specitic gravity, 0.7500; atsh, 0.51; used in turnery, tho manufacture of niatliematical 
instruments, etc. 

Note. — The synouoniy and specific position of the Mexican species of Jrhulus which reach the southern houndary of the United 
States are still obscure, and cannot be well elucidated with the existiug knowledge of the Mexican llora. 

169. — Oxydendrum arboreum, De CandoUo, 

Prodr. vii, 601. — Dietrich, Syn. U. 13S9.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 253. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 263. — Lesijuercux in Owen's 
2d Rep. Arkansas, 372.- Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 79.— Wood, CI. Book, 489: Bot. & Fl. 203.— Gray, 
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 296; Syu. Fl. N. America, ii', 33. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 128. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 17. — Nat. 
Dispensatory, 2 ed. 798. 

Andromeda arborea, Linnteus, Spec, l ed. 394.— Lamarck, Diet, i, 158.— Marshall, Arbustum, 7.— Wangonhcim, Amer. 105.— 
Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 138. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii,69; 2 ed. iii, 53. — Willdcnow, Spec, ii, 612; Fnum. 452; Borl. Bauniz. 
31. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 255. — Nouveau Duhamcl, i, 178. — Bot. Mag. t. 905. — Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 257. — 
Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 222, t. 7; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 126, t. 85. — Pursh, FI.Am. Sept. i, 295. — Nuttall, 
Genera, i, 265.— Elliott, Sk.i, 491.— Barton, Fl. N. America, i, 105, t. 30.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 59.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 
420; Compend. Fl. N. States, 182.— Sprengol, Syst. ii, 291.— Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 260.— Darby, Bot. S. 
States, 419. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 379. 

Andromeda arborescens, Persoon, Syn.i, 480.— Willdenow, Enam.453.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 1. 1210. 

Lyonia arborea, Don iu Edinburgh Phil. Jour, xvu, 159.— Don,Miller'sDict. iii, 831.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1111.— Spaoh, 
Hist. Veg. ix, 486. — Browne, Trees of America, 356. 

SOREEL TREE. SOUE WOOD. 

Western Pennsylvania, southward along the Alleghany mountains to western Florida and the eastern shores 
of Mobile bay, west to middle Tennessee and through the upper regions of the Gulf states to western Louisiana. 

A small tree, 12 to IS meters in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.35 meter in diameter; usually in rather dry, 
gravelly soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color, brown tinged with red, the sap-wood somewhat lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7458 ; ash, 0.37 ; used for 
the handles of tools, bearings of machinery, etc. 

170. — Kalmia latifolia, Linmeus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 301. —Kalm, Travels, English ed. i, 335.— Marshall, Arbustum, 72.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 345; III. ii,487,t. 363,f. 1.— Ga;rtner, 
Fruct. i, 305, t. 63, f. 7.— Wangcnheim, Amer. 64,t. 24,f. 50.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 13H.— Aiton, Hort, Kew. ii, 64; 2 ed. iii, 47. — 
Lamarck, 111. 4*7, t. 363, f. 1.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, i,t. 87.— Willdenow, Spec, ii, 600; Euuui. 450; Berl. Baumz. 202. — Schkuhr, 
Handb. 359, 1. 116. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Ani. 1,258.- Persoon, Syn.i, 477. — Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. i,220.— Robin, Voyages, iii, 419. — 
Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 144, t. 4; N.American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 62, t. 67.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 290.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. 
Philadelph. 49.- Eaton, Manual, 47; 6 ed. 195.— Bigelow, Med. Bot. i, 113, 1. 13; Fl. Boston. 3 cd. 179.— Nuttall, Genera, i,2C7.— 
Hayne, Dend. Fl. 54.— Elliott, Sk. i, 481.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 422; Compend. Fl. N. States, 182.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 293. —Audubon, 
Birds, t. 55.— Eafinesque, Med. Bot. ii.lO, t. .57.— Sertum Botanicuni,iv & t.— Beck, Bot. 219.— Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 850.— Lindloy, 
Fl. Med. 380.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1151, f. 9.">9.— Do Candolle, Prodr. vii,729.— Spach, Hi.st. Veg. ix, 498, 1. 139.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. ii, 41. — Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1407. — Browne, Trees of America, 363. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 392; 2 ed. ii. 443 «fe t. — 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 428, f. 192.— Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 ed. 172.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 420.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858i 
253. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 264. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 99. — Lesquercux in Owen's 2d Rep. 
Arkansas, 373.— Wood, CI. Book, 484; Bot. & Fl. 200 .—Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 381.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 298; 
Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 38. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 152. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 17. — London Garden, xxii, 6, t. 343. 

LAUREL. CALICO BUSH. SPOON WOOD. IVY. 

New Brunswick and the northern shores of lake Erie, south to western Florida, .and through the Gulf states 
to western Louisiana and the valley of the Ked river, Arkansas (Hot Springs, Lctterman). 

A small tree, sometimes 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.GO meter in diameter, or more often 
a low shrub; rich woodlands; most common and reaching its greatest development in the southern Alleghany 
mountains, here often forming dense, impenetrable thickets. 

Wood heavj-, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; principal medullary rays broad, dark brown, 
conspicuous, intermediate rajs numerous, thin, inconspicuous; color, brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
somewhat lighter; specific gravity, 0.71(iO ; ash, 0.41 ; used for tool handles, in turnery, and for fuel. 

The leaves, buds, and fruit, rejtutetl poisonous to cattle, are occasionally used medicinally {U. S. Dinpcnmtory, 
14 ed. 1662.— Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 798). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 99 

171. — Rhododendron maximum, Liimoias, 

Sped ed. 391.— Marsliall, Arbiistuiii, 127:— Giertiicr, rruct. i, 'Mi, t. li'i, f. C— Wungcnheini, Amer. 63, t. 22, f. 49.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 
ii, 67; 2 ed. iii, 50.— Mccuch, MetU. 45.— Lamarck, Diet, vi, 365; 111. 11, 44M, t. :{64, f. 1.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 1^1.— Willdenow 

Spec, il, 60G; Knum.'.451; Bcrl. Baunjz. 3r)7. — Xouveau nnliauicl, 11, 141. — Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Aiii. 1,259.— Scbkuhr, Handb. 3fi2. 

Persoon, Syn. i, 478.— Dusfontaiiics, Hist. Arb. 1, 221.— Bot. JIag. t. 951.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 144, t. 4; X. Amrrican 

Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 64, t. 68.— Pursh, I'l. Am. Sept. 1, 297. — Eaton, Manual, 47 ; 6 cd. 301. — Xnttall, Genera, i, 26?. Bigelow, Med. Bot. 

iii, 101, t. 51 ; PI. Boston. 3 cd. 178.— Klliott, Sk. i, 483.— Haync, Dcnd. PI. 57.— Torrey, PI. U. S. i, 426 ; Compend- Fl. X. SUtes, 194.— 
Sprongcl, Syst. ii, 292.— Audubon, Birds, t. 103. — Beck, Bot. 220. — Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 843. — London, Arboretum, ii, 1134 f. 

932. — Do Caudolle, Prodr. vii, 722.— Hooker, PI. Bor.-Am. il, 43.— Spaeb, Hist. Veg. ix, 503. — Dietricb, Syn. ii, 1404. Eaton &. 

Wrlgbt, Bot. 391.— Browne, Trees of America, 359.— Emerson, Trees Ma8sacbusetts,384 ; 2 cd. ii, 43o& t.— Griflitb, Med. Bot. 42«. 

Darlington, PI. Cestrica, 3 ed. 171.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 421.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1658, 253.— Chapman, Fl. 6. States, 
265. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 97. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 373. — Wood, CI. Book, 
491; Bot. «fe PI. 204.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 360.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 300 ; Syn. Fl. N. America ii', 42.— Koch, 
Dendrologie, ii, 169. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 17. 

B. procerum, Salisbury, Prodr. 287. 

B. maximum, var. roseum, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. l, 297.— Elliott, Sk. i,484. 

.E. maximum, var. album, Pursh, Pi. Am. Sept. l, 297.— EUiott, Sk. i, 484. ■■'••" 

B. maximum, var. purpureum, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 297.— Elliott, Sk. 1, 484. 

B. purpureum, Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 843.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1134.— Dietrich, Syn, ii, 1404. 

B. Purshii, Don, Miller's Diet, iii, 843.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1135.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1404 (var. a/J>um, Pursh, I. f.V 

GREAT LATJREL. ROSE BAY. 

Nova Scotia and the iiortberu shores of lake Erie, south through New Eugland, New York, aud along the 
Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia. 

A small tree, sometimes 10 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter, or 
often a tall, straggling shrub; at the north in cold swamps; rare; very common and reaching its greatest 
development in the southern Alleghany mountains, steep, rocky banks of streams, etc.; never on limestone. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin : color, light clear 
brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.C303 ; ash, 0.3(j ; occasionally used in turnery for the handles 
of tools, etc., and a possible substitute for box-wood in engraving. A decoction of the leaves is occasionally nse<l 
domestically in the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica, etc. 



MYRSINACE^, 



172. — Myrsine Rapanea, Ra?mer & Schultes, 

Syst. iv, .')09.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 10.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 618.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. vlii, 97.— Miquel in Martins, Fl. Brasil. ix, 
307, t. ,50-52.— Gray, Syn. PI. X. America ii', 65. 

Bapanea Ouyanensis, AubUt, Guiau. i, 121, t. 46.— Swartz, Obs. 51; PI. Ind. Occ. i, 262.— Lamarck, III. ii, 4!;, t. lii.X'. 1. 

Samara pentandr a, Swartz, Obs. 51; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 262 [not Alton]. 

Samara JJorihunda, Willdenow, Spec, i, 665.— Lamarck, Ill.ii, 46, t. 122, f. 1. 

Caballeria COriacea, Meyer, Prim. Pi. Esscq. 118. 

M. Floridana, A. Dc Candollo in Trans. Linna<an Soc. xvii, 107 ; Prodr. viii, 98.— Dietrich. Syn. 1, 98.— Chspmau, Fl. S. 
Stales, 277. 

M. Jloribunda, Grisobach, Fl. British West Indies, 393. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Indian river southward to the southern keys ; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A small tree, in Florida rarely exceeding 8 meters in lioiglil, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or 
often a shrub; borders of ponds and tVeshwater creeks ; in the West Indies much larger. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, very conspicuous; color, bn>wn 
tinged with red and beautifully striped with the darker medullary rays, the sap-wood hanlly distinguishable; 
specific gravity, 0.8341 ; ash, 0.81. 



100 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. • 

173- — Ardisia Pickeringia, Nuttall, 

Sylva, iii,e9,t. 102; 2 ed. ii, 133, t. lOi— A. Do Candollo, Prodr. viii, li4.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 264.— Chapman, Fl. S. 
States, 277.— Tase.v.Cat. Forest Trees, 10.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', C5.— Heuisicy, Bot. Am.-Ccut. ii, 294. 

Ct/rilla pankllhta, Xnttall in Am. Jour. Sci. v,290. 

Piclerinffia ptmiculata. N'nttall in Jonr. Philadelphia Acad, vii, 1. 

MARLBEEEY. CHEEEY. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Mosquito iulet to the southern keys, west coast, Caloosa river to cape Eomano; in the 
West Indies and southern Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 8 meters iu height, with a trunk rarely 0.15 meter in diameter, or often a shrub; 
reaching its greatest development iu Florida on the shores of bay Biscayne. 

TTood heavy, hard, very close-graiued, compact, susceptible of a beautiful j)olish; medullary rays very 
numerous, ccnspicuous; color, rich brown, beautifully marked with the darker medullary rays, the sap wood a 
little ligutfr: specific gravity, 0.SG012; ash, 1.85. 

174. — ^Jacquinia armillaris, Jacquin, 

Amer. 53, t. 39.— Linnaus, Spec. 2 ed. 272.— Aitou, Hort. Kew. i,257; 2 ed. ii, 5.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 46, t. 39.— Vahl, Eclog. i,2C.— Swarta, 
Obs. 85.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1064 ; Enum. 246.— Persoon, Syn. i, 234.— Rmmer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 490.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 668.— 
Don, MUler's Diet, iv, 24.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 638.— Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, 123.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 149.— Miquel iu 
Martin.s,Fl. Brasil. ix, 282, t. 27.— Cooi.er in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,265.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 276.— Grisebach, Fl. British 
West Indies, 397. — Seemann, Jour. Bot. iii, 279. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 66. — Hemsley, 
Bot. Am.-Cent. ii,294. 

Chrysophylhim Barbasco, Locfling, Iter. 204, 277. 

JOE WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys; rare; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A low, rigid tree, rarely exceeding iu Florida 4 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.16 meter iu 
diameter ; in the Bahamas and other West Indian islands probably much larger. 

Wood heavy, hard, coarse-grained, checking and shrinking badly in drying, containing many scattered 
large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, broad, conspicuous; color, light clear brown tinged with yellow; 
specific gravity, 0.G94S; ash, 3.45. 

The saponaceous leaves sometimes used as a substitute for soap. 



SAPOTACE^ 



175. — Chrysophyllum oliviformc, Lamarck, 

Diet, i, 552; 111. ii, 42.— Desconrtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, ii, 71.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 158.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 
308.- Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 67.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, Suppl. 634. 

0. Caneto, ft. Linnajus, 8p. 3 ed. 278 (exel. syn. h(rfling). 

C. mOTWpyrenum, Swartz, Prodr. 49; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 480.— Persoon, Syn. i, 236.-Rocmer & Schultes, Syst. iv 703.— 
Sprt-ng<l,.Sy»t. i, 666.— Bot. Mag. t. 3303.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 638. —Miquel in Martins, Fl. Brasil. vii, 94. 

C./errugincum, f;artner f. Fruct. Suppl. 120, t. 202, f. 1. 

C. microphyllum, Chapman ill CoiiU't'h Bot. Gazette, iii, 9. —Va>ey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18 [not A. De Candolle]. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Can:iveral to flic southern keys (Elliott's Key, No-Name Key, Key Largo), west 
coast, Caloosa river to cape Sable; rare ; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A small tree, .sometimes meters in height, with a trunk 0.1i5 to 0.30 meter in diameter. 

Wood veiy heavy, liard, strong, clo-sc-graiiied, <'lieeking in drying; medullary rays numerous, not conspicuous; 
color, light brown .shaded willi red, the thin sap-wood a little lighter; specific gravity, 0.93C0; ash, 1.24. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 101 

176. — Sideroxylon Mastichodendron, Jacquin. 

Coll. ii, 1. 17, f. 5.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 41, 1. 120, f. 2.— Ga;rti)cr f. Fnict. Suppl. 125.— Sprcngel, Syst. i, 6CC.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 622.— A. De 
Candullo, Prodr. viii, 181.— Griscbach, Fl. British West Indies, 399.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America ii', 67. 

BumcUa pallida, Swarlz, Trodr. 4U; Fl. liid. Occ.4b9. 

Achras pallida, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 533. 

Bumelia Mastichodendron, Rcenier & Schultes, Syat.lv, 493. 

S. pallidum, Sprengel, Syst. i, 666.— A. Do Candolle, Prodr. viii, 180.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 274. -Vascy, Cat. For««t 
Trees, 18. 

Bumelia fcetidissima, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 39, t.94 ; 2 ed. ii, 108, t. 94.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 265. 



Semi-troi)ical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, west coast, cape Romano to cape Sable ; in the 
West Indies. 

A tree often 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.90 meter in diameter ; the largest and most valaable 
tree of semi-tropical Florida; common. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close grained, checking in drying, containing few scattered small 
open dncts ; medullary rays numerous, not conspicuous ; color, bright orange, the sap-wood yellow; specific gravity, 
1.0109 ; ash, 5.14 ; not afl'ected by the teredo; largely used in ship- and boat-building. 

The dry fruit, of a pleasant subacid flavor, eagerly eaten by animals. 

177. — Dipholis salicifolia, A. De Candolle, 

Prodr. viii, 188 (Dolessert, Icon. Mex. ined. t. 40).— Richard, Fl. Cuba, t. .'i4'. — Miqnel in Martins, Fl. Brasil. vii, 45, 1. 18. — Chapman, 
Fl. S. States, 274.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 401.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America ii', 67. 

Achras salicifolia, Liunasus, Spec. 2 ed.470. 

Bumelia salicifolia, Swartz, Prodr. 50 ; Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 491.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 42.— WiUdenow, Spec, i, 10S6.— Aiton, Hort. 
Kew. 2 cd. ii, 12. — Roomer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 494. — Dietrich, Syn. 1, 621. 

Sideroxylon salicifolium, Gaertner f. Fruct. Suppl. 124, t. 202.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 42. 

BUSTIC. OASSADA. 

Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayue to the southern keys ; through the West Indies to Brazil. 

A tree sometimes 15 meters in height, with a trunk rarely O.GO meter in diameter ; the large trees hollow and 
defective; rare. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, close-grained, compact, checking in drying, susceptible of a 
beautiful polish, containing mauy scattered large open ducts ; color, dark brown or red, the sap-wood lighter ; 
specific gravity, 0.931G ; ash, 0.32. , 

178. — Bumelia tenax, Willdcnow. 

Spec, i, 1088; Enum. 248; Borl. Bauniz. 67.— Aitou, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. ii, 12.— Rtemer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 496.— Elliott, Sk. i, 288.— 
Porsoou.Syn. i,237.- Hayno.Dend. Fl. 18.— Sprengel, Syst. i,664.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 60.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 30.— London, 
Arboretum, ii, 1193, f. 1017.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 021.— Spach, Hist. Vog. ix, 388.— Eaton & Wright. Bot. 162.— Xuttall, Sylva, iii, 35, t, 
92 ; 2 ed. ii, 104, t. 92.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 196.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 428.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1S5?, 253.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 275.— Wood, CI. Book, .lOl ; Bot. & Fl. 210.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19.— Gray, Sya. Fl. N. America, ii', 68. 

Sideroxylon tenax, Liummis, Mant. 48.— Jacquin, Coll. ii, 252.— Lamarck, Diet. i,245 ; 111. ii, 42.— Aiton, Hort. Kow, i,262.— 

Swartz, Obs. 91. — Uosl'ontaiues, Hist. Arb. i, 201. — Robin, Voyages, iii, 461. 

Sideroxylon Carolincnse, .lacquiu, Obs. iii, 3, t. 54. 

Sideroxylon sericeitm, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 100. 

Sideroxylon chrysophylloidcs, Michaux, Fl. Hor.-Am. i, 123.— Ralinesqiie, Fl. Ludoviciana, 53. 

B. chrysophylloides, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 155.— Nuttall, Genera, i, Ui.").— Watson, Dcnd. Brit, i, 1. 10. 

?B. revlinata, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 275 [not Venteual]. 



102 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

North Caroliua, soutli near the eoast to cape Canaveral and Cedar Keys, Florida. 

A small tree, t» to 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.ir» n)eter in diameter; sandy soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish; well characterized, 
as in all the North American species, by large open ducts, defining, with several rows, the rings of annual growth, 
and connected by conspicuous branching groups of similar ducts, giving to a cross-section a beautifully reticulated 
appearance ; medullary rays nnmerous, thin ; color, light brown streaked with white, the sap-wood lighter ; specific 
gravity, 0.7293; ash, 0.7S. 

179. — Bumelia lanuginosa, Pereooa, 

Syn. i, 237.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 155.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 135.— Roemer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 497.— Elliott, Sk. i, 288.— Eaton, Manual, 
C ed. CO.— Don, Millers Diet, iv, 30.— Loiulon, Arboretum, ii, 1194.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 162.— A. De CandoUo, Proilr. viii, 190.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 428.— Cooper in Smithsonian IJep. 18.'>8,253.— Cliai)man, Fl. S. State.'!,275. — Lesqiiereux in Owen's 2il Rep. 
ATkan8a«,374.— Wood, CI. Book, 501; Bot. & Fl. 210. —Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 308; Hall's PI. Texas, 15; Syn. Fl. N. America, 
ii', 68.— Young, Bot. Texas, 377.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 

fSiderorylon tenax, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 100. 

Sideroxylon lanuginosum, Michaux, Fl.Bor.-Am.i,l22. 

fB. ohlongifoUa, Nuttal],Genera, i, 135; Sylva,iii,33; 2 ed.ii, 102.— Sprengel, Syst. i,6C4.— Eaton, Manual, Ced. CO.— Eaton 
& Wright, Sot. 162.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 30.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1194.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 621.— A. De Candolle, 
Prodr. viii, 190. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 374. 

B. femtginen, Xuttall, Sylva,iii,34; 2cd. ii,103. 

B. tomentosa, A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 190. 

B. arborea, Buckley iu Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1861,461. 

Gtrai ELASTIC. SHITTIM WOOD. 

Georgia and northern Florida to ^Mobile bay, Alabama; southern Illinois and southern Missouri, through 
Arkansas to the vaUey of the Eio Grande, Texas (Eagle pass, Uavard) [B. oblongi/olia). 

An evergreen tree, sometimes 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states 
mnch smaller, rarely exceeding G meters in height ; common and reaching its greatest development in the rich 
bottom lauds of eastern Texas. 

A low, depres.sed form of the sand-hills of the Altainaha river, Georgia, still to be rediscovered, with small 
leaves and "edible fruit as large as a small date", is var. macrocarpa, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 68 {B. macrocarpa, 
Nnttall, Sylva, iii, 37; 2 ed. ii, 106). 

Wood heavy, soft, weak, close-grained, very compact, the open ducts conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, 
thin; color, light brown or yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6544; ash, 1.23; somewhat used in 
cabinet-making, for which it is well suited. 

A clear, very viscid gum exuded from the freshly-cut wood is sometimes used domestically. 

180. — Bumelia spinosa, A. Do Candolle, 
Prodr. viii, 191 (Deles-sert, Icon. Mr-x. iiinl. t. 75).— Hcnifilcy^ot. Am. -Cent, ii, 299.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 112. 

Santa Catalina mountains, Arizona, at an elevation of 2,700 feet {Fringle) ; Parras and Saltillo, Mexico {Palmer, 
No. 787). 

A small tree, to 7 meters in lieight, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter; dry, gravelly soil, near 
water-courses. 

Wood heavj-, hard, very clo.segraincd, coiiiijact, the ojjcu ducts conspicuous; medullary rays thin, obscure; 
color, light rich brown or yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity. 0.0003; a.sh, 1.21. 

181. — Bumelia lycioides, Gmrtncr f. 

Fmct. Snppl. 127, 1. 120.— Pemoon, Syn. i, 237.— Willdcnow, Euum. 249 ; Bcrl. Baumz. 68.- Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 2.'57.— Nuttall, Genera. 
i, 135 ; .Sylva, iii, 31, t. 91 ; 2 cd. ii, 101, t. 01.— R<cm<T & Srhultea, Syst. iv, 495.— Haync, D.-nd. Fl. 19.— Elliott, Sk. i, 287.— Sprengel, 
.Syst. i,C<>l.— Eaton, M.innal, Ced. CO.— Don, MillcHH Diet, iv, 30.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1193, f. 1010.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 621.— 
Spacb, Hist. Veg. ix.:W8.-Eaton & Wright, Bot. 1C2.—A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 189.— Grinilli, Med. Hot. 441.— Darl)y, Bot. S. 
States, 427.— Cooper in Smithsonian R<-p. 18.58, 2.53.- Chapman, Fl. S. States, 27.5.— Lesfpureux in Owen's 2d Ii'cp. Arkansus, 374.— 
Wood, CI. Book, 501 ; Bot. & Fl. 210.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 308; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii',C8.— Young, Cot. Texas, 37C.— 
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19.- Hemslcy, Bot. Am. -Cent. ii. 298. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 103 

Sideroxylon lycioides, Linnajns, Ilort. Cliff. 488 (excl. lial).).— Lamarck. Diet, i, 246; 111. ii, 42.— Alton, Hort. Kew. i, 262 ; 3 
ed. ii, I'S. — Willdeuow, Spec, i, 1090. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 122. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 155. — Jaame St. Hilsire, 
Fl. & Pom. Am. Franc, t. 81. 

Sideroxylon decanclrum, Liunicas, Mant. 48.— Willdcnow, Spec. 1, 1091. 

Syderoxylon lave, Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua, 100. 

IRON WOOD. SOUTHEEN BUCKTHORN. 

Coast of Virginia and .southern Illinois, south to Mosqnito inlet and Caloosa river, Florida, and tbroagh 
southern Missouri, Arkausas, and Texas to the valley of the Eio Concho, Texas. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter ; low, 
rich soil, or often, in the Atlantic and Gulf states, a low, semi-prostrate shrub, described as — 

var. reclinatum, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 68. 

Sideroxylon reclinatum, Michanx.Fl. Bor.-Am. 1,122. 

B. reelinata, Ventenat, Choix, t.22.— Persoon, Syii.i,237.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, I'S.— Rocmer &, S<!hulte8, Syrt. iv, 496.— 
Elliott, Sk. 1,287.— Eaton, Manual,6 ed.60.— Dielricli, Syn. i, 6-^1.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 30.— London, Arboretum, ii, 
1193.— A. De CandoUe, Prodr. vui, 190.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 428.— Wood, CI. Book, 501 ; Bot. & Fl. 210. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, comi^act; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or 
yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7467; ash, 0.81. 

182. — Bumelia cuneata, Swartz, 

Fl. Ind. Occ. i, 496.— Persoon, Syn. i, 237.— Ecemer & Schultes, Syst. iv, 498.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 665.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 30.— Dietrich, 
Syn. i, 621.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 401.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 68.— Hemsley, Bot. Am.-Cent. ii, 297. 

Achras CUneifoUa, Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, vi, 534. 

B. angustifolia, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 38, t. 93 ; 2 ed. ii, 106, t. 93.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 265. 

Sideroxylon Clineatum, A. De CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 181. 

B, parvifolia, A. Do CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 190.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 275.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 

B. myrsinifolia, A. De CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 192. 

B. reelinata, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 109 [not Ventenat]. 

ANTS' WOOD. DOWNWAJaD PLUM. SAFFRON PLUM. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding 4 meters iu height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter. 

Semi-tropical Florida, Merritt's island, Indian river, and southward to the southern keys, not rare; west coast, 
Cedar Keys to capo Eomano, rare; rocky shores and iu the interior of low, barren keys; Texas, valley of the 
lower Eio Grande, Ross to Laredo, and southward into northern Mexico; in the "West ludies. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; medollaiy 
rays numerous, thin; color, light brown or orange, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.79o9; ash, 1.90. 

183. — Mimusops Sieberi, A. De CandoUo, 
Prodr. viii, 204.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 275.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 18.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 69. 
Achras Zapotilla, yar. parviflora, NuttaU, Sylva, iU, 28, t.90; 2od.ii,97, t.90. 
M. dissecta, Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 400, in part. 
Achras mammosa, Sicber, Pi. Trin. No. 3;< [not Linnieus nor Bonpland]. 

WILD DILLY. 

Semi-tropical Florida, on the southern keys, connnon ; in the M'est Indies. 

A small, low, gnarled tree, sometimes motors in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.40 meter in diameter; generally 
hoUow and dofoetive. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, closo-graiiu d. inclined to check in drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish; 
medullary rays lutmerous, very obscure ; color, ricli, very dark bniwn, the sap-wood lighter ; spccilio gravity. 1.0S3S; 
ash, 2.G1. 



104 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



EBENACEiE 



184. — Diospyros Virginiana, Linnirna, 

Sped cd. 105T.— Kalm, Travtls, English ed. i, 127, 345.— Marshall, Arbiistum, 40.— Wangcnbcim, Amcr. 84, t. 28, f.r)8.— Walter, Fl. 
Caroliiiiana, i"i3.- .\iton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 440; 2 ed. v, 4T8. — Abbot, lusects Georgia, ii, t. Gl, 74. — B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 11,45; ii, 
52.— Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2,'.8.— G.-ertuer f. Friict. Suppl. 138, t. 207.— Willdeuow, Spec, iv, 1107; Fnum. lOlil ; Berl. Banniz.. 
127.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 52S.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 1806.— Desfontaiues, Hist. Arb. i, 208.— Titford, llort. Bot. Am. 106.— 
Micbaax f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 195, t. 12; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 157, t. 93. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 265. — Nouveau Duhamel, 
vi, 84.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladelpb. 97 ; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 198.— Eaton, Manual, 117 ; 6 ed. 126.— Nuttall, Genera, 
ii, 240.— Hayne, Dcnd. Fl. 228.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 712.— CoUiu, Forslag af nigra Xord-.\mericas Trad. 23.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. 
SUtes, 375.— Andubon, Birds, t. 87.— Spreugol, Syst. ii, 202.— Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, 14C.— Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 153, t. 32.— 
Beck, Bot. 229.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 39.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1195, t. 200, 201.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 225.— A. De Candolle, 
Prodr. iv, 226.— Browne, Trees of America, 368.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 435, f. 19G.— Dietrich, Syn. v,437.— Bclg. Hort. iv, 118 & t.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 425. — Darlington. Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 176. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 253.— Chapman, Fl. S. Stat«s, 
273. — Curtis in Kep. Geological Surv. N.Carolina, 18G0, iii, 70. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 374. — "Ettiugsh. Blatt- 
Skel. Dikot. 89, t. 38, f. 12."— Wood, CI. Book, 500 ; Bot. & Fl. 209.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 385.— Engelmauu in Trans. Am. 
Phil. Socnewser. xii, 200.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 308; Hall's PI. Texas, 15; Syn. Fl.N. America, ii', 69.— Koch, Dendrologie, 
ii, 204. — Hiern in Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc. xii', 224. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18. — Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 
69.— Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 68. 

J), concolor, Moench, Meth.471. 

D. Guaiacana, Robin, Voyages, iii, 417. 

J), pubescem, Pnrsb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 265 [not Persoon].- Ralineflque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 139.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv; 38.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1196. 

D. Virginia7ia, var. pubescens, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 240.— Elliott, Sk.ii,7l3. 

D. Virginiana, var. microcarpa, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 115. 

D. Virginiana, var. concolor, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i, 155. 

D. Virginiana, var. macrocarpa, Rafinesque, Med. Bot. i. 155. 

D. Persimon, Wikstrom, Jabr. Scbwed. 1830, 92. 

D. ciliata, Rafinesque, New Fl. <t Bot. i, 25 [not A. De Candolle]. 

D. calycina, Audibert, Cat. Hort. Tonn. (ex. Spach).— Loudon, Card. Mag. 1841, 394. 

D. anguntifolia. Audibert, Cat. Hort. Tonn. (ex. Sp.ich).— Loudon, Gard. Mag. 1841, 394. 

D. lucida, Hort.— Loudon, Gard. Mag. 1841, .394. 

Z>. intermedia, Hort.— Loudon, Gard. Mag. 1841,394. 

PERSIMMON. 

Lighthouse point, New Haven, Connecticut, Long Ishintl, New Torlc, and southward to bay Bi.so^ayne and the 
Caloo.sa river, Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi; southern Ohio to southeastern Iowa, southern Missouri, 
Arkansa.s, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texas. 

A tree 10 to 20 or, exceptionally, 30 to 35 meters in height (Ridgway), with a trunk sometimes O.CO meter in 
diameter ; very common and often entirely occupying abandoned fields throughout the middle and lower regions 
of the southern Atlantic and Gulf states, reaching its greatest development in the rich bottom lands of the lower 
Ohio basin. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a high polish, contaiuing few scattered, 
open ducts, the rings of animal .growth marked by one or more rows of similar ducts; medullary rays numerous, 
con8i)icuon8 ; color, dark brown, or often nearly bhiek, the thick sap-wood light brown, often containing numerous 
darker spots; specific gravity of the sajj-wood, O.TilO.S; ash, O.ltC; used in turnery for shoe-lasts, i)lanestocks, 
etc., and preferred for sliuttles; the dark heart-wood only developed in very old specimens and rarely seen. 

The yellow edible fruit exceedingly austere until after frost, then becoming sweet and luscious, or in the Gulf 
states riix-ning in August without austerity; sometimes u.sed domestically, fermented with hops, corn-meal, or 
wheat bran, as a beverage unrler the name of "simmon beer". 

A decoction of the bitter and astringent unripe fruit and inner bark occasionally u.sed in the treatment of 
diarrha-a, sore throat, hemorrhage, etc. (Ii. Ii. Smith in Am. Jour. Pliarm. October, 184G, 215.— ■/. K Bryan in same, 
May, 1860, 215.— C. S. Dinpensatory, 14 ed. 380.— .V«<. IUHpcnsalory, 2 ed. 514). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 105 

185. — Diospyros Texana, Scbcrle, 

Linnaja, xxii, 145; RcDnicr, Texas, 441; Appx. 763.— WalpcTB, Ann. iii, 14.— Torrey, Bof. Mex. Boundary Sarvty, 109.— Cooper in 
Suiithaoiiian Rep. 1858, •JGG.— Young, Bot. Texas, 370.— Hieru in TronB. Cambridge Phil. Soc.xii', 238. -Gray, Hall's PLTexaa, 15; 
Syn. FI. N. America, ii', 70.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest TrccH, 18.— Homeley, Bot. Am. -Cent, ii, 300. 

BLACK PERSIMMON. MEXICAN PERS13DIOX. CHAPOTE. 

Westeru Texas, Matagorda bay to tbc vallej' of the Concho river ; .southward into northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 4 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes O..'j0 meter in diameter, or more often a low 
shrub; not rare, and reaching its greatest development in Texas along the rich bottoms of the Guadalnin; river ; 
borders of prairies, in rich soil ; in Mexico more common and of larger size. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, satiny, taking a beautiful polish, containing few minate, 
scattered, oj)en ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, nearly black, often streaked with yellow, the thick 
sap-wood clear bright jellow; specific gravitj", 0.S4G0; ash, 3.;>3; u.sed in turnery for the handles of toohj, etc, 
suitable for wood-engraving, and probably the best substitute among American woods for box-wood. 

The small black fruit sweet and insipid. 



STYRACACEiE. 



186. — Symplocos tinctoria, L'Heritier, 

Trans. Linnaean Soc. i, 176. — Willdenow, Spec, iii, 1436. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iv, 419. — Sprengel, Syst. iii, 339.— Don, Miller's Diet, ir^ 
2.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 254.— Cooper in Smithsoni.-in Rep. 1858, 253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 272.— Cnrtis in Rep. 
Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 65.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 374.— Wood, CI. Book, 499; Bot. i FL209.— 
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 'MO; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 71.— Young, Bot. Texas, 374.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18. 

Hojpea tinctoria, Linnaeus, Mant. 105.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 189.— Miclianx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 42.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 72.— 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 217.— Gajrtner f. Fruct. Suppl. 146, t.209, f.2.— Robin, Voyages, iii, 419.— Michaui f. Hirt. 
Arb. Aiii.iii,61,t. 9; N.American Sylva, 3 ed.iii, 45, 1. 117.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept.ii, 451.— Nnti.iU, Genera, ii, 63.- 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 173.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 176.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ix, 420.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 272.— Darby. Bot. 
S. States, 425.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 388. 

HORSE SUGAR. SWEET LEAF. 

Southern Delaware, soutii to about latitude 30° in Florida, and west through the Gulf states to western 
Louisiana and southern Arkansas (Malvern, Texarkana, Letterman). 

A small tree, G to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in diameter, or often a low shrub; 
borders of cyi)ress swamps or in deep, damp, shaded woods. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, checking in drying; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light 
red, or often nearly white, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5325; ash, O.OS. 

Leaves sweet, greedily eaten by cattle and horses, and yielding, as does also the bark, a yellow dye. 

187. — Halesia diptera, Liunieus, 

Spec.2ed. 636. — Marshall, Arbustum,. 57.— Lamarck. Diet. ii,fH). — Willdenow, Spec. ii,849; Enuni.49G; Berl. Banmi. 171.— CavonillMi, 
Diss, yi, 338, t. 187. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 40. — Per.soon, Syn. ii, 4. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iii, 143. — Konveaii Dnhamel, T, 
144.— Pur.sh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 450.— Niittall, G.-nerii, ii, 83.— Elliott, Sk. i, 508.— Hayno, Dond. Fl. tW.- Loddigee. Bot. Cab. t. 
1172.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 84.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 164.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 7.— Louilon, Arboretum, ii, 1191, f. 1014.— Spaeh, 
Hist. Vog. ix, 426.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 260.— A. Do Candolle, Prodr. viii, 270.— Miers, Contrib. i, 19;}.- Darby, Bot. S. States. 
425.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1&-.8, 253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 271.— Wood, CI. Book, 499; Bot. & Fl. 209.— Koch, 
Dendrologio, ii, 201. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 18. — Gray, Syn. FI.N. America, ii', 71. 

H. reticulata, Buokloy in Proo. Philadelphia Acad. 1860, 444. 

SNOW-DKOr TREE. SILVEKBELL TREE. 

South Carolina to northern Florida, near the coast, and west through the lower ivgion of the Gulf states to 
eastern Texas and Garland county, Arkansas {Ilarrctf). 

A small tree, sometimes (5 to 10 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or often a shrub 
sending uji many clustered stems from the root; borders of swami>s, in low, wet woods. 

Wood light, .>ott, strong, very close grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin: color, light br»>wn. the 
sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5705; ash, 0.-12. 



106 FOREST TREES OF XORTH AMERICA. 

188. — Halesia tetraptera, Linnaeus, 

Bptt^a ed.636.— Marshall, Arbustuni, 57. — Ga-rtuor. Friu-t. i, 1(<0. t. :«. f. 2.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 66 ; 111. ii, 5-il, t. 404,f. 1.— Aitrvu.Hort. 
Kew. ii, 123; *2 ed. iii, 143.— Mcpnch, Meth. 507. —Abbot, Insects Georgia i, t. 46.- Willdenow, Spec, ii, 849; Ennm. 4%; Berl. 
R^nmF- 170. — Cavanilles, Diss, vi, 33;?. t. l^..^Mieliaux, Fl. Bor.-Aiu. ii, 40. — Pereoon, S\ti. ii, 4. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 216. — 
Xonvean Dnhamel.v, 143, t,45.— Piireh, FI. Am. Sept. ii, 449.— Xnttall, Genera, ii, S>.—Bot. Mag. t. 910.— Elliott, Sk. i, 507.— 
Hayne. Dend. Fl. 66.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 1. 1173. — Spreugel, Syst. iii. S4. — Guimpol, Otto & H.iyne, Abb. Holz. 43, t. 35.— Eaton, 
Manual, 6 ed. 164.- Don, Millers Diet. iv. 6.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1190, f. 1012, t. 196, 197.— Spaeh, Hist. Veg. ix, 426.— Eaton 
& Wright, Boi, 260. — A. De CandoUe, Pnxlr. viii, 270.— Browne, Trees of America, 366.— Miers, Contrib. i, 191, t. 93.— Darby, 
Hot, S. States, 425.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. Ii558, 25;?.- Agardh, Theor. Jt Syst. PI. t.22, f. 16, 17.- Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
271.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. X. Carolina. 1J«Q, iii, tfO.— Wood, CI. Book, 499; Bot. & Fl. 209.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. 
af Nat. For. Viden. Meddtlt. No?. 1-6. l!«i6. 89, f. 2.— Gray, Manual X. States, 5 ed. 310; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 71.— Koch, 
Dendrologie, ii. 199.— Young. Bot. Texas, 374.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tn^-es, 18. 

EATTLEBOX. S>fOW-DBOP TEEE. SILTEE-BELL TBEE. CALICO WOOD. 

Moantains of West Virginia to sontbern Illinois, south to middle Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, 
and through Arkansas to western Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

A tree 10 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk rarely O.GO meter in diameter, or often a tall shrub; generally 
along streams, in rich soil ; most common and reaching its greatest development in the southern Alleghany 
moantains; common in cultivation. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.562$; ash, 0.40. 

KOTK. — Halftia parrHlora, Michaus. of southern Georgia, and Florida, does not attain the size or habit of a tree. 



OLEACEiE. 



189. — Fraxinus Greggii, Gray, 
PracAm. Acad. rii. 64: Syn. FI. K. America, ii', 74. — Hemslcy, Bot. Am. -Cent, ii, 305. 
jP. Schifdfana, var. parri/oJia, Torrey, Bot. Mes. Bonndary Survey, 16C. 

Western Texas, valley of the Rio Grande, from the San Pedro to the Pecos river ; southward into Mexico. 

A small tree, sometimes 7 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter (Lampasas 
mountains, Mexico, Buckley), or often a graeoful shrub; limestone soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, verj- close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth and medullary rays obscure; color, 
brown, the sap-wowl lighter; specific gravity, 0.7004; ash, 0.93. 

190. — Fraxinus anomala, Torrey; 
Wat»on in King's Rep. v, 283. — Parry in Am. Xat. ix, 203. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Treea, 20. — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 74. 

Southwestern Colorado, McElmo river [Brandegce), southern Utah, Kanawa, Leeds, Silver Ijeaf, Labyrinth 
canon of the Colorado river, valley of the IJio Virgen, mar Saint George. 

A small tree, sometimes C meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, with the habit of a 
dwarf pear tree; common on elevated sandstone mej*ii« and plateaus. 

Wood heavy, hard, coarsegrained, containing many large, open, scattered ducts, the layers of annual growth 
marked by several rows of similar ducts; medullarj- rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter; 
specific gravity. 0.0507: a.sh, 0.85. 

191. — Fraxinus pistaciaefolia, Torrey, 

Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 12e ; Bot. Mex. Boundary Sur\ey, 166.- Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1658, 260.— Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, 19; 
Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 74. —Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20.— Rusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 54.— Hemslcy, Bot. Am. Cent, ii, 
3C6. — Wataon in Proc. .im. Acad, xviii, 113. 

J^. relutina, Torrey in Emory s Rep. 149. 

F. coriac^o, Watson in Am. Xat. vii, 302, in part.— Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 186, t. 22.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Treea, 20. 

F. pistaciafolia, var. CoriaceOj Gray, Syn. Kl. X. America, ii', 74. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 107 



Mountains of western Texas, tbrougli southern New Mexico, soutliem and eastern Ar)7x>na, to Boatbern 
Nevada (Ash Meadows, liothroch) ; in northeni Mexico. 

A small tree, 10 to 12 meters in lieight, with a trunk rarely 0.4.5 meter in diameter; generally along borders 
of streams, in elevated canons, less commonly in dry soil, the foliage then thick and coriaceon.s or, more rarely, 
velvety tomentose (var. coriacca, Qray, I. c.) ; the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

"Wood heavy, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown, 
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.6810; ash, O.OU; occasionally u.sed in wagon-building, for ax handles, etc 

192. — Fraxinus Americana, Linna;ii», 

Spec. 2ed. 1510.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 'XA.—Wton, linn. Kow. iii, 44.t; 2 ed. v, 476.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1102; Enmn. 1000; 
Berl. Baumz. 145.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Nene .Schriftcn Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 303. — Vahl Ennm. i,49.— Peraoon.Syn. 
ii, 604. — Desfontainea, Hist. Arb. i,102. — Notivean Dnhamel, iv, 6:5. — MIcbanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, IOC, t. H; X. American 8yW», 
3ed. iii, 49, t. lie (excl. fruit).— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadclph. 07; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 192.— Eaton, Mannal. 114.— 
Hayne, Dend. Fl. 221.— Cobbett, WoodLinds, 131.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 95.— Beck, Bot. 232.— London, Arljoretnm, ii, 1232, f. 1056 
& t.— Pcnn. Cyel. x, 455.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 408.— Hooker, 11. Bor.-Am. ii, 51.— Torrey, Fl. N. York, ii, 125, t. 89.— A. De 
Candolle, Prodr. viii, 177. — Browne, Trees of America, 394. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 233. — Cooper in Smithsonian Bep. 
1858, 253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 369.— Curtis in Geological Rep. \. Carolina, 18f;0, iii, 54.— Wood, CI. Book, 597; Bot. &. Fl. 
277. — Lesquercux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 382. — Engelmann in Tran.s. Am. Phil. .Soc. new scr. xii, 206. — Porcher, Kemnrcea 
S. Forests, 404.— Gray, M.innal N. States, 5 ed. 401 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 19; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 74.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 
252.— Young, Bot. Texas, 452.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20.— Maconn in Geological Kep. Canada, 1875-'76, 207.— Sears in Boll. 
Essex Inst, xiii, 177.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 52«.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 1882, 68. 

F. Caroliniensis, Wangenheim, Amer. 81. 

F. alba, Marshall, Arbnstnm,51.— Hayne.Dend. F1.223. 

F. acuminata, Lamarck, Diet, ii, 542.— Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 205.— Pnr8h,Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 9.— Nut tall, Genera, ii,231; 
Sylva, iii, 64 ; 2 ed. ii, 129.— H.iyne, Dend. Fl. 220.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 672.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 95.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. 
States, 371 ; Nicollet's Rep. 15'J.— Ea'mer & Schnltes, Syst. iii, 277.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 8.— Eaton, Manual, 6 
ed. 148.— Beck, Bot. 232.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 56.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 247.— Emerson, Trees Manachiuetta, 333; 
2 ed. ii, 376 & t.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429.— Porcher, Resonrces S. Forests, 494. 

f F. juglandifolia, Lamarck, Diet, ii, .542.— Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 208.— Desfontaines, Hist.Aib. i, 103.— Hayne, Dend. 
Fl. 221.— Beck, Bot. 232. —Don, Miller's Dicf.iv,.55. 

F. Canadensis, Gartner, Fruct.i, 222, t. 49. 

F. epiptera, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 256.— Vahl, Enum.i, 50.— Willdenow, Spec. iv,1102; Berl. Banmz. 147.— Persoon, Syn. 
ii,G03— Desfont.iiues, Hist. Arb. i, 103.— Poiret, Snppl. ii,671.— Nnttall, Genera, ii,231.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. t, 8.— 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 672.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 06.— Rmraerdt Schnltes, Syst. 278.— Eaton, Mannal, 6ed. 148.— Don, Miller's Diet, 
iv, 55. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 12:57. — Penn. Cycl. x, 455.— Eaton <fe Wright, Bot. 247. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 50. — 
A. De Caodolle, Prodr. viii, 277. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 429. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 399. 

F. lancea, Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 209 (Jde London, Arboretum, ii, 1237). 

F. discolor, Mnhleiiberg, Cat. HI.— Raline.squp, Fl. Ludoviciana, 37.— Spach, Hist. Veg. viii, 297. 

F. Americana,vav. lati/olia, Loudon, Arborctnm.ii, 1232.— Browne. Trees of America, 396. 

tF. juglandifolia, var. serrata, Hayne, Dend. Fl. 221. 

fF. juglandifoUa,xaT. suhserrata, Hayne.Dend. F1.221. 

WHITE ASH. 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Ontario to northern Minnesota, south to northern Florida, central 
Alabama and IMississippi, and west to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and the valley of the 
Trinity river, Texas. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 15 to 30 or, exceptionally, -12 meters (Rutgirai/) in height, with a trunk 
1.20 to 1.80 meter in diameter; low, rich, rather moist soil, reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands 
of the lower Ohio Kiver basin; toward its western and southwestern limits smaller, of less ecoriomic value, and 
generally replaced by the green ash {Fraxinux riridin). 

A form of the soathern states with remarkably small fruit h.is been described as — 



108 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

var. microcarpa, Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 75. 

F. albicaim, Buckley in Proc. Pbilailelpbin Acad. 1SC2, 4, in part. 

F. Clirtissii, Va^. y. Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

Wood ht-avy, h nil, stion-j. ultimately brittle, coarse-grained, compact; layers of aiiiuial growth clearly marked 
by several row.s of large open ducts, occupyiug iu slowly-grown specimens nearly tbe entire width of the annual 
rings; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, brown, the sap-wood much lighter, often nearly white; specific 
gravity, 0.C543; ash, 0.4l'; specific gravity of the heavier sap-wood, 0.7180; largely used iu the manufacture of 
agricultural implements, carriages, handles, oars, and for interior and cabinet work. 

Var. Texensis, 
Gr»y, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 75. 

F. albicans, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1802, 4, in part. 

F. coriacea, Watson in Am. Nat. vil,302, in part. 

F. pistaeiCB/olia, Gray, Hall's PI. Texas, lU [not Torrey]. 

Western Texas, Dallas (Reverchon), to the valley of the Devil's river. 

A small tree, 10 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter ; dry, rocky hills and 
ridges. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by one or more 
rows of open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 
0.7636; ash, 0.70 ; used for the same purposes as that of the species. 

193. — Fraxinus pubescens, Lamarck, 

Diet, ii, 548.— Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 254.— Wilhlenow, Spec, iv, llCCi; Enum. lOCO; Berl. Banmz. 148.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in 
Nene SchrifteuGesell. Nat. Kr. Berlin, iii, 393. — Vabl, Euuni. i,51. — Per.sooii.Syu. ii,604. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 102. — Nonveau 
Duhamel, iv, 62. — Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 47(). — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i,9. — Rieiuer & Schultes, Syst. 279. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, 
231.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 223.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 073.- Sprengel, Syst. i, 95. —Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N. States, 371 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 126.— 
Beck, Bot. 232.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 148.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 55.— London, Arboretum, ii, 1233, f. 1056.— Penn. Cycl. x, 455.— 
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 247. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 51.— A. Do CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 278.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 337 ; 2 ed. 
ii, 380.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 23'J.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429. —Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. ie58,253.—Chapman, Fl. S. 
SUtes, 370.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. C.irolina, 1860, iii, .54.— Wood, CI. Book, 597 ; Bot. & Fl. 277.— Gray, Manual N. 
States, 5 ed. 402 : Syn. I-T. N. America, ii', 75.— Young, Bot. Texas, 452.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20.— Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 
177.— Ridgway in Proc. L'. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,69. 

F. Pennsylvanica, Marshall, Arbustum, 51.— K(>ch,Deudrologie, ii,253. 

F. nigra, Du Roi, Harbk.2 ed.i,398 [not Marshall]. 

F. pubescens, var. longi/olia, Willdeuow, Spec, iv, 1104.— Vabl, Enum. i, 52.— Pureh.Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 9.— Loddiges, Cat. 
ed. 1836.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1233.— A. De Caudollo, Prodr. viii, 278. 

F. pubescens, var. latifoliu, Willdeuow, Spec, iv, 1104.— Vahl, Enum. i, 52.— Pnrsb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 9.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 
223.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 148.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1233.— A. De CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 278. 

F. pubescens, var. subpubescens, Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 605.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 9.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 148.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, ii, 1234. — A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 278. — Browne, Trees of America, 395. 

F. longi/olia, Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 209. 

F. SUbvillosa, Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 209. 

F. tomentosa, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 112, t. 9; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 63, t. 119.— Barton, Compend. FL 
Pbihidelph. ii, 192. 

jP. Americana, va,r. pubescenn, Browne, Trees of America, 39c. 

F. Oblongocarpa, Buckley in Proc. Pbila<lclpliia Acad. 1864,4. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 109 



New Brunswick to southern Ontario and northern Minnesota, sonth to northern Florida anil central Alabama. 

A tree 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk rarelj- exceeding 0.00 meter in diameter; borders of streams 
and swamps, in hjw ground; common and reacliing its greatest development in the north Atli'.ntic states; rare 
west of the Alleghany mountains, probably not extending west of the ^Mississippi river. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, coarsegrained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich brown, 
the sap-wood light browu streaked with yellow; specilic gravity, 0.02.j1 ; ash, 0.26; specific gravity of the lighter 
sap-wood, 0.5G09; somewhat used as a substitute for the more valuable white ash, with which it is often confounded. 

194. — Fraxinus viridis, Miohmix f. 

Hist. Alb. Am. iii, 115, t. 10; N. Amorican Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 54, t. 120 (oxcl. fruit).— Hayuo, Delia. Fl. 22-2.— Cooper in Smithsonian 
Rep. 1858, 253.— Cli.apman, Fl. S. States, 370.— Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii^ 46; Mauual N. States, 5 ed. 402; Hall's PI. Teiaa, 
19; Syn.Fl. N. America, ii', 75.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 54.— Le8quereuxinOwen's2dRep. Arkansas, 
382.— Wood, CI. Book, 598; Bot. & Fl. 277.— Watson in ICing's Rep. v, 284.— Young, Bot. Texas, 453.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tre«B, 
20.— Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'7('>, 207.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 49.— Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, ii, 
305. — Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95. 

F. juglandifolia, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1104; Enum. 1060; Berl. Banmz. 140 [not Lamarck].— Vahl, Enum. i, 50.— PcrBoon, 
Syn. ii, 604.— Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 63, t. 16.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 476.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 9.— Eoemer 
& Scbultes, Syst. i, 278 ; iii, Suppl. 255.— Eaton, Mauual, 114.— Spreugel, Syst. i, 95.— Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N'. States, 
371.— Beck, Bot. 233.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 55.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1236, f. 1061, 1062 & t.— Eaton & ■«■ right, 
Bot. 247.— Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 373. 

fF. Caroliniana, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1103; Enum. 1060; Berl. Baumz. 148.— Vahl, Eunni. i, 51.— Du Roi, Harbk. 2 ed. 
i, 400.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 605.— Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. i, 103.— Nouveau Duhamel, iv, 62.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 9.— 
Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 673.— H.ayne, Dend. Fl. 223.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 95.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 
148.— Don, Millei-'s Diet, iv, 55.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 147.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429. 

F. juglandifolia, var. nubintegerrima, Vahl, Enum. i, 50. 

F. erpansa, willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 150.— Roemer & Schultes, Syst. i, 279.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, ."to.— London, 
Arboretum, ii, 1238. — A. De CandoUe, Prodr. viii, 278. — Browne, Trees of America, 399. 

.F. Americana, var. juglandifolia, Browne, Trees of America, 398. 

F. Novw-Anglice, Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 251 [not MUler nor Wangenheim] 

GREEN ASH. 

Shores of lake Champlain, Tiverton, Rhode Island, and southward to northern Florida, west to the valley of the 
Saskatchewan, the eastern ranges of the Kocky mountains of Montana, the Wahsatch mountains of Utah, and the 
ranges of eastern and northern Arizona. 

A tree 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.GO meter in diameter ; borders of streams or in 
low, rather moist soil; at the west confined to the bottom lands of the large streams and to high mountain canons. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, rather coar.se-grained, compact, satiny, containing numerous scattered, small, 
open ducts, the layers of annual growth marked by several rows of larger ducts; medullary rays numemus, 
obscure ; color, brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7117 ; ash, 0.65; inferior in quality, although often 
used as a substitute for white ash. 

Var. Berlandieriana, Torrey, 

Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 160.— Gr.iy, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii>, 75.— Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, ii, 305.— Wi>tson in Proc. Am. Acad, 
sviii, 113. 

F. Berlandieriana, Do Candollo, Prodr. viii, 278. 

F. trialata, Buckley iu Proo. Philadelphia Acad. 1862, 5. 

Texas, west of the Colorado river; southward into northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diaiiicter ; borders of streams, 
in low, rich soil. 

Wood light, .solt, rather dose grained, compact, containing few small, scattered, open duets, the layers of 
amiual growth clearly marked by one or two rows of larger ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light 
brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5780; ash, 0.54. 



110 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

196. — Fraxinus platycarpa, Micbaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 256.— Vahl, Enum. i, 49. — Persoon, Sy n. ii, (305. — Dcsfoutaiucs, Hist. Arb. i, 103. — Nouveau Duliamel, iv, 64. — Micbaux f. 
HLst. Arb. Ani.iii,l-25, 1. 13; N. American S.vlva. 3 ed. iii, 63, t. 124.— Poirot, Supiil. ii, 671.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i,9.— Roemer & 
Scbultes, Syst. i,27?.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231. — Hayne, Demi. I'l. 22o. — Elliott, Sk. ii, 673. — Sitrengel.Syst, i, 96. —Eaton, Manual, 
6ed. 149.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, .55.— Eaton & Wright, Bot, 247.— A. De Camlolle, Proilr. viii, 277.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 165?, 253.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 370.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 53. — 
Lesqucrens in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 382.— Wood, CI. Book, 593 ; Bot. & Fl. 277.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 402 ; Syn. Fl. 
K. America, ii', 75.— Young, Bot. Texas, 453. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

tF. CaroUniana, Miller, Diet. No.6.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 518.— Ra-mer* Schultes, Syst. i, 278.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 55.— 
Loudon, .irboretum, ii, 1237. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 258. 

F. excelsior, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 254 [not Linnaeus]. 

F. Americana, Marshall, Arbnstum.SO [not Linnaius]. 

F. pallida, Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 209. 

F. pubescens, Bosc in Mem. Inst. 1808, 210 [not Lamarck]. 

F. triptera, Xuttall, Genera, ii,232 ; Sylva, iii, 62, 1. 100; 2 ed. 127, 1. 100.— EUiott, Sk. ii, 674.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv,56.- 
Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1240.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 274.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429. 

F. curridens, Hoffmannsegg, Verz. d. Pflanzenknlt. 29. 

F. pauciflora, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 61, t.lOO; 2 ed. u, 126, t. 100. 

F. Americana, var. Caroliniana, Browne, Trees of America, 398 

F. Americana, var. triptera, Browne, Trees of America, 399. 

F. Ifuttallii, Buckley in Proc. PhUadelphia Acad. 1860, 444. 

F. nigrescens, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1862, 5. 

WATER ASH. 

Soutbeastem Virginia, soutli near the coast to cape Canaveral and the Caloosa river, Florida, west through 
the Galf states to the valley of the Sabine river, Texas, and the Washita river, southwestern Arkansas ; in the 
West Indies. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; deep river 
swamps. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, the open ducts not conspicuous; medullary 
rays few, obscure; color, nearly white, or .sometimes tinged with yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 
0.3541 ; ash, 0.73. 

196. — Fraxinus quadrangulata, Michaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 255. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 1104. — Vahl, Enum. i, 50. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 605. — Bosc inMem. Inst. 1808, 211. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. i, 103.— Nonvcan Duhamel, iv, 64.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 118, t. 11 ; 2 ed. iii, 61, t. 123.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 671.— 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 8.— Rcemer &, Schultes, Syst. i, 278.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 223.— Sprengol, Syst. i, 
96.- Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 149.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 55. — Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1235, f. 1059, 1060.— Spach, Hist. Vcg. viii, 
29e.— I'eun. Cycl. i, 45.J. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 247. — A. Dc Candolle, Prodr. viii, 278. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 254. — 
Chapman, Fl. 8. States, 370. — Lc8<iuereux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 382. — Wood, CI. Book, 598 ; Bot. & Fl. 277. — Gray, 
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 402 ; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 75.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 259. — Young, Bot. Texas, 453. — Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 20.— Engclmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, v, 63.— Ridgway in Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus. 1882, 69.— Bnrgess in Coulter's Bot. 
Ga7.ctt<-, vii, 95. 

F. tetragona, Cel.") in Nonv. Cours, Agr. vii, 73. 

F. quadrangularis, Loddiges, Cat. 1836. 

F. mrrOHtt, Loddiges, Cut. 18:J6. 

F. quadrangulata, var. nervosa, Loudon, Arboretum, li, 1235. 

F. Americana, var. fjttarlranrjulata, IJrowm-, Trees of America, 397. 

F. Amcricftna, var. qundrangulnUl nerroHU, Browne, Trees of America, 397. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. Ill 

BLUE ASn. 

Southern Michigan to central ^linnesota, south to northern Ahibama, and through Iowa and ilissouri to 
northeastern Arkansas (Duvall's bluff, Lettcrman). 

A tree 18 to 25 or, exceptionally, 37 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.CO meter in diameter; 
generally on limestone hills, rarely extending into the bottom lands, and reaching its greatest development in the 
basin of the lower Wabash river. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact, satiny ; layers of annual growth clearly 
marked by one to three rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light yellow streaked with 
brown, the sa])-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7184 ; ash, 0.78 ; largely used for flooring, in carriage-building, etc 

The inner bark, macerated, dyes blue. 

197. — Fraxinus Oregana, Nuttall, 

Sylva, iii, 59, t. 99 ; 2 od. ii, 124, t. 99.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Eep. iv, 128.— Newberry in Pacific R. E. Rep. vi, 25, 87.— Cooper is 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 260; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii«, 28, 68; Am. Nat, iii, 407.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 260.— Gray in Bot. California, 
i, 472; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 76.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

F. puhescens, var. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 51. 

F. grandifolia, Beutham, Bot. Sulphur, 33. 

OREGON ASH. 

Shores of Puget sound, south through Washington territory and Oregon west of the eastern valleys of the 
Cascade mountains, along the California Coast ranges to San Francisco bay and the western slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada to the San Bernardino and Hot Spring mountains, California. 

A tree sometimes 24 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.CO meter in diameter ; moist soil, 
generally along streams, and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of southwestern Oregon. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, brittle, coarsegrained, compact, containing many largo, open, scattered ducts, 
the layers of annual growth strongly marked with several rows of similar ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; 
color, brown, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.5731 ; ash, 0.34 ; specific gravity of the lighter sap-wood, 
0.5030 ; used in the manufacture of furniture, for the frames of carriages and wagons, in cooperage, for fuel, etc. 

198. — Fraxinus sambucifolia, Lamarck, 

Diet, ii, 549.— Muhlenberg & Willclenowin Nouc Schriften Gesell. Nat.Fr. Berlin, iii, 393.— AVilldeuow, Spec, iv, 1099 ; Ennm. 1059 ; Bcrl. 
Baiiniz. 150. — Valil, Enum. i, 51.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 605.— Desfoutaiues, Hist. Arb. i, 10;!. — Bosc in Mem. Inst. l!?05, 211. — Nouvean 
Duhamel, iv, 00.— Alton, Hort. Kow. v, 475.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 122, t. 12; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 159, t. 122.— 
Pursh,Fl. Am. Sept. i,8.— Ea>mcr& Schultos, Syst. i, 279.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 192.— 
Hayue, Deud. Fl. 221.— Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N. States, 371 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 126.— Beck, Bot. 232.-Eaton, Manual, 6 od. 148.— Don, 
Miller's Diet, iv, 54. —London, Arboretum, ii, 1234, f. 1057, 1058.— Spach, Hist. Veg. vui, 299.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 50.— Eaton 
& Wright, Bot. 147.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. viii, 278.— Emerson, Trees M.issachusetts, 338; 2 ed. ii.381 & t.— D.irlington, Fl. 
Ce8trica,3 ed. 239.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 253.— Lesqucreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkans.is, 382. — Wootl.Cl. Book, 598; 
Bot. & Fl. 277.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 4t>2; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 76.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20.— Ridgway in Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 69.— Bell in Geological Kep. Canada, 1879-'80, 46=. 

F. nigra, Marshall, Arbustum, 51. 

F. Novce-Anglia, Wangoulieiui,Amer.51. 

F. crispa, iiort. 

F. savibucifolia, var. crispa, Loddiges, Cat. 1836.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1234. 

F. Americana, var. sambucifolia, Browne, Trees of America, 393- 

BLACK ASH. HOOP ASH. GROUND ASU. 

Southern Newfoundland, along the northern shores of the gulf of Saint Lawrence, southwesterly to thee.isteru 
shores of lake Winnipeg, south through the uorthoni states to New Castle county, Delaware, the mount;uns of 
Virginia, southern Illinois, and northwestern Arkansas. 

A tree 25 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.00 meter in dianteter: swamps and low river banks; 
the most northern representative of the genus in America. 

AVood heavy, soft, not strong, tough, rather coarse-grained, compact, diuablo. separating easily into thin 
layers; layers of annual growth strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts: medullary rays inimerous, 



112 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMEKIOA. 

thin; color, dark biowu, the sap-wood lijjht brown, or often nearly white; speuiUc gravity, 0.G31S; ash, 0.72; 
specific gravity of the heavier sap-wood, 0.7405; largely used for interior linish, fencing, barrel hoops, in cabinet- 
making, and the manufacture of baskets. 

Note. — tYaxiuua diprlala. Hooker & Ariiott, of tlie California Coast ranges aiul tbi- wi-storii slopes of the southern Sierr.i Novadas, 
and /'. cufpidiila, Torrcy, of the vuUe.v of the Kio Grande, do not attain arborescent habit or diineusious. 

The following, characti-rized by Bosc in Mem. lust. l!;Ot-, mainly from the foliasic of j;urdeu specimens of supposed North Amcricaa 
origin, cannot be safely referred to our species : /'. alba, cinena, illiptica, j'usca, viixta, nigra, oiata, pannosa, 2>ulccrulenta, Hichardi, rubicunda, 
and ru/a. 

199. — Forestiera acuminata, Poiret, 

Soppl. ii, 664. — Hayne, Dend. Fl. 194. — Nuttall in Trans. Ani. Phil. Sec. new ser. v, 17G. — Toriey in Nicollet's Kep. 154. — Engelniann 
& Gray in Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 262. — Chapman, VI. S. States, 370. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 382. — 
Wood, CI. Book, 600; Bot. & Fl. 277.— Gray, Manual N. States, .'> ed. 402; Proc. Am. Acad, iv, 363 (oxcl. var.); Syn. Fl. N. 
America, ii', 76. — Koch, Dendrologio, ii, 224. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

Adelia acuminata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 225, t. 48. 

Borya acuminata, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 711. — Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. 366. — Elliott, Sk. ii, 675. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 57. — 
Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 159. 

Borya ligustrina, Willdenow, Spec, iv, "11, in part. — Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. 366, in part.— Gray, Manual N. States, 2 ed. 
358, in part. 

Borya nitida, Willdenow, Enum. Suppl. 66. 

Bigelovia acuminata. Smith in Bees' Cycl. xxxix, No. 4. 



Western Georgia, western Florida, throu<;h the Gulf states to the valley of the Colorado river, Texas, and 
northward through Arkansas to southern Missouri and Cahokia creek, llliuois (opposite Saint Louis). 

A small tree, C to 8 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.20 meter in diameter; borders of swamps aud 
streams, in low, wet soil; common in the Gulf region, near the coast, aud reaching its greatest development in 
southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin, rather conspicuous; 
color, light yellow streaked with brown; the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.0345; ash, 0.72. 

200. — Chionanthus Virginica, Linnajus, 

Spec. 1 cd. 8. — Marshall, Arbustnm, 33.— Walter, F'l. Caroliniana, 60. — Wangonhcim, Amcr. 92. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 14 ; 2 ed. i, 23. — 
Lamarck, III. i,30, t.y, f. 1.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 46; Enum. 14; Berl. Baumz. 87.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii,t. 98.— Michiiux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. i, 3.— Vahl, Enum. i, 44.— Persoon, Syn. i, 9.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i, 111.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 7.— Rocmer & 
Schultes, Syst.i, 72.— Nuttall, Genera, i,.'.; Sylva, iii, 56, t. 88; 2ed.ii, 122, t. 88.— Elliott, Sk.i, 6.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 2.— Torrey, 
Fl. U. 8. i, 7 ; Compend. Fl. N. .States, 17.— Sprengel, .Syst. i, 34.— Loddigos, Bot. Cab. t. 1204.— Guimpel, Otto & Hayne, Abb. Holz. 
»{, f. 73.— Beck, Bot. 2.32.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 92.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, .50.— Loudon, Arboretum, ii, 1200, f. 1029, 1030.— Spach, 
Hist. Veg. viii, 259.— Dietrich, Syn. i, :!7.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 193.— A. Dc CandoUc, Prodr. viii, 29.').- Browne, Trees of America, 
371.— Darlington, Fl. Ce.strica, 3 ed. 238.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,253.— Ch.apman,Fl. S. 
States, 3t9. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 95.— LosQuoroux in Owen's 2d Rop. Arkansas, 382,— Wood, CI. 
Book, 599 ; Bot. & Fl. 276.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 494.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 401 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 19 ; Syn. Fl. N. 
America, ii', 77. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 262. — Young, Bot. Texas, 452. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

0. trifida. Munch, Meth. 437. 

0. Virginica, var. latifoUn, Vahl, Enum. i,44. — Aiton,Hort. Kew. 2cd. i,23. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 8.— Ilayno, Dond. Fl. 
2.— Don, Miller's Diet. iv.iiO. 

C. Virginica, var. angunti/olia, Nahl, Enum. i, 44. -Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.i, 23.— Hayne, Dend. F1.2.— Watson, Dend. 
Brit, i, 1. 1.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 50. 

C. Virginica, var. montana, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 8.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 7 ; Compend. Fl. N. States, 17.— Beck, Bot. 232.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 92.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 194.—A. Do CandoUc, Prodr. viii, 295. 

G, Virginica, var. maritima, Pur8h,FI. Ani.Sopt. i,8.— Torroy,FI. U. 8. i,7; Compond. Fl.N. States, 17.— Beck, Bot. 232.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed.92.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 50.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 194.— A. Do Candolle, Prodr. viii, 295.— 
Kegel, Gartenflora, xvi, t. 5C4. 

0. maritima, Loddiges, Cat. 1836. 

C. heterophylla, RafinejMjnn, New Fl. & Bot. i, 86. 
G. longi/olia, Rafinesfiue, Now Fl. & Bot. i,87. 
G. montana, R,-ifine«|ne, New Fl. & Bot. i, 88. 
0. ongugti/olia, Rafinesquc. New Fl. Jt Bot. i, 88. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 113 

KRINGE TEEi:. OLD MAN'S HKARR. 

Lanciuster county and the banks of the Urandy wine, Chester county, Pennsylvania, south to Tampa bay, Florida, 
and through the (iult states to southern Arkansas and the valley of the Brazos river, Texas. 

A small tree, to 10 meters in heifjht, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter; genenilly along streams ia 
low, rich soil; very common in (uiltivation. 

Wood heavy, hard, close grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large open 
ducts, connected as in that oi Biimclia by branching groups of similar ducts; niedullarj- rays numerous, ob.scure; 
color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, U.G372; ash, 0.51. 

A decoction of the tonic and anti-periodic bark of the root .sometimes employed in the treatment of intermittent 
fevers (Am. Jour. Fharm. xliv, ;5!)8. — U. 8. Dispeimttory, 14 ed. 1G12). 

201. — Osmanthus Americanus, Huutham & Hooker, 

Genera, ii, GG7. — Gray, Syii. Fl. N. America, ii', i,Tb. 

Olea Americana, Linnoeus, Mant. 24.— Marshall, Avbustuni, 98.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 54:j; 111. i,28.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. i, 
14 ; 2 ed. i, 22.— Willdenow, Spec, i, io ; Euimi. i:!.— Miclianx, Fl. lior.-Am. ii, 222.— Vabl, Eniim. i, 41.— Pi-r>ooD, Syn. i, 
9.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. i. 112.— Nouvean Dnliauiel, v, 07.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, .">0, t. G; N. Amprican 
Sylva, ii, 3 ed. 128, t. 86.— Pur.sh. Fl. Am. Sept. i, 7.— Roemcr & Scliultes, Syst. i, 70.— Eafiue-sqiie. Fl. Ludoviciaiia, 3a— 
Nuttall, Genera, i, 5.— Elliott, Sk. i, .'S.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 34.— Croom in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 scr. xxvi, .115.— Dietrich, Syn. 
i,37.— Don, Miller's Diet. iv,48.— Spacli, Hist. Veg. viii, 267. —Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 239.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 37.— Eaton 
& Wright, Bot. 333.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. v iii, 28o.— Browne, Trees of America, 381.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 429.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rup. 1858, 2.53.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 3(19.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. \. Carolina, 1960, 
iii,57.— Lesqncreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 332.— Wood, CI. Book, 509; Bot. & Fl. 276.— Porcher, Resonrcea S. 
Forests, 493.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 401.— Young, Bot. Texas, 451.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 20. 

DEVIL WOOD. 

Southern Virginia, south to cape Canaveral and Tampa bay, Florida, and through the Gulf states to eastern 
Louisiana, near th(^ (ioast. 

A small tree, 10 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.;iO meter in diameter; borders of streams 
and pine-barren swamps, in moist, rich soil. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, close-grained, uuwedgeable, difficult to work, containing many radiating 
groups of open cells parallel to the thin, obscure, medullary rays ; color, dark brown, the thick sap-wood light 
brown or yellow ; specific gravity, 0.8111 ; ash, 0.46. 



B R R A G I N A C E J] 



202. — Cordia Sebestena, LinniBiis, 

Spec. 1 ed. 190.— ,Jaciinin,Amer.t. 42.— Lamarck, 111. i, 121, (.9li, f. 1.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1073; Enum. 248.— Andrews, Bot. Kt>p. iii, 
157, 1. 157.— Poirct in Lamarck, Diet, vii, 45.— Persoon, Syn. i, 160.— Trattinick, Archiv. t.3.54.— Rosnier & Schultes, Syst. iv. 4o2.— 
Sprengol, Syst. i, 049. -Bot. Mug. t. 794.— Aiton, Hort. Kew.2ed. ii,8.— Desconrtilz, Fl. Antilles, iv, 205, t. 277.— Chami.sso in Linnira, 
vi, 7.55.— Audubon, Birds, 1. 177.— Don, Millers Diet, iv, 375.— Dietrich, Syn. i, Gil.— Xut tall, Sylva, iii, 81, t. lOG; 2 ed. ii, 14,5, t, 10(>.— 
Cooper in SmiMiaonian Rc^p. 1658,265.— Grisobach, Fl. British West Indies, 478.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', lt«. 

? C.jtiglanflifolia, Jac(iuin,Amer. t. 43. 

C. specio.sa, Willdenow in Roomer & Schultes,Sy8t. iv,799.— A. De Candolle, Pn>dr. ix,476. 

Sebestena .fathra, Kalin.sciue, SyUa TolInriana,38. 

OlOIGEB TREE. 

Semi-tro)ii(!al Florida, on the southern keys; rare; in the West Indies. 

A small tn^e. sometimes 8 meters in height, with a trunk O.Oli to 0.08 meter in diameter; rich hummtx-k 
soil; ornamental ;ind becoming a large tree in cuitivatiun. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, sa(in.\, containing few .scattered, small, oi)en duets; medulLiry 
rays very numerous, thin, con.spieuoiis ; color, dark brown, the thick sap-wood light brown or yellow; specillc 
gravity, 0.71(18; ash, 4.L'2. 
8 VOR 



203.— Cordia Boissieri, a. Do CandoUe, 
rrotU. LX, 47ti. — Torrey, Bot. Mei. Boundary Survey, 13o. — Cooper in Saiitbsouian Eep. 18(i0, 442. — Gray, Syu. Fl. N. America, ii', 180. 

Texas, valley of the Rio Graude, westward to New Mexico and southward iuto Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely S meters iu height, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often reduced to a 
low shrub. 

"Wood light, rather soft, close-grained, compact, containing many small scattered open ducts; medullary 
rays very numerous, thin, conspicuous; color, dark brown, the sap-wood light brown; specific gravity, 0.(J790; 
ash, 3.53. 

204- — Bourreria Havanensis, Miers, 

Bot. Contrib. ii, 2;y.— Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 181. 

Ehretia Havanensis^ VVilldcnow in Rcemcr «t Schnltes, Syst. iv, 805. — Humboldt, Bonpland «t Kuntb, Nov. Gen. & Spoo. 
vii, 206.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. ix, 508. 

Ehretia tomentosa, Lamarck, 111. i, 425.— Potret, Suppl. ii, 1.— Sprengol, Syit. i, 648.— Dietrich, Syu. i, 630. 

B. tomentosa, Don, Miller'8 Diet, iv, 390. 

B. recurva, Miers, Bot. Contrib. ii, 238. 

B.Oiata, Miers, Bot. Contrib. ii, 238. 

Ehretia Bourreria, Cbapmaa, Fl. S. States, 329 [not Linnasus].- Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 

B. tomentosa, var. Havanensis, Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 482. 

STRONG BAKK. 

Semi-tropical Florida, southern keys (Key Largo, Elliott's Key, etc.); in the West Indies. 
A small tree, 10 or, exceptionally, 15 meters (Key Largo, Curtiss) in height, with a trunk 0.20 to 0.25 meter in 
diameter; the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

A form (generally shrubby iu Florida) with scabrous or hispidulous leaves is — 

var. radula, Gray, Syn. n. K. America, ii', 181. 

Ehretia radula, Polret, Suppl. ii, 2. — Dietrich, Syn. i, 630.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. ix, 506.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 329. 

B. radula, Don, Miller's Diet, iv, liOO.— Clwimissp in Linnaa, viii, 120.— Miers, Bot. Contrib. ii, 23f<. 

Cordia Floridana, Xuttall, Sylva, iii, 83, t. 107; 2 ed. ii, 147, t. 107.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary rays 
numeroiuj, obscure; color, brown streaked with orange, the sap-wood not distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.8073; 
ash, 2.79. 

205. — Ehretia elliptica, De Candolle, 

Prodr. ix, .503.— Torrey, Bot. Mex.Boundary Survey, 130.— Cooper in Smithsonian Bep. 1858, 200.— Miors, Bot. Contrib. ii, 228, t. 85.— 
Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 181. 

KNACKAWAY. ANAQUA. 

Texa.s, Corpus Christi to New Braunfels {^{ohr), and .southward to the valley of the lower Rio Grande. 

A trei! 10 to 15 meters in height, with a truuk sometimes 0.50 meter in diameter; generally along borders of 
stream.'*, in rich loam, and reaching its greatest developuuMit between the Guadalupe and Nueces rivers, 50 to 75 
miles from the Gulf coaat. 

Wooil hea%-y, hard, not strong, very clo.se-grained, coinjtact, uiiwudgeable, containing many small oi)en ducts 
arranged in numerous concentric rings within the layers of annual growth, these marked by several rows of larger 
ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood a little lighter; sjiecitic gravity, 0.0140; 
a-sh, 1.31. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 115 



BIGNONIAOEJE 



206. — Catalpa bignonioides, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniana, 64. — Do CandoUo, Prodr. ix, '226. — Darlin<;t<>n, Fl. Costrica, 3 ed. 182. — Cooper ia Smitbgnnian Rep. 18.'>8, 253. — Chapman, 
Fl. S. States, 285.— Curtis iu Kep. Goolo;;ical Surv. N. Caroliua, 1800, iii, r>0.— Wood,Cl. Book, 513; Bot. <t Fl. aid.— Bureau, Mon. 
BignoniacoiB, t. 25. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 321, in part ; Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 319, in part. — Kocb. Dendrologie, ii, 302. — 
Young, Bot. Texas, 385. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19, in part. — Gnibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii, 548. 

Bignonia Catalpa, LiuniBUs, Spec, l ed. 022 (excl. syn.). — Laujarck, Diet, i, 417.— Marshall, Arbustum, 21. — Wangeubtiin, 
Amer. 58, t. 20, f. 45. — Willilenow, Spec, iii, 289; Enum. (i49.— Micbaux, Fl. Boi;-Am. ii,25. — De«fuutaine«, Hint. Arb. 
i, 189.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 217, t. G ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 55, t. C4.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladelpb. 
66. — Rafinesquc, Fl. Ludoviciana, 159. — i'orcher. Resources S. Forests, 4G0. — Mauut & Decaisne, Bot. Eugli^h ed. 602 
&f. 

C. COrdifoUa, Jaume St. Hilaire in Nouveau Dubamel,ii, 13, in part (cxcl. t. 5). — Barton, Compcnd. Fl. Pbiladelpb. i, 9. — 
Nuttall, Genera, i, 10.— Elliott, Sk. i, 24.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 16; Compend. Fl. N. States, 20.— Beck, Bot. 245.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 85.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed. 363.— Spach, Hist. Vi-g. ix, 132.— Eaton it Wright, Bot. 184.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 439. 

G. Syringw/olia, Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 1094.— Scbkubr, Handb. t. 175.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. i, 24.— Parsh. Fl. Am. Sept. 
i, 10.— Eaton, Manual, 8; 6 ed. &5.— Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 3.— Ilayne, Dend Fl. 2.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. t. 128.').— 
Sprongel, Syst. i, TO.— Sertuni Botanicum, i, t.— Lindley, Fl. Mod. 499 ; Penu. Cycl. vi, 363.— Don, Miller's Diet, iv, 2:».— 
Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1201 & t.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 82.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 77; 2 ed. ii, 140.— Torrey, Fl. N. York, ii, 25.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 406. 

0. communis, Du Mont, Bot. Cult. 2 ed. iii, 242. 

CATALPA. CATAWBA. BEAN TREE. CIGAR TREE. INDIAN BEAN. 

Southwestern Georgia, valleys of the Little and Apalachicola rivers, western Florida, and through central 
Alabama and Mississippi. 

A low, much- branched tree, 12 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk O.iJO to 0.75 meter iu diameter; bortlers of 
streams and swamps, in rich loam ; rare and local; long cultivated for oruameut, and now extensively naturalized 
throughout the middle and southern Atlantic states. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarsegrained, compact, very durable; layers of annual growth clearly marked 
by many rows of largo open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown, the thin (one or two 
years') sap-wood lighter, often nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.4474 ; ash, 0.3S; used and highly valued for fence 
posts, rails, etc.; a reputed emetic. 

A decoction of the seeds and dried bark occasionally used in cases of asthma and bronchitis (Am. Jour. P/iarw, 
xlii, 204. — U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. ItiOS. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 3G7). 

207. — Catalpa speciosa. Warder; 

Engelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, v, 1.— Sargent in London Card. Chronicle 1879, 784.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 1S32, 70.— 
Barnes in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ix, 74. 

G, Cordi/olia, Jaume St. Hilaire iu Nouveau Dubnniel, ii, 13, in part, t. 5.— Nuttall in Trans. Am. Phil. S«c. 2 scr. v, 1<{. 

G. bignonioides, Lesquoreux in Owen's '2d Kep. Arkansas, 375 [not Walter.]— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 321, iu part; 
Syn.Fl. N. America, ii',319, in part.— Vaaey, Cat. Fon>st Trees, 19, in part.— Broadbead iu Coulter's Bot. Gaiette, iii, 59. 

WESTERN CATALPA. 

Valley of the Vermilion river, Illinois, through southern Illinois and Indiana, western Kentucky and Tennessee, 
southeastern Missouri and western Arkansas. 

A tree 20 to 35 or, e.\ceptionally, 45 meters in height (Jiidgiray), with a trunk I to 2 meters in diameter; borders 
of streams and swamps, in rich bottom laiuls; commou and retiching its greatest development in the valley of the 
lower Wabash river; cultivated and now widely naturalized tlirough ."Southern Arkansa.s. western Louisiana, ami 
eastern Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, eonii»act, very durable in contact with the soil; layers nf annual 
growth cleaily marked by several rows of large open ducts; medidlary rays nunu-rous. obseuiv ; color, brown, the 
thin sap wood lighter; spccitic gravity, 0.41(15 ; ash, 0.30 ; largely used for railway ties, fence posts, mils, etc., and 
adapted for cabinet work and interior finish. 



116 FOREST TREES Or^ NORTH AMERICA. 

208. — ChLlopsis saligna, i). Don, 

Ediubnrjjh Phil. Jour. ix,"J61. — Dou, Miller's IHct. iv/iJ-i. — Dietrich, Syii. iii, 5(5(5. — Gra.v iu Bot. California, i, 587 ; Sju. Fl. N. Amorica, 
ii', 3-JO.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. — Kothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 217. — Henisley, Bot. Am.-Cent. ii, 494. — Eusby in Bull. 
Totiey Bot. Club, ix, 54. 

Bignonia Uncarts, Cnvunilles, lcon.iii,3ii, t.2C9. 

G. linearis, De CandoUe.Prodr.ix, 227. —Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858,20(5. 

C glutinosa, Engeluiann in Wislizenug' Eup. 10. 

DESERT WILLOW. 

Valley of the Rio Grande, Texas (Laredo, Letterman), west through southern New Mexico and Arizona to the 
San Gorfjonio jias.s and the San Felii)e canon, San Diego county, California; southward into nortliern Mexico. 

A small tree, G to S meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter; mesas and banks of 
depre.ssioiis and water courses iu the desert; the large speciiiuMis generally hollow and defective. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, checking in drying, containing many scattered, small, open ducts, 
the layers of aninuil growth marked by several rows of larger ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
brown streaked witli yellow, the sap wood much lighter; specilic gravity, O.-'JOO^; ash, 0.37. 

209. — Crescentia cucurbitina, Liunmus, 

Maiit. 2 p<l. 2.")0.— .Swartz, Obs. 2.'$4.— Willdenow, Spec, iii, :U1.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 168.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. iv, :i7.— Giertner f. 
Frnct. Snppl. 2:!0, t. 223. —Dietrich, .Syn. iii, 5G7. — Dou, Miller's Diet, iv, 232. — Do CandoUo, Prodr. ix, 24(5. — Sccmann in Jour. 
Bot. <Se. Kow Gard. Misc. vi, 274 ; ix, 142. — Walpers, Aun. v, 5ii4.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 445. — Henisley, Fl. Am. Cent. 
ii,4Sy. 

C. orata, Bnrmann, Fl. Ind. 132. 

C. lati/oUa, Lamarck, Diet, i, 558 ; 111. iii, 96, t. 547.— Dcscourtik, Fl. Ant illes, iu, 143, 1. 182. 
C. lethifera, Tussac, Fl. Antilles, iv, 50, 1. 17. 
0. toxicaria, Tussac, Fl. Antilles, iv, 50, 1. 17. 
G. obovata, Benthain, Bot. Sulphur, IIH), t. 46. 

BLACK CALABASH TREE. 

Semi-tropical Florida, near Miami, and on Little river {Garher, GurtiKs); in the West Indies. 

A small tree, in Fhirida rarely exceeding fi meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.12 meter iu diameter. 

Wood iieavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, containing many small, regularly-distributed, open ducts; 
medullary rays tliin, hardly distinguishal)le; color, light brown tinged with orange, the sap-wood lighter; specific 
gravity. 0.0310; ash, 1.35. 



VEKBKNACEJ^J. 



210. — Citharexylum villosum, .l.-iccinin, 

Coll. i, 72; Icon. Rar. t. 118. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 142. — Ailon, Hort. Kow. 2 ed. iv, 36. — Dietrich, Syn. iii, G14. — Schauur in DeCandolIo, 
Pro<lr. xi, CIO.— Walpers, Rep. iv, 7(i.— Chiipinan, Fl. S. States, 30!).— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, Ii). — Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 
340.— Hemslcy, Bot. Am.-Ceut. ii, MT. 

FIDULK WOOD. 

Semi-tro])ical Florida, cape (Jan.iveia! lo tin- smitlifni Iceys (l'iim])kiri Key, Curtisn); and tlirongli rlic West 
ludie.s to Mexico. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding in Florida (> meters in liei^'ht. with a Iriink 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diamctfr. or 
north of bay IJiscayne nidiiced to a low, muchbranched shrub; common and i< aching witliin the rTnited Stales 
its greatest develop nent on thi^ shores of l)ay IJiscayne, Lost Man's river, etc. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a tiue polish, containing numerous 
small, reKularly-distribiited, o])en ducts; c-olor, clear bright red, the sap-wood lighter; specilic gravity, 0.8710; 
ash, 0..52. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 117 

211. — Avicennia nitida, Jacqnin, 

Amer. 177, t. IVi, f. 1.— Persoon, S.vn. ii, 143. — Cbuniisso iu Liniiicn, vii, 370. — Sprcngtl, Syst. ii, 768.— Martius, Mat. Med. Brasil. 49; 

Bot. Brasil. ix, 303.— Dietrich, Syn. iii, 619.— Schaiier in De Candollc, Prodr. xi, 699.— GriBt-haoh, Fl. Britisb West Indies, 502. 

Gray, Syn. Fl. N. America, ii', 341. 

A. tomentoxa, Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 221 [not Jacquiu].— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 79, t. 105; 2 ed. ii, 143, t. 105.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 265.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 310.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 

A. oblongifoUa, Nuttall?; Chapman, Fl. S. States, 310.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 19. 
BLACK MANGROVE. BLACK TREE. BLACK WOOD. 

Florida coa.st, Saint Augustine to tbe southern keys, and from Cedar Keys to cape Sable; deltas of the 
Missis.sippi river; thronsh tiie West Indies to Brazil. 

A tree (i to 9 meters iu beiglit, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.30 meter in diameter, or, exceptionally, 20 to 23 meters in 
height, with a trunk 60 meter iu diameter; north of Mosquito inlet reduced to a low shrub; common along 
saline .shores and swamps, throwing up many leafless, corky stems, and forming, with the red mangrove (Rhizophora), 
impenetrable thickets, or, more rarely, scattered and round-headed ; reaching its greatest development in the United 
States on the west coast of Florida, north of cajjc Sable. 

Wood very heavy, hard, rather coarse-grained, compact, the eccentric layers of annual growth marked by 
sevei'al rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark brown or nearly black, the sap- 
wood brown; specific gravity, 0.9138; ash, 2.51. 



NYCTAGINACE^. 



212. — Pisonia obtusata, Swartz, 

Fl. lud. Occ. I960.— Jacqnin, Hurt. Schcenh. iii, 36, t. 314.— Lamarck, 111. iii, 449, t. 861.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1226.— Choisy in De 
Candolle, Prodr. xiii-', 443.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 374. — Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 71. — Vasey, Cat, Forest Tieee, 21. 

PIGEON WOOD. BEEF WOOD. CORK WOOD. PORK WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys; through the West Indies. 

A tree 9 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.25 to 0.4:5 meter in diameter; saline shores and beaches, 
reaching its greatest development in Florida on Elliott's and Old Ehodes Keys. 

Wood heavy, rather soft, weak, coarse-grained, coinitaet, containing numerous large open ducts; layers of 
annual growth and medullary rays hardly distinguishable; coloi', yellow tiuged with brown, the sap-wood darker; 
specific gravity, 0.6529; ash, 7.62; probably of little value. 

Note. — The 8emi-i)rostrate and vine-like trunks of /*. aculcata, Linnseus, of the same region, although attaining a considerable size, 
cannot be properly considered arborescent. 



polygonacej:. 



213. — Coccoloba Floridana, Meisncr; 
De Candolle, Prodr. xiv, 165. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 392. — Porcher, Resources S. Forest*, :J76. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 21. 
G. l)arinfoiia, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 25, t. 89; 2 ed. ii, 9.5, t. 89 [not Poiret].— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,265. 

PIGEON PLU5I. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral to the southern keys, and from cape Komano to cape Sable. 

A tree 15 to IS meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.tiO meter in diameter; one of the largest and most 
connnon trees of the region. 

Wood very heavy, exceedingly liard, strong, brittle, very elosegraiiied, incliueil to cheek iu drying, containing 
few small, scattered, open ducts; layers of annual growth and numerous medullary rays obscure; color, rich dark 
brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; speeilie gravity, O.OS.So; ash, ."i.03; valuable and somewhat used for 
cabinet- making. 

The edible and abuudant grape-like fruit, rii)ening iu February ami March, is eagerly devouivil b\ raceoiins 
and other auiiuals. 



118 FOREST TREES OF NDRTH AMERICA. 

214. — Coccoloba uvifera, jncquin, 

Amer. 112, t. 73.— Ga?rtner, Fruct. i, 214, t. 45, f. 3.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii, 34 ; 2 ed. ii, 421.— Lamarck, 111. ii, 445, t. 316, f. 2.— Willdenow, 
Spec, ii, 457; Euum. 431.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 61.— Persoon.Syu. i, 442.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 61.— Aiton. Hort. Kew. 
2 ed. ii, 421.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 252.— Desconrtilz, Fl. Antilles, ii, 41, t. 77.— Bot. Mag. t. 3130.— Rafincsqno, Fl. Telhiriana, ii, 
34.— Spacb. Hist. Veg. x, 542.— Dietrich, S.vn. Fl. ii, 1326.— Niittall, Sylva, iii, 2:1, t. 88; 2 od. ii, 93, t. 88.— Carson, Med. Bot. ii, 
21, t. 67. — Meisner in De Candolle, Prodr. xiv, 152; Bot. Brasil. v', 42. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1>'58. 2()5. — Chapman, Fl. S. 
States, 391. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 376. — Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, IPl. 

Polygonum UlH/eia, Linnseus, Spec. 1 ed. 365. 

SEA GKAPE. 

Semi tropical Florida, Mosquito inlet to the southern keys, west coast, Tampa bay to cape Sable; (hiong:h the 
NVest Indies to Brazil. 

A low tree, rarely exceeding in Florida 4 meters in heifrht, with a gnarled and contorted trunk often 0.90 to 
1:20 meter in diameter, or reduced to a low, generally prostrate shrub; saline shores and beaches; common, 

West Indian forms, difiering in the shape of the leaves, etc., are— 

var. ovalifolia, Meisner, I. c 
var. LcEgancnsis, Meisner, '. e, 

C. Laegoncnfii.'i, .larqiiin, Xwh-t. 113, t. 178, f. 33. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, inclined to check in drying, susceptible of a beautiful polish, 
containing few scattered, rather small, open ducts; layers of annual growth and numerous medullaiy rays hardly 
distingui.shal)le; color, rich dark brown or violet, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.9G35; ash, 1.37; valuable 
for cabinet-making. 

The edible fruit of agreeable subacid flavor. 



LAURACEJ^. 



215. — Persea Carolinensis, Nees, 

Syst. Lanrinaram, 150.— Spach, Hist. Veg. i, 492.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 1339.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 254.— Chapman, Fl. 8. 
States, 63.— Curtis in Rep. Geoln{;ical Surv. N. C.-iroliua, 1860, iii, 63.— Wood, CI. Book, 620 ; Bot. & Fl. 21*0.— Meisner in De 
Candolle, Pro.lr. xv', 50.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 c<l. 422 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 473.— Young, Bot. Texas, 473.— Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 21. 

Laurus Borbonia, Linnaius, Spec. 1 ed. :}70, in part.— Marsh-all, Arbugtum, 73.— Walter, Fl. C.aroliniana, 133.— Aiton, 
Hort. Kew. ii, 3'J ; 2 ed. ii, 429. — Lamarck, Diet, iii, 450. — Willdenow, Spec, ii, 481. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb.i,C5.— 
Nonveau Duhamcl, ii, 163. 

LaurUH CarolinenHk, Catesby, Carol, i, 63, t. 63.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 245.— Pcreoon, Syn. i, 449.— Deeiontainos, 
Hist. Arb. i, 6.'>.— Poiret, Snpjd. iii, 321.— Willdenow, Knum. Suppl. 22.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, ItiO, t. 2; 
N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 116, t. 82.— Piir.sh, Fl. Am. Sejit. i, 276.— Elliott, Sk. i, 461.— Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 665.— 
Torrey, Conipend. Fl. N. States, 174.— Beck, Bot. 30.5.— Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 199.— Loudon, Aborotum, iii, 1299,f. 1168, 
1169.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 293.— Browne, Trees of America, 414.— Darby, Bot. 8. SUtea, 491.— Sohnizlein, loon. t. 
106, f. .V-12. 

Laurvs Carolinensin, var. glabra, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 276. 

Laurus Carolinensis, v:\r. obtusa, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 276. 

iMurm Caroliniana, Poiret, Suppl. iii, 323.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 258. 

P. Borbonia, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 268. 

P. Carolinensis, var. fflabrivscnla, Meisner in Dc Candolle, Prodr. xt", 51. 

BED BAY. 

Southern Delaware t, south to bay Biscayne and cape Romano, Florida, and through the Gulf Btatcs to 
eonthern Arkansas anJ the valley of the Trinity river, Texas, near the coast. 

A tree 1.5 to 20 meieis in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.90 meter in diameter; borders of streams and nwamps, 
in low, rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish, 
containing many evenly distributed open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, bright red, the sap-wood 
much lighter; specific gravity, 0.G429; ash, 0.7G; formerly somewhat used in ship-building, interior finish, and for 
cabinet wirrk. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 110 

Var. palustris, Chapman, 
Fl. S. states, 393. 

Laurus CaroHnensis, var. pubescens, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 276. 

P. CarolinctlHtu, var. pubescens, Meisner in De Candolle, Prodr. xv', 51. 

North Carolina to Alabama, generally near the coast. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; low, sandy bauk.s 
of pincbarron streams and swamps; well distinguished from the species by the longer i)cduncle8 densely clothed, 
as are the young shoots and under sides of the leaves, with short, brown tomentum, and by the somewhat coarser- 
grained orange-colored wood. 

Wood heavy, soft, strong, close-grained, compact, containing numerous rather largo open ducts; medullary 
rays numerous, thin; color, orange streaked with brown; the sap-wood light brown or gray; specific gravity, 
0.C39G ; ash, 0.37. 

316. — Nectandra Willdenoviana, Nees, 
Syst. Laurinanim, 290, 821. — Meiener iu De Candolle, Prodr. xvi«, 165. 

Laurus sanguinea, Swartz, Fl. lud. Occ. ii, 707. 

Laurus Cattsbyana, Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 244.— Polret, Suppl. iii, 321.— Pnreh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 275.— Elliott, Sk. i, 
4G2.— Sprongel, Syst. ii, 265.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. lUO.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 294.— Darby, ijot. S. States, 491. 

Laurvs Catesbcei, Persoon, Syn. i, 409.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 258. 

Oymnobalamis Catesbyana, Noes, Syst. Laurinamm, 483. 

JV. Bredemcieriana, Nees in Linnsea, ixi, 505. 

Persea Catesbyana, Chapman, Fl. S. states, 393.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 21. 

LANCE WOOD. 

Semi-tropical Florida, cape Canaveral and cape Eomano to the southern keys ; through the West Indies to 
Central America. 

A small tree, 6 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.15 meter in diameter; common and 
reaching its greatest development iu Florida on the shores of bay Biscayue and in the neighborhood of cape 
Eomano. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, checking iu drying, containing many small, regularly-distributed, oi)en 
ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, rich dark brown, the sap-wood bright yellow; specific gravity, 
0.7693; ash, O.GO. 

217. — Sassafras officinale, Nees, 

llandb. der Med. Pharra. Bot. ii, 418; SyHt. Laurinamm, 488.— Hayno, Arzn. i, 12, t. 19.— Lindley, Fl. Med. 338.— Dietrich, Syn. ii, 13.">7.— 
Spaob, IIlMt. Veg. x, 503.— Torroy, Fl. N. York, ii, 158.— Emerson. Trees Maasachii8etts,359; 2 ed. ii, 3.'>9 & t— Griffith. Me.1. Bot. 
551. — Darlington, Fl. Costrica, 3 ed. 251. — Spnici^ in Hooker's London Jonr. Bot. vii, 278.— Coopor in Smithsonian Rep. 1;^, 
254. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 394. — Curtis in Rop. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 63.— Lesquorenx in Owen's 2d Rep. 
Arkansas, 384.— Woo.l, CI. Book, 620 ; Bot. & Fl. 290.— Porcher, Restmroes S. Forests, 350.— Meisner in De Candolle. Pnnlr. xv>, 
171.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 4.>3; Hall's PI. Texas, 19— Koch, Dendrologio, ii, 364. —Young, Bot. T.-xa.>',473.— Vasvy.Cat. 
Forest Trees, 21.— Broadhoad in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 59.— Bentley & Trimen, Med. PI. iii, 220, t. 220.— Ridgway in Pmo. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 188'.!, 70.— Bell iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80. 55''. 

Laurus Sassafras, Linnaus, Spec, l ed. 371.— Du Roi, Harhk. i, ":'6.— Kiilni, Travels, Engli.sh ed. i, 14li, ;141.— Marshall. 
ArbHstiini,74. — Wangenheim, Amer. 82, t. 27, f. 56. — Walter, Fl. Camliniana, 134. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. ii.40; 2 eil. ii, 
429.— Lamarck, Diet, iii, 454.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, i. t. 11.— B. S. Barton, Coll. 11. 19; ii, 27 — Willdenovr, Spec, ii, 
485; Ennm. 435; Berl. Baumz. 208.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 24:1.— Schkiihr, Handb. 349 — PersiMui, Syn. i, 450.— 
Robin, Voyages, iii, 361.- Desl'ontaiius, Hist. Arb. i, 6.i.— Titlbul, Hort. Hot. Am. 130.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 
173, t. 1; N. Auuricau Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 113, t» 81.— Pureh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 277.- Ratinesque, Fl. Ludoviei;uia, 25.— 
Bigelo\v,Med. Bot. ii,142, t.;C>; Fl. Boston. 3 od. 170.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 259 ; Sylva, i,!s8; 2 ed. i, 104.— Elliott, Sk. i, 
464.— Nees, PI. Otlic. t. 131.— Torrcy, Fl. U. S. i,40S; Compeud. Fl. N. State."", 174.— Desconrtil.-.Fi. AntilK-s. vii,51, 1. 
464.— .Vndnbon, Birds, t. 144.— Stephen.sou & Chureliill, Med. Bot. iii, t. 121!.— Beck, Bot. 30.").— Eaton. Manual. 6 ed. 
199.— Darlington, Fl. Cestriea, 2 ed. 254.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 293.— Browne, Trees of America, 4ll>.— Darby, Bot. 
S. States, 492. 

Persea Sassafras, Sprcngel, Syst. ii, 270.— Schuizlein, Icon. t. 106. I". l,">-23. 



120 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

SASSAFBAS. 

Eastern Massachusetts, soutbwi'stern Vermont, and west throufrli soutlioru Ontario and central l\Iichigan to 
southeastern Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory; south to Hernando county, Florida, and the valley 
of the Brazos river, Texas. 

A tree 12 to 15 meters iu height, with a trunk O.lilt to O.'.H) meter in diameter, exceptionally lil to 27 meters 
in heiirht, with a trunk l.SO to 2.25 meters iu iliameter, or toward its northern limits reduced to a small tree or 
shrub; rich, sandy loam, reachiuy its greatest development in southwestern Arkansas and the Indian territory; 
at the >outh often taking possession, with the persiinnKui, of ab.mdoiied iields in the middle districts. 

Wood lijrht, soft, not strong, brittle, coarsegrained, very durable in contact with the soil, slightly aromatic, 
checking in drying : laj ers of annual growth clearly marked with three or lour rows of large open ducts; medullary 
rays numerous, thin; color, dull orangvbn.wn, the thin sap- wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.50i2 ; ash, 0.10; 
used tor light skitts, ox yokes, etc., and largely for fence posts ai:d rails, and in cooperage. 

The root, and especially its bark, enters into commerce, aflbrdiiig a powerful aromatic stiiiuilant; the oil of 
sassafras, distilled from the root, is largely used iu imparting a pleasant flavor to many articles of domestic use; 
the pith of the young brauches infused with water furnishes a mucilage used as a demulcent iu febrile and 
inflammatory aftectious (Shar2)e in Am. Jour. Fhann. 18(53, 53. — Proctor in Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 18(iG, 217. — 
U. S. Dispenmtory, 14 ed. 814.— Taf. Dispenmtory, 2 ed. 1274; FliicUger ct Eanbury, Pharmacographia, 483). 

" Gumbo filet,'- a powder prepared by the Choctaw Indians of Louisiana from the mucilaginous leaves, is used 
at the south in the preparation of '-gumbo" soup. 

218. — Umbellularia Californica, NuttjiU, 

Sylva, i, 87; 2 ed. i, 10-2.— Watsou, Bot. California, ii, 61. 

Laurun regia, Donslas iu Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 137. 

Oreodaphne Californica, Nees, Syst. Lauriuarum, 463.— Bentliam, I'l. Ilartwig. 3".4 ; Bot. Sulvhui, 4y.— Dietrich, Syn.ii, 
i:{56.— Hoolier & Aruott, Bot. Beeehey, 389.— Torrey in Pacilic R. R. Rep. iv, 133 ; v, 364 ; Mex. Boundary Survey, 184.— 
Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 24, 8rf, f. 3. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 260. — Bot. Mag. t. 5320. ^ 

Tetranthera Californica, Hooker & Aruott, Bot. Beeehey, l.'iO.- Moisuer in De Caudolle, Prodr. xv', 192.— Torrey in Hot. 

Wilkes Exped. 451. 
Drimophyllum pauciflorum, Nnttall, Sylva, i, a5, t.22; 2ed. i,102, t.22. 

MOtrUTAIN LAUEEL. CAXIFOENIA LAUREL. SPICE TliEK. CAGIPUT. CALIFORNIA OLIVE. CALIPOBNIA BAY TREE. 

Rogue River valley, Oregon, .south through the California coast ranges lo San Diego county, and along the 
western .slopes of the Sierra Nevada to the San Bernardino mountains. 

An evergieen tree, 24 to .30 meters iu height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter in diameter, or toward its southern 
limits and at high elevations a small tree or shrub; most common and reaching its greatest develo]mient in the 
rich valleys of southwestern Oregon. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful poli.sh, containing numerous small, 
regularly-distributed, open ducts; medullary rays numerous, lliiii; color, rich light brown, the sapwood lighter; 
specific gravity, 0.6517 ; ash, 0..3!) ; u.sed on the Oregon coast in sliip-building, ibr Jaws, bitts, cleats, cross-trees, etc.; 
the most valuable material produced by the Pacific forests for interior and cabinet work. 

The leaves jield a volatile oil, Oreodaphne {Am. Jour. Pharm. xlvii, 105). 



E U P II 11 B I A C E ^ 



219. — Drypetes crocea, Portean, 

Mem. MuH. i, l.'iO, t. h.— Nutt.ill, .Sylvu, ii, Wi, t. 63 ; 2 i<l. ii, 12, t. 63.— Cooper in SuiitbHouiau Rep. 1858, 265.— Chapman, Fl. 8. Statee, 
410.— Grisetmch, Fl. Biiti«h West liidien, 32; Cut. PI. Culia, 15.— Mliller in De Caudolle, Prodr. xv", 455. 

Schafferia lateriflora, Swartz, K). Ind.Otc.i,320. 

J), kemliflora, Biillon, Elnd. Gen. JJiiphorhincea'. Atla«, 45, t. 24. f. :i4-40. 
D. yUntcu, CriM-li.-ieh in Mem. Am. Acad, new hit. viii, 157 [not Valil]. 
D. crocea. var. Inniiipcx. Miiller iu De Candol;r', Prodr. xv-, 456. 



catalogup: of fokest trees. vji 



GUIANA I'LUJI. WIIITK WOOD. 

Sciui-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne to tlie .southern keys ; in the West Indies. 
A small tree, .sometimes 9 metens in lieight, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.17 meter in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, clo.se-grained, che<;kinj; in drying ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, 
rich dark brown, the sap-wood yellow ; specific gravity, 0.9J0!) ; ash, 0.14. 

Var. latifolia, MiilKr, 
De CandoUo, Trodr. xv'', 'ISO. 

D. glauca, Nnttall, Sylv.a, ii, 06; 2 t-d. ii, 14.— Chapman, VI. S. .States, 410. 

D. alba, var. latifolia, Grisebach in Nachrich. d. Kouigl. Gesell. Wiss. Univ. Gutting. 1865, 165, in part. 

Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayne to the southern keys; in the West Indies. 
A tree sometimes 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.35 meter in diameter. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, cliecking in drying; medullary rays numerous, 
ob.scure; color, brown streaked with bright yellow, the sap-wood dull l)rown ; specific gravity, 0.9346; ash, 8.29. 
Perhai)s a distinct species, the fruit and flowers not recently collected. 

220. — Sebastiania lucida, MUller; 

Do Candolle, Prodr. xv-, 1181. 

Oymnanthcs lucida, Swartz, Prodr. 96. 

Excoecaria lucida, Swartz, Fl. Ind. Oco. ii, 1122.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 865.— Poiret, Snppl. i, 155.— Persoon. Syn. ii, 634.— 
Nnttall, Sylva, ii, 60, t. 61; 2 ed. ii, 6, t. 61.— A. de Jnssieu, Tent. Enphorl.. 1. 16, f. 55.— Richard, Fl. Cuba, 199.— 
Dietrich, Syn. v, 256.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1K58, 265.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 405.— Grisebach, Fl. British 
West Indies, 50. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 21. 

CRAB WOOD. POISON WOOD. 

Semi tropical Floiida, bay Biscayne to the southern keys; common ; in the West Indies. 

A small tree, sometimes 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.1.5 to 0.20 meter in diameter; the large specimens 
generally hollow and tlecayed. 

Wood very heavy, hard, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; medullary niys 
numerous, obscure ; color, rich dark brown streaked with yellow, the sap-wood bright yellow ; specific gravity, 
1.0905; ash, 2. 78 ; now largely manufactured into canes, and furni-shing viduable fuel. 

221. — Hippomane Mancinella, Linnajus, 

Spiic. 1 ed. U'.ll.— .Iac<iiiin, Amor. 250, t. 15'J. — Lamarck, Diet, ii, (i'.)4. — .Vilou, Hort. Kew. iii, 378; 2 ed. v, ;t;i3.— Swartz, Obs. 1569. — 
Wilhlenow, Spec, iv, 571.— Persoon, Syu. ii, 589.— Tilford, Ilorl. Bot. Am. Suppl. 9, t. 12, f. 5.— Lamarck, 111. iii. :U4. t. 7W, f. 1.— 
Spreugel, Syst. iii, 805.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 524.— Nnttall, Sylva, ii, 54, I. 60: 2 cd. i, 202, t. GO.— Bcntham, Bot. Snlphur, 163.— 
Richard, Fl. Cnba, 200. — Dietrich, Syn. v, 224. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2t>5. — Baillon. Ftud. Gen. FHphorbiacea>, t. G, 
f. 12-20.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 404.— Porcher, Resonrces S. Forests, 120.— Grisebach, Fl. British We,»t ludie-s, 50.— Regrl, 
Gartciiflora, xv, 163, t. 510.— Miiller in Do Candolle, Prodr. xv-, 1201.— Schnizlein, loon. t. 243, f. 3.— Waout & Decaisne, Hot. 
English ed. 1)93 «& f. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 21. 



Mancinella venenata, Tns!«ic, Fl. Antilles, iii, 21, t. 5. 



MANCHINKKL. 



Seini-irojiical I'^h.iida, ou the southern keys; eoiuiuon ; throuuh the West Indies and Central America to the 
Pacific. 

A small tree, in I'Morida rarely exceeding 1 tiieters in height, with a trunk 0.12 to 0.17 meter in diameter; 
abouudijii;- in white, milky, e.Kceediiigly caustic poisonous sap. '• Rain washing the leaves becomes poisonous, aud 
llie smoke of the burning wood injures or destroys the eyes." — (.4. //. Cuitiss). 

Wood light, soft, close grained, compact, contiiiiiiug numerous evenly distributed, small, open duets; medullary 
niyti luimerous, ob.scure ; color, dark brown, tlie thick sap-wood light bit»wu or yellow ; specific gravity (sap-wooil), 
0..5'm'2; a.sh, 5.10. 



1-2 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



URTICACE^. 



222. — Ulmus crassifolia, Nuttall, 

Trmns. Am. Phil. Soc. 2 ser. v, 169.— Plaucbon iu Aun. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 279 ; De CundoUo, Prodr. ivii, 1G2.— Walpcrs, Ann. iii, 426.— 
Cooper Id Smithsonian Rep. 18*-*, 254.— Lesquereui in Owuu's 2d Rep. Arkansas, L530. — Wood, CI. Book, C33. — Gray, Hall's, PI. 
Texas, 21.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23. 

U. opaca, Nuttall, Sylva, i, 35, t. 11 ; 2 ed. i, 51, t. 11.— Browne, Trees of America, 503. 

CEDAR ELM. 

Arkansas, south of the valley of the Arkausas river to the valley of the Rio Grande, Texas, extending west to 
Eagle Pass. 

A tree 18 to 20 meters iu height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.00 meter iu diameter, or toward its southern or 
south wi-.sttrn limits much smaller; bonlers of streams, in rich .soil; one of the most common and valuable timber 
trees of Texas west of the Ti-inity river, and reaching its greatest development in the valleys of the Guadalupe 
and Trinity rivers. 

WoimI heavy, hanl, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth and medullary 
rays ob.-^cure; marked, in common with that of all the North American species, by concentric circles of irregularly- 
arranged groups of small open ducts; color, light brown tinged with red, the heavier sap-wood lighter; speciflo 
gravity, 0.72-45; ash, 1.20 ; used in the manufacture of wagon hubs, saddletrees, chairs, etc., and very largely for 
fencing. 

223. — Ulmus fulva, Michaux, 

Fl.Bor.-Am. i, 172.— Per8oon,Syii. i, 291.- Willdenow, Enum. Snppl. 14.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 200. —Smith in Rees' Cycl.irxix, No. 
10.— Eaton, Manual, 31; 6 ed. 376.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 201.— Roomer & Schultes, Syst. vi, 301.— Elliott, Sk. i, 3;i3.— Hayue, 
D. nd. Fl. 32.— Torrey.Fl. U.S.i,299; Couipend. Fl. N. States, 132; Fl. N. York, ii, IGG; Fremont's Rep. 97.— Spren>;el, Syst. i, 
931.— Rafinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 271.— Beck, Bot. 333.— Hooker, Fl. Bor. Am. ii, 142.— Bigolow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 114.— Eaton & 
Wright, Bot. 464.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1407, f. 1247.— Dietrich, Syu. ii,992.— Spach in Aun. Sci. Nat. xv,3(i3; Hist. Veg. xi, 
1"7.— Emerwn, Trees Massachusetts, 297; 2 ed. ii, 334 & t.— Browne, Trees of America, .''lOl.— firitBth, Med. Bot. 551.— 
Planrhon in Aun. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x,276.—De Caudollo. Prodr. xvii, 101. — Scheele in Roemer, Texas, 446— Walpers, Ann. iii, 426.— 
Richardson, Arctic Exped. 436.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 255. —Darby, Bot. S. States, 502. —Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 
254. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 416. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, iii, 1860, 55. — Lcs(|uerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. 
Arkansas, .'{86.— Wood, CI. Book, 633; Bot. &. Fl. 299.— Porcher, Resources S. Forest*, 310.— Eugclmann in Traus. Am. I'hil. Soc. new 
ser. xii, 208.— Gray, Manual N. Slates, 5 ed. 442.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 4-22.- Young, Bot. Texas. 496.— Ilaydeu in Warren's Rep. 
Nebraska &. Dakota, 2 ed. 121.— V:uiey,Cat. Fore.st Trees, 22.— Bentley &. Trimen,Med. Pl.iv,233, t. 233.— Ridgway in Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mas. 1862, 72.— Bell iu Geological Eep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55=. 

n. puhescem, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 111. 

U. Americana, var. ri/6ra, Alton, Hort.Kew.i, 319; 2 ed. ii, 107.— WiUdenow, Spec, i, 1325.— Hayne, Dead. Fl. 31. 

t U. crupa, Willdcnow, Enura. 295 ; Berl. Baumz. 520. 

d. rubra, Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii,278,t.6; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 73, f. 128. 

RED ELM. SLIPPERY ELM. MOOSE ELM. 

Valley of the lower Saint Lawrence river to Ont;irio and northern Dakota, south to the Chattahoochee region 
of northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississi|(pi, and the valley of the San Antonio river, Texas. 

A tree 15 to 20 metersin height, wiili a tiiink 0.45 to 0.00 meter in diameter; borders of streams and hillsides, 
in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very clr),scgraint;d, compact, durable in contact with liu' ground, splitting readily 
when green; layers of annual growth clearly marki'd by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color, dark brown or red, the thin sajj-wood lighter; specilic gravity, ().&)'>(>; ash, 0.h;5; largely 
used for wheel stock, fence j)ost.s, rails, railway lie.s, sills, ••tc. 

The inner bark mucila;;inoiis, nutritious, and extensively useil in various medicinal prcijarations (ilm. Jour. 
Pharm. xxiv, \m.—Philadelphui Mai. Timen, 1874,303.— ?7. .V. Dispenmtory, 14 ed.913.— A'««. Dinpcnsutory, 2 ed. 1480.— 
Fliickiger dr Uanhury, Pharmacographin, .501). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 123 

224. — Ulmus Americana, Linnaeus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 226.— Kalm, Travels, English id. ii, 2'J8.— Marshall, Arhuhtuni, l.")C. -Waiigcnheim, Amcr. 4r>. — Gsertncr, Fmct. i, 225 t. 49 
f.5.— W.altor, Fl. Caroliniana, 111.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. i,319; 2 cd. ii. 107.— Wllldcnow, Spec, i, 13:!.">; Ennm. 295 ; Sappl. 14 ; Bcrl! 
Baumz. 51'.).— NouveauDuhamol, ii, 147.— Sohkulir, Handb. 179.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Ani. i, 173.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 191.— Diafoutaines, 
Hist. Arh. ii, 442.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 2G9, t. 4 ; N. Anicric:an Sylva,:5 ed. iii, f.7, t. 120.— Pureh, Kl. Am. S<-pf. i, 199.— 
Smith in Koos' Cycl. x-^xisc, No. 7.— Eaton, Manual, 31 ; Ci ed. 370.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelpli. i, 150.— Nnttall, Genera, i 
201.— Uiemer & Selmltes, Syst. vi, 300.— Elliott, Sk. i, 333.— Hayno.Dend. Fl. 31.— Torroy, Fl. U. S. i,29f!; Compend. Fl. K. States,' 
132; Fl. N. York, ii, 105; Nicollet'^ Rop. 100; Emory's Rep. 412.— Sprcngel, Syst. i, 930.— Beck, Bot. 333.— Loudon, Arboretnm, 
iii, 1400, f. 1240.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 142.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 114.— Dietrich, S}-n. ii, 992.— Eaton & Wri(.'hi, Bot. 
4G4.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xv, 304 ; Hist. Vcg. xi, 108.— Emerson, Trees Maseacbnsctts, 2fiC; 2 ed. ii, 322 i t.— Browne 
Trees of America, 499.— Planchou in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 268; Do CandoUo, Prodr. xvii, l.")5.— .Scheele in Roenier, Texas, 44G.— 
Walpers, Ann. iii, 424.— Buckley in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xiii, 398.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 430.— Darlington, Fl. C<-«trica,3 
ed. 255.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 502.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. laiS, 2.54.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 4H>.— Curtis in Rep. 

Geological Surv. N. Carolina, iii, 1860, 5^>. — Losiiuereiix in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 380. — Wood, CI. Book, 033 ; B«t. & Fl. 298. 

Porchcr, RosourcesS.forests, 311.— Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii,208. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 e<l. 442.— Hall's 
PI. Texas, 21.— Koch, Dcudrologie, ii, 421.— Young, Bot. Texas, 496.- Winchell in Ludlow's Rep. Black Hills, 68.- Vasey, Cat. 

Forest Tiocs, 22.— Haydeu in Warren's Rep. Nebraska &, Dakota, 2 ed. 121. — Macoau in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 209. 

Soars in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 177.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 71.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, ie79-'80, 48^. 

U. molli/olia, Marshall, Arbustum, 156. 

U. Americana, var. pendula, Alton, Hort. Kew. i,320; 2 ed. ii, 107.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1326.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 

200.— Eaton, Manual, 31.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. iv, 304 ; Hist. Veg. xi, 109. 

U. Americana, var. aJha, Alton, Hort. Kew. i,320; 2ed.ii,107.— Hayne.Dend. Fl. 32. 

U. pendula, willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 519.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 33. 

U. alba, Rnfinesriue.Fl. Ludoviciana, 115; Now Fl. & Bot. i, 38. 

U. Americana, VSbT.SCahra, Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. XV, 304; Hist. Veg. ii, 109.— Walpers, Ann. iii, 424. 

U. Americana, var. Barframii, Walpers, Ann. iii, 424. 

U. Americana, var. laspera. Chapman, Fl. S. States, 416. 

TI. Floridana, chapman, Fl. S. states, 416. 

WHITE ELM. AMERICAN ELM. WATER ELM. 

Soutberii Newfomidlaiiil to tlie northeru .shores oflake Sujierior and tlio eastern slope of the Bocky luoiintaius, 
in about hititiulo 52° X.; south to cape Canaveral and Pease creek, Florida, extending we.st in the United States 
to the Black hills of Dakota, central Nebraska, the Indian territory, in about longitude 100° W., and the valley 
of the Rio Concho, Texas. 

A large tree, 30 to .'J.l meters in height, with a trunk l.SO to 2.70 meters in diameter; rich, moist soil, bonlers 
of streams, etc.; toward its western and southwestern limits only in river bottoms. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, rather coaise-grained, compact, diflicnlt to split; layers of annual growth 
clearly n)arked by several rows of large open duels; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light browni. the s;ip- 
wood somewhat lighter; specific gravity, O.G.lOli ; ash, 0.80; largely used for wheel stock, saddle-trees, tlooriug. in 
cooperage, and now largely exported to Great Britain and used in boat- and ship-buildiug. 

225. — Ulmus racemosa, Thomas, 

Am. .lour. Sci. 1 ser, xix, 170 & t.— Beck, Bot. .•i34.— Eaton, Manual, ed. 37{;.— Eaton & Wright, Bot, 464.— NntUlI, Svlva, i, 37, 
t. 12; 2 ed. i, .53, t. 12. — Torrey, Fl. N. York, ii, lOO, t. 90. — Browne, Trees of Americtt, 500.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1838, 
254.— Wood, CI. Book, 633; Bot. & Fl. 29J.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 od. 412.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22.— Sargent in Rep. 
Massachusetts Board Ag. H78, 271.- l!.ll in Geological Ro'p. Canada, 1879-'80, 5.5'.— Chapman, Fl. S. Stato8,Suppl. 049. 

U. Americana, Plaiuhon in De CandoU., Prodr. xvii,155, in part. 

KOCK ELM. t;OUK ELM. HICKOUY ELM. WHITE ELM. CLIFF ELM. 

Southwestern Vermont {Ri>bbins), west through western New York, Ontario, and southern Michigan to 
northeastern Iowa(\Vaverly, Bessc;/), and south through Ohio to central Kentucky. 

A large tree of great economic value, 20 to .'30 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.00 meter in diameter; 
low, wet clay, rich uplands, rocky declivities, or river clitTs ; common and reacliiug its greatest development iu 
southern Ontario and the southern peninsula of Michigan. 



124 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, tough, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish ; layers 
of annual grovrth marked ■with one to two rows of small open duets; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
light clear brown often tinged with red, the thick sap-wood nuieh lighter; spocilic gravity, 0.720.? ; ash, O.GO; 
largely used in the nianul'aeture of heavy agricultural iiiii)liMneuts, wheel stock, and lor railway tics, bridge timbers, 
sills, etc. 

226. — Ulmus alata, Mkbaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. i, 1T:{. — Pfrsoon, Syn. i, Syi. — Micliuux f. Hist. Arb. .\in. iii, 275, t. 5; N. Amcricau Sylva, 3 eil. iii, 71, t. 1'27. — Pursli 
Fl. Am. Sept, i, 'iOO.— Nnttall, Geuera, i, 201.— Riciucr & Scliulte.s, Syst. vi, 209.— Elliutt, Sk. i, 3:53.— Sprengol, Syst. i, 931.— 
Aiulabon, Binls, t. 18.— Eiitou, Mauual, 6 od. 376.— Loudon, Arborctuin, iii, HOa, f. 1248.— Dietrich, Syu. ii, 992.— Eaton & Wright, 
Bot. 464. — Penn. Cycl. xxv, 493. — Browne, Trees of America, 502. — Planchou in Ann. Sri. Nat. 3 ser. x, 270 ; Dc (-'andollc, Prodr. 
xvii, I'to. — Walpers, Ann. iii, 42,"). — Darljy, Bot. S. States, 503. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. lo58, 254. — Chapman, El. S. States, 
417. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, 1860, iii, 55. — Lesquereu.x in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 386. — Wood, CI. Book, 
t«3; Bot. & Kl. 299.— Poreher, Resources S. Forests, 311.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 443; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Young, Bot. 
Texas. 49») — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22.— Broadhead in Coultei-'s Bot. Gazette, iii, 60.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,70. 

U. pumila, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 111 [not Linn.aus], * 

U. Americnna. var. alata, Spach in Anu.Sci.Nat.2 ser. xv,3C4: Hist. Veg. xi, 109. 

AVAnOO. WINGED ELM. 

Southern Virginia, south through the middle districts to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida ; southern 
Indiana and Illinois, south to the Gulf coast, and southwest through southern Missouri, Arkansas, the eastern 
portions of the Indian territory to the valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A small tree, 7 to I- meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.GO meter in diameter; generally in dry, gravelly 
soil, or, rarely, along tiie borders of swamps and river bottoms ; most common and reaching its greatest development 
in .southern Mis.souri and Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, unwcdgeable; medullary rays distant, not 
conspicuous ; color, brown, the .sai)wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.7491 ; ash, 0.99 ; largely used for hubs, 
blocks, etc. 

227. — Plantra aquatica, (imelin, 

Syet ii, 150. — WilUlcnow, Spec, iv, 967; Eniim. Suppl. 14; Berl. Baumz. 281. — Persoou, Syn. i, 291. — Xuttall, Genera, i, 202. — Uayne, 
Dend. Fl. 2l>2.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 26(J.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 360.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 sor. xv, 355 ; Hist. Veg. xi, 116.— 
Planehon in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 2<il ; De Candolle, Prodr. xvii, 167. — Walpers, Ann. iii, 428. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. IB.'iP, 
254.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 417. —Wood, CI. Book, 633; Bot. & Fl. 299.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 443.— Koch, Deudrologie, 
ii, 424. — Young, Bot. Texas, 497. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23. 

Anonymon aquatica, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 230. 

P. Gmelini, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 248.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 44(;.— Roemer «Sc Schnltes, Syst. vi, 305.— Elliott, Sk. 
i, 334.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 493. —Dietrich, Syn. i, 551.— Penn. Cycl. xxv, 490.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 503. 

P. ulmi/oliaj Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 283, t. 7; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 80, t. 130.— Poiret, Snppl. iv, 429.— 
Xonveaii Diibamel, vii, 65, t. 21. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1413, f. 1251. — Browne, Trees of America, 515. — Unit is in Rep. 
Geological .Surv. N. Carolina, iii, 1860,81. 

T UlmuM nemoralU, Alton, Hort. Kew. i, 319 ; 2 ed. ii, 108.— Willdenow, Spec, i, 1320; Bed. Baumz. .520.— Desfontaines, Hist. 
Arb. ii, 442.— Pursh, Fl. Am. .Sept. i, 200.— Smith in Kees' Cycl. xxxix. No. 8.— Nuttall, Genera, i, 201.— Beck, Bot. 334.— 
Eaton, Manual, (> ed. :t76. — Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 464. 

Ulmus aquatica, Ratiuesiinc, n. Ludoviciana, KK. 

P. liichardi, .Sprengel,SyHt. i,493, in part.- Torn y & Gray in Paeifi.- K. h'. Rep. ii, 175 [not Micbaiix]. 

Valley of the (,'ape Fear river. North (Jaroliiia, south to the Cliiittiiiioocliee region of western Florida, and 
through central Alabama and Mississipjii to western Louisiana'and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas, extending 
north through Arkansas and southern Missouii to the valley of the lower AVabash river and (^Mitral Kentucky. 

A small tree, 9 t«» 12 meters in height, with a triiidv 0..'50 to 0.(iO meter in diameter ; cold, deep, inundated 
river swamps ; rare in the Atlantic anrl eastern Oiilf states; very cotmnon and reaching its greatest developtnent 
in the I'ed liiver valley and .■•onlherii Arkansas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, cl<ise-graine<l, compact, containing few scattered open ducts; medullary rays 
numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood nearly white; si)eci(ic gravity, ()..'5291; ash, O.t.'j. 



CATALOGUE OF FORES^r 'IliEES. 125 

228. — Celtis occidentalis, Liuu.; uh, 

Spec. 2 ed. 117W.— Du Roi, Ilarlik. i. 1 tl.— M.irsii.iU, .\rl>iistuin, 29.— WaiijfcQUoim, Ainor. 48.— Giertuer, Fruct. i, 374, t. 77, f. 3.— WalUr, 
Fl.Caroliiiiaua, '«!50. — Alton, llort. ICmv. iii, 1.;?; ::ii;d.v,449. — LamaruU, Diet, iv, 137; 111. iii,437, t. b44, f. 1. — Abbot, lusccto Georgia, 
i, t. 30.— Wilklenow.Speo. iv, 944; Euuiii. 1041!; Berl. Baumz. M:i.— Noiivkaii Dnhanii'l,ii,:W>, t.9.— Michaux, FI. Bor.-Ain. ii.240.— 
Peraoon, Syn. i,a92. — Uosfoutaiiics, Hist. Ail). ii,448. — Michaux f. Hi.st. Arb. Aiii. iii,22o. f. 8; N. American Sylva, 3 e<l. iii,3*, 1. 114. — 
Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 200.— Eaton, Manual, 31 ; fi ed. 3C.— N'nttall, Genera, i, •J02.~Ra3iiicr & Scbiiltes, Syst. vi, 306.— Haynr, Dcud. 
Fl. iilfi.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 584.- Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 300; Conipi-nd. Fl. N.States, IA>; Fl. X. York, ii, 1(17 ; Bot. Wilkeb Exp.-d. 4.')C.— 
Guiuipel, Otto& Hayue, Abb. llolz. U'J, t.9().— Sprengel, Syst. i, 932.— Watsou, Demi. Brit, ii, 147.— Beck, Bot. 3:{4.— Ralines<|ue, New 
Fl. & Bot. i, 32.— London, Arborotuni, iii, 1417 & t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii, 142.— Eatim & Wright, Bot. 180.— Spacli in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 2 sor. xvi,40; Ilist. Veg. xi, 133. — IVnn. Cycl. xxv, 490. — Browne, Trees of America,.')!". — Emerson, Trees Massacbusetts, 306, 
1. 16; 2ed. ii, 344 »& t.— Planchon in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 288; DeC'andoIle, Prodr. xvii, 174.— Walpers, Ann. iii,:!9t).— Ricbardson, 
Arctic Exped. 436.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 2jC. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 503. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 185", 2.>4. — 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 417.— Curt is iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, ISCO, iii, (SI. — Lesc|uereux in 0\ven's2d Rep. Arkansas, 380. — 
Wood, CI. Book, 634 ; Bot. & Fl. 299.- Engelniann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. now ser. xii,2ll8.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 312.— 
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 443 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 432. — Hayden in Warren's Rep. Nebraska & Dakota, 
2 ed. 121. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23. — Burbauk in Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Mist, xviii, 215. — Pntzliys in Fl. des Serrcs, xxii, 206. — 
Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'7(i,209.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,72. 

G. crassi/oUa, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 138. — Nouvoaii Duhamel, ii, 37. — Micbaiix f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 228, t. 9 ; N. American 
Sylva,3 cd. iii, 40, t. 115.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 200.— Xuttall, Genera, i, 202.— Rcemer &■ Schultes, Syst. vi,307.— 
Torrey, Fl. U. S. i, 300 ; Couipnnd. Fl. N. States, 132 ; Fremont's R>!p. 97 ; E mory's Rep. 412.— Spreugel, Syst. i, 932.— 
Beck, Bot. 334. — Eaton, Manual, (5 el. 83. — Rafiuesque, New Fl. & But. i, 34. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1418, f. 1254. — 
Eaton & Wngbt, Bot 186.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi, 39 ; Hist. Veg. xi, 130.— Penn. Cycl. xxv, 490.— Browne, 
Trees of America, 519. — Emerson, Trees of Massachusetts, 309 ; 2 ed. ii, 347 & t. 

C.ohliqua, Mcench, Moth. 344. 

G. occidentalis, var. scabriuscula, Willdcnow, Spec, iv, 995; Berl. Baumz. 2 ed. 62.— Hayne, Deud. Fl. 217.— London, 

Arboretum, iii, 1417. 

G. occidentalis, var. tenuifolia, Persoon, Syn. i, 292. 

G. cordata, Persoon, Syn. i,292.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii,448.— Du Mont, Cour. Bot. Cult. vi,389. 

G. Iwvigala, Wiliaeuow, Berl. Baumz. 2 ed. 81; Euum. Suppl. 68.— Rcemer & Schultes, Syst. vi, 306.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 
932. — Ratinesque, New. Fl. & Bot. i, 34. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1420. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 432. 

G. pumila, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. i, 200.— R(Biner & Schultes, Syst. vi. 306.— Torrey, Fl. U. S. i,300 ; Compecd. Fl. N. States, 
132.— Beck, Bot. 334.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 86.— Rafiuesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 3i.— Loudon, Arborettim, iu, 1420.— 
Eaton & Wright, Bot. Iwi. 

G. alba, Katinesqne, Fl. Luilo\ ieiana, 2.>; New Fl. & Bot. i, 32.— Planchon in De Candolle. Proiir. xvii, 177. 

G. canina and G. maritima, Ralinesque iu Am. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. ii,43, 44. 

G. occidentalis, var. cordata, Willdenow, Berl. Baumz. 2 ed. 82.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 217.— Ra>mer & Schultes, Syst. vi, 306.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1417. 

G. tenuifolia, Nuttall, Genera, i, 202; Sylva, i, 135; 2 ed. i, 149.— Uafinesque, New Fl. & Bot. i. 36. 

G. occidentalis, Vin:intC(/riJolia, Nuttall, Genera, i, 202.— (_lia)iman, Fl. S. States, 417.— Wood. CI. Book. ivU: Bot. & 

Fl. 299. 

G. Mississippiensis, Bosc, Diit. Ag. new ed. x, 41.— Poirot, Suppl. iii, 088.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi, 42; Hist. 
Veg. xi, 136. — Planchon iu Auu. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 287 ; Do Candolle, Prodr. xvii, 176.— Walpers, Ann. iii, ;W. — Cooper 
iu Smithsonian Rop. 1858,254. — Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, :{86. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 eil. 443; 
Hall's PI. Texas. 21.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23.— Ridgway in Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. l-;82. 72. 

G. integrifolia, Xuttall in Tran.-;. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. v, 169.— Cooper in Smithsonian K'ep. 1858, 254. 

G. longifoUa, Nuttall in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. v, 169 ; Sylva, i. 134. t. K': 2 ed. i. 148, t. 40.— Ralinesque, New Fl. & 
Bot. i, 33. — Planchon in De CaudoUe, Prodr. xvii, 177. 

G. hetcropln/lla, G. patiila, G. Fluridiana, G. fascata. ('. salici/olia, G. niori/olia. G. mariiima, Kaiine.*que. 

Xew I'l. & Bot. i. :U-37. 
G. occidentalis, yAV.firaildidtntata, Spaeh in Ann. Soi. Nat. 2 ser. xvi, 40; Hisl. Veg. xi, l;i;i.— Wali>ei-s, Ann. iii. 396. 
G. occidentalis, var. seynilata, Spaeh in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi. 41 : Hist. Veg. xi. 134.— Walpen*. Ann. iii. :aX;. 
C. C>-a«si/olia, var. tiliai'olia, Spa.h in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi. :«>; Hist. Veg.xi, 131.— Walpers, Ann. iii, 396. 
G. crassit\dia, var. morifolia, Spach in Ann.S.i. Nat. 2 s.^r. \vi, 39: Hist. Veg. xi. 131.— Walpers, Ann. iii. :«H>. 
G. erassifolia, var. evvahjpiifoUa, Spaeh in Ann. Sei. Xat. 2 ser. xvi, 40: Hist. Veg. xi, 131.— Waliwr^. Ann. iii. 3f>a 



126 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

C. Atldibertiana, SpacU in Ann Sci. Nat. 2 sor. xvi. 41 ; Hist. PI. xi, 135.— Planohou in Do CnndoUe, Prodr. xvil, 174. 

C. Audibcrtiana, var.orata, Sp.icU in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi, 41; Hist. Vcg. xi, 135. 

C. Audibcrtiana, var. oblongata, Spach in Ann. Sci. N»t. 2 ser. xvi, 41 ; Hist. Veg. xi, 135. 

C. Lindheimeri, Engelmaun in herb. A. Braun. (Koeli, Drondrologio, ii, 434). 

C. Berlandicri, Klotsch in Linniea, xviii, 541. — Plancbon in Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvii, 178. 

C. Texana, Schcele in Liuua;a, xx, 14^ : Rocuier, Texas, 446; Appx. Ufi. 

C. occidentalis, var. crassi/olia. Gray, Manual N. States, 2 cd. 305 ; 5 cd. 443.— Wood, CI. Book, C34 ; Bot. & Fl. 299. 

C. occidentalis, xar. pumila. Gray, Manual N. States, 2 cd. 397; 5 ed. 443.— Chapman, Fl. S. States. 417.— Curtis in Rep. 
Geological Surv. N. Carolina, iii, ISCO, 02. — WatHon in King's Rep. v, 321. 

SIGARBERRY. nACKBERBY. 

Tallc.v of the Saiut Lawrence river west tocivstern Dakota, south through the Athintic roffion to bay Biscayne 
and cape Romano, Florida, and the valley of the Devil's river, Texas. 

A large tree, IS to 30 or, exceptionally, 3C to 39 meters (Ridgicay) in height, with a trunk O.CO to 1.50 meter in 
diameter; most common and reaching its greatest development in the Mississippi lliver basin; rich bottoms or 
dry hillsides; sometimes reduced to a low shrub (C pitmila), and varying greatly in the size, shai)e, and texture 
of the leaves (C MisHissippiennis Iwrigata, integrifoUa, cras.ii/olia, etc.) : the extremes connected by innumerable 
intermediate forms, which, thus considered, make one polymorphous species of wiile geographical range. 

Wood heavy, rather soft, not strong, coarse grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish; layers of 
annnal growth clearly marked by several rows of largo open ducts, containing many small groups of smaller ducts 
arranged in intermediate concentric rings ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, clear light yellow, the sap-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.72S7 ; ash, 1.09; largely used for fencing and occasionally in the manufacture of cheap 
furniture. 

"Var. reticulata. 

0. reticulata, Tom-y in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 247.— Eaton, Manual. G cd. 8fi.— Rafiuesquc, New Tl. & Bot. i, 35.— Eaton & 
Wrigbt, Bot. 166.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 133, t. 39; 2 ed. i, 140, t. 39.- Browne, Trees of America, 518.— Planclion in Ann. 
Sci. Nat. 3 ser. x, 293; Do CandoUe, Prodr. x^-ii, 178. — Walpers, Ann. iii, 390. — Torrcy & Gray in Pacilic K. U. Rep. 
ii, 175. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 200; Am. Nat. iii, 407. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 401. — Watiiou in 
PI. Wheeler, 10.- Vas<y, Cat. Forest Trees, 23.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Rotbrock in Wheeler's Rep. 
vi, 238.— Rusby in Bull. Torroy Bot. Club, ix, 54. 

C. Douglasii, Plancbon in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 ser. s, 293; Do Candollc, Prodr. ivii, 178.— Walpers, Ann. iii, 396. 

tC. occidentalis, var. pumila, Watson in King's Rep. v, 321 [not Gray]. 

C. brevipes, Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. 3 ser. xiv, 297.— Rotbrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 238. 

HACKBERUY. PALO BLANCO. 

Western Texas (Dallas, RavencI) to the mountains of southern Arizona, and through the Kocky mountains to 
eastern Oregon; in the Tehaehipi pass, California [Piingle). 

A small tree, lli to 15 meters in height, with a trunk rarely O.GO meter in diameter ; borders of streams, generally 
in high mountain caiions, or in the more arid regions reduced to a low shrub ; well characterized by its sitial!, thick, 
coriaceous leaves, slightly pubescent on the underside along the i)rominent reticulated veins, and by the liglit-colored, 
deeply-furrowed bark, but connected with the typitjal C. occidentalis liy intermediate forms not rare in western Texas. 

Wood not distinguishable in structure or color from that of the sj)ecies ; spet^ifii- gravity, 0.7275; ash, 1.22. 

229. — Ficus aurea, Nutiall, 

Sylvo, ii,4, t. 43; 2i-(l. i, 154, t.43.— CoopiT in .Sniitbsoiiian Uup. 1858, 20.5. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 415. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22. 
F. aurca, var. latifoUa, Nultall, Sylvn, ii, \ ; 2 cd. i, 1.54. 

Semi-tro|)icaI Florida, Indian river to llie southern keys. 

A large parasitic tree, germinating on the; truidis and branches of other trees, and sending down to the ground 
long aerial roots, which gradually grow together, kill the ineloserl tree, and form a trunk sometimes 0.90 to 1.20 
meter in diameter. 

Wood exceedingly light, 8<jrt, very weak, (warsegrained, coiiipaci, not durable; medullary rays thin, hardly 
distinguishable; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter; si)e<-ilic gravity, 0.2(>1(;; ash, 6.03. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 127 

230. — Ficus brevifolia, Nnttall, 
Sylva, ii, '.i, t. 42 ; 2 cd. i, 153, t. 42.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Kcp. ItjoH, 265.— Chapman, Fl. 8. States, 415. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22. 

Seini-tropical Florida, bay Biscayue to the southern keys (Key Largo, Pumpkin Key, Curtiss). 

A tree sometimes 15 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0..30 meter in diameter. 

Wood light, .soft, close-{;rained, eotui)act, containing few large, open, scattered ducts and many groups of 
much smaller ducts arranged in concentric circles ; medullary rays numerous, thin, conspicaoos; color, light brown 
or yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.C39S ; ash, 4.3G. 

231. — Ficus pedunculata, Alton, 
Hort. Kew. iii, 450; 2 ed. v, 48C.— Chapman, P"l. S. States, 415.— Grisebach, Fl. British West Indies, 151. 
F. COmplicata, Hnmboldt, Bonplaud & Kunth, Nov.Gen.'& Spec, ii, 48. 
Urostigma 2)edunculatum, Miqucl in Hooker, London Jour. Hot. vi, 450.— Walpere, Ann. i, 677. 

"WILD FIG. INDIA-EXXBBEE TEEE. 

Semi-tropical Florida, bay Biscayue to the southern keys (Key Largo, Umbrella and Boca Chica Keys, etc. 
Curtins); in the \Vest Indies. 

A tree sunietimes lli meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.50 meter in diameter, or often shrubby 
and muili branched from the ground; rare. 

Wood light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact, containing many large, open, scattered ducts, with many groups 
of small ducts arranged in conceutiic circles; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light orange-brown, the 
sap-wood undistinguishable ; specific gravity, 0.4739 ; ash, 4.92. 

232. — Morus rubra, Linntens, 

Sped ed.986.— Marshall, Arbustnm, 93.— Wangenheim, Amer. 37, t. 15, f. 35.— Waller, Fl. Caroliuiana, 241.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 
343; 2ed. v,2()6.— Mtench, Meth. 343.— Laraareli, Diet, iv, 377. —Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 70.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 179.— 
Willdenow, Spec, iv, 369; Enum.9ti7; Berl. Bauuiz. 252.— Noviveau Duhauiel, iv, 91, t. 23.— Persoou, Syn. ii, .'wS.— Desfontaines, 
Ilist.Arb. 11, 416.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 232, t. 10; N. American S.vlva,3 ed. iii,42. 1. 116.— Pursh.FI. Am. Sept. li, KKt.— 
Eaton, Manual, 105; 6 ed. 230.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 89.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 209.— Hayne, Uend. Fl. 155.— Elliott, Sk. 
ii, .^74.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 492.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 352; Nicollet's Rep. 160; Fl.N. York, ii, 220; Emory's Rep. 412.— 
Rsfinesque, Med. Bot. ii, 243; New Fl. & Bot. i,43; Am. Manual Mulberry Trees, 13.— Beck, Bot. 316.— Dietrich, Syn. i, 551.— 
London, Arboretum, iii, 1359 & t.— Seringe, Descr. & Cult, du Mftr. 223, t. 20.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 323.— Spach, Hist.Veg. si, 43.— 
Browne, Trees of America, 457.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 280 ; 2ed. i, 314.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 2 ed.2t5.— Daiby, Bot. 
S. States, 503.— Cooper in Siuithsomau Rep. ia'.8, 254.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 415.— Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. jcii',47; Manual 
N. State.s,5 ed. 444.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18i>0, iii,71.— Lesiiueivux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 3*6.— 
Wood, CI. Book, 635 ; Bot. & Fl. 300.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 305.— Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 203.— 
Koch Deudrologie, ii, 447.— Young, Bot. Texas, 494.— Bureau in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvii,245.— Hayden iu Warren's Rep. Nebraska 
& Dakota,2ed. 121.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22.— Riley in Special Rep. U.S. Dept. Ag. No. 11,34.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mu9. 1882, 73. — Burgess iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95. 

M. CanadenuLs, Lamarck,Dict.iv,3S0.— Seringe, Descr.& Cult, du Mftr. 224. 

M. scabra, Willdcnow, Euum. 967; Berl. Banniz. 152.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 209.— Rafinesqne, Am. Manual Mulberry Tr<>o«, 
29.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 154.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 492.— Loddiges, Cat. 1836. 

M. toment^sa, Rafinesque,Fl. Ludovieiana, 113; Am. Manual Mulberry Trees, 30. 

M. reticulata, M. Canadensis, M. parri/olia, and M. riparia, Raiiuesque, .-Vm. Manual Mulberry Treee, 29-31. 

M. rubra, var. Canadensis, Luudou, Arboretum, iii, i3(;o. 

Jf. Mis.souriensis, Audiberl, Cat. Jard. TounoUe. 

M. rubra, var. tomentosa. Bureau in Do CaudoUe, Prodr. ivii, 246. 

Jlf. rubra, var. incisa, Bureau in Do Cundolle, Proilr. xvii, 217. 



128 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

KED MILBEKKY. 

Wi'Mt'iii Xiw Eiifilaml and Limy Island, Now York, west tlirouyh soutbeiu Ontario and eentral Michigan to 
the Black hills of Dakota, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, south to bay Biscayne and cape llouiano, Florida, and 
the valley of the Colorado river, Texas. 

A lar}:e tree, IS to 20 meters in heii^lit, with a trunk O.'.H) to l.L'd meter or, exi'e])ti()nally. '2.\~> meters in 
diameter (P. J. LciTkimin.s, Augusta, Georgia); generally in rich bottom lands; most common and reaching its 
greatest development in the basins of the lower Ohio and the Jlississippi rivers. 

Wooil light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarsegrained, eomi)ac(, vei'y durable in contact with the soil, 
satiny, susceptible of a good polish; layers of anniuil growth clearly marked by several rows of large open ducts; 
medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light orange yellow, the sap-wood lighter; specilic gravity, 0.5898; ash, 0.71 ; 
largely u.sed in fencing, coojjerage, for snaths, and at the south iu ship- and boat-building. 

The large dark jmrple fruit sweet and edible. 

233. — Morus microphylla, Biukloy, 

Proc. I'biludelphia Acad. 186-2, 8.— Gray in Proc. PhUaduliiUiu Aca.l. 1662, 1G7. - Young, Bot. Texas, 494. 

M. parvi/olia, Engelmaun in herb —Gray, Hail's PI. T.xas, St.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 22.— Riley in Special Rep. U. S. 
Dept.Ag.No.il, 34. 

MEXICAN MULBERRY. 

Valley of the Colorado river, through westei'u Texas to the \ alley of the Gila river. New Mexico; and 
Bonlhward into Mexico. 

A ."^midl tree, .><ometimes 7 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter, or often reduced to a 
low shrub; most common and reaching its greatest developmeut iu the mountain cafious of southern New Mexico; 
in Texas generally on limestone formations. 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, co:'ipact; layers of aunual growth marked with several rows of small open 
dacts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, orange or, rarely, dark brown, the sap-wood light yellow; specific 
gravity, 0.771.'); ash, O.OS. 

The small acid fruit hardly edible. 

234. — Madura aurantiaca, Xuttall, 

Genera, ii, 2:>4; Trann. Am. Pliil. .S<n;. 'J scr. v,l(i9; Sylva, i, l:ili, t.:;", '3fi; '2 ed. i, 140, t.:i7, ',)8. — James in Long's lixped. ii, l.'>8. — 
Dflile in Bull. Soc. Ag. Her. Irj'M & t. — Eaton, Manual, ti ed. '/I'. — Seringe in Mem. Soc. Ag. Lyon, 1635, l-iii &, t; Descr. & 
Cult, du Mfir. ■^•■i, t. '.273.- Lamliert, PiuuH.a ed. ii, Appx. 4, 1. 3.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1342, 13112, f. 122G-1228; CJard. Mag. xi, 312, 
f. 40-47.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 311.— Spach, Hi.st. Virg. xi, o3.— Browne, Trees of America, 4l)5.— Darby, Bot. .S. States, 504.— 
Cooper iu .Smitlihonian Rej). lf^5S, 2.T4. — Miquel iu Martiuti, El. Brasil. iv, 158. — Wood, CI. Book, (i;i5; Bot. & El. 299. — Porcher, 
Re»onrcet4S. Forests, 101. — Koch, Uendrologie, ii, 437. — Bureau in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvii,227. — Dumen in Proc. California Acad. 
V, 3tH. — Vattey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22. — Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii, 325. — Riley in Special Rep. U. S. Dept. Ag. No. 11, 35. 

Torylon Madura, Ralinesqne.New Fl. & Bot. i, 43; Am. Manual Mulberry Trees, 13. 

Joxylon pomi/erum, Ratlnesrpie in Am. Monthly Mag. aud Crit. Rev. ii, 11". 

BrOUSSanetia tinctoria, Torrey in Ann. Lye. K. York, ii, 2l<i [iio( Kiiiitli]. 

OSAGE ORANGE. IJOIS D'ARC. 

Southwestern Arkansas, south of the Viilley of the Arkansas river, southeastern portions of the Indian 
territory, and sonthwanl in northern Texas to about latitude .'52' .')0' N. (Didlas, Reverchon, etc.). 

A tree, snmetimes l.'j to 18 meters in lieight, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.GO meter in diameter; rich l)oltom 
lands; most common and probably reaching its greatest development along the valley of the Red river in the liulian 
tenitory. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, flexible, clo.se-grainnl, ciimijact, very dnral)le in contact witli the 
ground, .satiny, siiseeptilde of a beautiful i>olish, containing numerous small open ducts, layers of annual growth 
cli-arly marked by broad bands of larger ducts; medullary rays thin, numerous, coii.-])icuous; color, bright orange, 
turning brown with exposure, the sap-wood light yellow; specilic gravity, 0.77.'30; ash, 0.08; largely used for fon<;e. 
]to»t8, paving blocks, railway ties, wheel stock; extensively planted for hedges, especially in the western states. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 



129 



PLATANACEiE. 



235. — Platanus occidentalis, Linao-us, 

Spec. 1 ed. 999.— Du Eoi, Harbk. ii, 134.— Marsluall, Aibiist iiiii, 10.'>.— \Vaii>;<'nbiMiii, Anjcr. 31, t. 13, f. 31.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniaoa, 236.— 
Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 3C5 ; 2 cd. v, 305.— Mccndi, Meth. S.'iS. — Abl)ot, lusects Georgia, ii, t. 55. — Micbanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 163. — 
Lamarck, Diet, v, 438. — Nouveau Duhamel, ii, G, t. 2. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 474 ; Enuiii. 984 ; Burl. Bauraz. 284. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 
575.— Desfontaiues Hist. Arb. ii, 545.— Scbknbr, Ilandb. iii, 274, t. 306.— Kobiu, Voyages, iii, 524.— Micliaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 1*4, 
t. 3 ; N. American Sylva, 3 od. ii, 46, t. C3.— Piirsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 635.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladclpb. 91 ; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. 
176.— Eaton, Manual, 110 ; G ed. 267.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 219.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 171.— JameB iu Long's Exped. i, 23.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 
620.— Sprengol, Syst. iii, 865.— Watson, Dend. Brit, i, 1. 100.— Torrcy, Couipcnd. Fl. N. States, 356 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 218 ; Bot. Mei. 
Bound.ary Survey, 205.— Audubon, Birds, t. 206.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2043, f. 1959 & t.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 361.— Hooker, FL 
Bor.-Am. ii, 1.58. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 384. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 227 ; 2 ed. i, 261 & t. — Sclieele in Rtrmer, Texaa, 
446.- Buckley in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xiii, 399.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica,3 cd.282.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 509.— Agardh, Theor. & 
Syst. PI. t. xiii, f. 1,2.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 254.— Hartig, Forst. 446, t. 54.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 418.— Cnrtifl 
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 76. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 386. — Wood, CI. Book, 640; Bot. & Fl. 303. — 
Engelmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 209. — A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi'^ 159. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 447 ; Hall's PL 
Texas, 21. — Koch, Deudrologie, ii, 468. — Schnizleiu, Icon. t. 97, f. 1-24. — Young, Bot. Texas, 498. — Hayden in Warren's Rep. Nebraska 
& Dakota, 2 ed. 121.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 22.— Ridgway iu Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus. 1882, 73.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 
187y-'80, 55':. 

P. lobata, Mcench, Meth. 358. 

P. hybridas, Brotero, Fl. Lus. ii, 487. 

P. vulgaris, var. angulosa, Spach in Anu.Sci.Nat. 2 ser. xv,293; Hist. Veg. xi,79. 

SYCAMORE. BUTTON WOOD. BUTTON-BALL TREE. WATER BEECH. 

Southern Maine and sontbeastern New Hampshire to northern Vermont and the northern shores of lakes 
Ontario and Erie, west tc eastern Ifebraslca and Kansas, south to northern Florida, central Alabama and Mississippi, 
and the valley of the Nueces river, Texas, extending southwest to the valley of the Devil's river. 

The largest tree of the Atlantic forests, often 30 to 40 meters in height, with a trunk 2.40 to 4.20 meters in 
diameter; generally along streams and river bottoms, in rich, moist soil; very common and reaching its greatest 
development in the bottom lauds of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers; the large specimens generally hollow. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, difficult to split and work ; layers of annual 
growth dearly marked by broad bands of small ducts; the numerous medullary rays very conspicuous, as in that 
of all the North American species; color, brown tinged ■with red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.5678; 
ash, 0.4G; largely used for tobacco boxes (its principal use), ox-yokes, butchers' blocks, and, rarely, in the 
manufacture of cheap furniture. 

236. — Platanus racemosa, Nuttall; 

Audubon, Birds, t. 3G2; Sylva, i, 47, t. 15; 2 ed. i, 63, t. 15— Bcuthaui, PI. Hnrtweg. 336.— Ncwben-y in Pacific R. K. Kep. vi, ;B, 
89, t. 11, f. 10.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 260.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 204 ; Ives' Rep. 27 ; Bot. Wilkea 
Exped. 457.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi", 160. — Kocb, Dendrologie, ii, 469. — Vasey, Cot. Forest Trees, 23. — Watson, BoU 
California, ii, 66. 

P. occidentalism Hooker & Aniott, Bot. Beocliey, 160, 380 [not Liiinanis]. 

P. Californica, Bentham, Bot. Sulphur, .54. 

P. Mcxicana, Moricaud, PI. Rar. Aiuer. 1. 13?- Torrey iu Sitgreaves' Rop. 172 ; Pacific R. R. Rop. vii,20. 



SYCAMORE. BUTTON WOOD. 

California, valley of the Sacramcjito river, south through the interior valleys and coast ranges to the southern 
boundary of the state. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 meters in height, with a truidc O.iH) to 1.20 meter in diameter; borders of streams, in rich 
soil. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close-grained, compact, diflicult to split ; layers of annual growth clearly 
marked by narrow bands of small ducts; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, light bnnvu tinged with 
red, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.4SSO; ash, 1.11. 

9 FOR 



130 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

237. — Platanus Wrightii, WatsoD, 
Proc. Am. Acad, i, ^49.— Vaeey, Cat. Forest Trees", 23.— Euslty in Bull. Toirey Bot. Club, ix, 54. 
P. ilexicana, Torrey in Emory's Rep. 151 [not Moricaiul]. 
P. racemosa, W.-itson, n. Whceler, 10 [not Niittall].— Rothrock iu Wheeler's Eep. vi,239. 

SYCAMORE. 

Valleys of southwestern New Mexico to tlie valley of the Sau Pedro river, Arizona; southward into 
Mexico. 

A tree sometimes 15 to IS meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to 0.00 meter in diameter; banks of streams and 
high mountain caiions. 

Wood light, soft, weak, very close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth clearly marked by several rows 
of open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin, very conspicuous ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.473G ; ash, 1.35, 



JUGLANDACEiE. 



238.— Juglans cinerea, Linnaeus, 

Spec. 2 e<l. 1415.— Jacquin, Icon. Rar. i, t. 103.— Wangcnhcini, Amor. 21, t. 9, f. 21.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 235.— Aitou, Hort. Kow. 
Ui, 3C1; 2 ed. V, 296.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 503; 111. iii, 'Mm, t. 781, f. 7.— B. S. Barton, Coll. i, 22, 31; ii, 43.— Muhlenberg & 
WilUleuow in Xeue Schriftcn Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 388.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 191.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 45(); Euum. 
978; Berl. Baumz. 193.— Persoon, Syn. ii, .'iSC.- Dcsfontaiues, Hist.Arb. ii, 347.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 636.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. 
Philadelph. 92.— Bigelow, Med. Bot. ii, 115, t. 32 ; Fl. Boston. 3 cd. 378.— Eaton, Manual, 108; 6 ed. 192.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 220; 
Sylva, i, 41 ; 2 ed. i, 37.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 163.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 622.— Sprcngel, Syst. iii, 865.— Torrey, Conipend. Fl. N. States 3.57 ; 
Fl. N. York, ii, Vfi. — Rafinesqne, Med. Bot. ii, 234.— Audubon, Birds, t. 142.— Beck, Bot. 335.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 170.— Lindley, 
Fl. Med. 307.— London, Arboretum, iii, 1439, f. 1202.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 143.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 287.— Emerson, Trees- 
Massachusetts, 182 ; 2 ed. i, 207 & t.— Griflith, Med. Bot. 589.— Carson, Med. Bot. ii, 42, t. 80.— P.irry in Owen's Rep. 618.— Darlington, 
F). Cestrica, 3 ed. 262.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 513.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 254.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 419.— Curtis 
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 45.— Lesqncreux in Oweu's 2il Rep. Arkansas, 387.— Wood, CI. Book, 040 ; Bot. &. Fl. 
304._C. De Candolle in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 16, t. 4, f. 45; Prodr. xvi', 137.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 317.— Engeluian'.i 
in Trans, Am. Phil. Soe. new ser. xii, 209.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 447.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 589.— Hiiyden in Warren's Rep. 
Nebr.-iska & Dakota, 2 ed. 121.— V.asey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23.— Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 00.— Bentley & Trinien, 
Med. PI. iv, 247, t. 247.— Beal in Am. Nat. xv, 36. f. 6.— Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 178.— Bell in Geological Kep. Canada, 
1878-'80, 53'.— Riilgway iu Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1R*2, 70. 

J. oblonga, Miller, Diet. No. 3.— Du Roi, IlarbU. i, 332— Mcench, Meth. 090.— Rttzius, Obs. i, 10. 

./. oblonga alba, Marnhall, Arbustuni, 07. 

./. citthartica, Michanx f. Hist. Arl). Am. i, 10.5, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 109, t. 31. 

Carya catharticn, Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 178. 

Wallia cinerea, Alef'ld in Uonplandia, 1861, 334. 

BUTTERNUT. WHITE WALNUT, 

Southern New Brunswick, valley of «he Saint Lawrence river, Ontario and southern JMichigan to nortlicrn 
Minnesota (lake I'okegoma, Garrison) and central Iowa, south to Delaware and along tlic Allegliany nioiuitains to 
nortliiTii Georgia, central Alabanui and .Mi.><si.s.sippi, nortlicrn Arkansas, and soiillieastcni Kansa.s. 

A tree LS to 24 or, exceptionally, .'50 to :i'> meters {h'idyiraij) in lieiglit, with a trunk O.CO to 0.00 meter in diameter; 
rich woodlands; rare at the .south; most common and reaching its greatest development in the Oliio River basin. 

Wofxl light, soft, not strong, ratlier coarse-grained, compact, easily worked, satiny, susceptible of a beaulUnl 
polisli, wjntaining numerous regularly-distributed, large, oi)en ducts; medullary rays distant, thin, obscure; color, 
bright light brown, turning dark with exposure, the sap-wood lighter; sijccific gravity, 0.4(i8G; ash, 0.51 ; largely 
need for interior 6nish, cabinet work, etc. 

The inner bark, especially that of the root, is em]il()yed medicinally as a mild cathartic {Am. Jour, ritarm. 
1874, 100.— r. S. Difipensatory, 14 ed. 520.— Nat. VixpcnHaUiry, Ii ed. 704), and furnishes a yellow dye. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 131 

239. — ^Juglans nigra, Liunaius, 

Spec. 1 C(l. 997.— Jucqniii, Icon. Kar. i, t. 191.— Wangeuheim, Amer. 20, t.8, f. 20. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 2:{5.— Aiton, Uort. Kcw, iii, 
3G0; 2 ed. v, 296.— Mccnch, MetU. 090.- Lamarck, Diet, iv, 502; III. iii, 365, t. 781, f. 6.— Abbot, Inscctt Gcorpa, i, t. 8S.— 
Mulilenliorg & WiUdeiiow in Neue Scliiiftou Gi-stll. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 388. — Micbanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 191.— Willdenow, Spec, iy, 
466; Enum. 978; lii!rl. Haumz. 193. — Smitli in Rocs' Cycl. xx, No. 3. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 566.— Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 347. — 
Nouveau Dnhanicl, iv, 179, t. 48. — Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Xm. i. 158, t. 1 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 140, t. 30. — Pureh,}!. Am. 
Sept. ii, 036.- Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pliiladolpb. 92; Compend. Fl. Pbiladelpb. ii, 177.— Eaton, Manual, 108; 6 ed. 192.— Nuttall, Genera, 
ii, 220 ; Sylva, i, 41 ; 2 ed. i. 57.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 163.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 622.— Sprengcl, Syst. iii, 8C5.— Torrey, Compend. 11. N. Statca) 
357; Fl. N. York, ii, 179.— Watson, Dend. Brit. ii,t. 158.— Andubon, Birds, t. 84, 156.— Kafincsqiic, Med. Bot.ii, 23:1.— Beck. Bot. 335.-! 
Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 168. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1435, f. 1260 &. t. — Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 287. — Emerson, Trees Massacbutsetts, 
185; 2 ed. i, 211 &. t.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 589.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 618.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 cd. 262.— Darby, Bot. S. 
States, 513. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 254.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 419. -Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 
1860, iii, 45. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 387. — Wood, CI. Book, 640 ; Bot. &. Fl. 304. — C. De CandoUe in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 4 scr. xviii, 34, t. 1, f. 1, 8-10; Prodr. xvi-, 137. — Engelni.ann in Trans. Am. Pbil. Soc. new ser. xii, 209. — Porcher, Resources S. 
Forests, 318. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 447. — Koch, Deudrologie, i, 587. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 244, f. 1, 8, 12, 13. — Young, Bot. 
Texas, 500. — Haydou in Warren's Rep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 121. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 23. — Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 

ed. ii, 300. — Beal in Am. Nat. xv, 36, f. 5.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 178. — Bell in Geological Rep. Cauada, 1879-'80, 53'. 

Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1P82, 76. — Nicholson in London Gard. Chronicle, 1882, 780. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 155. 

J. nigra ohJonga, Marshall, Arbustum, 67. 

WaUia nigra, Aleleld iu Bonplaudia, 1861, 334. 

BLACK WALNUT. 

Western Massachusetts, west aloug the southern shores of lake Erie through southern Michigan to 80uthen> 
Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, and eastern Kansas, south to the Chattahoochee region of northern Florida, central 
Alabama and Mississippi, and the valley of the San Antonio river, Texas. 

A large tree, often 30 to 45 meters in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 3 meters in diameter; rich bottom lands 
and hillsides ; most common and reaching its greatest development on the western slopes of the southern Alleghany 
mountains and in the rich bottoms of southwestern Arkansas and the Indian territory; less common east of the 
Alleghany mountains, and now everywhere scarce. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather coarse-grained, liable to check if not carefully seasoned, easily worked, 
susceiJtible of a beautiful polish, durable in contact with the soil, containing numei'ous large, I'egularly-distributed, 
open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin, not conspicuous; color, rich dark brown, the thin sap-wood much 
lighter; specific gravity, O.G.ll.') ; ash. 0.79; more generally used in cabinet-making, interior finish, and for gun 
stocks than that of any other North American tree. 

240. — Juglans rupestris, Engelmann; 

Sitgreaves' Rep. 171, t. 15.— Torroy, Bot. Mtx. Boundary Survey, 205; Ives' Rep.27.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1855. 260. — C. De 
CandoUe in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 28, t. 2, f. 11 ; Prodr. xvi', 138. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24. —Watson, Bot. California, ii, 
93 ; Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 155. — Rusby iu Bull. Torrey Bot. Clnb. ix, 54. 

J. rupestris, YSXT. major, Torrey in Sitgrc^ave8' Rep. 171, t. 16; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey. 205; Pacific R. R. Rep. vii, 
20.— C. Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvi", 138.— Hcmsloy, Bot. Am. -Cent, iii, 164. 

J. Californica, V.'titsm in Proc. Am. Acad, x, 349; Bot. California, ii, 93.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Rothrook in 
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 249. 

WALNUT. 

Valley of the Colorado river (near Austin), west through western Texas, southern New Mexico, and Arizona 
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet elevation, and in the Calilbrnia Coast ranges from the San Bernardino mountains to the 
neighborhood of San Francisco bay and the valley of the Sacramento river. 

A tree rarely 15 to 22 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to O.'.Ht meter in diameter, reaching its greatest 
developiiuMit iu the neighborhood of San Francisco bay; iu Ti'xas generally reduced to a low. nuu-hbranehed 
shrub; borders of streams and mountain canons, in rich soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, coarse-grained, checking in drying, susceptible of a good poli.sh, containing 
numerous regularly-distributed, large, open ducts; medullary rays distant, thin, obscure; color, rich dark brown, 
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.(i5.>l; ash, 1.01. 

The small nuts sweet and edible. 



132 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

241. — Carya olivaeformis, Xuttall, 

Genera, ii, 221.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— E.iton, Mauual, 6 oJ. 83.— Spach. Hist. Vej;. ii, 173.— Penu. Cycl. vi, 331.— Loudon, 
Arbon-tum, iii, 1441, f. l'.>l>3.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 183.— Sebeele iu Ka-raer, Texas, 447.— Bolg. Hort. vi, 223, t. 45, f. 2.— Torroy, 
Hot. Mex. Bouudary Siiircy 20."). — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 255. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 418. — Lesquereiix iu Owen's 
2d Be].. Arkansas, 387.— Wooil, CI. Book, 641 ; Bot. & Fl. 304.— C. De Candolle in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 36, t. 1, f. 3, t. 5, 
f. 59; I'rodr. xvi", 144. — Porcher, Kesourtes S. Forests, 333. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 448. — Young, Bot. Texas, 499. — A'asey, 
Cat. Forest Tree-s 24.— Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, CO.- Kidgway in Proo. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 77.— Ilemsley, Bot, 
Am. -Cent, iii, 163. — Watson iu Proe. Am. Acad, xviii, 155. 

Jl/<//ans Pct-an, Marshall, Arbustum, 69.— Walter, FI. Curoliuiaua, 230.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow inNene Sc lirilten 
Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 392. 

Jliylans lllinoinensis, Wangenheim, Amer. 54, t. 18, f. 43. 

Jir/lans anyustifolia, Aitou, Hort. Kew. iii, 3Gl ; 2 ed. v, 296. 

Juglans rubra, Gartner, Fmct. ii, 51, t. 89, f. 1.— Lamarck, 111. iii, 366, t. 781, f. 4. 

Jwjlans cylindrica, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 505 ; 111. iii, 365, t. 781, f. 5.— Nouveau Uubamel, iv, 179. 

Juglans oUvwformis, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 192.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 457 ; Enum. 979 ; Berl. Baum/.. 194.— Persoon, 
Syn. ii, 566. — Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 348. — Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 175, t. 3 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 114, 
t. 32.— Muhlenberg, Cat. 83.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 296.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 636.- Hayne, Dend. Fl. 163.- 
Regel, Gartendora, xviii, 89. 

C. angu«ti/olia, Nuttall, Sylva, i, 41 ; 2 ed. i, 57. 

fC. tetraptcra, Liebmann in Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forhand. 1850, 80. 

Bklorea .species, LeConte in Proc. Philadelphia Acad, vi, 402. 

C. JlUnoensis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 593. 

PECAN. ILLINOIS NUT. 

year Davenport, Iowa (0. C. Parry), southern Illinois, and Indiana, northwestern Kentucky, south and 
southwest throujih Missouri and Arkansas to eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and through western Louisiana 
and Texa.s to the valley of the Concho river. 

A tree 30 to 52 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.90 to l.SO meter in diameter ; borders of streams in low, rn-i 
soil ; very common and reaching its greatest development iu the bottom lands of Arkansas and the Indian territory; 
the largest species of the genus and the largest and most important tree of western Texas. 

Wood heavy, hard, not strong, brittle, close-grained, comi)act; layers of annual growth marked by one or 
two rows of large open ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown tinged with red ; the sap-wood 
lighter brown; specific gravity, 0.7180; ash, l.l.'i; less valuable than the wood of the other species and hardly 
uaed except for fuel. 

The sweet, edible nuts are collected in great quantities, aflbrding an inii)i>rtaiit article of coiumcrce. 

242. — Carya alba, Nuttall, 

Genera, ii, 221.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 024.— Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, t. 148.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 357 ; Fl. N. 
York. lf;l.— Beck, Bot. 336.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 83.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 174.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 332.— Loudon, Aiboretum, iii, 1446. 
f. 1209 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 183.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 143.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 191; 2 cd. i, 217 & t. — 
Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3cd. 203.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 513.— Belg. Hort. vi, 223, t. 48, f. P.— Cooper iu Suiithsoniau Kcp. 1858, 255.— 
Chapman, Fl. 8. Stati-s, 418. — Curtis iu Itep. G'ologieal Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 43. — Lesquercux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 
:>a7._Wood,Cl. Book,041; Bot.it Fl. 304.— C. De Candolle iu Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 36, t.2, f. 13, 14, 18, t..3, f.24, t.4,f.44,46; 
Prodr. xvi', 142.— Gray, Mauual N. States, 5 ed. 448.— Youug, Bot. Texas, 499.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Aldrich in Am. Nat. 
XV, 227.— .S<-ar» iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 179.— Ridgway in Proc.U. .S. Nat. Mns. 1p82, 72.— Boll in Geological Kep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55'. 

Juglans orata, Miller, Diet. 

JuglaiiH alba orata, Marshall, Arbustum, 09. 

Juglans oualis, Wangenheim, Amer. 24, t. 10, f. 23. 

Juglans comprensa, Gairtner, Fmct. ii, 50, t. 89, f. 1.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Neue Schrifteu Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 
iii, 300. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 458; Euum. 979; Berl. Bauuiz. 195.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 566. — Desfont.'iines, Hist. Arb. 
ii, 347.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 cd. v, 297.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 104.— Lamarck, 111. iii, 365, t. 781, f. 3. 

tJuglann exaltata, Bartram, Travels, 2 cd. 38. 

Juglans Hfjuamom, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 504.— Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 348.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 190, t. 7; N. 
American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 123, t. 30.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph.92; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 179.— Bigelow, FL 
Boston. 3 cd. 380. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 133 

Juglans alha, Michaux, Fl. lior. Am. ii 19:! [not Liiinicus].— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 037.— Eaton, Manual, 108. 

0. microcarpa, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 221 ; Sylva, i, 38, 1. 13 ; 2 cd. i, 55, t. 13.— Sprcngcl, Syst. ii, 849.- Penn. CycL vi, 332.— 

Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1451. — Darlington, Fl. Cestriea, 3 ed. 264.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. V&i, 255. Chapman, 

Fl. S. States, 419.— Curtis in Kep. Geolo^ioal Surv. K Carolina, 18C0, iii, 44.— Wood, Cl.Uook,C42; Hot. Sc. KI.304.— 
C. De Candollc.Prodr. xvi-, 143. — Gr.ny, Manual N. States, Sid. 448.- Koch, Dendrologie, i, .'iUC— Young, Hot. Triaa, 
499.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 24. — Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mug. 1682, 77. 

SnEr,L-BAEK HICKORY. SHAG-BARK HICKORY. 

Valloy of the Saint Lawrence river, along the northern shores of lakes Ontario and Erie to southern Michigan 
and soutlieastern Minnesota, south to the Cliattalioochee region of western Florida, central Alabama and 
Mississippi, and west to eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and eastern Te.^as. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 2-1 to 30 or, exceptionally, 39 to 4.5 meters in height (Ridgicay), with 
a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter; rich hillsides and sandy ridges; common and reaching its greatest 
development west of the Alleghany mountains; varying greatly in the size and shape of the fruit. A form with 
small, thin-shelled nuts (C microcarpa, IftittaU I. r.) is not rare from Delaware .soutliward, and in Michigan. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, tough, close-grained, comjiact, flexible; layers of annual growth clearly 
marked with one to three rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, brown, the thin and 
more valuable sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.8372; ash, 0.73; largely nsed in the manufacture of 
agricultural implements, carriages, ax handles, baskets, etc. 

The sweet and edible nuts afford an important article of commerce. 

243. — Carya sulcata, Nuttall, 

Genera, ii, 231.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 624.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 357.— Beck, Bot. 336.— Eaton, Manual, 
6 ed. 83.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 174.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 332.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1448, f. 1271.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 183.— 
Darby, Bot. S. States, .513. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 255. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 41f. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. 
N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 43.— Lesquercux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 387.- Wood, CI. Book,641 ; Bot. &. Fl. 304.— C. De Candolle 
in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 sor. xviii, 36, t. 5, f. 51, 52; Prodr. xvi-, 143.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 449.— Young, Bot. Texas, 499.— 
Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 78. 

Juglans sulcata, Willdeuow, Berl. Baumz. I ed. 154, t. 7 ; Spec, iv, 457.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Nene Schriften GMell. 
Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 391.— Persoon, Syu. ii, 5Gii.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 346.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 637. 

Juglans mucronata, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 192. 

Jliglans lachliosa, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 199, t. 6 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 128, t. 37.— Barton, Prodr. FL 
Philadelph. 92.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 112.— Audubon, Birds, t. 101. 

G. cordi/ormis, Koch, Dendrologie, i, 597. 

BIG SHELL-BARK. BOTTOJI SHELL-BARK. 

Chester county, Pennsylvania, west to southern Indiana and Illinois, eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory. 

A tree 2-1 to 30 or, exceptionally, 37 [Ridgway) meters in height, wi th a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter; 
bottom lands, iu low, rich soil; rare and local; most common and reaching its greatest development along the 
streams of southern Arkansas and the Indian territory. 

Wood hea\-y, very hard, strong and tough, very close-grained, compact, flexible; layers of annual growth 
marked by one or two rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, dark brown, the sap- 
wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 0,S108 ; ash, 0.90 ; used for the same purposes as that of the shell-bark hickory. 

The large nuts sweel and edible. 

244. — Carya tomentosa, Nuttall, 

Genera, ii, 221.— Barton, Compond. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 179.— Elliott, Sk. ii,C25.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 649.— Torrey, Compend. Fl.N. States, 
357; Fl. N. York, ii, 162.— Beck, Hot. 336.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 83.— Spach, Hist. Veg. ii, 17t>.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 332.— London, 
Arboretum, iii, 1444, f. 1267.— Eaton & Wnglit, Hot. 183.— Emerson, Trees >Iassachusetts, 194,1.13; 2ed. i,222 \- t.— Darlington, 
Fl. Cestriea, 3 ed. 263.— Darby, Hot. S. States, 513.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. l!N>6, 255.— Chapman. Fl. S. States, 410.— Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 43. — Lesi|uereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 387. — Wood.CI. Bot>k, (541; Bot. <1 Fl. 
304.— C. Do CandoUo in Ann. Sei. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 36 ; Prodr. xvi*, 143.— Gray, JIanual N. States, 5 ed. 449.— Young, Bot, Texas, 
499.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1682, 76. 

Juglans alba, Linmcus, Spec, l ed. 997.— Du Roi. Harbk i,333.— Kalm in Act. Holm. 171^1, 117.— Wangenheim, .\uier. -23. U 
10, f. 2.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 235.— Alton, Ilort. Kew. iii,360; 2 ed. v, 296.— Ga-rtner, Fnict. ii,5l>, t. 6;1. f. X.— 
McDuoh, Meth. (;96.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, t. 29.— Lam.arck, Diet. iv,503; 111. iii, 364, t. 761, f. 2,— MuhlenWrg A 
Willdenow in Neuo Schriften GescH. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 369.— Smith in Rees" Cycl. xx, No. 2.— Willdenow, Sih-c. iv, 
457; Berl. Baumz. 154.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 347.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 379. 



134 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Juglans iomentosa, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 504.— Michaus, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 192. — Michaos f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 184, t. 6 ; N. 
Americau Sylva, 3 oil. i, ISO, t. 35.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sopt. ii, 037.— Barfou, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 91. 

C. iomentosa, var. maxima, Nuttall. Genera, ii, 221; Sylva, i, 40; 2ed. i, 56.— Sweet, Hort. Brit. cd. 1830.— Beck, Bot. 336.— 
London, Arboretum, iii, 1445. — C. De CaudoUe. Prodr. xvi*, 143. 

C. alba, Kocb,Dendrolof;ii', i,59<'. ["otNuttallJ. 
HOCKEB NUT. BLACK IIICKOKY. BULL NUT. BIG-BUD HICKOKY. -WHITE-nEAET DICKOKY. KING NUT. 

Valley of the Saint Lawrence river, northern shores of lakes Ontario and Erie to eastern Nebraska, eastern 
Kansas, and the Indian territory, south to cape Canaveral and Tampa bay, Florida, and the valley of the Brazos 
river, Texas. 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 33 {BUlgtcay) meters in height, with a Inmlc 0.00 to l.'JO meter in diameter; 
generally on rich upland hillsides — less commonly in low river bottom lands; very common in the Gulf states, and 
throughout the south the most widely-distributed species of the genus. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, very close-grained, checking in drying, llexible, containing few large, 
regularly-distributed, open ducts; medullary rays numerous, thin, obscure; color, rich dark brown, the thick sap- 
woofl nearly white; specific gravity, 0.S21G: ash, l.OC; u.sed for the same purposes as that of t lie shell bark hickory. 

245. — Carya porcina, Nnttall, 

Genera, ii, !H-J.— Barton, Compoud. I'l. rbiladelpl:. ii, IsO.— Elliot! , Sk. ii, Ov'T.— Watson, Dond. Biit. il, t. Hi?.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— 
Torrey, Compeiid. Fl. X. States, 353.— Beck, Bot. 33»;.— Eaton, Manual, G cd. 83.— Spacb, Hist. Vcg. ii, 178.— Ponn. Cycl. vi,332.— 
Darlington, Fl. Ceslrica,2 ed. 54C.— London, Arboretum, iii, 1449, f. 1272-1274.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 183.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. ii, 
178.— Emerson, Trees Massacbusctts, 197, 1. 14 ; 2 ed, i, 224 & t.— AVood, Bot. & Fl. 304.— C. Do Candolle in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 
36, t. 1, f. 5, t. 5, f. 54; Prodr. xvi-, 143.— Porcber, Resources S. Forests, 332. —Giay, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 419; Hall's PI. Texas, 
21.— Vasty, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 1882, 78. 

Juglans glabra. Miller, Diet. No. 5.— Wangonheim, Amer. 25, t. 10, f. 24.— Mublcuberg & Willdenow in None Scbriftea 
GeseU. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 391.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 458; Berl. Bauniz. 196.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 5G6.— Alton, Hoft. 
Kcw. 2 ed. V, 297.— Eaton, Manual, 106.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 104. 

Juglans alba acuminata, Marshall, Arbusiuni, 08. 

Juglans obcordata, Lamarck Diet, iv, 504. — Mnblenlierg & Willdenow in Nene Scbriftou Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 391. — 
Willdenow, Spec, iv, 458.— Persoon, Syn. 5C)0. 

Juglans porcina, Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 206, t. 9; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. i, 132, t. 38.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 
038.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelpb..92.— Audubon, Birds, t.91. 

Juglans Ji'jri/ormiH, Mublenberg, Cat. 92. 

Juglans porcina, var. obcordata, Pursb, FI.Am. Sei)t. ii, 638.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Pbiladdpb. ii, ISO.— Watson, Dend. 
Brit, ii, 107. 

Juglans porcina, var. pisiformis, Pursb, Fl. Aiu. Se|)t. ii,6:?8.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 180. 

C. glabra, ToTTcy, Fl.N. York, ii, 182, t. lOL— Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 412.— Darlington, Fl.Ccstrica, 3 ed. 264.— Cooper 
iu SraitbBonian Rep. 1858, 255.— Cbapnian, Fl. S. States, 419.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18G0, iii, 
41.— Lcsquereni in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkan.sas, 387.— Koib, Dcndrologie, i, .594.— Young, Bot. Texas, 499. 

C. amara, var. porcina, D.irby, Bot. S. States, 513. 

PIG M:T. brown hickory. BLACK HICKORY. SWITCH BUD HICKORY. 

Southern Maine to southern Ontario, southern Jlichigau and Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, 
and the Indian territory, .south to cape Canaveral and Pease creek, Florida, and the valley of the Nueces river, 
Texas. 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 40 {Ridgway) meters in Jicigiil. wiih a Irunk O.OO lo l.."iO meter in diameter; 
dry hills and uplands*, common. 

Wood ]iea%y, hard, very strong and tougli, flexible, chwegrained, checking in <lrying, containing many largo 
open ducts; color, dark or light brown, the thick sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.8217; 
ash, 0.99; used for the same purposes as that of the shell-bark hickory. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 135 

246. — Carya amara, Nuttall, 

flener»,ii,222.— Barton, Compend.n.Philadelph.ii, 180.— Elliott, Sk. ii, C26.— Sprengel, Syet. ii, 849.— Torrey, Compend. Fl.N. States, 
358; Fl.N. York, ii, 183.— Beck, Bot. 336.— Spach, Hist. Veg.ii, 177.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 332.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1443, f. 1264.— 
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 144.— Euierson, Trees Massacliusotts, 199, 1. 15; 2 ed. i,22G & t. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed.2C4. — 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 513.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858,255. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 419. — Curtis in Ecp. Geological Surv.N. 
Carolina, 1860, iii, 44.— Lesqueroux in Owen's 2(1 Kep. Arkansas, 387.— Wood, CI. Book, 641 ; Bot. & Fl. 304.— C. De CandoUe in Ann- 
Sci. Nat. 4 ser.xviii, 36,t. l,f.2, t. 5, f. 53-55; Prodr.xvi^ 144.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 449; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Koch, 
Dendrologie, i, 592.— Young, Bot. Texas, .500. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 178. — Bell in Geologickl 
Kcp. Canada, 1879-'80, 52"=.— Eidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 77. 

Jliglans alba minima, Marshall, Arbustum, 68. 

Juglans cordiformis, Waugcnheim, Amer. 25, t. 10, f. 25. 

Juglans aiigustifolia, Lamarck, Diet, iv, 504 [not Aiton]. 

Juglans amara, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 177, t. 4 ; 3 ed. i, 116, t. 33.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 638. 

Hickorivs amara, Rafiuesque, Fl. Ludoviciana, 109. 

BITTER NUT. SWAMP HICKORY. 

Southern Maine to the valley of the Saint Lawrence river, west through Ontario, central Michigan and 
Mmnesota to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory, south to the Chattahoochee region of 
western Florida and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 meter in diameter ; borders of streams and swamps, 
in low ground, or often on dry, rich uplands. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, tough, close graiued, checking iu drying; layers of annual growth marked by 
several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, dark browu, the thick sap wood light 
brown, or often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.755L'; ash, 1.03; largely used for hoops, ox-yokes, etc. 

247. — Carya myristicaeformis, Nuttall, 

Genera, ii, 222.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 626.— Sprougel, Syst. ii, 849.— Eaton, Mauuiil, 6 ed. 83.— Spaeh, Hist. Veg. ii, 179.— Penn. Cycl. v,332.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1451, f. 1275.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 1833.— Ch.ipman, Fl. S. States, 419.— C. De Candolle in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 36, t. 6, f. 58; Prodr. xvi-, 145.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 595.— Young, Bot. Texas, 500.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
24.— Ravenel in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, -ri, 81. 

Juglans myristicwformin, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 211, t. 10 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 135, t. 39.— Pursh, Fl. Am. 
Sept. ii, G38.— Poirct, Suppl. iv, 112.— Ratinesquo, Fl. Ludoviciana, 161. 

G. amara, var. myriKtica'formis, Cooiier in Smithsouian Rep. 1858, 255. 

NUTSIEG HICKORY. 

South Carolina, " Goose creek " (Michaiw), " Berkeley district " {Eavenel) ; Arkansas, valley of the Aikansaa 
river (Pine BluO', Leiterman), south to the Ked River valley. 

A tree L'l to 30 meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 meter in diameter ; sandy ridges along the borders of 
streams and swamps; rare and very local in South Carolina ; more common and reaching its greatest development 
in southern Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong and tough, close-grained, compact, containing numerous small open ducts, 
layers of annual growth marked by one or two rows of larger ducts ; medullary rays numerous, thiu, not 
conspicuous; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, O.SOIG; ash, 1.00. 

248. — Carya aquatica, Nuttall, 

Geuora, ii, 222.— Elliott, Sk.ii, 627.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 8;l.— Spach, Hist. Yog. ii, 179.— Poun. Cycl. ri, 
332.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1444, f. 1265, 1266.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 183.— Sehcolo iu Ra>mcr, Texas, 447.— D.irby, Bot. 8. 
States, 514.— Cbapmau, Fl. S. States, 419.— Curtis in Kep. Gcologieal Surv.N. Carolina, 18t50, iii, 44.— Lesquereux in Owen's 3d 
Rep. Arkansas, 387.— Wood, CI. Book, 641 ; Bot. & Fl. 304.— C. Do CandoUo iu Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 ser. xviii, 36, 1. 1, f. 4, t. 5, f. 56, 57 ; 
Prodr. xvi', 144.— Koch, Dendrologie, i, 593.— Young, Bot. Texas, 500.— A'asey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24. 

Juglans aquatica, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 182, t. 5; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 119, t. 34.— Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept, ii, 
638.— Poirot, Suppl. iv, 112. 

Uicorius intcgrifolia, Rafinesquo, Fl. Ludoviciana, 109. 

C. integri/olia, Sprengel, Syst. ii, 849.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1451. 



136 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WATER niCKOKY. SWAMP HICKOKY. BITTER PECAN. 

North Carolina, in the lower districts, south to capo Malabar and tho Caloosa river, Florida (in Florida not 
detected within S or 10 miles of the coast), throngh the Gulf states to western Louisiana, northeastern Aikansas, 
and the valley of the Brazos river, Texas. 

A tree IS to 21 metei-s in height, with a trunk 0.(J0 (o 0.90 meter in diameter, or generally much smaller; low 
river swamps; most common and reaching its greatest development in the bottom lands of the lowei' Mississippi 
and Vazoo rivers. 

Wood heavy, soft, strong, rather brittle, very close-grained, compact, containing few scattered, open ducts; 
layers of annual growth less clearly marked than in the other species of the genus; medullary rays numerous, 
thin ; color, dark brown, the sap-wood light, often nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.7407 ; ash, 1.27 ; used for 
fencing, fuel, etc. 



MYRIOACE^. 



249. — Myrica cerifera, Liimicus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1024.— Kalni, Travels, English cd. i, th2.— JIi<rsli.ilI, ArbiiBtum, 94.— Lamarck, Diet, ii, 592; 111. iii, 402, t. 809, f. I.— 
Gartner, Fruct. i, 190, t. 30, f. 7.— Waltor, Fl. Caroliniana, 242.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 396; 2 cd. v, 379.— Muincli, Moth. 302.— 
B. .S. Barton, Coll. ii, 4.— Xouveau Duhamel, ii, 190.— Schknbr, Handl). iii, 465, t. 322.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 227.— 
Willdenow, Spec, iv, 745; Eniini. 1011 ; Berl. Baumz. 254.— Persoou, Syn. ii, 614.— Desfontaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 472. — Titford, Hort, 
Bot. Am. 100.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 020.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 235 ; Trans. Am. Phil. See. 2 ser. v, 167.— Bigolow, Med. Bot. iii, 
32, t. 43; Fl. Boston. 3 cd. 394.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 197.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 678.— Sprengcl, Syst. i, 493.— Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. 
States, 372; Fl. X. York, ii, 197.— KaUnesque, Med. Bot. ii, 244.— Eaton, Maunal, 6 ed. 231.— Bock, Bot. 324.— Loudon, Arboretum, 
iv, 2057, f. 1968.- LLudley, Fl. Med. 305.— Uictrich, Syn. i, 551.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 324.— Spach, Hist. Vog. xi, 263.— Euicrson, 
Trees Massachusetts, 224 ; 2 cd. 1,2.56 & t.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 507.— Chapniiin, Fl. S. States, 426.— Curtis in Rep. Geological 
Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 100. — Lesquorcux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 389.- Wood, CI. Book, 050 ; Bot. & Fl. 309.— Porcher, 
Resources S. Forests, 312. — C. De Candolle in Ann. Sci. Nat. 4 scr. xviii, 21, t. 3, f. 32; Prodr. xvi^, 148. — Lawson in Trans. Bot. 
See. Edinburgh, vlii, 108. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 457.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 663. — Young, Bot. Texas, 511. — Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 28. 

M. Peniuylvanica, Lamarck, Diet, ii, 592.— Desfontaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 472.— Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 190, t. 55.— Pursh, FL 
Am. .Sept. ii, 620.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 493.— Eaton, Manual, 6 cd. 232.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 325.— Spach, Hist. Veg. 
xi, 262. 

M. CaroUnenais, Miller, Diet. No. 3. — Wangenh<'im, Anier. 102. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 746; Enum. 1011. — Alton, Hort. Kow. 
2 ed. V, 379.— Pnrhh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 020.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 235.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 678.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 232.— 
Eaton & Wright, Bot. 324.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 507. 

M. cerifera hutnUig, Marshall, Arbustum, 95. 

M. cerifera, var. lalifoUa, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 396. 

.1/. cerifera, var. media, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 227.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 427. 

J/, cerifera, var. arhorescens, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 227. 

M. cerifera, var. pumila, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 227.— PiirKh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 020.— Chapman, Fl. 8. States, 427. 

M. cerifera, var. anf/ustifolia, C. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi", 148. 

.1/. cerifera sempertirens, Hort. 

HAYBEURY. WAX MYRTLE. 

Shores of lake Erie; Maine, and south near the coast to the Florida keys and southern Alabama. 

A tree sometimes 12 meter.s in height, witii a trunk 0..30 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or, except in tho southern 
states, a low, muclibraiicheil shrub ; usually on sandy beaches and dry hillsides, reaching its greatest development 
in the bottoms and rich hummocks of the Georgia and Florida coasts. 

Wood light, soft, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, dark 
brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, O..00.'57 ; ash, O.iil. 

The leave* and stimulant and astringent bark of the roots sometimes employed by herbalists {Am. Jour. 
Pharm. 180.3, VJ.i.— U. .S". IHnpenHatory, 11 i'A. 2.">7, MWt.—Nat. Dinpcmatory, 2 ed. 941). Tho wax which covers the 
small globidar fruit, formerly largely c(jllected and made into candles, and now, under the name of myrtlc-wax, 
a popular remedj- in the treatment of dysentery. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 



137 



250. — Myrica Californica, Cbamisao, 

Linnoea, vi, 535.— Bentham, PI. Hartwog. 336; Bot. Sulphur, 55.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, ICO.— Hooker &. Arnott, Bot. Beechey 
:!90.— Lindley iu Jour. London Hort. Soc. vii, 282.— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 137 ; Bot. Wilkes Expcd. 4C5.— N'eCTberry 
in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 89.— Cooper in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii^, 08.— C. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 153.- Gray In Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 
401.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 28.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Watson, Bot. California, ii, 81. 

? M. Xalapensis, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Bccchey, ICO. 

Cape Foulweatber, Oregon, south near the coast to the bay of Monterey, California. 

A small evergreen tree, rarely exceeding 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or 
toward its northern limits reduced to a low shrub; sandy beaches and gravelly hillsides. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin, 
conspicuous ; color, light rose, the sap-wood lighter ; specific gravity, 0.G703 ; a.sh, 0.33. 



CUPULIFER^. 



251. — Quercus alba, Linnieus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 996.— Du Roi, Harbk. ii, 270, t. 5, f. 5.— Lamarck, Diet, i, 720.— Marshall, Arbustum, 119.— Wangenheim, Amer. 12, t. 3, C 
6. — Walter, Fl. Carolluiana, 235. — Aiton, Hort. Ke^v. iii, 358; 2 ed. v, 293. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, U, t. 80,87. — Michanx, Fl. Bor.- 
Am. ii, 195. — Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Neue Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 395.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 448; Enum. 977; 
Berl. Baumz. 346.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 570.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 508.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 13, t. 1; N. American 
Sylva, 3 ed. i, 22, 1. 1.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 633.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladelpb. 91 ; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 17.— Eaton, 
Manual, 108; 6 ed. 293.— Nuttall, Genera, ii,215; Sylva, i, 14; 2 ed. i, 24.— Xouvcau Dubamel, vii, 175.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 158. — 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 607.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 864.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 359; Fl. N. York, ii, 192.— Audubon, Birds, t. 107, 
147.— Beck, Bot. 330.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1864, f. 1723-1726 & t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 158.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. :185.— 
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 375.— Spach, Hist. Veg. si, 155.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 127, t. 1; 2 ed. i, 145 & t.— GritBth, 
Med. Bot. 585.— Penn. Cycl. xix, 216.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 437.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 266.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 
511.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 255. — Brendcl iu Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, 613, t. 1.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 423. — Curtia 
in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 31. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 387. — Wood, CI. Book, 645 ; Bot. Jk 
Fl. 306.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 257.— A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 22.— Orstcd in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. 
Meddclt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 66.— Liebmann, ChSnes Am. Trop. t. xxxiii, 29, 30, 58, 59.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 450; Hall's PI. 
Texas, 21. — Koch, Dcudrologie, ii=, 50. — Young, Bot. Texas, 505. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. 
Gazette, iii, 60. — Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 179.— Britton in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, viii, 126. — Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 
1879-'80, 52^- Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 78. 

?Q. Sinuaia, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 235. 

Q. alba, var. pbinatijida, Michaux, Hist. Chfines Am. No. 4, t. 5, f. 1 ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 195.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1S&4. 

Q. alba, var. repanda, Mich.aux, Hist. Chenes Am. No.4,t. 5,f.2.— Pursh,Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 633.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 159.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1864. 

Q. alba, xar. pinnatifidosinvata, Hayne, Dend. Fl. 158. 

Q. alba, var. sinuata, Hayne, Dend. Fl. 159. 

Q. alba, var. microcarpa, A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xyi-,-2-2. 



WHITE OAK. 

Northern Maine, valley of the Saint Lawrence river, Ontario, lower peninsula of Michigan to southeastern 
Minnesota, south to the Saint John's river and Tampa bay, Florida, west to the valley of Xodaway river. Missouri, 
western Arkansas, and the valley of the Brazos river, Texas. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 24 to 45 meters iu height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.40 meters in diameter; 
all soils; very common and reaching its greatest development along the western slopes of the Alleghany 
mountains and in the valley of the Ohio river and its tributaries, here often forming more than half the forest 
growth. 

Wood strong, very heavy, hard, tough, close-grained, liable to cheek unless carefully seasoned, durable in 
contact with the soil; layers of annual growth strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary 
rays broad, prominent ; color, brown, the sap-wood lighter brown ; spccitic gravity, 0.7470; ash, 0.41 : largely useil 
in shipbuilding, construction of all sorts, cooperage, in the manufacture of carriages, agricultural implementj^, and 
baskets, and for railway ties, fencing, interior liiush, cabinet making, fuel, etc. 

A decoction of the astringent inner bark is emi)loyed medicinally iu cases of hemorrhage, dysentery, etc. (U, 
8. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 755. — Xat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 119G), 



138 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

252. — Quercus lobata, .\ce, 

Ann. Cienc. Nat. iii, 278. — Smith iu Rimjs' Cycl. xsx, Xo. TT. — I'oisooii, Syu. ii.'iTl. — Noiiveau Uuhamcl, vii, 180. — Poiret, Suppl. il, 
2-24.— Boutham.Pl. Hartwoj,'. :!37.— Liebiuauu in Daiisk. Vi<li-usk. Selsk. Foilinmll. 1S.')4,14; CbOm-s Am. Trop. 23, t. 42, f. 1-3.— 
Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bouuilary Survey, 205; Bot. Wilkes ExpeU. 461, t. 15.— A. De Caiulolle, Piodr. ivi«, 24.— Koch, Demlrologie, 
ii', 53. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Engelinanu iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 388; Wheeler's Eop. vi,374; Bot. California. ii,'J5. 

Q. nindxii, Bentham, Hot. Sulphur, 55.— Eudlichcr, Genera, Suppl. iv. 24.— Walpers, Ann. i, G35.— Torrey iu Paoilic R. K. 
Rep. iv, 13-i; v, 3tK>.— Newberry in Paeilie K. R. Rep. vi, 29, St), 1. 1, f. 7.— Cooper in Smithsonian Ke]>. lt,'.8, 201.— 
Bolamler in Proc. Califoniia Acad, iii, 230. — Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nut. For. Viden. Meddelt. 18GC, Nos. 1-0, 
66. — Liebmann,Ch6nes Am. Trop. t. 42, f. 4. — R. Brown Campst. Hone Sylvauie, 52, f. 1-3. 

Q. longiglanda, Torrey in Fremont's Geographical Mem. California, 15, 17. 

Q. Eansomi, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad. i,25. 

WniTE OAK. WEEPING OAK. 

Ciilifoiiiia, west of the Siena Nevadas from the valley of the ui)i)ei' Saeiainoiito river south through the foot- 
■faills and interior valley.s to the San Bernardino niouutaius. 

The hirge.st of the Paeitie oaks, often ;?(• nieter.s in height, witli a trunk 0.00 to 2.10 meters in diameter; very 
common through the central part of the .state. 

Wood moderately hard, line-grained, compact; layer.s of annual growth marked by few large open ducts and 
containing few .smaller ducts arranged in lines i)arallcl to the broad, conspicuous medullary rays; color, light 
brown, the .sjip-wootl lighter; .siiecific gravity, 0.7409; ash, 0.30; of little economic value, and only used for fuel. 

253. — Quercus Garryana, Douglas; 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 159.— Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechcy, 391.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 1, 1. 1 ; 2 ed. i, 14, 1. 1.— Torrey iu Pacific R. R. 
Rep. iv, 13-i; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 402.— Newberry iu Pacitic R. R. Rep. vi, 89.— Cooper in Smith.sonian Rep. 1858, 2G0; Pacilic R. 
R. Rep. xii', 28, 68; Am. Na,r. iii, 407.— Lyall in Jour. Liunaian Soc. vii, 131, 144.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 24.— Bolauder iu 
Proc. California Acad, iii, 229.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. lleddelt. 18C0, Nos. 1-C, 66.— Kothrock in Smithsonian 
Rep. lr!58, 435. — Liebmann, Ch6nes Am. Trop. t. 40, f. 3. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, -'5. — Engelniann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 
380; Bot. California, ii, 9.5. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 210. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new sor. is, 330. 

Q. Seai, Liebmann in Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 173; Chines Am. Trop. 23, t. xli,f. 1, 2. 

Q. Douglasii, var. fNeeei, A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi«, 24. 

Q. (Emtediana, R. Brown Campst. in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. April, 1871,2. 

<^. Jocohi, \i. Brown Campst. in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. April, 1871.7. 

WHITE OAK. 

Vancouver's i.sland, shores of Puget sound,. south tlirough western Washingtcm territory, Oregon, and California 
to San Francisco bay ; in Washington territory and Oregon extending to the eastern slopes of the Ca.scade mountains. 

A tree 21 to 30 meters iu height, with a trunk O.liO to ((.90 meter in diameter, or at liigli elevations reduced to a 
low shnib; dry, ^avelly sod ; cftmmon. 

Wood strong, hard, that of the young trees tough, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by 
one to three rows of o))en ducts ; nn'ilullary rays, varying greatly in width, often cons|ticuous; color, light brown 
or yellow, the .sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; specilic gravity, 0.74.'>3; ash, 0.39; somewhat used for carriage 
and coo|(eragc stock, in cabinet-making, ship-building, and very largely for fuel; the best substitute for eastern 
•white oak produced in the PaciUc forests. 

254. — Quercus obtusiloba, Miehanx, 

Hist. Chfines Am. No. 1, t. 1; Fl. Bor.-Aiii. ii, l'.M.— Smith in Ree.s' Cycl. xXx, No. 78.— Miclmnx f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 36, t. 4; N. 
American Sylva, 3 ed. i, :I6, t. 5.— Pumh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 632.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 215.— Barton, Conipend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 
171.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 606.— Torrey, Compeml. Fl. N. States, 359; Fl. N. York, ii, 190.— Beck, Bot. 329.— Eaton, Manual, 6 eil. 
29:5.- London, Arboretum, iii, 1H70, f. 1732 &. t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 158.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 384.— Schcele in Rojmei, 
Texaa, 446. -Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 ed. 265.— Darby, Bot. S. StatOH, 511.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.'>5.— Brendel in 
Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, 615, t. U. —Chapman, Fl. S. St.iti's, 423.— Curtis in l£ip. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 32. — 
I^sfjuerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, :i87. — Wood, CI. Book, 615 ; Bot. & Fl. 300. — Engnlmann in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. 
xii, 200.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. 1866, Nos. 1-6, 66.— Lifsbmann, Clifines Am. Trop. t. II, t. 33, f. 
60.— Gray, Mannul N. Statca, 5 ed. 451 ; Hall's, PI. Texas. 21.— Young, Bot. Texas, 505. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 139 

Q. alba minor, Jlarsball, Arbustum, 120.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in None Schriftcn GcsfU. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 395. 

Q. steUata, WaDgenbeim, Araer. 78, t. 6, f. 15. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 77. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 452; Enum,977; Berl. 
Baiimz. 34'J. — Persoon, Syn. ii, .'>70. — Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2ed. v, 294. — Nouveau Dubamel.vii, 180. — Hayne, Dend. Fl. 
161.— Xuttall.Sylva.i, 13; 2 ed. i,23.—Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, loC.— Emerson, Treos Ma.'wachusett'S, 133, t. 3; 2ed. i,151& 
t. — A. Do Caiidolle, Prodr. xvi", 22. — Koch, Deudrologie, iii, 7>2. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Engclmann in Tran& St. 
Louis Acad, iii, 389. — Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 84. — Watson in Proe. Am. .\c.id, xviii, 15C. 

fQ. rillosa, Walter, Fl.Caroliniana. 235. 

Q. lobulata, Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, 47. 4 

f Q. Drummondii, Liobumnn in Dansk. Videusli. Selsk. Forliandl. 18.')4, 170.— A. De CandoUc, Prodr. xvi', 24. 

Q. obtuniloha, xar. 2)arvifolia, Chapman,FI.S. States, 423. 

Q. SteUata, var. Floridana, A.De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 22. 

POST OAK. IRON OAK. 

Martha's Viiicjaid, Massacliusctt.'^, .south to uortbern Florida, west tbrough southern Ontario and ^licbigan to 
•eastern Nebi-aska, Kansas, the Indian territory, and extending to the one hundredth meridian in central Texas. 

A tree rarely exceeding 24: meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 meter in diameter, or on the Florida 
coast reduced to a low shrub (var. parvifoUa, etc.); dry, gravelly uplands, clay barrens, or iu the southwest on 
Cretaceous formations; the most common and widely-distributed oak of the Gulf states west of the Mis.sissippi 
river, forming the principal growth of the Texas "cross-timbers." 

Wood heavy, hard, close-grained, compact, checking badly in drying, very durable iu contact with the soil; 
layers of annual growth marked by one to three rows of not hirge open duets; medullary rays numerous, 
conspicuous; color, dark or light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specitic gravity, 0.S367; ash, 0.79: largely used, 
especially in the southwest, for fencing, railway ties, and fuel, and somewhat for carriage stock, cooi>erage, 
■construction, etc. 

255. — Quercus undulata, var. Gambelii, Engelmann, 
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 249. 

Q. Gambelii, Nultall in Jour. Philadelphia Acad, new ser. i, 179.— Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 172, 1. 13 ; Bot. Mex. Boundary 
Survey, 205.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2C0.— Liehmann, Chfines Am. Trop. 22, t. 40, f. 1.— Hemsley, Bot. 
Am.-Cent. iii, 171. 

Q. alba, var.? Ounnisonii, Torrey iu Pacific R.R. Rep. ii, 130.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 321.— Porter in Hayden's Eep. 
1871, 493.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Sur\-. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 127.— Maconn in Geological Rep. Canada, 
1875-'76, 209. 

Q. Douglasii, var. Gambelii, A.De Caudollc, Prodr. xvi^ 23. 

Q. SteUata, var. Utahensis, A. Do Caudolle, Prodr. xvi", 22. 

f Q. Emoryi, Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 127 [not Torrey]. 

SCRUB OAK. 

Near the mouth of the Pecos river (Uacard), through the mountains of western Texas, and New Mexico to the 
Santa Catalina {Lemmon, Fringle) and San Francisco mountains, Arizona, eastern slopes of the Kocky mouutains 
of Colorado north to the valley of the Platte river, and through the AVahsatch mountaius of Utah. 

A small tree, rarely 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes (>.(iO meter in diameter, or often a low shrub 
spreading from underground shoots anil forming dense thickets, reaching its greatest develoinnent on the high 
mouutains of southern Xew Mexico and Arizona; the large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

Wood lieavy, hard, strong, that of young trees quite tough, close-grained, checking badly iu drying ; layers of 
annual growth marked by few not large open duets; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, rich dark 
brown, the sap-wood lighter; speciOc gravity, 0.8407; ash, 0.99; largely used for fuel, and iu Utah the bark iu 
tanning. 



140 FOREST TREf:S OF NORTH AMERICA. 

256. — Quercus macrocarpa, Miclumx, 

Hist. Chdues Am. Xo. 2, t. 2, 3 ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,.194.— WilUlcnow, Spec, iv, 453; Enum. 977; Berl. Bimmz. 350.— Smith in Eees' Cycl. 
sxx, Xo. sjO. — PcTsoon,S,vn. ii,570. — Poirt't, Suppl. ii,254.— Mitbaiix f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii,34,t.3 ; N. American S.vlva,3eJ.i,35, t.4. — 
Pursh, KI. Am. S<^pt. ii, 632.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, •J15.— Xouveau Diiliamcl, vii, 182.— Hayne, Dend. I'l. 161.— Spreugel, Syst. iii, iMXi.— 
Tom-y, Compt-ml. Fl. N. States, X".9; Kieollct's Bcp. IGO; Fl. N.York, ii, 191, t. lOS.— Beck, Bot. 330.— Eaton. Manual, 6 ed. 293.— 
Loudon, ArlMjretnm, iii, l!!<>0, f. 1731 & t.— Eaton &. Wriglil, Bot. 3j^. — Spach, Hist. Veg.xi, 159. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 
132, t. 2; 2 ed. i, 149 & t. — Scheele in Ropmer, Texas, 440. — Kiebardson, Arctic Expcd. 437. — Cooper in Smithsonian Ecj). ]S.")8, 
255. — Brendcl in Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. 131. t. 5, f. 21. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 423. — Lesquerenx in Owen's 2d Eep. Arkansas, 
3S7.— Wood, CI. Book, 645 ; Bot. & Fl. 306.— Engelmaiin in Trans. Am. Phil. Soe. now ser. xii, 209 ; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 389.— 
A. De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 20.— Orsted in Sacrskitt. Aft ryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddolt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 67.— Liebmann, Cbfnes Am. 
Trop. t. G, t. 33, f. 27, 28.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 451.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii", 51.— Young, Bot. Texas, 506.— ^Vinchell in 
Ludlow's Rep. Black Hills, 68. — Hay den in Warren's Rep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 121. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 24.— Broadhead 
in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. — J. F. James in Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist, iv, 1 & t. — Ridgway iu Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1382, 
81. — Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 49<^. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 156. 

Q. oUrw/ormis, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am, ii, 32, t. 2 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 33. t. 3.— Smith in Eees' Cycl. xxx, No. 91.— 
Pursh, F). Am. Sept. ii,C32.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 215; Sylva,i,14; 2 ed. i,24.— Nouvcau Duhamel, vii, 181.— Sprengol, 
Syst. iii, 864.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 359.— Fl. N. York, ii, 191.— Beck, Bot. 330.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 
293.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1869, f. 1730.— Eaton & Wright, Bot.385.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 159.— Gray, Manual N. 
States, 1 ed. 414.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^ 20.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 
1666,67. — Engelmaun iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 391. 

Q. obtusiloba, rar. depressa, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 215. 

Q. macrocarpa, var. oUcwformis, Gray, Manual N. States, 2 ed. 404 ; 5 ed. 451. 

Q. macrocarpa, var. ahhreviata, A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 20. 

Q. macrocarpa, var. minor, a. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi«, 20. 

Q. SteUata, var. depressa, A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi2, 23. 

BUER OAK. MOSSY-CUP OAK. OVEK-CUP OAK. 

Nova Scotia, Xew Brunswi<jk, northern sliore.s of lake Ilnrou to lake Winnipeg, soutb to the valley of the 
Penobscot river, Maine (C. E. Hamlin), and along the shores of lake Chaui])lain and the valley of the Ware river, 
Ma.ssachusetts, to Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, west to the eastern foot-hills of the Rocky mountains of Montana, 
central Nebraska and Kansas, southwest to the Indian territory and the valley of the Nueces river, Texas. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 50 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20' 
to 2.10 meters iu diameter; rich bottoms and prairies; iu the prairie region the principal growth of the "oak 
openings", and extending farther west and nortliwest than any oak of the Atlantic forests. 

Wood heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained, compact, more durable in contact with the soil tlian that of 
other American oaks ; layers of annual growth marked by one to three rows of small open ducts; medullary rays 
often broad and conspicuous; color, dark or rich light brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7453; 
ash, 0.71; generally confounded with the less valuable white oak ((^. alba), and employed for the same ])urposcs. 

257. — Quercus lyrata, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliuiana,235. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t.83. — Michaux, Hist. Chines Am. No. :!,t.4; Fl. lior.-Am. ii, 19,"). — Willdiuovv, Spec, 
iv, 453. — Smith in Eees' Cycl. xxx. No. 79. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 570. — Poiret, Suppl. ii, 224. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Ana. ii, 42, t. 5 ; N. 
American .Syl va, 3 ck\. i, 39, t. 6.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 295.— Puish, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, G32.— Nouveau Duhamel, vii, 181.— Nuttall, 
Genera, ii, 215.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 607. — Spreugel, Syst. xi, 156. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 295. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1H71, f. 1733, 
1734.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 386.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 1.56.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 511. —Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.%.- 
Chapman, Fl. .S. States, 423. — Curtis iu Eep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 33. — Lesquerenx in Owen's 2d Re]). Arkansas, 
387.— Wood, Bot. & FI.30C.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi", 19.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. MeddeU. Nos. 
1-fi, 1886, CO.- Koch, Dendrologie, ii^ 53.— Gray, Hall's PI. Tex.a«,21.— Young, Bot. Texas, 506.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25.— 
Engclmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 3H9. — Eidgw;iy in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns, 1882, 80. 

OVEE CUP OAK. SWAMP POST OAK. WATER WHITE OAK. 

Nortli Carolina, south near the coast to the Chattidioocher; region of northern Florida, west through Alabama, 
Mississippi, and Louisiana .to the valley of the Trinity river, Texas, and through Arkansas and southeastern 
Missouri (Alienton, Letterman) to middle Tennessee, southern Indiana and Illinois. 

A tree 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk O.W) to 0.!)0 meter in diameter; deep, often subineiged, river 
swamps ; rare in the Atlantic stales ; more common and reaching its greatest (Ievelo])ment in tlie valley "<' the Ked 
river and the adjacent portions of Arkansas and Texas. 

Wood heavy, hanl, strong, tough, very durable in contact with the ground, close-grained, incliiuid to ciieck in 
drying ; layers of annual growth marked by one to three rows of large oj)en ducts ; medullary rays- broad, numerous, 
coii.xpicnous ; color, rich dark browu, the sai)-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 0.8313; asli, 0.05; n.scd for the 
same puqmses as that of the white oak [Q. alba). 



» 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 141 

258. — Quercus bicolor, Willdcnow, 

Neue ScTiriften Goeell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, lii, 396 ; Spec, i v, 440.— Smith in Rccs' Cycl. xxx, No. 50.— PereooD, Syn. ii, 560.— Poiret, SoppI 
ii, 219.— Pureb, FI. Am. Sept. ii, 63:?.— Eaton , Manual, 107; 6 ed. 294.— Barton, Couipend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 172.— Xutlall, Genera,' 
ii, 215; S.vlva, i, 13; 2 ed. i,23.— Nouveau Duhamel, vii, 165.— SprcnKcl.Syst. iii.SCO.- Torrey, Couipond. Kl. X. .States, 359 ; FI. N. 
York, ii, 192.— Beck, Bot. 331.— Bigelow, FI. Boston. 3 cd. 375.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 335.- Emerson, Trees Masgachnsetta, 135, t. 4 ; 
2 ed. i, 153 & t.— Buckley in Am. Jonr. Sci. 2 ser. xiii, 397.— Darlington, FI. Ceslriea, 3 cd. 266.— Le.sfiuereux in Owen's 2d Bep. 
Arkansas, 387.— Wood, CI. Book, 646 ; Bot. & FI. 306.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 20.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. 
Videu. Meddelt. Nos. 1-G, 1866, 67.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5ed.451. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii^, 47. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25.. - 
EnKoluuiuu in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 389. — Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 179. - 
Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, SS"^.- Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1862, 79. 

? Q. Piinus platanoides, Lamarck, Diet. i, 21. 

Q. alba 2>alustris, Marshall, Arbustum, 120.— Muhlenberg & W'illdenow in Neue Schriftcn Gescll. Nat. Fr. Berlio, iii, 3&'>. 

Q. PlillUS tommtosa, Mich,mx, Hist. Cbf-nes Am. No. 5, t. 9, f. 2 ; FI. Bor.-Am. ii, 196.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1676, f. ITSO. 

Q. Prinus, var. discolor, Micbaux f. Hist.Arb.Am. ii, 46, t.C; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 41, t. 7.— Cooper in Smithsonian 
Rep. 1858, 255. — Breudel in Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, 617, t. 3. — Chapman, FI. S. States, 424.— Curtis in Bep. Geological 
Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 34. 

Q. bicolor, var. mollis, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 215.— Torrey, Compend. FI. N. States, 359. 

Q. Prinus, var. bicolor, Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 158. 

? Q. bicolor, \ilT. 2)l(ltanoideS, A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi*, 21. 

SWAMP WHITE OAK. 

Soutberu Maine, valley of the upper Saint Lawrence river, Ontario, southern peninsula of Michijran to 
southeastern Iowa and western Missouri, south to Delaware, and along the Alleghany mountaius to northern 
Georgia, northern Kentueky, and northern Arkansas. 

A large tree, '2i to 36 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.40 or, exceptionally, over 3 meters (" Wadsworth 
Oak", Geneseo, New York) in diameter; bordei s of streams and swamps, in deep alluvial soil ; common and reaching 
its greatest development in the region south of the great lakes. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, inclined to check in seasoning ; layei'S of annual growth marked 
by one to three rows of large open ducts; medullary rays broad and conspicuous; color, light brown, thesiip-wood 
hardly distinguisliable; specific gravity, 0.7C62; ash, O.oS; used for the same purposes as that of the white oak 
{Q. allm). 

259. — Quercus Michauxii, Nuttall, 

Genera, ii, 215 (oxcl. syn.).— Elli>.tt, Sk. ii, 609.— Spreugel, Syst. iii, 860.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 295.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 386.— Dtrby, 
Bot. S. States, 511. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Eugehnanu in Traus. St. Louis Acad, iii, 382. — Wan! in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
22, 113.— Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,81. 

Q. Prinns palustris, Micbaux, Hist. Chfincs Am. No. 5, t.6; FI. Bor-Am. ii, 196.— Michiiux f. Hist. Arb.Am.ii, 51, t. 7; N. 
American Sylva, 3 ed. i,44, t. 8.— Barton, Prodr. FJ. Philadclph. 91. —Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1872, f. 1735 Jt t. 

Q. Prinus, var. Michawjcii, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 424. 

Q. Prill us, Curtis iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 33, in part. 

Q. bicolor, var. Mtchavxii, Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 390. 

BASKET OAK. COW OAIv. 

New Oastle county, Delaware, south through the lower and middle districts to northern Florida, through the 
Gulf states to th»i valley of the Trinity river, Texas, and tlirough Arkansas and southwestern Missouri to central 
Tennessee and Kentucky, and the valley of the lower ^^■abash river. 

A tree 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk L2() to 2.10 meters in diameter; bonlers of streams and deep, 
often submerged, swamps ; the common and most vahiable white oak of the (iulf states, reaching its greatest 
develoi)ment in the rich bottom lands of southeastern Arkansas and Louisiana. 

AYood heavy, hard, very strong, tough, close-grained, compact, very durable in contact with the soil, easily 
split; layers of annual growth nuirked by few rather large open ducts; medullary i-ays broad, conspicuous; color, 
light brown, the sap wood darker; specific gravity, 0.803!l; ash. 0.4o; largely used in the numutactureof agricidtural 
implements, wlieel stocks, baskets, for which it is unsurpassed, for cooi)erage, fencing, construction, and fuel. 

The large, sweet, edible acorns eageriy devouretl by cattle and other animals. 



142 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

260. — Quercus Prinus, Limuius, 

SiKC. 1 od. 995.— Du Koi, Harbk. ii, -TO, t. C. f. :t.— Liiniarck, Diit. i, T'-'O.— Marshall, Aibustiiiii, 1'25.— WangeiiliLiin, Auici-. Vi, t. 4, f. 
s;. — Aitox, Hort. Kew. iii, IJoO; 2 ed. v, v.1)0. — Ma-ncli, >Ietb. 'M>i. — Abbot, Iiisecl.s Georgia, ii, t. ^2. — Miihli'nbcrj; & Williioiiow 
in Xcue Scbriltcn Gesoll. N.Tt. Fr. I'erliii, iii, '.W. — Miihaiix, 1"1. Bor.-.\m. ii, l'.).'>. — Wilbleuow, Spoc. ir, 4^9; Kiniiii. DT.'i; lierl. 
Baumz. 339.— Smith in Kees' Cyd. xxx, Xo. 47.— Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 5fia.-J)csfoutiiiuos, Hist. Arb, ii, 509.— Piirsh, I'l. .Vni. Si'))t. ii, 
633. — Bartou, Compend. Fl. rhiladeljih. ii, 171. — Xnttall, Genera, ii, 215. — Nouveau Diihamcl, vii, 154. — Ilayuc, Pond. Fl. 155. — 
Elliott, Sk. ii, (JOS.— Sprcnjjol, Syst. iii, t59.— Torrey, Comi)end. Fl. N. States, 359.— Audubon, Birds, t. 50, 131.— Beck, Hot. 331.— 
Eaton. Manual, ti ed. 294. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1872.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 3^5. — Spatb, Hist. Vcg. xi, l.'>7. — IVnn. Cyil. xix, 
210. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed.2(T7. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 511. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858,255. — Chapman, Fl. S. 
States, 42:{. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 3-7.— Wood, CI. Book, G45; Bot. & Fl. 306. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 
2&1.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 21.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Altryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-C>, 07.— Gray, Manual N. 
States, 5 od. 451. — Yonng, Bot. Texas, 501). — Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 48. — Vasi>y,Cat. Forest Trees, 2.5. — Engclniaun in Trans. St. 
Louis Acad, iii, 390. 

Q. Prinus, var. monticola, iliehaux. Hist. Cheiies .Vni. Xo. 5, t. 7; Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii. 190.— Mieb.-.iix f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, S.'i, 
t.a; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 40, t. 9.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadclph. 91.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1873, f. 1730.— 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 158. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2;j5.— Cliapniau, Fl. S. Slates, 424. — Curtis in Reii. 
Geological Surv. X. Cartdiua, 1800, iii, 34. — Wood, CI. Book, 046. — A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 21. — Gray, Manual K. 
States, 5 ed. 451. — A'ascy,Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Bailey in Am. Nat. xiv, 892, f. 1-4. 

(J. montana, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 440; Enum. 975; Berl. Baumz. 340.— Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 509.— Smith in Roes' Cycl. xxx, 
Xo. 49.- Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 034.— Eaton, Manual, 107, 6 ed. 294.— Barton, Couipend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 172.— 
Xuttall, Genera, ii, 216.— Xouveau Duhamel, vii, 105, t. 47, f. 2.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 150.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 009.— Sprcngol, 
Syst. iii, 860.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. X. States, 354; Fl. N. York, ii, 192.— Beck, Bot. 331.— Bigclow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 
377.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. :iS.").— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 138, t. 0; 2 ed. i, 156 & t.— Gray, Manual N. States, 
1 ed. 414. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 266. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 511. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 
367. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 263. — Burgess in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 95. 

Q. Prinus, var. lata, Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 290. 

<?. Castanea, Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 137, t. 5 ; 2 ed. i, 155 & t. [not Muhlenberg & Willdeuow]. 

CnESTXUT OAK. ROCK CHESTNUT OAK. 

nine bills, eastern Massachusett.s, west to the shores of lake Cbanii)laiii, shores of Quintc bay, Ontario 
iMacoun), and the valley of the Genesee river, New York, south to Delaware, and tbiougb the Alleghany Jlouiitain 
region to northern Alabama, extending west to central Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 24 to .30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter; rocky banks and hillsides; very 
common and reacbing its greatest development in the southern Alleghany region, here often forming a largo 
portion of the forest growth. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, close-grained, inclined to check in drying, durable in contact with 
the soil, containing few open ducts; medullary rays very broad, consiiicuous; color, dark brown, the sai)-wood 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.7490 ; ash, 0.77 ; largely used in fen(;ing, for railway ties, etc. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is largely used in preference to that of oflier North American white oaks in tanning 
leather. 

261. — Quercus prinoides, willdenow, 

Xeuc Schrifteu Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 397; Spec, iv, 440. — Persoon, Syn. ii, .J09. — Poiret, Suppl. ii, 219.— Xouveau Duhamel, 
vii, 106.— Torrey, Fl. X. York, ii, 193, 1. 109.— Gray, Manual X. States, 1 ed. 415.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 207.— Chapman, 
Fl. 8. State", 424.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1800, iii, 35. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 387.— 
Wood, CI. Book, 646. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 49. — Young, Bot. Texas, 506. — Engclmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 391. 

Q. Prinus humilis, Marshall, Arhnstnm, Pi'i.- Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed.452. 

Q. Castanea, Muhlenberg &, Willdenow in Xeue Schrifteu Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 39C[not Xec].— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 441 1 
Enum. 976; Herl. Bauniz. 341.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 509.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 034.— .Smith in Rees' Cyel. xxx. No. 51.— 
IViret, Suppl. ii, 219.— Eaton, Manual, 107; ed. 294.— Barton, Compoiid. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 172.— Xutlall, Genera, ii, 
216.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. l.")0.— Elliott, Sk. ii, OKI.— .Sprengel, Syst. iii,800.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 354; FI.N. 
York, ii, 193.- Beck, Bot. 331.— Eaton & Wright , Bot. 3h5.— Gray, Manual X. States, 1 ed. 415.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 
3 ed. 207.— Darby, Bot. S. States,5ll.— Bri'udel in Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, 619, t. 4.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 424.— 
Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, \>-M), iii, 34. — Lesiinereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 387. — Wood, CI. 
Book, 646.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Xat. For. Vidcn. Meddelt. Xofl. 1-6, 1860, OS.— Liebmiinn, Chf^nes Am. Trop, 
t. H, K. Si. 33, f. 31, 32.— Young, Bot. Texas, 500. 

Q. Prinus, var. acuminata, Michaux, HisLChenes Am.Xo. .'>, t.8; FI.Bor.-Ani. ii, 190.— Michaux f. Hist. Aili. Am. ii,OI, t. 
9 ; N. AiEerican Sylva, 3 ed. i, 49, 1. 10.— Nonveau Duhamel, vii, 167.— Lomlon, Arboretum, iii, 187.5, f. 1037.— Cooper in- 
Smithdonian Kep. 1858, 255.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 306.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 451.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. 

Q. Prinus pumila, Michaux, Hisf.Chtnes Am.Xo. 5, t.9,r.l; Fl. lior.-Am. ii, 190.— Lond<m, Arboretum, iii, 1875, f. 1738, 



p 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TliKi:s. 143- 

Q. Prinus Chinquapin, Mkliaux f. IUkI. AiU. Am. ii, a,, l. Ui: \. Amerirau .Sjivn, :!(m1. i. :jO, t. II.— A. Dp CandoUc, 
Prodr. xvi", 21. 

Q. Chinquapin, I'ms-li, I'l. Am. Sept. ii, (i^.).— Smidi in Rces' Cytl. xxx, No. 4f^.— Nuttall, Otuera, ii. UK;.— Elliott, Sk. ii.OU.— 
Torioy, Compeiid. Kl. N. States, 354.— Beck, Bot. 331.— Ealon, Manual,!; t(l.i:94.—Darliugtuu, I'l. Cettt rica, 2 c-d. 536. — 
Eaton &, Wright, Bot.:i85. — Bigclow, I'l. Bobtou.3 ed. 377. — Eniersor, Trees MaxsacIinHetts, 140; 2 id. i, lir &. t. — 
D.arby, Bot. S. States, Dll. 

Q. Prinus, var. oblongata, Alton, llort. Kcw. v, 290. 

Q. Prinus, \i\r. j^ri'iioides, Wood, Bot. & Fl. 30G. 

Q. Mlthlcnhcrgii, Engdmann in Trans. St. Lonis Acad. iii. r)91.— G. D. Buller in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 77.— Ridgway 
ill Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 18S2, 82. 

YELLOW OAK. CHESTNUT OAK. CHINQUAPIN OAK. 

Easloiii Massachusetts, shores of lake Champlain, west along the nortbern shores of lakes Ontario ami Erie, 
tbrongh soiilheru Jlichigan to eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, and the Indian territory; south to Delawaie and 
through tlie Alleyhany region to northern Alabama and Mississippi, southwest to the Guadalupe mountains, 
western Te.xas {Harard). 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 39 meters {Eidgiroi/) in height, with a trunk O.liO to 0.00 meter in 
diameter ((j). Mnhlenbergii), or often, especially toward the eastern and western limits of its range, reduced to a 
low, slender shrub [Q.prinoidis) ; dry hillsides and low, rich bottoms ; rare, except as a shrub, east of the Alleghany 
mountains ; very common in the Mississipjii Eiver basin, and reaching its greatest develoimieut in southern 
Arkansas. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, close-grained, checking badly in drying, very durable in contact with the 
soil; layers of annual growth marked by rows of small open ducts; medullary rays broad, conspicuous; color, 
dark brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specitic gravity, O.StiOD ; ash, 1.14; used for cooperage, wheel stock, 
fencing, railway ties, etc. 

The small acorns sweet and edible. 

NoTK.— Ditlerenccs in tho size and habit of individnals of this specie.', thus enlarged, seem to be dependent upon s<iil and climate, 
numerous iutonuediate forms connecting the extremes of eastern Massachusetts and the Mississipiii valley. 

262. — QuerCUS Douglasii, Hooker & Amott, 

Bot. Beeehey, 391.— Hooker, Icon, iv, t. 382, 383.— Benthaui, PI. Hartweg. 337; Bot. Sulphur, 55.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 10, t. 4; 2 od. 
i, 20, t. 4.— Torrey in Pacific R. E. Rep. v, 365 ; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 462.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 200.— A. Dc Candol'.e, 
Prodr. XTi-', 23. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 230.— Orstedin Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Yidcn. Meddelt. Xos. 1-6, 
66.— Liebinann, Chfnes Aiii. Trop. t. 41, f. 3, 4.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25.— Engelmanu in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 392 ;. 
Bot. California, ii, 95. — Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. 

(,>. oJihingiJ'fdia, var. hrcrilohaia, Torrey in Bot. Wilkes Exped. 460. 

MOUNTAIN WHITE OAK. BLUE OAK. 

California, from about latitude 30°, south along the western foothills of the Sierra Nevadas below 4.000 feet 
elevation, and through the Coast ranges to the San Gabriel nu)untains. 

A tree IS to 24 meters in height, with a trunk O.CO to 1.20 meter in diameter: common on the low foot hills 
of tho sierras. 

Wood very hard, heavy, strong, brittle, inclined to cheek in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by several 
rows of small oi)en ducts and containing many scattered grou|)s of suutller ducts; medidlary rays numerous, 
varying greatly in width; color, dark brown, becoming nearly black with exposure, the thick .-^ap-wood light 
brown; si)ecific gravity, 0.8928; ash, 0.8 1. 

263. — Qucrcus oblongifolia, Tonvy. 

Sitgreavcs' Rep. 173 : Bol. Mex. Boundary Survey, 206 ; Ives' Rep. 28.— Cooper in Sniilhsouiau Kep. 1858, 2lil.— A. De Caudolle. Prodr. 
xvi', 36.— Watson, I'l. Wheeler, 17.— Vasey, Cnt. Forest Trees, 26. -Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 3',>3 : Bot. Calil'oniia,. 

ii, 96. 

Q. Ulldillald, var. ahlongata, Kngelnuuui in Wheeler's Kep. vi. 2,".0. 



144 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WHITE OAK. 

California, foot-bills of the San Gabriel mountains, and in San Diego county (bere occupying a narrow belt, 30 
miles in widtb some 30 miles from tbe coast, Parish Brothers) ; foot-bills of tbo niouutain ranges of soutbern Arizona 
and Xew Mexico; soutbward into ilexico. 

A small evergreen tree, 1 J to 15 meters in beigbt, witb a trunk O.-l.J to (».(J0 meter in diameter ; tlie hirge 
specimens generally boUow and defective. 

Wood very beavy, bard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, eliecking badly in drying; layers of annual growth 
hardly distiuguisbable, containing few small open duets arranged iu many groups iiarallel to tbe bread and very 
consjiieuous medullary rays; color, very dark brown or almost black, tbe thick sap-wood brown; specific gravity, 
0.9-141 ; asb, 2.61 ; of little economic value except as fuel. 

264. — Quercus grisea, Liebmauu, 

Dansk. Vidcnsk. Sclsk. Forbandl. 1554,13; Chdnes Am. Trop. t. 4G, f. 1,2.— A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi», 35.— Orstcd in Saerskitt. 
Aftr>k. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddclt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 69.— Rusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 78.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, 
xviii, 15C. 

Q. pungens, Licbmann in Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forbandl. 1654,13; CbCnes Am. Trop. 22, t. 45, f. 1-3.— A. De Candolle, 
Prodr. xvi^, 30.— Orstod in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, G9.— Eusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club ix, 7S. ' 

Q. undldata, var. grisea, Eogeimaun iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 382; AVbeeler's Rep. vi, 250. 

Q. undulata, var. pungens, Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 392 ; 'Wbcelors Rep. vi, 250 ; Bot. California, ii, 96.— 
Palmer iu Am. Nat. xii, 596. 

Q. undulata, var. Wrighiii, Engelmann iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 382, 392. 

WHITE OAK. 

ilountains of soutbern Colorado and western Texas {Harard), Kouthern New Mexico and Arizona from 5,000 to 
10,000 feet elevation, west to the Colorado desert of California; southward into northern Mexico. 

A tree 15 to l.'4 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.CO meter in diameter, or reduced to a low, 
mncbbrancbed shrub ; a polymorphous species, varying greatly in habit and in tbe shape and texture of the leaves, 
but apparently well characterized by its connate cotyledons; tbe large specimens generally hollow and defective. 

^^■ood very heavy, strong, bard, close-grained, checking badly in drying; layers of annual growth marked by 
one or two rows of small open ducts, these connected by rows of similar ducts parallel to the numerous conspicuous 
medullary rays; color, very dark brown, the thick sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 1.0092; ash, 1.82. 

265. — Quercus reticulata, Humboldt & Bouplimd, 

PI. iEquin. ii, 40, t. 86.— Poirct, Suppl. v, 609.— Sprcngel, Syst. iii, 860.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1944, f. 1865.— Micbaux f. N. 
American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 90.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 33.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 
07.— Liebmann, Cbtncs Am. Trop. t. H, t. 34, f. 10-16, t. 35, f. 15-22.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26.— Engelmann iu Trans. St. 
Louis Acad, iii, 383; Wbeeler's Rep. vi, 250.— Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent. iii. 176.— Watson In Proc. Am. Acnd. xviii, 156. T 

Q. Spicata, Ilumbolt & ISonpland, PI. ZCquin. ii, 46, t. 89.— Bentbani, PI. Ilartweg. No. 429. 

Q. decipiens, Martens & Galeotti iu Bull. Brux. v, 10. 

f Q. reticulata, var. Greggii, A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi«, 34.— HerasUy, Bot. Am.-Cent. iii, 176. 

Southeastern Arizona, Sau Francisco and Santa l{ita moiuitaius from 7,000 to 10,000 feet elevation ; southward 
into northern Mexico. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk (»..'{0 to 0.15 meter in diameter; dry, gravelly slopes. 

Wood very beavy, hard, close-grained, checking badly in drying, containing many small, scattered, open 
ducts; medullary rays numerous, very broad ; color, dark brown, tbe sajj-wood lighter; s])ecilic gravity, 0.9479; 
asb, 0.52. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 145 

266. — Quercus Durandii, Bnckley, 

Proo. Philadolpliia Acad. 1860,445; 1881, I21.-Gray, Ilall'B PI. Texu8, '21.— Young, Bot. TtXM, 507.— Vasey, Cat. Forest TreM, iJ6.— 
Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, i.'iG. 

Q. obtUJiifoUa, var. f brevUoha, Torroy, Bot. Mox. Boundary Survey, 206. 

Q. anmdata, Buckley in Proc. Philadolpliia Acad. IHCO, 445. 

Q. San-Saheana, Buckley in Youug, Bot. Ti-sas, 507. 

Q. undvlata, Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 392, in part [not Torreyl. 

Aliibaina, Wilcox county (Bvckley), valley of the Little Cababa river, Bibb county {Mohr); Shreveport, 
Louisiana?, {Bucldcy); Texas, Dallas {Reverchov), valley of tbe Colorado river {Bvckley, Mohr, Sargent), west and 
south. 

A tree 21 to 2i inetcr.s in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter; rich bottom lands or dry mesas 
and limestone hills, then reduced to a low shrub, forming- dense, impenetrable tbickets of great extent (Q. San- 
Sabeana); rare and local in Alabama; the common and most valuable wbite oak of western Texas. 

Wood very heavy and hard, stronj^, brittle, close-grained, inclined to check in drying ; layers of annual growth 
marked by few large opeu duels; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, brown, the sap-wood lighter; si>ecific 
gravity, 0.9507 ; ash, 1.78 ; used lor the same purpo.ses as that of the white oak (Q. alba). 

267. — Quercus virens, Alton, 

Hort. Kew. iii, 356 ; 2 ed. v, 287.— Bartram.Travels, 2 cd. 82.— Micbaux, Hist.Chfues Am. No. 6, 1. 10, 11 ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 196.- Willdenow, 
Spec, iv, 425; Enum.974. — Robin, Voyages, iii, 264. — Smiih in Kees' Cycl. xxx. No. 5. — Persoon, Syn. ii,567.— DesfontTines, Hist. 
Arb. ii,507.—Poiri>t,Suppl.ii, 213.— Micbaux f. lli.st. Arb. Am. ii, 07, t. 11; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 52, 1. 12.- Pursh, Fl. Ani. 
Sept. 11,026.- Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214 ; Sylva, i, 16; 2 cd, i,'J8.— Nouvcau Dubamel, vii, 151.— Elliott, Sk. ii,595.— Sprengul.Syst. iii, 
868.— Cobbett, Woodlands, 446. —Eaton, Manual. ed.2y4.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1918, f. 1802, 1803 & t.— Eatou Sc Wrigbt.Bot. 
385.— Spacb, Hist. Veg.xi, 177. -Engelmann & Gray in Jour.Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 234.— Schtele in Rcemer, Texa.s, 446 ; Appx. 
147.— Penu. Cycl. xix, 216.— Darby , Bot. S. States, 510.— Torrey , Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 206.- Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 
255.— Chapman, Fl, S. States, 421.— Curtis in Kep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 35.— Wood, CI. Book, 643 ; Bot. & Fl. 305.— Porcher, 
Resources S. Forests, 203.— A. Do Candollo, Prodr. xvi'-', 37.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Videu. Meddell. Nos. l-t"i, l». — 
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 452; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Liebmauu, Cheues Am. Trop. t. 33, f. 50-57.— Young, Bot. Texas, 503.— 
Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 26.— Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 363 ; iv, 191.— Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, iii, 178.— Watson in 
Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 155. „ 

Q. Virginiana, Miller, Diet. 7 ed. No. 17.— Koch, Dendrologio, ii^ .57. 

Q. Phellos, var. sempervirens, Marshall, Arbustum, 124. 

Q. sempervirenti, Walter, Fl. Caroliuiana, 234. 

Q. oleoides, Cliamisso & Schlechtendal in Linniea,T, 79.— Martens & Galeotti in Bull. Bnix. x, No. 3.— Orsted in SaersKitt. 
Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 69. 

Q. retma, Liebmauu iu Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forbandl. 1854, 187.— Orsted iu Saerskitt. Aftryk. «f. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. 
Nos. 1-0, 1S60, 09. 

LIVE OAK. 

Mob Jack bay, Virginia, south along the coast to bay IBiscayne and cape Romano, Flonda, along the Gulf 
coast to I\Iexico, extending tlirough western Texas to the valley of the Ked river, the Apache and Gaudahii>e 
mountains and the mountains of northern .Mexico south of the Kio Grande at 0,000 to 8,000 feet elevation (Iltivord); 
in Costa Itiea [Q. rctu^a). 

An evergreen tree of great economic value, 15 to 18 nu'ters in height, with a trunk 1.50 to 2.10 metei-s iu 
diameter, or in the interior of Texas nnicli smaller, often shrubby ; on the coast, rich linmuuK'ks and ridges, a few- 
feet above water-level; common and reacliiiig its greatest tievelopment in the south Atlantic states. 

Wood very heavy, hard, strong, tough, very clo.se-gniinetl, compiiet, dillicult to work, susceptible of a beautiful 

polish; layers ofiuimuil growth obscure, often hardly distinguishable, conlainiug many si^tall open ducts arranged 

iu short broken rows i)arallcl to the broad, eonspicucius nu-duUary rays; color, light brown or yellow, the sap-wixxi 

nearly white; specific gravity, 0.0501; ash, 1.14 ; formerly very largely and now occasionally used iu ship-building. 

10 FOE 



146 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA 

268. — Quercus chrysolepis, Lioiimann, 

DuDsk.VidenBk.Selsk.Forbivndl. 1854,173; Chfines Am. Trop. 'i:i, t. 47.— Torroy, Hot. Mox. liouiidaiy Survey, liOG; Bot. Wilkos Expod. 
4m>. — Cooper ill Smitbsoiiiun Rep. 1858, '2o0. — KelloKu in Proc. California Acad, ii, 4r>. — A. l)e Cnndollc, Prodr. xvi*,37. — Bnlandcr 
in Proc. California Acad, iii, '-'31.— Orbted in Suerhkitt.Al'tryk.uf. Nat. For. Videu. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 18C(i, G9.— Vasoy, Cat. Forest 
Trees, "25. — Enjfi'luiann in Truux. St. Loniu Aead. iii,383, 333; Wbeiler's Rep. vi, 374; Bot. California, ii, 97. — Watson in Proc. Am. 
Acad, xi, 119. — Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 090. 

Q. /ulvCSiem, Kello.;g iu Proc. California Acad.i,il7, 71.— Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rop. vi,27, 89. 

Q. crassipocuhl, Torrey in Paoilic R. R. Rep. iv, 137; v,3(i''., t.9. 

T Q. oblongi/olia, R. Brown Campst. in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. April, 1871, 4 [not Torrey]. 

LIVi: OAK. MAUL OAK. VALPARAISO OAK. 

Cow Creek valley, Oref;oii, snutb through the Californiiv Coast ranges and along the western slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino mountains between 3,000 and 8,000 feet elevation, and south into Lower 
California; S()uthe:istern Arizona, San Francisco (Grcoie) and Santa Catalina mountains {Pringle). 

An evergreen tree of great economic value, IS to L'7 meter.s in height, witli a trunk .sometimes 1.50 meter in 
diameter, or ;it high elevations reduced to a low, narrow-leaved shrub (var. raccinifolia, Engelmann in Trans. St. 
LouiM Acad, iii, 1103; Jint. Cali/'ornia, ii, 07. — Q. vaccini/olia, Kellogg in Trans. California Acad, ii, 90). 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, tough, close grained, compact, difficult to work, coiitaitnng many rather 
8mall ojien ducts arranged in wide bands j)arallel to ihe broad, consiiicuous medullary rays; color, light brown, 
the sajiwood darker; specific gravity, 0.8403; ash, 0.00; somewhat used in the manufacture of agricultural 
implements, wagons, etc.; the most valuable oak of the Pacific forests. 

269. — Quercus Emoryi, Torroy, 

Emory's Rep. 1.11, t. 9; Bot. Mex. Boundary Snr\ey, 206; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 138; Ivos' Rep. 28.— Watson in PI. Wlieeler, 17.— 
Va-sey, Cat. Foreet Trees, 26. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 382, 387, 394; Wbooler's Rep. vi, 2j0. — Palmer in Am. 
Nat. xii, 59<'i. — Heuisley, Bot. Am. -Cent, iii, 170. 

Q. hantata, Liebmann iu Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854, 13; Chines Am. Trop. 22.— A. Do CandoUo, Prodr. ivi«, 
36.— Oret.d in Sacrskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddclt. Nos. 1-6, 1806, 69. 

BLACK OAK. 

Bexar and Comal counties, Texas, through the mountain ranges of western Texas, of southern New Mexico, and 
of eastern and southern Arizona. 

A tree 12 to !'> meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.00 meter in diameter, or toward its eastern limits in 
Texas reduced to a low siirub; common and reaching its greatest development in southwestern New Mexico and 
southern Arizona between 5,000 and 7,000 feet elevation near streams in open canons ; dry, gravelly soil, the largo 
specimens hollow and defective. 

Wood very heavy, not hard, strong, brittle, clo.se-grained, comjjact ; layers of annual giowtli marked by several 
rows of small ojien ducts, these connected by narrow groups of similar ducts itarallel to the broad, conspicuonu 
medullary rays; color, dark brown or almost black, the thick sap-wood bright brown tinged with red; specific 
gravity, 0.9iiG3; ash, 2.3C. 

270. — Quercus agrifolia, N6o, 

Ann. Ciene. Nat. ill, 271. — Fiwilirr, Miho. Hisp. i, lu8. — Willilenow, Spec, iv, 431. — Porsoon, Syn. ii, 568. — Smith in Rces' Cycl. xii, 
No. M. — Pumb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 627. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214; Sylv.i, i, 5, t. 2; 2 cd. i, Ki, t. 2. — Nouveau Uiibaiiiol, vii, 156. — 
Sprengel, Syiit. iii, 8.VJ.— Eaton, .Manual, (i i-il. 292.- -Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1894.— Buntiiam, PI. Ilartweg. ;!37; Hot. Sulphur, 
55.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. :W4.— Hooker, Icon, iv, t. 377.— Hooker & Aruott, Bot. Beechey, 391.— Jour. Hort. Soc. London, tri, 
157 & t. — Cnrriere in Fl. des Serros, vii, 137 & f. — Torrey iu Silgreaves' Rep. 173; Paeillc R. R. Rep. iv, 138; v, 36.'); vii, 20; Bot. 
Mex. Boundary Siirsuy, 206; Ives' Itep. 28; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 460. — Paxton's Brit. Flower (iard. ii, 44. — Newberry in Pacific 
II. R. R(;p. vi, 32, f. 9.— Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 229. — A. Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 37. — OrKted in Saorskitt. Aftryk. 
af. Nat. Fit. Viden. Meddi-lt. Nos. 1-6, lH(i6, 69. — Liebmann, Cliques Am. Trop. t. 44. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 25. — Engolinnnn 
in Trans. St. I.^)uiH Acad, iii, :i^i; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 374; Bot. California, ii, 98. — Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, iii, 107. 

Q. oxgadcnia, Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 172, 1. 17.— Cooper iu Smithsonian Ecp. 1858, 261. 

Q. aculiglandxH, K.llogg in Proc. California Acad. i,25. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 147 

ENCENO. COAST LITE OAK. 

California, Mendocino county, south throutjli t\w. Coast Ilanfje valleys to Lower California. 

A large evergreen tree, 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.10 meters in diameter, or, rarely, rednced 
to a low shrub (var. frutescens, Engelmann in Hot. California, ii, 98); rare at the north; common south of San 
Francisco bay, and the largest and most generally distributed oak in the extreme southwestern part of the state; 
dry Hloi>es and ridges. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth hardly distinguishable, 
containing many large open ducts arranged in several rows i)arallel to the broad, conspicuous medullary rays; 
color, light brown or red, the sap-wood darker brown; specific gravity, 0.8253; ash, 1.28; of little value except 
as fuel. 

271. — Quercus Wislizeni, A. DeCandolle, 

Prodr. xvi", G7. — Orated iu Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. No3. 1-C, 18C6, 73. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 27. — 
Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 385, 390; Bot. California, ii, 98. 

Q. Morehus, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad, ii, :(6. 

LIYE OAK. 

California, mount Shasta region, south along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas to Tulare county, and 
in the Coast ranges south to the Santa Lucia mountains. 

An evergreen tree, 15 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.80 meter in diameter, or toward its 
northeastern limits reduced to a shrub 0.90 to 3 meters iu height (var. frutescens, Engelmann in Bot. California, ii, 
99); not common. 

Wood heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, compact, containing numerous large open ducts arranged in 
irregular bands parallel to the broad, conspicuous medullary rays; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap- 
wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7855; ash, 1.02. 

272. — Quercus rubra, Linnseus, 

Spec. 1 ed. 996.— Du Roi, Harbk. ii, '265.— Lamarck, Diet, i, 7i0.— W.-ilter, Fl. Caroliniana, 234.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 357; 2 ed. t, 
292.— Moench, Meth. 348.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 103.— Michaux, Hist. Chflnes No. 2, t. 35, 36 ; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 200.— 
Willdeuow, Spec, iv, 445; Enum. 976; Berl. Baumz. 342. — SraitU in Eees' Cycl. xxx. No. 60. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 569. — Desfontaines, 
Hist. Arb. ii, 511.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 126, t. 26; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 84, t. 28.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 630.— 
Eaton, Manual, 108; 6 ed. 293.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 169.— Noureau Dubamel, rii, 
170.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 157.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 602.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 803.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 358; Nicollet's Rep. 
160; Fl. N. York, 189, t. 106.— Bock, Bot. 329.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1877, f. 1740-1744 & t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 158.— 
Bigelow, Fl. Bostou. 3 ed. 370. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 384.— Sp.ach, Hist. Veg. xi, 165. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 48, t. 
.10; 2 ed. i, 163 & t.— Scheolo in Roomer, Texas, 446.— Penn. Cycl. xix, 216.— Darliugton, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. '269.— Darby, Bot, 
S. States, 510. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 255. — Brendel in Trans. Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, 369, t. 9. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
422. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 41. — Lesquereux iu Owen's '2d Rep. Arkan,-;is, SS-*. — Wood, 01. 
Book, ()44; Bot. & Fl. 306. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 262. — Engelmann iu Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. new st-r. v,'20<): Trans. St. 
Louis Acad, iii, 394.— A. De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi», 60.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Videu. Meddelt. Xos. l-<>, 1866, 
72. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 454; Hall's PI. Texas, 21. — Liebmauu, Chdncs Am. Trop. t. A, B. — Koch, Dendrologio, ii', 70. — 
Young, Bot. Texas, 504. — Haydon in Warren's Rep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 121. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, '20. — Macoun in 
Geological Rep. Cauada, l875-'70, 209. —Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xiii, 179.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 83.— Bell in 
Oeological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 51"=. 

Q. rubra maxima, Marshall, Arbnstum, 1'22.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow iu Neue Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, Ui, 395. 

Q. rubra, var. latifoUa, Lamarck, Diet, i, 720.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.v, '292.— Loudon. Arboretum, iii, 1877. 

Q. rubra, var. moniana, Aiton,Hort.KeH-.2ed.v,'292.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1877. 

Q. ambigua, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii.l'JO, l.'24; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 81, t. '20 [not HBK.].— Purt»h, Fl. Am. Sept, ii, 
630.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Eaton, Manual, ed. '293.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1881, I'. 1749 i t.— Eaton A. 
Wright, Bot. 384. 

Q. coccinea, var. rubra, .sp,u-h. Hist. Veg. xi, 105. 

Q. coccinea, var. ambigua. Gray, Manual N. States, 5cd.4.'>4. 

Q. rubra, var. runcinata, A.DoC;mdolle,Prodr. xvi',60.— Engelmanu inTrans. St. Lomm Acad. iii,54'2. 



148 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

RED OAK. BLACK OAK. 

Nova Scotia, sou tb cm Now Brunswick to easteru Jliiiiiesota, western Iowa, eastoin Kansas, and the Indian 
territory, south to northern Florida, southern Alabama and Mississippi, and the valley of the San Antonio river, 
Texas. 

A large tree, '24 to 30 or, e.xceptionally, 45 meters {Ridfjtraij) in beifjbt, with a trunk 1.20 to L'.IO meters iu 
diameter; very common, especially at the north, in all soils and extending farther north than any Atlantic oak. 

Wo<k1 heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, inclined to check in drying; layers of annual growth marked by 
several rows of very large open ducts; medullary rays few, oonsi)icuous; color, light brown or red, the sap-wood 
somewhat darker; si)ecitie gravity, O.C j40 ; ash, O.liG; now largely used for clapboards, cooperage, and somewhat 
for interior finish, iu the manufacture of chairs, etc. 

Var. Texana, Buckley, 
Proc. Pbiladclpbia Acad. 1681, 123. — Engelmann in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 14. 
Q. 2><lhl.stris, TorroT & Gray in Tacific E. R. Rep. ii, 175 [not Dii Roi]. 
Q. COCcinca, var. microcarpa, Ton-cy, Bot. Jlex. Boundary .Survey, 206. 
Q. Texana, Buckley iu Proc. Pliiladclpliia Acad. 1^G0, 4-ir..— Youug. Bot. Texas, 507. 



■VTestcm Texas, valley of the Colorado river with the species and replacing it south and west, extending to 
the valley of the Nueces river and the Limpia mountains {Bdvunl). 

A tree 21 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.CO meter in diameter. 

Wood heavier, harder, much closer-grained than the species, not checking in drying; layers of annual growth 
marked with fewer and smaller open ducts ; specific gravity, 0.9US0; ash, 0.85. 

273. — Quercus coccinea, Wangcnheim, 

Amer. 41, l. 4. f 9.— Mulilenberg & Willdenow in Nt-ue .Sctiriftcn Gcsell. Nat. Fr. Berliu, iii, TOrf.— Michaux, Hist. CliCnes Am. No. 18, t. 31, 
32; FI. Bor.-Am. ii, I'J'J.— Willdenow, Spec. iv,445; Enuui. 970; Berl. Baumz. 343.— .Smith iu Rees' Cycl. sxx.Gl.— Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 
509. — Di'sfonfaiufM, Hist. Arlj. ii, 511.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 221.— Micliaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 110, t. 23; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. i,79, t. 
25.— Aiton, Hort. Hew. 2 ed. v, 292.— Pursli. Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 6:;0.— Eaton, Manual, lOd ; cd. 292.— Nutt;ill, Geuera, ii, 214.— Barton, 
Compend FI. Pliiladelpb. ii, 109.- Nouveau Dulianiel, vii, 171.— Hayuc, Dcud. Fl. 157.— Elliott, Sk. ii,002.— Sprengel, Syat. iii, 803.- 
Torrey. Compend. Fl. N. States, 3.'>8 ; Fl. N.York, ii, 189.- Beck, Hot. 329.— London, Arboretum, iii, 1879, f. 1740-1748 & t.— Eaton &. 
Wriglit, Bot. 3-4.— Bigelow, Fl. Bo.-,lon. 3 ed. 370.- Spacb, Hist. Veg. xi, 1G5.— Emerson, Trees Massachnsett.s, 144, t. 9 ; 2 ed. i. 1()3 
&. t.— .Scbi-i-le in Ka-nicr, Texas, 440.— Penn. Cyd. xix, 210.- Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 208.- Darl>y, Bot. S. States, 510.— Cooper 
in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.'>5.— Chapman, Fl. .S. States, 422.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1800, iii, 40.— 
Lesqncrenx iu Oweu's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 38.8.- Wood, CI. Book, 645 ; Bot. & Fl. 300.- A. De Candollo, Prodr. xvi«, 01.— Orsted 
in Sacrskitt. Aflryk. af. Nat. For. Vidon. Meddclt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 72.— Gray, Manual N. Slates, 5 ed. 453.— Liebmann, Chfiues Am. . 
Trop. t. B. — Koch, Dendrologic, ii^, 09. — Young, Bot. Texas, .'■j04. — Va.sey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis 
Acad, iii, 3^-5, 394.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 80.— Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 156. 

Q. rulira, ft. LinnaHis, Spee. 1 ed. !t90.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 357. 

SCARLET OAK. 

.Southern Maine to northern New York, Ontario, northern Michigan and Minnesota, eastern Iowa and 
northcitstern Missouri, south to Delaware and southern Tennessee, and through the Alleghany region to nortliern 
Florida. 

A tree 24 to .'iO or, ex<e|itionally, .14 meters {h'iilyirin/) In heiglit, with a trunk i.iiely exceeding ().(>() to 1.20 
meter in diiiineter; at the east in dry, sandy soil or, less commonly, in rich, ilee])soil ; in the northwestern ])rairin region 
witli C^. macrocarpa forming the oak-opening growth; not common and reaching its greatest develoj)tnent in tho 
basin of the hiwer Oliio river. 

Wood lieavy, hard, stnmg, coarsegrained ; layers of aiiniml growth strongly marked by several rows of large 
o|KMi duets; medullary rays thin, conspicuous; color, light brown or red, the sap-wood rather darkt^r; spetiitic 
grarity, 0.740.5 ; a.sh, 0.10 ; if used iit all, confounded with tliat of Q. rubra. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 149 

274. — Quercus tinctoria, Bartram, 

Travels, a cd.^?.— Aljlx)!, IiiHccts Georgia, ii, t. 5G.—Micliaiix, Hist. CheneH Am. No. i:!, t. 24,2.5; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 198.— Willdenow.Spee. 
iv,444; Ennm. 'J7G; Berl. Banmz. ;i44. — DcsfontaineH, Hist. Arb. ii, 509. — Poirct, Supnl. ii,221. — Micbaux f. limt. Arb. Am. ii, 110, 
t.2d; N. American Sylva, 3 ed.i, 7(), t. 24. —Alton, Hurt. Kew. 2 ed. v,291.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sei)r. ii, G29.— Smith in Eo«-«' CycL 
xx.\,No. 58.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pliiladilpb. 91 ; Compcnd. Fl. Philadelpb. ii, IC^.—Faton, Manual. 10c!; Cc<1.29-.i.—Nnttall, Genera, 
ii,214; Sylva, i,21 ; 2 cd. i, 32.— Nouvcau Dubanul, vii, 1G9.— Hayne, Deud. Fl. 15G.— Elliott, Sk. ii,G(n.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 802.— 
Torroy, (Jompend. Fl. N. States, 3.")7 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 188. — Audubon, Birds, t. S:. — Beck, Bot. 32-!. — London, Arlioretam, iii, l>jd4, 
f. 1753, 1754.— Hook(!r, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 158.— Bigelow.Fl. Boston. 3 ed.37G.— Eaton & Wrij-bt, Bot. :}tf4.— .Spacb, Hist. Veg. xi, 
1G4.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 141, t. 7; 2 ed. i, 160 & t.— Griffitb, Med. Bot. 58G.— Gray, Manual N. States, 1 ed. 4IG.— 
Darlington. Fl. Cestrica,3 ed.26H. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 510. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,255. — Breudcl iu Trans. Illinois 
Ag. Soc. iii,627, t. 8. — Chapman, Fl. H. States, 422. — Curtis iu Kep. (ieological Surv. N. Caroliua, 18G0, iii,3U. — Lewiucreui in 
Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 388. — Wood, CI. Book, G45. — Engelmann in Proc. Am. Phil. Soe. new ser. xii,209 ; Trans. St. Lonis AcaU. 
iii, :i95.— Porcber, Kesources S. Forests, 238.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aliryk. af. Nat. For. Viden, Mcddelt. Nes. 1-0, 18GG, 45, 72, f. 18. — 
Liebmann, Chenes Am. Trop. 9, f. G. — Young, Bot. Texas, 504. — Haydeu in Warren's Kep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 121. — Guiboart, 
Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii, 288.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 27.— BentUy & Triuien, Meil. Fl. iv, 251, t.251.— Ridgway in Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus. 1882, 84. 

? Q. relutina, Lamarck, Diit. i, 172.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii^, 68. 

Q. nigra., Marsliall, .Vrbu-slum, 120 [not Liunseus].— Wangenheim, Amer. 79, t. G, f. 16. 

Q. rubra, Wangenluim, Amer. 14, t. 3, f. 7 [not Linnajus]. — Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Ncue Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. 
Berlin, iii, 399. 

Q. discolor, Alton, Hort. Kew. Ill, 358.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, 111. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 444; Berl. Baumz. 345. — 
Poiref, Suppl. 11, 221.— Smith in Rees' Cyel. xxx. No. 59.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 601.— Spningel, 
Syst. Ill, 8U3.— Beck, Bot. 329.-Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 292.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 384. 

Q. tinctoria, v;ir. angulosa, Micbaux, Fl.Bor.-Ara. 11,198.— Loudon, Arboretum, ill, 1858. 

Q. tinctoria, var. sinuosa, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. 11, 198.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1885, f. 1755-1757.— Liebmann, Chtnea 
Am. Trop. t. C. 

t Q. Shumardii, Buckley in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1860, 445. 

Q. COCrinea, var. tinctoria, Gray, Mannal N. St.ates, 5 ed. 454.— Wood,Cl. Book,306.— A.De CandoUe,Prodr.ivi«. 61. 

BLACK OAK. YELLOW-BARK OAK. QUERCITRON OAIC. YELLOW OAK. 

Soutlicrii ]Maiue to uortbeiii Veriiioiit, Ontario, soiitbern ^liiinosota, easteru Nebra.ska, eastern Kansas, and 
the Iiiditiii territory, .soiitli to the CMiattahoochce region of westei'ii Florida, southern Ahibauia and Mississippi, and 
eastern Texas. 

A large tree, 24 to 3G or, e.\cei)tionally, 48 meters {Ridgway) iu height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1. SO meter in 
diameter; generally on dry or gravelly ni)lands; very eommon. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, not tough, coarsegrained, liable to check in drying; layers of annual growth 
miuked by several rows of very large open ducts; color, bright browu tinged with red, the sap wood much 
lighter; specific gravity, 0.7045; i»sh, 0.28; somewhat used for cooperage, construction, etc. 

The bark largely used in tanning; the intensely bitter inner bark yields a valuable yellow dye, and is 
occasionally used medicinally in the form of decoctions, etc., in the treatment of hemorrhage (U. <S. Dis^ensatorj/, 
14 ed. "i^ii.—Kat. J)itipcniiatari/, 2 ed. 119C). 

275. — Quercus Kelloggii, Newberry, 

Pacific R.R. Rep. vi, 89, 286, f. 6.— Torrey, Hot. Wilkes Exped. 4(X>.— R. Brown Canipst. Horre Sylvanas 08, f. 4-6.— Engelmanu in 
Bot. Calll'oruia,ii,99. 

Q. rubra. Benthaui.lM. Hartweg. 337 [not Linnieus], 

Q. tinctoria, var. Californica, Torrey in Paellie R. R. Rep. iv, 138; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 205; Ives" Rep.2S. 

(j. Californica, Cooper in SmitlLsoniau Rep. 1858, 261. 

Q. Sonomensis, li.'ntbam in Dc Candollo I'r.xlr. xvi^ 62.— Bolander In Proc. California Aead. iii, 230.— Orstwl iu Saerskitt, 
Aftryk. at. Nat. For. A lilen. Xlcdilelt. N<.s. 1-G, 18GG, 72.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tn-es. 27.— Engeluiann iu Wheeler's Rcv>. 
vi, 371.— Palmer iu Aim. Nat. xii, ri9t!. 

lU.ACK O.VK. 

Valley of the Mackenzie river, Oregon, south througli the Coast ranges and along the western slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada and iSati Beruanlino moutitains to the southern borders of California. 



150 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

A large tree, 18 to 24 meters in heigbt, with a truuk 0.90 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or at high elevations 
reduced to a shrub ; the most common and important oak of the valleys of southwestern Oregon and the California 
Sierra.*. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very brittle, close-grained, coiiii)act ; layer.s of annual growth marked by several 
rows of large open ducts; medullary rays few, broad, conspituous; color, light red, the thin sap-wood lighter; 
specific gravity, 0.6435; ash, 0.2G; of little value, except as fuel; the bark somewhat used in tanning. 

276. — Quercus nigra, Linnasns, 

8pcc. 1 e<l. '.'!>.">. — Lani.irck, Diet, i, 721. — W.-ingcnlioiin, Aiiier. 77, t.;'), f. i:l. — Walter, Fl. Caroliuiiiua,'j:i4. — Aitou, Hort. Kcw. iii, 357; 2 
ed. V, 291.— Aljliot,Ins«'ct.s Georgia,!, 50; ii,.")8.— Mii-haux, Hist. Clii^iifs Am. No. 17,t. 22, 23; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 198.— Miiblenberg <t 
Willdenow in Xeiie Scliriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 399. — Williltiiow, Spec, iv, 442. — Smith iu Recs' Cycl. xxx, No. 53. — Pcrsooii, 
Syn. ii,509. — Dosfoiitaiiios, Hist. .\rb. ii, 509— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii,(J29. — Eatou, Manual, 108; 6 ed. 292.— liarton.Compeud. Fl. 
Fbiladelpb. ii, IGS.— Nouveau Dubamel, vii, 1G8.— Elliott, Sk. ii, GOO.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 8()2.— Torrcy, Compoml. Fl. N. States, :{57 ; 
Fl. N. York, ii, ISS; Hot. Mix. Boundary Survey, 200.— Audubon, Birds. 1. 116.— Beck, Bot. 328.— Loudon, Arboretuui, iii, 1890, f. 
1764, 170.1.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 3tf4.— .Spaoh, Hist. Veg. xi, 1G2.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 cd. 267.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 510.— 
Cooper in Suiitb.«<iuian Rep. 18.'i8, 25.">. — Brondel iu Trans. Illinois Ag. Soe. iii, 625, t. 7. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 421. — Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv.N. Caroliua. 1860, iii,38. — Lesqucreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388.— Wood, CI. Book, 644; Bot. & Fl. 
305.— A. DeCatidollo, Prodr. xvi=, 63.— Orstcd in Saorskitt. Al'tryk. af. Nat. For. Videu. Mcddelt. No8. l-t>, 72.— Gray, .Manual N. States, 
5cd. 453; Hall'sPl. Texas, 21. — Liobmann, ChdnesAni. Trop. t. .\. — Koch, Dendrologio, ii', 61. — Young, Bot. Texas, 503. — Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 26. — Eidgway iu Pix)c. Nat. Mns. 1S82, 82. — Watson in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii, 1.56. 

Q. nigra, var. lati/oUa, Lamarck, Diet, i, 721. 

Q. nigra intcgrifolia, Marshall, Arbustnm, 121. 

tQ. aquatica, Walur, Fl. Caroliniana, 23-J. 

^>. Maryla7ldica, Muhlenberg & Willdenow in Neue Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 399. 

BLACK JACK. JACK OAK. 

Long island, New York, west through northern Ohio and Indiana to about latitude 55° N. in Wisconsin, 
soatheru Minnesota, eastern Nebraska, Kansas, and the Indian territory to about 99° west longitude, south to 
Matanzas iidct and Tani|)a bay, Floridj, and the valley of the Nueces river, Texas. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 or even IS meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.60 meter in dianteter, 
or more often much smaller; dry, barren uplands, or often on heavy clay soils ; very common through the southern 
States, and reaching its greatest development in southwestern Arkansas, Indian territory, and eastern Texas, 
forming, with the jjostoak {Q. oblusiloba), the growth of the Texas cross-timbers. 

W'ood heavy, hard, strong, checking badly in drying; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of 
large open duct.s; medullary rays broad, conspicuous; color, rather dark rich brown, the sap-wood nuich lighter; 
specific gravity, 0.7.'524; asli, I.IG; of little value except as fuel. 

277. — Quercus falcata, Michaux, 

Hiat. Cbene.4 Am. No. 10, t. 28; Fl. Bor. Am. ii, 199.— Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, 5C9.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 221.— Miohanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 104, t. 21 ; 
N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 73, t. 23.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 630.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadolph. ii, 
170.— Nouveau Duhaniil, vii, 169.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 004.- Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 358.— Beck, Bot. 329.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 
293.— Loudon, Arbori-tuni, iii, 1882, f. 1750, 1751.— Lindley, Fl. Mid. 292.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 384.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 cd. 
2C0.— Darby. Bot. S. States, 510.— Cooi)er in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.''.5.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 422.— Curtis in Rep. Geological 
Surv. N. Carolina, 18G0, iii,39.— Lesc|uercux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388.— Wood, CI. Book, 044; Bot. & Fl. 306.— Porchor, 
RcHources S. Forest.", 25(;.— A. De Candolle, Pro.lr. xvi^ .VJ.— Orsled in Sacrskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, - 
72.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 4.53; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Liebmann.Chflnes Am. Trop. t. A, t. 22, f. 3.— Young, Bot. Texas, 
505. -Vawy , Cat. Forest Trees, 20.— Ridg way i n Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus. 1882, bO. 

Q. rubra viontana, .Marshall, Arbustum, 123 

Q. nigra digitata, Marshall, Arbustum, 121. 

Q. cuncata, Wungouheim, Amor. 78, t. 5, f. 14.— Koch, Dcndrologio, ii', 64. 

Q. clongata, Muhlenberg & WlUdenow in Noue Schriflen GewU. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 400.— Willdcuow, Spec, iv, 444.— Smith in 
Re«.'i' Cycl. ixx, 57.— Alton, Hort. Kcw.2 cd. v,291. 

Q. triloba, Michaux, Hist. Chines Am. No. 14, t.2C.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 443; Berl. Bauniz. :M2.— Smith in Ree«' Cycl. xix, 
No. .54.— Persoon. Syn. ii, .'■)69.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 220.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 291.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii,628.— 
Hayne. Deiid. Fl. 156.— Sprcngel, Syst. iii, 862.— Torrey , Corapen. I. Fl. N. States, 3.57.— Beck. Bot. 328.— Eaton, Manual, 
6 ed. 292.- Eaton & Wright, Bot. 31^4.— Wood, C!. Hook, 644 ; Bot. & Fl. 306. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 15! 

Q.falcata, var. triloba, Nutfall.Gfincra, ii, 214.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 604.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 511.— A. De Candoll.-. Pr.>.!r. 
xvi«, 59. 

Q.falcata, var. pagodwfolia, Elliott, Sk. ii,605.— Darby, Bot. S. State8,511.—Cnrti8 in Eep. Geological Surv.N.Carolinm, 

18G0, iii, :if). 

Q. discolor, var. triloba, Spacli,Hist. Ven.xi, 163. 
Q.falcata, var. Ludoviciana, A. DeCandolle,Prodr. xvl'.59. 

SPANISH OAK. RED OAK. 

Long island, New York, south to Hernando county, Florida, through the Gulf states to the valley of the 
Brazos river, Texas, and through Arkansas and southt^astern Mis.souri to central Tennessee and Kentucky, soathem 
Illinois and Indiana. 

A large tree, L'4 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.80 meter in diameter; dry, gravelly uplands 
and barrens; in the north Atlantic states only near the coast; rare; most common and reaching its greateat 
devel()i)nient in the south Atlantic and Gulf states, where, in the middle districts, it is the most common forest tree. 

Wood heavy, very hard and strong, not durable, coarse-grained, checking badly in drjiug; layers of annual 
growth strongly marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays few, conspicuous; color, light red, 
the sap-wood lighter ; si)ecific gravity, 0.6928; ash, 0.25; somewhat used for cooperage, construction, etc., and very 
largely for fuel. 

The bark rich in tannin. 

278. — Quercus Catesbaei, Michaux, 

Hist. Chdnes Am. No. 17, t. 29, 30; Fl. Bor.-.\m. ii, 199,— Abbot, Insect-s Georgia, i, 27, 1. 14.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 446.- Smith in Reea 
Cycl. XXX, No. G2.— Persoou, Syn. 569. — Desfoutaincs, Hist. Arb. ii, 511. — Poiret, Siippl. ii, 221. — Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 101, t. 
20; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i 71, t. 22. — Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 630. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214. — Nonveau Duhamel, vii, 172. — 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 603.— Spreugel, Syst. iii, 866.- Torrey, Coiiipend. Fl. N. States, 3oe'.— Beck, Bot. 329.— Eaton, Mann.il, 6 ed. 293.— 
Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1889, f. 1762, 1763.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 3^4 — Spacli, Hist. Veg. xi, 162.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 510.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 255. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 422. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 41. — 
Wood, CI. Book, 644 ; Bot. & Fl. 306.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 59.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Video. Meddelt. 
Nos. 1-6, 1866, 72.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 67.— Young, Bot. Texas, 503.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26. 

f Q. Iwvis, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana,234. 

TURKEY OAK. SCRUB OAK. FORKED-LEAF BLACK JACK. BLACK JACK. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to cape Malabar and Pease creek, Florida, and along the coast of Alabama 
and Mississippi. 

A small tree, 7 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.45 to O.GO meter in diameter; verj" common in the south 
Atlantic and east Gulf states upon barren sandy hills and ridges of the maritime pine belt; rare in Mississippi. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, coin()act; layers of annual growth marked by .several rows of large 
open ducts and containing many much smaller ducts arranged in short lines parallel to the broad, conspicuous 
medullary rays; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood somewhat lighter; specific gravity, 0.7294; ash, 
0.87 ; largely used for fuel. 

279. — Quercus palustris, Dh Roi, 

Harl.U. ii, 2tiH, t. 5, f. 4.— Wangenheim, Anier. 76, t. .", f. 10.— Michaux, Hist. ChSnes Am. No. 19, t. Xi. 34 : Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 200.— 
Willdcnow, Spec, iv, 446; 1-muiii.97G; Bcil. Bauniz. 343. — Persoou, Syn. ii, 569. — Dcsfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 511.— Poiret, Suppl. ii, 
222. -Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 123, t. 25 ; N. American Sylva, i, 83, t.27.— Alton, Hort. Kevv. 2 ed. v,2<^i.— Smith in Kivs' CyoL 
XXX, No. 6.— Puish, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 631.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 91 ; Compcud. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 170.— Eaton, Manual. 108; 
Bod. 293.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Nonveau Duhamel, vii, 172.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 158. — Sprengcl, Syst. 111,863. — Torrey, Compond. 
Fl. N. States, ;158; Fl. N. York, 11,190, t. 107.— Beck, Bot, 320.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii. l5«?7, f. 17.Vi-l76l & t.— Eaton & Wright, 
Bot. 384.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 166. — Darliugtoii, Fl. Cestriea, 3 ed. 269.— Cooper in Sniiths(Uii.iU Kcp. 1^.'>8, C5;'>.— Bn^ndel in Trans. 
Illinois Ag. Soc. iii, l>31.— Lesqnereux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 388.— Wooil, Cl. Book, 644 ; Bot. & Fl. :50t;.— .\. IV Candolle, 
Prodr. xvi', 60.— Orsted in Saerskilt. Aflryk. al. Nat. For. Videu. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 18ii(i,23, 72. 1". 4.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 
454. — Liebniann, Ch«nes Am. Trop. t. A. — Koch, Dcudmlogie, ii-', 71. — Emerson, Trees MasiMichusells, 2 ed. 1, 167 i t. — Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 27.— W. E. Stone iu Bull. T..rrey Bot. Club, ix,57.— Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. ISisa, 83.— Burgess in Cuult«t°« 
Bot. Gazette, vii, 95.— Chapman, Fl. S. Slates, Suppl. 649. 

Q. rubra, var. diascvta, Lamarck, Diet, i, 120. 

Q. rulyra ramosissima, Marshall, Arbustum, 122.— Muhlenberg & Willdenow in NeneSchriiten l«s«>ll. Nat. tV. Berlin, .Iftt 



152 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

PIN OAK. SWAMP SPANISH OAK. WATER OAK. 

Valley of the Connecticut river. Massachusetts (Anilierst, Sfnne), to ctMitral New York, south to Delaware and 
the District of Culuinbia ; southern Wisconsin to eastern Kansas, southern Arkansas, and southeastern Tennessee. 

A tree 24 to 30 or, exceptionally, 3G meters {Ridjiiray) in heijrht, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 meter in diameter; 
low, rich soil, generally a]on<j the borders of streams and swamps; most common and reaching its greatest 
developauut west of the Alleghany mountains. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, coarsegrained, inclined to check badly in drying; layers of annual growth 
marked by several rows of large open ducts; medullary rays broad, numerous, coiis]iicuous ; color, light brown, 
the sap-wood rather darker; specific gravity, 0.G93S; ash. O.Sl ; somewhat used for shingles, clapboards, construction, 
and in cooperage. 

280. — Quercus aquatica, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniaii.i, 231. — Aiton, Ilort. Kinv. iii, X>~ ; 'i ed. v, 290. — Abbot, Jusect.s Geoi-t;ia, ii, t. .'iO, 79. — Michaux, Hist. ChCncs Am. No. 
11, t, 19, 20, 21; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 198. — Muhlenberg &. Willdenow in Ncuc Scbriftrn Gesoll. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iii, 399. — Pcreoon.Syn. 
ii,5C9. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb.ii,509. — Poiret, Suppl. Ii,220. — Micbaiix f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii,89, t. 17; N. American Sylva, :i c<l. i,65, 
1. 19. — Smith in Rees'Cycl. xxx, No. 52. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 11,628. — Barton, Compend. Fl. Philndclph. ii, 108. — Nouveau Dnhamel, 
vii, 167. — Elliott, Sk. ii, 599. — Sprengel, Syst. iii, 862.— Torrey, Compeml. Fl. N. States, 357. — Andubou, Birds, t. 24. — Beck, Bot. 
328.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 292.- Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1892, f. 17G7.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 384.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 161.- 
Darby, Bot. S. States, 510.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1S58, 25.'i.— Chapman, Fl. S. Slates, 4 Jl.— Curtis iu Rep. Geological Surv. N. 
Carolina, 37. — Losqu.-roux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansiis, 388. — Wood, CI. Book, 6 13; Bot. & Fl. 305. — A. De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi', 
67.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Videu. Meddelt. Nos. l-C, 1800, 72.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 452 ; Hall's PI. TexM, 
21. — Liubmann, Chencs Am. Trop. t. D. — Young, Bot. Texas, 503. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 26. 

Q. nigra aquatica, Lamarck, Diet, i, 721. 

Q. nigra irifida, Marshall, Arbnstnm, 121. 

T Q. uUginOSa, Wangenbeim, Amer. 80, t. 6, f. 18. 

Q. hemispharica, Willdenow, Spec.iv, 443.— Poirot, Suppl. ii, 628.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept.ii,628.— Smith in Keea' CyoLxix, 
No. 56, 6-28.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 295.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 385.— Mlchani t ». 
American Sylva, 3 ed. 187. 

Q. nana, Willdenow, Spec.448.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 599. 

Q. aquatica, vars. cuneata, elongata, indivisa, attenuata, Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 290. 

Q. hemisphcerica, var. nana, Nuttall, Genera, ii,2l4. 

Q. aquatica, var. hybrida, Chapman, FL S. States, 421. 

Q. nigra, Koch, Dendrologle, ii», 61. in part. 

WATER OAK. UUCK OAK. POSSUM OAK. PUNK OAK. 

Sussex county, Delaware, south througii the coast and middle districts to cape Malabar and Tampa bay, Florida, 
through the Gulf states to the valley of the ColonVlo river, Texas, and througii Arkansas to the valley of the Black 
river, southeastern Missouri (Poplar Bluffs, Lettennau), middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 15 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter; geniMally along streams and 
bottoms in heavy, undrained soil, or, more rarely, upon uplands ; very common and reaching its greatest development 
along the large streams in the nmritime i)ine belt of the e istern Gulf states. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of large 
open ducts; medullary rays thin, conspicuous: color, rather light brown, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 
0.7244; ash, 0.51 ; probably not used except as fuel. 

281. — Quercus laurifolia, Michanx, 

Bint. Chcneg Am. No. 10, t. 17; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 197.— Willdenow, Spc-c. iv, 4J7. — I'ers()on,.Syn. 11,567.- Smith in Rces'Cycl. xix. No. 14.— 
Aiton, Hort. Kew. a ed. v,288.— Piirnh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii,627.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Nonvcan Duhaniel.vii, l.'^i3.— Elliott, Sk.ii, 
597.— .Sprengel, Synt. iii, 8.^)7.— Eaton, ManunI, 6 ed.'y94.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1897, f. 1775, 1770.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 38,5.— 
Darby, Bi>!..S. Slat<yt,510.— Curtiit in Rup. Geological Surv. N.Carolina, 1860, iii, 36. — Liebmann, ChCnes Am.Trup. t. D. — Wood, 01. 
Book, 643. — Voiiey, Cut. ForeHt TrecM,26. — Engcliuann in Trans. St. Louis Aca<l. iii, 365, 395. 

Q. laurifolia hyhrida, Michaux,Hiht.Ch6nc» Am.No. 10,t. 18. 

Q. Invrifnlin, var. ohtusa, Willdenow,Spec.iv,42'^.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 od.v,2H8.— Wood, CI. Book, 343. 

Q. laurifolia, var. acuta, Willdenow.Spcc iv,428.— Ait<jn,Hort. Kow. 2 cd. v,288. 

Q, ohtma, Pursh,FI.Am. .Sept. ii, 027. 

Q. ritellos, var. laurifolia, Chapman,Fl.S. States, 420.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 305.— Young, Bot. Texas, 502. 

Q. aquatica, var. laurifolia, a. Do Candolle, I'rodr. xvi', 08. 



I 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 153 

LAUREL OAK. 

Nortli Caroliiiii, south near the coast to Mosquito itih't and cajie lioniauo, Florida, and along the Gulf coast to 
the shores of Mobile bay. 

A large tree, 18 to 2t meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to l.l'O meter in diameter; most common and reaching 
its greatest development on the rich hummocks of the Florida coast. 

Wood heavy, very stroug and hard, coar.se grained, inclined to check in drying ; layer.s of annual growth marked 
by seviiral rows of rather small open ducts ; medullary rays broad, consjjicuous ; color, dark brown tinged w ith red, 
the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.7(J7;i ; ash 0.82. 

282. — Quercus heterophylla, Michaux f. 

Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 87, t. 16; N. Amorican Sylva, 3 ed. i,64, t. 18.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 627.— BartoD, Corapend. FI. Philadelpb. ii, 
167.— Nultall, Genera, ii, 214; Sylva, i, 15; 2 ed. i,'24.— Green in Uuiversal Herbal, ii, 442.— Torrcy, Cnmpend. FI.N. Stat*«, 357.— 

Sweet, Cat. 2 ed. 466.— Beck, Bot. ;i28. — Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 292. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1894. — Eaton & Wright, Bof. 3'3. 

Gale iu Proe. Nat. In.st. 180.J, 70, f. 1.— Wood, CI. Book, 64.').— Buckley in Proc. I'liiladeljihia Acad. 1862, 361 ; 18«'.2, UK).— Gray, Hall's 
PI. Texas, 21. — Liebmann, CliSnes Am. Trop. t. B. — Meehan m Proc. Pbiladelpliia Acad. 1875, 437, 465; Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 
10. — Leidy iu Proc. Pbiladelpbia Acad. 1875, 415. — Eugelmaun iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 385, 391.— Martindale, Notes ob 
tbo Bartram Oak, 3; Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 303.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 114. 

Q. mjuatica, var. heterophylla, Aiton,Hort.Kew.2 ed. v,290.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. ivi«, 68. 

Q. nigra, var. Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1858,255. 

Q. PheUosXtinctoria, Gray, Manual N. States, 4 ed. 406. 

Q. Fhellos, var. Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 453. 

Q. PIldloHX^OCcinea, Eugelmann in Trans. St. Louis Aca<I. iii, 541. 

BARTRAil'S OAK. 

New Jersey, Salem and Cumberland counties, "restricted to a line or belt bordering extreme tidal points of 
streams entering the Delaware river where the alluvial terminates and the upland commences," {Commons); 
Delaware, near Townsend station and Wilmington ; North Carolina {M. A. Curtis in herb. Canby) ; eastern Texas 
(E. HoU) ; this perhajts Q. Burandii. 

A small tree, 12 to l.'i meters iu height, with a trunk 0.45 to O.CO meter in diameter; rare and very local. 

Wood heavy, hard, very strong, close-grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of 
suuill oi)en ducts; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
somewhat darker; specitic gravity, 0.6834; ash, 0.17. 

283. — Quercus cinerea, Michaux, 

Hist. Cbfinos Am. No. 8, 1. 14; FI. Bor.-Am. ii, 197.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 425.— Pcrsoou, Syn.ii,567.— Poiret, Snppl. ii,212.— Mich»i« 
f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 82, 1. 14; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. i,61,t. 16.— Alton, Hort. Kew, 2 ed. v, 288.— Pnrsh, FI. Am. Sept. ii,626.— 
Smith in Kees' Cycl. xsx. No. 6.— Nnttall. Genera, ii, 214.— Nouveau Duhauicl, vii, 151.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 594.— Sprengel, Syst, iii, 
857.— Eaton, Manual; 6 ed. 294.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 6 ed. 294.— Engehnann &, Gray iu Jour. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 262.— 
Scbecle in Eccmcr, Texas, 446.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. lt-58, 2."5.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 421.— Curtis iu Kep. Geological 
Surv.N. Carolina, ;)7.— Wood, CI. Book, 643; Bot. & Fl. 305.— A. Dc Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 73.— Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. 
For. Viden. Mcddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 73.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 452; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Young, Bot. Texas, 502.— Koch, 
Dondrologic, ii«, 58. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26.— Eugelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 385,395. 

Q. Prinus, ft. Linnains, Spec. 1 od. 995. 

Q. hximUix, Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua,234. 

ii. Phl'llos, var. cinerea, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, :i,-)4.— Loudon, Arlioretum, iii, 189.i,f. 1773.— Spach, Hist. Vcg. xi, 161. 

UPLAND WILLOW OAIv. BLUK JACK. SAND JACK. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to cape Malabar ;ind Pe;ise creek, Florida, west along the Gulf coast to 
the valk'y of the Brazos river, Texas, extending north through eastern Texas to about latitude oo^. 

A tree to 15 meters in height, with a trunk larely exceeding 0.20 meter in diameter; sandy Inirrens and 
dry upland ridges. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, close grained, compact; layers of annual growth marked by several rows of not 
large open ducts; medullary rays distant, thin, conspicuous; color, light brown tiuged with red, the sap-wood 
darker; sitecilic gravity, 0.0420 ; ash, 1.21. 



154 FOREST TREES OF XORTII AMERICA. 

284. — Quercus hypoleuca, Knpelmaiui, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, :!j*1 ; ■\V1i.i1.t's K.ip. vi. AM.— Vasoy, Cat. For.-.st Treos, 2(5.— Kusl.y iu Bull. Torroy Rot. Club, ix, 78. 

Q. eon/erti/olia, Torrey, Bot. Mox. Boundary Survey, 207 [not HBK.].— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,261. 

Liuipia mountains, Texas (Harard), valleys of the bigli uioinitain ranges of southwestern New Mexico, Santa 
Eita mountains. Arizona, above (>,000 teet elevation; .southward into Sonora. 

A small everpreeu tree of {rreat beauty. 9 to 1.5 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.75 meter in diameter; 
dry, gravelly slopes and summits, the large S])ecimeu8 hollow and defective. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close grained, compact ; layers of annual growth marked by few small 
open ducts: medullary rays broad, conspicuous; color, dark brown, the sap-wood much lighter; specific gravity, 
0.8009 ; ash, 1.34. 

285. — Quercus imbricaria, Michaux, 

HJ8t. CWnes Am. No. 9, t. l.S, 16; Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 197.— Willdonow, Spec, iv, 4-iS; Enuni. Suppl. 64 ; Borl. Bauniz. 338.— Persoon, 
Sy n. ii, 567.— Poirct. Sujipl. ii, 214.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 78, 1. 13 j N. An>eric.^n Sylva, 3 ed. i, 60, t. 15.— Aiton, Hort. Kow. 
2 ed. T, 288.— Smith in Rees' Cycl. xxx, No. 15.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 627.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 214.— Barton, Compend. Fl. 
Philadelph. ii, 167. — Nouveau Duhamel, vii, 153. — Hayne, Dend. Fl. l.">5. — Elliott. Sk. ii, 598. — Sprengol, Syst. iii, 807. — Torrey, 
Compend. Fl. N. .States. 3.">7.— Beck, Bot. 328.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 29J.— Loudon, Arlwrftuni, iii, 1898, f. 1777.— Eaton & 
Wright, Bot. 383.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 510.— Torrey & Gray iu Pacific R. R. Rep. il, 130.— Cooper in SniitUsouian Rep. 1858, 
255. — Breudel in Trans. Illinois Ar. Soc. iii, 623, t. 6. — Chapman, Fl. S. St.ates, 4i0. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 
18<i0, iii, 36.— L<'S<iuereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansa-s, 388.— Wood, CI. Book, 643; Bot. & Fl. .305.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi«, 
6:!.— Orbted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. uf. Nat. For. Viden. lleddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1H60, 73.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 452 —Young, Bot. 
Texas, 502. — Liebniann, ChfeiieB Am. Trop. t. D, t. xxii, f. 5. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii*, 60. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26. — 
Broadhcad in Conner's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60.— Ridgway iu Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus. 1882, 80. 

Q. Phellos, var. imbricaria, Spach,Hist. Veg. xi,160. 

SniNGLE OAK. LAUREL OAK. 

Allentown, Lehigh county, Pennsylvania (Porter), west through southern Michigan, southern Wisconsin, and 
•outheastern Iowa to southeastern Nebraska and northeastern Kansas, south to northern Georgia and Alabama, 
middle Teiines.>iee, and northern Arkansas. 

A tree 24 to .'30 meters in height, with a trunk O.CO to 0.90 meter in diameter; rich woodlands. 

Wood heavy, hard, rather coar.se grained, checking badly in drying ; layers of annual growth marked by many 
rows of large open ducts; medullary rays broad, conspicuous; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood 
much lighter; specific gravity, 0.7529; ash, 0.4.3; occasionally used for clapboards, shingles, etc. 

286. — Quercus Phellos, Linmcus, 

Spec. 1 e<l. 994. — Laniarcli, Diet, i, 722. — Wungenheim, Aracr. 76, t. 5, f. 11. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 2.34.— Aiton, llort. Kew. iii, 354; 
2 ed. V, 287. — Abbot, lusect.i Georgia, ii, t. .")2, 91. — Michaux, Fl. 15or.-Ani. ii, 197. — Wilklenovv, Spec, iv, 42!!; Euuni. 974 ; Berl. 
Baamz. 337. — Smith in Rees' Cycl. xxx, No. 7. — Persoou, Syn. ii, 567. — Desfoutaines, Hist. Arb. ii,507. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. 
ii, 75, t. 12; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. i, 58, t. 14.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 62.''>.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 91 ; Compend. Fl. 
Philadelph. ii, 167.— Nuttall, Genera, ii. 214 ; Sylva, i, 15 ; 2 ed. i, 17.— Nouveau Duhamel, vii, 1.50.— H.ayne, Dend. Fl. 1.5,5.— Elliott, 
8k. il, .593. — Sprengel, Syst. iii, 857. — Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 357; Fl. N. York. ii,187. — Beck, Bot. 32H.—F^aton, Manual, 6 
ed.3^t.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1891, f. 1774 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. :i83.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 160.— Pcnn. Cycl. xix, 216.- 
Darby, Bot. S. .States, 509. — Cooper in .Smithsoni.in Rep. 18.5H, 2.')5. — Chapman, Fl. .S. States, 420. — Curtis in Rep. Geological 
8nrv. N. Carolina, 1^60, iii, :1C.— Lesfiuereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388.— Wood, CI. Book, 6'»3; Hot. & Fl. .305.— A. De 
Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 63.— Oreted in Saorskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Mcddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 7.!.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 
ed. 4.52; Hall's PI. Texajt, 21.— Young, Bot. Texas, 502.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii«, 59.— Vaoey, Cat. Forest Trees, 26.— Gart«nflora, 
xxii, 221 & f.— Ridgway in Proc. U. .S. Nat. Mus. Ki. 

Q. I'helloH anfjUHlifolia, Marshall, Arbuslum, 124. 

Q. Phellos IntifoUa, Marshall, Arbustum, 124.--L(iddige8, Cat. cd. 1836.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1895 <fe t. 

Q. Phellos, var. viridis, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 354. 

Q. Phellos, var. humilis, Pursh.Fl. Am. S-pt. ii,62.5. 

WILLOW OAK. PKACn OAK. 

Tottenville, Staten ishuxl. New Yoik, south near the coast to northeastern Flr)ri<la, through the Gulf states to 
the valley of the Sabine river, Texan, .'ind tiir<>nt;li Arkansas to southeastern Missouri, Tennessee, and southern 
Kentucky. 



CATALOGUE DF FOREST TREES. 155 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in lieifilit, \vit]i ;i trunk soiiietinies 0.90 meter in diameter; bottom lands or rich sandy 
uplands. 

Wood heavy, stron/i, not hard, rather close-firained, compact ; layers of annual {jrowth marked by several 
rows of small open ducts; medullary rays few, distant; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter 
red; specific gravity 0.747U; ash, 0.50; somewhat used for fellies of wheels, clapboards, in construction, etc. 

287. — Quercus densiflora, Hooker & Amott, 

Bot. Beechey, 391.— Hooker, Icon, iv, t. 3«0.— Bcutham, PI. Hartweg. 337.— Nuttjill, Sjiva, i, 11, t. 5; 2 ed. i, 21, t. 5.— Torrey in 
Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 138.— Bot. Wilkes Expod. 4.')8.— Xewberry in Pacific U. R. Rep. vi, 31, 89, f. 8.— A. De Candolle, Prodr. 
xvi", 8-2.— Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, "231. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 2o.— Kngelmann in Trans. St. Loois Acad, iii, 
38-1; Bot. California, ii, 99. 

Q. echinacea, Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 137, t. 14. 

Pasania densiflora, Orsted in Saerskitt. Aftryk. af. Nat. For. Viden. Meddelt. Nos. 1-6, 1866, 73. 

Q. echinoiiles, R. Brown Canipst.in Ann. tt Mag. Nat. Hist. April, 1871,2. 

TANBAKK OAK. CHESTNUT OAK. PEACH OAK. 

Valley of the Umpqua river, Oregon, south through the Coast ranges to the Santa Lucia mountains, California. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk O.CO to 0.00 meter in diameter ; rich valleys and banks of streams; 
most common and reaching its greatest devclopinent in the redwood forests of the California coast. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong, very close-grained, compact, containing broad bauds of small open ducts p.irallel 
to the tliin, dark, conspicuous medullary rays; color, bright reddish-brown, the thick 8ai)-wood darker brown; 
specific gravity, 0.G827 ; ash, 1.49; largely used as fuel. 

The bark, ricli in tannin, very largely used and preferred to that of any other tree of the Pacific forests for 
tanning. 

Note. — The following shrubby species of Qiiercua do not properly find a place in this catalogue : 

Quercus uudulata, Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 248, t. 4. 
Interior Pacific region from Colorado southward. 

Quercus Bre'Weri, Kngelmnnn in Bot. California, ii. 96. 

Q. l.hata, var. Jruticom, Engplmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 388. 
Western slopes of the high Sierra Nevadas, California. 

Quercus Georgiana, M. A. Curtis iuClLipman'sFLS. States. 
Stone iloiuifaiu, Georgia. 

Quercus myrtifolia, w'illdinow, S]i. iv, 4:4. 

Q. Phellos, var. arenaria, Chnpman, Fl. S. States, 420. 

Q. aquttUta, var. myrtifolia, A. DeCamloUe, Prodr. xvi, 68. 

South Athvutic and Gulf coast. 

Quercus ilicifolia, Wangcnheim, Amer. 79, t. B, f. 17. 
Q. lianinteri, Micbaux, Hist. CMnca Am. t,27. 

North Atlantic region. 

Quercus pumila, WiJter, Fl. Caroliana, 234. 

(>. I'htllo.ipiimiJa, Miiliaux, Hi8t.Ch6nca Am.t. 15, f. 1. 

y. cincrca, var. pumila, Chapman, Fl. S. States, 421.— A. Do CandoUe, Prodr. 1«, 74. 

Q. cinei'ea, var. s(ricea, Engolmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 884. 

Q. sericea, Willdcnow, Spec. 424. 

Q. Phellos, var. sericca, Alton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 35t. 

Pino barrens, South Carolina. 

Quercus dumosa, Nutull, S.n Iva, i, 7. 

Q. bcrheridij'olia, Liebmanu in Dansk. A'idonsk. SelsU. Forhandl. 1854, 172, in pari. 

Q. dumcsa, var. bullata, Engelmann in Bot. California, 296. 

Q. aaUidena, Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 207, t. 51. 
Coast ranges of sonthern CalifTnia. 
Numerous hybrid or supposed hybrid oaks, variously described by .\nieriian botanist*, arc not properly consider^ hers. 



156 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

288. — Castanopsis chrysophylla, A. DeC»ndolle; 

Seemann'sJooT. Bot. i, IftJ; Prodr. svi', 10!».— Watsou in Kiug'8 Rep. v,32-2; Bot. Califoroia, ii, 100.— Gray in Troc. Am. Acad, vii, 401.— 
Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 4C3.— Viisey, Cat. Forest Tries, 'JT.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. 

Caatanea chryfophylla, Douglas in Hooker's London Jour. Bot. ii, 490, t. Hi.— Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 337.— Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Aui. ii, 159.— Xuttall, Sylva, i, 21 ; -J ed. i, 37.— Bot. M»g. t. 49.'>3.— Torrey in Pacific K. K. Rep. iv, 137 ; Bot. 
Mex. Boundary Survey, 205.— Slorreu in Belg. Ilort. vii, 248, t. 240.— Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 26, 89, 
f. 4. — Fl.des Serrcs, xii, 3, t. 11H4. — Cooper in Soiithsouian Rep. lt-G8, 261.— Kellogg in Proc. Ciililoruia Acad, ii, 2t)0. — 
Bolanderin Proc. California Acad. iii,231. — Engeliuannin Wheelei'sRep. vi, 375. — Shingles in Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 
ISf'i, 716. 

Castanea chrysophylla, var. minor, Bentham, PI. Hartweg. 337- 

Castanea sempervirens, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad, i, 71. 

C. chrysophylla, var. minor, A. De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 110. 

C. chryso2)hylla, var. puinila. Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 27. 

CHINQUAPIN. 

Cascade mouutaius, Orej^on, lielow 4,000 feet elevation, south along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadaa^ 
and through the Caliloruia Coast ranges to the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains. 

A tree l.j to li4 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or at high elevations and toward 
its southern limits reduced to a low shrub ; most common and reaching its greatest development in the Coast 
Eiinge valleys of northern California; at its southern limits rarely below ]0,000 feet elevation. 

WockI light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact ; layers of annual growth maiked by a single row of rather 
large open ducts; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood lighter; 
specific gravity, O.ooT-J:; a.sh, 0.35; in southern Oregon occasionally used in the manufacture of plows and other 
agricultural implements. 

289. — Castanea pumila, Miller, 

Diet. No. 2.— Lamarck, Diet. 1,708.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 193.— Willdcnow, Spec, iv, 461; Enum. 980; Berl. Bauniz. 78.— Smith 
in Eecs' Cycl. siv. No. 2. — Nouveau Duhamel,iii, 79.— Persoou, Syn. ii, 572. — Desfontaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 500. — Michaux f. Hist. 
Arl.. Am. ii, 166, t. 7; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 16, t. 105.— Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 298.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii.624.— 
RatincRque, Fl. Lndoviclana, l.'i9; New Fl. &• Bot. i,83.— Nuttall, Genera, ii,217 ; Am. Phil. Soc. 2 ser. v, IC.K.- Hayne, D< iid. Fl. 
165. — James in Long's Exped. ii. 2«7.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 615. — Torrey, Couipend. Fl. N. State.s, 355; Fl. N. York, ii, 19G.— Audubon, 
Birds, t. 85.- Beck, Bot. 332.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 84.- Penn. Cycl. vi, 350.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 2002, f. 11)27, 1928.— Ealon 
& Wright, Bot. 1«4.— Spach, Hist. Vcg. xi, 192.- Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 270.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 512.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1^5-3, 256. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 424. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 47. — Le.squereux 
io Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 368.— Wood, CI. Book, 646; Bot. & Fl. 3U7.— Porchcr, Resources S. Forests, 237.— A. De Candolle, 
Prodr. xvi', 115. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 455. — Young, Bot. Texas, 508. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 24. — Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 27.— Butler in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 17. 

Fagus pumila, Unaieue, Spec. 1 ed. 998.— Da Koi, Harbk. i, 175.— Wangenheim, Amer. 57. t. 19, f. 44.— Walter, Fl. 
Caroliniana, 233. — Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, .161. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. !:>7. 

FagiUi Castanea pumila, Marshall, Arbnstnm,47. 

Fagm pumila, var. prwcox, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 233. 

C. nana, Muhlenberg, Cat. 80.- Elliott, Sk. ii, 615.— RaCnesque, New Fl. & Bot. i, 83. —Darby, Bot. S.Statu8,512.— Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18G0, iii, 47.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388. 

0. alnifolia, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 217; Sylvn, i, 19, t.6 ; 2 ed. i, 36, t.6. 

C. vesca, Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388 [not Gtertner]. 

CHINQI'APIN. 

Lancaster county, Penusjivania, and the valley of the lower Wabasii river, Indiana, south and southwest to 
northern Florida and the valley of the Ncches river, T4?xas. 

A tree sometimes \'> meters in height, with a trunk 0..'!0 to I.Oo meter in di;;nieler, or olten, especially in the 
Atlantic states, reduced to a low shrub; rich hillsides and borders of .swamps; most common and reaching it.s 
greatest develo|iment in soutliern Arkansas. 

Woo<i light, hard, strong, coarsegrained, durable in contact with the ground, liable to check in drying; layers 
of annual growth marked by many rows of large open ducts; nie<lnllaiy rays numernu.s, ob.se,ure; color, dark 
brown, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable; sjiecifie gravity, O.-OSST ; ash, O.IL'; used for jiosts, rails, railway 
tie<<, etc. 

The small inits siveet anil edible. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 157 

290. — Castanea vulgaris, var. Americana, A. De CandoUe, 

Prodr. xvi'-, 114.— Srliiicck in ('(imUhi'm liot. (i.i/c-ttc, vi, 1,'')9.— Boll in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 53<^.— Bldgway in Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mu8. 18.«2,84. 

Fagus GaManen dcntiita, Mar.sii.-iU, Arbimtiiin,4(). 

Fagus Castanea, Wanjronlieiin.Anicr. 47[not LimiiiMiH].— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana,'i33.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii,3Gl, in part.— 
Lamarck, 111. iii, :tf)li, t. 78^, in part. 

C. vesca, var. Americana, Midianx, Fl. Bor.-An . ii, 19;'..— Persoon, Syn. ii, .'■>72.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadclph. 90.— 
Piirsli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, (;-.;4.— Eaton, Manual, 109; (i ed. 84.— Nnttall, Genera, ii, 217.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 614.— Torrey, 
Gompund. Fl. N. States, Xit)-, Fl. N. York, ii, 19.'>, t. 111.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1984.— Eaton <t Wright, Bot. 
184. — Enieison, Trees Massachusetts, 104, 2 ed. i, 187 & t. — Porelier, Resources S. Forests, 238. Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 27.— Rndkin in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vii,81. 

0. Americana, Ratiuesqno, Now Fl. & Bot. i,82.— Willdenow, Enum. Snpj)l. ti4.— Nuttall,Sylva, i, 24; 2 e<L i, 38.— Spach, 
Hist. Veg. xi, 191. — Cooper in .Sniitlisonian Rep. 1858, 25C. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii^, 23.— Wartindale in Proc. 
Philadelphia Acad. 1880, 2. 

0. vesca, Willdenow, Spec, iv, 460, in part.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, .'iOO, in part.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 151, t. 
6; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 11, t. 104 [not Gairtncr]. — Hayue, Dend. Fl. 165, in part.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 856, in 
part.— Beck, Bot. 332.— Penn. Cycl. vi, 3.")0.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3ed. 224.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3ed. 270.— Darby, 
Bot. S. States, 511.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 424.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 46.— Wood, 
CI. Book, 646; Bot. & Fl. 306.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 45,5. 

CHESTNUT. 

Southern Maine to the valley of the Winooski river, Vermont, southern Ontario and southern Michigan, south 
through the northern states to Delaware and .sonlhern Ludiana, and along the Alleghany mountains to northern 
Alabama, extending west to middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A large tree, i;4 to 30 meters iu height, with a truidc l.SO to i meter.-* in diameter; rich woods and hillsides; 
very conunon and reaching its greatest develoi)ment on the western slopes of the southeiu Alleghany mountains. 

Wood light, soit, not strong, coarsegrained, liable to check and warp in drying, easily si)lit. very durable in 
contact with the soil ; layers of annual growth marked by many lows of large o\wn ducts ; medullary ra> s numerous, 
obscure; color, brown, the sap-wood lighter; .speciOc gravity, 0.4504; ash,0.1S; largely used in cabinet-making, 
for railway ties, posts, fencing, etc. 

The fruit, although smaller, superior iu sweetness and flavor to that of the European chestnut. 

An infusion or iluid extract of the dried leaves is successfully em])loyed in the treatment of whooping-cough 
and other pectoral affections {U. S. Dixptnsatory, 14 ed. 245. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 304). 

291. — Fagus ferruginea, Aiton, 

Hort. Kew. iii, 362; 2od. v, 298.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 75.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 460; Enmu.980; Berl. Banmz. 140.— Persoon, 
Syn.ii, 571. —Desfontaines, Hist. .\rb. ii, 496.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 174, t.9 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii,21,t. UX!.— Smith 
in Rees' Cycl. xiv. No. 4.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 624.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 90 ; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii. 174.— Eaton, 
Manual, 108; tied. 145.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 856.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, :5.">4 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 194, t. 110.— Beck. Bot. 
333.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 145.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1980, f. 1917.— Hooker, I"l. Bor.-Am. ii, 1.59.— Eaton & Wright. Bot. 244.— 
Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 374.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 271.— Cooper in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2.56.— Chapman. Fl. S. States, 
425.— Curtis in Re|). Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 47.— Wood, Bot. & F1.307.— A. Di Candolle, Prodr. xvi', U8.— Gray, 
Manual N. States, 5 ed. 4,55.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii^ 19.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 27. —Broadhead iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii,tiO.— 
Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 179.— Bell in G.ological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 52':.- Ridgway in Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882,85. 

F. sylratiia atropunicca, Marshall, Aibu8iuni,4ti. 

F. Amerinana latifolia, Wangenheim. Aiuer. 80, t. 29, f. 55.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 19f^0, f. 1916. 

F. sylvatica, Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 233 [not Linnanis].— Pnrsh, Fl. Aiu. Sept. ii, 624.— Beck, Bot. 3.33.— P.irlington, Fl. 
CB.strica, 2 ed. 538.— Darby , Bot. S. St.atos, 512. 

F. Sjllvestriii, Michaux.Fl. Bor. Am. ii, 194.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. .\m. ii, 170, 1.8; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 18, 1. 107.— 
Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. li, 159.— Lesquereux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, '.i8.S. 

F. alba, Ratines,iue, H. l.n.loviciana, 131. 

F. sylvatica, var, Americana, Nnttall,Genora,ii,21l>. — Barton. t'ompend.Fl. Philadelph. ii, 174. —Elliot t.Sk.ii, 613. —Eaton, 
Manual, 6 ed. 145.- Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 19:>3.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 244. -Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 153 ; 8 
ed. i, 1^0 & t.— Woed, CI. Book, ti4T.— Porchcr, Resources S. Forests, 2:?5. 

F. Am(Ticana, Sweet, Uort. Brit.— Spaeh, Hist. Veg. xi,201. 

F. ferrvginca, var. I aroliniana, Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1980, f. 1915. 



158 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



]S'ovu Scotia and the valley of the liestegoucbe river to the northern shores of lake Hnron and northern 
Wisconsin, south to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas, west 
to eastern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, and .Madison county, Arkansas (Lttterman). 

A large tree, 24 to 30 or, cxceinionally, ;>4 meters (Iiid(jicay) in heigiit, witli a trunk ().!)0 to 1.20 meter in 
diameter; rich woods, or at the .south .^^ometimes in bottom lands or the dryer portions of swamp.s, reaching its 
greatest dexelopment upon the '*bluft'" formations of the lower ilississippi basin; very common. 

AYood very hard, strong, tough, very close grained, not durable in contact with the soil, inclined to check in 
drying, dillicult to season, susceptible of a beautiful i)olish ; medullary rays broad, very conspicuous ; color, 
varying greatly with .soil and situation, dark red, or often lighter, the sap-wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 
0.GS83 ; ash, 0.51 ; largely used in the manufacture of chairs, shoe-lasts, plane stocks, handles, etc., and for fuel. 

292. — Ostrya Virginica, WilUUuow, 

Spec, iv, 469; Ennm. 982; Bcrl. B.-nimz. QGO.—Persoon, Syii. ii, 573.— AitoD, Ilort. Kew. 2 cd. v, 302.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 623.— Eaton, 
Manual, 109; 6 ed. 244.— Nuttall. Genera, ii, 219.— Hayne, Dond. Fl. 169.— Elliott, Sk.ii, 018.— Spreiif;el, Syst. iii, 856.— Torrcy, 
Compend. Fl. X. States, 356; Nicollet's Rep. 160; Fl. N. York, ii, 185, 1. 102.— Audubon. Birds, t. -lO.- Loiidou, Arborotnra, iii, 
2015, f. 1940.— Hooker, Fl.Bor. -Am. ii, 100.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 336.— Bigelon-, Fl. Boston. 3 cil. 3o;!.—Spacli in Ann. Sci. Nat. 
2 Ber. xvi, 246 ; Hist. Veg. xi, 218.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 177 ; 2 ed. i, 201 & t.— I'urry in Owen's Kop. 618.— Darlington, 
Fl. Ccbtrica, 3 ed. 274.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 509.- Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 256. -Chapman, Fl. S. States, 426.— Curtis in 
Eep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 75.— Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 388.— Wood, CI. Book, 647; Bot. &, Fl. 
307.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 233.— A. Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 125.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 456.— Young, Bot. Texas, 
510.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 27.— Sargent in Am. Nat. xi, 683.— Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xiii, 179.— Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Iliu. e5. 

Carpinus Ostrya, Linnaius, Spec. 1 ed. 998, in part.— Du Roi, Harbk. i, 130.— Wangenhfim,Amer. 48.— Marshall, Arbnstum, 
25.— Moench, Meth. 694.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, t. 76.— Nonveau Duhamel,ii,200.— Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 
53, t. 7 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 27, 1. 109. 

Carpinus Virginiana, Miller, Diet. 7ed.No. 4.— Lamarck, Diet, i, 708; Wangenheim, Amor. 49.— Nouveau Duhamel, ii, 

201.— Pesfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 493.— Smith in Rees' Cycl. vii, No. 5. 
Carpinus iriflora, Moench, Meth. 394. 

Carpinus Ostrya, var. Americana, Michanx, Fl.Bor.-Am.ii, 202. 

0. rirjfimca, var. <7?«nf/«?o*a, .Spach in Ann, Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xvi, 246; Hist. Veg. xi, 218. 
0. Virginica, var. eglandulosa, Spach.in Anu.Sci.Nat.2 scr. xvi, 246; Hist. Veg. xi, 218. 
0. Virginiana, Koch.Dendrologie, ii',6. 

nop HOENBEAM. mON WOOD. LEVEE WOOD. 

Bay of Chaleur, through the valleys of the Saint Lawrence and the lower Ottawa rivers, along the northern 
shore of lake Huron to northern Minnesota, south through the northern states and along the Alleghany 
mountains to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, and through eastern Iowa, southeastern Missouri, and 
Arkansas to eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and eastern Texas. 

A small tree, 9 to 1.7 meters in height, with a trunk 0.;{0 to O.GO meter in diameter ; generally on dry, gravelly 
hillsides and knolls, reaching its greatest develoinnent in southern Arkan.sas; common. 

Woo<l heavy, very strong ami hard, tough, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish, very 
durable in contact with the .soil; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, or, like 
the sap wood, often nearly white; specitif; gravity, 0.8284 ; a.sli, O.-'JO ; u,sed for ])osts. levers, handles of tools, etc. 

293. — Carpinus Caroliniana, Walter, 

Fl. Caroliniana, 2:W.— A. Do Camlollc, Prodr. xvi", 126.— Koch, Diiiilrologie, ii', 4.— Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xviii, IHO.— Kidgway in 
Proc. i;. S. Nat. Mns. 1882, 85. 

C. Americana, Lamarck, Diet. iv,708; Snppl. ii, 202.— Michanx, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 201.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 468; Eiiuni. 
Suppl. 64 ; Berl. Baiimz. 75. — Pcrsoon, Syn. ii, .573. — Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 57, t. 8; N. Auiurican Sylva, 3 ed. 
iii,2<st. 108.— Pursh, Fl. Am. .Sept. 11,623.- Aitoii, Ilort. KcW. 2 ed. v, 301.— Eaton, Manual, 109; 6 ed. 82.— liartou, 
Pro<lr. Fl. Phiiadclpb. 91 ; Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 176.— Nuttall, Genera, ii,21rt.— Hayne, Deud. Fl. 168. — Elliott, 
Sk. ii, 618.— Watson, Dcnd. Brit, ii, t. 157.— .Sprrngel, Syst. iii, 8.54.— Guimpel, Otto & Ilayue, Abb. Holz. I(i7, t. 84.— 
Torrey, Couipend. Fl. N. States, 3,56; Fl. N. York, ii, 185, t. 103.— Peuii. Cycl. iv, 315.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 201,3, 
f. 1936.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 160.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 182.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 38;!.— Spaeh in Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 2 wr. xvi, 2.5^; Hist. Veg. xi, 224.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 174 ; !i ed. i, I'Jri «k t.— I'arry in Owen's Rep. 
618. — Darlington, Fl. CeMtrica,3ed.l!73. — Darby, Bot.S. States, 508.— Cooper in Smithsonian Reji. 1858,2.56. — Chapman, 
Fl. S. Slates, 4ti!.'>. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 75.— Lesciucreux iu Owen's 2(1 Rep. Arkansas, 
388.— Wood, CI. Book, M8; Bot. <t Fl. 3l;7.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5cd. 4.57 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Young, Bot. Texas, 
■')09. — Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, '^7. — Broadheud iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. — Bell in (leologicai Rei). Canada, 
1879-'80, .52«. 

C. Betulus Fjr^inian«, Marshall, Arbuslum, 25. 



CATALOGUE OF F0KP:ST TREES. 159 

UOENBEAM. BLUE BEECH. WATElt BEECH. IRON WOOD. 

Nova Scotia, .soiitlRTii New Brun.swiek, nortbern shores of Georgian bay, southern peninsnla of Michi(;an to 
northern Minnesota (lake Pokegama, Garrison), ttouth to caj)C Malabar and Tampa bay, Florida, and the valley of 
the Trinity river, Texas, west to central Iowa, eastern Kansas, and the valley of the I'oteau river, Indian territory. 

A small tree, 9 to 15 meters in lieijiht, with a trunk sometimes O.GO to 0.00 meter in diameter, or at the north 
much smaller and often reduced to a low shrub ; borders of streams and swamps, in moist soil ; most common and 
reaching its greatest develoi)ment along the western slopes of the .southern Alleghany monntains and in southern 
Arkansas and eastern Texas. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, inclined to check in drying; medullary rays numerooB, 
broad; color, light brown, the thick sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.7286 ; ash, 0.^3; sometimes ased for 
levers, handles of tools, etc. 



BETULACE^. 



294. — Betula alba, var. populifolia, Spach, 

Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xv, 167 ; Hist. Veg. si, 233. — Endlicber, Gener.a, Siippl. iv', 19. — Kegel in Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscow, six, 76, t. 4, t 
19-28; Grjiy, M.nnual N. States, 5 ed. 459. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, -'8. — Macoun in Geological Kep. Canada, 1879-'eO, 55«. 

B. lenta, Du Roi, Harbk. i, 92 [not LinnieasJ.— Waugenheim, Anier. 45, t 29, f. 38. 

B. populifolia, Marshall, Arbustum, 19.— Aiton,Hort. Kew. iii, 336; 2 ed. v, 299.— Willdcnow, Berl. Baumz. 1 ed. 37, t 2, 
f. 5 ; Spec, iv, 403. — Pcrsoon,S.vn. ii, 572. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arli. ii, 470. — NouveauDuhanipl, iii, 204. — Poiret, SuppL 
i, 687.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 139, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 78, t. 71.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii.620.— 
Smith in Rees' C.vcl. iv. No. 8. — Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 92; Compend. Fl. Philadeipb. ii, 175. — Eaton, Mannal, 
■ 109; 6 cd.53.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 218; Sylva, i,2:>; 2 ed. i, 42.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 166.— Sprengcl, Syst. iii, e54.— 
Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, 151. — Torrey, Corapeud. Fl. N. States, 355 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 199, t. 112. — Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 
1707, f". 1560.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 155.— Eaton & Wrigbt , Bot. 156.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 381.— Emerson, Tree« 
Massachusetts, 213; 2 ed. i, 243 & t. — Gray, M.inual N. States, 1 ed. 421. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1358, 256. — 
Wood, CI. Book, 649; Bot. & Fl. 308.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii,646. 

B. acuminata, Ehrbart, Beitr. vi, 98.— Mcunch, Meth. 693. 

B. alha,SVL\i&\tec\e& populifolia, Kegel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii<,399; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi>, 164. 

WHITE BIRCH. OLD FIELD BIRCH. GRAY BIRCH. 

New Brunswick and the valley of the lower Saint Lawrence river to the southern shores of lake Ontiirio, south, 
generally near the coast, to New Castle county, Delaware. 

A small, short-lived tree of rapid growth, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; 
dry, gravelly, barren soil or borders of swamps, now generally springing up upon abandoned or burned land in 
eastern New England. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, liable to check in drying, not durable; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure; (olor, light brown, the sai> wood nearly white; specific gravity, O.oTCO ; ash, 0.29 ; largely used iu the 
manufacture of spools, shoe-pegs, wood pulp, etc., lor hooi)-poles and fuel. 

The bark and leaves, as well as those of B. papi/rifera and B. hnia, are popularly esteemed as a remedy for 
various chronic diseases of the skin, bladder, etc., and for rheumatic and gouty complaints; the empyrvumatic oil 
of birch obtained from the inner bark by distillation is used externally and internally for the -same jnirposes ( {'. 5. 
Dispensatory, l-i: ed. 1592. — Nat. J)ispensatorij,2 ed.2S7); the bark occasionally used domestically in the manufacture 
of ink. 

295. — Betula papyrifera, Marshall, 

Arbustum, 19.— Michau.x, Fl. Bor.-Ani, ii, 180. 

B. papyrncea, Alton, ITort. Kew. iii, 337; 2 ed. v, 300.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 464; Enum. l>81 ; Berl. Banmi. ;VJ, t.O, f. 1.— 
Nouvoau Duhanicl,iii,205.— Pcrsoon,Syn. ii, 572.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 477.— Poir»?t, Snppl. i, 6S?.— Michaux 
f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 133, 1. 1 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 70. t. 69.— Smith in Reos" Cycl. i v. No. 9.— Puish, Fl. Am. Sept. 
ii,621.— B. S. Barton, Bot. Appx. 34,t.27,f. I.— Eaton, Manual, 109; C ed. ,\3.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philad.-lph. ii, 
175.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 218 ; Sylva, i, 25 ; 2 ed. i, 42.— Hayno, Dend. Fl. 167.— Watson, Dond. Brit, ii, t. i:.2.— Sprougel, 
Syst. iii, 854.— Torrey, Coiii)>inil. Fl. N. States. 355; Fl. N. York, ii. 199.— Audubon. Birds, t. S8.—Loudon. Arboretum, 
iii, 1708, f. 1561 & t.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 155.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. l.".!;. — Bigelow. Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 381.— 
Pcuu. (^ycl. ii, :{49.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 210; 2 ed. i,2;!9 & t.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 618.— Richanlson, 
Arctic Exped. 437. — Cooler in Smithsonian Kep. 1858, 2.">6.— Hooker f. in Trims. Liuniran Soc. xxiii% 300, :!:S9. — Wood, 
CI. Book, 649 ; Bot. & Fl. 308.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 459.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, l>45.— Vasi>y. Cat. Forest 
Trees, 28.— Macoun iu Geological Rep. Canada, 187^-'76, 210.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 180.- Bell in Geological 
Kep. Canada, 1879-'80, 45"^. 



160 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

B. nigra, Loistlmr in Xouvtau Pubaiiu'l, ii, t.r>l [not Limia^iis]. 

li. grandis, Schnultr in hui. Hort.Gwtt. Is3;t,'2. 

B. rubra, l.odiligi-s, Cat.id. IKMj. 

B. Canadinsis, LwUliges, Cat. c»l. lH3f>. 

B. alba, var. papyri/era, Spaili.in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2Kpr.xv, 1(^8; Hist. Vog. xi.aw.— Endlicher, Genera, SuiJpl.iV, 19.— Uogel 
in Mi'ni. Sue. Xat. Moscow, xix, 81, t. 5, f. 5-10. 

B. COriU/oliu, IJ( .;il in MfO). .Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, Wi, t. l".', f. 21I-3G. 

B. alba, Pub.spccicS papyri/era, Ki gi l in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii<, 401 ; Dc Candollo, Proilr. xvi', IGG. 

B. alba, subspecies papyri/era, var. cordifolia, Eogel in Bnll. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii*, 401 ; Uc Caudollp, Proilr. 
xvi=, ICC. 

B. alba, Sllb.spec-ics papyrifira, var. cvmmviiis, Kogfl in Bnll. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii\ 401; Do Candollc, Prodr. 
xvi-, ir.;->. 

B. alba, subspecies commutata, Eepcl in Bnll. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxTiii<,401 ; Do Candollo, Prodr. xvi', ICC. 

B. occidentalis, Ljall in Jour. Linuican Soc. vii, lo4 [not Hooker]. 

B. alba, var. popuUfolia, Winchell in Ludlow's Kep. Black Hills, (17 [not Spach]. 

CANOE BlECn. WHITE BIECH. PAPER BIRCH. 

Nortbern Nowfouudhmd and Labrador to Ibe soiifbern sbores of Iludson bay and Eorlhwist to tbo Groat 
Bear hike and tbe valley of fbe Yukon river, Alaska, .«outb, in tbe Atlantic region to ^A'adinp: river, Long island, 
the mountains of nortbern Pennsylvania, Clear lake, Montcalm county, Micbigan, nortlieasteni Illinois and Saint 
Cloud, Minnesota ; in tbe Pacific region .Mmtli to the Black bills of Dakota (E. Douglas), tbe Mullen trail of tbe IJittcr 
Koot mountains and Flatliead lake, Jlontana, Ibe neigbborbood of Fort Colville. Wasiiington tei-ritory (^Ya1son), 
and tbe valley of tbe lower Fraser liver, Britisb Colnmbin [Engelmann tC Sargent). 

A tree 1« to 24 meters in beigbt, with a trunk 0.(J0 to 0.00 meter in diameter; ricb woodlands and banks of 
streams; very common in tbe nortbern Atlantic region and reacbing a bigber latitude tban any deciduous tree of 
tbe American forest. 

Wood ligbt, strong, bard, tough, very close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
brown tinged with red, tbe saji-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5955; ash, 0.25; largely used in tbo 
manufacture of spools, shoe-lasts and pegs, in turnery, for fuel, \vood-i)uli), etc. 

The very tough, durable baik easily separated into thin layers, impervious to water, is largely used in the 
manufacture of canoes, tents, etc. 

296. — Betula occidentalis. Hooker, 

Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, l.'j.l. — Spnch in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 sor. xv,197. — Nuttatl, .Sylva, i, 22, t.7; 2 cd. i, 40, f. 7. — Kndlichcr, Genera, Sni)|il. iv', 
20. — Torrcy iu Fremont's Rop. 97; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 4(>C. — N<'wl>crry in Pacific R. K. Rep. vi, 89.— Cooper in .Smithsonian Rep. 
l'^i>S.2CI ; Am. Nat. iii, 40**.— Kegel in Mem. (»oc. Nat. Moscow, xix,i:JI,t. l.""!, f. :'5— Porter in Hayden's Reii. 1>:7I, 4:).!.— Watson in 
King's R<-p. v,:i2;},t.'Jj; PI. Wliceler, 17; Bot. California, ii, 79. — Porter & Hayden, Fl. Colorado; Haydi'D'sSurv. Misc. Pul>. No. 4, 
127. — Rotbrock in PI. Wbwder. 50; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 2:i9. — Vaney, Cat. Forest Trees, '28. — Marimn in Geological Hep. Canada, 
I87.'i-'7C,2I0.—G.M. Dawson in Caniwlian Nat. new scr. ix,:!31. 

B. alba, subspecies occidentalis typica, Regel in Bull. Sne. Nat. Mosrow, xxxvlii*, 400; DoCandollc, Prodr. xvi-, lf>.5. 

BLACK IUU<U. 

Bntisb Columbia, south to the Mount Shasta region (Strawlicrry viilc) and flic eastern canons of flic Sierra 
Nevada.s .nbove Owen's valley (Lemmon), California, and tlirongli tlii^ inferior nirigcs and (be IJocky niDunfains to 
Utah and nortliern New Mexico. 

A small tree, 8 to 12 meters in beigbt, wif b a trunk sometimes 0..'50 to 0.45 meter in diameter; mountain canons 
and along streams, in moist soil, often throwing up several stems from fbe ground and forming dense thicket.s. 

WfKxl soft, strong, britth^, close-grained, com])act; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown, tbe 
sap-wood lighter; sjyecific gravity, O.fiO.^O; ;i«h, 0.30; somewhat used for fencing, fuel, etc. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 161 

297.— Betula lutea, MicUaux f. 

Hist. Arb. Am. ii,152, t. r.; N. Aincricau Sjlva, 3 t<l. ii,82,t. 73.— Spacli in Ann. Sci. Nat.2 ser. xv, 191; Hist. Vcj,'. xi, 243.— Endlicher, 
Gcnora, Siippl. iv-, 20.— .Wood, Bot. »t FI. 308.— Gray, Manual N.State8,5 cd.459.— Koch, Den(lrolo(;ie, ii,(»0 — Vascy.Cat. Foreet 
Trees, 28. — Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 180. 

B. excelsa, Pur8l),ri.Ani. Sept. ii.Cai [not AitonJ.— NuttalI,Genr-.ra,il, 218.— Sprcngcl, Syat. iii.8o4.— Torrcy.Compcnd. FL 
N. States, S-W; Fl.N. York, ii, 200.— E.iton, Manual, G ed. 53.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1711, f. I5C4, 15«5 & t.— Hooker, 
Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, ]5().— Eaton & 'Wrigbt, IJot. 150.— Bigclow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. :J82.— Lindley in IVun. Cyrl. ii, 549. -Gray, 
Manual N. States, 1 ed. 422. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 206; 2 cd. i,235&t. — Richardson, .\rctic Espcd. 438, — 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 25G. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 428. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, 
18G0, iii, 74,— Wood, CI. Book, 648.— Bell iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'b0, 50=. 

B. lenla, Kegel in Mew. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 125, in part ; Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxiviii', 417, iu part; De CandoUe, 
Prodr. xvi-, 179, in part. 

YELLOW UIRCn. GRAY BIKCH. 

j^ewfoiiiidhind, uortlierii .shores of tin; gulf of Saint Lawrence to Abittibi lake and the western shores of lake 
Superior and Kainy lake, south throujili tlie nortliern states to Delaware and southern Minnesota, and along the 
Alleghany mountains to the high peaks of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

One of the largest and most valuable deciduous trees of the northern New England and Canadian forests, 
often 21 to 29 meters in height, with a trunk O.no to 1.20 meter iu diameter; rich woodlands; common. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, very close-grained, comi)act, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; 
medullary I'ays numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, the heavier sap-wood nearly whi'.e; specific 
gravity, 0.G553; ash, 0.3 L; largely used for fuel, in the manufacture of furniture, button and tassel molds, pill and 
match boxes, and for the hubs of wheels. 

298. — Betula nigra, Linnams, 

Spec. 1 ed. 982.— Marshall, Arbustum, 18.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 231.— Alton, Hort . Kew. iii, 336 ; 2 cd. v. 299.— Ga?rtner, Fruct. ii, 54, 
t. 90, f. 1.— Willdenow, Spec. iv,464; Enum.931; Berl. Bauuiz. ,'>6.— Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 203, t. 51.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 572.— 
Desibntaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 477.— Smith in Recs' Cyel. iv. No. 2.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 621. — Nuttall, Genera, ii, 218. — Hayne, Dead. 
Fl. 166.— Lamarck, 111. iii, 350, t. 760, f. 2.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 616.— Watson, Dend. Brit, ii, t. 153.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 854.— Torrcy. 
Compeud. Fl. N. States, 355; Fl. N.York, ii, 201.— Beck, Bot. 325.— Loudon, Arlioretuni, iii, 1710, f. l.''>62, 1563 & t.— Peun. Cycl. ii, 
149. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts 208; 2 ed. i, 237. — Darlington, Fl. C'estrica,3 ed.275. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 50*. — Cooper in 
Smilhsonian Rep. 1658, 256. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 428. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 73. — Regcl iu Mem. 
Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 118, 1. 12, f. 1-12 ; Bull. Sue. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii-', 412; DeCandollc,Prodr. xvi-, 175. — Lesquereux in Owen's 
2d Rep. Arkansas, 389.— Wood, CI. Book, 649; Bot. & Fl. 308.— Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 266. —Gray, Manual N. Sta'ies,5ed. 459; 
Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 644. — Young, Bot. Texas, 512.— Vasey, Gat. Forest Trees, 28. — Burbauk in Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist, xviii, 214. — Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. — Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1S82, 85. 

B. lanulosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 181.— Nouveau Duhamel, iii, 206. 

B. rubra, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. ii, 142, t. 3; N. American Sylva,3 ed. ii, 80, t. 72.— Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 1. 1248.— Eaton. 
Manual, 6 ed. 53.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 150.— Spach in Ann. Sci.Nat.2 ser. xv, 185; Hist. Veg. xi, 230.— Endlicher, 

Gcnora, Suppl. iv-, 19. 

B. iDUJIlhlta, Loddiges. Cat. ed. 1836. 

KED BIRCH. RIVER BIRCH. 

Banks of the Merrimac and Spicket rivers, Middlesex and Essex counties, j\rassachusetts. AVadiug river. Long 
island, south through the coast and middle districts to the (Miattahoochee region of western Florida, west to 
western Iowa, northwestern Jlissouri, eastern Kansas, the Indian territory, and the valley of the Trinity river, Texas. 

A tree IS to 2-1 meters iu height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.75 nu>ter in diameter; banks of stivams and 
l)on(ls; very common and reac'liing its greatest development in the .south Atlantic states and in the basin of the 
lower ]\lississi])pi river. 

Wood liglit, rather hard, strong, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays numerous, obscure: color, bixiwu, the 
s;![) wood nuieh lighter; si)ecit)c gravity, 0.,") 702 ; ash, 0.3."i; used in the manufacture of furniture, woodeuware, 
wooden shoes, o.\-yokes, etc. 

11 FOR 



162 FOREST TREES OF Ni^RTH AMERICA. 

299. — Betula lenta, Linn.Tus, 

Spec. 1 e<i. 9p3.— Lamarck, Diet. i,453.— Marshall, Arbustuiii, I'J.—Aitoii, Hort. Kow. iii,:i;!7; 2 cd. v,300.— Willdciiow, Spec, iv, 4fi4; 
Enum. ?~1 ; Bcrl. Raitiuz. 59.— Persoou, Syu. ii, 572. — Dcslbiitaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 477. — Xouvcau Diihaiuel, iii, '.'05. — Micbaiix f. Hist. 
Arb. Am. ii, 147. t . 4 : X. Amcricau S.vlva, 3ed. ii, 85, t. 74.— Smith in Kecs' Cycl. i v, No. 3.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 021.- Eaton, Manual, 
ICO; Ge(1.53.— Barton, Comi)end. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 175.— Xnttall, Genera, ii, 218.— Hayue, Dcnd. Fl. 107.— Elliott, Sk. ii, (il7.— 
Wat.'ion, Dend. lirif. ii, 144.— Sprengel, Syst. ii,S54.— Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N. States, 356; Fl. N. York.ii, 200.— Gnimpel, Otto & 
Hayue, Abb. Holz. 105, 1. 1<!.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1713, f. 15(>('i.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 15G.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 15l).— 
Bigelow, Fl.Bostou. 3ed. 381. — Liudleyiu Penn. Cycl. ii, 349. — Spach in Anu. Sci. Nut. 2ser. xv,190; Hi.st. Veg. xi,241, — Emerson, 
Trees Massachusetts, 203; 2 ed. i, 232 &. t. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. i'SS. — Endlicher, Genera, Suppl. iv-, 20. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestrica, 3 eU. 275. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 508. — Cooper in Smithsonian Kcp. 1858,250. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 428. — Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. X. Carolina, 1860, iii, 74. — Kegel in Mem. .Soc. Xat. Moscow, xxxviii^, 125, in jiart; Bull. Soc.Nat. Moscow, 
xxsviii, 417, in part ; De CandoIIe, Prodr. xvi-, 179, in pait. — Wood. CI. Book, 648; Bot. & Fl. 308. — Porcher, Resources S. Forests, 
265. — Gray, Manual X. States, 5 ed. 458. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 039. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 28. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 
180.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 55^—Ridgway in Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus. 1882, a'>. 

B. nigra, Du Ri>i,Harbk. i,y3.— WaDgcnheiui.Amer. 35, t. 15, f. 34. 

B. ejccelna, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 337 ; 2ed. v, 299 [not Pursh].— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 404.— Berl. Baumz. 41, t. 2, f.2.— Nouvcau 
Duhamel, iii, 203, t. 52. — Persoon, Syn. ii,572. — Dc8l'ontaines,Hist. Arb. ii, 477. — Poiret,Snppl. i,C87. — Smith in Kees' 
Cycl. iv, Xo. 10. — Hayue, Dend. Fl. i, 7. — Spach in Ann. Sci. Xat.2ser. xv, 188; Hist. Veg. xi,243. — Endlicher, Genera, 
iv', 20. 

B. Carpini/oUa, Ehrhavl.Beitr. vi, 99.— Willdenow, EuMui. 9f 1 : Hirl. Baumz. 49. 

CHEKEY BIKCU. BLACK BIRCH. SWEET BIRCH. MAHOGANY BIRCH. 

NewfouiKllaud and the valley of the Saguenny river, west through Ontario to the Manitou islands of hilco 
Huron, south to northern Delaware and southern Indiana, and along the Alleghany mountains to the Chattahooeheo 
region of northern Florida, extending west to middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk O.'.IO to 1.50 meter in diameter; rich woodlands; very coihiik/u 
in all northern forests. 

Wood heavy, very strong and hard, close-grained, compai-l, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful iioiish; meiliillary 
rays numerous, ob.scure; color, dark brown tinged with reil, the sap-wood light brown or yellow; specific gravity, 
0.7617; a.sh, 0.'J6; now largely used in the manufacture of furniture and for fuel; in Nova Scotia and New Brnnswiok 
largely in shjii-building. 

" Birch beer" is obtained by fermenting the saccharine saj) of this and perhaps some other species of the genus 

300. — Alnus maritima, .Mnhlcuberg, 

MSB.— NutUll, Sylva, i, :», t. 10-; 2 ed. i, 50, t. 10^.— Gray, Manual X. States, 5 ed. 461 ; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Cauliy in Coulter's Bot. 
Gazette, vi, 1881. 

Betula-Alnun inarilima, Marsliall, Arbustum, 20. 

A. oblongata, R.-gel in Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 172, t. vi, 1". 3-9 [not Willdenow]. 

A. maritima typica, Regel in Bull. Soc Nat. Moscow, xxxviii*. 427: De Canilolli>, Prodr. xvi», 186. 

SEASIDK AI.DKR. 

Southern Delaware and ea.stern Maryland, near the coast; valley of the Red river, Indian territory, in about 
longitude 90° .30' W. (E. Hall); Manchuria and .Japan (A. maritima, Japonira and arr/uta, Jier/el in De CandoIIe, 
Prodr. .XV i^ ISC). 

A small tree, to 7 meters in height, with a liiink O.IO to 0,1."> nicli'i in (liainctci : borders of streams and 
swamps. 

Wood light, wjft, close-grained, checking badly in drying; medullary rays broad, conspicuous; color, light 
bright l)rown, the Kap-woo<l hardly distinguishable, somewhat lighter; specific giavity. (i. tOiUJ; ash, 0..'19. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 1G3 

301. — Alnus rubra, Bonganl, 

Mem. Acad. St. Peterslnirg, C ser. ii, 1(S. — Hooker, Fl. lior.-Aiu. ii, lOti. — Spacli in Ami. Sci. Nat. U htr. xv, 20,"). — Endliclicr, Genera, 
Suppl. iv^, 21. — Lyall in Jour. Linniean Soc. vii, i;{4. — Kegel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii^, 429; De CandoUe, ProJr. xvi«, 
180. — Toirey,Bot. Wilkes Exped. 4(i7. — Watson, Bot. California, ii, 80. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new scr. ix.XII. 

?A. glutmom, Pursli. I'l. Am. Sept. il,(;22 [not Willdenow]. 

A. Orcgana, Nuttall, Sylva, i,28, t. 9; 2 ed. i,44,t. 9.— Newberry in Pacific E. R. Rep. vi, 25, 89.— Cooper in Smitluionian 
Ki'p. law, 261 1 Pacitic R. K. Rep. xii«,28, 68.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 28.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. 

,1. incana, Var. rnbril, Kegel in Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 157, t. 17, f. :!-4. 



Sitkii, south through the islands aud Coast ranges of British Columbia, Washington territory, Oregon, and 
California to Santa Barbara, extending east through the Blue mountains to northern Montana. 

A large tree, 1!4 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.20 meter in diameter, or in British Columbia 
aud the Blue mountains often reduced to a low shrub; river bottom lands aud borders of streams; most eonimon 
and reaching its greatest development along the large streams of western Washington territory and Oregon. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, easily worked, satiny, susceptible of a 
beautifid i)olish; medullary rays distant, broad ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap-wood nearly white; 
specific gravity, 0.4813; ash, 0.42; largely used in Oregon in the nntnufacture of furniture. 

302. — Alnus rhombifolia, Nuttall, 

Sylva, i, lili; 2 ed. i;40. — Torrey, Bot. Wilkes E.'cped. 467. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 2iS. — Watson, Bor. California, ii. •?(!. 
A. (jblHnosa, var. serrulata, Refjel in Mem. Soe. Nat. Moscow, xix. 164, in part. 

A. NCrrtdatu, var. riniVb-a, Kegel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxvili^ 4:J2, HI part; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-. 18^^. in part. 

ALDER. 

Valley of the lower Fraser river, Britisli Columbia, south through the Coast ranges to southern California, 
extending east along the ranges of Washington territory to Clear creek, Idaho ( Watson), aud the valley of the 
Flathead river, Montana {Canlnj if- Sargent). 

A small tree, to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes O.GO to 0.90 meter in diameter, or toward its 
northern and eastern limits reduced to a shrub; borders of streams; the common alder of the California valleys. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light 
brown, the sap-wood lighter, often nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4127; ash, 0.31. 

303. — Alnus oblongifolia, Torrey, 

Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 204.— Couper in Smilhsoniau Kep. l.-<."i-', Uiil).— Wat.sou in PI. Wheeler. 17: Bot. California, ii. 80.— 
Rothroek in Wheeler's Rep. vi,2;i9.— Kusl.y in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix.7i). 

A. serrulata, var. oblongifolia, Kef;<l in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii', 44:5; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 18?. 



San Bernardino and Caytnnaca mountains, California, througii tiu> ranges of southern Arizona and southern 
New Mexico to the valley of tlu> Kio Grande: southward into Mexico. 

A tree 15 to 21 meters in height, witli a truidv O.OO to 1.20 meter in diameter; borders of streams in dtcp 
motmtain (^anons. 

Wood light, soft, not sti'ong, brittle, close-grained, compact: medidlary rays numerous, very obscure; color, 
light brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.30S1; ash, 0.42. 



164 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

304. — Alnus serrulata, Wiiuieuow, 

Spec, iv, 33i!; Eu'uiu. 9»» : Berl. Bauiuz. 2 eil. 21. — Xoiive.iu Diihamol, ii, 'Jlti. — Porsoon, Syii. ii, o'lO. — Dosfontaincs, Hist. Arb. ii, 488.— 
Aiton, Hurt. Kew. •> e.l. v, i'lO.— Micliaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 3-JO, t. 4, f. 1 ; N. Aiuprioaii Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 87, t. 75, f. 1.— Pursh, Fl. Am. 
S«pt. ii, C-i3.— Barton, Prcnlr. Fl. Philadelpb. Si>; Compeiid. FI. Pliiladclph. ii, l.'i-'!'.— Eaton, Manual, 105; 6 ed. I'i.— Nuttall, Genera, 
ii, iOti.— Ha\-no, Deud. Fl. l'2-.>.— Elliott. .'^U. ii, .''.(w.— Torrey, Conipcnd. Fl. X. States, a^O; Fl. N. York, ii, 202, t. 115.— Beck, Bot. 
326.— Darlington. Fl. Ccstrica, 3 ed. 27l).— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, lt>88, f. 1544.— Eaton iV Wright, Bot. 120.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 
3 cd. 220 — SpacU in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 scr. xv, 20C ; Hist. Veg. xi, 251.— Emerson, Trees Ma.s.saeliusetts, 218 ; 2 ed. i, 248 «fc t.— Endliclier, 
Genera, Snppl. iv-', 21.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 50?. —Chapman, Fl. S. State.s, 429.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 
1860, iii, 102. — Lesqnereus in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkanssis, 389. — Wood, CI. Book, 650; Bot. &. F1.308. — Poreher, Resourees 8. Forests, 
266.- Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 461.— Young, Bot. Texas, 513.— Broadhead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. 

Betltla ntfjosa, Du Rol, Harbk. i, 176.— Waugenheim, Araer. 66, t. 29, f. GO.— Ehrharf , Beitr. iii, 21. 

TBetuhlAlnilS glauca. Marshall, Arbustum, 20. 

Betula serrulata, Aiton,Hort. Kew. iii, 338.— AVilldeiiow, lUrl. llauinz. I e.l. 45.— Abbot, Insects Georgia, ii, 183, t. 92.— 
Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 181. 

A. serrulata, var. vulf/aris, Spaeh in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xv,206. 

A. serrulata, var. macrophylla, Spaeh in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xv, 206. 

A. serrulata. var. oblongata, Spaeh, Hist. Veg. xi, 251. 

A. serrulata, var. laii/olia, .Spach.Hist. Veg. xi,25l. 

A. rubra, Tnckerman in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 ser. xlv, 32. 

A. hybrida, Pieiehcnbach, lion. Fl. Germ. xii,t. 630, f. 1292. 

A. glvtinosa, var. serrulata, Reg.l in Mem. .Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 164, 1. 11, f. 6, e, in part. 

A. glutiuosa, var. rugosa, Regel in Mem.Soc.Nat. Mo8cow,xix,165,t. ll,f.9, 10. 

A. serrulata genuina and obtusifolia, Regel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xsxviii\ 432: DeCaudolle,Prodr. xvi', 188. 

A. serrulata, var. rugosa, Regel in Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii^, 432, in part: De Candolle, Prodr. svi=, 188, in part. 

A. rugosa, Ko<.h, Derdrologic, ii,<;35. 

.4. oblongata, vndulata, rugosa, Canadensis, and Americana, iiort. 

BLACK ALDER. SMOOTH ALDER. 

Essex county. Ma.s.sacLnsetts, west to .soutlicni Mis.souri, south to iiortliern Florida and tlic valley of tlie 
Trinity river, Texas. 

A small tree, C to 12 meters in height, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a tall, branching 
shnih forming ilen.se thicket.s; borders of streams and swamps, i)robably rearhiiig its greatest develojiment in 
southi-m Arkan:?as. 

Wood light, .soft, clo.se-grained, comi)act; medullary lays nunieions, coiisiijcuous; color, liglit brown, t lie sap- 
wootl lighter; speeific gravity, O.tOOO; ash, 0.38. 

A decoction of the bark and leaves, as well as those of A. incana, i.s a iiopuiar icniedy against inipiaity of the 
blood and in tiie treatment of diarriioea and ha^maturia, etc. {Kat. Dispensntorii, H cd. 1.'55). 

305. — Alnus incana, Willdenow, 

Spec, iv, :!:t".; ICniiiii. '.•;'.; Berl. Baiimz. 2 ed.20.— Pcrsonn, Syn. ii,. 5511.— Aiton, Hort. Ki'W. 2 ed. v,25!l. — Hayue.Deiid. Fl. 1.52. — Eaton, 
Mannal,6e<l. 12.— London, Arboretnm, iii, 1087, f. 1543.— Ilookc-r, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 1.57.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 120.— .Sjiaeh in Ann. 
Sci. Nat. 2 (M;r. XV. 2.6; Hi^t. Veg. .\i, 2.52.— NnttuU, Sylva, 1,30 ; 2 ed. I, 46.— Tn( kernian in Am. .Jonr. Sci. 1 ser. xlv, 32. — Torrcy, 
F1.N. York,ii,2i)J. — Enier.'ton, Trees Ma-wachuHctts,220; 2 cd. i, 251 & t.— Endliclier. Genera, .Snppl. iv-, 21. — Parry in Owen's 
Hep. 61*. — Cooper in Stiiithsonian Rop. 18.58, 2.56. — Hooker f. in Trans. Linnwau So.;, xxiii-, 301.— Wood.Cl. Book. 649; Bot. & 
Fl. Sf**.- Rcgcl in Bull. .Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxxviii', 433; Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', la*!. -Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 461.— Kocli, 
Dendrologie. ij, 636.- Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 28.— Maeonn in Geological Rep. Canada, 187.5-'76, 210.— Bell in Geological Rep. 
Canada, l*71l-'-?i), .55'. 

Betula- Alnus, var. (1. incana, LinnnnH, S|iei'. l ed.9-3.— Dn Koi, Hiiilik. i, 109. 

Betula ilirtin'U Lii.n.'.'iiM. Snppl. 417.— Ait.m, Ilort. Kew. iii, 339.— Willdenow, Hiil. lianniz. 1 ed. 4.5.— Smith in Rees' Cyel. 
iv.N... 7. 

f Bet ul'i- Alnus rubra, Marshall. Arbnstnm, 20. 

A. glauca, >Ii.-hanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 322, t. 4, f. 2 ; N. American S\ Iva, 3 <d. K9, t. 7.5, f. 2.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 cd. 367. 

A. incana, var. glauca, Gray, Manual N. states, 1 cd.423; 3 ed. 461. 

A. inrttna, Atiirriraiia, iini] genuina. I>r;;,| in M<in. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xix, 1,55. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 165 

SPECKLED ALDKK. IIOAUY ALDKU. BLACK ALDER. 

Newfouiidliuid to tlie eastern base of the llocky iiifnintaiiis, .south to northern New England, Wisconsin 
Minnesota, and eastern Nebraska ; in Europe. 

A small tree, (i to 7 meters in lieight, with a trunk 0.10 to 0.15 meter in diameter, or more often a tall, branching 
shrub; borders of streams and swamps. 

A form with leaves green and glabrous on both sides or slightly pubescent, extending through the monntain 
ranges of the I'aeifie region from the Saskatchewan and British Columbia to New Mexico and the southern Sierra 
Nevadas of Calil'ornia, is — • 

var. virescens, Watson, Bot. California, ii, 8L 

A. incann, var. glauca, Regcl iu Mem. Soc.Nat. Moscow, xix, 154, in part ; Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscow, xxsviii< 433, in port; 

Do CandoUo, Prodr. xvi-, 189, in part. — Watson in King's Rep. v, :!2G [not Alton]; PI. Wheeler, 17. Botbrock PL 

Wlieeler, 50 ; Wlieeler's R(!p. vi, 239.— Macoun iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 210. 

A. .wyndufil, var. rugosa, Regel in Bull. Soc.Nat. Moscow, xxxviii^, 432, in part; De Candollo, Prodr. xvi^, 168, in part. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, checking in di-.ving ; medullary rays numerous, broad ; color, light brown, the 
Bap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4G07; ash, 0.-12 ; preferred and largely used in northern New England 
in the final baking of bricks, and occasionally, as well as that of J., nerrulata, in the manufacture of gunpowder. 



SALIC ACE.^. 



306. — Salix nigra, Marshal), 

Arbustum, i;!9.— Muhlenberg in Nene Schriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iv, 237, t. 4, f. 5 (Ann. Bot. ii, 65, t. 5, f. 5).— Willdenow, Spec iv, 
657; Euum. 1003; Berl. Baumz. 2 ed. 426. — Persaou, Syn. ii,599. — Micbaus f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 324, t.5, f. 1 ; N. American Sylra, 
3ed. iii, 64, 1. 125, f. 1.— Pursh, FI. Am. Sei>t. ii, 614.— Poirot, Suppl. iv, 61.— Eaton, Manual, US; 6 ed. 320.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231; 
Sylva, i, 79 ; 2 ed. i, 94.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. ISO.— Elliott, Sk, ii, 070.- Spreugel, Syst. i, ino.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 370 ; Fl. 
N. York, ii, 209.— Forbes, Sal.Woburn. 280.— W. Koch, Comment. 17.— Beck, Bot. 320.— Trantvetter iuMom. Acad. St. Petersburg, iii, 
614.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1529, 1604, f. 8.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 148. — Barratt, Sal. Am. No. 19. — Eatou & Wright, Bot. 
408.— Dietrich, Syn. v, 419.— Seringe, Fl. Jard. ii, 35.— Emerson Trees Massachusetts, 271 ; 2 eil. i, 307 & t.— Darlington, Fl. 
Cestrica, 3 ed. 279.— Andersson iu Ofr. af. Vot. Akad. Forh. 1858, 114 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, 53) ; Kongl. Sven. Akad. Hand), ti, 19, 
f. 15 ; Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 200.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 506.— Cooper iu Smithsouian Rep. 1858, 256.— Walpers, Ann. v, 744.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 430.— Curtis in Kep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1660, iii, 75.— Lesquerenx in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 

389. — Wood, CI. Book, 654 ; Bot.ifc Fl. 310. — Porclier, Resources S.Forests, 334.— Eugeluiann iu Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. uewser. xii,209. 

Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 460; Hall's PI. Texas, 21. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii,513. — Young, Bot.Texas. 514.— Macoun in Geological 

Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 210. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 28. — Bebb iu Bot. California, ii, 83.— Sears iu Bull. Essex lu.<t. xiii, 181. 

Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 86.— Hemsley, Bot. Am. -Cent, iii, 180 

S. pentandra, Walter, Fl. Caroliniaua, 243. 

S. CaroKlliana, Michaux.Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 226.— Lamarck, Diet, vi, 662.— Poiiet, Suppl. v, 62. 

S. Houstoniana, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 614.— Poirot, Suppl. v, 68.— Spreugel, Syst. i, 107.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 670.— Trnntrett** 
iu Mom. Acad. St. Petersburg, iii, 615.— Forbes, Sal. Woburu. 21, t. 21.— Eaton & Wright, B*>t. 409. 

S.falcata, Pur.sh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 614 [not HBK.].— Poirel, Suppl. v, TO.— Spreugel, Syst. i, I(i7.— Forl>e8,S.il.Wobnrn. 
279.— Eatou, Manual, 6 ed. 320.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 149.— Barr.itt, Sal. Am. No. 21.— Dietrich, Syn. v. 420. 

f S. ambigua, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 617.— Forl)es, Sal. Woburu. 282.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 321.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 403. 

S. ligustriiia. Micluiux r. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 326, t. 5,1". 2; N. .Vmoricau Sylva, 3 ed. iii,6.->, t. 12,\ f. 2.— Poin't, Suppl. v, 61. 

S. Plirshiaita, Sprougel,Syst. iii, 608.— Beck, Bot. 320.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica. 2 ed.560. 

S.flavovirem, Horuemanu iu Cat. Hort. Hafu. Stippl. ii, 11. 

f S. COrdata, var. falcata, Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N. State-s, 370. 

8. nigra, XiU-./alcaid, Torrey, Fl. N. York, ii, 209.— Carey iu Gray, Manual N. States, I ed. 429.— Darlington, Fl. Cc«tria«,S 

ed. 280. 



16G FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

BLACK WILLOW. 

Soiitlieni New BniiKswick uiul tlie northern shores of hikes Uuron and Superior southward tliroiigh tlie 
Aihuitic region to bay Biseayne and the Caloosa river, Fkirida, and the valley ot the Guadalupe rivei', Texas; 
I'acitie region, valleys of the Sa<;ran)ento river, California, and the Colorado river, Arizona. 

A small tree, sometimes IT) to IS meters in height, with a trunk rarely O.OO meter in diameter, or in southern 
Florida redueed to a h)w shrub; usually along the banks of streams; most common in the basin of the -Mississippi 
river an<l reaching its greatest develoi)ment in the rich bottom lands of the Colorado and other rivers of eastern 
Texas; varying greatly in the size and shape of the leaves (vars. an(]ust>folia, loiKjifoUd, lati/olia, etc., -1 »i(/<'r.s'.s'on in 
Kongl. Sten. Akad. Ilaiidl. vi, 20), length and habit of the ameuts, etc. 

The best marked forms are — 

var. marginata, Auilfmson in Kongl. .Svcn. Akail. Hanrtl. vi, 2-i; Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 201. 

•S. muitlinata, Wiuimciin Scbcdul. Horl>. Viiidal). 

var. longipes, Andorsson ill Kdii';!. Svcn. Akad. Ilandl.vi,2-i; Df Candollr, I'lodr. xvi', V'Ol. 

S. longipen, Sbuttlowortli in lu-rh. Itookcr.— Andcrsson in OIV. af. Vot. Akad. Forli. ia'>S, 111 U'i"<'- Am. Acad. iv,. ">:!).— 
Wulpcrs, Ann. v, 71-1. 

Forms of var. longipes more or less pubescent have been characterized by Aridersson in Kongl. Si'en. Akad. 
Bandl. vi, 22; Be Candolle, Prodi: xvi^, 201, as subvars. renulosa aiid gongylocarpa [Shiittleirorth], (S. longiprx, var, 
pubencens, Andersson in Proc. Am. Acad, iv, ."),'5; S. subi'illosa, Elliott in herb. iSrhweinitz ex. Niittall, Sylra, i, 79; 
2 ed. i, 94, ride Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, iv, 53, note). 

var.Wrightii,Andcre.son in Kongl. .Svcn. Akad. Handl.vi, '."J; Dc Candnllc. I'lodr. xvi-,'.>()l, — llcnitdcy, Hot. Ani.-Ccnt.iii, 180. 

S. Wrightii, Andereson in Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. rurli. 1808, lir> (Pmc. Am. Acad, iv, :•:> — WalpciM, Ann. v, Tt'i. — Torroy in 
Bot. Mcx. Bonndary Suvvoy, 804. 

var. Wardii, Behb in Bnll. l'. S. Nat. Mn.s. No. SK, 111. 

Wood light, soft, weak, clo.se-grained, checking badly in drying; medidlavy rays obscure; color, brown, tlie 
sai)-wood nearly white; specific gravity, ().44.'5(i ; a.sh, 0.70. 

The tonic and astringent bark U8ed domestically as a i)opular febrifuge, and containing, in common with that of 
all the species of the genus, salicylic acid, a i)owerfiil aiitijiyritic now successfully u.sed in the treatment of acute 
cases of gout, rheumati.sm, typhoid fever, etc. (Am. Jour, riiarm. 1875,303.— U. IS. Dinjien-saiory, II ed. 790, 1748. — 
Xat. J>ixpenmtory, 2 ed. 1248). 

Note.— The closely allied .Salix occidenlalix, Bokc, of lh« West Indies i« not pcrliiip.s H|ircilically distinct from S. uUjvh, with wliicli 
Home of tlio foriiiH of var. longipes from sontbcrn Florida sooni to connect it. 

307. — Salix amygdaloides, Andorsson, 

Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Torli. 18o8, IM (pioe. Am. Aead. iv, .i:!).— \Val).ei'.s, Ann. v, 7.14.— Held, in Wheeler's Kep. vi, 240. 

t S. melanopHin, Nnttall, Sylva, i, 78, t. •-'!; 2 cd. i, !•:(, t. 21. 

S. nigra, var. amygdaloides, AndersHon in Kongl. Svcn. Akad. Ilandl. vi, 21 ; Do Cnndollo, Prodr. xvi', SOl.-Rotlirock, 
PI. Wbceler, .'.0— Porter & Conltcr, FI. Colorado; Hayden's .Snrv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 128. 



Shores of the great lakes (Wiiyiio county. New York, llankcmon ; I'ainesville, Ohio, .B«t/-rf«/fc), westward to 
the valley of the SaHkaU^hewan, and southward tlirongh the Hoeky iMountain region to .southern New Mexico; 
bapks of the lower Columbia river, Oregon (Jloirelh). 

A small tree, rarely 9 to 12 meters in height, with a triiidc 0.15 to O.IJO meter in (iiaiiulcr; along streams. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close grained, checking in diying; tiic heart-wood light blown, sajj-woiKJ nearly 
white; speciOc gravity, 0.4509; a.sh, 0.92, 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 167 

308. — Salix Isevigata. Uebb, 
Am. Xat. viji, 302; Bot. Cali/omia, ii, 83. 

WILLOW. 

California, Sierra coanly (Lemmon) and the valley of the Sacramento river to the soathem boundary of the 
sLtte. 

A tree eomctimes 15 meters in height, with a tmnk 0.30 to 0.60 meter in diameter ; borders of streams and 
bottom land.s. 

A form with narrower falcate leaves (Yreka, E. L. Greene) is — 

var. angUStifolia, Eebb in Bot. CaKfonua, ii, &4.— Rothrock in Wheeler's Hep. vi, 374. 

A iorm with short, densely-flowered aments is — 

var. congesta, Bebb in Bot. California, ii,84. 

Wood ligiit. soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact : medullary rays nnmerons, verj- thin ; color, light 
brown tinged with red : .si)ecific gravity, 0.4872 ; ash, O.5.S. 

309. — Salix lasiandra, Benthani. 

PL Hartweg. 336.— Torrey in Pacific E. R. Rep. iv, 13S. — SewUerry in Pacific E. R. Rep. vi,;^. — Bebb in Bot. Calitornui. u. -i. 

S. Hoffmanniana, Hooker & Ainott. Bot. Beechey. 159. 

S. apeciosa, XattaU, Sylva, i, 58, t 1" ; 2 ed. i, 74. 1. 17 [not HiX)fcer & Arnott].— Xewberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. ri, 39 — 
Cooper in Pacific E. R, Rep. lii-, 29. 

S. lueida, var. angugtifolia, forma la^andra. Anderason in OtV. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1S&3, 115 (Proc. Am. Acad. 
iv,54). 

8. arffHfa, var. la»iandra, Asdeiason in Kongl. Sren. Akad. Handl. vi. S? : De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-. 206. 



British Colombia, shores of lake Kamloop (ifaeoun), southward to the valley of the Sacramento river, 
California : Rocky mountains. Utah, and through Colorado to ^new Mexico (var. Fendleriana). 

A tree 12 to IS meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.60 meter in diameter; banks of streams: very 
common : varying in the shape of the leaves and character of the aments. 

The best marked forms are — 

var. lancifolia, Bebb in Bot. Califonua, ii, €4. 

iL lancifolia. And^jSBOn in Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi. 34. f. -25.— Grsy in Proc. Am. Acad. Tii, 402.— Hall in Coulter'* 
Boe. Gazette, ii, 91. 

S. lucida, var.' maerophgna, Andeiason in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi'. 205. 

The common form of British Colombia and western Washington territory and Oregon. 

var. Fendleriana, Bebb in Bot. CaMtomia, ii. 84. 

S. pemtamdra. var. eaudata, Snttall, Sylva, i, ei, 1. 18; 2ed. i,T7. t. is. 

if. FemdHeriaiMj Andeiaaoa in OitT. »f. Vet. Akad. Foth. ISoe?, U5 fPwc. Am. Acad. ir. 54^.— Walpers, .\nn. r. 745. 

* «S. argmta, AQdeisaoa in Kon^^L Sven. Akad. Handl. vi. 33: IV CandoUe, Prodr. ivi^. 206, in part. 

"Wood light, sofk, not strong, brittle, closf^-graincd, compact : niedallary rays nonierous. verj- obscure : color, 
light brown, the sap-wood lighter or often ne;»rly white: .s{)ecitic gravity, 0.4756: a.-»b, 0.60. Var. laneifoiia. 
specific gravity. 0.4,547: ash. 0.T9. Var. Fen'iWia'i,:.. rhe hf^art-^r.^i/i bn^wn. sAp-wiXKl light brown : smcitio •rrivity. 
0.459S; ash, 0.56. 



168 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

310. — Salix longifolia, Muhlenberg, 

• Nene Schriflen Gesell. Xat. Fr. Berlin, iv, -aSS, t. 6, f. (Ann. Bot. ii, 6G, t. 5, f. 6).— Willdcnow, Spec, iv, 670.— Pcrer.oii, Syn. ii, 600.— 
Pareb, Fl. Am. Sejif. ii, 613.— Nuttall, Genera, ii. 231.— Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 248; Fl. N. York, ii, 209; Nicollet's Kep. 
160: Fremont's Rep. 97; Emory's Rep. 412; Sitgreavcs' Rep. 172; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 204.— Barratt, Sal. Am. No. 
23.— Beck, Bot. 320.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 319.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 408.— Ilocikcr, Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii, 1 19.— Dietrich, Syn. v, 
420. — Parry in Owen's Rop. 61* — Richardson, Arctic Expcd. 439,440. — Cooper in Smithsonian Reji. la'jS, 261. — Auderssou in Ofv. 
af. Vet. Akad.Forh. l?">a, 116 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, J6) ; Kongl. Sven. Ak:id. Handl. vi, r,4, f. :!,>; Do CaudoUe, Prodr. xvi', 214.— 
Walpers. Ann. v, 745.— Lesqucreux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansa.s, 3'*9. — Wood, CI. Book, Go:! ; Bot. & Fl. 310.— Engelniann in Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. sii, 209.— Gray, Manual N. Slates, .'> ed. 4r>5.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 324 ; Wliceler's Rep. 1872, 493.- 
Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402. — Maconn in Geological Rep. Cana<la, 1875-76, 210. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 29. — Hall in 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Bebb in W^heeler's Rep. vi, 240 ; Bot. California, ii, 84.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 22, 116. 

S. fluriatalis, Nnttall, SyUa, i, 73; 2 ed. i,S9. 

fS. rubra, Richardson, Arctic Esped. Appx. 37. 

S. longifolia, \ar. pedicellata, Andersson in Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, 55, f. 35; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 214.— 
Maconn in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 210. 

SAN-D-BAR WILLOW. 

Vallc.v of the Connecticut river (Sunderland, Massaclinsetts, N. G. Jesup) and of the Potomac river at 
Washington CWard); west and northwest through the region of the great hikes to the valley of the Mackenzie 
river, in latitude CG° N. {Richardson), through the Mississippi basin, Texas, the Rocky Mountain region, and the 
Pacific Coast states. 

A small tree, C to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 meter in diameter; borders of streams 
and river sand-bars, in low, wet sandy soil, often forming low, dense clumps ; rare east of the Alleghany mountains; 
verj- common throughout the Mississippi River basin, and reaching its greatest development in the valleys of 
Oregon and northern California. 

Well-marked forms, varying from the type in the form of the leaves, aments, and nature of pubescens, etc., arc — 

var. exigua, Bebb in Bot. California, ii, 85. 

.S'. exigua, Nnttall, Sylva, i, 75; 2 ed. i,90. 

a. longifolia, var. anguxiissima, Andersson in Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1858, 116 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, .56). 

Western Texas to California and Oregon. 

var. argyrophylla, Andersson in Kongl. Sven. Aka<l. Handl. vi, 55; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 214.— Wataon in King's Kep. v, 
324.— Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1872, 493.— Rothrock, PI. Wheeler, 50.— Porter & Conlter, Fl. Colprado; Haydcn's 
Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 128.— Alaconn in Geological Rop. Canada, 1875-76, 210. — Bobb in Bot. Californi.i, ii, 85. 

S. argophylla, Xuttall, Sylva, i, 71, t. 20; 2cd.i, 87, t.20. 

T S. hrachycarpa, Nuttall, Sylva, i, 69; 2 ed. i,85. 

S. longifolia, var. opaca, Andersson in Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi,.'^5. 

S. longifolia, var. argyrophylla angusti8Sima,Aii<l<!TBeon in Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, 55; De C.iiiilolli', Prodr. 
xvi^ 214. 

jS'. longifolia, var. argyrophylUr opaca, AnderFson in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 214. 

Western Texas to (Jregon. 

Woofl light, .soft, very close-grained, compact; nu'dullary rays niiiniTons, very obscure; color, brown tinged 
with red, the sap-wood brown ; specific gravity, 0.4930; ash, 0.48. Var. cjrigua, heavier, the heart- and sap-wood 
darker colored ; specific gravity, 0..>jtli; a.sh, l.Ofl. 

311. — Salix sessilifolja, Nnttall, 

Sylva, i, 66; 2 ed. i, 84.— Andersson in Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 18.58, 116 (Proc. Am. Acad. iv. 5(i); Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, .V., 
. f. 3<;; Do Candolle, Prf«lr. xvi», 214.— Walpers, Ann. v, 746.— Bebb in Bot. California, ii, H5. 

.S'. sessilifolia, var. tHIohu, Andersson in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 21.'.. 

Poget sound southward to nortbem California, near the coast. 

A small tree, 9 to 12 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.30 to 0.4.'5 meter in diameter; borders 
of streams, in low, wet ground. 



CATALOGUE OP^ FOREST TREES. U59 

A form with narrower entire leaves, of the Sacramento valley and tlie California Coast ranges, is — 

var. Hindsiana, AiKkreson in Ofv. af. Vet. Akiiil. I'oili. 18oS, 117 (Proi,-. Aui. Acad, iv, 50).— Bebb in But. Culifornia, ii, 85. 

S. Himhiana, Bcntliaui, PI. Hartweg. 335.— Xewberry iu Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 89.— Toirey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 138. — 
Audcrssou in Koiigl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, .56, f. 37 ; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi*, 215. — Walpcrs, Ann. v, 746. 

S. Hindsiano, var. tenuifoUa, Andirsson in KouhI. Sven. Akad. Ilandl. vi, 50; De Candolle, Prodr. ivi-, iV,. 

"Wood liylit, soft, close-fjniined, compact; medullary ray.s thin; color, light red, the sap-wood nearly white; 
8i)eciflc gravity, 0.4397 ; asb, 0.50. 

312. — Salix discolor, Muhlenberg, 

Neue Scliriften Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berlin, iv, 234, t. 5, f. 1 (Ann. Bot. ii, 02, t. 5, f. 1).— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 665. — Persoon, Syn. ii, 599. — 
Pursh, FI. Am. .Sept. ii,013. — Poiret, Suppl. v, 56. — Xuttall, Genera, ii, 231. — Elliott, Sk. ii, 669. — Torrey, Compend. Fl. K. States, 
309; Fl. N. York, ii,206.— Spreugel, Syst. i, 104.— Forbes, Sal. Woburn. 279.— Eaton, Manual, ed. 319.— Smith in Recs' Cycl. Xo. 
25.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 257.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 408.— Loudon, Arboretum, iii, 1530, f. 1317, 16:10, f. 147.— Bigclow, Fl. 
Boston. 3 ed. 392. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 147. — Ban-att, Sal. Am. No. 3.— Emerson, 'frees Massachusetts, 258 ; 2 ed. i, 296 & t. — 
Dietrich, Syn. v, 419. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 312.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 506.— Andersson iu Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 
1858, 114 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, 63); Kongl. Sven. Akad. Ilaudl. vi, 83, f. 49; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 225.— Walpers, Ann. v,750.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 430.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 462. — Koch, Deudrologie, ii, 570. — Macouu in Geological Rep. Canada. 
1874-75, 210.— Kidgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 86. 

8. sensitica, Barratt, Sal. Am. No. 8. 

GLAUCOUS WILLOW. 

Labrador, west to the valleys of the Peace and Athaba.sca rivers, southward through the Atlantic region to 
Delaware and southern Missouri. 

A small tree, rarely exceeding G meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often 
a tall, straggling shrub 3 to 6 meters in height; along streams and borders of swamps in low, wet soil: varying 
greatly in the form of leaves, aiaents, and nature of pubescence. 

The best marked forms are — 

var. eriocephala, Andersson iu Koagl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, ^5; De Candolle, Prodr, xvi-, 225.— Gray, Manual N. States, 
5 ed. 463. 

S. erixycephala, Michaux, FI. Bor.-Am. ii, 225.— Lamarck, Diet, vi, 661.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 391.— Eaton, Manual, 
6cd. 301.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 409.— Emerson, Trees Mas.sachusett8, 1 ed. 259; 2 ed. i, 196 & t.— Cart-y in Gray's 
Manu.al N. States, 1 ed. 426. — Andersson in Ofv. af. A'et. Akad. Forh. 1858, 117 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, Ti" ). — Walpers, 
Ann. V, 746. 

S. crassa, Barratt, Sal. Am. No. 7. 

var. prinoides, Andersson iu Kongl. Sven. Akad. Ilandl. vi, 86 ; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 225.— Emerson.Tnes Massachu- 
setts, 2ed. i,297. 

8. prinoides, Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 613.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 231.— Sprengel, Syst. i, 102.— Poiret. Suppl. iv. i".— Torroy, 
Compend. FI. N. States, 366.— Smith in Rees' Cycl. No. 26.— Forbes, Sal.AVoburn. 79, t. 40.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 319.— 
Beck, Bot. 319.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 407.— W. Koch, Comment. 46.— Loudou, Arboretum, iii, 1530, f. 1317. 1612, t. 
40. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 150. — iimerson, Trees Massachusetts, 1, cd. 259. — Dietrich, Syn. v, 419. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, containing many evenly-distributed, small, open diiets ; medullary 
rays and layers of annual growth 'not obscure; color, brown streaked with orange, the sap-wood light brown ; 
specific gravity, 0.4l2(!l ; ash, 0.43. 

313. — Salix flavescens, Nuitall, 

Sylva, i. (i5; 2 ed. i, 81.— Bobb in Bot. Calirornia, ii, 8(i, in part. 

Kocky momitains of Idaho and IVIontana southward to the Mogollon range, Xew Mexico (K. L. Gncnc) : on the 
Cascade mountains, Oregon, and the Sierra Nevada, California. 

A small tree, sontctimes (J to !) meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter; boi'<Urs of sti-eams, 
reaching its greatest development iu the southern lipcky ^lountain region. 

Wood light, .soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, obscure: color, brown tingeil 
with red, the sap-wood nearly white; .specific gravity, 0.4909 ; ash, 0.01. 



170 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

V;ir. Scouleriana. li.i.ii: 
Couller's Hot. Oazctto. vii. I-.".'. 

JS. brachystachlfg, Beuthum, Pl.Hartweg.3;«5.— Andersson in Ofv. uf. Vet. Akad. Foil), ia'^.8, 121 (Proc. Aui. AeaU. iv, CI); 
Koii;;!. Sveu. .\kad. Hamll. vi, S-i, f. 48 ; De Candolle. Prodr. xvi-, a-24. 

& Scouleriana, Barratt iu Hookor. Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 145, iu part.— Cooper in Pacific R. It. Ki p. xii-, 2a. 

S. brachystachys, var. Scouleriana, Audersson in Do Candollo, Prodr. xvi-,-»4. 

S.JJarcscens, Bdd. in Bot. California, ii, H6, in part. 

BLACK WILLOW. 

Kadiak island. Ala.ska (Keilogp). .southward tlirougli Briti.sli Columbia, western Wa.sliiiioton territory, and 
■Orcfjoii to Santa Barbara, California. 

A .small tree, S to 9 meters in beijilit. with a trunk rarely (•.(>() meter in diameter; uplands, near springs or 
streams, or often iu quite dry soil; common and reaching its greatest development near the shores of Puget sound. 

WoihI light, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, compact ; medullary rays nuinerotis, very obscure; color, light 
red, the sap-wood brown : specific gravity. 0.5412 ; ash, 0.39. 

314. — Salix Hookeriana, Banatt; 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 145, t. ItiO.— Niittall, Sylva, i, 64; 2 ed. i, 80.— Audcrseon iu Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1858, 119 (Proc. Am. 
Acad, iv, 59); De Candoile, Prodr. xvi-, 274. — Walpera, Ann. v, 747. — Macouu in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'7G, 210. 

Grand rapids of the Saskatchewan [Douglas) ; coast of Washington territory and Oregon. 

A small tree, 8 to 9 meters in height, with a trunk rarely 0.30 meter in diameter, or more often a low, straggling 
shrub with many ])rostrate stems ; on the coast generally along the edge of sea-beaches, or in low, rather moist, 
sandy soil. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact, containing many minute open ducts; medullary rays thin, very 
obscure: color, light brown tinged with red. the sajj-wood marly white ; specific gravity, 0.53.50 ; ash, 0.32. 

315. — Salix cordata, v;ir. vestita, .A.udorssoa, 

Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, 159: I>h Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 2.'>2. 

DIAMOND WILLOW. 

Valley of the Missouri river and its tributaries. Fort O.sage, Missouri (Prince Ncmricd), Iowa, Nebraska, and 
westw:iril to about the one hundred ami tenth degree of longitude. 

A small tree, rarely S meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.20 meter in diameter, or more often a straggling 
shiul) not exceeding 1..S0 to 3 meters iu height; low bottom lands, in wet, sandy soil. 

Wood light, .soft, (^lose-graineil, comjiact, the annual layers of growth clearly detined ; meduliiiry rays very 
obscure: color, brown or often tinged reil, tlie sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.(iO()i); ash, 0.59; heavier 
than that of other species examined, and largely u.sed for feme i)osts, being said to equal, when thoroughly .seasoned, 
red cedar in dunibility in contiict with the soil. 

XOTK. — The typical Salix cordata, Mnblciilierg, of wide diHtribution tliroiiyli the Atlantic reyiou, rarely, if ever, attains arborescent 
«ize or habit. 

316. — Salix lasiolepis, Bentham, 

PI. llartwcK. :!:'>.".. —Cooper iu.SmitliHouiau Hcj). 1858,201.— Audorsson in Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1H5H, US (1 'roc Am. Acad. iv,.J8); De 
Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 2(i4.—Walper8, Ann. V, 747.— V,nHey, Cat. ForcHt Trees, 29.— liibb in Bol. C.-ilifornia, ii,8C.. 

S. InmolcpiH, var. Bigelovii, Bcl.b in B6t. California, )i,6G (a vernal slate, Icnlc Bebb in /i(.). 

S. Bigelotii, ToiTcy in Parifie R. R. Rep. iv, 139.— Aiider»son in Ofv.af. Vet. Ak.id. F<.rh. 185H, 113 (I'loc. Am. Acad. iv,58); 
Kongl. Sven. Akad. Handl. vi, 163, f. 94 ; De Candolle, Prodr. xvi», 2.').'>.— Walpers, Ann. v, 747. 

8. Bigelorii, \&T.fu8Cior, Audernson in Konj,'!- Sven. Akail. Handl. vi, li;:i; De Candolle, I'roli. xvi', 2r.5. 

8. , .' WalHon in King'it Rep. \,'.t£>. 

8. lasiolepis, \i\T. fallax, Bebb in Bot. California, ii. 86. 



I 



CATALOGUE OF FOKKST TREES. 171 



Ciiliforuia, valley of the Klaiiiatli river, soutliward tlirougli tlie western jiortions of the >-tate. reaeliiiif; m tlie 
Sierra Ncvadas an elevation of .'5,o()(» to 4,000 feet above the sea. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 to LS meters in heifjlit. with a trunk 0.15 to 0..'j() mett-r in diameter, or northward 
and at high elevations reduced to a low slirnb; leaves varying greatly in shape and breadth (vars. «H(/H*^/oiia 
and latifolia, Andersson in Be CandoUe I'rodr. xvi-, 25.1), or towaid its southern limit often persi.stent until si»ring 
[S. ITartirefii, Bentham in PI. Harticeg, 52; ;S'. htimilis, var. llnriircgi, Andemson, I. c. 2.'5G). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, ligUt browu, the 
sap-wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.5587 ; ash, 0.98; somewhat used as fuel, especially in the sonthern part 
of the state. 

317. — Salix Sitchensis, Sauson; 

Bongard ill Mem. Acad. St. Petersburjj;, G ser. ii, 162. — Ledebour, Fl. Kossica, iii, 609.— Kicbardson, Aroti<' Expcd. 4;!0. — AnderssoD in 
Ofv. af. Vet. Akad. Forb. 1858, 126 (Proc. Am. Acad, iv, 66) ; Kougl. Svcn. Akad. Haudl. vi, 106, f. 59 ; De CandoUc, Prodr. xvi',233.— 
Walpers, Ann. V, 752. —Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402.— Ilall in Coulter's Dot. Gazette, ii, 93.— Bebb in Bot. California, ii, 87; 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 25. 

S. CUncatO, Nnttal!,SyIva,i,66; 2ed. i,82. 

SILKY WILLOW. 

Alaska, southward near the coast to Santa Barbara, California. 

A low, much-branched tree, rarely exceeding 8 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, 
or more often a straggling shrub; low, wet soil, borders of streams and ponds. 
A form with narrow oblanceolate leaves is — 

var. angUStifolia, Bobb in Bot. California, ii, 87. 

8. cMorophyllu, var. pcllita, Andersson in Kongl. Svcn. Akad. Haudl. 139, f. 72; Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvi^, 2-14. 

Wood light, soft, close-grained, compact ; medulhuy rays numerous, thin ; color, light red, the sap-wood 
nearlj- white ; specific gravity, 0.5072 ; ash, 0.50. 

318. — Populus tremuloides, Micbaus, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 243. — Nouveau Uiiliamil, ii, l.'-'J, t. 53. — Persooii, Syn. ii, 623. — Desfontaincs, Hist. Arb. ii, 465. — Micbaux f. Hist. 
Arb.-Am. iii, 285, t. 8, f. 1 ; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 175, t. 9D, f. 1.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 377.— Willdenow, Kuum. Siippl. 67. — 
Torrey,Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 249; Compend. Fl. N. States, 375; Fremont's Kep. 97; Fl. N.York, ii, 214; Sitgreaves" Rep. 172; 
Ives' Eep. 27; Bot. Wilkes Exped, 468.— Beck, Bot. 323.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 281.— Eaton, Manual, 117; 6 cd. 277.— 
Lindlcy, Fl. Med. 320.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 154.— Eaton A- Wriglit, Bot. 370.— Bigelow,Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 3<t7.—Spach in Ann. 
Sci. Nat. 2 svr. xv, 30 ; Hist. Veg. x, 384.— Nuttall, Sylva, i, 55 ; 2 ed. i, 7(1.— Seringc, Fl. des Jard. ii, 56.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 618.— 
Newberry in Pacilic K. K. Kep. vi,25, 89.— Cooper iu Smitbsouian Kcp. 1858, 257; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii-, 211, 08; .A.ui. Xat. iii, 
409.— Ho(dver f. in Trans. Linna>an Soc. sxiii-, 301.— Wood, CI. Book, 6.55 : Bot. & Fl. 311.— Engelmanu in Tr.ins. Am. Phil. Soc. 
new ser. xii, 209.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 466. — Wesniad in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 32,"i.— London Card. Cbrouicle, 1871, 
083. — Watson in King's Rep. v, 327: PI. Wbeclor, 17: Am. .Tour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 135; Bot. California. ii,91. — Porter in Hayden's 
Rep. 1871,494.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hriyden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 128.— Hay<lcn iu Wairen's Rep. Nebraska &. 
Dakota, 2 cd. 121.— Vasey, Cat.. Forest Trees, 29.— Hall iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Maconu in Geological Kep. Canada, 
1875-76, 210.— Rotbrock in Wbeeler's Rep. vi, 51.— Be:U in Am. Nat. xv,32, f. 1.— Treleaso in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 284, f. 
6.— Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 183. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. is, 231. — Ridgway iu Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus. 1S82, ST. 

P. trepidn, Wiildcnow, Spec, iv, 803.— Alton, Hort. Kew.2ed. 395.— Parish. Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 6»8.— Eaton, Manual, 117.— 
Nuttall, Gcmia, ii,239.^Sprengel, Syst. ii, 244. —London.. 'Vrboretum, iii, 1649, f. 1510. 

P. /rCMiM?//f)/'»ll.s-, Kmutsou, Trees Mas.'*acbusett8,243; 2cd. i,279 iV t. 

P. Atheuicn.sis, llort.— Kocb, Dcmlrologie, ii, 486 (excl. syn.^. 

ASPEN. CJIAKING ASP. 

Northern Newfoundland and l.abrador to the southern shores of IIudsoD bay. northwest to the Great Bear 
lake, tlie mouth of the Mackenzie river, and the valley of the Yukon river, Alaska; south in the Atlantic ivgion to 
the mountains of renn.sylvania, the valley of the lower Wabash river, and northern Kentucky: iu the Pacific 
region south to the valley of the Sacramento river, California, and along the Koeky mountains and interior ninges 
to southern New IMexico, Arizona, and central Nevad;i. 

A small tree, 15 to 18 meters in height, with a IrunU tarely exceeding 0.(10 meter iu diameter; very common 
through British America and spreading over enormous ar<':ts b;tred by fire of the couifewus forest : in the Taoitic 
region very common upon moist mountain slopes and bottoms at an elevation of ti.OOO to 10,000 feet; the most 
wJdelv-distributed North Ainericiui tree. 



172 FOREST TREES OF NiMmi AMERICA. 

Wooil lijilit, soft, not st 1011 jr< close- jiraimil, toiuiKUt, not ihiinlile, coiitaiiiiiijr, as lUn-s tbat of Uio wliok- jjiiius, 
numerous uiiiiute, scattered, open ducts; uieduUary rays very tliiu, hardly distinjiuisliable; color, li»lit brown, 
the tbick sap-wood nearly white: sjiecifu- y^ravity, 0.J032 ; ash, 0.05; lai't;ely inanufactured into wood-pul[), a 
substitute for rags iu the manufacture of jiaper; in the Pacific rejiion sonietiines used for fuel, lloorin^, in 
turnery, etc. 

A bitter principle in the bark causes its occasional use as a tonic in ilie treatnicnt of intennitteiit fevers and 
cases of debility ( T. .S. Dispcitsutori/, 11 ed. 17G3). 

319. — Populus grandidentata, Midiaiix, 

Fl. Bor.-Aiii. ii, 243. — Persooii, Syn. ii, G24. — Desfunlaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 4t)t'>. — Micliaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 287,t. 8, f. 2; N. Ainericau 
Sylva, 3 eU. ii, 176, t. 99, f. 2.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sejit. ii, 619.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 377.— Barton, Compeud. Fl. Pbiladelpb. ii, 197.— Nuttall, 
Gcuera, ii, 2:!9.— Hayne, Dend. Fl. 200.— Willdmow, Emiin. Siipi)!. 07.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 710.— Sprcn^el, Syst. ii, 244.— Torrey, 
Compond. Fl. X. Statos, 375: Fl. X. York, ii, --'U.- Ik-ck, l{ot.323.—Katon, Manual, 6 ed.277.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 154.- Eaton 
& WriKht, Bot. 370. — Loudou, Arboretum, iii, 1650, f. 1511. — Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 397. — Spacb iu Ann. Sci. Nat. sv, 2 ser. 
33; Hist. Veg. x, 384. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 242; 2cd. i,278& t.-Seringo in Fl. desJard. ii, 56.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 
618.- Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3ed. 281.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 507.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 257.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
431.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 7:i.— Wood, CI. Book, 650; Bot. & Fl. 311.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 
ed. 466. — Koch, Uendrologie, ii, 487. — Wesmad in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 327. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 29. — Watson in Am. 
Jonr. Sci. 3 ser. XV, 135. — Beal in Am. Nat. xv, 34, f. 2. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 182. — Trclease in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 
285.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 56^ . 

P. grandidentata, var. pendlda, Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 375.— Nuttall, Genera, ii,239. 



Nova Scotia, New Drunswick, ;ui(l west tliron<;h Ontario to nortlicrn ISIiiinesota, soutli tliroufjh the northern 
States and along the Alleghany mountains to North Carolina, e.Ktendiug west to middle Kentucky and Tennessee. 

A tree 21 to L'-l meters iu height, witli a trunk 0.50 to 0.75 meter in diameter; rich woods and borders of 
streams and swamps. 

Wood light, .soft, not strong, clo.se-grained, compact; medidlary niys thin, obscure; color, light brown, the 
sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4G3li; ash, 0.45; largely manufactured into wood-pulp and occasionally 
used in turnery, for woodenware, etc. 

320. — Populus heterophylla, Linmens, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1034. — Marshall, .\rbustum, 107. — Wangcnhcim, Amer. 85. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana,248. — Alton, Hort. Kow. iii, 407 ; 2 ed. v, 
397.— Nouvcau Dnhamcl, ii, 181, t. 51.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,244.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 806; Euum. 1017 ; Berl. Baumz.293.— 
Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 466— Pursh, Fl. A:-:i. Sept. ii, 619. —Nuttall, Genera, li, 239.— Hayue, Demi. Fl. 203.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 712.— 
Sprengel, .Syst. ii, 244.— Torrey, Conipend. Fl. N. States, :575; Fl. N.York, ii, 215.— Beck, Bot. 32."!.— Eaton, Slaunal, 6 ed. 278.- 
Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 281. — Loudou, Arboretum, iii, 1072, f. l.')3l. — Eaton & Wright, Bot. 371. — Spa<li in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 Bor. 
XV, 30; Hist. Veg. x, 386.— Scringe in Fl. des Jard. ii, CI.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 507.— Cooper in Smith.souiau Rep. 1858, 257.— 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 431.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 73.— Wood, CI. Book, 650; Bot. & Fl. 311.— 
Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 407. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii, 488. — Wesmiel in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi', 320. — Vasey, Cat. Forest 
TreeH,29. — Wat.sou in Am.. lour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 135. — Trelease in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 285. -Ridg\y,Ty iv. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Ifi81,86. 

V. cordi/olia, BnrgsUorf, Auleit. Erz. Holzart. 3 ed. 152. 

P. urijentea, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 390, t. 9 ; N. Americau Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 170, t. 97. 

P. heterophylla, var. arf/tntca, Wesmicl in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 376. 

UIVF,ll COTTONWOOD. SWA:»n' COTTbN%VOOD. 

Guilford, Connecticut (11'. R. JJitdleii), North, lort, Long island, south, generally near tln^ ('Oiist, to southern 
Georgia, through tin- Gulf states to western Loiiisian;i, :in(l tliKiugh Ark;insas to central Tennessee and KcMitucky, 
southern Illinois and Indiana. 

A tree 21 to 27 meters in height, with ii trunk 0.00 to 0.75 nii-ter in <liameter; borders of river swiimps; most 
common ami reaching its grciitcst development in the b:isin of the lower Ohio river; rare and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, clo.segrainetl, <;oiii|)iict; medullary rays Ihiii, very obscure; color, dull brown, the 
thick sap-wood lighter brown; specific gravity, 0.4080; ash, O.si. 



\ 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 173 

321. — Populus balsamifera, LinniEus, 

Spec. led. 1034.— Dii Koi, llarbk. 8-J — Marshiill, ArhuNtiiiii, 107.— Waiigciiluim, Anier. 85, t.28, f.59.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii,406; 2 ed. 
v,397. — MccuchiMetl). ;{:58.— B. S. ISaitoii, Coll. i, 16. — Nouveau Duliaiiicl, ii, 179, t.50.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. 11,244.— Willdenow 
Spec, iv, 805 ; Euura. 1017 ; I3crl. Baiimz. 290.— Persoon, Syii. li, 024.— Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. li, 466.- Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. 
Ill, 306, f. 13, f. 1; N. American Sylva,3ed. il, 172, t.98, f. 1.— Pur»h, Fl. Am. Sept.ii,ClH.— Eaton, Manual, 117; Ccd.SJTP.-Xuttall, 
Genera, 11, 239; Sylva, i,55; 2 cd. 1,70.- Haync, Dend. FI. 202.— Spren^'*!, .Syst. ii, 244.— Beck, Bot. 322.— Lindley, FI. Med. 320.— 
London, Arboretum, Hi, 1G37, f. 1.535, 1536 & t.— Hooker, P'l. Bor.Ani. ii, l.'j3. — Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 370.— Hooker &, Aniott, Bot. 
Beechcy, 159. — Spach in Ann. Scl. Nat. 2 ser. xv, 33 ; Hist. Vcg. x, 393. — Lindley, Bot. Reg. xjcix. Misc. 20. — Seringe in Fl. dea 
Jard. li, 65.— Torrey, FI. N. York, 11, 216; Bot. Wilkes Exped. 409.— Cooper In Smithsonian Rep. 1858,257; Am. Nat. iii, 408.— 
Hooker f. in Trans. Linnsean Soc. xxiil=, 301.— Wood, CI. Book, fi.5C; Bot. & Fl. 311.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 467.— Koch, 
Deudrologie, ii, 495. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 29. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-70, 211. — Watson in Am. Jour. Sci. 
XV, 135. — Beul in Am. Nat. xv, 34, f. 4. — Treleaso in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vl, 285. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xill, 181. — BelJ in 
Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 45<:. 

P. Tacamahaca, Miller, Diet. 

p. vimiliea, Bon .Jard. 1845, 565. 

P. hnhamifcra, var. f/OiUina, Wesmiel in De Caudolle, Prodr. xvi-, 329. 

BALSAM. TACAMAHAC. BALM OF GILEAD. 

Straits of Belle Isle to Kicljinoiid gulf and cape Chnrcliill, Elud.son bay, northwest to the shores of the Great 
Bear lake and the valley of the Yukon river, Alaska, south to northern Xew England, .central Michigan and 
Minnesota, the Rocky mountains and interior ranges of lilontana ami Idaho, Washington territory, and British 
Columbia. 

A large tree,lS to 24 meters in height, with a trunk 1.50 to IMO meters in diameter: very common on all islands 
and shores of the northern rivers ; iu British Columbia generally confounded with the allied P. 1richocarj)a, the range 
of the two species hero still uncertain. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, (^losegrained, comi)act; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, 
brown, the thick sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.3035 ; ash, O.GG. 

The buds, as well as those of .several other species, covered with a resinous exudation, and occasionally used 
jnedicinally as a substitute for turpentine and oth«'r balms. 

^'ar. candicans. Gray, 

3IanuaI N. States, 2 cd. 419; 5 ed. 407.— Cooper in Smithsoni.nu Rep. 18.'>8,2.'>7.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado: Hayden's Surv. Misc. 
Pub. No. 4, 129.— Wat.son in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 135.— Bull. Torrey Bot. Clnb, vii, 57.— Trelease In Coulter's Bot. Gazette, 

vi, 285. 

P. haJmmifera hinccolnta, .Marshall, Arbustiim, l(i,-. 

p. cuiHUcans, Ait.m, Ibnt. K,u. iii, IOC: 2 i d. v. :i;i7.— Xnuveaii Unhamel, ii, 179.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 806: Euuui. 1017; 
Berl. Baumz. 291.— IVr.soon, Syn. ii, 024.— Michaux 1'. Hist. Arb. Am. HI, 308, t. 13, f. 2; N. American Sylva. 3 ed. ii, 
173, t. 98, f. 2.— Pnrsh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 018.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadolph. 90.— Polret, Suppl. iv, 378.— Nuttall, Generl^ 
ii, 2:ffl.— Hayno, Dend. Fl. 202.— Sprengel, Syst. II, 244.— T(urey. Compend. Fl. N. States, 375: Fl. N. York, ii.217.— 
Audubon, Birds, t. 59.— Beck, Bot, :i32.— Eaton, Manual, od. 278.— Loudon, Arborotuiu, 11, U~0, f. l.")37.— Hooker. Fl. 
Bor.-Anv. ii, 154.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 370.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. :{98.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. xv, 3:1: 
Hist. Veg. x, 392.— Lindley, Bot. Reg. xxix. Misc. 22.— Emerson. Trees Massachusetts, 245: 2 ed. i, 281. — Seringe iu 
Fl. des .lard. 11, 63.— Gray, Manual N. States, I cd. 431. —Wood, CI. Book, 656; Bot. & Fl. 311.— Wesmiel in De 
Candollc, Prodr, xvi-, 3:W, 

/*. Canadoisifi. M,,.|„li, Wci.ss, 81 [not Michaux f.]. 

P. hdifolia, Munch, Metli.;!:i8. 

P. Ontiuiensix, Horl.— Lod.ligcs, Cat, I8;!i;. 

/'. mmrophllJla. l.iiMllcy in Loudon, Kn.yc. PI. ^!40. 

7'. (tridfh'scn and /'. Iiftcropln/lln. ii„it. icx. Koch, Wachcu. 18(m. 2;?8V 

A large tree, rare or unknown in a wild state: very common in cultivation. 
The wood heavier than that of the species; siieciflc gravity, 0.41(>1 ; ash, 0.4t>. 



174 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

322. — Populus angustifolia, James, 

Loug"» Expcd. i. 4y". — Torri'v in Auu. Lye. N. York, ii, '249; Fremont's Rep. i»7 ; Sitgreaves' Ke|>. 172; Ives' Kep. VT; But. VVilke* 
Kxped. 4(31. — Nutiall, Sylva, i, ;V2, t. 16; 'Jed. i. (j)?, t. lli.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 201; Am. Nat. iii,408. — Hiiyden in 
\Viirrcn"s Re]>. Neliraska & Dakota, 'i ed. 121. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Tree.-i, "Jil.— Watson in Am. Jonr. Sci. :? ser. xv, l;i6 ; But. 
California, ii.'.'l. 

P. Cantldcnuiti. Vltr. anfllistifolia, Wismal in l)e Candolle, Prodr. xvi-',;S2'.l. 

P. halxamij'era, v;ir. angustifolia, Watson iu King's Rep. V, 327 : PI. Wheeler, 17.— I'orter in Haydcn's Ucp. 1871, 494.— 
I'ontr \- Conlter. Fl. Colorado ; Hiiyden's .Surv. Mise. Pub. No. 4, 128. — Maeouu iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'7(5,. 
211.— l.'usliy in Bull.Torrey Bot. Clul>, ix, 100. 

BLACK COTTONWOOD. 

Black hills of D;ik()t:i (I\. Douglax), Swimmiuf; Horse creek, and the Snowy ^Mountain region, 5Iontan;i, Ked 
Eock creek, southwestern Montana (irafsow), east Iluniholdt and Shoshone uionntains, Nevada, Kocky mountains 
of Colorado, and the riinges of southwestern New Mexico and eastern Arizona. 

A small tree. l."> to 18 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.liO nu'ter in diameter; borders of streams, 
between G,(»00 and 10,000 feet elevation. 

Woo<l light, .soft, weak, clo.se-grained, coini)act : medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white ; specific gravity, 0..J912 ; ash, 0.79. 

323. — Populus trichocarpa, I'orrry A Gray; 

Hooker, leon. V. e"?. — Walpers, Ann. v, 7()7. — Cooper in .Snlith^^lnian Kep. 1858, 2(>G. — Wesmiel in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 330. — 
Watson in King's Rep. v, 328; Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 13(5; Bot. California, ii, 91. — Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Exped. 469. — Macoua 
in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-70, 211. — Trelease in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 285, f. 5. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new 
ser. ix. 3:n. 

P. balsa mi/em, var. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 1,')4. 

p. angustifolia, Xewlierry iu Pacilic R. R. Rep. vi,89 [not James].— Cooper in Pacific K. R. Rep. xii-,29, 68. 

P. bahnmifera, Lyall in Jour. Linuican .Soc. vii, 134 [not LinuiEUs].- Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii,91. 

P. trichocarpa, var. CUpulata, Watson in Am. Jour. .Sci. 3 ser. xv, 136; Bot. California, ii, 91. 

P. balm m if era, var. ? Californicu, Watson in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 136. 

BLACK COTTONWOOD. BALSAM COTTONWOOD. 

Valley of the Fniser river, British Columl)ia, and jjrobably much farther north, east to the eastern base of the 
Bitter Root mountains, .Montana {^Vatnon), .south through Washington territory, we.>-tern Oregon and California to 
the lioutLern borders of the state. 

A large tree, 24 to 60 meters in height, with a trunk l.liO to li.lO meters in dianu'ter ; b;inks of streams and 
Iwttom lands below (»,0(K) feet elevation ; very common and reaching its gieatest development in the valleys of the 
lower Cfduinbia river and the streams flowing into Puget sound, here the largest deciduous tree of the forest. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, rather close-gniined, compact; medulhiry rays thin, hardly distinguishable; 
color, light dull brown, the .sap-wood lighter, nearly white; ; specific gnivity, 0.3814 ; ash, 1.27; in Oregon and 
Wasbiugton territory largely manufactured into staves of sugar barrels, woodenware, etc. 

324. — Populus monilifera, Aiion, 

Hort. K.H. III. MM,; -z .,1. v,:»ri.— Aljl.ot. \wii\a (Jeorgia. ii. 7L-.Ni.iiv.au Dnliamel, ii, 180. — Will.lenow, Spec, iv, 805; Euuiu. 1017 •. 
Berl. Baumz.292.— Penioon, Syii. ii,02:t.— Desfontaii'TO, Hist. Arli. ii, 40.'').— Michaux f. Ilisl. Arli. Am. iii,2yr.. t. 10, f.2; N. Anu-ri.an 
Sylvn, 3 ed. ii, irv?, t. 90, f. 2.— I'lirHh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, OH.— Nut tall, Genera, ii, 239 ; Trans. Am. Phil. Soe. 2 ser. v, 107.— Ilayue, Deiid. 
FI.2W.— Sprengcl, .Syni. ii, 244.— Wat«oii, Dend. Brit, ii, t. 1(»2.— Beck, Bot. 323.— Eaton, Manual, cd. 278.— Loudon, Arlioretnui, 
iii, 1657, f. l.'.I7 & t.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 371.— Spacli in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 Her. xv, 32; Hist. Vcg. x, 389.— Torrey in Fremoiil's Rip. 
97; Fl. X. York, ii.21.".: Paeifn' R. R. Rep. v, 3f)5.— Emerson, Tre.-s MassaehuNettM. 249 ; 2 e.l. i, 287.— .Scringe in Fl. des Jard. ii, O:!,— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. I-.>',2.'.7.— (iray in I'aeilii- Ii. R. L'l-p. xii-, 47 ; .Manual N. States, 5 ed. 407.— Curtis in Rep. Ce.ilngical 
Sur^-. N. Cnroiina, |h<;0, iii, "2. — Le!U|uercux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 389.— Wood, CI. Book, 055. — Engelmann iu Trans. Am. 
Phil. Soe. xli, 209.— Watson in King-'sKcp. v,:{27 ; Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 130.— IL-iyden iu Warren's Rep. Nebraska 6l Dakota, 2 <mI. 
121.- Maeouu in Geological Rep. Canada, lH7.'>-'7«, 211. -Trelease in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 285, f. 3, 4.— Ward in Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mn«.No.22, IHi.— Beal in Am. Nat. xv.:M, f.3.— Bc^'l in Geological \U-\,. Canada, 1879-'80, .W.— Ridgway iu Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu.s 
1882,87.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, .Snppl. 049. 

/ P. dcltoide. Marshall, Arl.ustuni, IOC. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 175 

F. angulata, Alton, llort. Kew. iii, lOtJ; 2 e<l. v, :i'JG.- -Nuiiveau DuhaiiicI, ii, 180.— Di-sfonfaiues, Hist. Arlj. ii, 4C6.— 
Willdonow, Si>(?c. iv, 805 ; Eniiiii. 1017 ; Bcrl. liuumz. 294.— Midiaiix f. Hist. All). Am. iii,»«. t. 12; X. Aincricau .Syl%-a, 
:i cd. ii, Ifil, t. 94.— rursb. Fl.. 41111. 8<'i)t. ii, ()19.— Eaton, Manual, 1 IT : (J <■<]. 27T.—Xuttall, Genera, ii,23y.— .Jam«w in 
Long's Exijcd. ii, 104.— Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 249.— Elliott, .Sk. ii, 711.— .Sjirenge^.Syst. ii, 244.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, iii, 1G70, l.'jas <fc t. — Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 370.— Spach in Aun. Sci. Nat. 2 gcr. xv, 321; Hist. Veg. s,391. — 
Seringa in Fl. des Jard. ii, 04. — Schcole in Ra-iuer, Texas, 44C. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 507. — Cooper in Smithsonian Hep. 
1858, 257.— C'liaimian, FI. 8. States, 4:!1.—Le.sqnereux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 389. — Wood, CI. Book, 655; Bot. & 
Fl. 311. — Gray^ Manual N. States, 5 ed. 407. — Wesniiel in De Candulle, I'rodr. xvi-, 328. — Koch, Dendrologic, ii, 494. — 
Young, Bot. Texas, 514. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; llayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 129. — Vascy, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 29. — Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 182. 

P. Iccvigata, Alton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 400; 2 ed. v, 395.— Willdenow, Spec. iv,803.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sej/t. ii,619.— Poiret, Suppl. 
iv,378.— Nuttall, Genera, ii,239: Sylva,i,54; 2 cd. i,70.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 244. —Beck, Bot. 323.— Eaton, Manual, C 
ed. 278.— Loddigcs, Cat. ed. 1836.— Eaton &, Wright, Bot. 370.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 246 ; 2 ed. i, 283. 

P. ghuKluIosd, Mcin.li,Mitli.339. 

P. angulosa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-.Vm. ii,243. 

P. Canadennis, Micbauxt. Hist. Arb. Am.iii,302, 1. 12; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. ii, 164, t. 95.— Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2 ser. 
XV, 32 ; Hist. Veg. x, 390.— Seringe in Fl. des Jard. ii, 65.— Fescali, Forst. Pfl. 122, t. 8, f. 10-14.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 311.— 
Wesnuel in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, ;?29. — Koch, DendroIogie,ii, 491. 

P. Virginiana, Du Mont, Cours. Bot. Cult, vi, 400. 

P. Marylandica, Bosc in Nouv. Diet, xi, 409.— Poiiet, Suppl. iv, 378.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 244. 

P. macrophylla, Loddiges, Cat. ed. 1830. 

P. Lindleyana, P. neylecta, and P. kevigafa, Hort. 

COTTONWOOD. NECKLACE POPLAR. CAROLINA POPLAR. BIG COTTONWOOD. 

Shore.s of lake Chauipliiin, Vermont, south through western New Eiighmd to the Chattahoochee regiou »{ 
western Florida, west along the northern shores of lake Ontario to the eastern base of the ranges of the Rotky 
mountains of Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico. 

A large tree, 24 to 31 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 2.40 meters in diameter ; low, moist soil ; the commoD 
Cottonwood of Texas and the western plains, bordering all streams flowing east from the liocky mountains. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, liable to warp in drying, difficult to season ; medullary 
rays numerous, obscure ; color, dark brown, the thick sap-wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.3889; ash, 0.96;. 
largely used in the manufacture of paper-pulp, for light packing-cases, fence boards, and fuel. 

325. — Populus Fremontii, Watson. 

Proc. Am. Acad, x, 350 ; Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xv, 130 ; Bot. California, ii, 92. 

P. moniUfera, Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 327 [not Aitou].— Watson in King's Rep. v,327; PI. Wheeler, 17.— Torrvy, 
Bot. Wilkes Exped. 469. 

COTTONWOOD. 

California, valley of the u])per Sacramento river, south to San Bernardino tvunj^- (Colton. Pdrry), and eastw;»rd 
in. Nevada and Utah. 

A large tree, 24 to .'50 meters in height, with a trunk l.'JO to 1.80 meter in diameter; borders of stieams; the 
common cottonwood of the valleys of central California. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, liable to warp in drying, diflicult to season; medtdlary 
rays thin, very obscure; color, light brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4!U4; ash, (1.77. 

Var. Wislizeni, Watson, 
Am. .1(1111 . S,i. :! sir. xv, 137 ; Bot. Caliloi niii, ii, 9'J : I'lue. Am. Acaii. xviii, l.j7.— Knsby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 79. 

P. moniUfera, Torrey in Sit,i;reav(s' K.]., 172; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 204; Ives" Rep. 27 [not Aitou ]'.—Bigido\v iu 

I'atilie K. R. Re)i. iv,21. 

I'OTTONWOOD. WHITE COTTONWOtlD. 

San Diego county, Calilbrniii, fhrough Arizoiui and New Mexico to western Texas and southern Colorado. 

A large tree, 24 to oO im>tei's in height, with a trunk 1.20 to l.SO meter in di;imeter: borders of streams; the 
l)revalent cottonwood of the arid southwestern region, there largely planted ;ts a shatle tree and for fuel. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, compact ; sjiecific gravity, 0.4(i21 ; ash. 1.13; furnishing the ordinary domestic 
fuel of the region. 



176 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



CONIFERS. 

326. — Libocedrus decurrens, Torrey, 

SniitbsoaiuD Contrib., vi,7, t. 3; Pacific E. R. Ecj). iv, 140; Bot. Mex. Bouudary Survey, 211 ; Bot. Wilkes Exi)e<l. 1. 16.— Boutbam, PI. 
Hartneg. 33S.— Lindley iu London Gard. Chrouicle, lf<5:i,G95. — Xewborry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi,6a. — Cooper iu Sniitlisonian Rep. 
ISJt?, Sta. — Walpers, Ann. v, T9.'>.— Bolaiidor in Proc. Caliroruia Acad, iii, Hb. — Parlatoro in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi-', 456. — R. 
Brown Campst. in Trans. Edinburgb Bot. Soc. ix, S73. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 309, f. 40. — Watsou in King's Rep. v, 335; Bot. 
California, ii, ll(i. — A. Murray in London Garden, ii, 54'2. — Gordon, Pinelum, 2 ed.402. — Veitcb, Manual Conif. 267. 

Thuya Craigana, Murray in Rep. Oregon Exped. 2, t. 5. 

Thuya gigantea, Carriere in Rev. Hon. 1854,224, f. 12-14, in part ; Fl. des Serres, ix, 199, f.3-5, in part; Trait. Conif. 106, 
in part ; 2 ed. 112, in part. — Gordon, Piuetnm, 321, in part; Suppl. 102, in part. — Heukel & Hochstetter, Nadelbolz. 
2J0. iu part. • 

Heyderia decurrens, Ko.ii.D.ndi-olngic, ii-, 179. 

WHITE CEDAR. BASTARD CEDAR. POST CEDAR. INCENSE CEDAR. 

XortL fork of the Saiitiaii river, Oregon, south along the western slopes of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
mouutaius between 3,000 and S,.JO(» feet elevation, and through the California Coast ranges to the San Bernardino 
and Ca\ umaca mountains. 

A large tree, 30 to 4.3 meters in height, with a trunk l.L'O to 2.1(1 meters in diameter; slopes and vallejs; common. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, comi)act, very durable in contact with the soil; bands of 
small summer cells thin, dark colored, consi>icuous ; medullary rays numerou.s, obscure; the thin sap-wood nearly 
white : spccitic gravity, 0.401 7 ; a.sh, O.OS ; largely used for fencing and in the construction of water-flumes, and for 
interior finish, furniture, laths, shingles, etc.; often injured by a s])ecies of dry rot {Da'dalia vorax, Harkiiess in 
Pacific Rural Press. Jan. 2.5, 1879, f. 1, 2), rendering it unfit for lumber. 

327. — Thuya occidentalis, Linncns, 

.Sjiec. 1 ed. 1002.— Kalui, Travels, Ilnglish od. iii, 170.— Marsball, Aibiistuiu, 152.— Wangenbeim, Amor. 7, t. 2, f. 3. — Walter, Fl. 
Caroliuiana, 236.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 371 ; 2 ed. v, 321.— Gifrtner, Fruct. ii, C-2, t. 91, f. 2.— Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 209.— 
Willdenow, .Spec, iv, ."Of; Eunm.090; Berl. Buumz. 504. — Kouveau Dubamcl, iii, 12, t. 4. — Poirct in Lauiarck, Diet, vii, 309; III. 
iii, 369.- .Scbkulir, Handb. iii, 287, t. 309.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 580.— DesfontainCH, Hist. Arb. ii, 575.— Titford, Hort. Bot. Am. 98.— 
Michanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 29, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. iii, 177, t. 1.56.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 647.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. 
Pbiladelpb. 93.— Eaton, M.-inual, HI; 6 ed. 364.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 2->4.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 177.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 041.— Watson, 
iJend. Brif. ii. l.'>0.— .Sprengcl, Syst. iii, 888.— Ricbard, Conif. 43, t. 71, f. 1.— Torrey, Couipend. Fl. N. States, 3G1 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 
2:J4.— Ralines<iue, Med. Bot. ii, 268.— Bock, Bot. 338.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2454, f. 2312-2314 & t.— Forbes, Pinetuui Woburn. 
193.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 16.5.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot 451.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3ed. 388.— Spacb, Ilisf. Vcg. xi, 339.— Penn. 
Cycl. xsiv, 409. — Reid in London Gard. Chronicle, 1844, 276. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 96; 2 ed. i, 112. — Eudlicber, Syn. 
Conif. 51. — Lindley &, Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 206. — Parry in Owen's Rep. 618. — Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 
294.— Knight, ,\vi). Conif. 16 — Carrifere in R<v. Hort. 1854, 224, f. 15; Trait. Conif. 103; 2 cd. 100.— Darby, But. 8. States, 516.— 
Cooper in .Smitbsonian Rep. 1858, 257. — Gordon, Pinetum, 323; 2 cd. 403. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 436.— Wood, CI. Book, 602; 
Bot. i Fl. 315. — Porrher, Res4iurees .S. Forests, .507. — Henkcl it Hochstetter, Nadelbolz. 278. — Nelson, Pinace.T, 68. — K. Brown 
Campst. in Trans. Edinbiirgli Bot. Soc. ix, 363. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 472— Hoopes, Evergreens, 317.— Parlatoro in Do 
Caudolle, Prodr. xvi-, 4.58.— .Schnizlein, Icon. t. 76, f. 2.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 173. — Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, .36. — Maeouu 
in Geological Rep. Canada, 187.5-76, 211.— .Sears in Bull. Es-sex Inst, xiii, Ifili. — Veitcb, Manual Couif. 261. — Bell in Gc<dogical Rep. 
Canada, 1-79-X), 47^. 

T. odorata, Mjrsball, Ailiu.stum. l.",2. 

T. obtusa, Moucb,.Metb.691. 

CupresHus Arbor-vita; Targionc-Tozzetti.ObH. Hot. ii,51. 

T. W'arcaiia and T. Sihirica, ii.ut. 

WHITE CEDAK. ARBOK-VITili. 

New Ilruiiswick to Anticosti island, through the valley of the Saint Lawreiic(' river t<» the southern sliores of 
.lames' bay antl .southeast to tiie eiistern extremity of lake ^^'illnipeg. south through the Jiortiiern states to central 
New York, northern Penii.sylvania, central Michigan, northern Illinois, central Minnesota, and along the Alleghiiiiy 
mountains to the high peaks of North Carolina. 

A tree 12 to is meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 1.20 to !.'><) meler in diameter: cold, wet swamps 
and along the rocky banks of streatns; very common at the north, sjneading over great areas of swa/ni); extensively 
cultivated as a hedge and ornamental jdant, an<l producing innumerable seminal varieties of more or less 
horfictiliural value. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 177 

Wood very liglit, soft, not .stionfif, brittle, rather coarse-grained, compact, very durable in contact with the 
soil; the bands of small summer cells very thin, dark colored ; medullary rays numerous, indistinct ; color, light 
brown, turning darker with cxi)osurc, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.31C4; ash, 0.37; largelj 
used for ])osts, fencing, railway ties, and shingles. 

The distilled oil and a tincture of the leaves of Thuya have been found useful iu the treatment of pulmonary 
iind uterine comi)laints ( r^. <Sf. Dispematori/, 14 ed. 1775. — Wat. Dispenmtory, 2 ed. 1428). 

328. — Thuya gigantea, Nuttall, 

Jour. Philiiilolphia A<'iid. vii, 53; Sylva, iii, 10^, t. iii ; 2 ed. ii, 1G2, t. 111. — Loddigcs, Cat. ed. 1836. — Loudon, Arboretam, Iv, '.2458. 

Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 165.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, '.il2. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 52.— Lindl«y & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Boo. 
London, v, 'JOG. — Ncwbrrry iu Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 50, f. 22. — Carrifcro, Trait. Conif. 102 ; 2cd. 112, in part. — Cooper in .Soiithtioniao 
Rep. 1858,262; Am. Nat. iii, 413.— Gordon, Pinetnra, 821, in part; Suppl. 102; 2 cd. 181.— Torrey, But. Mex. Boundary Sur\-ey, 
211. — Lyall iu Jour. Linua-an Soc. vii, 133, 114. — Heukel & Hochstcttcr, Nadidholz. 280, iu part. — Nelsou, Pinaoeu', 67. — Botkrock 
in Smithsonian Rep. 1867, 434. — Parlatoro iu Dc Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 457. — R. Brown Campat. iu Trans. Edinburgh Bot. Soc. ix, 
367. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 315. — London Gard. Chronicle, 1871, 683. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402. — Fowk-r iu London Card. 
Chrouicle, 1872, l.'')27. — Koch, Deudrologie, ii-, 176. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 36. — E. Hall in Coulters Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — 
Watson, Bot. California, ii, 115. — G. M. Dawson iu Canadian Nat. now ser. ix, 324. — T. Howell in Coulter'.H Bot. Gazette, vi, 
267. — Veitch, Manual (Jouif. 250. 

T. plicata, Don, Hort. Cantab. 6 ed. 249.— Lambert, Piuus, 1 ed. ii, 19; 2 ed. 114, in part.- Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 103; 2 ed. ii, 
164. — SpacL, Hist. Vcg. xi, 342. — Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 51 (excl. syn. Wareana & odorala). — Lindley & Gordon in 
Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 205.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 16.— Carriferc, Trait. Conif. 102 (cxcl.syn. Wareann & odorata); 
2 ed. 100 (cxcl. syu. rTareano).— Cooper in Smitlisoniau Rep. 1858, 262; Paeiiic E. R. Rep. iii-, 27.— Hcnkcl &. 
Hoclistetter, Nadelholz. 277 (excl. syn. odorata). — Nelson, Pinaceai, 68. — Gordon, Pinetnni, 2 cd. 406. — A. De Candolle, 
Prodr. svi=, 457, in part. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 36. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 263. 

T. Menziesii, Douglas, Mss.-Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 106; 2 ed. 107.— Gordon, Piuetura, 323.-KiIsou, Pinaeeie, 67.— 
Heukel & Hoclistetter, Nadelholz. 281. 

T. Lobbii, Hort. 

T. OCCidentaliSf var. plicata, Hort.— Iloopcs, Evergreens, 321. 

RED CEDAR. CANOE CEDAR. 

Alaska, south along the Coast ranges and islands of British Columbia, through western Washington territory 
and Oregon and the Coast ranges of northern California to Mendocino county, extending east along the mountains 
of Washington territory to the Oceur d'Aleiie, Bitter Root, and Salmon Eiver mountains of Idaho and the western 
slojies of the Eocky mountains of northern Montana [Canhy (t; San/ent). 

A large tree, 30 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 3.00 meters in diameter; low, rich woods and 
swamps, less commonly on dry ridges and slo])es below 5,200 feet elevation ; common and reaching its greatest 
development iu western Washington territory and Oregon; the large specimens generally hollow. 

Wood verj' light, soft, not strong, brittle, rather coarse-grained, compact, easily worked, veiy durable in 
contact with the soil; bands of small summer cells thin, dark colored, distinct; medullary rays numerous, 
obscure; color, dull brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.379C; ash, 0.17; 
largely used for interior fini.sh, feneing, shingles, in cabinet-making and cooperage, and exclusively by the Indians 
.of the northwest coast in the manufacture of their canoes. 

329. — Chamaecyparis sph^roidea, Spach, 

Hist. Vog. xi, 331. — Eudl ichor, Syu. Conif. 61. —Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 209.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 20.— 
Carrifcrc, Trait. Conif. 133 ; 2 ed. 122.— Gordon, Pinetum, 49 ; 2 ed. 71.— Honkel & Hoohstetter, N^idolholz. 248.— Nelson, PiuaoeB>, 
69.— Parlatore in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi'^, 464.— Ridgway iu Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 87. 

CuprCfSUS thyoUlcs, Linna>us, Spec. 1 ed. 1003.— Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii, 174.— Du Roi, Harbk. ii, 198.— M:»rshall, 
.XrliMstiun, 311.— Waugcuheini, Amor. .•<, t. 2, f. 1.— .'Viton, Hort. Kow. iii, 372; 2 ed. v, :{2;}.— Bartraui. Travels, 2 ed. 
409.— Micliaux, Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii, 208.— Wilhlenow, Spoo. iv, 512; Enuni. 991; Boil. Bauiiiz. 111.— Nouvoau Duhauiol, 
iii, 6.— Por.soon, Syu. ii, 580.— Doslontaiues, Hist. Arb. ii, 567.— Sehkuhr, Haudb. iii, 286, t. 310.— Miohaux f. Hist. 
Arb. Am. iii, 20, t.2; N. Auierionu Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 162, t. 152.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, C46.— Eaton. Manual. Ill; 6 
ed. 115.— Nuttall, Genera, ii. 224.— Hayuo, Doud. Fl. 178.— Elliott, Sk. ii. 644.— Watson, Doud. Brit, ii, !,">('..— Torn>y, 
Compeud. 1"1. N. States, 361 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 233.— Beck. Bot. 3;)8.— l.oudou, Arbon^tum. iv, 2475, i. 2;K7.— ForlH>«, 
Pinotum Woburn. 183, t. 61.— Ilookor, Fl. Bor.-A;ii. ii, 165.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 21.'..- Bigolow, Fl. Boston. 3 cd. 
387.— Emerson, Trees Ma.ssaohusotts, 98; 2 ed. i, 114.— Richardson, Arctic Exped. 442.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 516.— 
Cooper iu Smithsonian Rop. 1858, 2.')7.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 4;15.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N. Carolius, 
1860, iii, 28.— Wood, CI. Book, 663; Bot. & Fl. 315.— Poroher, Resources S. Forests, 509.— Gray, Manual N. State*, 
5 cd. 473.— Hoopes, Evorgi-eeiis, 346.— Koch, Deiulrologio, ii-, 162.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, :«.— Veitch, Manual 
Conif. 23-1, 

Thuya .\ph<rroi(ha, Sprongol, 8yst. iii. 889. 

Thuya .•iphaioiilali.s. Kiolianl, Conif. 45, t. 8, f. 2. 
12 FOR 



178 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

WniTK CKDAH. 

Southern Maine, sourti near the coast to iiorthoin Florida, aii<l aloiifr the Gulf coast to the valley of the I'earl 
river, Mississippi. 

A tree 24 to 27 meters in height, with a trunk O.fiO to 1.20 meter in diameter; in deep, cold swainps : rare in 
the Gulf states, west of the bay of Mobile. 

"Woo«l very light and soft, not strong, close-grained, compact, easily worked, very durable in contact with the 
soil; hands of small summer cells thin, dark colored, conspicuous; medullary rays luinierous, obscure; color, 
light brown tinged with red, growing darker with exposure, the sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.3322; ash, 
0^; largely used iu boat-building, for woodeuware, cooperage, shingles, interior finish, telegraph aud fence posts, 
railway ties, etc. 

Along the Atlantic coast from Xew Jersey southward lumber is umuufactured from Imried trunks of this 
species dug from peat swamps. 

330. — ChamECcyparis Nutkaensis, Spacli, 

Hist. Vog. xi, ^33.— Nuttall, Sylv.i, iii, 105; 2 ed. ii, 10,5. — Endlichor, Syn. Conif. C2.— Ledebour, Fl. Rossica, iii, 660.— Liudlcy & 
Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 209.— Carrifere, Trait. Couif. 13 » ; 2 ed. 127.— Walpers, Ann. v, 796.— Henkel & Hochstettcr, 
Nadelbolz, 2^.0.— Pavlatoro in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 465.- Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii. 91.- 6. M. Dawson in Canadian 
Nat. 2 ser. is, 329. 

Cupressus Nootkatenais, Lambert, Finns, 1 ed. ii, 18 ; 2 ed. ii, No. 60.— Loudon,. Arboretum, iv, 2480. 

Cupreous Xutkafnsis, Hooki-r, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 165.— Newberry in Pacific E. B. Rep. vi, 63, f. 28.— Gonlon, Piuctuiu, 66; 
2 ed. 94.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. l&^f!, 263.— Nelson, Pinacew, 74.— Hoopes, Evergreens, 345.— Lavrson, Pinotum 
Brit, ii, 199, t. 34, f. 1-12.— Kocb, Dendrologie, ii-, 165.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 36.— Macoiin in Geological Rep. 
Canada, ie76-"77,211.—A'eitth, Manual Conif. 2.35. 

Thuya excelsa, Bnngard in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, 6 sor. ii, 164. 

Cupressus Americana, Trautvctter, Imag. PI. Fl. Ros.«ica, 12, t. 7. 

C. Xutkaensis, var. glatwa, Walpcrs, Ann. v, 769- 
Thuyopsis borealis, Hoi-t.- Carriferc, Trait. Couif. 1 ed. 113. 
ThuyopSU cupressoides, Carritre, Man. des PI. iv, 324. 
C. excelsa, Fischer in berb. .Sitka. 
Thuyopsis Tchugatshoy and T. Tchvgatsioyw, Horr. 

YELLOW CYPRESS. SITKA CYPRESS. 

Sitka, south along the i-slauds audCoa.st ranges of British Columbia and the Cascade mountains of Wa.shington 
territory and Oregon to the valley of the Santian river, Oregon (" Lucky Camp mountain". Cusicl). 

A large tree of great economic value, 30 to 38 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter iu diameter, 
or toward its southern limits and at high elevations much smaller ; conwuon along the coast at the sea-level to 
about latitude 40'^ .30' X., then less common and only at higher elevations; south of Briti.sh Columbia hardly below 
6,000 feet elevation and very rare and local; the most valuable timber tree of Alaska. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, comi>act, very durable in contact with Ihc soil, easily 
worked, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, possessing an agreeable, resinous odor; baiuls of small summer 
cells thin, not conspicuous; medullary rays thin, numerous, hardly distinguishable; color, bright, light clear 
yellow, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4782; ash, OM; somewhat used in boat- and ship- 
building, for furniture, interior finish, etc., probably unsurpassed in beauty as a cabinet wood by that of any North 
American tree. 

331. — Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana, Pariatorc, 

Stud. Orgon. Conif. 2:5, 29, t. 3, I. 2i-2.); Do CandoUe, Prorlr. x\\\ 461.- Conlon. I'inetum, 2 ed. R'.. —Watson. Bot. California, ii, 
!!». -.Sargent in London Oard. Chronicle, 1H91, 8. 

Cupressus iMtrsoniana, Murray in EdUiburgU New Phil. Jour, new ser. i, 202, t. 9.— Bot. .Mag. t. .^.5il.— Nelson, Pinaccw, 
-72.-Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. \KS, 263.- Law.v.n, Pinetum Brit, ii, 191, t. 31, f. 1-13.— Hoopes, Ev rgrecnn 
:H2, f. .53.— Henkel &. Ilochstcltrr, Nad.lliolz. 246.- Fowler in London Garit. Chronicle, 1873, 285.— London Garden, vo 
.504 &t.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 3G.— Veiuh, Manual Conif. 231.— Eichler in Monatsb. Acad. Bcrl. 1881, f. 29,30. 

Cupressus fragrans, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad, i, 103. 
TCupressUS altcnuata, (;ordr)n, Pinetum, 1 cd. .57; 2eil. 79. 
C. Boursierii, Carrifre, Trait. Conif. 2 oil. 125 [not liecaisne]. 
C. Nntl^anus, Torrey, Bot. Wilkes Ex ped. t. 16. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 179 

PORT ORFORD CEDA1^. OREGON CEDAR. WHITE CEDAR. l^AW'SON'S CYPRES.S. GIXGKR I'INE. • 

Oregon, Coos bay, south to the valley of the Eo{fue river, not extendinj^ more than thirty miles from the coast; 
California, valley of the upper Sacramento river (shores of Castle and Soda lakes, Shasta county). 

A large tree of th(! first economic value, 45 to Gl meters in height, with a trunk 1.80 to 4 meters in diameter; 
rich woods, in low, moist soil, intersi)ersed with the yellow fir and hemlock; most common and reaching its 
greatest development along the Oregon coast; local; in California very rare and local. 

Wood light, hard, strong, very clo.se-graincd, compact, easily worked, very durable in contact with the ground, 
abounding in odoriferous resin, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish; layers of small .summer cells thin, not 
conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color, light yellow or almost white, the thin sap-wood hardly 
distinguishable ; specilic gravity, 0.4621 ; ash, 0.10; largely manufactured into lumber and used for interior finish, 
flooring, railway ties, fence posts, matches, and in ship- and boat-building; the resin strongly diuretic and a 
powerful insecticide. 

332. — Cupressus macrocarpa, Hartwe.if, 

Jour. Ilort. Soc. London, ii, 187. — Beutham, PI. Hartweg. 337. — Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. London, iv, 2% & t. ; Pinetum, 65 ; 2 cd. 

yi. — Liudloy & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 206. — Knigbt, Syn. Conif. 20. — Torrcy, Bot. Mex. Bonndarj' Survey, 211. 

Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1858, 2G3 ; Proc. California Acad, iii, 290. — C.arriire, Trait. Conif. 1 ed. 124, in part. — Bolnnder in Proc. 
California Acad, iii, 228. — HenUel & Hochstetter, Nadelliiilz. 239. — Nelson, Pinacea', 73. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 353. — P.irlatorc in 
De Candollo, Prodr. xvi^, 473. — Fowler in London Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 285. — Kocb, Dendrologie, ii", 148. — Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 36. — Watson, Bot. California, ii, 113. — Veitcb, Manual Conif. 234. — Lawson Pinetum Brit, ii, 19.5, t. 32. 

C. Lambertiana, Carrifere in Kev. Hort. 1855, 232 ; Trait. Conif. 124 ; 2 ed. 106. 
G. Hartwegii, Carrifero in Rev. Hort. 1855, 232 ; Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 1G8. 

?C. macrocarpa, var. fastifjiata, Knight, Conif. 20.— Parlatore in Do Candollc, Prodr. xvi', 473.— Veitch, Manual 
Conif. 234. 

fC. Hartwegii, var. /«.S^iV/(V(f((,Carrii;ro, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 169. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 

California, Monterey (Cypre.'^s i)oiiit, Pescadero ranch, and Carmelo i)oint). 

A tree 15 to 21 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 1.80 meter iu diameter; on granite rocks immediately 
upon the sea-coast; very local. 

Wood heav.y, hard, strong, rather brittle, very close-grained, compact, easily worked, very durable in contact 
with the soil, satiny, susceptible of a beautiful polish, odorous; bauds of small summer cells thin, dark coloixnl, 
conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, hardly distinguishable; color, clear biight l)rowu streaked with red and 
yellow, the thin sap-wood light yellow; specific gravity, 0.(i2Gl ; ash, 0.57 ; very beautiful and of undoubted value 
as a cabinet wood. 

333. — Cupressus Goveniana, Gordon, 

Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, iv, 296 & f. ; Pinetum, 00 ; 2 od. 83. — Bentltani, PI. Hurtwog. 337. — Lindloy & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. 
London, v, 206. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 125; 2 cd. 170. — Torrcy, Mex. Boundary Survey, 211. — Cooper in Smitlisuniau Ecp. Itj58, 
266.— Hciikel & Hochstetter, Nadelhiilz. 240.— IIoopcs, Evergreens. 252. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. svi', 472. — Fowler in 
Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 285.— Watson, Bot. Californi.-i. ii, 114.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 230. 

?C (7aii/br«ica, Carriiire, Trait. Conif. 127; 2 ed. 161. ^ ^ 

C. Californica f/rnciiis, Nilsoi;, Pinacea', 70, iupart 

fC. COrnuta, Carrii-re iu Rev. Ilort. 1866,251 & f. 

f Juniperus aromatica, lUm. 

ilumboldt coHuty, California, soutli along the coast and through the Coast ranges into Lower California. 

A small tree, sometimes 12 to 15 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.(10 to 0.00 meter iu diameter; boixlers of 
streams and mountain slopes, in rather rich soil, or often a low shrub, fruiting when 0.30 to 1 meter iu height, and 
occupying exten.sive tracts of sandy barrens 1 too miles inland from the coast, or thin, rocky soil (/*nn«7?f) ; 
widely but not generally distributed. 

AVood light, soft, not strong, brittle, elosegrained, eomi)aet; bands of snuiU summer cells broad, dark colored, 
conspieuous; medulhuy rays thin, obscure; color, light brown, the thick .sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 
0.4089; a.sh,0.45. 



180 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

334.— Cupressus Macnabiana, Murniy. 

£dinburgh, Nt-w Phil. Jonr. new ser. i, 293. t. 16. — Gordon, Piiiotuni, G4 ; 2 eil. 90.— Carriferc, Trait. Conif. 2 oil. 165. — lloopts, Evergreens, 
Xii. — Parlotore in Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvi^, 473. — Kocb, Dendrologie, ii^, 150.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 3G. — Watson, Bof. 
California, ii, 114.- Veitch, Manual Conif. 23.T 

C. glandulosa. Hooker, (ex. HenUel & Hocbstetter, Nadolholz. 241). 

C. Cali/orilic i yracHis, Xclson, Pinacea-, 70, in part. 

Califoniia, uiountains south of Clear lakp, Lake county {Torrcy, Bolandcr, Pringle, Miller). 

A small tree, sonietiiues 9 meters in beight, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter, or more often a tall 
shrub branching from the ground; very rare and local; not redi.scovered in the original station reported by 
Jeffrey, the Mount Shasta region. 

Wood not collected. 

335. — Cupressus Guadalupensis, Watson, 

Proc. -Vin. Aead. xiv.IUlO; Bot. California, ii, 114. 

C. macromrpa, t Watson in Proc.Am. .\cad. xi,»lU) [not Hartweg]. 

C. Arizonica, E.L. Greene iu Bull.Torrey Bot. Cliil), ix.CI.- Riisby in Hull. Torrry Bot. Club, ix, 79.— Watson in Proc. Am. 
Acad, xviif, 157. 

San Francisco mountains of New Mexico and eastern Arizona (Greene, Rusby), Santa Catalina and Santa Rita 
mountains, AnzoivA [Prinple, Lcmmon) ; on the Sierra Madre, near Saltillo, andGaudaliiiie island, Mexico [Vahnci-). 

A tree 18 to 21 meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 meter iu diameter ; rocky canons and ridges; on the 
yew Mexico and Arizona mountains, forming extensive forests between 5,000 and 8,000 feet elevation, generally 
on northern slopes; local. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact, easily worked, susceptible of a good polish; bands of small 
summer cells, broad, con.spicuous ; medullary rays numerous, very obscure ; color, gray, often faintly streaked with 
yellow, the thick sap-wood light yellow ; specific gravity, 0.4843 ; ash, 0.44. 

336. — Juniperus Californica, Carriere, 

Rev. Hort, iii, 353 <t f. ; Trait. Conif. 58 ; 2ed. 41. — Gonlou, Pinctum, 121.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 37.— Engclniaiin in Trans. St. 
Louis Acad, iii, .V^S; WHieelcr's Rep. vi,375. — Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 593. — Watson, Bot. California, ii, 113. 

J. telragona, var. osteosperma, Torrey In Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 141; Bot. Mex. Boniidary Survey, 210; Ives' Rep. 28. 

./. tefragona, Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 263 [not Solileclitend.al]. 

J. Vcrrosianus, Kellogg in Proc. California Acad. Ii,37. 

J. OCCidentalix, Gordon, Pinctum, Snppl. 38; Einetum,2 ed. 102, in iiart.— Ilenkel & Hocbstetter, Nadelbijlz. 245, in part.— 
lloopes, Evergreens, 299, in part. — Parlatore in De Candolle, Predr. xvi', 4>^, in part. 

J. Califoritka, var. osteosperma, Eugclmann; Watson in Proc. Am. Acud.xi,119. 



California, .San I'rancisco Itay, soutli llirotigli the Coast rang<'s to Lower California. 

A small tret', ranly to 9 meters in heiglit, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.00 meter in diameter, or more often a tall 
shrub, sending nj) many stems from tlie ground; sandy barrens and dry, rocky soil. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, compact, very ilurable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer 
cells thin, dark colored, no^ conspicuous; medullary rays iiumcrou.s, very ob.scurc; color, light brown slightly 
tinged with red, the .sap-wood nearly wliite; specific gravity, 0.(1282 ; a.sli. 0.7."i ; in southern California hugely used 
for fencing and fuel. 

\'l\l. Utahensis, i;n«<'lniann, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 588; Wbceler's U<-i>. vi, 2(M.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Tncs, :!". —Sargent in Am. .Jour. Soi. 3 ser. xvii, 418.— 
Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 594. — Watson, Bot. California, ii, 113. 

J. OCei'lentalis, Watson in King's R<-p. v, :ai>, in part; PI. Wbeeler, lH [not Hooker]. 

<7. orci'lciilalis, var. UiahrnstH, Vcltdi, Manual Conif. 2^9. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 181 



Western base of the Wabsatch iiiouiitains, Utab, to eastern California, soutb tbroiigh the Great Basin to 
soutbeastern California {Fringlc) and tbe San Francisco uionntains, eastern Arizona (Greene). 

A small, contorted tree, 6 to meters in beif^bt, witb a trunk 0.00 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or more often a 
tall.nuub brancbed sbrnb; very common tbron{;b tbe elevated valleys and along tbe lower sloi)e8 of all tbe ranges 
of central and sontbern Utab and Nevada, and tbe most generally distributed arborescent species of the region. 

Wood ligbt, soft, close-grained, compact, very durable in contact witb tbe soil; color, ligbt brown, tbe tbick 
sap-wood nearly wbite; specific gravity, 0.5522; asli, 0.49; tbe common fuel and fencing material of the region. 

337. — ^Juniperus pachyphlcea, Torrey, 

Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 142; Bot. Jk-x. Boundary Survey, 210 ; Ives' Kep. 28.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1838, 203.— Henkel Oi 
HocIiHtottcr, Nadolholz. 247.— CanifTo, Trait, Conif. 2 cd. 56.— Parlatoro iu De Candolle, Prodr. xvi», 490.— Gordon, Pinctnm, 2 ed. 
164.— Eugelmauu in Trans. St, Louis Acad, iii, 589; Wheeler's Rep. vi,2G4.— Palmer iu Am. Nat. xii, 593.— Veitcli, Manual Conif. 
289.— Riisby in Bull. ToiTey Bot. CIuI), i.\,79.— Hemslcy, Bot. Am.-Cont. iii, 184. 

J. plochyderma, Torrey iu Sitgreaves' Rep. 173, t. IG. 

J. Sahina pachyphlcea, Antoine, Kupress. 39. 

JUNIPER. 

Eagle and Limpia mountains {Havard), west along tbe ranges of western Texas, southern New Mexico and 
Arizona south of latitude 34°; southward into Mexico. 

A tree 9 to 15 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 meter in diameter; dry, stony slopes and ridges, 
generally between 2,000 and 3,000 feet elevation ; the prevailing and largest juniper of the mountains of western 
Texas. 

Wood ligbt, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a line polish ; bands of small 
summer cells very thin, dark colored, not conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, clear ligbt red, 
often streaked with yellow, tbe thin sap- wood nearly wbite; specific gravity, 0.5829; ash, 0.11. 

338. — ^Juniperus occidentalis, Hooker, 

Fl. Bor.-Aiu.ii,16G.-Euaiiclior, Syu. Conif. 2G.— Lindlcy & Gordon iu Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, v, 202.— Carritre, Couif. 42, in part; 2 
od. 40, iu part.— Torrey in Paciflc R. R. Rep. i v, 142.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eop. 185^, 263.— Gordon, Piuetum, 117 (excl. syn.); Suppl. 
38 (oxcl.^yn.); 2ed. 162 (excl. syu.).- Heukel & lIochstctter,Nadelholz. 345, iu part.— Nelson, Pinaceie, 142.— Hoopes, Evergreens, 
299 (excl. syn. C'«()/orn!ca).— Parlatore in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi^ 489, iu part.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 37.— Macoun in Geological 
Rop. Cauaila, 1875-'76, 211.— Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 594.— Watson, Bot. California, ii. 113.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 289. 

J. excelsa, Pursh, FI. Am. Sept. ii, G47.— Nnttall, Genera, ii, 2-15. 

J. Andina, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 95, 1. 110 ; 2 ed. ii, 157, 1. 110.— Carrif-re, Trait. Couif. 2 ed. 55. 

Cha)n(VCyp<(ris Boursierii, Decaisno in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, i, 70. 

J. Ucnnanni, Koch, Deudrologie, ii-, 141 Liiot Sprcngel]. 

J. OCcidenialiH, var. Itleiosperma, F.ngclinanu in Trans. St. Louis Ac.>vd. ii,590. 

J. pyriformh, Hort. 

JUNIPER. 

Blue mountains and high prairies of eastern Washington territory and Oregon, Cascade mountains of Oregon, 
valley of the Klamath river, California, and south along tbe high ri.lges of tbe Sierra Nevada, between 7,000 and 
10,000 feet elevation, to tbe San Rernardim-) mountains {I'arinh Bros.). 

A tree 9 to 15 meters in height, witb a truidv 1.20 to 2.10 meters in diameter, or often a low, mucb-brancbod 
shrub; dry, rocky ridges and prairies, reaching its greatest develoi)ment in tiie California sierras. 

Wood ligbt, soft, very close-grained, comi)aet, very durable in contact witb the soil; bands of small summer 
cells thin, not conspicuous; medullary rays nutnerous, very obscure ; color, ligbt red or brown, the s:i'>-\vo...l iumiIv 
white; specific gravity, 0.5765; ash, 0.12; largely used for fencing and fuel. 

Var. monospcrma, v:ii^olm.>i\u. 
Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, .WO; Wheeler's Kep. vi,2(i:l.— Veiteh. Manual Conif. 289.-Rnsl.y in Bull. Torn\v Bot. Club, is, W. 



182 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



Eastoiu base of Piko's peak, ("olorado, to tlie nionntaiiis of western Texas, and tliiough New MoNieo and 
southern Arizona to southern California. 

A small, stunted tree, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes O.GO meter in diameter, or often hiaiuhing 
from the ground with many stout, contorted stems; dry, gravelly slopes between 3,500 and 7,000 feet elevation. 

Wootl heavier than that of the type, the layers of annual growth often eccentric; specific gravity, 0.7111) ; 
ash, 0.7S; largely used for fuel aud fencing. 

Var. conjugens, Eugelmann, 
Trans. St. Louis Acad. iii. 590.' — Vcilcli, Manual Couit. '^ffO.— Watson in Troc. Am. Acad, xviii, 158. 



Western Texas, valley of the Colorado river (Austin), west and north. 

A tree 11 to 15 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes 0.30 meter iu diameter, covering with extensive 
forests the limestone hills of western Texas; its range not yet satisfactorily determined. 

Wood light, bard, not strong, very close-grained, compact, very durable in contact with the soil; bands of 
small summer cells thin, dark colored, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, brown, often 
streaked with red, the thin .sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.G007; a.sh, 0.4G; largely u.sed for fencing, 
fuel, telegraph poles, railway ties, etc. 

339. — ^Juniperus Virginiana, Liuuicns, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1039.— Kalm, Travels, English ed. ii, 180.— Marshall, Arbustuin, 70.— Waugcnhoim, Amor. 9, t. 2, f. 5.— Walter, Fl. 
Caroliuiana,24:H.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 411 ; 2 ed. v. 414.— Lamarck, Diet, iv, 627.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 853; Euum. 1025; Berl. 
Banuiz. 199.— Pcrsoon, Syn. 11,032.— Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 539.— Micbanx f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 42, t. 5; N. American Sylva, 
3ed. 173, t. 155.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 047.— Nouvean Dnhamcl, vi, 49, t. 10.- Barton, Prodr. Fl. Pbiladelpb. 9fi; Compoiid. Fl. 
Pbiladelph ii,200.— Eaton, Mauual, 118; 2ed. 194.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 245; Sylva, iii, 97;2cd. ii, 159.— Bigelow, Med. Bnt. iii,49, 
t.45; Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 396.— Hayue, Dcnd. Fl. 205.— Elliott, Sk. ii,717.— Torroy in Nicollet's Rep. 167; Compend. Fl. N. States, 377; 
Fl. N. York, ii, 235 ; Marcy's Rei). 264 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 142 ; Bot. Me.x. Boundary Survey, 211 ; Ives' Rep. 28.— Sprongel, Syst. 
iii, 908.— Richard, Conif. 37, t. fi, f. 2.— Audubon, Birds, t. 43.— Rafiiiesque, M<a. Dot. ii, 13.— Bock, Bot. 337.— Lin(lk>y,Fl. Med. 
.'ia;.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 249.J, f. 2357.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 190.— Pcnu. Cyd. xiii, 147.— Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 268.— 
Kmerson, Trees Massachusetts, 102; 2 ed. i, 118.— Eudlicber, Syn. Couif. 27, iu part.— Scbeclc in Rujmer, Texas, Appx. 447.— 
Lindloy & Gordon in Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, v, 202.— Parry in Owen's Rep. C18.— Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 cd. 295.— Knight, 
Syn. Conif. 12.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 515.— Durand in Jour. Philadelphia Acad. 1955, 101.— Torrey & Gray in Pacific R. K. Rep. 
ii, 130, 17.'..— Carrifcre, Trait. Conif. 43 ; 2 ed. 44.— Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rep. 20.— Gordon, Pinetum, 112 ; 2 cd. 1.54 —Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1^58, 2.57 ; Am. Nat. iii, 413.— Chapman, Fl. S. Slates, 435.— Gray in Pacific R. R. Rep. xii-, 46; Maunal N. Stales, 
5 ed. 474; Hall's PI. Texas, 21.— Hooker f. in Trans. Linnajan Soc. xxiii-, 302.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, 
iii, 71.— Lesqncreux iu Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 389.— Wood, CI. Book, 663; Bot. & Fl. 314.— Porclier, Resources S. Forests, 510.— 
Eugelmann iu Traus. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii, 209; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, .''fll ; Wheeler's Rep. vi,263.— I.yall in Jour. 
Lintia-an Soc. vii, 144.— Ilenkel &, Hochstetter, Nadilhiilz. 3;}5.— Nelson, Pinaceu', 153.— Hoo)>es, Evergreens, 291.— Parlatore in De 
Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 468.— Young, Bot. Texas, 517.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii», 138.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 335.— Rothrock in PI. 
Wheeler, 28, 50; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 10.— Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Hayduu's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 132.— Hayden in 
Wamn's Itep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 122.— Vascy.Cat. Forest Trees, 37.— Guibourt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. ii,242.— Broadheiid 
ill Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 00.— G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 329.— Sears iu Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 183.— Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 2.'«.— Bell iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'6n, .'■.2' .— Ridgway in Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882, 87.— Honisley, Bot. Am.- 
Cent. iii, I8J. 

J. Caroliniana, .Marshall, Aibn.^^tmn, -/l.-Dii Roi.Harbk. 2cd. 497. 
J. arboraicetm, Ma!uch,.M<-,ili.(;99. 

•/. Barbadcmin, Michaux.FI. Bor.-Am. ii,240 [not Liiinuius].- Puish, Fl.Ain. Sept. ii, 047.— Niitlall, Genera, ii, 245; Sylva, 
iii,9«; 2ed. ii,1.58. 

J. Virginiana, var. Caroliniana, Willdeuow, Berl. Banmz. 196.— Hayne, Deud. Fl. 205. — Loiiiloii, Arboretum, iv,2495. 

•/. Virginiana, var. Hcrmanni, PcrKoou,Syii. ii,G32. 

J. Ufrmnnni, Sprengel,Sy»l. iil,908. 

J./mtvla, vai'. Virginiuna, Spach in Anii.Hel.Nat.2 ner. xvi,296; Hist. Veg. xi, 318. 

J. Virginiana vulgarin, Kudiicher,8jn. Conif. 28. 

J. Sabina, var. Virginiana, Antoine, Kuprcss. t. 63, 84. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TilEES. 183 

EED CEDAR. SAVIN. 

Southci'u New Brunswick to fbe uortheru shores of Georgian bay, uortheru Michigan, VV'JHcoiisia and 
Minnesota, south to cape Mahibar and Tampa bay, Florida, and the valley of the Colorado river, Texa-s, west to 
eastern Xebraska, Kansas, and the Indian territory to about the one hundredth i)arallel of west longitude; in 
the Pacific region, Eocky mountains of (Colorado to Vancouver's island, British Columbia; not extending to 
western Texas, California, or Oregon ; in Utah, Nevada, and Arizona rare and local. 

The most widely distributed of North American ConiferiE, a tree 21 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 
to 1.35 meter in diameter, or toward its northern and western limits much smaller, often reduced to a low shrub; 
dry, gravelly ridges, and limestone hills, or in the Gulf states, especially near the coast, in deep swamps; in 
northern Montana, borders of streams and lakes; common; and reaching its greatest development in the valley of 
tlie IJed river, Texas. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close- and straight-grained, comjjact, easily worked, very durable in 
contact with the soil ; odorous ; bands of small summer cells rather broad, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, 
vorj^ obscure ; color, dull red, the thin sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.402C ; ash, 0.13 ; largely need for 
l)Osts, sills, railway ties, interior finish, cabinet-making, and almost exclusively for lead-pencils. 

A decoction of the leaves is occasionally used as a substitute for savine cerete, and an infusion of the berries 
as a diuretic ( U. S. Dispensatori/, 14 ed. 529. — 2fat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 795). 

340. — Taxodium distichum, Kichard, 

.■\iiii. Mils, xvi, 298; Conif. 52, t. 10. — Nouveaxi Dubamel, iii, 8. — Robin, Voyages, iii, 525. — Lambert, Pinus, 2 ed. 25 & t. — Toirey, 
Compeud. Fl. N. States, 361 ; Bot. Mex. Bouudary Survey, 210. — Brongniart in Ann. Sci. Nat. 1 ser. xxx, 162. — London, Arboretam, 
iv, 2481, f. 2335-2339.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 177, t. 60.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 68, in part.— Kugelmann & Gray in Jonr. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 234. — Schoele in Roemer, Texas, Appx. 447. — Liudley & Gordon in Jonr. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v,2G9. — Knigbt, Syn. 
Conif. 20.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3 ed. 295.— Carri&rc, Trait. Conif. 143; 2ed. 180; Rev. Hort. viii, 62&f.— Morreu in Belg. Hort. vi, 
74 & t. — Gordon, Pinetiiin, 305 ; 2 ed. 382. — Loudon Gard. Cbronicle, 1857, 549. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 135^, 2.")7. — Chapman, Fl. 
S. States, 435. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1800, iii, 29. — Lesquereux in Owen's 2d Kep. Arkansas, 389. — Wood, CI. 
Bools, 663 ; Bot. & Fl. 3K.— Hcnkel &, Hochstetter, Nadelbiilz. 253.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 473.— Hoopes, Evergt^^ns, 364, f. 
58. — Parlatoro in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 440. — La-wsou, Pinetum Brit, ii, 305, f. 1-9.— Fowler in London Gard. Chronicle, 
1872, 1526. — Young, Bot. Texas, 518. — Koch, Dcndrologie, ii-,195. — Bertrand in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii, 127. — Vasey, Cat. Forest 
Trees, 30. — Broadliead in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. — Veitcb, Manual Conif. 214. — Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 87. — Watson 
in Proc. Am. Acad, xviii. 1.58. 

ClipreSSUS disticha, Linnaeus, Spec. 1 ed. 1003.— Du Roi, Harbk. i, 201. —Marshall, Arbustnni, 39.— Liimarck, Diet, ii, 244.— 
Wangenbeini, Auier. 43. — Walter, Fl. Caroliniana, 238. — Alton, Hort. Kcw. iii, 372; 2 ed. v, 323.— Bartram, Travels, 2 
ed.88. — Micbaux,Fl. Bor.-Am. ii,208. — Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 567. — Willdenow, Spec. iv,512; Eunm. i>91 : Bcrl. 
Banmz. 111. — Schkuhr, Handb. iii, 288.— Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. iii, 4, t. 1; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 154, t, 
151.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Seiit. ii, 645.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelph. 93.— RaCnesqne, Fl. Ludoviciana, 151.— Nuttall, 
Genera, ii, 224.— Hayno,Dend. Fl. 178.— James in Long's Exped. ii, 317, 318.— Elliott, Sk. H. 642.— Beck, Bot. 238.— 
Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 116.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 215.— De Chambray, Trait. Arb. Res. Conif. 349.— Dickson & Brown 
in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. v, 15. — Porcbcr, Resources S. Forests, 508. 

Cu^yressns disiicha, var. patens and var. 7m1ans, Alton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed.v,;!23. 

GupreSSUS disticha, var. imbricaria, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 224; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 2 ser. v, 163.— Croom in Am.Jour. ScL 
1 ser. xxviii, 166. 

Schuhertia disticha, Mirbol in Mem. Mus. xiii, 75.— Sprengel, Syst. iii, 890.— Spach, Hist. Vcg. xi, 349. 

T. microphyllum, Brongniart in Ann. Sci. Nat. 1 ser. xxx, 182.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. t>8.— Liudley & Gordon in Jour. 
Hort. Soc. London, V, 207.— CarriM-e, Trait. Conif. 148. 

T. adsccndens, Brongniart in Ann. Sei. Nat. 1 ser. xxx, 182.— Endlichir, Svn. Conif. 69.— Liudley & Gordon in Ji.;ir. Hort, 
Soc. London, v,207.—Carriere, Trait. Conif. 148. 

T. distichum, var. patens and var. nutans, Kiullicher, Syn. Conif. 68.— Loudon, Arlioretum.iv, 2481. 

T. distichum fastigiatum. Knight, Syn. Conif. 21.— Carriire, Trait. Couil. 145; 2 ed. 181.- Gordon, Piuotuui, 307: 2 ed. 
383.- Henkel &, Hochstetter, Nadelbiilz. 260.— Hoopes, Evergreer.s, 367. 

T. distichum, var. microphyUum, HcnUel & Hochstetter,Nndelholi;.2t>l.—Parl!»tore in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 441 (7*. 
Sinvnse ptmliilum, Forbes, Pineluni Woburn. 180.— G(.vi)to«(ro&M« jmidulm, Endlicher, Conif. 71.— Bot. Mag. t. 6603.— 
Carribre, trail. Conif. 1.V2. — T. Sincnse, Gordon, Pinetum, SO!). — Ciij»r<«»M8 6'm<ii»f, Hort.). 

Cuprespinnata disticlia. Nelson, Pinacese, 61, 



184 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

BALD CYPRESS. BLACK CYPKKSS. RED CYPRESS. "WHITE CY'PRESS. DECIDUOUS CYPRESS. 

Sussex county, Delaware, south near the coast to Mosquito inlet and cape Romano, Florida, west through the 
Gulf states near the coast to the valley of the Xueces river, Texas, and through Arkansas to western Tennessee, 
western and northern Kentucky, southeastern Missouri, and southern Illinois and Indiana. 

A large tree of great economic value, 21 to 4G meters in height, with a trunk l.SO to i meters in diameter; 
deep, submerged swamps, river-bottom lands, and pine barren ponds; common and forming extensive forests in 
the ."louth Atlantic and Gulf states. 

Wood light, soft, close, straight-grained, not strong, compact, easily worked, very durable in contact with 
the soil; bands of small summer cells broad, resinous, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, 
light or dark brown, the sap-wood nearly white; si)ecific gravity, 0.4543; ash, 0.41'; largely manufactured into 
lumber and used for construction, cooperage, railway ties, jiosts, fencing, etc., often injured, especially west of the 
Mississippi river, by a .sjiccies oi Bmlalia, not yet determined, rendering it unfit for lumber. 

Two varieties of cypress, black and white, are recognized by lumbermen, the wood of the former heavier than 
water when green, rather harder and considered more durable than the other; the unseasoned wood of the latter 
lighter than water and rather lighter colored than bla(!k cypress. 

341. — Sequoia gigantea, Decaisne, 

Bull. Bot.Soe. France,!, 70; Rev. Hort. 1855, 9, 1. 10, f. 1.— Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, iii, 94; Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ecr. xvii. 440; xviii, 150, 
a'?6.—Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 140.— Kellogg in Proc. California Aca<l. i, 42.— Blake in Pacilic R. R. Rep. v, 257, t. 13.— 
Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 166. — Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 90. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. l.''.")8, 26;!. — Wood, Hot. & V\. ;!1.'). — 
Bloomer in Proc. California Acad, iii, 397. — lloopes, Evergreens, 239, f. 29. — Parlatoro in Do Caudollo Prodr. xvi', 437.— Koch, 
Dcndrologic, ii^, 194. — Bcrtrand in Ann. Sci. Nat. 5 ser. xx, 114. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 36. — Muir in Proc. Am. Assoc, xxv, 
242.— Watson, Bot. California, ii, 117. 

Wellingtonia gigantea, Lindley in London Card. Chronicle, 1853, 819, 82:?; Bot. Mag. t. 4777. 4778.— C. Lemairo in 111. Hort. 
1854, 14 & t.— Naudin in Rev. Hort. 1854, 116.— Fl. des Serres, ix, 93 & t. 903 & t.—Flor. Cabinet, 1854, 121 & t.— 
Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 22. — Gordon, Pinotum, 330; Supi)l. 106; 2ed. 415. — Murray in Edinburgh Now Phil. 
Jonr. new ser, xi, 205, t. 3-9 (Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vi, 330, t. 6, f. 8, 9).— Heukel & Hochstetter, NadelhOlz. 
222.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 217.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 4 15. 

Wellingtonia Cali/ornica, Winslow in California Farmer, September, 1854.— Hooker, Jour. Bot. & Kew Misc. vii,26. 

Taxodium Washingtoniannm, Winslow in California Farmer, September, 1854. 

Taxodium giganteum, Kellogg & Behr in Proc. California Acad. i. 51 . 

<S'. Wellingtonia, Sccmann in Bonplandia, ii,238; iii, 27; vi,343; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3 ser. March, 1859, 101.— Law. son, 
Pinelura Brit, iii, 299, t. 37, 51,53, f. 1-37. • 

Gigantabies Wellingtonia, Nelson, Pinacea?, 79. 

BIG TREE. 

California, western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas from Placer county (Calaveras Grove) south to Deer creek on 
the southern borders of Tulare county. 

The largest tree of the American forest, 70 to H!) meters in height, with a trunk G to 11 meters in diameter; 
valh'.\8 and moist swales or hollows between 4,000 and 0,000 feel elevation, growing in small, isolated groves, 
excejjt toward its .southern limits, here mixed with the sugar pine and red and white firs, covering large tracts, 
often several hundred acres in extent. 

Wood very light, soft, weak, brittle, rather coarse-graiiuul, compact, remarkably durable in contact with tlie 
soil; bands of small summer cells tiiiii, dark colored, conspicuous ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, brigjit 
clear red, turning much darker with e.Nposure, the thin sajjwood white; specific gravity, 0.'J.S82; ash, O.no ; in 
Fresno county formerly somewhat manufactured intolnmbr'r and locally u.sed for fencing, shingles, construction, elc 

342. — Sequoia sempervirens, i.ndlicher, 

Syn. Conif. 198.- Dccal»ne in Rev. Hort. 185.5, 9, t. II, f. 2.— Cuniferi', Trait. Conif. 164 ; 2 cd. 210.— Bigelow in Pacifie R, R. Rep. iv,23.— 
Newborrj- in Pacilic R. R. Rep. vi, :,7, 90, f. 23.— Torrey In Pacific R. R. Rip. iv, 140; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 210; Ivch' 
Ri-p.28.— Gordon, Pini-tnu), 303; Siippl. 97; 2 cd. :{79.— Cooper in Smitlmonian Rep. 1H58, 263.— Murray in Edinburgli New Phil. 
Jour, new ser. xi. 221 (Trans. Bot. Son. Edinburgh, vi, 3IC).— .Sccmann in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 3 ser. March, 18.59, 165.— Wood, Bot. 
& FI. 315. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 2:il. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 244. — Parlatore in Uo Caudollo Pi-odr. xvi', 4:)0. — 
Koi li, Ij.ii.lroloyli', ir, 193.— Vaw»y, Cat. Forest Trees, 36.— Stearns in Are. N.it. x, 110.— Watson, Bot. California, ii, 116.— Veitcb, 
Manual Conif. 212. — T/nwson, Pinetuiu Brit, iii, t..'')2 & tigs. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. IS^ 

Taxodium sempervirens, Lambert, Pinus, 114; 2 cd. ii, 107,t.52.— Loudou. Arboretum, iv, 2487, f. 2340, 234 l.—Uookcr, H. 
I3iir.-Ain.ii, 1G4 ; Icon, iv, t. 379. — Hooker & Ariiott, Bot. Becchey, 1841. — Frtmont, Geograi)Lical Mem. California, ac, 
37.— Hcnkel & HochBtKtler,Nadclholi!.262. 

Taxodii species, Douglas in Companion Bot. Mag. ii, l.'iO. 

Sequoia gigantea, Endlicber, Syn.Conif. IfiO, in part.— Btutbam. PI. Hart weg. 33a 

Abies religio.ia, HooUor & Aruott, Bot. Beccbcy, 160. 

Sch2ibertia scmpervircns, Spacli, Hist. Veg. xi,3.'J3. 

S. religiosa, Presl, Epimcl. Bot. 357.— Walpers, .\un. iii, 448. 

Oigantabies taxifoUu, Nelson, Piuaccie, 78. 

REDWOOD. 

California, from the northern boundarj- of tbe slate, south through the Coast rauges to "Veers creek" near the 
southern border of Monterey county. 

A large tree of great economic value, 01 to 92 meters in height, with a trunk 2.40 to 7 meters in diameter, sending 
up from the stump when cut many vigorous shOots; siiles of canons and gulches in low, wet situations, borders of 
streams, etc., not appearing on dry hillsides; generally confined to the western slopes of the Coast ranges, 
and nowhere extending far from the coast; most generally multiplied and reaching its greatest average density 
north of cape Mendocino. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very brittle, lather coarse-grained, compact, susceptible of a good polish, easily 
split and worked, very durable in contact with the soil; bands of small summer cells thin, dark colored, 
conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, very obscure; color, clear light reel, the thin sap-wood nearly white j 
specific gravity, 0.4208; ash, 0.14; largely sawed into lumber; the prevailing and most valuable building material 
of the Pacific coast, and in California almost exclusively used for shingles, fence posts, telegraph poles, railway 
ties, wine-butts, tanning- and water-tanks, coffins, etc. ; forms with curled or contorted grain are highlj- ornamentaL 

343. — Taxus brevifolia, Nuttall, 

Sylva, iii, 86, 1. 108 ; 2 od. ii, 149, 1. 108 ( T. oaidentiilis on plate).— Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 140.— Newberry in Pacilic R. R. Rep. 
vi, 00, 90, f. 26.— Cooper in Smitbsouian Rop. 1858, 263; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii-, 26, 69; Am. Nat. iii, 414.— Wood, Bot. Jt Fl. 
316. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 229. — Ca^ri^re, Trait. Couit". 2ed. 742. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 383. — Parlatore in De 
CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 501. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402. — Koch, Deudrologie, ii*, 95. — Gordon, Pinctnm, 2 ed.392. — Vasey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 35.— M.acouu in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 211.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Watson. Bot. 
California, ii, 110. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix,329. — Veitch, Manual Couif. 305. 

T. haccata, y.u: Canadcnsix, Boiitliani,Pl. Hartweg. 338. 

T. haccata, Hooker, Fl.Bor.-Am.ii, 167, in part. 

r. Bounierii, Carri^ro iu Rov. Hort. 1654,228 & t. ; Trait. Couif. 523 ; 2 cd. 739. 

T. Lindhyana, Murray in Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, new ser. i, 294; Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vi, I860.— Lawsou, Cat. 
lKi5, 15.— Gordon, Pinetura, 316 ; Snppl. 99.— Henkel & Hoehstettor, Nadelholz. 360.— Nelson, Pinacea>, 174. 

T. Canadensis, Bigelow in PaciBc R. R. Rep. iv,25 [not Willdenow]. 

YEW 

Queen Charlotte islands and the valley of the Skeena river, south through the Coast ranges of British Columbia, 
through western and the mountain ranges of eastern Washingtou territory and Oregon to the western slopes of 
the Uocky mountains of northern Montana (Canby tb Sargent), through the California Coast ranges to the bay of 
Monterey and along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas to about latitude 'M° N. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters iu height, with a trunk O.iiO to 0.00 meter iu diameter, or toward its eastern limits in 
Idaho and I\Iontana much smaller, often reduced to a low shrub; rare; low, rich woods and bordei"S of streams, 
reaching its greatest development in western Oregon, Washington territory, ami British Columbia. 



il\lllll^ IIO ^1^(1,1,1.01' \tV t ^IV.!!' 1111. ULr 111 11 VOi-VL 11 V^lV^Vfllf « * <1£>11 I 1 ■ ^ ( 1 f II l^tllWl^tf «1ilVl t..f 1 I 1 ■ O 11, V. Vf I » IU «^l»l ■ 

Wood heavy, iiard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish, very durable 
contact with the soil; bands of small sumiiu'r cells thin, dark colored, conspicuous; meiluUary rays thin, 
imerous, very obscure; color, light bright red, the Ihiii sap wood light yellow; specific gravity, O.G301 ; asU, 
22 ; usetl for fence posts anil by the Indians of the northwest coast for i)addles, spear handles, bows, fishhooks, 



in 

numerous 
0.21 
etc 



18G FOREST TREES OP^ NOIMTI AMERICA. 

344. — Taxus Floridana, Nuttall, 

Sylva, iii.W; 2 ed. ii, 1."j5.— Crooin in Am. Jour. Sci. 1 sor. xxvi, :l;!4.— Chapman, Fl. 8. .States, 43C.— CaiTi<~'rc,Tiail. Co.iif. 2o<1.741.— 
Hoopcs, Evergreens, 3S4. — Vusey. Cat. Forest Trees, 36. 

T. montana, yuttalI,S.vlva,iii,02; 2 cd. ii, 15.'>. 



Western Florida, baiik.s of the Apalaeliieola river from Bristol to Aspalaga, Gadsden eoinity, and AVatson's 
Landing? (fHWi.ts). 

A Biuall tree, .? to meters in height, with a trunk 0.15 to 0.25 meter in diameter ; rare and very local. 

Wood heavy, hard, very close-grained, comitact ; bands of small summer cells very tliin, dark colored, not 
consi)icuous ; medullary rays uuiucrous, obscure ; color, dark brown tinged with red, the thin sap-wood nearly 
white; .specific gravity, O.G340 ; ash, 0.21. 

345. — Torreya taxifolia, Aruott, 

Aim. Nat. Hist, i, 134; Hooker, Icon, iii, t. 232, 233.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 434.— Kuttall, Sylva, iii, 91, t. 109; 2 cd. ii, 153, t. 
109.— SpacU, Hist. Vcg. xi, 29S.— Eudliclier, Syn. Conif. 241.— Lindley &, Cordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 226.— Darby, Bot. 
S. States, 516.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 514 ; 2 ed. 726.— Gordon, Pincluni, 329: 2 ed. 412.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 259.— 
Chapman. Fl. S. States, 436.— Wood, CI. Book, 664; Bot. & Fl. 316.— IIoopcs, Evergreens, 387, f. 62.— Parlatore in De Caudolle, 
Prodr. x\i', 505. — Koch, Dcndrologie, ii', 100. — Vasey, Cat. I'orest Trees, 35. — Veitch, Mainial Conif. 311. 

GaryotaxU8 taxifolia, Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadclholz. 367. 
Fcetafaxux ynontana, Xelsim, Piuacc;e, 167. 

STINKING CEDAR. SAVIN. 

Western Florida, eastern bank of the Apalachicola river from Chattahoochee to the neighborhood' of Bri.stol, 
G;idsden county; doubtfully reported from the shores of a small lake west of Ocheesee and at Wakulla Springs, 
Wakulla county (Cur lias). 

A tree 12 to 18 meter.'? in height, with a trunk O.GO to 0.90 meter in diameter, sending up when cut many 
vigorous shoot« from the stem and roots; borders of swamps on calcareous soil; very rare and local. 

Woml light, rather hard, strong, brittle, very close-grained, compact, susceptible of a beautiful polish, very 
durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small summer cells very thin, not conspicuous ; medullary rays 
numerous, obscure; color, clear bright yellow, the thin .sap-wood much lighter; .si)ecifi(! gravity, 0.51 15; ash, 0.73; 
largely used locally for fence posts, etc. 

346. — Torreya Californica, Tmrcy, 

N. Yiirlc Joiir. Pliarm. iii, 49; Pacific K. K. Rop. iv, 140. — Bigolow in Pacific R. R. Hop. iv, 24. — Kollogg in Proc. California Acad, i, 
3'. — Newberry in Pacific H. R. Rej). vi, 61, 90, f. 27. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 263.— Bolandcr in Proc. California 
Aca<I. iii, 229. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 385. — Parlatore in De CaiidoUc, Prodr. xvi*, £06. — Koch, Dcndrologie, ii', 101. — Gordon, 
Pinetnm, 2 ed. 410. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 35.— Watson, Hot. California, ii, 110. 

T. MyriHtica, Hooker f. in Bot. Mag. t. 4760.— Van Honttc in Fl. des Serrcs, ix, 175 & t.— Carribre, Conif. 315; 2 ed. 727.— 
Gordon, Pinetnm, I ed. 327. — Murray in Edinburgh Now Phil. Jonr. new ser. x, 7, t. 3. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 311. 

Curyoturm MyriMica. Henkel & HochHtettcr, NadelhiJU. 368. 

Falataxux Ulyri^iica, Nelson, Pinaeeai, 168. 

CALirOUNlA NUTMEG. STINKING CEDAR. 

California, Mendocino county, and along the western sloj)e of the Sierra Nevadas (o Tulare county, between 
3,000 and 5,000 fci-t elevation. 

A tree 15 to 22 meters in height, with a trunk 0..''>0 to 0.!M) nK-ter in diameter, sending up from the stump when 
cut many vigorous shoots; borders of .streams, in moist soil; rare. 

WrK»d light, soft, not strong, verj- close-grained, compact, susceptiiile of a tine polish, veiy durable in contact 
with the soil; bands of small summer cells broad, not consi)icuous; medullary rays numerous, ob.scure; color, 
char li;iht yellow, the thin sap-wood nearly white; sjiecWc gravity, O.lTfiO; ash, 1.34. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 187 

347. — Pinus Strobus, i.inn.Tus, 

Spoo.lod. 1001; Da Roi, [larbk. ii.ri".— Wan-jeulioiiu, Amor, i, 1. 1, f. 1.— .\iton, Hort. Kew. iii, 369; 2 cd. v, 3H.— Swartz,OU.3C3.— 
Mcencli, Moth. ;5!)4.— MicLaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 20.'>.— Poirot in Lamarck, Dirt, v, 341 ; HI. iii, 369, t. 780, f. 2.— Lamltert, Pinn», 1 ed. t. 
22; 2ed. i, 27, t. 35; 3ed. i, 51, t. 3:2.— Will.lrnow, Spec, iv, .")01; Eiium. DS'J; BerlBauinz. -^Ki.— IVr.fOon, Syn. ii, 579.— DcKfohtaiui-*, Hi»t. 
Arb. ii, 012.— Michaux f. Hist. Arl). Ami. i, 104, 1. 10 ; N. American Sylvii, 3 oil. iii, 120, 1. 145.— Xoiivcau Duliamel, v, 249, t. 70.— Smith 
ill Rees' Cycl.xxviii, No. 17.— Pur.sli,ri. Am. Sept. ii, 044. —Eaton, Manual, 110; 6 c"d.2<i').— Niiltall, GeniTa, il, 22:1 ; Sylva, iii, 118; 

2 ed. ii, 176 (oxcl. syn. vai'. monlicola). — ilaync, Dcnd. I'l. 175. — Elliott. Sk. ii, 038. — Spn-nRcl, Syst. ii, f-S?. — Torrt-y, Couiiiond. FL 
N. States, 300; Fl. N.York, ii, 229. — Richard, Conif. CO, t. 12,f. 2.— Audnbon, Birds, t. .39.— IJeck, Bot. 339. —Loudon, Arbori-fom.iT, 
2280, f.21'.)3-2196.— Forbes, Pinetnm Woburu. 83.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 101.— Eaton & Wright. Bot. 359.— Bigclow. Fl. Boston. 

3 0(1. 385. — Autoiue, Conif. 43, t. 20, f. 3. — Lindley in Penn.Cycl. xvii, 173. — Link in Linna-a, xv, 514.— Spach, Hint. A'eg. xi,394. — 
Do Chambray, Trait. Arb. Ro.s. Conif. 262, t. 4, 5, f. 8. — Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, CO; 2 cd. i, 73 & t. — Eudlicber, Syn. 
Conif. 147. — Gihoiil, Arb. Resin. 3.5, t. 5. — Kniijht, Syn. Conif. 34. — Lindley &. Gordon in Jonr. Hort.Soc. London, v, 215. — Carrifere, 
Trait. Conif. 302 ; 2 ed. 398.— Buckley in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 sor. xiii, 393.— Darlington, Fl. Ccstrica, 3 cd. 290.— Darby, Bot. S. Statea, 
515.— Gordon, Pinetnm, 239; 2 cd. 322.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 257.— Fcscali.Forst.Pfl. 56, 1. 11, f. 7-13. —Chapman, Fl. 
S. States, 434.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv.N. Carolina, 1800, iii, 25.— Wood, CI. Book, 600 ;*Bot. &. Fl. 312.— Porcbcr, Rcnonrcea 

• S. Forests, 505. — Ilcukel & Hochstettcr, Nadelhiilz. 92. — Nelson, Piuacea>, 130. — Hoopes, Evergreens, KiO, f. 19. — Gray, Manual N. 
States, 5 ed. 470. — Parlatoro in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 405. — Schnizlein, Icon. t. 77, f. 10. — Kocb, Dendrologie, ii', 319. — Yasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 32. — Macoun in Geological Kop. Canada, 1875-70, 211. — Scars in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 1*'7. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 
183.— Boll in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80. 49'=. 

P. StrohufI, ViXr. alba, var. brevifolia, var. COmprexm, London, Arboretum, iv, 2280.— Lindley & Gordon in Jonr. 
Hort. Soc. London, v, 215. 

P. Strohiis, var. nivea, Hort. 

WHITE PINE. WEYMOrXn PINE. 

Newf()ii!Kllari(l, noitlierii shores of the gulf of Saiut Lawrence to lake Nipigon aud the valley of the Winnipeg 
river, south through tlie uorthern states to Pennsylvania, the southern shores of lake Michigan, ■' Starving rock," 
near La Salle, Illinois, near Davenport, Iowa {Parry), and along the Alleghany mountains to northern Georgia. 

A large tree of the first economic value, 24 to 52 meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 3.50 meters in diameter; 
sandy loam upon drift ibrinations, forming extensive forests, or in the region of the great lakes often in small 
bodies scattered through the bard-wood forests, here reaching its greatest development ; north of latitude 47*= 
N. and south of Pennsylvania, central Jlicbigan, and Minnesota ranch smaller, less common and valuable. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, very close, straight-grained, compact, easily worked, susceptible of a beautiful 
polish; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous, resin passages small, not numerous nor conspicuous; 
medullary r>iys numerous, thin ; color, light brown, often slightly tinged with red, the sa])-wood nearly white; 
specific gravity, 0.3S51; ash, 0.19; more largely manufactured into lumber, shingles, laths, etc., than that of any 
other North American tree; the common and most valuable building material of the northern .states; largely used in 
cabinet-making, for interior finish, and in the manufacture of matches, woodenware, and for many domestic purposes. 

Gonifcrm, a ghicoside principle, has been discovered in the cambium layer of this and several other species of 
Conlferm {Jour.filr Prakt. Chem. xcvii, 243.— .Iwi. Jour. Pliarm. IStiT, 261.— JJ. S. Diqu-nsaton/, 14 ed. 001). 

348. — Pinus monticola, Douglas; 

Lambert, Pinus, 1 id. iii, 27, t. 35.— London, Arboretum, iv, 2091, f. 2208, 2209.— ForV)es, Pinetnm Woburu. ?1 . t. 31.— Antoiuc, Conif. 40, t. 
18, f. 3. — Hooker &. Arnott, Bot. Beecboy, 394.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 148.— Lindley & Gordon in .lonr. Hort. Soc. London, v,215.— 
Carri&re, Trait. Conif. 305; 2 ed. 401.— Gordon, Piuetun),233; 2 ed. 314.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,262; Pacific R. R. Rep. 
xii=,27; Am. Nat. iii, 410.— Lyall in .lour. Liunican Soc. vii, 141.— Hcnkcl & Hocbstetter, Nadclbidz. 91.— Nelson, Piuacca', 120.— 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 135. — Bohiudcr in Proe. California .\cad. iii, 318. — Parlatorc in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-. 405. — Gray in Proc 
Am. Acad, vii, 402.— Fowler in London Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 1071.— Koch, Dendrologie, ii^ 322.— Vasey, Cat. Fort-st Trees, 32.— 
Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 211.— Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91.— Engelmann in Hot. California, ii, 12:<.— O. 
M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new sor. ix, :528.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 181, f. 41.— Lawson, Pinetnm Brit. i. 69, f. 1-6. 

P. Strobus, var. monticola, Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 118; 2cd. ii, 176. 

P. Orozelicri, Carii(~>re in Rev. Hort. 1809, 126. 

P. porphyrOCarpa, Lawson, l'iiu>tum Brit, i, Ki, f. 1-8. 

WHITE PINE. 

Vancuover's island, Coast and Gold ranges of southern Ikil Isli Columbia, through the Contr d'Alene and Bitter 
Root mountain^ of Idaho to the valley of the Flathead river, northern Jlonlana {Vanby »(• Sariirnt), soutii along 
the Cascade mountains of Washington territory and Oregon and tiie California sierras to Calaveras county. 

A largo tree, 30 to 40 meters in height, with a trunk O.HO to 1.50 meter in diameter: most common and ivaching 
its greatest develoimient in the Peud d'Oieille aud Clark's F»uk regions of Idaho, here a valuable and importftut 
timber tree; in British Columbia generally below 3,000 feet, and in California between 7,000 ami 10,(H)0 feet 
elevation; not common. 



188 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. • 

Wood very liglit, soft, not strong, close, straigbtgiainod, ooinpaet; bands of small summer cells thin, resinous, 
not conspicuous, resin passages numerous, not large, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
light brown or rod, the sap-wood nearly white; specitic gravity, O.'iflOS; ash, 0.23; inferior in quality, although 
resembling that of the eastern white i)ine (P. Strobus); in Idaho and Montana somewhat manufactured into lumber. 

349. — Pinus Latnbertiana, Douglas, 

Conipauiou Bot. Mag. ii,92, 106,107, 130, 152; Traus. Limiffian Soc. xv, 500. — Lnmbcrt, Piiius, 1 ed. iii, 157, t. 68, 69. — Loudon, Aiboivdnii, 
iv, 'iisS, f. a-.Oa.— Forbes, riui'tum Woburn. 77, t. IfO.— Hookor, Fl. Bor.-Ain. ii, 161.— Anioiiio, Coiiif. 41, 1. 19.— Liiidley in Pcnu. Cycl. 
xvii, 17;».— Hooker& Aniott, Hot. Ik-.'cluy, 304.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. xi, 397.— Nnttall, Sylvn, iii, 12u', t. Ill; Sod. ii, 180, t. 114.— Do 
Chambray, Trait. Arb. Kes. Conif. :!4G. — Endliohcr, Syii. Conif. 150. — Liudloy & Gordon in .Jonr. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v,215. — Carriero, 
Trait. Conif. 307 ; 2 ed. 403.— Bigelow in Pacilie R. R. Rep. iv, 21.— Torrey in raiilie R. R. Rep. iv, 141 ; Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 
210; Ives' Rep. 28. — Newberry in Pacific It. R. Rep. vi,42, 90, f. 14. — Gordon, Pinetum, 228; 2 ed. 307. — Coopor in Smilbsoniau Rop. 
IcS-", 262. — Murray in Trans. Bot. Soo. Edinburgh, vi, 369. — Lawsou, Pinetuui Brit, i, 47, t. 7, f. 1-7. — Bolander iu Proc. California 
Acid, iii, 226, 317. — Henkel & Hoilistetter, Nadelbolz. 95. — Nelson, Pinace;e, 115. — Iloopes, Evergreens, l:t4.— Parlatore in Do 
CandoUe. Prodr. xvi-', 402.— Fowler in London Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 1071. — Koch, Deudrologie, ii*, 323. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
32.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 179. 

SUGAR I'lNE. 

Oregon, Cascade and Coast ranges, from the head of the Mackenzie river and the valley of the Kogue river 
south along the western tlauk of the California sierras, through the Coast ranges to tlie Santa Lucia mountains, 
and in the San Bernardino and Cuyamaca mountains. 

A large tree, -IG to 92 meters in height, with a trunk 3 to 7 meters in diameter; most comniou and reaching its 
greatest development upon the sierras of central and northern California between 4,000 and 8,000 feet elevation; 
in the Oregon Coast ranges descending to 1,000 feet above the sea-level. 

Wood very light, soft, coar.se, straight-grained, compact, satiny, easily worked; bands of small summer cells 
thin, resinous, conspicuous, resin passages numerous, very large and conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, 
ob.scure; color, light brown, the sap-wood nearly white; specitic gravity, 0.3GS4; ash, 0.22; now hugely mannfaclured 
into lumber and used for interior finish, door-blinds, sashes, etc., and for cooperage and woodenware; less valuable 
and less easily worked than that of the eastern white pine {I'inus Strobu.s); its quality injured by the larger and 
more numerous resin passages. 

A saccharine exudation from the stumps of cut or partially-burned trees sometimes used as a substitute for 
sugar. 

350. — Pinus flexilis, James, 

Long's Expcd. ii, 27, 34.— Torrey in Ann. Lyc.N. York, ii, 249; Pacilie R. R. Rep. iv, 141.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 265.— Eaton & 
Wright, Bot. 359.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 107, t. 112; 2 ed. ii, 167, 1. 107.— Liudley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 220.— 
Carrii^re in Fl. des Serres, ix, 200 ; Rov. Hort. 1854, 228 ; Trait. Conif. 310 ; 2 ed. 392.— Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rej). iv, C, 20.— 
Gonlon, Pinetum, 224; 2 ed. 302. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 262. — Parry in Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii, 121. — Engelmann iu 
Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxi v, 3;J1 ; Trans. St. Louis Aca<l. ii, 208; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 257 ; Bot. Califoruia, ii, 124.— Henkel & Hochstetter, 
Nadelholz. 126. — Nelson, Pinacea-,, 112. — Bolauder in Proc. Califoruia Acad, iii, 318. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 131, f. 18. — pjirlatoro in 
Ue Candoilu, Prodr. xvi^, 403. — Porter iu Ilaydeu's Rep. 1871, 494. — Watson iu King's Rep. v, xxviii, 332 ; PI. Whi'cler, 17. — Rothrock, 
PI. Wheeler, 27, 5U; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 9.- Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; Huydcu, Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 130.— Murray in 
Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 187.5, 106.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 32. — Sargent in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xvii, 420 — Lawson, Pinetum 
Brit, i, r., f. 1. 

P. Jjambertiana, var. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, loi. 

/'. Llimbcrtiaua, var. brevi/oHa, Endlicher, Syu. Conif. l.')0.— Liudley A Gordon in .lour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 215.— 
Carrierr, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 404. 

P.flexiliH, var. scrrulatn, Engelmann in Wheel-r's Rep. vi, 258. 

P.flexiltH, var. macrocarpa, Engelmann in Wheeler's Kep. vi, 258. 

WHITE I'INE. 

Eastern slopes of the Rocky mountains, Montana, and probably much farlher noilh, south to New Mexico, on 
the Guadiiliipe and Limpia mountains, western Te.xas (Ilaranl), on the high mountain ranges of Utah, Nevada, 
and northern Arizona, Inyo nioimtains and mount Hilliman, Calilornia. 

A tree 1.") to IS meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.20 meter iu diameter; <lry, gravelly slopes and ridges 
between 4,000 and 10,000 feet elevatir»n ; conunon along the eastern .sloptis of the Itocky nujuiilaius of northern 
Montana, forming open, scattered forests, here low, round-topped, and the jucvailing forest tree; in central Nevada 
the most valitable lumber tree of the region. 

Wood light, soft, do.se-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous, re.sin 
Iiassages nunieron.s, large; medullary ia\s numerous, consiiicuous; color, light clear yellow, turning red with 
fjxposure, the sap-wood nearly white; .specific gravity, 0.4 JuS; ash, 0.28; in northern Montana, Nevada, and Utah 
boinetiines sawed, into inferior lumber and used in con.struction and for various domestic purposes. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 189 

351. — Pinus albicaulis, Kngclmann, 

Trans. St. Lotiis Acad, ii, 209; Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 4. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402. — Va«ey, Cat. Forest Tree*, rs. — Hall 
in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — Lawson, Pinctuin Brit, i, 1, f. 1-4. 

P. flexilis, Murray, Rep. Oregon Exped. i, t. 2, f. 1 [not James]. — Lyall in Jour. Liuna-au Sec. vii, 142. — Parlatore iu De 
Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 403, in part. 

P. CCmhroidcS, Newberry in Paiilic K. I{. Upp. vi, 41, 90, f. 1.5 [not Zuccarini ]. 

P. Shasta, Carriferc, Trait. Couif. 2 cd. 300. 

P. flexilis, var. albicaulis, Engolmanu in Bot. California, ii,124.— G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new. ser. ix, 328. 

Coast lauges of British Columbia, from the valley of the Lltasyotico river (G. M. Dawson) south along the 
Cascade and Blue mountains of Washington territory and Oregon, extending east along the high ranges of 
northern Washington territory to the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains of northern Jlontana (Old Marias 
pass, Canhy & Sargent) ; California, Scott's mountains, mount Shasta, and on the high peaks of the Sierra Nevadas 
to mount San Bernardino. 

A small alpine tree, 6 to 12 meters iu height, with a trunk rarely O.CO meter in diameter, or at its highest 
elevation reduced to a low, i)rostriite shrub; dry, gravelly ridges at the extreme limit of tree growth, reaching in 
the San Bernardino mountains an elevation of 10,500 feet. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous, 
resin passages numerous, not large; medullary rays numerous, obscui'e ; color, light brown, the sap-wood nearly 
white; speciflc gravity, 0.41G5; ash, 0.27. 

352. — Pinus reflexa, Kugelmaun, 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 4.— Rusl.y in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 80. 
P. flexilis, var. reflexa, Eugelmann in Wheeler's Rep. \i, 258. 

WHITE PINE. 

High mountains of southwestern New Mexico [Gi-eene, Rvshy) to the Santa Kita mountains (Rothrocl; Engelmann 
& Sargent) and Santa Catalina mountains (Lemmon, Pringle), Arizona. 

A tree 21 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes exceeding O.GO meter in diameter; rocky ridges and 
slopes of ;ihiiost inaccessible canons between G,000 to 8,000 feet elevation. 

Wood'light, hard, not strong, close-grained, compact; bands of small summer cells thin, i-esinous, not 
conspicuous, resin passages large, not numerous; medullary rays numerous, obscure : color, light red. the sap- 
wood nearly white; speciflc gravity, 0.4877; ash, 0.2(;. 

353. — Pinus Parryana, Engelmauu, 

Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxiv, 332, note ; Hot. California, ii, 124. — Parlatore iu De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 402. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. 

P. Llaveana, Torroy, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 208. t. .^f) [not Scliiede ife Deppe]. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 18S8, 
262. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 318. 

PINON. M"T ri>E. 

California, Larkin's station, 20 miles southeast of Campo, San Diego county (Va.tey). and southward into Lower 
California. 

A snuill tree, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.45 meter in diameter; very raw within the limits 
of the United States; south of the boundary forming e.xteii.'^ive open forests ujion the high mesas and slopes of 
Lower C;ilifornia (Prii'glc). 

Wood light, soft, close graini'd, compact ; bands of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous, resin passjiges 
very uuiTierous, large, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown or yellow, the sap-wood 
much lighter, nearly white; specitic gravity, 0.5075; ash, 0.54. 

The large seeds edible. 



190 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

354. — Pinus cembroides, Zuccarmi, 

Flora, ii, 93.— Enciliclier, .Syu. Conif. 1(S.— Fl. des Serres, iv, 344C, t. 1»7.— Nelson, Piunce.P, 107.— Parlntoio iu Do Can<liillc, Proilr. 
xvi«, 3J>7.— EDgilui.inu iu Traus. St. Loois Acad, iv, 176. — Watson in Proo. Am. Acad, xviii, 158. 

P. Llarer.na, Sch-.edo & Dcppe in Liunsea, xii, 488.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 40, t. 17.— Antoine, Conif. 36, t. 16, f. 1.— 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 401.— Lindley & Gordon iu Joar. Hort. Soo. London, v, 216. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 405; 2 od. 
461. — Gordon, Piuetnni, 199 ; 2 cd. 274 (oxcl. ayn. e<luUa). — Henkol & Hocbstetter, Nadelbolz. 64 (excl. syu. ediiUs).— 
Hoopeii, Evergreens, 143. 

P. OSteosperma, Engelmann iu Wislizenus' Eop. No. 3. — Liudley & Gordou in Jour, llort. Soc. London, v, 216. — Carriore iu 
FI. dis Serres. ix, 200 ; Rev. Hort. 1864, 227. 

NUT PINE. 

Santa Catalina uioiiutains, Arizona (Prhigle) ; through iiortbeiu Mexico. 

A small tree, in Arizona 6 to 7 meters in height, with a trunk hardly exceeding 0.30 meter in (liaiueter; (hy 
ridges and slopes at 3,500 feet elevation. 

Wood light, soft, very close-grained, comiiact; bauds of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous, nsin 
passages few, small: medullary rays nnmerons, obscure; color, light clear yellow, the sap-wood nearly whiter 
specific gravity, 0.G512; ash, 0.90. 

The seeds edible. 

355. — Pinus edulis, Engelmauu, 

Wislizenns' Eep. No. 1 ; Wliecler's Rep. vi, 260. — Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v. 216. — Carrifere, Fl. des Serres, ix, 
201; Rev. Hort. 1S5I, 227; Trait. Conif 408.— Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 173, t. 20; Pacific R. E. Rep. iv, 140; Ives' Rep. 28.— 

Bigelow in Pacilic R. R. Rep. iv, 3, 19. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rep. 1853, 261. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 142. — Parlatoro iu Do 
Caudolle, Prodr. xvi-, 396.— Watson in PI. Wheeler, 17.— Porter «X: Coulter, FI. Colorado ; Haydou's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 130.— 

Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. — Rothrock in Wheeler's Rep. vi, 9. — Rusby in Bull. Torrey Lot. Club, ix, 106. — Veiteli, Manual 

Conif. 172. 

P. cembroides, Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 236 &. f.; Pinetum, 192; 2 ed. 265 [uot Zuccariui].— Fl. des 
Serres, iv, 324'', 32.5'', t. 331, f IW.— Lindley & Gordon in Jonr. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 216.— Carriiire, Trait. Conif. 404; 
2 cd. 460. 

P./utilis, Eoezl in herb, fiiic Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 76; 2 ed. 265. 

Plf^ON. NUT PINE. 

Eaatem base of Pike's peak, Colorado, south through New Mexico to the uwuntains of western Texas. 

A small tree, G to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 meter iu diameter; dry mesas and slopes, generally 
on lime or .sandstone, reaching in Colorado an elevation of 9,000 feet. 

Wood light, soft, not stroug, brittle, clo.se-graiuod, coini)act, durable in contact with the soil ; bands of small 
sammer cells thin, not conspicuous, resin passages few, small ; incdullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light 
brown, tbe .sai)-wood nearly wliite ; specific gra^^ty, 0.C38S ; ash, 0.G2 ; largely used for fuel, charcoal, fencing, etc.,. 
and in western Texas occasionally manufactured into inferior lumber. , 

The large edible nuts supply tlie Indians with a valuable article of food. 

356. — Pinus monophylla, Torrey & Fremont, 

Fremont's Rep. 31'J, t. 4.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. l^V", 201. — Bolandor iu Proc. California Aead. iii, 318.— Hooper, Evergreens, 
142. — Parlatoro in De Caudolle, Prodr. xvi", 378. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, i, 65, t. 9, f. 1-12 (/'. Fremoniiana on i)lato). — Watson 
in King's Bop. v, 330 ; PI. Wheeler, 17.— Koch, Uendrologic, ii', 271.— Bortrand in Bull. Soo. But. France, xviii, 81, t. 5, f. 81.— 
Rothrock iu PI. Wheeler, 28, 50.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. — Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 594. — Kngoluiann in Wheeler's Rep,vi, 
259,;{74; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 178; Bot. California, ii, 121.— Sargent in Am. Jonr. Sei. 3 ser. xvii,419. — Minsters in London 
Card. Chronicle, 188:!, p. 48, f 8. 

P. Fremontiana, Endlichcr, Syn. Conif. 18.ii, in part.— Gordon in Jour, llort. .Soc. London, iv, 293 & f ; Pinetum, 194 ; 2 cd. 
23.5.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 28.— Lindley & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 216.— Carriere, Trait. Conif 194 ; 2 
cd. 462.— Henkel & HochstetU-r, Nadelbolz. 02. 

PiSON. NUT PINE. 

Near Utah lake, Utah, to the eastern foothills of the California sierras, south along the moinitaiu ranges of tlio 
Great Basin to the San Francisco mountains of eastern Arizona. 

A small, bu.shy tree, 4 to meters iu heiglit, with a trnnk sometimes 1 meter in diameter; dry, gravilly slojies 
and mesan between 3,000 and 0,000 feet elevation. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 191 

Wood light, soft, weak, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of (small summer cells tliiu, uot couspicuous, 
resin passages few, not largo; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, yellow or liglit brown, the sap-woo*! nearly 
wliite; specific gravity, 0.5G58; ash, 0.G8; largely used for fuel aud charcoal. 

The large edible seeds furnish the principal food of the Indians of the Great Ba.siu. 

357. — Pinus Balfouriana, Mmrav, 

Ecii. Oregon Exped. i, t. 3, f. I. — Gordon, Pinetum, 217 ; 2 eJ. "293. — Heukel & Hochstettur, XadeUiuIz. 109. — Bolander io Proc. Califoruia 
Acad, iii, 313. — Carriorc, Trait. Coiiif. 2 od. 425. — Nolsoii, Piuacea;, 104. — Iloopes, Evergreous, 149. — Fowler in London Card. 
Clironiclo, 1872, 973. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 32. — Eagelmanu in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 179; Bot. California, ii, 125. — 
Vcitch, Manual Conif. 175. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, i, 11, f. 1-5. 

California, Scott's mountain, Siskiyou county {Jeffrey, Lemmon), mount Whitney, aud about the headwaters of 
King and Kern rivers. 

A small tree, 15 to 19 meters in height, with a trunk O.fiO to 0.90 meter in diameter; dry, gravelly slopes and 
ridges, forming upon Scott's mountain a broad belt of open forest growth between 5,000 and 8,000 feet elevation. 

Wood light, soft, weak, brittle, very close-grained, compact, satiny, susceptible of a good polish ; bands of 
small .summer cells very narrow, dark colored, resin passages fe\v| not conspicuous; medullary rays unmerons 
obscure; specific gravity, 0.5434; ash, 0.41. 

Var. aristata, Engelmaun, 

Wlieeler's Rep. vi, 375. — Bot. California, ii, 125. — Voitub, Manual Conif. 175. 

P. aristata, Engelmanu in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 sor. xxxiv, 331 ; Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii, 905, t. 5, 6; iv, 179; Bot. California, 
ii, 125.— Parry in Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii, 123.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 313.— Kegel, Gartenflora, 1863, iii,91.— Henkil 4. 
Hoclistetter, Niulelholz. 417.— Xolson, Pinacc;e, 103.— Carrii^ro, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 424.— Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. 
xvi-, 400. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. S!isc. Pub. No. 4, 130.— Murray in London Card. Chronicle, 
1875, 106.— Gordon, Pinetum, 2 ed. 291.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 32.— Brandegce in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, 32.— 
Lawson, Pinetum Brit, i, .5, f. 1. 

P. Balfouriana, Watson in King's Rop. v, ?31 ; PI. Wheeler, 17 [not Murray].— Rothrock in PI. Wheeler, 28, 50.— Sargent 
in Am. Jour. Sci. 3 ser. xvii, 419. 

FOXTAIL PINE. HICKORY PINE. 

Mountains of southeastern California, Nevada, northern Arizona, and southern Utah to Colorado, above 7,500 
feet, or in Colorado reaching 12,000 feet elevation. 

A tree 15 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 2.40 meters in diameter; dry, gravelly ridges; not 
common. 

Wood light, soft, not .strong, very close-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells thin, dark colored, uot 
conspicuous, resin passages few, not prominent; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, red, the thin sap-wootl 
nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5572 ; ash, 0.30; in central Nevada largely used for the timbering of mines, and 
now nearly exterminated. 

358. — Pinus resinosa, Aiton, 

Hort.. Kow. iii, 3n7; 2 od. v, 31G.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 ed. t. 14; 2 od. i, 20, t. 14; 3 ed. i, 17, t. 13.— Willdonow, Spec, iv, 4»'.: Eaum. 
98S; Bed. Baumz. 267.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 339.— Porsoou, Syn. ii, 578.— Destbntaiuos, Hist. Arb. ii, 612.— Smith in Rtve' 
Cyil. xxviii, No. 3.— Pni-sli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 642.— Efttou, Manual, 110; 6 ed. 264.— Nuttall, (ieuera, ii. 223.— Hayne, D«nd. Fl. 
17;!._Sprongel, Syst. ii, 83j.— Torroy, Comiiond. Fl. N. States, 360 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 227.— Beck, Hot. 3;ft1.— Loudon. Arlwretum. iv, 
23U), f. 2094-2097.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburu. 19, t. 6.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 161. in part.— Eaton A Wright, Bot. 358.— Bigclow, 
Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 3.^4.- Lindley in Penu. Cyd. xvii. 170.— Antoino, Conif. 7, t. 4, (. 1.— Link in Linua\i, xv, .'.01.— Eudlichcr, Syu. 
Couif. 178.— Knight, Syn. Conif, 27.— Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 219.- Parry in Owen's Kvp. 618.— Carritre, 
Trait. Conif 401.— Gordon, Pinetum, 183(excl. syn. TA>iseUHHana) ; 2 ed. 95t>.— Richardson Arctic Expcd. 441,— Coop«>riu Smithsonian 
Rep. 1K')8, 257.— Wood, CI. Book, Olil ; Bot. & Fl. 313.— Heukel & llochstetter. Nadelholz. 45 (excl. -syn. /.oiw/curiana).- Hoopes. 
Evergreens, 102.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 470. — Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^ :k*<.— Koch. Dendmlogio, ii-'. C,-^-.- 
Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 30.— Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 211.— Engelmaun in Trans. St. Louis Acid. iv. 17>.>.— * 
Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, siii, 185.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 50^— Veiteh, Slannal Conif. 159. 

r. rubra, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 46, 1. 1 ; N. American Sylvn, 3 cd. iii, 91, t. 134 [not Lambert] —Do Chanibray,. 
Trait. Arb. Res. ;M4.— Gihoul, Arb. Resin. 27.— Ca^•i^re, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 4J>6. 

P. Laricio, var. resinosa, Spaob, Hist. Veg. 385. 



192 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

KED PINE. NOKWAY PLNE. 

NewloiiiKllaud, iiortboni shores of t-he giilfof Ssiiiit Lawreuce and lake Nipigou to the valley of the Winnipeg 
river, soiitli tlirough the northern .state.s to Chestnut Hill, Jliddlevsex county, Massachusetts, the nioiuitains of 
northern Pennsylvania, Isabella county, Jlichigan, and central Minnesota. 

A large tree, 24 to 4G meters in height, with a trunk O.GO to l.;^7 meter in diameter; light sandy loam or dry, 
rocky ridges, forming .scattered groves rarely exceeding a lew hundred acres in extent; common and reaching its 
greatest development through northern Wisconsin and Minnesota ; rare in the eastern States, except in the extreme 
northern portions of New England. 

Wood light, not strong, hard, rather coarsegrained, compact ; bauds of small summer cells broad, dark 
colored, very resinous, resin passages few, small, not conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light 
red. the sap-wood yellow or often almost white; specilic gravity, 0.4854; ash, 0.27; largely maunfactured into 
lumber and used for all purposes of construction, flooring, piles, etc. 

359. — Pinus Torreyana, Parry, 

Bot. Mex. Boundar)- Survey, 210, t. 58, 59; Proc. San Diego Nat. Hist. Soc. Nov. 1883.— Canifere. Trait. Couif. 32G; 2 cd. 42:J.— 
Gordon, Pinctora, 241.— Cooper in Smithsonian Eep. 1360, 442.— Ilenkel & Hochstettor, Nadclbolz. 117.— Bolandor in Proc. 
California Acad, iii, 318.— Hoopes, Evergreens, 150.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31.— Palmer in Am. Nat. xii, 594.— Engolmann in 
Trans. St. Lonis Acad, iv, 181 ; Bot. California, ii, 125.— Veitcb, Manual Conif. 173. 

P. loplwspcrma, Lindley in London Card. Chronicle, 1860, 46. —Gordon, Pinctuui, Suppl. 69; 2 od. 310.— Henkel A 
Hochstctter, NadeUiolz. 112. — Nelson, Pinacea;, 117. — Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 391. 

California, mouth of the Soledad river, San Diego county ; doubtfully rci)orted from one of the islands oft' 
Santa Barbara and from Lower California. 

A low, short lived, gnarled, crooked tree, C to 8 meters in height, with a trunk 0.23 to 0.33 meter in diameter ; 
•crests of .sandy bluffs immediately upon the sea-coast ; very local and fast disappearing. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, rather closegrainerl, com])act: bands of small summer cells broad, 
resinous, conspicuous, resin pa.ssages small, few; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light red, the sap-wood 
yellow or nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.4879 ; ash, 0.35 ; locally used for fuel. 

360. — Pinus Arizonica, Eugelmann, 
Wheeler's Rep. vi, 260; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 181 ; Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii, 4. 

YELLOW PINE. 

Santa Rita mountains {Rothrocl; Engelmann & Sargent), Santa Catalina mountains (Lemmon, Pringle), and 
probably upon other ranges of .southern Arizona. 

A tree 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk O.dO to 0.00 meter in diameter ; high rocky ridges between (»,000 
and 8,000 feet elevation ; the prevailing forest tree over large areas near the summits of the Santa Catalina 
mountains (Lemvtou). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather brittle, close grained, compact; bands of small summer (h'IIs luoad, very 
resinons, conspicuous, resin i)assages numerous, large; medullary rays thin, obscure; color, light red or often 
yellow, the sap-wood lighter yellow or wiiite; specific gravity, 0.50.3.S ; a.sli, 0.20 ; sometimes sawed into inferior 
lumber. 

361. — Pinus ponderosa, Douglas, 

Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 111.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 22-13, f. 2132-2136.— Korbi-s, Pinetum Wolnini. 44, t. 1.'..— Anloine, Conif. "iH, t.8, 
f.L— Limlley in Penn. Cycl. xvii, 172.— Link in Linnira, xv,30<i.— Nntlall, Sylvn, iii, 114; 2im1. ii, 17:i.— Spaoli, Hist. Veg. xi, 389.— 
Endlicher, .Syn. Coiiif. 10:!.— I^nigljl, Syii. Conif. 30.— Ijudley & Gordon in .lour. Hort. Koc. London, v, 217.— Carriftre, Trait. Conif. 
340; 2c.l. 44."..— Gordon. I'lii.-lum, 'J05; .Suppl. 67; 2 cd.awL— Newberry in Patilir I{. K. Hep. vi, 36, 90, I. 4, f. 12.— Cooper iu 
SmitliHoniaii Rep. lr.>^, 261 ; PaciHc R. R. Hup. xii-, 27, tW ; Am. Nat. iii, 409.— Torrey, Bot. Mcx. Boundary .'<nrvey, 209; Ives' Rej). 
28.— Engelmann in Am. .lour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiv, 332; Proc. Am. Phil. .Sne. 2 ser. xii,209; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 261; Trans. St. Louis 
Acad, iv, 181; Bot. Califoniin, ii, 12.'>.— Lyall in .Jour. Liuiiii-.in Soe. vii, 142.— Bolandi-r in Proc. California Acad, iii, 226, 317.— 
Henkel 4. Hoclistettcr, Nadi-lliol/. 71.— .Nelson, Piuaceie, 125.— Hoopes, Evergreens, 1 17.— Parlatore in Dn Candolle, Prodr. xvi», 395 
(excl. syn. .S'incfairii).— Wals<in in King's l{<!p. v, 331 ; I'l. Wheeler, 17.— Gray in I'roc. Am. Acad, vii, 4(l-^. — I'owler in Loudon Givrd. 
Chronicle, 1872, 1.326.- Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 310.— Rothrock in PI. Wheeler, 28, .50 ; Wliec ler's l(e)>. vi, 9.— Porter &, Coulter, l''l. 
Colorado; Hayden's .Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, l-.!9.— Hayileu in Warren's Rep. Nebraska A- Dakota, 2 ed. 121.— Vasey, Cat. Korcsl 
Trees, rjO.-Hall in Conifer's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91,— Maconn in Geological Rep. Cana<ln, IH75-'76, 211.— Brandcgcc in Coulter'M Bot. 
Oszett", iii, 32.— G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 320.— Riisby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 106. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 103 

P. Benthamiana, Hartwcg in Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, ii, 189; iii, 223.— Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, iv, 212 i t.- 
(Fl. des Scrrcs, vi, 8,5 <fe f.) ; Piiietuni, 188 ; 2 <;d. 2til (excl. Kvn. 5in'7airii).— Kniglil, S.vn. Couif. :«).— Lindley it Gordon 
in Jour. Hort, Soc. London, v,21fi.—Ciirri<ire, Trait. Conil, :K0; 2 ed. 4.j2.— Murray iu Edinburgh N.-w I'hiL Jour, new 
ser. i,287, t. 8.— Ilenltel & HoclisteftiT, Nadtdholz. 84.— Nidsou, I'inacca', 104.— Kowli-r in London Oard Chronicle, 
1872, 973. 

P. reninosa, Torrey in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, 249 [not Aiton].— Douglas, Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 120.— Hf>oker, Fl. Bor.-An. 
ii, 161, in part. — Winehell iu Ludlow's Rep. Black Hills, 68. 

P. brachyptera, Engelmann in Wislizenus' Rep. No. 4.— Liudlcy & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 216.— Carriire 
in Fl. dos Serres, ix, 201 ; Rev. Hort. 1854, 227 ; Trait. Conif. 356 ; 2 ed. 454.— Bigelow in Pacific R. K. Rep. iv 18.— 
Gordon, Pinetum, 190; 2 ed. 263.— Henkel &. Hoohstettor,Nade]h51z. 85. — Nelson, Pinacese, 454. 

P. Beardsleyi, Murray in Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, new ser. i, 286, t. 6.— Carrifirc, Trait. Conif. 359. 

P. Graigana, Murray in Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, new ser. i,288, t. 7. 

P. macrophylla, f Torrey in Sitgreaves' Hop. 173 [not Engcluianu]. 

P. Engelmanni, Torroy in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 141 [not Carrifero]. 

P. Parryana, Gordon, Pinetum, 202; 2ed.277 [not Engelmann].— Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 88.— Carrifere, Trait. 
Conif. 2 ed. 446. 

P. jwndei-osa, var. Benthamiana, Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. 

p. p07lderosa, var. SCOpulorum, Engelmann in Bot. California, ii, 126. 

YELLOW PINE. BULL PINE. 

Interior of British Columbia, south of hititude 51°, south and east along the mountain ranges of the Pacific 
region to Mexico, the Black hills of Dakota, Colorado, and western Texas; not detected in central or southern Nevada. 

A large tree, 61 to 91 meters in height, with a trunk 3. GO to 4.57 meters in diameter, or tlironghout the Rocky 
Mountain region much smaller, rarely exceeding 30 meters in height (var. scopulonim) ; dry, rocky ridges and 
prairies, or in northern California rarely iu cold, wet swamps, reaching its greatest development along the western 
slope of the sierras of northern and central California; in western Washington territory and Oregon rare and 
local; after Pseudotsuga Douglasii the most generally distributed and valuable timber tree of the Pacific forests, 
furnishing the principal lumber of eastern Washington territory and Oregon, western Montana, Idaho, the Black 
hills of Dakota, western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

Wood, varying greatly in qualitj' and value, heavy, hard, strong, brittle, not coarse-grained nor durable, 
compact; bands of small summer cells broad or narrow, very resinous, conspicuous, resin passages few, Finall ; 
medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light red, the very thick sap-wood almost white ; specific gravity, 0.4715; 
ash, 0.35; largely manufactured into lumber, and used for railway ties, fuel, etc. 

Note. — A form with purple cones and long glaucous foliage, approaching P. Jeffreyi in habit, is the prevailing tree of the valley of 
Flathead lake, Montana (Canby cf- Sargent). 

362. — Pinus Jeffreyi, Murray, 

Rep. Oregon Exped. 2, 1. 1 ; Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, now ser. xi, 224, t. 8, 9 (Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, vi, 350 & t.) ; Carrifrro. Trait. 
Conif. 388; 2 ed. 439.— Gordon, Pinetum, 198; 2 ed. 272.— Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 87.— Nelson, Pinacea>, 115.— Hoo|>es, 
Evergreens, 115. — Parlatore in De Candollo, Prodr. xvi*, 393. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, i, 45, t. 6, f. 1—1. — Koch, Dcndrologie, ii', 
314. — Engelmauu in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vii,4. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 165. 

P. deftexa, 'I'orroy in Bot. Mox. Boundary Survey, 209, t. 56, iu part.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1860, 442.— H.nkel & 
Hochstetter, Nadelholz, 416. — Carrit^re, Trait. Couif. 2 ed. 455. — Bolander in Proe. California Acad, iii, 318. — Parlatore 
in DeC.andolle, Prodr. x\i'',431. — Fowler iu London Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 1070. — Murray iu London G.ird. Chmnicle, 
1,S75, 100.- Gordon, Pinetum, 2 ed. 289. 

P.ponde>-OSa, var. Jeffreyi, Vasey, Cat. Forest Trecs,31.—Eugolniann iu Trans. St. LouisAcad. iv,181 ; Bot. California, ii, 126. 

BULL PINK. BLACK PINE. 

California, Scott's mountain, Siskiyou county, south along (he Sierra Nevada to the San r>ernardino and San 
Jacinto mountains. 

A large tree. 30 to 31 metors in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 4 meters in diameter; tlry, gravt'lly slopes between 
(i,000 and 8,000 feet elevation ; most common and reaching its greatest develo])meiit on the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Novadas, here generally replacing the allied P. ponderosa, from which it may be distin^ished by its moix^ deeply- 
cleft bark, glaucous branchlets and leaves, nuich larger cones, and by the strong, i)ungent odor of oil of orange 
•of the freshly-cut branchlets. 

13 FOU 



194 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Woutl li^^bt, strong, hard, ratUorcoarse-frraincil, coiiipact ; bands of small smunier cells not broad, very resinous, 
conspicuous, resin j)assa{res lew, not larfre; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, li{;bt red, the sap-wood pale 
yellow or nearly white; s|>eei(ie j^ravity, ().o2(l«; asli, D.L'il; largely manulaetured into coarse lumber. 

Abietiiic, a volatile carbo-hydrosen possessing powerful anicsthetic properties, is ])robably obtained t)y distillinji; 
the resinous exudation of this species, and not of P. Sabiniaiui { Watfs Diet. Chemistry, '2d Suppl. 1. — Am. Jour. Fharm. 
1872, 97.— r'. S. nispensntory, 14 ed. 900). 

363. — Pinus Chihuahuana, Eii^clmnnn, 

AVisIiiMMuis' Ri-p. No. '^"i ; Wlioi'lfi';* l^'op. vi, vitid ; Traus. St. Lduis Acad, iv, 181 ; Coiiltir's Hot. Gazetti>, vii, 4.— Liudley & Gordon 
in Jour. Ilort. .Soc. London, v, 'iM. — Carrii-n- in Fl. dcs Serres, ix, "iOO ; Eov. Ilort. 185), ".i'J? ; Trait. Conif. 357 ; 2 id. 45.'i. — Gordon, 
Pinetuiu, 193; '2 ed. 2CC.— Torrey, Bot. Mcx. Bonndary Survey, 'J09. — Cooper in Smitlisoniaii Roi).18f>0, 442.— Honkel & Ilochstetter, 
Natlelholz. 86. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 143. — Parlalore in De Caudollo, Prodr. xvi', 397. — Vaeey, Cat. Forest Trees, 32. 

Santa Rita monntains, Arizona (Rothrocl; Engelmann & Sargent), San Francisco mountains of soulhwestern 
Xew Mexieo and Arizona {Greeiu); in Chihuahua. 

A small tree, 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk 0.4.5 to 0.(i() meti'r in diameter; dry, rocky ridges and 
slopes between 5,000 and 7,000 feet elevation; not common. 

Wood light, soft, strong, brittle, close-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells not broad, resinous, 
conspicuous, resin passages few, rather large, conspicuous; medullary rays numerons, thin; color, clear light 
orange, the thick sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0..5457; a.sh, 0..39. 

364. — Pinus COntOrta, Douglas; 

Loadon, Arboreturo, iv, 2292, f. 2210, 2211.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 117 ; 2 ed. il, 176.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 168.— Csrritre, Trait. Conif. 164 ; 
2ed. 474.— Torreyin Pacific R. R. Rop. iv, 141.— Gordon, Pinetuni, 165; 2 ed. 232. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,261.— Lyall in 
Jour. Linnican Soc. vii, 133, 141, in part. — Hcnkel & Iluchstettcr, Nadclbulz. 24. — Rotbrock iu Smithsonian Rep. 1807, 433. — Hoopes, 
Evergreens, 81, in part. — Parlatore in Do Candolle, Prodr, xvi-, .381, in part. — Watson iu King's Rep. v, 330. — Fowler in London 
Gard. Cbrouicle, 1872, 1070. — Gray iu Proo. Am. Acad, vii, 4U2. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 301. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 29. — 
Hail in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 211. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 
162; Bot. California, ii, 126; London Gard. Chronicle, 188;}, 351.— G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. 2 ser. ix, 327, in part. — Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 145. — Masters in London Gard. Chronicle, 1883, 45, f. 5. 

P. inops, Bougard in Mem. Acad. St. Poter.sl)urg, 6 ser. ii, 163 [not Alton]. — Hooker, Fl. Bor. -Am. ii, Kil, inpart. — Ledebour, 
Fl. Rossica, iii, 676 [not Aiton]. 

P. Boumieri, Carrifero in E«v. Hort. ia">4, 233 & f.; Fl. des Serres, ix, 200 & f. ; Trait. Conif. 398; 2 ed. 475. 

P. Banksiana, Lindlcy & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 218, in part. 

P. muricata, Bulander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 227, 317 [not Don]. 

P. Bolanderi, Purlatorc in De Candollo, Prodr. xvi", 379. 

SCRUB PINE. 

Alaska, soatb aloDg the coast to Mendocino county, California, extending inland to the western slopes of the 
Coast ranges. 

A small, stunted tree, to 9 meters in height, with a trunk 0..30 to 0.50 meter in diameter; sandj'. dunes and 
expo.sed rocky points. 

Wood light, hard, strong, brrttle, coarse-grained ; bands of small summer cells very broad, resinous, conspicuous, 
resin passages niitnc-rous, not large; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown tinged with red, the 
thick sap-wood nearly white; si)eci(ic gravity, 0..5S15; ash, 0.19. 

365. — Pinus Murrayana, Balfour, 

Bep. Oregon Exped. 2, t. 3, f. 2. — Miuniy in Kdinbiirgli New Phil. Jour, new ser. xi,226 (Traus. Bot., Soc. Edinburgh, vi,351). 

P. inops, Birntli.im, PI. Hartwcg. 337 [iiol Alton 1. 

P. COntorla, Newberry in Pacific R. R. Itep. vl, 34, 90, t.5, f. 11 [not Douglas].- Engolniann in Am. Jour. .Sci. 2. Her. xxiv, 
;!32. — Ly.iU iu .Jonr. Linnieaii .Soc. vii, 141, iu part. — Conjier in Am. Nat. iii, 409. — Parlali>re in Dc Candolle, Prodr. 
xvi-, :t81, in part.- Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 494. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402.— Rotbrock in PI. Wheeler, 27, 
50. — Parry iu Am. Nat. vii, 179. 

P. COntorta, var. latifoUa, Kugelmaun in King's Rep. v, :«! ; Porter &, Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. 
No. 4, 129; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 262.— Braudogee in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 32.— G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new 
M-T. ij[,3i8. 

P. cantor ta, var. Botanderi, Va-soy, Cat. Forest Trees, 29. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 195 

TAKAKAf'K. HI-ACK I'lNK. LODGK POLE IMNE. SPRUCE PINE. 

Valiey of the Yukon river, Alaska (Fort Selkirk, Dull), soiitli tlirffiifrli tlie interior of Britinb Coluiubia, along 
the mountain ranges of Wa.sliinf,'ton territory ami Oregon and tlie Sierra Nevadas of California to mount San 
Jacinto; on the higli plateau east of the fioeky mountains in about latitude ')l'P, and south through the inouDtain8 of 
Idaho, Montana, Wyomiu};, Colorado, and Utah to New Mexico and northern Arizonn. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in heif;ht, with a trunk <l. 00 to 1. 20 meter in diameter; reachin}; its yreatost development in 
tbo California Sierras; in the interior rosions in dry, gravelly .soil, here the prevailing tree, covering imnienKe areas, 
and K''ncrally replacing other species destroyed by tire; western Washington territory and .southward oidy along 
the borders of moist ali)ine meadows between (i.OOO and 9,000 feet elevation ; generally confounded with the closely- 
allied P. contoita of the coast, from which it may be distinguislied by its longer, broader leaves, very thin, scaly 
bark, thin sap-wood, and less resinous and finer-grained wood, resembling that of the white ])ine.s ; the distribution 
of fbe two species in northern liritish Columbia and Alaska still undetermined. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight- grained, easily worlced, compact, not durable; bands of small summer 
eel .=i narrow, not (;onspicuous, resin i>assages few, not large; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light yellow 
or fjearly white, the thin sap wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.4096; ash, 0.32; occasionally manufactured into 
lu vber, and used for fuel, railway ties, etc. 

366. — Pinus Sabiniana, Douglas, 

Companion Bot. Mag. ii, 150.— Laiubort, Pinna, 1 oil. iii, 137, t. 58. — Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2246, f. 213Ji-2143. — Forbes, Pinctum 
Woburn. C:i, t. 23,24.— Hooki-r, Fl. I5or.-Am. ii, 1G2.— Lindley in Pcun. Cycl. xvii, 172.— Antoine, Cooif. 30, t. 11.— Hooker & 
Aruott, Bot. Beechey, 3i):!.— Link in Linmca, xv, 509.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 110, t. 113; 2 ed. ii, 169, t. 113.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 
390.— De Chambray, Trait. Arb. Res. 347.— Endlichor, Syu. C'oiiif. 159.— Kuiglit, Syn. Conif. oO.— Lindley & Gordon in Jour. 
Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 216. — Fl. do3 Serres, ix,275, t. 964. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 334 ; 2 ed. 4:15. — ToiTcy & Gray in Pacific R. R. 
Rep. ii, 130. — Bigelow in Pacific R. R. Rop, iv, 25. — Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 141; Bot. Mcx. Boundary Survey, 210: t.57; 
Ives' Rep. 28. — Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 39, 90, f. 13. — Gordon, I'inetum, 208; 2 ed. 284.— Cooper in Sniithsouiao Rep. 
1858, 201.— Walpers, Ann. v, 799.— Bolandcir in Proc. California Acad, iii, 226, 318. — Henkcl & Hocliatetter, Xadelholz. 7.">.— Lawson, 
Piuotum Brit, i, 85, t. 11, t. 1-3. — Nolsou, Pinaceie, 129. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 121. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. ivi\ 
391. — Fowler in Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 1326. — Koch, Deudrologio, ii-, 312. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31. — Engelmano in 
Wheeler's Rep. vi,375; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 182; Bot. California, ii, 127. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 169. 

DIGGER PINE. BULL PINE. 

California, Portuguese Flat, Shasta county, south along the foot-h-ills of Hie Coast ranges and the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevadas below 4,000 feet elevation. 

A large tree, 24 to 30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.20 meter in diameter ; very common through all 
the foot-hills region. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, veiy coarse-grained, compact, not durable; bands of small summer cells 
broad, very resinous, conspicuous, resin passages few, large, prominent; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, 
light brown or red, the thick sap-wood yellow or nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4S40 ; asli, 0.40; largely used 
for fuel. 

The large edible nuts furuLsh the Indians an imjjortant article of food. 

367.— Pinus Coulteri, D. Don. 

Trans. Linuican Soc. xvii, 440. — Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2250, f. 2144-2146. — Forbes, Pinetuiu Woburn. l>7, t. 25, 2ii. — Autoiue, 
Conif. 31, t. 12, 13.— Penn. Cycl. xvii, 172. — Link in Linniea, xv, 510.— Hooker & .\ruott. Bot. Beechey, .393. — Knttall, Sylva, iii, 
112; 2 ed. ii, 171. — Eudliehor, Syu. Conif. 160. — Carrifsro iu Fl. des Seri-es, ix, 275 & t. ; Trait. Conif. XU ; 2 ed. AXi. — C<H>jH>r in 
Smithsonian Rop. 1A58, 261. — Torrey in Ive.s' Rop. 28.— Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelhiilz. 76. — Bolander iu Proc. California Acad. 
iii, 318. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi, 392. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31. — Gordon, Pinetnni, 2 ed. 2()C. — Engclniann in 
Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 182; Bot. California, ii, 127. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit. i,2;t, f. 1-5. 

P. mavrocarpa, Lindley iu Bot. Reg. xxvi, Misc. 61.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 30.— Lindley & Gordon in .lour. Hort. Soc. 
Loudon, v,2l6. — Gordon, Pinetum, 201. — Nelson, Piuaeea-, 117. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 115. — Veiteh. Manual Conif. 166. 

I'. tSabiniaiia Coulteri, Loudon, Enoyel. PI. 985, f. ie;<9-1841. 

p. Sabiniana macrocarpa, iiort. 

California, Monte Diablo, south tlirough the (^oast ranges to the Cuyamaca mountains, and prob.ibly in Lower 
California. 

A tree 24 to 4(i meters iu height, with a trunk 0.9;) to l.SO meter in diameter; dry ridges and slopes betwwn 
3,000 and 0,000 feet elevation ; most common and reaching its greatest development in the San .lacinto mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarsegrained; bands of small summer cells broatl. vtry resinous, 
conspicuous, resin passages few, large ; medullary rays numerous, prominent ; color, light red, the thick stip wi>od 
nearly white; specilic gravity, 0.4133; ash, 0.37. 



190 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

368. — Pinus insignis, DougLis ; 

Loudon, Arborotiiui, iv, 2C4;l, f. 2l3i-2137. — Koiln-s, Piuetum Wobiiru. 51, 1. 18. — Limlloy iu Peuu. Ci'cl. xvii, 171. — Antoine, Couil". -'7, t. 
6, f. 1.— Hooker d: A;:iott, Bot. IJocchoy, :X)J.— Spach, Hist. Vcj;. xi, 380.— Nultall, Sylva, iii, 115; 2 cd. ii, 174.— Bintbaui, Bot. 
Sulpbiir, 55. — Endlklicr, Syu. Couif. 1(>;. — Kuight, Syu. Coiiif. 30. — Lindley & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 217. — 
Carrioro, Trait. Conif. :t39; 2 cd. 440.— Bi-olow in Paci6c H. R. Rep. iv, 25.— Torrey iu Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 141; Bot. Hex. 
Bound-Ti-y Survi'y,200, t. 55; Ivea'Rep. 2-^. — Newberry iu Pacific R. K. Rep. vi,90. — Gordon, Piuetum, 197; 2 cd. 270. — Cooper in 
Smitli^ouiau Rep. l-VS, 2(>1. — Murray in Ediuburgb New Phil. Jour, uew ser. xi, 222 (Traus. Bot. Soc. Eiliubmgb, vi, 347). — 
Henki 1& Hocbstetler,Xadelholz.Cy. — BoIauderiuProc.California Acad, iii, 262, t.317. — Nelson, Piuacea-, 114. — Hoopcs, Evergreens, 
143. — Purlatore in Ve Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 395. — Lawson, Piuetum Brit, i, 37 t. 1,5, f. 1-14. — Fowler iu London Gard. Cbronicle, 
l!J72, 1070. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31. — Engelmann in Traus. St. Louis Acad, iv, 182; Bot. California, ii, 128. — Veitcb, Manual 
Conif. IGT., f. 39. 

tP. Californica, Loi.-elcur iu Nouvean Dubamel, v, 243.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2268.— Endlicbcr, Syn. Conif. 162.— 
Hooker & Amott,Bot. Beechey,393.—Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 117; 2 ed. ii, 175.— Carri^re, Trait. Conif. 1 ed. 253. 

P. adiinca, Bosc iu Poiret, Suppl. iv,4l8. 

P. Sinclairii, Hooker & Aruott, Bot. Beechey, 392, 393, t. 93,iii part.— Nutlall, Sylva, iii, 141; 2 cd. ii, 196. -Carrjfere, 
Trait. Couif. 2 ed. ii,198. 

P. radiata, D.Dou iu Trans. Linua-an Soc. xvii,442; Lambert, Pinus, 1 cd. iii, 133, t. 86. — London, Arboretum, iv, 2270, f. 
2182.- Antoine, Conif. 33, t. 14, f. 3.— Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Bcecbey,392, 393, iu part.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 110; 2 ed. 
ii, 175. — Endlicber, Syu. Couif. IGl. — Hartweg in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, iii, 226. — Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, 
iv,214 &f. (Fl. desSerres, vi,434 & t.); Pinotnm,206; 2 cd.282.— Knigbt, Syn. Couif. 37.— Lindley & Gordon iu Jour. 
Hort. Soc. London, V, 216. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 1 ed. 337.- Nelson, Pinaceic, 127. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 118. — Kocb, 
Dendrologie, ii-, 307.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31. 

P. tubei'Culata, D. Don in Trans. Linna?au Soc. xvii, 441 [not Gordon]. — Lambert, I'inus, 1 cd. iii, 131, t. 85.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, iv, 2-^0, f. 21S1.— Antoine, Conif. 33, t. 14, f. 2.— Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 394.— Endlichcr, syn. 
Conif. 162. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 338; 2 ed. 441, in part. — Nelson, Pinaceas, 137. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 123 (cxcl. syn. 
Cali/ornica). — Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi'',394, in part. 

P. rigida,f Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 160 [not Miller]. 

P. iruiignis macrocarpa, Hartweg in Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, iii, 226.— Carrifere, Trait. Couif. 440. 

MONTEREY PINE. 

California, Pcscadero to Monterey and San Simeon bay. 

A tree 24 to .'iO meters in height, with a trunk O.CO to 0.90 meter iu diameter; sandy soil, iu immediate 
proximity to the sea coast; rare and local; now widely cultivated on the Pacific coast for shelter and ornament. A 
form of Guadalupe i.><land, ofl'the coast of Lower California, with leaves in i)airs, isvar. hinata (Engelmann in Proc. 
Am. Acad, xi, 119; Bot. California, ii, 128). 

Wood lijilit, soft, not strong, brittle, close-grained, compact; bauds of small summer cells not broad, resinous, 
conspicuou.s; color, li;.'lit brown, the very thick sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4574; ash, 0.30; locally 
somewhat used for fuel. 

369. — Pinus tuberculata, tJordou, 

Jour. Hort. Soc. London, iv, 218 <tf.(Fl.dc8 Serres, v, 517<: & f.); Pinetum,211; 2cd.288 [not Dou].—Rop. Oregon Expcd.2, t.2, f.2.— 
Henkel Jc Hoch'.fetter, Nadclholz. 78, in part. — Bolander in Proc. California Acad, iii, 262,317.— Lawson, Piuetum Brit. i,93, t. 
13, f. 1-9.— Carriere, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 441, in part.— Parlatore in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 394 (excl. bib.).— Koch, Den- 
drologie, ii», 309. — Va.<«;y, Cat. Forest Trees, 31.— Engelmann iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 183; Bot. California, ii, 128.— Vcitch, 
Manual Conif. 17<i. 

P. Cali/ornica, Hartweg in Jour. Hort. Hw. Londi u, ii, 189 [not Loiscleur]. 

KNOHCONE PINE. 

Valley of the JIackeuzie river, Oregon, south along the western slope of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
mountains, and in the California Coa.st ranges from the Santa Cruz to the San Jacinto mountains. 

A tree 18 to 22 meters in hr-iglit, with .-i trunk 0.(J0 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or, rarely, reduced to a low shrub, 
fruiting when not more than 1 nu-ter iu height; diy, gravelly ridges and slojjes from 2,.'50() (San Bernardino 
mountains) to 5,.'i00 (mount Sliasta) feet elevation; not common. 

Wood light, soft, not .strung, brittle, cojr.se-gniined, eoujiiact; bands of small sumnu-r cells very broiid, not 
conspicuous, resin passages numerous, large, prouiineut; me<lullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the 
thick saji-wofid nearly whiii' oi- slightl.v tinged with I'ed ; s])eeific gravity, 0..'3499; ash, 0.33. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 197 

370. — Pinus Taeda, Linu^us, 

Spec. 1 ed. 1000, in part. — DuRoi, Harbk. ii,63. — Wangonlieiiii, Amer. 41.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii,:t68; 2ed. v,317.— Mccnch.Melh. 365. 

* Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 205.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 ed. i, 23, 1. 16, 17 ; 2 td. i, 26, t. 17, 18 ; a cl. i, 30, f. 15.— Willdcnow, Si*c. iv, 496 ; 
Berl. Baum/. 269. — Pcnsoon, Syn. ii, .578. — Desfontaiiies, Hist. Arb. ii, 612. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 9H, f. 9; N. Americui 

SyIva,3ed.iii,12:J, 1. 143. — Nouveau Duhambl,v, 245, t. 7."), f. 2.— Sniitli in IJeos' Cycl. xxviii.No. 13.— Purnh, KI. Am. Sept. ii,644. 

Nnttall, Genera, ii, 22.3.— IIayne,Dend. Fl. 175.— Elliott, Sk. ii, G;!6.— Sprengel, .Syst. ii,e87.— Eaton, Manual, 6 fd.2f>".— Lawson, 
Ag. Manual, 351; Pinetum Biit. i, 89, t. 12.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2237, f. 2118-2122.— Forbes, Piuefiim W'olram. 43, t. 14. — 
Antoine, Conif. 25, t. 7, f.l. — Eaton & Wrigbt, Bot. 3.'>9. — Link in Linnasa, xv, 503. — Sx<ach, Hist. Veg. xi,391. — Griffith, Med. Hot. 
609.— Gihoul, Arb. Uesin, 32.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 164.— Scheele in Rii-mtr, Texas, Appx. 447.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 30.— 
Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 217. — Carrii-re, Trait. Conif. 344; 2 ed. 448. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 515. — 
Gordon, Pinetura, 210 ; 2 ed.286. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 18.58, 257. — Chapman, Fl. S. States, 433. — Curtis in Rep. Geological 
Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, lii, 22.— Lcsquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 3f<9.— Wood, CI. Book, 660: Bot. & Fl. 313.— Porcher, 
Resources S. Forests, 506. — Hcnkel «fc Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 65. — Kelson, Pinacen", 136. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 eil. 469; Hall's 
PI. Texas, 21. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 122. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 393. — Young, Bot. Texas, 516. — Koch, Dendrologie, 
ii^ .304.— Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 31.— Bentley & Trimen, Med. PI. iv, 259, t.259.— Engelmann in Traus. St. Louis Acad, iv, 183.— 
Veitch, Manual Conif. 172. 

P. Tceda, var. tenuifolia, Aiton, Hort. Kew. iii, 368. 

LOBLOLLY PINE. OLD-FEELD PINE. ROSEMARY PINE. 

Southern Delaware, south to cape Malabar and Tampa bay, Floiida, generally near the coast, through the 
Gulf states to the valley of the Colorado river, Texas, and north through southern Arkansas to the valley of the 
Arkansas river. 

A tree 24 to 46 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.50 meter in diameter ; low, wet clay or dry sandy 
soil ; springing up on all abandoned lands from Virginia southward, and now often replacing in the southern pine 
belt the original forests of Pinus palustris ; in eastern North Carolina rarely on low, rich swamp ridges, here 
known as rosemary pine and attaining it.s greatest develoijment and value. 

Wood light, not strong, brittle, very coarse-grained, not durable; bands of small sumn)er cells broad, very 
resinous, conspicuous, resin passages few, not prominent ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown, 
the very thick sap-wood orange, or often nearly white; wood of the rosemary pine close-grained, less resinous, 
hghter, with much thinner sap; specific gravity, 0.5411; ash, 0.26; largely used for fuel and manufactured into 
lumber of inferior quality. * 

Turpentine is occasionally manufactured from this species ( U. 8, DispensaU>ry, 14 ed. 901. — FlUcl-iger •£• Hanbvn/, 
Fharmacographia, 545). 

371.— Pinus rigida, Miller, 

Diet. 7 ed. No. 10.— Dn Roi, Harbk. ii, 60.— Marshall, Arbustum, 101.— Wangenheim, Amer. 41.— Lambert, Finns, 1 ed. i, 25, 1. 18, 19 ; 2o<l. 
i, 28; t. 18, 19; 3 ed. i, 32, t. 16, 17.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 498; Ennm. 988; Berl. Banmz. 268.— Persoon, Sjti. ii, 578L— 
Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 612.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 89, t. 8; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 118, t. 144.— Nonveau 
Duhamel, v, 244, t. 74.— Aiton, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 317.— Smith in Rees' Cycl. xsviii, No. 14.— Pnrsh. Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 643.— 
Poiret, Suppl. iv, 417.— Eaton, Manual, 110; 6 ed. 265.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 183.— Xuttall, Genera, ii. 223.— 
Hayne, Dend. Fl. 175.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 635.- Sprongel, Syst. ii, 887.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 360; Fl. N. York, ii, 227.— 
Beck, Bot. 339.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2239, f. 2123-2126.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 41, t. 13.— Eaton & Wright, Bot, 358.— 
Antoine, Conif. 26, t. 7, f. 2.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 385.— Lindley in Penn. Cycl. xvii, 172.— Link in Linna<», xv, 503.— 
Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 388.— Griffith, Med. Bot. 604.— Gihoul, Arb. Resin, 31.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 164.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 
30.— Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 217.— Carri^re, Trait. Conif. :M2; 2 ed. 447.— Darlington, Fl. Costrion, 3 
ed. 290.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 514.— Gordon, Pinetum, 207; 2 ed. 283.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rop. 1858, 257.— Chapman, Fl. 
S. States, 433.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 18()0, iii, 21.— Wood, CI. Book, 660 ; Bot. & Fl. 313.— Henkel & 
Hochstetter, Nadelholz, 67.— Nelson, Pinacca>,, 128.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 469.— Hoopes, Evergrecn.s, 119.— Parlatore in 
De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 394.— Koc^b, Dendrologie, ii», 307.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31.— Engelmann in Trau.«. St. Louis Acad. 
iv, 183.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 186.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 169. 

P. Tceda, var. riffida, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 368. 

p. Tada, var. a. Point in Lamarck, Diet, v, 340. 

P. Fraseri, Loddiges, Cat. ed. 1836, 50 [not Pursh]. 

P. Loddigesii, Loudon, Arboretum, iv,2269 



198 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



PITCH PINE. 

ViilU'V of the Saint Joliu's livi r. New liinnswiek, to the noitlieni sbores of lake Outario, south through the 
Athiutic states to northern Georf^ia, exteutliny; to the western slope of the Alle-ihany mountains in West Virginia 
and Kentucky (I'ineville, Bell county, I)e i-ViPAe). 

A tree 12 to 124 meters in heiglit, with a trunk O.tiO to 0.90 meter in diameter ; dry, sandy, barren soil, or less 
commonly in deep, cold swamps ; very common. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bauds of small summer cells broad, very 
resinous, conspicuous, resin passages numerous, not large ; medullary rays numerous, obscure ; color, light brown 
or red, the thick sap-wood \ellow or often nearly white ; specific gravity, Col")! ; ash, 0.23 ; largely used for fuel, 
charcoal, and occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber. 

Note. — Upon tbe island of Nantiiikot, Massachusetts, this siiecies is now greatly injured by the attacks of the destructive 
caterpillar of the pine moth {[lelina /nmlrana, Scudilur in I'ub. ilasaachiisetle Ag. Soc. 1683 & t). 

372. — Pinus serotina, Michaux, 

Kl. Bor.-Ani. ii, 205. — Willdeuow, .Spec, iv, 49i>. — Persoon, Syu. ii, 578. — Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am i, 86, t. 7; N. American Sylva, 3 
ed. iii, 117, t. 142.— Xoiivcaii Diihamcl, v,24G, t. 75, f. 1.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 04:!.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 417.— Niittall, Genera, 
ii, 223.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 cd. iii, :«, t. 18.— KUiott, Sk. ii, 034.- Spreugcl, Syst. ii, 887.— Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 360.— 
Beck, Bot. 339.— Eaton, Manual, ed. 2(;5.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2242, f. 2127-2131.— Forbes, Pinetum Woburu. 47, t. 16.— 
Eaton A- Wright, Bot. 350. — Autoine, Conif. 27, t. 8, f. 2. — Lindley in Peun. Cycl. xvii, 172. — Link in Linna.'a, xv, .')04. — Spach, 
Hist. Veg. xi, 389.— Giboul, Arb. Resin. 32.— Eudlicher, Syn. Conif. 163.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 30.— Lindley & Gord.m in Jour. Hort. 
Soc. London, v, 217.— Carriere, Trait. Conif. 341 ; 2 e<i. 449.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 51 1.— Gordon, Pinetum, 209 ; 2 cd. 285.— 
Chapman, Fl.S. States, 433.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 21.— Henkel & Hoch8t*!tt«r, Nadelholz. 70.— 
Nelson, Pinaceic, 129. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi-, 394. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 305. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31. 

P. Tceda, var. alopecuroidea, Alton, Hort. Kew.2 ed. v, 317.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 22.37. 

P. rigida, var. serotina, Loudon,Encycl. PI. 979, f. 1824-1827.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,257.— Hoopos, Evergreens, 
120. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Lonis Acad, iv, 183. 

POND PIKE. 

North Carolina, south near the coast to the head of the Saint John's river, Florida. 

A tree 12 to 2^ meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.90 meter in diameter; inundated borders of streams 
and ponds in low. i)eaty .soil ; not common. 

Wood heavy, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact ; bands of small summer cells broad, forming 
fully one-half the annual growth, very resinous, dark colored, conspicuous, resin passages few, large ; medullary 
rays numerous, ob.scure ; color, dark orange, the thick sai)-wood pale yellow ; specific gravity 0.7942 ; ash, 0.17. 

373. — Pinus inops, Alton, 

Hort. Kew. iii, 307; 2 ed. v, 31(i.— Micliaii.v, Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii, 204.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 cd. i, 18, t. 13; 2ed. i,21, t. 14; 3ed. i,25, t. 12.— 
Willdenow, Spec, iv, 490 ; Knum. 'M-i ; Berl. Baumz. 2C<).— Persoon, Syn. ii, 578. — Michaux f Hist. Arb. Am. i, 58, t. 4 ; N. American 
Sylva, 3 e«l. iii, 103, t. 139. -Xouveau Duhamel, v, 2.36, t. 09, f. 1.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 641.— Smith in Rees' Cycl. xxviii. No.' 
10.— Barton, Prodr. Fl. Philadelpli. 93.— Conipend. Fl. Pliilad.'Iph. ii, 183.— Nutlall, Genera, ii, 223.— Ilayne, Dend. Fl. 173.— 
Elliott, Sk. ii, 033.- Spreugel, .Syst. ii, 886.— Torrey, Compi url. Fl. N. States, 3.">9.— Audubon, Birils, t. 97.— Beck, Hot. 3:58.- Eaton, 
Manual, 0cd.2<U',.— Bon Jard. 1837. 976.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2192, f. 2068-2071.— Forbes, Pinetum Wolium. 15, t. 4.— Hooker, 
Fl. Bor.-Ani.ii, llil.iu part.— Eaton &, Wright, Bot. X>S. — Anloine, Conif. 17, t.5,f.3. — Lindley in Penu. Cycl. xvil, 171. — Link in 
Linnieu, xv,.')0O. — .Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 386. — Eudlicher, Syn. Conif. 167. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 26. — Lindley &. Gordon in Jour. Hort. 
Sor. London, v, 217. —Carriere, Trait. Conif. 361 ; 2ed. 471.— Darlington, Fl. Cestrica, 3ed. 290.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 514.— Gordon, 
Pinetum, 167; 2 eil. 218.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 2.')7.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 433.— Curtis in Re]). Geological Surv. N. 
Carolina, 1-60. iii, 20.— Wood, CI. Book, (Mil ; Bot. & Fl. 313.— Henkel & Hochstctter, Nadelhiilz. 22.— Nelson, Pinace.-e, 113.— Gray, 
Manual N. Stateo, !> cd. 470. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 84. — Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 380 (excl. syn. rai-iabilin). — Va.sey, 
Cat. l"or<!iit Tn-es, .tO.— Veitrli, Manual Conif. 1.58. 

/'. Virijiiiianu, Miller, Ganl. Diet. 7 ed. No. 9.— Dn Roi, Obs. Bot. 43; Harbk. 2 cd. ii, 3.').— Marshall, Arbustum, 102.— 
Wan^enheim, Amer. 74. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 299. 

P. Tada, var. Virr/iniana, Poirel in Lamarck, Did. V, 340. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 199 

JEESEY PINE. SCRUB PINE. 

Middle Island, Long island, Tottenville, and Clifton, Staten island, New York, soatb, generally near the 
coast, to the valley oftbc Savannah river (Aiken, Sonth Carolina), and through eastern and middle Kentucky to 
"the knobs" of southeastern Indiana. 

A tree iJ4 to 'M> meters in height, with a trunk 0.(J0 to 0.00 meter in diameter, or in the Atlantic states generally 
much smaller; sandy, generally barren soil, reaching its greatest development west of the Alleghany mountains. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very close-grained, coinpact, durable ; bands of small summer cells broad, 
very resinous, conspicuous, resin passages few, not prominent ; medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light orange, 
the thick sap-wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.5309; ash, 0.30; largely used for fuel, and in Kentucky and 
Indiana preferred for and largely manufactured into water-pipes and pump-logs. 

374. — Pinus clausa, Vasey, 
Cat. Forest Trees, 30. 

P. inops, var. clausa, Engolmaun iu Tr:ins. St. Louis Acad, iv, 183.— Chapman, FI. S. Statea, Suppl. 650. 
SAND PINE. SCBtTJ PINE. SPEUCE PINE. 

Florida, shores of Pensacola bay, south, generally withiu 30 miles of the coast, to Pease creek, and occnpying 
a narrow ridge along the east coast south of Saint Augustine. 

A tree 21 to 24 meters iu height, with a truuk O.GO to 0.75 meter in diameter, or on the west coast rarely 6 to 9 
meters in height ; barren, sandy dunes and ridges ; most common and reaching its greatest development about the 
head of Halifax bay. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle ; bands of small summer cells broad, very resinous, conspicuous, resin 
passages numerous, prominent; medullarj^ rays numerous, thin ; color, light orange or yellow, the thick sap-wood 
nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.5576 ; ash, 0.31; occasionally used for the masts of small vessels. 

375. — Pinus pungens, Michauxf. 

Hist. Arb. Am. i,6l, t. 5; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 105, 1. 140.— Nouveaii Duhamel, v. 236, t. 67, f. 4.— Aitou, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. v, 
314.— Pursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 64;!.— Poiret, Suppl. iv, 417.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 635.— Sprengel.Syst. ii, 886.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 
265.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 ed. iii, 34, 1. 17.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2197, f. 2077-2060.— Forbes, Pinetum Wobum. 17, t. 5.— Eaton Sl 
Wright, Bot. 359.— Antoine, Conif. 18, t. 5, f.4.— Liudley in Peun. Cycl.xvii, 171.— Nutt.all, Sylva, iii, 125; 2 ed. ii, 184.— Spach, 
Hist. Veg. xi,287.— Eudlicber, Syu. Conif. 16G. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 27. — Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 217. — 
Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 359; 2 ed. 470. — Darby, Bot. S. States, 515. — Gordon, Pinetnni, 181; 2 ed. 254. — Cooper in Smithsonian 
Rep. 1858, 257. —Chapman, Fl. S. States, 432.— Curtia in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 20.— Wood, CI. Book, 660; 
Bot. & FI. 313.— Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelhiilz, 21.— Nelson, Pinaceaj, 127.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 469.— Hoopea, 
Evergreens, 98. — Parlatore in Do CandoUc, Prodr. xvi", 379.— Koch, Dendrologie ii^, 304. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. — Meeban in 
Rep. Penii. Fruit Growers' Soc. 1877 & t. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis. Acad, iv, 183. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 158. 

TABLE-MOXTNTAIN PINE. HICKORY PINE. 

Alleghany mountains, Pennsylvania to Tennessee. 

A tree 9 to 18 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 1.05 meter in diameter; most common and reaching its 
greatest dov^elop ment upon the high mountains of East Tennes.see, her<' often the prevailing species and forming 
extensive forests. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, compact; b:inds of small summer cells broad, resinous, 
conspicuous, resin ]>iissages numerous, large; medullary rays numerous, prominent; color, light brown, the thick 
sap wood nearly white; specific gravity, 0.4935; asli, 0.27; in Pennsylvania largely maiuifactuivd into charcoal. 

376. — Pinus muricata, D. Don, 

Trans. Liunteau Soo. xvii, 441. — Lambert, Finns, 1 eii. iii, t. 84. — Loudon. .■Vrboretum, iv, 2269, f. 2180.— Hooker & .\rnott, Bot. Beechey, 
393.— Antoine, Conif. 32, 1. 14, f.l.-Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 113; 2 ed. ii, 172.— Eudlicber, Syn. Conif. 161.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 26.— 
Gordon in Jour. Ilort. Soc. London, iv, 216 &. f (Fl. dos Serros, v, 5171" & f.); Pinetum. 173 ; 2 ed. 246 (exd. syn. M«rrayana).— 
Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 217. — Carrii^ro, Trait. Conif. 3.59 ; 2 ed. 470.— Torrey, Bot. Mex. Boundary Survey, 
209, t. 54 (P. Edgariana on plate).— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. l-t58, 261. — Henkel A- Hochstetter, Nadelholz. tW. — Nelson. Pinacojp, 
121. — Hoopos, Evergreens, 9i. — Parlatore in Dc CandoUo, Prodr. xvi'', 379. — Fowler in Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 1164. — Kocb, 
Doudrologio, ii'',302. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 30.— Eugelmann in Trans. St, Louis Acad, iv, 18;?: Bot. California, ii. 128. — Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 151.— London Gard. Chronicle, 1884, 49, f. 7-9. x 

P. inops, var. Bentham, PI. Hartwog. 337. 

P. Eiitjariana, Hartwog in Jour. Holt. Soc. London, iii, 217, 226. 

P. COntorta, Bolander in Proc. California Ac:id. iii, 227, 317 [not Douglas]. 



200 FOREST TREES OF NORTPI AMERICA. 

oBisro PINE, bishop's pine. 

California, Mendocino lOiinty sontli throngh the Coast ranges to San Luis Obispo county. 

A tree 124 to 36 meters in height, with a trunk 0.30 to 0.90 meter in diameter, or more often not exceeding 13 
meters in height; cold peat bogs or barren, sandy gravel; always exposed to the winds and fogs of the ocean, and 
not found above I'.OOO feet elevation, reaching its greatest development in Mendocino county; rare and local. 

Wootl light, very strong and liard, rather coai-se-grained, compact; bands of small summer cells broaa, 
resinous, resin passages few, not prominent; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the thid; sap-wood 
nearly white; specilic gravity, 0.4942; ash, 0.2G. 

377. — Pinus mitis, Mkhaux, 

Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 204.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 52, t. 3; N. American Sylva, 3 e<l. iii, 96, t. 137.— Bartou, Piodr. F!. Philadelph. 
93.— Poiret, Snppl. iv, 417. — Loudou, Arboretum, iv, 2195, f. 2072-207G. — Antoiue, Conif. 16, t. 5, f. 1. — LiiuUoy in Ponn. Cycl. xvii, 
171.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. si, 386.— Torrey, Fl. N. York, ii, 229.— Endlicher, Syu. Conif. 167.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 26.— Lindley «fc 
Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 217.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 361 ; 2 ed. 472.— Gordon, Pinetum, 170 ; 2 ed. 243 (excl. syn. 
fioy/ri). — CoopvT in SmitUsoniiin Rep. 1658, 275. — Cbapmau, Fl. S. States, 433. — Curtis in Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 
1860, iii, 19.— Lcsquereux in Owen's 2d Rep. Arkansas, 389.— Wood, CI. Book, 660 ; Bot. & Fl. 313.— Ilenkcl & Uochstetter, 
Nadelbolz. 23.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 cd. 470.— Hoopes, Evergreens, 88. — Parlatore in De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi*, 380. — Young) 
Bot. Texas, 516. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 300. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. — Broadbead in Conlter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 60. — 
Engelmauu in Trans. St. L^uis Acad, iv, 184. — Ridgway in Proc. U. S. Jfat. Mus. 88. 

P. eihinaia, Miller, Diet. 7 ed. No. 12. — Marshall, Arbustum, 180f— Wangeuheim, Anier. 74. 

. P. Virginiana, var. cchinata, Du Roi, Harbk. ii, 38. 

P. Tada, var. variabilis, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 368. 

P. variabilis, Lambert, Finns, 1 ed.i, 22, 1. 15; 2 ed. i,25,t.l6; 3 cd. i,29, 1. 14.— Willdenow, Spec, iv, 498.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 
578.- Nouveau Duhamel, v, 235, t. 69, f. 2.— Alton, Hort. Kcw. 2 cd. v, 316.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 643.— Smith in 
Rees' Cycl. xxviii. No. 12.— Bartou, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. ii, 183.- Nuttall, Genera, ii, 223.— Elliott, Sk. ii,633.— 
Sprengel, Syat. ii, 686.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 360.— Beck, Bot. 339.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 265.— Forbes, 
Pinetum Woburn. 35, t. 11.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 358.— Antoine, Conif. 15, t. 5, f. 2.— Link in Linrnea, xv, 502.— 
Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 168 (excl. syn.).— Darby, Bot. S. States, 514. 

P. rigida, Porehsr, Resources S. States, 504 [not Miller]. 

YELLOW PINE. SHOET-LEAVED PINE. SPRUCE PINE. BULL PINE. 

Staten islaml. New York, south to the Chattahoochee region of western Florida, through the Gulf states to 
Tennes.see and eastern Texas, and through Arkansas to the Indian territory, southeastern Kansas, southern Missouri, 
and in Union county, Illinois. 

A tree 24 to .'30 meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 1.35 meter in diameter; light sandy soil or, less commonly, 
along the low borders of swamjis; forming west of the Mississippi river, mixed with oaks and other deciduous 
trees, extensive forests; the only species of northern Arkan.sas, Kansas, and Missouri, reacliii.g its greatest 
development in western Louisiana, southern Arkansas, and eastern Ti-xas. 

Wood, varying greatly in (juality and amount of sap, heavy, hard, strong, generally coarse-grained, compact; 
bands of small suminer cells broad, often occupying half the width of the annual growth ; very resinous, resin 
passages numerous, large; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, orange, the sap-wood nearly white; 
Bi)eciQc gravity, 0.0104; ash, 0.29; largely manufactured into lumber, especially in the states west of the 
Midiiissippi river, and among yellow pines only inferior in value to that of /*. palusfris. 

378. — Pinus glabra, Walter, 

n. Caroliniaoa, 237.— Poirot in Lamarck, Diet, v, 342.— Ravenel in Proc. Elliott Soc. i, 52.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 433.— Porcher, 
Beooarce* S. Forest*, .'>06. — Hoopcg, Evergreens, 82. — Vasoy, Cat. Forest Trees, 30. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 184. 

fP. mitis, xar. paupera, Wood, CI. Book, 660. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 201 

CEDAR PINE. SPEUCE PINE. WHITE PINE. 

South Carolina, south to thu (Jhattahoochee region of western Florida, geiierallv near the coast, and throngh 
the Gulf states south of latitude :i'20 30' to the valley of the Pearl river, Louisiana. 

A tree 24: to 30 meters in heiglit, with a trunk O.GO to 1.20 meter in diameter; rich bottom lands and bnmmocks 
iu dense forests of hard-wood trees, reaching its greatest development in Alabama and Mississippi; not common 
and local. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, very coarsegraineil, not durable ; bands of small summer cells broad, 
not resinous, resin passages few, not large ; medullary rays luimcrous, obscure ; color, light brown, the sap-wood 
nearly white; specific gravity, 0.3931 ; ash, 0.45. 

379. — Pinus Banksiana, Lambert, 

Pinus, 1 0(1. i,7, t. 3; 2 ed. i,7, t, 3 ; 3 od. i,9, t. 3. — Persoon, Syu. ii, !J78. — Desfoiitaines, Hist. Alb. ii, 611. — NoDveau Dabaiuel, v, 234, 
t. 67, f. 3. — Aitou, Hort. Kew. '3 ed. v, 315. — Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 642.— Smith iu Rees' Cycl. xxviii, N'o. 4.— Nuttall, Genera, ii, 
a93; Sylva, iii, 124; 2 ed. ii, 182.— Sprougel, Syst. ii, 886.— Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 360.— Beck, Bot. 3.'J9.— Eato3, Mannal,6 
ed.2()5.— Loudon, Arborotum, iv, 2190, f. 2004-2067.— Forbes, Piuotum Woburn. 13, t. 3.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 161.— Eaton <fe 
Wright, Bot. 358. — Antoiue, Couif. 8, t. 4,f. 2. — LiudU^y iu Pouu. Cycl. xvii,171. — Liuk iu Linnsea, xv, 491. — Spacb, Hist. Veg. 
xi, 379. — Endlichcr, .Syu. Conif. 177. — Kuigbt, Syn. Couif. 26. — Lindlcy & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 218 (excl. syn. 
oontorta). — Parry iu Owen's Rop. 618. — Carridre, Trait. Conif. 381 ; 2 e(1.485. — Gordon, Pinetum, 163; 2 cd. 230.— Richardson, Arctic 
Exped. 441. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Rop. 18.)3, 257. — Hooker f. iu Trans. Liuu.-oan Soc. xxiii', 301. — Wood, CI. Book, 661. — Henkel 
& Hochstetter, Nadtlholz. 44. — Nelson, Pinaceae, 104. — Gr.ay, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 470. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 78. — Vasey, Cat. 
Forest Trees, 29. — Macouu iu Geological Rop. Canada, 1875-'76, 211. — Engelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad. iT, 184. — Sears in 
Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 186.— Boll iu Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 46^- Veitch, Manual Conif. 15«. 

P. sylvestris, var. divaricata, Aitou.Hort. Kow. iii,366. 

P. Hudsonicn, Poiret iu Lamarck, Diet, v, 339. — Parlatore iu De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi«, 380.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 313.— Koch, 
Deudrologic, ii-, 298. 

P. riqtestriH, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i,49, t. 2; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 95, t. 136. 
GRAY PINE. SCRUB PINE. PRINCE'S PINE. 

Bay of Chaleur, New Brunswick, to the southern shores of Hudson bay, northwest to the Great Bear lake, 
the valley of the Mackenzie river, and the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains between the fifty-second and sixty- 
flfth degrees of north latitude; south to northern Maine, Ferrisburg, Vermont {R. E. Robinson), the southern shore 
of lake Michigan, and central Minnesota. 

A small tree, 9 to 22 motors in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding 0.75 meter in diameter; barren, sandy 
soil or, less commonly, in rich loam ; most common north of the boundary of the United States, and reaching its 
greatest development in the region north of lake Superior, here often forming considerable forests ; toward its 
extreme western limits associated and often confounded with the closely allied P. contorta and P. Murrayana of the 
Pacific region. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, rather close-grained, compact; bands of small .summer cells not broad, very 
resinous, conspicuous, resin passages few, not large; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, dear light 
brown or, rarely, orange, the thick sap-wood almost white ; specific gravity, 0.4761 ; ash, 0.23; largely used for fuel, 
railway ties, etc. . 

380. — Pinus palustris, Miller, 

/)ict. 7 cd. No. 14.— Marshall, .Vvbiisiuiu, 100.- Wangciihcim, Amor. 73.— Walter, Fl. Caroliniann, 237.— Aiton. Hort. Kcw. iii, 3Cv'; 
2 ed. V, 317. — Abbot, Insects Georgia, i, t. 42. — Du Roi, Ilarbk. 2 ed. ii, 66. — Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 2t'4.— Lsmbort, Pinus, 1 ed. 
i,27, t. 20; 2ed. i, 30, t. 21; 3cd. i, 41, t. 24, 25.— Willdenow, Sjicc. iv, 499.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, v, 341.— Persoon, Syn. ii,57A— 
Desfoutaiuos, Hist. Arb. ii, 612. — Pursh, Fl. .\m. Sept. ii, 644. — Smith in Roes' Cycl. xxviii, No. 15. — Nuttall, Goncra, ii,22;?; Sylva, 
iii, 120; 2 oil. ii, 185. — Hayuo, Doud. Fl. 174.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 637.— Sprengcl, Syst. ii,^87.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 2t>6.— Forbes, 
Piuotum Woburn. 511, t. 22.— Eaton & Wright, Bot, 3.">0.— Autoiuo, Couif. 23, t. 6, f. 2.— Link iu Linn.Ta, xv, 2(Xk— Griffith, Med. Bot. 
604.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 515.— Cooper iu Smithsouiau Rep. 1858, 257.— Wood, CI. Book, tW.— Porchcr, Resources S. Forest-s 
495. — Michaux f. N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 106, t. 141 (the plate as P. anslralia). 

P. amtraliti, Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 64, t. 6.— Nouveau Dnhamcl, v, 246, t. 75, f. 3.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 22r>5, f. 2156- 
2160.- Liudley in Pcnn. Cycl. xvii, 171.- Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 392.— Endlichcr. Syn. Conif 165.— Carson, Med. Bot. ii, 43, 
t. 87. — Gihoul, Arb. Resin. 33. — Knight, Syn. Couif 30. — Liudley & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. Loudon, v, 217. — CarriJre, 
Trait. Conif. 345; 2 ed. 450.— Gordon, Pinetum, 187; Suppl. 63; 2 cil. 260.— Chapman, Fl. S. Statc8,434.— Curtis in 
Rep. Geological Surv. N. Carolina, 1860, iii, 24.— Wood, Bot. & Fl. 313.— Heukcl & Ho.hstclter, Xadolholz. 6.\— 
Nolsou, PinacivB, 103.— Hoopes, Evcrgreous, 109.— Parlatore iu De Candolle, l^odr. xvi-, 3t>*2.— Young, Bot, Texas 
517.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 31.— Bentloy & Trinicn, Med. PI. iv, 25S, t. 20*^.- Engclmnuu in Trnns. St. Loois Ac;ul. 
iv, 185.— Vcitch, Manual Conif 172. 



202 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

LONG-LKAVED PINE. SOUTHERN PINE. GEOHGIA PINE. YELLOW PINE. HAKD PINE. 

SontheastiTii Virginia, south to eapc Canaveral and Tampa bay, Florida, and tlironjfh the Gulf states to the 
valley of the l!ed river, Louisiana, and the Trinity river, Texas, rarely oxtendinjr beyond 150 miles from the coast. 

A tree of the first economic value, IS to 20 meters in heijiht, with a trunk O.iiO to 1.20 meter in diameter; dry, 
sandy loam of the maiitime plain, {renerally of Tertiary formation, and lorming', outside of the river bottoms, 
extensive fiu-ests almost to the exclusion of other species, or toward its extreme interior ranj^e, esi)ecially in the 
tiulf states, iK'cupyinfr roUinj; hills, here mixed with oaks and various deciduous trees; rarely along the borders 
of swamps in low, wet soil. 

Wot»d heavy, exceedinjrly iianl. very strong, tou^h, coarse-grained, comjjact, durable ; bands of small summer 
cells broad, occiijiying fully halftlie width of the annual growth, very resinous, dark colored, resin passages few, 
not conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous ; color, light red or orange, the thin sap-wood nearly 
white; specific gravity, O.(!990; ash, 0.25; largely manufactured into lumber and used in construction of all sorts, 
for ship building, fencing, railway ties, etc. 

The turpentine, tar, j)itch, rosin, and spirits of turpentine numufactured in the United States arc almost 
exclusively protluced by this species ( U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 709, 899. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1417. — FlUckiger <£• 
Hanbury, Pharviacographia, 545). 

381.— Pinus Cubensis, Grisobacb, 

Mem. Aiii. Acad. viii,5:i0; Cat. PI. Cuba, -ilT.— Pjrlatorc in Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi", 396. 

P. Tada, var. heterophylla, i;iiiott, .Sk. ii, 636. 

P. Elliottii, Kii^'ehnaun ; Vascy, Cat. Forest Trees, 30; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iv, 166, t. 1, 2, 3.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
.Suppl. 650. 

/'. Cubensis, var. terthrocarpa, Wright.— Grisebach, Cat. PI. Cuba, 217. 

SLASH PINE. SWAMP PINE. BASTARD PINE. MEADOW PINE. 

South Carolina (Bluflton, Mellichamp), south near the coast to the .southern keys of Florida, west along the 
Gulf coast to the valley of the Pearl river, Louisiana, not extending beyond 50 or GO miles inland; in the West 
Indies. 

A tree 24 to 30 meters in hei^dit, with a tiunk 0.00 to 0.90 meter in diameter; light sandy soil along the dunes 
and marshi's of the coast, or wet clay borders of i)onds, abandoned fields, etc., and now rapidly taking possession 
of grounil from which the forests of P. j)a/iM/n« have been removed; the only species of Florida south of cape 
Canaveral and bay Biscayne. 

Wood heavy, exceedingly hard, very strong, tongli, coarsegrained, compact, durable; l)an(ls of small summer 
cells very broad, occujiying fully half the width of the annual growth, very resinous, consiiicuons, resin passages 
few, not large ; medullary rays numerous, rather jtrominent; color, rich dark orange, the sap-wood lighter, often 
nearly white; H])ecitic gravity, 0.7.504; ash, O.^ll; hardly inferior in value to that of 1'. ptilusiri.s, although rarely 
manufactured into lumber. 

TuriKMitine is occasionally manufactured in southern Florida from this species. 

XoTE. — Specimens collected upon tliii southern keys of Floriila by A. II. Curtiss connect the forms of South Carolina, Georgia, and 
northern Florida with the Wi-st Indian tree. . 

382. — Picea nigra, Link, 

Linnffia, xv,520.— Carrii-n-, Trait. Conif. 2J1 ; 2 cd. 323.— Hooker f. in Trans. LinuioaD Soo. xxiii*, 301.— Uruuot, Hist. Picea, 10 &, t. f. 
B.— Peck in Trans. Albany Inst. viii,2^. — Engelmann in London Gard. Chronicle, 1879, lUM.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 185. 

Abies Mariana, Miller, Diet. — Wangcnheim, Amer. 7.'j. 

Pinus Mariana, Du Hoi,OI)S. Bot.Sei; Harbk. ii, I07.— Fhrhart, Boitr. iii,24. 

Pinus Abies Canadensis, Marshall, Arlmstuui, 103. 

Pinus Americana rubra, Wangcniieim, Amer. 7.'i. 

Pinus niV/rrt, Aiton, Hort. Kew. lii, 370; 2ed. v, 319.— Lambert, Piuns, 1 cd. i,41, t. 27; 2 ed. i, 4r>, t. 27; 3 od. i,64, t. 37.— 
Will<lenow,H|ice.iv,506; Enum.990; Berl. Baumz. 278.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 579.— Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 040. —Smith 
inlieCK'Cycl.xxviii. No. 20.— Barton, Compend. Fl. I'hiladelph. ii, lS2.—Nuttall, Genera, ii,223.— Ilayne, Dcnd. Fl. 
177.— Elliott, 8k. ii, fvjd.— SprenRel, Syst. ii, «•?.">.— Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. States, 3.'')9 ; Fl. N. York, ii, 2:M).— Bex:k, 
Bot. 340.— Eaton, Manual, 6 <>d.2*M.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 163.— Katon «& Wright, Hot. 3.')a—Bigolo\v, Fl. Boston. 
3ed. 3-«.— Antoine, Conif. 8^, t. 34, f. 3.— Endlieher, Syn. Conif. 115.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 515.— Porcher, Kesonrccs 
S. FurcstH, 505. — Parlatore in De Candollc, Prodr. xvi', 413. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES 203 

PinUH Americana, Gartner, Fnu t. ii, GO, t. 91, f. 1. 

Pinua rubra, Lamborf,Piiiu», li-d.i, 48,t.2a; 2cd. i, 47,t.30;3ed. i,6C,t.»3 [not Micbaox f.].— Pereoon.Syn. ii,579.— Aiton, 
Hort. Kew.ded. V, :U9.— Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 640.— Smith in Kee«' Cycl. xxviii.No. -2!.— N'nttalI,G<-Dera. ii, 223.— 
Sprongcl, Syst. ii, 8;*.').- Torrey, Compend. Fl. N. State8,:«9.— Beck, Bot. 340.— Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 264.— Hooker, Fl. 
Bor.-Ani. ii, 164.— Eaton &Wiight, Bot. 3.58.— Autoinc, Conif. 87, t. '.», f. 2.— Eudliclier, Syo. Conif. 113.— Ciboal, 
Ai-b. Kesiu. 44. — Parlatore in Dc Cautlollc,Prodr. xvi-,413. 

Abies dentictllata, Michanx, FI. Bor.-Am. ii,206.— Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 520. 

Abies nigra, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 520.— Desfontainos, Hist. Arb. ii,580. — Micbaux f. Hist. Arli.Am. i,I24,t.ll; N. 
Amcriciui Sylva, 3 cd. iii, 139, t. 147. — Nouvcau Dubamel, v,292, t. 81, f. 1. — Lindley in Penn.Cyel. i,32. — Loudon, 
Arboretum, iv, 2312, f. 2225-2227.— Spacb, Hi.st. Veg. xi, 410, in part.— Emerson, Trees Massacbusctt**, 61 ; 2 ed. ii, 96.- 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 606.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 36.— Liudley & Gnrdim in Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, v, 211.— Parry in Ovren's 
Rep. 618. — Gordon, Piuetum,ll; 2 ed. 17. — Richardson, Arctic Exped. 442. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,257. — 
Chapman, Fl. S. States, 434.— Curtis in Rep. Geological Snrv. N.Carolina, 1860, iii, 27.— Wood, CI. Book,t)62; Bot.& 
• FI. 313. — Porchcr, Resources S. Forests, 507. — Henkol &. Hochstettcr, Nadolholz. 191. — XeLson, Pinacese, 50.— Gray, 

Manual N. States, .">ed. 471. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 169. — V.isey, Cat. Forest Trees, 33. — Guibonrt, Hist. Drogues, 7 ed. 
ii, 247.— Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76,211. — Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'80, 44=. — Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 74. 

Abies rubra, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 520.— Desfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 580.— Loudon, Arboretnm, iv, 2316, f. 2228.— 
Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 101, t. 35. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 37. — Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. L.ondon, v, 211.— 
Gordon, Pinetum, 11; 2 ed. 17. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 189. — Nelson, Pinaces, 51. 

P. rubra, Link iu Liuna-a,xv, 521.— Carri&re, Trait. Conif. 240; 2 ed. 322. 

t Abies nigra, var. rubra, Micbaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 123; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 141.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. xi, 411.— 

Hoopes, Evergreens, 170. 

t Abies rubra, var. arctica, Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, V, 211. 

Abies alba, Chapman,Fl.S. States, 435 [not Poiret]. 

Abies Americana, Koch, Dendiologie, iV, 241. 

p. nigra, var. rubra, Engelmauu iu London Gard. Chronicle, 1879, 334. 

Abies arc'.ica, Hort. 

Abies Marylandica, Hort. 

BLACK SPRUCE. 

Newfoundland, nortbern Labrador to TJugava bay, Nastapokee sound, cape Cburcbill, Hudson bay. and 
nortbwest to tbe mouth of the Mackenzie river and the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains; south through the 
northern states to Pennsylvania, central Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and along the Alleghany mountains 
to the high peaks of North Carolina. 

A tree 15 to 21 meters in height, with a trunk 0.60 to 0.00 meter iu diameter; light, dry, rocky soil, forming, 
especially north of the fiftieth degree of latitude, extensive forests on the water-sheds of the i)rincipal streams or in 
cold, wet swamps; then small, stunted, and of little value (P. riibrti). 

Wood light, soft, not strong, clos(^, straight-grained, compact, satiny; bands of small summer cells thin, 
resinous, resin passages few, minute ; meilullary rays few, conspicuous ; color, light red or often nearly white, the 
sap-wood lighter; specific gravity, 0.4.jS4 ; ash, 0.27; largely inanufaetured into lumber, used iu construction, for 
ship-building, (liles, posts, railway ties, etc. 

Essence of spruce, prepared by boiling the young branches of this species, is used iu the manufacture of spruce 
beer, a popular beverage ( U. S. Dispensatory, 11 ed. 901). 



204 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

383.— Picea alba, Link, 

Linmea, xv, 519.— Carrifiro, Trait. Couif. •i;W; 2 cd. 319.— Fl. des Serros, xsi, 157, t. S-JOt— Bruuot, Hist. Picea, 4 & t. f. A.— 
Engolmaiin in London Ganl. Chronicle, l^iTS, 334.— Sears in Bull. Essex lust, xiii, 184. 

Abies Canadensis, Miller, Diet. No. l. 

PinUS Canadensis, Du Koi, Obs. Bot. 38; HarbV. ii,l'i4 [not Linnams].— Wangruhcini, Amcr. 5, t. 1, f. 2. 

P. laxa, Ehibart, Beitr. iii, 24. 

P. glauca, Mceuch, Weiss. 73. 

Pin us alha, Aitou, Hort. Kew. iii, 371 ; 2 ed. v, 318.— Lambert, Finns, 1 ed. i, 39 t. 26 ; 2 ed. i, 43, t. 28 ; 3 od. i, 61, t. 35.— 
Willdenow, Spec, iv, 507; Euum. 990 ; Berl. Bamuz. 280.— Persoon, Syn. ii, 579.— Pursli, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 641.— Smith 
in Rees' Cycl. xxviii, No. 21.— Eaton, Manual, G ed. 264.— Nuttall, Geuera, ii, 22:t.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 177.— Elliott, 
Sk. ii, 640.— Sprengel, Syst. ii,885.— Torrey, Compcnd. Fl. N. States, 359; Fl. N. York, ii, 231.— Meyer, PI. Labrador, 
30.— Beck, Bot. 340.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ain. ii, 163.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 3r>8.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 386.— 
.■Vntoine, Conif. 86, t. 34, t'. 1.— Endlicher, xSyu. Couif. ll'.i.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 51.').— Tuiubouw Flora, 1855, 1, 
t. 14, 15. — Walpei-a, Ann. v, 799. — Parlatoro in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 414. 

Piniis tetra{jona, Mcench, Math. 364. 

Abies alba, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 521. — Miuhaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 207.— Dcsfontaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 580. — Micbaux f. 
Hist. .\rb. Am. i, 133, t. 12; N. American Sylva, 3 cd. iii, 144, t. 148.— Nouveau Duhamel, v,291, t. 81, f. 2.— Loudon, 
Arboretum, iv, 2310, f. 2224.— Forbes, Pinctum Woburu. 95, t. 33.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 129; 2 cd. ii, 189.— Spach, Hist. 
Veg. xi, 412.— Emerson, Trees Massachusetts, 84 ; 2 cd. i, 99.- Gihoul, Arb. Resin. 43. — Knight, Syn. Conif. 36.— Lindley 

6 Gordon in Jour. Hort.Soc. London, v, 211.— Parry in Owen's Rep. 618.— Gordon, Pinetum, 2; 2 ed. 3. — Richardson, 
Arctic Expcd. 442. — Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 257. — Hooker f. in Trans. Liuniean Soc. xxiii', 301. — Engolniann 
in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 str. xxxiv, 330.— Wood, CI. Book, 661 ; Bot. & Fl. 313.— Porchor, Resources S. Forests, 507.— 
Henkel & Hochstctter, Nadelholz. 188.— Nelson, Pinaceie, 47. — Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 471.— Murray in Seemann, 
Jour. Bot. V, 253, t. 69, f. 2-7. — Hoopes, Evergreens, 157, f. 20. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 32. — Guibourt, Hist. Drognes, 

7 ed. ii, 247.— Macoan in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-76, 211.— Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-80, 44<:. 

Abies rubra, var. CCerulea, Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2316. — Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 211. 

Abies CWrulea, Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 99. 

P. carulea, Link in Linnna, xv, 522. 

PinuH rubra, var. violacca, Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 114. 

P. nigra, var. glauca, Carrifcre, Trait. Conif. 1 ed. 242. 

Abies arctica, Murray in Seemann, Jour. Bot. v,253, t. 69, f. 1,8-13. 

Abies laxu, Koch, Dcndrologie, li',243. 

Abies alba, var. ccernlea, Carrifrrc, Trait. Conif. 2 cd. 320. 

Abies alba, var. arctica, Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi^, 414. 

WHITE SPRUCE. 

Newfoundland, northern nboreof Lal^nidor to Ungava bay, cape Cluircliill, and northwestward to the mouth of 
the Mackenzie river and the valley of the Yukon river, Alaska; south to the coa.st of Maine, northeastern Veiinont 
(Went Burke and EliDWood, /Vi;i(;/f>), northern Michigan, Minnesota to Moose lake and the White Earth Indian 
reservation, the Black liilln of Dakota (A'. Douglas), along tiie Rocky mountains of northern Montana to tJie valley of. 
the Blackfoot river {Canby it Sargent), Sitka, and British rolund)ia. 

A tree 1.5 to '>0 meters in heiglit, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.90 meter in diameter ; low, rather wet soil, borders of 
ponds and Hwamps; most common north of the boundary of the United States, and reaching its greatest 
development along the streams and lakes of the Flathead region of northern Montana at an elevation of 2,500 
to .V"0 feet; the most imi)orlant timber tree of the American sul)aretic forests north of the sixtieth degree of 
latitude, here more generally miilliplied and of larger size than the allied /'. nigra, with which it is a.ssociated; 
its distribution southward in British Columbia not yet satisfactorily determined. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, .straight grained, compact, satiny; bands of small summer cells thin, not 
conspicuous, resin pas.sages few, minute; medullary rays numerous, prominent; color, light yellow, the sai)Wood 
hardly distinguishable; specific gravity, 0.4051; ash, 32; largely manufactured into lumber, although not 
distinguished in commerce from that of the black spruce (P. nigra). 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 205 

384. — Picea Engelmanni, EDgeluiami, 

Trans. St. Louis Acad, li, 212 ; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 250 ; Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1879, 334 ; l*B, 145.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 
348.— G. M. Dawson iu Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 325.— Riisby in Bull. Torrcy Bot. Club, ix, 80. 

Abies alba, 1/ Torrcy iu Fremont's Rep. 97. 

Abka nigra, Kngoluiann in All], Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiii, 330 [not Poiret]. 

Abies Engelmanni, Parry iu Trans. St. Louis Acail. ii, 122 ; London Gard. Chronicle, 18&3, 1035; Am. Nat. viii, 179; Proc. 
Davenport Acad, i, 149. — Regel, Gartcuflora, 18C4, 244. — Henkcl & lloclistetter, Nadclholz. 418. — Hoopes, Everpreciia, 
177, f. 22.— Watson in King's Rep. v, 332 ; PI. Wheeler, 17.— Porter in Haydcu's Rep. 1»J71, 494.— Porter &. Coulter, Fl. 
Colorado ; Hayden's Sur;-. Sli.sc. Pul>. No. 4, 130. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 33. — Koch, Dendrologie, ii', 242. — Hall id 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — Sargent in Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1877, 631. — Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 
1875-'76, 211.— Brandegee in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 38.- Bell in Geological Rep. Canada, 1879-'d0, 56^.- Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 68. 

PimiS Engelmanni, Engelmann in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. now ser. xii, 209. 

PimiS commutata, Parlatore iu Do Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, 417.— Gordon, Pinetum, 2 ed. 5. 

WHITE SPRUCE. 

Peace River plateau, iu latitude 55° 46' N. ((?. M. Baicson), through the interior of British Columbia aud along 
the Cascade mountaius of Washiugtou territory a:ul Oregou to the valley of the Mackenzie river ; along the 
priucipal ranges of the Eocky and Wahsatch mountains to the San Francisco mountains, Sierra Blanco, and mount 
Graham, Arizona. 

A large tree, 24 to 40 meters iu height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.20 meter iu diameter, or at its extreme elevation 
reduced to a low, prostrate shrub; dry, gravelly slopes and ridges between 5,000 and 11,500 feet elevation; the 
most valuable timber tree of the central Eocky Mountain region, here forming extensive forests, generally above 
8,500 feet elevation; rare aud of small size in the mouutains of Washington territory, Oregoi:, and Montana. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, very close, straight-grained, compact, satiny ; bands of small summer cells 
narrow, not conspicuous, resin passages few, minute ; medullary rays numerous, conspicuous; color, pale yellow 
tinged with red, the sap-wood hardly distinguishable ; specific gravity, 0.3449 ; ash, 0.32 ; iu Colorado manufactured 
into lumber and largely used for fuel, chai'coal, etc. 

The bark rich in tannin, and in Utah sometimes used in tanning leather. 

Note. — Forms of northern Montana too clo.scly connect this species with the allied P. alba. The two species occur here, however, 
only at different elevations, in different soils, and never mingle. 

385. — Picea pungens, Engelmann, 

London Gard. Chrouiolo, 1879, 331 ; 18S«, I4.i.— Masters iu Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1883, 725, f. 130. 

P. Menziesii, Engelmann iu Trans. St. Louis Acad, ii, 214 [not Carrifere]. 

Abies Menziesii, Engelmauu in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiii, 330 [not Lindley].— Gray in Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 18»i3> 
76. — Watson iu King's Rep. v, .333, in part.— Parry in Am. Nat. viii, 179 [not Lindley]. — Porter iu Hayden's Rep. 1871, 
494.— Hooi>es, Evergreens, 166, in pari. — Rothrock iu PI. Wheeler, 28; Wheeler's Kep. vi, 10 [not Lindley]. — Porter & 
Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. Miac. Pub. No. 4, 131 [not Liudley].— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees. :13, iu p.irt.— 
Brandegee iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 32. 

Abies Menziesii PatTl/ana, Andre iu lll.Hort.xxiii, 198; xxiv, 53, 119.— Roezl in 111. Hort. xxiv, 86. 

Abies Engelmanni glauca, Veiteli, Manual Conif. 09. 

WHITE SPBUOE. BLUE SPRUCE. 

Valley of the Wind river, south tiirough tlie mountain ranges of Wyoming, Colorado, aud Utah. 

A tree 30 to 4'! melers in height, with a trunk O.CO to 0.00 meter iu diameter; borders of streams, in damp oj 
wet soil, generally between t>,000 and !t,000 feet elevation, never forming forests or reaching as high elevations a« 
the allied /'. Kngclmanni ; rare and local. • '■ » 

Wood Aery light, soft, weak, close-grained, compact, satiny ; bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous. 
resin passages few, small ; medullary rays numerous, itroiiiinent ; color, very light brown or often neaily white, th' 
sajj-wood hardly distiugnishable ; si)eeitic gravity, 0.3740; ash, O.-JS. 



206 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

386. — Picea Sitchensis, curriiix", 

Trait. Coaif. 1 e<l. 260 ; Engelmanii in Lou.loii Gard. Chronicle, 1H70, 314 : Bot. California, ii, VH. 

PinuS Sitchensis, Buu;;ar.l ill Mom. \,m\. St. Poterslmi;;. t! s.t. ii, KM.— Hooker. Kl. lioi.-Ain. ii, 104.— Endlichcr, Syn. 
Couif. V2i. 

Abies Menziesii, Lin.lU'V in IVnn. Cjcl. l, 3-2.— Loiulou, Arhorelum, iv, ^3J1, f. 223J.— Forbes, Pinotuui Wobnrn. 93, t.32.— 
Xuttall, Sylva, iii, 131, t. lUi; 2 ed. ii, l-'J, t. 110.— Kui'jlit, Syu. Conif. 37. — Mndley &, Gordon in Jour. Ilort. Soc. 
Loudou, V, 211.— Xfwberry in Pacific U. R. Rep. vi, 50, 90, t. 9, f. 21.— Gordon, Pinetnni, 0; 2 ed. 12.— Cooper in 
Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 202 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii-, 25, 09, in part.— Wood, Hot. & Tl. 314.— L\ all in .lonr. Linnican Soc. 
vii, 131, 13:1, 144.— Henkel & Ilochstettcr, Xadclholz. 187.— Nelson, Piuace;e, 148.— Kollirock in Smithsonian Rep. 
Ie67, 433.— Hoopes, Uvergrceus, lOG, in part.— Wat.sou in King's Rep. v, 333, in part.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 73. 

Pinus Menzienii, Douglas in Lambert, Piuus, 1 ed. iii, 101, t. 71.— Hooker, Kl. Bor.-Am. ii, 102.- Antoine, Couif. 85, t. 33, f. 1, 
2.— Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 394.— Eudlicher, Syu. Conif. 112.— Parlatoro iu De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi', 418. 

f Abies trigona, Rafiuesi|ue, Atlaut. Joar. I19.-En.llkher, Syn. Conif. 124.— Carri^^e, Trait. Conif. 1 ed. 204. 

f Abies falcata, Rariucsque, Atlant. Jour. 119.— Eadlicher, Syn. Couif. 124.— Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, 
V. 213.— Carritre, Trait. Conif. 208 ; 2 ed. 314. 

Pinus ^fenziesii, var. crispa, Antoine, Conif. 85, t. 35, f. 2. 

Abies Sitchensis, Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 212.— Koch, Dondrologie, ii«, 247. 

P. Menziesii, Carrifcro, Man. des PI. iv, 339; Trait. Conif. 237 ; 2 ed. 318. 

f Sequoia Rafinesquei, Carriirc, Trait. Conif. 2 ed.213.. 

TIDE-LAND SPRUCE. 

Alaska, south to Mendociuo couuty, California, not CKteiiding; more than 50 miles inland from the coast. 

A large tree of great economic value, -iO to 01 meters in height, with a truulc 2.40 to 5.10 meters in diameter; 
gravelly ridges and swamps, reaching its greatest develoimient in Wa.shington territory and Oregon near the 
mouth of the Columbia river, here forming a belt of nearly continuous forest growth .50 or, farther north and south, 
rarely more than 10 or l.j miles in width. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, close, straight-grained, compact, satiny ; bands of small .summer cells narrow, not 
conspicuous, resin passages few, obscure; medullary rays numerous, rather prominent ; color, light brown tinged 
with red, the saiiwood nearly white ; specific gravity, 0.4287 ; ash, 0.17; largely manufactured into lumber and 
U8e<l for construction, interior finish, fenciug, boat-building, the dunnage of vessels, cooperage, woodenware, etc. 

387. — Tsuga Canadensis, Carriire, 

Trait. Conif. 189; 2 ed. 248. — Soari in Bull. Essex Inst, xiii, 18J. — Eiigohuunii in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 224. 

Pinus Canadensis, Linmens, Spec. 2 ed. 1421.— Wangeiiheim, Ainer. 39, t. 15, f. 30.- Ehrhart, Beitr. iii, 23.— Alton, Hort. 
Kcw. iii, 370; 2 ed. v, 320.— Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 206.- Lambert, Pinus, 1 ed. 50, t. 32; 2 ed. i, ."iO, t. 35; 3 ed. ii, 79, 
t. 4.'>. — Willdenow, Spec, iv, 505; Euiiiu. 989; Borl. Bauinz. 277.— Poirot in Lamarck, Diet, vi, .521.— Pereoon, Syn. 
ii, 579.— Pnrsb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 640.— Smith in Rees' CycL xxviii. No. 29.— Barton, Compend. Fl. Philadelph. 
ii, 182.— Nultall, Genera, ii, 223.— Hnyne, Dend. Fl. 170.— Elliott, Sk. ii, 039.- Sprcugcl, Syst. ii, 885.— Torrey, 
Compend. Fl. N. States, 3.59; Fl. New York, ii, 230.— Beck, Bot. 340.— Eaton, Manual, ed. 204.— Darlington, Fl. 
Ceslrica, 2 ed. .54-'.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, KM, in part.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 358.- BIgelow, Fl. Boston. 3 cd.38C.— 
Antoine, Conif. 80, t. 32, f. 3.— Endlichcr, Syn. Conif. 8(i.— Gilioul, Arb. Resin. 40.— Darby, Bot. S. States, 515.— 
Parlatore iicDe Candolle, Prodr. xvi-, -ViS.— MeNab in Proe. Royal Irish Acad. 2 ser. ii, 211, 212, t. 23, f. 3.— Beufley 
A Iriinen, Med. PI. iv, 204, t. '2M. , 

Pinm Americana, Miller, Diet. 7 ed. No. 6.— Dii Roi, Obs. Bot. 41 ; Harbk. 2 ed. ii, 151. 

Pinus Abies Americana, Marshall, Arbnstnm, 103. 

Abies Canadensis, DcsfoDtaines, Hist. Arb. ii, 580.— Michaux f. Hist. Arb. Am. i, 138, t. 13; N. American Sylva, 3 ed. iii, 
140, t. 140— Nonveau Duhamel, v, 293, t. 83, f. 1.— Eaton, Manual, 111.— Richard, Conif. 77, t. 17, f. 2.— Andnbon, 
Birds, t. 197.— lyoiidon, Arboretum, iv, ta-li & t.— Forbes, Piiii-;iiiii Wnbiirn. 129.— Niittall, Sylvu, iii, 133; 2 ed. ii, 
190. -Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 421.— Emerson, Trees .Massachusetts, 77 ; 2 ed. i, 92 & t.— Grillith, Med. Bot. 000.— Knight, 
Syn. Conif. 37. — Lindley & <;ordofi In Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, v, 209.— Parry in Owen's Rep. (ilf.— Darlington, FL 
C'estrica, 3 ed. 291.-0001011, PinelMiii, 14 ; 2 ed. 22.— Coojier in Siiiillisoniun Rep. 185H, 2.57.— Chapman, Fl. S. States, 
4»4.— Curtis in Ri-p. Geological Siirv. N. Carolin.-i, 1800, iii, 27.— Wood, CI. Book, C(il ; Bot. &, Fl. 313.— Porcher, 
Re»f»nrci's S. Forests, .500.— Henkel &. Hochst^rtter, Niulelhiilz. 1.'.3 (excl. syn. « romafico). —Nelson, Piaacca', 30.— Gray, 
Maiinal N. Slates, 5 ed. 471.— Hooper, Evergreens, 184, f. 2:{.— Koch, Dcndrologie, ii', 249.— Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 
2:1.— Fl. desSerres, xxii, 200.— Oiiibuiirt, Hist. Drogues, ii, 247.— Bell in Geological Rop. Canada, Ib79-'e0, 51°.— Vclteh, 
Manual Conif. 114, f. 29. 

Picea Canailensis, Link in F,iiinica, xv, .524. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 207 

HEMLOCK. 

Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, valley of the Saint Lawrence river to the shores of lake Temiscauiing, 
and southwest to the western borders of northern Wisconsin; sourli through the northern states to New Castle 
county, Delaware, southeastern Michigan, central Wisconsin, and along the Alleghany mountains to Clear Creek 
falls, Winston county, Alabama (Mohr). 

A tree 21 to 35 meters in height, with a tiunk 0.90 to 1.15 meter in diameter; dry, rocky ridges, generally 
facing the north and often forming extensive forests almost to the e.xclu.sion of other species, or, less commonly, 
borders of swamjjs in deep, rich soil; most common at the north, although reaching its greatest individual 
develo])inciit in the high mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse, crooked-grained, difficult to work, liable to wind-shake and 
splinter, not durable; bands of small summer cells rather broad, cousi)icuous ; medullarj- rays numerous, thin 
color, light brown tinged with red or often nearly white, the sap-wood somewhat darker; specific gravity, 0.4239 
ash, (•.4(); largely manutactured into coarse lumber and used in construction for outside finish, railwaj- ties, etc. 
two varieties, red and white, produced apparently under jjrecisely similar conditions of growth, are recognized by 
lumbermen. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is the principal material used in the northern states in tanning leather, and yields 
a fluid extract sometimes used medicinally as a powerful astringent. 

Canada or hemlock pitch, prepared from the resinous secretion of this si)ecies, is used in the preparation of 
stimulating plasters, etc. {U. S. Dispensatory,lA: ed. 709, 903. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1109. — Fliickiger <& Ilaniury, 
Pharmaoographia, 552). 

388. — Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelm.iun, 
Coulter's Bot. Gazette, vi, 223. 

Abies species, Gibbs in Proc. Elliott Soc. i, 286. 

Abies Caroliniana, cb.ipmau, Fl. s. States, Suppl. 650. 



Southern Alleghany region, Bluff mountain, North Carolina (A. Gray), '-Saluda mountain," South Carolina [L. 
S. Gibbs), Pinnacle mountain, North Carolina {Curtiss), New river. North Cart)liiia, and C:psar's head, South Carolina 
{Canby), Whitesides mountain and Devil's Court-House peak, Jackson county. North Carolina (J. Donncll Smith). 

A small tree, 12 to lo meters in height, with a trunk 0.00 to 0.75 meter in diameter ; dry, rocky ridges between 
4,000 and 5,000 feet elevation; rare and local; long confounded with the closelj- allied T. Canadttisis, from which 
it may be distinguislied by its larger, glossier, blunter leaves, and larger cones with wide-spreading scales. 

Wood light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained; bands of small summer cells narrow, not conspicuous; 
medullary rays numerous, thin ; color, light brown tinged with red, the sap wood nearly white ; specific gravity, 
0.4275; ash, 0.40. 

389. — Tsuga Mertensiana, C:irrifro, 

Tr.iit. Couif. 2 ed. 2o0. — Engeliimiin in Hot. Ciilifornia. ii, 121 ; Coiilter'.s Bot. Gazette, vi, 224. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Xat. new 
ser. ix, 324. 

f Abies heterophylla, Kannes(iiie, Atlant. .(our. Uil— EudlicUcr, Syn. Couif. 124.— Carri^ie, Trait. Couif. 1 ed. 265. 

PinUS Mertensiana, Uougard iu Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, 6 ser. iii, 16:1.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, ll>4.— Endlicher, Syn. 
Couif. 111. — Lcdobour, Fl. Rossica, iii, IJG6. — Parlatore iu De Caudolle, Prodr. xvi-, 42;*. — MeXab iu Proe. Royal Irish 
Acad. 2 ser. ii, 211, 212, t. 23, f. 4. 

PinUS Canadensis, Bougard in Mem. Acad. St. Petersburg, 6 ser. iii. U>:! [not Liunipu.i]. — Douglas in Companion Bot. 
Mag. ii, 127. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Ani. ii, lt)4, in part.— Lcdebour, Fl. Rossica, iii, 60S. 

Abies Mertensiana, l.iiulley & Gordon in .lour. Itort. Soe. London, V, 211.— Carriere. Trait. Couif. 1 od. 2;W.— <5or<ion, 
Pinetuui, 18; 8npiil. 12; 2ed. 2!».— Lyall in Jour. Liuiuean Sor. vii, i;!3. 144.— Henkel A lloehstettor, Na«lclh61i!. 152.- 
Rotbrock iu Sniithsoi\iau Kep. 1867, 433. — Cooper iu Am. Nat. iii, 412. — Gray iu Pme. .Vm. Acad, vii, 402. — Haopes, 
Evergreens, li>2. — Kocb, Deudrologie, ii', 250. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 33. — Macoun iu Geological Rep. CnnailA 
1875-76, 211.— Hall iu Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. 

Abies Canadensis,? Cooper iu Smitbsouian Rep. ia"KS, 262: Pacilie R. K. Kep. xii-,!?.* [not Uesfonluiuesj. 
Abies Bridgesii, Kollogg in Proo. California Acjul. ii,37. 



208 FOKEST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Abies Albert iana, Murray iu Troc. lli.rt. Soc. London, iii, 149 & f.— Lnwsou, rinctum Brit, ii, 111, t. lG,f. 1-18.— Nelson, 
Piuaroa', 31. — Fowler in London Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 7'>. 

Abies taxi/olia, Hartwcg, i«ed. {fide Murray in Proo. Hurt. Soc. Loudon, iii, 148). 

Pinus Pattoniana, McXali in Proc Royal Irish Acad. '2 scr. ii.t'U, '2r.>, t.23, f.'^ [not Pailatoro] (fide Kngclnuinn iu London 
Gard. Chnniide, 1^.J, 145). 

Abies Pattonii, McNab in Jour. Liunivan Soc. xix,308. 



Alaska, soutli along the islands and coast of Briti.sh Columbia, and through the Selkirk, Gold, and other 
interior ranges to the Bitter Root mountains of Idaho, and the western slopes of the Eocky mountains of Montana 
(valley of the Flathead river, Canhy tt Sargent), extending south along the Cascade mouutains to southern Oregon 
and in the Coast ranges to Marin county, California, between 1,000 and 4,000 feet elevation. 

A large tree, 30 to Gl meters in height, with a trunk 1.20 to 3 meters in diameter; low, moist bottoms or rocky 
ridges; very common and reaching its greatest development in western Oregon and ^Yashingtou territory, often 
forming extensive forests, especially along the western base of the Cascade mountains. 

Wood light, hard, not strong, rather close-grained; bauds of small summer cells thin, not conspicuous; 
medullary rays numerous, promiueut ; color, light brown tinged with yellow, the sap-wood nearly white ; specific 
gravity, 0.5182; ash, 0.42 ; occasionally manufactured into coarse lumber. 

The bark, rich in tannin, is the principal material used on the northwest coast iu tanning leather. 

390. — Tsuga Pattoniana, Engclmann, 

Bot. California, ii, 121 ; London Gard. Chronicle, 145. 

Abies Pattoniana, Jeffrey in Rep. Oregon Exped. i,t. 4, f. 2.— Murray in Edinburgh New Phil. Jour, now 8er. i, 291, t. 9, 
f. 1-7. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, ii, 157, t. 22. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad. vii,402. — Koch, Dendrologio, ii", 2.')2. — Iloopes, 
EvcrgreeuB, 172. — Carritrc, Trait. Conif. 2 cd. 30. — Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — A'eitch, Manual Conif. 
116, f. 31, 32. 

tPicea Cali/ornica, Carritrc, Trait. Conif. 261; 2ed.346. 

Abies Hookeriana, Murray in Edinburgh Nbw Phil. Jour, new eer. i, 289, t. 9, f. 11-17.— Lawson, Pinetum Brit, ii, 153, t. 
21,22, f. 1-22— Nelson, Piuacea;, 31.— McKab iu Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 2 ser. ii, 211, 212, t. 23, f. 1.— Veitch, 
Manual Conif. 115, t. 32. 

Abies WilUamsonii, Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 53, 90, t. 7, f. 19.— Wood, Bol. & Fl. 313.— Cooper iu Am. Nat. 
iii, 412.— Va.scy, Cat. Forest Trees, 33. 

Pinus Pattoniana, Parlatore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi», 429. 

Abies Pattonii, Gordon, Pinetum, 1 ed. 10 (excl. syu. trigona). 

Abies Pattoni, Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl. 12.— Hcnkel & Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 151 (excl. syn. /rtfloiia). 

Valley of the Fraser river, British Columbia, and probably much farther north, south along the Cascade 
mountains and the California Sierras to tlie lieadwaters of the San Joaquin river, extending east along the high 
mountains of northern "Washington territory to the western slojtes and summits of the Cceur d'Alfene and Bitter 
Root mountains of Idaho (Lojo trail, Watnon), iuul (he divide between Thomp.son and Little Bitter Root creeks, 
nortliern Montana (//. Ii. Ayrcn). 

An alpine tree, rarely 30 meters in Iieiglit, witli a truidi 1.50 to 2.10 meters in diameter; dry slojjes and ridges 
near llie limits of tree growth, ranging from an elevation of 2,700 feet in British Columbia to 10,000 feet in tlu! Sierras 
of central California. 

Woo«l light, soft, not strong, close-grained, satiny, susceptible of a good jjolish ; bands of small summer colls 
thin, not conHi)icuou8 ; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown or red, the saji-wood nearly white; 
8i>eciflc gravity, 0.4454 ; ash, 0.44. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 209 

391. — PseudotSUga Douglasii, Carrifere, 

Trait. Conif. 2 cd. 25(5. — Engolinann iu Wheeler's Rep. vi, 257 ; Bot. California, ii, 120. — G. M. Daweon in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix, 383. — 
Eicblcr iu Mouatsb. Acad. Berl. 1881, f. 18-22.— Rusby in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, ix, 79. 

PinUS taxifolia, Lambert, Finns, 1 ed. i, 51, t. 33; 2 ed. i, 58, t. 36; 3 ed. ii, 82, t. 47.— Pnreb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 640.— Sinitb in Bees' 
Cycl. xxviii, No. 28.— Sprengel, Syst. ii, 885.- Eaton, Manual, 6 ed. 264.— Eaton &. Wright, Bot. 358. 

Abies taxifolia, Poiret in Lamarck, Diet, vi, 523. — Nonveau Dubamcl, v, 293.— Torrey & Gray in Pacific B. R. Rep. ii, 130.— 
Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 262 ; Pacific R. R. Rep. xii', 69. 

Abies Douglasii, Lindley in Penn. Cycl. i, 32. —London, Arboretum, iv, 2319, f. 22:!0.— rorbes, Pinetum Wobnm. 127, t. 45.— 
Bentham, PI. Hartwcg. 57.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 129, 1. 115; 2 ed. ii, 187, 1. 11.5.— Spach, Hist. Veg. xi, 423.— Knight, Syn. 
Conif. 37. — Lindley & Gordon iu Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 209. — London Gard. Chronicle, 1854, 16:}. — Bigelow in Pacific 
R. R. Rep. iv, 17. — Torrey in Pacific R. R. Rep. iv, 141 ; Bot. Mes. Boundary Survey, 210; Ivc8'Rep.28. — Newl>erry in 
Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 54, 90, t. 8, f. 20.— Gordon, Piuotum, 15 ; Suppl. 10 ; 2 ed. 24.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1«.><, 262 ; 
PacificR. R. Rep. xiiS24, 69; Am. Nat. iii, 411. —Wood, Bot. «fe F1.313.— Engelmann in Am. Jour. Sci.2 ser. xxxiv, 330; 
Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. new ser. xii,209. — Lyall in Jour. Liiin.-ean Soc. vii, 131, 133, 143. — Henkel & Hochstetter, \adelbolz. 
155. — Nelson, Pinaceio, 32. — Rothrock iu Smithsonian Rep. 1807,433; PI. Wheeler, 28, 50; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 9. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 189. — Lawson, Pinetum Brit, ii, 115, 1. 17, 18, f. 1-23. — Porter in Hayden's Rep. 1871, 494. — Watson 
in King's Rep. V, 334 ; PI. Wheeler, 17.— Fowler iu London Gard. Chronicle, 1872,75. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402. — 
Koch, Dendrologie, ii-, 255. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado ; Hayden's Surv. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 131. — Murray in London 
Gard. Chronicle, 1872, 106. — Vasey, Cat. Forest Trees, 33 — Hayden in Warren's Rep. Nebraska & Dakota, 2 ed. 122. — 
Macoun in Geological Rep. Canada, 1875-'76, 211. — Hall in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, ii, 91. — Brandegee in Coulter's Bot. 
Gazette, iii, 32. — Veitch, Manual Conif. 119, f. 35. 

Abies mucronata, Rafinesque, Jour. Atlant. 119.— Endlichor, Syn. Conif 126.— Lindley & Gordon in Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, 
V, 213.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif 268 ; 2 ed. 312. 

t Abies mucronata palustris, Rafinesque, Jour. Atlant. 129.— Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 268 ; 2 ed. 313. 

Pinus Douglasii, hambeTt, Pinna, 1 ed. iii, 163, t. 21.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 162, t. 183.—Antoine, Conif. 84, t. 33, t. 3.— 
Hooker & Aruott, Bot- Beechey, 394.— Endlicber, Syn. Conif 87. — Torrey in Sitgreaves' Rep. 173. — Parlatore in De 
Candolle, Prodr. xviS 430.— McNab in Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 2 ser. ii, 703, t. 49, f. 32, 32", 32\ 

Abies Douglasii, var. taxifolia, Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2319, f. 2231.— Gordon, Pinetum, 16; 2 ed. 25.— Henkel & 
Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 156. 

Pinus Douglasii, var. brevibracteata, Antoiue, Conif. 84, t. 33, f. 4. 

Picea DoJiglasii, Link iu Liuuiea, XV, 524. 

Tsuga Douglasii, Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 192.— Bolaudor in Proc. California Acad, iii, 232. 

Tsuga Lindleyana, Roezl, Cat. Grain Mex. 8. 

RED FIR. YELLOW FIB. OREGON PINE. DOUGLAS FIE. 

Coast ranges and interior plateau of British Columbia south of latitude 55° N. (not reaching the coast archipelago 
north of Vancouver's island), east to the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains iu latitude 51° N. (Bow Kiver pass, 
Macoun) ; south along the mountain ranges of Washington territory, Oregon, the California Coast ranges, and the 
western slope of the Sierra Nevadas, through the mountain ranges east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and the 
Guadalupe mountains of Texas; in the Wahsatch and Uintah mountains, the ranges of northern and eastern 
Arizona, ami soiitlnvard into Mexico; not detected in the interior region between the Sierra Nevada and the 
Wahsatch mountains, south of the Blue mountains of Oregon, and north of Arizona. 

A largo tree, 61 to 92 meters in height, with a trunk 0.S3 to 3.Gt> meters in diameter, or in the Kocky mountains 
much smaller, hero rarely 30 motors in height; the most generally-distributed and valuable timber tree of the 
Pacific region, growing from the sea-level to au elevation in Colorailo of nearly 10,0t)0 feet ; often forming extensive 
forests, almost to the exclusion of other specie.s, and reaching in western Oregon and Washington territory its 
greatest development and value. 

Wood hard, strong, varying greatly with age and conditions of growth in density, quality, and amount of s;jp; 
difficult to work, durable; bands of small summer cells broad, occupying fully half the width of the annual growth, 
dark colored, conspicuous, soon becoming Hiuty and ditficult to cut ; medtdlary rays nniiuMx>u.s, obscni-e ; color, varying 
from light red to yellow, the sap-wood nearly whito ; specilic gravity, ().51.">7 ; ash, O.tKS ; largely nianufacluivd into 
lumber and used for all kinds of construction, railway ties, piles, fuel, etc.; two varieties, red and yellow fir, ai-e 
distinginshod by lumbermen, dependent probably ui)on the age of the tree; the former coarsegrained, darker 
colored, and considered less valuable than yellow fir. 

The bark is found valuable in tunning leather. 
14 FOR 



210 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Var. macrocarpa, Kni;. itniimi, 
Bot (.'nliloruia, ii, I'iO. 

Abies Doiujlasii, var. macrocarpa, Tomy in Ivcs' I}i|>.2?.—Vasiy, Cat. Forest Trees, 33. 

Abies macrocarpa, Vasoy iu Ganl. Monthly, Jan. 1376. 

HEMLOCK. 

L'alilbniia Coast iaii};ts; t>aii liernanlino uionntaiiis to the Ciiyamaca luouutains. 

A tree 30 to Hi uioteis in height, with a trunk l.L'O to 1.80 meter in diameter ; dry ridges and canons between 
2,500 and 4,000 feet elevation. 

Wood heavy, hard, .strong, cross-grained, very durable, difficult to work ; color, rather darker red than that of 
the species ; specitie gravity, 0.4503 ; a.sh, O.OS ; somewhat manufactured into coarse Inmber and largely used for fuel. 

392. — Abies Fraseri, Lindloy, 

Penn. Cycl. i, 30. —Forbes, Pinctum Woburn. iii.t. 38.— Link in Liuna'a,xv,531.— Nuttall.Sylva.iii, 139, t. Hi); 2 cd. ii,196,t. 119.— 
Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Sop. London, v, 209. — Ciirrifero, Trait. Couif. 200; 2 cd. 270. — Cooper iu Smithsonian Kcp. 1858, 
2.'>7.— Chapman, Fl. H. States, 434.— Curt is iu Eep. Gcologieal Surv. N. Carolina, 18G0, iii, 2C.— Wood, CI. Book, GGl ; Bot. & Fl. 314.— 
Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadulholz. 1C9. — Gray, Manual N. Slates, 5 cd. 472, iu part. — Hoopos, Evergreens, 202. — Bortraud in Bull. 
Soc. Bot. France, xviii, 379. — Kooh.Dendrologie, ii^, 21(J. — VaseyiCat. Forest Trees, 35. — Engelmaun in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 
596; London Card. Chronicle, 1877, 147.— Veitch, Manual Couif. 96. 

Pinm Fraseri, Pursh.Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 639.— Smith iu Rees' Cycl. xxviii,No. 27.— Poiret, Suppl. v,35.— Sprengol, Syst. ii, 
884.— Beck, Bot. 340.— Eaton, Manual, cd. 264.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 ed. iii, 74, t. 42.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 358.— 
Antoine, Couif. 76, t. 29, f. l.—Endlicher,Syu. Couif. 91.— Parlatoro iu De Candolle, Prodr. xviS419.— McNab in Proo. 
Royal Irish Acad. 2 scr. 11,684, t. 47, f. 10. 

A. bahamea, var. Fraseri, Nuttall, Genera, ii, 223.— Spacb, Hist. Veg. xi,422. 

Pinm halsamea, var. Fraseri, Torrey, Compeud. Fl. N. states, 359. 

Picea Fraseri, Loudon, Arboretum, iv,J340,f. 2243, 2244.— Knight, Syn. Couif. 39.— Gordon, Pinetum, 148; 2 ed. 205. 

BALSAM. SHE BALSAM. 

nigh mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

A tree 18 to 24 meters in height, with a trunk sometimes O.CO meter in diameter; moist slopes between 5,000 
and 0,500 feet elevation, often forming considerable forests. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained, compact; bands of small summer cells rather broad, light 
colored, not conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, thin; color, light brown, the sap-wood lighter, nearly white; 
specific gravity, 0.35C5; ash, 0.54. 

393. — Abies balsamea, Miller, 

Diet. Xo. 5.— DcHfontainos, Hist. Arb. ii, 579.- Nouvcau Duhauicl, v, 295, t. 83, f. 2.— Richard, Couif. 74, 1. 16.— Liudliy, Penu. Cycl. i, 30; 
Fl. Mod. .'k'.4— Forbes, Pinetum Woburn. 109, t. 37.— Link in Linnoja, xv,.'')30.—Sp;»ch, Hist. Veg. xi, 421.— Grillith, Med. Bot.OO.'i, 
f. 2C8.— Lindley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 210.— Carrifere, Trait. Couif. 217; 2 ed. 292.- Richardson, Arctic Exped. 
441.— Darlington, Fl. Costrica, 3 ed. 291.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858, 257.— Wood, CI. Book, 661; Bot. & Fl. 314.— 
Porcher, Kewuirces S. Forests, .5(K;.— H<-nkel & Hochstctter, Nadelholz. 176.— Gray, Manual N. States, 5 ed. 471.— Hoopos, 
EvcrgrteuM, 197. — B<;rtrand iu Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xviii, 379.— Koch, Dcudrologie, ii\ 214. — Va»i-y,Cat. Forest Trees, 34. — 
Guibonrt, Hist. Urogiu-s, 7ed. ii,216. — Eugelmann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 697. — Macouu in Geological Kep. Canada, 1875-'76, 
211.— Sears in Bull. Essex Inst, xlii, 184.— Bell in Gcologieal Rep. Canada, 187a-'eo,46<=.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 88. 

Pinus balsamea, Linmens, Spec. 1 cd. 1002.— Wangenheim.Amer. 40.— Alton, Hort. Kew. iii, 370; 2 ed. v, 319.— Jbcnch, 
.Meth. 364.— Du Roi, llarbk. 2 ed. 144.— Lambert, Pinus, 1 td. i,48, 1. 31; 2 ed. i,.V.i, t.33; 3 ed. i,72, 1. 41.— Willdeuow, 
Spec, iv, .VM; Enuin. 98'J; Berl. Baum?. 276.— Pi-rsoou, Syn. ii, 579.— I'ursb, Fl. Am. Sept. ii, 639.— ICaton, Manual, 
111; 6ed. 2C4.— Nuttull,Gener,i, ii,223.— Hayue, Dend. Fl. 176. — Elliott, Sk. i i, 639. -Spreng.d, Syst. ii,884.— Torroy, 
Compcnd. Fl. N. Slates, :J59; Fl. N. York, ii, 829.— Dcsconrtilz, Fl. Med. Antilles, iv,.^,!. 246.— Woodville, Med. Bot. 
3 ed. V. I, t. I.— Beck, Bot. :M0.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Aui. ii, 163.— Eaton & Wright, Bot. 358.— Bigelow, Fl. Boston. 3 ed. 
:Vi.').— Antoine, Conif. (V^t. 26, f. 3.— Endlicher, .Syn. Conif. 10:i.— Gilioul, Arb. Resin. 45.— Darby, Bot. S. States,515.— 
Parlatoro in De Caudollo, Prodr. xvi^ 423.— McNab iu Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 2 ser. ii, 6*1, t. 47, f. 11.— Bentley & 
Trimen, .Med. PI. iv, 263, t.263. 



CATALOGUE OF FOREST TREES. 211 

Pinus Abies Balsamea, Marshall, Arbustum, 102. 

A. balsamifera, Micbaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 207, in part.— Michaux f. Hist. Aib. Am. i, 145, t. 14; N. American Bylva, 3ed. 

iii, 100, t. 150, ill part. 

Picea balsamea, Loudon, Arboretum, iv,23:!9, f. 2240, 2241.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 39.— Gordon, Pinetum, 143; 2 ed. 200.— 
Hriikol & Hoelistetter, Nadelholz. 176. — Eiuereon, Trees Massachusetts, 85; 2 ed. i, 101. — Kelson, Pinaces, 37. 

Picea balsamea, var. longifolia, Hort.— Loudon, Arboretum, iv, 2339. 

Picea Fraseri, Emerson, Trees Massachnsett.%, S8; 2 ed. i, li)| [not London]. 

BALSAM FIR. BALM OF GILEAD FIR. 

Nortlieni Newfoundland and Labrador to the soutberu sliore.s of Hudson bay, northwest to the Great Bear 
lake and the eastern base of the Eocky mountains ; south through the northern states to Pennsylvania, central 
Michigan and Minnesota, and along the Alleghany mountains to the high peaks of Virginia. 

A tree 21 to 27 meters in height, with a trunk rarelj' exceeding O.GO meter in diameter, or at high elevations 
reduced to a low, prostrate shrub (^1. Mudsonica, Hort.); damp woods and mountain swamps. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, coarsegrained, compact, not durable ; bands of small summer cells not 
broad, resinous, conspicuous; medullary rays numerous, obscure; color, light brown, oft«n streaked with yellow, 
the sap-wood lighter; sjjecific gravity, 0.3819; ash, 0.45. 

Canadian balsam or balm of fir, an aromatic liquid oleo-resiu obtained from this and other species of Abies by 
puncturing the vesicles formed under the bark of the stem and branches, is used medicinally, chiefly in the treatment 
of chronic catarrhal affections, and in the arts ( U. S. Dispensatory, 14 ed. 898, 900. — Nat. Dispensatory, 2 ed. 1417. — 
FHickiger & Hanbury, PharmacograpMa, 552). 

394. — Abies subalpina, Eugelmann, 

Am. Nat. x,554; Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 597; Wheeler's Rep. vi, 255. — Vasey, Cit. Forest Trees, 34.— Hall in Coulter's Hot. Gazette, 
ii,91. — Brandegee in Coulter's Bot. Gazette, iii, 32. — G.M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser.ix, 326. — Masters in London Gard. 
Chronicle, 1881,236, f. 43,44,45. 

fPimtS lasiocarpa. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, KiS [not Hort.].— Eudlicher, Syn. Conif. 105.— McNab in Proc. Roy.il Irish 
Acad. 2 sor. ii, 682, t. 46, f. 7, 7»; t. 47, 48, 49 (excl. syn.). 

fA. lasiocarpa, NuttalI,Sylva,iii, 138; 2 ed. ii, 195.— Liudley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. London, v, 210.— Carrifcre, Trait. 
Conif. 1 ed. 221.— Cooper in Smithsonian Rep. 1858,262.— Murray in Proc. Hort. Soc. London, iii, 313, f. 27-31.— Henkel 
& Iloehstetter, Nadelholz. 161 (excl. syn.). 

? Pinus species, Torrey in Fremont's Rep. 97. 

Picea amahilis, Gordon, Pinetum, 154, in part: 2ed.213, in part. 

A. bifolia, Murray in Proc. Hort. Soc. London, iii, 320, f. 51-56; Loudon Gard. Chronicle, 1875, 465, f. 96, 97.— Regel, 
Gartenflora, xiii, 119. — Henkel & Hochstetter, Nadelholz. 420. 

A. grandis, Engelmann in Am. Jour. Sci. 2 ser. xxxiv, 310 [not Lindley]. — Carrifere, Trait. Conif. 2 ed. 296, in part. — Watson 
in King's Rep. v,334, iu part. — Gray in Proc. Am. Acad, vii, 402 [not Lindley]. — Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colorado; 
Hayden's Sur\ . Misc. Pub. No. 4, 131 [not Lindley]. 

Finns amabilis, Parlatore in Do CandoUe, Prodr. xvi», 426, in part. 

Picea bifolia, Murray in London Gard. Chronicle, 1875, 105. 

A. subalpina, var. fallax, Engchuann in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 597. 



Valley of the Stakhin river, Alaska, in latitude 60° N. (,Vi/iV), f-outh through British Columbia and along 
the Cascade mountains to northern Oregon ((7o;?i>>-), through the Blue mountains of Oregon and the ranges of 
Idaho, ^Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 

A tree 24 to 40 meters in height, with a trunk rarely exceeding O.tiO meter in diameter; mountain slopes and 
caHons between 4,000 (British Columbia) and 12,0(10 (Colorado) feet elevation: generally scattered and ran-ly 
forming the prevailing forest growth. 

Wood very light, soft, not strong, rather elose-graiued, compact; bands of suuill summer cells very luirrow, 
not conspicuous; medullary rays numerou.s, obscure; color, light brown or neaily white, (he sap-wood lightev; 
Spccilic gravity, 0.3470; ash, 0.44. 



212 FOREST TREES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

395. — Abies grandis, LiudK'y, 

Peoi). Cycl. i, 30.— Forbee, Pinetum Wobnrn. 1-23, t. 43.— Spach, Hist. V.-g. xi, 422.— Nuttall, Sylva, iii, 134; 2 od. ii, 192.— Lindlcy &, 
Gordon in Jonr. Hort. Soc. London, v,,210. — Ciirritns Trait. Conif, 220; 2 od. 2% (exrl. syn.). — Cooper in SniilliNoninu Rop. 16^)8, 
202; Pacific K. K. Kcp. xii', 25,69; Am. Nat. iii, 410.— Wood. Beit. &. I'l. 314.— Lyall in Jour. Liiiniran Soc. vii, 143.— Bolaudei 
in Proc. California Acad, iii, 232. — Ilcukd & Uoclistittcr, Xadelbolz. UiO. — Nelson, Piuacoir, 3?. — Iloopcs, Evorgi-cons, 211. — 
Bcrtrand in Bnll. Soc. Bot. France, xviii, 3Tti. — Va.scy, Cat. Forest Trees, 34. — Hall in Conller's Bot. Gazi'tte, ii, 91. — Maeoun in 
Geological Kep. Canada, 1675-7i;, 211. — Enijelumnu in Trans. St. Louis Acad, iii, 593; London Gard. Chronicle, 1879, C84; 1880, 
660, f. 119; Bot. California, ii, 118. — G. M. Dawson in Canadian Nat. new ser. ix,326. — Masters in London Gard. Chronicle, 1881, 
179,f.33-:W.— Veitch, Manual Conif. 97, f.23, 24. 

PimiS grandifi, Douglas in Companion Bot. Mag. li, 147.— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii, 103.- Antoine, Conif. 03, t. Q'>, f. 1.— Hooker 
i Arnolt, Bot. Beecbey, 394.— Endlicher, Syn. Conif. 105.— Pari atore in De Candolle, Prodr. xvi', 427 (excl.syu.).— 
McNab in Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 2 ser. ii, 073, t. 40, f. 4, 4*. 

tA. aromatica, Rafinesfiuc, Atlant. Jonr. 119.— Endlich.-r, Syn. Conif. 125.— Liudley & Gordon in Jour. Hort. Soc. 
Louilon, V, 213.— Carriere, Trait. Conif. 2G0; 2 cd.3l0. 

Picea grandis, London, Arboretum, iv, 2341, f. 2245,2240, in part.— Knight, Syn. Conif. 39.— Gordon, Pinetum, 155; Snppl. 
5 (escl. syn. rareonsii); 2 ed. 216. — Newberry in Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, 40, 90, f. 10, t. 0, in part. — Murray in London 
Gard. Chronicle, 1375, 135, f. 23. 

A. Gordoniana, C.irrifere, Trait. Conif 2 ed. 298 (excl. syn. rarsoiisii).- Bcrtrand in Bull. Soc. Bot. Franco, xviii, 379. 

A. amabilin, Murray in Proc. Hort. Soc. Loudon, iii, 310, f. 22-24 [not Forbes]. 

WHITE FIR. 

Vancouver's i.sland, south to Mendocino county, California, near the coast; interior valleys of Tvestem 
Washington territory and Oregon south to the Uinpqua river, Cascade mountains below 4,000 feet elevation, 
through the Blue mount;iins of Oregon {Cusick) to the eastern slope of the Ca?ur d'Alene mountnins (Cooper), the 
Bitter Root mountains, Idaho ( Watwn), and the western slopes of the Rocky mountains of northern Montana 
(Flathead region, Canby <£• Sargent). 

A large tree, 01 to 92 meters in height, with a trunk 0.90 to 1.00 meter in diameter; most common and reaching 
its greatest development in the