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Full text of "Report on the investigations into the purification of the Ohio River water at Louisville, Kentucky, made to the president and directors of the Louisville water company"






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REPORT 



ON THE INVESTIGATIONS INTO 



THE PURIFICATION OF THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER AT LOUISVILLE KENTUCKY 



MADE TO THE 



PRESIDENT AND DIRECTORS 



OF THE 



LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY 



BY 

GEORGE W. FULLER 

M, 

Chief Chemist and Bacteriologist to the Louisville Water Company; Formerly Biologist 

in charge of the Lawrence Experiment Station, State Board of Health of 

Massachusetts; Member of the American Chemical Society, 

American Public Health Association, American 

Water Works Association, etc. 




PUBLISHED UNDER AGREEMENT WITH THE DIRECTORS 



NEW YORK 

D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 

1898 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



PAGE 
I 



Location, scope, and principal dates of 
the investigations. Nature of systems of 
purification tested. Character of the War- 
ren, Jewell, and Western systems. The 
Harris device. The Mark-Brownell de- 
vices. The MacDougall polarite system. 
Methods and devices of the Water Company. 
The development of water purification ; its 
state at the beginning of these tests and an 
historical resume. Most important types of 
filters abroad. Principles of sand filtration 
without coagulants. English filters. Modi- 
fication of English filters. English filters in 
America. American filters. Efficiency of 
American filters and their cost. Conditions 
under which the tests were conducted. List 
of chapters. 

CHAPTER I. 
COMPOSITION OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER.. 15 

Character of watershed. Freshets in 
the Ohio River, with annual comparisons, 
1861-96. Plan of analytical work. Physi- 
cal character of Ohio River water. Chemical 
character of Ohio River water, with tables 
of daily analyses. Special chemical anal- 
yses. Biological character of Ohio River 
water. Results of microscopical analyses. 
Species of bacteria found. Number of bac- 
teria in Ohio River water by days. 

CHAPTER II. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATION OF CHEM- 
ICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER BY THE 
SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION 40 

Kinds of chemicals used. Composition 
of chemicals used. Devices used by the re- 
spective systems for the application of 



chemicals. Uniformity in rate of applica- 
tion of the chemicals. Strengths of chemi- 
cal solutions, their uniformity, and daily 
averages for the respective systems. Aver- 
age daily amounts of sulphate of alumina 
used by the respective systems. Average 
daily amounts of lime used by the Jewell 

system. 



CHAPTER III. 

DECOMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT DISPOSAL 
OF THE ALUM OR SULPHATE OF ALUMINA 
APPLIED TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER.... 53 

The general action of the chemical upon 
its addition to the water. Reduction of 
alkalinity by the applied chemical. Ab- 
sorption of applied chemical by suspended 
matters. Methods of daily tests for excess 
of chemical. Presence of traces of unde- 
composed chemical in filtered water at rare 
intervals. Undecomposed chemical in efflu- 
ent in practice inadmissible and inexcu- 
sable. 

CHAPTER IV. 

COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION OF OHIO 
RIVER WATER BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE 
FORMED BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF THE 
APPLIED ALUM OR SULPHATE OF ALU- 
MINA .- .... 57 

General action of a coagulant. Coagula- 
tion. Sedimentation. Devices for coagu- 
lation and sedimentation in the respective 
systems. Purification by sedimentation in 
the several systems. Bacteria in the efflu- 
ent of the Warren and Jewell settling-cham- 
bers. Special sedimentation experiments. 
Bacteria in the Louisville water supply as 
drawn from city taps, with the average puri- 
fication effected by the distributing system. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

PAGE 

INSCRIPTION OF THE FILTERS THROUGH 
WHICH THE RIVER WATER PASSED AFTER 
COAGULATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE 
AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION BY SEDIMEN- 
TATION . . . . 70 

General account of the leading features 
of all the filters. The Warren filter. The 
Jewell filter. The Western gravity filter. 
The Western pressure filter. 

CHAPTER VI. 

SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE 
RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS, AND A RECORD OF 
REPAIRS, CHANGES, AND DELAYS. 89 

List of the principal parts of the purifica- 
tion station. Schedules of the devices and 
appurtenances employed for application of 
chemicals, ^sedimentation and coagulation, 
and filtration, respectively, in each system. 
Repairs and changes of the respective sys- 
tems. Delays in operation during the tests. 
Summary of the time occupied in various 
ways during the tests. 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE RE- 
SPECTIVE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION, AND 
THE AMOUNT OF ATTENTION GIVEN 
THERETO 96 

General manner of operation. Detailed 
method of operation of each of the systems. 
Mechanical devices used to aid in the 

X 

operation of the respective systems. Atten- 
tion given to the respective systems. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

COMPOSITION OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER 
AFTER TREATMENT BY THE RESPECTIVE 
SVSTEMS OF PURIFICATION, AS SHOWN BY 
CHEMICAL, MICROSCOPICAL, AND BACTERIAL 
ANALYSES ; TOGETHER WITH A TABULATION 
OF THE MOST IMPORTANT DATA ON THE 
OPERATION OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS.. . 108 

Description of tables. Results of chem- 
ical analyses of effluents of the respective 
systems. Results of mineral analyses of 
effluents. Results of bacterial analyses of 
effluents. Records of operation of the re- 
spective systems by runs, with summaries of 
the leading analytical results for each run. 



CHAPTER IX. 

V.\GR 

SUMMARY OF THK PRINCIPAL DATA UPON THE 
EFFICIENCY AND ELEMENTS OF COST OF 
PURIFICATION BY THE RESPECTIVE SYS- 
TEMS, OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER, DIVIDED 
INTO TWENTY PERIODS, ACCORDING TO THE 
CHARACTER OF THE UNPURIFIED WATER ; 
TOGETHER WITH A DISCUSSION OF SOME OF 
THE MORE IMPORTANT FEATURES 215 

Description of summaries. Periods into 
which the investigations are divided. Daily 
appearance of the effluents. Daily amounts 
of organic matter in the river water and the 
percentage removal by the respective sys- 
tems. Daily number of bacteria in the river 
water and effluent of each of the respective 
systems, together with their bacterial effici- 
ency. Summaries of the leading results for 
each of the twenty periods. Total quantities 
for the entire investigation of 1895-96 and 
leading averages. Final summaries of re- 
sults. 

Outline of methods followed in the discus- 
sion. Quality of Ohio River water after 
purification, with reference to the efficiency 
of the respective systems, and the general 
effect of this method of purification on the 
character of the effluent. 

Prominent factors which influenced the 
quality of the effluent and cost of purifica- 
tion, among which were the following : Com- 
position of the river water ; application of 
alum or sulphate of alumina ; quantity of ap- 
plied alum or sulphate of alumina; provisions 
for the removal of suspended matter from 
the river water by sedimentation ; degree of 
coagulation of the partially subsided water 
as it entered the sand layer ; sand layers of 
the several filters ; rate of filtration ; regula- 
tion and control of operation of the filters ; 
loss of head ; washing the sand layer ; and 
the effect of proper attention. 

Comparison of the elements of cost of 
purification of 25 million gallons of the Ohio 
River water daily by the respective systems, 
based on the results of ten months' tests of 
25o,ooo-gallon systems. 

General conclusions in regard to the tests 
of 1895-96. Applicability of the American 
method to the clarification and purification 
of Ohio River water. General defect of all 
systems in the lack of proper provisions for 
subsidence and its effect on the application 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



of this method of purification to the Ohio 
River water. Comparison of the principal 
devices of the respective systems. Quality 
of the filtered Ohio River water. Final con- 
clusions on the 1895-96 data. 

CHAPTER X. 

DESCRIPTION OF THK HARRIS MAGNETO- 
ELECTRIC SYSTEM OF PURIFICATION, AND 
A RECORD OF THE RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED 
THEREWITH 276 

General description. Spark drum. Elec- 
trolytic tanks. Magnets. Electrodes. Re- 
sults accomplished by the system. 

CHAPTER XI. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICES OPERATED BY 
THE HARRIS COMPANY IN JULY, 1896, AND 
A RECORD OF THE RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED 
THEREWITH 280 

First Experiments. Situation on July i, 
1896. Description of devices Nos. i, 2, 3, 
4, and 5, and records of the results accom- 
plished therewith, respectively. Summary 
of results accomplished with device No. 5. 
Status of the situation on Aug. i, 1896. 

CHAPTER XII. 

INVESTIGATIONS BY THE WATER COMPANY IN 
AUGUST INTO THE PRACTICABILITY AND 
ECONOMY OF THE DEVICES OPERATED BY 
THE HARRIS COMPANY 292 

The direct and indirect effect of the 
application of electricity upon the bacteria 
and organic matter in the river water, and in 
the purification of the water through the 
formation of aluminum hydrate from alu- 
minum electrodes. Comparison of the 
coagulating power of aluminum hydrate 
formed electrolytically and from sulphate of 
alumina, respectively. Action of electro- 
magnets. Rate and regularity of electrolytic 
formation of aluminum hydrate. Amount 
of metallic aluminum wasted in this electro- 
lytic process. Relative cost of aluminum 
hydrate formed electrolytically and from 
chemicals. On the amount of power re- 
quired on a large scale to produce aluminum 
hydrate by means of electricity. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PAGE 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MARK AND BROWNELL 
ELECTROLYTIC DEVICES, AND A RECORD OF 
THE RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED THEREWITH 301 

An account of preliminary experiments 
made in the laboratory of the Louisville 
Manual Training School. Description of elec- 
trolytic appliances used in connection with 
the Jewell filter and of the conditions under 
which the tests were conducted. Electric 
generating plant. Electrolytic cells. Iron 
electrodes. Outline of the operation of these 
devices. Summary and discussion of results 
obtained. Deposition of iron hydrate at the 
bottom of the cells and its subsequent loss. 
Irregularities of the flow of water through 
the cells. Variations in the conductivity of 
the river water. Electric power used by 
these devices. General status of this proc- 
ess at the close of these tests. Brownell 
electrodes. Mark electrodes. Brief com- 
parison of the relative efficiency of iron 
and aluminum electrodes. Records of oper- 
ation and results of analyses. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MACDOUGALL POLARITE 
SYSTEM, AND A RECORD OF THE RESULTS 
ACCOMPLISHED THEREWITH 318 

Preliminary plans. General description. 
Detailed description of iron tank with baffle- 
plates, and of the clay extractor. Descrip- 
tion of the polarite filter, and modifications 
of the same. Character of the filtering mate- 
rials. Composition of polarite used. Opera- 
tion of the system, general description and 
detailed records. Special method of clean- 
ing the Jewell filter. Quality of the Ohio 
River water after treatment by this system. 
Results of analyses in detail. Applicability 
of this method for the purification of the 
Ohio River water. 

CHAPTER XV. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODS AND DEVICES 
OF THE WATER COMPANY, TESTED DURING 
1897, AND A RECORD AND DISCUSSION OF 
THE RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED THEREWITH. . 333 

Status of the problem on March 10, 1897. 
Objects of the investigations of 1897. Plan 
of presentation of the results. General de- 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



scription of the devices employed. Detailed 
description of the settling basins; devices 
for the application of chemical solutions; 
solutions used ; and devices for the applica- 
tion of electrolytic treatment. The arrange- 
ments for use of the Jewell filter. General 
adaptability of devices employed, with their 
limitations. Description of the methods and 
conditions of operation of these devices. 
General notes on the records of operation. 
Results accomplished by these devices. 
Tables of analyses. Summary of the results 
of analyses showing the amount of suspended 
matter and number of bacteria in the river 
water as it passed through the several set- 
tling basins. Final summary of the leading 
results of the operation of the devices. 

Discussion of the results, arranged for con- 
venience under fifteen sections. 

Section No. i. Purification of the Ohio 
River water by plain sedimentation. Limited 
evidence available. Probable effect of 24 
and 48 hours' plain subsidence. Efficiency 
of basins used. Effect of character of sus- 
pended matter on removal by plain subsid- 
ence. Effect of conditions of plain subsid- 
ence on percentage removal. General con- 
clusions. 

Section No. 2. Account of the commer- 
cial chemicals available as coagulants for 
the Ohio River water, and of their behavior 
when applied to the water. Classification of 
metals in their applicability to the purifica- 
tion of Ohio River water. Most suitable 
compounds capable of producing coagulat- 
ing precipitates, and a description of their 
behavior. 

Section No. 3. General description of 
electrolysis. Special methods and devices 
for electrolysis arranged by the Water Com- 
pany. Fundamental laws and principles of 
electrolysis as applied to the electrolytic 
formation of hydrates of iron and aluminum 
in the Ohio River water. 

Section No. 4. Detailed account of the 
electrolytic formation of iron hydrate in 
Ohio River water. Passivity of iron elec- 
trodes to the ions of Ohio River water. 
Cause of passivity initial and acquired. 
Form in which the iron leaves the electrodes. 
Influence on the process of oxygen, free car- 
bonic acid, hydrogen, and solubility of the 
initial iron compounds. Form in which the 



iron leaves the electrolytic cell. Natural 
limitations of the electrolytic treatment 
with iron electrodes. Rate of decomposi- 
tion of iron at the positive electrodes. 
Rate of deposition of iron on the nega- 
tive electrodes. Rate and uniformity of 
formation of available hydrate. Influ- 
ence on the formation of hydrate of the 
potential difference between the plates, of 
the current density, of the composition of 
the iron, of the composition of the river 
water, of reversing the direction of the elec- 
tric current, and of allowing the electrodes 
to remain out of service. Metal wasted in 
the process. Electric resistance of films of 
iron oxide. Power wasted in the process. 
Effect of this process on subsidence, filtra- 
tion, and composition of the filtered water. 
Conclusions. 

Section No. 5. Detailed account of the 
electrolytic formation of aluminum hydrate 
in Ohio River water. Passivity of aluminum 
electrodes. Rate and form in which alu- 
minum leaves the positive pole. Form and 
rate of deposition of aluminum on the nega- 
tive pole. Influence of the composition of 
the river water on the formation of hydrate 
and of scales. Influence on the formation 
of hydrate of the presence of scale. Influ- 
ence on the process of reversing the direc- 
tion of the electric current. Metal wasted 
in the process. Influence of scale and de- 
posit on the amount of power required. 
Electric power wasted in the process. Con- 
clusions. 

Section No. 6. Relative efficiency of 
available coagulants. General review of 
available coagulants. Relative efficiency 
in connection with 24 hours' subsidence, 
of sulphate of alumina and sulphate of 
iron ; persulphate of iron and electric 
current with iron electrodes, and sulphate 
of alumina and electric current with alu- 
minum electrodes. Relative efficiency in 
connection with filtration, of sulphate of 
alumina and persulphate of iron; sulphate of 
alumina and electric current with iron elec- 
trodes; and sulphate of alumina and electric 
current with aluminum electrodes. Conclu- 
sions. 

Section No. 7. Economical application of 
coagulants to aid in the removal of sus- 
pended matter by sedimentation. Relative 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



vn 



efficiencies in sedimentation of different 
amounts of coagulants. 

Section No. 8. Effect of the period of co- 
agulation of the river water before filtration 
on the results of filtration. 

Section No. 9. Degree of coagulation of 
the water before filtration, and the minimum 
amount of coagulant required for that pur- 
pose. 

Section No. 10. The conditions of suc- 
cessful filtration by the American system. 
Amount of suspended matter in the water 
reaching the sand layer and the coagulation 
of the same. Rate of filtration. Available 
head negative and positive. Cleaning the 
sand layer. Application of caustic soda. 
Character of the sand layer. 

Section No. n. Quality of the efflu- 
ent after proper sedimentation, coagula- 
tion, and filtration, independent of the na- 
ture of the coagulant. Appearance. Taste 
and odor. Organic matter. Mineral mat- 
ter. Gases. Algse and other micro-or- 
ganisms. Bacteria. Undecomposed coag- 
ulants. Storage of effluent. Corrosion of 
metal receptacles by the effluent. Loss of the 
partial protective influence of the suspended 
matter in the river water against corrosion. 
Adaptability of the effluent for boiler use. 
Uniformity in quality of the effluent. 

Section No. 12. Manner in which the 
nature of the coagulant affected the quality 
of the effluent. 

Section No. 13. Amounts of the differ- 
ent available coagulants which would be re- 
quired, with optimum conditions of sub- 
sidence and filtration, to purify satisfactorily 
the Ohio River water. 

Section No. 14. Degree to which the sev- 
eral coagulants in their respective amounts 
would affect the quality of the effluent, with 
its practical significance, and a consideration 
of the advisability and cost of the removal 
of the added constituents. 

Section No. 15. Comparative costs of 
equivalent amounts of the available coagu- 
lants, and an estimate of the yearly cost of 
treatment of the Ohio River water by each of 
them. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FINAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 



PAGE 
438 



Character of the unpurified Ohio River 
water. Applicability to the purification of 
the Ohio River water of the three methods 
investigated during these tests. Imperative- 
ness of the use of coagulants. Relative 
adaptability of American and English types 
of filters. Removal of coarse matters by 
plain subsidence. Most suitable coagulant 
for use with the Ohio River water. Prepa- 
ration and application of solutions of sul- 
phate of alumina. Coagulation and subsid- 
ence. Coagulation and filtration. The op- 
timum period of coagulation. Total annual 
average amounts of sulphate of alumina re- 
quired for coagulation. Filtration. Essen- 
tial features of an American filter for the 
successful filtration of 25 million gallons of 
Ohio River water daily. Quality of the 
purified Ohio River water. Final conclu- 
sions. 

APPENDIX. 

Technical description of methods used for 
the collection of samples and of the princi- 
pal features in the methods of analyses. 

Tables for the conversion of the various 
unit quantities employed 445 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plate No. I. Plan of Grounds of Exper- 
imental Station. 
" II. Plan of Warren Gravity 

System. 
" III. Section of Warren Gravity 

System. 
IV. Plan of Jewell Gravity 

System. 
" V. Section of Jewell Gravity 

System. 
" VI. Plan of Western Pressure 

and Gravity Systems. 
" VII. Section of Western Pressure 

and Gravity Systems. 
" VIII. Typical Areas of Strainer 

Floors. 




WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TO THE PRESIDENT AND DIREC- 
TORS OF THE LOUISVILLE 
WATER COMPANY. 

GENTLEMEN: 

Herewith is presented the full report of 
your representative upon the results accom- 
plished during the recent tests by the several 
filters or systems in the purification of the 
Ohio River water, together with such de- 
scriptions, comments, and conclusions as are 
deemed pertinent to the subject. 

The following filters or systems of water 
purification were investigated, named in the 
order in which they were installed at the 
pumping station of this Company, where the 
tests and investigations were conducted: 

1. The Jewell Filter, of the O. H. Jewell 
Filter Company, 73 Jackson St., Chicago, 111. 

2. The Warren Filter, of the Cumberland 
Manufacturing Company, 220 Devonshire 
St., Boston, Mass. 

3. The Western Gravity Filter, of the 
Western Filter Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

4. The Western Pressure Filter, of the 
Western Filter Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

5. The Harris Magneto-Electric System, 
of the John T. Harris Company, of New 
York City. 

6. The Palmer and Brownell Water Puri- 
fier, of Palmer and Brownell, Louisville, Ky. 

7. The MacDougall Polarite System, of 
John MacDougall, Montreal, Canada. 

On Oct. I, 1895, the writer took charge 
of the tests and investigations, which had for 
their purpose the determination of the quality 
of the river water after purification on a prac- 



tical scale by each of the filters or' systems, 
and the collection and compilation of such 
data as would indicate the cost of construc- 
tion and operation of these filters or systems 
of purification. The first three weeks were 
devoted chiefly to the construction and equip- 
ment of a suitable laboratory, in which chemi- 
cal, bacteriological, and microscopical analy- 
ses of the water could be made after the most 
approved methods. 

From Oct. 21, 1895, to Aug. i, 1896, daily 
tests were made, practically without interrup- 
tion, of the filters or systems which were then 
ready. On Oct. 21, 1895, the Jewell and 
Warren filters were the only ones in readi- 
ness for operation. The two Western filters 
were tested beginning December 23, 1895 
the date when their construction was com- 
pleted. No tests were made of the Harris 
system until June 24, 1896, when it was first 
offered for official inspection. 

The greater part of the month of August, 
1896, was devoted to an investigation by the 
Water Company into the practicability of the 
principles employed in certain devices op- 
erated by the Harris Company during the 
preceding month. This was made necessary 
by the incompleteness of the evidence which 
had been accumulated upon this point by 
Aug. i, the close of the tests as originally 
provided for. 

September, October, and November, 1896, 
were occupied in the preparation of this re- 
port, so far as it relates to work done up to 
that time. 

In December, 1896, special tests and inves- 
tigations were made relating to the action of 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



purified water in the corrosion of boilers and 
pipes, and in the incrustation of steam-boilers. 
An examination was also made of an experi- 
mental electrolytical device for water purifi- 
cation, submitted for inspection to the Water 
Company by Profs. Palmer and Brownell in 
their laboratory at the Louisville Manual 
Training High School. 

From January i to March 10, 1897, at- 
tention was given to the construction and ex- 
amination of electrolytical devices for water 
purification, designed by Profs. Mark and 
Brownell of Louisville, and to the investiga- 
tion of points of practical significance con- 
nected therewith. The tests of these elec- 
trolytical devices were the outcome of the 
inspection of the above-mentioned laboratory 
experiments made by Profs. Palmer and 
Brownell in December, 1896. 

When the tests of these electrolytical de- 
vices as designed by Profs. Mark and Brown- 
ell were brought to a close on March 10, 1897, 
it had been decided to investigate the Mac- 
Dougall Polarite System as soon as a test 
plant could be constructed. It was also ar- 
ranged on that date that the intervening time, 
before the polarite system was completed, 
should be occupied in constructing and test- 
ing devices designed by the officers of the 
Water Company. This work, which was 
carried on solely by the Water Company, was 
intended, as far as possible, to be a practical 
demonstration of some of the leading con- 
clusions drawn from the foregoing tests, and 
to extend our knowledge along several im- 
portant but not thoroughly understood lines, 
so far as time permitted. Owing to several 
unavoidable delays, the construction of the 
devices of the Water Company was not com- 
pleted until April 10. They were then tested 
until May 10, when the MacDougall Polarite 
System was offered for official examination. 
This system was tested from May 10 to 19, 
and from May 28 to June 12, inclusive. 

The remainder of the time up to August i, 
1897, the date of the final close of these in- 
vestigations, was devoted to work upon the 
devices of the Water Company referred to 
above. 

Since August i, the time has been devoted 
to the preparation of this report so far as it 
relates to work done after January i, 1897. 



NATURE OF THE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION 
WHICH WERE TESTED. 

Before recording the results accomplished 
by these several methods of purification it is 
necessary to show in general terms how they 
differed from each other and from those 
which have been employed elsewhere. At 
present the custom prevails to a large extent 
of calling all devices for water purification by 
the name of filters. In a majority of cases fil- 
tration of some kind is employed in the 
process of purification, but none of the de- 
vices tested by this company at this time 
consisted of plain filtration, as the term is 
properly used. Filtration alone means simply 
the passage of the water taken from its source 
through a layer of sand or similar material. 
This process, which is briefly outlined in the 
following pages, has been successfully em- 
ployed for many years in Europe, where the 
yield of filtered water per acre of filtering sur- 
face is about 2,000,000 gallons per 24 hours. 
When river water, which contains much mud, 
clay, and other suspended matters, reaches 
the sand layer, the pores of the sand become 
clogged so that it is soon necessary to scrape 
off a layer of the surface sand and accumula- 
tions which are deposited on it. This treat- 
ment would apparently be required at frequent 
intervals in the filtration by this method of the 
Ohio River water when in its muddiest con- 
dition, even after the water had been sub- 
sided for several days, and a large reserve 
area would probably be necessary to maintain 
the city supply. The cost of this reserve 
area of filters, and of the scraping of the 
sand surface, would probably be great if this 
method were adopted here, as I understand 
was indicated to be the case from experiments 
made by your Chief Engineer, Mr. Charles 
Hermany, at the Crescent Hill Reservoir dur- 
ing the summer and fall of 1884 and spring of 
1885. 

In the systems of purification which were 
recently tested by this company there were 
tried a number of different methods that were 
claimed to make the cost of purification 
less than by sand filtration, such as has 
been adopted in many European cities in 
purifying river waters less muddy than that of 
the Ohio River. With one exception, in all 



IN TROD UCTION. 



of these systems of purification filtration 
through sand or quartz was made a very 
prominent portion of their respective meth- 
ods, although the various filters were con- 
structed and operated differently from those 
used in Europe. But the principal" difference 
between the European method of filtration 
and all but one of those tested at Louisville 
lies in the fact that in these test systems the 
water was coagulated by chemical or electro- 
lytical treatment, so that a portion of the 
suspended matter could settle out more rap- 
idly in basins before the water reached the 
sand layer; and, further, so that the water 
could ^be filtered through sand about fifty 
times as fast as x when no coagulation was 
afforded the water. In the method of filtra- 
tion in which there was no coagulation of the 
water by chemical (or electrolytical) treat- 
ment, use was made of two filters for the 
water to pass through in turn, and this second 
filter contained a layer of material called po- 
larite, in addition to the sand. The rate of 
filtration through the polarite filter was about 
one-half as fast as through those filters re- 
ceiving coagulated water. 

THE WARREN, JEWELL, WESTERN GRAVITY, 
AND WESTERN PRESSURE FILTERS. 

In the Warren, Jewell, Western Gravity, 
and Western Pressure Filters the general 
method of procedure was identical, and sub- 
stantially as follows: 

Sulphate of alumina (or alum) was added to 
the river water, as it entered the devices in quan- 
tities varying with the character of the water. 
By combining with lime naturally dissolved 
in the river water the sulphate of alumina 
formed a white, gelatinous, solid compound, 
called hydrate of alumina. This latter com- 
pound gradually coagulated the suspended 
matter in the river water, in a manner similar 
to the well-known action of white of egg when 
added to turbid coffee. In the settling basins, 
where the river water first entered, this co- 
agulation progressed so that, as the water left 
the settling basins and entered the sand layer, 
the river water had lost some of the mud sus- 
pended in it, and the mud and clay which it 
did contain were formed into flakes of suffi- 
cient size to allow a very rapid flow of water 



through the sand layer, with satisfactory re- 
sults. The claim that this method of water 
purification was more economical for the 
Ohio River water than those practised in 
Europe was based on the assertion that com- 
paratively small amounts of sulphate of alu- 
mina permitted a very great reduction in the 
necessary area of filtering surface. 

While in the general method of procedure 
these four systems were the same, yet they 
were different in the manner in which the 
practical details were carried out. That is to 
say, there were different devices for the ap- 
plication of sulphate of alumina; the settling 
basins differed in size and arrangement; and 
in the filters themselves the sand layers were 
different in depth and size of grain, and were 
cleaned in somewhat different ways. Detailed 
accounts of these filters are given beyond, but 
these statements show the general status of 
the matter. It may also be added here that 
when these tests were begun there were no 
means of telling which system had the best 
practical devices; or, indeed, whether any of 
them was adapted to a satisfactory and 
reasonably economical purification of the 
Ohio River water at this point. 

THE HARRIS DEVICE. 

In the Harris Magneto-Electric System of 
water purification, which was tested for a 
short period in June, 1896, no use was made 
of filtration. It consisted in treating the 
river water directly with an electric (spark) 
discharge, and the subsequent passage of the 
water through iron tanks, in which were car- 
bon electrodes, and on which were placed 
powerful magnets. The electric current was 
supposed to destroy the germs and the or- 
ganic matter, while the mud, clay, and silt 
were to be separated out from the water by 
the repellent action of the magnets. 

In July, 1896, the Harris Company made 
some experiments with the application of 
electricity to the purification of the Ohio 
River water by a method in which the hy- 
drate of alumina (formed in the case of the 
other filters by the decomposition of sulphate 
of alumina by lime, as stated above) was pre- 
pared by the electrolytic decomposition of 
metallic aluminum. It was apparently the 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



intention, so far as appliances permitted, to 
coagulate the water by the same chemical 
compound as in the sulphate of alumina treat- 
ment, and then proceed with subsidence and 
nitration in a manner similar to that em- 
ployed in the case of the other niters, the 
only difference in the methods being in the 
manner of application of chemicals: in one 
case a commercial chemical product was em- 
ployed, while in the other case the coagulat- 
ing compound was made by the electrolytic 
action on the pure metal. Aside from the 
question of cost the electric treatment has 
certain advantages, which will be explained 
subsequently. 

THE MARK-BROWNELL DEVICES. 

During the months of January, February, 
and March, 1897, electrolytical devices, de- 
signed by Profs. Mark and Brownell, were 
constructed and tested. These devices were 
an improvement in several ways over those 
of the Harris Company. Their only differ- 
ence in general method was the substitution 
of iron electrodes for aluminum electrodes. 
The electric current produced hydrate of iron, 
a compound similar to hydrate of alumina in 
its coagulating properties, and it was claimed 
that this would materially reduce the cost of 
purification. 

THE MACDOUGALL POLARITE SYSTEM. 

The results of the tests at this point indi- 
cated the desirability of reducing the amount 
of the coagulating chemicals whether pro- 
duced electrolytically or from commercial 
products, and, if possible, doing away with 
them altogether. It was claimed by Mr. 
MacDougall that, judging from experience in 
purifying the water of the river Nile and of 
some English streams, the Ohio River water 
could be economically purified, without the 
use of coagulating chemicals, by his polarite 
filter. By this method the river water was 
passed through a settling tank (replaced later 
by a coke strainer) to remove the coarsest 
matter, thence the water was passed at a 
rapid rate through a sand filter in order to 
remove further the particles of mud, silt, and 



clay. The partially clarified water was finally 
passed at a slower rate through a filter con- 
taining a polarite layer with sand layers 
above and below it. This polarite is an iron 
ore which has been treated by a patent pro- 
cess. By doing away with the use of coagu- 
lating chemicals, and their attending cost, 
and at the same time securing a rate of filtra- 
tion many times greater than in the case of 
plain sand filtration, the advantage of polar- 
ite as a filtering material was claimed to be 
great. The polarite filter was tested from 
May 10 to 19, and May 28 to June 12, 1897. 

METHODS AND DEVICES OF THE WATER 
COMPANY. 

During the time which was required for 
the construction of the polarite filter, advan- 
tage was taken of the opportunity for the 
Water Company to test some of their own 
plans which had arisen as an outcome of the 
foregoing tests. These methods and plans 
are described fully beyond, in Chapter XV, 
but their objects may be briefly outlined as 
follows: 

1. A reduction in the cost of purification 
by a removal of the bulk of the mud, silt, and 
clay from the river water before it reaches 
the filters, thereby doing away with the ne- 
cessity of a large reserve portion of a filter 
plant, to be used only at times of muddy 
water, with its cost of installation and opera- 
tion. Experiments upon a small scale with 
the removal of the bulk of the mud by sub- 
sidence alone were made during the early 
summer of 1896, and gave very promising re- 
sults. 

2. The most economical and efficient 
method of application of coagulating chemi- 
cals, in connection with subsidence, to pre- 
pare the water for filtration at a rapid rate, 
with reference to the best period for the co- 
agulation of the matter suspended in the 
water. 

3. The relative economy, advantages, and 
disadvantages of different coagulating chemi- 
cals prepared in various ways. 

The investigations along these lines were 
carried to a logical end so far as was con- 
sidered possible under the existing condi- 
tions. 



IN TROD UCTION. 



THE STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF WATER 

PURIFICATION AT THE TIME OF 

THESE TESTS. 

While much careful attention has been 
given to the art of water purification for more 
than sixty years, yet the general solution of 
the problem on a practical basis for large 
cities is far from satisfactory or complete at 
its present stage of development. This is 
due partly to varying effects of the adopted 
processes with different natural waters, partly 
to the lack of a widely practical and scientific 
understanding of the influence of a number of 
factors of the processes themselves, and partly 
to the great cost involved in the construc- 
tion of adequate filtration works. With a 
river water of such exceedingly great varia- 
tions in its composition as that of the Ohio 
River, and with proprietary systems of puri- 
fication about which so little accurate in- 
formation was available, these tests at Louis- 
ville were bound to be pioneer work in a large 
measure. Nevertheless, valuable data were 
obtained. But to understand the significance 
of these data, and to give them their true 
value in the line of studies necessary to 
place this line of work on a satisfactory basis 
and capable of general application, it is essen- 
tial to trace the development of this subject 
up to this time. 

BRIEF HISTORICAL RESUME. 

The filtration of public water supplies was 
first adopted at London, England. The date 
of adoption of filtration at London has been 
generally regarded in this country as 1839. 
But it is now known that a sand filter, one 
acre in area, was put in service in 1829, the 
year following the appointment of the first 
Royal Commission on the Quality of the 
Metropolitan Water Supply. This Commis- 
sion recommended the filtration of the 
Thames water, and the filter referred to above 
was constructed by the Chelsea Water Com- 
pany in compliance therewith. 

Progress in the adoption of filtration was 
slow until after 1849. During this year there 
was a severe cholera epidemic, and in August, 
1849, Dr. Snow first formally announced the 
theory that drinking water, polluted' from 



those ill or dead of cholera, was the chief 
means of propagation of this disease. Fol- 
lowing this the filtration of river-water sup- 
plies advanced less slowly. After December 
31, 1855, filtration of all river water supplied 
to the Metropolitan District of London was 
made compulsory by an Act of Parliament 
passed in July, 1852. 

Since this date rapid advance in the adop- 
tion of filtration for public water supplies has 
been made in Europe. The population of 
the European cities now supplied with fil- 
tered water aggregates from fifteen to twenty 
millions, or more. After the severe epidemic 
of cholera at Hamburg in 1892, caused 
largely by the polluted Elbe water, the Im- 
perial Board of Health of Germany ordered 
that all public water supplies in that country 
drawn from rivers or lakes should be filtered. 

During the last thirty years there has been 
a marked increase in the efficiency of these 
systems of purification of European water 
supplies, owing to improvements in both the 
construction and the operation of the filters. 
The first important step in this direction was 
taken at London in 1871, when Parliament 
made provision for systematic examinations 
at frequent intervals of the filters and the fil- 
tered water. The greatest progress, how- 
ever, has been made during the past dozen 
years. This has been due to the establish- 
ment of the germ theory of disease, and the 
general recognition by sanitarians that such 
diseases as typhoid fever and cholera are 
transmitted largely by drinking water. And, 
further, rapid developments in the new science 
of bacteriology have made it possible to apply 
this science in the solution of problems in 
water purification, so as to yield results of 
substantial and practical value. 

The recognition of the need of reliable in- 
formation from an engineering, chemical, and 
bacteriological standpoint to facilitate the 
adoption, construction, and operation of puri- 
fication systems has led to several important 
investigations. These have been made in 
England, Germany, and America. 

One of the objects of filtration, in many 
instances in Europe, has been to remove mud, 
silt, and clay from river water. In many 
cases, however, filtration has also been di- 
rected to protect the water consumers from 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



those diseases which are carried by the water. 
This is a very important matter in Europe, 
where the population has become very dense 
around the great cities. In America, with its 
comparatively sparse population, it is not as 
a rule so pressing at present. But disastrous 
experience in Europe with some filters built 
in the early days of water, purification show 
clearly that all filters should be capable at all 
times of protecting the health of the con- 
sumers from water-borne diseases. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE MOST IM- 
PORTANT TYPE OF FILTERS ABROAD. 

Filters such as were introduced into Eng- 
land, and which have since been employed 
regularly there and in many places 'on the 
Continent, consist substantially of a large, 
open basin ranging as a rule from about 0.5 
to 1.5 acres in area and 10 feet or more in 
depth. In cold climates, such as in Northern 
Germany, they are covered, to afford protec- 
tion from ice and frost. The bottom of the 
basins are made practically water-tight. On 
the bottom of these basins, drains and pipes 
are suitably arranged so as to- conduct the 
water from the filter to a collecting well or 
reservoir, located at some convenient place 
near the filter. In some cases, instead of 
using lateral pipes with perforations or open 
joints, the water is taken to the main under- 
drain through an arrangement of dry-laid 
bricks. , 

Over the underdrains are placed succes- 
sively layers of broken stone and gravel, the 
depth of each of which varies usually accord- 
ing to the construction of the underdrains. 
The size of the stone and gravel in turn be- 
comes gradually finer toward the top, in or- 
der that they may better serve their purpose 
of supporting the layer of sand which rests 
upon the gravel. The thickness of this layer 
of sand placed upon the gravel varies in dif- 
ferent filters from about 2 to 5 feet. There 
is also some variation in the size of the 
sand grains in the filters of the different 
cities. 

In the operation of the filters water flows 
or is pumped from the river or sedimentation 
basin onto the filter, and stands several feet 



in depth above the surface of the sand. The 
water passes downward through the sand, 
gravel, and broken stone, in turn, and thence 
through the underdrains, collecting well, or 
reservoir, and pumps (if such are necessary) 
to the consumer. The rate at which the 
water flows by gravity through the filter is 
generally controlled and made fairly uniform 
by regulating devices on the outlet pipe from 
the filter. 

After a time, when a geater or less quan- 
tity of water has passed through the filter, 
there appears at and near the surface of the 
sand an accumulation of silt and other mat- 
ters which were suspended in the water when 
it reached the filter. Eventually this accumu- 
lation becomes so great that the interstices of 
the sand are clogged so that an adequate 
quantity of water cannot pass through the 
filter. When this condition of affairs obtains 
the inlet water is shut off. The water stand- 
ing on the filter is allowed to drain to some 
distance below the surface of the sand, and 
workmen remove with shovels and wheel- 
barrows the upper layer of the clogged 
sand ordinarily to a depth of about 
0.5 to 0.75 inch. The main body of 
the sand is cleaned only by the re- 
moval of organic matter through the action 
of bacteria. The filter is slowly filled with 
water after the surface has been scraped, 
either by applying the unfiltered water at the 
top or by letting filtered water flow in from 
below. This latter procedure, where the con- 
struction of the filter will permit it, is much 
the better, because it tends to prevent the 
formation of channels in the sand, due to the 
escaping air which enters the pores of the 
sand upon draining. Such channels are very 
objectionable, because they allow the water 
to pass through them without satisfactory pu- 
rification. 

Once or twice a year the layer of sand is 
restored to its original thickness by either 
replacing the removed sand after thorough 
washing, or adding new clean sand. In some 
of the important filters of this type use is 
made of coagulating chemicals, but the rate 
of filtration is comparatively slow about 
2,000,000 gallons per acre daily. In Holland 
chemicals for coagulation have been used to 
some extent. 



IN TROD UCT1ON. 



PRINCIPLES OF SAND FILTRATION WITHOUT 
THE USE OF COAGULATING CHEMICALS. 

There has never yet been given an accurate 
and concise definition of the principles by 
which water is purified by the type of filters just 
described. The reason of this appears to be 
that there are several factors which have to be 
taken into consideration; and the relative 
practical value of these factors seems to vary 
under different local conditions. As we now 
understand the subject, the principles of puri- 
fication by this type of filtration involve three 
significant phases, namely: 
. A. Mechanical or Physical. 

B. Biological. 

C. Chemical. 

A. Mechanical or Physical. There are at 
least two important actions of a mechanical 
or physical nature which aid in the purifica- 
tion of water by this type of filtration, 
namely: 

1. A straining action, by which there are 
removed from the water those small sus- 
pended particles which may be called large 
when compared with the size of the inter- 
stices in the sand layer. 

2. An adhesive action, by which there are 
removed those suspended particles, including 
the bacteria, which are far smaller than the 
interstices of the sand layer through which 
the water passes. 

This very important adhesive action is in- 
fluenced by several varying factors and is 
not thoroughly understood. Its efficiency in 
filtration, furthermore, is associated to a con- 
siderable degree with chemical and biological 
conditions, as noted below. 

B. Biological. This aspect is of practical 
significance by virtue of its action in remov- 
ing organic matter which, in places beneath 
the upper surface, accumulates as films 
around the sand grains. The removal of or- 
ganic matter by oxidation and nitrification 
appears to be a factor in causing indirectly 
the death of bacteria, which are mechanically 
arrested by the adhesive action of the sand 
grains. By some it has been claimed that 
the bacteria pass into a gelatinous form, the 
zooglcea stage; and, being attached to the 
sand grains, they facilitate thereby the re- 
moval of bacteria in the active vegetable 



stage, and of minute suspended particles by 
means of adhesion. 

C. Chemical. The chemical side of filtra- 
tion deals with the removal of dissolved or- 
ganic matters and, together with the bacteria, 
with the removal of organic matters, accumu- 
lated on the sand grains. In many cases it 
appears that an action, more or less chemical 
in its nature, between certain ingredients in 
the water and certain ingredients of the sand 
causes the formation of films, containing or- 
ganic matter, around the sand grains. This 
facilitates the mechanical removal from water 
of bacteria by the adhesive action mentioned 
above; and it is also probable that this puts 
the organic matter in a position where the 
bacteria may do their work of destroying it 
to better advantage. 

In the early days of filtration the mechani- 
cal and chemical aspects of the subject were 
the only ones which received attention. Since 
the dawn of bacteriology much attention has 
been given to the question as to how far the 
biological side aided in the accomplishment 
of purification by filtration. Biological theo- 
ries advanced rapidly. By some it was 
claimed that the whole process was a bio- 
logical one. These theories, however, 
reached a point which was untenable, and 
for several years the mechanical and chemical 
phases have been regaining more nearly their 
true significance. 

ENGLISH FILTERS. 

The type of filters which we have been con- 
sidering, and which was introduced at Lon- 
don, England, by James Simpson in 1829, is 
called by various names. The number has 
become so great that they are very confusing. 
The principal names given to this type of fil- 
ters are as follows: 

1. Filter beds. 

2. Sand beds. 

3. Sand filters. 

4. Artificial sand filters. 

5. Natural sand filters. 

6. Slow sand filters. 

7. Biological filters. 

8. English filters. 

9. European filters. 

Of these various names all have more 01 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



less significance, although some of them con- 
vey an impression which is not altogether 
correct. Thus, " biological filter " in the 
light of our present knowledge is an unfor- 
tunate name, because it gives undue promi- 
nence to one of several phases of the process. 
Quite recently " natural sand filters " has 
been used by many to designate this type of 
filters. This expression has considerable 
significance in that there is imitated in these 
filters the process in nature by which spring 
water and other ground waters are purified 
by filtration through the upper layers of the 
earth. The use of this name is not strictly 
correct in this connection, because these fil- 
ters are actually of artificial construction, and 
the processes go on under conditions widely 
different from those in nature. Natural fil- 
tration for public water supplies is correctly 
applied only to those cases where galleries or 
wells are located in the earth near a river or 
lake, where the water is naturally filtered, 
either from the adjoining body of water or, 
more frequently, from the ground on the land 
side, where it is naturally filtered through the 
earth before it reaches the place of collection. 
Natural filters as thus described are success- 
fully used in France and in some places in this 
country where the geological conditions are 
favorable. The water obtained from driven 
wells is also similarly purified. 

It seems practically impossible to find a 
name which will specifically characterize the 
construction and operation of this type of fil- 
ter, now that so many modifications in filters 
have been introduced. In view of this fact, 
it is believed that " English filters " is the best 
name to apply to them, and we shall use this 
name throughout this report. This type of 
filter is distinctly of English origin, and Eng- 
lish engineers and English capital introduced 
it on the Continent of Europe at an early 
date, at Berlin, St. Petersburg, Altona, and 
other places. For this reason and the fact 
that there are several modifications in some 
of the Continental filters we prefer to call 
them English rather than European filters. 

MODIFICATIONS IN EUROPE OF THE ORIGI- 
NAL ENGLISH FILTERS. 

In England there have been no marked 



changes in the construction of filters, al- 
though some attempts have been made to re- 
place sand with other materials, such as 
carbide of iron, and polarite. Improvements 
in the efficiency of filtration for the most part 
have come, however, from more careful op- 
eration, and from extensions in the sedimen- 
tation basins. In the latter instance there is 
a notable reduction in the cost of filtration of 
turbid and muddy river waters. 

On the Continent of Europe, however, a 
number of modifications in the original filters 
have been introduced. The more important 
ones are as follows: 

Tours, France. In 1856 two filters were, 
put in service at this place. They were de- 
signed with the view to having the accumu- 
lation of mud, etc., on the surface of the sand 
removed by forcing filtered water up through 
the sand from the bottom, instead of having 
it scraped off with shovels as in English fil- 
ters. This idea never worked well in practice 
at this place, owing to insufficient pressure to 
force the water up through the filter. These 
filters were abandoned after a time, owing ap- 
parently to a failure to provide sedimentation 
basins in which the sediment in the river 
water could subside by gravity. 

Holland. In several places in Holland, 
notably at Leeuwarden, Groningen, and 
Schiedam, and also at Antwerp, in Belgium, 
alum has been used at times to aid in the pu- 
rification of colored and polluted water by 
English filters. The practical effect of the 
application of alum is entered into in detail in 
a subsequent portion of this report, and it is 
the purpose here only to record its use in 
Holland. 

Anderson Process. This process has been 
in use more or less regularly for some years 
at Antwerp, Belgium, and in some small 
towns in Europe. Quite recently a large 
plant has been installed at Paris, France, for 
the purification of water from the river Seine. 

Essentially this process consists of passing 
the water first through a revolving cylinder 
containing iron filings. The carbonic acid 
in the water dissolves some of the iron, form- 
ing ferrous carbonate. By the air con- 
tained in the water this salt of iron is 
oxidized more or less rapidly to ferric hy- 
drate. The iron when changed into this 



INTRODUCTION. 



solid, gelatinous form combines with much of 
the organic matter, and, like aluminum hy- 
drate formed from alum or sulphate of alu- 
mina, coagulates the suspended matter, and 
makes it easier to filter the water subse- 
quently through English filters. 

ENGLISH FILTERS IN AMERICA. 

Although there are ten or twelve com- 
paratively small filters in America, more or 
less resembling English filters, it may be 
safely stated that this system of water purifi- 
cation has never become well established in 
this country. Among the principal reasons 
of this are the following: 

1. The question of cost. 

2. The general absence of State or Federal 
Boards constituted with adequate authority 
to enforce the protection of citizens from pol- 
luted water supplies, as is the case in the more 
thickly populated countries of Europe. 

3. The absence of severe cholera epidem- 
ics, such as have led a number of European 
cities to adopt filtration with haste. 

For a number of years sufficient informa- 
tion has been available to show that prac- 
tically any water may be satisfactorily puri- 
fied by English filters, provided sufficient 
sedimentation is first employed in the case 
of very turbid or muddy waters, and that the 
rate of filtration is sufficiently low. With re- 
gard to the question of expense, however, it 
has been, and is still, difficult to estimate even 
approximately the cost of construction and 
operation of filters which will purify a turbid 
or muddy water satisfactorily. The reason 
of this is that the various elements of cost 
differ widely with the local conditions, and 
especially with the character of the water to 
be purified. 

There are two noteworthy points to be 
mentioned in connection with English filters 
in America. In the first place this type of 
water purification was well described in a 
report by an American engineer. This 
gentleman, now deceased, was Mr. James P. 
Kirkwood, Chief Engineer of the Water Com- 
mission of St. Louis, Mo. In December, 1865, 
he was instructed by.the commissioners to pro- 
ceed to Europe and examine into this ques- 
tion of water filtration, with a view to apply- 



ing this information in connection with the 
purification of the water supply of St. Louis. 
The publication of the report made a very 
valuable work of reference, which has been 
used by both American and European en- 
gineers. The work was of such a high grade 
that it was translated into German in 1876. 
In it there are several important suggestions 
which have led to improvements in the con- 
struction and operation of this type of filters. 
The most noteworthy of these points are that 
the removal of mud and silt from the water 
by subsidence in basins before the water 
reaches the filters reduces the cost, and in- 
creases the efficiency of filtration; and, fur- 
ther, that the efficiency of the operation is 
enhanced by maintaining by suitable devices 
a uniform flow of water through the filter. 

During the past six years, furthermore, the 
most extensive experimental investigations 
upon the purification of water by slow filtra- 
tion through sand, unaided by treatment with 
a coagulant, have been made in America at 
the Lawrence Experiment Station of the 
State Board of Health of Massachusetts. 
These investigations have yielded a large 
fund of information on the purification of such 
clear but polluted waters as that of the Mer- 
rimac River. 

Another factor which has recently served 
to explain in part the slowness with 
which American cities have adopted puri- 
fication systems for their water supplies is 
the fact that there has appeared in America 
within the last dozen years another type 
of water filter. This type of filter is 
described below. It is spoken of as the 
" mechanical," " alum," and " rapid sand " 
filter. None of these names is particularly 
appropriate, and in distinction from the Eng- 
lish filters we shall refer to it as the American 
filter. 

Both types of filters unquestionably pos- 
sess merit. But as to their relative merits 
for the purification of waters in general, or of 
any particular water, we have little or no in- 
formation to guide us. In the absence of 
facts there have arisen in connection with the 
subject numerous statements and opinions, 
many of which are partisan and erroneous. 
This unfortunate state of affairs has recently 
done much to retard the adoption of muni- 




IO 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



cipal systems of water purification, and will 
probably continue to do so until reliable com- 
parable data are available. 

AMERICAN FILTERS. 

This type of filters is the outgrowth of 
schemes to purify water for industrial and 
manufacturing purposes. Its development 
up to this time has been tentative to a marked 
degree, and has been in the hands of several 
competing business corporations. In 1883 
it first attracted the attention of those con- 
nected with public water supplies. At that 
time it consisted essentially of a large circular 
tank in which there was a layer of sand sup- 
ported by a perforated bottom. Its chief 
characteristic, other than small size, in dis- 
tinction from English filters, was the fact that 
the sand layer was cleansed of the accumu- 
lated materials removed from the river water 
by forcing water under pressure up through 
the layer of sand. In this respect it resem- 
bled the filters constructed in 1856 at Tours, 
in France. 

Patents were taken out in 1884 to cover a 
modification which consisted of the applica- 
tion of alum, a salt of iron, or other similar 
coagulating chemical, to the water, just be- 
fore it passed through the layer of sand. The 
custom of applying alum to coagulate water, 
in order to facilitate the removal of foreign 
matter, has been practised in various ways 
for many centuries in different parts of the 
world, and the description of it in scientific 
literature began about seventy years ago. 
The apparent object of the application of 
chemicals under the stated conditions are un- 
derstood to be a reduction in the cost of 
treatment, by doing away with subsidence 
basins, and by diminution of the area of filter- 
ing surface. 

This type of filters was first employed in 
the treatment of a public water supply at 
Somerville, N. J., in 1885. Since that time 
many towns and small cities have adopted 
systems of this general type. At present it is 
said that over 100 town and municipal plants 
are in operation, but among this number there 
are none for large cities. 

In the last ten years many modifications 
have been introduced by the several compet- 



ing companies. These modifications, more or 
less protected by patents, relate for the most 
part to devices for supporting the sand layer 
at the bottom; the introduction of filtered 
water under pressure below the sand layer, 
to enable the filter to be cleaned by a reverse 
flow of water; and of agitating devices to stir 
the sand during washing, and thus aid the 
cleansing process. In the present filters of 
the several companies the coagulating chemi- 
cals are applied at points differently located 
with reference to the sand layer, and with 
varying provisions to secure not only more 
complete coagulation, but also to effect a re- 
moval of some suspended matter before the 
water is filtered. To this general account of 
the American filters it may be added that a 
majority of them are gravity filters where 
the water flows by gravity through a sand 
layer placed in an open tank. In some cases, 
however, pressure filters are used. The pres- 
sure filters, in addition to customary devices, 
consist of a sand layer placed in a closed 
compartment, so that the water can be forced 
through the filter under pressure, thereby 
avoiding, it is claimed, additional pumping 
under some conditions. 

Compared with the English filters, the 
American filters at present show the follow- 
ing principal differences: 

1. The American filters are aided by the 
application to the water of a coagulating 
chemical, which makes it possible to filter 
through sand at a much more rapid rate, and 
thereby the necessary area of filter is much 
reduced. 

2. The American filters are cleaned by 
passing a stream of water upward through 
the sand, with or without accompanying agi- 
tation, rather than by scraping off the surface 
layers, as in the case of the English filters. 

There are of course many other features 
of difference, such, for example, as the strain- 
ers at the bottom, to hold back the sand, and 
at the same time furnish an exit for the fil- 
tered water; but the two points stated above 
are the principal differences. 

EFFICIENCY OF AMERICAN FILTERS, AND 
COST OF THEIR OPERATION. 

At the beginning of the Louisville tests 



INTRODUCTION. 



ii 



there were no available data which would 
show whether or not the American type of 
filter was capable of purifying the Ohio River 
water; or which of the several companies had 
the best filter for sale; or whether any of the 
American filters were capable of purifying the 
Ohio River water at a reasonable cost. It is 
true that some scattering data indicated a 
satisfactory purification of certain waters by this 
type of filters, but there was other information 
pointing to work of an inferior grade. With 
regard to the question of cost, practically 
nothing was available which would be of any 
service in considering the purification of such 
an exceedingly variable water as that of the 
Ohio River. On the one hand, it was claimed 
that somewhat similar muddy waters were 
purified at a comparatively low cost by this 
type of filter; while, on the other hand, it was 
known that a system of purification installed 
at New Orleans by one of the prominent 
American filter-makers had for some reason 
been a failure. What the exact facts and con- 
ditions of purification were at the several 
places where this type of filter had been tried 
could not be learned. In fact there is reason 
to believe that they were not accurately 
known. 

Very early in these tests the results of some 
tests of an American filter made at Provi- 
dence, R. I., were available. The Providence 
work was of much value in indicating that it 
was possible with some waters and some con- 
ditions to accomplish a satisfactory purifica- 
tion by this type of filter. But the Pawtuxet 
River water, so far as can be learned from the 
limited analytical evidence as to its character, 
is very much easier to purify than the Ohio 
River water. And it may be safely stated that 
a thoroughly satisfactory solution of the prob- 
lem of purifying the Pawtuxet water could 
not by any means serve as an adequate guide 
for the purification of the Ohio water. An 
attempt was also made to learn the relative 
advantages of the English and American 
types of filters in purifying the local water, 
but the conditions were such that in this re- 
spect the work at Providence led to no de- 
cisive conclusions of value. 

With regard to the Harris Magneto-Elec- 
tric System it was said that an experimental 
device at Brooklyn had been successful in pu- 



rifying the local water, but no accurate idea 
could be obtained as to the cost of treatment. 

The Mark and Brownellelectrolyticaldevice, 
in which the current of electricity was applied 
to the water through iron electrodes, was on 
the same principle as the Webster Process for 
sewage purification. Eight or nine years ago 
the Webster Process was claimed in England 
to be very promising, but for the past few 
years little or nothing had been heard about 
it. As already stated, this electrolytical de- 
vice replaces the application of chemicals, but 
it was used in connection with American fil- 
ters. This portion of the test, therefore, re- 
fers to the coagulation preceding filtration. 
The MacDougall Polarite System had never 
been tried in America, but fragmentary ac- 
counts of its trial in England and Egypt in- 
dicated that it probably had some advantages. 

Such were the conditions found by the 
Louisville Water Company when they made 
these tests, with a view to finding a practi- 
cable method of purifying the Ohio River 
water as delivered to the citizens of Louis- 
ville. 

CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE TESTS WERE 
CONDUCTED. 

The investigations and tests described in 
the following portion of this report were all 
conducted at the pumping station of the 
Water Company, about three miles above the 
city of Louisville on the Kentucky shore of 
the Ohio River. A plan of the ground at the 
pumping station is presented on Plate I. 

The Water Company constructed six tem- 
porary buildings, four of which were occupied 
by the companies which offered purification 
systems for examination. One of them was 
equipped as the laboratory of the Water 
Company, and under the direction of the 
writer was furnished with all apparatus and 
supplies necessary for analytical work in this 
line after the best modern methods. The 
remaining building contained a pump with 
which filtered water under pressure was sup- 
plied for washing the filters. Steam, and 
Ohio River water taken from the force main 
at a point about 390 feet from the intake, were 
supplied by the Water Company to these 
buildings. All the piping leading to and from 



12 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



the buildings, the meters on the water-pipes, 
and sewer connections were also furnished by 
the Water Company. 

During the period preceding Aug. i, 1896, 
the four buildings above mentioned were oc- 
cupied by the Warren Filter, the Jewell Fil- 
ter, the two Western Filters, and the Harris 
Magneto-Electric System of purification, re- 
spectively, named in the order of their loca- 
tion, beginning at the laboratory. This order 
was used in the current note-books, and as a 
matter of convenience the several systems of 
purification will be referred to in this report 
in the above order. In view of the fact that 
filtration alone was not the only method em- 
ployed in the purification processes, the term 
system of purification will be used in this re- 
port in speaking of the entire experimental 
devices of each company, rather than the term 
filter alone. By the terms of the contracts be- 
tween the Water Company and the other 
companies the latter installed their respective 
systems, each having a capacity of 250,000 
gallons per twenty-four hours, in separate 
temporary houses at their own expense. The 
several companies, further, managed and 
operated their systems without any expense, 
risk, or responsibility to the Water Company. 
Authority, however, was reserved by the 
Water Company to make such rules and 
regulations as it deemed advisable in con- 
ducting these tests on a fair competitive basis, 
and to allow its representatives unrestricted 
access to the several systems at all times, in 
order that such information could be obtained 
as was deemed necessary in the premises. 

Mr. George A. Soper was engineer in 
charge of the Warren Filter. Messrs. Will- 
iam M. Jewell and Ira H. Jewell, officers of 
the Jewell Filter Company, were in charge of 
the Jewell Filter. Mr. Charles T. Whittier 
was chemist in charge of the Western Sys- 
tems. The writer wishes to express his ob- 
ligations to these gentlemen for their cour- 
teous cooperation with him in conducting 
these tests. 

The Warren Filter and the two Western 
Filters were removed promptly at the close 
of the competitive tests. Aug. i, 1896. The 
Jewell Filter and the Harris Systems were not 
removed at once. During August, 1896, ar- 
rangements were made with the Harris Com- 



pany to utilize some of their appliances in 
supplementary tests made by the Water Com- 
pany, and, when the investigations were re- 
sumed at the beginning of 1897, arrange- 
ments were also made by the Water Company 
whereby these two experimental plants could 
be used, in order to guard against delays. 

In the tests of electrolytical devices from 
Jan. i to March 10, 1897, the professional 
services of Profs. Mark and Brownell were 
retained by the Water Company to devise 
necessary electrical appliances, and to consult 
with officers of the Water Company with re- 
gard to their operation. These new devices 
were installed at the expense of the Water 
Company in the temporary house formerly 
occupied by the Warren Filter. 

The settling tank, clay extractor, and po- 
larite filter used in the MacDougall Polarite 
System were constructed by Mr. MacDougall 
at his own expense, and in connection with 
the Jewell Filter were operated under the su- 
pervision of Mr. John MacDougall. 

The tests of methods and appliances car- 
ried on solely by the Water Company were 
made under the direction of the Chief En- 
gineer and Superintendent, Mr. Charles Her- 
many, and of the Chief Chemist and Bacteri- 
ologist. A large share of the engineering 
portions of the work was done under the gen- 
eral supervision of Mr. Hermany. and the 
writer desires to express his obligation to him 
for much valuable advice and assistance upon 
the entire work obtained in frequent confer- 
ences throughout the progress of the investi- 
gations. A large amount of construction and 
repair work in the course of the tests was ably 
done by Mr. John Wiest, the engineer in 
charge of the pumping station. 

There was a considerable difference in the 
amount of work to be done at various times 
throughout the tests, and, accordingly, the 
number of assistants employed by the Water 
Company varied from time to time during 
the two years of investigation. The number 
ranged from two to seven, and averaged a little 
more than three, exclusive of the stenographer 
and porter. In addition to the construction 
and repair work on pipes and meters, the 
Water Company funished an engineer during 
the competitive tests to operate the wash- 
water pump. 



IN TROD UCTJON. 



The following gentlemen were engaged as 
assistants during these investigations, and to 
their faithfulness and industry a large share 
of the success of the work is due: 

Mr. Chas. L. Parmelee, Assistant Engineer. 

Mr. Robert S. Weston, Assistant Chemist. 

Dr. Hibbert Hill, Assistant Bacteriologist. 

Mr. Joseph W. Ellms, Assistant Chemist. 

Mr. George A. Johnson, Clerk and Assist- 
ant Bacteriologist. 

Mr. Reuben E. Bakenhus, Assistant. 

Mr. Harold C. Stevens, Assistant. 

All analytical work connected with these 
investigations was done in the laboratory of 
the Louisville Water Company, with the ex- 
ception of the necessary mechanical analyses 
of filtering material, which were made at the 
Lawrence Experiment Station by Mr. Harry 
W. Clark. 

At the outset of these investigations it was 
arranged that bi-weekly reports of progress 
should be made by the Chief Chemist and 
Bacteriologist to the Directors of the Water 
Company, and to them alone. Early in the 
competitive tests the Jewell Filter Company 
and the Cumberland Manufacturing Com- 
pany requested the Water Company to keep 
them informed as to the daily results accom- 
plished by their respective filters. The Water 
Company, in response to this request, offered 
to furnish the operators of the filters tran- 
scripts of analytical results obtained from their 
own filters (without any comments, sum- 
maries, or conclusions), provided the filter 
companies would reimburse the Water Com- 
pany for the additional expense incurred, 
and that the transcript of the results would 
not be used within a stated period for any 
purpose other than as an aid to the intelligent 
operation of their respective filters. The 
Jewell Filter Company and the Cumberland 
Manufacturing Company accepted, but the 
Western Filter Company declined, this propo- 
sition. In compliance therewith the amount 
of analytical work was increased, beginning 
Feb. I, 1896. 

In order that the present report may be 
more readily understood it is divided into six- 
teen chapters, as shown below, giving the full 
results of the investigations in their logical 
order. With the exception of Chapter I, on 
the composition of the Ohio River water, and 



upon which additional data were obtained in 
1897, the first twelve chapters are presented 
in substantially the same form as prepared in 
1896. It will be seen that the remaining 
chapters deal with the work of the current 
year. In the appendix are recorded the 
methods of analyses employed, and several 
other matters of purely technical interest. 

The chapters into which the report is di- 
vided are as follows: 

I. Composition of the Ohio River water. 
II. Description of the application of 
chemicals to the Ohio River water 
by the respective systems of purifi- 
cation. 

III. Decomposition and subsequent dispo- 

sal of the alum or sulphate of alu- 
mina solutions applied to the Ohio 
River water. 

IV. Coagulation and sedimentation of the 

Ohio River water by aluminum hy- 
drate, formed by the decomposition 
of the applied alum or sulphate of 
alumina. 

V. Description of the filters through 
which the river water passed after 
coagulation by aluminum hydrate, 
and partial purification by sedimen- 
tation. 

VI. Summary of the various parts of the 
respective systems, and a record of 
the repairs, changes, and delays. 
VII. The manner of operation of the re- 
spective systems of purification, and 
the amount of attention given there- 
to. 

VIII. Composition of the Ohio River water 
after treatment by the respective 
systems of purification as shown by 
chemical, microscopical, and bac- 
terial analyses; together with a 
tabulation of the most important 
data upon the operation of the re- 
spective systems. 

IX. Summary of the principal data upon 
the efficiency and elements of cost 
of purification, by the respective 
systems, of the Ohio River water, 
divided into twenty periods, accord- 
ing to the character of the unpuri- 
fied water; together with a discus- 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



sion of some of the more impor- 
tant features. 

X. Description of the Harris Magneto- 
Electric System of purification, and 
a record of the results accomplished 
therewith. 

XI. Description of the devices operated by 
the Harris Company in July, and a 
record of the results accomplished 
therewith. 

XII. Investigation by the Water Company 
in August, 1896, into the practi- 
cability and economy of the devices 
operated by the Harris Company. 



XIII. Description of the Mark and Brownell 
electrolytical devices, and a record 
of the results accomplished there- 
with. 

XIV. Description of the MacDougall Po- 
larite System, and a record of the 
results accomplished therewith. 
XV. Description of the methods and de- 
vices of the Water Company, 
tested during 1897, and a record 
and discussion of the results ac- 
complished therewith. 

XVI. Final summary and conclusions. 

Appendix, containing technical records of 
methods of analyses, etc. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO R1YER WATER. 



CHAPTER I. 



COMPOSITION OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



THE water of the Ohio River at Louisville 
varies widely from time to time in its compo- 
sition. This variation is caused by a number 
of factors, among which are the following: 

1. The size and varying geological forma- 
tion of the watershed. 

2. The number of comparatively large 
tributaries which drain areas of distinctly un- 
like geological character. 

3. The amount of precipitation (rain and 
snow). 

4. The distribution of the precipitation 
over the watershed. 

5. The condition of the soil at the begin- 
ning of heavy rain-storms. 

6. The amount and rate of precipitation 
during single storms. 

7. The stage of the river. 

8. The velocity of flow of the river. 

9. Agitation of the water in the river, due 
to wind-storms, etc. 

The watershed of the Ohio River above 
Louisville is about 85,000 square miles in 
area. This area includes portions of the 
States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, In- 
diana, North Carolina, Virginia, West Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky. Wide extremes in 
geological formation exist in' the watershed. 

At Pittsburgh the Alleghany and Monon- 
gahela rivers unite to form the Ohio River. 
West of the city of Pittsburgh the drainage 
of this portion of the watershed finds its way 
into the Ohio River through thirty-three 
principal tributaries and a great number of 
smaller affluents. East of Pittsburgh there 
are numerous affluents to the two main 
streams, but they are correspondingly small 
in size. 

The total population resident on this 
watershed above Louisville is estimated at 
4,500,000, of which 1,575,000 is contained in 
220 towns and cities, according to the census 
of 1890, increased 15 per cent, for the six 



years of the present decade. The nearest 
city discharging sewage into the water which 
passes this pumping station is Madison, In- 
diana, situated about 50 miles above Louis- 
ville, with a population of about 12,000. The 
next city is Frankfort, Kentucky, situated on 
the Kentucky River 67 miles from its 
mouth. This city, has a population of about 
10,000. The Kentucky River joins the Ohio 
about 57 miles above Louisville. The 
nearest large centre of population discharg- 
ing sewage into this water supply is at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Opposite this city are the 
cities of Newport and Covington, Kentucky. 
Their aggregate population (three cities) is 
about 420,000, and they are distant above 
Louisville about 150 miles by river. 

At the pumping station of this Company 
where the tests and investigations were con- 
ducted the Ohio River is about 1700 feet 
wide and 20 feet in average depth at low 
water. At the Ohio Falls, which are about 
three miles below the pumping station and 
opposite the city of Louisville, the river is 
about 4400 feet wide at low water. When 
very heavy freshets or floods occur in the 
Ohio River in this locality they cause the 
river to overflow its banks at the pumping 
station, and reach to the bluffs which run 
parallel to the river on the Kentucky side. 
The width of the river is then about 5500 feet. 

The rises and floods in the Ohio. River, 
with their associated factors, produce wide 
and rapidly changing variations in the com- 
position of the river water. Owing to the 
fact that the composition of the river water is 
a prominent factor in the cost of purification, 
analyses were made practically every day dur- 
ing these tests of the water before its appli- 
cation to the systems of purification. Before 
giving attention to the results of analyses, 
however, the question of frequency and depth 
of freshets or floods is to be considered. 



i6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



FRESHETS OR FLOODS IN THE OHIO RIVER. 

Freshets or floods may be considered as 
stages or depths of water in the river which 
are above the normal. Their frequency and 
magnitude depend upon a series of factors 
connected with the rainfall on the watershed, 
and are very irregular. By virtue of the in- 
fluence which they exert indirectly upon the 
cost of purification, and the method leading 
to the most efficient and economical results, 
they are worthy of very careful consideration. 
This is especially true in connection with this 
report, because inspection of the data pre- 
sented in the following table shows that during 
the period covered by the first portion of 
these tests the magnitude of freshets or floods 
was below the normal for the past thirty-six 
years. Practically speaking, this means that 
the average amount of mud, silt, and clay sus- 
pended in a given volume of the Ohio River 
water during these investigations and tests 
was abnormally small. 

In the following table is given a summary of 
the number and magnitude of the freshets or 
floods which occurred in the Ohio River at 
Louisville during the past thirty-six years, 
1 86 1 to 1896, inclusive. This was obtained 
from curves prepared annually by the Water 
Company from data obtained daily at the 
pumping station during the entire period. 
These annual curves were made from plot- 
tings of a convenient scale, in which the ab- 
scissae correspond to the number of days in 
a year, and the ordinates to depths of water 
above the low-water level. By connecting 
the points plotted in this manner curves have 
been obtained which show the depth of the 
river water for each day of each year of this 
period. The number and extent of the fresh- 
ets or ^floods were obtained by noting those 
portions of the curve corresponding to rising, 
fairly stationary, and falling stages or depths 
of water in the river. The end of a given 
freshet or flood is shown by a return to the 
normal depth of water, or by the beginning of 
another freshet or flood quickly following the 
one in question. To obtain the depth of a 
given freshet or flood from these curves the 
difference in elevation is noted between the 
initial and highest point of the given portion 
of the curve. 



PLAN OF ANALYTICAL WORK. 

In the determination of the composition of 
the Ohio River water, as shown by analyses, 
attention was directed to the physical, chemi- 
cal, and biological characters of the water. 

Physical Character. Upon this point the 
examinations included observations on the ap- 
pearance and character of the matters in sus- 
pension, and on the odor, color, taste, and 
temperature of the water. 

Chemical Character. The chemical analy- 
ses included the determinations of the total 
amount by weight of the mineral and organic 
matters dissolved and suspended in the water; 
the amount of organic matter in solution and 
in suspension; the form in which the nitro- 
gen was present in its passage through the 
cycle from crude organic matter (albuminoid 
ammonia) to completely mineralized matter 
(nitrates); the alkalinity, due chiefly to the 
carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and 
magnesium, which indicated the amount of 
alum that could be effectually decomposed by 
the water; and the amounts present of chlo- 
rine, dissolved alumina, iron, and fixed residue 
on evaporation after ignition to burn up the 
organic matter and effect incidental changes. 
These determinations compose the regular 
sanitary and technical chemical analysis of 
water for work of this class. 

In addition to the regular chemical analy- 
ses, as stated above, there were made from 
time to time as occasion presented special 
sanitary and technical analyses. Among 
these were included the determination of the 
amounts of free (atmospheric) oxygen and car- 
bonic acid gases, dissolved in the water; and 
the amounts of incrusting constituents of the 
water in connection with its adaptability for 
use in boilers. 

Mineral analyses were also made of several 
samples of water which were representative 
of different grades in the wide range of com- 
position of the water met with in these inves- 
tigations. These analyses consisted of the de- 
termination of the principal metallic elements 
and the acids present in the mineral com- 
pounds contained in the river water. 

Biological Character. The biological analy- 
ses consisted chiefly of the determination of 
the numbers of bacteria present in the water, 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



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i8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



and of the examination of the species of bac- 
teria with special reference to their connec- 
tion in the causation of disease. 

Microscopical examinations were also made 
from time to time to learn the numbers and 
kinds of algae, diatoms, infusorise, etc., pres- 
ent in the river water. These microscopical 
analyses differ distinctly from the bacterial 
analyses in that the former relate solely to 
those relatively large micro-organisms which 
may be counted and classified with the aid of 
comparatively low powers of the microscope; 
while the bacteria are so small (about o.oooi 
inch in length) that they require for their 
enumeration and classification special meth- 
ods of laboratory procedure. 

Preceding the several tables showing the 
results of analyses there will be found ex- 
planatory notes, calling attention to the na- 
ture of the principal points of practical 
significance. At the close of the report is an 
appendix in which is presented a record of 
some of the more important features of the 
analytical methods from a technical stand- 
point. 

The plan of analytical work, which has 
been briefly outlined in the foregoing para- 
graphs, may be made plainer by the following 
synopsis : 

Synopsis of Analytical Work. 

1. Physical: Appearance, odor, color, taste, 

and temperature. 

2. Chemical: Regular sanitary and technical 

analyses. 
Special sanitary and technical 

analyses. 
Mineral analyses. 

3. Biological: Microscopical examinations. 

Quantitative bacterial analyses. 

Identification of species of bac- 
teria, with special reference 
to the causation of disease. 

Place of Collection of Samples of River Water 
for Analysis. 

Samples of river water for analysis were 
collected from a tap on a 6-inch pipe. This 
tap was kept open during working hours. 
The 6-inch pipe was about 230 feet in length, 



and connected with the force main leading to 
the distributing reservoir at Crescent Hill. 
From the intake to the point where the 6-inch 
pipe branched from the force main the dis- 
tance was about 390 feet. In this distance 
the water passed through the pump well and 
the pump which was operated to supply the 
city. 

The intake of the water supply is located 
3.5 feet below the low-water stage and about 
100 feet from the Kentucky shore at low 
water. 

Manner of Collection of Samples of River 
Water for Analysis. 

After the investigations were well under 
way it was the general custom to collect on 
each working day, from the above-described 
place, one sample of water for regular chemi- 
cal analysis, and two or more samples for the 
determination of the numbers of bacteria. 
When the systems of purification were in op- 
eration night and day samples of water for 
both chemical and bacterial analyses were col- 
lected once in six hours. In the case of the 
chemical samples four portions were mixed 
together to give a representative sample for 
the day. 

Samples of water for other analytical pur- 
poses were collected from time to time as 
occasion demanded, and as the pressure of 
regular work allowed of their analysis. 

All samples were placed in a large ice-box 
during the period which intervened between 
their collection and their analysis. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER. 

The most noticeable of the physical charac- 
ters of the Ohio River water is its appearance 
with regard to the matters suspended in it. 
At no time was the river water clear and free 
from suspended matters. During October 
and the greater part of November, 1895, the 
water was comparatively clear; but even at 
that time it had a distinct turbidity due to 
the presence of minutely divided particles. 
The first heavy rains caused the water to be- 
come muddy. From that time until the close 
of the investigations the appearance of the 



COMPOSITION of OHIO RIVER WATER. 



river water possessed a wide range of rapidly 
changing variability. 

As a means of expression of the relative ap- 
pearance of the Ohio River water the use of 
adjectives fails utterly. The best idea of the 
varying appearance of the water is obtained 
from the results of the daily determination 
of the weight of the matter suspended in it. 
These results form a portion of the regular 
chemical analyses; and reference is made to 
the following tables in which they are pre- 
sented, and to an explanation of them in the 
note which precedes the tables. Here it will 
suffice to state that the weight of organic and 
mineral matter suspended in the water ranged 
from i to 5,311 parts per million. The ratio 
between the weights of the maximum and 
minimum suspended matter, therefore, was 
5,311 to i. 

The appearance of the suspended matter it- 
self was quite different from time to time, 
ranging from a light gray to a dark red color. 
A series of factors influenced the appearance 
in this regard. Prominent among them was 
the character of the soil on which the rain fell. 
The extreme conditions of muddy water in 
connection with the appearance of the sus- 
pended matter were noted in March and in 
May, 1896. During March heavy rains fell 
throughout the valley. All the tributaries 
were in flood, and during the last days of 
the month, when the velocity of the Ohio 
River was great, the water had a decided 
red appearance. These particles were 
comparatively large and came, apparently, 
from the upper portion of the water- 
shed. 

In April and May, 1896, there was a period 
of extended drought and the surface of the 
earth was very dry. The rains which came 
during the last week in May produced muddy 
water, which contained an immense number 
of minutely divided particles of a light gray 
color. This gave the water a yellowish ap- 
pearance. Some of the particles were smaller 
than bacteria and measured under the micro- 
scope less than o.ooooi inch in diameter. 
Naturally enough this water was very difficult 
to clarify. 

Between these extreme conditions of ap- 
pearance there was a wide range of intermedi- 
ate conditions, depending upon the relative 



influence of the series of factors outlined on 
page 15. 

During 1897 there was a still greater range 
than during 1895-96 in the amounts and 
character of the suspended matter in the river 
water, although at no time were the clay par- 
ticles finer than in May, 1896. Further, it 
appears that the heavy mud is most prevalent 
during the winter and early spring, while the 
fine clay prevails in the late spring and 
summer. 

Odor of the River Water. 

The Ohio River water, when it was not 
heated, possessed as a rule a faint odor, the 
intensity of which was somewhat variable. 
Occasionally the odor was quite pronounced, 
but often no odor could be detected. Dur- 
ing the fall, winter, and early spring the odor 
was usually musty, sometimes aromatic and 
resinous. After the rains in the spring the 
odor had a vegetable character at times. 

Upon heating the river water the odor be- 
came stronger, especially in the case of the 
vegetable odor noticed during warmer 
weather. 

In practically no case, however, was the 
odor disagreeable, or stronger than would be 
expected in a surface water of this kind. 

Color of the River Water. 

It is the suspended particles in the river 
water which give to it a color. This has al- 
ready been referred to under the appearance 
of the water. 

When the water is freed from its suspended 
particles it is practically colorless. 

In the following tables containing the re- 
sults of the regular chemical analyses will be 
found a record of the amount of dissolved 
color, expressed in units of the platinum- 
cobalt standard. These color results were 
obtained after the suspended particles had 
been removed by the passage of the water 
through a fine paper filter or a Pasteur filter. 

Taste of the River Water. 

Disregarding the suspended matter, the 
taste of the river water is satisfactory, al- 



20 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



though the salts dissolved in it, especially the 
lime, give a slight taste which is noticed by 
those accustomed to drinking a softer water. 
There is at times a slight earthy taste to the 
water. 

The suspended matter cannot be regarded 
as other than objectionable. But after per- 
sons become familiar with this kind of water 
there appear to be comparatively few com- 
plaints, except when the water is very muddy. 

Temperature, of the River Water. 

The results of observations on the tem- 
perature of the river water, expressed in de- 
grees centigrade, are presented in the 
tables beyond, containing the results of the 
regular chemical analyses. 

CHFMICAL CHARACTER OF THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER. 

In the next set of tables there are pre- 
sented the results of the regular chemical 
analyses of the river water from a sanitary 
and technical standpoint. 

The times of collection, the temperature, 
and the color results will be readily under- 
stood from the foregoing pages. They are 
recorded here as a matter of convenience. 

The remaining columns contain the resul s 
of the several chemical determinations. An 
outline of the analytical methods used in these 
chemical determinations will be found in the 
appendix. In order that the practical signifi- 
cance of these results may be understood more 
clearly a brief explanation of them will be 
given. 

Explanation of the Results of Chemical 
Analyses. 

* 

The several points will be taken up in the 
order in which they appear in the tables. 

Form of Expression. All of these results 
are expressed in parts per million. The exact 
meaning of this is that one million parts of 
water by volume contained the several sub- 
stances in parts by weight to the extent in- 
dicated by the figures. 

These results may be converted into grains 



per United States gallon (231 cubic inches) 
by dividing by 17.1. 

Oxygen Consumed. The results of this de- 
termination indicate the amount of organic 
matter present in the water. By analytical 
methods there is measured the amount of oxy- 
gen which is actually consumed by the or- 
ganic matter in the water, as it is converted 
into a comparatively stable form not readily 
capable of farther decomposition by ordinary 
means. 

As nitrogen cannot be oxidized by this 
method these results are generally considered 
to be indicative of the amount of organic 
matter of a carbonaceous nature. 

Nitrogen as Albuminoid Ammonia. When 
water containing organic matter of a nitrog- 
enous nature is distilled with a strong alka- 
line solution of potassium permanganate, the 
organic nitrogen is changed to ammonia. 
This ammonia is spoken of as " albuminoid 
ammonia," and the results of determinations 
by this method indicate the amount of or- 
ganic matter of a nitrogenous nature. 

A comparison of the results of analyses by 
the last two methods indicates that the nature 
of the organic matter in the river water varied 
considerably, according to the relative results 
by these methods for its determination. 

It will also be noted in the tables that the 
results by the second method show the 
amounts of organic matter in suspension and 
in solution, respectively. Comparatively 
speaking, the amount of nitrogenous organic 
matter in solution is fairly constant, although 
it varied somewhat at different seasons of the 
year. 

Nitrogen as Free Ammonia. Upon the dis- 
tillation of the river water without chemicals 
there is obtained in the distillate a small quan- 
tity of ammonia. This is known as the 
" nitrogen in the form of free ammonia." It 
measures the amount of nitrogenous organic 
matter which has undergone the initial step in 
the decomposition of organic matter by na- 
ture. 

This decomposition in nature is accom- 
plished in the presence of oxygen by bacteria 
which eventually convert crude organic mat- 
ter into harmless mineral matter. 

Nitrogen as Nitrites.- These results show 
the amount of organic matter that is in the 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WAT. 




21 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 
(Parts per Million.) 


UOJJ 


^^^^^^^^^^O^^^^c^^^^^cn^^^vn^^^^oo^^^^^oo^^oo^^ 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'->-<W'-wwNWWww 


^vp^a 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


JW-IT 


^SS *85^Sg;S3SS^8oSoS&&8a8'&# S > > So'S 




Fixed Residue, 
after Ignition. 


p3A|OSS]CI 




PWX 




Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


p3A|OSSfQ 


ff*?S535S&RS3t&t5lssffffS?53S$&! i []J8]Jj| 


. papU3 d Sns 




TO 


ff?nnHXikm^m'fl}fiiimi j j li ; is ; i -i 


" 


co-a-OuirOOOOOO>-OOOcoc<i-iO^OooON'no1-- -O >n -m 


4iij^SS^RR^asa5.34^^RS^3 : : :& : :3 : : : 


SB 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo -o -o -o 


SB 


nmu-)minr^^nr->.ninmoOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOnO -O -O -O 


808808008800000000000000000000 -o -o*- -o 




C sc 
S. 


cooo r~> O wooco -fwooeo Ococo -foo W OO WWOoo Ooooo O WinO OOOt^-w OO OO WW 
NW cnc^ S w mw - r-ooo WOO 0>r-.w -Tr^i-mr^^Mccoooin-twr--l-enO'-' - O 




Nttroji 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


p3A[OSSIQ 






papuadsng 


OOco wc -i- n CO Tf-twO wo3 -too O O O -t^tWO WO OO OoO WO meow O WOO O 
MV)MMOMMOMMOOO M OOOO OOOOOOOOOOO'-'OOOOOOOOOO 




pnox 


OO WO WOOD 'tW OOO WOO Cl -tO N -t W O "t-tO W QO OOO ^ttW t*>OO tOOO QOOW 
^l?cn?>w' t WcTwWCOWW--iN > WWWH- "wWWWWWWNWWWWH-i~.C4l-'i-ti-iH-Ci-i l -. 




pamnsuo^ uaSXxo 
uo[o3 


it O w c* s r-O c%*O -t>~ W c>t r CT>'^ OoO i- 1-1 W 'tcoco r^>nOooOoo O O >- O^N mw o^O CT>QO 




.2,SS3Sx 




J3A1H JO S33E1S 


j---odM--MH;d--<i-Mc;-M-^ci44m :4cA :^ : 


Collected. 


D 
O 


3 . . 7. S S 2 - S - - 


i, ~ CU " < 0- B,' s.' 


rf TJ ~ 

O 1 GO -t 
t^ CO O> 


3 

q 


vi tn v> 
O O O 
Z: "Z "Z 

in O u iT 
os^rt r^co o^n w f^^tnO co o >-MW t^-o^w *tO w to xro t~ O^ w co *t O s O n Kn t'l ^t trO *^* oo K/I 
o5M M i* M n M o cl c* cn> en MI-.WWWWWNW 1 - tM rt'~ ll ^rt'~''~''~ l rt 
1-1 E C C 

> o UuVUCJU 




VKRW 


i- tnO CT>w moo W moo *- -to O>w mooo O w -t""to O moo - ^t-O>w m^co I-Q itgfh 



WATER PURIFICATTON AT LOUISVILLE. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. Continues 
(Parts per Million.) 


UOJJ 


** O O -u-i^r>.- -O o OOmwtOWOconcoOmOOOOOOinOl-*-O 


* Average samples collected Dec. 27, 10.05 A.M.; Dec. 28, 9.56 A.M.; Dec. 30, 10.56 A.M. f Average samples collected Jan. 8, 2.50 P.M.; Jan. ic 1.42 F.M 


w in O -tO O m HI r>. i-s r- mo co COM r^-Trmr^ococoO Oco rfcomO 


~l-n.VP~l.-ia 


OO O * O O O * O O -OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 





O *n . . O O m in * O -<NO'~'COOCMMWONOr^HiOi-iOr^OO 


w Tf -O * m rj- r--. -r^-rj-- .coNOW^-tme^OOOcoOTO'-r-r-mO 


; ; ; ; ; ; - 1 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 


P^oss-a 


*% : : S. : :ooo^ ico^c?: :mo c ^co^S2"'^ggo r coZrSoo^oS< 


. . . . 


papuadsng 


M 5 : [s: is 5 ?: ; 8 : ? : IHS^IIiHlR^R-liUffRSff 


i*>i 


Oc* *co- ^r > -O -t co dOHiNwcoOOO-'OONcoo OO c* co *- rf 
m m co ^fco HI O ^ * * M *f o O N -t-mOO O OO^ or^'Tin*^ co N O H 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


.p, AI os. !a 


SS : :: : :SS? : : :K : : 8 g^2 2So S;?:5 ^S'S 5C-5 8 g>?^-8 ?S" 


" " . . M . . 


papuadsnc; 


^?8 : : : ISS'S : : 5 : S- i : RS;??^^-?^ ?" -g SS 5-S^S^ 2 s 


.... .... ~ 


,*,ox 


1 I :f : |S j :f ]S: iHslHlHpfUHIIlfll 


--Mo.no 


coo -O 'OOO r O * 'Nr>-NcOTOcocotnoMOOOOONOr*.Oco 


C4N . . W HI . .Hl.l-(..HlHIC|HI(-l p-, 


| 
Z 


SB 




MN -W NCOCO- tO W WNHiMHiNWWNWHti-.i-iMNCOCOWMNi-ii-i 


SB 


O O ^ * O O O w* O O coco o co co rco o co r- oco O OOO OOO O r^* 

M -HI co HI -O -HiHiOOQOOOOOOOOOOO O-'O'-'O 
00 -0 'OOO -0 -0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


. . . . 


Biaommv *A 


NCO co -ooo o N ooo-rooo-tf'-rooc)OOOMOMtc<ci 


HI .M . -OOO O -O - OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


. . . 


as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


. W KI 


co m O m N-I-* *co *w *O r*co co co co r^ r^> O O O Oao O r^* r- eo ir>o "to "* 
H>M .HH .HiNH, . .H. . . -H.OOOOOOOH.OOOOOOOOOOOOO 


. . . . 


,,p UsdSnS 


rto "t -Tj-Oco -O -O OcOO'^'OOcocOOcOOCOcO-tcocO^OO'JUOCi 
Oe* -o* ^ HI . -o *O * -wcocoHiH.cocominmco Mwwco-t N 











pamnsuoo uaSXxQ 


to o^ ) u,***^oo^o^^coa, ) o.^^oor.o-0^0 T 


J0|03 




SSSSSj. 


HI OW M t^- coOcoTj-eOHiOOcoOOCicOOMMcoWHiNC*OOHi OO m O m O 


coeo.NM . : H,H,H,H, N t0^^^^^inco^intnininin^^^^^^cONM 


J3 A, H 7o S s^.S 


HI r*.O'OOr^' -Ococo -OcoOr^*inoN*i-ino*-'Owcc*1-*l-incowOOH!CO 


CO - COCO COr>. -OTf-T -1-tOOm .OCOCOCOCOCOOOMCI-i--iOOOOOOt^ 


n 

V 

1 
"o 
U 


3 
O 
ffi 


S 33 S S S S S - S - v S S S , 


A- ^ _^_ < &- 


c c c c 
rt rt rt rt 

O *T HI 
HI co r^ O 




Q 


(/> en en w 

o o o o 

t-r ^ ^ ^ 

+ f+ + *~* 


M . "- 1 -, i- u. u 
O - v * 6 u* U_i_o 




-**KWS 







COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. Continued. 
(Parts per Million.) 


,, 


co w co O OO O O O cOO coco W TTO T co O Too OO n W co ^OOt^-OOOOOWcoO co 


r f O O T O T CO CO W T O m CO W T CO CO CO T O W 100 I in Q tn O OOO TO W O W >- O * 
W TCOCOTW *-" W - W T T CO T CO W W WW 


EUItUniV p3A[OSS|Q 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


XJIUI|EJ11V 


OOOoOOOOcoNONt-'OOcOi-r-iocoOOOwOOtnOOcoO t - 1 OOTHi'-'Or* 


i toco O*H or OO o T to oco co O r- T co r T ~ r^-oo O co "-" co o i coo <-" r- co O Too 
TTTTiotnmO >OO mo o too O O O in tnO TTTcOTTinmminmO Tcow w eococo 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 


,OA,., S S, a 


T I"- O TCO Q co 10 ir.c/5 i-^ r- O ft O r- to O w co w -T I r O toowco woo coO -~co ci O O ci 
OOOOCOOOOcooOH<O*HWW*-i-H>-iOOOO Oco l> l^-co l Oco OcO O O oo O 10 in tnO r> 


* 


papuadsng 


8 ^25'S,2cg > S5 1 5 Z3S&Z3$53S IpffflflHpHHIl 


pnoi 


T w N TO en t^ O *n O T ooo en O N O w t enco eno r^-OTW TTTTen cnco o T OO O 
O O T*rmnr^o "nencoco r-.t^r^oo toOco oenoclOO - woo Oco TO I^fi./i^-co Tco 


2 '* Tr " T 2.. ai 2 mm 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


, 3 A 10SS!a 


vOOM,-o>n'nONTNT^I^OT inco O t- - - l^O >r>O - - N O u-. t. O T T 1^ 


MM M 




TWO too moo mtnwcoOO f*-m-TtonOco Ol"-O W - l^-tnw COTO cocoo Woo toO W 


mo X 


Oco wco wo TO OTTO T M >-t c-i w TI^O o o ro w cooo o TO-I tofiw r^tonooo 


S u !JOmD 


oo r^tnmoo TOooo O cotnO mTTow mnO O Ooo *-i TOO w mi-, o TO -" tnM mo 


T T in to to tno OOr^-O"^ WW >-*O O f^-oo OO O T T toco tn T to in uiO O O O T co co co CO 
H M M M M 


SB 


OO^TT^vnor-r,t->o^.Tmr-m^0-ol-~OMMOO-TcnOOMMM 




SB 


r^ o O tr O r^ OO *-O O ** O | O O "^co lor^-coini^Tcou^'O r^. OO trao oo^^O "OtntnO 


OOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




Biuomuiy 33*>i 
a ' SB 


Soooooooo'ooo 1 ooo 1 o^oo 1 oo > ?* oooooooooooo > o'o > o*o'o > 




Nitrog 

as 

Albuminoid Ammonia. 


p3A|OSSJQ 


TW QO O WOCO W TO O T W N CO O T TO 1"WO WCOO O TWCO OOCO OOCO TTW O 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOO'-tOOOOOOOOO 




pdpuadsns 


On-h-oOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi-OOTTCOcowcow r^oo Oco to T to w co 


- 


MKJOX 


ri\OOf<ooTcocriOTW'OOOOTooOOMooQOOOTWTTTWWWOOOOOOO 


M ~ 


pauinruo3 uaSAxQ 


oo cotnQcoO w tn co uicow o^. M cotnOO O woo W COM OtocoTO Ooo O TOO tn r> r- 


COCOTCOWW cow w - w w w -H w www w cotnTr-coo Ooo fco t w co to loco coco ro r^ 


JB [0 3 




.2n S fd 3 x 


O tniocoOoo O M O tniO TO nO ww O OO W W OO *oO tncoO Ooooo O ui " M Tmw 




WJ 

M3AIH jo saSEis 


coO >-> co r^ n to r^oo JO O O tn r^-o too O w wcoOco r-O toomi-iooco iw eoi'* cooo r* t-t 


^OOtotnmmmmtnOOOOOOOr-r-J-coowrocotOWM^-O-wmcoOwO^T 


Collected. 


I 


s s 


OOOOOOtnOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOmtn OOOOOOOOOO 


ood oooooooooooooooooooo o* ***** -,000000000 


d 

1 


too lco O O 
W W W W W CO 

mo lco OW coT*r>o t-OO M w COTO r->co OO - cOTtno r co OO HI M c* COTO i^-oo o 




q0 ,n N1E!J , S 


M TOWI^-OO O*t-*^WO H^ TO coO O tnco w O O TOO Too WOO TOO W O O n O COO 
O O O M ^ w w w cocoTTtommOO t~- r i co ao O OOO O O ** M W w W cOCOTTTtnm 



M 

a." 

?, 

in 

s 

ft 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE, 



S 

I 



H 
H 

I 



tA 
O 


o 



< 

z 

< 

_4 
< 
u 



w 
X 



'UOJJ 


M o W N O"^CGCOCOCOO O OO O N toco O O W teof*-co O n ^ utO CO co N -tO 


*^ S 

^ 

^ "* 


OJCor-co.n.nOvOcONto^C.cn^c.^wm^-T.n.n.o.O-O.OW.tNvCOI^.Om 


~i-ivp.Au-.ia 


ooooooooooooooooooooo-ooooooooooooooo 


AllUllBJHV 


OOOOOM^-O^NOMOOO^NOOMOO^OOOCO^ONOOOO-OOOOOO 


K ? 5 "^ ^"3- ? S S '? ^ S 2, E m ^'S.'S %~2> S ^," S S 2 2 S 1 ?, SS 5 


Fixed Residue 

after Ignition. 


p^.o.s.a 


t^ t^ r> r^-co co co co O O O O O O Oco O OOOC*OO' |kH '^OOO co O O O O O " O 




pspuadsns 


C4OMM MMI-II-IIN-IMMMM 


,>o X 


r^--ttotNO w r>.O -tcooo "tw c* O w N Oco tr^oco N inmtoi^-nNco Oco to 




X S s 

c. P. p; 

|8g 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


*M- 


el rj- n o O O O co OO O >r> ~t 10 N O *"* ""J" W *t O O r- O O "t~O t^* co Oco i/)O ^* too M 




papuadsns 


w -too ft mOO i^OcO M - voco Noo W rM O cotr^-^tw M mco r>.*tO Ot-^ow w M 




,H,OX 




* Average samples at 9.30 A.M., 9.00 P.M., 3.00 A.M., 9.00 A.M. Average samples at 9 oo A.n 
t April 30 and May i. Average samples at 9.30 A.K 
; Average samples at 3.00 P.M., 9.00 P.M., 3.00 A.M., 9.00 A.M. f Average samples at 12.00 M 


3UI40JIQ 


t "t -tO OOt^r^O ONOco r^-O O O O Oco "-'OO'- | NOO b-t - l OwW-tWMON 






oi w M M o O O Oco O OOco r^co rococo ooO o>^ oco t^-co r^-co mmu^oo i^coo 




SB ' 


00 i--tmr>r*.r-inininr-.jninOOO -tg>moO Oco O i- r^ i-co r-MQNNOcoo 


8888888888888oOo88888888888888ooOOOOO 


. . . 


BJUOUlUiy 33-IJ 

O 


O O N "tCO CO OO C4NCO *tO O OO "tNN CO NOcOO O "J""t"tO N NOcO OCO ~fO^O 

??o r ?o o > o'o'o"o l ??c?o 1 ?o 1 o 1 o c?o O > o 1 ?o 1 o 1 o 1 ?o'o 1 o o o ?o c?3"? 




Nitrog 

as 

Albuminoid Ammonia. 


paAjossiQ 


O O O CO O N *tcO W CO O CO CO N -tcO OMOCOCIOOOCONO ONOWO OOO OO 
co co to r*co to co Oco i^ r-O r^ r^-co co r* r^-co co O oco O oco oco co r- r^ ! O Oco O O 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-<oooo 




papuddsng 


WO -tcoco NCOCOO O O Oco Oco -tQcoco OO O NCOCO OO O O O -t-tco N -tco 
coOcoco MCOCO O - -" or^Otoeoco Ocococo OO OO O M o^-M COM M r^o -tc* co 







wo ooco twococo ocoo w M w o O tcocooco -rO "too N o ci o -ttoce ^tco 
i- co 1"^ O O O i"^> O Oco O co T >n r^ 1^*1^-0 r*O co Oco O O Oco N O O co O l"^ n M M c* 




pM.n.,.03 U ,M O 




J0l o 3 




SSS^ 


.no mON^OOOoo^^N 0<o : 0t-o-a-O^.OOMi^oi->o^^ 


~ -2?M^?'-'2^ ( 2 ? : S5?SSSS > P"S > N!?S > S > S 1 ? 


JSAiy JO S33EJS 




Collected. 


3 
O 


s s s s 


&?> en ?> &?>?!?>?> m?i 888 




v 

rt 
Q 


oo ^ Q W f} T ino o O M et t^ 


< S 


a 3 qu,n xlB u 3S 


IIIIIIfillflfllfllfllllffflillflMlfS 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. Continued. 
(Parts per Million.) 


'UO4J 


co in w OO MI MI mOttw O to m w OO t t /> N l- w w mw to r* m MI w coo to r*-o 


7. 

8 

O 

i 

w" 

S 

cC 

8 
3 

8 

W 

rt 
tn 

'o. 
5 

d 
flj 

rt 

ij 

* 


M w moo O '- O r-oo r-. MI Ooo I-- o co r-> O O to O O w r-. m w woooooo - mm OO w O f- 




i|-IVI*Io-!a 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


.<,, 


O "^ m O toco moo O'-'OWOOcnr-^'-ittoO'-'OmOOO'^NWOtOWHHWOOOOW 


ooo KSwV-S'.o r-^.-oo r-r^it^rt^oooVt-o t ^i-E.n'3-?2,S>.n.n 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 


. P , MOSS!a 






p 9 p 3dS n S 


"m too o 1 " o ioin 1 ^ co c t co^t e? 00^*0 o t o^S -> eo c? co " S to o o m'to'w 


mo m wi i- t co ^ ^mtONMmwwwco^HHCowNtom coco mow t t t to 


^ox 


m^O 2^, ^?o el W OOO^^JS*- &W COO 00 'S OCCW 5" 2o OOoTS w 


N r^r^oooo tw wo tcococotmcotomeotow ttto to t OO o w t 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


p3A[OSS[a 


o o t -' w r^co too r-. too wo uio w m"-oo to*-' >n i^oo t w ON t t OO r >- r^. o o t 




pspusdsns 


co w o tomtcooocoo Q wo r* r** *^ o c^cooo wo ON ^ too 1 1*** r^ to to o *-* O t 
cotor^mtor^w mc^cooooo tow O w w r^w\O M i^-O Ooo mtomo r^ow wo l^-m 
O O m mco t to -i MI meow *-< w twww tww -*^-mwtOm moo O O W u~ t t to 


m 


5 ^SHsSsRRS^HRSKsSSStSSsSSH f 5ISs 


3UUOIIQ 


w OO to t-t O ttcow ONooo MO Onco mO O O coeoOO OOoo O t t^ O N O >OO 


t^jt^mw t-( ot^w ri o to t t mO i~^oo cottot'or^M r^woo to mtor^-o t**\n ** r*o ui 




SB 


| 


M 


si: 


8QO- || -'OWO fc -PiW'~.MO 1 -'O'- | - il -''-OOOOOOOO'- | OOOOOQQ > -'QO 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




tmioiutuy aaj^ 

c 


oo two OO Oooco tO to w to wo OO ttoo w twoo tOoosDO twoo O t 
IN w tcooD i--tottt^itocooo mtw w meow cotow tow c^itow meow rovntw w ci coco 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


pdAJOSSIQ 


NOooO W OO N OO O O twooo tO O tO w tQoo to too O WOO toooco 
oor*.r-i-icow OtowQ NOOO O Ooo oooOOO'-OOOO'- t| -'NO'- | O 1 - | '- l OOOw 




papuadsng 


twoo O O w O t t w co w to O WO Ooo O twooo tN woo O tOOOoooo ttwoo 
co oo O "> I--OO Tttw tOW t OO t !" m r* ooo t** v* W m MI co m MI m -i m w t O W r- " 







OOOOO N WOO tttW tO W O N ttO OOO WOO W tOO ttWOOO W OOOCO WOOO 
o mooo O O tr^o w r-oo too mmo toco OO c* wo N O r^-tmo'O t>nOtor>.t 
M MI MI mO wi t *f* CO CO.W Mi-5-cONWWCONWWtONNNtmtomt COO OO W tO t CO CO 




patunsuo^) uaSXxQ 


cnoo^^^o I ;^J,4Aoo44-T^44 u : .xA44 m u,o^^^>no- ?2 *^oou, 


-.0,03 


xnmw wccoo r^O NCO O Ooo cooo to to r-oo mO O w t r- moo r^wcow ci nw w mm 




'3 S39J39Q 


OeocoOmOMiwoocowtOOooONWOw toowO OtO mmOHH wmmowOO 


W'N > WNWWWWNNWNWW > WW > WWW > W'WN I WWWW wwwwwwwwwww 


M3A1} JO 33E1S 




Collected. 


3 
O 


s" s 


o ooooooooocoooooooooooooooooo 

co ocot^cocncntococneotocococotocomcotoeotne^tommmt^tn 




W 

Q 


o r-oo o O 

NNWWCO WcOt mO 

owwwwwto 1 ^ M MiMiMiM.MiMiM 1 wwwwwwwm 

^ 4, x 


: ; : ; c !;, - ^ . 


'-- ^ 


i--sr-ooooco OOOO O *^ *~* w ts N co to t ttmmmOOO rco cocooooooOO^^ NH W 



26 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



(Parts per Million.) 


-I 


i-i o% Tj- *^- &t *$ o\ fi O u"i e*"i O* O r^ \AOT u~> OOW^OOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


pi N ri 4>p in(><')d'dr : --i."->ddl- : -ri'-'d -to N>n o4do66; U10 g ^^ o N 4 


IH C^) C^l M IH I-I 


mn.mvp.Awa 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


"jOiuipJ^j'y 


0>Mi^mi-0 moo l^-* O-oo OOOOP1WOTI-000 O-n^^OOWO^OOMl-OTfo. 


co in d r^ N wo" O co O t^- w ^ O co M tuicotu*>ttM OO M NO M M uicootcotw too 


t t in o 


w 


Oco r~*ao co r^co t^co r* r- r* O O f* O r~ O oo OcoOOf^- OO^^OO O t t t *o r^ oo Oco O oo 


C b p3pu3dsnc 
a 1 " 1 


O u"> t *o M o t O tw o^-< to cO'-*O O u") in r w t *^> coco t CM to OioO M w tw r~- r** t^- 
M t CO t t t t u") CO u^ O O M U1COCOOO r^ CO CO COWM WWtMt O U"> l~> t W CO W> f^ O t CO 

WWCOMMMMM M tCO UlW 


"5 'I*K>A 




> 




CO W M M O CO O M M M N W W CO M O M O M M CO COCOM tt*tWWW r^ O r*- QO O w &~> MOM 




W c 
c o 
o- -papaadsng 

o 5 

3 * 


xnr^coo N tmr-coOM uir>.|N.coo o tommoco M o too tw tr^-or^ttcow M M tt 
oo co 1^.00 n O r^ coo nr>.r^tr^OM i-^eoO MCOCO t r- coco i^-r^-O uiwoo w w to O M o M 


MWCOMMMMM M tco inw 


8 ,-pnox 

K 


oo M r^-oo O O co coo O to O M in c*iO co O O O t O O O oo O M N tO t M oo O co W M N O 
MMoooOtoou->coaooor-Mi->Noocowcowwaoao r^wwOcocoO""oOtr*-OcoOco 
coo t"">inuiir>r>'tO N w too u^mooco Ommu^cow coto u-)r^o r^.co u-ittoco tr^O 

MNCOMMMMM M tCOM ITlNM 


~-nD 


OOOMtWinOmMOOO^OtOM^OcOMOO totMtor^OOOinOMCOcovo 


O U^ 1^ O CO W N t W> O O CO t OO W) I""" **> CO CO tr> i/l O *O t t t t t t t M C-l M M W M IO CO tO tO 


su 


oococooooi-^r-coo^ocoooi-ooo^oi-r^o or-^wt^WMto^ocotMO 


M M O'dddO MOMMMMMMMMMMMMMO 


SB 


M OO w. O O "-< M *-" Mtoco tcoco w OO mw O tOco tco uiw n>nor^oo tcoo r^r^ou-> 
SOOOOOOOOOOOOOMMi-iOOOOOOO NWMMI-.HHOOMNOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


C SB 
V 


OO tO OO WOO O OWOOOtWO NO O tWOO t WCOCOCOOM tO t t CO tO O O O 
tow w tocotow cotocow>u"iO coiooo w^mtcotw w O tw OO tO mt^ttcoow O 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOCOOOOM.-, 




M - 

s 

g | -paAiossra 
I 


OO CO O O N CO tOO OCOOOWOOCONOcOOCONCOOOtO OOOO*tOOWOOO tOO O N t 

O o o N otco ooo ocow M uiwM w M cocoo O M M w tcor^i^oor^co ooo t t M 




B 

'o 

c 


OtttOtOOWOOOONWOOONOWOONMOO OOWtOONNWOOO'^"" ! t c OO 
Mr^OOoOMMOWcowwr^OOQu^cou^oOcomr^ MOOOcocor^OMMr^uixnmoM 
MMMWWMtOtWCOl^NMNOOt^OcOCNNO^O NWtOMCOttCOCOCOmOr^WOO 


M N H M M M COW tC4 


e 

S 
O "l^^X 

< 


t W O O oo W t too ttOOOOOOOOOOOOO OONtOOoo too N O t W O O O 
wcOMNr-ooOMOMOOMNwooOr^cocotOco NootcoOir>comcoOOtOO>-<t 
N COCOtCOCOCOmcOtOO COtCOW MCO N tttO W M tOCOU"iO COOu")u->cOttO I^-OtO 


M Ci M M M M % M COM tW 


P 3"'0 


too too O O r-w>f--Ooooo f-^oo r^-to r^co r^-o co too M COOU^COOOM tOO Oco co 


tr^Oao r>-r>.r*.cdo r^tt>DM M r^-ococooooo* t o'o" odcoooo coooooao ow mcoo 

MMtOWMMMWM M IDtMMt-i MOCOM 


-.0,03 


MintCOOr^COOOOMtOr^COOCONMtOtMOCOCO ! 'cOOOCOCOWMtCOtnNCOtCON 
WNNWWWWMMWWCONWNCOWWWCOCOMM . . .MMWWCOCOCOMMMMWWW 




.2S3S* 


O M t CO O oo r^ co oo O co M \n O r*" O oo o***** OOOO tO *^i r^* O* O W u"> CO oo O *n CO 


vnoooin .wiincococoiriminoOOOO nor--oococo-oocoOOOOOOtO 


. * 


MSAifl jo aSeig 


coo^D'rico *O OOO or^Ot^-O OOoo M mr^-O w in oo cowo w w OO O OCOM xocotO 


W) O CO CO OO . I s *" O O OO O O O O M M CO CO t W OO O O I" 1 * N N M O *t~> O W CO t M CO ID O M W O 


Collected. 
Hour. 




s ! ; : r : ^ ^ : : - - - = - - ^ ^ - : " : * ^ ::-,:: ^ 5 : ^ : -, s " : : - ^ 

<" "P^"^ cu-<" <' "C^-<P^ <: StC 


ooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooo 

cococococow^cocotocotococococococococo' * cocococococOtOMO^OOtocoOO 


O O O O O N O^ O O O O O O O O M O O O * * * tT* & tS O O O 1 HH o t* i t* i *J O O' 1 ^ H W t 

h-l ^H M M M 


j 

a 


M cottnoo r-co o M w cotu^r^-oo oO M r-M too o o i-*- cotno r-*M w totno r--o 

o . & 
oo > be o oo ^Q l - 


S, < Q (i. 


q..n N w* 


tofO tt-O cottoo O cor^cor*-O O coco r^ococo t M cof>r^OM w cot">O r^oo O w co 
CM w to co co t t t w ino O O r^* r-co OOOOOM'-'W tocotococottt 





OS 

w 



PA 
> 

Ptf 
O 
X 

o 
u 

X 

o 

u 
J 






X 

u 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. Continued. 
(Parts per Million.) 


U0ll 


O O O O w ^f co o**OcoNw*-tcoOOcoco O O WCOOOOOOO -t w 




COOcOWu-j-tOr^WWWi-t>-'WcoOOcOO''CO W O* 1 W Qv -t Tt to O N O OO CO ^ 


CO W W N W WWWWWMH<MM 


WLn.vp^o.Q 


oooooooooooooooooooo o o o o ooooooo o o 


< 


toCvNrTtOtoo*oOOOrOWwO>-ow oo (-> O O O to w *t Tf co O* O* O 


.^^S?;-?^;?;^:^;!;?^?^?;? ^ 3 -3?35,S'S> $ 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition, 


p 3 A,o SS , a 


HH Hi 


papusdsns 


oo *H o co co to w co *t eo N, o^tow *-* M w w w n to to to !"> to r* r* to 10 ^ *t- eo 


S 

o 
o* 

7. 

O 
W 



8 

00 

cu 
o 

en 

* 


-,*>ox 


?S SO&CCM S2&?2 1> {?>'S5|g2 R S ? SS"?"o&S- & 


u <-i *. ^<^*t^t mmo^-mNCTfimtHM >oooooooooo>n>n * 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


, MIOSS!a 


w c*l O* O^co O' O O "-" O O O O* OO'~'Oi^i^i^ O f^ *1" w> ONO^NWO w N 




papuadsng 


fiC?,(g t S jN^-tS Sm" flS'o" ^MO?" ?T S> ? 8 ~m m S S 3 S oo^" 2> S ?> 


" " - 


^ox 


o?5i? 5 !? - ?."c?.o ^S^'S-^S' ? S JioSoSmo to S 


I-H KH H 


HO 


O ^ H MO s O O oo to to too "4" M w O N r^ O to oo to O W O^OwcO"3"ioO n 


tiOtncOW W COW W W COCOW COCO COO MOTf CO CO W CONWCOWWW tO tO 


H 


wwTj-cocooo*wototowen>-icoOO^w co o o O cocoocoor^o to o 




SB 


8;>QO'-<'-'QQOQC? 1 OQQQQOQQQ O OOOOOOi O ? 
OOOOOOOOOO^OOOOOOOOO O O O O OOOOOOO 




V 


Sw 'too OOOOcocoO^OooWcocowOO ^ co w co ^fO co t- O O ^~ ^ O 
-1--1-COfOCOWWi-i-Wi-.NO'-'OOMWW >H W W WCOMWWWN ^ W 
MOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO O O O O OOOOOOO O O 




Xiirog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


"p3AJOSSI(J 


OcocoOWWcoOCOOwOWWcowOOw O O O O ^fO ^tO O O O O O 
OwOOww-iC^W'-ii-<o^o^o>-tr^'*-'wcooo r^- r-*> c> co o^wr^O'-'coo o r*. 




p9pU3dSHQ 


-tOt*OO*t - ~1"QO i '-oC'towO''-'^OWO r l'O co oo w ^ O *O O "t O O "t 1 ^t 1 O 




TO 


QaoQO3OWOO-t-N<^e<lO-1--J-O-rcQ co Tf N r)- OWOOOOO t' O 
^J"N OO COtOtOW 't'tO'TN l^ COWWWNWW W CO CO >O O O O OO to *^ ^" ^" tO 


M M 4 


p9tunsuo3 uaSXxQ 


ir*o * 'S' W ^ O 'I' *T O O w w oo w O to r>. O^ to co r^- co ^tOcoo^*H-l-wao d o 


w'cTS'S ^^ ^ ^^ ^ M "^ "^^ ^ "*" ^ "* ^ J!?^?S!?M 0aN * *** 


-.0,03 


SNcococor-NO'- 1 OO > 'OOtoiotor-.o^^rO 6 oo co r*. -coONOioeo ^o o 







,S3S X 


M O to w W O to r*O r>-WO^" OW ^toM O O O*oOoOtotoioO O 




'J-*9J 

J3A!>I JO ailBJS 


r^ M i>>. t^- o r^* M to o o ^ O to o co o *o M w to ^ M ^ o o o o t~>- o o oo ^t* 


CO co 100 lOWOcococoOtotoioeoWMt-iOCT'CO oo co oo O^O'-'WW -w w co 


Collected. 


3 


cocOtn O O -OOoO- OO 


O 1 'Oio w o (-(O S ^O*CT 1 >-* toco 


OOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO ^^^ < " > ^^^2?,o(?c>522C>QO 


O^O v O!>C>d^MO s d s C > d'-'d'-"*i'WWWO COWWO^iOtoi-icOtOi-HCOtOtOCOCOCOCOO^d 


li 
Q 


to -f K 1- to 

- i i V TV 

O-'Wcotoor^cooOwco-l-toor^O'O'-iw co to o O coo^O^t-co co it 

00 U ."^ 




, 3qtunN ,.- s 


cocococococococococococococooocococococo co 05 CO CO 00000000000000" S^ ^ 



28 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. Continued. 
(Parts per Million.) 


UOJJ 


mu->O ex -I- O CM 0000*1* in in ui O "> "~> O O I*- O 


ex ex oo co o "" i-- o C* o \o -f OOco en w co O M o^ i-- 
MM MM en -f -t M M M M en en 


B u !t un IV p,A,o S s !a 


O O O OOO O OOOOO O OOO OOO O O O O 


***, 


en en m O O en ex m -r M 0:1 m ex enooo MQ 1 - 1 O o^N M 


g. 3 a s;^^ ?^5^5- ^ss- ss?.^^ ^-^ 


|| 


p^AJOSSIQ 


t^> co 'O r* r^- oo i> co co i> oo r*- C 1 - en & r^* r-* oo cc O^ co oo o* 


p,pu 3 dsn S 


ssl^s'S'^^^^ss ^_^_l_iALl_l_l_l 


,** 


rTTTlTTTnTl f|aSsRa! 


a 

K _. 
c 5 

O 

ft 

I 


paA(OSS|Q 


M i^-o cnNenoo rnenocoN McoOeMOOCiooo -i- w 
O N o-'-Nd M MMenwN -j-i^-fenMwci o enw ~f 


M HI h^ H 


papuadsng 


ortn MCW M MMM^-M c\eni-encnM ex w ex w 


m 


oo Tt* ** oenm -^ rNenen^en oo enMin r-*r*-en i O o -t -r 
xnenenenentnwNw'wex w t-m-r-tw cncnen-r 


-M-nD 


inmin-DOOOMO r^ m O OMQ in m M 


en en en entnen e-i encnexenw ex cnenen wenen -t w en N 


SB 


C,M m ^*u, Nm 00 r. m r>*r,*0^-t>r.^ 




S3 IJ1I>* 
SB 


8 8 888 8 88l88 8188888 8 88 8 




'BIUOUIUIV 33JJ 

c SE 


M w HI MMC* N MNwexo Q n-rcx eneneninfi -t- 

OOOOOOOOOOOO O OOO OOOOO -O 




Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 





exoo exwoo ex ^COCHOOO oo exexexooO -tcxoo O 
O O O OOO O o'oOOQ 1 O MMQ O w w w O O M 




papuadsng 


co \o O o oo "^ ex rf-ooco-t 1 ex oooo-o -f-rw -i-oovo o 




,.* 


O ocoOcx i-oo-1-oo-tcx O OQoo OOoo O 1- ex 
enenw Ntnenex WNMWM M o^-tenenex en-too o 


MM M 


p3iunsuo3 ua3XxQ 


oo TJ-CO O*n^ O m-rrtn^en ex oor-M o^enin en O en 


O co -t minin m -r-ttn-ten en 1- *- oo ino-t w>O r-O 


-.0,00 






2nS?j. 


^^^o^^^mo^O^ 0000^>00>nMMO 


" M o fiofi -t ui-oor^r^ cr r-oui inor^ r-co t <x 


H H M M M M M MM 


jaAixjoaJlins 


-f o ^ ^ t*^ t>> M UD ^ O OO u"i O O t*l O **} "^" O *^i f^ 


^M""22 ox0vt "'" r " v0>0 :: ^ooaa>^oo< 


Collected. 


3 
O 


-^ . . > ~^~^- ^. ~ _,_-~^^~ _,_~^- ~^ ~^.~-- ~^.~^ 




p* <J ^! cu^cu ft*^! o ^jftj c^jj&. ^jCn^i&i^c-i ft* ^1 *< 

R 8 8 ?>88 ?>8 R ^?, 88 888 8 ?. 8 R a S 1 3 || 8 8 


ut t*^ ff} Q\ O* Q^ cn en M en en "T M M ^j en vO m "1 <.' *1 *T O> "t M 


2SS*S2S*^^S'S^ i ;*5^'^^**^'S^^'*^^^^'^''' i ^-'*'**''' H 2'* 5 * 5 ^ *''*'* 


O O O O O O >n OOOOOQOOOQOOOQOQOOOOOOOO*1"OOOC 


M M M M M 


ij 
rt 

Q 


in tn t^ WNN tnOI^ooo^^ M -tin O r-coo ^2"^? 

'S'C ,.- ,.-,- ^rt 1 


0,= ' t r - : - = - 


, 3q0 ,n NI BU 3S 


OQ M MMM M txexNwci cnenenenenen*i-*i--1'" r i 1 " 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



29 



UOJI 


O O ""> O OOO^I-OOO O O 

i" oocor'.cor-.oeO'^-oo >-< * O 

1-1 


..,.n, V puwa 


O OOOOOOOOOO O O O 


Mr 


O ir> N to O eo co -J- vr> co H N *f O 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 


p,o,s, (I 


3,5 53, * 


popusdsng 


I las&sss*"- . * 


.ox 


Ci NCOCO WOOcor-r^-w eo N rf 


CO 


ex 


> 

W 

c o 
o-- 

ll 

If. 

V 

ai 


paA[OSS|Q 


O OCOCOCOO>-'O>-'>-'CO to CO 




papuodsng 


-f NNN MMN^M 


im 


in eococowwwwocMi-i M M - 


,U !JOII , D 


o tf>o-OMOOnnml- vo 


SB 


co toeotocOMCJcocot^co co oo r^. 




SB 


I-H ONW WCOWvptOeOW CO C* N 

o 255 5255255 5 2 2 


Eiuouiuiy odM 

c SB 
D 


o 00*00000000 o o o 


Nitrog 

as 

Albuminoid Ammonia. 


-p 3A1 o SS!a 


C* WNN OOOOO-1-W CO O N 

e? S s o'o"^o' c o' c o < o o" o 'o 


papuadsns 


1 M f 11 1 I f i t l f f 





mo-l-ooOOcoco-teo oo oo 


. p3 u,n s uo3u 33 A-*o 


$ oo . T T *? . . ^ ^ 


uo,o 3 


owiti-NOwo-o-t o co r-* 


. 


ASSSk 


O OOOOOOOOOO O - w 

.-I ncieinAliMMnn w 


JSAIH jo a^ElS 


2 ^^^^.o^^^^^ 4 4- ^ 


Collec-ted. 


3 
O 

X 


, . ,_^_ , .-, . -;- ^_,__^,_^_^__,, -__ v ^__ 


K S s SS SSSSS 2SSS S S SS *SS!|2*2i23 ^ ^ 

*888 88 88888 S88& 8 8 88 88^??3 88S, 


OOc> coeo cocoeo^co eotOco** 1 ^ CO o^ "^U-JMMIMMWMI-IM "">u-)1- 


sssssssssss'sj sssssssssss'sssssssssssssssss 




Di^I "IX^.^^l^imm^^ ^^^TJ!^^ 


S 

Q 


o to 

t-H M 

co" w T u^ o co O 
1^. ^ 1 .III II 1 t 

CO " IH N W NN WCO M 

X G 

1 3 -.;::: ; : ^ 


^-Hm-s 


O OOOOOOOOOO O O O 



I 

3 

^ 



s 

o 



u 

S 
H 

I 
U 

u, 
O 



H 



WATER PURIFICATION AT. LOUISVILLE. 



RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER^WATER. Continued. 
(Parts per Million.) 


uoaj 


in inor^O^r-O^nc^TmO in in O >n O r* O in O 


O O mo co -< W CO O t^> -t O O O^ r* C 1 O m O ^J-oo 




'EUjUiniV pA(OSSIQ 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOO 


XjmiiEJtiv 


O r*.wcoOOcococoi- r- ** oi O O O O O *n O w 


T W O O r*. O W W WOO * O C^j-t-u-i COCOOOCO CO 




go 



1! 
& 

" 


paAjossjQ 


00 OMvO'l-OOCOO^tC^Ot-t-'MC'l HlC^oOlHu^O^ 

>H o M^OO^'-I M rco o^oor^oo ooo^-i-ioco 




pgpuadsng 


co oo ^ ^ o w> ^ n ei - co e* 1 ) M o^ n oooo~ir^o > 'O 
;M cocor r^mr^cn^-o^o^cooo m co^'^oooco 

CONWtOCOO ^T'rJ-'^-COCO N MH1M ^f-^- 


1 B K>X 


M r^.uiOOc r >*1' i r> 1 O O COtNO "~ C>t^-G^CO TT-O" 1 

en i^ -tococooco w t- co MO to CNCOQ->-" u-o 




Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


p3A{OSSI0 


i-< oo o^OC^O^xnO coOCT'Uiw u-> oo Nu-)O O u^ 
u^ *^-^j-mr^w^inr^cow N NM d oo WOQWIO M 


papuadsng 


l^. CO-I-QCCOI-COO r^-oo 1^-0^00 c> r>-r-ooo o^w 
M N u-> o C^ r^.'O O^r^-WMTti-iin -l-Tj-moOO 
IH co W H 'f COO w> 10 '^^- CO W t-t t-i -> u^ in 


l^iox 


oo * coOoocor^coo O r^-o "to*** nc^"^oo o^r^. 
\O r^ o^w^Mim .- t- tn Tfr-w oo coocom o i-< 
^ 1-1 Ne*w)Tj-cou - >vr>oooO mm^- COWNWOO 


3UUO[l]3 


O^ O OOOcoOM O*O *t O CT'Ci M W O^^^Tt-o 


-T vocor>-j^^-*^oocovO m ^M co co cocococo-rco 


saiBJifN 
su 


oo ooOOO'-'oO'-' O^Ooo r^Or^M Oooc>oocooo 


O OOOO-.O'-'OOOO'-.O'-' "-OOOOO 


sdjunx 

n 


- co O O oo O u"> O>" w "- N >- *t- N O M Wincoco-i 
8O OOOQOO - O O O OQ O Q OOO O O 
00005500 550000 O5o5oo 




'Giuouiuiv >>!..} 

c SB 

v 


CO -*Tj-NONWN WO CO W OCOO O . O co O W -f 

rf -t-cocow-^-ww -r *H w ww -r m^wcotow 
O OOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOO 


*" 


NStroj 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


pOA|OSS|G 


W COCOOOOOOC* WO O OOO O WOOO O rf 

O r^. co i~^ r*- r^-co oo o G*O O *-" O HI M o^ooo^c^o^ 




papuadsn$ 


N oo w^^O^O > u^cooo ^ xrj m c> t O co ~f ^ O OO 
r^ O*O"-cowow Tj-r^oocX) COTJ--O O t-r^oooo ui 

O O iHHtWWMW W W COW COW.W M tnOO W N 




M10X 


't- O Owu")ir>u->u"O O mmmO O O OOO O O 
O r-.o^oHa^-*Omr^ooccinmr^ ao M *o P> r- in 

t-H HHMtOWWCOCOCO CO^tCOCO WWM'-'COCO 




paUlllSUO;) U3SXX() 


w w rfO coo^co'l- Tf coco r-oot-- 10 oo i-coco r>- - 




JO[03 




3 saa43a(j 

ajnjBJddtuax 


*^> O OOOiriO^O O O O ino ""> O OOO m in 


W co -to OOOO 'O O O O mO O l~^ I"-OOO O O 
W W W Cl Cl W Cl Cl W W N N WW C4 W WWCOcOCO 


133J 

M9Ai)f jo ^auis 


w >-i r^OcowmoO O^oo ui-i mw n co mtoo^mm 


co co "^-mininmin mo 1^- r^-oo u-. T T *1* t O O 


Collected. 


u 

3 - 

o 

X 


^ * ,^^_ _ ~^~- *__^._ >_ . . ^ Z^Zo 


ssssss'ss'ssssss s ssssss'sssss s'sssss sss 


SSSSSgaa^ag^^S 8 8S88888888?. '888888 888 


_ ll _.'-t-.'-<_rj-Qs C j, N 'in r fco(> f'j a>d s o*O'tj,c>d'C>ococo <>o>c>c>d%-i- c-crd^ 


- 


sssssssssssssss^^^^sssssssssssssssssssss 


OOQOOQQOOinOOOOOQOgOOOOQgOQOOOOOOOOOQQOOQ 
5o5cOOOOOOw^tococoroOf>OOO5o5oOO5oOOcoOco5oOOOOO 


ininminmininTrwco OO w -tco^tco cocococoeococococooOOcoco^cocoO Oco*1--1-co 


a 

rt 

Q 


O W O co O 
>-i -t M I-H M CO 

f~*- o^ M int^criO^w co'J'ino l^-oo c> w Wcoso r-^ao 
O >->MMMWWWNWWWWCW 

" s * . 


3 ,..- -..-- S ....... 

i > > 


.i.><|iim\ [truss 


r^ M u->\o f>CTi^t^mr^o^'-' d'l'O c*fl"ioo o c* 
a*' o OOOOHI^ M M M w w N w dt'it^-r-T 

o ooooooooooooo ooooo 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



a 
\ 

d 

u 



u 

s 

o 

X 

o __ 

K I 
H ~ 

<* ? 

O v 



u 



hi 

O 

to 



?>88 888 8 8 88888 




3 2 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



second intermediate stage of the process in 
nature by which organic matter is converted 
to mineral matter. 

Nitrogen as Nitrates. From these results 
there is learned the amount of organic matter 
which has been completely oxidized and 
changed into the form of mineral matter. 

Chlorine. Chlorine is usually supposed to 
be present in water as common salt for the 
most part. Some of it very likely comes from 
mineral deposits on this watershed. Salt is 
also present in sewage, and this is one of the 
reasons why it is accurately determined. 

The determination of chlorine is also of 
value in studying the composition of a water 
by virtue of the fact that it is not affected by 
any ordinary conditions which waters meet in 
nature. It is always soluble, and cannot be 
oxidized or reduced. For this reason it does 
not pass through a cycle of changes as does 
nitrogen. A comparison of the nitrogen and 
chlorine is therefore instructive. 

Residue on Evaporation. The residue on 
evaporation shows the total weight of the 
solid matter which the water contained. In 
the following tables the total residue is sub- 
divided into suspended and dissolved residues 

Attention is especially called to the sus- 
pended residue on evaporation. This shows 
the weight of the matters suspended in the 
water, and gives a good general idea of what 
the relative appearance of the water was on 
the different days. 

Fixed Residue after Ignition. After weigh- 
ing the total residue of the water upon evapo- 
ration it is the custom to heat the platinum 
dish containing the residue to a dull red point 
and again weigh it. By this means the fixed 
residue is obtained. 

Formerly it was supposed that this ignition 
burnt off the organic matter, and the differ- 
ence in weight of the contents of the dish 
would give the amount of organic matter 
present in the water. This is not true, how- 
ever, because the ignition volatilizes certain 
mineral constituents of the water, which would 
be erroneously figured as organic matter. 

Nevertheless, the fixed residue on evapora- 
tion appeared to be of some value in studying 
the comparative composition of the mineral 
constituents of the water. 

Alkalinity. This determination is one of 



great importance in connection with the puri- 
fication of water by the method under investi- 
gation. These results show the amount of 
carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and 
magnesium which were present in the water. 
It is these compounds which decompose alum 
or sulphate of aluminum, as is explained in 
Chapter III. 

The results are expressed in terms of cal- 
cium carbonate (lime). They are somewhat 
similar to the " temporary hardness " deter- 
mination by the " soap method." 

Dissolved Alumina. - - No appreciable 
amount of dissolved alumina could be found 
in the river water. The results of the tests 
are recorded, however, as they are of value 
in the study of the question as to the passage 
of alum through the systems into the filtered 
water. 

Iron. The results of the determination of 
iron are of value in showing variations in the 
composition of the suspended matter in the 
water. Practically all of the iron was con- 
tained in the suspended matters. 



Special Chemical Analyses. 

There were several sanitary and technical 
problems under consideration, which re- 
ijuired special chemical analyses from time 
to time, as follows: 

1. Atmospheric oxygen dissolved in the 
water. 

2. Carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide) dis- 
solved in the water. 

3. Those dissolved chemicals in the water 
which give to the water its " permanent hard- 
ness " and its power to produce incrustations 
in steam-boilers. 

The first set of these data was fairly com- 
plete, from a practical point of view, during 
1895-96, and the analyses were made less fre- 
quently in 1897. With regard to the latter 
sets of data, however, the evidence early in 
1897 showed that these constituents were so 
variable and of such importance that they 
were included in the regular analyses. As a 
matter of convenience, however, the results 
are recorded here; but reference to the fore- 
going tables will show their relation to other 
constituents of the water. The significance 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



33 



of these results is explained and discussed in 
subsequent chapters. 

Dissolved Oxygen in the River Water. 
These results are of value in connection with 
the preservation of the quality of the water 
after purification, and for a comparison of the 
water before and after treatment, especially 
in the electrolytic process with iron elec- 
trodes. The amount of atmospheric oxygen 
which may be contained in the river water is 
limited by the saturation of oxygen gas in the 
water; and the saturation depends chiefly on 
the temperature (and pressure), the amount 
of oxygen necessary for saturation decreasing 
as the temperature increases. In the adjoin- 
ing table the amounts of oxygen gas dis- 
solved in the river water are expressed in 
parts by weight per million parts of water by 
volume, and in percentages of the amounts 
necessary for the saturation of the water at 
the actual temperature at the time of col- 
lection. 

Carbonic Acid Gas Dissolved in the River 
Water. As an aid in an investigation into 
the influence of carbonic acid gas (carbon di- 
oxide) upon the corrosive action of the river 
water before and after purification by differ- 
ent methods, the amount of this gas which 
was naturally dissolved in the river water with 
the formation of carbonic acid was deter- 
mined with results given on page 34. It de- 
veloped in the course of the tests that the 
determinations of carbonic acid gas are of 
more importance than was generally sup- 
posed to be the case formerly, and, as stated 
above, the analyses were made with more fre- 
quency in 1897 than during the first part of 
the work. In passing it may be noted that 
at times the weight of carbonic acid gas dis- 
solved in the river water equalled and even 
exceeded the weight of all solid matters dis- 
solved in the water. 

Hardness of the Rircr Water. The hard- 
ness of a water depends upon the presence of 
dissolved salts of calcium (lime) and magne- 
sium. These salts consist of the carbonates, 
bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, and ni- 
trates. The bicarbonates are carbonates 
which are held in solution by carbonic acid. 
For many years it has been the custom to 
subdivide hardness into " temporary hard- 
ness " and " permanent hardness." Tempo- 



PARTS PER MILLION OF ATMOSPHERIC OXY- 
GEN DISSOLVED IN THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER, WITH PERCENTAGES SHOWING 
THE RELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNTS 
FOUND AND THOSE NECESSARY FOR SAT- 
URATION AT ACTUAL TEMPERATURES. 



Date. 

1895. 


Tempera- 
ture. 

llc^rei-s 


Dissolved Atmospheric Oxygen. 


Parts per Million. 


Percentages which the 
Amounts Found were 
of the Amounts 
Required for 
Saturation. 


Satura- 
tion. 


Found. 


Dec. 3 


3-4 


12.32 


10.3 


78 


" 4 


4-5 


12.57 


9-5 


76 


" 6 


4-2 


12.69 


IO.2 


so 


" 9 


4-1 


12.88 


II. 2 . 


8? 


1896 










Jan. II 


2.1 


I3-52 


II. 6 


86 


Feb. 10 


5-9 


12.19 


"3 


93 


" IS 


7.0 


11.90 


II. 6 


97 


" 26 


3-4 


13.01 


13-0 


IOO 


Mar. 4 


4.4 


12. 6l 


ii. 6 


92 


" II 


6.5 


12.01 


10.8 


90 


" 19 


5-2 


12.38 


12.4 


IOO 


Apr. 9 


9-9 


ii. 16 


10.2 


91 


May 6 


23.1 


8.47 


7.2 


85 


" 14 


24.0 


8.34 


6.6 


79 


' 23 


24-5 


8.28 


6.2 


75 


' 29 


24.7 


8.25 


5-9 


7i 


June 5 


24.2 


8.32 


6-3 


76 


" 10 


24.7 


8.25 


66 


80 


" 18 


25-3 


8.20 


6.4 


78 


" 24 


26.8 


8.02 


6.4 


80 


July 9 


25-5 


8.17 


5-9 


72 


" 18 


25.6 


8.15 


5-8 


71 


1897 










April 10 


"3 


10.81 


IO. I 


.93 


" 20 


II. 6 


10.75 


10. 1 


94 


" 29 


16.3 


9.61 


8.5 


88 


June 4 


20.9 


8.81 


8.7 


99 


" 5 


21.8 


8.65 


8.7 


IOO 


' 17 


26.7 


8.04 


7-4 


92 


" 18 


29.1 


7-73 


6.6 


85 


" 25 


26.0 


8.H 


6.7 


82 


" 27 


25 3 


8.20 


6.9 


84 


" 28 


25.3 


8.20 


6.6 


81 


" 30 


26.2 


8.09 


8.0 


99 


July I 


26.6 


8.05 


6.7 


83 


3 


27.6 


7-95 


6.2 


78 


9 


30.0 


7-76 


5-4 


69 


' '3 


26.5 


8.05 


6.8 


84 


'4 


27.2 


7.98 


7-0 


88 


10 


26.1 


8.10 


8.0 


99 


' 20 


26.8 


8.02 


8.0 


IOO 


' 21 


27-5 


7.96 


8.0 


IOO 


' 23 


27-7 


7-94 


6.5 


82 


' 27 


26.2 


8.09 


4.6 


57 



rary hardness is caused by bicarbonates of 
lime and magnesia which are precipitated 
upon boiling, due to the expulsion of car- 
bonic acid gas. The remaining salts of lime 
and magnesia, as stated above, have been re- 
garded as permanent hardness. 

The practical significance of the above- 
stated salts of lime and magnesia is twofold 
in connection with these investigations, 
namely: 



34 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



AMOUNT OF CARBONIC ACID GAS (CARBON 
DIOXIDE) DISSOLVED IN THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER. 

(Parts per Million.) 



Date. 

1896. 


Car- 
bonic 
Acid 
Gas. 


Date. 

1897. 


Car- 
bonic 
Acid 
Gas. 


Date. 

1897. 


Car- 
bonic 
Acid 
Gas. 


June 18 


30.8* 


April 3 


53-5 


May 29 


IOI.6 


" 22 


26.4* 


" 7 


79.6 


June I 


66.6 


" 24 


27-7* 


" 8 


46.0 


" 2 


90.5 


' 27 


29.7* 


" 9 


91.0 


" 4 


82.7 


July 3 


30.6* 


' 10 


80.0 


7 


89.0 


" 8 


21. I* 


" 12 


65.0 


" 10 


133.0 


Nov. 28 


83.0 


" 13 


44.0 


" ii 


107.6 


Dec. 10 


98.0 


" 14 


75-7 


" 15 


98.8 


1897 




" 15 


88.3 


" 16 


103.3 


Feb. 16 


80.4 


" 16 


50.2 


" 17 


107.6 


Mar. 2 


63.4 


" 21 


41.2 


" 18 


82.7 


" 3 


59.0 


" 22 


42-7 


" 19 


106.3 


4 


67.8 


" 23 


43.0 


' 20 


100.3 


" 5 


49-3 


' 25 


55 o 


" 21 


100.3 


" 6 


47-6 


' 27 


94-9 


" 22 


100.3 


7 


51-4 


' 2g 


85-9 


" 23 


107.4 


' ii 


99-5 


May 4 


86.8 


' 24 


100.3 


' 12 


88.0 


" 7 


57-4 


' 25 


105.6 


' 13 


122.4 


' 8 


110.6 


" 26 


113.7 


' 15 


45-8 


' 9 


66.7 


" 27 


120.0 


' 16 


33-4 


' 10 


72.1 


" 28 


92.1 


' 19 


38.8 


' 13 


65.2 


' 30 


105-9 


' 20 


42.6 


' M 


76.6 


July I 


93-9 


' 22 


46.4 


' 15 


50.8 


2 


75-3 


' 23 


40.4 


' 18 


67.3 


" 3 


73.1 


' 24 


44-9 


' 19 


71.8 


" 6 


100.4 


' 25 


41.9 


' 21 


88.7 


" 7 


106. i 


" 26 


36.5 


' 22 


95-9 


" 8 


99-9 


" 27 


47.0 


' 23 


94-3 


" 12 


71.8 


' 29 


56.6 


" 26 


80.2 


" 15 


47.0 


' 30 


80.0 


" 27 


80.0 


" 16 


28.8 


Apiil i 


53-6 


" 28 


107-3 


" 17 


49-4 


" 2 


59-o 











* The results of June and July, 1896, were obtained 
by the Pettenkoffer method, without the Trillich modi- 
fication, and are probably much too low. 

1. It is the carbonates and bicarbonates of 
lime and magnesia in the river water which 
possess the power of decomposing such ap- 
plied chemical products as alum and sulphate 
of alumina, and thereby forming the gelati- 
nous hydrate of aluminum that acts as a co- 
agulant. 

2. It is the remaining salts (sulphates, 
chlorides, and nitrates) of lime and magnesia 
which are connected with the formation of in- 
crustations when the water is used in steam- 
boilers. 

By the old Clark method of getting the bi- 
. carbonates, called temporary hardness, the 
full power of the water to decompose the 
commercial chemicals stated above is not re- 
corded, because it does not include the car- 
bonates. In practice it is found that the car- 



bonates will decompose 3 grains or more of 
sulphate of alumina per gallon. To use a 
method which shows only the bicarbonates is, 
therefore, inadmissible; and Hehner's method 
was employed. This method furnished what 
is required, that is, both the carbonates and 
bicarbonates. For the sake of explicitness 
these results are recorded as the alkalinity of 
the water in the foregoing tables of analyses. 
As the Ohio River possesses no carbonate 
or bicarbonate of soda or potash, the full 
alkalinity of the water is due to the carbon- 
ates and bicarbonates of lime and magnesia. 

By the old Clark method the carbonates of 
lime and magnesia are recorded with the " in- 
crusting constituents " or " permanent hard- 
ness." The facts show that these two com- 
pounds are permanent, but they form a 
sludge, and not an incrustation, in steam-boil- 
ers. By the Hehner method, which was em- 
ployed in these investigations, the carbonates 
are not included in the following table of re- 
sults, which, in the absence of a better name, 
are termed the " incrusting constituents " of 
the water. These results, which are dis- 
cussed in Chapter XV, are expressed accord- 
ing to the conventional method in equivalent 
parts of calcium carbonate. A further con- 
sideration of the methods of analyses will be 
found in the appendix. 

The dissolved salts of lime and magnesia 
are a'so of importance in connection with the 
consumption of soap when the water is used 
for washing purposes. This point is practi- 
cally uninfluenced by the purification pro- 
cesses under consideration, but the range of 
variation in this soap-consuming ingredient 
may be noted by taking the sum of the alka- 
linity and incrusting ingredients. See first 
table on page 35. These results approximate 
the total hardness results obtained by the 
Clark method. 



Mineral Analyses of the Ohio River Water. 

A record of the results of the determination 
of the mineral constituents of the river water 
is presented in the next table. Eight samples 
were analyzed with as much completeness as 
circumstances allowed; and the results show 
very clearly the marked variations which the 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



35 



INCRUSTING CONSTITUENTS OF THE OHIO 

RIVER WATER. 

(Parts per Million.) 



Date. 
'895. 


Incrust- 
ing 

Constit- 
uents. 


Date. 

1897. 


Incrust- 
ing 
Constit- 
uents. 


Date 

.897. 


Incrust- 

^ '"B. 
Constit- 
uents. 


Dec. 9-11 


43-9 


Mar. 25 


1O.O 


May ig-2O 


10.8 


i8g6 




" 26 


13-9 


21 


Il.g 


May 6 


43.0 


" 29 


12.8 


" 21-23 


15.9 


" 14 


33-8 


' 30 


33-3 


" 23-24 


IO. 2 


22 


40.1 


Apr. i 


29.1 


25 


20. 2 


" 29 


41.1 


" 2-3 


IS.2 


' 25-26 


M-5 


June ii 


44-0 


3-4 


II. 


27 


I6. 7 


" 18 


30.0 


5 


29-9 


' 27-28 


19-3 


July 30 


35-0 


6 


23-4 


4 28-2g 


16.8 


i8 9 7 




" 6-7 


30.0 


3' 




Feb. 17 


18.7 


8 


19.8 


June i 


17.0 


" . 22 


24.7 


9 


14.2 


2-3 


I7 .6 


" 23 


17.2 


' 9-10 


13 3 


4-5 


23-5 


' 24 


21.2 


' II 


9.0 


7-8 


22.5 


" 25 


16 I 


12 


12.7 


9-10 


23.8 


" 26 


IO.O 


" 13-14 


16.0 


11-12 


28.8 


" 27 


S.o 


" M-I5 


20. o 


21 


28.8 


Mar. i 


15-8 


" I5-I6 


18.1 


22 


31.0 


" 2 


IO.O 


" 2O-2I 


15-5 


23 


31-8 


3 


8.0 


" 21-22 


17.5 


24 


27.8 


4 


12.0 


" 22 


12. 


25 


21.9 


" 5 


25.3 


" 22-23 


14.6 


27 


19.0 


" 6 


34-6 


" 23-24 


M.3 


28 


17-5 


7 


16.0 


27 


12.7 


29-30 


25-5 


9 


23-4 


28 


17.0 


July 2 


20. o 


' to 


17.9 


29 


32.0 


6 


20.9 


1 it 


30.0 


" 29-30 


21.7 


7 


47.0 


' 12 


33-0 


30 


I 


g-io 


II. O 


' 15 


14.0 


May i 


/ 20. o 


' 12-13 


12.8 


' 16 


20.5 


4 


23.0 


' M-I5 


14.8 


' 17 


24.6 


5 


17.0 


16 


14.0 


' 18 


36.0 


" 6-7 


'5-5 


17-18 


12.3 


' 19 


16.7 


8-9 


15.8 


' ig-2O 


24.2 


' 20 


22. 


13 


16.1 


' 21-22 


24.2 


' 22 


12.4 


'4 


23.2 


' 23-24 


43-8 


' 23 


9.0 


15 


11.3 






- 24 


10.8 


" 17-19 


9.0 







composition of the river water possessed dur- 
ing these investigations. 



The sample which was collected on May 29 
and 30, 1896, was analyzed both before and 
after nitration through fine filter-paper. At 
this time the water contained a large amount 
of very finely divided particles; and it was 
probably the most difficult water to purify 
without subsidence that was encountered dur- 
ing the whole work. The sample was col- 
lected just after a heavy rain, following an 
extended period of drought. 

From March 23 to 29, inclusive, the sam- 
ple for analysis was prepared by mixing equal 
small portions of the river water collected 
every six hours. During this time the sys- 
tems of purification were in operation night 
and day. By automatic devices samples of 
filtered water were collected, representing the 
entire period. The analyses of the filtered 
water are presented in Chapter VII. 

According to the general custom the re- 
sults of the determination of the various ele- 
ments in the water, both metallic and acid, 
are expressed in the following table of 
analyses in the form of oxides (except the 
chlorine). 

As would naturally be expected in the 
water of a river, the watershed of which offers 
such a wide range in the possibilities for dif- 
ferent kinds of rock disintegration and sur- 
face erosion, the relative amounts of the 
mineral constituents are seen to vary widely. 
This is shown very forcibly in the following 
table, in the case of suspended matters, by a 
comparison of the ratio existing between the 
alumina and the oxide of iron. 



RESULTS OF MINERAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 

(Parts per Million.) 



Periods of Collection. 


1895 


1896 


Oct. 28 
to 
Nov. 14. 


NOV. 22 

to 

NOV. 2Q. 


Dec. 9 
to 
Dec. 20. 


Jan. a 
to 
Jan. n. 


Feb. 7 
to 
Feb. 27. 


Feb. 28 
to 
Mar. 18. 


Mar. 23 
to 
Mar. 29. 


May 29 and 30. 


Unfil- 
tered. 


Filtered. 


Silica (SiOj) 


II. 2 
0.2 

3-7 


25.9 

0-4 

3-9 
fo.3 

58.2 
17.1 


28.4 
3-7 
7-3 
1.4 

49.0 
13.8 
10.5 
37-1 
39-9 
5-0 
29.8 

24.3 
Trace. 


227.2 
21.6 

15-7 
o,| 
39-6 


206.7 
26.0 
7O.O 


42 6 
6.4 
5-9 


299.5 

39-4 
76.6 

2.2 

I.I 

31-7 
14.0 

8 5 


325.3 

32.8 

I3I-4 
3-4 
2-9 
69.2 
28.1 


9-3 
0.6 
O 

o 
Trace. 
47-7 
3-9 


Oxide of iron (Fe 3 O 3 ) 






Oxide of nickel (NiO) 












35-5 
13.0 


32.7 
11.4 






Soda (Na a O) 




12-5 

3-r 
10.7 
22.3 

20.8 

19.4 
Trace. 


Potash (KjO) . . ... 










18.1 






Chlorine (Cl) 


65.4 
3-1 
44 


39-9 
4.8 

43-o 

iS.o 


6.4 
16.9 

19-7 
28.2 
1.2 


8.2 
ii. 6 
25-9 
37-4 
Trace. 


5.6 

14-7 
21.3 

23-3 
1.6 


10.4 
3-3 
38.7 
18.1 

3-7 


10.4 
33 
38-7 
18.3 
Trace. 


Nitric acid (NaOs) 


Carbonic acid (combined) (CO 3 ) 













WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



BIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE OHIO 
RIVER WATER. 

Determinations of the number of bacteria 
in the river water, and a study of their relation 
to disease, occupied the gerater part of the at- 
tention with regard to this portion of the work. 
Microscopical examinations of the water, 
however, were made from time to time to 
learn the numbers and kinds of the larger 
micro-organisms which were present. 

Microscopical Examinations of the River Water. 

In the next table (see p. 37) there are pre- 
sented the results of the microscopical exam- 
ination of the river water for the presence of 
algae, diatoms, etc. As already stated, these 
micro-organisms are much larger than the 
bacteria, and may be classified by the aid of 
low powers of the microscope. 

It will be noted that the algae (cyanophyeae 
and chlorophyceae) and diatoms, which are 
usually abundant in surface water during hot 
weather, were present in only very limited 
numbers after the last of May, 1896. The 
reason of this was, undoubtedly, that the large 
amount of suspended matter in the water 
prevented the sunlight, which is necessary for 
their development, from reaching them. 

In 1897 no microscopical examinations of 
the river water were made during its muddy 
condition. The single analysis on June n, 
however, when the water was very clear, com- 
paratively speaking, shows the range in num- 
bers and kinds of organisms which may be 
expected under such conditions. 

Identification of Species of Bacteria in the River 

Water, with special reference to their 

Causation of Disease. 

With regard to this portion of the biologi- 
cal analyses attention was especially directed 
to the detection of bacteria which are dan- 
gerous or suspicious from a hygienic point of 
view. It is to be stated that during the low 
water in the river in November, 1895, and 
again during the last part of April and early 
part of May, 1896, when there had been a 
drought for a month or more, there was found 
in the river water B. coli communis. This 



germ is the most prominent one in sewage, 
and it is also the most abundant species in the 
fecal discharges of man and certain domestic 
animals. On May i, five days after the be- 
ginning of the period when this germ was re- 
peatedly found in the river water, an exam- 
ination of the tap water in the city also 
showed its presence there. 

At high stages of the river and when the 
water was very muddy the results of numer- 
ous examinations for sewage bacteria were 
negative in a great majority of cases. 
Nevertheless, B. coli communis was found in 
the river water on June 30, 1896, and closely 
allied kinds of bacteria were noted from time 
to time during the investigations. The evi- 
dence indicates that with muddy water and 
high stages of the river there are conditions 
which aid in causing the disappearance to a 
marked degree of those germs which appear 
to come from the entrance of sewage into the 
river above the pumping station. 

The results of tests for the presence of the 
germs of typhoid fever and other diseases 
were negative in all cases. It is not to be 
understood, however, that these negative re- 
sults are adequate proof that disease germs 
were entirely absent from the river water. 

The reason of this lies in the natural limita- 
tion of the most approved laboratory methods, 
which at best allow an examination of only 
a very small portion of the quantity of water 
flowing in the stream. These comments are 
especially true in view of the fact, as stated 
above, that at times of low water there were 
present intestinal bacteria. 

In 1897 twelve tests for B. coli communis 
were made between January 2 1 and February 
4, with negative results in each case. From 
April i to 9, nine more tests were made in 
which this germ was found in three instances. 

The question of the classification of the nu- 
merous but harmless species of bacteria in the 
water received as much attention as time al- 
lowed. Owing to the fact that there were 
several other lines of work which yielded re- 
sults of greater importance from a practical 
standpoint, this question was not made one of 
constant study. Nevertheless, the investiga- 
tions on the detection of dangerous or suspi- 
cious species, and on the comparison of the 
species of bacteria in the water before and 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER, 



37 



RESULTS OF MICROSCOPICAL ANALYSES OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 
(Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.) 



Date of Collection. 


1896. 
February. 


March. 


,896 
April. 


1896. 
May. 


1896. 
June. 


1896. 
ufy. 


1897. 
une. 


18 


'9 


26 


4 


ii 


'9 


=7 


10 


16 


6 


15 


31 | 29 


ii 


18 


7 


8 
711 


it 


Number of Sample. 277 


28O 304 


329 


354 


382 


404 


459 


471 


l 
5 10 . 544 


564 


585 


629 


651 


684 


1001 




340 


120 120 


16 


14 


42 


S 


114 
16 
72 
40 


60 

2 


18 


38 


112 


44 


6 


24 


2 


2 


659 

"5 
69 
165 

37 






1 2O 


06 












14 
14 


40 
16 


28 
8 












60 8 


8 


9 


16 


5 


40 


8 


6 


16 


2 


2 












12 
































3 
I 
























80 
I 
173 




1 6O 
20 
40 








8 


3 




8 
2 


10 


4 


24 
32 












Cyclotella 


20 8 


2 


8 


8 




























40 - - - 


2 




2 




8 


2 












g 














g 


























I 
I 

17 
8 
8 
289 




















2 




2 


























































































































20 


o 


8 


2 


I 


8 

2 








2 


8 


26 


352 


20 


4 


16 


2 


O 


































g 






22 

88 








g 












2 


g 


26 


352 


20 


4 
















2 




















































20 

143 

2 

13 

































g 












































































O 


60 
60 

20 


8 
8 

2- 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 

3 


12 
12 
6 


10 
IO 



8 
8 
16 


2 
2 
O 


o 


2 
2 


o o 

1 











2 

2 









6 

4 
2 


2 


8 20 

1 


14 


24 


2 


2 


19 
I 
2 
'3 








2O 




















4 
16 


4 

10 


8 
8 


2 


2 






J- 


2 


2 


4 




g 






8 


















Cilliata. ... 




























g 




















2 





R 




















3 
'4 













4 

2 


2 

2 


o 





2 





O 


o 


8 


o 


16 

g 


O 


O 


Triarthra 


































I 

13 
I 
I 
3 

2 

I 










2 






















g 














































































40 


O 


8 


2 


2 
I 
I 


2 
2 


3 


O 


O 


12 


4 


241 8 
16' 


6 

6 


o 


O 


O 




Ova 






8 


2 










2 


8 4 
























2 
IO 

44 
7 






























2 

72 

10 
















400 
6 
Ver 


2OO 
5 
v ab 


168 

8 

ltld;i 


28 
IO 
nt in 


24 
II 

all c 


70 

13 
ases 


21 

5 


168 

8 


66 
IO 


496 96 

gl 9 


30 

5 


80 
9 


6 
3 


6 
3 


993 
26 




Amorphous matter... 



after purification, necessarily involved a con- 
siderable effort in this direction. Comparison 
of the results of diagnostic tests used for the 
identification of species of bacteria with the 
available published descriptions of bacteria 
indicated, so far as the similarity of labo- 
ratory methods would allow, the presence 
of several new species as well as a consider- 
able number which have been found else- 
where. 

The following list of bacteria and yeasts, 
together with the results of the microscopical 
examinations already presented in this chap- 



ter, indicate the nature of the microscopic 
flora of the Ohio River water: 

Bacillus arborescens (Frankland). 
aurantiacus (Frankland). 
coli communis (Escherich). 
flavescens (Pohl). 

' fluorescens liquefaciens (Fliigge). 
fluorescens non-liquefaciens (Ei- 

senberg). 

fulvus (Zimmerman), 
janthinus (Zopf). 
lactis aerogenes (Escherich). 
mesentericus ruber (Globig). 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Bacillus nebulosus (Wright). 

" prodigiosus (Ehrenberg). 

" proteus vulgaris (Hauser). 

" radiatus aquatilis (Zimmerman). 

" ramosus (Frankland). 

" rubidus (Eisenberg). 

" subtilis (Ehrenberg). 

" venenosus (Vaughan). 

" violaceus (Frankland). 



Cladothrix castrana (Cohn). 

dichotoma (Cohn). 
Micrococcus aquatilis (Bolton). 

cremoides (Zimmerman). 
Proteus fluorescens (Jager). 
Sarcina lutea (Schroeter). 
Saccharomyces cerevisse (Mayen). 
Rosa Hefe. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER. 



39 



Quantitative Bacterial Analyses of the River Water. 

The average results for each day of the determination of the numbers of bacteria in the 
river water are recorded in the following table: 

AVERAGE RESULTS OF DAILY DETERMINATIONS OF THE NUMBER OF BACTERIA PER 
CUBIC CENTIMETER IN THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



Date. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 












21 3OO 




39 600 


<s 4OO 


18 800 








6 800 


























a-i /ioO 


3 1 <x>o 




13 800 






-1C2 


6 800 


8 600 


5 5 


29 SOO 


27 ooo 


7 ooo 


8 500 












71 ooo 


18 ooo 




6 ooo 




6 





228 


9900 


5 ooo 


30 800 


12 200 


18 700 


5 ooo 


4900 


g 




lfi7 










J } 800 












8 200 






















I 800 
















6^7 




2 ^OO 


19 800 


, 7 700 


13 OOO 


7 ^oo 


6 600 






888 


2 8()O 










; QOO 


6 ioo 










I 9OO 


14 800 


1 1 OOO 


Q 6OO 


* 600 


13 400 










8OO 






7 ^OO 


6 500 








180 
















16 




223 


I QOO 


3 200 




16 600 


I 7OO 


7 300 


8 400 










6 500 












18 




1 66 


2 2OO 


7 300 


14 400 


19 700 


5 900 


6600 


10 600 






184 
























6 400 


17 400 


46 7OO 


4 8OO 


4 800 


10 500 




148 




















TCS 


























4 800 








6 ioo 


8 ooo 




118 






3 600 










8 300 










7 2OO 


1 6 200 


46 ooo 


8 100 


I QOO 


7 5 


26 










25 200 






I 800 




27 




2 3OO 


12 OOO 


IO6OO 


4 100 


31 900 


6 500 


4 ioo 


10 800 


*J) 






















128 


e 2OO 




1 8 200 


14 800 


40 2OO 


7 100 


26 ioo 


13 300 




1 06 


















3 


18-1 






































Date. 


July. 


August. 


December. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


















2 2CC 


3 300 










































3 














25 ioo 


Q7O 














33 300 


5 9 


37 300 


71O 




6 










39 800 




22 IOO 




3 -1-7O 


















77O 




g 












32 5OO 


19 800 


640 


16 900 
















13 ioo 




6 700 












46 500 


46 ooo 


15 300 


460 


8 700 












38 600 


50 ooo 


1 1 800 


47O 














30 500 


44 400 


31 ooo 


5QO 


14 Soo 




















8 900 


*3 












27 7OO 


52 400 








8 300 










31 500 


49 400 


47O 


s 600 


16 










1 1 800 


Tl 5OO 




<iir 


t. 800 


















660 


() 500 


18 










27 500 




16 500 


7 5OO 


1 300 
















12 700 




1 7OO 












41 100 


14 4OO 


14 300 


12 300 


2 QOO 














14 QOO 


1 1 800 


Q 2OO 


1 7OO 








7 800 




26 500 


14 too 


10 800 


7 4o 


4 600 










5Q QOO 


17 600 


12 5OO 


16 700 


7 300 


5 200 












25 200 


II IOO 


10 300 


2O IOO 


6 ioo 
















Q TOO 


18 600 




26 










1 8 200 


8 IOO 


13 ooo 


14 900 
























28 












2O 7OO 


7 200 


7 600 
















17 4OO 


7 7OO 


12 6OO 




















8 600 






6 800 












2 560 



























WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE.. 



CHAPTER II. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE 
WATER BY THE SEVERAL SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION. 



OHIO RIVER 



WITH the systems of purification examined 
during the first portion of these tests, the ap- 
plication of chemicals is a matter of funda- 
mental importance for two reasons: 

1. Chemicals are absolutely necessary un- 
der normal conditions for successful filtration 
of water through sand at the rapid rate em- 
ployed in American filters. 

2. The application of chemicals to facilitate 
the subsidence of suspended matters, in such 
muddy water as that of the Ohio River, and 
to insure efficient filtration, makes their use 
the principal item in the cost of purification 
of this water by these systems. 

The topics which are considered in this 
chapter are as follows: 

Kinds of chemicals used. 

Composition of chemicals. 

Effect of the application of alum, or sul- 
phate of alumina, to the Ohio River 
water. 

Devices used by the respective systems for 
the application of chemicals to the Ohio 
River water. 

Uniformity in the rate of application of 
chemicals by the respective devices. 

Strength of solutions of chemicals applied 
to the river water by the respective sys- 
tems. 

Average daily amounts, in grains per gal- 
lon, of sulphate of alumina applied to the 
river water by the respective systems. 

This chapter deals with the problem as it 
stood on Aug. i, 1896. 

KINDS OF CHEMICALS USED. 

During these tests (1895-96) three kinds of 
chemicals were used: 

i. Sulphate of alumina (trade name, " basic 
sulphate of alumina "). 



2. Potash alum. 

3. Lime. 

Electrolytically formed chlorine and scrap- 
iron were also used in an experimental way 
with the Jewell System for a few hours on 
each of several days. 

Sulphate of alumina, of different lots and 
brands, was used regularly in the Warren and 
Jewell systems, except for a few hours on 
Feb. 10 in the case of the Warren System, 
when potash alum was employed. During 
the time when the Western Company made 
use of their first device for the application of 
chemicals, potash alum was used instead of 
sulphate of alumina, because the former was 
less soluble in water, and therefore more 
adaptable under the circumstances, as will be 
shown beyond. 

Potash alum was used by the Western Sys- 
tem up to May 20, and from June 4 to 6, 
inclusive. Sulphate of alumina was used dur- 
ing the remainder of the test. 

During a greater part of the time from 
Feb. 8 to April i, inclusive, lime was added 
to the river water with the sulphate of alu- 
mina in the case of the Jewell System. The 
object of this, apparently, was to improve the 
effect of the application of the sulphate of 
alumina, and to guard against the passage of 
the latter through the system into the filtered 
water. 

Sulphate of alumina, known commercially 
as basic sulphate of alumina, and potash alum 
are approximately of equal cost. The former 
contains no potash, less sulphuric acid and 
water of crystallization, but more alumina, as 
is shown in the table of analyses in the next 
section. It is the available (soluble in water) 
alumina in these two chemicals which give to 
them their efficiency in connection with the 
purification of such water as that of the Ohio 



APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 41 



River. For this reason sulphate of alumina 
is better and more economical to employ for 
this purpose. 

COMPOSITION OF CHEMICALS. 

The average results of duplicate analyses 
of potash alum crystals used in the Western 
System, as stated above, are presented in the 
following table. For the purpose of com- 
parison the theoretical percentage composi- 
tion of pure potash alum is also given. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF POTASH. 
ALUM USED IN THE WESTERN SYSTEM. 



Source of Sample. 


Alum Used in 
Western 
System. 


Pure Alum 
(theoretical). 


Matter insoluble in water .... 
Available alumina (Al 9 Oi). - 
Sulphuric acid (SO 3 ) 


O.02 
IO.72 

^4 .06 


o.oo 

10.77 

3 1 .76 


Water (H 9 O) 




je . c i 


Potash (K 3 O) 


IO.OO 


n.Q-i 


Lime (CaO) 








o 


o 









These results show that the potash alum 
used in the Western System was absolutely 
pure, practically speaking. 

In the next table are presented results of 
analyses of the sulphate of alumina used in 
the several systems. In the Warren System 
use was made of one brand obtained in three 
principal lots. For the most part in the Jewell 
System use was made of one brand, but a 
different one from that of the Warren Sys- 
tem, and also obtained in three principal lots. 
The second brand (lot No. 4) was used in the 
Jewell System alternately with the regular 
brand from June 20 to 30, inclusive, and from 
July 6 to II, inclusive. With the Western 
System use was made of several lots, for the 
most part of the same brand as that employed 
in the Warren System. 

In order to compare the composition of 
these commercial products with that of the 
theoretical sulphate of alumina, the percent- 
age composition of the latter is given in the 
following table: 



PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF THE SEVERAL LOTS OF SULPHATE OF ALUMINA. 



System. 


Number 

of 
Lot. 


Matter 

Insoluble in 
Water. 


Available 
Alumina 
<At,0,). 


Sulphuric 
Acid (SO S ). 


Water 
(H,U). 


Li me (CaO). 


Oxide of Iron 
(Fe a 8 ). 


Warren 


I 


O.o6 


17.88 


39.87 


41 .22 


o.oo 


O.JT 




2 


O. IO 


17.90 


38.61 


42. 7=: 


Trace 


O. ^2 


.. 


3 


O.O2 


17.86, 


37.72 


44.62 


0.08 


O.OO 


Jewell 


i 


1.98 


16.39 


37.96 


43.46 


o.oo 


O.2O 




2 


0.6-* 


16. 19 


17.87 


45.28 


Trace 


O.OO 


it 


3 


0.40 


16. 12- 


37-4S 


46.08 


Trace 


O.OO 


M 


4 


2. 17 


18.62 


42 . 20 


36 .90 




0.34 




2 


0.30 


17.20 


37.64 


44 .02 


O.O2 


o. 24 






O.OO 


15-32 


36.04 


48.64 


o.oo 


o.oo 



















In connection with the above tables it is 
to be noted that each lot of commercial 
sulphate of alumina contained considerably 
more available alumina than the theoretical 
sulphate of alumina. It is this portion (avail- 
able alumina) of these compounds that gives 
to them their efficiency for this particular pur- 
pose;' and, on an average, these commercial 
products contained about 60 per cent, more 
available alumina than the pure potash-alum 
crystals, analyses of which are presented in a 
foregoing table. Some of the sulphate of 
alumina used in the Jewell System contained 
more alumina than is indicated by the above 
results. But as it was insoluble in water it 
was of no value, and is recorded with other 
matters as " matter insoluble in water." 



These lots of sulphate of alumina differed in 
part from the theoretical sulphate of alumina, 
in that they contained less water of crystalliza- 
tion owing to the process of their prepara- 
tion. This fact alone caused the former to 
be richer in available alumina than the latter. 
The increase in the available alumina in the 
commercial products above that in the theo- 
retical sulphate of alumina was also greater 
than the corresponding increase in sulphuric 
acid. This point doubtless explains the 
origin of the trade name, basic s.ulphate of 
alumina. The ratio of the alumina (A1 2 O 3 ) 
to the acid (SO 3 ) in each lot is shown in the 
following table, with the corresponding ratio 
in the theoretical sulphate of alumina taken 
as one: 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



System. Lot. Ratio. 

Warren . . i i .05 

" . . 2 1.09 

" .-3 i.ii 

Western. 2 1.07 



System. Lot. Ratio. 

Jewell. . . i 1.02 

" ... 2 I.OI 

... 3 i.oi 

" ... 4 1.04 



In all comparisons and tabulations 
throughout this report the chemicals applied 
to the river water for the purpose of coagula- 
tion and sedimentation are expressed in terms 
of sulphate of alumina. Wherever potash 
alum was used the results are converted into 
their respective equivalents of sulphate of 
alumina, on the basis that 10 parts of the lat- 
ter are equal, from a practical point of view, 
to 1 6 parts of potash alum. 

EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF ALUM OR 

SULPHATE OF ALUMINA TO THE OHIO 

RIVER WATER. 

When alum or sulphate of alumina is ap- 
plied to the Ohio River water, it is decom- 
posed for the most part by the lime (calcium 
carbonate and bicarbonate) dissolved in the 
water, and there is formed a white, gelatinous 
precipitate of aluminum hydrate. The mag- 
nesium carbonate and bicarbonate in the 
water also decompose the alum in the same 
manner as does the lime. Carbonic acid gas 
is liberated by the decomposition of the alum, 
but remains dissolved in the water as- free 
acid. The lime and magnesia which combine 
with and decompose the alum pass into the 
form of soluble neutral sulphates. The tiny, 
sticky particles of aluminum hydrate group 
themselves together; and around the infinite 
number of centers of coagulation are gathered 
together more or less completely the matters 
suspended in the water, including the bac- 
teria, thereby forming flakes of greater or less 
size and weight. Neither before or after its 
decomposition has the alum or sulphate of 
alumina, in amounts which would be permis- 
sible in the purification of municipal water 
supplies, a germicidal effect on the bacteria, 
but simply aids in their removal, through sub- 
sidence and filtration, by their envelopment 
in the gelatinous flakes. Several factors ex- 
erted a marked influence upon the coagula- 
tion, upon the subsequent sedimentation, and 
finally upon the effect of the remaining co- 



agula in the water as it was filtered at a rapid 
rate through the sand. 

The application of chemicals to the Ohio 
River water where this system of purification 
is employed is of fundamental importance, in- 
fluencing both the efficiency and cost of the 
system, and the whole subject in its different 
phases will be discussed in detail beyond. At 
this time it is the purpose simply to point to 
the matter in a very general way, in order to 
make plainer and to bring out the signifi- 
cance of the following account of the devices 
used in the initial step in the process of puri- 
fication. 

DEVICES USED IN THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS 

FOR THE APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS 

TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 

In this section is given a brief description 
of the principal features of the several devices 
for the application of solutions of alum and 
other chemicals. An account of the effi- 
ciency with which this was accomplished will 
be found in subsequent sections of this chap- 
ter. In the following chapters are described 
the decomposition and subsequent disposi- 
tion of the applied alum or sulphate of alu- 
mina, and also the effect which this 
application produced in connection with the 
purification of water. 

Warren Device. 

Sulphate of alumina was applied to the 
water in the Warren System just after 
the river water entered the settling basin. 
The current of water in the inlet water- 
pipe revolved a small propeller wheel lo- 
cated in the mouth of the pipe. This wheel 
turned, by means of two sets of beveled gears, 
a specially designed pump, working in a 
pump box on the floor above. This pump 
box received the sulphate of alumina solution 
from the mixing tanks, the flow from which 
was regulated by a float valve. From the 
pump the solution of sulphate of alumina 
passed through a lead pipe discharging by 
gravity into the water in the settling basin, 
opposite the center and approximately 5 
inches from the end of the inlet water-pipe. 

Two white-pine mixing tanks were located 
on the floor over the settling basin and ad- 



APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



43 



jacent to the pump box. These tanks were 
used alternately, solutions being made up in 
one tank while the other was in service. Fil- 
tered water pumped from the filtered-water 
reservoir was used for dissolving the sulphate 
of alumina; and stirring was done in all cases 
by hand. The depth of the tanks was 4.5 
feet and the diameter about 4 feet. Owing 
to unsatisfactory working of the meter on the 
pipe through which the chemicals entered the 
water, and its final abandonment, glass 
gauges were employed for measuring the 
quantity of solution used. Calibrations of the 
tanks showed an average capacity for each 
o.i foot in depth of 1.24 and 1.18 cubic feet 
in tanks A and B, respectively. Owing to the 
distance which the outlet pipe was above the 
floor of the tanks, the lower portion of the so- 
lution in the tanks could not be used. The 
quantity of solution left in the tanks each 
time a new solution was prepared varied con- 
siderably, but generally amounted to some- 
thing less than 3 cubic feet. 

Pump Box. The solution of sulphate of 
alumina flowed into the pump box from the 
mixing tanks, the flow being regulated by a 
2-inch float valve of vulcanized rubber. The 
pump box was about 2.9 feet long by 1.2 feet 
wide. The depth of solution in the pump 
box was capable of regulation by varying the 
distance of the float from the center of the 
valve, the float arm being adjustable in 
length. This was intended as a means of 
varying the rate of application of solution by 
increasing or decreasing the depth of immer- 
sion of the pump arms. In practice it was 
not found successful, as the float valve was 
too irregular to make such an adjustment 
feasible. The maximum and minimum depths 
of solution, at the overflow of the pump box 
and the lowest level at which the device op- 
erated, were 1 1 and 5 inches, respectively. 

Propeller. The propeller wheel was a 
small screw wheel of about 0.5 foot outside 
diameter, set on a horizontal shaft directly 
in the mouth of the inlet water-pipe. When 
the Warren System was first installed a 
5-blade wheel was tried, but this was taken 
out and a 7-blade wheel substituted Nov. 25, 
1895. This wheel was made of cast brass. 
0.5 foot in diameter by 0.2 foot deep. There 
were seven blades, each pitched so that the 



circumferential distance between their edges 
was 2 inches. Connections from this pro- 
peller wheel to the shaft of the chemical pump 
above were made by two sets of small beveled 
gears and -a vertical shaft. 

Pump. The pump was a patented device 
constructed of vulcanized rubber. It was 
made up of six hollow curved arms, each of 
which lay in a plane perpendicular to the 
horizontal shaft on which the pump revolved, 
and which were connected respectively to six 
tubes placed parallel to the same shaft. The 
shape of the curved arms was approximately 
that of two straight pipes 5 and 3 inches long, 
respectively, making an angle of 45 and con- 
nected by a circular curve of 3 inches radius. 
The inside diameter of these arms and of the 
horizontal tubes was 0.5 inch. In operation 
the pump was revolved by the propeller 
wheel just described. The shaft of the pump 
was located upon the top of the pump box, 
the solution filling the pump box ordinarily 
to from I to 3 inches below the pump shaft. 
As the pump revolved, each arm was filled 
as it entered the solution, and as the end was 
the first part to leave the solution it trapped 
some of it, the amount varying with the 
height of the solution in the box. As the 
pump turned the liquid was dropped back into 
the arm and emptied out of the horizontal 
tube into a funnel at the side of the box. To 
this funnel was connected a lead pipe through 
which the solution flowed into the settling 
basin, discharging opposite the mouth -of the 
inlet water-pipe. 

Manner of Control of the Application of 
Chemicals. When the flow of river water, 
into the settling chamber was not too low 
(above 18 cubic feet per minute) the discharge 
of the solution from the pump was supposed 
to be proportional to the admission of river 
water. The amount of solution pumped was 
changed by the removal or insertion of rub- 
ber stoppers into the ends of the hollow arms 
of the pump. In some instances half-stop- 
pers (halved lengthwise) were inserted. 
Marked changes in the application of alum 
called for new solutions of different strength. 

Elevations. The relative elevations in feet 
of the more important points, referred to the 
bottom of the sand layer of the filter as the 
datum plane, were as follows: 



44 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Maximum flow line in mixing tanks.. 14.80 
Minimum flow line in mixing tanks. . . . 10.66 

Center of chemical pump 10.60 

Maximum flow line in pump box 10.58 

Center of discharge in the settling basin . 1.03 

Jewell Device. 

The solution of sulphate of alumina was 
pumped into the inlet water-pipe against a 
pressure of about 60 pounds at a point about 
xofeet inside the settling chamber. Before the 
entrance to the settling chamber of the river 
water containing the solution it passed through 
a meter and two valves on the main inlet pipe. 
Mixing Tanks. Sulphate of alumina solu- 
tions were prepared alternately in two cypress 
tanks 5.5 feet deep and 3.5 feet in average 
diameter. Filtered water, taken from the 
outlet pipe just as it left the filter, was used 
for dissolving the commercial product after 
it had been broken into small pieces. This 
was facilitated at times by heating the water 
with steam which was allowed to enter the 
water-pipe just before it reached the tanks. 
Pump. From *he tanks the solution was 
pumped into the inlet pipe by a 3.5 by 4.5 by 
6-inch single pump, the suction pipes of which 
reached to within about i inch of the bottom 
of the tanks. The ends of the suction pipes 
were capped with screens. The steam supplied 
to the pump was kept at practically a constant 
pressure by means of a regulating valve. 

Feed Pipe. The feed pipe from the pump 
to the inlet pipe was a heavy lead pipe 0.75 
inch in diameter. At first all fittings were of 
wrought iron, but owing to corrosion by the 
sulphate of alumina they repeatedly broke, 
and at the close of the test practically all fit- 
tings were of brass. 

Manner of Control. At the outset it was 
the custom to start the pump at a speed to 
deliver the desired quantity of solution and 
keep it under general control by means of a 
float on the water above the sand layer. This 
float was connected by a chain and pulley 
with a valve regulating the flow of steam to 
the pump. This was not a success, and the 
float was abandoned during the latter part of 
March, and the application controlled by fre- 
quent regulations of the steam-valve, inspec- 
tions of quantities from the meters and of the 
speed of the pump being used as guides. 



Ordinarily, changes in the speed of the pump 
would allow the desired arrangement in the 
application of sulphate of alumina, but in ex- 
treme cases the strength of the solution was 
altered. 

Elevations. The relative elevations in feet 
of the more important points, with the bot- 
tom of the sand layer of the filter as the datum 
plane, were as follows: 

Maximum flow line in mixing tanks . - 6.90 
Minimum flow line in mixing tanks. - 12.06 
Center of discharge into inlet pipe. . - 11.13 

Western Systems. 

As only one settling chamber was used for 
both the Western Pressure and Western 
Gravity systems a single device for the appli- 
cation of alum was sufficient. Two separate 
and distinct devices, however, were used. 
The first was used from the beginning of the 
operation of these systems up to April 7, and 
the second, following an extended period of 
modifications and repairs, was in service from 
May 7 till the close of the tests. 

First Western Device. 

On the main inlet water-pipe to the set- 
tling chamber there was a 6-inch gate 
valve which caused a difference in pres- 
sure above and below it. From above this 
valve a o.5-inch brass pipe led to the alum 
tank, which was a cast-iron vertical cylinder 

1 foot in inside diameter and approximately 

2 feet deep. The alum tank had a top open- 
ing with a cover constructed like a hand-hole 
fitting. The diameter of the opening was 
4.5 inches. The brass pipe above mentioned 
connected with the alum tank at the top and 
extended into it about i foot. From the top of 
the alum tank a second o. 5-inch brass pipe led 
to the inlet pipe below the valve above men- 
tioned. Suitable valves cut off the flow in 
both brass pipes; allowed access to the alum 
tank; and aided in controlling the flow of alum 
solution. A mercury column in a celluloid 
tube was used to indicate the difference in 
pressure in the two brass pipes. By this ar- 
rangement the alum solution was applied to 
the river water in the inlet pipe about 10 feet 
from the settling chamber. 

Operation. In use the alum tank was kept 
filled to a greater or less depth with crystals 



APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



45 



of potash alum put in through the hand-hole 
at the top. Differences in pressure in the 
inlet water-pipe before and after this by-pass 
caused the flow of a small quantity of water 
through the tank whereby" the alum was dis- 
solved and carried over into the inlet water- 
pipe. The only means of regulating the 
quantity of alum solution applied was by dif- 
ferences in the pressure of the water flowing 
through this by-pass. 

Second Western Device. 

The entire device for the application of 
chemicals was changed during April, the final 
arrangement being as follows: 

The separate pipe for the admission of river 
water to the system, which was introduced 
Feb. 29, was broken and a duplex pumping 
engine inserted on the pipe line. To this du- 
plex pump were attached auxiliary pumps by 
which the solution of chemicals was forced 
into the main inlet water-pipe beyond the 
pumps and about 30 feet from the settling 
chamber. The duplex water pump forced 
the river water, containing the alum or sul- 
phate of alumina solution, through the set- 
tling chamber, and also through the pressure 
filter, or into the top of the gravity filter. 

Mixing Tanks. Two pine tanks each 4 feet 
deep by 3 feet in diameter were used alter- 
nately for the purpose of preparing the solu- 
tions. The solutions were made with filtered 
water taken from the outlet pipe near its exit 
from the pressure filter, or with river water 
when the pressure filter was not in operation. 

Mam Water Pumps. The main pumping 
engine was a Worthington single-expansion 
duplex engine. The principal dimensions 
were as follows: 

Diameter of steam cylinder 9 inches 

Diameter of water cylinder 8.5 

Length of stroke 10 

Steam was supplied by a i. 5-inch asbestos- 
covered pipe. The exhaust, a 2-inch pipe, 
was open to the atmosphere. 

Auxiliary Chemical Pumps. The device 
used for pumping the solution of alum or sul- 
phate of alumina consisted of small plunger 
extensions of the main piston-rods on the 
water pumps above described. These 
worked in pockets in which they caused al- 
ternate suction and pressure. The valve sys- 



tem was a pair of cup valves in the same 
casting, one opening to allow flow from, and 
the other to allow flow into, the plunger 
pocket. These valves were located just out- 
side of the plunger chamber. 

Piping System. From the mixing tanks a 
system of o.5-inch brass pipes led to the aux- 
iliary pumps. The arrangement was such 
that either tank could be used, and either 
one or both of the auxiliary pumps op- 
erated. From the pump the solution of 
chemicals was forced through a system of 
o.75-inch brass pipes into a glass tube. A 3- 
inch brass air-chamber in the system equal- 
ized the flow. 

This glass tube was connected at the bot- 
tom with a brass pipe which led into the in- 
let water-pipe, discharging in the center of 
the inlet pipe through a tee set with its long 
arm with the current. The glass tube was 
also connected at the top with the top of a 
6-inch air-chamber in the inlet water-pipe. 
A body of air was always maintained in ihis 
chamber, and there was a corresponding ver- 
tical air column in the glass tube, as the level 
of the chamber and of the tube were the same. 
By this arrangement the alum or sulphate of 
alumina solution was discharged through an 
air column, thus making the flow of the solu- 
tion plainly visible. 

Manner of Control. As the pumps dis- 
charged a constant quantity, regulation of the 
application of chemicals was obtained by re- 
lief pipes and valves through which the excess 
of solution was returned to the mixing tanks 
and pumped over again. 

Elevations. The relative elevations in feet, 
with the bottom of the sand layer of the pres- 
sure filter as the datum plane, were as follows: 
Maximum flow level in mixing tanks. . .0.00 
Minimum flow level in mixing tanks. -3.34 

Center of pumps - 2.70 

Center of discharge into inlet + 1.80 

Jewell Device for Application of Lime. 

The device used for adding lime to the 
river water was modified a number of times 
during its use. At first it consisted simply 
of an ordinary barrel and suitable piping as 
described below. The barrel was located on 
the upper floor. Unslaked lime was put in 
the barrel and a stream of water let in at the 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



bottom. The flow of water into the barrel 
was regulated by a float valve. Near the top 
of the barrel a pipe led to a connection with 
the suction pipe from the sulphate of alumina 
tanks. To the lower end of this pipe was at- 
tached a glass cylinder in order to make 
visible the rate of flow. The mixed milk of 
lime and sulphate of alumina solutions were 
forced into the main inlet water-pipe by the 
same pump. At first the solution was stirred 
by hand, but later an aspirator was intro- 
duced. 

When the use of lime was resumed on 
March 21 the milk of lime solution was 
pumped through a separate pipe into the 
inlet water-pipe just outside the settling 
chamber; and the entire lime system was 
independent of the sulphate of alumina sys- 
tem. 

Elevations. The relative elevations in feet, 
with the bottom of the sand layer as the da- 
tum plane, were as follows: 

Discharge level in the lime 

barrel + 13.00 (approx.) 

Center of modified dis- 
charge into inlet pipe. . - 5.95 

Jewell Device for the Application of Iron. 

The device used for the application of iron 
consisted of a cast-iron tank, approximately 
i foot in diameter and 3 feet long, filled with 
scrap-iron. The piping was so arranged that 
the suction from the sulphate of alumina 
tanks, the suction from the lime barrel, and 
the force main from the sulphate of alumina 
pump could be connected with this tank. 
The iron could be thus introduced at any 
desired point in the flow of chemicals. 
It can hardly be said to have been in actual 
service, but was tried on Feb. 10 and 12, and 
again for 2.5 hours on Feb. 22. Its use was 
discontinued on the latter date on account of 
the very evident presence in the effluent of 
dissolved iron. 

Jeivell Device for the Application of Chlorine. 

This device consisted of a set of small U- 
shaped tubes, in which a common salt solution 
was decomposed by an electric current. A 



constant flow of water was maintained 
through the tubes. The water dissolved the 
hypochlorites and carried them with it to the 
water in the top of the filter. The apparatus 
was never used regularly, but was tried on 
Jan. 21 and 22, and for very short periods 
at later dates. On Jan. 22 available chlorine 
was applied in this way during the morning 
at the rate of o. i part per million by weight 
of applied water. 

UNIFORMITY IN THE RATE OF APPLICATION 

OF CHEMICALS IN THE RESPECTIVE 

SYSTEMS. 

Owing to the marked and comparatively 
sudden variations in the quality of the river 
water, the rate of application of chemical so- 
lution was varied by necessity from time to 
time. But with regard to uniformity when 
the quality of the river water was practically 
the same the observations revealed several 
points of an unsatisfactory nature. The 
amount of attention which was given to the 
devices for application of chemicals, further- 
more, was found to be a very important fac- 
tor in most instances. 

Speaking in general terms, the application 
of chemicals by the Warren device was fairly 
satisfactory. Its chief merit lay in the fact 
that it was automatic. It had a number of 
shortcomings, however. The rate of appli- 
cation of chemicals during short periods was 
variable, due to varying heights of solution 
in the pump box. When the river water en- 
tered the settling chamber at a rate of 'ess 
than about 18 cubic feet per minute the pro- 
peller wheel could not be depended upon to 
operate the pump regularly. So far as was 
learned the propeller was reasonably uniform 
in its action when the flow was greater than 
that stated above. The manner of regulating 
the operating area of the open arms of the 
pump by means of rubber stoppers was crude, 
and under some circumstances would limit 
the serviceability of the device in purifying 
such a water as that of the Ohio River. 

The operations of the Jewell device showed 
Nearly that its efficiency was closely depend- 
ent upon the attention which it received. 
During the latter part of the test it received 



APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



47 



sufficient attention to make its operation 
satisfactory. At. times during the first part 
of the tests, however, the application of chem- 
icals was very erratic. In some instances the 
rate of application of sulphate of alumina 
varied five or six hundred per cent, on the 
same day when the quality of the water was 
about the same. 

Complications arose when lime and sul- 
phate of alumina were both applied by the 
same device in the Jewell System. At times 
it appeared that the two chemicals entered 
the water alternately. 

With the first Western device control of 
the application of alum was repeatedly lost, 
even with a laborer spending the greater part 
of his time watching it. The Western Com- 
pany abandoned this device in April. 

The second Western device gave fairly 
satisfactory results, although it was necessary 
to give close attention both to the stuffing 
boxes between the water pumps and chemical 
pumps, and to the relief valves on the pipes 
through which the excess of solution was re- 
turned to the mixing tanks. 

This feature of the application of chemicals 
is a very important one, both with regard to 
the cost and the efficiency of purification, and 
will be discussed in Chapter IX. 

STREN'GTH OF SOLUTIONS OF CHEMICALS 

APPLIED TO THE RIVER WATER IN THE 

RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

Samples of the alum and sulphate of alu- 
mina solutions used in the several systems 
were collected at frequent but irregular inter- 
vals for examination. The specific gravity 
of the samples was determined by the aid 
of a Sartorius balance, and these readings 
were converted into percentages of applied 
chemicals from tables of factors which were 
checked from time to time. In all 1632 de- 
terminations were made of the strength of 
applied chemical solutions. In the next set 
of tables there are given the daily averages 
of the percentage strength of the solutions 
used in each system. Before considering 
these results there are several comments to 
be made. 

In the Jewell System the uniformity of 
strength of the sulphate of alumina solutions 



was very satisfactory, as a rule, during a 
greater part of the test. During the first 
portion, however, the variations in the 
strength of the solution were quite confus- 
ing. 

For the most part the uniformity of 
strength of the sulphate of alumina solutions 
used in the Warren System was fairly satis- 
factory. Small variations in the strength of 
even consecutive solutions, however, were 
repeatedly noted. This was due, apparently, 
to the complicated system of preparation of 
the solutions, which involved the considera- 
tion of certain quantities of solution in each 
tank when its use was stopped to prepare new 
solutions, and to too much dependence upon 
hydrometer readings. 

With the first device used in the Western 
System the variations in the strength of the 
alum solutions were so great that this factor 
placed the whole system at a great disadvan- 
tage at times, in spite of the comparatively 
close attention which it received. 

This device, which consisted of allowing a 
small stream of river water in the inlet pipe 
to flow through a by-pass in which was placed 
an iron cyclinder containing potash alum, 
showed marked weaknesses, among which 
were the following: 

1. The solubility of potash alum crystals 
varied with the temperature of the river water 
in the alum tank. 

2. The strength of the solution applied to 
the river water varied with the period of time 
that the river water remained in the alum 
tank; that is, it varied inversely with the rate 
of application of the alum solution. 

3. The strength of the solution varied with 
the amount of potash alum crystals in the 
tank. 

4. There were no ready means of knowing 
how much alum was being applied to the 
water; and in several instances the alum crys- 
tals in the cylinder became exhausted, or very 
nearly so. 

On many days the strength of the solution 
was quite uniform, especially during the latter 
half of the period when this device was used, 
and when, at times, a small gas flame was 
placed beneath the inlet pipe leading to the 
alum tank to increase the temperature of the 
water. Similar results to the following were 




4 8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



frequently obtained, however, during the first 
two months that the system was in operation. 







Percent- 






Percent- 


Date. 
1896. 


Hour. 


age of 
Alum in 
Applied 
Solution. 


Date. 

1896. 


Hour. 


age of 
Alum in 
Applied 
Solution. 


Jan. 24. 


10.28 A.M. 


7.8 


Frb. 2O. 


11.25 A.M. 


3-9 


'* 


11-35 " 


5.0 




1.20 P.M. 


5-7 


" 


12.32 P.M. 


6.2 




3-30 


3-3 


" 


I.3O 


3-2 




4.00 


4.6 


' ' 


3-7 " 


5-1 




4.30 


5-2 










5.00 


5-2 










5.30 


5-1 



The following results, obtained on Feb. 26, 
are more representative of the last portion of 
the period when more care was taken to pre- 
vent the exhaustion of alum from the tank. 



Hour. 


Percentage of 
Alum in Applied 
Solution. 


Hour. 


Percentage of 
Alum in Applied 
Solution. 


9.30 A.M. 


5-9 


2. 30 P.M. 


6. 5 


11.00 " 


4-9 


3-00 ' 


6.4 


12.30 P.M. 


5-9 


3-30 


6.5 


I.OO " 


6.1 


4-00 


5-7 


1.30 " 


6.2 


4.30 ' 


6.6 


2.OO ' 


5-9 


5.00 


6-5 



With the second device for the application 
of chemicals in the Western Systems, there 
came an improvement in the uniformity of the 
strength of solutions, but it was not thor- 



oughly satisfactory. This was due in part to 
mistakes in weighing out Jhe alum or sul- 
phate of alumina, and in part to accidental 
dilution of the solutions after their prepara- 
tion. An important factor in these varying 
strengths of solution, the effect of which is 
difficult to estimate accurately, was the flow 
of river water from the water pumps through 
the stuffing boxes into the pumps containing 
the solution of alum or sulphate of alumina. 

This was repeatedly observed and guarded 
against in part by frequent packing of the 
stuffing boxes. The maximum leak noted 
was about i gallon per hour for one of the 
two pumps. Under the conditions on that 
day, May 20, the dilution from this single 
pump amounted to about 10 per cent, of the 
full quantity of solution in one tank when full. 
With more nearly normal rates of flow of 
water and of alum solution this percentage 
would be somewhat less, but on the other 
hand the effect of the dilution from this 
source became cumulative, owing to the pas- 
sage through the pumps of an excess of the 
solution, and its return through relief pipes 
leading back to the mixing tanks. The last 
portion of the solution from the tank was 
thereby more diluted than the first. 



DAILY AVERAGES OF THE PERCENTAGE STRENGTH OF THE SOLUTIONS OF SULPHATE OF 
ALUMINA APPLIED TO THE RIVER WATER IN THE WARREN SYSTEM. 



Day. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


' July. 






2 80 










2 . 7O 


1 . 2O 


2 . "JO 


I .QO 










I . "7O 






2 .4.O 


1 . 2O 


2. 2O 


I .90 










2 -OO 


2 .OO 


2 .OO 


2 .QO 




2. 2O 


2.OO 
















2.8O 




2 . 2O 




4 
















1 . 2O 


2 .OO 




5 
5 




2 - 2O 


2 .OO 


2 .OO 


2. 2O 


2. 2O 


3-2O 


1.50 


2.OO 


2.0O 






















2 .OO 


7 




















2. 2O 
















2.6O 




2 .40 


2. 2O 


9 








I. 80 






2 .60 




2.40 


2. 2O 








I . ^O 


I. 80 




2 . IO 


2 .60 


I .OO 


I.QO 


2. IO 








. ao 






2. IO 




I IO 


2. 2O 










. 50 


2 . 2O 


I -GO 


2. 2O 




I.IO 


2. 2O 


2.0O 








.60 


2. 2O 








1 .00 




1.90 










2 . 2O 


2.OO 






1 .00 


2. 2O 


2.OO 


16 






. 50 


2. 2O 




2 .OO 




I. IO 


2. IO 


2.OO 








. 7O 












2.OO 


2.OO 


] 7 
18 






I.7O 


2-IO 


2. IO 


2.OO 




I.IO 


2.OO 


2.0O 




















2 . IO 




r 9 






2. 2O 


2.IO 


2.IO 


2.5O 


.60 


I.OO 


2.IO 


2.10 
















.60 


1 .00 




2. 2O 




08 






2 .QO 








1 .00 


I.gO 


2. IO 
















80 


1 .00 


2 .OO 


2.50 


23 






I. 80 




2 .OO 


2.8O 


75 




2.OO 


3-00 




06 












7O 


1 .00 


2.OO 


2.80 














2 8O 


























1 . 20 




2.6O 


27 

28 






2- IO 


2. 2O 


2 .OO 


2 3O 


.60 


1. 20 




2.6O 






















3 -oo 


29 






2 .20 


2 .4.O 




2 -4.O 


. 20 


1. 60 


2. 2O 


2.20 






















2. 2O 


3 1 























APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



49 



DAILY AVERAGES OF THE PERCENTAGE STRENGTH OF THE SOLUTIONS OF SULPHATE OF 
ALUMINA APPLIED TO THE RIVER WATER IN THE JEWELL SYSTEM. 



Day. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. ' 






0.42 






















o 42 


O ^1 






o So 










2 






0.33 


I . 2O 




O 75 


I 2O 














0. 33 


I . 2O 




o 60 














o. 40 


O. ^Q 
















6 






o 42 


I 2O 














7 




0.60 


0.42 




o 85 


O.6O 


I . 2O 








3 




0.30 




I . 2O 


i 40 
















o. 32 


o 42 


I 2O 




















o 42 


I 2O 














i r 




0.29 


0.42 


I . 2O 


i 40 


0. 1*, 


o 60 








12 




o. 34 


0.44 




i 40 


O ^O 














0.31 


o 44 


o 8:; 














14 




0.28 


0.44 


0.60 


i .20 


O. ^O 


O.6o 








i 5 




0.64 




0.60 


I -1C 




O.6o 




I 2O 




16 




o. 30 


0.40 


o 60 




O. 5 1 * 


55 








I 7 






o 44 


o 60 














18 




0.30 


0.44 


0.60 


1 .40 


0.60 


o. 50 




I 2O 








0.30 


0.88 




I 40 


0.60 














0.30 


0.88 


o 60 




O 7O 


O 55 








21 


o. 24 


0.30 


0.88 


0.60 


1 .00 


O. 2O 


0.65 






I 2O 






o 10 




















o 24 


0.30 


o. 71 


o 60 




.20 


o 60 










o 26 




0.80 


o 60 




2O 


o 58 












O. 1Q 




o 62 














26 


0.38 


0.39 


0.80 




0.80 


. 2O 






o 60 








O.^Q 


0.80 


o 65 


o 45 


2O 


o 60 






j So 


28 






0.80 


o 67 


o So 


o 80 














O ^Q 






o 80 














0.46 


O-3Q 


0.95 


o. 70 




O.6O 


0.60 




I 2O 










i .60 


o. 70 




I 2O 

































DAILY AVERAGES OF THE PERCENTAGE STRENGTH OF THE SOLUTION OF ALUM AND OF 
SULPHATE OF ALUMINA APPLIED TO THE RIVER WATER IN THE WESTERN SYSTEMS. 



Day. 


January.* 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 






6 




6 7 




2 6 




2 






c . e 


8.0 




1 .4 


2.4 


3 




6 


7 O 


7.4 




i . 5 


4.2 






t g 


7 O 


e g 








C 




6 2 








2 Q 




6 




4 . "\ 


6.1 


7.Q 




3.O 


2.2 


7 






7.O 


7- 2 


o 8 




2.2 


8 














2.O 








6 6 






a 2 


2.O 


10 


e .2 


5 7 


6 7 






3-2 


I .5 


1 1 


5 . 7 


5 Q 


6 o 




2.8 


2.6 


0.8 


12 










2 Q 


2.6 








6 2 


6 Q 






2.O 


3 2 






6 o 


6 8 




2 I 




3.0 


15 


6.8 


A 2 






2.2 


2.2 


2.9 


16 


7 2 




7 I 




2.2 


2.2 


2.7 


17 


C g 


4 6 


6 6 






2.2 


2.O 


18 


C g 




6 t, 




I 2 


O.Q 


1.8 








6 8 






2. 5 




20 




I 7 


c 6 




0.6 


2.8 


2.2 


21 


e. 8 




6 1 




o. 5 




I.q 


22 










O.6 


2.O 


1 .7 


2-J 


c 6 








o 6 




2.4 


24 


5 . 5 


5-6 


5 . 7 






1. 9 


2.7 


25 


A O 




6 o 




0.6 


2. I 


1 .9 


26 




6 i 


6 o 




o 8 


I 7 




27 


6 o 


6 o 


7 O 






2.5 


2.O 


28 






6 Q 




O.Q 




2.3 






6 8 






i 4 


3.0 


1 .7 












2 6 


2.6 






s 












2.O 



















* The meter on the alum pipe was not attached till Jan. 10; and from Dec. 23 to that time the amount of alum applied 
to the water was computed from the weight of alum put into the alum tank. 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



AVERAGE DAILY AMOUNTS, IN GRAINS PER 
GALLON, OF SULPHATE OF ALUMINA 
APPLIED TO THE OHIO RlVER WATER 
IN THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

The daily average results of the determina- 
tion of the amounts of sulphate of alumina 
used in the respective systems (from October, 
1895, to July, 1896, inclusive) are presented 
in the following tables. In the case of the 
Western Systems, when both filters were in 



operation, the average results refer to the 
filters in common. 

As already explained alum was used during 
a large portion of the time in the Western 
Systems, and in all cases it is converted into 
equivalent amounts of sulphate of alumina. 

As a matter of convenience these results 
are expressed in grains per gallon. They 
may be changed to parts per million by mul- 
tiplying by 17.1, and to pounds per million 
gallons by multiplying by 143. 



AVERAGE DAILY AMOUNTS, IN GRAINS PER GALLON, OF SULPHATE OF ALUMINA APPLIED TO 
THE OHIO RIVER WATER IN THE WARREN SYSTEM. 



Day. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


I 




88 






3 07 




6. SI 


1.16 


4.05 


3.82 


2 




0.78 


0.72 


3 .60 




2.45 


5.85 


1.03 


5.19 


5.03 








I 11 


1 26 


3 eg 


2 O^ 


*, 80 




5.30 


5- 10 






o 83 


I 66 


4 18 


i 61 


2 ^8 




i 8s 


4 .40 








O O1 


I O1 




4 IO 






1 . 77 


3.27 




6 




o. 70 


0.68 


3.86 


4 O2 


2 .62 


4- 77 


1.83 


3.12 


3.36 


7 




I 2$ 


O Q2 


1 =16 


1 12 


2 11 


I 86 


I 28 




}. IO 


g 
















I 12 




2 88 


g 




I. O8 


O.7Q 


3.87 




2-44 


1.89 


1 . 59 


4.78 


2.73 


IO 






I .OO 


4 O1 


2 81 


2 42 


I 88 




4.00 


3.29 


II 




I Id 


2 OO 










2 12 


2 .40 


a .04 


















i 67 


I S7 




I 1 






O O1 




i !8 


4 8l 




i 81 


1.78 


3 18 


r 4 






I O2 


a TC 


c 76 






i 66 




2.43 


15 








1.28 








i .60 


3.49 


2.87 


16 






I 11 


a 22 




4 48 




i 80 


2.68 


2.83 


17 






I . 22 


a en 


411 


4 1O 






1.50 


2.97 


18 






o 88 


3 AC 








i 02 


2 . 32 


2 . 76 
























20 






O.Q4 


2.88 


4 OQ 


c . CT 


1.58 


1.15 


2.65 


2.8O 


21 


O 52 




o 61 


-1 TQ 


\ 82 




o ST 


I 14 




3.IQ 


22 


0.44 






1. .OI 


1 OO 




0.85 


1.68 


I .94 


4-33 


23 


O.6o 




1.58 






6.37 


0.77 


3.64 


2.15 


6.45 


24 


O.44 




I 16 




2 l6 


c 72 


0.84 




2.35 


7.41 


25 


0.42 


1-74 




1.1O 


2.52 


5 3 1 


0.62 


0.66 


2.38 


7.40 


26 






i 64 
















27 




I 28 




2 08 








I 6O 




7. SO 


28 


O 71 






a IQ 


2 41 


o 60 


o 6^ 


2 17 




7.03 


2Q 




o 85 








T ^a 




? s8 




S . 2S 


3 


0.87 


0.65 


5.16 


5.23 




5-43 


1.07 


4.84 


3.95 


4.42 


31 


I . II 




4 . 11 


4. 08 




E 78 








4.17 

























APPLICATION OF CHEMICALS TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER. 



AVERAGE DAILY AMOUNTS, IN GRAINS PER GALLON, OF SULPHATE OF ALUMINA APPLIED TO 
THE OHIO RIVER WATER IN THE JEWELL SYSTEM. 



Day. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 






o 85 










4 68 




















o 80 


t Q- 




c 87 


6 71 


i 








2 82 




1 . 13 


4 55 




S. 04 


6 33 










271 




O Q4 


4.16 


I 62 


4 ii 










o 84 




2 64 








S 06 




6 






o 76 


2 63 


3.56 


O.o8 


4.05 


1.65 


4-35 


4 -67 


7 






o 88 




i 46 


1.18 


2 . l6 


1.64 




4 06 


8 








2 68 


3 41: 




1 .06 


I 61 




6 36 








o 81 






I an 


I O4 


i 61 


C QO 


6 17 


IO 








I 12 


2 08 


I .OO 


2.18 




5 79 


c .21 


1 1 






o 48 




2 24 


O 77 


i . 72 


1.61 


4 7Q 


C Q2 


12 










1 22 


o 76 




I 62 


C cc 








O 58 










i 18 




i 81 


6 36 


M 




o 18 


o 69 


I 18 


I 30 


O.85 


I . 40 


l.6i 




C ,QO 


1 5 










2 81 




I 31 


i. 60 


4 7O 


S.78 


1 6 












I 28 


I IO 


i 62 


c 6d 


4 24 


17 






o 80 


1 .02 


2.48 


I -45 


I .04 






4.82 


18 

ig 





0.17 


0.99 


O.()2 


2 V 4I 

i si 


1. 60 

I d7 


0.94 


1. 00 

i 07 


3.92 
4 Q7 


5.81 


2O 




O S3 


1 . 20 




2. 54 


3.08 


I.I3 


i .52 


2.85 


5.02 


21 








o 86 


06 






I ^2 




c 07 


22 


o 23 








68 




I .20 


1.83 


3 . 32 


6. II 


23 


o.2g 


o 42 




0.80 




4.52 


1.25 


2. 14 


I -93 


8.32 


-4 














I 27 




I 4O 


12 . 2<1 


25 


0.63 








66 


5 , CJ7 


I . 32 


O.q8 


1.65 


10.83 


26 


o 84 




I 08 




JO 


1 83 




I O3 


2 .60 




27 






I 6s 








I 22 


I 48 


-i r-i 


8 7S 


28 














t:46 


3 38 






29 


2 06 








12 


2. til 


I . 3Q 


4.83 


6.24 


7.58 


3 


0.41 


0.41 


4.38 


i . 53 




3- 24 


I.4I 


4.85 


7-49 


8.72 


2 | 












c O2 

































AVERAGE DAILY AMOUNTS, IN GRAINS PER GALLON, OF SULPHATE OF ALUMINA APPLIED 
TO THE OHIO RIVER WATER IN THE WESTERN SYSTEMS. 



Day. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 










4 -10 




4.38 


4.87 


2 






o 63 


4.OI 




4.27 


7.70 


3 






O 7Q 


3 .4Q 




4-54 


9.02 










2 81 




3 3 2 
















4 . 26 




6 






O 8 1 * 






4.28 


4.02 












i n 




5.62 


8 










i. ii 




4.61 












0.80 


6.32 


5.30 








o 66 






7 . 24 


3.16 












i 13 


5-77 


1.48 












I 22 


5.86 




13 






o 89 




O.79 


4.25 


5 9 1 


14 
15 


1. 06 
I 21 


3-25 
2 47 


0.75 





0.83 
O.95 


5.19 


4.84 
4.60 


16 


I 66 




O.o7 




I.OI 


4.18 


5.21 


17 






O 77 






4 oo 


3.36 


18 






O 8d 




O.5I 


1.52 


3-66 


IQ 










0.51 


4.35 




2O 


I 24 


2 05 


2.78 




0.83 


5.39 


3-7O 




o 87 








I . II 




3.93 


22 










1.58 


3-29 


4.46 








1 83 








7.08 








j c6 






3.64 


8.31 












1.63 


4.42 


5.20 


26 






3 78 




O.QQ 


3-73 




37 


i S8 


I 16 


2 87 




1.57 


5-38 


6.01 


28 










2 2O 




5.36 


2Q 






3 12 




6.18 


7.05 


4.36 












6.98 


6.71 


















3.83 



















2 WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 

AMOUNTS OF LIME USED IN THE JEWELL SYSTEM. 
DAILY AVERAGES OF PERCENTAGE STRENGTHS OF LIME SOLUTION USED IN THE JEWELL 

SYSTEM. 



Date. 

I8q6. 


Strength. 


Date. 

1896. 


Strength. 


Date. 
1896. 


Strength. 


Date. 
1896. 


Strength. 


February 8 


0.52 


February 18 


0-55 


February 27 


0.49 


March 7 


0.44 


10 


0.52 


IQ 


0-55 


28 


0.49 


21 


0.19 


ii 


0.52 


20 


0.49 


29 


0-53 


23 


0.30 


12 


0.52 


" 21 


0.49 


March 2 


0.44 


25 


0.40 


13 


0.55 


" 22 


0.49 


3 


0.44 


26 


0.25 


14 


0.55 


24 


0.49 


4 


0.44 


27 


O.2I 


15 


0-55 


25 


0.52 


5 


0.44 


31 


0.25 


'7 


0-55 


26 


0.52 


6 


0.44 


April I 


0.30 



The daily average results of the amounts of lime used in the Jewell System are pre- 
sented in the following table: 

AVERAGE DAILY AMOUNTS, IN GRAINS PER GALLON, OF LIME APPLIED TO THE OHIO RIVER 

WATER IN THE JEWELL SYSTEM. 



Date. 

1896. 


Amount. 


Date. 

1896. 


Amount. 


Date. 

1896. 


Amount. 


Date. 
1896. 


Amount. 


February 8 


0.85 


February 18 


1.05 


February 27 


0.32 


March 7 


0.23 


10 


1.38 


19 


I.I? 


28 


0.03 


21 


0.28 


ii 


1.67 


20 


0.88 


29 


0.18 


23 


0.72 


12 


1.56 


21 


0.47 


March 2 


0.19 


25 


0.49 


13 


0.52 


" 22 


0.32 


3 


0.17 


26 


1.05 


14 


0.72 


24 


0.46 


4 


0.19 


27 


I.4I 


15 


0.92 


25 


0.38 


5 


0.18 


31 


2.17 


17 


0.82 


" ' 26 


0.53 


6 


0.13 


April i 


0.81 



DECOMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT DISPOSAL OF THE ALUM. 



S3 



CHAPTER III. 

DECOMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT DISPOSAL OF THE ALUM OR SULPHATE OF ALUMINA 

APPLIED TO THE OHIO RlVER WATER. 



IN some localities objections have been 
raised to the use of alum and of sulphate of 
alumina in the purification of public water 
supplies. The ground for this has been that 
some of the dissolved chemicals passed 
through the filter, appeared in the filtered 
water, and were liable to injure the health of 
the water consumers. While this might be 
true with some waters, it can be positively 
stated that it should not, and need not, be the 
case with the Ohio River water at Louisville. 
The reasons for this are that there is dissolved 
in the Ohio River water an ample supply of 
lime and magnesia to combine with, and to 
decompose, more sulphate of alumina than 
would be necessary to apply under conditions 
giving a satisfactory and economical purifi- 
cation of the water by the general method 
under consideration. 

The lime and magnesia which are found in 
the river water, in a form capable of decom- 
posing sulphate of alumina, are present as 
carbonates and bicarbonates. In the tables 
of chemical analyses of the river water in 
Chapter I the amounts of these constituents 
are recorded as alkalinity. These compounds 
which give to the water its alkalinity possess 
the power of decomposing sulphate of alumina 
and alum, by virtue of the fact that the sul- 
phuric acid of the applied chemicals is much 
stronger than the carbonic acid of the alkaline 
compounds. The result is that the sulphuric 
acid (the strong acid) combines with the lime 
or 'magnesia (the strong bases); the alumina is 
thus disengaged and, in the presence of the 
water, forms aluminum hydrate, which soon 
appears in the form of a white gelatinous solid 
compound; and the carbonic acid (the weak 
acid) remains in the water as free acid. Tak- 
ing sulphate of alumina, the more efficient of 
the two chemicals, as an example, and view- 



ing the results of its application to the Ohio 
River water in the light of the expressions 
used in water analysis, we find that the follow- 
ing principal changes occur: 

1. The alkalinity is reduced by the displace- 
ment of carbonic acid by sulphuric acid, 
which, combining with the lime and mag- 
nesia, forms neutral sulphates. 

2. The alumina is freed from sulphuric 
acid when the latter unites with the alkaline 
constituents, and appears as the gelatinous, 
solid aluminum hydrate, which possesses the 
power of coagulating the suspended matters 
in the water. In its solid form the aluminum 
hydrate is removed subsequently by sedimen- 
tation and filtration. 

3. The incrusting constituents are in- 
creased, due to the sulphuric acid uniting 
with the lime and magnesia. 

4. The free carbonic acid is increased on 
account of the liberation of this acid when the 
alkalinity is reduced, with a resulting increase 
in the incrusting constituents. At the in- 
stant of liberation it exists as a gas, but it im- 
mediately takes up water and forms free car- 
bonic acid. 

It is noted above that these are the principal 
changes. If the river contained no suspended 
matter or dissolved organic matter, there 
would be no other action ; and these changes, 
furthermore, would be proportional to the 
amount and composition of the applied sul- 
phate of alumina. In practice it is found that 
the particles of suspended matter, by an ab- 
sorptive or mordanting action, dispose of 
some of the sulphate of alumina, without the 
above decomposition taking place. This 
secondary action will be mentioned be- 
yond. 

Considering the primary decomposition 
(in a water free from suspended matters and 



54 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



dissolved organic matter), the reduction in 
alkalinity in parts per million, for i grain per 
gallon of each lot of the chemicals used in 
these tests, would be proportional to the sul- 
phuric acid, as follows: 

REDUCTION OF ALKALINITY (LIME AND MAG- 
NESIA) BY ONE GR'UN PER GALLON OF 
EACH LOT OF COMMERCIAL SULPHATE 
OF ALUMINA. 



System. 


Number of 
Lot. 


Percentage of 
Sulphuric Acid. 


Reduction in 

Alka inity. 
Parts per Million. 


Warren 


I 


39 87 


8-53 


1 


2 


38.61 


8.27 


* 


3 


37-72 


8.07 


Jewell 


I 


37-96 


8.12 


* 


2 


37-87 


8. II 





3 


37-46 


8.02 


' 


4 


42.20 


9.04 


Western 


i 


37-72 


8.07 




2 


37.64 


8.06 



Under the above-mentioned conditions, the 
increase in incrusting constituents, expressed 
in the usual way in parts per million, would 
be exactly proportional to the reduction in 
alkalinity; and the increase in carbonic acid, 
expressed in parts per million by weight of 
carbon dioxide, would be 44 per cent, of the 
reduction in alkalinity. 

Independent of the absorptive and mor- 
danting action with suspended matters and 
certain dissolved organic matters, the changes 
in the river water, upon the addition of I 
grain per gallon of the first lot of sulphate of 
alumina used with the Warren System, may 
be illustrated as follows: 

COMPARISON IN PARTS PER MILLION OF 
IMPORTANT CONSTITUENTS OF THE OHIO 
RIVER WATER BEFORE AND AFTER TREAT- 
MENT WITH ONE GRAIN PER GALLON OF 
SULPHATE OF ALUMINA. 



Constituents. 

Alkalinity 

Incrusting constituents... 

Carbonic acid (carbon 

dioxide) 



Before 
Treatment. 

60 

25 

60 



After Treatment. 

51.47 (decrease) 
33.53 (increase) 

6 3-75 (increase) 



When suspended matter, especially clay, is 
present in the water, there is a certain amount 
of the sulphate of alumina absorbed without 
its decomposition by the alkaline constitu- 
ents. This causes the alkalinity to be reduced 
in amounts less than that indicated above. 
The degree of reduction, furthermore, varies 
with the amount and character of the matter 



in suspension. The Ohio River contains so 
little dissolved organic matter that this factor 
probably does not cause the actual reduction 
in alkalinity to depart from the theoretical 
more than about 5 per cent. But the varying 
composition of the Ohio River water, with re- 
gard to suspended matter, causes a variable 
relation to exist between the theoretical re- 
duction in alkalinity, due to complete decom- 
position of the applied sulphate, and the 
actual reduction after a portion of it has been 
absorbed by the suspended matter. The 
significance of this is shown in the following 
table, where the average results of several de- 
terminations are presented, in which the 
amount of sulphate of alumina was sufficient 
to produce complete coagulation. 

PERCENTAGES WHICH THE ACTUAL REDUC- 
TION OF ALKALINITY BY SULPHATE OF 
ALUMINA WERE OF THE THEORETICAL, 
WITH OHIO RIVER WATER CONTAINING 
DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF SUSPENDED 
MATTER. 



Suspended Matter in Partsjper 
Million. 

2OO 

400 

800 

I2OO 



Reductions. 

35 
80 

75 
65 



Further information upon this point was 
obtained in 1897, and the results are recorded 
in Chapter XV. 

Combining the above information con- 
cerning the decomposition of sulphate of alu- 
mina with the varying amounts of alkalinity 
in the river water, as recorded in Chapter I, 
it will be seen that the greatest amount of 
sulphate of alumina which can be safely ap- 
plied to the Ohio River water is about 4 
grains per gallon for a minimum; the normal 
ranges from 6 to 10 grains; and the maxi- 
mum about 15 grains per gallon. 

From the outset of these investigations, the 
importance of determining accurately the 
presence or absence of the applied alum or 
sulphate of alumina in the filtered water was 
clearly recognized. There are two methods 
which can be utilized in the solution of this 
problem. These methods, both of which were 
carefully applied to samples of the filtered 
water day by day, are as follows: 

i. The determination of the alkalinity of 
the effluents. This proved, if the effluents 



DECOMPOSITION AND SUBSEQUENT DISPOSAL OF THE ALUM. 



55 



were alkaline, that no undecomposed sulphate 
of alumina was present. If the effluent was 
acid, however, the opposite of this was true. 

2. The test for alumina in the effluent, ac- 
cording to Richards' logwood and acetic 
acid test. 

In the following table are presented all re- 
sults in which any trace of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) 
was found in the filtered water, together 
with the corresponding alkalinity or acidity 



of each sample. The amount of sulphate of 
alumina equivalent to each amount of 
alumina is also recorded. It will be noted, 
in those cases where the effluents were acid, 
that the amounts of alumina and sulphate of 
alumina were abnormally low. This may have 
been due to changes in the sulphate of alu- 
mina in passing through the filter, or to in- 
accuracies of the logwood test in measuring 
such small quantities of alumina, or both. 



SUMMARY OF ALL RESULTS SHOWING ALUMINA BY THE LOGWOOD AND ACETIC ACID TEST, 
WITH THE CORRESPONDING ALKALINITY IN THE EFFLUENT OF EACH SYSTEM. 



Date. 

1896. 


Alkalinity. 
Parts per Million. 


Alumina. 
Parts per Million. 


Sulphate of 
Alumina. 
Grains per 
Gallon. 


Date. 

1896. 


Alkalinity. 
Parts per Million. 


Alumina. 
Parts per 
Million. 


Sulphate of 
Alumina. 
Grains per 
Gallon. 




WARREN ] 


.FFLUENT. 












February 15 


6. 5 


O.2 


0.07 


JEWELL EFFLUENT. 


20 


17.0 


O. 


0.04 


March 27 


59-2 


O.I 


0.04 


March 16 


12.0 


0. 


0.04 


" 28 


31-9 


O.I 


0.04 


' 20 


I3-I 


O. 


0.04 


April 2 


5-5 


0.3 


0.17 


21 


IO. I 


O. 


0.04 


3 


1-3 


0.2 


0.07 


23 


4.9 


0. 


0.04 


4 


Acidity 4.7 


0.7 


O.25 


24 


4.0 


0. 


0.04 


6 


4.0 


0.2 


0.07 


April 2 


0.2 


0.5 


0.18 


June 2 


28.9 


O.I 


0.04 


3 


Acidity o.i 


0-3 


O.II 


3 


39-7 


O.I 


0.04 


6 


Acidity 3.1 


0.8 


0.27 


10 


22.5 


o-3 


O.II 


7 


3-5 


0.5 


0.18 


16 


24.0 


O.I 


0.04 




1O.2 


O. I 


0.04 


Juy I 


Acidity 1.8 


-3 


O.II 










2 


Acidity 3.9 


0.4 


0.13 


WESTERN GRAVITY EFFLUENT. 


3 


4-6 


0.8 


0.27 


July 2 


6.1 


0.2 


0.07 


8 


8.8 


O. I 


0.04 


3 


6.0 


O.I 


0.04 


13 


4-1 


0.3 


O.II 










'4 


Acidity i.o 


0.3 


O.II 


WESTERN PRESSURE EFFLUENT. 


15 


2.5 


0.2 


0.07 


April 3 


3.0 


0.2 


0.07 


17 


IO.O 


0.4 


0.13 


" 4 


Acidity i.o 


0.4 


0.13 


20 


15.2 


0.2 


0.07 


" 6 


5-0 


O.2 


0.07 


21 


17.1 


O.I 


0.04 




22 


14.0 


O. I 


0.04 


JEWELL EFFLUENT. 


23 


8.9 


O. I 


0.04 


February 10 


43.0 


O.2 


0.07 


24 


Acidity 2.1 


0-3 


O.II 


" 20 


14.9 


0.2 


0.07 


25 


Acidity 6.0 


0-3 


O.II 


March 24 


15-4 


O.I 


0.04 


27 


Acidity 3.8 


0.3 


O.II 


26 


5I-I 


O.I 


0.04 


28 


Acidity 1.9 


0.2 


0.07 



The above results show that on 2, 8, o, and 
i days, respectively, the Warren, Jewell, 
Western Gravity, and Western Pressure 
effluents were acid, and contained, therefore, 
undecomposed sulphate of alumina. The 
acidity on these several occasions was due, 
of course, to the application of sulphate of 
alumina in amounts exceeding that capable 
of decomposition by the alkaline constituents 
of the river water. On a practical basis of 
operation, such applications would be inex- 
cusable. 

It will also be noted from the results in the 
last table that on 10, 22, 2, and 2 days, respec- 
tively, the Warren, Jewell, Western Gravity, 



and Western Pressure effluents contained 
slight traces of alumina, although the efflu- 
ents were alkaline. In a majority of these 
cases the effluents were sufficiently alkaline 
to decompose several grains of sulphate of 
alumina, and the passage of the latter through 
the filter in an undecomposed form, under 
these conditions, was an impossibility. So far 
as we could learn, these slight traces of alu- 
mina in alkaline effluents were due to the 
passage through the filter of minute flakes of 
the insoluble aluminum hydrate, and to their 
subsequent solution by the reagents used in 
the logwood and acetic acid test. So far as 
their direct and inherent influence is con- 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



cerned, these slight traces of alumina in an 
alkaline effluent cannot be regarded as objec- 
tionable. 

In conclusion it may be stated that the 
experience obtained during these tests shows 
clearly that the Ohio River water contains a 
sufficient amount of alkaline compounds to 
decompose adequate quantities of sulphate of 
alumina; that the alumina appears as a solid 
gelatinous body, which coagulates the mud 
silt and clay, and subsequently is completely 
removed, practically speaking, by sedimenta- 
tion and nitration; and that the sulphuric acid 
combines with lime and magnesia to form 



| neutral sulphates of those bases, while an 
equivalent amount of carbonic acid is formed, 
and remains dissolved in the water. In a very 
few instances very slight amounts of unde- 
composed sulphate of alumina were found in 
the effluent of these systems. This was due 
to faults of construction of the systems, and 
of their operation, which must be improved 
as explained in Chapters IX and XV. 

Under the conditions of efficient and eco- 
nomical purification of this water, the pres- 
ence of undecomposed sulphate of alumina in 
the filtered water would be not only inadmis- 
sible, but inexcusable. 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY ALUM1N UM. HYDRATE. 



57 



CHAPTER IV. 

COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION OF OHIO RIVER WATER BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE 
FORMED BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF THE APPLIED ALUM OR 
SULPHATE OF ALUMINA. 



IT has been already shown in the preced- 
ing chapters how the geiatmous precipitate 
of aluminum hydrate is lormecl, and reference 
has also been made to the disposal of the 
alumina in this solid form by subsidence and 
nitration through sand, in this chapter it is 
the purpose to explain the nature of coagula- 
tion and sedimentation, to describe the de- 
vices in the several systems where the coagu- 
lation and sedimentation were accomplished, 
and to point out the practical results which 
may be obtained by the aid of aluminum 
hydrate in the purification of such water as 
that of the Ohio River. Coagulation is the 
term generally used to express the action 
which is produced by the application of alum 
to water, in general terms this action has al- 
ready been described, but in detail it is as fol- 
lows: 

When the applied alum solution comes in 
contact with the dissolved lime and magnesia 
in the river water, the former is immediately 
decomposed by the latter, which are present 
in excess. At the instant of the decomposi- 
tion of the alum it forms aluminum hydrate. 
The latter is also dissolved in the water at the 
time when the decomposition or reaction 
takes place. The great bulk of aluminum hy- 
drate passes very quickly into the form of 
solid matter. To chemists a solid compound, 
separating out by the action on each other of 
two soluble chemical compounds, is known 
as a precipitate. At first this precipitate of 
aluminum hydrate is present as innumerable, 
minute, white particles of a gelatinous and 
sticky nature; and it is not until the alum has 
been decomposed and converted into this 
form that its application in the purification, 
by this* system, of such water as that of the 
Ohio River begins to be of practical value, 



by its accomplishment of the initial step in 
the purification, viz.: 

COAGULATION. 

The process of coagulation consists of a 
gradual grouping together of the tiny parti- 
cles of aluminum hydrate which surround, 
and at the same time envelope, the mineral 
matter, organic matter, bacteria, and other 
organisms suspended in the river water. 
Aluminum hydrate (or, perhaps, sulphate of 
alumina) also combines with some of the dis- 
solved organic matters, and adds them to the 
mass of coagulated material. Coagulation of 
muddy water by aluminum hydrate may be 
more easily understood by comparing it to 
the clarification of turbid coffee to which the 
white of eggs has been added. 

The completeness with which coagulation 
takes place depends upon the relation of sev- 
eral factors. But it may be stated that, disre- 
garding the question of cost, it is possible 
with sufficient coagulation followed by suf- 
ficient sedimentation to render very muddy 
water perfectly clear. In actual practice the 
economical aspects must be considered, and 
coagulation should be carried to such a de- 
gree, and under such conditions, that sedi- 
mentation will remove the most mud and 
other suspended matter for the least money. 
For efficient and economical filtration through 
sand at a rapid rate," attention must be given 
also to the coagulated masses in the water 
as it reaches the filter. 

The degree of coagulation is influenced 
and controlled by several factors. Primarily 
it is controlled by the amount of alum which 
is applied and decomposed into aluminum hy- 
drate. It is also influenced, among other 



. WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



things, to a marked degree by the amount 
of suspended matter in the river water, the 
relative character of the suspended particles, 
and the period during which coagulation and 
subsequent sedimentation may take place. 
The last factor is of great economical im- 
portance. 

Coagulation by itself effects no purification 
in the sense that it removes from the water 
any objectionable matters. It is simply an 
initial and very important step in the purifi- 
cation of waters heavily charged with sus- 
pended matters, by which the way is paved for 
economical and efficient purification by means 
of sedimentation and filtration through sand. 

SEDIMENTATION. 

Sedimentation consists solely of the sub- 
sidence due to gravity of the suspended mat- 
ters after coagulation. It is a process of 
purification in that it removes from the water 
objectionable matters. It occurs in part 
simultaneously with coagulation in these sys- 
tems, but the greater part of the sedimenta- 
tion follows coagulation. 

In the following pages are described the 
portions of each system where the coagula- 
tion and sedimentation took place. Beyond 
this are given some results showing the puri- 
fication effected by the coagulation and sedi- 
mentation in the respective systems, and an 
account of the relative value of the above- 
named factors, together with the results of 
some special experiments made with the view 
to demonstrating more clearly the economi- 
cal significance of these portions of this 
method of purifying the Ohio River water. 

These descriptions will be more clearly un- 
derstood by reference to the accompanying 
plates. 

WARREN SETTLING BASIN. 

The settling basin was rectangular in plan, 
12. i feet by 12.0 feet, and 10.25 f eet deep. 
It was constructed entirely of yellow pine. 
The bottom was made of planks 2.5 inches 
thick, and the sides for a distance of 5.1 feet 
above the bottom were 2.5 inches thick: above 
this height they were 5 inches thick. The 
basin was strongly braced inside and out by 



white-pine posts (6 by 8 inches), and the 
foundation was made of timbers of the same 
size. Iron rods 0.375 mcn m diameter ex- 
tended across the basin to stay it. Two par- 
titions or barrle-walls divided the basin into 
three sections as shown on the plan. These 
walls did not extend entirely across the basin, 
but left an opening at -one end of 2.67 feet. 

These partitions were made of i-inch 
sheathing fastened to 1.75 by 6-inch posts. 
The general arrangement of the basin is 
shown on the plans, as are also the locations 
of the inlet and outlet water-pipes. 

Inlet Water-pipe. The river water entered 
the basin through a 6-inch pipe, connecting 
just inside the basin wall with a 6-inch bal- 
anced valve controlled by a float. There was 
from 45 to 65 pounds pressure on the inlet 
water-pipe, which branched from the force 
main leading to the Crescent Hill Reservoir. 
A small propeller-wheel located in a 6-inch 
nipple, which extended 5 inches from the 
valve, drove the chemical pump as previously 
described. 

Outlet. The outlet was a box channel, 3.4 
by i.i feet in section. Its crest was 8.7 feet 
above the floor of the basin. 

From the basin outlet an 8-inch cast-iron 
pipe led to the filter, where it connected with 
an 8-inch pipe, which in turn connected with 
the central well. The passage of water from 
the basin to the filter was controlled by an 
8-inch valve in this pipe. 

Elevations. The relative elevations in feet, 
with the bottom of the sand layer as the da- 
tum plane, were as follows: 

Center of inlet water-pipe at basin. . . + 1.02 

Floor of basin - 1.98 

Top of basin + 8.52 

Average maximum water level + 8.02 

Crest of outlet (mudsill) +6.72 

Center of pipe leading to the filter. . . . + 1.60 

Depth. The depths of the chamber in feet 
were as follows: 

At level of mudsill 8.7 

Average maximum water level 10.0 

Total depth of chamber 10.5 

Area. The areas of the chamber in square 
feet were as follows: 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE. 59 



At floor level J39-7 

At level of mudsill ^43-6 

At average maximum water level '47-9 

Capacity. The capacities of the chamber 
in cubic feet were as follows: 

Below level of mudsill 1229 

Below average maximum level of water. 1422 
Total capacity J 459 

These do not include the outlet channel, 
the contents of which were 33.9 cubic feet. 

Storage Period. Assuming complete dis- 
placement, the length of time required for 
water to pass through the basin at the con- 
tract rate (250,000 gallons per 24 hours) was 
61 minutes. The distance from the inlet to 
the outlet along center lines was 36.6 feet. 

Concentrated solutions of common salt and 
of various aniline colors were added to the 
water on several occasions as it entered the 
basin, and careful observations made to learn 
the time taken for passage through the basin. 
It was found that the first water so charged 
passed through to the outlet at the contract 
rate of flow in about 15 minutes. The water 
containing the greatest amount of these solu- 
tions passed through in 58 minutes, but the 
dilution was so great that it was just 2 hours 
before the last traces of the substances dis- 
appeared from the water as it left the settling 
basin. In explanation of the short period 
which elapsed before the first appearance of 
the substances at the outlet it is to be stated 
that in the baffle-wall opposite the mouth of 
the main inlet water-pipe there was an open- 
ing:, i to 2 square inches in area, through 
which passed an iron rod 0.5 inch in diameter. 

Drainage. A 4-inch flap valve located in 
one corner of the settling basin was used as 
a sludge outlet. No provision was made to 
drain to this valve, the floor of the chamber 
being level. 

Cleaning. No special arrangements were 
made for cleaning. 

JEWELL SETTLING CHAMBER. 

The settling chamber together with the 
filter was included in one large circular 
wooden tank, 14.0 feet high and 13.5 feet out- 
side diameter. 



The sides were made of 3 by g-inch cypress 
staves, and the bottom of two layers of 3-inch 
pine planks. The hoops were eleven in num- 
ber; the first and sixth were 4.5 by o. 1 8 inches, 
the second, third, fourth, and fifth were 4 by 
o.i 2 inches, and the upper five were 3 by 0.12 
inches. All of them were made of wrought 
iron. 

At a distance of 6.79 feet above the floor 
of the tank was a second floor 3 inches thick, 
which formed the lower floor of the filter 
tank. It was supported on eight 8 by 8-inch 
white-pine posts, four 8 by lo-inch timbers 
forming the floor-beams. 

The lower part of the tank was used as the 
settling chamber; the floor and sides of the 
tank forming the bottom and sides of the set- 
tling chamber, respectively, while the bottom 
floor of the filter formed the top of the set- 
tling chamber. The general dimensions as 
shown on the plan were: diameter, 13.0 feet, 
and height, 6.89 feet. 

Inlet Water-pipe. This pipe was of wrought 
iron and was 5 inches in diameter. It was con- 
nected to the side of the chamber by a flange 
joint. The river water contained in it was 
under from 45 to 65 pounds pressure, and was 
taken from the force main leading to the dis- 
tributing reservoir. 

Inside the chamber there was a single- 
seated valve operated by a float in the filter 
above, and designed to control the flow into 
the settling chamber. 

Chamber Outlet. The outlet from the 
chamber was in the center, through an 8-inch 
central well passing un through the filter. 

Elevations. The elevations in feet, with the 
bottom of the sand laver as the datum plane. 
"ere as follows: 



Center of inlet water-pipe. . . - 
Floor of chamber .......... - 7.61 

Roof of chamber ........... - 0.82 

Height. The total height of the chamber 
was 6.70. feet, and the height under the beams 
supporting the floor of the filter was 5.96 feet. 

Area. The gross area of the settling cham- 
ber was 132.7 square feet. The area deduct- 
ing the supports for the filter floor was 129.2 
square feet. 

Cfl/v7r;7v. The total capacity of the cham- 
ber was about 879 cubic feet, 



00 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Storage Period. Assuming complete dis- 
placement of the water, the length of time re- 
quired for the water to pass from the inlet 
to the outlet pipe at the contract rate (250,- 
ooo gallons per 24 hours) was 36 minutes. 

The flow of water through the chamber was 
traced by the application of salt and various 
aniline colors in experiments similar to those 
described in the case of the Warren System. 
Under the above-stated contract rate of flow 
the water charged with these substances ap- 
peared at the outlet in about 8 minutes after 
their application at the inlet; the period of 
passage of the water containing the greatest 
amount of these substances when it reached 
the outlet was 22 minutes; and the last ap- 
preciable trace of these substances in the 
water as it left the outlet disappeared in 48 
minutes after application at the inlet. 

Inspection. A manhole was provided at 
a convenient location to allow of inspection 
of the settling chamber. 

Drainage. An 8-inch valve was connected 
to the side of the chamber at the bottom by 
means of a flange joint. This valve discharged 
into a barrel connected with the sewer. The 
settling chamber could be drained completely 
through this valve provided its contents were 
quite liquid. The floor of the chamber was 
level, however, so that mud and slime had to 
be swept or shoveled out. 

Cleaning. It was intended to flush out the 
settling chamber by allowing waste wash- 
water to flow over into the central well from 
the filter above, and discharge into the set- 
tling chamber. A curved half-pipe 4 inches 
in diameter, which was fastened to and turned 
with the agitator shaft, was used as a trough 
to direct the flow to different parts of the 
chamber. This did not prove effective, how- 
ever, and the method of cleaning resorted to 
was by hand, aided by occasional flushings 
from the inlet water-pipe. 

WESTERN SETTLING CHAMBER. 

The Western Pressure Filter and the set- 
tling chamber used by both filters were con- 
tained in a large steel cylinder made of 0.62- 
inch plates. It was 22.5 feet long and 8.0 feet 
in inside diameter. The ends were dome- 
shaped, curving outwards 1.25 feet. This 



cylinder was divided in the center by two 
curved partitions. The partition plates 
touched at the center and were bolted to- 
gether. The vertical joints were all lapped, 
and the horizontal ones were all butt-joints 
with two cover plates. Two lines of staggered 
rivets 0.75 inch in diameter were used 
throughout. The total weight of the empty 
cylinder was said to be 27,000 pounds. 

The west half of the cylinder was used for 
the settling chamber, the east half for the 
pressure filter. This chamber was 11.15 f eet 
long in the center, 8.71 feet long on the sides, 
and 8.0 feet in inside diameter. 

Supply of River Water. The supply for the 
Western Systems was at first furnished by the 
same pipe which supplied the Warren and 
Jewell systems with river water under from 
45 to 65 pounds pressure from the force main 
to the Crescent Hill Reservoir. The varia- 
tions in pressure were due to the variations in 
draft on the supply-pipe. 

Objections were made to this by the West- 
ern Filter Company on account of the varia- 
tions in pressure caused by the operation of 
the other systems. Therefore, on Feb. 29, 
1896, a new 4-inch river-water pipe was laid 
from the force main, to be used solely by the 
Western Systems. After the change the 
pressure was held very closely between 60 and 
65 pounds. 

Up to April 7 this pipe was connected di- 
rectly with the settling chamber. Among 
the changes made during the period from 
April 7 to May 8 was the introduction of a 
Worthington pump on this pipe. This was 
done with the view to obtaining better equali- 
zation of the pressure in the water-pipe, and 
also to operate a pair of auxiliary plunger 
pumps which were used for applying the 
chemical solution as already described in 
Chapter II. 

Pumping Engine. The pumping engine 
was of the the H. R. Worthington pattern. 
The main dimensions were 9-inch steam- 
cylinder, 8-5-inch water cylinder and lo-inch 
stroke. It was a single-expansion duplex en- 
gine. The steam was supplied by a i. 5-inch 
covered pipe. The exhaust was a 2-inch pipe, 
open to the atmosphere. 

Inlet Water-pipe. As first used the inlet to 
the settling chamber was a simple pipe with a 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE. 61 



flange joint screwed on to the bottom of the 
cylinder. With the other changes in April 
this was modified, and a distributing pipe was 
inserted in the chamber. This distributer was 
formed by a 6-inch nipple 12 inches long 
screwed into the upper side of the flange joint 
above mentioned; a 6-inch tee with its long 
arm horizontal, and two lengths of 6-inch 
pipe each 2.5 feet long capped at the outer 
end. On each side of the nipple and pipes 
was a line of holes 1.5 inches in diameter. 
There were two holes in the tee, four in each 
nipple and one in the center of each cap. The 
center of the holes was 1.30 feet above the 
floor of the chamber. 

Outlet. The outlet from the settling-cham- 
ber was a simple 6-inch pipe connected to 
the top of the cylinder by a flange joint. 

This pipe led down to the front of the cyl- 
inder and joined a tee, to the ends of which 
were attached the pipes leading to the press- 
ure and gravity filters, respectively. 

Elevations. The principal elevations in 
feet, with the bottom of the sand layer of the 
pressure filter as the datum plane, were as 
follows: 

Center of inlet pipe - 0.80 

Bottom of cylinder (inside) . . -2.15 
Top of cylinder (inside) +5-85 

Capacity. The capacity of the chamber 
was 503 cubic feet. 

Storage Period. Assuming complete dis- 
placement in the chamber the storage interval 
at the contract rate (250,000 gallons per 24 
hours) was 22 minutes. 

Experiments with salt and various aniline 
colors, similar to those described in connec- 
tion with the other systems, were made to 
trace the flow of water through the settling 
chamber. At the contract rate of flow, as 
stated above, the water containing these ap- 
plied substances first appeared at the outlet in 
about 2 minutes after their application; the 
water containing the largest proportion of 
these substances passed through the chamber 
in 9 minutes; and the last appreciable traces 
of the salt and dyes disappeared from the 
water at the outlet in 27 minutes after their 
application to the water at the inlet. 

With both filters in operation at the con- 



tract rate, the storage period in this chamber 
would be only one-half as long as stated 
above. 

Inspection. The settling chamber could be 
inspected by removing a manhole placed 
about in the center of the upper front quad- 
rant. A hand-hole was also provided, occupy- 
ing a similar position in the lower quadrant. 

Drainage. The construction was such that 
there was no convenient method of draining 
the chamber. The inlet pipe at its lowest 
point was, however, provided with a tee, one 
arm of which was plugged. By removing this 
plug the water could be drained out to the 
level of the distributing pipe. As no arrange- 
ments were made to carry off the water from 
this plug it was used but little. The usual 
method was by siphonage through the man- 
hole in the upper part of the chamber. 

Cleaning. Handwork was mainly relied 
upon for cleaning. By a system of valves and 
piping, connection was formed between the 
wash-water and chamber outlet pipes so that 
wash-water could be turned in from above to 
aid in flushing the chamber. 

PURIFICATION OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER 

BY SEDIMENTATION IN THE 

SEVERAL SYSTEMS. 

As sedimentation is an intermediate step in 
the complete purification by this system of the 
Ohio River water, and as it varies widely ac- 
cording to the existing conditions, this phase 
of the tests was not made the subject of de- 
tailed daily study. Attention was given to the 
matter in a general way, however, with the 
view to learning its practical significance. 

Inspection showed very quickly that the de- 
gree of purification of the Ohio River water 
by sedimentation was a variable factor so far 
as the removal of mud was concerned. With 
the same river water sedimentation increased 
with the amount of aluminum hydrate 
formed from the decomposed alum or sul- 
phate of alumina. 

This would be naturally expected, of 
course, because the greater the number of 
minute gelatinous particles, forming centers 
of coagulation, the greater would be the size 
and weight of the coagulated masses or 
flakes; and, in turn, the greater and heavier 



62 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



these flakes the more quickly would they sub- 
side by gravity to the bottom of the settling- 
chambers. 

At times the Ohio River water had sus- 
pended in it large quantities of very fine silt 
and clay, of which the individual particles 
sometimes ranged as small as o.ooooi inch in 
diameter. It was after heavy. rains following 
a long period of drought that water of such 
a character was found. With the same 
amounts of aluminum hydrate in two samples 
of river water, one of the character just de- 
scribed, and the other a more nearly normal 
water containing the same amount by weight 
of larger suspended matter, the latter water 
is far more purified by coagulation and sedi- 
mentation in the same period of time than is 
the former water. With plain sedimentation, 
without coagulation, similar results would be 
obtained; and the explanation of the results 
just described is that the coagulation was 
quite incomplete. With a water containing 
an innumerable quantity of very finely divided 
particles, the period necessary for coagulation 
is unusually long; and it appears that, in some 
cases at least, the bulk of the aluminum hy- 
drate together with the larger suspended par- 
ticles subside before a large portion of the 
fine particles is coagulated. 

Another factor which produces a marked 
effect upon the degree of sedimentation is the 
period of time during which the coagulation 
and subsidence take place. The actual stor- 
age periods under normal conditions for the 
respective systems have already been pre- 
sented in an earlier portion of this chapter. 
These storage periods were complicated in a 
good many cases by washing, repairing, and 
modifying the filters and by delays occasioned 
by the filters being out of service during the 
night (except March 24-30 and April 27 to 
June 6) and on Sundays. 

During the six weeks' continuous run (Sun- 
days excepted), from April 27 to June 6, 
twenty-nine sets of bacterial analyses were 
made of the river water before treatment, and 
of the corresponding water after it has passed 
through, under normal conditions, the War- 
ren settling basin and the Jewell settling 
chamber, respectively. At the outset the fa- 
cilities for taking samples of the water after 
passage through the Western settling cham- 



ber were not wholly satisfactory. During the 
latter part of the period (May 28 to June i) 
eight samples were taken from this system. 
The average results of these analyses are com- 
pared with the corresponding ones from the 
other two systems just after the next table. 
In the next table are recorded the results of 
the individual analyses with the percentages 
of removal, in the full set of tests of the War- 
ren and Jewell systems upon this point. The 
average quantities of sulphate of alumina ap- 
plied by each system on the different days 
are given in Chapter II. 

It will be noted that these results, which are 
tabulated below, are quite variable with re- 
gard to the percentages of removal. This was 
due in part to the amount of applied sulphate 
of alumina in relation to the quality of the 
river water; and also to the fact that there 
were in the water small flakes of coagulated 

NUMBERS OF BACTERIA PER CUBIC CENTI- 
METRE IN THE OHIO RIVER WATER 
BEFORE AND AFTER PASSAGE THROUGH 
THE WARREN SETTLING BASIN AND THE 
JEWELL SETTLING CHAMBER. RESPECT- 
IVELY, WITH THE PERCENTAGES OF 
REMOVAL. 



Date. 
1896. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter 
in Water fn m 


Percentage Removal 


River. 


Warren 

Settling 
Basin. 


J.-W<-11 

Settling 
Chamber. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


April 28 


5 7o 


5 800 


4 300 


O 


25 


29 


7 loo 


2 800 


2 800 


f)0 


60 


30 


3 7o 


2 300 


T 7OO 


38 


54 


May 2 


5 f>oo 


I 1OO 


4 ioo 


80 


27 


2 


9000 


2 800 


7400 


69 


18 


4 


7 500 


2 900 


4700 


61 


37 


5 


9000 


6OOO 


4900 


33 


46 


6 


4900 


I 800 


4400 


63 


10 


7 


5 ooo 


4 200 


I 700 


16 


66 


II 


6 900 


2 4OO 


3 500 


65 


49 


12 


7 loo 


700 


4 coo 


76 


44 


13 


4 200 


OOO 


3400 


76 


19 


M 


5 800 


500 


3 ioo 


74 


47 


15 


7 5oo 


300 


I 500 


3 


So 


16 


10 900 


800 


2 400 


83 


78 


18 


9500 


I 800 


4600 


81 


52 


19 


7 800 


5400 


3400 


26 


53 


20 


4700 


4400 


2 300 


06 


51 


21 


5900 


2 700 


4300 


54 


27 


22 


4 600 


I 8OO 


2 400 


61 


48 


28 


14900 6800 


II 900 


54 


20 


29 


33900 


6800 


21 200 


80 


37 


29 23 f)OO 


I 400 


15 900 


94 


33 


30 


28 700 


5 ioo 


2O 3OO 


82 


29 


30 


21 800 


5 ioo 


15 200 


77 


30 


June 3 18 900 


2 200 


4 ioo 


88 


78 


' 5 9900 


2 800 


4 ioo 


72 


59 


5 6200 


2 4OO 


3500 


61 


44 


5 5000 


I 600 


3 ioo 


68 


38 


Averages 10500 


3 too 


5 9o 


61 


43 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION Y ALUMINUM HYDRATE. 63 



material, containing bacteria enveloped within 
and around them, and which were of necessity 
broken up in an incomplete and irregular 
manner as they were mixed with the culture 
medium for bacterial analysis. That is to say, 
it was practically impossible to get all the 
bacteria in these Makes separated into single 
cells so that each colony on the culture 
medium should represent only one bacterium, 
as the method of analysis called for. 

During the period from May 28 to June i, 
inclusive, when the river water contained the 
greatest amount of very finely divided par- 
ticles, and when it was most difficult to coagu- 
late, the average results of bacterial purifica- 
tion by coagulation and sedimentation in the 
three systems were as follows: 



System. 


Number of Bacteria per 
Cubic Centimeter. 


Percentage Removal. 


Warren 
Jewell 
Western 
(River) 


5000 
16900 
1 6 600 
24600 


80 
31 
32 









On June 5 and 6 four samples of river 
water before and after passage through the 
Warren settling basin and the Jewell settling 
chamber, respectively, were collected under 
normal conditions and mixed together for 
chemical analysis. The results of the analyses 
showed that 59 and 18 per cent., respectively, 
of the suspended matter in the river water 
were removed in these two systems by coagu- 
lation and sedimentation. 

These results show very forcibly the great 
economical importance of long storage peri- 
ods in order to allow the coagulated material 
to subside, especially as the removal in the 
Warren System of more than three times that 
in the Jewell System was effected with only 
65 per cent, of the sulphate of alumina em- 
ployed in the latter system. 

The examinations of the removal of sus- 
pended matter of the river water in the West- 
ern settling chamber indicated that it was 
more variable than in the case of the other 
systems, but on an average about equal to 
that by the Jewell settling chamber. 

During June and July several sets of analy- 
ses, both chemical and bacterial, were made 
of the river water before and after it had re- 
mained over night or over Sunday in the sev- 



eral respective settling chambers. The re- 
sults of the analyses bore out the / observations 
as to the appearance of the water in the set- 
tling chambers, showing in practically every 
case a removal of more than 90 per cent, of 
both bacteria and suspended mineral and 
organic matter, while in several instances the 
removal was more than 99 per cent. 

These last data show, very conclusively the 
great economical importance of coagulation 
and sedimentation in the purification of such 
muddy water as that of the Ohio River. 

They also show the superiority in this re- 
spect of the Warren over the other systems, 
owing to a longer storage period in the set- 
tling chamber, during which sedimentation 
takes place. Furthermore, this evidence is 
abundant proof that in all these systems the 
storage period in the settling basin and cham- 
bers is too short by far to allow full benefit 
and economy to. be derived from sedimenta- 
tion. 

Owing to the great practical importance of 
sedimentation, some special experiments were 
made for the purpose of obtaining more in- 
formation on this subject, as will be found in 
the next section of this chapter. During 1897 
additional experiments were made, and the re- 
sults are recorded in Chapter XV. 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS UPON THE DEGREE 
OF PURIFICATION OF THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER BY SEDIMENTATION UNDER 
VARYING CONDITIONS, BOTH WITH AND 
WITHOUT COAGULATION BY ALUMINUM 
HYDRATE, AND WITH SPECIAL REFER- 
ENCE TO THE INFLUENCE OF THE PERIOD 
OF SUBSIDENCE. 

This set of experiments was made with the 
aid of a settling pipe, 20 inches in diameter 
and 24 feet deep, placed in the boiler house. 
Suitable piping arrangements were made to 
allow flushing, filling, and draining the pipe, 
and at the sides of the pipe was placed a series 
of pet cocks through which samples of water 
could be drawn at stated distances from the 
bottom. 

The results of these experiments are given 
in the following table. Except in those cases 
where the regular samples (numbers in paren- 
theses) for daily analyses of the river water 



6 4 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



were used, special serial numbers were given 
to samples collected for this purpose. 

The distances from the bottom of the pipe 
to the tap from which the sample was taken 
are given under the heading, source of sample. 
Analyses were made for the determination of 
the total suspended solids (insoluble residue 
on evaporation), and also of the number of 
bacteria in the water. As explained above, 
the latter determination was complicated by 
the presence of masses of suspended matter 
in the water which made it difficult to sepa- 
rate the individual bacteria. Another factor 
affecting the determination of the percentage 



removal of the bacteria was the high and un- 
equal temperature of the water in the pipe at 
different heights and at different times during 
the same experiment. The temperature 
probably exerted a retarding influence upon 
subsidence, but, on the other hand, the gen- 
eral conditions of sedimentation in a small tank 
are more favorable than in a large basin or 
reservoir. In those cases where no coagulants 
were applied it is probable that, under the 
conditions of practice with longer periods of 
subsidence, the variation in the amount of 
suspended matter in the water at different 
depths would be reduced materially. 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE, 65 
RESULTS OF SEDIMENTATION EXPERIMENTS. 



Experiment. 


Applied 
Sulphate of 
Alumina. 
Grains per 
Gallon. 


Sample. 


Period of 
Subsidence. 
Hours. 


Tempera- 
ture. 
Degrees C. 


Suspended Solids. 


Bacteria. 


Number. 


Date. 
1896. 


Number. 


Source. 


Parts per 
Million. 


Per Cent 
Removed. 


Per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent 
Removed. 


I 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
ii 


May 29 

June I 
June 2 

June 4 
June 6 
June 10 

June 10 
June ii 

June ii 

June 12 
June 12 


O.O 

0.0 
O.O 

O.O 
O.O 
4.0 

O.O 

3.0 

2.0 
2.0 

3-0 


I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
ii 
13 
'4 
15 
16 
18 
19 

20 
22 
23 
24 
25 
27 
28 

29 
31 
32 
33 
34 
36 

37 
38 
40 

41 

(626) 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
66 

67 
69 

70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
77 
78 
79 
80 

(632) 
81 

83 
84 
86 

87 

88 


River. 
2 feet 
4 
"75 ' 

20 
2 

4 
11.75 ' 
20 
River 
2 feet 

11.75 " 
20 
River 
2 feet 

11.75 " 
20 
2 
11.75 " 
20 

River 
2 feet 
11.75 " 
20 
2 

11.75 " 
20 
River 
2 feet 

11.75 " 
20 

2 " 

11.75 " 

20 
River 
2 feet 
6 
11.75 " 

20 
2 

20 " 

11.75 " 

River 
2 feet 

11.75 " 
2O 
River 
2 feet 
20 " 

2 " 

20 " 

11.75 " 
River 
2 feet 
11.75 " 
20 
2 
20 ' 

11-75 ' 
"75 
11.75 ' 
River 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 " 
20 " 
River 
2 feet 


O 

24 
24 

24 

24 

48 
48 
48 

48 

O 
24 
24 
24 
O 

24 

24 
24 

48 
48 

48 

o 

24 

24 

24 

48 
48 
48 

o 
24 

24 

24 

48 
48 

48 



I 
I 

I 
I 
3 
3 
7 



it 
It 

18 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
4-5 
o 
i 
i 
i 
3 

6 
12 

16 
o 

I 
I 
3 
3 



i 




590 
320 










45-8 














286 
262 
170 


51-5 
55.6 
71.2 


























1 60 
90 
390 

254 
226 
194 
936 

724 
580 
5M 
504 
338 
228 
320 

220 

9X8 

150 

186 
122 
92 
220 
I 4 6 
130 

118 
114 
88 
80 
4'3 
17 
'9 
20 

19 
9 

10 

'5 
298 
256 
198 
152 
296 

'9 
18 
ii 
ii 

9 
252 

18 

14 
ii 

4 
3 
3 

2 
2 
234 

'9 
19 
6 
6 
245 

10 


72.8 
84.7 




















34-9 
42.1 

50.2 


























22.6 
38.0 
45-1 
46.1 
63.9 
75-6 


















30.0 

33-5 
31.0 


















29.2 
33-o. 

35-8 
32.8 
34-8 
36.0 


31-3 
31-9 
53-1 
41.9 
61.9 
71.2 


























6 loo 






33.6 
40.9 
46.4 
48.2 
60.0 
63.6 
















29.8 
32.0 
33-7 


2 900 
2 700 
500 
12 7OO 
I 6OO 
I OOO 
I 300 
4OO 


52.4 

55-7 
91.8 




95-9 
95-4 
95-1 
95-4 
97-8 
97-7 
95.1 


87.4 
92.1 
89.8 
96.9 


















9OO 


92.9 






14.1 
33-6 
45-6 




















8 500 
700 
400 






93.6 

93-9 
96.3 
96.3 
97.0 


91.8 

95-3 


























92.8 
94.4 
95.6 
98.4 
98.8 
98.8 
99-2 
99-2 

















































4 100 
500 
300 






91.9 
91.9 
97-4 
97-4 


87.8 
92.7 



















95-9 













66 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 

RESULTS OF SEDIMENTATION EXPERIMENTS. Continued. 



Experiment. 


Applied 
Sulphate of 
Alumina, 
Grains per 
Gallon. 


Sample. 


Period of 
Subsidence. 
Hours. 


Tempera- 
ture. 
Degrees C. 


Suspended Solids. 


Bacteria. 


Number. 


Date. 

1896. 


Number. 


Source. 


Parts per 
Million. 


Per Cent 
Removed. 


Per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


Per Cent 

Removed. 


II 
12 

13 
'4 

'5 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 
22 
23 


June 12 
June 13 

June 15 
June 16 

June 17 
June 17 

June 18 
June 18 

June 19 


3-0 

I.O 
I.O 

0.5 

I.O 

0.5 

i-5 
0.25 

0.25 
0.75 

2.O 
I.O 
O.O 


90 
9' 
93 
94 
95 
96 

97 
98 

99 
100 

IOI 
IO2 
103 
(6 4 2) 
104 
105 
106 
(646) 
107 
108 
109 
no 
III 

112 
113 
114 

"5 
116 

H7 
118 
119 
1 20 

121 
(651) 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
(655) 
132 
133 
134 
135 
I 3 6 
137 
138 
'39 
140 
141 
(658) 
142 

'43 
144 

145 
I 4 6 

147 
148 

149 
150 
151 
152 

153 


20 feet 
2 " 
20 
River. 
2 feet 

11.75 " 
20 
2 " 
11.75 " 
2O 

"75 " 
11.75 ' 
"75 ' 
River. 
2 feet 
20 " 

ti-75 " 
River. 
2 feet 
20 

2 " 

20 " 
River. 

2 feet 
20 " 

2 

20 " 
River. 
2 feet 
20 
2 
20 " 
11.75 " 
River. 
2 feet 
20 " 

2 " 

20 " 
River. 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 
20 " 

11-75 " 
River. 
2 feet 

20 
2 

20 " 
River. 
2 feet 

20 " 
2 " 

20 " 
11.75 " 
River. 
2 fee 

20 
2 " 
20 
River. 
2 fee 
20 " 
2 
20 

River. 
2 fee 

n-75 " 


I 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
i 
3 
3 
3 
6 

27 

5 
o 

3 
3 
19 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
o 
i 
I 
3 
3 
18 



i-5 
i-5 
3-5 
3-5 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
20 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 



i 
i 
3 
3 
20 
o 
i 
I 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
o 

22 
22 




8 
10 

2 
2Og 
5 

45 
43 
41 
37 

25 

25 
ii 

9 
46 
ii 
6 

4 
220 

57 
5i 
32 
32 
248 
64 
71 
35 
28 
266 
266 
220 
98 
96 

49 
278 
23 
15 
12 

3 
299 
299 
296 

297 
271 

145 
420 

84 
84 

27 

23 
427 
353 
325 
199 
182 
80 
297 
37 
24 
18 

17 
270 
46 

48 

21 

3 
261 
199 
146 


96.7 
96.2 
99-2 




















IO IOO 

I 900 

2 600 
2 400 
I 200 
I OOO 
I 000 
800 
900 


71.2 

74-3 
76.2 
88.1 
90.1 
90.1 
92.1 

91.1 




78.0 
80.3 
81.2 
83.0 
84.6 
89.6 
89.6 

95-4 
96-3 




















14 ioo 

500 

IOO 






97-4 
98.6 
99.0 


96.6 

99-3 








8800 

3 200 
2 7OO 

3 too 
I 700 
8 300 

3800 

4 ioo 

I IOO 
2 300 

14 ioo 
II 700 
7 ioo 






74-1 
76.8 
80.3 
80.3 


63.6 
69.3 

64.7 

80.7 












74-2 
71.4 

85-9 
88.7 


54.34 
50.6 
86.7 
72.3 














17.4 
63.2 

63-9 
81.6 


13-0 
49.6 














1 900 
9600 
800 

I OOO 


86.5 






91.8 
93-5 
95-7 
98.9 


91.7 
89.6 














II 600 

12 2OO 

9 200 
3000 
6000 






o 

I.O 

0.7 
9.4 
51.4 


20.8 

74-2 
40.6 











14900 
3800 
5400 
I 500 






80.0 
80.0 

93-5 
94.6 


74-5 
63.8 
90.0 










6300 
4600 
5 ooo 




June 20 
June 20 
June 2C 




ig-3 
23.9 

53-5 
57-4 
81.3 


27.0 
20.7 








4 ;o 


28.6 






II 400 

I 2OO 
I IOO 
000 

300 
9700 

3 500 

2 500 
2 20O 
2 700 
II 2OO 






87-5 
91.8 
94.0 
94-2 


89.8 

90.0 
92.8 
97-4 








25-8 
28.0 

35-5 


82.9 
82.2 
92.2 

98.8 


63.9 
74-2 
77-3 
72.4 




26.0 
29.0 
33-1 


23.7 
44.1 













COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION^ BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE. 67 
RESULTS OF SEDIMENTATION EXPERIMENTS. Continued. 



Experiment. 


Applied 
Sulphate of 
Alumina. 
Grains per 
Gallon. 


Sample. 


Period of 
Subsidence. 
Hours. 


Tempera- 
ture. 
Degrees C. 


Suspended Solids. 


Bacteria. 


Number. 


Date. 
1896. 


Number. 


Source. 


Parts per 
Million. 


Per Cent 
Removed. 


Per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent 
Removed. 


23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

32 
33 

34 

35 


June 20 
June 23 

June 23 
June 24 
June 24 

June 25 
June 26 
June 27 

June 29 

July I 
July 2 

July 6 
July 6 


O.O 
3.0 

I .O 
2.0 
0-75 

0.75 
0.75 
0-75 

O.O 

O.O 
I.O 

2.O 

0.75 


154 
155 
156 
157 
(660) 
158 
159 
1 60 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
1 66 
(668) 
167 
1 63 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
(678) 

177 
178 

179 
1 80 
181 
(681) 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
(684) 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
(686) 

193 
194 

195 
196 
(692) 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
(704) 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 

217 

218 


20 feet 
2 " 
11.75 " 
2O 
River 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 " 
20 " 

River 
2 feet 

20 " 
2 " 
2O " 

River 
2 feet 
20 " 

2 " 
20 " 

River 
2 feet 

20 " 
2 " 

20 " 
11.75 " 
River 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 " 

20 " 

11-75 " 
River 
2 feet 

20 " 
2 " 
20 " 
11-75 " 

River 
2 feet 
20 " 

2 " 
20 

11.75 " 
11-75 ' 
River 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 
20 " 

River 
2 feet 
20 " 
River 
2 feet 

20 " 
2 " 
20 

11-75 " 
River 
2 feet 

20 
2 " 
2O " 

River 
2 feet 
20 " 
2 . " 
20 " 


22 
48 
48 
48 
O 
I 
I 

3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 
20 



i 

i 
3 
3 
24 
o 
i 

3 
3 
24 



I 
I 

3 
3 
30 
48 
o 
3 
3 
24 
24 



24 
24 



I 
I 
3 
3 
17 



i 

i 
3 
3 
o 
i 
i 
3 
3 


37.2 


129 

125 
67 
48 
235 
31 
25 
9 
5 
218 
42 
39 
32 
32 
446 
54 
41 
22 
22 
267 
148 

M7 

58 
58 
19 
321 

121 
109 
46 

35 

28 

296 
193 
114 

52 
48 
24 
358 
358 
232 
too 
88 
32 
18 
55 
493 
465 
276 
193 
856 

435 
336 
636 
I 552 
1385 
I 248 
796 
430 
244 
40 
30 

12 

8 

395 
209 
199 

"5 
103 


52.6 
52.1 
74-3 
81.6 






390 
900 
900 
9400 
400 
500 


65.2 
92.0 
92.0 






26.2 
26.2 
30.0 


86.8 

89-3 
96.2 
97-8 


95-7 
94-7 








27.0 
27.0 
32.0 


8OOO 
4600 

39 
2 2OO 




80.7 
82 i 
85-3 
85-3 


42.5 
51-3 

72.5 




27-4 
27.0 

36-5 


5 100 

3 loo 
8000 
4400 

4 200 
13 800 
8 too 

II 200 

7800 

IO 2OO 
2 800 

5300 




87.7 
90.6 
94-8 
94.8 


39-2 


13-7 
17.6 








59-6 
59-8 
84.1 
84.1 
94-8 


41.4 
18.8 

43-5 
26.0 
69.7 










27-3 


62.2 
66.1 

85.5 
89.1 
91.2 






2400 

2 OOO 

3800 

500 
6000 

2 400 

2300 
700 
I 400 
400 
7900 

6 100 

7700 
4300 


54-7 
56.6 
28.2 
90.6 












34-8 
58.2 
82 4 

83.7 
92.0 


60.0 
61.6 

88.3 
76.6 
93-3 










26.5 
27.0 
36.0 


0. 

35-2 
72.1 

75-3 
91.0 

95-1 


22.8 
2.6 

45-6 












400 
12 500 
10900 
9 200 
3 ooo 
4200 


94-9 


25-5 
26.0 
34-8 


2-4 

7-9 
45-3 
61.8 


12.8 

26.5 
76.0 
66.4 




26.5 
29.3 
38.2 
23.5 
25.8 
31-3 


49-2 
60.7 


8 400 
4 200 

6 200 








5-2 
15-3 
23.7 

51-3 
73-8 
























26.3 
26.0 
34-5 


6 300 

2 2OO 

I 300 

I IOO 
600 

9500 

7 loo 

7400 

3 600 
4 loo 




83.6 
87-7 
95-1 
96.7 


65.0 
79-4 
82.5 
90.5 








47-1 
49-5 
70.9 

73-9 


25.2 

22. O 
62.1 
56.8 











68 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 
RESULTS OF SEDIMENTATION EXPERIMENTS. Concluded. 



Experiment. 


Applied 


Sample. 






Sulphate of 




Period of 










Number. 


Date. 
1896. 


Grains per 
Gallon. 


Number. 


Source. 


Hours. 


35 


July 6 


0.75 


219 


11.75 feet 


20 


36 


July 7 


0.75 


(707) 


River 


O 








222 


2 feet 


3 








223 


20 " 


3 








224 


Ji-75 " 


24 








225 


H-75 ' 


48 








226 


"75 ' 


72 


37 


July 10 


1-5 


(720) 


River 


o 








227 


11.75 feet 


24 


38 


July ii 


0.75 


(723) 


River 











230 


2 feet 


3 








231 


20 " 


3 








232 


11-75 " 


28 








233 


"75 ' 


46 








234 


n.75 " 


70 


39 


July 14 


i-5 


(730) 


River. 











235 


11.75 feet 


24 


40 


July 18 


o.o 


(744) 


River 











248 


11.75 feet 


72 








249 


11-75 " 


1 20 








250 


11-75 " 


144 


41 


July 24 


o.o 


(767) 


. River 


o 








25' 


11.75 feet 


24 








252 


H-75 ' 


144 



Tempera- 
ture. 
Degrees C. 



33-0 
26.5 

25-4 
34-0 
34-3 
35-7 
26.2 
34-6 
26.0 
27.3 
37-5 

'34^0' 

35-8 
26.2 
35-3 
25-7 
33-4 



35-5 
36-7 
25-5 
32-9 
38-9 



Suspended Solids. 


Bacteria. 


Parts per 
Million. 


Pet Cent 
Removed. 


Per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Per Cent 

Removed. 


72 
525 
438 
388 
229 
'77 
'53 
387 

21 
208 
166 
'54 
74 
61 
42 
402 
28 
637 
202 
142 
131 

3347 
872 

195 


81.8 






5400 
3700 
6400 
3500 
i :oo 

2 400 
8 200 

I 300 

6Soo 
7 500 
5 5oo 




16.5 
26.1 

56-3 
66.2 
70.8 


31-5 


35-2 
79-6 

55-5 


45-7 


84.1 


20.2 
26.0 
64.4 

70-7 

79-8 


8.5 
32-8 


IO IOO 

600 

12 OOO 
I COO 

7 600 

2 IOO 

600 

700 
34 loo 
5 too 

10 








93-o 


91 .6 


68.2 
77-7 
79-4 


72-4 
92.1 
90.8 


74-o 
94-2 


85.0 
99-9 



COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE. 



69 



NUMBER OF BACTERIA PER CUBIC CENTI- 
METER IN THE OHIO RIVER WATER 
AFTER PASSAGE THROUGH THE DIS- 
TRIBUTING RESERVOIR AND A PORTION 
OF THE DISTRIBUTING PIPE OF THE 
LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY. 

In the next table are recorded the results 
of bacterial analyses of tap water collected 
in the city of Louisville. In all cases the 
water was allowed to run from the faucet for 
some minutes before the sample was col- 
lected. The place of collection was 419 West 
Chestnut Street up to Feb. i, 1896, and at 



820 South Second Street for the remainder of 
the time. 

On its way to the city the river water is 
pumped to the Crescent Hill Reservoir, which 
has a capacity of 100 million gallons, equiva- 
lent to about six times the average daily con- 
sumption of the city. 

The chief value of these results is that they 
show a removal by subsidence and passage 
through the distributing pipes of about 80 per 
cent, of the bacteria originally present in the 
water as it was pumped from the river. In 
this connection reference may be made to the 
results of bacterial analyses of the river water 
already presented in Chapter I. 



NUMBER OF BACTERIA PER CUBIC CENTIMETER IN THE TAP-WATER OF THE CITY OF 

LOUISVILLE, BY DAYS, IN 1895-96. 



Days. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 




128 












I OOO 


I 600 






116 


28d 


I t;oo 






4 600 


I 2OO 


I IOO 


800 








2 goo 












i 900 

















800 








132 




' 








2 OOO 


I IOO 




6 


119 


2 500 


2<)00 


6 700 


2 OOO 


6 900 


I 500 

I 3OO 


900 


i 800 
3 200 


8 


T78 














I 500 


I SOO 












8 ooo 






I 700 


2 OOO 












7 800 


3 800 




I 900 




10 


TT Q 




















118 








5 










*3 


104 


I OOO 


4OO 


3 500 


6 200 
8 ooo 


2 OOO 


r 300 


2 200 


2300 

2 2OO 




116 




400 


I 80O 




2 2OO 


I 200 


2 2OO 


2 IOO 


16 


i6j 


780 










i 200 


3 700 


I 000 








8OO 


t SCO 


IO OOO 


6OO 




2 600 


I OOO 


18 


368 




8OO 




I 400 


5 3 


900 


I 600 


700 
















i 500 


I 800 




2O 


321 
1 16 


I 300 


I 400 


4800 


3300 

800 


4000 


9700 


2 7OO 


2 IOO 
I IOO 




588 














I 2OO 
















i 600 


500 




i ooo 














700 




I 2OO 




2<C 


288 




4OO 


6 "3OO 


7 300 


I IOO 


400 


I 7OO 


2OOO 


an 














7OO 






27 

oft 


456 


700 


I OOO 


1 300 


7 100 


i 300 


I 8OO 


2000 


3500 


2Q 


418 




800 


10 900 


8 200 


600 


6OO 


i goo 


3900 


-in 


^20 


2QO 






7 ooo 


2 OOO 


I 600 


goo 


2 200 




















I 2OO 


3 l 





















7 o 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



CHAPTER V. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE FILTERS THROUGH WHICH THE RIVER WATER PASSED AFTER 
COAGULATION BY ALUMINUM HYDRATE AND PARTIAL PURI- 
FICATION BY SEDIMENTATION. 



IT has already been explained in the intro- 
duction that this method of purification con- 
sisted of several parts, each of which, to quite 
a degree, was distinct in its nature and in its 
application. The last part of the process is 
the passage of the water downward through 
a layer of sand either by gravity or pressure, 
in order to remove from the water the bac- 
teria, aluminum hydrate, mud, clay, and other 
suspended matters. 

This final operation is properly called filtra- 
tion. It is erroneous, however, to speak of 
the entire process as filtration, or mechanical 
filtration, because, so far as waters like the 
Ohio River are concerned, filtration is only 
one of several steps in a process of economical 
purification. 

This (American) type of filtration differs in 
several respects from the older (English) type 
of filtration which has been adopted and 
studied in Europe and several places in this 
country. There are two chief differences, 
namely: 

1. In American filters the aluminum hy- 
drate remaining in the water as it flows from 
the settling chamber to the filter, by virtue of 
its gelatinous nature, enveloping the bacteria 
and other suspended matters, makes it prac- 
ticable to allow the water to pass through 
the sand at a much more rapid rate than in 
the case of English filters. 

2. In American filters the accumulation of 
matters which are removed from the water by 
the sand (bacteria, aluminum hydrate, mud, 
clay, and other suspended matters) is in turn 
removed from the sand by the passage of a re- 
verse current of water through the sand from 
the bottom to the top, either with or without 
accompanying agitation of the sand. The 



corresponding accumulations in English fil- 
ters of foreign matter from the water, located 
for the most part at and near the surface of the 
sand, are removed, practically speaking, by 
scraping the surface of the sand layer with a 
shovel or similar implement to a depth ordi- 
narily of 0.5 inch or thereabouts. 

By corresponding accumulations on the 
sand in the English filters is meant, ordina- 
rily, the various kinds of material noted, with 
the exception of the aluminum hydrate; al- 
though it is not to be forgotten that aluminum 
hydrate, formed from the decomposition of 
alum added to river water, was used for some 
years in Holland in connection with the puri- 
fication of public water supplies by English 
filters. 

The systems which were investigated dur- 
ing these tests are included in the American 
type of filtration and are all divided into three 
main divisions. Each division includes the 
devices used for carrying out one step of the 
process, and it is to be noted that it was only 
in the design and construction of these de- 
vices that these systems differed. These di- 
visions may be outlined as follows: 

1. An arrangement for the preparation 
and delivery of the chemicals. This included 
preparation tanks; pumps or other devices for 
delivering the solutions to the river water; 
pipes and fittings: valves and other regulat- 
ing devices; scales, gauges, hydrometers, etc. 

2. A chamber or basin for the reception of 
the treated water and in which coagulation 
and sedimentation took place to a greater or 
less degree. This included all the necessary 
inlet, outlet, and drain pipes, and the devices 
used for controlling the flow of water through 
the basin. 



DESCRIPTION Of FILTERS. 



3. A filter and appurtenances. This division 
included a tank which contained the sand 
layer and water to be filtered; a system oi 
strainers for removing the water trom the 
sand; a system for uistributing the wash- 
water beneath the sand layer; and, in the case 
of the Warren and Jewell systems, a set of 
rakes with operating mechanism for stirring 
the sand. All piping, valves, and regulating 
devices which pertained to the filter are in- 
cluded in this division. 

In Chapter li the devices included in the 
first division have been described in consid- 
erable detail. The second division has been 
presented in Chapter IV, and it now remains 
to present the third division, which is the sub- 
ject of this chapter. 

In the next chapter will be found a sum- 
mary of the principal parts of which each 
division of each system was composed, to- 
gether with a record of the repairs, changes, 
and delays noted during these tests. 

The manner of operation of these systems 
is given in Chapter VII, where a more com- 
plete description of the special regulating de- 
vices is also presented. 

The filters of the respective systems are 
described in the order which has been fol- 
lowed heretofore. 

All elevations used are in feet and refer to 
the bottom of the respective sand layers as 
the datum plane. The accompanying draw- 
ings will facilitate an understanding of the 
several filters and their respective appurte- 
nances. 

THE WARREN FILTER AND APPURTENANCES. 

The filter was placed in a circular wooden 
tank. About 1.5 feet from the bottom was 
the strainer system, which was made of per- 
forated copper plates with suitable wooden 
supports. The layer of sand which was used 
as a filtering medium was placed upon the 
strainer system. Above the sand there was an 
'open compartment which contained the water 
to be filtered. During filtration the water 
passed by gravity from the upper compart- 
ment through the sand layer and strainer 
system into a closed compartment situated 
between the strainer system and the bottom 
of the tank, from which a pipe connected with 



the weir box, where the rate of filtration was 
regulated. For washing, the water was re- 
moved from the upper compartment and 
wash-water admitted under pressure into the 
lower chamber, from which it forced its way 
up through the sand. After passage through 
the sand the wash-water was removed from 
the upper compartment by drain pipes. Dur- 
ing washing the sand was stirred by rakes 
which were supported at the top of the tank. 
Plans and sections of the Warren System will 
be found on Plates II and ill, respectively. 

Filter Tank. The filter tank was made of 
alternate cypress and pine staves, the bottom 
being entirely of cypress. It was 10.6 feet in 
diameter on the inside and 9.75 feet deep 
inside. The staves were 2.62 inches thick and 
6 inches wide. They were strongly bound 
with iron hoops, six in number. The hoops 
were 0.6 inch thick and 2 inches wide. 

About 1.5 feet from the bottom of the tank 
were wooden pieces which served as a support 
for a copper strainer floor. In the open com- 
partment above the perforated copper floor 
was the layer of sand. The closed compart- 
ment beneath the copper floor was the fil- 
tered-water chamber, through which the fil- 
tered water passed as it made its exit from the 
filter. The filtered water used for washing 
the filter also passed through this closed com- 
partment as it was pumped upward through 
the sand. 

From the bottom of the tank a central well 
4.33 feet in height extended through the fil- 
tered-water chamber, strainer floor, and the 
sand layer. For a distance of 1.17 feet from 
the bottom the diameter of this well was 2.42 
feet, and above this point 1.71 feet. 

Across the top of the tank" lay two timbers, 
one 12 by 12 inches and the other 6 by 12 
inches, on which rested the bulk of the ap- 
pliances for the operation of the agitator. 
The main vertical shaft, to which the rakes 
were fastened, was supported at the top by 
these timbers and guided at the bottom by a 
casting on the upper end of the central well. 

The height of water above the sand during 
filtration was normally about 5.75 feet. As 
described beyond, the total available acting 
head was 4.17 feet. 

The above description in general terms 
shows the relation to each other of the vari- 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



ous devices located in the filter tank. The de- 
tails of these devices and their piping con- 
nections are as follows: 

Inlet Water-pipe. The main inlet water- 
pipe was 8 inches in diameter and conducted 
the water by gravity from the outlet of the 
settling basin. This pipe led into and across 
the bottom of the filtered-water chamber, at 
the bottom of the filter tank, and connected 
with the central well by a flange joint. 

Arrangement for the Exit of the Filtered 
Water. After passage through the sand the 
water passed through the strainer system, 
composed of perforated copper plates and 
wooden supports; next through the filtered- 
water chamber; and thence through an 8- 
inch pipe to the weir box. From the weir 
box the water passed through about 65 
feet of 5-inch pipe to the filtered-water reser- 
voir. 

Strainer System. The original strainer sys- 
tem consisted of punched copper plates sup- 
ported by a network of radial and circum- 
ferential wooden braces. Details of the ar- 
rangement of these braces can best be under- 
stood by an examination of the accompany- 
ing drawings (Plates II, III, VIII). 

The radial supports were 2.25 by 2.75 
inches, with the long side set vertically. They 
were supported at the center on a shoulder 
made for that purpose in the central well, and 
at the periphery on a ring made of short 
wooden sections nailed to the inside of the 
tank. They fitted tightly together at the cen- 
tral well and were 7 inches apart at the pe- 
riphery. On top of these supports was laid a 
second set of ribs, each 1.37 by 0.75 inches, 
with the long side set vertically. Between 
this upper set of ribs were laid pieces 1.25 by 
0.75 inches, set perpendicular to the radius at 
their center. 

These circumferential spacers were sup- 
ported at each end by the main radial beams, 
and were level on top with the upper radial 
strips. The spacers were not accurately cir- 
cumferential, but were really a series of short 
chords. 

The perforated copper plates were placed 
on top of the ribs and spacers, and were fas- 
tened to them. They were made in sections 
of the size of the space subtended by the radial 
ribs. The joints of the plates were over these 



ribs and were protected by copper strips 1.12 
inches wide. 

Exit Area. The orifice area of the copper- 
plate system was made up of about 681,900 
punched holes. These holes averaged 0.043 
inch (i.i millimeter) in diameter. They 
averaged 10.5 per linear inch radially, and 7.5 
per linear inch at right angles thereto. 

The size and spacing varied considerably, 
but the above figures are averages of numer- 
ous determinations at different parts of the 
strainer area. Using these figures as a basis 
of computation, the total orifice area of the 
copper-plate system, including all holes ex- 
posed on the upper side, was 1032 square 
inches. No possible method of determining 
how much water passed through the holes 
directly over the supports was found. It 
seems probable, however, that the weight of 
the sand would press the plates sufficiently 
close to the supports to obstruct the passage 
of water to a considerable extent. Deduct- 
ing all such holes, the net area was 923 square 
inches. 

On April 12, 1896, a finer sand was put in 
service, and it was found to be too fine to use 
with the original perforated copper plates de- 
scribed above. Accordingly an auxiliary 
strainer device, consisting of a fine brass 
gauze, was added. This gauze was laid di- 
rectly over the copper plates, the same copper 
strips being used to keep it in place. Owing 
to inability to secure readily a sufficient quan- 
tity of gauze of the desired size two sizes were 
used. The first portion, which was used to 
cover about 80 per cent, of the area, had 65 
meshes to the linear inch. For the remaining 
20 per cent, of the area a gauze which had 
80 meshes per linear inch was used. 

By the introduction of the brass gauze the 
determination of the available exit area of the 
strainer system was complicated. There were 
two extreme areas which may be considered, 
the true area utilized being somewhere be- 
tween the two, apparently. 

1 . The brass gauze may be assumed to have 
reduced the exit area of the perforated copper 
plates. In this case the gauze is assumed to 
have allowed water to pass through only those 
portions of it which were directly above the 
holes in the copper plate. 

2. It may be assumed that the entire exit 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



73 



area of the holes in the copper plates was 
available, and that the water could in all cases 
pass more or less freely between the gauze 
and the copper plates. 

The second supposition appears to be more 
nearly correct, because, no matter how closely 
the gauze was pressed upon the copper plate, 
unless the wires were flattened, innumerable 
channels must have existed through which 
the water could flow more or less freely. 

Filtered-water Chamber. Directly beneath 
the strainer floor and forming the bottom of 
the filter tank was a closed compartment 
which was used as a collecting chamber for 
the filtered water, and also as a distributing 
chamber for the wash-water. It was simply 
the space left in the construction of the tank, 
no finishing being used. 

The total depth of the chamber was 1.5 feet, 
but the upper part was largely obstructed by 
the braces of the strainer floor, below which 
the depth was i.i feet. 

The area of the base of this chamber was 
somewhat less than that of the main tank, on 
account of restrictions by the wooden rim 
which supported the outer side of the strainer 
floor and by the central well. The area was 
70.6 square feet. 

The total capacity of the chamber was 94.7 
cubic feet, including the spaces between the 
supports of the strainer floor. 

The chamber could be drained through the 
waste-water pipe to within 0.6 foot of the 
bottom. No arrangements were made for 
complete draining. 

A small hand-hole was provided in one side 
of the tank for the purpose of inspection. 

The only method for cleaning was by forc- 
ing filtered water into the chamber and allow- 
ing it to flow out through the waste-water 
pipe. 

Weir Box. The weir box was an open, 
rectangular compartment constructed at the 
northwest corner of the settling basin, and 
built in connection therewith of the same ma- 
terial. It was connected with the filtered- 
water chamber by an 8-inch pipe, 8 feet in 
length. 

It was 5.71 feet long by 2.75 feet wide, in- 
side dimensions. The weir partition ran 
across the short dimension, dividing the box 
into an inlet and an outlet side. The inlet side 



was 2.67 by 2.75 feet, and the outlet 3.04 by 
2.75 feet. As first constructed the weir was 
a fixed one with its crest approximately at an 
elevation of 6.00 feet. On Nov. 25 it was 
lowered to approximately 5.5 feet. 

With other changes previous to Nov. 25 
a movable weir was inserted. This weir was 
made of an iron plate moving in guides at the 
sides, its position being controlled by a worm 
shaft operated by a wheel on the floor over 
the settling basin. It had an available ver- 
tical movement from an elevation of 3.85 to 
the maximum water level (elev. 8.02), a dis- 
tance of 4.17 feet. The nominal crest was 2.1 
feet wide, but on account of leakage in the 
guides its actual width was probably about 2.5 
feet. 

A 3-inch valve connecting the two sides was 
put in the bottom of the weir box Feb. 12 
to allow more complete draining of the filter 
before washing. The center of this valve was 
at elevation 1.13. From the weir box the 
water flowed through about 65 feet of 5-inch 
pipe to the filtered-water reservoir. 

Outlet for Filtered Waste Water. At such 
times as in the opinion of the operator the 
filtered water was not of a satisfactory charac- 
ter, a 3-inch pipe leading from the filtered- 
water chamber to the sewer was used in place 
of the main outlet through the weir box. 

Sand . Layer. 

During the test several changes were made 
in the sand layer, the kind of sand, the thick- 
ness of the layer, and the area of the surface, 
all having been changed. 

Kinds of Sand Used. At the opening of 
the test the sand layer was composed of sand 
No. I. This was removed Jan. 22, and sand 
No. 2 put in place and used up to April 13. 
On April 17 sand No. 3 was put in place. 
This was used up to July 25, when 2 inches of 
sand containing 23 parts of No. 3 and one 
part of a very fine sand were added. No. I 
was natural sand ; the other two were crushed 
quartz. Mechanical analyses of these sands 
gave results which are presented on the next 
page. 

Thickness of Sand Layer. The thickness 
of the sand layer varied from three causes: 

i. Addition of sand by the operators of the 
filter. 



74 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



MECHANICAL ANALYSES OF THE SANDS USED 
IN THE WARREN FILTER. 

No. i. No. 2. No. 3. 
Per cent, by weight. 

Finer than 2.04 millimeters 100. 100. loo. 

" 0.93 100. 15.0 95.5 

" . " 0.462 4.2 O.2 6.5 



Effective 
size 



0.316 
0.182 
Ten per cent finer than ) 

diameter in millime 

ters. . 



0.3 
O.I 



0.9 



0.56 



0.51 



2. Losses of some of- the finer portions of 
the sand "during the process of washing. 

3. Increased compactness of the sand layer. 
At different places on the surface of the 

sand layer the thickness varied owing to the 
action of the rake-teeth of the agitator. As 
the agitator revolved during washing a small 
portion of the sand was moved from the cen- 
tral part of the layer towards the periphery. 
The effect of this action was cumulative. Ob- 
servations made on Jan. 20, Feb. 14, April 13, 
May 22, and July 17 showed differences in 
the elevations of the surface of the layer at 
the central well and at the periphery, ranging 
from i to 4 inches. 

On Nov. 25, 1895, the average thickness 
of the sand layer was about 2.36 feet. This 
thickness was increased on Jan. 3, 1896, by 
the addition of 0.6 inch of new sand (No. i). 

The average thickness of the layer of sand 
No. 2 on Jan. 25 was 1.86 feet. On Feb. 12 
this thickness was increased to 2.25 feet. 

With the third lot of sand the thickness of 
the layer when new, April 17, was 2.17 feet; 
on May 22, 2.12 feet; and on July 17, 2.00 
feet. 

On July 25, 0.25 foot of mixed sand was 
added. 

The average thickness at the close of the 
test was 2.25 feet. 

Area. As first arranged the sand layer 
extended to the wall of the filter tank and the 
surface area of the sand was equal to the area 
of the filter tank, excepting the central well. 
1.8 feet in diameter. This area was approxi- 
mately 85.70 square feet. Practically all of 
the tests were made after the completion on 
Nov. 25 of a new collecting gutter to carry 
the wash-water to the sewer-pipe. This made 
the diameter of the sand layer 10.1 feet includ- 
ing the central well above noted. 

Allowing 2 square inches for each of 16 
teeth which extended into the sand bed dur- 



ing filtration, the net area of the surface of the 
sand was 77.36 square feet. 

From April 17 to July 25 the rake-teeth 
barely pierced the sand layer, thus increasing 
the area to 77.50 square feet. 

Device tor Cleaning the Sand Layer. 

The device for cleaning the sand layer by 
washing comprised the following principal 
parts which are described in turn below: 

1. Pipes through which filtered water was 
pumped from the filtered-water reservoir into 
the filtered-water chamber, and thence 
through the strainer system into the bottom 
of the sand layer. 

2. Auxiliary slotted pipes, located at the 
bottom of the sand layer just above the 
strainer system, through which for a short 
time part of the wash- water was pumped, 
with the view to getting more uniform dis- 
tribution. 

3. A collecting gutter and pipes to carry 
to the sewer the last portion of the water on 
the sand layer just after draining the filter 
prior to washing, and the wash-water after it 
had passed through the sand layer. 

4. An agitator with the necessary mechan- 
ism for stirring the sand during the process 
of washing. 

5. An engine, with pulleys, belting, and 
shafts, to operate the agitator. 

Wash-water Supply Pipe. The wash-water 
taken from the filtered-water reservoir was 
pumped through an 8-inch pipe. This ar- 
rangement was used by all the filters in com- 
mon. From the pump to a point on this pipe 
where a separate pipe branched to the Warren 
System was about 100 feet; a 4-inch pipe 10 
feet in length led from this point to the fil- 
tered-water chamber beneath the sand. At 
first a 3-inch valve was located on this pipe 
just outside the filter tank. 

With this 3-inch valve on the 4-inch pipe 
the distribution of wash-water was not satis- 
factory. The restriction in the pipe caused by 
the small valve gave something of a nozzle 
effect, so that the stream of water entered 
the filtered-water chamber with sufficient 
velocity to strike the outer wall of the central 
well, and be deflected up through a compara- 
tively small area of the strainer system and 



DESCRIPTION OF FIL'lERS. 



75 



of the sand layer. To remedy this difficulty, 
and to increase the loss of pressure in the 
piping, the 3-inch valve was replaced on Feb. 
12 by a 4-inch valve. 

Auxiliary Slotted Pipes for the Distribution 
of Wash-water. In addition to putting a 
larger valve on the wash-water pipe on Feb. 
12, there were also introduced at the same 
time supplementary pipes to convey a portion 
of the wash-water to different points at the 
bottom of the sand layer. 

A 2-inch brass pipe branched from the main 
wash-water supply just outside the filter tank, 
the flow being regulated by a 2-inch valve. 
This pipe entered the tank above the perfo- 
rated copper Moor on which the sand rested. 
It connected directly with a ring of 2-inch iron 
pipe made of tees and eighth bends. 

The water was distributed by six i-inch 
slotted tubes of brass and the inlet pipe noted 
above, which was also slotted. The seven 
pipes or tubes were laid radially, spaced 
equally around the central well, and fitted into 
the respective tees in the iron ring encircling 
the central well. 

Two rows of longitudinal slots 90 apart 
extended the entire length of each tube. 
They averaged 2 inches in length, 0.031 inch 
in width, and were approximately 3 inches 
apart. All of the tubes were capped at the 
ends, and in the center of each cap was a hole 
0.031 inch in diameter. The tubes were first 
set with the slots on the under side, with the 
center of the tube 2.25 inches above the per- 
forated copper bottom at the inner end and 
3 inches above at the outer end. 

On Feb. 19 the tubes were reversed, bring- 
ing the slots on the upper side. The entire 
device was removed on Feb. 21. 

Collecting Gutter and Central Well. The cir- 
cular collecting gutter was constructed of 
wood and galvanized sheet iron. A lining of 
pine staves 0.25 foot thick, extending from 
the strainer floor to 2.35 feet above it, was 
placed inside the filter tank. On the side of 
the lining towards the inner well a strip of 
galvanized iron was tacked, its upper edge 
extending 0.5 foot above the staves. The 
space thus formed between the metal strip 
and the main wall of the tank was used as a 
gutter. The upper edge of the metal strip, 
or, in other words, the discharge level, was at 



elevation 2.85 feet. At three equidistant 
points collections were made with this gut- 
ter to a 3-inch pipe which partially encircled 
the filter tank on the outside. 

'Ibis 3-inch pipe connected by means of a 
special casting with a branch from the inlet 
pipe from the settling basin to the filter, 
which in turn connected with the sewer. 

By means of a tee and suitable valves on the 
6-inch inlet pipe to the filter, this pipe was 
connected with the sewer, thus allowing the 
use of the central well (1.8 feet in diameter) 
for the removal of unfiltered waste and wash 
water. 

During the tests the crest of the central 
well was changed three times. When the 
depth of the sand was increased on Feb. 12 
the height of the well was also increased about 
4 inches. It was lowered again on Feb. 14 
to the original height in order to try the effect 
on the sand of discharging all the water dur- 
ing washing through the well. On Feb. 21 
it was raised to the same level as the crest of 
the collecting gutter. 

Agitator. The agitator consisted essen- 
tially of two horizontal rake-arms with eight 
teeth each, and the necessary mechanism to 
raise and lower the rakes, and to revolve them 
as desired. Power was furnished by a small 
engine, and transmitted by a 6-inch belt to a 
counter-shaft, from which another belt 6 
inches wide led to the driving pulley of the 
mechanism. For simplicity in presentation a 
general description of the operating mechan- 
ism is given, referring to each of the parts by 
serial numbers. Following this, the several 
parts are tabulated, and their leading dimen- 
sions given. 

The rake-arms were hung on the main ver- 
tical shaft, which was supported at the upper 
end by the frame of the machine, and guided 
at the lower end by a collar on the top of -the 
inlet well. This shaft was turned around by 
means of a large bevel gear (i), a lug on 
which fitted into a vertical slot in the shaft. 
By this arrangement the shaft could be raised 
or lowered without interfering with the rotary 
motion. To drive the : gear 4 a pinion (2) on 
the shaft which carried the main driving pul- 
ley drove a gear (3) on a lower parallel hori- 
zontal shaft. At the end of this shaft was a 
bevel pinion (4) which drove the rotating 



7 6 



WA1ER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



gear. It will be noticed that this arrange- 
ment necessitated rotation of the main verti- 
cal shaft with its rakes whenever any part of 
the mechanism was in operation. For raising 
or lowering the main vertical shaft, power was 
transferred by gearing from the horizontal 
driving shaft to an upper parallel shaft, on 
the end of which a bevel pinion (5) drove the 
raising and lowering gears. For transferring 
the power two duplicate sets of gears con- 
nected the main driving shaft with the upper 
shaft. Either of these sets could be used as 
desired, or they could both be out of opera- 
tion, hand levers controlling their position. 
Each set consisted of the driving gear (6); 
two idle gears (7) and (8), and the driven gear 
(9); (6) and (9) were the same for both sets, 
and (7) and (8) duplicates in each set. In the 
original machine gear (8) was omitted, the in- 
creased length of vertical motion of the modi- 
fied machine, with its necessitated increase in 
height of the frame, requiring the introduc- 
tion of the second gear. 

The raising and lowering gear proper con- 
sisted of a large bevel gear (10), and a sleeve 
on the main shaft. This sleeve was made of 
babbitt metal cast on the main vertical shaft 
in the following manner: In the upper end 
of the main shaft (the lower end of which 
held the rake-arms) were cut nine circular 
slots, each I inch wide and 0.35 inch deep. 
The first one was 1.5 inches from the top of 
the shaft. Below this the slots were spaced 
2.5 inches apart. On the shaft thus prepared 
was cast a sleeve of babbitt metal 0.75 inch 
thick and 25 inches long. In casting, a ver- 
tical slot 1.5 inches wide and 0.5 inch deep 
was left in this sleeve. This slot engaged a 
lug on the framework of the machine, and 
prevented rotation of the sleeve, the steel 
core (main shaft) rotating within the sleeve. 
On the face of the sleeve a helical thread was 
cut, with three threads to the inch; this formed 
the worm, which engaged and was driven by 
a similar thread on the inside of the lifting 
gear, that worked freely on a loose bearing 
plate. As above described, a bevel pinion on 
an upper horizontal shaft drove this gear. 

For the purpose of stopping the vertical 
motion of the main shaft automatically, lugs 
were provided on the vertical shaft, which 
at the limits of motion (top or bottom) oper- 



ated sets of levers, which disengaged the set 
of idle gears which were in operation, trans- 
ferring power from the driving shaft to the 
upper parallel shaft. 

The main dimensions of the gears and pin- 
ions numbered in the above description are as 
follows: 

1. Bevel gear, 35 inches in diameter with 
72 teeth. 

2. Pinion, 5.75 inches in diameter with 14 
teeth. 

3. Gear, 26 inches in diameter with 50 
teeth. 

4. Bevel pinion, with 13 teeth. 

5. Bevel pinion, with 15 teeth. 

6. Gear, 4.25 inches in diameter with 24 
teeth. 

7. Gear, 6.25 inches in diameter with 36 
teeth. 

8. Gear, 8.25 inches in diameter with 48 
teeth. 

9. Gear, 8.25 inches in diameter with 48 
teeth. 

10. Bevel gear, 16.5 inches in diameter 
with 66 teeth. 

Rakes. Attached by means of a collar and 
socket bolts to the main vertical shaft were 
the rake-arms. These were two in number 
and were set 180 apart. Two shorter arms 
on the other diameter carried tie-rods to 
strengthen the rake-arms. The rake-teeth 
were of cast iron. The original teeth were 
27 inches long, but later a change was made, 
and 35-inch teeth were inserted. There were 
eight teeth on each arm. They were wedge- 
shaped in section, the back being rounded. 
On the original teeth a wedge-shaped 
shoulder was cast 13.25 inches from the upper 
part of the teeth. This was not used in the 
longer teeth. 

As first used, the rakes in the upper position 
were clear of the sand, and in the lower posi- 
tion they averaged 5 inches from the strainer 
floor. On Feb. 21 they were lowered so that 
they came within 2 inches of the floor, longer 
rakes being introduced at the same time to 
allow for this greater penetration. The lift 
of the original machine was found to 'be too 
small with this new arrangement to raise the 
rake-teeth clear of the sand; and on April 13 
a new machine was put in service as noted 
above, giving approximately 8 inches greater 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



77 



lift of the rakes. At the close of the test with 
the sand layer 27 inches thick, the rake-teeth 
remained about i inch in the sand at the 
upper position. 

Engine and Belting. The engine was a 
Carlisle single-cylinder, fly-wheel engine. The 
size was 5.75 by 6 inches, with 77 per cent, 
cut-off. The engine drove a 6-inch belt over 
a 12-inch pulley 8.25 inches wide. 

From the engine a 6-inch rubber belt drove 
a 2o-inch pulley on a 2.5-inch counter-shaft. 
Another 6-inch belt from a 1 6-inch pulley on 
the counter-shaft drove an 1 8-inch pulley on 
the agitator machinery. 

Elevations. 

The different elevations in feet, referred to 
the bottom of the sand layer as the datum 
plane, were as follows: 

Bottom of sand layer (top of strainer 

floor) o.oo 

Floor of filtered- water chamber - 1.48 

Sand surface (average, Aug. i, 1896). +2.27 
Crest of central well and circular gut- 
ter + 2.85 

Lower end of rake-teeth (agitator up) . + 1.94 

Top of filter tank + 8.27 

Average maximum water level + 8.02 

Lower floor (main-house floor) - 1.77 

Center of inlet pipe at filter - 0.94 

Center of outlet pipe at filter - 0.85 

Center of wash- and waste-pipes at 

filter -0.98 

Lowest position of weir + 3.85 

Highest position of weir (available as 

outlet + 8.02 

Crest of outlet channel from settling 

basin (mudsill) + 6.72 

THE JEWELL FILTER AND APPURTENANCES. 

The layer of sand forming the filtering 
medium was held in a wooden tank set in the 
upper compartment of the main tank. The 
roof of the settling chamber served as a sup- 
port for a layer of bricks and cement which 
covered the strainer manifold, and formed a 
support for the sand layer. Between the inner 
and outer tanks was a space which was used 
as a collecting gutter for draining. A central 



well connected the compartment above the 
sand with the settling chamber. During fil- 
tration the water passed downward through 
the sand and the strainer system by gravity. 
The total available acting head was about 14 
feet, of which 5.5 feet were positive (above the 
bottom of the sand layer), and 8.5 negative. 
Plans and sections of this system are shown 
on Plates IV and V, respectively. The rate 
of filtration was regulated by valves on the 
pipe from the strainer system. When the 
filter required washing, the water in the com- 
partment above the sand, about 2.5 feet deep, 
was removed and wash-water admitted to the 
strainer system under pressure. Wash-water 
was then forced up through the sand and dis- 
charged into the space between the two tanks, 
from which it was removed to the sewer. 
During washing the sand was stirred by a set 
of rakes supported by beams at the top of the 
main tank. 

Filter Tank. The filter tank was of cypress, 
12.15 feet in inside diameter, 5.0 feet high on 
the outside, and 3.41 feet deep above the 
strainer floor. It was made of 3-inch staves 
and was strongly bound by three hoops, each 3 
inches wide and 0.125 inch thick. At its bot- 
tom, the space between the filter tank and the 
main tank (about 0.3 foot wide) was filled by 
a wooden ring 0.33 foot thick. This ring 
served to brace the bottom of the staves, and 
also prevented any lateral movement. There 
was no floor in this tank, the staves resting 
upon the roof of the settling chamber. The 
spaces between the pipes of the strainer sys- 
tem were filled with a layer of brick and 
cement, supported by the roof of the settling 
chamber. This brick and cement layer in 
turn supported the sand. 

The strainer system, consisting of a set of 
pipes to collect the water from the cups, and 
cups through which the water passed from 
the sand layer, was laid on the roof of the 
settling chamber, and covered by the layer of 
bricks and cement, the face of which was flush 
with the top of the strainer cups. 

The set of parallel pipes were all connected 
to a special cast-iron pipe which ran across 
the filter tank. On one side this casting was 
connected by a suitable joint with the outlet 
pipe. This pipe conveyed the water to the 
outside of the main tank, where it connected 



t WA TER^ P URIFICA TION AT LO VIS VILLE. 



with a cross, which was also connected to the 
outlet pipe leading to the filtered-water res- 
ervoir; to the waste-water pipe leading to the 
sewer; and the wash-water supply pipe. A 
central well extended from the settling cham- 
ber through the strainer floor and the sand 
layer to about 1.4 feet above the sand. 

At the top of the main tank were two tim- 
bers, on which rested the bulk of the appli- 
ances for the operation of the agitator. These 
timbers were supported at either end by suit- 
able iron brackets fastened on the inside of 
the wall of the main tank, the upper face of 
the timbers being flush with the top of the 
main tank. Ordinarily the water above the 
sand layer partly submerged these timbers. 
The main vertical shaft, to which were fast- 
ened the rake-arms of the agitator, was sup- 
ported at the top By these timbers, and guided 
at the bottom by a ring on the inlet well. 

The above description in general terms 
shows the relation to each other of the various 
devices located in the filter tank. The details 
of these devices and the piping connections 
were as follows: 

Inlet Water-pipe. The inlet water-pipe was 
a central well 0.67 foot in diameter and 4.5 
feet high. It was made of cast iron. 

Arrangements for the Exit of the Filtered 
Water. After passage through the sand the 
water passed through the strainer system, 
consisting of 444 strainer cups and suitable 
collecting pipes, to a connection with a 5-inch 
pipe. This pipe connected with a cross out- 
side the filter. From the cross there were 
about 8 feet of 4-inch pipe leading to the au- 
tomatic controller, from which about 65 feet 
of 5-inch pipe led to the filtered-water reser- 
voir. 

Strainer System. The strainer system con- 
sisted of brass strainer cups screwed into a set 
of collecting pipes. The shape and size of 
these cups, of which there were 444, is shown 
on the drawings. The face of the cup was 
covered with a punched aluminum bronze 
plate, the plate being secured to the cup by a 
ring which was riveted to the cup flange. The 
strainer cups were screwed directly into the 
collecting pipes, the arrangement of which is 
shown on the drawings. 

A central casting was fastened to the filter 
floor by six o.75-inch studs. In general form 



this casting was a hollow annular ring with 
flange joints on two ends of one diameter. 
To each of these flanges was attached a length 
of 5-inch pipe, each length being made in 
three sections 2 feet, i foot, and 2 feet long, 
respectively. The central section in one side 
was a nipple, and in the other a tee with the 
short arm passing down through the filter 
floor. The outlet pipe connected to this arm. 
Running from the 5-inch pipes above de- 
scribed, and also from the central casting, was 
a system of i. 5-inch pipes, 23 on each side of 
the large pipes. These pipes were of different 
lengths to fit the inner circumference of the 
filter tank. The shortest was 1.33 feet and 
the longest 5.0 feet. They were spaced 0.5 
foot from center to center. All of the pipes 
were capped at the ends. The strainer cups 
were screwed into the tops of the whole sys- 
tem as above described; six in the central 
casting, twenty in each of the large pipes, and 
the remainder in the smaller pipes. These cups 
were all spaced approximately 6 inches from 
center to center except in the central casting. 
The distribution was very uniform; the great- 
est distance from any cup to the nearest other 
cup, or from any point on the floor to the 
nearest cup, was 6 inches. The shortest dis- 
tance between any two cups (4 inches) was 
at the central casting. 

Exit Area. The diameter of the opening 
of the strainer cups was 1.69 inches, and the 
area 2.24 square inches. The aluminum bronze 
plate was punched with twenty holes to the 
linear inch, the holes averaging 0.028 inch 
(0.70 millimeter) in diameter and 0.0006 
square inch in area. The orifice area per single 
strainer cup was therefore 0.54 square inch, 
giving a total area for the entire system of 
240 square inches. 

The passage through the neck of the 
strainer cup was 0.188 inch in diameter. The 
total area of the whole system was 12.26 
square inches, equivalent to a small fraction 
less than that of a 4-inch pipe. 

The major portion of the strainer system 
was covered with cement, the space between 
the pipes being filled with bricks. This 
formed the filter floor. It was level in the 
main, and flush with the top of the strainer 
cups. Where the cups were set into the large 
pipes and central casting they were 1.8 inches 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



79 



higher than where set into the small pipes. 
There was no cement over the large pipes or 
central casting. 

Outlet Pipe. The outlet pipe was a 5-inch 
cast-iron pipe connected to the short arm of 
the tee in the main pipe of the strainer system. 
It was made up of 6.2 feet of straight pipe set 
vertically, a U trap and a length of 5-inch 
horizontal pipe connecting with a 5-inch cross 
outside the main tank. The whole length 
was about 11.5 feet to the center of the 
cross. 

From the cross about 8 feet of 4-inch pipe 
connected with the automatic controller. 
The filterecl-water meter was located on this 
pipe. 

Automatic Controller. The automatic con- 
troller consisted of a galvanized-iron tank, set 
vertically, open at the top, and arranged with 
a sharp-edge orifice at the bottom; an ar- 
rangement of the outlet piping to discharge 
into the top of this tank; a funnel under the 
tank, on top of the pipe to the filtered-water 
reservoir, to collect the discharge from the 
orifice; a butterfly valve on the outlet pipe 
above the tank; a balance arm, operating the 
butterfly valve, one end of the arm supporting 
a weight, the other a copper can; and a con- 
nection from the base of the tank with an ad- 
justable overflow which discharged into the 
can on the balance arm. The device was de- 
pendent on the rate of overflow into the can 
on the balance arm, an increase in height of 
water in the main tank increasing the over- 
flow, thus increasing the amount of water in 
the small can, which caused a movement of 
the balance arm and a consequent closing of 
the valve. 

A 4-inch pipe connected with the outlet 
pipe just before the latter reached the con- 
troller. It was used when the necessary act- 
ing head fell below that available with the 
controller. This pipe emptied into the sewer. 

From the controller the water flowed by 
gravity through about 65 feet of 5-inch pipe, 
emptying into the filtered-water reservoir in- 
side the house for the wash-water pump. 

Outlet for Filtered Waste Water. A 4-inch 
pipe connected with the cross above men- 
tioned and conveyed such water as, in the 
opinion of the operator, was not of a satisfac- 
tory character directly to the sewer. 



Sand Layer. 

During the test the sand was changed 
twice. The area and thickness were modified 
somewhat during the test by changes in the 
tank itself, due to warping. 

Kinds of Sand Used. At the beginning of 
the test the sand layer was composed of sand 
No. 4. On Feb. i this was removed and sand 
No. 5 put in its place. This was used till 
July 3. Sand No. 13 was put in service July 
6 and used for the remainder of the test. Sand 
No. 13 was a natural sand; the other two 
were crushed quartz. Mechanical analyses of 
these sands gave the following results: 

MECHANICAL ANALYSES OF THE SANDS USED 
IN THE JEWELL FILTER. 



No. 4. No. 5. No. 13. 

Percent, by weight. 

IOO.O IOO.O IOO.O 

74.2 91.0 95.5 

19.5 II. o 16.6 

1.4 1.4 1.4 

0.42 0.45 0.43 



Finer than 2.04 millimeters 

" " 0.93 " 

" " 0.462 " .... 
" " 0.316 " 

Effective ( Ten per cent ' finer ] 
ize 1 than diameter in ' 
( millimeters 

Thickness of Sand La\er. The thickness of 
the sand layer varied slightly, due to increased 
compactness during use and slight wastes 
during washing. The nominal thickness was 
34 inches. On Feb. 28 it averaged 34 inches. 
On July 6 the new sand layer was reported as 
34 inches thick, but a measurement on July 
8 gave only 32 inches. The thickness at the 
close of the test was 30.5 inches. 

The sand layer was quite uniformly level, 
only 0.25 inch difference having been re- 
corded between the center and the periphery. 
During reverse motion the rake-arms cut fur- 
rows in the surface varying in depth from 
0.25 to 0.75 inch. The impact of the water 
over the crest of the inlet well also caused a 
slight depression at about i foot from the 
well. The rake-arms, during filtration, pene- 
trated the surface of the sand layer from 3 
to 5 inches. 

Area. An average of several determina- 
tions gave 1 15.8 square feet as the area of the 
sand surface. 

Device for Cleaning the Sand Layer. 

The device for cleaning the sand by wash- 
ing comprised the following principal parts, 
which are described in turn below; 



8o 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



1. Pipes through which filtered water was 
pumped from the filtered-water reservoir into 
the outlet piping system. 

2. The strainer system already described, 
which was used as a system for the distribu- 
tion of the wash-water beneath the sand 
layer. 

3. A collecting channel to convey to the 
sewer the wash-water after it had passed 
through the sand. 

4. An agitator with the necessary mechan- 
ism for stirring the sand during washing. 

5. An engine to drive the main shaft. 
Wash-ivatcr Supply Pipe. The wash-water 

taken from the filtered-water reservoir was 
pumped through an 8-inch pipe. From the 
pump to the point where a separate pipe 
branched to the Jewell and Western systems 
was about 60 feet. From this point 10 feet 
of 5-inch pipe led to a point where a separate 
pipe, made up of about 4 feet of 5-inch pipe, 
a meter, and about 3 feet of 4-inch pipe, led 
to a connection outside the main tank. 

Device for Distributing the Wash-water under 
the Sand Layer. The device used for dis- 
tributing the water beneath the sand layer 
comprised the outlet pipe, main casting, set 
of parallel pipes, and strainer cups, employed 
during filtration as the collecting strainer sys- 
tem. 

As this device has already been described, 
it will not be repeated here. For the purpose 
of breaking the nozzle effect of the neck of 
the strainer cups, a small casting consisting 
of a ring and four arms connecting at the 
center was put in the cup when it was made. 
(See Plate VIII.) The total area of the necks 
of the strainer cups was equal to a 4.1 2-inch 
pipe, or 68 per cent, of the wash-water supply 
pipe. 

Collecting Channel. The space between the 
filter tank and the main tank was used as a 
collecting channel, the water overflowing the 
edge of the inner tank. This channel was 
nominally 0.33 foot wide, but owing to warp- 
ing and other displacements of the inner 
tank it varied from 0.2 to 0.4 foot. A suitable 
valve controlled the flow from this channel 
to the sewer through an 8-inch pipe about 9 
feet long. 

Agitator. The agitating device consisted 
of a set of four rake-arms hung from a vertical 



shaft on the upper end of which was a hori- 
zontal gear engaging a worm on a horizontal 
shaft. This shaft was driven by a small en- 
gine. These portions of the agitator are next 
taken up and described in detail. 

During the first part of the test (up to 
June 2) a double-thread worm was used. On 
this date a single-thread worm was installed. 
The dimensions of this worm were; Outside 
length, 4 inches; pitch, i inch; smallest 
diameter, 2.75 inches; and largest diameter, 
4 inches. Both worms were of steel. 

The dimensions of the gear were: Outside 
diameter, 16.5 inches; inside, 16. 188 inches; 
and pitch, i inch. The ratio of revolutions of 
the agitator shaft to revolutions of the main 
driving shaft was i : 49. The central portion 
of this gear was of iron, and the teeth were of 
bronze metal. 

The vertical shaft which carried the rake- 
arms was i. 8 1 inches in diameter. The 
weight of the shaft and rake-arms was sup- 
ported by the bearing of the gear above men- 
tioned, the whole system being hung from 
this support. At the lower end a collar 
working on the inlet pipe leading from the 
settling chamber served as a guide. 

Attached to the vertical shaft above men- 
tioned was a casting, in which there were 
sockets holding the rake-arms, four in num- 
ber. The casting was fastened to the shaft 
by two set-screws, and it was also sup- 
ported by a collar 1.75 inches wide fastened to 
the shaft by two set-screws. 

The arms were steel rods 1.75 inches in 
diameter. They were fastened into the sock- 
ets by key bolts. There were two long and 
two short arms, set alternately about 90 
apart. One of the long arms was 4.67 feet 
long, the other 4.33 feet long. The short 
arms were 2.17 feet and 1.58 feet long, re- 
spectively. The longest arm had seven teeth, 
the next six teeth, and each of the short arms 
three short teeth and chains. On the long 
arms the teeth averaged 3.69 feet in length be- 
low the center of the arms. Short teeth (2 feet 
long) were used on the short arms, each hav- 
ing 22 inches of o.44-inch chain attached. 

The teeth were made of iron bars, 0.87 inch 
square in section, set so that one diagonal was 
tangent to the arc of movement. They were 
attached to the arms by wrist-joints allowing 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



81 



them to turn freely in a left-hand direction, 
but holding them vertically when the move- 
ment of the agitator was left-handed, the teeth 
turning in a right-handed direction on the 
arms. By this device the teeth were made to 
penetrate the sand to the full depth at 
once. 

When in their lowest position the distance 
between the teeth and lowest portion of the 
sand was about 0.25 foot. 

Engine. The engine was a small, double- 
cylinder, reversible, marine engine, with both 
pistons connected directly to a single hori- 
zontal shaft by crank arms set at 90. The 
main dimensions of the engine were: Cylin- 
ders, 3 inches in diameter; stroke, 4.125 
inches; and cut-off at 85 per cent. On the 
outer end of the shaft there was a fly-wheel 
2 feet in diameter, having an approximate 
weight of 90 pounds. 

The driving shaft was 1.23 inches in diam- 
eter. From the center of the engine to the 
center of the worm the distance was 5.625 
feet. 

Elevations. 

The different elevations in feet, referred to 
the bottom of the sand layer as the datum 
plane, were as follows: 

Bottom of sand layer (top of strainer 

floor) o.oo 

Top of filter tank (wash-water over- 

^ flow) +3.41 

Sand surface (average Aug. i, 1896). . +2.54 

Crest of central well + 3.68 

Center of rake-arms + 3.93 

Lower end of rake-teeth (during wash- 
ing) + 0.24 

Average maximum water level + 5.27 

Lower floor (main-house floor) - 9.13 

Center of supply pipe at settling basin. - 6.05 
Center of outlet, wash and waste pipes 
at cross - g.og 

THE WESTERN GRAVITY FILTER AND 
APPURTENANCES. 

Water from the common settling chamber 
used for both Western Systems passed 
through this filter by gravity. The sand layer 



was contained in a vertical wooden tank, and 
the. open compartment in the tank above the 
sand contained the water to be filtered. 

During filtration the water passed down- 
ward through the sand and was collected by 
a manifold of slotted brass tubes into a single 
outlet pipe, through which it flowed to the 
sewer. There were two outlets on this pipe, 
for use as a filtered-water outlet and a waste- 
water outlet, respectively, as the operator 
deemed advisable. When it seemed advisable 
to wash the sand the supply of water from the 
settling chamber was shut off, and the filter 
allowed to drain more or less completely. The 
water remaining above the sand was drawn 
off by means of a circumferential gutter at the 
periphery, an outlet from which connected 
with the sewer. Wash-water was then intro- 
duced into the wash-water distributing system 
and forced up through the sand. The wash- 
water after passing up through the sand over- 
flowed into the collecting gutter, from which 
it passed into the sewer. 

The total available acting head was about 
14 feet. 

Before entering into a more detailed de- 
scription of this filter, it is necessary to state 
that under the name of the Western gravity 
filter two essentially different filters were 
examined. 

The original filter (operated up to March 
22) differed from the final filter (put in ser- 
vice July 2) in the following points: 

1. Location of the sand layer, the final filter 
having its sand layer 7.0 feet higher than the 
original one. 

2. Washing device, the final filter having a 
special arrangement for distributing the wash- 
water, while in the original filter the strainer 
manifold for the collection of filtered water 
alone was used. 

On account of the many modifications inci- 
dental to the changes above noted, it seems 
best to consider two filters, Western gravity 
filter (A) and Western gravity filter (B). 
What has already been said applies to both 
filters. All elevations used are in feet and re- 
fer to the level of the bottom of the sand 
layer of the Western pressure filter as the 
datum plane. The drawings (Plates VI and 
VII) give a plan and section of Western 
gravity filter (B), with reference lines to the 



82 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



location of the sand layer and the strainer 
floor of Western gravity filter (A). 

Western Gravity Filter (A). 

This filter was placed in a circular wooden 
tank which was open at the top. 

About one foot of the lower portion of the 
tank was filled with a layer of broken stone, 
concrete, and cement, by which the sand 
layer was supported. A manifold of slotted 
brass tubes which formed the strainer sys- 
tem was half buried in the cement. The inlet 
pipe entered the tank at the top and dis- 
charged into a circumferential trough, the 
crest of which was 1.69 feet above the sand 
and 8.24 feet below the top of the tank. The 
upper portion of the tank held the water to be 
filtered, a column normally about 8 feet deep. 

Filter Tank. -The filter tank was made of 
pine staves 2.75 inches thick and 4 inches 
wide. It was smaller at the top than at the 
bottom, being 10.0 feet in inside diameter at 
the base and 9.5 feet in inside diameter at the 
top. The depth was 14.37 feet. It was bound 
strongly by ten iron bands, each 0.25 inch 
thick, and ranging from 3.5 inches in width 
at the bottom to 2.5 inches in width at the 
top. 

Inlet Water-pipe. The supply pipe to the 
filter connected with the outlet pipe from the 
settling chamber, and passed up over the edge 
of the tank and down on the inside, discharg- 
ing into the circumferential trough. This 
pipe, from its junction with the outlet from 
the settling chamber, was 4 inches in diam- 
eter. From the settling chamber to the point 
where this pipe began there were about 10 
feet of 6-inch pipe. The total length of pipe 
from the settling chamber to the discharge 
in the filter tank was about 41 feet. Flow 
through this pipe was regulated by a hand- 
valve and by a plug operated by a float on 
the water in the filter tank. 

Arrangements for the Exit of the Filtered 
Water. After passing through the sand, the 
water passed through the strainer system, 
consisting of a manifold of slotted brass tubes; 
a rectangle of iron pipes into which these 
tubes were screwed, and which served as col- 
lecting pipes; and an outlet pipe connecting 
the rectangle with a branch where two dis- 



charge pipes, the filtered-water and waste- 
water pipe, respectively, connected with the 
sewer. 

Strainer System. The strainer system was 
a manifold of slotted brass tubes screwed into 
a rectangle 5 by 7 feet of 6-inch wrought-iron 
pipe. The drawings show the arrangement 
of these tubes in Western gravity filter (B). 
They were arranged in almost the same man- 
ner in Western gravity filter (A), except that 
short lengths of tube were screwed into the 
outside of the rectangle also. 

The tubes were 1.5 inches in inside diame- 
ter and laid in a bed of concrete, the surface 
of the concrete being just above the center 
of the tubes. The slots were circumferential, 
five rows of slots in each section, two above 
the cement floor and three below, the lower 
ones of course being covered up with con- 
crete. They were cut from the inside by a 
circular saw making them wider and longer 
on the inside of the tube than on the outside. 
There was considerable variation in the length 
of the slots, and the widths differed by nearly 
50 per cent. An average of several deter- 
minations gave a length of 0.719 inch and a 
width of 0.024 inch. The slotted sections 
were spaced 0.125 inch from center to center. 
(See Plate VIII.) 

Exit Area. The total length of cut tubing 
was 727 inches. The exit area per linear inch 
was 0.272 square inch, making the total orifice 
area 198 square inches. 

Outlet Pipe. The outlet was a 4-inch pipe 
connecting with the strainer manifold in the 
middle of one of the short sides of the 
rectangle. From this point it led out through 
the side of the tank and to the front of the 
filter, a distance of about 8 feet, where it 
branched into a filtered-water and a filtered 
waste-water pipe, the two latter pipes con- 
necting with the sewer 6 feet beyond. 

Sand Layer. 

The sand layer was the same throughout 
the use of this filter. Sand No. 6, a natural 
sand, was used. Mechanical analysis of this 
sand gave results which are presented on the 
next page. 

Thickness of Sand Layer. The nominal 
thickness of the sand layer was about 3 feet. 
The thickness as determined January 16 was 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SAND USED 
IN THE WESTERN GRAVITY FILTER (A). 

Number 6. 
Per cenl. by weight. 

Finer than 2.04 millimeters 100.00 

" " 0.93 gG.OO 

" 0.46 * 

" " 0.316 " . 

" " 0.182 " 

Effective ( Ten per cent, finer than ( 

size ( diameter in millimeters f " 



ig.oo 
3.60 
o.oo 

0.39 



36 inches above the strainers. On March 20 
about 2 inches were scraped off the surface 
after the close of the day's operations. The 
sand surface was level. 

Area. The area of the sand surface was 
that of an unbroken circle 9 feet 10 inches in 
diameter, which is equal to 75.94 square feet. 

Device tor Cleaning the Sand Layer. 

The device for cleaning the sand comprised 
the following principal parts, which are de- 
scribed in turn below: 

1. Pipes through which the filtered water 
was pumped from the filtered-water reservoir 
to the wash-water distributing pipes. 

2. A system of piping to distribute the 
water under the sand and thus cause its dis- 
tribution through the sand layer during its 
upward passage. 

3. A collecting gutter and pipes to carry 
to the sewer the water remaining above the 
sand after draining, and the wash-water after 
passage through the sand during washing. 

Wash-water Supply Pipe. The wash-water, 
taken from the filtered-water reservoir, was 
pumped through 60 feet of 8-inch pipe and 55 
feet of 5-inch pipe to a point of connection 
with the outlet pipe. 

Wash - water Distributing Pipes. The 
strainer system of slotted brass tubes was 
used as a wash-water distributing system. 

Collecting Gutter. A circular wooden gut- 
ter, 12 inches deep and made of o.375-inch 
pine boards, was fastened to the inner wall 
of the tank 0.6 foot above the sand. This was 
used to carry off the wash-water after passage 
through the sand, and a'pipe at the front with 
a suitable valve connected it with the sewer. 

Elevations. 

The different elevations in feet, referred to 
the bottom of the sand layer of the Western 



pressure filter as the datum plane, were as 
follows: 

Bottom of sand layer (top of strainer 

floor) - 0.78 

Sand level (average March 22, 1896). + 2.22 

Crest of collecting gutter + 3.91 

Top of tank + 12.15 

Average maximum water level + 1 1 .90 

Lower floor (main-house floor) - 2.22 

Center of outlet pipe at filter - 0.95 

Western Gravity Filter (). 

The second filter operated under the name 
of the Western gravity filter differed from 
the first one in the location of the sand layer 
and the device for distributing the wash- 
water. The manner of operation was practi- 
cally the same, except that a special wash- 
water distributing device was used. Connec- 
tion was also made from the wash-water pipe 
to the collecting strainer system, whereby the 
latter could be used to distribute wash-water 
if desired, and also in order to loosen the sand 
around the strainers by forcing water through 
them. The normal depth of water above the 
sand during filtration was 3 feet. 

Filter Tank. The tank used was the same 
as that used by the Western gravity filter 
(A). 

Strainer Floor. The strainer floor was lo- 
cated 8.37 feet above the house floor, or 7 
feet higher than in the first filter. This was 
accomplished by building a second flooring 
of 3-inch pine planks supported by eight 4 by 
6-inch pine posts. The lower part of the tank 
was not used with this filter, but was kept 
filled with water throughout the remainder 
of the test. On the wooden floor was laid a 
layer of broken stone and concrete faced with 
cement. The wash-water system, consisting of 
distributing pipes and ball nozzles, was buried 
in this cement layer. The top of the cement 
was flush with the face of the nozzles. The 
strainer system, consisting of a manifold of 
slotted brass tubes, was laid on top of the 
cement floor. 

The relation of the inlet, outlet, and waste- 
water pipes to the sand layer was the same as 
in the Western gravity filter (A). 

Arrangements for the Exit of the Filtered 



8 4 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Water. After passage downward through 
the sand the water flowed into the strainer 
tubes, a manifold of which covered the bot- 
tom of the filter tanks. From this manifold a 
single pipe led to the filtered-water and waste- 
water outlets as in Western gravity filter 
(A), the main change being the insertion of 7 
more feet of pipe necessitated by the increased 
elevation of the sand layer. 

Strainer System. The strainer system was 
composed of slotted brass tubes set in a 
rectangle of 6-inch wrought-iron pipes. It 
was laid on top of the cement floor, however, 
and not imbedded in it, the entire slotted area 
of the tubes being utilized. Instead of con- 
forming to the sides of the tank as in Western 
Gravity Filter (A), the strainer tubes formed 
a rectangle. 

The strainer tubes were nominally spaced 
12 inches from center to center, but, as will 
be seen from the drawing (Plate VI), there 
were several places on the floor of the filter 
where the nearest tubes were more than i foot 
apart. On the side of the rectangle at the 
center, the distance to the nearest strainer 
slot was approximately 15 inches, while at the 
corners the distance was about 18 inches. In 
general the arrangement covered the center 
of the bed uniformly, but was not well ar- 
ranged to drain the sand .at the periphery. 

Exit Area. The total length of strainer 
tubes used was 39.3 feet. The orifice area per 
linear inch was 0.680 square inch, making the 
total area about 320 square inches. (For de- 
tails of the strainer system see Plate VIII.) 

Sand Layer. 

The sand layer was made up of a mixture 
of sands in the following manner: Approxi- 
mately 12 inches of a natural sand (No. 9) 
were put into the filter and washed for six 
minutes. One inch of fine material was then 
scraped off the top and discarded. Sample 
No. 10 was taken after this sand had been 
washed and scraped. The sand which was 
used in Western gravity filter (A), (No. 7), 
was then screened through a No. 24 sieve, 
and all of that which would pass through it 
(about one-half) was discarded. About fwo 
feet in depth of the screened sand were then 
put in the filter and the coarse and fine washed 



Finer than 3.90 mm 


IOO 


O 


IOO 


O IOO 


o 


IOO.O 


IOO 


o 






2.04 




100 


O 


95 


5 loo 


o 


98.0 


roo.o 






-93 ' 




95 


5 


66 


93 


o 


89.0 


93 


4 






0.46 




22 





25 


o 35 


o 


19.0 


15 


1 






0.316 ' 




I 


7 


12 


o 4 


o 


3.9 





6 






0.182 ' 




O 


o 


I 


O 


I 


0.9 


o 


o 






0.105 ' 





O 


O 





o 


0.0 





o 


fTen per cental 
















Effective] finer than di- ! 
size | ameter in f 


41 


O 


30 o 


38 


0.39 


o 


43 


(_ millimeters J 

















together for ten minutes. Finally, on April 
30, enough more of the screened sand was 
added to make the layer three feet thick. It 
was then thoroughly washed and ready for 
service. Sample No. 1 1 \vl from the final 
sand when ready for use. Sample No. 14 was 
collected at the close of the test, Aug.. i, 1896. 
Mechanical analyses of these sands gave the 
following results: 

MECHANICAL ANALYSES OF THE SANDS USED 
IN THE WESTERN GRAVITY FILTER (H). 

No. 7. No. 9. No. 10. No. ii. No. 14. 
Per cent, by weight. 



Thickness of Sand Layer. The nominal 
thickness was 36 inches. On July 25, how- 
ever, the thickness was found to be only 31 
inches. The same thickness was found at the 
close of the test, August i. 

Area. On acount of the sloping sides of 
the filter tank the area was less than in West- 
ern gravity filter (A), being 72.78 square 
feet. 

Device for Cleaning the Sand Layer. 

The device for cleaning the sand consisted 
of the following principal parts, which are de- 
scribed in turn below. 

1. Pipes through which the wash-water 
was supplied to the wash-water distributing 
system. 

2. A system of piping and ball nozzles used 
to distribute the wash-water under the sand 
layer. 

3. A secondary system for the distribution 
of the wash-water under the sand layer (com- 
prising the strainer manifold). 

4. A collecting gutter and pipes to carry 
to the sewer the last portion of the water re- 
maining on the sand after draining prepara- 
tory to washing the filter, and also to carry 
off the wash-water after its passage through 
the sand. 

Wash-water Supply Pipes. The same pip- 
ing was used as in the Western gravity filter 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



(A) to convey the filtered water to the con- 
nection with the wash-water pipe at the filter. 

During the test of this filter, however, un- 
filtered wash-water was used, except on the 
last clay, July 30. 

For the use of unfiltered water a connec- 
tion was made from the main inlet pipe to 
the settling chamber with the wash-water 
pipe at the meter, the filtered wash-water pipe 
being disconnected. 

Beyond the meter there were two branches 
taken from the main wash-water supply pipe, 
one of which was connected with a 6-inch 
pipe which led to the washing device in the 
filter tank, a distance of about 27 feet. On 
this pipe was located a swing check valve 
with a sand pocket. The other branch from 
the main wash-water supply pipe was con- 
nected to the outlet pipe from the strainer 
system. 

When filtered water was used the mnin 
supply pipe was disconnected, and in its place 
connection was made with the filtered-water 
pipe used in the Western gravity filter (A). 

Main Wash-water Distributing Device. The 
main wash-water distributing device con- 
sisted of a manifold of pipes, feeding eighty- 
two ball nozzles distributed over the strainer 
floor as shown in the drawing. The entire 
system up to the face of the ball nozzles was 
covered by the cement floor. 

Sections of the nozzles are shown on the 
drawings. The total orifice area at the neck 
of the nozzles was made up of eighty-two 0.5- 
inch pipes equaling a 5.1 88-inch pipe. All 
of the balls were of solid rubber, and had a 
diameter of 1.625 inches. The construction 
allowed them a rise and fall of about 0.5 inch. 
With the ball at full height the orifice area 
was approximately 1.4 square inches for each 
nozzle. The inner face of the nozzle was 
ground to allow the ball to make a close fit 
and so shut off the sand and water during 
filtration. 

Secondary Wash-looter Distributing S\stem. 
A connection was made so that the strainer 
tubes could be used as wash-water distribu- 
ters, but the main washing was given through 
the ball nozzles, the water being turned 
through the strainers for the last minute 
only. 

Collecting Gutter. This was the same as was 



used in the Western gravity filter (A), but 
it was located 6.33 feet above its former 
position. 

Elevations. 

The different elevations in feet, referred 
to the bottom of the sand layer of the West- 
ern pressure filter as the datum plane, were 
as follows: 

Bottom of sand layer (top of strainer 

floor) + 6. 19 

Sand surface (average Aug. i, 1896). + 8.78 

Crest of collecting gutter + 10.24 

Top of tank +12.15 

Lower floor (main-house floor) - 2.22 

Center of inlet pipe (highest point). . + 12.35 

Center of outlet pipe at filter + 6.32 

Center of outlet (lowest point) - 1.62 

Center of outlet (discharge) - 1.62 

THE WESTERN PRESSURE FILTER. 

This was a portion of a continuous series 
of pipes and compartments through which 
the water passed in the process of purification. 
There was no restriction of the pressure from 
the beginning to the end (outlet) of the en- 
tire system, except such as was caused by the 
resistance of the piping, sand layer, and 
strainer system. 

The filtering medium was placed in one- 
half of a closed steel cylinder, the other half 
of which was used as a settling chamber. A 
supply pipe for this filter connected with the 
cylinder at the top by a flange joint. In the 
lower part of the filter chamber was a layer 
of broken stones, concrete and cement. The 
strainer system, consisting of a set of slotted 
brass tubes, was half buried in this concrete 
layer, the surface of which formed the floor 
for the sand layer. 

During filtration the water was admitted 
under a pressure of from 45 to 65 pounds into 
the portion of the chamber above the sand 
layer. After Feb. 29, 1896, the pressure was 
kept quite uniformly between 60 and 65 
pounds. The outlet from the strainer system 
was then opened and the difference in pres- 
sure caused the water to pass downward 
through the sand layer, through the slots in 
the strainer tubes and thence through the 
collecting pipes and outlet to the sewer. The 



86 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



average total available acting head was about 
140 feet, as the full pressure in the supply pipe 
was available, and the filtered water was dis- 
charged into the sewer. 

At such times as it seemed necessary or 
advisable to wash the filter, a valve on the 
supply pipe from the settling chamber was 
closed. At the same time a valve on a "branch 
from this pipe which led to the sewer was 
opened. Wash-water was then let into the 
outlet system through connections between 
the two pipes, forced up through the sand 
and out through the inlet pipe and branch 
to the sewer. 

Filter Chamber. The filter chamber was 
cylindrical in section with dome-shaped ends. 
The principal inside dimensions were: Length 
in the center, 11.15 feet; length on the sides, 
8.71 feet; diameter, 8.00 feet. The inlet pipe 
entered the top of the chamber at the center 
of the compartment. In the lower portion of 
the compartment was placed a layer of broken 
stones, concrete and cement, about 2.1 feet 
thick in the center. The strainer system, con- 
sisting of a frame of iron pipe and a set of 
slotted brass tubes, was half buried in this 
layer. On top of this floor was the sand layer, 
and the upper portion of the compartment for 
a space about 1.7 feet high contained the 
water to be filtered. The inlet pipe and a 
branch therefrom was used as an outlet for 
waste water during washing. 

Inlet Water-pipe. The inlet pipe was 6 
inches in diameter and conducted the water 
from the outlet of the settling chamber over 
to and into the filter chamber at the top. It 
was about 29 feet from the point where it con- 
nected with the settling chamber to the con- 
nection with the filter chamber. Connection 
with the steel shell was made by a flange, 
riveted to the shell. The pipe screwed into 
this flange. At first there was no provision 
for breaking the flow, but it was soon found 
that the impact of the water caused consid- 
erable disturbance in the sand surface, and a 
6-inch nipple 4 inches long was screwed into 
the flange from the inside. A 6-inch tee was 
screwed on the nipple, the long arm of the tee 
running parallel with the sides of the cham- 
ber. 

Arrangements for the Exit of the Filtered 
Water. After passage through the sand, the 



water was collected by a manifold of slotted 
brass tubes set in a frame of iron pipe made 
in the form of a letter H, 9.0 feet long and 
3.5 feet wide. From the center of the cross- 
piece of the H a single outlet pipe led down 
through the shell of the cylinder and out in 
front, where it rose above the floor, dividing 
into two outlets, for the effluent and filtered 
waste water, respectively, both of which con- 
nected with the sewer. 

Strainer System. The strainer system was 
made of a manifold of slotted brass tubes 
screwed into two lines of 6-inch pipe. The 
arrangement is shown on the drawings. The 
tubes were 1.5 inches in diameter. They were 
partially imbedded in a concrete floor, the floor 
line being just above the center of the tubes. 
The slots were circumferential, five slots in 
each section, two of them above the floor and 
three below. The lower ones were of course 
covered up. They were cut from the inside by 
a circular saw, making the slot wider on the 
inside than on the outside, or, in other words, 
wedge-shaped. As the depth of cutting varied 
considerably, the width and length of the slots 
varied by quite a percentage. An average 
of many determinations gave a width of 0.024 
and a length of 0.719 inch. The slotted 
sections were spaced 0.125 mcn from center 
to center. 

Exit Area. The area was made up of 731 
linear inches of strainer tube, containing, per 
linear inch, 16 slots of an area of .017 square 
inch each, giving a total orifice area of 199 
square inches. 

Outlet Pipe. The strainer manifold as 
above described connected by a tee in the 
center to a 6-inch downcomer, which went 
through the bottom of the filter and con- 
nected with 'a pipe which passed out from 
under the filter, and branched up above the 
floor. The upward bend was made by a tee, 
the long arm of which was horizontal. To 
the outer end of the long arm the wash-water 
pipe was joined. Just above the floor the outlet 
pipe entered a cross. The opposite arm of 
this cross connected to the inlet pipe. The 
two horizontal arms connected to the outlet 
and waste pipes, respectively. These two 
pipes passed directly to the sewer. From the 
strainer to the cross the distance was about 
9.5 feet. 



DESCRIPTION OF FILTERS. 



Outlet and Waste Discharges. From the 
opposite sides of the cross branched the out- 
let and waste-water pipes, 4 inches in diam- 
eter. They both led directly to the sewer, a 
distance of about 4.5 feet. 

Sand Layer. 

Kinds of Sand Used. The character of the 
sand was changed twice, a slight amount of 
coarser material being added the first time and 
some fine sand the second time. Up to April 
8, the layer was composed of sand No. 6, 
a natural quartz sand. Sand No. 8 was the 
same sand after use, the sample having been 
collected from the sand which was removed 
April 8. The new sand layer put in service 
May 8 was made up in the following manner: 

Approximately 12 inches in depth of sand 
No. 9, a natural sand, were put into the filter 
and well washed. All of the old sand was 
then put back, and on top of this 12 inches 
of the original sand (No. 6) were added. The 
sand layer was then washed for 10 minutes 
under unusually high pressure, enough sand 
being washed out, it was estimated, to lower 
the level from 3 to 4 inches. On June 3 about 
6 inches of the original sand (No. 6) were 
added. Sample No. 15 was taken of the sand 
in use at the close of the test. Mechanical 
analyses of these sands gave the following 
results: 

MECHANICAL ANALYSES OF THE SANDS USED 
IN THE WESTERN PRESSURE FILTER. 





No. 


6. 


No. 


8. 


No. q. 


No. 


c 


Per cent by weight. 


Finer than 


3.90 millimeters 


IOO 


.0 


IOO.O 


IOO.O 


100 











2.04 




IOO 


o 


IOO 


O 


95-5 


IOO 


o 








0.93 




96.0 


93 


o 


66.0 


95 


5 








0.46 




'9 


.0 


14 


5 


25.0 


15 


i 








0.316 




3 


.6 


i 


o 


12. 





4 








0.182 




o 


.0 





I 


i .0 


o 


o 








0.105 




o 


.0 


o 


o 


o.o 


o 


o 


Effective \ 
size | 


Ten percent finer ) 
than diameter in > o 
millimeters. ) 


39 


o 


43 


0.30 





44 



Thickness of Sand Layer. The thickness 
of the sand layer was changed twice intention- 
ally. On Jan. 13 it was 4.00 feet deep. Prac- 
tically no change took place from that date 
until April 8, when the sand was removed. 
The new layer put in service May 8 was esti- 
mated to be 4.85 feet thick before it was 
washed. On June 3 the thickness was found 
to be 4.27 feet or 7 inches less, of which it was 
estimated that 4 inches was caused by settling 



and 3 inches by removal in washing. On this 
date ten sacks of sand (No. 6) were added. 
The thickness as determined July 15 was 4.71 
feet. After the close of the test, Aug. i, 
1896, it was found to be 4.12 feet. 

Sand Surface. The major portion of the 
sand surface was level. In the center the im- 
pact of the water from the inlet formed a de- 
pression, about 3 feet in diameter and 3 inches 
to 4 inches deep. The introduction of a tee on 
the inlet pipe remedied this trouble. 

Area. The determination of the available 
filtration area of the sand layer was compli- 
cated by the following facts: 

The sides and ends of the layer were curves, 
and every change in thickness changed the 
area of the layer. 

The sand surface did not form a sharp 
junction with the side wall, but for a depth, 
apparently, of from i to 2 inches the sand 
curved away from the wall. 

As the sides and ends of the sand layer were 
curved, the upper surface was less in area than 
a section at the center of the chamber. 

Inasmuch as it is the surface of the sand 
which removes the major portion of the sedi- 
ment, and as it is customary in this connec- 
tion to use the surface of the sand as a basis 
of computation, it is deemed advisable to use 
this as the filtration area. Further, as the 
thickness varied considerably during the test 
it was thought advisable to take the area as 
first measured and use it in current work, cor- 
recting at the close if necessary. The area 
used was determined from measurements 
taken Jan. 13, which were as follows: Length 
at the side, 9.07 feet; length at the center, 
10.35 f eet ; anc ' width, 6.67 feet. The laps 
at the ends somewhat reduced the area, the 
surface as determined being 66.22 square feet. 
Redetermination after the close of the test 
gave an area of 65.30 square feet, the change 
being due to the increased depth caused by 
adding more sand. This area was determined 
from the following measurements: 
Approximate radius of ends of sur- 
face 8.92 feet. 

Middle ordinate of curve 0.60 " 

Length of rectangular portion of 

surface 9-O3 

Total length of surface at center .. 10.23 " 
Width of surface at center 6.67 " 



88 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE, 



For the purpose of comparison the follow- 
ing areas are presented: 

* 

Area of sand surface (Jan. 

13, 1896) 66.2 square feet. 

Area of sand surface (Aug. 

i, 1896) 65.3 " 

Area of surface of strainer 

floor 72.8 " 

Area of maximum hori- 
zontal section of filter 
chamber 83.3 " 

The difference between the areas as deter- 
mined Jan. 13 and Aug. i, 1896, is only 1.4 
per cent., and inasmuch as the related obser- 
vations were liable to a greater percentage 
error, it has been thought best to use the orig- 
inal area of 66.22 square feet in all computa- 
tions. On May 8 the area was probably 10 
per cent, less than this, but it increased 
rapidly for three or four days, owing to loss of 
sand during washing, and was probably not 
over 2 or 3 per cent, less than this during 
the balance of the test. 

Device for Cleaning the Sand Layer. 

The device used for cleaning the sand 
layer by washing comprised the following 
parts: 

1. Pipes through which the wash-water was 
conveyed to a connection with the distribut- 
ing pipes. 

2. Pipes for the distribution of the wash- 
water under the sand layer during washing. 

3. An exit pipe for the wash-water after it 
had passed through the sand. 

Wash-water Supply Pipe. During the 
major portion of the test filtered water was 
used as wash-water. From June 4 to July 27, 
inclusive, unfiltered water was used. 



The supply of filtered water was pumped 
from the filtered-water reservoir, through 
the same pipes as supplied the gravity filter, 
to the wash-water meter, a distance of 115 
feet. From this point a separate 6-inch pipe 
led to a connection with the outlet pipe of 
the pressure filter, a distance of about 18 
feet. ' 

For the use of unfiltered wash-water the 
connection with the. filtered-water supply pipe 
at the meter was disconnected and replaced by 
a connection with the main river-water pipe 
leading to the settling chamber. 

Pipes for the Distribution of Wash-water. 
The outlet pipe conveyed the wash-water to 
the strainer tubes, which were used to dis- 
tribute the water under the sand layer during 
washing. 

Exit Pipe for Wash-water. The inlet or 
supply pipe was used as an exit pipe for the 
wash-water after its upward passage through 
the sand. About 8 feet from the connection 
of this pipe with the shell of the cylinder a 
6-inch pipe branched over to the sewer, a dis- 
tance of about 10 feet. Suitable valves were 
provided on these pipes to allow their use as 
desired. 

Elevations. 

The different elevations in feet, referred to 
the bottom of the sand layer as the datum 
plane, were as follows: 

Bottom of sand layer (surface of 

strainer floor) o.oo 

Surface of sand layer (Aug. i, 1896). . +4.12 

Inner side of cylinder at top + 5.84 

Center of discharge tee on inlet pipe . . + 5.25 

Lower floor (main-house floor) - 2.22 

Center of outlet discharge at sewer. . . - 1.22 




SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEMS. 



89 



CHAPTER VI. 

SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS, AND A RECORD OF 

REPAIRS, CHANGES AND DELAYS. 



IT is stated in the introduction to this re- 
port that each of the systems described in the 
foregoing chapters represents the same 
method of purification, and that they differed 
only to a certain degree in the various devices 
employed to put into practical use the same 
fundamental principles. In this chapter it is 
the purpose to present a list of all the parts 
comprised in each of the divisions of the re- 
spective systems employed in carrying out 
this method of purification, which consists of 
three steps, viz.: 

1. Application of chemicals to the river 
water. 

2. Coagulation and sedimentation. 

3. Filtration. 

The schedules on the following pages 
(Tables Nos. i, 2, and 3) show the various 
parts comprising a system which in each case 
was installed to purify 250,000 gallons of river 
water per 24 hours, according to the contracts 
with the Water Company. They are of value 
not only as a matter of record, but also as an 
indication of the attention necessary for their 
satisfactory operation and maintenance. It 
will be understood that these schedules refer 
only to the systems and their immediate con- 
nections. 

In accordance with the contracts between 
the several Filter Companies and the Water 
Company the latter provided the following 
portions of the experimental plant, in addi- 
tion to the laboratory: 

1. The houses in which the systems were 
installed, and the necessary foundations on 
which they rested. 

2. All water and steam used by the systems 
in their operation. 



3. All steam and water pipes leading to and 
from each system. 

4. All meters for the measurement of the 
water. 

5. A reservoir of 142,000 gallons capacity 
for storage of the filtered water for washing 
the filters. 

6. A pumping engine of 3,000,000 gallons 
capacity per 24 hours to deliver filtered water 
under pressure to the large filters for wash- 
ing. 

The general location of the chief portions 
of the experimental plant, including the stor- 
age reservoir and wash-water pump, is shown 
on Plate I. 

In Tables Nos. i, 2, and 3 are given lists of 
the principal devices employed in the respec- 
tive systems for carrying on the three steps 
of this method of purification. 

Table No. I includes all the principal de- 
vices used in connection with the application 
of the chemicals to the river water. 

Table No. 2 contains a list of the prin- 
cipal appurtenances of the settling cham- 
bers. 

Table No. 3 is a tabulation of the principal 
devices and appurtenances of the filters. 

In the tabulations under this head, only the 
leading dimensions of the various devices are 
given, and reference is made in all cases to 
Chapters II, IV, and V, where descriptions 
will be found, and to the drawings on which 
these devices are shown. All devices which 
were in design or construction peculiar to the 
respective system in which they were used 
are marked with a star (*). All other devices 
are understood to be such as are in common 
use. 



9 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 1. 

DEVICES FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE CHEMICALS TO THE RIVER WATER BY THE 

RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 



Warren. 



Jewell. 



Western-Device No. i. 



Western-Device No. 2. 



Two circular white-pine 
tanks, 3 feet in diameter, 
4 feet deep. 



Mixing 
Tanks. 



Pump 
Boxes. 

Propeller 
Wheels. 



Pumps. 



Air 
Chambers. 



Air 

Compressors 

Gauges. 



Glass Sight 
Tubes. 

Platform 

Scales. 

Steel Rods. 

Gears. 



Brass Pipes. 

Brass 
Fittings. 



Brass 

Valves. 



Iron Pipes. 
Iron Fittings. 

Iron Valves. 



Lead Pipes. 
Rubber 
Valves. 



Two circular white-pine 
tanks, 4 feet in diameter, 
4.5 feet deep. 



Two circular cypress tanks One vertical iron cylinder, 



One rectangular wooden 
box, 2.9 by 1.2 feet, by 
i.o feet deep. 

One seven-bladed screw- 
wheel made of cast brass, 
diameter 0.5 foot, depth 
0.2 foot.* 

One vulcanized-rubber Two 
pump.* 



3.5 feet in diameter, 5.5 
feet deep. 

One ordinary " half-bar- 
rel "of oak, iron-bound. 



single-acting steam 
pumps. Size, 3.5 by 4.5 
by 6.0 inches. 



Two glass sight gauges, 
i.o inch in diameter, 4 
feet long, with brass fit 
tings. 



Two wooden depth gauges. 



One 24O-pound platform 

scale. 

6 feet o. 5-inch steel rod. 
Two i-inch steel bevel 

gears.* 
Two 4 inch steel bevel 

gears.* 
12 feet i. 5-inch brass pipe. 



One o. 75-inch glass sight 
tube, i.o foot long, with 
brass fittings. 

One 240-pound platform O 
scale. 



i foot in diameter, 2 feet 
deep.* 



One celluloid mercury 
sight gauge with fittings; 
diameter approximately 
0.25 inch. 



ne 24O-pound platform 
scale. 



One Worthington pumping 

engine. Size 8.5 by 9 

by 10 inches. 
Two auxiliary pumps; 

plunger extensions of the 

piston-rods of the main 

pump. 
One cast-brass cylinder, 3 

inches in diameter, 6 

inches long. 
One cast-iron cylinder, 6 

inches in diameter, 2 feet 

long- 
One wrought-iron cylinder, 
5 inches in diameter, 4 
feet long, with fittings. 
Two wooden depth gauges. 



One o. 5-inch glass sight 
tube, 1.5 feet long with 
brass fillings. 

One 2-io-pound platform 
scale. 



10 feet o. 5-inch brass pipe. 10 feet 0.5 inch brass pipe. 



Twelve 1. 5-inch 
fittings. 



brass Five o.5-inch brass fittings 



Two i. 5-inch brass plugs. 



24 feet i. 5-inch iron pipe. 



Five i. 5-inch iron fittings. 



Two i. 5-inch iron valves. 



7 feet i. 5-inch lead pipe. 
3ne 1. 5-inch rubber float 
valve. 



Two o. 75-inch brass 
valves. 

Three o. 5-inch brass 
valves. 

One o. 5-inch brass check 
valve. 

95 feet o.75-inch iron pipe. 

30 feet o. 5-inch iron pipe. 

10 feet i.o-inch iron pipe. 

Five i.o-inch iron fittings. 

Fifteen o 75-inch iron fit- 
tings. 

Twenty o. 5-inch iron fit- 
tings. 

Five o. 75-inch iron valves. 

Two o. 5-inch iron valves. 

Three i.o-inch iron valves. 

One i.o-inch iron steam 
regulating valve. 

25 feet o.75-inch lead pipe. 



Eight o.s-inch brass fit- 
tings. 

Two o.s-inch brass valves. 



10 feet o. 75-inch brass 
pipe. 

6 feet o.5-inch brass pipe. 

Nine o. 75-inch brass fit- 
tings. 

Twenty-two o. 5-inch brass 
fittings. 

Twoo. 75-inch brassvalves. 

Two cast-brass valve 
chambers with valves. 

Six o. 5-inch brass valves. 

One o. 5-inch brass check 
valve. 

20 feet o.75-inch iron pipe. 

12 feet o. 5-inch iron pipe. 

Twelve o. 75-inch iron fit- 
tings. 
Eight o. 5-inch iron fittings. 



Four o. 75-inch iron valves. 
Two o. 5-inch iron valves. 
One o. 5-inch iron check 
valve. 



SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEMS. 



TABLE No. 2. 

DEVICES FOR THE COAGULATION AND SEDIMENTATION OF THE RIVER WATER BY THE 

RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 





Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western Device No. i. 


Western Device No. 2. 


Settling 


One open rectangular 


The lower portion of a 


The settling chamber 


Same as device No. I. 


Basins or 


wooden basin, 12.1 feet 


circular wooden tank, 


lormed one half of a 




Chambers. 


by 12. o feet, by 10.25 


13.5 feet in diameter, 


steel cylinder, with 






feet deep. 


14.0 feet high. 


dome-shaped ends, 8.0 








Main dimensions of set- 


feet in diameter, 22.5 








tling chamber : Diam- 


long- 








eter, 13.0 feet ; depth, 


Inside dimensions of the 








6.89 feet. 


settling chamber 










Length in center, 11.15 










feet; length on the side, 










8.71 feet ; diameter, 8.0 










feet. 




Iron Rod. 


48 feet o.375-inch iron 










rod. 








Iron 


2 feet 6-inch iron pipe. 


One quarter bend of 


30 feet 8-inch iron pipe. 


24 feet 6-inch iron pipe. 


Pipes. 




halved 4-inch iron pipe. 




23 feet 4-inch iron pipe. 






Two feet 8-inch iron 










pipe. 










3 feet 4-inch iron pipe. 










0.5 foot 5-inch iron pipe. 






Iron 
Fittings. 


Four 6-inch iron fittings. 
Three 4-inch iron fittings. 


Two 8-inch iron fittings. 
Two 5-inch iron fittings. 


Six 6-inch iron fittings. 


Seven 6- inch iron fittings. 
Six 4-inch iron fittings. 






Six 4-inch iron fittings. 






Iron 


One 5-inch balanced iron 


One 8-inch iron valve. 


One 6-inch iron valve. 


Dne 6-inch iron valve. 


Body 


valve operated by float. 


One 5-inch single-seated 




One 4-inch iron valve. 


Valves 


One } inch flap valve 


valve operated by float. 










Dne 5 inch iron valve. 







TABLE No. 3. 

DEVICES FOR THE FILTRATION OF THE COAGULATED AND PARTIALLY SUBSIDED WATER BY 

THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 





Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western Gravity 

(A). 


Western Gravity 
(B). 


Western Pressure. 


Filter Tanks. 


One open circular wooden 


One open circular wooden 


One open circu- Same as listec 


One half of the 




tank ; 10.6 feet in diam- 


tank, 12.15 feet in diam- 


lar wooden under Western 


steel cylinder 




eter, 9.75 feet deep. 


eter, 5.0 feet deep. 


tank, 9.5 feet gravity (A). 


listed underset- 








in diameter at 




tlingchambers. 








the top, 10.0 




Size of filter 








feet in diam- 




compartment : 








eter at the bot- 




Length in cen- 








tom, 14. 37 feet 




ter, 11.15 feet; 








deep. 




length on sides, 












8.71 feet ; di- 












ameter, 8.00 












feet. 


Sand Layers. 


Area, 77.36 square feet ; 


Area, 115.8 square feet; 


Area, 75.94 


Area, 72-78 


Area, 85.30 




thickness, 2.25 feet ; vol- 


thickness, 2.54 feet; vol- 


square feet ; 


square feet ; 


square feet; 




ume, 6.5 cubic yards. 


ume, 10.9 cubic yards. 


thickness, 3.0 


thickness, 2.58 


thickness, 4.12 




88.25 square feet copper 




feet ; volume, 


feet ; volume, 


feet ; volume, 




plate, 0.031 inch thick. 




8.4 cubic 


7.0 cubic yards. 


12.0 cubic 




punched with 0.043 > nc h 




yards. 




yards. 




holes, 78.6 to the square 












inch.* 










Strainer 
Systems. 


61.9 square feet brass gauze, 
65 meshes to the linear 
inch. 


Seven iron castings for 
strainer manifold.* 
444 strainer cups.* 


39.5 feet i.s- 
inch slotted 
brass pipe.* 


38.0 feet 1.5- 
inch slotted 
brass pipe.* 


61 feet 1. 5-inch 
slotted brass 
pipe.* 




15.5 square feet brass gauze, 












80 meshes to the linear 










* 


inch. 












172.5 feet copper strips 1.12 












inches wide. 










Belts. 


60 feet 6-inch rubber belt. 











WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 3. Continued. 





Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western Gravity 
(A). 


Western Gravity 
(B). 


Western Pressure. 


Engines. 


One vertical single-cylinder 


One double-cylinder re- 










engine. 


versible marine engine. 










Jiameter of cylinder, 5.75 


Oiameter of cylinder, 3.0 










inches ; stroke, 6.O 


inches ; stroke, 4.125 










inches. 


inches. 








Gears. 


)ne ^^-inch iron (rear.* 


One steel worm single 










One 26-inch iron gear.* 


thread : length, 4 inches; 










One 16. 5-inch iron bevel 


pitch, i inch ; smallest 











gear. 


diameter, 2.75 inches ; 










'wo 8.25-inch iron gears.* 


largest diameter, 4 










One 6.25-inch iron gear.* 


inches.* 










One 6.o-inch iron bevel 


One gear made of iron and 










gear.* 


bronze metal : outside 










One 5.75-inch iron gear.* 


diameter, 16.5 inches; 










One 4.25-inch iron gear.* 


pitch, i inch.* 










One 3.o-inch iron bevel 












gear.* 










Pipes. 


One length 8-inch iron pipe, 


8 feet 4-inch iron pipe. 


27 feet 4-inch 


48 feet 1. 5-inch 


3 feet 4-inch iron 




4 feet long.* 


2 feet 5-inch iron pipe. 


iron pipe. 


iron pipe. 


pipe. 




One length 8-inch iron pipe, 


.8 feet 8-inch iron pipe. 


8 feet 6-inch 


25 feet 4-inch 


62 feet 6-inch 




3.75 feet long.* 




iron pipe. 


iron pipe. 


pipe. 




One iron central well : 




feet 8 inch iron 


60 feet 6- inch 






height, 4.33 feet ; diam- 




pipe. 


iron pipe. 






eter, 2.42 and 1.71 feet.* 






9 feet 8-inch iron 






One length 8-inch iron pipe. 






pipe. 






6.75 feet long.* 












4 feet 2-inch brass pipe. 












2 feet 3-inch iron pipe. 












12 feet 3-inch iron pipe.* 












L feet 4-inch iron pipe. 










CV. nft-i' 












bhatts. 


i.o leet 2.5-mcn steel 
shaft. 


I leet i.oi-incn steci snan. 
7.2 feet 1. 75-inch steel 










1.81 feet i. 25-inch steel 


shaft. 










shaft. 


8 feet i. 25-inch steel shaft. 










2.21 feet i. 75-inch steel 












shaft. 












3.87 feet 2.25-inch steel 












shaft. 













Two sets shifting levers.* 










Levers. 
Rakes. 


Two rake arms.* 


One iron casting for sup- 










Two stiffener arms.* 


port of rake-shafts.* 










Two tie-rods 0.75 inch in 


Thirteen wrought-iron 










diameter, 5.5 feet long. 


teeth, 3.69 feet long, 0.87 










Sixteen rake-teeth, 35 inches 


inch square. 










long.* 


Six wrought-iron teeth, 2.00 












feet long, 0.87 inch 












square. 




. 






. 


ii feet o.44-inch iron chain 








Pulleys. 


One 2o*incn pulley. 
One i8-inch pulley. 












One friction clutch for 18 












inch pulley. 












One i6-inch pulley. 












One 12-inch pulley. 











Special 
Castings for 


One babbitt-metal sleeve 01 
vertical shaft, 25 inches 


One bearing plate lor mair 
gear and shaft. 








Agitator. 


long, 0.75 inch thick 


Two cast-iron shaft sup- 










cast with a helical thread 


ports. 










three threads to the inch." 












Framework for agitato 












machinery, with. bearing 












plates. 










Fittings. 


Five 8 inch iron fittings. 
Seven 4-inch iron fittings. 


Three 8-inch iron fittings. 
Four s-inch iron fittings. 


Six 6-inch iron 
fittings. 


Two 8-inch iron 
fittings. 


Twenty-five 6- 
inch iron fit- 




Twelve 3-inch iron fittings 


Eighteen 4-inch iron fit 


Nine 4-inch iron 


Six 6-inch iron 


tings. 




Four 2-inch brass fittings. 


tings. 


fittings. 


fittings. 


Four 4-inch iron 




Sixteen 2-inch iron fittings 






Five 4-inch iror 


fittings. 




One 8 by 6 by 3-inch tee.* 






fittings. 












Twelve i.s-incf 












iron fittings. 





SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEMS. 93 

TABLE No. 3. Concluded. 





Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western Gravity 

(A). 


Western Gravity 
(B). 


Western Pressure. 


Brass and 
Iron Body 
Valves. 

Special 
Outlet 
Regulating 
Devices. 

Broken Stone, 
Brick and 
Cement. 
Special 
Devices for 
Distributing 
Wash-water. 


One 2-inch brass valve. 
Two 8-inch iron valves. 
One 6-inch iron valve. 
One 4-inch iron valve. 
One 3-inch iron valve. 

One open rectangular 
wooden box, 5.71 feet by 
2.75 feet, by 10.25 feet 
deep. 
One iron plate, 2.25 feet 
wide, 4.5 feet long. 
One worm shaft and wheel 
with stand. 


One 8-inch iron valve. 
Three 5-inch iron valves. 
Two 4-inch iron valves. 

One controller. 

2.2 cubic yards brick and 
cement. 


One 8-inch iron 
valve. 
Four 4-inch iron 
valves. 


One 8-inch iron 
valve. 
Two 6-inch iron 
valves. 
Four 4-inch iron 
valves. 
One 4-inch brass 
plug with float 
and float arm. 


Five 6-inch iron 
valves. 
Two 4-inch iron 
valves. 


2.9 cubic yards 
broken stone 
and concrete. 


2.5 cubic yards 
broken stone 
and concrete. 
Eighty two ball 
nozzles ; brass 
castings with 
rubber balls.* 


3.0 cubic yards 
broken stone 
and concrete. 


30 feet i-inch slotted brass 
pipe.* 
4.5 feet 2-inch slotted brass 
pipe. 







RECORDS OF THE REPAIRS AND CHANGES OF 
THE VARIOUS DEVICES OF THE RESPEC- 
TIVE SYSTEMS. 

The next two topics of this chapter, dealing 
respectively with the repairs and changes 
which were made during these investigations, 
are closely allied to each other. The majority 
of repairs were coincident with changes of 
more or less importance. As a matter of con- 
venience for reference the repairs and changes 
are listed separately, so far as it is practicable 
to do so, on the basis that repairs related to 
work done on devices which had temporarily 
failed to serve their purpose, and that changes 
refer to the installment of new devices or por- 
tions thereof where the old devices did not 
give results satisfactory to the operators. The 
repairs and changes, with the total periods 
occupied, are listed in the next two tables. 
The periods refer to 10 working hours per day 
from the time that regular operations ceased 
until they began again. Whenever possible 
repairs and changes were made outside of the 
regular hours of operation or during delays 
due to other causes. When repairs were 
made at such times the period occupied is es- 
timated, and marked with a star (*). 

In some instances the periods for repairs 



and changes were caused in part by failure to 
provide necessary materials promptly. 

RECORDS OF THE PERIODS OCCUPIED IN RE- 
PAIRS OF THE VARIOUS DEVICES OF THE 
RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 



Device Repaired. 


Total Period Occupied. 
Hours. 


Warren. 

0. 
0.2 
O. 
25.9 
O. 


Jewell. 

*8.o 
*io.8 
*I.O 
*2. 7 
2.8 
0.2 
*2.O 

16.0 

0*.8 


Western. 
1-3 

I .0 
*2O.O 










Steam-pipes 


0. 








" 3 '.0 
*IO.O 


Inlet 


0. 
*IO.O 


General 





RECORDS OF THE PERIODS OCCUPIED IN 
CHANGES OF THE VARIOUS DEVICES OF 
THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 



Warren. 



1895, 



Nov. 12 to 25. 93 hours 30 min- 
utes. Mainly to change sand layer 
and modify filter tank. 

1896, Jan. 23 to 25. 20 hours 25 min- 
utes. Mainly to change sand layer 
and modify central well. 



94 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



1896, Feb. ii to 13. 19 hours o minutes. 
Mainly to introduce auxiliary wash- 
water distributing system, add new 
sand and raise central well. 

Feb. 14. 48 minutes. Mainly to 
change agitator teeth. 

Feb. 15. 50 minutes. Mainly to 
modify auxiliary wash-water distrib- 
uting system. 

Feb. 21. 3 hours 34 minutes. Mainly 
to remove auxiliary wash-water dis- 
tributing system, change rakes and 
modify central well. 

March 17. 10 minutes. Mainly to 
change position of rake-arms. 

April 13 to 20. 59 hours 30 minutes. 
Mainly to change sand layer and 
strainer system. 

April 23. i hour 35 minutes. Mainly 
to change agitating devices. 

April 25. 3 hours o minutes. Mainly 
to change agitating devices. 

Jewell. 

1896, Jan. 31 to Feb. 4. 26 hours 25 min- 
utes. Mainly to change sand layer. 

Feb. 14. 47 minutes. Mainly to 
change outlet valves. 

June 2. i hour. Mainly to change 
worm gear of agitator. 

July 3 to 5. 30 hours o minutes. 
Mainly to change sand layer. 

Other changes were made outside of the 
regular hours of operation at various times. 
These were mainly changes in chemical pump, 
lime apparatus, other chemical devices, float 
in main tank, chemical feed-pipe fittings, fas- 
tenings for rake-arms; the total time so oc- 
cupied was about 35 hours. 

Western Gravity. 

March 22 to July 2. 765 hours. During this 
period the main changes made were 
in the strainer floor, sand layer, 
wash-water distributing systems, and 
piping systems. 

The changes in this filter were 
complete on May 8, but the filter 
was not put in official operation till 
July 2. 



Western Pressure. 

April 7 to May 8. 221 hours 45 minutes. 
During this period the main changes 
were made in the devices for the ap- 
plication of the chemicals, the supply, 
and the distributing piping systems. 

Records of the Delays of Operation during the 
Tests. 

In this section is presented a record of the 
delays which were met with, and a summary 
of the time occupied in various ways during 
these investigations. After the work was 
well begun it was arranged that the systems 
should be operated as continuously as prac- 
ticable from 9.00 A.M. to 5.30 P.M. on each 
week day, unless the Water Company re- 
quested otherwise. From March 24, 9.00 
A.M., to March 30, 5.30 P.M., the operations 
were requested to be continuous, as was the 
case from 9.00 A.M on Monday to 4.00 P.M. 
on Saturday for each of six weeks' begin- 
ning April 27. A number of repairs and 
changes by the operators of the several sys- 
tems, and operations and observations by the 
Water Company, reduced somewhat the 
available period of operation as outlined 
above. The chief factors which caused de- 
lay were: 

1. Repairs and Changes. These have al- 
ready been referred to above. Some of the 
principal ones necessarily extended into the 
regular periods of operation. The minor 
ones frequently were made outside the hours 
of regular operations, as will be noted from ' 
the differences in total time consumed as 
shown in the first two tables and in the final 
summary. 

2. Removal of Sediment which had Subsided 
to the Bottom of the Settling Chambers. The 
average time required by the respective sys- 
tems for this operation was as follows: War- 
ren, 3 hours; Jewell, 2 hours; Western, 6 
hours. In a majority of cases the settling 
chambers were cleaned at times of washing 
or when other causes delayed the regular op- 
eration of these devices. The delays at such 
times were therefore less than the actual time 
required to clean the chambers. Exclusive 
of operations under prescribed conditions, the 



SUMMARY OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEMS. 



95 



chambers were cleaned on the following 
dates: 

Warren System: December 19, 1895; 
January 23, 1896; April 13, April 28, June 9, 
July 2, July 23, and July 28. 

Jewell System: December n, 1895; Feb- 
ruary 28, 1896; April 25, July 3, and July 17. 

Western System: December 31, 1895; 
January 13, 1896; April 7, June 3, June 8, 
June 24, and July 23. 

3. Sterilization of the Sand La\cr. This 
occurred three times in the case of the Jewell 
System, on October 30, 1895; January 8, 
1896; and February 28, 1896. About four 
hours were required for the operation each 
time, and the sand was allowed to cool over 
night. Sterilization was not attempted in any 
of the other systems. 

4. Change of Water in Settling Cliambers. 
This was occasioned in some instances by the 
conditions prescribed by the Water Com- 
pany during the period from May 18 to 
June 6. The water was usually changed dur- 
ing the time of washing the filters in order to 
make the delay as small as possible. The 
periods required for the operation depended 
on the rate which was being maintained and 
the size of the respective settling chambers. 



The dates when these operations took place 
were : 

Warren System: May 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 27, 
28, and 29; June i, 2, and 4. 

Jewell System: May 18, 19, 22, 26, 28, 29, 
and 30; June 2, 4, and 5. 

Western Pressure System: May 28, 29, and 
June 4. 

5. Observations and Operations by the 
Water Company. These included inspection 
of systems, collection of sand samples, special 
tests, repairs of meters and pipes, and ex- 
amination of various details. The total 
periods of delay were: Warren, 33.2 hours; 
Jewell, 56.2 hours; Western Gravity, 15.6 
hours; Western Pressure, 22.6 hours. 

The following table gives a summary of the 
total periods available for operation of each 
system, the periods during which the respec- 
tive systems were in actual operation, and the 
periods during which the above-mentioned 
causes of delay interfered with the regular 
operation of the systems. 

It is to be noted that in this table the actual 
total time used in operation is presented, 
while in the final summary in Chapter IX 
only the period occupied by operations in- 
cluded in averages is given. 



SUMMARY OF THE TIME OCCUPIED IN VARIOUS WAYS DURING THE TESTS IN DAYS OF 

24 HOURS. 





Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 


Gravity. 


Pressure. 


Date of official beginning of tests 


Oct. 21, '95 

Aug. I, '96 
103.56 
91.63 
1 .09 
8.40 

O.2I 
0-75 
1.38 
O. 

o. 

O.1O 


Oct. 21, '95 

Aug. 1/96 
102.54 
94.00 
0.79 
3.89 
o. 16 
0.52 

2-34 
0.50 

0. 

0-34 


Dec. 23/95 
Aug. I, '96 

65-45 
26.50 
o. 
31.88 
0.05 


Dec. 23, '95 
Aug i, '96 
79.46 
66.05 

O.IO 

9.25 
0.05 
0.03 
0.94 

0. 
2.12 
0.92 


Date of official close of tests .... 


Period available for operation (by arrangement) ... 




Period used for repairs 


Period used for changes 


Period used for cleaning settling chambers 






0.65 

0. 

5-67 

0.70 


Period used for sterilizing sand layer 


Periods when by request of Filter Company systems were out of service .... 





9 6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION AND THE 
AMOUNT OF ATTENTION GIVEN THERETO. 



THE method of water purification investi- 
gated in these tests, generally called up to this 
time " mechanical nitration," has been held by 
some to be so simple that practically no atten- 
tion is required for its satisfactory operation. 
To many, however, the name conveys a dif- 
ferent impression, that of a mechanism or 
combination of mechanical devices, for the 
perfect working of which, like that of any 
other appliance, careful and systematic su- 
pervision must be maintained. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to show 
that the latter supposition is correct so far as 
it relates to the purification of the unsettled 
Ohio River water, because for the efficient 
maintenance of the systems examined during 
these tests constant care and regulation were 
necessary; and, further, that without this, ir- 
regularities, often highly detrimental both to 
the character of the effluent and the cost of 
treatment, were bound to occur. 

The following topics will be presented in 
this connection: 

1. The general manner of operation of the 
different systems. 

2. The mechanical devices installed and 
used to aid in the operation of the systems. 

3. The attention given to the systems 
throughout the tests. 

Under section No. i will be presented a 
general outline of the manner of operation of 
the different parts of the respective systems. 

Section No. 2 includes a detailed descrip- 
tion of the special valves and other devices 
used to regulate or control the different op- 
erations. These have already been referred 
to briefly under the different portions of 
Chapters II, IV, and V. 

Section No. 3 will include statements of the 
number of men employed by each system 
throughout the test. 



THE GENERAL MANNER OF OPERATION OF 
THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

The general manner of operation of all the 
systems represented at these tests may be de- 
scribed as follows: 

1. The treatment of the river water with 
alum or sulphate of alumina for the purpose 
of obtaining coagulation and subsequent sedi- 
mentation. 

2. The filtration of the coagulated water, 
partially purified by sedimentation, through a 
layer of sand. 

3. The washing of the filter (sand layer). 

Nos. i and 2 were carried on simulta- 
neously, but were quite separate in their 
methods of control. 

In the following pages these different op- 
erations for the respective systems will be 
described in order. 

Operation of the Warren System. 

Application of Sulphate of Alumina. The 
river water was supplied under pressure to the 
Warren System through a 5-inch pipe which 
was enlarged to 6 inches at the settling basin. 
The passage of the water through this pipe 
was controlled by a 5-inch gate valve, and a 
6-inch balanced valve on the mouth of the in- 
let pipe, the balanced valve being operated by 
a float in the settling basin. As has already 
been described in Chapter II, the arrange- 
ment used for the application of the sulphate 
of alumina solution comprised a propeller 
wheel in the mouth of the inlet pipe; a pump 
on the upper floor operated by the propeller 
wheel ; and a pair of tanks in which the solu- 
tion was made, and from which it flowed by 
gravity to the pump box. 

The operation of the whole device was 



MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



97 



automatic, as the current of water upon enter- 
ing the basin operated the propeller; and it in 
turn drove the pump, to which the solution 
flowed from the chemical tanks by gravity. 

For the successful operation of this portion 
of the system, regulation of the rate of inflow 
of the river water was required. Control of 
the strength solution was also required. The 
amount of sulphate of alumina applied to the 
water was regulated in two ways: 

1. By varying the strength of solution. 

2. By varying the number of arms on the 
pump into which stoppers were inserted, to 
prevent the entrance of the solution into the 
arms. This is more fully described in Chap- 
ter II. 

It will be seen that the design of this por- 
tion of the system called only for the initial 
application and the regulation of the river 
water into the settling basm, by hand; atten- 
tion to the preparation of the sulphate of 
alumina solution; and the adjustment of the 
pump to deliver a suitable quantity of chemi- 
cals. The balance of the work was automatic. 
The special construction of the automatic de- 
vices will be described in the next section. 

From the settling basin the water passed 
through a pipe to the central well of the filter, 
and thence to the top of the sand. 

Filtration. Starting with a clean sand layer 
just after washing, the settling basin full of 
chemically treated water, and all valves closed, 
the first operation was to open a valve on the 
inlet pipe from the settling basin to the filter, 
allow the water to fill the central well, over- 
flow on top of the sand and slowly rise in the 
open compartment above the sand. It was 
necessary to let the filter fill slowly to avoid 
disturbance of the sand surface. From 8 to 
15 minutes were occupied in filling the filter, 
the average time being about 10 minutes. As 
soon as the water reached within about 0.5 
foot of the maximum level, a valve on the 
waste pipe was opened slowly and filtration 
begun. At the same time the valve on the in- 
let pipe to the filter was opened wide. Dur- 
ing the latter and greater portion of the tests 
no water was wasted in this system following 
a wash of the filter, and the filtered water was 
turned immediately into the main outlet pipe 
leading to the weir box. When wasting was 
practiced the rate of flow of water was regu- 



lated by hand by means of a 4-inch gate valve 
on this pipe. When the water became satis- 
factory in appearance, the valve in the waste 
pipe was closed, and a valve on the main out- 
let pipe, leading to the weir box, opened. 
This valve was opened slowly, allowing the 
filtered water to enter the weir box and rise 
on the inlet side thereof. As soon as the 
water began to flow over the crest of the weir, 
the valve on the outlet pipe was opened wide, 
and the rate of filtration regulated by means 
of the weir. The entire system was then in 
operation. The water was treated with sul- 
phate of alumina as it entered the settling 
basin through which it flowed on its way to 
the sand layer. After it was filtered, it was 
discharged over the weir. 

The rate of flow of water through the en- 
tire system was regulated solely by the mova- 
ble weir, which was used only for this pur- 
pose and not as a measuring device. The 
height of this weir was adjusted at varying in- 
tervals, depending largely on the amount of 
suspended matter in the water flowing into 
the filter. As a general rule, at intervals of 
half or three quarters of an hour it was low- 
ered an amount necessary to maintain the de- 
sired rate of filtration, the meter on the pipe 
from the weir chamber to the filtered-water 
reservoir being used for the determination of 
the actual rate. 

During filtration the water passed freely 
from the settling basin to the compartment at 
the top of the filter, and stood at the same 
level in each. 

When it was considered necessary to waste 
the filtered water during filtration, the valve 
on the pipe connecting the filtered-water 
chamber beneath the filter and weir box was 
closed, and the valve on the waste pipe 
opened, the rate of flow of water being regu- 
lated by hand. When the effluent became 
clear, the change was made to the main outlet 
pipe as described above in starting filtration. 
If the effluent did not become clear in a rea- 
sonable length of time the filter was prepared 
for washing in the manner described below. 

Decision to Wash the Filter. This decision- 
was one which required considerable judg- 
ment. During the whole test no case was re- 
corded where the Warren filter was washed 
on account of the entire available head having 



9 8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



been used, and the rate falling below the de- 
sired quantity. In fact, less than 60 per cent, 
of the available head obtained with the weir 
(4.17 feet) was ordinarily utilized. In general 
it may be said that the only immediate guide 
to the decision to wash the filter at any par- 
ticular time was the appearance of the efflu- 
ent. 

In passing it may be stated, further, that 
the decision as to washing was influenced in 
a measure by several other features, the rela- 
tive importance of which varied from time to 
time. These features related largely to the 
quality of the river water as it flowed from the 
settling basin to the filter, and especially in 
connection with the relative amount of 
aluminum hydrate present in the water at that 
point. The significance of these features will 
be mentioned beyond. 

Preparations for Washing the Filter. When 
it was decided to wash the filter the valve on 
the inlet pipe to the filter from the settling 
basin was closed. The water above the sand 
was then allowed to filter off through the 
sand, the rate being carefully regulated to the 
normal in order to maintain as good a charac- 
ter of effluent as possible. This was continued 
until the water was drained down as far as de- 
sired. With the use of the weir alone, there 
was left at least 2 feet of water above the 
sand. By the introduction of the valve (Feb. 
12) in the weir chamber further drainage was 
made possible, only about 0.5 foot of water 
being left above the sand when this valve was 
used. During draining the settling basin was 
allowed to fill till the float closed the valve on 
the inlet pipe. 

Washing of the Filter. During the drain- 
ing of the filter, preparatory to washing, the 
engine used for operating the agitator 
machinery was " warmed up." As soon as 
the filter was drained, the engine was started 
at full speed and the friction-clutch of the agi- 
tator engaged. This started the agitator, 
which was allowed to turn a partial revolu- 
tion before the lowering gear was engaged. 
The agitator then slowly descended, revolving 
at the same time. After about one revolution 
the wash-water was admitted into the filtered- 
water chamber at the bottom of the filter. 
The pressure of the water forced it up through 



the perforated bottom into and through the 
sand layer, thus loosening the sand. The agi- 
tator continued to descend until it reached the 
full depth into the sand, when a system of 
levers automatically disengaged the lowering 
gears. At times these gears were thrown so 
far that the raising gears were engaged, neces- 
sitating adjustment by hand. 

Washing was continued till the sand was, 
in the opinion of the operator, cleansed suf- 
ficiently. During this time the power given 
to the agitator machinery was left constant, 
and the amount of wash-water admitted was 
regulated so as to maintain a regular rate of 
revolution of the agitator, usually from six to 
eight revolutions per minute. The rate of ad- 
mission of wash-water was regulated by a valve 
operated by hand. The maximum, minimum, 
and average vertical velocities of the wash- 
water used (estimating 45 per cent, of the sand 
layer occupied by water) were 4.05, 0.86, and 
1.79 linear feet per minute, respectively. 

As soon as the bed was cleansed to the de- 
sired degree, the lifting gears were engaged 
and the rakes raised out of the sand. It was 
customary at this time to supply a little more 
steam to the engine and to admit a little extra 
wash-water, as the greatest load came on the 
agitating machinery when lifting the rakes. 
The construction of the machinery was such 
that the rakes could not be lifted vertically 
out of the sand, but must continue to revolve 
while rising. As the rakes approached their 
highest position, steam was gradually shut off 
from the engine. For some time it was cus- 
tomary to shut off the wash-water when the 
rakes were about three-fourths out of the 
sand. In the early part of February, however, 
it was found that by continuing the supply of 
wash-water till the agitator was fully raised 
and stopped, the ridges in the sand formed 
by the rake-teeth were lessened. After this 
date it was customary to shut off the wash- 
water gradually as the rakes ascended, to stop 
the agitator by disengaging the friction- 
clutch as soon as the rakes were fully raised, 
and then to shut off the wash-water entirely. 
The engine was then stopped. 

The filter was now ready for filling with 
water from the settling basin preparatory to 
filtration, as has been described. 



MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



99 



Operation of the Jewell System. 

The same method of presentation of the 
operation of this system will be followed as 
was used with the Warren System. 

Application of Sulphate of Alumina. The 
river water was supplied to the Jewell System, 
under a pressure of about 60 pounds, through 
a 5-inch pipe. The pipe through which the 
solution of sulphate of alumina was pumped 
joined the inlet pipe at a point about 10 feet 
from the entrance to the settling chamber. 
The river water and chemical solution had to 
pass through the inlet meter and two valves 
before they reached the settling chamber. 

Two valves (a hand valve and an automatic 
valve) were used to control the flow through 
the inlet pipe. The first was a simple globe 
valve used to regulate the flow when starting 
the system or to shut off the river water upon 
stopping operations. The other valve was 
situated in the mouth of the inlet pipe within 
the settling chamber. It was controlled by a 
float in the compartment above the sand in 
the filter, and was relied upon to regulate 
the rate of admission of the water into the 
system as soon as the water rose high enough 
to set the float in operation. Regulation of 
the rate of admission of the water to the 
settling chamber also controlled its passage 
through the chamber and entrance to the fil- 
ter. 

The rate of application of the chemicals to 
the river water was regulated solely by the 
speed of the pump used for that purpose. For 
large changes in the amount of chemicals ap- 
plied to the water, the strength of the solu- 
tion was varied. The speed of the pump was 
adjusted by regulation of a steam throttle- 
valve, the pressure of the steam being held 
nearly constant by a regulating valve on the 
main steam-pipe. During the early part of 
the test, the throttle-valve on the pump for 
the delivery of sulphate of alumina was con- 
trolled by a float at the top of the filter. This 
was found to be unsatisfactory and hand regu- 
lation was relied upon throughout the balance 
of the test. The rate of feeding the sulphate 
of alumina solution for short intervals was de- 
termined by counting the strokes of the 
pump, the delivery of which was approxi- 
mately 2.1 cubic inches per stroke. For 



longer periods control was obtained by com- 
parison of the readings of the meter used for 
measuring the amount of solution and 
the meter on the inlet water-pipe. To start or 
stop the application of the sulphate of alumina 
solution the throttle-valve was opened or 
closed. The chemical pump was started just 
before the valve on the inlet water-pipe was 
opened, and stopped immediately after the 
latter was closed. A check-valve on the 
chemical feed pipe prevented the flow of 
water through this pipe from the inlet water- 
pipe when the pump was stopped. 

It will be noted that the regulation of the 
entrance of river water was automatic, but 
that the regulation of the application of the 
sulphate of alumina required adjustment by 
hand of the throttle-valve of the pump. 

The application of the mixed lime and sul- 
phate of alumina was regulated at first in the 
same manner as the application of sulphate 
of alumina, one pump being used for the de- 
livery of both solutions. 

No adequate means were provided to regu- 
late the relative quantities of the two solu- 
tions. This was remedied in the latter part 
of March by the use of an entirely separate 
arrangement for delivering the lime, includ- 
ing a separate pump and piping system. 

Filtration. The water after passing through 
the settling chamber rose up through the cen- 
tral well and overflowed in the compartment 
of the filter above the sand. Its flow was 
regulated by the entrance of the river water 
into the settling chamber, and this in turn 
was controlled for the most part by the float 
valve described above. 

Starting with a clean sand layer just after 
washing, the settling chamber filled with 
chemically treated water, and all valves 
closed, filtration was proceeded with as fol- 
lows: 

The valve on the inlet water-pipe leading 
to the settling chamber was first opened and 
the sulphate of alumina pump started. This 
caused the water to rise in the central well 
and overflow on top of the sand in the filter. 
As soon as the water had reached its normal 
height above the sand, the outlet was opened, 
and filtration begun. This process of filling 
the filter usually occupied about 6 minutes, 
the time being dependent upon the rate used. 



100 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



In filling the filter the rate of flow was regu- 
lated by hand to the required amount, as the 
float valve did not operate unless the water 
was almost at its normal height in the filter. 

As the main outlet pipe and the waste-water 
pipe were simply different branches of the 
same pipe leading from the manifold in which 
the. filtered water was collected beneath the 
sand, no special difference in the operation 
occurred whether the main outlet pipe or 
waste pipe was used. It was customary in 
this system to turn the filtered water directly 
into the main outlet pipe. This operation 
will therefore be described next. 

The flow through the main outlet pipe was 
controlled by a valve operated by hand, which 
was supplemented during the latter portion of 
the test by an automatic controller. In start- 
ing filtration this valve was opened and the 
rate of flow regulated to the desired quantity. 
This was the only means of regulating the rate 
of filtration up to April 10, when the auto- 
matic controller was introduced. This device, 
which will be described in the next section, 
was so arranged that a variation in the flow 
through it closed a valve automatically, if the 
flow increased, or opened it if the flow de- 
creased. After the introduction of this de- 
vice, it was customary to open wide the valve 
on the main outlet pipe as soon as the con- 
troller was in operation. Owing to the pres- 
sure required to operate this controller, the 
head available for filtration was reduced about 
4 feet. To obviate this difficulty there was 
placed on the main outlet pipe a by-pass 
which cut out the controller. This by-pass 
was used when the available head fell below 
that necessary when the controller was in op- 
eration. Under such circumstances the valve 
on the main outlet pipe was used to regulate 
the rate of filtration by hand. 

Whenever it was considered necessary to 
waste the filtered water, the valve on the main 
outlet pipe was closed and the valve on the 
waste pipe opened, the rate of flow being ad- 
justed by hand. 

Filtration was continued until one of the 
two following conditions appeared: either 
the resistance of the filter, due to accumula- 
tions of matters removed from the water, be- 
came so great that the desired rate could not 
be maintained with the available head, or the 



appearance of the effluent became unsatisfac- 
tory in the opinion of the operator. 

The determination of the course to be pur- 
sued under these circumstances rested with 
the judgment of the operator of the system. 
At times it was found that the appearance of 
the effluent might fail for a short period and 
then improve. Wasting the effluent for a 
short time was often tried under these condi- 
tions. When the available head fell below 
that necessary to maintain the desired rate of 
flow, one of the two following operations was 
adopted: either the filter was washed or the 
surface of the sand agitated. 

Surface agitation consisted in trailing the 
agitator (generally by hand) in a reverse di- 
rection for about one revolution. By this 
means the surface of the sand was disturbed 
by the rake-teeth which rested upon it, and 
the layer of sediment on the top of the sand 
was broken up more or less. During this op- 
eration the passage of water through the sys- 
tem was stopped, but the water above the 
sand was never removed. Application and 
filtration of the water were immediately re- 
sumed, the whole operation occupying from 
i to 3 minutes. Several times during the 
early part of the test continuous agitation of 
the surface of the sand during filtration was 
tried. It cannot be said to have been a nor- 
mal procedure, however. 

In deciding whether to agitate the surface 
of the sand or to wash the filter, many con- 
siderations had to be borne in mind. 

Decision to Agitate the Surface of the Sand. 
With a decreasing rate of flow, owing to 
increasing resistance of the filter, and a satis- 
factory appearance of the filtered water, the 
question as to whether it was better to agitate 
the surface, or wash the filter, involved a con- 
sideration by the operator of the following 
factors: 

1. Length of the last run and amount of 
water filtered during the same. 

2. Cause for last wash. 

3. Success of surface agitation on last run, 
if tried. 

4. Length of present run and amount of 
water filtered. 

5. Appearance of the water flowing from 
the settling chamber to the top of the 
filter. 



MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



101 



It was found that under some conditions 
two and sometimes three surface agitations 
between washings were successful; while at 
other times the disturbance of the surface 
caused a deterioration in the character of the 
effluent, which did not improve. The degree 
of coagulation of the water as it entered the 
sand layer seemed to be a controlling factor. 

Decision to Wash the Filter. Several factors 
influenced this decision, which was in general 
only reached after a careful study of the vary- 
ing conditions under which the system was 
being operated. Unsatisfactory appearance 
of the effluent and a utilization of the total 
available head were the immediate guides to 
washing. The quality of the river water be- 
fore and after filtration, as shown by inspec- 
tion and analytical results, was an important 
factor. 

Preparations for Washing the Filter. When 
it was decided to wash the filter the valve on 
the inlet water-pipe was closed, the chemical 
pump stopped, and the water above the sand 
allowed to filter off. When the water, in the 
opinion of the operator, was seriously defi- 
cient in quality it was drained out through 
the waste pipe for filtered water or drawn off 
from above the sand by means of the collect- 
ing gutter which connected with a pipe lead- 
ing to the sewer. As a rule, however, the 
water while draining the filter was allowed 
to pass into the main outlet pipe to the fil- 
tered-water reservoir. During the draining 
of the filter the engine used for driving the 
agitator was " warmed up." 

Washing the Filter. As soon as the water 
above the satid was drained off, the engine 
was started at full speed in reverse motion. 
The wash-water was then turned into the out- 
let pipe and allowed to force its way up 
through the sand. As soon as it appeared 
on the surface of the sand (generally about 
i minute) the engine was reversed, and the 
rake-teeth turning on the arms penetrated 
the sand to their full available length. The 
agitator was continued in operation, stirring 
the sand throughout the wash. Up to May 
I the rate of delivery of the wash-water was 
regulated to maintain a certain pressure on 
the sand. After this date the valve on the 
wash-water pipe was left wide open during 
washing. The agitator was operated nor- 



mally at a speed of eight to nine revolutions 
per minute. 

Washing was continued until the sand layer 
was cleansed sufficiently, in the opinion of the 
operator, when the valve on the wash-water 
pipe was closed. The agitator engine was 
immediately reversed, and the rake-teeth were 
thrown to the surface by the resistance of the 
sand, which very quickly settled into place. 
The engine was then stopped. 

In washing this filter the wash-water was 
passed upward through the sand layer (esti- 
mating 45 per cent, of the layer as occupied by 
water) at the following vertical velocities in 
linear feet per minute: Maximum, 2.58; 
minimum, 0.42; average, 1.37. 

Operation of the Western Systems. 

The arrangement of the Western Systems, 
as has already been stated, was such that the 
supply of river water, the apparatus for the 
application of alum or sulphate of alumina, 
and the settling chamber were used by both 
filters in common. The first portion of the 
description will therefore apply to both the 
gravity and pressure systems. 

Application of Alum Original Device. In 
the original device the river water was sup- 
plied under pressure through a 6-inch pipe 
leading directly to the settling chamber. The 
flow of water through this pipe was controlled 
by a valve operated by hand. From this pipe, 
on each side of the valve, a small brass pipe 
led to the alum tank. The inlet pipe to the 
tank, from the upper side of the valve, passed 
through the cover of the tank, and projected 
into it about I foot. The outlet pipe simply 
passed through the cover of the alum tank 
and entered the inlet water-pipe below the 
valve. This tank was water-tight, and in it 
were placed crystals of potash alum. After 
the addition of the alum the cover was re- 
turned, and the water from the main inlet 
water-pipe was admitted to the alum tank 
through the small brass inlet pipe. A valve 
was placed on each of the brass pipes to regu- 
late the flow through them. 

To start the supply of river water and alum 
solution to the settling chamber, the valve on 
the inlet water-pipe was opened nearly wide, 
but not completely so, thus leaving a differ- 



IO2 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



ence in pressure on the two sides of the valve. 
The valve on the brass pipe leading to the 
alum tank was normally left open. When the 
valve on the inlet water-pipe was opened, the 
valve on the brass pipe leading from the alum 
tank to the inlet water-pipe was also opened. 
The difference in pressure caused a current of 
water to pass from the inlet water-pipe 
through the alum tank and back to the inlet 
water-pipe. It was considered that this water 
in passing through the alum tank formed a 
saturated alum solution. The rate of flow of 
this solution was regulated by hand, the valve 
on the brass outlet pipe from the alum tank 
being used for this purpose. The actual rate 
of flow was observed by the aid of a small 
meter. No regulation of the water entering 
the settling chamber was attempted, as the 
rate of entrance of water was controlled solely 
by the rate of removal of water from the set- 
tling chamber, which was kept constantly 
filled and under nearly the full pressure. The 
water passed through the settling chamber 
and out at the top into the chamber outlet 
pipe, which branched in front of the chamber 
into a supply pipe for the gravity filter and 
a supply pipe for the pressure filter. 

Unless the whole system was taken out of 
operation for a time no change was made in 
the valves on the main inlet pipe at all, except 
to regulate the rate of application of alum as 
described above. 

Application of Alum or Sulpliatc of Alumina 
Second Device. As has been described in 
Chapter II, the second device used in this 
system for the treatment of the river water 
with alum or sulphate of alumina consisted 
mainly of two mixing tanks and a pair of small 
pumps, together with suitable piping. 

The arrangement of the inlet pipes was 
changed but little so far as general operation 
is concerned. Unless the system was to be 
taken out of operation, the river water had 
free passage into the settling chamber at all 
times. The only change in this portion of 
the system was the operation of the main 
water pump. As soon as the valve on the 
pipe leading from the settling chamber to 
either filter was opened, and the water drawn 
from the settling chamber, the pump was 
started in operation by opening the steam 
throttle-valve. This valve was opened to 



a regular position and allowed to remain 
there till the draft on the settling chamber 
was stopped, when the pump slowed down 
owing to the increased pressure to pump 
against. The throttle-valve was then closed. 

The device for the application of alum or 
sulphate of alumina was put in operation 
simultaneously with the main water pump, 
as the chemical pumps were simple extensions 
of the piston-rods of the water pumps. When 
starting, the valves cutting off the supply of 
chemical solution from the tanks to the pumps 
were opened, the air in the pumps blown off 
by means of petcocks, and the device was 
then in operation. 

The method of regulation of the chemical 
application, as in the Warren and Jewell sys- 
tems, was either by changes in the strength 
of solutions, or by varying the rate of applica- 
tion. Setting aside leakages, the discharge 
from the chemical pumps was practically con- 
stant. The method used to control the rate 
of application was to regulate by hand the 
rate of return from the pumps to the mixing 
tanks of a portion of the solution. Suitable 
piping with simple cocks was provided for 
this purpose. Observations of the rate of flow 
of the solution were made by the aid of a 
meter. A glass tube forming part of the pip- 
ing system made visible the flow of the chemi- 
cal solution. 

The operation of filtering the partially puri- 
fied (settled) water by the gravity and pres- 
sure filters, and the manner of washing these 
filters, is next presented. The modification 
in the former filter in April makes it advisable 
to consider it as two separate filters, gravity 
filters (A) and (B). 

Operation of the Western Gravity Filter (A). 

The water from the settling chamber flowed 
through a 4-inch pipe into the open circum- 
ferential gutter in the compartment above the 
sand, from which it overflowed on top of the 
sand layer. The flow through this pipe was 
controlled by a 4-inch gate valve operated by 
hand, and a 4-inch plug operated by a float 
in the open compartment -referred to above. 

Filtration. Starting with a clean sand layer 
just after washing, and all valves closed, the 
operation of filtration was proceeded with as 
follows: 



AtANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



103 



The gate valve on the inlet from the set- 
tling chamber to the filter was opened and the 
filter allowed to fill slowly to the desired 
height. As a usual rule, filtration was begun 
when the open compartment above the sand 
was half to three-qarters full, and it was then 
allowed to fill till the flow was stopped by 
the plug operated by the float. This plug 
was intended to regulate the rate of flow of 
the water applied to the filter. 

The valve on the filtered waste-water pipe 
was next opened and the water allowed to 
pass downward by gravity through the sand. 
Filtration was usually begun at about half of 
the normal rate or less. This rate was held 
fairly constant, the regulation being by hand 
adjustment of the valve, until the water began 
to appear clear. The rate of filtration was 
then slowly increased to the normal. As soon 
as the water became clear at the normal rate 
of flow, the valve on the waste-water pipe was 
closed and the valve on the main outlet pipe 
opened. 

Filtration was continued, the valve on the 
main outlet pipe being regulated by hand 
from time to time to maintain the desired rate, 
till it became necessary or desirable to 
wash. 

Decision to Wash the Filter. It may be 
stated that the cause of washing this filter was 
in practically all cases the exhaustion of the 
full available head for filtration. When the 
accumulations on and in the sand caused a 
resistance so great that, with the outlet valve 
wide open, the rate of filtration fell below that 
which, in the opinion of the operator, it was 
economical or desirable to maintain, the filter 
was washed. 

Preparation for Washing the Filter. When 
it was decided to wash the filter, the valve 
on the pipe from the settling chamber to the 
filter was closed, and the water above the sand 
was allowed to filter out. This was, of course, 
done at a constantly decreasing rate, owing 
to the increasing resistance and the decreas- 
ing head. The time occupied in this operation 
was often comparatively long, as high as i 
hour and 40 minutes being recorded, while 
intervals of from i to 1.5 hours were quite 
common. The variations in the quantity of 
unfiltered waste water (water remaining upon 
the sand after draining prior to washing) are 



interesting in this connection and will be pre- 
sented in tables in Chapter VIII. 

After having drained through the sand 
layer as long as seemed desirable, the re- 
mainder of the water above the sand was 
drawn through the circumferential gutter and 
pipe which led from it to the sewer. 

Washing the Filter. The operation of 
washing this filter consisted in opening the 
valve on the wash-water pipe to its full extent 
and letting the water under pressure into the 
strainer system beneath the sand. From the 
strainer system it forced its way up through 
the sand, stirring it more or less by the cur- 
rent of the water. This was continued till the 
sand was sufficiently cleansed in the judgment 
of the operator, when the wash-water was 
shut off. The maximum, minimum, and aver- 
age vertical velocities of the wash-water used 
with this filter (estimating 45 per cent, of the 
sand layer as occupied by water) were 3.42, 
1.22, and 2.22 linear feet per minute, respec- 
tively. The filter was then ready for filling 
with water from the settling chamber prepara- 
tory to filtration, as has been described. 

Operation of the Western Gravity Filter (B). 

Filtration. This operation was similar to 
that followed in Western gravity filter (A), 
as the methods of regulating the flow into 
the filter, starting filtration and the regulation 
of the rate of filtration were all the same as 
in the original filter. 

In this filter, however, washing was often 
found advisable before the available head was 
used up. 

Decision to Wash the Filter. This question 
was, as with the other systems, a matter of 
judgment with the operator. Either the un- 
satisfactory appearance of the effluent or'the 
decrease in rate of filtration on account of re- 
sistance of the filter were used as immediate 
guides for the determination of the time of 
washing. The general features of operation, 
character of river water, amount and charac- 
ter of water filtered, and several other allied 
factors, however, were all considered, as a 
rule. 

Preparation for Washing the Filter. The 
manner of preparing to wash the filter 
was practically the same as in the original 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



filter. Owing to the small column of water 
(only about 3 feet) maintained above the sand, 
there was but little to drain out, and the op- 
eration was performed quite rapidly, eight 
minutes being the longest time recorded. As 
a rule, however, no attempt was made to drain 
the filter, the water above the sand being 
drawn off through the gutter and drain-pipe 
to the sewer, as far clown as the top of the col- 
lecting gutter. The filter was then ready for 
washing. 

Washing the Filter. As soon as the filter 
was drained, the valve controlling the supply 
of wash-water was opened, and the water ad- 
mitted freely into the ball-nozzle washing 
system. The water was allowed to pass up 
through the sand under full pressure, until 
the sand was considered to be cleansed to the 
desired degree. The wash-water was then 
shut off from the ball-nozzle system, and 
turned into the strainer system for a period 
of about one minute. The valve on the wash- 
water pipe was then closed, and the filter was 
ready for filling with water from the settling 
chamber preparatory to filtration, as has been 
described. 

In washing this filter an average vertical 
velocity of the wash-water (estimating 45 p^er 
cent, of the sand layer as occupied by water) 
of 2.25 linear feet per minute was maintained, 
and the range was from 1.64 to 2.81 linear 
feet per minute. 

Operation of the Western Pressure Filter. 

The supply for this filter was taken from the 
settling chamber through a 6-inch pipe, and 
admitted to the filter under full pressure 
(about 45 pounds to 65 pounds). The flow 
through this pipe was cut off when desired 
by a valve operated by hand. 

Filtration. Starting with a clean sand 
layer just after washing, and with all valves 
closed, the operation was as follows: 

Water from the settling chamber was ad- 
mitted to the filter through the inlet pipe. 
The valve on this pipe was opened wide by 
hand. As the pressure filter in reality was 
only one of several closed compartments 
through which the water passed, there was 
no filling or draining the tank such as took 
place in the gravity filters. 



As soon as the valve on the inlet water- 
pipe was open, the valve on the waste-water 
pipe was opened, and filtration begun. The 
most distinctive point in the operation of this 
filter was the pressure. As noted above, full 
pressure was carried in the water above the 
sand, and the valve on the outlet pipe was 
opened only enough to cause a difference in 
pressure sufficient to allow the desired amount 
of water to pass through the filter. The 
available head in this filter was approximately 
115 feet for the ordinary minimum pres- 
sure. 

In starting filtration it was always cus- 
tomary to waste the effluent for a short 
period. As in the operation of the Western 
gravity filter, the rate of wasting was usu- 
ally about half of the normal rate until the 
water began to be clear. The rate was then 
increased up to the desired quantity; the 
valve on the waste-water pipe was closed ; and 
the valve on the outlet pipe was opened. 

Filtration was continued until it was found 
necessary or desirable to wash the filter. The 
rate of filtration was regulated from time to 
time by hand adjustment of the valve on the 
outlet pipe. 

Decision to Wash the Filter. In this filter 
two factors were principally used as guides 
to determine when to wash it. The one most 
often relied upon was the appearance of the 
filtered water. The other, which was used 
mainly during the early part of the test, was 
the loss of head due to the resistance of the 
sand layer. As has been explained, the mini- 
mum available head was about 115 feet. This 
was never used entirely, however, as it was 
deemed advisable to wash the filter when the 
loss reached about 50 feet. In some cases 
when the appearance of the filtered water was 
unsatisfactory it was found that by reducing 
the rate of flow for a short time the water 
would again become clear. Under these con- 
ditions it was customary to waste at a low rate 
until the appearance of the water was again 
satisfactory, when filtration was resumed. 

Preparation for Washing the Filter. The 
preparation for washing was to close the 
valve on the main outlet pipe or waste-water 
pipe (whichever was in use), close the valve 
on the pipe leading from the settling chamber 
to the filter, and then open the valve on the 



MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



branch which led from the inlet pipe to the 
sewer. 

Washing the Filter. The operation of 
washing the filter consisted of turning the 
wash-water under full pressure into the 
strainer system beneath the sand. The pres- 
sure of the water forced it up through the 
sand layer, from which it passed out through 
the inlet pipe and its branch to the sewer. 
Washing was continued until the operator, 
judging from the appearance of the water dis- 
charging into the sewer, thought the sand 
was cleansed sufficiently. The valve on the 
wash-water pipe was then closed, shutting off 
the -supply of wash-water. The valve on the 
sewer pipe was next closed and the filter was 
at once ready for use. 

On account of the curved sides of the filter 
chamber the velocity of the wash-water varied 
at different points in the sand layer. The 
maximum, minimum, and average vertical 
velocities in linear feet per minute were as 
follows: At strainer floor, maximum 4.48, 
minimum 1.40, average 2.68; at maximum 
horizontal section of sand layer, maximum 
4.52, minimum 1.23, average 2.33; at sand 
surface, maximum 5.68, minimum 1.54, aver- 
age 2.93. 

It will be seen that no automatic devices 
were employed in connection with the West- 
ern Pressure System. 

Filtered water was used for washing the 
filter during the major portion of the tests, 
but during the period from June 24 to July 
27 unfiltered river water, admitted at the full 
pressure in the main, was used for this pur- 
pose. 

THE MECHANICAL DEVICES INSTALLED AND 
USED TO AID IN THE OPERATION OF THE 
RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

Under this section the special devices used 
by the several systems will be described in the 
following order: 

Devices to regulate the admission of river 
water to the systems. 

Devices to regulate the flow of water from 
the settling basins or chambers to the filters. 

Devices to regulate the admission of chemi- 
cal solution. 

Devices to regulate the rate of filtration. 



Devices Used to Regulate the Admission of 
River Water. 

Warren System. The flow of river water 
under pressure into the settling basin was 
regulated by a 5-inch valve operated by hand, 
and a common 6-inch balanced valve operated 
by a float in the settling basin. The float was 
a cylinder fixed on the end of an arm fastened 
to the side of the basin. The arm was ap- 
proximately 3 feet long. About 0.75 foot 
from the fixed end of the arm a chain con- 
nected to the valve stem. The relative motion 
of the float and valve was therefore about 4 
to i. 

Jewell System. The flow of river water 
under pressure into the settling chamber was 
regulated by a 5-inch valve operated by hand 
and a 5-inch single-seated valve operated by 
a float in the open compartment of the filter 
above the sand. The float was a metal cylin- 
der attached to an arm 3.67 feet long, one end 
of which was fastened to the beam supporting 
the agitator machinery. From the other end 
of the cylinder extended an arm to which was 
attached a chain leading down through a 
small vertical pipe to the valve mechanism on 
the inlet water-pipe. The total length from 
the fixed end of the float to the point where 
the chain was fastened was 5.17 feet. The 
chain was fastened on the long arm of a bell- 
crank lever, the arms of which were 1.84 feet 
and 0.21 foot long, respectively. The short 
end was fastened by a wrist-pin to an arm 0.18 
foot long, which in turn connected with the 
valve plate by means of a wrist-pin. The 
valve plate was connected with a fixed arm 
hinged on one side of the frame. The dis- 
tance from the wrist-pin on the valve plate to 
the hinge about which the valve moved was 
0.33 feet. This combination of levers caused 
a motion of the valve, the relation of the 
movement to that of the float depending upon 
the position of the float. When the latter was 
down, the valve was given its greatest pro- 
portional movement. When the float ap- 
proached its highest position, the short arm of 
the bell-crank and the arm attached to the 
valve approached a straight line, and the 
movement of the valve became very small. 

Western Systems. The supply for these 
systems was regulated only by controlling 



io6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



the rate of flow to the filters as described be- 
yond. The main water pump aided somewhat 
in maintaining a uniform pressure of the 
water, but cannot be said to have been used 
as a device for regulating the flow of water. 

Devices Used to Regulate the Flow of Water 

from the Settling Chambers to the 

Respective Filters. 

Only one special device can be said to have 
been used directly for this purpose, viz., the 
plug operated by a float in the Western 
gravity filter. In operation, however, the 
device used by the Jewell System for regulat- 
ing the admission of water to the settling 
chamber acted as a controlling device in this 
connection, as did also the similar mechanism 
in the Warren System. 

Devices Used to Control the Application of Alum 
or Sulphate of Alumina. 

Warren System. The sulphate of alumina 
solution admitted to the pump box was regu- 
lated by a valve operated by a float in the 
pump box. The float arm was vertical, the 
relation between the position of the valve and 
the level of the solution being adjustable by 
changing the length of the vertical arm. The 
rate of discharge of solution by the pump for 
each revolution was capable of variation by 
means of the insertion of stoppers in the ends 
of the pump arms. 

This operation was, of course, performed 
by hand. The pump itself was the main regu- 
lating device, because it was operated by the 
flow of the water in the main inlet water-pipe, 
and its rate of revolution was designed to be 
proportional to the flow of water through the 
pipe. 

Jewell System. During the first five 
months of the test the movement of a float 
at the top of the filter, as described above, was 
relied upon to regulate the rate of application 
of the solution of sulphate of alumina, by ad- 
justing the throttle-valve on the chemical 
pump. After this was abandoned, hand regu- 
lation alone was used. 

Western Systems. In the original device 
used by these systems the method used for 
regulating the application of alum solution 



was by hand adjustment of the valve on the 
alum pipe. The arrangement of the device 
allowed adjustment by regulating the differ- 
ence in pressure in the two alum pipes, 
which was done by changing the position of 
the valve on the main inlet water-pipe. This 
was only used in starting operation, how- 
ever. 

In the second Western device the method 
of adjusting the application of chemicals was 
by hand regulation of the return or relief out- 
let valves. 

Devices Used for Regulating the Rate of 
Filtration. 

Warren System. The regulating device 
used in this system was a movable weir. This 
has already been fully described in Chapter 
V. As a rule it was adjusted about every 
half-hour. A valve operated by hand was 
used for regulating the rate of wasting. 

Jezvell System. As described in section i 
of this chapter, the rate of filtration was regu- 
lated by means of hand valves up to April 10, 
1896. On this date a device called an " auto- 
matic controller " was installed. The ar- 
rangement of this device was as follows: 
SBA\ J3}iy aq; luoaj adid japno uretu aijj, 
raised up and the end turned down, so that it 
discharged into a galvanized iron tank through 
a 4-inch butterfly valve. Through this pipe 
the flow was regulated by the valve, which in 
turn was controlled by the position of a bal- 
ance arm on the valve stem. The iron tank, 
i foot in diameter, was hung from the outlet 
pipe by four arms. Its upper end was open. 
The outlet from this tank was a sharp-edged 
orifice at the bottom, through which the 
water was discharged into a galvanized iron 
funnel, which led the water into the pipe con- 
nected with the filtered-water reservoir. 

The regulation of the flow was obtained by 
the butterfly valve above mentioned, the posi- 
tion of the valve been controlled by the level 
in the tank in the following manner: 

The balance arm of the valve held an iron 
weight at one end and a copper cylinder at the 
other. This copper cylinder had a discharge 
port and funnel at the bottom. From the 
bottom of the iron tank a flexible pipe, with 
an overflow, fed into the small copper cylin- 



MANNER OF OPERATION OF THE PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. 



107 



der above mentioned, and the water in the 
cylinder flowed back into the funnel on the 
pipe to the reservoir. 

The small overflow pipe was adjustable to 
any desired height so that it would cause the 
desired rate of flow through the orifice in the 
bottom of the iron tank. The parts were so 
proportioned that if the water remained con- 
stantly at the desired level, the overflow into 
the small cylinder was just sufficient to keep 
the water in this cylinder at a height neces- 
sary to balance the weight on the other end 
of the lever arm, thus keeping the valve open 
the required amount. When the flow in- 
creased or decreased, the overflow became 
greater or smaller, and the level of the water 
in the small cylinder therefore increased or 
decreased. The balance arm moved corre- 
spondingly, thus closing or opening the valve. 

Western System. Hand valves alone were 
used for regulating the rate of filtration in the 
Western Systems. 

THE ATTENTION GIVEN TO THE RESPECTIVE 
SYSTEMS. 

The general manner of operation of the 
respective systems, and the special devices in- 
stalled to aid the operators, have already been 
presented. In this section, the number of 
men which the several companies considered 
necessary to employ to operate the respective 
systems will be given. It is not the pur- 
pose of this section to present any compara- 
tive statements for the purpose of showing 
the number of men necessary to operate any 
modification or enlargement of these systems, 
but to show clearly the amount and character 
of supervision deemed necessary by the dif- 
ferent filter companies for the operation of 
their respective systems. 

From March 24 to 29, inclusive, the sys- 
tems were operated day and night. For six 
weeks beginning April 27 the systems were 
operated continuously from 9 A.M. on Mon- 
day to 4 P.M. on Saturdays of each week. 



The Number of Men Engaged in the Operation 
of the Respective Systems. 

Warren System. Throughout the test this 
system was in charge of a trained engineer 
who was also a chemist. He was assisted by 
one regular helper. During the continuous 
run in March, the system was operated at 
night by a superintendent of the company. 
During the six weeks' run the regular assist- 
ant took charge at night, and a second helper 
was employed during the day. 

Jewell System. From the beginning of the 
test till Nov. n, 1895, the system was oper- 
ated by one man who was a chemist. After 
Nov. 1 1 an officer of the company was in 
charge. He was assisted till Nov. 18 by the 
original man in charge. On that date an- 
other chemist was employed in place of the 
original chemist. This chemist was replaced 
during the second week in December by a 
mechanic. A boy was employed after the first 
week in December. This force of two men 
and a boy remained up to March 23, when a 
chemist was employed. No change was made 
in this force of three men and a boy through- 
out the balance of the test except during the 
continuous run in March. 

During this continuous run the system was 
operated during the day by an officer of the 
company assisted by the chemist, and during 
the night by another officer assisted by the 
mechanic and the boy. During the six weeks' 
continuous run the force of three men was 
divided into three watches, the boy assisting 
about the place during the day. 

Western Systems. These systems were in 
charge of a trained chemist throughout the 
test. He was assisted in the routine operation 
by one and sometimes two men. Up to 
March 24 only one helper was employed. A 
new man was employed to assist during the 
day at the beginning of the first continuous 
run, the original helper being on duty at 
night. Two men were employed from this 
time till the first week in July. A boy was 
also employed to assist at night throughout 
the six weeks' continuous run. 

The influence on the results accomplished 
by the systems of the attention received will 
be considered further in Chapter IX. 



io8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE, 



CHAPTER VIII. 

COMPOSITION OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER TREATMENT BY THE RESPECTIVE 
SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION, AS SHOWN BY CHEMICAL, MICROSCOPICAL, AND BAC- 
TERIAL ANALYSES; TOGETHER WITH A TABULATION OF THE MOST IMPORTANT DATA 
ON THE OPERATION OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 



IN this chapter is recorded the main bulk 
of the detailed results of the observations and 
examinations made during the investigations. 
These results are presented in a series of 
tables as follows: 

Table No. i, results of regular chemical 
analyses, indicating the sanitary and technical 
characters of the water after purification. 

Table No. 2, results of mineral analyses of 
the water after purification. 

Table No. 3, results of microscopical ex- 
aminations of the water after purification. 

Table No. 4, results of bacterial analyses of 
the water after purification, and a record of 
conditions under which each sample was col- 
lected. 

Table No. 5, records of the operation of the 
respective systems, including a brief summary 
of the analytical results and also the amount 
of sulphate of alumina used during each run. 

The next chapter, in which these results are 
summarized and discussed, also contains some 
analytical and other results which were ob- 
tained in connection with special points which 
are outlined in the discussion. This chapter 
deals solely with the principal detailed rec- 
ords. In the case of each table there are a 
number of explanations and points to which 
attention is called, as stated in the following 
paragraphs. It may again be stated that 
effluent refers to the water, after its passage 
through one of the systems, which was passed 
into the outlet provided for the finished prod- 
uct. It is further to be noted that whenever 
filtration or any related term is used, it refers 
to effective filtration, i.e., the filtration of 
water which was passed into the outlet pro- 
vided for the finished effluent. 



Table No. /. 

Samples. The samples of the several 
effluents, for regular chemical analysis, are 
listed in serial numbers. The same series of 
numbers was used for both the untreated river 
water and the effluents. During the process 
of analysis samples were designated by these 
numbers only, and the source of the samples 
was not known to the analysts. The condi- 
tions under which the samples were collected 
are presented as a matter of convenience by 
reference to Table No. 5, which includes the 
results of bacterial analyses of corresponding 
samples. During a portion of the time 
samples for chemical analysis were collected 
continuously by an automatic device which is 
briefly described in the appendix. In such 
cases the period covered by the sample is re- 
corded. 

In cases where several portions of effluent 
were mixed together for a single average 
sample, the water was kept in an ice-box dur- 
ing the period which intervened between the 
times of collection and of analysis. 

Methods of Analysis. Substantially the 
same methods were employed for the analysis 
of effluents as were used in the case of the 
untreated river water. They are presented 
briefly in Chapter I. The only point to be 
mentioned is that in the present tabulations 
there are included results indicating the ap- 
pearance of the effluents. These results are 
given under the heading, " Degree of Clear- 
ness." They were obtained by careful inspec- 
tion, aided by a diaphanometer such as is 
briefly described in the appendix, where an 
outline of the methods followed will be found. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



109 



The significance of the five degrees of clear- 
ness is substantially as follows: 

Degree No. I, brilliant. 

Degree No. 2, clear. 

Degree No. 3, slightly turbid. 

Degree No. 4, turbid. 

Degree No. 5, very turbid. 

These expressions relate to perfectly clear 
water as a basis of comparison, and have 
nothing to do with such expressions as might 
be applied to the muddy river water. No ob- 
jection could be raised by consumers with re- 
gard to the appearance of the effluents when 
it was represented by any of the first three 
degrees of clearness; with the fourth, the 
turbidity would probably be noticed by con- 
sumers at times, but not uniformly. 

Color. The color of the effluents, so far as 
related to dissolved matters in the water, was 
very slight, as is also true of the Ohio River 
water before treatment. Some of the color re- 
sults were unavoidably increased by minute 
particles suspended in the water. 

Carbonaceous Organic Matter Oxygen Con- 
sumed. The carbonaceous organic matter in 
the effluents, as indicated by the oxygen con- 
sumed, was satisfactory, practically without 
exception, and was less than that dissolved in 
the river water. 

Nitrogenous Organic Matter Albuminoid 
Ammonia. The nitrogenous organic matter 
in the effluents, as indicated by the nitrogen 
in the form of albuminoid ammonia, was also 
satisfactory as a rule, and less than that dis- 
solved in the river water. Very little or no 
organic matter was suspended in the effluents 
ordinarily. In effluents which had either of 
the first two degrees of clearness it is recorded 
as zero. In the other three degrees of clear- 
ness it was appreciable; but it was too small 
for measurement in a satisfactory manner, 
and accordingly blanks are inserted in the 
tables under these conditions. 

Nitrogen as Free Ammonia and Nitrites. As 
a rule there was a slight reduction in the 
effluents, as compared with the river water, 
in these compounds, which represent inter- 
mediate steps in the conversion of organic 
matter in its crude form into completely 
oxidized mineral matter. 

Nitrogen as Nitrates. There was sub- 
stantially no change in the water before and 



after treatment with regard to the amount of 
nitrogen in -the form of nitrates. This deter- 
mination indicates the amount of organic 
matter which is completely oxidized ; and 
it is not to be expected that the amounts 
would change after treatment of the water by 
a process in which the organic matter is re- 
moved mechanically not by oxidation and 
nitrification. 

Chlorine. The chlorine in the water was 
not affected by the treatment. 

Residue on Evaporation. The suspended 
matter in the river water was completely re- 
moved in a majority of cases by the treat- 
ment, as well as some of the dissolved mat- 
ters. Whenever the effluents had a degree 
of clearness of No. 4 or No. 5, there was an 
appreciable amount of mineral matter sus- 
pended in it, but it could not be satisfactorily 
measured. 

Fixed Residue on Evaporation. These re- 
sults are given as a matter of record for com- 
parison with corresponding results of the 
water before treatment. 

Alkalimt\. The alkalinity of the effluents, 
caused chiefly by lime (carbonate and bicar- 
bonate of calcium), was less than that of the 
river water by a quantity almost directly pro- 
portional to the amount of sulphate of alu- 
mina used in the treatment of the water. In 
some instances the alkalinity was exhausted, 
due to an excess of sulphate of alumina, and 
the effluents were acid. 

Dissolved Alumina. As a rule the analyses 
indicated the effluents to be completely free 
from dissolved alumina, although at times 
mere traces were noted in the course of anal- 
ysis. 

The question of alkalinity and dissolved 
alumina have already received careful consid- 
eration in Chapter III. 

Iron. With the possible exception of very 
slight traces of dissolved iron, all of the iron 
in the river water was removed except when 
the effluents were quite turbid. In many cases 
it appeared that iron was contained in the par- 
ticles which made the effluents turbid. 

Table No. 2. 

In this table are recorded the results of 
mineral analyses of the several effluents dur- 



no 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



ing the period of continuous operation, from 
March 23 to 29, inclusive. During this time 
samples of the effluents were collected con- 
tinuously by automatic devices. As a matter 
of convenience for comparison, the mineral 
analyses of the corresponding river samples 
are also presented. 

These results are of value in showing the 
constituents which composed the mineral 
matter in the water before and after treat- 
ment. 

Table No. 3. 

This table contains the results of micro- 
scopical analyses of the effluents for algae, 
diatoms and such micro-organisms as may be 
enumerated and classified with the aid of the 
microscope, and without the aid of special 
methods such as are necessary in the case of 
the bacteria. 

Practically speaking, the effluents were free 
from this class of living organisms. 

Table No. 4. 

The results of the determinations of the 
numbers of bacteria in the effluents are re- 
corded in this table. The samples were 
given a number in the series which included 
also the samples of river water. In addition 
to the hour of collection of the sample a rec- 
ord is also given of the " run " during which 
the collection was made. This facilitates a 
detailed study of the entire records, including 
those of the following table. A run was re- 
garded during these investigations as com- 
prising all the normal operations of the 
respective systems, from the first opening of 
the valve on the filtered-water pipe, following 
a wash, to the next succeeding similar opera- 
tion. 

The rate of filtration, expressed in cubic 
feet per minute and million gallons per acre 
per 24 hours, and the loss of head at the time 
of collection of the samples are also presented. 
It will be noted that the loss-of-head observa- 
tions were not made at the outset of the inves- 
tigations. This was caused by unavoidable 
delays in providing proper facilities for ob- 
taining full sets of observations. The period 
of time occupied in filtration, and the quan- 
tity of water filtered, between the resumption 



of filtration following the preceding washing 
of the sand layer and the collection of the 
samples, are each recorded. Under the re- 
marks will be found comments upon special 
features in the operation of the respective 
systems in association with the sample ana- 
lyzed. A series of letters will also be noted 
under the column of remarks. They serve as 
a guide in showing the basis upon which the 
average bacterial efficiencies of the respective 
systems were computed, as follows: 

A. Those abnormal results which were ob- 
tained at the extreme end of a run just prior 
to washing, and which are not included in 
averages. 

B. The results of special samples collected 
in special places, and of those taken after the 
system had been out of operation for periods 
of greater or less duration, both of which 
were therefore not included in averages. 

C. When two sets of bacterial samples 
were collected, one set taken " all at once " 
and the other collected by an automatic 
sampler and covering a long period, only one 
set of results were used for official averages. 
Those results designated by the letter C were 
used only as checks. 

D. Those results were excluded which 
were obtained at times when the operations 
were under conditions known to be abnormal, 
and which were in the majority of cases 
caused by the Water Company. 

E. Long series of results on certain runs, 
when the automatic samplers were in use, 
were excluded from the daily averages, but 
were used exclusively in obtaining the aver- 
ages for those particular runs. 

Table No. 5. 

This table contains the records of the 
operation of the respective systems tabulated 
in the form of runs. As stated above, all 
normal operations of the respective systems 
from the first opening of the valve on the fil- 
tered-water pipe following a wash to the next 
succeeding similar operation composed a run, 
according to the system of records employed 
in these investigations. The several head- 
ings, under which the data upon each indi- 
vidual run are grouped, are defined as fol- 
lows: 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



in 



Period of Operation. This includes all the 
time devoted to normal operation of the sys- 
tem. 

Period of Service. The time during which 
water passed through the pipe provided for 
the finished product, i.e., the period of effec- 
tive filtration. 

Period of Wash. The time occupied in 
preparing the filter for filtration, comprising 
the time occupied in washing the sand layer, 
filling the filter, and wasting the filtered 
water when considered necessary. 

Period of Delay. The time which was not 
used in normal operation of the system from 
the beginning to the end of the run. 

Quantities of Water. These are all ex- 
pressed in cubic feet as actually recorded by 
the meters, except the unfiltered waste water, 
which was determined from gauge observa- 
tions. 

Applied Water. The total quantity of 
river water treated by the system. 

Filtered Water. The total quantity of fil- 
tered water turned into the outlet provided 
for the finished product. 

Filtered Waste-water. The total quantity 
of filtered water which was wasted. 

Unfiltered Waste-water. The total quantity 



of unfiltered water which was removed from 
above the sand layer prior to washing. 

The remaining headings are self-explana- 
tory, but attention may be called to the sum- 
maries for each run of the following data, 
dealing with the efficiency and economy of 
purification: 

1. The amount of sulphate of alumina ap- 
plied to the river water in grains per gallon. 

2. The estimated amount of suspended 
matter, in parts per million, in the river 
water. 

3. The average number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in the river water and in the 
effluents. 

4. The maximum and minimum number of 
bacteria per cubic centimeter found in the 
effluents. 

5. The average bacterial efficiency, which 
was computed by taking the percentage 
which the difference in the average numbers 
of bacteria in the river water and in the 
effluent was of the average number of bacteria 
in the river water. 

Special features are noted under " Remarks." 
Those runs marked with a star (*) were made 
under abnormal conditions and are excluded 
from subsequent averages and summaries. 



I 12 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 1. 

RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF EFFLUENTS OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 
Warren System. 
(Parts per Million.) 


'UOJJ 


8 8'88 39*88888 8$ 9838188 85 ?fiff'SS:rsf ft 


b 

o. 

s 

g 
t/J 

ij 

LJ 

r3 

bo 

c 

5 
a 
o 
a, 

(A 
QJ 

i- 

(J 
O 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


.BU,u,n, VP 3 A1 oss, a 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooc 




A31U||E5HV 


o O ir> * tnvo O ** ** n O I^T^O O o o -o N 1- o ^ O o co *fr $ o <- *ntnr^ 


N*-*r>c}Mr>e^nWNO-J-OOOr^cone*r>.-vOOc>W'-'ir'ONNOr--w 
O O OOOOOOOOOOO OOO c/3 oo oo O O Oco f^i^l^irtinir)ifiw>minmini/iu^>n 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 




'P3A10SSIQ 




,,., 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOO .-O. -O- -O 
r- r^ O oo o o c* c^e^c^-j-Tt^-ao r^ i^so >-< 60 * w ...o.-oo*. . -r . .-i- 





Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


p3A[OSSia 




pspuadsns 


OOOOOOQOOOOOOO.-O...O...O 


,&& ; ; ; . _ ; - ;M . . .M 


,u !JoiqD 


SU'RSSS.Jjr&RSRSSSSfcSfcSS : : :&: :S: : ; 8 1 : : : : & 


S35BJl|Ji{ 
SB 


ooooooooooooooooooooo - -o -o -o - 


S3 JH, !N 


oooooooooooooooooooo o -o * *o -o 


Eiuoaimv -i->i..i 

c 
^ 






Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


pA10SS|a 




tmox 


O C1OOOO -tO TfM -tOOcO OCO -tO QOOCOO O3 O O N -t N N O OCOOO W 
cs m in ui r-*o O t>- co cOM*HhHt*"io*<H i TOwe"'N co coo O'WO O * cooo T~Q r^-o^ vi 




p^nsuoou^o 


O w co M to m t* in in co N Tt N ^"O co oo co O I^O oo Ooo oo O m in o HI !- N w i^ O to m 




SS3UJB3O JO 3da93(J 


--^ N ___ N ^.^,,^^^^ 


3 S33j3aa 


: : : : : : : : : : iinccocoH.ocoH.^McocoomcotinM^M^. . . . 


:::::::::: : - ^ oo ni-^^ NN .... 


Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


m in 
* * " 
in ui H 

- O O HJ M -t OO f^-tOO OO OoOCO N OHI M t-i cojn^*-" - inoooo tn oo' r ^'^rtso\ Ov 

^^ " 
*> K 

00 

in 


u 

rt 

Q 


Tt 00 

ooOMNCntunOMOi-N l^-O r^OmtO>OOOi-it^^- mO r^c>OOOOOO 


O 
"2 > J 


i: :::;:::: o::::: :;;::: :^ ::::::::::: 

Ss Q 


J9o,ain|<| [B;j3g 


n r*. O coo O -^-O O r>. O co r^. O coo O w m r-. o coo pQ O w y ^Q ^ T" ^f^ co O w 
NNwi-iNNC^Mcoco^t^-tnOOOOr^r-r^cocooo ooo -222222 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 113 



Warren System. 
(Parts per Million.) 


'UOJJ 




o ' o ' o * o o -o o -000000666000000000060 


. . . . . . 


euituniv paAjossiQ 


C OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOWOOOOOOOO 




c 


*""" 


-in- .Q : :*< -0 - 0* - "OON~wOC'OWnO > O oo O O O^ 




*8 




papuadsng 


-0 -0 OOOOOOOO - 'OOOOOOOO 


wt 




Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


papuodsng 


o- . o o o oooooooo- -oooooooo 


w. 




,u,o ra 


0* - r-- - - ; ; ; ? ; :"*;"? ; ;OqnO^OOo*ncoinenMno%or^ 




SB 


O r* - ' oo - O O - ' - O r* 


. . - - - - .cncn. ; n . - : M Mh . N Mcncn N N- 


se 


> -. o -^ -t-ii-iOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
-0 -0 - -00 . O -0 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


Biuoaimv saJJ 

1 


S ..o-'O'''OO'-O'O-' < oo'o r o"^ o" o 1 6* ? "o O 1 o 1 o"o > 3 ooooo? 


... 


Nitre 

as 

Albuminoid Ammonia. 


.p aA ,o SS!a 


~ -o -o o ooocoooo ' -oooooooo 


.p,pu 3 dsn S 


;;i;:;:;;i;;;;:8 3 ;;; 


W 


o ' : - : ->n: : :-^: : & : & '. :~<r n ~^~&a>^r~^>~v<x,*r>oxT-, 


O " O O O 'O -OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




patunsuo^ usSXxo 


CO >n-aO^f|-0>000-0-mNuic^t<-.otoOOOO--0---(yO-cyo- r^co t^ r- 




-.0,03 


O -O " OONTf1--TCIC< -r-r-r-r t^ii^w-T-^o NN^tN W 

o -o -oooooocjoooo -ooooooooooo -ooooooooo 




~ojo~*a 


* .-* W W ^. w -n^ 


3.^. 


*> 000 * N ^coaoo oo N u,>nu, mo o oo ^-000< cnmo^O- -0 O r^o O O O 




Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


C^ r^- O^ m m 11 m M o co M r~ N n 


t^ ^ "^ o" S ** ^ In *^ ^ rf *^ 8 Sf 5^8 ^ >QD " * ^ 




rt 
Q 


O O tn oo 

en CO O H i N 

1 1 1 1 1 1 

y-,1^- enw ^l*vO rj-co G'Ooo M T^-tn-^- < f*-oo r^o^i-* tn^t->n\o r*-co O co-l-mr-oo O^O " w -i-m 

^""5 


Q i, [K^ 




' -I.HJUI!I\ P'l i'N 


M w N cntn-t'^'^inmvO'O r* rococo O^O^O *-> """ """ w c* c* tn ci "^ ~^*o *o O r* r^oo oo oo s CT 1 O 





114 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Warren System. 

(Parts per Million.) 


, OJI 


O mmuimOoo *^- ^- N \r>^-O w O ^j-w r*. r-. w> O *t O ^ c* r^-mo^^-r^oo r>> t M r- in m co 


a. 
o 

J3 
u 

CS 

5 
* 


d o* o" d d d d d d d d o* o" o" d d o" d d d d o* o* o* d d d d d d d d d o" d d o* d 


Bu.mn.VP-.oss.a 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOMOOOwMMMOOOOOOOOOm cooo m O 




* !OT 


O F* r* O O OO^fO O woo O M Ooo O O C* O >- M O> O O M moo O ^O O m w M M m co 


5 COO coco- 5. -co jnco.o Jg.jjo **M .no g. o - O _O JO COO 


II 


p3 A,oss, a 




II 


papuadsng 


OOOOOO OOOOOOO O OOOOOO OOO OOOO 


Km 


[BlOX 


oV'&Soo? g 1 o r M?3M < gS' r ,2 g.J^'g.g^S S^S 2"o.Roo 


M MM 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


"P3A[OSSIQ 




p3pU3dsng 


OOOOOO OOOOOOO OOOOOO- -OOO- --0000 


1.00. 


8JS!>8.ffR!faaSW5%a$R 1 ftaiR > SS5.S5;S;S;$S < S,a^|88S 




, 0!Joro 


uiinuioo uioo u^ON r^ rt-o coOcoOOvOO l^oo N oo O t~-O ui^oOOONTj-^ 


\n\n*r> in-d o o tiod >- ci d oo r^oo 6"O co -"j-couiod Tt-iAuivrnriOOvdxS cocococo 




SB 






se ' 


*j- co ^i u~> r-' ^ r^oo r^\o O & O ^ ^ 01 r^ yi >o co co ^t co *^ wi *^" ""> ^i ^i ^i *^> r^* cc o "^ ^ ^ ^ 

OOOQOOOOO'-O'-tOOOQOOOOOOOQOQQQOOQQQOQOQ 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




muouiiu v 3 3J J[ 
c SB 

V 


ooSoSSooooooooooooo? cr" o?oooooooooooooo 




Nitrog 

as 

Albuminoid Ammonia. 


.p 3 A IOS s,a 


OOOOOO OOOOOOO -O -OOOOOO -OOO OOOO 


p3pu9dsns 


l' : i ;: - ; ;; - :: ' ; 





'I B3 X 


oo f oo<?c?oooooS'oS'c?S > o l o 1 o'<?o > ooooooooooooooooo 




pau-nsuoou^o 


r^oo o>o r^o t^oo >no <>-o TI-O r-co r^oo oo a- o N oo r^ T> t^oo o t> o o> N r^ t^o o o oo 


Ood-tddodddc5ddc>d66d6o'o'-i6di-'66d6ddt-'o'o'6ddo 


*v 


co^N N CONOO tnooooo m^-N mo*o *^-^-r>.^f*1-'fco o ^'O**O r^o c^ooco "1-f^\no^ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOMOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




SS3UJE3O JO 33j3afJ 


H, N ^M N C,COCOMCO^ t ,COCOCOCO 


'0 S33J83Q 


Ooo O^O^N Ooo O>O O MinwmOQO O^O M 0^*0000 N cooooo O O M Mr-.^^-o O^C^mM 




Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


7 S 




5" g " "2 .5 <g g 5 5.5 ,S E" S 1 ?o" > R S> " " "T - " " - N ." N " " ." 




^^^ S.SSSSiSS'l'S'" Er?K'rColi?l'i?-S > '< : : : A ~ ' ' < " 


O COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOM COCO 


O^OO OO OO *naO OOO^WWNNCT'NC* 


v 

& 


mo r^oo o^ O 
r^oo in l-< co r^oo co " t, " rCd M w T coo i'X 


"---! < 


jwnmimNs 


l?clE?>^EssR;oScoH^l;ioKK ! %?;sl;5-CI2SI^I????l2 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



ed. 



Sec 

^ S 
I N * 

NO 4J 

I 5:s 

-'c S 

t r 

<B * 

O t 2 

^ 

j 
pa 

< 
h 



UOJJ 



P3AIOSSIQ 



idue 
ion. 



Fix 
afte 



papusdsng 



paAjossiQ 



r*-O "- T T en en M M M O O tnco r-> u-iO en wioo N O ^nwit^Ooo TN N O en T en O T 1 O 

OMOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOMOM 

00606006000666606666066 o* odd o'o'o'o* do* do* ooo* 



oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



ooooo 



aoow^OO 



pspuadsng I o O O O O 



oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



iO O M-O Q^t~oo m ro co tO^OO Ooo Q*c^f)OvO^O m 
^ "-" *-< IH O O O^"- O O'CT'^i O 



vOO^fwcJO^T^r^wcocotnu-) c^oo co rj-u-o w 






OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



en T T d O ci Ocor^ooo o o oo >-r o o -( N do *^ w O M w TN M ** M N entnenn o' 



M M N O 1 * O CO 



I~OO OOOOQOCO ONM O M 



( M O>O N 

O-^O 

o 



Etuoouuv 



M mTTcncncnTTtntnw encncnmTcnmcnes cnenw cni- mw TTTenw enmm^ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO! 



f\o 
O 



OOOOO 



"io u "i u " 1 OO'~' s r'" *^> *t o o o ^o r^oooo r^o u^ r*. i**> o 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



Collect 



Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 



O co -too TtMO *i-Oao ^MOO OOQOoo O *^-co NO 1-O O *tO -t^fM NoocoOcocoooco 
-t'TO u^OO trir>r^- r^>O O AO *^i>oOO r^r^ t *TOOO "TO r~-OOOO f~*O ui r- r-O 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



oo O ** I s * 1 I s *" t**oo CO l*> O Oco co oo O* O M M o *o en co M 0\ 

ddMddddddMdddddd^wwi-lwdMd 



a-ooooooooooa o - w r^-co -t M o^oo TT enco ^ t<-> w M - c^o TO co m -too o * co co 
OH.OOOOOOMWMOOOOOOO'-'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'-.OO 






woo r>-o u-> 

1 " 



enMcncTotcTgNMgqS 8 > 8 ^ 8 g 8 ^cg "5 o i T'C^ Sf SSS N* V? e^^. 

~ N " o'oo" : : & co" ^ I" "" o" r^ O" O" ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ r^ 

Cu_^< " N . 

81-^00" o o o *(S o" cr-oo"o r^ HI oo TO" T N" eno" o 
N en o X X " r^oo O O eno O en r- M T oo 



OO'***""*" 

- N 



coOO 

w w eo tn\O f^o 

1 









MW0*0*NNN 



O. 
* 



116 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



woo i-r-*"too cnr-^-t'-i >- r- r- u->o t TJ-CO *t i- en rt -t N *t -t o *t en >-H u-> moo "tr-cnr^u^ 

OOOOOOOOOOOt-tOOOOOOO'-MMwi-.OOOOOOOOOOOOOO^ 

o' o" d o* 6 o'd do* do o* do' do' do' 066066660600660666666 
00000000000000000000000^000000000000000 

eno en o MO n tn en -t M m M r-w en 6 o *t ci r*. o o o t /> 6 oo in enco oo o w ^t r^ M o 
Trcn-t-tcn-tu">^tuii/ivO mmnir>T-u-u^mu-ienN i- >-i N d en en en en d N ci w en en en en N 

^ enco *-" en O ^ ci N o oo ^t oo O u"> ^-< enoo O O ^ N r-oo N r- oo ooo*^^^"OOOO 

oooooooooooooooooooooo oooo 'oooooooooo 

>-< NW N M N enencnen NCI - M M enN enci <- ooo ooco ooocooooo rococo Ooo 

ooooooooooooooooocoooo -oooo -oooooooooo 

T)- *r O N co oo wi w N o O O r- O 10 O t**- ^~oo ci o r-co M \o O O ^t u~i u* *t en o N w M \o co 
triM NooNooco OO w o O trjuic* O wr--O ^tmw M u->o Minm ooo in tnoo O ""> "- 1 "^ O 

6 6 6 6 6 6 M >-I 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 w 6 6 6 6 ** 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 

rJoo?S 1 oooo 5 ooo > ooo 1 oooooooo'oooooooooooooooo 
o" v 8o"8o*o >v o'oo*o' v o o'o'^'o'S o"o"oo*o'o"o < ooo* 0*0 o o o 0*0 o o o 

OO O "tN NOOO OOOooO O Oco O "too n -t'tOOO OO -t-tci OO Ooo CI O O "tO O 
r-o u~o r~^ ino O r-. r^o r-* t-- co co o r- r-- r~^ o t- r- r~*-\o oo o r-* r^ r-- o r** r^ i"*o o O r-oo N 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'-' 

^tOl~-r-.O'tO "T>roooo UTO "tO enr-vp I--ooooco O m-to tennoo -tOO r-.r--O r--O m 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'-'OOO<-'tHOOOC5OOOOO'-iO 

N N ci en -t **"> O 't *n o -t *t m vn m o r r~* r-- o u"> *n O O O r- O OOOO O O m *t en 

, Q w m 

N vn co ^ ^; 

*t" *t *t X *Sv \n N *t f- f-* en O O CO O "4" M \Q ui n w O O *n oo -t O O en 

w *t co tn ^ ci o ^* ""^ 

en en en en m 

oo 

N m rt uto 
M cn4tko OOi-" Nenwior--oo OO ci en*to M w eno r-.oo OO -t cn-t*no t-o '-' w *J 



p3A[OSS|Q 



Fixed Re 
after Igni 



p3A[OSSIQ 



papuadsng 



papuddsn^ 



* 



|u 

*O 4-> 

I o) n: 

J.*! 

. c S. 
O 

^ s| 

a** 

pa 

< 

h 



Biuooimy . 



as 

id Amm 



papuadsng 



pauinsuo^ ua 



i in.( ( ] 



terial 
f Collec- 
mpler. 



Corresponding" Ba 
Numbers or Period 
tion by Automatic 



^tt^ - *^O coi^c^l^O WO 
H M N t^<ie^^-^-ir)u-)in 



O^e^O O^O eno -< moo w*o M ^O'M u^c 
io*OO C^^C-O O O 1-1 w w w tne^c 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 117 



.R 

5 a 



o 2 



u > 
J 

pa 







uoj; 


^S-S-2? 88888S-8888888888888888^88S- 8 








oooooo ooooooooooooooodooo'o'dooo'oo" 6 


< 


rnimv 


S|Q 


oooooo oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 
















mtowOwOminoOw^Ou^-^-OtnOMinin-ocoONN-^cOM 






X,,u,^,v 


W N i M W M 


1 




p3A[OSSIQ 


O- m O M r-O O* O mO co oo co O r^-co tnr-.^-TtO'* M eoo^tr^' 
O'OO* r-*ooocoN WMfotoon-fcoi-O i O*r^.r^r^. \o r-oowi-i . 


c 


o 




1 M M C* ^ 


1 

X 

* 


'5 

M 


papuadsnc; 


OOO OOOOO -OOOOOOOOOOOOOO O OOOOO 


1 


u 


imox 


cnwoCT-iriO r>-*oc>o l ^wiOcococoO' 1 ^comr>.^'TfO T t'r>'MtotoO'J'i^ 
-tcoi-'O'OO* r^ocooowc*wwcnfoor>-Ttn'-<o s C'r^r^i > >*o*or->>r i *coNi-i 








N M CN M N N ^ 


I 

1 
1 


L 


paAiossig 


vo^M MQ>wui\n't/it- ^->o e*! ui r^.\o wmOMxnco r>. r^>ni/io 
eocow toeor^r^r^.o*O*>--<ooT}-MOcou-)meorO'^- O eoo*O*- 
t-t M M WMMCMM.WMtOeOWNtOtONNWM M WM. 


c 
1 


C 

o 


papuadsng 


OOO OOOOO -OOOOOOOOOOOOOO O OOOOO 


1 




. |C10J _ 


O*O*C**O"-i MO*Nmir)O"^TtTj-ocir)r^*oNnO w u^coOt^oor i *xonO 
cocomeocncM cnfor-r- r^co O-C**- >-"oo -I-M Oco mmtocOTj- o - eoo*O* 








NWWNWWNtOCONtOCOWWMNNWWNMNW 








vOmOWOM NO*OMOOOintninNeoeoor>.MOOO*eocoO^nMO* 






3U!JO|l|3 


cooo tn r*- 'o (O wio >OD >-< N ^I/INCO r>-mNr^w O N Nu-jr*.O* r^-o t-~ ^ O 
Tj-^i-muTOvO*O*OO r^r^.l^r-r--.nxnir'rTreotO(Oeocoeoo*O 








or-o*r^r- o^^^o-tm^^o^totco-tn-n.^^or-0-ooor-rj.to 






n 


MOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 








M o ^ O* r> HI *-Tj--3-TteneOTj--i--3-TtOOOOOOOOOOOO*nu->moO 








OOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 












WUO! 


uniy MJ.4 




4> 






r 





rt 

'5 


p aAloss , a 


O * *t <D CO 'I'vO OCO COOONONOOCOOOOOTt TfcO rj- O O N O O 

rr^-i^. -p Tr^ttor>-u^ o* too ^r^coo*citoNxnr-Tj-Tf *-< towoor^ 









; " ' ' 




< 
s 


p3 pu;,d S ns 


i 1 




c 




::: ^ : : : 




S 

9 
a 








< 


















XQ 








jo[oo 


. H?H?2/8 o ::::::::;::::::::::::::::::: 












>ujus|; 


) JO 33433Q 








) saaaSsa 


0*co^tOvO ::::::: ::: 0- ::: .0>n^Or-MMOON 




a. 


njwadaiax 


^w'S^ 5 :: :ti :::::* 




Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
^Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


i-*. 

00 

\n r>-o o Tf en to 

O M O CO 

^J- ^* ^t Tf^ 

CO 
* 






V 

2 


CO 

CO OOjJ .-,,> y 








.2, Z _ Q 




q 


N ,,U SS 


M O OO "J HI N 

r^rxf-^ooo^O ^oOM^-r^o*Hfcor^oomoow^'r i *.o*i-itooOM^r-*Of r >oooH( 
r^r*r*rr*oo HMMwNWWcoeocrico^-^^^tn^nmoootxr^r^rHCO 



. 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



UO4I 


**no^ni-t<>r>.rt'^-co > 'OoOoc^f^ !u->c^- -MO -r>--O -ooenu^t^u^c^M 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO *OO *OO O O -OOOOOOO 


euioiniv p3A[ossia 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO -OO -OO -O O -OOOOOON 


. . . . 


XllUITOIV 


r* N co ^"O O^"O*-^OcoOwn*nO -com- -^fm- -O m -te^-<c r iO-to 


rrrmu^inu->xr)%nminnmtninui -COM to en ^- *^ docooO"^"^'rf 


ll 

1! 

ll 

Ei 


paAjossia 




papuadsns 


O''O'>'O'-'*OO O O O 


lloj. 




Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


p3AlOSS|Q 




popiM'Nris 


'.O'-O-'-O-'-'OO O O O 


'IBJOX 






auuoiqo 






Nitrogen 


S3JBJ3JN 
SB 




S3]IJ1I^ 
SB 

inuoumi v' 33JJ 

SB 


8. .0 '0 -CM " S H . . X H .wt-,00000 
. .O...O....OO ..O0'-oo-'0-o-'0o55o5o 

rt ^tw Oco^O ^*-^- n-o co Tf O O O ^tO '^Q -v ^ OrrOOoooO 







as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


paA]oss|a 


MMOO^O-'t-'-rMOO'-<OOO >-i O O 


papuadsns 

"[EJOi 


*OCiaowo^Nwo-owaoooo * ". r*tn! -or^ .o^-r^- .-ii^.c>Owi-im 
O -ioooo H c\TttOO^m O^OO Ooooooo -M . .tno^* 'r^-'O H(i-i'O*r>Tt* > *^' 
wMOO-OiHiHM.-.OOMOOO -MM - .MQ 'O O 'WwOOOOO 


. 


pamnsao;) us3XxQ 


^co O o^cnw co\o cn^woo coooo ^- 0*00^0*00*00 me ototn^r*Tj-o w w COM o^u-> 




40(03 


-OD o* vO^ 1 OfOt->ao OcoO*'vO Ocnoo eofeo < M 
. -o *O .MOOH.OO MOO -O -OOO M M O w 


SSJHUCOI3 JO 3,->jK.>( I 


NWNwwMMNMiHNt-tN -<tin\OTfwciMcncnentoNTfTtxneo^tN^-cn 


3 sasjSsa 
ajn}Ej3dui3X 


OooO'ONTt\oor^'-'^i- M o^oo co ^o i Oo x t^oci cooooo w O H mM r-oooo 


eoNeowwciMencntom r tntocowi-iMWMMMMNCitot}-'*^''^ - 'it'>"^"^ 


a 

V 

| 

3 
u 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


m 

O* W> * O N 

"8 S "8 ^ K-.S2 

tro^ m NO O o^ c* in t ~ ll "'r* MM 

W , O 1 V* N QO ft - M - 
T*-\O ^i-N OmO'a'O o^ 1 ^ O Nmin^L O*O r-M l-.o>oo O-O Woo ^-oo m^ti a>t-i Q M woo 
O*O(>NW cn^o^-coO'O s O | 2^ com r--*HW tovooo r^-o*"*w^ o^o OO 
Ttm-tn"^ci' /lxn * r) w^ inir ' xn * ri o"S t--t^ov r> " 0000 rCcooooo Q"O*OO O ^O "-" 1-1 ^"< N 

. g . CO M O WM^tHMM^Mt-l 

8 < Jl 2 r^H 

MM *.S 


u 

^ 

R 


rj- CO O O rt CO 

MM co en M M N 
O MMeo^-coOt^cO'OOO OOOr^> M CON '^O'OcoM < ^-m^-Owi^>cor>.o^v>vO t^-coo 


oo J < c-- ,-,,ja--,. 


Q" ^-> tS 


j^qranK luss 


Tf r-r 1 O eofr. vo O^N,.., tnt*oM coo M vo M -o eooo tooo coco coco cooo w n^fO*^'O 1 ^ - r^ 
co co ^^ O^ O* O^O'O OOO M MM w Ncocoinu^oor->.r>.cooo a*O^O O M N to to <t * 






s 
K 

** 
Vfc ,-s 

r e 
,<= 
'0 

I** " 
x 





o 



<D O, 



w 
hJ 
n 

H 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 119 



n 

a 
. 

I E? 

<o $ - 

\ si 

^ 5 

= o. 

O 2 2 
H > i- 

^ O 



3 


- < 



J 
(P 



'UOJJ 



O O HI co co O O O *1" HI "3- r^. ^- N O co ^J- O Ooo M 'l-totOM m^-Nnir>M w l-m ^-co Oco O 

ooooocoHiOMWO'-coooH.woooooqooooooooooH 1 M5oo 
6oo666666tMo666o666666 6" 6666666666666666 



OOOOOOOOWOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOwOHi 



l 






idue on E 
oration. 



p3A[OSSl(I 



Ot^-O rto u"iO COOH. O^^O cooo OoOMOOHtTfO OMr^Ot-itoHiOHi 
r^ N *t O oo N or^^fr*>ooo i/i^coto cooo O O r*oo vO OONOOOOr^OO 



M in M ^ M 
rf HI in m o 



&tn 
M 



papusdsng 



papuadsng 



O^OO 



O M p*N 

a>-O'-< 



O>M 
MQM 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



Oco ^ ^ O W roo *nco I^>-< N 

Mi-t-ii-iWNH.ooa\oo 



OOO O O OO' OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



N\O CTC^"4-OD'O O^r^O (~M r^TfCNM inOO wuiO W O NCO O O *OM\O O W C^ 
rfOO CO'^-tntoc'imc^c^lN M M W ^-u-)-rJ-nTtu->int^inntn'O ^><*1flW tntOM 



COW HI (OW> 



r*co M w w HI 600 r^-oo or>.rnconoo 



r^Ooo rj-oooo M o O NvOO r-^r^oo 



w M ^J-M M O ^t eo M O 



eomN ^r co M M *fr%^i-'t i * i ^-co*t>no c^o O r>.r^o O^O a-Oco r-- u-> o c* co-^-eotO't-Tf 

OOOQOOQOOOOOOOOOOOO'-.OO'-IQ'-'QH.OOOOQOOQOOO 

oooooooooooooooSooooooocoooooooooooooo 



'taoOOC*OOoONOco^tON-*O 030 -tOO O N -^-NOOO OOoo -^-co 
ftO'*incOeO'-iNcnNMN>-NWC*NNC4NWNNNCON (OO CO 



o* o" d o o" o o o 



O O O O O 



o o o" o* d d o d d o 6 o o" 6 o o o' d d o* d d d 



as 
id Amm 



-paAjossia 



tO 




papuadsng 



I 



1 



j M o M . 
CICOCO- 1 ^-. 
OOO-O- 



OOOOOOOO 



I ^--*CO"^'t p 
OCOOO 



pauinsuo^ 



o" t oo'o > o 1 o > o > oo > o > o > o 0*00 0*0 o?o ooo'oo o*o l o 1 o > o o 00*0 oooo 



doo'ddoH^o'wMOHi 



rf * M 1-1 r^Tft^co NO -! O>r-eo I M tooo r-.r-oo ^j- eo HI *l-*t*eoo o CT*OO " 
O .OMOHIHIOOOHIOHIHI ,MHiOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO'-'O' H OO 



SS3UJB3Q JO 3,U '->'.)(] 



Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Colle 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 



N WMtotOcocoeO'1- i t''i-^-^MiHM > OOOOOOOOOin mco^MCOOOOOO 

M _;_,-, _____H, . i.9||fiiclMffM M_(NOcocococoto 
* rX"^r * " * " *^r_r ** "/-T I - t ^cotocococotocococoto..-.tototococototooocioof3 

*o HI N O co l~^ moo Nt/iQ ^t"N ^^ O ^o 

iTtmr^-coON-^-r^OHiciTfOooo. - o* * * " - " " " * O * " " * * " ~ * 



. 
' 



a*oc>eocococococococococo toeocococototo a-oo oo 



O HI N to O r-*>oo o* O HI co tno 



s 



moooTC>Nt-O 

uiuiooo SrCoooo 0> 
M w ci (N M N N 



oxot-M >noo f>r~n ^j-O'Wt^NO 

* ui vnvO O O r; I--oci eooo OJ 0| 
1 * 



1 20 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Enimniv 1 



II 



a u 
S2 



| 

8 

_ 

1 c^ 

I 2 

^5 = 

I < -i 

>. 2 

^ - S. 

O 1 2 

^ I s 

-> a. 

s - 

M 
< 

H 



a" 

2 



p3A[OS9IQ 



p3A]OSSIQ 



O ^- * o O co r- oo o ^ r* w o O >-i co O oo w N *i- co N w w O O O O M to w m -i-o com 

oooooooowoooqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq 

ddddddo" 6666666666666666666666666606006 



wMOOOOOcnr^wOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



>-> ui M i-(ODrjvnO O 



iw xncnr^cooo mM TJ-TJ-CO 



> co M o co r^ o 






inOc r ic^)Oe*^' ; *'oowc^r^iOOcnr-*r^ 






oo c^ii^r^. 

*-< O w w M 



w >o oo O M 



oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



woo N in *a~ r* r*> w o to Tf ^- o co co r rj-oo rf w o oo o wo wo >r>r^o 

jOcoOOOOO*OOwO>-<i-<i-ii-<M-tOwwMwcoNN'*1-cOcococo 



OOoo O 



O O O w w in O O 
t- O 6 N d co ro" ooo* ooo w C 1 



w -< O O M T CO ^ 



)OOOwMWWMOOOOt^OO^ O">OO COOOCOCOCOCO ON O HI OO 

5 d w w w w" w" w w w w w w" o" w o" 6 d 6 6 o" 6 6 6 d M w M 6 6 



^i u*"- 1 '' ip ' ^- 1011 uv T-T 

892S22OOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOQOOOOQOO 
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooocoooooooo 



Biuoraray 



coooooooooooooooooooooooooooooocoooooo 



as 
id Amm 



P p3A[OSSI(J 



papu^dsng 



patcnsuo^ ua 



OO O CO . 

S 1 ^ : 



. O OO 00 TfO O N O O ^tO -t- ^tO -<t N OO O 'I-OO O 'I'OO O <* N O OO * ** 
- CO ^ to ul rf \r\ if) t~^ u^o i/^O t^/lO ^'^''^'vO ^^ "^ ^'l O l~" ul O ^> *<"> O CT^ 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



OOOOOO -^-NOO OOODOO -3-O O N O O ^tO * -tO -t CO O ^OO O ^toO O Tj- N O CO rf Tf 
ui^O mO '^co ir 1-co-1-cor)Tj-ir)mr^inO w>O t^-mO Sf y y^O mtr>no r^-xno mu-i\O C^ 

OOOOCOOO-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOO 



Woo O*O O MOO r-oo >^ioooo o O> 

M d o' i-i M o o 6 o' 6 o' d M o i 



(JO OOO I^O OO CO OO OO Ooo O O M (O r^ 

6666666666666** M M "' M 



oo TTrrooo Ooo MOO w>N COMOO t^coo r^Ttr^-minu^inmmoo r*>r^O M Oco mco c* ^1- 

OOOOO^-O'-.OOOO'-iMOC'-'OOOOOOOOOOOOOi-'COOOO'HO 



a 

o 



s 

* 



Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Colle 
tion by Automatic Sampler 



< p. < 0. 

2 s -e s ? i : 's ';- ; -r ;. ; ; s 

^:::: Sj^; s * s ; ! I s. s c?u^"rCto jf o" ef * M S? * * ; - - : : : : 

tOtOCOCOt-i COCOCOCOCOtOtOtOCOCOtO 









MNCOCOCO WCO^-m f*.CO O^i-iwiHtHMWiHWN 

ill ItltJlTlllllljll 

r^coo*' >-iMcO'-tor-ooo'*O- l co^J-xr. Or^cotHW 



coc*Ot>. 

NNCOrtN 



co 



: : : : .- 
S < 



O ^"OO WOO ^OO W r^ M ^T.fX) M 






COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



121 



'IIOIJ 



00 



^ en en o O u->co ui 



. 
6666666666666 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOwwOOOOenqOOOwOOOOOOOO 



* r-.co Ocooouiw tiO >-> OO 



or^oooorO 
r -- 



'P3A[OSS1Q 



papuadsng 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



O w 't'^'Oco r~^o r^-tco O mmo 
- O OOO OO O OO M 1-1 H O M 



>o w -i w r--co c^ioo 
- 



p3A[OSS[Q 



papuadsng 



i-" MOO -< NO M 



^M O-^tO O 
rr^.\OvOoo 



OI~nco 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



^M MOO t-i 




N^M M M wr^w oo oo O O O~O"cr* *n ^ O o* " n~>-t~ 

p o< N p en ^t TO O r>oo Tj-^-N-tr^O-O^t 



o- 



H 

ffl 



-S. 



6666666666666666666666 



papuadsng 



t---'-i-i 

SOOQQOCOOOO 
oooooooooo 



O~^f-oo -too 1-N\OO -tooo O O OOO WOcooo-O ^oo ~f O oo w oo O^3O^O CO W ~O~ vO~O O 

tow mc w C^IIN e*i d -1- eo en t too owwwtnwcnwcn'-wwwwto'-iNtnNNN 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



O -*O coooOOcoOcoooOO*t** -O -NOWCOWOWONOCIWO -*OO rf -TO o 
tn tr>O >n ^t 1 ** u^ t t^o O r-> r>O O OO * O u">O O wiO O O O O I^>O r>. f~>O t^.oo O^ O^ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO -O -OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



O t-O cocooooo OWooooOO ^t 
mno mT-tu'ir^.r-.oo r>.r^oo 

ooooooooooooooo 



OOWOWO N OMO *) T TO N 00 
r^-inoo xnooooo r^-o r*.r^o l^-oo O^O^O 

oooooooooooooooooooo 



psransuo;) ua 



wtn"-t>H n u-j en en n oo 






O* M NH N T O^l- T~N O oo irtoo M 
OOOOOO- OOO'-.OOOO'- 



T O^ O^oo r~ O O^oo W O u">O wo OO 



O Woo TO TTO^cnMoo Oco 
-tnT-*Tu-irinr-r^o r^o 



O w r- M 



en 
r- 

f^en 

">o5 ^O 
- *- ." M 



\O enO tnco 



-E v d 

* 



il 



i en m en's. ^ ! 



en 
.* 



M co n r- ( 



O 



. enco w 

t- tr> u->O 
^ en en en ' 



i^ r^ _j. co _ co o* o o* < 
enen^enO enenenen- 



> en i 



S oo co co O O i 

W N M N W ( 

o m en 1-1 o* r- 



o < 
o c 



1 O O w - " N 

lenenenp^en^tn 

' ^ M Sj in 2. M 

eno O T 

i en en en en tn 



^S S'SJT*^"" 

~ *t ir> m o " " "* 

^^mm ^ g 

[ " " " O O O 

^'m O>m en en en 

en en en 



* X" ~ ( 

^"S" 



> OO N en C* N 



en en en en en en en < 



N en T mO 



I I 1 I I I 

O^w enTmooO 

hHMWWMWM 

oo X 



o r^co o* O 

N N N N en 

I ino l^co 0^< 



- W enmOco O* Q 



cfl . 



O TO M enr^ci ITIM moo tnco moo M Too Too ent^-O 
r^r^r^cooooo o* & O O O w M N w enenenTTvnmooO 
u^uixfiinmxnu^ir.ooO'O 



122 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



i 

o 

5 , 

4 _ ^ ^ 

i 

j * = 

* m v 

) q) X 
r ^ 

,. 

9 
<! 

H 


-,,0,, 


M M w ^CON Mc^r^c^r-r^-tw .n N r^ TO n- T N O m w I I r^ I I m * ' 


X 

5 
"o 


ooooooooooooocooooooooooo o -o -o 




..unu-mvp^a 


O O O t^ rfco OOwOOt*^e^MO"l'W'-''-i-'t < ^cot*^WO O *O *O 




Xliuips^lV 






Fixed Residue 

after Ignition. 


-p 3A ,0 SS!U 




papuadsns 




,10 X 




Residue on Evap- 
oration. 


- P ,A 1USS!a 







*p^puadt>ns 





oooo^ooocooooooooooo oooo o *I;**:; 


^o 




, U MO,,0 




SSJCJUM 


^0>00>0>00>0eoo> 0.00 0-0 xnr-ooOM-Oooo-r-r- o '. '. r~ ' ' <B ' ' 


oo"o6d6"66'66odo666oo"6666 N .-N..N- 


ssiuiiN 

SB 


oooooooooooooooooooooooo o . . o O 


F : : ' 


Hiuoaimy 99j^{ 

SB 


NCIO NO OO TTWO TO -TOOcONcOOOOQO-f m O CO T 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 0J O ..O'*O-- 


Nitroije 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


'PA[OSSIQ 


. m 


pdpuadsns 


(C 


l,o X 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooo * o -o -o 


r> ...... 


pamnsuo;) usSXxQ 


NO^Ot7NC>C> ^-co ^ C> 0- O^co c> O N c^ w ~ ~ e^co > ^ c^ocnOoo-Tr^a- 




ioioo 


( oooooooO"-o > oooooo'o'o r oooo > o > o > o' o" 


SS3U4BO JO 33JS3Q 


. NNNNNN - NNmNNNN J-^i 


Sn^SSi 


r~ 00 nT* M M Oooco' : 0-t^ mm M o m r- (. <^co O 


"8 S"8'S'g - S v 8 NNNN 'g > S 1 g'S ??5? . " **- 


a 
u 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


Ci o 
^0>n r-c. ^"-^nma-^-^aON 




~f Ci N ^- "^ "^ O *^- 'n O^ O" f^ O O ^- ^^ ** TJ-t/3 O^O OO rt co to 


Q 

U 


1- Tj- 


1 


oo en 

i 7 TII 
j>u N< ">, . . .**."* . r . r ...... .* .. i?"^ = ::::::: 


^> ^ Q """ 


- qm n NlB! S 


c^oo" 3. c> S 3 o o'^rs S"S mm S 2, S^o o fi?:f? 8< ^ SfTmP;^*??; 


oooo *^ _T*. *^ r* ^ ^ ^ 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 123 



Western Gravity System. 
(Parts per Million.) 


IKU] 

I'ULIIUIIV [>.>A|<SS|( J 


. . 


do d -o o'oo'dooddddddqocdddddddo'dddddo' 

OO -3 O -OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOON- 


... 


x^v 


: : :<?:./> : o o o o r^~ m <> <> o- T ^ m r~ c* o o ^o m^o< o - o 


. ' 


ll 


Pt.a 


O" 1 O* "-" N . in -r i*} en w OO O OO-OC?>OOO MI -'N~OO O 


.... 


p S p US d 8 n S 


O O O O OOOOO OOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOO O 


.ox 


&. '.z : 8 .(X'3?mm fr? ?- 8 - o"o- a.c?o o"o 2^ s - O"SN '<> 


.... M 


Residue on Evap- 
oration. 




iS^-::^:^ : ?8SS!C ^g^-a R g S-g 2 1 && S S^ R :^ 


.... 


Pi pu ad8ns 


O O O * O OOOOO OOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOO O 




. . 


cn^-. .r.o 'fWOcaor-.o*enN-oen-renSenw^enen2>rf>in-i-en O r moo "en 


. M . . W . . W N ^ 








saiejl.M 


'o : -'-r : co :^^o-oD^t^o,u,^o>^o>o^r,^o^ m ^^-ooo 




SB 


-MO *HI -*->oboogOo'oOQOQQQQQo'oQO$i-<OQOQOQ 
OO -O -O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO.OOOOOO>-iOOOOO 




ciuomoiy "-i.fi 

g 


OO -w -O NNcoOOwaooooONOO-raoNO^'COI-aoOvOooOoOTj-oo 


oo -o -o ooo'o'ooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


WP 


COM -O 1 '-'-! U^CT'OWi*-' 1 r^inMi-i .OCOOOOMOOWWOO-fvONM >OO 

M o o~ o" o 1 o J'S c? o'?o l o' oo > 5'?o 1 S'oSo'oo 1 o'o > o > -o 




" 


:::: : 8 : 8 ; j 


. . . . . . 


w 


MO- -o -o oo^o r o t ^o^^?oo^o n o r o f o n o n ?oo n o T o n ?co 1 bo ) o 1 o 1 oo 




p.iiunsuo > uaSAxQ 


oo O en O O en *~ r^ ct n r^- W oo M *fenw>W MOO w -< O*O* O* O*oo O 4 O 1 O oo co r"* s O O en n c* 




,0,03 


ON-OO OOOO OOOOO^OOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOO'-OO 




SS.1UJVJ] I JO .)JI^ >( [ 






35SSSx 


090^tf>^OoooOOao^90<AOOa><>9-1-ui^int^cno-4-oo90 M a9i^-ro 


w w fr-r-r-rt-ftn l ntntn-t^ti--TW w w ententn^-tnm-rrf^oo 


Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


u-- ' en 

-r r* 

O f"* 

n to "-> u-i o^ "^ wo TCO ""oo ^ o* *> r- o* 




SorTeic/rrCno^en o"*n-fu-i^?^otToo"ao"'oo _ao cT r^r^^^-O 
^ O w m ""> O w uiao o *i* -inO'cnr* u^o oo mo o 
M n H M ww wwcntn -t-r-Ti/. n oo *or^^r^>i 




V 

rt 
Q 


Ooo "TtnTO w r^-oo r*.i- en-t\no r^ O -* w cnu-tr-c* -rOco w *i-o o^ enooo O w en 
a " 


^~* f -i ^ r 


WM.WP 


O* T O* ^O i *TO*"1'O % en>o t^- uiQ mOoo wo O w* en *H O 4 1~- >^ enn CT*coo w en Ooo uo tn 
ui O O ("* i^ oo oo o^ O* O O " w w tn en *t~ *r n r> \o r^ r^*oo OO^O - w enen^n\o 1^*0000 s O 



124 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



1 

.5 



> 



W u 

2 * 
H 2 



'U04J 


in inco t- 

q q M M 
o d d o* 


BUftoniv P 3A I OSS !G 


o o o o 


A"jIU|[B3HV 


o H q <> 

oo en M in 
en en en w 


3 

o o 


p,o,a 


mo en 

CO CO CO 


Fixed Res 
after Ignit 


p 3 pu 3dsns 


O O 


Toi 


in O O en 
oo oo enco 

M 


ue on Evap- 
oration. 


- p3A ,o S s !a 


n Tfr o 

Cl Cl M 


papuadsng 


O O O 


1 

a. 


1W1 


C? ct . M 

M 1-1 M H 


-wo 


\O en t^> en 


SE 


o o' o o 


SB ' 


lp. 


Biuouiuiy 3 3 iA 

SB 

V 


I- *J- N C* 

o o o o 


Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


, 3A1 o SS!a 


OO ** 


papuadsncj 


8 


W x 


co co -T 
o o co r* 

O O O O 


p OT nsuo D u 35 xo 


""*" 


40103 


-. 


n, 3 ,o*a 


* 


5nSx 


inco c* O 

C* Cl Ct d 


Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


inco 

# "' 

ct ? ** 

inO 


d 

1 


w co m 

HI M M 

A r- 4*-< 

vo M IH C* en 

CO _> 

' . 


a^mnNp^s 


c* m r* O 



Western Pressure System. 


8 

O 


: :x : : g : : :8 




1 

in 

en 

1- 

to 

T 

cn 
en 

0* 

* 


o o o o 


. -0 -0 -OOOOOOOOOO 





... 


o 


. . o o o o 


. .O O 'OOOOOOOOOO 



m 


. n m . en N 




<3- en co 


< . rj- . \ft , r* r^ *T m mo m in CH W 


in 

t-i 


: : : :<T : : : ^ 


: : s : 2 : : : ? S 1 ^ ? : : :22 





. . o - O 


. .0 o -oooo * .00 





- - 


Cl 
in 










t-. 

O 


- O N . O en 




O 


. . o o * o o 


. -0 -0 - -OOOO - -00 






CO 


O Cl O en 


QO * .Winrfi-irJ-OOcnClC^ 


o 

N 


. . ci . . w - en en 


rr -. en . -f o co O HI c* mo r^ 


O 




. . o O O ""> 

; : o ' o - -So 


. -O *O -OOn encO r^ IH o m ^T 

. .M *O -H.OOOO'-'OOO 
. -o -0 .OOOOOOOOOO 


. . . . .- . . 




i 


. . \O . . OO ' -NO 
oo >n \o O 

. - o O - O O 


. ^- ff CO OO -T TO CO "t O oO O O 
T O -co Ooo -t *T no O "<T m -f 

-o *o -ooooooooooo 




- - 




CO 

O 


. . o I** O w 




. .* - o - >- 2 


O'OO'-OOOO- S"? 





... . . . 





. o -go 


o o 


O ' O O 


: .. 


1 

o 


- - Q\ . f*. ... Qs M 

CO I-*. M O 

. . o O M w 


o .r^ooOcoooeninmr-.i^o-r-l- 
. -5 .OOwinOOOOOOOOO - 


M 




^ ^ ^ ,: i.M ' d ~ - M M M J 


? 


I ^ * ' o *o HI o 


oS > 5 1 ??o : o oo o o'" ~o o 1 


. . 


. . 













t 


M Q> O OO Cl TOO s O 1 O^ O" 1 


^*ooo :^o^ovc.oo 




M M C.** _--*,r<t.n 


in 

O 

O 

en 
O 

V) 


en 

Cl 00 
co ci f^ O^oo i^ m CT> M O^oo 

r* r^oo" *""* *^* ^co co co o co 
en O - 
r-. t^. m 

O 

CO 


f G^ r^-O T O 

H. w -TO IH en 


-t m O co 


Is" & ^s 1 ! K"5 5?^- 5 s 

^ MHHIM^.^I-' '"'r-'"' 


H. M M IH Cl d 




O 
en 
1 

m d O 

O> C7 
CO u CO 

M Q M 


O 
MencCt 'coOOoOM 

IH HI 

c , 


m co 

M C* 

*T m rf O ci r-co oo r- w en -t mo r>> O M 

_, HH C Cl Cl Cl C Cl MH. 


S3 I T. C = . * - Z 

' i 


iS 


CO 


cnco enco N O O *^ O m O 
W Cl en en -T rf in in<O O r^ 


mo "^Q^^Q r^otHoo co wo M ocn 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 





M ~ o" 8o'?8o'oooO'-'O > o > o'c<c*2oooo 1 o ! O'''>-i&o'oc9Sooo 






ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




Eti.oiniv pSAiossiQ 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooc^-ooooo 











1 


OOr>0>0OM0u,M.M.00>0fl>00.-OOOOC..MO. 




HURV3I1V 


'S'S^^g>^'SS?SKSSS,S2?co^-S > 8^coc3;^'S?!2"4i ?^?.r^ 




v 


CO ^^ *T W ^^ O N OO O C* \O HiQ*COC4* COinOCT**' r^O O CO W CO 




1| 






"5 'pnox 






> 






| -p 3 pu 3 dsn S 


OOOO OOO OOOOOOOO' OOOO- -OOOO O O 




o 
8 . mol 

0! x 


O O O m O OO O OO coO O"^coO OW O OOoo O OO Tf M O O W Oco-tOO OOO oo 
*r* *t T toco to w w cO co eo *nO O mcoxof-TTtiri -fo nO I-' r^oo O-^--OONtoco^J-W 












O ^^ W m r>> co u^ m u"i 1^* O oo CO N mcO O HI O O cooo too ^ mo O HI M O N ^" ^ COO O C4 




3UJJO[IQ 


oo r-r>.to-tinin'<tninoooo Or^oooo t ^oo t-^-inininoOOO (Ocotow O HI - o 






HI HI 


X 


Wlti 


O^-wO OO*nrr^WO r*\o OM w M nr^w OHI o HI OO ^COTJ-O OOO Omco m 


|5 


' 




< 


SB 


g* o" o" o" S* c9 o o "o * & 2 2 Q'Q'O^QO'O oo" <?* J o" o* S"o o > ?Q > oo'?Qo r Q 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


*- 








'ClUOUIUiy 99JJ 


oo 1 o > ooooooooooooooo > oo > oooooo'o 1 o 1 oo > oo > o 1 oooo > o 










- 






.tj 5 -p3A|OSSIQ 

2 i 


OOOOOOOO OOOOOOOO OOOO OOOO O O 




B 
< 
,g fl -papiwdsns 
'5 


I?i:;:;;ii!;!; 




c 
S 


r^ t^ COCO O rfO vOOOOOOCOOOOt-OOOWCOWNCOOOOCO'OCOCOOONO *toO 


'H 
a. 


5 '1 E 1X 


?ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


< 






o 




MOmomowcci-iooCT'r^tyi-'O'WW'j-CT'i-it^ooO'Oi-iwwO'O'OO'Oui-N'q- 


M 


pransuoo U38XHO 


M1 H N -MO0000-OMM_00000000---M- 


CO 


JOTOT 


S'o'o'o o So o o"o? o"o o"o ~ o 2 o o 1 "? o^S"- 222 o"o 2 S o "o 1 


rt 












* 


SS3UJB3Q JO .1.1 lIT.u 1 






3 malted 


^ ^ * o w o o ; ^ 7 o s ow : o o o.q 7 o * 




aanHMSduux 






O . 

jy u 


^ J"s s s s. , , ^ 




L| 


2 ^?r-.;T2"o't?i' n O~ xn l^eo H.r-.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQo 




41 


o *? o" C?' o" SH'O" co i!? co co^S to to co to co to ^f oo odco'oocooo inoi eiw cJw O ooo O ^ 




C .. *J 






3 IB! 


co >rico O*T* - c*^ l "'tor^ H "<Q' ^J cu V 

N N 'N CO CO ^ ^ " m >TJ " 




W C 


O ^ONWHiMt-iOOcOcOCOCOtOtOCOtOCOtOcOeOtOoOOOS 




<3 1- 


HI H.OCOCOCOCOCOO Ooo 0006000600 OWNW'CIN ci oo* Ooo* 




V 

i 


O HITJ-OOO mOI^*ooOO wto^-m 
N I-* M - M t-i NWWWMCO WtO^-Or-OHtWM.-( 

i I tiiii i i i i i i iiiiiTii/i 

w tOini-^OHi Tj-vooo l-O OOni rfo oco-^-mo l^ao OO HI M c* to^j-ooo HI M COTJ- 
QS w * ^ c * co^ ^ 

M *; * *3 3*--.; *;;; ;;;.;* p.- -,..--'* 












r^-w wo ^W Oooo t-w O mooo o^w^tooo cot^.^ motor^in tnocooo woo wir^N r*. 




jsquinN iBiaas 


cococomcocomconcococococo^Tr^^^^T^-^^^-9-^ir.^mtr..n 





CO 

>> 



0) 

o 

5 



126 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE 





>> 



CS * .2 

J. sl 

* fe 

0) O. 

' I. CO 

* 1 

fVl DH 

5 

t5 * 

H 





,, 


I 
boo-ooob-r-noo~oooo > o--c-ooo > o > oo 


OOC = CCCCO3OOOOOOOOOO2OOOOOOC 


-. !B ,n lV P>A, M|a 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooo orj 




-x^v 


^ooO-OC N 00-00Oi-000"000-r^ 


s ? s KISS'S KR^SK , s S'&'g'S 2 s :r5>? 


Fixed Residue 
after Ignition. 


paAjossiQ 


ooo :o^~~ & : SR " !??; S,^ . ?&: S 


. 


papusdsns 


ooo-oooo o-oo-oooooo- o o o o o 


Ioj. 






Residue on Evap. 
oration. 


'P3A[OSSIQ 


$:<>*$ K ;^g :g-cgS8<? : SSIJR::!. 


. 


papuadtnc; 


OOO -OOOO O O O O O O O O O OOOO O 








-uo TO 


-"NTOi'-'O'-'WONNN^ "t-O -T f> co cnoo m O r> m N >C C'O 




SB 


u>^o>o t-oo t-^^r-oo o-oo 1-ocoo.oo ooooo OM-OO r-oo 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOMOOOOOO 


S91UUM 
SB 


888888888:::::::::::-:::::.: 


1TU10UUU V 331 A 

c se 


OOOOCOOOOO WCO N^OOO O eiQO OOO TO N ^O OOO O O N NO 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




Nitrog 

as 
Albuminoid Ammonia. 


- p3 . MOSS ,a 


OMTj- NOCCO O ON NaO*O*TN^ Ot^TN OO 
\rt moo r~ r- o r^ \o O *O o *o i~~- o o co ao *O *O O r^ 
OOO OOOO O OO OOOOOO OOOO O 




papusdsng 





. . 


w 


\O N -TN NOoOvO QO "TO N O WOOvO "f N -TOO M O T"TM NOO 

booooooo^oooooooooooo o^o o o o o o" 




P^HSUODU^XO 


w O O *n r^ c* toco O eooow O *- co-^u^cn-t-tOO ~ -TO 




JO| o D 


?S M^oJo'o'S'g'S'g o2o?oooo2g''5'' - 




SS3UJE3O JO 33J83Q 


C, mNN M N ^U 1Nt H m NN NmmNN< SCN^ N 


2n'SSS J . 


toO^-coooi-f^mooco^-00-.Kn ,n.n N^-ooooi- 


CtflClMMtl9OT<tft*4tftm9MW4l NN C4C4MNN 


Collected. 


Corresponding Bacterial 
Numbers or Period of Collec- 
tion by Automatic Sampler. 


s s 

r-. < p," * " " 
OooonnriO r\ r\ 
OoOOOONoS) mcoOtnNeo-TTOintoO"T 


^oo" S <^ ' vJ 


.^r OOOOOOO 1 ^-!" 552 ""* ^* O O O m o .m o *n O 


0- OOO^O'CTO-ON 0>I-lNtNmc^O>mOMMO-tn 


D 


\O OO'-'MOOO Mtncoooo> invo^tno 

_",,""i'i < ?'i < ' |r ' " ^ f 1 "? 77T7T7 VfTTi?? 

O urO oo CT* O ^ N O CT* N (O *T m ^ N mco -TO O l"^ to m Q ** i^. 

-x" *~ """>, 


S - ^ 


'J3qilin\ |>'! K>S 


<OON m O* ao O O3 OO O O>mm-t cooo O^Oco C* N f^-TO 





a 

* 
o 

N r 

4J S 

< 
. o 
o ? 



s = 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



127 



RESULTS OF MINERAL ANALYSES 
PURIFICATION 



TABLE No. 2. 

OF THE OHIO RIVER 
BY THE RESPECTIVE 

(Parts per Million.) 



WATER BEFORE 
SYSTEMS. 



AND AFTER 



Source of Sample. 



Silica (SiO-j) 

Oxide of iron (Fe,Os) 

Alumina (AljOi).... 

Oxide of manganese (MnO) 

Oxide of nickel (NiO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO). . . ,. 

Soda ( Na,O) 

Potash (K a O) 

Chlorine (Cl) 

Nitric acid (NjOi) 

Carbonic acid, combined . (CO a ) 

Sulphuric acid (SO S ) 

Phosphoric acid (PjO 5 ) 



River Water. 

299.50 

39-45 

76-55 

2.20 

1. 09 

31.70 

I3-98 

8.48 

18.15 

5-57 
14.67 
21. 23 
23.28 

0.79 



Warren Effluent. 



4-25 

0.15 

2.O5 

none 

less than i.o 

30.60 

7.03 

5.02 

8.19 

5-54 
14.67 

7-75 

35-71 

0.98 



Jewell Effluent. 



4 OO 
O.II 
0.24 

trace 
less than I . 

33-22 
6.64 
3.56 
7.85 
5-78 

13.89 

13.12 

33-37 
0.81 



Western Pres. Eft*. 



8.0O 

0.13 

0.62 
trace 

less than I.o 
34.65 

6.74 

8.42 
12.40 

5-42 
14.67 
10.40 
41-33 

0-47 



TABLE No. 3. 

RESULTS OF MICROSCOPICAL ANALYSES OF THE EFFLUENTS OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS 
(Number of Organisms per Cubic Centimeter.)* 



Date of 
Collection. 



1896 
Feb. IS 

19 
26 

March 4 

" II 

19 

26 

April 10 
May 6 



21 
29 

June II 

IS 

Feb. 19 

26 

March 4 

" it 

19 

26 

April 10 
16 

May 6 

15 
" 21 



June 



July 



29 

ii 

18 
27 



Feb. 26 

March 4 

II 

"9 

Feb. 16 



March 



May 
June 

July 



4 
ii 

>9 

26 

21 
29 
18 



Number of 
Sample. 



Organisms. 



Total Number. Genera. 



Effluent of the Warren System. 

278 Diatomaceae: Synedra, S; Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, 2; Infusoria: 

Parts of cases, 6 16 

281 Diatomaceae; Navicula and Cymbclla pr pr. 

305 No organisms present o 

330 Diatomaceae. Synedra, pr; Fungi: Crenothrix, pr pr. 

355 Diatomaceae: Synedra, 3 3 

383 Diatomaceae: Meridion, pr; Miscellaneous: Anguillula, I i 

405 Miscellaneous: Anguillula, pr pr. 

460 No organisms present o 

518 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, I ; Miscellaneous: Vegetable Hairs, 23 24 

545 Diatomaceae: Synedra, i; Cymbella, i; Chlorophyceae: Proto- 

coccus, i 3 

567 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, pr; Infusoria: Trachelomonas, pr. . . pr. 

588 Diatomaceae: Synedra and Cyclotella, pr pr. 

630 Chlorophyceae: Conferva, pr pr. 

652 Vermes: Ploima, 26; Miscellaneous: Zoospores, 16 42 

Effluent of Jewell System. 

282 Diatomaceae: Syr.edra. Navicula, pr pr. 

306 Diatomaceae: Pleurosigma, Cymbella, pr; Chlorophyceae: Proto- 

coccus, Scenedesmus, pr pr. 

328 No organisms present o 

353 No organisms present o 

381 No organisms present o 

406 Fungi: Mould hyphae, pr pr. 

461 No organisms present. o 

472 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, pr pr. 

517 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, 16; Miscellaneous: Anguillula, I .... 17 

546 Miscellaneous: Zoospores, pr pr. 

566 Diatomaceae: Synedra, pr; Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, i; Scene- 
desmus, 2; Miscellaneous: Zoospores, pr 3 

587 Diatomaceae: Synedra, pr; Cyclotella, i; Chlorophyceae: Proto- 
coccus, 2; Pandorina, pr; Endorina, pr; Vermes: Plorima, pr. . 3 

63 1 Chlorophyceas: Protococcus, pr pr. 

653 No organisms present o 

685 Infusoria: Monas, 12; Miscellaneous: Zoospores, pr 12 

709 No organisms present c 

Effluent of Western Gravity System. 

307 No organisms present o 

331 No organisms present o 

350 Chlorophyceae: Spyrogyra, I I 

380 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, pr pr. 

Effluent of Western Pressure System. 

308 No organisms present o 

332 No organisms present o 

350 No organisms present o 

374 Chlorophyceae: Piotococcus, I I 

407 No organisms present o 

565 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, 5 5 

586 Diatomaceae: Cyclotella, pr pr. 

654 No organisms present o 

718 Chlorophyceae: Protococcus, pr pr. 

* pr = present. 



128 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. 

RESULTS OF BACTERIAL ANALYSES OF THE EFFLUENTS OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


J 




V 


y 






Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 
V 




c 
















fi 


Period of 


" lis 


ij 




Jj 






Number 


. 


en u 

|S._ 


-o 


Service Since 
Last 


S.c S 


Hi 




3 


Date. 


Hour. 


of 
Run. 


5 

o a 


ft-l 


U 

'o 


Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


MI 


o. c 

s! 

20 


Remarks. 


t) 








15 


iSU 


<fl 

s 




ij u 


& 












U 


s 


J 




X 








1895 




















5 


Oct. 21 


12.35 P-M. 


I 




. . . . . 


. . . 


2h. 35m. 





47 




6 


" 21 


3-40 ' 


I 








5h. 4001. 





34 




10 


" 22 


11.51 A.M. 


2 


24 .O 


TQ2 




I5m. 




88 




1 1 


" 22 


I2.O7 P-M. 


2 


24 O 


IM 




3lm. 








12 


" 22 


1. 10 " 


2 


_ t ** 

23-5 


129 


. . . . 


ih. 34m. 





54 




16 


" 22 


3.50 " 


2 








4h. 1401. 




64 




21 


" 23 


IO.OO A.M. 


2 


21. 


H5 




4h. 24m. 




36 




23 


" 23 


11.13 " 


2 


22. 


121 


. * . 


5h. 37m. 





48 




25 


' 23 


12.05 P-M. 


2 


21.0 


"5 




6h. 2gm. 





44 




27 


' 23 


1.25 " 


2 


22. 


121 


.... 


7h. 4gm. 




34 




29 


' 23 


2-33 


2 


22. 


121 




8h. 57m. 





72 




31 


" 23 


4-3 ' 


2 


22. 


121 




loh. 54m. 





72 




35 


" 24 


9.56 A.M. 


3 


21.0 


"5 


.... 


i6m. 


239 


34 




36 


" 24 


IO.II " 


3 


23.0 


126 




3ira. 


518 


99 




37 


1 24 


10.51 " 


3 


23.0 


126 




ih. nm. 


1 504 


37 




39 


" 24 


12.22 P.M. 


3 


22.0 


121 


.... 


2h. 42m. 


3472 


49 




41 


24 


1.50 " 


3 


23-5 


129 




4h. lom. 


5 5'5 


196 




43 


1 24 


3-05 


3 


24.O 


132 


.... 


5h. 25m. 


7326 


53 




44 


1 24 


4.OI 


3 


25.0 


137 


.... 


6h. 2im. 


8535 


53 




46 


" 24 


5.O6 " 


3 








7h. 26m. 


10 ig7 


23 




50 


" 25 


9.58 A.M. 


3 


25.0 


137 





7h. 53m. 


19787 


* J 
36 




52 


" 25 


II. 12 " 


3 


25.0 


137 


.... 


gh. 0701. 


12 60O 


48 




54 


" 25 


12.12 " 


3 


25.0 


137 


. . . . 


loh. O7m. 


I4II7 


38 




55 


' 25 


1.28 P.M. 


3 


25.0 


137 


.... 


nh. 23m. 


I6OI6 


34 




57 


" 25 


2. 3 8 " 


4 


27.0 


148 


.... 


28m. 


427 


93 




60 


" 25 


3-35 


4 


24.0 


132 


.... 


ih. 25m. 


I 825 


46 




64 


" 25 


4-34 


4 


25.0 


137 


.... 


2h. 24m. 


3274 


33 




66 


" 26 


10.56 A.M. 


4 


25.0 


137 


.... 


4h. 26m. 


7205 


65 




69 


" 26 


1. 12 P.M. 


4 


24.0 


132 


.... 


6h. 42m. 


9493 


3 1 




71 


" 26 


4.40 " 


4 


2O. O 


no 


.... 


loh. lom. 


13 527 


32 




73 


" 28 


12.10 ' 


5 


26.0 


i43 


.... 


45m- 


I 127 


61 




74 


" 28 


1. 10 ' 


5 


26.0 


i43 


. . 


ih. 45m. 


2 671 


28 




75 


" 28 


2.30 ' 


5 


23-0 


126 




3h. 05111. 


4554 


28 




76 


28 


3-23 ' 


5 


25.0 


138 


.... 


3h. 58m. 


5 802 


3 




79 


' 29 


12.33 ' 


6 


27.0 


148 




ih. 33m. 


2357 


42 




81 


29 


2.OO ' 


6 


28.0 


154 




3h. com. 


4676 


20 




82 


1 29 


3-25 " 


6 


26.0 


M3 




4h. 25m. 


7023 


18 




85 


" 30 


9.55 A.M. 


7 


24.0 


132 


.... 


55m. 


i 2go 


46 




86 


' 30 


10.18 ' 


7 


27.0 


148 




ih. iSm. 


i 866 


58 




87 


' 30 


10-37 ' 


7 


26.0 


143 


. . . 


ih. 37m. 


2330 


18 




88 


1 30 


11.17 


7 


28.0 


154 


.... 


2h. I7in. 


3385 


15 




89 


" 30 


I 2* 2*> I*M 


7 


27.0 


148 


. . . 


3h. 25m. 


5 118 


10 




90 


" 30 


1.40 " 


7 


24.0 


132 




4h. 4om. 


7052 


ii 




93 


' 30 


3.22 


7 


28.0 


154 


.... 


6h. 22m. 


S 629 


16 




97 


" 30 


4.30 " 


7 








7h. 30:11. 


10 689 


14 




108 


" 31 


2.31 


8 


23.0 


126 





5h. 26m. 


6 262 


9 




n; 


Nov. i 


12.07 


8 


25.0 


i37 




7h. I2m. 


8014 


13 




115 


i 


3.15 " 


8 








loh. 2om. 


12 238 


14 


Shut outlet 3.15 P.M. 


118 


i 


4-03 " 


9 


22.0 


121 


.... 


3Sm. 


I 062 


16 




1 20 


i 


4.33 ' 


9 


22.0 


121 




ih. o8m. 


I 732 


II 




12: 


2 


II.O7 A.M. 


9 


24.0 


132 




2h. 52m. 


4ogg 


15 




126 


2 


12.31 P.M. 


9 


26.0 


143 


.... 


4h. l6m. 


6232 


14 




128 


2 


1.26 " 


9 


24.0 


132 


.... 


5h. Iim. 


7599 


43 




130 


2 


3-48 " 


9 


24.O 


132 




7h. 33m- 


9344 


19 




134 


4 


2.32 " 


10 


26.0 


143 


.... 


ih. 25m. 


1 802 


42 




135 


4 


3-37 " 


10 


27.0 


148 




2h. 3om. 


3474 


38 




"37 


5 


9.23 A.M. 


10 


24.0 


132 




3h. oim. 


4 160 


20 




139 


5 


9.46 " 


10 


26.O 


143 


. . . 


3h. 24m. 


4736 


II 




142 


5 


IO.O7 " 


10 








3h. 45m. 


c 254 


IO 




143 


5 


10.32 " 


10 


25.0 


137 


... 


4h. lom. 


J * JH 

5 820 


12 




150 


5 


11.30 " 


10 


24.0 


132 




5h. o8m. 


7 210 


14 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



129 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


J 




V 

U 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







e 


u 
3 




u 






^ 


SS 




Period of 


u 


3 
(J . 




.s 






Number 


a 


a 


T3 


Service Since 


~" " 


u 




I 






of 
Run. 




^ " S 


V 
X 


Last 
Washing. 


^!S| 


13 

a 


Remarks. 


X 


Date. 


Hour. 




oi 


1:1 


"o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


|ji 


rt fi 
t c 




.2 

u 








la 




~ Q. 


O 




JL> 


"y 




1/5 








u 


S 







E 


B 






1895 




















151 


Nov. 5 


12.50 P.M. 


IO 


24.0 


132 




6h. 28m. 


9079 


13 




153 


5 


3-50 " 


10 


16.0 


88 




gh. 28m. 


II 744 


IO 




158 


" 6 


10.30 A.M. 


ii 




.... 




ih. ism. 




18 




159 


" 6 


11.13 " 


ii 


24.0 


132 




ih. 58m. 


2552 


15 




1 60 


6 


i.ig P.M. 


ii 


24.0 


132 




4h. O4m. 


5661 


17 




161 


6 


2.55 " 


ii 


24.0 


132 


. . . . 


5h. 4om. 


7952 


24 




165 


" 7 


g.IOA.M. 


ii 


24.0 


132 




6h. 0301. 


8489 


138 




1 66 


7 


9.27 ' 


ii 


25.0 


137 




6h. 2om. 


8940 


82 




167 


7 


9-49 ' 


II 


24.0 


132 




6h. 42m. 


9452 


54 




168 


7 


10.27 


ii 


24.0 


132 




7h. 2om. 


10385 


21 




173 


7 


11.25 A.M. 


ii 


23.0 


126 




8h. iSm. 


"725 


30 




175 


7 


12.24 P - M - 


12 


30.0 


165 


. . . . 


02m. 


26 


196 




176 


7 


12.30 " 


12 


27.0 


148 




o8m. 


igi 


54 




177 


" 7 


12.50 ' 


12 


28.0 


154 




28m. 


75i 


48 




178 


7 


1.09 ' 


12 


24.0 


132 


. . . . 


47m. 


1245 


61 




1 80 


7 


1-35 ' 


12 


26.0 


143 




ih. 13111. 


1938 


46 




189 


7 


2.27 ' 


12 


25.0 


137 




2h. 05111. 


3342 


31 




193 


7 


3.00 " 


12 


24.0 


132 




2h. 38m. 


4 180 


35 




197 


" 8 


9.50 A.M. 


12 


24.0 


132 




3h. 43m. 


5 "3 


49 




199 


8 


11.05 " 


12 


23.0 


126 




4h. 58m. 


6813 


42 




202 


" 8 


12.37 P M. 


12 


24. c 






6h. 3om, 


8822 


1C 




206 


" 8 


2.13 " 


13 


24.0 


132 


.... 


07m. 


152 


180 




208 


8 


2.27 ' 


13 


23.0 


126 




2im. 


542 


70 




2IO 


" 8 


2.50 " 


13 


6.0 


33 




44m. 


i 050 


26 




214 


" 9 


11-33 A.M. 


13 


24.0 


132 


. . . . 


ih. 22m. 


2015 


46 




218 


9 


1.27 P.M. 


13 


25-0 


137 


. . . . 


3h. l6m. 


4802 


50 




221 


9 


2.30 " 


13 


24.0 


132 




4h. igm. 


6328 


58 




227 


ii 


10.47 A.M. 


13 


25.0 


137 




7h. oim. 


10215 


224 




230 


" ii 


II. 10 " 


13 


23.0 


126 




7h. 24m. 


10745 


136 




2^1 


" ii 


2.32 " 




2 , Q 


j2 






i 637 


41 




TO1 


1 ' 25 


JO. 2O " 


T Z 








35m 


v j i 


*T* 

I 584 




306 


^ D 

1 25 


11.00 " 


*J| 

15 


24.0 


I 4 6 




JD 111 * 
ih. ism. 


i 096 


468 




3" 


1 25 


12. 2O P.M. 


15 


20.0 


121 




2h. 35m. 


2044 


390 




313 


' 25 


1.40 " 


15 


21. O 


127 


. . . 


3h. 55m. 


3673 


414 




315 


1 25 


3-30 " 


15 


25.0 


152 




5h. 45m. 


5 732 


294 






" 26 


9.28 A.M. 


15 


23.0 


140 




6h. i8m. 


6745 


49 6 




322 


' 26 


IO. 2O " 


15 


21. O 


127 


. . . . 


7h. igm. 


7901 


372 




324 


" 26 


11.34 " 


15 


20. O 


121 




8h. 24m. 


9437 


328 




326 


" 26 


2.OO P.M. 


15 


20.0 


121 


.... 


loh. 5om. 


12445 


344 




332 


" 27 


9.27 A.M. 


15 


II. O 


67 




lib. 52m. 


13667 


680 




335 


1 27 


IO.24 " 


15 


18.0 


log 




I2h. 49111. 


14546 


452 




338 


1 27 


"S3 " 


15 


25.0 


152 




I3h. 42m. 


15890 


446 




340 


1 27 


1.44 P.M. 


15 


23-5 


M3 




15(1. 33m. 


18488 


564 




343 


1 27 


3-17 ' 


15 


20.0 


121 


. . . . 


I7h. o6m. 


20310 


512 




347 


29 


9.52 A.M. 


16 


II. 


67 


. . . . 


O2m. 


31 


i 302 




348 


1 29 


10.03 " 


16 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


I3m. 


132 


i i6g 




349 


1 29 


IO.I4 " 


16 


IO.O 


61 




24m. 


248 


go8 




350 


29 


IO.23 " 


16 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


33m. 


355 


i 092 




351 


29 


10.32 " 


16 


IO.O 


61 




42m. 


507 


876 




352 


1 29 


10.43 " 


16 


21.0 


127 


. . . . 


53m 


762 


760 




354 


1 29 


10.54 ' 


16 


20.0 


121 




ih. 04m 


i 006 


344 




356 


1 29 


12. 06 P.M. 


16 


23-5 


143 




2h. i6m 


2458 


62^ 




358 


1 29 


1.58 " 


16 


23.0 


140 




4h. o8m 


4968 


448 




368 


' 30 


10.41 A.M. 


16 


24.0 


I 4 6 




7h. I7m 


9416 


632 




370 


1 30 


11.51 " 


16 


26.O 


158 


. . . . 


8h. 27m 


ii 43 


840 




372 


' 30 


1.39 P.M. 


16 


25.0 


152 




loh. ism 


13 691 


984 


* 


376 


Dec. 2 


9-47 A.M. 


16 


20.0 


121 


. 


I2h. ism 


16533 


770 




378 


" 2 


10.48 


16 


24.0 


I 4 6 




I3h. i6m 


17949 


945 




38i 


" 2 


12.35 P.M. 


16 


23-5 


143 


. . . . 


I5h. O3m 


20462 


875 




383 


" 2 


2.38 " 


16 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


I7h. o6m 


23 122 


i 078 




385 


3 


9 35 A.M. 


16 


25.0 


152 




i8h. o6m 


24401 


826 





1 3 o 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


~ 




B 










Collected. 




Filtration. 


8 






c 
5> . 


a 
".5 




1 




Number 


R 


ss 

_o a. 


a 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 


lit; 


3 








a 

3 






of 
Run 


?: U 


t " "' 


V 

ffi 


Washing. 


is *[ 


at> 


Remarks. 




Date. 


Hour. 







< 




Hours and 


ft & 


_rtj 




"rt 








o a 


o ,_ 


! 


Minutes. 


Si re 3 


S 




k. 








2 S 


S a? 


O 




i-3 {J 


C8 ^ 




in 








o 


S 


_J 




E 


m 






1895 




















387 


Dec. 3 


10.35 A.M. 


16 


25.0 


152 




igh. o6m. 


25866 


532 




389 


3 


11.41 " 


16 


24.5 


149 




2oh. I2m. 


27334 


665 




391 


3 


I. O2 P.M. 


16 


22. O 


133 




2ih. 33m. 


29349 


i 036 




392 


3 


2.Og " 


16 


24.0 


146 




22h. 4om. 


3og2g 


i 169 


Shut inlet 2.01 P.M., out 


395 


3 


3-OO " 


17 


21. 


127 




I2m. 


213 


462 


let 2.21 P.M. 


396 


" 3 


3-io " 


17 


22.0 


133 




22m. 


401 


490 




397 


3 


3-20 ' 


17 


22.0 


133 




32m. 


598 


392 




398 


3 


3-31 


17 


25.0 


152 




43m. 


836 


406 




399 


3 


3-40 ' 


17 


24.0 


146 




52m. 


i 036 


399 




400 


3 


3-50 ' 


17 


21. 


127 


. . . . 


ih. O2m. 


i 259 


399 




401 


3 


4-49 ' 


17 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


2h. oim. 


2498 


334 




403 


4 


10.40 A.M. 


17 


21. O 


127 




3h. 4gm. 


4898 


315 




405 


4 


II. 06 " 


17 


2O. 


121 


. . . . 


4h. I5m. 


5481 


378 




406 


4 


11.26 " 


17 


21. 


127 


. . . . 


4h. 35m. 


5908 


357 




407 


4 


11-45 " 


17 


22.0 


133 




4h. 54m. 


6 315 


322 




408 


4 


1. 12 P.M. 


17 


25-0 


152 


.... 


6h. 2im. 


8281 


5i8 




409 


4 


2.52 " 


17 


21.0 


127 




8h. oim. 


10591 


594 




412 


4 


4.19 ' 


18 


24.0 


146 


.... 


nm. 


321 


548 




413 


4 


4-2g ' 


18 


22. O 


133 




2im. 


533 


470 




415 


4 


4.42 


18 


24.0 


I 4 6 


.... 


34m. 


886 


320 




416 


4 


4-5o ' 


18 


23-0 


140 




42m. 


956 


396 




417 


4 


5-oo ' 


18 


2O. O 


121 


. . . . 


52m. 


I 136 


254 




418 


4 


5-II " 


18 


23.0 


140 




ih. 03111. 


I 239 


280 




421 




g.58 A.M. 


18 








2h. oom. 


2 33' 


260 




*T* A 
423 


5 


10.42 " 


18 


24-0 


146 




2h. 54m. 


3468 


1 80 




426 


' 5 


11.52 " 


18 


24.0 


146 




3h. 54m- 


5124 


236 




428 


5 


2.44 P.M. 


18 


24.0 


146 




6h. 4&m. 


9 161 


336 




435 


5 


3-40 " 


18 


24.0 


146 




7h. 42m. 


10464 


472 




439 


' 6 


II.O7 A.M. 


18 


22.0 


133 




loh. 38m. 


13 123 


386 




44i 


' 6 


11.17 " 


18 


24.0 


146 




loh. 48m. 


14727 


690 




444 


" 6 


I2.5O P.M. 


19 


18.0 


109 




I2m. 


131 


524 




445 


" 6 


1. 00 " 


19 


18.0 


log 




22m. 


295 


476 




446 


6 


1. 10 " 


19 


20.0 


121 




32m. 


522 


476 




447 


" 6 


1 . 2O " 


19 


22.5 


126 




42m. 


738 


476 




448 


" 6 


1-30 " 


19 


23-0 


I4O 




52m. 


970 


440 




450 


" 6 


I.4O " 


19 


24.0 


I 4 6 




ih. 02m. 


i 175 


412 




451 


6 


3-38 " 


19 


22.0 


133 




3h. oom. 


3984 


660 




454 


" 7 


10.17 A.M. 


19 


23.0 


140 




5h. sim. 


7932 


450 




456 


7 


12.27 P.M. 


19 


25.0 


152 




8h. oim. 


11981 


412 




459 


7 


3-50 " 


20 


23.0 


140 




Mill. 


182 


254 




462 


9 


10.10 A.M. 


20 


20.0 


121 




2h. igm. 


3082 


324 




464 


9 


11.14 " 


20 


21. 


127 




3h 23111. 


4445 


250 




466 


9 


12 17 P M 


2O 


24.0 


I 4 6 




4h. 26m. 


5705 


270 




469 


" 9 


1-57 " 


2O 


24.0 


I 4 6 




6h. o6m. 


8o6c 


272 




471 


9 


3-30 ' 


20 


24.0 


I 4 6 




7h. sgm. 


10371 


324 




475 


10 


9.17 A.M. 


2O 


23.0 


I4O 




gh. I3m. 


12819 


312 




477 


" 10 


IO.2O " 


20 


23.0 


I4O 




loh. i6m. 


14018 


406 




484 


" 10 


12.23 P - M - 


21 


22.0 


133 




2om. 


325 


288 




485 


' IO 


12-33 


21 


21. 


127 




3om. 


539 


344 




486 


' 10 


12-43 


21 


2O. O 


121 




4om. 


779 


330 




487 


' IO 


12-53 


21 


22. 


133 




5om. 


1032 


324 




488 


' IO 


1.03 


21 


24.0 


146 




ih. oom. 


1247 


246 




489 


' IO 


1. 13 " 


21 


24.0 


I 4 6 




ih. lorn. 


1494 


188 




491 


1 10 


2.IO ' 


21 


24.0 


146 




2h. O7m. 


2845 


266 




493 


' IO 


3.24 "- 


21 


24.0 


146 




3h. 2im. 


4564 


244 




496 


II 


9.24 A.M. 


21 


24.0 


146 




5h. 3im. 


7489 


196 




498 


' II 


II. II " 


21 


24.0 


I 4 6 




7h. i8m. 


9994 


210 




500 
502 


" II 

" II 


12. 18 P.M. 

1.18 " 


21 
21 


23.0 
20.0 


I4O 
121 




8h. 25m. 
gh. 25m. 


II 561 
12 923 


196 
202 


Shut inlet 1.18 P.M., out 


505 


" II 


2.58 " 


22 


21. O 


127 




54m. 


i 137 


146 


let i. 21 P.M. 


509 


" 12 


9.40 A.M. 


22 


24.0 


146 




4h. 07m. 


5452 


128 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


- 




u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


1 




c 
t/5 . 


J 




-J 






M 


c fe 




Period of 


i_ &* 


3 




J 






Numbe 


0. 


|5 


o 


ServiceSinc 


u w 


"b 




a 

3 






of 
Run. 


V J 


O u 1 


u 

X 


Last 
Washing. 


>|d 


if 


Remarks. 


55 


Date. 







tt, ^ 




-M 


Hours anc 


"5 - 






"rt 




* 




u c 


O U P 





Minutes. 


k. to * 


2 




V 








Is 


" U , 

~ a p 


O 




233 






ts> 








u 


7, 


J 




E 


o 






1895 




















511 


Dec. 12 


12.04 P.M. 


22 


24. t 


146 




6h. 3im 


885 


22 




513 


" 12 


3-05 " 


23 


22. ( 


133 




ill. oim 


i 27 


19 




518 


" 13 


IO.I6 A.M. 


23 


22. C 


133 




-\h . 4011 


618 


10 




521 


13 


4.38 P.M. 


24 


22. C 


133 




52m 


107 


13 




525 


T 4 


lO.Og A.M. 


24 


23. c 


140 




2h. 52m 


38i 


IO 




527 


M 


12.59 P-M- 


24 


23. c 


140 




5h. 42m 


767 


13 




531 


14 


3-33 ' 


25 


20. C 


121 




i, (in 


28 


274 




534 


" 16 


9.30 A.M. 


25 


21. C 


127 




2h. 25m 


3 109 


i6c 




536 


" 16 


11.37 " 


25 


23-C 


140 


. . . . 


4h. 32m 


6 oc; 


126 




538 


' 16 


2.31 P.M. 


25 


21. C 


127 




7h. 26m 


996 


172 




541 


' 16 


5.17 " 


26 


23-0 


140 




ih. o8m 


149 


I2C 




543 


' 17 


9.30 A.M. 


26 


23.0 


140 




ih. som 


243 


II 




546 


17 


12.58 P.M. 


26 


23.0 


140 




5h. i8m 


715 


170 




548 


17 


3.21 " 


27 


23.0 


140 




ih. o6m 


I 260 


no 




55i 


17 


4-37 " 


27 


22. 


133 




2h. 22m 


3 oo 


148 




554 


" IS 


g.20 A.M. 


27 


22.0 


133 




3h. 4<>m 


473 


'97 




556 


" 18 


10.41 " 


27 


23.0 


140 


. . 


5h. oim 


6 509 


196 




558 


" 18 


I.I6 " 


27 


22.0 


133 




7h. 36m 


938 


185 




559 


' 18 


2.32 " 


28 


2.O 


133 




I3m 


23 


236 




560 


4 18 


2.42 " 


28 


2.0 


133 




23m 


444 


294 




56i 


' 18 


2.52 ' 


28 


2.O 


133 




33m 


658 


274 




562 


' 18 


3-O2 " 


28 


2.0 


133 




43m. 


874 


220 




563 


' 18 


3-12 " 


28 


2.0 


133 




53m. 


i 098 


I 7 8 




565 


' 18 


3.22 ' 


28 


2.0 


133 




ih. 0301. 


i 306 


2 7 8 




568 


18 


4-39 " 


28 


3.0 


140 




2h.:2om. 


2964 


158 




570 


" 19 


9-25 ' 


28 


3-0 


140 




3h. 3im. 


447' 


169 




580 


19 


3.23 P.M. 


28 


4.0 


146 




7h. 39m. 


IO 212 


142 




582 


19 


4.40 " 


28 


4.0 


146 


. . . . 


8h. 56m. 


II 987 


165 




587 


20 


10. 14 A.M. 


29 


I.O 


127 




I2m. 


234 


426 




589 


" 20 


11-59 " 


29 


4.0 


146 




ih. 5701. 


25-90 


103 




59 1 


" 2O 


2. 02 P.M. 


29 


3-0 


140 




4h. oom. 


5397 


188 




594 


" 2O 


3-53 " 


29 


4.0 


146 


. . . . 


5h. sim. 


7902 


720 




597 


21 


9.19 A.M. 


29 


I.O 


127 




7h. 47m. 


0460 


344 




600 


" 21 


4.OI " 


30 


2.0 


133 




3h. 3im. 


4627 


1.64 




603 


' 23 


9.18 " 


30 


2.0 


73 




5h. 1401. 


6551 


260 




606 


23 


10.39 " 


30 


g.O 


"5 




6h. 35m. 


7754 


ISO 




612 


23 


12.34 P.M. 


30 


O-O 


121 




8h. 3om. 


9932 


132 




616 


23 


3-33 ' 


30 


8.0 


49 




nli. 2901. 


3316 


150 


Shut inlet 3.20 P.M., out- 


619 


24 


9.29A.M. 


31 


3.0 


140 


. . . . 


in. 4gm. 


2466 


63 


let 3.40 P.M. 


627 


24 


12.48 P.M. 


31 


4.0 


146 




5h. o8m. 


6433 


' 78 




628 


24 


3-07 " 


31 


I.O 


127 




7h. 27m. 


9772 


86 




637 


" 26 


lO.Og A.M. 


31 


2.0 


133 




toh. 48m. 


13578 


95 




638 


26 


11.49 " 


32 


2.O 


133 




32m. 


688 


59 




639 


' 26 


12.O4 P.M. 


32 


3-0 


140 




47m. 


994 


60 




644 


' 26 


3-49 " 


32 


2.0 


133 




4h. 32m. 


6 134 


244 




651 


' 27 


10.07 A.M. 


32 


I.O 


127 




7h. ism. 


9392 


701 




655 


27 


12.34 P-M. 


32 


II. O 


127 




<)h. 42m. 


12757 


530 




660 


27 


2.57 " 


n 








1 2h. O5m. 


15 815 


924 


Shut outlet 2.57 P.M. 


665 


' 27 


3.42 " 


33 


!4.0 


146 




3om. 


641 


230 




666 


27 


3-57 ' 


33 


!2.0 


133 




45m. 


978 


128 




671 


27 


4.55 ' 


33 : 


!2.0 


133 




ih. 43m. 


2 223 


1 60 




674 


" 28 


9.56 A.M. 


33 : 


!2.0 


133 




3h. nm. 


4131 


428 




682 


" 28 


11.56 " 


33 : 


II. O 


127 




5h. nm. 


6 77 6 


728 




683 


" 28 


3.06 P.M. 


OT 








8h. 2im. 


1 1 OI I 


350 


shut inlet 3.04 P.M., out- 


692 


30 


10.56 A.M. 


JJ 

34 : 


2.O 


133 




2h. 3im. 


2 884 


402 


let 3.24 P.M. 


696 


30 


12.15 P-M. 


35 : 


I.O 


127 




, I4m. 


179 


474 




697 


30 


12.44 " 


35 : 


2.O 


133 




43m. 


804 


2IO 




701 


30 


1-59 ' 


35 : 


4.0 


146 




ih. 58m. 


2 56l 


502 




705 


30 


4-53 ' 


36 : 


3-0 


140 




l8m. 


378 


210 




707 


30 


5.16 " 


36 : 


2.O 


133 




4im. 


959 


170 




7" 


31 


10.45 A.M. 


36 ; 


3-o 


140 




2h. 34m. 


4708 


406 






132 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


J 




1* 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







C 

t/5 . 


u 




It 






\j 


w v 




Period of 


u M 


D 




V 






Number 


a 


1 a 


a 


Service Since 


Si'- .J 


C 




c 






of 


v . 


^ 21 C 




V 


Last 


> w 


S.s 


Remarks. 


3 






Run. 




0^3 


K 


Washing. 


te 







c 


Date. 


Hour. 




|| 


1*1 


o 

I 

o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


ll| 


a ^ 




y. 








o 


S" 


J 




"" 


m 






1895 




















717 


Dec. 31 


1.39^ P.M. 


37 


17.0 


103 


.... 


I5m. 


215 


440 




718 


" 3 1 


2.og " 


37 


23.0 


140 


.... 


45m. 


835 


278 






1896 




















730 


Jan. 2 


10.56 A.M. 


38 


22.5 


136 




lorn. 


130 


784 




731 


" 2 


11.26 " 


38 


25.0 


152 




4om. 


6go 


600 




740 


" 2 


2.4O P.M. 


38 


18.0 


109 


.... 


3h. 5401. 


5 260 


i 400 




743 


2 


4.06 " 


39 


20. o 


121 




I5m. 


222 


405 




749 


3 


10.21 A.M. 


39 


21.0 


127 




3h. O7m. 


3722 


1 80 




753 


" 3 


1.22 P.M. 


40 


20. o 


121 




1501. 


1 86 


220 




754 


3 


I. 5 8 - 


40 


20.5 


124 


. . . 


5lm. 


956 


97 




765 


4 


11.55 A.M. 


41 


18.0 


log 




14111. 


118 


I/O 




772 


4 


2.26 P.M. 


41 


21.5 


130 




2h. 45m. 


2558 


133 




776 


6 


11.55 A.M. 


42 


17.0 


103 




3om. 


415 


102 




780 


6 


3.27 P.M. 


42 


17.0 


103 




4h. o2m. 


3891 


112 




785 


7 


12.24 ' 


43 


14.0 


85 




4h. i()in. 


4 159 


43 




789 


" 7 


3-52 " 


44 


12. 


73 




2h. 1701. 


2 218 


66 




794 


" 8 


11.58 A.M. 


45 


16.0 


97 




55m. 


858 


as 




799 


8 


2.28 P.M. 


45 


16.0 


97 




3h. 2sm. 


3235 


68 




802 


" 8 


2.49 " 


45 


16.0 


97 


.... 


3h. 46111. 


3529 


84 




809 


" 9 


IO.2I A.M. 


46 


18.0 


109 


.... 


2h. 25m. 


2 316 


10 




814 


9 


1.26 P.M. 


47 


16.5 


IOO 




I5m. 


210 


53 




816 


9 


1.47 " 


47 


15.0 


gl 




36m. 


500 


21 




826 


10 


1.05 ' 


48 


14.0 


85 




ogm. 


119 


152 




827 


" 10 


1.42 " 


48 


15.0 


91 




4601. 


699 


36 




836 


" it 


II. 21 A.M. 


49 


'7-5 


1 06 


.... 


2h. 53m. 


2 630 


3 6 




843 


J 3 


12.30 P.M. 


51 


16.0 


97 


.... 


ism. 


198 


35 




844 


" 13 


I.OO " 


51 


15.0 




.... 


45m. 


633 


3' 




846 


13 


2.OI " 


51 


16.0 


97 


.... 


ih. 4601. 


I 60S 


10 




850 


13 


4-57 " 


52 


16.0 


97 


.... 


I5m. 


2O7 


78 




856 


14 


11.56 A.M. 


52 


17.0 


103 




3h. 44in. 


3516 


M 




859 


14 


1.57 P.M. 


53 


16.0 


97 


.... 


I5m. 


1 86 


31 




863 


14 


2.27 " 


53 


17.0 


103 




4501. 


7'4 


32 




867 


14 


3-25 " 


53 


17.0 


103 




ih. 43m. 


I 606 


25 




871 


15 


10.40 A.M. 


54 


16.0 


97 




1501. 


181 


62 




875 


15 


II. IO " 


54 


16.0 


97 




45m. 


657 


12 




879 


15 


12.59 P.M. 


54 


16.0 


97 




2h. 34111. 


2327 


49 




SSi 


15 


2.54 " 


54 


14.0 


85 




4h. 2gm. 


4 124 


77 




886 


" 16 


10.43 A.M. 


55 


16.5 


IOO 




2h. 3401. 


2356 


78 




89. 


" 16 


12.58 P.M. 


55 


14.0 


85 




4h. 4gm. 


4486 


94 




896 


" 16 


2.17 " 


56 


16.0 


97 




15111. 


203 


73 




897 


" 16 


2.47 ' 


56 


16.5 


IOO 




45m. 


663 


60 




898 


" 16 


2.59 ' 


56 


16.0 


97 


.... 


57m. 


853 


58 




915 


" 17 


11.37 A.M. 


57 


17.0 


103 


. . 




176 


126 




g2o 


17 


I2.O7 P.M. 


57 


17.0 


103 




4501. 


f'75 








924 


17 


1.02 " 


57 


16.0 


97 


.... 


ih. .('MIL 


' 515 


65 




93' 


17 


2.II " 


57 


15-0 


91 




2h. 4gm. 


2615 


171 




935 


" 17 


3-53 " 


58 


'7-5 


106 




1 7m. 


240 


82 




939 


17 


4.23 " 


58 


15.0 


9< 


. . . 


47m. 


660 


76 




941 


17 


4.58 ' 


58 


16.0 


97 


.... 


ih. 22m. 


I 205 


68 




948 


11 18 


IO.O8 A.M. 


58 


16.0 


97 


.... 


2h. 54m. 


2 62O 


38 




952 


" 18 


I. CO P.M. 


59 


16.0 


97 




I5m. 


217 


67 




95 6 


" 18 


I. 3 " 


59 


14.0 


85 


.... 


45m. 


677 


70 




g6i 


" 18 


2.50 ' 


59 


15-5 


94 




2h. 05111. 


1887 


64 




968 


" 20 


10.38 A.M. 


60 


15.0 


9' 




2)1. iSm. 


2 O40 


102 




971 


" 2O 


2.05 P.M. 


61 


16.0 


97 


.... 


1501. 


176 


1 08 




973 


" 2O 


4.09 " 


61 


15-0 


9 1 


.... 


2h. igm. 


2086 


I 4 6 




982 


" 21 


12. IO " 


62 


16.0 


97 


.... 


1 5m. 


181 


86 




983 


" 21 


12.40 " 


62 


16.0 


97 




45m. 


691 


32 




985 


" 21 


4-12 " 


63 


16.0 


97 


.... 


34m. 


453 


36 




99' 


" 22 


g.2I A.M. 


63 


16.0 


97 


.... 


2h. I7m. 


2073 


33 




997 


" 22 


2.12 P.M. 


64 


17.0 


103 


.... 


ih. asm. 


1464 


36 




1028 


25 


2.27 " 


65 


19.0 






2h. O3m. 


2418 


60 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



133 



TABLE No 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


j 




V 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







c 

(/} fc* 


w 




X 




Number 


| 


M 

la 


o 


Period of 
Service Since 


l* Q 

HJ 


3 








A 

s 






of 

Run 


? .; 


rt ij 


rt 
V 

X 


Last 
Washing. 


rt !/> w 


li 


Remarks. 


3 








H 


y o 




Hours and 


T3* y 


rt.S 




* 


Date. 


Hour. 




*** 3 




o 


Minutes. 


u SS.3 


t! c 




Is 








11 


Is.? 


1 




v rt 3 
:SJU 


IS 




M 








o 


s 


-* 




U. 


m 






I8g5 




















1032 
1037 


Jan. 27 
27 


10.03 A.M. 
11.22 " 


65 
66 


16.0 
16.0 


97 
97 




5h. Sim. 
ijm. 


6 108 
216 


"3 
39 




1038 


27 


11.52 " 


66 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


45m. 


666 


177 




1039 


27 


1.05 P.M. 


66 


16.0 


97 




ih. sSm. 


1836 


41 




1044 


" 27 


4.06 " 


66 


15-0 


9' 




4h. sgm. 


4636 


412 




1050 


" 28 


g.45 A.M. 


67 


I6. 5 


100 




ih. 2gm. 


i 226 


225 




1057 


" 28 


3-33 P-M. 


68 


15-0 


gl 




ih. lom. 


954 


536 




1058 


" 28 


4-2g ' 


68 


16 o 


97 




2h. o6m. 


1924 


650 




1065 


29 


10. og A.M. 


68 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


3h. sSm. 


3504 


327 




1068 


2g 


1-55 P-M. 


69 


15-0 






ih. 55m. 


i 828 


570 


. 


1071 


2g 


5.15 ' 


70 


14.0 


85 


. . . . 


I7m. 


219 


679 




1074 


30 


10.56 A.M. 


7 


14.0 


85 




2h. 28m. 


227g 


79 




1076 


30 


12.56 P.M. 


70 


14.0 


85 




4h. 28m. 


4259 


76 




1079 


30 


2.54 " 


71 


t5-5 


94 




56m. 


648 


58 




1083 


31 


10.42 A.M. 


7' 


IO.O 


61 




5h. 14111. 


4788 


l6g 


A. Shut inlet 10.42 A.M., 


logo 


31 


2.42 P.M. 


72 


20. o 


121 




2h. osm. 


i 998 


59 


outlet 10.56 A.M. 


1092 


31 


3-43 " 


72 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


3h. o6m. 


2948 


55 




logs 


Feb. i 


9-57 A.M. 


72 


16.0 


97 




5h. 46m. 


5298 


85 




iog6 


" i 


12. II P.M. 


73 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


47m. 


6gg 


39 




logg 


" i 


2.40 " 


73 


16.0 


97 




3h. l6m. 


2959 


6g 




1103 


" i 


4-55 " 


74 


14.0 


85 




3om. 


415 


30 




1107 


3 


IO.I2 A.M. 


74 


16.0 


97 




2h. 3om. 


2295 


174 




IIIO 


3 


1. 10 P.M. 


74 


16.0 


97 




5h. ism. 


4875 


ig6 




1116 


3 


4-55 " 


75 


17.0 


103 


. . . . 


ih. i8m. 


i 140 


225 




II2I 


4 


IO. 12 A.M. 


75 


15-5 


94 




3h. osm. 


2 850 


240 




1124 


4 


"45 " 


75 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


4h. 38m. 


4200 


606 




1127 


4 


2.25 P.M. 


75 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


7h. i8m. 


6730 


555 




1131 


4 


5-13 " 


76 


16.0 


97 




ih. 24m. 


I 273 


4740 




1136 


5 


lO.Og A.M. 


76 


18.0 


109 




2h. Sim. 


2873 


256 




1140 


5 


n.45 " 


76 


18.0 


log 




4h. 27m. 


4513 


752 




1144 


5 


3-02 P.M. 


77 


16.0 


97 




2h. 3om. 


2570 


510 




H49 


5 


5-04 " 


78 


14.0 


85 




osm. 


29 


816 




"55 


6 


10.05 A.M. 


7 


17.0 


103 




ih. 3&m. 


I 339 


232 




1161 


6 


12. ig P.M. 


78 


17.0 


103 


. . . . 


3h. 5om. 


3519 


173 




1163 


6 


3.10 " 


7g 


17.0 


103 




34m. 


431 


207 




1168 


6 


4.12 " 


79 


16.5 


100 


. . . . 


ih. 3&m. 


i 421 


270 




H73 


7 


10.1O A.M. 


79 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


4h. ogm. 


3701 


237 




U77 


7 


1.25 P.M. 


80 


16.0 


97 




ih. 33m. 


1646 


338 




1183 


7 


5.22 " 


81 


16.0 


97 




ih. com. 


886 


512 




1187 


8 


10.27 A.M. 


8! 


16.0 


97 




2h. I7m. 


2 O4g 


556 




1191 


8 


2.10 P.M. 


82 


16.0 


97 




43m. 


677 


194 




U95 


8 


3.00 " 


82 


18.0 


109 




ih. 27m. 


1417 


1 80 




1198 


8 


4.46 " 


82 


14.0 


85 


. . . . 


3h. 13m. 


3047 


530 




1203 


" IO 


10.12 A.M. 


82 


16.0 


97 




4h. 57m. 


4797 


275 




1207 


" 10 


12.56 P.M. 


83 


16.0 


97 




54m. 


800 


no 




121 I 


" 10 


3-JO " 


83 


14.0 


85 




3h. o8m. 


2 980 


384 


Shut inlet 3. 03 P.M., Cut- 


1215 


" IO 


4-57 ' 


84 


17-0 


103 




57m. 


862 


348 


let 3.23 P.M. 


1258 


13 


2.34 ' 


85 


20. O 


121 


.... 


23m. 


468 


182 




1263 


13 


5-19 " 


85 


19.0 


u 5 




3h. o8m. 


3588 


678 


D. Application of chemi- 


1265 


" 14 


lO.Ig A.M. 


85 


19. o 


115 




4h. 23m. 


4928 


i 670 


cals unsatisfactory; 


I26g 


" 14 


1. 12 P.M. 


86 


21. 


127 




ih. 44m. 


2047 


57 


chemical meter out 


1273 


" _ , 


3-14 " 


86 


19-5 


118 


. . . . 


2h. s8m. 


3457 


40 


of order. 


1283 


" 15 


10.07 A.M. 


86 


21.0 


127 


.... 


4h. 2301. 


5007 


84 




1287 


15 


1.25 P.M. 


87 


22.5 


136 


.... 


ih. lom. 


1487 


90 




1291 


15 


2-57 " 


87 


20.0 


121 




2h. 42m. 


3397 


243 




1295 


15 


5-24 " 


88 


19. o 


115 




ih. 32m. 


1673 






1302 


17 


10.06 A.M. 


88 


2O. O 


121 




2h. 54m. 


4 173 


log 




1306 


" '7 


1.35 P.M. 


89 


ig.o 


"5 




33m. 


521 


125 




1310 


" 17 


3-07 ' 


8g 


20. o 


121 


.... 


2h. osm. 


2311 


87 




1320 


" 18 


10.20 A.M. 


go 


18.0 


109 


.... 


3om. 


550 


20 




1324 


" 18 


n-55 ' 


90 


ig.o 


H5 




2h. osm. 


2 260 


56 





WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


J 












Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 






_c 


O 

















f^ . 


3 




- 






v. 


01 1- 




I enod of 


UJ ba 


3 




u 

JS 






Number 
of 


I 

S V 


led 


1 


Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 


|1| 


LJ . 

D,^ 


Remarks. 


1 






Run. 


fe. ^ 


o y ? 


G 


Hours and 


T3 ^ 


rt B 






Date. 


Hour. 




u c 


Is 


"o 


Minutes. 


S3 


v c 













13 


iSU 


i 




25 


5 




VI 








u 


s 


j 




'. 


m 






1895 




















1328 


Feb. 1 8 


2. 2O P.M. Q 


go 


17.0 


103 


.... 


4h. 3001. 


4790 


198 




1333 


" 18 


4-55 " 


9' 


18.0 


109 


.... 


ih. 3gm. 


I 804 


67 




1337 


" 18 


5-05 ' 


91 


18.0 


109 


.... 


ih. 4gm. 


1 954 


61 




1343 


" 19 


10.12 A.M. 


91 


ig.o 


H5 


.... 


3h. ism 


3434 


39 




1347 


" 19 


11.31 " 


91 


iS.o 


log 




4h. 34m. 


4894 


104 




1351 


19 


3.04 P.M. 


92 


18.5 


112 




ih. 42m. 


i 829 


55 




1358 


" 19 


5.10 " 


9 2 


iS.o 


109 




3h. 48m. 


4069 


382 




1362 


1 20 


II .OO A.M. 


92 


18.0 


109 


.... 


5h. 43m. 


6029 


156 




1366 


" 20 


I2.O3 P - M - 


93 


18.0 


log 


.... 


I5m. 


209 


116 




1368 


" 20 


I2.I8 " 


93 


18.0 


log 




30m. 


459 


104 




1369 


" 20 


12-33 " 


93 


18.0 


log 




45m. 


739 


287 




1370 


" 20 


12.40 ' 


93 


18.0 


log 


.... 


52m. 


i oog 


560 




1371 


" 20 


I.O4 " 


93 


18.0 


log 


.... 


ih. l6m. 


i 309 


79 




1375 


" 20 


2.06 " 


93 


18.0 


log 


.... 


2h. i MIL 


2389 


135 




1377 


" 20 


3.08 " 


93 


17-0 


103 




3h. 2om. 


3469 


141 




1382 


" 20 


4.08 " 


93 


17.0 


103 


. . . 


4h. 2om. 


4489 


325 




1387 


" 20 


5.15 ' 


94 


17-5 


106 


.... 


o8m. 


go 


200 




1390 


" 21 


g. 56A.M. 


94 


16.5 


IOO 


.... 


ih. 2om. 


i 330 


48 




1394 


" 21 


12.42 P.M. 


94 


17.0 


103 


.... 


4h. o6m. 


4 160 


34 




1404 


" 21 


5.09 " 


95 


"8.5 


112 


.... 


14111 


227 


M7 




1408 


" 22 


10.20 A.M. 


95 


18.0 


log 




ih. 55m. 


2077 


88 




1411 


" 22 


1.18 P.M. 


95 


18.0 


log 


.... 


4h. 53m. 


5337 


115 




1412 


" 22 


3-01 " 


95 


ig.o 


US 


.... 


6h. 3601. 


7177 


528 




1414 


" 22 


4-53 ' 


g6 


i7-5 


1 06 


.... 


ih. i |in. 


i 3'5 


94 




1422 


" 24 


10.27 A.M. 


g6 


17.5 


1 06 


. . . . 


3h. i7m. 


348o 


79 




1423 


' 24 


I.1O P.M. 


g6 


18.5 


112 




6h. oom. 


6440 


77 




1431 


' 24 


5 .l6 " 


97 


18.5 


112 


. . . . 


ih. 35m. 


i 611 


62 




M37 


' 25 


1O.26 A.M. 


97 


20. o 


121 


. . . . 


3h. i6m. 


3631 


40 




1441 


' 25 


I.I4 P.M. 


98 


ig.o 


115 


.... 


48m. 


734 


52 




1445 


' 25 


3.07 " 


98 


'7-5 


106 


.... 


2h. 41111. 


2 824 


64 


; 


1452 


1 25 


5.08 " 


98 


18.5 


112 


. . . . 


.;li. 42m. 


4994 


127 




1456 


" 26 


IO.26 A.M. 


98 


'7-5 


1O6 


.... 


6h. 3Om. 


6904 


122 




1460 


" 26 


11-43 " 


98 


15.0 


9t 


. . . . 


7h. 47m. 


8 214 


294 




1464 


" 26 


3.04 P.M. 


99 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


ih. 47m. 


i 823 


68 




1471 


" 26 


5.23 " 


99 


iS.o 


log 


. . . . 


4h. obm. 


4363 


326 




1478 


" 27 


10.36 A.M. 


99 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


5!]. 4gm. 


6193 


34 




1479 


1 27 


I .43 P.M. 


IOO 


24-5 


'49 




44m. 


923 


30 




M83 


' 27 


2. 5 8 " 


IOO 


24.0 


146 




ih. sgm. 


2 773 


53 




1488 


" 27 


5-07 ' 


101 


23.0 


140 


. . . .1 I7m. 


341 


142 




1496 


" 28 


10.36 A.M. 


101 


25.0 


152 


.... 


2h. i6m. 


33" 


21 




1502 


" 28 


3.23 P.M. 


IO2 


25.0 


152 




ih. 5&m. 


i 241 


33 




1507 


" 28 


5.00 " 


1 02 


23-5 


'43 


.... 


3h. 3301. 


4961 


4'3 




1512 


" 29 


IO.30 A.M. 


103 


25.0 


152 


.... 


ih. 29111. 


2 326 


138 




1516 


" 29 


1.34 P.M. 


104 


24.0 


146 




24m. 


494 


176 




1520 


' 29 


3-14 ' 


104 


25.0 


152 




2h. 04 m. 


3024 


187 




1528 


" 29 


5-15 ' 


105 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


1 7m. 


396 


211 




1531 


Mar. 2 


9. 33 A.M. 


105 


22.5 


136 




ih. 0301. 


i 606 


I 3 




1536 


" 2 


10.21 ' 


105 


25.0 


152 




ih. Sim. 


2 766 


33' 






" 2 


1 . 33 P.M. 


1 06 


24 5 






ih. o7m. 


I 'idQ 






1544 


" 2 


3.12 " 


1 06 


23.0 


140 


.... 


2h. 46111. 


* 3HV 
3859 


676 




1549 


" 2 


5.06 " 


107 


25.0 


152 


.... 


22m. 


457 


333 




1557 


" 3 


10.37A.M. 


107 


24.0 


146 


. . . 


2h. 2301. 


3547 


155 




1561 


" 3 


12. 15 P.M. 


107 


24.0 


146 




4h. oim. 


5897 


405 




1565 


3 


3-10 " 


1 08 


25.0 


152 




ih. 27m. 


2025 


95 




1570 


3 


5.10 " 


108 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


3h. 27m. 


4845 


553 




1576 


4 


10.44 A.M. 


1 08 


21-5 


130 


. . . . 


4h. 54m. 


6999 


605 




1580 


4 


12.58 P.M. 


log 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


ih. 14111. 


1747 


80 




1584 


" 4 


3-19 " 


log 


^4.0 


146 


. . . . 


3h. 35m. 


5093 


i 3 go 




1589 


4 


5 03 ' 


no 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


ih. 05111. 


I 452 


116 




1595 


5 


IO.3O A.M. 


no 


25.0 


152 





3h. O2m. 


4442 


187 




1599 


5 


12.49 P - M - 


in 


23.0 


140 




43m. 


930 


93 




1608 


5 


3.29 - 


in 


23.0 


140 




3h. 23m. 


4650 


590 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'35 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


. 




g 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 




a 


u 















Period of 


In c 


.0 

3 




h 


= s 









Number. 


0. 


5 a 


a 


service Since 


- 


^ u 




JO 

e 






of 

Run. 


% 


i; 


I 


Last 
Washing. 


&* 


a 


Remarks. 











g 


- ^ o 


" 


Hours and 


*o^ o 


rt.H 




__ 


Date. 


Hour. 




C 




O 


Minutes. 


u V H 


4J C 




S 








la 


=5 jiy 


% 




35 


U(J 




y> 








u 


S 


a 




E 


pa 






I8 9 5 




















1612 


Mar. 5 


5.18 P.M. 


112 


i6.o 


158 




lorn. 


169 


615 




1616 


6 


10.32 A.M. 


112 


23.0 


140 




ih. 54m. 


2 8ig 


48 




1621 


6 


12.38 P.M. 


112 


23.0 


140 




4h. oom. 


5699 


615 




1625 


" 6 


3.16 " 


113 


26.0 


158 




ih. 5im. 


2737 


106 




1633 


6 


5-25 " 


114 


24-5 


149 




37m. 


808 


59 




I&37 


7 


10.40 A.M. 


114 


24.0 


146 




2h. 2om. 


3468 


39 




1641 


7 


12.53 l'-M. 


114 


23.0 


140 




4h. 33m. 


6 508 


485 




1644 


7 


3.IO " 


115 


24.0 


146 




ih. i6m. 


I 750 


40 





1649 


7 


5.15 " 


115 


24.0 


146 




3h. 2im. 


4710 


154 




1656 


9 


10.58 A.M. 


H5 


23-5 


M3 




5h. 33m. 


7890 


620 




1661 


9 


I2.5O P.M. 


116 


24-5 


149 


. . . . 


ih. i6m. 


1738 


40 




1670 


9 


3-40 " 


H7 


24.0 


146 




36m. 


837 


35 




1671 


9 


5.04 " 


117 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


2h. oom. 


2757 


64 




1678 


10 


10.19 A.M. 


"7 


24.0 


146 




3h. 45m. 


5357 


139 




1682 


" 10 


1.33 P.M. 


118 


25-0 


152 


. . . . 


ih. 43m. 


2344 


68 




1686 


" 10 


3.07 " 


118 


24-5 


149 




3h. I7m. 


4605 


935 




1693 


" 10 


5-15 " 


iig 


25.0 


152 


. . . . 


ih. 2gm. 


2085 


61 




i6gg 


' ii 


IO.I8 A.M. 


ng 


25.0 


152 


. .. . 


3h. O2m. 


4375 


300 




1706 


' ii 


3.17 P.M. 


121 


20.0 


121 




ih. 34m. 


I 872 


310 


. 


1713 


' ii 


5-05 " 


122 


21-5 


130 




2gm. 


562 


60 




1719 


' 12 


10.15 A.M. 


122 


19-5 


118 




2h. ogm. 


2 622 


89 




1723 


' 12 


12.54 P.M. 


123 


ig.o 


H5 




ih. igm. 


M39 


26 




1727 


' 12 


3.22 " 


123 


17-5 


106 


. ... 


3h. 47m 


4069 


485 




1732 


' 12 


5.08 " 


124 


20.0 


121 




ih. 07m 


I3 


Zi 




1739 


' 13 


10.23 A.M. 


124 


18.5 


112 




2h. 55m 


3 551 


137 




1743 


13 


i.og P.M. 


125 


19-5 


118 




ih. I7m 


1389 


26 




174 


13 


3-io " 


125 


18.5 


H2 


. . . . 


3h. i8m 


3639 


I OOO 




1752 


13 


5.01 P.M. 


126 


ig.5 


us 




ih. I3m 


1377 


II 




175 


' 14 


10.27 A.M. 


126 


I8.5 


112 


. . . . 


3h. ogm 


3827 


137 




1764 


'4 


I. O6 P.M. 


127 


ig.o 


US 




ih. 2im 


I 480 


37 


. 


1770 


" 14 


3-10 " 


127 


19.5 


118 




3h. 25m 


3870 


451 




1778 


H 


4.50 " 


128 


20.0 


121 




ih. o6m 


I 182 


19 




1784 


" 16 


10.22 A.M. 


128 


ig.o 


IIJ 


. . . . 


3h. o8m 


3642 


40 




1790 


" 16 


I.og P.M. 


I2g 


18.0 


109 




ih. 49m 


2019 


34 




I7g6 


" 16 


3-12 " 


I2g 


17.0 


103 




3h. 52m 


4 l6 9 


172 




1803 


" 16 


5.02 " 


130 


20. o 


121 




26m 


443 


60 




1809 


" 17 


9.31 A.M. 


130 


20. 


121 


. . . . 


ih. igm 


I 533 


8 




1810 


17 


10.24 " 


130 


20.0 


121 


. . . . 


2h. I2m. 


2583 


32 




ISK 


17 


I. II P.M. 


131 


18. 


112 




iSm. 


264 


5Q 




1822 


17 


3-15 " 


131 


20.0 


121 




2h. 22m. 


2734 


34 




1834 


' 18 


9.31 A.M. 


132 


ig.o 


log 




3im. 


551 


23 




1835 


' 18 


10.26 " 


132 


18.0 


tog 




ih. 26m. 


I 611 


31 




1840 


' 18 


1. 06 " 


132 


20.0 


121 




4h. o6m. 


4801 


51 




1846 


' 18 


2.O6 " 


133 


ig. 


5 




lorn. 


203 


90 




1847 


" 18 


3.20 ' 


133 


20.5 


124 




ih. 24m. 


1*623 


56 




1852 


" 18 


4.21 


133 


19-5 


118 




2h. 25m. 


2793 


43 




1853 


" 18 


4-59 ' 


133 


20. o 


121 




3h. O3m. 


3 523 


50 




185? 


19 


9.31 A.M. 


133 


20.0 


121 




3h. 55m. 


4613 


65 




i86c 


19 


9-45 


133 


19.5 


118 


. . . . 


4h. ogm. 


4863 


78 




186] 


' '9 


9-55 


133 


20.0 


121 


. . . . 


4h. igm. 


5063 


143 




1862 


' 19 


10.44 


134 


20.0 


121 




lorn. 


185 


I5C 




I8 


19 


10.56 ' 


134 


20. 


121 


. . . . 


22m 


415 


10; 




186; 


19 


11.05 " 


134 


ig.S 


118 


. . . . 


3im 


585 


91 




187; 


19 


2.08 P.M. 


135 


20.5 


124 


. . . . 


I3m 


217 


26; 




187! 


19 


3.14 " 


135 


19-5 


IlS 




ih. igm 


I 547 


7^ 




l88< 


" 20 


g.3o A.M. 


136 


20.0 


121 




3om 


610 


43 




188- 


" 20 


IO.2I " 


136 


2O. C 


121 




ih. 2im 


I 580 


14. 




i8g: 


" 2O 


I.O3 P.M. 


137 


i8.c 


log 




58m 


978 


13; 




I8g< 


" 20 


2.18 " 


137 


l8.c 


log 


. . . 


2h. I3m 


2318 


in 




igcx 


" 20 


3-27 " 


138 


16.5 


IOO 




30m 


497 


29? 




I gOi 


" 2O 


4.10 ' 


138 


18.5 


113 




ih. I3m 


I 277 


n( 





136 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since, 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


Cubic Feet per 
Minute. 


Million Gallons 
per Acre per 
24 Hours. 


Date. 


Hour. 


1906 
1912 
1916 
1918 

1925 
1926 
1927 
1929 
1934 
1935 
1939 
1940 

1945 
1946 

1951 
1952 
1958 
1961 

1965 
1968 
1972 

1975 
1976 

1977 
1978 

1979 
1980 
1981 
1984 
1985 
1986 

I97 
1988 
1992 
1997 

2OOO 
2OO4 
2007 
201 1 
202O 
2030 
2034 
2039 
2042 
2046 
2049 

2053 
2056 
2064 

2075 
2082 
2098 

2102 
2105 
2IOg 
2112 
2113 
2114 
2115 
2116 
2117 


1896 
Mar. 20 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 23 

23 
23 

23 
23 

2 3 

23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 

" 25 

25 

25 

25 

24-25 

25 

" 25 

" 25 

25 

25 
" 25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25-26 
" 26 
26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 

" 26 
" 2(> 

" 26-27 

" 27 

" 27 

27 
27 

27 

27 

" 27 

" 28 

" 28 

" 28 
' 28 
" 28 

" 28 


4.46 P.M. 
10.40 A.M. 

11.58 " 

12.51 P.M. 

3.37 
4.03 ' 

4-33 ' 

5-03 ' 

9.37 A.M. 
10. 2O ' 
11. IO " 

11.58 " 

I.OI P.M. 

2.53 " 

4.27 

5.00 ' 

9 A.M. to 11.30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " H.30 ' 
12.21 A.M. 
.04 " 
.14 ' 
.24 

39 " 
54 ' 
2.24 " 
II.3O P.M. to 2.30 A.M. 
2.54 A.M. 

3-54 " 
4.12 ' 
2.30 A.M. to 5.30 A.M. 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 

5 30 " " 8.30 " 

8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
11.30 " " 2.30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " _2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.3O " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' "11.30 ' 
I2.O3 A - M - 
12.37 " 
12.47 
12.57 
1. 12 ' 
1.27 " 


I 3 8 
139 
139 
140 
141 
141 
141 
141 
142 
142 
142 
142 
143 
143 
144 
144 
144 
144-145 
145-146 
146 
146-147 

147 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
147-148 
148 
148 
148 
148-149 
149 
150 
150-151 
151-152 
152-153 
153-154 
154-155 
155-156 
156-157 
157-158 
158 

159 
1 60 
160-161 
161-162 
162-163 
163 
163-164 
164-165 
165-166 
166-167 
167 
167 
168 
168 
168 
168 
I6S 


18.5 
18.5 

18.0 
19. o 
18.0 
19.0 
18.0 
18.0 
15-5 
iS.o 
18.0 
18.0 
iS.o 
18.0 
19.5 
18.5 
17-7 
16.4 
16.3 
19.3 
18.4 
17.0 
17-5 
18.0 

20. 

I8. 5 

18.0 
18.0 
16.4 
18.0 
18.0 
15-0 
15-8 
19.9 
18.2 

17.6 

15.5 
18.9 

15.6 

17-3 
17-5 

18.1 
18.3 
17.8 

17-7 
18.4 
18.4 
15.1 
17.6 
18.3 
17.8 
17.8 
18.7 
19.4 
17.6 

21. 

18.0 
18.0 
18.0 
18.0 
18.0 


112 
112 
109 
"5 
log 

"5 
109 
log 

94 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
118 

112 

107 

99 
99 
H7 
ill 
103 
106 
109 
121 
112 
log 
log 

99 
109 
log 
91 
96 
1 20 
no 
103 

94 
114 

95 
105 
106 
log 
in 
108 
107 
in 
in 

9i 
107 
in 
108 
1 08 
113 

7 
107 
127 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 





ih. 4gm. 
ih. lorn. 
2h. 28m. 
i8m. 
o6m. 
32m. 
ih. O2m. 
ih. 32m. 
07m. 
5om. 
ih. 4Om. 
2h. 28m. 
14m. 
2h. o6m. 
I3m. 
46m. 


1877 
I 227 
2647 
266 
97 
507 
1087 

i 597 
138 
828 
i 708 
2558 
183 

2 153 
215 

8 45 


Ill 
138 
148 
220 
820 
229 

116 

150 
147 

51 
60 
60 
440 
50 

435 

73 
25 

21 
127 

66 
61 
286 

'53 
170 

97 
116 

75 
64 

52 

90 
196 
252 
103 

62 
7i 

85 

201 

81 
865 
74 
87 
121 
2O5 
142 
228 
89 
69 
59 
2og 

91 
62 
189 
3og 
no 
i6g 
207 

535 
no 

97 
59 
ii5 


C. 

E. 
E. 
E. 
E. 
E. 
E. 

E. 
E. 
E. 

D. Application of chemi- 
cals unsatisfactory 
on Run No. 154 ; 
chemical meter out 
of order. 

C. Shut inlet 12.03 A.M., 
E. [outlet 12. II A.M. 
E. 
E. 
E. 
E. 





























3h. osm. 
lorn. 
2om. 
3om. 
45m. 
ih. oom. 
ih. 3om. 


3373 
131 
311 

481 

75i 
i 071 
i 581 


.... 


2h. oom. 
3h. oom. 
3h. i8m. 


2 IOI 
3241 
3491 









































































































































3h. 49m. 
lorn. 
2om. 
3om. 
45m. 
ih. oom. 


4050 
124 
324 
504 
784 
I OO4 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'37 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 

Filtration. 


I) 


1 

O 

I 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes, 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


I 

h 

A 3 
<> C 

Is 

u 


ss 

_o a 
~a " 

ob 5 

c< o 

=6= 

i a " 


Date. 


Hour. 


2118 
2119 
2120 
2123 
2124 
2125 
2126 
2130 
2135 
2138 
2142 

2145 
2154 
2157 
2160 
2164 
2168 
2172 
2181 
2184 
2188 
2191 
2195 
2198 
2202 
2207 
220g 
2215 
22lg 
2223 
2228 
2233 
2236 
2241 
2246 
2249 
2254 

2258 
2261 
2266 
2270 

2275 
2280 
2285 
2288 
2293 
2298 
2301 

2309 
2312 
2313 
2314 
2315 

2316 

2317 
2318 
2319 
2321 
2330 

2333 
2336 


1896 
Mar. 28 
" 28 
27-28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
28-29 
" 29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29-30 
30 
30 
3 
3<> 
30 
31 
31 
31 
April I 
" I 
" I 
" 2 
" 2 

" 2 

3 
3 
3 
4 

4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 


1.57 A.M. 
2.27 ' 

11.30 P.M. to 2.30 A.M. 
3.27 A.M. 

4.27 ' 

4-33 ' 

2.30 A.M. to 5.30 A.M. 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5,30 " 
5.30 " ' 8.30 ' 
8.30 " "11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.3O P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 A.M. 
2.30A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 ' " 8.30 ' 
8.30 ' " II.3O ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9-35 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2-30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
q.IS A M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.15 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.15 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.15 A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
Q.I5 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.15 A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.30 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
I2.IO P.M. 
12.46 ' 
12.49 ' 
12.52 ' 
12.55 ' 
12.58 ' 

I-I3 ' 
1.28 ' 
11.30 A.M. to 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.15 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.32 A.M. 


168 
168 
167 168 


18.0 
18.0 
16.8 
18.0 
17-5 
16.0 
17.1 
18.1 
18.4 
19. 1 
18.5 
18.3 
18.0 
17-3 
17-3 
17-9 
17.8 
16.2 

18.9 
17-5 
17.2 
17.9 

19.0 

17-3 
17.1 
17.4 
17.9 
17.8 
17.2 
17-5 
17.8 
17.4 

16.6 
17-8 
17.6 
17.4 
18.4 
17.2 
18.0 
17.0 
18.0 
18.2 
18.2 
16.6 
18.0 
17.0 
17.0 
18.5 
17.2 
14.0 
18.0 
19. o 
18.5 
18.0 
18.0 
18.0 
18.0 
17.4 
17-5 
17-3 
18.0 


109 
109 

102 

109 

106 
97 
104 
no 
in 
116 

112 
III 
IC.Q 

105 
105 
109 
1 08 
98 
115 
106 
104 
1 08 
H5 
104 
103 
105 
1 08 
108 
104 
106 
1 08 
105 
IOI 

108 
106 
105 
in 
104 
109 
103 
109 
no 
no 

IOI 

109 
103 
103 

112 

IO4 
85 
109 

"5 

112 
109 
log 
IO9 
109 
105 
I O6 
104 
I0g 




ih. 3Om. 
2h. oom. 


I 494 
2 104 


107 

134 
126 
1 60 

221 
2O6 

83 

77 
114 

155 
169 
187 
135 

21 
40 
67 
46 
125 

300 

69 

1 80 
52 
92 


E. 
E. 

E. 
E. 
E. 

E. 
Shut inlet 12.08 P.M., 
toulet 12.24 P-M. 

C. 
C. 
C. 


168 
168 
168 
168-169 
169 
169-170 
170-171 
171 
171-172 
172-173 
173 
173-174 
174-175 
175 
175-176 
176 
177 
177-178 
178 
178-179 

179 
179-180 
180-181 
181 
182 
182-183 
184-185 
185 
1 86 
187 188 





3h. oom. 
4h. oom. 
4h. o6m. 


3184 
4244 
4354 














































































































145 

113 

7 
'47 
325 
635 
300 
220 
270 

102 

157 
205 
93 
77 
76 
1 80 
87 
81 
25 
37 
39 
37 

25 

59 

51 

124 

9' 
127 

117 
93 
81 

33 
53 
37 
70 


















































1 88 
188-189 
189-190 
190-191 
191 
192 
193 
193 
194 
194 
194-195 
195 
195 
195-196 
196 
196 
196 
197 
197 
197 
'97 
197 
197 
197 
196-197 

IQ7 
197 
197 

































































































8h. 04m. 
03111. 
o6m. 
ogm. 
I2m. 
I5m. 
3om. 
45m. 


8673 
38 
88 
148 
198 
248 
5i8 
778 
















7h. igm. 


7738 




138 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


V 




o 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


& 




C 
'tSi . 


o 




5 




Number 


& 


gs. 


a 


Period of 
Service Since 


U ^ 


S 
U . 






.u 

S 






of 
Run. 


jj . 


3 


8 
E 


Last 
Washing. 


l 


If 


Remarks. 


jr 








fc *"* 






Hours and 


^ [> y 


a B 




"3 


Date. 


Hour. 




.s 


.2 ul 


*o 


Minutes. 


SS'- 2 

OJ rt 3 


'C- 

ii = 




I 








J s 


i a 


J 




E 


l u 






1896 




















2337 


April 9 


11.47 A.M. 


197 


17.0 


103 




7h. 34m. 


8008 


126 




2339 


" 9 


12. 02 P.M. 


197 


15.0 


91 




7h. 4gm. 


8 198 


158 


Shut inlet 11.52 A.M., 




* * O 


II.3O A.M. to 2.30 P.M. 


197198 


18 i 


III 










~. [outlet 12.08 P.M. 


2ll 


y 




198 


18.0 


IOQ 








126 




2350 


9 

10 


10.19 A - M - 


198 


18.0 


109 


. . . . 


6h. 24m. 


6798 


44 




2352 


" IO 


10.49 ' 


198 


18.0 


log 




6h. 54m. 


7298 


51 




2354 


" 10 


ii. ig ' 


198 


18.0 


109 




7h. 24m. 


7838 


87 




__ - g 


* * IO 


Q 2O A M to II *3O A.M. 


198 


17 I 


ini 








. _ 


^ 


2357 


" 10 


11-49 A.M. 


198 


*/ J 

18.0 


log 


. . . . 


7h. 54m. 


8338 


86 




2359 


" 10 


13.31 P.M. 


igg 


18.0 


log 




0301. 


19 


32 




2360 


" 10 


12.34 ' 


igg 


18.5 


112 




o6m. 


79 


55 




2361 


" IO 


12-37 


igg 


18.5 


112 




ogm. 


139 


47 




2362 


" 10 


12.40 ' 


igg 


18.5 


112 




I2m. 


199 


2g 




2363 


" IO 


12-43 " 


199 


18.5 


112 


. . . . 


I5m. 


259 


39 




2364 


" IO 


12.58 


199 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


3om. 


519 


16 




2365 


" IO 


I.I3 ' 


199 


18.0 


tog 




45m. 


789 


15 




2366 


" IO 


2. 2O ' 


199 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


ih. 52m. 


2 oog 


23 




"A-T 


' ' IO 


II.3O A.M. to 2.3O P.M. 


I oSIOO 


I 7 Q 


ino 








ift 


C. 


2370 


" 10 


3.2O P.M. 


igg 


* / y 
18.0 


log 




2h. 52m. 


3099 


2g 




2371 


" IO 


4.2O " 


igg 


17-5 


106 


. . . . 


3h. 52m. 


4149 


30 




2372 


" 10 


5.2O " 


199 


17.0 


103 


. . . . 


4h. 52m. 


5 229 


44 




2-77-2 


" IO 


2.3O P.M. to 5.3O P.M. 




17 "7 


IO7 








A C 


C. 


*J 1 J 

2377 


" II 


II.3O A.M. 


199 


1 / * / 

18.0 


1V -V 

log 




7h. 32m. 


8 099 


t J 






" II 


g.I5 A.M. to II.3O A.M. 




17.8 


108 








16 


C. 


238l 


" II 


I2.OO M. 


199 


4 / U 

18.0 


109 




8h. O2m. 


8 629 


16 




2383 


" II 


I2.3O P.M. 


igg 


18.0 


log 




8h. 32m. 


9119 


13 




2385 


" II 


I.OO " 


igg 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


gh. O2m. 


9709 


25 




2387 


" II 


1.30 " 


igg 


18.0 


109 


. . . . 


gh. 32m. 


10 isg 


12 




rtorvA 


14 II 


11.30 A.M. to 2.30 P.M. 


inn 


17.2 


TO 1 








" 


C. 


2400 


" II 


3-45 P.M. 


200 


i / . * 

16.0 


97 




03m. 


10 


65 




2401 


" II 


3.48 


200 


18.0 


log 




o6m. 


60 


41 




2402 


" II 


3-51 


200 


18.0 


tog 




ogm. 


120 


62 




2403 


" II 


3-54 ' 


200 


18.0 


log 




I2m. 


170 


53 




2404 


II 


3-57 


200 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


I5m. 


230 


37 




2406 


" II 


4.12 ' 


200 


18.0 


109 




3om. 


500 


19 




2407 


" II 


4.27 


200 


18.0 


log 


. . . . 


45m. 


770 


20 




2409 


" II 


4-57 


200 


18.0 


log 




ih. ism. 


i 310 


19 




2411 


" II 


2.30 P.M. to 5.30 P.M. 


200 


17.1 


104 








28 


C. 


2452 


" 20 


IO.25 A.M. 


20 1 


l y . i 
26.O 


t58 




ih. 23m. 


2 O20 


3 




2455 


" 20 


11.58 " 


20 1 


26.O 


158 


. . . . 


2h. s6m. 


4400 


24 




2458 


" 20 


2.54 P.M. 


201 


27.0 


164 


. . . . 


5h. 52111. 


8 goo 48 




2463 


21 


9.30 A.M. 


2O2 


22.5 


136 




3om. 


622 46 




2465 


" 21 


IO.22 " 


2O2 


23.O 


140 


. . . . 


ih. 22m. 


i 782 59 




2468 


" 21 


12.35 P.M. 


2O2 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


3h. 35m. 


4 832 64 




2472 


" 21 


1.48 " 


2O2 


25-0 


152 


. . . . 


.|h. 48m. 


6472 96 





2475 


" 21 


2-55 " 


2O2 


24.0 


146 




5h. 55m. 


80021 147 




2479 


" 22 


g-5i A.M. 


2O3 


23-0 


140 


. . . . 


5im. 


i 136 104 




2481 


" 22 


10.45 " 


203 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


ih. 45m. 


2356 igi 




2484 


" 22 


12.32 P.M. . 


203 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


3h. 32m. 


4796 174 




2486 


" 22 


1.22 " 


2O3 


23-5 


143 




4h. 22m. 


5 916 162 




248g 


" 22 


2.56 " 


2O3 


22. 


133 


. . . . 


5h. 56m. 


8076; 198 




2495 


" 23 


II. 18 A.M. 


204 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


33m. 


680 


53 




2497 


23 


12.47 P.M. 


2O4 


24.0 


146 




2h. 02m. 


2 760 


73 




2499 


23 


2.OO " 


204 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


3h. I5m. 


4410 


107 




2502 


23 


3.02 " 


2O4 


24.0 


146 




4!'. I7m. 


5830 


167 




2504 


" 23 


4-47 " 


2O4 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


6h. O2m. 


8 240 


151 




2508 


24 


g.3i A.M. 


2O4 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


7h. i6m. 


g 920 


356 




2510 


24 


"43 " 


204 


23.0 


140 




gh. 28m. 


12 960 


375 




2513 


" 24 


i.og P.M. 


2O4 


21-5 


130 




loh. 54m. 


14830 


460 




2516 


24 


2.44 " 


2O5 


23.0 


140 




4im. 


882 


220 




2518 


24 


4.41 " 


205 


23-5 


143 




2h. 38m. 


3572 


330 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 

TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 



'39 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
Service Sine 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet, 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


1 Cubic Feet per 
Minute. 


Million Gallons 
per Acre per 


Date. 


Hour. 


2522 
2524 
252( 
2531 
253-4 
2537 
2539 
2543 

2547 
2550 
2556 
2560 
2563 
2588 
2598 
2602 
2607 
2609 
2610 
2611 
2612 
2613 
2614 
2615 
2616 
2617 
2618 
2619 
2620 
2621 
2622 
2623 
2624 
2625 
2626 
2627 
2629 
2631 
2(332 
2633 
2634 
2635 
2637 
2639 
2641 
2642 
2643 
2644 
2645 
2646 
2650 
2656 
2659 
2661 
2663 
2670 
2693 
2702 
2712 
2718 
2721 


1896 
April 25 
" 25 
' 25 
1 27 
' 27 
" 27-28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28-29 
" 29 
1 29 
' 29 
" 29-30 
' 30 
' 30 
' 30 
May 

Apr. 3O-May I 
May 

i 

' 2 
2 
' 2 
' 2 

4 
4 
' 4-5 
5 
5 
5 


10.15 A.M. 
12.40 P.M. 
1.44 " 
9.30 A.M. to 3.30 P.M. 
3.30 P.M. " 9.OO " 
9.30 " " 3.00A.M. 
3.00A.M. " 9.00 " 
g.OO " " 3.00 I'.M. 
3.OO P.M. " g.OO " 
g.OO " " 3.00A.M. 
3-OOA.M. " g.OO " 
g.OO " " 3.00 I'.M. 
3.OO P.M. " g.OO " 
g.OO " " 3.OOA.M. 
3.OO A.M. " g.OO " 
g.OO " " 3.00 P.M. 
3.OO P.M. " g.OO " 
12.46 A.M. 
I. 5 8 " 
2.OO " 
2.02 " 
2.04 " 
2.o6 " 
2.08 " 
2.IO " 
2.12 " 
2.14 " 
2.16 " 
2.18 " 
2.20 " 
2.22 " 
2.24 " 
2.26 " 
2.31 " 
2.41 ' 
2.56 " 
g.OO P.M. to 3-00 A.M. 
3.56 A.M. 
4.56 " 
5.56 " 
6.56 " 
7-56 " 
8.56 " 
3-OO A.M. to g.OO A.M. 
9.56 A.M. 
10.56 " 
11.56 " 
12.56 P.M. 
1.56 " 
2-43 " 
g.OO ' 
3-45 A.M. 
g.OO ' 
J2.4O P.M. 
3.00 " 
9.15 A.M. to 3.0O P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " 9.00 " 
g.OO " " 3.00A.M. 
3. 00 A.M. " g.OO " 
12.31 P.M. 

g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 


205 
205 
205 
206 
206-20; 
207 
207-208 
209 
209 
210 
2IO-2II 
2II-2I2 
212 
212-213 
213 


2O. C 
20.( 
2O. C 

21. : 

21.2 
20. t 
22.3 
21. c; 
21.8 
|20.5 

20.5 

21.3 
23.0 
20.3 

20. 6 

20.8 

20.9 

21.0 
ig.O 
24.0 
20.0 
2O. O 
20. 
2O. O 
20.0 
2O. O 
21.0 
21. 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
21. 
21.0 
21. 
21.0 
21.0 
21.4 
21.0 
21. 
21. 
21. 
21. 
21.0 
20. 6 
20.5 
2O.5 
2O. O 
21. 
21.O 
14.0 
21.5 
21.0 


) 121 
>| 121 
> 121 
129 
128 
125 
134 
133 
132 
124 

124 
I2g 
I4O 
123 
125 
126 
126 

127 
H5 
146 
125 
125 

121 
121 
121 
121 
127 
127 
127 

127 

127 
127 

127 

127 

127 
127 

129 
127 
127 
127 

127 

127 
127 

125 

124 
124 

121 
127 

127 

85 

130 
127 


... 


4h. 42m 
7h. O7m 
8h. nm 


6 29: 
917: 

10465 


23 
37! 
324 
143 
5oc 
55? 


Application of chemicals 
unsatisfactory on run 
No. 208 ; alum meter 
out of order. 

C. 

This series of results on 
run No. 215 used in 
obtaining the average 
bacteria for this run, 
but not for the day. 

Shut inlet 2.25 P.M., out- 
let 2.48 p M. 
"rom May 2-9, inclusive, 
the results of both 
single samples and 
those collected by the 
sampler were used to 
obtain the average 
bacteria for days and 
for runs. 


























547 
410 

390 

1057 
































172 
146 

95 
1 20 
76 
90 
193 
187 
243 
170 
199 
123 
144 
144 
7i 
64 

57 
86 

145 
85 
94 
IOI 

53 
107 
96 
98 

IOjj 

45 
53 
87 
1 08 

83 
in 
132 
140 
166 
158 
191 
77 
95 
140 
149 
183 
72 
56 
43 
51 
66 




















214 
214 

215 
215 

215 
215 
215 
215 
215 
215 
215 
215 
215 
215 

215 
215 

215 

215 

215 
215 
214-215 

215 

215 

215 
215 

215 

215 

215 

215 

215 
215 

215 

215 
215 
216 

217 

217 

217 

217 

217-218 
218-219 
219 
219-220 

2 2O 
2 2O 






.... 


loh. 34m. 
O2m. 
0401. 
o6m. 
oSm. 
lorn. 
I2m. 
14111. 
i6m. 
i8m. 
2om. 
22m. 
24171. 
26m. 
28m. 
30m. 
35m. 
45m. 
ih. oom. 


13 136 
12 
52 
92 
132 
182 
222 
262 
302 
352 
392 
432 

472 

512 
552 

602 

802 

I 012 

I 322 




2h. oom. 
3h. oom. 
4h. oom. 
5h. oom. 
6h. oom. 
7h. oom. 


2432 
3692 

4952 
6 182 
7442 
8662 


.... 


8h. oom. 
gh. oom. 
loh. oom. 
nh. oom. 
I2h. oom. 
I2h. 47m. 
5h. 44m. 
i8m. 
5h. 33m. 
gh. I3m. 
nh. 33m. 


9902 
n 162 
12352 
13652 
14862 
I57I2 
7 188 

364 
6744 

12374 
14244 


21. 
21 
21.7 

20.5 

20-3 
20. 6 
21.0 
20.5 


127 

127 
131 
124 

122 

124 
127 
124 
























7h. 5om. 


9769 











140 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 



Warren System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 

Filtration. 


6 

u 

fc 

d 



V 

K 
*o 

J 


Period of 

Service Since 
Last 
Washing;. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


1 

If 

ll 

U 


Million Gallons 
per Acre per 
24 Hours. 


Date. 


Hour. 


2726 

2728 
2730 
2732 
2738 
2740 
2748 
2751 
2754 
2757 
2758 
2762 
2763 
2770 
2771 
2777 
2778 
2783 
2784 

2789 
2790 

2797 
2801 
2802 
2807 
2812 
2817 
2823 
2829 
2832 
2833 
2834 
2835 
2836 

2837 
2838 
2839 
2840 
2841 
2842 
2843 
2844 
2845 
2846 
2847 
2848 
2849 
2850 
2851 
2853 
2854 
2855 
2856 
2859 
2860 
2861 
2863 
2864 
2865 
2870 
2878 


1896 
May 5 
" 6 
" 6 
6 
" 6 
" 6 
6 
" 6-7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
'.' 7-8 
8 
" 8 
8 
" 8 
" 8 
8 
" 8-9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
ii 
ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
" ii 
ii 
" ii 
" n 
ii 
ii 
" ii 
ii 
ii 

" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 


3.00 P.M. to g.OO P.M. 
12.15 A.M. 
g.OO P.M. to 3.OO A.M. 
6.OO A.M. 
12.20 P.M. 
3.OO " 
3.OO P.M. to g.OO P.M. 
g.OO " " 3.OO A.M. 
3.25 A.M. 
3.OO A.M. to 9.00 A.M. 
9 OO A.M. 
3.0O P.M. 

g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 

3.OO P.M. " g.OO " 
g.OO P.M. 

g.oo P.M. to 3.00 A.M. 

3.OO A.M. 
3.OO A.M. to g.OO A.M. 

g.oo A.M. 
g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 

3.OO P.M. 

3.00 P.M. to g.oo P.M. 

g.OO " " 3.OO A.M. 
3-OO A.M. 
3.OO A.M. to g.OO A.M. 

g.oo A.M. 

3.OO P.M. 
3.OO P.M. 

g.oo " 

9.51 ' 

9-53 ' 
9-55 
9 57 
9-59 ". 

IO.OI 

10.03 " 
10.04 " 
10.05 " 
10.07 " 
10.09 " 

IO.II " 

10.13 " 
10.15 
10.17 " 
10.19 " 
10.24 " 
10.34 ' 

io-4g ' 
11.49 ' 
I2.4g A.M. 
1-49 " 
2-49 ' 
3.00 ' 

3-49 ' 
4-49 
5-49 ' 
6-49 ' 
7-49 ' 
8.45 " 

12. OO M. 

8.44 P.M. 


22O-22I 
221 
221 
222 
222 
222 
222-223 
223 
224 
224 
224 
224 
224 
224-225 
225 
225 
225 
225-226 
226 
226 
227 
227-228 
228 
228 
228-229 
229 
229 
230 
230 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
231 
232 
233 


21. 
21. 
21. 
21. 
21.0 
20. 5 
20.7 
21.0 
22.0 
2O.g 
21. 
21.0 
21. 
21.2 
21. 
20.8 
21. 
20. 6 
21. 
20. 
24.0 
21.0 
20.g 
20.5 
21. 

20.5 
20. o 

21.0 
21. 


127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
124 
125 
127 

133 
126 

127 

127 
127 
128 
127 

126 

127 

125 
127 

121 
146 
127 
127 
124 
127 
124 
121 
127 
127 










Application of chemicals 
unsatisfactory on run 
No. 227; alum meter 
out of order. 

Shut inlet 2.53 P.M., out- 
let 3.13 P.M. 




6h. 55m. 


8 876 


69 





52m. 
7h. I2tn. 
gh. 52m. 


I 076 

8846 
12 186 


35 

IOO 

52 








96 

IOO 





nm. 


216 





5h. 46m. 
uh. 46m. 


7 226 
14790 




30 










.... 


4h. 3om. 


5836 


51 




loh. 3om. 


13 326 


167 

113 

17 





4h. 3gm. 


5674 





osm. 


IOO 
















7h. 4im. 


9545 


58 





5h. ogm. 
uh. ogm. 
6h. I2m. 
I2h. I2m. 
O2m. 
04111. 
o6m. 
o8m. 
lorn. 
I2m 
i.jiu 
I5m 
i6m 
i8m 
2om 
22m 
24m. 
26m. 
28m. 
3om. 
35m. 
45m. 
ih. oom. 
2h. oom. 
3h. oom. 
4h. oom. 
5h. oom. 
$h. nm. 
6h. oom. 
7h. oom. 
Sh. oom. 
gh. oom. 
loh. oom. 
loh. 56m. 
2h. urn. 
lorn 


6482 
14 322 
7958 
15578 
13 
43 
93 
133 
173 
213 
253 
273 
303 
343 
383 
42; 
473 
513 
553 
603 

713 
963 
I 243 

2483 
3733 
4973 
6283 

6443 
7503 
8713 
9913 
ii 183 
12433 
13683 
2790 
l6<: 


43 
49 
44 
41 
54 

IOO 

88 
7i 
49 
49 
48 
30 
33 
55 
23 
32 
47 
25 
33 
27 
33 
36 
27 

76 

48 

29 
32 
31 
32 

36 

41 

43 
42 
73 
123 
47 


21.5 

22.0 
22. 
2O-5 
21. 
21.0 
21.5 
22.0 
22.0 
21-5 
21.5 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
21. C 
20.5 
20.5 
21. C 
21. C 
31X1 
23. c 


130 
133 
133 
124 
127 
127 
130 
133 
133 

130 

130 

127 

127 

127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
' 127 
124 

124 
127 
127 

127 
140 


. . . 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



141 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


J 




V 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


v 






C 

i/i . 


_y 




i 




Number 
of 


4 

a 


is. 


d 

(4 


Period of 
Service Sine* 
Last 


.;?__. 

9 H 


3 
U u - 

ti 




1 


D 






Run. 


u . 


5 Q " 


53 


Washing. 


> rt k 




Remarks. 


7. 

Ii 


Date. 


Hour. 






U C 


=*! 

o U E 




Hours and 
Minutes. 


U?^ 

SSa 


s S 




y. 








is 

u 


S" 


1 




-JU 

E 


m 






1896 




















288c 


May 13 


2.00 A.M. 


233 


21. C 


127 




5h. 26m 


6534 


44 




2884 


13 


S.oo " 


234 


21.0 


127 




3h. sgm 


4961 


31 




2889 


13 


I.OO P.M. 


234 


21.0 


127 




8h. sgm. 


u 231 


13 




2895 


13 


7.00 " 


235 


21.5 


130 




4h. O3m. 


5 136 


n 




2899 


14 


3.OO A.M. 


236 


21.0 


127 




3h. I3m. 


3899 


10 




290. 


14 


g.OO " 


2 3 6 


21.0 


127 




gh. I3m. ii 389 


15 




290* 


14 


2.OO P.M. 


237 


22.0 


133 




ih. 47m. 2330 


18 


* 


2912 


14 


8.00 " 


237 


21.5 


130 




7h. 47m. g 940 


24 




2918 


15 


I.OO A.M. 


2 3 8 


21.0 


127 




56m. 


i 139 


52 




2922 


15 


8.00 " 


2 3 8 


21.5 


130 


. . . . 


7h. 56m. 


9759 


59 




2926 


15 


11.00 " 


2 3 8 


21.5 


130 




loh. 56m. 13 609 


47 




2930 


15 


5.09 P.M. 


239 


21.0 


127 


.... 


4h. 5&m. 6 250 


14 




2960 


15 


II. OO " 


239 


20.0 


121 




loh. 47m. 13 580 


16 




2969 


" 16 


5.OO A.M. 


240 


21.0 


127 




3h. I3m. 


3162 


25 




2980 


" 16 


IO OO " 


240 


22.5 


136 




8h. I3m. 


9362 


17 




2991 


" 16 


3-OO P.M. 


240 


21. O 


127 




I3h. 1301. 


15652 


4 




2997 


" 18 


12.00 M. 


241 


16.5 


IOO 


0.6 


i6m. 


212 


103 




3004 


" 18 


3.05 P.M. 


241 


18.0 


109 


I.O 


3h. 2im. 


3372 


53 




3007 


" 18 


6.00 " 


241 


16.5 


IOO 


1.2 


6h. i6m. 


6 212 


ig2 


D. 


3012 


" 18 


9.11 " 


242 


16.0 


97 


0.6 


I5m. 


210 


181 


3. Application of chem- 


3014 


18 


12. OO " 


242 


16.5 


IOO 


0.9 


3h. 04m. 


3040 


152 


). icals unsatisfactory 


3017 


19 


3.00 A.M. 


242 


16.0 


97 


1.3 


6h. <) (MI. 


6 no 


79 


3. on runs Nos. 242 


3020 


19 


4-57 " 


243 


16.5 


IOO 


0.6 


osm. 


33 


"7 


D. and 243; chemical 


3021 


19 


5-07 ' 


243 


16.5 


IOO 


0.6 


I5m. 


223 


127 


). meter out of order. 


3023 


19 


6.00 ' 


243 


16.5 


IOO 


0.7 


ih. o8m. 


i 183 


118 


D. 


3026 


19 


8.30 " 


243 


17-5 


106 


I.O 


3h. 38m. 


3593 


74 


D. 


3031 


19 


12. OO M. 


243 


16.5 


IOO 


1.5 


7h. o8m. 


7033 


81 


D. 


3034 


19 


3.0O P.M. 


243 


16.5 


IOO 


2.0 


loh. o8m. 


9913 


98 


D. 


3040 


19 


6.00 " 


243 


17-5 


106 


2.2 


nh. O4m. 


10 763 


58 


D. 


3045 


19 


9-03 " 


244 


16.0 


97 


0-3 


osm. 


88 


109 




3046 


19 


9-13 ' 


244 


16.0 


97 


0.6 


I5m. 


238 


185 




3048 


19 


12.00 ' 


244 


16.5 


IOO 


0.8 


3h. O2m. 


3018 


4i 




3052 


1 20 


3-OO A.M. 


244 


17-5 


106 


1.5 


6h. 02m. 


6038 


40 




3056 


' 20 


6.OO " 


244 


18.0 


109 


i.g 


8h. 42m. 


8688 


45 




3059 


' 20 


8.30 " 


244 


17-5 


106 


2.2 


nh. I2m. 


II 148 


75 




3068 


" 20 


12.00 M. 


244 


15.5 


94 


2.6 


I4h. 42m. 


14508 


116 




3071 


" 20 


3.OO P.M. 


244 


16.5 


IOO 


3-6 


I7h. 42m. 


17348 


13 




3079 


" 20 


7-35 " 


245 


15.0 


91 


0.7 


osm. 


93 


107 




3080 


' 2O 


7-45 


245 


17.0 


103 


0.6 


iSm. 


243 


78 




3081 


' 2O 


g.oo ' 


245 


16.5 


IOO 


0.8 


ih. 3om. 


i 533 


47 




3085 


1 20 


12.00 " 


245 


17-5 


106 


1.2 


4h. 3om. 


4563 


66 




3088 


' 21 


3.OO A.M. 


245 


18.0 


log 


1.4 


7h. 3om. 


7393 


57 




3092 


' 21 


6.00 " 


245 


17.0 


103 




loh. 3om. 


10263 


49 




3097 


1 21 


8.30 " 


245 


17-5 


106 


2.7 


I3h. oom. 


12513 


62 




3103 


' 21 


12.32 P.M. 


246 


16.0 


97 


0.5 


osm. 


II 


III 




3104 


' 21 


12.41 " 


246 


16.0 


97 


0-5 


1501. 


161 


2OI 




3105 


' 21 


3.00 ' 


246 


16.5 


IOO 




2h. 33m. 


2491 


52 




3111 


' 21 


6.00 ' 


246 


16.5 


IOO 


I.I 


5h. 33m. 


5431 


42 




3"4 


' 21 


9.00 " 


246 


17.0 


103 


1.5 


8h. 33m. 


10541 


I O2 




3120 


1 22 


1.48 A.M. 


247 


15-7 


91 


0.5 


osm. 


97 


52 




3121 


' 22 


1.58 


247 


18.0 


log 


0.5 


I5m. 


227 


6 7 




3122 


' 22 


3.00 ' 


247 


7-5 


106 


0.7 


ih. I7m. 


I 227 


17 




3126 


' 22 


6.00 " 


247 


7-5 


106 


I.O 


4h. 17111. 


4127 


27 




3129 


' 22 


8.30 " 


247 


7-0 


103 


1-3 


6h. 47m. 


6577 


33 




3136 


' 22 


12. OO M. 


247 


6.5 


IOO 


1.6 


loh. I7m. 


10018 


41 




3139 


' 22 


2.50 P.M. 


247 


22.0 


133 


2.0 


I3h. O7m. 


12838 


22 




3144 


' 22 


3-47 " 


248 


6.0 


97 


0.5 


o8m. 


97 


135 




3145 


' 22 


3-52 ' 


248 


6.0 


97 


0.5 


I3m. 


177 


67 




3147 


' 22 


6.00 ' 


248 


6.0 


97 


0.6 


2h. 2im. 


2237 


36 




3150 


' 22 


9.00 " 


248 


7-o 


103 


0.8 


5h. 2im. 


5267 


48 




3154 


' 22 


12. OO " 


248 


6.5 


IOO 


1.2 


8h. 2im. 


S 127 


52 





I 4 2 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


i 




s 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


E 






.c 


O 

!5 




I* 






V. 


tn i. 




Period of 


w ^ 


[j 




1 






Number 


1 


a 


a 


Service Since 
Last 


CD J3 u 


u v 




s 






of 


So! 


^"l 


v 

X 


Washing. 


J> f. V 


& s3 


Remarks. 


2 


Date. 


Hour. 


Run. 


| 

y c 


|<J 


o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


8" 


V C 




'E 








li 


iS.? 


o 






p 













u 


S 


_ 




E 


s 






1895 




















3157 


May 23 


3-OO A.M. 


2 4 8 


16.0 


97 


1.3 


nh. 2im. 


ii 017 


44 




3160 


" 23 


6.OO " 


248 


16.5 


IOO 


1.7 


I4h. 2im. 


13937 


30 




3162 


23 


8.30 " 


248 


16.0 


97 


i.g 


i6h. 5im. 16 257 


24 




3174 


1 25 


12. OO M. 


249 


ig.5 


118 


. . . . 


ih. 02m. ' i 443 


49 




3177 


25 


2.OO P.M. 


249 


19.5 


118 


i.i 


3h. O2m.j 3 61; 


21 




3181 


1 25 


6.OO " 


249 


20. o 


121 


2.O 


7h. O2m.! 8 46; 


39 




3184 


' 25 


8.00 " 


249 


20. o 


121 


2-5 


gh. O2m.] g 74; 


35 




3188 


: 25 


12. OO " 


249 


20. o 


121 


3-5 


I3h. 02m. 15 513 


46 




3191 


26 


2.OO A.M. 


249 


19.5 


118 


3-9 


I5h. o2m. 17 83; 


35 




3194 


' 26 


4.36 " 


250 


20. o 


121 


0.6 


osm. 107 


46 




3195 


' 26 


4.46 ( 


250 


20. o 


121 


0.7 


I5m 


357 


50 




3197 


" 26 


6.00 " 


250 


20. o 


121 


o.g 


ih. 2gm. 


i 777 


30 




3202 


" 26 


8.30 " 


250 


20. O 


121 


1.5 


3h. 5gm 


4707 


56 




3208 


" 26 


10.00 " 


250 


20. O 


121 


2.2 


5h. 2gm. 


6557 






3212 


" 26 


2 OO P.M. 


250 


19-5 


118 


3-o 


gh. 2gm. 


"347 


29 




3215 


" 26 


4-OO " 


250" 


20. o 


121 


3-7 


lih. 2gm. 


13727 


33 




3219 


" 26 


6.05 " 


251 


18.5 


112 


0.7 


osm. 


68 


94 




3220 


" 26 


6.15 " 


251 


ig.o 


115 


0.7 


I5m. 


228 


37 




3221 


" 26 


8 oo ' 


251 


ig.o 


"5 


i.i 


2h. oom. 


2 288 






3224 


" 26 


10.00 " 


251 


19.5 


118 


1-5 


4h. oom. 


4638 


39 




3228 


" 27 


2.00 A.M. 


251 


19.0 


115 


2.4 


8h. oom. 


gi88 


26 




3231 


27 


4.0O " 


251 


19.0 


115 


3-2 


loh. oom. 


li 488 


28 




3236 


1 27 


7.30 " 


251 


19-5 


118 


2.O 


I3h. 3om. 


I57I8 


36 




3240 


1 27 


11.51 " 


252 


19-5 


118 


0.7 


osm. 


37 


912 




3243 


1 27 


12. OI P.M. 


252 


20. o 


121 


0.7 


iSm. 


347 


23 




3245 


27 


3.OO " 


252 


ig-s 


118 


1.5 


3h. I4m. 


3727 


19 




3255 


" 27 


6.OO " 


252 


ig.5 


118 


2.1 


6h. 1401. 


7 297 


36 




3258 


" 27 


g.oo " 


252 


20. 


121 


3-0 


gh. 1.4171. 


10847 


24 




3264 


" 27 


12. OO P.M. 


252 


20.0 


121 


3-8 


I2h. I4m. 


14337 


60 




3269 


" 28 


3.09 A.M. 


253 


ig.o 


U5 


0.6 


osm. 


54 


63 




3270 


' 28 


3-ig ' 


253 


19-5 


118 


0.7 


ISm. 


234 


31 




3272 


28 


6.00 ' 


253 


'9-5 


118 


I.i 


2h. 56m. 


3374 


45 




3275 


' 28 


7-30 " 


253 


ig.5 


118 


1.3 


4h. 26m. 


5094 


90 




3279 


28 


IO.OO ' 


253 


ig.5 


nS 


1.6 


6h. 56m. 


8174 


62 




3294 


' 28 


2.32 P.M. 


254 


20.0 


121 


0.7 


ISm. 


67 


247 


D.* 


3295 


' 28 


2.32 " 


254 


2O. O 


121 


0.7 


I5m. 


77 


207 


B.* Collected from weir 


8296 


' 28 


2.42 " 


254 


2O. O 


121 


0.7 


25m. 


267 


328 


D.* box. 


3297 


' 28 


4.00 " 


254 


2O. O 


121 


0.8 


ih. 43m. 


i 827 


340 


D.* 


3305 


" 28 


8.00 " 


254 


20.0 


121 


1.3 


5h. 43m. 


6577 


185 


D.* 


3314 


" 28 


IO.20 " 


255 


20. 


121 


o-7 


28m. 


384 


312 


D.* 


3315 


28 


12.33 A.M. 


256 


19.0 


IIj 


0.6 


osm. 


45 


570 


D.* 


3324 


2g 


10.50 P.M. 


255 


20. o 


121 


0.8 


S8m. 


974 


680 


3.* Shut inlet 10. 48 P.M., 


3325 


29 


12.43 A.M. 


256 


ig-5 


118 


0.7 


ISm. 


235 


325 


D.* outlet 10.53 P-M. 


3332 


29 


2.OO " 


256 


19.0 


H5 


0.8 


ih. 32m. 


i 735 


220 


D.* 


3343 


29 


4-44 " 


257 


19-5 


118 


0.7 


ISm. 


200 


157 




3355 


1 29 


7-30 " 


257 


19.5 


118 


I.O 


3h. oim. 


3 520 


88 




3360 


29 


12. OO M. 


258 


20.0 


121 


o.g 


2h. 3im. 


2950 


8g 




3363 


2g 


2.00 P.M. 


258 


20. o 


121 


1.2 


4h. 3im. 


5 310 


139 




3367 


2g 


6.0O " 


259 


19-5 


118 


I.O 


2h. 3210. 


3070 


181 




3373 


2g 


8.00 " 


259 


19-5 


118 


1.2 


4h. 32m. 


5490 


80 




3378 


2g 


12.00 " 


260 


19-5 


118 


0.8 


ih. igm. 


i 505 


293 




3386 


' 30 


2.50 A.M. 


261 


ig-5 


118 


0.7 


lira. 




227 




3389 


1 30 


6.55 " 


262 


20. o 


121 


0.8 


i6m. 


329 


246 




3399 


' 30 


IO. IO ' 


262 


19-5 


118 


1.2 


3h. 3im. 


4219 


92 




3402 


" 30 


12.10 P.M. 


263 


20.0 


121 


o.g 


07m. 


112 


93 




3406 


June i 


I2.OO M. 


263 


21. 


127 


I.g 


6h. 57m. 


9322 


35 




3408 


" i 


3.OO P.M. 


263 


2O. O 


121 


2-5. 


gh. 57m. 


II952 


64 




3413 


" i 


6.OO " 


264 


23.0 


I4O 


o.g 


3om. 


666 


31 




3415 


i 


g.oo " 


264 


23.0 


140 


1-5 


3h. 3om. 


4806 


5 




3420 


" i 


I2.OO " 


265 


23-0 


140 


I.O 


5gm. 


I 34g 


73 




3422 


" 2 


4.00 A.M. 


266 


22.5 


136 


I.O 


35m. 


790 


III 





Prescribed amount of chemicals insufficient. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Warren System. 









Rate of 


. 




g 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


S! 




1 


y 












h 


Period of 


^c 1 


'S 

3 
(I 




h 


tft 
C I. 


jj 






Number 


S. 




d 


Service Since 


"" ~ 


i-fe 




A 

s 



Date. 


Hour. 


of 
Run. 


SJ 

""a 


Ill 


S 


Last 

Washing. 
Hours and 


Sj 


SLJ 

.s 


Remarks. 


* 








C 


JS h 


(A 


Minutes. 


V rt 3 


11 




'C 








Is 


~ o. cT 







-JU 


u 













U 


s 


J 




E 


n 






1895 




















3425 


June 2 


6.45 A.M. 


267 


23.0 


140 


o.g 


ogm. 


260 


64 




3428 


" 2 


IO.2O " 


268 


23.0 


140 


4.0 


ih. I2tn. 


1656 


67 




3431 


" 2 


11.51 " 


269 


24.0 


146 


9-7 


lorn. 


1 80 


181 




3435 


" 2 


4.30 P.M. 


271 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


22m. 


568 


121 




3440 


" 2 


6.50 " 


272 


18.0 


109 


0.7 


22m. 


325 


177 




3444 


" 2 


10.47 " 


273 


18.0 


109 


0.7 


27m. 


414 


49 




3446 


' 3 


3.30 A.M. 


274 


17.0 


103 


0.7 


37m. 


529 


81 




3450 


' 3 


6.OO '' 


274 


16.5 


IOO 


o.g 


3h. 0701. 


2 849 


57 




3453 


' 3 


g.oo " 


275 


16.5 


IOO 




ih. 42m. 


I 797 


77 




3457 


" 3 


12. OO M. 


275 


17-5 


106 


I.O 


4(1. 42m. 


4837 


69 




3459 


" 3 


2.OO P.M. 


275 


16.0 


97 


1.2 


6h. 42m. 


6797 


71 


3461 


' 3 


2.58 " 


275 


17.0 


103 


.... 


7h. 4om. 


7897 


61 Shut inlet 2.42 P.M., out- 


3462 


" 3 


4.30 ' 


276 


15-5 


94 


0.7 


ih. oom. 


944 


36 let 3.00 P.M. 


1J.67 


' ' 1 


6.00 '* 


276 


17 .O 


TO1 


1 .0 


2n. 3om. 


2 424 




J*r" / 

3471 


" 3 


g.oo " 


A j\j 
276 


17.0 


103 


1.2 


5h. 3om. 


" t^t 
5444 


38 




3475 


' 3 


10.50 " 


276 


18.5 


112 


1.2 


7h. 2om. 


7304 


66 


f 


3477 


1 3 


12.00 " 


277 


16.5 


IOO 


0.5 


osm. 


41 


28 




3480 


' 4 


12. IO A.M. 


277 


17.0 


103 


0-7 


I5m. 


2OI 


33 




3481 


' 4 


3.OO " 


277 


16.5 


IOO 


I.O 


3h. osm. 


3 IOI 


25 




3486 


' 4 


6.00 " 


277 


16.5 


IOO 


1.2 


6h. osm. 


5921 


26 




1480 


" 4 


7.OO " 


277 








7h. o5m. 


6 Q4I 


57 




JH V 

34gi 


*t 
" 4 


/ w 


*/ / 
278 








ih. ogm. 


v yf * 
I 119 


24 




3494 


" 4 


10.35 " 


278 


18.0 


log 


I.O 


2h. 44m. 


2679 


34 




3503 


" 4 


3.52 P.M. 


2 7 8 


17.0 


103 


o-7 


8h. oim. 


8 289 


36 




3504 


" 4 


5.52 " 


278 


15-5 


94 


2.9 


loh. oim." 


10 189 


39 




3508 


' 4 


8-35 " 


279 


20. o 


121 


o.g 


46m. 


884 


28 




3534 


' 4 


12. OO ' 


279 


20.0 


121 


1.5 


4h. urn. 


4924 


16 




3538 


" 5 


3.2O A.M. 


280 


19-5 


118 


0.6 


urn. 


201 


43 




3542 


" 5 


6.0O " 


280 


19.5 


118 


i.i 


2h. 5im. 


3251 


33 




3546 


" 5 


g.OO " 


280 


20.0 


121 


1-5 


5h. 5im. 


6 801 


63 




3553 


' 5 


4.OO P.M. 


28l 


23.0 


140 


1.8 


5h. 33m. 


7521 


87 




3558 


" 5 


IO.OO '' 


282 


23-0 


I4O 


1.8 


5h. 55m. 


6608 


40 




3585 


" 6 


2.27 A.M. 


283 


22.5 


136 


1-5 


3h. 27m. 


4522 


21 




3591 


" 6 


7.03 " 


283 


23.0 


140 


2.1 


8h. 03m. 


10642 


4 6 




3598 


" 6 


7-57 ' 


284 


7-5 


45 


I.I 


O2m. 


15 


31 




3599 


" 6 


. 7. 57 " 


284 








O2m. 


15 


84 




3600 


" 6 


i i ' j i 
7-59 ' 


*"t 
284 


20. o 


121 


0.8 




55 


50 




3601 


" 6 


8.01 


284 


20. o 


121 


0.8 


o6m. 


95 1 34 




3602 


" 6 


8.01 " 


284 


20 o 


121 


0.8 


o6m. 








3603 


" 6 


8.03 " 


284 


20. o 


121 


0.8 


o8m. 


135 


25 




3604 


" 6 


8.05 " 


284 


20.0 


121 


o.g 


lom. 


175 


27 




3606 


" 6 


8.07 " 


284 


25-0 


152 


o.g 


I2m. 


225 


19 




3607 


" 6 


8.09 " 


284 


25.0 


152 


0.9 


I4m. 


275 


14 




3608 


" 6 


S.n " 


284 


23.0 


140 


0.9 


i6m. 


320 


16 




3609 


6 


8.13 " 


284 


23-0 


I4O 


o.g 


i8m. 


365 


12 




3610 


" 6 


8.15 " 


284 


25.0 


152 


o.g 


2om. 




9 




3611 


" 6 


8.17 " 


284 


23.0 


140 


0.9 


22m. 


460 


23 




3612 


" 6 


8.19 " 


284 


23.0 


I4O 


o.g 


24m. 


505 


II 




3613 


" 6 


8.21 " 


284 


22.5 


136 


o.g 


26m. 


550 


8 




3614 


" 6 


8.23 " 


284 


22.C 


136 


0.9 


28m. 


595 


II 




3615 


" 6 


8.25 " 


284 


23-0 


140 


0.9 


3om. 


640 


21 




3616 


" 6 


8.27 " 


284 


23.0 


I4O 


0.9 


32m. 


685 


14 




3617 


" 6 


8.32 " 


284 


32-5 


136 


0.9 


37m. 


795 


16 




3618 


" 6 


8.42 " 


284 


23-0 


I4O 


0.9 


47m. 


i 025 


16 




3619 


" 6 


8.57 " 


284 


22.0 


133 


I.O 


ih. 02m. 


I 345 


73 




3622 


" 6 


9-55 


28 4 


23-0 


I4O 


1-3 


2h. oom. 


2645 


14 




3623 


" 6 


10-55 ' 


284 


23.0 


I4O 


i. 


3h. oom. 


3995 


27 




3626 


" 6 


n-55 ' 


284 


23.0 


140 


1.8 


4h. oom. 


5415 


25 




3627 


" 6 


12.55 P-M. 


284 


23.0 


I4O 


2.O 


5h. oom. 


6795 


21 




3628 


" 6 


1-55 " 


284 


23-5 


143 


2/2 


6h. oom. 


8 205 


36 




3631 


" 6 


2-55 " 


284 


23-5 


143 


2-4 


7h. oom. 


9595 


12 





144 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 




V . 

* 

u e 
15 S 

3 ^ 

O 


(A u 

C V 

2 a 

" u ' 
Ou 

** 
56* 

gftl 


Date. 


Hour. 


3634 
3656 

3659 
3668 

3671 
3675 
3681 
3684 
3687 
3692 
3697 
3704 
3711 
3718 
3W4 
3730 
3734 
3735 
3736 
3740 
3743 
3747 
3753 
3759 
3766 

3767 
3772 
3776 
378o 
3783 
3791 
3796 
3801 
3809 
3818 
3824 
3829 
3845 
3853 
3856 
3861 
3862 
3870 
3874 
3881 
3882 
3883 
3887 
3888 

3893 
3894 
3898 

3899 
3902 
3903 
3912 

3913 
39M 
3915 


1895 
June 6 

" 9 
9 
10 
" 10 
" 10 

" 11 
" ii 
" ii 

" 12 
" 12 
" 13 
13 
13 
13 
15 
' 15 
15 
' 15 
15 
' 15 
15 
1 16 
' 16 
16 
16 
' 17 
' 17 
' 17 
17 
" 18 
" 18 
" 18 
' 19 
19 
19 
19 
1 20 
' 20 
' 2O 
' 20 
" 2O 
" 20 
" 22 
" 22 
" 22 
" 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 22 
' 23 
1 23 

' 23 

' 23 


3.17 P.M. 
12.45 " 
5.00 ' 
II.O7 A.M. 
I.OO P.M. 
3-30 " 
IO.28 A.M. 
I.OO P.M. 
2.15 " 
3.40 ' 
IO.I8 A.M. 
2.40 P.M. 
IO.II A.M. 
12.58 P.M. 

2.53 " 
5-28 " 
g.OO A.M. 
g.OO " 
g.OO " 
IO.I2 " 
12.20 PfM. 
2.58 " 
4-30 ' 
IO.22A.M. ' 
12.55 P-M. 
3-25 " 
4-30 ' 
IO.O5 A.M. 
12.55 P-M. 
2.51 " 
4.2O " 
IO.O8 A.M. 
12.32 P.M. 
2-44 " 
9.58 " 
12.40 ' 
2.57 " 
4.26 ' 
9.26 A.M. 
II. IO " 
12.38 P.M. 
12.38 " 
3.22 " 
4.36 " 
g.OO A.M. 
9.OO " 
g.OO " 
10.08 A.M. 
10.08 " 
1. 12 P.M. 
1. 12 " 
3.00 " 
3.00 " 
4-56 " 
4.56 
IO.03 A.M. 
IO.O5 " 
IO.O7 " 
IO.O9 " 


284 
285 
286 
286 
286 
287 
287 
287 
288 
288 
288 
289 
289 
290 
290 
291 

291 
291 
292 
292 
292 
293 
293 
293 
293 
294 
294 
294 
295 
295 
295 
296 
296 
297 

297 
297 

2Q8 
298 
268 
298 
298 

299 
299 
299 
299 
299 
299 
299 
299 
299 
299 

299 
299 


20. 
23.0 
22. 5 
22.0 

21.5 
22.5 

21.5 
22.5 

22.0 
22.5 
22. 5 
22.5 
23.0 
22. 5 
23.0 
23.0 


121 
140 
136 

133 
130 
136 
130 
I 3 6 

133 
136 
136 
I 3 6 
140 
136 
140 
I4O 


1-3 
0.8 
1.2 

1.6 

0.9 

I.- 
1.8 
0.8 

I.O 

1.4 
0.8 
1. 1 

I.O 

i.^ 
0.8 


7h. 22m. 
3h. nm. 
lorn. 
2h. 43m. 
4h. 36m. 
4401. 
j'n. I2m. 
6h. 44m. 
26m. 
ih. 5im. 
4h. sgm. 
33m. 
4h. 34m. 
ih. 48m. 
3h. 43m. 
28m. 


10085 

3871 
186 
3656 
6316 
I 015 
5 705 
9245 
499 
2439 
6729 
689 
6 219 
2417 
5087 
563 


42 
171 
159 
50 
57 
40 

25 
112 

16 

16 
27 
53 
241 
log 
48 
355 
67 
216 

73 
9i 
356 
4i 
42 
35 
31 
28 

49 

57 
81 
8g 
71 
177 
43 

22 
6l 
III 

61 
61 
171 
77 
39 


Shut inlet 3.10 P.M., out- 
outlet 3.27 P.M. 

B. From usual place.* 
B. From weir box.* 
B. From filtered - water 
chamber.* 

Shut inlet 12.24 P.M. .out- 
let 12.41 P.M. 

From filtered - water 
chamber, 
[chamber. f 
B. From filtered - water 
B. From weir box.f 
B. From usual place. f 

3. From filtered - water 
chamber. 
3. From filtered - water 
chamber. [chamber. 
3. From filtered - water 
Shut inlet 10.03 A.M. 






















22.5 
23.0 
23.0 
22. 
24.0 
22-5 
23-0 
23.0 

23-5 
22.5 
22-5 
23.0 
23.5 
23-5 
23.0 
22.5 


136 
I4O 
140 

133 
146 
136 
I4O 
140 

143 
I 3 6 
136 
I4O 
143 
143 
I4O 
I 3 6 


0.9 
1.4 

O.I 

I.; 

1.4 

0.8 
i.'- 
1.8 
1.8 
0.8 

'1.2 

1.6 
0.9 

1.2 

i-7 

0.9 


ih. 42m. 
3h. som. 
5om. 
2h. 22m. 
4h. 44m. 
24m. 
2h. 54m. 
3h. 59m. 
6h. 04111. 
32m. 
2h. 28m. 
3h. 57m. 
ih. o8m. 
3h. 32m. 
$h. 44m. 
ih. 23m. 
4h. osm. 
ih. som. 
3h. igm. 
4h. 4gm. 
36m. 
2h. 04m. 


2 223 
5203 
I 130 
3240 
6 560 
439 
3969 
5479 
8449 
674 
3454 
5414 
1439 
4399 
7789 
i 737 
4662 
2315 
4495 
6999 
756 
2746 


23-0 
23.0 


I4O 
140 


I.I 
1.3 


23.0 
24.0 


I4O 
I 4 6 


0.9 

1. 1 


23-5 
24.0 


143 
I 4 6 


1-5 
1.6 


4h. 48m. 
6h. 02m. 


6536 
8256 


77 
65 
690 
78 
145 
go 
70 
61 
go 

IO2 

525 

75 
95 
49 
56 
61 
49 






















20.5 


124 




ih. o8m. 


I 508 


23.0 


I4O 


i-4 


4h. I2m. 


5738 


23-5 


143 


1.8 


6h. oom. 


8268 


23-5 


143 


2.O 


7h. 56m. 


10888 








9h. 33m. 
gh. 35m. 
9h. 37m. 
gh. 3gm. 


13138 
13 168 
13 218 
13258 


15.0 
25.0 
2O. O 


91 
152 
121 






* Collected before the filter was in operation, and after period of rest of 39 hours 30 minutes. 
| " < " " " " " ' 39 " 51 " 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'45 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Kate of 

Filtration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ServiceSinc 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


, s. 

Il 

C 

'Z~ 
a* 
O 


'- y 

_o 5. 

^ u u 

Ooa 
ijl 

!SLa 


Date. 


Hour. 


3916 

391; 
3918 

391? 
392C 
3921 

3924 
3926 
3930 

3935 
3938 
3942 
3943 
3947 
3954 
3964 
3977 
3973 
407 
408 
408 
408 
408 
4089 
4090 
409 
4092 

4093 
4094 
4095 
4096 
4097 
4098 
4099 
4104 
4ioc 
4113 


1896 
June 23 
" 23 

" 23 
' 23 
' 23 
1 23 
1 23 
1 23 
23 
1 23 
' 24 
" 24 
; 24 
24 
1 24 
; 24 
" 25 
1 25 

' 30 

' 3 
' 30 
' 30 
' 3 
' 30 
' 3 
' 3 
' 3 
' 3" 
' 30 
' 3 
' 30 
' 30 
' 3 
' 30 
1 30 
' 30 
July I 
I 
" I 
" 2 
" 2 
" 2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
" 6 
6 
" 6 
" 6 


10.11 A.M. 
10.13 " 
IO.I5 " 
10.17 " 
10.19 " 
10.21 " 
II.O9 " 
1.25 P.M. 

3-15 " 
5.00 " 

IO.I4 A.M. 
11.15 " 
II. 2O " 
12.36 " 
3-20 " 
4-45 ' 
9.40 ' 
9.40 ' 
9-30 ' 
9-30 ' 
11.27 
11.29 " 
11.32 " 

"37 ' 
11.42 ' 
11.47 " 
11.52 ' 

u-57 " 

12.02 P.M. 
I2.O7 " 
12.12 " 
12.17 " 
12.22 " 
12.38 " 
2.47 
4-25 
10 22 A.M. 
I.I5 P.M. 
3-17 " 
11.28 A.M. 
12.33 P - M - 
3-03 " 
10.10 A.M. 
II. 08 " 
1.45 P.M. 

3-45 
4-52 ' 
9-00 A.M. 
g.OO " 
g.OO " 
2.26 P.M. 
2.31 " 
2.36 ' 
241 " 
2.46 ' 
2.51 " 
2.56 ' 
3.OI " 
3.06 " 


299 
299 

299 
299 
299 
299 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
300 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 
301 

302 

302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
302 
303 
303 

304 
304 
306 
306 

37 
308 
308 

39 
310 
310 

3" 
311 

3" 
3" 
.3" 
3n 
311 

3" 
3" 


20. ( 
20. C 
20. C 
20. C 
20. C 
20. C 
22.= 
23-: 
23.C 

23. c 

23-5 


121 
121 
121 
121 
121 
121 
I 3 6 

143 
I4O 
I4O 
143 


0.8 
1.2 

1-7 
I. g 
1.9 


gh. 4im 
gh. 43m 
gh. 45m 
gh. 47m 
gh. 4gm 
gh. 5im 
2om 
2h. 36m 
4h. 26m. 
6h. nm. 
7h- 55m. 
8h. 56111. 


1329! 
I333i 
1337: 
1340! 

1343* 
1347: 
495 
SOS: 
622 = 

873S 
10 895 
12382 


! 83 
! 106 
92 
150 

72 

92 
560 
410 

58 
132 
330 

345 
275 
240 

195 


Shut outlet IO.22 A.M. 

Shut outlet 11.15 A.M. 
B. From filtered - water 
chamber. 

[outlet 9.54 A.M. 
Shut inlet 9.37 A.M., 
{B. From filtered-water 
chamber. 

B. From filtered - water 
chamber. 

[chamber.* 
i. From filtered water 
3. From usual place.* 
3. From weir box.* 








23.0 
23.0 
23.0 


140 
I4O 
140 


0.8 
1-3 
1-5 


38m. 
3h. 22m. 
4h. 47m. 
6h. I2m. 


713 

4593 
6493 
8393 








52 
82 

41 

37 
57 
51 
33 
21 
28 
28 
42 
26 
25 

50 

42 

29 
51 
62 
40 






















25- 


155 


0.8 


osm. 


57 


26.0 
26.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
24.0 

22.0 

23. c 

23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23-5 
23-5 
24.0 
23.0 
23.0 
23.0 

23-5 
22.5 
23.0 


158 
158 
140 
140 
I4O 
140 
146 

133 
140 
140 
I4O 
I4O 
140 
I4O 
I4O 
140 
143 
143 
I 4 6 
140 
140 
140 

143 

136 
140 


0.8 
0.8 
0.9 
0.9 
o.c 
0.9 
o.c 
o.c 
o.c 
o.c 
0.9 
0.9 
i.i 
0.8 
i.i 
0.6 
i.i 

0.9 

I.O 

i.i 
i.i 

I.O 

0-7 

0.8 


lorn. 
I5m. 
2om. 
25m. 
3om. 
35m. 
4om. 
45m 
5om. 
55m. 
ih. oom. 
ih. i6m. 
3h. 25m. 
37m. 
3h. o6m. 
43m. 
2h. 45m. 
nm. 
ih. i6m. 
ih. 28m. 
2h. 32m. 
3h. 30m 
ih. 42m. 
O7m. 
ih. i |in. 


217 
347 
497 
617 

727 
837 
897 
967 
1047 
i 167 
i 307 
i 667 

4657 
788 
4228 
934 
3774 
159 
i 699 
1950 

3493 
4823 

3443 
"7 
I 607 


4122 
4131 
4M7 
4151 
4156 
4164 
4167 
4186 
4196 

4'97 
4202 
4203 
4204 

4216 

4217 
4218 
4219 
4220 
4221 
4222 
4223 
4224 






49 
130 

105 
81 
57 
76 
18 
167 
178 
18 

122 

1 86 
145 

112 i 

77 
42 
42 
40 

38 
52 


















21.0 
22.0 
22.5 
22-5 
22. 5 
22.5 
22.5 
22. 5 
23.0 


127 
133 
136 
I 3 6 
136 
136 . 
I 3 6 

136 
140 


0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8 
0.8; 
0.9' 
0.9 


osm. 
torn. 
I5m. 
2om. 
25m. 
30m. 
35m. 
4om. 
45m. 


55 
135 
255 
355 
465 
565 
705 
8i5 
945 



* Collected before the filter was in operation, and after the period of rest of 63 hours and 30 minutes. 



i 4 6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


S 




O 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







C 

c/5 . 


u 

5 




s 




Number 


i 


JS. 


o 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 


if* 


*j v 








e 






of 
Run. 


u 


"" 


U 

E 


Washing. 


^j 




Remarks. 


| 








h. 2 


^ ft 




Hours and 


1 .8 


rt 






Date. 


Hour. 




3 
U C 


i i 





Minutes. 




fee 1 




c 








Is 


is.? 







i:,j(j 


0(J 













u 


I 










pa 






1896 




















4225 


July 6 


3.11 P.M. 


3" 


23.0 


140 


0.9 


5om. 


1065 


63 




4226 


" 6 


3.16 " 


3" 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


55m. 


1185 


46 




4227 


6 


3.21 " 


311 


22.5 


136 


I.O 


ih. oom. 


i 295 


36 




4228 


" 6 


3.26 " 


3" 


22.5 


136 


I.O 


ih. O5m. 


1405 


31 




4230 


" 6 


3-51 " 


3" 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. 3om. 


2005 


39 




4233 


" 6 


4.21 




23.0 


140 


I.I 


2h. oom. 


2705 


26 




4240 


6 


5-25 " 


311 


22.0 


133 


1.2 


3h. 04111. 


4175 


54 




4245 


" 7 


IO.OO A.M. 


311 


23.0 


140 


1.4 


4h. ogm. 


5685 


55 




4252 


7 


I.OO P.M. 


312 


22.5 


136 


0.8 


i8m. 


33 


112 




4255 


7 


3-00 " 


312 


23.0 


140 


i.i 


2h. i8m. 


3253 


46 




4259 


7 


5-13 " 


313 


23.O 


140 


0.8 


lorn. 


1 60 


114 




4266 


" 8 


IO.55 A.M. 


313 


23.0 


140 


i.i 


2h. 22m. 


3350 


51 




4267 


" 8 


12.35 P.M. 


314 


22.0 


133 


0.8 


o6m. 


88 


118 




4271 


8 


3-5 " 


314 


22.0 


133 


1. 1 


3h. 2im. 


4438 


47 




4274 


" 8 


5.00 ' 


315 


22. 


'33 


0.8 


14111. 


232 


62 




4279 


" 9 


IO.20 A.M. 


315 


22.5 


136 


I.O 


2h. 04m. 


2 622 


39 




4282 


9 


12. II P.M. 


315 


22.0 


133 


1.3 


3h. 55m. 


5 232 


52 




4285 


9 


I.O9 " 


316 


lg-5 


118 


0.7 


05m. 


53 


9 




4286 


9 


1.14 " 


316 


21.5 


130 


0.7 


torn. 


143 


20 




4287 


9 


I.I9 " 


316 


22. 


133 


0.8 


I5m. 


263 


55 




4288 


9 


1.24 " 


316 


22.5 


136 


0.8 


2om. 


373 


5i 




4289 


9 


1.29 ' 


316 


23.5 


143 


0.8 


25m. 


483 


74 




4290 


9 


1-34 ' 


316 


22.5 


136 


0.8 


3om. 


603 


46 




4291 


9 


1-39 


316 


22.5 


136 


0.8 


35m. 


7'3 


82 




4292 


9 


1.44 


316 


23.0 


140 


0.9 


4001. 


823 


58 




4293 


9 


1-49 ' 


316 


22.5 


136 


0.9 


45m. 


943 


39 




4294 


9 


1-54 ' 


316 


23.O 


140 


0.9 


5om. 


053 


58 




4295 


9 


1-59 " 


316 


23.0 


140 


0.9 


55m. 


173 


52 




4296 


9 


2.04 ' 


316 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


ih. oom. 


283 


24 




4297 


9 


2.09 " 


316 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


ih. osm. 


513 


64 




4298 


9 


2.24 ' 


316 


23.5 


143 


I.I 


ih. 2om. 


773 


42 




4299 


9 


2-39 ' 


316 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. 35m. 


2 113 


33 




4300 


9 


2.54 


316 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. som. 


2 553 


37 






9 


3-og ' 


316 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


2h. osm. 


2913 


79 




430ia 


9 


3-24 ' 


316 


23.O 


140 


1.2 


2h. 2om. 


3163 


45 




4305 


9 


3-39 " 


316 


22.0 


133 


1.2 


2h. 35m. 


3 513 


40 




4306 
4308 
4314 


9 
9 
10 


3-54 
4.09 ' 

11.07 A.M. 


316 
316 
317 


23.0 

19. o 

22.5 


140 

"5 
136 


1.2 
1.2 


2h. som. 
3h. 0501. 
2h. 49111. 


3943 
4183 
3693 


75 
143 
54 


Shut inlet 4-O7P.M., out- 
let 4.24 P.M. 


4317 


" 10 


I.OI P.M. 


317 


22.0 


133 


1.6 


4h. 43m. 


6283 


'37 




4320 


10 


3-10 " 


3i8 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. igm. 


i 708 


25 




4323 


" IO 


5-05 " 


318 


24.5 


149 


1-5 


3h. 1401. 


4378 


69 




4328 


" II 


IO.3I A.M. 


318 


22.5 


136 


1.8 


5h. icm. 


6988 


41 




4333 


" II 


12-59 P - M - 


319 


22-5 


136 


I.I 


ih. oim. 


i 469 


36 




4346 


" II 


3-12 " 


319 


23.0 


140 


1-5 


3h. I4m. 


4639 


43 




4367 


" 13 


IO. IO A.M. 


320 


22.5 


136 


O.I 


ih. lorn. 


i 508 


53 




4370 


" 13 


11.44 " 


320 


23.0 


140 


1.2 


2h. 44m. 


3658 


20 




4375 


" 13 


3.33 P.M. 


321 


23.0 


140 


0.8 


3om. 


639 


42 




4376 


13 


5-08 " 


321 


22-5 


136 


i.i 


2h. osm. 


2819 


140 




4396 


14 


IO.I8 A.M. 


321 


23.0 


140 


1.2 


3h. 45m. 
6h. 32m. 


5 139 
8 919 


31 
51 


Shut outlet 1.05 P.M. 


4409 
4422 


'4 

14 


I.O5 PM. 
3-21 " 


322 


22.0 


133 


I.I 


ih. 54m. 


2538 


17 




4424 


14 


4.55 " 


322 


23.0 


140 


1.4 


3h. 28m. 


4728 








4442 


" 15 


I. II 


323 


23.0 


140 


O.g 


35m. 


732 


16 




4443 


15 


2.04 ' 


323 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


ih. 28m. 


1972 


37 




4448 


15 


3.12 " 


323 


23-0 


140 


1.2 


2h. 36m. 


3562 


37 




4456 


" 16 


9-35 A.M. 


324 


22-5 


136 


O.g 


35m. 


686 


34 




4459 


16 


11.04 ' 


324 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


2h. 04m. 


2756 

5726 


15 




4469 


" 16 


T.II P.M. 


324 


23.0 


140 


I . ^ 


4 n I I Hi . 


[&\J 






4477 


" 16 


2.54 " 


325 


22.5 


136 


0.8 


jom. 


184 


17 




4478 


" 16 


2.59 ' 


325 


22.0 


133 


0.8 


I 5 m. 


273 


32 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



147 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


u 




u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


CL, 




% 


u 
3 




j 




Number 


s. 


is. 


g 


Period of 
Service Since 


u ** 


3 

U . 








g 






of 
Run. 


s . 


EC 


8 


Last 
Washing. 


&^ 


sLs 


Remarks. 










fe. ** 


<J C 




Hours and 


"D * u 


.a . 




"3 


Date. 


Hour. 




3 
U C 


fA 


" 


Minutes. 


Ssl 


o w 




1 








li 

L> 


a 


2 




E 


m 






1896 




















4479 


July 16 


3.04 P.M. 


325 


22. 


133 


0.8 


20m. 


374 


69 




4480 


" 16 


3.09 " 


325 


22.0 


133 


0.9 


25m. 


504 


47 




4481 


" 16 


3-14 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


o.c 


3Om. 


614 


33 




4482 


" 16 


3-19 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


o.c 


35m. 


724 


38 




4483 


" 16 


3.24 


325 


22.5 


136 


o.c 


4Om. 


844 


30 




4484 


" 16 


3-29 ' 


325 


22.5 


136 


o.c 


45m. 


954 


59 




4485 


" 16 


3-34 ' 


325 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


5om. 


1074 


40 




4486 


" 16 


3-39 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


55m. 


I 184 


18 




4487 


" 16 


3-44 


325 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


ih. oom. 


1304 


27 




4488 


" 16 


3-59 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


ih. I5m. 


1654 


23 




4489 


" 16 


4.14 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. 3Om. 


I 994 


II 




4490 


" 16 


4.29 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


ih. 45m. 


2344 


33 




4493 


" 16 


4-44 ' 


325 


23-0 


140 


1.2 


2h. oom. 


2694 


17 




4494 


" 16 


4-59 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


1.2 


2h. ism. 


3054 


15 




4497 


" 16 


5.14 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 


1-3 


2h. 3om. 


3394 


29 




4498 


" 16 


5.29 ' 


325 


23.0 


140 




2h. 45m. 


3744 


35 




4503 


" 17 


2-37 ' 


325 


23-5 


'43 


i-3 


3h. 46m. 


5 124 


ii 




4525 


" 18 


11.37 A.M. 


326 


22-5 


I 3 6 


O.g 


3im. 


708 


23 




4546 


" 18 


1.52 P.M. 


326 


23.0 


140 


1.2 


2h. 4601. 


3728 


23 




4563 


" 18 


5.12 " 


327 


23-5 


143 


I.I 


ih. I7m. 


1683 







4570 


" 20 


11.07 A.M. 


327 


22-5 


136 


1-4 


3h. 42m. 


4983 


22 




4575 


" 20 


1.48 P.M. 


328 


23.0 


143 


0.8 


l6m. 


305 


5 




4576 


" 20 


3-24 " 


328 


23.0 


143 


i.i 


ih. 52m. 


2515 


21 




458i 


" 2O 


5.12 " 


328 


21.5 


130 


3-6 


3h. 4om. 


4955 


48 




4603 


" 21 


11.07 A.M. 


328 


23-5 


143 


1.8 


6h. osm. 


8195 


93 




4608 


' 21 


I.I4 P.M. 


329 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


ih. urn. 


I 562 


57 




4613 


1 21 


3.19 " 


329 


23.0 


140 


1-4 


3h. i6m. 


4512 


86 




4616 


" 21 


5-10 ' 


330 


22.5 


136 


0.9 


29111. 


616 


217 




4619 


" 22 


II. O2 A.M. 


330 


23.0 


140 


i.i 


2h. 38m. 


3 626 


383 




4627 


" 22 


3-47 P.M. 


332 


23.0 


140 


o.g 


55m. 


I 236 


818 




4633 


" 22 


4.52 ' 


332 


23.0 


140 


i.i 


2h. oom. 


2756 


1055 




4637 


' 23 


II. 16 A.M. 


333 


21.0 


127 


o.g 


5om. 


939 


367 




4643 


' 23 


12.54 P-M. 


333 


23.0 


140 


I.I 


2h. 28m. 


3 109 


420 




4645 


' 2 3 


3.09 " 


334 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


44m. 


875 


916 




4649 


" 23 


4-59 ' 


335 


17.0 


103 


0.8 


I5m. 


143 


68s 




4682 


' 24 


1.32 ' 


336 


15.5 


94 


0.6 


2om. 


225 


288 




4689 


' 24 


4.20 ' 


337 


15.5 


94 


0.7 


lom. 


101 


900 




4690 


' 24 


4-30 " 


337 


16.0 


97 


0.7 


2om. 


361 


1300 




4691 


' 24 


4.40 ' 


337 


16.0 


97 


0.8 


3om. 


421 


2000 




46913 


' 24 


4-50 ' 


337 


6.0 


97 


0.8 


4Om. 


57i 


25OO 




4692 


' 24 


5.00 ' 


337 


16.5 


too 


0.9 


5om. 


731 


2200 




4695 


' 24 


5.10 ' 


337 


16.0 


97 


o.g 


ih. oom. 


891 


392 




4696 


' 24 


5-25 ' 


337 


5-5 


94 


I.O 


ih. ism. 


i 131 


1034 


Shut inlet 5. 20 P.M., out- 


1 ~O^ 


' 25 


II.O5 A.M. 


-, ., ^ 


7 O 






ih. i MIL 


i 086 




let 5.30 P.M.. 


4710 


" 25 


I.I7 P.M. 


338 


/ w 

15-0 


9' 


2.2 


3h. 3om. 


2906 


4l6 




4712 


1 25 


3-15 " 


339 


13-0 


79 


2.O 


43m. 


508 


378 




4715 


' 25 


4-43 ' 


339 


4.0 


85 


4-0 


2h. inn. 


i 698 


504 


[chamber.* 


4722 


1 27 


g.OO A.M. 














I 


3. From filtered-water 


<+ / ** 
4723 


" 27 


g.OO " 














g 


i. From usual place.* 




" 27 


9.25 " 














22 


J. From filtered-water 


4727 


" 27 


11.49 " 


341 


14-5 


88 


0.8 


3gm. 


533 


26 


chamber. 


4732 


" 27 


2.II P.M. 


341 


16.0 


97 


0.7 


3h. oim. 


2?6 3 


268 




4733 


" 27 


3.02 " 


341 


ig.o 


"5 


0.9 


3h. 52m. 


3623 


624 




4753 


" 28 


9-45 A.M. 


343 


22. 


133 


0.9 


I5m. 


226 


61 




4754 


" 28 


9-50 ' 


343 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


2(1111. 


336 


394 




4755 


" 28 


9-55 


343 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


25m. 


446 


"3 




4756 


" 28 


IO.OO ' 


343 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


30m. 


566 


36 




4758 


" 28 


10.05 " 


343 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


35m. 


696 


44 




4759 


" 28 


IO. IO " 


343 


23-5 


143 


I.O 


4om. 


816 


53 




4760 


" 28 


10.15 " 


343 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


45m. 


916 


60 





* Collected before the filter was in operation, and after a period of rest of 40 hours and 7 minutes. 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Warren System. 









Rate of 


. 




u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


u 




c 


u 




. 








t- 


Period of 


< ci 


3 




u 





V 






Number 


0. 


o w 


-d 


Service Since 


v - *j 


U ^ 




1 






of; 

Run 


X ,i 


. 


3 

V 

tC 


Last 
Washing. 


IP 


. 


Remarks. 


z 


Date. 


Hour. 




$ 


c<! " 




Hours and 


a* 


n 1 




-r 








u c 


o X 


"o 


Minutes. 


gs| 


'Ee 




jj 








Is 


= c.3 


1 




S T 


|o 




in 








u 


S 


J 




'," 








1896 




















4761 


July 28 


10.20 A.M. 


343 


23.0 


140 


I.o 


5om. 


i 046 


66 




4762 


" 28 


10.25 " 


343 


23.0 


140 


I.O 


55m. 


i 156 


78 




4763 


28 


10.30 " 


343 


23.0 


140 


.0 


ih. oom. 


i 266 


77 




4765 


" 28 


10.45 " 


343 


23.0 140 


.0 


ih. ism. 


1606 


31 




4766 


" 28 


11.00 ' 


343 


22.5 136 


.1 


ih. 3001. 


i 956 


40 




4769 


" 28 


u. 15 " 


343 


22.5 136 


.0 


ih. 45m. 


2396 


21 




4771 


" 28 


11.30 ' 


343 


22.5 


136 


.1 


2h. oom. 


2 636 


59 




4773 


" 28 


H-45 " 


343 


23-5 


143 


.2 


zh. ism. 


2986 


29 




4774 


" 28 


12. OO M. 


343 


23.5 


143 


-3 


2h. 3om. 


3336 


27 




4776 


" 28 


12.15 P.M. 


343 


23.0 


140 


-3 


2h. 45m. 


3686 


53 




4777 


" 28 


12.30 " 


343 


23.0 


140 


-3 


3h. oom. 


4046 


52 




4779 


" 28 


12.45 


343 


23.0 


140 


-4 


3h. ism. 


4376 


61 




4780 


" 28 


I.OO " 


343 


23.0 


140 


4 


3h. 3om. 


4746 


25 




4784 


" 28 


1. 15 " 


343 


23.0 


140 


-4 


3h. 45m. 


5096! 31 




4785 


" 28 


1.30 ' 


343 


22.5 


136 


. 5 


4h. oom. 


5416! 46 




4787 


" 28 


2.OO " 


343 


23.0 


140 


.6 


4h. 3om. 


6146 


14 




4789 


" 28 


2.30 " 


343 


21.0 


127 


7 


5h. oom. 


6826 


18 




4792 


" 28 


3.00 " 


343 


21.0 


127 


7 


5h. 30m. 


7476 


33 




4795 


" 28 


5.02 " 


344 


21-5 


130 


t c 


I7m. 


254 


18 




4830 


" 29 


II. IO P.M. 


344 


22.5 


136 


.1 


2h. 55m. 


4024 


51 




4844 


29 


1.25 " 


345 


22.0 


133 


. i 


ih. ism. 


i 601 


90 




4852 


29 


2.56 " 


345 


22.0 


133 


.: 


2h. 46m. 


3661 


IO 




4862 


29 


5-05 " 


345 


23.0 


140 


.6 


4h. 55m. 


6581 


58 




4869 


30 


I.I9 ' 


346 


23-5 


143 


.0 


37m. 


774 


12 




4870 


30 


3-43 


346 


23-5 


M3 


.; 


3h. oim. 


4134 


15 




4882 


31 


Il.Og A.M. 


347 


22.5 


136 


. 2 


2h. ogm. 


2874 


25 




4887 


" 31 


1.58 P.M. 


347 


22. 


136 


7 


4h. 58m. 


6764 


7 




4893 


31 


3-44 " 


347 


23-5 


143 


2.0 


6h. 44m. 


9274 


66 





Jewell System. 





1895 




















2 


Oct. 21 


IO.47 A.M. 


i 


2C o 


IOI 








76 




3 


" 21 


12^30 P.M. 


2 


my .v 






27m. 




/ w 

C2 




4 


" 21 


3.46 " 


2 


.... 







3h. 43m. 




j* 
38 




8 


" 22 


9-45 A.M. 


2 


26.0 


105 


. . . . 


4h. 28m. 


6405 


14 




9 


" 22 


11.25 " 


2 


28.0 


114 


. . . . 


oh. o8m. 


8465 


42 




13 


" 22 


1-34 P.M. 


2 


22. 


89 




8h. I7m. 


II 425 


66 




M 


" 22 


1.47 


2 


2.3-5 


95 




Sh. 3om. 


11697 


62 


Agitated surface of sand 


15 


" 22 


3-05 


3 


28.0 


H4 




i8m. 


504 


84 


layer at 1.39 P.M. 


'7 


" 22 


4.00 ' 


3 


28.0 


114 




ih. I3m. 


I IIO 


49 




20 


" 2 3 


9.28 A.M. 


3 


30.0 


122 




2h. O2m. 


2782 


no 




22 


23 


10.57 " 


3 


3O.O 


122 




3h. 3im. 


5319 


55 




24 


23 


11-53 ' 


3 


29.0 


118 


.... 


4h. 27m. 


7088 


53 




26 


23 


1.20 P.M. 


3 


29 o 


118 


. . . . 


5h. 54tn. 


9496 


56 




28 


1 23 


2.30 " 


3 


28.5 


116 




7h. O4m. 


"475 


42 




30 


23 


4.17 " 


3 


29.0 


118 


.... 


8h. sim. 


15 104 


38 




33 


' 2 3 


5.2O " 


3 








9h. 54m. 


16 81; ; 


an 




3 


24 


12.12 " 


J 

3 


29.0 


118 


.... 


loh. 52111. 


1 u W D j 
18423 


JV 

77 




40 


24 


1.30 " 


3 


29.0 


118 


.... 


I2h. lom. 


2O 710 


67 




45 


24 


4.06 


3 


29.0 


118 


.... 


I4h. 46m. 


25097 


52 




47 


24 


5-12 i' 


3 








1 5h. 52111. 


27 O22 


AQ 




49 


" 25 


9-53 A.M. 


J 

3 


30.0 


122 




loh. 32m. 


28 105 


H\J 

34 




5i 


1 25 


11.07 " 


3 


29.0 


118 




I7h. 46m. 


30324 


24 




53 


25 


12.05 P.M. 


3 


26.O 


105 


.... 


l8h. 44m. 


31 908 


28 




56 


' 25 


1.32 " 


3 


23.0 


93 




2oh. nm. 


33948 


27 




58 


1 25 


2.52 


4 


30.0 


122 


. . . . 


25m. 


786 


28 




59 


1 25 


3-30 ' 


4 


30.0 


122 


.... 


ih. 03111. 


1971 


36 




63 


25 


4-27 


4 


28.0 


114 


.... 


2h. oom. 


3 ''38 


29 




65 


" 26 


10.52 A.M. 


4 


20. o 


8l 


.... 


4!]. 141)]. 


7 H5 


10 




68 


" 26 


1.03 P.M. 


5 


26.0 


105 




ih. I3m. 


i 951 


32 




?o 


" 26 


4-35 " 


5 


25.0 


IOI 





4h. 4jm. 


5785 


12 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



149 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 



1 

E 

55 

"S 

1 
72 

78 
80 
92 

94 
95 
98 
107 
log 

110 

"4 

"7 
119 
123 

"5 
127 
129 

'47 
148 
152 
156 
170 
171 
'79 
184 
1 86 
187 
190 
192 
194 

'95 
198 
20 1 
203 
207 
209 
213 
217 
220 
225 
226 
229 
232 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 

243 
244 
245 
246 

247 
248 
2513 
2510 
252 
253 
256 
257 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 

Filtration. 


S 

ft, 

S 

V 

S3 

"3 

_1 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 

Washing-. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


S. 

l{ 

u e 

|i 

~j 


= S! 

& 

i 2 
2<J 

U I 

isu 


Date. 


Hour. 


1895 
Oct. 28 
" 29 
' 29 
" 30 
' 30 
' 30 
' 30 
' 3i 
' 31 
' 31 
Nov. I 
" I 
" I 
" 2 
" 2 
" 2 
" 2 

;; 5 
;; s 

" 7 
7 
7 
7 

" 7 
7 
7 

/ 

" 8 
" 8 
" 8 
" 8 
" 8 
" 9 
9 
9 
ii 
II 
" ii 
" 11 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 

" 13 
13 
' 13 
1 13 
13 
1 13 
1 14 
14 
14 
M 
1 '5 
'5 


10.54 A.M. 
12.05 P - M > 

1-55 " 
3-'7 ' 
3-50 " 
4.18 ' 
5-25 " 
1-43 ' 
2.38 " 
4.16 " 

1.52 " 
4.00 ' 
4-30 " 
II. O2 A.M. 
12.27 P.M 
1.23 " 
3-27 ' 
11.04 A.M. 
11.24 " 
12-54 P.M. 

3-57 " 
lO.JO A.M. 
11.20 " 
I.I3 P.M. 
1.59 " 
2.09 " 
2.18 " 
2.36 " 
.2.50 " 
3.09 " 
3-32 ' 
II .OO A.M. 
12.35 P - M - 
I. 12 " 
2.23 " 
2.46 " 
II .30 A.M. 
I . l8 P.M. 
2.27 " 
9.17 A.M. 
9.50 " 
1 1 . 06 ' 
2.50 P.M. 
IO-44 A.M 
II.O5 " 
11-35 " 
12.00 M. 
I.I5 P.M. 
3.10 " 
g.2O A.M. 
9-50 " 
IO.27 " 
11.27 " 

I. 18 P.M. 
2.52 " 
9.O2 A.M. 
9.50 " 
I2.OO M. 
3.OO P.M. 
IO.5O A.M. 
12.55 P-M. 


5 

e 

5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

10 
IO 
10 
10 
10 
10 
IO 
IO 
IO 
10 
IO 
IO 
IO 
10 
10 

II 

II 
II 








I'll, i cjtn. 
8h. 3gm 
loh. 2gm. 


8916 
10507 
12 776 
772 
I 585 
1998 
2926 

6527 
7 600 
go6i 
n 790 
600 

I35i 
4906 

7309 
8 846 
10547 
14362 
14874 
17241 
20531 

22002 
22 7&I 
25432 

59 
334 
549 
I 012 

1355 

i 852 

2439 
4878 
7077 
7845 
303 
842 

2534 
5 244 
6863 
8469 
9267 
10772 
15 681 

43 
640 
1411 
2040 

4 212 

6527 
10308 
10857 
II 764 

13 2go 

15783 
18 105 

1950S 
20482 

23763 
2390 
8 167 
11417 


40 

54 

20 
2 

4 
2 

3 
13 
16 
16 
ii 
27 
14 
17 
28 

23 
38 
520 
'38 
68 
1 02 
540 
268 
186 
182 
124 
J 34 
156 
132 

"33 
178 
192 

222 

193 
107 
226 
128 
128 

'57 

I 100 

864 

3gfc 

igf 

1356 
178 
308 
283 
260 

244 
106 
136 
106 
104 

74 
140 

172 
116 
82 
68 
92 


Sterilized filter on this day. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.38 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 11.22 A.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer from 10.42 A.M. to 
1.56 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer all day, Nov. n. 


26.0 

21.0 
24.0 
24.0 
24.O 
27.0 
22. 
16.0 

14.0 
21.0 
28.0 
28.0 
32.O 
3O.O 
2&.0 
27.0 
27.O 
27.O 
27.O 
28.0 
26.O 
24.0 
22. 
26.O 
25.O 


105 

85 

97 
97 
97 
109 
89 
65 
57 
85 
H4 
114 
130 

122 

105 
109 

109 

109 
log 
114 
105 

97 
8g 
105 
IOI 






















































































02m. 

I 2111. 

2im. 
3gm. 
53m. 
ih. 12m. 
Ih. 35m. 
2h. 2im. 
3h. 56m. 
4h. 33m. 
urn. 

34i- 

ih. 41111. 
3h. 2gm. 
4h. 38m. 
5h. 5601. 
6h. 2gm. 
7h. 45m. 

Illl. 2' IIIl. 

O2m. 
23m. 
53m. 
ih. i8m. 
2h. 33m. 
4h. 28m. 
oh. 54m. 
7h. 24m. 
8h. oim. 
gh. oim. 
loh. 52tn. 
I2h. 26m. 
I3h. ism. 
I4h. O3m. 
i6h. I3m. 
ih. 43m. 
5h. 3gm. 
7h. 44m. 


24.0 
24.0 
24.0 
25.0 
27.0 
2O. 
21 .O 
25.0 
25.0 
26.0 
29.0 
24.0 
25.O 
24.0 
24.0 
21.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25-0 
24.0 
24.0 
25-0 
23.0 
2O. O 
24-5 


97 
97 
97 

IOI 

109 

81 

85 

IOI 
IOI 

105 
118 

97 
IOI 
97 
97 
85 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 

97 

97 

IOI 

93 
81 

99 


... 


25.0 
24.0 
25.0 
24.O 
23.O 


IOI 

97 

IOI 

97 

93 






'5 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

. Jewell System. 









Rate of 


4* 




V 

Q 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


U 

hi 




Q 

v> . 


u 

15 


* 


IJ 






*- 


f *. 




Period of 


h 


a 




X 






Number 


D. 


1 - 


a 


Service Since 


V ,;; . 


U u 




O 

3 






of 
Run. 


V . 

- u 


^ " f 

o b 5 




V 

EC 


Last 

Washing. 


rt u 
> 2 u 

>2\X. 


SS 

a s 


Remarks. 


z 


Date. 


Hour. 




(L.S 

O C 


C< T 

o ^.1 


*o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


K^ 


j|.3 

V S 




1 








li 


= 5U 


| 




1-3(3 


15 




V 
V) 








u 


z 


iJ 




X 


CQ 






1895 




















258 


Nov. 15 


3.29 P.M. 


II 


22. 


89 




loh. l8m 


14961 


86 




261 


" 16 


IO.35 A. M. 


1 1 


; o 


IOI 






1 8 267 


116 




261 


" 16 


I2.OO M. 


II 


f, 3 . \j 
2*, O 


IOI 






20 ^Sj. 


112 




*v^ 
ofij. 


" 16 


32-1 p M 


II 


*3* 


IOI 






f.\j 3<J^ 


146 




V<| 

oft? 


" 18 


. ft J *r . Hi . 

9.4! A.M. 


II 


25 .O 


IOI 






28 IT? 


276 




* / 
268 


" 18 


I I.OO *' 


II 


24. 


07 






* * j / 

SO T2J 


/** 

1 68 




260 


" 18 


12-35 P.M. 


1 1 


C| . w 

24 O 


y / 

O7 






JW 1 f.t\ 

32 ^2C 


116 




4uy 

27O 


" 18 


3nc " 


II 


*t ' w 
2^ O 


y / 

IOI 






J* J^y 

^6 118 


08 




*/** 

27-3 


" TQ 


U D 
9.30 A.M. 


II 


3** 

24. 5 


oo 






j v * j 1 -' 

27 271 


y u 
^18 




*/ J 
27/1 


*y 
41 IQ 


10. 20 " 


II 


24. o 


yy 

Q7 






j I ** / * 
38 JOT 


J AU 

TfiS 




mfq 

277 


x V 
1 2O 


12.31 P.M. 


12 


25.0 


y / 

IOI 




2im 


jw n v j - 

412 304 




278 


" 2O 


12.51 " 


12 


25-0 


IOI 




4im 


984 294 




279 


" 20 


1.05 " 


12 


25.0 


IOI 


... 


55m 


i 276 


54 




280 


" 20 


1. 2O ' 


12 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. xom. 


1 714 


68 




281 


" 20 


2.30 " 


12 


25.0 


IOI 




2h. 2om. 


1 909 


49 




284 


" 21 


9-22 A.M. 


12 


24.5 


99 


.... 


4h. oim. 


6 117 


142 




285 


" 21 


IO. IO " 


12 


24.0 


97 




4h. 49111. 


7237 


72 




286 


" 21 


I2.O3 P-M. 


12 


25.0 


IOI 




6h. 42m. 


10061 


76 




287 


' 21 


2.00 " 


12 


25.0 


IOI 


.... 


8h. 39m. 


13072 


50 




290 


' 22 


2.22 " 


12 


24.0 


97 




lib. o6m. 


16687 


90 




291 


' 22 


3-32 " 


12 


25.0 


IOI 


.... 


I2h. i6m. 


18487 


36 




294 


23 


g.2I A.M. 


12 


26.0 


105 


.... 


I2h. 32m. 


I933I 


394 




295 


23 


10.24 " 


12 


26.0 


105 




I3h. 35m. 


21 046 


44 




296 


23 


I.I5 P.M. 


12 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


i6h. i8m. 


24837 


58 




299 


" 2 3 


3-40 " 


12 


20.0 


81 




i8h. 26m. 


27 4O2 


77 




301 


" 25 


9-45 A.M. 


12 


19- 5 


79 


.... 


l8h. 43m. 


28 O02 


378 




35 


25 


IO.4O ' 


12 


20.0 


81 




igh. 38m. 


28 927 


420 




37 


1 25 


11.45 A.M. 


13 


25.0 


IOI 




O7m. 


175 


440 




308 


1 25 


n-55 " 


13 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


I7m. 


413 


368 




39 


25 


I2.O5 P-M. 


13 


24-5 


99 


. . . . 


27m. 


622 


364 




310 


1 25 


12.15 " 


13 


24.0 


97 




37m. 


848 


39 




312 


1 25 


1-35 " 


13 


24.0 


97 


.... 


ih. 57m. 


2605 


366 




3M 


1 25 


3.20 " 


13 


26.0 


105 




3h. 42m. 


5356 


484 




320 


26 


g.22 A.M. 


13 


27.0 


109 


. . . . 


4h. o8m. 


6460 


748 




321 


26 


10.15 " 


13 


25.0 


IOI 




5h. oim. 


7474 


5" 




323 


26 


11.27 " 


13 


24.0 


97 




6h. 13111. 


9204 


664 


i 


325 


' 26 


1.48 P.M. 


13 


24.0 


97 




8h 34m. 


12 664 


394 




328 


' 26 


3-IS " 


13 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


loh. oim. 


14633 


386 




33i 


' 27 


9-20 A.M. 


13 


25.0 


IOI 




loh. 3601. 


15617 


754 




333 


1 27 


IO. 16 " 


13 


26.0 


105 




nh. 32m. 


17078 


875 




337 


1 27 


"45 " 


13 


25.5 


103 


.... 


I3h. oim 


19333 


1358 




339 


1 27 


1.33 P.M. 


13 


23.5 


95 




I4h. 49m. 


22034 


972 




512 


** 27 


312 " 


M 








i6h. 28m. 


2d 2^Q 


7OJ 




J'l* 

345 


* / 

29 


** 

g.14 A.M. 


* j 
13 


25.0 


IOI 


... 


i6h. 48m. 


*t *ov 

24652 


/ *T 
2280 




346 


1 29 


9-45 " 


13 


24.0 


97 


... 


I7h. igm. 


25407 


665 


Agitated surface of sand 


353 


1 29 


10.51 


13 


21.0 


85 


... 


i8h. 25m. 


26945 


343 


layer from 9.28 A.M. to 


355 


29 


I2.OI P.M. 


13 


22. O 


89 


. . . 


igh. 35m. 


28587 


444 


9.43 A.M. 


357 


29 


1-47 " 


13 


24.0 


97 


... 


2lh. 2im. 


30880 


328 




362 


30 


9.48 A.M. 


14 


24.0 


97 


. . . 


I2m. 


217 


700 




363 


3 


9-58 " 


14 


24.0 


97 


. . - 


22m. 


5" 


553 




364 


30 


10.08 


14 


24-0 


97 


... 


32m. 


712 


540 




365 


" 30 


IO.I8 " 


14 


24.0 


97 


... 


42m. 


990 


528 




366 


' 30 


10.28 " 


14 


24.0 


97 




52m. 


i 233 


560 




367 


1 30 


10.38 " 


14 


24.5 


99 


... 


ih. 02m. 


1368 


546 




369 


' 30 


n-43 


M 


26.0 


105 




2h. O7m. 


3 H2 


658 




3?r 


" 30 


1.32 P.M. 


14 


24.0 


97 




3h. 56m. 


5808] 834 




375 


Dec. 2 


9.42 A.M. 


14 


25.0 


IOI 




8h. 3501. 


12213 


448 




377 


" 2 


10.43 " 


14 


25.0 


IOI 




gh. 26m. 


13684 


322 




380 


" 2 


12.29 P- M - 


14 


24.0 


97 


... 


nh. I2tn. 


16273 


376 




382 


" 2 


2.32 " 


M 


24.0 


97 




I3h. ism. 


19 148 


294 




386 


" 3 


10.31 A.M. 


14 


25.0 


IOI 




I5h. osm. 


21 9OI 


392 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



IS 1 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 









Rate of 






8 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


k. 




c 


O 

3 




l 






u 


1/1 




Period of 


u ^ 


3 




K 






Number 


0. 


J a 


"2 


Service Since 


"15 ~ 


U 




a 






of 


M 


*S v *> 


tt 


Last 


bS'" V 


w S 


Remarks. 


3 






Run. 


V * 

<U it 


O u 3 


ffi 


Washing. 


K?^ 


o. *> 
















IM 


Hours and 


O ^ y 


~" 







Date. 


Hour. 




C 


5 I 


O 


Minutes. 


w S 


j C 




fl 

(fl 








^ii 

U 


ist? 

M 


i 







1* 






1895 




















388 


Dec. 3 


11.37 A.M. 


14 


24.0 


97 




i6h. nm. 


23537 


350 




390 


" 3 


12.55 P.M. 


14 


22. 


89 




I7h. 2gm. 


25437 


322 




393 


3 


2.15 " 


14 


22. ( 


89 


. . . . 


i8h. 4gm. 


27 206 


385 


Agitated surface of sand 


411 


4 


3.07 


14 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


2oh. 02m. 


2g 122 


372 


layer at 1.32 P.M. 


414 


" 4 


4-37 


14 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


2ih. 32m. 


31 35" 


290 




420 


" 5 


g.47 A.M. 


'4 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


23h. ogm. 


33716 


264 




422 


5 


10.38 ' 


14 


23.0 


93 




24h. oom. 


34829 


150 




425 


' 5 


11.47 ' 


14 


21.0 


85 




25h. ogm. 


36313 


232 


Agitated surface of sand 


427 


' 5 


2.40 P.M. 


15 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


lorn. 


271 


270 


layer at 12.23 p .M- 


429 


5 


2.5O " 


15 


24.0 


97 


. ... 


2om. 


502 


244 




430 


5 


3.OO " 


15 


25.0 


IOI 




3om. 


761 


192 




43 r 


' 5 


3.10 " 


15 


26.O 


105 




4Om. 


I 02j 


298 




432 


5 


3-2O " 


15 


24.0 


97 




5om. 


I 248 


280 




433 


5 


3 30 " 


15 


24.0 


97 




ih. oom. 


I 482 


368 




436 


5 


3.46 


15 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. i6m. 


1856 


156 




438 


6 


IO 04 A.M. 


15 


26.0 


105 


... 


ih. 43m. 


2 692 


240 




442 


' 6 


11.27 " 


15 


24.0 


IOI 




3h o6m. 


4827 


194 




449 


6 


1.36 P.M. 


15 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


5h. I5m. 


8 029 


296 




452 


' 6 


3-45 " 


15 


22. 


89 




7h. 24m. 


II 206 


236 




453 


' 7 


g.25 A.M. 


15 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


gh. 2gm. 


14 124 


274 




455 


7 


12.24 P.M. 


15 


23.0 


93 




I2h. 28m. 


18442 


124 




458 


7 


12.55 " 


15 


24.0 


97 




I4h. 4gm. 


21438 


864 


Agitated surface of sand 


461 


9 


10.05 A.M. 


15 


22.0 


8g 




i8h. nm. 


26096 


160 


layer at 2.47 P.M. 


465 


9 


II.I8 " 


15 


22.0 


89 


. . . . 


igh. 22m. 


27655 


144 




467 


' 9 


12. 2O P.M. 


15 


23.O 


93 




2Oh. ism. 


28825 


ig2 


Agitated surface of sand 


468 


' 9 


1.48 " 


15 


21. O 


85 




2lh. 43m. 


30 683 


164 


layer at 11.47 A.M. 


472 


9 


3.38 " 


15 


21. 


85 


. . . . 


23h. 26m. 


32836 


172 


Agitated surface of sand 


478 


10 


10.40 A.M. 


16 


24.0 


97 




i.pn. 


592 


224 


layer at 3.14 P.M. 


479 


' IO 


10.50 " 


16 


24.0 


97 




24m. 


796 


176 




480 


' IO 


II. OO ' 


16 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


34m. 


I 092 


214 




481 


' IO 


II. IO " 


16 


24.0 


97 




44m. 


I 313 


168 




482 


' IO 


II. 2O " 


16 


24.0 


97 






I 543 


304 




483 


' 10 


11.30 " 


16 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


ih. O4m. 


i 755 


194 




490 


' 10 


2.O7 P.M. 


16 


25.0 


IOI 




3h. 4im. 


4498 


268 




494 


' 10 


3-30 " 


16 


24.0 


97 




5h. 04tn. 


6 605 


238 




497 


' II 


II.08 A.M. 


16 


28.0 


114 


. . . . 


7h. 35m. 


10370 


196 




499 


' II 


12.14 P.M. 


16 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


8h. 4im. 


12 157 


224 




503 


II 


1.24 " 


16 


25.0 


IOI 




gh. 5im. 


13442 


196 




5.36 


' II 


3-n 


16 


24.0 


97 




Ilh. 38m. 


16532 


190 




508 


' 12 


9.36 A.M. 


16 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


I4h. i6m. 


20339 


142 




510 


' 12 


12.00 M. 


16 


23.0 


93 




i6h. 4om. 


23 717 


130 




512 


" 12 


3.0O P.M. 


16 


22.0 


8g 





igh. 4om. 


27717 


176 


Agitated surface of sand 


517 


" 13 


10.52 A.M. 


16 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


22h. 40m. 


31 749 


135 


layer at 4.28 P.M. 


519 


13 


I.5O P.M. 


16 


2O. O 


81 




'26h. l8m. 


36428 


116 




522 


13 


4.44 P.M. 


17 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


3om. 


530 


127 




524 


" M 


10.05 A.M. 


17 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. 4201. 


3 ooi 


103 




526 


14 


12.55 P-M. 


17 


21. O 


85 


. . . . 


4h. 32m. 


7195 


136 




529 


14 


3.08 " 


17 


24.O 


97 




6h. 45m. 


10413 


164 




533 


16 


g.25 A.M. 


17 


25.0 


IOI 




gh. I4m. 


14 128 


148 




535 


' 16 


11.32 " 


17 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


nh. 2lm. 


17 561 


150 




539 


' 16 


2.40 P.M. 


17 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


I4h. 2gm. 


22 125 


1 86 


. 


510 


16 


5-15 " 


17 


21. 


85 




I7h. 04m. 


25 508 


90 




544 


' 17 


g-48 A.M. 


17 


2O. 


81 


. . . . 


I7h. 2gm. 


26osg 


93 




545 


' 17 


12.52 P.M. 


18 


20.0 


81 




24m. 


724 


88 




549 


17 


3-30 " 


18 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


3h. 02m. 


4501 


148 




550 


' 17 


4.31 


18 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


4h. 03111. 


6061 


164 




553 


' 18 


9.16 A.M. 


18 


25.0 


IOI 




5h. 07m. 


7684 


168 




555 


" 18 


10.35 " 


18 


24.0 


97 




6h. 26m. 


9650 


1 68 




557 


" 18 


1.05 P.M. 


18 


22.0 


89 


. . . . 


8h. 56m. 


13038 


97 




566 


" 18 


3-31 


18 


16.0 


65 




nh. 22m. 


15928 


130 




567 


" 18 


4-34 ' 


18 


18.0 


73 





I2h. 25m. 


16933 


go 





WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 







Rate of 


1 




V 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


B 

V 




c 


.H 




. 








(L, 


Period of 


?$ 


3 
(J 




w 


V. b. 


s 






Number 


s, 


C a> 

o a 


-a 

rt 


Service Since 
Last 


1) c . 
*: V 


. u 
4J V 




a 






of ' qj . 


age 


4> 


Washing. 





Q.S 


Remarks. 


1 


Date. 


Hour. 


Run. 


V V 

fc-D 
U C 


o o 3 
irl 

^.I 


EC 
O 


Hours and 

Minutes. 


fi* 

CP- u 

Ea 


,s.i 

ij a 




rt 

n 








Is 


v 

~ CL tt 


i 




v re 3 
iJU 


13 




y> 








u 


S 


j 




E 


m 






1895 




















571 


Dec. 19 


9.45 A.M. 


18 


18.0 


73 




I3h. 3001 


18 114 


116 


Agitated surface of sand 


572 


" 19 


11.48 


18 


18.0 


73 




I5h. 33 


20 187 


53 


layer at g.is A.M. 


573 


" 19 


I2.5O P.M. 


19 


25.0 


101 




lorn 


257 


46 




574 


19 


I.OO " 


19 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


2om 


508 


35 




575 


" 19 


1. 10 " 


19 


25.0 


IOI 




3om 


646 


45 




576 


" 19 


1 . 20 " 


19 


25.0 


IOI 





4om 


ggi 


56 




577 


19 


1.30 " 


19 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


5om 


I33i 


7i 




578 


19 


1.40 ' 


19 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. oom 


M99 


93 




579 


19 


3.19 " 


19 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


2h. 3gm 


3841 


98 




58i 


" 19 


4.32 ' 


19 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


3h. 52m 


5444 


85 




585 


20 


9.36 A.M. 


19 


25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


5h. 03m 


7286 


94 




586 


" 20 


10.01 " 


19 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


5h. 28m 


7887 


85 




590 


" 20 


12.02 P.M. 


19 


24.0 


97 




7h. 2gm 


10 798 


84 




592 


" 2O 


2.O7 " 


19 


24.0 


97 




gh. 34m 


13 628 


144 




595 


" 2O 


3-59 " 


19 


20.0 


81 




Ilh. 26m 


16083 


9' 




598 


" 21 


9.26 A.M. 


19 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


I3h. ism 


18234 


124 


Agitated surface of sand 


599 


" 21 


3-57 P.M. 


20 


22.0 


89 




2h. 58m 


4358 


1 02 


layer at 8.49 A.M. 


604 


21 


9.24 A.M. 


20 


25.0 


IOI 




4h. 4om 


7 oio 


Si 




605 


" 21 


IO.26 " 


20 


24.0 


97 




5h. 42m 


8486 


24 




6n 


" 21 


12.30 P.M. 


20 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


7h. 46m 


ii 366 


62 




615 


" 21 


3-28 " 


2O 


22.0 


89 


. . . . 


loh. 44tn 


15400 


108 




620 


" 24 


9.36 A.M. 


2O |23.O 


93 




I3h. o8m. 


18366 


70 


Agitated surface of sand 


626 


24 


12.37 P.M. 


20 


20. 


Si 


. . . . 


i6h. ogm 


21 g8o 


92 


layer at 9.03 A.M. 


630 


24 


3-l8 " 


21 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


ih. 42m. 


2319 


7 




636 


" 26 


IO.O2 A.M. 


21 [25.0 


IOI 


. . . . 


4h. 45m. 


6766 


98 




641 


" 26 


12.10 P.M. 


21 23.0 


93 




6h. 41111 


9 4S6 


97 




646 


" 26 


3-59 " 


21 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


loh. 3om. 


14799 


468 




652 


" 27 


10.29 A.M. 


21 


2O. O 


81 




I3h. 25m. 


18641 


664 


Agitated surface of sand 


658 


27 


1.57 P.M. 


22 


24.O 


97 




i8m. 


422 


235 


layer at 12.02 P.M. 


659 


.. 27 


2 26 ' 


22 


25.0 


IOI 




47m. 


I 112 


336 




664 


" 27 


3-31 " 


22 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. 52m. 


2737 


346 




670 


" 27 


4.52 


22 


25.0 


IOI 


.... 


3h. I3m. 


4745 


468 




675 


" 28 


IO.O2 A.M. 


22 


25.0 


IOI 


.... 


4h. sgm. 


73" 


855 




68 1 


" 28 


11.51 " 


22 


24.0 


97 


.... 


6h. 48m. 


g go6 


882 




685 


" 28 


3.15 P.M. 


22 


21.0 


85 




9h. 53m- 


13914 


702 


Agitated surface of sand 


689 


" 30 


9-54 A.M. 


23 


25.0 


IOI 




I7m. 


414 


126 


layer at 1.14 P.M. 


690 


: 30 


10.24 


23 


23.O 


93 


. . . . 


47m. 


I 145 302 




693 


' 3 


1 1 . 09 " 


23 


24.0 


97 




ih. 32m. 


2 igl 880 




698 


1 3<> 


1.48 P.M. 


23 


25.0 


101 


. . . . 


.|ll. Mill- 


6 020 144 




704 


1 3 


4.48 " 


23 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


Til. 02m. 


9601 102 


Agitated surface of sand 


712 


1 31 


10.54 A.M. 


24 


25-0 


101 




I5m. 


380 


83 


layer at 4.04 P.M. and 


715 


' 31 


1 1 . 24 " 


24 


25-5 


IOI 




45m. 


2035 


55 


Dec. 31, 9.49 A.M. 


719 


" 31 


2.IO P.M. 


24 


24.0 


97 




3h. 3rm. 


4934 


560 


Agitated surface of sand 




1896 


















layer at 2.38 P.M. and 


724 


Jan. 2 


9.04 A.M. 


25 


24.0 


97 




22m. 


280 


140 


Jan. I, 3.2610 3.34 P.M. 


725 


" 2 


9.27 " 


25 


25.0 


IOI 




45m 


825 


152 




733 


" 2 


II 33 


25 


25-0 


IOI 




2h. 47m. 


3500 


2go 


Agitated surface of sand 


739 


" 2 


2.35 P.M. 


25 


14-0 57 




5h. 4gm. 


7 280 


560 


layer at 11.16 A.M. 


742 


" 2 


3-59 " 


26 


25.0 


IOI 




I5m. 


273 


184 




744 


2 


4.14 


26 


23.0 


93 




3001. 


713 


240 




750 


" 3 


10.30 A.M. 


26 


21. 


85 




3h. 25m. 


4623 


254 




756 


3 


2 05 P.M. 


26 


22.0 


89 




6h. 48m 


8803 


432 


Agitated surface of sand 


761 


4 


10.57 A.M. 


27 


24.0 


97 




i8m. 


425 


364 


layer at 12.02 p M. 


764 


4 


11.48 


27 


23-5 


95 




ih. ogm. 


i 547 


368 




771 


4 


2 22 P.M. 


27 


20. 


81 




3h. 43m. 


4997 


438 




811 


9 


10.30 A.M. 


28 


25.O 


IOI 




ih. 2om. 


2014 


2IO 


Sterilized filter Jan. 8. 


817 


9 


1.56 P.M. 


28 


23-5 


95 




4h. 46m. 


6914 


248 


[outlet 11.44 A.M. 


822 


10 


11-35 A.M. 


28 


I6. 5 


67 




loh. 37m. 


14050 


152 


Shut inlet 11.32 A.M., 


825 


" 10 


12.56 P.M. 


29 


25.0 


IOI 




46m. 


I 000 


1 66 


[P.M. 


829 


" 10 


1.52 " 


29 


25-0 


IOI 




ih. 42m. 


2 420 


288 


[from 8.52 A.M. to 12.20 


839 


" II 


11.35 A.M. 


29 


22. 


89 




7h. oim. 


1 705 


152 


Agitated surface of S.L. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'53 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewel! System. 









Rate of 


j 




u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


i! 




c 


U 












t 


Period of 


f ti 


15 

3 




- 


If. V. 


V 






Number 


0. 


o a 


o 


ServiceSince 


v . 


u 




1 






of 
Run. 


3^ 


3b| 


8 

K 


Last 

Washing. 
Hours and 


IJf 


% 3 


Remarks. 


2 


Date. 


Hour. 




3 
O C 


is 


*o 


Minutes. 


" * 


'u ^ 




* 








Is 


i 8.? 


i 




5d5 


la 




</! 








u 


s 


3 




tL. 


m 






1896 




















84 1 


Jan. 13 


9.59 A.M. 


30 


24.0 


97 




I5m. 


344 


104 


Agitated surface of sand 


842 


13 


10.38 " 


30 


25.0 


101 




54m. 


I 318 


I 7 6 


layer from 9.44 A.M. to 


845 


13 


1.58 P.M. 


30 


25.0 


101 




4 ti 14m. 


6236 


290 


5.40 P.M. 


848 


13 


4.IO " 


30 


25.0 


101 




6h. 26m. 


94" 


204 




855 


14 


11.52 A.M. 


30 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


loh. 57m. 15 722 


160 


Agitated surface of sand 


860 


14 


2.05 P.M. 


30 


23.0 93 




13)1. lom. 18 8ig 


168 


layer from 8.54 A.M. to 


866 


14 


3.16 " 


30 


19-0 77 


.... 


I4h. 2im. 20 364 


140 


9-57 A.M. 


868 


" 15 


g.49 A.M. 


31 


24.0 97 




I5m. 


346 


148 




86g 


15 


10. ig ' 


31 


24-0 g7 




45m. 


987 


116 




872 


15 


10.44 " 


31 


24.0 97 


.... 


ih. lom. 


I 574 


168 




878 


15 


12.56 P.M. 


31 


24.0 g7 


.... 


3h. 22m. 


4671 


226 




882 


15 


3.07 " 


31 


24.0 97 


.... 


5h. 33m. 


7658 


124 




888 


" 16 


10.52 A.M. 


31 


24.0 97 


.... 


gh. 43m. 


13 626 


I2O 




893 


" 16 


I.O5 P.M. 


31 


24.0 97 




lib. 56m. 


16746 


194 




goo 


" 16 


3-05 " 


31 


23.0 93 


.... 


I3h. 56m. 


19626 


230 


Agitated surface of sand 


912 


" 17 


11.23 A.M. 


32 


21.0 85 




0501. 


102 


430 


layer Jan. 17, 10.03 


913 


17 


11.28 " 


32 


24.0 97 




lotn. 


222 


218 


A.M. 


916 


17 


11.38 " 


32 


25.0 101 




2om. 


462 


174 




917 


17 


".48 " 


32 


23-5 95 


.... 


3om. 


672 


240 




918 


17 


".58 " 


32 


24.0 97 


.... 


4Om. 


9O2 


292 





921 


17 


12 08 P.M. 


32 


23-5; 95 


.... 


5om. 


I 172 


194 




922 


17 


I2.I8 " 


32 


23-5 95 




ih. oom. 


1372 


272 




925 


17 


1. 06 " 


32 


23.0 9 3 


.... 


ih. 48m. 


2 532 


290 




930 


17 


2.07 " 


32 


24.0 g7 




2h. 4gm. 


3952 


332 




932 


17 


3.00 ' 


32 


23.0 93 




3h. 42m. 


5 192 


*i86 




936 


17 


4.OO " 


32 


24.0 97 




4)1. 42m. 


6 602 


232 




942 


17 


5-03 " 


32 


24.0 97 




5h. 45m. 


8 142 


298 




949 


" 18 


10.12 A.M. 


32 


23.0 93 




7h. 3gm. 


IOg22 


188 




953 


" 18 


i.ig P.M. 


32 


23-5 


95 




loh. 46m. 


15342 


180 




g6o 


11 18 


2.44 " 


32 


24.5 


99 




I2h. urn. 


17342 


198 




9 6 3 


" 20 


g-45 A.M. 


33 


22.5 


91 




07m. 


1 60 


306 




9 6 4 


" 20 


IO.OO ' 


33 


25.0 


101 




22m. 


470 


286 




9 6 5 


" 20 


10.23 " 


33 


24.0 


97 




4501. 


1 OIO 


282 




974 


" 20 


4.18 P.M. 


33 


24.0 


97 




6h. 4om. 


g48o 


44 


[layer at 1.39 P.M. 


979 


" 21 


11.32 A.M. 


33 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


loh. 24m. 


14 830 


168 


Agitated surface of sand 


g86 


" 21 


4.2O P.M. 


33 


23-5 


95 




I5h. I2m. 


21 580 


173 


Agitated surface of sand 


992 


" 22 


g.26 A.M. 


33 


23-5 


95 




i6h. 58m. 


24052 


103 


layer at 4.30 P.M. 


998 


" 22 . 


2.21 P.M. 


33 


23.5 


95 




2ih. 5301. 


30 700 


106 




1002 


" 23 


10. II A.M. 


34 


23-5 


95 




36m. 


824 


88 




1008 


' 23 


3-45 P-M. 


34 


24.0 


97 




6h. lom. 


8724 


318 




IOI3 


' 24 


10.15 A.M. 


34 


23-5 


95 




gh. 14m. 


I2gg4 


1 60 




1015 


24 


1.47 P.M. 


34 


23-5 


95 




I2h. 46m. 


18027 


124 




1022 


' 25 


9.58 A.M. 


34 


23.0 


93 




I7h. lom. 


24097 


128 Agitated surface of sand 


1025 


' 25 


2.15 P.M. 


35 


25.0 


101 




25m. 


266 


106 


layer at 9.00 A.M., and 


1034 


' 27 


IO. IO A.M. 


35 


25.0 


101 




4h. 5im. 


7186 


688 


from 9.07 A.M. to 11.32 


1040 


27 


I.og P.M. 


35 


25.0 


101 




7h. sorn. 


II 266 


i 196 


A.M. 


1045 


27 


4.15 " 


35 


23.0 


93 




loh. 52m. 


15426 


952 


Agitated surface of sand 


1051 


" 28 


9.15 A.M. 


35 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


I3h. lom. 


18906 


500 


layer at 3.10 P.M. 


1054 


" 28 


I.OO P.M. 


36 


23.0 


93 




ih. I2tn. 


I 7'3 


2 500 


[layer at 3.42 P.M. 


1060 


" 28 


4-35 " 


36 


24.0 


97 




4h. 34m. 


6463 


i 600 Agitated surface of sand 


1066 


" 2g 


10.14 A.M. 


36 


23-5 


95 




6h. oim. 


8583 


3 016 Agitated surface of sand 


1069 


" 29 


2.O4 P.M. 


37 


23.0 


93 




in. 24m. 


2024 


i 620 


layer at 11.43 A.M. 


1070 


29 


5.04 " 


37 


23-5 


95 




4h. 24m. 


6 174 


675 




1075 


' 30 


11.03 A.M. 


37 


24.0 


97 




7h. 1301. 


10194 


876 


Agitated surface of sand 


1077 


' 30 


I.O5 P.M. 


37 


23-5 


95 




gh. ism. 


13094 


780 


layer at lo.og A.M. 


1 080 


' 30 


2.56 " 


37 


21.0 


85 


. . . . 


Iih. o6m. 


15534 


804 




1084 


' 31 


10.55 A.M. 


38 


24.0 


97 




3h. 3om.| 5 ooi 


811 


Agitated surface of sand 


1089 


' 31 


2.36 P.M. 


38 


2O. O 


Si 


. . . . 


7h. nm.' 10031 


gio 


layer at 11.29 A.M. 


"37 


Feb. 5 


10.22 A.M. 


39 


25.0 


101 




27m. 


834 


612 




1141 


" 5 


II-50 " 


39 


24.0 


97 


. . . . 


ih. 55m. 


2924 


468 




"45 


" 5 


3.O8 P.M. 


39 


22 To 


89 




5h. I3m. 7 534 


600 





'54 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewel! System. 









Rate of 


j 




u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 






c 


o 




i; 






5 


in u 




Period of 


*- cf 


D 




V 






Number 


0. 


c a 


a 


serviceSince 


2i'S j 


u 




E 
3 






of 
Run. 


Sj 


? gz: 




X 


I-ast 
Washing. 


&P 


V ^ 


Remarks. 











jfcS 


< 3 




Hours and 


"S -H 


.. 






Date. 


Hour. 




y c 


o U E 


*o 


Minutes. 




s s 




"C 








1* 

U 


|SU 


j 




fa 


o 






1896 




















1150 


Feb. 5 


5.08 P M. 


39 


22.0 


89 




7h. 1301. 


10 144 


892 




1156 


6 


IO.I3 A.M. 


39 


25-0 


IOI 




8h. 04m. 


II 324 


i 620 




1160 


" 6 


12.14 1" M - 


39 


23-5 


95 




roh. O5m. 


M 174 


2 1*5 


Agitated surface of sand 


1164 


6 


3-13 " 


40 


24.5 


99 




4Om. 


I 014 


I 282 


layer at 1.54 P.M. 


1169 


6 


4-15 


40 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. 42m. 


2 394 


i 196 




H7-1 


7 


IO.I8 A.M. 


40 


24-0 


97 




4h. o8m. 


5814 


238 


[layer' at 11.17 A.M. 


1178 


7 


1.32 P.M. 


40 


23.0 


93 




7h. l8m. 


I03U 


480 


Agitated surface of sand 


1184 


7 


5.28 " 


41 


23-5 


95 




ih. 2om. 


1814 


i 200 


Agitated surface of sand 


1190 


8 


10 49 A.M. 


41 


25-0 


IOI 




ih. 43m. 


2337 


I 785 


layer from 4.08 P.M. to 


1192 


" 8 


2. 2O P.M. 


41 


ig.o 


77 




5h. 1401. 


6 727 


500 


5.18 P.M. 


1196 


" 8 


3.11 ' 


41 


22. 


89 




6h. 0501. 


7827 


i 900 




1204 


" 10 


10.22 A.M. 


42 


25.0 


IOI 




39 m - 


908 


675 




1208 


" 10 


I.OI P.M. 


42 


22.0 


89 




3h. 1401. 


4278 


616 


Agitated surface of sand 


1212 
1217 


" 10 
" 10 


3.l6 " 
5-02 " 


42 
42 


19.0 
22.0 


77 
89 




5h. 2gm. 
7h. iim. 


7 138 
9328 


516 
I 155 


layer at 11.47 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 


1222 


" II 


lO.Og A.M. 


43 


24-5 


99 


. . . . 


24m 


578 


415 


layer at 3.20 P.M. 


1225 


II 


I2.5O P.M. 


43 


24.0 


97 




3h. oim 


3978 


73 


Agitated surface of sand 


1228 


" II 


3-13 " 


43 


23.O 


93 




5h. 24m 


7 108 


567 


layer at 12.40 P.M. 


1232 


" II 


5-12 " 


43 


24.0 


97 




7h. torn 


9578 


2 36 


Agitated surface of sand 


1241 


" 12 


3-18 " 


45 


18.0 


73 




ih. 4im 


2 2O 


2 420 


layer at 4.00 P.M. 


1242 


" 12 


3-40 ' 


45 


26.0 


105 




2h. 03m 


2 69 


2 360 




1243 


" 12 


4-45 


45 


18.5 


75 




3h. o8m 


4 2I 


324 




1249 


" 13 


9.48 A.M. 


45 


23.0 


93 




4h. 3&m 


611 


2Og 




1252 
1255 


13 
" 13 


12.24 P-M- 
2.18 " 


45 
45 


22.5 
25.0 


91 

IOI 




7h. I2m 
gh. 02m. 


967 
12 igs 


31 
740 


Agitated surface of sand 


I26l 


13 


4-50 " 


45 


23.0 


93 




nh. 34m. 


15615 


930 


layer at i.oi P.M. 


1266 
1270 


14 
14 


IO.24 A.M. 
I.I7 P.M. 


46 
46 


23.0 
23.0 


93 
93 




5om. 
3h. 38m. 


i 178 
5013 


234 

I no 


Agitated surface of sand 


1274 


14 


3-19 " 


46 


23-5 


95 




4h. 53m- 


6738 


I IIO 


layer at 12.59 r - M - 


1278 


" 14 


4.46 ' 


46 


24.0 


97 




6h. 2om. 


8818 


940 




1284' " 15 


10.15 A.M. 


46 


23.0 


93 




Sh. igm. 


ii 468 


790 




1288 


15 


I.2g P.M. 


46 


23.0 


93 




iih. 28m. 


15688 


i 097 


Shut inlet 2.56 P.M., out- 


1292 


15 


3-02 " 


46 


18.0 73 




I3h. oim. 


17788 


845 


let 3.09 p.M. 


1297 


" 15 


5-20 " 


47 


24.0 


97 




ih. 46m. 


2353 


319 




1303 17 
1307 17 


IO.I2 A.M. 
1.40 P.M. 


47 
47 


24.0 
24.0 


97 
97 




3h. o8m. 
6h. 3im. 


8783 


I IOO 

I 285 


Agitated surface of sand 


1311 


17 


3.IO " 


47 


23.0 


93 


. . . . 


8h. oim. 


10833 


I 362 


layer at 11.42 A.M. 


1317 


" 17 


5.18 " 


48 


25.0 


IOI 




i8m. 


394 


569 




1321 


" 18 


10.27 A.M. 


48 


22.5 


91 




ih. 57m. 


2 7M 


1885 




1325 
1329 


" 18 
" 18 


11.58 " 
2.23 P.M. 


' 48 
48 


23.0 

22.0 


93 
89 





3(1. 26m. 
5h. 5im. 


4794 
7994 


I 250 
1645 


Agitated surface of sand 


1332 


" 18 


4-52 ' 


48 


13.0 


52 




8h. 2om. 


ii 3M 


I 270 


layer at 1.56 P.M. 


1340 


" 18 


5-14 


48 


23.0 


93 




8h. 42m. 


ii 804 


1855 




1344 
1348 


" 19 
19 


IO.I8 A.M. 

ii-35 " 


48 
48 


16.0 

22.0 


65 
89 





ion. oim. 
iih. l6m. 


13414 
15 974 


760 
5C 


Agitated surface of sand 


1352 


19 


3.08 P.M. 


49 


22.5 


91 




2om. 


421 


695 


layer at 11.43 A.M. 


1357 


'9 


5.03 " 


49 


26.0 


105 




2h. ism. 


3011 


2 I7C 




1363 


" 20 


II.O4 A.M. 


49 


24.0 


97 




3h. 05m. 


4151 


28 




1367 
1372 


" 20 
" 2O 


12.05 I'-M. 
I. Og " 


49 
49 


23.0 

23. c 


93 
93 




4h. o6m. 
5h. 07m. 


5 59i 
6851 


88 
43 


Agitated surface of sand 


1376 


" 2O 


2.IO " 


49 


23. c 


93 




6h. oSm.l 8 321 


55 


layer at 12.46 P.M. 


1378 


" 20 


3 12 " 


49 


24. c 


97 




7h. lorn. 


9771 


2OC 




1381 


" 2O 


4-05 " 


49 


25. c 


IOI 




8h. 03m. 


10031 


575 




1385 


" 20 


5-io ' 


49 


24. c 


97 




gh. oSm. 


12 641 


i 39C 




1393 


" 21 


II.O4 A.M. 


49 


25. c 


IOI 




loh. 24m. 


I438I 


10 




1395 
1398 
1401 


" 21 
" 21 
" 21 


12.45 P.M. 
3-09 " 

4-55 


49 
49 

49 


21. C 
23.C 

22.; 


85 
93 
91 




I2h. O5m. 
I4h. 26m. 
l6h. I2m. 


ig62l 

22 Oil 


I2C 

490 

5 6c 


[layer at 1.22 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Agitated surface of sand 


1409 


" 22 


10.24 A.M. 


50 


25. c 


101 




58m. 


1 331 


6! 


layer at 5.10 P.M. 


I4ic 

1413 


" 22 

" 22 


1. 08 P.M. 
3-05 


50 
50 


21. C 

24. c 


85 
97* 


.... 


3h. 42m. 
5h. 46111 


5071 

7781 


7M 

I IIC 


[layer at 1.28 P.M. 
> Agitated surface of sand 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVKR WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'55 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


V 



o 



V 

"o 

J 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Wa'er Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


I 

id 

f-5 

|l 
O 


!& 

V W 

ebs 

c< o 
. ul 

58.? 


Dale. 


Hour. 


1416 
1421 
1424 
1427 
1432 
1438 
1442 
1446 
1451 
1457 
1461 

I4<>7 
1470 

1477 
1480 
1484 
1489 
1495 
1497 
1500 
IS" 
1513 
1517 
1521 
1524 
1527 
1532 
1533 
1537 
I54i 
1545 
1550 
1553 
I55S 
1564 
1566 
1568 
1571 
1577 
1581 
1585 
1590 
1596 
1600 
1603 
1604 
1605 
i'n i 
1617 
1620 
1622 
1626 
1627 
1632 
1638 
1642 
1647 
1648 
1651 
1657 
1662 


1896 
Feb. 22 
" 24 
24 
24 
24 
25 

25 
25 

25 

' 26 
26 

' 26 
" 26 
" 27 

27 
27 

27 
" 28 

" 28 

" 28 
" 29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 

Mar. 2 

" 2 
2 
2 
' 2 
' 2 

' 2-3 
3 
3 
3 
3-4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4-5 
" 5-6 
5 
5 
" 6 
6 
6 
' 6 
' 6-7 
' 6 
" 7 
7 
7 
7-9 
7 
9 
9 


4.58 P.M. 
10.24 A- M - 
1. 2O P.M. 
3-26 " 
5-19 " 
10.30 A.M. 
I.I8 P.M. 
3-12 " 
5-02 " 
IO.2Q A.M. 
I2.O8 P.M. 

3-15 " 
5.18 " 
10-32 A.M. 
1.45 P.M. 
3-O2 " 
5-12 " 
9.2O A.M. to 12.15 P.M. 
10.42 A.M. 
11.50 " 
9.58 A.M. to 3.18 P.M. 
10.39 A - M - 
I.3 P.M. 
3.18 " 
3.38 " 
5-II 
9-35 A.M. to 3.15 P.M. 
9.42 A.M. 
1O.25 " 
1.36 P.M. 

3-19 " 
5-10 ' 
3.18 P.M. to 3.20 P.M. 
IO.42 A.M. 
12. 5$ P.M. 

3-13 " 
3-20 P.M. to 3.20 P.M. 
5-13 P.M. 
10.48 A.M. 
1. 00 P.M. 
3.20 " 

5 05 " 

10.39 A.M. 

12.53 I'-M. 
3.2O P M. to 3.20 P.M. 
3.20 " " 3.20 " 
3-20 P.M. 

5-14 " 
10.35 A.M. 
II. 17 " 
12.41 P.M. 
3.20 " 
3.20 P.M. to 3.20 P.M. 
5.22 P.M. 
10.44 A.M. 
12.54 P.M. 
3.20 " 
3 2O P.M. to 3.20 P.M. 
5.19 P.M. 
11.00 A.M. 
12.52 P.M. 


50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
5i 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
52 

52 

52 
52 
52 
52 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53 
53-54 
53 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54-55 
54 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55-56 
55 
56 
56 


23.0 
23.0 
22.5 

24-5 

23.0 

23.0 

23.5 
22.5 

23-5 
25.0 
23.0 
24.5 

20.5 
24.0 
26.0 

30.0 

25.5 
30.5 

29-5 

33-5 
25-9 
27.0 

21-5 

27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
25.9 
26.0 
26.0 

25-5 
25.0 
25.0 
23.2 
23.0 

21.0 
22.5 
2 5 .8 
21-5 

27-5 
28.0 
28.5 
28.0 
28.0 
27-5 
27.8 
30-3 
28.0 
25.0 
23.0 
38.0 
38.0 
36.0 
28.7 
34-5 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
23-5 

22-5 
25.O 

25-5 


93 
93 
91 
99 
93 
93 
95 
9i 
95 

101 

93 
99 
83 
97 
105 

112 
103 
124 
120 
136 
122 
109 

87 
log 

log 
109 
105 
105 
105 
103 

101 
101 

93 
93 
85 
9i 
104 

85 
ill 
114 
116 
114 
114 
III 
112 
I2 3 
114 
101 

93 
154 
154 
146 
116 
140 

101 
101 
IOI 

95 
91 

IOI 

103 





7h. 49m. 
gh. 25m. 
I2h. 2im. 
I4h. 24m. 
loh. 17111. 
I7h. 58m. 
i6m. 
2h. lorn. 
4h. oom. 
5h. 47m. 
7h. 26m. 
loh. 33m. 
I2h. 36m. 
I3h. i6m. 
27m. 
th. 4401. 
3h. 54m. 


10 441 

13225 
17235 

20 115 
22844 
25 195 
335 
2965 
5 515 
7755 
10 115 
14625 

J7495 
18415 
670 
2 810 

6430 


700 
I 605 
404 
665 
6og 
960 

785 
610 
450 
420 
295 
I 770 
3 280 
191 
695 
970 
I 215 


Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.15 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 9.32 A.M. and 
12. 18 P.M. 

C. Sterilized filter, Feb. 

28. 

C. 

[layer at 2.09 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
C. 

C. 
C. 

Shut inlet 10.33 A.M., 
outlet 10.41 P.M. 

C. 
C. 





5h. 54m. 
7h. 02m. 


9950 
12050 


I 330 
I 820 
I 070 
197 
2555 
I gio 
2 170 

i 175 
i 965 

3455 




4im. 
3h. O2m. 
4h. 42m. 
5h. O2m. 
6h. 35m. 


1 195 
4885 

7495 
8035 
10465 




7h. 36m. 
8h. igm. 
nh. 3om. 
ijh. I3m. 
I5h. 03m. 


12085 
13 185 
18 165 
20785 
23 575 




i 545 
i 445 
t 570 
900 
I 210 
i 300 
i 465 
i 885 
610 
880 
I 320 
595 
885 
298 
815 
650 
965 
725 
206 
81 
86 
570 




17(1. i6m. 
igh. 22m. 
2ih. 3im. 


26485 
29515 
32395 


.... 


23h. 3im. 
ih. 3om. 
3h. 42111. 
6h. O2m. 
7h. 4701. 
gh. sim. 
I2h. osm. 


34935 
2393 
6003 

9853 
12783 
16253 
19893 











I4h. 32m. 
i6h. 26m. 
iSh. I7m. 
iSm. 
ih. 42m. 
4h. 2im. 


24013 
27063 
29743 
536 
3656 
9526 




6h. 23tn. 
Sh. ism. 
loh. 25m. 
I2h. 5im. 


13(06 
17 206 
20 426 
24 046 


550 
128 
150 
197 


. . . . 


I4h. 5om. 
ih. 3501 
3h. 2701. 


26936 
2427 
5347 


1 08 
58 
61 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 





Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
"iltration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ervice Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


. OJ 

3 
c 

is 


If U 

8. 

?" 

J u p 

i*: 

l> -. 

l & " 


t> 

a 

3 


*rt 

y, 

1668 
1669 
1673 
1679 
1683 
1687 
1688 
1694 
1700 

1703 
1707 
1711 
1714 
1720 
1724 
1728 
1729 
1734 
1740 
174 
174 
175 
175 
i 7 6 
i 7 6 
i 7 6 
177 
177 

'77 
'77 
178 
178 
179 
'79 
179 
179 
180 
1811 
iSis 
181; 
i8iS 
182; 
i8a 
i8sc 
183! 
184 
184- 
184! 
1841 
185 
1 86 
1 86 
i87< 
187 
187 
187 
188 
188 
188 
188 
189 


Date. 


Hour. 


1896 
Mar. 9 
" g-IO 

" 9 
IO 
" 10 
" IO 
" IO-II 
" 10 

II 
: II 
" II 

" 11-12 
" II 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12-13 
" 12 

" '3 
13 
13 
13 
14 
'4 
14 
'4 
M 
14 
'4 
'4 
11 16 
" 16 

" ie 

" 16 
" 16 
" 16 
" 16 
" 17 
17 
17 
" i? 
1 17 

\ " n 
> ' 17 

) " 18 

" 18 
i " 18 
! " 18 
, " 18 
, " 18 

! '9 

5 " 19 

3 '9 
19 

>9 
i 19 
[ 19 

- '9 

' 20 
) "20 
1 " 2O 


3.30 P.M. 
3.30 P.M. to 3.10 P.M. 
5.07 P.M. 
10.23 A.M. 
1-35 P-M. 
3.10 ' 
3.IO P.M. to 3.2O P.M. 
5.17 P.M. 
IO.23 A.M. 
1.30 P.M. 
3.20 " 
3.2O P.M. 10 3.26 P.M. 
5-II P.M. 
10. 18 A M. 
12-57 P M. 
3-26 " 
3.26 P.M. to 3.15 P.M. 
5.13 P.M. 
10.32 A.M. 
1.12 P M. 
3-15 " 
5-03 ' 
9.30 A.M. to IO.30A.M 
IO.3O A.M. 
IO.3O A.M. to I .08 P.M 
I .08 P.M. 
I. O8 P.M. to 3.15 P.M. 
3.15 P.M. 
4-02 ' 
4-52 " 
g.OO A.M. to 10.28 A.M 
IO.28 A.M. 
IO.28 A.M. to I. 12 P.M. 
I. 12 P.M. 
I. 1 2 P.M. to 3.15 P.M. 
3.15 P.M. 
5-05 " 
9. 2O A.M. to IO.27AM. 
10.27 A.M. 
IO.27 A.M. to 1.14 P.M 
I. 14 P.M. 
I .14 P.M. to 3.16 P.M. 
3.18 P.M. 
5-13 " 
IO.28 A M. 
10.28 A.M. to I. O8 P.M 
1. 08 P.M. 
1. 08 P.M. to 3.24 P.M. 
3.24 P.M. 
5-02 " 
g.OO AM. to 10.45 A.M 
II.O8 A.M. 
12.27 P.M. 
10.45 A.M. to 12.27 P - M 
3.O2 P.M. 
12.27 P.M. to 3-02 P.M 
5.O2 P.M. 
3.O2 P.M. to 5-O2 P.M. 
g.OO A.M. " 10.25 A - M 
IO.25 A.M 
IO.25 A.M. to 1. 08 P.M 


56 

57 
56 
56 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57-5 
57 
58 
58 
58 

58-59 
58 
59 
59 
59 
59 
59 
59 
59-6o 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60-61 
61 
61 
61 
61 
61 
61 
61-62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
63 

63 
63 

63 
63 
63 
63 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64-6 
65 
65-6 


5.0 
4.4 

4-5 
3-0 
4-5 
5.0 

5-5 
5-0 
4.0 
6.0 
4.0 
5-4 
3-5 
5.0 
25.0 
25.0 
24.8 
24.0 

21-5 

25.0 

24-5 
24.0 
23.6 
23.6 

23-5 
25.0 
24.6 

24-5 
25-0 
25.0 
24.8 
23-0 
24.0 
25.0 
24.7 
24.0 
24.0 
23-3 
23-5 
24.4 
24. c 

24.1 
24.5 
23. c 
24. c 

24. - 
24.; 

23. c 

24.! 
24.! 

23. ( 

24. c 
24. ( 
24. 
24. 
24. ( 
19. < 

22.' 
24. 
24. ( 
22. 


IOI 

99 
99 
93 
99 

IOI 

103 

IOI 

97 
105 

97 
103 
95 

101 
IOI 
101 
100 

97 
87 

IOI 
99 
97 
95 
95 
95 
IOI 
99 
99 

IOI 
IOI 
100 

93 

97 

IOI 
IOO 

97 
97 
94 
95 
99 
97 
97 
99 
93 
97 
99 
99 
1 97 
99 
99 
> 95 
) 97 
> 97 
97 
i 99 
> 97 
> 77 
i go 
1 100 

> 97 
i 92 




6h. osm. 


9367 


35 

95 

1 10 

82 
in 

58 
166 
295 
79 

134 
165 
325 

i5 

155 
560 

165 

370 

121 
700 
742 
325 
42O 
230 
320 
410 
510 

131 
. 6 4 

49 
72 

39 
169 

147 
98 
188 
261 
161 
156 
128 
95 
89 
53 
67 
60 
17 

22 
41 

47 
3 
4; 
13: 
> 26c 

> I 2OC 

53C 
) i 15; 

I 2OC 
) 22J 
I OOC 

58; 

) 8oc 
8oc 


". 

C. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 

>c. 
c. 

) 
)C. 


... 


7h. 42111. 
gh. 28m. 
zh. oom. 
3h. 35"i. 


II 739 
14307 
2 980 
5400 


... 


5h. 42m. 
7h. i8m. 
loh. O2m. 
uh. 52m. 


8670 
ii 080 
15290 
18060 




I3h. 43. 
53m. 
3h. 32m. 
6h. oim. 


20690 
i 303 
5 2'3 
8903 





7h. 48m. 
04 m. 
2h. 44m. 
4h. 47m. 
6h. 35m. 


" 543 
104 

4274 
7234 
9854 





Sh. 32tn. 


12664 


... 


58m 


I 428 


.... 


3h. 05 m 
3h. 52m 
4h. 42m 


4 546 
5706 
6916 





6h. 24111 


9 466 




53m 


1393 





2h. 56m 
4)1. 4601 


4433 
7023 





6h. 38m. 


9673 


... 


2h. 0401. 


3054 


.... 


4h. oSm. 
6h. 03m. 
49m. 


6l34 
8784 
i 197 




3h. 29111. 


5197 




5h. 45m 
7h. 23m. 


844; 
1077: 




ogm 
ih. 28m 


2IC 

2 I2C 


... 


4h. 04111 


584C 


... 


6h. 03111 


8 5 ic 










4Sm 


I 22C 









COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'57 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 



1 

ji 

3 
fc 

"rt 

V 

(/) 

1895 

1901 
1902 
1907 
1908 

1913 
1914 
1919 
1920 
1922 
1923 

'931 
1936 

1937 
1941 
1942 

1947 
1948 

1954 
1955 
J959 
1962 
1964 
ig6c 

IQ7T 




Collected. 




Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


E 

\) 

hi 
1 

V 

"o 
J 


Period of 
icrvice Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


I 

$v 

h. 

= 

'is 

u 


get 

m 
& 

SSL? 
7, 


Date. 


Hour. 


1896 
Mar. 20 

" 20 
11 20 

' 20 
' 20 

' 21 
' 21 
' 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 23 
23 
" 23 
23 
23 

23 

23 

' 23 

24 
24 
24 

24 

24 
24-25 

25 

25 

' 25 

25 

' 25 
25 

' 25 

26 
' 26 
" 26 

" 26 

" 26 
" 26 
" 25-26 

" 26 
" 26 
26 
" 26 
26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
' 26 

' 26 

26 
' 26 

' 26-27 

' 27 
27 
27 

27 

27 
27 

27 

' 27-28 


I. OS P.M. 
1. 08 P.M. to 3.33 P.M. 

3 33P-M. 
4-53 ' 
3.33 P.M. to 5.30 P.M. 
g.OO A.M. " IO-45 A.M. 
IO.45 A.M. 
12.58 P.M. 
IO.45 A.M. to 12.58 P.M. 

12.58 p.M. " 3.20 " 

3.2O P.M. 
3-2O P.M. to 5.OO P.M. 
g.OO A.M. " 10.25 A.M. 
IO.25 A.M. 
10.25 A.M. to 12 M. 
12. OO M. 
12. OO M. to 3.0O P.M. 
3.00 P.M. 
5.16, " 
3.00 P.M. to 5.30 P.M. 
g.OO A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 4.42 " 
442 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 .". " II 30 " 
11.30 " ' 2.30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. to 5.30 A.M. 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 " " 11.30 " 
I.OO A.M. 
1. 08 " 
1.18 " 
1.33 " 
1.48 " 
2.18 " 
II.3O P.M. to 2.30 A.M. 
2.48 A.M. 
3-48 " 
4.14 ' 
4.48 
5-15 " 

5-3 ' 

2.30 A.M. to 5.30 A.M. 
5-49 A.M. 
5.30 A.M. to 8.30 A.M 
8.30 " ' 11.30 " 
II.3O " ' 2.30 P.M 
2.30 P.M. ' 5.30 " 
5.30 " ' 8.30 " 
8.30 ' ' 11.30 ' 
II.3O " ' 2.30 A.M 
2.30A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 ' ' 8.30 ' 
8.30 " " II.3O " 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
11.30 " " 2. 30 A.M 


66 
66-67 

67 
67 

67 
67-68 
68 
68 
68 
68-69 
69 
69 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70-71 
71 

72 

71-72 

72 

72-73 

73 
73-74 
74 
74-75 
75 
75-76 
76 
76-77 
77 
77-78 
78 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
78-79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79-80 
80-8 1 
81-82 
82-83 
83 
84 
84 
84-85 
85 
86 
86 
87 
87-88 
88 
88-89 


24.0 
23.1 
23.0 
23.5 
24.3 
23-2 
24.0 

21.0 
22.6 
22.8 
24.0 
22.0 

23 6 

21.0 
21.2 
25.0 

23-3 
24.0 

24-5 
24.9 

25-5 
23.7 

21... 
25-; 
22.6 
23.4 
23.2 
2 3 .8 
24.9 
25-8 

24-3 
25.6 
24.2 
25.O 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
22.8 
25.0 
24-5 
24.5 
24.5 
25-5 
24.5 
23.6 
23.0 
23.0 

26.5 

23-3 
24.! 
21. 1 

24.7 
20.1 
23.2 
2 3 .6 
2 4 .0 
2 3 .8 
21.5 

24.2 
23.5 

23. S 


97 
93 
93 

95 
98 
94 
97 
85 
91 
92 
97 
89 
95 
85 
86 

101 

94 
97 
99 

IOI 

103 

95 
86 

102 
91 

94 
94 
96 

IOI 

104 
98 
103 
98 

IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 

92 

IOI 

99 
99 
99 
103 

99 
95 
93 
93 
107 

94 
97 
89 
IOO 

89 
94 
96 
97 
96 

87 
98 

95 
95 




24m. 


593 


600 
I OOO 
I OOO 
IOOO 
I 2OO 

495 
415 
465 
860 
895 
i 905 
785 
440 
405 
700 
i 250 
800 
475 
i 245 
i 230 

179 
80 
270 
132 
74 
306 
1030 
495 
48 
158 
405 
178 
107 
156 
"3 
171 
229 
420 
345 
215 
600 
435 
460 
415 
232 
221 
482 
124 
171 

355 
700 
520 
805 
330 
477 
485 
575 
415 
128 
i 650 
150 
117 
540 


c. 

c, 
c. 

[layer at 11.25 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
C. 
C. Agitated surface of 
sand layer at 3.05 P.M. 
C. 
C. 

C. Agitated surface of 
sand layer at 10.29 A.M. 
C. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 3.30 P.M. 
C. [layer at 10.36 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 3.54 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 9.30 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 3.41 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 11.05 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 3.51 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 10.36 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
This series of results on 
run No. 79 was used- 
in obtaining the aver- 
age bacteria for this 
run, but not for the 
day. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 4.07 A.M. 

[layer at 7.47 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[at ii. 54P-M. & 2. II A.M. 
Agitated surface of S.L. 
[layer at 6.15 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 11.33 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 5.55 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 10.08 P.M. 


... 


O5m. 
ih. 25m. 


H3 
2053 










45m. 
2h. 55m. 


I 085 
4095 










ih. 4im. 


2371 










ih. 47m. 


2514 


.... 


3h. 2om. 


5874 


.. . 


ih. 4001. 
46m. 


2 421 
I 071 
































1983 
1989 
1993 
I 99 8 
2001 
2005 
2008 
2OI2 
2014 
2015 
2016 
2017 
2018 
2OI9 
2O2I 
2023 
2024 
2025 
2026 
2O27 
2028 
2029 
2033 
2035 
2040 
2043 
2047 
2050 

2054 
2057 
2065 
2076 
2083 
20 9 q 
2103 
2106 
2IIC 
2121 


















































.... 


'i2m 
2om 
3om 
45m 
ih. oom 
ih. 3Om 


419 

579 
829 
I 179 
i 579 
2339 


.... 


2h. oom 
3h. oom 
3h. 23m 
3h. 57m 
4h. 25m 
4h. 3901 


3049 
4529 
5049 

5789 
6429 
6789 




4h. 58m 


7159 























































































158 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 



Remarks. 


s. 

V 
V V 

fc-B 

a c 

'is 

u 


Js. 

"a v * 

055 
c< o 

v.1 

=jr 
s 


Date. 


Hour. 


2127 
2131 
2136 
2139 
2143 
2146 
2148 

2149 
2150 
2151 
2152 

2155 
2158 
2161 
2165 
2169 

2173 
2182 
2185 
2189 
2192 
2196 
2199 
2203 
2206 

221O 
2216 
222O 
2224 
2229 

2234 
2237 
2242 

2247 
2250 
2255 
2262 
2267 
2271 
2276 
2281 
2286 
2289 
2294 
2299 
2302 
2306 
2307 
2308 
2310 
2322 
2323 
2324 
2325 
2326 

2327 
2328 
2329 
2331 
2334 
2338 
2340 
2^41 


1896 
Mar. 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28-29 
" 29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
1 29 
29 
" 29-30 
30 
30 
' 30 
1 30 
1 30 
' 31 
1 31 
1 31 
April I 
" I 
" I 

" 2 
" 2 
" 2 
" 3 

3 
4 
4 
4 
6 
" 6 
" 6 
7 
7 
7 
" 8 
8 
" 8 
" 8 
8 
8 
" 8 
" 8 
8 
" 8 
" 8 
8 
" 8 
" 9 
9 
9 
" 9 


2.30 A.M. to 5.30 A.M. 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 A.M. " II.3O " 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.3fe P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
10.25 P.M. 
10.35 " 

10.45 
10.55 
11.05 

8.30 P.M. to II.3O P.M. 
11.30 " " 230A.M. 
2.30A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 ' ' 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
II.3O " " 2.30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 ' 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
g.IS A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 " 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 P.M. 
9.15 A.M. " II. 30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 

2.30 P.M. " 5 30 " 

9.30 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
g.20 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 P.M. 
9.30 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
IJ.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
g.20 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.25 A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 " " 5.30 " 
11.00 A.M. 
II. 10 " 
II. 2O " 
9.2O A.M. to II.3O A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
3.32 P.M. 
3-35 " 
3.38 " 
3-41 " 
3-44 
3-59 ' 
4.14 

2.30 P.M. to 5.30 P.M. 
9 2O A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
11.57 A.M. 
12.32 P.M. 
1.02 " 


89 
89-90 
9 
90-91 

9 1 
91-92 

92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
93 
93 
93-94 
94 
94 
94-95 
95 
95-96 
96 
96 
96-97 

97 
98 
98 
99-100 

IOO-IOI 

102-103 
104 

104 

105 

105-106 
106 
106-107 
108 
108-109 
109 
109-110 
no 
no-iii 
in 

112 
112 

112-113 
U3 
"3 
"3 
H3 
"3 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
113-114 
114 
114 
114 
"4 


23.8 
24.8 

23-9 
22.9 

24.5 

24.2 
25.0 
25.0 

24-5 
24-5 
24-5 
23-4 
22-5 

24-1 

24.1 

23-9 
23-9 
25-1 
23-5 
27-5 
22.7 
24-6 
23-8 
23-7 
24-4 
25-1 
24-2 
23-3 

24-0 

23-7 

23-2 
23-1 
24-0 
24-0 

24 3 

24-7 
24-3 
23-7 
25 8 

23-2 

23-9 

25-2 
22-9 

24-8 
24-4 
24-3 
25-5 
24-5 
24-0 
24-3 
24-7 

22. 
24.0 
25-0 
25.0 
25-0 
25-0 
25.O 

23-4 
24.0 
24.0 
24.0 

24.1) 


9 6 

100 

97 
93 
99 
98 

101 
101 

99 
99 
99 
95 
91 
98 

98 
97 
97 
1OI 

95 
in 

92 
99 
96 

95 
99 

IOI 

97 
94 
97 
95 
93 
93 
97 
97 
98 
too 
98 
96 
104 
94 
97 

IOI 

93 

100 

98 

97 
103 

99 
97 
98 
IOO 

89 
97 

IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 

95 
97 
97 
97 

97 








407 
321 
238 
62 

119 

174 
261 
186 
313 

221 

2J3 
193 
119 

234 
177 
294 
580 

595 
240 

465 
125 

256 
476 
58i 
785 
672 
650 
39 
1495 
845 
545 
525 
240 
224 
205 
92 
310 
60 
62 
90 
30 
36 
27 
30 
44 
118 

53 
82 
88 
76 
65 
201 

186 
125 
104 
194 
185 
75 
63 
72 

157 
182 
152 


Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 3.41 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 9.26 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 4.11 P.M. 
C. Agitated surf, of sand 
C. layer at 10. n P.M. 
C. 
C. 
C. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 6.17 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.14 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 9.31 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 5.58 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.01 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 10.01 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 3.05 P.M. 
[layer at 2.39 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 11.25 >'-M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 11.54 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 4.27 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 1.09 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 9.00 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.09 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 12.07 P - M - 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 11.42 A.M. 

C. 
C. 

c. 

C. Agitated surf, of sand 
layer at 10.17 A.M. 






















2h. 42m. 
2h. 52m. 
3h. O2m. 
3h. I3m. 
3h. 22m. 


3826 
4 126 
4376 
4556 
4804 








.... 




















































































































.... 










































































3h. 26m. 
3h. 3601. 
3h. 4601. 


5014 
5 244 
5494 










03m. 
( 6m. 
ogm. 
12m. 
I5m. 
3om. 
45m. 


61 

131 
211 
291 
361 
711 

I IOI 








.... 


4h. 56m. 
5h. 31111. 
6h. oim. 


7 121 

7961 
8621 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'59 



TABLE NO. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 







| Rate of 


S 




S 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







C 

t/5 - 


U 

' 




V 

_o 




Number 


I 


|cl 


a 


Period of 
Service Since 


_ M 

4J.5 . 

n^ tl 


5 V ; 















of 


_ 


" v 


ri 

V 


Last 


> rt * 


SS 


Remarks. 


a 






Run. 


u . 

V l> 


603 




Washing. 


fc 


& s 




SB 








d. - 


_.< o 




Hours and 


C 5 


.2-2 






Date. 


Hour. 




3 
o c 


^X 


"o 


Minutes. 


ZV.'2 


v c 




c 
V 








is 


= &? 


i 
* 




v ci a 

= JO 


" V 

u 




in 








u 


s 






K 


m 






1896 






















April Q 


1 1 TO A M to 2 ^O P M 


1 I A I T C 


21 \ 


QC 








1 02 


C. 


2344 


* () 


2 ^O P M ' ' 5 OO ' ' 


114 115 
Tie 


-J' 4 
21 6 


V3 

QC 








106 


C. Agitated surf, of sand 


2346 
2349 


V 

10 


IO.I5 A.M. 


L A j 

"5 


4 J< W 

24.0 


V-* 

97 





3h. 3im. 


4983 


62 


layer at 4.32 P.M. 


2351 


" IO 


10.45 " 


"5 


24.0 


97 


.... 


4h. oim. 


5683 


33 




2353 


" 10 


11.15 


"5 


24.0 


97 


.... 


4h. 3im. 


6313 


28 




2356 


" IO 


11-45 


"5 


25.0 


101 




5h. oim. 


6973 


39 




>-(.-; 


' ' IO 


1 1 ^O A M to 2 ^O P M 


T T e 




rjT 








AC 


C. 


<f JUO 
9T7 1 


' ' IO 


2 TO P M ' ' *> IO ' ' 


1 1 .) 

116 


^J- L 

Ol T 


y.s 

Q7 








'fj 

12^ 


C. 


0/4 
^180 


' * II 


Q 2O AM ' * 1 1 "?O A M 


116 


~4* * 
O4 C 


y / 

OQ 








** j 
2C 


C. Afjitatcd surf, of sand 


*JO(J 

2382 


" II 


12.05 P.M. 


116 


4- 5 
24.0 


yv 
97 




6h. oim. 


8765 


* j 

42 


layer at 9.00 A.M. 


2384 


" II 


12.35 " 


116 


24.0 


97 




6h. 3im. 


9454 


23 




2386 


" II 


1.05 


116 


23-5 


95 


.... 


7h. oim. 


10 118 


31 




2 3 ss 


" II 


1-35 


116 


23.0 


95 




7h. 3im. 


10 905 


30 


Shut inlet 1.34 P.M., 


2389 


" II 


2.OI 


"7 


24.0 


97 


.... 


03m. 


43 


78 


outlet 1.45 P.M. 


239'^ 


" II 


2.04 ' 


"7 


25.0 


101 




o6m. 


123 


80 




2391 


" II 


2.07 " 


i'7 


25.0 


101 


. . . . 


ogm. 


193 


57 




2392 


" II 


2.IO " 


"7 


24.0 


97 


.... 


I2m. 


263 


32 




2393 


" II 


2.13 " 


"7 


24.0 


97 


.... 


I5m. 


343 


38 




2394 


" II 


2.28 ' 


"7 


24.0 


97 




3om. 


73 


31 




2395 


" II 


2-43 " 


"7 


24.0 


97 




45m. 


1093 


37 




21(1 "7 


" II 


II.3O P.M. to 2.3O P.M. 


i i 6 117 


21 o 


Q7 








47 


C. 


A Jyt 
2399 


" II 


3.13 P.M. 


117 


**f u 

24.0 


y / 
97 


.... 


ih. ism. 


2793 


4* 
27 




2405 


" II 


3.58 " 


"7 


24.0 


97 




2h. oom. 


2903 


24 




2408 


" 11 


4.28 


"7 


24.0 


97 




2h. 3om. 


3633 


43 




2410 


" II 


4.58 " 


"7 


24.0 


97 


.... 


3h. oom. 


4363 


38 




241 2 


'* II 


2.30 P.M. tO 5.3O P.M. 


117 


2.1 O 


07 








18 


C. 


2 1 T C 


*' 11 


Q.2O A.M. '* II.3O A.M. 


/ 

118 


^4. u 
21 o 


y / 
07 








Q2 


C. 


*-f i 3 
2 1 T *7 


* J 
" 11 


1 1 *^O * * ' ' 2 ^O P M 


118 


^4. u 
21 1 


v/ 

08 








J* 

83 


C. AiTttslcd surf, of S3.nd 


-^41 / 

2419 


1 .7 

" 13 


4-55 P.M. 


118 


^4-3 
23.0 


90 
93 




6h. 4im. 


9640 


u J 

Si 


layer at 11.53 A.M. 


2422 


" M 


11.30 A.M. 


118 


22.0 


89 




8h. 03m. 


II 617 


13 




2424 


' 14 


2.56 P.M. 


Ilg 


22.0 


89 




2h. 24m. 


3401 


4 1 


[layer at 4.51 P.M. 


2425 


" M 


5.00 " 


Ilg 


22.0 


89 




4h. 26m. 


6 173 


29 


Agitated surface of sand 


2428 


" 15 


10.45 A.M. 


119 


25.0 


101 


.... 


6h. 4im. 


7630 


20 


[layer at 1.26 P.M. 


2429 


" 15 


2.43 P.M. 


Ilg 


25.0 


101 




loh. 38m. 


13409 


20 


Agitated surface of sand 


2431 


" 15 


4- 54 " 


Ilg 


25-0 


101 


.... 


I2h. 47m. 


ib 160 


20 


Ag. surf. S. L. 4.53 P.M. 


2434 


" 16 


10.40 A.M. 


119 


23.0 


93 


.... 


I5h. 03m. 


19 960 


15 


Shut inl. 10.30, outl. 10.49 A.M. 


2435 


" 16 


3.05 P.M. 


120 


25.0 


101 




4h. oom. 


5884 


14 


Agitated surface of sand 


2437 


" 16 


5.00 " 


120 


25.0 


101 




5h. 56m. 


8714 


5 


layer at 2.36 P.M. 


2440 


" 17 


10.40 A.M. 


120 


24-5 


99 


.... 


8h. osm. 


II 898 


ii 




2441 


" 17 


2.41 P.M. 


I2( 


24-5 


99 




ih. o6m. 


I 621 


44 




2443 


" 17 


4.40 " 


121 


24-5 


99 




3h. osm. 


4501 


44 




2 44 t, 


" 18 


10.35 A.M. 


121 


24-5 


99 




5h. 38m. 


7991 


152 


Agitated surface of sand 


2 447 


" 18 


2.40 P.M. 


121 


25.0 


101 


.... 


gh. 33m. 


14071 


96 


layer at 10.33 A.M. 


2 449 


" 18 


5.15 " 


121 


25.0 


101 


.... 


I2h. o6m. 


17941 


53 


Agitated surface of sand 


2453 


" 20 


10.30 A.M. 


122 


25.0 


101 


.... 


ih. 07m. 


i 676 


4 


layer at 3.58 P.M. 


2 454 


" 20 


11.55 " 


122 


25-0 


101 


.... 


2h. 32m. 


3736 


8 




2 459 


" 20 


2.55 P.M. 


122 


25.0 


101 


.... 


5h. i8m. 


76g6 


6 


Agitated surface of sand 


2460 


" 2O 


5.16 " 


122 


25.0 


101 


.... 


7h. 3gm. 


II 186 


6 


layer at 2.04 P.M. 


2464 


" 21 


9-34 A.M. 


122 


25.0 


101 


.... 


8h. 27m. 


12 396 


6 




2 4 66 


" 21 


10.25 


122 


25.0 


IOI 




gh. i8m. 


13 666 


19 




2469 


" 21 


12.41 P.M. 


123 


25-0 


101 


.... 


nm. 


247 


24 




2473 


" 21 


1.50 " 


123 


25.0 


IOI 




ih. 2om. 


1967 


670 




2 47 6 


" 21 


2.59 ' 


123 


25.0 


IOI 




2h. 2gm. 


3667 


17 




2477 


" 21 


5." 


123 


24.0 


97 




4h. 4om. 


6857 


21 


Agitated surface of sand 


2480 


" 22 


9-54 A.M. 


123 


25.0 


IOI 




5h. 53m. 


8657 


24 


layer at 4.39 P.M. 


2482 


" 22 


10.48 


123 


25.0 


IOI 




6h. 47m. 


9987 


19 




2485 


" 22 


12.39 P - M - 


I2 3 


25.0 


IOI 




Sh. 38m. 


12727 


II 




2487 


" 22 


1.24 " 


123 


25.0 


IOI 




gh. 23m. 


13807 


8 




2490 


" 22 


3.00 " 


123 


24.0 


97 




loh. sgm. 


16 187 


17 


Agitated surface of sand 


2 493 


" 23 


9.42 A.M. 


123 


24.0 


97 




I3h. oom. 


20857 21 


layer at 3.58 P.M. 


2494 


' 23 


IO.23 " 


123 


24.0 


97 


.... 


I4h. som. 


21 887 20 


Agitated surface of sand 


2498 


' 23 


12.53 P.M. 


124 


25.0 


IOI 




28m. 


675 32 


layer' at 10.46 A.M. 


25OO 


" 23 


2.O3 " 


I2 4 


24.0 


97 





ih. 38m. 1 2405 14 





1 60 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Cubic Feet per T] 
Minute. ~73 


MillionGallons' c." 
per Acre per j 2, 2, 
24 Hours. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


Date. 


Hour. 


2503 
2505 
2509 
2511 
2514 
2517 
2519 
2525 
2527 
2532 
2536 
2540 
2544 
2548 
2551 
2557 
2561 
2565 
2566 
2567 
2568. 

257 
2571 
2572 
2573 
2574 
2575 
2576 
2577 
2579 
2580 
2581 
2582 
25833 

2584 
2585 
2586 
2589 
2590 
2591 
2592 

2593 
2594 
2595 
2599 
2600 
2604 
2608 
2630 
2640 
2647 
2651 
2653 
2660 
2666 
2672 
2674 
2675 
2676 
2677 
2678 


1896 
Apr. 23 
" 23 
" 24 
' 24 
1 24 
" 24 
1 24 
" 25 
' 25 
: 27 
" 27-28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28-29 

" 29 
1 29 
1 2g 
' 2g 

'. 2f) 

" 2g 
' 29 
29 

" 29 

' 29 

" 29 

;; 29 

11 29 
1 29 
29 
1 29 
1 29 
r 30 
' 30 
1 30 
" 29-30 
" 30 
- 30 
1 30 
1 30 
30 
r 30 
30 
3 o 
' 30 
30 

Apr. 3O-May i 
May i 

" i 

, " 1-2 
" 2 
" 2 
" 4 
4 
4 
" 4 
" 4 
" 4 ' 


3.06 P.M. 
4-50 " 
9-37 A.M. 
II 46 ' 
I.I4 P.M. 
[2.49 ' 
4-44 ' 
12.45 ' 
2-57 ' 
3.20 P.M. to g.OO P.M. 
g.oo " " 3.00 A.M. 
3-OOA.M. " g.oo " 
g.OO " " 3.00 P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " g.oo " 
g.oo " " 3.00 A.M. 
3.00 A.M. " g.OJ " 

g.OO " " 3-OO P.M. 

3.00 P.M. " g.oo " 
io.3g P.M. 
11.05 " 
11.07 " 
II. og " 
II. II " 
11.13 " 
11.15 ' 
11.17 ' 
it. ig " 
II. 21 " 
11.23 " 
11.25 " 
11.27 " 
11.29 " 
11.31 " 
11.33 " 
11.38 ' 
11.48 " 
I2.O3 A.M. 
1.03 " 
2.03 " 
g.oo P.M. to 3.00 A.M. 
3.03 A.M. 
4-03 " 
5-03 ' 

6 . 03 " 
7.03 " 
8.03 " 

3.OO A.M. to g.OO A.M. 
12.57 P.M. 
g.OO A.M. to 3.OO P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " g.oo " 
g.OO " " 3.OOA.M. 
3.00 A.M. " g.oo " 
g.oo " " 3.00 P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " g.oo " 
g.oo " " 3.OOA.M. 
3.00 A.M. " g.oo " 
g.OO " " 3.45 P.M. 

9-15 " " 3-15 ."^ 

7 . 30 P.M. 
17-32 " 
7-34 ' 
'7-36 " 
(7-38 " 


124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 

125 
125 
126 
126-127 
127 
127 
127-128 
128 
128 
!28-i2g 
I2g 
I2g 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
129-130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
130-131 
131 

131 
132 
132 
132 
132-133 
133 
133 
34 
'34 
"34 
134 
134 


25.0 
24.0 
25.0 
25-0 
25-0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
24.9 

24-7 
25-6 
25.4 
25-4 
24-9 
2 5 .6 

25-3 
24.6 

22.0 
28.0 
26.O 

26.0 
26.0 
26.O 
26.O 
26.O 
26.O 
26.5 
26.5 
26.5 
27.0 
27.0 
27.0 

27-5 
27.0 
26.5 
26.0 
26.O 
25-6 
26.0 
26.0 
26.0 
26.0 
26.0 
26.0 
26.0 
22.5 
25.0 
2 5 .6 
26.O 
24.7 
27.0 
26.6 
25-4 
25-4 
26.0 
28.1 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 


IOI 

97 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 

10; 

101 
IOI 
101 
100 

104 

102 
IO2 
100 
103 
102 

99 
89 
114 
105 
109 
105 
105 
105 

105 
105 
105 
107 
107 
107 
109 
log 
log 
in 
109 
107 

105 
105 
103 
105 
'05 
105 
105 
105 
105 

9' 

IOI 

103 
105 

IOO 

log 
107 
103 
103 

105 
114 

IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 


.... 


2h. 4im. 
4h. 25m. 
5h. 42m. 
7h. 4 9 m. 
gh. I7m. 
loh. 42m. 
I2h. 47m. 
ih. 07m. 
3h. igm. 


3985 
6515 
8 865 

U585 
'3 795 
16235 

I9I55 
i 773 
5047 


24 
28 
67 
41 
32 
37 
52 

56 

41 

42 

47 
97 


Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 10.06 A.M. 

[layer at 7.46 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
[layer at 4.19 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Ag surf of s 1 ati2 i6p M 


























1 60 


[layer at 12.21 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Ag. surf. of s. 1. at 6.54A.M. 






























86 

102 

'39 

86 
86 
70 
49 
58 
38 
36 
39 
24 
44 
33 
113 
26 
30 
38 
29 
26 
26 
24 
74 
52 
23 

27 
53 
89 

34 
34 
23 
43 
46 
34 
65 
52 
67 
78 
46 
78 
37 
116 

M9 
132 
61 

65 


Agitated surf, of sand layer 
Shut inl. 10.30, outl. 10.46 P.M. 
The series of results on 
run No. 130 was used 
in obtaining the aver- 
age bacteria for the run 
but not for this day. 



Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 4.44 A.M. 

[layer at 8.46 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 

[at 5.05 and 8.03 A.M. 
Agitated surf, of sand layer 

[layer at 4.11 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Ag. surf. of s.l. at 1.14 A.M. 
[layer at 3 07 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Ag.surf.s.l.at 3.10 and 6.07 P.M. 
r rom May 2-9, inclusive, the 
results of both single sam- 
ples and those collected by 
the sampler were used to 
obtain the bacterial aver- 
ages for days and for runs. 


... 


I2h. 3om. 
02m. 
0401. 
o6m. 
o8m. 
lorn. 
I2tn. 
I4tn. 
i6m. 
i8m. 
2om. 
22tn. 
24m. 
26m. 
28m. 
3Om. 
35m. 

45m- 
ih. oom. 
2h. oom. 
3h. oom. 


18788 
56 
1 06 
156 
216 
266 
316 
366 
426 
476 
526 
576 
636 
686 
736 
796 
g26 
I 186 
I sg6 
3 "6 
4676 





4h. oom. 
5h. oom. 
5h. 58m. 
6h. 58m. 
7h. 58m. 
8h. 5801. 


6 206 

7786 
g 226 
10816 
12346 
13956 




I3h. 52m. 


21 406 


























































02m. 

oom. 
o8m. 
lorn. 


53 
113 
183 
223 
263 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



161 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 

Fillration. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
Service Sine 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


1 Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


& 

I| 

u c 

is 

u 


h 

~a tJiC 

U " 

c<$ 
U 3= 

58.3 


Date. 


Hour. 


2679 
2630 
2681 
2682 
2683 
2684 
268.; 
2686 
2687 
2688 
2689 
2690 
2691 
2694 
2695 
2696 
2697 
2698 
2699 
2700 
2703 
2704 

2703 
2706 
2707 
2708 
2709 
27'3 
2714 
2715 
2716 
2717 
2719 
2723 
2727 
273' 
2733 
2736 

2743 
2744 
2746 
2749 
2752 
2753 
2759 
2760 

2765 
2773 
2774 
2779 
2780 
2785 
2786 
2792 
2793 
2798 
2803 
2804 
2808 
2813 
2818 
2825 
2830 


1896 
May 4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
' 4 
4 
4 
' 4 
4 
4 
' 4 
' 4 
" 4 
4 
4 
4 

' 5 
' 5 

4-5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
' 5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

: 1.6 

' 6 
' 6 
' 6 
' 6 
' 6 
1 6 
' 6-7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 

" 7-8 
" 8 
" 8 
" 8 
" 8 
" S 
' 8 
' -9 
' f9 
9 
9 
9 
' II 
" II 


7.40 P.M. 

7.42 ' 

7-44 ' 
7.46 ' 

7.48 " 
7-50 " 
7-52 " 
7-54 ' 
7.56 " 
7.58 " 
8.03 " 
8.13 " 
8.28 " 
3.15 P.M. to g.oo P.M. 

9.28 P.M. 
10 28 " 
11.28 "' 
12.28 A.M. 
1.28 " 
2.28 " 
g.OO P.M. to 3.00 A.M. 
3.28 A.M. 
4.28 " 
5.28 " 
6.28 " 
7.00 " 
8. OQ. " 

3.OO A.M. to g.OO A.M. 
9.28 A.M. 
10.28 " 
11.28 " 
12.28 P.M. 
1.28 " 

g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " g oo " 

g.OO " " 3.00 A M. 
3.00 A.M. " g.oo " 
9-35 A.M. 
g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 
g.oo " " 3.00 " 
3 oo I'M. 
3.00 P.M. to g.oo P.M. 

g.OO " " 3.00A.M. 
3.0O A.M. 
3 OO A.M. to g OO A.M. 

g.oo A.M. 
g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 
3.00 P.M. " g oo " 
g.oo P.M. 
g.oo P.M. to 3.00 A.M. 

3.OO A.M. 
3.0O A.M. tog OO A.M. 
g.oo A.M. 
g.oo A.M. to 3.00 P.M. 
3.OO P.M. 
3.00 P.M. to g.oo P.M. 
g.oo " " 3.00 A.M. 
3-OO A.M. 
3.00 A.M. to g.OO A.M. 

g.oo A.M. 
3.00 " 
3.00 " 
g.oo " 


134 

134 

134 

134 
134 
134 

"34 

134 
134 
134 

134 

134 

134 

I33-J34 

134 

134 

134 
134 

134 
134 
134 

134 
134 
134 
134 

134 
134 
134 
134 
134 
134 
134 
134 
134-135 
'35 
135 
135-136 
136 
136 
136 
136 
136 
136-137 
137 
137 
137 
'37 
37 
138 
138 
138 
138 
138 
138 
138 
138-139 
139 

139 
'39 
139 
140 

MI 
141 


26. c 
26. c 

26. c 
26. c 
26.0 

27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
26.5 
27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
25.0 
27.0 
27.0 

2/.0 
27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
26.5 
27.0 
27.0 
26.5 
26.5 
26.5 
27.0 
26.9 
26.5 
26.5 
26.0 
26.5 
24-5 
26.1 
27-3 
23.8 

25-8 
6.5 
6.4 
6.4 
7.0 
26.7 

25-5 
27.0 
26. g 
27.0 
26.8 
27.0 
26.5 
26.9 
27.0 
26.5 
27.0 
27.8 
25.0 
27.0 
26.0 
27.0 
27.0 
26.5 
28.0 
27.0 
27.0 


105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
log 
log 
log 
107 
log 
log 
tog 
log 
IOI 

109 
log 
109 
109 
log 
log 
107 
log 
log 
107 
107 
107 
109 
log 
107 
107 
105 
107 

99 
105 

MO 
9 6 
I0 3 
107 
107 
107 

log 
107 
103 
log 
log 
log 
log 
log 
107 
log 
log 
107 
log 
113 

IOI 

log 
105 
log 
109 
107 
114 
log 
109 


... 


12111 

14111 

I6m 
i8m 
2om 
22m 
24m 
26m 
28m 
3om 
35"i 
45m 
ih. oom 


31 
36 
42 
47 

52 
eS 

63 
68 

743 
793 
923 

1 193 

1593 


33 
43 
44 
32 
29 

33 
28 
30 
42 
42 
26 

39 
29 
46 
37 
33 
49 
47 
38 
go 

49 
96 
86 
6g 
28 
29 
29 
37 
24 
58 
37 
56 
46 
40 




Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 5.12 A.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at n.ig A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 1.07 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 4.11 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 6.35 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 2.48 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 10.21 P.M. and 
1 .08 A.M. 
[layer at 12.34 P -M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 6.08 and 8.25 
P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at S. ig A.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 3.04 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 1.45 A.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at g. 31 A.M. 
[layer at 4.30 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sanj 





2h. oom 
3h. oom 
4h. oom 
5h. oom 
6h. oom 
7h. oom 


3203 
4 823 
6453 
8053 
g6&3 
II 23; 




8h. oom 
gh. oom. 
gh. s8m. 
loh. 58m. 
nh. s8m. 
I2h. 58m. 


12 893 
M473 
15923 
17653 

ig 163 
20773 


.... 


I3h. 5801. 
14(1. s8m. 
I5h. 56m. 
l6h. 56m. 
I7h. 54m- 


22483 
24 143 
25 633 
27 '53 
28543 














56 








.... 


ih. 4om. 


2763 


25 










.... 


7h. 03m. 


I 213 


16 








85 
80 


... 


igm. 


5'9 


... 


6h. igm. 


o i8g 


32 
38 
46 

57 








.... 


o8m. 


192 




6h. o8m. 


gSsz 


26 

32 
8 
18 
19 




nli. 41111. 


8732 


.... 


I7h. 4im. 


26732 










.... 


gh. 56m. 


15907 


12 


.... 


I5h. 56m. 
4h. 1 6m. 
5h. 42m. 
Iih. 4Om. 


25 697 

7 212 

8955 

1 8 2QO 


21 

39 
28 

22 



162 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLK. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 









Rate of 






V 


o 






Collected. 




Filtration. 


s 




c 


S 












fee 


P ' d f 


y5 * ^ 


3 ^ 




u 

D 











in u 




Service Since 


J.E V 


^^ 




.Q 






Number 


M 





o 

rt 


Last 


***9 


o. S 










of 


t> 


Ji " 


u 


Washing. 


^ rt .y 





Remarks. 


15 


Date. 


Hour. 


Run. 


'-' '" 
* 3 

y c 


O 3 


X 
o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


v ^ CJ 


13 




'g 








Is 


O.? 


i 




J 


& 




tn 








u 


Z 






S. 








1896 




















2857 


May 12 


3.00 A.M. 


I 4 2 


27.0 


log 




ih. 33m. 


2 566 


25 




2867 


" 12 


g.OO " 


142 


27.0 


109 




7h. 33m. 


12 196 


54 




2873 


" 12 


12. OO M. 


142 


27.0 


log 


. . . 


loh. 3im. 


1 6 796 


22 


Agitated surface of sand 


2877 


" 12 


8.30 P.M. 


M3 


23.0 


93 




4h. jom. 


6 711 


19 


layer at 10.26 A.M. 


2881 


" 13 


2.00 A*I. 


M3 


27.0 


.109. 


f 


,rjh. 3801. 


1 5' 301- 




Agitated surface of sand 


2885 


13 


*fc. v od '' 


M3;. 


26.* 


107. 




15(1. 3Sm. 


25031, 


12 


layer at 1.38 A.M. 


2891 


13 


L.OQ P.-M. 


MT 


2Jf.B 


,cVj 


V- '* 


3h. asm. 




n 




2896 


13 


! 7.O(i f * 


144.;. 


27.9 




. . . 


gh. 2im. 


14^913, 


'3 


Agitated surface of sand 


2900 


M 


4 3-oQ A.M. 


145 


27.0 


109 


, . 


48m. 


i 258 


JO 


layer at 5.15 P.M. 


2905 


" M 


- ~9";oo i L 


MS- 


27.0 


109 




6h. 48m. 


10818 


4 




2909 


M 


2.o8 P.M. 


MS 


26.0 


105 




ilh. 54m. 


ig 1 18 


37 


Agitated surface of sand 


2914 


M 


8.00 " 


MS 


27.0 


109 




i/h. 46m. 


28748 


80 


layer at 2.02 P.M. 


2919 


'5 


I.OO A.M. 


146 


27.0 


log 




4h. O2m. 


6430 


16 




2923 


" IS 


8.00 " 


146 


27.0 


log 




i ih. O2m. 


17 640 


16 




2927 


IS 


11.00 " 


146 


27.0 


log 




I4h. oom. 


23 340 


52 Agitated surface of sand 


2932 


" 15 


5.15 P.M. 


M7 


26.5 


107 




3h. I4m. 


5 1 20 


M 


layer at 9.09 A.M. 


2961 


'5 


II. OO ' 


M7 


27.0 


log 




8h. 5gm. 


14 280 


'IS 




2970 


" 16 


5.OO A.M. 


M7 


26.5 


107 


.... 


I4h. 57m. 


24 020 


28 


Agitated surface of sand 


2981 


" 16 


1O.OO " 


148 


25.0 


101 




58111. 


i 700 


19 


layer at 4.35 A.M. 


2991 


" 16 


3.OO P.M. 


148 


26.0 


105 




5h. 5801. 


g 610 


15 




2999 


" 18 


1. 17 " 


149 


25.0 


IOI 


1-4 


0501. 


215 


1 08 




3000 


" 18 


1.27 


M9 


25.0 


IOI 


i . 5 


1 5m. 


435 


40 




3002 


" 18 


3.oo ' 


149 


24.8 


100 


i. g 


ih. 48m. 


2805 


9 1 




3008 


" 18 


6.05 " 


149 


24.5 


99 


3-o 


4 h. 53m. 


7355 


192 




30IO 


" 18 


9.00 " 


14Q 


25 .0 


IOI 


2 -1 


7h. 4801. 


II 695 







3015 


" 18 


12. OO " 


149 


25.0 


IOI 


J ' V 

4.0 


loh. 48m. 


16 145 


34 




3018 


" 19 


3.OO A.M. 


M9 


25.0 


IOI 


5.4 


13(1. 48m. 


20655 


57 




3024 


19 


6.0O " 


149 


25.0 


IOI 


6.0 


loh. 4Sm. 


25 155 


5' 




3027 


19 


8.30 " 


M9 


25.0 


IOI 


7.0 


igh. I3m. 


28 845 


26 




3032 


" 19 


12. OO M. 


M9 


24.5 


99 


8.8 


22h. 48m. 


34085 


65 


[layer at 2.22 P.M. 


3036 


19 


3.OO P.M. 


149 


25.0 


IOI 


6.0 


25(1. 45m. 


38355 


43 


Agitated surface of sand 


3041 


19 


6.OO " 


M9 


25.0 


IOI 


8.2 


28h. 45m. 


42885 


37 


[layer at 10.38 P.M. 


3044 


19 


g.OO " 


M9 


25.5 


103 


9.2 


2ih. 45m. 


47345 


3'5 


Agitated surface of sand 


3050 


' 20 


I.OO A.M. 


150 


26.0 


105 


. . . . 


osm. 


112 


192 


D. Application of chemi- 


3051 


" 20 


I.IO " 


150 


25.0 


IOI 


1.3 


15m. 


372 


99 


D. cals unsatisfactory on 


3053 


" 20 


3.OO " 


'SO 


25.0 


IOI 


I .C 


2h. osm. 


3082 


79 


D. run No. 150; chem- 


3057 


" 20 


6.0O " 


151 


25.0 


IOI 


1 .7 


3im. 


770 


65 


ical feed-pipe broken. 


3060 


" 20 


8.30 " 


151 


25.0 


IOI 


2. I 


3h. oim. 


4480 


32 




3069 


" 20 


12.00 M. 




25.0 


101 


3-3 


6h. 3im. 


973 


57 




3072 


" 20 


3.OO P.M. 


151 


25.0 


IOI 


5-4 


gh. 3im. 


M T 5 


30 




3077 


" 20 


6.00 " 


'5i 


25.0 


101 


6.1 


I2h. 3im. 


18 620 


56 




3082 


" 2O 


g.OO " 


'Si 


25.0 


101 


8-3 


15!!. 3im. 


23050 


41 


[layer at II. II P.M. 


3o8( 


" 20 


12. OO " 


151 


25.0 


IOI 


5-9 


i8h. 2gm. 


27 260 


48 


Agitated surface of sand 


3089 


" 21 


3.0O A.M. 


"Si 


24.0 


97 


9-3 


2ih. 29m. 


31 760 


62 


Agitated surf.S.L.,4.3iA.M. 


393 


" 21 


6.00 " 


J 5I 


23-5 


95 


9.6 


24!!. 27m. 


35940 


73 


Agitated surface of sand 


3095 


" 21 


7-54 " 


152 


25.5 


103 


2.3 


osm. 


log 


231 


layer at 6. 16 A.M. 


3096 


" 21 


8.04 


152 


25.5 


103 


1.6 


ism. 


379 


118 




309? 


" 21 


8.30 " 


152 


25.5 


103 


1.6 


4im. 


939 


60 




3101 


" 21 


12.00 M. 


152 


25.0 


IOI 


2.7 


4h. um. 


628g 


65 




3108 


" 21 


3.OO P.M. 


I 5 2 


24.5 


99 




7h. um. 


10889 


6g 




3112 


" 21 


6.0O " 


152 


25.0 


IOI 


4-3 


loh. um. 


15 319 


69 




3H5 


" 21 


g.OO " 


152 


25.0 


IOI 


6.1 


I3h. um. 


19759 


47 




3118 


" 21 


12. OO " 


152 


25.0 


IOI 


8.1 


i6h. um. 


24 229 


73 




3"3 


" 22 


3.OO " 


152 


23.5 


T95 


9.6 


Igh. urn. 


28 639 


72 


[layer at 3.21 A.M. 


312- 


" 22 


6.0O " 


152 


25.0 


IOI 


g.c 


22h. ogm. 


32989 


98 


Agitated surface of sand 


3I3C 


" 22 


8.30 " 


152 


24.0 


97 


9.8 


24h. 37m. 


36 559 


88 


Agitated surface of sand 


313: 


" 22 


10.24 " 


53 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


osm. 


130 


87 


layer at 7.2i^A.M. 


3'34 


" 22 


11.34 " 


153 


24.0 


97 


1.7 


I5m. 


370 


99 




3'3; 


" 22 


I2.0O M. 


'53 


25.0 


IOI 


2.O 


ih. 4101. 


2 580 


66 




3M! 


" 22 


3.OO P.M. 


153 


24.5 


99 


3-o 


ih. -| mi. 


7030 


39 




3M* 


" 22 


6.OO " 


153 


25.5 


103 


4-3 


7h. 4im. 


II 560 


6t 




3151 


" 22 


9.OO " 


153 


25.0 


IOI 


6-5 


loh. 4im. 15 970 


41 


[layer at 11.54 P.M. 


315 C 


" 22 


12.00 " 


'53 


25.0 


IOI 


4.2 


I3h. 3gm. 20 340 


98 


Agitated surface of sand 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



163 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 









Rate of 


1) 




u 
o 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


1 




g 
(75 . 


o 
IB 




1 




Number 


1 


in i_ 
c u 

_o a. 


o 


Period of 
ServiceSince 


t.c . 


3 

u u . 








E 






o! 
Run. 


s 




3 

X 


Last 
Washing. 


M^ 


O.U 


Remarks. 


2; 








Ei. ~ 


< 3 




Hours and 


v* u 


.2.1 




3 


Date. 


Hour. 




u c 


.1 v.S 




m 


Minutes. 




V C 




1 








5 


~ o. ? 


2 







F 






1896 




















3164 


May 23 


g.l8 A.M. 


154 


55-0 


222 


6.0 


o8m. 


487 


35 


D. Run No. 154 was a 


3165! 23 


9.28 " 


154 


55-o 


222 


6.0 


iSm 


957 


23 


D. special run at the 


3166 


23 


9-38 " 


154 


55-0 


222 


6.0 


28m. 


M47 


26 


1). request of Filter 


3167 


23 


10. 08 


154 




2I 4 


6.0 


58m. 


2977 


31 


D. Company. 


3168 


23 


10.38 " 


154 


50.0 


2O 2 


6.1 


ill. 28m. 


6617 


27 


D. 


3175 


25 


12.00 M. 


'55 


29.5 


I 2O 


2.7 


ih. 4gm. 


3322 


74 




3178 


25 


2.00 P.M. 


'55 


29.0 


118 


4.0 


3h. 4gm. 


6832 


43 




3182 


25 


6.OO " 


155 


30.0 


122 


5-1 


7h. 4gm. 


14 132 


28 




3185 


" 25 


8.00 " 


155 


30.0 


122 


6-5 


gh. 4gm. 


17932 


21 




3189 


" 25 


12. OO " 


155 


30.0 


122 


5-1 


I3h. 47m 


24842 


34 


Agitated surface of sand 


3192 


" 26 


2.OO A.M. 


155 


30.0 


122 


6.5 


I5h. 47m. 


28 362 


34 


layer at 11.09 p M. 


3148 


" 26 


6.00 " 


155 


29.0 


IIS 


4-' 


igh. 45m. 


35 172 


35 


Agitated surface of sand 


3200 


" 26 


7-39 " 


156 


29.0 


118 


1.8 


osm. 


133 


114 


layer at 5.06 A.M. 


3201 


" 26 


7-49 ' 


156 


30-0 


122 


I. g 


15m. 


413 


76 




3203 


" 26 


8.30 ' 


156 


30.0 


122 


2.1 


56m. 


I&43 


134 




3209 


" 26 


10.00 " 


156 


30.0 


122 


2.8 


2h 26m. 


4313 


25 




3213 


" 26 


2.OO P.M. 


156 


30.0 


122 


5.0 


6h. 26m. 


u 533 


34 




3216 


" 26 


4.OO " 


156 


30.0 


122 


6-5 


8h. 26m. 


15203 


46 




3222 


" 26 


8.00 " 


156 


30.0 


122 


5-5 


I2h. 24m. 


22543 


. 50 


Agitated surface of sand 


3225 


" 26 


10.00 " 


156 


30.0 


122 


7.0 


I4h. 24m. 


26143 


52 


layer at 6.20 P.M. 


3229 


" 27 


2.OO A.M. 


I5 6 


30.0 


122 


7-5 


i8h. 22m. 


32883 


46 


Agitated surface of sand 


3233 


27 


5.io " 


157 


25.0 


101 


1.8 


nm. 


130 


81 


layer at 11.58 P.M. 


3234 


" 27 


5.20 ' 


157 


30.0 


122 


2.1 


2im. 


490 


73 




3237 


27 


7.30 " 


157 


30.0 


122 


3. I 


2h. 3im. 


4480 


46 




3241 


27 


12. OO M. 


'57 


30.0 


122 


6.0 


7h. otm. 


12 670 


135 


[layer at 2.14 P.M. 


3246 


27 


3.00 P.M. 


'57 


2g.o 


118 


5-1 


gh. 5gm. 


I77IO 


30 


Agitated surface of sand 


3256 


27 


6.OO " 


157 


30.0 


122 


6.9 


I2h. sgm. 


22 980 


34 


Agitated surface of sand 


3261 


27 


g.20 " 


,58 


30.0 


122 


2.O 


05 m. 


182 


206 


layer at 7.13 P.M. 


3262 


27 


9-30 " 


158 


30.0 


122 


2.0 


I5m. 


422 


152 




3265 


27 


12.00 ' 


158 


30.o 


122 


3-3 


2h. 45m. 


4982 


57 




3267 


" 28 


3.OO A.M. 


158 


30.0 


122 


7-1 


5h. 45m. 


10342 


51 


Agitated surface of sand 


3273 


" 28 


6.00 " 


T5S 


30.0 


122 


5-9 


8h. 43m. 


15 702 


47 


layer at 3.11 A.M. 


3276 " 28 


7.30 " 


158 


30.0 


122 


7-3 


loh. 13111. 


18362 


43 


Agitated surface of sand 


3280 28 


10.00 ' 


158 


2g.5 


1 2O 


7-0 


I2h. 4im. 


22 4O2 


54 


layer at 7.51 A.M. 


3283 ' 28 


1 I.OO " 


159 


2g-5 


1 2O 


1.9 


05 m. 


157 


246 




3284 


28 


11.20 " 


159 


29. o 


I 2O 


2.0 


I5m. 


447 


158 




3295 


" 28 


2.00 P.M. 


"59 


30.0 


122 


2-9 


2h. 55111. 


5177 


162 




3298 


" 28 


4.00 " 


159 


30.0 


122 


4.2 


4h. 55m. 


8737 


300 




3306 


" 28 


8.00 ' 


1 60 


30.0 


122 


2.7 


2h. 3001. 


4497 


423 


D.I 


3310 


" 28 


9-35 " 


161 


30.0 


122 


2.0 


05111. 


193 


668 


D. 


33" 


." 28 


9-45 


161 


30.0 


122 


2.O 


I5m. 


443 


560 


X 


3312 


" 28 


9-58 ' 


161 


30.0 


122 


2.O 


28m. 


833 


650 


). Prescribed amount 


3316 


" 28 


11.05 


162 


30.0 


122 


I. 9 


osm. 


157 


460 


3. } of chemicals in- 


3320 


" 28 


11.25 " 


162 


30.0 


122 


2.0 


13111. 


337 


345 


3. sufficient. 


3326 


" 29 


12.56 A.M. 


163 


30.0 


122 


2.0 


05111. 


165 


715 


3. 


3330 


29 


1. 06 " 


163 


30.0 


122 


2.1 


15m. 


435 


394 


D. 


3333 


29 


2.00 " 


163 


30.0 


122 


2-3 


ill. ogm. 


2065 


510 


D.J 


3340 


29 


4.OO " 


163 


30.0 


122 


4 .8 


3h. ogm. 


5625 


363 




3342 


29 


4-35 " 


163 


30.0 


122 


5-7 


3h. 44m. 


6635 


275 




3346 


29 


5-59 ' 


164 


28.0 


114 


2.1 


osm. 


293 


151 




3348 


29 


6.09 


164 


24.0 


97 


2.2 


ISm. 


473 


149 




3356 


" 29 


7-3 " 


164 


25.0 


tor 


2.2 


ih. 3601. 


2523 


80 




3361 


29 


12.05 P.M. 


165 


29.5 


1 20 


2-5 


45m. 


875 


212 




3364 


29 


2.00 " 


1 66 


29-5 


1 20 


3-1 


ih. oom. 


I 888 


I2 9 




3368 


29 


6.00 " 


169 


30.0 


122 


2.O 


28m. 


954 


465 




3375 


29 


8.19 " 


171 


30.0 


122 


2.1 


I5m. 


493 


118 




3380 


30 


12.27 A.M. 


174 


20. o 


81 


I.I 


1501. 


344 


128 




3384 


30 


2.00 " 


174 


20. o 


81 


1-5 


ill. 48m. 


2 184 


222 




3388 


30 


6.26 " 


175 


29.5 


120 


2.1 


26m. 


720 


415 




3394 


30 


8.00 " 


176 


29.5 


1 20 


2.1 


1401. 


402 


275 




3400 


30 


10.15 " 


177 


30.0 


122 


2.2 


3Om. 


93 


475 




3401 


" 30 


I2.OO M. 


178 


30.0 


122 


2.1 


28m. 


863 


169 


Agitated surface of sand 


3434 


June 2 


3.50 P.M. 


179 


34.0 


138 


3-3 


2gm. 


I ooil 289 


layer at 3.27 P.M. 



164 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 









Rale of 


j 




S 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







C 

c/5 . 


O 

x 




* 






^ 


c v 




Period of 


u c ** 




1 






Number 


a 


Jo. 




ServiceSince 


^le ** 


u u - 




3 






of 
Run. 


Si 


usJ3 


V 

X 


Last 
Washing. 


^fe 





Remarks. 


K 


Date. 


Hour. 






c< o 




Hours and 


*9 .H 


--I 












u c 


ul 




Minutes. 




C 




! 








^ 

U 


4J ^ 
~ C- N 


1 




-25 






S 






I8g6 




















3436 


June 2 


4-37 P.M. 


'79 


34-5 


140 


4.0 


ih. i6m. 


2 7OI 


620 




343g 


" 2 


6. 20 " 


181 


20.5 


83 


2.1 


15111- 


410' igi 




3442 


" 2 


10.37 " 


182 


27.0 


log 


5-1 


2h. 25m. 


3989 22 




3447 


3 


3.30 A.M. 


183 


25.0 


IOI 


3.1 


2h. 56m. 


4448 


36 




3451 


3 


6 00 " 


184 


25.0 


IOI 


2.7 


3im. 


745 


44 




3454 


3 


9. co " 


184 


25.0 


IOI 




3h. 3im. 


5 345 


26 




3458 


3 


12.00 M. 


184 


25.0 


IOI 


6.7 


6h. 26m. 


434 


25 




3460 


3 


2.OO P.M. 


184 


20.0 


81 


9-5 


8h. 1301. 


2 145 


50 


Agitated surface of sand 


3464 


3 


4.30 " 


185 


24-5 


99 


2.5 


2h. torn. 


3356 


70 


layer at I 06 P.M. 


3468 


3 


6. oo " 


185 


25.0 


IOI 


3-4 


3!]. 4001. 


5 526 


144 




3472 


3 


g oo ' 


1 86 


25.O 


IOI 


2.O 


ih. 2im. 


2 061 


16 




3478 


3 


12. OO " 


1 86 


25.0 


IOI 


4.6 


4(1. 2im. 


6451 


36 


[layer at 1.41 A.M. 


3482 


4 


3.00 A.M. 


186 


25.O 


IOI 


8. 5 


7h. 1401. 


10741 




Agitated surface of sand 


3484 


4 


3.30 


1 86 


21 .0 


85 




7h. 44m. 


H45I 


64 


Shut inlet 3.27 P.M., out- 


3487 


4 


6.00 " 


187 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. 0701. 


3198 


43 


let 3.38 P.M. 


3492 


4 


g oo " 


187 








- jj o7m 


7 588 


4-3 




3496 


" 4 


10.37 " 


187 


25-5 


103 


7.0 


6h. 44111. 


9948 


+ j 

54 




3498 


4 


12.O2 P.M. 


187 


23.0 


93 


9-7 


Sh. ogm. 


u 978 


38 




3501 


4 


3-43 " 


189 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


2im 


851 


24 




3506 


4 


6.05 " 


189 


25.0 


IOI 


2.4 


2h. 53111. 


4611 


116 




3509 


" 4 


8.40 " 


igo 


25.O 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. I2m. 


3422 


61 




3511 


" 4 


9-55 " 


I go 


25.0 


IOI 


3-2 


3h. 27m. 


5442 


7' 


Shut inlet g.53 P.M., out- 


3512 


" 4 


10.22 


191 


25.O 


IOI 


1-7 


O2m. 


5 


78 


let IO.OI P.M. 


3513 


4 


10.24 " 


igi 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


04111. 


loo 


44 




3514 


4 


10.26 " 


igi 


27-5 


in 


1-7 


o6m. 


155 


35 




3515 


4 


10.28 " 


191 27.5 


i u 


1-7 


oSm. 


2IO 


33 




3516 


4 


10.30 " 


igi 


25.0 


IOI 




lom. 


260 


22 




3517 


4 


10.32 " 


igi 


25.0 


101 


1-7 


I2m. 


310 


29 




351* 


4 


10.34 " 


igi 


27.O 


icg 


1-7 


14111. 


365 


33 




3519 


4 


10.36 " 


igi 


25.O 


IOI 


17 


i6m. 


4"5 


23 




3520 


4 


10.38 " 


191 


27.0 


log 




i8m. 


47 


27 




3521 


4 


10.40 " 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


2om. 


520 


43 




3522 


4 


10.42 " 


igi 


27-0 


tog 


1-7 


22m. 


575 


10 




3523 


4 


10.44 " 


igi 


27.O 


log 


1.7 


24m. 


630 


15 




3524 


4 


10.46 " 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


I " 


26m. 


680 


87 




3525 


4 


10.48 " 


igi 


25 .O 


101 


1-7 


28m. 


730 


99 




3526 


4 


10.50 " 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


30in. 


780 


1 1 




352- 


4 


1O.52 " 


igi 


25.0 


10; 


1-7 


32m. 


830 


114 




3528 


4 


10.55 " 


igi 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


35m. 


910 


"7 




3529 


4 


11.05 


igi 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


45m. 


I 160 


16 




3530 


4 


1 1. 2O " 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


i.S 


ill. oom. 


I 540 


25 




3531 


4 


11.50 " 


igi 


25-0 


IOI 


2.O 


ih. 3om. 


2350 


52 




3535 


5 


12. 2O A.M. 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. oom. 


3 ioo 


27 




3536 


5 


12.50 " 


191 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. 3om. 


3870 


46 




3537 


5 


1. 2O " 


igi 


25.0 


101 


2.2 


3h. oom. 


4 620 


33 




3539 


5 


3.22 " 


Ig2 


30.O 


122 


2-3 


ih. O2m 


I 848 


18 




3543 


5 


6,co " 


192 


29.5 


I 2O 


3-9 


3h. 4Om. 


6528 


94 




3556 


5 


4-55 P.M. 


197 


35-0 


142 


2-5 


35m. 


" 134 


Si 




3559 


5 


10.00 " 


200 


30.0 


132 


2.1 


5om. 


I 519 


7 




3586 


6 


2.30 A M. 


201 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. I2m. 


3386 


9 




359 6 


6 


7.48 " 


2O3 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


53m. 


I 312 


14 




3624 


6 


10.55 " 


203 


25.0 


IOI 


2.6 


4h oom. 


5992 


29 




3629 


" 6 


1.55 P.M. 


2O4 


34-5 


140 


2.9 


ih. 03m. 


2 016 


14 




3632 


" 6 


3.OO " 


2O4 


33-5 


136 


3-1 


2h. oSm. 


4 116 


12 




3657 


9 


12.50 " 


2O5 


25 .0 


IOI 


2.1 


ih. 54m. 


2854 


170 




3660 


9 


5-OO " 


2O6 


25.0 


IOI 


I. g 


ih. 22m. 


2074 


39 




3669 


1 10 


11.15 A.M. 


207 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


56m. 


I 415 


ii 


Agitated sutface of sand 


3672 


" 10 


I.OO P.M. 


207 


25.0 


IOI 


2.6 


2h. 4im. 


4045 


9 


layer at 10.06 A.M. 


3676 


" 10 


3.30 " 


207 


25.0 


IOI 


5.2 


4h. nm. 




13 




3682 


" ii 


10.32 A.M. 


207 


25.0 


IOI 


5-7 


8h. 4im. 


12945 


M 




3685 


" ii 


I.OO P M. 


208 


25.0 


IOI 




25m. 


644 


7 




3693 


" ii 


3.42 " 


208 


25.0 


IOI 


2.6 


3h. 07m. 


4804 


ib 




3699 


" 12 


11. II A M. 


2Og 


2S-0 


IOI 


1-7 


3im. 


704 


9 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 









Rate of 


flj 




t> 

Q 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 

tk 




C 

(7) . 


Js 




t* 






v. m u 




Period of 


V. ff 


9 




i 






Number 


s. 


o a 


*d 


Service Since 




u u - 


















Last 








s 

a 






of 
Run. 


S ; 


rt ii Z 


V 

re 


Washing. 


% 


at 


Remarks. 


r. 


Date. 


Hour. 




S.I 

C 


1^1 


o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


|*| 


V C 




! 








U 


5 a? 
S 


J 




4* a 3 




H 






1896 
















- 




3703 


June 12 


1.38 P.M. 


209 


25.0 


IOI 


2.; 


2h. sSm. 


4474 


12 




3706 


" 12 


2.48 " 


209 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


4h. ogm. 


6184 


12 




3713 


44 13 


11.02 A.M. 


2IO 


25.0 


IOI 


1 .5 


22m. 


485 


23 




3719 


13 


I.OO P.M. 


210 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. 2om. 


3585 


15 




3725 


13 


2-55 " 


2IO 


25.0 


IOI 


2.7 


4h. ism. 


6465 


51 




3728 


13 


5-02 ' 


210 


25.0 


IOI 


4-3 


6h. I2m. 


9335 


71 




3737 


" 15 


g.OO " 


2IO 








6h. 4om. 


IO 1 2 




B. Collected before the 


3741 


" 15 


10.15 A.M. 


211 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


5om. 


I 248 


10 


filter was in opera- 


3744 


15 


12.23 P.M. 


211 


25.0 


IOI 


2.7 


2h. sSm. 


4484 


25 


tion and after pe- 


3748 


15 


3.02 " 


212 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


37m. 


I 005 


19 


riod of rest of 39 


3754 


15 


4.31 " 


212 


25 o 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. o6m. 


3355 


II 


hours 30 minutes. 


3760 


" 16 


10.25 A.M. 


213 


38.0 


154 


3-7 


38m. 


1429 


9 




3764 


" 16 


12.38 P.M. 


214 


38.0 


154 




32m 


i 276 


5 




3797 


" 18 


10.10 A.M. 


216 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


ih. 07m 


1718 


28 




3802 


" 18 


12.34 P-M. 


216 


25.0 


IOI 


3-1 


3h. 3im 


5398 


15 




3810 


" 18 


2.49 ' 


216 


25.0 


IOI 


5-0 


5h. 46111 


8678 


8 




3815 


" 18 


4.55 


216 


25.0 


IOI 


7-4 


7h. 47m 


ii 678 


28 


[layer at 11.23 A M. 


3819 


19 


10.00 A.M. 


216 


25.0 


IOI 


7-9 


gh. 22m 


14 118 


39 


Agitated surface of sand 


"gOE 


'* IQ 


12.56 P.M. 


216 








i '' h i sin 


1 8 i j6 


J.O 


Shut outlet 12.56 P.M. 


3830 


* V 

19 


2.59 " 


217 


25.0 


IOI 


1.8 


45m. 


1072 


q.\J 

6g 




3846 


19 


4-32 ' 


217 


25.0 


IOI 


1.8 


2h. i8m. 


3422 


64 




3860 


' 20 


11.33 A.M. 


218 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


38m. 


976 


67 




3863 


" 20 


12.43 P-M. 


218 


25.5 


103 


1.7 


ih. 48m. 


2 716 


6g 




3872 


44 20 


3-42 " 


219 


25.0 


101 


1.6 


25m. 


6 3 8 


88 




3875 


14 20 


4.38 " 


219 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


ih. 2im. 


2038 


IOI 




3884 
3889 


" 22 
" 22 


9.00 A.M. 

10.15 44 


219 
219 












69 

74 


B. Coll. before filterwas in oper- 
ation and after rest of 3gh.3om. 


25.0 


IOI 


2.0 


3h. 28m. 


5258 


3891 


44 22 


12.25 P.M. 


2IQ 








^h. 38m. 


8 538 


300 


A. Shut inlet 12.21 P.M., 


3895 


44 22 


1.18 " 


22O 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


23m. 


u DJ IJ 

533 


j"" 
96 


outlet 12.31 P.M. 


3900 


" 22 


3.01 " 


220 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


2h. o6m. 


3213 


79 




3904 


44 22 


5.00 " 


22O 


25.0 


IOI 


2.6 


4h. osm. 


6.243 


97 




3910 


44 23 


9.52 A.M. 


220 









5h. 25m. 


8*275 





Shut outlet 9.52 A.M. 


3925 


' 23 


II. 12 " 


221 


25.0 


IOI 


1.8 


58m. 


M38 


216 




2027 


" "2"\ 


I. 30 P.M. 


221 


2S O 


IOI 


2 1 


*"iti i&m 


A O I ? 






3V ' 
3931 


^ J 

' 23 


3-20 " 


221 


25.0 


IOI 




5h. o6m. 


4 y io 

7688 


62 




riQ'l | 


* * 2""l 


4.42 " 


221 








6h. 28m. 


n 7Cn 


77 "shut ruitlpf A At P M 


3939 


44 24 


10.17 A.M. 


222 


25.0 


IOI 


1.8 


ih. 33m. 


2389 


/ / 
840 




3948 


1 24 


12.39 P.M. 


222 








j. cern 


C QJ.6 


47 


Shut outlet 12.39 P.M. 


3951 


" 24 


1.34 " 


223 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


38m. 


j y-t" 

793 


385 




3955 


24 


3-24 


223 


25.0 


IOI 


1.8 


2h. 28m. 


3643 


355 




39 6 5 


24 


4-51 


223 


25-9 


IOI 


2. I 


3h. 55m. 


5753 


215 




3979 


' 25 


9.50 A.M. 


224 


25.0 


101 


1.4 


O3m. 


93 


45 




3980 


' 25 


9-55 " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1-4 


o8m. 


223 


. . . . 




3981 


44 25 


IO.OO " 


22 A 


26.0 


IO5 


I . J 


i im 








JV 

3982 


44 25 


10.05 4I 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


i-4 


i8m. 


483 


57 




3983 


' 25 


IO. IO " 


224 


25 o 


IOI 




23m. 


613 


215 




3984 


' 25 


10.15 " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


i. 5 


28m. 


733 


515 




3985 


1 25 


IO.2O " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


33m. 


863 


i 750 




3987 


' 25 


10.25 " 


22 4 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


38m. 


983 


362 




3988 


' 25 


10.30 " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


43m. 


i 103 


i 780 




399 i 


1 25 


10.35 " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


48m. 


1233 


215 




3992 


' 25 


10.40 ' 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


53m. 


1353 


445 




3993 


' 25 


10.45 44 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.6 


58m. 


M73 


950 




3994 


1 25 


10.50 ' 


22 4 


26.0 


105 


1-7 


ih. O3m. 


i 613 


249 




3995 


' 25 


11.05 44 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


ih. i8m. 


1983 


420 




3996 


' 25 


11.20 " 


22 4 


25.0 


IOI 


'7 


ih. 33m. 


2373 


990 




3997 


1 25 


"35 " 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.7 


ih. 48m. 


2753 


395 




3998 


' 25 


11.50 ' 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.9 


2h. 0301. 


3 ID 3 


900 




3999 


' 25 


12.05 P-M. 


224 


25.0 


IOI 


1.9 


2h. i8rn- 


3523 


365 




4002 


' 25 


1. 15 " 


225 


25.0 


IOI 




46m. 


i 166 


510 




4005 


" 25 


2.31 " 


225 








''li O2m> 


3 060 


250 


Shut outlet 2.31 P.M. 


4006 


44 25 


3.J6 41 


" j 
226 


25.0 


IOI 


1.4 




236 


600 




4009 


44 25 


4-25 " 


226 






ih. 22m- 


2091 


173'Shut outlet 4.25 P.M. 



1 66 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4.- Continued. 

Jewell System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


1 

i 

d 

E 

*H 

O 



\ 


Period of 
Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


I 

u - 

t> '- 

fcg 

y C 

Ii 

o 


1* 

"5 u 

obs 

n < 

u x 

= &? 
s 


Date. 


Hour. 


4013 
4024 
4028 
4031 
4034 
4035 
4037 
4042 
4044 
4048 
4052 
4055 
4056 
4062 
4064 
4068 
4070 

4073 
4082 
4100 
4105 
4108 
4114 
4116 
4117 
4118 
4119 
4120 
4121 
4123 
4"5 
4126 
4127 
4128 
4129 
4130 
4135 
4144 
4148 
4149 
4152 
4153 
4157 
4165 
4170 

4173 
4174 
4175 
4176 

4177 
4179 
4180 
4181 
4182 
4183 
4184 
4185 
4188 
4189 
4190 
4191 
4192 
4193 


1896 
June 25 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 27 
' 27 
' 27 
' 27 
" 27 
1 27 
' 29 
' 29 
29 
29 
1 29 
' 30 
' 30 
' 30 
" 30 
July 

>t 

" 2 
" 2 
" 2 
" 2 
2 
" 2 

" 3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

" I 

* * "\ 

" 3 
3 
" 3 


5.OO P.M. 
10.27 A.M. 
11.40 " 
1.14 P.M. 
2.35 " 
3-3 ' 
4-50 ' 
9.2O A.M. 
IO.26 " 
12.10 P.M. 
1.58 " 
3.20 ' f 
4.46 ' 
IO. l6 A.M. 
11.49 " 
1.28 P.M. 
3-38 " 
5.13 
10.14 A.M. 
12.45 P.M. 
2.52 " 
4-31 " 
10.25 A.M. 
11.25 " 
11.28 " 
11.31 " 
"34 ' 
"37 
11.40 ' 

I.I7 P.M. 
2.08 " 
2.14 ". 
2.l6 
2.18 " 
2.22 " 
2.27 " 

4-34 " 

10.29 A.M. 
II-30 " 
12. OO M. 
12.35 P.M. 
I.O4 " 
3-05 " 
IO.I4 A.M. 
12.15 P.M. 
12.50 " 

12.55 " 

.00 ' 

.05 " 

.10 " 

.15 " 

.20 ' 

.25 " 

.30 ' 

35 
1.40 ' 

1-45 " 

2.OO ' 
2.15 " 
2.30 ' 

2.45 " 
3-oo ' 
3-15 " 


227 
227 
227 
228 
228 
229 
229 
229 
230 
230 
231 
232 
232 
233 
233 
233 
233 
233 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
234 
235 
235 
235 
235 
236 
236 
237 
237 
237 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
- 238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 


25.0 
25.0 


101 
101 


i-5 
1.8 


i8m. 
2h. I4m. 
3h. 27m. 
ih. i6m. 
2h. 37m. 
4om. 
2h. oom. 


465 

3235 
5204 
I 921 
4 026 
I 005 
2945 


347 
23 
61 

19 
79 
9 
29 

143 

44 
94 
315 
39 
41 
4 
6 

9 
ii 

9 

7 
5 
3 
^4 


Shut inlet 11.37 A.M., 
outlet 11.47 A.M. 
Outlet closed for wash. 

[wasting at end of run. 
Waste. Collected after 

Shut inlet 12.06 P.M., 
outlet 12.16 P.M. 

Agitated surface of sand 
layer at 9.00 A.M. 

[layer at 11.20 A.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Wasting I min., locu.ft. 
4 " 100 " 
7 "' 150 " 
Opening outlet. 

[layer at 2.11 P.M. 
Agitated surface of sand 
Starting to waste. 
Wasting 2 min., 45 cu.ft. 
4 " 95 " 
8 ' 155 
Opening outlet. 

Shut outlet 12. oo M. 
Shut outlet 12.15 P.M. 


25.0 


IOI 


1. 9 


25.0 
25.0 


101 
IOI 


2.0 

1.8 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


32m. 
2h. i6m. 
ih. 29111. 
1501. 
ih. 4im. 
36m. 
2h. ogm. 
3h. 48m. 
5h. sSm. 
7h. 33m. 
23m. 
2h. 54m. 
5h. oim. 
6h. 3im. 
8h. 53m. 
gh. som. 
gh. som. 
gh. 5001. 
gh. som. 
gh. 53in. 
gh. 55m. 
Ilh. 32m. 
I2h. 23m. 
I2h. 27m. 
I2h. 27m. 
I2h. 27m. 
I2h. 27m. 
I2h. 27m. 
39m. 
3h. oim. 
4h. O2m. 
4h. 32m. 
nm. 
4om. 
5om. 
4h. 2gm. 
3om. 
osm. 
lorn. 
I5m. 
2om. 
25m. 
3om. 
35m. 
4om. 
45m. 
5om. 
55m. 
ih. oom. 
ih. ism. 
ih. 3Om. 
ih. 45m- 
2h. oom. 
2h. I5m. 
2h. 3orr>. 


839 
3425 

2 194 
441 
2551 

937 
3577 
5787 
9067 
ii 267 
630 
4270 
7 290 
9338 
12730 
13 942 
13942 
13942 
i3g42 
14 oio 
14060 
16080 
16 890 
16937 
16937 
16937 
16 937 
16 937 
951 
4231 
5 701 
6406 
325 
965 
H55 
6 295 
8965 
114 
244 
344 
454 
594 
724 
834 
954 
064 
194 
214 
344 
794 

2 164 
2504 
2864 
3204 

3574 


25.0 

25-0 

25.0 
25.0 
25.0 

25.0 

25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
23.5 
23.5 
23-5 
23.5 

21. O 
21.0 
21.0 
21.0 
22.0 

23-5 
23.0 
15.0 
15-0 
16.0 
18.0 
18.0 
17.0 
23-5 
23-5 
23-5 


101 
IOI 
IOI 
101 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 
IOI 

95 
95 
95 
95 
85 
85 
85 
85 
89 

95 
93 
61 
61 
65 
73 
73 
69 

95 
95 
95 


1.9 
1-5 
1-5 
i-7 

2.1 
2.2 

6.6 

9.6 

1.8 

2.6 

6.1 
4.1 
9.0 
1.4 
1.4 

1-4 
1.4 
1.4 
1-5 
10.7 

II. 2 

8.7 
9.0 
9-5 
9-5 
9.6 

1.2 
2. I 

























49 
3 
H5 
144 
III 

9 
o 

2 

6 

IO 

I 
8 
15 

10 

13 

8 

7 
13 
6 
ii 
ii 
125 
8 
6 
24 
14 


23-5 
23-5 
23.5 
23-5 


95 
95 
95 
95 


I.I 
1.2 
1.6 
6.2 


23-5 
23.0 

20.0 
22. 
24.0 
25-0 
23.0 
24.0 

23-5 
24.0 

23-5 
23-5 
23.0 

23- 
23- 
2 3 . 

23- 
2'3- 


95 
93 

81 
89 
97 

IOI 

93 
97 
95 
97 
95 
95 
93 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 


.2 
.2 
3 

4 
4 
4 
-5 
.6 
.6 
7 
.8 
.8 
.8 
.8 
.8 

9 
2.O 
2.1 



The bacterial results of July I were lost through melting of the culture medium. 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



167 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 









Rate of 


.J 




g 




Remarks. 




Collected. 




Filtration. 


I 




c 


u 


u 

i 




Number 


s. 


in u 

JS. 


i 


Period of 
service Since 
Last 


U G . 


3 

u . 

u u 






s 






of 
Run. 


u . 


"S " 2 


V 

X 


Washing. 


^ 


U w 


,3 








i, w 


c< o 




Hours and 


-a^ u 


.s. 


2 


Date. 


Hour. 




C 




"o 


Minutes. 


ii 3!5 


'J C 


"rt 








li 


^ ex cT 


y. 




v re 3 


o ** 


V 
t/5 








u 




3 












1896 























4194 


July 3 


3.30 P.M. 


2 3 8 


23-5 


95 


2.2 


2h. 45m. 


3924 


16 








6 


3-27 " 


239 


23-5 


95 




37m. 


960 


281 






42333 
4234 


" 6 

" 6 


4-25 
5.00 ' 


239 
239 


24.0 

25.0 


97 

IOI 


6.8 

2-3 


ih. 35m. 
2h. oSm. 


2 380 

3 13 


223 

357 


Agitsted surface of 


sand 


42343 


" 6 


5-03 ' 


239 


25.0 


IOI 


2-5 


2h. iim. 


3 210 


362 


layer at 4.53 P.M. 




4235 


" 6 


5.06 ' 


239 


25.0 


IOI 


2.; 


2h. I4m. 


3 280 


372 






4236 


" 6 


5-09 " 


239 


25.0 


IOT 


2.7 


2h. 1 7m. 


3340 


399 






4237 


" 6 


5.12 ' 


239 


25.0 


IOI 


2-7 


2h. 2Om. 


3420 


393 






4238 


" 6 


5-15 " 


239 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


2h. 23111. 


3 5o 


435 






4246 
4253 

4257 


" 7 

7 
7 


IO.OO A.M. 
1. 00 P.M. 

2.43 " 


239 
239 
239 


25.0 

24.5 
25.0 


IOI 

99 

IOI 


5.0 

7-6 

2.0 


3h. 38m. 
7h. 3601. 
8h. 1701. 


5 680 
IOO2O 

12 870 


997 
341 
336 


[layer at 12.24 P - M - 
Agitsted surface of sand 
Agitated surface of sand 


4258 


" 7 


4-59 ' 


240 


23-5 


95 


3-3 


ih. 34m. 


2 364 


247 


layer at 2. 12 P.M. 




4275 


" 8 


5.10 ' 


241 


23-5 


95 


2.9 


54m. 


I 360 


99 






4280 


" 9 


IO.25 A.M. 


242 


24.0 


97 


2.1 


22m. 


522 


15 






4283 


9 


1 2. 2O P.M. 


242 


23.0 


93 


4-7 


2h. i/m. 


3 192 


o 






4302 


9 


3-25 " 


242 


25.0 


IOI 


6.3 


5h. 2om. 


7562 


'4 


Agitated surface of sand 


layer 


4315 
4318 


10 

" 10 


11.15 A.M. 
1. 09 P.M. 


243 
243 


25.0 

21 .5 


87 


4-9 
9.6 


2h. urn 
4h. 05m. 


4292 
5982 


38 
50 


at 2.15 V.M. and 4.35 P.M. 
Agitated 'surface of sand 


4321 


" 10 


3-14 " 


2.44 


25.0 


IOI 


2.3 


50m. 


I 281 


29 


layer at 1.27 P.M. 




4325 


" 10 


5.29 ' 


245 


25.0 


IOI 


2.0 


22m. 


534 


44 






4329 


" II 


10.37 A.M. 


245 


24.5 


99 


4-1 


2h. oom. 


2934 


39 






4334 


" II 


1. 08 P.M. 


246 


25.0 


IOI 


2.1 


38m. 


920 


3 






4347 


" II 


3.14 " 


247 


23.5 


95 


i-9 


1701. 


394 


3 






4362 


" II 


5.08 " 


247 


19.5 


79 




2h. urn 


344 


52 






4369 


" 13 


10.30 A.M. 


248 


25-0 


IOI 


i -9 


1301. 


33 


22 






4371 


13 


11.51 " 


248 


24-5 


99 


3.6 


ih. 3401 


2383 


25 






4373 


13 


3.OO P M. 


248 


25.0 


IOI 


5-1 


4h. 43m 


6973 


73 






4378 


13 


5-15 " 


2 49 


25.0 


IOI 


1-7 


04 m 


1 80 


58 




4397 


14 


IO.2I A.M. 


249 


25-0 


IOI 


4-2 


ih. 4om 


2 O4O 


5 


[layer at 12.16 P.M. 


4410 


" 14 


1.27 P.M. 


249 


25.0 


IOI 


5-1 


4h. 44m 


7O2O 


7 


Agitated surface of 


sand 


4423 


" 14 


3.29 " 


249 


25.0 


IOI 


5.8 


6h. 44m 


gglO 


9 


Agitated surface of 


sand 


4426 


14 


5-21 " 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


1.9 


1401 


423 


2 


layer at 3.21 P.M. 




4430 


15 


10.31 A.M. 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


ih. 55m 


4203 


6 






4431 


" 15 


11.32 " 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


2h. 55m 


4228 


23 


Agitated surface of 


sand 


4432 


15 


11.33 " 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


2h. 56m 


4253 


5 


layer at 11.28 A.M. 




4433 


15 


11-34 ' 


250 


25.0 


101 


2.8 


2h. 57 m 


4278 


2 






4434 


: 15 


11.35 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


2h. 58m 


4293 


5 






4435 


15 


11.36 ' 


250 


25- 


103 


2.8 


2h. 5gm 


43'8 


4 






4436 


15 


"37 " 


250 


26.0 


105 


2.8 


3(1. oom 


4348 


9 






4437 


ID 


11.38 " 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


3h. oim 


4373 


ii 




. 


4438 


1 15 


"39 " 


250 


25-0 


IOI 


2.8 


3h. 02m 


4398 


6 






4439 


15 


11.40 ' 


250 


25-0 


101 


2.8 


3h. 03m 


4423 


15 






4440 


15 


".57 " 


250 


25.0 


IOI 


3-0 


3h. 2om 


5833 


9 






4441 


15 


12.58 P.M. 


250 


25- 


103 


5.0 


4h. 2im 


6393 


3 






4444 


15 


2.II " 


250 


25- 


IOI 


7-7 


5h. 34m 


7233 


3 






4449 


" 15 


3-26 


250 


26. 


105 


6.8 


6h. 47m 


9973 


16 


Agitated surface of 


sand 


4453 


" 15 


5-20 ' 


251 


25- 


IOI 


2.2 


2701 


706 


12 


layer at 3.04 P.M. 




4457 


" 16 


9.42 A.M. 


251 


25- 


IOI 


2.<j 


ih. igm 


I 846 


9 






4460 


" 16 


1 1. 06 " 


251 


25. 


IOI 


5-7 


2h. 43m 


3936 


8 






4470 


' 16 


I.I4 P.M. 


251 


25- 


IOI 


4.c 


4h. 44tn 


6906 


5 


Agitated surface of 


sand 


4474 


" 16 


2-45 " 


251 


25- 


IOI 


7-i 


oh. ism 


9 136 


31 


layer at 12.42 P.M. 




4496 


" 16 


5-03 


252 


25- 


IOI 


2.1 


2gm 


582 


2 






4504 


" 17 


2.45 


252 


25- 


IOI 


3-5 


2h. o6m 


3052 


5 






45" 


" 18 


10. 19 A.M. 


253 


25. 


IOI 


2.C 


05111 


146 


32 






4512 


" 18 


IO.24 " 


253 


24.= 


99 


2.C 


lorn 


2 5 e 


19 






4513 


" 18 


10.29 " 


253 


25-C 


IOI 


2.1 


I5m 


386 








4514 


" 18 


10.34 " 


253 


25-c 


IOI 


2.2 


2om 


5 of 









4515 


" 18 


10.39 ' 


253 


25. c 


IOI 


2.; 


25111 


6 3 e 


12 








" 18 


10.44 ' 


253 


25-C 


1 IOI 


a. 4 


30tn 


766 


IO 






4517 


" 18 


10.49 ' 


253 


25. c 


> IOI 


2.J 


35m 


oof 


5 






4518 


" 18 


10.54 ' 


253 


25-< 


> IOI 


2.; 


4Om 


I OOf 


8 






45J3 


" 18 


10.59 " 253 


25- c 


> IOI 


2.' 


45m 


i 136 8 







1 68 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No 4. Continued. 
Jewell System. 









Rate of 


J 




i 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


E 




c 


_O 




. 








fr. 


Period of 


w ti 

u c 


a 




r 












Number 


fi 


-II. 


~6 


Service Since 




u 




e 






of 
Run 


u 


"rt j 
Ok. ;: 


t 


Last 
Washing. 


$ 


Q.U 


Remarks. 


5 








ft. 3 


o 3 


* 


Hours and 


ay 


rt . 




Is 


Date. 


Hour. 






J^ 1 


o 


Minutes. 


i rt 3 


C 




1 








u 


go.* 


O 




-JU 

h 


1 






1896 




















4520 


July 18 


II.O4 A.M. 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


2.7 


50m. 


I 276 


5 




4521 


" 18 


11.09 " 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


55m. 


1386 


235 




4522 


" 18 


11.14 " 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


3-o 


ih. oom. 


1526 


83 






" 18 


1 1 2Q * * 








3T 


i h i ^ TO 


2 OO^ 






4526 


" 18 


11.44 " 


253 
253 


25.0 


IOI 


* l 
4-1 


ih. 3om. 


2286 


8 




4531 


" 18 


11.59 " 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


4-7 


ih. 45m. 


2676 


5 




4532 


" 18 


12.14 P -M. 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


5-5 


2h. oom. 


3056 


5 




4533 


" 18 


12.44 " 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


7-4 


2h. 3om. 


3886 


8 




4534 


" 18 


I.I4 


253 


23.0 


93 


9.1 


3h. oom. 


4516 


4 




4535 


" 18 


1. 21 " 


253 


24.0 


97 


3-5 


3h. 05111. 


4616 


4 


Agitated surface of sand 


4536 


" 18 


1.22 " 


253 


23 5 


95 


3-5 


3h. o6m. 


4659 


97 


layer at 1.19 P.M. 


4537 


" 18 


1.23 " 


253 


15-0 


61 


3-5 


3h. 07m. 


4659 


182 




4538 


" 18 


1.24 


253 


18.0 


73 


3-6 


3h. 07m. 


4659 


62 


Wasting i min., 2OCU. ft. 


4539 


" 18 


1-25 


253 


18.0 


73 


3-6 


3h. O7m. 


4659 


30 


" 2 " 40 " 


4540 


" 18 


1.26 ' 


253 


22.5 


91 


3-7 


3h. 07m, 


4659 


27 


" 3 " 65 " 


454" 


" 18 


1.27 " 


253 


21.5 


87 


3-7 


3h. 0701. 


4659 


17 


Opening outlet. 


4542 


18 


1.28 " 


253 


22.5 


9 1 


3-8 


3h. o8m. 


4691 


12 




4543 


1 8 


1.29 " 


253 


23.0 


93 


3-8 


3h. ogm. 


4721 


14 




4544 


" 18 


1.30 " 


253 


23-5 


95 


3-8 


3h. lom. 


4746 


6 




4545 


" 18 


1.44 ' 


253 


25-5 


103 


4.6 


3h. 24m. 


5 196 


17 




4553 


" 18 


2.14 


253 


25-5 


103 


6.6 


3h. 54m 


5846 


5 




4554 


" 18 


2.44 ' 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


8.2 


4h. 24m. 


6596 


4 


[layer at 3.19 P.M. 


4556 


" 18 


3-14 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


9-7 


4h. 54m. 


7286 


9 


Agitated surface of sand 


4557 


" 18 


3.24 " 










4h ^Qm 


7 206 


157 


Wasting 2 min., 45 cu. ft. 


4559 


" 18 


3-44 " 


253 


25.0 


IOI 


7-7 


5h. ism. 


/ *"7" 

7776 


10 




4560 


" 18 


4.14 


253 


22. 


89 


9-3 


5h. 45m. 


8496 


. 42 




4565 


18 


5-21 


254 


25.0 


IOI 


2.0 


2im. 


530 


5 




457J 


" 20 


11.15 A.M. 


254 


25.0 


IOI 


5-o 


2h. 44m. 


4 160 


10 




4573 


" 20 


1.32 P.M. 


254 


25.0 


IOI 


4-1 


4h. 59 m - 


7430 


12 


Agitated surface of sand 


4578 


" 20 


3-52 " 


255 


26.5 


107 


2.1 


i6m. 


421 


3 


layer at 1.20 P.M. 


4580 


" 20 


5.09 ' 


255 


25-0 


IOI 


3-6 


ih. 33m. 


2 36l 


II 




4606 


" 21 


12.00 M. 


256 


25-5 


103 


3.8 


47m. 


I 180 


18 


[layer at 1.08 P.M. 


4609 


" 21 


1. 21 P.M. 


256 


25.0 


IOI 


2-7 


2n. osm. 


3070 


26 


Agitated surface of sand 


4612 


21 


3-12 " 


256 


24.0 


97 


5-8 


3h. 56m. 


5850 


44 


[layer at 4.36 P.M. 


4615 


21 


5-07 " 


256 


24.0 


97 


7-2 


5h. 49m. 


8620 


101 


Agitated surface of sand 


4620 


" 22 


Il.Og A.M. 


257 


25-0 


IOI 




45m. 


1495 


M3 


Shut inlet and outlet i i.io A.M. 


4622 


" 22 


1 1 "iQ " 










31171. 




87 


Shut outlet 11.59 A.M. 


4623 


" 22 


12.33 I'-M. 


259 


34-0 


138 


3-4 


I2m. 


354 


32 




4625 


" 22 


2.18 " 


260 


22.0 


89 


4.8 


54m. 


1441 


248 


Agitated surface of sand 


4631 


" 22 


4-45 " 


261 


25.0 


IOI 


2.8 


33m. 


858 


745 


layer at 2.45 P.M. 


4638 


" 23 


11.23 A.M. 


263 


21 .O 


85 


3-0 


44m. 


979 


5' 




4644 


23 


1.02 P.M. 


263 


22. 


8y 


2.0 


2h. 2im. 


2 969 


124 


Agitated surface of sand 


4646 


23 


3-45 " 


264 


20.0 


Si 


2.1 


39m. 


877 


96 


layer at 12.16 P.M. 


4647 


23 


4-54 ' 


264 


20. 


81 


9-9 


2h. i8m. 


2877 


141 




4679 


24 


1.03 ' 


266 


2O. O 


Si 


6.0 


ih. 32m. 


i 737 


60 




4687 


" 24 


2.46 " 


266 


20-5 


83 


4-5 


3h. I3m. 


3537 


27 


Agitated surface of sand 


4688 


24 


3.18 " 


266 


22.0 


89 


8.0 


3h. 45m. 


4 197 


126 


layer at 1.54 P.M. 


4693 


24 


5.02 " 


267 


2O-5 


83 . 


1.8 


3301. 


657 




[layer at 10.23 A.M. 


4706 


25 


11.14 A.M. 


267 


22. 


89 


. . . . 


3h. I3in. 


3947 


52 


\gitated surface of sand 


4709 


" 25 


1.07 P.M. 


268 


21-5 


87 


1.6 


I2m. 


264 


40 


[layer at 1.56 P.M. 


4713 


" 25 


3-21 " 


268 


20-5 


83 


5-4 


2h. ism. 


2 824 




Agitated surface of sand 


47i8 


25 


5-03 " 


268 


21. 


85 


5-o 


3h. 46m. 


4614 


70 


Agitated surface of sand 


4724 


27 


g.OO A.M. 


268 












32 


layer at 4.10 P.M. 


4728 


27 


11.48 " 


269 


20.5 


83 


2.2 


2h. I7m. 


2778 


7 


Agitated surface of sand 


4731 


27 


2. 02 P.M. 


269 


?O.O 


81 


7-3 


4h. 3im. 


3424 


38 


layer at 11.05 A.M. 


4735 


27 


3.16 " 


269 


21. 


85 


4-1 


5h. 43m. 


7038 


14 


Agitated surface of sand 


4737 


27 


5-02 " 


269 


21 .O 


85 


8-7 


7h. 22m. 


9078 


12 


layer at 2.47 P.M. 


4770 


28 


11.26 A.M. 


270 


25.0 


IOI 


2-3 


2im. 


525 


4 




4782 


" 28 


1. 06 P.M. 


270 


23-5 


95 


2.8 


ih. s8m. 


2 765 


8 


Agitated surface of sand 


4810 


29 


9-37 A.M. 


271 


24.0 


97 


1.7 


O4m. 


110 


9 


layer at 12.46 P.M. 


4811 


29 


9.42 ' 


271 


24.0 


97 


i-7 


ogm. 


250 


6 




4814 


29 


9-47 ' 


271 


24.0 


97 




I4m. 


350 


3 




4815 


" 29 


9-52 " 


271 


24.0 


97 


i.i 


igm. 


470 


17 





COMPOSITION Of OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 

TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Jewell System. 



169 









Rate of 


j 




a 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 

p 




c 


.H 















Period of 




X 









V 






Number 


0. 


Is.. 


c 


Service Since 


SS . 


o . 






3 






of 
Run. 




a v 


S 

33 


Last 
Washing. 


^ 


S.S 


Remarks. 




Date. 


Hour. 




t S 


c<! 




Hours and 


a* y 


2-i 




"rt 








u = 


.2 u^ 


o 


Minutes. 


g ts>0 


S 




1 








la 

u 


~ Q. ? 


3 







m U 






. 1896 




















4816 


July 29 


9-57 A.M. 


271 


23- 5 ! 95 


2.0 


24m. 


590 


IO 




4817 


" 29 


10. 02 


271 


23-5 95 


2.1 


29m. 


700 


4 




4820 


29 


10.07 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


2.2 


34m. 


820 


3 




4821 


29 


10.12 " 


271 


23.5 


95 


2.3 


39m. 


930 


3 




4822 


29 


10.17 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


2.6 


44m. 


I 060 


6 




4823 


29 


10.22 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


2.8 


4gm. 


1 160 


12 




4824 


29 


IO.27 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


3.1 


54m. 


I 2go 


10 




4825 


29 


10.32 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


3.5 


59m. 


I 400 


5 




4827 


29 


10.47 " 


271 


24.0 


97 


5-1 


ih. i IMI. 


I 760 


IO 




4828 


29 


11.02 


271 


22.5 


91 


7-0 


ih. 2gm. 


2 120 


IO 




4832 


' ' 2Q 


11.17 " 


271 


22. 5 


QI 


Q 2 


ih. 44m. 


2 110 






4833 


y 


1 1.32 ' ' 


* / A 
271 




y 


y' 


ih. 57m. 


t, -t>t" 

2 700 


70 


... , , , 


435 
4836 


" 29 
29 


11.47 " 
12.02 P.M. 


<F f 

271 
271 


23.0 

23-5 


93 
95 


2.3 

2.5 


2h. o6m. 
2h. 2im. 


2 g?o 

2 310 


/y 


/i^itateu suriace 01 sand 
layer at 11.27 A.M. 


13 


4838 


29 


12.17 " 


271 


23.0 


93 


2.7 


2h. 3601. 


3680 


n 




4839 


29 


12.32 " 


271 


23-0 


93 


3-0 


2h. 5im. 


4040 


8 




4841 


29 


12.47 " 


271 


24.0 


97 


3-5 


3h. o6m. 


4370 


I 




4842 


29 


1.02 ' 


271 


24-5 


99 


3-8 


3h. 2im. 


4730 


21 




4845 


29 


1-34 " 


271 


23-5 


95 


5.o 


3h. 53m. 


5 530 


25 




4848 


29 


2.02 " 


271 


23 5 


95 


5-7 


4h. 2im. 


6 160 


10 




4850 


29 


2.32 " 


271 


22.5 


91 


6.8 


4h. 5im. 


6 840 


IO 




4853 


29 


302 " 


271 


23-0 


93 


8.1 


5h. 2im. 


7 520 


12 




4859 


29 


3-34 ' 


271 


22.0 


89 


9-2 


5h. 53111. 


8 2go 


71 


Agitated surface of sand 


4864 


29 


5-3 " 


272 


24.O 


97 


1-7 


I5m. 


343 


14 


layer at 3.49 P.M. 



Western Gravity System. 





1895 




















608 


Dec. 23 


11.37 A.M. 


I 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


ih. o2m. 


547 


495 




610 


" 23 


12.27 P-M. 


I 


10 O 


6t 




ih. 52m. 


i 018 


544 




614 


23 


3.22 " 


I 


IO.O 


61 




4h. 47m. 


2698 


328 




622 


24 


9-55 A.M. 


2 


10. 


61 


. . . . 


13111. 


166 


910 




623 


24 


10.25 


2 


IO.O 


61 




4301. 


475 


5io 




625 


24 


12.34 I'-M. 


2 


IO.O 


61 




2h. 52m. 


i 700 


220 




632 


24 


3-25 " 


2 


IO.O 


61 




5h. 43m. 


3506 


168 




635 


" 26 


9-57 A.M. 


2 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


8h. 32m. 


5 281 


580 




643 


" 26 


12.21 P.M. 


2 


IO.O 


61 




loh. 56m. 


6812 


580 




648 


" 26 


4.12 " 


2 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


I4h. 47m. 


9 '93 


288 




653 


" 27 


10.35 A.M. 


2 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


I7h. 3om. 


10822 


570 




657 


" 27 


12.53 P -M. 


2 


IO.O 


61 




igh. 48m. 


11857 


540 




662 


27 


3.18 " 


2 


5-o 


3 




22h. I3m. 


12 582 


324 




667 


27 


4.28 


3 


18.0 


no 




15m. 


232 


592 




668 


27 


4-44 " 


3 


18.0 


no 




3im. 


544 


480 




677 


" 28 


IO.II A.M. 


3 


17.0 


103 


. . . . 


2h. I2m. 


2 309 


873 




680 


" 28 


11.47 " 


3 


8.0 


49 


.... 


3h. 48m. 


3329 


708 




687 


" 28 


3.27 P.M. 


3 


3-o 


18 




7h. 28m. 


4245 


i 260 




694 


" 30 


11.17 A.M. 


4 


6.0 


36 


.... 


3h. 55m. 


2 652 


332 




699 


30 


1.52 P.M. 


5 


14.0 


85 


.... 


r6m. 


203 


726 




702 


" 3 


4.38 " 


5 


II. 


67 




3h. 02m. 


2456 


528 




709 


3' 


9. ^J. A M. 


6 








I5m. 


172 


276 




713 


" 31 


j *f 1T1 

11.05 


6 


23.0 


140 




ih. 26m. 


* / * 
I 140 


224 




720 


3i 


2.18 P.M. 


6 


6.0 


36 


.... 


4h. 24m. 


3 'So 


260 






1896 




















726 


Jan. 2 


IO.O4 A.M. 


7 


9.0 


55 




I5m. 


150 


200 




728 


" 2 


10-34 " 


7 


8.5 


52 




45m. 


425 


192 




734 


" 2 


11.36 " 


7 


II. O 


67 




ih. 47m. 


i 050 


136 




736 


" 2 


; 1.51 P.M. 


8 


IO.O 


61 




I5m. 


122 


392 




737 


" 2 


2.21 " 


8 


12. 


73 




45m. 


472 


34 




746 


" 3 


9.51 A.M. 


9 


7-5 


46 




1 5m. 


93 


250 




751 


3 


10.41 " 


9 


9.0 


55 




ih. osm. 


55 


20 




757 


3 


2.O8 P.M. 


IO 


8.0 


49 




1301. 


119 


,|10 




759 


3 


2.40 " 


10 


9-5 


58 




45m. 


429 


432 




762 


4 


11.29 A.M. 


ii 


9.0 


55 


.... 


igm. 


165 


95 




767 


4 


I2.O4 P.M. 


ii 


9 o 


55 




54m. 


437 


25 




770 


4 


2 18 " 


ii 


8j 


52 




3h. o8m. 


i 587 


122 





170 



WA TEK P URIFICA TION AT LO UIS VILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Gravity System. 









Rate of 


J 


1 " 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


W 




a 


a 




. 








ta 


Period of 


f&i 


Z 

3 




u 


c w 


1 






Number 


E 
o. 


o a 


o 


Service Since 


*j2 35 


! 




s 






of 
Run. 


v . 


|g 


s 


Last 
Washing. 


III 


sS 

a n 


Remarks. 


5 




u 




&H - 


c < o 


H-. 


Hours and 


O^ o 


.2-2 




M 


Date. 


Hour. 




O C 


o EC 


o 


Minutes. 




v c 




rt 










4J Tf 


en 




V rt 3 


o w 




i 








u 


s a ' 


.3 




E 


n 






1896 




















777 


Jan. 6 


12. IO P.M. 


12 


14.0 


85 


. . . . 


ih. 27m. 


I 103 


416 




781 


" 6 


3-33 " 


12 


8.0 


49 


. . . . 


4h. 5om. 


2 2g7 


320 




784 


" 7 


I2.I8 


12 


9.0 


55 


. . . . 


gh. 25m. 


5 193 


98 




788 


7 


3-49 " 


13 


II. O 


67 




I5m. 


172 


92 




792 


" 7 


4.19 ' 


13 


II. O 


67 


. . . . 


45m. 


552 


88 




797 


" 8 


12.09 ' 


13 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


5h. ism. 


3 512 


134 


800 


" 8 


2-33 " 


13 


IO.O 


61 




7h. 3gm. 


5 002 


128 


804 


" 8 


3.04 ' 


13 


IO.O 


61 




8h. lorn. 


5 288 


i go 




808 


" 9 . 


IO.O9 A.M. 


14 


IO.O 


61 


. . . . 


I4m. 


123 


76 




813 


9 


10.39 " 


14 


ii. 5 


70 


. . . . 


44m. 


443 


52 




818 


9 


2.03 P.M. 




8-5 


52 




4h. o8m. 


2 593 


172 




823 


10 


11.45 A.M. 


15 


12.0 


73 


. . . . 


3h. I7m. 


2275 


97 




830 


" 10 


1.56 P.M. 


15 


12. 


73 




5h. 28m. 


3935 


1 20 




833 


" ii 


IO.54 A.M. 


16 


12.5 


76 




2gm. 


419 


53 




837 


" ii 


11.28 " 


16 


13-5 


82 


. . . . 


ih. O3m. 


849 


135 




8523 


" M 


II.O7 " 


17 


II. 


67 




I5m. 


154 


57 




853 


' 14 


"37 " 


17 


II. 


67 




45m. 


518 


33 




861 


14 


2.12 P.M. 


17 


12. 


73 


. . . . 


3h. 2om. 


2 321 


94 




864 


14 


3-09 " 


17 


II. O 


67 


. . . . 


4h. I7m. 


2954 


60 




873 


15 


10.47 A.M. 


17 


I4.O 


85 




7h. 55m. 


5554 


130 




877 


15 


12.52 P.M. 


17 


13.0 


79 


. . . . 


loh. oom. 


7 222 


90 




883 


15 


3-14 " 


17 


8.0 


49 




I2h. 22m. 


8793 


164 




889 


' 16 


IO.58 A.M. 


18 


14.0 


85 


. . . . 


lorn. 


89 


48 




894 


" 16 


I. Og P.M. 


18 


20.0 


122 




2h. 2om. 


2679 


192 




901 


" 16 


3-08 " 


18 


18.0 


HO 




|li. 2om 


4979 


150 




904 


" 17 


9-59 A.M. 


19 


15.0 


91 




o6m. 


70 


176 




905 


17 


10.03 " 


19 


15.0 


9 1 




lorn 


130 


124 




906 


17 


10.13 


19 


24.0 


146 


. . . . 


2om 


320 


132 




907 


17 


10.23 " 


19 


25.0 


152 


. . . . 


30m 


550 


141 




908 


17 


IO-33 " 


19 


25.0 


152 




4om 


520 


1 02 




909 


" 17 


10.43 " 


19 


25.0 


152 


. . . . 


5om 


i 080 


132 




gio 


" 17 


10.53 


19 


25.0 


152 




ih. oom 


1376 


1 02 




926 


" 17 


I. II P.M. 


19 


2O. 


122 




3h. i8m 


4500 


240 




929 


i? 


2.O4 " 


19 


19.0 


116 




.)li. i ini 


5 500 


140 




933 


17 


3.04 " 


19 


18.0 


HO 




5h. urn 


6630 


238 




937 


i? 


4.04 ' 


19 


16.0 


97 




6h. urn 


7620 


188 




943 


' 17 


5-08 " 


19 


7-5 


46 




7h. I5m. 


8380 


198 




946 


' 18 


9.56 A.M. 


20 


25.0 


152 




I7m. 


460 


144 




95i 


' 18 


IO.2O " 


20 


26.0 


158 




4im. 


940 


258 




954 


" 18 


1.23 P.M. 


20 


27.0 


164 




3h. 44m. 


5860 


256 




959 


" 18 


2.41 " 


2O 


24.0 


146 




5h. O2m. 


7869 


256 




967 


" 20 


IO-34 A.M. 


21 


22.0 


134 




i6m. 


276 


192 




975 


" 20 


4.25 P.M. 


21 


21. 


128 




6h. 07m. 


8 226 


246 




981 


" 21 


11.42 A.M. 


22 


25.0 


152 




2h. osm. 


3007 


147 




987 


" 21 


4.25 P.M. 


22 


16.0 


97 




6h. 48m. 


8857 


202 




994 


" 22 


9-35 A.M. 


23 


25.0 


152 




I5m. 


265 


136 




995 


" 22 


IO.O5 


23 


27.0! 164 


. . . 


45m. 


i 155 


174 




999 


" 22 


2 28 P.M. 


23 


25.0 


152 




5h. oSm. 


7955 


266 




1003 


" 23 


IO.I6 A.M. 


24 


28.0 


170 




5om. 


i 345 


73 




1007 


; 23 


3-43 P.M. 


24 


21. 


128 




6h. I7m. 


9655 


64 




1012 


1 24 


10.08 A.M. 


25 


25.O 


152 




igm. 


409 


49 




1017 


' 24 


2.0O P.M. 


25 


25.0 


152 




4h. urn. 


6649 


145 




1 020 


" 25 


9.41 A.M. 


26 


28.5 


173 




I5m. 


397 


75 




1023 


" 25 


IO.O7 " 


26 


25.0 


152 


. . . . 


ih. oim. 


2467 


65 




1027 


" 25 


2.23 P.M. 


26 


2O. 


122 




4h. 57m. 


6509 


165 




1031 


1 27 


9-44 A.M. 


27 


23.O 


I4O 




I5m. 


322! 612 




1035 


" 27 


IO.I4 


27 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


45m. 


I IO2 


554 




1041 


" 27 


I.I3 P.M. 


27 


13.0 


79 




3h. 44m. 


4 112 


934 




1046 


1 27 


4-25 " 


28 


21. 


128 


. . . . 


34m. 


689 


504 




1055 


" 28 


1. 08 


29 


14.0 


85 




5om. 


I 015 


I 586 




1085 


' 31 


II. OO A.M. 


30 


20. 


122 


. . . . 


5om. 


870 


278 




1088 


' 31 


2.33 P.M. 


31 


13-0 


79 




ih. o6m. 


I IOI 


820 




1097 


Feb. i 


I2.I8 " 


32 


g.O 


55 




2h. i8m. 


1 644! 326' 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



171 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 



Western Gravity System. 









Rate of 


; 




V 

u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


& 




c 
c/5 . 


3. 
!S 




^ 






V. 


r. u 




Period of 


s = 


3 




U 






Number 


a 


oa 


ri 


ServiceSince 


4> C . 


W . 




3 






of 
Run. 


! 


r1 E 

O u 3 




V 

ffi 


Last 
Washing. 


lp 


S2 
S 


Remarks. 


2; 


Date. 


Hour 




fc-3 


^S 


V- 


Hours and 


o^ o 

4J ._, 


*C ' " 




"rt 




' 




w a 


.2 v-E 


O 


Minutes. 


V- if. 1 

6 3 a 


o c 




1 








5 

u 


s& a 







23d 



IS 

a 






1896 




















IIOO 


Feb. i 


2.45 P.M. 


33 


i8.c 


no 




4Om. 


621 


137 




IIO.) 


" i 


5.03 " 


33 


7-c 


43 




2h. 58m. 


2 8ll 


118 




1108 


" 3 


10.35 A.M. 


34 


17. c 


103 




3im. 


442 


240 




till 


3 


I.l6 P.M. 


34 


12.0 


73 




3h. I2m. 


3132 


632 




1113 


3 


3-23 " 


34 


22.0 


134 




5h. igm. 


5362 


560 




1117 


3 


5-00 ' 


34 


6.0 


36 




6h. 56m. 


6742 


i 124 




1122 


4 


10.22 A.M. 


35 


26.0 


158 


. . . . 


32m. 


780 


421 




1125 


4 


11.49 " 


35 


ig.O 


116 


. . . . 


ih. 5gm. 


2 810 


720 




1128 


4 


2.31 P.M. 


35 


3-5 


21 




4h. 4im. 


4430 


908 




1132 


4 


5.18 " 


36 


12.0 


73 


. . . . 


ih. sim. 


I 926 


900 




1138 


5 


IO.26 A.M. 


36 


14.0 


85 




3h. 2gm. 


3466 


600 




1142 


" 5 


11.53 " 


36 


4.0 


25 




4h. 5601. 


4 168 


960 




1146 


" 5 


3.14 P.M. 


37 


6.0 


36 




2h. 4901. 


2732 


324 




II5I 


" 5 


5.09 ' 


38 


15-5 


94 




4im. 


694 


308 




"57 


" 6 


10.22 A.M. 


38 


16.0 


97 




2h. 2401. 


2544 


828 




1162 


" 6 


12.24 P-M. 


39 


20.0 


122 


.... 


0401. 


58 


i 276 




1165 


" 6 


3-18 " 


39 


12.0 


73 




2h. 58m. 


3 M6 


655 




1170 


" 6 


4.19 ' 


39 


8.0 


49 




3h. 59m. 


3718 


460 




"75 


7 


10.22 A.M. 


40 


18.0 


no 




5gm. 


I 252 


800 




"79 


7 


1.37 P.M. 


41 


17.0 


103 


. . . . 


ih. I2m. 


1639 


i 600 




IiSS 


" 8 


10.37 A.M. 


42 


7.0 


43 




3h. i6m. 


2 061 


321 




"93 


8 


2.27 P.M. 


44 


16.0 


97 


. . . . 


32m. 


641 


825 




"99 


" 8 


4-53 " 


45 


4.0 


25 




ih. osm. 


403 


860 




1206 


" 10 


10.35 A.M. 


46 


20. o 


122 


. . - . 


osm. 


82 


252 




1209 


" 10 


1.58 P.M. 


47 


6.0 


36 




ih. 33m. 


1 266 


272 




1213 


" 10 


3-24 " 


48 


20.0 


122 




26m. 


493 


290 




1218 


" 10 


5-07 


48 


13-0 


79 




2h. ogm. 


1 573 


672 




1223 


" II 


IO.I8 A.M. 


49 


g.O 


55 




57m. 


926 


25' 




1226 


" II 


12.57 P.M. 


50 


g.O 


55 




ih. 4om. 


M58 


461 




122Q 


" II 


3.19 " 


51 


8.0 


49 




5&m. 


983 


298 




1233 


" II 


5-15 " 


-5/ 


6.0 


36 




28m. 


378 


950 




1238 


" 12 


10.26 A.M. 


52 


8.0 


49 


. . . 


2h. ogm. 


i 118 


250 


Shut outlet 10.26 A.M. 


1244 


" 12 


4-53 P.M.; 


56 


10.5 


64 




ih. 22m. 


i 197 


605 




1250 


" 13 


9-54 A.M. 


57 


19.0 


116 




33m. 


632 


1 06 




1253 


13 


I2..10 P.M. 


58 


23.0 


140 




2im. 


458 


235 




1256 


13 


2.25 " 


58 


4.0 


25 




2h. i6m. 


2 158 


i 045 




1259 


13 


4.41 " 


59 


8-5 


52 




ih. 4im. 


I g8l 


425 




1267 


M 


10.30 A.M. 


60 


18.0 


no 




ih. osm. 


I 348 


209 




127] 


1 M 


1.22 P.M. 


60 


7.0 


43 




3l>- 57m. 


3148 


37' 




1275 


M 


3.30 " 


61 


20.0 


122 




45m. 


g46 


372 




I27Q 


M 


4 52 


61 


6.0 


36 




2h. 07m 


2 246 


408 




1285 


" 15 


IO 2O A.M. 


f)2 


18.0 


710 




ih. 01 m. 


I 500 


39 




1289 " 15 


1-33 I'-M. 


63 


17.0 


103 




o6m. 


104 


5'7 




1293 


15 


3-13 " 


63 


16.0 


97 




ih. 46m. 


2 134 


i 975 




I2g8 


15 


5-24 


63 


9.0 


55 




3h. 57m- 


3424 


919 




1304 


' 17 


10.19 A.M. 


64 


22. O 


134 




ih. oom. 


I 474 


865 




1308 


17 


1.45 P.M. 


65 


23.0 


140 




3Om. 


6og 


650 




1312 


" 17 


3.13 " 


65 


l6.O 


97 




ih. sSm. 


24og 


732 


*, 


1313 


"7 


3-28 " 


65 


13-5 


82 




2h. 13111. 


2659 


i 097 




1316 


' 17 


5.14 


65 


6.0 


36 




3h. 59>n. 


3389 


602 




I32i 


" 18 


10.32 A.M. 


66 


20.5 


135 




ih. o6m. 


I 3 g6 


i 220 




1326 


" IS 


12 05 P M. 


66 


7.0 


43 




2h. 3gm. 


2766 


8co 




1330 


" 18 


2.30 " 


67 


22.0 


134 




4im. 


788 


465 




'335 


" 18 


. 5-00 " 


67 


9.0 


55 




3h. um. 


3068 


133 




1338 


" 18 


5.08 


67 


7.0 


43 




3h. igm. 


3 128 


616 




1345 


" 19 


10.24 A.M. 


68 


20. o 


122 




ih. o8m. 


I 308 


I5S 




13(9 


'9 


11.40 " 


68 


8.5 


52 




2h. 24m. 


2498 


221 




1353 


'9 


3.11 r M. 


69 


3.5 


"3 




ih. 42m. 


2 310 


1305 




1355 


19 


4-55 " 


69 


5-o 


3 




3h. 26m. 


3310 


184 




1364 


1 20 


I I. Og A.M. 


70 


27.0 


164 




1501. 


385 


118 




1373 


" 20 


I. ig P.M. 


70 


6.0 


36 


. . . . 


2h. 25m. 


2405 


240 




379 


" 2O 


3.22 " 


7' 


25.0 


152 


. . . . 


3&m. 


828 


435 


1383 


" 20 


5-05 " 


7' 


8.0 


49 





2h. Igm. 


2328 371! 



172 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Western Gravity System. 









Rale of 


j 




u 








Collected. 




Kiltralion. 


u 






c 
3i . 


'I 




h 




In 


ffl V- 




Period of 


u ^ 


u 











Number 


0. 


Jo. 


d 


ServiceSince 


~le *^ 


V. ^ 




8 






of 


*j 


"T! U -f 


rt 


Last 


>5 ^ V 


K ^ 


Remarks. 


3 






Run. 


V ij 


3|| 


X 


Washing. 
Hours and 


D^u 


x e 




^ 


Dale. 


Hour. 




C 


O v,X 


'o 


Minutes. 


fc S 'l 


''= 




! 








li 

u 


S3 5 * 

_&a 


i 




V tt 3 

E 


r 






1896 




















1391 


Feb. 21 


10.03 A.M. 


72 


24.0 


146 




3Om. 


613 


Sg 




1396 


" 21 


12.49 P - M - 


72 


4.0 


25 


.... 


3h. i6m. 


2513 


49 




1399 


" 21 


3.12 " 


73 


14.0 


85 




ih. 42m. 


2085 


310 




1402 


" 21 


5.00 " 


73 


4.0 


25 




3h. 35111. 


2805 


308 




1419 


" 24 


lO.ig A.M. 


74 


23.0 


140 




ih. oim. 


i 310 


212 




1425 


' 24 


1.25 P.M. 


74 


4.0 


25 




4h. 07m. 


4170 


262 




1428 


' 24 


3.30 " 


75 


15.0 


9 1 




ih. 4gm. 


2 282 


2cg 




1433 


; 24 


5-21 


75 


4.0 


25 




3h. 40111. 


3250 


2f.O 




1439 


" 25 


10.35 A.M. 


76 


22.0 


134 




ih. i6m. 


1749 


I 495 




1443 


1 25 


1. 21 P.M. 


76 


9-0 


55 




4h. O2m. 


5 "9 


680 




1447 


' 25 


3-15 " 


77 


25.0 


152 




42m. 


949 


605 




1450 


" 25 


4-55 


77 


5.0 


30 




2h. 22m. 


2 543 


i 270 




1458 


" 26 


10.32 A.M. 


78 


2O. O 


122 




o6m. 


91 


475 




1462 


" 26 


12.15 P-M. 


78 


21.5 


131 




ih. 4gm. 


2471 


480 




1466 


" 26 


3.12 " 


78 


15-0 


9 T 




4h. 46m. 


5971 


700 




1468 


" 26 


5-II 


78 


2.0 


12 


.... 


6h. 45m. 


6801 


962 




1476 


" 27 


I0.3O A.M. 


79 


25.0 


152 




ih. 2om. 


i 829 


455 




1481 


1 27 


1.48 P.M. 


79 


6.0 


36 




4h. 38m. 


5 519 


630 




1485 


; 27 


3.06 " 


80 


27-5 


167 




48m. 


i 177 


337 




1490 


: 27 


5-15 " 


80 


8.0 


49 




2h. 5?m. 


4037 


480 




1498 


" 28 


10.46 A.M. 


80 


12.0 


73 




4h. 58m. 


5937 


129 




1503 


" 28 


3.26 P.M. 


81 


24.0 


146 




3h. 14111. 


4864 


445 




1505 


" 28 


4-57 " 


81 


I4.O 


85 




4h. 45m. 


6774 


485 




1515 


" 29 


10.40 A.M. 


81 


4.0 


25 




6h. i6m. 


7524 


235 




1518 


' 29 


1.40 P.M. 


82 


25.0 


152 




2h. 48m. 


3880 


35" 




1522 


1 29 


3-23 " 


82 


23.0 


140 




4h. 3im. 


6330 


905 




1525 


1 29 


5-05 


82 


12.0 


73 




6h. I3m. 


8550 


i 115 




1534 


Mar. 2 


9.46 A.M. 


82 


24.0 


146 




7h. 24m. 


9500 


357 




1538 


" 2 


IO.27 " 


82 


22.0 


134 




Sh. osm. 


10400 








1542 


" 2 


1.39 P.M. 


83 


27.O 


164 




26m. 


620 


i 685 




1546 


" 2 


3-21 " 


83 


22. 


'34 




2h. o8m. 


2850 


4 ooo 




!55i 


" 2 


5-13 


83 


15.0 


91 




4h. oom. 


538o 


i 735 




1559 


" 3 


10.45 A.M. 


83 


25.0 


152 




6h. O2m. 


7 720 


i 280 




1563 


3 


12.55 P.M. 


83 


2O. O 


122 




8h. I2m. 


10659 


i 005 


. 


1572 


3 


5.16 " 


84 


16.0 


97 




ih. 57m. 


2 512 


gcx) 




1578 


4 


10.51 A.M. 


84 


23.0 


140 




4h. 02m. 


5 202 


i 175 




1582 


4 


I. O2 P.M. 


84 


23.0 


140 




6h. I3m. 


8212 


610 




1586 


4 


3-23 " 


' 84 


20. o 


122 


.... 


8h. 34m. 


II 122 


328 




1591 


4 


5-07 


84 


7.0 


43 




loh. i8m. 


12 8g2 


660 




1597 


5 


10.42 A.M. 


85 


19.0 


116 




37m. 


759 


795 




1601 


5 


12.57 P-M. 


85 


23-5 


M3 




2h. 52m. 


3769 


1085 




1606 


5 


3-24 


85 


23.0 


140 


. . . . 


5h. igm. 


7 129 


745 




1610 


5 


5-ii 


85 


17.0 


103 


.... 


7h. o6m. 


9459 


565 




1618 


6 


10.38 A.M. 


85 


ig.o 


116 




gh. O3m. 


11499 


39 




1623 


6 


12.44 P.M. 


85 


7-o 


43 




nh. ogm. 


13449 


237 




1628 


6 


3-24 " 


86 


25.0 


152 




2h. I4m. 


2 gog 


500 




1631 


" 6 


5-19 


86 


23.0 


140 




4h. ogm. 


5619 


245 




1639 


" 7 


I0.5O A.M. 


86 


20. o 


122 




6h. lorn. 


8 159 


17-1 




I&45 


7 


3.14 P.M. 


87 


25.0 


152 




ih. 4im. 


2 256 


477 




1652 


7 


5.22 


87 


12.0 


73 




3h. 4gm. 


5 196 


345 




1658 


7 


II. 06 A.M. 


87 


12. 


73 




6h. 03m. 


7456 


194 




1663 


9 


12.55 P.M. 


88 


21. 


128 




56m. 


i 204 


401 




1667 


9 


3-27 " 


88 


24.0 


146 




3h. 28m. 


4634 


525 




1674 


9 


5-10 ' 


88 


8.0 


49 




5h. nm. 


6414 


515 




1680 


10 


IO.26 A.M. 


89 


22.5 


r 37 




ih. 07m. 


i 509 


265 




1684 


" 10 


1.38 P.M. 


89 


23.0 


140 




4h. igm. 


5649 


168 




1689 


" 10 


3-12 " 


89 


ig.o 


116 




5h. 53m. 


768g 


157 




1695 


" 10 


5-19 ' 


Sg 


4-0 


25 


. . . . 


8h. oom. 


9179 


210 




1702 


" ii 


11.25 A.M. 


90 


25-0 


152 




ih. I4m. 


i 629 


1 86 




1704 


" ii 


1.33 P.M. 


go 


23.0 


140 




3h. 22m. 


4399 


141 




1708 


" ii 


3-25 " 


go 


20. ci 


122 




5h. I4m. 


6829 


234 




1715 


" ii 


5-16 " 


go 


8.0 


49 




7h. osm. 


8789 


161 




1721 


" 12 


IO.22 A.M. 


91 


23.0 


140 





ih. 07m. 


1584 


250 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Western Gravity System. 









Rate of 


S 


u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


C 


_p 


u 




. 








Period of 


(73 . 

v. bo 


15 

3 




L. 


01 J 


1 






Number 


^ 


J & 


^ Service Since 


ii-r .J 


Uj! 




I 






of 




*rj U v> 




u 


l.HSt 


M flj 


1- 


Remarks. 


3 






Run. 


1) . 




33 


Washing. 


& tu 


O. 4J 












fc. ** 


f <I O 




Hours and 


T3^ o 


_ 




__ 


Date. 


Hour. 




C 


5 U K 


o 


Minutes. 


KS2 


0) C 




1 








1* 

U 


" a " 


J 




S23 
E 


if 






1896 




















1725 


Mar. 12 


1. 00 P.M. 


91 


24.0 


146 


. . . .j 3h. 45m. 


5 "4 


140 




1730 


" 12 


3-31 " 


91 


20. 


122 


. . . .', 6h. l6m. 


8 404 


146 




1735 


" 12 


5-17 


91 


S-O 


3 


. .. .j 8h. O2m. 


10014 


112 




1741 


13 


IO.29 A.M. 


92 


23-5 


143 


i ih. 07m. 


1479 


440 




1745 


13 


I.I5 P.M. 


92 


22.5 


137 


... 3h. 53m. 


5317 


213 




1749 


13 


3.19 ' 


92 


19. o 


116 


5b. 57m. 


7927 


129 




1754 


13 


5.04 


92 


8.0 


49 


.... 7h. 42m. 


957 


152 




1761 


14 


10.36 A.M. 


93 


23-0 


140 


' ih. 24m. 


i 926 


127 




1767 


14 


I. II P.M. 


93 


22. 


134 


.... 3h. 59m. 


5 426 


128 




J773 


14 


3.16 " 


93 


16.0 


97 


. . . J 6h. 04111. 


7856 


149 




1780 


14 


4-54 " 


93 


6.0 


36 


. . . .; 7h. 42m. 


9056 


158 




1787 


" 16 


IO.33 A.M. 


94 


22. 


134 


ih. I4m. 


i 736 


131 




1793 


" 16 


1.07 P.M. 


94 


2O- O 


122 


... J 3h. 58m. 


5326 


490 




1799 


" 16 


3.2O " 


94 


4.0 


25 




6h. oim. 


7096 


200 




1805 


" 16 


5.07 " 


95 


22-O 


134 




ih. 2Om. 


i 824 


187 




1813 


" 17 


10.32 A.M. 


95 


20. 


122 




3h. ism. 


4354 


228 




1819 


17 


I.I7 P.M. 


96 


24.0 


146 




4om. 


953 


157 




1825 


17 


3-23 


96 


22-5 


137 


.... 


2h. 46m. 


3803 


445 




1829 


17 


5.09 ' 


96 


8.0 


49 




4h. 32m. 


5673 


380 




1837 


" 18 


10.32 A.M. 


97 


22.0 


134 




ih. igm. 


1879 


730 




1843 


" 18 


I.l6 P.M. 


97 


II. O 


67 




4h. O3m. 


5 269 


230 


1850 


" 18 


3-27 


98 


23.0 


140 




Ih. 03m. 


1414 


585 




1856 


18 


5-05 


98 


22. 


134 




2h. 4im. 


3544 


535 




1864 


" '9 


I0.5O A.M. 


99 


19. o 


116 


.... 


I2m. 


179 


440 




1872 


!! Ig 


1.22 P.M. 


IOO 


21 .O 


128 




I5m. 


265 


800 




1876 




3.05 " 


100 


6.0 


3.6 




ih. 58m. 


1985 


580 




1890 


" 20 


10.30 A.M. 


101 


24.0 


146 


.... 


2im. 


468 


I 000 




1896 


" 2O 


1. 12 P.M. 


103 


I.O 


6 




5im. 


659 


700 




1898 


" 20 


1.46 " 


104 


20. o 


122 




o6m. 


137 


500; 


4M5 


July 2 


10.32 A.M. 


107 


14-5 


88 




55m. 


756 


130! 


4146 


' ' 2 


11.14 " 


107 








ih. 37m. 


I 2^Q 


68 Shut outlet M.I.J A.M. 


4 1 c j 


' ' 2 


2.24 P.M. 










ih. l6m. 


I O29 


I *\OO A Shut nntlpf "7 VA p M 


^ * J4 

4158 


" 2 


3.07 " 


no 


14.0 


85 




i8m. 


225 


* 3^v* 

52 




4166 


3 


IO.I8 A.M. 


112 


14.0 


85 


3 8 


ih. O2m. 


899 


Q 




41 ?8 




1. 12 P.M. 


112 








3h. 5601. 


3 253 TO 


Shut outlet 1.14 P.M. 


4187 


3 




"3 


15-0 


91 




iim. 


1 66 


50 




4195 


3 


3.42 " 


114 


15.0 


91 


3-o 


lorn. 


142 


77 




4199 


3 


5-00 ' 


114 


14.0 


85 


7.8 


ih. 28m. 


I 142 


62 






10 


11.22 A.M. 


"5 


15.0 


91 




ih. som. 


1682 


46 




4319 


" 10 


1.22 P.M. 


"5 


20. o 


122 


3-5 


3h. som. 


3632 


131 




4322 


" 10 


3.18 " 


"5 


15.0 


91 


6.8 


5h. 46m. 


5 242 


152 




4330 


" n 


10.47 A.M. 


116 


13.5 


82 


3-3 


ih. 32m. 


1437 


118 




4335 


" n 


I.I5 P.M. 


116 


16.0 


97 


4-4 


4h. oom. 


3739 


199 


* 


4338 


" ii 


2-35 " 


116 


12.0 


73 


2.1 








5000 


Wast. 3 min., 52 cu. ft. 


4339 


" ii 


2.40 ' 


116 


14.5 


88 


2.1 


o 


o 


3000 


" 7 " 112 " 


4340 


" ii 


2-45 


116 


14.5 


88 


2.2 


o 


o 


i 300 


" 12 " 182 


4341 


" n 


2.50 ' 


116 


14.5 


88 


2.2 


o 


o 


3<>4 


" 17 " 252 " 


4342 


" n 


2.55 " 


116 


14.5 


82 


2.2 








392 


" 22 312 


4343 


" n 


3.00 ' 


"7 


18.0 


no 


I.I 


oom. 


o 


387 


Opened outlet 3.00 P.M. 


4344 


" ii 


3-5 " 


"7 


15-5 


94 


1-5 


05 m. 


56 


234 




4345 


" ii 


3.10 ' 


"7 


15-5 


94 


1-5 


lorn. 


146 


213 




4348 


" ii 


3.15 


"7 


16.0 


97 


2-5 


I5m. 


236 


204 




4349 


" ii 


3.20 ' 


117 


15-5 


94 


2.5 


2om. 


326 


157 




4350 


" n 


3-25 " 


117 


15-5 


94 


2.5 


25m. 


396 


142 




4351 


" n 


3.30 ' 


117 


16.0 


97 


2.6 


3om. 


476 


169 




4352 


" n 


3-35 


"7 


16.0 


97 


2.6 


35m. 


546 


235 




4353 


" n 


3-40 ' 


"7 


16.0 


97 


2.6 


4om. 


616 


216 




4354 


" ii 


3-45 


"7 


16.0 


97 


2.7 


45m. 


696 


199 




4355 


" ii 


3-50 ' 


"7 


16.0 


97 


2-7 


5om. 


776 


229 




4356 


" n 


3-55 


117 


16.0 


97 


2.7 


55m. 


856 


207 




4357 


" n 


4.00 ' 


117 


16.0 


97 


2.7 


ih. oom. 


936 






4358 


" n 


4.15 " 


"7 


16.0 


97 


3-2 


ih. 1501. 


i 176 


'186 




4358a 


" ii 


4.30 " 


117 


16.0 


97 


3-6 


ih. 3om. 


i 416 


271 





* Wasting. 



174 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4 Continued. 
Western Gravity System. 









Rate of 


J 




S 






Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 




C 


u 












fe 






IS 




^ 






u 


(A V. 




I enod ot 


ho 


3 




a 






Number 
of 


I 

SI 


I*. 


rt 
V 


Service Since 
Last 
Washing. 


PI 


O. 4J 


Remarks. 








Run. 


*! 


O JJ 3 


S 


Hours and 


n ^ 


a B 






Date. 


Hour. 




u c 


o X 


"3 


Minutes. 


u 3 


Si 




u 










la? 


8 




"2 3 


3 












U 


s 


j 




E 


ca 






1896 




















. _ _ _ 


Till V T T 


A A C P M 


_ T _ 


je . c 


_ . 


3Q 


ih. 451x1. 


I 646 






4360 


juiy i 
II 


5.00 " 


H7 


15.0 


9 r 


V 

4.0 


2h. oom. 


1 876 








" II 


f Q- 1 < 


117 








sh. 0501 . 


I Q^ 


176 




4505 


" 17 


2-52 " 


* A / 

118 


15.0 


91 


4.1 


54m. 


86 1 


33 




4524 


" 18 


11.34 A.M. 


118 


16.0 


97 




6h. o6m. 


5723 


46 




4547 


" 18 


1.57 P.M. 


iig 


16.0 


97 


2-5 


22m. 


340 


36 




4555 


" 18 


3.12 ' 


iig 


16.0 


97 




ih. 37m. 


i 540 


61 




4660 


" 24 


I0.5O A.M. 


1 20 


IO.O 


61 


2.1 


o 


o 


320 


Wasting 33 min. , 334 cu. ft. 


4661 


" 24 


II. OO " 


121 


16.0 


97 


2-5 


0501. 


61 


158 




4662 


24 


11.05 ' 


121 


15-0 


91 


2.6 


lorn. 


141 


168 




4663 


" 24 


II. IO " 


121 


15.0 


91 


2.6 


15111. 


211 








4664 


" 24 


11.15 " 


121 


15.0 


91 


2.6 


2om. 


28l 


315 




4665 


" 24 


11.20 ' 


-121 


13.0 


79 


2.1 


25m. 


351 


63 




4666 


" 24 


IT.25 " 


121 . 


13.0 


79 


2.2 


3om. 


421 


268 




4667 




II.3O " 


121 


T -3 n 


7O 


2 . 1 


-icm 








^\j\j f 

4668 


" 24 


n.35 " 


121 


i j . \j 

13.0 


/v 
79 


2.2 


jo 1 "' 
4Om. 


561 


161 




4669 


" 24 


11.40 ' 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.5 


45m. 


611 


352 




4670 


24 


".45 " 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.4 


5om. 


691 


202 




4671 


24 


11.50 ' 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.4 


55m. 


751 


446 




4 6 73 


24 


11.55 " 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.5 


ih. oom. 


821 


157 




4674 


24 


12. IO P.M. 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.6 


ih. ism. 


051 


214 




4675 


24 


12.25 " 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.6 


ih. 3Om. 


261 


165 




4676 


24 


12.40 " 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.6 


ih. 45111. 


481 


178 




4677 


" 24 


12-55 " 


121 


14.0 


85 


2.9 


2h. oom. 


7" 


112 




4680 


24 


I.IO ' 


121 


14-5 


88 


2.9 


2h. 1 5m. 


gn 


275 




4681 


24 


1.25 " 


121 


15.0 


9 1 


2.9 


2h. 3om. 


2 III 


'77 




4683 


24 


1.40 ' 


121 


15.0 


91 


3-0 


2h. 45111. 


2321 


237 




4684 


24 


1-55 " 


121 


15-0 


91 


3-o 


3h. oom. 


2541 


299 




4686 
4702 


24 

25 


2. IO ' 
IO. IO A.M. 


121 
122 


15.0 

12. O 


73 


3-1 


3h. 15111. 




2 761 
O 


498 


Wasting 70 min., 763 cu. ft. 


4703 


25 


10.38 " 


122 


13-5 


82 


.... 


23m. 


3OO 


80 




4707 


25 


11.29 " 


122 


13.0 


79 


6.7 


in. I4m. 


980 


304 




4708 


25 


1. 01 " 


122 


13.0 


79 


7.2 


2h. 46m. 


2 130 


240 




4714 


" 25 


4.38 " 


123 


12.5 


76 


2.8 


4Sm. 


5'4 


5 




4883 


" 31 


11.20 " 


124 


14.0 


85 


3-5 


2ll. I5D1. 


I 88g 


450 




4888 


31 


2.04 P.M. 


124 JI4.O 


85 


5.1 


4h. sgm. 


4 3'9 


104 




4889 


" 3 1 


2.O7 " 


124 


14.0 


85 


6.0 


5h. O2m. 


5 189 


1 66 




4892 


" 3' 


3.38 " 


124 


13-5 


82 


5-7 


6h. 33m. 


5 639 


136 





Western Pressure System. 





1895 




















607 


Dec. 23 


II. 33A.M. 




18.0 


128 




58m. 


I 070 


171 




609 


" 23 


12.24 P - M - 




20. o 


142 


.... 


ih. 4901. 


1934 


260 




623 


23 


3.19 " 




24.0 


I7O 


.... 


4h. 44m. 


55So 


172 




621 


24 


9.50 A.M. 




22.0 


156 


.... 


7h. 13111. 


9318 


295 




624 


24 


12.31 P.M. 




21 .O 


M9 


.... 


gh. 54tn. 


12 960 


80 




631 


24 


3-22 " 




21.0 


149 


.... 


I2h. 45m. 


16568 


go 




634 


' 26 


9.51 A.M. 




2O. O 


142 


.... 


I5h. 26m. 


1 9 839 


860 




642 


' 26 


12.17 P - M - 




17-0 


120 


.... 


I7h. 52m. 


22 596 


130 




647 


' 26 


4.09 " 




28.0 


199 


.... 


2lh. 44m. 


28571 


242 




654 


' 27 


10.42 A.M. 




28.0 


199 




24h. 37m. 


33 23g 


360 




656 


27 


I2-5O P.M. 




28.0 


199 




26h. 45m. 


36582 


480 




663 


27 


3-25 " 




22.0 


156 


... 


2gh. 2Om. 


40 150 


268 




669 


27 


4-47 ' 




20. 


142 




3oh. 42m. 


41 631 


324 




676 


' 28 


10.09 A.M. 




19-5 


138 


.... 


3ih. 5601. 


43336 


494 




678 


' 28 


11.15 " 


2 


25.0 


177 


.... 


igm. 


588 


810 




679 


' 28 


11.45 ' 


2 


28.0 


199 


.... 


4gm. 


I 460 


I 170 




686 


' 28 


3.25 P.M. 


2 


22.0 


I 5 6 




4h. 2gm. 


6384 


I 1 16 




695 


' 30 


11.22 A.M. 


3 


2O. O 


142 




55m. 


984 


246 




700 


' 30 


1.55 P.M. 


3 


21. 


149 




3h. 28m. 


4 280 


460 




703 


30 


4-43 ' 


3 


23.0 


163 


.... 


6h. 1 6m. 


8067 


520 




710 


31 


IO.05 A.M. 


4 


21.0 


149 




I5m. 


303 


380 




714 


31 


II. TO " 


4 


23-5 


1 66 


.... 


ih. 2om. 


2705 


143 




721 


' 31 


2. 2O P.M. 


4 


22.5 


1 60 




4h. 3Otn. 


5 228 


280 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



75 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


4* 




S 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







C 


- 




tm 




Number 


a 


CO U 


a 


Period of 
Service Since 


. ti 

w S . 

*H r: - 


3 
U^. 








a 

3 


Date. 


Hour. 


of 
Run. 


V . 

~ 
u a 


Obg 


<3 
U 

E 
o 


Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


*ll 

S3 


a 
'11 


Remarks. 


1 

V 

in 








Is 

u 


S" 


j 




u rt 3 

E 


" 






1896 




















727 


Jan. a 


IO.I8 A.M. 


5 


15-5 


no 




I5m. 


192 


236 




729 


" 2 


10.48 " 


5 


15-5 


IIO 


. . . . 


45m. 


672 


121 




735 


" 2 


11-39 " 


5 


ig-5 


138 




ih. 36m. 


I 632 


I3O 




738 


" 2 


2.28 P.M. 


5 


16.0 


"3 




4h. 25m. 


4752 


546 


. 


747 


" 3 


IO.O4 A.M. 


6 


21. 


149 




I5m. 


216 


1 60 




752 


3 


10.46 " 


6 


20.0 


142 




57m. 


I 046 


I4O 




758 


3 


2.13 P.M. 


6 


18.0 


128 


. . . . 


4h. 24m. 


4876 


208 




763 


4 


II.3O A.M. 


7 


12. 


85 




I5m. 


194 


65 




768 


4 


I2.O7 P.M. 


7 


16.0 


113 




52m. 


721 


116 




769 


4 


2.15 " 


7 


14.5 


102 


. . . . 


3h. oom. 


2 671 


1 20 




778 


6 


12.14 


7 


14.0 


99 


.... 


gh. 5im. 


8671 


1 86 




782 


" 6 


3.36 " 


7 


16.0 






I3h. I3tn. 


II 812 


228 




787 


" 7 


3-35 ' 


8 


20. o 


142 


.... 


I5m. 


349 


82 




791 


" 7 


4.05 


8 


20. o 


142 




45m. 


936 


76 




796 


8 


12.05 


8 


20. o 


142 




5h. 25m. 


6860 


2IO 




801 


" 8 


2.36 ' 


8 


18.0 


128 




7h. 5601 


8584 


188 




805 


" 8 


3.10 " 


8 


18.0 


128 




8h. 3om. 


9176 


314 




807 


" 9 


10.05 A.M. 


9 


17.0 


120 




2im 


312 


73 




812 


9 


10-35 " 


9 


21. 


149 




5im 


902 


22 




819 


9 


2.06 P.M. 


9 


2O. O 


142 




4h. 22m 


5 152 


140 




824. 


" 10 


1 1.48 A.M. 










loh. ogm 


n 602 


118 




W^Bf 
831 


" 10 


2.0O P.M. 


9 


18-5 


132 




I2h. iim 


X * \J^J4t 
I4I52 






834 


" n 


10.56 A.M. 


10 


ig.t 


I 3 8 




28m 


. 457 


130 




838 


" n 


11.32 " 


10 


20.0 


142 


. . . . 


ih. 04m 


I 137 


177 




852D 


" 14 


II.I8 " 


n 22.5 


1 6O 




I5m 


283 


42 




854 


14 


11.48 " 


n 


21. 


149 




45m 


883 


148 




862 


' 14 


2.18 P.M. 


n 


20. 


142 


.. . . 


3h. ism 


3578 


62 


. 


865 


' 14 


3.12 " 


n 


19. o 


135 


. . . . 


4h. ogm 


4582 


IOO 




874 


15 


io.4g A.M. 


n 


22. 


156 


. . . . 


7h. 56m 


9013 


136 




876 


15 


12.50 P.M. 


n 


22. 


156 




gh. 57m 


II 732 


140 




884 


' 15 


3.20 " 


n 


24.0 


170 




I2h. 27m 


14973 


166 




890 


' 16 


II. O2 A.M. 


n 


21. 


149 




i6h. o8m 


19993 


ii 




895 


' 16 


I.I4 P.M. 


n 


29.0 


206 




i8h. 2om 


23543 


\Oi 




902 


' 16 


3.II A.M. 


n 


27.0 


igi 




2oh. I7m 


26923 


248 




911 


' 17 


11.02 ' 


12 


23.0 


163 




I5m 


375 


170 




QI4 


T7 


1 1.32 " 


12 


28.O 


TOO 




A Cm 


I IO7 






y *it 
927 


1 1 
17 


I.l6 P.M. 


12 


27-0 


191 


. . . 


2h. 2gm 


3827 


156 


_ 


928 


17 


2.02 " 


12 


26.O 


184 




3h. ism 


5067 


198 




934 


17 


3-17 " 


12 


28.0 


199 


. . . 


4h. 3om 


7177 


236 


"*" 


938 


17 


4.06 ' 


12 


27.0 


igi 


. . . 


5h. igm 


8597 


211. 




944 


' 17 


5-13 " 


12 


25.0 


177 




6h. 26m 


10 197 


340 




950 


" 18 


IO.I6 A.M. 


12 


30.0 


213 




7h. 2gm 


ii 897 


igo 




955 


' 18 


1.28 P.M. 


12 


33-5 


224 




loh. 4im 


17997 


268 




958 


1 18 


2.39 " 


12 


30.0 


213 


... 


nh. 52m 


20347 


274 




g66 


' 20 


10.32 A.M. 


12 


23.0 


163 




I5h. 42m 


27057 


1 80 




970 


' 20 


1.53 P-M. 


13 


27.0 


191 




3om 


630 


212 




976 


' 2O 


4.28 


13 


29.0 


206 




3h. osm 


4g6o 


260 




980 


' 21 


11.37 A.M. 


13 


28.0 


199 


... 


6h. 24m 


10340 


177 




988 


' 21 


4.30 P.M. 


13 


28.0 


199 




nh. I7m 


18 700 


211 


\ 


993 


' 22 


g.2g A.M. 


13 


24.0 


170 




I2h. i8m 


20600 


IOO 




IOOO 


' 22 


2.33 P.M. 


13 


30.0 


213 




I7h. 22m 


2g78o 


140 




1004 


' 23 


lo.ig A.M. 


13 


29.0 


206 




2ih. I4m 


36250 


222 




1006 


' 23 


3.4O P.M. 


13 


20. o 


142 




26h. 35m 


45 loo 


130 




ion 


' 24 


10.05 A.M. 


14 


25.0 


177 




I7m 


351 


59 




1016 


' 24 


1.55 P.M. 


14 


30.0 


213 




4h. O7m 


7091 


128 




IO2I 


' 25 


9.52 A.M. 


14 


25.0 


177 




8h. 03m 


14041 


103 




1026 


' 25 


2. 2O P.M. 


14 


24.0 


170 




I2h. 3im 


20411 


170 




1036 


' 27 


IO.I7 A.M. 


14 


26.0 


184 




I5h. ogm 


24151 


635 




1042 


' 27 


I.l6 P.M. 


14 


23. c 


163 




i8h. o8m 


28531 


8 3 6 




1047 


" 27 


4.30 " 


15 


25. c 


177 




39m 


957 


770 




1052 


" 28 


9.58 A.M. 


15 


26. c 


184 




2h. O4m 


3017 


1448 




1056 


" 28 


3.2O P.M. 


15 


i6.c 


113 




6h. 4om 


8277 


736 




io6ia 


" 28 


4.40 " 


15 


14.0 


99 




8h. oom 


9497 


444 





WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


j 




8 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 

fc. 




c 


O 




.c 




Number 


i 


S5 
o d ; -o 


Period of 
Service Since 


be 

5-fj 


5 








S 






of 
Run. 


id 


~ i! J 

O S a K 


Last 
Washing. 


rt "7JJ w 


al 


Remarks. 


55 








ii* *^ 


c < O ' v. 


Hours and 


O"* u 


.. 




M 


Date. 


Hour. 




C 




Minutes. 


gtt| 


S 




c 








la 


IN i 




V ci B 

-JU 






!/! 








o 


s 


J 




E 


SB 






1896 




















io6ib 


Jan. 28 


4.41 P.M. 


- 












4 080 


A. 


1062 


" 28 


4-45 " 


15 


14.0 


99 


. . 


8h. 05m. 


g6o4 


5 ooo 


A! 


1086 


" 3I 


II. 06 A.M. 


16 


20.5 


146 




58m. 


i 2ig 


336 




1087 




2.29 P.M. 


16 


14.0 


99 




4h. 2im. 


482g 


613 




1098 


Feb. i 


12.24 " 


17 


20.0 


142 


. . . . 


2h. o8m. 


2848 


326 




IIOI 


" i 


2. 4 8 " 


17 


13-0 


92 


4h. 32m. 


5 508 


102 




1105 


" i 


5-07 


17 


16.0 


113 


6h. 5im. 


7528 


135 




1109 


" 3 


10.38 A.M. 


18 


25.0 


177 


. . . . 


38m. 


874 


477 




1112 


3 


1.20 P.M. 


18 


24.5 


174 




3h. 2om. 


4774 


607 




III4 


3 


3.26 " 


18 


25.0 


177 


5h. 26m. 


7824 


492 




1118 


3 


5.O2 " 


18 


21-5 


152 


.... 


7h. 02m. 


10024 


600 




II2T 


' A 


IO. 25 A.M. 


TO 


24. o 


I7O 




*?om 


880 






J 
1126 


*T 

4 


11.52 " 


19 


25.0 


1 j u 

177 


.... 


2h. o6m- 


2920 


i 200 




1129 


4 


2.36 P.M. 


19 


14.0 


99 


. . . 


4h. 5om. 


6640 


990 




H33 


4 


5 22 " 


19 


14.0 


99 




7h. 36m. 


9 640 


255 




1 139 


5 


10.34 A.M. 


20 


22.0 


156 




O2m. 


33 


404 




"43 


5 


11.58 " 


2O 


26.0 


. 184 


.... 


ih. 26m. 


2 143 


522 




1147 


" 5 


3.17 P.M. 


20 


18.5 


132 




4h. 45m. 


6553 


1376 




1152 


5 


5-12 " 


20 


II.5 


82 


.... 


6h. 4Om. 


8393 


442 




1158 


6 


IO.29 A.M. 


21 


29.0 


206 


. . . 


57m. 


i 619 


980 




H59 


" 6 


12. 06 P.M. 


21 


20.0 


142 


.... 


2h. 34m. 


3969 


i 024 




1166 


" 6 


3-21 " 


21 


23-5 


166 


.... 


5h. 4gm. 


8 619 


2 040 




1171 


" 6 


4. 2O " 


21 


22.0 


156 


.... 


6h. 48m. 


9959 


I 800 




1176 


" 7 


10.25 A.M. 


22 


26.0 


184 


.... 


53m. 


i 340 


600 




1180 


7 


I.4O P.M. 


22 


23.0 


163 




4h. o8m. 


5360 


I 6OO 




1181 


" 7 


3-37 " 


22 


23.0 


163 


* ... 


6h. osm. 


7650 


700 




1189 


. " 8 


10.45 A.M. 


23 


22.0 


156 


.... 


ih. 2ym. 


2054 


.... 




1194 


" 8 


2.31 P.M. 


24 


25.0 


177 


.... 


2gm. 


744 


7 68 




1197 


" 8 


4.56 " 


24 


2O. O 


142 


.... 


2h. 54m. 


3524 


660 




1205 


" 10 


10.27 A.M. 


25 


18.0 


128 




ih. O3m. 


1336 


166 




1210 


" IO 


2.O2 P.M. 


26 


20.0 


142 




ih. 32m. 


2005 200 




1214 


" IO 


3.26 " 


26 


12.0 


85 


.... 


2h. s6m. 


3 575 491 




1219 


" 10 


5.H " 


27 


19.0 


135 




i h. i)ii). 


i 510 i 250 




1224 


" II 


IO.24 AM. 


27 


20. o 


142 




3h. oim. 


2 540 376 




1227 


" II 


I.O3 P.M. 


28 


2O. 


142 




ih. 5im. 


2653 


151 




1230 


" II 


3.22 " 


29 


22. 


156 


. . . . 


56m. 


I 365 


605 




1234 


" II 


5.18- " 


29 


6.0 


42 


. . . . 


2h. 52m. 


3595 


39 




1237 


" 12 


IO.23 A.M. 


3 


23.0 


163 




ih. osm. 


1 426 62 




1239 


" 12 


1. 2O P.M. 


30 


4.0 


99 




4h. 02m. 


4 976 635 




1240 


" 12 


3-13 " 




24.5 


174 


. . . . 


ih. ogm. 


i 522 252 




1245 


" 12 


4-57 


31 


21. 


149 




2h. 53m. 


3802 


498 




1251 


" 13 


9.58 A.M. 


32 


21. 


149 


. . . . 


23m. 


532 


56 




1254 


13 


12-35 P.M. 


32 


23.0 


163 


. . . . 


3h. oom. 


4 212 


"7 




1257 


13 


2.29 " 


S 2 


22.0 


156 


. . . . 


4h. 54m. 


6782 


505 




1260 


13 


4-45 " 


32 


8.0 


128 


. . . . 


7h. lorn. 


9652 


957 




1268 


14 


10.35 A.M. 


33 


22. O 


156 


. . . . 


ih. I5m. 


1668 


227 




1272 


14 


1.26 P.M. 


33 


21. O 


149 


. . . . 


4h, o6m. 


5 288 132 




1276 


14 


3-33 " 


33 


9-0 


135 




6h. I3m. 


6 898 209 




1278 


14 


4.56 " 


33 


8-5 


132 




7h. 36m. 


8 488 2g6 




1286 


15 


10.24 A.M. 


34 


7-0 


191 




55m. 


i 402' 


580 




1290 


15 


1.38 P.M. 


35 


4-0 


170 




o6m. 


93 


i 085 




1294 


15 


3.16 " 


35 


4.0 


99 




ih. 44m. 


2273 


i 290 




1299 


15 


5.27 


35 


g.o 


135 




3h. 55m. 


4683 


446 




I35 


'7 


10.24 A.M. 


36 


5-0 


177 




5om. 


i 130 


925 




1309 


17 


1.48 P.M. 


36 


3- 


163 




4h. I4m. 


5910 


i 025 




1 3 1 4 


17 


3-35 " 


37 


4.0 


170 




o6m. 


155 


441 




I3 T 5 


17 


5. ii " 


37 


2.5 


1 60 




ih. 42m. 


2355 


161 




1323 


" 18 


10.38 A.M. 


37 


I.O 


149 




3h. 3gm. 


49 6 5 


i 160 




1327 


" 18 


I2.O7 P-M. 


37 


0.5 


146 




5h. o8m. 


6925 


695 




1331 


" 18 


2.34 " 


38 


4.0 


170 


... 


3'm. 


734 


730 




1334 


" 18 


4-59 ' 


38 


I.O 


149 




2h. 56m. 


4084 


848 




1339 


" 18 


5.II " 


38 


I.O 


149 




3h. o8m. 


4314 


119 




1346 i " 19 


10.27 A.M. 


38 


2.0 


151 




4h. 54m. 


6444 


604 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



'77 



TAHLK No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


j 




V 
D 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


o 






12 

















t/5 






b 






o 


c u 




renoa ol 
Service Since 


V C . 


u 








.0 






Number 


a 


_o o. 


(Q 


Last 


^ ~ o 


fe fe 




s 






of 


t . 


" 


O 

X 


Washing. 


:.<' 


a u 


Remarks. 








Run. 








Hours and 




.2. 




"3 


Date. 


Hour. 




u G 


u 1 


"o 


Minutes. 


fcSS 


5 ^ 












IS 


5 3 * 

~ a. w 


i 




^JO 


CJ 


f 


</! 








u 


s 






fc. 


09 






i8g6 




















1350 


Feb. ig 


11.43 A.M. 


38 


20. 


142 


.... 


6h. lorn. 


8804 


51300 


A. 


1354 


" 19 


3.13 P.M. 


39 


23-5 


166 


.... 


2h. 49111. 


398o 


595 




1356 


19 


4-59 ' 


39 


24.0 


170 




4h. 35m. 


6540 


442 




1365 


20 


11.15 A.M. 


40 


25-0 


177 


. . . . 


I3m. 


258 


97 




1374 


" 20 


1.23 P.M. 


40 


24.0 


170 


.... 


2h. 2im. 


3498 


305 




1380 


" 20 


3-25 " 


40 


22.5 


1 60 




4h. 23m. 


6278 


745 




1384 


" 2O 


5.08 " 


40 


ig.o 


135 


.... 


6h. o6m. 


8 298 


881 




1392 


" 21 


10.07 A.M. 


41 


20.5 


146 


.... 


38m. 


1658 


77 




1397 


" 21 


12.52 P.M. 


41 


23-0 


163 




3h. 23m. 


4388 


145 




1400 


" 21 


3.13 " 


41 


18.5 


132 




5h. 44m. 


7 208 


401 




1403 


" 21 


5-01 


42 


25-5 


180 




ih. 24m. 


2 IO3 


53 




1420 


" 24 


IO.22 A.M. 


42 


23.0 


163 


.... 


3h. ism. 


4490 


187 




1426 


24 


I.3O P.M. 


42 


22.0 


156 




6h. 23111. 


9 030 


848 




1429 


24 


331 " 


43 


24-5 


174 


.... 


56m. 


i 316 


338 




M34 


24 


5-24 


43 


23-0 


163 


.... 


2h. 49m. 


3956 


615 




1440 


25 


10.38 A.M. 


43 


25.0 


177 




4h. 33m. 


6266 


i 205 




1444 


25 


1.23 P.M. 


43 


22.0 


156 




7h. iSm. 


10066 


i 510 




1448 


25 


3.18 " 


43 


21.5 


152 


.... 


gh. I3m. 


12556 


720 




1449 


" 25 


4-53 " 


43 


16.0 




.... 


loh. 48m. 


14456 


368 




1459 


" 26 


10.34 A.M. 


44 


21. 


149 




ih. I2m. 


i 602 


205 




1463 


" 26 


12. 2O P.M. 


44 


25.0 


177 |. .. 


2h. 58m. 


4272 


595 




1465 


" 26 


3.II " 


44 


25.0 


177 


.... 


5h. 49111. 


8512 


650 




1469 


'* 26 


5-15 


44 


25.0 


1 80 


.... 


7h. 53m. 


it 602 


645 




1475 


" 27 


IO.28 A.M. 


44 


24-5 


174 




gh. 25m. 


13702 


887 




1482 


27 


1.50 P.M. 


44 


16.0 






I2h. 47m. 


17 812 


618 




1486 


27 


3-t-9 " 


45 


32.0 


227 




5gm. 


1493 


990 




1491 


27 


5-25 


45 


26.0 


184 




3h. ism. 


5 213 


212 




1499 


" 28 


10.48 A.M. 


45 


30.0 


213 




5h. o8m. 


8033 


305 




1504 


28 


3 29 P.M. 


45 


24.0 


170 




gh. 4gm. 


15 123 


710 




1506 


" 28 


5.00 " 


45 


20. o 


142 




nh. 2om. 


17243 


583 




1514 


" 29 


10.40 A.M. 


- 45 


25.5 


180 




I2h. 48m. 


'9433 


443 




1519 


29 


1.42 P.M. 


45 


23.0 


163 




I5h. som. 


23713 


i 700 




1523 


29 


3-25 " 


45 


21-5 


152 




I7h. 33m. 


25953 


i 140 




1526 


29 


5.08 " 


45 


21.0 


149 




igh. i6m. 


28043 


330 




1535 


Mar. 2 


9.50 A.M. 


46 


25.0 


177 




22m. 


492 


810 




1539 


" 2 


10.30 " 


46 


25-5 


1 80 


.... 


ih. 02m. 


I 502 






1543 


2 


I 42 P.M. 


46 


27.0 


191 




4h. I4m. 


6 162 


M75 




1547 


" 2 


3.22 " 


46 


24-5 


174 




5h. 54m. 


8 722 


6000 




1552 


" 2 


5.16 " 


46 


25.0 






7h. 48m. 


II 462 


720 




1560 


3 


10.48 A.M. 


46 


25-5 


1 80 




gh. som. 


14342 


i 600 




1562 


3 


12.52 P.M. 


46 


25-5 


1 80 




nh. 54m. 


17452 


740 




1567 


3 


3.l6 " 


46 


20.0 


142 




I4h. i8m. 


20 982 


410 




1573 


3 


5.19 " 


46 


22.5 


1 60 




loh. 2im. 


23 922 


442 




1579 


4 


10.53 A.M. 


46 


20. o 


142 




i8h. 25m. 


26772 


940 




1583 


4 


1.04 P.M. 


46 


22.5 


1 60 




2oh. 36m. 


29722 


683 




1587 


4 


3.24 " 


47 


24.5 


174 




3gm. 


970 


222 




1592 


4 


5.08 


47 


24-5 


'74 




2h. 23m. 


4 260 


60 5 




1598 


5 


10.44 A.M. 


47 


27.0 191 




4h. 2gm. 


6 180 


I O40 




1602 


5 


12.59 P -M. 


47 


25.0 


177 


. . . . 


6h. 44m. 


9520 


705 




1607 


5 


3.26 ' 


47 


23.0 


163 




gh. nm. 


12 980 


345 




1609 


5 


5-07 " 


47 


25.0 


177 




loh. 52m. 


15420 


37 




1619 


6 


10.40 A.M. 


47 


23.0 


163 




I2h. 55m. 


18 140 


231 




1624 


6 


12.45 P-M. 


47 


23.5 


166 




I5h. oom. 


20 960 


105 




i&2g 


6 


3.26 " 


47 


26.0 


184 




I7h. 4im. 


24 620 


585 




1630 


6 


5-19 " 


47 


26.0 


184 




igh. 34m. 


27460 


385 




1640 


7 


10.52 A.M. 


48 


28.0 


199 


. . . . 


52m. 


I 230 


845 




1643 


7 


12. 5g P.M. 


48 


25.0 


177 




2h. 5gm. 


4530 


280 




1646 


7 


3.16 ". 


48 


25-5 


1 80 




5h. i6m. 


7 6.00 


435 




if'53 


7 


5-25 " 


48 


24.0 


170 




7h. 25m. 


10760 


320 




1659 


9 


it. og A.M. 


48 


22.5 


1 60 




gh. 3gm. 


13930 


212 




1660 


** Q 


Q CO AM tOS2'}I > M. 


1 ft 


_ ,, 


I fll 












1664 


y 
9 


12.58 P.M. 


48 


25.5 


1 80 




nh. 28m. 


16310 


235 




166? 


Q 


1.21; " 


48 


24.0 


170 




I3h. 55m. 


19710 


335 





178 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 



Western Pressure System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Ra- 

FiUr 

B 

a 


t"3 
.S.E 

gs 

u 


Million Gallons ::. 
per Acre per g ~* 
24 Hours. 


Loss of Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


Date. 


Hour. 


1675 
1681 
1685 
1690 
1696 
1701 
1705 
1709 
1666 
1716 
1722 
1726 
1731 
1736 
1742 
1746 
1750 
1755 
1762 
1763 
1768 
1769 
1774 
1775 
1781 
1788 
1789 
1794 
1795 
1800 
1801 
1806 
1814 
1815 
1820 
1821 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1838 
1839 
1844 
1845 
1851 
1865 
1869 
1877 
1883 
1891 
1897 
1903 
igcx 
1915 
1921 
1924 
1930 
1938 
1943 
1949 
1950 
1960 

1963 
1966 


1896 
Mar. 9 
" 10 
" 10 

" 10 

" 10 
" II 
" II 
" II 
"9-11 
II 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 12 
" 13 
13 
13 
." 13 
14 
14 
14 
M 
14 
14 
" M 
" 16 
" 16 
" 16 
" 16 
' 16 
" 16 
" 16 
" 17 
17 
I- 
17 
'7 
J7 
17 
" 18 
" 18 
" 18 
" 18 
" 18 
" 19 
'9 
19 
" 19 

20 
" 2O 
" 2O 
" 20 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 21 
" 23 
23 
23 

23 
24 
24 
" 24 


5.12 P.M. 
10.28 A.M. 
I.4O P.M. 

3.16 " 
5.20 " 

10.25 A.M. 
1.36 P.M. 

3-27 " 
3.25 P.M. to 3.27 P.M. 
5.19 P.M. 
IO.25 A.M. 
I. O2 P.M. 

3-33 " 
5.20 ' 

10.31 A.M. 
I.I7 P.M. 
3.21 " 
5.06 " 
I0.4O A.M. 
9.31 A.M. to 10.40 A.M. 
I.I3 P.M. 
10.40 A.M. to I.I3 P.M. 
1.43 P.M. " 3.18 " 
3.18 P.M. 

4-55 " 

9-00 A.M. 
10-37 " 
10.37 A.M. to 1.20 P.M. 
1.20 P.M. 
1. 2O P.M. to 3-22 P.M. 
3.22 P.M. 
5-09 " 
9 22 P.M. to IO 35 A.M. 
10.35 A M. 
10.35 A.M. to 1. 2O P.M. 
1.20 P.M. 

1.20 P.M. to 3.25 P.M. 
3.25 P.M. 

5.07 " 

10.34 A.M. 
9.25 A.M. to 10.34 A.M. 

I. ig P.M. 
10.34 A.M. to I. ig P.M. 

1. 19 r.M. " 3.30 " 

9.30 A.M. " 10.53 A.M 
IO-53 " " 12.20 P.M 
12.20 P.M. " 3.11 " 
3-II " ' 5.30 " 
9.0O A.M. " IO-35 A.M 
IO-35 " " I.I5 P.M 
I.I5 P.M. " 3.37 " 
3-37 ' 5-30 " 
10.48 A.M. 
1.28 P.M. 
3.27 " 
5.07 
9-OO A.M. to IO.3O A.M. 
IO.3O " " I2.O5 P M. 
12.05 P-M. " 3.05 " 
3.05 ' 4.00 " 
9-00 A.M. " 11.30 A.M. 
II.3O ' " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 


48 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 - 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
5i 
5i 
51 
51 
51 
5i 
51 
51 
51 
5i 
51 
51 
52 
52 
52 
52 
52-53 
53-54 
54 
55 
56 
57 
57 
57 
58 
58 
58-59 
59 
60 
60-61 
61 


24.0 

22.5 

24.0 

25.0 

24.0 

25.5 
23.5 
23.0 
22.9 
24.0 
25.0 
24.0 

22. 
22.0 
24.0 
23.0 
24.0 
22.0 

23-5 
22.5 
23.0 
23.0 
23.2 
24.0 
24.0 
21.6 

23.0 

23.3 

23.0 

23-7 
24.0 
23.0 
23-4 
23-5 
23-2 
23.0 
23-2 
22.5 
22.5 
22.0 
22 6 
23.0 
22.6 
21.0 
25.0 
21.2 
21.8 
I S . S 

19.3 

16.5 
16.3 

19-5 

18.0 
18.5 
13-5 

II. 

18.4 
17.0 

16.8 

19-3 
21.4 
19.7 

t 3 .8 


170 
1 60 
170 

177 
170 
1 80 
166 
163 
162 
170 
177 




I5h. 42m. 
ih. I2m. 
4h. 24m. 
6h. oom. 
8h. O4m. 
gh. 3gm. 
I2h. I2m. 
I4h. 03m. 


22 ogo 

I 618 
6 3 g8 
8 788 
11778 
13 868 
17 438 
19938 


175 
330 
125 
204 
225 
igg 
165 
182 


C. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 

c. 
c. 

c. 

c. 




I5h. 55m. 
I7h. 35m. 
2oh. o8m. 
22h. 3gm. 
24h. 26m. 
ih. urn. 
3h. 57m. 
6h. oim. 
7h. 46m. 
gh. 5Om. 


22 518 
24738 
28418 
32058 
345SS 
1693 
5603 
8423 
10863 
13631 


129 

43 
2g8 

565 
195 

181 

194 
163 
no 

177 
225 

139 
205 
98 
187 
132 
274 
3f'5 
38i 
322 
395 
305 
480 

505 
685 
500 
I go 

118 
185 
420 

765 
425 
280 

250 

325 

450 

97C 

780 

I 000 

500 
400 

500 
800 
890 
980 
i 050 
1430 
I 115 
I 105 
780 
740 

297 
500 

5 8c 


156 
156 
170 
163 
170 
156 
166 
1 60 
163 
164 
164 
170 
170 
131 
163 
165 
163 
168 
170 
163 
1 66 
1 66 
164 
163 
164 
1 60 
. 160 
156 
1 60 
163 
156 
149 
177 
149 
155 
134 
137 
116 

"5 
138 
128 
132 
96 
78 
131 
1 20 
119 

137 
152 
140 
98 


.... 




I2h. 23m. 


17 173 










I4h. 28m. 
i6h. osm. 


20083 
22333 




iSh. 17111. 


25243 




2ih. oom. 


29 043 




23h. O2m. 
24h. 4gm. 


3i 933 
34223 




ih, igm. 


1843 




4h. O4m. 


5663 




6h. ogm. 
7h. 5im. 
gh. 48m. 


8563 
10853 

13 543 




I2h. 33m. 


17263 


























































ih. 28m. 
i8m. 
2h. I7m. 
3h. 57m- 


I 580 
335 
2085 

3275 







































COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



179 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 



1 

a 
1 

!s 
X 

1970 

1974 
1982 
1990 
1994 
1999 

2002 
2006 
2009 
2OI3 
2O22 
2031 
2036 
2O4I 
2044 
2048 
2051 

2055 
2058 
2059 
2060 
2061 
2062 
2063 
2066 
2068 
2069 
2070 
2071 
2072 
2073 
2074 
2077 
2079 
2080 
2084 
2085 
2086 
2087 
2088 
2089 
2090 
2091 
2092 
2093 
2094 
2095 
2096 
2097 
2IOO 
2104 
2107 
2III 
2122 
2128 
2132 
2137 
2140 
2144 
2147 
2156 
2159 
2162 


Collected. 




Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


Lossof Head. Feet. 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


!L 

V . 

| 

^5 

3^ 

u 


Million Gallons 
per Acre per 
24 Hours. 


Date. 


Hour. 


1896 
Mar. 24 
" 24 
24-25 
" 25 
25 
25 
25 
" 25 
25 
" 25 
25-26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26 
" 26-27 
" 27 
27 

27 
27 

27 
27 
27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 
27 
' 27 

27 

27 
27 
" 27 

" 27 

27 

27 

27 
27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 

" 27 

27 

27 

27 
" 27 

" 27-28 

" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
" 28 
28-29 

29 


5.3O P.M. to 8.30 P.M. 

8.30 " " 11.30 " 

II.3O " 2. 30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " : 8.30 " 
8.30 " " 11.30 " 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 " " II.3O " 
II.3O " " 2.3O A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
53 ' ' 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 " " 11.30 " 
11.30 " " 2.30 A.M. 
2.30 A.M. 
2-45 ' 
2-59 ' 
3.20 ' 
3-30 " 
2.30 A.M. tO 5.30 A.M. 
5.40 A.M. 
5-50 " 

6.00 ' 
6.10 " 
6.50 " 
7.20 " 

8.20 " 
5.30 A.M. to 8.30A.M. 
9-20 A.M. 
IO.20 " 
8.30A.M. to II. 30 A.M. 
11.30 A.M. 
12.10 P.M. 
12.20 " 
I2.3O " 
12.40 " 
I2.5O " 
1. 00 " 
I. 10 " 
1.20 " 
1.30 " 
I.4O ' 
1.50 " 
2.OO ' 
II. 3O A.M. to 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 ' " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
11.30 " ' 2.30A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 ' ' 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " 11.30 " 
II.3O " " 2.3O P.M. 
2.3O P.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " II.3O " 
11.30 " " 2.30 A.M. 
2.30 A.M. " 5.30 " 


61-62 
62 

63 

63-64 
6 4 
64-65 
65-66 
66 
66 
67 
67 
67-68 
68 
68-69 
69 
69-70 

70 
70-71 

71 
71 
71 
71 
72 
72 
71-72 
72 
72 
72 

72 

72 

72 

72 

72 

72 
72 
72 

72 

72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
72 

72 

72 

72 
72 
72 

72 

72-73 
73 
73 
73-74 
74 
74 
74-75 
75 
75 
75-76 
76 
76-77 
77 
77-7* 


15-4 

12.6 
16.0 
16.0 
17.4 
17.5 
15.0 
14.8 
15.1 
17-5 
14.7 
17-4 
16.5 
17.9 
14.8 
15.4 
r6. 3 
14-3 
16.0 
17.0 
17.0 
16.5 
17.0 
17.0 
16.3 


log 

89 
113 

"3 
123 
124 
1 06 
105 
107 
124 
104 
124 
116 
127 
105 
109 
H5 

101 

"3 
1 20 

120 

116 

120 
1 2O 
"5 








208 
283 
395 
355 
325 
177 
214 
825 
310 
675 
330 
340 
360 
270 
195 
190 

220 
254 
158 
290 
300 
400 
425 
189 

395 
249 
189 
295 
470 
190 
185 
260 

225 

305 
405 
2(j2 
342 
302 

257 
3'7 
266 

305 
370 
408 
360 
270 
39 
285 
345 
365 
685 
148 
166 
98 
291 

34 
170 
215 
199 
1955 
fjf> 

2f> 

732 


E. 
E. 
E. 

The series of results on 
run No. 72 was used in 
obtaining the average 
bacteria for this run, 
but not for the day. 












































































































5h. lorn. 
5h. 25m. 
5h. 39m. 
O2m. 
I2m. 


5 2O2 

5452 
5662 
37 
217 




23m. 
33m. 
43m. 
53m. 
ih. 33m. 
2h. O3m. 
3h. 03m. 


447 
687 
807 
987 
1667 

2 217 
3187 


19-5 
19.0 
18.5 
17-5 
17-5 
16.5 
17-7 
17.0 
16.0 
16.6 
16.0 
16.0 
15-5 
15-5 
15-5 
15-5 
15-5 
15-5 
15.5 
15.0 
15.0 
15.0 
15.0 
15.8 
17.0 

17-7 
16.6 
17.8 
17.0 
17.1 
18.1 
17.2 
16.9 
16.2 

15-4 
14.9 

15-0 


I 3 8 

135 
132 
124 
124 

116 
126 
1 20 
113 
"7 
113 
113 
no 
no 
no 
no 
no 

IIO 
IIO 

106 
106 
106 

1 06 

112 
121 
126 
117 
127 
1 2O 
121 
I2g 
121 
119 

114 
109 
105 

112 




.... 


4h. 03111. 
5h. 03m. 


4237 

5 151 





6h. I3m. 
6h. 53m. 
7h. 03m. 
7h. I3m. 
7h. 23m. 
7h. 33m. 
7h. 43m. 
7h. 53m. 
8h. O3m. 
8h. I3m. 
8h. 23m. 
8h. 33m. 
8h. 43m. 


6417 
6897 
7057 
7217 
7367 
7517 
7681 

7837 
7987 
8 147 
8297 
8447 
8607 












































































1 





1 80 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Western Pressure System. 



Serial Number. 


Collected. 


Number 
of 
Run. 


Rate of 
Filtration. 


1 

a 

1 

*o 



1 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


Filtered Water Since 
Last Washing. 
Cubic Feet. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


Remarks. 


I 

V . 

ej 

C 
S 5 


= s 

o a 

!= 

?x 
= 5L? 


Date. 


Hour. 


2166 
2170 

2174 
2175 
2176 
2177 
2178 
2179 
2i8-> 

2186 
2190 
2193 
2197 

22OO 
2'jnj 
220! 
2211 
2217 
2221 
2225 
2230 
2235 
2238 
224; 
224* 
2251 
2256 
2259 


1896 
IMar. 29 

" 29 
29 
29 

29 
29 
" 29 

29 
29 

29 
29 
29-30 
30 
30 
" 30 
30 
30 
3i 
3i 
31 
April i 
" I 
I 
' 2 
' 2 
' 2 
3 

3 
3 
4 
4 
' 4 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
May 7 

" 7 
8 
8 
8 
8 
" 8-g 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
n 
' n 
ii 

' 12 
' 12 
' 12 
" 12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
14 

" 14 


5.30 A.M. to 8. 30 A.M. 
8.30 " " II.3O " 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
3.26 P.M. 
3-32 " 
3-42 
3-57 
4.12 

2.3O P.M. to 5.30 P.M. 
5.30 " " 8.30 " 
8.30 ' " IL3O ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 A.M. 
2. 30 A.M. " 5.30 " 
5.30 " ' 8.30 ' 
8.30 ' " II.3O ' 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
g. 3O A.M. " II. 30 A.M. 
II.3O " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.30 A.M. " II.3O A.M. 
11.30 " " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.40 " " II.3O A.M. 
11.30 A.M. " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.30 " " 11.30 A.M. 
11.30 A.M. " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 

g.30 " " 11.30 A.M 

II.3O A.M. " 2.30 P.M 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 

g.3O " " 11.30 A.M 

II.3O A.M. " 2.30 P.M 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
9.30 " " 11.30 A.M 
II.3O A.M. " 2.30 P.M. 
2.30 P.M. " 5.30 " 
3-2O P.M. 
9-2O " 
3-05 A.M. 

g.oo " 
g.oo A.M. to 3.30 P.M. 

3.0O P.M. " g.OO " 

g.oo " " 3.00 " 

3.OO A.M. 
3.OO A.M. to 8.30 A.M. 

g.oo A.M. 

1.20 P.M. 

3-27 " 

IO.OO A.M. to 1.55 P.M. 
3.OO P.M. 

g.oo " 

3.OO A.M. 

g.oo " 

12. OO M. 
8.30 P.M. 
2.00 A.M. 
8.00 " 
I.OO P.M. 
7.OO P.M. 
3.00A.M. 

g.oo " 


78 
78-79 
79 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80-81 
81 
81-82 
82 
82-83 
83 
83 
84 
84 
85 
86 
86-87 

87 
88 
88-8g 
8g 
go 
go 
9i 
91 
91-92 
92 
93 
93 
93 
94 
94 
94 
95 
96 
96 
96 
96-97 
97 
97 
97 
97-98 
98 
98 
98 
99 
99 
99 
IOO 
IOO 
IOI 
101 

1 02 
1 02 
1 02 
103 
103 
104 


15-3 
16.4 
16.4 

21.0 
2O. O 
17.0 
I6. 5 

16.0 
16.9 

15-7 
i6.g 
17.1 

17-3 
15.6 
14.1 
14.7 

14-3 
15. g 
13.0 
11.7 
17.0 
16.1 
15-5 
15-3 
I5-I 
14.7 
17.0 
13.0 
15-8 
16.0 
16.0 
14.6 
ig.2 
18.4 
16.6 
18.9 
18.8 
17-7 
23-5 
23-5 
24.0 

22.0 
22.6 
22.2 
22.2 
23.0 

23-3 
22.5 
23.5 
23.0 
23-4 
23-5 
22. 
24.0 
24.0 
23-0 
22. 
24.0 

23-5 
23.0 
24.0 
23.5 

23-5 


109 
116 

116 

149 
142 
1 20 
116 
113 
119 
in 
119 
121 
122 
III 

99 
103 
IOO 

"3 

92 

83 

120 

"3 
IIO 

108 
107 
104 
1 20 
92 

112 
H3 
H3 
103 
I 3 6 
131 

"7 
134 
137 
125 
166 
166 
170 
156 
161 
156 
156 
163 
164 
1 60 
166 
163 
165 
166 
156 
170 
170 
163 
156 
170 
166 
163 
170 
1 66 
166 








323 

I 686 

I 315 
635 
1055 
355 
95 
109 
2475 
715 
i 056 

2985 
5950 

1585 

2 725 
I 265 

i 145 

885 

i 455 
2545 

I IIO 

965 
i 025 
630 

I IIO 

525 
i 185 
I 160 
475 
175 
198 
182 
57 
85 
130 
64 
7i 
94 


From May 7-9 inclu- 
sive, the results of both 
single samples and 
those collected by the 
sampler were used to 
obtain the average 
bacteria for days and 
for runs. 
C. 

C. 

















I4m. 
2Om. 
3Om. 
45m. 
ih. oom. 


304 
404 

564 
804 

1054 




















































































































2263 
2268 
2272 
2278 
2282 
2287 
2290 
2295 
2300 
230; 
2768 

2775 
2 7 8 
2787 
279 
2799 
280 
2806 
28oq 
2814 
28l 
28l 
282 
282 
283 
285 

286 
2874 
287 
2882 
2886 
2893 
2897 
2901 
2906 

































































6h. 2om 
0701 
5h. 52m 
nh. 47m 


8870 
128 
7988 
16378 


289 
126 
20 
H3 
9 1 
















I5h. osm 


2OO23 


253 
I7i 
346 

225 

230 

363 

287 

1 80 
219 

242 

278 
219 
93 
H5 
171 
152 

156 
132 


. . . . 


4h. 56m 
gh. l6m 
nh. 23m 


6973 
13033 
15943 





5h. 2im 
nh. 2im 
5h. 03m 
nh. osm 
ih. 5gm 
loh. 2gm 
3h. 36m 
gh. 36m 
I4h. 36m 
3h. 57m 
nh. 57m. 
4h. 3om 


7497 
5637 
7010 
15 280 
2683 

14 154 
5001 

13 121 
I973I 

5 5oi 
16425 
6443 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



181 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


- 




S 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


1 




C 


U 

3 




V 




Number 


V 

o. 


\\ 


a 


Period of 
Service Since 


V C 


a 








S 

3 






of 
Run. 


Ic 




G v 3 


u 
E 


Last 
Washing. 


*|1 


ts 

S"s 


Remarks. 


5 


Date. 


Hour. 




fe3 

C 


c <o 
.2 v. 1 


"o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


O-^ u 

SiSS 


rt = 

11 




















u a 3 


~> V 




"u 








"2 S 


Ha? 


S 




.=^0 


"-> 




J 








u 


S 


j 




E 









1896 




















2910 


May 14 


2.0O P.M. 


104 


23-0 


163 


. . . . 


gh. 3om. 


13813 


131 




2916 


" 14 


8.00 " 


105 


24.0 


170 




3h. 34m. 


5 190 


136 




2920 


" 15 


1. 00 A.M. 


105 


23-5 


166 




8h. 34m. 


12 380 


181 




2924 


15 


8.00 " 


106 


23.0 


163 


. . . . 


3h. 4om. 


4978 


222 




2928 


" 15 


11.00 " 


106 


26.0 


184 




6h. 4om. 


9268 


237 




2934 


15 


5.21 P.M. 


106 


18.0 


128 




I2h. i8m. 


17 705 


7oo|Wasting 2 min., 66 cu. ft. 


2935 


15 


5.24 " 


106 


19.0 


135 


. . . . 


I2h. i8m. 


17705 


705 


5 ' 106 


2936 


15 


5.27 


106 


22.0 


156 




I2h. i8m. 


17705 


216 


8 " 166 " 


2937 


15 


5.31 


107 


19-5 


138 


. . . . 


O2tn. 


53 


115 




2938 


15 


5.33 ' 


107 


24.0 


179 


. . . . 


O4m. 


"3 


151 




2939 


15 


5.35 


107 


24.0 


170 




o6m. 


153 


170 




2940 


15 


5.37 ' 


107 


24.0 


170 





o8m. 


203 


134 




2941 


15 


5.39 ' 


107 


24.0 


170 




lorn. 


253 


122 




2942 


15 


5.41 


107 


24.0 


170 


. . . . 


I2m. 


293 


102 




2943 


15 


5.43 


107 


24.0 


170 




I4m. 


333 


71 




2944 


15 


5.45 


107 


24.0 


170 


.... 


i6m. 


383 


54 




2945 


15 


5.47 


107 


24.0 


170 


. . * . 


i8m. 


443 


105 




2946 


15 


5.49 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 


. . . . 


2om. 


493 


70 




2947 


15 


5.51 


107 


24-5 


174 




22m. 


523 


68 




2948 


15 


5.53 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 


.... 


24m. 


573 


82 




2949 


15 


5.55 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 




26m. 


623 


70 




2950 


15 


5-57 


107 


24-5 


174 




28m. 


673 


82 




2951 


15 


5-59 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 




3om. 


703 


56 




2952 


15 


6.04 ' 


107 


24.5 


174 


. . . . 


35m. 


843 


66 




2954 


' 15 


6.14 " 


107 


24.5 


174 


.... 


45m. 


1093 


74 




2955 


15 


6.29 " 


107 


24-5 


174 




ih. oom. 


M33 


81 




2956 


15 


7.29 " 


107 


24-5 


174 


.... 


2h. oom. 


2863 


65 




2957 


15 


8.29 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 




3h. oom. 


4303 


85 




2958 


15 


9.29 " 


107 


24.0 


174 




4h. oom. 


5733 


99 




2959 


15 


10.29 ' 


107 


24-5 


174 


. . . . 


5h. oom. 


7H3 


90 




2962 


15 


11.00 " 


- 107 


25-0 


177 


.... 


5h. 3im. 


7873 


142 




2964 


' 16 


12.29 A.M. 


107 


24.0 


170 


.... 


7h. oom. 


10033 


65 




2965 


' 16 


1.29 " 


107 


24-5 


174 


.... 


8h. oom. 


n 623 


400 




2966 


' 16 


2.29 " 


107 


23-5 


166 


.... 


gh. oom. 


12913 


129 




2967 


' 16 


3.29 " 


107 


24.0 


170 




loh. oom. 


14293 


71 




2968 


' 16 


4 2Q " 


IO7 








nh. oom. 


15 813 


200 




2971 


' 16 


t- "y 

5.00 ' 


*.\j j 
107 


24.0 


170 




nh. 3im. 


16703 


**Tf 

122 




2972 


' 16 


5.29 " 


107 


24.0 


170 


I2h. oom. 


17 263 


109 




2974 


' 16 


6.29 " 


107 


23-5 


166 


13(1. oom. 


18753 


108 




2975 


' 16 


7-29 " 


107 


24.0 


170 .... 


14(1. oom. 


20 133 


90 




2976 


" 16 


8.29 ' 


107 


24.0 


170 


I5h. oom. 


21 523 


90 




2979 


" 16 


9.29 ' 


107 


22.5 


1 60 




i6h. oom. 


22983 


81 




2982 


" 16 


IO.OO ' 


107 


23.0 


163 


.... 


i6h. 3im. 


23693 


91 




2983 


" 16 


10.29 " 


107 


23.0 


163 


.... 


I7h. oom. 


24363 


63 




2984 


" 16 


11.29 " 


107 


23-5 


166 


.... 


i8h. oom. 


25753 


98 




2985 


" 16 


12.29 P - M - 


107 


23.0 


163 


.... 


igh. oom. 


27173 


161 




2986 


" 16 


1.29 " 


107 


23.0 


163 




2oh. oom. 


28573 


136 




2987 


" 16 


2.29 " 


107 


23.0 


163 


.... 


2ih. oom. 


29933 


127 




2993 


" 16 


3.00 " 


107 


22.5 


1 60 




2ih. 3im. 


30673 


151 




2994 


1 16 


3.29 " 


107 


23.0 


163 


.... 


22h. oom. 


31403 


142 




2998 


' 18 


12.00 M. 


108 


14-5 


IO2 


2-3 


2h. 45m. 


2 406 


I 120 




3001 


' 18 


2.48 P.M. 


108 


14.0 


99 


4.6 


5h. 33m. 


4826 


429 




3009 


' 18 


6.07 " 


108 


15.0 


106 


7.0 


6h. 57m. 


6086 


265 




3011 


' 18 


g.OO " 


108 


15.0 


106 


4-7 


gh. som. 


8706 


3 ooo 




3016 


1 18 


12.00 " 


108 


15-5 


no 


7-0 


I2h. 5Om. 


II 466 


198 




3019 


' 19 


3.OO A.M. 


108 


14.5 


102 


14.7 


I5h. 5Om. 


14096 


185 




3025 


19 


6.OO " 


108 


15-5 


no 


12.3 


i8h. som. 


16786 


215 




3028 


19 


8.30 " 


108 


16.0 


113 


IO.O 


2ih. 2om. 


I8gi6 


195 




3033 


19 


1 2.08 P.M. 


108 


14-5 


102 


20. E 


24h. 58m. 


22046 


208 




3038 


19 


3-05 " 


1 08 


15-0 


106 


20. 8 


27h. 55m. 


24606 


300 




3042 


" 19 


6.00 " 


108 


14.0 


99 


18.5 


3oh. som. 


27086 


539 




3043 


19 


9.00 " 


108 


14.0 


99 


18.5 


33h. som. 


29586 


420 




3049 


" 19 


12.00 " 


108 


14.0 


99 


30.0 


3&h. som. 


32073 


582 





WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued, 

Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 







u 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


V 




c 
c/5 . 


U 




u 




Number 


8. 


c v 


o 


Period of 
ServiceSince 


;.= _. 


w-" 








E 






. of 
Run. 


. 


"Sue 

ti 3 


V 

ffi 


Last 
Washing. 


S 


R5 


Remarks. 











f 


< O 




Hours and 


0^ 


.5-- 






Date. 


Hour. 




u c 


c w 
.1 


"o 


Minutes. 


V *-i'~ 
** 


**" e 




1 








oS 


= Rs 


1 




=33 


|(j 




c/5 








U 


2 


3 














1896 




















3054 


May 20 


3.OO A.M. 


1 08 


15.0 


1 06 


27.7 


3gh. som. 


34726 


68 




3058 


" 20 


6.OO " 


108 


14.0 


99 


27.7 42h. som. 37246 235 




3O6l 


" 20 


8.30 " 


1 08 


14.0 


99 


30.0 


45h. 2om. 139266 242 




3063 


" 20 


9-43 " 


log 


15.0 


106 


2-3 


o6m. 


73 


340 




3065 


" 20 


9-53 


109 


14-5 


102 


2-3 


i6m. 


233 


165 




3070 


" 20 


12. OO M. 


log 


14.0 


99 


10.3 


2h. 23m. 


2 103 310 




3073 


" 20 


3.0O P.M. 


log 


14.5 


IO2 


4-7 


5h. 23m. 


4813 


190 




3078 


' 20 


6.OO " 


log 


14-5 


102 


7.0 


8h. 23m. 


7353 


159 




3083 


" 20 


g.oo " 


log 


14.5 


I O2 


7.0 


nh. 23m. 


9883 


146 




3087 


" 20 


12.00 " 


log 


14.0 


99 II . 6 


14(1. 23m. 


12 193 


M4 




3090 


" 21 


3.OO A.M. 


log 


14.0 


99 


16.3 


I7h. 23m. 


14693 


"3 




3094 


" 21 


6.00 " 


log 


14.0 


99 


18.5 


2oh. 23m. 


17093 


139 




3ogg 


" 21 


8.30 " 


log 


13-5 


88 


19.6 


22h. 53m. 


I9I33 


135 




3102 


" 21 


I2.OO M. 


109 


14.0 


99 


23.1 


26h. 23m. 


22 083 


162 




3log 


" . 21 


3.06 P.M. 


109 


14.5 


1 02 


27.8 


2gh. 2gm. 


24733 


183 




3113 


" 21 


6.OO " 


log 


14-5 


102 


32-4 


32h. 23m. 


27 223 


99 




3116 


" 21 


g.oo " 


log 


14.0 


99 


37-o 


35h. 23m. 


29763 


89 




3"9 


" 21 


12. OO " 


log 


14.0 


99 


41.6 


38h. ism. 


32253 


141 




3124 


" 22 


3-OO A.M. 


log 


14.0 


99 


55-4 


4ih. I5rn. 


34793 


105 




3128 


" 22 


6.00 " 


log 


14.0 


99 


53-0 


44h. ism. 


37243 


146 




3131 


" 22 


8.30 " 


109 


14.0 


99 


55-4 


4&h. 45m. 


39293 


67 




3138 


" 22 


12. OO M. 


no 


14-5 


IO2 


4-7 


2h. 4om. 


2 270 


71 




3143 


" 22 


3-OO P.M. 


IIO 


14-5 


102 


7-o 


5h. 4om. 


4 840 


101 




3149 


" 22 


6.00 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


7-o 


8h. 4om. 


7390 


92 




3152 


" 22 


g.oo " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


9-3 


nh. 4om. 


9860 


69 




3156 


" 22 


12. OO " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


7-o 


I4h. 4Om. 


12 390 


45 




3158 


" 23 


3-OO A.M. 


IIO 


13.5 


96 


9-3 


I7h. 4om. 


14940 


39 




3161 


' 23 


6.00 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


13-9 


2oh. 4om. 


17430 


33 




3163 


i 23 


8.30 " 


IIO 


13-5 


96 


16.2 


23h. lorn. 


19420 


34 




3170 


" 23 


12. OO M. 


IIO 


14-5 


1 02 


16.2 


26h. 4001. 


22 330 


72 




3171 


' 23 


3.OO P.M. 


no 


14.0 


99 


18.5 


2gh. 4om. 


24 goo 


45 




3176 


" 25 


I2.O5 " 


no 


14.5 


1 02 


18.5 


33h. 45m. 


28 260 


91 




3179 


" 25 


2.OO " 


IIO 


14-5 


102 


20.8 


35h. 4om. 


2g g4O 


64 




3183 


25 


6.00 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


30.1 


3gh. 4om. 


32 242 


63 




3186 


1 25 


8.00 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


25.5 


4ih. 4om. 


33990 


55 




3190 


." 25 


I2.OO " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


32.4 


45h- 4om. 


38410 


45 




3193 


" 26 


2.OO A.M. 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


32.4 


47h. 4om. 


40090 


33 




3199 


" 26 


6.00 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


39-3 


5lh. 4om. 


43340 


32 




3204 


" 26 


8.30 " 


IIO 


14.0 


99 


41.6 


54h. lorn. 


45 360 


3 6 9 




3206 


' 26 


g.28 " 


III 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


iim. 


198 


153 




3207 


" 26 


fg.32 " 


III 


18.0 


128 


2.3 


I5m. 


278 


138 




3210 


" 26 


IO.OO 


III 


17.0 


I2O 


2-3 


43m. 


758 


138 




3214 


26 


2.OO P.M. 


III 


17.0 


1 2O 


n. 6 


4h. <|3m. 


4988 


57 




3217 


" 26 


4.0O " 


III 


17-5 


124 


11. 6 


oh. 43m. 


7088 


59 




3223 


' 26 


8.00 " 


in 


J7-5 


124 


20.8 


loh. 43m. 


n 208 


48 




3226 


" 26 


IO.OO " 


in 


17-5 


124 


20.8 


I2h. 43m. 


13 308 


68 




3230 


" 27 


2. on A.M. 


in 


17.0 


120 


27.8 


i6h. 43m. 


17488 


62 




3232 


" 27 


4.OO " 


in 


17-5 


124 


30. 1 


l8h. 43m. 


ig 608 


27 




3238 


1 27 


7-30 " 


in 


17-5 


124 


32.4 


22h. I3m. 


23268 


66 




3244 


1 27 


I2.O5 P-M. 


in 


J7-5 


124 


39-3 


26h. 48m. 


27:878 


165 




3247 


" 27 


3.00 " 


in 


17.0 


1 2O 


43-9 


2gh. 43m. 


30)818 


36 




3248 


: 27 


3-12 " 


in 


20.0 


142 


4-7 


o 


o 


goo 


Wasting 2 min., 33 cu.ft. 


3249 


1 27 


3.14 ' 


in 


25.0 


177 


4-7 


o 


o 


265 


4 " 63 


3250 


' 27 


3-16 " 


in 


20.0 


142 


4-7 








210 


6 ' 103 


3251 


" 27 


3-18 " 


112 


15-0 


106 


4-7 


oim. 


17 


igO 




3252 


" 27 


3.22 ' 


112 


17.0 


1 20 


4-7 


osm. 


87 


I4O 




3253 


1 27 


3.32 " 


112 


18.0 


128 


7-0 


I5m. 


267 


119 




3257 


" 27 


6.00 ' 


112 


17-5 


124 


7-o 


2h. 43m. 


2gi7 


37 




3259 


' 27 


g.oo " 


112 


17.5 


124 


9-3 


5h. 43m. 


6027 


32 




3266 


1 27 


12.00 " 


112 


17-5 


124 


18.5 


8h. 43m. 


9 J 47 


25 




3268 


" 28 


3.00 A.M. 


112 


17-5 


124 


23-4 


nh. 43m. 


12 227 


30 




3274 


" 28 


6.00 " 


112 


17.0 


120 


30.1 


I4h. 43m. 


15 537 


39 




3277 


" 28 


7-3o " 


112 


17-"; 


124 


37-o 


i6h. I3m. 


17077 


!OO 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



183 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 







Rate of 


^j 




V 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


u 

V 




c 


io 




. 






u 


* i_ 




Period of 


k. ^* 


tj 




1 






Number 


I 


a 


a 

rt 


Service Since 
Last 


"in jj 






E 






of 


S . 


"3 S! 


8 

X 


Washing. 





o.S 


Remarks. 


Z 

~a 


Date. 


Hour. 


Run. 


a! 


J?l 


"o 


Hours and 
Minutes. 


c? 

Sss 

j n 3 


C " 




- n 








3 ^ 


ic.? 


o 




^J'J 


rt^ 




in 








U 


s 


J 




E 


05 






I8g6 




















328l 


May 28 


IO.O5 A.M. 


112 


17.0 


120 


41.6 


iSh. 4Sm. 


ig8g7 


74 




3286 


" 28 


12.14 P.M. 


112 


24.0 


170 


4-7 


o 


o 


430 


Wasting 2 min., 48011. ft. 


3287 


" 28 12.16 " 


112 


20. o 


142 


4-7 








300 


4 " 88 " 


3288 


" 28 


I2.I8 


112 


20. O 


142 


4-7 


o 


o 


282 


6 " 108 " 


3289 


" 28 


12. 2O " 


113 


15.0 


106 


4-7 


02m. 


41 


330 




3290 


" 28 


12.22 " 


113 


15-0 


10(1 


4-7 


0401. 


71 


235 




3291 


' 28 


I2.3O " 


113 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


I '-Mil 


211 


267 




3293 


' 28 2.00 " 




ig.o 


135 


4-7 


ih. 42m. 


I 871 


256 




3299 


1 28 


4-OO ' 


113 


iS.o 


128 


9-3 


3h. 42m. 


4021 


153 




337 


' 28 


8.00 " 


"3 


17-5 


124 


7-o 


7h. 42m. 


8 ogi 


165 




3313 


' 28 


10.00 " 


U3 


18.0 


128 


9-3 


gh. 42m. 


10311 


156 




3335 


" 2g 


2.35 A.M. 


114 


16.0 


113 




lorn. 


122 


152 




3336 


' 2g 


2.45 


114 


17-5 


124 


9-3 


2om. 


302 


127 




3341 


' 29 


4.00 ' 


114 


17.0 


120 


9-3 


ih. 35m. 


I6 5 2 


705 




3344 


1 29 


5-47 ' 


H5 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


osm. 


77 


325 




3345 


1 29 


5-57 ' 


115 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


I5m. 


247 


410 




3357 


29 


7.30 ' 


115 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


ih. 48m. 


i 847 


2g7 




3362 


29 


12.07 P.M. 


116 


17.0 


1 20 


7-0 


5gm. 


915 


78 




3365 


1 29 


2.03 " 


116 


15-0 


1 06 


7.0 


2h. 55m. 


2 765 


6g 




3369 


1 2g 


6.00 " 


118 


15-5 


no 


4-7 


igm. 


439 


168 




3374 


1 2g 


8.00 " 


118 


15-0 


106 


4-7 


2h. igm. 


2 26g 


34 




0-376 


" 2Q 


11.23 " 


I IQ 








2h. 57m. 


2 QI7 


86 




jji 
3379 


7 

' 30 


12.24 A.M. 


1 A 4 
120 


17.0 


1 20 


4-7 


28m. 


* V 1 / 

468 


280 




3385 


' 30 


2.29 " 


121 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


i8m. 


2g8 


369 




3392 


30 


7.20 " 


I2 3 


17.0 


1 20 


2.3 


4om. 


658 


III 




3403 


' 30 


12.24 P.M. 


127 


17.0 


120 


7-o 


ogm. 


87 


57 


3407 


June i 


12. OO M. 


I2 9 


17.0 


120 


7-0 


2h. 54m. 




671 


34io 


" i 


3.OO P.M. 


I2g 


17.0 


120 


4-7 


5h. 54m. 


5893 


81 




34M 


" i 


6.OO " 


I2g 


17.0 


120 


13-9 


8h. 54m. 


9213 


171 




3416 


' i 


g.OO " 


132 


20.0 


142 


4-7 


0401. 


207 


27 




3421 


' i 


12.00 " 


-134 


20.0 


142 


4-7 


2gm. 


746 


201 




3423 


' 2 


4.OO A.M. 


136 


19-5 


I 3 8 


2-3 


2301. 


700 


42O 




3426 


' 2 


6.45 " 


138 


20. O 


142 


4-7 


i6m. 


361 


I8 7 




3429 


1 2 


10.25 


140 


II. 


78 


13-9 


3om. 


492 


3900 


A. 


343" 


2 


11.04 " 


141 


16.0 


"3 


2-3 


oim. 


61 


68 




3433 


' 2 


12. OO M. 


141 


12.0 


85 


4-7 


57m. 


831 


310 




3437 


' 2 


4-39 P-M. 


143 


12. 


85 


2-3 


ih. i6m. 


1034 


5 loo 


A. 


3441 


2 


6.55 " 


145 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


. i8m. 


225 


42 




3443 


' 2 


10 40 ' 


148 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


35m. 


56l 


41 




3448 


3 


3.30 A.M. 


153 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


O4m. 


263 


41 




3452 


3 


6. 2O " 


156 


14.0 


99 


n. 6 


I5m. 


237 


54 




3469 


3 


6.OO P.M. 


158 


I4.O 


99 


4-7 


4im. 


620 


79 




3473 


3 


g.oo " 


159 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


ih. 48m. 


i 518 


73 




3474 


3 


9-37 " 


159 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


2h. 25m. 


2038 


i ooo 


A. 


3479 


3 


12. OO ' 


161 


14.0 


99 


4-7 


ogm. 


144 


20 




3483 


4 


3.OO A.M. 


162 


14.0 


99 




ih. o6m. 


890 


29 


3488 


4 


6.OO " 


162 


14.0 


99 


2-3 


4h. o6m. 


3 260 


184 




349 


4 


7-05 " 


163 


14.0 


99 


2.3 


36m. 


456 


2C 




-140-: 


' 4 


g.oo " 


164 








d7m 


670 


ai 


J*f yJ 

3497 


4 


10.40 " 


tw*| 

164 


14.0 


99 


2-3 


*T / til. 

2h. 27m. 


v/y y 
2059 


IS 


3500 


4 


I.IO P.M. 


164 


13-5 


96 


4-7 


4h. 57m. 


4079 


87! 


3502 


4 


3-46 " 


165 


17-5 


124 


2-3 


ih. 46m. 


1875 


23! 


3507 


4 


6.28 " 


165 


17.0 


120 


2-3 


4h. 28m. 


468 = 


97 




3510 


4 


8.45 


1 66 


17.0 


1 2O 


4-7 


ih. 4gm. 


I 809 


'9 




3533 


4 


12. OO ' 


167 


17.0 


120 


2-3 


2h. O7m. 


2197 


174 


3540 


5 


3.25 A.M. 


168 


17.0 


I2O 


2-3 


2h. 57m. 


2g&5 


72 


3544 


5 


6.00 " 


169 


I6. 5 


116 


2-3 


2h. i6m. 


2 2g4 


325 


3545 


5 


6.32 " 


i6g 


16.5 116 


2-3 


2h. 48m. 


2 7M 


i 700 A. 


3547 


5 


g.OO " 


171 


17.0 120 


2-3 


4&m. 


647 


21 


3554 


5 


4.05 P.M. 


175 


21.0 I4g 


4-7 


ih. oom. 


I 248 


89 


3555 


5 


4-42 ' 


176 


20. (1 142 


2-3 


igm. 


340 


25 


35&c 


" 5 


IO.OO ' 


177 


20.0 142 


4-7 


3h. i8m. 


3857 


49 


3564 


" 6 


12.30 A.M. 


177 120.0 142 


4-5 





o 


300 Wasting 3min., 7ocu. ft. 



i8 4 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Continued. 

Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


. 












Collected. 




Filtration. 


6 

V 






^c 


_O 












t 




w 






1 




Number 


1 


if. u 

JS. 


a 


1 encKi 01 
Service Sine 


be 
S- S - 


U u 

i- V 








1 

K 

"c3 


Date. 


Hour. 


of 
Run. 


I| 

o c 


"rt W 

o b 3 

= 


3 

X 




Last 
Washing. 
Hours and 
Minutes. 


w 

*j 
li 

v- inJi 


p. v 
rt S 

"5s 


Remarks. 










Is 


SS.3 


1 




f rt 3 

=-iu 







y> 








O 


s 


d 




E 


H 






1896 




















3665 


June 6 


12.23 A.M. 


177 


22. C 


156 


4-7 


O 





400 


Wasting 6 min., 135 cu. ft. 


3566 


" 6 


12-35 " 


I 7 8 


20. 


142 


4-7 


O2m. 


31 


37 




3567 


" 6 


12.37 


I 7 8 


20.0 


142 


4-7 


04m. 


81 


43 




3568 


" 6 


12.39 ' 


I 7 8 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


o6m. 


116 


33 




3569 


" 6 


12.41 


1 7 8 


20. 


142 


4-7 


o8m 


156 


5' 




3570 


" 6 


12.43 " 


I 7 8 


20. o 


142 


4-7 


lorn. 


196 


22 




357' 


" 6 


12.45 


I 7 8 


20. o 


142 


4-7 


12111. 


236 


18 




3572 


" 6 


12.47 


178 


20. 


142 


4-7 


I4m. 


276 


51 




3573 


" 6 


12.49 ' 


178 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


l6m. 


3U 


37 




3574 


" 6 


12.51 


I 7 8 


20. o 


142 


4-7 


i8m. 


351 


19 




3575 


" 6 


12-53 ' 


I 7 8 


20. o 


142 


4-7 


2om. 


39' 


28 




3576 


" 6 


12.55 


I 7 8 


20. o 


142 


4-7 


22111. 


431 


25 




3577 


" 6 


12.57 


178 


2O. 


142 


4-7 


24m. 


47' 


21 




3578 


" 6 


12.59 ' 


I 7 8 


21. o| 149 


4-7 


26m. 


516 


14 




3579 


" 6 


.01 


I 7 8 


21.0 


149 


4-7 


2Sm. 


561 


67 




358o 


6 


.03 " 


I 7 8 


21. 


149 


4-7 


3om. 


601 


27 




358i 


" 6 


.08 " 


I 7 8 


20. 


142 


4-7 


35m. 


701 


25 




3582 


" 6 


.18 " 


I 7 8 


20. 


142 


4-7 


45111. 


9.1 


39 




3583 


6 


33 " 


I 7 8 


20. 


142 


4-7 


ih. oom. 


I 211 


47 




T;8<i 


" 6 


43 


178 








ih. I'Mii. 


1 J26 


800 




J J W *T 
3587 


" 6 


2-33 " 


'79 


O.O 


142 


2.3 


35m. 


-T * w 
665 


26 




3597 


" 6 


7.51 


'79 


O.O 


142 


4-7 


5h. 53m. 


6815 


.... 




3625 


6 


10.58 


'79 


0.0 


142 


4-7 


5h. 4om. 


8 5 


31 




3630 


6 


1.55 P.M. 


183 


O.O 


142 


2-3 


o6m. 


273 


69 




3633 


6 


3-04 


183 


9-5 


138 


4-7 


ih. ism. 


I 503 


31 




3658 


" 9 


1.30 ' 


1 86 


O.O 


142 


2-3 


igm. 


375 


121 




3670 


10 


11.20 A.M. 


189 


7-5 


124 


4-7 


2h. 14111. 


I 374 


2 9 




3673 


" 10 


I.OO P M. 


189 


8.0 


128 


4-7 


3h. 54m. 


4184 


104 




3677 


" IO 


3-30 " 


191 


7-5 


124 


2-3 


38m. 


806 


29 




3683 


" II 


10.40 A.M. 


193 


8.0 


128 


2-3 


ih. 1 5m. 


1463 


9 




3686 


" II 


I. 2O P.M. 


194 


7-5 


124 


4-7 


I2m. 


198 


'9 




3694 


" II 


3-45 " 


195 


7.0 


1 20 


2-3 


igm. 


366 


4 




3698 


" 12 


IO.2O A.M. 


'95 


8.0 


128 


2-3 


3h. 24m. 


3596 


12 




3705 


" 12 


2.42 P.M. 


196 


7-5 


124 


4-7 


35m. 


631 


17 




37" 


13 


10. 14 A M. 


197 


O.O 


142 


4-7 


ih. nm. 


I 470 


16 




3720 


13 


1.25 P.M. 


198 


O.O 


142 


2-3 


24m. 


501 


17 




3726 


13 


2.57 " 


198 


20. o 


142 


7-o 


ih. 50111. 


2 311 


320 




3729 


13 


5-03 ' 


199 


18.0 


128 


2.3 


ih. 43m. 


I 858 


18 




3738 


15 


g.OO A.M. 


199 












118 




3742 


" 15 


IO.I8 " 


199 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


3h. 28m. 


3778 


23 




3745 


15 


12.25 P.M. 


199 


17-5 


124 


7-o 


5h. 35m. 


6 108 


16 




3749 


15 


3-05 " 


2CO 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


5Om. 


933 


41 




3755 


15 


4-33 


20 1 


17.0 


120 


2-3 


43"i. 


790 


27 




3761 


" 16 


10.29 A.M. 


2OI 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


3h. ogm. 


3330 


16 




3765 


" 16 


12.40 P.M. 


201 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


5(1. 2O111. 


5 600 


52 




3768 


" 16 


3-29 " 


2O2 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


2h. ogm. 


2387 


46 




3773 


" 16 


4-32 ' 


203 


.8.5 


132 


2-3 


27m. 


482 


17 




3777 


" 17 


10.08 A.M. 


203 


18.5 


132 


4-7 


2h. 33m. 


2882 


24 




3779 


17 


12.52 " 


203 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


5h. I7m. 


5 792 


21 




3784 


17 


2.55 P.M. 


2O4 


17-5 


124 


2.3 


56m. 


I III 


37 




3792 


17 


4.22 " 


2O4 


18.0 


128 


2.3 


2h. 23m. 


2 701 


37 




379 8 


" 18 


10.12 A.M. 


205 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. osm. 


I 273 


212 




3803 


" 18 


12.37 P-M. 


2O5 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


3h. 3om. 


3923 


103 




3Su 


" 18 


2.52 " 


205 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


5h. 45m. 


6303 


169 




3820 


'9 


10.04 A.M. 


2O6 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


58m. 


I 129 


26 




383' 


'9 


3.07 P.M. 


208 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


42m. 


7O2 


53 




3847 


19 


4.25 " 


208 








2h. oom. 


2 161 


1 1 




3857 


" 20 


II. 18 A.M. 


209 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


2h. urn. 


2341 


103 




3864 


" 20 


12.46 P.M. 


209 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


3h. 4om. 


3941 


43 




3871 


" 20 


3-25 " 


2IO 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


ih. 3&m. 


I 683 


54 




3876 


" 20 


4.40 " 


211 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


o6m. 


103 


93 




3885 


" 22 


10.22 A.M. 


211 


18.5 


132 




2h. 14111. 


2503 


41 




3890 


" 22 


1.23 P.M. 


211 


18.5 


132 




5h. igm. 


5923 


9' 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 

TABLE No. 4. Continued. 
Western Pressure System. 



'85 









Rate of 


J 




5 








Collected. 




Filtration. 


1 




c 


y 












PI 




c/} 


'2 




1 




Number 
f 


I 


JS. 


J 


Period of 
ServiceSince 
Last 


||j 


3 








1 






ot 
Run. 


. 


~m <r. 


V 

X 


Washing. 


ji j*si 


O.U 


Remarks. 
















Hours and 








2 


Date. 


Hour. 




3 

u c 


O 


"o 


Minutes. 


V *j'jQ 


jg 




3 
















630 






1 








1* 


^ a ? 


o 




S-iu 
C 


r 






1896 




















3896 


Tune 23 


2.22 P.M. 


211 








6h. l8m. 


7 44 


n j 




3956 


" 24 


3.26 ' 


212 


20.5 


125 


2-3 


ih. 36m. 


1919 


185 




3966 


24 


4-54 " 


212 


20. o 


142 




3h. O4m. 


3699 


250 




3985 


25 


IO.I6 A.M. 


212 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


4h. 56m. 


5949 


360 




4003 


25 


I.l8 P.M. 


212 


20. o 


142 


7-o 


7h. 5801. 


9469 


35 




4OO4 




I HA " 


212 








8h. 34m. 


10 175 


69 




Ifuutf 

4007 


" 2? 


3>l8 " 










ih. 0401. 


i 300 


V 
I OOO 




4014 


" 25 


5.00 " 


214 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. igm. 


1354 


63 




4025 


" 26 


10.29 A.M. 


214 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


3h. l8m. 


3444 


12 




4032 


" 26 


I.I7 P.M. 


214 


18.0 


128 


7.0 


6h. o6m. 


6384 


42 




4033 


" 26 


1. 22 " 










6h. i im. 


6481 


59 




4036 


" 26 


3-3 " 


215 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. 3im. 


I 643 


81 




4038 


" 26 


4-54 ' 


216 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


I2m. 


174 


59 




4045 


" 27 


10.30 A.M. 


216 


18.0 


128 


2.3 


2h. l6m. 


2434 


127 






" 0-7 




216 


18 o 


128 






5 058 






"V? 


27 


I .OO P. M. 
2C\1 ' ' 


2n 


18.0 


128 


20 


42m. 


746 






4054 


" 27 


03 
3-15 


* L J 

218 


iS.o 


128 


J 


ogm. 


fqn* 

157 


37 




4057 


27 


4-51 


218 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


ih. 45m. 


1857 







4063 


29 


IO.I8 A.M. 


219 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


ih. nm. 


1 327 


12 




4065 


2g 


I2.3O P.M. 


220 


18.0 


128 


7-o 


ogm. 


156 


29 




4069 


29 


1.32 " 


2 2O 


18.0 


128 


2.3 


ih. iim. 


1 306 


63 




4071 


2g 


3.40 ' 


221 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


3om. 


529 


6 9 




4083 


" 30 


IO. l6 A.M. 


222 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. O7m. 


I 220 


32 




4101 


30 


12.47 P.M. 


223 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


22m. 


356 


34 




4106 


" 30 


2-55 " 


224 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


24m. 


395 


32 


4115 


July I 


10.27 A.M. 


225 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. 2701. 


1464 














2^26 


T fi r 




2*3 




630 




4132 


I 

" I 


i . iy i . .M . 

3.19 " 


227 


10.5 

'7-5 


124 


J 

2-3 


48111. 


830 








4136 


" I 


4-37 ' 


228 


18.0 


128 


2-3 


38m. 


655 






4206 


6 


10.30 A.M. 


229 


17.0 


1 20 


7.0 


ih. i8m. 


i 284 


13 




4211 


6 


12.43 P-M- 


~22g . 


17.0 


120 


7-0 


3h. 3im. 


3 574 


24 




4239 


6 


5.19 ' 


229 


17-5 


124 


4-7 


8h. O7m. 


8334 


108 




4247 


7 


10.00 A.M. 


230 


21.5 


152 


7-0 


4gm. 


i 265 


22 




4254 


7 


I.OO P.M. 


231 


19. o 


135 


7.0 


25m. 


868 


49 




4256 


7 


3-00 " 


232 


18.0 


128 




23m. 


567 


19 




4265 


8 


10.55 A.M. 


233 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


ih. 4801. 


2 184 


II 




4268 


8 


12.45 P.M. 


233 


18.0 


128 




3h. 38m. 


3984 


33 




4272 


" 8 


3C i * ' 










2h. oom. 


868 


20 




4281 


9 


D* 
10.30 A.M. 


235 


17.0 


120 


4-7 


ih. 25m. 


375 


6 




4284 


9 


12,28 P.M. 


235 


17.0 


1 2O 


9-3 


3h. 23m. 


345 


IO 




A'\r\ f i 


' ' o 


327 '* 


2^6 








ih. 5im. 


885 


112 




4310 


y 

9 


/ 

5-i3 ' 


*JV* 

237 


16.5 


116 


7.0 


ih. I3m. 


205 


112 




4368 


13 


10.19 ' 


238 


17.0 


120 


7-o 


ih. o8m. 


074 


25 




4372 


13 


12. OO ' 


238 


17.0 


1 2O 


4-7 


2h. 4gm. 


2784 


98 




4374 
438o 


13 
14 
14 


3-05 " 
9.04 A.M. 
9.07 " 


239 
239 

239 


17.0 

II. O 

16.0 


1 2O 

78 
113 


4-7 


ogm. 
o 




1 20 
o 
o 


no 
249 

446 


Wasting 4min., 55 cu. ft. 
Wasting 7 min., 78 cu. ft. 


4382 


14 


9.12 ' 


240 


16.5 


116 


2-3 


05m. 


82 


186 




4383 


14 


9.17 " 


240 


16.5 


116 


2.3 


lorn. 


172 


7 1 




4384 


14 


g.22 ' 


240 


!6. 5 


116 


2-3 


I5m. 


262 


59 




4385 


14 


9-27 " 


240 


16.5 


116 


2-3 


2om. 


342 


32 




4387 


14 


9.32 


240 


17.0 


120 


2-3 


25m. 


442 


45 




4389 


14 


9-37 


240 


17-5 


124 


2.3 


3Om. 


532 


37 




4390 


14 


9.42 ' 


240 


17-5 


124 


2-3 


35m. 


622 


33 




4391 


14 


9-47 


240 


17-5 


124 


2.3 


40111. 


702 


14 




4392 


14 


9-52 ' 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


2.3 


45m. 


782 


13 




4393 


14 


9-57 


240 


17-5 


124 


2.3 


5om. 


872 


15 




4394 


14 


IO.O2 


240 


17-5 


124 


2.3 


55m. 


952 


7 




4395 


14 


10.07 " 


240 


17.0 


120 


2-3 


ih. oom. 


I 032 


13 




4398 


14 


IO.22 " 


246 


17.0 


1 2O 


2-3 


ih. ism 


I 282 


5 




4399 


14 


10-37 


240 


17.0 


120 


2.3 


ih. 30111. 


1 532 


2 




4400 


14 


10.52 ' 


240 


17.0 


1 2O 


2-3 


ih. 45m. 


1 782 


7 




4401 


14 


11.07 " 


240 


17.0 


1 2O 


2-3 


2h. oom. 


2 032 IO8 





i86 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 4. Concluded. 



Western Pressure System. 









Rate of 


1) 




S 








Collected. 




Filtration. 







c 
<7i . 


U 

15 




.8 




Number 


u 

B 

o. 


gs. 


o 


Period of 
ServiceSince 


t c . 


o c 








S 






of 
Run. 


V 


5s"' 


rt 
V 

X 


Last 
Washing. 





8.S 


Remarks. 


jj 








&H ~ 


r-< 




Hours and 


a^ o 


". 




"rt 


Date. 


Hour. 




3 
u ~ 


^ 
^ U HH 


"o 


Minutes. 


4) cfl 3 


ss 




C 
B 








IS 

U 


~ O. cf 

S 


J 




E 


s<5 
m 






1896 




















4402 


July 14 


11.22 A.M. 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


2-3 


2h. ism. 


2 292 


4 




4403 


" M 


11.37 " 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


4-7 


2h. 3om. 


2 562 


8 




4404 


14 


11.52 


240 


17-0 


1 20 


4-7 


2h. 45m. 


2 802 


2 




4405 


" 14 


12.07 P.M. 


24O' 


17.0 


1 20 


4-7 


3h. oom. 


3042 


7 




4406 


14 


12.22 " 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


7-0 


3h. ism. 


3 292 


9 




4407 


14 


12-37 " 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


9-3 


3h. 3om. 


3542 


2 




4408 


14 


12.52 


240 


I6. 5 


116 


9-3 


3h. 45m. 


3792 


3 




4413 


" 14 


1.07 " 


240 


I6. 5 


116 


9-3 


4h. oom. 


4042 


I 




4414 


14 


1.22 


240 


17.0 


1 20 


7.0 


4h. ism. 


4302 


n 


1 


4415 


" 14 


1-37 " 


240 


17-0 


120 


7.0 


4h. 3om. 


4562 


4 




4416 


14 


1.52 


24O 


17.0 


1 20 


9-3 


4h. 45m. 


4812 


6 




4417 


14 


2.07 


240 


17-0 


1 20 


9-3 


5h. oom. 


5072 


I 




4418 


14 


2.22 " 


24O 


17.0 


120 


9-3 


5h. ism. 


5322 


6 




4419 


M 


2.37 " 


240 


17.0 


12O 


11. 6 


5h. 3om. 


5 572 


IO 




4420 


14 


2.52 ' 


24O 


17.0 


120 


9-3 


5h. 45m. 


5 822 


n 




4421 


" 14 


3.07 " 


240 


17.0 


120 




6h. oom. 


6082 


54 




4445 


15 


2.ig 


241 


16.0 


113 


7.0 


ih. o8m. 


I 076 


7 




4450 


15 


3-t9 " 


241 


16.5 


116 


7.0 


2h. o8m. 


2 096 


n 




4451 


15 


4-49 ' 


241 


17.0 


1 20 


7-o 


3h. 3Sm. 


3 606 


15 




4458 


" 16 


9.47 A.M. 


242 


17.0 


I2O 


4-7 


39m. 


680 


18 




4461 


" 16 


11.08 


2 4 2 


17-5 


I2 4 


7-o 


2h. oom. 


2080 


6 




4471 


" 16 


1.16 P.M. 


243 


17.0 


1 2O 


4.6 


22m. 


380 


31 




4572 


'' 20 


II. 21 A.M. 


245 


17.0 


1 2O 


7-o 


2h. I7m. 


2307 


16 




4574 


" 20 


1.37 P.M. 


245 


17.0 


1 2O 


5-9 


4h. 33m. 


4607 


31 




4577 


" 2O 


3-31 " 


245 


17.0 


120 


9-3 


6h. 27m. 


6517 


20 




4579 


" 2O 


5-06 " 


245 


17.0 


1 2O 


9-3 


8h. O2m. 


8 117 


23 




4585 


" 21 


9.05 A.M. 


245 


14.0 


99 


9-3 





o 


820 


Wasting 5 min., 78 cu. ft. 


4586 


" 21 


9-IO " 


246 


17.0 


1 20 


9-3 


05m. 


65 


192 




4587 


" 21 


9.15 " 


246 


17.0 


1 20 


13-9 


lorn. 


145 


82 




4588 


" 21 


9.2O ' 


246 


17.0 


120 


7-o 


I5m. 


235 


72 




4589 


" 21 


9.25 " 


246 


17.0 


1 2O 


7-0 


2om. 


315 


41 




459 


" 21 


9.30 ' 


246 


17.0 


120 


7-0 


25m. 


405 


32 




4592 


" 21 


9-35 


246 


17.0 


120 


7-0 


3om. 


485 


190 




4593 


" 21 


9.40 ' 


246 


16.5 


116 


7-0 


35m. 


575 


2O7 




4594 


" 21 


9-45 


246 


16.5 


116 


7-0 


4om. 


645 


193 




4595 


" 21 


9-50 ' 


246 


16.5 


116 


7-o 


45m. 


735 


171 




4596 


" 21 


9-55 


246 


16.5 


116 


7.0 


5om. 


815 


225 




4597 


" 21 


10.00 ' 


246 


16.5 


116 


4-7 


55m. 


895 


I6 9 




4598 


" 21 


10.15 " 


246 


18.0 


128 


7-o 


ih. lorn. 


i 155 


195 




4599 


" 21 


10.30 " 


246 


18.0 


128 


7.0 


ih. 25m. 


1425 


2O3 




4600 


" 21 


10.45 " 


246 


18.0 


128 


9-3 


ih. 4Om. 


1685 


133 




4601 


" 21 


11.00 ' 


246 


18.0 


128 


7.0 


ih. 55m. 


1965 


154 




460^ 


" 21 


II. 02 " 


246 


18.0 


128 


7.0 


ih. 57m. 


1995 


137 




4604 


" 21 


11.30 " 


246 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


2h. 25m. 


2485 


509 




4605 


" 21 


12. OO " 


246 


18.0 


128 


4-7 


2h. 55m. 


3035 


498 




4607 


" 21 


12.30 P.M. 


246 


18.0 


128 


7.0 


3h. 25m. 


3555 


299 




4610 


" 21 


1.26 " 


247 


17.0 


120 


4-7 


23m. 


370 


357 




4611 


" 21 


3-05 " 


248 


16.0 


"3 


7.0 


I5m. 


227 


292 




4614 


" 21 


5-05 


248 


16.0 


"3 


7.0 


2h. I5m. 


2077 


158 




4621 


" 22 


11.14 A.M. 


249 


15-5 


no 


7-o 


2h. ogm. 


2 OOI 


646 




4626 


" 22 


2.44 P.M. 


251 


14.5 


102 


7-0 


46 m. 


6 7 2 


37 




4630 


" 22 


4.03 " 


251 


14.0 


99 


16.2 


2h. osm. 


I 792 


I 186 




4729 


" 27 


11.58 A.M. 


254 


14.5 


IO2 


7-o 


44m. 


644 


'45 




473 


: 27 


1.56 P.M. 


254 


14.0 


99 


11. 6 


2h. 32m. 


2364 


170 




4734 


1 27 


3-IO " 


254 


14.0 


99 


18.5 


3h. 46m. 


3424 


138 




4768 


" 28 


II. 06 A.M. 


255 


15.0 


1 06 




5om. 


723 


207 




4783 


" 28 


I.IO P.M. 


255 


14.5 


102 




2h. 54m. 


2543 


105 




A ln r - 


" 28 


* O7 " 




T 1 C 


1 02 




T5m. 


189 






4831 


" 29 


J' 1 
11.17 A.M. 


257 


14, ^ 
15.0 


106 


.... 


2h. i.pn. 


1973 







4847 


29 


I.4I P.M. 


259 


I4.O 


99 




2gm. 


399 


IOI 




4855 


1 29 


3.16 " 


260 


14.0 


99 




37m. 


517 


173 





COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER 




187 



tn 
H 

S 
in 

a 



u 



o 
z 



o 

( 
M 

S 
< 
s 
s 



x I 

. H 
O IT lit 



w 



H 
U 



E 

t^ 
u 
M 



z 

o 

H 

< 
05 
U 

c- 
o 



in 

Q 
M 

O 

g 

9 



uny jo aaquinx 


M w cn^J-mo r*oo OO M CM en -3- mo l^-oo OO HI w en -I- mo r^-oo OO HI w en*3-u-> 


Available data incomplete. 


M MM wwwwww wwwenenenenenen 


toa pa , 5 , m .a> M v 


r-oo ^inoenr^ino r- enoo r> w moooooo Tj-r*-o O CM ^-M o Ooo M w w or*-t- 


o ^oo*^^ oS oooo oS oo o'o oo oo oooooo o^oo'oS 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


-^V 


O *T co O i^- r-* en w O O -} c/o OM -T M en M M M enr-oo en r^ r^nio MOenn^N in 
^ininxntnN w H< w w Tj-mo^J"W mnn r^co o "no ^fwoo en O M m r- oo n r>> o O 


^co * T en 


B 


*T w en MCOC/J O o H o "> OO HI ^- <^- m O w O oo co CQ co o HI o w en w en ooo O 


N CO01HT1-MMI-,M1--MM M . N 




5SS55 5-"? ^^^^N 5-<?o Jo-o'o^'So.^rtRSSSoSo'S : S 


MM MM* 


u u 
V U 


W co m O *^ p oOO*T*TOoo'l'r^i'--OOOOOOOQOOOQOOOOOQCOO 


^ ^ M" M M 


J^AIX ui spfjos papuadsng 
jo Vunouiy aSeaaAy p3jeuiijS3 


exw MN o Nnr^r^-o ^r^O wr^w enco menen-1-mo O mminmO O O O O O 
WWNCMMMM MMWwwwtnenenenenenenMMMMwminwwO 

M W t 


UOHE0 J3d SUIL'Jf) 

p3T[ddy jo ]unouiy aSeaaAy 


" ^8 00^ en^ W^^O M^^^^O^^CrSSotn^oS^^ 




V 

u "(3 *o ' 
If ! 

y U 


j -sjnoH >* d SJDV 


"S 8 M 2 R5* ?SM < 8'2 8 ^^S^^^^en^Sm^SenM e^?^^ 






woo TtinQco moo TJ-O TWOO ooo -1-i^inu-ir^.enco U->M ^j-cnM ow r^oo enm 


S > g3' v SS2 1 S'S > 5E? S i a?!S?!?!?IS5S 1 ?!S8?!S2'SE?2 s ?! 


' 1 - llt; A\ P 3 !lddy jo s; 
jo lung aqi qDiqM aSfciuaojgj 




M MI-, 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


t 


0000000000000000000000000000000000 
O O O O O u"> n xnvninininminOoo Ooooo Oooco oo co O oo oo oo oo oo O co O O 


& 'l'-'.l-' l|l,.l 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOw>-fO-t Ooo "t-tenwenOOOOOOO 
w w enen-j-enw enenenen 


** 


in in w ^* m m o co w oo w O r- f^- *t O en en enr^-o>nOHi w MCO tnw OO w O*T 


,,. 


uixnO M r^OMcoOoo -to -tminoo Oencoo w O tn. wo O ^-mr-.n-enen-tO 


en **h *o r^*o enr^-w m r^ enoo oo en o O *"*> en *to O "> u^ f*** *^"HIO O oencnoo woo i^ 
r--tO enoo r*.ow enM w OM T^-M M M m-t-^j-enO OMOO Oenenen-J-mw enm 




pailddy 


OO r^-o -tw H.CO -tr^eno r^-OO O OO r^-o -nO MO cnOM%o Ooo Ooo OOO 
r-*tO enoo r^Ocnenw w O w i- en M w mmmenM enO woo O mmTj-mo M -tm 




Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


I 1 

Q 


ESESESSSESSEE ESEEEESEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

MW u->u->O O O O i-^Oc-t mw oOenMcoO O OW MO M tnmo *J* **j* *O *T -^ Q 

en "^"O *}~*nMO OO w m*^w >n enO ^Tminw cncn'J'enw O encnw en^T"M o 


"o-^-S 'S.'S.'S.o 'o " '^-'S.'S.'S "Si's. 5 "S "S.O "Si's, "So 'o-'S'S.'m'S.'&'m'S.'Si'o 


j: 
I 




EEEEESEEEEESE EEEEESEEEESEESESSEEEE 

Ooo mO minO O O nmOoo w r O"1"Oooo oenoi^-eni-. r^-o*^-O menoo 




O 

i 


as 88^888 a aaa Ija^aiga'iasBBaa'Baaa'BB 

rl-oi^Hi encnenw M enmrj-M rj-mo M -tmenmcnw cnommencncnO enM M 


M>5 'ff'S ft'-Jft'o '&'S*5 ft *S. W*0 "2*0*0 'o'S.'ooSo 'S.'o'o'Hi'Hi'ScS'en'^- 


c* 
o 

i 

I 

O 


^sgc^Eis^i^as si^e^iaessi^iii^ESEis 

Ow O en-tmincncnTHiincn 'o HI M ^- M M M enM o O c^eneninintnw Menen 


OMWMin-!3-r^.ooooi^oo ooenOMMMOoooi^oooooOHiMwwen'i- 


Ended. 


3 
O 


s. xx. .. s. xx. . x. x xx. as... 


O O O mO O mmr-mwo mmOoocooo O en -t- to OOmOW O t^- r>. oo M m 


M ow M M ooo enM ow ww oow T w cnw ww enen-fctw o w enM cnrrw t 


rt 

Q 


WtmoooO-wTj-o t-co MinOenTj-or^OHiw en -TO r^oo O M eno r-co O O 


o . 

OO *-" > U 


"z Q 


c 
ffl 


u 

3 


OB 


s,_ a a. , , s. a a, . s. s a a. a a . . 


g^aiVgaSVJJiVSaiiVRVw^'sesRft&sis 


2s ClN ss lcom - 0l 2 N 2 0l0l "' :l '?"2 NNmm ' :fNN 22 m s"' :f 2 


1 


o . 


O ' " ' z Q" " 


^N 


M w cntwio rco oo ** w tn't mo r^-oo OO M w cn-tmo r*co OO M CN en-i-m 



188 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Warren System. 


"un^j jo jaqtun^j 


o R %S!j*3?3*$*?aaaaS:SfcK^SSSSS;?J?:3,S'RE. 


A^Pwa.-^a^-Av 


co o coooinwc>hH^oomccoi^r^NMcocoMooMMTt-oOcco^finr--a'i-'O 


r>. r^ M t^-cocc r^occco Ooo -rcccoco -tmcc r-^r^-r^oocc r^cocccc OOOGO t^-Ooo O 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


33 *A V 


o S ^ a-^ m S" ^o S o'co c? j- 5 > 5 w o o o " S to"coS o N o" R^'m 


C 

u 

E 


MWOMl-lM M CO* 




O O OmOOW *t CON mco Nr*.rJ-cOM\OO OOO CON O O- 
O "T O O w r^* ^^ cc m n co f^ co r^ O^ t~* t~^ r^ f^- "t co co M M in r* 

^- ^Tt""TNhHhH P-l l-l >-t hH*^-<OO* 


II 


8 8 88 o888888888888888888|888888|888 


"aAiy 'ui spijog pgpuadsng 
jo lunoiuy aScjsAy psjEumsg 


8 8 8R888a88RS885S,?^^sasSgSS8??88R?-S;8?> 


"* " CO CO t CO 


UO[IK) J3d SUItUO 

euiuiniv jo adding 
paijddy ;o junouiy utajMy 


O M \OOunOOr^"^NcnOO^OOOOMN^O*NOOW-' -O Oco en - r^co 


-1- t.^-Tf^-Tl-Ncr.fl-^^N^mO^CO^mmmmmcnm^.mC.C.nm^* 


u& aad SUOJIB*) uojuij^ 


M co to co * co co "^- r>. m hi m-f-^t-occo I^-M mcooOM hi OQcor^-i-inMCC CN cow 


lJ -ajnuiw 
< o j~ J3d laaj siqrQ 


O O O^'C 1 'O'T}-inOr^r>.oninO"OOOOcor-r^OOt^cocoOMOcoinN^rM 


M cJ ci 6 cc 1^. xn mo' mo" m in in -fo mvo* inn>n-t-4>nin4-r r>o" tA in co 4 vn in in 




' J; B M P->!|ddv jo si 

JO tung <0 IpiqM aSEJUaDjaJ 


oo oo Ooomco^cor-inNmNNOO-i-OcococoCMncoOOOcoIor-M^cocM^ 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet 




O O OOOOQOQQOOQOOOOOOQOQOOOQQO -OOOOQOO 
in o cocccccoOooOOOcoococcccOOccOccOccOnoOcc OmccooOccco 


' 


p> 'P aj3 ll!^ 


^^^-SSS'^^SS'S^^cT^SScTS?!;?^?!?:??!^^??;? 


USBM 


I-* O coOco-tMOcoOmo OO NcoMCOi-.OTCQ-l-coeonin -a-NOO<N- 


CO CO ^COCOCONCO'l-CONeOCOCOCOCONCONCOCOWNNNWNN T)-rfTinxnmm 





rj- m O cc r* oo >ico mo O^^coO r~* r^- O "T co cc O O O O "t N c? 1 M to t~ r* O O O* !"* O 
^ co corcooo O MI^-VOHH -T-^-r^i^c>OOcc w N M dr^t^Nm-i-r^-o coco -to 


00 r^-Ti-Tfr-tTi-Tj- 


*p3i|ddy 


O O inc>NhHOcOMCCi^inc>NCONccu^C7>C>r^OOC>'-ic^ccO*1'ONr^t^cO'-'C> 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


t? 




E E S E S E E E E^E E E E E E E S E E E E S E E ; E E E| S E S 

co co ONM-^-ococotoco-t'O't-NOcoOMcocoO-l'O^rOOm 'coONcoOcow 


m CT> n \o M m m m r- m in m r^- m in m O O m o co m m o 


1 


E | IESSESIEEEIEIEEEEEEEEEEEE,^:^!!!^!! 

M ^ MNt^-rf^wcnae'lO^lt^rnentncor-inc^eococncn^-coc^ ;r>nc^i^Tfeo^t- 

ja 


1 


| E^ E E E E E S E E E_E E E E^E E E E E IE E E E E E E E E_|E E_E| 


* 5, ^.5,'5>'5)'^.'5,'S L ,'^-'^.'5,'5>'5,'S,f>'^.'5>'5,'5>'5,'?,'4'?i1;i'5>'?,'^-"^io'5>'S'^>'^-'^-'5, 


c 

O 

S 

1 

O 


E E lEIEEE^EE^IEEEEESEEEEEE^EEE EE^SEJEE 

M \rt OinMinOcoininMinoN-l-NcocoOi^i^MNOi-'O'^'O H^fMinmcOM 


5, ?, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^S-S,'^,^^'^-^-^,-^, S.'S. $" 


Endej. 


3 
O 


s s s-s-s- ss ss- SS---SS--SS- a- - 


J i R5is*apjB*?swR8aJ5aaS5ftJa?^Safi 


M w ^ ^^M M MM MMMM M M 


P 


M w MCO-tOOf^-cooo OO O M coco-1-uimO r^i^cccc O M >-io>linr-.r-co OOO M 


O y O " 


"Q"A 


c 
rt 

be 


3 
O 


s - ss-s"-"s-ss s s - ss---ss--as. s . 


S 3" ^S-Jc?^S5 1 ,T^^5 > ^^^S 1 ?;SS^aa^Js?c?S>.?8Jro 


* M 2 "" K S *" S *" 2 *^2 ^^ 2 *" S ">2 *" S "2 2 S ^ N 2 - 1 "- 


d 

I 


O M. NWcO'i-OOr>.cocioOOOMCOco*rininOt^'r^coooOMiMNinr^r-.GOOOO 


in O 


M Q "A 


any jo asqmntj 


co co cocof'*t^T-i-'rf*^'^*Tinininininininin\n "^^ OOOOOOOOO t"r^ 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



189 



5 
ft 



10 c 



o fc 

** 

u 
j 

a 
< 

H 



unv 10 j.x^uiii \ 


-. (M 

CM co *t 100 !" oo O 1 O M N co ~t ""> O oo r^o^O M w co T in o r^-co o^O M w co^ino i" 1 * 


'X3ll9I3iyJ |>J[J91DK{J 3/JUJ3Ay 


t^ro r^ttmo-ttr^o tiw on>n t -r> to t^x, mo ini^mNOmOMooNuiN 


g g; g g g; g'g, g; ;<,,<,<, g> g r , g; g g: g^,^ g^, g g g g g'g, g:<. g'g, g 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter 


*- 


O "T COO *t O t^-'Jj C/j T ITi I~-!X) CO O O ONO MtCOOCJQ ^'ONCO'-* W CO^" M COCO M Tj-O CO 


* -t (0 N N COCO 


o> 


s^^g ?s als ^^^ ^TssfflSRTas^s -RR s 


'uinui|vi:j\; 


oo -S'^'o Si "S R ^mx R("? S 1 ?-? < > 'S 0-S ?~S S ^- " i ?! o" 


II 


8OOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOQQOOOOQOOOOOQQQQOO 
'OOOQOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

C-.i_ r^cNi M MCO M mo O 'too COM o O^M ^-r-.co r^^tmm*l-ONr^^t'*T)--t*tO tt^- 


uonnw J3d s l JB d '*WM. 
jdAi>[ ui spqog papuadsng 
o itmoiuy o#eJ3Ay paiwiuiisy 


O^OO^oo-O^OO^t^c, N ocx>00 N OOc000< 5 0cx 3 ^ NN 0^0 


m t -l N ^T-t^OOCOOO>N-*1--T t -lM t n^ Nm m 


Buimniv J aisqdins 
psijddy JO lunouiy aanaaAy 


Oooo O cococo-tr^^tO O M o *tO "^ mo w M r-^-o ^t inoo ONOOONW^^OOOM^H 
w M m-tMOO MOCOCO ONW O M coONCoOO ^tw w o O -ti-^M CM M mrf-t-m-ttON 




v ^ -sjnoH * z -i^d ajoy 


coO c-i -fw i- mo coo in o co r< "t r^- -t O mcooO cow t^-co rJ-OoO M ^-M N t^oo W l^- 


W 


||i 


am 


t ? c T N . "7^ ^^.^T^^ 5 ?^"?^^*^ T ;^ .^^ ;*"?^" r : l : N . e ?'T N . 


< fe 


M MMMMMMMM~MMMMM N MMMMMMM~MMMMWWWWWWW N ; 


uajBM paTjddy jo si 
jaiwAV aisRM PUK' qsv M aqi 


-tO cowoo w r^r^-coO ON -t co i o t^-coocooo O O^O coo^O^O ONr-co w -tw O 




o 

3 
U 

u 

I 

o 

u 

c 
2 

5 


2 . P-v.gua 


OOOOOQQOOOOO 'OOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOONO 


" 


ON O co ONQO MmTj-wONr^r^ OOMtoOMONCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
WNWWWWWWW-<tWCM COM W 


q- M 




M 


M, 


O-g-inr^m-co^nr^N ^co TK. O tg^MOg>O OcON OM^ gw omNco_g-NN 


Oco N to - t^ t t t fl 0-0 N to me^r^ttno ttcovOO N t"iOO O 


-o -o t ttott to t 


, 3!1 dd V 


WWlt^f^O^NC/StN d O O*0) NO t- 1 t(^r~"t^tcO C^M QNU^N-I N N flQO O* u"> O 
ttl-^ 1 - 1 r^o^wioo vomcoco OOOD tOO cnO I^O t 1 - 1 iniDw (^immt'^itO N O 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


a 


EEEEESEEEEES-EESEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

-1-mr^O O-OOmincowO " ~f M O C-tOi-iinOcoOM-tO MO -tO"^oor^Oco 
coOcocowi-'coNOm-t'O "MMOOW>n co >n C O to M to co O O co M O O co O "t 


m o> m m in in in ON o ON M m o m O 1 m o in O O in in ON in 


1 


EEE^EEjHJEJJI^iEEISEJJE^EEEEIEEEEIIEEES 


d 

u 

t/5 


|^ a s a a g | i a a a i a J a a i | B j g ^ a g s a a g a a a a g a e 


. 


OtOCOt^^^mt^^-t^N^^tt^ttOt-tcO^^t^m^^tt 


C 

.2 
g 

1 

o 


E E E S E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 

coo me* j-r^-r-'-M moo r^*oo " co O ^*" O-tO'n>-"O' i in-tMMMMM coco ^f O M GO o 


O TJ- _O COT w-tmOMO'tmMM 


^.'T'S.cS m'ro m'^'mo'^ '. m "m *5i *T "r *m m O m *^- "S- " m o? *S. *S m "^ ^- *co "co ^ m 


Ended. 




I 




S S S S S S - - S S - S S s S - - - - 


~~t" m r-- ONCMO^OWNCONQMCO m w w O O w co r^ \n ON - O t^ ON O r^* M O co O -t d 




Q 




" fe - S 


d 

H 
E 


g 

I 


s ' s s ; : : : : s s - - - . s s - - s s - s s s s - - - 


"* ^ fc <; CH < P- < C- *< P- <*tJBri 

^~ *t in r^ ON c* ONO w w co w O M co m CM w O O w oo I"** in O* M o r* ON O i** M o oo O "t 
. ^* M MMMMM M i __ M 


Q 


"(? c j5 C 




" un H J JaquinN 


CM cotmo l^-oo O*O M w coTmo r*-oo ONQ M w corfmo r-co o^O *-" CM co^tmo r^ 

^ *^ *^" f^ r*" f^ r^- r^- CO OO OO COOOOOCOCOCOCO ONONONO* ON ON ONONONONOOOOOOOO 



1 9 o 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



liny jo j 



teria pe 

Centime 



* UO HHW Jad S 

,i.>.\i>[ ui M'!l" 
jo lunouiy aJIc 



"UOITBO 43d SUinj*) 

"Euiuin[v }o 9iEi]d[ng 
3|[ddv jo lunoiuy amituv 



j- Q 

> => 



jad 



co O 

O 



O M N co "T vn O r~*. co O O M N co -3- mo r>co O O M N co -1- in O r- co O O M N co -1 
w M M M M I-H M HI HI I-H (N NCI N N N N N N W cOCOCOCOCOCOCOtOcOcO-t"T-l--t--1 



M 00 M w 



O eo r^ N co -T o a) -rco r-co r>-r^u->ooco 



co U->M ^ 



OO -1- 
N O ^r 
- 



- o o o 

M r- in cc M i-* -T c~i O 



m O 
CO N 

-TO 



8OOOOOOOOOOOOQOOQOOOQOOOOOOQOQOOOOOOO 
OOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOO-OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 






.O w wooxoo O r^-w r^-co mmco tnnico w i^-o o^ 
NW Ooo O cOTj-w OO W -t r)-\O *-* c*i >r> coo W 



N N W N M N W d N N M N *TTj-in i <Tin'*TinTj-intT-T"T 1 'T 1 <T'*T*Tinu - >inOOOO "">in 



oooco -T N mo r- in in r* rj- M CON mNO r-> oo co co ^r co coo m coo co rt-O'^tr^-N 
co co eo N co -T co co N COCOCON o Oco Oco ococo r*-OOOOOOOr*-r*.r*>r*.r*.ro* r- 



E 
o 
+j 

<n 
> 
0) 

0) 



a 
j 
PS 



jo lung ai[i ip;qA\ 



Oi 



ON M N M COCOCO COOW N HI O""'*J-cOmcO r l-COHi M C* M U1QQ u->CO 



oooo. r^r^ooo 



oo r^-ooooo t^oooooooooooco -t-r^-o wooo 
i^-i^O r^r^r^r-r^so t^-r^i-xi^r^r-r*.i^r*.r*-r*.tr)wo r^-cor>.r--r^ 



Q *"* O QO N COM OM O to N -TOO O ""> N 
in-Tni'-J-*T*T < 'T-T V -T'T*T*T*TT-T*T'T ; -t-*T < 



-* OO co r^ O ci 



- -T -T -t-T ' 



M M N MM O' co N M coocomO coco N M r*- oo coo o o 00 co co r- N M o M o o m co M 

u"> n O oo O M ooo m t^ in co oo r" >/>CON o^" N 'T^T r^. OO NO *T-TCJO Ococo NO Or^ 

r>.O MCO O-TC^IM comco Oco Oco tococo r-M w N Oco coco-TON incoco r*-M O OO 

r^.inO*nmTfr-.co rfO 'T'TN cocO'T'TcOTf'T'T^n'T'TinmcococON N N N N coco-t 



OO ^O*~* t O t^-M otOOc^f^c^iw^co OO N or^co *tH> coOOOO r->O T 
H, N HIO Oco OC toi^-cocooo t^-N HI i-^-to c* ocooo N -tN ct tnutr^- 
MCO coowtniri'Tinr^.O | - 1 O w O"">O o OCO^I-COHI o u"*r^o HI -^-r-Hi O 



co inoOO ^J-r^co 



c* NCO 
COCOM N coco-t 



8 


rt 


JEEEEJEEEEESEE!EEEEEEEEE!E 


a 

B 


Q 


o "5, -5. 5,-g. -5, -5, -5, -5, -5, . -5, -5, -5, -5, -5, -5, 


a 






Hours an 


1 


1 a i B a a | a s a B a g^ a s d d s s j B a^ B s s a g a a a" a a E s E E E 


V 


oJ 

O 


EEEEEEEEEEEESEEESEEEEEEEEESSEEEEE 

OOOeoO N -Tl^-M Ococo OCOHI OI~-"TM M mON -TOO O MO OON O OOO N 




k 




H 
o 


j| 


mco*T* H f'TcOininto-TcocoN w coco-Tco-Tcoco-T-T'T'T-TcocoN N w N N HI M COT 


.1 
. 


__ 
i 


EEEEESEEEEEESEEEEEEEEE 

co-Tf^ 1 -Tco-T-Tu^minoOco r^O -TO r-OOO -TNOCO HI c^uiO cococo Or^-^-co 
mM comcow coo Nm*T^TN ^TN M WinN mO M co-TminN mO mO O mN M Nm 




C 


^^^Xj2^:j=xx:j:^:x:j=j:j=j=jn-cx:-cj2x:x:x^:jc^:j2x:j=j2^:jsj3j=x:j= 

m-T*TTTcoinO CO-^-COCON N CO-T'TcO'TcO'T'n'T'^T-T-TcococON COCON N cocOT 






ss ssssss, ssssssss. ssssss, s s- s s. . 




o 

X 


<fk <J cC *^ p^ < fc <04<04<0<h < fc ^ fc ^ ft ^ - ^ni 
^T oo o co in oo -T *T *T O O N co o in M w co m "TOO f*~i C O *T w> O in r* O co ** O f^* -T r^ 


m 
-a 




M cOC*mH.-^-MM COM COMM rfM Tf-MCOMCOM TN OM Q ** ONN ON COON n~N 


H 




^- ^- in mo Ot^OOO O M M M w NcocO-T TTO O t-oo co OOO O O M MM cococo^T 




V 
rt 


$*: 




Q 


M ^ 






s s s s a s s s s . sssasss's. s s s s s s . s s . s s - 




3 
O 


H,"<cC <^^^-<fc <cu-<o!^o;^(x ^*(^^^<Hi <H! <cC 

*T *T ""> O O N *T *n co O *^> *T O -T co co O ""* "T *T -T N cO m O m CO m O O 'D co co co f") -T HI 






M M CONinM ^fni MCOM COM M-j-M TfM COM COM rf w OM O'M ONN ONCOON -T 


| 






a 


V 


co^^-tninoo r**ooo O HI M M N N coco^^'OO rococo ooo O O M M M cococo 




Q 






unjj ;o jsquinM 


co OO MN co^Tino r~-co OO MM co*TmoraO OO MM to-T'DOr^co OO MM co*T 
OOMMMMMMH.HHMMMNNMNNMNNMCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO-T 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 191 



tua^sAs uejJB/w 


uny jo jaqmn^ 


5 < *5^faaaa"ss'S.S5S3|'5|^sfg:K.RRSR i g.c^g:s 


w 

u 

1 

o 

--. 

o 

*J 
3 

u 
u 

V 

~ 

1 
z 

V 

J= 

u 

i 

1 

rt 
c 
3 
j-. 

3 
I 



"o 

c 



I 

a. 
a. 

-< 


W9raiwa ^v 


oooo O uioo oo r^i^tn u-i ooo oo r^-Too o-t^oo r^min^fioo-ooo Oco o\O t^co t^ tn 


ggggigsgoSSo^o^^oS^sSoSSSSSoissSo;?;??;?;?; 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


"""v 


i-^O m r^ r^> t^ M N oo o r**- O O *n wcoo *^O O inin^r^co too O ^ m m N M r- N w 





C 




M M 


W 


CHNO>nOooOOOOcoNOO COOC OcoOO'OinMu-icococoowOcocOTj-^j- 

MM NM NCOCO MNN WWMCOCOMinMMMMM MtOMMMM 


II 


888888888888888888888888888888||8 


co r- oocococo "t^O too O OOcoo m *f O *t" to mom n moo w O'l'^^O woo m 


uoiiHW JadsiiKj uaieM 
J9Ai}i ui spijog papuadsng 
jo lunouiy 33BJ3Ay paiKimjsg 




in in m m m m m in m m min*^'^^t"Ti-^T} > '^-co to to to to co ^ ^ ^ ^ "J" to to to too r^- 


UOH^Q jsd SUIKJQ 
'Buimniy jo 3]Kqd|ns 
psijddy jo junouiy alJEjaAy 


tow N -^--tmr-if/j-yj cor^mM w -ftoO t-^co O O tON * w \O mO OvO too M co>nco 


mmminmtnTfN OOt~>minrfTfcOtotOeocOTtTtfO'*tOtOfOtotocomtON tocom 


v a 'SJnoH * z J^d 3J3y 
bc^; jad SUOIJEO UO !IMIV 


ooo o O"M o'o'oo 0*0 M M M h MS'o ) o222o'o2M 1 ? t o8'o'oo2 > o 




S'rt'o 




MCOCO NO ^-r-w N o r^oo tootoo -^to M M NO "i-i-<oco o too r-coco m*no 


^ o ^, jad 133,4 ^iqn^ 
< 






J3HJM psijddy jo si 
jo uinc; aq; ipiqM a3Biua3J3<J 


tooco r-TOOO3 wco r^co r^or^mmmr>.r^intoco-J- T 1-tow tocomM M M M in 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 




O O O OO I^-OOCOOOOOOOOOOO O OOOOOOOOOO O OOOO O 


M^^^MMMMNMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 


M 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


*** 


N^Om^%M;tmM^M^&??M^ 


** 


'!>J ''Jl'.-I 


O *^W N r^-W co >n co coOOO w O i~* MO OO w T^-O MM in co OtoOO M OO COM 
w O mw tnOco OWco mcoco r-^w OO"1~oo M OO r^O coo OOOO OnO ^tm^t 

^ to totototocotow to to cotow totototocototo^t'^^^*t^""^^^mvnin *n *$ 


pai|ddy 


co o O O co *i~co Tt"O r^ao rf O O M m too co co r~*> M tn m i~>- m M o *" O *"* O O to m in 
I-^M tOOO OO Omo M mincoO'OO O coco mtocOMCOOO toOcomoo moo Oco 
mO r^r^cocoo-O N O Tj-mO mM \nco M o Ocoo too to^J-r-co xnr^Mcovoco OM 


^- 1- CO CO CO CO CO CO M CO CO ^ CO CO CO CO * Tl- rf __J_[__! ^" ** "* 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


~- 
Q 


gOOQWOOOQwOi-'Tl-mmr^OOQOOOQO'-'OQOOOQOOOO 
OOOOOOOOOM5MOOMOOOOOOOOOM500OOOOOOO 

w -__ 

M 


x: 

N 




EEESEESEEEEEEEEEEEEEEESSEESEESSSEEEB 




d 

C 

V 
H 


SESEEESEEEEEEEESEEESESEE6EESEEEEEEEE 


M m -mt.--fO^OMNO.nOcn^ t -, mN -^MU 1 ^0 N >r>0wu, 


* mfi m* "Si m^N m m m f> m m mf> mm^- mm^-4^- ** SS * 


O 

c 

O 


EEEEEESEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEESESESEEE 

t-t co co O MO l~* Omw OO Oin-tN iA w 1/1 M <O OO to M ^ao M mo w OOOco ^O 
rt-mtomo -^-tomw M wrorfW mw -^-O mO *tw M COM O COtocoO cow N mO 


^^^^^^j=j=x^^^=^:j=J=xj:j2j:rf:j:^:j:j3j:j3Xj=j=^j=x:^:j3^j3 




Ended. 


3 
O 


S3 , S , . S , . . . S . - S , . 5 . . S . - S . - S . . S . - S . S - S 


coo ^^tmtoO Otoinr-cotow MCO O -fOO^C rfr^.D N M wr^N *i-coOu-icor^o 


uiOM Tfco W rj-co O^cor^NinOM nco ^> N TJ-OM mOcot^MinO ^O 


W 

To 

Q 


NNNNNNNWWWNWWNWNWNWWNWWWNWWNNNNWNtOtOCO 

o 


a 


c 
rt 


3 
O 

X 


s s s s s a s s s s s s 


r^coO -J-*J-mtoO ocomr^totow MOO O ^tOOO ^r^co N M N r-^w ^toomcor^- 
tOM MUITT-I-COM o -1- m N O O cotoO O OmQ ^ M wmMcomd M-^inwnW M 


m -too N -too OMcor^MNmOMmcOM TJ-OO ^OMinOtof-MinO ^O 


rt 

Q 


WWNNWWNNNNNNNWWWWNWWNNNNWWNWWWWWNNtOcO 

Is 


s 


uny jo jgqum^ 


mo r^oo OO M w co'Vmo r^co OO M N to Th u->o r^-co OO M w cotmo r^co OO 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Warren System. 


un^o^nN 


HI N en ^ m o r-oo O O HI N en ^t m O i^* oo o o HI w co "t m o r^oo o O M N en ~*t m o 


u 

V 

T: 



"o 

i 

V* 

4J 

5J 

E 

*rt 



1 

0> 

jq 

u 

X 

u 

o 

1 
I 

3 
I/I 

1 

u 
JS 
u 

"o 

1 

rt 
D 

1 

< 


^ ( 2 < S ( 2^2 ( 2 < ;2 c 2 t ;2 S^nT.^^^^^^^ ^ 8 8 8 8 8 8 N NN N NN N N 


^pujap^H^v 


\fi N *" o N ^" *t t"* N -t oo r^-o r- GO t** *^t m co r^ en o O en -t N o en N m r> M u j t o 




Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


aSEjaAy 


r- m m m O O O N M o r* o co m m *-> O t^* en o *t N o oo m M o* 1 oo tn u > o O w* o i~ - 
MMcnoenNNMMHi M MNNento ti^.O MW ^ 


C 

e 


KJ I::2? S{: ^SffSR?2?^?S8?8 || f^^ 




ITS' ^: iRSoS 55 SS" ^o" **^o ^8 S ?K ^-^85 


"^ . . . . M 


H 


OOOQQOOQQQQQQQOOOOOOOQOOQOOOOOOOOOOQ 
OOOOOOOOOOOGOOOOOOOOUOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


3A|Ji ui spi[o$ papuadsng 

o lunoiii y a3BJ3Ay p.i.i:u.iis'.{ 


K8 8 8 PASS'S ffSslRS5g,^E = 


pailddy jo lunouiy aSnjaAy 


^8 RS ^ M R S" ?>S 8 o o- a- o-c^S SJ^RK'RS .'K^SmS-g^ 




jad SUOIIEQ uoi|i!p\i 


oo'oo'?'oo > oo > oooooooo 1 oo"^SSS N NNm?J,S"SS v S'N 






oe t>.m>o< oo mr<.t>.co <n<a v>vio >nt>.ie mcoiAt>.o>i^ixint>i 


M ^' M M-MMMC,C.C <NN NC.NC< NN C.C. 


jajE^ pai[ddy J s ! 


?SS > S-2 > 3'?! > e?; > 2^2 > S2 cocococo ^ < S* 1 " OTl -^ t:| - >0 : r| - x "^** ' t * 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 




O oo o r^.o ooooooooooooooo N -TO N i^-r^r>. . rt-^-M TTN o HI ^t 




m 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


WM 


too o en en n *S" N ino HI o o N o o o N N en o u"> r* ui o O N o -t *t o ^t 1 r^- en r^* 


^u, 


enN N N en NenN enenN mo cocoooco H- MN HI MIOQ -tni enN HI ONn-tu->Tt 




pailddy 


r^- o o en ^ t^ N r^ o o N ^H o r 1 '*S? '*""' ** Si ^ eo N oo ^to o oo O M M r^.o en oo o o o 
r- iro\o ** ""> ^ O en -t O M o ("* ^" O HI en m M r^-oo cno O o "t HI eno m oo oo O oo N 
O co N en N mo oo ooo o M O mmo^r^OHiooo M en Ooo ui o N -t N m xn OO ^~ 
CON N N enN N enN enenenoococooooo HI N M o HI mo enni cn^M ON minmTt 




Periods of Time. Houts and Minutes. 


u 

Q 


OQf^-Q-rfOQv^QOOt^QOOO^OOO^O^)<X)O^OOO "OOOOOQOQ 




1 





EEeEeEEEEE6 :S6EE 

oo O O O O O oo !"- o ^^ O f"^ co O O O !"* O O oo ^ *t u^ oo O en HI N i-i O *r> \o O oo ^ 
MMMMWHiMMMNNH-MHiHiHiHiMNMNNNNNNN -NNNNNNNN 


II 

U 


EEEEEEISESEEEEEIEEEEIEEEHgEEII^EEEE 


enN NN N N N enN enmNUIOOOCO I^.OO HI MCOGOOO MOO M ON OOf^-ON M N M 


j 

O 


SEEESEESSSESEEEEEEEESESEEES-ESEE'ESEB 

N r-.co enoo -t-tenooo N ^t-t-tor^N en'toooo TI-^CO M MO " O O mO N -^tO HI 
NTj-MNHen i *t'3-m^-"tOmNMenMcn^-ONencntOcnen*M i *TmenO^'NM 


enN N N enN N enN enenentnooococooo M NCOOOOO M QIM o O or-o COM enc* 


Ended. 


o 


SS- - SS- , , SSSS S. . , SSSS- SSSSSS2S 


J^?J^?^S 1 ^8^S5^^S88^S 1 8?,S-^5 > ^22^S 


ON N uiMNmN enni N ON N NN NN cnOOOON OOO O O OO N HI HI en en 


I-I 


J 


tnencnen MMNNNNNNNNNNNNcnen 


"s <* ^ 


I 


B 


SSS-. S3... SSSS S.-- SSSS. SSSSSSS 


O oo m o to ui o en O *o en m o -too r^ en *o oo N N O Q m en O M ^^ ^ vn /i O o N o O 
N en ^ *t o "^ N M *t ^~ O -to ""> *t en ^NN-TCOO^OO en O m o -t -t M M ir, M 


N ONNmMNmNenHi N ON N N N w N rnoooo N oooo o OO'N M N M en 




OJ 

rt 
Q 


encnentnen wMNNNNNNNNNciNNenen 


"s < s 


un a ,o J:)qn] n N 


HI N en 't m o r-oo O O M N to. ^ tro r> oo O O M N en ^t m o t~*>oo O O HI n en ^t m o 


MMWHtMMHIHtMMMHIHtMMMHlH.HlNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 



COMPOSITION Of OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



193 



Warren System. 


uny jo jaquin^j 


r^co CT'O *-< w c^ri-iovO r^oo OO -i w cn^-ino r^c CT'O ^ w en-^-irivO r^oo OO ** 


f 

! 
's 

' 
V 

a 

u 
: 

8 

i 

i 

u 
u 

1 
S 

s 

0. 

T 
rf 

1 

i 
g 

s 
2 





-; 

V 

gj 



1 

V 

2 

u 


rN?I?!?!NN?!?!N?IC?N'c?C?C?C?t?C?C?cr?N^?*^^N^*??t?t? 


'Xouaioujg tKjjaiauji aSejaAy 


MttmMO-r^wo CT.-O -r^NTt^MNu-it^i^r^ c^oo ooNmcOMooNmOi-^in 


"o o o &%" os" o^ *> o o o"o ooooooo o o'o o'o o* o o"o 5 o 


Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


'33ua3Ay 


. <S^S?.g\S<og\S> '%Wg98BSS"SffffSg*?fE5SS5 


c 

IMlllllHIIIV 

E 


Rft5a S &KC- 3!iSf 5!? 2 !J?*SRSJ?5*{:Sa 8"8 


H 


M h- M h- HH HI HlHtHIHIHlNHI 


If 


' 88888888888888888888888888888888888 


t^O-OO ^->n -j-ui Tt m ^ ui r^o UI^-PTTO r- t^ r^o cnui*>nuMnvnM 


UOIIHW J3dsiar; d -ja^M 
.i.>.\i^| ui spi|og pdpuadsn^ 
jo lunoaiy 9&KJ3AV paiwiuijsg 


RJJJJS&SRo^-MSSSSaS^^^SSKKSS^^S^^i.^ 




euiuiniv jo djeqd|ns 
paijddy jo lunouiy 3EJ3AV 


o '"^S<g 5^-oS o-ooS-3 R"S5 oo P.ao^^R'R.? S.S" 


M N MMMMMWMdNdMNHMMnOOOOMOMM 


v 
*-' 

<| i 


S * H 


'SSS" V SN'S'S?!S < NN'SS > M?! 1 S'SNN?>2 1 g'o'o ; < o c o t o < o c 2 1 


t 


; jsd jsaj Diqn3 


^M I^O'J-M ow w e<ir^cnMvo e^coooo OO i^r^-* w CIN M e ^- mr^w 


S58SS8SS5S?!SS?;S5SgSSSS2 < 'e v 2 > e v S v 2 v 2 1 2 > ^?2 > 


joinns-Hp tpiqM 33inuo:u^j 


**^**K,o*^,.^t.-,** 3 .<^.r.^ s o.o.e>** 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


,1 -p..sn 


^;ttO t^-^l-Tt-TO n-tTj-Tt^Tr-j-mO t^O -*HIO O "^O O rJ-Q ^ T^ 


M HI HI HI HI 


S -p3J3>l!d 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


MS.M 


TCO O r* N 1/ltOiDN "tO O OO O^ Ht lOCO O HI CO O N CC ^* M N C* N CO CO CO O O O O 


u, u^cxj ^.CO CO ^ t- .no 00 00 t^co OCO 0) t-co 00. n 0^0 M 


^ 


m ^ N ^-O 1 " " r( "'" m ''' >ri mo < * 1 >O 0> M 0" ONI^n"1m TO M 


^O^'^^^^S^^O^SSm^S'^^^^S.oS^^o'SiT^r^O*^ 


D 

.a 

1 
e 

c 

1 

i 

8 

o 
rt 

ti 

"S 
.H 

S 

V 

J= 
o 
a 

V 



c 

u 

1 



.-^ 

be 

's 

3 

V 

n 

k> 

5- 
q 

.2 

r; 
u 

'Q 

V 

a 
y 

S 

J2 
C 






paijddv 


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!S!!!!!!!!E!!!!l!!!!!t 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


1 


OOOOOOQOOOOO-OOQQOOOOOOOw^OO^coOOQOQcOHi 
OOOOOOOOOOOOO'^OOOOOOOOOHiOOOOOOOeoOOH, 

J3 JS J2 J3 J3 J3 J= J5 
HI O N HI HI CO HI 


A 




oo Tf ID w o o O oo co *tO o w> ^^ O^~N OO r^Tr^ow^N r-oo ooo o HI HI r* 

W NN CON CONWW N N CON -^d COcONCON CON N N N N COCON N COCOON 


| 

y> 


EEEEEEEESEEEEESEESEEEEEESSEEEEEEEE6 


u-)w TO N Tj-N T^-N O OO N COHi i-iinNNmN COO HI TCOCO"ON -^"N HI O O O 


<too r^NioOWHiQ Too HiNHiOOOcOHii-ii-ieo TOO r*- co O O HI coco r coo 


a 

o 

8 
E, 

o 


E'EESSEaEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEESe 


N COO CO'T'-i iDHiincON cninQ O TN inUlN mO COTHi \D O W U^M U1TCON CO 


N -S -5 * f ^-5 -5 " o f. o 5 * ^^of.^-'S o fi " 


Ended. 


o 

X 


S2SSSSSSSS. SS SSSS-. SSS- SSS-. SSS. SS 




tncorfN O N HI toe* u-)i-i inTt^tcoO u^tM O HI T*tw^"^ u "rON TcouicoO "t 


HI HIHtMHIHI HI HI HI 


Q 


T"ttnir>OO f^-r*.OOOOCO OOni d c* COCOCOTU^WTOOOCO OOO HI c* i/lOO t^- 


O >, 


^ 


I 


3 


I 


S- SSSSSSSSS- SS- SSSS-- SSS, S S S- - S2S- S 


t^ O T HI O OO co *t O - u^ o HI o O O T Ht r^ r^> co T to !"" "to N oo O t* co Ooo ^^ O 
Nu"ico*toiO N IH CON *r> *H u^ T ^ *t to O inT" O HI TTIO vt ID co N T co ""> co O 


CO >H QO T *D D T CO T ^ N t~ COcOOOtO'tNHi NNN ^^ MOO TOO I s * N HI CO O ^"O 


j 

tfl 
P 


M -T*tmu">OO l^-r^OOOOOO OOi-i w W COrOCOTU*>tOvOOOO OOO HI N M iOOO 


O >, 


s 


unn J I.I.HIHI x 


rxoo o O ^ N co T IDO t^-oo o O HI w to ^ IDO t*^ao O O t ~ > ^ co ^ w>O 1^*00 O O HI 



a s 



'94 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



5: 
R 



^ E 

C 5 

I > 

.! <t> 



'un^j jo JPquinji^ 


* * 5e *"" o o ~ - - ~ 





* Application of chemical unsatisfactory. Chemical meter out of order. t Prescribed amount of chemical insufficient. 


N en "rr to o r^ oo oo H< N en *t too r-co o o HI N en *t mo i~-uo o* o HI M in *fl" 


"AOU31DUI5J IBIJ9JDKH Sjtnj.JAy 


gg^igggggggggggggggiggggggggiggg; 


) gr., rate 120 mil. L 
>Kr.. rate 100 mil. f 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


V 


s"s?Rss&ff8$^ R H^?2 ? s ?5SRa *"* R<8 


, 


O^HitoNOcoOO N to HI r- H. o u-> ^o en - HI oo 
HitncoHiNcooooo * o en m mo en N N *- en * 


11 

i* 


8888S88888888888888888888888888 


cals 2.0 gr., rate 120 mil. gals. 3 Prescribed chemicals 3.0 gr., rate 120 mil. gals. Prescribed chemicals 5.1 
cals 3.0 gr., rate 140 mil. gals.t 7 Prescribed chemicals 4.0 gr., rate 140 mil. gals.t * Prescribed chemicals 4. 
cals 4.0 gr., rate 120 mil. gals. ' ' Prescribed chemicals 4.0 gr., rate 140 mil. gals. 


^t O -t TJ- N r- m r^oo ui o Ooo GOOD M NO O m t e* Oco -l-cnC-r^O r^mm^r 


JSAI>{ iii spijog papuadsng 
;o junouiy aJSejaAy pajBOinsg 


^ IR Sasaa|aRRRRfHHH S5ltR|s*^ 


pai|ddy jo umoiuy aJSejaAy 


O -tco ooo o-r^oco cnOco u-^o t *t w mt^-t-o wco cncnOcoo M HI O>M 
ooo 'to OOO -! -tcoo r^r-Ttni cnoo M m HI c~ocnvnenr-w HI o^entno 


-Hi-MNN^^m^^^^m^n^^-^^^-Tf^^^^T^^^Nm^^ 


g __, * 

< 


sanoH *z Jad ajoy 


> 22 1 i"C'82 1 2 > 3'2 1 S5 v ?>"?,SSS^-S : ;oS8o8a;o2'S^Sm 




jad jaa.,1 Diqn3 


c^c^lci^cic>cxi^d-di-:NN^ci>cu ; ,orioo^d.CT.c;N 




uajBAVpanddyjosi 
jo tuns *Ml iPW* aSBjuaojacj 


IA p* en HI en en en en toco eno OO encno H* oco enr^-oo oo O ("* co o o oo r^> 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


$ -P-MSUA 


en en N M 


1 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


qM 


O O O en r* ^ O w O r^ oo ^ en r^ r^ wo HI o uo *to *tooDO o co HI in w i ** ^" 
r^ ^ CN en M co oo t^O co CO HI -f M in oo en O "tco w> O *r> HI nmo doco *tnico 


pajaina 


en !"* en O w^ O O m ** u^ r^ o r^ o O ^ O *r t^ en HI XD N en m N u i in O en o r- m 

O r* ooo w oo r*. u^ N o ^^ co NenO'-iO'"" ^^O eno r^ en "to^ni c* w o NO 
O^r-OO OM N mr^oco r-r-*-oo mooo *tcnw MCOOO o^r^" mo oenu^ow 


pal|ddy 


cnenOM M r>co menace O Oi^-uiO O HI - inco O NO r^-trico Oco OOOoa 


:2 >o N -TO<o^^ 2 co^c,^ NNNN c<u im ^^r.oor,ccr,oo 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


A 
O 


SBISEEEEEEEISIEEEEEEE^EEEEE^EEEEI^ 
^ o 


1 




SEEEEESEEEEEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEESEEES 

en mo en ^O O N *t M ^j- N t^ *t HI o O O u~>oo to o O to HI ON n o co ^ t** ^ 
cncH w c enenenenenencnenenM N c* enw tnci c N cnenenenw cnw N N w en 


I 


EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEESEEE 

u^ oo co >< ^~< *O s cooo vo co O C^ O^ 'J' f^ r^oo O O 1^-00 n w O u^ *r c^oo *r HH o 
^ -rf o O " N M f^ >-< N 1^1 "^ t/v ^ i/> O *^> ^ ^ ^" OOu^^u^NC^f4w(*^c^(*l 


j3j3XJ3j:'j:j:j=rf:j:jsj:xj:j:j:j3J=J=^=J=J=J=J3J=J=J=J=-cj3' c -c- I = 


1 Prescribed chemicals 1.5 gr., rate 120 mil. gals. Prescribed chem 
5 Prescribed chemicals 40 gr., rate 120 mil. gals.t Prescribed chem 
9 Prescribed chemicals 6.0 gr., rate 100 mil. gals. lw Prescribed chem 


^oociTi-uimmto^toN ^ 


C 
O 



I 




EEEEESEEESEEEEEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEEEd 

CO en ^ ^ N O "^ en O O ^ *t *^ O co ^ en r O *^ to en >o N tn o en O ' r-->o 




OHIO HI N tooo en^-tf)Hi tortw M N c* N N d t-tcoco r^-O r r*-o tococo 


Ended. 


1 


aa- a. ; M ; a : a : c a : : : a : : c s : s : sss ; s : a". 


^t^NoO O*Oco HI OOenO H tDOOO HICOCOCO O enoo O IOHI o^OtntoQ tr>^- 
O M toM w N N'tenenO enO NenO ^tu-)ON NU->HI entom-tON OOtrien 

en O>N -toend NO" NIOHI eno o M M -to 6 N r^-enni r-.t^.en6 tn HI r^o^ 


I 






d 


3 
O 


a- s- a-- a- a . a - - a - - - a - - - s- a - sss : a : a 


O ^tr^Noo ooco HI c^oeno HI moco HICOCOCO O mco O ton. o^C'enuiO "" 
'tOnirnNN N tenenO enOw eno *t"^O N NIOH^ ^"^"^T .^ . . "? 
HI enci ON ^O'-enO* CNO* Nmnl eno O HI HH -ttO O* N r^cnni f>.r-cnO tnnir^ 

HI HI 5 M M HI HI HI HIM 


Q 


o .^ 




un^aomnK 


*** . 0=> ~ = ; 


N en ^ too r*>*co o* O M N en ^ too t**co O O M N en ^ wiyj l^ix) O' O M ^* **> ^ 
C1WNNNWNNNWNNNNNNNNNWNWNNWNNNNNNNN 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



Warren System. 


U n HJ o J; , qra n N 


mo t oo OO "- 1 N to *t mo r-co OO M N co^J-mO r-co OO M tO^mO f co OO M 


N N N N N N M N W N N N N COtOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOtOCOCOCOCOCOCOtOCOtOCOCOCO 


tMWVWBrtvV 


m M N r-. m rf M o m to N Tf^t^-O co r- r r-. f-O O eo ^ O MO r-oo ^f- -^ M o O inco 


%<;<, g;<&g;g;g;g;gg;g;g:S;g;g g g g g g g; <,<,<, g g g g g g g 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


33E "A V 


rtof S> 8 5'S.' m 'S-oo oo oo 'O'O'OT *> K 5- of c?o"R c>>o SWOT Ir> S ! $ S^m! 


p 

i 


as?'8SSaS3K3S,38?tt!iS S 5 B*'*aS8 0> S3? > a8A 




IPfff^^IS^MP & s ssSss^ssssf 


II 


JfiJfHSHSIIIJFi !!!!!!!:!!!!!i!!E! 




JSAiy til spijoc; papuadsns 
o lunouiy a^EjaAy paiEuiusg 


^im^s^Riaisaisg^m^H^oRRRI^l 


Euituniv 10 3)Ki|d|tis 
P3|lddy J" junouiy s^EaaAy 


^w2%rnS^No3oM 1 3RNO f o^ 


COTfrONMWcOCONMWCONCO^COCOOinmTfinCOmNNNCOMtON 


V 

V ~ 


I '""dTuo^ou'o!,^ 


^ ^ ft colo R'ft S 3- R ^^> c^^^^ to m'co^ 5- S'co'coS S coS^c^^^Pi^ 




41 rt O 

> 3 

<3 


t 


O r-i^o momoo OO t^-o mr-toco mr^. oco ocowcocooooooo COM mcom r^-oo 


NNNNNNNNNNN^NNNMNNNNNN^NNW 


aaiEjvv P^M^dy ) s \ 

jo oing aqj qD|i(A\ aSBiuaiuaj 


Oco r^rocococooooo MCO r-^^frinr-o O woo O M ^M r--M N coo -tooooooo r- 




Quantities of Watei . Cubic Feet. 


, :P-mn 


to co 


rt 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


USH M 


O *n co to O O to wi O *n ^ O co to H- oo O TfO *o toco l-oo O O I s * *J" O O co co O co r- m 


O m o O m i/"i m m m m in m in m m in in in in O ^* rn vn m in O *o in m o m in m in m in in 


,^ M 


O M O O N ^ CO M in in N N OCO CO N O O ^ O O O l~^ O O N W CO N O O O m O N O M 
TJ- o O r** oo ^ OOO t** ^t 1 ^n O O ^ N O m inO O m oo N co mo M co M o moo M N O C 
Oco OOO r-.r-.co OO O moco CONGO mo mw W N in-^-dco m-^-mmri-oco r*-r>-oo 


pai[ddy 


mr-coO NCO OO MOD mi-o ON M t r-O 1 - 1 tomM CON cow N O M -fmOM o^nco 
OrinOco coomcoo W inoooo coo ininTj-intOOco M cocoo MCO MOO -fO O O mr- 
vO OOOO t-^Ooo OO O mo co to N co mo m N ^ N in ^ N OO m ^ m m ^o co r* r-*co 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


X 
_rt 

Q 


oo-tOi^O JOOOQ >or-OootOO O f> -OQcoQ"">OOOQOQOOOOO 
O COCOTj-COO COCOtOM O COTj-N CO'tCON COO W O O COO COW COO COO COCOCOO CO 


ininmm mmmin mmOminco *rt m m oon m in mtno m 


a 

rt 




tGGSESSEE 


C4NNNNMNN 


d 

'> 

1 


EEEEESEEEEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

O ^OOO t^.^-cococo OO M mNOO TfcoO Ococooo N w -to N coco O OCOM o N 
M m o *r> O N MMmmtoOM co u^ in N O ^" O N m O ^t* ** ""* NmtoinNWOOM^t'co 


m m t~^ t- m in mO l** ^ r>> ^ inO OOO O *^^^"^^ M N COCOMO to to co ^ co ino u^ inO 


o* 
o 

i 

V 

o. 

O 


ESEEBBBSSESEBEESEEEEESSSSEESSEBEBEEEE 

CO N COCOCOOCO TfNOOinNOO OOM MO ^"OO COCO CON inco M tHO r-^CO -tO M N CO ** 

O w cococomco^w M o cocomM eimw M wmM CON coMinMinM ^-^1010100*0 


r-O r--oo inmmOoo moo ^mo O OO ^J- m rf M N N ^cowo ^co-'S-rt-tomO moo 

M 


Ended. 


3 
O 


s sv ^5J"s sss y y 


OO Of^O Oco M coo m r*> ^- O Oco woo N Q r-mca coco Tfw cooo ^J-co MOO Q cot 
m^-TtOMM o COCJO O OtoO^mO ^tOOMtOOO cow ^ON^O Tj-minOOW 


4NMciMinNNNO"^ | - ( O' OO'MMtOMmM M TJ-NCON NmM rj-W^MMOCOW 


MM M 


rt 
Q 


OO w N cocomo r-ooco OO co^tO O M M M cotOO r-.t-oooo OOO M cotO't 


*& ^ 


M s* 




1 


3 



a a- , - a a- . - a a, s,,-- a- - ss a- s 


^-OO Of O 5 M ^O "^ t "3" Q OCO NOO M O tu^co coco M M eoOO *tf-oo MOO O ff 1 


o4 Mc4MineiM o^iMO odMMcowmwM4N coMcimN'tM ^MMOCO 




I 


I 


OOO M N cocomo 1-.COOO oo w corj-o O M M N w N tocoo r-.r-.cooo ooo M coco 


%U X 


co^-----. ";--.---.- 3. -. ....-*....... 




'uny jo jsquinjsj 


mo l-oo OOM N tOTj-mo r-oo OO M M co^t-mO t--oo OO M N tO'tmO t-co OO w 


9v ff Vf vf n Cf Ci A v( A fv 9 fi vl vl to to c^i co co co co to to co to co co co co co co co to co to co 



196 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 5. Continued. 

Warren System. 


any )0 jsqoinN 


N C?N S"S cT ??,? ; J?)?!SM^S'?>S^-^" "5^^-^T 7, ^^-Tno'KaD 


o 

I 

* 

* 

V 

"c. 
S 

i 

o 

CJ 

d 


Xou^uja.Ea^a^y 


oo o o i-oo oo r^o o o N m r- o 1^0 monoooco^o-ui ouimwo o- "i 


s s s s s ; o o> si> v & < a. ; s & s~ % ? ; s ^RSi?ss * 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


93EJ3AV 


M 


c 


_ ^- i C4 m t^ n vO * O* I^ N t-^MMM M CM M M ^HClO 

w co en en en 


1X3 


en*O^J - * in-inOen M inN 


.si 


8OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQQO OQ ^ ^O TJ- co ^- -" d ^^ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOQQOOOOOOQOQO Tnwuio<mennO 


uorinW -> d s U B d 'Ja^M 
jaAiji ui spi]o$ papuadsng 
o lunouiy SJ3AV paiEunisg 


^ ^ ^" ^t~o ^* ^f *^ O M Tt" "^ M fcH en eno O en en en *t O !> f^* co 


'UOt[B) J3d SUIBJf) 

)3i|ddv jb lunouiy sSujSAv 


So^JtS R 5-^ S* 5, 55 o^^-S-S'S-^w^Co' ' :o-K: : :5-5 


w NW NN Nwentnenmr>-tn o^oo 1^*0 r*- o^o co r^^m^' O O O -MM 


" ^ I.xl SUO1|BQ UO!|[IJ^ 


enenen^'tenencn*tenenencno v o^ c*co ooc^^o^enenenen^- OMO -OC* 


. . . 


S"j "" fl 
re - i 


i 


r-oo oo O eno enoo M Tt r>-co i~^> en ^J-o e>i M t->. c>co t-^o enco M . ot cc co oo C 1 


WMNClNMWNNNNMNMMMMMi-iI^l^WNNWN 1 'NMN -CIW 


jaje^Y psfiddy jo si 
o umt; sqi ipiq.w aS^]u93J9,j 


oovojyg-^oggjjMg.jg^jjgi^og.o | | >o > j j j* 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


g -p-H 9 ua 


en tnenen^j-M M. *NM w 


S 'P3J3J|IJ 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooo -oooooooo 


qSEjw 


IMHffMIIIIIII^fMlfl : iSRRRSIffl 


' prjoi[i J 


|||f||||||||f|f^||HS^lK . :!ai!:R 


"5 :* 


"psuddy 


If ?g if 5 SR5 1 SS I S 51 111 1 If! ?^ R I ': R si 1 : i S II 


_ ^ : : : N 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


JS 

V 

Q 


S E E jj E i| E S^ E^ E E E d !5 B S S_ B E S E E S_ E ; E B E | ; ; E S 

encnO | - > OenenO' r tOcnOMC<nrj-oenOOMOen^-ciO*i\ 'MC^HH | |-tm 


J3J3 JS JSJS JS JS -C JS JS JS J^JSJS -JSJSJS*-*JSJS 


i 


- * 


EEEEeESESEEEEEEE : ! 


WWMNNMMNWWWWcncNenNWWeNen Weni-N .M M 


e 


BBS 88888 S'B'S'B' B8 8^ B8gB |iisa ES_E ; ; : EE 


J3 J3 J= = J= J3 J3 J3 J3 J5 J3 X J3 J3 J5 JS J3 X J3 J5 J5 J= J= j: X X J= J3 X 


M . M 


e 

_o 

1 




Jts 8 ia^sjia'igaa 1^88888^8 BjBg EJE : : ;EE 


J=jjj3j3x:j3j:j:j=j3j3j=j=j=j:j=j3j:j3j:j:j=j:j3j3 j=j=j: . . . 43 jo 


r^ c^\c t O ^ in _ ui 


Ended. 


u* 

3 
O 

so 


sssss s s . . . sss. s s a . . ss s.. as... s 




2 o>coMC,^ 2N o^*o- N C7>M m o Tf22 ^^ c; NN M mm c,o 


I 


^MMMMMnn^ieinnetflicinMevncfevncinfrxnm tn woic?N'" H 

S X ? *i ^ 


S. O2 


1 
v 


3 
O 

S 


a . asss as'... ass. a a a , . a a a . . a a . . . 




Mcjo>Mmc.,*. : ;oc ) *^t>o ;: ^o-Tfo> o-rjc^^M N 


ti 
& 


^inoococo o M M N Wencnen^-Tfvninr>.i^r>.oooo OO M MM NW>O ^MI^-CO 


2, O "z 


' un H J J3qtnn[i 


enenenenenenenenenenencncnencncncnencnenenenencncncn 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 197 



TABLE No. 5. Continued. 
Jewell System. 


una jojaqiunx 


O~*-NtotnOf oo G 1 O M N to -t in O r- OO G* O <-* N tOt*no t^oo G^O w w to *t 


1 Available data incomplete. _ 9 Application of chemicals un isfactory. Chemical feed pipe choked. 


.^pu^,^^- 


Omtou"iO"OONncooOON to G* u"ico oo ^t" 1 s " coo co r-* O oo O O M r> G 4 Gv 




Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


o^v 


HS!3HSE 5R FH s&III?IHflpI|lpl 


c 

3 


^ 00 *O oo O "to O fl "^ *t O **~> M m O ^t'^W N *tO ^^coO O UIMCO oo O O u* 




pllHHIffllll PWll'fUlfflffllfl 


II 


"^!!!!!!!!!tl! ||!!?!!!!!!!!!!||!|! 


uoi[i!W Jd sued U31KM 
joiunouiy 33EJ3Ay pamunsg 


O C) O mOm*tcominOOOOQ OOOOOOO*"OOOOOOOOOOOO 


tio[te) aad SUIEJ-Q 
paijddv J lunouiy sSeJSAy 






u 
rt c 


'^TuoV.^u'o^w 


s. o&sss-s^&s-^ss.g- 5<s i <s i ^8>s;^ss5;s;ss;So;c5-ss,s. 


jsd waj ojqno 1 


to OOOOr^.mm mcq_O O MinOOW^tr>-O'tONTOO^inO'tnco 


J S'^^S'S^S?!?!?!?????! SSSS?!S > S > ?!?S > ?35 1 5 > S > S 1 SS?!?J 


;o ums aqi qoiqjw a3uiu33j3j 


M M M t^- 




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qsM 


g,RS!i5J?SSSSSaR5S SKS^5lslfSllfIll 


P-.U 




, W 




m G>eOcovnOG^MMinMG' ^coO-tcotomtNmOOMOMOtOMOO-t- 




Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


03 

1 


B B&BSatjJjaSSB EBE^SSEdSEdiiisdEEEE 

ul-MTU1NmN-*'tmN u->^> * u-) N M N M M t^l O ^1 N in to * f> 


t^ eo-1-c/3C^co'-'u^inmnoo OO"^ T t'O'- ( "1'CiOt < ^ u ^ l '>"^wOmvOrt*'i 


x: 

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EEEEEEEEEEEEESE EEESEEEEEESESEEBEEEB 

o o '-' O O r~"* o^oo o Q 1 c*^ o^ c^i w i-( r^- w o f w -t r 1-1 o o* *' O r^ O o r~*> N N t^ N 

M 


1 


G E E E E E E E E E E' E E^ E E E J E E d E B E_ B B S E B S S S B E E 




S. o m5'S5'&'5,oo'5>M55 5 M x o *5 " "5-5 "S 5 ^s 


d 
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O OnOtoO u "> v OtOMQOG l F'- |->i oo OO o Ocoooco i/icoco m f^- "t too co in O c*^ G 1 




Ended. 


3 


a. s. ass,. . a. s, a as. as, _ ,, aas. as, s., s 




2-c^o ^ 2 2 - MC *o oooo<oo<- 2 o*oo>o< 


Q 


1-1 fi n CO MMMMC1C4MtOtOG> MMMMMC4C1C4C4CO MMMM 
in . " .O . 
O a ^>. , , o- .-.- - -- . N co r ' c - - ---- -- --- ,^, . 


"z o 1, M ^ & 


I 

u 

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8 

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a ~" " 2 ; ^ --- ^ . v- ^- _ ^ ^ 


N r^OcoO OO ^co O G-O O^I s -G> w TfG'O r*- T t--tcoco u"> _ oo O G*mtooo tomtn 
^M M tOtOCOW M TTmtOtOtOtO TTftOt- O ^TtOM tOCOg *t*t*tu^fOO rf*ft^ 


o S M^o-*cj22"" (> 2 ""Oocj^o-ovos^-i^^^N^aocr 


1 


MTfOmOu^Otor^G'- T tr>.O'-' N^tG*O^*'>t^OtoincoGO>nor*O'-'N 


in O 
c g v >.-.. J go - 


"^ & "A 


una jo qum N 





198 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



uny jo ;.K|uin\ 


uio r^ao<*OMOf>Tu->or-cooM3Nm-*i'->o i-oo o-Oml-^,or^ooo-o 


1-1- ft^J-uiin n in in in mo OOOOOOOOO c 


^"Prai.M.^^.AV 


OTCO t-l^O Tfl-.O-CT'OOOOOaO MO * O O N m>O O -3- f-O t^O I-^tO tO O> 


O* CT 1 O* O^ C* O* O* 0* ^\^C V C*0*0'C > O S C N 0'C~'^^ V C N &'O^C^^O*CT 1 O*O N 1 Q S O* O* O* O*oo 


Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


* V 


^ r~> "^ o o "~> o o 'f N f^ M **^ tf> o r^ o r^- c r i^-ooO't'Ow i"** o ** fi o ^f^o OWN 


C 

i 


IfpfSfffffiSSfpSFS'l ff |K5SRpS&?RS 


a 


N ^H o oo r** O oo N in N r* O OO ^t" M o co t O O m r^ rf r^* O en O O M o m o 
^ >-i enoo ^^ O N co ^ en m en N in J^~ m N N ^ N ^t N N en O ^t" ^i" N O en r- 


Sh 
II 


88|88|88888|888888888888888888|8|8| 


' u Hl!W J3 d suej 'J31BAV 
j3Af>j[' iii spijog pspuadsns 
to lunouiy aS^jaAy paieomsg 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

cntnM cnmO TfN t^inmr^r^o mmmo O *-> OOOcooo cnO ind N N N ci N N o r^ 
N ^ ^ en en NMM ^iNOOONN t^- O 1/1 m n m in m in in m ^ 

M MM 


eutuinfv jo alluding 
paqddy jo lunouiy sSeJ3Ay 


O mW OtnMOO enOO N cn-TuiO O N eninoo O^OO ennN M rfOO O N ON O 
Of^oo fenO N cnO O Oenco i^-O ON mininoo Oco "I'M enM N r-^oO ^^tenO I^-M 


N N ^N enN N MM M o M o O O O M M M M N cnenmm-3-u")^-entnen'<3-enen^fcncn 


u ^ c S jr^^ u ?tr\ uofmitf 


M N M Q M !- enco Q O N O M o Oco oo oo oo m ^ mo IOMO rnr>.mr^o M m r*.o N 

O O O O O m O M o M N O O O O O O O O O O O O O OOOOOOOO O O O O O 




!F| a,d,rsj&> 


$-oo *"* cnO O M o r^ N M oo M in m en en N en ^ N ^oo ^~o oo o m o O O^oo M o oco w 


N N N N N -fenO'-ti^-o '-f-m-r^t-r-t-i--tcnenenenenN enenen-tenen'3-mentnenm 

NNNNNMCINNNenNNNNCNNNCNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN 


'JlBj\\ paijddv jo si 
jo tung aqj qajqM aSEiusojaj 


men^t-rj-N *t en !" w N N cncncn*^u^lnm^oooo enDM o N i^-ooco mr^rjo t^>oo N o 

MMMMMMMN M 


V 



_o 

u 

Si 
1 

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c 
ft 
3 

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N M 


5 -P-WIU 


coOO'tOOOOi^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOONOmOOOOOOOOOO 
O \O M O M 
tn M M 


W 


nHHHH?^HsEHII 1 lSH5l > SSS3ss$S^ 


Mi 


co or-o ooo ON OTj-^tmi^u^o cn^-coooco eno^t-enN t^-r^o r-*o rnN TJ-O o 




, 3!1 dd V 


O r^ enoo moo ^f N M mo oo O N O M OO N O vnoo m r*- m M^ en *tO CO N ^^ rf N M ^ M 
O N oo M r^ N eno N >* en Th O en N n O I""- in O >noo oo en r* N O en O ^ ui co co OO oo ^ 
r^o I--comenN en-^-MO M O~t p "t*r>N enr^t^-co Noo *3-N O O^itntnen^Nd O "i 1 !-^ 



3 

C 

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M oo M M o eno enOOOOcnOO"TOO'~ | '1'QOOOOOOOOO "tO O ui O O O 
M M ^ t-i - o ^t" ^ ^^ o N cn N en tn m en en *! *o O O en O O en O en o O O en O N o o O 


en M en en ^ m en en r** en m M en M M en M M M M M en M 


JZ 

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oo t N O O O O O N oo O m !"* O oo t~-o co OO O M o O N M N m t^ M o O m in M en N 




QJ 

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too eni^en^O r"*-oo enO mO enfco mO MCO t-^enO P^M MCO OOO OM N Ooo M rfO 




N enoeno O tor^cnoo mO ^OOl^-r^O OO N N N encn^N mmmo mmmmenen 


c 
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EESEEESEEESEEEESEEEEEESSESESEEEEEEEEE 

N N mi^oenO i"^O MVO O r^enN mMoo O tr^-rfN menN O mino r^oo menN r-oo 




"^f 1 *^^^ | S ^"cf f ^2 ?^ 2 " "^^ " " " " "" "5 m m-m m^*^ 


Ended. 


o 
X 


s as. . sa- s s- - : : a. ss a, a. s~, a 


TTtO co 'O Noooooo Ou->mmoo O OOoo oi"--*oo Q moo O O mO O M inOoo O i^-rn 
eneno ^N O MmMmN enN NM M M NinenTN O eno N cnrfN M ^TJ-O ^i-N ^-M 


OenmN OM M OOO OM OO N N M OO ON enO M UIM ^-M t^.M r>.Mt^NO OM 






1 


^ m t^ O N m r> O ^O O O N en t O !"* oo OOOO^^MM en en ^ ^ m m m mo O O O 

"8* " X", 'JTv S*: - ~ "-- "". "."."- "."-'' "."."".T .".".T 


M fc S 


E 

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1 

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XXX. . XX. S S, S..- S- XX S. X. X. . 


O ^ "3" Q oo O N co oo oo O m m moo OOO oo O !"* too O m oo O O m O O M in Q co O I"* 


M ocnmN OM M OOO OM OO M N M OO ON eno" M*mM Tt-Mr^M*r^Ml^.NO* O 






0} 

Q 


N -finr-*ON mt^o*TO OO N cn^O r^ cooOOO"^M^-cn en t *f iin vn in m O O O 
MMMMMNNNN MMMMMMMMC4NNNNNNNNNNNC4NNNN 




un H ,o qalnN 


rnoi^oooOMNentrnor-cooOMNcntinor-oooOMNcntrnor-oooOM 


-t-frft-i-inu-jinmmmin mmmoooOOOOOOO r>-r*>r>r>-r^r^r^r^r*r^cooo 



w 

J 

M 

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h 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 199 



I \ 

^-O ^ 
CO 

O = 
o 

* 

W 

m 
H 



uny jo jaqoinN 






j^Duaioiyg [BuajDGg adtudAy 


co too eno wo t r-'O cnM M MOOO enco OO o r- en en r^ O oo r-co r- t M r-t-.r-.rn 


co oo Oco OOOco OOOOOOOr>OcoO in 1-. r*. co OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
O O O O O O O O OOOOOOOOOOO O O O O O OOOOO O O O O O O O O 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


*9,3ej3Ay 


ud uivv_j w ij KI o^e 1 ^ tO enuii-N tn t *^ O N in n m m *^ N N OO oo N N in t O M t r 


M M 


c 
I 


SOOmcoO^-wWNOt Omm^o O mtc OOOr-Oenmooenten 
M enco wmi-iNOOMrN.^tNMcom o NNO ooencienmr-.ciwi-i 
mmentMMMcn wi-iWHi-imo en tnd 


. ranra , w 


OmrnmmOOO'-'-i-cntminwinN n mOt OOOOcocoi-iwMOi-' 


II 


! llllllllllllllllllflllll HHItf |! !! 


' UO !H!W d BUM -jaaizAV 
o iunomy aSnjaAy paiuuiijs^ 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

r-.|-.r-r~-ooOOco enenM ^rj-O to O 6 O Oencnenmo O tnmOmi-> eN OOco t 
ttttenenenenentttentntr-co c o o o M M ooo oo mttnenenw CN w M 




pOtfdC 


.uiTOi^SESIns 


OOco enw totr-omco Oi- t>-O teno f*-O N oentcoco M mtcno Q Q O tr- 
tmenNt~-in-H MCO o Oco eno m M o co o t*-o en en o oo M MM owcoO O or-t 




wwtmenenentenw NCM NW en t to en mo tttttttenw M-^ N M M M 


t) rt c "sjnoR * z ja< * 3J 3 V 
t^K . J3< 1 suo[[eo uoinij^ 


co N t mo N in m en r* tr-oooco "HOCO tco N t r r o r Ooo r Ooo O too r o 


|l ^nso 


tw eM enene>* (nenenencnttttttententO entenentttenttenentten 

NNNWWNMWNWCSMNWNC^NMCSWNWNWNNNWCNWW 


J35BM. paijddy jo si 


ooooooooo r^oooo mm mo to o o Mt^OMQOOw o r-o r- r^ tco t 


M 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


i 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


i 


M co ** O O 

w ci n 


qAV 


UfafflflfMaSfMlfli Essl SlflUllMII 


,~, M 


tni^-r-co N mr-Noo t M mr-.M enM M o M M menoo r-enotr-'tr-'COooQo enoco 


O CM m co O t O O enco O *n O N m MOOOcoOMOoO"-H in eno O t^o O^^cim 
tvicoOf-'"^oor-coco OO M O M mo td M ooOOOOOOco O 1 - 1 OOMUIN 


pailddy 


t O ^^ t en e^ oo r o m en w o o M c^ M o N o u^ i co tooen*H t r M r- en o r *H w 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 



"3 

a 


EEEEEEEEEEEEEEScEEEESESEEEEESEEEESSEE 

8t-.mMOOOOOOOOOOONOOtOOOtOOoowoOOOOCcnOOoo 
OOMOOOOOOOOOOOOenOOOenOenOenOenOenmOenenOde^O 


5, , -5, * S.^-S-'S.^ 


1 




Bs.iiiii-ssijji.<iijji&ijss.ifjiiiijijiii 




V 

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SiiiiiiWiililiiiliisiiiiiiiiiiiiilii 


j=j=j=j=j3j5j:j=j=j=x:j:j:j=j3j5j:j3^:j=J3 j3j=j3jsj=j3j=j3J=j:j=j3J3J=J= 




c 
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EIEESSEIEI^ESEEEEE^EEEEEESESEEISEE^SEE 

N O CMO ent-< wmMM'H entwmOwO teno O OmwentenmttmO NmmO 


?>*o 5,'S4o "S ; f-'S.'S.'S.o? *'5- N f, c * ^^-'^^^So f-f.f.'S.'^^ 


Ended. 


b 

3 



s . s . s . s - s . s . s s . ss s' SB . . s - - s ss s ss SB' . SB' SB' . . . . s s 


&. < ~ *- CM ^ ^ b^b ^ a.^Oi<;Q< -< -- ^ CL< 
C> TJ- c^oo c*iw ^"0 r tO fl t'O O O ^e^Ooo -^-vO i-< O C^oo oooo ^i-tnc^rt-C'd c^oo Cl w 


^OO C^OO N<)*-r^l-'t-^NO v ^ )1 ~ t OWO l -*^*nd-O*NOW'-'t^WC N *i-(* : iciMt-'C>M 


d 

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"S'S ''' 'S'5'8 S'S'S 1 ?) ?>?>?>?)?>?." ^MM?- 


j a 




& 
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S S S S S S !?S JS'S? IS ?SSSS-S2 ? 


motenoo enw tO tO^^tO O O tenOco -$*G MO Oooooco tmtntOenenco M 


M too enco" OMrAMr^"o*OMo'NO'M C nindMONO'c^MenNOtenNWi-.o 


d 


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OOO r^r-r-r^cooococo OOOO O O M M M M M es M enentto f-r^-oo OO M en 

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'un>i jo jaqtnnx 


ent*nO r**co OO M N entmO roo OO >-< N entmO r>-co OO M N ent^no r-.oo 



2OO 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



6 



w 
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pa 
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uny jo jaqturi 



r-oo in TOO m r^. 



'39BJ3AV I H. r>- 



O co co oo OOOOcri OOOO O OOOOOOco moooooo 

ooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



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jojunocnv 



0000000000000000000000000000000000 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
OHI c*^oO r^oo t-^\oo tn^owj co-rOt^w i^coo OTO -TI-* C^M oco r>.rj-o c* 



OOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOO 
- co o N o r- r- i^oo 00 r- r^o ocooooooo Oco r^ -r -l- en o en r^o en enoo 



UO[[U) i.xi SIILIM; ) 
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mnoiay aS^jdA 



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ooaoOOOQenwcnenen u^o r~ t^o OO co O CO oo oo co CO oco r~ HH Q O O <- 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooa>oo 



J3JBAV P 3 !t d dV jo si 



jo tuns 



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M en m co en vn *H oo HI en w O en T '"* O T T !"" m m r-- O m O T co O O rn en N * O >" 
en co T Ooo r^ O w HI r^-O m w o co m oo O in r- r- ^" O co N ex w TJ to N oo en w r>> < 

c 1 * T oo O T O co r* r^mcOMOw O O r^* co co HI r^ oo Tenr^mor^O HI TOO r^( 

mOTM NCO Q w oco O w N oo HI ooo oenenw wo ^to H* ooo O uiw e. 
O Ooo T **"> ^* O O O oo O enO H T t^* O O HI (* r^ N <-> m ^ T en en * enco en ooo ** 
HI oooc* O mO- 1 enO en en >- THI H. ^ r^-wo WOO c* *nm N enoco o 

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a 
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N TO Or>.w menTr^f^-OHi c* ^t-i ~ m>-i TO TmmcnTenoo oco oco O"-<co 
HI O eno enTu"> - 1"Hi meno TTenw enN N mw w >nenO O enTT""N mmT 

^^^.q.i-'.i-g.C^.gi-^-g-C-G-g-C-C-C-g-C-CJjnJJSJJ-SJ^JJ-C'^-C' 1 
'^"o'cl'S J^O wcS^^ TO r; oco ^w ^ O ^mo T^oco ^or^ Teno^m^ g S 

-; s s s - s ; S : ^ S : s : s : s : S : S = : - : : s : S s ?! . 
<0:<^'^^4B*l4c o^ < P-" < ^ < ^ < 

moo moo O enenco oOco mmni c N TOO r^Oco woo w N mmOOO 
NenNOTOOweMWWO"^^J'"^OTHiNCen-mOOwmO 

H." HI" o ci ci >-i O o' T o" Ht OO r^ ci t^- w co" mo" O *-I T O w" oo w O HI w" T r^ O' <> 

s s s s s : s s s : s a" : s : s - s s : s : : : : : s : s s s : : ; 

o.' < t < ri <' < b < cC -5 c- < e- < - < * < 
M' H M o ri M O> o *T 6 M M oo' rieiriooi/>oo>-^-oc!coNOi-.N'r^ 
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B U 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 201 



TABLE No. 5. Continued. 

Jewell System. 


unajo^ou.nK 


T u-)O t co o 3 ft N tn T ^>O i^-co o O w t-i cn*-t u~>O "f^-oo O~O ** "N "cn*T"ino 


"j5-2'3 


*** -H-iv 


moo r*o to tn T co if) TO TO OO OO m t en * ro " -Jj .nto co ^ o c* ;/j 


o^ 3 So^ &%% ?:.? So- ??:? ? 0-% & %> : ; = 


Prescribed chemicals 3 o gr., rate 120 mil 
Prescribed chemicals 3.5 gr., rate 120 rait 
Prescribed chemicals 5.0 gr., rate 80 mil. 
Prescribed chemicals 4.0 gr., rate 140 mil. 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


M V 


cooo NO r^'^c^o N >~ r-N OO O mioco inO minu-tLnOTO NOO r^-co 


c 
!j 'um uiu}j\; 


51 R? ? I,H' i : i : : 2 : i |f i : : -- 




in T rf- "^O O COOoi-* ....^ ...Q... Q-j.-f 


. . . . W .... 


(D 1) 

- 


SCOOCCOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOOOQOOCOOOOQO 
OQOCOOOCOOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


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j9Ai>i ui spuog pspuadsns 
jo innuiuy OSKJ3AV psiHuiijsg 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

X) o o ""^ I** O i^-O m in in in in t/i in in in m <n tn en tn en tn en en tn O O O 

TOOcoOOOOOOOOOOOOOO inmcocococOcOO T*; 


P 3 !I 


rapnrnPj^wititni o- ^ * ^-o ? 5>S' 2, " ? "o ?, ? t a- - roR^NM^Soa.'^K^" 




J2 W US B) 

aaasa 


^ ^ c - 's.mof| frz jad ajoy 


OO O O O O N r~-o OO OH ONTj-enh-irJcoen'-T O OOO^'-'^NO'-'C' 




Ifj 


! J3d ,;^^ D 


co mo T TO Oco o T en mcc mQ Tfenr-.tnom en >no inO^-'NOO-r) 


*" O.O OOO Oco O OO T O O O O O O irioo O co O Oco Tu"ir"-l~'-in*^-in < - 


ribed chem cals 2.0 gr., rate 120 mil 
ribed chem cats 5.0 gr., rate 120 mil 
ribed chem cals 5.0 gr., rate 120 mil 
ribed chem cals 7.0 gr., rate 120 mil 
ribed chera cals 6.0 gr., rate 100 mil 


J3]|?A\ p9i]ddy jo si 

J3JKM 3JSM par qSB/V\ 3l|l 
JO Uing aip l[DII(M 3SB1U33J3J 


M N N N tn O O T N CO OOO h "NTOu">"3't-iON OO O O *o r-- O OCO O Wi 


u 

vT 
u 


o 

LI 

c 
q 

& 


a - p3J3W "^ 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOODOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


S - P3 , M 


ooooooootoooooooooooooooooooooooo 

*n -H O i- O 
e*^ M c 1 ) 


mi 


enmmco ini^oo N eniri-. o mr-r^-o OO r^-O >-ico tno Oco Ot- OOcc 
co >n m o O xn mTmO r^-mOO mTTTioinr^minT'OinO mTr^O i~*O ~1 


paja^ii j 


riOtnco 100 TO N Ncc r*.ao OO - O OO TTco OO N r-Tw i-. en O ir, c<- 
f^Oco entNco cnoo o* ooo w 1-1 ioi~* r^ TTCOO OO TO N Tinet c-)\oco 
c^w oOr^-^Oco TCON o "^r^TN Ococo r* CNO inr^OtnOO O N TU~ 




v < S jy 


'psifddy 


TOco u->inr^o r*Oco -TW O TOO mO O TO TO-tO NO r^-enr^Q 
Oi*~)i*">"">OO TCI moco N TCO mco w mo) O moOOCO ct tnenn enO e*~ 
TCI o>- H u~. u-> O r~ ui T in o O i~-N tnOO OO tn m tnco r^ tn O O O ***> i-^co 
r^o TCO tno u^-< Nr^co NW N - enw N M i-i*r>w Neno en i r* r N r-- 

en tn N N M _ 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


rt 

a 


E E E E S E B E E E S E B E E S E E E E E E B S E E E E 

O O^ C TinmcOuico o O OOco O >nO O O tnr^Oc/3"- O O"H O Oco ON 
J3 ji 


111 11 
88888 


I 




U It W V 4J 


E E d d d d d d d d d d d d d d a* d e d d s d a a a d s d d d e s 

wO tOO tnioenco w tnN O enw tnN OO "irfTN CJ N enwco i"--in>D^H O 






""> O O O 


oJ 
uo 


BEBEEEBEEBEEEEEEBESEEESEEBSEEEEEE 

O cneni^O i^-O Ooo Ttnco O o r~-r-^mO en T >-< ioco r^-oo enco mOooco c 


'rt'S'S'S'S 




escribed cherai 
escribed chemic 
escribed ctiemi 
escribed chemic 
escribed chemi 


WN^ " "-^ w MC-. co 


c 
o 

oj 

i 

o 


Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli 




0.0,0-0,0- 
bt bo bo 5i bo 


Ended. 


o 

X 


a : : s s s - - s.-.s si . : . s--- s . s- s 


< EL, < &,* < CL, <i (i^ < &,' < 

IH fO v '^ u ^O O O n TO O O me** N TTcnof OO ION "^ O inN TOO O m 
tnmM OtnenO inmN o w TcntnON I^M O Tttnw O O -' enN -N enu- 


O r^TO 1 -* to O w ci i*^i- M N tnu^Oco OO NO r^o eniooco N me* r^-en 


i E ll's 
3 8 S 8 8 

V 0> 4J U v 


V 
rt 

Q 


\nO r^ i^-co cococo OOOOOOOOOOOO O O O O N N N N encnencn-r* 

ClNNCNNONNNClNNNCMNNNNCHencnenenen 

o 


s ^ 


be be be ^c bib 


c 
i 

be 

& 


c 

3 

o 
1C 


si - - . s s s - . s - - s s . - - - x - - - s - s . 


O '-' tOtnmOO O tO O OU^N N Tttnw OOioMi- O>ON tOO O 
*~ ci eniri^. OentnO mmN o N tN tnC NO M O ttmN O O - enN Se' 
O O r^. T O " ""> O N mi-i *H N enw^Oco OO NO r^-O^-" en>oOco ci ir>c*r^ 


33333 
e Ill's 


<u v sj u u 




Q 


enmo r-r-cocococo OOOOOOOOOOOO O O O O N N N N enencnen 
O >. 


fii 




unji jo aaquinN 


TU^O r-co OO -" N entmo r-*co OO N entmo r-co OO M N cntioo 
in in \r> mmmoo^JOOOoOOO r^-r^r^r^r^-r^i^r*. r^ r^-oo co co co co co co 





^ jAv>y>^> a 



C'c'z'C'C S 



a 
i 
6 



. 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 5. Continued. 
Jewell System. 


uny ;o jgqtun^ 


T^M Vo "M 1. "o*T*tno l-So Vo ^- *N "co'r mo t^co o - N co T mo r^co O O - 


"rt"rt 

hou 

11 

r 

&M 
q q 


~N.-H.,-,MI- M we. NNNWNNNWNWNNNNNNNNNN 


xou^uja^uwBH^Av 


000000000 00 000000 0^0 00-00000000000 2^0 'o 


Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


. aa Ay 


TinooOOmmOOwO"* t** O n^^ coO ONCO O co no*nco r^O^oco ^-co 




i 






H 




Z. C3 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOQ 


O^co^OO^OO^^T^vnmmTT-O^OOcoTCOcococONcoOco^oo 


Prescribed chemicals 
} Prescribed chemicals 


J.AI>( ui spqog papuadsns 
jo junouiy a3ej3AV paiBiuivg 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOQO 




paijddy jo junouiy diiiuaAy 


C T co r^Ti^-TW tc/D mN O cow NCO comcococo Ococo r^TO N OO O QO 


mTcoco^tcOTTTto mo 1^ r- T T to ir, mo mTmcoTmmw>mcor^ N ^ 


** not! t-z jari a TV 

Scv J3d SUOITKy UOI[jtJ 

CO . w 


;_ ^ ^ - >j . '_f. ~ Z '' i ~ C '' -*- "' "' T -T ~i c i O c* i - to C "". C'C^ C "- cr, to tn "- 




gr., ioo mil. gals. s Prescribed chemicals 4.0 gr., 120 mil. gals. 
3 gr ., 120 mil. gals. * Prescribed chemicals 4.0 gr., ioo mil. gals. 


3 ^ 'ainui^ 

< 


WWW CM N CN N cOCOCOtOtOtOcONWW CON N N WNWNN COCOtONWNWWW 


jaiB^vv P a ![ddy jo si 
jo lung aqi qoiqM aSBiuaDWj 


O O to O O CO mo to O O i"*co nco r^-co O O co mOOcoco ^^ w Ttoo T O O w CO 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


B 


ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooonTooo 




OOOOOOOOOOOTOOOOOOOOOOtooOOOOOr^OONOco 


qAl 


COOO mminmO m o mmmmu-iTmTO u^r^co mco mo mmOOO Otoco ^- 


P-HH 


coTON N r^co- too coo cowcoOwOO-OOM o^O fOr^OOOco mino 


T T co m o * co co o O co ci oo o in co r N r** w ino i^coOO COOO toco ** o N r* 
N N T ^n tn r^* co co T co M to w co o N n O O T n o^ w o r* m T T N co T O co co O 


paqddy 


OO t^O comTO - -i r^r^-O r^-r^wco Oto^xi OOmr^co TN cotoToo O 
TOO r^cor--3 -rO COO co r- r^- m N -rmc^'-co N -! Ococo OO coO conO "-" 
w> co co in O M co r^ O r>O TOOTCOO mo N TOcO to O O co O cO oo O N T " f^ 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


1 


B S 8 8 B 8' B B g S S B 8 B' E E S 6 S S E E S E S S E E E e E E B B 8 

OOOOOOOOQi^OOt^OOO u " 1 TONNOcoOOOOOco tOO O "^ W O 
TOO OOWOOOTOOOTOOOTOTcococoTO COOO"-NTNCOC-1O 


O T m i*") in m in I^*O W) *+ O in 


I 




ESEEEEEESEEEEEESSEEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEE 

TOW OO co T W co m co i^. <nco w NM ft TNO w OOrJ-ON co in m TO ON O 




il. gals, 4 Prescribed chemicals 4.c 
il. gals. fl Prescribed chemicals 6. 


i 

o 

1 


t^coTcoco T'-CO r^-O N m>- o O COOC/DCC i-co cor^oo coi-^o ** co N -f moo 
N coO tow O >H TM T^ncocoi-t^nTOC* TN N O TTcoO O M 1-1 W O TN N 




c 
.2 

i 
i 

o 


s a s | a ^ a a g e E e s a 6^ e e B e e a i s i a e a s 8 a a a B | 




co--cOCOcOTNwNMi-ii-iHNTwm co 'r COOOOO i-mcON W - N co TO ^O 


Ended. 


3 
O 

9R 


a" ? "' a ??ss'?s a^assaaaa 


O wco O Tr-^O w o C uir-^Oco o mNOco o\mO O m m r\o OtOTu-ir^mTW 


M COO M - T m r^ W TO NdcodNOOON OWW OW OtONO^ 


1 Prescribed chemicals 6.0 gr., 120 m 
8 Prescribed chemicals 6.0 gr., 140 m 




d 

rt 

Q 


T T T T m "^ **"* *^ 1 O *o m m mO O O O OOO w N to m in O O O co O O O w to to 


O 




E 

6 

n 


3 


s" s' . , , s., . s,,.. a., sssaaa,, ass. a a , , . a" 


<;&<" < P-' < PU < &H" -ij &i <^ d." -<i eC < fti < 

coo wco O Tr-N w M o mr^Oco O mwOco omo O mmr^.\c OcoTmr^mT 


to M too"6 wo OM -. rf^r-'ON TO' w'o'coo'w" o 6 ON ONNOW OCON d 




U 

Q 


T T T T T ir in m m m >n >n in inO O O O OOO *-< N to <n nO O O co O O O N to 


O 4J 


". 


unjj )o jaqum>i 


r-co OO w toTmO l^co OO w d tOTmO t-cO OO ^ W cOTmO r-co OO M 


MM MMM M ^-^^ MNN 8 NN g8w8wW N NNNNWNNNN 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



203 



uny ju J3qmn\ 


N en t n o r*- co oo " M en t u" o t^-co oo M N tn-tu^o r^-co oo M w tn t "> o co o 


N Cl N C Cl N N C* N N N M N Ct N C) M N Cl N N C) Ct N N N N N N N C 1 ! Ct Cl W W N PI W 


XouapujM ,HU^ U oS^AV | ^o^^gg;ggggggg;g;g;4j,C;g;g.g;g;g ; gg;O;g;g ; g ; g;O;g;g,g ; c; 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


-, 8 c*y 


HHt^-^'^" l "'S. l s" fv 2|^8;??S > ^SZZ* 5?""8"*!J3R 


C 


R^^S.KE?^ '? g;'*" m ^ "^ > 0< ^ g; m ui ^> -*moo ; ; 


9 


Hpls 5 " 5 ^"s^ss "- 5 aRaffR-ssss j j j 


|| 


8OQOOQOOCQOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOQQQOOQCOOOOO 
COOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




JSAItf 

jo juno 


in spi|0 papu^dsn^ 


OQOQQQOOOOOOQQOQQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOC 
r^ O O O O OcocoOOO en OO C O enwo r-->noM or~~*Ocooo TIH o 0^*000 O 


LUy 33BJaAV pajEUNVd 


pa ,,d 


' 11O I1 B D JJ( ^ SUIKJ'J 

Tinuiniv J ^I'^l'M'iS 
ily j junoiuy sStfJSAV 


^"*2ri.;^*it^^2^^^44^^!;; 


v * ti 


w Mcn>-i enc3 tncn> 'Ci cnOn<io r^ en o i^- o o m co co co w> tn o ooooco M M oo wo 




l|| d?n&> 




5'S > S > i?S > ?S > S 1 S > S > S > n'?!S ) SS > S > ^3'?S > ?3'S'5 > ???S'n'????S > ??>?, < S 


Majujtt pai|ddv jo si 


M N r>-MO M -tOcoo o O u">o M r^oooo -to eni^-oococo NCO ooco CHM r--ooo enoen 


jo umg aUJ iptqM aJteiuaojaj 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 




OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOt^COOCOOOOOOOOoocoO 

O CO O O 


s -P- 


3 O HI en r*. co -tO O enoo NMM*t NO J^M 

cien N wr- M^tcnM M 


va 


SS ^<S 5 a S So S g 1 3> S S 8 ? S 2 K S S SS .. S R R 8 R^^ S S 5 


iu 


O O i*** O HI ^to O u^ en 't t~* OO O *< "T O -too O M r* rt O HI en t~* r^ -t O O O M in i^ O en 
-to M\O OO NO -tenO enoOO f*. O Ooo co N -t "t O *T O -too >-coOc)N>nON eno 
OOco O O N O O ui-tr^OO rtoo ON enOoo N enO O O"">""iO t-tO OOO r^^toen 


paijddv 


r-O OO Oco cnooo oenoo enNO en-tr^-o ON M o *noi^-ooco ocoo r-^r>.enM en 
enO O MCO O -tenr^O Oi^-oo r^-O Tt en r* -t H co enM enoooo too OO ON M M uiuiO /i 


inr-enenNtnenTtencncnMcoo N otwenN oo <nmntOM-.wMio O ^ O MMM 


HI M HI 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


Q 


tN O NenO enmOcoO enoO ? O -tr--OooenMO O O r^O ~ O O N O O>ON tO O 
entO O O enO O O O -t*nO enO enotno 'tO enM enO enO enenenM o enenenO M O 


\r> ID n o wi ino f> 1/1 O w^ N tnO *^> "* *^ ""> ""> *O O *o u*> 


P 




xn-tN O *tc* N OcnN -tooo r^-mo -t *t M N r^-o M w N -tc w r--O cnco wo intN ui 


i 


BSEEEEEEEEESEEEBBEBEEEEEESESEEEEE6EEEE 

vn tn O N N -t r^ O c* O u^ O ONO O r~*-*tO r-* M cnO MUION OO Mt^co to tO MCO 
u">enenO N cnentN M cuiO enN enmenenM enN O enO HI entO u->O O ttM tent 


entN N M enNN NN cir^entMO NCO N MO t CHN enO i^co r^ to o en r^- 


d 

o 

rt 
I 

o 


SEEEESSSSEEEEEEEEEESSESSEEEEEEESEEEEEE 


M O tcnent-i'"">enN t - wiu^mo HI iru">u")uitN mw t>oN M M entO O cnO *tO 


t^N * ^N "S 'S'ScS^t'S'S.'e^cS'S MO ta'e^N'e^OcScScS'to'S.'tf.M M 


Ended. 


3 
O 

X 


ass,, ssss, s, s s, s-.. as.,, a a, s., s. 


pi < pi < ai -< &i < &i i pi < pi < pi <" pi 

O i~" O en doo O tO^O H< vnt ui u^ o *oo en t *t r^* O r^r^^^o enttOO tn t co IH t 
intNO tuimu-)N O t"">u"N M tu^N M O O N O enmM MOioenM o enMN N N N 


NOcicntMci oNenooenNciN N entO ON U->N NO u^u^t*tO^enMO M N M 

MM M M HIM M MHI Hi M M M M 


V 


t ' u ~> "> *^ u^ O O t* J^ !* O O M N N en O !" co O OOOHiMencntu^OooooOMNNNN 


o 


M 3 .H. 

H-^ 


c 

t 


3 
O 

X 


s\ a* a - . a s s a . a" . s a , a ... as.,, a" s , s , , a 


NO r^OcnNco O tOnO M mtmmO >oO entti^O t^ t^ M o enttOO entco HI 


inN ON entM N ON enooenci N N Ncnto' ON U->N N o mmtto menM o M N 


Q 


entuiuiinmoo t^r^r-OO M N N eno r^-oo OO O O HI M cnentu^Ococo O M N N N 


O 

^ jb 




uny jo jaquinx 


N entmo t^-co oo HI N cntwiO r->co oo M c* entmo t^-oo oo w N cntmo r^.co o 

N N N N N N N N cncntntnenencnenenenttttttttttu-)u-ioininw-)>nir>tnu-) 



2 
a 
s 



* P 

<o a> 

in 

o m 

d ^ 
^ 5 



S 

M 
< 

H 



204 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



1 

ss 



r ~ 0) 

^J -4J 

O 

>, 

.x <n 



o 

^ 1 

w > 

u 


< 

H 



un>| (o j 



HHIHt-tMCIWWW 





M 



Bacteria prr Cu 

Centimeter. 



* UO !U!W J3< 1 S 1 J1 M ' 
o lutioujy ,>MI: i.i.\\ pa 



r-^oo 00 r*> o Oco o cowocoi--HiototHicoinor-owe-i oo oo w o 

Or-OOOOOOOOOOO co mr-^r^teocoorcoco en o t t O mmr^-oo t w 

OOOOOOOOOOO'OO O O OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

coinOr^comi-.or-coO>i"it OOtOwr^toOcoO'-'i-iccOOcotOOO co~o t w 

C* 1^ W W Hi ttr-.rOOH,COCyt >_ H. "^^NwlT^ 



co M t tnwMtowt 



888888888888 8888888888888888888888 

i-i - i >-^-" * "-- 



'UO[[RJ 49(1 S11LKJ0 

'Euiuin[v J aiHu_d|ns 
p3j|ddy J lunouiy aSeaaAy 



JSIEM pjtiddy )o si 
J31KM 31SK.M pu i|s"M W 
jo uing aiji ipufM 33i:]uaDJ3 ( [ 



Fee 



Q 



y 

CQ 



n^ jo j 



Ococo ni-i O -i coco 



8888888888888 

WNWwu^-ri-Mt^-^- -t3 r^ 



ooa>cocoloo* n nww 



O ininco OOW w o co O r^ co 

I I h- 

TO CO HI t tO W t 

?^co oo co r-cQ co co 



r^-c/jcc ton c*^u-)>ou^-tOco Occ to O !-* 



Oc 
O 





- O >- ~t co N /i 



i^-oo HI w tow m co r*- w o H> 
m to to M O Oco O O O co co w 



HI cocooo m o O oo r-*. w or-Ntoto trow H.CO H. r- 
OOOco HicocococococO r^-OOO O - i^-co HI 1-1 o t 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



OOOOOOOOOcomOO 



. O to tnoo r coco 



^ o to r* O co O . tn n HI cr-O w w ino 
OOcoOOOl^ o>ottIno ll 2to ( W < 2 



co w m tn w O w tco O 

M fT M M M M MHH 

O W OO t co m m O HI 
cottco t-1'inconin 



s 



EEEEEJEJEJEEE || j ^ H 8 J 1 1 8 * & I S ^ fi ' 8 " I |S 

O co O HI co O O co mOOOw C OWtwcocoOtOw^OHtc^OintnOOcoO* roO 
. , .... .*- . .... 

in m inof~~oco* J **^ n m o f> O n co OO HI f^. t t O moo inO 

M W HI CO HI I-H M <D MtftlHCQHIt HI t-tCOMCQ O CO HI M t M HI M 

- <D 

agasseaMasaaaglgaaaa'aaaaaalBBaaaaaaa 
&>EtlJirol^cilo ISSIIS&I^S^IS&SS^SIIlJ^ 

ja js j=j= js ^i j j= x j= j3 iBJ3&AjBjaji3MJ3JBjaMiaMMjajajajajajajQ 

WHI coco tttftot^-w r^cjrmti^tocot'-iooc;Ou^or''COOt^-coor^-r^ 

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E S 

oo t to o >n t HI oo o HI i * w o r^* co co o r^ t o to t HI tr^-o r^o N w ott>-* 
w w coti-i tttco tr^co rcot-^o tr-cot*twcow OO O r^-cor^cocoi^-coco 

a s . a a . s . sj . . a z s s . . a . a s a z - a a a a : ...... ; . 

ft.^< 0"^ ~ ti ^"<I flJC- <J &^P*^ ft^CU<J 

WO OO w HI Onco m co m r^ w co r^O O OO O vnO cot'nw >nw co co Oco r^> o O 

HI tcntON coWmw O COHI co tHiincocotcocomH- tcninw Wmtu-icot-. cow W 

w co co co t ^ *t *n r*co O OO t^coOniowcocotO r^ O O M to r^-co o HI w to 

WWWWWWWWWWWWCO WWWCOCOO , HiMHi-iHiWWWW 

o m 

O >, O J f 

CO .,_,,,,.,, OOqj---- c ' --,-.,-..-*.,. 

*~* A * 

s . a . s a . a . a , . a a : s - : a , a a a a , a a s s . - : , , , , 

pj" ^* c ^"'<'* &-*" <'" &' <" ni < Cu<i< fc^CU^ 

two OO HI HI c^mco mcnm mw ror^o OOOO mQ tot"^w mwco coOcor^-O 

w M tcncow cow nw O COHI cot>-i >ncocotcOcOvnt-. tcomww "ntmcOM cow 

e* w eo to co t t~t n r^oo o O co t r^co O O co^co to- >-. o OH. tor^oo O HC w 

WWWWWWWWWWWWW WWWWtOCOO Htn.Mi-.t-.NMW 

O in " - 

OOOOOOOOOOt^r^r^ -I^HH.HIHII--I-IHIHIWWWW 

WWWWWWWWWWWWW 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 205 



Western Gravity System. 


- iin}[ jo laquinx 


-f- in o r^. eo OO HI 01 en -J- m \O t oo OO HI ci (n rf in o f>. oo OO M C* en -?f ui o l^-co OO M 
w Ci W w CN N t^cncnenenenenencne^rtTj-rtTf^-Ttrt-rt-r^^-ioinu-iinininioinininoo 


A^PBH iii=.a a*v 


co i - \tj ~^- u tfjj <jj fit/,- r< O" 1 uu O 1 u~i uj !"- tjj r^-u^c^r^-mcooo r^co 1^*00 t~ r^ o r^ o O m r-- r^ o 

OOOC^C^C^OCTOOOOOOOOC^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO O O- 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


a 


M M 


= -mnuimsw 






cnmm<*- r^-t-ooo-ooo N '-O m MOO 
r*. -i-o en cnMOO-wr^. r>> m rj- r>.o 


oS 


88888888888888888888888888888888S8888 

two N *T-Tr^O O en V W O O O woo M OO N Tj-H- -rj-TtONoo Tfr^O O O -too oo oo or^ 
fJ-eni^-enN ^-mw wr-^ei tnt-i MO O Mininr-* M rf -i-co O O O enco oo oo o TJ- rj-oo M M 


UOl|[| W jad SUB ( I -J3JBAV 

j3Aiy in spqog papuddgng 
jo}imouiy aSiujAy paiKiuusy 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




KUiujrt[y jo 3iKijd[ng 
paf[dJy jo junouiy 3tM9.\y 


Z " 5 1 & S? >S M S ?>S ?! S S : : : : : : : : : S S S 5 " 5, R R. 




^i .2 J90< SU( MI K O UO !N!W 


M M M M 


j aad 133^ ai'qn^ 


cneno *1~ en O HI M O "t'n-^-f-jen-Ti-cn-'l-fO N mmcnM c* W M c^co i^-inoo N M -^-mw m 


MMM M MMWWM 


jo uing 3i[} ipiq.u s3i;iu3oja f j 


MMNenmw e^iw M M N M M cnenc* -3--tO r fT*tenenenincn^t-oo intntnN M N* 

M 


S 

ht. 

2 

3 

U 

rt 

"o 
u 

c 

a 


T-Msun 


^^^8o88o8mm8o8oo8oo828o8oo88oooo8^<gS 




-P-MU 


O o in M Tf t- O cnO Ooo M o O^w r~ OGO N OOoo HI o r^ o "TOOwo Onmw u~< 
O"^"tn*^*Tc/D O O^o OO ^ M OO t~*^- w O *^t" N r~ r^en^o en M w enr^no ^to O w o 




M-M 


Tj-uiCM O't-eneno O *t M w -feneno O enw M OO nmmw cntnmo OO OT-N M cnH* 




pDJSlJIjJ 


O ci inen-t-mor^enoo rte^i^oo enco M ooo MO f)rconineo OOtnm-1-r^.cnMO 
N "1" ~t" r^ M c*^O hH C*~H<OO r^c^cc tno N ^^^enin'O H M o f^ OM o r^-o r^-ooo ow r> 


MOO^c^mc, r^u.^-^co^^c, t. NNm 


*p3i[ddy 


OMWTj-mcOHit-HOMOOencn*1'*^'en r^> mOO t ~t m vn t^. t i O ~t ^ in M QO cnO r^-ino 
enminu->uir*r-*.*J-enN O t^-mrfO'^'OencncnOW r^ocn-fc* OO M N OOM M -j-mo 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


3 

Q 


SEEEEESSEESaaaSSaSEEEEEESSSESSSSSSSPFP 


HlM-1-MOMrl-MMMM M* 'H? M M* M^^? 


d 

8 




EEaEESEEEESEEEEEESEESEEEHSSaEeEESSEEEE 

c^ir^oo r^cooooo r^-ooo w mt~*o r^o r^ r^o OO ^000000 woo ^Ooo ncn m w d ^co oo 




j 

u 
C/) 


asaaaaasaaaaasassaaBSfasssaasaaaessBHa 

rr~*u~'mco -I-OQOO O N w HI r uoo *rt r> *.<t i> ^h r^ ^i.w rfoo O OO mo OO OO mm 

TCi OmOm^ w en^t t-* -rf O M *^- O cnc 1 ! en 'I- en M mrj-^l-M o ** HI M u-)tnenenw ^f 


E." o'-s.'S.-s ^-^^^S'S^-^-s-g s-s-s-s-g-s-g-s-s-s -s -s -s -g -s ^.-g 


g 

B 

a 
c 

5. 

O 


B B E s e e E E d a s a s s s s s s s s s s s e s s s B e s s s e e e e a s 

r^Tj-t^No w r^-minco -Tr^-co enw OM -to ^fcnoo menOOO -ro-to O*^oo M -tenen 
1/1 O -TCI ^^ d M cnTt'^me'iN O CN O) O N in-^-mo mcnmmO w d O rnenM Tj-inTt - '^-O 


^cSoo4m^^^f i ^f>m^^m^^^^^'S'S'S'S'M^'S-S-g -S 'g'S 1 g 1 .'g 1 


Ended. 


3 
O 


s :: s - s s s s s - s--- as- s s . ss^ s . s- ss-- ss- s s s 


OO O HI co O r- O w^*^O r-*-inoo O eninOM mco O m co M r- e*^ t^-O oo N >-> >^ O O m in o 
wm>-i M w M O OmNWNMW c^ *^-M m-^-enw mw WN rJ-TtminenM O OCM "t *-< 


HI M MM M 


dj 
S 

Q 




o c " X 




B 

a 

V 

a 





a : : - a . a s a s a - s--- a a - a a - a' a - a- a - a a' - - a a - s's 


O OO O M oo O r^o m-fO r^inco O en m o w moo O moo M l^-cnr^ooo w M M OO mtn 


ooooenw o HI oci o oenw TJ-N ON cnniMtno*NM OHI w-^-dc* McnocicnocJ 


MM M 


aj 
rt 

Q 




B^CS*-**-*.**^!**. .*>-* 


h 


*un^ jo j.T(]uii5s^ 


^mo r^oo OO HI N en-^fmo r^-oo OO HI w c^^t-mo r^co OO HI w cn-i-mo r*-oo OO HI 



2O6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



-un a;OJ3qUJ n N 


N c*~> -t- w> o I-- co OO M c* co -t w> o r-^co OO M N co^tino r^oo OO "- N co-tmo r^-oo 


Aouopsr,, ,.,. rf^y 




H>5"o- % S g% o r c- o S'&'S- 5 o % SS & S S S S%1^ & S < . C S. C . C & S S 


Hacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


"alfuj.TA v 


ilg^lHl^i^lfffffslsHilRH^illlWfflll 


c 
uniuiiui i\- 


E" 08 S'Si^'E P. ?*o -5<o'Kcfm?. g"S SitJo S^-2 5 !-7 Pi'S 1 In ?, S 


>_ tOV 1 O 


' ui n ui i x i. w 

y 4J 
.> s 


r-. c^ N^"CiO T ^"t^^3 | ~ l ^o^cr' r~- o c*^ OD co * o r^- co o l^ wo c*^ n -T in o w T f < '/"; 

l-i l-l t H HtM M-^H-IM 

ooo^~b"o"ooc;cc:ccococoocooo"oQ o^o "o" o c o o c c 
oooooogooooooc^ooooooooooocoooooooooo 


uoiinw uad suua '*w.\\ 
j3Ai>i u; spijos papuadsng 
jo lunonry aJ9vo&v paiEiniisg 


OOOOOOOOOO^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOinopOOOO 


* NNtnro 




vuiuiniv jo aiiMidmc 


^^ & ? ^^ ^-.2 cS S S ?, o ? c S 2 1 :S 5 KSc^SSSoo^^S^SSc? 






Average 
Actual Rate 

of 

Filtration 


5?3l,, 


^ OD *O ^ M N sO O OD N N f~i ~^ Q' u~> w^ c^) 'Xi to "TO Wl IH ^" O^ O c*^ O ^ >^> N *^ f^ N t*^ O U") 




jad laaj Di'qro 




rj -fu1t<1c-><1-Cl -TCJ -tM "vO -tco m-O OM^OOOOOO-^ O>co O O O>co C> O> OCO OO 




jajBAV palely josi 
jo lung aqi ipii[A\ a^uiuaojaj 


M r~ t^ CO vo co r^- O O O O* co c'l cicoco C^w c*^coco >n o *O co O O I^* CT* O f^- co O" 1 f*"l ~T w^ C^ 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


(j " iy ii 


QOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO-OQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
O o co ^n co "^ co \O m co m N \o co C CO O m OOco^wor^"^' m ^c C co co co N 1-1 


NMM N HHIHI-ll-lCII-IIHI-lNHMHm 


5 -W.* 


^\oo*n\cHeort-'^-ir))-iw*twN-i-coccocooNi-icoof)i-tHi-ir^nr^cor^co>-tr^ 




q-M 


M M o ^ w CON -^-co^ o c^o tnco o r^t^co con^-co r^\o r^cooco cot^w -< vnr^o 


Ml 


O NH rt-COQO OCO u"ir^u~ICO I-ICO fl O CO N W CO 1^1 ^ CO CO Q CO W m O ""> ^^ " Q N >~l Tf /l u> 


JS5*JSSH**s*5**gms|?SMsS 


. P3!1 ddv 


r^-tco uir^oooo N r^wo ONO Ttr-oo "-co ino -too ocoo O Ooooooo r^-oo N o ** 
-tcoo ONN-tO-" OO OcOO -to r^- O i^ co O O O OO ^oo Ooocc O N Or^O 


eocococococococoN N N co^tcomcoo w>o r^cON cocoOooo OOO OOr*-oo mm 




Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


i 

V 

Q 


a a M s a s s B B a a | B s B e B B e a a s a a a s a e s a d B a a 

8MO OcOOOr^tcoO coO"^Q cno OONOO OOO Ooo i--tOi-"inO -t OO 
coo coo coo O O uic coo coo co-tO cow cocoo cococococoN -rcoeoo tcoo co 


& f. -S-.-S "S>S "o m -S -& m-So S'S* -SS 


I 




EEEEEEEEEEEEE 

u-ioo uir^coo -* r^N O O wi-tTtr-cooO ON Ooocoooo m i-< CN CON w *^-N cow -j-u-> 




'> 

1 


COCOM u^r^M N MO -1 Ninoor-r^oQ e) r>o woooo i^r~-M M minooooo cocor^o 




M W M 


c 
o 

V 

S 


E E E E E'E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 

co wo N O t^-cooooo -tN O coeo-tO *tco "too MOO uicoo N cncc I-^ONOQO w^w "t 
O nco T>M w -tu^mw w o w N O O N Nmco3-cow>u->-tNCON w CON o O w -t 


^^^*ja^J^^^^^^J3J3^US^J343J3J3U3J3J3.fljO^^aj5jOXlrf3j3jajaja 


W M W W 


Ended. 


h 

3 
O 

a 


SSS?,SSS2SSSSSSSS. S\ SS- S S . S S. 2SS 


r>-o>^o oo o-to cow>oo M ocoo Ooo N N coomo cooo^cotnw N or^t~^co-too 


C>MC>HC>MOC>MC>MC>C.OC>0COOMC>C>a-0-OvC>CONO>NO 


OJ 

re 
Q 


Iinr^r^oooo OOO O w M -t^tmuio t-^r^co ON eotno r-^OO M N to^too rococo c> 




M S 


c" 

! 


u 

3 
o 


s s x s s s s s s s s s s s s s s . s . as. as', s" a . a . 


<jP-i<lCH^cIi<iii"<0H<jfr<j;c-<;p-i<!; ~ <JCLI *. ^ < CM <! 
O r""- O >n O OO OrtO co>nco M O coo O oo N N to O m O cO O O co 10 N N O !"" I s * co * 


Ow OM OM Ow O N OM OM ON O OMN O M COO w w i-t OOOOOOCON ON 

M ^< W M M W M 


4) 

rt 
Q 


tnmi->.r^coQO OOO O w IH ^rt^ino r>.r>-co ON conO t^-OO w N eo-rtOO rococo 


O 


2 a> - - - - --------------.- -rt--------------- 


un>{ jo jaquin^ 


N co-t>no r^-co oo w w co-tmo r-oo OO M N co-tno r^oo OQM N co-tmo i^oo 





a 
s 



a 

j 

P3 

<; 
H 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 207 



w i. 

I 
< tn 
H <D 

5 



unajoaaqmnN 


g858o > ?o"0 < 8S > 2S2:?;r:?'e::'2 > 8S85'3- M Nt n* .not-co 


. AnmmHWB u M . v 


||||f|I^ilIlllliiI15|i|| Uil SiiS 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


. 33EJMV 


O OO O O Q v n u ">O > iOMOi 10 O> O C" 1 O oo O O*co u^ *t-co >H^ WNCOCO coO^cO'^ 1 
rrO O co r^ m >o in MM MMCN MNNirio* cOO^fW WMMM 


C 

UJ 






8OOOOOOOOQOQOOOOOQQOOQOQOQ OOOO QQQQ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOO OOOO 


o lunotuy 3^BJ9AV paiBUJjisg 


OOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOQO OOOO OOOO 


? uTv 9 jX'.]p 




"^ i S j?d"uo* " 6 um V , 


"SSZX'ZS'ZKSSSSSSSZ'ZZSZS^SZZ. S~<S,S,S S^SfT 


M 


* 3 , 


-,3M&> 


a ocOoor^o-i-M Ocoincoor^u^M Mr^vnco*1-co O-r-O UICOMO oeoco o^ 


O co OCO NOONNweoNcococo*TtnxnvninxnTt-tNM-r NWMO mootr- 




jaiEM psfiddy jo si 
o uing aqj ipjqM 33tnu.JOJ3 t i 


N H *j- O" 1 ^~t""1"cOM M ''j'cor^coco^H o ^~co r^O O *f>O M NO^OM ^nOr^O 
^ ^O M CO O" 1 O M O O^ to ^ r* fOO OWN rt* H< ir> K< O ^J" s K-< MM 

HI M 


1 

o 

X 

3 

u 





"8 
B 

c 


s 


, -p,i B un 


OOOOOOi-OOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOO 
CMOcoo ^"tO O u"> u^ O^O f^ O 'i' O O O u^ CO ^rco OOOO OOOO 
-feOMOM CNT MMM MMN 


3 

-p3J35!|^ 


O O O Q* COCO O' N O OD O *T ^ t" O^CO O W O* M O CO N M M u">O M to r^ M O M 
_ _ _ ,_( CO CO CO N d Cl C4 M CO M to C4 M C4 COO CO MM t-t M M M 

M 


qM 


COMC* -j-wOco -t N to io\o O w to O^ M r-co O O O^cc ^J-M-T MVOCOO MCOON 


M 


*_* 


*t f~^ M O O O M M O^coCT'COcoco^O IOHH coco^io O u^O ^J cocor-M \& in in *t 


NWHI M M COMM*O*^MOMMWW O ^? CO s CT 1 CO t^ O CO M 

0} rt~ M M 


, 3! ,d dv 


oo w meocsoo to incow O'-r^M r-^OO N coiooooo t"*-^-^ -.co O^coO coo >oio 


tO -t MM 
0) 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


Q 


BBaasg*sa|aag||^|fias^aa| 2 J E_ J E B ^ a a 


co r^ iri to o co u^ co r* M co L. r^- o^ u^ M *n co O M 


en 


BaasaasaaaHfaaasaaaaagsga g E E a a a a a" a 

mOcOT)oOW>^io'-'ioO-tM-tOONr^\oOOTfO*1' J O CO ^ N COOMM 
C4 


u 

u 
U 
C/l 


SESESEEBEEEEEEEEEESSSEEEEE EEEE SESE 


3 o m 2. 8 S m t v > 2 5> 5. 5? ? S o"8 8 * m o" S S NMN>T, <^omN 


m M H- 


c 
_o 

u 
Q. 

O 


E E E S E E E S E E E S S S S S E E E E E E E S E |EE EEEE 




J3 JB J= J3 J= J= J= J= J3 J= J2 J= .C J3 J3 J= J= X: J= J3 JS J3 J3 JS JS J= J3 J3 J= J3 X 


CO MM 


Ended. 


3 


SSS S ~ ~. 7. ^ ~, ~, ~ . - 7.7. ~ 7. 7. 


|g^-g%Vl l 5;$IV25AR"!f8^RSSS&5D o^ om a-^S* 


MOMC,M^<^MM N ^0a.O^MM^OO^^- OOOO ^MCOO^ 


rt 

Q 


MCMWWNNW MMMMMMNNCMCOCO WCOCOCT' 
O jrt - O 

t C - " - rV- - ..-..Oj^W^g., 


"A A Q ^"^ 


c 
M 

n 


3 
O 

I 


sss. s.. s.. s.. s s. s. s... s. ss s s 


i&waiiiiswVssSssiVsiVBaffaJ ksra 5-?^ 


M o MM O.OMM^ ,OM ^O-tJ-^M M ^00 0> OOOO OOM^ 


1 


o o 

O V ^ \r> . Q^ . 


A A MQ ^A 


uny jo jaqmn^r 





zo8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



un HJ o q ton N 


O O M M o -"t in o t^-co O O M N o t in O r^ oo O O M N o -t m O r- co OO M CM o-tm 
MMMMMMMMMMCMCMNWNNNWNOOOOOOOOOO-t-t-t*t*t-t 


x^paHn.HWfi.ftu.Av 


O O O co UIM o* r^-M M m O ow Oco OO co CM rj-co r-*. N NO omM mO O M MO moo 


~f O u~i O m n OO O Oco O mco co r^co r^ mor^-coco r^oo -tM inoo i^^Ooo f^*-tO *~ 


O 

3 

a 'Z 

i 


^v 


r--OO C^M w O-tco *tmo M r^-O ~tO mow r-co mOO C O n t m co Noo OOOO 

M 


m 


N O TO O O ^tO r^.inTOO -O -OO ONNOW omMOwr^r-. cnco m N 
O M m o m "too r^ in O co O O * O r- OO in m tn rj- N O H> -f O !" in o O M 
M MM ^tOM-'a-N'f OO -O'NO O d M -1-OMMTtM ONC4 




t r*^ co O OOoo oo r^o O OO -co M o mmco t^O O m O oo >n I-H t-i co O I s * O 
MMNONCOTj-OtnONOOO -t-*. ^N OO^ON NOMCOmcOtcomcor^ 


.t 


888888 8888888888888S8888888888888888 

co m o O O O ~t o en N o Oco o N -t^t-tmco -to Oco ococcco r^-O N -tr*o r^ot"^ 


j3Ai>j ui spuog papuddsng 
jo junoiu'v ajnuaAY pajKumsg 


SOOmOQ OOO *^Oco "to ^t -t t^- i^* O O Ooo co O OO OMQOOOOOOOOO 
O T TN N O r^N *T~t-nm\c3 en O OOO -tO O M M CM ococo OT r** O O o O -t o co 


"uoiiB*) jad SUIEJ*") 
'Euiuiniy jo ajyudiny 
p.'lld.l v jo lunouiy a^Kj^Ay 


or-rtl--coOo-3-o-i--tOcQO>-i oOcoocomo-tMNt^. -mor- 
oooNcooomoinocoor^Owr^. MOr^NcoomNOOi^-- MQO 


jf^'S Ja su llt UO H1!W 


w Oco McoO r^-mcoco OO O - O OMOCO O **OO r^r^-o M *f w moooo N r*tM 




jad 133.il 3|qn3 


moot O-m Tt -t O r*. N O O O t-*O TMIAM ON Mi^.oOW mry; -fin OCO M N 


CO co N co 1^. in OO CO O M O rt O O Oco OO H.oOMWOoOOMMWNONO-r 

M M M a m ot M M M A n n n M M*M M M ci n a et ft M M M a i n a n c n d 


J3 ' B M 31SB^ put qs^M gqi 
[o tung 31 q^iqw aJSujuaoja^ 


t cocn oo w o r^r^or^otr^MO mo r^o-rtco ooc* N o Ococo MOO m-t 

M MMM MMNMMl-lMMM M M M M M 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 




ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




00 1 co" v R o?" c?o^co MCO co oo'So'^to P- o?o M JtP. w t oco w m^-c? 




WM 


M o oco ot^o NO OM oo r^ N oo o n N o co N tn N o m M co 1 1"** M w -t r^ N r^ao 


nt^O 0-0 vO 1^0-0 ulrHnOvO ulrtui^-^ui-l-TtnOO m rf>o r^-O 00-0 **> r^co 


-P~, M 


>n ^t O t~* O *t co M f -t r^ *^t OO O CO M in r^co O t O tO O en m M ^ N O m T -t O ^ - 
^t co o -t O O O en O m o N r~- o in r^ co N in N oo O I s * O m co M O co m o N en HI M 1-4 
in CM o M o OO ^1* O r~- coo 'tmN O OO Oco r^MO TM enco r** r^ O N r~- o r^- *-> co m 


M mm*m "*2 MN 


p3T[ddy 


g.O;o m t^TO O N r^mo M M r^ m too o OO O r~ w N to tOMnninmo r^O 


|'S^Ha*goSf f*n5fS"|Sl^^SSS"f.^ 


Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


>, 

rt 
v 

Q 


SEEESSEEESEESeggESSSEESggSBSESSEeEEeE 


TO'TO mcM enM min-t-tOOO cno O N o OO oow O OO omorf-O OO *t~< 


OO t mO OmMCnMMMMM M M M MMM O M IH W M OOMTf 


1 




|iij ^8 J ^'8 il^S ^8 BJ tgS B 8 1 8 f i^g B ^8^8 O B ^ 




tt 

u 
C 


lslIIII!IIIIIIIIIIo E IIIIIIIIIillllllI 


XJ=J=Xj=j=j=j=j:j=j:xij=x:j=j=^:j=x:xij=j:j:j=x:j:j:j=j=j=J=-cJ=J=J5J=J= 




I 

1 


EESEEEEEEEeSBeEESEEEEESEEEEeEESEEEEEE 


OO^^Ntt^t"iOOMttONtMNmO-TONtnONO'0-ONtOO 


J=XJ3J2J=J3XJ=j:^J3-CJ=J2J=x:j=J=.c.J=J=J=.CJSJ=J=J=.C.e.E.C.C.C.G 


Ended. 


3 
O 


s.. ssss sss. sssss.. s a s, . s. s, sss 


?!?j?s^8^RRR2S JRKSB j^g s~ ?>?;??? ?ssa 2 -s 


OMOMOr 1 oooo-oo-^ov N o^a. N c>o.OMO-c; :: <>ao 


OJ 


MI-l^Ofl^MMtofnor^ooaoOOOMnNNtnl-uimt^r^ooOOi-ii-i-l-or^N 


.". 

CO c .^ 


A ta 


c 

rt 






3 
O 


a ?sss s^sss'ss's as a' ss'ss's 


tco or^oco MCOO O 1 ^ w CM co CM -to r--NOeo -tmO ON -tocn-tN o'^mN o 


O O HI O M O en OOO O O O O O N O N OM N ON OOOM O O N N M O en N O N 

MMM Mi-iMM MM MM 


4J 
OJ 


OM ^-i-vO 'tr^.M M otmo rococo O O C w w w c^ tn ^ m m r>. r>oo OO M M *to r^ 


a * 


2, fa 


OnjJ JO J.lquin^ 


O O M N en TJ- inO t^co O O ** N O t inO t^* CO O O *-i N O *t *nO r^co O O >~ N en T m 





* -5 

s >> 

^ (0 

SJ 

^a <B 

^ >- 

I S 

tO 01 



w c 

ffl 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



209 



" un H jo j 



w \rt 



r^oo 



o O 



O 



ia per C 
ntimeter 



Bac 



e 

H 






oo 



w tnQ u^cn^ noo O 
>- O cno eno M nr^ 
M w enencnw M *- "> 



O 
co 



O O I s "* Q 

- 



encnwooo cnw w 



<U !H!W J3< * 

J3Aiy III Spl| 

jo ninuuiy 3 ^ 



os papurxtsng 
iM3A y psjunius 



\rt M -i-mrt n 
- 



"> N O m O ^n en tnoo O O n *" "* l - 1 MOOOO 

^ o m r-> M ooor^r^oo N N w N w M M M M 

Ct OOON WOO inmuiminininintn 



^MMMMOOOONNNO in 

& c a ass 2.fia a '?> ^ 

rcncn't'tTf^-cnenenen 



v a 

" -H 



S > 

'Z U3 

-3 ^ 

:! 

d 
a 

3 c 

n 

^^ 
o 

5 



e 



SJ no H ^ a^d ^y ^ ^^^ ^^^N ( nN l o2'^oOMc7M'MgMM^M 1 SS 1 S 1 ^--^; 



S-5 o 2 
> a ^ 



JO 



Q 



Tim 



ocqn3 



SHJW pun IISKM aqj 

l[I l(.'H[A\ 3^E1U3DJ3 C 



cnmrnenN w OO r->or^eno r^om-tni^-nininr^ninoo r^r^r^-o ininoooo 



ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



rj-enocoo 



M M t-*.o N or~ 



M o m ^ M cnw*o w O N ten<nNoo ^moo en 

o^no OO ui*ti-H -t-cno M MCC ot^o N Ooo xn 



c* O Nino N *HVO MenmO Q O tn-tMMC4r^coO cnONmOr-O Ocor^-co Ommen 
-tco -tcoo 'tO "tr^-O inm^to M Ooo NOD -to Oco N enOO OO Oo entnooo 



O MO vnr^-r -t-tco I-.GO moenco O Oco r-^Tf-tOOooo r^oor^-oo M UIM 'j-co -to 
r-*O inO r^mn-inO N r-O mM *-. OOMCO rj-Oco t^-w cnO inr^OOO cnmO mOO 



EEEEHESEESEEBSSEEeSSEEeSESeSSSSSSESE-E 

QOQ3>-<QMCOOOOOOOOOOOMQOOnQOQOOOOOQNQOOO 
OcnOOenoenONtnOenOOOOOOOOOOOOOOinOOOOOOOOOO 



N OO O moo m -t O O OO O r-^O r^-Or^OOcooo ocococo r^r*r^.co r^-tw *nm- 







ESESEEESSSSSEEESSSEEEEEEEEESEESEEEEE 

tnmQOO -to O en m o O >-O O en mco M cnO ^tN t-enO -to N en m N M -t r-o 

mw o enM -to N -t -t en N (N o mw w N -^ -t M M ^tcn'tttcn-t't^t-t-t't-t-t 



SESEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEScEEaESE 

r^moo mmo tr^'oo OM o r^cnN r-oo wo N oo MOO N moO cnomo N M 
M T)-M u-)N o m-tO O mcn-tN -t T t r t-t | nO N enO mQ >nO <nmO O minmO O 



cnN cn-tenm't*t i r}--t*t>nOOO 



mOoo 



mnm>oo 



moo OO OO N 



2 S S S ! S S : : S : S : S : S - 3S 53 ; S S - S - S : 55 : 

^fe^fc'^fe *^' fc*^"cC"^pJ"^C4" ^ (X ^ 

i O O OQ O t--O N Oco OOco enOOco ON r-r^O OO N *tm- 



N O OOOOON enoM o-- 



M -foNco' enoenOenN Mr^tnOenOenoeno 



j -tr^-Oenr^ooOOMM 
l^tS';-; ;;:--;-- 






^SS ::;:: S : SSSSSS :: S : S - 55 : S - 5S 55 : SS : S : S ; 
oo mOO OO OO NinO O OQ O r* O Oco OOao cnoOco ow r-r^O OO 

C^fOMMMMOl-HtC4MMO(NOincnMMC ; -tMC4MMMMMMMNMMM 



ON O OOOOON enOM O*M ONO M -TONCO enocnocne* M renomocnOen 



-tr>-O enr^OO O O M M enen*t^J'Tf-tininininOOOO 



OOOOO 
' 



ny jo j 



2IO 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 





un H ,o Jaqt un N 


co T **"> O I s * co O^ O w N co T *o \o r- co O^O wMcoT*nor--co s O "" o* co T *n o r~- 


tn* en 




jrapanu.um.a.x^v 




i'i 
g g 

"rt rt 
u u 

w u 

q o 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Cenlimeter. 


' 3 v 


r^ M m O O*-co r-* M w M MMMNWNWMMMMWrHinM MWCOCO M 

M M W M M 


a 

3 * * 

I 


:oo &SK<g K-o 8 5-< 2"SS, "?,8 JOO^INN N S5" 




a 


n to O *o O O w> *nco O T 0" 1 co O !"* w co M \o NMr^OOOO^wiOO *f> O co 


u -_' 

Is 


8OOQQQOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOQOQ 
OOOOOOQOOOOQCOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOOOOO 


gals. 4 Prescribed chemical 
gals. * Prescribed chemicals 


TABLE No. 5. Continued. 
Western Pressure System. 


jaAiy' ui spijos papuadsng 
jo Vunouiy S^BJ^AV painiuiisjj 


TO O co co co coo TNco *n r>.cc M M co co O u-> co T T w w r- T O m vn O OO n in 


M M 


"euiumiv J 35 B Md[ng 
pai[ddv J lunouiy aiftJaAy 


S 5 ' S." - - : 5 S & M S" S " S> " So 5-co" 2 "5 




Average 
Actual Rate 
of 

Filtration. 


''Sdl^u'Snw 


^ M CO U"l w O T N W S?*CO CM *^ T r* 1 * T W COQO O WVH O^OcOWC? 1 O N W ui ^- t^. 1^. M W 




jad J33J Diqn3 


t->.cor-"'Ti"*w^*-*"CQ O^TO uiei M VH woo O comO^Noo O i~^TO O coo mr*>l^O O> 


^ ^ M vO iDtnTtoiniooocc COCON CON cow w N TcoTcoTTTr-.r-.l-.oo u-m 


3 Prescribed chemicals 2.0 gr.. rate.ioo mil 
7 Prescribed chemicals 3.0 gr., rate 120 mil 




jajB^VV P 3 !lddy J s ! 
jo uing 3ij) ipii(M aSEjuaDasj 


CON O " m O r^-O fOO^O^O TTTO xnTu^TO Tu^O COW N W coTcow O Tec 


\ 



u 

3 

s 

u 

L! 

u 


*o 

M 

U 

q 
1 

9 

Ol 


^ -PMyun 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOO.OOOOOOOOO 


| 


oo M TuiO OO TCO COM N Wcoo r>->nr>N ITIMCO O^coO W N TM OO u^oo r*-O 




U.SUM 


O^TW COOO coTN minO COO^t^O *nM coTM M MO wr-COOccco vnoo COcocO 
too l~^r^O r>r-TW ** OM r>.u-tw mO^O NOD O*co TCOW coco co n T co tr w N O 1 


,,,n, 


O O W W Tcoco O*w Tncow trOO r^O COO N CON tnr^cocow MO O'U^Wcoco 

vQ r^O M r*oo O> ^ O *n r^ T *^ co O f^O O*<OF^ mo mO O coO tnTco too C^wco 

r^ ^- N co co to co TO T co co O O^^OOOO w t^-oo r*M o^ O 1 n O ^ co M u"> co CJ 




,3 !ldOV 


^ ir> t~^ COO CO co O W mO O ^ in 1^* s *^ OO co co O" 1 O*O O^ T CO CO O TO T M ir> O CC 
W W O CO CO O O u"> ^" O^ T O 1 w CO M T vn T M M T co T !" O 1 *n co co W T *n M O 1 c*" 
N COCOO-OCO M rO COt^M M C>W TTO O*CO r^O TvoTWCO M COTTCOCO COCO 

rTN cocococoTO TCOCO M o NOOO in r-^o r^o M o*O *oo M cowo cow 


1 

Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


Q 


O Q r^- r- T O >-> r^> O "* O O co O *n OQOOOOQcOMu^coOOC^O^'OTC 


2 Prescribed chemicals 1.5 gr., rate 100 mil. eals 
' Prescribed chemicals 2.0 gr., rate 120 mil. gals 


1 


BEeEEEEeeeE^SSESESE^eSSaESE^Ee^ESIE 


** 




1 


EEEEEEEEEEEEEeEESEESSEEEEEEEEESEEEE 

O CT*O Ni^.TOOWOTMWOOONnOWCO r-O co w utmoOco Q N TCOT 
M intnuiTO COTW UIM comw uiinO TO W O COCOM N UIM TTcoO TO COW 




C 
_0 

1 
I 

O 


EEEEESEESEEeEEEEEEEEEEEEESEEEEEESEE 

M o^r^-co t-^o r^-o^o u->cooo COTCT-OOO Tcoo-r-o TO mr-.inr^o w r--o oco M 
COWM OO w TO coO w TH coO w M O w cowmmcocoN comO^O Ow TT 


co incoTTTconO mco r^-N TO N W N WO COM M N WO I--TO O TCOu^coW 


Ended. 


3 
O 


ssssssss. s,. s s. . ass. sssss... s. s. . s. 


utTco coTOco TOO *rO comTO^r^'-' TeoOO O O^mr-O r-r^co mwco O M 


&& 

s'i 
88 


O^W O^M O'N O^N W O^O^CT'O^M TC>O^O O COTTT'OO'>O^O'O^CON W OM COin 


V 

1 


M M M M N N coeoTO i^r-i""cc o^-* w w N COTT">U->QQ o wo r^co o^o^O'O^O' 


>, 
co rt ,'C_ ^-.-,- rt , ..,,,.. .,.-,.,.- 


V V 




1 Prescribed chemicals i.o gr., 
4 Prescribed chemicals 1.5 gr., 


c 
be 

V 


g 


s. ssassss, s,, a a, , sss, sasaa... s- a-, s 


T *n TCO co T O co TOO TO CO *n T C^ r^ >^ T co O O O O^ *n r* O l"* r^>co m w co C 


OO-N ON- ON 0> M (j. rf * O> jj * **tf g ^.-* 4 ^ **<** Ag * 


d 

1 


Q M M M M w N cocoTO r*-r>r*co s - M N w coTT^omoo O wo r-*co o^O^O^C 
O 1 C ^ 


M s- ^ s 


unajo^qtunN 


coTuiO r-oo O^O - M COT^OO r^co O^Q *^ W cOTmO I^*co O^O ** w coTu*>O r 



f> V> a 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 211 



*' 



a 



10 

o 

^ 

w 

Ml 

M 
<! 
H 



Western Pressure System. 


' tin M J J->quinx 


co ^ O M w co *^t" "") O r~- 00 CT^O M w co 4 m o r^-co o^O M N co ^ m o P* Op O^ O M 


>. * Prescribed chemical 3.0 gr., rate 140 mil. gals. 

5. 


A^mmMmAuMv 


r*-r^O m O *t-*^^ - t i '"t r*-''i - *^^o*nCT*u"ao O O O O comminr-r^f-^r-r-*.r-*.o 


ggg^gggggggggggg^&S^ggigiggggggggggg 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 


c 
oinuiiuiiv 


MO O O^ O co OO m i"** in o m in r--> i/~) M o O O r~*> OO C"> in ui O W OO MUIU->O 
O^coONMWWu^ininOM^wa^Ol^wr^cowwcocOcoTi-Tt-j-rtcocou- 


E 


S :::::::::: P. ::::.:::::: 2 ': ::::;.;;; 


I| 


888888888888888888888888888888 


OOCCUIMOO-OOSCT-O-O-O-CT- 0-00 OOOOOOOOOOWN-OOO-OUITl-TfTfNNM 




j3Ai}j UL spijog papuadsng 


SSK K S S JHHSSSSSSSSSSS ^S^SSSSSSSSS'^ 


uom;r) jod sunu-Q 
"euituniv J 3li:ild|ntj 
p3i|ddy jo lunoiuy aSuaaAv 


m t** O !"* *^ ^o (7* OOO r""O O to wo s w w coo ^J" r^ w GO t~* M w r** ^t" w o o co 

co w oo o O"> Tt~ o o r- vr> *^ M iir> w oo ^ co o o owcow ^j"Ow MO ^COCOMWCJ 


M 


Average 

Actual Rate 
of 


'^slo^^W 






2 , 

J J3d JD3J ojqiO 


m4moomi^m^o^r;d6da^om^^mt;4co4cow4com4 


* Prescribed chemical 4.0 gr., rate 120 mil. gal 
7 Prescribed chemical 6.ogr., rate 100 mil. gal 




' J3 ' e M P 3 !lddv J s ! 
jo uing sip ipiqM sSKiuao-iaj 


w w 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


p-'3ii9 u n 

w , 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 




i~^co O r^ w o *n H" "^ r--o r^oooocoo O O o^>-^ Oco o^ i^ o r w r^-oo O o O M oo 


M-M 


co Ooo M Tj-coO^r-^M -rj-o cow cocow O O u">oo u->o mr^ioo^'1-r^M Tfr^w T^ r- 


,., M 


co O^ r~* O O r^> W r^ 1^- M O co O co O co O i"*- O^O o w v> coo >~> O t^ ui 100 ^O oo 




pgijddv 


r^O*OO ^co cowco *^IDCO r^oo M t~ ^~ t^co M ^^fOOOO mco o^co coo^w r^ 
in u"i ^~ co u"^ ^f m co O w w O O m ^ r* M ID N WO co w co OOO *n "^ coo co co u^ 
coc^co M wco rococo N M coO't-Mco MOO O r-o too Tj-r^.w r>oo r-^o r-*-mt--c> 




Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


X 

"oJ 

q 


E B E S S B B B B B B B B E E B E E E E S E S E B E B E S E E E E B 

5 O 7 CO *j* O O 00 M O n V r^ O m tn i-< O *n W u^ uio ^coo M w xn \no Tf ^"oo 


en Jin 

I a 
8 8 

V V 

2 S 


1 




ESSEEEEBeEESSSSSEEEEEEEEEESSSEEEEE 

\ft ^ in co u^co O\ Q^ O ^* *^J" co ^"M O^M O N coOW in M eo ^ ^ w to W to M M w M 




4* 

u 

1 


EESESEESEEEeESESEEEEESSSSSEESEESEE 


. gals. 3 Prescribed chemical 7. 
, gals. * Prescribed chemical 4. 


riM >"0 Tt-uiH T)-*M C m uiTt^^)->nm N C^^M -i-m^-nTt-n^in 


MC^IMMMHIM WMO^ IH HI MM MMM 


1 

3 
B 

0. 

O 


EEEEESSSSSEESEEEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEEES 

in o M r~^ m oo 1/100 f> tf 10 M r*. ^^CON'^'-INC'IHM /> NCO inh^o CT-t^O ^ CO M c 

*^~ C^ M M U^ O C4 ^1 ^1 NMN^fNO'^OOMTj-T^C'l W> Tj* O ^" i/1 O "^ *^> *^1 ^ O O 


J3 J= J3 J3 J3 ^3 X! J5 J5 J= J3 J3 J2 J3 J3 J3 .a J3 J3 J5 J3 J= J3 


W 


Ended. 


u! 

3 
O 


S. S S, JS S. . . . S S S 


OO M MOoo coOi tn O^O M xno ^f^o r*. ^ o^ n m co m co O r^-oo O in O t- w O^ 


OOMNCOOcoOMWNO^O t^- OOOMWcO^OCOCriMWCO \fi OOO Q^o'^< M MW 

M MMM MMM MM MMM 


rate 120 mi 
rate 140 mi 


oJ 

1 


^Q\OOOOOOOOMMMMMMWWWWWWWWWNWWWWWWCOCO 
N W COCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 


M l ^ 


1 Prescribed chemical 5.0 gr., 
6 Prescribed chemical 4.ogr., 


i 

be 
m 


3 
O 

ac 


s . . s s . s s . . . , s s s 


M O O M M o co co O^ m O^O M mo *^ M o *"* ^t* Q 1 in m co in co O !>>co O *n O t^- W 

^- w in M ^^J'Tj-M I-H M too cow in O cO ^~ co \n N MI/IO mw i-^ coo MO MinO 


inco M W COO co O M w W CT'O r-*>oo O w W CO *J"O oo O M w co mO oo C* O M i-i M 


e 

a 


W W W COCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 


"S - 


un H , OJ , q u,n N 


MMNWWNWWNWWW CO COCOCOCOtOCOCOCOCO'^ - '^t"^t''^'* r 1"'^l"'^'^t"*TTt'min 



212 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Western Pressure System. 


un a ,oqmn N 


d c"~j -t w> O r~> co OO HI ci c*i -t vn o r--co OO -' w co -f in o r^ co OO HI o co *t >n 


t 


-.ou^an^a^v 


OO *t to CO *t 'to I^-OWCOO CM co -t W -tOco r> w Oco m t-i -t in in -t to w O O 


gggggggggggggggS; g*g g g g g^ gggggggggg 


Bacteria per Cubic 

Centimeter 


Mrii;j.>.\ y 


S.lSZZZZKZ^oSZSSZ^ZZ&ZSXZ^^ZZ? 


uinmiui [\; 
E 








sS 


8OOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
oooooo^oo^ojoooop^ooo^ooooooooooooooo 




hemical 4.0 gr., rate 100 mil. gals. a Prescribed chemical 6.0 gr., rate 100 mil. gals. 8 Prescribed chemical 4.0 gr., rate 120 m 
hemical 4.0 gr.. rate 140 mil. gals. s Prescribed chemical 6.0 gr., rate 140 mil. gals. 


uo !U i W jpd SJJK ( I MJMKAY 


c c* ci c ct ci u-)u-u-)irinuio cocOc^tocotniNai^ococococococooooococo 






UOIIKQ J^d SUJKJO 
psilddy jo lunoiuy aSnjaAy 


-tco r^-H" l^-irt-tHico HI\O t^tocoo "^ r^-co Oco u~> ci o -t m co m co i ci co u-, to o 
co O O t~" o o u^ co *t o co co o -t ci iDh-i -tco Qcoo O r^- 10 HI eo't'Hi oco cj i~-o 


4- m nn 4 m t^m m n n nnm t( 4 4 4-W> w n>AN 4 444t^ 


|| | "S?U*O'TO"^ K 






Ifj 


J3d , 3 ;r^o 


co O o t^- 1^- -to O tow O or---r->.wo c*co oc o -to -t M -ttowcoco w r^-co 


-t-l--ttoto-t'^-t-t-tc^totor^o r^-oo r-noo oo ooo oo^o ooo o 




jo tiing aqi qDjqM aSniuaDJ3 ( i 


OHI o w C r^-coo Ocooo TttO"tuic>co N HI COOHT r^cooooo ci i-^o -tOco 
i i 


Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


, -P-x.uun 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 




r^o oo uirj-coHi mco 'toco HI r^nico HI Hicoocor>.r^.ocoNcooco o w oco 


1-M 


lllllM5HlIIflllf5llIffIISIfIII 


P^ M 


r^ *t -too U^M M too-tTj-r^- -to WNHiM'OwOco ooo coo o u"j o oco in w HI 

in -to "t N co u"i \Q co O "^ O HI O r^-O O to O O *f~> O I"*- HI \o i^ CM HI r- co >o coo O 


. 


pailddy 


cot-.oc^O O O^"N MO NOOO i^-ci IM w>i~i rococo w mi-i i-^o^Ow wo moo 
too -tcor^toco occ r^tooo -t-tc*co OOO wooco -t^^cocN -tco ci wo r^ 
oo r^ ino co w HI M *t *t -t ci r^ o t^- *t o r^> *t r^ co Oco cocow">ino o oo o o -t 




Periods of Time. Hours and Minutes. 


rt 

Q 


^O -tO Qr-*-w>OO w "^O rfcot-tO OO -tmvnO OminQ O OO Oinw 
OOOOOwOWOHiOOHi.-iOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOHiH. 

^3 JS 
co O 


i 




EESEEESEEEEEEEEEEEESESEEeSEEEEEEEE 

O -tO CO*tM -tW -tW C4W C4 COCO-tiOWO CI OO O -ttO-tO t^-O CI Hiinn. Q 




u 


EESEESEEEEEESEEEEEESEEEEEEEEEESEEE 

coo CI O O w "t r^ r^- Oco O HI O Ot^Hi OtoOOO O -tr^-ci O u~>co co O M O O 
mTtco^-O W M w cotOM w O CO^tM o -tHi -^-comcoO lotOM O "t^ni "tc^iO 


J2 J= J3 X J3 JS J= J3 ^3 X J= J3 X J3 X J^ -C J2 X3 XI J3 XI J= J= X! J= J3 




1 

rt 

t 

a 
O 


EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE 

coOW to-tfOco OH. HI Oco cneotOHiO M O>-<co o cico OO O wco mOO M O 


.C 4= X: J3 JZ J3 X 42 JT .C X! J3 45 JI J3 -C J= X J3 JS J3 J2 J= J= X J3 X! X! J= J2 




Ended, 


3 
O 

X 


S5 5^5 5 5 "^ S S 


OO W mOOW O HI -tOfOOO toco -t u^ -t H. coco ui co w toco O co co O in HI HI 


eo*tmo rOO HI wOcowO OW cooco MW HI co-tO w M OO W HI OHtHi 




1 Prescribed 
4 Prescribed t 


1 


O u 


-s, 


c 


I 


s si. .. ss. - s. . s. - - - a. - - - a. . . si. s. 


OOO W UlOOCI M *t O CO O O tOCO -tUl-^-Hi COCO nCON COCO OCO COOu">Hi 


W cortmOf^mO O HI H>\OCOW\O OW tooco MW M tO*tOW HI OOW M OHI 

MH> M MM M- M H H 


<u" 

2 






un>i jo jaqiunu 


N co*tino r-co OO M w cn-t'no l^-co OO HI w co -t "^ O i-*co OO M w co-tm 



COMPOSITION OF OHIO RIVER WATER AFTER PURIFICATION. 



213 



Western Pressure System. 


unfl jo jsqcunN 


o l-oo OO MN eo -t in O I"" oo OQ>-co-tnO r-oo OO M N eo -t >n O r-- co OO M w to 


i-.M.-.MMMMMMMMMMMNNWWWWWWNNWWWWNNNNNNWWWN 


x,p arai . M8 ,a 8 *Av 




CO OOOOOOOOOO Ooo O O O O O Oco O O O O O O I^-co Oco COCO t-*-OO"tOC 


Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 




-tMCOWOWOONt 


C 




U3 








W. '.' 

** cS 

0- 


SQOQOOQOOOOOQOQQQgOOQQQQQQOOOQOOOOOQOQ 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOO 


M o>00 Oco coo coo CO tot-t too co M M -tco M O Ol^coor-Or-Ococo-tN co 




jsAiji ui spin's papusdsng 
joiunouiy aJJnjjAy p,>ji:uins',i 


NNC-iOOOOr-.r-OOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOO 
CO CO CO O O O O T N O W Cl in O I"-- C1 N M r* CO CO COO O Cl ~t"O OcO "tO O flcOCOOO 


U)|pM) .1.5(1 SUIIUf) 

-Ruioiniv jo ar:u.<l| n S 
p3il<Jdy jo iimoiuy dJnjaAV 


i-* r r> O i~~- co M t^- o i"** N *^t t"* co oo r* r o co co N N i** N r^ co *"$ r- *t N o N M co oo co in oo co 

N to M O to *t to t^ inoo O O *ti/>M coOOM mw N O "t oo Tf H-" o oo u~iOi Cl cO"tO OO m 




V 

V ft 
fcj 


j -sinn^ Vz jad aaoy 


CO-ttONN NNtOtOW N Tf-tMNOl COCOCOP4 COCOW NtO-ttWWNtONMtOW NM 






O O to t^ O M ci O o o o *t r** M N o to too w oo oo o O *o o oo to *o H r^. tooo r *t r^ M t~. 


OMCO rococo t^-oco r-^r^o Oooco r^-cooococooooococo i^-co OO rco r^-oo r^r^-co 1^*000 




JSIE^\\ pa|[ddy jo si 
;o umg aqi qaiqM aaeiusojaj 


r^ t^O "to N COM M mO "teo*tM N M O ^noor^O coo ON r** ** N O to M m O r* tn w O 




Quantities of Water. Cubic Feet. 


0! 


oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 


& -P^JL.J 


wo ON ci M -tNOco O~oo mmoo toco OIONO MCOCO to*ttoQ M r>-O cnO toOr>-o 


M W N N 


1-AV 


oo tn -to oot^.MnMr^N M o^oo m r- o O to w oo -too O tn in r- OO w coco co to M & M tn 


^tnco^tOTt^tcO-t-ttntnrMn^o^iotntototnOOOOtotnOtoOO^^^^^O 


*-* 


oo HI ro oo O woo *t r- moo oo N i^ N O O in mo O t T tr^Ooo O to M 100 too O *o 
ro r- co eo M r^oo ON o w Trcomcoooo t r--N M r^-tno M to-t-to mcoooo oo 


, 3!lddV 


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2I 4 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Western Pressure System. 


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SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



CHAPTER IX. 



SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL DATA UPON THE EFFICIENCY AND ELEMENTS OF COST 
OF PURIFICATION, BY THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS, OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER, DI- 
VIDED INTO TWENTY PERIODS, ACCORDING TO THE CHARACTER OF THE UNPURIFIED 
WATER ; TOGETHER WITH A DISCUSSION OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT 
FEATURES. 



BEFORE the presentation of a summary of 
the principal data obtained during 1895-6 
upon the efficiency and the elements of 
cost of the purification of the Ohio River 
water, in twenty periods, according to 
the character of the unpurified water, there 
will be given as a matter of record some tabu- 
lations showing the character of the purified 
water by days. For a detailed account of the 
composition of the Ohio River water by days, 
and of the amount of sulphate of alumina ap- 
plied to the river water, reference is made to 
Chapters I and II, respectively. The ques- 
tion of the decomposition of the sulphate of 
alumina and its removal from the water was 
discussed carefully in Chapter III. 

Table No. I. 

The first set ot tables in this chapter con- 
tains a daily statement of the appearance of 
the water after purification by the respective 
systems. As already explained the appear- 
ance of the filtered water is designated by five 
degrees of clearness, which may be described 
briefly as follows: 

Degree No. i signifies a brilliant water. 

Degree No. 2 signifies a clear water. 

Degree No. 3 signifies a slightly turbid 
water. 

Degree No. 4 signifies a turbid water. 

Degree No. 5 signifies a very turbid water. 

The first three degrees of clearness refer in 
each case to an appearance of the water 
which is satisfactory. It is doubtful if the con- 
sumers would distinguish between these three 
degrees of clearness unless their attention 



were directed to the matter. Degrees Nos. 4 
and 5 would be noted by the consumers, but 
it is to be stated that the adjectives used 
above have only a comparative value in rela- 
tion to a brilliant water. 

In both cases the turbidity would be very 
slight when compared with the river water 
before purification. 

Degree No. 4 refers to an appearance 
which would not be unsatisfactory for short 
periods if the water were of a proper charac- 
ter in all other particulars. Degree No. 5 
was objectionable both in its direct and in- 
direct bearings, and was seldom noted for 
periods of long duration. 

Table No. 2. 

In the second set of tables are recorded the 
percentages of removal from the river water, 
by the respective systems, of the carbon- 
aceous and nitrogenous organic matter, as 
indicated by the oxygen consumed and the 
nitrogen in the form of albuminoid ammonia, 
respectively. As a matter of convenience the 
total amount of nitrogen in the form of al- 
buminoid ammonia in the river water, and 
the percentage of the total amount which was 
found to be undissolved in the water, are 
given. It will be obsereved that the total 
amount of nitrogeneous organic matter in 
the filtered water was less than the amount 
dissolved in the river water before purification. 

Table No. j. 

The third set of tables contains a record of 
the daily average number of bacteria per cubic 



2l6 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



centimeter in the Ohio River water before 
and after purification by the respective sys- 
tems, and also the daily average bacterial 
efficiency of each system. Bacterial efficiency 
means the percentage which the difference in 
the numbers of bacteria in the water before 
and after purification is of the number of bac- 
teria originally present in the river water. 

Table No. 4. 

In the next set of tables are presented the 
principal data obtained during the investiga- 
tions with regard to the efficiency and cost of 
purification by this method. As stated at the 
outset of this chapter the results are divided 
into twenty periods, according to the charac- 
ter of the unpurified river water. This was 
necessitated by the marked variations in the 
composition of the river water, affecting both 
the efficiency and the cost of purification; and 
also by the varying conditions under which 
the respective systems were operated. 

The official investigations of the several 
systems of purification by the method in ques- 
tion began on Oct. 21, 1895. For a number 
of weeks after that time the investigations 
were less exhaustive than they were during 
the later portion of the period when the 
laboratory work had been more fully planned 
to meet the requirements of the problem. 
The Warren System began operations during 
the latter half of September. On October 21 
the operators of this system contemplated 
some modifications in its construction. Ow- 
ing to the remarkably low stage of the river 
at that time it was desirable for the Water 
Company to obtain data with this character 
of water. 

Accordingly they were officially requested 
to postpone their changes for a short time and 
operate the system with varied amounts of 
sulphate of alumina from day to day. This 
they consented to do, but protested against 
the merits of their system being judged from 
operations preceding their contemplated 
changes. 

Operation of the Jewell System began 
early in July, 1895, and was said to have been 
continued nearly every day up to October 21, 
the commencement of the official tests. 

The installation of the Western Systems 



did not begin until early in November, and it 
was not until December 23 that they were 
ready for regular official inspection. Explana- 
tion has already been given of the lengthy 
delays in these systems after about April I. 
From March 24 to 30 and April 27 to June 
6 all systems were requested by the Water 
Company to be operated twenty-four hours 
per day, excepting Sundays during the latter 
period. Otherwise the systems were operated 
about 8.5 hours per day (irom 9 A.M. until 
5.30 P.M.). 

A brief account is next given of the several 
periods into which the investigations are di- 
vided according to the grade of the river 
water and other conditions of operation. 

Outline of the Periods into which the Investiga- 
tions are Divided. 

Period No. i. This period extended from 
Oct. 21 to Nov. 25, 1895. It represents the 
last portion of the most severe and extended 
drought which had been noted for many 
years. With the low stage of the river there 
was an absence, comparatively speaking, of 
suspended organic and mineral matters in the 
river water; the amounts of dissolved organic 
and mineral matter were abnormally high; 
and the bacteria, while comparatively few in 
number, contained an unusually large propor- 
tion of species coming from the sewage of 
cities situated farther up in the valley. 

The Jewell System was the only one that 
was in service during the full period. The 
Warren System was in service for a consider- 
able portion of the time, but under the con- 
ditions stated above; while the installation of 
the Western Systems was not completed. 

Period No. 2. This period extended from 
Nov. 25 to Dec. 24. During this time light 
rains fell. The water varied somewhat in 
character. At times the indications of sewage 
pollution were more marked than during the 
first period. The water became more muddy, 
and the chlorine and alkalinity decreased in 
a marked degree toward the end, although 
this did not follow in the case of the other 
soluble constituents. In fact there was an 
increase in some of them, notably in the ni- 
trogen as free ammonia. With the rains the 
number of bacteria increased considerably. 

The Warren and Jewell systems were in 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF i8 9i - 9 6. 



217 



regular service during this period, but the 
Western Systems did not begin operation un- 
til it was practically ended. 

Period No. j. This period extended from 
Dec. 24, 1895, to Jan. 13, 1896. It repre- 
sents the rising, maximum and falling stage 
of the river after the first heavy storm of the 
season. From this time to the close of the 
tests the chief variation in the river water was 
the amount of suspended matter which it con- 
tained. These amounts will be noted in the 
tables. 

All four systems were in service. 

Period No. 4. This period extended from 
Jan. 13 to 27, 1896. It represents a fairly 
uniform grade of the river water from the fall 
of the preceding rise to the beginning of the 
next subsequent one. 

All four systems were in service during the 
greater part of the time. The sand layer of 
the Warren System was changed on Jan. 23. 

Period No. 5. This period extended from 
Jan. 27 to Feb. 6, and represents a rising 
stage of the river and increasing amounts of 
suspended matter in the river water. 

For unavoidable reasons the Western 
Systems were out of service on Jan. 29 and 
30. 

On Feb. i the scope of the investigations 
was enlarged. The sand layer of the Jewell 
System was changed on this date. 

Period No. 6. This period extended from 
Feb. 6 to 13, and represents the height of a 
rise in the river when of course the suspended 
matter in the water was unusually high in 
amount. 

From Feb. 8 until about April i lime was 
applied to the river water in the case of the 
Jewell System. 

All four systems were in service, but the 
Warren System was delayed from time to 
time by changes in the devices for the intro- 
duction of wash-water beneath the sand layer. 

Period No. 7. This period extended from 
Feb. 13 to 27, and represents a falling stage 
of the river with decreasing amounts of sus- 
pended matter in the river water. 

The most noteworthy features in the op- 
eration of the several systems, speaking in 
general terms, were the irregular results 
along several lines, particularly those of bac- 
terial efficiency and application of chemicals. 



Period No-. 8. This period extended from 
Feb. 27 to March 20, and represents com- 
paratively clear water between successive rises. 

All of the systems were quite regularly in 
service. On March 16 the operators of the 
respective systems were officially asked to 
comply with certain requests, leading to more 
regular and more efficient results of purifica- 
tion. On Feb. 29 a new and separate pipe 
for the supply of river water was connected 
with the Western Systems. 

Period No. p. This period included March 
20 and 21, and represents very muddy water 
at the beginning of an extended freshet. 

The Western Gravity System went out of 
service owing to its failure to purify enough 
water to serve for washing its own sand 
layer. ; 

Period No. 10. This period extended from 
March 23 to 30, and represents a muddy con- 
dition of the water and a high stage of the 
river. The suspended matter for the most 
part had a red color, however, and was much 
coarser than was noted under other condi- 
tions. 

From March 24, 9.00 A.M., to March 30, 
5.30 P.M., the systems were operated con- 
tinuously, with the exception of the Western 
Gravity System, which was not operated at all. 

Period No. II. This period extended from 
March 30 to April 7, and represents a muddy 
water and falling stage of the river. Rains 
caused the water to vary considerably in char- 
acter. 

. All systems except the Western Gravity 
System were in service. 

On April 3 the representatives of the re- 
spective systems were officially requested to 
get in readiness to operate, upon 48 hours' 
notice, their systems night and day for such 
periods as the Water Company deemed ad- 
visable. 

Period No. 12. This period extended from 
April 7 to 27, and represents a falling stage of 
the river and comparatively clear water. The 
end of this period marked the beginning of 
a six weeks' period of continuous operation 
during each week from 9.00 A.M. on Monday 
to 4 P.M. on Saturday. 

This period was chiefly characterized by re- 
pairs, following the official communications 
of March 16 and April 3, as noted above. 



2l8 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



In the Warren System the sand layer was 
changed. This caused a delay from April 13 
to 20. The Jewell System was in regular ser- 
vice. Neither of the Western Systems was 
operated at all during this period. 

Period No. zj. This period extended from 
April 27 to May 18, and represents a period 
of comparatively clear water in the middle of 
a protracted drought. It also represents the 
first half of the six weeks' period of continu- 
ous operation. 

The Warren and Jewell systems were regu- 
larly in service. From May 7 until the close 
of the period the Western Pressure System was 
in regular operation. At about the same date 
the repairs of the Western Gravity System 
were also completed. It was operated un- 
officially on several occasions, but it was not 
put in official operation until after the Water 
Company requested an official explanation of 
the reason of its withdrawal from the tests. 
This request was made during the last week 
in June. During the intervening period this 
system was left out of consideration by all 
parties so far as active operations were con- 
cerned. 

Period No. 14. This period extended from 
May-i8 to 28, during the time of continuous 
operation, and represented the last portion of 
the comparatively clear water, before the end 
of the long drought. During this period the 
conditions of operation, with regard to rate 
of filtration and amount of applied sulphate of 
alumina, were prescribed by the Water Com- 
pany as shown in table No. 4 of the last chap- 
ter. 

No unusual delays occurred in the case of 
the Warren, Jewell, and Western Pressure 
systems, except as occasioned by the pre- 
scribed conditions. 

Period No. 75. This period extended from 
May 28 to June 3, and represents a rapidly 
rising stage of river when the suspended mat- 
ter was in part exceedingly fine, as noted in 
Chapter I. 

Great difficulty in securing coagula- 
tion, even with large amounts of sulphate of 
alumina, was experienced.. Conditions of 
continuous operations, as above outlined, 
were prescribed by the Water Company so 
far as it was practicable. 

Period No. 16. This period extended from 



June 3 to 9, and represents the last of the con- 
tinuous operations for 24 hours per day; and 
also the last of the prescribed conditions. 
The water was muddy but rather variable in 
character. 

The Warren, Jewell, and Western Pressure 
systems were in operation without any seri- 
ous delays. 

Period No. //. This period extended from 
June 9 to July i, and represents three con- 
secutive minor rises of the river. The period 
closed with the beginning of a marked rise 
which caused the water to become very 
muddy. 

The Warren, Jewell,- and Western Pressure 
systems were regularly in operation with the 
exception of three days in the case of the 
Warren System. This delay was caused by 
repairs of a break in the agitator machinery. 

Period No. 18. This period extended from 
July i to 6, and represents very rapidly rising 
and falling stages of the river. Heavy rains 
fell on the local watershed and the water be- 
came very muddy. The rise quickly subsided, 
and the period ended at the beginning of a 
minor rise. 

During this period the remodeled Western 
Gravity System was put in operation accord- 
ing to a proposition offered by the Western 
Filter Company. It was agreed that for the 
balance of the investigations the pressure sys- 
tem was to be operated on the first four days 
of each week, and the gravity on the last two 
days. This proposition was made in reply to 
a request from the Water Company for an 
official explanation of the fact that at that 
time the Western Gravity System had been 
withdrawn from the tests for a period of more 
than three months. The communication re- 
ceived from the Western Filter Company, 
under date of June 26, 1896, is as follows: 

' The difficulties experienced in the earlier 
part of the filter tests occasioned by running 
both our filters on the same main with the 
other filters, which we hoped to remedy by 
the changes made in April, have been but par- 
tially removed. We find now after several 
unofficial trial runs that, owing to wide varia- 
tions in the pressure due to changes in ve- 
locity in a 4-inch main, brought about by 
opening and closing either outlet, it is liable 
to impair seriously the results of our work to 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



219 



run both filters at the same time. We have 
therefore continued the service of our pres- 
sure filter, beliving that we obtained better 
results, at least mechanically, from that por- 
tion of our plant. 

" \\ e are prepared, however, if it be desir- 
able for the information of the Water Com- 
pany, to run our gravity filter at such inter- 
vals and for such periods as may be deemed 
advisable, discontinuing the service of our 
pressure filter during such periods." 

Operations of all systems were suspended 
on July 4, and on July 4 and 5 the sand layer 
of the Jewell System was changed. 

Period No. iy. This period extended from 
July 6 to 22, and represents a fairly uniform 
stage of the river with comparatively muddy 
water. Occasional rains on the local water- 
shed caused several minor rises, but none of 
any large amount or extended duration. 

The Jewell System was operated with 
higher amounts of sulphate of alumina than 
the condition of the water warranted, and 
consequently the effluent of this system was 
frequently acid. 

The Warren System was in regular opera- 
tion, and the Western Systems were operated 
under the arrangement outlined above. 

Period No. 20. This period extended from . 
July 22 to the close of the investigations on 
Aug. i. It represents the most marked rise 
noted during the investigations, and through- 
out this period the river water contained sus- 
pended solids ranging from 805 to 3347 parts 
per million. 

Great difficulty was experienced by all the 
systems in handling this water, owing to the 
frequent washings of the sand layer necessi- 
tated by the large amounts of mud in the 
water after the short subsidence and before 
filtration. Relatively high amounts of sul- 
phate of alumina were used with the view of 
securing satisfactory coagulation. 

During this period the operation of the sys- 
tems was delayed in a number of instances in 
order that the Water Company might make a 
number of tests and observations of an engin- 
eering nature. A very slight excess of sul- 
phate of alumina above the amount capable 
of decomposition by the river water was ap- 
plied during the majority of the period in the 
case of the Jewell System. Complications of 



a greater or less degree arose in the case of 
the Warren System, beginning about July 22, 
from the passage of sludge from the settling 
basin on to the filter. This was remedied on 
July 27 by cleaning the settling basin. 

Just how far this complication affected the 
results of this system is difficult to say. But 
it doubtless caused the sand layer to be 
washed at abnormally frequent intervals and 
caused a greater or less increase in the 
amount of applied sulphate of alumina, and 
something of a decrease in bacterial ''effi- 
ciency. 

Explanation of the Data presented in Table 

No. 4, and of the Methods of 

Commutation thereof. 

This table comprises all the qantitative and 
the leading qualitative data, arranged and 
compiled for each of the twenty periods into 
which, as has already been explained, the re- 
sults of the investigations are divided. Maxi- 
mum and minimum results during the periods 
were obtained by inspection of the records 
presented in Table No. 5 of Chapter VIII. 

The exact significance of all expressions 
not explained here was presented in Chapter 
VIII. The data presented in this table, and 
the methods of averaging employed, are as 
follows: 

Periods of Time. The average length of 
time per run included in the periods of 
" operation," " service," and " wash " are ex- 
pressed in hours and hundredths of hours. 

These results were obtained in each case 
by dividing the total respective times by the 
number of runs included in the period. 

Quantities of Water. The average quanti- 
ties of water per run are given in cubic feet. 
These were all computed by dividing the re- 
spective total quantities for the period by the 
number of runs included in the period. In all 
computations for this table the actual quanti- 
ties registered by the meters were used. 

Percentage which the Sum of the Wash and 
Waste Water ivas of the Applied Water. 
These results were obtained by dividing the 
total quantity of wash and waste water for the 
period by the total quantity of applied water. 

Aetna! Rate of Filtration. The average 
actual rate of filtration in cubic feet per min- 



220 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUJSV1LLE. 



ute was determined by dividing the total 
quantity of water registered by the filtered- 
water meter by the total period of service. 
These results are also given in million gal- 
lons per acre per twenty-four hours by multi- 
plication of the rates in cubic feet per minute 
by the proper constants. 

Average Net Rate of Filtration. These re- 
sults were obtained by dividing the difference 
between the quantity of applied water and the 
quantity of wash and waste water by the 
period of operation, using in all cases the 
totals for the period. The rates in million 
gallons per acre per twenty-four hours were 
obtained from these rates by the use of the 
proper constants. 

Net Quantity of Filtered Water per Run in 
Million Gallons per Acre. These results were 
obtained by deducting the quantity of wash 
and waste water from the quantity of the ap- 
plied water, and multiplying the results by the 
proper constant value of i cubic foot in mil- 
lion gallons per acre. Averages were ob- 
tained by using total quantities for the period. 
Estimated Suspended Solids in River Water. 
Under this head are given the maximum and 
the minimum average amounts of suspended 
solids estimated for the different runs, and 
the average amount for the entire period. 
The averages were obtained by multiplying 
the average solids for each run by the quan- 
tity of applied water on that run, and dividing 
the sum of these products by the total quan- 
tity of applied water for the period. 

Grains of Applied Sulphate of Alumina per 
Gallon of Applied Water. The maximum and 
minimum amounts averaged for any run 
during the period are given, and also the 
weighted averages for the period. The latter 
were obtained in the same manner as the 
average suspended solids. 

Average Grains of Applied Sulphate of 
Alumina per Gallon of Net Filtered Water. 
These results were obtained by dividing the 
amounts of sulphate of alumina per gallon 
of applied water by the percentages which the 
net filtered water was of the applied water, 
using in both cases averages for the period. 

Degree of Clearness. The maximum, mini- 
mum and average degrees of clearness are 
given. The average degree given in each 
case is the sum of degrees recorded as aver- 



ages for each run divided by the number of 
runs. 

Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter in River 
ITatcr. The maximum and minimum aver- 
age numbers per run, and the average 
number for the period, of the bacteria in 
the river water are given. The averages were 
obtained in the same manner as the average 
amounts of suspended solids. 

Average, Ma.riiniiui and J linimum Numbers of 
Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter in the Filtered 
Il'aier. These results are actual averages of 
the observations recorded as maximum and 
minimum numbers of bacteria for the several 
runs. Where the number of observations was 
less than one half of the number of runs for 
the period no average is given. 

Average Numbers of Bacteria per Cubic Cen- 
timeter in Filtered Water. The averages per 
run which were the maximum and minimum 
during the period are given, and also the 
average number for the periods. The aver- 
ages were obtained by multiplying the aver- 
age for each run by the quantity of filtered 
Water on that run, and dividing the sum of 
these products by the total quantity of fil- 
tered water for the period. 

Average Bacterial Efficiencies. The average 
efficiencies per run, which were the maximum 
and minimum for the period, are given, and 
also the averages for the periods. The latter 
were obtained by dividing the difference be- 
tween the average numbers of bacteria in the 
river water and in the effluent by the average 
numbrr in the river water, these averages 
having been determined as described above. 

Table No. 5. 

In this table are presented the total periods 
of time devoted to operations-service and pre- 
paring the filters for filtration; the total quan- 
tities of water recorded by the meters; and 
averages of each of these periods and quan- 
tities per run, obtained by dividing the respec- 
tive total amounts by the number of runs. 
The records of the runs not included in aver- 
ages are omitted from this as well as all other 
tables. There are presented also in this table 
the following averages: 

Average Actual Rate of Filtration. These 
results were obtained by dividing the total 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



quantities of filtered water by the total 
periods of operation, rates in cubic feet per 
minute being- transferred into million gallons 
per acre per twenty-four hours by the use of 
the proper constants. 

Average Grains of Sulpliatc of Alumina. 
The average amounts of sulphate of alumina 
per gallon of filtered water were obtained in 
each case by multiplying the average amount 
for each run by the total quantity of applied 
water on that run, and dividing the sum of 
these products by the total quantity of ap- 
plied water. The average amounts per gal- 
lon of net filtered water were obtained by di- 
viding the respective amounts per gallon of 
applied water by the percentages which the 
net filtered water were of the applied water. 

Average Bacterial Efficiencies. These re- 
sults were obtained in the same manner as 
were the average amounts of sulphate of alu- 
mina used per gallon of applied water. 

Table No. 6. 

In this table are given summaries of the 
leading results obtained from the entire in- 
vestigation and from certain portions thereof. 

Summary No. i includes the data obtained 
during the entire investigation (excluding 
those runs not included in averages). 

Summary No. 2 includes all the data given 
in Summary No. i, except those obtained 
during the periods when the operations were 
under conditions prescribed by the Water 
Company in regard to rates of filtration and 
amounts of sulphate of alumina applied 
(Periods 14, 15 and 16). 

Summary No. 3 includes all the data used 
in Summary No. 2 except those obtained 
during Period No. i, when the operations of 
the Warren System were under protest of the 
Cumberland Manufacturing Company, but 
were continued at the request of the Water 
Company. 

Summary No. 4 includes the data from all 
the periods when the Warren, Jewell and 
Western Pressure systems were in service, ex- 
cept those when the conditions of operation 
were prescribed as noted above. 

Summary No. 5 includes those periods 
when all of the systems were in operation, ex- 
cept Periods 14, 15 and 16. 



In this table the same expressions which 
have been used throughout are employed, and 
reference is made to the explanation of Table 
No. 5 of Chapter VIII, where the exact 
significance of the several expressions is ex- 
plained. 

The data presented and the methods of 
computation employed are as follows: 

The periods of service and of wash are ex- 
pressed in percentages of the period of opera- 
tion. 

The quantities of water used for washing, 
the quantities of filtered water wasted, the 
quantities of unfiltered water wasted, and the 
quantities of effluent are, respectively, ex- 
pressed in percentages which they were of 
the corresponding quantities of water applied 
to the respective systems. It is to be noted 
that in all cases in this table the quantity of 
filtered water (effluent) is the difference be- 
tween the applied water and the waste water, 
and not the quantity measured by the 
meter. 

Average actual rates are given, the rates 
in cubic feet per minute being obtained by 
dividing the total quantity of effluent by the 
total period of service. The rates in million 
gallons per acre per twenty-four hours were 
obtained by the usual method of transference 
from comparative tables. 

The average net rates were obtained in the 
same manner as the actual rates, except that 
the net filtered water and net period of opera- 
tion were used. 

The average amounts of sulphate of alu- 
mina per gallon of applied water were ob- 
tained in each case by multiplying the average 
amounts per run by the quantity of applied 
water on that run, and dividing the sum of the 
products by the total quantity of applied 
water. The amounts per gallon of net filtered 
water were obtained by dividing the amounts 
per gallon of applied water by the per- 
centages which the net filtered water was of 
the applied water. 

The average bacterial efficiencies were cal- 
culated in the usual manner of obtaining 
efficiencies, using for average numbers of 
bacteria results obtained in the same manner 
as the average amounts of sulphate of alu- 
mina. 



222 WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 

TABLE No. 1.' 

SUMMARY BY DAYS OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE EFFLUENTS OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS, 

Expressed in Degrees of Clearness. 



Day of Month. 




i 


2 


3 : 4 


5 


t 


7 


1 


'.' 


IU 


IT 12 


'3 


M 


15 


16 


'7 


18 


19 2O 21 


n 


3 


24 


25 


at 


27 


rf 


g 


:>" 


3' 


1895 
October 

November 

December 

1896 
January 

February 
March 
April 
May 
June 
July 




































I 
I 


I 
I 




I 
] 


2 

I 


2 
2 


2 

3 


2 
2 


I 
I 




1 
2 




i 

2 


2 


Jewell 




























































Western Pressure . 

Warren 
Jewell 


i 

2 




, 


















































I 

2 










| 














I 
























2 


4 

3 




3 

i 





, . 










1 . . 








j 












T 




1 








Western Gravity . . 
Western Pressure . 












































































































I 
3 


4 


4 
i 




7 


























7 














1 






| 








1 








2 


2 




I 


2 




2 


2 


2 




t 














? 






" 
























3 






? 






















































7 






2 




Warren 




4 

I 
I 


5 
5 

i 
2 


3 
4 
3 
I 

2 




4 




2 
2 

I 

2 

4 

2 

2 


2 
2 
2 

2 

2 
I 

1 
I 

2 
2 


2 
2 
2 
2 

2 

3 
I 
I 

2 

I 

2 

2 

2 


3 

3 
i 
i 

2 
I 
2 

2 
1 
2 
2 

I 
I 


5 
i 
i 

2 
I 


3 
2 
2 
2 

3 
2 
I 

I 


2 

3 
I 

) 

4 

2 


2 

3 

2 

1 

3 
3 










1 




1 
2 . . 








2 
? 


2 

-| 


3 
5 


Jewell 








f 




2 . . 








Western Gravity . . 
Western Pressure . 


t 


2 

3 

2 

3 

2 
2 


I 
1 

2 

4 
2 

3 

2 
2 
1 
2 

2 
2 


I 
2 

3 
3 

i 

2 
I 
2 

2 
2 








I 




2 








1 

T 


4 
3 
















1 




2 
















2 

4 


2 
4 


2 
2 


2 
2 


2 

2 


2 . . 

5 


2 
2 


2 

3 


I 

3 


2 
2 


I 
3 


2 
2 
1 


. . 




Jewell 






Western Gravity . . 
Western Pressure . 


2 
I 


2 
2 
2 
2 

3 

3 


I 

I 

2 

3 

3 
3 


2 
1 

3 
3 

2 
2 

2 
2 


2 

I 
I 
1 


2 


3 
2 
I 
I 


2 

I 

I 

2 


I 
I 

2 
2 


5 

2 
2 

2 
2 


2 
2 

4 
3 

2 
I 


2 

2 
3 




2 

4 


2 

3 
3 


5 
2 


i 

3 
3 


2 
2 


3 

2 
2 


3 

2 
2 


3 
3 


3 
3 


Jewell 


3 

1 


Western Gravity . . 
Western Pressure . 


2 
2 


3 
i 


^ 
I 


4 

2 
I 


4 

2 
2 


2 


2 

3 
2 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 
2 


4 

2 
1 


3 


Jewell 




I 


' 


I 


2 


I 


I 






Western Pressure . 


I 

2 
2 


4 

2 
I 


5 


2 

2 
2 


2 

I 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 
2 
















































2 
2 


2 
2 




2 
I 


2 
I 


2 
I 


I 
1 


: 


2 

2 


f 


I 
I 


2 
2 


2 
I 


2 

I 


i 

2 


I 




2 

I 


2 
2 


I 
I 


2 
2 


2 

4 


2 

I 





Jewll 




Western Pressure . 
















2 


2 

2 
2 


I 
I 


4 

2 
2 


2 

2 
I 


3 

2 

I 


2 


2 

2 
2 


I 

I 

I 


I 


2 

2 
I 


3 

I 
I 


2 

2 
1 


2 


I 

I 
2 


I 

2 


2 
2 


I 

2 


2 
I 


2 
I 


2 


5 

i 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 




2 


2 
4 


2 

2 


2 
2 


8 
2 


I 
I 






Western Gravity . . 
Western Pressure . 


2 

I 
2 

- 


3 

3 

3 
3 


2 

2 
I 
2 


2 


3 


3 

a 

I 


2 
I 


2 

I 


2 

4 
i 


2 

2 
I 
2 


2 

2 
2 
2 


2 


2 

2 
2 


2 
2 


2 

2 
2 


2 

2 

2 


2 

2 

2 


2 

2 
2 
2 


2 
2 


2 

2 
2 








2 

5 
3 
4 


2 

4 
2 

4 


2 


2 

3 

2 


2 
2 


2 

2 

2 


3 

2 


2 


2 
2 


2 


Jewell 
Western Gravity.. 
Western Pressure. 






3 


3 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


3 3 




2 


2 


2 






SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 

TABLE No. 2. 



223 



DAILY RESULTS OF THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC MATTER IN THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER, EXPRESSED IN PARTS PER MILLION OF NITROGEN AS ALBUMINOID AMMONIA, 
AND OF OXYGEN CONSUMED, RESPECTIVELY, TOGETHER WITH THE PERCENTAGES OF 
REMOVAL OF ORGANIC MATTER BY THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION. 



Date. 


Nitrogen as Albuminoid 
Ammonia in River 
Water 


Percentage Removal by the Respective Systems 
of Organic Matter Expressed as Nitrogen in the 
Form of Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Total 
Oxygen 
Consumed 
in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective 
Systems ofOrganic Matter Expressed as 
Oxygen Consumed. 


Total. 


Percentage 
which was 
in 
Suspension 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western' 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


1895 

Oct. 18 

" 19 

' 20 
" 21 

" 22 
" 23 
' 24 
" 25 
" 26 
" 27 
" 28 

" 29 
' 30 

' 31 

Nov. I 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
5 
" 6 

" 7 
8 

" 9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 
" '3 
M 
15 
16 

" 17 

18 

" 19 

1 20 
" 21 
" 22 

" 23 
: 24 

' 25 

" 26 

" 27 

" 28 

' 29 
' 30 

Dec. I 
" 2 

" 3 

4 
5 
6 

" 7 
8 

9 
10 
; ii 

" 12 
13 


.356 
322 


3 

38 


66 

53 


59 

55 






3-2 
3-2 


37 
3i 


28 
31 


























.236 
.288 
.244 
.212 
.290 
.316 


41 

53 
42 
37 
53 

55 


34 
46 

27 
23 
32 

45 


42 
41 

35 
7 
52 
49 






2-9 
2-7 
2.6 

2-3 
2.6 
2.4 


21 
22 
II 

35 
35 
37 


31 
II 
II 

30 
46 

33 






















































.216 


33 


39 


35 






2.1 


29 


24 














.222 
.198 
.252 
.204 


34 
31 
46 

33 


40 


36 
3i - 
62 

37 






2.2 


41 


41 
26 

43 

21 














54 
43 






2-3 
1.9 


48 
26 
























































































.2O6 


31 


43 


37 






2.1 


43 


47 














.202 


24 




























































154 


12 




22 






i 8 




ii 




































14 


















































































































.212 


28 




18 










19 




















.220 

244 


18 
26 




35 










27 






































234 
.246 
.232 


23 

21 
II 










2 f> 










47 
45 


40 
26 






2.8 

2-7 


50 
41 


43 
15 






















.2OO 


36 


43 


43 






2-5 


28 


24 




































.216 
.230 
.216 


12 
17 
17 


35 
13 
42 


36 

43 
44 






2.6 

2.8 
2.6 


31 

18 

23 


15 
25 
31 






























.246 


24 


48 


59 






2.8 


43 


50 




































234 
.184 
.192 


4 6 

39 

40 


63 
56 
65 


67 
42 
42 






3-0 
3-0 
3-1 


40 
37 
42 


40 

20 
42 






























.158 


24 


50 


48 






3-2 


37 


41 















224 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 
TABLE No. 2. Continued. 



Date. 



1895 
Dec. 14 

" 15 
" 16 

" 17 
" 18 
" .19 
" 20 

" 21 
" 22 

" 23 
24 

" 25 

" 26 
" 28 
" 29 

Av. 27-30 
Dec. 31 
1896 
Jan. i 
" 2 
3 
4 
5 

Av. 4&6 
Jan. 7 

Av. 8,9,10 

Jan. II 
" 12 

" 13 
Av. 14, 15 

Jan. 16 

" 17 

" 18 

19 

1 20 

" 21 

" 22 

" 23 

; 24 

' 25 

" 26 
Av. 27, 28 

Jan. 29 

" 3 

1 31 

Feb. i 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
5 

" 6 

" 7 
" 8 

" "" 9 
" 10 
" II 

" 12 

" 13 

14 

15 



Nitrogen as Albuminoid 
Ammonia in River 
Water. 


^ercentage Removal by the Respective Systems 
of Organic Matter Expressed as Nitrogen in the 
Form of Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Total 
Oxygen 
onsumed 
in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective 
Systems of Organic Matter Expressed as 
Oxygen Consumed. 


Total. 


Percentage 
which was 
in 
Suspension 


Warren. 


1 

Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


174 


36 


41 


37 






3-5 


28 


34 














.188 
.2IO 
.192 


17 

22 
10 


40 
37 


24 

37 






3-9 
4.0 

3-9 


51 
48 
31 


44 
35 
41 


































.228 


!9 


53 


60 






4-2 


4 8 


50 








































































































































































.388 


6l 


75 


79 


79 


79 


6.0 


70 


77 


77 


73 
























1.187 
1.187 


8 3 
83 


89 
89 


89 

89 


93 
93 


92 
92 


12.3 
II. 8 
9.0 


So 
88 
87 


84 

84 

79 


89 
87 
89 


86 
90 
86 














653 


76 


90 


82 


88 


88 


7.8 


83 




77 


82 




1 -423 
.261 


48 

45 


74 
72 


68 
63 


73 
65 


72 
61 


6.5 
5-4 
5-8 
5-3 


S3 
65 
83 
81 




74 
65 
69 

75 


74 
67 
72 
74 


67 

72 
72 
























| -209 


12 


86 


62 


62 


54 


4-1 

4-1 


61 

73 


76 
63 


76 
61 


66 

58 
















































































3-i 


61 


52 


52 


55 














135 


7 


56 


50 


47 


47 


3-i 


61 


55 


45 


52 




































































| -369 
439 


70 
84 


81 
83 


70 
73 


74 


76 


5-5 
6.6 

7-i 


78 
77 
82 


69 
64 

70 


78 
68 


75 
74 
































365 


77 


90 




85 


89 


6.6 


85 




82 


80 






245 
.279 

439 
.417 

593 
.639 


67 
70 
81 
81 
87 
83 


83 
85 
86 
88 
93 
95 




80 

82 
85 
83 
90 


79 
82 

84 
82 
90 


4-7 

5-7 
8-4 

8.2 

II- 4 
13.0 


83 
84 
82 
88 
91 
92 




83 
81 

83 
84 

87 


83 
Bl 

83 
80 

87 






84 
86 

93 
89 


86 

84 
90 

85 










577 
437 
391 
.215 

3ii 
353 


88 

79 
76 
60 

78 
78 


94 


92 
90 

79 
80 

84 
84 


94 
92 
92 

76 


93 
90 

88 
78 


12.8 

8.9 
9.1 
4.6 
7-6 

8-7 


91 


88 
84 
74 
70 

79 

84 


91 

88 

9' 
74 


9i 

87 
88 
78 






83 
89 

91 


78 
85 
87 


87 


. 85 


87 


85 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



225 



TABLE No. 2. Continued. 



Date. 


Nitrogen as Albuminoic 
Ammonia ill River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective System 1 ; 
of Organic Matter Expressed as Nitrogen in the 
Form of Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Total 
Oxygen 
Cnnsumec 
in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective 
Systems of 'Organic Matter Expressed as 
Oxygen Consumed. 


Total. 


Percentage 
which was 
in 

iSuspensiot 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 

Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


1896 
Feb. 16 

" '7 
" 18 
" ig 

' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
' 24 

" 25 

" 26 
" 27 
" 28 
" 29 

Mar. I 
" 2 
3 
4 

5 
" 6 

7 

8 

" 9 
10 
" ii 

" 12 

" 13 
M 
15 
" 16 

" 17 
18 

19 

1 20 
" 21 
" 22 
' 2 3 
' 24 
' 25 
' 26 
" 27 
1 28 
" 29 

' 3 
" 31 
April I 

" 2 

" 3 
4 

5 
" 6 
7 
8 

" 9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 
" 13 
14 

15 
" 16 

" 17 
18 

" '9 
























.292 
.366 
.484 
.232 
.256 
.288 


75 
91 
88 
72 
81 
76 


86 
95 
95 
84 
92 
87 


82 
go 

94 
86 
86 
82 


84 


84 


7-5 

g.i 

II. 2 

6.3 

7-2 

6.0 


88 
go 
92 
86 
90 
7 


83 
85 
91 
89 
go 
So 


88 


87 


92 


84 


92 


79 


85 


87 


87 


86 










.162 
.152 
.146 
.200 
.IO2 
.088 


69 
64 

71 
70 

35 
43 


79 
71 

82 

79 

57 
73 


74 
67 
73 
78 
51 
55 


78 


78 


4-3 
3-8 
3-3 
4-5 
3.0 

2.8 


84 
82 

79 
82 
70 
64 


74 
63 
64 
82 
57 
54 


79 


72 


78 


75 


76 


76 


| 62 


j 68 


I 69 


| 62 


.084 
.118 
.088 

. too 
.184 

.102 


50 
53 
57 
48 
36 
46 


64 
68 
61 
74 
76 
78 


5 
68 
50 
60 
45 
71 


52 


52 


2.6 

3-2 

2.5 

2. I 

1.8 
2.5 


73 
81 
72 
62 
72 
76 


42 
63 

44 
52 
56 
68 


65 


62 


64 


66 


Co 


64 


j 66 


j 68 


I 63 


js 


.076 
.090 
.og6 
.116 
094 
.108 


53 
51 
46 

38 
49 
54 


68 
62 
73 
74 
68 

f'5 


68 
69 

65 
69 
64 
67 


63 


66 

| 4 8 

I 62 


2-3 
2.2 

1-9 
2.1 
2. I 
2.3 


61 
73 
79 
7i 
67 
65 


70 
68 

63 
62 

52 
65 


65 


70 

f* 

J: 


65 


63 


|i 


t 


. no 
.130 
.132 
.238 
.700 
1.046 


42 
58 
50 

73 
90 

94 


75 
77 
74 
79 
95 
97 


60 

68 
74 
77 
93 
95 


53 


67 

i< 

| 9 6 


2-5 
2-9 

3-0 
5-0 
14.2 
17.8 


72 
72 
73 
82 

94 
93 


60 
62 

73 
80 

89 
93 


60 


64 

f. 

| 93" 


1" 

95 


{ 

91 






.580 
.476 
.414 
.462 
344 
-454 
374 
.852 
932 
1.032 
.g6o 
1.080 
.620 


86 
86 
86 
85 
78 
84 
79 
87 
90 

91 

93 
93 
84 


94 
92 
90 
90 

87 

88 

S5 
95 
95 
96 

97 
96 

94 


92 
92 

93 
Sg 

83 
go 
82 
93 
93 
96 
96 
96 
94 




88 
92 
91 
9i 
86 
89 
86 
92 
92 
95 
95 
95 
94 


13.2 

9-3 
9. 1 
8.9 
7-5 
8.3 
7-4 
12. 

13-9 
15-8 
15-6 
18.4 
13.0 


94 
92 

84 
90 
89 
89 

88 

93 
94 
92 
96 
96 
95 


92 
go 
go 

89 
84 
90 
88 
92 
93 
93 
95 
96 
95 




89 
90 
88 
92 

88 

89 
88 

92 
92 
92 
92 
95 
95 




















































.500 
.380 
370 
.380 
.312 
.286 


83 
81 

75 
79 
74 
72 


go 
go 

85 
88 
85 
78 


go 
90 

85 
88 
82 
82 




go 
90 


8.6 
7-5 
6.7 
7-7 
6-3 
6.5 


93 
92 
88 
go 
86 
83 


93 
93 

88 
go 
84 
86 




93 
92 










































.270 
.166 
.208 
.164 
.172 
.206 


68 

53 
62 
5 
51 
52 




74 
66 
69 
66 

f>3 
64 










80 
69 
78 
69 
72 
73 








































) 6 









































































226 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 2. Continued. 



Date. 


Nitrogen as Albuminoid 
Ammonia in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective Systems 
of Organic Matter Expressed as Nitrogen in 
the Form of Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Total 
Oxygen 
Consumed 
in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective 
Systems of Organic Matter Expressed 
as Oxvgen Consumed. 


Total. 


Perec nt:ic 
which was 
in 
Suspension 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
3 ressure 


1896 
April 20 

" 21 
" 22 

" 23 

24 
25 

26 
' 27 

28 

29 

' 30 

May I 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
- 5 
" 6 

" 7 
" 8 

' 9 
10 
' ii 

' 12 

' 13 

14 

15 
16 

' 17 

18 

' 19 
20 
' 21 
' 22 

' 23 

24 

' 25 

26 

' 27 

28 
29 
1 30 
1 31 

June i 

2 

" 4 

" 5 
" 6 

" 7 

" 8 

" 9 

" 10 

" n 

" 12 

" 13 
" M 
" 15 
- 16 

" 17 
" 18 

" '9 
" 20 


.198 
.188 
.160 
.138 
.146 
.152 


59 
59 
56 
51 
47 
53 


71 
66 
6l 
59 
63 
54 


72 

66 
74 
65 
73 
58 






3-7 

3-4 

3-1 
2.3 
2.8 

2.3 


81 
79 
77 
65 
7i 
70 


84 
82 
Si 
74 
75 
74 






















































.172 
.172 
.170 
.160 
.174 
.168 


51 
49 
59 

55 
50 
48 


55 
63 
64 
64 
65 
67 


68 

67 
68 
58 
60 
68 






3-1 
30 

2-9 
2.4 

3-1 

2-9 


68 
70 
72 
67 
74 
69 


74 
73 
72 
67 
71 
72 






















































.188 
.196 
.188 
.164 
.206 
.194 


51 
51 
54 
41 
52 
58 


69 

65 

68 

55 
62 

73 


67 
7i 
69 
61 
54 
74 






3-6 
3-6 
3-4 
3-5 
4-3 
4.1 


75 
69 
68 
54 
65 
68 


72 
72 
68 

63 
60 

7i 
































61 




6 3 














.286 
.226 

.202 
.200 
.182 
.190 


66 
65 
59 
65 
60 
60 


84 

72 

?o 
70 
76 
69 


81 
71 
7i 
76 
75 
7i 




78 
73 
63 
66 
69 
73 


4-7 
3-9 
3-5 
3-7 
3-6 
4.0 


83 

72 

74 
73 
75 
68 


79 

72 
74 
78 
75 
73 




68 
72 
66 
62 
67 
75 


























-174 
.158 
.228 
.214 
.228 


43 
43 

62 
58 
61 


57 
59 
73 
71 
70 


55 
56 

73 
68 
66 




52 

48 
68 
65 


3-3 
3-i 
4-0 
3-8 
4-9 


58 
61 
68 

71 
75 






52 
35 
63 
55 




61 
68 
66 
7i 


















65 




68 




















.166 
.158 
.186 
.566 
.602 
.502 


51 
52 
58 
79 
78 
76 


53 
58 
69 
86 

87 
86 


58 
58 
66 

85 
87 
88 






2.7 

2.9 
3-3 
8.4 
9-4 
7.8 


52 
59 
67 
83 
83 
85 


56 
59 
67 
83 
83 
87 








F 

83 




\ 

81 


























.446 
.576 
364 
.324 
-274 
.192 


76 
77 
67 
69 
54 
48 


84 
89 
86 
80 
74 
73 






86f 
85 
83 
81 

i 


7.0 
8.0 
5-8 
5-2 
4-2 
3-0 


83 

88 

84 
83 
76 
70 






86f 
84 
84 
83 

1* 


87 
35 
81 

75 
73 




86 

84 

83 
81 

67 














































.404 
340 
.282 
.250 
.232 


80 

72 

68 
65 
63 


83 
81 

75 
70 

72 


85 
82 

77 
75 
74 




P 


6.8 
6.1 
4.2 
4-1 

4-2 


ii 

80 
71 

68 
67 


84 
84 
76 
76 
74 




P 
















76* 




76* 






364 
.248 
.260 
.288 
.392 
.268 


74 
64 
65 
67 
72 
66 


79 
69 
69 
72 
83 
74 


So 

75 






5-6 
4-2 
4.6 
5-o 
5-9 
4-3 


75 
67 
65 
64 
78 
60 


77 
74 








7i 

1" 




73 

b 






76 

81 
75 




78 
75 
65 













'Average for 22, 23, and 25. 



t Average May 30 and June 
Average 16, 17, and 18. 



| Average 12, 13, and 15. 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Of DATA OF 1895-96. 
TABLE No. 2. Concluded. 



Date. 


Nitrogen as Albuminoid 
Ammonia in River 
Water. 


Percentage Removal by the Respective Systems 
of Organic Matter Expressed as Nitrogen in 
the Form of Albuminoid Ammonia. 


Total 
Oxygen 
Consumer 
in River 
Water. 


Percentage Remova by the Respective 
Systems of Organic Matter Expressed 
as Oxygen Consumed. 


Total. 


Percentage 
which was 
in 
Suspension 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure 


1896 
June 21 
" 22 
" 23 
1 24 
" 25 
" 26 
" 27 
" 28 
" 29 
" 30 
July i 

2 

" 3 
4 
5 
6 

" 7 
" 8 

9 
10 
" ii 

" 12 
13 
M 
15 

" 16 

" 17 
" 18 

" r 9 

' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 

' 24 
" 25 
" 26 
" 27 
" 28 
" 29 

' 30 
' 3i 
























.222 
.224 
.460 
.326 

304 

374 


53 
55 
77 
65 
62 

67 


67 
65 
80 


67 
62 

79 

72 
78 
80 






4.0 
3-7 
5-1 
6.0 

5-i 
5-5 


63 
70 
73 


67 
65 
71 
70 
7i 
78 
























j to 

i" 




j 

j 80 


























.442 
.356 
.628 
.964 
.640 


7i 

72 
82 
89 
83 - 




84 
82 

9i 

93 
90 




7-4 
5-6 
10.7 
15-0 
12. 1 




86 
80 
9i 
9i 
90 




79 
88 
92 
89 




73 
88 

91 
89 






86* 




83*, 


92 
89 


90 
90 
































.258 
.398 
432 
378 
346 
.224 


57 
74 
75 
72 
63 
52 


69 
83 
83 
80 

79 
73 


74 
83 

H 

81 
73 




i* 

1 80 


4.8 
7.0 
6.8 
6.6 
5-8 
4- .4 


73 
84 
82 

83 
79 
77 


81 
84 

1" 

88 
82 




| 7 6 

I 87 














1" 


i* 










.382 
.310 
.420 
378 
394 
.504 


72 

66 
70 
76 
79 
81 


80 

77 
81 
84 

i" 


84 
82 

84 
84 

js, 




j,i 

J8 4 


7.0 
6.6 

8.3 
7-0 
7.0 
8.7 


83 
82 

84 
86 

j s 


87 
86 

89 

87 

i* 




jn 

| 86 














| 86 


{' 









318 
494 
.824 
1.360 
2.400 
1.320 


70 
78 
89 
90 
95 
9i 


81 

85 
90 

9i 
96 

93 


84 

87 
92 
94 
97 
96 




jfi 
j. 


6.5 
7-7 
14.9 
24.8 
35.8 
22.6 


82 
84 
90 
93 
96 
92 


86 
87 
92 
95 
97 
95 




j.s 

i 












'{ 


\ 










1. 200 

I. I2O 
.880 
I.2OO 
.470 


89 
89 

85 
90 
75 


93 
94 
92 

i" 


95 
94 
92 




{. 


21.7 

I 7 .8 
19.7 

23-4 
13.6 


93 
92 

91 

l 


95 
93 
91 




j,- 
















84 






90 













* Average June 30, July I. 



228 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 3. 

AVERAGE DAILY NUMBER OF BACTERIA PER CUBIC CENTIMETER, IN THE OHIO RIVER 
WATER AND IN THE SEVERAL EFFLUENTS, TOGETHER WITH THE AVERAGE BACTERIAL 
EFFICIENCY OF THE RESPECTIVE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION. 



Date. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Bacterial Efficiency of the Respective Systems. 


River Water. 


Effluents of the Respective Systems. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


1895 

Oct. 21 
" 22 

" 23 
: 24 
' 25 
" 26 

" 27 
" 28 
" 29 
1 30 

1 31 
Nov. i 

" 2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
" 8 

" 9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 

13 
14 

15 
" 16 

" 17 
" 18 

19 
1 20 

" 21 
" 22 
" 23 

24 
" 25 

" 26 
" 27 

" 28 
" 29 
' 30 

Dec I 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
" 5 

" 6 

" 7 
" 8 

9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 

" 13 
M 
15 
" 16 

" 17 
18 
" 19 
' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
24 
" 25 

" 26 


148 
158 
127 

118 

137 
142 


40 
59 
51 
50 
47 
43 


55 
53 
56 
59 
29 
18 






73-o 
62.7 
60.0 
57-6 
65.7 
69.7 


62.8 

66.5 

55-9 
50.0 
78.8 
87.3 






















































114 

128 
106 

183 
no 

125 


37 
27 
23 
9 
13 
23 


40 
37 
3 
15 
17 
26 






67.5 

78.9 
78.3 
95-1 
88.2 
81.6 


64.8 
71.1 
97-2 
91.8 
840 
79-2 






















































352 
126 
228 

135 
187 

274 


40 

13 

18 
66 
83 
52 








88. 6 
89.7 
92. 1 
51- 1 
55-6 
81.0 
































203 

188 
138 






- 33-5 
- -5 . 
49.6 






























637 

888 
292 

112 
1 80 
223 


134 


639 
438 
114 
123 

82 
125 






79.0 


o 
51.0 
61.0 

8 Q 














































54-4 
43-9 






























166 

184 
190 
74 
99 
192 




165 
243 
154 
85 
63 
. M3 








o 


























18.9 


























36.4 
25-5 






























5 600 
3400 
2300 


630 
385 
. 53 1 


400 
540 
934 






88.7 
88.7 
76.9 


92.9 
84.1 
59-4 






























5 200 

6 500 


836 
819 


812 
615 






83-9 
87.4 


84.4 
90-5 





















6800 

IO 2OO 
6800 
4900 
990O 
9900 


917 
592 
396 
297 

504 

372 


360 
362 
331 
245 
241 
421 






86.5 
94-2 
94-2 
93-9 
94.9 
96.2 


94-7 
96.5 
95-1 
95.0 
97.6 
95-7 






















































8 200 

7 200 

2 900 
2 800 
2 2OO 
2400 


288 

295 
190 
182 

122 
172 


166 
223 
20 1 

'49 
126 

134 






96-5 
95-9 
93-4 
93-5 
94-5 
92.8 


98.0 
96.9 
93-1 
94-7 
94-3 
94-4 






















































I 90O 
2 OOO 
2 200 
2 OOO 
3 200 
2 200 


M7 
135 
221 

T 59 
359 

254 


143 
123 

131 
70 

IOO 

3 






92.3 
92.2 
90.0 
92.1 

88.8 
88.5 


92.5 
93-8 
94-0 
96-5 
96.9 

94-9 






















































3700 
3400 


173 
76 


69 

77 


456 

452 


2OI 

155 


95-3 
97-8 


98.1 
97-7 


87.7 
86.7 


94.6 
95-4 


5 200 


114 


221 


483 


411 


97-9 


95-8 


90.9 


92.2 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 
TABLE No. 3. Continued. 



229 



Date. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Bacterial Efficiency of the Respective Systems. 


River Water. 


Effluents of the Respective Systems. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


1895 
Dec. 27 
" 28 
" 29 
1 30 
1 31 
1896 
Jan. i 
" 2 
" 3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

' 9 

10 

' ii 

' 12 
' 13 

M 

15 

" 16 

" 17 
18 

" 19 
' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
24 

25 

" 26 
" 27 

" 28 
" 29 
' 30 
' 31 

Feb. i 

" 2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

' 9 
10 
' ii 

' 12 
'3 
M 
15 

' 16 

' 17 
' 18 

' 19 
1 20 
' 21 
' 22 
' 23 
2 4 

' 25 
" 26 

" 27 

' 28 

- 29 

Mar. i 
" 2 
3 
4 
5 
" 6 
" 7 


12 OOO 
35700 


779 
i 169 


410 
813 


501 
947 


358 
897 


93-5 

76.7 


96.6 
97-7 


95-8 
97-3 


97-0 
97-5 


12 000 

13 ooo 


328 

375 


311 

233 


529 

253 


409 
268 


97-3 
97-1 


97-4 
98.2 


95-6 
98.1 


96.6 
97-9 


10 700 

14 3OO 

8600 


797 
166 

151 


26l 
343 
39 


245 
325 
81 


258 
169 
IOO 


92.6 
98.8 
98.2 


97.6 
97.6 
95-5 


97-7 
97-7 
99-i 


97.6 

98.8 
98.8 


5 ooo 
4 200 
4 100 
i goo 
i 800 
2 500 


107 

54 
59 
28 

94 
36 




368 
93 
151 

IOO 

108 
94 


207 
79 
237 
78 
151 
153 


97-9 
98.7 
98.6 
98.5 
94.8 
g8.6 




92.6 
97-8 
96.3 
94-7 
94-0 
96.2 


95-9 
98.1 
94-2 
95-9 
91.6 

93-9 










229 
202 

152 


87.9 
88.8 
93-9 


i goo 
800 
3 ooo 
3 200 
6 500 
7300 


38 
25 
50 
73 
98 
60 


193 
156 
156 
181 
262 
i8g 






g8.o 
96. g 
98.3 
97-7 
98.5 
99.2 


89.8 
80.5 
94-8 
94-3 
96.0 

97.4 






61 
128 
130 

159 
228 


88 
147 
122 
2ig 

244 


92.4 

95-7 
95-9 
97-6 
96.9 


89.0 
95-1 
96.2 
96.6 
96.6 


6400 
3 ooo 
2600 
4 800 
3600 
7 200 


119 

51 
34 


229 
170 
104 
203 
142 
H7 


219 

174 
192 
68 
96 
1 02 


218 

194 
1 2O 
I 7 6 

93 
136 


98.1 

98.3 
98.7 


96.4 

94-3 
96.0 
95-8 
96.1 
98.4 


96.6 
94-2 
92.6 
98.6 

97-3 
98.6 


96.6 
93-5 
95-4 
96-3 
97-4 
98.1 






60 


99.2 


10600 
14700 
1 8 200 

23400 
14 300 

21 300 


156 
470 
525 
72 
57 
56 


945 

i 533 
i 770 
820 
860 


651 

1586 


747 
876 


98.5 
96.8 
97-1 
99-5 
99.6 

99-7 


91.1 

89.6 
90.3 
93-9 
94.0 


93-9 
89.2 


93-0 
94-0 










549 
194 


475 
188 


96.2 
99.1 


96.7 
99.1 






62 2OO 

55000 

71 ooo 

30800 
55 ooo 
29 800 


197 
i 535 
583 

220 
362 
365 




639 
737 
548 
805 

I 200 

669 


544 
815 
686 
i 461 
967 
714 


99-7 
97-2 
99-2 
99-3 
99-3 
98.8 




99.0 

98.7 
99-2 
97-4 
97-8 
97-8 


99-1 

98-5 
99.0 

95-3 
98.2 
97.6 






643 

i 563 
639 

1395 


99-1 

94-9 
98.8 

95-3 


14400 
19800 
28000 
14 800 
ii goo 
10 800 


279 


740 
i 020 
i 701 

549 
848 
763 


371 
490 
427 

453 
340 
950 


527 
380 
362 
4og 
216 
850 


98.1 


94-9 
94-9 
93-9 
g6.g 
92.9 
92.9 


97-4 
97-5 
98-5 
96.9 
97.1 
91.2 


9 6 -3 
98.1 
98.7 
97-2 
98.2 
92.1 






430 
589 
139 


97-1 
95-1 
98.7 


21 80O 

14400 

20 700 

17400 
10 700 

20 OOO 


107 

80 

145 
2IO 

76 
206 


1079 
i 581 
919 
341 
3i8 
647 


78g 
647 
467 

291 
i8g 


638 
710 
547 
532 
169 


99-5 
99-4 
99-3 
98.8 

99-3 
99.0 


95-1 
89.1 
95.6 
98.0 
97.0 
97.8 


96.4 
95-5 
97-7 
98-3 
98.2 


97-i 
95-i 

97-4 
96.9 

98-4 










15 ooo 
16 200 

25 200 

4 100 

4500 
14 800 


73 
71 

202 
65 
156 

I 7 8 


821 
1451 
1941 
768 
i 575 
i 601 


236 

I OI2 

654 
476 

353 
651 


497 
951 

574 
676 

533 
903 


99-5 
99.6 
99-2 
98.4 
96-5 
98.8 


94-5 
91.0 

92-3 
81.3 
65.0 
89.2 


98.4 
93-8 
97-4 
88.4 
92.2 
95.6 


96.7 
94.1 

97-7 
83-5 
88.2 

93-9 


44600 
33400 
29 800 
18000 

12 2OO 

10 500 


367 
302 

548 

37i 
207 
180 


2 148 

1324 
851 
718 

299 

146 


i g44 
i 062 
6g3 
797 
343 
332 


2 251 
798 
612 

615 

326 

470 


99-2 
gg.i 
g8.2 

97-9 
98.3 

98.3 


95-2 
96.0 
97-2 
96.0 
97.6 
98.6 


95-6 
96.8 
97-7 
95-6 
97-2 
96.8 


95-o 
97.6 

97-9 
96.6 

97-3 
95-5 



230 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 
TABLE No. 3. Continued. 



Date. 


Bacteria per Cuhic Centimeter. 


Bacterial Efficiency of the Respective Systems. 


River Water. 


Effluents of the Respective Systems. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 

Pressure. 


1896 
Mar. 8 

" 9 
10 
" ii 

L" 12 
13 
14 

" 15 
" 16 

" 17 

" 18 

19 

' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
24 

25 
" 26 
" 27 
: 28 
" 2 9 
' 30 
1 31 
April i 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
" 7 
8 
9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

" 17 

IS 

" 19 

20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
24 
25 
1 26 
" 27 
" 28 
.. " 29 
' 30 
May i 
" 2 
3 
4 
' 5 
6 

' 7 
' 8 

9 
10 
' ii 

12 

" J 3 
14 
15 
16 

" 17 
" 18 

19 




















I4OOO 
II 500 
7700 
II 300 
II OOO 
12 IOO 


190 
301 
223 
156 
293 
161 


133 

137 
121 

251 

547 
203 


409 
200 
1 80 
162 

233 
I4O 


239 
221 

169 
372 
162 
159 


98.6 
97-4 

97-i 
98.6 

97-3 
98-7 


99-o 

98.8 
98.4 
97-8 
95-0 
98-3 


97-1 
98-3 
97-7 
98.6 

97-9 

98.8 


98.3 
98.1 
97.8 
96.7 
98.5 
98.7 


16 600 
16300 
19 700 
34400 

46 700 
57200 


76 
31 
49 
122 

137 
26o 


172 
86 
35 
710 
850 
928 


252 
302 
52O 
606 

733 


349 
370 
441 
800 
550 
i 087 


99-5 
99-8 
99-8 
99.6 
99-7 
99-5 


99-o 
99-5 
99-8 
97-9 
98.2 
98.4 


98-5 
98.1 

97-4 
98.2 
98.4 


97-9 
97-7 
97-8 
97-7 
98.8 
98.1 






30500 
37300 
46000 

47900 
31 900 
34 ioo 
49 200 
25 700 
26 700 
39 600 
27500 
31 ooo 
27 ooo 


I6 4 
64 
103 
136 
141 
III 
123 
125 

369 
263 

155 
82 
116 


844 
321 
182 

531 
466 
164 

379 
679 
845 
638 
223 
20 1 
7i 




935 
368 
404 
256 
294 
537 

2 221 
I 712 
I 628 
I 023 

755 
940 

185 


99-5 
99.8 
99-8 
99-7 
99-6 
99-7 
99-8 
99-5 
98.6 

99-3 
99-4 
99-7 
99.6 


97.2 

99 i 
99 .6 
98.9 
98-5 
99-5 
99-2 
97-4 
96.8 
98.4 
99-2 
99-3 
99-7 




96.9 
99.0 
99.1 

99-5 
99.1 
98.4 
95-5 
93-3 
93-9 
97-4 
97-3 
97-o 
99-3 






















































1 8 700 
18 500 
13 800 

21 OOO 

7300 
13 ooo 


34 
40 
105 
118 

42 
25 


31 
64 
129 
164 
40 
4i 




9i 

76 


99.8 
99-8 
99-2 
99-4 
99-4 
99.8 


99-8 
99-7 
99.1 
99-2 
96-5 
99-7 




99-5 
99.6 


































1 






9600 

7500 
3700 

I 700 
3000 
5900 




81 
28 
20 
II 
33 
IOO 








99.2 
99.6 
99-5 
99-7 
98-9 
98.3 














































































4 800 
4000 
5 500 
4400 
7700 
8 300 


34 
82 
166 
no 
348 
309 


6 
126 

16 

23 
46 

48 






99-3 
98.0 
97.0 
97-5 
95-5 
96-3 


99-9 
99-7 
99-7 
99-5 
99.4 

99-4 






















































6500 
6 ioo 
7 ioo 
4 ioo 
5400 
7 too 


401 

605 
138 
94 
104 

157 


62 
1 60 
64- 
42 
61 
78 






93-8 
90.1 
98.1 

97-7 
98.1 
97.8 


99- 
97-4 
99.1 
99-o 
98-9 
98.9 






















































7 ooo 
6000 
5 ooo 
5 200 
4000 
5900 


55 
57 
87 
76 
50 
49 


52 
45 

48 

34 
17 
39 






99.2 
99.1 
98.3 

98-5- 
98.8 
99.2 


99-3 
99.2 
99-o 
99-3 
99-6 
99-3 
























145 
20 1 

227 




97-2 
95-o 
96.2 














7300 
5900 
3 600 
6500 
6400 
7 300 


44 
61 
12 

37 
25 
10 


32 
16 
10 

37 

27 

17 




232 
176 

153 
167 
in 

H7 


99-4 
99.0 

99-7 
99.4 

99-6 
99-9 


99-6 
99-7 
99-7 
99-4 
99.6 

99-8 




96.8 
97-o 
95-8 
97 -4 
98-3 
98.4 


























6 600 
4300 


1 20 

81 


75 
93 




701 

324 


98.2 
98.1 


98.9 
97-8 




89.4 
92-5 











SUMMARY AND >JSCUSSWN OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



23' 



TABLE No. 3. Concluded. 



Date. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Bacterial Efficiency of the Respective Systems. 


River Water. 


Effluents of the Respective Systems 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 

Pressure. 


Warren. 


Jewell. ! 


Western 
Gravity. 


Western 
Pressure. 


1896 

May 20 

21 
" 22 

" 23 
1 24 
' 25 
" 26 
" 27 
1 28 
29 
1 30 
' 31 

June i 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
5 
" 6 

" 7 

8 

" 9 
" 10 
" ii 

" 12 

" 13 
14 
" 15 

" 16 
" 17 
" 18 
" 19 

' 20 
" 21 
" 22 
" 23 
' 24 
" 25 
" 26 

" 27 
11 28 

" 29 

' 30 

July I 

" 2 

" 3 
4 
5 
" 6 

" 7 
" 8 

" 9 

10 

" ii 

" 12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

" 17 
18 

19 
1 20 

" 21 
" 22 
1 2 3 
' 24 

' 25 

" 26 
" 27 
" 28 

1 29 

' 3 
' 31 


4800 
6 100 
5 100 
6 100 


66 
70 
50 


78 
73 
70 

28 




184 
124 
60 
59 


98.6 
98.9 
99-0 


98.4 
gS.S 
98.6 
99-5 




96.2 
gS.O 
98.8 
99.0 





















I goo 
I 800 
4 100 
23400 
26 100 

19700 


41 
39 
130 
102 
179 
92 


59 
50 
84 
194 

245 
322 




94 

82 
ng 
261 

150 

57 


97-8 
97-8 
96.8 
99.6 
99-3 
99-5 


96.9 
97.2 
gS.o 
99.2 
99.1 
98.4 




95.1 
95-4 
97.1 
98.9 
99-4 
99-7 


























18 800 
15 500 
13 800 
8 500 
6400 
4900 


61 

101 

45 
36 
28 

25 






165 
93 
60 

93 
36 
44 


99-7 
99-3 
99-7 
gg.6 
gg.6 
99-5 






99.1 

99-4 
99.6 
98.9 
99-4 
99.1 


208 

53 
45 
28 
18 




98.7 
99.6 

99-5 
99.6 
99.6 










































ii 300 
10 700 
6 600 
6 too 
13400 


if>5 
49 
42 
40 

188 


104 
II 

10 

ii 
40 




121 

54 
II 

14 
93 


98.5 
99-5 
99-4 
99-3 
gS.6 


99-2 
99-9 
99-8 
gg.S 
99-7 





98.9 

99-5 
99.8 
99.8 
99-3 




















13500 
8 400 
ii ooo 
10600 
1 8 ooo 
10500 


132 
36 

74 
81 

73 
86 


16 

7 




27 
33 
30 
161 
30 
73 


99-0 
99.6 

99-3 
99-2 
gg.6 
99-2 


99-9 
99-9 




99.8 
99.6 
99-7 
98.5 
gg.S 

99-3 










20 

53 
Si 




99-8 
99-7 
99-2 
















7700 
8000 
8300 
75oo 
6 ooo 
10 800 


So 

141 

234 

52 


86 
118 

453 
550 

37 
107 




56 


98.9 
98.2 
97-2 
99-3 


98.9 
98.5 
94-5 
92.7 

99-4 
99.0 





99-3 






218 
* 305 
5i 
248 




97-4 
95-9 
gg.2 

97-7 


























13300 
10 goo 




8 
5 




43 
33 




99-9 
99-9 




99-7 
99-7 


37 




99-7 








24 200 

12 OOO 


95 

80 


72 
16 


83 
42 




99.6 
99-3 


99-7 
99-9 


99-7 
99.6 






























7400 
5 5oo 
6 700 
g 200 

IOOOO 

g 600 


64 
82 
69 
53 
7i 
40 


353 
480 

99 

10 

40 
24 




48 
30 

21 
60 


99.1 

98.5 
99.0 

99-4 
99-3 
99.6 


95-1 
91-3 
98.5 

99-9 
99.6 

99-7 





99-3 
99-4 
99-7 
99-4 














110 

208 


98.9 

97-8 










7 7f3 
10 too 
8300 
5500 
5 7oo 
9900 


64 

33 
30 
31 
ii 

23 


44 
6 

8 
ii 
5 
34 




78 
25 
II 

IS 


99-2 
99-7 
99.6 

99-4 
gg.8 
99-8 


99-4 
99-9 
99-9 
gg.S 

99-9 
99-7 




gg.o 
98.2 
99-9 

99-7 














33 
48 


99-4 
99-5 










7 ooo 
17 100 
33 800 
27 zoo 
31 ooo 
17300 


24 
"3 
752 
597 
I 327 
433 


9 
47 
251 
103 
71 
54 




22 
2O4 
623 


99-7 
99-3 
97.8 
97-8 
95-7 
97-5 


99-9 
99-7 
'99-3 
99.6 
99.8 
99-7 




99-7 
98.8 
98.2 














234 
284 




gg.2 
98.4 












17 800 
24 500 
9500 

12000 
6800 


306 
60 

52 
12 
33 


19 
6 
15 




151 
156 , 
137 


98.3 
99-8 
99-5 
99-9 
99-5 


99-9 

gg-Q 
99.8 

99-9 




99.2 

99-4 
98.6 
















214 




96.9 













2 3 2 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE 
SUMMARIES OF 

Warren 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Began.. . . \ R ate 


Oct. 2 1, '95 

IO.OOA.M. 

*Iov.25,'95 

9-45 A.M. 

. '-M 

12.08 

4.83 
8.87 
11.83 
4.53 
8.58 
0.42 
0.17 
0.28 
16 970 

7599 
II 816 
16640 
7359 
"457 
741 
283 
360 
o 
o 



400 
250 
312 

IO 

4 
6 
26.8 
19.8 
22.3 

147 
109 
122 
2O.9 
U5 

68 

3 
46 

22 
4 
13 
1-34 
0.48 
0.84 

0.89 
2 

I 

1-4 
37 
106 
168 

96 

20 

99 

12 
42 
91-7 
60.9 

75-0 


Nov. 25 

9.45 A.M. 

Dec. 26 

I.I7A.M. 
15-31 
23.32 
6.58 
11.22 
22.87 
6.03 
IO.72 
0.78 

0.15 
0.50 

32 102 
8791 
14944 
31048 
8126 
14007 

540 
297 
376 
469 
O 
221 
450 
180 
2O6 
10 
2 
6 

25-5 
I 9 .2 
21.8 

155 
116 
132 
20. o 

121 
131 

33 

. 59 
50 

15 
27 
1-77 
o.75 
1. 17 

1.25 
4 
I 

2.5 

9 200 

2 COO 

4700 
479 

183 
851 
80 

349 
98.2 
86.2 
92.6 


Dec. 26 
I.I7A.M. 
an. 13, '96 
2.15 P.M.; 
32-50 

12.33 
3.60 

5.98 
12.08 
3.28 
5.50 
1.03 
0.25 
0.48 
16480 
3597 
6685 
15853 
3 139 
6 215 

723 
271 

374 
453 
o 

M4 
300 
1 80 
198 

22 

4 
II 
23.6 
I 4 .6 
18.9 
144 
8 9 
114 

16.6 

IOI 

66 

12 
26 
870 
IOO 

230 
5-25 
1.91 
3-79 

4.26 

5 

2 

3-3 
27700 
I 8OO 
IO IOO 

559 

157 
928 

10 

328 
99-9 
91-3 
96.8 


fan. 13. '96 
12.15 P.M. 
Jan. 27 
II. 07 A.M. 
51-65 
7.18 
3.62 

5-10 
6-33 
3.07 
4-50 
o.73 
0.53 
0.60 
7704 
3285 
4749 
6472 
2798 
4165 
479 
244 
298 
440 
198 
258 
400 
1 80 
218 
26 

13 
16 
17.1 
M.7 
15.4 
104 
89 
93 
13-0 
79 
27 
ii 

17 

IOO 
20 
410 
6.08 
3.05 
3.6l 

4-31 
2 
2 
2.O 

to 300 

800 
4600 

84 
46 

127 

25 
72 
99.2 

94.2 
98.4 


Jan. 27 

1 1. 07 A.M. 

Feb. 6 
2.36 P.M. 
66-78 
8.70 
3-iS 
5.82 
8.03 
2.62 

5.15 
0.92 

o.57 
0.67 
8011 
2771 
537 
7487 
2092 

4 745 
586 

432 
497 
466 
219 
253 
250 
i So 
197 
3i 

12 
18 
16.8 
13-3 
15-4 
1 02 
Si 
93 
12.5 
76 
29 
8 
18 
461 
200 
320 
6.83 

2. So 

3-99 

4.87 

3 

i 

2.O 

81 ooo 
10600 

34400 

474 

136 
570 
54 
290 
99.8 
96.9 
99.1 


Feb. 6 

2.36 I'.M. 

Feb. 13 
2. II P.M. 

79-84 
6.78 
3-97 
5.27 
5.80 
3-35 
4-59 
0.98 
0.58 
0.68 
6082 
3683 
4788 
54(>7 
3258 
4286 
572 
437 
485 
407 
234 
278 
250 
180 

220 
24 
17 
21 
16.3 
15-1 
15.6 

99 
92 

95 
12. 

73 

21 
12 

16 

967 
550 
730 
4.87 
2. 2O 
3.70 

4.69 

3 

i 

' 2.O 
55000 
14400 
33800 

432 

252 

534 
238 
350 
99-4 
98.3 
99-0 


Feb. 13 

2.1 I I'.M. 

Feb. 27 

4.50P.M. 
85-100 
8.35 
3-45 
5.72 
8.07 
2.87 
5-25 
0.68 
0.28 
0.47 
8719 
3842 
6 119 
8491 
36.M 
5735 
56i 
295 
446 

493 
o 

145 
300 
1 80 
219 
26 
9 
13 
23.2 
16.8 
18.2 
141 
102 
110 
15.5 

94 
3i 

12 
22 
486 
136 
290 
6.90 
2.19 

3-66 

4.21 

4 
i 

2.2 
21 8OO 
4 IOO 
I600O 

2 3 8 

55 
219 
4i 

121 

99-7 
98.5 
99.2 


Feb. 27 
4.50P.M. 
Mar. 20 
9.00 A.M. 
IOI-I35 
6.O7 

2-43 

4.32 

5.78 
2.15 

3-97 

o.55 

O.22 

o-35 
8401 
3063 

5379 
8 182 
2885 
5 171 
i 286 
421 
509 
202 
o 

10 

300 

167 

181 
32 
S 

13" 
25.0 
17.6 
21.7 
152 
107 

131 
18.1 
no 
32 

10 

20 

2IO 
22 
40 
5.40 
I.9I 
3.36 

3-87 
3 

i 

i-9 

44000 

45oo 
17900 

365 

59 
735 
29 
224 
99.8 
95-0 
98.8 


j Hour 
Ended.. ..]B ate 


( Hour 


C Maximum 
Period of operation. (Hours. ) -! Minimum 
( Average 
( Maximum 
Period of service. (Hours.). . ? Minimum 
( Average 
I Maximum 
Period of wash. (Hours.) . . . -! Minimum 
( Average 
Quantity of applied water. ( Maximum 
(Cubic feet.) . . ] M>' mum 


( Average 

r\ i-i r cii. j ( Maximum 
Quantity of filtered water. \ Minimum 

(Cubic feet i 


( Average 
Quantity of wash water. ( Maximum 
(Cubic feet.) j Minimum 


( Average 
Quantity of filtered waste j Maximum 
water. (Cubic feet.) . . . j Ml lmum 


( Average 
Quantity of unfiltered waste \ Maximum 
water. (Cubic feet. ).. . . 1 Mlmmum 


( Average 
Percentage which wash and I Maximum 
waste water was of applied -| Minimum 
water ( Average 


I Maximum 
Actual Cubic feet per mill. < Minimum 
rate of ( Average 
filtra- ,.. i Maximum 

tion Mll -^\P eracre ) Minimum 
per 24 hours. ..| Ayerage 

Ave. net rate j Cubic feet per minute 


of nitration, j Mil. gals, per acre per 24 hr. 
Net quantity of filtered water I Maximum 
per run, in mil. gals. perJ Minimum 


Average estimated suspended ( Maximum 
solids in river water. (Parts J Minimum 
per million.) r Average 


Grains of applied sulphate of ( Maximum 
alumina per gallon of ap- -J Minimum 
plied water f Average 


Average grains of applied sulphate of alu- 
mina per gallon of net filtered water . . . 
Degree of clearness of fil- ( Maximum 
tired water. . J Minimum 


( Average 
Bacteria per cubic centimeter j Maximum 
in river water j Mimmum 
(. Average 
Average maximum number of bacteria per 


Average minimum number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in filtered water 


Bacteria per cubic centimeter ( Maximum 
in filtered water. . ] Mlnlmum 


( Average 
( Maximum 
Average bacterial efficiency... ] Minimum 
( Average 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



233 



NO. 4. 

RESULTS BY PERIODS. 

System. 



9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Mar. 20 


Mar. 23 


Mar. 30 


Apr. 7 


Apr. 27 


May 18 


May 28 


June 3 


June 9 


June 30 


July 6 


July 21 


9.00 A.M. 


9.30 A.M. 


4.23 P.M. 


12.37 P.M. 


9. 00 A.M. 


II.I4A.M. 


2.17 P.M. 


3.30P.M. 


9- 34 A.M. 


3.48 P.M. 


2.21 P.M. 


4.41 P.M. 


Mar. 23 


Mar. 30 


Apr. 7 


Apr. 27 


May 18 


May 28 


June 3 


June 9 


June 30 


July 6 


July 21 


July 31 


9.30 A.M. 


4.23 P.M. 


12.37 P.M. 


g.OO A.M. 


II.I4A.M. 


2.17 P.M. 


3.30P.M. 


9.34A.M. 


3.48P.M. 


2.21 P.M. 


4.41 P.M. 


g.OOA.M. 


136-141 


142-178 


179-195 


196-205 


206-240 


241-253 


254-275 


276-284 


285-302 


303-310 


3"-329 


330-346 


3.08 


5.60 


8.32 


11.80 


15-38 


21.40 


11.23 


10.88 


10 32 


5-23 


7.63 


7-25 


2.48 


2.42 


2.3O 


2.13 


7-45 


9.20 


2.08 


5-92 


4-43 


2.30 


3-73 


1.22 


2.92 


4.02 


3-95 


8.57 


11.27 


15-15 


4-47 


7.91 


6.77 


3-33 


5.46 


3 71 


2.77 


5.28 


8.00 


11.40 


14.92 


20.90 


10.67 


10.40 


9.87 


4.80 


7.22 


6.90 


1.98 


2.08 


2.03 


1.83 


6.88 


8.78 


1.67 


5-52 


4.07 


1.48 


3-33 


0.65 


2-53 


3-7 


3-65 


8.20 


10.80 


14.67 


3-97 


7-43 


6-34 


2.90 


5.08 


3-28 


0.50 


0.55 


o.35 


0.47 


0.68 


0.60 


0.60 


0.58 


0.62 


0-57 


o.47 


0.55 


0.30 


0.25 


0.27 


0.28 


0-35 


0.35 


0-35 


0.40 


0-33 


0-37 


0-33 


o.35 


0.37 


0.32 


' 0.30 


0.37 


0.47 


0.48 


0.50 


0.48 


0-43 


0.43 


0.38 


0.43 


3426 


5889 


8515 


15366 


18 164 


21 296 


12 607 


10865 


13326 


6 496 


10629 


9273 


2569 


2 256 


2 266 


2 118 


8240 


IOO&O 


2085 


7 154 


5518 


2337 


4451 


1471 


2991 


4 112 


4 016 


10015 


13394 


16044 


5049 


8737 


8617 


4188 


6876 


398i 


3248 


5740 


8086 


15378 


18283 


20485 


12 786 


10927 


13473 


6594 


9826 


9382 


2 129 


2 028 


2 117 


I 959 


8343 


8622 


2 131 


7292 


5549 


2030 


4500 


617 


2737 


3952 


3857 


10016 


13485 


15 540 


4672 


8726 


8590 


3966 


68go 


3871 


517 


556 


521 


650 


1073 


1389 


884 


728 


683 


670 


646 


878 


429 


353 


400 


421 


463 


611 


557 


617 


506 


473 


515 


424 


468 


440 


450 


518 


684 


985 


707 


672 


569 


563 


572 


622 











o 


o 


o 





o 


o 





o 


o 














o 











o 


b 








o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 








o 


o 


431 


228 


430 


176 


404 


150 


298 


44 


61 


386 


44 


412 


158 


167 


158 


44 


35 


44 


35 


44 


35 


44 


26 


44 


239 


177 


189 


118 


61 


70 


68 


44 


44 


127 


43 


158 


37 


28 


27 


28 


II 


9 


33 


10 


II 


41 


* 15 


79 


18 


II 


8 


4 


4 


4 


6 


6 


4 


10 


6 


8 


24 


15 


16 


6 


6 


7 


16 


8 


7 


17 


9 


19 


19-5 


18.9 


18.4 


25.0 


21.8 


19.7 


23.2 


22.7 


23.0 


23.3 


23-3 


23.1 


17-3 


16.2 


16.8 


17.4 


19.7 


16.1 


15.6 


16.4 


21. 


22.2 


22.1 


13.1 


17.9 


17.8 


17.6 


20.6 


20.8 


17-7 


19.7 


19.6 


22.6 


22-7 


22.6 


19.7' 


118 


114 


in 


152 


132 


Iig 


141 


137 


140 


142 


142 


141 


105 


98 


1 02 


105 


119 


98 


95 


99 


127 


134 


134 


80 


108 


1 08 


107 


125 


126 


107 


119 


119 


137 


137 


137 


119 


13.0 


12.7 


14.2 


18.3 


!8. 5 


17.1 


15-9 


16.9 


19.7 


17-4 


I 9 . 1 


14-3 


79 


77 


86 


III 


112 


104 


96 


I O2 


119 


105 


116 


87 


12 


22 


33 


61 


73 


84 


49 


43 


53 


24 


34 


35 


6 


7 


7 


6 


31 


35 


6 


27 


20 


7 


16 


5 


10 


15 


14 


39 


52 


52 


18 


31 


33 


15 


26 


13 


I 276 


660 


I 131 


370 


1 80 


200 


829 


459 


582 


1674 


637 


3347 


993 


338 


400 


70 


57 


38 


540 


1 60 


210 


720 


igo 


I 050 


i 130 


450 


800 


180 


100 


90 


680 


290 


295 


i 090 


440 


I 740 


6.60 


9.08 


6.72 


1.92 


2.68 


1. 80 


5.90 


5-33 


4.67 


6.07 


5-75 


g.62 


5-21 


2.78 


3.25 


0.73 


0-49 


0.83 


3-16 


2.32 


I.IO 


3-37 


2.29 


3-36 


5-97 


4-43 


5.07 


1.33 


1.41 


1-33 


4-52 


4-03 


2.64 


4.61 


3.02 


6.27 


7-85 


5-22 


6.03 


1.42 


1.50 


i-43 


5-50 


4-38 


2.84 


5-55 


3-32 


7-75 


2 


5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


2 


2 


2 


i 


i 


I 


2 


I 


I 


i 


2 


2 


2.0 


2.8 


2.6 


2.O 


2.1 


1.6 


2.0 


1-7 


1.7 


2.0 


2.2 


3-1 


60 loo 


55400 


42700 


17 800 


7400 


10 500 


28 7OO 


14000 


13900 


24 2OO 


17 loo 


34 loo 


41 600 


25 700 


19 200 


4 ooo 


3 700 


i 500 


8 20O 


4 goo 


6 500 


9500 


5 500 


95oo 


54600 


40300 


27700 


9500 


5 600 


4500 


20 IOO 


8600 


9500 


15000 


8 900 


22 IOO 


^00 


211 


2O1 


l6e 


T JO 


1 12 




C 


16*3 




80 


604 


J^V 
IO.1 


78 


*VJ 

III 


ivg 

62 


LI|M 
7-7 


2O 




DO 
23 


***j 
M 




U\J 

IQ 


22^ 


ll-f 

329 


/" 
245 


635 


295 


/ J 
1075 


*y 
116 


293 


*J 

87 


^ D 

298 


105 


J" 

95 


^^3 

i 475 


93 


50 


35 


23 


II 


32 


40 


22 


20 


40 


i? 


13 


181 


1 2O 


145 


113 


137 


57 


106 


40 


106 


70 


47 


354 


99.8 


99-9 


99.8 


99.8 


99.8 


99-4 


99.8 


998 


99-7 


99-7 


99-8 


99-9 


99.4 


95-4 


99-7 


96.3 


85.5 


97-4 


98.7 


99.8 


95-3 


99.0 


98.6 


94-7 


99-7 


99-7 


99-5 


98.8 


97-5 


98.7 


99-5 


99'5 


98.9 


99-5 


99-5 


98.4 



234 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No 

SUMMARIES OF RESULTS 
Jewel 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Began... . . -I ate 


Dct.2i,'95 
12.03 p -M- 
S T ov 21/95 

II. 38 A.M. 
I-I2 
21. IO 
5.20 

I3-I7 
20.78 
4.85 
12.82 
0.50 
O.27 
0-35 
36355 
7896 
19889 

34677 
7781 
19363 
731 
259 
519 
O 


o 

235 

32 

104 

8 

2 

3 
27.8 
22.9 
25-3 

112 

93 
1 02 

24.4 
99 
99 
20 

54 
25 
7 
16 
2.41 
0.40 
0.68 

0.70 

3 
i 
1.6 

675 
126 

371 
473 

56 
367 
26 

154 
83.1 
o.o 

59-o 


Nov. 21 
[1.38 A.M. 
Dec. 24 

1-36 P.M. 

13-20 

28.83 

16.60 
21.97 
26.10 

15.93 
21.40 

0-95 
0.33 
o 57 

40391 
21 730 
30524 

38352 
20488 
29701 
856 

534 
676 
o 
o 



214 

32 

IOO 

3 

2 

3 

24-5 

21.5 
23.1 
99 
87 
93 
22.5 

105 

59 
82 

35 
15 
26 
1.26 
0.48 
0.87 

0.90 

3 
i 
1.6 

8 700 

2 IOO 

4400 

611 

"5 
659 
77 
271 

97-3 
83.5 
93-8 


Dec. 24 . 
1.36 P.M. 
fan. 13, '96 
9.44 A.M. 
21-29 
16.30 

6-97 

II. OO 

15-65 
6.57 

10.38 
1.03 

037 
0.62 

21 089 
7932 
13673 
21 335 
7947 
13643 
I 025 
467 
665 

443 
o 

122 
32 
32 
32 
II 

3 
6 
23.1 
20. i 
21.9 
93 
81 
89 
19-5 
79 
57 
20 
36 
850 
80 

345 
4.42 
1.25 
2-35 

2.50 

5 
2 
3-2 
27 6OO 
I 8OO 
9700 

550 

162 

546 
202 
297 
98.2 
88.8 
96.9 


"an. 13, '96 
9.44 A.M. 
Jan. 25 
2.OO P.M. 
30-34 
23-55 
16.08 
18.80 
23.12 
15-57 
18.38 
o 52 
0.32 
0.42 
354io 

22 289 
2(> 464 
34946 
22351 
26442 
458 
432 

443 
301 



60 
32 
32 
32 
4 
i 
2 
25.2 
23.4 
24.0 
IO2 

95 
97 
24.1 
97 
97 
60 

73 
60 

20 

35 

1. 12 

0.83 
0.96 

0.98 

3 

2 
2.6 
6800 
I 300 

3 800 
315 

105 
248 
164 
1 86 

96-3 
86.4 

95-1 


Jan. 25 
2.OO P.M. 

Feb. 6 
2.33 P.M. 
35-39 
14.58 
8.55 
H-35 
14-23 
8.22 
10.87 
0.83 

0-33 
0.48 
2O6O7 
II074 
15299 
20433 
10715 
15 O62 
6l 7 
383 

447 
310 
o 
136 
32 
32 
32 
9 

2 

4 
24.0 
21.2 
23.1 

97 

86 

93 

21.6 

87 

56 

28 

41 
460 
250 
320 
2.32 
1. 21 
1.72 

1. 80 

5 

2 

3-7 
54 loo 
10 900 
22 900 

i 779 

912 

2372 
688 
1088 
98.0 
86.0 
95-3 


Feb. 6 
2.33 P.M. 
Feb. ii 
9.45 A.M. 
40-42 
9-63 
8-33 
9.02 

9-35 
7.80 

8.45 
0.87 
0.28 

0.57 
13 280 
10225 
ii 509 
13 127 

10 22O 

11319 

538 
49 
517 
403 



134 
32 
32 
32 
9 
4 
6 

23-4 
21.5 

23-3 
95 
87 
94 
22.5 

91 

35 
27 

30 
970 
580 
730 
2-39 
2.16 
2.25 

2.40 

4 
2 

3-o 
41 200 
14 400 
33 loo 

1446 

418 
1346 
740 
960 
981 

94-9 
97.1 


Feb. ii 
3 45A.M. 
Feb. 29 
3.58 A.M. 
43-52 
20 55 
7-95 
13-52 
20.07 
7-45 
12.95 
0.83 
0.37 
o.57 
22575 
to 224 
16 523 

22 950 
10237 
16770 

810 
505 
579 
308 



66 
32 
32 

'? 

2 

4 
29.0 
14.0 

21.6 

118 
57 
87 
19.6 

79 

62 

27 
44 
430 
1 20 
290 
4.82 
1.36 
2.78 

2.90 

5 

2 
2.9 
21 800 
4700 
15 6OO 

2OO2 

245 
I 6OO 

504 
I OI5 

97-4 
90.6 

93 5 


Feb. 29 
3.58 A.M. 
Mar. 20 
3. 37 A.M. 
53-64 
24.17 

6.73 
11.84 
23.80 
6.30 
11.54 
0-43 
0.25 
0.30 
35421 
S 790 
17404 
35 292 
8 840 
17634 
844 
442 
559 
97 



8 
214 



31 

10 
2 

3 
30.1 

23-4 
25-5 

122 

95 
103 

24-5 

99 
96 

22 
47 
2IO 
50 
70 

1-55 
0.65 
1.06 

i. ii 

5 

2 

34400 
9400 

18 500 

779 

124 
1645 
35 
533 
99-6 
94-7 
97-i 


( Hour 
Ended . . J R ate 


( Hour 
Runs included in period 


I Maximum 
Period of operation. (Hours.) 1 Minimum 
( Average 
C Maximum 
Period of service. (Hours.). . 1 Minimum 
( Average 
( Maximum 
Period of wash. (Hours.). . . . -J Minimum 
( Average 
Quantity of applied water. Maximum 
(Cubic feet. ).. 3 Minimum 


( Average 
Quantity of filtered water. j M' ' 


( Average 
Quantity of wash water. ] Maximum 
(Cubic feet.) ] Minimum 


( Average 
Quantity of filtered waste ] Maximum 
water. (Cubic feetj. 1 Minimum 




( Average 
Percentage which wash and j Maximum 
waste water was of applied -j Minimum 


f ( Maximum 
Actual Cubic feet per min. 1 Minimum 
rate of I ( Average 
filtra- i .,.1 , ( Maximum 
tion Mil. gals per acre i Minimum 

[ P er2 * hours ---( Average 
Ave. net rate j Cubic feet per minute 
of filtration j Mil. gals, per acre per 24 hr. 
Net quantity of filtered waste] Maximum 

.per run, mil. gals, per acre j M '' mum 
( Average 

Average estimated suspended I Maximum 
solids in river water. (Parts -J Minimum 
per million) ( Average 


Grains of applied sulphate I Maximum 
of alumina per gallon of-| Minimum 
applied water r Average 


Average grains of applied sulphate of 
alumina per gallon of net filtered water. 
Degree of clearness of filtered ( Maximum 
water ] Minimum 


( Average 
Bacteria per cubic centimeter j Maximum 
in river water,. {Minimum 


( Average 
Average maximum number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in filtered water 


Average minimum number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in filtered water 


Bacteria per cubic centimeter] Maximum 
in filtered water. . . . 1 Minimum 


( Average 
I Maximum 
Average bacterial efficiency. . < Minimum 
( Average 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



235 



4. Continued. 
BY PERIODS. 
System. 



9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Mar. 20 


Mar. 21 


Mar. 30 


Apr. 7 


Apr. 27 


May 18 


May 28 


June 3 


June 9 


July i 


July 6 


July 22 


9-37 A.M. 


5. 08 P.M. 


10. 30A.M. 


9.23 A.M. 


9.25 A.M. 


1. 12 P.M. 


II.O5 A.M. 


2. 2O P.M. 


10.56 A.M. 


3-55 P.M. 


2. 2O P.M. 


1 0.24 A.M. 


Mar. 21 


Mar. 30 


Apr. 7 


Apr. 27 


May 18 


May 28 


June 3 


June g 


July i 


July 6 


July 22 


July 30 


5.08 P.M. 


10.30 A.M. 


9.23 A.M. 


9.25 A.M. 


1. 12 P.M. 


11.05 A.M. 


2. 2O P.M. 


10.56 A.M. 


3-55 P-M. 


2. 2O P.M. 


IO. 24A.M. 


ii. 37 A.M. 


65-69 


70-96 


97-1 i i 


112-125 


126-148 


149-158 


159-184 


185-204 


205-234 


235-238 


239-256 


257-272 


3-58 


8.83 


6. 02 


16.92 


21. OO 


34-77 


8.55 


8.68 


13-68 


7.0O 


8.97 


8.52 


2-73 


3-17 


i. 08 


S.go 


5-57 


13-77 


0.93 


1. 08 


1-43 


1.85 


1.98 


0.72 


3.20 


5.65 


3.86 


9-79 


16.90 


21.63 


2.65 


3-55 


5.02 


4-25 


5-55 


3-48 


3-18 


8.53 


5-77 


16.62 


20.70 


34-48 


8.30 


8.45 


I3-I5 


6.5O 


8-57 


7.98 


2.38 


2.63 


0.15 


3.67 


5.40 


13-50 


0.63 


0.82 


1.18 


1-43 


1.28 


0.52 


2.85 


5-35 


3-53 


9.52 


16.62 


21.35 


2-43 


3-30 


4.70 


3-85 


5-13 


3.10 


0.43 


0.70 


0-93 


0.32 


0.48 


o.35 


0.30 


0-35 


0.77 


0.50 


0.38 


0.60 


0.27 


0.18 


0.23 


0.2O 


0.17 


0.20 


0.17 


O.2O 


O.2O 


0.23 


0.27 


O.20 


0-35 


0.30 


0-33 


O.27 


0.28 


0.28 


O.22 


0.25 


0.32 


0.40 


0.42 


0.38 


4437 


12 l8l 


7814 


23 952 


3I3I9 


51 286 


12533 


12540 


18448 


9046 


12274 


12 274 


3283 


3903 


776 


5158 


8 623 


21 OI2 


I 032 


2637 


2380 


2062 


2316 


858 


3948 


7427 


5050 


13641 


25565 


33604 


4 220 


5627 


7 !29 


5553 


7699 


4024 


4434 


12513 


8015 


24483 


32 264 


51483 


12 22g 


12463 


17699 


8971 


12396 


9903 


335 


3770 


183 


5 286 


8817 


20795 


i 041 


I 806 


2 091 


1 860 


i 888 


855 


3989 


7659 


5094 


13927 


26 225 


34174 


3904 


5443 


7105 


5 360 


7497 


4038 


625 


617 


745 


1073 


874 


732 


799 


801 


1996 


M43 


I 105 


I 078 


469 


395 


464 


427 


. 398 


508 


469 


486 


515 


958 


582 


376 


555 


510 


598 


636 


580 


606 


59 1 


587 


756 


I 151 


860 


772 


12 


245 


592 


o 


176 


93 


206 


107 


763 


81 


417 


"3 





o 














o 


o 





o 


o 


o ' 


2 


17 


75 


o 


9 


12 


15 


19 


78 


43 


73 


10 


114 


o 





274 





O 


o 


o 


214 


o 


187 


198 : 


O 





o 








O 


o 





o 


o 


o 





23 


o 





15 





o 


o 


o 


7 


o 


20 


37 


18 


22 


142 


8 


6 


3 


47 


20 


31 


51 


50 


63 


ii 


5 


7 


3 


i 


I 


6 


5 


5 


16 


6 


IO 


15 


7 


13 


5 


2 


2 


15 


ii 


12 


21 


12 


20 


23.8 


25.2 


24.9 


25.3 


27.2 


29.6 


34-5 


35-2 


37-0 


23.8 


25.0 


30.9 


22.6 


22.7 


20.3 


23.2 


25.1 


24.4 


20.5 


24-5 


22.4 


21.6 


23.1 


18.2 


23-3 


23-8 


24.0 


24.4 


26.3 


26.7 


26.8 


27-5 


25.2 


23.2 


24.2 


21.8 


96 


IO2 


IOI 


1 02 


no 


1 20 


140 


143 


ISO 


96 


IOI 


126 


91 


92 


82 


94 


IOI 


99 


83 


99 


91 


87 


93 


74 


94 


96 


97 


99 


106 


108 


108 


in 


102 


94 


98 


88 


17-5 


20. 2 


19.0 


22.2 


24.6 


25-4 


22.6 


23-5 


20.7 


17.1 


20. i 


15-5 


71 


82 


77 


90 


IOO 


103 


91 


95 


8 4 


69 


81 


63 


105 


32 


20 


65 


86 


141 


32 


33 


45 


21 


3i 


24 


7 


8 


o 


13 


22 


57 


2 


5 


5 


3 


3 


I 


9 


19 


12 


3 6 


70 


9i 


IO 


14 


i? 


12 


19 


9 


I 280 


73 


I 130 


350 


190 


130 


830 


460 


590 


I 7OO 


690 


3400 


990 


340 


490 


70 


60 


40 


4OO 


160 


1 80 


I OOO 


190 


i 200 


I 130 


450 


850 


160 


IOO 


80 


640 


300 


340 


I 310 


450 


i 860 


5.40 


5-23 


6.32 


2.23 


3.66 


1.84 


6.92 


7-70 


7.61 


7-45 


7.17 


12.62 


2.88 


2.39 


3-10 


0.96 


I-I3 


0.56 


1.46 


3.52 


1.29 


5.30 


4.26 


5.76 


4.17 


3-44 


4-36 


1-34 


1.76 


1.26 


4.76 


4.96 


4-29 


6.35 


5.65 


8.58 


4.91 


3-70 


5.O2 


1.41 


1. 80 


1.29 


5.60 


5-58 


5.00 


8.14 


6.58 


10.72 


3 


4 


3 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


I 


I 


I 


i 


I 


I 


I 


I 


2 


3.0 


2.6 


2.6 


1-4 


1.2 


1.4 


2.7 


1.8 


1-3 


i-7 


1.6 


1.2 


60 100 


53000 


42 7OO 


19000 


8300 


6 200 


32500 


16 700 


18000 


24 200 


17 ioo 


37300 


41 600 


25 900 


I94OO 


3 ioo 


3700 


i 800 


8 200 


4300 


6000 


12 200 


5 ioo 


9500 


55 300 


40 ioo 


28 ioo 


8000 


5700 


4300 


19 300 


8 800 


9300 


ISOOO 


9300 


22 IOO 




581 


110 


12^ 


684 


rcg 






2IQ 


98 


122 






3>J *. 
2/11 


t^TP 

264 


if -j 
27 


oe 


* O u 
o -2 






* 7 

68 


V 
2Q 


26 




1905 


*>l\-\ 

I 250 


1495 


^ / 
164 


*D 
1 6O 


JJ 

92 


475 


107 


655 


*v 
127 


409 


745 


440 


103 


32 


8 


12 


38 


22 


7 


5 


4 


3 


6 


968 


416 


522 


50 


4 8 


73 


IgO 


47 


9i 


43 


62 


86 


99-3 


99-7 


99.8 


99-8 


99-7 


98.8 


99-8 


99-9 


99-9 


99-9 


99-9 


99-9 


96.6 


97-7 


95.0 


98.2 


97.6 


94.9 


97.6 


98.9 


91.0 


99-5 


94.1 


97-8 


98-3 


99-o 


98.1 


99-4 


99-2 


98.3 


99.0 


99-5 


99.0 


99.8 


99-3 


99.6 



236 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE 
SUMMARIES OF 

Western Gravity 





1 


2 


3 

i 


4 


6 6 


7 


8 




( Date 






)ec.24,'95j 

9.42A.M. 
an. 14, '96 
0.52A.M. 
2-16 
23.13 
2.38 
8.C2 

22.75 

1.88 
7.70 
0.50 
0.17 
0.32 
13 036 
i 564 
4544 

12 679 

982 
4267 

616 
162 
419 
242 

37 

IOI 

400 
50 
169 
48 
5 
15 
n.6 

7-9 
9.2 

72 
48 
57 
8.0 

49 
51 
4 
17 
870 
80 
290 


an. 14, "96 

0.52A.M. 
Jan. 27 
9.29 A.M. 

17-26 

13-93 

6.72 
8.37 
13-40 
6.42 
8.07 
0-53 

O.20 
O.3O 
II 766 

73" 
9969 

II 534 
6989 
9632 
864 
350 
448 

215 

74 
129 

347 
o 
208 

12 

7 
8 

24-7 
II. 4 
19.9 
152 
70 
123 
18.3 
"3 
45 
28 

39 
50 
17 

27 

1.65 

0.71 
1.07 

1.16 

2 

I 

1.6 

7300 
i 900 
4 800 

195 

- 98 
228 
68 
148 
98.6 
92.6 
96.9 


Jan. 27 
9.2gA.M. 
Feb. 7 
9.23 A.M. 

27-39 
7.90 
3.28 

4.95 
7.70 
2.98 
4.67 

0.32 
O.2O 
0.28 
7098 
2305 
4058 
6982 
2 009 
375 
839 
269 
466 

174 
40 
103 
6OO 
50 
25O 
50 

7 

20 
I5.I 

10.7 
13.2 

94 
64 

81 

II. 

68 
28 
6 

14 
460 
200 
320 

2.79 
1.23 
1.86 

3-32 
4 
I 
2.2 
8l OCO 
I200O 

37 600 
880 

386 
1586 
127 
679 
99.0 
92.7 
98.2 


Feb. 7 

3.23 A.M. i 
Feb. II 
9.21 A.M. 
40-48 
3.83 
1.88 
2.82 

3-57 
1.62 
2.52 
0.40 
0.27 
0.30 

3375 
i 240 
2257 
2748 
951 
i 805 
503 
256 

404 
227 
109 

151 
400 

IOO 

301 

66 
23 
3S 
15-9 
5.8 
ii. 7 
98 
36 

72 

8.3 
51 
10 

2 

6 
970 
640 

780 


Feb. ii 

g.21 A.M. 

Feb. 28 

2.12 P.M. 
49-80 
7.07 
0.50 

3.68 
6.80 
0.25 

3-43 
0.38 
0.17 
0.25 
6967 
258 
3 206 
6812 

79 
2951 
620 
97 
425 
179 
3i 
104 
730 
o 

154 
146 

9 
21 
19.2 

5-3 
14.4 

118 
33 
89 
ii. 5 
71 
27 



ii 
560 
no 
280 

9-33 

0.78 

i-94 

2.46 

3 
i 

1-5 
28 ooo 
4 loo 
16 200 

652 

3" 
i 137 
69 

541 
99-5 
93.0 
96.7 


Feb. 28 

2.12 P.M. 
Mar. 20 
O.Og A.M. 
81-100 
11.77 
2.48 
7-30 
11.47 
2.23 
7.07 
0.32 
0.18 
0.23 
13798 

2 552 

S 502 

13 50 
2087 
8236 
613 
4O2 
527 

218 

41 

98 

420 

70 

178 
42 

5 
9 
20.3 

13.9 
19-5 
126 

85 
121 

17.7 
IOg 
56 

6 

33 
2IO 
40 
67 
1.42 

0.59 
0.78' 

0.86 

2 
I 

1-5 
39700 
7700 

22 OOO 

735 

285 
1941 
140 
520 
98-9 
95-1 
97-6 


Be & an JHour 
FnrfeH i Date 






Ended ' ' ' ' \ Hour 







( Maximum 
Period of operation. (Hours. )x Minimum 
( Average 
( Maximum 
Period of service. (Hours.). . \ Minimum 
( Average 
( Maximum 
Period of wash. (Hours.). . . -1 Minimum 
( Average 

( Maximum 
Quantity of applied water. I Minimum 














































(Cubic feet.) (Average 

r r ,^ , ( Maximum 
Quantity of filtered water. \ Minimum 

(Cubic feet ) . . 














( Average 
._. ... , , ( Maximum 
Q rCubcfeen Minimum 










eet -> (Average 

.,..,, i Maximum 
Quantity of filtered waste \ Minimum 














water. (Cubic feet.) } Average 

( Maximum 
Quantity of unfi tered waste \ Mjnimum 














water. (Cubic feet.) ^ Average 
Percentage which wash and ( Maximum 
waste water was of applied J. Minimum 
water ( Average 


















I Maximum 
Actual Cubic feet per min. -J Minimum 
rate of ( Average 
filtra- i Maximum 
Son. Mil. gals per acre \ Minimum 
per 24 hours... -| Average 

Ave net rate j Cubic feet per minute 






























of filtration, j Mil. gals, per acre per 24 hr 
Net quantity of filtered waste j Maximum 
per run, in mil. gals, per-! Minimum 
acre 1 Average 


















Average estimated suspended ( Maximum 
solids in river water. (Parts -j Minimum 
per million.) ( Average 














Grains of applied sulphate of ( Maximum 
alumina per gallon of ap- ! Minimum 
plied water ( Average 


















2.67 

3.14 
3 

i 

i-7 
32400 
i 800 

8 200 

396 

214 

783 

81 
302 
98.8 
93-2 
9-3 


3.22 

5.20 

3 
I 

2.0 
55000 
14400 
34500 


Average grains of applied sulphate of alu- 
mina per gallon of net filtered water . . . 






, ,-, ( Maximum 
Degree of clearness of fil- \ Minimum 










tered water J Average 
Bacteria per cubic centimeter Maximum 














in river water (Average 
Average maximum number of bacteria pei 










Average minimum number of bacteria pei 
cubic centimeter in filtered water .... 








Bacteria per cubic centimeter^ 
m filtered water { Average 
( Maximum 
Average bacterial efficiency. . < Minimum 
( Average 






I 600 
252 
679 

99-3 
95-9 
98.0 



























SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



237 



No. 4. Continued. 
RESULTS BY PERIODS. 
System. 



9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


Mar. 20 


















July 2 


July 10 


July 24 


10 09 p M. 


















9 37 A.M. 


9.32 A.M. 


IO.55 A.M 


Tulv 2 


















Tulv 10 


Tulv 24. 


Tulv **i 


9.37 A.M. 


















9.32 A.M. 


IO.55 A.M. 


5.17 P.M. 


IOI-IO6 


















107-114 


II5-I2O 


I2I-I23 


1.23 


















4.48 


8.12 


6.23 


0.78 


















1.25 


1.78 


1.25 


I.O7 


















2.O5 


4.70 


3.75 


I.OO 


















3.97 


7-37 


3-3 


0.53 


















0.80 


1.13 


I.OI 


0.79 


















i 57 


4 08 


2 S,^ 


0.58 


















0.60 


0.75 


2.73 


0.17 


















0.40 


0.43 


0.23 


0.28 


















0.48 


,0.62 


1.22 


I 133 


















3 537 


7023 


4788 


616 


















935 


I 248 


I OI4 


996 


















I 564 


4067 


2 920 


I 081 


















3 2 53 


6 753 


2981 


280 


















613 


i 005 


715 


580 


















i 262 


3 760 


2 O27 


784 


















892 


qio 


I 208 


45 


















47O 


727 


631 


H68 


















6O I 


806 


9OI 


322 


















36O 


393 


I 672 


59 


















I7Q 


1 06 


61 


129 


















261 


284 


688 


660 


















IOO 


240 


240 


4 


















o 


o 


130 


287 


















52 


IO2 


200 


119 


















Q-l 


5 


QI 


13 


















3-7 


10 


46 


99 


















58 


20 


61 


19.3 


















TA T 


m 7 


14 2 


8.8 


















12 8 


id 8 




12.5 


















I -a c 


1C -3 


I a -3 


119 


















80 


IOI 




55 


















B 


06 




77 


















87 




86 


1.6 
























10 




















6c 




2 




















26 


g 


o 




















6 




o 






















6 


I 3OO 
























QQO 
























I IIO 














































C Sn 




















c iR 
























8 58 




























4 


4 






















13.4 


















































6*3 ^OO 
























41 600 
























51 800 








































































I OOO 
























500 
























736 


















65 






QQ.2 
























97.6 




















08 i 




98.6 




















08 o 
















1 













WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



TABLE No. 

SUMMARIES OF 
Western Pressure 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 

Jan. 27 
3-51 P.M. 
Feb. 7. 
9.32 A M. 
15-21 

8.73 
7-25 
8.00 
8.27 
6.97 

7.63 
047 
0.28 

0-37 
II 660 
7656 
9 609 
11479 
7431 
9395 
790 
471 
626 
-280 
1 66 
214 
o 
o 



12 

7 
9 
24.0 

16.4 
20.5 

170 

Ji5 
146 
18.3 

130 
53 
33 
42 
464 
244 
340 
2.64 

i-39 
2.04 

2.24 

5 
i 

2.4 
71 ooo 

12 4OO 
39OOO 

I 087 

428 
I 461 
188 
76O 
99.1 

93-2 
98.1 


6 


7 


8 

Feb. 27 
2.IOP.M. 
Mar. 20 
9. 2O A.M. 
45-52 
25.42 
8.50 
19.40 
25.17 

8.00 
19.05 
0.50 
0.25 

0-35 

35056 
10445 
26859 

34825 

IOOOI 

26 642 

898 
606 

749 
444 

101 

218 
o 



o 

12 
2 
4 
24.2 
20.8 

23.3 
171 
148 

165 

22.2 
157 

166 
44 

125 

210 
40 
70 

1-44 
0.69 
0.84 

0.86 

3 
i 
1.8 
37500 
8 700 
17 800 

i 549 

221 

I 382 
233 
556 
98.2 
91.8 
96.9 




Beaan 1 Date 


Dec.23,'95 

IO.35 A. M 

Jan. 1 4, '96 

11.03 A. M 
I-IO 
32.72 

6-55 
12 02 
32.38 
6.1 3 
II.&7 
0.42 
0.22 
0.35 
43978 
6 906 
13 690 
43 703 
"745 
13 550 
760 

493 
653 

185 
81 

143 
o 
o 


12 
2 

6 
22.5 
14.8 
19-4 

160 
105 

138 
17.9 
127 
209 
32 

62 
870 
100 
320 


Jan. 14, '96 

II. 03A.M. 

Jan. 27 
3 51 I-.M. 
11-14 
28.47 
18.55 
22.92 
iS.08 
18.25 
22.54 
0.55 
0.30 
0.38 
47 172 
31 213 
35382 
46939 
31 M7 
35 156 
683 
638 
663 

309 
176 
225 



o 
o 

3 

2 
2 
28.4 
22-3 
27.8 
202 
158 
197 
25.2 
I 7 8 
225 
142 

168 

IOO 
20 

42 
1.37 
0.87 
1. 06 

1. 08 

2 
I 
I.I 

7 ooo 

2 300 

4 800 

421 

82 

322 
116 
206 

96.8 

95.0 
95-7 


Feb. 7 
9.32 A.M. 
Feb. ii 

11.32 A.M 
22-27 
8.27 
2.72 

4-35 
7-97 
2.55 
4.07 
0.32 
0.27 
0.28 
9722 

3263 

5 128 

953* 

3081 

4938 
662 

43i 
520 
269 
141 
190 
o 
o 


21 

9 
14 
26.5 
18.4 

20. 2 

188 
131 
143 
16.9 
119 
43 
13 

21 
967 
636 
750 
3.08 
0.71 
3-22 

3-75 
3 

i 

2.0 

55000 
14400 
32500 

i 027 

459 
967 
166 
68 1 
98.9 
95-8 
97-9 


Feb. ii 
11.32 A.M. 

Feb. 27 

2. IO P.M. 

28-44 
13.13 

3-23 
6.55 
12.78 
3.02 
6.25 
0.38 
O.22 
0.30 
17 997 
3896 
8368 
17819 

3739 
8 219 
832 
375 
602 
271 
68 
149 
o 
o 



17 

5 
9 
23-5 
19.9 
21.9 
166 
141 

155 
19.4 
138 
83 
16 

39 
500 
126 
290 
4-23 
i. 06 
2.25 

2.48 

5 
I 
2.4 
28000 
10700 
16 600 

829 

257 
975 
151 
544 
99-2 
91-3 
96.7 


Began \ Hour 
Ended.. .J ate 






j Hour 
Runs included in period 






(' Maximum 
Period of operation. (Hours.) \ Minimum 
( Average 
(Maximum 
Minimum 
Average 
( Maximum 
Period of wash. (Hours.) . . . -J Minimum 
( Average 

Quantity of applied water. Maximum 
iCnhir frpt ^ 1 Minimum 







































( Average 
Quantity of filtered water. (Maximum 
(Cubic feet.) j Minimum 














( Average 
Quantity of wash water. j Maximum 
iCiMr fret > 1 Minimum 










( Average 

Quantity of filtered waste j Maximu 
^Qfpv (PnH.v feef \ "i Minimum 














( Average 

Quantity of unfiltered waste ( Maximum 
m i.- r i \ X Minimum 














water. (Cubic feet.) 
( Average 

Percentage which wash and I Maximum 
waste water was of applied < Minimum 
water ( Average 


















( Maximum 
Actual Cubic feet per min. ) Minimum 
rate of , ( Average 

arl-.jje-JSs 

^ ( Average 
Ave. net rate j Cubic feet per minute 






























of filtration j Mil. gals per acre per 24 hr. 
Net quantity of filtered waste ( Maximum 
per in, ini.il. gals, per acre jJJEjJ 1 

Average estimated suspended ( Maximum 
solids in river water. (Parts 1 Minimum 
per million. ) ( Average 






























Grains of applied sulphate ("Maximum 
of alumina per gallon of ! Minimum 
applied water (^ Average 
















2.67 
2.84 

2 

I 

1.6 

35 7oo 
I 800 
9 200 

459 

183 
I 032 
107 

287 
98.8 

93-9 
96.9 


Average grains of applied sulphate of alu- 
mina per gallon of net filtered water. . . . 






Degree of clearness of filtered j Maximum 
water ) Mlmmum 










' ( Average 

Bacteria per cubic centimeter ( Maximum 
vpr water 1 Minimum 














( Average 
Average maximum number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in filtered water 










Average minimum number of bacteria per 
cubic centimeter in filtered water 






Bacteria per cubic centimeter ( Maximum 
in river water 1 Minimum 










( Average 
i Maximum 
Average bacterial efficiency. . . ) Minimum 
( Average 























SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



4. Concluded. 
RESULTS BY PERIODS. 
System. 



9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 










Mav 7 


May 18 


May 28 






Tulv i 


Tulv 6 




g.2O A.M. 


9.19 A M. 


9.14 A.M. 




9-OO A.M. 

May 1 8 


9.15 A.M. 
Mav 28 


12. l8 P.M 

June 3 


5.19 P.M. 


9.45 A.M. 

July i 


g.OO A.M. 
lulv 6 


9.12 A.M. 
Tulv 22 


9. 05 A.M. 


9.19 A.M. 


9. 14 A.M. 

58 82 


g.OO A.M. 

8 7 Q.1 




9.15 A.M. 


12. 18 P.M. 


5.19 P.M. 
TT1-IC7 


945 A.M. 

158 183 


g.oo A.M. 


9.12 A.M. 

225-228 


9.05A.M. 


3-43 P.M. 






8 52 




22.58 


54 -6 2 


14. 12 


7 17 


8.QO 


3.73 


8.52 




2 08 




7 28 




II QO 


20 87 


O 7O 


o 80 


O 77 


I .41 


I 48 




3.28 

4-33 


5.95 

8.73 


5-55 
8.27 





13-94 

22.37 
n . 60 


39-97 
54.67 
20 63 


2.O9 
13.00 
O. ^2 


2.62 

7.08 
o 6^ 


3.32 

8.57 

O 57 


2.IO 

3.12 

O.Q2 


3-77 
8.27 

I 22 


2-43 
4-lS 

O 71 




c 67 


c 27 




13 62 




1.82 






I 60 


1 17 








0.38 




o 40 


o. 53 


1 .40 


O 51 


0.45 


O.55 


O.6O 


I IO 






O 21 




O 22 


O 21 


o. 15 


o it; 


O 15 


0.38 


O 21 


O 17 




o 28 


o 28 




O 12 


O 12 


O 27 




O 27 


O. 5O 






1 787 


8 7Q7 


8 746 










8 224 




1 511 


8551 








2 1O7 




16 048 


21 446 


C-IQ 


821 


7Q7 


I 251 


I 578 


647 




c r66 








ae 4O7 






1 458 




3 688 








8 87=; 










8215 






8 1?Q 


1684 


2043 

2 871 


3070 


2062 





16053 

18 883 


21 786 
je c6l 


464 

I 764 


750 


713 

1 l6o 


935 
I 6l5 


I 281 


6, 7 

I 777 


763 
621; 


962 
625 


764 
656 




791 

481 


783 

6lO 


I 257 
1IO 


857 

180 


794 

124 


79 8 

735 


936 
564 


831 

d8.i 


696 








617 


671 


187 




577 


766 




658 


204 


IQI 


245 




27O 


12Q 


I 255 


286 


253 


206 


374 


742 


128 


c8 


86 




68 


IO7 


44 


AC. 


53 


7Q 


C-5 


27 






1^6 




168 


165 


rii 


IOO 


I2T 


214 


175 
















o 




o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




o 


o 






o 


o 


o 




o 


o 


o 




AA 


ai 


40 




6 


4 


2l8 


61 


84 


81 


54 


I5O 


22 


IO 






3 


2 


8 


6 


7 


30 


IO 


17 


2O 


1 5 


17 




4 


2 


^8 


24 


20 


12 


25 








18 5 




24.2 


17 6 


20 8 






17.2 


2O 2 


15 6 


I a e 


ij 6 


1 1 . 7 




22 . I 


14 .0 


12 .6 


11 O 


16.7 


16.8 


15 . 4 


111 


16 2 


16 4 


ICQ 




23. I 




16 2 




18 4 


17 .0 


17. 1 


14 6 




lafi 


I 12 




171 


125 


148 






122 


141 




06 


IO1 


83 




157 


QQ 


8q 


O2 


118 


IIQ 


IOQ 




III 


n5 


1 12 




164 


1 06 


1 14 




ill 


1 2O 


121 






H i 


I 2 5 




22 I 


14 5 


O "\ 






7. ^ 


12 2 


7 6 


70 


Q4 


88 




157 


1O2 


67 


88 


08 


51 


86 


51 


1A 


08 


58 




148 


215 


c.7 


17 


45 


12 


11 




6 




7 




7-7 


IO4 


o 






I 


2 




1 1 


21 


2O 




89 


168 


6 


IO 


13 


4 


13 


I 


i 276 


660 


I 131 




185 


ICQ 


820 




582 


870 


56O 


2 170 




118 


152 




7O 


EQ 


4OO 




2OO 


870 


22O 








780 








6OO 


28O 




870 








4 06 


5.16 




I 07 


1.87 


10. 70 


7 48 


8.58 


5.58 


7. 55 






I q6 


2 .40 




o 68 


o 51 


I QI 




1 . 52 


4-53 


2 6l 








a 16 




i 06 


i 16 






4 4 


4 .01 


4 62 






3 80 


4 J 7 




I IO 


I . IQ 


7,11 


c -ac 


5 . 12 


10.20 


6.18 






4 


5 






a 






rt 


a 


2 






2 


2 












2 


a 






2 O 


3 


3-2 




2. 2 


2 .O 


4 O 


2 1 


2. I 


i.o 


2.O 






55 400 


1Q 6OO 


. 


7 QOO 


6 800 






21 2OO 




25 4OO 








1 8 500 




















c6 1OO 


40 600 


26 ooo 




5 800 


1 QOO 


21 QOO 


8 300 


10 400 




8 100 




810 


i 168 


067 




248 


875 










no 




CQ'l 


4IQ 


614 




Ije 


44 










27 




I 151 


1 276 


2 545 




267 


ci2 




448 


I OOO 




157 


646 






76 












8 




g 


7ft 


778 


726 


776 




1 80 








76 




ci 




QQ 1 




QQ.6 




08.1 


08 1 














98 o 




QI .4 






QO ^ 












98 I 


98 6 


98 2 


07 .O 


















98 6 



























2 4 o WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 

TABLE No. 5. 

GRAND TOTALS AND AVERAGES FOR THE ENTIRE INVESTIGATIONS. 





Warren 
System. 


Jewell System. 


Western 
Gravity 
System. 


Western 
Pressure 
System. 


Total peri 
of 24 hot 

Total num 
Total num 

Total qu 
water b 
cubic fee 

Average , 
per run 

Average a 

Average g 
phate of 
Average b 




89.76 
83.76 
6.00 
347 
334 
2473518 
2 404 357 
176285 
17 292 
49 611 
6h. 27m. 
6h. oim. 
26m. 
745 
7124 
528 
51 
149 
19.9 
114 
2.70 
3.00 
96.7 


90.40 
86.68 
3.72 
272 
260 
3 061 073 

3077341 
162 997 

9739 
4387 
8h. 2im. 
8h. oom. 
2im. 
II 808 
it 831 
627 

37 
18 

24.7 
. IOO 

2-49 
2.65 
96.0 I 


25.81 

24.15 
1.66 
124 

122 

565 207 
526 112 
60771 
17442 
22 422 

5h. osm. 
4h 45m. 
2om. 
4633 
4312 
498 

143 

188 

15-1 
92 
2.90 

3-53 
97-4 


65.99 
62.72 
3-27 
261 
260 

i 773 994 
i 739 628 
164658 
38371 



6h. 0501. 
5h. 47tn. 
iSm. 
6823 
6691 

633 
148 
o 
21.7 

154 
2.41 
2.72 
97-3 


ods , days g 0n ' ' " 


"s (wash 


















Periods of I gJ 


time . . . . ] Wash 




Filtered. . 


Quantities ^ 


of water F n t S ered waste 


(_ Unhltered waste 




" ( Million gallons per acre per 24 hours . 









SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



TABLE No. 6. 

SUMMARIES OF LEADING RESULTS. 


Rig 

III" 


!** O *t CO . Pl O ^ + co O 't 't *n ^ ^ ^ O f** to M 


ssss;.ss;&& ss&& <&sss ^&& 


Average Grains of 
Applied Sulphate of 
Alumina. 


rials' 

tif|| 


O"^fOW.ooooeom -tCic^jiD r^-^-t^jm UIM cOvO 


CONtONjMNCnN C^NtOM COmmW ^J-f^mM 

i 


"rt u i- 
O ^ 

^ O. 3 


O^O^'g,^^ a^O^ ^0 R ^00 ? 


H et H N'N'NN Mcicici cowwci CONWN 

1 j 


i 

A 
R 

4> 


.2 " 3 






SO 0,"^ 


*n O O O "O co O ^" 'too O ^t N f^\O ^ co COO CO 

"-H 1H.M MM MM M M 


iP*! 


t^xn^;ooOinO r-iDO O^O^O NOmt- 


r^. M ci vd f* M*- ti r^. M w r^. o M n r^. o" d oo 




Average Actual Rates 
of Filtration. 


gc ** 


ss^s.ss;^ s&^5 gs^&? i^s, 


s^. a x 




5fe" 


1 




I|l 


a 

c 

w 

5 

s s 




N* d to d d co d d to d N d co d en d co d 


Percentages which the Filters 
Filtered and Unfiltered Wast 
respectively, were of the Appll 


* i 

0) 




O N co O M 'too O t~-o co O co -too O Tf O co r^. 
r-f)O>H cocnOO cofiOO QO'tOO omoo^ 


OOCON ! OO(OM OOCOM dOCON MQCOM 


1 


SSRsiffffR* ^S-K^ Sf^ SZZS 


M : IH M X M 




4J 


&ScS ?S8 S?S8 <S?c?8 SaSo 


SSS.S .S:g:&^ 'S-SS.'S SSS-^ SRS.^. 


Percentages which 
the Periods of 
Service and Wash 
were of the Period of 
Operation. 


J2 

-ri 

O 


SS38 : *;f3S -?5S! KS?S R?58. 


ThO * TfO ^ t^^-0^ r-Tl-ot CMDVO Tf 


4 8 

> 

b 



C/l 


mSSo 1 'S'RKo' MMSo" S^So" vSSSS 


ssss^sss s-sss s-^ss asss; 





t*tn '^wj ^tn *t>w ^tn 
aju ; rt i> rtu -ajflJ 2 W 


OGC O^^ Orr"^ O^ *^t O ^ W 
^t ^* rt ^* S w ^3^ ^i3^ >-i3tn 

g*OJ g.Din g_4J-f g.^in g.UQ 

co lc/3 co cn w 



242 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



OUTLINE OF THE METHODS FOLLOW KD IN 

THE DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS OF 

THE INVESTIGATIONS. 

At the outset of this discussion the fact is 
to be recorded that the amount of strictly 
comparable data forms only a small propor- 
tion of those presented in the foregoing 
tables. This was due to conditions which 
unavoidably caused results to be influenced 
by more than one varying factor at the same 
time. To keep conditions parallel with re- 
gard to certain important factors was imprac- 
ticable, owing to the arrangements under 
which the tests were conducted. Neverthe- 
less, considerable light was obtained upon 
those laws which appear to control, practi- 
cally speaking, the efficiency and elements of 
cost of purification by this method. This is 
especially true of the laws when taken as a 
whole. When single laws or principles are 
considered, it will be found that in many 
cases they are intimately associated with 
others, and the data lead to valuable and 
practical suggestions, rather than to well-de- 
fined and specific conclusions. This was not 
true in all cases, however, as much definite 
information of practical significance was ob- 
tained. 

The discussion is presented under five main 
sections, as follows: 

1. The quality of the Ohio River water 
after purification, with reference to the re- 
spective systems. 

2. Prominent factors, which influenced the 
qualitative efficiency of purification in the 
case of the respective systems. 

3. Prominent factors which influenced the 
elements of cost of purification in the case of 
the respective systems. 

4. Comparison of the elements of cost of 
purification, by the respective systems, of 
twenty-five million gallons of Ohio River 
water daily, based on the foregoing results. 

5. General conclusions. 

The discussions and conclusions in this 
chapter relate solely to the information ob- 
tained up to August i, 1896. In 1897 addi- 
tional light was obtained on a number of 
important points connected with this general 
method of purification, as is stated in Chap- 
ter XV. For a complete understanding of 



the practical significance of these tests it is 
necessary to study, together, both Chap- 
ters IX and XV, but it must be borne in mind 
that tliey refer to distinctly separate data, 
which were obtained under different condi- 
tions. 

SECTION No. i. 

THE QUALITY OF THE OHIO RIVER WATER 
AFTER PURIFICATION, WITH REFERENCE 
TO THE EFFICIENCY OF THE RESPECTIVE 
SYSTEMS. 

For the sake of explicitness the quality of 
the water after purification is discussed with 
the following points in view: 

A. Physical character. 

B. Chemical character. 

C. Biological character. 

It will be remembered that this method was 
followed in Chapter 1, where the composition 
of the Ohio River water before purification 
was described; and reference is made here to 
that chapter for detailed data for comparison 
with those presented in this chapter and the 
preceding one. 

Physical Character of the Effluents. 

Apfearancc. As a rule the appearance of 
the effluents of the respective systems was 
satisfactory with regard to freedom from 
turbidity. Each of the effluents was turbid 
at times, but the operation of the systems was 
usually modified promptly, so as to correct a 
failure in appearance. 

In the case of the Western Systems, but 
not in the Warren or Jewell systems, the 
effluents were usually turbid immediately 
after washing the filters, and it was the cus- 
tom to waste the effluent until it became clear. 
In the Warren and Western Pressure systems, 
the effluent usually became turbid after the 
loss of head had reached a certain but varying 
amount, and in these systems it was the tur- 
bidity of the effluent which determined the 
time of washing the filter. This was true in 
a great many instances of the Jewell System, 
but by no means uniformly so. The com- 
position of the river water with its minute 
particles of clay, and the degree of coagula- 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



243 



tion of the river water with reference to the 
actual conditions of filtration, were important 
factors associated with the appearance of the 
effluent, as will be evident from the following 
portions of this chapter. 

The foregoing summary of the data on the 
appearance of the several effluents, in Table 
No. i, shows that the effluent of the Jewell 
System was the most satisfactory in this re- 
spect. 

Color. As the river water itself, inde- 
pendent of its suspended matters, is practi- 
cally colorless all of the effluents were 
naturally satisfactory with regard to color. 
Whenever they showed a noticeable color it 
was not due to dissolved coloring matter in 
the filtered water, but to a turbidity which 
has been referred to under " Appearance." 

Taste. The taste of the several effluents 
was satisfactory, although it differed some- 
what from that of the river water, owing to 
the varying amounts and kinds of suspended 
matters in the latter. 

Odor. The slight musty, aromatic or 
vegetable odor of the river water was sub- 
stantially unchanged by the purification of the 
water by this method. In practically no case 
was the odor objectionable, or more in- 
tense than would be expected from a surface 
water. 

Chemical Character of the Effluents. 

Organic Matter. With the possible excep- 
tion of those abnormal conditions when the 
appearance of the effluent failed to be satis- 
factory, the organic matter in the river water 
was reduced to a satisfactory degree by each 
of the systems of purification. The summary 
of the data upon this point, presented in Table 
No. 2 of this chapter, shows the percentages 
of removal. It will be noted that practically 
all of the suspended organic matter, and a cer- 
tain amount of dissolved organic matter 
which was dependent upon the quantity of 
applied sulphate of alumina, were removed 
from the water in the case of each of the re- 
spective systems of purification. 

Dissolved Oxygen. The amount of free at- 
mospheric oxygen dissolved in the water was 
substantially unchanged by treatment by the 
Jewell and Western Gravity systems. There 



was a slight increase as a rule in the case of 
the Warren System, due to passage of the 
effluent over the weir by which the rate of 
filtration was regulated. In the Western 
Pressure System there was apparently no 
change until the warm weather of June and 
July, when there was a reduction in the 
amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. 
The results of determinations of the amounts 
of oxygen dissolved in the river water and in 
the effluents of the respective systems of puri- 
fication are given in the following table: 

PERCENTAGES WHICH THE FREE OXYGEN 
DISSOLVED IN THE OHIO RIVER WATER, 
AND IN THE EFFLUENTS OF THE RESPEC- 
TIVE SYSTEMS OF PURIFICATION, WAS OF 
THAT NECESSARY FOR SATURATION AT 
THE ACTUAL TEMPERATURE. 



Date. 


Temper- River 
ature Water. 
Ueg. C. 


Effluents. 


Warren. 


Jewell. 


Western Western 
Gravity. Pressure. 


1895 
Dec. 3 

" 4 
" 6 

" 9 
1896 
Jan. II 

" 17 
Feb. 10 
" 15 
" 26 
Mar. 4 
" II 
" 19 
April 9 
May 6 
14 
1 23 
1 29 
June 5 

" 10 

" 18 
" 24 
July 9 
" 18 


5-4 
4-5 
4.2 

4-1 

2.1 
2.4 
5-9 

7.0 
3-4 
4-4 
6.5 
5-2 
9-9 
23.1 
24.0 

24-5 
24.7 
24.2 
24.7 

25-3 
26.8 
25-5 
25.6 


78 
76 
80 

87 

86 
98 
93 
97 

100 

92 
90 

IOO 

91 

85 

79 
75 
7i 
76 
So 
78 
So 
72 
71 


Si 
So 
82 
86 

93 
IOO 

97 

IOO 
IOO 

92 
90 

IOO 

93 
96 

83 


78 
79 
-8 
82 

88 
97 
9i 


















84 

97 
92 

95 
99 
92 

90 
98 











92 
92 

88 

100 

91 

85 
79 


















75 
71 
73 
70 
68 

67 
60 


87 
85 
88 

87 
91 
78 
83 


71 

87 
80 
78 
85 
76 
77 














76 



Undccomposcd Sulphate of Alumina. The 
question of the passage of undecomposed sul- 
phate of alumina was presented and discussed 
with care in Chapter III. It may be again 
stated that with the skill and care requisite 
for the efficient and economical operation of 
a system of purification by this method there 
is no occasion for the passage into the efflu- 
ent of undecomposed chemical, applied for 
the purpose of coagulation, so far as can be 
judged from the quality of the Ohio River 
water met with during these investigations. 
The only instance where the effluent was acid, 
due to an excess of sulphate of a'umina, for 



244 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



several days in succession was in the case of 
the Jewell System during July. 

This was due solely to carelessness on the 
part af the operators of the system. In all of 
the systems the lack of adequate provisions 
for subsidence made the possibilities of this 
occurrence much greater than should be per- 
mitted in practice. 

Carbon Dioxide. From a practical point of 
View the amount of carbon dioxide, more 
familiarly known as carbonic acid gas and dis- 
solved in water in the form of free carbonic 
acid, is of considerable significance by virtue 
of the part which it plays in the corrosion of 
"iron pipe, tanks and boilers. Corrosion of 
uncoated iron receptacles for water by the 
joint action of carbonic acid and free at- 
mospheric oxygen gas dissolved in the water 
is substantially as follows: 

Carbonic acid attacks the iron, when in- 
completely protected by paint or other prep- 
arations, and forms what appears to be the 
ferrous carbonate of iron. 

The oxygen in the water changes this com- 
pound, formed by the action of the carbonic 
acid, into the insoluble ferric hydrate of iron, 
and at the same time liberates carbonic acid 
gas. This carbonic acid attacks more iron 
and the action goes on by a repetition of this 
process, aided by such additional amounts of 
carbonic acid and oxygen as the water brings 
to the attacked surface. The rate at which 
the iron surface is corroded depends upon a 
series of factors, the relative importance of 
which is not accurately known. There is no 
conclusive proof, however, so far as is known, 
that the'SCtion is a self-limited one in the case 
of pipes and tanks. In boilers the high tem- 
perature drives off these gases, and corrosion 
.appears to be' more irregular and less marked, 
and would be located at the water line. 

By means of this process there is formed 
in the iron'a depression of greater or less size, 
according to the period of exposure and other 
conditions. In this depression, and reaching 
out. from it, is a formation which is called a 
tubercle. These tubercles have been found to 
consist principally of iron hydrate or oxide, 
together with a little silica, lime, magnesia' 
and carbonic acid, and such compounds from 
the water as are coagulated by the iron hy- 
drate. It will be noted that this action is an 



illustration of the principles employed in the 
preliminary treatment of water by the Ander- 
son process of purification, with which you 
are familiar in a general way. 

This corroding action is possessed by the 
Ohio River water before purification, by 
virtue of the carbonic acid and oxygen dis- 
solved in it. Whether or not the other sub- 
stances in the river water influence to an ap- 
preciable degree (practically speaking) the 
corrosion of iron is not now accurately 
known. But concerning such ingredients, if 
any are present they are in solution and there 
are strong reasons for the belief that they 
would be substantially unaffected by the treat- 
ment in question. The corrosion of iron by 
the river water was shown by an inspection 
of the water-pipes at the laboratory and 
pumping station. In the Ohio River water 
after purification by this method, this corrod- 
ing action is apparently increased, practically 
speaking, by an amount proportional to the 
composition and quantity of alum or sulphate 
of alumina added to the water to effect 
coagulation. This increased corroding action 
is indicated by the following experiment: 

On July 8, 1896, two glass flasks contain- 
ing a considerable quantity of cast-iron bor- 
ings were filled with river water and Jewell 
effluent, respectively. The amount of oxy- 
gen dissolved in the water of the two flasks 
was practically the same about 75 per cent, 
of that necessary for saturation. The effluent 
of course contained more carbonic acid, due 
to the decomposition of the applied sulphate 
of alumina, which on that day averaged 4.67 
grains per gallon. The flasks and their con- 
tents were allowed to stand forty-eight hours 
with occasional stirring. Analyses were then 
made with the following results: 

PARTS PER MILLION. 



Sample. 


Carbonic Acid 
Before 

Treatment. 


Dissolved Iron 
After 
Treatment. 




21. 1 


8.70 


Jewell effluent 


40. 9 


21.30 



The above experiment was repeated with 
like results, and serves to show the increased 
corroding action of the water after purifica- 
tion. These results, however, must hot be 
taken as a basis for computation of the rate of 
corrosion in actual practice, because the vari- 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



ous conditions affecting this action were not 
sufficiently parallel to yield data for any other 
purpose than that for which the experiment 
was made. 

To what extent steam boilers, and cast iron, 
wrought iron or other metal used for dis- 
tributing and service pipes or fittings, in the 
case of this water, are, or may be, effectually 
protected from corrosion by a suitable sur- 
face coating, is a matter which the writer has 
not investigated, and upon which he has no 
opinion to express at this time. 

In Chapter I it was shown that during 
June and July, 1896, the Ohio River water 
contained from 21.1 to 30.8 parts per million 
of carbonic acid gas by weight. At some 
seasons of the year the water doubtless con- 
tains much more than the above quantity of 
carbonic acid. The evidence indicates that in 
Nov., 1895, it was at least 75 parts. A con- 
siderable portion of the carbonic acid, and at 
times perhaps all of it, is engaged in holding 
the carbonates of calcium and magnesium in 
solution in the form of bicarbonates. The 
bicarbonates are not stable compounds, rel- 
atively speaking, and there .is substantial 
proof that they give up their carbonic acid to 
facilitate the corroding action in question. 
With regard to the relative rates of corroding 
action by free carbonic acid gas and partially 
engaged carbonic acid in the form of bicar- 
bonates, there are no available data to lead 
to a satisfactory expression of opinion. 

The amount of carbonic acid gas liberated 
by the decomposition of alum or sulphate of 
alumina, is capable of both approximate deter- 
mination and estimation. The latter requires, ; 
however, an exact knowledge of the amount . 
and composition of the applied alum or sul- 
phate of alumina. From the data presented 
in Chapters I and II the amount of carbonic j 
acid liberated in the water by the decomposi- [ 
tion of the applied chemical during these 
tests may be estimated with sufficient close- 
ness for practical purposes. 

The amount of liberated carbonic acid gas 
per unit quantity of applied chemical varied 
somewhat in the several lots which were used, 
owing- to the different percentages of sul- 
phuric acid. But taking a chemical of average 
composition, and assuming that the chemical 
united wholly with the alkaline compounds, . 



and not with organic or suspended matters, 
the amount of liberated carbonic acid gas 
may be adequately shown as follows: 

In the case of the potash alum used by the 
Western Company each grain per gallon 
would liberate about 2.5 parts per million of 
carbonic acid gas by weight. 

With the several different lots of sulphate 
of alumina, the parts per million by weight of 
liberated carbonic acid gas would range from 
3.6 to 4.0, and average about 3.7, for each 
grain per gallon of applied chemicals. These 
figures refer solely to the liberation of chemi- 
cally combined carbonic acid gas. In addi- 
tion thereto, in the case of bicarbonates an 
equal amount of carbonic acid, partly en- 
gaged by holding calcium carbonate in solu- 
tion, would also be set free-. It is very ques- 
tionable, however, whether this last action 
would affect corrosion appreciably, if at all. 

From the above statements, together with 
the foregoing tabulations in detail of the 
amounts of chemical applied by the respec- 
tive systems, correct information may be ob7 
tained as to the averag,e quantity of carbonic 
acid gas liberated in each case, for runs, days 
or periods. 

Some observations worthy of mention 
were made upon the wrought-iron reservoir 
used for the storage of filtered water for use 
in washing the filters. Throughout the in- 
vestigations, this iron reservoir, which was 
not protected on its inner surface by a coating 
of paint, tar or other material, was practically 
filled with filtered water. In fact its use for 
this purpose began early in July, 1895. From 
the close of the tests on Aug. i, 1896, the 
reservoir remained full of filtered water, in an 
undisturbed condition, until Oct. 17, when 
one of the systems was operated for a few 
hours. It then remained undisturbed for 
another month, when it was drained. Several 
days after draining, the inner surface of the 
iron was examined and found to be corroded 
to a considerable degree. Tubercles were 
found ranging in size from that of "a pin-head 
to about 0.4 inch in height, and i inch in di- 
ameter as a maximum. Their size was very 
variable. It is of course certain that the cor- 
roding action was increased somewhat by 
the acid effluent of the Jewell System during 
a number of successive days in July. This 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



inexcusable acidity was perhaps not the chief 
factor, however, as the effluents regularly had 
considerable corroding action, as was shown 
by the iron in the effluents which stood over 
Sunday in the iron outlet pipes. 

A more exhaustive study of this subject 
was made in 1897, an( l m passing it may be 
noted, the corroding action of the undecom- 
posed chemical in the effluent even at rare 
intervals was of great significance, as it ac- 
celerated the action of the carbonic acid. The 
suspended matter in the river water forms a 
partial protective coating to the metal, and 
this explains for the most part the results of 
the experiment on July 8, 1896. Further- 
more, the more extended data of 1897 showed 
that the evidence obtained in 1896 indicated 
an abnormally high percentage increase of 
carbonic acid after purification. Additional 
information upon this subject is given in 
Chapter XV. 

Analysis of one of the tubercles mentioned 
above showed it to be composed very largely 
of iron in the ferric oxide state, with a small 
amount of calcium carbonate (lime). 

The percentage composition was found to 
be as follows: 

Water 1 1.42 

Silica (SiO 2 ) 0.19 

Oxide of iron (Fe 2 O 3 ), by difference. . . 85.11 

Alumina (A1 2 O 3 ) Trace 

Lime (CaO) 1.77 

Magnesia (MgO) 0.03 

Sulphuric acid (SO 3 ) 0.08 

Carbonic acid (CO 2 ), by estimation. . . 1.40 
Organic matter Trace 

In concluding this account of the increased 
corroding action of the water after purifica- 
tion, due to increased amounts of carbonic 
acid gas proportional to the quantity of alum 
or sulphate of alumina added to the water, it 
may be stated that the adoption of this 
method of purification would call for especial 
care in coating the inner surface of pipes, and 
for all feasible means of keeping the amount 
of applied sulphate of alumina at a minimum. 

So far as experience teaches us, the corrod- 
ing action of this water before and after puri- 
fication, on lead, would not give trouble, be- 
cause it quickly forms a coating by itself 
which protects the lead from further action. 



It may also be added, that the carbonic 
acid gas may be removed from water by lime 
water or caustic soda, with subsequent sub- 
sidence or filtration. It is not probable, how- 
ever, that such steps would ever be necessary. 

Passage of Lime from the Form of Carbon- 
ates to that of Sulphate. It has been explained 
iy Chapter III that the alkalinity of this water 
was produced, for the most part, if not 
wholly, by the carbonates and bicarbonates 
of lime and magnesia, respectively, and 
that it was reduced by an amount approxi- 
mately proportional to the quantity of alum 
or sulphate of alumina added to it. With 
sulphate of alumina of average composition 
the alkalinity has been found by actual tests to 
be reduced about 8.1 parts per million for 
i grain of this chemical added to i gallon of 
ordinary river water. This means practi- 
cally, since the evidence indicates that the lime 
is more abundant than magnesia, that this 
amount of lime and magnesia, but principally 
lime, is converted from the form of carbonate 
or bicarbonate to that of sulphate. That is 
to say, the permanent hardness or incrusting 
constituents is increased by about 8.1 parts 
per million, according to the conventional 
method of expressing permanent hardness in 
terms of calcium carbonate. The actual 
weight of the compounds increasing the in- 
crusting constituents would be more than 
this, because calcium sulphate weighs 1.37 
times as much as an equivalent amount of 
calcium carbonate. 

With potash alum, such as was used by the 
Western Company, the application of i grain 
per gallon was found to reduce the alkalinity, 
and increase the incrusting constituents 
about 4.5 parts per million. 

The data presented in Chapter I show that 
the incrusting constituents of the Ohio River 
water ranged from 30 to 51 parts per million, 
when tested during this period. With the 
above data on the increase of incrusting con- 
stituents due to the application of alum or sul- 
phate of alumina, and the foregoing records 
of the amounts of these chemicals employed 
by the respective systems, a correct idea may 
be obtained as to the increased incrusting 
constituents of the several effluents. 

It is the amount of incrusting constituents 
of a water, due to the chlorides, nitrates and 



SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF DATA OF 1895-96. 



247 



sulphates of lime and magnesia, which chiefly 
determines its fitness for boiler use. When 
proper care is taken of boilers, it appears that 
the Ohio River water does not give serious 
trouble except during low water in the fall, 
by the formation of boiler scale; although the 
suspended matter in the water forms a sludge, 
which requires frequent flushing of the boil- 
ers, and occasional removal by manual labor. 
\\ ith the probable exception of magnesium 
chloride, due to its tendency to decomposi- 
tion and formation of hydrochloric acid, there 
is no more objectionable ingredient of water 
for boilers than sulphate of lime. This com- 
pound, which is formed by the addition of 
alum or sulphate alumina to water, as ex- 
plained above, and which is soluble at ordi- 
nary temperature, produces at boiler tempera- 
tures a fine hard scale, in which practically 
all of the suspended matters of the water be- 
come embodied, when those matters consist 
of fine clay. In the case of heavy mud, these 
incrustations are attached to the sludge. 
Unless removed, the scale formed in this man- 
ner eventually causes a marked waste in the 
consumption of fuel by retarding the trans- 
mission of heat to the water; and it is com- 
pletely removed with great difficulty. 

Such a scale was found in Boiler No. 3 at 
the pumping station of this Company, as you 
have been advised. 

This boiler was said to have been filled with 
the effluent of the Warren and Jewell systems 
on July 7. During the next run of five weeks, 
muddy river water was introduced to replace 
the steam which was not condensed and re- 
turned from the engine to the boiler. The 
boiler was carefully examined after one sub- 
sequent run to this one was made, without 
cleaning during the interval of rest. On ex- 
amination the tubes and plates were found to 
be covered with a hard rough incrustation 
such as above described. This was especially 
noticeable on the iron plates around the fire- 
box. In places there were evidences of cor- 
rosion. A portion of this incrustation was 
removed and analyzed, with results which 
show the following percentage composition: 

Water, with organic and volatile mat- 
ters 16.52 

Silica (SiO 2 ) !9-65 



Oxide of iron (Fe 2 O 3 ) 4.30 

Alumina (A1 2 O 3 ) 9.66 

Lime (CaO) '; 37-97 

Magnesia (MgO) 0.60 

Soda (Na 2 O) Undetermined 

Potash (K 2 O) Undetermined 

Chlorine (Cl) Trace 

Nitric acid (N 2 O 5 ) Trace 

Carbonic acid (CO 2 ) Trace 

Sulphuric acid (SO 3 ) 1 1.87 

The alumina which was found in the in- 
crustation came from the silicates (clay) of 
the river water subsequently added to the 
boiler, and not from the chemical applied 
in the course of purification. 

At the time when the boiler was said to 
have been filled with the effluent, there were 
about four grains per gallon of sulphate of 
alumina being added to the river water on an 
average. This practically doubled the in- 
crusting constituents of the water, and added 
to the effluent about 44 parts per million of 
calcium sulphate by weight. This sulphate 
was soluble as it entered the boiler, but the 
high temperature caused it to be insoluble, 
with the result that a very hard scale was 
formed, which included a large portion of the 
suspended matter of the water subsequently 
added to the boiler. 

In fact the analyses show that less than 20 
per cent, of the incrustation was composed of 
sulphate of lime. 

The above experience shows that all rea- 
sonable steps should be taken to keep the 
amount of applied sulphate of alumina to a 
minimum. In this connection, however, it is 
to be stated that the amount of sulphate of 
alumina added to the river water on the date 
when the boiler was said to have been filled, 
was about 50 per cent, greater than the aver- 
age amount employed during these tests. 

Furthermore, the mud, silt and clay in the 
water subsequently put into the boiler, added 
very materially to the incrustation, as shown 
by the results of the chemical analyses. 

By the use of soda, it is possible to remove 
the sulphates of lime and magnesia from the 
water; and trisodium phosphate will also 
serve this purpose, should manufacturing -es- 
tablishments choose to remove these ingredi- 
ents before the water enters the boilers. 



248 



WATER PURIFICATION AT LOUISVILLE. 



Further discussions of the incrusting power 
of the Ohio River water, before and after puri- 
fication, with additional data, will be found in 
Chapter XV. At this point, it may be briefly 
noted that when the river water is muddy 
and requires the largest quantities of coagu- 
lant, the incrusting constituents naturally 
present in the water are so low in amount 
that the total incrusting power of the efflu- 
ent would be much less than that of the 
natural river water during the fall months. 

Biological Character of the Effluents. 

Microscopical Organisms. The tables in 
Chapter VIII show that practically no 
diatoms, algae or other microorganisms, 
which may be readily recognized by the aid 
of the microscope, were present in the efflu- 
ents. This would be naturally expected un- 
der the circumstances, owing to their greater 
size when compared with the bacteria. It is 
to be noted, however, that very few organ- 
isms of this nature were found in the river 
water, owing to unfavorable natural condi- 
tions existing there. 

In this connection there arises a question 
of much practical significance, as was pointed 
out in a communication addressed to you 
on July 11, 1896; that is, the conditions un- 
der which the growth of microorganisms, 
notably algae, in the effluents could be pre- 
vented during the period when the water is 
stored prior to distribution. In the case of all 
the effluents the conditions for growth of 
algae would be favorable in the presence of 
sunlight; and should these forms once be- 
come established in the distributing reservoir 
the probability of the production of objec- 
tionable tastes and odors in the effluent, no 
matter how satisfactory was its character as 
it left the filters, would be a very serious state 
of affairs. 

There are no specific data to offer upon this 
subject. 

Bacteria. The removal of bacteria from a 
water which at times shows such marked 
proof of sewage pollution as is the case 
with the Ohio River, is a very important 
matter. This is particularly so in view of the 
rapidly increasing population in the Ohio 
River valley, and the set of data upon this 



point was made as complete as practicable. 
Comprehensive summaries of these data have 
already been presented in this chapter. The 
bacterial efficiency of the respective systems, 
as shown by the total averages, was as fol- 
lows : 



System. 


Bacterial Efficiency. 




nfi 7 


Jewell 








Western Pressure 


97-3 



The above results are not directly compara- 
ble, because the length of service and the 
condition of the river water during service 
were quite unlike, as shown by the data of 
each of the twenty periods of different grades 
of river water. 

Excluding the Western Gravity System on 
the grounds of failure to purify enough water, 
when the river water was in a muddy condi- 
tion, to wash its own sand layer, and taking 
the averages of all those periods in which the 
remaining systems were in operation without 
any prescriptions from this Company, the fol- 
lowing bacterial efficiencies are obtained: 



System. 


Bacterial Efficiency. 


Warren 


08.=; 






Western Pressure 


97-4 



The above figures show the relative effi- 
ciency which the systems possessed in the re- 
moval of bacteria from the river water. Dur- 
ing the early part of the tests the bacterial 
efficiency was irregular and unsatisfactory at 
times in the case of all the systems, but least 
so in the case of the Warren. This was due 
in part to limitations of the devices em- 
ployed in the respective systems, and in 
part to a lack of care and skill in adapting 
the operation of the system