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Full text of "Report on the Oyon coal field"

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22 
M2 
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ENGI 



UC-NRLF 



C 3 0=17 DDE 



REPORT 
on the 
OYON COAL FIELD 



BY 



DONALD H. MCLAUGHLIN 



1931 



REPORT 
on the 
OYON COAL FIELD 



by 

D.H.LloLaughlin 

f 

Kovember, 1921. 



Cerro de Pasoo Copper Comoration 
Geological Department 



CERRO DE PASCO COPPER CORPORATION 
GEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 



Cerro de Pasoo, Peru. 
November 5, 1921. 



*> - 

*J3 



Ir. .. J. Hamilton, 
General Manager, 
Oroya. 

Dear bir:- 

All maps and detailed studies in the Oyon coal field 
have now been completed, and sufficient data are on hand and 
are herewith presented for reasonably definite estimates of 
continuity, grade and tonnages of coal, and for a t>lan of work- 
ing. 

In the accompanying repcrt, these estimates are pre- 
sented and the conditions which will probably be met in mining 
the coal are outlined, but for the selection of proper methods 
and for an estimate of probable working costs, it is recommended 
that the opinion of an expert in handling coal ttr der difficult 
conditions be secured. 

The Oyon coal is lor/ er in ash than (Jayllarisquisga or 
Jatunhuasi coal and of higher fuel value, but it contains BO 
little volatile matter that it is not suitable for use as pul- 
verized coal in the reverberatory furnaces according to present 
practice. The lump coal usually cokes; the fine coal does not. 

There is probably sufficient coal in the Oyon district 
to meet the needs of the Corporation for over fifteen years, but 
on account of the srreat complexity of structure, involving many 
uncertainties, further exploration work must be carried out before 
an entirely acceptable estimate of tonnage can be given. 

Specific recommendations for further action in connec- 
tion with the Oyon project are given in the last section of the 
accompanying report. 

Yours very truly, 





D. H. MoLaugtflin. 
Chief Geologist. 



P-JSPORT OH THE OYOH GOAL FI.3LD 
Out line 

Paragraphs Pages 



Letter of transmit tal 

Introduction 1 

Gen~-al 1 1 

Location 6 2 

Development 7 Z 

Work corn-Dieted and acknovrledpementF 8 Z 

General Description 5 

Geography 12 6 

Rooks 15 6 

structures 17 6 

Coal 11 

3xtent cf outcrops 25 11 

ITanijer of beds 27 12 

Thickness 28 13 

Character of roof 29 13 

Tonnage estimate 30 14 

Quality 31 15 

Coal Exposures in Detail 16 

Supaipahuasin Block 32 16 

Quebrada de Buoo Block 34 18 

"uebrada de '^ishque Block 35 18 

Condebamba Block 36 19 

Siglo Nuevo Block 37 19 

Lanaapaca Block 38 20 

Landslide Block 39 21 

Vedray Block 40 21 

Satanela and Colca Block 41 22 

V Limb, Conoopata Anticline 42 22 

Yana Pashga Block 43 23 

Hnaocha Cuyac Block 44 24 

Saquicooha Ridge 45 25 

Luoila Block 46 26 

Carbtmolo Block 47 26 

Tana Gori Block 48 27 

Yana rahui Block 49 28 

Nelson Mine 50 28 

Potaoa Block 51 29 

Velo Negro Block 52 29 



Outline (concluded) 

Paragraphs Pages 

Transportation 
Accessor lea 

Water Power 
Lai) or 
Climate 

.:eral lossiMlitiee 63 

Necessary Development 

For Brploration 

For Operation 73 

Ownership 

Metallurgical tests 38 

Washing 76 

Coking 

Value as pulverized coal 

Summary 
Recommendations 



CERRO DE PASCO COPPER CORPORATION 
GEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

REPORT OH THE OYOH OPAL PDSLJ) 
Introdnction. 

1. General. Sufficient coal probably exists in the Oyon dis- 
trict to meet the needs of the Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation for 
a greater period than the life of the present known ore-reserves, 
but the difficulties of transportation, the great complexities of 
structure both on a broad scale and in detail, and the uncertainty 
of the suitability of the coal for the present metallurgical prac- 
tice raise questions concerning costs and utilization which greatly 
reduce the value of the field. 

2. The Gyon coal is semi -bituminous , but in places approaches 
a sub-anthracite. The geometric average of 138 samples taken in the 
course of thie work is: 

Volatile J&terial 16. Z % 
Fixed Garbon 67.3 

Aah 16.7 / 

3. There are two workable beds in nearly all parts of the field. 
Exposures are sufficiently numerous to assure their continuity for 

12 km. (7.5 miles). The thickness of the beds, however, varies so 
greatly that an exact average from measurements is difficult and apt 
to be misleading. In normal places, the beds range from .80 to 1.20 
m. (31 to 47 inches). -An average of 1.00 m. (39 inches) for each is 
reasonable and not undue ly conservative. 

4. There are at least 7,800,000 tons of coal in the field if we 
assume that the seams continue without change in thickness to the 
depth of the deepest canon which dissects the out-crop, an assumption 
which involves a considerable element of risk. However, in the 
southeastern section of the field, the part most easily accessible 
from Cerro de Fasoo, we may court with fair assurance on 4,000,000 tons 



-E- 



of ooal above the lerel of easy drainage. 

5, Coke oan be made directly from only part of the coal, but it 
is not unlikely that all oan be coked if mixed with higher volatile 
coal from Goyllarisquisga or with Huari asphalt it e. The Oyon coal is 
too short in flaae for ordinary reverberatory practice and considerable 
difficulties will have to be overcome before it can be burned success- 
fully in pulverized form. 




Pig. 1. Sketch .'Sap of Central leru, scale - 1 era. 85 

6, Location. The Cyon coal field lies on the Pacific side of 
the main range of the Cordillera, about Q to 10 km. (5 to 6 .niles) 
from the crest and about 60 km. (38 -niles) west of Cerro de Fasco. 
(map distances). The coal outcrops follow a northwest-southeast zone, 
which passes 3 to 4 kilometers to the east of the town of Oyon. The 
town is at an elevation of 3570 m. , (11,700 ft.). The zone of the 
coal rises and falls across a series of ridges and canons, its maxi- 
mum elevation beinp about 4660 m, (15,300 ft.) immediately east of 
Cyon and its lo"st point about 3660 m. (12,COC ft.) in the Quebrada 



-3- 



d e Ututo. The region is drained by a series of northwest or west- 
ward flowing streams, which after uniting to form the Rio de Oyon, 
descend sottthwestward to Sayan and on to the ocean near Huacho , a 
distance of about 140 km. (88 miles). The entire coal field is in 

H 

the province of Cajatambo of the Department of Lima. 

V.. Development. The oldest mines have been in possession since 
1890, but it was not until the development of the smelters at Huaru- 
caoa and Huaron that any notable amounts of coal were mined. The 
exact tonnage taken from the district is unknown, but it probably 
does not exceed 10,000 tons. All has been carried out on llamas. 
Small holes are numerous wherever the coal outcrop projects from 
beneath the talus slopes. At ei?ht or nine places tunnels of 
notable length have been driven, either on the coal or as cross- 
cuts. The longest is a c-ross-cut of 169 ra. (554 ft.). None of 
the workings, however, deserves to be called a mine. They are 
mostly small and irregular burrows requiring no timber from which 
the coal is carried in "oapachos". When the holes become too 
lar^e, they are allowed to cave and new openings are made. The 
result is that the outcrop is fairly well exposed , and no trench- 
ing was necessary for preliminary studies. 

8. Work Completed and Acknowledgments. Field work in the 
Oyon district was commenced on March 26, 1921. A triangulation 
system, topographic map and claim maps were completed for an area 
of 14 km. by 2 km. (28 sq. km.) by August 1st. The work was largely 
done by lir. J. A. JfecDonald assisted by Sr. Jos$ Pranchy. Two of 
the five plane table sheets were made by Mr. 3. D. Dub. The survey- 
ing has been entirely satisfactory. The triangulat ion was checked 
against a second base line, 8 km. (5 miles) distant from the first 



with an error of only 6 om. , and I believe is thoroughly reliable. 
Seven weeks were spent in sampling and measuring the coal, general 
reconnaissance, geologic capping and work in connection with claim 
matters. All field work was completed on September 22nd, 1921. 
9, The barometric elevation of 4,560 IB. (14,960 ft.) for 
triansrulation point Ho. 1 was taken as a base. It is probably 
within 10 m. of the correct elevation. True north-south coordinate 
lines were established through triangulation point Ho. 1 as origin 
(N EOOCO, 3 EOOCO), and all points and bearings referred to thm. 
The magnetic declination on August 18, 1921 in the ftuebrada de 
Conocpata belov. ^uco was 8 17* east. Claim lines with magnetic 
bearings are related to the coordinate lines by this declination 
in all parts of the field. 

10. The following drawings and tables accompany this report: 

Topographic and claim map, scale 1 oji^. s 50 rn. 

Geologic map. 

Thickness Diagram, scales 1 cm. 50 a. and 

1 cm. 1m. 
Sheet of structure sections, scale 1 cm. = 50 ra 

Table I. Tonnage Estimate. 

Table II. Analyses. 

Table III. Ownership of mines. 

Table IV. ashing tests. 

Table 7. Bibliogrer hy. 

11, %y thanks are especially due to Sefior Luis A. Delgado of 
Oyon and his brothers Arturo, -Jorge and Cesar Delgado for their 
many courtesies to us during the course of the work. 



-5- 
SiSHBRAL DJSSOP.IPTION 

12. geography. The Cyon coal field is divided into two distinct 
parts "by the Quebrada de Ututo which cute across the ooal outcrop in 
about the center of the area mapped. In the part to the southeast, 
whioh may be termed the Conocpata section, the coal outcrops lie on 
both sides of the regular steep-sided valley , which descends from the 
Crodillera near Jatun Chaoua. To the northwest of the Quebrada de 
Ututo, the trend of the valleys change, and the outcrop outs across 

a series of lofty ridges and rough canons, rising 920 m, (3020 ft.) 
in the first two kilometers. This section of exceedingly rugged 
topography will be termed the baquicocha-Yana Gori section hereafter 
in this report. 

13. Rocks. The coal in the Cyon district occurs hear the base 
of a thick series of Cretaceous quartzite and quartzitio sandstone of 
the same age as the coal-bearing sandstone at (Joy liar isuuisga and 
Jatnnhuasi. At Oyon, however, the great pressures, so clearly shown 
by the intense folding aid faulting, have altered the bituminous coal 
and soft sandstone of the eastern district to a serai-bituminous coal 
or a sub-anthracite and the rock to a hard resistant quartzite. This 
change has reduced the volatile material of the coal from 30-35$ to 
10-20$, and the texture most generally from fairly compact to masses 
of shiny, grphite-like flakes. 

14. The quartzite is overlain by fine-bedded limestones carrying 
the same fossils as the Machay limestone at Goyllarisqiiisga and Jatun- 
huasi. The underlying limestone is not definitely exposed in the zone 
mapped, due to sharp folding and faulting. 

15. The quartzite, measured on the east side from the Uachay lime- 
stone contact to the top of the shale and fine-bedded quartzite, wH ch 



-6- 



accompany the ooal , has a thickness of 650-750 m. (2100-2500 ft.). 
The ooal measures themselves (shale, quartzites and ooal) are about 
100-200 m. (330-650 ft.) thick. 

16. Igneous rooks are almost entirely absent. A few sills of 
diorite porphyry and some quartz porphyry occur in the Sfachay limestone, 
but in no place are they near enough the ooal to cause the least worry. 

17, Structures. In all parts of the field, the major structures 
are well revealed by the massive quartz ite beds which are bent in great 
smooth curves or broken sharply by the faults. But unfortunately, the 
weaker fine-bedded shale and quartz ite of the coal measures and the 
coal itself, caught between these resistant masses in their mighty 
movements, are crushed and distorted in the greatest confusion. Under 
the tremendous pressure, the coal and shale have flowed like a plastic 
substance, thinning out where the compression was greatest on the flanks 
and thickening at the crests. In the northern section, where an over- 
thrust has broken along the ooal measures themselves, the softer beds 
have served as a lubricant beneath the rigid masses of quartzite and 
have been contorted into areas of great looal complexity. The thickest 
showings of coal in the district are generally at the crest of the folds 
or where the beds are compressed against faulted blocks. Consequently 
they can not be accepted on their face value, but the normal thickness 
of the seams must be sought in the deepest canons, at the lowest points 
on the flanks of the folds where distortion is a minimum. The same 
local crumpling is strikingly shown in the thin beds of the ifoohay 
limestone above the quartzite. 



-7- 



Xina. 

Venegas 



Crest of the 
Cordillera 



Quebrada. 

de 
Conocpata 




Quartzit 



West zone 



/ ^> --- -.' -I/J 

ill ~~-JfachAy limestone '; Quartz it 

'IT x v, 

Principal coal zone 



Litpestone 

East zone 



J?ig.. Sketch section across Quebrada de Conocpata, 
looking northeast, showing Principal Coal Zone, and 
iSast and West Zones. 



18, Starting at the southern end of the area mapped and passing 
northwest down the Quebrada de Conocpata, the sediments are folded into 
a sharp anticline, the axis of which is roughly parallel to the valley, 
usually somewhat to Hie right of the trough. On the ria;ht (east) the 
rooks and ooal dip northeast; on the left, toward the southwest. The 
most continuous outcrops are on the eastern limb, 50-180 m. (160-590 ft.) 
above the ralley. The line of the ooal on the left (western side) is 
concealed for the first 3.5 km. beneath heavy talus slopes and swamps. 
The first showing is at the Crisantemo :>tine (U 14452, B 80647), and 
from there northwest to the Quebrada de Ututo , coal is visible on both 
sides. 

19, At distances of four or five kilometers on either side of 
the principal ooal zone, which follows the -iuebrada de Conocpata, the 
ooal bearing quartz it e is again brought to the surface as shown in 
Pig. . lasBing up the canons to the northeast from the main coal, 
the beds may be seen to overturn and then recover themselves in an 
asyraetrio syncline. The quartzite reappears but is cut off by a fault 
before the coal horizon emerges. Ho coal is known along this eastern 
zone of quartzite but it is not without possibilities. In the other 



-8- 



direction from the main coal, somewhat similar structures lift the 
quartz it e to the surface again, this time in another sharp anticline, 
along the crest of which coal outcrops. Several beds there are worked 
by Pernandini at a small mine called Venegas. The structure is ex- 
ceedingly irregular and it is not possible to trace the outcrop for 
any great distance. The zone is relatively inaccessible and although 
there is some chance for a fair amount of coal it will not be considered 
further in this report. 

0. The anticline of the main coal zone continues without large 
scale interruptions as far as the Quebrada de Ututo where it terminates 
against a strong cross fault. In a general way, this southeastern por- 
tion of the field, (the Concorata section) appears fairly regular, but 
when examined in detail, it ie seen to be interrupted by a large number 
of small cross-breaks and, what are worse, numerous strike faults 
(i.e. breaks along nlanes parallel to the coal but with different dips). 
The oross faults are usually clearly shown on the surface. Except where 
they occur as zones of sheeting, breaking the coal into numerous small 
blocks, (Fig. 3), they will cause little trouble. The maximum horizontal 
displacement is about 100 a. (330 ft.) 






Pig. 3. Plan. A bed near 
lishque off-set by parallel 
faults. Scale 1 cm. 5 ra. 



Pig. 4. Sections, showing 
offsets by strike faults. 
Boale 1 cm. 5 m. 



-9- 



The strike faults are rarely visible on the surface. They may either 
cut the coal off sharply, or cause it to pinch, as shown in Fig. 4. 
The difficulties that these small but numerous interruptions will 
cause in mining are obvious. 

El, The series of strike faults are probably snmll slips along 
a zone of movement parallel to the axis of the anticline. The struc- 
ture sections (see Sheet 3, sections 1-8) show that the distance from 
the limestone-quartz it e contact to the coal is much greater on the 
right side of the canon than on the left. This discrepancy ie difficult 
to exrlain by any -nechaniBm; but the assumption of a zone of strike 
faults, and -particularly of a slightly oblique overthrust between th 
coal and the contact on the left side, seems most in keeping with field 
evidence. This speculation is explained more clearly in the sketch 
below. 



SW 




Fig. 5. Sketch showing possible nature of strike faults 
along the Conocpata anticline, looking northeast. 

Whatever the correct explanation may be, however, the fact remains 
that snail strike faults, mostly overthrusts, are common, and they 
are bad associates for the coal. 

S2. In the Saquicocha-Yana Gori section, the Conocpata anticline 
is replaced by a strong overthrust fault, parallel to the strike of the 



-10- 



ooal, but probably with a slightly flatter southwest dip. The change 
takes place along a strong oross-iault near the bottom of the Ututo 
canon, wliich drops the country on the northwest side down and to the 
northeast. The ocal of the east limb of the Gonoopata anticline ter- 
minates against this fault. From there northwest, this limb is over- 
ridden by the quartzite and coal of the west limb to such an extent 
that the quartzite and coal measures rest on overturned limestone of 
the Jachay formation. These relations are more clearly described by 
the sketch below: 

oe ctio. 



Limestone 




Fig, 6. Sketch plan of Conoopsuta anticline ana 
Saquicooha-Yana Gori orerthrtist. 



Scale 1cm = 50Oi 




Ma.cha.y- limestone 



j (1 ig. 7. oketoh section through Saquioocha-Yana Gori 

overthrust. 



23. The heavy quartz it e beds on the hanging-wall side of the 
fault have a uniform southwest dip throughout the entire section. 
Sufficient outcrops exist to Justify the expectation that the quart- 
zite of this section will be underlain by equally regular coal, 



-11- 



although the nearness of the overthrnst fault may cause difficulties. 
The most prominent croppings of coal, unf ortunately , are invariably 
where the soft beds of shale, clay and coal are sharply crumpled and 
thickened, and the structure locally complicated. 

24. At the top of the first ridge (baquieocha Kidge), the 
thickest but most irrei^ular coal of the district occurs. The "beds ar 
dragged over, folded and broken along fractures complementary to the 
main break. Six beds occur, but BO repeated and displaced, that there 
appears to be twice the number. On Sheet 3, beet ion 9 , an attempt is 

made to show the chief features of the ridge. At the crest of several 
sharp folds, the coal has been thickened to large irregular masses, in 

places seven or more meters wide, that undoubtedly hare given rise to 

v 
the exaggerated statements of the thickness of Oyon coal. Prominent 

oroes-faiats occur on the southside of S^quieocha ' idge , and also near 

i 

tlie bottom of the oafion to the northwest and on the north side of Yana 
. 
idge. At Yana Gori , thick masses of coal similar to those at 

Saquioocha again occur, but the structure is somewhat less complicated. 

85. Extent of outcrops. In the Gonoopata section, the coal bds 
are exposed in so aany holes along the outcrop on the east limb, that 
there is no reasonable doubt concerning the continuity of the seams for 
the entire distance, (5 km. - 3.1 miles). The longest interruption is 
north of the Miuebrada de Lamapaoa, where a landslide conceals the coal 
for 600 meters (1970 ft.).; but coal may be seen in the debris, and it 
is practically certain that the beds which outcrop on each side connect 
in depth. On the west limb of the Conocpata anticline, on the left side 
of the canon, exposures are sufficient to assure the continuity of the 
coal from the Grisantemo 'iine to within 400 m. of the <iuebrade de Ututo, 
a distance of 2 km. (l.5 miles). Fiirther south, the projection of the 



-12- 



coal zone IB beneath tains and glacial depots! ts and is completely 
concealed. In the more ragged Saquicoeha-Yana Gori section, the 
outcrop 5s concealed in several places by long talus slopes and the 
continuity of the beds is araoh less certain. The chief workings are 
in the complicated folded regions on ^aquicocha and Yana Gori ridges, 
whe-re the normal condition of the coal ie difficult to determine. 
The fir-st break is on the slopes above the i,uebrade de Ututo , where 
the coal is buried by talus for 800 a. Three beds are known at the 
bottom: only one is exposed at the top. It IB fairly certain that 
at least one bed is continuous. In the valley be'tween Saquioocha 
and Yana Gori, there is a section of 1.6 km. (1 mile) without definite 
exposures, due to deep talus an* glacial depoeits. The structure, 
however, is continuovB, and it is reasonable to exnect the coal to be 
unbroken. In the canon north of Yana Gori, heavy talus covers the 
outoroT from the Kelson Mine to Velo ITegro , a distance of 1.5 km. 
(490C ft.). Good coal is exposed on both sides. The only danger 
lies in the possibility that the dip of the overthruat fault, (rtiieh 
is not easily determined with antjdefiniteness) is sufficiently flat 
to out off the coal. Exploration necessary to prove the existence 
of ooal in these sections wotild be costly on account of the depth 
of talus. 

26. A few isolated outcrops occur soirth of the area mapped. 
The most important are on the east side of the main valley on the 
Gajaraarca claim. The beds however are too thin to be of value. The 
prominent black bed above Tabladas is merely shale with here and 
there 80 to 30 cm. of dirty coal. 

27. gumber of Beds. Six beds, in three groups of two each, 
may be recognized in a few places, where the coal is best exposed. 



-13- 



For the most part, only two beds are of workable thickness (over 
80 om. - 31 inches) although for 2.0 km. (1.25 miles) in the Gonoc- 
pata section three beds are probably workable. One bed is workable 
in all places exposed on the west limb. At Oa.quicocha and Yana Gori 
all si* beds are worked in places, but in the more regular parts of 
this section of the field, one bed is usually all on which reliance 
cai be placed. 

28. Thickness, Weighted averages of measurements of the two 
beds usually workable in the Oonoopata section on the east side give 
a thickness of 1.006 m. (39,6 inches) for the upper bed and 1.007 m. 
fcr the lower. The third bed, for the 2 km. where it is exposed, 
averages 1.091 m. (43.0 inches). The most prominent bed on the 
southwest side of the anticline averages 0.87 m. (34.2 in.). In the 
Saquioooha-Yana Gori section, it is impossible to arrive at a fair 
average thJckness. If all exposures are considered, a figure entirely 
too great will result for the reason that the most numerous openings 
are in the thick irregular coal on the ridges. The beds in the less 
disturbed parts range from .80 to 1,20 m. 90 cm, (35 inches) is a 
fair average figure, for the one bed that can be taken with reasonable 
certainty, 

29, Character of Roof. The roof is generally bad in all parts 
of the field. The coal is most commonly interbedded with carbonaceous 
shale, which has been reduced to a mass of wavy sheared lenses by the 
folding and movement of the beds. It is very difficult to hold and 
undoubtedly much will come in with the coal. For 1 km, or more in 
the Siglo ITuevo -nine in the Sonocpata section, and in a few other 
places for short distances, there is a strong roof, but as a rule 
heavy ground must be expected. 



-14- 



30. Tonnage .Estimates. Estimates of tonnage have been based on 
the geometric averages of measurements cf thickness of beds, on the 
distance that it was believed reasonable to assume that these thick- 
nesses would hold, and on the interpretation of the structure as shown 
on the geologic maps and sect ion. s. Trie limit in depth was taken as 
the elevation of a possible drainage tunnel driven on the coal froa 
the 4ubrada de Ututo starting at an elevation of 3660 m. (12,000 ft.) 
and rising vith an 0.8$ grade. This ^ives a conservative depth for 
the CJonoopata section, amounting to a maximum at Supaipahuasin of 
about 500 m. of backs (1640 ft.). In the baquicocha-Yana Gori section 
however, as much as 920 m. (3020 ft.) coiil* be obtained. Consequently 
relatively high tonnages were calculated for this section, but they 
involve a greatar element of ^isk than the tonnages given for lake 
Conocpata section. In order to reduce these figures to a common basis 
of probability, so that the tonnages of different blocks may be added, 
a factor has been introduced which may be called the Factor of Bisk. 
For a block of ground in which the calculated tonnage is regarded as 
a certainty, the factor is unity, V/ith inoreasi ng risk, the factor 
decreases from 1.0 to 0.1 . The determination of this factor is obviously 
difficult and largely a matter of judgment, but it depends on the 
degree of certainty concerning the following points: (1) thickness of 
the beds, (2) continuity in horizontal extent, (3) continuity in depth, 
and (4) continuity in quality. The factors 0.7 cu. m. (24.7 cu.ft) * 
1 short ton and .772 cu. m. = 1 metric ton (1 long ton approximately) 
were used, and results are given both in short tons and metric tons. 
The complete results of the tonnage estimate are given in Table I. 



-15- 



They -nay he summarized as follows: 

SEDUCED BY 
SECTION TOTAL FACTOR OE RISZ 

Conoopata Section, east lifcb. 5,504.000 short T. 4,121,000 
Conoopata Section, west limb. 530,000 442,000 

Saquioooha-Yana iori Section. 6.500.0GC 3.292,000 

Total 12,634,000 short T. 7,855,000. 

31. Quality. All beds in practically every accessible hole 
were sampled. One hundred thirty eight samples were cut, and sent 
to the Smelter for proximate analyses. The samples were dried at 
room tentDerature and run for Volatile Material, Fixed Carbon and 
Ash. Wherever possible sables were cut froa wall to wall of the 
bed. It is very doubtful, however, if the qiiality indicated by these 
samples can be maintained, if the coal is mined on a large scale. 
Dilution from the black shale associated with the coal will b inevit- 
able. To what extent it will occur will depend largely on the mining 
method, but I believe that it will be difficult to keep the ask content 
below 25^. The ooal in the Conoopata section appears to be slightly 
higher in Volatile Ilatetial than that in the baqid o ocha-Yana Sori sec- 
tion. The former is a serai-bitiiminous ooal while the latter in places 
aprroaohes a sub-anthracite. The results of geometric averages (talcing 
into consideration thickness of beds, grouping of samples and tonnage 
represented) are given in Table II. The results may be summarized as 
follows : 

Conocpata Section, east limb: 

Volatile Material 18.05 % 

Fixed Carbon 64.16 

Ash 17.78 % 

Conoopata Section, west limb: 

Volatile IJaterial 14.78$ 

Fixed Carbon 70.00 

Ash 15. 



-16- 



Saquioocha-Yana (Jori Section. 

Volatile Material 13.95 % 

Fixed Carbon 70 . 71 

Ash 15.34 % 

Average for entire di strict. 

Volatile Material 16.24 

Fixed Carbon 67.09 

Ash 16.66 % 

Applying lucke's formula (see page 2059, Peeles 1 Handbook), coal of 
this proximate analysis should. have a heating value of 7354 calories 
per kg. or 13225 B.T.U. a. I. Duenas (Sol. 97, Cuerpo de In/?, del 
Peru) gives 7676 calories r-er kg. (14177 3.T.U.) for heating value. 
baying his oalculations on the following average r>roximate analysis: 
Volatile :!ate-ial, 19.4 $> 9 Fixed Carbon 70.5, Ash 9.5$. A composite 
analysis of the ash from 14 samples ran: 

SiO 60.8$ 

A1 2 3 28.2 
Fe. 2.4 

CaO 1.4$ 

trace 



The ooal contains leee pyrite than Goyllarisquisga or Jatunhuasi coal. 

COAL EXPOSURES IE DETAII 

32. Supaipahnasin Block. The first frood showing of ooal as one 
enters the Oyon field from the southern end is on the Supaipahnasin 
claim of the Delgado broth ers. Two groups of workings exist about 
5CO meters apart. The southern group is merely a collection of sraall 

holes, in which three beds are imperfectly exposed. leaving two ab- 

^ 
normally thi ck places 'out of consideration, the beds average 70, 95 and 

7C cm. (27, 37 and 27 inches) respectively in passing from the upper to 
the lowe . The dip is flat to the northeast, but steepens and overturns 
furthe^ m> the slore as indicated on Sheet III, boot ion 1. Samples from 
these southern holes average: 

Volatile Material 17.5$ 
Fixed Carbon 66.2 

Ash 16. 



-17- 



The coking quality is doubtful, 

3?, The main oupaipahuasin workings are in the northern group 
near the Quebrada de .Moo. A3esides numerous small holes, mostly cared, 
tho coal is exposed in three cress-cutting adits, 112 rn, (367 ft.), 
87 m. (285 ft.), and 118 m. (2b7 ft) (lowest), respectively, with 
short drifts on the coal. Four beds of coal are cut, two of which 
average 1.45 and 1.25 m. respectively (57 in, and 53 in.) and the 
third, an intermediate bed, possibly 1,0 m. The dips are flat to 
the northeast, but will probably steepen with depth. In the upper 

northwest adit, irregular minor folds and abnormal dips are encoun- 

, 

?d. Passim: toward tho 3uebrada de P.uco, the ground becomes broken 
* i-rre^ular. The details are shown in the sketch below: 
NE SW 




Fig. 8. Sketch of S!O)B on south side of the 
Quebrada de Ruco 



The average of oamples from tho main Supaipahuasin workings is: 

Volatile Material 16.7 % 

Fixed Carbon 66, 5 

Ash 1G.8 % 

Fairly good coke is made on the dumps by heap burning. For tonnage 
estimates see Table I. In the tonnage estimates the thicknesses shown 
in the southern group of holes were assumed to hold for 450 m. ; and 
those of the northern group for 350 m. 



-18- 



34, _juebrada de Huoo 31ook. .here the ooal crosses the ^uebrada 
de HUGO, it encounters a series of rninor irregularities that make it 
difficult to give a reliable estimate of thicknesses or tonnage. Four 
or nore beds obviously exist , but no reliance can be placed on their 
cent 5muity In the estimate, only two beds are considered, an upper 
bed 1.0 m. thick, and a lower .80 m. thick. These thicknesses ware 
assumed to hold for 450 m. T&e tonnage ia reduced by .5 Factor of 
Risk. The average of samples from this sect5 on is: 

Volatile Tlaterial 19.4 % 

Fixed Barbon 68.8 

12.4 % 



A medium grade ccke can be made from most of tlie ooal. The ground is 
oovereo by the Saypullo and Uitacocha claims of the Ticapampa Company, 
the 26 de Julio claim cf .AguBtin Minaya and the Pin de Siglo claim owned 

9 

by "iaroial Yallejo and Juan Galiuffi. 

A 

35. ;uebrada de ilishque Block. Passing from the Quebrada de T '.uoo 

f 

to ?tishque, the dip of the ooal gradually steepens until in the bottom 
of the latter oaHon, where it encounter s a seties of cross-faults and 

displaced to the left, it is aro-und 8C northeast. The beds with 
steep dip are notably thinner than the flatter beds to the southeast. 
Cn the slopes above the southeastern outcrop, there is also a sharp 
steepening in dip, which may possibly mean a strike fault, a eource of 
uncertainty in regard to continuity in depth, numerous short drifts 
have been driven on the coal from the outcrop on the side of the gully. 
One cross-cut adit, 120 m. (394 ft.) long exposes the beds fairly wll. 

ht beds of coal are shown but only one is of good width, (where out, 
1.30 m. , 51 in.). On Sheet II, section 3, these relations are shown. 
In the tonnage estimate, two beds (1.10 aid 1.30 m. thick respectively) 



-19- 



are assrmed for 380 m. In the southeastern part of the block but only, 
one bed (1.05 m. thick) for 150 m. in the northwestern part. The average 
of samples from this block is: 

Volatile 'fate-rial 15.3 % 

Fixed Garbon 58.1 

Ash 36.6 % 

Coke can be made from only part of this coal. The ooal is largely in 
the Pin de Siglo claim owned by ."larcial Vallejo and Juan Gagliuffi. 

36. Gondebamba Block. Continuing north, two beds in an upper 
group and one bed in the lower prroup a^e fairly well exposed for 600 
m. (1970 ft.). One of the upper beds averages ,80 ra. , the lower bed 
1.00 m. The usual dips are between 30 and 45 KB. Immediately below 
the outcron, the dip is reversed. No coal is seen on the lower slopes, 
but there is srooo chance for it beneath the heavy talus. 

SW ^-< NE 




Fig. 9, Sketch section near booa 40, Condebamba Block. 
( lcokin f T northeast ) 

The average of saimles from this section is: 

Yelatile Material 20.2 % 
MxBd Carbon 61.0 

Ash 18.1 % 

Fairly good coke is being made at most of the working places. The coal 
IB in the Condebatnba claim owned by the Ticapampa Company and in the 
Amigo 7iel claim owned by the Vda. Bunstan. 

37. Siglo Huevo Block. The most uniform ooal and most regular 
becis occur in this part of the) field. Three beds are nearly always 
present in workable thickness. The two upper bee's, usually close to- 
gether, average 1.13 and 1.24 m. (44 and 49 in.) respectively, and the 



-80- 



lower bed averages 1.1C <n. (46 In.) for a distance of 635 ra. (080 ft.). 
The ground is opened by five cross-cut adits of considerable length open- 
ing into fairly extensive media barretas on the coal. The lower bed 
outororo very nearly on tne axis of the anticline; workings on it enter 
flat and then desofr 1 with the steepeninpr dip. The upper beds, farther 
northeast, have steeper dips (30 to 70 JJfiS; exceptionally as high as 
8C). Tlie average of samples fror> these workings is: 

Volatile Material 10.5 % 

Fixed Carbon 70.1 

Aeh 11.4 % 

Good ooke ic bein.? rqade frora all the beds by heap burning. The ground 
is covered by the biglo Nnevo claim owied by Sr. ;feroial Vallejo and 
the CJonstante clai-n held by the JJanoo Internacional. 

38. Langrpaoa 31ook. At tho northern end of the Siglo Uuevo and 
Infalible .iines , the outcrop is cut by an oblique canon called Laraapaca. 
The three beds of Siglo Uuevo continue anft possibly two others, difficult 
to correlate due tc local irregularities. In two Tlaoes abnormally great 
thicknesses of coal exist, one on an upper bed where a width of 4 m. was 
measured, the other on a lower bed where ooal over 4 m. thick is exposed 
in three places. In both occurrences ho*/ ever, there are numerous irreg- 
ularities, and it is doubtful if any continuity can be expected. In the 
estimate three beds were taken, averaging 1.00 m. t 1.18 m. , and .85 m. 
(39 in., 46 in. and 33 in.) respectively for 610 m. (8000 ft.) The 
thick masses were not nonsidered in the Average. The average of samples 
taken in this section is: 

Volatile Material 18.1 % 

Fixed Carbon 61.9 

Aeh IS. 7 % 

Coke is made from all beds except the lower one. The grornd is covered 
by the Tedro claim (owned by Fornandini), and Constante (held by the 
Banco Inter nacional.y 



NE 



-21- 




Pig. 10. Sketch showing structr^e on south side of 
ebrada de Laraapaca (looking southeast ). 

39. Landslide Block. Horth of Lama7>aca, the ooal outcrop is con- 
cealed by an extensive landslide for 500 nu On the face of the cliff 
aboYe the main stream, two thick beds are shown, bnt entirely in broken 
ground and over ICO meters lower than they should be, Frora one, a large 
sized stream of water issues, constant in volume at all seasons. In the 
tonnage estimate, it was assumed that one bed averaging 1.00 m. in thick- 
ness was continuous through this section. The ground is held by Juan 
Gagliuffi and the i/elgados, 

40. Yeflray Block, Coal of the east limb is exposed in three groups 
of holes in this section. It is reasonable to count on two beds at 
least 1 m, thick for the entire distance (500 nu , 1640 ft,) Dips are 
commonly from 25* to 40 NS. The average of samples is: 



Volatile Material 3,6 % 

Fixed Carbon 48.8 

27.6 % 






^.o coke was seen on the dumps. Laboratory tests on all except one 

rle indicate t&at it is non-coking. The ground is covered by the 
Vedray claim owned by -Inador Gagliuffi and the Peraldo Estate, and by 
the Constants claim held by the Banco Internacional, 



- 






-22- 



41. Satanela - Coloa Hock. Passing across the Yanacalu saddle 
to the slopes on the southeast side of the ^uebrada de Ututo, the struc- 
ture becomes irregular, probably due to nincr cr ess- fault s , and to the 
influence of the strong cross-fault in the bottom of the canon* The 
beds are also displaced by large scale slumping, and are probably far 
from their true positions. Two well defined beds are worked eah over 
1 m. thick, but estimates of tonnages ftnd correlations are difficult. 
Samples for tbis section average: 

Volatile Material 18.3 % 
Fixed Carbon 55.1 

Ash 26.4 % 

Coke of good grade is being made on the dumps. The ground is covered 
by the Satanela claim owned by Fernandini and the.Oolca and Sucla claims 
owned by the Delgadoe. 




fig. 11. Sketch showing structure on south tsiue of 
nebrad^ de Ututo (looking southeast). 

42. Southwest limb, Oonocpata Anticline. From the Crisantemo .line 
northwest, one bed of coal generally and in places two beds of workable 
thickness can be expected as far as the Quebrada de Ututo. The outcrop 
is lower than that on the east side of the anticline, and consequently 
the tonnage above the drainage level is relatively small. The structure 
is fairly regular, but difficulties from strike faults will probably be 
met in depth. The beds dip from 45 to 65* SW. The most southerly ex- 
posures are on the Crisanterao claim belonging to th e Vda.Dnnstan. An 



-23- 



adit , 30 m. long cross-cute the ooal measures in the northern part of 
the claim and reveals three beds, two of which are less than 50 cm. 

thick:; the third (the upper bed) is 70 cm. (27 in.). A saraple from 



this bed gave the following analysis: 

Volatile Material 10.5 % 

Fixed Carbon 73.5 

Ash 16.0 % 

and was non-coking. Further south the outcrop is completely concealed 
by talvs, btrt the grour.d along the probable line of the coal has good 
speculative value. Continuing north through a group of claims controlled 
by br. Lino Diaz of Oyon, and one owned by the Delgados, thicker coal is 
exposed but it is not safe to rely on more than one bed of workable 
thickness (.70 to 1.00 m. for a distance of 1035 m.). On Fernandini's 
ground, which comprises the larger part of the northern end of the sec- 
tion, there are in places two workable beds. The average of all samplte 
taken in this section is: 

Volatile Material 16.35 % 

Fixed Carbon 68.28 

Ash 15.35 % 

Cote is being rade on most of the dumps of working mines. 

43. Yana Paehga Block. From the Ututo fault to the northwest, the 
only coal of rerrular structure is that which is paaallel to the massive 
beds of quartzite in the hanging wall of the overthrust fault. In the 
Tana Fashga Block, which lies on the steep slopes rising from the Quebrada 
de Ututo, there are three beds exposed near the canon bottom. The two 
upper beds are thin (averaging 70 cm., 27 in., each). On the upper 
slopes they are concealed beneath talus. The lowest bed outcrops along 
the bottom of a steep rough gully called Yana Pashga. In places it 
appears to be over 2 m. thick. The dip is generally from 65 to 75* SW. 



-24- 



The ground could be very easily opened tip by a drainage tunnel on the 
coal from the bottom of the valley. The average analysis for saiiples 
taken in this block is: 

Volatile -Jaterial 17.36 % 
Fixed Carbon 63.82 

Ash 18.81 % 

laboratory tests indicate that the coal is non-coking. Hone is being 
rained at present. In the tonnage estimate one bed 90 cm. (35 in.) thick 
was assumed to be continuous for 750 ra. (2460 ft.). On the lower slopB 
immediately above the main stream and east of Yana laehga gully, there 
is a small area of broken coal, probably in a block between breaks of 
the Utttto fault. The coal makes a strong surface showing, but it is not 
possible to rely on much tonnage. The ground is controlled by the 
Delgados . 

44. Httaooha Cuyao 31ook. The upper third of the great elope which 
rises northwest of the Quebrada de Ututo is covered by the Huaocha Ouyac 
olaim, owned by Sr. Mateo Galjtif. . The claim eonti nues over the crest 
and part way into the next canon. Good exposures are not abundant, but 
it ic fnir to count on one workable seam at least, lying under the regular 
beds of quartzite in the hanging wall of the overthrust. At the southern 
end of the grotmd, one 85 cm. (33 in.) bed is shown in the lowest group 

of holes. Hear the top of the ridge, two beds outcrop and appear to be 

v 
l.OC m. and ..90 m. thick respectively. On the northern sifce of ths ridge, 

there are numerous indications of coal but only at one place can the 
seam be definitely measnred. There it is 1.00 m. thick. The dip is 
regularly to the southwest and ranges from 50 to 65. The average analy- 
sis from all samples taken in this block is: 

Volatile Material 12.9 % 

Fixed Carbon 70.7 

Ash 16.4 % 



Laboratory tests indicate that the coal is non-coking. Ho coke was ob- 
served on the dumps. For the tonnage estimate one bed averaging 90 cm. 
(35 in.) for 1600 m. (5250 ft.) was assumed. 

45. Saquioooha Hidge, The most spectacular showings of coal in 
the district occur near the top of Saquicocha Ridge, the first ridge 
north of the Quebrada de Ututo. There, the coal measures have been 
dragged over, crtarpled and repeatedly broken along strike faults parallel 
to the main overtl^^st. The general nature of the ground is shown on 
Sheet III, Section 9.. At least sir beds occur. Where leaat disturbed 
the beds range from .60 to 1.00 m. in thickness, but at the crests of 
sharp local folds, or where dragged over on faults, great bunches, 
5 to 10 meters in diameter, are formed. Snch thicknesses, of course, 
are entirely local and will not persist. Any attempt to consider them 

ly 

in a tonnage estimate would be difficult and apt to be serious/'misleading. 
The largest masses of coal are exposed in adits on the Alegf ia jlalm, 
owned by Mateo Galjuf. Ten adits over 25 m. in length have been driven, 
the longest (a cress-cut) being 169 m. (554 ft.). Coal mined from the se 
workings is coked on the dumps and sent to Huaron by llama trains. The 
astern part of the rid^e, covered by the Nelly and Olividada claims, 
(owned by Dr. Gerardo lego and Sr. Agustin Arias) is slightly more 
regular but still very complicated in detail. Before the contact is 
reached, the rock passes into a reddish Tjuartzite breccia, composed of 
sharp angular fragments, ranging from a few inches to several feet in 
diameter. This formation occurs in several areas but always along the 
one of the overthrust. In my opipion, it is most probably a fault 
breccia but it may be an ancient cemented talus slope. In one place, 
there appears to be a rough bedding in it. Indefinite coal showings 
fcanre caused a little work to be done here and there in the breccia. 



-26- 



but, of ooiirse, nothing except small bunches has been found. Toward the 
southeast, the ooal of Saquicocha Ridge IB out off by a cross-fault of 
considerable magnitude. Average analyses for Saqtdcocha Hidge are as 
follows: 

Alegira workings: 

Volatile Material 15.1 % 

Fixed Carbon 73.1 

Ash 11.8 % 

Helly workings: 

Volatile Material 13.5 % 

Fixed Carbon 75.1 

Ash 12.6 % 

The greater part of the ooal yields a fair coke, 

46. In oil a Book. On the lower northwestern slopes of Saquioo cha 
Ridge, a group of holes on the coal occurs in the Lucila Claim and ad join- 
In r jr-otmd. A strong cross-fault causes complicated local irregularities 
and it Ir difficult to correlate beds or to establish average thicknesses. 
Most of the holes in the ooal are caved. The few that are open are small. 
In estimating the tonnage, only one bed averaging 50 cm. (20 in.) for 

95C m. (3120 ft.) was assumed to exist. 200 m* of the distance is in 
the Luoila claim owned by the TicapamiMi Company, the remaining 750 m. 
is in the Kuripa claim owned by the Delgados. The average analysis from 
samples taken in this block is: 

Volatile Material 15.2 % 

Pixed Carbon 75,5 

Ash 9.4$ 

The ooal is non- coking, 

47. Garbtinolo Block. In the oafton below the Lucila claim, the 
outcrop is buried by deep tains and glacial debris. There are no satis- 

.factQTy ex-oosures until the next ridge (Yana Sori ridge) is passed. 
About 500 m. up the slope, a number of holes have been driven on the 
;Carbunclo claim, but wJ th d is appoint in g resTilts. There appears to be 



-27- 



one distinct bed t but it is dirty ooal, and of irregular thickness. It 
averages tinder 80 cm. It IB likely, however, that the best beds are 
beneath the taltta below the adits. In estimating tonnage, one bed 
averaging 50 cm. (0 in.) was assumed to exist for 750 ra. (2460 ft.). 
The resulting tonnage was decreased by multiplying by .3 as Factor of 
Riek. Ho reliable samples were obtained from this block. The ground 
is largely owned by Sr. Lino JM.a and associates. 

48, Yana Gori Block, Structures in a general way similar to those 
on Saquicocha Ridge reoccur on the north side of Yana Sori ridge, A 
series of cross-faults breaks the ground on the foot-wall side of the main 
overthrust. Blocks of the ooal measures have been dragged under and re- 
peated in complicated structures. Four or more beds exist in this area 
of broken ground. V/orkings are numerous. Ten adits aver 25 ra. in length 



have been driven. The longest (called the Candela) , driven near the 
bottom of the slope, has a length of 11*9 m. (390 ft.). For the last 
29 m. (95 ft.) the adit cuts a remarkable bed of ooal and black shale. 
Thicknesses and analyses are as follows: 

Coal Shale Coal Shale Coal Shale Coal Coal 

Thickness 5.40 m. ,80 1.10 2,80 1.90 3,40 1.90 2.10 

Volatile I.Iate^ial 13.1 % 10.9 IE. 2 10.4 12.3 11.0 13.3 13.4 

Fixed Carbon 79.7 30.4 78.0 33.8 71.8 24.5 78.9 72.2 

Ash 7.2 % 58.7 9.8 55.8 15.9 64.5 7.8 14.4 

The average for the ooal is: 

Thickness . 1,4 m. 

Volatile Material 13.0 % 

Fixed Carbon 76.9 

Ash 10.1 % 

Assuming the shale as 100 % ash, the average for the entire bed would be 
42.5 % ash. The shale is a black, shining, sheared rock, very difficult 
to hold. It would be impossible to extract the ooal without taking the 
shale as well. The bed is probably continuous for 250 m. (820 ft.) to 
the southeast. It will probably be cut off by a fault within a few 



-28- 



hundred meters to the northwest. Its continuity in depth ie doubtful. 
The average of samples taken in the Yana Gori mines (with the exception 
of the Candela group, discussed a&ove) is: 

Volatile Material 12.9 % 

Fixed Carbon 70.3 

Ash 16.8 % 

Coke is being made on many of the dumps. The ground is owned by the 
Delgados. 

49. Yana Jiahtii Block. The western workings of the Yana Gori group 
(which lie on the Yana Imhui claim belonging to the Delgados) give 
promise of two or more beds of coal, parallel to the overlying quartzite, 

a relationship which offers reasonable assurance of continuity horizontally 
and in depth. Lower on the slopes of the Quebrada de Potaca, there are 
a few Imperfect exposures which show at least that the ooal continues. 
In the estimate, however, only one bed, averaging 1.00 m. for 1100 m. 
(3600 ft,) was assumed to exist. The average analysis of all samples 
from this block is: 

Volatile Material 12.655 
Fixed Carbon 73.8 

Ash 13.6 % 

The entire block is owned by the Delgados, 

50. Nelson Mine. Near the bottom of the Quebrade de lotaca, the 
coal is exposed in a number of small holes in the Kelson claim ( 1 per- 
tenencia) owned by the Vda. Dunstan. Three beds occur but only one is 
workable. It averages 1.30 m. (51 in.) in thickness. Analyses frcm 
samples taken there average: 

Volatile Itoterial 13.6 % 
Fixed Carbon 68.3 

Ash 18.0 % 

A poor grade of coke is made from the coal. 



-29- 



51. Potaoa Block. To the northwest from the Helson Ittne, the line 
of the coal is "beneath heavy talus and glacial debris for 1500 m. (49SO 

/ 

ft.). On account of the strong outcrops on either side, however, it was 
assumed for the tonnage estimate that one 1.00 m. bed was continuous 
throughout this section. The tonnage calculated, however, was greatly 
reduced by using .2 as Factor of Risk. The ground is held by the 
Delgados. 

52. Yelo Hegro Block. The coal is exposed in two groups of holes 
on the Velo Negro claim (the most northern ground included jn the area 
mapped). Two beds, one averaging 1,20 m. (47 in.) and the other 1.10 m. 
(42 in.), are exposed in the lower group of holes. In the highest hole, 
one bed averaging 90 cm. is exposed. In the estimate, one bed 1.0 m. 
thick fo^ 500 m. (1640 ft.) was assumed. Analyses of samples averaged: 

Volatile Material 15.8 % 

Fixed Carbon 68.2 

Ash 16.0 'I 

The coal is non-coking. The two claims (Velo Hegro and Oerrenita) , which 
cover most of the ground, are owner? by Sr. R. Alania, Dr. P. Villate, and 
Dr. B. Patifio of Gerro de Pasoo. 

TSAIfcPOHFATIOH 

53. The GOES tract ion of a railroad into the Oyon district is an ab- 
solute necessity if the mines there are to be worked on a scale sufficiently 
large to meet the needs of the Corporation. Unfortunately, there is no 
easy route into the field and the best location possible will undoubtedly 
offer many difficulties and involve heavy expenditures. Only two routes 
are worthy of consideration, one by way of the Uchuc Chaoua pass and the 
other by way of the Jatcn Chacua pass across the Cordillera. 

54. The former route would bring a line into the Yana Gori section 
of the field, on one of the highest ridges of the district. The line 



-3C- 



oculd be ao located that there would be almost no adverse grade from the 
ooal to the pass but on the Oyon si6, very heavy rook work vrould be 
necessary to pass a region of exceed inscly rotgh oliffa. and on the eastern 
side of the crest, the line would be i'orcac to OTOBB the nndaahaoa Talley 
and its tributaries before reaching the northern end of the paapa country, 
which would inevitably reenlt in bad adverto grades 

56. Alin* orer the Jatim Shaom route wot>ld enter the southern end 
of the field. -^Lne wo^h octald be easily designed to place the ooal 

at ' uco (near Supaipahnaein .line) where a railroad teriiinne could b ea- 

liBhe^ at an elerati^n of aboat 4175 -a* (1J??CC ft,). From there to 
the tunnel at the pass, a distance of 14 km. { 8.7 -tiles) it would be 
neoeaeary to olirab 485 . f 1590ft.). There would be heavy rock work 
but nothing iiwmrmo writable. A ttmnel of 1100 s. (3600 ft.) at an elera- 
tion of 4C61 a. ( 15290ft.) would carry the line into the Jwiaeha Talley. 
Cn the enst slope, no difficulties woold be enoo-ontered with the exception 
of a F hrrt eeoticn cf rook work necessary to paeo the cliffs near Qoisqne. 
The lenffth of the line would be about 68 ka. (42.5-ailesi. Thio route 
brSnfffl the railroad into the best portion of the ooal field, and also 
leaves it in a good position for continuing on to the ocast if it ehovld 
erer be daeired. The line also paceae naar Jlina lagra ol the ^aerioan 
Vanadium Corporation fron whose business a considerable rerenxie ootild be 
derived. 

56. A horseback reconnaissance was made over both routes with &. 
R. 0. 3. albert, and it was decided thstt the Jattm Chaona rente was the 
only one which warranted further study. A surrey of the line has now 
been completed by -Mr. %bert, and his results and estimates are ready 

for presentation. Be estimates that the total aost of the road will be 



2 000 000 

) 



-51- 
ACC3SSCHISS. 

57. "ater Power. In the driest months in 1921, the stream down 
the Quebrada de Ccnoopata had a volume of at least 40 ou. ft. per eec. , 
and the stream in the Quebrada de Ututo over 80 ou. ft. per sec. Storage 
for the for;ner stream oould "be easily obtained at Tabladas, and for the 
Rio de Ututo at lake Iat6n and Anilcooha. Foundation Company engineers 
have reported that raising Pat6n 9 meters will ^ive 7,000,000 cubic asters 
storage. 

58, An excellent power site exists in the Quebrada de Ututo where 
it is crossed by the coal outcrop, and where a drainage tunnel for large 



.sine development would undoubtedly enter. There, a head of 120 
meters (394 ft.) could be obtained with a ditch 1500 meters (4920 ft.) 
long, on an easy canon side. 2860 H.P, could be developed without 
storage (assuming 80 cu. ft, per sec.) wfa ich would easily meet the needs 
of the mine. 

59. A much greater development could be obtained below Tingo de 
Ragag, using the streams both from Ututo and Conocpata. With a 4 kilometer 
ditch a head of 200 meters could be obtained. 

60. All streams in the district have been denounced by Delgado and 
are included in the option. 

61. Labor. The district is thinly populated, and it will undoubted- 
ly be difficult too impossible to secure an adequate supply of labor from 
local so-rrces. The population of the Oyon district is said to be 4 00, 
which is not enough to cultivate all available land. The difficulties at 
Goyllarisquisga where there is a population of 10,000 in the valleye below 
mines, would probably be exceeded in Oyon. Some men might be seciired from 
the country to the north, from the Huallanca district or even the Callejon 
de Huaylas, but this at best would be a small and uncertain supply. The 
"bulk of the labor would probably have to come by rail from the Huancayo 



"ZO 



Valley, the souroe of most of the labor in the Oorporat ion's mines. 

62. Olimate. The olimate in the valleys between 12,000 aAd 13,000 
feet in elevation, where it would be possible to place the permanent camp, 
is mild and agreeable at all seasons. The surroundinfr conntry, although 
very ron^h, is fairly grassy and affords pasture for herds, sufficiently 
lar&e to keep a oamp in milk and meat. In the Conocpata section, the 
highest^ mine workings would be below 14,000 ft., but in the Saquicocha- 

A 

Yana Gori section the ooal goes higher than 15,000 ft. in two places. 
There, of course, the climate is severe, and not unlike \forococha. The 
five months of the dry season are delightful, and field work is rarely 
interrupted. In the wet season, snow and hall storms a^e freqnent above 
14,000 ft., and there is abundant rain in the valleys. On the whole, 
the climate is bette-" and living conditions would likewise be easier than 
in any of the Corporation's operating properties. 

63. .Mineral Possibilities. V ! ith'"a rldius of 3C km. (19 miles) of 
Oyon, there are eight or more mineral district 5 , all apparently smll but 
of large refutation. The most important are Ghancas , Raura, Ptraahuain 
and Isquez. I have not had time to examine all the mines personally 
but the following data, in part from Sr. Luis Eelgado and checked from 
other sources, are believed to be reliable. 

64. The district of Shanea lies 20 km. (12 miles) north of Oyon. 

It is an extensive region of mineralized country. Small veins are numer- 
ous. The valuable product ie silver, with minor amounts of coprer, fi*>ld 
and lead. Very rich pockets of ruby silver and tetrahed.r ite have been 
mined. In 1917, it is said that 95 tons averaging 700 oz. were shipped 
to La Pundioion. The average of the best veins is said to be 20 to 30 
oz. per ton, but this is doubtful as no reliable sa-sples have been taken. 
Veins in the district were worked several years ago by a French company 



-33- 



with a llxiviation plant at Gazuna. 

65. The district of Raura lies at a high altitude (15600 ft.) near 
the crest of the Jordillera above Santa Ana lake. Two or more reins occur 
near tho contact of an intrusive and limestone. One contains chiefly 
galena, which assays only 2 - 5 oz. per ton in silver. The other is a 
well-marked vein 2-3 feet wide carrying copper and silver. Belgrade's 
assays indicate from 5 to 10 % copper with 20 oz. per ton silver. Dunas 
states that picked ore from rich spots assayed 120 to 200 oz. per ton and 
10 - 15 % On. The deposits are in exceedingly roggh country and are 
probably too small to be of interest. 

66. "umahuain lies 30 Jem. west of Oyon on a high ridge extending 
toward the coast. It is the center of a large mineralized area. Humorous 
veins are reported, but the grade i& low. The average of samples taken 

by Delgado is 15 to 20 oz. per ton of silver and 1 to 5 % copper. Delgado 
holds the sweater part of the three districts described^ above. 

67. The district of Isquez forms a large rusty area on a ridge 

16 km. (10 miles) or so (map distance) west of Oyon. A little exploration 
has been done on two narrow veins. Some rich pockets of tetrahedrite have 
been nined but the average silver content is low. Small holes, now large- 
ly caved, have been made on numerous other veins in the region. Pyrite 
and galena with low silver content were generally encountered. 

68. Hear Uchuc Chacua, a small vein in limestone has bean worked 
by an extensive system of media barretas. The rain^alization is spotty 
and irregular but some rich Dockets of silver ore have been encountered 
and mineO. A few tons now on the dumps are said to run around 100 oz. 
in silver. 

6&. At Ishay Cruz, juet over the first ridge southwest of Oyon, 
there is a remarkable outcrop of hematite, 5 km. long and 1C to 40 m. 



-34- 



in width. Tn meat rlaoes it carries a high percentage of manganese. 
'Celltilar silica is prominent in most parts of the outcrop, and locally 
barite. Toward the south, near Chupa, the outcrop contains abttndant 
pyrite *ind in places is copper stained. The deposit is not without 
considerable speculative value. It is held by Delgado. 

70. The mineral possibilities of the Oyon region are not sufficient- 
ly attractive to add any particular weight to the arguments favoring the 
development of the district. But if a railroad should be built, it is 
not unlikely that small scale mining in many places will be stimulated 
and that there will be fairly regular shipments of a little rich oilver 
ore. And in CJhanca, Pumahuain, Isquez and at Ishay Cruz, there is a 
chance that better ores may be encountered, but of course it is merely 

a speculation. 

/ 

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT 

71. Exploration, No further exploration of the outcrop is necessary. 
Exposures are now sufficient to make it fairly certain that the beds are 
oontinuous apart f^om break? on faults throughont the aredawpped. The 
chief uncertainty in the distric > behavior of the coal in depth, 
and before the heavy expenditures involved in railroad and plant con- 
struction can he approved, two adits designed to supply this information 
should be driven. An adit from tho valley below the Supaipahuasin Mine 
(at point IT 1S75C B 2S300 with direction H 53 3) would probably cut the 
cr-xl nt a distance of 350 to 410 m. (1150 and 1300 ft.) at a depth, of 

ISO m. (390 ft.) vertically below the outcrop. An adit driven below 
the oiglo Fuevc 'fine (at point H 14160 3 1090 with direction H 45 S) 
would be between 270 and 320 m. (89C and 1050 ft.) in length and would 
out the beds 180 m. (390 ft.) below the outcrop. If ooal comparable in 
thickness and quality tc that shown along the outcrop were encountered 



-3b- 



in these adits, I should regard the estimate of 4,000,000 tens of ooal 
in the Conoopata section as suffioiantly certain to be accepted as one 
established factor uron which a decision concerning further expenditures 
could be based. If coal of workable thickness were not encountered in 
these adits, I would recommend abandoning the field. 

72. At 1.51/j per foot, a reasonable estimate, this wokk would 
cost 2,525.000 (17,097.00). Using a light gaeoline compressor, the 
work outlined could be completed in nine months. Before starting the 
adit below 3iglo Faevo, it would be well to have the Siglo Nuevo and the 
Constants and the Gondebamba claims under option. The coal would be cut, 
however, in the Raymi claim owned by the Delgados. 

73. Operation. With the railroad terminus at Kr.oo, mine develop- 
ment could be so designed that the coal would be collected by mine haulage 
to a single hoisting system at that point, and elevated directly into bins 
over the track. First development could utilize the exploration adit 
recommended in paragraph 71, with a temporary surface incline from the 
adit mouth to the railroad level. With ooal of the same grade and thick- 
nese as indicated in the present workings, there will be around 500,000 
tons available above this adit level. Y/hile production could be started 
in this manner, larger scale development from the adit below Siglo Nuevo 
oould be under wejr. A drift on the ooal from the Siglo Buevo exploration 
adit would give an additional 120 m, (390 ft.) of backs and block out an 
additional 1,OOG000 tons of coal. The drift on the coal from this adit 
to F.uco would be 1,800 m. (5,900 ft.) in length, but with extensions in 
both directions it could be driven Z,OGO m. (9,800 ft.) beneath known ooal, 
The most economical hoisting at T'uco would probably be by means of a 
vertical shaft in the foot wall of the coal, from which the coal could be 
dumped directly in bins above the railroad. Buch a shaft would be about 



-36- 



00 m. (660 ft.) deep. If sinking beneath this level should be pre- 
vented by excessive water, deeper development could be obtained by a 

tunnel from the Quebrada d Ututo at an elevation of 3660 m (IS, 000 ft.) 



or possibly a little lower. This tunnel could be driven on the general 
line of the coal, and with the necessary ventilation raises, would 
completely block out all the coal in the Gonoopata section included 
in the estimate. By connecting with the shaft at Ruoo, it would serve 
as the main haulage level for the deep workings. The distance from 
the mouth of this tunnel to the shaft would be 5 kra. (16400 ft.). The 
shaft would need to be 460 m. (1500 ft.) deep. Coal mined from the 
Yana Pashga, Huacoha Cuyac and Saquicocha ground to the northwest could 
be brought out into the Quebrada de Ututo at a corresponding level, and 
hauled and hoisted to the railroad at Ruoo by the sane system. 




9-3OO 



fan a cala. 



Quebrada 



Lcima.pac& 



Mishque f ^je.CO *zso 



'tu.to/ ' ' jldt't. 



tooo 



37 SO 



Scale: 1 cm SOOm. 

. 1OOO. 

Pig. IS. Profile of coal outcrop, showing suggested 
working and drainage levels. 

74. Mining methods used with success in the Pennsylvania anthracite 
fields, where the structures are equally complicated, could probably be 
applied in the Oyon district. Local difficulties, however, due to thin- 
ness of beds, bad roof and changes in quality would undoubtedly demand 
many original modifi cations. For any opinion on mining methods and for 
a reliable estimate of working cost, I believe it is absolutely essential 
to secnre the oninion of an engineer experienced in anthracite coal mining, 



-37- 



OWHERSHIP 

75. Luis A. Delgado is the most important mine-owner in the 
district, but the ground controlled by him, now under option, contains 
only 31 % of the total tonnage estimated, (see Table I), which taken 
alone is not sufficient to Justify the expenditures necessary to enter 
the district. To form a safe working unit, it will be necessary to 
control 80 % of the ground in the Conoopata section. If it is decided 
to enter the Cyon district, it is recommended that the following 
additional mines, listed in order of their desirability, be purchased 
or options on them secured without delay: 

Siglo Nuevo Violeta (demasia) 

Const ante Jazmin 

Fin de Siglo Crisantemo 

Condebamba Fomeolvides 

Inf alible Sayapullo 

Amigo Piel Sitacocha 

28 de Julio Brillante 

Llama Quilla (demasia) Estillita 

Huaocha Cuyao Oorapensacion 

Tulipan Constante 2 

More remote mines can be required at a later date without risk. In 
Table III, all mines and denouncements, with names of owners, estimate 
of tonnage and recommendation concerning purchase are listed. The most 
important group of mines is that owned largely by Haroial Vallejo of 
Oyon. He is asking 11,000.000 for the property, a figure unreasonably 
high. If it is decided to secure more properties, the Corporation could 
afford to offer up to 5,000.000 for this ground, or for the best three 
quarters of it. The properties owned or controlled by Lino Diaz of Oyon 
form a valuable block. He will probably accept 1,500.000 for the 
ground. The mines of the Anglo-French Ticapampa Silver Mining Company 
are held at an absurdly high figure. Th^ir Condebamba claim is the 
only one of very great value. It is worth a final offer of 1,500.000. 
The properties of the Dunstan estate have fair value. The Corporation 



-38- 



oould afford to offer up to 1,800.000 for an option. Constants, now 
held by the Banco Internacional , is very important, and worth up to 
2,500,000. Huacoha Cuyao occupies good ground and is worth an offer 
of 1,000.000 for an option. 

METALLURGICAL TESTS 

76. Washing. Tests made on samples taken by Messrs, ^awlings, 
ilordooh and Boutwell in .August, 1917, indicate that the Oyon coal and 

mixtures of coal and accompanying blade shale can be washed successfully. 

The results of these tests are given in Table IV. 

77. poking. Tests on a laboratory scale indicate that coke could 
be made from the coal of only 40 of the 160 samples taken. Laboratory 
tests made on earlier samples indicate that Oyon coal does not coke 
readily alone but that it generally yields a good product when mixed 
with an equal amotmt of (Joy liar isquisga coal. Recently a test was made 
on working scale at La Pundioion on coal from the Supaipahuasin mine of 
the following composition: Volatile Material 15,8 $, Fixed Carbon 73.0 % 
Ash 11,2 $. Mr. A,Rizo Patron reported on the test as follows: 

"On November 9th, '1921, 12.130 metric tons of Oyon coal were 
charged in two ovens to test its coking quality. The coking process was 
carried on in the customary way used at this plant for making coke, ex- 
cept that the coal was left longer in the ovens. One oven was pulled 
seventy hours after charging and the other one eighty two, and neither 
gave any coke at all. Combustion of the gases in the coal was fairly 
good JA the ovens, but when the coal was taken out it showed no change 
in the physical properties." Pernandini makes fair coke from Oyon coal 
at Huarauoaca by mixing it with coal from Goyllariqnisga and Huari 
asphaltite. On the dtnaps of many mines at Oyon, coke of fair grade is 
made by heap burning. The best lump coal only is used, however. Prom 
all information available it seems fair to conclude (1) that coke can be 



-39- 



made from lump ooal from 60 % or more of the Cyon coal (2) that coke 
cannot be made from the fine ooal according to present practice at La 
Fundioion, and (3) that ooke can "be made from fine Oyon ooal when mixed 
with high rolatile coal or asphalt ite 

78. Value as pulverized ooal. A test ms made with pulverized 
Oyon coal on Reverberatory Furnace Ho. 2 at La Fundlcion on November 
17th, 1921. Ifr, A. Rise Patron reported on the experiment as follows: 

"For this test there were sent from Oyon 46.040 metric tons of 
coal which gave the following analysis: 

-Moisture 0.4 % 

Volatile matter 15,4 

Placed carbon 73.0 

Ash 11.2 

"Due to extreme fineness and dryness of the coal, it was fotind more 

f 

convenient to pass it directly through the pulverizers without any pre- 
liminary crushing or drying. In eight hoars 1 time there were pulverized 
33.910 metric tons of coal which were conveyed to the coal hopper at 
Bo. 2 Peverberatory furnace for the test after thoroughly cleaning all 
conveyors and hoppers. 

"The experiment was started on Hovember 6th, 1921, at three p.m. 
and finished Jfovember 7th, 1921 at five p.m., lasting twenty-six hours % 
When the Oyon coal was first fed into the furnace, it was necessary to 
experiment with the air supply in order to obtain as good a combustion 
of the ooal as possible at the fire end of the furnace. It was fotind 
impossible to obtain a good combustion and the ooal burned at the end 
of the burners only with a dark red flame with the result that the firing 
end of the furnace cooled off considerably. The zone of good combustion 
was found to be farther in the furnace near the skimming end and as the 
time passed, this zone gradTAly moved farther away from the burners 



-40- 



towards the other end. After seven hours run. the temperature of the 
furnace at the firing end had decreased from 2850* Pahr. at the begin- 
ning of the test to 1000 Fahr. or lees, while the temperature at the 
skimming door had increased from 2000 Fahr. to 2200* Pafar. To ignite 
the coal properly at the firing end and keep the furnace hot at that 
point, it was then necessary to start three oil burners. These burners 
were kept burning all through the experiment except for short periods 
of time to take temperature readings. Every time the burners were shut 
off there was a marked decrease of temperature at the firing end, with 
a proportt onate increase of temperature at the skimming door of the 
furnace. 

"Statement below and attached sketch show the places at which temp- 
eratures were taken and the average temperatures obtained at those points 
for both Boyllarisquisga and Oyon coals. It will be noted that the high- 
est average temperature (2280 Pahr.) for th Oyon coal was at point "D" , 
while the highest average temperature obtaindd with the Goyllarisquisga 
coal (2247 Faiir.) was between points H B n and "C" in sketch, (tfote - 
Points A and B are at firing end, left and right sides respectively; 
C, D and. B on right side, 20, 30 and 40 ft. respectively from firing 
end; P and G on left side, 40 and 50 ft. respectively frOT firing end; 
H in flues 75 feet from firing end; and I in flues at waste heat boilers). 

Average Temperature in Degrees Fahr. (See sketch) 
ABCDBPQH I_ 

Goyll.coal 2238 2E49 2247 2232 2147 2143 2107 2062 1370 
Oyon coal 1607 1542 2244 2280 2176 2118 2112 2110 1448 

fetric Metric Gal. 

Tons coal Tons Sml. oil used B.H.P. delv. 

per hour per shift (l) in teet by W.H. boiler 

Goyll.coa 1.92 117 81.1 

Oyon coal 1.30 75 662 83,2 



-41- 



"(l) These figures show the tonnage smelted on two successive 
shifts. On the eight to four shift, November 6th, 1921, using Groyllar- 
isquisga coal there were smelted 117 tons of charge, while on the four 
to twelve shift the pane day with Oyon coal, there were smelted only 
75 tons. Comparison on other shifts -was not possible because of the 
extra oil burned to maintain good combustion of the Oyon coal at the 
firing end of the furnace. 

"In conclusion I beg to state that the Oyon coal was too slow to 
ignite, with the result that a good combustion of tit ooal was only ob- 
tained at some distance from the end of the toarnere. This retarded ig- 
nition caused the cooling of the furnace at the firing end with a cor- 
responding loss of smelting area. The temperature at the skimming door 
was higher than with (Joyllarisquisga ooal and the flue gases were also 
hotter, which accounts for the higher horse-power delivered by the waste 
heat boilers in the flue when burning Oyon coal. The chemical analysis 
of the Oyon ooal shows a better grade of ooal than Goyllarisquisga, but 
due probably to its lower proportion of volatile matter it did not ignite 
as easily, and its heat could not be used to the best advantage in the 
furnace." 

It should be pointed out, however, that this test was made according to 
a practice designed for Goyllariequisga coal, a fuel containing twice 
the percentage of volatile material. It seems quite possible that modi- 
fications might be introduced which would improve the results with Oyon 

coal, 

SUlttARY 

79. It is reasonably certain that there are 7,800,000 tons or more 
of ooal in the Oyon field. If the exploration outlined in paragraphs 71 
and 7E confirms the assumptions of continuity, quality, and thfcfcness. 



-42- 



4,000,000 tens of ooal, fifteen years supply assuming: a rate of 700 tons 
per day, may be considered as practically assured in the Conocpata section, 
the most accessible part of the field* 

80, The quality of the ooal, based on samples out from wall to wall, 
is probably accurately stated in the following average analyses: 

Conoopata section: (SB limb only) 
Volatile Material 18.0 % 

Fixed Carbon 64. S 

Ash 17.8 % 

Saquioocha-Yana Sori section 

Volatile Material 13.9 

Fixed carbon 70. f 

Ash 15.4 % 



Entire district: 
Volatile Mat 
Fixea Carbon 67.1 



Volatile Material 16.2 



Ash 16.7 ;' 

The average ash content for coal rained on a large scale will \tndoubtedly 
be greater, due to unaroidable dilution on account of the weak nature of 
the roof. The ash in run-of-raine ooal will probably not be below 5 #. 

81. Structures in the district are exceedingly complicated, a con- 
dition whioh adds greatly to the uncertainty of tonnage estimates and 
which will make mining expensive and difficult. 

82. Tests made on working scale at La Pundit ion indicate that the 
ooal is not suitable for burning as pulverized coal in the reverberator- 
ies , according to present practice, and that coke cannot be made from 
the fine material which would constitute a large portion of the tonnage 
mined. 

83. The difficulties and expense of building a railroad into the 
district will be great but not prohibitive. 

84. Reliable estimates of cost of plant and mining costs can be 

made only by an engineer experienced in coal mining in fields of comparable 
complexity. 



-43- 



85. It is reasonable to believe, however, that the total cost of 
purchase of properties, plant and railroad will not exceed $5 ,OCC ,000,00 
and that the mining oosts will not be more than 50 % greater than present 
oosts at ffoyllarisquisga. With the above as snap t ions and putting the 
production at 700 tons per day (approximately 470 tons of washed coal pr 
day) , the following calculation may be made: 

Mining cost $ 9.00 per ton washed coal 
Freight charge 2.5C 

Cost placed in Oroya $ 11,50 per ton washed coal. 

Amortization with 10$ 
interest, life 10 yrs, 4.50 

$ 16.00 
I see no reason to believe that this figure will be exceeded. 

86. There is undoubtedly more than enough accessible coal in the 
Oyon district to guarantee a life of ten years. With economy in the use 
of copper ores, the silver pyrite and paces ores now "in sight" in Cerro 
de Tasoc alone are sufficient for a life of over ten years. 



87. The following course is recommended in connection with the Oyon 
ooal field: 

I. Complete metallurgical tests of such final nature that it 
can be stated positively whether or not Oyon coal can be used success- 
fully. If results are unfavorable, the option on Delgado's property 
should be dropped and no further work done in the field. 

II. If it is decided that the coal can be used successfully for 
metallurgical purposes, it is recommended that a competent engineer, 
experienced in coal mining in the anthracite fields of th* United 
States, be sent into the district, and his opinion on costs of plant 
and operation be secured. If his estimate of costs, combined with 



costs of purchasing properties and railroad construction, indicate 
that profitable operation is impossible, the district should be 
abandoned* 

III, If the results, uader the two preceding headings are 
favorable, the exploration work indicated in paragraphs 71 and 
72 should be started. According to the terms of the contract with 
Luis A, Delgado and Arturo JS. Delgado, exploration work must start 
before March 1st, 1922. If coal of workable thickness is not en- 
countered in the adits recommended, the dfetriot should be aban- 
doned. If results are farorable (and results from the two preceding 
headings likewise favorable) all work should be started to put the 
field on a m reducing basis. 

IV. Before stalling the exploration w^ork, as many propertiee 
as possible on the list given in paragraph 76 should be secured 
tinder options. 





D. H. -IcLaugfilin, 
Chief Seologist. 






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Inf alible ^aw ooal 
Washed 
coal 
Refuse 



TAHLE IV 

Washing tests, made on Oyon ooal by II, C. Whitten, 
August , 1917, 



-Material Length of Analys is 



Sanrnle 



V.H. F 



lys 

7c7 



Ash Sample 



APT r ox im at e K e c c v e ry 

"j 3 ^ pr 

Sol.Y.:J. F.C. Ash 



16.9 59.7 84.4 800 100^5 



15.9 69.6 14.5 1560 
14.2 24.7 61.1 440 



78 93.7 87.8 43.5 
2 



ulipan 



?aw coal 19 f 
Shale 7* 
Combined 
Washed coal 
Refuse 



15. 6 68.0 16.2 

11.7 2.8 85.5 
14.6 50.5 34.8 2400 

15.8 59.6 24.6 2000 
12,1 2.5 85.4 400 



100$ 

83 90.0 97.8 59.0 
17 



'ana Gori Hanging II 1 
wall coal 
Joot wall 6 1 
coal 

Combined 
Washed coal 
Refuse 



14.4 46.2 39.4 

14.5 58.5 27.0 

14*4 50.5 35.0 2500 100$ 

15*0 66.6 18.4 1500 60 62.5 79.5 31.6 

12.4 26.4 61.2 1000 40 



TABLE Y 
Bibliography. 



A. Raimondi. 511 Departamento de Anoash y SUB Heoursos Minerales. 1873. 

Juan Torrioo y Mesa. Memoria aceroa de las riquezas minerales de la 

provinoia de Cajatambo. 1901. (the first publi- 
cation to draw definite attention to the Oyon 
coal field). 

Terrain Ifalaga Santelalla. La Provinoia de Cajatambo y BUS Asientos 

-ilinarales. Bol.No. 10, Ourpo de Ingenieroa 
de -Minas y Aguas, 1904. 

Guillermo Dunstan. Hotas sobre la regi6n oarbonifera de Oyon. Inf or- 

maoiones y JIemorla da la Scoiedad da Ingenieros del 
Peru, 1911. 

Carlos I.lisson. Bdad de los P6siles PemanoB y Distribuci6n de sue 

Deposltos en tofla la Kepublica. begunda Bdici6n.ltl7 

Enrique I. Duanas. ^.eoonocimiento Geologioo'iinero de la Cuenca Gar- 

bonera Setenttional Liraa-Junin. (Royas de Oyon, 
Shecras y Pasco). Bol. del Cuerpo de Ingenieros 
de .Tinas del Peru, No. 97, 1919. (This is the 
most comprehensive Peruvian publication dealing 
with the Oyon tfistriot. It oontains nr.uoh valuable 
material. 

Enrique I. Duenas. Informe sobre el ^eoonocimiento de las not 

apropiadas ^ara proyectar la via ferrea entre 
La Gosta , Oyon y la ; Iontana. Bolet in del Cuerpo 
de Ins?enieroB de Minas del Peru, No.9G, 1919. 

Company reports. 

Pobert Letts. Coal -egions northwest of Gerro de lasco , 19C3. 
C.if.Farnu'n. Letter to W. J. Hamilton, 1916, 
J. M. Boutwell. Oyon District, 1917. 
J. A. W. jfarooch. Oyon District, 1917. 
L. C. Graton and D. H. MoLaughlin, Oyon District, 1920. 



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