Skip to main content

Full text of "Report on public baths and public comfort stations : being a supplementary report to the inquiries into the tenement house question in the city of New York ..."

See other formats


UELIC HEALTH LHJKAkt 
BRARY 

IVERSITY OP 
kUfORNiA 




W o 



C 0) 



•2 2 

in -n 



OJ 



0) 



*« - C^ 

£ ■ " 
o 
O 



5 ^ 



— (0 c 

Q. E 2 



rt -c — 

>- CO c 

"D ■— 

c if — 

3 ■— 

0) -Q 



3 E 



-Q O (jj 



- £ 



o if 






m 4) 



^3 "O 



REPORT 



PUB^.v. BATHS 



AND 



PUBLIC COMFORT STATIONS, 



BEING A 



Supplementary Keport to the Inquiries Into the Tenement 

House Question in the City of New Yoek, Pursuant 

to Chapter 479 of the Laws of 1894, 



BY 



THE MAYOR'S COMMITTEE 



OF NEW YORK CITY. 

OFTH-e 

UN1VER<^;"^ Y 

OF 



TRANSMITTED TO THE LEGISLATURE APRIL 9, 1897. 



WYNKOOP HALLENBECK CRAWFORD CO. 

STATE) printers. 

ALBANY AND NEW YORK. 

1897. 



uv'^ 



PUBLIC ■ 

HEALTH 

MBRAPf 



V-. 



State of New York, 



No. C^G. 



IN ASSEMBLY 




April 9, 1897. 



Report on Public Baths and Public Comfort 
Stations. 



City of New York. The Mayor's Committee PuiiLic -^ 

Baths and Public Comfort Stations. [• 

105 East 22D Street, New York, March 25, 1897. ) 

To the Assembly : 

I have the honor to submit herewith a Report on Pubhc Baths and 
Public Comfort Stations, being the report of a Committee appointed by 
His Honor the Mayor of New York, to take under advisement the above 
subjects and report to Iiini, with a view to the best methods of action for 
the cities of the State. 

In the subject matter, it is supplemental to the inquiries into the 
Tenement House Question in the City of New York, pursuant to Chap- 
ter 479 of the Laws of 1894. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. H. TOLMAN, 

Secretary. 



1GG388 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Chapter I'ajce- 

I Illl i-{)<llicl(ir.v 1."! 

II 'I'Im- M.iyor's Coiuiiiit'lot' on Public Rnitiis ;iihI ruhlic Comfort 

St a lions \1~ 

III Bath L('.a:isl;Uiou Rt'sardins Xt'w York City Since ISOO I',:; 

I V IMihlic Hiitlis of Now York 4." 

\' Swininnn.i;' Cluiis and llic Swininiin.u Bath as a .Moans of 

Iv(>croation ") 

\I 'I'lic Spray Batli and Spi-ay Batlis in tiic rnl)lic Schools (il» 

\'I I Mnnicipal Baths in Anicnoa 77 

VlII Municipal System of Foroig-n Baths 8.1 

I X 'I'lic Administration of Enro]>oan Ba.ths 14S 

X rnl.lic Laundries 104 

X I IMihlic ( 'omfort Stations 174 

XII Kccommondatious of tho ^L-iyor"s (jommitteo: — 
I'lans and Studios for 

(a) Ba,th on a Sito lOOx.'O fool lOS 

(1)1 rroiMiS(>d Bath for Tomiikins S(iuarc. including a Munici- 

]ial Laundry and Two I'ulilic Comfort Stuitions 204 

(ci I'ndor.iiround Public Comfort Stations: 

City Hall Park 21?, 

(Jrooley Square Park, Thirty-third StrtM^t and Broad- 
way 217 

.Sufijiostions for 

(a) ( "halots for tho Parks 214 

(b) Stations T'ndor tlio Klovat(>d Railway Stairs 21.") 

(c) Struct\u-cs ^Vithin the Area IiinK> and the l>e:id Wall i>f 

Buildings -'If^ 

XIII Bibliograi.hy -10 



c 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Proposod Bath for 'I'oinpkiiis y(iua.ro, N'<'\v York City. 

Swinmiing Pool in tlic Baths of Diocletian. 

Hall iti tho Baths of Caraoalla. 

I-'ront of Proposod Baths on a Site 100x50. 

Bathroom on the Flwitjiug- Hospital of the St. John's Guild. 

The " Ring." one fonii of the Spray or Shower Bath at the People's Baths. 

The I'eople's Baths, 9 Centre Market Place. 

First-class Swimming Pool, Ilornsey Road, Islington, London. 

Swimming I'ool for Women, Hornsey Road, Islington, London. 

Amateur Swimming Club, rx)indou. 

Newport, England, Swimming Pool as a Gymnasium. 

Swimming Pool, Brookline Public Baths. 

First Floor Plan, Brookline I'ublic Baths. 

Brookline Public Bath. 

Yonkers Public Bath. 

Deptford, England, Public Baths, Washhouses and Municipal Buildings. 

S-horeditoh, England, Public Bathhouse and Public Library. 

Opening Exercises of the Pul)lie Baths at Essex Road, Islington, London. 

(Jround Plan of Birmingham's Latesit Public Bath. 

Ijauudrj' Hung up to Dry in One-Room Apartment. 

Household Effects of a Family Living in One Room. 

Mangling Room, Hornsiey Road Laundry, London. 

Drying Room, Hornsey Road I.,aundry, Ix>udon. 

Proposed Public Comfort Station for Greeley Squai'e. 

Underground Lavatory (interior). Charing Cross, London. 

Suggested Public Comfort Stations under Ww Klevjiled Si airways. 

Suggested Public Comfort Station, within area line. 

Cottage Baths, Brighton, England. 

Proposed Public Comfort Station for Parks. 

Plan of Basement Floor of Proijosed Baths, on a site 100x50. 

Plan of Ground Floor of Proposod Baths, on a site 100x50.. 

Plan of Upper Floor of Proposod Baths, on a site 100x50. 

Longitudinal Section of Proposed Baths, on a site 100x50. 

Cross Section of Proposed Baths, on a site 100x50. 

Newington. England, Public B.iths and Washhouses. 



PREFACE. 



ADVISORY STATUS. 

The Mayor's Coniniittee, whose final report is herewith pre- 
sented, was appointed by his Honor, the Mayor of New York City, 
Wilham L. Strong, in July, 1895, as an Advisory Committee, to 
continue the study of the subject of Pubhc Baths and PubHc Comfort 
Stations, upon wliich it had already reported to the Committee of 
Seventy as its sub-committee on this special subject. This pre- 
liminary report had been accepted and approved by that Committee, 
and was published by 'it in pamphlet form. In pursuance of this 
study, as requested by the Mayor, the Committee became so deeply 
impressed with the imperative necessity of an adecjuate municipal 
provision of I'aths and Public Comfort Stations for New York City, 
that it collected the latest and best information in relation to these 
matters, so that New York might have the latest system of Public 
Baths and Public Comfort Stations. 

New York claims the honor to have had the first public bath 
in the United States using the spray or rain water system, for hot 
and cold water, of^cn the year round. This public bath was made 
possible by the New York Association for Improving the Condition 
of the Poor, who erected a bathhouse, where a nominal fee of five 
cents was charged for its maintenance. 

SUCCESSPIFL OIIJECT LESSON. 

Since August 17, 1891, the People's Baths, under the care of 
this Association, have been a successful object, lesson, having fur- 
nished 401,000 baths, more than 90 per cent, of which have been 
])aid for by those who have used them. The oj)eration of a public 



10 Mayor's Committke on Public Baths. 

bath, being clearly a mnnicipal function, should not be left to the 
care of a private philanthropy. 

The Committee is deeply sensible of the interest which Mayor 
Strong has shown in its work. The results of two years' studv are 
presented in the accompanying report, and the Committee mav be 
allowed to state that the following plans and studies suggested and 
formulated by the Committee have been favorably received: 

1. The Board of Health of the Health Department has the honor 
to have approved, August 20, 1895, a full set of plans and specifica- 
tions for a bathhouse, to be built on a city lot 100 by 50 feet, 

2. The same Board has also approved one hundred Public Com- 
fort Stations. 

UNDERGROL'XD PUBLIC COMFORT STATIONS. 

3. General C. H. T. Collis, Commissioner of Public Works, has 
likewise approved a full set of plans and specifications for a public 
bath, which was intended to have been located in Tompkins Square. 
He has also approved two underground Public Comfort Stations, 
one to be located in the City Hall Park, the other in the small park 
in Greeley Square. 

4. The passage of mandatory legislation, March 25, 1896, 
appropriated $200,000 for buildings for Public Baths and Comfort 
Stations. , 

The action of Mayor Strong in naming an Advisory Committee 
on Baths has been since followed by the Honorable Josiali Quincy, 
the Mayor of Boston, and the Honorable Emory N. Yard^ the Mayor 
of Trenton. 

WORTHY MEiMORIAL. 

In the age of Augustus, the Roman who stood nearest the 
Emperor did not consider it beneath his dignity to present a public 
bath to his city. In these days, when wealth is abounding on every 
hand, and men and women are desirous of leaving a worthy memorial. 



Preface. 11 

f 

what larger social service could be rendered than the erection and 

equipment of a public bath? If such a benefaction was honored in 

the days of Rome, surely there are merchant princes in our American 

. cities whose public spirit will make possible a monument to the 

lasting honor of their own municipality. 

ACKNOAVLEDGMENTS. 

The Conmiittee begs to acknowledge the cordial co-operation 
of the Board of Managers of the Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, and would especially extend its thanks to the 
firm of Messrs. Cady, Berg & See, architects and engineers, for their 
expert advice and for the plans and studies. 

It would also express earnest acknowledgments to the Mayors 
and public ofificials of English and Continental cities, who have placed 
at the disposal of the Committee plans, drawings, special reports and 
expert advice, particularly H. ]\Iontague Bates, Principal Clerk to 
the Commissioners of Sewers of the City of London ; Job Cox, Super- 
intendent and Engineer of the Baths Department, City of Birming- 
ham, and Chief Engineer Andreas Meyer, of Hamburg. 

(Signed.) WILLIAM GASTON HAMILTON, 
MOREAU MORRIS, 
WILLIAM HOWE TOLMAN, 

Committee. 




Report on Public Baths and Public Comfort 

Stations. 



CHAiTJCR I. 
Introductory. 



FRBE: PUBiaC BATHS. 

Hon. William L. Strong, Mayor, Nczu York City: 

Sir. — Your Committee takes pleasure in submitting the accom- 
panying report, in accordance with your request of June 25, 1895, 
" to continue investigation regarding baths and lavatories and see if 
some means cannot be devised for erecting and trying at once some 
of the recommendations of the Sub-Committee of the Committee of 
Seventy." It is needless to mention the imperative necessity of a 
sufficient number of free pul)lic l)aths in a great city like New York. 
The fact that there is not a single municipal public bath open the 
year round in New York is significant. New York and other 
American cities are far behind those of Europe, especially London, 
Birmingham. Glasgow, Paris and Berlin, in the municipal provision 
which is made for the comfort and welfare of all the component parts 
of their citizenship. 

There are numerous indications that American cities are pro- 
ceeding to take under advisement these provisions for public comfort, 
and it is particularly gratifying to your Committee that the movement 
in many cases came from the impulse which you have given to civic 
betterment in New York City. 

GRKAT PHILAXTHROPIES. 

This report to your Honor may seem to have been delayed 
unduly, indicated by the fact that the press and individuals have had 
so much interest in the subject of Baths, that they have made specific 
infjuiry of you when it would appear, but it should be brought to 



14 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 



your notice that the subject entrusted to your Committee had to be 
studied from the very beginning, and the great volume of information 
was sought from English and Continental cities; in other words, 
outside of the reports of baths made possible by a few great philan- 
thropies, there was no information to be derived from the cities of 
the I'uited States. Accordingly your Committee put itself in com- 
munication with Mayors and other offtcials in the capital cities of 
England and Europe ; the courtesy of their replies and the wealth of 
illustrative material sent it, has placed it in a position to present to 
you a digest of the latest, hence the best, experience of the civilized 
world. From a study of this experience your Honor can satisfy him- 
self on the soundness of the conclusions and recommendations of 
your Committee. 

At this point attention should be directed to the following tabu- 
lation for the city of London as an evidence of the provisions of that 
municipality in response to popular demands for baths. It will be 
noted that this study was made in 1892, and indicates the extensive 
provisions made for the city of London alone. 

Public Baths and Wash Houses, 1891-2. 



LOCALITY. 



Battersea 

Bentioiulsey 

Bleoinsbury 

Clielsea 

Greenwich 

Hempstead 

Islington 

Kensinfjton 

Lewisham 

Paddington 

Poplar 

Kotherliitlie 

St. George-in-the-Kast 

St. George, Haunver Sqiiaio 

St. Giles, Caiiiberwtili 

•St. Martiii-in-tlie-fiel(ls 

.St. Maryleboiie 

St. Pancras 

St. Margaret and St. .John . 

Whitcchapel 

St. James, Westminster ... 

Total 



Cost 
of water. 



£258 
2(52 
237 



372 

327 
412 
405 
185 
214 
134 
830 

251 
411 
899 
158 
385 
382 



£6,122 



Bathers. 



Not stated. 
118,368 '92-93 

Not stated. 

Baths not then 

Not stated. 

93,623 

Baths not then 

Not stated. 

92,045 '92-93 
179,784 

116,738 '93-94 
• Not stated. 

74,038 
240,508 

Batlis not then 

57,111 
142,607 
117,882 

Not stated. 
131,6117 
107,257 



Washers. 



Not stated. 

24,947 '92-93 

Not stated, 
opened. 

Not .stated. 

Not staled, 
opened. 

Not stated. 

Ni)t stated. 

19,639 
9,293 '93-94 

N(-t stated. 

Not stated. 

44,789 
opened. 

35,340 

38,959 

()6,182 

Not stated. 

20,563 

49,171 



1,474,718 



308,883 



Introductory 



15 



PAUT OF AVISUOiM. 

It should be stated at this point that your Connnittee means by 
a pubHc bath an estabhshment under the control of the municipality, 
where a hot or cold bath may be obtained at any time during the 
year. Such a public bath may be free or fees may be charged, the 
latter practice obtaining in nearly all of the cities of the world. If 
the city provides the plant, those using it should pay for that privilege. 
This is the part of wisdom, because the idea of charity should be 
mainly eliminated from a public bath, and the operating expenses 
will be nearly met by the fees. The present law provides for a free 
public bath, but a fee may be charged for the use of towels and soap; 
a certain part of each bath, say 15 or 25 per cent., may be absolutely 
free. 

NEW YORK'S NEEDS. 

There are not more than four public baths under the control 
of cities in the United States; but that your Honor may realize that 
the conditions are not much worse in New York than in some of the 
other large municipalities, and that the needs are none the less im- 
perative, an excerpt from the Seventh Special Report of the United 
States Commissioner of Labor is submitted. 

" New York. — (i) Starting from the corner of Centre and Worth, 
along Centre to Leonard, along Leonard to Baxter, along Baxter to 
Canal, along Canal to Centre, along Centre to Hester, along Hester 
to Mulberry, along Mulberry to Spring, along Spring to Elizabeth, 
along Elizabeth to Canal, along Canal to Bowery, along Bowery to 
Worth, and along Worth to Centre. 

" (2) Starting from the corner of Broome and Broadway, along 
Broadway to East Houston, along East Houston to Elizabeth, along 
Elizabeth to Prince, along Prince to Marion, along Marion to Spring, 
along Spring to Crosby, along Crosby to Broome and along Broome 
to Broadway." 

Population of the Slum Districts Canvassed. 



CITY. 


June 1, 1890. 
(Eleventh Census.) 


April 1, 1893. 


Baltimore 


16,878 
17,637 
27,462 
1.5,409 


18,048 
19,748 
28,996 
17,060 


Cliicacfo 


New York 


Philadelphia 




Total 


77,386 


83,852 









IG 



Mayou's Committee on Puhlic Baths. 



Nl'MBKK AND PkU CkXT. OK F.V.MII.IKS .\.M> I.NUI \ IDUAI.S IN Hoi'.SK.S OR 

Tknkmknts Havini; ano Nor Having Bathrooms. 





Population of Houses or Tene> 
nients having Bathrooms. 


Population of Houses or Tenements 
not having Bathrooms. 


city. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. 


Per cent. 




Fami- 
lies. 


Indi- 
viduals. 


Fami- 
lies. 


Indivi- 
duals. 


Fami- 
lie.s. 


Indivi- 
duals. 


Fami- 
lies. 


Indivi- 
duals. 


Baltimore 

Chiciigo 

New York 

Philadelphia 


296 
110 
138 
560 


1,663 

748 
1,.^88 
3,080 


7.35 

2.83 

2.33 

16.90 


9.21 

3 79 

6.51 

16.05 


3,732 16,385 
3,771 1 19,000 
5,774 1 27,108 
2,753 13,980 


92.65 
97.17 
97.67 
83.10 


90.79 
96.21 
93.49 
81.95 



Number and Pkk Cent, op Fa.milies and Individuals in Housk.s or 
Tknk.mknts Havino VVATKK-ct.oSKis OR Priviks. 





Population of Houses or Tene - 
ments having Water-closets. 


Population of Houses or Tenements 
having I'rivies. 


CITY. 


Number. 


Per cent. 


Number. ' Percent. 




Fami- 
lies 


Indi- 
viduals. 


Fami- 
lies. 


Indivi- 
duals. 


Fami- 
lies. 


Indivi- Fami- Indivi- 
duals, lies. duals. 


Baltimore j 486 

Chicago 1,027 

New York '2,797 

Philadelphia 1,006 


2,637 

5,492 

14,716 

5,473 


12.07 14.61 
26.46 27.81 
47.31 50.75 
30.37 32.08 


3,542 
2,854 
3,115 
2,307 


15,411 
14,256 
14,280 
11,587 


87.93 
73.54 
52.69 
69.63 


85.39 
72.19 
49.25 
67.92 



17 B.VTHUOOMS FOR 48«» HOUSES. 

An additional investigation, comprehending 480 honses in the 
New York shun (hstricts canvassed, was made in order to ascertain 
how many persons in each Iiouse were compelled to use the same 
bathrooms, water-closets and privies. ( )iit of a total of 480 houses 
visited for this ])urpose in New York, but 17 had l)athrooms. The 
average numl)er of ])ers()ns to a l)athro(HU in tlie houses having 
bathrooms was 8.14 in New York. The table itself shows the details 
for each specified number "of jiersons to a ])athroom in each house. 
It should be borne in mind that these figures refer only to the houses 
having bathrooms, 96.67 ])er cent, of tlie houses investigated in New 
York being entirely without such acconunodations. The average 
luunber of persons compelled to use the same water-closet or privy 




Tne Swimming Pool in the Baths of Diocletian, in Classic Rome. In this 
establshment 3,200 bathers could be accommodated at once. The proposed 
hcth at Tompkins Square would have accommodated 96 at one time. It was 
stated, on the authority of Pliny, that for 600 years Rome needed no medicine 
but the public baths 




A Hall in the Baths of Caiacalla (Rome), A.D. 212. 1,600 bathers could be 
accommodated at one time. One Hall in the Baths of Diocletian was made 
by Michael Angelo into the Church of S. Maria de gli Angeli. 



Introductory. 



17 



was 10.52 persons in Xew York. This average, although for but a 
small portion of the slum district of New York, is thought to be fairly 
representative of the whole. The table relating to bathrooms follows : 



NiMitKU OP Peusoxs to -v Bathroom. 



3 or under 4 -. 2 

4 or under 5 3 

5 or nniler 6 2 

6 or nndcr 7 3 

7 or un<ler 8 1 

11 or uiidtr 12 1 

12 or under 13 1 



13 or nnder 14.. 

15 or under 16. . 

24 tir under 25. , 

110 or under 111. 



Total houses 17 



In the 480 houses inspected in New York 91 had water-closets, 
363 privies, and 26 both water-closets and privies. 



Nu.MBER OF Persons to a 

Under 1 3 

1 or under 2 11 

2 or under 3 14 

3 or nnder 4 27 

4 or under 5 23 

5 or under 6 26 

6 or under 7 35 

7 or under 8 40 

8 or un<ler 9 37 

9 or under 10 45 

10 or under 11 44 

11 or under 12 35 

12 or under 13 21 

13 or under 14 23 

14 or under 15 18 

15 or under Hi 15 

16 or under 17 5 

17 or nnder 18 11 



Watek-closet ok Piuvv. 

18 or nnder 19 

19 or unier 20 

20 or under 21 

21 or nnder 22 

22 or under 23 

24 or under 25 

27 or under 28 

28or under 29 

3ti or under 31 

31 or under 32 

32 or nnder 33 

34 or under 35 

41 or nnder 42 

43 or under 44 

67 or under 68 



* Total houses . 



480 



FLOTSAM AND JETSAM. 

A system of public baths is an imperative need, not only as a 
means of healthful living, but also as. a necessity for counteracting 
the unsanitary conditions of the occupiers of the lodging-houses. 
Public safety demands an adequate system of public baths. The 
majority of the patrons of lodging-houses is the lower classes, the 
flotsam and jetsam of a great city; because they are so low, they are 
dirty and unclean. The tendency of the lodging-house is downwards, 
and the environment is such as keeps a man vicious. Until the city 
authorities insist on the strictest control of the lodging-houses, or 

* Seventh Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor. The Slums, 
of Baltimore, Chicago, New York and Philadelphia. Carroll D. Wright, 

Washington. 1894. 

2 



IS 



MaYOU'.S rOMMITTEE: ON PuBLIC BaTHS. 



build niunicipal lodg-ing-houses, the patrons of many of the present 
lodging-houses are a menace to the sanitary safety of the community. 
That your Honor may realize the perils of the lodging-houses, merely 
from the sanitary viewpoint, because of their inadequate provisions 
for the means of a cleansing bath, we append the salient facts regard- 
ing the lodging-houses, from a report made to us in December, 1894, 
through the courtesy of Hon. Charles (]. Wilson, President of the 
Health Department. 



Bathing Accommodation Provideo by Lodging-houses. 
December 26, 1894. 





Lodgers 


Number of 


Numbpr of 


Bath tubs, etc., 


Average use 


Free or paid 




allowed. 


bath tubs. 


showers. 


with hot water. 


daily. 


for. 


1 


107 


2 


None. 


Yes. 


20 


Free. 


2 


105 


None. 


u 


None. 


None. 


None. 


3 


168 


(I 


tl 


it 


" 


(< 


4 


150 


1 


(( 


Yes. 


10 


Free. 


5 


319 


3 


(( 


11 


25 


ii 


6 


157 


1 


2 


It 


15 


" 


7 


185 


1 


None. 


" 


10 


t( 


8 


133 


None. 


" 


None. 


None. 


None. 


9 


189 


11 


u 


'' 


'< 


" 


10 


90 


u 


" 


ii 


(( 


(( 


11 


255 


2 


u 


Tubs, yes. 


5 to 6 


Free. 


12 


180 


2 


li 


" 


12 to 15 


" 


13 


198 


None. 


" 


None. 


None. 


None. 


14 


136 


3 


<t 


Tnbs, yes. 


6 


Free. 


15 


82 


None. 


It 


None. 


None. 


None. 


16 


270 


.< 


'' 


" 


a 


i< 


17 


150 


2 


(I 


Yes. 


10 


Free. 


18 


195 


2 


" 


<i 


12 


<< 


19 


135 


1 


" 


a 


1 


II 


20 


105 


1 


" 


(( 


2 


li 


21 


105 


None. 


it 


None. 


None. 


None. 


22 


90 


" 


<', 


(1 


<< 


>< 


23 


56 


" 


(( 


li 


<< 


it 


24 


94 


(( 


a 


'< 


(( 


(1 


25 


120 


1 


'' 


Yes. 


5 


Free. 


26 


889 


2 


" 


tt 


7 


II 


27 


210 


2 


" 


a 


15 


II 


28 


20(i 


1 


"■ 


" 


15 


" 


29 


121 


1 


" 


11 


12 


" 


30" 


270 


3 


ti 


IC 


2 


11 


31" 


61 


None. 


" 


None. 


None. 


None. 


32 


126 


1 


" ■ 


i< 




Paid lor. 


33 


150 


2 


<f 


Yes. 


12 


Free. 


34 


85 


None. 


i< 


None. 


None. 


Ntmo. 


35 


71 


1 


•' 


Yts. 


10 


Free. 


36 


285 


2 


" 


»< 


25 


" 


37 


75 


None. 


<• 


None. 


None. 


None. 


38 


120 


1 


" 


Yes. 


3 


Free. 


39 


19 » 


N..n.-. 


" 


None. 


None. 


None. 


40 


271 


2 


" 


Tubs, yes. 


12 


Free. 




♦ Revoked 







Intuoductouy, 



11> 



Bathing Accommodation Pkovidkd uy Lodgino-Houses— Continued. 
December 26, 1894. 





Lodgers 
allowed. 


Number of 
bath liibs. 


Number of 
showers. 


Bath tubs, etc , 
with hot water. 


Average use 
daily. 


Free or paid 
for. 


41 
42 


77 
103 


None. 


(1 


None, 


None, 


None. 


43 


107 


>i 


(< 


,i 


<i 




44 


317 


(( 


<( 


,, 






45 


116 


>' 


<i 


ti 






46 

47 


134 
143 


1 

1 


it 
it 


Yes. 

11 


3 
3 


Free. 


48 


49 


Viioant. 








49 
50 
51 


38 

38 

150 


None. 

1 
1 


ti 
ti 


None. 
Yes. 


None. 
2 
•J 


None. 
Free. 


52 
53 


281 

13? 
146 


None. 


ti 
it 


None. 

ti 


None. 


None. 


54 

55 


4 
2 


n 
li 


Yes, 


20 

6 

4 

9 

None. 

5 

None. 
i< 


Free. 


56 
57 


112 
172 


1 
1 


li 


ti 
It 


11 


58 
59 
60 
61 


133 

176 

17 

147 


None. 
1 

None. 
11 


I i 
it 
li 
(( 


None. 
Yes, 
None, 


None, 
Free, 
None. 


62 


101 


1 


t( 


Yes, 
None. 
Y»-s. 


ii 


Free, 
None, 
Free, 


63 
64 
65 


292 
180 
143 


None. 

1 
1 


(( 
it 
it 


11 
3 to .5. 

7 


66 


75 


1 not in nse. 








67 
68 
69* 
70 


73 
152 
104 

68 


None. 

2 
None, 


it 
<( 
ti 


None, 
Yes, 

None, 


None. 
7 

None. 

it 


None, 
Vree. 
None, 


71 


145 


i< 


it 


,, 


tt 




72 


62 


li 


a 


11 






73 

74 
75 
76 

77 


202 

103 

89 

95 

220 


1 
None. 

1 
None. 


It 

a 


Yes. 
No:.e, 
Ves, 

None, 

K 


1 a week. 

None. 

^ 3 

None. 


it 

Free, 
None, 


78 


68 


I.' 


(( 


,, 


It 




79 
80 
81 


145 

15 

186 


2 
None. 


<i 
<< 
II 


Yes. 

None. 


2 

None. 
11 


Ifroe.l pay 
None, 


82 
83 
84 


1J5 
45 

:^05 


7 
None. 


li 
It 
it 


Yes, 

None, 

II 


10 
None. 

6 i 


Free, 
None, 


85 


28 


n 


It 


11 


ii 




86 
87 
88 


143 
30 
30 


(1 
li 
1< 


2 

None. 

ii 


Ye.K. 

None. 

11 


8 

None, 

n 


Free. 
None. 


89 


21 


t( 


It 


11 


it 


" 


90 
91 


116 
139 


1 
1 


It 

ii 


Yes. 

1; 


7 

9 


Free. 


92 


90 


1 


li 


11 


2 

2 

30 

None, 




93 


120 


1 


11 


i< 


" 


94 
95 
96 


75 
113 
167 


1 

None. 
(1 


li 
11 


a 
None. 


None. 


97 


252 


<< 


ii 


,, 


ti 


" 


98 

99 

100 


146 

238 

44 


2 

None. 

2 


u 


Yes. 
None. 
Yes, 


10 

N.M.e. 
30 1 


Free. 
None. 
Free. 


♦ 


Revoked. 





20 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



Bathing Accommoeatiox Provided hy Lodging-Houses— C'oH/iHufrf. 
December 26, 1894. 





Lodgers 


Number of 


Number of 


Bftth tubs, etc.. 


Average use 


Free or paid 




allowed. 


bath tubs. 


showers. 


with hot water. 


daily. 


for 


101 


24 


Noue. 




None. 


None. 


None. 


102 


69 


1 




" 




Free. 


103 


24 


None. 




it 


" 


None. 


104 


368 


1 




Yes. 


6 


5c. cbgd. 


105 


330 


1 




" 


15 


Free. 


106 


100 


Noue. 


7 


n 


60 


<i 


107 


108 


3 


1 


ll 


10 


t< 


108 


32 


1 


None. 


tl 


2 


li 


109 


92 


3 




n 


12 


it 


110 


166 


2 




" 


12 


u 


111 


46 


None. 




None. 


None. 


None. 


112 


68 


(( 




<' 


" 


a 


113 


295 


3 




Yes. 


2 


Free. 


114 


25 


1 




" 


None. 


(( 


115 


142 


Noue. 




Noue. 


ii 


None. 



Total number of lodging houses (less three revoked) 112 

Total number of lodgers allowed in same 15,233 

Total number without baths of any kind 55 

Total number of lodgers allowed in these 6, 372 

Total number of houses with baths 57 

Total number of baths in these 95 

Total number of lodgers allowed in these 8, 861 

Total number of baths with hot water 56 

Average daily use of baths (total) 546 

Free baths 54 

Baths paid for S 

AVATER AND A TUB. 

That the mere provision of water and a tub is not always a suffi- 
cient inducement for a cleansing bath, is evidenced by the repHes of 
some of the patrons of the lodging-houses, when asked their opinion 
of the bathing accommodations. These replies will corroborate the 
recommendations of your Committee that the municipal baths should 
have a sufficient number of paid attendants. 

The following are among the reasons given by lodging-house 
men for not using the baths in the house where they sleep. 

C. D. — " The tubs can only be used from 5 a. m. to 7 a. m." 

J. M. — "The shower baths are the best for taking the dirt off a 
fellow." 

R. G. — "The tubs are never cleaned out from the apponranco of 
them." 



Introductory. 21 

T. W. — "Can't get a good wash without hot water," 

W. B. — "The tubs are only an advertisement for the house, not 
clean." 

F. S. — "Find too many old medicine bottles for my taste." 

P. ^]. — "Not enough hot water." 

J. L.— "Do not like tub baths." 

B. — "Bad enough to sleep in a lodging-house, without using 
their tub baths." 

WINTER BATHS. i 

In June, 1884, an act was passed providing for a commission to 
inquire into the character and condition of tenement-houses in the 
city of New York. From its careful study of the existing condition, 
the Commission quickly reached the conclusion that free winter 
baths were a necessity to improve the condition of the tenement- 
house quarter. January 14, 1885, the Commission forwarded its 
preliminary report to the Legislature. Among other recommenda- 
tions was the following, which was proposed by the Secretary of 
the Commission, Moreau Morris, M. D.: 

"An Act (Chapter 448, Laws of 1884), passed June 2, 1884, to pro- 
vide for a Commission to inquire into the character and condition 
of tenement-houses in the City of New York. 
" I. Alexander Shaler, Joseph O. Drexel, Oswald Ottendorfer, Mor- 
eau Morris, Anthony Reichardt, Joseph O'Donohue, Abbott 
Hodgman, Charles F. Wingate and William P. Easterbrook are 
hereby appointed a Commission to investigate and inquire into 
the character and condition of tenement-houses, lodging-houses 
and cellars in the City of New York, etc., etc., etc. 
""19. Free Winter Baths. — That the city shall establish free winter 
baths throughout the tenement-house districts of the city."* 
Very cheap baths have been recently established in the poorer 
quarters of London with great success. We already have free summer 
baths which have proved a blessing; during three months of 1883 
more than 2,000,000 baths were taken in those establishments. Free 
winter baths would greatly enhance the cleanliness of the tenement- 



* Copy from the Secretary's minutes of the Tenement-House Commis- 



22 Mayor's Committee ox ruBLic Baths. 

house population, would lessen the danger of diseases, and would be 
one safeguard against the spread of epidemics. 

During the existence of the Sub-Committee of the Committee 
of Seventy on Baths and Lavatories, the The Tenement-house Com- 
mittee of 1894 presented its report to the Legislature. 

GILDKR C03IMITTEE. 

The Tenement-house Committee of 1894, which was appointed 
in accordance with law, was organized under the chairmanship of 
Richard Watson Gilder, and Edward Marshall as Secretary. Very 
early in its inquiries, it was confronted with the problem of pubHc 
baths. It was the opinion of the Committee that it is evident that 
the bathing habit is growing among the masses of the people, and it 
is also evident that the practice stands greatly in need of encourage- 
ment by means of increased opportunities. 

mo PRIVACY. 

The Secretary reports that out of a total population of 255,033 
covered by the Committee's inspection, only 306 persons have access 
to bathrooms in the houses in which they live. The only way in 
which the occupants of tenement-houses can bathe is by using a tub 
of some kind, filled from the faucet in the kitchen or from that in 
the hall, or wath water carried up from the yard. It is apparent that 
such conditions as these do not encourage the practice of bathing. 
Nor is this all. The number of rooms occupied by a family in a 
tenement-house is generally so small that every inch of space is occu- 
pied. Even when the occupants are willing to incur the labor of 
carrying water from the faucet in the hall or from the yard, it is 
difficult to secure the privacy which is necessary for the bath. 

It is thus evident that though the number of baths taken at 
various bathing places in the city may be large in the aggregate, the 
persons who actually bathe are not numerous, and the great majority 
of the tenement-house population is not yet reached. 

MILLIONS FOR CHARITY. 

The freer use of water by the tenement-house population would 
aid them very materially in their struggle for existence by assisting 
the elimination from their system of the poisons absorbed in the 



Introductouy. 23 

sunless and airless (Iwellin^-s. That several hundred thousand i)eople 
in the city have no proper facilities for keepinjj;- their bodies clean is 
a disgrace to the city and to the civilization of the nineteenth century. 
These facilities have been used and are abundant in many enlightened 
nations, and they are being increased in every way possible. The 
amount of money annually spent in charity in this city amounts to 
millions, and the question arises whether it be not greater economy 
to spend more for the preservation of health and the prevention of 
disease, because less would then be required for the support and 
care of the sick and helpless. The cultivation of the habit of personal 
cleanliness has a favorable effect also upon the character; tending to 
self-respect and decency of life. 

EUROPEAN MODELS. . 

The Committee believed it would conduce greatly to the public 
health if New York should follow the example of many of the cities 
of the Old World and open municipal baths in the crowded districts. 
It, therefore, favored the building, at the beginning, of at least one 
fully equipped bathing establishment on the best European models, 
affording every kind of bath desirable, at moderate charges. The 
same Committee reviewed the work of the Tenement-house Com- 
mission of 1884 in the light of original recommendations, and in com- 
pliance with them, the following sections concern baths and the 
Commissioner's opinion: 

(19) "That the city establish free winter baths throughout the 
tenement-house districts of the city. 

" This recommendation has not been adopted. In the 
opinion of this Committee, the matter of baths is of great importance, 
and, consequently, this Committee unites in a recommendation that 
bathing establishments, at which a small charge shall be made, be 
constructed. The reasons for this are set forth at greater length in 
another part of this report." 

LAVATORIES. 

The Committee summed up its work in twenty-one definite 
recommendations, on which it requested the modification of old and 
enactment of new laws. Its opinion regarding public baths and 
lavatories was positive. 



24 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

15. " Municipal Bathing Establishments. 

" That, in addition to free floating- baths maintained in the sum- 
mer months, the city should open in the crowded districts fully- 
equipped bathing establishments, on the best European models, and 
with moderate charges. 

BATHING HABIT. 

" The Committee makes the above recommendation in the inter- 
ests of the public health. Hundreds of thousands of our population 
are without sufficient bathing facilities, while it is evident that the 
bathing habit increases among them in proportion to the opportunity 
afforded. The baths now maintained by benevolent organizations at 
small charges are principally rain baths. The bathing habit abroad 
has been greatly increased owing to the popularity of the swimming 
baths, and it is believed that municipal establishments here will be 
more successful in accomplishing their purposes if swimming baths 
be included in their arrangements. 

ORDINARY CONVENIENCES. 

16. " Drinking Fountains and Lavatories. 

" That numerous drinking fountains and sufficient public lava- 
tories be established in the tenement-house districts. The most 
crowded districts of the city are destitute of such ordinary conven- 
iences; and the same should be promptly provided. In foreign cities, 
as appeared in the testimony at the public hearings, lavatories of an 
elaborate character have been built with accommodations for which 
moderate charges are made.''"^ 

"ME OWN SHANTY." 

The canvass of the Federation of Churches shows that there are 
only 1,037 bathtubs for 8,176 families in the Fifteenth Assembly Dis- 
trict,*or i bathtub to 7.9 families. Of these baths, 767 are in houses 
between Eighth and Ninth avenues, in which 3,334 families live, or 
I to 4.3 families. Thus, for the 4,842 families west of Ninth avenue, 
the Federation discovers only 270 bathtubs, or i to 17.9 families. For 
the 3,105 between Nintli and Tenth avenues, 262, or i to 1 1.9 families. 
For the 1,737 families west of Tenth avenue, it discovers but 8, or 

♦Report of the Toncmeut-Hoiise Committee, 1895, pp. 75, 76. 



Introductouy. 25 

I to 2 1 7. 1 families. For the 1,321 from Tenth to Eleventh avenues, it 
discovers 3 tubs, or i to 440.3 families. For the 416 families west of 
Eleventh avenue, it discovers 5 tubs, or i to 83.2 families. The tiers 
of blocks between Eighth and Tenth avenues, and Eleventh avenue 
and the river, seem, strangely enough, to be the best provided. The 
condition between Eighth and Tenth avenues is easily understood; 
but why should there be a higher average of bathtubs from Eleventh 
avenue to the river than from Tenth to Eleventh avenues? It is 
evident that the people are not satisfied with their proximity to the 
river, and the remark of an old Irishman to the writer is probably 
the true explanation: " Shure oi don't want to live in those big 
houses any more. Foightin' above yez, swearin' below yez, drinkin' 
all round yez; and I juist come over here and got this bit of a shanty, 
and, thank God, it's me own now! It don't look much outside, but 
it kapes out tlic cokl and the rain, and I've got a tub where I can wash 
mesilf whin I want to, too." Between Eleventh avenue and the river 
many houses are detached, and the plumbing is not so great a problem 
in these smaller buildings.* 

It is safe to say that the above statistics show that there is no 
region of the city in which public baths and lavatories are more 
urgently demanded. If one of the blocks above mention is secured 
for a park, public baths could be easily attached thereto, summer and 
winter. 

RENT STATISTICS. 

The rent statistics accumulated by the Federation have already 
decided the City and Suburban Homes Company to locate definitely 
upon the West Side the first block of model tenements which they 
propose to erect. The erection of these buildings cannot but benefit 
the condition of the people tenanting the adjacent property, as rents 
in the improved buildings will be no higher, and the conveniences will 
be much greater. There will thus be good warrant for the plea of 
tenants in the poor homes to insist upon improvements. To meet 
present needs, however, parks, public baths, and the enforcement of 

*The Federation of Churcbes and Christian Worliers in New York 
City. First Sociological Canvass. Tlie Fifteenth Assembly District, 
N. Y., 1896. 



2G 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



all laws designed to prevent tenement-house evils, are urgently neces- 
sary. The people of the district living on the West Side are paying, 
proportionately to space occupied, as high a rent as those living 
between Eighth and Ninth avenues, and their privileges are very 
much less. The rent statistics were not taken for the entire district, 
but the rent per room in the blocks taken between Eighth and Ninth 
avenues is $52.09 per year; between Ninth and Tenth, $41.73; be- 
tween Tenth and Eleventh, $29.34, and between Eleventh and the 
river, $38.31. It will be noticed that where the rent is the highest 
the rooms are the most crowded. Putting together the statistics of 
rent and baths per family, the facts are : 



Rent per family 

Percentage of families having baths. 



8th to 9th 
avenue. 



$229 20 
23-1 



0th to inth 
avenue. 



$158 74 
8.4 



lOth to nth 
avenue. 



$101 91 
.23 



11th to 13th 
aveuue. 



$117 62 
1.2 



Yonkers is, to-day, ahead of New York City in its public baths. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Mayor's Committei-: ox Puhlic Baths and Public Com- 
fort Stations. 

representative citizens. 

In September, 1894, in an invitation to a representative body of 
citizens to a meeting at the Madison Square Garden, it was stated 
that the meeting was called " to consult as to the wisdom and prac- 
ticability of taking advantage of the present state of public feeling, 
to organize a citizens' movement for the government of the City of 
New York, entirely outside of party politics and solely in the interest 
of efficiency, economy, and the public health, comfort and safety." 
This meeting, held September 6, 1894, was the genesis of the Com- 
mittee of Seventy. That the public might know the attitude of the 
Committee towards municipal matters, its principles were embodied 
in a platform which was issued broadcast. This platform was a 
decided advance, because of its positive or constructive measures; 
not merely was corruption to be exposed and malfeasance in office 
to be opposed by a reform administration, but certain definite, con- 
crete pledges were made to those who should endorse the reform 
movement at the polls. A study of the platform will indicate the 
positive character. 

NON-PARTISAXSHIP. 

" I. We demand that the public service of this city be conducted 
upon a strictly non-partisan basis; that all subordinate appointments 
and promotions be based on civil service examinations, and that all 
examinations, mental and physical, be placed under the control of 
the Civil Service Commission. 

" 2. We demand that the quality of the public schools be im- 
proved, their capacity enlarged and proper playgrounds provided, 
so that every child w^ithin the ages required by law shall have admis- 
sion to the schools, the health of the children be protected, and all 
such modern improvements be introduced as will make our public 
schools the equal of those in any other city in the world. 



28 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

small parks. 

" 3. We insist that the property already acquired by the city 
under the Small Park Act shall be promptly devoted to the purposes 
of this acquisition, so that our people in the densely populated parts 
of the city shall fully enjoy the benefits of such expenditures. 

" 4. We urge greater care and thoroughness in the enforcement 
of the health laws, and demand the establishment of more efficient 
safeguards against disease. 

" 5. We favor the establishment of adequate Public Baths and 
Lavatories for the promotion of cleanliness and increased public 
comfort, at appropriate places throughout the city. 

STREET CLEANING. 

" 6. We demand the adoption of a thorough system of street 
cleaning, which shall also include proper disposition of the refuse 
and garbage, so that our harbor may be kept free from obstruction 
and defilement and the neighboring shores clear of of¥al, thus con- 
forming to the methods in other great cities. 

" 7. We call for increased rapid transit facilities in this city. 

DOCKS. 

" 8. We call for the improvement of the docks and water fronts 
of our great maritime city, so that it shall enjoy the advantages to 
which it is entitled by its unique position with its unrivaled harbor. 

" 9. We heartily favor the separation of the municipal from State 
and national elections, and a larger measure of home rule for cities." 

ANTE-ELECTION PLEDGES. 

After the election there were those of the Committee of Seventy 
who felt the necessity of taking active measures, looking toward the 
realization of the ante-election pledges. Accordingly, a resolution 
prevailed that a committee of five should be chosen from the 
Seventy, for the express purpose of making effective its pledges to 
the people previous to the election, through the organization of 
sub-committees, subject to the confirmation of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Committee of Seventy. The Secretary of the Committee 
of Seventy was John P. Faure, whose well-known experience as the 
Secretary of the St. John's Guild, particularly in the management of 



Baths and Comfort Siations. 29 

the I'loating Hospital, made it appropriate tliat he should select the 
Sub-Committee on Baths and Lavatories. Mr. Faure invited Wil- 
liam Gaston Hamilton, the Vice-President of the New York Asso- 
ciation for Improving- the Condition of the Poor, and the Chairman 
of the Department which built the People's Baths, 9 Centre Market 
place; Moreau Morris, Medical Inspector, ex-Tenement-house Com- 
missioner (1884); James P. Archibald, the then Secretary of the 
Central Labor Union; David H. King, Jr., architect, and William 
Howe Tolman, the then Secretary of the City Vigilance League. 
Acceptance having been received from all these gentlemen, the meet- 
ing for organization resulted in the election of William Gaston 
Hamilton as Chairman and William Howe Tolman as Secretary of 
a Sub-Committee on Baths and Lavatories, in accordance with this 
plank in the platform of the main Comrnittee: 

" We favor the establishment of adequate. Public Baths and 
Lavatories for the promotion of cleanliness and increased public 
comfort at appropriate places throughout the city." 

CIVIC AUTHORITIES. 

The Committee at once put itself into communication with the 
civic authorities in the leading English and American cities, in order 
to avail itself of the experience of the last few years. There was 
very little to be gained from American experience, hence the Com- 
mittee was obliged to commence from the beginning. As the subject 
entrusted to the care of the Sub-Commitee was so important, it was 
decided to issue a preliminary report, in order that the community 
might have material for consideration, looking towards the formation 
of sound opinion. The Committee, therefore, reported as follows: 

SUCCESSFUL ARCHITECTS. 

" Regarding Public Baths the Committee would recommend: 
" I. That Messrs. J. C. Cady & Co., the architects of the People's 
Baths, which have proved so eminently successful, be requested to 
submit a plan for a bathhouse, to be built on an ordinary city lot, 
25 feet by 100 feet, and to have two stories suitable for at least forty 
baths, twenty on each floor, in addition to spray baths for children 
in the basement. The baths on the street level to be arranged for 
men ; those on the second floor for women. 



30 Mayor's Committei: on Public Baths. 

simplicity. 

" 2. That the spray or rain-water system of baths be adopted, 
because, primarily, there is no waste of water; and, in the second 
place, the cost of erection is very moderate; and, lastly, it is charac- 
terized by cleanliness and simplicity. 

" 3. Bathhouses at a moderate cost should be erected in close 
proximity to those requiring them, rather than the erection of two or 
three great bathing institutions costing large sums of money. 

" 4. That the bathhouses should contain proper and requisite 
divisions for the use of tlie cleanly and of those not clean; and that 
each should contain some system for fumigating clothes when neces- 
sary. 

" 5. That such public schools, where it may be practicable, 
should be equipped in the basement with baths similar to those in 
the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Asylum, with requisite divisions 
for women. This can be done at a very small outlay, b'ecause the 
boilers already in use for heating the building will usually suffice to 
heat the water for an 800-gallon tank. There baths could be used 
by the women during the school hours and by the school children 
after school hours and on Saturdays, and would in no way interfere 
w^ith the usefulness of the school buildings. 

SITES. 

" 6. That the following six sites for public baths be chosen: 
*' (a) The vicinity of Washington and Carlisle streets. 
"(b) The vicinity of Chatham Square. 
"(c) The vicinity of Essex Market. 
" (d) The vicinity of Tompkins Square. 
"(e) The vicinity of Fifty-eighth street and Eleventh 

avenue. 
"(f) The vicinity of One Hundred and Tenth street and 
Second avenue. 
" This number of houses will give bathing facilities for hot-water 
baths for at least 15,000 people daily. 

" 7. Tiiat in the tenement-house district, public washhouses be 
opened in connection with the baths, thereby relieving many homes 
of one and two rooms of the unhcalthv conditions of laundrv work. 



BatHvS and Comfort Stations. 31 

oi'kkating expenses. 

" Regarding both Batlis and Public Comfort Stations the Com- 
mittee would recommend : 

" I. That a certain part of each bath and station should be free, 
in order that necessitous cases may be relieved; for the remaining 
part, a fee should be charged, which sum will contribute toward the 
operating expenses, and will enable the patrons of the establishment 
to retain their self-respect. 

" 2. That the baths and water-closets shall be in charge of a 
sufficient number of paid attendants. 

"3. That the baths and water-closets should be under the juris- 
diction of the Health Department, under a department to be known 
as the ' Bureau of Public Comfort.' " 

This report* was received by the Committee of Seventy, who 
ordered an edition of 2,500, and entered a formal minute exprftsive 
of its appreciation of this careful study. 

• 

MAYOR INFORMED. 

On the formal disbandment of the Committee of Seventy, the 
existence of the sub-committee likewise came to an end. The gen- 
tlemen who had been associated on the Sub-Committee of Baths and 
Lavatories had given the matter such careful thought and had become 
so deeply impressed with the imperative need of these necessities and 
conveniences for the city, that it was decided to inform the Mayor 
of the studies of the Committee up to that date and place them at his 
disposal, in order that the city might have the advantage of them. 

When this action was taken, the following communication was 
received : 

City of New York, \ 

Office of the Mayor, June 25, 1895. ) 

William Howe Tolmax, Esq., Ph. D., 427 West Fifty-seventh 
street, New York City: 

Dear Sir. — The Mayor directs me to ask you if you cannot call 
together the members of the Sub-Committee of the late Committee 
of Seventy on Baths and Lavatories, to wit: Mr. Archibald, Dr. 



♦Copies of tins preliminary report may be obtained of "Wm. H. Tolman, 
PIi. D., Secretary, 105 East Twenty-second street, New York City. 



32 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

Moreaii ^Morris and IMr. Hamilton, if he is not now in Europe, with 
a view to continuing- investigations regarding baths and lavatories, 
and to see if some means cannot be devised for erecting and trying 
at once some of the recommendations of that Committee. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed.) JOB E. HEDGES. 

Hb:-OKCjrA.MZATIUI¥. 

This request was complied with, on account of the evidence of 
the Mayor's interest in the scope of the Committee's work, and his 
recognition of its services in behalf of the city. A reorganization of 
the Sub-Committee resulted in the choice of William Gaston Ham- 
ilton, Chairman; Moreau Morris, Vice-Chairman, and William Howe 
Tolman, Secretary, under the title, suggested by the Mayor, 
" Ma^-or's Committee on Baths and Comfort Stations." 




Bath Room on the Floating Hospital of the St. John's Guild. 8.514 
baths given during the sumnner of 1896. The bath room is not opened till 
the barge is in the pure water of the Lower Bay. 




The " Ring," one forr.i of tne 
spray or shower bath, at the People's 
Bati. 



The People's Baths, 9 Centre 
Market Place, under the care of the 
New York Associat'on for Improving 
the Condition of the Poor. 




"Amateur" Swimming Club (London). This club, as well as several 
others, uses the Fitzroy Baths, St. Pancras. The recreative features of the 
swimming club need no comment. 




The Newport (England) Swimming Pool, floored over in tlie winter and 
used as a gymnasium and room for tennis, thus emphasizing the recreative 
features of the establishment. 



U^J'VERSITY 



CHAPTER III. 

Bath Legislation Regarding New York City Since 1800. 

civic renaissance. 

In a summary of the legislation regarding baths in New York 
City, it should be stated that the conditions are not peculiar to that 
municipality alone, because the provision of free public baths, with hot 
and cold water, open the year round, has not been deemed imperative 
by our American municipalities, but the subject has been forcing itself 
to the front in recent months. This has been in response to what may 
be called the new social spirit or the civic renaissance, whereby the 
claims of life are given precedence over those of property; in accord 
with the idea that our cities must be more of a home for all the 
members of the body politic. One essential of the ideal home is a 
bathroom. 

PRIVATE ENTERPRISE — AHEAD OP THE TIMES. 

While the English Baths and Washhouses Act dates from 1846, 
it was not until 1849 ^^at any provision was made by law in this 
State for public baths. The difiference between English and Amer- 
ican conditions is illustrated by the fact that while in England the 
municipality was to undertake to provide public baths, in New York 
it was left to private enterprise. An act (chap. 409) was passed on 
April II, 1849, by which an association was incorporated, under the 
name of the People's Bathing and Washing Association, " for the 
purpose of supplying facilities to the people of the City of New York 
in regard to bathing and washing." Power was given to erect build- 
ings and fix a scale of charges, and the corporation was permitted to 
hold property to the value of $20,000. The capital stock was not to 
exceed $20,000, in shares of $100 each, and the act was to continue 
in force twenty-one years. The Association was composed of man- 
agers of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor. A building was put up on Mott street at an expense of 
$42,000, the law being amended in 1853 to permit the Association to 
3 



34 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

hold property to the value of $42,000, and the capital stock was 
increased to $30,000. The institution combined every convenience 
for bathing, washing and ironing at charges so low as to bring its 
benefits within the reach of all, and it was hoped that it would be so 
appreciated as greatly to contribute to the health, comfort and clean- 
liness of the classes for whom it was- designed. Being the first of the 
kind erected in the country the enterprise was an experiment. An 
average of about 75,000 persons yearly availed themselves of its ad- 
vantages. A few years' experience, however, showed that the enter- 
prise was too far in advance of the habits of the people whose 
advantage was sought to be appreciated by them, and hence it failed 
through insufificient patronage. 

May 9, 1867, an act (chap. 842) was passed to incorporate " The 
Metropolitan Bathing Association in the City of New York." 

The Association was authorized to build and construct bathing- 
houses or floating baths in the City of New York in the East river, 
North river and Harlem river, so as to provide public baths. It 
could prescribe rates not to exceed twenty-five cents for each person 
for each bath. The capital was to be $100,000, in shares of $100, but 
might be increased by a two-thirds vote of the shareholders to 
$500,000. The Association could purchase, lease, take and hold real 
estate necessary for its use fronting on rivers and erect either floating 
baths or brick or stone buildings, the latter to conform to the building 
laws of New York City. 

PLEADING FOR BATHS. 

The Board of Health in its annual report for 1866 pleaded for the 
establishment of free public baths and washhouses as a sanitary 
measure. It said that " the fact that the bath and washhouse which 
the generous and practical philanthropy of the late Mr. Robert B. 
Minturn and his associates established did not become a remunerative 
enterprise need not deter the public from organizing and maintaining 
such sanitary establishments. The only question is ' Can a system 
of public baths be so administered as to insure the attainment of their 
object, viz., to bathe the people'who most need to bathe, and at the 
same time not incur an unwarrantable expense to the municipal 
government? ' " 



Bath Legislation' Since 1800. 35 

floating datus. 

In 1868 (chap. 879) the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of 
New York City were authorized and empowered to retain a slip or 
basin not exceeding two hundred feet in front at tiie easterly end of 
the Battery, in New York, adjoining the United States property on 
the westerly side, and to lease it for a public salt water floating bath. 
They were also authorized and directed to erect two free floating 
baths, one on the East river, and one on the Hudson river, and to 
provide tiie requisite attendance therefor. These baths were to be 
free and the Common Council was to prescribe the regulations. 

MELANCHOliY CONTRAST— SATIRE. 

Two floating baths, the first in the city, were erected in 1870 
in compliance with the requirements of this act. The Board of 
Health reported that the universal patronage received and the 
approval met with on every hand warranted the hope that the 
city would ere long afiford proper facilities for all who desired 
to observe that most essential of hygienic laws — to keep 
cleansed. In 1871 attention was called to the necessity for 
some easily managed form of bathroom in each tenement-house 
which would render unnecessary the resort to the free baths 
upon the riverside, and provide a much cleaner and less dangerous 
means of purifying the body than the necessity of bathing in the 
sewer-polluted rivers. It was said that the utility of the baths as a 
sanitary measure was more than questionable. The water should be 
taken from the center of the rivers by mechanical means or from the 
Croton supply, so that no sewer impurities would be in the least in- 
termixed. But the Board of Health recommended warm baths as 
a means of reducing the death rate and said: " What a melancholy 
contrast to such enlightened public zeal (as Rome showed by its 
numerous public baths) in behalf of the health of its people does 
New York present? Surrounded by water which can be readily 
utilized, with a population half of which at least never bathe for 
want of facilities, this city has but two public baths." It was no 
argument that there was no popular appreciation of public baths, 
for Boston's were well patronized. Baths should not be confined 
to the river front, but should be distributed over the entire city, with 



30 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

suitable isolation for the sexes. In 1872 it was admitted that 
grave objection had been made to the baths, but it was thought that 
the responsibility lay with the location of the bath or the imprudence 
of the frequenters. In 1873 Sanitary Inspector Stuyvesant F. Morris 
could not say the public baths were more used, because that was 
impossible. He said: "What a satire it is upon this city with its 
million of inhabitants that there are but two small public baths. 
Still, as this seems to be the era of reform, retrenchment is of far 
more importance than cleanliness and health. So the great unwashed 
must remain unwashed, to the great detriment of their heatlh, and 
consequently that of the city." In the same report Sanitary Inspector 
J. D. Bryant urged that the number of public baths should be largely 
increased in all parts of the city. 

As a result of this, in 1874, four more floating baths were author- 
ized by law, and it was ordered that they should be under the 
exclusive control and management of the Department of Public 
Works. A sum of money not exceeding $80,000 was to be raised 
by bonds payable in 1875, and the Department of Docks was to assign 
convenient locations. 1 

The Board of Health report dated January i, 1876, called atten- 
tion to the necessity for a large increase in the number of baths, the 
importance of which could not be overestimated. 

Chapter 169, Laws of 1876, passed April 22, repeated the law of 
1874, except that the expenditure was not to exceed $60,000 and the 
bonds were to be paid from the taxes for 1877. 

During the following summer these four additional floating 
baths were placed. In the same year (chap. 46) Brooklyn was au- 
thorized to build two or more public baths, on which $25,000 might 
be expended. This sum was to be raised by bonds payable in 1877, 
and bearing interest at the rate of 7 per cent. The annual allowance 
for maintenance was placed at $3,000. 

MORE BATHS. 

In 1879 the Commissioner of Public Works was authorized to 
construct an additional Free Floating Bath at a cost not exceeding 
that of one of the baths already in existence. This bath was to be 
located during the summer at Seventeenth street and the East river. 



Bath Legislation Since 1800. 37 

During 1879 the Department of Public Works erected two more 
baths. 

In 1881 an adcHtional Free Floating Bath was authorized, to be 
located in the Fifth ward. 

In 1882 the laws relating to public needs in the City of New 
York were consolidated, and the acts already mentioned were sum- 
marized in section 346, chapter 410. This provided for nine Free 
Floating Baths, one of which should be located on the East river, one 
on the Hudson river, one at Seventeenth street and the East river, 
one in the Fifth Ward, and the remainder at places designated by the 
Commissioner of Public Works. In the summer following, one more 
bath was erected, making a total of nine, the limit provided for by 
the law. 

PUBLIC NEEDS. 

In 1883 an act was passed providing for four new floating baths 
at such expense as should be necessary. When these baths were 
ready for use, the Commissioner of Public Works was to sell two of 
the older Free Floating baths, the proceeds to go to the general fund. 
The new baths were to be located at available places. These new 
baths were built during the following summer. 

In 1888 two acts providing for new baths were passed. The 
first bath, the cost of which was not to exceed that of one of the 
present baths, was to be opened by August ist, and to be located in 
the East river between Fifty-ninth and Seventy-ninth streets, and 
the other bath was to be located on the Hudson between One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-eighth and One Hundred and Thirtieth streets, 
and the Commissioner of Public Works might expend on it such 
amount as was necessary. Two more baths were built and placed- 
during the summer, making fifteen, the number now in use. 

In 1889 an act amending section 346 of the Consolidation Act of 
1882 was passed, which provided that from that date the Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment should determine on the number of 
baths necessary for the city, and make appropriation for them. The 
Commissioner of Public Works should then cause them to be con- 
structed. Up to the present time no advantage has been taken of this 
act, and the number remains the same as in 1888. 



3S Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

BATHHOUSE COMMISSIONERS. 

The first provision for municipal baths, such as had existed in 
England since 1850, was made in 1889. Chapter 452 provided for a 
Board of Commissioners, to be known as the Municipal Bathhouse 
Commissioners, and to be composed of the Mayor of the city, the 
Recorder, the President of the Department of Charities and Correc- 
tions and the Commissioner of Public Works. On the authority of 
the Board of Estimate and Apportionment these Commissioners were 
to provide plans and specifications for public bathhouses, containing 
hot and cold water baths, adapted to the dififerent seasons of the year, 
and to be situated in the Second Assembly District. Plans were to 
be offered for competition at such premium as the Commissioners 
should see fit. The whole expense of erecting, furnishing and- equip- 
ping these baths was not to exceed $75,000. The Department of 
Public Works was to have exclusive control and power and the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment was to provide annually for their 
Maintenance. The baths were to be opened for men one day, and 
for women alternate days. No charge was to be made for the use 
of the baths, and towels or other drying facilities were to be provided 
free. 

No attempt was made to carry out the provisions of this act, as 
there was no special interest in the matter on the part of the city 
authorities. 

PERMISSIVE LEGISLATION. 

During the same year the State Commission in Lunacy was 
appointed. At that time over two thousand of the insane in the State, 
exclusive of the counties of New York and Kings, were in the poor- 
houses of the various counties. The Commissioners discovered one 
condition peculiarly revolting, namely the bathing of several pa- 
tients — sometimes as many as five or six — in the same tub of 
water. A keeper of one of these places, in response to some inquiry, 
stated that they always took care to bathe those with skin diseases 
last. The insane as a class are sick people; moreover, vast numbers 
of them exercise little or no control over their bodily functions. The 
merest hint on this subject will suffice to indicate the horrors and 
indignities practiced upon this unfortunate class, and to show the 



Bath Legislation Since 1800. 39 

necessity for some other method of bathing than the antiquated tub 
method which at that time prevailed. 

While the Commissioners found no abuses of this character in 
the State hospitals — care being taken to change the water for each 
person, Commissioner Goodwin Brown received the impression that 
the tub system of bathing was radically wrong and should be abol- 
ished for some system which would insure at all times and under all 
circumstances clean and abundant water. 

Fortunately, in 1891, Mr. Brown's attention was attracted to the 
rain or spray system of bathing which had been adopted in the 
soldiers' barracks in Berlin. On September 30th and October ist, 
under his personal supervision, the first experiments with this system 
of bathing the insane were conducted at Willard State Hospital, and 
w^ere so successful that the system is now general throughout the 
State hospital system for the insane. 

Mr. Brown became so thoroughly impressed and imbued with 
the subject of providing adequate facilities for the insane that he was 
naturally and inevitably led to the consideration of the advisability of 
procuring the establishment of public baths in the principal cities of 
the State. Early in 1892 he procured the passage of a mandatory 
act on the subject, but it failed to meet the approval of the Governor's 
counsel, on the ground that it was mandatory in its provisions and 
interfered with the principle of so-called home rule. The bill was 
withdrawn, the mandatory provisions were stricken out, and it was 
repassed as a permissive act, being chapter 473 of the Laws of 1892, 
giving any city, village or town the power to establish free public 
baths and to loan its credit or make appropriations from its funds for 
that purpose. 

When Governor Morton took Governor Flower's chair, a man- 
datory act was prepared by Mr. Brown and introduced by the Hon. 
George W. Hamilton, a Member of the Assembly from New York 
City, to whose tact, discretion, zeal and good sense the passage of the 
bill was largely due. The law is chapter 351 of the Laws of 1895 and 
reads as follows : 

" Section i. All cities of the first and second class shall establish 
and maintain such number of free public baths as the local Board 



40 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

of Health may deem to be necessary. Each bath shall be kept open 
not less than fourteen hours for each day and both hot and cold 
water shall be provided. The erection and maintenance of ocean or 
river baths shall not be deemed a compliance with this section. Any 
city, village or town having less than fifty thousand inhabitants may 
establish and maintain free public baths, and any city, village or 
town may loan its credit or may appropriate of its funds for the 
purpose of establishing such free public baths." 

In his efforts to secure this legislation, Mr. Brown was unable 
to obtain the co-operation or assistance of a single local Board of 
Health in the principal cities of the State. An appeal was made in 
1892 to a prominent member of the Health Board in New York City 
for assistance, but it was not given. In 1895 requests were sent to 
the local Boards of Health in all the cities of the first and second 
class, but no member of these boards in the cities of New York and 
Brooklyn took the slightest interest for or against the matter, while 
the local Board of Health of the city of Syracuse contented itself by 
filing a general remonstrance against such legislation. 

To Goodwin Brown must be given the sole and exclusive 
credit for the first general legislation on this subject ever had in any 
State in the Union. He secured not only permissive legislation in 1892, 
but mandatory legislation in 1895; in both instances without the aid or 
support of health anthorities. Moreover, the legislation he secured was 
unique in this, that it provided that the baths in all instances should be abso- 
lutely free. This legislation was based on the broad ground that it 
was an aid to the improvement of the public health and to sanitary 
reform. As pointed out above, his experience in dealing with the 
particular class of unfortunates, namely, the insane, for a period of 
many years led him to see the wisdom of such legislation. This 
legislation must and will be considered the foundation stone of this 
great reform in this country. At the time of the writing of this 
report, this legislation has led to practical results in the establishment 
of the first Free Public Bath under the terms of its provisions, in the 
city which was his home for a number of years. 



Bath Legislation Since 1800. 41 

The present Committee, on taking up the matter of public baths, 
decided that further legislative authority was necessary. On April 
i8, 1895, however, the mandatory act prepared by Mr, Brown became 
a law, and thus it became possible to proceed with this much needed 
reform. 

In the last session of the Legislature the following law was 
passed: 

CHAPTER 122. 

AN ACT to provide for the construction in the City of New York 

of certain buildings for the promotion of public health and 

comfort. 

(Accepted by the city.) 

Became a law March 25, 1896, with the approval of the Governor. Passed, 
three-fifths being present 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as follozus: 

Section i. The Commissioner of Public Works in the City of New 
York, with the consent and approval of the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment of said city, expressed as hereinafter provided, is 
hereby authorized and empowered to erect such and so many build- 
ings for Free Public Baths and such and so many structures for the 
promotion of public comfort within said City of New York as in 
the opinion of said Commissioner of Public Works and of said Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment shall be necessary and proper. 

SANCTION OF THE BOARD. 

§ 2. Before proceeding to erect or construct any building or struc- 
ture as authorized by the last preceding section the said Commis- 
sioner of Public Works may, from time to time, present to the said 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment a statement of any work 
proposed to be done, wath plans and specifications therefor, and an 
estimate of the proximate probable cost therefor, whereupon the 
said Board of Estimate and Apportionment may, by resolution, au- 
thorize said work to be done wholly or in part, and may approve of 
the plans and specifications therefor, or may return the same to said 
Commissioner of Public Works for modification or alteration, where- 



42 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

upon said Commissioner of Public Works shall resubmit said plans 
and specifications, and after having modified or altered the same 
shall again submit them to said IJoard of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment, who may then approve the same or again return them to the 
said Commissioner of Public Works for further modification or alter- 
ation, and" said plans and specifications may be so returned to said 
Commissioner of Public Works and resubmitted to said Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment until the said Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment shall, by resolution, approve said plans and specifica- 
tions and authorize the work to be proceeded with accordingly. 

: PLBL.IC LETTING. 

§ 3. When any work provided for by this act shall have been 
authorized and the plans and specifications therefor approved by the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment, the said Commissioner of 
Public Works shall proceed to execute and carry out said work, 
which shall be done by contract, made at public letting to the lowest 
bidder, pursuant to the general provisions of law and ordinances 
regulating the letting, execution and performance of public contracts 
in the City of New York. The Commissioner of Public Works, with 
the approval of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment first had 
and obtained, is hereby authorized and empowered, with the consent 
in writing of the contractor and his sureties, to alter any plans, and 
the terms and specifications of any contract entered into by authority 
of this act, provided that such alteration shall in no case involve or 
require an increased expense greater than five per centum of the 
whole expenditure provided for in said contract. 

BATHS IN PARKS. 

§ 4. The Commissioner of Public Works is authorized and em- 
powered, with the consent and approval of the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment, to locate any or all of the structures for the pro- 
motion of public comfort to be erected under the authority of this 
act to be so erected in any public park of the City of New York, and 
for that purpose the Commissioner of Public Parks shall permit the 
said Commissioner of Public Works, his officers and agents and the 
contractors to enter upon said park or parks and therein to perform 



Bath Legislation Since ISUO. 43 

the work so authorized. Any such structure which may be erected 
in any pubHc park of said city shall, after its erection and completion, 
be under the care, custody and control of the Department of Public 
Parks in said city, who are hereby authorized and empowered to 
make proper and necessary rules for the use and management thereof. 

PLANS. 

§ 5. For the purpose of carrying out the work authorized by this 
act, including compensation of any architect or architects employed 
by said Commissioner of Public Works to prepare plans and specifi- 
cations and to supervise the work done thereunder, and of any 
architect employed by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment to 
examine any plans and specifications, and including also the cost of 
such furniture and fixtures for any building hereby authorized as shall 
be approved and consented to by the Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment, the Comptroller of the City of New York is hereby directed, 
from time to time, when thereto directed by the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment, to issue consolidated stock of the City of New 
York in the manner now provided by law to an amount not exceeding 
in the aggregate the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. 

§ 6. This act shall take effect immediately. 

STATE OF NEW YORK, 

Oflace of the Secretary of State. 

I have compared the precediug with the ori^nal law on file in this 
office, and do hereby certify that the same is a correct transcript there- 
from and of the whole of said original law. 

<Signed), JOHN PALMER, 

Secretary of State. 

After it was decided not to locate the first bath in Tompkins 
Square, another site was necessary. It will be noted that it will now 
be situated in the new East Side Park. 

The matter of locating an additional public park on the east 
side of the city was taken up at a meeting of the Board of Street 
Opening and Improvement on June 5, 1896, and, after much discus- 
sion, the President of the Department of Public Parks offered the 
following resolution: 



44 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

present status. 

" Resolved, That the Board of Street Opening- and Improve- 
ment, in pursuance of the provisions of chapter 293 of the Laws of 
1895, and of chapter 320 of the Laws of 1887, proposes to select, lo- 
cate and lay out as a public park the block bounded by Jefiferson 
street. East Broadway, Canal and Division streets, and also the 
block bounded by Division, Essex, Hester and Norfolk streets, and 
also the block bounded by Norfolk, Hester, Suffolk and Division 
streets, in the City of New York; and that such portion of Norfolk 
street running from Hester to Division streets be closed and thrown 
into such public park, and that Jefiferson street be opened and ex- 
tended through the block bounded by Division, Hester, Suffolk and 
Norfolk streets so as to connect with Norfolk street on the north side 
of Hester street; and that the Department of Public Parks be re- 
quested to set apart for a public bath the easterly end of the block 
bounded by Suffolk, Hester, Division and Norfolk streets." 



CHAPTER IV. 

Public Baths of New York. 

The first provision for Free Public Baths was made in 1870 by 
the erection of two floating baths. 

MALB GUARD. 

There are now fifteen floating baths, berthed at convenient loca- 
tions from the Battery to One Hundred and Thirty-fourth street, on 
the 'North river, and from Market slip, on the East river. The baths 
are usually open from the middle of June to October ist. They are 
open daily from 5 a. m. to 9 p. m., except Sundays, when they are 
closed at noon. Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays are set apart for 
women and children, the remainder of the week being for males. 
There is absolutely no charge for admission to the baths. All bathers 
excepting children are required to furnish themselves with bathing 
dresses, and, to avoid infection, no towels or other toilet articles can 
be hired at the baths. Two male attendants are in charge of each 
bath on the days set apart for males, and two female attendants on 
the other days. A male guard at each bath on women's days, a police- 
man to keep order, and a keeper at each bath at night are also em- 
ployed. Each bath has an average of sixty-three dressing-rooms, a 
reception, toilet and retiring-room, and is lighted by gas. The batlis 
have a supply of ice water and are thoroughly swept, scoured and 
washed down nightly. At the end of each bathing season the baths 
are thoroughly repaired, painted and cleaned. 

The average cost of construction and equipment of each bath is 
$13,000, and the annual cost of maintenance and repairs for the fifteen 
baths is $48,000, including $30,000 for the salaries of attendants. 

LOCATION OF BATHS. 

The baths are located as conveniently as possible to crowded 
tenement-house districts. The berths are assigned by the Depart- 
ment of Docks, and before the baths are placed the Health Depart- 
ment makes an examination to ascertain if the sanitary condition of 
the location is gfood. 



46 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



William Brookfield, Commissioner of Public Works, wrote the 
Committee, under date of June 19, 1895, that more floating baths 
could be used advantageously, if berths could be obtained for them 
at places where they are most needed. 

For the season of 1896, which lasted from June 20th to October 
loth, the number of bathers was as follows: 



WEEK ENDING 



June 27 . 

July 4 . 

" 11 . 

" 18 . 

" 25 . 

Aug. 1 . 

" 8 . 

" 15 . 

'< 22 . 

" 29 . 

Sept. 5 . 

'^ 12 . 

" 19 . 

" 26 . 

Oct. 3 . 

" 10 . 

Total 



Males. 



51,285 

70,074 

17l>,247 

235,659 

343,898 

378,297 

440,166 

508,796 

575,244 

3ti0,808 

261,335 

216,248 

134,967 

81,889 

50,313 

14,529 



3,895,755 



Females. 



8,494 

18,406 

60,354 

68,049 

98,155 

203,515 

238,253 

246,924 

253,580 

140,235 

102,507 

96,178 

82,591 

22,218 

1:5,173 

5,511 



1,058,143 



Total. 



59,779 
88,480 
232,601 
303,708 
442,053 
581,812 
678,419 
755,720 
828,824 
501,043 
363,842 
312,426 
217,558 
104,107 
63,486 
20,040 



5,553,898 



JOHN PATON. 

While it is true that there are in New York no free public baths 
except the floating baths in the summer, yet there are opportunities 
for the people to secure cleansing baths entirely or partly free of 
cost, but these opportunities are made possible by philanthropic 
societies. The first public bath in the United States was opened in 
New York City, 9 Centre Market place, by the New York Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor. The remarkable success 
of these baths was due largely to the great interest of the then 
president of the Association, John Paton. In his own words: 

" The only free baths in the city are those maintained by the 
Corporation, and consist of swimming baths in the harbor, open 
during the hot months. It is only necessary to glance at the hundreds 
of sewers pouring out their disgusting streams into the salt water of 
the docks, and see that while these city baths may aflford amusement 
and pleasure to thousands during the hot season, the water is always 



Public Baths of New York. 47 

impure and often filthy in the extreme. Such bathinj:^ is not cleansing, 
and it may be doubted if it is not often positively unhealthy."* 

Deeply impressed with the belief that cleanliness of person is not 
only elevating in its effects upon the mind and morals, but also 
necessary to health and to the warding off disease, the New York 
Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor discussed for 
many months the subject of public baths. 

SPRAY SYSTE5M. 

After long consideration of the plans in use in other countries, 
it was decided to try the spray or shower-bath system as followed in 
Vienna. This is simply a gentle shower of water, the temperature and 
force easily regulated by the bather, the water at once running off 
into the sewers. In this way the most perfect cleanliness is insured, 
and all risk of infection or communication of contagious disease, 
such as must be almost inseparable from the use of the ordinary bath- 
tub, is avoided. Another distinct advantage of this spray system is 
the great economy of water, at least six persons being able to bathe 
in the same quantity as would suffice for one tub bath. 

INDUSTRIAli CENTRE — SOLIDITY. 

" The People's Bathhouse " stands in Centre Market place, near 
Broome street, in the midst of a large tenement-house district, and 
adjacent to an industrial centre where a mechanical and laboring 
population of a cosmopolitan character is constantly employed. It 
is substantially constructed of brick and iron, two stories in height, 
and presents an attractive appearance. The walls are of white enamel 
brick, strong iron beams support the floors, the roof and bathrooms 
are of iron. Brick, cement and slate have been much used in the 
interior, and light-colored bricks compose a facade as striking as it 
is ornamental. The building is set off by many cheerful windows and 
an expansive arch spans the doorway. The sanitary appliances are 
complete. Designed for the accommodation of both sexes, the baths 
on the main floor are equally divided, nine spray baths being allotted 

* Public Baths, by John Patou, late president of the New York Asso- 
ciation for Improving the Condition of the Poor. Read before the Evan- 
gelical Alliance in Chicago, 1893. 



48 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

to each. There is one general entrance, but separate waiting--rooms, 
one for men and the other for women ; from these each in turn goes 
to the baths, which- are completely shut off from the adjoining com- 
partments. In the rear of the main section there are three bathtubs, 
two for females and one for males, the former principally used by 
mothers with young children. The basement contains nine spray 
baths. They are all reserved for males and constructed precisely 
similar to those on the main floor. The engine is especially strong 
and durable, and a powerful boiler heats the water for the whole 
building. Croton water is used and also an artesian well, sunk within 
the building, which insures a full supply, never failing and pure. Im- 
proved laundry machinery and ventilating apparatus are also placed 
in the basement, and all towels in use are washed upon the premises. 
Every inch of space is economized. The whole structure is a model 
in its way and a compact embodiment of architectural and mechanical 
skill. Solidity is its great characteristic and a glance at the building 
will convince any one that it is certainly well adapted for perennial 
baths. A large skylight gives light to the bathrooms above, there is 
gas for those below, and the most improved methods of sanitary 
engineering have been adopted and skillfully executed. The fine 
appearance of the exterior is matched by the comfort and attractive- 
ness manifested within. All idea of patronage is avoided and the 
bathhouse as it stands is both an ornament and a pride. 

A bather occupies his compartment for twenty minutes. This 
is ample time for a comfortable bath. He receives a towel and a 
cake of soap and the fee of the bath is five cents. A mother with 
little children counts as one, and so much is this privilege appreciated 
that the tubs are in constant use the year round. 

, AMERICAN HOUSE3WIFE. 

The management is excellent. Cleanliness and economy are 
strictly observed, and an atmosphere of comfort pervades the estab- 
lishment. The floors and walls are as clean and bright as the kitchen 
of an American housewife, and the brass work shines like her tins. 
A competent matron cares for the women. A man of experience 
looks after the men. The police authorities have kindly detailed an 
officer as a regular attendant and perfect order is maintained. 




First-class Swimming Pool, Hornsey Road, Islington (London). Size of 
pool, 132 X 40 feet; fees, 12c. for first class and 4c. for second-class. The 
swimming pool affords splendid opportunities for recreation. 




Swimming Pool for Women at the Hornsey Road, Islington, London, 
Baths. At this establishment for the year ending March 31st, 1896, 92,190 
persons used the private baths, 179,034 the swimming pools and 30,420 the 
laundry. The receipts from the above amounted to £4,224 los. 3d 
($20573.37). 



: T4ITl!in.Tl'tllld)tiltll!tlllM.^^. 




WTO 



in[<i.m^m<^nrj>]ir<rT]T(r''mi5J] 

C ■ L - m ■ ■ !■ »j =Jfa 





Public Baths of Xkw York. 



49 



Tlie figures for the period since tlien throuj^h September, 1896, 
show a wonderful increase in the number of bathers and have taxed 
the capacities of the batli to the utmost. 'J'hc facts also indicate the 
popular demand for cleansing- baths. If the People's Baths were 
twice as large, they could be operated at a profit, but with their 
present capacity there is a debit balance. The following data sum- 
marize the facts through September, 1896. 

In answer to tiie numerous in(juiries, the detailed expenses of 
the People's l>aths for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1896, are 
submitted, 

EXPENDITURES FOR PEOPLE'S BATHS, 1895-1896. 



1895-96. 



Salaries. 



Gas. 



Fuel. 



Incidentals. 



Engineer's 
supplies. 



October, 1895 
November . . . 
December .. . 
Januaiy, 189(J 
Februai-y . . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . 

Total . . . 



9!305 
3()5 
305 
305 
305 
305 
305 
310 
310 
310 
310 
310 



?3,685 



$18 87 
18 50 

'34 62 
16 25 

13 87 

14 50 
13 75 

15 12 



33 62 





$72 


00 


88 50 


68 
72 
43 


00 
00 
25 


102 


00 



$179 10 I $445 75 



$52 
3:J 
50 
20 
26 
21 
23 
24 
40 
44 
52 
37 



39 
19 
93 
10 
55 
88 
30 
55 
32 
73 
90 
17 



$428 01 



$6 15 
2 75 

287 

4 75 
11 47 
8 73 
2 ()4 
11 30 
1 87 
4 33 



$56 86 



1895-96. 



Soap. 



Repairs. 



Total 
expenses. 



Total 
receipts. 



October, 1895 . 
November . . . . 
December . . . . 
January, 1896. 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . . 

Total 



$34 00 
34 66 

75 54 



$143 54 







$20 


57 


36 


30 


42 


00 


24 


04 





$122 91 



$363 54 
359 81 
446 43 
348 54 
488 67 

384 18 
455 64 
471 78 
409 96 
405 19 
542 31 

385 12 



$5,061 17 



- $226 60 
248 85 
218 75 
200 15 
193 70 
265 70 
320 85 
453 20 
537 65 
681 20 
649 (50 
389 70 



$4,391 95 



50 



Mayou's Committee on Public Baths. 



Cost of operation for the last j-ear beyond receipts from batli- 

ers — cliarge five cents for batli *. . §609 22 

Greatest number in any one month 14, 644 

Greatest number bathed in any one day 1, 074 

Arerase number bathed per month for the whole period 6,531 

Average number batlied per day for the Avhole period 215 

Average number batlied i>er day for the four Avinter months, 

1895-6 (closed two days for repairs) 153 

Receipts from bathhouse ?4,391 95 

Receipts from donations 34 (i2 

Total receipts ?4,425 97 

Expenditures 5, 061 17 

, Debit balance $635 20 



NUMBER OF BATHERS FROM DATE OF OPENING IN 1891, THUS 

DIVIDED. 

Men 295,387 

Women 54, 462 

Children 51, 803 

Total 401, 652 



NUMBER OF BATHERS, AUGUST 17, 1891, TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1895. 



1891. 


Men. 


Women. 


.Children. 


Total. 


August 17 to Se]>teiuber 30 


5,188 


1,301 


4,015 


10,504 







1891-2. 



October, 1891 
November .. .. 

December 

Jaiiuiiry, 1892 

Febriinry 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . .. 

Total .... 



Men. 



,721 
,484 
,845 
,669 
,878 
,120 
,098 
,684 
,482 
,483 
,216 
,042 



42,722 



Women. 



246 

159 

164 

150 

161 

188 

359 

375 

1,421 

2,271 

1,477 

489 



7,460 



Children. 



581 

311 

315 

243 

318 

284 

460 

695 

1,723 

2,341 

1,420 

567 



9,258 



ToUl. 



2,548 
1,954 
2,324 
2,062 
2,357 
2,592 
3,917 
4,754 
9,626 
13,095 
9.113 
5,098 



59,440 



Public Jjatiis of Xkw York. 



51 



1892-3. 



October, 1892 

Novoml>er 

December 

Janiuirv, 189o. 
Fcbniaiv 



March . 

April 

May 

June 

Jnl.v 

Auj^ust 

September 

Total . 



Men. 



,603 
,256 
,668 
,191 
,167 
,Xo6 
,.->17 
,112 
,159 

,635 

,876 



52,624 



Women. 



348 

209 

212 

195 

194 

301 

342 

553 

1,214 

1,986 

1,992 

721 



Children. 



8,267 



385 

230 

265 

206 

209 

:V29 

476 

754 

l,3.5ti 

1,527 

1,247 

754 



7,738 



Total. 



4,3:56 
2,695 
3,145 
2,." 92 
2,. 570 
3,4S6 
4,335 
6,419 
9,729 
12,097 
10,874 
6,3.51 



68,629 



October, 1893 

November 

December 

January, 1894 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . 

Total .... 



Men. 



4,076 
3,018 
3,2.38 
2,899 
2,712 
4,355 
4,905 
5,649 
8,949 
8,768 
6,389 
4,950 



59,908 



Women. 



420 

292 

300 

321 

281 

455 

572 

783 

2,1«3 

2,58ti 

1,716 

868 



10,757 



Idren. 


Total. 


609 


5,105 


580 


3,890 


527 


4,065 


485 


3,705 


362 


3,355 


663 


5,473 


723 


6,200 


943 


7,375 


1,826 


12,938 


1,488 


12,842 


993 


9,098 


673 


6,491 



9,872 



80,537 



1S94-5. 



October, 1894 

November 

December 

January, 1895 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

Total .... 



Men. 



4,801 
3,248 
3,516 
2,352 
3,345 
4,197 
4,824 
6,795 
8,127 
8.003 
9.476 
6,833 



Women. 



752 

432 

39:! 

259 

288 

446 

528 

1,096 

1,579 

2,076 

3,035 

1,697 



Children. 



651 

450 

514 

377 

493 

681 

758 

1,097 

1,340 

1,394 

1,777 

1,104 



Total. 



6,204 

4,130 

4,423 

2,988 

4,126 

5,:^24 

6,110 

8,988 

11,046 

11.473 

14,288 

9,634 



65,517 I 12,581 | 10,636 



88,734 



52 



Mavok's Committee ox Tublic Baths. 



1895-6. 



October. 1895 

Noveiubrr 

Deceiiilier 

Jjinuaiy. 1896 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

Toral .... 



Men. 



3,867 
4,149 
3,751 
3,416 
3,313 
4,205 
5,368 
7, 294 
8,183 
10,092 
9,426 
6,364 



69,428 



Women. 



472 

588 

458 

430 

387 

528 

774 

1,324 

2,048 

2,919 

3,024 

1,144 



14,096 



Children. 



534 

546 

474 

459 

419 

539 

844 

1,226 

1,314 

1,633 

1,445 

b51 



10,284 



Total. 



4,873 

5,283 

4,683 

4,305 

4,119 

5,272 

6,986 

9,844 

11,545 

14,644 

13,895 

8,359 



93,808 



Expenses. 



Receipts. 



Deficit. 



Total number 
of bathers. 



1891 . 

lJ^91-2 

1892-a 

1S93-4 

1894-.-) 

1895-(J 



$667 81 
5.077 75 
5,106 86 
5,293 31 
5,152 91 
.").0(il 17 



I 
$424 55 I 
2,794 00 I 
3,206 10 I 
3,801 00 I 
4,105 25 i 
4,391 95 I 



?243 26 

2.283 75 

1,840 7(5 

1,492 31 

987 66 

009 22 



Total I !!;20.359 81 | $18,842 85 | .?7.51G 90 

^1 I I 



10.504 
59,440 
08,029 
80.537 

88,734 
93.808 



$401,652 



BARON DID HIKSCH. 

Shortly after the People's Baths, those of the Baron de Hirsch 
Fund were opened, where also the spray system is used. The estab- 
lishment is open for Jews and Christians, and is supported by the 
Baron de Hirsch Fund. These baths occupy the first floor and base- 
ment of a house at the corner of Henry and Market streets, and upon 
them have been expended $14,500. The cost of the plant was $1 1 ,000. 
The charge for bathing is five cents for adults and three cents for 
children. There is no charge for the pupils of the Baron de Hirsch 
English and Trade Schools. Total number of bathers who have 
paid, from date of opening to January i, 1895 (three years) 



Men .. . 
Women 



Total. 



159.323 
39.985 

199.308 



Childfcii: No record kept. 

Free: riipils of Baron de Hirsch JEnglisli and Trade schools. 



1'lbliu Baths ok New Youk. 



53 



MONTH. 



Men. 



Women. 



Total. 



.laiui.'iry, 18n."» | 'j:, i i.t 

Ft'l.iuai-y 

M:irch | 

Ai-ril 

May 

Juno I 

July I 

August I 

September I 

i 
Total I 

I 



2G7 



:i,n-i2 



2,714 1 


2<;2 


2.97tj 


3,1.S8 1 


.•'.(;4 


:',..".2 


.■{.2(;9 1 


421 


;}.r.90 


1 4,yr)0 1 


72:! 


.-..(JT9 


1 U,148 1 


1,11.". 


7,2(;.*i 


G,7(M> 1 


1,42.-. 


8.1:',1 


«j,i4y 1 


1,092 


7.241 


4,7r.i 1 

1 


92."> 


n,G8G 


4U,66G 1 

1 


6,594 


47,260 



In 1895-6, a total of 57,779 baths were taken. In the months of 
April and September the baths were closed for four days on account 
■of Jewish holidays. 

The annual cost, including rent (over and above all receipts), is 
$1,200. Number of paid attendants, 3; greatest number of bathers 
in any one month, 9,235, July, 1894; greatest number of bathers in 
any one day, 712, September 30, 1894. 

RIVKRSIDK BATHS. 

The baths of the Riverside Association, 259 West Sixty-ninth 
street, were opened February 20, 1895. There are thirteen baths of 
the rain water or spray system. Each compartment is built of corru- 
gated iron below and wire netting above, affording light and ventila- 
tion. Each bather is allowed twenty minutes and is furnished soap 
and towel, at the cost of five cents. The fee to the members of the 
Association is one cent. On March 15, 1895, Turkish and hydriatic 
baths w-ere added. 



Rain baths (since the date of opeuiug) 48. 515 

Turkish baths 5, 716 

Hydriati'ic baths 7, 185 

Total baths up to October 31, 1896 r.G. 416 

The facilities of the Riverside Baths are about three hundred 
bathers daily. 

The De Milt Dispensary also supplies baths at five cents, soap 
and towel furnished. The baths, consisting of six sprays and one 



54 Mayor's Committee ox Purlic Baths, 

tub bath, were opened in 1891 at a cost of $3,400. Xone of the baths 
are free. Only two afternoons and evenings a week are reserved for 
women. From November i, 1892, up to 1895, tliere were bathed 
34,618 men and 3,442 women, a total of 38,060. In 1895, 15.826 
persons bathed, and in the ten months of 1896 to November i, 
13,247, making a grand total of 67,133 baths in four years. During 
the three weeks of 1896 the baths were undergoing repairs, so that 
the numbers were considerably curtailed. 

FI.OATIXG HOSPITAL,. 

The Floating Hospital of the St. John's Guild gave salt water 
baths to 3,084 babies, 4,575 children, and 855 women, a total of 8,514, 
on its fifty-seven trips in the bay in the summer of 1896. This made 
a total of 49,554 baths since the establishment of the hospital in the 
summer of 1887. It contains twenty-three children's and four 
women's spray baths, two deep tubs for children and four sm.all tubs 
for babies. These baths are supervised by trained nurses, and are, 
of course, free. 

AVAYFARER'S LODGE. 

The Wayfarers' Lodge on West Twenty-sixth street only gives 
a bed on condition of a bath. This is usually taken very willingly, 
carbolic tar soap being supplied. There are seven shower baths, and 
the temperature of the water can be regulated at the bather's pleasure. 
From September i, 1895, to September 30, 1896, inclusive, the num- 
ber of baths taken was 9,262. 

On March 1 1 last the Department of Public Charities established 
a " Lodging-house for Homeless Men." A bath is compulsory for 
every lodger, and the results have been pronounced very beneficial. 
There are eight baths of the ordinary spray or shower bath form; the 
stalls are about two and one-half feet wide, thus providing a separate 
bathing place for each man. 



CHAPTER ^V. 

Swimming Clurs and the Swimming Bath as a Means of 

Recreation. 

LACK OK KECREATION. 

New York City is by no means so well supplied with means of 
recreation as its public-spirited citizens could desire. In the winter, 
while the well-to-do man can find enjoyment in his library or at a 
club, and numberless entertainments are open to his purse, the work- 
ing man has often only the saloon to which he can turn to-get society. 
The free libraries here are few and far between, though always well 
patronized. In the summer for the poor man there are the parks and 
the Free Floating Baths. The extent to which these baths are used 
shows how much they are appreciated, even when the luxury of a 
swim is only able to be indulged in in water befouled by sewage such 
as that of the adjacent rivers. But there are many who do not care 
to use the floating baths who would dearly enjoy a plunge in a com- 
fortable swimming bath, and would be prepared to pay a small sum 
for it. 

SEABOARD CITY. 

Much of the amusement provided in the city is not truly " recrea- 
tion," which is a recreating of the body and mind so that the man or 
woman feels like a new being afterwards, and is better fitted to enter 
again on the work he has to do. Of the recreative effects of swim- 
ming enough cannot be said. The invigorating effect of a cold plunge 
on both body and mind is as beneficial as it is pleasant, while as an 
exercise swimming is both useful and agreeable. New York city 
especially needs to encourage swimming. Being a seaboard city, 
many lives are annually lost by drowning which could be saved if 
either the person to whom the accident happens or some onlooker 
were able to swim. The deaths by drowning for the last three years 
were : 



56 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



January . . 
Februaiy . 
March .... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December 



Total. 



1893. 



Accident Suicide 



31 
34 
28 
20 
14 
9 



190 



Accident. Suicide. 



G 
16 
17 
26 
35 
31 
26 
21 

5 



201 



1895. 



Accident. Suicide 



5 
3 
9 
16 
26 
32 
30 
33 
26 
12 
12 



209 



1 
14 



i POLICEMEN. 

In addition to death many accidents occur, and it would seem 
that our policemen might with advantage be given instruction in the 
art of swimming and in life-saving methods, that they might not 
hesitate for fear of risking their lives in attempting to rescue drowning 
persons. 

Much more was done by the city in the past in this matter than 
it is doing to-day. In i8o6 the Humane Society of New York re- 
solved to devote a portion of its care to the resuscitation of persons 
apparently dead from drowning. It accordingly provided several 
sets of apparatus and appointed physicians to take charge of them and 
give the necessary medical aid. 

312 DEATHS FROM DROWNING. 

In 1 868 the number of deaths from drowning had so largely 
increased, averaging 212 per annum, that a committee was appointed 
by the Board of Health to see if something could not be done in the 
matter. As a result, lessons in the rescue and resuscitation of 
drowned persons were given to 819 policemen, of whom ninety-two 
were sergeants; an illustrated pamphlet was issued and apparatus 
placed at twenty-four points on the water front. The apparatus con- 
sisted of a grapnel or a drag, a pike, a ladder, and a float attached to 
a heaving line. During the five months previous to January 18, 
1869, no fewer than twenty-five persons were rescued from drowning 



The Swi.MMiNc 1>atii as Ubcreation. 57 

by the agencies of the Board. During 1869 it was reported that the 
hves of 180 persons had been saved. The number of rescue stations 
was extended, and the apparatus maintained in good order. In 1870 
it was reported that a large numl)cr of Hvcs had been saved, and 
poHcemen stationed at the ferries, ferrymasters, boatmen, and others 
united in the opinion that the hfe-saving apparatus was an inchspen- 
sable necessity. In 1872 the appropriation for maintenance of the 
life-saving apparatus was $300. Nearly one-third of the a])i)aratus 
had yielded to wear and tear. In 1873 ^^''^ Board of Health reported 
that " The usefulness of the apparatus would doubtless be enhanced 
if the persons regularly employed at the ferries and steamboat land- 
ings were instructed and expert in its use, as well as in the resuscita- 
tion of persons rescued from the water." In 1874-75 ^he apparatus 
was carefully overhauled and redistributed to points where it was 
most needed. The necessary exposure of the apparatus subjected it 
to rough usage, causing more injury than would result from honest 
wear and tear. No memoranda of the lives saved had been kept, 
though it was believed that they were so numerous as to warrant the 
Board in extending the apparatus more generally along the water 
front. Since that date no attempt was made to keep the apparatus 
in repair, and it was gradually lost, stolen or worn out, until it all 
disappeared, and it is now many years since any such apparatus 
furnished by the Health Department has been upon the docks and 
excursion boats. 

SLIPPER BATHS. 

Compared with the private bath, the public swimming bath is a 
comparatively late institution. While the English Baths and Wash- 
houses Act dates from 1846, provision for swimming baths was not 
made until an amendment was made to the act in 1878. Previous to 
that time the public, or, rather, the male portion of it, bathed in the 
rivers and streams. This arrangement, though suited to small towns 
and villages, was not adequate to the needs of a large and growing 
urban population, and advantage was quickly taken of the permission 
to build swimming baths at the corporate expense. These baths are 
naturally most frequented in the summer time, and the attendance 
falls off in the winter much more than in the slipper baths. In spite 



58 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



of this, the numbers using the swimming bath usually exceed the 
numbers using all other kinds of baths. To take a few cities : 



BiriniusliatiQ (5 baths) 

Bradford (2 baths) 

Burnley 

Coventry 

Liverpool (7 baths) 

London : 

Bow (1895-6) 

Islington (1894-5) 

Kensington 

St. Giles and St. George, 
B]oomsbHry»(1894) ... 

St. James, Westminster, 

(1H94) 

Salford, 4 establishments 

(1891-2) 



Swimming Baths. 



Men. 



242,989 
89,198 
33,851 
53,463 

332,861 

49,468 

197,641 

53,943 

9,818 

31,617 

99,126 



5,305 
1,309 



4,398 
8,027 

3,231 

26.760 

5; 949 



1,990 
3,670 



Children. 



55,750 



52,653 



Other Baths. 



Men. 



110,181 
79,535 
11,383 
16,753 

108,653 

48,663 

122,371 

40,950 

36,000 

66,764 

41,671 



AVomen. 



15,838 
13,061 



5,ti35 
10,883 

12,494 

28,576 

9,249 

10,959 

24,495 

6,434 



JUST FOR FUN. 

These figures will suffice to show the greater popularity of the 
swimming bath. The cleansing value of the bath is small, and some 
of the bathers go " just for the fun," even when they cannot swim. 
Incidentally cleanliness is aided, for it is understood that the bather 
must attend to that as a preliminary, and often a cleansing-room 
with douches is attached, the warm douche to be used before bathing 
and the cold after. Sometimes there are two douche rooms, for adults 
and children respectively. In almost every bath a cold shower is 
provided. 

The swimming bath is usually fitted with various appliances for 
the bathers' enjoyment. There are diving boards at various heights, 
and lately chutes are being placed in many of the new baths, from 
which the diver slides headforemost into the water. The gradual 
deepening of the baths — generally from about three feet to six feet 
six inches — affords the means of enjoyment to both swimmers and 
non-swimmers, giving confidence to many to learn to swim. Pro- 
vision is now frequently made for the game of water ]>(>1(). which is 
hotly contested and greatly enjoyed by all the participants, and, on 
occasion by spectators. 



The Swimming Bath as Rfxueatiox. 59^ 

SWIMMING liCSSONS. 

The London School Board has done a great deal to encourage 
the children under its care to learn to swim. Tickets signed by the 
head teacher, and stamped with the name of the school, are issued to 
those who can afford it at one penny (two cents) each, but to those 
who are too poor a special voucher is given freely, the Board redeem- 
ing them when a sufftcient numljcr has been presented. i\Iany 
youngsters are not satisfied with getting a free ticket, which they can 
only have once a week, but manage to pay for a bath at the id. rate in 
addition. The time spent in learning swimming counts as part of the 
regular school hours. 

10,000 SWIMMERS — FABIAN CHAL.L.KNGE SHIELD. 

Swimming instruction is given at most of the baths by competent 
instructors. The charge of 6d. per lesson or 5s. per course of twelve 
(12 cents and $1.25 respectively), as at Edinburgh, is a very usual one, 
children paying half price. In 1895 the London Schools Swimming 
Association taught over 10.000 boys and girls to swim — many of the 
class who would not otherwise have seen the inside of a swimming 
bath. The Association is worked entirely by school board teachers, 
who not only give their services voluntarily, but are often out of 
pocket in defraying the many expenses entailed. Nearly three hun- 
dred schools are afifiliated to the Central Council at the low fee of is. 
per annum. These schools are situated all over the London postal 
district and are grouped into suitable branches, of which there are 
now twenty-two, each school communicating with the Central Coun- 
cil through the Branch Secretary. Each branch sends one repre- 
sentative to the Central Council for every six schools affiliated. 
Hoxton has eleven schools which pay 2s. 6d. af^liation fee to the 
branch, which pays their afifiliation fee to the Central Council. A 
very pretty first-class certificate, designed by Walter Crane, is 
awarded to every boy swimming a hundred yards, and to every girl 
swimming fifty yards, an examination fee of 3d. being charged. The 
" Daily Chronicle " Challenge Shield is held for one year by the boys' 
school having the largest number of these certificates, compared with 
the number above the age of ten years on the roll of the school. The 
" Fabian " Challenge Shield is held by the girls' school fulfilling the 



60 ]Mayou's Committee ox Public Baths. 

same conditions. The event of the 3'ear is the Central Championship 
Cempetition, and leaders in the swimming' world agree that it is the 
best all-around show ever given by children, the diving and the 
competition of four boys' teams and four girls' teams for the Life Sav- 
ing Society's medals and certificates being especially commended. 

FAULTY SWIMMING. 

Teachers are encouraged to learn to swim b}^ the granting of 
certificates to all who can dive (optional for ladies), swim one hundred 
yards (ladies fifty yards), part to be done on the back, and satisfy the 
judges of their power to teach swimming and life-saving. Candidates 
are expected to answer questions on the theory and method of teach- 
ing, and to criticise faulty swimming, as well as to be able to effec- 
tively rescue by any two of the four methods and to know thoroughly 
the resuscitation drill on the Sylvester method. Examiners are ap- 
pointed by the Southern Counties Amateur Swimming Association, 
the Life Saving Society and the London Schools Swimming 
Association. 

In 1895 the London Schools Swimming Association expended 
£86 2s., while its income was only £59 9s. 6d. Subscriptions 
amounted to £20 9s. 6d., the remainder of the receipts coming from 
affiliation fees, sale of tickets and programmes at the annual compe- 
tition, etc. The Association provided medals for the branch, cham- 
pionship at a cost of £22 19s. 8d. in 1895, but all the trophies are given 
by interested friends. 

MFE-SAVING Cli.VSS. 

Mr. Charles Newman, who was formerly at the Battersea Baths, 
taught the Board school boys there free of charge, and he is now 
doing the same at the Westminster Baths. He gives about 1,700 
lessons yearly, and turns out about one hundred swimmers eacli year. 
Unfortunately, he had to turn many boys away for the simple reason 
that they had had nothing to eat. ]\Iany deaths which were put down 
to cramp in the legs were more properly attributed to cramp in the 
stomach, and Mr. Newman, therefore, dared not let the lads enter the 
water, much as they would have enjoyed it. ]\Ir. Newman also ar- 
ranged a life-saving class, which won warm approval from Coroner 



Thk Swi.M.MiNc; r.Aiii AS Kkcukation. 01 

Hicks, who had so often witnessed the sad resuhs of a lack of this 
knowledge on the part of a riverside population. 

SWIMMING CLUnS. 

To promote the interests of swimmers clubs were very early 
formed, and now there is scarcely a bath which is not used by at least 
one, and often by cjuite a number of these clubs. A reduction is 
usually made, club members being admitted for 4d. and 4|d., where 
other bathers are charged 6d. For this and other club benefits, a fee, 
usually about los. 6d. per annum, ($2.60) is charged, the entrance 
fee varying from 2s. 6d. to £1 is. Most of the clubs are affiliated to 
the Amateur Swimming Association, and only amateurs may belong 
to them. The accepted definition of an amateur is as follows: "An 
amateur is one who has never competed for a money prize, declared 
wager, or staked bet; who has never taught, pursued or assisted in 
the practice of swimming or any other athletic exercise as a means 
of pecuniary gain, and who has not knowingly or without protest 
taken part in any competition or exhibition with anyone who is not 
an amateur." A swimmer ceases to be an amateur and becomes a 
professional by 

"(a) Engaging in swimming or any other athletic exercise — or 
personally teaching, training or coaching any other person therein — 
for pecuniary gain. 

" (b) Selling, realizing upon, or otherwise turning into cash any 
prize won by him. 

"(c) Accepting remuneration for swimming in public, or by 
being employed for money or wages in a swimming bath or else- 
where as an attendant on swimmers." 

NOVICE. 

A novice is one who at the time of competing has never won a 
prize in a similar class of open competition, /. e., winning a prize for 
plunging, object diving, etc., or in any other branch of sport, will not 
disqualify the winner from competing as a novice in a swimming race 
proper, or vice versa. This rule does not apply to prizes won at 
school. 

Honorary members are admitted on different conditions, but are 
usually not allowed to vote, though given all other club privileges. 



•62 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

OTTER Clil'B. 

Subscribing members liave to be proposed and seconded by club 
members. A ballot is taken at the next committee meeting, and a 
small minority can exclude, in one club one black ball in four, in 
another one in hvc. The management of the club is usually vested in 
a President, one or more Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Secretary, a 
Committee of about ten members and a Captain. All but the last are 
always elected annually, though usually eligible for re-election. The 
Captain is sometimes elected, sometimes (as in the Otter S. C, 
London), the captaincy is swum for in open water, the time and place 
being chosen by the Committee, and the distance being i.ooo yards. 
The votes of two-thirds of the members in one club, or in some cases 
of the Committee alone, though then with the right of appeal, can 
expel a member for ungentlemanly behavior. 

SPLASH AND NEATNESS — CROCODlliE RACE. 

Prizes are offered by the clubs for proficiency in swimming, 
diving, etc., and the annual entertainment is frequently a very brilliant 
afifair. Bootle held two such contests last year, one club getting the 
Mayor to preside. The other festival was held by the boys from the 
schools, who paid for the use of the baths. The Otter Swimming 
Club held its annual entertainment on October i, 1895, at the St. 
George's, Buckingham Palace Road, baths. The programme in- 
cluded.inter-club high diving, limited to three entries from each club. 
Points were given for correctness of position on the board, neatness 
of take-off, of position in the air, and of entering the water, avoidance 
of splash and neatness of coming to the surface. Each competitor 
was allowed two dives, and the highest aggregate won. Two prizes 
were given. The next event was a 360 yards (12 lengths) team race. 
Each man of each team swam sixty yards; the second stated when the 
first had finished, the third waited until the second fitiished, and so 
on; the team whose si.x men completed the 360 yards first won the 
race, and each man received a prize of a silver-mounted paper knife. 
Four prizes were offered for a ninety yards invitation and club handi- 
cap. There were six men in each of six heats, the final being swum 
by the first in each heat. A prize of a silver cigarette and match-box 
case was offered to the wiiuicr of a tliirty yards clothes linndicap. 



TiiK Swi.\i.Mi.\<; Haiii as Kkcukatiox. 03 

Following this was a display of diving, ornamental and trick swim- 
ming by two members of the club who were pupils of the instructor. 
Then came a sixty yards hurdle handicap in three heats, for which 
three prizes were offered. The next event was a life-saving demon- 
stration, under the directorship of Mr. (Jeorge J. Strickland (Otter 
S. C. and Life Saving Society). The demonstrators were teams of 
members of the London Schools Swimming Association, and all the 
details of release and rescue and of resuscitation were fully given. A 
water polo match between Cambridge University (Past and Present) 
and the Otter S. C. followed, and the last event was a sixty yards 
inter-club crocodile race, tor which a silver match box was offered to 
each of the f«Hir members of the winning team. There were sixteen 
entries. Admission tickets cost 2s. (50 cents), but admission at the 
doors was 2s. 6d. (60 cents). A charge of 3d. (6 cents) was made for 
the programme. 

These club contests bring the swimming bath into popular favor 
as a means of recreation, and the attendance is greatly increased. 
Almost every provincial town has its club. Burnley in 1894-5 sold 
4,500 club tickets in packages of 100 each, at a reduction of 25 per 
cent. The Dolphin Club was responsible for 8,237 of an attendance 
of 37,170 at the Manchester Road Baths at Bradford. Eighteen clubs 
use the Hornsey Road, Islington, baths. Three committee rooms 
are provided for their benefit, and can be used on special occasions 
as dressing-rooms. Westminster gives the greatest possible facilities 
for clubs, quite a number, including several ladies' clubs, making it 
their headquarters. 

Some of the clubs are formed of employes of a single firm, the 
employers figuring as presidents or patrons. Thus the Blomfield 
House Swimming Club, the holders of the City of London Bath 
Championship and the Junior Water Polo Championship, with head- 
quarters at the Westminster Baths, is composed of employes of 
Messrs. Waterlow & Sons, wholesale stationers. The employes of 
Messrs. j\Iaple, the furniture manufacturers and dealers, form the 
Clarence S. C, and use the Fitzrov Baths. 



64 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

ladies' days. 

The swimming bath is not yet so popular with ladies as with 
gentlemen. There are several reasons for this. The expense is 
greater, and the incumbrance of a bathing dress involves greater diffi- 
culty in learning to swim. The "ladies' days" are inconvenient to 
many, and some times no evening hours are allotted to them, so that 
very little opportunity exists for practice. Of twelve events at the 
Portsmouth Swimming Club's Nineteenth Annual Festival, swum in 
the sea ol¥ South Parade Pier, four were for ladies. In a hundred yards 
challenge race for the Connaught Salt Water Challenge Trophy, 
there were only three entries, and only two for another trophy, though 
in each case two other prizes were offered. Eleven entered for a 
hundred yards open handicap. 

Many of the new swimming baths afford a good length for these 
races. The*Hornsey Road First-class Baths are 132 by 40 feet, with 
a second-class bath 100 feet by 35 feet, and a ladies' bath 75 feet by 
35 feet. The festivals give enjoyment to numerous onlookers, as 
many as 2,000 having been seated at the Westminster Baths. 

DIVES. PATH^VAYS, RAFTS — GRAXITE TOAVER. 

The little island of Jersey, with its 52,000 inhabitants, 30,000 of 
whom reside in the commercial town of St. Heliers, early felt the 
need of bathing accommodation. The loss of life around the rugged 
and dangerous coast was so great that as early as 1865 the Jersey 
Swimming Club was formed to encourage the acquisition of the art 
of swimming. For years this club maintained the whole of the dives, 
pathways, rafts, life-boats and other necessary appliances, with very 
little assistance from the local authorities. The public generally 
shared in all these benefits, though not more than one in four who 
availed themselves of the comforts provided by the club contributed 
in any way. The club was incorporated in 1893 and obtained a lease 
of the foreshore at La Collette for twenty-one years at a nominal rent. 
The efforts to obtain a permanent bathing place, more suitable to 
ladies and available at all states of the tide — the rise and fall is as 
mucli as forty feet in spring tides — were finally successful in 1895, 
when the I lavre-des-Pas Bathing Establishment was opened. This 
batliing pool is but a short distance from the shore, and is so con- 



O,-- THE * 

•F?SITY 

OF 
'FORNAX 



The Swimming 1>ath as Kecukatio.n. 65 

structed as to be flushed at every tide, and it is fitted with sluices for 
cleaning purposes. The sides of the pool, which covers about three 
acres, are mostly of solid rock blasted to slope, but here and there a 
strong, wide stone wall has had to be built from rock to rock. At the 
shore side rises a massive granite tower, built on solid rock. Inside it 
a band stand and round the inside of the wall are built commodious 
dressing boxes, with lavatories and shower baths attached. On the 
top of the dressing boxes is a wide gallery. There is every possible 
convenience for divers, and a shallow place for learners. In fact, it 
is an ideal bathing place, and is a credit, not only to the club, but to 
the whole island. The pool is only used by gentlemen from 8 to lo 
a. m., being reserved for ladies from 6 a. m. to 7 p. m., with the ex- 
ception of these hours, and on Sundays from 6.30 a. m. to 9.30 a. m. 
Admission is free to lady members, gentlemen members paying id. 
and non-members 3d. for a single bath or 2s. 6d. for twelve tickets. 
Swimming instruction is free to members, but a charge of 3d. per 
lesson of a quarter of an hour is made to non-members, twelve lessons 
costing 2s. 6d. Separate dressing-rooms are provided, with the usual 
fittings. The bathing for the day being over, the establishment lends 
itself admirably to band promenades in the summer evenings. In the 
winter the pool is used for yacht sailing. The establishment has 
proved very successful, and in 1895 £50 of the original cost was paid 
off. The £3,000 required was raised by means of debentures bearing 
interest at the rate of 2^ per cent, per annum. Some 15,000 persons 
paid admission in the season of 1895, and there was every reason to 
anticipate a substantial increase in 1896. 

liA COLiIiETTE. 

The bathing place at La Collette is open free and non-members 
are allowed to the full extent of the accommodation provided. It is 
proposed to erect here a similar establishment to the one at Havre- 
des-Pas, at a cost of £2,000, which is to be raised at 3I per cent, per 
annum, so as to give give gentlemen the same opportunities now 
provided for ladies. 

The club now comprises 135 ladies and 188 girls under sixteen; 
239 gentlemen and 113 boys under sixteen; 57 life and 3 honorary 
members. A total of 753. . 

5 



66 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

The fees per annum are: 

Ladies 8s. 

Girls (i2 to 16 years of age) 6s. 

Girls (under 12 years of age, including the use of 

the new pool) 4s. 

Gentlemen 5s. 

Boys (under 16 years of age) 2s. 

Boys (under 7 years of age, including the use of 

the new pool) 4s. 



Subscriptions are payable in advance on January i of each year. 

The club hold annual swimming matches, at which prizes are 
given. Certificates of proficiency in swimming are awarded, and 
every efifort made to encourage this art, so valuable to a water-sur- 
rounded people. 

POLICE. 

In this country the municipal provision of swimming pools is a 
comparatively late institution. The need arose when the rapid 
growth of cities left no streams or pools where the small boy could 
strip and bathe undisturbed by the police. New York's first floating 
bath was opened in 1870, and Philadelphia's first bathhouse in. 1885. 
Chicago has had a public swimming bath for the first time this year, 
but already a second and third are talked of. In neither of these 
cities is any attempt made to heat the bath, which is only kept open 
during the summer months. 

KO TOWELS. 

In Philadelphia there arc six swimming baths in different parts 
of the city, and the attendants at each are a man, a woman and a 
policeman. The baths are 38 by 107 feet. They are open from 
6 a. m. to 9 p. m. week days and from 6 to 9 a. m. Sunday. Women's 
days are Alondays and Thursdays; other days are reserved for men. 
Tlic building is cleaned twice a week, and the water in the tank 
changed twice a day. Tiicre is always a constant change of water, 
as it is running in and out continually, the depth being from three 



The SwiMMiNc IJaiii as Kkcuka iion. 



G7 



to six feet. The pool is sometimes divided and warnings posted to 
prevent accidents. No towels are allowed to be left at the bath, each 
bather being supposed to provide his own, though this is rarely done, 
the participants preferring to " dry off." Bathing trunks are provided 
at the modest charge of three cents. It will be noticed that of the 
1,879,662 baths registered, only 32,416 were taken by women and 
girls. There were fully five times as many boys as men, and girls as 
women. 

The season of 1896 lasted from June 15 to September 26. The 
number of bathers at the various bathhouses was as follows: 



NAME OF BVTH HOUSE. Male. j Female. 


Total. 


Boach aud Laurel streets | 402,894 | 13,086 


415,980 
174,261 
321,401 
479,333 

68,8.84 
419,803 


EiirJith and MiiHin j 170.843 3,418 


Thirty-second and Ridjre avenue | 318,177 3,224 

Twenty-seventh aud Master | 472,845 6,488 

Thirty-third and South 66, 306 2, 578 

Twelfth aud Wharton 416. 181 | 3, 622 


1 


Total 1,847,246 1 32,416 1,879,662 

1 1 



BATHI\G POOL. 

The bathhouses cost $8,000 each to erect. The cost of main- 
tenance and repairs is $400 per year, and $600 a year superintendent's 
salary. A new bathhouse has just been erected at Second and Cum- 
berland streets at a cost of $15,102.95. The building is the hand- 
somest of its kind in the country. Unlike those of the other city 
bathhouses, the bathing pool is roofed over. The building is con- 
structed of brick and stone and the pool is 35 by 90 feet. This bath- 
house will be opened for the first time next year. 

Before the opening of the public bathhouses for the season of 
1896, Dr. Edwin J. Houston, President of the National Swimming 
Association, made an arrangement with Chief Eisenhower, of the 
Bureau of City Property, to give a lecture on swimming at each one 
of the various pools, at which the members of the N. S. A, would 
assist him by giving exhibitions of the different swimming strokes, 
best methods of saving life in drowning accidents, how to resuscitate 
the apparently drowned, and in other ways instruct and educate the 



68 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

boys in these useful matters. The lectures created a great amount of 
public interest. Boys who had learned to swim had pointed out to 
them the most common faults in swimming; many who knew nothing 
of the art previously learned to swim. At the conclusion of each of 
the lectures referred to a number of the boys who displayed profi- 
ciency in swimming were allowed to compete for prizes, given by the 
National Swimming Association, comprising gold, silver and bronze 
medals, for the first, second and third in the final heat. Dr. Houston 
hopes eventually to see swamming take a place in the educational cur- 
riculum in the schools of our large cities, and to further this end is. 
trying to create a strong public interest in the sport. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Spray Bath, and Spray Baths in the Puhlic Schools. 

The bathing estabh'shment is now not up-to-date which has not 
spray baths in place of the old-fashioned tub. 

rose: shower. 

The original form of the spray was the old rose shower, which 
was common in the early part of the century. About 1880 a great 
demand for a cheap and quick form of bath produced various im- 
provements in the spray bath. The Hemenway Gymnasium, at Har- 
vard University, contained a shower-room ten feet by twelve feet, 
with appliances for giving lateral, vertical and descending showers. 
In 1883 Mr. Robert J. Roberts, physical director of the Boston 
Young Men's Christian Association, to obviate the fall of water on 
the head, which was held to be dangerous, invented the ring-shaped 
rain shower, which has been named after him. It was first used in 
the Boston Young Men's Christian Association Gymnasium, then 
new. 

SPniNKLBRS. 

In 1889 Dr. Simon Baruch, of New York, in an editorial in the 
Philadelphia " Medical Times and Register," urged the construction 
of public rain baths as a simple and cheap means of bathing those 
who had no facilities at home. At the Social Science Convention, 
Saratoga, in September, 1890, Dr. Baruch presented plans for rain 
baths and described their working. On his advice the New York 
Juvenile Asylum substituted for its plunge bath a system of sixty- 
eight sprinklers, twenty inches apart, connected by pipes near the 
ceiling. By this means 280 children are now bathed in one hour, 
where formerly it was only possible to bathe eighty, and only one- 
eighth of the quantity of water is used. 

In November, 1890, Dr. Baruch explained to the Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor the working of the spray 
bath and its adaptation to a public bathing establishment. As a 
result, a building committee was appointed and the People's Baths 
were constructed. 



70 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

first-class tubs. 

In Germany private spray baths are being introduced into all 
the municipal bathing establishments, and a smaller charge is usually 
made than for the tub bath. The use of a shower bathroom is often 
compulsory previous to entering the swimming bath. England has 
not taken up the system, though showers are often placed as an 
adjunct to first-class tub baths, or to swimming baths. 

The superiority of the spray bath over the tub is evident to any 
one who comes to the question with an unprejudiced mind. 

COAL. MINKK. 

The tub is extremely difBcult to keep clean, needing special 
preparation for each bather, and even then skin diseases are some- 
times transmitted. A coal miner or engineer taking a tub bath 
v^^ould very soon soil the water so that absolute cleanliness would 
become an impossibility without a change of water. 

With the spray it is very different. The bather soaps himself 
standing in a rain of warm water falling with some force, and scrubs 
and cleans himself perfectly in a short time, the soiled water passing 
away immediately. 

The outlay for tubs is avoided, as well as the cost of their wear 
and tear. The cost of the spray fittings is out of all proportion to 
this expense. 

The time required is very much less in the spray bath than in 
the tub bath, because the mechanical efifcct of the descending stream 
aids the removal of dirt. 

The economy of water is enormous, only half the amount being 
used, and the economy of space is almost as great. 

The tonic effect of the spray is very valuable, stimulating the 
skin, and thus providing protection against subsequent exposure, 
especially if the temperature of the w^ater is gradually lowered. 

LO^V COST. 

The low cost at which the spray bath can l)e given makes it 
pre-eminently successful as a popular batii. The People's Baths 
average an expense of a little over five cents a bath, and in Germany, 
ov,ing to cheaper labor and accommodation not being quite so private 



Till'; Si'KAV I»ATii. 71 

as here, the cost is much lower. It is thought that a bath double 
the size of the People's Baths would pay expenses at a charge of 
five cents per person. Where this small fee was thought inadvisable, 
the expense to the city would be a comparative trifle, compared to 
that for either tub or swimming baths. 

The basements of our public schools, which arc, in many cases, 
very little used, are peculiarly fitted for the establishment of spray 
baths for the school children. Where the basement is used as a play- 
ground, a roof garden playground might be substituted, and so a 
double advantage secured. 

UNWASHED CHILDREN. 

The credit of the initiation of this movement belongs to Gottin- 
gen, a city of 21,000 inhabitants, in Hanover, Germany. A great 
reform had been made in school affairs, giving the most approved 
methods of heating and ventilation in large, hygienically-constructed 
buildings. But the thought came, of what avail were all these hy- 
gienic arrangements if to these buildings were admitted dirty chil- 
dren, with all kinds of infectious germs? Considering the matter, the 
almost complete lack of bathing facilities for the scholars, and espe- 
cially for the girls, was spoken of. Except during the open bathing 
time during the summer months, by far the greater portion of the 
children went unwashed, except for face and hands, and especially 
was this the case with those above the age of ten. Indeed, a subse- 
quent census of a higher grade school in Gottingen, containing 860 
scholars, showed that only 145, or 17 per cent., were bathed in tubs 
at home, these being mostly the younger children, while i per cent, 
of the others bathed at private establishments. The remaining 700 
children were practically without the means of obtaining a full bath 
from one year's end to another. 

The basements of the schools were empty, there was a good 
water supply and drainage, all necessary arrangements for heating 
and excellent janitors. A consultation with the city architect proved 
its practical)ility at an estimated expense of $166.60 for one school. 
The common council granted $238 for the purpose. The cost, exclu- 
sive of building alterations, as asphalting and drainage channels, was: 



72 Mayou's Committee on Public Baths. 

Reservoir, with fittings $6i 88 

Furnace 40 46 

Water pipes, douches 71 40 

, Tubs and fittings 11 90 

Total $185 64 



A room sixteen feet ten inches by eight feet three inches vvas 
fitted up as a bathing-room and another of the same size as a dressing- 
room. Both rooms have asphalt floors, which are laid where neces- 
sary with wooden bath mats or cocoa matting. The walls of the 
bathroom are cemented. There are three douches, with shallow tubs 
of five feet two inches in diameter underneath. The water is kept 
at a temperature of 84 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit, and may be used on 
very hot days as cool as 75 or yj degrees Fahrenheit. About 5,000 
gallons of water are used for seventy children. 

FEW CHILDREN. 

The baths were ready for use early in 1885. No compulsion was 
used, and at first only a few children went down, but after two 
months about 75 per cent, took part in the bathing. Each scholar 
who wishes receives a bath once a fortnight, on one of the four full 
days during the time school is open. The class which bathes studies 
some lesson which does not require the presence of the whole class. 
From six to nine children, according to size, go down at once, and 
when they have had time to undress, a second set are sent down. 
The first set step under the douches, two or three under each douche, 
and when they have bathed the others are ready to take their places. 
Thus the douches are kept in use, and the time occupied is compara- 
tively small, a class of fifty-one boys bathing in fifty minutes. Girls 
and younger children take rather longer. The disturbance of lessons 
is not so great as was feared. Only a few children are absent at any 
one time and these can be easily controlled — the boys by the janitor, 
the girls and younger children by the janitress. The latter under- 
took to assist the little ones, who stood sadly in need of such help. 

A towel is brought by each bather, whilst bathing caps and petti- 
coats were supplied to the larger girls. 



TllK SlKAV liATII. 73 

Precaution is taken to avoid cold immediately after bathing. 
The children go back to warmed classrooms and cool off gradually, 
bathing not being allowed half an liour before school closes. 

aUICKNESS AXD WILLI XGXKSS. 

" The quickness and willingness to learn after loathing, the edu- 
cation of the sense of cleanliness, the furtlicrance of the health of the 
children, are such important and real results of the arrangement," 
says School Director Personn, " that I cannot but express to the city 
authorities the wish that, if possible, similar bathing establishments 
might be introduced into the other public schools." 

Already it had been found that parents sent cleaner and tidier 
children to the handsome new school buildings; now their pride made 
them anxious tliat neither the janitress nor their fellow scholars 
should see ragged or dirty underclothing. There are few families 
so lost to all better feelings that this has no effect, and in those where 
drink has driven the sense of honor away, charity must give clothes 
to the poor children. 

Up to date about forty cities have followed Gottingen's example, 
at a cost for water of one-quarter of a cent in Germany and one-fifth 
of a cent in Switzerland. 

The city of Posen erected a spray bath in the basement of the 
third public school is 1894. Dressing acconmiodation was provided 
for sixty scholars. Nine sprays were provided, and it was estimated, 
from the experience of Carlsruhe, that each spray could be used five 
times in an hour, and that it would be possible to bathe from two to 
four children at a time under each spray. Thus an hour would be 
ample for each class. As the school contained 1,500 scholars, fifteen 
hours would suffice to bathe the whole number. 

OXE BATH A WEEK. 

Estimating one bath per week to each scholar, there would be 
an annual expense of about 800 M. ($190) for the necessary water and 
gas, and for heating and lighting in the winter months. The use of 
gas for heating the water had proved very successful in other cities, 
obviating the necessity of an engineer to look after the fires. There 
would be no other expenses, as the teachers could supervise the work 
of bathing their children. 



74 Mayor's Committee ox Pup.lk; Baths. 

Tlie cost of introduction of these baths in pubhc schools is in- 
considerable in view of their h}gienic importance. 

Posen estimated the initial expense as follows: 

Alterations to building ^7(^3 

Fixing gas and water i)i])es 428 

Fittings for bath 333 

Total $1,524 



A Munich school bath, having sixteen separate bathing cabins, 
placed in a room with two communicating open dressing-rooms, has 
been found equal to affording a bath a week to 1,664 children. The 
bath fixtures, etc., in this case were put in at a cost of $450. 

ADOLPH STRASSE. 

Altona intends to place spray baths in all its public schools. One 
has already been erected as an experiment, in the Adolph Strasse 
school. This school consists of a center bviilding and two wings. 
One wing contains a boys' school of thirteen classes with 953 pupils; 
the other a girls' school of thirteen classes with 938 pupils. The spray 
is situated in the center building. 

Stuttgart has lately introduced the baths in two of its public 
schools. There are seventeen sprays in the Roman school, and dress- 
ing accommodations for fifty-one scliolars. Thirteen sprays are pro- 
vided in the Jacob school. 

The city of Brunswick has also lately introduced spray batlis 
into some of its high schools, and they have proved very beneficial. 

BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The proposal to introduce spray baths into a Rosttm public 
school first came up in the early part of this year. A plan was 
sketched by Dr. Hartwell, director of physical training in the Boston 
public schools, for bath and dressing-rooms in the new Paul Revere 
schoolhouse at the North End, and in another new school at the 
West End. Dr. Hartwell's plan was used as a basis for securing 
estimates for cost of plumbing, asphalting, etc. The ])lan called for 



The Si'KAY Hath. 75 

a room 40 by 58 feet, divided by partitions into twenty-eight bathing 
cabins and three dressing-rooms, placed at riglit angles to the bath- 
rooms and opening into it. Allowing each bather ten minutes in a 
bathing cabin, and ten minutes in a dressing-room before and ten 
minutes after entering the bathroom, 104 children, or two school 
classes, could be bathed in an hour, and 2,000 children in a week, 
providing the bathing cabins are kept occupied. With tlie asphalt 
floors, granolithic partitions, "Gegenstrom " bath fixtures and rubber 
curtains on brass rods in front of each dressing cabin, the estimated 
cost of fitting up the bath and dressing-rooms would be $2,600. 

Lfc:UAI. QUESTIONS. 

The School Board on May 12 referred the matter to the Com- 
mittee on Schoolhouses, who reported on September 22 unfavorably. 
Their objections in part were: " Your Committee hesitate to take the 
position that it is the duty of the school authorities to bathe the chil- 
dren in the public schools because they may not be clean, for if this 
be granted, we see no reason why we should not clothe them if they 
be improperly clothed, or feed them if not properly nourished at 
home. But, outside of the legal questions involved, your Committee 
do not believe that it is in the interest of public health to place these 
washhouses in the basements of our public school buildings, to there 
accumulate the uncleanliness which may be brought in on the bodies 
of the children. More or less of foul odors must necessarily come 
from this practice, and your Committee feel that the suggestion that 
eventually these washhouses be used for the general public is not in 
the interest of proper sanitation." 

To this a member replied that, " One would infer that tlie new 
Paul Revere schoolhouse was not to be connected with the sewer at 
all. One w^ould think that the accumulation of filth was to be kept 

there in the building It is perfectly absurd to say that it is 

impossible in the basement of a public school building, built as you 
have to build them in that section of the city, that a bathhouse cannot 
be provided from which no odor whatever can arise. If we must 
have foul odors, let us have them in the basement and not in the 
schoolroom. It is not a washhouse at all, by the way, but simply 
bathing- facilities in the basement of a school building." 



TO Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

The matter was referred to the Committee on Hygiene, who re- 
ported in favor of the baths on October 13. A long discussion was 
chiefly devoted to the question of the expediency of the introduction 
of baths. It was said that the Board had been at work trying to put 
in proper ventilating apparatus in the schools to do away with unclean 
odors, in one school spending $4,500 for this purpose; but they could 
not get rid of the odors. The order to provide bathing accommoda- 
tion in the Paul Revere schoolhouse was passed by a vote of 11 to 8. 

SIPT. SNYDER. 

In this city the advisability of providing baths in school base- 
ments was mooted in the preliminary report of the Sub-Committee 
on Public Baths and Public Comfort Stations. Mr. C. B. J. Snyder, 
Superintendent of School Buildings, has planned to leave room in 
the basement of a new East Side school for which ground has been 
condemned, but no further move has been made in the matter. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Municipal Baths in America. 

YON KICKS. 

The first city in the United States to establish a municipal bath,, 
supplied with hot and cold water and open all the year round, was 
Yonkers. This city raised a fund of $20,000 and a site was purchased. 
Plans were prepared for a floating bath on this site, but by reason of 
tlie hig-li cost of this style of bath and the necessary expenses of 
dredging, approaches, main entrances, etc., the funds on hand were 
not sufificient to carry them out. The fact that the bath could be used 
but a few months each year, together with the increasing pollution of 
the river with sewage, also had considerable weight with the Com- 
mittee and the plan was finally abandoned. 

S. L. COOPER. 

About this time a gentleman from Yonkers saw the People's 
Baths and induced the Committee and Mr. Cooper, Commissioner 
of Public Works, to pay them a visit. The new baths opened on 
Labor Day are modeled after the People's Baths and are 25 by 53 
feet. They were designed by Hon. S. L. Cooper, Commissioner of 
Public Works. The front is of cream-tinted pressed brick and the 
trimmings of Tuckahoe marble. The main portion of the building 
has only one story with a high basement. The inside walls, iron 
work, etc., are painted in white enamel, so as to be easil}^ washed out 
with a hose. At the front, separated from the baths, is the office, with 
waiting-rooms for men and women. The janitor's apartments are on 
the top floor. The outer walls are hollow, and there are two large 
ventilating skylights. The floor of the bathroom is laid with grano- 
lithic material on heavy beams. The boiler, which is to furnish the 
hot water and also the heat in winter, is in the basement in the rear. 
There are thirteen shower baths and one tub bath for men, and seven 
shower baths and one tub for women. The shower baths are divided 
into dressing and bathroom, each about four feet square. The cost 



78 Mayor's Committee ox Public Batds. 

was: Land, $2,000; building and equipment, $9,400; total, $11,400. 
Five cents is charged for towel and soap, and twenty minutes is 
allowed to each bather. 

Up to the present time the bath has been well patronized and 
has proved a complete success. It is proposed to build a second bath 
next year, 

BUFFALO. 

Buffalo has erected spray baths, which were opened on New 
Year's Day, 1897. The building is 68 feet long and 30 feet wide. The 
principal part of the structure is only one story high, but the front 
part is two stories, and contains the living apartments of the bath 
attendants. There are fourteen separate shower baths and six shower 
baths in one large compartment, these latter showers being intended 
for the use of children. Besides these there is a bathtub, which can 
be used by mothers bringing children too small to bathe under the 
showers. A washroom containing three laundry tubs and a drying 
closet, heated with steam coils and connected with a vent shaft, is a 
part of the arrangement. There is also a waiting-room and an office 
from which towels and soap are issued. The soap used is powdered, 
and only enough for one bath is issued to each person. The exterior 
of the building is of very hard clinker brick and Medina sandstone. 
Owing to the limited amount ($8,000) appropriated for the purpose, 
it was found necessary to exercise the strictest economy in designing 
the building. 

BATHS FREE. 

This bath is entirely free, no charge being made for soap or use 
of towels. It is estimated that about sixty baths an hour can be given 
in the building. The interior of the bathing apartment has no plaster, 
the walls being all of brick, the floors of concrete, and the ceilings of 
timber. The partitions of the baths are of slate, carried by iron fram- 
ing. The part of the building containing the bathing apartments is 
lighted and ventilated by overhead skylights. The bathhouse is 
heated by steam and fitted with automatic apparatus, so that hot 
water is supplied to the showers at all times at a uniform temperature, 
wliirli ran never be so hot as to scald the bather. 



MuNicii'Ai. llAiiis IN America. 70 

DUNKIRK. 

This little place, with only 10,000 population, intends to have a 
bathing- establishment. It is proposed to have twelve spray baths. 
The movement, initiated by the local Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, has been endorsed by the Common Council, and the baths 
will be proceeded with at once. 

BOSTOX. 

Free warm baths were opened at the Charlesbank Gymnasium 
recentlv and have been highly appreciated. So great is the need of a 
warm bath that visitors come from all over the city and from Cam- 
bridge and Medford, and more or less from all the surrounding towns. 
One day 174 people used the baths, and usually there are a great 
many visitors every pleasant day. Small cakes of soap cost tw-o cents, 
and towels are supplied free of charge, whether the visitor buys soap 
or not. Some people go regularly twice a w'eek and there are new- 
comers about every day. 

The Charlesbank Gymnasium w^as the first open-air gymnasium 
in the w^orld and is supported by the city, though run by the IMassa- 
chusetts Emergency and Hygiene Association. 

In June, 1896, $65,000 was appropriated for a new bathhouse, to 
be open all the year round. 

Mayor Ouincy appointed a Bath Committee, consisting of Mr. 
R. G. Woods, Mr. E. Billings, Prof. E. M. Hartwell, physical director 
of the schools, Mrs. M. M. Kehew% Miss Pingree, Mr. M. W. Myers 
and Councilman Ryan. 

A site has been chosen on Dover street, near the corner of Har- 
rison avenue. The plan calls for a building 43 by 1 10 feet. On the 
first tioor are separate waiting-rooms for men and women, together 
with laundry and engine-rooms in the rear. On the second floor are 
separate bathrooms for men and for women. In the front part of 
the building there is a third floor containing an apartment for the 
manager of the baths and his family. 

There will be fifty baths, including seventeen for women, giving 
thus capacity for bathing 150 people per hour. The steam supply 
for all purposes in the building is to be furnished from the boiler- 
room of the fire department repair shop, situated just at the rear of 
the bathhouse lot. 



80 Mayor's foMMiTricE on Piklk" Baths. 

BROOKLINE, MASS.— SPE^CIAL. NEE^DS. 

Massachusetts provides by statute for the erection and main- 
tenance by towns or cities of pubhc baths, which may be wholly or 
partly self-supporting. Brookline took advantage of this and ap- 
pointed on April 1 1, 1895, a committee to examine the subject. The 
committee not only considered the special needs of the town, but 
made a thorough investigation of several of the best bathing estab- 
lishments in this country and abroad, and afterwards selected a loca- 
tion and prepared plans. In a population of 16,000 there are many 
persons who do not have access to bathrooms in the houses in which 
they live, and there was not in Brookline, as is the case in larger 
cities, any bathing establishment, public or private, where they could 
obtain warm baths. Nor was there any good open air bathing. The 
little swimming bath on Boylston street, in the brook, in 1895 was 
less used than in any previous season, owing, among other causes of 
dissatisfaction, to the bad condition of the water and the muddy 
bottom, and not a dozen boys learned to swim. The accommoda- 
tions, too, are very inadequate to the needs of the population. 

DOLPHINS. 

The location of the new baths is the center of population of the 
town, close to its principal playground and its new high school. The 
building is a handsome, well-lighted, well-ventilated T-shaped build- 
ing, covering 8,000 square feet. It is of brick with Roxbury stone 
foundations. Above the main entrance, chiseled into a large stone 
table supported by dolphins, are the words, " Brookline Public Baths. 
The Health of the People the Beginning of Happiness." 

To cater to those people who cannot or will not see the advan- 
tages of the shower bath, a few slipper baths are provided, there being 
fifteen rain baths and three slipper baths. The sides of the rain baths 
are to be lined with marble, and eacli bath is to have a dressing-room. 

DR. E. M. HARTWBIiL. 

The swimming bath is 80 by 26 feet, the depth of the water varying 
from three to six feet. Fifty dressing-rooms with granolithic floors, 
and fitted with lock and key, are located around three sides. They 
are entered from the outside corridor, so that the walk around the 




Deptford (London), Public Baths, Wash-houses and Ivlunicipal Buildings 
under the same roof. This combination enables each department to effect a 
saving in initial cost. 








Shoreditch (London), Public Bath hou<:es and a Public Library under the 
same roof. Estimated cost, $150,000 




Opening Exercises of the Public Baths at Essex Road, Islington (Lon- 
don). The dedication of public baths is an occasion of civic innportance, 
instanced by the presence of the Rt. Hon George John Shaw Lefevre, M.P , 
President oi the Local Government Board ; Mr. Cohen, M P. for East Isling- 
ton, and Sir Albert K. Rollit, M.P. for South Islington 



^ \ 











CHfcN Lani 



The Ground Flan of the latest Public Bath for Birmingham England. 
Note that the building will contain a branch of the Public Library. This city 
now operates five other baths. 



• ' I ^ rj .\ 



OF 



Mr.NicirAi. Katiis in A.mkkica. Si 

swimming; tank, and the water itself arc kept clear of mud and dirt. 
The bath itself has a bottom of adamantine mosaic, the sides being 
lined with English white-glazed brick. A gallery for spectators runs 
all around the swimming bath over the dressing-rooms. In addition 
there is a steam laundry for the towels and tights, toilet-rooms, and a 
room about ninety by thirty feet upstairs that may be fitted up later as 
a gymnasium. A special feature found in two of the best and most 
recently completed bathing establishments of Europe (at Stuttgart 
and Hamburg) is the addition of a passageway in rear of the dressing- 
rooms that surround the swimming tanks, as well as in front of them. 
This feature has the hearty approval of Dr. E. M. Hartwell, Director 
of Physical Training in Boston Public Schools, and has obvious ad- 
vantages, not only in convenience, but in keeping clean the passage- 
way around the swimming tanks and consequently the water, a most 
important point, while also securing better ventilation for the dress- 
ing-rooms, and better order among the bathers. 

A smaller swimming tank, twenty-two feet by ten feet, is pro- 
vided for swimming when the larger bath is empty or floored over. 
The walls and ceilings throughout the building are plastered; the 
trusses supporting the roof over the swimming bath are to be of 
hard pine planed. Very large skylights in the roof, windows on the 
end gable and in the gallery will furnish an abundance of light and 
air; provision for electric and gas lighting is also made. 

The water, constantly changing, is from driven wells, and is 
heated by steam as it enters, the temperature being equalized and 
sustained by artificial means. The surface will be constantly swept 
by a superficial current of fresh water from one end of the tank, thus 
removing any floating impurities. 

The cost of the building, exclusive of land, was $40,000, voted 
by the town. The bath was opened on New Year's Day, 1897, and 
systematic instruction in swimming will be given to the 3,000 school 
children of the town. The annual expenses for maintenance are 
estimated at from $4,500 to $5,000, to be largely offset, probably, by 
fees for use. 

6 



82 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

philadelphia. 

An association was chartered in March, 1895, as the Public 
Baths Association of Philadelphia. A lot of 60 by 40 feet, at the 
southeast corner of Berlin and Gaskill streets, in the heart of Phila- 
delphia's poorest district, has been purchased at a cost of $5,750, and 
plans for the first building are complete. Some of the features are 
taken directly from the People's Baths of New York, some from those 
in London. While the proposed building is to be nearly twice as 
large as the People's Baths of New York, the cost of its construction 
will be about the same, and it is hoped that the large accommoda- 
tions — 1,000 baths per day — will make the receipts nearly equal to 
the running expenses. 

The first story of the Gaskill Street Baths will be devoted to 
men, the second to women; each has a separate entrance and waiting- 
room, both the entrances being overlooked by a common ofitice. The 
interior is to be of glazed brick, iron, ground glass and concrete. 

STEAM DRYERS. 

Connected with this institution there will be a public laundry 
where, for a small sum, separate washtubs, steam dryers, mangles and 
ironing tables, may be hired by women who have no place in their 
contracted rooms to do their family washing. The towels from the 
bathhouse will also be washed here. A high basement is utilized for 
this purpose. Accommodations for ten workers will be provided. 

There are to be fifty-seven rain bathrooms, more than half being 
for men. Five tubs will be provided for the use of children and 
women who may not care to use the shower bath. This should give 
a capacity of more than 1,000 baths per day. 

The building will cost not less than $29,000, exclusive of the cost 
of the ground. The Association has on hand, after paying for the 
land, the sum of $3,643.70, and provisional promises conditioned on 
the raising of the full sum needed of a considerably larger amount. 

CHICAGO— CITY COUNCIL. 

The Municii)al Order League of Chicago urged the adoption of 
a system of public baths, and a connnittee was appointed, consisting 
of Dr. Gertrude Gail Wellington, Dr. Julia Lowe and Dr. Sarah 



MiMcirAi. I?ATHs IN Amkuica. 83 

Hackett Stevtiison. In March, 1893, an appropriation of $12,000 
was secured from the finance Committee of the City Council, and 
the " Carter H. Harrison l'>ath " was opened in the following January. 
It is a handsome structure of pressed brick and brown stone, 25 feet 
wide by no feet deep. In the basement are the laundry and two 
furnaces, one for heating- the building, the other for heating water 
for tlie baths. In the front of the main floor is a waiting-room 
sixteen feet square, seating forty people. Beyond this are the bath- 
rooms, with necessary toilet accommodations. There are sixteen 
shower and two tub baths, and a plunge twenty by thirty feet. This 
last has not been a success, owing to its small size and to the aversion 
of people to sharing so small a body of water. Allowing twenty-five 
minutes to each bather, the capacity of the bath is 2,600 persons a 
week. Two minutes are allowed for undressing after entering the 
bathroom, when the water is turned on for eight minutes. One min- 
ute's notice is given before the water is turned ofif, to allow time for 
a rinse-off. Fifteen minutes are allowed for dressing. 

Women are allowed to use the baths two days a week, men using 
them the remainder of the time. For women the temperature is 105 
degrees, and on other days 100 degrees. Many people resort to this 
bath, not only for the purpose of cleanliness, but for relief from rheu- 
matism and other diseases, with, as they claim, good results. 

The bath cost $10,856, and is run at a cost of about $3,500, the 
total expenses for each bath averaging three and four-fifth cents. 
Since opening to June, 1896, 226,538 baths have been given, 49,189 
to women and girls. In July, 1896, the remarkable number of 11,250 
baths wxre recorded. 

NKE^DLK BATHS. 

In the summer of 1896 the Douglas Park Natatorium and Gym- 
nasium was opened. There are two pools, the one for men, 55 by 120 
feet, three to eight feet deep, with 117 dressing-rooms. The women's 
pool is 55 by 60 feet, two and one-half to seven feet deep and has 
seventy-five dressing-rooms. The baths are open to the air. Every 
bather, before entering, must use the shower bath, the simple shower 
and needle baths being both in use. There are six at each pool, 
separated by rubber curtains. The water for these and also for the 
pools is warmed. 



84 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

A new shower-bath estabHshment will be in operation, it is ex- 
pected, by January, 1897. An appropriation of $12,000 has been 
made by the city. At first it was proposed to have two wings for 
men and women, but the appropriation being insufficient, the baths 
will be used on two days by women, and by the men on the remaining 
five days. The building is on Wentworth avenue, between Thirty- 
eighth and Thirty-ninth streets, and is 50 by 100 feet. The exterior 
is of buff pressed brick and terra cotta, and the interior in hard wood 
and oil. There will be thirty-two shower baths, and a free laundry 
with dryers and steam w^ashers. 

NETVARK, N. J. 

Newark is following the example of Chicago and foreign cities in 
placing spray baths as an adjunct to a swimming bath. The pool is 
28 by 50 feet, and is from three to five feet deep. At the rear are eight 
spray baths, three feet by six feet. There are thirty-six dressing- 
rooms, four feet by three feet. The building is of brick, with brown- 
stone trimmings, and will cost $7,500. 

TRENTOX, X. J. 

Trenton, after discussing the question and getting plans, finally 
decided, owing to the financial stringency, to erect the baths in Mr. 
Thomas Terradell's Industrial Building, and then turn them over to 
him for future maintenance. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Municipal System of Foreign Baths. 

typical. instance3s. 

From the foregoing part of the report, it will be clearly seen that 
the provision for baths in American cities is totally inade(iuate. In 
the leading English and Continental cities these provisions arc made 
as a matter of course, and a few typical instances have been chosen. 
The general system of baths is the same, and in no case are they free. 
From a careful study of the following pages, it will be noted that the 
operating expenses are nearly met in almost every case by fees.* 

IIIRMIXGHAM, EXGLAXD — BEST IN ENGLAND. 

The city of Birmingham, wath a population of 487,897 in 1893, 
or about the same as that of Boston, possesses four complete sets of 
well-appointed public baths, and one open-air swimming bath. Two 
of the public baths have a Turkish bath attached to them. The baths 
are very efficiently managed, the latest improvements having been 
introduced at the older baths, while the Monument Road Baths are 
among the best in England. The sites for two additional suites of 
baths have been purchased, and building will be proceeded with at 
once. There is no public washhouse now in Birmingham; the first 
and only one, erected at the Kent Street establishment, was closed in 
1870, and a Turkish department provided in its place. The towels 
and other articles used at the several bathing establishments are 
washed by machinery at the Kent Street Baths, under the charge of 
one laundress employed by the Committee. She engages all the 
assistance she requires, and upwards of 50,000 articles are washed per 
annum at a cost of is. 2d. per dozen. The following tables will give 
some idea of the extensive work carried on by the Birmingham baths: 

*Iu the following accounts of En}?lisli batlis, the money is not changed 
to American, as this can be readily done at sight in a sufficiently accurate 
manner by multiplying by five ($4.87=£1); the German mark is taken as 
equal to 23.8 cents; the Noi-\\'egiau crown to 26.8 cents. For greater con- 
venience, temperature is always given according to the Fahrenheit scale, 
and the metric measures and weights are clianged to those in general use 
here. 



86 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 







c 


iT 


,_, 














■^ 






-oej 






C5 — — ■ 






O 






CXJCO 






t-lO 


•^ . 


o 


"!5 


OS 

00 


5 


— 00 








w 






„ 






^ 








< 


i 






s 


S 


a 






=t? 


P 


"3 








'^ 


a 








<) 


CO 








«'*'* 


of 




e»t>i- 


00 


<c . 


tote to 


•H 


il 




.V 


=1* 


Ph 


a h 






o 




;g 










H 


» 


J-^O 


a 


■a 


in-^ o 


u 


8 


o 
-HtrsQO 


Q 


'^S 




ja 


"^ 


of 


ti 




P3 






Q H 


^• 


toei-^ 


;?; « 


CO 


§ " 


<j ^ 


•g 


"22 


h^ D 


o 


CCt*< 


c5 a* 


^3 


co« 


^ ^ 


o 


cli'" 


3 Cc3 


o 












•W i>-rH 


<^ S 






w ^ 


■» 


irj""""' 


^ Z^ 


^ 


NQOg 


\^ p 


a 




























H 












o 












;z; 












1— ( 












w 












t3 

























a 












D3 












D 












H 












HH 












p 












is 












&q 












Pm 












X! 












W 












Q 




2 2 




i5 








<1 




rt " 








^£<D 




oo2 


o 




DC-O 


55 




^ ~ a 
£|§. 

3 C « 
C CS <U 

o o o 






E- 


-t 


^e 


< II 





C3 




w 




PQ 








J«!=i 


09 


» 


~ 


H 


o 


3^ 




P=^ 


U 


CO 


2 


Q 




fe 


<1 


a; 




^ 


W 


M 


iz; 


c 


D 


3 


•-S 


•o 






m 




!i4 




jH 


o 

a 


W 


CA 


<ij 




D 


u" 


O" 


'3 




a 


« 




W 


o 


s 


o 


l«H 


^ 


<< 




li 


_a 


02 


•a 


O 


3 


^ 

H 










60 


U 


C 


cq 




H 


j' 


O 


tS 


g 


J3 

B 


t3 


a 


a 


a 


w 


% 


C5 


tn 


D 


J3 


H 


td 


1— ( 


9J 


Q 


* 


H 


a 


CU 


m 


X! 


a> 

J3 


W 


H 


Q 


» 


;2; 




<J 




Ed 




S 




o 




o 




;z; 



.»ft to 
OOO 






a^s 
a2 



s~ 



OTOO 

=o _ 



o 



: <D 



t. m U 

s 2: a 
-la 

©CM 



MuMcirAL System ok Foreign Baths. 



87 



W 
o 

< 

o 

s 

z 

M 
W 

« 

a 
a 

OJ 
O 

D 

H 
I— I 
Q 

;25 

X 

o 

p— I 

o 

OJ 

B 

Ec4 
O 

t>i 
03 
<1 

02 



_• OQ I- OO O —i to O I- O I 









eceoeoioo 

^ O I- O 00 



go ?/ l^ .*- ^.f >— 



«f-«5Ot'»0J t'OJCSOOO 



[0 ?5MQ0t- 



■* ?»0050 






(/} O ?7 to O COC3»-»C3t* [1-^ 

oMot* mo?*-"Oaao Igo 

^C5 -» «> i-ilO 00 






_-^ h s; = M 






o a 



o 


fl 


a 


>» 


« 




3 


2 




d 




§ 

R 


Q. 




X 


u 




41 






M 


O 


SS3 


H 


ft 



88 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 



«; Cm 






n 



O p 
H 



O 
t— I 



CO 

< ;- 

2i o 



■5 


£ s. d. 

411 13 

81 5 11 


00 


** *-< 
inojo 




00 

oc 






100 
coco 
1 oco 


in 
to 


ooo 
c:to 

•3« 


to 
t- 

00 




! S 


•d : 

a • 

^ : 





















g 1 ; 


: ' : 


1 . 








B 
a; 

E 



a: "to 

., ~ "O 


in 

in 



000 00 

1 


C-. 1 e» 3 1 

^ c 00 1 

J'. S2 ISi 

■w K Ire 


1 ^° 


06 


otia 
t-5 


CO 


1e 




u 



^ : 






M — . 




00 0-* 

1 i^ 


OS 




JC-.0 
ICCO 


t- —in 

00 -ret 

8 ^^ 




\ i 

TJ 



00 ; 

on : 






»C5 






CO to 


in 




■*2 

t-00 

000 


CO 

in 


co»» 

0D« 


in 


to 


s 






1 


CO©-* 




0—1 

e3 ' 


00 




1 in-T 

oox 

Iff a3 
occ 

1 


eo 


eoin 

05in 

moo 
o<co 


00 

i 


i ^ 


e 


S : 

: 
J : 


£ 


: c 

. a 


c 

2 : 
: 


c 
a 




C 
« 


5 
B 



c 


5 


1 


CLASS OF BATHS. 


t 


3 
) 

« 
u 

3 

a 

e 
3 




r 



s 

: 
I 


s 

n 

3 
J 


H 


■s 


2 





C 
1 

s 



c 


1 

j 


1 

i 
J 

i 



H 





; 

1 

3 

J 

13 




5 



— 
t-toin 



ooc 
000 
coos 



ooo 

eoo» 

coco 



ooc 
in t* 



CiiO I 00 

IXCO"-" QO 

to tO^S" -to 

" IS 



E 
o 
ta : o 

11-2 



5 



MUXICII'AL SVSTKM OK FoUIMON IJATIIS. 



80 



o 

03 

o 
sz: 

t— I 

Q 
S5 

a 

CSS 

a 

^^ 

o o 

J5 ^ 



•o oj »- O" CO o < - ■» io 2; — 
(c c- tO 01 wv in ^ oi c; C( 



«0 lO •-> ©» o — ^ 



.-■ciC/OoaoosoaoiN 



tC OO ^ CD -T t- I- (- O 

00 00 31 COOT t-O 



O I- « lO « <M 1- 1-: i- Ti OJ — 05 

CO 00 CO ^j i - CO I- o :c — vj o: C5 

^^OOOOOTPOOCOTOO-TC^ CJ 

■fl>" ~5firo"0» Ci''-'0^'CO "-1 1 " 




=i5 



5i " 



=^? ^- 



^ a 



■"Pi 



^< 



m 


B 






a> 




^ C 












^ 


13 


1) 


s 


fi 


■5 




5 











*- 


m 



£"5 i 






3 « qj 
CDS- 



90 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



I— I 
Q 

a 

;?; a 





CO 


3 


1 TO 


Tl- TOO 


t- 


I '^ 


X 


,— 


o 


(- 


TO 1 O 


1 o 


to 




1 <s 


J- 






C4 1A 




■w (- TO 


T 


t- c^ 




to *?* 1 cs 


« 2' 


(T 


X 


'I' 1 




t- 


05-<.- 


!» 


ffl « 


s 


tO^TO 1 C- 








"*, 


5 


00^ 


1 '^ 


-^-r -r 


O 


to t- 


3 


M 


to' to 


1 to"c 


t- 


*" 


o 






X5 


•■o 


T TO 


X 


■T 


' -T 


1 lOr- 


to 




i- 


o 
























m 


H 
































1 ■ • 




i-ao — 


1 TO 




. 1 


1 






TO 


ja 
















to in 


<r 




• 




















1 








o 


1 o 




• 1 










O 


4 
























I 










S 
















s* 








1 








cf 


ffl 
















'"* 






















































































« 




































































S 


































w 




































<nd 


1 t- 


OS 03-* 


(N 


1 ■?» -o: 




X(N 1 O 


»C 


Ix 1 


00 


oox 


1 ^ 


TfCJO 


■fl 




M 




to 


— X 


o>t~ 1 O 1 


to 


I- » 




C5 00 0J 






to 


a 




^o 1 c 




1 CO 1 


X 






























S 


TO 


^ 


TO « 


<- 


to 


c 




C 




TP TT 


X i 








»-« 




TO 




Tf 




-— 


»-' 




1 


o 


S 




























s 




























c 




























o 




























^^ 




























<; 






















1 




^ 






1 tO-fC! 


■:> 


1 -T irt 


1 O" 


,, 


Ci to 


p? 


{- 


1 


3 










OOO 


(^ 




•£ 


o 




tn a 




IT 




"O 








1 to-- — 


X 






1 o 


5 


•o e 


TOO 


C 


1 


















. 














o 














c- 


- 


X 




51 — 


•^ 




to 


p 








'^ 




TO 




■w 






■" 






(- 


A 


























































































o 






























!K 




















.!_ 






M 






t* O (?1 


|a= 


i 30 ■<Z 


X 


c 


X 1 t- 


l.nc 




1 


00 








cdSc 


^ 


(N 


c 




•r 


t- D- 


toe- 


S 1 


CO 








c- — 


1 oc 




o 


^ 


er 


TO 1 c: 






1 


to 


o 

o 
o 








































in 


c 


IT 


IT 


to 


CJ 


cr 




to 












TO 




■^ 










1 


to 






1 




















1 




■a 






























o 






























o 






























t» 






























f» 




























cooc 


1 <o 


(MOOJ 


■^ 


TO tC 


O^ 




-« 1, 


Tf TO 


t; 


c- 


J, 




■^ IT 


o 


o occ 




to 






t^ 


i- I 


TO « 




■■c 


X 




^,^ 


1 TO 


•^ 0(M 


o 


1 TO 


X 




X 


TI- TO 




-^ 




-I< 






























te 


■^ 




-r TOiM 


o 




X 


o 


X 


— C 


XTO 






X 








OJ 


-0 


TO 




T 




Ol 




C! 


































a 




























4) 




























M 
































C 






c 


c 






c 


J 






• I 








c 










a 






X i: 






11 I. 






3 




1 




a 












cS:s 










a 


aP 




£ 










0) Ox 








^ 


!! 




c 


























































































CA 




a 

0) 

s 




n 

bo 










a 


pa 




c 
1 
c 


a.' 






a 




a 






a 


» 






<M 








s 
s 








> 


> 
■c 




1 


i3 




^ 




CO 




■n 

a: 






X, 


3h 
to 




£ 


g 

3 




ca 




CA 




!B 






OB 


c« 




r 


a 




.a 




9 




I V 

> c 

< o 

o 


c 


. 


- i 


. 1 

* o 




•5 

i 


, 1 




u 


J- 


tn 


t- 


U 




L. 




H 




3 
















D 




1 


) 






H 






ti 


■c 






u 


3 






£ 




» 








•1 



Municipal System of Foreign Baths. 



J) I 



BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND. 



Kent street. 



Date of opening. 

Cost of buildings, 
iiiclmliiig fur- 
nishiiif;;, but ex- 
clusive of ma- 
chinery, etc 



Cost of Itiiilers, 
eiioine.s, punipinii 
niacliiiiery, beat 
iufi arrangements 
and sinking wells, 
etc 



May 12, 1851 



£17,201 



Woodcock 
street. 



Notthwood 
street. 



Aug. 27, 1860 M'cli 5, 1862 



£7,647 



4,410 

About 300 

yards of this 

land was re- ed for future 

sold. extension. 



2,440 

About 850 
yards regerv 



First-class swim-| 

minjr bath 86 ft. 6 in. 

long by 38 
ft. wide. 



Second-class 
swimming bath. 



Dressing 
boxes, bi. 



. 87 ft. long by 
35 ft. wide 



22 dressing 40 dressing 24 dressii 



First-class baths. 
Private hot and ) 
cold water or > 
slipper baths.. ) 

Second- class } 
hatha S 



38ft.longbv 
14 ft. wide". 



Dressing 
boxes, 6. 

80 It. long, 

35 ft. 6 in. 

wide. 



£9,638 



1,245 



Moniunent 
road. 



.Small Heatli. 



M'ch 1, 1883 .July 9, 1883. 



02 ft. long 

by 31 ft. 

wide. 

Dressing 
boxes, 48. 

68 ft. long, 

32 ft.; 9 in 

wide. 



boxes, andiboxes and 
acconimoda-jaccominoda- 
tions for 75 tions for 75 



without 

dressing 

boxes. 



Men's 30. 
Women's 6. 

Men's 24. 
Women's 7. 



without 

dressing 

boxes. 



boxes, ac- 
commoda- 
tions for 75 
without 
dressing 
boxes. 



£19,969 



4,272 



80 ft. long 

by 32 ft. 9 

in. wide. 

Dressing 
boxes, 50. 

68 ft. long 

by 32 ft. 

wide. 

Acconirao- 
dation for 
120 bathers 



Men's. 16. Men's, 21 
Women's, ti. VVomen's,4. 

Men's, 16. I Men's, 22. 
Women's, 8.,Women's,4 



Men's, 17. 
Womeu's,4 

Men's, 17. 
Women's, 7 



£600 



Cost of sink- 
ing a well 
for a pro- 
po.sed suite 
of baths on a 
reserve por- 
tion of park 
land £1,350. 
Cost of erec- 
tion of a 
water tower, 
water tank, 
gas engine 
and deep 

water 
pumps £785. 



133 ft. long, 
72 ft. wide. 



92 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND— (Confiiiuet?). 





Kfut street. 


Woodcock 
street. 


North wood 
street. 


Monniuent 
road. 


Small Heath. 


Date of opening. 


May 12, 1851 


Aug. 27, 1860 


M'ch5,1862 


M'ch 1, 1883 


July 9, 1883. 


Turkish bath de- 












partment 


1 depart- 
ment, con- 
structed in 
1879 out of 
old build- 
ings former- 
ly used as a 
public work- 
house, and 
consisting or 
14 dressing 
rooms, 2 hot 
rooms, 1 
shampooing 
room , 1 
plunge bath, 
1 large cool- 
ing room, 
etc. 






1 depart- 
ment, con- 
sisting of 
18 dressing 
rooms. 3 hot 
rooms, 1 
shampob- 
ing room, 1 
plunge 
bath, 1 
large cool- 
ing room, 
etc. 





SCALE or CHARGES FOR ADMISSION TO THE SEVERAL 

DEPARTMENTS. 

First Class Swimming Bath: 

Single tickets Gd. 

Book of 2a tickets Ss. 

Members of Swimming Clubs 4<i. 

Pupils of Grammar Schools, etc.. 100 tickets for 258. 

Hire of bathing drawers Id. 

Hire of ladies' bathing drcssi's 3d. 

Use of an e.xtra towel Id. 

Second Class S■^^imming Bath: 

Single tickets, with the use of a private dressing-room 3d. 

Single tickets, without a private dressing-i*oom 2d. 

ScluK)l boys are admitted at special times; books of l,(KHt '.d. 

tickets £2 Is. 8d. 

School boys .•iiid girls are admitted at speci;il limes; books of 200 

Id. tickets lt>s. Sd. 

First Class Private Bath: 

Warm bath, with two towels '">d. 

Cold bath, with two towels 3d. 

Second (lass Private Baths: 

A\'arm bath, with one towel 3d. 

Cold bath, with one towel Id. 



.Ml .Mf'ii'Ai. Svsi'K.M (»!■ I<""uiti;i«:.\ I'.atiis. '.CJ 

Sliowi'i- liiitlis ;ii-t> incliult'd in the ;il»uv»' named (-liar^jcts, aiul soap 
tablets are supplii'd at Id. extra. 

Turkish liatli 1 )('i»artii)('iit. iiicludiii;:- sliaiiiiiuoiiij,' and tlio iiso oC a 
l»rivalc drt'ssiiii; room. Hot rooms (tlirt'ci, louiip' and smoke rooms, noodle 
douelio, sliower and plnnj^e hjitli, one sliillin.^. 

i,i\ i:i{iMM>i„ i;n<;i, AM) — (U'i'.N \iii maths. 

The prcsont Maths Committee was elected in November, 1892. 
The mcml)crs found the property committed to their charge in a 
much neglected condition. An entirely new system was immediately 
adopted. A careful inspection of all the baths and washhouses was 
made, and various hygienic and other improvements introduced. So 
great was the popularity of the lUirlington Street Open-air Baths, 
built by the new conmiittee, that it was decided to look out for sites 
for more open-air baths in other populous districts of the city. In 
the course of 1896 the Committee expected to supply heated salt 
water to the Burlington Street Baths, The Committee was not con- 
tent with providing public baths, but has erected standpipes in 
crowded districts to supply salt water to the doors of the people, and 
this has enabled many mothers to give their children salt water baths 
at home. Liverpool was probably the first city in England to own its 
public baths. A building was purchased from a private bathing es- 
tablishment in 1794 at a cost of about £4,000, and about £1,000 was 
expended on alterations. These baths were removed in 1820 to 
make way for docks, and it was not until 1828 that new baths — the 
Pierhead Baths — were opened. Owing, among other things, to a 
treacherous foundation, the structure cost £24,481 up to the date of 
opening, and has continued to cost a large amount annually. Since 
185 1 the question of reconstructing these baths has been periodically 
before the Committee, but small repairs only have been made, suffi- 
to keep the bath going. Several of the baths, including the ladies' 
swimming pool, are in such a dangerous condition that they are 
not used. 

The Committee has, without any sacrifice of efficiency, shortened 
the hours of labor of its employees, and studied their comfort, and 
this with a saving of £1,000 on the cost of administration. 



94 Mayou's Committee on Public Baths. 

fresh "water baths. 

The scale of charges varies according to the location of the baths, 
and the acconnnodation provided. Cold fresh-water baths are 
given at id. upwards, at five of the baths, but are not much favored 
even at this rate. Private warm baths and swimming baths range 
from 2d. to is. 6d. and vapor baths cost is. to 2s. 

In 1893 the Committee decided to issue swimming club con- 
tracts, giving the holders the privilege of bathing in a stated bath two 
evenings per week, from April i to October 31 (sixty-two baths) for 
the sum of 5s. per contract, equal to under one penny per bath, not 
less than twenty-five tickets being issued to one club. In 1895 775 
of these contracts were issued, but were only used 20,295 times, less 
than half the number to which the holders were entitled. 

ANNUAL CONTRACTS. 

Annual contracts were issued, for the first time, in 1893, at the 
sum of £1 IS. each. In 1895 184 of these were issued and were used 
16,812 times, or an average of just 91 times. In 1894 the same privi- 
leges were extended to any of the city's permanent employes for the 
sum of 7s. 6d. but were not very largely availed of. Only forty-three 
of these contracts were issued in 1895, and these were used only 
1,443 times, or less than thirty-four times by each holder. 

Special tickets for the use of schools are sold in packages of 250 
at one-half penny each, entitling the holders to bathe in a body in 
charge of a responsible person in the second-class plunge in any 
establishment except the Pierhead, between 7 and 8 a, m., and 5 and 
6 p. m. Mondays to Fridays, and between 7.30 and 9 a. m. Saturdays, 
but arrangement must be made with the Superintendent what time 
each school may bathe. The number of these bathers was 38,500 in 
1895, a large increase on previous years. In addition to this, penny 
and two-penny school tickets are issued, and 64,792 were used in 
1895, making a total of school bathers of 103,292. 

EXPERIMENT, 

The Baths Committee has now resolved (as an experiment) to 
grant free plunge baths to children attending schools within half a 
mile of the Margaret Street Baths, and this will undoul)tcdly educate 
the children in habits of cleanliness, and tend to make them regular 
visitors in the future. 



Municipal System of Foreig.x Baths. 



95 







IT. O 

ja -tJ 


35 

01 






if -a 




a <- 1 






a > 






« 2; t^. — m 1 






^■r 


'"~ 




•& ,_ 


: ' b 






water 
one p 
bath. 




water, 
water. 

water. 

e bath 
r, private 
water. 
l)onse OI 
e bath, 
fresh 




§ 




'A " 'f- 




ci 


CO 4* r" 


^ 


J 


= _a M aj -a , 


-! tt -« 




. .&■ 


.a u 


■t. ti M c— =F'7a'"«J 






^ ^'^ 


« 2; 


4) «) 0) s ~ 9^ -• ^'Z '-' 






s ;i. 


fa fe p^ aH''""?:CH 






'■^-^^-^ 


-w--^ 




^^"^-'^ 


.'^.—'^-^-S 








<6 


ft. 6 in.x27ft. 
ft.x27ft. Two 
)rivate plunges. 


x40ft. One 43 

One 40x27 ft. 

fl.6in. by 34 ft. 


t. One 62 
e 18x18 ft. 
t. One 51 
ue 40 ft. X 

inxSOft, 1 
t.8iu.x32 
le 35x9 ft-, 
in. x28 ft, 
ft. 9 in. 




+» 






One 84x34 f 
x34 ft. On 
One 52x38 f 

x38ft. 0; 

8 ft. 6 in.. 
One 61 ft. 8 
in. One 63 f 
ft. 1 in. Oi 
One58ft. 9 
3 in. One 3 
xl3 ft. 6 in 


■ H 






coo — ' 
•^ •«j' ~ 


Sd5 


ift 
I- 






«> 0/ rt 

c!oi 


Ox^ 






•sji^ns JO Jdqmnn 






• '* -# CO o 


; 




pa« papiAOJd sjv 






1 lo lo o CO 






S9snoq-qs«4i ajaqAV 




















"-I Ch 


t4 


; 








1 

: 1 






o O 


O C 
















•sqjBq jaqio 


p-a 

K O 




^ 
















(M rH 


CO ^ 


'-' 














•8qj«q 


i-H 


CD -* 


rH C 


> ift t^ 








jaddifs 9j«Aiaj 


1-1 


O O) 


■<* -^ 


CO CO 












■ CO 


• -^ 


05 cq 













• CO 


t^ 


t- ■-♦ 












i-i 00 


t- oc 


00 oc 


ift 








1* l-\ 


t^ t- 


1-1 rH 


Ol 








00 


00 


00 


00 




Sniaado jo o^vq 






rH (T 


rH <M O) 


rH 

oo" 






00 

00 
1-H 


^ i 


< < 


^ a S 


►-5 






ri n 


■>* 15 


CO ic 


"-1 ift (n 


O 








CO "^ 


rH O 


CO O 1ft 
rH 


O 




•JSO.T 1H}0X 


in 


3; £i 




00 ^ O 

■^ 00 Ift 


O 

o 






^ "I 


o> CO 


rH TT 


1ft t- -^ 


t- 


















CO 


t^ -H 


t^ •* 


xT ^"^ ^ 








■^ 


(M rH 




rH (M 








J "^ 


o o;^ 


rH O 


o o 


, 






s * 


«ft o £,-v 


o m 


O -rH ', 


; 








o 


rH — .. 


rH 


rH 








•eqis ;o isoq 


a 


CO O a: -^ 


o t- 


Cvl o • 


; 








-^ ri 


O p J a 


o 1ft 


1ft t^ 


, 








a ^ 


t- I- u c 


'~L * 


ift_ 31^ 


• 








D 


-T d 


fi r-^ 


rH~ CO '• 


I 










; ; 


r2 




IS • 








g 
B 




42 


a > 
c 1 

K : 




a 
* -J 

1= "S 






S 




XL ?* 




i £ 


b 




K 

0} 

13 

PC 




1* - 


niinstei 
e street 


§D i 1 


a 
o 
*> 

txj 
a 




g 


« 










H 




5 J: 




o a S 


5 






S" 


O S 


i? ^ 




» 


fa 


M 


11 



96 



Mayou's Committee on Public Baths. 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR 1895. 



ESTABLISHMENT. 



Pierheafl 

Cornwallis stret-t... 

Marjjaret slroct 

Wesliniiistir road.. 

Steble street 

Lodge Lane 

BuiToiiuhs Gardens. 

Fiederiok street 

Builiujiton street — 
Incidental 



Total 



Receipts. 



£ 

1,153 

1,723 

829 

825 

1,024 

l,Ui6 

1,03") 

266 



12 2 

15 9 

17 5 

8 11 



8,025 48. 5d. 



Expenditures. 



£ 8. d, 

1,081 18 9 

1,458 13 11 

844 12 9 

1,058 4 7 

1 , 182 3 2 

1,246 19 5 

1,457 7 5 

425 4 3 

75 12 6 

38 15 5 



8,869 128. 2d, 



Excess of I Excess of 
expenditures : receip's over 
over receipts. expenditures. 



d.i 



15 12 5 

232 12 3 
l.-)7 11 U 

80 3 8 
421 10 
158 15 4 
*75 12 6 

38 15 5 



£ s. d. 

71 12 8 

264 12 2 



1,18012s. 7(1. 336 48. lOd 



Total excess of expenditures over receipts, £844 7s. 9d. 



NUMBER OF BATHERS DURING THE YEAR 1895. 



Men. 



Pierhead 

Martinet street 

Cornwallis street .. 

Lodge Lane 

Westiiiinsler load.. 

Steble street 

Burrougbs Gardens 

Total 



Private 
baiiis. 



3,744 
12,345 
25,815 
18.207 
18,218 
13,924 
16,400 



108,653 



Plunge 
ballis. 



45,649 
49,953 
66,751 
45^568 
49,265 
41,544 
34,131 



332,861 



Women. 



Private 
baths. 



168 
1,396 
4,372 
1,030 
874 
492 
2,551 



Plunge 
batbs. 



8,027 



10,883 



8,027 



Total. 



49,561 
63,694 
104,965 
64,e05 
68,357 
55,960 
53,982 



460,424 



LIMITED TO BOYS. 

The Free Open-air Swimming- Bath at Burhngton Street, hmited 
to boys under the age of fifteen years, was opened on July 8. The 
water w^as not heated, but, notwithstanding this, the bath was well 
patronized. During the months of July and August the average 
weekly attendance was over i6,ooo. The class to which these boys 
belong is evident from the fact that nine-tenths of them come without 
shoes or stockings. 



♦ Closed. 




From Municipality atui County, Buffalo, iV. V. 

Laundry hung up to dry in the house of a family living in one roonn. 
The Gilder Committee of 1894 state that out of 255,033 people coming with- 
in the scope of their inquiry only 306 had access to bath-rooms in houses 
where they lived 




From Mitiiicif-aliy ami Crutity, Bujf.i'.o, .V. )'. 

The household effects of a family living in one room. A Public Laundry 
would remove the congestion, by enabling the family in question to do tne 
laundry work outside of the so-called home. 




Mangling Room, Hornsey Road Laundry (London). Charge for use of 
the laundry, first hour, 2c.; second hour, 3c ; each succeedinfy hour, 4c. 
30,420 women used the laundry for the year ending March 31st, 1896. 




Drying Room, Hornsey Road Public Laundry (London). It is calculated 
that one hour will suffice for the laundry work of a family of five people. 
New York has no public laundries 



MuMcirAL Svs'iKM ui- Foreign Baths. 97 

I.ONn<)\, ENGLAND. 

In " Municipal " l.Dndon over half a niilli(^n ])Oun(ls, or two and 
a half million dollars, is invcstc*! in public baths and laundry estab- 
lishments, which cost £i 10,000 yearly to maintain. Besides the par- 
ishes of which details arc j;ivcn the followinp^ have baths and wash- 
liouses in operation : 

7 



98 



Mayor's Committek on Public Baths. 



i" 








3 












C3 1- 












; 


^ aj 






CO 












J." 


'^f 










= -5 






in 












-* t^ 










3 & 






<N 










i^H r-( 










"x. s 










~' — 




















® ^ 


"-3 


^ 


. 


.^ ^ 












t' 






a. * 


s 




b 


i^^^ 


•o 

C 
3 

03 
►J 










o 

Ph 


<r 


•7 


05 


S 














•^ 


c 

J2; 


52 


^^» 


-*-* "^ 


'^ 


'^i 3 S 












-*> 


j—\ 


« -K' 


-«=> 


i-i cS 0: 




■ 


■ 


r-( 


^v~ 


— , 


-i^ "-I 


'^ 


>-*-v-w. 


1 


u CO 






















"^-^ 


~"^ 




<U >; 






















a ~ 


-J 




P cS 






















i-i 


= ^^ 


C 


11 






















&-^=^ 






^x. 






















Sic 


E t^ 





























^ •/> 




























£ 


CO r 






















~ — **^ 


<=> ^ 


S 


CO S- 






















- I 


























c: 3 


-^ cZ' 




CO > 






















«5 .:2 


Ci 




OJC» 






















--v~ 




-^..s^ 


,-wA^ 


.^-^ 


.~-^ 






-^■^ 


^^ -^^^ 






^ 


'd 


'O 


~ 








r^ 


— 








rs^ 


— -^ 


•CO 


__. CO 








•-* 


_: —'^ 
































c5 O 


CO c 


to o 


CO o 








CO a 


CO ~ CO a 








o ■^ 


2 '•^ 


o "" 


o ■^ 






'TZ 


^ 


_ CO ^ *- 






CO 


-M-B 


-*^ ^ 


■^'Tl 


-»^ "C 






CO 


•^ r^ 


-S bo -^;? 






5 

Si 


r*- 1-H 


— (M 


-OtN 


-::« 






c 


r3<-< 


-r a -c ^' 






f' S^ 


=^ M 


^ tfl 


-^ fcl 






"^ 


T* tc 


9 S ^3 








0) - 


® a 


-2.S 






^ 


<L — 




j 


O 


II 


rt '5 


cSp 


es 'a 






'S 


> a 






1 




"t, — 


■'u S 


•E a 


'u a 






oi 


'72 a 








l^-g 


"^"S 


f^'i 


f^fe 






t- 


°-> 










OD 


CO 


m 


CO 






^ 


GQ 


02 






-y 


I-H 


^ 


o 


o 




CO 


t~ 


, , 


. 1 


GQ * 


-3< 


(M 


o 


o 






OJ 


os 












its 


» 


»o 


o 


o 






05 


CO 














o" 


CO 


o 


(£ 






■A 


-T 












Ol 


o 


00 


o 









00 












axi^ 


l-H 




^-H 


»-H 






*-H 












i 


"ir. 
















■ 


' 


ra 










,^^^ 






, , 




a 


































o 
















"r 3^ 




















































« 
















it; - 


















■a 
















^ > 


















o 
















3.)- 


















s 
















S *-! 


































^ ~ 


















o 
















X^ 


















o 
















^ W 


















u 


































<! 










^V~ 










"S c 




















Co 






-)< 








00 


,^ 


00 


00 35 


to 


flj "2 






lO 








oo 


00 


00 


-0 l^ 


05 


■£ o 






00 








00 


00 


00 


00 00 


00 


ee 0/ 














rH 


i-H 
















































. 






^ 








^ 


















• 






■j> 








s- 
























a 








a 
























W 








•; 
























i 








■^ 


n 






















•^ 




^ 




CO 


CO 






t' 


;= 






r- 


i 


.5 


7: 


(fi 


^ 




»: 

1 


a 


s 


0^ 
- 


S 
^ 





U X ■- 
= it .- 


:o 




cs 


S 
















' 


ff 




cs 




O 


c 




~ 




1^ 


cc 




M 








CO 


II 



MuNKH-AL Systk.m f)K FoiJKioN Batiis. 09 

Besides tliese i)arishes, the following have comniissioners ap- 
pointed and bathhouses in course of erection: Bethnal Green, Clerk- 
cnwcll. ]:)eptford, 1-ulham. Hackney, Lanil)eth, Katclifif and Shore- 
ditch. 

I'ollowing arc details of some of the more imi)ortant London 

baths: 

ST. MARY, STRATFOIIIJ, IIOAV. 

The X'cstry voted to establish baths and washhouses on October 
30, 1888, and the baths were opened on July 27, 1892. The initial 

expenses were: 

£ s. d. 

Land 4,270 o 10 

Buildings 29,887 3 7 

Engineering plant 6,599 ^ ^ 

Furniture, utensils and fittings 1,130 i i 

Total 41,886 5 6 



For this, five loans, aggregating £42,000, were obtained from 
the London County Council at 3^ per cent, interest. In 1895-6 
£1,904 of the princi])al was repaid, and £1,228 3s. 6d. interest. The 
debt will be entirely liquidated in 1922, the loans being repayable in 
from ten to thirty years. 

The accommodation provided is as follows: First-class swim- 
ming pool, water area 90 feet by 30 feet (charge 6d.), with 52 dressing 
boxes. 

Second-class swimming pool, water area 86 feet by 30 feet 
(charge 2d.), with 71 dressing boxes. 

Fifteen men's first-class private baths; warm, 6d.; cold, 3d. 

Thirty men's second-class private baths; warm, 2d.; cold, id. 

Four women's first-class private baths; warm, 6d.; cold. 3d. 

Eight women's second-class private baths; warm. 2d.; cold, id. 

STEA3I DRIVEN. 

The public laundry has forty washing troughs and forty drying 
horses, together with steam driven wringers and mangles, ironing 
stoves, tables and other conveniences. The charge is i.kl. per hour, 
which includes a plentiful supply of hot and cold water. In 1895-6 



100 



Mavok's Committkk o\ PruLic I>aths. 



there were 25,711 washers, ag^ainst 27,639 for the previous year, a 
decrease of 1,928, caused by the fine weather, but the number 01 iLours 
occupied was 98.505^ against 97,673, an increase of 632^ hours. Of 
these 25,711 women, 4,975 only stayed one hour, 1,873 o'''^^ ^"tl one- 
hah' hours, and 2.523 two hours, while 142 stayed twelve hours. 

The following" sunmiarizes the number of baths taken in the 
three full years during which the baths have been open: 



Private baths (meu) 

Priv.-ite baths (women) 

Swiiuiuiug baths (men) 

Swiu)ming baths (women) 

Vapor batlis 

Spray baths 

Family tickets, vapor balhs 

Family tickets, men's private baths 

Family tickets, men's swimming baths... 
Family tickets, women's private baths. .. 
Family tickets, women's swimming baths 

Club barbers 

School bathers 

Boai-d school bathers 

Total 



1895-96. 


1891-95. 


1893-94. 


48.66.3 


39,723 


36,485 


12, 494 


9,881 


10, .515 


4'J,468 


35,045 


54,066 


3,231 


1,?58 


633 


24 


40 


56 


36 


48 


92 


21 







3.816 


3,569 


2,910 


5,146 


4,671 


5,647 


1,139 


898 


988 


268 


348 


546 


3,794 


3,609 


2.147 


7,2:32 


3,320 


2,018 


9,425 


3,411 


3,;i80 


144,757 


105,921 


119,483 



It should be noted that the summer of 1894 was exceptionally 
cold and the winter following the severest for years. 
The working expenses were: 



Wages and salaries 

Coal 

Kates and taxes 

Water 

Gas 

Soap and soda 

Repairs 

Printing and advertising. 

Insurances 

Oil, etc 

Acconntant 

Fogaliateineiit 

Statement rating retnrns. 
Sundries 



Toliil 



1895-6. 



£ 8. 
1,076 10 

46.) 17 

380 r, 

3.3'> li 
94 6 
32 t 9 

109 \A 5 
48 12 6 
4S 
27 li 4 
11) 10 



36 17 2 
2,6(54 3 7 



1894-5. 



£ s. 

1,054 :{ 

486 4 

3S0 5 



296 16 



100 II 1 

51 7 1 

81 

65 17 5 

4S 



10 10 
2 2 



49 19 9 



2,626 16 11 



1893-4. 



£ 8. d. 

1,042 12 2 

455 8 2 

312 1 8 

2(i5 6 8 



99 

46 



!• 11 
7 1 



78 19 2 
69 7 6 
40 10 



10 10 



.■S 5 
36 1 

2,461 18 4 



MUXICIPAL SVSTKM OK FoUKKlN Ha'IIIS. 



101 



RECEIPTS FROM BATHERS AM> WASHERS, SALE OF SOAP, 

SODA, ETC. 



£ s. (1. 

lSiYA-4 2. 420 12 (» | 189r>-G. 

1894--) 2,024 18 2 



f 6. d. 
2.04.-) 10 [) 



CHELSEA. 

Clielsea Pul)lic Hatlis were only opened in 1893, and have been 
well i)atronized. The nnnibcr of bathers in 1894-5 was 93,913, and 
the charges are 2c\. and 6d. It is now proposed to ereet another set 
of baths with washhouses at Kcnsal Town. The land has been ])ur- 
chased and plans drawn up. The cost is estimated at £12.700. The 
Commissioners propose to utilize heat obtained from a patent furnace 
which will consume the waste products of the district. This will mean 
a saving of £3,000. Washhouses have not yet been established. 



RECEIPTS. 





Year ending Year ending 
March 25, 1895. March 25, 1894. 


From bathers 


£ s. d. 1 f s. d. 

1,213 15 10 1 1,121 4 3 

4 15 6 1 11 10 

1 17 7 1 14 1 

16 10 1 

1 


From rents 


From iuterost 

From weiphiui? machiue 

Total 

1 


1,221 5 9 1,133 18 4 



EXPENDITURES. 



Year endin 


sr 


Y'ear ending 


March 25, 1895. 


March 25, 1894. 


£ 


S. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


1 131 


18 


6 


95 17 6 


1 355 


12 





559 1 


1 122 


6 


6 


110 12 7 


1 378 


3 


8 


306 6 8 


1 274 


14 


8 


259 9 4 


1 1,542 


10 





1,.322 16 




13 


3 


49 4 8 


49 


3 


1 


127 1 2 


1 23 


3 


11 


24 8 4 


2S 


15 





137 19 10 


22 


18 


9 


6 5 


2.929 


19 


4 


2,999 1 2 



Insuranco, rates, taxes 

Repairs and maiuteuauce of buildings. . . . 

(rast 

Coal 

Water 

Salaries and wages 

Furniture 

I'rintiug and stationery 

Soap ;uid soda 

Towels, bathing drawers, etc 

Sundries | 

Total I 

I 



1((2 Mayou's Oommittek on Public Baths. 

greenavich. 

Baths and washhouses were established in 1850. Last year over 
90,000 persons used the baths, though a falHng off of 18,000 in 
numbers was caused by the opening of the Woolwich Baths and the 
cold season. Charges are from id. to 6d., and the baths are open in 
summer from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m., Saturday until 10 p. m., Sunday from 
7 to 10 a. m. 

Loans were taken as follows : 

August. 1850 £7. 000 

October, 1851 2, SCJ 

March, 1877 2, 000 

Jul}', 1892 1 . 000 

^larch. 1893 500 



Total 18,000 



Of this amount £11,854 has been repaid. The receipts for the 

year ending March 25, 1896, were: 

£ s. (1. 

Bathors 9G9 1 

Washers 52 12 11^4 

Soap 45 4 5 

Rents It) 11 

Sale of old materials 4 90 

Total 1, 087 17 5^ 



Expenditures for corresponding period were: 

f s. d. 

8alai-ii's and wafres 709 16 4 

Fuol 2:!4 13 9 

(i:is (i2 4 

Chandlery and soap 62 12 7 

Kates, taxes and insurance 42 11 

Furniture and utensil.s 10 

R<'I>aii"s and maintenance 170 IS 10 

I'rintinj;, stationery and advertisiuj: 36 12 5 

Pctly cash 12 18 7 

Total 1.342 3 10 



Mu.vicii'AL System of F()itKn;N Hatiis. 



lo:? 



ISLINGTON — mow Y I'KOFITS. 

Tlic Parish of St. Mary, Islington, only adopted the Baths and 
Washhouses Acts in August, 1889, but the Commissioners appointed 
went to work with a will, and Islington now has tiiree extremely fine 
public baths. The Caledonian Road Baths were opened in May,. 
1892, and the llornsey Road Baths in July, 1892. The need for such 
establishments was evident by the fact that up to March 31, 1895, 
1,002,735 bathers and 169,515 washers were accommodated, a total 
of 1,166,323 persons, while the receipts from these sources amounted 
altogether to £16,666 17s. 7d. The Tibbcrton Square Baths were only 
opened in April, 1895, so no figures can be given. It will be noticed 
that a large payment is made for water. London does not possess its 
own water-works, so the public baths have to help pay the heavy 
profits the water companies make. The increase in the number of 
women swimmers is the more remarkable as the total attendance fell 
off, owing to the unfavorable season. School Board children are 
admitted at the low price of id., and for the year ending March 31, 
1895, 6,952 visited the Caledonian Road Baths, and 14,240 the 
Hornsey Road Baths. 

DARKLY FIFTY WOMEN. 

Each of the establishments has a washhouse connected with it. 
At first the women were slow in taking advantage of the many con- 
veniences provided. Barely fifty women used the laundry at Hornsey 
Road the first week, but since then the numbers have reached 1,100 
in a single week. The whole accommodation is often taken up, and 
sometimes a number of women are waiting their turn. 

The orisfinal cost of the building's was as follows: 



Purchase of site 

Erection of huildinfj 

Engineering and machinery . .. 

Architect, surveyor and clerk 

of works 

Furnishings and fittings 

Electric lif^ht installation 

Compensation for disturbance. 

Total 



Caledonian-rd. 



£ S. d. 

7,614 8 6 

14,154 16 1 

3,502 18 3 

1,556 1 3 

365 1 5 



Hornsey-rd. 



£ 8. d. 

2,189 4 3 

24,199 12 2 

5,948 11 9 

2,458 2 1 

402 5 11 

1,317 19 

50 



Tibberton-sq. 



.'7,193 5 6 36,565 15 2 



£ 8. d. 

6,063 13 6 

21,672 

4,994 

2,195 2 10 



34,924 16 4 



104 Mayou's Committkr on Public Baths. 

ACCOMMODATIONS PROVIDED. 





Caledonian-rd. 


Homsey-rd. 


Tibberton-sq. 


Swimuiiiig linths : 

Area first class 

Area second class 

Area women's. 


90X30 ft. 
75X25 ft. 


132x10 ft. 

100 x35 ft. 

75x25 ft. 

93 
71 
47 

74 
34 
49 


90x30 ft. 
94x:--0ft. 
50x20 ft. 


DressiiiK boxes: 

First class 




Second cla«s 






Women's 






Private hatLs: 
Men's 


42 
16 
26 


58 


Women's 


33 


Washing stalls 


63 







Depth, all baths, 3 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 9 inches. 



WORKING EXPENSI^S, YEAR ENDING MARCH 31. 1895. 



Wages and disbniseraents 

Rates, taxes and insurance 

Coal and coke 

Water 

Gas 

Soap, sod:., <lisiMte(;tants, etc 

Brushes, brooms, ])ails, etc 

Engineer's stores, etc 

Ticket books, India rubber stamps, etc 

Drapery, draweis, costumes 

Other exjienses 

Total 



Caledonian-rd. 


Hornsey-rd. 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


8. d. 


1,079 


15 


5 


1 


,357 


6 Hi 


112 


I 


6 




164 


5 3 


543 


12 


5 


1 


,022 


1 


561 





11 


1 


,089 


19 2 


161 


4 


1 




21 


13 5 


49 


13 


10 




109 


19 2 


19 


'> 


9 




20 


8 


53 


8 


3 




120 


9 


43 


11 


8 




60 


17 1 


27 


11 







36 


6 


59 


16 







120 


15 ,5 


2,710 


17 


10 


4 


,123 


19 6i 



RECEIPTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 31, 1895. 





Caledonian road. 


Homsey road. 


Private iia tbs 


£ s. d 
861 4 4 
782 1 
644 13 2 

20 13 7 

7 12 3 

152 19 6 


£ ■ 8. d. 
1,119 8 2 


Swimming baths 

Lanndi'y 


1.981 11 2 
545 1 IV;; 


Soap, snda, etc., sold 

Hire of bath 


34 9 71.; 
46 13 ~ 


Hire of ball 




Sunilries 


7 7 








Total 


2,^69 3 10 


3,730 10 8 






Loss on the year 


241 14 


39:'. 8 10».; 







MUNHIPAL SVS'I'K.M OF FdKKICN I'lA THS. 



105 



NUMBKR OF liATllHKS WOK TilK YKAltS 1893-1 AND 1894-5. 
Caledonian Road. 



Tear eiidiiiff March 31, Tear en<linc March 31, 
189.i. ! 18'I4. 



Men. 



Women. 



Men. 



Total 130,924 



16,190 I 144,606 



Women. 



First-class priviite l.aths 14,3.58' 1,349 14,058 1,731 

Secn...(l-(:la>s iMivat.' hatl.s 46,292 10.863 19,318; 11,475 

First-class swimminc hatlis 13, .".60 561 23,6:<4 [ 822 

.Second-class swiiiiiiiing halhs 56,724 i 3.417 57,596 1,629 



15,657 



Hornsey Road. 





Year endintr March 31, 

189.5. 


Year eiidiug March 31, 

1894. 




Men. 


Women. 


Men 


Women. 




25,987 
35,734 
63,166 
64,191 


2,. 520 
13,844 

5,792 
16,5190 


24,209 
33,. 575 
76,350 

77,8.55 


2.315 


Second-class private baths 

First-class swimminj; batlis 

Second-class swiminiiijf liaths 


13,135 

7,208 

11,388 


Total 


189,078 


39,146 


211, 96J 


34,046 











PRIA'ATE HOT AND COLD BATHS. 
First Clas.<^ — Hot, Gd.; cold or shower, 3d. Including- soap, use of 
flesh brush and two towels. 

Second Class — Hot. 2d.; cold or cold shower. Id. 

SWIMMING BATH. 

First Class— Od.; boolvs of trvvelve tickets. 4s. Cd. 
Second Class — 2d. 



NUMBER OF WASHERS. 



Year en. linjr 31st Ahiicli, 189.5. 
Tear ending Slst March, 1894. 



Caledoniau 
road. 



39,. 540 
31,480 



H«rn8ey 
road. 



33,004 
27,079 



Charge: First hour, Id.; second hour, VM.; every succeeding hour, 2d. 



IOC) Mayou's CoMMnTioi-: ox Puulic Baths. 

KENSINGTON, LONDON. 

Kensington opened public batlis in i88S, at a cost of nearly 

£60,000, divided as follows : 

£ s. d. 

Site 18, 443 ir. 11 

Building works 31,52(3 8 3 

Engineering works 12, 927 15 8- 

Completion of and fitting up men's second class swimming 

bath in 1889 1 , 838 11 11 

Total 59, 730 11 9 



Eig-lit loans, amounting altogether to £59,700. were obtained, 
those for the site repayable in fifty years, for building work in thirty 
years and for engineering work in twenty years. More than a quarter 
of these loans have already been repaid. 

The accommodation includes: 



Men's swimming batha. 


Size. 


Depth. 


Water 
capacity. 


Dressing 
compart- 
ments. 


First class 

Secoud class 

Third class 


87x46 V;; ft. 
50x31 H ft. 
61x2434: ft. 

61^x22.14 ft. 


.3 ft. 7 in.xei^ ft. 
3 ft. 2 iu.x5 ft. 7iii. 
3 ft. 7 in.xSft. 7iii. 

3 i'l. 2 iu.x5 ft. 7 in. 


126,000 gals. 
44,000 gals. 
43,000 gals. 

40,000 gals. 


50 
35 

52 


VVoiiieii'is Rwiraming 
batlj 


31 



Private baths. 


First 
class. 


Second 
class. 


Third 
class. 


Total. 


Men's 


13 

7 


"*"'26" 


34 


47 


Women's 


27 








Total 


20 90 


34 


74 











Charges vary from id. for a third-class cold, and 2d. for warm 
or swinmiing bath, to 3d. for a first-class cold. 6d. for a warm, and 8d. 
for a swinnning bath. Reduction on ([uantities of swimming tickets 
taken, w hich are transferrable. reduce the cost of a first-class swim to 
6(1. if ten tickets are taken and to 5d. if one buys one hundred tickets. 

The laundry contains sixty washing compartments, with the 



Municipal Svstk.m of Foreign I4aths. 107 

usual CDuvenieucc.'^. and rifty-five (Irving' horses. It is open from 
8 a. ni. to 8 p. ni. all the year round at a charge of i^d. per hour. The 
first eleven months, 13.950 women attended for 38,709^ hours. In 
1889-90, the numbers increased to 31,113 women and 84,352 hours, 
while in the year ending March 25, 1896, 55,550 women stayed 
123,703] hours. Of the total number, 16,037 women stayed only 
one hour, and 16,147 two hours. The average time was 2\ hours at 
an average charge of 3 2-5d. per head. 

The receipts of the baths and washhouses for the year ending 

March 25, 1896, were: 

f s. (1. 

Bathers 1,495 15 8 

Washers 785 18 9'^ 

Soap sold to bathers 17 18 4 

Swimmiiif? entertainments 9 9 

Use of weigh bridge 1 i G 

Soap, soda, bhio, starch, etc., sold to washers 14 7V^ 

Old stores 1 6 

Total L'. :J25 4 5 



The expenses for the same period were: 

£ s. d. 

Rates, t^a.xes and insurance 448 1 7 

Salaries and wages 1 , 563 3 6 

Water 501 17 

Gas 168 5 6 

Fuel 601 13 8 

Soap, soda, blue, starch, etc 31 7 3 

Brushes and brooms 16 12 10 

Engineer's requisites 44 3 3 

Furniture 9 4 7 

Printing, stationery and advertising 79 2 

Ivepairs and maintenance 253 13 10 

Various small expenses 24 7 10 

Total 3, 741 12 10 



The number of bathers, though not equal to the best recorded, 
showed an increase over the previous year: 



108 



Mayor's Committke on Pt'blic Baths. 



1^92-3 
1893-4 
1894-5 
1895-6 



Men. 



Swimming 
bath. 



52,537 
65,319 
47.400 
53,943 



Private 
baths. 



36,912 
39,939 
37,273 
40,950 



Women. 



Swimming 
bath. 



5,642 
5,065 
4,4S5 
5,949 



Private 
baths. 



9,185 
9.475 
8,202 
9,249 



Total. 



104,276 

119.798 

97,3t'.0 

110,091 



LEAVISHAM, L,OXDO\. 

Tlie Lewisliam Baths, unlike most of the Enghsh pubhc baths, 
for the first two years after opening yielded a small profit on the 
working expenses. For the eleven years during which they have 
been in operation there has been an average deficit of £351 os. 6d. 
The Commissioners have had the floors of the first-class swimming 
bath relaid during the winter, and helped to swell the receipts by let- 
ting the halls for entertainments. The Ladywell Baths are also used 
for a gymnasium in the winter. Women are admitted to the first- 
class swimming pool at the Forest Hill Bath on Wednesdays from 
10 a. m. to 6 p. m., and on Fridays and Saturdays from 10 a. m. to 
I p. m., and to the Ladywell Baths on Tuesdays from 10 a. m. to 
6 p. m., on Thursdaws from 1 1 a. m. to 6 p. m.. aiul on Saturdavs from 
10 a. m. to I p. m. The remainder of the time, from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m., 
week days, is given to the men. The loans of £28.200 for the erection 
of the baths were obtained from the old ]\Ietropolitan Board of 
Works (the predecessor of the London County Council) at 3.I per 
cent. The annual installments at present amount to £1.073 ^^- ^d. 
and the interest for 1895-6 was £634 19s. 8d. The buildings actuallv 
cost for construction: Ladywell, £14,581 i6s. 5d.. and Forest Hill, 
£13,801 3s. 6d. 



Municipal System of Foukign Haths. 



109 



RECEIPTS 1X)K YKAR ENDING MAHCH 25, 1896. 



From hatluTS 

Sain of soap taltlets 

Hire of hatliiiitr drt'sses 

Hire of ext ra towelH 

Hire of 8wiinmii)u; baths for enter 
tiiiiiiiuMitH and connnittee rooms 
for meetiiiijs 

Salo of slate slabs and old brick 
wall 



Ladywell baths. 



£ 8. 

887 5 

9 11 

23 1.5 

1 19 



Total 1,119 17 1 



Forest Hill 
baths. 



£ 8. d. 

542 8 5 

4 19 6 

17 5 10 

17 4 



86 4 4 



651 15 5 



Total. 



£ s. d. 

1,429 13 10 

11 10 9 

41 10 

2 16 5 



274 5 8 
9 5 



1,771 12 6 



WORKING EXPENSES FOR YEAR ENDING .MARCH 25, 1896. 



Coal and fuel — 

Gas - 

Water 

Repairs and maintenance 

Soap and soda 

Soap tablets 

\Va>ies 

Rates, taxes and insurance .. 

Towels (1009 ® 6s. 4id. per dozen). 

Layin;! and removing winter floor- 
ing, inchiding repairs 

District surveyor's fees 

New platform (first-class liall) 

Painting and varnishing swimming 
baths 

Enlarging artistes' room 

New vertical boiler and connections 
to hall 

Covering boilers and pipes with 
asbestos 

Re-seating boilers and fixing new 
stack pipes 

New greenhouse (balance) 

New water supply 

Clerk's salary 

Printing, stationery, advertising 
and general ex|)ense3 



Ladywell baths 



£ 

114 
61 

232 

117 16 
3 19 
5 8 

422 16 

123 
13 



1. d. 
4 
11 
3 9 



1 
6 


11 10 
7 9 



26 8 11 

9 12 6 

14 19 3 

82 14 8 

31 18 7 

72 10 
19 1 10 



413 14 



Total j 1,765 3 11 



Forest Hill 
baths. 



£ s. 

94 5 

50 5 
173 I 
110 5 
3 4 
2 16 
390 2 
119 15 

13 8 



20 10 6 
4 12 6 



31 3 4 



8 19 11 

49 2 3 
16 3 4 



1,087 14 11 



Total. 



£ s. 

208 5 

111 6 

405 5 

228 1 

7 3 

8 4 
812 18 
243 7 



d. 
4 

1 
5 
9 
3 
3 
2 
26 16 



46 19 5 

14 5 

14 19 3 

113 IS 

31 18 7 

72 10 

28 1 9 

49 2 3 
16 3 4 

413 14 

50 

79 



2,981 18 IQ 



The deficiency thus amounted to £1,210 6s. 4d. Of this amount 
£413 14s. od. was an extraordinary expenditure for new water supply, 
while other structural alterations should not strictly be included in 
working expenses, but be charged to capital account. 



110 



Mayor's Committep: ox Public Baths. 
i\UMBER OF BATHEES, 1895-6. 



Ladywell 59,125 

Forest Hill 39,«I8 



Male. 



Total 98,943 



Total. 




111,423 



SCALE OF CHARGES. 

Fir.st-Cl;i.ss Swimming Bath, each (adults) 

First-Class Swimmiiiii Bath, per dozen 

Fir.st-Cla.ss Swimming Bath, children under 12, accompanying 
adult 

Second-Class Swimming Bath, each 

Second-Class Swimming Bath, children attending public elemen- 
tary schools 

First-Class Private Bath, each 

First-Class Private Bath, per dozen 

Second-Class Private Bath, each 

Season tickets 

Season tickets, children under 12 

Private schools and swimming clubs, on production of club mem- 
bership or school card 

Visitors (admitted to gallery of First-Class Swimming Bath)... 

Hire of bathing dresses or drawers 

Extra towel 

Soap 



MARYLEBONE, LONDON. 

This parish erected baths and washhouses in 1848 at a cost of 
£23,671. The annual average cost (£3,200) slightly exceeded the 
receipts from bathers (£2,750). For the year ending Alarch. 1894, 
the receipts were £3,097, working expenses, £2,957. There were 
153,000 bathers and 36,000 washers. The establishment comprised 
four swinnning baths and 105 private batlis. The average annual 
receipts from washers were £850, accommodation being jirovided for 
sixty-one workers. The laundry was fitted tip with drying horses, 
ironing stove with irons, tables and blankets, mangles and hydro- 
extractors. The baths had become so inadeciuate. and obsolete that 
several clubs had had to go elsewhere. The building is being entirely 



£ 


s. 


d. 








6 





5 











4 








2 








1 








6 





5 











2 


1 


1 








10 


6 








4 





() 


2 








1 








1 








1 



MUMOII'AL SySTK.M W FoUFACS liATHS. 



Ill 



rebuilt and reconstructed and the C'onuiiissioncrs intend that it shall 
be complete in all respects, with internal arranj^enients of the most 
approved character, hut at the same time iiothini^: cxtravag^ant in 
desic^n or detail is to be permitted. Tlie ornamental tiles in the old 
buildings will be made use of as^ain. The cost will be £43.800. The 
building- will not be entirely comi)leted before March i, 1897. 

PADDIXGTOX. LONDON. 

The Paddington Baths were erected in 1874, and the entire 
amount borrowed will be repaid by 1902. The bicycle craze afforded 
a means of utilizing the large swimming bath in the winter as a cycle 
school. During the year 1895-96 the Commissioners paid off £400 
still owing for extra washing compartments, and erected a washer at 
a cost of £42. An extra charge of £250 for water, an increase of 50 
per cent., was made by the water-works company. The summer of 
1895 was unusually warm, and this, with the fact that the Marylebone 
Baths had been pulled down to erect a larger building, caused an 
increase of the receipts over the previous year of £671 2s. 72^1., and 
an increase of £55 12s. od. over 1892-93, the best previous year. 





Cost. . 
erect on 


Average 

annual 

cost. 


Avera?e 
annual 
receipts 

from 
bathers. 


Accommodation. 


YEAR OF 
OPENING. 


Number of il""]^!^ 
baths. : P'^f^^^^ 

1 


Lowest charges. 


1874 


£56,529 


£4,021 


£3,680 


^ 4 STTimminy; 
( 96 private. 


229 
96 


( 2(1. swimming. 
< 2d hot 




nd. cold. 



RECEIPTS FOR YEAR ENDING MARCH, 1896. 

£ s. d. 

Bathers 3, 218 9 1 

"Washers 616 3 2'^ 

Soap, etp 91 19 7 

Hire of hall 211 :? 6 

Hire of rooms 109 9 2 

Other receipts 1.54 7 



Total 4.401 .3 1% 



11- MaV(M:"s ("OMMITTEK ON PlULIC JiATII.S. 

EXPENDITrRES FOR YEAR ENDING MARCH, 1896. 

£ s. d. 

Repairs aiul mnintcuaiu-p of l)inl(liu^' 743 2 

Salaries and wages 1 , 341 12 2 

Rates, taxes and insurance 462 14 10 

Water 630 8 8 

Gas and electricity 208 6 10 

Coal and coke 559 7 2 

Soai) and soda 36 12 8 

Trinting, stationery and advertisements 48 11 5 

Engineer's supplies 18 7 8 

Towels 113 4 4 

Brushes 16 4 6 

Nariuus expenses 92 13 2 

'J'otal 4, 271 5 5 



NUMBER OF BATHERS AND WASHERS. 



■XEAR. 


Swimming 
baths. 


Private 
baths. 


Total 

number of 

bathers. 


Wa.shers . 


1892-3 

1893-1 


81,490 

104,483 

73,625 

98,371 


99,305 
102,189 

99,109 
117,858 


180,795 
206,672 
172,734 
216,229 


19,853 
18,110 


1894-5 

1895-6 


20,450 
19,814 



Among those who took swimming baths were 4,125 children 
from the Board schools, who paid id. each. 



I'OPL.VU, LONDON. 

Poplar Baths were opened in 1852, so that the annual repayment 
on loans now amounts to only £315, and the interest in 1895-6 was 
£129 los. I id. Charges vary from id. to is. for baths, and iki. per 
hour in the laundry. 

The cold season of 1894 resulted in a considerable falling off in 
the receipts and numl)er of l)athers. which was, however, retrieved the 
following year. In 1894-5 substantial repairs were undertaken in the 
second-class swimming bath and five new porcelain first-class private 
baths were added. The Commissioners reconmiend considerable 
alterations in the laundry, w liich needs a new and sul)stantial flooring. 
It is desired to replace the old, worn-out hand wringer l)v a steam- 
driven one, as the labor of working a wringer by hand is far too 




Copyright, iSg7, by the Mayor s CommitUe. 
Proposed Undetground Public Comfort Stations, Greeley Square. It 
will be noted that the park effect will not be disturbed, but at the same 
time a much needed public convenience will be supplied. 







-a £ 



MUMCII-AL SVSTKM OK FOUKION IJaI'IIS. 113 

heavy for women. A steam washing machine for tlie towels, and a 

new mangle were also reqnired if the lanndry was to be brought up 
to modern standards. 

The receipts for the past two years were as follows: 

1894-5. 1895-«. 

£ s. d. - £ s. d. 

I»oplar School Swimming Club 23 2 23 2 

Toplar School Girls' Swimming Club T9 19 10 10 

London School Board 6 10 11 2 13 8 

OlluT bathers 1,384 10 1,C88 14 11 

WashtMS 347 17 3 315 3 

Total 1.78110 2.040 3 7 



The expenditures for the same period were : 

1894-5. 

£ ^. d. 

Salarii's and wages 1, 003 4 5 

Repairs and maintcuaucc 257 18 

Coal and coke 291 8 5 

Water 165 17 8 

Gas SO 2 3 

Rates, taxes and insurance 53 13 6 

Printing and stationery 32 15 

Soap 30 10 

Towels 51 18 

Brushes, brooms, etc 18 2 

Uniforms 10 19 11 

Ironmongery 19 1 7 

Small expenses 20 14 1 

Total 2,036 3 



1885-6 


. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


1,040 


6 


10 


170 


7 


2 


219 


13 


9 


145 


10 





51 


8 


6 


54 


11 





24 


13 





37 


14 


1 


20 





7 


30 


14 


2 


15 





5 


22 


6 


3 


23 


1 


11 


1,855 


13 


8 



The numbers using the establishment for the same period were: 

Bathers: lsw-5. 1895-6. 

Men 78,970 92,914 

Women 6,517 7,718 

Children 12. 610 16, 990 

Total 98,103 117,622 

Washers 10.025 9,244 

Number of hours worked 55, 65S 50, 424 

8 



114 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 



ST. GBORGK, HANOVBR SQUARE, LONDON. 

The Davies Street Baths were erected in 1855, at a cost, including 
washhouse accommodation, of £16,000. The average annual cost is 
£4.320, while the avcra'.:;'c' annual receipts froin K>athcr.s are only 
£1,486. There is one swinmiing pool and forty-seven private batlis. 
The laundry provides accommodations for thirty-six washers at an 
annual average cost of £671. 

The Buckingham Palace Road Baths were rebuilt in 1890 at a 
cost of £45,238. To meet the great demand for hot water it was found 
desirable that the boilers should all be interchangeable for steam and 
hot water. Steam injectors are used to warm the swimming baths. 
The laundry is placed in the rear at the top of the building, being 
reached by an elevator. The flooring was strengthened for the hydro- 
extractors, and additional rivets placed in the girders to prevent 
vibration. 



RECEIPTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 25. 1895. 



Receipts from bnfhers 

Soap sold to bathers 

Keceipts from washers 

Soap and sot la «ohi to washers 

Total 



1,737 16 3 



Buckingham 
Palace road. 




3,104 5 6 



EXPENDITURES FOR THE YEAR! ENDING MARCH 25. 1895. 



Wages and divilnirseiiients 

Rents, rates, taxes and iiisuranue 

Coal and coke 

Water Hiip[tly 

Gas . . 

Soap and soila 

^^ainteIKluee «l' huildin<x 

Engineer's stores 

New towels and di-:iwers 

Sundries 

Total 



Davies street. 


Palace road. 




£. 


s. d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


941 


2 7 


1,563 


H 


11 


'2m 


9 4 


516 


7 


9 


376 


11 4 


728 


16 


4 


24K 


3 


626 


IS 


n 


140 


17 7 


17 


5 


6 


.'j.-i 


1 5 


105 


14 


7 


1,4.33 


10 5 


791 


15 


8 


14 


13 6 


IL'3 


12 


3 


123 


14 10 


2S5 


12 


1 


102 





l^y-2 


19 


8 


3,702 


4,915 


11 


2 



Municipal Svstk.m oi- Fokkhin IIatiis. 
NUMBEK OF BATHERS AND WASHERS. 



115 





Bathers. 


Washers. 




Davies 
street. 


Buckingham 
Palace road. 


DavleH 
street. 


Buckinj^ham 
Palace road 


Year ending Marcli 25, 1895.. 
Year ending March 25, 1894. 


77,452 
90,874 


130,296 
185,472 


22,482 
20,904 


22,821 





SCALE OP CHARGES. 



s. d. 



Fir.st-Class, cold bath (» .i 

First-Class, warm bath 

Sec-oud-Chiss, cold bath 1 

Second-Chi.ss. warm bath 2 

First-Class Swimming Bath (J 

First-Class Swimming Bath (girls under 12) 4 

Second-Class Swimming Bath 3 

Swimming costume 2 

Washer.s: 

Ono hour or less 1 

Between one and two hours 2% 

Between two and three hours 4% 

Every subsequent half-hour 1 



ST. GILES-IN-THE-FIELDS A\D ST. GEOIKiE, IlLOO^ISHlItV, LOMJON. 

These parishes took early advantage of tlie Baths and Wash- 
houses Act and erected a pubHc bath and washhouse in 1853 at a 
cost of £20,000. There are two swimming pools, with forty-six 
dressing boxes and seventy-three private baths. The washhouse is 
fitted with hot-air chambers for drying, Perkin's stoves and ironing 
boards, and contains accommodation for fifty-four washers. The 
establishment was closed for several months during 1893-4 for re- 
pairs, so that the receipts show a large decrease. 

RECEIPTS FOR YEAR ENDING MARCH 30, 1894. 

£ s. d. 

Cash from bathers 776 12 6 

Ca.sh from washers 1. 118 5 10 

Cash from sale of soap 29 IG 11 

Cash from boolv tickets IT 

Total 1,94115 3 



IIG 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



EXPENSES FOR YEAK ENDING MAKCH 30, 1894. 



Salaries and wages 

Water 

Gas 

Coal and coke 

Soap and soda 

Ironware 

M'ashing towels 

Machinery repairs 

Insurance 

Rates and taxes 

Printing and statioaery 

Furniture 

House repairs and expenses. 
New' toweling and mailing. . 

Total . 



£ 


s. 


d. 


860 


4 


10 


243 


19 


8 


103 


5 





581 


17 


8 


20 


1 





13 


- 


7 


29 


II 





49 


17 


11 


13 


'J 


9 


120 


9 


4 


41 


1 


8 


30 


13 


9 


07 


9 





7)1 


9 


9 



2.243 4 11 



NUMBER OF BATHERS. 



1892 
1893 
1894 



Private Baths. 



74,506 
79,183 
36,600 



Women. 



10,634 
13,272 
10,959 



Swimming 

Baths. 
Men only. 



16,767 

17,721 

9,818 



Total 
Bathers. 



Washers. 



101,907 

110,176 

57,377 



17,977 
45,549 
44,399 



SCALE OF CHARGES. 
First-class. 

Swimming bath, with two towels, brushes, etc 

Private bath, with two towels, brushes, etc . 

Private bath, cold, with two towels, brashes, etc. . . 
Shower bath, warm, with two towels, brushes, etc. 
Shower bath, cold, with two towels, brushes, etc. . . 

Second-class. 

Swimming bath, with one towel 

l*rivate bath, warm, with one towel 

Private bath, cold, with one towel 

Shower bath, warm, with one towel 

SlKnvcr bath, cohl, with one towel 



4d. 
Od. 
3d. 
Gd. 
3d. 



2d. 
2d. 
Id. 
4d. 
2<1. 



Municipal Systkm of Fokkicn Baths. 117 

Books containiuj;- 140 2(1. Imth tickets niiiy b<> purchased at £1 each. 

Washiii;; i)laccs with wringiuf; machines, dryiuK closets, nian.cles and 
irons: For the first two lionrs, I'id. per hour; for each subsociuent hour, 
2(1. per hour; for each hall'-iiour. Id. 

ST. .I\>II0S, VVKSTMINSTIOH. I,<>M><>\. 

Tn 1846 "An Act to Encourag-c the Establishment of Public 
Ikilhs and Washhouses " was passed. This act is perniissive in char- 
acter, and provides means for the establishment of baths and wash- 
houses in such towns and parishes wliose members determine to 
avail themselves of the privilege by local taxation. The act was 
passed in August, and in December the Vestry of St. James decided 
to adopt the act and Iniild a bath and washhouse. The action was 
significant because at that period local municipal life was not par- 
ticularly vigorous. In addition, no experience offered any guide as 
to the cost of such buildings, the necessary means of providing the 
desired accommodations, the extent to which such facilities would be 
used. The same difficulty confronted St. James as New York: 
namely, the great difficulty of securing a site, as almost all available 
land had been taken. However, loans were placed and a building was 
erected in 1852, containing a laundry with fifty-six compartments, 
forty-five washing baths for men, fourteen for women, and a swim- 
ming bath forty feet by thirty feet. The building was opened in June 
and from that time to the end of the year 74,643 bathers and 8,600 
washers used the establishment. In 1853, ^^^^ numbers rose to 
108,008 bathers and 32,648 washers. 

The pressure was so great for improved accommodations, espe- 
cially for women, that the plant was extended in 1861. As a proof 
that cleansing baths were demanded, in 1865 the maximum attend- 
ance was reached, when 160,480 tickets were issued to bathers and 
70,057 to washers. 

As conveying the idea of the extent to which this bath has been 
used, the following tabulation is eloquent: 

Cost of erecting (in 1851) and furniishing, and extending (in 
18G1)) the establishment £21,000 

Amount borrowea and repaid £21 . 000 

Interest 13, 062 

Total £;u. 002 



118 Mayou's Committke on I'iblic Baths. 

Total payiiiciits from the pi. or rate £;,4.!)71 

Less suriilus receipts -pajd at various times by the commis- 
sioners in relief of the poor rate i>. 'ATiO 

Net charge on the jjoor rate (spread over a period of 47> 
y«ars) £2o. 621 

Number of tickets issued to washers from the 14th of Jiuk', 

lSr)2. to the olst of December, 1892 2. <>.-)! . :{0B 

Number of bath tickets issued during the same period 4.r);',n.4l3 

Total number of tickets issued <>. (;<Mi. 771) 

Total receipts from bathers and washers from June 14. 18."')2. 

to December 31, 1S92 £121.893 

The practical advantages of economy and the provision of suit- 
able accommodations throug^h the year is illtistrated by St. James, 
which for £25,621 secured a freehold site and building complete for 
carrying on a large bath business, whereby six and three-quarter 
millions of bathers and washers have used it in the more than tw-o 
score years since it was opened.''' In 1890 the Bath Commissioners 
began to take under advisement the provision of a swimming bath. 
A public incjuiry was held in the parish and although previous notice 
of the inquiry had been widely circulated, only three taxpayers ob- 
jected. The cost of the swimming bath now opened is slightly in 
excess of £6,000. The water surface of the bath is sixty feet bv 
twenty-two feet. A fountain has been fitted up at one end. insuring a 
constant though small current of fresh, tepid water throughout the 
whole length of the bath, thus combining the effects of a gentle run- 
ning stream with the safety of an enclosed bath. The bottom and 
sides of the bath, up to the water level, are white glazed tiles upon 
which is an ornamental, hand-painted tile frieze. Dressing boxes 
are placed in a series of arched recesses along the sides of the bath. 
The present accommodations at the St. James Public Baths and 
Washhouscs consist of the following: 

ACCOMMODATIONS. 

Swimming baths— One G() feot by 22 feet. One 40 feet by 30 feet 
I'rivale. baths — First-class: 23 for men; 13 for women. 
Private batlis — Set-oud-elaSvS: 41 for men; 13 for women. 

♦Upwards of l.jO.OtMj tickets lia.ve been issued every yi'ar, and the 
receipts average rather more than the working expenses. 



Municipal System or Foreign Baths. Ill) 



; SCALE OF CIIAIIGES. 

Swiniiiiin^ h.'ith: s. d. 

First-class ^ ♦i 

Set'ond-elass <^ ^ 

Second-class (Sundays) t) 3 

Private baths: 

First-class, warm (use of two towels) ff 

First-class, cold (use of two towels) (5 

Second-class, warm (use of oue towel) 2 

Second-class, cold (use of one towel) 1 



RECEIPTS. 

1893. 1®4. 

£ s. d. f 8. d. 
Bathers (including payments for swimming in- 
struction) 1,550 G 1,61G 3 10 

Washers 1,400 15 2 1,342 4 9 

Soap, etc 119 2 10 118 3 5 



Totals 3,070 4 3,076 12 



N WORKING EXPENSES. 

1893. 1894. 

i S. d. £ S. d. 

Salaries and wajjes 1, 222 12 5 1, 197 1 1 

Printing, stationery, advertising 93 2 8 46 18 8 

Fuel 457 3 10 423 8 6 

Gas 148 15 6 142 10 

Water 391 19 410 19 

Rates, taxes, insurance 76 11 7 139 4 7 

Soap, soda, etc 08 19 4 72 12 1 

Engineer's supplies 100 13 1 89 9 2 

Renewals and repairs 80 16 3 185 8 3 

Towels, costumes, etc 97 16 

Brushes 18 13 10 21 9 

Miscellaneous disbusements 56 5 2 40 12 6 

Totals 2, 813 8 8 2, 769 4 7 



• NUMBER OF BATHERS. 
Private baths: 1893. 1894. 

Men tirst-cl.iss 22. 167 21. 7()5 

Men, second-class 46, 575 44, 909 

Women, first-class 5,342 5, 112 

Women, second-class 19,043 19,383 



120 M. wok's Committke on Public Baths. 

Swimming baths: ,.,03 ,^^94 

Men, first-class 4. 728 10, 4:i9 

Men, second-class 2."). 211 21 , 178 

Women, first-class 46.") 1 . 990 



Totals 12:i,531 124,800 



LAUNDRY STATISTICS. 
Number of stalls, 84. Inclusive charge, 2d. jn r hour. 

1893. 1894. 

Numbe^T of washers 43. 681 44, 570 

Number of hours 108,091 161,008% 

Average hours per washer 3 . 84 3 . 50 



ST. MARTIN'S-IN-THE FIELDS, L.ONDON. 

Tlie Public Baths of St. Martin's were opened in 1849 ^^ a cost 
for erection, fitting, etc., of £20,140. There is no swimming bath, 
but sixty-one private baths, at which a charge is made of 6d. first-class 
and 2(\. second-class for a warm bath, and 3d. first class and id. 
second class for a cold bath. The laundry has provisions for sixty- 
one washers, and is situated on the second floor. There are tubs 
with hot and cold Vvater, with a second tub with steam pipes attached 
behind the washing tub for boiling, drying horses heated bv coke 
fires, wringing machines, and stoves for heating irons. The charges 
are i^d. the first hour, 2id. one hour and a half, 3d. for two hours 
and id. for each succeeding half-hour. 

RECEIPTS FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1893. 

£ s. d. 

From bathers 9."(> 6 id 

From washers 741 14 s 

Soap sold 46 14 2 

Use of extra towels 1 l ."> ;i 

Total 1,740 10 11 

EXPENSES FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31. 1893. 

£ s. d. 

Wages and salaries 772 6 

Repairs and maintenance 992 5 (i 

Rent 78 

Itiil.es, taxes and insurance 93 18 ."> 



Mr.NICIl'AI. SVSTKM OF FoKKKJN I>ATHS. 121 

£ s. d. 

■Water 189 5 C. 

<;as 77 (; M 

Coal and coke 634 2 4 

Soap and smln 14 17 .". 

Towels r)2 1 -J n 

Itubber coixls 32 !."> ti 

Vant)us disbursemciits 3S S r» 

Total 3,07n i:{ 2 



WKSTMIXSTKH, LONDON. 

The first Westminster Public Baths were opened in 1851, and 
were only tlie fourtli of their l<ind in London. They were entirely 
rebuilt in 1893 ^t a cost of £32.800, and washhouses opened in con- 
nection with them. Next door is the chief Westminster Public 
Library, an extremely fine building-, opened at the same time, to take 
the place of the old building across the street. The proximity of the 
library to the baths is a peculiarly fortunate one, and should greatly 
assist the popularity of both. At the request of the Vestry, the Com- 
missioners of Baths undertook to construct their furnaces so as to 
destroy part of the house refuse, and permission was given to them 
to form vaults under the sidewalk and pavement to receive the refuse. 
On the upper floors are placed the Board room, the Superintendent's 
.office and his private apartments, the laundry and the Engineers's 
apartments. The first-class swimming bath is 132 feet long by 31 
feet; the depth varies from three feet to seven feet. Over one hun- 
dred dressing boxes are provided. The polo goals are fitted with nets 
and bells, the length of play being seventy-five feet and depth of water 
for polo four feet six inches to seven feet. There is a special platform 
for water polo referees and a diving board for learners at the half 
distance. Quite a number of swimming clubs, including several 
ladies' clubs, make these baths their headquarters, and special ar- 
rangements are made for them. Entertainments are frequently given 
at the baths, over 2.000 spectators being accommodated at the Inter- 
national Entertainment of the Ravensbourne Club. A popular in- 
novation is the water chute, which is used by scores of merry bathers. 
The baths are under the superintendence of Mr. Charles Newman, 
who has his whole heart in the work, and many encomiums have 



122 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

been bestowed on his management by London and Provincial Com- 
missioners who have visited them. The boys from the pubHc ele- 
mentary schools are admitted either on payment of the sum of id. 
or on a special voucher signed by the head master or mistress free. 
Mr. Newman teaches these boys swimming for the pleasure he takes 
in it, but often he has to stop the boys whom he finds so hungry as to 
be unequal to the exertion. jMr. Newman has saved five people from 
drowning, and has the Royal Humane Society's medal for saving life. 
In winter the first-class swimming bath is closed, the second-class one 
being used for first-class bathers half the week and for the second- 
class on the other days, and the water kept at a temperature of 75 
degrees. The laundry is fitted up with washing troughs, steam drying 
horses, mangles, irons, three hydro-extractors, and a ventilating fan. 
There is accommodation for eighty-four washers, who are expected 
to provide their own soap and starch, but may buy them at the 

laundrv. 

ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED. 

Swimming baths — One 132 feet by 31 feet; 3 diviag boards, spring 
board and water cliiite. One 74 feet by 24 feet; 2 diving boards. 

Number of slippor baths — First-class, 20 for men, 8 for women; sic-ond- 
cla>ss, 20 for men, 8 for women. 

SCALE OF CHARGES. 

s. d- 

First-class swimming or private baths 6 

Second class swimming bath 3 

Second-class private bath 2 

AVHITECHAPEL, LONDON — TWO POOLS. 

This establishment was opened in August, 1878, and is under the 
control of seven commissioners. The private baths are eighty-nine 
in nnmljcr. The public laundry comprises thirty-eight washing com- 
partments, with tlie necessary tubs, wringers, mangles and drying 
chambers. The charge of the laundry is three half-pence an hour, 
and the washhouses are open on week days only, throughoitt the 
year, from eight in the morning until eight at night. It was not until 
1886 that swinnning i)0()ls were opened at an expense of £5.639 
i6s. id. As usual there are two ])ools; the first class, 100 feet by 
32 feet, the second class, 53 feet by 28 feet. 



Municipal System of Foreign Baths. 

WIIITECHAPEL (GOULSTON STREET). 



123 



1878. 1879 



1880. 



1881. 1882. 1883. 1884 



1885. 



BatluTs; — i 

First cla.sN 4 ,;)!»(» 15,2:47 19,917: 18.991 19,344 19,714 22, 8.56'22, 249 

Second class 21 .77()!49, 912 63,134 64,5l9l68,07;i 66,92ti 75,5(i7 76,249 



Totals. 
Washer.s . . 



26,766 



5,624 



6.-., 149 83, 051 83, 51(il87, 4 17 86, 640 98, 363 



;6, 964 28, 321 29,82427,693 25,681,24,442 



98,489 



23,461 



1886. 



24,737 
79,535 



104,272 



21,960 



1887. 



1888. 1889. 1890-1. 



1891-2 1892-3. 1893-4. 



Bathers : — I i 

First cla.ss ! 25,771 25,952 27.372 29.208 30,7^4^ 30,048 29.726 

Second elas.s j 84,115j 88,411 93,647 98,4c3 103,913 102.441 99,338 

Totals '109,886 114,363 121,019 127,611 134,697|132,4g2|l29,0f)4 

Washers 



20,956 21,826 21,018 20,595| 20,563 18,730 



17,256 



1894-5 



21,908 
73,433 

95,341 

11,32& 



NUMBER OF B.^THERS USING THE SWIMMING BATHS. 





1889-90. 


1890-1. 


1891-2 1892-3. 


1893-4 


1894-5 


Women's gecond class. 

Men's second class 

Women's first class 

Men's first class 


45,175 

530 

37,127 


38^629 
317 

38,120 


2,277 1,181 

34,586 25,512 

415 609 

36,181 32,145 


1 44,845 1 
j 30,824 j 


33,444 

323 

23,. 360 

1,142 


Totals 


82,832 1 77,066 


73,459 59,447 

1 


75,669 


58,269- 



RECEIPTS OF BATHS AND WASHHOUSES FOR THE PARISH OF ST. 
MARY, WHITECHAl'EL, FROM MARCH 25, 1893, TO MARCH 25, 1895. 



Receipts 

from warm 

baths 


Receipts 
from wash- 
houses. 


Receipts 

from sale 

of soap. 


Receipts 

from 

swimming 

baths. 


Receipts 

from 

swimming 
clubs. 


Receipts 

from 
bathing 
dresses. 


Interest on 
deposit. 


Total 
receipts 
from all 
sources. 


1893-4 
£1,559 

1894-5. 
£1,149 


£.541 
352 


£24 
16 


£841 
546 


£388 
368 


£136 

89 


£7 
6 


£3,496 
2,526- 



124 



MaYOU'S CO.M.MITTKK OX Pui.LlC l^ATIIS. 



EXPENDITURES FOR BATHS AND WASHHOUSES FOR THE 
PARISH OF ST. MAi;V. WI II rFCH.XPKT., FHO.M MARCH 25. 181)3. 
TO MARCH 25, 1895. 



Repairs, flttliiK**. 
maintenance, etc. 


c 
d 
o 

i 

V 

a 
ti 
u 

1 


u 

00 3 
CO — 

|i 


B 
cu C 

o — 

S.2- 
OS a 

1- 


a 
o 

3 
'5 X 

tt— ' 

a< 

a 


1 

01 

it 
•o 

B 
f 

.£ 
*c 

JB 

CO 


"Z 
s 
1^ 


Is 

s x 

'" X 

a 
« 
« 


T3 

oi 
to o 

11 

< 


« 
•a 

/. a* 

u s 

is 


B 

2 

a 

n 

s 


1 




5 

lb 

ce X 
T 


03 

•a 
'5 

c 


2 

a 

S 

1 


1893-1 
£2r>4 


£ 
32 


£ 
113 


£ 
42 i 

4-22 


£ 
251 

236 


£ 
917 

762 


£ 
632 

472 


£ 
174 

115 


£ 


£ 


£ 

32 

32 


£ 
134 

112 


£ 
399 

376 


£ 

26 

56 


£ 
152 

95 


£ 
3,506 

3,681 


1894-5. 
£135 


750 


86 



KniXBURGH, SCOTLAND. 

At the E(linl)urg]i Baths a charge of 2d. is made to each visitor. 
Lessons in swimming- are given at a charge of 6d. each lesson, 5s. for 
twelve, to adults; 3d. each lesson for boys and girls, 2s. for a course of 
twelve lessons. There are two swimming pools, the small first-class 
one being reserved for women on Mondays, \^^ednesdays, Fridays 
and part of Saturday. Special arrangements are made for School 
Board children at reduced rates at fixed hours. 



PRIVATE PLUNGE BATHS. 

s. ti. 

Reserved si>ecial, first-class, each person 1 o 

First-class, each person G 

First-class, twelve tickets 5 

Second-class, each person H 

Second-class, twelve tickets 2 f, 

SWIMMING BATHS. 

s. d. 

First-class, each adult person 4 

First-class, twelve tickets ^ <> 

First-class, boys and girls under 14 years .'> 

First-class, twelve tickets 2 d 

Second-class, each adult person 2 

Second-class, twelve tickets 1 

Sofond-class, boys and cirls under 14 years i\-> 

SfT'ond-class, twelve tickets 1 

Restricted charge for school children l 

Use of bathinff pants, per pair 014 

Use of bathiuR costume 1 

Use of bathing cap 04 



MUNICITAL h^YSTKM OK FoUIOION BaTHS. 125 

GLASGOAV, SCOTLAND. 

Glasgow is not satisfk'il with providint; public baths for the use 
of its citizens, but aims to create a demand for these necessities of 
cleanliness and health. It was actually proposed to teach everybody 
swinnning- <;ratuilously. and for this purpose to establish small, prop- 
erly-eciuipped teaclniim" pools in every school. As the same l)athers 
and washers come with great regularity, it was estimated that the 
numbers using the baths and vvashhouses were only about 5,000 
swimmers, 5,000 hot bathers and 3,000 washers. This does not repre- 
sent a \'er\- large pro])ortion in a city of 700,000 population. Another 
suggestion made was to erect smaller washhouses throughout the 
city. Experience proves that a supply of public facilities for washing 
clothes creates a demand even in localities where every tenement has 
its own washhouse and drying court. ( )f the washers more than half 
reside within tiie radius of a ((uartcr of a mile and very few outside 
the half-mile limit. 

TKADE. 

I'p to 1895 the Corporation had undertaken to wash linen of 
families at its establishments at reasonable rates, employing for this 
purpose thirty-two washers and ironers. The receipts in 1894-5 were 
£1,378 4s. id. ; expenses, £1,130 4s. id., leaving a net surplus of £248. 
The l^'actory and Workshops Act of 1895 introduced certain regula- 
tion in laundries " carried on by way of trade or for the purposes of 
gain," which would have involved considerable expense. This the 
Corporation was unwilling to undertake. For this reason, and also 
on advice that the power to carry on such a business for profit was 
not legally besto\yed on the city by the Act of Parliament providing 
for the erection of baths and washhouses, it was resolved to discon- 
tinue employing assistance, and in future only to have the towels, etc., 
used at the baths done by the Corporation's employes. 



ilm; 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



?2r 



» 


o£ 


t--, 


iHci 






— X 


t- X 


^^' 


dec 


<=n 





t- ,; — 



ia — « ■-■ 



w^toi-i T -tfttte*^ "CO" 



S'* 




a 


.2 


s» 


o£ 


. a 


s«^ ■ a 










oc „ 


''i^ 


.= o 


«,??•= 00 


i:3^ 




eo . 




3 -JD 






^^ 




«-i 


<u 



■NO CJOtOO ■»'*CO0J'"C -^'" ^ 

■- CO .„ « 



00« T-C « 



to 



So*" 

OON 


04,000 
. (i in. 
ft. 6 in. 
8 in. tc 
t. 4 in. 


"S"*- • c 






o 


goo a- 


t- -r 


05«0 o 










Si5^« 






JSo 


^^i^N ."" 


















« 




*-• 







r-,r-i J- 



0-w xe« -"^S; *«j 












00 WWl-O t- •■i> (D a f- o 

O CC *-" i-> «o 






Soo 



be:: 
3^ 



go 

?5"M 



OW OOOttO 



!• «o;cn <-iO 00 






IJ 0.1; .- 

ft- C b 
C m 0-S 



c^ 



Moo 

o o,a 



^ ^ sr ►< <., 

I. = a - c r 









•^ <« « 
<«<«•—■ 






ffi 



^ 



c c 



4) g 

CGi-9 



MUNICII'AL SySTKM of FOREIGN BaTHS. 



127 



SCALE OF CIIAKGES. 

Swimmiuj? pools: s. d. 

Adults (I 2 

Hoys and jrirls under 13 years i 

Women, tAvclve tickets 1 (i 

Koys Mini .irii'ls, twtlvf tickets it 

Season tickets: 

Men, six months, April 1 to September 3t) 10 

Men, t\velve months, .January 1 to l>ecemher ;n 12 <> 

Women, six months, April 1 to September 30 3 

W'omen, nine months, March 1 to November 30 4 

Swimming club members, thirteen tickets for the price of twelve. 
Use of Pools (to clubs) between 9 and 10 p. m. 

Larpe pool, one night weekly, 40 bathers 6 8 

For each additional bather 1 

Small pool, one night weekly, 24 bathers 4 

For each additional bather 1 

Private liot batlis: 

Men, first-class, each bather G 

Men, second-class, each bather 4 

Tickets in i)arcels of twelve each, tirst-class 4 6 

Tickets in parcels of twelve each, second-class 3 

W'omen, each bather 3 

Women, tickets in parcels of twelve 2 3 

W.ashhouses: 
For use of stall, wringing and drying appliances, hot and cold water, 

per hour 2 

Use of washing board 1 



RFX'EIPrS FROM BATHERS, 1894-1895. 



Greenhead. 


Woodside. 


Cranston Hill. 


Townhead. 


Gorbals. 


Total. 


£ 8. d. 
916 8 8 


£ 8. d. 

105y 5 4 


£ 8. (1. 

814 7 11 


£ s. d. 
1030 7 7 


£ 8. d. 
1472 1 11 


£ 8. d. 
5292 11 5 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 



Year. 


Bathers. 


Washings. 


Receipts. 


Expenditures. 


1891-2 


514,233 
510,449 
546,024 
527,313 


162,. =158 
170,687 
173,327 
197,035 


£ s. d. 

9,722 1 

9.629 4 4 

9,640 13 8 

10,288 


£ s. d. 
12,449 4 1 
11,420 9 6 
11,218 12 10 


1892-3 

1893-4 


1894-5 


12,294 



128 



Mayor's Committer on Public Baths. 



The decrease in the number of bathers in 1894, as compared with 
the preceding year, is due to the unfavorable weather. Notwith- 
standing this, the revenue showed an increase, owing to the extra- 
ordinary increase in the number of washers. How largely the tem- 
perature of the air affects the number of bathers may be seen from 
the following table lor the months of June to Xovember, 1891: 



Weekly average 
trmporatures ] 70° 

Corresi)on«liug with 
weekly receipts 
from ponds . 



June. 


July. 


Au^st. 


September. 


October. 


t 
70° 


67° 


66° 


64° 


63° 


60° 


590 


58° 


57° 


51C 


48° 


£135 


£125 


£97 


£98 


£96 


£68 


£66 


£48 


£35 


£26 


£20 



Not. 



47° 



DEFICir PROVIDKI) FROM ASSESSME.NTS. 

f s. d. £ s. (1. 

1891-2 2. TTG 4 1893-4 1 , r)78 

1892-" 1.791 5 2 1894-5 2.(H)6 



UERIilX, GERMANY. 

Berlin has earned well-merited commendation for the excellence 
of its baths, but it does not yet consider the provisions made suffi- 
cient, and has four large city baths and several river baths in process 
of erection. Though there is, as would be expected, a deficit on the 
river baths, the city derives a small profit from the baths taken alto- 
gether. The following is the balance sheet for 1894-5: 



RECEIPTS. 
By river baths ?9, 605 

By city baths: 

(a) Moabit !«11,916 

(b) Schillingsbriicki" 1S.4U7 

30.323 

Berlin Society for People's Baths 900 

Total HO, 828 




CADd- BCR&»OCC. 



Copyright, iS-q-j, by the Mayoj's Committee. 

Suggested Public Comfort Stations, to be located under the stairwav of 
the Elevated Railroad Stations. Each station could be sufficiently large to 
accommodate some of the utensils o* the street-cleaning department 




-Tcti roR Public ConroRi jw 



CAwBtlKXli"- 



Copyright, iSgy, by the Mayor's Committee. 

Suggested Public Comfort Station, to be located within the 
against dead walls. Each policeman's post should contain at 
Public Comfort Station, thus affording a convenience for letter carri 
sweepers and policemen, thereby removing the necessity of util 
saloons, a usage which is in violation of the law 



area line, 
least one 
ers, street 
izing the 



MUNICII'AL SyST1;.\I <»F FoUICKJN liATMS. 121) 

EXPENDITURES. 

River baths $12,447 

City baths: 

(a) Moabit $11,620 

(b) Srhillin.irsl>nick(> ll.tiTI 

Total $38,138 

Surplus ^.600 

$40,828 
I. River Baths. 

CITY ORPHAN ASYLU-M. 

There is usually a considerable deficit on these baths, caused by the 
large nuniberof free cards given. The Poor Commission and the City 
Orplian Asylum issued 22,696 of these cards in 1894-5, which were 
used on an average sixteen times. The previous year 20,380 cards 
were used an average of twenty times each. Besides this, children 
from several institutions are admitted free without tickets. There was 
a large increase in the number of bathers in 1893 in consequence of the 
warm weather, and there would probably have been a surplus, but 
the baths had to be closed a month earlier than usual on account of 
the cholera, and the wages of the attendants were paid in full. The 
season 1894-5 was a bad one, and there was a delay of two months 
in opening two of the baths. The prices had been reduced in many of 
the baths, and there were many expensive repairs. The largest 
attendance in 1894 was 23,775 in the seventeen baths on July 24th; 
16,183 men and 7,592 women; this was 1,561 more than the best 
day — July 8th — of 1893, when 22,214 people bathed in seventeen 
baths. Two more new baths are about to be opened, and will largely 
increase the acconnnodation already provided. The number using 
the river baths in the season of 1894 was as follows: 





1894. 


1893. 




Free. 


On pay- 
ment. 


Total. 


Free. 


On pay- 
ment. 


Total. 


Men: 

01(1 liathinj; establishments 
New batliiiigestablisliments 

^^'omeIl : 
01(1 bathing establislinients 
New bat hi ng establish men ts 


185,372 
59,566 

89,295 
22,061 


108,944 
184,876 

82,502 
72,589 


294,316 
244,442 

171,797 
94,650 


240,634 
60,780 

94,330 
20,44ti 


125,918 
246,496 

9i,917 
71,257 


3(56,552 
307,276 

187,247 
91,703 


Total 


356,294 


448,911 


805,205 


416,190 


536 588 ^^'^ T^^ 









130 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 





_4) 




a> ■ 












































"u 


















a 


•»A[aMX 


'^ * 














'35 m 
































.si 






















1 




m " 




ei • 






1 




^ 


















d 


•ouo 












' 




CI 














1 "■' 














-Si" 


■SJ'»9/Lfl 

jspan 1 


^ : 


e- 










— 00 
















•ggi 


























c"Sfc 




o-. —1 










.= O ;, 


°8JtO^ {>l 


^ t- 


t- 




I- : 




00 


jaAO 


" 










n 














•*A 




o . 


TO 












•SJ«9.£ffI 


en • 


■^ 


5l 








o o 


japiin 


'"' ; 


*"* 


^3 








H £ 








O 


1 




^ 














acL, 




CO . 


cc 




00 




gi. 


•sj'Be.ftI 


oo . 


CO 


5d 


CO • 




oj O 
0) <t-l 


J9A0 


CJ ; 


ei 


.-.■33 
^ 


cJ j 




« 














5i 


•sjb,»jCm 


i^ : 


oo 


.= ■3) 


t- ; 




japun 






Sa 






>>53 



























^CL, 




t- ■ 


in 




m 




a t- 


■sjvaXf-x 


O • 


05 


•^=3 


oi : 




1- 


JSAO 












tn 




30 . 


T1< 


, — • 






fS 


•sjBaJCf't 1 


■"J" • 


c» 










a! O 

« -2 


japan 


13 




^3 













_ .J= 


CO 




: • il 




5^, 


•SJ«9.t{.I 1 


£- • C» 


■^ 


JS„- 








S3 O 


J9A0 














o 




^ T-< 


<M 


. — ■ 


« 




<M 


•sjwa.t fl \ 


o o 


o 




; 




S3 01 


japan 






■?^ 






ej o 



























a 




tON 


o 




10 t; 




•SJBJifn 1 


o o 


o 


J3_- 







J8A0 






11 






!» 




















-^ 




_^ 


• 




■^ 


d 
















-H 4, 
















» s 








trj ^ « 








S- 9 








a * e8 








0^ ^ 
















ersons 
dmitte 

sn and 
























•sga 




a] 

1.. 




a 








'T^^^ 










589 
511 


a 


b 
> 








ill 


















■O 01 » 


«*S 








' "aO'S 


















5 "^ 


'Et3 








:m3 
•s5 




■ a 


s 












"c " 4* 






Si 


ucc a 

J id3 

:5S 




■ j: 1) 
• a! .2 C 

4) «; oj t 
^ .^ j< ~ 

y t 












c a 




Cm .3 I. ^ :3 ;r :S -^ i 

^11 — - « * 3 '5 2 








t, D 1) 


<u m 












23 










a 55. 


5'^ 










hH 






'"' 








« 












e< 










li 



MlMCIPAI. SVSTIC.M OK FoRIOIGN BaTHS. 



i:'.l 



J. City Public Baths. 

CONCESSIONS. 

Berlin has at present two liandsomcly appointed public bathing 
establishments, containing swimming halls, slipper and douche baths. 
It is intended to build four similar establishments in various parts of 
the city during the next eight years, and the swimming pools are to 
be even larger, as the present ones have proved so attractive. In 
1894, in consequence of complaints from private bathing establish- 
ments, it was agreed to build neither slipper nor douche baths of the 
first class, nor vapor baths, and the prices of slipper baths were raised. 
Not enough time has yet elapsed to judge of the first effect of this on 
the attendance, though the results for the year show a considerable 
falling off in first-class slipper baths, and in women's second-class 
•slipper baths. Whether the private establishments are now satisfied 
or not, the city will make no further concessions, as it considers the 
public health demands this limit as the minimum requirement. The 
accommodation already provided is as follows: 







Moabit. 


Schillingsbrucke 


Swimming pool : 
Area 

Depth (trreatest) 

Dressing rooms : 
Number . ... 


59 ft. X 29 ft. 6 in. 
9 f:. 10 in. 

16 

3 ft 11 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. 

7 ft. 2 in. 

80 

15 

42 

6 ft. 6 in. X 8 ft. 2 in. 
7 ft. 2 in. 

7 

22 
8 ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 3 in. 


52 ft. 6 in. X 26 ft. 3 in. 


22 






Heij-lit of partition. 

Other dressing accommoda- 
tion for 

Slipi)er baths : 

Number 1st class 

Number 2d class 




98 

7 for men and 5 for women 
25 for men and 20 for women 


Area -- 




Heifrht of partition 

Douche baths : 

Number Ist class 

Number 2d class 




9 for men, 3 for women. 
32 for men, 11 for women. 


Area . . ... 









The outlay for site and building of these two establishments was 
as follows: 



rA-2 



.MaVdIv's ( 'o.M.MlTTKK ON l^UBLIC BaTIIS. 



Cost of btiildings and machiner.v 

Cost (if sit*^ 

Cost of fittings 

Total 



Schillingsbriicke. 



. $87,339 07 

* 25,394 60 

131 8.'j 



$102,776 73 
43,839 60 



$112,865 52 i $146,616 33 

\ ■ 



RECEIPTS. 



By bathers 

By i>rofit on swiiumiug instruc- 
tion 

By loan of towels, etc. : 

(a) In swimmiiifihall 

(b) In otlier baths 

By storing private towels, bath- 
ing drawers, etc 

By profit on soap and sea salt . .. 
By rent of dwellings to employes 
By other recei pts 

Total 



Moabit. 



Schillingsbriicke. 



189-1-5. 



$11,042 45 

162 55 

363 63 
25 97 

183 26 
62 40 

""75'43 



189.3-4. 



1891-5. 



1893-4. 



$10,531 32 $17,306 66 
139 11 I 138 87 

84 



$11,915 69 



395 94 
16 60 

139 53 
52 66 

"196 



$11,277 06 



576 
15 

134 

72 

155 

6 



$10 



,973 16 

73 84 

356 18 
7 88 

S5 50 

'2< 46 

116 41 

2 73 



$18,406 83 $11,644 16 



WORKING EXPENDITURE. 





Moabit. 


Schillingsbriicke. 




1894-5. 


1893-4. 


1894-5. 


1893-4. 




$3,923 27 

2,999 14 

540 02 

2,680 36 

529 94 
357 14 
147 27 

"iisio 


$3,727 43 

3,055 60 

574 42 

2,464 73 

419 45 
350 84- 
138 25 


$4,849 87 

3.064 01 

598 30 

3.238 47 

911 34 
641 36 
172 35 
278 16 
316 75 


$3,347 61 




2,343 25 




560 06 


Water 


2,316 57 


Maintenance of biiiMings and 


121 07 




378 66 




160 25 


125 dozen towels 




269 54 


437 97 






I'ota! 


$11,620 24 
11,915 69 


$11,000 26 
11,277 06 


$14,070 61 
18,406 83 


$9.6t!5 44 




11,644 16 








$295 45 


$276 80 


$J,336 22 


$1,978 72 







MUNICII'AL SysTIOM OF FoKEIGN BaTHS. 



13.3 



• COST OF WATKIl. 

The increase in the cost of the water at the Moabit baths was due 
to the fact that it was found impossible to use the deep wells, and the 
city water had to be used entirely. Two new wells are to be made 
and it is exjiectcd tliat thrcc-cjuarters of the water can then be ob- 
tained from this source, while formerly, on account of the great 
quantity of iron in the water, it has only been possible to use two- 
thirds of the well water. It is estimated that the cost of the wells will 
be covered within a year by the lessened cost of the water. 

Of the amount spent at this establishment for maintenance, $216 
was for tiling the walls of tlie two cleansing-rooms attached to tlic 
swimming bath. 

The following was the attendance at the baths for the last two 
vears: 





Moabit. 


Schillingsbrucke. 




1894-5. 


1893-4. 


1894-5. 


1893-4. 




Men. 


Women. 


Men. 


Women 


Men. 


Women. 


Men 


Women. 


Slipper bath (first 
class) 

Slipper bath (sec- 
ond class) 

Douclie batli (first 
class) 

Donche b.itii (sec- 
ond class) 

Swimming bath : 

Over 14 

Under 14 


9,384 
42,414 

3,056 

20,821 

46,619 
18,700 


2,633 

22,157 

431 

2,510 

10,408 
9,606 


12,667 

42,513 

3,639 

13,940 

46,884 
18,052 


5,143 

24,827 

2,733 

9,080 
7,654 


9,247 
57,824 

6,972 

69,229 

82,986 
30,481 


2,457 

33,795 

165 

7,743 

14,692 
10,872 


8,91^ 
39,550 

3,576 

33,317 

53,824 
18,065 


3,165 

24,234 

111 

3,520 

9,417 
4,392 


Total 


140,994 


47,745 


137,695 


49,437 


256,739 69,724 


157,250 


44,839 



MOABIT H.VTHS — ART OF S^VIMMIIVG. 

The Moabit Baths were first opened on November i, 1892. A 
severe winter followed. The attendance, 1893-4, showed a good in- 
crease. In 1894-5 the increase in prices previously alluded to caused 
a decrease in the number of first and second-class slipper baths, and 
of first-class douche baths taken. The unfavorable winter of 1894-5 
also influenced the baths badly, so that there was only the very small 
increase of less than i per cent. The average attendance per day was 



134 Mayor's Committkk ox Publk; Baths. 

517, while in 1893-4 it was 512. During the months of January to 
March, 1895, the numbers using the swimming bath were 9,477 men 
and 1,854 women, and formed 34.7 per cent, of the total number of 
baths taken, while in 1894 the numbers were higher, 11,119 "^^^^ ^^^ 
1,952 women, but the percentage was smaller — 33-6. The best 
attendance was on the Saturday before Whitsunday, May, 12, 1894, 
when 2,635 persons bathed — 1,352 in the slipper baths, 482 in the 
douche baths and 801 in the swimming baths. The Saturday before 
Whitsuntide, May 20, 1893, 2,145 people bathed, so that this showed 
an increase of 490 or 22.8 per cent. The least number of baths given 
was on January i, 1895 — 124 — against 88 taken on January 5, 1894. 
During the }ear 1894-5 swimming instruction was given to 363 per- 
sons — 155 men and 158 women, while in 1893-4 268 persons, of 
whom 143 were men and 125 were women, were instructed in this art. 

On January i, 1895, women received the privilege of using the 
swimming bath on ^Monday evenings from 6.30 to 9, while before they 
had only been allowed the use of it from 10.30 a. m. to 12 m., and 
from 2 to 4 p. m. on week days. Owing to the colder weather no com- 
parison can be made. From January to March 1,854 women used the 
swimming bath, compared to 1,952 who used it in 1894, but on the 
twelve evenings when it was open to them there was a total attend- 
ance of 419, or an average of thirty-five per evening. 

The baths are open at 6 a. m. from April to September, at 7 a. m. 
during March and October, and at 7.30 a. m. from November to 
February. They close on Saturdays at 8 p. m. ; on Sundays, in the 
summer, at noon, in the winter at i p. m., and on other days at 8 p. m. 

BERLIN SWIMMING LEAGUE. 

The Moabit Baths were built with a view to both suitableness 
and durability. Two-thirds of the swimming bath is set apart for 
swimmers, and there are two spring boards. The bath can be en- 
tirely emptied in eight hours and can be refilled in live hours. There 
are two cleansing cells for adults and children. Each contains two 
head douches, one ray douche, one washbasin and two tubs for the 
feet Tepid water can be used before entering the swimming bath, 
but only cold must be used afterwards. On February 24, 1895, ^'^e 
Berlin Swimming League gave a grand entertainment in the bath, 



MUMCH'AL SVSTIOM OK FoRBION BaTHS. 135 

consisting of swimming' and diving. The hall was decorated with 
flags for the occasion, and there was a very large attendance, includ- 
ing many of the city's representatives. Four swimming clul)s use the 
baths one evening a week each. The first-class douches contain an 
extra ray douche of cold water, besides the head douche. Each 
doucheroom is subdivided into dressing and bathrooms. Originally 
the water used was limited to ten and one-half gallons, but this did 
not work well, and with the present unlimited use no more water is 
actually used. Douches with tepid water are provided in the slipper 
bath. The rooms used for washing and drying the linen, etc., have 
the latest improvements. 

SCHILLINGSBRliCKE BATHS. 

The Schillingsbriicke Baths were only opened on Saturday, 
June 24, 1893, so that it is not possible to properly compare the at- 
tendance with previous years. The time of opening and the situation 
of the establishment were very favorable, so that it soon outstripped 
all similar establishments. The greatest attendance was on the Satur- 
day before Whitsunday, May 12, 1894, when 4,502 baths were taken — 
1,599 slipper baths, 1,238 douche and 1,665 swimming baths. During 
the previous period of nine months the largest attendance was on 
Easter Eve, March 24, 1894, when there were 3,278 bathers — 1,413 
slipper baths, 826 douche and 1,039 swimming baths. On Christmas 
Eve there was the large attendance of 2,711; of whom 1,125 took 
slipper baths, 987 douches and 599 swimming baths. On thirteen 
Saturdays the attendance was between 2,000 and 3,100, and the at- 
tendance was usually over 1,000 on Saturdays. The least number of 
bathers in 1894-5 was 166 on January i, 1895, as compared with 107 
on January i, 1894. The average number of bathers per day was 894 
in 1894-5, and only 738 in the nine months of 1893-4 during which 
the establishment was open. 

DEEP -WELLS. 

Few establishments in Germany can compare with these baths. 
City water is used almost exclusively, as it was found impossible to 
use the deep wells, on account of the quantity of iron contained in the 
water. It is particularly remarkable that the swimming bath was so 



136 Mayou's Committee ox Public Baths. 

well attended, as the winter was very unfavorable and nine river baths 
are situated near by. Of 139,000 who visited the swimming bath. 
54,000 (39 per cent, or an average of 300 per day) attended during the 
winter months. A number of swimming clubs use the baths twice a 
week regularly tliroughout the winter. Swimming was taught to 260 
persons — 155 men and 105 women — in 1894-5, as compared with 
117 persons — 90 men and 27 women — who learned in the season 
of 1893-4. 'Flic doucheroom of the swimming bath is divided into 
two parts, one for adults and one for children. The use of the hall was 
given free to a swimming club for entertainments on October 21, 
1894, and March 17, 1895. 

The rise in prices in the slipper and first-class douche baths re- 
sulted in a decrease in both men's and women's first-class slipper 
baths, and, compared with the corresponding period of the previous 
year, a slight decrease in women's second-class slipper and first-class 
douche baths. The men's douche baths liav shown an increase of 
50 per cent, and the women's of 52 per cent. On Saturday there are 
frequently more than 700 baths given in the men's department. The 
greatest numbers were 899 on December 24, 1894, and 1,040 on 
May 12, 1895. There are only forty-one cells for men and the pres- 
sure on them is very great. On Saturday and Sunday three of the 
women's cells are used for men. The extraordinary success of the 
douche baths, built after a plan recommended by Prof. Lassar,' has 
proved their suitability to the needs of a working class population of 
small means. 

The accommodations for washing the linen, etc., used are the 
very best, being an improvement on the Moabit Baths. 



MrNU'ii'Ai. SvsTioM oi' FoKicuJN IJatiis. 



i:{( 












c ^ ^ > 

J « p 0) 

-J c :: c 
cftOHO 






•0Jn8B9ld IV 

Xbp Xa-B uiSaq 
oj 5^3(0!) XiqjuoK 



aouj 



Sr: 



jo; jv»X 
J I B q - a n o joj 
poo3 8)9^311 qn|0 






a a! 
lA in 



■sqiBq 9l3u!S 



-r t- -J3 ■;> o -T 



O^ 



^ — . — m f 
oooo o 



3 5 

o o 



Z ^"2 



C 3 

« <» 

c c 

o o 






•=='-'55' 

^^* J3 
u t. 4) £ 

=. au :j 

a&3 3 

■-.■-. c o 

xxQQ 



61 W) 

D 3 t. t. 



jziSi c c 



£3 

C 3 



S ? O 



££ 

E ? 



S* Sac iC tit '"H 

a c c c .= 
!c S 2 !a a 

■fc-* -fc^ *J 4^ OJ 

Si Si <^ 3S D 



138 



Mayor's Committre on Public Baths. 



Sea salt and soap baths are also given. For one pound of sea 
salt 4 cents, and for one pound of soap 7 cents additional are charg-ed. 

?. Baths of the Berlin Society for People's Baths. 
When these two baths were built the city contributed $26,000 
and gave the site. In the two years 1893-4 and 1894-5 the Society 
paid into the city treasury each year $900, amounting to 3^ per cent. 
on this outlay. In 1894-5 the income was $12,323.79, the previous 
year it was $12,538.89, showing a decrease of $215.10. The surplus 
at the two establishments was as follows: 





Oranienburg baths. 


Alt und Neu KiJlln baths. 


1894-5 


$1,892 10 
1,489 87 


^617 18 
908 74 


1893-4 








Increase, $402 23 


Decrease, $291 5& 



The Society proposed to turn the baths over to the city, but it 
was thought that too much alteration would be required to fit them to 
the needs of municipal public baths. 

ORANIENBURG. 

The opening of the Schillingsbriicke City Baths, combined with 
the unfavorable season, caused a considerable decrease in tlie attend- 
ance at the Alt and Neu Kolln Baths, especially in the slipper bath 
establishment, while the Oranienburg Baths showed a fair increase. 
The attendance at the baths for the years 1893-4 and 1894-5, was as 
follows : 





Oranienburg Baths. 


Alt und Neu Kolln Baths. 




1894-5. 


1893-4. 


Increase or 
decrease. 


1894-5. 


IBM A Increase or 
i«-«-4. decrease. 


Slipper l)iitlis: 
Mcu 


61,146 
25,692 

33,059 
989 
258 


58,500 
24,463 

28,895 

1,122 

234 


+2,646 
+ 1,229 

+4,164 
—133 

+24 


54,718 
23,726 

29,798 
616 
161 


59,665 —4,947 
27,033 —3.307 




Douclie baths : 
Men 


30,701 
841 
440 


— '.t03 




—225 


S(;h<>l;irs 


-27^ 


Total 


121,144 


113,214 


+7,930 


109,019 


118,680 


—9,661 





MuNiciTAL System of Foreign liAiiis. \:VJ 

IIAMIIVKO, UL:KM AW— <;itASllUUOK. VEDUIOl., DIL.I.I<:. 

As in all cities the earliest hatlis in Hamburg were river baths. 
The first building erected in connection with these baths was put up 
in 1847 iri the Grasbrook, and since then has been greatly enlarged 
and removed to the Veddel, costing altogether $32,249. There is 
dressing accommodation for 405 men, including twenty-five private 
cells, and for 486 women, including 156 private cells. In 1889 there 
were 160,000 men and 111,000 women bathers. In 1864 another 
bath was opened on the Alster, for men and boys. The swimming 
pool is 347 feet 9 inches long by 91 feet 10 inches wide and varies in 
depth up to 10 feet 6 inches. With the extensions in 1890 this bath 
cost $33,087. There is accommodation for 100 in private dressing- 
rooms and 264 in the common dressing-room. A charge of 5 pfen- 
nigs (just over one cent) is made for a steamboat journey to and from 
this bath, but the bath itself is free. A third river bath was erected 
in 1869 on an artificial island in the x'Mster at a cost, with improve- 
ments in 1883, of $9,996. The water here varies from 6 feet 6 inches 
to 8 feet 6 inches. The bathing place is especially frequented by boys. 
Dressing accommodation for 555 bathers is provided, including 
twenty-eight private rooms. In 1876 a fourth bathing establishment 
was erected in the Bille. This bath has a superficies of 44,132 square 
feet and contains 105 private dressing-rooms and other accommoda- 
tions for sixty-six bathers. The cost was $1 1,900. A swimming bath 
for women and girls was erected in the Bille in 1885, and since it was 
very much more frecjuented than had been expected, was enlarged in 
1888. The total cost was $9,758. The water varies from 3 feet 
3 inches to 5 feet 3 inches. There arc sixty-four private rooms and 
accommodation for 136 additional bathers. In the summer of 1886 
this bath was used by 116,063 women and girls. 

PATRIOTIC SOCIETY. 

In 1855 an establishment was opened on the Schweinemarkt by 
the Patriotic Society. The site for this building was given by the 
city, and the water supplied by the city free, being afterwards, on 
account of the high situation of the establishment, used for flushing 
the city sewers. This building was the first in Germany erected after 
the English model. The cost was $49,028. Tnere arc twenty-four 



140 



Mayor's Committke ox Pt'rlic Baths. 



tirst-class and twenty-five second-class women's slipper baths. 
These are 6 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 9 inches in size, and the partitions 
are 6 feet 6 inciies hig'li. The first-class baths are fitted with douches. 
There are also two rain baths. Stalls are provided for thirty-three 
washers. According- to statute only 4 per cent, interest was allowed 
and the surplus went toward the extinction of the share capital. In 
1880 the entire capital was paid back, but the city allowed the Society 
to continue working the establishment, on condition that it built a 
second, and still later a third, the same conditions applying as to the 
first. A building was erected on the Schaarmarkt in 1881 at a cost of 
$74,970. It contained a swimming bath, 67 feet 3 inches by 27 feet 
1 1 inches, the water varying in depth from 3 feet 7 inches to 7 feet 
3 inches. The tcm])erature is maintained at 72.5 degrees Fahrenheit 
by steam pipes. There are besides seven first-class and thirteen 
second-class men's slipper baths, and the same number of slipper 
l)aths for women. The use made of these two establishments in 1891 
to 1894 was as follows: 





Schweinemarkt. 


Schaarmarkt. 




Number of 
bathers. 


Hours of 
washir g. 


Number of 
bathers. 


Number of 
swimmers. 


lagi 


132,198 

89,. 570 

107,105 

112,218 


24,284 
15,987* 
17,. 51:4 
17,550i 


8.-.,. 572 
57,773 
62,214 
65,185 


69 j 655 


1892. 


45,659 


1893 

1894 


63,113 
103,944 







CHOIiKRA. 

The great decrease in the use of the baths in 1892 was caused by 
the outbreak of cholera. The city paid the company for the use of 
coal to sterilize the water used, by boiling and afterward cooling to 
recjuired temperature. The large number using the swimming baths 
in 1894 was consccjucnt on a 50 per cent, retluction of prices in this 
department. 

The following is a statement of the working ex])enses for 1893 
and 1894: 



.MrMcirAL Systicm of Fokeign Baths. 



141 



INCOME FOR 1893 AM) 1894. 
Sohnmnenarkl and Schaarmarkt Baths. 



1893. 



Schweine- 
markt. 



By batlurs $9,569 78 

Bv swiiuiiier.s 



By \v anliers ! 

By i>rolit on soap i 

By profit on .sea s.ilt , 

By interest 

By e.xtra towels, swimming 

girdles, etc- 

By swiiiimiug instnution... 

Total 



833 64 

31fi 77 

27 fjfi 

18 02 

91 57 



Scha&rmarkt. 



$5,248 14 
3,767 87 

""i48"36 
10 28 



37 54 
101 15 



Schweine- 
markt. 



Schaarmarkt. 



$10,031 96 

835 50 ! 

316 47 ; 

24 54 

183 41 



$10,857 34 



$5,477 97 
3,652 09 

"'i6G'26 
15 14 

463 84 



97 58 



$9,313 28 $11,391 88 ! $9,872 88 



EXPENDITURE FOR 1893 AND 1894. 



Interest on loans 

Salaries 

Fuel 

Soap, soda, etc. . 

Gas 

Printing 

Artisans' work. . 
Divers repairs... 
Divers payments . 
Small expenses. . 
Gronnd rent and i 



nsnranee 



1893. 



Schweine- 
niarkt. 



$3,792 53 

1,410 29 

97 07 

345 84 

79 32 

608 5t) 



174 50 
28 46 
65 14 



Schaar- 
markt. 



1894. 



Schweine- 
markt. 



$586 

3,618 

1,277 

73 

358 

102 

445 



215 

18 

124 



,822 12 
,322 50 

98 07 
342 55 

69 72 
404 49 
248 04 
222 65 

24 57 

65 14 



Totals $6,60171 $6,819 23 $(5,619 85 



Schaar- 
markt. 



$714 00 

3,606 10 

1,449 90 

107 12 

418 20 

119 43 

310 84 

72 35 

277 01 

12 94 

124 34 



$7,212 23 



AXOIU DIRT. 

Ill 1893 a third bath was erected in the suburb of Eimsbiittel, on 
tlie Schiiferkampf. This contains sixty slipper baths — twelve first- 
class and twenty-eight second-class for men, and seven first-class and 
thirteen second-class for women. Each bathroom is 6 feet 11 inches 
long by 6 feet 8 inches wide and the height is 9 feet 10 inches second 
class and 1 1 feet 6 inches first class. The swimming' pool is 39 feet 
4 inches wide, 63 feet 4 inches long, with a capacity of 105,668 gallons. 



142 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

There are fifty-three wooden dressing-rooms, each 4 feet 7 inches by 
4 feet I inch, and fourteen lockers. The dressing-rooms are entered 
from the corridor so as to avoid dirt. Every bather has to use the 
douche bath before entering the swimming pool, and a shallow tub 
is provided for the feet. The temperature of the hall in the slipper 
baths is maintained at 79 degrees Fahrenlieit, the other rooms at 'J2 
degrees Fahrenheit. This bath is managed by the Society which 
manages the other two baths, the Society receiving city water free 
and paying interest on the $90,440, cost of erection. 

Both slipper and swimming baths are opened from 6 a. m. to 
9 p. m. from April to September, 7 a. m. to 9 p. m. during March 
and October, and from 8 a. m. to 9 p. m. from November to February. 
Sundays and holidays they are opened at the usual time, but close 
at noon. Half an hour is allowed to each bather, and towels and 
bathing dresses are provided. In the slipper baths mothers may take 
a child under eight years of age in with them. The prices for baths 
at either of these three places are as follow: 

SLIPPER BATHS (MEN AND WOMEN). 

First-class (two towels) $ 12 

First-class (sixteen tickets, not good on Saturdays after 5 p. m.) . . 1 G7 

Second-class (one towel) 07 

Second-class (sixteen tickets, not good on Saturdays after 5 p. m.) . . 95 

Sea salt baths, first-class .•!(! 

Sea salt baths, second-class 31 

SWIMMING BATHS. 

Without towel, but including bathing drawers ^^ 04 

One year, not iuclud'ing washing of bathing apparel 5 95 

Half year, not including washing of bathing apparel 3 09 

Boj's under 14, without towel, but including bathing drawers. .. . 02^ 
Boys under 14, one year, not including washing of bathing ap- 
parel 2 86 

Boys under 14, half year, not including washing of bathing ap- 
parel 1 tiT 

Use of towel 01 

Keeping and clc-anslng of bathing ;i]>iiarcl. jn-r inonrli 07 

Swimming instruction, quarter year 1 19 

RX^GVLATBD TK.MI'ERATl RE. 

In 1893 the municipality erected a public douche in St. Pauli, 
which was leased to the same society which operates the baths pre- 



Municipal Systkm of J-^iukicn liATiis. 14o 

viously nientioncd. This bath is open all the year round, from 6 a. in. 
to lo p. ni. in the summer and from 8 a. m. to lo p. m. in the winter, 
closing on Saturdays at 12 noon. A charge of 10 pfennigs (2i cents) 
includes the use of towel and soap. The bath is built after the pattern 
of the I'rankfort-on-.Main Baths, and contains accommodations for 
ten men and four woiucn. The douche apparatus is separated from 
the dressing-room by a rubber curtain, but this, not proving satisfac- 
tory, is to be replaced by an iron door. In the douche cell there is a 
deepening in the center, a seat which lifts up and is fitted with a hard 
rubl)er cushion and a soap dish. The water strikes the bather at an 
angle of 45 degrees, and the temperature can be regulated at pleasure. 
At first the water allowed was limited to thirteen gallons, but this was 
not a success, as the apparatus frequently went wrong. Under the 
present system only the same quantity is averaged, though no limit is 
made. Twenty minutes is allowed to each bather, and 5 pfennigs, 
just over one cent, charged for any excess of that time. The towels 
used are washed in the basement, where the heating apparatus is. 
On account of the cholera epidemic just before the opening of the 
baths, it is arranged to heat the water of the Elbe to boiling point, 
and then by mixing with city water and cooling, reduce the tempera- 
ture to 112 degrees Fahrenheit, and yj degrees Fahrenheit. The 
average attendance at St. Pauli during 1893, the opening year, was 
147 per day; in 1894 there were 48,138 bathers, or an average of 132 
per day. Provision is made for 450 bathers. The greatest attendance 
was on July 7, 1894, when 597 people bathed. Among the bathers 
there are few^ workers, the attendance coming largely from the small 
tradesmen class. 

GOTHENBURG, SAVEDEN, 

The first public bath in Gothenburg dates from 1802. At present 
there are two public baths, the " Renstromska Badanstalten," opened 
in 1876, and the " Renstromska Badanstalten i Majorna " (Majorna 
is a suburb of Gothenburg), opened in 1892. Besides these, there 
are three river baths in the Gota Elf, open to the public from I\Iay to 
September. All these establishments are maintained partly from 
city appropriations and partly from the funds belonging to the city, 
named " Renstromska fonden " after their founder, Sven Renstrom, 
a merchant. 



144 Mayor's Committee on Purlic Baths. 

The cost of the establishments was: For the Renstromska, 
Badanstahen, $93,808.33 ; for the open-air baths, about $800 eacli ; for 
the baths at Majorna, $27,033.13, divided as follows: 

Building $15, 716 37 

Boilers, heating and ventilating apparatus 4, 589 92 

Batliing fixtures 4,013 51 

Furniture 1,288 37 

Plans and drawings 4(14 44 

Insurance 68 68 

Superintendence 482 40 

Judicial siu'Vcy 81 74 

Gas and colce 139 16 

Water 88 71 

Sundries 97 S3 

Tdtal $27,033 13 



The open-air baths are free. The receipts at the other baths for 
the last few years were as follows: 



RENSTKOMSKA BADANSTALTEN. 



CLASS OF BATHS. 


1895. 


1894. 


1893. 


1892. 


First class 

Second class 


$7,382 19 
4,483 49 
3,029 41 


$7,382 03 
4,285 10 
3,045 69 


$7,524 61 
4,471 02 
2,885 15 


$7,562 75 
4,511 06 
3,083 08 






Total 


$14,895 09 


$14,712 82 


$14,880 78 


$15,156 89 







RENSTROMSKA BADANSTALTEN I 



Class of baths. 

Slipper Baths: 

First-class 

Second-class 

Third-class 



Russian baths: 

Second-class 

Third-class 

Shower baths 

Baths for school children: 

At 10 ore (2'A cents) 

At 5 OH' 

Other baths 



MAJORNA. 




1894. 


1893. 


?194 37 


!fl7G 68 


418 08 


355 64 


437 71 


466 18 


198 10 


14S 20 


199 73 


104 .S2 


38 40 


9 41 


17 04 


21 79 


GS 85 


67 90 


172 89 


192 61 



'i'otal receipts ?1 , 745 23 



$1,603 23 




Cottage Baths, Brighton (England). It is the plan that a large number 
of small baths shall be located in the industrial quarters, instead of the 
erection of one large bathing estaolishment 




Copyright, 1S97, by the Mayor's Committee . 

Among the recommendations of the Committee is the duplication or 
extension of the Public Comfort Stations in the Parks The extensions 
should be in the shape of chalets or other ornamental buildings. 



O THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 



Municipal System of Foreign Baths. 



145 



The following arc the operating expenses for 1894 at tlie Rcn- 
stromska Badanstalten : 

Siil.'irirs ?4,451 08 

Furl 2. 302 ] 1 

Water 2. 220 79 

Light inir ' 81S H4 

Washin;: of towels, etc 1, 109 S2 

ReiKiiirs ami maintenance 2, 339 88 

Printing and stationery 52 94 

Soap 47 46 

'IVlephoue 4G 01 

Cleaning and sweeping 98 99 

Medical attendance and medicine 86 59 

lusm'ance and taxes 121 52 

"Written off for depreciation of furnitui'e and linen 295 00 

Sundries 69 95 

Total ?14, 120 98 



At Majorna for 1894 the operating expenses were $1,926.51, 
while the cost of operating the river baths for the same period was 
$411.82. 

Following is a table showing the average income and average 
operating expenses per bath in cents: 



YEAR. 



1894. 
1893. 
1892. 
1891. 



c5 



< 



Average Operating Expenses. per Bath Given. 



r^nts. 
13.23 
13.41 
13.23 
13.36 



Cents. 
4.01 
3.89 
3.78 
3.61 









■s 


"a 

3 




611 

3 


i, 


Cents. 
2.07 


Cents. 
2.00 


Cents. 
.74 


Cents. 
1.05 


1.96 


1.81 


1.01 


1.08 


1.98 


1.76 


.65 


1.07 


2.06 


1.76 


.53 


1.12 



m a 
d c 



Cents. 
2.84 
3.29 
3.22 

'2.57 



Cents. 
12.71 
13.04 
12.46 
11.65 



No account is kept of the number visiting the open-air baths, 
but it is estimated that they are used by at least 80,000 people in the 
course of the season. Every person taking an ordinary warm bath 
is permitted to take with him a child under eight years of age, without 
extra admission, and two children under the age of twelve may use 
the same bath upon paying the usual fee. The baths taken at the 
two bathing establishments were as follows: 
10 



146 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 



— I o» in (N o •?> lO 

^- » CJ IC 0* Ci ?D 






t- o» o ira o> s» «o 



w on--* 
00 cT 



tn lA ^^ 



act-. IT'* 



52J 

H 
hJ 

H 

00 

O 
« 

E- 



ooo^ejc«to« 

..-; •Tl' C3 T-i O O^ 5D 
00 W " OC O T< 

r-Tt-Tw — " 



(N OS ©J >0 O 

o» ■* c» ej -"S" 



«D f-i C: t» W CD I- 

o C5 o 30 u; o> CO 

t- W C. .n O »-" 



ccw « 

OO CO 

T-Toc 



«D t- in — . — . 



«no ^ 



1° 



00 I OO 



•-•OOlfflCl 



CC «C O « TT in Tf 

o — 00 m -"I o o 
iTs o •"* in CD ^ ^} 



O 00 ^ I- t- 

oc '- in N i- 



X W CD CD 

Sooin ^ 



CD -il »-. 



00 CTl 7» OJ O O -H 

TT GO X OJ in « »-l 



i-« m in CD 

i- — • I- M 

CD O -^ »-^ 

cd'o" 



JJS 









;>7 ♦-•r? M in 



: ■- §■ 2 








C8 


■S5 « 




c 


, •=« 




rt 


K l-X! 


■n 


s 










r: 


WccP't, 


H 







MuMt'irAL System of Foreign Baths. 147 

liK.NSTItO.MSKA BADANSTALTEN I MAJORNA. 

1RB4. 1893. 

Slijiiu'i' Imllis, liisl -class <j(J7 879 

Slipper baths, socoiul-dass 3, 120 2, G54 

Sli]»per baths, Ihird-class G, 533 G,9j8 

Kussian baths, secoiul-dass 2,112 1,580 

llussiaii baths, third-dass 2, 981 2,4G0 

ShowiT baths 074 234 

Baths for school ehildrou: 

At 10 ore G3G 813 

At 5 ore 5, 138 5, 067 

Various baths 1,G48 1,844 



Total 23,709 22,489 



The open-air baths are managed by the city financial board, while 
•each of the other public baths is managed by a special committee. 



CHAPTER IX. 

The Administration of European Baths. 

PROMOTION OF CLEAXLINESS. 

The first public baths in England were the St. George's Pierhead 
Baths, Liverpool, opened in 1828. In 1849 the City of Liverpool 
erected two new establishments. In September, 1844, the Lord 
Mayor of London convened a meeting for the formation of an "Asso- 
ciation for Promoting Cleanliness Among the People," which re- 
sulted in the establishment of one of the first baths and washhouses in 
London. The success of these baths was so great that a larger set 
was opened in Whitechapel, but the hopes raised by the first success 
were not sustained, and the second establishment fell into decay until 
taken over by the Vestry of Whitechapel. In 1846 a private associa- 
tion opened baths in George street, Euston Square, the water being 
supplied gratuitously by the New River Company. In addition to 
its bathing and washing conveniences, there was a department " for 
cleansing, purifying and disinfecting the dwellings of the poor,"' 
which effected much good; but the New River Company abolishing 
their reservoir, the establishment had to be closed. It had become 
evident that public baths and washhouses would not flourish under 
semi-philanthropic or private enterprise. In 1835 a bill to promote 
public baths was introduced into the House of Commons, but failed, 
owing to the opposition to it. In 1846, on June 8, the Bishop of 
London presented five petitions on the subject to the House of 
Lords, praying for increased facilities for cleanliness available for 
the masses, and a bill was introduced on June 19, which received the 
Royal assent on August 26, 1 846. 

VAPOR BATHS. 

The act provided for the erection and maintenance by cities and 
boroughs of bathing estaljlishmcnts, containing hot and cold slipper 
baths, with the necessary arrangements for heating, lighting, etc. 
Less than a year afterwards an amendment was passed authorizing 



Tiii: Admimsiuation oi-' European Baths. 149 

the jjrovision of warm and cold sliower baths and vapor baths, and 
also of public washhouses. In 1878 the act was further amended to 
make room for swimming baths, now the most popular feature of 
many establishments. The Turkish bath was not well known at the 
time of the passing of the original act, or it is possible it would have 
been substituted for the vapor bath, as affording the most thoroughly 
cleansing bath possible. When the Paddington public baths and 
washhouses were about to be erected in 1874, application was made 
to the Local Government Board to ascertain the legality or otherwise 
of including the Turkish bath in the proposed establishment, and the 
reply of the Board was to the effect that, although tlie statutes con- 
tained no definition of baths, " the schedule to the statutes 10 and 11 
Vict. cap. 61, recognizes a vapor bath, and the Board, therefore, ap- 
prehends that there would be no legal objection to the establishment 
of a Turkish bath." Turkish baths are part of the establishments at 
Birmingham, Bradford and Worthing. 

BORROW MONEY. 

When a city or town wishes to establish public baths, a com- 
mittee of the Town Council is appointed to take charge of the matter. 
In Bootle this committee is the Parks and Baths Committee, in 
Bradford the Tramway, Baths and Team Labor Committee, in Burn- 
ley it was formerly the Baths, Cemetery and Recreation Grounds 
Committee, and is now the Town Hall, Baths and Cemetery Com- 
mittee. The Committee is, of course, responsible to the Council and 
refers to the Council on all matters of importance. In London, the 
government of which is different to that of other cities, there is 
another method. The \'estries, a kind of district municipal council, 
appointed a small commission, usually consisting of seven, but some- 
times of five or six commissioners, who had more power than a com- 
mittee, and were o'nly obliged to refer to the Vestry when they wanted 
to borrow money. Since 1894 this system has been abolished, and 
the London \'estries, like the provincial Town Councils, manage their 
baths through a committee. 

Before proceeding to erect baths, the consent of the Local Gov- 
ernment Board to the expenditure must first be obtained. The initial 
expenses are met by a loan payable in a period of from ten to fifty 



150 



M.wor's Committee o\ "Pi-hlic B.vths. 



years, according to the size of the loan, the purpose for which the- 
expenditure is to be made and the rataljle vahie of the parish. Thus 
the IsHngton Commissioners procured the following loans for tlieir 
baths, all at 3^ per cent., up to March 31, 1895: 



Date of 
mortgage 


Period 

of 
loan. 


Original 
amoiirit 
of loan. 


1891. 
Jan. 16... 


Years. 
50 


£8,000 


May 12... 


30 


5,000 


June 19 •. . 


50 


6,000 


Nov. 6.... 


30 


5,000 


Dec. 7.-.. 


30 


5,000 


1892. 
March 18.. 


30 


3,000 


March 30.. 


30 


5,000 


May 20... 


30 


5,000 


June 3... 


10 


4,000 


June 16.- 


30 


3,500 


Nov. 23.. 


15 


5,500 


1893. 
April 1. .. 


30 


9,600 


April 1... 


10 


1,800 


Dec. 8.... 


25 


11,250 


1894. 
May 11... 


25 


10,000 


Oct. 18... 


25 


10,000 


Total. 




..97,650 









Of whom borrowed. 



For » hat purpose. 



Prudential Assurance Co. 
Prudential Assurance Co. 
London County Council. 
Prudential Assurance Co. 
London Count}' Council. 

Prndeutial Assurance Co. 
London County Council. 
Loudon County Council. 
Prudential Assurance Co. 
London County Council. 
London County Council. 

London County Council. 

London County Council. 
London County Council. 

London County Council. 
London County Council. 



Purchase of site, Caledonian 
road. 

Erection of batbs and wash- 
houses, Caledonian road. 

Purchase of site, Hornsey 
road. 

Erection of baths and wash- 
houses, Hornsey road. 

Election of bal lis and wash- 
houses, Horii.sey road. 

Erection of Imths and wash- 
houses, Caledonian road. 

Erection of baths and wash- 
houses, Hornsey road. 

Erection ol baths and wash- 
hous«'s, Hornsey road. 

Erection of baths and wash- 
housis, CaletUuiian road. 

Erecti(ui of baths niid wash- 
honse.s, Hornsey road. 

Erec'ion of baths and wash- 
h(uises, Hornsey road. 



Erection of baths and wash- 
houses, Hornsey road and 
Caledonian loail. 

Election of Baths and wa>h- 
houses, Horiisey road. 

PurcLase of site and erection 
of baths, etc., Tibberton 
square. 

Purchase of site and erection 

of baths, etc, Tibberton 

sqnaie. 
Purchase of site and erection 

of baths, etc., Tibberton 

s(iuar«. 



Of this sum £5,467 los. id. of the principal had been repaid up to 
March 31, 1895, and also interest to the amount of £6,876 19s. id. (less 
income tax). This leaves a capital sum outstanding of £92,182 9s. 
lid. 



The Administration of European Baths. 151 

For tlie year cndinij;- March 31, 1895, the payments of principal 
and interest were as follows: 

Repayment of loan. Interest. 

£ S. (1. £ .?. d. 

CaliHlonian road 747 t> 869 5 4 

Hornsoy nvad 1 , HJS 8 1 , .300 19 5 

TibluM-tou s.|uan- 4.".0 711 10 (> 

Total 2,74.j 7 5 2,887 15 3 



SLIGHT SUHPLtS. 

The income from the baths usually hardly meets working ex- 
penses, although occasionally there is a slight surplus. Any deficit, 
and the amount required to meet payments of principal and interest, 
comes out of the rates. As the loans are paid ofi the tax becomes less 
until, when all the loans are paid off, a very small annual payment is 
necessary to cover the working expenses. In the Parish of St. James, 
Westminster, which erected baths in 1851, the total charge on the 
rates, for site, erection of buildings and maintenance since erection, 
has only been £26,621. This, spread over a period of forty-five years, 
amounts to £592 or $2,890 per annum; and for this well-appointed 
cleansing baths and washhouses have been maintained, and a swim- 
ming bath has lately been opened. 

The rules and regulations at the baths differ very little, and 
those of the St. Margaret and St. John, Westminster, baths may be 
taken as an example of many others: 

FIRST-CLASS PRIVATE BATHS. 
^^'arm or cold baths 6d. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

Attention is directed to the printed by-laws. 

Each bather is provided with a bath of the desired temperature, 
with the use of two clean towels. 

Half an hour is allowed to each bather from the time of entering 
and leaving the bathroom. Bathers will please ring the bell should 
they require the attendant. 

The admixture of any chemical except soap with the water in 
the bath is strictly prohibited. 



l.~)2 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

If soap and extra towels are required they can be obtained at the 
pa\- office at a cliarge of id. each article. (Please see that you get a 
ticket for same.) The attendants are not allowed to supply soap or 
extra towels. 

Please avoid talking in the bathroom, as it distracts the attention 
of the attendant, and when quitting the bathroom, leave the door 
open, the water in the bath, and the towels on the seat. 

Bathers unable to wait their turn may have their tickets endorsed 
by the money-taker for use another day, but no money can be 
returned, nor will the ticket be available for another day except so 
endorsed. 

Water-closets are provided. 

No smoking or drinking spirituous or malt liquors allowed in 
the building. 

Dogs are not allowed within the building. 

No employe is allowed to take any gratuity whatever, on pain of 
dismissal. 

No disorderly conduct, indecent or offensive language allowed 
in the building. 

Do not remain in the bath whilst hot water is being supplied. 

Bathers committing willful damage, interfering with the comfort 
of another or interrupting any of the servants in their duty, will be 
proceeded against under the by-laws for the full penalty of 40s. 
By Order of the Commissioners, 

(Signed.) CHARLES NEWMAN, 

Superintendent. 

SECOND-CLASS PRIVATE BATHS. 

Warm bath 2d. 

Cold Id. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

Attention is directed to the printed by-laws. 

Each bather is provided with a bath of the desired temperature, 
with use of one clean towel. (Extra towels can be had if desired by 
purchasing an extra towel ticket at the pay office.) 



TiiK ADMiMsriiAiioN OF Elroi'BAN Baths. 153 

Half an hour is allowed lo each bather from the time of entering 
and leaving the bathroom. 

No smoking' or drinking spirituous or malt liquors allowed in 
the building. 

The admixture of any chemical or other preparation except soap 
with the water in the bath is strictly prohibited. Soap and extra 
towels can only be obtained at the pay ofifice, at a charge of id. each 
article. (Please sec that you get a ticket for the same.) The attend- 
ants are not allowed to supply soap or extra towels. 

Bathers are requested to decide as to the temperature of water 
they require before the attendant leaves the bath, as the calling out of 
numbers is likely to cause confusion. To avoid talking in the bath- 
room, as it distracts the attention of the attendant, and when quitting 
the bathroom to leave the door open, the water in the bath and the 
towels on the seat. 

Bathers unable to wait their turn may have their tickets endorsed 
by the money-taker for use another day, but no money can be 
returned, nor will the ticket be available for another day except so 
endorsed. 

Water-closets are provided. 

Dogs are not admitted within the building. 

No person employed in the establishment is allow^ed to take any 
gratuity whatever, on pain of dismissal. 

Bathers are particularly asked not to stand on the towels. 

Bathers committing willful damage, or interfering with the com- 
fort of another, or interrupting any of the servants in their duty, will 
be proceeded against under the by-laws for the full penalty of 40s. 

No disorderly conduct, indecent or offensive language allow^ed 
in the building. 

By Order of the Commissioners, 

(Signed.) CHARLES NEWMAN, 

Supcrintoidcnf. 



154 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR BATHERS — SWIM- 
MING BATHS. 

Half an hour only is allowed to each bather. 

No bad language or whistling allowed. 

Do not spit in the water. 

No smoking or drinking intoxicating liquors allowed. 

Leave the building directly you are dressed. 

Return your towels and hired drawers to the bath attendant on 
leaving. i 

Diving from the boxes is strictly forbidden. 

Soap must not be used in the swimming bath. 

Any person who shall wilfully offend against the foregoing rules 
and regulations will be immediately expelled, refused admittance on 
a future occasion, and proceeded against for the full penalty of 40s. 

The Commissioners are not responsible for articles lost by 

bathers in the establishment. 

By Order of the Commissioners. 

NOTICE TO COMPETITORS — SWIMMING BATHS. 

1. Do not fail to wear bathing drawers under your costumes. 

2. Do not enter the water between the different heats or events. 

3. Do not interfere with the valves, bath fittings or furniture. 

4. Do not shout or make unnecessary noises, as it distracts the 
attention of the bath attendant. 

5. Do not stand or loiter round the sides of the bath before the 
heat or event you are to compete, but walk in the dressing-room 
until notified. 

6. Do not stand or loiter round the sides of the bath after you 

have competed, but proceed to your dressing-room, unless otherwise 

requested. 

(Signed.) CHARLES NEWMAN, 

Siif^i-rintcndcut. 



The ADMiNiS'i'iJAiioN (*v EruorKAN Haths. in.") 

SWIMiMING — CERTIFICATE OF FROFICIENCY. 
THIS IS TO Cl-.k ril\' tlKit 

aged , residing- at , has 

acquired tlie art of Swimming, under my tuition, and is proficient 

in 

Westminster Baths, London, S. W. 
189 . 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PROPER USE OF THE 
WATER CHUTE. 

1. Get yourself into position by the use of the ropes. 

2. Do not hold the sides of the chute while sliding. 

3. Keep the head well down and the body stiff. 

4. Do not run down the chute. 

5. Not more than two persons must use tlie chute at one time. 

6. Do not crawl up the chute. 

NOTICE TO CLUB, SCHOOL AND SPECIAL TICKET 

HOLDERS. 

All club and school tickets must have tlie name of the club or 
school issuing the same, written or stamped across the face of such 
tickets before presentation at the pay office, and they, and also special 
book tickets, must be shown to the money-taker, who will, previous 
to the issuing of towels, stamp such tickets with the official date stamp. 

Club and school tickets are not transferable, and will only be 
accepted from bona fide members of the clubs and scholars of schools 
having permission to use them; any other person presenting them 
will not be admitted, and the clul) or school issuing the same will not 
be allowed further concession. 

iMembers of clubs must, if required, produce their cards of mem- 
bership before using the swimming baths. 

All school bathers must be in charge of a master or mistress, and 
under proper control. 

Members of clubs are respectfully asked to assist the manage- 
ment by leaving the baths directly after practice, in order to allow 
others to bathe. 



15C Mayou's Committee ox Public Baths. 

rolo practice not allowed without permission of the Superin- 
tendent. , 
By order. 

HOW TO SAVE LIFE FROM DROWNING IN A BATH- 
NEWMAN'S METHOD. 

Approach tlie person (if possible) from behind, grasp by or near 
the waist, the position of the arms, together with the weight of the 
drowning person, will cause you to sink. Immediately your feet 
touch the bottom of the bath, you will find that though you are under 
water, the drowning person will not only be on or above the surface, 
but that you will be able to walk to the side of the bath and deposit 
your burden with comparative ease and safety. 

This method only applies where a person has to be rescued in 
the deep end of the bath, and may be successfully accomplished by a 
non-swimmer. 

TO RESTORE THE APPARENTLY DROWNED — MODE 
OF PROCEDURE. 
Place the patient on the side of the bath, face downwards, and, 

1. Loosen the bathing drawers at the waist. 

2. Stand astride the patient wath your face towards the head, 
lock vour fingers together under the abdomen and raise the body as 
high as possible without lifting the head or toes from the ground, at 
the same time jerking the body of the patient in order to remove 
mucus and water from the windpipe. 

3. Turn the patient on his back and slightly raise the upper 
portion of the body by placing something under the shoulder blades; 
cleanse the mouth and nostrils, open the mouth, draw forth the 
tongue and secure it by an elastic band or string under the patient's 
chin. 

4. Proceed to draw the air into tlie lungs by grasping the pa- 
tient's arms above the elbows and draw them up gently until they 
meet above the head, bring them down again and press firmly against 
the sides of the chest whilst an attendant is, at the same time gently 
pressing the abdomen; repeat these actions alternately until there is 



The Administuation of Eikoi-kan Baths. 1.17 

some perceivable effort by the patient to breatlie, remembering that 
it may be an hour or more before your efforts prove successful. 
During these operations the patient's hands and legs may be rubbed 
briskly, and smelling salts placed to the nostrils. 

5. When the patient connnences to breathe, induce circulation 
and warmth by rubbing the body with warm cloths or briskly with 
your hands. Hot-water bottles may also be put to the soles of the 
feet. 

6. When the patient can swallow, give hot coffee, milk or 
brandy. 

PHOVIXCIAL. BATHS. 

As an illustration of the by-laws governing provincial baths, 
those of Birmingham are annexed, having been copied by many other 
cities. In some places the penalty attached to violation of the rules is 
higher; in Coventry, for instance, it is £5 ($25). 

" 2. Every person resorting to the public baths shall, before 
being admitted to any bath or bathroom, obtain, by payment, from 
the authorized money-taker, a ticket whereon shall be stated, in addi- 
tion to such other particulars as the Town Council may from time to 
time direct, the class or description of bath to which such person shall 
be entitled to be admitted, and every person shall, on being admitted 
to use any bath, deliver to the bath attendant, or other servant em- 
ployed thereat, such ticket of admission as shall have been issued by 
the authorized money-taker. 

" 3. Every bather in the swimming and plunging baths shall 
wear bathing drawers, costume, or bathing dress, and such drawers, 
costume, or dress must be made of material that will not discolor the 
water. 

" 4. No bath attendant, officer, or servant employed at the public 
baths, other than a duly authorized money-taker, shall receive from 
any person resorting thereto any payment for the hire or use of any 
articles, or for any purpose whatsoever, without the knowledge and 
consent of the Superintendent. 

CLOSETS AND BOXES. 

" 5. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, by forcible 
or improper means, seek admission to any bathroom or compartment 
which shall be occupied by any person using a separate bath. 



158 Mayou's Committee ox Public Baths. 

" 6. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, by forcible 
or improper means, seek admission to any swimming bath at any 
time when such swinmiing bath or the dressing-rooms, closets, boxes, 
or compartments attached thereto shall be occupied by the full num- 
ber of persons authorized to use, at one and the same time, such swim- 
ming bath, or dressing-rooms, closets, boxes or compartments. 

WAITING. 

" 7. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, by forcible 
or improper means, seek admission to any bathroom or dressing- 
room before any person who, by priority of payment, shall be entitled 
to prior admission to such bath, but each person shall be admitted 
consecutively in the order indicated by the number on the tickets of 
admission. 

" 8. A person resorting to the public baths shall not use any 
bath of a higher class or description than that of the bath for which 
he shall have obtained a ticket of admission. 

" 9. Every person resorting to the public baths shall, while wait- 
ing on the premises for admission to any bath or bathroom, remain 
only in such portion of the premises as shall be set apart as a waiting- 
room for intending bathers, and no person shall be admitted to any 
other part of the establishment, excepting to that for which he shall 
have obtained a ticket. 

" 10. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, after using 
any bath or Cjuitting any bathroom, dressing-room or compartment, 
loiter or remain, without reasonable excuse, in any passage leading 
to or from any bath or bathroom. 

"11. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, at any 
time after being admitted at any swimming bath, or while occupying 
any dressing-room, closet, bo.x, or compartment attached thereto, 
enter or seek admission to any other dressing-room, closet, box or 
compartment, when occupied by any person, without the consent of 
such person, or otherwise knowingly intrude upon or interfere with 
the privacy of any other jjerson using such swimming bath or occupy- 
ing any dressing-room, closet, box or compartment attached thereto. 
"12. A person resorting to the ])ublic baths shall not, at any 
time after being admitted to or while occupying any bathroom or 



The Ad.mimsi'uatiox <»r EritorEAN Baths. 159 

compartment coiUainini::^ a scj)aratc batli, enter or seek admission 
to such bathroom or comj)artment wlien oeeiipied by any person, 
without the consent of such person, or otherwise knowingly intrude 
upon, or interfere with the privacy of any person occupying any 
adjoining bathroom or compartment. 

MAN OR BOY. 

" 13. A man or boy above eight years old resorting to the jjublic 
baths shall not enter or use any bath which shall be appointed or 
appropriated for the use of any w^oman, or girl, or child under eight 
years old. 

" 14. A woman or girl, or child under eight years old resorting 
to the public baths shall not enter or use any bath which shall be 
appointed or appropriated for the use of any man or boy above eight 
years old. 

TURKISH BATH. 

" 15. A person shall not knowingly occupy any private bath- 
room or any dressing-room in the swinuning or plunge bath for a 
longer period than thirty minutes, nor any dressing-room in the 
Turkish bath department for a longer period than two hours, unless 
such person shall, upon demand being made by the Superintendent 
(or by the bath attendant acting upon his instructions), pay to such 
Superintendent a sum equal to the amount previously paid by such 
person as a charge for admission to such bathroom or swimming 
bath. 

" 16. Every person resorting to the public baths shall, at all 
times, exercise reasonable and proper care in the use of any bath or 
bathroom, dressing-room, closet, box or compartment. 

" 17. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, at any 
time, carelessly or negligently break, or injure, or improperly inter- 
fere with the due and efificient action of any lock, cock, valve pipe, 
work, or engine or machinery in connection with any bath, or care- 
lessly or negligently injure any furniture, fittings, or conveniences of 
any bath, bathroom, dressing-room, closet, box or compartment. 

"18. A person resorting to the public baths shall not, at any 
time, carelessly or negligently injure or destroy any towel or other 
linen, or other article supplied for his use. 



160 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

:»iai-t liquor. 

" 19. A person resorting to the public baths, and any officer or 
servant or other person employed thereat, shall not, at any time, 
introduce into the building any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, or 
smoke or drink any malt liquor therein. 

" 20. A person resorting to the public baths shall not at any 
time, while being on the premises, use any indecent and offensive 
language, or behave in an indecent and offensive manner. 

"21. Any person resorting to the public baths shall not at any 
time, while being upon the premises, by any disorderly or improper 
conduct, disturb or interrupt any otlicr person in the proper use of 
any bath, bathroom, dressing-room, closet, box or compartment, or 
any of^cer, servant, or person appointed or employed by the Town 
Council, in the proper execution of his duty. 

" 22. A person resorting to the public baths shall not cause or 
allow any dog belonging to such person or under his control, to 
enter or remain in any bath, bathroom, dressing-room, closet, box 
or compartment, or in any passage leading to or from any bath or 
bathroom. 

" 23. A person resorting to the public baths shall not at any 
time, while being in any swimming bath, use any soap or other sul)- 
stance or preparation whereby the water in such swimming batli 
may be rendered turbid or unfit for the proper use of bathers. 

" 24. A person resorting to the public baths shall not wilfully 
and improperly foul or pollute the water in any separate bath or in 
any swimming bath, or wilfully or improperly soil or defile any 
towel, bathing drawers, or bathing dress supplied for his use, or any 
bathroom, dressing-room, closet, box or compartment, or any furni- 
ture or article therein. 

" 25. A person resorting to the public baths shall not at any 
time, while suffering from any cutaneous, infectious or contagious 
disease, enter or use any swimming bath or any separate bath. 

" 26. A person resorting to the public baths, and any officer or 
servant employed thereat, finding any article which may have been 
left in any bathroom, or dressing-room, or in any other part of the 
establishment, shall, immediately after finding such article, deliver 







O 



TllK Ad.MIN'ISTUAIIoN t»F Kl UOI'KAN liATIIS. 101 

the same to the Supcrintc-iuKiit (or other person authorized to receive 
such articles I, who shall (luri'upon register a description of the same 
and all particulars relating thereto in the book kept for that purpose, 
and any person losing such article shall, upon giving satisfactory 
proof thereof, receive such article from the Superintendent (or other 
person authorized to receive such articles) u])(jn entering his or her 
name in the book referred to. 

PEXALTIES. 

"2". Everv person resorting to the ])ul)lic baths who shall 
ofTend against any of the foregoing by-laws shall be liable for every 
offense to a penalty of forty shillings ($io). 

" Provided, nevertheless, that the jtistices before wdiom any com- 
plaint may be made or any proceedings may be taken in respect of 
any such offense may, if they tliink fit, adjudge the payment, as a 
penalty, of any sum less than the full amount of the penalty imposed 

bv this bv-law. 

(Signed) E. O. SMITH, 

l^ozi'u Clerk." 

COLD UATH CHKAPEK. 

The Baths and Waslihouses Act stipulates that the number of 
baths for the laboring classes in public baths and waslihouses shall 
not be less than twice the number of baths of any higher class if but 
one, or of all the baths of any higher classes, if more than one, in 
the same building. In practice this is usually, but not always, adhered 
to. There are generally two classes of baths; the first-class price for 
both slipper and swimming baths is most commonly 6d. Second- 
class private baths are 3d. and 2d. in different establishments. A cold 
bath is usually cheaper. For a second-class swinmiing bath also, 3d. 
or 2d. is charged ; the latter charge is usually where a private dressing- 
room is not provided. Extra charge is made at the baths for the loan 
of bathing costumes or caps, soap, etc. A special rate is often made 
for school children and clubs. The following are the forms of appli- 
cation for these rates in use at the Westminster Baths: 
11 



H')'2 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

APPLICATION FOR SPECIAL TICKET BOOK — CLUB. 
Questions. Answers to be ^,'iveu by Secretary of Club. 

Name of Club 

Headqtiarters 

Number of members 

Name and address of Secretary 

Entrance fee and subscription 

First or second class 

The club must provide a rubber or some suitable stamp, and 
stamp across on the face of each ticket the name of the clul), and the 
secretary must sign his name below such stamp mark. 

Attendance by arrangement with Superintendent. Xo allow- 
ance made for untised tickets. 

Club tickets are not transferable, and will not be available for use 
unless the foregoing rules are cotnplied with. 

Signature of Secretary 

(Signed) CHARLES NEWMAN, 

Superintendent. 
SCHOOL. 
Questions. Answers to be given by Head Master. 

Name of school 

Where situated 

Name of Head Master or Mistress 

Number of books required 

First or second class 

The Head Master or Head Mistress must provide a rubber or 
some stamp and stamp across the face of each ticket the name of the 
school and sign his or her name below such stamp mark. 

Attendance by arrangement with Superintendent. No allow- 
ance made for unused tickets. 

Boys must be in charge of a Master and under proper control. 
Tickets will not be available for use unless the foregoing rules 
are complied with. 

Signature of Head Master 

(Signed) WARRINGTON ROGERS. C/rrA-. 

CHARLES NEWMAN. Superintendent. 



Thk Administration (»f European Baths. 1G'.^ 

Careful accounts arc kept, and well tabulated, so that each year's 
report gives very full information as to the number using the baths, 
receipts and expenses. 

German baths, though efficiently controlled by the municipality, 
are often, as at Hamburg, managed by a private society, which is 
allowed only a fixed rate of interest, any surplus going to the benefit 
of the city. Where, as at Berlin and Ciiemnitz, the city operates its 
own baths, they are under the management of a committee of the 
city council. 

At Gothenburg the river baths are managed by the city financial 
board, the two other bathing establishments by special committees 
under the citv's control. 



CHAPTER X. 

Public Laundries. 
The Baths Commissioners are also the authority for the public 
washhouse, usually built in connection with the baths themselves, 
though sometimes, as in Liverpool, it may occupy a separate building. 

MAXGLING— STKAM ^VRINGER. 

One of the newest and best appointed washhouses in London is 
that at the Hornsey Road, Islington, baths. Every effort is made 
here to discourage the professional washerwoman, the charge being 
one penny the first hour, three halfpence the second, and 2d. every 
succeeding hour. If mangling only is done, a charge of 6d. an hour 
is made, the high rate being to ])revent tlie underselling of the poorer 
women who eke out a living by taking in mangling. The dirty linen 
is usually brought in perambulators or rolled up in large bundles. 
Each woman receives from the lady clerk a ticket, on which her name 
and the time of starting are set down. This' ticket is handed by the 
visitor to one of the female attendants within the laundry, who in her 
turn fastens it upon one of the drying horses, the number on which 
corresponds with the number on the washing-tub the woman is 
entitled to use. There are fifty washing-tubs, so that number of 
people can carry on their work at the same time. The whole accom- 
modation is often taken up, and sometimes as many as thirty women 
are waiting outside for vacancies, a circumstance which would seem 
sufificient to justify the Commissioners in their scheme for extending 
the laundry. At the tub tlie washer is supplied with footboard, pail, 
copper stick, washing board, and has three taps under her command 
for the supply of hot and cold water and steam. From the tub the 
washer takes her linen to the steam wringer, which, making about 
800 revolutions to the minute, draws out the water in a remarkably 
short space of time. After a few minutes in the wringer the clothes 
are then removed to the drying horse, heated by steam pipes from 
below, and from the drying horse they are carried to an adjoining 



PlKMC T^AINMUIKS. 165 

room, where tlie mangling^ and inniinq- complete tlie work. The 
English mangle is a machine similar to tlie hand wringer, but used 
for pressing clothes after drying. 'J'he rollers are most commonly of 
wood, and the machine is turned by hand, or, in these large laundries, 
bv steam. The polish given to the clothes saves the necessity of 
ironing sheets, i)illow slips, towels, or. indeed, any linen that is not 
shirred or pleated. When the work is finished the woman takes her 
ticket to the lady clerk at the door, who makes up the time and 
charges the required amount. Besides the public laundry Hornsey 
Road has an establishment laundry in the basement, and here some- 
times 5.000 towels are washed in a single day. 

NKW SYSTK.M. 

The I'Vederick Street Baths and Washhouse, opened in 1842 in 
Liverpool, was the first establishment of the kind in Great Britain. 
When reconstructed in 1854 it was made a w^ashhouse only, other 
baths having been provided. Three other baths in Liverpool contain 
washhouse accommodation. At the Lodge Lane washhouse great 
improvements were made in 1894-5 in the drying apparatus. Form- 
erlv the clothing was put into six chambers, each subdivided so as 
to give a certain amount of space to each washer, and left to bake dry 
in a temperature of 180 degrees for two hours. The new system is 
drying by hot air in motion, so that a natural drying is obtained and 
the clothing is in no way damaged. The chambers are now arranged 
so that each person's clothing is under lock and key, thus obviating 
the thefts so common under the old system. It is probably owing to 
these alterations that the washhouse lost a great deal of its custom, 
many of the regular washers having bought their own washing requi- 
sites and not being then willing to go back. The decrease in the Bur- 
roughs Garden estal:)lishment was attributed to the demolition of 
unsanitary property in the neighborhood, and the consequent re- 
moval of many of the washers. 

Edinburgh washhouse authorities, having regard to the fact that 
a mother cannot leave young children at home alone, and often has 
no one to look after them while she comes to the public washhouse, 
graciously permit each washer to bring two children, but on the 
condition that thev shall not be allowed access to the engine-room. 



166 Mayou's Committkk on Puiu.ic Baths. 

Usually no children arc allowed. l^dinhurG^h also permits to its 
washers the use of private hot and cold baths, with showers, on pro- 
duction of the deposit ticket, at the rate of 2d. an hour or part of an 
hour. Washers have to deposit one shilling on entering, and must 
leave the stall and appliances used by them clean and ready for 
immediate use. 

PRICES. 

The prices do not vary much and are generally less for the first 
two than for subsequent hours, as it is reckoned that most of the 
women will get through their private washing in that time. In spite 
of this, the average time worked is three and one-half hours at St. 
James, Westminster, baths. The scale of charges at St. Margaret and 
St. John, Westminster, is as follows: 

PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

SCALE OF CHARGES. 

LAUNDRY AND WASHHOUSE DEPARTMENT. 

K. d. \ 8. d. 

1 hour 1^1 7 hours 1 1 

2 hours 3 Tn'onrs 1 2 

2i hours 4 i 8 hours 1 3 

3 lioiirs 4^1 8^ hours 1 4 

3^ bours 6 I 9 liours 1 5 

4 hours 7 I 9^ hours 1 6 

4+ hours 8 j 10 hours 1 7 

5 hours 9 lOA hours I 8 

5i hours OKI 11 hours 1 9 

6 hours 11 Hi hours 1 10 

6i hours 1 12 hoors Ill 

X. B. — Persons exceeding any of the above periods more than 
five minutes will be charged the full hour or half-hour as the case 
may be. 

At the Liverpool washhouscs the charges for washing and dry- 
ing (including use of dolly tul) and maiden) are: One hour only, one 
penny per liour; if for two or more hours together in one day, then 
for every hour, including the first, tliree half-pence per hour. 

Following are the rules at the Westminster washhouse. It will 
be noticed that it has been found necessary to exact 3d. caution 
money before allowing a washer to enter, a sufficient evidence that 
the washhouse is used by a poor class of people. 



IMnLic Laundiuios. kit 

RULES AXn REGULATIONS FOR WASHERS — WHICH 
WILL P.K STRICTLY ENFORCED. 

1. The \\ashli(jus(.'s arc open from 8 a. ni. to 8 p. m. (Sundays 
and bank holidays excepted), and all washers are requested to leave 
the buildinp^ in a proper and orderly manner innncdiatcly at the hour 
of closinj^. 

2. The charges for the use of sej)arate \vashin,c^ compartment, 
steam (Iryinfi;- horse, mangle, tables and irons, are as under: 

One hour i |d. 

Two hours ;^(\. 

Two and a half hours 4d. 

Three hours 4^d. 

Three and a half hours 6d. 



And for every succeeding half-hour, id., and should the hour or 
half-hour be exceeded by more than five minutes, it will be counted 
for as a half-hour. 

TICKETS. 

3. Every washer before entering the washhouse shall procure 
admission tickets at the pay office, her name and time of entrance 
will be written thereon by the money-taker; one of such tickets must 
be handed to the attendant, who will admit the bearer in the order 
of entrance to an unoccupied compartment. The other ticket the 
washer must retain for production to the money-taker upon leaving,, 
in order that the proper charge may be made. 

4. See that the correct time is put on your ticket at the time of 
entrance, as no alteration can afterwards be made. 

5. Your ticket must not be placed upon the drying horse until 
yo^jr clothes are ready to be dried, and must not remain on the horse 
after the clothes are dry. 

uKYiNU hokse:. 

6. One drying horse only is allowed to the use of each washer, 
and if it is found that a drying horse is being used without having 
previously obtained a ticket for same, or that a washer is using 



I(j8 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

another's ticket, the clothes of the person so usin_q" the same will be 
removed from the drying horse and detained until another ticket has 
been obtain eil from the j^ay office. 

7. The time occupied from enterinc^ until leaving, will have to be 
strictly paid for; washers should, therefore, be careful to make the 
best use of their time. 

8. Washers, upon the completion of tlieir work, must take their 
tickets to the attendant, who will enter upon the ticket the time occu- 
pied by the washers; the money-taker will then make the charge and 
receive payment, without wdiich the clothes will be detained. 

9. Starch is only to be made and used in the washhouse, where 
tables, etc., are provided for the purpose. 

10. Washers must not unnecessarily slop the floors, or waste 
the water or steam. No wet clothes must be placed in the mangles. 
Washers must use the greatest caution in the use of the mangles and 
hydros, the engineer or the attendant will advise when necessary. 

POOD, BONNETS, SHAAVL.S. 

11. Xf) f(^(id. bonnets, shawls, etc., are to be placed upon the 
tables; pegs and shelves are provided for the purpose. 

12. No washer is allowed to bring clothes into the building in 
a state of vermin, or those that have been used by persons suffering 
from infectious or contagious diseases, unless and until such articles 
have ])cen disinfected and purified, to the satisfaction of the sanitarv 
authorities. 

13. Soap and soda may be obtained from the attendant at fixed 
prices. 

14. No indecent, insulting or ofTensivc language is allowed to 
be used, and any washer who shall wilfully obstruct or interfere with 
another, or who, by her actions, is likely to create a disturbance, will 
be immediately expelled, and will be refused admittance in the future. 

15. No children will be admitted. 

16. Washers must not oflfer gifts or money to the attendants, the 
receipt of which subjects them to dismissal. 

17. Water-closets are in the building. 

18. Washers are, for their own comfort, re(|uesteil to see that 
these rules and regulations are strictly carried out, but if. upon rejiort, 



l*ui?r,i(; LArNinuES. 1G9 

it is found that any waslK-r refuses, or lias refused to do so, she will 
not he a.qain admitted to the huildinj:^. 

By Order of the Commissioners. 

Washers are strietly forl)id(Ieu to Ijrinjj:- spirituous or malt liciuors 
into tlie buildint;-. 

Washers must deposit ^d. with tlie money-taker previous to 
entering the washhouse. 

WASIIHOUSE DEPARTMENT NOTICE. 
You are not allowed the use of tlie mangle for more than one 
]i<)ur at a time. 

MA\t;LK AND IKO\. 

You are not allowed to mangle and iron at one time. 
You must finish in tlie washhouse before you begin to mangle 
and iron, and if you are found to be having the use of both depart- 
ments at one time, or that you are using the ticket of another person, 
\ou will 1)0 charged accordingly, and, in default of payment, your 
clothes will be retained tmtil payment is made for the time so 
occupied. 

If you lose your ticket you are liable to be charged from the 
time the washhouse is opened, viz., 8 a. m. 

By Order. 

(Signed) C. NEWMAN, 

Supcri)itc)idcuf. 

Liverpool's regulations for its washhouses will serve as an exam- 
])le of provincial re((uirements. The caution money here is greater, 
6d. 

1. I'lach {KTson taking a ticket thereby engages to perform and 
abide by all the following regulations, and is admitted only on such 
conditions. 

ONE PK.\NY. 

2. The charge for each compartrnent and the conveniences for 
<lrying shall be one penny per hour; if for more than one hour, or 
part of an hour, together in one day, then for every hour or part of 
an hour, including the first, i^d. per hour. 

3. Each person shall, on entering, make a dei)Osit of 6d. and 
olitam a tickt't statin^' the hour, ami sliall show the same to the 



170 Mayou's CoMMri'TEE OS Pcp.LK' Hatiis. 

waslihijuse at'eiulant, wlio will point out the compartment to be 
used. On leavin,','' each ])erson shall apply to the attendant, who 
will state on the ticket the time the compartment has been occupied. 
His statement is conclusive. 

4. Every person using a compartment for more tlian four hours 
must, on the expiration of the ftjurth hour, immediately obtain a new 
ticket. If two persons jointly wish to use the same compartment, 
each must obtain a ticket. 

5. The money due for use and occupation of the compartment 
and conveniences, after deducting- the deposit, shall be paid to the 
money-taker by each person before leaving. 

6. The superintendent, washhouse attendant, or money-taker,, 
or either of them may, on non-payment, detain all or such part of the 
clothes brought to be washed as they, or either of them, may think 
fit, and siell the same, and with the proceeds defray tlie charges for 
washing and expenses of sale, returning the surplus, if any, to tlie 
owner of the goods on demand. 

7. Any person wilfully or negligently damaging the premises 
or any article thereon, shall be lialile to be turned out and shall be 
answerable for all such damage. 

8. All clothes, etc., which may be left shall be delivered to the 
Superintendent or washhouse attendant, who shall cause the same to 
be registered in a book for that purpose. 

INFECTED CLOTHES. 

[). Any person bringing infected clothes into the washhouse 
will be prosecuted. 

10. No wet clothes will be permitted to be brought into the 
washhouse. 

11. Every person is rec|uested to be careful not to waste the 
water or steam, nor slop the floors. 

12. Any person requiring assistance will receive it hy calling 
out the number of her comjiartment. 

13. No gratuities to be received by the superintendent, assistant 
or money-taker on pain of dismissal. 

14. No children admitted. 

15. .Smoking in the estal)lishnirnl strictly forbidden. 

16. The Cori)oration will not be responsible ior any loss or 
damage caused by fires, etc., or for articles stolen. 



Public Laundries. 



171 



17. Tlic washlunisc is open from tS a. m. to 6 p. m. on Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday. Thursday and I'liday. 

18. No ticket issued after 5 p. in. Xo person allowed to con- 
tinue washing after 6 p. m. 

19. The washhouse is closed on Christmas Day, Ciood Friday, 
and on Bank Holidays. 

20. Every person coniniittinq- a nin'sancc, using profane lan- 
guage, interrupting the comfort of another, being intoxicated, or 
bringing into or causing to be brought into the washhouse any 
beer or liquor, or guilty of a breach of these regulations, or other 
misconduct, shall be liable to be turned out. 

By order, 

(Signed) W. R. COURT, 
Engineer and Chief Superintendent. 

The money-taker not only has to keep strict account of the 
number of hours each washer has worked, but also of the soap and 
soda sold to her. 



LAINDKV DIOrARTMENT — MONKV-TAKERS DAILY ACCOUNT. 

£ s. d. 

led yesterdny 

Total No. issued 



No. of last ticket issued to-day - - 
No. of last ticket iesued yesterdny 



No. of washers . . . 

No. of hours 

No. of half hours 



Lbs.: 

Soap 
Soda 



Goods . 



8. d. 



Gold . . 
Silver. 
Copper 



Total 



Dat( 



d. 



Total. 



, Money-Taker. 



172 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

N. B. — This form must be accurately filled up by money-taker 
at the end of each day, and must correspond, in every ]:)articular, 
with the money-taker's daily account book. 

The number of washers using- the public washhouses at Liver- 
pool for the years 1894-5, was: 

Steble street 44. 402 46, 1(t4 

Lodge lane *27, 849 3:!. C.-.T 

Burroughs gardens (54, Tol G1.4UT 

Frederick street 16, :^i90 1.5, 117 

Total 153, 372 1.56, 37.j 



*Owing to alterations this was open for four and one-half weeks only. 
Here is a sample of the tickets in use at tlie ^^'estminster Haths. 

(In books of 1,000.) 

No 

Name 

No. washing compartment 

Began at o'clock. 

Left ofT at o'clock. 



s. d. 



. . . .Hours occupied. 
Received bv 



DIRT AND DISORDER. 

Working women and wives of working men generally shun any- 
thing like publicity with regard to their domestic arrangements, and 
at first are reluctant to resort to public washhouses. But the con- 
veniences and benefits soon become so apparent that the natural 
distrust gives wa_\'. To the women whose families occn]\v one, two 
or three small rooms in a tenement house these opportunities of doing 
the washing away from home, and thus preventing dirt and disorder 
in the house, come like blessings. The fact alone of the munici])al 
laundry having overcome so completely the women's natural ob- 
jections to mix among others in tlieir domestic duties is an elocjuent 
testimony of its usefulness and superiority. The advantages of 
cheap, comfortable and convenient washing are not the only benefits 



Public Launduiks. IT.'i 

of municipal wasliliouscs; a broader and kinder feeling springs u[> 
between the women by the occasional contact. They learn from 
each other; they give and take; they assist each other in many ways. 
The public washhouse might be said to be the beginning of communal 
life in strictl\- household matters. Just as much of the washing of 
working peo]')le is better done in a central, well-e(|uipped building, 
supported conjointly by the people through the rates, instead of each 
separate little home being thrown into commotion by soap-suds and 
wet linen, so might other domestic arrangements, especially cooking, 
be placed upon a communal basis. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Public Comfort Stations. 

drinks with meals. 

One of the first surprises, and a very disagreeable one, of the man 
who has spent all his life in foreign cities, on coming to New York, 
is the entire absence of those conveniences he meets with at home 
every five or six blocks. He has not been accustomed to rely on 
saloons, for he is most likely in the habit of taking what he cares to 
drink with his meals. Lately the closing of saloons on Sunday has 
made the question a very important one in this city. The provision 
of public comfort stations may lead to the discouraging of the glass, 
taken often when not greatly desired, to recompense the saloon 
keeper. So far back as 1866 the need was realized. The Citizens' 
Association of New York organized a committee for sanitary inquiry, 
consisting of such well-known men as Hamilton Fish, John David 
Wolfe, Edward S. JafTray, John Jacob Astor, August Belmont, and 
others, to inquire principally as to the high deathrate at that time. 
The doctors who reported to them as to the measures to be taken 
to remedy this called attention to the necessity of public comfort 
stations, and said, " This scandalous want is regarded with concern by 
medical advisers; but considered simply as a cause of indecency and 
a public nuisance it should be obviated by suitable municipal care 
and provision, or by private enterprise, in preparing needed plans 
and structures." One of the Sanitary Inspectors employed at this 
time said: " Public urinals are also necessary in large cities. As 
constructed in Paris they disfigure the public thoroughfares and 
oflFend public decency; but such places might be built in the rear of 
small stores, thus removing every objectionable appearance." 

NEJWSPAPERS. 

In the same year the engineer of the Metropolitan Board of 
Health reported: " There has been considerable discussion as to the 
propriety of erecting, in difTerent parts of the cities of this district. 



I'riiMC ( Nt.Mi'oitr S'lAi'ioNs. 175 

public urinals and water-closets. (Jf this necessity there is no doubt; 
the question is, where they shall be located and how they shall be con- 
structed. I)uildinp;-s could be erected in the few jniblic squares with 
these conveniences, and of suflficicnt extent to afford some shelter in 
cases of sudden rain, with small withdrawing:;" rooms for men and 
women, which should be under the charp^e of a keeper who might be 
paid sufficiently by the profits on the sale of newspa]:)crs." 

An act was passed by the New York Legislature April 23, 
1867, authorizing the Croton Aqueduct Department " to locate, erect, 
and establish public urinals within the boundaries of any street, 
avenue, public place or thoroughfare in said city, as it may from 
time to time deem advisable, and connect the same by drains or 
suitable pipes witli any adjacent sewer." The department was also 
to provide for the maintenance and cleanliness of these places. A 
penalty of $50. or lliree months' imprisonment, was laid down for any 
one convicted of defacing or defiling the constructions, the money to 
help pay the debt incurred in the erection of Croton Aqueduct. 

ASTOR PLACE. 

In 1868 drawings were made for two public comfort stations, one 
at Astor Place, and the other at the corner of Broadway and Park 
Row, but as the appropriation was insuflficient for both, only the first 
was proceeded with. This convenience for both men and women 
was opened for use in May, 1869. From its first opening it showed 
the imperious necessity for some such provision. In June 986 men 
visited it during the thirteen hours it was open on a single day. In 
August the men's division was enlarged by moving the partition 
toward the women's part, but without reducing the closet accom- 
modation of the latter. With this enlargement the male frecjuent- 
ers continued to increase, so that at least 300,000 made use of the 
convenience up to the close of 1869. The greatest number of women 
using their division was twenty-five in a single day. The engineer of 
the Metropolitan Board of Health reported: " Of the necessities of 
such edifices both for men and women there can be no doubt, and of 
the appropriateness of this locality for one. But, as one where there 
should be many, it undertakes tlie relief of too large a population and 



J 7(1 MaVOU'S Co.MMri'TKK ON VVUIAC 1'ATHS. 

district, and is too small. The attempt to keep the men's division 
clean by the once-a-day supervision of a woman, and by structural 
means guard against misuse, and the closing of the building evenings, 
have been mistakes. In the opinion of your Engineer, it has been 
clearly proved, by the experience of the urinals in Astor Place and 
City Hall I'ark, that these indispensable structures should have some 
competent person in charge while they are in use, as at our frequented 
hotels; that these accommodations should be of the best character, 
tending rather to bring up the sense of decency in the users than 
degrade it. in an educational point of view well-kept public urinals 
may serve as powerful assistants to the Board of Health, as examples 
of what can be done to render such structures comfortable and in- 
otifensive; they will introduce among our lowest classes habits of 
cleanliness and self-respect that will improve the condition of our 
tenement houses." 

CITY PARKS. 

In 1870 the convenience in Astor Place was remodeled and placed 
under the care of a keeper. The Department of Parks during the 
year erected urinals in the city parks. The Board of Piealth thought 
that the health and comfort of the public demanded that the number 
should be largely increased, that they should be erected in all parts 
of the city, and be constructed for the accommodation of women 
and children as well as men. They believed there was no doubt as 
to the propriety of erecting water-closets and urinals and the only 
question was, where, and in what manner they should be erected and 
constructed. It was suggested that there was a special need for these 
conveniences along the river fronts, and that the matter should be 
laid before the Department of Docks. 

In 1872 the convenience at Astor Place was transferred to the 
care of the Department of Public Works. Subsequently it was found 
to occupy too public a place; it fell into disuse and was removed. 

In 1882 an act was passed which consolidated into one act the 
special and local laws affecting New York City; Section 347 of this 
act repeated the main part of the act of 1867 previously mentioned, 
but the powers there bestowed on the Croton Aqueduct Department 
were transferred to the Conmiissioner of Public Works. 



^^'^-^-^ 



^'VERs 



ri^ 



OF 



ITY 



'4kiORMh. 



riuMc CoMioitr Stations. 177 

IIIM. I'Olt >ll':\ VM> UO^II'.N. 

In 1894 the City \'ii;ilancc Lcag:uc drew up iIk- following- peti- 
tion, which was extensively signed: 

" To the Legislature and Govenior of the State of Nezo York: 

" We, the undersigned, residents and citizens of the State and 
City of New York, in view of the fact that this city is almost entirely 
without public water-closets and lavatories, and that this state of 
affairs is a menace to public health, as well as an offense to delicacy 
and modesty, and that we regard a sufficiency of these as absolutely 
necessary, do hereby petition the State authorities to grant power 
to the government of the City of New York: 

" To construct public water-closets and urinals in all the squares 
and parks, and in the tenement-house districts at every fourth street." 

A bill was introduced in the State Legislature in 1895 making 
it mandatory on every city or incorporated village with four thou- 
sand or more inhabitants to erect in convenient public places suit- 
able structures, each containing not less than two public urinals 
and one public closet, so that there should be in each city two such 
structures for each thirty thousand inhabitants thereof, and in each 
such village two such structures, and the number of structures for 
men and women were to be equal. The local board of health was to 
take charge of these conveniences, which were to be free, and main- 
tained at the expense of the city or village. This bill failed to pass. 

With the exception of the provisions made by the Department of 
Public Parks, there are no water-closets or urinals provided by the 
city. What are the accommodations in the parks at present? In re- 
sponse to this inquiry, the Secretary of the Department sent the 
following communication : 

City of New York, 
Department of Public Parks, 
49 AND 51 Chambers Street, January 21, 1895. 

W. H. ToLMAN, Esq., Secretary, etc.: 

Dear Sir. — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation of the i6th inst., and in reply thereto, I submit herewith a list 
12 



ITS 



Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 



of the public urinals and water-closets provided by the city in the 
parks : 





Men's 
cottages. 


Women's 
collages. 


Urinals. 


Ccutral Park 


11 

i 

7 
2 


8 
2 

1 
3 
1 


2 


Iliverside Park 




Mount Morris Park 




Citv Parks 


16 


East River Park 








Total 


21 


15 


18 







The cottages specified above afiford accommodations to from 
four to eight persons, the urinals from two to eight persons. In the 
new parks north of the Harlem river, the only accommodations of the 
nature referred to are in the buildings on the parks, no cottages or 
urinals having been especially erected for the purpose. Should you 
desire a list of the buildings in the new parks open for this purpose, 
the same will be furnished with pleasure. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) CHARLES DeF. BURNS, 

Secretary, D. P. P. 

There was no improvement in these conditions during the six- 
teen months following, as will be seen by a letter of more recent date: 

City of New York, 

Department of Public Parks, 

The Arsenal, Central Park, May 2, 1896. 

Mr. William II. Tolman, Secretary, Mayor's Ccviiinittee, Public 
Baths, etc., 105 East Tzveiity-sccond Street, A'czv York City: 

Dear Sir. — Replying to the inquiry contained in your favor of 
the 1st inst., I beg to advise you that the conditions of January 21, 
1895, with regard to park urinals and accommodations are practically 
unchanged at this date. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) WILLIAM LEARY, 
[ Secretary. 



Public Comfort Stations. 17!) 

Accompanying this letter we submit a summary of the city parks 
and their area in acres: 

City parks Area Jn acres. 

Abiugdon square -202 

Hatfery 21.190 

Boach stroo-t ■. .038 

Bowling Greeu . 517 

Bryant 4.775 

Boston road, One Hundred and Sixty-fourth street .060 

Boston road, One Hundred and Sixty-ninth street .160 

Central 839.921 

Canal street .318 

Christopher street . 139 

City Hall 8.239 

Cooper Union . 239 

Cedar 17.470 

Duane street . 108 

East river 12.546 

Five Points . 114 

Fourth avenue 5 . 630 

Fulton avenue and One Hundred and Sixty-seventh street .200 

I'ulton avenue and One Hundred and Seventieth street .950 

<iraud street — . .630 

High Bridge 23.380 

Jackson square . 227 

Jeanette Park .870 

Manhattan square 19.051 

Madison square 6.840 

iNIorningside 31.238 

IMount Morris 20 . 174 

Park avenue, Thirty-fourth street to Fortieth street 1.168 

liiverside Park and drive 177.800 

Kutgers .482 

Stuyvesaut square 4.229 

Tniiiu square 3.483 

"Washington square 8.115 

Corlears Hook 8.300 

St. John 1.700 

Tompkins square 10.508 

TRIANGLES. 

Boulevard and Sixty-third street .344 

BfHilovard and Sixty-sixth street .069 

Manhattan avenue and One Hundred and Fourteenth street.. . .018 

Sixth avenue, Thirtj'-second and Thirty-fifth streets .186 

St. Nicholas avenue, One Hundred and Twenty-third street. .. . .072 

St. Nicholas avenue. One Hundred and Thirty-seventh street. . .038 

St. Nicholas avenue. One Hundred and Fiftieth street .240 



ISO Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

SUMMARY. 

Central Park 839 .921 

City parks 391 .090 

Triangles . 9t'i7 

Total (exclusive of new parks) 1,231.978 

NEW PARKS. 

Van Cortlandt 1, 132.3.J 

Bronx 661 . 60 

Pelbam Bay 1, 756 . 

Bronx and Pelham Parkway 95 . 

Mosholu ■ 80. 

Crotoua 141.65 

Claremont 38.05 

St. Mary's 28.70 

Croton Parkway 12. 

Total (new parks) 3,945.35 

PL'BLIC SERVANTS. 

It is clearly evident how inadequate are the municipal provisions 
for these public conveniences, particularly in the tenement-house 
districts where there is a congested population. With such ridicu- 
lously inadequate municipal provision for the public comfort, the case 
of the public servants who are letter carriers, street cleaners, and 
policemen, is particularly distressing inasmuch as the law forbids the 
last two classes to enter a saloon while on duty. There are practically 
no public water-closets or urinals for the policemen and the street 
sweepers, and the only semi-public conveniences are those of the 
saloons. That the above reasons are cogent for a system of public 
comfort stations, is proved again by these two communications: 

legitimate excuse. 

Police Department, President's Office, 
City of New York, 

New York, May 15, 1895. 

My P'ear Sir. — I am so pressed for time that I have not had 
time to examine your preliminary report as carefully as I would; 
but in its essentials I am heartily in accord with it. You bring out 
admirably the effect that the present system has in helping out the 
saloons. One great trouble we have in trying our policemen for 



Public Comfort Stations. 181 

jjoing into saloons in uniform is tlmt tlicy can now plead a legitimate 
excuse for the very reason you emphasize. 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 

source: of injury. 

Commissioner's Office, 
Police Department of the City of New York, 
300 Mulberry Street, 

New York, May 21, 1895. 

William IT. Tolman, Esq., No. 427 West Fifty-seventh Street, 
A^czv York: 

]\Iy Dear Sir. — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 
14th inst., enclosing a preliminary report of the Sub-Committee of 
Seventy, upon Baths and Lavatories. 

I have not had an opportunity, on account of a press of work, 
to carefully examine your report, but I most unhesitatingly and 
heartily endorse the work in which you are so much interested. I 
say this, not only as a citizen of New York, but more particularly 
on account of my connection with the Police Department. The 
want of public lavatories in the City of New York is a source of 
very great injury to the efficiency of the Police Department. Offi- 
cers are compelled to leave their posts of duty, and invariably prolong 
their absence to an undue extent. Furthermore, whenever they are 
reported for absence from post, the almost invariable excuse is that 
of necessity, caused by an absence of lavatories. 

The excuse, although hackneyed and many times false, is a diffi- 
cult one to disprove. I can, therefore, briefly and most heartily state 
that a development of the system which you propose, would result 
in the greatest good to the Police Department, and consequently to 
the welfare of the city. 

Wishing you every success in the work which you have under- 
taken, I am. 

Yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) A. D. ANDREWS, 

Police Commissioner. 



182 Mayor's Committee on PfnLic Baths. 

KIOSKS. 

In the early part of February, 1896, a bill was introduced into 
both Senate and Assembly giving a monopoly of public lavatory ser- 
vice to Alexander De Fossez, and those who were or might hereafter 
be associated with him. They were authorized to erect and operate 
" structures for public lavatories and urinals at convenient points in, 
upon and along the streets, avenues, roads, parks and public places 
in cities and towns of the State and to exhibit advertisements and 
signs thereon." Five cents was to be the maximum charge for lava- 
tory accommodation, and for this soap, towels, etc., were to be sup- 
plied. The corporation proposed to pay over to the city i per cent, 
of its gross receipts for the first five years and afterward 2 per cent., 
the franchise and all structures erected under it reverting to the city 
at the end of thirty years. By subsequent amendment, the interior 
of the kiosks might be used by the city departments for telephone, 
police, fire and ambulance calls, post-offices and express boxes, and 
such kiosks as were not required by the respective cities might be 
used by the company for the sale of necessary or convenient articles. 
The limitation of the franchise to thirty years was removed in this 
amended bill. 

home; rule. 

The scheme aroused much opposition. It was objected that it 
would mean the practical surrender, at a nominal rental, of the streets, 
avenues, parks and public places in every city and town of the entire 
State where the kiosks would be erected, for advertising purposes, 
to a company that ought to pay liberally for this privilege, if it were 
ever considered wise to disfigure the streets and parks in the manner 
proposed. Home rule was subverted to this advertising monopoly. 
Fortunately the opposition was alert and watchful and succeeded in 
defeating the project. 

A law which was passed May 19, 1896, amended the powers of 
the Board of Aldermen, giving them permission " to grant permits 
for the erection of booths and stands within stoop lines, the owner or 
owners of said premises consenting thereto, for use by bootblacks, 
for the sale of newspapers, periodicals, fruits and soda water only, 
and also to grant permits for the erection of booths and stantis in or 



Piiu-rc (''(t.Mi'oirr Stations. 183 

on the space immediately uiuk'nieatli the steps or stairs leading to 
and from the elevated railroad stations, and within the curb line, for 
the sale of newspapers and periodicals." 

FKHI;: ICE WATER. 

Under tliis law a resolution was introduced by Alderman Noonan 
giving to "A. B. & C." the right to erect and maintain for twenty 
years advertising booths or news stands under all the " L " stairs. 
The company was to furnish free ice water and a free lavatory, the 
city supplying the water, the Aldermen naming a newsdealer to oc- 
cupy the stand rent free, he to keep the booth clean and pay for 
lighting, the city to have police, fire and ambulance calls and space 
for a city director}', and the company to pay to the city 5 per cent, of 
its net profits from advertising. 

This was denounced as a revival of the De Fossez bill, while one 
Alderman stated that he was authorized to oflfer 20 per cent, of the 
gross receipts by responsible parties. The resolution failed to get 
through the committee. 

I^AVATORIES — PLINTH AND DADO. 

In England it has long been the custom to provide public urinals. 
Of late years there has been a revolt against the disfigurement caused 
by these places to the public streets, and many cities are now building 
underground conveniences, usually furnishing better accommoda- 
tion. A fee of 2d. is charged for the use of towels and soap with 
hot water in the lavatory, and id. for the use of the water-closets. 
There are often one or more free seats in both men's and women's 
departments, and the urinals are always free. In London the en- 
trance is usually in the center of a street, and the narrow strip of 
sidewalk around it serves as one of the refuges so numerous in 
crowded public streets. The Islington Vestry has recently erected 
two underground conveniences, and two others are in course of 
erection. Of these latter, one is for women. It will contain seven 
water-closets and a lavatory, and is situated near the first one opened 
for men. The other is for both sexes, and will contain seven water- 
closets and lavatory for men, and four water-closets and lavatory for 
women. The first convenience for men only was opened on Decern- 



1S4 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

ber 3, 1894, and cost £1,598 7s. 6(1. It is situated under the carriage- 
way of tlie High street, and comprises entrance and exit staircases 
enclosed by wrought-iron railings, six water-closets, twelve urinals, 
lavatory with three basins, attendant's room and two storerooms. 
The roof is formed of pavement lights supported on steel joists and is 
laid out as a refuge. The brickwork has been built in Portland 
cement. The interior is faced w ith white glazed bricks, with a plinth 
and dado of blue glazed bricks, the whole being laid with very fine 
joints. To prevent the soaking of water into the brickwork, a hori- 
zontal damp course has been laid in all walls at the floor level, the 
back of the exterior walls has been twice coated with a boiling mix- 
ture of tar and pitch, and a backing of dry rubble has Deen put 
around the walls, and drains formed of channel pipes laid so as to 
discharge subsoil water through weep holes in the exterior walls into 
gullies inside the convenience. The drains are formed of glazed 
stoneware socketed pipes, jointed with cement and made watertight. 
They are ventilated into brick chambers in the carriageway, the 
chambers also acting as surface water gullies. The floors are laid 
with vitreous tiles. Cast-iron gratings and a central lamp column on 
the refuge have been provided for the ventilation of the convenience. 
Gas jets fixed over the doors of the water-closets light the convenience 
at niglit, and the products of combustion are collected by hoods 
placed above the jets, and conveyed by tubes discharging under the 
ventilating gratings on the refuge. 

The second convenience, for both men and women, was opened 
a week later and cost £2,542 9s. 4d. The Vestry met with consider- 
able difficulties in the site. The Public Health (London) Act, 1891, 
which vests the ground under the carriageway of a road in the Local 
Authority for the purpose of constructing public conveniences, does 
not give the same right to the ground under the sidewalk. The 
center of the road was occupied by a double line of street cars, and 
large water mains were directly imderneath. The owner of the 
property would not permit the use of the sidewalk for the construction 
of staircases t):ough he permitted the construction of areas under 
part of it, and the staircases were built in the street, though it was 
only possible to construct one entrance and exit for the two con- 



Public Comfort Stations. , 185 

vcnicnccs. The men's convenience conii)rises twelve urinals, five 
water-closets ami two lavatories; the women's, four water-closets 
(one free) and a lavatory with two basins. There is an attendant's 
room and a store room under the staircase in each convenience. The 
main wall next the center of the road runs for its entire lenp^th along- 
side a water main three feet in diameter. In order to avoid disturb- 
ing^ the water main, shafts have l)een sunk on one side and headings 
driven under it near each of the sockets. Each heading w^as taken 
down to the level of the foundations of the main wall, a pier of cement 
concrete was then put in the heading and carried half way up the 
water main, and as soon as the concrete was set, the excavation for 
and the building of the main wall referred to were proceeded with, 
the three-feet water main being securely supported by the concrete 
piers. 

The interior work is similar to that in the first-mentioned con- 
venience. As the sewer into wdiich the conveniences are drained is 
shallow and is also subject to flooding during heavy rainfalls, arrange- 
ments have had to be made for the prevention of the flooding of the 
convenience when the sewer is overfull. The drain will then be shut 
off from the sewer by a valve placed in a manhole immediately outside 
the convenience, worked from the inside of the men's convenience. 
In order to provide for draining of the convenience when the sew^er 
is flooded, a tank has been constructed under the floor of the men's 
convenience. An automatic alarm worked by the water rising in the 
manhole indicates when the valve must be closed to prevent the flood- 
ing of the convenience by the water from the sewer, and also, as the 
water subsides, when the valve may be opened again. Cast-iron 
gratings have been fixed in the risers of the stairs and openings 
formed in the rear walls of the water-closets so that a current of air 
may pass through the convenience to the " Blackman " exhaust fans, 
which are worked by the pressure of water from the street main, the 
water being afterwards used for flushing the urinals and the drains. 
The roof of the convenience is formed of steel troughing carried by 
built girders of wrought iron. The troughing is covered with cement 
which forms the foundation of the roadway above. 

For three months to the end of the financial year, the receipts 
at both these conveniences were extremely satisfactory, and more 
than met the w-orking expenses. 



186. Mayor's Committee ox Pl-rlic Baths. 

' HIGH STREET CONVENIENCE. 

Receipts. £ s. d. 

7S2 tickets for lavatoiy at 2(1 G 10 4 

21.GTS tickets for use of water-closet at Id 90 6 6 

Total 96 16 10 

Payments. £ s. d. 

Wages 42 4 2 

Uniforms 2 11 10 

Tickets and ticket holders 7 2 

Brooms and brushes «! 5 11 

Chandlery 1 4 (> 

Washing towels 1 13 4 

Gas 1 2 3 

Water 1 .5 3 

Miscellaneous 1 3 9 

Total 64 13 4 

Suiplus 32 3 6 

96 16 10 

£ s. d. 

Interest on loan. June 12. 1893, to March 31, 1805 09 9 4 

Principal repaid 44 

Total 113 9 4 

TARKHURST ROAD CONVENIENCE. 

Receipts. 

Men: f s. d. 

366 tickets for lavatory at 2d 3 1 

13, 108 tickets for water-closet at Id 54 12 4 

Women : 

44 tickets for lavatory at 2d 7 4 

5, 278 tickets for water-closet at Id 21 19 10 

Total 80 6 

Deficit 25 1 1 

105 1 7 



Expenses. £ s. d. 

Wages of attendants (men's) 44 3 7 

Wages of attendants (women's) 28 8 7 

Uniforms 2 11 10 

Tickets and ticket holders 10 12 8 

Brooms and brushes > 11 10 1 

Chandlery 1 1 f> 



Pi:blic CoMFoitP S'lA ri(»Ns. isT 

£ s. .1. 

Washing towels 1 *> •> 

(Jaslittinc: 1 ^'■' <> 

(Jrts 1 ^ '•) 

Water 1 "> 10 

Mi?ceU; ni^-ius I H 3 

Total 105 1 7 

Inleri st on loans 19 2 1 



For the first convenience a loan of £1,300 was obtained from 
the London County Council at 3.^ per cent. ; for the second a loan of 
£2.400. Both conveniences were designed In- the Chief Surveyor of 
the Vestry. 

Besides these conveniences Islington has forty-two public urinals 

with 188 compartments, all free. In the year ending March 31, 1895, 

the cost was as follows: 

£ s. d. 

Masons and paviors' work 2-") 2 2 

Paintinjr and repairs and provision of automatic tlushlu^ appar- 
atus throughout Parish 160 

Water for flushing 184 1 3 

Smiths' work and repairs 9 17 2 

Plates and sinks 4 9 3 

Notice tablets 9 17 4 

Acknowledgment for sit es 12 

Total. 393 19 2 



The conveniences and urinals are managed by ih.e Works Com- 
mittee of the Vestry, the Finance Department checking the receipts. 

The Parish of Chelsea, London, with less than 100,000 inhabit- 
ants, contains seventeen urinals and two underground conveniences. 
The cost of maintaining the former during the financial year 1893-4 
was £1,579 los. lod., and in 1894-5, £934 lis. 4d. This included 
thorough repairs to one urinal, while another was removed and re- 
constructed on a new site. Patent automatic flushing tanks had been 
fitted to all these conveniences and were reported to be working well, 
and using less water with equal efftciency. The second latrine was 
designed and built by the men in the direct employ of the Vestry at 
a cost of £625. The receipts and expenses for these underground 
conveniences were as follows: 



1S8 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 





Sloane Square. 


World's End. 




No. using. 


Receipts. 


Working 
expenses. 


No. using. 


Receipts. 


1893-4 


58,709 
62,200 


£262 13 2 
267 12 7 


£262 7 10 
272 1 


1,750 
18,635 


£7 9 1 


1894-5 


78 18 1 







The figures given for 1893-4 at the World's End convenience 
are from date of opening, February 5, to March 25, 1894. 

St. George, Hanover Square, has a population about equal to 
that of Chelsea, and has now three latrines, a fourth being in course 
of construction. 

Some idea of the accommodation provided may be gathered 
from the following: 





Date 

of 
open- 


Cost. 


Accommodations. 




Men. 


Women. 


No. 








01 








ing. 










a . 


t. » 










an 

a 


Water 
closets. 


Lavatories. 




at 
^•5 


Lavatories. 








D 






^ 










£ 8. d. 












1 


1891 


1,434 2 8 


13 


5 


1 








2 


1893 


7,378 15 8 


72 


24 paid aud 
2 free. 


2 with 6 
basins each. 


2 


8 


1 with two basins 
and two ])rivate 
with basiu aud 
walor-closet. 


3 


1894 


995 10 6 


14 


6 


3 




4 


2 


4 




6,473 


32 


12 


6 




12 


4 



marull: arch convemence. 

The cost of the first convenience includes outlay for an orna- 
mental cast-iron clock tower with clock and four dials. The second 
and largest is built on a site at the Marble Arch granted by the Gov- 
ernment (Jfiice of Works. It is built underground of brickwork faced 
inside with ivory-white glazed bricks. It is surrounded above the 
ground level by a handsome balustrade of solid Portland stone. 
There are four entrances, two from the road and two from Hyde 



Public Comfort Stations. l><i) 

Park, each five feet wide and fitted with i'xjstwick's patent iron 
collapsible trellis gates. The water-closets arc of the pedestal pattern, 
fitted with mahogany seats and flushing tanks, etc. The urinals are 
semi-circular fire-clay backs, in white enamel with polished Rouge 
Royal Marble divisions. The lavatories are also fitted with polished 
marble tops, and are supplied with hot and cold water. The usual 
charges are made. The women's department is entirely above 
ground, and is similar in character to the lodges in the parks. It is 
a substantial structure of Grecian design, built of brickwork faced on 
the outside with solid Portland stone, and on the inside with 
ivory-white glazed bricks. For the use of a private lavatory, con- 
taining washbasin and water-closet, a special charge of 4d. is made. 
The fittings are similar to those in the men's department, the floor 
being laid with l)lack and white encaustic tiles. There are two 
entrances, one in the park. The drainage was designed in accordance 
with the most approved principles of sanitation, and the sanitary 
appliances and fittings are of the most modern description. Both 
departments have good light and ventilation, and are lighted by 
electricity. The doors of the w^ater-closets have patent automatic 
" penny-in-the-slot " locks. The men's department is open from 
7 a. m. to 12.30 a. m., and the women's from 8 a. m. till midnight week 
days; on Sundays both are open from 9 a. m. to 1 1 p. m. 

The Board of Works for the St. Giles District, which has a popu- 
lation of about 50,000, has recently erected two latrines. The first, 
on Shaftesbury avenue, was opened in 1892, and the cost in the 
financial year 1892-3 for building and maintenance was £1,002 7s. 8d. ; 
the receipts for the same period were £267 8s. 2d. For the year end- 
ing 1893-4, the receipts were £327 3s. 3d.; expenses as follows: 

£ s. d. 

Wages of attendant 223 12 

Repairs 42 10 8 

Water supply 15 14 

Lig-hting 34 17 <J 

Disinfectants 29 11 7 

Attendants' uniforms, washing towels, soap, clinndlcry, etc (m (> in 

Tot<aI 411 12 7 

Repayment of loan ISO 

Interest on loan 55 3 2 

Total 646 15 



190 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

The latrine for men and women at the junction of New Oxford 
street and Charing Cross Road was opened September 29, 1895, at 
a cost of about £2,500, and has proved a great success. There are 
fourteen urinals, twelve water-closets and three lavatories for men, 
and six water-closets and three lavatories for women. All the urinals 
and one of the women's water-closets are free ; the usual charges are 
made for other accommodation, and it is estimated that the receipts 
will amount to about £1,000. The latrine has a superficial area of 
1,500 feet, and is situated at a depth of fourteen feet below the level 
of the roadway. The women's department is approached by a stair- 
way leading from the sidewalk. The internal fittings are of the most 
modern description. The water-closets are Jennings' syphonic dis- 
charge apparatus, and the urinals of the radial basin stall pattern. 
The convenience is ventilated by Blackman's air propeller, worked by 
water power, the waste water being used for flushing. The ventilator 
is placed beneath a refuge in the center of the roadway. On each 
refuge there is an ornamental ventilating lamp column. The roof 
of the latrine is of rolled-steel girders and trough plates; the stair- 
cases are formed of iron framing with patent reversible treads. Be- 
side the latrines the Board of Works maintains fourteen urinals with 
fifty-one stalls, the number of stalls varying from one to six. Only 
two of these, with four compartments, are without an automatic water 
supply. The whole of them were repainted during the year at a cost 
of £25. 

The Parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields maintains a latrine at 
Charing Cross, which is kept open from 7 a. m. to midnight on week 
days, and until 11 p. m. on Sundays. In winter the women's depart- 
ment is opened at 8 a. m. Besides this, the Vestry maintams nine 
urinals with thirty-one compartments. Of these, six are of slate, two 
of iron and one of brick and slate. The receipts and payments for 
1893-4 were as follows: 

RECEIPTS. f s. d. 

lU'bato on electric current 1 13 10 

Payments for use of lavatories, etc 71U 9 9 



Total T'JG 3 



Public Comkoki' Siations, 



191 



PAYMENTS. £ 6. d. 

Contract '. 312 3 11 

Electric light 08 17 9 

■Water 210 2 1 

Coiuleusers 11 14 4 

La w costs 13 11 

Gas 12 13 2 

Kepairs 303 18 11 

rainting lu'iuals 58 7 1 

I'aper, name plates, uniforms, etc 20 17 7 

AVages and washing towels. Charing Cross lavatory 296 16 6 

Wages, cleansing urinals, etc 67 13 10 

Oilman's goods 17 17 7 

iSuudries 34 15 8 

Total '- 1.419 9 5 



Of this, £271 13s. lod. was spent on the maintenance and repairs 
of the urinals, which are free. 

Shoreditch opened an underground sanitary convenience and 
lavatory for both sexes in October, 1895, at a total cost of about 
£1,800, towards which a street railway corporation contributed £600. 
The convenience is sixty feet by fifteen feet, and its floor is about ten 
feet below the surface of the roadway. There are twelve urinals, six 
water-closets and three lavatories for men, and three water-closets 
and one lavatory for women. The convenience was constructed by 
the same contractor as the new convenience in the St. Giles district, 
and its fittings are very similar. 

The Strand District Board of Works maintains two latrines, 
the accommodation being as follows : 





Cost. 


Accommodation. 


LATRINE. 


Men. 


Women . 




Urinals. 


AVater 
closets. 


Lava- 
tories. 


Water 

closets. 


Lava- 
tories. 


Wellington Street 

Law courts 


£1,860 
2,474 


18 
20 


10 
12 


4 
5 


4 

4 


2 
2 









192 



Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 



In addition to tliesc latrines maintained by the local authority 
there are six free and ten other latrines for which a charge of id. is 
made in Covent Garden Market. 

The accommodations outside of London are not so adequate, 
though the large cities are rapidly taking the matter up. 

Birmingham makes more provision for women than most other 
places, as will be seen from the following table of accommodations 
provided for women only : 



PREMISES. 


Chargp. 


Wages of attendant. 


Time. 


Two small prem- 
ises fitted op as 
shops, contain 
two wate I -clos- 
ets each 


Id. 


lOs. per week. 


9 a. m. to 7 p. m. 


Two sets, contain- 
ing six. 

One i>iiiUliiig, five. 


Ul.aixUd. 
ill. 


15s. and 10s. per week. 
9s. i>er week. 


8 a. ni. to 8 p. m. 
9. 30 a. m. to 9.30 p. m. 



Bradford reports thirty-five urinals in the year ending August 
31, 1894, as against thirty-two in the previous year. Arrangements 
were made for four more, and negotiations pending for one in the 
workhouse grounds. The urinals are under the care of the Sanitary 
Committee of the Town Council. 

Brighton, for the year 1894-5, reported the working expense of 
its lavatories to be £560 lis. iid., receipts, £700 us. 3d., a very 
favorable state of affairs. 

Burnley, with a population of over 60,000, spent £260 on its 
conveniences in the year ending Alarch 25, 1894, and £435 in the 
following year. 

Croydon, with 80,000 population, spent £255 5s. 3d. on new 

urinals in the year 1893-4, and the following for working expenses of 

both drinking fountains and urinals: 

£ s. d. 

lloat of sites 14 

liepairs to urinals 27 9 6 

Hose 2 2 9 

Ironmonger, etc 5 16 9 

Gas 4 18 11 

New fountain and repairs 7 6 

Wages 88 5 8 

Total 136 8 1 



^' OFTHE 

UTvllVERSlTV 

OF . . 



Public Comfoijt Stations. 193 

Sheffield's account for these conveniences for the year 1894-5 
was as follows : 

URINALS. 

£ s. d. 

Acknowledgments for priviloge to erect urinals 3 1 

Pluiiibiug and ivpairs 4G 14 10 

WatL>r and gas 320 12 10 

Total 370 8 8 



WAITING ROOMS. 

Receipts. 
Pitzalan square: £ s. d. £ s, d. 

Use of men's lavatories 122 17 10 

Use of women's lavatories 142 6 1 

265 3 11 

Moorhoad: 

Use of men's lavatories 66 18 3 

Use of women's lavatories 50 5 5 

117 3 8 

Total 382 7 7 

Payments. 
Fitzalan square: £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Wages of attendant 46 16 

Rates, taxes, gas and water. 47 12 6 

Washing towels, repairs, etc 25 12 10 

120 1 4 

Moorheadj 

Wages of attendant 1 41 12 

Gas and water 17 17 11 

Cleaning material, repairs, etc 13 15 9 

73 5 8 

Total 193 7 



ALiTONA. 

In Germany the accommodation provided is very siinilar. 
Altona has erected chalets for ladies, with a notion store in the front, 
this making it possible for ladies to enter without embarrassment, as 
the entrance is always through the shops. 

BERLIN — PRIVATE CONTRACTOR. 

Berlin has 146 urinals with 735 compartments. Every day they 
use 971,000 gallons of water or 354,900,000 per year, at a cost of 
$3,190. Lately the city has been experimenting with an oil closure 
13 



194 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

system, which would take the place of flushing. For this a mixture 
of petroleum and rapesced oil has been used. The oil being com- 
paratively light rises to the top and keeps down all disagreeable odors. 
The saving is said to be considerable. The city has not yet decided to 
adopt the system altogether, but is investigating it. The urinals were 
introduced at a very early date, but, of course, only provided for men. 
In 1877 two conveniences for women were opened in schoolhouses, 
and one in the playground of a schoolhouse. The use of these was 
free, except that in each establishment one closet was only to be 
used on payment of a small " tip " to the attendant. These con- 
veniences were not much used, and a private contractor established 
five others in rented rooms for both men and women. Each estab- 
lishment contained accommodation for from six to eight persons. 
The enterprise failed for lack of support, partly due to the places not 
being sufficiently noticeable. In 1879 the contractor obtained per- 
mission to erect conveniences in various public places; and the neces- 
sary water was freely granted. There are now twenty-two such 
places, with accommodations for both sexes. The city has made a 
very advantageous agreement with the contractor, by which he turns 
over 10 per cent, of the net income to the city, and at the expiration 
of the agreement the conveniences become the property of the city. 
A fee of 10 pfennigs (2.38 cents), first class, and 5 pfennigs, second 
class is charged. In the first-class toilet is a washbasin, towel and 
mirror, which are absent in the second class. An extra 5 pfennigs is 
charged for clean towel, soap, comb and brush. No one is allowed to 
remain longer than fifteen minutes in a compartment. Seven of the 
establishments are open all night, the remainder from 7 a. m. to 
1 1 p. m. The attendant receives 33 cents for either day duty (7 a. m. 
to II p. m.) or night duty (10 p. m. to 8 a. m.). 

BRUNSWICK. 

Brunswick, with 75,000 inhabitants, has only two municipal pub- 
lic comfort stations in two of the larger market places. The usual 
fees are charged. The urinals, the numbers of which are continually 
increasing, are everywhere free. 



Appropriation 


Actual Cost. 


$142 SO 


$142 38 


628 32 


598 12 


1,951 60 


1,777 86 



Public Comkokt Stations. 195 

chemnitz. 

Chemnitz provides for a population of 139,000 three latrines. 
The first, for both men and women, was erected in 1890 at a cost of 
$1,140. For the use of either closet or urinal there is a fee of 
5 pfennigs (1.19 cents). Automatic paying machines are placed at 
the door of each compartment. In 1892 this establishment was used 
by 7.830 persons, in 1893 by 7.172, in 1894 by 7,078, in 1895 by 6,618. 
Two other conveniences were built in 1895 at a cost of $640 and $950 
respectively. In addition there are twenty-six public urinals, for the 
use of which no fee is charged. These are partly water flushing, partly 
oil disinfection; the latter method has proved very successful. The 
management and control are vested in the City Building Department. 
For 1894 the cost was as follows: 

Erection of new urinal 

Cleansing and disinfecting urinals 

Water for flushing 



dre:sde:n. 

Dresden has twenty-nine public conveniences for men, one of 
which can be used as a lavatory by women, for which a small fee is 
paid to the attendant. A second public lavatory for women is erected 
on city property and leased to a contractor for $72 yearly; he charges 
a small fee for the use of it. A joint stock company for hygienic 
purposes has erected eleven latrines for both men and women. There 
are two classes, the first containing tw'o closets for each sex, and the 
second, one each and a urinal. The usual fees are charged and there 
is an automatic registering apparatus. The company does not guar- 
antee a dividend, as the income has never been high enough, 

HAMBURG. 

Hamburg contains a number of urinals and water-closets for free 
use. Several of them are built casematelike into the lining wall of 
deep-lying landing places. Besides these, a limited liability company 
for hygienic purposes has established conveniences on city grounds, 
parks, etc., \those use it obtained free. The buildings are of iron and 
contain the usual acconunodation at 10 and 5 pfennigs. 



196 Mavou's Committee ox Public Baths. 

LEIPZIG. 

Leipzig's urinals are in the form of little houses built of iron or 
corrugated sheet metal; they have an open entrance protected by a 
screening wall and contain as a rule, three, rarely seven, standing 
places, the use of which is free of charge. They are lighted by gas, 
furnished with intermittent water rinsing, and connected with the 
city's sewer system. Lately, patented oil closures have been intro- 
duced into them. Disinfection is accomplished by the use of diluted 
carbolic acid. The City's Economy Inspection cares for and main- 
tains these places. There are also twenty-one conveniences contain- 
ing seven urinal stands, one closet for men, and two (with facilities 
for washing) for women. The attendant stays in the women's depart- 
ment and has to go around the building when summoned by a bell. 
Two establishments have lately been erected after a Vienna model 
and contain six urinals and one closet for men and three closets for 
women. The attendant stays in the middle of the establishment and 
does not need to go outside of the building to the men's department. 
They have patented oil closures instead of water rinsing, and are 
lighted by gas and heated by coke stoves. The cost of such an estab- 
lishment, including foundation walls and sewer connection, is a little 
over $2,000. The use of the urinals for men, and one closet for women 
is free, for the other accommodation the usual charges are made. 
The urinals are always kept open; the closets from 7 a. m. to 8. p. m. 
in summer, and from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m. in winter. The attendants 
are elderly women, usually widows, who receive either $1.19 a week 
wages and the receipts, in consideration of which they take care of 
the cleaning and closing of the houses and furnish the necessary 
linen, or they have a weekly wage of $1.90 and turn over the receipts 
to the city, which then furnishes the linen. An automatic numbering 
machine gives the necessary control. All of the establishments have 
proved to be of practical value, and are willingly patronized by the 
people. 

MUNICH. 

In Munich the urinals are generally separated from the closets, 
and are pavilion-shaped, with an octagonal base. As there is a great 
waste of water, the oil closure system is to be tried. The conven- 
iences for both sexes are always under the same roof, but with sepa- 



Public Comfort Stations. 197 

rate entrances. The attendant's room in the center gives an oversight 
to both departments. There are no conveniences especially for 
women, nor is it proposed to erect any. It is projected to put urinals 
into each convenience. 

Posen supplies the usual German accommodation at the ordinary 
charges. 

Onlv two conveniences in Strassburg have water-closets. There 
is no charge except to women, who pay lo pfennigs (2.38 cents). A 
furth.er convenience more liberally provided with water-closets is 
shortly to be erected. 

Stuttgart is just introducing public comfort stations, to be built 
by the same contractor Leipzig employed. 

AUSTRIA. 

Austrian cities follow German models. Vienna has 178 urinals 
with 798 compartments, besides a number of conveniences. It was 
the first city to introduce the oil closure system, which has proved 
very satisfactory, and is now being generally adopted throughout 
Europe. 

Cracow, with 66,000 population, has no water pipes, and hence 
no public conveniences with water rinsing apparatus. 

Graz is erecting three public comfort stations to supersede the 
urinals and closets at present in use. 

Laibach has a number of urinals and plain, unpretentious closets, 
for which no fee is charged. Besides these there are little houses with 
class divisions. In each class is one water-closet and a urinal with 
permanent water rinsing for men, and a water-closet for women. 
There is also an attendant's room. All these places are city property 
and are managed by the city. 

Milan, Italy, contains two public comfort stations. One on the 
Via S. Croce accommodates ninety persons and cost $5,790. The 
other, on the Via Cherubini, provides for sixty-six persons. These 
are free, and no account is kept of the number using them. 

SWEDEN. 

Gothenburg, Sweden, has no lavatories, but there are sixt-een 
public water-closets, for which no fee is charged. The cost for main- 
tenance in 1894 was $580.68. There are, besides, about 200 urinals. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Recommendations of the Mayor's Committee. 
Plans for a Public Bath on a site loo by §o feet. 

MAYOR'S COMMITTEE. 

According- to the law quoted page 31 the Board of Health is to 
determine how many public baths will be necessary. President 
Wilson, in behalf of the Board, determined upon the general vicinity 
of sites for seven baths, and requested the Mayor's Committee to 
submit him plans and studies for a lot 100 by 50 feet. When ordering 
the plans he stipulated that the city was not to be called upon to pay 
for them unless they met the approval of the Board. This request 
was made in April, 1895; July 8 the Committee had the pleasure of 
forwarding the following communication: 

New York, July 8, 1895. 
Hon. Charles G. Wilson, President Board of Health, New York City: 

My Dear Sir. — Since my last report to you, I have the honor of 
informing you that the Mayor appointed Messrs. Hamilton, Archi- 
bald, Morris and Tolman a " Mayor's Committee on Public Baths 
and Lavatories," with a view of continuing investigations and seeing 
if some means cannot be devised for working and trying at once 
some of the recommendations of the Sub-Committee of the late 
Committee of Seventy. 

In pursuance of his Honor's request, the above gentlemen met 
for reorganization July i. Mr. William G. Hamilton was chosen 
Chairman; Dr. Moreau Morris, Vice-Chairman, and W'illiam H. 
Tolman, Secretary. 

The Mayor's Committee, therefore, submit for the consideration 
of your Board the accompanying studies and plans for a public bath 
on a city lot 100 by 50 feet. We should state, in accordance with 
your request of April, 1895, for studies and plans for a public bath, 
that we at once conmiunicatedv with our architects, Messrs. Cady, 
Berg & See, and would respectfully rcconnnend : 



Kk('().mmi:.\i>ati().\s of tjik Mavou's Committee. 199 

(i) That Messrs. Cady, Berg Si See be appointed architects of 
such pubHc baths as your Board shall determine, because their plans 
embody the wishes of the Committee, and their experience in the 
construction of public baths in the City of New York has been 
crowned with success. By this means your Board may avail itself of 
the studies of the Committee and the knowledge which is the result 
of successful experience. 

SITES. 

(2) That the accompanying plans shall regard a public bath to 
be built in the vicinity of Tompkins Square, and shall be the first of 
a series of five others to be located in the vicinity of 

1. Washington and Carlisle streets. 

2. Chatham Square. 

3. Essex Market. 

4. Tompkins Square. 

5. Fifty-eighth street and Eleventh avenue. 

6. One Hundred and Tenth street and Second avenue. 

It should be stated that these very sites had been recommended 
by a member of your own Board in a report to you, and had been 
selected entirely independently of the Committee. 

(3) It is the urgent recommendation of the Committee, a fact 
which is confirmed by the practice of the best English and Con- 
tinental baths, that a fee should be charged for the use of, say 75 per 
cent, of the baths, with the remainder free, as a bath is not a charity 
to be enjoyed for the mere asking, whereby the recipient loses his 
independency, but should be a municipal provision for cleanliness on 
the payment of a fair charge; then the user retains his independency. 

Respectfully submitted in behalf of the Committee, 
. (Signed) WM. HOWE TOLMAN, 

Secretary. 

The rcpoit was received by the Board and deemed of so great 
importance tliat it was referred to a special committee. After careful 
deliberation the matter was reported to the Board, and the following 
action communicated to the Committee: 



200 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

approval. 

Health Department, 
New York, August 21, 1895. 

Wm. Howe Tolman, Esq., Secretary, etc., 105 East Twenty-second 
Street, New York: 

Dear Sir. — At a meeting of the Board of Health of the Health 
Department, held August 20, 1895, the following resolution was 
adopted: 

" Resolved, That this Board hereby approves of the plans for 
a public bathhouse recently submitted to it by the Mayor's Com- 
mittee on Public Baths, Water-closets and Urinals, as prepared by 
Messrs. Cady, Berg & See, architects and engineers." 

(Signed) EMMONS CLARK, 

Secretary. 
(A true copy.) 

In the plans and studies for the first bath, the Committee were 
obliged to follow the general principles of the People's Bath in Centre 
Market Place, adding the latest experience of the European models. 
The Committee also availed themselves of the experience of their 
architects in the construction and planning of hospitals and other 
public buildings, hence a composite study was secured that will be 
perfectly suited to American needs and conditions. 

CAPACITY. 

Describing the details of the proposed bath, it will be seen that 
this bathhouse furnishes eighty baths, of which forty-tvvo are for 
men, fifteen for boys, and twenty-three for women. Those for men 
and boys are so arranged that their proportions can be reversed at 
times when a large number of boys will be present. These baths will 
further meet the needs of those for whom the bathtub ratlier than the 
spray is desirable, three tubs being located in the mezzanine story 
and eleven in the second story; provision is also made for separate 
baths for men who are too filthy to be admitted to the public baths. 

DEPAHTMEXTS. 

Besides these subdivisions there is a general division of the house 
into male and female departments. The moment one enters the 



Recommendations of the Major's Committee. 201 

house, one passes either into the male or female waiting-room, which 
are separated by a central office and partition of glass and ornamental 
iron, so located that one person controls both entrances, as well as 
all the entrances to baths, stairways, etc.; thus, no one can enter or 
leave the building, or its baths, without being seen from this point. 
This separation applies not only to the bathers, but to employes as 
well, as no person can pass from the male to the female departments, 
or the reverse, without passing through this central office or con- 
trolling point on the main floor; the economy of this arrangement in 
the administration of the baths is evident; for, at times when there are 
few bathers present, one person can control all parts of the building. 

The baths themselves are constructed of iron, marble and un- 
breakable glass, the iron being finished in white enamel. Each indi- 
vidual spray bath has two compartments, one a dressing-room, and 
the other for the bath itself. The floors throughout are of solid 
masonry, no iron beams being used, to prevent cracking due to their 
expansion ancl contraction. The floor of each bath compartment has 
sunk into it a little marble foot bath ; each bath and apartment will 
have separate drain to main sewer, this for cleanhness as well as 
hygienic reasons. 

Excepting the fourteen tub baths, the baths themselves will for 
the most part be '' rain showers " or " ring showers " (the latter 
arranged so that water will not strike the head, and preferred usually 
by women). 

The material, and the manner in which it is used, will greatly aid 
in the maintenance of cleanliness; the partitions being of heavy 
rolled glass (with wirework imbedded in it), the necessary framework, 
and door of metal, finished in white enamel. The foot of the glass 
partitions is to be finished in strong enamelled wirework for ventila- 
tion, while the tops of the compartments will be covered with the 
satne material, allowing the free play of light and air, but preventing 
thievery. 

The solid masonry foundation permits the use of white vitrified 
tiling for the floor, without danger of cracks or open joints; and it 
has the further important value of furnishing a series of masonry 
passageways, which will be used for the plumbing and ventilating 
pipes, and will give the engineer easy access to them, while keeping 
all parts separate. 



202 Mayor's Coi^mittee ox Public Baths. 

No plunge baths or double baths of any kind will be used for 
easily understood hygienic reasons. 

This bath, as planned, should readily accommodate one million 
bathers per year, if kept open as required by law, and properly admin- 
istered. 

PUULIC LAVATORY FOR ME\, 

The plans of the Committee contemplate ample provision for 
free public water-closets and urinals, in all parts of the city, but it 
has been deemed wise to not await their completion, but to make a 
start in this building. A free lavatory containing water-closets, 
urinals and wash sinks, has been provided in the basemicnt, accessible 
directly from the street. The water-closet seats wall be so arranged 
that they cannot possibly be stood upon. 

Of course ample water-closets, urinals, wash basins and sinks 
are provided for the employes also, in each department of baths, and 
all located for convenience of access. 

AD^HNISTRATION. 

The administrative parts of the building consist of the engine 
and boiler-rooms, which are placed in the basement, and from which 
by means of the brick passages already alluded to above the 
engineer can readily control all of the main and branch lines of 
plumbing, as well as all parts of the heating and ventilating apparatus 
and air ducts. 

The laundry is placed on the second floor, where the best light 
and air will be obtained. 

The circular office or central controlling point is built in the main 
waiting-room, not only giving simple and convenient control of it, 
as previously mentioned, but making a central point from which 
keys, towels, soap and other supplies can be given out. 

CONTUOIj of BATH13RS. 

Each bather should be allowed twenty minutes per bath; sand 
glasses (which are reversed when he enters) indicating to the attend- 
ant when the bather's time has expired. 

We think it would be advisable in the first building to be built 
to try experimentally the several systems of controlling the quantity 
and temperature of water allowed each bather, viz.: 



Recommendations of the Mayor's Committee. 203 

First. To build a certain number of baths where the bather him- 
self will be allowed to control both the temperature of the water and 
the quantity used. 

Second. To build some baths where the bather can control the 
temperature of the water, but where the quantity of hot water is 
limited. 

Third. To build some baths where the bather will have no con- 
trol over the water supply in any way. The attendant to fix the tem- 
perature and the quantity from a central point outside of the baths. 

In each case, however, the piping and faucets would be so ar- 
ranged that under no possible conditions could a bather scald himself. 

We would recommend the heating of the water by the German 
or " Gegenstrom " system. 

HEATING AND VENTILATING. 

The heating and ventilating will be in general on the principle 
of drawing down the fresh air through the large air shafts in the rear 
(which would be built high above the neighboring structures), by 
means of fans and electric motors; regulating its temperature by 
blowing through plenums, with steam coils under the control of the 
engineer, and then forcing it to the various parts of the building, 
in general at a height of about five feet above the floor. 

The velocity of the incoming current will be so regulated to the 
various parts, as to avoid any possibility of feeling a draught, and 
yet the air wnll be constantly changed in every part. 

The exhaust would be near the ceilings of the rooms, connecting 
into branch exhaust ducts provided for that purpose; the branches 
all connecting to the large duct on the second floor, where a fan and 
motor would draw the air out of the building. In winter the exhaust 
fan would not be used, but the air allowed to escape by natural means, 
using only the inlet fans to force in the fresh air. 

All of these ducts would be controlled by the engineer with 
locking adjusting dampers, to prevent unequal supplies of air, or 
unnecessary exhaust of same. 



204 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

de:sign. 

The design of the interior has been planned to make the waiting- 
rooms, as well as the main bathing halls, very attractive by its abun- 
dance of windows and skylights, and its light reflecting surfaces. It 
will everywhere suggest cleanliness and light, and no possibility of 
hidden disease germs. 

The exterior is in classic style, admitting of sufficient ornamenta- 
tion to be attractive, but retaining the dignity and massiveness neces- 
sary to prevent its appearing insignificant or trivial, in comparison 
witli the higher and probably more prominent buildings adjoining. 

The material would preferably be marble, although the design 
would be carried out as well in limestone or other light masonry. 
Whatever material is used, however, should be light in color. 

PROPOSED BATH FOR TOMPKINS SQUARE. 
March 25, 1896, the Act quoted on page 31 became a law. The 
Mayor was very anxious that aggressive measures should be taken 
at once and proposed a conference between the Commissioner of 
Public Works and the Committee, since that department was charged 
with the initial steps. 

SPECIAL. MEETING. 

April 22 a special meeting of the Mayor's Committee was held 
at the office of Mayor Strong, in accordance with his request that, the 
Committee should meet the Honorable the Commissioner of Public 
Works, in order to discuss the proposed bath and public comfort 
station. The salient points of the Committee's work were presented 
to the Mayor and the Commissioner, who both expressed themselves 
delighted with the work, particularly commending it for its practi- 
cability and business-like character. General Collis requested the 
Secretary to place at his disposal the recommendations desired by 
the Committee, in order that he might get the necessary authority 
from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment. He also signified 
his willingness to avail himself of the services of Messrs. Cady, Berg 
& See, the consulting architects of the Committee, and requested 
plans and drawings of a proposed bath to be located in Tompkins 
Square, the latter site having been suggested by Mayor Strong as a 
desirable location for the first public bath. 



Recommendations of thk Mayor's Committee. 205 

plans accepted. 

In accordance with the official request of the Commissioner of 
PubHc Works, the Committee met at the office of General Collis, 
May 1 8, and presented plans for the first public bath and two under- 
ground public comfort stations, with the accompanying recommenda- 
tions of the Committee. The entire Committee was present, and, in 
addition, Messrs. Cady and Berg. The Commissioner accepted the 
plans and arranged that the Committee, with the architects, should 
meet the Board of Estimate and Apportionment at the Mayor's office 
the following morning, ^lay 19, at 11 o'clock. Agreeable to that 
request, the Mayor's Committee, with the architects, met at the 
Mayor's office, and were requested by him to accompany him to the 
Comptroller's office, as the meeting of the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment would be held there. The Committee was informed 
by the Comptroller that the Board had so much business which they 
must discuss that it would be impossible to reach any consideration 
of the plans for a public bath and public comfort stations at that 
meeting: 

The following report was submitted in accordance with the re- 
quest of Commissioner Collis for plans and specifications: 

New York, May 18, 1896. 
Commissioner C. H, T. Collis, Commissioner of Public Works: 

My Dear Sir. — In accordance with your request of April 22, 
for plans and recommendations for a public bath, the Mayor's Com- 
mittee would most respectfully recommend that the first public bath 
be built in Tompkins Square, and that two underground public com- 
fort stations be built, one in the City Hall Park, at the corner of Mail 
street and Park Row, and the other in Greeley Square, at the junction 
of Broadway and Sixth avenue and Thirty-second street. 

For these we herewith present four sets of plans which have 
been prepared by Messrs. Cady, Berg & See, under the guidance of 
and after constant consultations with the Committee, and we further 
recommend that Messrs. Cady, Berg & See be appointed the archi- 
tects and engineers to carry out these structures. 

The following list of accommodations to be provided and a 
description of the plan is most respectfully submitted: 



206 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

FREE PUBLIC BATH. 

The accommodations in this building are for bathers, as follows: 

A waiting-room for men and boys, with seats for more than one 
hundred; also a waiting-room for women, with seats for over fifty. 

In the men's baths there are on the main floor twenty-eight rain 
baths, and fourteen more rain baths on the second floor, where there 
are also ten tub baths for men, while there are on the main floor 
seventeen rain baths for boys, making in all sixty-nine baths for men 
and boys. 

The plan is so arranged that the proportions of boys' and men's 
baths can be reversed at times when most men are at work and 
public schools are not in session. 

The provisions for women are seventeen rain baths on the main 
floor, and ten tub baths on the second floor, making in all twenty- 
seven baths. The object of providing some tub baths is for such 
women and men as cannot stand showers. This number of baths 
should readily provide for more than one million bathers a year. 

In connection with these baths will be built the necessary laun- 
dry conveniences for washing towels, also the engineering depart- 
ment for providing the steam, hot water, electric lighting, and for 
running the ventilation. 

All the baths (except those w^ith bathtubs) will have dressing- 
rooms in front so arranged that the clothing cannot be wetted while 
bathing, while the bath, or rear compartments, will have either 
" rain " showers or " ring " showers (the latter arranged not to strike 
the head, and preferred generally by women). „ 

FOOT BATHS. 

In each bath floor will be sunk a marble foot bath. Each set of 
compartments will be arranged to drain separately and to prevent 
the water from splashing from one bathroom into adjoining compart- 
ments or bathrooms; this for cleanliness as well as hygienic reasons. 

The j)artitions of the compartments will be composed of heavy 
rolled glass, with wire bedded in it, the necessary metal parts being 
painted with enamel paint. 

The doors will be of light metal, painted with enamel jiaint. 



Recommendations of the Mayor's Committee. 207 

At the foot of the glass partitions will be enamelled wirework in 
slate frames, to promote thorough ventilation ; the tops of the com- 
partments will be covered with heavy enamelled wirework to pre- 
vent thieving. The seats and all similar parts are made movable for 
cleanliness. 

It will be noticed that the floors of the baths, throughout the 
main floor, arc on solid masonry. This is done to avoid cracking 
due to the expansion and contraction of iron beams, which would 
otherwise take place. 

Having solid masonry for a foundation, vitrified tile can ])c used 
for a flooring, witliout any danger of cracking or opening of joints. 

Then, too, these masonry foundations furnish a series of brick 
passages, which will be utilized for plumbing pipes and for ventilation 
system. 

In connection with each set of baths, there will be ample conven- 
iences in the way of water-closets, urinals, washbasins, etc., for men, 
women and boys. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

The administration parts of the building consist of the engine 
and boiler-rooms, which are placed in the basement, and from which, 
by means of the brick passages, the engineer can readily control all 
of the main lines of plumbing, as well as the heating and ventilating 
apparatus and air ducts. 

The laundry is placed on the second floor, where the best light 
and air will be obtained. 

A circular office is built in the main waiting-room in connection 
with the partition dividing the male and female waiting-rooms (ofBce 
and partition similar to those enclosing banking-rooms, and about 
seven feet six inches high, of glass and iron). This office is so located 
that one person can control both of the main entrances (male and 
female), and all of the entrances to the various baths, staircases, etc. 

No one can enter or leave the building without being seen from 
here, excepting, of course, those using the public comfort stations 
and the public laundry. 



208 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

separation op males and females. 

The plan has been drawn with a view of entirely separating- 
males from females the moment they enter the building. 

The plan arranges this not only for the bathers, but also for all 
employes. No person in any part where there are females (whether 
bathers or employes) can go to any part where there are males, or 
vice versa, without passing through the central controlling office on 
the main floor, 

CONTROL. OP BATHERS. 

In order to avoid too many attendants, we think it will be neces- 
sary to allow each bather, excepting those in bathtubs, to control his 
own hot and cold water faucets so far as the degree of heat is con- 
cerned. In each case, however, the piping and faucets would be so 
arranged that under no possible conditions could a bather scald 
himself. 

This can be readily and economically accomplished by using the 
well-known German Gegenstrom System of heating the water. In 
this system no steam is wasted, but only the actual amount needed 
to heat the water while in use is consumed. 

Outside of each bath, however, will be placed cocks under the 
control of the attendant, to shut of? entirely the supply, both hot and 
cold, in case a bather attempts to overstay his time limit when the 
baths are crowded. In the case of the tubs, the attendant will control 
the quantity and temperature in order to avoid waste of water. 

HEATING AND VENTILATING. 

The heating and ventilating will be in general on the principle 
of drawing down fresh air through the large fresh air. shafts (which 
would be built up high above any other part of the structure), by 
means of fans and electric motors, regulating its temperature by 
blowing through plenums with steam coils under the control of the 
engineer, and tiien forcing it to tlie various parts of the building, in 
general blowing it in at a height of about live feet above the floor 
and so arranged as to avoid all draughts. 

The cxiiaust would be in branch exhaust ducts provided for that 
purpose, the branches all connecting to tlie large exhaust duct in the 




* ^ /» 



Re5COMmi:m»ations of tiik Mayou's ('o.m.mittki:. 200 

roof, where a fan and motor would exhaust the air and blow it out 
of doors. In winter the exhaust fan would not be used, but the air 
allowed to escape by natural means, using only the inlet fans to force 
in the fresh air. 

All of these ducts, as well as the ceiling lights and skylights, 
wouUl be controlled by electricity from the engine-room, with locking 
dampers, to prevent unequal supplies of air or unnecessary exhaust 
of same. Speaking tubes from all parts to the engine-room will give 
the engineer a thorough knowledge of the wants of the building at 
all times. 

DESIGIV. 

The design of the interior has been planned to make the waiting- 
rooms, as well as the main bathing halls very cheerful, and with an 
abundance of light. Everything will be carried out with a view to 
the avoidance of dust or dirt, and so arranged that any part can be 
hosed out thoroughly at any time. 

The exterior is in the style known as Italian, and has been made 
very simple and dignified. This style has been selected so as to be 
able to keep the building as low as possible, making it unobtrusive 
and not obstructing the sunshine and air of the park. It, however, 
will have sufficient dignity and massiveness not to appear insignifi- 
cant or trivial in comparison with the higher buildings on the avenue. 

The material should preferably be of light stone, as this at once 
suggests the idea of purity and cleanliness, and accords well with 
the style chosen, best bringing out its lines and detail. 

The piazzas running along each side form a connection between 
the designs of the ends, and at the same time give a shady place for 
settees, where people can rest; while at the end of the piazza drinking 
fountains for public convenience will be provided. 

LOCATION. 

The bathhouse will be least obstructive in the park by placing it 
on the center of the east side of Tompkins Park, immediately adjoin- 
ing Avenue B. The entrances for men and boys, that is, to the baths 
and to the men's public comfort station, would be from the avenue. 
Those for women, to the baths, laundry and public comfort station, 
14 



210 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

would be from the park side, the approaches so arranged as to be 
screened by shrubbery. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Committee, 

(Signed) WM. H. TOLMAN, 

Secretary. 

When it became known that the Committee proposed to locate 
the first bath in Tompkins Square, a general protest was made, on 
behalf of the inhabitants of that part of the city. It was claimed that 
the park space was altogether too small as it was, and that it would 
be a serious loss to invade the park by the location of a building 
devoted to public purposes. The protest was so strong, and the 
points so well taken, that, after a conference with the Mayor, it was 
decided to withdraw all recommendations for the location of a bath 
in Tompkins Square. The Committee pointed out to His HoYior the 
Mayor that it was compulsory to indicate some park for the location 
of the bath, as no latitude for a choice was given by the mandatory 
law on public baths. 

In justice to his Honor, the Committee should state that the law 
on public baths being mandatory, it was necessary to select some 
park, and Tompkins Square seemed the most desirable. 

Tlie proposed building for Tompkins Square would have pro- 
vided for more than a bath, as it contemplated a public laundry and a 
public comfort station. From a description of the plans and the 
front elevation, it will be noted that such a building would have been 
an architectural addition to any city as well as serving the special 
object for which it was designed. 

The law being mandatory with reference to the location of baths 
in the pu])lic parks only, and as there was no public park in which a 
bath could be constructed that would meet the wants of that portion 
of the tenement-house population for which these baths were emi- 
nently intended, it was seen that no further action could be taken 
without additional legislation, which would allow the purchase of 
property Ijy the city or the securing of proper locations by condemna- 
tion proceedings. 



Recommendations of the Mayor's Committee. 211 

PLANS I'OR UNDERGROUND PUBLIC COMFORT 

STATIONS. 

The Committee has given the subject of lavatories or places of 
iniblic comfort much thought, and the Chairman of the Committee has 
made personal study and inspection of the lavatory systems of the 
cities of Europe and England. It is firmly believed that when the 
American public are conversant with the latest practice on the subject 
they will not be behind Europe in their introduction, especially as it 
is contrary to law for the public servants of the city to frequent, while 
on duty, drinking places, about the only places now providing con- 
veniences for public comfort. 

In our opinion the most approved system is the underground 
" latrines " as now adopted by the City of London; they are clean, 
inodorous, hidden from view, and attractive, and frequented by all 
ranks of society, and are provided for both men and women in sepa- 
rate places. It is customary to make a charge of a penny for the 
use of the closets, and two pence for the use of towels and soap in the 
lavatories, the urinals being free. With the small charge these places 
are quite self-supporting, and your Committee asks that the experi- 
mental places suggested may be carried on in all particulars as far 
as possible as are those in London in the matter of management. 

The report of the City of London Commissioners of Sewers 
shows the working of ten establishments in the small area of the 
City of London, which has a day population of 262,000, as follows : 



212 



Mayou's Committee on Puhlic Baths. 







^O —1 


xo 


CO 


t- 


^^ ^^ ^H 






^ 


<s 








1. 






OS 


3 


^ Oi 05 c^i 00 ir: i^ <^ — i^ 




»• 








5 


c 


. ^ 00 c-i c-i t~- '-r: c-1 c; t~ o 




i 


1> 


sit^OiM'-i — OClO-^ 




o. 


•*eceoeoM?5coi-(tH 




o 


M 








H 






r-^ C50^ -HOtNCO'tOJ • 




" i-H »H rH 




5 

a 


CO 


•inco-*r-(cocco>no5 




« 


'53 


to ,-1 >-( i-H >-( iH 






o 


05'^im;n-*oio^i-0 




« 


« 


^ 00 ic5 00 in in -^ i^ ^ "O 




>^ 


■^OTC<|-^i-ieO(M-- 








CO IM N (M IM N Ol iM IM ■ 


■BJU'Bp 


neqiV 


1 




a 


00^^^ _^^„ .,H 




a- 


oooc®oco*o 


3 ® 

CO 


S 




^ 


s 


oo o o o o 


CO 


CO CO CO CO CO CO 




d 


o rH e<i c^i oi oi f-i -^ oi 


^^^rHC5^'-l.-l.-(i-l 


■? & 




oooooooooo 


25° 


q 




^ 


e« 


005Ot-t-vnt-t-t-t^t- 




o 


(N--iimm(M>n>nin-^QO 


i« 




^ * * 


o 


^ 




i« 










S.S 


in 


OOS0500C<IC30005IOIM 




"3 


(M r-l rH r-l 


<: 


'C 






a 


^oo^«o»Hoot-eO'-<(MO 




o 


-/ 00 -^ "-1 00 "-I o (M lo a> o 


o 


o 




3 


incct^t-coo50^coo 


(M CO '^ -^ 1-- -* C5 t- m o 


6 


to 

c 


^ o c^i •* >ft i^ CO -* «o -^ o 




o 


COi-l'-l'-t »H — i-<i-ICO 




u 




















CO 






' 












05 






' 












00 






' 












r-l 






, 










. (M 


. 






1 










•05 


(M 






, 










• 00 


(M 






1 










• 1— 1 


.^^ 


















CO 


tu 


1 


• 










'o 




c 




>o 


CO 


05 


;co 


So 


c 




00 


00 


00 




P 


C 




00 

1— ( 


00 • 00 

^OOl-H 


< 


c 






• 00 ^ 


;S 








CO ~ — 


c-i 00 ,-M 


a 


"c 




g^gC^rH^ 


' jT 


Hi 


oi 

C 




>.2 ^^c^-Sd =<^ 


a 








c 




c 




a^"c « ? "S "i* ji 1 2 S 


e 




c^S t^^ 2^ =-S §3 3 


^ 






a 








C c 


: c 


3 5 




y 


^OPC^ 


3P 


5 
C 



Kecommiondations of tiik Mayor's Committee. 213 

Since then latrines have opened at Crutched Friars, Aldgate, 
Billingsg-ate Market and Cannon street, all in the city area. The 
last-named latrine cost £2,389. 

It appears from the latest published returns that the receipts and 
expenditures for three years ending December, 1892, when nine con- 
veniences only were in use, were as follows: 

Receipts £6,752 

Expenditures (including- gas, wages, water, 
repairs, etc.) £6,944 



It will be seen that these conveniences are almost self-supporting, 
and it is hoped in the course of time that they will become a source 
of profit, besides paying interest on capital outlay. 

UIVDERGROUND LATRINES. 

Another great advantage of these underground latrines is that 
the old-fashioned and unsightly conveniences are gradually disap- 
pearing from the streets. In addition to water-closet accomoda- 
tions these conveniences provide free urinals. It is estimated that 
9,000,000 use the urinals per annum, and 697,300 the water-closets. 
Their economy, efficiency and utility, must therefore be manifest, and 
the Commissioners' efforts fully appreciated. 

Your Committee suggests that two underground places of public 
comfort be built ; one at the south end of the City Hall Park, and one 
at the small park between Broadway and Sixth avenue, and between 
Thirty-second and Thirty-third streets. 

These will serve as object lessons. If as successful as those in 
London, w^e believe many more will be built in other locations, as 
necessity may suggest, being almost hidden from view, light, clean 
and thoroughly ventilated and, if cared for as they are in London, 
thev will soon commend themselves to the common sense of the 
public. 

To meet the wants of the public where underground places may 
not be available, the Committee presents plans for urinals with self- 
flushing apparatus, to be placed on properties belonging to the city, 
or which may be acquired for the purpose, but most earnestly recom- 



214 Mayor's Committee on Puklig Baths. 

mends that the underground places of puljHc comfort be used whcre- 
ever practicable, to the exclusion of all other kinds. Experience 
demonstrates that it takes some small time before these places are 
fully appreciated by the public, but it is merely a question of time. 

PARK SHELTERS. 

With the exception of the provisions made by the saloons in 
New York City there is practically no provision for public comfort 
stations outside of the few shelters in the pu1)lic parks. 

July lo, 1895, ^ formal request was made to the Committee by 
the Board of Health, in accordance with the following resolution: 

" That the Committee appointed by His Honor the Mayor, on 
Public Baths, Lavatories, etc., be and is hereby requested to prepare 
plans for public lavatories and water-closets in the streets and public 
places in this city for the accommodation of women as well as men, 
and for additional accommodations in the public parks." 

The Committee at once instructed the architects to prepare plans 
and studies for underground public comfort stations, as well as those 
to be located under the elevated stations and within the area line of 
buildings on the sidewalk. The plans were submitted and, after a 
conference with President Wilson, several changes were made in 
order that his ideas might be embodied. The Board of Health re- 
ferred the matter to a special committee, which in turn reported to 
the Board, and October 2, 1895, the following communication was 
received : 

William Howe Tolman, Ph. D., Secretary, 105 East Twenty-second 
Street, Nezv York: 

Sir. — At a meeting of the Board of Health of the Health Depart- 
ment, held October i, 1895, the following resolutions were adopted: 

PLANS APPROVED. 

Resolved, That this Board approves of the report submitted by 
the Mayor's Committee on Public Baths, Water-closets and Urinals, 
and the accompanying plans made by Cady, Berg & See, architects 
and engineers, and recommends that the President appoint a com- 
mittee of one from this Board to obtain the necessary funds, and to 
procure one hundred of these stations at once, and to select and lease 
the necessary sites. 



Recommendations of tiik Mayor's Committer, 215 

Resolved, That the Mayor's Committee be ref|uested to submit 
the necessary working- drawings, specifications and estimates for one 
hundred such stations. 

Resolved, That the Secretary of this Board communicate with 
the Board of Commissioners of Public Parks and request them to 
co-operate with the Mayor's Committee and this Board in carrjing 
out the suggestions contained in the report relating to stations in the 
smaller and larger parks. 

Resolved, That Commissioner George B. Fowler be and is 
herel)y appointed a committee of one, under the above resolution, to 
represent this Board. 

(Signed) EMMONS CLARK, 

Secretary. 
(A true copy.) 

Commissioner Fowler manifested his great interest in the matter 
by meeting with the Committee and frequent consultations with the 
architects, in order that the whole matter might receive careful atten- 
tion. The Committee was particularly anxious to make provisions 
for the comfort of public servants, especially the policemen, when 
early in October the Secretary was authorized to present to Com- 
missioner Roosevelt the following statement: 

It is proposed ultimately to establish on each policeman's post 
a station containing a water-closet and urinal. For the immediate 
present, however, only one hundred of these stations will be put in 
various parts of the city, experimentally. 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The stations will be built of iron, roofed over, and so arranged 
that where placed against the side walls of buildings no part of the 
interior can be seen from the windows or any part of the house. 
They will be entered from the street side. Where they cannot be 
placed against houses, they will be placed on street corners of wide 
streets or under elevated railroad stairs. The height from sidewalk 
to top of cornice in each case will be eight feet six inches. The width 
of each station — or the projection out from the house — will be 
four feet. The length of each station or the part coming against the 
brick wall of the house, will be six feet ten inches, where the station 



210 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

contains both a water-closet and a urinal, or four feet four inches 
where it contains a urinal or water-closet only. 

The stations will be so arranged that they cannot possibly be- 
come a nuisance to property owners. Where stations are placed 
against the brick walls of houses, inside of the area line, the city 
would pay a moderate rental. Where the owner of the projierty 
would be willing also to keep the station clean, the city would pay 
an additional amount for such service. Each roundsman should 
ascertain — 

AVAILAIILE SITES. 

First. How many available sites there are on his post where a 
combined water-closet and urinal station (six feet ten inches long) 
could be placed against a house, inside of the area line, where the 
landlord would not object. He also should report with the site the 
annual rent demanded, and whether the landlord is willing to keep 
the station clean and the annual cost thereof. 

Second. Report similarly available sites for urinal stations only 
(four feet four inches long), yearly rent demanded, and if willing to 
keep same clean, yearly compensation for such service. 

Third. Report available street corners where a combined water- 
closet and urinal station (four feet wide by six feet ten inches long), • 
placed near the curb, would not obstruct pedestrians. 

Fourth. Report available street corners where urinal stations 
only (four feet wide and four feet four inches long) could be placed 
near the curb without obstructing pedestrians. 

Fifth. Report all available sites where combined water-closet 
and urinal station (four feet wide and six feet ten inches long, eight 
feet six inches high) can be placed under elevated railroad stairs. 

October 8, the Committee, in compliance with the resolution of 
the Board of Health, passed at the meeting on October i, accepting 
their report and plans, requested Messrs. Cady, Berg & See to pre- 
pare the necessary working drawings and specifications for each of 
the four varieties of public comfort stations called for by the Board 
of Health. 

CONFERENCE. 

Ajiril 22, 1895, a conference was called by Mayor Strong between 
the Committee and the Commissioner of Public Works, to whom 



Recommknoations of tiik Mayou's C'oMMn"ri:r:. 217 

the building- of tlie public comfort stations was entrusted, in accord- 
ance with the last law. General CoUis expressed himself as satisfied 
with the studies of the Committee, and signified his willingness to 
avail himself of the services of the Committee's architects, and 
requested the necessary recommendations, in order that he in turn 
could secure the necessary authorization from the Board of Estimate 
and Apportionment. 

May i8 the plans and studies were submitted to the Commis- 
sioner at his office, at which meeting the plans were accepted by him. 

At a meeting of the Board of Estimate held in July the plans were 
subjected to a criticism by Commissioner Styles, of the Park Depart- 
ment, and, on motion of the Comptroller, the whole matter of under- 
ground public comfort stations was referred to the Parks Department, 
with a request that they should report to the Board of Estimate, 

In connection w^ith the building for the proposed bath in Tomp- 
kins Square, provision would have been made for two wings, one 
containing sixteen water-closets, twenty urinals and three washbasins 
for men, and the other, fourteen water-closets and four washbasins 
for women. 

GREELEY SQUARE. 

In the recommended underground public comfort stations, one 
in the City Hall Park, the other in the small park in Greeley Square, 
the plans submitted provide for making these stations of masonry 
so far as practicable. The ceilings to be entirely of mason work, so 
as to avoid the expansion and contraction of iron beams, and the 
consequent possibility of dampness and leaks. 

The ceilings of these stations will be kept well down, as shown on 
the sections, so as to leave sufficient height above to fill in with earth 
and loam, so as to be able to retain the appearance of the park, and 
not lose any of the verdure or breathing space now existing. Each 
station will, of course, be made thoroughly damp-proof and water- 
tight. The entrances for men and women will be located at opposite 
points of the parks as shown on the plan, and will be screened by 
shrubbery and ornamental iron railings, which will also run around 
the park. 

The ventilation will be by means of electric exhaust fans, which 
will draw the air from everv water-closet bowl, as well as from over 



218 Mayor's Committer on Public Baths. 

every water-closet and urinal. It is then blown out through an orna- 
mental shaft, on top of which an electric light will be placed. 

In connection with this station will be a room for the male and 
female attendant, also rooms for coal and heating apparatus. Where 
the sewer level would be above the plumbing fixtures, these will dis- 
charge into a tight cesspool sunk below the floor, and the matter in 
the latter will be pumped out and into the sewer at regular intervals. 
A small electric pump will be provided for this purpose. 

The walls, like those in the bathhouses, will be of light glazed 
brick, the partitions of water-closets similar to those of the baths, all 
wired glass, and all arranged to avoid dust and to give tlie utmost 
light and cleanliness to the place. 

It should be stated that this wired glass is sufficiently opaque to 
provide proper privacy. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Bir.LFOGRAPIIV. 

Aachen (Germany). — Public Baths. "Aix-la-Chapelle and Envi- 
rons," pp. 33-35. 

Aachen (Germany), Stadtbauamt Abteilung Hochbau. — Letter and 
matter regarding public baths, -etc., December 10, 1895. 

Allsop, Robert Owen. — Public Baths and Washhouses. 98 pp. ill., 
London, 1894. 

Altona (Germany). — Tarifif, description (with plans) and tickets of 
Altona Baths. 

Altona (Germany), Magistrat der Stadt. — Letter regarding baths 
and lavatories, March 12, 1896., 

Amateur Swimming Association (England). — Form of Application 
for Championship Competition. 

Amateur Swimming Association (England). — Swims and Swim- 
mers; notes on the Association's meetings, etc., from London 
paper. 

Amateur Swimming Club (London, England). — Rules, Fixtures 
and Programme of the Twenty-eighth Annual Costume Enter- 
tainment, Monday, October 21, 1895; also letter from A. C. 
Parker, Hon. Sec, April 2, 1896, giving information as to accom- 
modation usually provided for swimming clubs. 

Baruch, Simon, M. D. — A Plea for PubHc Baths, with an inexpen- 
sive method for their hygienic utilization. 45 pp. ill.; reprinted 
from " Dietetic Gazette," May, 1891. 

Baruch, Simon, M. D. — Letter criticising the Committee's report as 
to a large bathhouse and the introduction of tubs. 

Berlin (Germany). — Die Stadtische Volksbadeanstalt in Moabit. 
See " Festschrift zur XXXV Hauptversammlung des Deutscher 
Ingenieure," Berlin, 1894. 



220 Mayor's Committer ox Puhlic Baths. 

Berlin (Germany), Magistral hiesiger Koniglichen Haupt- unci Resi- 
denzstadt. — Letter regarding Public Bath and Lavatories, 
February i8, 1896; also reports on the City Baths, 1893-4 and 
1894-5. 

Berlin (Germany). — Oel pissoir von Beetz. " Technische Mitthei- 
lungen und Anzeigen," November i, 1895. 

Berlin (Germany). — Tariff, blank reports, etc., of the Berlin Public 
Baths. 

Berlin (Germany). — Ueber Anlage und Betrieb von Bediirfniss- 
Anstalten fiir Manner und Frauen, with plans; also Oelver- 
schliisse bei Pissoiren; both by Rudolf Protz, Sub-Director of 
the Berlin Public Lavatories; together with detailed estimates 
of cost of Berlin conveniences and urinals, and poster. 

Birmingham (England), Baths Department. — Letters from Superin- 
tendent and Engineer, J. Cox, regarding public l)aths, January 
21, June 20 and September 30, 1896. 

Birmingham (England). — Biographical Sketch of* ^Ir. Job Cox, 
Superintendent of the Corporation Baths; with portrait. Birm- 
ingham " Owl," January 10, 1896. 

Birmingham (England) Borough of. — Public Baths and Open 
Bathing Places; by-laws for their management, use and regu- 
lation. 1885. 

Birmingham (England), City of. — Corporation Baths; details and 
particulars of the several bathing establishments, 1894; rules for 
the baths. Title page of report, January, 1896. 

Birmingham (England), City of. — Corporation Baths; with interior 
photograph of the oldest bathing institution. Birmingham 
" Faces and Places," 1893; pp. 40 and 43-45. 

Blomfield House Swimming Club (London, England). — Pro- 
gramme of Annual Costume Entertainment, Monday, October 
28, 1895. 

Bootle (England), Borough of. — Public Baths and Gymnasium; 
Annual Reports, sixth and seventh, 1894 and 1895 ; also time and 
price of admission for classes. Letter from J. Farmer, Town 
Clerk, January 20, 1896, regarding work. 

Boston, City Council. — References to Public Baths. Inaugural ad- 
dress by Josiah Quincy, Mayor; p. 36. 



Hir.i.iocjKAriiv. 221 

Boston, City of, Department of Parks. — Elevation of Bathhouse in 
Marine Park. Twentieth Annual Report of the Board of Com- 
missioners, for the year ending January 31, 1895. 

Boston (Mass.). — Letter from John Mullaly, Superintendent Bath- 
house, West Boston Bridge, September, 1896, and letter from 
Samuel F. Hubbard, Superintendent North End Union, August 
7, 1896, re Baths in a Boston Public School. 

Boston (Mass.). — Report on Bathhouses for 1895. Twenty-fourth 
Amuial Report of the Health Department, for the year 1895. 

Bradford (England), Borough of. — Baths and Washhouses. Report 
of the Committees of the Council, 1894; pp. 83-85. 

Breslau (Germany), Magistrat der Koniglichen Plaupt- und Resi- 
denzstadt. — Letter and matter regarding public baths, etc., No- 
vember 20, 1895; also returns for 1894 and 1895; rules, time and 
instructions to attendants. 

Brighton (England), Borough of. — Public Baths; by-laws for their 
management, use and regulation, 1874; also statistics of cottage 
baths, and letter from W. Boiling, ex-Mayor, in reference to 
cottage baths, September 22, 1896. 

Brighton (England). — Letter regarding Public Baths from F. J. Till- 
stone, Town Clerk, March 24, 1896. 

Brockton (Mass.). — Letter from William S. Bamford; September 4, 
1896. 

BrookHne (Mass.). — Baths, Bathing and Swimming for Soldiers; by 
H. Lincoln Chase, Assistant Surgeon Massachusetts \'olunteer 
Regiment. (Reprinted from the Boston " ]\Iedical and Surgical 
Journal " of August 27 and September 3, 1896.) Also letters 
from ]\Ir. Chase; September 26, October 29 and November 24, 
1896. 

BrookHne (Mass.), Special Committee. — Report on Improved Public 
Bathing Facilities; October 24, 1895; circular of opening of 
baths, December 28, 1896. 

Brunswick (Germany), Der Stadt Magistrat. — Letter regarding 
Public Baths, etc., November 26, 1895. Number of baths, 
charges, etc. 

Budapest (Hungary). — Book, pamphlet, letter, etc., regarding Pub- 
lic Baths; December, 1895. 



222 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

Buffalo (N. Y.).— The Buffalo Free Bath. The "Engineering 
Record;" September 19, 1896. 

Burnley (England), County Borough of. — Baths manager's report; 
March 25, 1893, and March 25, 1894. Annual Report, Four- 
teenth, 1893, p. 61; also Annual Report, Fifteenth, 1895, p. 63. 

Burnley (England), County Borough of. — Letter from William G. 
Fullalove, Town Clerk, January 20, 1896, regarding work; also 
Rules and Regulations relating to Corporation Baths, 1895. 

Chemnitz (Germany). — Letters from Biirgermeister Gerber, Febru- 
ary 26, 1896 (with date of first bath, number, cost, etc., of Public 
Baths and Public Lavatories), and July 21, 1896. Also letter 
from Department of School Affairs as to school baths, Septem- 
ber 24, 1896. 

Chemnitz (Germany). — Public Baths. "Bericht der Bauverwaltung," 
1888, pp. 4, 6, 16, and 19-22; and 1890, pp. 6, 18, and 19; also 
" Bericht iiber die Verwaltung und den Stand der Gemeindean- 
gelegenheiten," 1894 and 1895. 

Chemnitz (Germany). — Reference to Public Lavatories. " Bericht 
der Stadtbauverwaltung," 1888, p. 7, and 1890, pp. 7 and 14. 

Chicago (111.). — Letter from Dr. Gertrude G. Wellington, September 
2, 1896; letter from Joseph Downey, Commissioner of Public 
Works, November 7, 1896. 

Chicopee (Mass.), Dwight Manufacturing Co. — Letters from Carroll 
D. Wriglit, United States Commissioner of Labor, and J. W. 
Cumnock, Agent Dwight Manufacturing Co., as to provisions 
made for baths; September 9 and 15, 1896. 

Clarence Swimming Club (London, England). — Programme of Fifth 
Annual Entertainment, Thursday, October 17, 1895. 

Coventry (England), City of. — Public Baths; by-laws for their man- 
agement, use and regulation, 1893; also letter from Town Clerk, 
Lewis Beard, regarding baths; January 20, 1896. 
. Croydon (England), County Borough of. — Baths and Additions. 
Abstract of Receipts and Expenditures, 1894; p. 2. 

Croydon (England). — Queries and replies regarding the baths; cir- 
culars of time, price, etc., and letters from Samuel Jacob, Town 
Clerk, January 20, 1896, and E. Mawdesley, Town Clerk, Sep- 
tember 7, 1896. 



Bibliography. 223 

Dolphin Swimming Clnb (London, England). — Rules, officers and 
fixtures for season 1896; also letter from C. W. Horner, Hon. 
Sec, June 29, 1896. 

Donald, Robert. — Public Baths and Laundries. " Outlook," Febru- 
ary 15, 1896. 

Dresden (Germany), Rath. — Letter on Public Baths and Lavatories, 
February 13, 1896, concerning river baths and proposed douche 
baths, public and private lavatories. 

Eastbourne (England). — Prospectus of the Royal Parade Baths, 
Limited. 

Edinburgh (Scotland), City of. — Corporation Baths; scale of 
charges, time, and various kinds of admission tickets; also 
deposit and other tickets for washhouse and Rules and Regu- 
lations for Baths and Washhouses. 

Essen (Germany), Die Polizeiverwaltung. — Letter and matter re- 
garding Public Baths, etc., November 9, 1895; time and price 
of baths. 

Fisk, Harvey E. — The Introduction of Public Rain Baths in America: 
a Historical Sketch. " The Sanitarium," June, 1896. 

Frankfort-on-jMain (Germany). — Letter from the Mayor, May 20, 
1896. 

Gerhard, William Paul. — Some Recent Public " Rain " Baths in 
New York City. 

Glasgow (Scotland), City of. — Corporation Baths and Washhouses; 
Reports for 1891 and 1892. 

Glasgow (Scotland). — Letter from J. Lang, City Chambers, regard- 
ing various details of Public Baths, date of first bath, number of 
baths, etc., January 31, 1896; also letter from W. Thomson, Su- 
perintendent Corporation Baths and Washhouses, with statistics, 
etc., of public baths, February 10, 1896. 

Gothenberg (Sweden). — Letter from Gustav Svanberg, Commis- 
sioner of Trade, Policy and Finance, giving date of first bath, 
■ cost, number, etc., February 14, 1896. 
Gothenberg (Sweden). — Statistical abstract of the baths served in 
the Renstromska Badanstalten; average operating expenses of 
the same; also small ground plan, tariff of baths, tickets and 
pamphlets concerning baths. 



224 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

Gottingen (Germany). — Bade-Einriclitung inncrhalb der Volk- 
schulen der Stadt Gottingen, by Oberbiirgermeister Merkel; 
also letter from Mayor, July, 1896. 

Gottingen (Germany). — Schulbader, by Oberbiirgermeister Mer- 
kel. Volks- und Schulbader, Verhandlung auf der dreizehnten 
Versammlung des " Deutschen Vereins fiir offentlichen Ge- 
sundheitspflege " zu Breslau am 13 Sept., 1896. 

Graz (Austria), Stadtrath. — Letter regarding public baths, etc., 
January, 1896. 

Halifax (England). — Corporation Baths: List of charges and hours 
of admission; also various admission tickets, 1894-5. 

Hamburg (Germany). — Bade- und Waschanstalten. "Hamburg und 
seine Bauten," etc.; pp. 214-231. 

Hamburg (Germany), Bua Deputation, Central Bureau des Ingen- 
ieurwesens. — Letter and matter regarding Public Baths, etc., 
November 26, 1895, from Andreas ]\^eyer. Chief Engineer. No- 
tices of baths, scale of prices, tickets, reports, 1890-94, etc. 

Hamburg (Germany). — Specifications and Conditions for Building 
a Casement, with Closet and Urinal Acconmiodation, on the 
Hop Market. 

Harrogate (England). — An illustrated Account of Harrogate; Its 
Baths, Waters and Environs. Harrogate as a Health Resort 
(illus.). Also letter from William Bennett, Engineer and Super- 
intendent of Wells and Baths, September 25, 1896. 

Hartford (Conn.). — Letter from John K. Williams, August 22, 1896. 

Hartwell, Edward. — Letter, July 7, 1896, on date of introduction of 
rain baths in the L^nited States. 

Huddersfield (England), Borough of. — Public Baths: By-laws and 
regulations, 1871. Letter from F. C. Lloyd, Town Clerk, re- 
garding Public Baths, January 21, 1895. 

Jersey City (N. J.), People's Palace. — Letter from J. Lester Wells, 
Secretary People's Palace, August 26, 1896, with illustration of 
swimming tank and exterior of building. 

Jersey (England), Swinmiing Club. — Annual Report, 26th to 30th, 
1892-96, and programmes of 29th and 30th animal swimming 
matches, 1894-95; rules and regulations. 






o^?Ml^ 



BlBLIOGRAl'IIY. 225 

Jersey (England), Swimming Club. — " Jersey," by Archibald Sin- 
clair. " Swimming," January i6, 1896. 

Jersey (England), Swimming Club. — Letters from A. F, Grellier, 
Hon. Sec, March 24 and June 15, 1896; with manuscript account 
of the club since its formation. 

Jersey (England), Swimming Club. — Rules and regulations, pro- 
grammes, application and entry forms for competitors, tide 
tables, cuttings from " Jersey Times," August 19 and 20, 1895, 
and January 23 and March 7, 1896. 

Keith, James, C. E. — Patented Systems of Heating Water (illus.); 
also illustration of Stafford Corporation Baths, with method of 
heating Turkish baths. 

Konigsberg (Germany), Magistrat Koniglicher Haupt- und Resi- 
denzstadt. — Letter and matter regarding Public Baths, etc., 
December 4, 1895. Rules, price, etc. 

Krakau (Austria), Magistrat der Haupstadt. — Letter concerning 
Public Baths, November 23, 1895. 

Laibach (Austria). — Letter regarding Public Baths, etc., December 
4, 1895. 

Leipzig (Germany), Rath der Stadt. — Letter and matter regarding 
Public Baths, etc., November 22, 1895. Description of bathing- 
house and cost of erection, receipts and expenditures; also 
People's Douche Baths. 

Life-Saving Society (England). — Annual Reports of the Central 
Executive Committee, 1892-93 (with prospectus for 1894); 
1893-94 (with prospectus for 1895); 1894-95 (with prospectus 
for 1896). 

Liverpool (England), Borough of. — Public Baths and Washhouses, 
sundry statistics, 1893; scale of charges, etc.; also reports of the 
Engineer and Chief Superintendent of Baths and Washhouses, 
November 20, 1895, and January 15, 1896. 

London (England), County Council. — Returns of baths and wash- 
houses in the County of London, 1848-88. 

London (England), " Local Government Journal." — Architecture, 
Building and Engineering. New Baths and Washhouses. July 
30, 1892. 

: 15 



226 Mayor's Committee ox Public Baths. 

London (England), Schools Swimming Association. — Report, 1895; 
Programme of Championship Races and Entertainment, Octo- 
ber 2, 1896; circulars of same; claim for first-class certificates. 

London (England), Bethnal Green, Parish of. — Letter from Robert 
Voss, Vestry Clerk, September 14, 1896. 

London (England), Bow, Parish of St. Mary, Stratford. — Report of 
the Commissioners for Public Baths and Washhouses, 1894, 
1895, 1896. 

London (England), Chelsea, Parish of. — Baths and Washhouses. 
Report, 38th, 1893-94; pp. 19, 20, 40-43, and Report, 39th, pp. 
44-48 and 182-185. 

London (England), Chelsea, Parish of. — Letter from M. T. Holland, 
Vestry Clerk, January 20, 1S96, regarding the work. 

London (England), City of. — Latrines. Works and Proceedings of 
the Commissioners of Sewers; p. 25; 1894. 

London (England), City of. — Specifications for underground latrine 
in Cannon street; also letter from H. Montague Bates, Principal 
Clerk to the Commissioners of Sewers, February 27, 1896. 

London (England), City of. — Underground Latrines; returns pre- 
pared by Clerk and Engineer, by order of Streets Committee. 
1892 and 1893. 

London (England), City of. — Underground L^rinals, etc. Returns 
prepared by the Principal Clerk and Engineer by order of the 
Streets Committee; from the first opening up to December 31, 
1889. 

London (England), Clerkenwell, Parish of St. James and St. John. — 
Letter from R. E. Paget, Vestry Clerk, September 9, 1896. 

London (England), Fulham, Parish of. — Letter from J. H. Dense- 
low, Clerk to the Vestry, January 24, 1896, regarding Public 
Baths and Lavatories. 

London (England), Greenwich, S. E. — Letter from Alfred Budds, 
Clerk to the Commissioners, September 9, 1896. Also accounts 
of Commissioners for the year ending March 25, 1896. 

London (England), Hackney, Parish of. — Letter from George Gro- 
cott, Vestry Clerk, September 12, 1896. 



Bibliography. 227 

London (England), Hoxton Schools Swimming Association. — Bal- 
ance Sheet for 1895, and circular containing rules and hints on 
swimming. 
London (England), Islington, Parish of St. Mary. — Description of a 
Visit to the Baths. Reprinted from " London," April 18, 1895, 
with illustrations. 
London (England), Islington, Parish of St. Mary. — Letter from 
William F. Dewey, Vestry Clerk, regarding public baths and 
lavatories, January 2^, 1896, and letter from D. McMonnies, 
Acting Clerk, September 9, 1896. Public Baths and Wash- 
houses: Abstract of receipts and payments of the Commission- 
ers, 1889-92, 1893-94. Programme of the opening of Public 
Baths, 1892 and 1895. Leaflet of the Plornsey Road Baths and 
Public Laundry. 
London (England), Islington, Parish of St, Mary. — Public Baths 
and Washhouses. Annual Reports, 35th, 1891, p. 66; 37th 1893, 
p. 62; 38th, 1894, p. 9; 39th, 1895, PP- ix S"d Ixi. 
London (England), Islington, Parish of St. Mary. — Urinals. An- 
nual Report, 35th, 1891, p. 51. 
London (England), Kensington, Parish of St. Mary Abbotts. — Let- 
ter from Henry E. Mayfield, Clerk to the Commissioners, Octo- 
ber 9, 1896. Report of the Commissioners of Public Baths and 
Washhouses for the year ending March 25, 1896. 
London (England), Lewisham, Parish of. — Public Baths and Wash- 
houses; Report of Commissioners, 1888; Abstracts of Ac- 
counts, 1894 and 1896; time and price of admission to the 
baths; Report of Board of Works, 1893-94. 
London (England), Newington, Parish of St. Mary. — Letter from 

L. J. Dunham, Vestry Clerk, February 14, 1896. 
London (England), Paddington, Parish of. — Report of the Commis- 
sioners for Public Baths and Washhouses. 1891-92. 
London (England), Paddington, Parish of. — Report of the Commis- 
sioners for Public Baths and Washhouses for the year ending 
March 31, 1896. Annual Report of the Vestry, June, 1896. 
London (England), Plumstead, Parish of. — Letter from E. Hughes, 
Town Clerk, September 9, 1896. 



228 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

London (England), Poplar, Parish of. — Reports from the Commis- 
sioners and General Abstracts for the years ending March 23, 
1895, and March 28, 1896. Also letter from Joseph S. Freeman, 
Clerk to the Baths Committee, September 22, 1896. 

London (England), Shoreditch, Parish of St. Leonard. — Letter from 
H. Mansfield Robinson, LL. D., Clerk to the Baths Commis- 
sioners, October 2, 1896; also Competition for the Proposed 
New Public Baths and Library. 

London (England), St. George, Hanover Square, Parish of. — Public 
Conveniences; leaflet with costs, charges, etc., January 14, 1894. 
Letter from G. Livingston, Surveyor, regarding Public Lava- 
tories, where first erected, number, etc., February 2, 1896. 

London (England), St. George, Hanover Square, Parish of. — Report 
of Commissioners of Baths and Washhouses to Vestry, 1894-95; 
also Abstract of Accounts of same year and letter from Louis C. 
Mountstephen, Clerk, February 11, 1896, regarding their Public 
Baths (where first erected, etc.). 

London (England), St. George, Hanover Square, Parish of. — Report 
of the Commissioners for Public Baths and Washhouses, on 
completion of new baths and washhouses, 1890. Also Laws, 
Orders and Regulations for the management of baths and wash- 
houses. 

London (England), St. Giles District Board of Works. — Circular of 
Information regarding Public Lavatory, New Oxford street. 

London (England), St. Giles District Board of Works. — Letters 
regarding Public Baths from H. C. Jones, Clerk to the Board, 
January 20 and September 11, 1896; also leaflet on Baths and 
Washhouses. 

London (England), St. Giles District Board of Works. — Public 
Urinals. Annual Report, 1893, p. 53. 

London (England), St. Giles-in-the-Fields and St. George, Blooms- 
bury, Parishes of. — Baths and Washhouses. Lists of Joint 
. Vestry, etc., 1894, p. 16. 

London (England), St. James, Westminster, Parish of. — Statement 
relating to Public Ba-ths and Washhouses, with special reference 
to New Swimming Bath, July, 1893. Also report of Commis- 
sioners, 1895. 



Bibliography. 229 

London (Enp^land), St. Martin's-in-the-Ficlds, Parish of. — Public 
Baths and Washhouscs; Statement of Receipts and Expendi- 
tures. Annual Report, 38th, 1893-4, pp. 75-79. 
London (England), St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Parish of. — Statement 
of Receipts and Expenditures by Commissioners, 1893, and 
schedule of laundry, and sample tickets. Letter from 11. Bald- 
win, Superintendent, February 4, 1895, with information regard- 
ing the building containing the laundry and baths. 

London (England), St. Marylebone, Parish of. — Public Baths and 
Washhouscs; instructions to architects for rebuilding, March 20, 
1894, note on cost, etc.; also letter from O. L. Marchant, Clerk 
to the Baths Committee, September 9, 1896, and Abstract of 
Cash Received and Paid, 1895-96. 

London (England), Strand District Board of Works. — Return 
showing Public Latrine Accommodations in large towns and 
populous districts in England, etc., March, 1889. 

London (England), Westminster, United Parishes of St. Margaret 
and St. John. — Letter concerning Washhouscs and Swimming 
Baths from C. Newman, Superintendent Westminster Baths, 
March 7, 1896. Rules and regulations, notices, returns, classes, 
tickets, etc. 

London (England), Westminster, United Parishes of St. Margaret 
and St. John. — Opening of the New Coroner's Court, Public 
Mortuary and Underground Conveniences. 

London (England), Westminster, United Parishes of St. Margaret 
and St. John. — Westminster's Progress; the largest baths in 
London, etc. Cutting from " Morning Leader," London, Au- 
gust 22, 1893. 

London (England), Whitechapel, Parish of. — Public Baths and 
Washhouscs, 1894 and 1895. 

London (England), Woolwich. — An expert on Woolwich Baths. 
Cutting from " Kentish Independent," October 14, 1893. 

Lowell (]\Iass.). — Reference to Public Baths. Annual Report, 18th, 
of Board of Health, pp. 34-39. 

Luton (England), Borough of.— Abstract of Accounts, 1893-94. 
Baths Account, p. 4. 



2.^0 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

Luton (England), Borough of. — By-laws for the management, use 
and regulation of Public Baths. See By-Laws of the Borough 
of Luton, 1877-91, p. 109. 

Madgeburg (Germany), Der Magistrat der Stadt. — Letter, Novem- 
ber 22, 1895. 

Milan (Italy), IMunicipio de. — Letter from the Mayor regarding 
Baths and Lavatories, February 24, 1896. 

Milwaukee (Wis.). — Letters from Walter Kempster, M. D., Com- 
missioner of Health, June 6, 1896, and Fred. Schneider, Secre- 
tary, Board of Public Works, June 9, 1896, as to ]\Iilwaukee's 
bathing facilities. 

Morris, Moreau, AL D. — " More about the Public Rain Baths." 
" Sanitarium," July, 1896. 

Munich (Germany), Der rechtskiindigen i. Biirgermeister der Kgl. 
Haupt- und Residenzstadt. — Letter regarding Public Baths, 
December i, 1895. 

National Cash Register Co., Dayton (Ohio). — Letters from John H. 
Patterson, President, September 12 and 23, 1896, with account of 
bath accommodation provided for the company's employes. 

National Swimming Association (England). — Prospectus for 1896. 

New Orleans (La.), Morris Public Bath. — Letter from James R. 
Bowling, Superintendent, June, 1896, and cutting from " The 
Daily States," Monday, May 21, 1896. 

Newport, Mon. (England), County Borough of. — Kane's new system 
of Public Baths, with descriptive plan. Baths and gymnasium, 
list of classes, etc., 1895-96. Letters from James Kane, Super- 
intendent Public Baths, October 30, 1895, and August 22, 1896. 

New York City, Commissioner of Public Works. — Rules and Regu- 
lations for Public Baths. 

New York City, Committee of Fifty. — Leaflets in English, German, 
Italian and Yeddish, " What Municipal Reform has Done for 
You," October 25, 1895. 

New York City. — Deaths by Drowning (Accident and Suicide), 
1893-95, with letter from President Charles Wilson of the Board 
of Health. 



Bibliography. 231 

New York City, Fifth Avenue Swimming School, Bath and G)m- 
nasium. — Letter from Proprietors, Dr. C. A. Bode and P. J. H. 
Daly, card of invitation, and circulars of information. 

New York City Tenement-house Committee. — Public Baths, Tene- 
ment-house Committee Report. Albany, 1894, p. 47. 

New York, State of. — Petition blank to Legislature respecting Pub- 
lic Lavatories. 

Nizza Marittima (Italy). — L'Elettricita applicata al Risanamento 
dcll'Abitato. " L'Ingegneria Sanitaria," February, 1894. 

Otter Swimming Club (St. George's Baths, Buckingham Palace 
Road, London, S. W.). — Letter from Charles W. Bland, Hon. 
Secretary, March 21, 1896. Also Diary for 1895, election form, 
programme of annual entertainment, report and balance sheet 
for 1894, and list of officers, fixtures and rules for 1895. 

Philadelphia. — Letter from Henry C. Gill, Acting Secretary to the 
Mayor. Number of baths taken in the summer of 1S95 in six 
city baths. Letter from Hazlehurst & Huckel, architects of 
]\Iodel Bathhouse, Second and Cumberland streets, October 3, 
1896, with description of bathhouse. 

Philadelphia Public Baths Association. — A short account of the 
Public Baths Association, its organization and objects, charters 
and by-laws, 1895. 

Philadelphia, Public Baths Association. — Public Baths of Philadel- 
phia, by Sarah D. Lowrie, Sec. of Association. " The Citizen," 
January, 1896, pp. 249-251. 

Philadelphia, Social Science Department of Civic Club. — Municipal 
Public Baths, report by Mrs. Frances Howard Williams, Decem- 
ber 15, 1895. "The Citizen," January, 1896, pp. 251-252. 

Portsmouth (England), Swimming Club. — Programme of the Nine- 
teenth Annual Swimming Festival, August 5, 1895. 

Posen (Germany). — Anlage eines ofifentlichen Brausebadcs auf dem 
neuen Markte. " Bericht iiber die Verwaltung und den Stand 
der Gemeinde-Angelagenheiten in der Stadt Posen," 1894-95, 
p. 142. 

Posen (Germany), Magistrat der Provinzial-Hauptstadt. — Letters 
regarding Public Baths, etc., October 31, 1895, and January 21, 
1896. 



232 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

Providence (R. I.), Narragansett Machine Co. — Articles on Public 
Baths. " The Gymnasium " for August, 1890, and April, 1893. 

Providence (R. I.) — Reference to Public Baths. Inaugural address 
of Edwin D. McGuinness, Mayor, p. 15. 

Richmond (England). — Cost of building and maintenance of Public 
Baths. 

Roberts, Prof. Robert J., Physical Director, Boston Y. M. C. A. — 
Hints on Bathing and the Roberts Rain Shower. One Hun- 
dred Health Hints. 

Rome (Italy). — Specifications of Latrines approved by the Common 
Council and Provincial Deputation, 1872. 

Salford (England), County Borough of. — Diagram of Blackfriars 
Street Baths, showing fluctuation in number of bathers. Ap- 
pendix, pp. 24-25, Annual Report, 1892. 

Sheffield (England), City of. — Public Baths and Washhouses. Ab- 
stract of Accounts, March 25, 1895, pp. 17-19. 

Sheffield (England), Town Clerk's Office. — Letter from Mr. Herbert 
Bramley, Town Clerk, January 29, 1896. 

Strassburg (Germany), Biirgermeister-Amt der Stadt Strassburg i. 
Els, — Letter regarding Public Baths, etc., February i, 1896. 
Also tickets of admission. 

Stuttgart (Germany). — Das Schwimmbad, vom Kommerzienrat Leo 
Velter; ill. " Hygienischer Fiihrer," pp. 191-200. 

Stuttgart (Germany). — Letter and matter regarding Public Baths, 
Lavatories, etc., from the Oberbiirgermeister, November 4, 1895. 

Troppau (Austria). — Letter on Public Baths from Dr. Emil Rocho- 
wanski, February 18, 1896. 

Vacher, Francis. — Public Baths and Cheap Baths for the People; 
two papers on baths provision and construction; 22 pp.; ill. 
London, 1879. 

Vienna (Austria). — Oel Pissoirs, ohne Wasserspiilung, geruchlos. 
(An account of the oil disinfection system of Wilhelm Beetz.) 

vWashington (D. C). — Letter from W. R. Stevens, Superintendent 
Bathing Beach, August 28, 1896. 

Worthing (England). — Description of proposed alterations to the 
Municipal Bath; also letter from Edward J. Dean, forwarding 
same. 



BiBLiOGUAriiY. 233 

Yonkers (N. Y.). — Letter from Hon. S. L. Cooper, Commissioner of 
Public Works, November 3 and December 11, 1896. 

York (England), City of. — Public Baths. " Year Book of General 
Information," 1894-95, pp. 123-126. 

PLANS, DRAWINGS AND PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Altona (Germany). — Ground plan, section, front and side elevations 
of Sternstrasse baths. , 

Berlin (Germany). — Elevations and ground plans of (i) convenience 
for men and women ; estimated cost, M. 5,000, in wood. (2) Con- 
veniences for men and women; estimated cost, M. 8,000, in iron. 
(3) Rotunda conveniences for men and women ; water arrange- 
ments shown. (4) Seven compartment urinal. 

Birmingham (England). — Ground plans of the five public ])aths; also 
map of city showing the position of the baths. 

Boston (Mass.). — Plan, with transverse and longitudinal sections, of 
bathhouse for men and boys, sketched by George R. Tolman. 

Brighton (England). — Photographs of the new swimming bath and 
of cottage baths. 

Chemnitz (Germany). — Ground plan of convenience for men and 
. women. 

Dresden (Germany). — Ground plan, section and elevations of a 
river bath in the Elbe for boys. Ground plan, section and eleva- 
tions of a city bath. Elevation and plan of urinal with seven 
compartments. 

Frankfort-on-Main (Germany). — Swimming baths, plan of basement, 
mezzanine and ground floor, longitudinal and transverse sec- 
tions. Douche bath, elevation, section, basement and ground 
floor plans. 

Graz (Austria). — Plans and sections of an ordinary, and of an oc- 
tagonal urinal. Also elevation, section and ground plan of con- 
venience for both sexes. 

Hamburg (Germany). — Ground plan, section and details of erection 
of casement urinal on the Hop Market, 1889; elevations, plans 
and sections of a projected urinal on the landing place at the 
Hohenfelder Bucht, 1891; of another projected urinal on the 
landing place near the Kuhmiihlc, 1891, and of a urinal on the 
Graskellerbriicke, 1893. 



234 Mayor's Committee on Public Baths. 

Jersey (England), Swimming Club. — Photograph of Havre-des-Pas 
bathing establishment. 

Konigsberg (Germany). — Basement and ground plans and longi- 
tudinal sections of municipal douche baths, 1895. 

Krakau (Austria). — Elevation and ground plan of convenience for 
men and women on the Sudplatz. 

London (England), City of. — Plans of underground convenience at 
Cannon street for men and women. 

London (England), Deptford. — Elevation, ground and first floor 
plans of Public Baths, Washhouses and Municipal Offices. 

London (England), Greenwich, S. E. — Photographs of exterior of 
baths and of second-class swimming bath. 

London (England), Hackney. — Photograph of exterior of baths. 

London (England), Islington, Parish of St. Mary. — Ten photo- 
graphs of Hornsey Road Baths, showing swimming baths, pri- 
vate baths, washhouses, entrance, etc., and one showing first- 
class men's swimming baths. 

London (England), Newangton, Parish of St Mary. — Plan and pro- 
cess reproduction of front elevation of public baths and wash- 
houses. 

London (England), Shoreditch, Parish of St. Leonard. — First pre- 
miated design for proposed new Public Baths and Library, show- 
ing elevations and ground plans. 

London (England), St. Giles District Board of Works. — Plan of 
underground convenience for men and women at Tottenham 
Court Road. 

London (England), St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Parish of. — Plan of 
refuge and underground convenience with sections. 

London (England), Westminster, United Parishes of St. jNIargaret 
and St. John. — First and second-class swimming baths, exterior 
of baths and portrait of Charles Newman, Superintendent. 

Munich (Germany). — Plans, sections and elevations of people's 
douche baths (octagonal) on the Bavaria Ring; and of two 
other douche baths, one octagonal. Elevation and plan of uri- 
nal, seven-compartment. Elevations, sections and plans of two 
public conveniences for men and women. 



Bibliography. 235 

Newport, Mon. (England). — Photographs of swimming bath, 
bathers and gymnasium. 

Plans and elevations of ladies' chalet, combining shop and lavatory. 

Posen (Germany). — Plans, elevations and section of proposed octa- 
gonal people's douche bath. Plans, elevation and sections of 
conveniences for men and women, two in 1890, one in 1892 and 
one on the old market place. Plan of urinal on the Sapielsa- 
Platz. 

Providence (R. I.), Narragansett Machine Co. — Plan of Gymnasium, 
showing arrangement of bath. 

Rome (Italy). — Plans and elevations of six types of urinal, and of a 
latrine approved by the Council of Hygiene. 

Strassburg (Germany). — Proposed people's douche baths, to cost 
M.29,000; plans, elevations and sections. Also plans, elevations 
and sections of people's baths on the Academie-Platz; cost 
M.35,000. 

.Worthing (England). — Basement and ground plan of Worthing 
Public Bath, as in 1896, and with proposed alterations. 

Yonkers (N. Y.), — Elevations of public baths on Vark and Jefferson 
streets and in rear, plans of living rooms, first story and cellar, 
longitudinal and cross sections. 



INDEX. 



Accominotlation iu proposed bath 100x50, 200; of proposed bath In Tomp- 
i kius Square, 109. 

Aldermen, Board of, given power to grant permits for newspaper stands, 
182. 

Altona, chalets for ladles, 193; school baths at, 74, 

Amateur, defiuitiou of, 61; Swluiming Association, Gl; Swimming Associa- 
tion, Southern Counties, GO. 

Andrews, A. D., Commissioner Police Department, letter from, 181. 

Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, G9; baths of, 33, 47; 
co-operation of 11; erects bathliouse, 9. 

Astor, John Jacob, on ISGG Committee of Sanitary Inquiry, 174. 

Astor Place convenience, cai"e of, transfeiTed to Public Worlis Depart- 
ment, 176; public comfort station, 175. t 

Augustus, age of, public baths, 10. 

Austrian conveniences, 197. 

Baruch, Dr. Simon, 69. 

Bates, II. Montague, Principal Clerk to the Commissioners of Sewers of 
the City of London, 11. 

Bathers, number of, at floating baths, 46. 

Bathhouse Commissioners, Municipal, 38. 

Bathing and Washing Association, People's, 33; Association, Metropolitan, 
of the City of New York, 34; habit growing, 24. 

Bath Legislation regarding New York City, 33. 

Baths and Comfort Stations, organization of Mayor's Committee on, 27. 

Baths and Washhouses Act, England, 33; floating, 66; floating, author- 
ized, 34; floating, cost of, 35; floating, first two erected, 34; floating, 
location of, 45; floating, number of bathers, 46; floating, I'egulations 
of, 45; number of persons having access to, 22; per family in the Fif- 
teenth Assembly District, 24; provision for, inadequate in American 
cities, 85; public, should be paid for, 199; slipper, 57. 

Belmont, August, on 1866 Committee of Sanitai-y Inquirj', 174. 

Berlin, Germany, city public baths, 128; cost of water at Moabit baths, 
I 133; douclie baths at public baths, 142; Moabit baths, 133; number of 
bathers at city public baths, 134; number of river bathers, 129; origi- 
nal outlay on city public baths, 132; public baths, 128; public laun- 
dries, 164; receipts and expenditures at river baths, 128, 129; receipts 
and working expenditure of city public baths, 132; river baths, 129; 
scale of charges at river bath, 130; Schillingsbrucke baths, 135; 
Society for People's Baths, 138; Swimming League, 134; urinals and 
conveniences, 193. 



238 Index. 

Bibliography, 219. i ~'l 

Bill giving monopoly of public conveniences, 182; to make public con- 
veniences mandatory, 177, 

Billings, E., on Boston Bath Committee, 79. 

Birmingham, England, attendance of bathers, 85; baths, rules and regula- 
I tions, 128; cost of baths, 86; public baths, 85; public conveniences for 
women, 191; receipts and expenditures of public baths, 86, 87; scale of 
. charges. 92; Turkish bath, 149. 

Blomfield House Swimming Club, 63. 

Board of Aldermen given power to grant permits for newspaper stands, 
182. 

Board of Commissiioners of Public Parks requested to co-operate with 
Mayor's Committee, 215 

Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 217; and bath aiypropriation, 38; 
and Mayor's Committee, 169; and public baths, 39. 

Board of Health, 205; and life-saving apparatus, 56; and public baths, 34, 
38; approves plans for bathhouse, 10, 80; approves public comfort sta- 
tions, 10, 215; demands increase of urinals, 177; Metropolitan, and 
public urinals, 174; Metropolitan, engineer reports on urinals, 174; 
pleads for establishment of free public baths and washhouses, 34; 
recommends warm baths, 35; reports universal patronage of free 
baths, 34; requests plans for public conveniences, 215; to determine 
number of public baths, 199. 

Bootle baths, how managed, 149. 

Boston, Bath Committee appointed, 10; baths in public school, 74; Charles- 
bank Gymnasium, free baths ajt, 79; public baths, 35, 78; Y. M. C. A. 
Gymnasium shower bath, 69. 

Bradford baths, how managed, 149; swimming club, 64; Turkish bath, 149; 
urinals, 192. 

Brighton, lavatories, receipts and expenses, 192. 

Brookfield, William, Commissioner of Public Works, 46. 

Brookline public bath, 80. 

Brooklyn, baths first authorized, 36. 

Brunswick, school baths at, 74; urinals and conveniences, 194. 

Bryant, Sanitary Insijector, .T. D. (1873), 36. 

Buffalo, municipal baths, 78. 

"Bureau of Public Comfort," 31. 

Burnley baths, how managed, 149; conveniences, 192; swimming clubs, 64. 

Burns, Charles De F., Secretary Depai'tment of Public Pai'ks, letter from, 
, 177. 

Cady, Berg & See, architects and engineers, 10, 199, 216; architects of 
Mayor's CommLttee, 198, 204; prepare plans for baths, 204; requested 
to prepare drawings of public comfort sfta/tious, 216. 

Cady, J. C. & Co., architects, 29. 

Capacity of batlis on site 100x50, planned by the Mayor's Committee, 200. 

Carlisle and Washingrton streets, vicinity recommended for public bath, 
29, 199. 



Index. 239 

Carlsrulie, school baths at, 73. 

Caution money from washers, 165, 166. 

Char},'«'s for baths in England, 1G6. 

Charit'itvs !uul Correct ions, I'rcsldent of the Department of. a Municipal 

Bathhouse Commissioner, 38. 
Oharli'sbank Gymnasium, Boston, free baths at, 79. 
Chatham Square, vicinity recommended for public bath, 29, 199. 
Oheiiinitz baths, 103; conveniences, 195. 
Chicago, Carter H. Harrison, bath, 83; Douglas Park Natatorium and 

Gymnasium, 83; Municipal Order League, 82; swimming bath, 66. 
Ciholera affects use of Hamburg baths, 140; as affecting bath water, 143. 
Citizens' Association of New York, 174. 
Oi'ty and Suburban Homes Company, 25. 
City Hall Tark, as site for uudergi-ound public comfort stations, 10, 205, 

213, 217; public urinal, 174. 
City Vigilance League pe<titions for public conveniences, 177. 
Civil Service examinations favored by Committee of Seventy, 27. 
Clarence Swimming Club, 63. 
Clark, Emmons, Secretary of the Health Department, letters from, 200, 

215. 
Classes, different, in baths. 161. 
Clubs, swimming, 60. 

CoUis, Gen. C. H. T., Commissioner of Public Works, approves plans for 
public baths in Tompkins Square, 10; confers with Mayor's Commit- 

, (tee, 204, 217. 
Comfort stations, should be partly free, 31. 

Commissioner of Public Parks, and structures for public comfort, 42. 
Commissioner of Public Works, 41; and public baths, 41, 45; confers with 

Mayor's Committee, 204, 216; in charge of public conveniauce, 176. 
Commissioners of Sewers of City of London, report on public conveniences, 

I 211. 
Committee of Seventy, disbandment, 31; expresses appreciation of Sub- 

I Committee's situdy, 31; genesis of, 27; nominates committee of five, 
28; organization of Sub-Committee, 28; platform of, 27. 
Common Council to i*egulate use of floating baths, 35. 
Company for Hygienic Purposes, Dresden, 195; Hamburg, 195. 
Comparison of attendance at swimming and slipper baths, England, 57. 
Competitions, swimming, 62. 
Comptroller and bath appropriation, 43; moves to refer plans of comfort 

stations to Park Department, 217. 
Cooper, Hon. S. L., Commissioner of Public Works, Yonkers, 77. 
Coventry, England, public baths, 157. 
Cox, Job, Superintendent and Engineer of the Baths Department, City of 

Birmingham, 11. 
Cracow, no conveniences, 197. 
Croton Aqueduct Department, 176; and public urinal, 175. 



240 Indkx. 

Oroydon, expenses of urinals, 192. 

Death rate affected by lack of public conveniences, 174. 

De Fo.«isez, Alexander, and public conveniences, 1S2; bill, 183. 

De Milt Dispensary, baths of the, 53. 

Department of Docks and location of baths, 45; public conveniences, 174; 
to assign locatiou of baths, 35. 

Department of Public Charities, baths at, 53. 

Department of Public Parks and site for bath, 43; and structures for pub- 
lic comfort, 42; erects urinals in city parks, 174; provision of public 
conveniences, 175. 

Department of Public Works, 36; to control floating baths, 36; to take 
charge of Astor Place convenience, 177. 

Design of proposed bath on site 100x50, 204; public convenience, 217; 
iTompkins Square proposed baths, 169. 

Docks and water fronts, improvement of, favored by Committee of Sev- 
enty, 28; life-saving apparatus at, 50; Department of, and location of 
baths, 45; and public conveniences, 177; location of baths, 30. 

Dolphin Svrimming Club, Bradford, 63. 

Douche baths at Hamburg, 143. 

Douches provided at swimming baths, 58. i 

Dresden, Company for Hygienic Purposes, 195; public conveniences, 195. 

Drexel, Joseph O., of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

Drinking fountains recommended by Tenement House Committee of 1S94, 
24. 

Drowning, lives lost in New York City in '93-'95, 56. 

Drying by hot air in motion, 165. 

Dunkirk, movement for public baths, 79. 

EJasterbrook, William P., of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

East River, location for floating bath, 36, 37. 

East Side Park, location for bath, 43. 

Economy Inspection, Leipzig, 196. 

Edinburgh, Scotland, charges for swimming lessons, 59; public bath, 124; 
scale of charges, 124; washhouses, 165. 

Eisenhower, Chief, of the Philadelphia Bureau of City Property, 67. 

Elections, separation of State and Municipal, favored by the Committee 
: of Seventy, 28. 

Eleventh Avenue and Fifty-eighth Street, vicinity recommended for pub- 
lic bath, 30, 199. 

Emergency and Hygiene Association, Massachusetts, maintains Charles- 
bank Gymnasium, 79. 

England, charges for baths, 101; different classes of baths, 161; Docal 
Government Board and public bath loans, 149; provides public urinals, 
183; public bath legislation, 149; the shower bath, 70. 

English Baths and Washliouses Act, 33, 57, 148. 

Essex Market, vicinity recommended foir public bath, 29, 199. 

Estimate and ApiK>rtioniiu'nt. Board of, 217; and bath appropriation, 38; 
and Mayoi-'s Committee, 204; and public baths, 38. 




E o 



ff^ 



/I 



.ii E 



.f-.^ — 



IV*i5ti^: 



■ j 



^^%t 



WM ^ 







^^ 



a. en o 



bJI (D 



OFTHE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF 
"■^.p^LIFORlil^ 



Index. 



241 



European mcKlols of baths, 200. 

Fauix?, John P., Socrotary of Conmiititoc of Sovoutj', ami of St. John's 
(liiilcl, 28; seleet.s Sub-Conimittof on Baths and I>avatories, 29. 

I'\'tU>ra.tion of Ohurehos and Christian Worlvoi-s in New York City, 24; 
rent statistics of, 2~). 

Fiftc^Mitli Assembly District, li.iths ])cr f;iiiiily in, 21; parlvs urf,'<'Utiy iwhhI- 
ed, 25; public bat lis and lavatories urgently demanded in, 25; rent per 
vooni ill, 2(^. 

I'Mftii ^\■a^l, floating bath to be located in, 37. 

Kifty-eishth StreeL and Eleventh Avenue, vicinity recommended for pub- 
lic bath, 20. 109. 

I'ish. Haniliion. on Committee of Sanitary Inquiry, 174. 

I-'loatin.i,' Ilosnital, St. John's Guild, baths of the, 53. 

I'cnvler. Commissioner George B., of the Health Department, 215. 

l-'rankfort-on-^Iain batlis, 143. 

l''i'tM> public bat lis an imi>erative necessity in New York, 13. 

Gejrenstrom bath fixtures, 75; system of heating water, 202, 208. 

German baths, how managed, IfiS; conveniences, model for Austrian, 197; 
system of heating v.aicr, 202, 208. 

(Jerniany, public conveuieuces, 193; spray bath in, 70. 

Gildn", Richard ^^'atson, Chairman Tenement House Committee of 1894, 
1894, 22. 

(Jlasgtvw Scotland, deticit provided from assessments, 128; number of 
bathers and washers, 127; public baths, 125; receipts and expendi- 
'tures at baths, 127; scale of charges at baths, 127; temperature as 
affecting receipts at baths, 128; washliouses, 125. 

(I'othenburg, average oi>erating expenses of baiths, 145; batihs, how man- 
aged. 1G3; cost of public baths, 144; Majorna baths, number of bathers, 
147: public baths, 110; receipts and operating expens<^s of public baths, 
144, 145; Kenstromska Badansitalten, number of bathers, 140; urinals 
and conveniences, 197. 

Giottiiugen, baths in the public schools, 71. 

(xraz, Austria, public conveniences, 197. 

Greeley Square as site for underground public comfort station, 10. 204, 217. 

Hamburg, (iermany, baths, how managed, 103; cholera affects use of 
baths, 140; Company for Hygienic Purposes, 195; Eimsbuttel baths, 141; 
Patriotic Society, 139; receipts and expenses of baths, 141; river baths, 
139; scale of charges at baths, 142; Schaarmarkt baths, 140; Schweine- 
' niarkt baths, 139; St. Fauli douche baths. 142, 143; swimming batJis 
at, 81; temperature of baths, 142; urinals and conveniences, 195; water 
boiled on account of cholera, 143. 

Hamilton, William Gaston, 11; Vice-President of the Association for Im- 
proving the Condition of the Poor, 29; Chairman Sub-Committee on 
Baths and Davatoi-ies, 29; Chairman Mayor's Committee on Baths 
and Comfort Stations. 32. 19S. 

Harrison Carter H., Bath of Chicago, 83, 
16 



242 Index. 

HaptwcLI, I>r. lO. M., Director of physical training in the Boston public 
scliools, 79, 80, 81. 

Ilavro-des-Pas, Joi-sey, bathinj^ cstablishmout, Gi. 

Health, Board of, 216; and life-saving apparatus, 56; and public baths, 34; 
approves plans of Mayor's Committee, 200, 214; demands increase 
of urinals, 177; pleads for csitahlishmeul; of free public baths and 
waslihouses, 34; recommends warm baths, 35; repoi-ts universal 
'l>atrouage of five baths, 35; requests plans for public conveniences, 
214; to determine number of public baths, 199. 

Healtli Department approves plans of ISIayor's Committee, 214; letter from, 
200; reports on batlis in lodging-houses, 17. 

Health, Metropolitan Board of. and public urinals, 174; engineer reports on 
• public urinals, 174. ! 

Health Daws, thoroughness recommended by Committee of Seventy, 28. 

Heating and ventilating proposed bath 100x50, 203; Tompliins Square pro- 
posed bath, 208. 

Hebrew Sheltering Orphan Asylum, baths in, 30. 

Hedges, Job E., letter from, 31. 

Ilemenway Gymnasium, Harvard Universilty, shower room, 69. 

Hicks, Coroner, of London, 60. 

Hirsch, Bai"on de. Fund Baths, 52. 

Hodgman, Abbott, of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

Home rule and public conveniences, 182. 

Houston, Dr. Edwin J., President of the National Swimming Associa- 
tion, 67. 

Hudson River, location for floating bath, 37. 

Humane Society, care for cases of drowning, 56. 

.Taffray, Edward S.. on 1866 Committee of Sanitary Imiuiry, 174. 

Jersey Swimming Club, 64, 65. 

Kehew, Mrs. M. M., on Boston Bath Committee, 79. 

King, David H., Jr., 29. 

Kiosks as public conveniences, 182. 

La CoUette bathing place, Jersey, 65. 

Laibach, Austria, urinals and conveniences, 197. 

Lassar, Prof., 136. 

Laundries, how administerod, 164; scale of charges, 166. 

Laundry in proposed bath, 100x50, 202; in i>roiX)sed bath in I'oinpkins 
Square, 210; money-taker's daily account. 171; municipal, advantages 
of, 172. 

Lavatories, cliarges made, 24; in foreign cities, 24; public. riToinniended 
l)y Tenement House Coniiiiittee of 1894, 24; urgently demanded in Fif- 
teenth Assembly District, 24. 

Leary, William, Secivtary Department of Public Parks, letter Intm. 17S. 

Ty«'gisla.tion, bath, regarding New York City, 33; on public batlis, 10; on 

public conveniences, 176. 
r.( !.'lslntui-e, petitioned for public conveniences, 177, 



Index. 248 

Leipzig, Ueruiauy, coiiveulenices, IDtJ; Efoiiuniy Inspcctiou, UMI; urinals 
aud eon veil ieuces, 196. 

Letter carriers affocte<l by lack of public conveniences, 180, 181. 

Life-savinj; apparatus at docks. uG; demonstration, 63; Newman's method, 
156; Society, 60. , 

Liverpool, England, Burroughs Garden washhouse, 165; cost and accom- 
modation of batiliing t'stabHslim« nts. i)~y; Frederick Street wiush house, 
IGo; free open air swimming bath, 96; Lodge Lane washhouse, 165; 
number of bathers during the year 1895, 94; public baths, 91; receipts 
and expenditures of baths for 1895, 96; St. George, baths, 148; wash- 
houses, IW; washhouse charges, 166; washhouses, number using, 172; 
wasMiouses, rules and regulations, 169. 

Loans for public baths in England, 149. 

Lodging-house of Department of Public Charities, baths at, 53; patrons, 
majority dirty and unclean, 17. 

Lotlging-houses, baths in, 17; baths in, reasons for not using, 20. 

London, England, Association for Promoting Cleanliness Among the Peor 
pie, 148; baths, deficit, how paid, 151; baths, how managed, 149; baths 
in George Street, Euston S<iuare, 148; Bishop of (1846), and public 
baths, 148: Lord Mayor and public baths, 148; municipal baths in 
1892, 14; New River Water Company and public baths, 148; particu- 
lars of baths aud washhouses in operation, 98; public conveniences, 
183; Public Health Act, 184; School Board encourages swimming, 59; 
Schools Swimming Association, 59; Schools Swimming Association 
demonstrates life-saving methods, 62; veiy cheap baths in the poorer 
quarters, 21; Vestries aud public baths, 149. 
London, England: I 

Battersea public baths, 60. 

Bow, number of bathers, 100; public baths, 99; working expenses and 
receipts of public baths, 100. 

Chelsea, public baths, 101; public conveniences, 187; receipts and ex- 
penditures of public baths, 101; receipts and expenses of public con- 
veniences, 187. 

City, Commissioners of Sewei-s' report on public conveniences, 212; public 
conveniences, 212; underground latrines, 211. 

Greenwich public baths, 102. 

Islington, charges at public baths, 105; expenses of public urinals, 152; 
Hornsey Road bath, 64; Hornsey Road washhouse, 164; loans for 
baths, 150; loans for public conveniences, 187; number of bathers. 
1893-5, 105; number of washers, 1894 and 1895, 105; original cost of 
public baths, 103; public baths, 103; receipts and payments of public 
conveniences, 186; underground conveniences, 183; working expenses 
and receipts of baths, 1894-5, 104. 

Kensington, charges at public baths, 106; laundry, 106; number of bathers. 
1892-6, 108; receipts and expenses of public baths, 1895-96, 107. 

Lewisham, number of bathers, 1895-96, 110; public baths, 108; receipt'^ 
and expenses for 189&-6, 109; scale of charges, 110. 



244 Index. 

Marylebono iniblic baths, 110. i 

I'atldinston. iiuinbor of bathers and washers, 112; public baths, 112; re- 
ceipts and expenditures for 1805-96, 111. 112; Turliish baths, 149. 

Poplar, number of batliers and washers. 113; public batlis, 112; receipts 
and expenditures for 1894-9G, 113. 

Shoreditch, public conveniences, 191. 

St. George, Hanover Square, Buckingham Palace Road baths. 62; number 
of bathers and washers, 1893-5, 115; public baths. 114; public con- 
veniences, 188; receipts and expenses for 1S94-5, 114; scale of charges, 
115. ■ I I 

St. Giles-in-the-Fields and St. George, Bloomsbury, number of bathers 
and washers. 1893-4. 116; public baths. 115; public conveniences. 155; 
receipts and expenses for 1893-4, 115, 116; scale of charges. 116. 

St. James, Westminster, laundry statistics, 117; number of bathers, 1893 
and 1894, 119, 120; public baths. 117, 151; receipts and working ex- 
penses, 1893 and 1894. 119; scale of charges, 119; washhouse, KiO. 

St. ]\Iartin-in-the-Fields, public baths, 115; public conveniences, 1.56; re- 
ceipts and expenses for 1893, 115, 116. 

St. Pancras, Fitzmy baths, 63. 

Strand District Board of Works, public conveniences, 191. 

Westminster, application for special ticket book, 162; certificate of pro 
ticiency in swimming, 155; public baths, 60, 63, 121; rules and regu- 
lations for bathers, 154; rules and regulations for washers, 136; scalb 
of charges, 122; special ticket holders, 155; washer's ticket, 172; wash- 
house charges, 167; water chute, 155. 

Whitechapel, number of bathers and washers. 123; public baths, 122, 148; 
receipts and expenses of public batlis, 123, 124. 

Lowe, Dr. Julia, of Chicago, 82. 

Marshall, Edward, Secretary Tenement House Committee of 1894. 22. 

Massachusetts Eanergency and Hygiene Association, maintains Charles 
bank Gymnasium, 79. 

Massachusetts public bath laws. 80. 

Mayor of New York, a Municipal Baithhouse Commissioner, 38. 

Mayor's Committee on Public Baths and Public Comfort Stations, con- 
fers with Commissioner of Public Works. 204; reorganization of. 32; 
prepares plans for comfort stations, 214; report delayed. 13; requested 
to submit plans for baths, 198. 

Metropolitan Bathing Association in the City of New York, 34. 

Metropolitan Board of Health and public urinals. 174; reports on public 
urinals, 175. 

Meyer, Chief Engineer Andreas, of Hamburg, 11. 

Mdan, public comfort stations, 197. 

Minturn, the late Robert B.. and jiulilic bath.s, 34. 

Morris. Moreau M. D.. 11; Medical Inspector. ex-Tenement House Commis- 
sioner (1884), 29; Secretary of Tenement House Commission of 1884. 
21; Vice-Chairman Mayor's Committee on Baths and Comfort Sta- 
tions, 32, 198. 



Index. 245 

Morris. Saiiit.ir.v Inspector Stuyvosjint. F. (IS?:'.). :?<i. 

Molt Slri'«'t, batliiiip: institution in. 33. 

Munich, school l)aths, al. 7:;: uiiii.ils and conveniences. l'.t<;. 

Municipal IJathhouse Coniniissioncrs, 3.S. 

Municipal hathini.' estahlishnients recoinmcnded li.v 'lenenient IIous«' Coni- 
niltii'e of IS'.M. 24; laundry, advantages of. 172. 

.\lunicipal Order League of ''liicnpro. 82. 

Myers. M. W., on Boston Bath Coniinittcc, 79. 

National Swiinniinfj Association. fi7. 

Newark. N. J., public bath, 84. 

Newman. Cliarh's. Superintendent Westminster baths. London. 00. 

New York City behind European cities in provision of public baths, 13; 
Iwilhs in public schools, 75; number of persons compelletl to use the 
same water-closet or privy, 17; number of persons to a bathroom, 17; 
public baths of, 45; slums, baths in, 16; the first spray bath, 9. 

New York Juvenile Asylum, 69. 

Noonan. Alderman. intro<luces resolution on public conveniences, 183. 

Xovice, dc>finition of, 61. 

O'Donohue, .Joseph, of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

Oil closure system for urinals, 193, 194, 195, 196. 197. 

One Hundred and Tenth Street and Second Avenue, vicinity recommended 
for public bath, 29, 199. 

Ottendorfer, Oswald, of Tenement House Commission of 1884. 21. 

Otter Swimming Club, London, 62. 63. 

Park. East Side, location for bath, 43; public, as location for baths man- 
datory, 210. 

Parks. Board of Commissioners of Public, requested to confer with 
Mayor's Committee, 215. 

Parks, city, area in acres, 179; small, favored by the Committee of 
Seventy, 28; urgently needed in Fifteenth Assembly District, 24. 

Parks, Commissioner of Public, and structures for public comfort, 42. 

Parks. Department of Public and site for bath, 44; and structures for 
public comfort, 42; er^'ts urinals in city parks, 177; plans of comfort 
stations referred to, 217; President of, 43; provision of public con- 
veniences, 177; 

Paton. John. President Association for Improving the Condition of the 
Poor, 46. 

People's Bathing and Washing Association, 33. 

People's Baths, 9, 28, 29, 47, 69. 200; model for Yonkers, 77; numl)er of 

bathers, 50; receipts and exiienses, 49. 
Permissive act to establish free public baths, 38. 
Personn, School Director, of Gottingen, 73. 
Philadelphia, bathhouses, 66; plans for public bath, 82; Public Baths Atao- 

ciation of, 82. i 

Pingree, Miss, on Boston Bath Committee, 79. 



246 Index. 

Plans and studies approved by city authorities, 10; drawings and photo- 
. gi-aphs, 233; for public baths, 41. i 

Platform of Committee of Seventy, 31. 

Police Department and lack of public conveniences, 180, 181. 

Portsmouth Swimming Club, G4. 

Posen, Germany, public conveniences, 197; school baths at, 73. 

Preliminary Report Sub-Committee on Baths and Lavatories, 2'J. 

President of the Department of Charities and Correction, a Muui(ii)al 
Bathhouse Commissioner, 38. 

Professional, definition of, 61. 

Proposed bath on site 100x50, accommodation, 200; capacity, 200; design. 
204; heating and ventilating, 203; laundry, 202; public lavatory, 202; 
water supply, 203. 

Public bath defined, 15; laws summarized, 36, 37, 38; movement in New 
York gives impulse to other cities, 13. 

Public Baths Association of Philadelphia, 82. 

Public baths, establishment of, favored by Committee of Seventy, 28; free 
or paid, 15; impei'ative need of, 17; municipal, in America, 15; permis- 
sive act, 41; plans, 43; should be partly free; 31; sites for, 30; small 
charges recommended, 23; urgently demanded in Fifteenth Assembly 
District, 24. 

Public Ohai-ities, Department of, baths at, 54. 

Public comfort station in Tompkins Square proposed bathhouse, 210. 

Public comfort stations, proposed underground, 217; undei-ground, recom- 
mended, 205. 

Public comfort, structui-es for the promotion of, 41. I 

Public conveniences, charge for, 210; proposed, 217; provision of, inade- 
quate, 180; undex'ground, 183. 

Public Health Act, London, 184. 

Public lavatory in proposed bath on site 100x50, 202. 

Public schools, baths in, 71. 

Public "Works, Commissioner of, 36; and public baths, 41, 35; confers with 
Mayor's Committee, 204, 216; in charge of public conveniences, 176. 

Public Woa-ks, Depai-tment of, 36; to control floating baths. 36. 

Quincy, Hon. Josiah, Mayor of Boston, appoints bath committee, 10. 71). 

Rain baths, the principal bath maintained by benevolent organizations. 
24. 

Rapid transit favored by Committee of Seventy, 28. 

Recorder of New York, a Municipal Bathhouse Commissioner, 38. 

Recreation, lack of, in New York City, 55. 

Reichardt, Anthony, of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

Rent per room in Fifteenth Assembly District, 26; statistics of Federation 
of Churches and Christian Workers, 25. 

Resuscitation of drowned person.s, 1.56; lessons in, given to police, 56. 



Index. 247 

liivcrsidc Associ.ilioii, baths of tho, 53. 

K(>l»orts, IJobort J., physical director Boston Y. M. G. A., 69. 

Home, gifts ot i)iiblic baths by citizens, 10; numerous baths, .3.j. 

Roosevelt, Theodore. President Police Department, 215; letter from. ISO. 

Uoundsmeu retiucsttMl lo rejjort available sites for public comfort stations, 
216. 

Kules and rejrulations for bathers, 1.">1; for washers, 167. 

Ryan. Councilman, on Boston Bath Commltitee, 79. < 

Saloons ipi\)vide comfort stations, 214; the only public convenience now 
providtil, 214. 

Schools, public, baths recommended in, 30; measures favored by Com- 
mittee of Seventy, 29. 

Schools Swimming Association. Ix>ndon, 60. 

Second Assembly District, bath for, 38. 

Second Avenue and One Hundred and Tenth Street, vicinity recommended 
for public bath, 30, 199. 

Separaition of State and Municii)al elections favore<l by Commiittee of 
Seventy, 28. 

Seventeenth Street and the East River, location for floating bath, 37. 

Seventy, Committee of, disbandmeut, 31; expresses appreciation of Sub- 
Commititee's study, 31; nominates Committee of five, 29; genesis of, 
27; organization of Sub-Committees, 29; platform of, 27. 

Shaler, Alexander, of Tenement House Commission of 1884, 21. 

Sheffield, urinals and waiting rooms, expenses and receipts, 193. 

Sites for public baths, 30, 199. 

Slums of New York City, baths in, 17. 

Street cleaners affected by lack of public conveniences, 180. 

Snyder, C. B. J., Superintendent of School Buildings, 76. 

Southern Counties Amateur Swimming Association, 60. 

Spray bath, cost of a, 70; superiority of the, 70; recommended, 30; system, 
economy of, 47. 

Stevenson, Dr. Sarah Hackett, of Chicago, 82. 

Stiles, Commissioner of Park Department, criticizes plans of comfort sta- 
tions, 217. 

St. John's Guild, baths on the Floating Hospital, 54. 

Strassberg conveniences, 197. 

Street cleaning, thorough system of, favored by Committee of Seventy, 28. 

Strong, Hon. William L., Mayor of New I'ork, 10, 216; and public baths, 
204; appoints Advisory Committee on baths, 9; letter from, 31. 

Stuttgart, Germany, public conveniences, 197; school baths at, 74; swim- 
ming baths at, 81. 

Sub-Committee of Committee of Seventy, preliminary report on baths and 
lavatories, 9, 29; recommendations, 29; studies placed before the 
Mayor, 31. 



248 Index. 

Sub-Committees of Committee of Seventy organized, 28. 

Swimming as part of school curriculum, 68; as recreation, 55; bath, com- 
paratively recent institution, 57; bath, great popularity of, 58; baths, 
148; baths, recommended by Tenement House Committee of 1894, 24; 
clubs, Gl; competitions 62; instruction in, 59. 

Switzerland, cost of public school baths, 74. 

Teachers encouraged to learn swimming, 60. 

Temperature as affecting receipts at baths, 128; in Hamburg baths, 139; 
of douche baths, 140. 

Tenement House Commission in 1884, appoiutmeut of, 21; re<„-oinmeuda- 
tion as to public biiths, 21; work reviewed by Tenement House Com- 
mittee of 1894, 23. 

Tenement House Committee of 1894, appointment of, 22; definite opinion 
on public baths and lavatories, 23; recommends municipal baths, 23; 
report preseutwl to L/egislaturo, 22. 

Tenement house population, baths intended for, 210. 

Tolman, William Howe, 11; Seerertiary Mayor's Committee on Baths and 
Comfort Stations. 29, 199; Secretary of Sub-Committee on Baths and 
Lavatories 29. 

Tompkins Square, lavatory accommodation in proposed bath, 217; plans 
ifor baths in, 10; proposed bath, accommodation, 206; proposed bath, 
design. 209; proposed bath, heating and ventilating, 208; proposed bath, 
laundry in. 210; proposed bath, objections to, 210; public comfort sta- 
tion in proposed bath, 210; site for bath, 30, 44, 199. 204. 

Trenton, N. J., action on public bath question, 84; Bath Committee ap- 
pointed, 9. 

Turkish bath, 149. 

Underground conveniences, advantage of, 213; public comfort stations 
I'ecommended, 205; public iconveniences, 183. 

Urinals for each policeman's post. 215; proiwsed,- 215; proposed, for city 
properties, 213; public, a necessity, 174. 

Vienna, conveniences as model, 196; spray bath system, 47; urinals an<l 
conveniences, 197. 

Washers, average time worked, 165; caution money demanded. IGc;; uuni- 
1 ber of, 172; tickets, 167. 

Washhouses, public, recommended for tenement house district, 30. 

Washington and Carlisle streets, vicinity recommended for public bath. 30, 

199, • , ; 

Water boiled before using for bat lis, 143; cost of, in Moabit baths, Berlin. 

132; polo, 62; sui)ply in bath, proposed methotl of control, 202; supply. 

in public baths, 2().S; supply in tenement liousi's. 22. 
Wayfarers' I^odge. l>:iths at the, ."3. 
Wellington, I>r. (Jertnide Gail, of Chicago. 82. 



Index. 



249 



Wilson, Hon. Charles G., Prcsidoiit of the Ilcnllli I)('|i;iiMiim'Ii1. ((nit'crs 
with Mayor's roiiunittoo, 214; report on Iciliis in ioiij,'-inj,' iionscs. 
18; roqucsts plans for l>aths. 198. 

Wingate, Charles F., of Tenement House Coniniission of 1SS4, 21. 

Wolfe, John David, ou ISdO Ci>niinitto<' of Sanitary Incpiiry, 174. 

Woods. R. (J., (m Boston Hath Coinujittce, 79. 

Wort.liin.L', Tiirlvish Latii. 14!». 

Wright, Cari-oll D., Oomuiissioner of Labor, report on slums, 15. 

Yard, Hon. Emory N., Mayor of Trenton, appoints l)atli eommittoe. 10. 

Youkers ahead of New York City in pul)lic l»allis. UO; inniiicijial l)allis. 77. 

17 




RETURN 



202 Main Library 



^TJTONT 



RH 




LOAN PERIOD 1 
HOME USE 



(C 



ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 

Renewals and Recharges may be made 4 days prior to the due date. 

Books may be Renewed by calling 642-3405 

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW 



^•- 0^ 1937 



HECHiUED 



OCT 9 1996 



CIRCULATION DEFT 



REClfl 



2 Mi 



m n 



JUNl ; ,', :. 



M AR 1 » 200{ 



FORAA NO. DD6 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY 
BERKELEY, CA 94720 



PUBLIC MtALIM UUKAKT 



U.C.BERKELEY LIBRARIES 




<:DMMfiTT71D